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The land of Cokaygne: a study of the Middle English poem and the traditions to which it is related Howard, Irene T. 1964

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THE LAND OF COKAYGNE A :study o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h poem and t h e t r a d i t i o n s t o w h i c h i t i s r e l a t e d . by I r e n e T. Howard B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1948 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA' A p r i l , 1964 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study* I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission* Department of E n g l i s h The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 10, 1964 ABSTRACT The Land of Cokaygne may be interpreted as a burlesque of the paradise legend of the saints* abode in the Eden of the blessed. Or it may be taken as a poor folk's Utopia, expressing the desire of the common people for a life of abundance and ease. The essay is therefore divided into two parts© The first concerns the poem as burlesque. What beliefs and conventions are being parodied and what can be learned of the satirist? To answer the first question I offer as a frame of reference a resume of conventional paradise motifs as illustrated in cer-tain paradise legends which were widely known in medieval England. To answer the second question I find analogies to the poem in Greek and Celtic literature and discover the sceptical and satirical spirit in which they were written. The Celtic analogue invites comparison of the Cokaygne poet with the wander-ing scholar of the Middle Ages. It is possible that the Cokaygne poet with his sceptical spirit and delight in the sensual plea-sures was a goliardic • clerk. Turning to the poem itself, I set forth those passages of the poem which burlesque the conventional paradise motifs--the list of negative joys, the rivers, the abode of holy men, the garden, well and tree, the catalogue of precious stones and, finally, the barrier. The poet's method is to improvise freely, introducing foreign elements into a familiar series and thus making an exalted theme ludicrous. The Cokaygne motifs--the i v cloister roofed with cakes, the roast goose, the well-seasoned larks--are used in this way. But the poem may be taken out of its Middle English context and given a larger literary relation-ship. Structurally, it may be classed as a satiric utopia, for in his burlesque the poet has created a topsy-turvy land as a vehicle for breaking down existing ideas about paradise and for criticizing the religious orders for their immorality. The second part of the essay concerns the poem as a utopia. The Cokaygne fantasy has its origins in primitive agrarian rites and its themes are abundance without t o i l , general license and inversion of status. The acting out by the folk of these themes in the medieval folk festivals may be taken as a projection of the world as they would like it to be. Around the Cokaygne fan-tasy the utopia of the folk takes shape. The poet uses the roast goose motif to burlesque the saints1 paradise. But he also uses it as a symbol of the good'life with-out fear of want. His poem takes up the Cokaygne theme of abundance without t o i l , and communicates as well a sense of the injustice suffered by the poor. Two hundred years later, Thomas More also speaks for the poor and oppressed in his Utopi a, and it i s his conviction of social injustice which gives emotional force to the theme he shares with the Cokaygne poet of abundance without t o i l . Other Utopians h a v e in some way given expression to this theme, but only William Morris in News from Nowhere has c a p t u r e d that sense of freedom and of delight in the abundant earth which p e r v a d e s the Middle English p o e m . The U t o p i a n element V in the poem may also be measured by contrasting it with the anti-utopia. Swift, Huxley and Orwell create wonderlands in the spirit of anti-Cokaygne. They mistrust the idea of abundance without toil and take a gloomy view of the perfectibility of man. They have never been inspired by the vision of the wonderful tree, symbolic of Utopian dreams, or else they have rejected it out of concern for our minds and spirits. The burlesque utopia of the Cokaygne poet lives on in North American folk literature of the twentieth century. It is best known in that well-loved Cokaygne song. The Big Rock Candy Moun-tains. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT a a e . . o a . a a e a a a a a a a a a . « a . i i i TEXT OF THE LAND OF COKAYGNE . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . v i INTRODUCTION a . > e « o s » « a a o a * . > s i i . « a . 1 PART I . THE LAND OF COKAYGNE AS BURLESQUE Chapter I , THE BACKGROUND FOR THE BURLESQUE . . . . . . . 10 I I . THE COKAYGNE POET IN A BURLESQUE TRADITION . . 23 Ilia AN ANALYSIS OF THE POEM: METHOD AND STRUCTURE 42 PART I I . THE LAND OF COKAYGNE AS UTOPIA IV, THE FOLK ORIGINS OF THE COKAYGNE THEME . . . . 73 V. UTOPIA, ANTI-UTOPIA AND THE LAND OF COKAYGNE. . 8 4 EPILOGUE: A LIVING FOLK THEME . . . . . , 115 LIST OF WORKS CITED I3O The Land of Cokaycrne Fur in see, bi west spayngne, is a lond ihote cokaygne. ber nis lond vnder heuen-riche, of wel, of godnis, hit iliche; poj peradis be miri and bri-^t, cokaygn is of fairir si^t* what is jber in peradis bot grasse, and flure, and grene ris? £03 f>er be ioi and gret dute, Jaer nis met bote frute; j>er nis halle, bure, no benche; bot watir, man-is burst to quenche. beb ber no men bot two, hely and enok al-so; elinglich mai hi go whar jier wonib men no mo» In cokaigne is met and drink wib-vte care, how, and swink. be met is trie, be drink is clere, to none, runnin, and sopper. i sigge for-so|>, boute were, i>er nis lond on erj>e is pere, vnder heuen nis lond, i-wisse, of so mochil ioi and blisse. p e r is mani swete si3te: al is dai, nis per no ni^te; ber nis baret nober strif; nis ber no deb, ac euer l i f ; J>er nis lac of met no clob; ber nis man no womman wrob. j>er nis serpent, wolf, no fox, hors no capil, kowe no ox, j>er nis schepe, no swine, no gote; no non horw^ , al god it wote, nober harace, nober stode* be lond is ful of ober gode. nis ber f l e i , fie, no lowse, in clob, in toune, bed, no house; ber nis dunnir, slete, no hawle; no non vile worme, no snawile, no non storme, rein, no winde. ber nis man no womman blinde» ok al is game, Ioi, and gle« wel is him bat ber mai be. jjer beb riuers gret and fine, of oile, melk, honi, and wine; w a t i r s e r u i p per to no-ping bot to si-jt and to w a i i s s i n g . 48 per i s mani maner f r u t e ; a l i s s o l a s and dedute. per i s a wel f a i r abbei, of white monkes and of g r e i . 52 per bep bowris and h a l l e s ; a l of p a s t e i i s bep pe w a l l e s , of f l e i s , of f i s s e , and r i c h met, pe l i k f u l l i s t pat man mai e t . 56 f l u r e n cakes bep pe s c h i n g l e s a l l e , of cherche, c l o i s t e r , boure, and h a l l e ; pe pinnes bep f a t podinges--r i c h met to p r i n c e 3 and kinges. 60 man mai per-of et ino-^, a l wip r i ^ t and no3t wip wo3« a l i s commune to 3ung and o l d , to stoute and s t e r n e , isek and b o l d i 64 J)er i s a c l o i s t e r , f a i r and l i 3 t , brod and lang, of sembli s i 3 t ; pe p i l e r s of pat c l o i s t e r a l l e bep i t u r n e d of c r i s t a l e , 68 wip har bas and c a p i t a l e Of grene Iaspe and rede c o r a l e . In pe praer i s a t r e , swipe l i k f u l f o r t o se: 72 pe rote i s g i n g e u i r and g a l i n g a l e , pe siouns bep a l sedwale, t r i e maces bep pe f l u r e , pe r i n d canel of swet odur, 76 pe f r u t e g i l o f r e of gode smakke. of cucubes per n i s no l a k k e . per bep r o s i s of rede b l e , and l i l i e l i k f u l f o r t o se-- 80 p a i falowep neuer d a i no n i 3 t ; p i s a^t be a swet si3t« er bep i i i j w i l l i s i n pe abbei, of t r i a c l e and h a l w e i , 84 of baum and ek piement, euer ernend to r i 3 t r e n t ; of pam stremis al' pe raolde, s t o n i s p r e c i u s e , and golde. 88 per i s s a p h i r and vniune, carbuncle and a s t i u n e , Smaragde, l u g r e , and p r a s s i u n e , b e r i l , onix, t o p a s i u n e , 92 ametist and c r i s o l i t e , calcedun and e p e t i t e * bep briddes mani and fale--prostil, pruisse and ni^tingale, Chalendre and wodwale, and oper briddes wip-out tale, pat stintep neuer bi har mi^t. miri to sing dai and niot# 3 i t e i do 3 0 W mo to witte: pe Gees irostid on pe spitte f l e e 3 to pat abbai, god hit wot, and gredip, "gees, al hotel al hotj hi bringep garlek gret plente, pe best i d i 3 t pat man mai se, pe leuerokes, pat bep cup, l i 3 t i p adun to man-is mup, i d i 3 t in stu, ful swipe wel pudrid wip gilofre and canel» nis no spech of no drink; ak take ino3 wip-vte swink„ Whan pe monkes geep to masse, al pe fenestres pat bep of glasse turnep in-to cristal bri^t, to 3iue pe monkes more l i ^ t . whan pe masses bep iseiid, and pe bokes up i l e i i d , pe cristal turnip in-to glasse, in state pat hit raper wasse, J7e 3ung monkes euch dai aftir met gop to plai; nis per hauk no fule so swifte bettir fleing bi pe l i f t e , pan pe monkes hei3 of mode wip har sleuis and har hode. Whan pe abbot seep ham flee pat he holt for moch glee; ak napeles al per amang he biddip ham l i 3 t to euensang. pe monkes l i 3 t i p no3t adun, ac furre fleep in o randun» Whan pe abbot him iseep pat is monkes fram him fleep, he takep a maidin of pe route and turnip vp har white toute, and betip pe taburs wip is hond to make is monkes l i 3 t to londl i x Whan i s monkes bat i s e e b , to be maid dun h i f l e e b , and geb be wench a l abute and ba-kkeb a l h i r white t o u t e , and s i b a f t i r her swinke Wendib meklich horn to d r i n k e , and geb to har c o l l a c i o n e a wel f a i r p r o c e s s i o n e . 140 144 Anojber abbei i s ber b i , f o r - s o b a gret f a i r nunnerie, 148 vp a r i u e r of swet m i l k e , whar i s p l e n t e g r e t of s i l k , whan pe someris dai i s hote, be ^ung nunnes t a k i b a bote 152 And dob ham f o r b i n pat r i u e r , bobe wib o r i s and wib s t e r e , whan h i beb f u r fram be abbei, h i makib ham nakid f o r t o p l e i , 156 and l e p i b dune i n to be brimme and dob ham s l e i l i c h f o r t o swimme, be 3 u n g monke3 b a t ham seeb, h i dob bam vp and f o r b h i f l e e b , 160 and commib to be nunnes anon, and euch monke him takeb on, and s n e l l i c h b e r r i b f o r b har p r e i to be mochil g r e i abbei, I64 and t e c h i b be nunnes an o r e i s u n wib iambleue vp and dun. 176 172 168 Whose wl com pat l o n d t o . 180 so he s c h a l be lond winne. \ X L o r d i n g e s gode and h e n d , mot -je n e u e r o f w o r l d wend, I84 f o r t ^ e s t o n d t o ^ u r e c h e a n c e and f u l f i l l e p a t p e n a n c e , p a t 2 E mote p a t l o n d i - s e ; and n e u e r - m o r e t u r n a-^e. 188 p r e y we god so mote h i t be. Amen, p u r s e i n t c h a r i t e . C o p i e d f r o m H i s t o r i c a l Poems o f t h e X l V t h and X V t h  C e n t u r i e s , e d . R o s s e l l Hope R o b b i n s (New Y o r k , 1959), PP. 121-127 (& r e p l a c e d by " a n d " ) . A l l c i t a t i o n s f r o m t h e poem i n my t e x t a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n , h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as H i s t o r i c a l Poems, P r e v i o u s l y e d i t e d by F, J„ F u r n i v a l l , E a r l y E n g l i s h Poems  and L i v e s o f t h e S a i n t s ( B e r l i n , 1 8 6 2 ) , p. 156; 4W, H e u s e r , D i e  K i l d a r e G e d i c h t e ( B o n n , 1904), p . 141; E d u a r d M a t z n e r , A l t e n -g l i s c h e S p r a c h p r o b e n ( B e r l i n , 1 8 6 7 ) , I , 147. C o m p l e t e t e x t a l s o i n G e o r g e E l l i s , e d . S p e c i m e n s o f t h e E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t s ( L o n d o n , 1 8 1 1 ) , I , 83, INTRODUCTION The Land of Cokaygne t e l l s about an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e where " a l i s game, I o i and gle«" To render game as "fun, 1* "sport, 1* "amusement" i s c o r r e c t (NED), yet misses somehow the Middle E n g l i s h sense. The word i s not used i n the same way now, and we have no synonym i n Modern E n g l i s h which expresses i n one word the i d e a of fun and c o n v i v i a l i t y , of t a l k and r a i l l e r y , g a i e t y and high s p i r i t s which i n Middle E n g l i s h was c a l l e d game. There i s m u c h game among the Canterbury p i l g r i m s as they walk the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e from Southwark to Canterbury, t e l l i n g t a l e s both bawdy and moral, engaging i n good-humoured banter, exchanging s h a f t s of wit, and s u b m i t t i n g to the o f f i c e s of a Host who i s a l e r t to the i n t e r p l a y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s . And Pandarus, too, we a s s o c i a t e with game. He bur s t s on the scene with a merry jape or an i n v i t a t i o n to dance, ready i n h i s humorously s e l f - d e p r e c a t i n g way to become the butt of a joke, to l e t others f i n d game i n h i s hood. This one word gi v e s us the c h a r a c t e r of the country of Cokaygne, and i t als o gives the poem a pervading g a i e t y as i f the good food and wine, ^"name of an imaginary country, the abode of luxury and i d l e n e s s " (NED), The o r i g i n of the word has not been f i n a l l y s e t t l e d , but the r e i s g e n e r a l agreement that i t came i n t o ME, from OF, coquaigne, cokajgne (mod, F# cocaqne, Sp, cueana. I t , cuccagna)« I t may be connected with a Romanic word meaning , c a k e , 1 or with a d e r i v a t i v e of the L a t i n coquere to cook, Grimm connects i t with Ger, kuchen cake (NED), A l s o connecting cokaygne with some word meaning t c a k e l r i s Middle Dutch koken i e, a c o n f e c t i o n given to c h i l d r e n on the v o c c a s i o n of an annual f a i r ( P i c t i o n n a i r e etymologique de l a Langue  f r a n c a i s e . ed, Oscar Bloch and W, von Wartburg, [.Paris ,' 1960J )• 2 the g e n i a l i t y of the abbot and the b o i s t e r o u s behaviour of the monks had somehow become pa r t of the very te x t u r e of the poem. Where e l s e i n Middle E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e can we f i n d t h i s g a i e t y , t h i s game? In the second h a l f of the t h i r t e e n t h cen-2 tury the l i t e r a t u r e of England i s s t i l l predominately r e l i g i o u s [/• and d i d a c t i c , and although some s e c u l a r l y r i c s are l i g h t h e a r t e d responses to love and nature, they are more than balanced by a l a r g e number of r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s of simple and touching p i e t y . 3 The romance takes root i n E n g l i s h s o i l at t h i s t i m e , 4 but these s t o r i e s of k n i g h t l y adventure, even when leavened with touches of broad humour, are q u i t e o f t e n s t r o n g l y moral i n tone. The s a i n t ' s l i f e , the b i b l i c a l paraphrase, the homily and the exemplum are s t i l l the s t a p l e s of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . Nor, c o n s i d e r i n g the Middle E n g l i s h p e r i o d as a whole do we f i n d very much that i s l i g h t and humorous* Langland bears the whole weight of the world's s i n on h i s shoulders and "moral Gower" adopts the r o l e of p u b l i c mentor. We might expect to f i n d i t i n Dunbar, but h i s nimble and s p i r i t e d verse i s most o f t e n darkened by the shadow of a t w i s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y . Henryson i s too f i l l e d with moral f e r v o r to be gay. Of a l l the major f i g u r e s i n Middle E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , Chaucer i s the only one who has t h i s q u a l i t y which combines a 2 The date of the composition of The Land of Cokaygne i s •\1250-1300. It e x i s t s i n a s i n g l e manuscript, MS. H a r l e y 913, f i r s t q u a r t e r f o u r t e e n t h century (John Edwin Wells, A Manual of  the W r i t i n g s i n Middle E n g l i s h . 1050-1400 [London, 1916], p. 228). 3 A l b e r t C. Baugh, "The Middle E n g l i s h P e r i o d (1100-1500)," A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of England, ed. A l b e r t C. Baugh (New York, 1948), PP« 211-215. 4 I b i d . . pp. 174," 181. 3 sense of fun with a r e f i n e d w i t . In a s c r i b i n g a Chaucerian q u a l i t y to The Land of Cokaygne we are indeed g i v i n g our un-known poet the accolades The gesture has the app r o v a l , how-ever, of at l e a s t three a u t h o r i t i e s . F u r n i v a l l has charac-t e r i z e d The Land of Cokaygne as "the a i r i e s t and c l e v e r e s t p i e c e of s a t i r e i n the whole range of E a r l y E n g l i s h , i f not of E n g l i s h 5 poetry*'* W i l l i a m S c h o f i e l d i s w i l l i n g to say that i t s good-humoured, i f coarse, s a t i r e a n t i c i p a t e s Chaucer.^ And Laura Hibbard Loomis notes that i t s burlesque s p i r i t a n t i c i p a t e s S i r Ihopas. 7 L i k e most medieval w r i t i n g , t h i s poem draws h e a v i l y on t r a d i t i o n . The roast goose c r y i n g h i s wares l i k e any s t r e e t vendor and the church and c l o i s t e r c o n s t r u c t e d of good things to eat belong, as we s h a l l see, to a very ancient comic t r a d i -t i o n . They are elements of f o l k song and f a i r y t a l e , of The  Big Rock Candy Mountains with i t s soda water f o u n t a i n s and lakes of stew, and Hansel and G r e t e l with i t s w i t c h , s cottage of sugar and cake. In c o n t r a s t to the comic f a n t a s i e s of f o l k l o r e i s the f a b l i a u humour i n the i n c i d e n t about the monks and nuns. The Land of Cokaygne i s not a f a b l i a u , although i t has sometimes been c a l l e d one. It l a c k s the s t o r y element which g i v e s us a 5 C i t e d by Robbins, ed. H i s t o r i c a l Poems, p. 317. ^ E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e from the Norman Conquest to Chaucer (London, 1906), p. 325. 7 w S i r Thopas," Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canter-bury T a l e s , ed. W. F. Bryan and Germaine Dempster (New York, 1958), p. 553* note. 8 S c h o f i e l d , p. 325. A l s o Bernhard Ten Brink, H i s t o r y of  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s . Horace Kennedy (London, 1914)»I, 259. 4 January, a Daun John or a hende Nicholas. But the bizarre and bawdy episode making a sly hit at some member of the clergy was one of the mainstays of the genre. The abbot,s way of calling his monks back to their devotions and the amorous sports of the monks and nuns are materials which some jongleur could very well have worked into a fabliau. The comic element, then, follows conventional patterns. But the wit, the esprit which distinguishes the poem, is to be found in the way in which these and other conventions have been used. Henri Bergson described wit as a dramatic way of thinking by which the wit may reply, not just to a single absent inter-locutor, but to the whole world, whose habits of thought he 9 examines critically. In The Land of Cokaygne the poet rejects the commonly accepted beliefs about paradise. On the one side are those who solemnly perpetuate the marvellous tales about the "other world,18 On the other side is the poet who laughingly rejects these marvels, "What is per in peradis/bot grasse, and flure, and grene ris?" he scoffs ( 7 - 9 ) . For him the subject of paradise is a source of game and gle, and he burlesques the hoary commonplaces which the world credulously accepts. Who was the audience who listened to the recital of this parody? (in all likelihood it circulated orally before it was recorded in manuscript). Who were the "lordinges gode and hendw? They may have been a group of convivial churchmen who, like the "Laughter," Comedy, with an introduction by Wylie Sypher (New York, 1956), p.. 129. 5 Bishop Wolfger of Passau, would r i s k the d i s a p p r o v a l of the Church and pay a j o n g l e u r f o r an amusing song or t w o , ^ or per-haps members of the n o b i l i t y being e n t e r t a i n e d by some wandering m i n s t r e l * They may have been peasants i n a market p l a c e or burghers i n a town square, or even p i l g r i m s on t h e i r way to Canterbury, g l a d of a d i v e r s i o n which would speed a t e d i o u s journey.**' Whoever they were, whether churchmen or l a i t y , they would be f a m i l i a r with a c e r t a i n set of commonplaces about the e a r t h l y paradise.. The Church taught the d o c t r i n e of purgatory and p a r a d i s e and r e i n f o r c e d i t s teachings i n sermon, homily and s a i n t ' s l i f e , a l l p o p u l a r forms used f o r the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c -t i o n of the p e o p l e . The Land of Cokaygne. then, i s a burlesque or parody which makes fun of c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l ideas as expressed by medieval w r i t e r s . But are we to take i t only i n game? There i s an under-l y i n g s e r i o u s n e s s i n the poem, f o r the Cokaygne poet leaves us with the impression that he i s a man with a dream, and that dream i s a p a r a d i s e t r u l y of t h i s e a r t h . What he g i v e s us i s the poor man's p a r a d i s e which has to do, not with the p e r f e c t i o n of the s o u l , but with gross animal comforts--food and d r i n k , warmth and l o v e . Beyond the i d e a of the body a p p e t i t e s g r a t i f i e d i s the sense of hunger, c o l d and poverty experienced, and a sense, too, t h a t such t h i n g s should not be. > The v i s i o n of the b e t t e r l i f e he takes from the very o l d ^ H e l e n Waddell, The Wandering S c h o l a r s . 6th ed. (Harmonds-worth. Eng., 1954)# p. 256. * * S i r Edmund K. Chambers, The Medieval Stage (Oxford, 1903), I, 5 5 - 5 6 . 6 f o l k t r a d i t i o n of Cokaygne i n which the people over the c e n t u r i e s have r e c r e a t e d i n f a n t a s y the peace and p l e n t y of the golden age. The t r a d i t i o n i s a p e r s i s t e n t one and the m o t i f s remarkably con-s t a n t . V a r i a t i o n s on the theme of roast goose f l y i n g to the t a b l e and houses r o o f e d with cakes may be found i n many c o u n t r i e s and many ages, Cokaygne i s the u n i v e r s a l garden of d e l i g h t made over by the f o l k . I t i s Eden without the serpent, without the Tree of Knowledge of Good and E v i l , It i s the Fortunate I s l e s somehow t r a n s p o r t e d to the v i l l a g e square at c a r n i v a l time. This pagan p a r a d i s e of the f o l k i s expressed i n comic terms, and as the s u b j e c t of f o l k song or s t o r y i s the s i g n a l f o r l a u g h t e r . But the l a u g h t e r echoes back the genuine d e s i r e of the common people f o r a p l a c e of peace and r e s t and abundance without t o i l . Grotesque and f a n t a s t i c as i t i s , the country of Cokaygne i s the poor man's u t o p i a . The Cokaygne poet r e t a i n s the b o i s t e r o u s f o l k humour and the Utopian s p i r i t of the f o l k t r a d i t i o n i n h i s s t a n z a s . Thus The Land of Cokaygne i s a poem of c o n f l i c t i n g modes. The p r e v a i l i n g mode i s i r o n i c , b u r l e s q u i n g the wonderland, the marvelous journey to the "other world," the p a r a d i s e of the s a i n t s 1 legends. The second i s romantic, h o l d i n g out the v i s i o n of d e s i r e and wish f u l f i l l m e n t , p r o j e c t i n g the utopian i d e a l i n the imagery of the garden, the miraculous streams and f o u n t a i n s and the wonderful t r e e . The dream of a p a r a d i s e on earth i s an easy mark f o r r i d i c u l e , but i t w i l l not be d e s t r o y e d . And so t h e r e i s a t e n s i o n i n the poem between the i r o n i c and the romantic. T h i s i s what g i v e s the poem i t s i n t e r e s t i n g ambiguity. 7 In the notes to h i s e d i t i o n of the poem, Robbins i m p l i e s the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s ambiguity (pp. 317-318). On the one hand he c i t e s F u r n i v a l l , Wells and Wright, who appraise The Land of Cokaygne as a s a t i r i c work, and on the other he c i t e s the h i s -12 t o r i a n A. L. Morton, who s t r e s s e s the Utopian s p i r i t i n the poem. E v i d e n t l y Robbins lends some weight to Morton's judge-ment, f o r i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l poems he assigns The Land of Cokaygne a s p e c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , "The F i r s t U t o p i a . " One important example of ambiguity i n Middle E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e i s i n C h a u c e r — t h e r e s u l t of the t e n s i o n i n h i s work between the c h i v a l r i c and the bourgeois. The Goose i n the Parliament of Fowls i s the bourgeois exponent of common sense i n the debate over which of the c o u r t l y b i r d s s h a l l win the formel eagle f o r h i s mate. Pandarus i n T r o i l u s and Criseyde guides the l o v e r s through the p r e s c r i b e d r i t u a l s of the c o u r t l y love code i n a manner at once o f f i c i o u s l y solemn and i r o n i c . Chaucer him-s e l f , the t e l l e r of romantic t a l e s , becomes one of h i s own ch a r a c t e r s when he burlesques t r a d i t i o n a l romances i n S i r Thopas. The Cokaygne poet, too, may be seen to be one of h i s own charac-t e r s . We s h a l l l e t him p l a y the f o o l , but l e t i t be the wise f o o l who i s at once s a t i r i s t , buffoon, poet and prophet. As Chaucer's Host says, "a man may say f u l l sooth i n game and p l e y . " In u s i n g Chaucer to e x p l a i n my p o i n t I am not t r y i n g to e l e v a t e The Land of Cokaygne to the ranks of great l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s , a f t e r a l l has been s a i d about i t , a minor p i e c e by an The E n g l i s h U t o p i a (London, 1952)* ch. i . 8 anonymous poet and, s u i t a b l y bowdlerized, w i l l always f i n d a p l a c e i n a n t h o l o g i e s of Middle E n g l i s h verse as an amusing a n t i -c l e r i c a l s a t i r e . But even though i t i s a minor poem, i t has unusual i n t e r e s t f o r the student of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s a poem of wit and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n at a time before these q u a l i t i e s were g e n e r a l l y to be found i n E n g l i s h v e r s e . I t i s a l s o a poem of genuine f e e l i n g . It opens outward i n the d i r e c t i o n of burlesque l i t e r a t u r e and s a t i r e on the one hand and of utopian l i t e r a t u r e on the o t h e r . I t has i t s roo t s i n f o l k l o r e and gathers i n t o i t -s e l f the m a t e r i a l s of c l a s s i c a l mythology and C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f . My purpose i n t h i s essay w i l l be to re-assess the value of The  Land of Cokaygne by a n a l y z i n g i t as a l i t e r a r y parody and as a u t o p i a , and u n f o l d i n g the t r a d i t i o n s which l e a d up to and surround i t . This done, we s h a l l b e t t e r be able to enjoy t h i s gay and w i t t y poem as one of "best sentence and moost s o l a a s . " 9 PART I THE LAND OF COKAYGNE AS BURLESQUE 10 Chapter I THE BACKGROUND FOR THE BURLESQUE Parody is a sophisticated art which assumes that its audience has completely assimilated the literary tradition which is the object of ridicule. The relationship between poet and audience is an intimate one, for many things are left unsaid in the understanding that a certain fund of knowledge is shared. We dot not need to have Pope preface The Rape of  the Lock with an account of the epic conventions. It is assumed that readers know their Homer, Virgil and Milton and do not need to have literary jokes about a branch of healing spleenwort or fumes of burning chocolate explained. But parody is also an ephemeral art, living in the reflected light of its subject. When that subject fades in interest and dims, so also does the satellite parody. Some six hundred years after the writing of his poem, the Cokaygne poet needs to have his literary joke explained. With his own audience he was able to establish a rapport in the first couplet: Fur in see, bi west spayngne, is a lond ihote cokaygne. He expects them to call to mind at once tales of the Fortunate Isles in a western sea, and, by implication, other tales about the terrestrial paradise which lies "eastward in Eden." There were two paradises, one to the east and one to the west and each 11 one had gathered to i t s e l f an a c c r e t i o n of l o r e . * In t h i s chapter I s h a l l set f o r t h some of that l o r e , and thus recon-s t r u c t the frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r the poem so that the Cokaygne-poet and h i s audience may once more be i n r a p p o r t . People of the Middle Ages b e l i e v e d i n the a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e of p a r a d i s e and gave i t a d e f i n i t e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . Medieval maps l o c a t e the t e r r e s t r i a l p a r a d i s e i n some remote spot i n A s i a , A t y p i c a l map i n a t h i r t e e n t h century p s a l t e r d e p i c t s the earth as an i s l a n d i n an ocean surrounded by the sphere of heaven. The Garden of Eden i s i n the east and the east i s at the top of the map. From t h i s spot flow the f o u r 2 r i v e r s , the P i s o n , the Gehon, the T i g r i s and the Euphrates. P a r a d i s e , then, was p a r t of the geography of the time, and men took as t h e i r a u t h o r i t y on the subject the w r i t i n g s of a n t i q u i t y . Even that man of the new age, C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus, r e l i e d on the a u t h o r i t y of e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n . D i s c u s s i n g i n h i s N a r r a t i v e of the T h i r d Voyage the p o s s i b i l i t y that America might be the s i t e of the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , he argued: " S t , I s i d o r e , Bede, Str a b o , and the Master of S c h o l a s t i c H i s t o r y [ P e t e r Comestorj with S t . Ambrose, and Scotus, and a l l the l e a r n e d t h e o l o g i a n s , agree that the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e i s i n the *S. Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (London, 1906), p. 524. 2 L a r s - I v a r Ringbom, Paradisus T e r r e s t r i s , Myt, B i l d och  V e r l i g h e t , A c t a S o c i e t a t i s S c i e n t i a r u m Fennicae, Nova S e r i e s C , 1, N: o 1 ( H e l s i n g f o r s , 1958), p. 289. E n g l i s h i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of the map, pp. 435-436. 12 east. . . . Like Columbus, men of the Middle Ages found their auctorite for the earthly paradise in "the holy and wise theo-logians." The early Church Fathers had looked back to that golden .age before the Fall when Adam and Eve had enjoyed an unspoiled felicity in their Garden. St. Basil, St. Ambrose and St. Augustine, writing about the original condition of man, had all described the geographical location and the physical attri-butes of life in Eden.4 Later medieval scholars, relying on the authority of patristic writings, continued to speculate on 5 the actual existence of the earthly paradise and lent their authority to the body of legend which surrounded the biblical story. One of the most popular of such legends was that con-cerning the voyage of St. Brendan. A St. Brendan did exist in the sixth century and may, as was common among the early Irish clerics, have made a penitential sea pilgrimage in search of hermitage. In the ninth or tenth century the story of his journey to the earthly paradise was recorded in the Latin prose Navigatio 7 Sancti Brendani. The story was certainly known in England in the early part of the twelfth century, for a certain Benedeit 3 Cited by George Boas, Essays on Primitivism and Related  Ideas in the Middle Ages, in Contributions to the History of  Primitivism (Baltimore. 1948). p. 173. 4Ibid., pp. 31-33, 42-45, 45-53. 5Ibid., pp. 67-86, and Howard Rollin Patch, The Other World  According to Descriptions in Medieval Literature (Cambridge. Mass•, 1950), ch. v. B^oas, p. 158. Ibid 13 d e d i c a t e d h i s Anglo-Norman v e r s i o n of the s t o r y (1121) to Queen g A d e l a i d e . A Middle E n g l i s h v e r s i o n appears at the end of the 9 t h i r t e e n t h century i n the E a r l y South E n g l i s h Legendary. As e a r l y as 1275 S t . Brendan's I s l a n d had found a p l a c e on the maps of medieval c a r t o g r a p h e r s , i t s l o c a t i o n changing as voyages of e x p l o r a t i o n i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s e l i m i n a t e d f i r s t one p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n , then another. For three c e n t u r i e s the legend of S t , Brendan continued to be a source of wonder and i n t e r e s t . Not u n t i l the end of the s i x t e e n t h century d i d the i s l a n d cease to appear on maps (the l a t e s t date we have i s 1570), But even as l a t e as the eighteenth century an e x p e d i t i o n i s known to have s a i l e d i n search of S t , Brendan's Island.**"* In Benedeit's v e r s i o n of the s t o r y , * * S t , Brendan, a f t e r many wanderings f i l l e d with strange adventures, s a i l s towards the east i n search of p a r a d i s e . He f i n d s h i s way through a dark mist and a r r i v e s at a high, white w a l l set with p r e c i o u s stones. T h i s i s the w a l l of p a r a d i s e and i t i s b u i l t on a mountain with a sum-mit of g o l d and a base of marble, A sharp-edged sword hangs over the gate and f i e r y dragons stand on guard, A f a i r youth, the g Baugh, p, 139. 9 0 r L i v e s of S a i n t s , ed. Dr. C a r l Horstmann, EETS.OS. 87, (London, 1887), I, 220-240. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as ESEL. * ^ W i l l i a m H, Babcock, Legendary Islands of the A t l a n t i c . A  Study i n Medieval Geography, i n American Geographical S o c i e t y  Research S e r i e s . No, 8 (New York, 1922), pp. 38-48. **The Anglo-Norman Voyage of S t , Brendan by Benedeit. ed. E« G. R. Waters, (Oxford, 1928), pp. 84-92. 14 servant of God, g r e e t s the t r a v e l l e r s , and allows them to enter the gates past dragons and sword i n t o p a r a d i s e . Here they f i n d a f e r t i l e l a n d where f r u i t and flowers are ever i n abundance, where the woods are f u l l of deer and the streams f u l l of f i s h . The r i v e r s run m i l k , and honey-dew f a l l s from the sky. Here i s n e i t h e r heat, nor c o l d , nor g r i e f , nor p a i n , nor any k i n d of a d v e r s i t y . They see a c h o i r of angels and hear them r e j o i c e i n song. The angels t e l l S t . Brendan that he may not now stay i n p a r a d i s e , but t h a t he s h a l l one day r e t u r n t h e r e . T h i s w i l l be a f t e r h i s death when he r e t u r n s i n s p i r i t to await the day of judgement. Another p o p u l a r legend was t h a t concerning S t . P a t r i c k f s Purgatory. It was f i r s t recorded by a B e n e d i c t i n e monk, Henry of S a l t r e y , and the number of manuscripts of t h i s and other v e r s i o n s of the t a l e a t t e s t to i t s p o p u l a r i t y . The L a t i n account e x i s t s i n many manuscripts d a t i n g from the t w e l f t h to the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Jacobus de Voragine i n c l u d e s i t i n h i s Legenda Sanc-torum and Roger of Wendover, Matthew of P a r i s , Ranulph Higden and o t h e r c h r o n i c l e r s repeat the s t o r y . It e x i s t s a l s o i n many French v e r s i o n s , the most notable being that of Marie de France. There are three Middle E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s and the i n c l u s i o n of one of them i n the E a r l y South E n g l i s h Legendary made the s t o r y widely known. The legend c e n t r e s around a c e r t a i n cave near Lough Derg i n I r e l a n d which was s a i d to have been r e v e a l e d to S t . P a t r i c k as the entrance to p u r g a t o r y . The spot was famous throughout Europe Wells, p. 334. 15 f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y and p i l g r i m s f r o m a l l p a r t s o f E u r o p e were a t t r a c t e d t o i t . F r o i s s a r t w o n d e r e d a b o u t t h e t r u t h o f t h e s t o r i e s t o l d a b o u t t h i s s p o t and t o o k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o q u e s t i o n a k n i g h t who h a d been t h e r e . The k n i g h t a s s u r e d h i m t h a t t h e c a v e d i d e x i s t and t h a t t h o s e who e n t e r e d 13 i t u n d e r w e n t a m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . The M i d d l e E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s a l l t e l l much t h e same s t o r y , * 4 The K n i g h t Owayn, w i s h i n g t o be a b s o l v e d o f h i s s i n s , e n t e r s S t , P a t r i c k ' s P u r g a t o r y and p a s s e s t h r o u g h s e v e n f i e l d s o f p u n i s h -ment. E a c h t i m e i n t h e m i d s t o f s u f f e r i n g he c a l l s on t h e L o r d and i s r e l e a s e d f r o m p a i n . He t h e n p a s s e s o v e r a h i g h , n a r r o w b r i d g e u n d e r w h i c h t h e f i e n d s o f h e l l a r e h o w l i n g and w a i t i n g f o r h i m t o f a l l . S a f e l y o v e r t h e b r i d g e he s e e s a h i g h , s h i n i n g w a l l d e c k e d w i t h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s . E n t e r i n g t h e g a t e he i s g r e e t e d by a p r o c e s s i o n o f f o l k , who, s i n g i n g j o y f u l l y , l e a d h i m i n t o a f a i r meadow f i l l e d w i t h l i g h t and t h e f r a g r a n c e o f f l o w e r s and t r e e s w i t h f r u i t . He l e a r n s t h a t t h i s i s t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e whence Adam was c a s t o u t f o r h i s s i n . H e r e w i l l t h e s o u l s be w e l c o m e d o f t h o s e who h a v e done p e n a n c e f o r t h e i r s i n s and h e r e w i l l t h e y w a i t u n t i l t h e y a r e r e a d y f o r t h e b l i s s o f h e a v e n , 13 ^Thomas W r i g h t , S t . P a t r i c k ' s P u r g a t o r y : An E s s a y on t h e  L e g e n d s o f P u r g a t o r y . H e l l and P a r a d i s e C u r r e n t d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e  Ages (New Y o r k . 1 8 4 3 ) . PP, 4 4 - 4 6 . 1 4 V e r s i o n i n E S E L . p p . 1 9 8 - 2 2 0 . V e r s i o n i n MS. A u c h i n l e c k , e d , Eugen K o l b i n g , i n p p , 98-112 o f " Z w e i m i t t e l e n g l i s c h e B e a r b e i t u n g e n d e r Sage von S t . P a t r i k ' s Purgatorium,» E n g l i s c h e S t u d i e n . I ( 1 8 7 7 ) , 5 7 - 1 2 1 . Owayne M y l e s . e d ? K o l b i n g ? i b i d , , p p , 113-121, 16 M a n d e v i l l e ' s T r a v e l s p r o v i d e s a t h i r d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . The a u t h o r h a s w r i t t e n a t r a v e l l e r ' s g u i d e " t o t e c h e ^ou t h e weye o u t o f E n g l o n d t o C o n s t a n t y n o b l e , " t o t h e H o l y L a n d and o t h e r p l a c e s i n E a s t e r n A s i a w h i c h he p u r p o r t s t o h a v e s e e n h i m s e l f . He h a s been t o Polombe i n I n d i a and s e e n t h e W e l l o f Y o u t h w h i c h h a s i t s s o u r c e i n t h e w a t e r s o f p a r a d i s e . Whoever d r i n k s t h r e e t i m e s f a s t i n g o f i t s w a t e r s i s c u r e d o f any s i c k n e s s . M a n d e v i l l e r e p o r t s , " I haue d r o n k e n toere o f «.iiij o r 15 • i i i j s i t h e s , a n d ^ i t me t h i n k e t h I f a r e t h e b e t t e r . " He h i m -s e l f h a s n o t b e e n t o p a r a d i s e , b u t he knows what w i s e men s a y . I t l i e s i n t h e L a n d o f P r e s t e r J o h n i n C e n t r a l A s i a and i s s e p a -r a t e d f r o m t h i s e m p i r e by a d e s e r t o f r o c k s and d a r k n e s s where w i l d b e a s t s roam. I n t h e e m p e r o r ' s domain i s t h e G r a v e l l y S e a , w h i c h , t h o u g h i t i s a l l g r a v e l and s a n d , y e t ebbs and f l o w s as o t h e r s e a s do. S i n c e no man may n a v i g a t e t h e s e a , i t f o r m s an e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r f o r t h e p a r a d i s e w h i c h l i e s t h r e e d a y s ' j o u r n e y i n t h e m o u n t a i n s b e y o n d t h a t s e a . P a r a d i s e i s t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e i n a l l t h e w o r l d , and t h u s r e m a i n e d u n t o u c h e d by Noah's f l o o d . I t i s ^ e n c l o s e d by a w a l l so c o v e r e d w i t h moss t h a t men may n o t f i n d i t and t h e g a t e i s c l o s e d by f l a m e s so t h a t no m o r t a l may p a s s t h r o u g h . The P h i s o n ( G a n g e s ) , t h e Gyson ( N i l e ) , t h e T i g r i s and t h e E u p h r a t e s h a v e t h e i r s o u r c e i n a s p r i n g i n p a r a d i s e and t h e n c e come a l l t h e s w e e t w a t e r s o f t h e w o r l d . Many men have t r i e d t o r e a c h p a r a d i s e by t h e s w i f t and n o i s y r i v e r s . But t h e y h a v e 1 5 M a n d e v i l l e ' s T r a v e l s , e d . P. H a m e l i u s , EETS.OS. 153-154 ( L o n d o n , 1919), I , 112-113. I n q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h i s work t h e s i g n h a s been r e p l a c e d by " a n d . " 17 p e r i s h e d i n t h e a t t e m p t , f o r m o r t a l man may n o t e n t e r p a r a d i s e e x c e p t by t h e s p e c i a l g r a c e o f God. F r om t h e s e t a l e s and t r a v e l s we may s u m m a r i z e t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c p a r a d i s e m o t i f s * T h e r e i s f i r s t o f a l l a b a r r i e r . A c c e s s t o p a r a d i s e i s v a r i o u s l y made d i f f i c u l t by w i l d b e a s t s i n a r o c k y d e s e r t , a g a t e o f f l a m e s , d r a g o n s and a s h a r p - e d g e d s w o r d , and a h i g h , n a r r o w b r i d g e . T h e r e i s a w a l l , u s u a l l y h i g h and s h i n i n g and b r i l l i a n t w i t h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s . W i t h i n t h e w a l l , a f e r t i l e g a r d e n w a t e r e d by t h e f o u r r i v e r s w h i c h h a v e t h e i r s o u r c e i n a f o u n t a i n o r s p r i n g . And i n t h e g a r d e n f l o w e r s b l o o m n e v e r - f a d i n g , t r e e s b e a r a b u n d a n t f r u i t and a f r a g r a n c e f i l l s t h e a i r . T h i s i s what i t was l i k e i n t h e 'Garden o f Eden where Adam and Eve a t e o f t h e f o r b i d d e n f r u i t . I t s t i l l e x i s t s i n some r e m o t e s p o t , b u t o n l y m o r t a l s f a v o u r e d by t h e g r a c e o f God a r e v o u c h s a f e d a g l i m p s e o f i t . A l l e l s e must w a i t t i l l a f t e r d e a t h when t h e y h a v e p u r g e d t h e i r s i n s . Then t h e y w i l l be w e l c o m e d i n t o p a r a d i s e t o w a i t t o be c a l l e d t o t h e b l i s s o f h e a v e n . A l l t h i s t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t and h i s a u d i e n c e c o u l d h a v e known a b o u t t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . But q u i t e l i k e l y t h e y knew a l s o a b o u t a n o t h e r p a r a d i s e , t h e F o r t u n a t e I s l e s i n t h e w e s t e r n s e a . The G r e e k s b e l i e v e d i n a w e s t e r n l a n d b e y o n d t h e P i l l a r s o f H e r c u l e s . The west was as y e t unknown, and A t l a n t i s , t h e I s l e s o f t h e B l e s t and t h e G a r d e n s o f t h e H e s p e r i d e s must s u r e l y be I b i d . , p p . 1 8 1 , 201-204. 18 17 i n t h a t u n d i s c o v e r e d c o u n t r y . The known w o r l d , a c c o r d i n g t o S t r a b o , e x t e n d e d n o r t h t o G e r m a n i a , e a s t w a r d s t o A s i a , and s o u t h -18 w a r d s t o E g y p t and E t h i o p i a , « But what l a y i n t h e w e s t b e y o n d B r i t a n n i a and I b e r i a n o b o d y knew. The a n c i e n t t a l e o f how A t l a n t i s d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o t h e s e a e x p l a i n e d t h e s h a l l o w s w h i c h were t o be f o u n d b e y o n d t h e P i l l a r s o f H e r c u l e s , and m a r i n e r s * t a l e s o f a v a s t s h a l l o w a r e a i n t h a t p a r t o f t h e A t l a n t i c s u p -p o r t e d t h e l e g e n d . A c c o u n t s o f M a d e i r a and t h e C a n a r y I s l a n d s b r o u g h t b a c k by P h o e n i c i a n and G r e e k s a i l o r s l e n t s u p p o r t t o t h e 19 l e g e n d o f some s u c h d e l i g h t f u l l a n d as t h e F o r t u n a t e I s l e s . And so t h e w e s t became t h e p l a c e where t h e l i f e o f t h e g o l d e n age h a d been l i v e d and c o u l d s t i l l be l i v e d i f o n l y t h a t p l a c e c o u l d be f o u n d . The M i d d l e Ages i n h e r i t e d t h i s b e l i e f t h a t a w e s t e r n i s l a n d , now l o s t , d i d e x i s t ; a l a n d s u c h as t h a t w h i c h V i r g i l e n v i s i o n e d f o r a f u t u r e age. o f g o l d when " t h e p l a i n w i t h o u t a s o w e r / s h a l l 20 r i p e n i n t o waves o f y e l l o w c o r n " ( F o u r t h E c l o g u e ) . I t i s i n t e r m s s u c h as t h e s e t h a t G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth i n t h e V i t a  M e r 1 i n i a t t r i b u t e d t o h i m t e l l s o f t h e w o n d e r f u l f e r t i l i t y o f 17 " B l e s t , Abode o f t h e , " E n c y l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and  E t h i c s , e d , James H a s t i n g s (New Y o r k , 1928), I I , 696-698. " A t l a n t i s . " E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . 11th ed». V o l . I I , " H e s p e r i d e s , " i b i d . . V o l , X I I I , 18 The G e o g r a p h y o f S t r a b o . t r a n s . H o r a c e L e o n a r d J o n e s , L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , I (New Y o r k , 1917), f r o n t i s p i e c e . 19 B a b c o c k , p p . 4~5• 20 T r a n s . R. S, Conway, i n J o s e p h M a y o r , W. Warde F o w l e r , R. S, Conway, V i r g i l ' s M e s s i a n i c E c l o g u e ; I t s M e a n i n g . O c c a s i o n  and S o u r c e s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 7 ) , P» 5» 19 A v a l o n , t h e i s l a n d o f a p p l e s : The I s l e o f F r u i t s , w h i c h i s c a l l e d t h e F o r t u n a t e I s l a n d , h a s i t s name f r o m i t s p e c u l i a r f e r t i l i t y . I t s f i e l d s h a v e no n e e d o f t h e f a r m e r ' s p l o w ; t h e y a r e u t t e r l y u n c a r e d f o r e x c e p t as N a t u r e t e n d s them* I t b r i n g s f o r t h g r a i n o f r a r e f e r t i l i t y a nd g r a p e s and f r u i t s r i p e n e d on i t s t r e e s w i t h s p r e a d i n g b o u g h s . The s o i l b e a r s e v e r y t h i n g as i f i t were g r a s s , by s p o n -t a n e o u s p r o d u c t i o n . Man l i v e s t h e r e a h u n d r e d y e a r s o r more. I r e l a n d comes t o be t h o u g h t o f i n t h e M i d d l e Ages as one o f t h e s e d i s t a n t f o r t u n a t e l a n d s . Bede d e s c r i b e s I r e l a n d as a t e m p e r a t e and f e r t i l e l a n d , r i c h i n m i l k and h o n e y . The g r a s s i s g r e e n a l l y e a r r o u n d so t h a t t h e r e i s no n e e d t o mow h a y f o r t h e w i n t e r o r b u i l d s t a b l e s f o r c a t t l e . The c o u n t r y i s f r e e f r o m s n a k e s and p o i s o n o u s i n s e c t s a nd t h e l e a v e s o f a c e r t a i n t r e e when s o a k e d i n w a t e r w i l l c u r e s n a k e b i t e . I n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , G i r a l d u s C a m b r e n s i s adds t o t h e m a r v e l o u s t a l e s a b o u t I r e l a n d i n h i s t r a v e l book a c c o u n t o f an I s l a n d o f t h e L i v i n g i n N o r t h e r n M u n s t e r w h e r e nobody d i e s . A f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c c o u n t o f I r e l a n d e m p h a s i s e s , as does B e d e ' s , t h e f e r t i l i t y o f I r e l a n d , t h e t e m p e r a t e c l i m a t e , and t h e m a g i c a l p r o p e r t y o f t h e s o i l , 22 w h i c h c o u n t e r a c t s p o i s o n s . T hese d e s c r i p t i o n s o f I r e l a n d i n t e r m s o f t h e m a r v e l o u s may owe s o m e t h i n g t o t h e t a l e s i n C e l t i c f o l k l o r e o f a h a p p y " o t h e r w o r l d . " The I s l a n d o f t h e L i v i n g d e s c r i b e d by t h e W e l s h c h r o n i c l e r r e c a l l s Mag M e l l , t h e L a n d o f t h e L i v i n g b e n e a t h a f a i r y mound. 21 C i t e d by B o a s , p . 169. 2 2 I b i d . . p p . 1 6 9 - 1 7 1 . 20 I n The A d v e n t u r e s o f C o n n l a t h e F a i r ( e i g h t h c e n t u r y ) 2 3 a f a i r y woman summons C o n n l a t o t h i s l a n d where t h e r e i s no d e a t h , b u t a l w a y s y o u t h , b e a u t y and l i f e . A n d i t i s , m o r e o v e r , a l a n d where o n l y women and m a i d e n s d w e l l . C o m a e ' s A d v e n t u r e s i n t h e L a n d 2 A o f P r o m i s e r e p e a t s t h e theme o f t i m e l e s s n e s s , n o t i n a C e l t i c m a i d e n l a n d b u t i n a l a n d o f w o n d e r f u l f e r t i l i t y and a b u n d a n c e . A w a r r i o r comes f r o m a l a n d where t h e r e i s n e i t h e r age n o r d e c a y , s a d n e s s n o r h a t r e d . He g i v e s Cormac a m u s i c a l b r a n c h o f s i l v e r w i t h t h r e e g o l d e n a p p l e s on i t , and t h e m u s i c o f t h i s b r a n c h h a s t h e p o w e r t o b a n i s h a l l s o r r o w . Cormac f i n d s t h e w a r r i o r ' s l a n d g u a r d e d by a f o r t r e s s h i d d e n i n a m i s t . W i t h i n a n o t h e r s t r o n g -h o l d i s a s h i n i n g f o u n t a i n w i t h f i v e s t r e a m s f l o w i n g o u t o f i t , and a b a t h i n g p o o l h e a t e d by s t o n e s w h i c h p u t t h e m s e l v e s i n and ou t o f t h e w a t e r . The f i e l d p l o u g h s , h a r r o w s , sows and r e a p s i t s e l f and t h e amount o f t h e c r o p n e v e r d i m i n i s h e s . S e v e n s h e e p and s e v e n cows s u p p l y a l l t h e w o o l and m i l k n e e d e d f o r t h e p e o p l e . T h i s i s t h e L a n d o f P r o m i s e where Manannan, s o n o f L i r , i s k i n g . 25 The Voyage o f B r a n g a t h e r s t o g e t h e r a l l t h e s e m o t i f s and adds a C h r i s t i a n e l e m e n t . A woman f r o m unknown l a n d s s i n g s t o B r a n o f a d i s t a n t i s l e " a r o u n d w h i c h s e a - h o r s e s g l i s t e n " ( p . 5&9)i H e r e w a i l i n g and t r e a c h e r y , s i c k n e s s and d e a t h a r e unknown and t h e r e a r e "many t h o u s a n d s o f v a r i e g a t e d women" ( p . 590). She 23 - ^ A n c i e n t I r i s h T a l e s , e d . Tom P e e t e C r o s s and C l a r k H a r r i s S l o v e r (Mew Y o r k , 1936), p p . 488-49O. 2 4 I b i d . . p p . 503-507. 2 5 I b i d . . p p . 588-594. 21 p r o p h e s i e s t h e c o m i n g o f a s a v i o u r o f humble b i r t h * B r a n s a i l s i n s e a r c h o f t h i s l a n d and i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s w a n d e r i n g s i s met by Manannan who comes t o h i m i n a c h a r i o t o v e r t h e s e a * He a l s o s i n g s t o B r a n o f t h i s l a n d where " r i v e r s p o u r f o r t h s t r e a m s o f honey'* and ' ' s p e c k l e d s a l m o n l e a p f r o m t h e womb/of t h e w h i t e s e a " ( p * 5 9 2 ) . B r a n f i n d s t h e i s l a n d and p a s s e s many y e a r s t h e r e and t h e y e a r s p a s s as one* A d i s t i n c t i o n was made i n t h e M i d d l e Ages b e t w e e n t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e t o t h e e a s t and t h e F o r t u n a t e I s l a n d s t o t h e 26 w e s t * " But p a r a d i s e l i t e r a t u r e does n o t c l a s s i f y i t s e l f n e a t l y i n t o one o r t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r y * C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f and pag a n l e g e n d c o l o u r one a n o t h e r * S t * B r e n d a n s a i l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n t o t h e e a s t i n s e a r c h o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , b u t he f i n d s i t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e pa g a n C e l t i c t r a d i -t i o n b e y o n d a m i s t * The s w o r d h a n g i n g above t h e g a t e r e c a l l s t h e f l a m i n g s w o r d o v e r t h e e a s t e r n g a t e o f Eden " w h i c h t u r n e d e v e r y way, t o keep t h e way o f t h e t r e e o f l i f e " (Gen* i i i . 2 4 ) , b u t t h e d r a g o n w h i c h a l s o g u a r d s t h e g a t e b e l o n g s more t o f o l k -l o r e t h a n t o C h r i s t i a n s t o r y * The Voyage o f B r a n m i n g l e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a gan n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s — t h e f a i r y m e s s e n g e r , t h e s e a g o d , t h e m a g i c b r a n c h , t h e i s l a n d o f w o m e n — w i t h t h e 27 C h r i s t i a n i d e a s o f g r e e d , l u s t , s i n and t h e w o n d e r f u l b i r t h * -I t i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o c l a s s i f y t h e p a r a d i s e l e g e n d s 26 P a t c h , p p , 144-145* 27 C r o s s and S l o v e r , p* 588* 22 s t r i c t l y a c c o r d i n g t o one o r t h e o t h e r t r a d i t i o n . The C o kaygne p o e t , h o w e v e r , w o u l d h a v e us keep t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i n m i n d . I n t h e t a l e s o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e t h e e m p h a s i s i s on s p i r i t u a l j o y and p e r f e c t i o n . By c o n t r a s t , t h e p a g a n w e s t e r n p a r a d i s e s t r e s s e s t h e f e l i c i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l l i f e i n a b o u n t e o u s l a n d and t h e themes o f e v e r l a s t i n g y o u t h , t i m e l e s s n e s s and t h e m a g i c a l c u r e . T h i s , t h e n , i s t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e poem. Now t h a t we know what s o r t o f p l a c e i s t h e e a s t e r n e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e a n d what s o r t o f l a n d s l i e w b i w e s t s p a y n g n e " we s e e what t h e l i t e r a r y j o k e i s a b o u t . What i s t h e r e i n d e e d i n p a r a d i s e b u t g r a s s and f l o w e r s and g r e e n b o u g h s ? We a r e r e a d y t o l i s t e n t o t h e p o e t make game o f a v e r y o l d and r e s p e c t e d C h r i s t i a n t r a d i -t i o n . We a r e r e a d y t o meet t h e s a t i r i s t and w a t c h h i m a t w o r k . 23 C h a p t e r I I THE COKAYGNE POET IN A BURLESQUE TRADITION Who was t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t ? The m a n u s c r i p t and t h e poem i t s e l f p r o v i d e a f e w s u g g e s t i v e d e t a i l s . The L a t i n and E n g l i s h p i e c e s i n MS. H a r l e y 913 ( t h e K i l d a r e MS.) were "composed ^ p r o b a b l y i n o r a b o u t t h e Abbey o f K i l d a r e i n I r e l a n d , by e m i -[ g r a n t s f r o m S o u t h e r n o r S o u t h - W e s t e r n E n g l a n d . " * The poem s a t i r i z e s the white and g r e y monks ( 5 2 ) , and D r . C a r l e t o n Brown / c o n j e c t u r e s that the p o e t was a F r a n c i s c a n f r i a r a t t a c k i n g Vthe C i s t e r c i a n s (the "white and g r e y monks" was an a c c e p t e d d e s i g n a t i o n f o r the C i s t e r c i a n s ) . But these c l u e s do n o t r e a l l y make t h e p o e t l e s s anonymous. H i s i d e n t i t y w o u l d be b e t t e r r e v e a l e d i f s o m e t h i n g a b o u t h i s l i t e r a r y m i l i e u were known. We w o u l d l i k e t o know h i s name; b u t f a i l i n g an answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n we w i l l a s k i n s t e a d , " I n whose company does he b e l o n g ? " O t h e r s a t i r i s t s b e f o r e h i m h a d w r i t t e n i n t h e same v e i n , e m p l o y i n g l i t e r a r y p a r o d y t o make f u n o f wonder t a l e s and o l d myths and s o m e t i m e s , m o r e o v e r , e m p l o y i n g t h e same a b s u r d f a n -t a s i e s . L u c i a n was one o f t h e s e , and b e f o r e h i m t h e G r e e k p o e t s o f t h e O l d Comedy. A t w e l f t h c e n t u r y C e l t i c s t o r y t e l l e r h a s g i v e n us t h e l i k e n e s s o f one A n i e r M a c C o n g l i n n e and r e p e a t e d h i s 1 W e l l s , p . 2 2 8 . 2 C i t e d by R o b b i n s , " A u t h o r s o f M i d d l e E n g l i s h R e l i g i o u s L y r i c s , " J EGP, X X X I X (1940), 235. 24 s a t i r i c v e r s e s a b o u t an I r i s h C o k a y g n e . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Co k a y g n e p o e t w i l l emerge as we s e t f o r t h a n a l o g o u s l i n e s f r o m G r e e k and C e l t i c l i t e r a t u r e and l e a r n s o m e t h i n g o f t h e s a t i r i s t s who w r o t e t h e s e l i n e s . E x p l o r i n g h i s l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s f u r t h e r we s h a l l f i n d t h a t he h a s s o m e t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e s k e p t i c a l and p a g a n s p i r i t o f t h e g o l i a r d i c p o e t s who t o o k i r r e v e r e n t p a r o d y as t h e i r means o f s a t i r i z i n g t h e a b u s e s o f t h e C h u r c h . L i k e t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t , t h e G r e e k p o e t s o f t h e O l d Comedy made f u n o f wonder t a l e s . I n t h e A t h e n s o f t h e f i f t h and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s t h e i d y l l i c d a y - d r e a m s o f a g o l d e n age s u c h as H e s i o d h a d d e s c r i b e d were g i v i n g way t o a v i s i o n o f p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e . I n s t e a d o f i n d u l g i n g i n d a y - d r e a m s about t h e mythical Utopias d e p e n d e n t on t h e b o u n t y o f t h e g o d s , men were conceiving i d e a l s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h t h e g o o d o f a l l w o u l d be a c h i e v e d by 3 i m a g i n a t i v e p l a n n i n g . The o l d myths abo u t t h e g o l d e n r a c e o f men who l i v e d i n t h e t i m e o f K r o n o s were f a l l i n g i n t o d i s r e p u t e . K r o n o s h i m s e l f h a d become a f i g u r e o f f u n , a d e i t y whom A r i s t o -p h a n e s i n h i s p l a y s t r e a t s w i t h c o n t e m p t . 4 H e n c e f o r t h t h e s t o r i e s a b o u t men who l i v e d l i k e gods and e n j o y e d t h e b o u n t e o u s e a r t h i n p e a c e w o u l d be u s e d t o embody new ho p e s f o r a b e t t e r s o c i e t y . But t h e y w o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e G r e e k p l a y w r i g h t s w i t h H. C. B a l d r y , A n c i e n t U t o p i a s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 1 1 . I b i d . 25 m a t e r i a l f o r c o m i c p a r o d y . A p a r o d y o f t h e g o l d e n age a p p e a r s t o h a v e been p a r t o f t h e s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f t h e p o e t s o f t h e O l d Comedy. None o f t h e i r p l a y s a r e e x t a n t , b u t A t h e n a e u s , t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y G r e e k w r i t e r , h a s r e c o r d e d i n The D e i p n o s o p h i s t s f r a g m e n t s o f t h e o l d c o m e d i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n b u r l e s q u e s o f t h e m y t h i c a l g o l d e n a g e . ^ I n one s e c t i o n o f t h i s s y m p o s i u m t h e d i n e r s d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f s l a v e r y . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n one o f them d e l i v e r s a h a r a n g u e t o p r o v e t h a t i n p r i m i t i v e t i m e s no use was made o f s l a v e s , and h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f p a s s a g e s q u o t e d f r o m P h e r e c r a t e s , T e l e c l e i d e s and o t h e r p o e t s o f t h e O l d Comedy. I n The M i n e r s P h e r e c r a t e s d e s c r i b e s a w o n d e r l a n d where w . • • r o a s t t h r u s h e s , d r e s s e d f o r a r e c h a u f f e . f l e w r o u n d o u r mouths e n t r e a t i n g us t o s w a l l o w them as we l a y s t r e t c h e d among 7 t h e m y r t l e s and anemones.** The C o kaygne p o e t d e s c r i b e s an abbey where **pe l e u e r o k e s , p a t bep c u p , / l i ^ t i p adun t o m a n - i s mup, / i d i 3 t i n s t u . . •" ( 1 0 7 - 1 0 9 ) . The r e s e m b l a n c e b etween t h e two p a s s a g e s i s s t r i k i n g . P h e r e c r a t e s c o n t i n u e s i n t h i s b u r -l e s q u e v e i n , l e a v i n g no d o u b t t h a t t h e c o m i c f a n t a s i e s o f t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t h a d b een u s e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f p a r o d y some 1800 5 F o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s e p a r o d i e s s e e a l s o A r t h u r L o v e j o y and G eorge B o a s , P r i m i t i v i s m and B e l a t e d I d e a s i n A n t i q u i t y i n C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e H i s t o r y o f P r i m i t i v i s m ( B a l t i m o r e , 1935 ) r p p . 3 8 - 3 9 ; P a t c h , pp» 18 - 2 2 ; E r w i n Rohde, P e r g r i e c h i s c h e Roman  un d s e i n e V o r l a ' u f e r ( H i l d e s h e i m , [i960]), p p . 2 0 6 - 2 0 9 , n o t e 4 . T r a n s . C h a r l e s B u r t o n G u l i c k , L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , I I I ( L o n d o n , 1929), 2 0 3 - 2 1 3 . 7 I b i d . . p. 2 0 9 . 26 y e a r s b e f o r e : A n d t h e a p p l e s l The f a i r e s t o f t h e f a i r t o s e e h u n g o v e r o u r h e a d s , t h o u g h t h e r e was n o t h i n g on w h i c h t h e y grew*, G i r l s i n s i l k s h a w l s , j u s t r e a c h i n g t h e f l o w e r o f y o u t h , and s h o r n o f t h e h a i r on t h e i r b o d i e s , drew t h r o u g h a f u n n e l f u l l c u p s o f r e d w i n e w i t h f i n e b o u q u e t f o r a l l who w i s h e d t o d r i n k . And w h e n e v e r one h a d e a t e n o r d r u n k o f t h e s e t h i n g s , s t r a i g h t w a y t h e r e came f o r t h o nce more t w i c e as much again.® The abbey o f C o k a y g n e w i t h i t s w a l l s o f p a s t i e s and p i n n a c l e s o f " f a t p o d i n g e s " h a s an e a r l y c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e J C o k a y g n e o f P h e r e c r a t e s . I n The P e r s i a n s we r e a d : R i v e r s o f b l a c k b r o t h , g u s h i n g f o r t h c o p i o u s l y o f t h e i r own a c c o r d o v e r t h e c r o s s - r o a d s w i t h r i c h s p i c e - c a k e s and b a r l e y - c a k e s o f f i n e s t m e a l , w i l l f l o w f r o m t h e s p r i n g s o f P l u t u s a l l r e a d y t o be l a d l e d up. And Zeus w i l l r a i n smoky w i n e and d r e n c h y o u r t i l e s l i k e a b a t h -man; and f r o m t h e r o o f s c o n d u i t s o f g r a p e s , i n company w i t h c h e e s e - c a k e s , s t u f f e d w i t h ch 66S @ y vrx 11 draw o f f r i l l s o f h o t p e a s e - p o r r i d g e and p o l e n t a made o f l i l i e s a n d anemones. The t r e e s on t h e m o u n t a i n s w i l l p u t f o r t h l e a v e s o f k i d s * g u t s , t e n d e r c u t t l e - f i s h , and b o i l e d t h r u s h e s . 9 A p a s s a g e f r o m The A m p h i c t y o n s by T e l e c l e i d e s i s v e r y / s i m i l a r , and t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e m o t i f s i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s -\ t e n c e o f a b u r l e s q u e f o r m u l a w h i c h t h e p l a y w r i g h t s e m p l o y e d : E v e r y t o r r e n t f l o w e d w i t h w i n e , b a r l e y - c a k e s s t r o v e w i t h wheat l o a v e s f o r men's l i p s , b e s e e c h i n g t h a t t h e y be s w a l l o w e d i f men l o v e d t h e w h i t e s t . F i s h e s w o u l d come t o t h e h o u s e and b a k e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n s e r v e t h e m s e l v e s on t h e t a b l e s . A r i v e r o f b r o t h . I b i d . , p p . 2 0 9 - 2 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 1 1 . 27 w h i r l i n g h o t s l i c e s o f meat,, w o u l d f l o w by t h e c o u c h e s ; c o n d u i t s f u l l o f p i q u a n t s a u c e s f o r t h e meat were c l o s e a t h a n d f o r t h e a s k i n g , so t h a t t h e r e was p l e n t y f o r m o i s t e n i n g a m o u t h f u l and s w a l l o w i n g i t t e n d e r . On d i s h e s t h e r e w o u l d be h o n e y - c a k e s a l l s p r i n k l e d w i t h s p i c e s , and r o a s t t h r u s h e s s e r v e d up w i t h , m i l k - c a k e s were f l y i n g i n t o t h e g u l l e t . The f l a t - c a k e s j o s t l e d e a c h o t h e r a t t h e j a w s and s e t up a r a c k e t , t h e s l a v e s w o u l d s h o o t d i c e w i t h s l i c e s o f p a u n c h and t i d - b i t s . Men were f a t i n t h o s e d a y s and e v e r y b i t m i g h t y g i a n t s . 1 0 A t h e n a e u s q u o t e s a l s o f r o m The S i r e n s o f N i c o p h o n and The T h u r i o - P e r s i a n s o f M e t a g e n e s ; f r o m The P l u t u s e s o f C r a t i n u s and t h e W i l d A n i m a l s o f C r a t e s . S e v e n p l a y w r i g h t s he m e n t i o n s i n a l l , names o b s c u r e enough now, b u t w e l l - k n o w n i n t h e i r day as c o m p e t i t o r s at t h e f e s t i v a l s o f D i o n y s u s . ^ What a r e now mere e s o t e r i c f r a g m e n t s were i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d o n c e s p o k e n b e f o r e an a p p r e c i a t i v e h o l i d a y c r o w d a t t h e a n n u a l s p r i n g t i m e D i o n y s i a . F i v e h u n d r e d y e a r s l a t e r , L u c i a n b u r l e s q u e s i n A T r u e 12 S t o r y t h e w o n d e r s o f t h e g o l d e n a g e . "• • . E v e r y t h i n g i n my s t o r y , " s a y s L u c i a n , " i s a more o r l e s s c o m i c a l p a r o d y o f one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e p o e t s , h i s t o r i a n s and p h i l o s o p h e r s o f o l d , 13 who h a v e w r i t t e n much t h a t smacks o f m i r a c l e s and f a b l e s . " I a m b u l u s i s one o f t h e s e , and no d o u b t L u c i a n h a s i n m i n d h i s t a l e o f a v o y a g e i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n s e a s where he f o u n d t h e I s l a n d s 1 G I b i d . , p p . 2 0 5 - 2 0 7 . 11 "Comedy," O x f o r d Companion t o C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , e d . S i r P a u l H a r v e y ( O x f o r d , 1959). 12 T r a n s . A. M. Harmon, L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , I ( L o n d o n , 1927), 2 4 7 - 3 5 7 . 1 3 I b i d . . p p . 2 4 9 - 2 5 1 . 28 o f t h e S u n . As f o r Homer, he i s t h e " g u i d e and i n s t r u c t o r 15 i n t h i s s o r t o f c h a r l a t a n r y . " And so L u c i a n s e t s o u t , " o n c e upon a t i m e , " f r o m t h e P i l l a r s o f H e r c u l e s and s a i l s i n a t r i m l i t t l e v e s s e l i n t o t h e w e s t e r n o c e a n w h e r e , as we h a v e s e e n , t h e a n c i e n t s t h o u g h t A t l a n t i s and t h e I s l e s o f t h e B l e s t a n d a l l t h o s e o t h e r w o n d e r f u l l a n d s and p e o p l e t o b e . He p u t s i n a t one o f t h e I s l e s o f t h e B l e s t and d i s c o v e r s i t t o be i n h a b i t e d by shadows o f men w i t h s h a p e b u t no s u b s t a n c e , who, i n c o r p o r e a l as t h e y a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s e n j o y t h e c o m b i n e d l u x u r i e s and s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s o f a g r e a t c i t y and r u r a l r e t r e a t : The c i t y i t s e l f i s a l l o f g o l d and t h e w a l l a r o u n d i t o f e m e r a l d . I t h a s s e v e n g a t e s , a l l o f s i n g l e p l a n k s o f c i n n a m o n . The f o u n d a -t i o n s o f t h e c i t y a n d t h e g r o u n d w i t h i n i t s w a l l s a r e i v o r y . T h e r e a r e t e m p l e s o f a l l t h e g o d s , b u i l t o f b e r y l , and i n them g r e a t m o n o l i t h i c a l t a r s o f a m e t h y s t , on w h i c h t h e y make t h e i r g r e a t b u r n t - o f f e r i n g s . A r o u n d t h e c i t y r u n s a r i v e r o f f i n e s t m y r r h , a h u n d r e d r o y a l c u b i t s w i d e and f i v e d e e p , so t h a t one can swim i n i t com-f o r t a b l y . F o r b a t h s t h e y h a v e l a r g e h o u s e s o f g l a s s , warmed by b u r n i n g c i n n a m o n ; i n s t e a d o f w a t e r t h e r e i s h o t dew i n t u b s . F o r c l o t h i n g t h e y use d e l i c a t e p u r p l e s p i d e r - w e b s . • • . M o r e -o v e r , t h e y a r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h o n l y one s e a s o n o f t h e y e a r , f o r i t i s a l w a y s s p r i n g t h e r e and t h e o n l y w i n d t h a t b l o w s t h e r e i s Z e p h y r . The c o u n t r y abounds i n f l o w e r s and p l a n t s o f a l l k i n d s , c u l t i v a t e d and o t h e r w i s e . The g r a p e - v i n e s y i e l d t w e l v e v i n t a g e s a y e a r , b e a r i n g e v e r y month; t h e p o m e g r a n a t e s , a p p l e s and o t h e r f r u i t - t r e e s w ere s a i d t o b e a r t h i r t e e n t i m e s a y e a r , f o r i n one m onth, t h e i r M i n o a n , t h e y b e a r t w i c e . I n -s t e a d o f w h e a t - e a r s , l o a v e s o f b r e a d a l l b a k e d g r o w on t h e t o p s o f t h e h a l m s , so t h a t t h e y l o o k l i k e mushrooms. I n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f t h e 1 4 D i o d o r u s o f S i c i l y , t r a n s . C. H. O l d f a t h e r , L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y I I ( L o n d o n , 1953)# 65-83, p a s s i m . 1 5 L u c i a n I , 251. 29 c i t y t h e r e a r e t h r e e h u n d r e d s i x t y - f i v e s p r i n g s o f w a t e r , as many o f h o n e y , f i v e h u n d r e d o f m y r r h — m u c h s m a l l e r , h o w e v e r , — s e v e n r i v e r s o f m i l k and e i g h t o f wine.l° The m o c k e r y o f L u c i a n f i n d s a l a t e r echo i n t h e C e l t i c V i s i o n o f M a c C o n g l i n n e . a m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o r 17 e a r l i e r * I n t h i s humorous p r o s e t a l e we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h two s a t i r i s t s — t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a r r a t o r who i s r e t e l l i n g t h e o l d C e l t i c t a l e , and A n i e r M a c C o n g l i n n e , t h e p o e t t o whom t h e v i s i o n i n t h e t a l e i s a s c r i b e d . The s t o r y t e l l s how A n i e r M a c C o n g l i n n e , a w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r , goes on a j o u r n e y i n t o C o r k . He i s a b o u t t o be c r u c i f i e d f o r r e v i l i n g t h e C h u r c h w i t h some v e r s e s he h a s composed a b o u t t h e f o o d o f t h e abbey o f C o r k . But an a n g e l o f God m a n i f e s t s a v i s i o n t o h i m i n w h i c h he d i s c o v e r s how he may r i d t h e k i n g o f t h e demon o f g l u t t o n y w h i c h a f f l i c t s h i m . When he t e l l s t h e monks o f h i s v i s i o n t h e y g i v e h i m r e s -p i t e so t h a t he may come b e f o r e t h e k i n g and work h i s c u r e . T h i s v i s i o n i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , f o r i t i s an a n a l o g u e t o The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e . M a c C o n g l i n n e * s v i s i o n i s o f a j o u r n e y t o a w o n d e r l a n d i n a c o r a c l e o f l a r d . H e r e a r e some o f t h e v e r s e s : The f o r t we r e a c h e d was b e a u t i f u l , W i t h w o r k s o f c u s t a r d s t h i c k . B e y o n d t h e l o c h . l 6 I b i d . , p p . 313-317. 17 A i s l i n g e M e i c C o n g l i n n e : The V i s i o n o f M a c C o n g l i n n e . A / M i d d l e - I r i s h Wonder T a l e , e d . and t r a n s . Kuno M e y e r , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W i l h e l m W o l l n e r ( L o n d o n , 1892). C i t a t i o n s f r o m t h e t a l e i n my t e x t a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n . A l s o p r i n t e d i n C r o s s and S l o v e r , p p . 551-587. 30 New b u t t e r was t h e b r i d g e i n f r o n t . The r u b b l e d y k e was w h e a t e n w h i t e . B a c on t h e p a l i s a d e . B e h i n d was a w i n e w e l l . B e e r and b r a g g e t i n s t r e a m s . E a c h f u l l p o o l t o t h e t a s t e . M a l t i n smooth wavy s e a . O v e r a l a r d - s p r i n g * s b r i n k F l o w e d t h r o u g h t h e f l o o r , A row o f f r a g r a n t a p p l e - t r e e s . An o r c h a r d i n i t s p i n k - t i p p e d b l o o m . B e t w e e n i t and t h e h i l l , A f o r e s t t a l l o f r e a l l e e k s . Of o n i o n s and o f c a r r o t s , s t o o d B e h i n d t h e h o u s e , ( P P . 36, 38). H e r e i s t h e C e l t i c c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e abbey o f C o k a y g n e , t h e w i t c h * s c o t t a g e and t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s , As t h e v i s i o n c o n t i n u e s we may h e a r e c h o e s o f t h e t a l e s o f t h e F i n n and U l s t e r c y c l e s i n w h i c h t h e f a i r y m e s s e n g e r comes f r o m t h e L a n d o f P r o m i s e and l u r e s a m o r t a l t o an i s l a n d m a i d e n l a n d where he i s c u r e d o f h i s s i c k n e s s . The e c h o e s come b a c k t o us d i s t o r t e d and what we h e a r i s a b u r l e s q u e o f t h e " o t h e r w o r l d " j o u r n e y , In h i s v i s i o n M a c C o n g l i n n e meets a m e s s e n g e r f r o m t h e F a i r y Mound o f E a t i n g who b r i n g s t h e w a r n i n g , " B e w a r e , l e s t t h e g r a v y drown y o u , " He s e t s s a i l i n a l i t t l e c o r a c l e o f b e e f - f a t (Cu C h u l a i n n i s t r a n s p o r t e d i n a c o r a c l e o f b r o n z e and C o n n l a t h e F a i r i n one o f c r y s t a l ) , a nd rows a c r o s s a l a k e o f m i l k and s e a s o f b r o t h t o t h e " o t h e r w o r l d " where a w i z a r d d o c t o r c u r e s h i m o f h i s g l u t t o n y . The c u r e i s t o e a t h u g e l y o f c h o i c e f o o d s s e r v e d by a b e a u t i f u l m a i d e n ( p p , 66-100), The s c e n e , c o m i c a l l y v o l u p t u o u s , r e c a l l s t h e w o n d e r l a n d o f P h e r e c r a t e s , 31 j>< The v e r s e s j u s t q u o t e d s u g g e s t a t onc e a f a r m l a n d C o k a y g n e . I n c o n t r a s t t o The L a n d o f Co k a y g n e w i t h i t s f i n e d a i n t i e s and r i c h e s , M a c C o n g l i n n e * s " o t h e r w o r l d " i s d e s c r i b e d e n t i r e l y i n te r m s o f f a r m p r o d u c e . B u t t e r , m i l k and c h e e s e p r e d o m i n a t e , and s u e t , b a c o n , l a r d , t r i p e a n d f l i t c h e s o f b o a r . Wheat, o a t s and b a r l e y a r e t h e c e r e a l s and t h e v e g e t a b l e s s u c h h o m e l y ones as l e e k s , o n i o n s , c a r r o t s and b o i l e d k a l e . W o l l n e r t a k e s t h i s as e v i d e n c e o f t h e p r i m i t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e l e g e n d and s u g g e s t s t h a t what we h a v e i n t h e M a c C o n g l i n n e v i s i o n i s t h e s o r t o f t a l e <?\ ' <* s h e p h e r d s and p e a s a n t s m i g h t t e l l o f t h e v a n i s h e d g o l d e n age o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . The E n g l i s h Cokaygne poem, he c o n c l u d e s , . i s e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t , f o r u n l i k e t h e C e l t i c t a l e i t h a s a Utopian theme, contrasting t h e m i s e r y o f r e a l i t y w i t h t h e h a p p i -18 n e s s o f a d r e a m l a n d . But i s i t n o t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e E n g l i s h poem r e p r e s e n t s t h e same l e g e n d o v e r l a i d by t h e a p p u r t e n a n c e s o f l a t e r c u l t u r e s and t h a t t h e l e g e n d b u r l e s q u e d i n M a c C o n g l i n n e 1 s v i s i o n i s a v e r y o l d and u n i q u e r e l i c p r e s e r v e d i n a way w h i c h shows t h e l o n g d i s t a n c e t h e C o k a y g n e theme h a s come t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i es ? In any c a s e , i n t h e C e l t i c t a l e t h e theme i s r e p e a t e d i n M a c C o n g l i n n e 1 s v i s i o n and i s u s e d i n a s a t i r i c way t o s a t i r i z e r o y a l g l u t t o n y . But who was M a c C o n g l i n n e ? H i s t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a r r a t o r t e l l s us t h a t he was a w o n d e r i n g s c h o l a r who d e c i d e d t o abandon h i s s t u d i e s and make a p o e t i c a l j o u r n e y ( p . 8 ) . B e f o r e 18 " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n The V i s i o n o f M a c C o n g l i n n e , e d . Me y e r , p p . x x x i i - x x x v i i . 32 he was t o come b e f o r e t h e k i n g , he d r e s s e d h i m s e l f as a g l e e m a n o r b u f f o o n : And as he came t o t h e v e r y m e e t i n g h o u s e where t h e h o s t s were g a t h e r i n g , he p u t on a s h o r t c l o a k and s h o r t g a r m e n t s : e a c h u p p e r g a r m e n t b e i n g s h o r t e r w i t h h i m , and e a c h l o w e r one b e i n g l o n g e r . I n t h i s w i s e he b e gan j u g g l i n g f o r t h e h o s t f r o m t h e f l o o r o f t h e r o y a l h o u s e , ( a t h i n g n o t f i t f o r an e c c l e s -i a s t i c ) a nd p r a c t i s i n g s a t i r e and b u f f o o n e r y and s i n g i n g s o n g s ; and i t h a s been s a i d t h a t t h e r e came n o t b e f o r e h i s t i m e , n o r s i n c e , one more r e n o w n e d i n t h e a r t s o f s a t i r e . ( p - 42). M a c C o r i g l i n n e , as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e n a r r a t o r , i s one o f t h o s e w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages who makes a l i v i n g by b e g g i n g and s i n g i n g v e r s e s and s o m e t i m e s p l a y i n g t h e h o u s e h o l d b u f f o o n . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e s t o r y t h a t he was a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e , f o r t h e n a r r a t o r t e l l s us t h a t he was c e l e b r a t e d i n a l a y a b o u t e i g h t famous p e r s o n s o f Armagh: I h e a r d o f e i g h t t o n i g h t I n Armagh a f t e r m i d n i g h t ; I p r o c l a i m them w i t h h o s t s o f d e e d s . T h e i r names a r e no s w eet s y m p h o n i e s . Comgan was t h e name o f t h e Two S m i t h s 1 s o n . Famous was he a f t e r t h e h u n t . C r i t a n was R u s t a n g ' s n o b l e s o n . I t was a f u l l - f i t t i n g name. s . . . a « a » e a » • . . « . < « « N e v e r - R e f u s e d was M a c C o n g l i n n e f s name. From t h e b r i n k o f t h e s w e e t - c r e s t e d Bann. (P« 6 ) . And so o n . The n a r r a t o r t h e n c o n t i n u e s : One o f t h e s e e i g h t , t h e n , was A n i e r M a c C o n g l i n n e , a famous s c h o l a r h e , w i t h a b u ndance o f k n o w l e d g e . The r e a s o n why he was c a l l e d A n i e r was b e c a u s e he w o u l d 33 s a t i r i s e and p r a i s e a l l . No w o n d e r , i n d e e d ; f o r t h e r e h a d n o t come b e f o r e h i m , and came n o t a f t e r h i m , one whose s a t i r e o r p r a i s e was h a r d e r t o b e a r , w h e r e f o r e he was c a l l e d A n e r a £i.e. N o n - r e f u s a l ] , f o r t h a t t h e r e was no r e f u s i n g h i m , ( p . 8). The n a r r a t o r o b v i o u s l y h e r e i n t e n d s a l i t t l e p a r o d y o f t h e s t y l e o f t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e , w h i c h s o m e t i m e s b e g i n s w i t h an e t y m o l o g y o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s name. What c o n c e r n s us more, how-e v e r , i s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r t h o u g h t t h a t M a c C o n g l i n n e a c t u a l l y l i v e d . The name o f M a c C o n g l i n n e a p p e a r s i n a t l e a s t one o t h e r p l a c e i n I r i s h l i t e r a t u r e , a poem i n w h i c h he i s m e n t i o n e d i n a l i s t o f s t u d e n t s a t Armagh: C r i t a n was M a c R u s t a i n g * s name, G a r b d a i r e was MacSamain's name, A i n d i a i r r was M a c C o n g l i n n e ' s --Many l a y s he made, 19 W o l l n e r , c i t i n g t h i s p a s s a g e , c o n c l u d e s t h a t " t h e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f M a c C o n g l i n n e , . ° seems t o h a v e been t h a t o f a 20 c l e r i c a l s t u d e n t , who was a l s o a p o e t , " a n d t h a t t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a r r a t o r , h i m s e l f a g l e e m a n , r e - c r e a t e s h i m i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r . The n a r r a t o r i s , m o r e o v e r , a t p a i n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y t o p r e s e n t h i m i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t . Summing up h i s e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s l a s t c o n j e c t u r e , W o l l n e r c o n c l u d e s , " S u c h a g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e v a g r a n t s t a t e c a n o n l y be c o n c e i v e d o f as p e n n e d i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f g l e e m e n o r v a g r a n t I b i d . , p , x l i I b i d , 34 21 s c h o l a r s , and as o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e i r c i r c l e . T h e r e may, h o w e v e r , be some b a s i s i n f a c t i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f M a c C o n g l i n n e , f o r E n i d W e l s f o r d p o i n t s o u t t h a t among t h e e i g h t famous p e r s o n s o f Armagh m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l a y , Comgan M a c - d a - C h e r d a i s known t o h a v e been a f o o l and p o e t o f t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , and C r i t a n , son o f R u s t a i n g , "seems t o 22 h a v e been a famous j e s t e r . " From t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f MacCon-g l i n n e i n t h e poem w i t h t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n n a g e s we may i n f e r , as M i s s W e l s f o r d seems t o , t h a t he was a s a t i r i c a l p o e t and b u f f o o n and t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s n o t f a r w r o n g i n so d e s c r i b i n g h i m . W h a t e v e r h i s o r i g i n s , M a c C o n g l i n n e e x i s t s now f o r us i n t h e l i k e n e s s g i v e n h i m by h i s n a r r a t o r ^ t h e l i k e n e s s o f a man who, as t h e W i z a r d D o c t o r i n t h e t a l e s a y s , h a s " w i t b o t h t o c e n s u r e and t o p r a i s e t h e h e a r t h o f a w e l l - a p p o i n t e d , g e n t l e , f i n e , m i r t h f u l h o u s e w i t h a mead-hall'.* ( p . 8 6 ) . We h a v e been c o n c e r n e d t h u s f a r w i t h M a c C o n g l i n n e , t h e w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r who r e c i t e s a . c o m i c v i s i o n about a l a n d o f p l e n t y . We t u r n now t o t h e n a r r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k i n w h i c h t h e v i s i o n i s s e t and f i n d i n t h a t f r a m e w o r k s a t i r i c e l e m e n t s w h i c h a r e a n a l o g o u s t o t h o s e i n The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h i s t w e l f t h c e n t u r y v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y w i t h a s h o r t e r , p l a i n e r 21 I b i d . , p . x l i v . 22 The F o o l ; H i s S o c i a l and L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y (New Y o r k , [ 1 9 3 5 ] ) , P. 9 2 . 35 23 one by a l a t e r a u t h o r r e v e a l s o u r n a r r a t o r as an i r r e p r e s s i b l e s a t i r i s t who t a k e s m o n k i s h and r o y a l g l u t t o n y and h a g i o g r a p h i c w r i t i n g f o r t h e s p e c i a l t a r g e t s o f h i s w i t . I n a s t o r y w h i c h d e a l s w i t h a q u a r r e l b e t w e e n t h e monks o f C o r k a nd a w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r , t h e n a r r a t o r , t a k e s e v e r y o p p o r -25 t u n i t y t o p r o l o n g t h e q u a r r e l a n d abuse t h e c l e r g y . He a l l o w s M a c C o n g l i n n e t o s l a n d e r t h e a b b o t M a n c h i n t o h i s f a c e w i t h a s c u r r i l o u s f o o d p e d i g r e e : Then i t was t h a t he t r a c e d M a n c h i n up t o Adam, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e d i g r e e o f f o o d , s a y i n g : " B l e s s u s , 0 c l e r i c , famous p i l l a r o f l e a r n i n g . Son o f h o n e y - b a g , s o n o f j u i c e , s o n o f l a r d . S o n o f s t i r a b o u t , s o n o f p o t t a g e , s o n o f f a i r s p e c k l e d f r u i t - c l u s t e r s . Son o f smooth c l u s t e r i n g c r e a m , s o n o f b u t t e r - m i l k , son o f c u r d s . S o n o f b e e r ( g l o r y o f l i q u o r s ! ) , s o n o f p l e a s a n t b r a g g e t . Son o f t w i s t e d l e e k , son o f b a c o n , son o f b u t t e r . Son o f f u l l - f a t s a u s a g e , s o n o f p u r e new m i l k , • • ( p . 32). I n t h e s h o r t e r v e r s i o n M a c C o n g l i n n e a d d r e s s e s t h e s e l i n e s t o t h e W i z a r d D o c t o r i n t h e v i s i o n w i t h q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t e n t ( p . 1 5 2 ) . A t a n o t h e r p o i n t i n t h e s t o r y when t h e demon o f g l u t t o n y , e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e t h r o a t o f K i n g C a t h a l , s i t s on t h e r o o f t r e e o f t h e b u r n i n g h o u s e , M a c C o n g l i n n e t a u n t s t h e monks w i t h a n o t h e r j i b e a t m o n k i s h g l u t t o n y : T W e l l , now, ye men o f M u n s t e r , . . . 23 • ^ S u p p l i e d i n t r a n s l a t i o n by M e y e r , p p . 148-155 . F o r a com p a r i s o n o f t h e two v e r s i o n s and an a s s e s s m e n t o f how t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a r r a t o r h a s e m b e l l i s h e d t h e s t o r y , s e e W o l l n e r , p p . x i v - x x i x . ^"Cross a nd S l o v e r , p . 551. 25 W o l l n e r , p p . x l i i i - x l i v . 36 y o n d e r i s y o u r f r i e n d * S h u t y o u r mouths t h a t I may s p e a k w i t h t h a t • * • u n w o r s h i p f u l monk* (p» IO4)* T h a t p a r t o f t h e s t o r y w h i c h d e a l s w i t h K i n g C a t h a l ' s u n n a t u r a l c r a v i n g f o r f o o d p r o v i d e s t h e n a r r a t o r w i t h an o p p o r -t u n i t y f o r a h i t a t r o y a l l u x u r y * He d w e l l s c o m i c a l l y on t h e two w h e a t e n c a k e s a nd t h e s l i c e o f o l d b a c o n w i t h w h i c h t h e p o o r s c h o l a r s t a r t s h i s j o u r n e y and t h e " t e n d e r c o r n e d - b e e f , and f u l l -f l e s h e d w e t h e r , and h o n e y i n t h e comb, and E n g l i s h s a l t on a b e a u t i f u l p o l i s h e d d i s h o f w h i t e s i l v e r " on w h i c h he f e a s t s i n t h e c o u r t o f K i n g C a t h a l ( p p , 8, 2 2 , 6 0 ) * F i n a l l y , t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a r r a t o r p l a y s w i t h g r e a t e n j o y m e n t on t h e theme o f M a c C o n g l i n n e , t h e m a r t y r s u f f e r i n g p u n i s h m e n t a t t h e h a n d s o f t h e monks o f C o r k , a nd p a r o d i e s h i s m a r t y r d o m i n t h e b e s t h a g i o g r a p h i c s t y l e : * * * I n t h a t h o u r M a c C o n g l i n n e was t a k e n t o t h e F o x e s ' Wood, and an axe was p u t i n h i s h a n d , h i s g u a r d b e i n g a b o u t h i m * He h i m s e l f c u t h i s p a s s i o n - t r e e , a n d b o r e i t on h i s b a c k t o t h e g r e e n o f C o r k * He h i m s e l f f i x e d t h e t r e e * A n d t h e t i m e h a d o u t r u n t h e c l o s e o f v e s p e r s , and t h e one r e s o l v e t h e y h a d was t o c r u c i f y h i m t h e r e and t h e n * [ M a c C o n g l i n n e demands a f i n e m e a l b e f o r e / g o i n g t o meet h i s d e a t h * T h i s t h e a b b o t M a n c h i n r e f u s e s , b u t g i v e s h i m a s h o r t r e s p i t e ] : "* * , Thy s c a n t y c l o t h i n g s h a l l be s t r i p p e d o f f thee> a nd t h o u s h a l t be t i e d t o y o n d e r p i l l a r -s t o n e , f o r a f o r e - t o r t u r e b e f o r e t h e g r e a t t o r t u r e t o m o r r o w * " • •a-***********,*, •«•*•• They [ t h e a b b o t a nd h i s monks] t u r n e d away home • • • • But t h e y l e f t t h a t s a g e t o f a s t , , who came, h a v i n g been s e n t by God and t h e L o r d f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f C a t h a l M a c F i n g u i n e and 37 t h e men o f M u n s t e r , and t h e w h o l e S o u t h e r n H a l f t o b o o t . The j u s t i c e o f t h e l a w was n o t g r a n t e d h i m . He r e m a i n e d t h e r e u n t i l m i d n i g h t . Then an a n g e l o f God came t o h i m on t h e p i l l a r - s t o n e , a n d b egan t o m a n i f e s t t h e v i s i o n u n t o h i m . ( p p . 28-30). By c o n t r a s t , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a r t o f t h e s h o r t e r v e r s i o n r e a d s s i m p l y and b r i e f l y : "On t h e morrow he was t a k e n t o a g a t h e r i n g o f t h e men o f M u n s t e r t o be c r u c i f i e d . C a t h a l and t h e n o b l e s o f M u n s t e r were t h e r e . C [ a t h a l ] s a i d he w o u l d n o t c r u c i f y a b a r d , b u t t h e c l e r i c s m i g h t do i t t h e m s e l v e s , f o r i t was t h e y t h a t knew t h e w r o n g he h a d done ( p . 1 4 9 ) * " I n The V i s i o n o f M a c C o n g l i n n e . t h e n , we h a v e t h e a n t i -c l e r i c a l s a t i r e o f a w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r who g i v e s us as h i s m i r r o r image a M a c C o n g l i n n e who composes c o m i c v e r s e s a b o u t an " o t h e r w o r l d " j o u r n e y . The Co k a y g n e p o e t w r o t e i n t h e same v e i n . He t o o p a r o d i e d r e l i g i o u s w r i t i n g s , s a t i r i z e d t h e g l u t t o n y o f p r i v i l e g e d p e o p l e a n d b u r l e s q u e d t h e i d e a o f t h e " o t h e r w o r l d . " The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e Cokaygne p o e t was a g o l i a r d i c c l e r k h a s 26 a l r e a d y been made, and t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e f o r s u p p o s i n g t h a t he was i n d e e d one o f t h o s e who e a r n e d t h e c e n s u r e o f t h e C h u r c h C o u n c i l s f o r " n i g h t l y d i v a g a t i o n , w i t h drums, f l u t e s , and s i n g i n g " 27 and f o r " w e a r i n g r e d , g r e e n , y e l l o w , and w h i t e h o s e . " The g o l i a r d s d e l i g h t e d i n p a r o d y i n g t h e s a c r e d o f f i c e s o f j t h e C h u r c h . A hymn i n p r a i s e o f t h e V i r g i n Mary becomes a hymn 2 6 W e l l s , p . 2 2 8 . 2 7 W a d d e l l , The W a n d e r i n g S c h o l a r s , p p . 2 8 2 , 2 8 7 . 38 i n p r a i s e o f w i n e , a nd t h e G o s p e l ' a c c o r d i n g t o S t . Mark becomes t h e P a s s i o n o f o u r L o r d t h e Pope o f t h e Romans a c c o r d i n g t o t h e G o l d a nd S i l v e r M a r k . T h e r e i s a G o r m a n d i z e r ' s Mass and a G a m b l e r ' s Mass t o t h e g o d D e c i u s . P r a y e r s a r e a d d r e s s e d t o B a c c h u s i n The D r u n k a r d ' s Mass and " l e t us p r a y " becomes " l e t 28 us s i n g . " We may t a k e t h e i r r e v e r e n t d e l i g h t o f t h e g o l i a r d s i n p a r o d y as a s i g n o f t h e i r s k e p t i c a l s p i r i t . F o r what a r e t h e i r r e v e r e n t p a r o d i e s on t h e M a s s , t h e hymns and S c r i p t u r e s b u t an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n c r e d u l i t y o f t h e g o l i a r d s and t h e i r 29 d i s d a i n f o r C h u r c h d o c t r i n e and p r a c t i c e ? The p a r o d i s t w r i t i n g i n a b i d d i n g p r a y e r , " F o r o u r a b b o t : F a t , t h i c k , h a u g h t y and p u f f e d up w a s t t h o u t o u s " i s m a k i n g a m o c k e r y o f a t e x t f r o m 30 D e u t e r o n o m y * A p a r o d y o f a E u c h a r i s t hymn d e f i l e s one o f 31 t h e h o l i e s t s a c r a m e n t s o f t h e C h u r c h . T h i s i r o n i c m o c k e r y i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e g o l i a r d s and o u r anonymous p o e t s h a r e s i n t h i s s k e p t i c i s m * The C h u r c h t h e o l o g i a n s h a d f o r c e n t u r i e s d i s c o u r s e d l e a r n e d l y on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e * I t s l o c a t i o n 32 and a t t r i b u t e s h a d e n g a g e d t h e i r s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n * Many r e l i g i o u s f o l k a n d l a y f o l k as w e l l h a d s e e n v i s i o n s and drea m e d 2 8 J * A* M a c C u l l o c h , M e d i e v a l F a i t h and F a b l e ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 2 8 0 - 2 8 3 * 2 9 I b i d * . p p . 231 and 2 8 0 . 3°Cited by M a c C u l l o c h , p.. 284. 3 1 I b i d . , p , 2 8 1 . 32 J B o a s , p p . 5 4 - 8 6 , p a s s i m . 39 dreams w h i c h were d u l y r e c o r d e d and made a p a r t o f t h e l e g e n d a r y 33 o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . The C o k a y g n e p o e t d i s m i s s e s t h e w h o l e v a s t s t r u c t u r e o f l e g e n d , v i s i o n and l e a r n e d s p e c u l a t i o n i n some two h u n d r e d l i n e s o f l i g h t v e r s e . He makes a m o c k e r y o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . One o f t h e g o l i a r d i c p a r o d i e s i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o us b e c a u s e i t c o n t a i n s a r e f e r e n c e t o C o k a y g n e . T h i s i s t h e G a m b l e r ' s Mass f o u n d i n t h e C a r m i n a B u r a n a ( t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) . I n t h e c l o s i n g l i n e s o f t h e Mass i s t h i s a n t i p h o n : I am t h e A b b o t o f C o c a i g n e , and my c o u n c i l i s w i t h t h e t o p e r s and my w i l l w i t h t h e s e c t o f D e c i u s ; and he who, i n t h e m o r n i n g , s e e k s me i n t h e t a v e r n w i l l go o u t n a k e d a t n i g h t , and t h u s , d e s p o i l e d o f h i s g a r m e n t , w i l l s i n g : W a f n a j WafnaJ What h a s t t h o u d o n e , most e v i l d i c e ? Thou h a s t t a k e n away a l l t h e j o y s o f my l i f e . The p a s s a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g o l i a r d s a d o p t e d C o k a y g n e as t h e i r own c o u n t r y and t h o u g h t o f t h e m s e l v e s as boon c o m p a n i o n s b e l o n g i n g i n t h a t l a n d . A l a t e r a l l u s i o n c o n n e c t i n g t h e w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r w i t h C o k a y g n e i s t o be f o u n d i n a f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y S p a n i s h m a n u s c r i p t w h i c h m e n t i o n s an e s c o l a r g o l o s o s companero ~ 35 de C u c a n a . The p r o t o t y p e o f t h e g o l i a r d i c boon c o m p a n i o n i s r e v e a l e d 3 3 " ^ P a t c h , c h s . i v and v . - ^ T r a n s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d by M a c C u l l o c h , M e d i e v a l F a i t h and  F a b l e , p . 283. 3 5 E l f r i e d e A c k e r m a n n , ' Das S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d ' i n German  L i t e r a t u r e and F o l k S o n g ; S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f an E a r t h l y i V a T a d i s e . w i t h an I n q u i r y i n t o i t s H i s t o r y i n E u r o p e a n L i t e r a t u r e ( C h i c a g o , LVkk), P. Y^* .40 i n t h e C o n f e s s i o G o l i a e o f t h e A r c h p o e t ( c . 1 1 3 0 - 1 1 6 5 ) . 3 6 The A r c h p o e t c o n f e s s e s t h a t he i s l i k e a f l o w i n g r i v e r , n e v e r u n d e r t h e same s k y . He w i l l f i n d h i s h e a v e n on t h i s e a r t h , and so he s p e n d s h i s l i f e i n p u r s u i t o f p l e a s u r e — t h e p l e a s u r e o f a y o u n g g i r l ' s b e a u t y , t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e t a b l e and t h e t a v e r n . A n d e v i d e n t l y h i s v e r s e i s i n s p i r e d by t h e Muse o f C o k a y g n e : N e v e r h a t h t h e s p i r i t o f p o e t r y d e s c e n d e d . T i l l w i t h f o o d and d r i n k my l e a n B e l l y was d i s t e n d e d . B u t when B a c c h u s l o r d s i t i n My c e r e b r a l s t o r y , Comes A p o l l o w i t h a r u s h , „ F i l l s me w i t h h i s g l o r y . T h i s s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e g o l i a r d i c p o e t - - h i s d e l i g h t i n t h e s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s - - a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e anonymous M i d d l e E n g l i s h p o e t . He has w r i t t e n a poem a b o u t e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g and f r a n k m a l e s e x u a l i t y , a poem f u l l o f h i s z e s t f o r l i v i n g . I n C o k a y g n e t h e d r i n k e r ' s p r a y e r h a s been a n s w e r e d , and i f t h e r e a r e any a n g e l s t h e r e t h e y w i l l r e p e a t t h e p a g a n c r e d o o f t h e A r c h p o e t : Deus s i t p r o p i t i u s H u i c . p o t a t o r i . 3 & Thus t h e shadowy f i g u r e o f t h e Co k a y g n e p o e t emerges and s t a n d s w i t h M a c C o n g l i n n e , t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y C e l t i c s t o r y -t e l l e r and t h e A r c h p o e t among t h e w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , S k e p t i c a l a n d b o l d l y s a t i r i c a l , d e v o t e d t o t h e •a L ^ F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e l i f e o f t h e A r c h p o e t s e e W a d d e l l , „The W a n d e r i n g S c h o l a r s , c h , v i i , 37 ^ M e d i e v a l L a t i n L y r i c s , t r a n s , H e l e n W a d d e l l , 4 t h e d , r e v , ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , E n g . , 1 9 5 2 J , p , 193• 3 8 I b i d . , p . 1 8 9 . 41 f l e s h l y l u s t s a n d p a g a n i n h i s d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e p u r g a t o r i a l f i r e s , he seems t o be one o f t h a t d i s r e p u t a b l e company. And b e y o n d t h i s company o f g o l i a r d i c c l e r k s one may see o t h e r s a t i r -i s t s who d e l i g h t i n s k e p t i c a l and m o c k i n g p a r o d y — L u c i a n and t h e G r e e k p o e t s o f t h e O l d Comedy* They w o u l d none o f them, I t h i n k , be s t r a n g e r s t o one a n o t h e r * 42 C h a p t e r I I I AN ANALYSIS OF THE POEM: METHOD AND STRUCTURE I I f t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t were a g o l i a r d i c c l e r k , he w o u l d h a v e some p r e t e n s i o n s t o l e a r n i n g and w o u l d q u i t e l i k e l y h ave r e a d i n L a t i n o r i n E n g l i s h some o f t h e t a l e s o f j o u r n e y s t o p a r a d i s e and v i s i o n s o f p a r a d i s e . The l e g e n d s o f S t . B r e n d a n and S t . P a t r i c k ' s P u r g a t o r y c o u l d v e r y w e l l h a v e been among them. I do n o t t h i n k t h e C okaygne p o e t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y p a r o d y i n g e i t h e r o f t h e s e l e g e n d s . I t i s r a t h e r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e and c o n t e n t o f t h e w h o l e p a r a -d i s e l e g e n d a r y t h a t i s t h e o b j e c t o f h i s r i d i c u l e . But t h e S t . P a t r i c k and S t . B r e n d a n l e g e n d s were so w i d e s p r e a d and so much t h e t y p e o f p i o u s t a l e w h i c h a c l e r k w o u l d know and c o u n t on h i s a u d i e n c e t o know, t h a t I s h a l l u s e them as a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n . Not e v e r y o n e a g r e e s t h a t t h e poem s a t i r i z e s t h e t a l e s o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . Howard P a t c h s a y s t h a t " o b v i o u s l y t h e s a t i r e i s n o t d i r e c t e d a t t h e i d e a o f a . P a r a d i s e on e a r t h , " * and B a r i n g -G o u l d t h i n k s t h a t i t i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e i d e a o f t h e F o r t u n a t e 2 I s l e s t o t h e w e s t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , S a m u e l T u c k e r i n V e r s e S a t i r e i n E n g l a n d b e f o r e t h e R e n a i s s a n c e r e m a r k s t h a t t h e poem 3 may be a p a r o d y o f t h e m e d i e v a l v i s i o n g e n r e . A c o m p a r i s o n o f The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e w i t h v e r s i o n s o f t h e S t . P a t r i c k and S t . B r e n d a n * P . 1 7 1 . 2Pp»-537-539. 3New Y o r k , 1908, p. 5 8 . 43 l e g e n d s w i l l make c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s some m e r i t i n T u c k e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n and t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e b u r l e s q u e i s t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , n o t t h e F o r t u n a t e I s l e s o f t h e w e s t e r n s e a . I n S t , P a t r i c k ( E S E L ) t h e e m p h a s i s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e i s on s p i r i t u a l j o y . The K n i g h t Owayn d i s c o v e r s t h a t meat and d r i n k i n t h e g a r d e n o f p a r a d i s e a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y t o h i m : A f a i r Medwe he s a i ^ w i t h s w e t e f l o u r e s : s w o t t e r e ne mi„te non b e o , T r e o n a l - s o w i t h n o b l e f r u y t ; b a t s m u l d e s w o t e I n o v ^ ; And be s w o t n e s s e o f e u e r - e c h s t u d e ; a l a - b o u t e op d r o u ^ , b a t b a r e w i t h - o u t e mete and d r u n c h : h i m b o u ^ t e , euere-mo he m i - j t e l i b b e w i t h a l l e I o i e : ^ i f he moste b a r e - I n n e g o , ( 4 9 1 - 4 9 5 ) . T h i s i s t h e s o r t o f p a r a d i s e w h i c h t h e Co k a y g n e p o e t h a s c o n -t e m p t u o u s l y b r u s h e d a s i d e b e c a u s e i t h a s n o t h i n g t o commend i t b u t g r a s s and f l o w e r s , g r e e n b r a n c h e s and f r u i t : What i s b e r i n p e r a d i s b o t g r a s s e , and f l u r e , and g r e n e r i s ? P03 p e r i j e i o i and g r e t d u t e , b e r n i s met b o t e f r u t e * ( 7 - 1 0 ) . I n S t , P a t r i c k ( E S E L ) t h e l e a d e r o f t h e s a i n t s t e l l s t h e K n i g h t Owayn how t h e l o r d f e e d s t h e s o u l s ' i n t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e : E c h d a i be ^ w u y l e we h e r e b e o t h : o r e l o u e r d us f e d e z ene w i t h r i c h e metes o f h e u e n e : pat s w e t e i s and c l e n e ; •jwuche p u l k e metes b e o n : a r e bov h e o n n e s wende w i t h us bov s c h a l t s o n e i - w i t e : 3 wane g o d i t w o l e us s e n d e , ( 5 7 0 - 5 7 3 ) . See a b o v e , p . 1 5 « H e r e a f t e r r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made o n l y t o t h e B e n e d e i t v e r s i o n o f S t . B r e n d a n and t h e v e r s i o n s o f S t . P a t -r i c k w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d by t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n s S t , P a t r i c k ( E S E L ) . S t , P a t r i c k ( A u c h i n l e c k ) a n d Owayne M y l e s , 44 No s o o n e r a r e t h e s e words s p o k e n t h a n t h e r e comes a b r e e z e f r o m h e a v e n and a c l e a r , b r i g h t l i g h t d e s c e n d s on e v e r y h e a d * Owayn f e e l s t h e l i g h t go t h r o u g h h i s b o d y , g i v i n g h i m s u c h g r e a t j o y t h a t he i s q u i t e c a r r i e d away* He f e e l s as t h o u g h he i s n e i t h e r l i v i n g n o r d e a d , b u t i n a dream* The s e n s a t i o n l a s t s b u t a moment and t h e n t h e l i g h t w i t h d r a w s (574-583)• S i r Owayn t h i n k s t h a t he w i l l n e v e r more n e e d any o t h e r n o u r i s h m e n t t h a n t h e h e a v e n l y l i g h t : So f o l he was o f p a t h o l i l e o m e : p a t so s w e t e was and g u o d : h i m p o u o t e , p e i he l e o u e d e e u e r e - m o r e : and n e u e r e f t more ne e t e , Ne s c h o l d e h i m n e u e r - e f t t o mete l u s t e : so guod was pe leome and s w e t e * (587-589). The p o e t i s h e r e t r y i n g t o s a y what t h e j o y and b l i s s o f p a r a d i s e i s l i k e * I t i s as t h o u g h o n e , s body were somehow b r i e f l y s u f f u s e d w i t h l i g h t * The C o k a y g n e p o e t h a s a n o t h e r i d e a o f j o y and b l i s s * I t c o n s i s t s o f r e g u l a r m e a l s a t noon and e v e n i n g and a l i g h t s n a c k i n b e t w e e n : I n c o k a i g n e i s met and d r i n k w i p - v t e c a r e , how, and s w i n k . be met i s t r i e , be d r i n k i s c l e r e , t o n o n e , r u s s i n , 5 and s o p p e r * i s i g g e f o r - s o p , b o u t e w e r e , p e r h i s l o n d on ..>erpe i s p e r e , v n d e r h e u e n n i s l o n d , i - w i s s e , o f so m o c h i l i o i and b l i s s e * (17-24). A c o n v i v i a l p l a c e , C o k a y g n e , w i t h monks and nuns e a t i n g , 5 r u s s i n : NED does n o t g i v e t h i s w o r d * R o b b i n s g l o s s e s i t * b i t e b e t w e e n m e a l s , * p o s s i b l y A n g l o - I r i s h ( H i s t o r i c a l Poems, P. 318)-45 d r i n k i n g and m a k i n g merry» By c o n t r a s t , p a r a d i s e i s r a t h e r d r e a r y , s i n c e o n l y two men d w e l l t h e r e , E n o c h and E l i j a h . The p o e t i s d r a w i n g on t r a d i t i o n h e r e , f o r i t was t h o u g h t t h a t E n o c h and E l i j a h s t i l l d w e l t i n t h e G a r d e n o f E d e n . ^ I t m u s t , s a y s t h e p o e t , be r a t h e r l o n e l y (l3~16)» T r a d i t i o n a l l y p a r a d i s e i s d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o a n e g a -t i v e f o r m u l a , f o r p e r f e c t h a p p i n e s s i s an e l u s i v e s t a t e w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y must be d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f t h e t h i n g s w h i c h c o n -t r i b u t e t o u n h a p p i n e s s . T h e r e i s no s i c k n e s s , o l d age o r d e a t h , no h u n g e r o r t h i r s t ; no c o l d w i n d s b l o w , no h a i l o r snow f a l l s ; t h e r o s e s and l i l i e s n e v e r f a d e . B e n e d e i t r e p e a t s t h i s n e g a t i v e f o r m u l a i n h i s S t . B r e n d a n , c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e L a t i n N a v i q a t i o : S a n z f i n i l u i s t l i c l e r s s o l e i l , Ne v e n z n ' o r e z n f i mot un p e i l ; N T i v i e n t n u l e nue d e l a i r Qui d e l s o l e i l t o l g e t l ' e s c l a i r . C h i c i e s t r a t , m a i n ' i a v r a t , Ne d u n t m a l s v e n t j a n e l s a v r a t , Ne c h a l z , ne f r e i z , ne d e h a i t e , Ne f a i m , ne s e i t , ne s u f f r a i t e . ( 1 7 6 1 - 1 7 6 8 ) . A f t e r h u m o r o u s l y s t a t i n g h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a w e s t e r n i s l a n d p a r a d i s e , t h e Cokaygne p o e t a l s o o f f e r s a l i s t o f n e g a -t i v e j o y s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l manner: Per i s mani s w e t e s i ^ t e : a l i s d a i , n i s b e r no n i ^ t e ; b e r n i s b a r e t n o b e r s t r i f ; n i s b e r no deb* fic e u e r l i f ; b e r n i s l a c o f met no c l o b ; per n i s man no womman wrob» P a t c h , p . 151; W r i g h t , p p . 18-19, E n o c h : Gen. v.24; E l i j a h : I I K i n g s i i . l l . 46 p e r n i s s e r p e n t , w o l f , no f o x , h o r s no c a p i l , kowe no o x , p e r n i s s c h e p e , no s w i n e , no g o t e ; no non h o r w ^ , a l g o d i t w o t e , n o p e r h a r a c e , n o p e r s t o d e . pe l o n d i s f u l o f o p e r g o d e . (25-36) . The p a s s a g e seems a t f i r s t t o be a m e c h a n i c a l r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e u s u a l f o r m u l a . But a t l i n e 32 t h e r e c i t a t i o n b e g i n s t o s t u m b l e on f o r e i g n e l e m e n t s i n t h e s e r i e s . The d e s e r t c o u n t r y where w i l d b e a s t s roam i s i n M a n d e v i l l e one o f t h e o b s t a c l e s t o be o v e r c o m e b e f o r e t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e can be r e a c h e d , and so t h e a b s e n c e o f s e r p e n t s and w o l v e s may p r o p e r l y be c o n s i d e r e d n e g a -t i v e j o y s . But h o r s e s , s h e e p , cows, p i g s and g o a t s b e l o n g t o t h e w o r l d o f e v e r y d a y , and w h e r e v e r s u c h a n i m a l s a r e someone h a s t o f e t c h w a t e r , f i l l t h e f e e d b i n s and c a r r y d u n g . Where s t u d 7 h o r s e s a r e k e p t f o r b r e e d i n g t h e r e must be a groom t o do t h e m e n i a l w o r k . I t i s t h e w o r d " h o r w ^ " ( d i r t , f i l t h , f o u l n e s s : NED) w h i c h d i s p e l s any d o u b t t h a t t h e p o e t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y m a k i n g h i s l i s t s m e l l o f t h e b a r n y a r d . "J)e l o n d i s f u l o f o p e r g o d e , " he comments i r o n i c a l l y . H a v i n g b r o u g h t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e down t o t h e f a r m -y a r d l e v e l , t h e p o e t c o n t i n u e s i n a b l u n t l y r e a l i s t i c v e i n : N i s p e r f l e i , f i e , no l o w s e , i n c l o p , i n t o u n e , b e d , no h o u s e ; p e r n i s d u n n i r , s l e t e , no h a w l e ; no non v i l e worme, no s n a w i l e , no non s t o r r a e , r e i n , no w i n d e . p e r n i s man no womman b l i n d e . h a r a s , h a r a c e : "an e n c l o s u r e o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n w h i c h h o r s e s and mares a r e k e p t f o r b r e e d i n g ; h e n c e a s t u d , b r e e d , o r r a c e o f h o r s e s , " o b s . ( N E D ). 47 ok a l i s game, I o i , and g l e . w e l i s h i m p a t p e r mai b e . (37-44). The a b s e n c e o f i n s e c t p e s t s and s t o r m y w e a t h e r a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l e n o u g h , b u t by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p i g s and g o a t s t h e e m p h a s i s i s l e s s on t h e i r a b s e n c e i n t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e t h a n on t h e i r t r o u b l e s o m e p r e s e n c e i n t h e h e r e and now. H a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i s t o f n e g a t i v e j o y s , t h e p o e t t u r n s t o t h e f a m i l i a r m o t i f s a l l w i l l r e c o g n i z e — t h e f o u r r i v e r s , t h e g a r d e n , t h e t r e e , t h e f o u n t a i n . The r i v e r s o f o i l , m i l k , h o n e y and w i n e a r e t r a d i t i o n a l . O v i d r e c a l l s t h e Age o f G o l d as t h e " s e a s o n o f m i l k and w i n e i n o amber s t r e a m s / A n d h o n e y p o u r i n g f r o m t h e g r e e n - l i p p e d o a k . " S t . B r e n d a n f o u n d a r i v e r o f sweet m i l k i n p a r a d i s e (1755).. S t . P a u l , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a p o c r y p h a l s t o r y as t o l d i n an e i g h t h c e n t u r y L a t i n m a n u s c r i p t , saw t h e f o u r r i v e r s w h i c h e n c i r c l e d p a r a d i s e — t h e r i v e r o f o i l , t h e Geon; t h e r i v e r o f w i n e , t h e T i g r i s ; t h e r i v e r o f h o n e y , t h e P h i s o n ; t h e r i v e r o f m i l k , t h e E u p h r a t e s ( P a t c h , p p . 91-92). C o k a y g n e t o o h a s t h e s e same r i v e r s . Once a g a i n t h e p o e t r e c i t e s a l i s t , c r o w d i n g a w h o l e body o f l e g e n d a b o u t t h e r i v e r s o f p a r a d i s e i n t o one c o u p l e t : p e r beb r i u e r s g r e t and f i n e , o f o i l e , m e l k , h o n i , and w i n e ; w a t i r s e r u i b b e r t o n o - b i n g b o t t o s i ^ t and t o w a i s s i n g . (45-48). ^ B o a s , p . 8 2 . ^ O v i d : The M e t a m o r p h o s e s , t r a n s . H o r a c e G r e g o r y (New Y o r k , 1958), p. 34. 48 The humorous a s i d e a b o u t t h e u s e s o f w a t e r u n d e r c u t s t h e f a m i l i a r f o r m u l a a b o u t t h e r i v e r s and i n v i t e s t h e c o m p l i c i t y o f t h e a u d i e n c e . L i n e 4 9 * " p e r i s mani maner f r u t e , " seems a t f i r s t an awkward r e p e t i t i o n o f a m o t i f a l r e a d y d e a l t w i t h . H o w e v e r , t o an a u d i e n c e w e l l - i n s t r u c t e d i n p a r a d i s e l o r e i t i s h i g h comedy. I t r e l a t e s t o l i n e 10, " p e r n i s met b o t e f r u t e , " and sums up t h e w h o l e i d e a o f t h e a b s t e m i o u s p l e a s u r e s o f p a r a d i s e . D w e l l e r s i n t h e g a r d e n o f d e l i g h t s a t i s f y t h e i r h u n g e r w i t h a s i m p l e r e p a s t o f f r u i t p l u c k e d f r o m t h e e v e r b e a r i n g t r e e s and " i n t h e r i n d / S t i l l as t h e y t h i r s t e d s c o o p t h e b r i m m i n g s t r e a m , " The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m Owayne M y l e s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e f r u i t m o t i f i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p a r a d i s e : Hyt was g r e n e and f u l l o f f l o w r e s o f mony d y u e r s c o l o w r e s , h y t was g r e n e on e u e r y s y d e , as medewus a r e yn s o m e r e s t y d e , T h e r were t r e e s g r o w y i n g f u l l g r e n e , f f u l l o f f r u y t e e u u r more, y wene; f f o r p e r was f r w y t e o f mony a k y n d e : s u c h e yn p y s l o n d e may no mon f y n d e , T h e r p e r h a u e pe t r e e o f l y f e , t h e r yn y s m y r t h e and n e u u r s t r y f e ; f f r w t e o f wysdom a l s o p e r y s , of pe whyche Adam and Eue dece a m y s s e , Opur maner f r w y t e s p e r were f e l e , and a l l manere j o y e and w e l e , (5-17-530). The w o n d e r f u l endowments o f p a r a d i s e may v a r y f r o m s t o r y t o s t o r y , b u t t h e d e t a i l a b o u t t h e t r e e s b e a r i n g f r u i t a t a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r i s a l m o s t a l w a y s p r e s e n t . * ^ The r e m a r k P a t c h , c h s . i v and v, p a s s i m 49 a b o u t t h e a b u n d a n c e o f f r u i t c o u l d a p p a r e n t l y be c o u n t e d on t o p r o v o k e some amusement i n an a u d i e n c e . I t i s one o f t h o s e o f f -s t r a i g h t f a c e and a p e r f e c t s e n s e o f t i m i n g . W i t h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e abbey t h e p o e t i n t r o d u c e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a C o k a y g n e m o t i f and u s e s i t f o r a s a t i r i c p u r -p o s e . S i n c e p a r a d i s e i s t h e d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f t h e s o u l s o f h o l y men, l o g i c a l l y t h e r e s h o u l d be an a b b e y . But t h i s abbey h a s w a l l s o f p a s t i e s , r o o f t i l e s o f l t f l u r e n c a k e s 1 8 and p i n n a c l e s o f f a t p u d d i n g s (51-59). T h i s l i t t l e b i t o f c o m i c b u r l e s q u e i s u s e d t o s a t i r i z e t h e g l u t t o n y o f t h e monks. S p e c i f i c a l l y he m e n t i o n s t h e w h i t e monks and g r e y monks ( C i s t e r c i a n s ^ ) , e x c l u d i n g t h e B e n e d i c t i n e s , who wore b l a c k . He i s i m p r o v i s i n g f r e e l y now and i n t e r r u p t s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e abbey t o o f f e r a comment on t h e i n j u s t i c e o f a s o c i e t y w h i c h r e s e r v e s t h e good 12 t h i n g s o f l i f e f o r t h e r i c h : R e t u r n i n g t o h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a b b e y , he v i s u a l i z e s t h e c l o i s t e r ( w h i c h was r o o f e d w i t h f l o u r c a k e s ) , w i t h p i l l a r s o f h a n d r e m a r k s w h i c h a modern c o m e d i a n w o u l d d e l i v e r w i t h a (59-64). 11 S e e a b o v e , p . 23. 12, S e e b e l o w , p . 87. 50 c r y s t a l , t h e p l i n t h b e i n g o f g r e e n j a s p e r and t h e c a p i t a l o f r e d c o r a l (67-70). The j a s p e r b a s e s o f t h e p i l l a r s r e c a l l t h e 13 w a l l and t h e f i r s t f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e New J e r u s a l e m . C r y s t a l i s a common m o t i f i n C e l t i c and T e u t o n i c f o l k l o r e , ' ' " 4 b u t i t a l s o a p p e a r s i n C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d , as does c o r a l . I n S t . P a t r i c k ( A u c h i n l e c k ) t h e g a t e s o f p a r a d i s e a r e d e c k e d w i t h c o r a l and o t h e r p r e c i o u s s t o n e s and t h e t a b e r n a c l e s a r e p i n n a c l e s o f c r y s t a l (vv« 131-132). T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c r y s t a l , j a s p e r and c o r a l a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s p l e n d o u r o f p a r a d i s e , a s p l e n d o u r w h i c h may be a l i t t l e o b s c u r e d i n Cokaygne by t h e meat and f i s h p a s t i e s and f a t p u d d i n g s c l o s e b y . But t h e g a r d e n o f p a r a d i s e n eeds a t r e e . Then l e t i t be a s p i c e t r e e w i t h f r u i t o f 6 Sgode smakke. 1 8 Once a g a i n t h e p o e t r a t t l e s o f f a l i s t : be r o t e i s g i n g e u i r and g a l i n g a l e , be s i o u n s beb a l s e d w a l e , t r i e maces beb be f l u r e , be r i n d c a n e l o f swet o d u r , be f r u t e g i l o f r e o f gode smakke. o f c u c u b e s b e r n i s no l a k k e . (73-78). The l i s t o r c a t a l o g u e o f b i r d s , t r e e s , f l o w e r s , s p i c e s , e t c . was a f a v o u r i t e m e d i e v a l l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n * H e r e t h e p o e t u s e s t h e f a m i l i a r s p i c e l i s t o f romance t o b u r l e s q u e t h e d e s -15 c r i p t i o n o f t h e t r e e o f p a r a d i s e and t h e sudden i n c o n g r u i t y 1 3 R e v . x x i , 18-19. 1 4 P a t c h , p . 56, n o t e 67. 15 On t h e b u r l e s q u e s p i r i t o f t h i s p a s s a g e see L a u r a H. L o o m i s , S o u r c e s and A n a l o g u e s , p . 553• See a l s o M a r t h a S h a c k f o r d , L e g e n d s and S a t i r e s ( B o s t o n , 1913), P. 173. 51 w o u l d f i n d a d e l i g h t e d r e s p o n s e i n an a u d i e n c e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s p i c e l i s t as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e s e l i n e s f r o m A l i s a u n d e r . a l a t e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y r o m a n c e : F o r t h A l i s a u n d r e gan wende, T i l he com t o t h e o t r o w e s e n d e . Notemugge, and t h e s e d e w a l e , On heom s m u l l i t h , and t h e w o d e w a l e , Theo c a n e l , and t h e l i c o r i s , And s w e t e s a v o u r y-ment, y - w i s , Theo g i l o f r e , q u y b i b e , and mace, G y n g e r , comyn g a v e n o d o u r g r a c e ; And, u n d u r s o n n e , o f a l l e s p i c e s They h a d d e n s a v o u r w i t h d e l i c e s . ° P r o v i d e d w i t h t h i s c o n t e x t , one n o t i c e s i m m e d i a t e l y t h e s l y s h i f t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n l i n e 7&, w 0 f c u c u b e s p e r n i s no l a k k e . " I t i s a v e r y l i g h t s a t i r i c t h r u s t , so l i g h t t h a t among modern r e a d e r s i t i s l i k e l y t o go u n n o t i c e d . But a m e d i e v a l a u d i e n c e h e a r i n g t h e l i n e w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y c a t c h t h e n u a n c e i n t h e t u r n o f p h r a s e w h i c h does so much more t h a n m e r e l y p r o v i d e a c o n v e n i e n t rhyme. H a r d on t h e s p i c e l i s t o f romance t h e p o e t g i v e s us t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f l o w e r s o f p a r a d i s e , r o s e s and l i l i e s u n f a d i n g (79-17 8 1 , ) . ' Th e n , s t i l l r e c i t i n g f u l l t i l t , he d e s c r i b e s t h e 18 r e q u i r e d w e l l s o f p a r a d i s e and a l l o w s them t o d i s p e n s e t r e a c l e . C i t e d by L a u r a H. L o o m i s , p . 5 5 2 . C f . Rom. 1359-1372 and Thop. 760-765 i n The Works o f G e o f f r e y C h a u c e r , e d . F. N. R o b i n -s o n , 2nd e d . ( B o s t o n , 1 9 5 7 ) • C i t a t i o n s f r o m C h a u c e r i n my t e x t a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n . 17 F o r t h e f l o w e r s and w e l l s o f p a r a d i s e see S t . P a t r i c k ( A u c h i n l e e k ) , v v . 147, 149 and P a t c h , p . I l l , 18 t r e a c l e , t r i a c l e : " m e d i c i n a l compound, o r i g i n a l l y a k i n d o f s a l v e , composed o f many i n g r e d i e n t s , f o r m e r l y i n r e p u t e as an a l e x i p h a r m i c a g a i n s t and a n t i d o t e t o venomous b i t r e s , p o i s o n s g e n e r a l l y , and m a l i g n a n t d i s e a s e s . " o b s . ( N E D ). 52 19 h e a l i n g w a t e r s , b a l m and s p i c e d w i n e , a c a t a l o g u e o f u s e f u l e l i x i r s (83-86). The b u r l e s q u e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e p o e t w i l l now be c l e a r , and h i s m e t h o d . The p o e t d e s c r i b e s C o k a y g n e i n t h e c o n v e n -t i o n a l s t y l e o f t h e p a r a d i s e l e g e n d , and as he m e c h a n i c a l l y r e c i t e s t h e f a m i l i a r f o r m u l a s — t h e n e g a t i v e j o y s , t h e r i v e r s , t h e abode o f t h e h o l y men, t h e g a r d e n , t r e e s and w e l l s - - h e i m p r o v i s e s f r e e l y on h i s theme, i n t r o d u c i n g i n c o n g r u i t i e s and i n t e r p r e t i v e comments w h i c h make an e x a l t e d theme l u d i c r o u s . He m i x e s t o g e t h e r m o t i f s f r o m p a r a d i s e l e g e n d , romance and f o l k l o r e i n so a b s u r d a p o t p o u r r i t h a t one a l m o s t e x p e c t s t o h e a r one o f h i s l i s t e n e r s , l i k e C h a u c e r ' s H o s t , i n t e r r u p t h i s " d r a s t y r h y m i n g " and beg h i m t o t e l l i n s t e a d a t a l e i n p r o s e . The c o m p a r i s o n w i t h S i r Thopas at t h i s p o i n t i s n o t i n a p -p r o p r i a t e , f o r C h a u c e r u s e s s i m i l a r b u r l e s q u e d e v i c e s . He t u r n s t h e " a u n t r o u s " k n i g h t so f u l l o f " l o v e - l o n g y n g e " f o r h i s "lemman" i n t o a b u r g h e r who c l i m b s a w k w a r d l y i n t o a s a d d l e , " p r i c k s " t h r o u g h a f o r e s t i n h a b i t e d by b e a s t s as w i l d as d e e r a n d h a r e , and s w e a r s a m i g h t y o a t h on s u c h h o m e l y f a r e as b r e a d and a l e . 2 ^ A l s o he e m p l o y s t h e l i s t t o humorous e f f e c t , p a r o d y i n g t h e b u r -21 l e s q u e c a t a l o g u e no f e w e r t h a n s e v e n t i m e s . I h a v e r e f e r r e d ^ h a l w e i , h a l e w e i ( o b s . ) : " a h e a l i n g w a t e r , u s e d b o t h as a d r i n k , and as a l o t i o n f o r wounds; b a l m , a n t i d o t e . " (NED) « 20 F o r t h e h e r o ' s vow, s e e L a u r a H» L o o m i s , S o u r c e s and  A n a l o g u e s , p. 541; f o r o t h e r i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f S i r T h o p a s , p p . 496-550, p a s s i m . 2 1 I b i d . , p p . 550-551-53 e l s e w h e r e t o t h e c o m p a r i s o n L a u r a H. L o o m i s makes o f t h e b u r -22 l e s q u e s p i r i t o f t h e two poems, and c e r t a i n l y one must a g r e e t h a t t h e l i s t s o f r i v e r s and w e l l s , f l o w e r s , s p i c e s , p r e c i o u s s t o n e s and b i r d s , r e c i t e d t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k by t h e C okaygne p o e t i n h i s b u r l e s q u e o f p a r a d i s e do s u g g e s t t h e l i s t s r e c i t e d by C h a u c e r i n h i s b u r l e s q u e o f t h e m e t r i c a l r o m a n c e . The manner i n w h i c h t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t t u r n s t h e m e d i e v a l l i s t t o s a t i r i c a d v a n t a g e i s nowhere b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h a n i n l i n e s 8 7 _ H 2 , w h i c h b e g i n w i t h an a c c o u n t o f t h e p r e c i o u s s t o n e s t o be f o u n d i n t h e r i v e r s o f p a r a d i s e . The c a t a l o g u e 23 o f p r e c i o u s s t o n e s i s a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e o f t h e p a r a d i s e l e g e n d . When S t . B r e n d a n and h i s f o l l o w e r s emerged f r o m t h e d a r k m i s t t h e y saw t h e b r i l l i a n t w a l l o f p a r a d i s e b e f o r e them: M a i s l e s gemraes f u n t g r a n z l u u r s , Dum p u r p l a n t e z e s t e i t l i m u r s . As g u t e s d ' o r g r i s o l i t e s M u l t i a v e i t d ' i s s e l i t e s ; L i murs f l a m m e t , t u t a b r a s e , De t o p a z e , g r i s o p a s e , De j a r g u n c e , c a l c e d o i n e , De smaragde e s a r d o i n e ; J a s p e s o d l e s a m e s t i s t e s F o r m e n t l u i s e n t p a r l e s l i s t e s ; L i j a c i n c t e s c l e r s i e s t i l Od l e c r i s t a l e l e b e r i l ; ( 1 6 8 5 - 1 6 9 6 ) . I n S t . P a t r i c k ( A u c h i n l e e k ) , when t h e K n i g h t Owayn h a d p a s s e d 22 See a b o v e , p . 3« 23 ^ E z e k i e l x x v i i i » 1 3 : "Thou h a s t been i n Eden t h e g a r d e n o f God; e v e r y p r e c i o u s s t o n e was t h y c o v e r i n g , t h e s a r d i u s , t o p a z , and t h e d i a m o n d , t h e b e r y l , t h e o n y x , and t h e j a s p e r , t h e s a p p h i r e , t h e e m e r a l d , and t h e c a r b u n c l e , and g o l d . * ' 54 s a f e l y o v e r t h e h i g h , n a r r o w b r i d g e o f h e l l he b e h e l d t h e g a t e o f p a r a d i s e w r o u g h t o f r e d g o l d and d e c k e d w i t h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s : J a s p e r s , t o p e s and c r i s t a l , m a r g a r i t e s and c o r a l and r i c h e s a f e r s t o n e s , r i b e s and s a l i d o i n e s , o n i c l e s a n d c a u s t e l o i n e s , and d i a m a u n c e f o r pe n o n e s . ( v . 131). T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e p r e c i o u s s t o n e s a r e a l s o t o be f o u n d i n t h e r i v e r s o f p a r a d i s e . So i t i s i n t h e S t . P a t r i c k s t o r y j u s t q u o t e d (vv» 150-151), and M a n d e v i l l e a l s o t e l l s us a b o u t t h e P h i s o n ( G a n g e s ) w h i c h r u n s o u t o f p a r a d i s e and i s f u l l o f g o l d and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s . 2 4 T h e r e a r e p r e c i o u s s t o n e s i n t h e r i v e r t h a t f l o w s o u t o f C o k a y g n e t o o and t h e p o e t embarks on a n o t h e r c a t a l o g u e : ]Per i s s a p h i r and v n i u n e , c a r b u n c l e and a s t i u n e , S m a r a g d e , l u g r e , and p r a s s i u n e , b e r i l , o n i x , t o p a s i u n e , a m e t i s t and c r i s o l i t e , c a l c e d u n and e p e t i t e * (89-94). Then, r e a c h i n g i n t o t h e g r a b bag o f h i s r e p e r t o i r e he p r o d u c e s a n o t h e r l i s t w h i c h i s more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e G a r d e n o f 25 t h e Rose t h a n w i t h p a r a d i s e : p e r bep b r i d d e s mani and f a l e — p r o s t i l , p r u i s s e and n i ^ t i n g a l e , C h a l e n d r e and w o d w a l e , and o p e r b r i d d e s w i p - o u t t a l e , p a t s t i n t e p n e u e r b i h a r m i ^ t . m i r i t o s i n g d a i and n i ^ t . (95-100). 2 4 M a n d e v i l l e f s T r a v e l s . I , 202. 25 S e e R o b b i n s , e d . H i s t o r i c a l Poems, p . 319. 55 He h a s n o t c h a n g e d t h e rhyme i n t h e s e c o n d c o u p l e t and t h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t makes a l i t t l e c h a n t . Now he adds t h e b i r d s o f C o k a y g n e t o t h i s l i s t , w ^ i t e i do 3 0 W mo t o w i t t e , " he i n t e r j e c t s ( 1 0 1 ) , and c o m p l e t e s h i s r e c i t a t i o n by i n c l u d i n g i n h i s c a t a l o g u e a w e l l - s e a s o n e d l a r k and a r o a s t g o o s e who " g r e d i p " l i k e any s t r e e t v e n d o r c r y i n g h i s w a r e s : He Gees i r o s t i d on be s p i t t e f l e e - } t o b a t a b b a i , g o d h i t w o t , and g r e d i t b , " g e e s , a l h o t e l a l h o t , " h i b r i n g e b g a r l e k . g r e t p l e n t e , be b e s t i d i ^ t b a t man mai s e , be l e u e r o k e s , b a t beb c u b , l i - ^ t i b adun t o m a n - i s mub, i d i ^ t i n s t u , 2 6 f u l s w i b e w e l p u d r i d w i b g i l o f r e and c a n e l , n i s no s p e c h o f no d r i n k ; ak t a k e i n o ^ w i b - v t e s w i n k , ( 1 0 2 - 1 1 2 ) , T h e r e were r o a s t t h r u s h e s b e g g i n g t o be e a t e n i n t h e w o n d e r l a n d o f P h e r e c r a t e s , S i m i l a r d e t a i l s a p p e a r i n a F r e n c h 27 poem, L i F a b l i a u x de C o q u a i g n e ( c , 1 2 5 0 ) : P a r l e s r u e s v o n t r o s t i s s a n t L e s c r a s s e s o es e t t o r n a n t T o u t p a r e l e s , e t t o u t ades L e s s u i t l a b l a n c h e a i l l e e a p r e s . (13-16). A German t a l e , Das W a c h t e l m a e r e ( c , 1355) d e s c r i b e s t h e l a n d o f G u q e l m i u r e w h i c h i s t i e d t o h e a v e n w i t h w i l l o w s . H e r e a l s o a r e r o a s t g e e s e w h i c h w a l k i n t h e s t r e e t s w i t h a k n i f e i n t h e beak 26 s t u , s t e w : " a v e s s e l f o r b o i l i n g , a c a l d r o n . " o b s . (NED) 27 R e p r o d u c e d by A c k e r m a n n , p p . 144-147 f r o m E , B a r b a z a n ( 1 6 9 6 - 1 7 7 0 ) , F a b l i a u x e t C o n t e s des P o e t e s f r a n c o i s des X i e , X I I e , X l l i e . X I V e . e t XVe S i e c l e s . N o u v e l l e E d i t i o n augmentee p a r M, M'eon ( P a r i s , 1 8 0 8 ) , I V , 175-181. 56 and p e p p e r i n t h e t a i l . The f a n t a s y i s a p e r s i s t e n t and e n d u r i n g o n e , b u t we c a n n o t presume t o t r a c e a l i n e o f d e s c e n t f r o m P h e r e c r a t e s t o m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e . We may s a f e l y n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t i s a m o t i f w i t h a w i d e c u r r e n c y i n f o l k l i t e r a -t u r e . C o k a y g n e f o l k s o n g s and t a l e s e m p l o y i n g t h i s a nd r e l a t e d m o t i f s ( h o u s e s r o o f e d w i t h c a k e s , t r e e s g r o w i n g w a f f l e s ) were p o p u l a r t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e f r o m t h e t h i r t e e n t h t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h 29 c e n t u r y . More w i l l be s a i d a b o u t t h e f o l k e l e m e n t i n C o k a y g n e and i t s German a n a l o g u e , S ' c h l a r a f f e n l a n d , i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . H e r e i t i s enough t o n o t e t h a t a Cokaygne m o t i f i s o n c e more b e i n g u s e d w i t h a s a t i r i c p u r p o s e . The g o l i a r d i c c l e r k c h a n g e s t h e f a i r a r b o r where t h r u s h and n i g h t i n g a l e s i n g f o r a n o i s y s t r e e t w i t h p e r h a p s a p a s t r y c o o k ' s shop a t t h e c o r n e r and an i n n o r t a v e r n where t h e r e " n i s no s p e c h o f no d r i n k . t t A n d we can no l o n g e r d i s c e r n t h e s w e e t f r a g r a n c e o f p a r a d i s e b e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r p o w e r i n g s m e l l o f g a r l i c . The n e x t s i x t y l i n e s d e s c r i b e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s p a r a d i s e . T hey a r e a l u s t y , bawdy c r e w who make, t h e p o e t s a y s w i t h h e a v y i r o n y , rta w e l f a i r p r o c e s s i o n e " (146). I n S t . P a t r i c k ( E S E L ) S i r Owayn, e m e r g i n g f r o m p u r g a t o r y , h a d been g r e e t e d a t t h e g a t e s o f p a r a d i s e by a p r o c e s s i o n f a i r i - n o v - j : o f n o b l e men e c h - o n , w i t h c r e o i z and w i t h t a p e r e s : and w i t h b a n e r e s c l e r e ; (475-476). 28 A c k e r m a n n , p p . 150-151. A c k e r m a n n g i v e s c o m p l e t e t e x t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e poems and t a l e s f r o m F r a n c e , E n g l a n d , S p a i n , I t a l y , Germany and t h e N e t h e r -l a n d s . 57 I n Owayne M i l e s o n c e a g a i n t h e k n i g h t i s g r e e t e d by t h e h o l y men o f p a r a d i s e — " a swyde f a y r p r o c e s s y i o u n / o f a l l maner men o f r e l y g y o u n ' * (4&5-4#6) : Myche j o y e hym bow^te t o se b y s s h o p e s yn h e r d y g n y t e * I l k o n e w e n t e o b u r be and be, e u r y man yn h y s d e g r e : he s y ^ per monkes and c h a n o n e s , and f r e r e s wyt newe s h a u e n c r o w n e s ; e r m y t e s he sawe b e r amonge, and n o n n e s wyt f u l l mery s o n g e , p e r s o n e s , p r e s t e s and v y c a r y e s , t h e y made f u l l mery raelodyes; • • • • • • • • • a * * - * * * * myche was be j o y e b e r on e u e r y s y d e ; f o r a l l was j o y e b a t wyt hem f e r d e , and myche s o l e m p n y t e b e r he h e r d e * (489-508). I t i s t h e g r e a t w s o l e m p n y t e t t o f p a r a d i s e t h a t we must keep i n m i n d as we r e a d a b o u t t h e f r i v o l o u s monks o f C o k a y g n e — a l l t h e pomp and c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e C h u r c h on e a r t h as e a c h member o f t h e h i e r a r c h y moves t h r o u g h h i s a p p o i n t e d p a r t i n t h e r i t u a l * M a r t h a S h a c k f o r d c o n v e y s t h i s a t m o s p h e r e i n h e r t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e A u c h i n l e c k v e r s i o n : He went n e a r t h e g a t e and saw a p p r o a c h i n g a p r o c e s s i o n o f f o l k w i t h g r a c i o u s c o u n t e n a n c e s , b e a r i n g t a p e r s and c a n d l e s t i c k s o f g o l d and c r o s s e s and b a n n e r s * P o p e s t h e r e w e r e , o f g r e a t d i g n i t y , and many c a r d i n a l s , k i n g s and q u e e n s , k n i g h t s , a b b o t s s u p e r i o r , monks, c a n o n s and p r e a c h i n g f r i a r s , and b i s h o p s who wore c r o s s e s * M i n o r i t e f r i a r s and J a c o b i n s , C a r m e l i t e s and A u s t i n f r i a r s , b l a c k and w h i t e n u n s - - a l l manner o f r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s went i n t h a t p r o c e s s i o n * * • • When t h e p r a i s e s h a d t h u s been s u n g , two a r c h b i s h o p s came o u t o f t h e m i d s t o f t h a t company, b e a r i n g p a l m s o f g o l d * They a d v a n c e d t o t h e k n i g h t , a n d , t a k i n g h i m b e t ween them, l e d h i m up and down, and showed h i m s t i l l g r e a t e r j o y s and a l s o much m e l o d y * M e r r y were t h e i r c a r o l s o f j o y and m i n s t r e l s y * They 58 went c a r o l l i n g w i t h a j o y no man can d i v i n e , s i n g i n g and p r a i s i n g God; a n g e l s g u i d e d them w i t h h a r p s and f i d d l e s and p s a l t e r y , and b e l l s r a n g m e r r i l y » 3 0 The C o k a y g n e p o e t t u r n s t h i s h o l y p l a c e i n t o a G a r d e n o f O r i g i n a l S i n where u n i n h i b i t e d c a r n a l i t y h o l d s sway. I t i s n o t p e r h a p s a v e r y s u b t l e j o k e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y c o a r s e and o b s c e n e . But f a s h i o n s i n humour c h a n g e . The b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s were a s o u r c e o f g r e a t amusement i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , as C h a u c e r ' s f a b l i a u x w e l l i l l u s t r a t e . And i t was a f r e e and u n e m b a r r a s s e d l a u g h t e r , u n a f f e c t e d by F r e u d i a n i n s i g h t s and i n t r o s p e c t i o n s , a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d by any n e e d t o f i n d a s a t i r i c p u r p o s e . A f r a n k l y bawdy s t o r y c o u l d be e n j o y e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t was f u n n y , and t h i s i s one r e a s o n why one i m m e d i a t e l y r e m a r k s on t h e t o l e r a n c e w i t h w h i c h t h e p o e t v i e w s t h e i m m o r a l i t y o f t h e monks and n u n s . He i s s a t i r i z i n g t h e c o n c u b i n a g e o f t h e c l e r i -c a l o r d e r s , b u t he i s a l s o a m u s i n g an a u d i e n c e w i t h a w i l d l y f u n n y s t o r y a b o u t some monks and nuns h a v i n g a w o n d e r f u l t i m e i n p a r a d i s e . The s t o r y i s n o t so c r u d e t h a t i t does n o t ha v e i t s 31 n i c e i r o n i c t o u c h e s . E l i j a h went up i n a w h i r l w i n d t o h e a v e n 32 and A l e x a n d e r s o a r e d w i t h l a r g e b i r d s t o t h e s k i e s . P e r h a p s t h e monks' method o f a i r t r a n s p o r t by means o f t h e w i d e s l e e v e s and h oods i s a c o m i c b u r l e s q u e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l j o u r n e y t o t h e h e a v e n s . And i s t h e r e p e r h a p s a l s o a wry comment • ^ L e g e n d s and S a t i r e s f r o m M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e ( B o s t o n , 1913)# p p . 44-45. 3 1 I I K i n g s i i . l l . 3 2 P a t c h , p . 25. 59 on t h e l a c k o f p r e f e r m e n t o f d e s e r v i n g p e r s o n s i n t h e r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s ? A d v a n c e m e n t , i t a p p e a r s , does n o t come e a s i l y * E v e n a f t e r c o n s c i e n t i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o " d u t y 1 * t h e monk can o n l y hope 33 t o be a f a t h e r a b b o t , The d e t a i l a b o u t t h e community o f nuns a p p e a r s i n two o t h e r 3 L s a t i r e s on t h e m o n a s t i c o r d e r s and may h a v e been one o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l j o k e s * I t s manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s poem, h o w e v e r , r e c a l l s t h e m a i d e n l a n d o f C e l t i c myth and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a u t h o r was e l a b o r a t i n g on t h e j o k e w i t h m a t e r i a l f r o m f o l k l o r e * I n The Voyage o f B r a n t h e r e i s an a c c o u n t o f an i s l a n d o f women where g r i e f , s o r r o w and d e a t h a r e unknown and t i m e does n o t p a s s , f o r many y e a r s seem as one d a y . On t h i s i s l a n d o f women A b e a u t i f u l game, most d e l i g h t f u l They p l a y s i t t i n g a t t h e l u x u r i o u s w i n e , Men and g e n t l e women u n d e r a b u s h , W i t h o u t s i n , w i t h o u t c r i m e . 35 What t h e s e l i n e s s u g g e s t i s t h e t i m e when women o f t h e m a t r i -l i n e a r T r i b e s o f Danu ( T u a t h a De D a n a n n ) , t h e s i d h e o r shee o f modern I r i s h f o l k l o r e , p e r f o r m e d o r g i a s t i c r i t e s d i r e c t e d t o t h e v e g e t a t i o n g o d s * T h e s e a r e t h e d i v i n e women who l u r e C o n n l a t h e F a i r t o t h e f a i r y mound o f Mag M e l l , t h e L a n d o f t h e 3 3 it - ^ R o b b i n s , l i n e 176, g i v e s " t o be sone u a d i r a b b o t , " M a t z n e r , AE S p r a c h p ( f u l l t e x t i n A c k e r m a n n , p p . 147-150) g i v e s " t o be some u n d i r a b b o t " w h i c h h a s o t h e r s h a d e s o f s a t i r i c a l m e a n i n g . See b e l o w , p» 66, 3 5 C r o s s and S l o v e r , p , 592. 3 ^ J , A, M a c C u l l o c h , R e l i g i o n o f t h e A n c i e n t C e l t s ( E d i n -b u r g h , 1911), P. 385. 60 37 L i v i n g , where o n l y women and m a i d e n s d w e l l . They l u r e Cu C h u l a i n n t o an i s l a n d p a l a c e i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e t h r i c e f i f t y c o u c h e s and t h r e e t i m e s f i f t y women upon t h e < c o u c h e s . I n A r t h u r i a n romance t h e d i v i n e women a r e Morgan and h e r m a i d e n s 39 who c o n v e y t h e K i n g t o A v a l o n t h e r e t o be c u r e d . o f h i s wounds. We c a n n o t be c e r t a i n t h a t t h e Cok a y g n e p o e t ' s c ommunity o f nuns i s an i n t e n t i o n a l p a r o d y o f t h e C e l t i c m a i d e n l a n d . We may s u p p o s e t h a t t h e t a l e s were w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d and t h a t a g o l i a r d i c c l e r k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Abbey o f K i l d a r e i n I r e l a n d w o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h t a l e s a b o u t Mag M e l l and a L a n d u n d e r t h e Waves. I t i s p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t he i s s a t i r i z i n g some l o c a l c o n d i t i o n ( W e l l s , p . 2 2 8 ) . The f o l k m o t i f o f a community o f women i n a L a n d o f P r o m i s e i s , h o w e v e r , q u i t e p l a i n . And s i n c e t h e p o e t h a s a l r e a d y shown h i m s e l f so w e l l - v e r s e d i n t h e l o r e o f p a r a d i s e , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o g i v e h i m t h e c r e d i t f o r s u b s t i t u t i n g s t u r d y E n g l i s h nuns i n row b o a t s f o r f a i r i e s i n c r y s t a l c o r a c l e s . I n c o n c l u s i o n t h e p o e t warns h i s a u d i e n c e t h a t o n l y t h o s e who do p e n a n c e f o r t h e i r s i n s may come t o t h i s p a r a d i s e . I n S t . P a t r i c k ( E S E L ) S i r Owayn h a d been t o l d t h e same t h i n g by t h e l e a d e r o f t h e s a i n t s : F o r we a l l e b a t frou h e r e i - s i x t : b a r e - f o r t h h i d e r e come And o r e s u n n e s b a r e b e t t e n : and h a r d e p e n a u n c e nome, Ne m i ^ t e we e l l e s h e r e come: ase guod b i be i t i s : 3 7 C r o s s a n d S l o v e r , p p . 488-490. 3 8 I b i d . . p p . 176-198. 39 J M a c C u l l o c h , R e l i g i o n o f t h e A n c i e n t C e l t s , p . 369» 61 F o r j i f p i n e s u n n e s n e r e f o r - ^ i u e : p o v ne come n o u ^ t h e r e , i - w i s . ( 5 3 6 - 5 3 9 ) . S i r Owayn h a d done p e n a n c e i n p u r g a t o r y . He h a d s u f f e r e d f r i g h t f u l t o r m e n t s i n t h e s e v e n f i e l d s o f p u n i s h m e n t b e f o r e he h a d f i n a l l y c r o s s e d t h e h i g h n a r r o w b r i d g e w h i c h s e p a r a t e d p u r g a t o r y f r o m p a r a d i s e : F o r heo was n a r o v - j , and s l i d e r , and h e i ^ : p a t he ne s c h o l d e h i m so b i - t e l l e , ^ i f p a t he g l u f t e i n a n i h a l f : p a t he ne f u l l e i n - t o h e l l e . ( 4 2 9 - 4 3 0 ) , The h o w l i n g f i e n d s o f h e l l were u n d e r t h e b r i d g e : H e o r e O u l e s heo nomen and h e o r e h o k e s : a nd t o w a r d h i m c a s t e n an heio; Ake p a r e nas non p a t h i m t o u e h i m i ^ t e : ne n o - p i n g come h i m n e i - j . ( 4 4 7 - 4 4 8 ) . The h i g h , n a r r o w b r i d g e may be r e c o g n i z e d as t h e b a r r i e r w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y g u a r d s t h e e n t r a n c e t o p a r a d i s e . When S t . B r e n d a n f i n a l l y a p p r o a c h e d p a r a d i s e a f t e r a s e v e n - y e a r q u e s t , he h a d t o f i n d h i s way t h r o u g h a h e a v y f o g ( l 6 4 9 ~ l 6 5 8 ) . I n M a n d e v i l l e , t o o , we may r e a d o f t h e p e r i l s w h i c h make p a r a d i s e i n a c c e s s i b l e t o m o r t a l man: F o r be l o n d e noman may go f o r w y l d e b e s t e s p a t ben i n t h e d e s e r t e s and f o r t h e h i g h m o u n t a y n e s and g r e t e huge Roches p a t noman may p a s s e b y , f o r t h e d e r k e p l a c e s p a t ben p e r e a n d p a t manye. And be t h e R y u e r e s may noman g o , f o r t h e w a t e r r e n n e t h so r u d e l y and so s c h a r p l y b e c a u s e p a t i t cometh doun so o u t r a g e o u s l y f r o m t h e h i g h p l a c e s a b o u e n , p a t i t r e n n e t h i n so g r e t e wawes p a t no s c h i p p may n o t rowe ne s e y l e aoenes i t . . . • Many g r e t e l o r d e s h a n a s s a y e d w i t h g r e t w i l l e many tymes f o r t o p a s s e n be po r y u e r e s t o w a r d 62 p a r a d y s w i t h f u l l g r e t e companyes. But p e i myghte n o t s p e d e n i n h i r e v i a g e . And manye d y e d e n f o r w e r y n e s s o f rowynge a ^ e n s t po s t r o n g e wawes. And many o f hem becamen b l y n d e and many deve f o r t h e n o y s e o f t h e w a t e r . A n d summe w e r e n p e r i s s c h t and l o s t e w i t h j n n e t h e wawes, so p a t no raortell man may a p p r o c h e . t o p a t p l a c e w i t h o u t e n s p e c y a l l g r a c e o f g o d • • • • W i l d b e a s t s , r o a r i n g w a t e r f a l l s , b l i n d i n g f o g s , d i z z y h e i g h t s , demons, d r a g o n s and t h e s t i n k i n g p i t s o f h e l l - - t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t i s n o t t o be o u t d o n e by t h e s e i n t h e m a t t e r o f a p e n a n c e o r a b a r r i e r : Whose w l com p a t l o n d t o , f u l g r e t e p e n a n c e he mot do: Seue o e r e i n s w i n e - i s d r i t t e he mote wade, w o l ,e i w i t t e , a l anon vp t o pe c n y n n e , so he s c h a l pe l o n d w i n n e . (177-182). The b a r r i e r o f f i l t h a l s o o c c u r s i n one o f Grimm's t a l e s . I n D i e B a r e n h a u t e r (The B e a r s k i n ) , a d m i s s i o n t o t h e l a n d o f d e l i g h t s i s t o be g a i n e d by w a l l o w i n g i n f i l t h f o r s e v e n y e a r s . 4 * S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d was t h e s u b j e c t o f h a l f a d o z e n German m e i s t e r -l i e d e r o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n two o f them t h e m o t i f o f J O t h e m o u n t a i n o f f i l t h a p p e a r s . Once a g a i n t h e p o e t i n t r o d u c e s a t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k m o t i f and onc e a g a i n he p u t s i t t o t h e u s e s o f p a r o d y . I t i s n o t o n l y i n t h e f o l k u t o p i a t h a t t h e dung h e a p i s r e g a r d e d as a p e n a n c e t o be e n d u r e d . When N a t h a n i e l H a w t h o r n e 4°Mandeville's T r a v e l s , I , 203-204. 4 * A c k e r m a n n , p . 120. 4 2 I b i d . , p p . 90-93-63 was l i v i n g a t B r o o k Farm, t h e New E n g l a n d u t o p i a n c o m m u n i t y , he. f o u n d t h e manure p i l e a g r e a t b a r r i e r t o t h e happy f u l f i l l m e n t o f h i s new l i f e . A f t e r two months o f work on t h e f a r m , he came t o l o o k on t h e idung h eap as s y m b o l i c o f s o u l - d e s t r o y i n g , h a r d , p h y s i c a l l a b o u r . I n a l e t t e r t o h i s b e t r o t h e d he w r o t e a s a r -d o n i c and vehement p r o t e s t : T h a t a b o m i n a b l e g o l d m i n e l Thank God, we a n t i c i p a t e g e t t i n g r i d o f i t s t r e a s u r e s , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n e x t two o r t h r e e d a y s . Of a l l h a t e f u l p l a c e s , t h a t i s t h e w o r s t ; and I s h a l l n e v e r c o m f o r t m y s e l f f o r h a v i n g s p e n t so many d a y s o f b l e s s e d s u n s h i n e t h e r e . I t i s my o p i n i o n , d e a r e s t , t h a t a man's s o u l may be b u r i e d and p e r i s h u n d e r a dungheap o r i n a f u r r o w o f t h e f i e l d , j u s t as w e l l as u n d e r a p i l e o f money«43 L i k e t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t , H a w t h o r n e d i s c o v e r e d a b a r r i e r o f d e g r a d i n g p h y s i c a l l a b o u r s e p a r a t i n g h i m f r o m h i s u t o p i a o f " b l e s s e d s u n s h i n e . " The C o k a y g n e p o e t , h a v i n g d e l i v e r e d h i s m o c k - h e r o i c e x h o r t a t i o n a b o u t t h e b a r r i e r o f f i l t h , w a r n s h i s l i s t e n e r s : " G e n t l e m e n , y o u w i l l n e v e r s e e t h a t l a n d u n t i l y o u f u l f i l t h i s p e n a n c e . " He i s o f f e r i n g t h e f o r m a l sermon a p p l i c a t i o . f o r he knows t h e p r o p e r r h e t o r i c a l f o r m s w h i c h must be o b s e r v e d . T h e n , as a f i n a l m o c k e r y : P r e y we g o d so mote h i t be. Amen, p u r s e i n t c h a r i t e . (189-190). ^ A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f B r o o k Farm, e d . H e n r y ¥. Sams ( E n g l e -wood C l i f f s , N » J . , 1 9 5 8 ) . p . 21. F o r o t h e r l e t t e r s c o n t a i n i n g s i m i l a r c o m p l a i n t s see p p . 14, 18, 30, 64 I n t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem we h a v e been t r y i n g t o h e a r t h e p o e t as he r e p l i e s t o t h e w o r l d o f h i s d a y . What he i s d o i n g i s - b r e a k i n g down, f i x e d b e l i e f s and c r i t i c i z i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l i l l s by c h a n g i n g t h e p e r s p e c t i v e . 4 4 S t r u c t u r a l l y , 4 ^ The  L a n d o f C o k a y g n e b e l o n g s t o t h a t k i n d o f w r i t i n g w h i c h s e t s up a new s o c i e t y and u s e s i t as a v e h i c l e f o r m a k i n g a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y . A r i s t o p h a n e s f r o m t h e v a n -t a g e p o i n t o f C l o u d C u c k o o l a n d c a r i c a t u r e s t h e a m b i t i o u s schemes o f f i f t h c e n t u r y A t h e n s . A n a t o l e F r a n c e a l s o c r e a t e s a b i r d l a n d i n h i s P e n g u i n I s l a n d , and S w i f t i n v e n t s a l a n d o f Yahoos and Houyhnhnms and an I s l a n d o f L a p u t a t h e b e t t e r f o r us t o s e e o u r -s e l v e s . B u t l e r d i s c o v e r s a t o p s y - t u r v y l a n d b e y o n d a m o u n t a i n r a n g e where p e o p l e t r e a t c r i m e as an i l l n e s s and i l l n e s s as a c r i m e . S u c h w o r k s a r e s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d s a t i r i c u t o p i a s , t h o u g h M o r e ' s w o r d h a s been p r e s s e d i n t o s e r v i c e h e r e f o r want o f a b e t t e r o n e . The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e i s one o f t h e s e s a t i r i c u t o p i a s • I n B u t l e r ' s Erewhon 4^* t h e h e r o i s H i g g s , a m i d d l e c l a s s E n g l i s h m a n who h a s been b r o u g h t up a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o r a l i t y . But d e s p i t e h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l s e t 4 4 F o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s k i n d o f s a t i r e s e e N o r t h r o p F r y e , A n a t omy o f C r i t i c i s m ( P r i n c e t o n , 1957), P P . 229-235. 4 ^ t t M o s t modern c r i t i c s a g r e e i n t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m ' s t r u c -t u r e 1 f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r o v e r - a l l d e s i g n , o r ' f o r m ' o f a p a r t i c u l a r l i t e r a r y work • • • " (M. H. A b r a m s , A G l o s s a r y o f  L i t e r a r y Terms (New Y o r k , 1957), P. 94« 4 ^ S a m u e l B u t l e r , E r e w h o n ; Erewhon R e v i s i t e d ( L o n d o n , 1942). 65 o f b e l i e f s , H i g g s i s w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e a s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s e t h i c c o m p l e t e l y o p p o s i t e t o h i s own. L e t us i m a g i n e some f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y H i g g s w a s h e d a s h o r e on an i s l a n d *'bi w e s t s p a y n g n e , " an i s l a n d w h i c h i s l i k e t h e f a m i l i a r e a r t h l y p a r a -d i s e he h a s l e a r n e d a b o u t s i n c e c h i l d h o o d and y e t n o t t h e same. L e t us i m a g i n e h i s e a r n e s t e n d e a v o u r t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e s t r a n g e m o r a l i t y o f t h e r e l i g i o u s f o l k who l i v e i n t h i s t o p s y - t u r v y l a n d . He d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h e g o d d e s s N y o t t u l g i s t h e i r d a i l y h e l p and g u i d e and t h a t i n h e r h o n o u r t h e y h a v e b u i l t an abbey o f p a s t i e s , p u d d i n g s and f l o u r c a k e s . O f f i c i a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e y w o r s h i p a n o t h e r God i n t h e C h u r c h o f t h e M a g i c a l Windows. He s e e s t h a t w h i l e t h e y go a b o u t t h e i r d a i l y a f f a i r s , i m m o d e r a t e i n d u l g i n g t h e i r f l e s h l y a p p e t i t i e s , t h e windows o.f t h e c h u r c h a r e o r d i n a r y g l a s s . He o b s e r v e s w i t h some s u r p r i s e t h a t as s o o n as t h e y e n t e r t h e c h u r c h t o s a y Mass f o r t h e i r s o u l ' s n e e d , t h e windows t u r n i n t o s h i n i n g c r y s t a l t o g i v e t h e monks more l i g h t (113-116). Then when t h e M a s s e s h a v e been s a i d and t h e b o o k s p u t away, l ,be c r i s t a l t u r n i b i n - t o g l a s s e , / i n s t a t e b a t h i t r a b e r w a s s e " (117-120). Now a d m i t t e d l y one c a n n o t make a p h i l o -s o p h i c a l n o v e l o u t o f The L a n d o f Cokaygne by t r a n s p o s i n g i t i n t e r m s o f Y d g r u n and t h e M u s i c a l B a n k s . But t h e e x e r c i s e w i l l a t l e a s t h a v e s e r v e d t o show t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h i s C o k a y g n e t o Erewhon i s n o t so g r e a t a f t e r a l l . H e r e i s a nowhere i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g i s t o p s y - t u r v y : we f i n d s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e , n o t s e l f - d e n i a l ; c a r n a l i t y , n o t c h a s t i t y ; v o l u p t u o u s n e s s , n o t a s c e t i c i s m ; n o t a p r o c e s s i o n o f h o l y s a i n t s b u t a w i l d s a t u r n a l i a , and 66 p e r p e t u a l c a r n i v a l t h e p e r p e t u a l b l i s s . What we h a v e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a r u d i m e n t a r y s a t i r i c u t o p i a t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e a u t h o r b r e a k s down e x i s t i n g i d e a s a b o u t p a r a d i s e and c r i t i c i z e s t h e r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s f o r t h e i r i m m o r a l i t y and h y p o c r i s y on t h i s e a r t h * Two o t h e r m e d i e v a l s a t i r e s a g a i n s t t h e m o n a s t i c o r d e r s h a v e a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e . I n t h e S p e c u l u m S t u l t o r u m ( c . 1 1 8 0 ) , N i g e l W i r e k e r , a C a n t e r b u r y monk, i n v e n t s an " i d e a l " s o c i e t y , a n owhere by means o f w h i c h he s a t i r i z e s t h e m o n a s t i c o r d e r s . A c e n t u r y l a t e r an A n g l o - N o r m a n p o e t , c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t , c r e a t e s a s i m i l a r f i c t i o n e n t i t l e d L ? 0 r d r e de B e l A y s e . I t w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e as a s a t i r i c u t o p i a t o compare i t w i t h t h e s e two poems. The S p e c u l u m S t u l t o r u m d e s c r i b e s i n p i c a r e s q u e s t y l e t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f B r u n e l l u s , t h e A s s . B r u n e l l u s r e p r e s e n t s t h e w h o l e m o n a s t i c body,- g r e e d y , v a i n and e n g a g e d i n w o r ' l d l y p u r s u i t s . The a l l e g o r y t u r n s on t h e c o m i c q u e s t o f B r u n e l l u s f o r r a r e and e x o t i c m e d i c i n e s w h i c h w i l l make h i s t a i l g r o w t o m atch h i s e a r s i n l e n g t h . C e n t r a l t o t h e s t o r y i s t h e c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f 49 t h e r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s . B r u n e l l u s , t h o u g h h y p o c r i t i c a l , b o a s t -f u l , l a z y , s t u p i d and consumed w i t h v a i n a m b i t i o n i s n o t i n c a p a b l e o f r e m o r s e f o r h i s w a s t e d y o u t h and a d e s i r e t o r e p e n t and w i n in ^'The Book o f Daun B u r n e l t h e A s s ; N i g e l W i r e k e r * s S p e c u l u m  S t u l t o r u m . t r a n s . G r a y d o n W. Regenos ( A u s t i n , 1 9 5 9 ) • • A n g l o - N o r m a n P o l i t i c a l S o n g s , e d . I s a b e l A s p i n , A n g l o -Norman T e x t S o c i e t y . X I ( O x f o r d . 1 9 5 3 ) . I32 - I 3 8 . ^ S p e c u l u m S t u l t o r u m . p p . 101-117, 67 s a l v a t i o n f o r h i s s o u l b e f o r e i t i s t o o l a t e . He r e s o l v e s t o t a k e r e l i g i o u s vows and must d e c i d e w h i c h o r d e r he w i l l j o i n . He p a s s e s i n r e v i e w e a c h g r o u p i n t u r n w i t h a good-humoured c r i t i c i s m o f e a c h . I n t h e e n d he d e c i d e s t o o r g a n i z e h i s own s o c i e t y , d r a w i n g f r o m e a c h o f t h e o t h e r o r d e r s t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i w h i c h w i l l make m o n a s t i c l i f e c o m f o r t a b l e . From t h e T e m p l a r s he t a k e s s m o o t h l y s t e p p i n g h o r s e s , f r o m t h e C l u n i a c s r i c h f o o d and f a t meats on F r i d a y , f r o m t h e P r e m o n s t r a t e n s i a n s t h e l u x u r y o f s o f t , f u l l - p l e a t e d r o b e s . The C a r t h u s i a n s t h i n k one Mass e a c h month i s enough and t h e G r a n d i m o n t a n e monks do n o t k e e p t i r e s o m e vows o f s i l e n c e . B r u n e l l u s w i l l a d o p t t h e s e p r a c t i c e s i n h i s o r d e r . But s t i l l one t h i n g i s l a c k i n g i n t h e i d e a l o r d e r and t h a t i s t h e s o c i e t y o f women. B r u n e l l u s w i l l a l l o w h i s monks t o c h o o s e t h e i r mates f r o m t h e M o n i a l e s , an o r d e r o f nuns " s e r p e n t - b o d i e d , s i r e n - v o i c e d , w i t h b r e a s t s / o f d r a g o n s , P a r i s * h e a r t , S u s a n n a ' s c h a r m s , " nuns whose l o v e l y l e g s a r e h i d d e n 50 b e n e a t h b l a c k s k i r t s . B r u n e l l u s i s s u r e t h e Pope w i l l g i v e h i s c o n s e n t t o t h i s v e n t u r e . H e r e t h e n i s a s u p p o s e d l y i d e a l s o c i e t y s e t up by t h e a u t h o r t o s a t i r i z e t h e c o n c u b i n a g e , h y p o c -r i s y and s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e o f t h e m o n a s t i c o r d e r s . The A n g l o - N o r m a n poem h a s a s i m i l a r p l a n . L ' O r d r e de B e l  A y s e d e s c r i b e s a n o t h e r m o c k - i d e a l m o n a s t e r y w h i c h draws on t h e " b e s t " f e a t u r e s o f a l l o t h e r o r d e r s . From B e v e r l e y i t t a k e s t h e r u l e t h a t e a c h b r o t h e r must s i t d r i n k i n g a t m e a l s u n t i l a c a n d l e I b i d . , p p . 114-115 68 as l o n g as h i s f o r e a r m i s b u r n e d * From t h e H o s p i t a l l e r s i t t a k e s t h e i n d u l g e n c e o f f i n e r o b e s , w e l l - f i t t i n g s h o e s and g e n t l y a m b l i n g p a l f r e y s * As a t Sernpringham, monks and nuns may s h a r e t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e * On p a i n o f e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n e a c h b r o t h e r must p l a y t h e game o f l o v e w i t h h i s s i s t e r e v e r y m o r n i n g b e f o r e m a t i n s , and he who e x c e l s a t t h e t a s k w i n s t h e a p p r o v a l * i, • 51 o f h i s s u p e r i o r s * T h e r e was e v i d e n t l y a body o f s a t i r i c commonplaces f r o m 5 2 w h i c h t h e w r i t e r s drew* None o f t h e monks i n t h e s e t h r e e poems i s " p a l e as a f o r p y n e d g o o s t " f r o m p r a y i n g and s t u d y i n g w i t h i n t h e c l o i s t e r w a l l s * They a r e w o r l d l y men, a d d i c t e d t o g o o d f o o d , r i c h c l o t h i n g and f i n e h o r s e s * B r u n e l l u s , who t r a v e l s a c r o s s E u r o p e , and t h e monks o f C o k a y g n e , who s i m p l y t a k e f l i g h t up t h e r i v e r i n s e a r c h o f p l e a s u r e , a r e s a t i r i c c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e r o v i n g monks whom t h e C h u r c h c e n s u r e d * And i n a l l t h r e e poems t h e v i r i l i t y o f t h e monks i s a c l a i m t o d i s t i n c t i o n * C h a u c e r ' s p o r t r a i t o f t h e Monk makes use o f t h e same d e t a i l s (Gen P r o l , 165 - 2 0 7 ) * The Monk's r o b e i s f u r - t r i m m e d and f a s t e n e d w i t h a g o l d p i n , h i s b o o t s a r e o f s o f t l e a t h e r and h i s r o u n d , s h i n y f a c e a t e s t i m o n y t o t h e g o o d d i n n e r s o f f a t r o a s t swan he has e n j o y e d . A s t r i d e h i s brown p a l f r e y , b r i d l e b e l l s j i n g l i n g i n t h e w i n d , he c o u l d b e l o n g t o t h e O r d e r o f F a i r E a s e * And he i s a m a n l y man* C h a u c e r ' s h o s t c h a f f s h i m a b o u t h i s u n u s e d v i r i l i t y , 5 1 T r a n s * A s p i n , p p . I38-I4I. 52 Dom D a v i d K n o w l e s , The M o n a s t i c O r d e r i n E n g l a n d : A H i s -t o r y o f i t s D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e Times o f S t . D u n s t a n t o t h e  F o u r t h L a t e r a n C o u n c i l . 943-1216 ( C a m b r i d g e . E n g . . 1 9 4 9 ) . p* 677-T h i s r e f e r e n c e s u p p l i e d by A s p i n , p« 131.. 69 and one c a n n o t t h i n k t h e Monk was n o t s e c r e t l y f l a t t e r e d by 5 3 t h e s e r e m a r k s . The Daun J o h n o f t h e S h i p m a n ' s T a l e b e h a v e s i n t h e manner we h a v e come t o e x p e c t and c u c k o l d s h i s b e s t f r i e n d . E v i d e n t l y t h e monks o f Cokaygne and t h e monks o f t h e C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s a r e p a r t o f a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s a t i r i c t r a d i t i o n . The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e u n m i s t a k a b l y c e n s u r e s t h e l a x m o r a l s t a n d a r d s o f t h e monks and n u n s . Y e t t h e r e i s a s p i r i t o f t o l e r a n t amusement i n t h e C o k a y g n e poem w h i c h i s l a c k i n g i n t h e o t h e r t w o . I t t e m p e r s t h e s a t i r e , so t h a t t h e Abbey o f Cokaygne l o o k s f o r w a r d t o t h e Abbey o f T h e l e m a i n w h i c h a l l r e s t r a i n t s o f t h e m o n a s t i c o r d e r h a v e been removed and t h e o n l y r u l e i s "Do as yo u w i l l . " Not t h a t t h e monks o f Coka y g n e a r e t o be s e e n as t h e c u l t i v a t e d men and women whom R a b e l a i s endowed w i t h t h e i d e a l s 5 4 and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . The e x a g g e r a t e d s c e n e s o f f e a s t i n g and d r i n k i n g w h i c h o c c u r e l s e w h e r e i n R a b e l a i s a r e n o t p a r t o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Abbey o f T h e l e m a . The i n s c r i p -t i o n o v e r t h e g r e a t g a t e b e g i n s on a h i g h n o t e o f m o r a l s e v e r i t y . B u t t h i s same i n s c r i p t i o n becomes f i n a l l y an e x u b e r a n t s o n g o f p r a i s e o f t h e j o y o u s u n a s c e t i c l i f e : H e r e e n t e r y o u , and welcom f r o m o u r h e a r t s . A l l n o b l e s p a r k s , endow'd w i t h g a l l a n t p a r t s . S t a y h e r e y ou l i v e l y , j o v i a l , handsom, b r i s k . Gay, w i t t y , f r o l i c k , c h e a r f u l , m e r r y , f r i s k . S p r u c e , j o c u n d , c o u r t e o u s , f u r t h e r e r s o f t r a d e s . And i n a w o r d , a l l w o r t h y g e n t i l e b l a d e s . H e r e e n t e r y o u a l l L a d i e s o f h i g h b i r t h . P r o l MkT. 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 6 4 . The Works o f Mr. F r a n c i s R a b e l a i s . D o c t o r i n P h y s i c k , t r a n s . 1653 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 4 ) * PP* 1 5 0 - 1 6 8 . 70 D e l i c i o u s , s t a t e l y , c h a r m i n g , f u l l o f m i r t h . I n g e n i o u s , l o v e l y , m i n i a r d , p r o p e r , f a i r e , M a g n e t i c k , g r a c e f u l , s p l e n d i d , p l e a s a n t , r a r e . O b l i g i n g , s p r i g h t l y , v e r t u o u s , y o u n g , s o l a c i o u s , K i n d e , n e a t , q u i c k , f e a t , b r i g h t , compt, r i p e , c h o i c e , d e a r , p r e c i o u s , • A l l u r i n g , c o u r t l y , c o m e l y , f i n e , c o m p l e a t , W i s e , p e r s o n a b l e , r a v i s h i n g and s w e e t . Come j o y e s e n j o y , t h e L o r d c e l e s t i a l H a t h g i v ' n e n o u g h , w h e r e w i t h t o p l e a s e us a l l , ( p p . 156-157). "Come j o y e s e n j o y " : t h i s c o u l d be t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o v e r t h e g a t e o f t h e Abbey o f C o k a y g n e . I f we b r i n g t o m i n d once more t h e anonymous g o l i a r d i c c l e r k whom we p o s i t as t h e a u t h o r , we w i l l n o t e x p e c t t h e c e n s u r e o f t h e monks and nuns o f C o k a y g n e t o be t o o s e v e r e . We m i g h t a l m o s t i m a g i n e t h a t he h i m s e l f w o u l d h a v e been welcome a t T h e l e m a i f he h a d been a b l e t o r e a d G r e e k as w e l l as L a t i n . I n S t , P a t r i c k ( E S E L ) . t h e k n i g h t Owayn l o o k s b a c k on h i s " o t h e r w o r l d " e x p e r i e n c e a n d r e c a l l s t h a t i t was t h e g r e y monks who h a d most j o y i n p a r a d i s e (663-664). C e r t a i n l y when p e o p l e of t h e M i d d l e Ages t h o u g h t o f p a r a d i s e , t h e y t h o u g h t o f t h e h o l y men and women t h e r e . A n d so I t h i n k t h a t Howard P a t c h i s m i s -t a k e n i n r e g a r d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e m e r e l y as a v e h i c l e f o r s a t i r i z i n g t h e monks and n u n s , and i n t r e a t i n g t h e e p i s o d e as a s e p a r a t e u n i t w i t h i n t h e poem. P a r a d i s e i t s e l f i s t h e o b j e c t o f r i d i c u l e - - i t s r i v e r s o f p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , i t s t r e e w i t h a b u n d a n t f r u i t , i t s r o s e s and l i l i e s n e v e r - f a d i n g , i t s h o l y men and women who w a i t t h e r e t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e i r s o u l s . The w h o l e i d e a and t h e l e g e n d s w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e t h i s v e n e r a b l e i d e a a r e b u r l e s q u e d , B a r i n g - G o u l d ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e t a l e s o f t h e 71 F o r t u n a t e I s l e s a r e b e i n g r i d i c u l e d may t h u s be p u t a s i d e , w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t , s i n c e t h e w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n p a r a d i s e s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e t r a d i t i o n s , no f i n a l j u d g e m e n t s can be made* A c c o r d i n g t o my a n a l y s i s , h o w e v e r , t h e p a r o d y i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e p a r a d i s e o f t h e s a i n t s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e p u r p o s e s o f a s a t i r i c u t o p i a a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d , most o f a l l . i n t h e s a t i r e on t h e c o n c u b i n a g e o f t h e monks and n u n s . The poem may t h u s be t a k e n o u t o f t h e c o n -t e x t o f M i d d l e E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e and g i v e n i t s l a r g e r l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t may be s e e n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t o r i e s o f S t . B r e n d a n and S t . P a t r i c k and M a n d e v i l l e ' s T r a v e l s , and i n r e l a -t i o n t o a work l i k e E r e w h o n as w e l l . PART I I THE LAND OF COKAYGNE AS UTOPIA 73 C h a p t e r IV THE FOLK ORIGINS OF THE COKAYGNE THEME Thus f a r we h a v e c o n s i d e r e d The L a n d o f Cokaygne as a p a r o d y i n t h e s k e p t i c a l and s a t i r i c a l v e i n o f t h e g o l i a r d i c p o e t s . We h a v e t h o u g h t o f i t as a poem o f game and s o l a c e . We s h a l l t u r n now t o t h e s e n t e n c e i n t h e poem, f o r t h e r e i s s e n t e n c e h e r e . The s e v e r a l C o k a y g n e m o t i f s — t h e r o a s t g o o s e , t h e h o u s e s r o o f e d w i t h c a k e s , t h e s p r i n g s o f t r e a c l e and s p i c e d w i n e , t h e w o n d e r f u l s p i c e t r e e — a r e u s e d i n a l i t e r a r y way t o b u r l e s q u e t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . Y e t t h e poem i n v i t e s a r e a c -t i o n t o s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e i r o n i c . I t i n v i t e s a r e a c t i o n t o p o v e r t y and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e and t o a b u n d a n c e and e q u a l i t y . I t i n v i t e s us who r e a d i t i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t o t h i n k a b o u t i t i n t e r m s o f U t o p i a n , l i t e r a t u r e . I t i n v i t e s us t o b e l i e v e i n C o k a y g n e , t h e p o o r man's u t o p i a . But what i s C o k a y g n e , and what does i t h a v e t o do w i t h u t o p i a ? And what i s t h e c o n n e c -t i o n b e t w e e n t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h poem and t h e u t o p i a ? The C o k a y g n e t r a d i t i o n b e l o n g s t o t h e f o l k , and t h e c o m i c s o n g s and s t o r i e s o f t h i s l a n d o f l u x u r i o u s l i v i n g a p p e a r i n many c o u n t r i e s and many a g e s . I n Denmark i t i s O v e r d a a d i q h e d n s v e r -den ( w o r l d o f d i s s i p a t i o n ) , a nd i n Sweden i t i s L a t t i n g e r s l a n d ( l a n d o f l o a f e r s ) . * I t a l y h a s i t s C u c c a g n a w i t h a m o u n t a i n o f A c k e r m a n n , p . 7 8 . 74 c h e e s e and a c a u l d r o n o f m a c a r o n i * I n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s we know Cokaygne b e s t as t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s , w h e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e hobo .1 o n g l e u r , " t h e r e a r e l a k e s o f s t e w and w h i s k e y t o o / Y o u can p a d d l e a l l a r o u n d i n a b i g c a n o e . " 3 I n Germany i t i s c a l l e d S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d , a n d f i r s t a p p e a r s i n German f o l k l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s I n d i v i d u a l S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d - C o k a y g n e m o t i f s may be r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e German mSrchen. T h o s e f a m i l i a r f a i r y t a l e s i n w h i c h t a b l e s s p r e a d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h f o o d and c e r t a i n o b j e c t s m a g i c a l l y p r o -duce a u t o m a t i c w e a l t h may be r e c o g n i z e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s 5 t r a d i t i o n . I n t h e s e f o l k s o n g s and t a l e s t h e b u r l e s q u e e l e m e n t i s p r o m i n e n t . They t e l l a b o u t a f a n t a s t i c , t o p s y - t u r v y w o r l d o f a b u n d a n c e . But f a n t a s y n eeds t h e w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e , w h e t h e r d i r e c t o r v i c a r i o u s , f o r what i s f a n t a s y b u t a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e r e a l w o r l d ? B e h i n d t h e a n c i e n t s t o r i e s a b o u t r i v e r s o f w i n e , m i l k and h o n e y and o t h e r r i v e r s o f b l a c k b r o t h and p e a s e p o r r i d g e i s t h e a g e - o l d s t r u g g l e o f man a g a i n s t n a t u r e . T h e r e J o h a n n e s B o l t e and G e o r g P o l i v k a , Anmerkungen zu den K i n d e r  u-HausmHrchen d e r B r u d e r Grimm ( L e i p z i g , 1918), I I I , 2 4 6 - 2 4 7 • 3 ^ s c h l a r a f f e , an i d l e r f o r ^ d o f g o o d l i v i n g , f r o m MHG. s l u r l a z y p e r s o n ( E t y m o l o g i s c h e s W o r t e r b u c h d e r d e u t s c h e n S p r a c h e , e d . F r i e d r i c h K l u g e , 17th e d . r e v . W a l t e r M i t z k a ( B e r l i n , 1957). See S t i t h Thompson, M o t i f - I n d e x o f F o l k L i t e r a t u r e , r e v . ( C o p e n h a g e n , 1955), V, 531, n o , X I5O3 and I I I , 197, n o . F 701. ^ A c k e r m a n n , p . 8 1 , 5 I b i d . , p p , 119-120, 75 i s e v i d e n c e t h a t b o t h t h e g o l d e n age myth and t h e Cokaygne f o l k b u r l e s q u e h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n s i n t h e s e a s o n a l a g r a r i a n r i t e s by w h i c h men f r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l h a v e s o u g h t t o i n d u c e t h e r e t u r n o f an ample s u p p l y o f f o o d and w a t e r . We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e G r e e k p o e t s o f t h e O l d Comedy b u r -l e s q u e d t h e commonplaces a b o u t t h e g o l d e n a g e . The s t o r i e s o f t h e g o l d e n age came f i r s t and t h e c o m i c a c c o u n t s f o l l o w e d , b e i n g i n v e n t i o n s o f t h e l i t e r a r y m i n d . But t h e p o e t s i n i n v e n t i n g r i v e r s o f b r o t h f l o w i n g by t h e c o u c h e s may t h e m s e l v e s h a v e been d r a w i n g on an o l d f o l k t r a d i t i o n . T h i s i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n p u t f o r w a r d by C a m p b e l l B o n n e r i n " D i o n y s i a c M a g i c and t h e G r e e k L a n d o f C o k a i g n e . * 1 ^ He a r g u e s t h a t t h e m o t i f o f t h e r i v e r s o f w i n e i n t h e Cokaygne f a n t a s y may h a v e h a d i t s o r i g i n i n t h e D i o n y s i a c v e g e t a t i o n r i t e s s u c h as t h e one d e s c r i b e d i n The B a c c h a n a l s . I n E u r i p i d e s 1 p l a y t h e c e l e b r a n t s make t h e e a r t h f l o w w i t h w i n e , m i l k and h o n e y . The her d s m a n d e s c r i b e s t h e r i t e s p e r f o r m e d by t h e f r e n z i e d women: One g r a s p e d h e r t h y r s u s - s t a f f , and smote t h e r o c k , And f o r t h u p l e a p t a f o u n t a i n ' s s h o w e r i n g s p r a y : One i n e a r t h ' s bosom p l a n t e d h e r r e e d - v r a n d . And up t h e r e t h r o u g h t h e God a w i n e - f o u n t s e n t : And whoso f a i n w o u l d d r i n k w h i t e - f o a m i n g d r a u g h t s S c a r r e d w i t h t h e i r f i n g e r - t i p s t h e b r e a s t o f e a r t h . And m i l k g u s h e d f o r t h u n s t i n t e d : d r i p p e d t h e w h i l e S weet s t r e a m s o f h o n e y f r o m t h e i r i v y - s t a v e s . ' J a n e H a r r i s o n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e l i n e s i s i n t e r e s t i n g T r a n s a c t i o n s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n P h i l o l o g i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n . X L I (1910). 175-185. 7 E u r i p i d e s : P l a y s , t r a n s . A. S. Way, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , I I I ( L o n d o n , 1950), 6 1 , l i n e s 704-711* 76 f o r t h e l i g h t i t t h r o w s on t h e D i o n y s i a c r i t u a l as a f e r t i l i t y r i t e o The f r e n z i e d B a c c h a n t s a r e c e l e b r a t i n g on Mount C i t h a e r o n t h e r i t e o f t h e New B i r t h , i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d a p p r o a c h i n g man-h o o d must d i e ( t h a t i s , l e a v e h i s m o t h e r ) and be b o r n a g a i n . They a r e t h e m o t h e r s and n u r s e s o f t h e h o l y c h i l d who h a s now grown t o be a y o u n g man. T h a t y o u n g man i s D i o n y s u s . He em-b o d i e s t h e s p i r i t o f t h e h o l y b u l l , s y m b o l o f f e r t i l i t y . The m o t h e r s , t h e n , as t h e b e a r e r s o f y o u n g men, a r e t h e g i v e r s o f l i f e and t h e y h a v e t h e power t o make t h e e a r t h y i e l d i t s f r u i t s . W i n e , w a t e r , m i l k a n d honey s p r i n g f r o m t h e r o c k s a t t h e t o u c h 8 o f t h e i r wands. One can s e e how l e g e n d s a b o u t m i r a c u l o u s s t r e a m s m i g h t g r o w f r o m c u l t s s u c h as t h i : s ~ . T h r o u g h m i m e s i s w h i c h may be an a c t o f m a g i c t h e p e o p l e s e e k t o e n s u r e t h e r e t u r n o f an ample s u p p l y o f f o o d and w a t e r . And as t h e y s i m u l a t e t h e r u s h o f w i n e o r o f m i l k o r h o n e y t h e y u t t e r t h e m y t h o s , t h e s p o k e n words w h i c h accompany t h e a c t e d r i t e . E v e n t u a l l y t h e y w i l l c e a s e t o b e l i e v e Q i n t h e r i t e , b u t t h e y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o u t t e r t h e w o r d s . Words s u c h as t h e s e w o u l d be h a n d e d down f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n and w o u l d s u p p l y t h e p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l f o r a f a b l e o f a l a n d o f p e a c e and p l e n t y where t h e t o i l - d r i v e n p e a s a n t m i g h t l i e on h i s b a c k b e s i d e a r i v e r o f w i n e and l e t t h e f o o d d r o p i n t o h i s m o u t h . 8 T h e m i s , a S t u d y o f t h e S o c i a l O r i g i n s o f G r e e k R e l i g i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , E n g . , 1912), p p . 3 9 - 4 2 . 9 I b i d . , p p . 3 2 7 - 3 3 0 . 77 I n one o f t h e d i a l o g u e s o f L u c i a n , t h e f a m i l i a r C o k a y g n e m o t i f s a r e d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e S a t u r n a l i a , t h e p a g a n f e s t i v a l o f s o w i n g * The G r e e k s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e g o l d e n age h a d f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e Age o f K r o n o s and t h e y c o m p a r e d t h i s t i m e o f p e a c e a nd l e i s u r e w i t h t h e i r own age o f s t r i f e a n d t o i l , t h e Age o f Z e u s . K r o n o s was a p r e - H e l l e n i c d e i t y and he seems t o h a v e been r e g a r d e d as a h a r v e s t g o d , a d a e m o n - k i n g who b e l o n g e d t o 10 t h e e a r t h and. i t s s e a s o n s , n o t l i k e Zeus a k i n g o f t h e s k i e s . H i s f e s t i v a l was t h e K r o n i a , t h e p r e c u r s o r o f t h e Roman S a t u r -n a l i a , and some i d e a o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e f e s t i v i t i e s may be f o u n d i n t h e S a t u r n a l i a o f L u c i a n . The K r o n o s o f L u c i a n ' s d i a l o g u e , c a r i c a t u r e d as a g o u t y o l d man, d e s c r i b e s what i s a l l o w e d a t h i s f e s t i v a l : What I may do i s d r i n k and be d r u n k , s h o u t , p l a y games and d i c e , a p p o i n t m a s t e r s o f t h e r e v e l s , f e a s t t h e s e r v a n t s , s i n g s t a r k n a k e d , c l a p a n d s h a k e , and s o m e t i m e s e v e n g e t p u s h e d h e a d - f i r s t i n t o ^ c o l d w a t e r w i t h my f a c e s m e a r e d w i t h s o o t . K r o n o s r e i g n s f o r s e v e n d a y s , and d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l r e l a x a t i o n o f r e s t r a i n t s . S l a v e s s i t down at t a b l e w i t h t h e i r m a s t e r s and e v e r y o n e d r i n k s t h e same w i n e . K r o n o s t e l l s us t h a t he t a k e s o v e r s o v e r e i g n t y f o r t h i s b r i e f t i m e t o r e m i n d men what l i f e was l i k e i n h i s r e i g n . I t was a t i m e when e v e r y t h i n g grew f o r them w i t h o u t s o w i n g and w i t h o u t p l o u g h i n g — n o t e a r s o f w h e a t , b u t l o a v e s r e a d y - b a k e d and meats r e a d y - c o o k e d . 1 0 I b i d . . p p . 495-496. ^ T r a n s . K. K i l b u r n , L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , V I ( L o n d o n , 1959), P. 91. 78 Wine f l o w e d l i k e a r i v e r , and t h e r e were s p r i n g s o f h o n e y and m i l k ; f o r e v e r y o n e was g o o d , p u r e g o l d * T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n f o r my s h o r t - l i v e d d o m i n i o n , and why e v e r y w h e r e t h e r e i s c l a p p i n g and s i n g i n g and p l a y i n g games, and e v e r y o n e , s l a v e a n d f r e e man, i s h e l d as go o d as h i s n e i g h b o u r . 1 2 L u c i a n t h i n k s o f t h e g o l d e n age as a t i m e when l o a v e s came r e a d y - b a k e d and meats r e a d y r c o o k e d . A t t h e S a t u r n a l i a t h e p e o p l e r e - e n a c t e d t h a t t i m e , p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e p r i m i t i v e o r g i a s t i c r i t e s by w h i c h an a g r a r i a n p e o p l e h a d h o p e d t o e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e on 13 t h e f e r t i l i t y o f t h e s e e d . ^ S h r o v e t i d e and L e n t e n C a r n i v a l and t h e F e a s t o f F o o l s go ba c k u l t i m a t e l y t o some s u c h p e r i o d o f l i c e n s e and r i t u a l as t h e S a t u r n a l i a . * 4 T h a t S h r o v e T u e s d a y h a d a r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r E n g l i s h c o u n t r y p e o p l e i s c o n f i r m e d by an e n t r y i n a Book o f  K n o w l e d g e , d a t e d 1703: "On S h r o v e T u e s d a y , w h o s o e v e r d o t h p l a n t o r sow, i t s h a l l r e m a i n a l w a y s g r e e n : how much t h e sun d i d 15 s h i n e t h a t d a y , so much s h a l l i t s h i n e e v e r y day i n L e n t • . • A r e l a t i o n s h i p may be e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n Cokaygne a n d t h e s e f o l k f e s t i v a l s w i t h t h e i r r e m o t e r i t u a l o r i g i n s . I n Germany i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , F a s t n a c h t s p i e l e n , u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d a t S h r o v e t i d e , c o n t a i n S c h l a r a f f c h a r a c t e r s and d e a l w i t h an 1 2 I b i d . , p . 99. 13 ^ S i r James G e o r g e F r a z e r , The New G o l d e n Bough, e d . T h e o d o r H. G a s t e r (New Y o r k , 1959), P P . 559-560, 14 I b i d . , p p . 566-570. J o h n B r a n d , O b s e r v a  G r e a t B r i t a i n , r e v . S i r H e n r y E l l i s ( L o n d o n , 1 8 9 0 ) , 15 J o h n B r a n d , O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e P o p u l a r A n t i q u i t i e s o f 79 abundance o f f o o d and l a z y l i v i n g * " ^ C o k a y g n e and C a r n i v a l a r e f u r t h e r l i n k e d by t r a d i t i o n a l games i n v o l v i n g t h e mat de c o c a g n e . A s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y F l e m i s h p a i n t i n g shows a c i r c l e o f p e o p l e 17 d a n c i n g a r o u n d a t a l l p o l e t o p p e d w i t h t h i n g s t o e a t . T h a t i t was a L e n t e n h o l i d a y c u s t o m i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e r e c o r d o f a s i m i l a r e v e n t w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n N a p l e s on t h e T h u r s d a y b e f o r e L e n t . A t t h a t t i m e a p y r a m i d d e c k e d w i t h g e e s e , s a u s a g e s and o t h e r f o o d s was c a r r i e d i n p r o c e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s . T h i s 18 c u c c a g n a was t h e n a b a n d o n e d t o t h e p e o p l e f o r them t o e n j o y . C l i m b i n g a g r e a s e d p o l e t o w i n a p r i z e a t t h e t o p i s s t i l l a t r a d i t i o n a l h o l i d a y s t u n t a n d t h a t g r e a s e d p o l e i s t h e mat de 19 c o c a g n e . S p e a k i n g o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l S h r o v e t i d e games and a n c i e n t s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e s . Chambers s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r i z e a t t h e t o p o f t h e p o l e was o r i g i n a l l y a s a c r i f i -c i a l v i c t i m w h i c h , b u r i e d i n a f i e l d , w o u l d b r i n g a b u n d a n t c r o p s t o t h e o w n e r . We h a v e s e e n how a r e v e r s a l o f s t a t u s i n t h e m i d s t o f abun-d a n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e S a t u r n a l i a as d e s c r i b e d by L u c i a n . The 16 A c k e r m a n n , p p . 83-84. 17 " N a s e n t a n z z u G u m p e l s b r u n n " by N i c o l a u s M i l d e m a n n , r e p r o -d u c e d by A c k e r m a n n , p . 59, f r o m L o u i s M a e t e r l i n c k , Le G e n r e  s a t i r i q u e dans l a P e i n t u r e f l a m a n d e ( B r u x e l l e s , 1903). x B o l t e and P o l i v k a , I I I , 248. 19 "mat e l e v e , l i s s e e t g l i s s a n t , au sommet d u q u e l s o n t s u s p e n d u s des o b j e t s q u ' i l f a u t a l l e r d e c r o c h e r " (Nouveau p e t i t L a r o u s s e i l l u s t r e : D i c t i o n n a i r e e n c y c l o p e d i q u e , s o u s l a d i r e c -t i o n de C l a u d e Auge e t P a u l Auge [ P a r i s , 1924], s . v . " c o c a g n e " ) . 20 ' ' C h a m b e r s , I , 148-149. 80 s l a v e s a t down a t t a b l e a n d was s e r v e d by h i s m a s t e r and d r a n k h i s w i n e * N o r m a l r u l e s o f d e c o r u m were a b a n d o n e d and g e n e r a l l i c e n s e p r e v a i l e d * We may s e e t h e same theme i n a m e d i e v a l c h u r c h f e s t i v a l , t h e F e a s t o f F o o l s , w h i c h was e s s e n t i a l l y a f o l k f e s t i -21 v a l * "The r u l i n g i d e a o f t h e f e a s t , " o b s e r v e s E* K. Chambers, " i s t h e i n v e r s i o n o f s t a t u s , and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , i n e v i t a b l y b u r l e s q u e , by t h e i n f e r i o r c l e r g y o f f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y b e l o n g i n g 22 t o t h e i r b e t t e r s * " A t t h i s t i m e t h e l o w e r c l e r g y e l e c t e d one o f t h e i r own as pope o r b i s h o p t o l e a d them i n t h e i r p r o f a n e c e l e b r a t i o n s * The f e a s t began a t V e s p e r s w i t h t h e s i n g i n g o f a l i n e f r o m t h e M a g n i f i c a t : "He h a t h p u t down t h e m i g h t y f r o m t h e i r s e a t s , and e x a l t e d them o f l o w d e g r e e * " D u r i n g t h e s i n g i n g o f t h i s l i n e t h e l e a d e r o f t h e r e v e l s was p r o b a b l y g i v e n t h e s y m b o l o f h i s new o f f i c e , t h e b a c u l u s o r s t a f f u s e d t o c o n d u c t t h e c h o i r * D e p o s u i t became t h e s y m b o l i c u t t e r a n c e and "was h a i l e d w i t h i n o r d i n a t e r e p e t i t i o n by t h e d e l i g h t e d t h r o n g o f 23 i n f e r i o r c l e r g y * " One C h u r c h d e c r e e a i m e d a t c u r b i n g t h e e x u b e r a n c e o f t h e l o w e r c l e r g y a t t h i s t i m e s t a t e d t h a t d e p o s u i t was n o t t o be s u n g more t h a n f i v e t i m e s * We h a v e a t y p i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a n t i c s o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t s i n a l e t t e r o f c e n s u r e w h i c h an o u t r a g e d t h e o l o g i a n a d d r e s s e d t o 2 1 I b i d . , pp* 325-327. 22 I b i d * , p . 326* M o r t o n , pp* 21-24* u s e s Chambers' d e s -c r i p t i o n o f t h e F e a s t o f F o o l s t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n C o k a y g n e and t h e f o l k f e s t i v a l * 2 3 C h a m b e r s , I , 278. 2 4 I b i d . , p . 277. 81 h i s b i s h o p i n 1445: P r i e s t s and c l e r k s may be s e e n w e a r i n g masks and m o n s t r o u s v i s a g e s a t t h e h o u r s o f o f f i c e . They d a n c e i n t h e c h o i r d r e s s e d as women, p a n d e r s o r m i n s t r e l s . They s i n g wanton s o n g s . They e a t b l a c k p u d d i n g s a t t h e h o r n o f t h e a l t a r w h i l e t h e c e l e b r a n t i s s a y i n g m a s s . They p l a y d i c e t h e r e . They c e n s e w i t h s t i n k i n g smoke f r o m t h e s o l e s o f o l d s h o e s . They r u n and l e a p t h r o u g h t h e c h u r c h , w i t h o u t a b l u s h a t t h e i r own shame. F i n a l l y t h e y d r i v e a b o u t t h e town and i t s t h e a t r e s i n s h a b b y t r a p s and c a r t s ; and r o u s e t h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e i r f e l l o w s and t h e b y s t a n d e r s i n i n f a m o u s p e r f o r m a n c e s , w i t h i n d e c e n t g e s t u r e s and v e r s e s s c u r r i l o u s and unchaste.25 The t h e o l o g i a n ' s l e t t e r e c h o e s t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n by L u c i a n ' s K r o n o s o f h i s S a t u r n a l i a . I t a l s o e c h o e s t h a t p a s s a g e a l r e a d y 2 6 q u o t e d f r o m t h e G a m b l e r ' s Mass o f t h e g o l i a r d s . T h a t p r o f a n e mass r e a d s l i k e a b o i s t e r o u s r e p l y t o any r e f o r m i n g c h u r c h m a n who m i g h t t r y t o do away w i t h t h e f e s t i v i t i e s : "Ego sum abbas C u c a n i e n s i s e t c o n s i l i u m meum e s t cum b i b u l i s , e t i n s e c t a 27 D e c i i mea v o l u n t a s e s t , • • . Chambers s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g o l i a r d s p r o b a b l y d i d t a k e p a r t i n t h e F e a s t o f F o o l s , and t h a t 28 i t was t h e y who p r o v i d e d t h e w i t and i n g e n u i t y . One m i g h t a l -most i m a g i n e t h a t t h i s mock a b b o t o f C o k a y g n e h a d a t some t i m e b e en h a n d e d t h e b a c u l u s and l e d h i s v i c a r s i n c h a n t i n g d e p o s u i t more t h a n f i v e t i m e s . 2 5 , ' C i t e d i n t r a n s l a t i o n by C h a m b e rs, I , 294 f r o m a l e t t e r by a member o f t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P a r i s . 26 See a b o v e , p . 39« 27 The L a t i n o r i g i n a l o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e G a m b l e r ' s Mass i s g i v e n by A c k e r m a n n , p p . 41-42. 2 ^ I , 326. 82 I n t h e E n g l i s h Mummers 1 P l a y t h e Cokaygne f a n t a s y a g a i n a p p e a r s . I t h a s come down t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y f r o m e a r l y t i m e s , t h o u g h r e c o r d s o f i t s p e r f o r m a n c e do n o t a p p e a r u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y when g e n t r y l i k e t h e 29 P a s t o n s gave t h e i r p a t r o n a g e t o t h e p l a y e r s . We c a n n o t know how c l o s e l y , i f a t a l l , t h e p l a y s as we know them t o d a y r e s e m b l e t h o s e i n w h i c h S i r J o h n P a s t o n ' s man p l a y e d t h e p a r t o f S t . G e o r g e . We h a v e a l r e a d y n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e p e r s i s t e n c e and v i t a l i t y o f t h e C o k a y g n e m o t i f s and so i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e s e m o t i f s d i d o c c u r i n t h e e a r l y p l a y s . E v e n i f t h e y d i d n o t , t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e v e r s i o n s we know t o d a y i s s t i l l a m a t t e r o f i n t e r e s t . A r e g u l a r f e a t u r e o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i s a s t e r e o t y p e d n o n s e n s e p a t t e r d e l i v e r e d by t h e g r o t e s q u e s u p e r n u m e r a r i e s i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e p l a y . I n t h e W e s t o n - s u b - E d q e P l a y f r o m G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e two o f t h e s e s t o c k c h a r a c t e r s , B e e l z e b u b and J a c k F i n n e y , d e l i v e r a t y p i c a l r e c i t a l . B e e l z e b u b s p e a k s f i r s t i n t h i s v e i n : I went on a b i t f u r t h e r , I came t o a l i t t l e b i g h o u s e , I k n o c k e d a t t h e d o o r and t h e m a i d f e l l o u t . She a s k e d i f I c o u l d e a t a cup o f h e r c i d e r and d r i n k a h a r d c r u s t o f h e r b r e a d . And so o n . J a c k F i n n e y t h e n s p e a k s * Now my l a d s we've come t o t h e l a n d o f p l e n t y , r o s t s t o n e s £si_cj, p l u m p u d d i n g s , h o u s e s t h a t c h e d w i t h p a n c a k e s , and l i t t l e p i g s r u n n i n g a b o u t w i t h k n i v e s and f o r k s s t u c k i n t h e i r b a c k s c r y i n g ' W h o ' l l e a t me- w h o ' l l e a t rae?»30 R, J . E. T i d d y , The Mummers' P l a y ( O x f o r d , 1923), P« 91. I b i d . , p . 168. D i s c u s s e d by M o r t o n , p p . 20-21. 83 The C o k a y g n e m o t i f a p p e a r s i n a number o f o t h e r p l a y s i n t h e T i d d y c o l l e c t i o n , u s u a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a n o n s e n s i c a l j o u r n e y i n a t o p s y - t u r v y l a n d * 3 * Grimm's Das M Srchen vom S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d i s b a s e d on t h i s same m o t i f , Grimm d e r i v e d h i s s t o r y f r o m a t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t a l e w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a r e c i t a l o f i m p o s s i b i l i t i e s — a p l o u g h p l o u g h i n g w i t h o u t a h o r s e , a l e g l e s s man r u n n i n g , e t c . - - i n a l a n d where h o t w a f f l e s grow 32 on l i n d e n t r e e s and h o n e y f l o w s i n s t r e a m s . We h a v e s e e n , t h e n , t h a t C a r n i v a l and C o k a y g n e go t o -g e t h e r . I n t h e S h r o v e t i d e games t h e mat de c o c a g n e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f u n . I n t h e F e a s t o f F o o l s t h e mock a b b o t l e a d s t h e r e v e l s i n t h e r o i s t e r i n g manner o f t h e a b b o t o f C o k a y g n e . The C o k aygne theme a p p e a r s a l s o i n t h e F a s t n a c h t s p i e l e n and Mummers' P l a y w i t h t h e i r r e m o t e r i t u a l o r i g i n s . C l e a r l y t h e C o k a y g n e i d e a i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h o s e p e r i o d s o f l i c e n s e w h i c h h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e p a g a n r i t e s t h r o u g h w h i c h man i n e a r l i e s t t i m e s a t t e m p t e d t o e x e r c i s e some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e n a t u r a l f o r c e s on w h i c h h i s f o o d s u p p l y d e p e n d e d . I t i s a f a n t a s y , m o r e o v e r , w h i c h g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o a r o b u s t f o l k humour. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s an e l e m e n t o f g e n u i n e d e s i r e i n i t , a d e s i r e t o r e -c r e a t e t h e g o l d e n age h e r e on e a r t h . 31 S ' a p p e r t o n , p . 171; L o n g b o r o u g h . p p . 1 8 1 , I83; Lower Hey-f o r d j , p . 219; I l m i n g t o n , p . 226; K e m p f o r d , p . 252, 32 J A c k e r m a n n , p p . 6, 143~144» 84 C h a p t e r V UTOPIA, ANTI-UTOPIA AND THE LAND OF COKAYGNE The f o l k c e l e b r a t i o n s I h a v e been d e s c r i b i n g c o u l d v e r y w e l l h a v e been t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t among t h e common p e o p l e o f dreams o f a b e t t e r w o r l d . One may t h i n k o f t h e Cokaygne dream as an e s c a p e f r o m r e a l i t y . But a dream i s a l s o a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d as we w o u l d l i k e i t t o b e , an i m i t a t i o n o f some i d e a l form.'*' L o o k e d a t i n t h i s way, t h e r e - c r e a t i o n o f t h e g o l d e n age i n t h e C o k a y g n e f a n t a s y b ecomes, n o t an anodyne f o r p r e s e n t m i s e r y , b u t a p o s i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f man's d e s i r e f o r a b e t t e r l i f e . The L a n d o f Co k a y g n e f o r a l l i t s g a i e t y p r e s e r v e s t h i s s e r i o u s , p o s i t i v e m e a n i n g . And so i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s M i d d l e E n g l i s h poem w i t h i t s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e g o o d l i f e f o r a l l i s a p r i m i t i v e f o l k u t o p i a . One o f t h e few p e o p l e t o i n t e r p r e t The L a n d o f Cokaygne i n t h i s way i s A. L. M o r t o n i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f The E n g l i s h  U t o p i a . He s e e s t h e poem as t h e f i r s t E n g l i s h u t o p i a , " t h e b e -g i n n i n g o f a d i a l e c t i c a l g r o w t h o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f U t o p i a " ( p . 33)» I a g r e e t h a t t h e poem does c o n t a i n t h e germ o f t h e u t o p i a n i d e a l , t h o u g h I t h i n k i t u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t l i n e o f d e s c e n t b e t w e e n i t and t h e u t o p i a . M o r t o n s t r e s s e s t h e u t o p i a n a s p e c t o f t h e poem, t r e a t i n g t h e work as s o c i a l h i s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n as l i t e r a t u r e . S u c h an e m p h a s i s d i s t o r t s t h e poem F r y e , p p . I83-I84 85 and e x a g g e r a t e s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a poem o f s o c i a l c o n t e n t . C o k a y g n e i s one t h i n g . The L a n d o f Cokaygne i s a n o t h e r . C o k a y g n e c o u l d i n d e e d be d e s c r i b e d as " t h e U t o p i a o f t h e h a r d - d r i v e n s e r f * ( p . 14), and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h I h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n C o k a y g n e and c e r t a i n p r i m i t i v e a g r a r i a n r i t e s g i v e s s u p p o r t t o t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . B u t I h a v e a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e p o e t u s e s t h e C o k a y g n e m o t i f s w i t h a c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y p u r p o s e t o make f u n o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . A l w a y s k e e p i n g t h i s s a t i r i c p u r p o s e i n m i n d , we may s t u d y t h e poem f u r t h e r f o r t h a t u t o p i a n e l e m e n t w h i c h g i v e s i t g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h and l i f e . B u r l e s q u i n g t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , he o f f e r s a v i s i o n o f h i s own. T h i s i s by no means t h e a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f a New J e r u s a l e m i n E n g l a n d * s g r e e n and p l e a s a n t l a n d , f o r t h i s p o e t i s , as C h a u c e r m i g h t h a v e s a i d , " b e t w i x e n e r n e s t and game. 1* The b a l a n c e i s a d e l i c a t e o n e , t h e u t o p i a n e l e m e n t p r o v i d i n g t h e t e n s i o n i n t h e poem. I t seems t o me t h a t M o r t o n , i n m a k i n g u s e o f t h e s e n t e n c e f o r h i s own a r g u m e n t , h a s made a s o c i a l document o u t o f a poem i n w h i c h t h e r e i s much so l a s a n d t h u s d e s t r o y e d t h i s . b a l a n c e . I t i s v e r y e a s y t o make a s o c i a l document o u t o f t h i s poem. One i s t e m p t e d f i r s t o f a l l t o make a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e anonymous p o e t . But h e r e a g o o d d e a l o f c a u t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . I f he were i n d e e d a w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r , he w o u l d b e l o n g t o a c l a s s who w o u l d h o l d t h e p e a s a n t i n c o n t e m p t . The C h u r c h h a d a l o w o p i n i o n o f p e a s a n t s , whom i t t h o u g h t t o be l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n b e a s t s , c u n n i n g a nd s l y and i n c a p a b l e o f t h e f i n e r 86 f e e l i n g s . The c l e r k s h a r e d t h i s a t t i t u d e . G o l i a r d i c p a r o d i e s o f p r a y e r s and o f f i c e s s o m e t i m e s e n d e d w i t h a p r a y e r a g a i n s t t h e p e a s a n t s , a s k i n g t h a t "we may l i v e o f t h e i r l a b o u r s , e n j o y t h e i r 3 w i v e s , and r e j o i c e i n t h e i r m o r t i f i c a t i o n . " The humorous P e a s a n t s * C a t e c h i s m by a s c h o l a r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i e n n a ( f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) r e p e a t s t h i s p r a y e r and f u r t h e r e c h o e s t h e s c o r n o f t h e c l e r k f o r t h e r u s t i c : What p a r t o f s p e e c h i s p e a s a n t [ r u s t i c u s ] ? — a Noun.--What s o r t o f n o u n ? - - J e w i s h . - - W h e r e f o r e ? — B e c a u s e he i s as s i l l y and u g l y as a Jew « . . . What g e n d e r ? - - T h e a s i n i n e g e n d e r ; f o r i n a l l h i s deeds and w o r k s he i s e v e r l i k e u n t o an a s s . . . . 4 The p o e t o f L f O r d r e de B e l A y s e e x p r e s s l y e x c l u d e s p e a s a n t s f r o m h i s happy s o c i e t y o f monks and n u n s : Mes a r i b a l d z e a p e s a u n t z E s t l ' o r d r e d e l t o t d e f e n d u . (20-22). They w o u l d be a d i s g r a c e t o t h e o r d e r , f o r t h e y h a v e no more m o d e r a t i o n t h a n t h e w o l f who d e v o u r s lambs (27-28). T h i s poem, c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e , c o u l d a l s o v e r y w e l l h a v e been w r i t t e n by a c l e r k . E v e n i f t h e r e f e r e n c e t o p e a s a n t s i s p a r t o f t h e s a t i r e a g a i n s t l a m b - e a t i n g monks, i t s t i l l i l l u s -t r a t e s a p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e r u s t i c . H u m a n i t a r i a n s y m p a t h y t o w a r d t h e d o w n t r o d d e n i s a modern phenomenon. L a n g l a n d 2 G . G. C o u l t o n , The M e d i e v a l V i l l a g e ( C a m b r i d g e , E n g . , 1925), p p . 231-252. ^ M a c C u l l o c h , M e d i e v a l F a i t h and F a b l e , p . 2 8 2 . 4 C i t e d by C o u l t o n , The M e d i e v a l V i l l a g e , p . 235. 87 u t t e r s a c o m p a s s i o n a t e c r y f o r t h e p o o r f o l k i n h o v e l s , b u t f o r t h e most p a r t t h e m e d i e v a l w r i t e r f i n d s t h e p e a s a n t a d i s t a s t e -f u l c r e a t u r e u n w o r t h y o f h i s sympathy."* W i t h t h e s e r e s e r v a t i o n s , I n e v e r t h e l e s s t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a l s e n s e i n w h i c h t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t does s p e a k w i t h t h e v o i c e o f t h e common man. What he h a s e x p e r i e n c e d h i m s e l f o r what he s e e s a r o u n d h i m he u n i v e r s a l i z e s , and so we h e a r h i m i n t e r r u p t i n g h i s humorous d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e w i t h a comment w h i c h r e v e a l s h i s s e n s e o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e : F l u r e n c a k e s bep pe s c h i n g l e s a l l e , o f c h e r c h e , c l o i s t e r , b o u r e , and h a l l e ; pe p i n n e s bep f a t p o d i n g e s - -r i c h met t o p r i n c e ^ and k i n g e s . man mai p e r - o f e t i n o ^ , a l w i p r i ^ t and n o ^ t w i p woo. a l i s commune t o ^nng and o l d , t o s t o u t e and s t e r n e , mek and b o l d . (57-64). What we h a v e h e r e i s t h e dream o f a b e t t e r l i f e i n . a t i m e w h e n men s h a l l e n j o y t h e f r u i t s o f t h e e a r t h w i t h o u t t o i l . T h i s i s t h e U t o p i a n t h e m e o f t h e poem and i t i s s t a t e d c l e a r l y n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g : I n c o k a i g n e i s met and d r i n k , w i p - v t e c a r e , how, and s w i n k . ( 1 7 - 1 8 ) . A n d a g a i n , l a t e r i n t h e poem: N i s no s p e c h o f no d r i n k ; ak t a k e i n o ^ w i p - v t e s w i n k . (111-112). • $ I b i d . , p . 252. 8 8 What i s b e i n g s t r e s s e d h e r e , as M o r t o n p o i n t s o u t ( p . 17)* i s n o t so much l a z i n e s s as t h e d e s i r e t o o b t a i n t h e means o f s u b -s i s t e n c e w i t h o u t t h a t e x c e s s i v e and u n r e m i t t i n g t o i l w h i c h was t h e l o t o f t h e p o o r . I n The L a n d o f C okaygne j o y and b l i s s comes f r o m t h r e e s q u a r e m e a l s a d a y : pe met i s t r i e , be d r i n k i s c l e r e , t o n o n e , r u s s i n , and s o p p e r . (19-20). I n t h e c o m i c s a t i r e . The Vox and t h e W o l f , t h e C okaygne i d e a l o f a b u n d a n c e w i t h o u t s w i n k i s r e p e a t e d i n a l m o s t t h e same w o r d s . R e y n a r d t r i c k s t h e w o l f i n t o d e s c e n d i n g i n t o a w e l l by d e s c r i b i n g t o h i m t h e p a r a d i s e w h i c h e x i s t s a t t h e b o t t o m : H e r i s pe b l i s s e o f p a r a d i i s ; H e r i c h mai e u e r e w e l f a r e , W i p - o u t e n p i n e , w i p o u t e n k a r e ; H e r i s mete, h e r i s d r i n k e , H e r i s b l i s s e w i p - o u t e n s w i n k e ; H e r n i s h o u n g e r neuermo, Ne non o p e r kunnes wo«6 The d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e h a s e v i d e n t l y been r e d u c e d t o a s t e r e o t y p e , and i t m i g h t seem a t f i r s t t h a t " w i p - v t e s w i n k " i s one o f t h o s e m e a n i n g l e s s t a g s w h i c h t h e m e d i e v a l p o e t u s e d t o f i l l o u t h i s v e r s e . But K e n n e t h S i s a m r e m i n d s us t h a t . • « t h e s e t a g s , more o r l e s s e m p t i e d o f m e a n i n g t h r o u g h common u s e , and r i d i c u l o u s by modern s t a n d a r d s , h a v e t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e economy o f s p o k e n v e r s e , where a g o o d v o i c e c a r r i e d them o f f . They h e l p e d o u t t h e c o m p o s e r i n n e e d o f a r i m e ; t h e r e c i t e r on h i s f e e t , c o m p e l l e d t o i m p r o -v i s e ; and t h e a u d i e n c e who, l a c k i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s p r i v i l e g e t o l i n g e r o v e r c l o s e - p a c k e d l i n e s , w e l -comed f a m i l i a r t u r n s t h a t by d i l u t i n g t h e s e n s e E a r l y M i d d l e E n g l i s h T e x t s , e d . B r u c e D i c k i n s and R. M. W i l s o n , 3rd e d . r e v . ( L o n d o n , 1956), P« 66, l i n e s I4O-I46. 89 made i t e a s i e r t o r e c e i v e * The C o k a y g n e p o e t ' s c l o s i n g a d d r e s s t o t h e ^ l o r d i n g e s gode and h e n d " i n d i c a t e s t h a t he h a d an a u d i e n c e l i s t e n i n g t o h i m * We h a v e a l r e a d y n o t e d p a s s a g e s i n t h e poem i n w h i c h t h e p o e t seemed t o be i m p r o v i s i n g on t h e theme o f p a r a d i s e * We h a v e a l s o n o t e d h i s u n d e r l y i n g s e r i o u s n e s s * T a k i n g t h e s e t h i n g s i n t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n , we may r e a s o n a b l y c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p h r a s e , " w i p - v t e s w i n k , " i s a c o n v e n i e n t b u t n o t a t a l l m e a n i n g l e s s t a g w h i c h does i n d e e d " d i l u t e t h e s e n s e " and make i t e a s i e r t o r e c e i v e * The u n d i l u t e d s e n s e o f t h i s t a g may be f o u n d i n a n o t h e r poem c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e * L i f e i n t h e M i d d l e A g es was made p r e c a r i o u s by f a m i n e , p e s t i l e n c e and w a r , and p o o r f o l k , w h e t h e r f a r m l a b o u r e r s o r town d w e l l e r s , were e n g a g e d i n a 8 9 c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l * The S o n g o f t h e Husbandman w i l l g i v e us some i d e a o f what t h a t s t r u g g l e was l i k e and r e v e a l a l s o t h e b i t t e r n e s s t h a t was f e l t b e c a u s e r i c h f o o d was f o r p r i n c e s and k i n g s * The husbandman t e l l s us i n h i s s o n g t h a t t h e r y e h a s r o t t e d i n t h e f i e l d b e c a u s e o f b a d w e a t h e r * He c o m p l a i n s t h a t he i s a t t h e m e r c y o f t h e m a n o r i a l o f f i c e r s : h a y w a r d , woodward and b a i l i f f a l l e x t o r t money f r o m h i m * A d d e d t o t h e s e g r i e v a n c e s i s t h e 7 " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y V e r s e and P r o s e , e d * K e n n e t h S i s a m , ed* r e v * ( O x f o r d , 1955), P* x x x i x * Q F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e m e d i e v a l p e a s a n t i n t i m e s o f f a m i n e s e e G« G* C o u l t o n , M e d i e v a l Panorama,The  E n g l i s h S c e n e f r o m C o n q u e s t t o R e f o r m a t i o n ( C l e v e l a n d , 1955), P P . 92-93. 9 H i s t o r i c a l Poems, pp* 7 - 9 . 90 h e a v y t a x a t i o n * The f o r e i g n w ars o f E d w a r d I h a d p l a c e d a h e a v y b u r d e n on t h e p e o p l e , and t h e husbandman t e l l s o f how t h e b e a d l e comes and r o u g h l y demands s i l v e r f o r t h e k i n g : ttgreype me s e l u e r t o t h e g r e n e wax; bou a r t w r i t e n y my w r i t , p a t pou w e l w o s t « K mo pen t e n s i p e n t o l d y my t a x , (38-40). As a f i n a l i n d i g n i t y t h e b e a d l e s t a y s f o r d i n n e r and t h e husbandman must p r o d u c e r o a s t h e n , s a l m o n and l a m p r e y f o r h i s unwelcome g u e s t . To pay h i s t a x e s he must s e l l h i s s e e d g r a i n , h i s c o r n w h i l e i t i s s t i l l g r e e n , h i s c a t t l e , e v e n h i s b a l b e r d and a x e . As g o o d t o p e r i s h a t o n c e , he c o n c l u d e s b i t t e r l y , as t o w a s t e away i n u n r e m i t t i n g l a b o u r : ttase god i n swynden anon as so f o r t e s w y n k e " (72). The i n j u s t i c e o f i t r a n k l e s . The p o o r a r e r o b b e d o f t h e f r u i t s o f t h e i r l a b o u r , and u l t i m a t e l y must p e r i s h i n s w e a t and t o i l : b us me p i l e b be p o r e , b a t i s o f l u t e p r i s . nede i n swot and i n swynk swynde mot swo. (19-20). The husbandman i s one o f t h o s e whom L a n g l a n d saw i n t h a t p l a i n f u l l o f p e o p l e one m o r n i n g i n May, s w e a t i n g a t t h e p l o u g h t o p r o d u c e f o o d f o r g l u t t o n s t o w a s t e . The C o k a y g n e p o e t does n o t e x p r e s s t h e i n t e n s e b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e husbandman o r t h e i n d i g n a t i o n o f L a n g l a n d i n h i s poem. N e v e r t h e l e s s he c o n v e y s c l e a r l y h i s s e n s e o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e , a n d i n p r e s e n t i n g h i s e q u a l i t a r i a n p a r a d i s e he c o u l d be s p e a k i n g f o r j u s t s u c h a one as t h e husbandman o r L a n g l a n d , s p o o r c o u n t r y f o l k who l i v e i n h o v e l s . I n C o kaygne e v e r y o n e , n o t j u s t p r i n c e s 91 and k i n g s , can e n j o y t h e f i s h and meat p a s t i e s , t h e f l o u r c a k e s and f a t p u d d i n g s * T h i s much i s e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t * What i s i m p l i c i t i n t h i s e n u m e r a t i o n o f g o o d t h i n g s t o e a t i s t h e " a t t e m p r e e d i e t ' * o f p o o r f o l k l i k e C h a u c e r ' s w i d o w - - m i l k and brown b r e a d and s o m e t i m e s an egg o r two (NPT, 2844-45)« Or t h e meagre f a r e . w i t h w h i c h L a n g l a n d ' s P i e r s Plowman must s a t i s f y h i m s e l f — t w o l o a v e s o f beans and b r a n , a few c u r d s o f c r e a m , an o a t c a k e and two g r e e n c h e e s e s * * ^ F a t p u d d i n g s f o r p r i n c e s and k i n g s , a n d r o a s t g o o s e f o r monks and n u n s , b u t what f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e f o l k ? A f a r t h i n g ' s w o r t h o f c o c k l e s and m u s s e l s p e r -i l h a p s * S p i c e s were a n o t h e r l u x u r y f a r b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f t h e common p e o p l e * C h a u c e r , d e s c r i b i n g t h e s i m p l e d i e t o f h i s p o o r widow, s a y s , "Of p o y n a u n t s a u c e h i r n e d e d n e v e r a d e e l " (NPT. 2834)* We may a l s o r e a d o f a n o t h e r m e d i e v a l h o u s e w i f e , t h e c h i l d w i f e o f t h e Goodman o f P a r i s , who r e c e i v e d c a r e f u l i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m h e r h u s b a n d on how t o s e a s o n many a s a u c e w i t h g i n g e r , c i n n a m o n , c l o v e s and nutmegs t o accompany a d i s h o f e e l r e v e r s e d o r a r o s e e o f y o u n g r a b b i t s , l a r k s and s m a l l b i r d s * The Goodman, h o w e v e r , c o u l d a f f o r d a d i n n e r f o r a meat day s e r v e d i n t h i r t y -one d i s h e s and s i x c o u r s e s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h v e a l p a s t i e s and * ^ P i e r s P l o w m a n , i n F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y V e r s e , p . 88, l i n e s 275-278 ( B - t e x t , P a s s u s V l X "'""''William L a n g l a n d , The V i s i o n s o f W i l l i a m C o n c e r n i n g P i e r s  t h e Plowman • • *, e d . W a l t e r W. S k e a t , EETS.OS. 53 ( L o n d o n , I873), P a s s u s X, 94-95 ( C - t e x t ) . F o r t h e f u l l p a s s a g e d e s c r i b i n g t h e m i s e r i e s o f t h e p o o r , s ee l i n e s 71-98. 92 b l a c k p u d d i n g s and e n d i n g w i t h p e a r s and c o m f i t s and h i p p o c r a s . I n C o k a y g n e t h e s p i c e s w h i c h t h e r i c h u s e as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e e v e r y day a r e a l l t o be f o u n d on one s p l e n d i d t r e e . And f r o m t h i s t r e e — r o o t , b r a n c h , b a r k , f r u i t and f l o w e r — o n e may g a t h e r t h e p r e c i o u s s p i c e s o f t h e e a s t as r e a d i l y as one does c a b b a g e s and a p p l e s i n a k i t c h e n g a r d e n . The p o e t ' s s e n s e o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i s f e l t most s t r o n g l y i n t h e c l o s i n g l i n e s o f t h e poem i n w h i c h he e m p l o y s , i n mock-h e r o i c s t y l e , t h e m o t i f o f t h e b a r r i e r o f s w i n e ' s d i r t . P e r -h a p s , a f t e r a l l , t h i s m o t i f h a d i t s o r i g i n i n t h e m o c k - h e r o i c , t h e c o m i c b u r l e s q u e w h i c h t h e f o l k h a d i n v e n t e d as t h e i r v e r s i o n o f t h e p a i n s o f p u r g a t o r y and h e l l . But t h i s i s o n l y s p e c u l a t i o n , w h a t e v e r i t s o r i g i n s , t h e m o t i f i s h e r e i n t e n d e d as a s e v e n - y e a r t e s t o f p a t i e n c e , h u m i l i t y and e n d u r a n c e , w i t h t h e f i n a l r e w a r d t h e b l i s s o f p a r a d i s e . As a c y n i c a l comment on t h e C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n i n t h e a f t e r l i f e t h e s e l i n e s h a v e a modern a n a l o g u e i n The P r e a c h e r and t h e S l a v e , an I.W.W. s o n g w h i c h became t h e m a r c h i n g s o n g o f t h e u n e m p l o y e d i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s : L o n g - h a i r e d p r e a c h e r s come o u t e v ' r y n i g h t T r y t o t e l l y o u w h a t ' s w r o n g and w h a t ' s r i g h t . B u t when a s k e d how b o u t s o m e t h i n g t o e a t . They w i l l a n s w e r w i t h v o i c e s so s w e e t . You w i l l e a t , bye and b y e . In t h a t g l o r i o u s l a n d above t h e s k y . "The Good W i f e , " The P o r t a b l e M e d i e v a l R e a d e r , e d , James B r u c e Ross and Mary M a r t i n M c L a u g h l i n (New Y o r k , 1949), p p . 159-160. 93 Work and p r a y , l i v e on hay . Y o u ' l l g e t p i e i n t h e s k y when you d i e . The d e r i s i o n and s e n s e o f g r i e v a n c e i n t h i s s o n g e c h o e s t h e f e e l i n g o f t h e c l o s i n g l i n e s o f The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e : Whose w l com p a t l o n d t o , f u l g r e t e p e n a n c e he mot do: S e u e o e r e i n s w i n e - i s d r i t t e he mote wade, w o l ne i w i t t e , a l anon vp t o pe c h y n n e , so he s c h a l pe l o n d w i n n e . ( 1 7 7 - 1 8 2 ) . M e d i e v a l p r e a c h e r s d i d h o l d o u t t h e p r o m i s e o f a "sweet bye and b y e " i n t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . To t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t s u c h a p r o m i s e i s " p i e i n t h e s k y . " And i n t h e m e a n t i m e , i t i s u n d e r s t o o d , t h e " s w y n k " and " s w o t " must be e n d u r e d . The p o e t ends w i t h an a d m o n i t i o n t o h i s l i s t e n e r s t o s e i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u l f i l t h i s p e n a n c e , e l s e t h e y w i l l n e v e r r e a c h t h e c o u n t r y o f C o k a y g n e : L o r d i n g e s gode and h e n d , mot ^e n e u e r o f w o r l d wend, f o r t 2 e s t o n d t o jure c h e a n c e and f u l f i l l e p a t p e n a n c e , p a t ^e mote p a t l o n d i - s e ; and n e u e r - m o r e t u r n a-^e. ( I 8 3 - I 8 8 8 ) . I f t h e p o e t i s a d d r e s s i n g members o f t h e n o b i l i t y , he may, as M o r t o n s u g g e s t s ( p . 1 8 ) , be h u m o r o u s l y a d v i s i n g h i s l i s t e n e r s t h a t i t i s h a r d e r f o r a r i c h man t o e n t e r t h e K i n g dom o f Cokaygne t h a n f o r a c a m e l t o go t h r o u g h t h e eye o f a n e e d l e . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , he h a s an a u d i e n c e o f p o o r c o u n t r y f o l k , t h e f i n a l ^ A m e r i c a n S o n g Bag, e d . C a r l S a n d b u r g (New Y o r k , 1927), p. 222. 94 a d m o n i t i o n i s r i c h l y i r o n i c . I n a d j u r i n g them t o s e i z e t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u r m o u n t t h e t o i l s o m e b a r r i e r w h i c h b a r s them f r o m C o k a y g n e , he i s i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e y h a v e some o t h e r c h o i c e t h a n a w h o l e l i f e t i m e o f t h i s k i n d o f p e n a n c e , I h a v e s a i d t h a t The L a n d o f Cokaygne i s t h e f i r s t E n g l i s h u t o p i a , b u t I do n o t mean by t h i s t h a t i t may be c l a s s e d w i t h t h e i d e a l commonwealths o f Mor e , Bacon and M o r r i s and o t h e r u t o p i a n w r i t e r s by v i r t u e o f any s y s t e m p r o p o s e d o r p l a n a d o p t e d f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t p e r f e c t c o n d i t i o n s . What The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e does h a v e i n common w i t h t h e s e w o r k s i s i t s i n s i s t e n c e on p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and h a p p i n e s s , on "met and d r i n k / w i p - v t e c a r e , how and s w i n k , " F o r what a r e t h e u b i q u i t o u s r o a s t g o o s e and t h e p i g w i t h a k n i f e i n i t s b a c k b u t a g e - o l d s y m b o l s o f t h e g o o d l i f e w i t h o u t f e a r o f w a n t ? The w r i t e r s o f U t o p i a s w a n t e d t o make t h e r o a s t g o o s e a r e a l i t y . T h i s was t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f t o them. What was n e e d e d was a p l a n t o make t h e dream o f h a p p i n e s s come t r u e . I f s o c i e t y were r e g u l a t e d i n a c e r t a i n way, i f p e o p l e were r e q u i r e d t o b e h a v e i n a c e r t a i n way, e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e w o u l d p r e v a i l and a t t h e same t i m e , s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g and p e a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a n d , M o re's p l a n h a s an a u s t e r i t y w h i c h r e l a t e s i t more t o t h e m o n a s t e r y t h a n t o C o k a y g n e , ^ 4 The i n h a b i t a n t s o f U t o p i a e n j o y a l i f e o f c o m f o r t and w e l l b e i n g by a d h e r e n c e t o t h e i r own B e n e d i c -15 t i n e R u l e , T h e r e i s t i m e f o r w o r k , t i m e f o r s t u d y , t i m e f o r ^ C i t a t i o n s f r o m More i n my t e x t a r e f r o m U t o p i a . t r a n s , and e d , H, V. Sm Og.den (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 9 ) . 15 C f , M a r i e - L o u i s e B e r n e r i , J o u r n e y t h r o u g h U t o p i a ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 5 5 . 95 p l e a s u r e . C l o t h i n g i s p l a i n and s i m p l e ( p . 33). I n d e e d , o s t e n t a t i o u s a d o r n m e n t i s s c o r n e d a n d g o l d and s i l v e r a r e h e l d i n c o n t e m p t ( p p . 43_45)« C h i l d r e n a r e q u i e t and m a n n e r l y , women a r e u p r i g h t and o b e d i e n t , men a r e w i s e and s t e r n . They l i v e t o g e t h e r i n a s t r i c t b u t b e n e v o l e n t p a t r i a r c h y , a l l t e m p e r -a t e , c h a s t e , and i n d u s t r i o u s i n t h e common g o o d . And a l t h o u g h More i n s i s t s t h a t N a t u r e r e q u i r e s men t o e n j o y a l i f e o f p l e a s u r e , he i s e q u a l l y i n s i s t e n t t h a t t h e d i c t a t e s o f N a t u r e p r e c l u d e as unwholesome any p a s t i m e s as r i b a l d as t h o s e o f C o k a y g n e . He p u n i s h e s p r o m i s c u i t y and a d u l t e r y s e v e r e l y ( p p . 58-59), and d i s a l l o w s t a v e r n s , b r o t h e l s and g a m i n g h o u s e s ( p p . 42, 5l)« And i f he a l l o w s h i s U t o p i a n s t o f i n i s h d i n n e r w i t h d e s s e r t , t o h a v e m u s i c w i t h t h e i r m e a l s , and b u r n i n c e n s e and s c a t t e r p e r f u m e s ( p . 4l), he i s o n l y g r a n t i n g them t h o s e l i t t l e a m e n i t i e s w h i c h a c u l t i v a t e d g e n t l e m e n o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y e n j o y s . And y e t t h i s t r e a t i s e on t h e w e l l - o r d e r e d l i f e h a s some-t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e e x u b e r a n t b u r l e s q u e a b o u t C o k a y g n e and t h i s i s t h e U t o p i a n theme o f "met and d r i n k / w i p - v t e c a r e , how and s w i n k . " A g a i n and a g a i n More comes b a c k t o t h i s i d e a : When no one owns a n y t h i n g , a l l a r e r i c h . What g r e a t e r r i c h e s c a n t h e r e be t h a n t o l i v e c h e e r f u l l y and s e r e n e l y , f r e e f r o m a l l a n x i e t i e s , w i t h o u t w o r r i e s a b o u t m a k i n g a l i v i n g a n d u n v e x e d by t h e c o m p l a i n t s o f o ne's w i f e a b o u t money? i ( p . 8 0 ) . T h e r e i s much e l s e i n More' s U t o p i a b e s i d e s t h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e p e o p l e . T h e r e a r e p l a n s f o r . p e n a l and r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m and s a t i r i c t h r u s t s a t t h e p r i e s t h o o d 96 and t h e n o b i l i t y . But c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i d e a s o f t h e work i s t h e Cokaygne theme o f ab u n d a n c e w i t h o u t t o i l f o r t h e common p e o p l e . I t i s a r o u n d t h i s theme t h a t More d e v i s e s h i s p l a n f o r a new s o c i e t y . To a c h i e v e t h i s i d e a l he e n v i s i o n s n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e c o m p l e t e r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y so t h a t t h e common g o o d w i l l be s e r v e d i n a t r u e commonwealth. F o u r h u n d r e d y e a r s b e f o r e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e . More c a l l e d f o r s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e a g e d , n u r s e r i e s f o r w o r k i n g m o t h e r s and f r e e m e d i c a l c a r e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s ( p p . 4 0 , $7)« No l o n g e r w o u l d t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s t o i l t h a t t h e C h u r c h , t h e a r i s t o c r a c y a n d t h e w e a l t h y b o u r g e o i s i e m i g h t l i v e i n l u x u r y . E v e r y o n e must s h a r e i n t h e l a b o u r and work an a l l o t t e d s i x h o u r s a d a y . Nobody was t o be exempt e x c e p t t h e m a g i s t r a t e s and c e r t a i n l e a r n e d men whose i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o u r s were n e e d e d more t h a n t h e work o f t h e i r h a n d s ( p p . 34~40, p a s s i m ) . But Noone h a s t o w e a r h i m s e l f o u t w i t h e n d l e s s t o i l f r o m m o r n i n g t i l l n i g h t , as i f he were a b e a s t o f b u r d e n . S u c h a l i f e , t h o u g h i t i s t h e common l i f e o f workmen i n a l l o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i s no b e t t e r t h a n a s l a v e ' s . (p- 34)« T h a t a l a r g e s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be condemned t o a l i f e o f e n d l e s s t o i l was a m a t t e r o f deep c o n c e r n t o More and he f e l t t h e i n j u s t i c e o f i t s t r o n g l y . The Cokaygne p o e t h a d s t o p p e d t h e t r a v e l l e r s h o r t a t t h e g a t e s o f p a r a d i s e b e f o r e a b a r r i e r o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . Two h u n d r e d y e a r s l a t e r M o r e , s p e a k i n g f o r t h e p o o r a n d o p p r e s s e d , t e a r s down t h a t i g n o m i n i o u s b a r r i e r , t h e p u r g a t o r y o f t h e p o o r . He i s c o n c e r n e d i n h i s 97 U t o p i a w i t h a wrong t o be r i g h t e d and i t i s t h i s s e n s e o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e w h i c h g i v e s e m o t i o n a l f o r c e t o t h e theme w h i c h he s h a r e s w i t h t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t o f abundance w i t h o u t t o i l * " I s i t j u s t , " More a s k s i n e f f e c t , " f o r e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t y t o p r e v a i l ? " " I s i t j u s t f o r l a n d t o be e n c l o s e d f o r s h e e p f a r m i n g and t h e t e n a n t s t u r n e d o u t t o s u f f e r want and d e g r a d a -t i o n ? " H i s l a n g u a g e i s c o l o u r e d by h i s s t r o n g e m o t i o n : As t h o u g h f o r e s t s and game p r e s e r v e s were n o t *• a l r e a d y t a k i n g up t o o much l a n d , t h e s e w o r t h y men t u r n a l l d w e l l i n g p l a c e s and f i e l d s i n t o a d e s s e r t a So one c o v e t o u s i n s a t i a b l e g l u t t o n , a v e r i t a b l e p l a g u e t o h i s n a t i v e c o u n t r y , may e n c l o s e many t h o u s a n d a c r e s o f l a n d t o g e t h e r w i t h i n one h e d g e . The t e n a n t s a r e t u r n e d o u t , and by t r i c k e r y o r m a i n f o r c e , o r by b e i n g worn o u t t h r o u g h i l l u s a g e , a r e c o m p e l l e d t o s e l l t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s . T h e s e m i s e r a b l e p e o p l e , men, women, h u s b a n d s , w i v e s , o r p h a n s , w i d o w s , p a r e n t s w i t h l i t t l e c h i l d r e n , w h o l e f a m i l i e s , p o o r b u t numerous . • . a r e f o r c e d t o move o u t . (pp* 9 - 1 0 ) . He e n v i s i o n s a new s o c i e t y w h e r e , i n t h e words o f t h e Cokaygne p o e t , " a l i s commune t o ^ung and o l d , " and he l o o k s b a c k f r o m t h a t s t a t e , i d e a l i n i t s j u s t i c e t o t h e E n g l a n d o f h i s d a y : What j u s t i c e i s t h e r e i n t h i s , t h a t a n o b l e m a n , a g o l d s m i t h , a m o n e y - l e n d e r , o r some o t h e r man who does n o t h i n g a t a l l f o r a l i v i n g o r does s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s o f no use t o t h e p u b l i c , l i v e s a sumptuous and e l e g a n t l i f e ? I n t h e meantime a s e r v a n t , a d r i v e r , a b l a c k s m i t h , o r a f a r m e r w o r k s as h a r d as a b e a s t a t l a b o u r so n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e commonwealth c o u l d n o t l a s t a y e a r w i t h o u t i t . Y e t t h e y e a r n so p o o r a l i v i n g and l e a d s u c h m i s e r a b l e l i v e s t h a t t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s seems w o r s e t h a n t h a t o f d r a f t a n i m a l s . B e a s t s do n o t work so i n c e s s a n t l y and do n o t l i v e much w o r s e — i n f a c t t h e y l i v e b e t t e r — and t h e y h a v e no w o r r i e s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e . 98 But w o r k i n g men a r e b u r d e n e d w i t h b a r r e n and f r u i t l e s s t o i l , and l i v e i n f e a r o f want i n t h e i r o l d age* ( p . 8 0 ) . More t h e n l a u n c h e s i n t o a t i r a d e a g a i n s t t h e r i c h , a c c u s i n g them o f a c o n s p i r a c y t o o p p r e s s t h e p o o r : " W i t h i n s a t i a b l e g r e e d t h e s e w i c k e d men d i v i d e among t h e m s e l v e s t h e goods w h i c h w o u l d h a v e been enough f o r a l l " ( p . 8l)» S p e a k i n g f o r t h e " f a r m e r s , c h a r c o a l b u r n e r s , s e r v a n t s , d r i v e r s and b l a c k s m i t h s " ( p . 8 0 ) , More o f f e r s a new dream f o r t h e dream o f C o k a y g n e . I t i s s t i l l n o w h e r e ; s t i l l , l i k e S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d , " d r e i m e y l e n h i n t e r W e y n a c h t e n . " But i t o u g h t t o be somewhere. J u s t i c e demands i t . I n The L a n d o f Cokaygne t h e s e n s e o f " o u g h t " i s o n l y an o v e r t o n e , a p e r v a s i v e f e e l i n g made e x p l i c i t i n t h e s a r d o n i c c l o s i n g l i n e s . I n U t o p i a i t i s t h e i n f o r m i n g s p i r i t o f a new k i n d o f dream f o r m a n k i n d o f t h e ab u n d a n t l i f e w i t h -o u t t o i l . Many u t o p i a n w r i t e r s h a v e h a d t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s d ream w o u l d be j u s t and d e s i r a b l e . They h a v e been v i s i o n a r i e s , b u t t h e y h a v e been p l a n n e r s t o o . " I w i l l y e t , t o s a t i s f y a n d p l e a s e m y s e l f , " s a y s R i c h a r d B u r t o n , "make an U t o p i a o f mine own, a New A t l a n t i s , a p o e t i c a l common-w e a l t h , i n w h i c h I w i l l f r e e l y d o m i n e e r , b u i l d c i t i e s , make l a w s , s t a t u t e s , as I l i s t m y s e l f . " " ^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e l a w s and s t a t u t e s o f t h e u t o p i a n p l a n n e r s , w h i c h s u c c e e d so w e l l i n "An U t o p i a o f M i n e Own." The Q u e s t f o r U t o p i a ; An  A n t h o l o g y o f I m a g i n a r y S o c i e t i e s , e d . G l e n n N e g l e y and J . Max P a t r i c k (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 351; c f . B e r n e r i , p . 4. 99 p r o v i d i n g t h e e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods and a j u s t d i v i s i o n o f h o u r s o f l a b o u r , do n o t p r o v i d e t h a t s p i r i t o f v i b r a n t l i f e a n d f r e e d o m w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e abundance o f C o k a y g n e * We ha v e a l r e a d y n o t e d how More p r o v i d e s f o r a s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o r u l e i n h i s u t o p i a , C a m p a n e l l a d e c r e e s t h a t i n h i s C i t y o f t h e Sun t h e p r o c r e a t i o n o f t h e r a c e s h a l l be c o n t r o l l e d by e u g e n i c 17 l a w s , A n d r e a s l e g i s l a t e s f o r C h r i s t i a n o p o l i s a r o u n d s t e r n 18 C a l v i n i s t i c m o r a l s t a n d a r d s , G e r r a r d W i n s t a n l e y , h a v i n g ob-t a i n e d e c o n o m i c f r e e d o m i n h i s i d e a l commonwealth, and w i t h i t t h e m o r a l f r e e d o m o f men f o r m e r l y i n bondage t o p r i d e , h y p o c r i s y , g r e e d and f e a r , p r u d e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e s a u t h o r i t a r i a n s a f e g u a r d s 19 f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h i s s t a t e , H, G, W e l l s , d e p l o r i n g t h e l a c k o f f r e e d o m i n other Utopias, makes a v a s t f i l i n g s y s t e m 20 t h e b a s i s o f one o f h i s Utopias, I t r e m a i n s f o r a n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l i s t t o c a p t u r e i n h i s u t o p i a t h e s p i r i t o f Cokaygne 22 I n News f r o m Nowhere, W i l l i a m M o r r i s c r e a t e s a g r e e n a n d p l e a s a n t l a n d on t h e b a n k s o f t h e Thames where men, u n s p o i l e d by a r e s t r i c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t , f l o u r i s h i n t h e c l i m a t e o f t h e i r n a t u r a l g o o d n e s s , M o r r i s r e p e a t s t h e u s u a l f e a t u r e s o f o t h e r 17 The C i t y o f t h e S u n , c i t e d i n t r a n s l a t i o n by B e r n e r i , p , 97 . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n n a t u r e o f many u t o p i a s s e e B e r n e r i , p p , 3-8, 18 B e r n e r i , p p , 104-105, 1 9 I b i d . » p p . 170-171. 2 G I b i d , , p p . 5, 2 9 8 - 2 9 9 . 21 M o r t o n , p . 171 . 22 C i t a t i o n s f r o m W i l l i a m M o r r i s i n my t e x t a r e f r o m News  f r o m Nowhere o r an Ep o c h o f R e s t ( L o n d o n , 1910).. 100 U t o p i a s * P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y h a s been a b o l i s h e d and w i t h i t t h e e v i l s and t y r a n n i e s i t e n g e n d e r e d * The a n a r c h y o f p r o d u c t i o n h a s been e l i m i n a t e d i n a p l a n n e d economy and goods a r e f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l i n communal s t o r e h o u s e s * Work i s a v e r y n e c e s -s a r y p a r t o f l i f e i n t h i s commonwealth and m a n u a l work i s e s p e c i a l l y h o n o r e d * Y e t t h e s p i r i t o f News f r o m Nowhere r e -c r e a t e s t h a t o f t h e a g e - o l d dream o f C o kaygne and o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h poem as no o t h e r u t o p i a h a s been a b l e t o do* M o r r i s s p e a k s o f an a b u n d a n t and c a r e f r e e l i f e i n h i s E n g l a n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s i n t e r m s w h i c h r e c a l l t h e golden age* I t i s c h i l d h o o d come a g a i n and i t r e m i n d s t h e d r e a m e r o f t h e d a y s when he was a h appy c h i l d on a s u n n y h o l i d a y and h a d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he c o u l d t h i n k o f ( p * 1 5 2 ) * He i s a t r a v e l l e r s o j o u r n i n g i n an " o t h e r w o r l d * " E l l e n i s t h e f a i r y i n t h e f a i r y g a r d e n and D i c k and C l a r a t h e two l o v e r s , b u t t h e d r e a m e r i s l e f t o u t o f t h e t a l e * "You h a d b e t t e r c o n s i d e r t h a t y o u h a v e g o t t h e cap o f d a r k n e s s , and a r e s e e i n g e v e r y t h i n g , y o u r s e l f i n v i s i b l e , " r e m a r k s D i c k (p» 174)» As i n t h e myths o f t h e g o l d e n age and t h e Cokaygne f a n t a s y , t h e s e n s e o f t h e a b u n d a n t e a r t h emerges* P a r t l y t h i s i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e e m p h a s i s on work as a means o f c r e a t i v e f u l f i l l m e n t , Man i n t h i s new s o c i e t y r e - e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t k i n s h i p w i t h t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d w h i c h he h a d l o s t i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l age. A l l a r e a s s u r e d o f m a t e r i a l s e c u r i t y t h r o u g h a s y s t e m o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h a l l o w s e v e r y man t o work a t what he can do b e s t . And s o , as Hammond e x p l a i n s t o G u e s t , "Thou s h a l t n o t s t e a l , " becomes "Thou s h a l t work i n o r d e r t o l i v e h a p p i l y " ( p , 8°)« S w i n g i n g a 101 s c y t h e i n a h a y f i e l d becomes a r e w a r d i n g work e x p e r i e n c e , a j o y o u s e x p r e s s i o n o f ab u n d a n t p h y s i c a l e n e r g y . The h a y m a k e r s , m e r r y as s t a r l i n g s and gay i n e m b r o i d e r e d s i l k s and w h i t e f l a n n e l s , a d o r n t h e f i e l d s l i k e b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d t u l i p s and c e l e b r a t e t h e h a r v e s t (p» 173)» F ° r M o r r i s , man i s most h i m -s e l f , b r i g h t , b e a u t i f u l and s p i r i t u a l l y a l i v e when he i s p h y s i -c a l l y s h a p i n g , e m p l o y i n g , u s i n g t h e world-of w h i c h he i s a p a r t and n o t m e r e l y c o n t e m p l a t i n g i t . R e c a l l i n g t h e g a u n t , t o i l - w o r n men and women i n t h e h a y - f i e l d s o f h i s own E n g l a n d , M o r r i s e x c l a i m s : • • a How o f t e n h a d I l o n g e d t o s e e t h e h a y - f i e l d s p e o p l e d w i t h men and women w o r t h y o f t h e sweet abundance o f midsummer, o f i t s e n d l e s s w e a l t h o f b e a u t i f u l s i g h t s , and d e l i c i o u s s o u n d s and s c e n t s . ( p . 1 6 1 ) . Men and women r e j o i c i n g i n t h e " s w e e t abundance o f midsummer" and i n t h e h e a l t h a n d v i g o u r o f t h e i r own b o d i e s - - t h e p i c t u r e i s more i d y l l i c t h a n r o b u s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t c a p t u r e s t h e e s s e n t i a l s p i r i t o f Cokaygne o f f r e e d o m and u n i n h i b i t e d d e l i g h t i n a w o r l d o f s e n s u o u s p l e a s u r e . More h a d i n s i s t e d on t h e p l e a s u r e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l l i f e b u t he made t h e p r a i s e o f p l e a s u r e an i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t e m e n t o n l y . I n c o n t r a s t , M o r r i s e v o k e s i n t e n s e i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s e n s u a l w o r l d - - t h e t e x t u r e o f a b e a u t i f u l g a r m e n t , t h e warmth o f s u n - b r o w n e d arms, t h e s h a p e o f a d e l i c a t e l y c a r v e d p i p e , t h e f r a g r a n c e o f new-mown h a y . O t h e r U t o p i a n w r i t e r s o n l y t e l l us how t h e i d e a l s o c i e t y w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d . M o r r i s t e l l s us as w e l l what i t w i l l be l i k e t o l i v e a t t h i s new t i m e and makes 1 0 2 us e x p e r i e n c e i t s f e l i c i t y by d e s c r i b i n g f o r us t h a t i m m e m o r i a l o c c u p a t i o n o f man as i t w i l l be when t h e g o l d e n age comes a g a i n : As we w e n t , t h e f o l k on t h e bank t a l k e d i n d e e d , m i n g l i n g t h e i r k i n d v o i c e s w i t h t h e c u c k o o ' s s o n g , t h e sweet s t r o n g w h i s t l e o f t h e b l a c k b i r d s , and t h e c e a s e -l e s s n o t e o f t h e c o r n - c r a k e as he c r e p t t h r o u g h t h e l o n g g r a s s o f t h e m o w i n g - f i e l d ; whence came waves o f f r a g r a n c e f r o m t h e f l o w e r i n g c l o v e r a m i d s t o f t h e r i p e g r a s s * ( p . 2 2 4 ) . The A r c h p o e t o f t h e g o l i a r d s h a d f e l t t h i s p l e a s u r e i n t h e s e n s u a l w o r l d and t h e Cokaygne p o e t h a d f e l t i t t o o * T h i s i s why h i s s a t i r e o f t h e i n c o n t i n e n c e o f t h e monks and nuns i s so good-humoured* H e r e a g a i n a r e men and women r e j o i c i n g i n t h e "sweet abundance o f midsummer": Whan be s o m e r i s d a i i s h o t e , be 3 u n g nunnes t a k x p a b o t e And dob ham f o r b i n p a t r i u e r , bobe w i b o r i s and w i b s t e r e * whan h i beb f u r f r a m be a b b e i , h i m a k i b ham n a k i d f o r t o p l e i , and l e p i b dune i n t o be brimme and dob ham s l e i l i c h f o r t o swimme* ( 1 5 1 - 1 5 8 ) . The p l a y f u l n e s s o f t h i s p a s s a g e and t h e one t h a t f o l l o w s d e s c r i b i n g t h e v i s i t o f t h e monks t o t h e nuns removes any s e v e r e n o t e o f c e n s u r e * I n s t e a d i t i s , as i n The Voyage o f B r a n " a b e a u t i f u l game, most d e l i g h t f u l , " " w i t h o u t s i n , w i t h o u t c r i m e I am n o t s u g g e s t i n g a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h e b o i s t e r o u s p a s t i m e o f t h e monks and nuns and t h e q u i e t a r d o u r o f D i c k and C l a r a ' s l o v e a f f a i r . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a c e r t a i n j o i e de v i v r e i n t h e s e l i n e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s p i r i t o f d e l i g h t and f r e e d o m i n t h e poem. 103 E l l e n ' s g r a n d f a t h e r i n News f r o m Nowhere c o m p l a i n s t h a t f o r h i s p a r t he does n o t t h i n k much o f h e a v e n . He means t h a t t h e r e i s s u c h a t h i n g as t o o much h a p p i n e s s . n I t h i n k one may-do more w i t h o n e ' s l i f e t h a n s i t t i n g on a damp c l o u d and s i n g i n g hymns, 1 1 he o b s e r v e s t a r t l y ( p . 170). But t h e o l d c a r l e h a s i t wr o n g * M o r r i s i m a g i n e s h e a v e n on e a r t h t o be a l i f e o f r i c h e x p e r i e n c e . The s p i r i t o f t h e new -age w i l l be d e l i g h t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e w o r l d ; i n t e n s e and o v e r w e e n i n g l o v e o f t h e v e r y s k i n and s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h on w h i c h man d w e l l s , s u c h as a l o v e r has i n t h e f a i r f l e s h o f t h e woman he l o v e s . . . ( P . 147). The C o k a y g n e p o e t , no more t h a n M o r r i s o r t h e o l d g r a n d f a t h e r w a n t s t o s i t on a damp c l o u d and s i n g hymns. I n h i s v i s i o n o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e h e , l i k e M o r r i s , s i n g s t h i s d e l i g h t i n t h e ab u n d a n t l i f e o f t h e w o r l d . I n o u r own c e n t u r y i n w h i c h t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s h a v e a l l o w e d man to f u l f i l h i s Utopian d r e a m s , t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f an i d e a l s o c i e t y " w i p - v t e c a r e , how and s w i n k " h a s been q u e s -t i o n e d . L i k e E l l e n ' s g r a n d f a t h e r we a r e i n c l i n e d t o v i e w t o o much h a p p i n e s s w i t h s u s p i c i o n . The t r e n d i n modern l i t e r a t u r e h a s been t o w a r d s t h e a n t i - u t o p i a i n w h i c h t h e p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a t e d society i s s e e n to p r o d u c e a p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a t e d man grotesque i n h i s e n s l a v e m e n t to t h e m a c h i n e and t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t e . The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e does n o t h a v e a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h s y s t e m s o f s o c i e t y . But i t does h a v e t o do w i t h h a p p i n e s s , and i t does n o t v i e w h a p p i n e s s w i t h s u s p i c i o n . The s p i r i t o f t h e m e d i e v a l 104 poem i s a l i e n t o t h e s p i r i t o f t h e a n t i - u t o p i a . The s t r o n g u t o p i a n e l e m e n t i n The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e may be m e a s u r e d by t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n i t and w o r k s w i t h an a n t i - u t o p i a n m essage* The w r i t e r s o f t h e s e a n t i - u t o p i a s a r e d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h C o k a y g n e * They make o f t h e w o n d e r l a n d an a n t i - C o k a y g n e , m i s -t r u s t i n g h a p p i n e s s and t a k i n g a g l o o m y v i e w o f t h e p e r f e c t a -b i l i t y o f man* They g i v e us a n o t h e r k i n d o f w r i t i n g i n w h i c h man i s s e e n t o be d e g r a d e d by l u x u r y and e a s e , and s o l a s and d e d u t e a r e l o o k e d on w i t h d i s t r u s t , A n o t a b l e e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h e a n t i - u t o p i a a p p e a r s i n J o s e p h H a l l ' s Mundus A l t e r e t Idem (c« 1605), 2 3 B u r l e s q u i n g w i t h huge g u s t o s e r i o u s i d e a l commonwealths and c o n t e m p o r a r y t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e . B i s h o p H a l l , l i k e a n o t h e r M a g e l l a n , d i s -c o v e r s a new w o r l d i n t h e s o u t h e r n s e a s b o r d e r i n g T e r r a d e l F u e g o , H e r e i n t h e g r e a t s o u t h e r n c o n t i n e n t he f i n d s T e n t e r -b e l l y , S h e e - l a n d t , M o r o n i a and T h e e v i n g e n , f o u r c o u n t r i e s p o p u l a t e d by g l u t t o n s , d r u n k a r d s , s h r e w s , f o o l s , f l a t t e r e r s , t h i e v e s , h y p o c r i t e s and r a s c a l s * I t i s a w o r l d o f c o m i c f a n t a s y , a w o r l d t h e o t h e r and y e t t h e same* I t i s , i n f a c t , a s a t i r i c u t o p i a . I t i s i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s work t h a t H a l l g i v e s 2.L us an a n t i - u t o p i a i n w h i c h C okaygne becomes a n t i - C o k a y g n e , W i t h a m i s c h i e v o u s f a n c y w h i c h p u t s t o use t h e r e s o u r c e s o f a s c h o l a r l y m i n d , he d e s c r i b e s t h e c o u n t r y o f T e n t e r b e l l y •2 3 -^The D i s c o v e r y o f a New W o r l d (Mundus A l t e r e t I d e m ) , t r a n s . J o h n H e a l e y , c*1609, ed* H u n t i n g t o n Brown ( C a m b r i d g e . M a s s , , 1937)» C i t a t i o n s f r o m H a l l ' s work i n my t e x t a r e f r o m t h i s book* D i s c u s s e d by M o r t o n , p p , 2 5 - 2 6 , 105 w i t h i t s two p r o v i n c e s , E a t - a l l i a and D r i n k - a l l i a , and. t h e i r c i t i e s , F l e s h - p a s t y - n o p l e , I d l e - b e r g h and C a r o u s i - k a n i k i n ( I am u s i n g t h e names a s s i g n e d t o H a l l ' s P a m p h a g o n i a by h i s t r a n s l a t o r , J o h n H e a l e y ) . But u n l i k e t h e p o e t o f C o k a y g n e who a l l o w s us t o s a v o u r t h e d e l i g h t s o f t h e p a l a t e , H a l l d w e l l s on t h e g r o s s p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s o f t o o much e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g , e v o k i n g r e v u l -s i o n , n o t d e l i g h t . I n T e n t e r b e l l y t h e r e a r e no p i n n a c l e s o f f a t p u d d i n g s o r r o o f s o f f i n e w h e a t e n c a k e s . The c i t i e s h e r e a r e d o u b l e - w a l l e d w i t h bones f r o m c a r n i v a l r e v e l l i n g s and t h e h o u s e s a r e r o o f e d w i t h t h e s h o u l d e r bones o f a n i m a l s ( p p . 2 5 - 2 6 ) . The p e o p l e a r e i n h u m a n , d e f o r m e d s h a p e s w h i c h h a v e n e v e r been q u i c k e n e d by s p i r i t : The w h o l e s o r t o f a l t h e s e c i t i z e n s a r e g e n e r a l l y o f an v n m e a s u r a b l e g r o s e -n e s s e ( a n d seemed t o mee when I sawe them w a l k e i u s t l i k e so many t u n n e s , m o u i n g e a c h vpon two p o t t l e p o t s ) : n o r i s t h a t man w o r t h y o f any ( t h e m e a n e s t ) s a l u t a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d , t h a t i s n o t a l l c h e e k e s to. t h e b e l l y , and a l l b e l l y t o t h e k n e e s : and s u c h s h a p e s doe t h e women o f t h i s c i t t i e w a l k e i n a l s o . ( p . 2 9 ) . They a r e S l o t h and G l u t t o n y become a n i m a t e : They l o u e v e n i s o n d e a r e l y w e l l , y e t can t h e y n o t t e l l how t o c a t c h i t : o n e l y s u c h D e e r e as comes w i l l i n g l y amongst them, t h o s e t h e y e n t a n g l e i n n e t t s and f o y l e s , and so t a k e them. But t h e n o b l e S w i n e , oh t h e y p r i z e t h a t b e a s t aboue a l l t h a t e u e r n a t u r e p r o d u c e d : b u t w h e t h e r i t be b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s y m p a t h y o f n a t u r e s , b e i n g b o t h f a t a l l y c o n s e c r a t e d t o t h e t a b l e , o r by r e a s o n t h a t t h e s w i n e w i l l f e e d e on t h e c o a r s e s t m e a t e , and y e t be s o o n e s t f e d d e , t h i s I l e a u e t o a 106 more i u d i c i o u s C e n s o r t o d e t e r m i n e . (p- 31). The monks o f C o k a y g n e a l s o w a i t f o r t h e i r f o o d t o come t o them and i n a s e n s e t h e r o a s t g o o s e i s a s y m b o l o f s l o t h and g l u t t o n y . But t h a t same r o a s t g o o s e , c e n s u r i n g one c l a s s o f p e o p l e , p u t s f o r w a r d t h e i d e a l s o f a n o t h e r , t h e C okaygne i d e a l o f t h e p o o r f o l k f o r a b u n d a n c e w i t h o u t t o i l . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e Mundus A l t e r e t Idem and The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e i s u l t i m a t e l y t h a t b e tween t h e b i s h o p and t h e g o l i a r d i c c l e r k . The b i s h o p d i s a p p r o v e s o f l u x u r y and d i s s i p a t i o n . He i s q u i t e l i k e l y c e n s u r i n g t h e d e c a d e n t l i f e o f t h e r i c h b o u r g e o i s and n o b l e . Though he a l l u d e s t o t h e f a r m e r , he i s o b v i o u s l y most c o n c e r n e d w i t h " t h e r i t c h e r s o r t " : T hey s u p , t h e y s l e e p e , t h e y r i s e , t h e y d i n e , and t h e y s u p , and so r o u n d i n a r i n g , ( v n l e s s e a l i t t l e w h o r i n g now and t h e n c h a n c e t o adde one d a n c e more t o ye r o u n d . ) . . . T h e i r s w i n e s e r u e f o r t h e i r plow-men (as t h e y d i d w h i l o m i n A e q i p t ) t h e y v s e no o t h e r h u s b a n d r i e : y e t t h e r i t c h e r s o r t haue a t t e n d a n t s : one t o open t h e m a i s t e r s e y e s g e n t l y when hee a w a k e t h : a n o t h e r t o f a n n e a c o o l e a y r e w h i l e s t hee e a t e t h , a t h i r d t o p u t i n h i s v i a n d s when he g a p e t h , a f o u r t h t o f i t h i s g i r d l e t o h i s b e l l y , as i t r i s e t h and f a l l e t h , t h e m a i s t e r o n e l y e x e r c i s e t h b u t e a t i n g , d i s g e s t i n g , and l a y i n g o u t . (P« 34)» H a l l was n o t a b i s h o p when he w r o t e Mundus A l t e r e t Idem, b u t we may t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y , P e t e r H e y l i n , who d e s c r i b e s t h e work as " a w i t t y and i n g e n i o u s i n v e n t i o n o f a L e a r n e d P r e l a t e , w r i t by h i m i n h i s y o u n g e r d a y e s ( b u t w e l l enough b e c o m i n g t h e a u s t e r i t y o f t h e g r a v e s t h e a d ) . " From t h e s u p p l e m e n t t o h i s C o s m o q r a p h i e ( 1 6 6 0 ) ; c i t e d by H u n t i n g t Brown, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " The D i s c o v e r y o f a New W o r l d , p . x x x i v . 107 The n o t e o f m o r a l c e n s u r e i s v e r y s t r o n g . The g o l i a r d i c c l e r k , h o w e v e r , h i s p o c k e t s empty and h i s c o a t worn t h i n , a p p r o v e s o f l u x u r y and o f " a l i t t l e w h o r i n g now and t h e n , " H a l l ' s v i s c e r a l c o u n t r y c a l l e d T e n t e r b e l l y , w i t h i t s S t , A l l - P a u n c h , i t s S e r v a n t s o f t h e Maw and i t s G u l p e r s ' C o u r t i s a l o n g j o u r n e y f r o m t h e c o u n t r y o f C o k a y g n e , The L a n d o f Cokaygne i s f i l l e d w i t h t h e c o l o u r o f r o s e s and l i l i e s , w i t h t h e f r a g r a n c e o f g a r l i c and c i n n a m o n , t h e s o n g o f t h r u s h e s and n i g h t i n g a l e s , t h e shimmer o f c r y s t a l p i l l a r s — e v e r y t h i n g t o t o u c h , and t a s t e , s m e l l and s e e . I n H a l l ' s new w o r l d we know t h a t t h e t r e e s must be f r u i t - b e a r i n g , t h a t f i s h and game must abound i n wood and s t r e a m , y e t o u r i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t t h e c o u n t r y i s b a r r e n . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o d e l i g h t u s , b u t much t o warn us o f o u r s i n f u l human n a t u r e , B r e u g e l t h e E l d e r g i v e s us t h i s same w a r n i n g i n h i s p a i n t i n g e n t i t l e d "The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e " ( 1 5 6 7 ) . A s o l d i e r , a c l e r k and a p e a s a n t l i e u n d e r a t r e e on whose t r u n k i s p l a c e d so t h a t i t seems t o grow t h e r e a c i r c u l a r t a b l e s p r e a d w i t h t h e r e m a i n s o f a m e a l . S t u p i d w i t h f o o d and d r i n k , t h e i n e r t f i g u r e s l o o k as i f t h e y w i l l n e v e r a g a i n p i c k up t h e i m p l e m e n t s o f t h e i r c a l l i n g w h i c h l i e b e s i d e t h e m - - t h e f l a i l , t h e l a n c e and t h e b o o k , A h o u s e s h i n g l e d w i t h c a k e s , a m o b i l e egg w i t h a s p o o n i n i t and a r o a s t p i g w i t h a k n i f e i n i t s b a c k r e m i n d us t h a t t h e y w i l l n e v e r a g a i n have t o make any e f f o r t . One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p a i n t i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s a s a t i r e on t h e t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s o c i a l c l a s s e s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y : " P r o b a b l y he w i s h e d t o A r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s p a i n t i n g a p p e a r s i n R o b e r t L, D e l e v o y , B r e u g e l : A H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l S t u d y , t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t ( L a u s a n n e , 1959), P» 60. 108 s a t i r i z e h i s c o m p a t r i o t s t o o much a d d i c t e d t o good c h e e r and l a z i n e s s , and t o d e m o n s t r a t e , as was p r o v e d by t h e f u t u r e , t h a t t o o g r e a t a d e v o t i o n t o p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g w o u l d s m o t h e r i n them v i g o r and m o r a l s t r e n g t h , and l e a v e them r i p e f o r o p p r e s s i o n 27 and t y r a n n y . ' * What h a s h a p p e n e d t o t h e Co k a y g n e theme i s t h a t i t h a s been t a k e n o v e r by t h e m o r a l i s t s . By t h e t i m e o f H a l l and B r e u g e l t h e l i f e o f e a s e and ab u n d a n c e h a s become t h e l i f e o f s l o t h and g l u t t o n y . T h r e e c e n t u r i e s a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h poem, C o k a y g n e h a s t a k e n on a p e j o r a t i v e m e a n i n g . I n h i s I t a l i a n -E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r y ( 1 5 9 8 ) , J o h n F l o r i o g i v e s t h e E n g l i s h e q u i v a -28 l e n t o f t h e I t a l i a n C o c a g n a as " L u b b e r 1 and.'* The u n f a v o u r a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e new w o r d a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n some l i n e s f r o m Ben J o n s o n ' s Bartholomew F a i r ( 1 6 1 4 ) . Dame P u r e c r a f t a d m o n i s h e s h e r s o n f o r b e i n g t e m p t e d by t h e r o a s t p i g o f f e r e d f o r s a l e a t t h e f a i r . L i t t l e w i t r e p l i e s : Good M o t h e r , how s h a l l we f i n d a p i g i f we d o n ' t l o o k a b o u t f o r ' t ? W i l l i t r u n o f f o' t h e s p i t i n t o o u r m o u t h s , t h i n k y o u ? as i n L u b b e r l a n d and c r y we we?29 R o a s t p i g i s n o t t o be h a d w i t h o u t w o r k i n g f o r i t . A. L. M o r t o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e t o Cokaygne may be c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e new b o u r g e o i s i e who g a i n e d t h e i r w e a l t h and p r o s -p e r i t y by h a r d work and i n d u s t r y ( p . 2 4 ) . 27 C i t e d by A c k e r m a n n , p . 57 f r o m M a e t e r l i n c k . 28 " C o c k a i g n e , " E n c y l o p a e d i ' a B r i t a n n i c a . 1 1 t h ed., V o l . V I . 29 The C o m p l e t e P l a y s o f Ben J o n s o n ( L o n d o n , 194°), P» 212 ( I l l . i ) . See NED s . v . " L u b b e r l a n d . " 109 The same d i s a p p r o v a l o f C o k a y g n e - L u b b e r l a n d , he p o i n t s o u t ( p p * 2 6-27), may be f o u n d i n C h a r l e s K i n g s l e y ' s The W a t e r B a b i e s (1863)* I n t h i s e d i f y i n g t a l e K i n g s l e y r e l a t e s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e D o a s y o u l i k e s who came away f r o m t h e c o u n t r y o f H a r d w o r k b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t e d t o p l a y on t h e Jew's h a r p a l l day l o n g * They s e t t l e d i n t h e L a n d o f t h e Readymade a t t h e f o o t o f t h e H a p p y - g o - l u c k y M o u n t a i n s where f l a p d o o d l e grows w i l d : And t h e y s a t u n d e r t h e f l a p d o o d l e t r e e s and l e t t h e f l a p d o o d l e d r o p i n t o t h e i r m o u t h s ; and u n d e r t h e v i n e s , and s q u e e z e d t h e g r a p e - j u i c e down t h e i r t h r o a t s ; a n d , i f any l i t t l e p i g s r a n a b o u t r e a d y r o a s t e d , c r y i n g 'Come and e a t me,' as was t h e i r f a s h i o n i n t h a t c o u n t r y , t h e y w a i t e d t i l l t h e p i g s r a n a g a i n s t t h e i r m o u t h s , and t h e n t o o k a b i t e , and were c o n t e n t , j u s t as so many o y s t e r s w o u l d h a v e been«30 Once a g a i n , as i n H a l l ' s Mundus A l t e r e t Idem, t h e a n t i - C o k a y g n e and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e C o kaygne theme w i t h a sub-human c o n d i -t i o n * The D o a s y o u l i k e s s u f f e r e d t h e p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n i n r e v e r s e * S o f t l i v i n g and s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e t u r n e d them b a c k i n t o b e a s t s , and K i n g s l e y d raws t h i s m o r a l f r o m t h e i r s a d f a t e : M e a n w h i l e do y o u l e a r n y o u r l e s s o n s , and t h a n k God t h a t y o u h a v e p l e n t y o f c o l d w a t e r t o wash i n ; and wash i n i t t o o , l i k e a t r u e E n g l i s h m a n * And t h e n , i f my s t o r y i s n o t t r u e , s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r i s ; and i f I am n o t q u i t e r i g h t , s t i l l y o u w i l l b e , as l o n g as y o u s t i c k t o h a r d work and c o l d w a t e r * 3 1 Thus does t h e P r o t e s t a n t e t h i c o f t h r i f t , i n d u s t r y and d i s t r u s t o f p l e a s u r e d i s c r e d i t t h e o l d myth o f an i m a g i n a r y l a n d o f p l e n t y I n The L i f e and Works o f C h a r l e s K i n g s l e y . X I X ( L o n d o n , 1903), 139* 3 1 I b i d * . p . 202* 110 w i t h o u t l a b o u r . H a l l , B r e u g e l and K i n g s l e y warn us a b o u t t h e d a n g e r o f C o k a y g n e . A n t i - u t o p i a n w r i t e r s l i k e S w i f t , H u x l e y and O r w e l l a l s o warn us a b o u t t h e d a n g e r o f p l a c i n g o u r f a i t h i n i l l u s o r y h o p e s f o r a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e r e s h a l l be a b undance w i t h o u t t o i l , l i f e w i t h o u t s t r u g g l e o r p a i n . The C o k a y g n e o f t h e f o l k and t h e u t o p i a s h a r e t h e v i s i o n o f Homer o f t h e p l e a s a n t , f r u i t f u l l a n d o f P h a e a c i a : T h e i r f r u i t n e v e r f a i l s n o r r u n s s h o r t , w i n t e r and summer a l i k e . I t comes at a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r , and t h e r e i s n e v e r a t i m e when t h e West Wind's b r e a t h i s n o t a s s i s t i n g , h e r e t h e bud, and h e r e t h e • ' r i p e n i n g f r u i t ; so t h a t p e a r a f t e r p e a r , a p p l e a f t e r a p p l e , c l u s t e r on c l u s t e r o f g r a p e s , and f i g upon f i g a r e a l w a y s c o m i n g t o p e r f e c t i o n » 3 2 U l t i m a t e l y t h e r o a s t g o o s e o f C o k a y g n e and t h e e v e r b e a r i n g t r e e o f Homer's w e s t e r n l a n d may b o t h be u s e d as m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e a b u n d a n t l i f e . The U t o p i a n s , one m i g h t s a y , a r e . i n s p i r e d by t h e v i s i o n o f t h e w o n d e r f u l t r e e . But t h e a n t i - u t o p i a n s e i t h e r h a v e no s u c h v i s i o n o r r e j e c t i t . S w i f t h a d c h a r a c t e r i z e d U t o p i a n Man i n h i s s a t i r e on t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y . F o r h i m t h e s c i e n t i f i c schemes o f t h e p r o j e c t o r s a r e c h i m e r i c a l and u n p r a c t i c a l and q u i t e b e y o n d t h e a b i l i t y o f i m p e r f e c t man t o a c h i e v e . The l u x u r i a n t t r e e s w h i c h i n Homer's P h a e a c i a h a d b o r n e f r u i t t w e l v e months i n t h e y e a r c o n t i n u e t o y i e l d a b u n d a n t l y i n B a c o n ' s New A t l a n t i s , t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n The O d y s s e y , t r a n s . E. V* R i e u ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , E n g . , 1946), p . 115 ( B k . V I I ) . I l l o f t h e s c i e n t i s t s t o t h e p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d by n a t u r e . H e r e i s Bacon's d e s c r i p t i o n o f an o r c h a r d s u c h as Homer i m a g i n e d f o r O d y s s e u s : I n t h e s e [ o r c h a r d s ] we p r a c t i s e l i k e w i s e a l l c o n c l u s i o n s o f g r a f t i n g and i n o c u l a t i n g , as w e l l o f w i l d - t r e e s as f r u i t t r e e s , w h i c h p r o d u c e t h many e f f e c t s . And we make by a r t , i n t h e same o r c h a r d s and g a r d e n s , t r e e s and f l o w e r s , t o come e a r l i e r o r l a t e r t h a n t h e i r s e a s o n s , and t o come up and b e a r more s p e e d i l y t h a n by t h e i r n a t u r a l c o u r s e t h e y do; we make them a l s o , by a r t , much g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i r n a t u r e , a n d t h e i r f r u i t g r e a t e r and s w e e t e r , and o f d i f f e r i n g t a s t e , s m e l l , c o l o u r , and f i g u r e , f r o m t h e i r n a t u r e . . .33 In L a p u t a , h o w e v e r , t h e s c i e n t i s t s f a i l t o work t h i s w onder and t h e l a n d i s b a r r e n d e s p i t e t h e g r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e l e a r n e d s c i e n t i s t s : A l l t h e f r u i t s o f t h e e a r t h s h a l l come t o m a t u r i t y a t w h a t e v e r s e a s o n we t h i n k f i t t o c h o o s e , and i n c r e a s e an h u n d r e d f o l d more t h a n t h e y do a t p r e s e n t , w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e o t h e r h a p p y p r o p o s a l s . The o n l y i n c o n v e n i e n c e i s , t h a t none o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e y e t b r o u g h t t o p e r f e c t i o n ; and i n t h e mean t i m e , t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y l i e s m i s e r a b l y w a s t e , t h e h o u s e s i n „. r u i n s , and t h e p e o p l e w i t h o u t f o o d o r c l o t h e s . I n h i s c o n v i c t i o n o f man's f o l l y S w i f t does n o t s h a r e i n t h e u t o p i a n a s p i r a t i o n ' f o r t h e a b u n d a n t l i f e . S c i e n t i f i c p l a n n i n g h a s h a d no more s u c c e s s i n O r w e l l ' s O c e a n i a t h a n i t h a d i n L a p u t a . I n t h i s u t o p i a o f 1984 m a n k i n d h a s r e g r e s s e d . The M i n i s t r y o f P e a c e i s e n g a g e d i n c o n t i n u a l war and t h e M i n i s t r y o f P l e n t y r a t i o n s f o o d a n d s m a l l c o m f o r t s . • ^ B a c o n ' s New A t l a n t i s , e d . A. T. F l u x ( L o n d o n , 1941), P. 34. 34tt£ Voyage t o L a p u t a . " G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , e d . J o h n F« R o s s (New Y o r k , 1948), p . 169« 112 W i n s t o n S m i t h , a m i s f i t i n t h e new t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y , r e c a l l s : In any t i m e t h a t he c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y remember, t h e r e h a d n e v e r been q u i t e enough t o e a t , one h a d n e v e r h a d s o c k s o r u n d e r c l o t h e s t h a t were n o t f u l l o f h o l e s , f u r n i t u r e h a d a l w a y s been b a t t e r e d and r i c k e t y , rooms u n d e r h e a t e d , t u b e t r a i n s c r o w d e d , h o u s e s f a l l i n g t o p i e c e s , b r e a d d a r k - c o l o r e d , t e a a r a r i t y , c o f f e e f i l t h y - t a s t i n g , c i g a r e t t e s i n s u f f i c i e n t - -n o t h i n g c h e a p and p l e n t i f u l e x c e p t s y n t h e t i c gin.35 The d e s c r i p t i o n m i g h t w e l l h a v e s e r v e d S w i f t i n h i s a c c o u n t o f t h e m i s f o r t u n e s v i s i t e d on t h e p e o p l e by t h e p r o j e c t o r s * But t h e y , b u n g l i n g f o o l s t h a t t h e y w e r e , a t l e a s t were w e l l - m e a n i n g . O r w e l l ' s e l i t e a r e power mad« They h a v e p u t t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e s e r v i c e o f p o l i t i c a l o p p r e s s i o n and t y r a n n y , and d e s t r o y e d i n t h e p e o p l e a l l c a p a c i t y f o r " d e l i g h t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e w o r l d . " N o r does O r w e l l h a v e any hope t h e y w i l l e v e r r e g a i n what t h e y h a v e l o s t . W i n s t o n S m i t h , who d i d b r i e f l y b e h o l d t h e v i s i o n o f t h e w o n d e r f u l t r e e , i s d e f e a t e d . A n d O r w e l l no more t h a n h i s d e f e a t e d h e r o any l o n g e r h a s t h a t v i s i o n . I n t h e same t r a d i t i o n as t h e a n t i - u t o p i a s o f S w i f t and O r w e l l i s H u x l e y ' s B r a v e New W o r l d . B u t H u x l e y ' s p r o j e c t o r s , u n l i k e t h o s e i n Lagado and O c e a n i a , h a v e been s u c c e s s f u l ; so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t a l l t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h were dreamed o f i n C o k a y g n e h a v e become a r e a l i t y . I n a w o r l d where b o t t l e d b a b i e s a r e c e r t i f i e d h a p p y when d e c a n t e d , where y o u t h does n o t know i t ages and m a l c o n t e n t s may t a k e a soma h o l i d a y f r o m c a r e , a l l i s i n d e e d so l a s and d e d u t e . These p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o s i t u n d e r t h e f l a p -3 5 G e o r g e O r w e l l , N i n e t e e n E i g h t y - F o u r (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 9 ) , P» 60. 113 d o o d l e t r e e s and l e t f l a p d o o d l e d r o p i n t o t h e i r m o u t h s . They a r e c o n t e n t as so many o y s t e r s m i g h t b e. F o r H u x l e y , l i k e K i n g s l e y , s e e s how t h e human s p i r i t d e t e r i o r a t e s i n t h e L a n d o f t h e Readymade, where t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o t r y i t s s t r e n g t h . H u x l e y demands t h e r i g h t t o be u n h a p p y , t o s u f f e r i n body and s p i r i t . D e s p i s i n g s e c u r i t y , c o m f o r t , s t a b i l i t y , l o v e w i t h o u t s i n and t h e e a s y g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f d e s i r e he c l a i m s t h e r i g h t t o a l i f e o f s t r u g g l e . The S a v a g e f r o m o u t s i d e t h e New W o r l d p r o -t e s t s f o r h i m : " B u t I d o n ' t want c o m f o r t , I want God, I want p o e t r y , I want r e a l d a n g e r , I want f r e e d o m , I want g o o d n e s s , I want s i n . ' * 3 ^ The p o e t o f Cokaygne w o u l d h e a r t h e s e words u n c o m p r e h e n d i n g . "0 b r a v e new w o r l d t h a t h a s s u c h p e o p l e inft.»» The r i g h t t o s u f f e r h a d n e v e r been i n j e o p a r d y i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s . C h r i s t i a n a s c e t i c i s m was an a c c e p t e d norm. Men, n o t k n o w i n g t h a t t h e y h a d been c o n d i t i o n e d by h e r e d i t y , e n v i r o n m e n t a nd p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b i o - c h e m i c a l i m p u l s e s s t i l l f e l t t h e pan g s o f g u i l t and r e m o r s e . And so a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e p l e a s u r e o f C o k a y g n e was t h e p l e a -s u r e o f y i e l d i n g t o t e m p t a t i o n . The l i f e o f game and s o l a s , and t h e u n i n h i b i t e d l i f e o f s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s s t i l l seemed d e s i r a b l e . H u x l e y l o o k s b a c k f r o m u t o p i a t o t h e w o r l d w h i c h a w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r w o u l d l i k e t o l e a v e b e h i n d , f r o m a pagan i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n b a s e d on s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e t o t h e a u s t e r e w o r l d o f C h r i s t i a n s e l f - d e n i a l . A l d o u s H u x l e y , B r a v e New W o r l d ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , E n g . , 1955), P. 187* 114 What H u x l e y and O r w e l l a r e r e a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t i s man's s o u l and t h e y c r e a t e t h e i r . w o n d e r l a n d s i n t h e s p i r i t o f H a l l ' s T e n t e r b e l l y and K i n g s l e y ' s L a n d o f t h e R e a d y m a d e — i n t h e s p i r i t o f a n t i - C o k a y g n e , Thomas More i s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t man's s o u l t o o , b u t n o t i n t h e same way. P r i d e , " t h e i n f e r n a l s e r p e n t , " p r e v e n t s men f r o m a c h i e v i n g t h e g o o d l i f e ( p , 82), But t h e good l i f e i t -s e l f , as he t h i n k s i t o u g h t t o be r e a l i z e d , i s t h e s u b j e c t o f h i s t r e a t i s e and many o f h i s u t o p i a n p l a n s s p r i n g f r o m a c o n s i d e r a -t i o n o f how c o n t e m p o r a r y e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s may be s o l v e d . What i s t o be done a b o u t e v i c t e d t e n a n t f a r m e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ? How a r e t h e " f a r m e r s , c h a r c o a l b u r n e r s , s e r v a n t s , d r i v e r s , and b l a c k s m i t h s " t o e x i s t on t h e i r p i t i f u l w a ges? Man's d a i l y b r e a d , t h e theme o f C o k a y g n e w i t h i t s r o o t s i n p r i m i t i v e s e a s o n a l r i t u a l , i s a theme t a k e n up i n one way o r a n o t h e r by More and M o r r i s and o t h e r U t o p i a n s , I t i s a l s o t h e theme o f t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h p o e t who i n game and p l e y g i v e s us a p o o r f o l k ' s u t o p i a . EPILOGUE A L I V I N G FOLK THEME 116 EPILOGUE: A L I V I N G FOLK THEME Why does The L a n d o f Cokaygne h a v e a s p e c i a l a p p e a l t o t h e modern r e a d e r ? I t h i n k i t i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y t h e p e r s i s -t e n c e and v i t a l i t y o f t h e f o l k theme i t e m b o d i e s w h i c h g i v e s i t t h i s appeal,, R e c e n t y e a r s h a v e s e e n a s u r g e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e f o l k s o n g , and c o l l e c t o r s h a v e made t h e f o l k s o n g a p o p u l a r a r t . We h a v e become more c o n s c i o u s t o o o f t h e f o l k theme i n l i t e r a -t u r e . But e v e n w i t h o u t t h e work o f s u c h p e o p l e as C a r l S a n d b u r g , A l l a n and J o h n Lomax and C h a r l e s and R u t h S e e g e r , t h e C o k a y g n e theme w o u l d s t i l l be f a m i l i a r t o a g r e a t many o r d i n a r y p e o p l e i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Though i t f e l l i n t o d i s r e p u t e among t h e m o r a l i s t s and p r e a c h e r s , i t h a s p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r i e s as a f a n t a s y w h i c h e x p r e s s e s t h e u n i -v e r s a l y e a r n i n g f o r a c a r e f r e e l i f e o f p e a c e and p l e n t y . E v e n at t h e t i m e when Ben J o n s o n r e f e r s c o n t e m p t u o u s l y t o C o k a y g n e as L u b b e r l a n d , we may s t i l l f i n d t h e C okaygne theme i n l i t e r a t u r e i n i t s o r i g i n a l c a r n i v a l s e t t i n g . I n D e k k e r ' s S h o e m a k e r ' s H o l i d a y , t h e s h o e m a k e r becomes L o r d M ayor and t h e M a y o r s i t s down a t t h e t a b l e w i t h t h e s h o e m a k e r and h i s j o u r n e y -men. The p a n c a k e b e l l s r i n g f o r S h r o v e T u e s d a y and t h e r e i s much f e a s t i n g and d r i n k i n g , " L e t ' s f e e d and be f a t w i t h my l o r d ' s b o u n t y , " s a y s Hodge, And F i r k r e p l i e s , ", , . T h e r e ' s c h e e r f o r t h e h e a v e n s : v e n i s o n - p a s t i e s w a l k up and down p i p i n g - h o t , l i k e s e r g e a n t s ; b e e f and b r e w i s comes m a r c h i n g i n d r y - f a t s . 117 f r i t t e r s and p a n c a k e s come t r o w l i n g i n i n w h e e l b a r r o w s • . ."^ A p o p u l a r s o n g p r i n t e d sometime b e t w e e n 1685 and 1688 and 2 e n t i t l e d I n v i t a t i o n t o L u b b e r l a n d a l s o p r e s e r v e s t h e c a r e f r e e C okaygne theme w i t h o u t any m o r a l i z i n g . I t . i s a b o i s t e r o u s a c c o u n t o f a w o n d e r f u l c o u n t r y a c r o s s t h e s e a where t h e r e i s no l a n d l o r d ' s r e n t t o p a y and e a c h man i s a f r e e h o l d e r . I t goes t o t h e t u n e o f " B i l l y and M o l l y " o r "The J o u r n e y m a n S h o e m a k e r . " The l a n g u a g e i s n o t v e r y e l e g a n t n o r a r e t h e s e n t i m e n t s v e r y e l e v a t e d , and one c a n i m a g i n e w i t h what g u s t o s u c h a v e r s e as t h i s m i g h t h a v e been s u n g a t t h e v i l l a g e p u b : The k i n g o f k n a v e s and Queen o f s l u t s r e i g n t h e r e i n p e a c e and q u i e t ; You n e e d n o t f e a r t o s t a r v e y o u r g u t s , t h e r e i s s u c h s t o r e o f d i e t . ( p . 1 6 1 ) . The s o n g i s w o r t h l o o k i n g at b e c a u s e i t r e p e a t s so f a i t h f u l l y t h e m o t i f s i n The L a n d o f C o k a y g n e . The s t r e e t s a r e p a v e d w i t h p u d d i n g p i e s , p o w d e r e d b e e f and b a c o n . The b u i l d i n g s a r e made f r o m n u t m e g s , p e p p e r , c l o v e s and mace b o i l e d i n h a s t y p u d d i n g i n g e n i o u s l y c a r v e d and t i e d t o g e t h e r w i t h p a n c a k e s . R o a s t p i g b e g g i n g t o be e a t e n , o f c o u r s e , and t h e w i n e i s f r e e : The C a p t a i n s a y s i n e v e r y town Hot r o a s t e d p i g s w i l l meet ye They i n t h e s t r e e t s r u n up and down. S t i l l c r y i n g o u t come e a t me; L i k e w i s e he s a y s a t e v e r y f e a s t The v e r y f o w l s and f i s h e s Nay f r o m t h e b i g g e s t t o t h e l e a s t comes t u m b l i n g t o t h e d i s h e s . ^ S i x P l a y s by C o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f S h a k e s p e a r e , e d . C. B. W h e e l e r ( L o n d o n , 1 9 4 7 ) , P- 74 ( V . i v . 2 2 9 - 2 3 7 ) • 2 C o p i e d by A c k e r m a n n , p p . 160-162 f r o m J . A s h t o n , Humour, W i t and S a t i r e o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n , I 8 8 3 ) . 118 The r i v e r s r u n w i t h c l a r e t f r e e The b r o o k s w i t h r i c h c a n a r y The ponds w i t h o t h e r s o r t s o f w i n e t o make y o u r h e a r t s f u l l m e r r y ; Nay more t h a n t h i s , y o u may b e h o l d t h e f o u n t a i n s f l o w w i t h B r a n d y The r o c k s a r e l i k e r e f i n e d g o l d The h i l l s a r e s u g a r c a n d y . ( p . 1 6 1 ) . M e n t i o n o f t h e h i l l s o f s u g a r c a n d y i n L u b b e r l a n d b r i n g s us i n one l e a p t o t h e w e l l - l o v e d modern A m e r i c a n f o l k s o n g , The B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . I c a n n o t presume t o t r a c e t h e C o kaygne theme i n f o l k l i t e r a t u r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . I may c o n f i d e n t l y n o t e , h o w e v e r , i t s s u r v i v a l i n A m e r i c a n f o l k l i t e r a t u r e . F o r t h a t t h e theme r e m a i n e d v e r y much a l i v e among t h e e m i g r a n t s t o t h e New W o r l d , and i s a l i v e t o d a y , t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t . The c l o s e s t a n a l o g u e t o The L a n d o f C okaygne i s The B i g Rock Candy  M o u n t a i n s . But t h e theme a p p e a r s i n o t h e r s o n g s and s t o r i e s t o o , u n t o u c h e d by any p u r i t a n i c a l d i s a p p r o v a l and s t i l l c a r r y i n g t h e h o p e s o f t h e p o o r man f o r h i s own u t o p i a . We h a v e n o t e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e C o k a y g n e theme i n t h e Mummers* P l a y w h i c h t h e E n g l i s h v i l l a g e r h a s c o n t i n u e d t o p e r -f o r m i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . E n g l i s h e m i g r a n t s b r o u g h t w i t h them t o A m e r i c a some s u c h f o l k drama as t h i s and w i t h i t t h e r o a s t p i g and p a n c a k e s o f C o k a y g n e . I n " S u r v i v a l s o f t h e O l d F o l k Drama i n t h e K e n t u c k y M o u n t a i n s , " M a r i e C a m p b e l l r e c o r d s a f r a g m e n t o f one o f t h e s e p l a y s . A u n t S u s a n o f Caney C r e e k h a d r e c a l l e d f o r h e r some l i n e s w h i c h " h e r p a p * s pap u s e d t o s a y i n 119 a ' p i e c e o f p l a y - a c t i n g ' " : A nd I went on a b i t f u r t h e r and I come t o t h e l a n d o f p l e n t y w i t h s t o n e s o f p l u m p u d d i n g s , h o u s e s t h a t c h e d w i t h p a n c a k e s , and p i g s r u n n i n g a b o u t s a y i n g , "Who w i l l e a t me, p l e a s e ? " 4 The C o k a y g n e theme a p p e a r s a l s o i n t h e J a c k t a l e s t o l d by t h e s o u t h e r n m o u n t a i n f a r m e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , One o f t h e s t o r y t e l l e r s , Boyd B o i l i n g o f F l a t Gap, V i r g i n i a , h a s a l o n g t a l e e n t i t l e d The F o r k s o f Honey R i v e r at t h e F o o t o f P a n -c a k e M o u n t a i n , I n R i c h a r d C h a s e ' s a d a p t a t i o n o f i t , J a c k i s amazed t o d i s c o v e r a bee t r e e so d r i p p i n g w i t h h o n e y t h a t i t f l o w s away i n a c r e e k : "Now, a i n ' t t h a t a s i g h t i n t h e w o r l d , " s a y s J a c k , and he l e a n e d b a c k on a l i t t l e t r e e t o w a t c h t h e bees f l y and t h e h o n e y r u n , and when he j a r r e d t h a t t r e e s o m e t h i n g s t a r t e d f l o p p i n * down on t h e g r o u n d a r o u n d u s , I p i c k e d one up and l o o k e d at i t , t h e n I s m e l l e d o f i t , and t h e n I t a s t e d o f i t , t h e n I s a y s t o J a c k , " F r i t t e r ! " " S u r e l y n o t , " s a y s J a c k , " P i c k one up and t a s t e i t , " I t o l d h i m . So J a c k t r i e d o n e , and d o n ' t y o u know t h e r e we s t o o d i n a l i t t l e g r o v e o f f r i t t e r - t r e e s . They were t h e b e s t f r i t t e r s y o u e v e r t a s t e d . We s h o o k down a mess o f * em and d i p p e d 'em i n t h a t h o n e y c r e e k and e a t f r i t t e r s and h o n e y t i l l we was n e a r l y f o u n d e r e d . And j u s t a b o u t t h a t t i m e we h e a r d a r a c k e t up above u s , and h e r e came a J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n F o l k L o r e , L I (jan«-March, 1938), 23, I b i d , , p , 24, 120 l i t t l e r o a s t p i g r u n n i n ' o u t t h e b r e s h w i t h a k n i f e and f o r k s t u c k i n i t s b a c k , a - s q u e a l i n g t o be e a t . But we wa s n ' t h u n g r y by t h e n , so we r a n i t on back.5 The w o n d e r f u l deeds o f J o h n H e n r y , t h e N e g r o f o l k h e r o , a r e n o t w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e abundance o f C o k a y g n e * One s t o r y r e p e a t s t h e p a n c a k e - h o n e y - r o a s t p i g m o t i f s i n a c o n t e x t o f humorous b r a v a d o ( M o r t o n , p p . 29-30)* N o r w e g i a n e m i g r a n t s t o M i n n e s o t a a l s o b r o u g h t w i t h them t h e i r own v e r s i o n o f t h e Cok a y g n e s o n g * T h e o d o r e C* B l e g e n and M a r t i n B* Ruud g i v e i t s h i s t o r y i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n o f N o r w e g i a n e m i g r a n t s o n g s * ^ I n 1 8 5 2 , O l e B u l l , t h e N o r w e g i a n v i o l i n i s t , h a d f o u n d e d a c o l o n y f o r h i s c o u n t r y m e n i n P e n n s y l v a n i a * The v e n t u r e f a i l e d , b u t t h e i d e a l i s t i c h o p e s o f t h e f o u n d e r and h i s s e t t l e r s were commemorated i n 1853 by a N o r w e g i a n w i t i n t h e s a t i r i c O l e a n a * H e r e a r e some o f t h e v e r s e s : I n O l e a n a , t h a t ' s where I ' d l i k e t o be, and n o t d r a g t h e c h a i n s o f s l a v e r y i n N o r w a y , I n O l e a n a t h e y g i v e y o u l a n d f o r n o t h i n g , and t h e g r a i n j u s t p o p s o u t o f t h e g r o u n d . G o l l y , t h a t ' s e a s y . The g r a i n t h r e s h e s i t s e l f i n t h e g r a n a r y w h i l e I s t r e t c h o u t a t e a s e i n my bunk. And M i i n c h e n e r b e e r , as sweet as Y t t e b o r g ' s , r u n s i n t h e c r e e k s f o r t h e p o o r man's d e l e c t a t i o n . A n d t h e s a l m o n , t h e y l e a p l i k e mad i n t h e r i v e r s , and hop i n t o t h e k e t t l e s , and c r y o u t f o r a c o v e r . 3 T h e J a c k T a l e s , e d . R i c h a r d Chase ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s , , 1953), p , 159 and A p p e n d i x , s e c , x v i , p , 199« ^ N o r w e g i a n E m i g r a n t Songs and B a l l a d s , e d , and t r a n s , T h e o d o r e C, B l e g e n and M a r t i n B*^  Ruud ( M i n n e a p o l i s , 1936), pp* 187-198. 121 And l i t t l e r o a s t e d p i g g i e s r u s h a b o u t t h e s t r e e t s , p o l i t e l y i n q u i r i n g i f y o u w i s h f o r ham*? The s o n g was an i m m e d i a t e s u c c e s s i n Norway* Among N o r w e g i a n s e t t l e r s i n A m e r i c a a l s o i t became a f a v o u r i t e f o l k s o n g * But when t h e y s a n g a b o u t g r a i n t h r e s h i n g i t s e l f i n t h e g r a n a r y and r o a s t p i g s r u n n i n g a b o u t t h e s t r e e t s , were t h e y m a k i n g f u n o f t h e i r dreams o f p a r a d i s e i n M i n n e s o t a and D a k o t a , o r were t h e y , w i t h t h e i n v i n c i b l e o p t i m i s m o f t h e p i o n e e r , p r o j e c t i n g O l e a n a i n t o t h e f u t u r e ? The d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s i n s p i r e d a m i l i t a n t v e r s i o n o f t h e Cok a y g n e s o n g . P o o r Man's Heaven* A* L* L l o y d , a B r i t i s h c o l -8 l e c t o r o f f o l k s o n g s , h a s s u p p l i e d t h e w o r d s * H e r e a r e t h r e e s t a n z a s : W e ' l l r u n a l l t h e ban k s and s h o o t a l l t h e c r a n k s And we won't g i v e a d a r n who we h u r t And t h e m i l l i o n a i r e ' s s o n won't h a v e so much f u n When we p u t h i m t o s h o v e l l i n g d i r t * W e ' l l t a k e an o l d r a i l and open t h e g a o l And l e t a l l t h e p o o r men o u t q u i c k . A n d t h o s e b l u e - c o a t e d mugs w e ' l l l o c k i n t h e j u g An d w e ' l l g i v e 'em t h e i r own b l o o d y s t i c k . I n P o o r Man's Heaven w e ' l l l i v e a t o u r e a s e , No s k i l l y and beans o v e r t h e r e , B u t we w i l l be f e d on b r e a k f a s t i n b e d And s e r v e d by a f a t m i l l i o n a i r e * The. s o n g d e s c r i b e s a p a r a d i s e f o r h u n g r y men* H e r e a g a i n a r e t h e f a m i l i a r C o k a y g n e m o t i f s — t h e ham and egg t r e e s , f o u n t a i 7 I b i d * . p p . 1 9 2 - 1 9 3 * See a l s o The F o l k S o n g s o f N o r t h  A m e r i c a i n t h e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e , ed* A l a n Lomax ( L o n d o n , I 9 6 0 ) , p p , 8 8 - 8 9 * The h i s t o r y o f t h e s o n g i s g i v e n on p , 7 7 * g P e r s o n a l l e t t e r , O c t * 1, 1963* Mr. L l o y d h a s a l s o p r o -v i d e d t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s s o n g w h i c h h e r e f o l l o w s . 122 o f b e e r a n d " s t r a w b e r r y p i e t h a t ' s t w e n t y f o o t h i g h / A n d w h i p p e d c r e a m t h e y b r i n g i n a t r u c k . " But t h a t s e n s e o f g r i e v a n c e w h i c h was o n l y an u n d e r c u r r e n t i n The L a n d o f Cokaygne i s h e r e t h e d o m i n a n t t h e m e . The l a n g u a g e i s c r u d e and v i o l e n t and p r o b a b l y does e x p r e s s t h e h o s t i l i t y o f t h e g r e a t numbers o f u n e m p l o y e d a t t h i s t i m e . One n o t e s t h a t i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p o o r , s h o v e l l i n g d i r t i s s t i l l t h e u l t i m a t e i g n o m i n y . S e a r c h i n g f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s s o n g , Mr. L l o y d t r a c e d i t t o an A m e r i c a n s i n g e r o f t h e t y p e o f s o n g known as t h e " w e s t e r n . " C a r s o n J« R o b i s o n c o p y r i g h t e d P o o r Man's Heaven as h i s own com-p o s i t i o n i n 1930 and made a r e c o r d i n g o f i t . L l o y d s u g g e s t s t h a t he may h a v e r e - w o r k e d a s o n g t h a t was c u r r e n t a t t h e t i m e , p o s s i b l y an I.W.W. s o n g . (He h a d r e - w o r k e d o t h e r " W o b b l y " s o n g s ) . The s u g g e s t e d c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e I.W.W., t h e u n i o n o f t h e m i g r a n t w o r k e r i s n o t i m p r o b a b l e , f o r t h i s s o n g w i t h i t s r e f e r e n c e t o • s k i l l y and b e a n s , P u l l m a n b e r t h s and p o l i c e m e n w i t h s t i c k s s u g -g e s t s t h e m i g r a n t w o r k e r who r o d e t h e r o d s i n s e a r c h o f work and camped o u t i n a hobo j u n g l e . The s o n g does n o t seem t o h a v e been w e l l - k n o w n i n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , h o w e v e r , even t h o u g h i t was r e c o r d e d a g a i n i n t h e 1940's by "Cowboy" D a l 1 as T u r n e r . But t h e theme o f t h e p o o r man's h e a v e n b e i n g q u i t e i m p e r i s h a b l e , t h e s o n g t u r n s up a g a i n i n E n g l a n d , s u n g by two f a r m l a b o u r e r s i n a pub c a l l e d t h e E e l ' s F o o t i n E a s t b r i d g e , S u f f o l k . Mr. L l o y d r e c o r d e d i t h e r e i n 1937, one o f t h e w o r s t y e a r s o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n . The two s i n g e r s s a i d t h e y h a d l e a r n e d i t f r o m an o l d c y l i n d e r p h o n o g r a p h r e c o r d . 123 We s a i d e a r l i e r t h a t C o k a y g n e b e l o n g s t o t h e f o l k and now we know who some o f t h e f o l k a r e . They a r e d e s c e n d a n t s o f N e g r o s l a v e s and t h e y a r e e m i g r a n t s f r o m Norway, They a r e m o u n t a i n f a r m e r s o f t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s , l i k e Aunt S u s a n o f Caney C r e e k and h e r g r a n d p a p , and Boyd B o i l i n g o f F l a t Gap, V i r g i n i a ; p o p u l a r s i n g e r s l i k e C a r s o n R o b i s o n and "Cowboy" D a l l a s T u r n e r ; a n d , a c r o s s t h e s e a a g a i n , f a r m l a b o u r e r s l i k e T, Cook and J , B r i g h t -w e l l i n E a s t b r i d g e , S u f f o l k , To t h e s e must be a d d e d t h e name o f H a r r y M c C l i n t o c k , t h e hobo i o n g l e u r who c l a i m s t h e a u t h o r s h i p o f The B i g Rock Candy  M o u n t a i n s , I n A m e r i c a n F o l k S o n g s o f P r o t e s t . J o h n Greenway g i v e s some d e t a i l s a b o u t h i s l i f e w h i c h i l l u m i n a t e t h e o r i g i n s 'Q o f t h e s o n g , M c C l i n t o c k was a y o u n g " b u s k e r " o r t r a m p e n t e r -t a i n e r who s p e n t some o f h i s e a r l y y e a r s " r i d i n g t h e r o d s " f r o m town t o town and s i n g i n g f o r h a n d - o u t s . L a t e r he j o i n e d t h e I,W,W, as one o f i t s f i r s t s i n g e r s and p l a y e d an E r - f l a t b a r i t o n e h o r n i n i t s f i r s t b a n d , M c C l i n t o c k h i m s e l f h a s t o l d how he be-gan h i s c a r e e r as a " b u s k e r , " I t was i n a s a l o o n i n New O r l e a n s j u s t b e f o r e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , A g r o u p o f E n g l i s h s a i l o r s w e r e h a v i n g a s i n g - s o n g and i n v i t e d h i m t o j o i n i n . He r e p o r t s : Somehow I d r o p p e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I h a d h o b o e d i n t o New O r l e a n s and e x p e c t e d t o resume my w a n d e r i n g s as s o o n as t h e w e a t h e r g o t warmer. T h e i r i n t e r e s t was f l a t t e r i n g and I am a f r a i d t h a t I l o a d e d them w i t h some p r e t t y t a l l t a l e s a b o u t hobo l i f e . They k e p t d r o p p i n g c o i n s i n t o my p o c k e t s a t odd i n t e r v a l s and I woke up n e x t m o r n i n g w i t h n e a r l y f o u r b u c k s i n New Y o r k , I960, p p , 174, 197-204, 124 s m a l l c h a n g e . So when I h i t t h e r o a d a g a i n I was no l o n g e r a moocher o f p o k e - o u t s at b a c k d o o r s ; w e l l , anyway, n o t e x c l u s i v e l y . I n a s t r a n g e town I s e a r c h e d f o r s o u n d s o f " r e v e l r y by n i g h t " and t h e r e were few s a l o o n c r o w d s t h a t w o u l d r e f u s e t o l i s t e n t o a k i d who w a n t e d t o s i n g . ( C i t e d by G r eenway, p . 200). The B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s h a d i t s o r i g i n i n t h e s e a m i e r s i d e o f hobo l i f e . M c C l i n t o c k knew how t h e " j o c k e r s " o r e x p e r i e n c e d t r a m p s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e i n g l o w i n g t e r m s t h e l i f e o f t h e r o a d and t h u s r e c r u i t a p p r e n t i c e s f r o m t h e y o u n g s t e r s who p l a y e d a r o u n d t h e j u n g l e s o f t h e r a i l r o a d y a r d s . He w r o t e The B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s as a p a r o d y o f one o f t h e s e " g h o s t s t o r i e s . " I n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , t h e " j o c k e r " l u r e s t h e boy i n t o j o i n i n g h i m on t h e r o a d w i t h h i s s t o r y o f « . a t h e bees i n t h e c i g a r e t t e t r e e s . A nd t h e s o d a w a t e r f o u n t a i n And t h e lemonade s p r i n g s where t h e b l u e b i r d s i n g s * I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . ( C i t e d by G r eenway, p . 2O3). One w o n d e r s f r o m what s o u r c e M c C l i n t o c k h a d h i s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r h i s C o kaygne s o n g . A l a n Lomax s u g g e s t s as p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s s e v e r a l S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n a n a l o g u e s . Among them i s t h e M e x i c a n s o n g a b o u t t h e " C i t y o f I Don't Know Where," w h i c h c e l e b r a t e s r o a s t d u c k f l y i n g a b o u t and c h u r c h e s made o f s u g a r . "Was i t , " a s k s Lbmax, " a M e x i c a n o r a S c a n d i n a v i a n hobo who t o l d t h e s e w onder t a l e s a t t h e hobo j u n g l e f i r e where t h e r o a d k i d M c C l i n t o c k was l i s t e n i n g ? Or d i d t h e s e o l d U t o p i a n m o t i v e s come f r o m E n g l i s h , C e l t i c , o r German s o u r c e s ? S i n c e t h e f o l k f a n t a s y o f t h e r o a s t p i g r u n n i n g a b o u t s q u e a k i n g ' E a t me' was common t o t h e w h o l e o f 125 h u n g r y West E u r o p e , we s h a l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r know." D e s p i t e i t s u n s a v o u r y o r i g i n s . The B i g Rock Candy Moun-t a i n s i s now s u n g a r o u n d t h e f a m i l y p i a n o and i s i n c l u d e d i n many f o l k s o n g a n t h o l o g i e s . What h a p p e n e d t o M c C l i n t o c k ' s s o n g was t h a t t h e p e o p l e c h a n g e d t h e words t o s u i t t h e m s e l v e s . Of t h i s c hange A l a n Lomax s a y s , " F i f t y y e a r s o f r e - w o r k i n g by o t h e r b a l l a d e e r s h a v e o b s c u r e d t h e raw i r o n y o f M c C l i n t o c k ' s o r i g i n a l s o n g , b u t h a v e g r a c e d i t w i t h a g e - o l d U t o p i a n f a n t a s i e s w h i c h i n s p i r e d t h e s o n g O l e a n a . " * * I t became, n o t t h e s o n g o f t h e " j o c k e r , " b u t t h e s o n g o f t h e hobo l o o k i n g f o r t h a t l a n d " b i west s p a y n g n e . " I n a number o f d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s i t became a f a v o u r -i t e s o n g o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s . P e o p l e s a n g H a l l e l u i a h . I'm  a Bum ( a n o t h e r o f M c C l i n t o c k ' s s o n g s ) , and J o e H i l l ' s The P r e a c h e r  and t h e S l a v e . And t h e y s a n g The B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s , t h e hobo s o n g o f C o k a y g n e : One e v e n i n g as t h e sun went down And t h e j u n g l e f i r e was b u r n i n g , Down t h e t r a c k came a hobo h i k i n ' And he s a y s , " B o y s , I'm n o t t u r n i n g . I'm h e a d e d f o r a l a n d t h a t ' s f a r away B e s i d e t h e c r y s t a l f o u n t a i n s . So come w i t h me, w e ' l l go and see The B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . " I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s , T h e r e ' s a l a n d t h a t ' s f a i r and b r i g h t . Where t h e h a n d - o u t s grow on b u s h e s . And y o u s l e e p o u t e v e r y n i g h t . Where t h e b o x c a r s a l l a r e empty, And t h e sun s h i n e s e v e r y d a y . Oh, t h e b i r d s and t h e b e e s and t h e c i g a r e t t e t r e e s , Lomax, e d . The F o l k Songs o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , p. 411. I b i d . 126 The lemonade s p r i n g s where t h e b l u e b i r d s i n g s . I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s , A l l t h e cops h a v e wooden l e g s , The b u l l d o g s a l l h a v e r u b b e r . t e e t h And t h e hens l a y s o f t - b o i l e d e g g s . The f a r m e r s * t r e e s a r e f u l l o f f r u i t . A nd t h e b a r n s a r e f u l l o f h a y . Oh, I*m bound t o go where t h e r e a i n * t no snow. Where t h e r a i n d o n * t f a l l and t h e w i n d d o n * t b l o w . I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s , You n e v e r change y o u r s o c k s A n d t h e l i t t l e s t r e a m s o f a l c o h o l Come t r i c k l i n g down t h e r o c k s . The brakemen h a v e t o t i p t h e i r c a p s A n d t h e r a i l r o a d b u l l s a r e b l i n d . T h e r e ' s a l a k e o f s t e w and w h i s k e y t o o . You can p a d d l e a l l a r o u n d i n a b i g canoe I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s A l l t h e j a i l s a r e made o f t i n , And y o u c a n w a l k r i g h t o u t a g a i n As s o o n as you a r e i n . T h e r e a i n ' t no s h o r t - h a n d l e d s h o v e l s , No a x e s , saws o r p i c k s . Oh, I'm g o i n g t o s t a y where t h e y s l e e p a l l d a y , Where t h e y h u n g t h e T u r k who i n v e n t e d work I n t h e B i g Rock Candy M o u n t a i n s . ^ 2 I h a v e t a l k e d a g o o d d e a l about t h e f o l k i n t h e s e l a s t p a g e s and I may h a v e seemed t o i d e a l i z e , i n a c o n d e s c e n d i n g way, t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f a w o r t h y b u t l o w e r c l a s s o f p e o p l e . R. J . E» T i d d y a c u t e l y o b s e r v e s t h a t p a r t o f o u r e n j o y m e n t o f f o l k l i t e r a -t u r e i s b a s e d on o u r p h i l a n t h r o p i c f e e l i n ' g s and t i n g e d by an e l e m e n t o f d e - h a u t - e n - b a s d e t a c h m e n t , I t seems - a p p r o p r i a t e i n q u o t i n g t h i s s o n g t o r e c a l l one's own s e t o f words r a t h e r t h a n t o c i t e a c o l l e c t o r ' s a n t h o l o g y . See a l s o B e r n e r i , p p . 318-319; The F o l k S o n g s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , p p . 4 2 2 - 4 2 3 . 127 f r i e n d l y and a f f e c t i o n a t e , b u t d e t a c h m e n t none t h e l e s s . I t h a s even a t o u c h o f s u r -p r i s e , o f d e l i g h t e d wonder t h a t f t h e l i k e s o f them' can s a y s u c h t h i n g s . • . • But t h i s e m o t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y n o t f e l t by t h e f o l k t h e m s e l v e s . When t h e f o l k s a y ' t h e l i k e s o f u s 1 t h e y s a y i t w i t h no s e n s e o f p a t h o s , b u t e i t h e r w i t h a h a p p y i n d i f f e r e n c e t o what we may c h o o s e t o t h i n k o f t h e h a r d s h i p o f t h e i r l o t , o r . • • w i t h b i t t e r n e s s and i r o n y . I n any a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e o r t o e x p l o r e f o l k l i t e r a t u r e , t h e p a t h o s w h i c h we a r e apt t o f i n d i n p o v e r t y o r h e l p l e s s n e s s must s i m p l y be d i s m i s s e d . 1 3 I n a d d i t i o n , an u n s e n t i m e n t a l and r e a l i s t i c o b s e r v e r w i l l f a i l t o d i s c o v e r , as C a r l S a n d b u r g d o e s , t h a t t h e P e o p l e , any more t h a n anyone e l s e , s p e a k " f o r t h e F a m i l y o f Man," t h a t " t h e y a r e i n t u n e and s t e p / w i t h c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f u n i v e r s a l l a w , " m a r c h i n g " i n t h e d a r k n e s s w i t h a g r e a t b u n d l e o f g r i e f . " * 4 N o r w i l l t h e u n s e n t i m e n t a l o b s e r v e r f i n d a s p e c i a l m e r i t i n t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e , q u a i n t l y , o f t h e f o l k . F o l k l i t e r a -t u r e , i f t h e C o k a y g n e s o n g s and s t o r i e s we h a v e e x a m i n e d a r e any i n d i c a t i o n s , can be g a y , c h a r m i n g and t o u c h e d w i t h a hum o r o u s -b r a v a d o . I t can a l s o be d u l l and p e d e s t r i a n , and u n p l e a s a n t l y c o a r s e , b r u t a l and o b s c e n e . What g i v e s t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e s o f f o l k l i t e r a t u r e t h e i r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i s t h a t , t a k e n t o -g e t h e r , t h e y g i v e us s o m e t h i n g w h i c h we may c a l l a f o l k u t o p i a . T h i s f o l k u t o p i a i s n o t a s i n g l e , c o m p l e t e i d e a , b u t an a c c r e -t i o n o f moods, a s p i r a t i o n s and d e s i r e s . A m i n s t r e l ( p e r h a p s a w a n d e r i n g s c h o l a r ) o f t h e M i d d l e Ages c a n g i v e us a s o n g a b o u t 1 3 T h e Mummers' P l a y , p p . 68-69» * 4 T h e P e o p l e . Y e s , i n The A m e r i c a n T r a d i t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , e d . S c u l l e y B r a d l e y e t a l . (New Y o r k , 1956-1957), I I , 689-690, l i n e s 47-49, 75-128 i t and so can a t r a m p e n t e r t a i n e r o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . But t h e C o k a y g n e p o e t d oes n o t r e a l l y b e l o n g t o " t h e l i k e s o f t h em» M As we h a v e s e e n , he h a s s o m e t h i n g i n common w i t h s a t i r i s t s l i k e L u c i a n , I N i g e L l W i r e k e r and S a m u e l B u t l e r . L i k e them, he b r i n g s t o h i s theme a k n o w l e d g e o f l i t e r a r y c o n v e n -t i o n s and a f l a i r f o r c l e v e r and s o p h i s t i c a t e d m o c k e r y w h i c h t h e f o l k , c h a r m i n g , g ay and r o b u s t , a r e l a c k i n g . The f o l k a r e e s s e n t i a l l y i n a r t i c u l a t e . They e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s more e l o -q u e n t l y , as T i d d y p o i n t s o u t ( p . 89), w i t h d ance and m u s i c t h a n w i t h w o r d s . The C o k a y g n e p o e t c h o o s e s a p o p u l a r f o l k theme as a v e h i c l e f o r s a t i r e and p a r o d y , p l a y s w i t h i t , i m p r o v i s e s , d i s p l a y s a t o n c e t h e i r o n i c w i t o f t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d m i n d and t h e f o r t h r i g h t humour o f t h e f o l k . He g i v e s us a f o l k u t o p i a i n t h e s p i r i t o f game and p l e y . I n t h i s e s s a y I h a v e c r e a t e d , i f I may b o r r o w a m e t a p h o r 15 f r o m H e n r y J a m e s , a " s q u a r e and s p a c i o u s h o u s e " w i t h many windows f r o m w h i c h t o v i e w my s u b j e c t . I v i e w i t t h r o u g h t h e s a i n t ' s l i f e and f i n d t h a t t h e S t . P a t r i c k and S t . B r e n d a n l e g e n d s g i v e i t one a s p e c t . I v i e w i t t h r o u g h t h e u t o p i a and a n t i - u t o p i a and d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e w r i t i n g s o f Mor e , M o r r i s , S w i f t , H u x l e y and O r w e l l g i v e i t a n o t h e r a s p e c t . I v i e w i t t h r o u g h t h e G r e e k , C e l t i c and L a t i n s a t i r e o f e d u c a t e d men and t h r o u g h t h e c o m i c b u r l e s q u e i n t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f u n l e t t e r e d f o l k , and see y e t o t h e r a s p e c t s o f my s u b j e c t r e v e a l e d . I n t h e 1 5 " P r e f a c e t o P o r t r a i t o f a L a d y . " The A r t o f t h e H o v e l :  C r i t i c a l P r e f a c e s by H e n r y James (New York,1934 )/ P» 4 & » F o r James ' "house o f f i c t i o n " see p . 46. 129 e n d I h a v e o b s e r v e d The L a n d o f Co k a y g n e t h r o u g h many a p e r t u r e s . The s u b j e c t s t i l l p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as a m i n o r p i e c e by an anony-mous p o e t . Thus i l l u m i n e d , h o w e v e r , i t h a s a f r e s h and v i v i d i d e n t i t y w i t h e v e r y r i g h t t o c l a i m a new i n t e r e s t among s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . 1 3 0 L I S T OF WORKS CITED Abrams, M* H» A G l o s s a r y o f L i t e r a r y Terms* New Y o r k , 1957* A c k e r m a n n , E l f r i e d e M a r i e . Das S c h l a r a f f e n l a n d i n German L i t e r a t u r e and F o l k S o n g : S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f an E a r t h l y  P a r a d i s e , w i t h an I n g u i r y i n t o i t s H i s t o r y i n E u r o p e a n  L i t e r a t u r e * : C h i c a g o , 1944* A s h t o n , 5m Humour, W i t and S a t i r e o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y * L o n d o n , 1883* A s p i n , I s a b e l , e d * A n g l o - N o r m a n P o l i t i c a l S o n g s * O x f o r d , 1953 ( A n g l o - N o r m a n T e x t S o c i e t y , V o l * Xl)» A t h e n a e u s * The D e i p n o s o p h i s t s , t r a n s * C h a r l e s B u r t o n G u l i c k * V o l . I I I . L o n d o n , 1929 ( L o e b C I a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) . A uge, C l a u d e , and P a u l A u ge, e d s . Nouveau p e t i t L a r o u s s e i l l u s t r e : D i c t i o n n a i r e e n c y c l o p e d i g u e . P a r i s , 1924* Babcocik, W i l l i a m H* L e g e n d a r y I s l a n d s o f t h e A t l a n t i c , A S t u d y  i n M e d i e v a l G e o g r a p h y . New Y o r k , 1922 ( A m e r i can  G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y R e s e a r c h S e r i e s , No* 8). B a c o n , S i r F r a n c i s . B a c o n ' s New A t l a n t i s , e d * A* T* F l u x * L o n d o n , 1941* B a l d r y , H. C« A n c i e n t U t o p i a s . L o n d o n , 1956* B a r b a z a n , E. (1696-1770). F a b l i a u x e t C o n t e s des P o e t e s f r a n c o i s des X I e . X I I ^ . XIII®. X I V ^ . e t Xye S i e ^ c l e s . N o u v e l l e E d i t i o n augmentee p a r M« Meon* V o l * I V , P a r i s , 1 8 0 8 . B a r i n g - G o u l d , S. C u r i o u s M y t h s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s . L o n d o n , 1906. B a u g h , A l b e r t C,, "The M i d d l e E n g l i s h P e r i o d (1100-1500)," A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d , e d . A l b e r t C, Baugh, New Y o r k , 1948. B e r g s o n , H e n r i * , " L a u g h t e r , " Comedy, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W y l i e S y p h e r * New Y o r k , 1956, B e r n e r i , M a r i e - L o u i s e . J o u r n e y t h r o u g h U t o p i a . L o n d o n , 1950. B l e g e n , T h e o d o r e C«, a n d M a r t i n B* Ruud, e d s * and t r a n s * N o r w e g i a n E m i g r a n t S o n g s and B a l l a d s * M i n n e a p o l i s , I936, " B l e s t , Abode o f t h e , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , e d * James H a s t i n g s . V o l . I I , New Y o r k , 1 9 2 8, 131 B l o c h , O s c a r , and W« von W a r t b u r g , e d s s D i c t i o n n a i r e e t y m o l o q i q u e de l a Langue f r a n c a i s e . P a r i s , I960* B o a s , G e o r g e * E s s a y s on P r i m i t i v i s m and R e l a t e d I d e a s i n t h e  M i d d l e A g e s . B a l t i m o r e , 1948 ( C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e  H i s t o r y o f P r i m i t i v i s m . no v o l * n o , ) . B o l t e , J o h a n n e s , and G e o r g P o l i v k a . Anmerkungen z u den K i n d e r -u-Hausma'rchen d e r Bru'der Grimm. V o l . I I I . L e i p z i g , 1918, B o n n e r , C a m p b e l l . " D i o n y s i a c M a g i c and t h e G r e e k L a n d o f C o k a i g n e , " T r a n s a c t i o n s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n  P h i l o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . X L I (1910). 175-1B5. B r a n d , J o h n . O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e P o p u l a r A n t i q u i t i e s o f G r e a t  B r i t a i n . R ev. S i r H e n r y E l l i s , 3 v o l s . L o n d o n , 1890. 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O x f o r d , 1959» C o u l t o n , G, G» M e d i e v a l P a n o r a m a . The E n g l i s h S c e n e f r o m  C o n q u e s t t o R e f o r m a t i o n . C l e v e l a n d , 1955* . The M e d i e v a l V i l l a g e , C a m b r i d g e , Eng», 1925. C r o s s , Tom P e e t e , and C l a r k H a r r i s S l o v e r , e d s . A n c i e n t I r i s h  T a l e s . New Y o r k , 1936, D e k k e r , Thoraas s S h o e m a k e r ' s H o l i d a y , i n S i x P l a y s by Contem-p o r a r i e s o f S h a k e s p e a r e , e d . C, B. W h e e l e r , L o n d o n , 1947a D e l e v o y , R o b e r t L. B r e u g e l : A H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l S t u d y , t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t , L a u s a n n e , 1959» 132 D i c k i n s , B r u c e , a n d R* M» W i l s o n , e d s * E a r l y M i d d l e E n g l i s h  T e x t s * 3rd ed* r e v * L o n d o n , 1956* D i o d o r u s o f S i c i l y , t r a n s * C» H* O l d f a t h e r . V o l * I I * L o n d o n , 1953 ( L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) * E l l i s , G e o r g e , e d * S p e c i m e n s o f t h e E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t s * 3 v o l s * L o n d o n , 1811* E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 11th -ed. New Y o r k , 1910-1922 ( " A t l a n t i s , " V o l * I I ; " C o c k a i g n e , " V o l * V I ; "Hesperides,» V o l . X I I I ) . E u r i p i d e s . The B a c c h a n a l s , i n E u r i p i d e s : P l a y s , t r a n s . A* S. Way. V o l . I I I . L o n d o n , 1950 ( L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) • F r a z e r , S i r James G e o r g e * The New G o l d e n Bough, e d . T h e o d o r H. G a s t e r . New Y o r k , 1959* F r y e , N o r t h r o p . Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m . P r i n c e t o n , 1957* F u r n i v a l l , F» J * E a r l y E n g l i s h Poems and L i v e s o f t h e S a i n t s * B e r l i n , 1 8 62. "The Good W i f e , " The P o r t a b l e M e d i e v a l R e a d e r , e d s * James B r u c e Ross and Mary M a r t i n M c L a u g h l i n * New Y o r k , 1949 ( f r o m The Goodman o f P a r i s , t r a n s * E i l e e n P o w e r ) * G r e e n w a y , J o h n * A m e r i c a n F o l k S o n g s o f P r o t e s t * New Y o r k , I960. H a l l , J o s e p h * The D i s c o v e r y o f a New W o r l d (Mundus A l t e r e t  Id e m ) , t r a n s * J o h n H e a l e y ( c * 1609), ed* H u n t i n g t o n B r o w n . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s * , 1937* H a r r i s o n , J a n e E l l e n * T h e m i s . A S t u d y o f t h e S o c i a l O r i g i n s  o f G r e e k R e l i g i o n * C a m b r i d g e , E n g . , 1912* H e u s e r , W* D i e K i l d a r e G e d i c h t e . Bonn, 1904* Homer* The O d y s s e y , t r a n s * E« V* R i e u * H a r m o n d s w o r t h , E n g . , 1946. H o r s t m a n n , C a r l , e d * E a r l y S o u t h E n g l i s h L e g e n d a r y o r L i v e s o f S a i n t s . V o l * U L o n d o n . 1887 (EETS.OS. 8 7 ) . H u x l e y , A l d o u s * B r a v e New W o r l d . H a r m o n d s w o r t h , E n g . , 1955 -James, Henry» " P r e f a c e t o P o r t r a i t o f a L a d y . " The A r t o f t h e N o v e l : C r i t i c a l P r e f a c e s by H e n r y James* New Y o r k , 1934-133 J o n s o n , Ben* The C o m p l e t e P l a y s o f Ben J o n s o n * L o n d o n , 1946 ( E v e r y m a n * s L i b r a r y ) * K i n g s l e y , C h a r l e s * The Wate r B a b i e s ; A F a i r y T a l e f o r a  Lan d - B a b y * The H e r o e s o r G r e e k F a i r y T a l e s f o r my  C h i l d r e n . L o n d o n , 1903 (The L i f e and Works o f  C h a r l e s K i n g s l e y . V o l . XlfJ? K l u g e , F r i e d r i c h * E t y m o l o g i s c h e s W o r t e r b u c h d e r d e u t s c h e n S p r a c h e . 1 7 t h e d . r e v . W a l t e r M i t z k a . B e r l i n , 1957* K n o w l e s , Dom D a v i d . The M o n a s t i c O r d e r i n E n g l a n d : A H i s t o r y  o f i t s D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e Times o f S t . D u n s t a n t o t h e  F o u r t h L a t e r a n C o u n c i l . 943-1216* C a m b r i d g e , E n g . , 1949* K o l b i n g , Eugen* " Z w e i m i t t e l e n g l i s c h e B e a r b e i t u n g e n d e r Sage von S t . P a t r i k ' s P u r g a t o r i u m , " E n g l i s c h e S t u d i e n , I ( 1 8 7 7 ) , 5 7 - 1 2 1 . L a n g l a n d , W i l l i a m * The V i s i o n s o f W i l l i a m C o n c e r n i n g P i e r s  t h e Plowman. D o w e l . D o b e t . and D o b e s t . e d * W a l t e r W* S k e a t . V o l , I I I . L o n d o n , 1873 (EETS.OS. 53)* L l o y d , A. L. L e t t e r t o t h e w r i t e r , O c t . 1, 1963* Lomax, A l a n , e d . The F o l k Songs o f N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t h e E n g l i s h  L a n g u a g e . L o n d o n , I 9 6 0 . 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