UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Canadian penitentiary statistics and research : a functional analysis Farmer, Colin 1964

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CANADIAN PENITENTIARY STATISTICS AND RESEARCH: A FUNCTIONAL.ANALYSIS by COLIN FARMER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1954  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of 'ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s ; i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s s h a l l a p p l y t o i t s use.  F o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s from date o f s u b m i s s i o n no  l o a n s o f t h i s document w i l l be made w i t h o u t t h e w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e Head o f t h e Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and Sociology.  The Department Head i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make t h e t h e s i s  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y t o persons he c o n s i d e r s responsible.  No p e r m i s s i o n w i l l be g r a n t e d f o r c o p y i n g any p a r t  of t h i s study f o r whatever purpose d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f r e s t r i c t e d use.  Furthermore, a t no time w i l l t h e c o p y i n g o r  p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Columbia,  Abstract This paper i s an attempt t o determine t h e f u n c t i o n s o f p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e . . defined  f o r the s t r u c t u r e of the  The p e n i t e n t i a r y s t r u c t u r e i s  as a b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e s t a t i s t i c s and  program as one o f i t s s u b - s t r u c t u r e s . s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h operating  research  By s t u d y i n g  penitentiary  some i n s i g h t i s g a i n e d i n t o t h i s system  as a b u r e a u c r a t i c  organization.  From an h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i t was found t h a t l i t t l e r e s e a r c h  has been done.  l i m i t e d r e l i a n c e has been p l a c e d on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  Furthermore,  by p e n i t e n t i a r y  i n decision-making.  administrators Major changes  i n p o l i c y r e s u l t e d from t h e f i n d i n g s o f o f f i c i a l  enquiries.  The major f u n c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t a t i s t i c s seems t o have been the p u b l i c a c c o u n t i n g o f S e r v i c e  operations.  With t h e a d o p t i o n . o f inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as an operating  philosophy,  t h e more complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  which has r e s u l t e d seems t o r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  r e l i a n c e on a  program i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s new  goal of the P e n i t e n t i a r y Service. expanded s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  W h i l e t h e need f o r an program i n p e n i t e n t i a r y  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d , necessitated  situation  s h o r t a g e o f funds has  r e l i a n c e on t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s f o r  guidance and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n .  The i n v o l v e m e n t  of t h e Bureau has r e s u l t e d , i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s s u f f i c i e n t f o r p u b l i c a c c o u n t i n g purposes a t  considerable  s a v i n g s t o the S e r v i c e .  t h e immediate  However, c o n s i d e r i n g  needs of t h e S e r v i c e f o r i n c r e a s e d s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and a v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , t h e major p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s would seem t o have a l i m i t i n g e f f e c t on t h e program from two p o i n t s o f view. i n g from t h i s study  Information  aris-  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y of t h e Dominion  Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s t o produce t h e r e q u i r e d data i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e o p t i m a l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program.  S e c o n d l y , t h e ' i n v o l v e m e n t o f an o u t s i d e  agency i n t h e program seems t o have been i n t e r p r e t e d u n f a v o u r a b l y by t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a f f , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a c c u r a c y of s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and i n t e r n a l acceptance o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program have been  impaired.  T h i s r e s e a r c h suggests as a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s p r o f i t a b l e t o study  c o r r e c t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n terms of t h e  t h e o r y o f complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s . information obtained present  More s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e  i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n order t o achieve i t s  g o a l o f inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e Canadian P e n i t e n -  t i a r y b u r e a u c r a c y i s dependent on t h e development o f an e f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program f o r which t h e r e seems t o be no f u n c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e admini s t r a t i v e arrangements n e c e s s a r y t o make t h i s program m a x i m a l l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y b u r e a u c r a c y has l e a d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e f f i c i e n c y , s t a f f acceptance of t h i s program and t h e r e f o r e u l t i m a t e achievement of b u r e a u c r a t i c g o a l s , demand t h a t t h e S e r v i c e assume i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l over p o l i c y and o p e r a t i o n o f i t s program o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h .  ix Acknowledgements The  w r i t e r acknowledges h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Mr.  MacLeod, Q.C.,  encouraging i t s  completion.  s t a f f of the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  h e a d q u a r t e r s and  at  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d most of  d a t a used f o r the a n a l y s i s e i t h e r d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s or questionnaires.  J.  the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , f o r a l l o w i n g  t h i s s t u d y t o be u n d e r t a k e n and The  A.  the  on  Without t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n the  study  c o u l d not have been conducted. A s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e i s owed t o Dr. J . M. Garneau, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Services, f o r h i s personal Mr.  L.  Psychological  s u p p o r t and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  assistance.  B. A. Ower, C h i e f L i b r a r i a n of the Dominion Bureau  of S t a t i s t i c s , gave i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g some of the n e c e s s a r y documents and  other  literature.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS •CHAPTER I  PAGE INTRODUCTION....'  .........................  PURPOSE, METHOD AND TECHNIQUES OF THE STUDY...' '  1  Method  3  Hypotheses  5  The Weberian Model  I'll  1  Statement o f t h e Problem  BUREAUCRATIC THEORY.  II  1  6 ,  6  Informal Organization  10  The Environment o f B u r e a u c r a c i e s and t h e i r Goals  12  Government B u r e a u c r a c i e s and T o t a l Institutions  16  THE CANADIAN PENITENTIARY SERVICE  22  SUMMARY.  42  ANALYSIS OF DATA  52  INTRODUCTION.  52  Sources o f Data.  52  Method o f A n a l y s i s  58  Definitions  59  TYPES OF STATISTICAL AND RESEARCH USAGE  60  P r e p a r a t i o n o f S t a f f E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and F i n a n c i a l Estimates P r e p a r a t i o n o f Annual Reports  61 ...  61  Answers Requested i n t h e House o f Commons and F o r m u l a t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i v e P r o p o s a l s . . . .  62  iv CHAPTER  PAGE Preparation  of R o y a l Commission R e p o r t s  Attempts a t Measurement of Programs o r S t u d i e s f o r Purposes of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Guidance Academic and S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s  62  63  by  P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f or Outsiders..  63  TYPES OF PENITENTIARY RESEARCH  64  ANNUAL REPORT STATISTICS  73  Use i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . . . . . .  74  Purpose of Annual Report S t a t i s t i c s  74  Reasons f o r Lack of Change i n Annual Report S t a t i s t i c s  78  INMATE STATISTICAL PROGRAM  81  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Use of Inmate S t a t i s t i c s . . . . . . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y  o f Inmate  Statistics Interviewing  81  82 Conditions  U n d e r s t a n d i n g of Purpose  82 84  S t a f f T r a i n i n g and E x p e r i e n c e i n Interviewing  85  V e r i f i c a t i o n o f Data  87  Forms D e s i g n  88  O p i n i o n of A c c u r a c y  88  Conclusion  88  AMOUNT OF ADMINISTRATIVE RELIANCE ON STATISTICS AND RESEARCH Reasons f o r N o n - R e l i a n c e on S t a t i s t i c s and Research S m a l l , Simple and S t a b l e O p e r a t i o n s  90 92 92  V  CHAPTER  PAGE H i g h l y P e r s o n a l i z e d and C e n t r a l i z e d Administration  93  T i g h t F i s c a l C o n t r o l and Shortage o f S t a f f , .  94  Custodial Philosophy  94  No A p p r e c i a t i o n o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f S t a t i s t i c s o r Research...  95  Public Pressure  95  Main Techniques o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e c i s i o n . . . .  96  Summary R e l a t e d t o C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Penitentiary Administration CHANGE IN RELIANCE ON STATISTICS AND RESEARCH... Needs f o r F u r t h e r I n c r e a s e i n S t a t i s t i c s and Research Reasons f o r I n c r e a s e d R e l i a n c e on  97 98 99  S t a t i s t i c s and R e s e a r c h .  102  F u t u r e Uses o f S t a t i s t i c s and Research  104  D i v i s i o n a l Research P r i o r i t i e s  105  ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONSHIPS IN STATISTICS AND RESEARCH  IV  10 7  Role of the U n i v e r s i t i e s  109  R o l e o f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s  110  R o l e o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n . . . . 114 SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FROM ANALYSIS 119  vi APPENDIX  PAGE  A.  Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y - S t a t i s t i c s I n t e r v i e w Guide..  B.  M a i l e d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and C o v e r i n g L e t t e r  130  C.  P e n i t e n t i a r y S t a t i s t i c a l Report Forms.........  136  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Focused  12 8  139  vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  II  III  PAGE Comparative S t a t i s t i c s o f Growth - The Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , 1947 - 1963  46  S t u d i e s C o n c e r n i n g P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates or Operations  65  P o s i t i o n Descriptions of the J u d i c i a l S e c t i o n Showing Academic Background, Work O r i e n t a t i o n and M a j o r R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of P r e s e n t Incumbents  112  viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I  PAGE A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Chart - P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e H e a d q u a r t e r s , 19 6 3  HO  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION PURPOSE, METHOD AND TECHNIQUES OF THE STUDY Statement o f t h e Problem At l e a s t as e a r l y as 1836 t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y o f Upper Canada was r e q u i r e d  t o produce and r e p o r t s t a t i s t i c s  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n . ^  concerning  At Confederation  the p r o v i n c i a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s were j o i n e d t o form what i s now the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  and t h e p r a c t i c e o f  p u b l i s h i n g inmate and o t h e r t y p e s o f s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e Annual Reports has c o n t i n u e d up t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . L i t t l e seems t o be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e purposes of t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i n p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s made o f them. traditional  o r what use  Moreover, i t i s n o t g e n e r a l l y known why t h e  pattern  of presenting  p e n i t e n t i a r y inmate  statistics  was adopted i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e n o r why i t has c o n t i n u e d practically  unchanged u n t i l r e c e n t t i m e s .  unknown i f t h e p u b l i s h e d to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Furthermore, i t i s  s t a t i s t i c s are the only s e r i e s a v a i l a b l e  o r whether o t h e r s e r i e s e x i s t o f which  p e n i t e n t i a r y e x e c u t i v e s make  independent u s e . F i n a l l y ,  there  seems t o have been l i t t l e e f f o r t made t o measure t h e v a l i d i t y  •'•Rules and R e g u l a t i o n s made by t h e I n s p e c t o r s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P e n i t e n t i a r y R e s p e c t i n g . P e n i t e n t i a r y D i s c i p l i n e and P o l i c y under a u t h o r i t y o f S t a t u t e 4, W i l l i a m I V , chap. 37. Submitted t o t h e L t . Governor o f Upper Canada, O c t . 22, 183 6.  2 and r e l i a b i l i t y o f c u r r e n t p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l  data.  With r e s p e c t t o p e n i t e n t i a r y r e s e a r c h , i t i s g e n e r a l l y understood  t h a t some o f t h e R o y a l Commissions and Committees  a p p o i n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e c o r r e c t i o n s i n Canada have approved the p r i n c i p l e o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d . has been undertaken i s n o t w i d e l y known. statement  Whether any r e s e a r c h  w i t h i n t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y system, however, There seems t o have been no c l e a r p u b l i c  as t o what purpose r e s e a r c h would have i n p e n i t e n t i a r y  o p e r a t i o n s , i f any were  undertaken.  Among a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and academicians  i n correctional  work t o d a y , one senses a d e v e l o p i n g concern as t o whether t h e money and e f f o r t expended i n o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e a c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e hoped f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f inmates.  There  seems t o be a g e n e r a l awareness t h a t t h e answers t o many c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s i n c o r r e c t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be s u p p l i e d by an adequate s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program.  I t seemed f i t t i n g ,  t h e r e f o r e a t t h i s t i m e , t h a t a study be undertaken  t o discover  the use which i s b e i n g made o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and what they mean i n terms of t h e g o a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . was  The d a t a f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h  c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1963 and e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i b e s  the p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i t s s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h program as o f these d a t e s . •  3 Method T h i s s t u d y may be d e s c r i b e d as a q u a l i t a t i v e functional analysis.  structural-  The q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h  r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from t h e f a c t t h a t l i t t l e p r e v i o u s s t u d y has been done i n t h e a r e a o f p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h . I t was n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o d e s c r i b e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a g e n e r a l way i n o r d e r t o generate h y p o t h e s e s , suggest r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r e p a r e t h e ground f o r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  analysis.  S t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s was c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l method by which t o s t u d y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h , as they bear upon o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y system.  With t h i s  methodology a b a s i c assumption i s made t h a t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s t e n d t o be m a i n t a i n e d and p r e s e r v e d .  A c c o r d i n g t o Merton a  system may combine s u b - s t r u c t u r e s which a r e e i t h e r d y s f u n c t i o n a l or n o n - f u n c t i o n a l f o r the t o t a l  functional,  structure.  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s t h e n e t b a l a n c e o f f u n c t i o n a l and d y s f u n c t i o n a l i t e m s which determines t h e degree t o which t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s maintained.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e same i t e m may have b o t h f u n c t i o n a l  and d y s f u n c t i o n a l consequences f o r t h e system.^ The term f u n c t i o n s h e r e i n means m a n i f e s t f u n c t i o n s as d e f i n e d by Levy.  These a r e i n t e n d e d o r r e c o g n i z e d o b j e c t i v e  consequences c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a d a p t a t i o n o r adjustment o f t h e system t o t h e s o c i a l environment.  D y s f u n c t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d as  *R, K. Merton, S o c i a l Theory and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , (The Free P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1957), pp.. 25-37.  4 those observed consequences which l e s s e n t h e adjustment o f t h e system.° Following  t h e procedures suggested by Merton and Levy  an attempt w i l l be made t o d e f i n e t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y  14  administrative  s t r u c t u r e as a b u r e a u c r a c y r e l a t e d t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f complex organizations. considered  P e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  as items o r s u b - s t r u c t u r e s  bureaucracy.  w i l l be  w i t h i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y  The purpose o f t h e s t u d y i s , w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of  the methodology  and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d a t a , t o determine t h e  f u n c t i o n s , i f any, which r e s u l t from t h e o p e r a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  program i n p e n i t e n t i a r y  of a  administration.  I n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e case t h i s can o n l y be a p a r t i a l  structural-  f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y system because i t c o n c e n t r a t e s on o n l y one o f i t s s u b - s t r u c t u r e s , s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  program.  namely t h e  But i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s  program  and d i s c o v e r i n g whatever problems a r e r e l a t e d t o s t a t i s t i c s and research  i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t some i n s i g h t s  w i l l be o b t a i n e d a bureaucracy.  i n t o the operation Some judgements  o f t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as  are also possible concerning  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements which c o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d i n o r d e r t h a t s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  w i l l become o p t i m a l l y  f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y  Service.  M. J . Levy, The S t r u c t u r e of S o c i e t y , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P r i n c e t o n , 1952), p. 51~. d  (Princeton  ^Merton, op. c i t . , pp. 52-54, and L e v y , op. c i t . , pp. 34-40.  5 Hypotheses One  g e n e r a l and  s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c hypotheses are advanced,  as f o l l o w s , c o n c e r n i n g Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s  and  research. 1.  C o r r e c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , may be p r o f i t a b l y s t u d i e d i n terms of b u r e a u c r a t i c t h e o r y and s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l methodology.  2.  I n the p a s t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n the S e r v i c e have preceded s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and no r e l i a n c e has been p l a c e d on s t a t i s t i c s i n making p o l i c y .  3.  S t a t i s t i c s , on the o t h e r hand, have been used t o s u p p o r t and j u s t i f y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s and t o prove t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been f u l f i l l e d .  4.  The f u n c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i s e v o l v i n g from one of s u p p o r t and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s t o one of guidance w i t h r e s p e c t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s but t h i s change i s not y e t complete.  5.  The p r e s e n t s t a t i s t i c a l p a r t n e r s h i p between the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e and the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i s u n l i k e l y t o be e f f i c i e n t i n terms of the expanding needs of p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r these data.  6.  As the r o l e of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n t r e a t m e n t of inmates becomes b e t t e r d e f i n e d , the f u n c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s w i l l be t o d e m o n s t r a t e , t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h , t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r y programs r e s u l t i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of o f f e n d e r s and hence are j u s t i f i e d . To the e x t e n t t h a t s t a t i s t i c s are not used i n t h i s way i t w i l l be d y s f u n c t i o n a l f o r the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i n terms of i t s p r e s e n t g o a l s . The l a c k of development i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n may r e s u l t e i t h e r i n a change o f g o a l s and/or removal of p u b l i c s u p p o r t . S i n c e one  operations  c e n t r a l p o s t u l a t e i n t h i s study i s that  of c o r r e c t i o n a l a g e n c i e s can be p r o f i t a b l y s t u d i e d  as b u r e a u c r a c i e s  and the d a t a w i l l be a n a l y z e d  c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l how complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  in this  be g i v e n t o a s p e c t s of the t h e o r y  context, of  6 BUREAUCRATIC THEORY The Weberian Model A survey o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t much has been w r i t t e n on t h i s s u b j e c t , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l a s t decade, b u t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few n o t a b l e a t t e m p t s , i t has n o t been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a s y s t e m a t i c body of theory.  However, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement among  a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t t h e work o f Weber has been an i n s p i r i n g  source  and r e c o g n i z e d s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a l organizations.  Weber d e s c r i b e d t h r e e l e g i t i m a t e types o f  a u t h o r i t y on which a r e based d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o p e r a t i o n ; t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , t h e '..charismatic and t h e r a t i o n a l legal.  The r a t i o n a l - l e g a l p a t t e r n o p e r a t e s  on t h e b a s i s t h a t  those i n a u t h o r i t y have a r i g h t t o l e a d e r s h i p because o f t h e l e g a l i t y o f a s e t o f r u l e s a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n functions.  T h i s i s t h e model which has s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o  t h i s study and some o f i t s main f e a t u r e s a r e b r i e f l y  elaborated  below. Weber p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y complex economic o p e r a t i o n s o f w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y have been a s s o c i a t e d with greater t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n of labour, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of workers i n t o types o f t a s k s and a requirement i n o r d e r t o compete on t h e market.  f o r more e f f i c i e n c y  These f a c t o r s i n a s s o c i a t i o n ,  he contended, f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f workers from t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e c o n t r o l by management o f human and  7 non-human f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n . ^ c r a c i e s was  The  development of bureau-  m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d by the e v o l u t i o n of the  c a p i t a l i s t system- and the one phenomenon i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o t h e r . ^  The r a t i o n a l - l e g a l type of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s  counted the 'most i m p o r t a n t mechanism f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of every day profane  affairs.'"'  I n s p i t e of c o m p l a i n t s  levelled  a t b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l by those s u b j e c t t o i t , Weber c l a i m s t h a t our s o c i e t y c o u l d not f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t  bureaucracies  except by a r e t u r n t o l e s s complex o p e r a t i o n s . bureaucracies  In general,  have r e s u l t e d i n a l l f i e l d s of endeavour because  t h a t form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e s t meets the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p  p r e d i c t a b l e and c a l c u l a b l e management. The work of a b u r e a u c r a c y d e a l s w i t h a s p e c i a l a r e a  of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n which the o f f i c i a l s have o p e r a t i o n a l jurisdiction.  The  j u r i s d i c t i o n i s normally described  by  s t a t u t e t o g e t h e r w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s enacted by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which tend t o be s t a b l e and e x h a u s t i v e . c r a c i e s i s normally a continuous  The b u s i n e s s  of bureau-  o p e r a t i o n , the management of  which i s based on w r i t t e n documents or f i l e s .  This r e q u i r e s ,  w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t a f f of c l e r i c a l persons t o manage ^M. Weber, The Theory of S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n , T r a n s l a t e d by A. M. Henderson and T. P a r s o n s , (The Free P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1947), pp. 218-250. 6  I b i d . , p.  338.  7  I b i d . , p. 3 3 3. 8  I b i d . , p.  338.  8 the  documentation.^ The Weberian model o f b u r e a u c r a c y tends t o emphasize  those f e a t u r e s which maximize e f f i c i e n c y o f b u r e a u c r a t i c operations.  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s combine t o b r i n g t h i s about.  Weber c l a i m s f i r s t , t h a t i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e n e c e s s a r y amount o f d i s c i p l i n e and s u b o r d i n a t i o n among o f f i c i a l s , s e l e c t i o n by appointment r a t h e r t h a n e l e c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . ^  0  S e c o n d l y , as s o c i e t y becomes more complex, t h e appointment of o f f i c i a l s i s i n c r e a s i n g l y based on t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y .  The  s k i l l s necessary t o q u a l i f y f o r a p o s i t i o n are u s u a l l y acquired by a l e n g t h y p r o c e s s o f t r a i n i n g and a r e i n c r e a s e d by day t o day e x p e r i e n c e on t h e job.-'--'his  Furthermore, the bureaucrat, i n  o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y , i s ' s u b j e c t t o s t r i c t and s y s t e m a t i c 12  d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l i n t h e conduct of h i s o f f i c e .  1  That  i s , h i s o f f i c i a l conduct i s s u b j e c t t o a system o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t h e n a t u r e o f which has been summarized  by Bendix  as f o l l o w s : a) t h e duty o f each o f f i c i a l t o do c e r t a i n t y p e s o f work i s d e l i m i t e d i n terms of, i m p e r s o n a l c r i t e r i a ; FROM MAX WEBER: Essays i n S o c i o l o g y , T r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by H. H. G e r t h and C. W. M i l l s , ( O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1958), pp. 196-198. M . Weber, The Theory o f S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n , t r a n s l a t e d by A. M. Henderson, and T. P a r s o n s , (The Free P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1947), p. 335. 10  i : L  G e r t h and M i l l s , op. c i t . , p. 199.  12  P a r s o n s , op. c i t . , p. 334.  9 b)  the o f f i c i a l i s given the a u t h o r i t y necessary t o c a r r y out h i s a s s i g n e d f u n c t i o n s ;  c)  t h e means o f c o m p u l s i o n a t h i s d i s p o s a l a r e s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d and t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e i r employmenti s l e g i t i m a t e are c l e a r l y defined.-^ Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s l e s s f r i c t i o n o c c u r s  conduct o f b u s i n e s s istrative  i n the  t h a n would be t h e case w i t h o t h e r admin-  forms and hence t a s k s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d more  o b j e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y . T y p i c a l l y the o f f i c i a l ' s p o s i t i o n i s h i s sole  occupation  which he pursues s e p a r a t e l y from h i s p r i v a t e a f f a i r s . whole s t a f f o f o f f i c i a l s i s o r g a n i z e d according t o l e v e l s of a u t h o r i t y .  The  i n t o an h i e r a r c h y  Those i n t h e l o w e r p o s i t i o n s  are t h e more numerous and s u b o r d i n a t e  t o those a t h i g h e r  levels.  I n r e t u r n f o r h i s f u l l time and s k i l l e d performance t h e o f f i c i a l i s normally  paid a regular s a l a r y .  There i s a l s o the under-  s t a n d i n g t h a t c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement e x i s t whereby he can a c h i e v e salary.  s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e h i e r a r c h y and i n c r e a s e d  A g a i n , t h e r e i s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t e n u r e w i l l be  h e l d f o r l i f e w i t h a p e n s i o n a t r e t i r e m e n t age.-*-  4  from t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n  Being removed  t h e employee t h e r e f o r e exchanges  f a i t h f u l performance o f d u t i e s f o r s e c u r i t y .  T h i s dependency  of t h e worker on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , Weber p o i n t s o u t , g i v e s  ^ R. B e n d i x , Max Weber, An I n t e l l e c t u a l P o r t r a i t , (Doubleday and Co., I n c . , New Y o r k , 1960), pp. 418-419. 3  T. P a r s o n s , op. c i t . , p. 333.  10 officials  an i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g the b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e  and s e e i n g t h a t i t i s perpetuated.- 1  5  T h i s i s one r e a s o n  why  the o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes p r a c t i c a l l y i n d e s t r u c t i b l e and  will  continue  personnel  even i f t h e r e i s a change i n c o n t r o l or i f the  over a p e r i o d of time i s e n t i r e l y Informal  replaced.  Organization  The Weberian r a t i o n a l - l e g a l model of b u r e a u c r a c y , because of the method used t o d e r i v e i t , emphasizes f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e and l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i d e a l of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . W e b e r the d y s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s  e x i s t and which p r o f o u n d l y  largely neglects to consider  of complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  u n o f f i c i a l p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o u r  type  the  which have s i n c e been found t o  a f f e c t these  operations.  B l a u c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e are a t l e a s t t h r e e reasons f o r the f o r m a t i o n of an i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n formal organizations.  I n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , a l l e v e n t u a l i t i e s  cannot be a n t i c i p a t e d and p r o v i d e d f o r i n the o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s because the c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s of o p e r a t i o n s are entirely forseeable.  1 5  1 6  p. 385.  Gerth  S e c o n d l y , i t i s s a i d t h a t the b u r e a u c r a t i c  and M i l l s , op. c i t . , p.  I b i d . , pp.  not  198 and  228.  230 and a l s o T. P a r s o n s ,  op. c i t . ,  ^•7For Weber's statement on h i s methodology see M. Weber, The Theory of S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n , t r a n s l a t e d by A. M. Henderson, and T. P a r s o n s , (The Free P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1947), p. 92.  11 working  environment produces f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y and anomie i n  the m a j o r i t y o f employees.  F i n a l l y , B l a u contends t h a t w o r k i n g  i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o o t h e r s i n a d i s c i p l i n e d way t o the e g a l i t a r i a n v a l u e s of our c u l t u r e .  runs  counter  A l l these  factors  g i v e r i s e t o the development of i n f o r m a l r u l e s and as adjustments  t o an o t h e r w i s e i l l o g i c a l o r  relationships  uncomfortable  employment s i t u a t i o n . I n the study of bureaucracy, i t i s a l s o , n e c e s s a r y t o r e a l i z e t h a t workers b r i n g t h e i r s o c i a l v a l u e s and  personal  n a t u r e s t o the j o b and these do not always c o i n c i d e w i t h the g o a l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  B l a u and S c o t t c l a i m t h a t a  fundamental a s p e c t of a u t h o r i t y i s t h a t s u b o r d i n a t e s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o l l o w o r d e r s o n l y when these agree w i t h the common v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r peer group. Weber has made c l e a r , and'Merton has c o n f i r m e d , t h a t workers must nowadays r e l y on some b u r e a u c r a c y existence.  f o r t h e i r very  Hence the f a t e of the worker i s j o i n e d t o the f a t e  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . O n  the o t h e r hand workers r e s i s t complete  c o n f o r m i t y t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ' g o a l s and management, i n m o b i l i z i n g human r e s o u r c e s , pays the p r i c e of a d a p t i n g i t s p o l i c y , t o some e x t e n t , i n l i n e w i t h the p e r s o n a l needs of l o w e r  level  P . M. B l a u and R. W. S c o t t , Formal O r g a n i z a t i o n s , (.Chandler P u b l i s h i n g ' Co. ,. San F r a n c i s c o , - 1962), p. 29~! i y  l ^ R . K. M e r t o n , " B u r e a u c r a t i c S t r u c t u r e and P e r s o n a l i t y " i n R. K. Merton e t a l . ( E d s . ) , Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , (The Free P r e s s , Glencoe, 111., 1960), p. 363.  12 participants.  P a r t i c i p a n t s , i n s h o r t , cannot be f o r c e d i n t o  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mold but must be induced t o l o y a l c o n f o r m i t y , a p r o c e s s which i s never p e r f e c t l y a c c o m p l i s h e d  by management.^0  Weber's f o r m a l model t h e r e f o r e seems too s i m p l i s t i c t o be a p p l i e d u n m o d i f i e d t o the a n a l y s i s of complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n the l i g h t of t h e s e new  f i n d i n g s the b u r e a u c r a t i c work  s i t u a t i o n i s more a c c u r a t e l y seen as a c o m b i n a t i o n of f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l components i n which t e c h n i c a l and human are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and i n e q u i l i b r i u m .  elements  Depending on admin-  i s t r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and the a b i l i t i e s o f the management p e r s o n n e l , the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and v a l u e system of c o u l d e i t h e r i m p a i r o r advance the g o a l s of t h e  bureaucracy.^1  The Environment of B u r e a u c r a c i e s and t h e i r The  workers  Goals  l i t e r a t u r e a l s o r e f l e c t s a d e v e l o p i n g concern w i t h  the l i n k s between t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l system and b u r e a u c r a t i c subsystems.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t Barnard c o n c l u d e s  that;  'the i n i t i a l e x i s t e n c e of an o r g a n i z a t i o n depends upon a c o m b i n a t i o n of ( t h e s e ) elements a p p r o p r i a t e t o the  ^ B l a u and S c o t t , op. c i t . , p. 29. For a c o n s i s t e n t t h e o r y of c o o p e r a t i o n by s u b o r d i n a t e s s e e , C. I . B a r n a r d , The F u n c t i o n s o f the E x e c u t i v e , (Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1960), p. 169. u  For a case s t u d y i n i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s i n a b u r e a u c r a c y see t h e a n a l y s i s o f the "Bank W i r i n g O b s e r v a t i o n Room a t t h e Western E l e c t r i c Company's Hawthorne Works" i n , F. J . R o e t h l i s b e r g e r and W. J . D i c k s o n , Management and the Worker, ( H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 19 56), pp. 525-567.  13 e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s a t the moment. I t s s u r v i v a l depends upon the maintenance of an e q u l i b r i u m of the system. T h i s e q u i l i b r i u m i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r n a l , a m a t t e r of p r o p o r t i o n s between the e l e m e n t s , but i t i s u l t i m a t e l y and b a s i c a l l y an e q u i l i b r i u m between the system and the t o t a l system e x t e r n a l t o i t . ' ? 2  Parsons has considered  a l s o w r i t t e n that bureaucracies should  be  'as a subsystem of a more comprehensive s o c i a l  system*23 and  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the g o a l s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n  i t s major l i n k s w i t h the environment.  He c o n c e i v e s of  are  the  achievement of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l as the p r o d u c t i o n  of a  commodity which can be used by some o t h e r system i n the environment, whether t h i s i s a t a n g i b l e o b j e c t o r a s e r v i c e . To P a r s o n s , c o n s i d e r i n g  organizations  as subsystems w i t h i n  l a r g e r s o c i e t y i m p l i e s t h a t t h e i r v a l u e systems be i n terms of the v a l u e s i n the s u p e r o r d i n a t e legitimacy i s derived patterns  21+  the  legitimate  system.  From t h i s  e n v i r o n m e n t a l a c c e p t a n c e of the main  of o p e r a t i o n w h i c h are n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n  the  bureaucracy. ^ 2  Not  o n l y must o r g a n i z a t i o n s  have l e g i t i m a t e r o l e s  w i t h i n the s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e system but they must a l s o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o the g o a l s and  2 2  B a r n a r d , op. c i t . , pp.  s t r u c t u r e s of one  adjust another.  82-83 , (emphasis s u p p l i e d ) .  T . P a r s o n s , " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach t o the Theory of O r g a n i z a t i o n s " , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1, No. 1, June, 1956, p. 67. 2 3  2 U  I b i d . , p.  2 5  I b i d . , pp.  65. 67-69 .  14 A c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f compromise o c c u r s as d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempt t o e n l a r g e o r p r e s e r v e t h e i r spheres of  a c t i v i t y and a c q u i r e a share o f t h e l i m i t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l  r e s o u r c e s w i t h which t o o p e r a t e . I t has been s a i d , r e g a r d i n g adjustment o f b u r e a u c r a t i c g o a l s , t h a t t h e r e a r e two opposing p r o c e s s e s which can be i n v o l v e d ; g o a l d i s p l a c e m e n t and g o a l s u c c e s s i o n . The f i r s t i s a term a p p l i e d t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n o f s t a f f t o t h e means by which o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s a r e a c h i e v e d , r a t h e r t h a n the  goals themselves.  The o p e r a t i o n a l procedures assume a  s a c r e d v a l u e and a r e performed as a r i t u a l which i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l for  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n because i t s g o a l s tend t o become d e f l e c t e d .  Merton s u g g e s t s t h a t one s o u r c e o f t h i s p a t h o l o g y i s b u i l t the  b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n c e the concern of o f f i c i a l s  into with  t h e i r own s e c u r i t y , which ensures t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e d a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a t t h e same time i n d u c e s c o n s e r v a t i s m i n decision-making.^  6  The o p p o s i t e mechanism, t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f g o a l s , i s d e f i n e d e i t h e r as t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l purposes when the  o r i g i n a l ones became e s t a b l i s h e d o r t h e replacement o f t h e s e  by d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s .  Sills*  study of the N a t i o n a l  F o u n d a t i o n f o r I n f a n t i l e P a r a l y s i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e case where a r e p l a c e m e n t g o a l was found by an o r g a n i z a t i o n which had  ^ R. K. Merton, " B u r e a u c r a t i c S t r u c t u r e and P e r s o n a l i t y " i n A. E t z i o n i , ( E d . ) , Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 19 62), pT 55. b  ,  accomplished In  i t s original objective. ' c o n s i d e r i n g the c o n d i t i o n s which c o n t r o l whether  g o a l s w i l l be succeeded o r d i s p l a c e d , Blau and S c o t t t h a t the answers may  be i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l  conclude  attitudes.  I f the  environment i s h o s t i l e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the s u r v i v a l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n m o t i v a t e s  i t s o f f i c e r s t o be more a t t e n t i v e  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures than t o a c h i e v i n g g o a l s .  I f the  s o c i e t y w i l l a l l o w the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a c h i e v e i t s g o a l s p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y motivated to  e x t r a s t i m u l a t i o n , the s t a f f w i l l  t o seek advanced o b j e c t i v e s .  2 8  and be  This i n t u r n r e l a t e s  the v a l u e and c e n t r a l i t y o f the g o a l s f o r the community a t  large. Two  o t h e r f a c t o r s a p p a r e n t l y e n t e r i n t o the  of g o a l s complex.  A statement by Thompson and McEwen i n d i c a t e s  t h a t the i n i t i a t i v e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may  be c r u c i a l i n  d e t e r m i n i n g whether t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o b t a i n s u p p o r t or n o t .  2 9  succession  environmental  Implied i n t h i s i s that aggressive, able  e x e c u t i v e s w i l l move i n t o f l u i d  s i t u a t i o n s t o f i n d new  a c h i e v e and weaker, p a s s i v e o f f i c i a l s w i l l n o t .  The  goals to other  i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t measurement of  D. L. S i l l s , "The S u c c e s s i o n o f G o a l s " i n A. E t z i o n i , ( E d . ) , Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1962), pp. 148-159. 2 8  B l a u and S c o t t , op. c i t . , p.  79  231.  D. J . Thompson and W. J . McEwen, " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Goals and Environment" i n A. E t z i o n i , ( E d . ) , Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s , A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1962), p. 186.  16 p r o g r e s s toward g o a l s i s e s s e n t i a l t o adjustments o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purposes  i n l i n e with environmental requirements.  I n t h e same  a r t i c l e Thompson and McEwen s t a t e t h a t g o a l s must be c o n s t a n t l y reappraised.  They r e c o g n i z e , however, t h a t ;  'as g o a l s c a l l f o r i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t a n g i b l e , d i f f i c u l t t o measure p r o d u c t s , s o c i e t y f i n d s i t more d i f f i c u l t t o determine and r e f l e c t i t s a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h a t p r o d u c t , and t h e s i g n a l s t h a t i n d i c a t e u n a c c e p t a b l e g o a l s a r e l e s s e f f e c t i v e and perhaps l o n g e r i n coming.'30 Thus t h e purpose and s t r u c t u r e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n may be changed by a number o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s which are a c t i v a t e d by t h e v e r y p r o c e s s o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e bureaucratic goals.  The more m a r g i n a l t h e g o a l s r e l a t e d t o  the v a l u e s o f t h e environment  and those o f i t s s t a f f , t h e more  l i k e l y adjustments t o g o a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s w i l l occur. Government B u r e a u c r a c i e s and T o t a l  Institutions  In t h e P a r s o n i a n scheme t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l s over complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e t y p e s which may occur i n combination. of  the s o c i e t y .  One i s t h e g e n e r a l i z e d normative  control  The second i s some s o r t o f body - l y i n g between  the s o c i e t y and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , such as a board of  control.  The t h i r d type i s attachment  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  t o some l e v e l o f government b r i n g i n g i t d i r e c t l y under  I b i d . , p. 179.  political  authority.  6 1  Thus government departments can be c l a s s e d as  s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s o f b u r e a u c r a c i e s which o p e r a t e w i t h funds l a r g e l y s u p p l i e d from t a x revenue. A c c o r d i n g t o P a r s o n s , two c o n d i t i o n s t h a t determine s u p p o r t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n by t a x a t i o n a r e e i t h e r t h a t i t s g o a l s are c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t but cannot be made t o pay c o m m e r c i a l l y , o r the t y p e o f s e r v i c e which i s p r o v i d e d would endanger the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i f managed by p r i v a t e  enterprise.  3 2  Government b u r e a u c r a c i e s by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n from the commercial w o r l d a r e somewhat p r o t e c t e d from c o m p e t i t i o n t o which they would o t h e r w i s e be s u b j e c t .  They  n e v e r t h e l e s s compete among themselves f o r s c a r c e t a x d o l l a r s and the s u c c e s s w i t h which they do so s t i l l depends upon the c e n t r a l i t y of t h e i r g o a l s r e l a t e d t o the v a l u e system o f the tax payers. Out of h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h government departments  each  c i t i z e n a r r i v e s a t an o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g c i v i l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s which commonly tends t o be one of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  A  s t u d y by J a n o w i t z , W r i g h t and Delany has i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p u b l i c image of government a g e n c i e s i n a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  They found t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was marked  -l-T. P a r s o n s , S t r u c t u r e and P r o c e s s i n Modern S o c i e t i e s , (The Free P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1960), pp. 64-65. 3  T . P a r s o n s , " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach t o t h e Theory of O r g a n i z a t i o n s " , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1, No. 1, June, 1956, p. 72. 3 2  . 18 i g n o r a n c e of government o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the p u b l i c was  operations.  Secondly,  a m b i v a l e n t toward the s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d .  wanted the b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d  but were n e g a t i v e  People  toward payment  o f h i g h t a x e s and r e d tape which they thought were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The  p u b l i c a l s o f e l t that"  p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e determined whether s e r v i c e was an agency t o c l i e n t s .  extended by  F i n a l l y , the p r e s t i g e of c i v i l  servants  i n the minds of the p u b l i c seemed t o be below d e s i r a b l e l e v e l s . The  a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e t h a t the attempt t o improve the p u b l i c  image of government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e i r s t u d y was f o r two main r e a s o n s . t h i s was  One  a poorly organized  was  l a c k of money.  inadequate  Associated  with  system of communication by which the  g o a l s of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s c o u l d be  justified.  Among government b u r e a u c r a c i e s  3 3  are the a g e n c i e s which  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r i s o n e r s i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . These would be c l a s s e d by Blau and organizations. ^ 3  S c o t t as  'commonweal'  Commonweal o r g a n i z a t i o n s which d e a l  p r i s o n e r s are synonomous w i t h  'coercive' organizations  with as  c l a s s i f i e d by E t z i o n i and more s p e c i f i c a l l y what Goffman has called  'total  institutions'.  3 5  •"M. J a n o w i t z , D. W r i g h t and W. Delany, " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the P u b l i c " i n A. E t z i o n i , ( E d . ) , Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s ) - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1962), pp. 277-284. 3 4  Blau  and  S c o t t , op. c i t . , pp.  8, 54 and  57.  E . Goffman, "The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n s " i n A. E t z i o n i , ( E d . ) , Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1962), p. 312. 3 5  19 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s Goffman p l a c e s under f o u r main headings which seem c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e and what appears elsewhere literature.  i n the c r i m i n o l o g i c a l  F i r s t , t h e r e i s the a r t i f i c i a l i t y  of s e p a r a t i n g  groups of people from the community i n t o an environment which i s u n i s e x u a l and  'conglomerate*  i n the sense t h a t l a r g e groups  of people perform most of t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n each o t h e r ' s company.  S e c o n d l y , t o manage masses of people i n c u s t o d i a l  environments,  t h e r e must be a c e r t a i n r i g i d i t y o f o p e r a t i o n s  which i s u n v a r y i n g from day t o day a c c o r d i n g t o some o v e r a l l plan.  T h i r d , t h e r e i s a s p l i t between the s t a f f and  which i n h i b i t s communication between them.  inmates  The r e s u l t of t h i s  i s t h a t two s e p a r a t e s u b - c u l t u r e s develop i n t o t a l  institutions.  F i n a l l y , the p o p u l a t i o n s o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s must do some work but the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o d u c t i v e l a b o u r and the i n c e n t i v e s are l e s s t h a n those i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d . ^ 3  In.the nature of  the case t h i s makes f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  control  s i n c e most inmates are h o s t i l e t o the s t a f f and g o a l s o f the institution. E t z i o n i has put f o r w a r d a h y p o t h e s i s as t o why i t a t i o n programs i n c o e r c i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e  rehabil-  ineffective.  He q u e s t i o n s whether m u l t i p l e g o a l s can be e f f e c t i v e l y  achieved  by an o r g a n i z a t i o n i f they are i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s compliance structure.  3 6  T h i s a u t h o r p o s t u l a t e s t h r e e t y p e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  I b i d . , pp.  314-316.  20 c o e r c i v e , u t i l i t a r i a n and  normative.  i s most e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g 'economic' and  the t h i r d  i s an o r d e r g o a l and  He c l a i m s t h a t the  first  'order' g o a l s , the second  ' c u l t u r a l ' goals.  C o n t r o l of inmates  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a c u l t u r a l goal.  Where  a c o e r c i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , such as a p r i s o n , t r i e s t o a c h i e v e both o r d e r and  c u l t u r a l g o a l s i t i s not e f f e c t i v e l y a c c o m p l i s h e d  because the types of power a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these d i f f e r e n t operations  tend t o c a n c e l each o t h e r out.  Thus t h e r e i s a  dilemma f a c i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s p i r i n g t o f u l f i l l two  incongruent  goals.  I f b o t h g o a l s are e q u a l l y s t r e s s e d they n e u t r a l i z e each  other.  I f one  i s s t r e s s e d the o t h e r i s n e g l e c t e d ,  even though  the o r g a n i z a t i o n can p r o b a b l y s u r v i v e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . s u g g e s t s the s o l u t i o n may  be i n the s e g r e g a t i o n  functions w i t h i n subunits  of the same o r g a n i z a t i o n o r  t o a c c o m p l i s h them a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n  Etzioni  of i n c o n g r u e n t attempting  time. ^ 3  Cloward a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t a major source o f admini s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y i n management of p r i s o n s l i e s i n t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of custody and now  very  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s which i s  a trend i n penal i n s t i t u t i o n s .  He f i n d s t h a t whatever  attempts the s t a f f make t o m o t i v a t e inmates toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n are d e f e a t e d  by c o n t i n u i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s o f r e j e c t i o n .  ^'A. E t z i o n i , A Comparative A n a l y s i s of Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s , (The Free P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111. , 1961), pp. 77-80, 265-266.  3 8  7,  R . A. C l o w a r d , " S o c i a l C o n t a c t i n the P r i s o n " i n R. A. Cloward e t a l . ( E d s . ) , T h e o r e t i c a l S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of the P r i s o n , ( S o c i a l S c i e n c e Research C o u n c i l , New Y o r k , 19 6 0 ) , p. 30. 38  21 There seems ample e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n government a g e n c i e s  e s p e c i a l l y with  to  area of operations.  inmate p o p u l a t i o n s , i s a d i f f i c u l t  regard If  government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l a c k s p r e s t i g e i n t h e eyes o f t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e and i f t h e p u b l i c r e j e c t s i t s s o c i a l more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t l y , we assume t h a t t r e a t m e n t by government agencies ment a l t h o u g h  custody  outcasts  of prisoners  has l i t t l e c e n t r a l i t y w i t h t h e e n v i r o n i s regarded  as a n e c e s s a r y  evil.  would make f o r problems i n o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y  This  funds f o r  o p e r a t i o n s as w e l l as p u b l i c a p p r o v a l f o r p r i n c i p l e s and programs of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . and t r e a t m e n t  The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e d u a l g o a l s o f custody  are inherently d i f f i c u l t  t o achieve  i n association  i s an o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h which many c o r r e c t i o n a l workers would agree.  P a r t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s because t h e a d o p t i o n o f  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n g o a l n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f professionals.  T h i s i n t u r n upsets  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l power  s t r u c t u r e i n modern c o r r e c t i o n a l systems s i n c e a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e n o t y e t c l e a r l y d i v i d e d between ' l i n e and staff  o r 'custody The  and t r e a t m e n t  1  personnel.  f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s study w i l l attempt t o d e f i n e t h e  p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e as a b u r e a u c r a c y r e l a t e d to t h e t h e o r y o f complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s t a b l i s h t h e g o a l s o f the S e r v i c e and determine whether they a r e s t a t i c o r changing. I t w i l l t h e n be p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h some c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n t h e p a s t and t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the S e r v i c e f o r t h e f u t u r e .  CHAPTER I I THE  CANADIAN PENITENTIARY SERVICE  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the g o a l s and s t r u c t u r e of the  Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e can b e s t be a c h i e v e d by a r e v i e w of i t s h i s t o r i c a l development. The o r i g i n s o f the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e precede C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Nova S c o t i a and New convicted criminals.  P r i o r t o 1867  Brunswick  the p r o v i n c e s of Canada,  each had an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r  At C o n f e d e r a t i o n the p e n i t e n t i a r y f o r  the p r o v i n c e of Canada a t K i n g s t o n became a f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y f o r the newly formed p r o v i n c e s o f Quebec and O n t a r i o . p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of Nova S c o t i a and New  Brunswick  The  3 9  were.incorporated  i n t o the f e d e r a l system i n 1 8 6 8 . ^ A major concern a t the time of C o n f e d e r a t i o n was  how  a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be d i v i d e d between the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments.  P a r t VI of the  British  N o r t h America A c t d e a l s w i t h the d i v i s i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e powers. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s t a t u t e the Dominion was ?  t o make laws f o r the  p e a c e , o r d e r and good government of Canada  a s s i g n e d t o the p r o v i n c e s .  1  i n matters  not  S p e c i f i c a l l y , under s u b s e c t i o n s s i x  and t w e n t y - e i g h t , the f e d e r a l government was  t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t , maintenance and management of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s .  T h e B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , 1867, 30 and 31 V i c t o r i a , Chap. I l l , S e c t i o n 141. d a  S t a t u t e s o f Canada,  **°First Annual Report o f the D i r e c t o r s of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , :  186 8 .  23 Johnstone and H e n h e f f e r have d i v i d e d t h e h i s t o r y o f inmate t r e a t m e n t i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s as f o l l o w s ; (1) P r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n (2) 1867-1938 (3) 1938-1946 (4) 1 9 4 6 - 1 9 5 3  41  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y as good a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as any, except t h a t t h e f o u r t h p e r i o d extended u n t i l 1960 when t h e regime o f G e n e r a l Gibson ended w i t h h i s r e t i r e m e n t .  A f i f t h p e r i o d s h o u l d now be  added from 19 60 t o t h e p r e s e n t , marking a new phase o f p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s which began w i t h t h e appointment o f Commissioner A. J . MacLeod i n t h a t y e a r . The above mentioned a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e t h e P r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n p e r i o d i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s as a b r u t a l e r a marked by t h e l i b e r a l use o f c o r p o r a l and o t h e r forms o f punishment.  They d i s c e r n a  slow t r e n d toward humane t r e a t m e n t o f p r i s o n e r s i n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n , which however d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o a s e r i e s of d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e 1930's, b r i n g i n g about a R o y a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e management o f t h e system.  Commission  The t h i r d  p e r i o d , f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n of the r e p o r t of the Royal Commission  i n 1938 u n t i l 1946, they d e s c r i b e as ' q u i e s c e n t ' .  The f o u r t h phase was marked by a r a d i c a l swing away from  W. F. Johnstone and B. W. H e n h e f f e r , " H i s t o r y o f Treatment i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s " , Canadian W e l f a r e , (The Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Ottawa, Sept. 1953), V o l . XXIX, No. -3-4,. p. 5. 41  24 punishment toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f inmates as t h e o p e r a t i n g p h i l o s o p h y f o r Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s .  4 2  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n Canada, i t seems s a f e t o say t h a t t h e major changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and p o l i c y have come about as a r e s u l t o f R o y a l Commissions o r o t h e r t y p e s o f p u b l i c e n q u i r i e s .  S i n c e 1913  t h e r e have been s i x major government i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which d e a l t d i r e c t l y with conditions  i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y Service or w i t h  p e n i t e n t i a r i e s as p a r t o f t h e Canadian c o r r e c t i o n a l s y s t e m .  4 3  These major i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have r e s u l t e d from extreme p u b l i c c o n c e r n about p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s but t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s which p r e c i p i t a t e d o f f i c i a l a c t i o n have v a r i e d from case t o case. The R o y a l Commission on P e n i t e n t i a r i e s o f 1914- r e s u l t e d from i m p r o p e r management o f K i n g s t o n P e n i t e n t i a r y and seems t o have been p r e c i p i t a t e d by o f f i c i a l charges which were l a i d by the s t a f f a g a i n s t c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  personnel.  Part of  t h i s Commission's terms o f r e f e r e n c e were;  4 2  I b i d . , pp.  5-8.  T h e r e have been a t l e a s t two a d d i t i o n a l e n q u i r i e s which have c o n s i d e r e d , i n t h e c o u r s e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e i t h e r t h e c r i m e s or punishment o f p e n i t e n t i a r y i n m a t e s . These a r e (1) The Report o f t h e R o y a l Commission on t h e C r i m i n a l Law r e l a t i n g t o C r i m i n a l S e x u a l P s y c h o p a t h s , (Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1958)7 (2) R e p o r t s o f t h e J o i n t Committee o f t h e Senate and House o f Commons on C a p i t a l Punishment, C o r p o r a l Punishment and L o t t e r i e s . (Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1956). P r i o r t o 1913 t h e r e was one o t h e r e n q u i r y ; The R o y a l Commission on P r i s o n Labour o f 1876. However t h e r e s u l t s o f - t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n would not seem t o have a b e a r i n g on t h i s s t u d y . 4 3  25 a) G e n e r a l l y , t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e conduct and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g such methods as may conduce t o t h e permanent r e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o n v i c t s , 4 4  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed, t h a t i n 1913, inmates were b e i n g  treated  according t o p r i n c i p l e s enunciated i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y Act of 1834  which governed t h e o p e r a t i o n  o f K i n g s t o n P e n i t e n t i a r y when  i t was s t i l l a p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r Upper Canada.  The  Commissioners s t a t e ; ' S o l i t a r y imprisonment, l a b o u r and r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s have been t h e o n l y a g e n c i e s employed f o r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n of t h e u n f o r t u n a t e s ' . 5 4  T h e i r recommendations proposed f o r w a r d l o o k i n g r e f o r m s f o r p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n c l u d i n g , among o t h e r s ,  establishment of a  t h r e e man P e n i t e n t i a r y Commission w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s  staff,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of inmates, state-use prison i n d u s t r i e s , the i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentence and p a r o l e boards f o r each Unfortunately  institution.  4 b  these recommendations were p r e s e n t e d i n  the opening y e a r o f World War I and as a consequence no changes were i m m e d i a t e l y e f f e c t e d .  However, i n May 1918, t h e Commission  Report r e s u l t e d i n modest r e v i s i o n s o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t . Under t h e A c t o f 1906 p r o v i s i o n was made f o r t h e appointment of two I n s p e c t o r s who were t o r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e .  R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , 4 George V. , S e s s i o n a l Paper No. 252, ( K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa,. 1914), p. 5. 4 4  4 5  I b i d . , p. 6.  4 b  Tbid.,  pp. 42-44.  T h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t 1906, S t a t u t e s Edward' V I I , Chapter 38, S e c t i o n 14-25. 4 7  o f Canada, 6  4 7  In a c t u a l f a c t t h e s e I n s p e c t o r s r e p o r t e d h i s Deputy.  The  M i n i s t e r a l s o had  t o the M i n i s t e r through  powers under the Act  a p p o i n t t o h e a d q u a r t e r s of the P e n i t e n t i a r y Branch a o f f i c e r , an a c c o u n t a n t , an a r c h i t e c t and as are  necessary'. By a 1918  to  parole  'such o t h e r o f f i c e r s  4 8  amendment the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of  P e n i t e n t i a r y Branch was  made a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t .  He was  the  to  /  r e p o r t t o the M i n i s t e r and who  give direction- to three Inspectors  the M i n i s t e r might a p p o i n t .  the I n s p e c t o r s ,  I n p r a c t i c e , as f o r m e r l y  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t i l l r e p o r t e d  M i n i s t e r through the Deputy M i n i s t e r . The  the  4 9  n e x t major i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  A d v i s e Upon the R e v i s i o n  to  the Committee t o  of the P e n i t e n t i a r y R e g u l a t i o n s  the Amendment of the P e n i t e n t i a r y Act which r e p o r t e d T h i s Committee s i m i l a r l y found t h a t t h e r e had  5  been a l a c k  t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d cruelty.  The  I b i d . , Section  of and  repression  Report recommended r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  punishment of i n m a t e s , as the o p e r a t i n g 4 8  by  and  i n 19 2 1 . ^  p r o g r e s s i n the t r e a t m e n t of inmates s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n  and  with  not  philosophy f o r  26.  A n Act t o Amend the P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , 1918, of Canada, 8-9 George V, Chap. 36. 4 9  Statutes  R e p o r t Made on F e b r u a r y 20th, 19 21, by a Committee A p p o i n t e d by the R i g h t Honourable C. J . D o h e r t y M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , To A d v i s e Upon the R e v i s i o n of the P e n i t e n t i a r y • R e g u l a t i o n s and the Amendment of the P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , Together w i t h a B i l l t o Amend the P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t Based ' Thereon as I n t r o d u c e d i n the House of Commons, May 2 1 s t , 1921, r e p r i n t e d May 4, 194 6, ( J a c k s o n P r e s s , K i n g s t o n , O n t . ) . 5 0  ?  27 p e n i t e n t i a r i e s and changes were proposed i n the r e g u l a t i o n s based on t h i s p r i n c i p l e of reformation. -'5  l i t t l e evidence the system.  t h a t t h i s Report had any m a t e r i a l e f f e c t upon  I t r e c e i v e d f i r s t r e a d i n g i n the House o f Commons  i n 1921 but was of t h a t year.  However t h e r e i s  never proceeded w i t h a f t e r the g e n e r a l One  r e s u l t may  election  have been t h a t , i n 19 27, a f u r t h e r  r e v i s i o n of the A c t r e q u i r e d the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,  subject to  m i n i s t e r i a l a p p r o v a l , t o make r u l e s f o r ; b)  'the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and c a r r y i n g on of any work o r i n d u s t r y a t any p e n i t e n t i a r y as may be thought d e s i r a b l e f o r the u s e f u l employment or t r a i n i n g o f the c o n v i c t s t h e r e i n , (and) f o r the d i s p o s a l of the p r o d u c t s t h e r e o f . 5 2  I n the l a t e 1920's and e a r l y 1930's t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d and e s p e c i a l l y i n North America t h e r e was upsurge i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  a general  At t h i s time t h e r e were a  s e r i e s o f d i s t u r b a n c e s i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s which e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o a t h i r d i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a l l e d the  Royal  Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e the P e n a l System o f Canada, commonly known as the Archambault C o m m i s s i o n .  53  While t h i s  investigation  had as one c e n t r a l f o c u s the o p e r a t i o n of Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s ,  5 1  I b i d . , p.  65.  T h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Canada, 19 27, Chapter 154, S e c t i o n 15. 5 2  T h e f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d i n ; The Report of the R o y a l Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e the P e n a l System of Canada^ ( K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 19 38). 5 3  28 i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e went i n t o m a t t e r s o f combined f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l c o n c e r n so t h a t t h e r e s u l t was a wide r a n g i n g of p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s i n Canadian c o r r e c t i o n s  study  generally.  I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y here t o d i s c u s s t h e recommendations o f t h e Archambault Commission i n d e t a i l .  I t s u f f i c e s t o comment on some  of t h e f i n d i n g s and t o note t h a t t h e Report was r e c o g n i z e d  among  workers i n t h e crime and d e l i n q u e n c y f i e l d as an advanced statement f o r i t s time c o n c e r n i n g m a t t e r s o f Canadian c o r r e c t i o n s . One o f t h e f i n d i n g s was t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , s i n c e 1932, had been o p e r a t e d i n a h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d and m i l i t a r i s t i c f a s h i o n o f which t h e Commissioners d i s a p p r o v e d .  5I+  The suggested  remedy f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n was t h a t t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e day be d i s m i s s e d , which was d o n e .  5 5  A n o t h e r recommendation was  t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t be r e p l a c e d by a three-man P r i s o n Commission, t h e same o p i n i o n as t h a t h e l d by t h e 1914 R o y a l Commission. ^ 5  However, t h e 1937 Commission, h a v i n g b r o a d e r  terms o f r e f e r e n c e , went f u r t h e r and recommended t h a t most c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e r v i c e s be c e n t r a l i z e d under f e d e r a l control.  The p r o v i n c e s  offenders  a g a i n s t p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s , p r i s o n e r s on remand and  those s e r v i n g s h o r t  were o n l y t o r e t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  sentences.  5 4  I b i d . , p. 44.  5 5  I b i d . , p. 51.  5 6  I b i d . , p. 354.  5 7  Ibid.  5 7  29 Another p a r t of the Report s h o u l d be n o t e d , t h a t i s the f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g c o r r e c t i o n s s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h . Commissioners d i s c o v e r e d  The  a lack of uniformity i n s t a t i s t i c a l  i n f o r m a t i o n on c r i m e and c o r r e c t i o n s i n Canada, such as t o make r e l i a n c e on e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n dangerous.  They recommended  t h a t t h e proposed P r i s o n Commission, i n c o o p e r a t i o n  with  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , r e v i s e the s t a t i s t i c a l  The  system  i n o r d e r t o produce i n f o r m a t i o n which would r e l i a b l y show t h e c o s t s o f c r i m e and t h e r e s u l t s of c o r r e c t i o n .  F u r t h e r , the  proposed Commission, i n o r d e r t o become f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , was t o use t h e r e v i s e d s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a t o conduct 'a c o n t i n u o u s s t u d y of a l l the problems a f f e c t i n g c r i m i n o l o g y country.  and penology* i n the  5 8  Because of World War I I l i t t l e immediate a c t i o n was t a k e n on t h e Archambault Commission recommendations. according  But  t o some h i g h l y p l a c e d o f f i c i a l s i n t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y  S e r v i c e a t t h a t t i m e , t h e r e was an e x p e c t a t i o n Commission would be formed a f t e r t h e war.  that a Prison  Concrete evidence  of t h i s was t h e amendment t o the P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t of 1927, a s s e n t e d t o A p r i l 5, 19 39, a l l o w i n g f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n ' P e n i t e n t i a r y Commission' but a l s o s t a t i n g t h a t one c o u l d a c t f o r the whole proposed C o m m i s s i o n .  b B  59  of a Commissioner  I n t h e meantime,  I b i d . , p. 175.  ' Art A c t R e s p e c t i n g P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , 1939 , S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 3 George V I , Chapter 6, S e c t i o n "4, S u b s e c t i o n 1 and 8. 5  9  30 however, p e n i t e n t i a r i e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by an A c t i n g Superi n t e n d e n t and 'no major change' was t h e o r d e r o f t h e day. T h i s p o l i c y was f o l l o w e d p a r t l y t o a v o i d a n t i c i p a t i n g any changes t h e proposed Commission might want t o make and p a r t l y because s u b s t a n t i a l changes would c o s t money which was not a v a i l a b l e f o r these purposes. I n A p r i l , 1946 the government d e c i d e d t o up-date and a n a l y z e the Archambault Commission f i n d i n g s by a supplementary i n v e s t i g a t i o n which was u n d e r t a k e n by Major G e n e r a l G i b s o n . ^ Gibson was s u b s e q u e n t l y a p p o i n t e d Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n the same y e a r .  He found s i n c e the Report of the R o y a l  Commission i n 193 8 t h a t a r e l a x a t i o n i n a number of t h e more r e p r e s s i v e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r p e n i t e n t i a r y inmates had o c c u r r e d . ^ 1 W h i l e , as one would e x p e c t , p e n i t e n t i a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n had been hampered by s h o r t a g e s of m a t e r i a l d u r i n g t h e war, i t was resumed by 1946.  being  Among c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , t h e n p l a n n e d o r  i n p r o g r e s s , were b u i l d i n g s a t s e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r b e t t e r s e g r e g a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g of s p e c i a l t y p e s o f o f f e n d e r s , f o l l o w i n g the recommendations  of t h e Archambault C o m m i s s i o n .  62  A l s o noted  was the i n c r e a s e of i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which was, i n p a r t , a r e s p o n s e t o t h e  T h e f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d i n ; Report o f G e n e r a l R. B. G i b s o n , A Commissioner a p p o i n t e d under O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , PC 1313, r e g a r d i n g t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y System of Canada, ( K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947). b U  6 1  I b i d . , p. 4-5, S e c t i o n 8.  6 2  I b i d . , p. 7, S e c t i o n 11.  n a t i o n a l war effort.°  6  I n s p i t e o f t h e p h y s i c a l changes w h i c h  had o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of the recommendations of t h e R o y a l Commission, G i b s o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t ; 'much remains t o be done t o g i v e t h a t g r e a t emphasis on t h e r e f o r m a t i v e t r a i n i n g and t r e a t m e n t of c o n v i c t s t h a t formed t h e main theme of t h e ( A r c h a m b a u l t ) Commission's R e p o r t ' . 6 4  T h e r e f o r e he recommended changes w i t h r e s p e c t t o p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t a f f t r a i n i n g and a more p r o f e s s i o n a l approach t o t r a i n i n g inmates which he c o n s i d e r e d ' f i r s t s t a g e s ' i n the f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e a l i n t e n t o f t h e Archambault Commission Report.  5 5  The major among t h e changes G i b s o n recommended were those p e r t a i n i n g t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e .  He c l a i m e d t h a t ,  p r i o r t o t h e i s s u a n c e of h i s R e p o r t , t h e government had a l r e a d y d e c i d e d a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a P r i s o n Commission under which c o n t r o l o f a l l Canadian p r i s o n s would be c e n t r a l i z e d .  A  compromise arrangement, a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o t h e f e d e r a l system, was n e c e s s a r y because o f s t a t u t o r y impediments under t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t and absence o f agreements w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s permitting i n t e g r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l services at that t i m e .  6 6  T h e r e f o r e i t was proposed by G i b s o n t h a t t h e r e be one Commissioner t o r e p l a c e t h e p o s i t i o n of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , two new p o s i t i o n s o f  I b i d . , pp. 5-6, S e c t i o n s 9-10. 6 4  I b i d . , p. 8, S e c t i o n 14.  6 5  I b i d . , p. 17, S e c t i o n 26.  6 6  I b i d . , pp. 8 - 9 and pp. 14-15.  32 Deputy Commissioner and  t h a t the t h r e e e x i s t i n g  p o s i t i o n s become A s s i s t a n t Commissioners. and  Inspector  T h i s was  g i v e n s t a t u t o r y r e c o g n i t i o n by r e v i s i o n of the  A c t a s s e n t e d t o i n June, 1 9 4 7 . t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  The  One  of the two  f o r s t a f f t r a i n i n g and  o t h e r f o r m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s and research.  6 7  Commissioner now  accepted Penitentiary  Deputies  inmate e d u c a t i o n ,  development of s t a t i s t i c s reported  was  d i r e c t l y to  the and  the  Minister. With t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes the i n i t i a l p e r i o d  of  the Gibson regime showed a p r o m i s i n g swing toward the p r i n c i p l e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r p r i s o n e r s  i n the f e d e r a l system.  It  was  marked by development f o r the f i r s t t i m e , of a t r u e system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r i n m a t e s , impetus i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e g u l a r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of o f f i c e r s and f i r s t professional welfare  employment of  workers i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s .  the However,  i t seems as time went on t h a t the government f a i l e d t o v o t e n e c e s s a r y monies t o t r u l y f u l f i l l the recommendations of Archambault and The  the  Gibson R e p o r t s as they a p p l i e d t o p e n i t e n t i a r i e s .  concensus of o p i n i o n seems t o be, t h a t w h i l e t h e r e was  i n i t i a l p e r i o d of p r o m i s i n g e x p a n s i o n , more emphasis was placed  on f i s c a l economy of o p e r a t i o n s ,  delegation  t h e r e was  an later  no r e a l  of a u t h o r i t y from the Commissioner t o h i s  o f f i c e r s and  the  senior  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l became i n c r e a s i n g l y  c e n t r a l i z e d at headquarters.  The P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s Chapter 206, S e c t i o n 4, S u b s e c t i o n s 1 and 2.  of Canada,  1952,  33 One development c o n c e r n i n g p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i s noted from t h e f i l e s o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y Branch i n the two y e a r s f o l l o w i n g Gibson's appointment.  A concerted  attempt was made a t t h i s time t o c r e a t e a r e s e a r c h  position  w i t h i n the Service i n order t o describe the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p e n i t e n t i a r y p o p u l a t i o n and assess t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g . T h i s p r o p o s a l r e c e i v e d t h e support o f t h e Commissioner, t h e d u t i e s were d e s c r i b e d and an a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was suggested  f o r the p o s i t i o n .  The p r o p o s a l a p p a r e n t l y was vetoed  by t h e M i n i s t e r which e f f e c t i v e l y f r u s t r a t e d r e s e a r c h  develop-  ments i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s as e n v i s a g e d  Report. ^  by Gibson i n h i s  6  I n t h e meantime w e l f a r e o r i e n t e d workers i n c o r r e c t i o n s and i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s i n the community p r i v a t e l y approached the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e t o v o i c e t h e i r concern operations of the Remission  Service.  about  Upon t h e a s s e n t t o t h e  T i c k e t o f Leave A c t i n 1899, o f f i c e r s o f t h e Department o f J u s t i c e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e r e l e a s e o f p r i s o n e r s on p a r o l e presumably as p a r t o f t h e i r r e g u l a r d u t i e s .  I n 1913 a s e p a r a t e  s e c t i o n o f t h e Department, c a l l e d t h e Remissions formed t o d e a l w i t h these matters  Branch, was  i n a more s p e c i a l i z e d w a y .  69  °Report o f G e n e r a l R. B. G i b s o n , op. c i t . , p. 9, S e c t i o n 16 ( c ) . b  R e p o r t o f a Committee Appointed t o I n q u i r e i n t o t h e P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures F o l l o w e d i n t h e R e m i s s i o n S e r v i c e o f the Department o f J u s t i c e o f Canada, (Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1956), p. 8. 6 9  34 However, i t i s s a i d t h a t as time went on, t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s and  a s s o c i a t i o n s became concerned t h a t too;many p a r o l e s were  being granted.  Hence, i n 19 20, t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e R e m i s s i o n s  Branch were ' t i g h t e n e d up' and t h e r e was a r e t u r n t o a more l e g a l i s t i c p a t t e r n o f r e l e a s e s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e of clemency r a t h e r than r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Consequently p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  few p e n i t e n t i a r y inmates were p a r o l e d from 19 30 t o 1945. As t h e i d e a o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s gained  ground, t h e M i n i s t e r , s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c a g i t a t i o n f o r  parole reform,  i n 1956 s e t up A Committee A p p o i n t e d t o I n q u i r e  i n t o t h e P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures F o l l o w e d  i n the Remission  S e r v i c e o f t h e Department o f J u s t i c e o f Canada.  T h i s became  known as t h e Fauteux Committee a f t e r i t s Chairman, Mr. J u s t i c e G. Fauteux.  I t soon became e v i d e n t t o t h e members t h a t t h e  R e m i s s i o n S e r v i c e c o u l d n o t be i n v e s t i g a t e d out o f c o n t e x t the o t h e r c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n Canada. ^ 7  with  Hence t h e Report  g r e a t l y extended t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Committee's o r i g i n a l terms o f r e f e r e n c e . One u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e Fauteux Committee Report i s t h a t s o c i e t y can p r o t e c t i t s e l f from o f f e n d e r s  only  i f i t metes out j u s t i c e i n such a way t h a t they a r e p r e v e n t e d from c o n t i n u i n g i n t h e i r c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r . t h a t t h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d  I t was assumed  only i f the c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  of t h e c o u n t r y were i n t e g r a t e d t o a h i g h degree.  ' i b i d . , p. 1.  One a s p e c t o f  35 t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s was  the recommendation t h a t the  f e d e r a l government b e • r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l p r i s o n e r s w i t h sentences of more t h a n s i x months. -'7  R e g a r d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s the f i n d i n g was  that c l a s s i f i c a -  t i o n of o f f e n d e r s i n the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l systems c o u l d not be done i n any  i d e a l sense because the numbers of  p e r s o n n e l were ' c o m p l e t e l y I t was  i n a d e q u a t e t o the. t a s k i n v o l v e d ' .  t h e r e f o r e considered necessary  by the Committee, not  t o i n c r e a s e the s i z e and p r o f i c i e n c y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  7 2  only  staffs,  but a l s o t o b u i l d a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of f a c i l i t i e s i n which t o t r e a t s p e c i a l types of  offenders.  7 3  Another a s p e c t of the i n t e g r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e was  the  recommendation f o r a s i n g l e N a t i o n a l P a r o l e Board t o u n d e r t a k e a l l r e l e a s e s and p a r o l e s u p e r v i s i o n i n the c o u n t r y and . • • • 74 e l i m i n a t e the use of p r o v i n c i a l Boards. Among the proposed d u t i e s of the Board was the maintenance of a r e s e a r c h u n i t ' i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r branches of the Department of J u s t i c e and the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i n o r d e r t h a t the p a r o l e s e r v i c e may d e v e l o p i n accordance w i t h the changing c o n d i t i o n s i n the c o u n t r y ' . 7 5  The  r o l e of the u n i v e r s i t i e s was  ment a s s i s t a n c e , the p e r s o n n e l  •  7 1  I b i d . , p.  84.  7 2  I b i d . , p.  45.  7 3  7 4  '  7 5  I b i d . , pp.  45-49.  I b i d . , pp.  80-83.  I b i d . , p.  83.  t o t r a i n , w i t h govern-  t o o p e r a t e more adequate  c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and  a l s o t o conduct r e s e a r c h i n t o c r i m e . '  A r i s i n g out of the Fauteux Committee Report was Dominion-Provincial November, 1956. p r o v i n c i a l and  Conference on the Fauteux Report i n  I t s purpose was  t o d e t e r m i n e , between the  f e d e r a l governments, whether t o implement the  recommendations and Conference was  a  i f so t o what e x t e n d .  The  d e c i s i o n of t h i s  t h a t the f e d e r a l government s h o u l d s t u d y f u r t h e r  ways and  means of implementing the Fauteux Committee recommend-  ations.  The  Dominion Government s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v i s e d a  f o r e f f e c t i n g t h e s e recommendations, one  a s p e c t of which  concerned c o r r e c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h as a s u b j e c t provincial interest.  any  increase  Conference  c a l l e d i n O c t o b e r , 1958  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the f e d e r a l p r o p o s a l s . Conference was  of mutual f e d e r a l -  A second D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l  on C o r r e c t i o n a l Reform was  The  to  consider  r e s u l t of t h i s  a d e c i s i o n by the f e d e r a l government t o  defer  i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Canadian c o r r e c t i o n s  the Dominion c o u l d improve and  plan  consolidate  i t s own  until  correctional  services. Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s second  Dominion-Provincial  Conference a C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Committee was  formed by  the  M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e under the c h a i r m a n s h i p of A. J . MacLeod, the D i r e c t o r of the R e m i s s i o n S e r v i c e b e f o r e i t s a b o l i t i o n i n 19 58 and  p r e s e n t Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s .  of t h i s Committee was  The  purpose  t o study the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  and  make recommendations c o n c e r n i n g i t s f u t u r e development w i t h i n  6  I b i d . , pp.  85-86.  37 the c o n t e x t of the Fauteux Committee R e p o r t . e i g h t e e n months and the Report was June, I 9 6 0 .  7 7  Since i t i s s t i l l  The study  took  s u b m i t t e d t o the M i n i s t e r i n  considered a s e m i - c o n f i d e n t i a l  document i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y d e s c r i b e the d e t a i l s o f t h i s Report.  I t can be s a i d , however, t h a t the Fauteux  Committee recommendations, which a p p l i e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o r r e c t i o n , were c o n f i r m e d but more emphasis was  g i v e n t o the  r o l e of r e s e a r c h and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l process. Regarding  the study of c r i m i n o l o g y the Committee c o n s i d -  ered t h a t the r a t i o n a l e v o l u t i o n of a modern c o r r e c t i o n a l system r e q u i r e d development o f adequate s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h . C o r r e c t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h were deemed t o be  essential  i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e the c r i m i n a l p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the b a s i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , be a b l e t o e s t i m a t e i n f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f . necessary  and,  requirements  S e c o n d l y , they were c o n s i d e r e d  i n o r d e r t o measure the r e s u l t s of t r e a t m e n t  programs,  thus b e i n g i n a p o s i t i o n t o make changes which would maximize the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t r a i n i n g .  I n f a c t t h i s Committee a s s e r t e d  t h a t the f u n c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h were c e n t r a l t o the development of the i n t e g r a t e d f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l system which i t e n v i s a g e d  f o r the f u t u r e .  The members a l s o noted t h a t  c o r r e c t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h had not so f a r been  developed  i n Canada on any c o o r d i n a t e d and s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s .  Summary o f the Recommendations C o n t a i n e d i n the Report of the C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Committee o f the Department of J u s t i c e , June 8, 1960, (mimeographed)  38 P e n i t e n t i a r y h i s t o r y repeated i t s e l f  i n 19.60, f o l l o w i n g  s u b m i s s i o n o f t h i s R e p o r t , when Committee Chairman MacLeod was a p p o i n t e d Commissioner i n much t h e same way as Gibson had been i n s t a l l e d fourteen years before.  I t i s therefore l o g i c a l to  assume t h a t t h e f u t u r e c o u r s e o f developments i n t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e w i l l f o l l o w as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h e recommendations of t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g  Committee.  W i t h t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t i n 19 61 some f u r t h e r changes o c c u r r e d p e n i t e n t i a r y system.  s  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hierarchy of the  Speaking i n t h e House o f Commons i n  s u p p o r t o f t h i s b i l l , Mr. F u l t o n , t h e n M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , claimed  t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t had been amended  many t i m e s , f i f t y out o f e i g h t y - t w o s e c t i o n s o f t h e 1952 s t a t u t e remained t h e same as they had been i n t h e A c t o f 18 83.  T h i s was  the f i r s t t i m e , he s a i d , t h a t t h e s t a t u t e had been made ' c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an e n l i g h t e n e d penitentiary operations'.  approach t o t h e problem o f  F u l t o n f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e new  l e g i s l a t i o n would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by t h e Fauteux Report and t h e D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l 1958.  Conference o f  F i n a l l y he i s quoted as f o l l o w s ; 'We have embarked upon a program o f p e n i t e n t i a r y development t h a t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f o r Canada i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e , a p e n a l system t h a t i s a t l e a s t t h e e q u a l o f any i n t h e w o r l d . The s c i e n c e o f c o r r e c t i n g the offender i s developing r a p i d l y . This b i l l i s d e s i g n e d t o enable t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s e r v i c e t o t a k e advantage o f t h a t s c i e n c e and t o p u t i t t o f u l l use on b e h a l f o f t h e people o f C a n a d a ' . 78  Vol.  Debates, House o f Commons, Canada, S e s s i o n V I . , pp. 6219-6222.  1960-61,  39 The  P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t of 19 61 p r o v i d e s f o r a Commissioner  r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the M i n i s t e r , one D i r e c t o r s of D i v i s i o n s and the l a s t two  Deputy Commissioner,  R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s , the number of  c l a s s e s t o be d e c i d e d by T r e a s u r y B o a r d .  The  7 9  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these p o s i t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n I.  Consistent  w i t h the Report of The  Committee t h e r e are now Public Information.  The  Planning  D i v i s i o n s of C o r r e c t i o n a l Research  of a u t h o r i t y t o the  Directors  D i v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d a t the p r e s e n t t i m e .  F i n a l l y , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y has to f i e l d operations  r e c e n t l y extended  w i t h the c r e a t i o n , on A p r i l 1, 1963,  of  R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r a t e s t o oversee p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s provinces  of O n t a r i o  Two 19 61, one  and  i n the  o t h e r changes i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y Act o c c u r r e d i n  c o n c e r n i n g the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s t a t i s t i c s i n the  C o n f e d e r a t i o n t h e r e has  1  Annual R e p o r t .  Since before  been a s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t  Service report to parliament concerning i t s a c t i v i t i e s Every P e n i t e n t i a r y Act a l s o c o n t a i n e d  T h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t . 1961, S t a t u t e s E l i z a b e t h I I , Chapter 53, S e c t i o n s U and 5.  the  each  a subsection  s t i p u l a t e d the i n c l u s i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l i n the  /a  two  Quebec.  Commissioner of P e n i t e n t a r i e s  year.  and  administrative chart also indicates a  t r e n d toward g r e a t e r d e l e g a t i o n of the seven new  Correctional  Figure  which Report.  of Canada,  9-10  FIGURE- I  ADMINISTRATIVE C H A R T PENITENTIARY SERVICE HEADQUARTERS, 1963 COMMISSIONER PUBLIC INFORMATION DIVISION  DEPUTY COMMISSIONER  RESEARCH DIVISION MEDICAL SERVICES LIAISON ARCHITECT  INMATE TRAINING DIVISION  ORGANIZATION 8 ADMINISTRATION DIVISION  i -J !_  DEPARTMENT ^ OF PUBLIC WORKS_j  FINANCE a SERVICES DIVISION  INDUSTRIAL DIVISION  DIRECTOR  DIRECTOR  Dl RECTOR  ASST. DIRECTOR PERSONNEL  DEPUTY DIRECTOR  ASST. DIRECTOR STAFF TRAINING  ASST. DIRECTOR FOOD SERVICES  T DIRECTOR  1  ASST. DIRECTOR CLASSIFICATION a PSYCH.SERVICES ASST. DIRECTOR VOCATIONAL TRAINING  ASST. DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATION  1  ASST. DIRECTOR EDUCATION  ASST. DIRECTOR AGRICULTURAL SERVICES  ASST. DIRECTOR INMATE RECORDS  ASST. DIRECTOR ENGINEERING ASST. DIRECTOR WORKS  REPRESENTS STAFF AND/OR STAFF a LINE RELATIONSHIP REPRESENTS LIAISON RELATIONSHIP  *  EXCLUDES OFFICERS BELOW RANK OF ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OR EQUIVALENT  ASST. DIRECTOR INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES  FINANCIAL CONTROL OFFICER PURCHASING AGENT  ASST. DIRECTOR  -p  o  41 F o r example t h e A c t s o f 1906, 1927, 1939 and 1952 a l l  required,  i n almost i d e n t i c a l words, t h a t t h e Report be 'accompanied by such f i n a n c i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l statements and t a b l e s as ( t h e I n s p e c t o r ) deems u s e f u l on  o r as t h e M i n i s t e r  directs'.  o u  I n t h e A c t o f 19 61 t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e Report was d e l e t e d . The second s e t o f r e v i s i o n s concerned p r i s o n v i s i t o r s and absences o f inmates from i n s t i t u t i o n s .  U n t i l 1961 t h e r e  was always a s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p r i v i l e g e d v i s i t o r s i n t h e A c t . T h i s e x c l u d e d a l l e x c e p t persons o f i m p o r t a n t s t a t u s such as t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governors o f p r o v i n c e s , Members of P a r l i a m e n t , Members o f L e g i s l a t u r e s and Judges o f c o u r t s of r e c o r d .  A l l o t h e r s who were not o f f i c e r s on b u s i n e s s o r c l o s e  r e l a t i v e s o f p r i s o n e r s were a l l o w e d e n t r y o n l y by s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e wardens, who, p r i o r t o 19 46 .. r i g i d l y  adhered  t o t h e l e t t e r o f t h e law. Commissioner Gibson r e l a x e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n b u t w i t h t h e new P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t i t was c o m p l e t e l y removed from t h e s t a t u t e .  A t t h e same  time new p r o v i s i o n s were added which p e r m i t t h e Commissioner, and f o r l e s s e r p e r i o d s o f time t h e wardens, t o r e l e a s e inmates on temporary l e a v e from i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e purposes. T h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , 190 6, S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 6 Edward V I I , Chap. 38, S e c t i o n 21. a u  SUMMARY From t h e f o r e g o i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i t appears t o possess many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems o f complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s as they a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e literature.  The S e r v i c e can b a s i c a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d as a  b u r e a u c r a c y o f t h e Weberian t y p e .  I t i s o n l y one o f a l a r g e  complex o f government departments each competing w i t h t h e o t h e r f o r operating resources.  I t has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s p e c i a l  a r e a o f o p e r a t i o n s , namely t h e care o f a l l o f f e n d e r s i n Canada sentenced by t h e c o u r t s t o two y e a r s o r more imprisonment. T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s d e s c r i b e d by s t a t u t e under which d e t a i l e d and voluminous r e g u l a t i o n s have been made f o r t h e government o f s t a f f and inmates.  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p e n i t e n -  t i a r y bureaucracy i s the f a m i l i a r pyramidal made up o f s u b o r d i n a t e  and s u p e r o r d i n a t e  d e p a r t m e n t a l form  p o s i t i o n s . The  o p e r a t i o n s o f p e n i t e n t i a r i e s have t h e same r e l i a n c e as o t h e r bureaucracies  on f i l e s and paperwork.  I t i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t any o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h c e n t u r y - o l d t r a d i t i o n s would be i n f l e x i b l e and r e s i s t a n t t o change.  Added t o t h i s f a c t o r i s t h e s e m i - m i l i t a r y n a t u r e o f  penitentiary operations.  I n most c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  the n a t u r e o f t h e work makes t h e use o r t h r e a t o f f o r c e F o r c e i s evidenced  necessary  i n t h e extreme c o n t r o l which i s e x e r c i s e d  over t h e l i v e s o f inmates i n c u s t o d y ,  t h e use o f t h e customary  l o c k s , bars and w a l l s , and t h e presence o f guards i n u n i f o r m who have access  t o arms.  S i n c e p e n i t e n t i a r i e s have been  43 developed t o c a r e f o r t h e most s e r i o u s  offenders,  they have  t r a d i t i o n a l l y adhered t o a r a t h e r m i l i t a r i s t i c type of c o n t r o l which has had a r i g i d i f y i n g e f f e c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e system. Moreover, one must,add t o t h i s t h e f a c t t h a t , f o r many y e a r s , ex-army o r m i l i t i a o f f i c e r s have h e l d h i g h r a n k i n g i n the S e r v i c e level.  both a t the h e a d q u a r t e r s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  I t would be n a t u r a l f o r t h e s e o f f i c e r s t o a p p l y the  army t y p e o f d i s c i p l i n e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n work.  positions  to t h e i r penitentiary  I n s h o r t , Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s have had a l l t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ' t o t a l Another f e a t u r e  institutions'.  of t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y system of the p a s t  was t h e b a r r i e r which e x i s t e d between the p u b l i c and t h e S e r v i c e . Formerly, the s t a t u t o r y r e s t r i c t i o n s against p r o h i b i t i o n s against produced a c l i m a t e  releases  v i s i t o r s and  of inmates i n t o t h e community  o f s e c r e c y about p e n i t e n t i a r i e s and a  c o n d i t i o n of p u b l i c ignorance concerning f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s r i g i d s e p a r a t i o n  o f inmates from t h e  p u b l i c domain was b a s i c a l l y t h e r e s u l t of r e j e c t i o n g e n e r a t e d by f e a r and a need t o i s o l a t e a n t i s o c i a l persons i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of preserving  the l a r g e r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  reasonable to state that while  I t seems  the Canadian p u b l i c has been  a m b i v a l e n t toward w e l f a r e problems g e n e r a l l y , i t has had an o p e n l y r e j e c t i n g a t t i t u d e toward c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s .  The  same p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l t o d a y , a l t h o u g h s l i g h t l y and  relaxed,  as we have seen, t h e s t a t u t o r y b a r r i e r s between t h e  community and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s a r e b r e a k i n g down.  44 The  g e n e r a l concensus among c o r r e c t i o n a l workers i s  t h a t , over the y e a r s , the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e had become h i g h l y t r a d i t i o n a l and r i t u a l i s t i c  i n i t s operations.  A main  r e a s o n seems t o have been t h a t the w e l f a r e of o f f e n d e r s  was  not a m a t t e r of concern t o the p u b l i c , the p e n i t e n t i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n had a m a r g i n a l v a l u e t o the environment  and  hence i t c o u l d not compete f a v o u r a b l y w i t h o t h e r government agencies  f o r operating resources.  T h i s seems c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  the d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n of the S e r v i c e ; t h a t i s l o n g of n e g l e c t w i t h o c c a s i o n a l o f f i c i a l  periods  e n q u i r i e s i n t o maladmin-  i s t r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n m i n i m a l changes i n s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n s based on recommendations of R o y a l Formerly  Commissions.  the g o a l s of the p e n i t e n t i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n  were the d e t e n t i o n , punishment and i n d u s t r i a l employment of prisoners.  But as we have s e e n , f o r a t l e a s t f i f t y y e a r s  Reports of v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l  e n q u i r i e s have advocated r e h a b i l -  i t a t i o n as the p r i n c i p a l g o a l . f i r s t r e a l departure  the  S t a r t i n g i n 1946  we see  the  toward t h i s l o n g recommended p r i n c i p l e  w h i c h , however, seems t o have d i e d out through s h o r t a g e funds and m i n i s t e r i a l n e g l e c t .  of  T h i s event i s assumed t o have  been l i n k e d t o the c o n t i n u i n g m a r g i n a l i t y o f the S e r v i c e i n the p u b l i c eye. and  Revived  the Fauteux  C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Committees and as a r e s u l t , f o r the  f i r s t time i n 1960, to  community i n t e r e s t sparked  m i n i s t e r i a l i n t e r e s t , money and s t a f f seem  have made a l a r g e s c a l e and i n t e g r a t e d approach t o inmate  t r a i n i n g p o s s i b l e . : . I t c o u l d thus be s a i d t h a t r e l a x i n g a t t i t u d e s toward o f f e n d e r s i n the o u t s i d e environment a l l o w e d  45 succession  of g o a l s t o t a k e p l a c e i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y system  so t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y became the p r i m a r y principle.  operating  At t h e same time a l l the former g o a l s of the  Service  have been r e t a i n e d . This succession conservatism itation.  i n g o a l s i n v o l v e s a t r e n d away from  and punishment, toward i n n o v a t i o n and  In t h i s regard  been n o t e d . described attempting  rehabil-  the statement of F u l t o n has  already  I n a d d i t i o n the p r e s e n t Commissioner has  publicly  the ways i n which the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i s t o r e f o r m inmates.  now  These i n c l u d e an e x t e n s i o n  inmate a c t i v i t i e s i n the community, a l o n g e r w o r k i n g day i n m a t e s , more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a d e t r a i n i n g and  of for  generally  the planned development of more normal l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the  institution.^ These p h i l o s o p h i c a l changes have been accompanied by  i n c r e a s i n g s i z e , complexity  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the S e r v i c e .  structural alteration in S t a t i s t i c s show the r a p i d r a t e  of growth i n p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I .  A 329.9% i n c r e a s e i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y e s t i m a t e s  shown between 1947 from 1961  t o 1963.  and  1961,  w h i l e a.  is  16.6.7% i n c r e a s e i s shown  Some of t h i s i n c r e a s e i s the r e s u l t of  A. J . MacLeod, Q.C., The Changing Canadian P r i s o n , an a d d r e s s d e l i v e r e d on March 29, 19 6 2 a t the Annual M e e t i n g ' o f the John Howard S o c i e t y of London, Ont. T h e budgetary f i g u r e s i n T a b l e I are not e x p r e s s e d i n c o n s t a n t d o l l a r s because the n e c e s s a r y f i g u r e s f o r 19 63 are u n a v a i l a b l e at t h i s time. I t i s known, however, t h a t the i m p l i c i t p r i c e i n d e x f o r government e x p e n d i t u r e s has s l i g h t l y more t h a n doubled from 1947 t o 1963. From t h i s i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the budget f o r the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , i n d e f l a t e d d o l l a r s , has r o u g h l y q u a d r u p l e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d . 8 2  TABLE I Comparative S t a t i s t i c s of Growth The Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e ,  1947  Per Cent Increase  I96I  1947-1963*  Per Cent Increase  1963  1947-61  Main Estimates By S t a t u t e Total  $  4,155,986.00  $ 17,874,153.00  $ 31,590,000.00  2,264.00  2,400.00  2,400.00  $ 4,158,250.00  $  17,876,553.00  329.9  T o t a l Inmates  3,752  6,738  79.6  Total Staff**  747  2,619  250.6  50  115  130.0  Professional Staff**  Institutions Total  * **  13  85.7  $ 31,592,400.00  7,219  3,042  1961-63  1947-63  76.7  659.8  7-1  92.4  16.2  307.2  160  39.1  220.0  25  92.3  257-1  Maximum S e c u r i t y  7  8  6  Medium S e c u r i t y  0  2  5  Minimum S e c u r i t y  0  3  14  A l l f i g u r e s as of March 3 1 s t . Operating and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e .  Per Cent Increase  growth i n inmate p o p u l a t i o n which r o s e 79.6% from 1917 t o 19 61 and  7.1% from 19 61 t o 1963.  However, t h e major i n c r e a s e i n  expenditures i s the r e s u l t of e x t r a costs i n v o l v e d i n operating a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program a g a i n s t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s t r a i g h t custodial  care..  S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e t o t a l s t a f f has i n c r e a s e d 1947  307.2% from  t o 1963, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s has i n c r e a s e d  220.0% i n t h e same time p e r i o d .  I n t h e same way i n s t i t u t i o n a l  f a c i l i t i e s have become more v a r i e d as may a l s o be seen from t h e table.  Although overcrowding s t i l l e x i s t s , there i s a trend  toward minimum s e c u r i t y and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n maximum s e c u r i t y f a c i l i t i e s . F i g u r e I , showing t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e S e r v i c e , i n d i c a t e s t h e wide v a r i e t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s now r e p r e s e n t e d  i n staff capacities.  This  c o n t r a s t s t o h e a d q u a r t e r s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which e x i s t e d i n 1947 and b e f o r e . A l l t h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t , as f a r as t h e o u t s i d e environment i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e g o a l s o f t h e S e r v i c e a r e now assuming more c e n t r a l i t y . r e s u l t of a vigorous  L a t t e r l y t h i s has l a r g e l y been t h e  attempt by F u l t o n t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e program  a t a time when t h e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s toward t h e o f f e n d e r a r e becoming more p o s i t i v e .  Another f a c t o r i s t h e e n e r g e t i c  l e a d e r s h i p now b e i n g p r o v i d e d  by t h e Commissioner and h i s t o p  l e v e l s t a f f , t h e l a t t e r presumably h a v i n g been s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t n e s s and f a v o u r a b l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f inmates.  o r i e n t a t i o n toward  48 There i s , however, some e v i d e n c e t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t i l l has a p r e c a r i o u s v a l u e f o r t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e .  It is  e v i d e n t t o t h e workers i n Canadian c o r r e c t i o n s t h a t much ambivalence e x i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y toward a d u l t o f f e n d e r s and t h e p u b l i c i s not c o m p l e t e l y  s o l d on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r d e s i r -  a b i l i t y of present treatment  programs.  This i s a p o t e n t i a l  source o f danger t o t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n t h a t t h e growing p u b l i c s u p p o r t  o f p e n i t e n t i a r i e s c o u l d e a s i l y be  reversed. I t can be o b s e r v e d , moreover, t h a t t h e changing  goals  and e x p a n s i o n o f t h e S e r v i c e a r e b r i n g i n g w i t h them c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those o u t l i n e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l e x p o s i t i o n concerning 'total i n s t i t u t i o n s * .  For  one t h i n g t h e r e i s , i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e f a m i l i a r between t h e s t a f f and inmate c u l t u r e s .  split  Furthermore, the values  of t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y inmate p o p u l a t i o n a r e n o t congruent w i t h t h e goal of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r inmates. considered  The l a t t e r cannot be  a group which i s i n any way c o o p e r a t i v e  with  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s j u d g i n g from t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s which have o c c u r r e d i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s d u r i n g 19 6 2 and 1963. Secondly* the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n has brought i n i t s wake problems i n h o u s i n g , r e c r u i t m e n t o f s t a f f , s t a f f t r a i n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n .  The  a l r e a d y complex s i t u a t i o n w i l l become even more i n v o l v e d i f the proposed i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l l o n g term Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s under f e d e r a l c o n t r o l i s a c c o m p l i s h e d .  A l l p l a n n i n g seems t o  be d i r e c t e d w i t h t h i s end i n view and i t seems l i k e l y  that  49 centralization  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l o c c u r w i t h i n  next f i v e or ten years.  One  the  f e a t u r e of r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g  size  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s  i n the f e d e r a l domain i s the need  f o r planning  not n e c e s s a r y i n former t i m e s .  ahead which was  A g a i n the c u s t o d i a l and  p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s i n the  i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot so f a r be r e g a r d e d as an i n t e g r a t e d The  group.  v a l u e systems of t h e s e sub-groups are d i f f e r e n t because of  d i s p a r i t i e s i n s o c i a l background, e d u c a t i o n , r o l e s and  opportunities  f o r advancement.  e x p e r i e n c e , work  T h e r e f o r e they cannot  be assumed t o be w o r k i n g toward o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s i n complete harmony o r i n a c o o r d i n a t e d  fashion.  F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a s o u r c e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e because of the i n c r e a s e d  numbers and  making group a t h e a d q u a r t e r s . of t h i s  'staff  a u t h o r i t y of the  policy  Because of i n c r e a s i n g importance  group i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the wardens are  l o n g e r as autonomous as they were i n former y e a r s . two  conflict  no  These  sub-groups a l s o o p e r a t e a g a i n s t a d i f f e r e n t s e t of w o r k i n g  c o n d i t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e s and v a l u e s .  More t h a n t h i s however, the  e x p a n s i o n of the h e a d q u a r t e r s group, as one resulted i n formulation  of new  p o l i c i e s i n a way  t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s . i s b e i n g f e l t by b o t h o p e r a t i n g  would e x p e c t ,  s t a f f and  The  which d i s r u p t s impact of  inmates.  e v i d e n c e t h a t , because of the speed of change, the v a l u e s of b o t h o p e r a t i n g  p e r s o n n e l and  w i t h the p o l i c i e s of the f o r m a l headquarters.  this  There i s informal  inmates are not  consistent  o r g a n i z a t i o n as d e c i d e d a t  T h i s i n t u r n i s l i k e l y t o have  consequences f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  has  goals.  dysfunctional  50 L e a v i n g a s i d e the c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  c u s t o d i a l g o a l s may  t h a t achievement of be b a s i c a l l y  b l e i n t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , enough has  incompati-  been s a i d t o  indicate a d i f f i c u l t administrative situation within Penitentiary Service.  The  f l u i d s i t u a t i o n brought about by  r a p i d change i n g o a l s and p r o c e d u r e s has established formal  and  d i s t o r t e d the  i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s and  t r a d i t i o n a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p s . i n achieving  the  u p s e t the  I n o r d e r t o be  successful  it's g o a l s i n the f a c e of t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s  Service w i l l require continued p u b l i c support.  One  the  method of  i m p r o v i n g i t s p u b l i c image i s t o demonstrate by measurements of i t s programs t h a t g o a l s are b e i n g a c h i e v e d i n l i n e environmental expectations p e n i t e n t i a r y operations  with  and hence the money b e i n g spent  is justified.  on  As we have s e e n , major  R o y a l Commission recommendations s i n c e 19 3 8 have i n c l u d e d development of a s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h corrections to f u l f i l l  i n June, 1960, now,  as a l r e a d y  nothing  program i n f e d e r a l  j u s t such a purpose.  the C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g  the  But up t o the  time  Committee completed i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  had  been a c h i e v e d a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s .  But  n o t e d , a C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n has  been  formed i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e and  a r e v i s e d program of  inmate s t a t i s t i c s went i n t o e f f e c t i n  1962.  I t i s w i t h the t o t a l f u n c t i o n s of s t a t i s t i c s research  and  f o r the p e n i t e n t i a r y " s t r u c t u r e t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s  s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned.  The  next phase of the s t u d y w i l l  f o r e be f o c u s e d on the s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h  there-  t e c h n i q u e s which  have been d e v e l o p e d , t h e i r e f f e c t on p e n i t e n t i a r y  administration  and t h e r o l e o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n i n t h e s e developments.  CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS OF DATA INTRODUCTION Sources o f Data An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n cannot be a c c o m p l i s h e d a l o n e by r e f e r e n c e  t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r t s and  documents p r e p a r e d f o r p u b l i c consumption.  The f o r m a l  aspects  of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e must i n some way be combined w i t h i n f o r m a l elements which a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , not r e c o r d e d except perhaps i n c o n f i d e n t i a l f i l e s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o researchers.  The s t u d e n t ,  t h e r e f o r e , must e f f e c t s u f f i c i e n t  p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e system t o be a b l e t o observe and a s s e s s the on-going o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s and t o o b t a i n t h e conf i d e n c e o f s t a f f so t h a t t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s  of t h e s t r u c t u r e  under study w i l l be v a l i d l y and f r e e l y communicated. i n f o r m a t i o n sought i n t h i s r e s e a r c h  The  i s l a r g e l y n o t r e c o r d e d and  i s u n a v a i l a b l e e x c e p t i n t h e minds and memories o f l o n g - s e r v i c e personnel.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e a n a l y s i s i s p r i m a r i l y based  on d a t a o b t a i n e d  from s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r o f e s s i o n a l  personnel i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y Service. contained  i n published  s u p p o r t and c o r r o b o r a t e access was a l l o w e d  However, i n f o r m a t i o n  and u n p u b l i s h e d , documents was used t o data obtained  from t h e s t a f f .  Unrestricted  by t h e Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s t o a l l  a v a i l a b l e documents i n c l u d i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l .  As  s p e c i f i e d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y , t h e major documentary sources  53 were t h e Annual Reports o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y Branch, C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s and Commissioner's D i r e c t i v e s , c o n t e n t s  of the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f i l e s and r e p o r t s o f o f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s dealing with penitentiary a f f a i r s of populations. The  group o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n Ottawa comprised a l l twenty-  t h r e e members o f t h e Headquarters S t a f f from t h e rank of Deputy Commissioner down t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s .  Of  the t o t a l s t a f f a t h e a d q u a r t e r s o n l y t h e Commissioner, t h e t e c h n i c a l and t h e c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l were n o t i n t e r v i e w e d . These respondents w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e s e n i o r admini s t r a t i v e o r h e a d q u a r t e r s group. The  second group o f s e n i o r s t a f f i n c l u d e d t h e Quebec  and O n t a r i o R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s who a r e t h e o n l y two so f a r appointed  and seven out o f t h e e l e v e n wardens i n t h e p e n i t e n -  t i a r y system.  These o f f i c i a l s were t o g e t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  3,980 out o f 6,97 8 o r 57.1% o f t h e t o t a l inmate p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a l l f e m a l e s , h e l d i n custody  as o f June 30, 1963.  I t i s thought t h a t t h e o p i n i o n s and f a c t u a l d a t a advanced by t h i s group w i l l not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t o f t h e u n i v e r s e o f wardens had a l l been i n t e r v i e w e d . w i l l be c a l l e d  These respondents  t h e s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g group.  These two s e n i o r s t a f f groups a r e c o n s i d e r e d a b l e t o g i v e f a c t u a l d a t a and r e n d e r v a l i d o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e f o r two r e a s o n s .  I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e these o f f i c i a l s a r e  incumbents o f h i g h l e v e l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e S e r v i c e which they occupy because o f t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t n e s s  and/or l o n g  54 experience.  Secondly, t h e i r r o l e i s e i t h e r t o advise the  Commissioner on p o l i c y o r a t a h i g h l e v e l , t o see t h a t p o l i c y ; i s c a r r i e d out.  F o r both t h e s e reasons t h e o f f i c e r s i n t h e  combined group a r e l i k e l y t o know w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e  accuracy  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d t o s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h and a r e u n i q u e l y q u a l i f i e d t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on this  subject. The I n t e r v i e w Guide a t t a c h e d  as a b a s i s f o r c o n d u c t i n g  as Appendix A was used  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e two groups o f  s e n i o r p e n i t e n t i a r y o f f i c i a l s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from June 12 t o J u l y 12, 1963. The use o f an i n t e r v i e w guide a l l o w e d f o r c o m p a r a b i l i t y between i n t e r v i e w s i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r a b l e depth o f r e s p o n s e .  The q u e s t i o n s  on t h e guide denote t h e core  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and were n o t addressed t o r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e same p h r a s e o l o g y as appears i n t h e sample. I n t h i s study t h e n o n - d i r e c t i v e approach was t a k e n i n questioning.  When probe q u e s t i o n s  t a k e n t o phrase them i m p a r t i a l l y .  were n e c e s s a r y ,  care was  The scope o f q u e s t i o n i n g  was thought t o be broad enough t o a v o i d c o l l e c t i o n o f a narrow range o f d a t a and ensure r e a s o n a b l y  precise interpretations to  be made i n t h e a n a l y s i s . I n t e r v i e w s were h e l d i n p r i v a t e and r e s p o n d e n t s were assured  t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n would be  maintained.  I n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s v a r i e d i n l e n g t h b u t averaged two h o u r s . I n a few cases two o r t h r e e s e s s i o n s were r e q u i r e d t o complete the i n t e r v i e w o r t o v e r i f y i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t i n t h e main, o n l y one i n t e r v i e w was n e c e s s a r y .  Rapport i s c o n s i d e r e d  t o have been  h i g h s i n c e t h e r e were no r e f u s a l s and i n f o r m a t i o n was f r e e l y given.  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by t h e w r i t e r .  For  t h e s e reasons t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f d a t a i s thought t o be as good as p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s in qualitative  interviews.  D u r i n g t h e same time p e r i o d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e attached  inherent  with i t s covering  which i s  l e t t e r as Appendix B was m a i l e d t o  a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l and some s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f i n t h e institutions.  From t h e l e t t e r i t w i l l be seen t h a t a s s u r a n c e s  were a g a i n g i v e n r e g a r d i n g  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of answers r e q u e s t e d .  These respondents w i l l be c a l l e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ' o r t h e inmate t r a i n i n g group.  These o f f i c e r s a r e t h e ones  r e s p o n s i b l e under t h e p r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s f o r e i t h e r c o m p l e t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l forms r e g a r d i n g  inmates, s u p e r v i s i n g  their  completion or c o n t r i b u t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l information f o r entry on t h e s e forms.  I t i s therefore considered  t h a t t h i s group i s  i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o g i v e o p i n i o n s about t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a r e c o r d e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c u r r e n t  statistical  procedures. Samples o f t h e f o u r inmate s t a t i s t i c a l forms c u r r e n t l y i n use a r e a t t a c h e d  as Appendix C.  Procedures f o r r e c o r d i n g  s t a t i s t i c s v a r y s l i g h t l y between i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t ,  generally  s p e a k i n g , t h e A d m i s s i o n Form i s completed by t h e Inmate Records C l e r k based on i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e inmate and checked a g a i n s t t h e Warrant o f Commitment, t h e R.C.M.P. F i n g e r p r i n t Record and p r e v i o u s  p e n i t e n t i a r y f i l e s i f these e x i s t . '  56 The  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire  general d i r e c t i o n  i s completed under  of the S u p e r v i s o r of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  may  be f i l l e d i n by the S u p e r v i s o r s , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r s o r Classification Assistants.  The  p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l  information  e n t e r e d on t h i s form i s o b t a i n e d from the inmate and may v e r i f i e d from o u t s i d e s o u r c e s .  Educational  be  Supervisors,  P s y c h o l o g i s t s and C h i e f V o c a t i o n a l O f f i c e r s c o n t r i b u t e t e s t results  and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h i s r e p o r t , but g e n e r a l l y  do not e n t e r the i n f o r m a t i o n on the forms t h e m s e l v e s . . The  R e l e a s e Form i s completed b e f o r e d i s c h a r g e of the  inmate by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t a f f . the p r o g r e s s  I t s purpose i s t o r e c o r d  made by inmates d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d of  training.  The A s s i s t a n t Deputy .Wardens (Inmate T r a i n i n g ) have a l l been r e c e n t l y a p p o i n t e d  and w i t h o u t  e x c e p t i o n were promoted  from C l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o s i t i o n s i n which they were i n v o l v e d w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d i n g as p a r t of t h e i r d u t i e s . and because they now s t a f f , t h i s group was I t was  For t h i s r e a s o n  s u p e r v i s e the work of the Inmate T r a i n i n g a l s o asked t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  f e l t t h a t o n l y o f f i c e r s who  had had more t h a n  s i x months s e r v i c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s would be t o g i v e v a l i d answers t o the q u e s t i o n s .  By e x c l u d i n g answers  from those w i t h under s i x months e x p e r i e n c e s i x r e p l i e s were p o s s i b l e .  qualified  a t o t a l of  Returns were a c t u a l l y  seventy-  received  from seventy-two of the p r o f e s s i o n a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e group, c o n s t i t u t i n g a 90.8% as f o l l o w s ;  response.  The r e t u r n s were b r o k e n down  57 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t a f f - 45 out o f 46 Educational Supervisors  9 out o f 10  Chief Vocational O f f i c e r s  6 out o f  6  A s s i s t a n t Deputy Wardens ( I T )  7 out of  8  Inmate Records, C l e r k s  5 out o f  6  7 2 o u t o f 76  Total  However, as w i l l be made c l e a r i n t h e a n a l y s i s n o t every respondent answered a l l q u e s t i o n s on t h e s c h e d u l e . Following the r e t u r n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d w i t h some p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s group o f respondents i n t h e Quebec and O n t a r i o Regions i n o r d e r t o gauge how w e l l the s c h e d u l e had been u n d e r s t o o d respondents  and a c c e p t e d .  These  were a l l o w e d t o expand upon t h e i r o p i n i o n s  r e g a r d i n g p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h a t t h a t t i m e . The w r i t e r , a t t h e same t i m e , was a b l e t o observe a t f i r s t hand t h e methods now b e i n g used t o c o l l e c t s t a t i s t i c a l  data  i n t h e two l a r g e s t r e c e i v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , K i n g s t o n and S t . V i n c e n t de P a u l P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The  i m p r e s s i o n s reached from these i n t e r v i e w s were,  g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e form had been p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t e d and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e had n o t c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t e n i n g experience f o r the respondents.  These i m p r e s s i o n s  were s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e f a i r l y comprehensive way i n which t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed.  The one e x c e p t i o n was r e s p e c t -  i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s which asked respondents  t o evaluate  competency i n i n t e r v i e w i n g . The answers t o t h e s e  their  questions  were found t o l a c k v a l i d i t y such t h a t o t h e r sources o f these  58 d a t a had t o be found.  More w i l l be s a i d on t h i s p o i n t l a t e r i n  the a n a l y s i s . The f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r was respondents  known t o many of the  a s s i s t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r a p p o r t w i t h the  e n t i r e group.  Moreover, p r e v i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t  w i t h the  p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l system meant t h a t the n a t u r e of r e c e n t developments i n t h i s program were p r o b a b l y known w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n and b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e than would have been p o s s i b l e f o r another s t u d e n t . involvement may  On the o t h e r hand, p e r s o n a l  i n any a c t i v i t y i s a p o s s i b l e source of b i a s and ~.  l e a d t o some d i s t o r t i o n of judgement.  and guarded a g a i n s t i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y .  T h i s was  considered  Special precautions  were found t o be n e c e s s a r y because of the f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r was  known t o be an employee of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s .  I n i n t e r v i e w s , when q u e s t i o n s were r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g the Bureau's r o l e i n p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s , some h e s i t a n c y a n d . r e t i c e n c e was  apparent  i n the answers.  More w i l l be s a i d c o n c e r n i n g  the  amount and d i r e c t i o n o f b i a s from t h i s s o u r c e i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n of the a n a l y s i s . Method o f A n a l y s i s The  d a t a o b t a i n e d from documents and i n t e r v i e w s was  q u a n t i f i e d w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s by the use o f q u a l i t a t i v e coding procedures.  These b a s i c a l l y e n t a i l e d s e t t i n g up  mutually  e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which the q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a were fitted.  T h i s p r o c e s s of c o d i f i c a t i o n a l l o w e d more o b j e c t i v e  judgements t o be made i n the a n a l y s i s c o n c e r n i n g p e n i t e n t i a r y  59 s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h t h a n would have been p o s s i b l e by r e l y i n g on p u r e l y q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d s .  83  Definitions I n t h i s r e s e a r c h i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h t i o n s f o r t h e terms  defini-  ' r e c o r d s ' , ' s t a t i s t i c s * , and ' r e s e a r c h '  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them.  D u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s and i n  a n a l y s i s , ' r e c o r d s ' were d e f i n e d as any u n o r g a n i z e d b a s i c d a t a e n t e r e d on forms i n t h e c o u r s e o f p e n i t e n t i a r y administration.  I n t h i s study t h e s e m a i n l y concerned t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f inmates b u t might a l s o i n v o l v e q u a n t i t i e s of m a t e r i a l used, p e r i o d s o f time o r f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . ' ' S t a t i s t i c s ' were t a k e n t o mean some u n d e r s t a n d a b l e arrangement of b a s i c r e c o r d s i n t o l i k e c a t e g o r i e s .  L i t t l e c o n f u s i o n was  found t o e x i s t i n t h e minds o f respondents c o n c e r n i n g t h e concepts o f r e c o r d s and s t a t i s t i c s and t h e terms, as d e f i n e d h e r e , seemed t o be u n i f o r m l y u n d e r s t o o d . The term ' r e s e a r c h ' was found t o have d i f f e r e n t meanings f o r d i f f e r e n t respondents.  I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o  e s t a b l i s h a v e r y broad d e f i n i t i o n .  Hence r e s e a r c h here i s  c o n s i d e r e d t o mean any s t u d y o f p e n i t e n t i a r y  administration,  ° The t e c h n i q u e s o f q u a l i t a t i v e c o d i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C. S e l l t i z , M. Johoda, M. Deutsch and S. W. Cook, Research Methods i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1961), pp. 391-401. See a l s o , A. H. B a r t o n and P. K. L a z a r s f e l d , "Some G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , i n P. L a z a r s f e l d and M. Rosenberg, ( E d s . ) , Language o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , (The Free P r e s s , Glencoe, 111., 1962), pp. 83-93 3  60 p e n i t e n t i a r y inmates o r the crimes of inmates. no way  i n d i c a t e s the q u a l i t y of any  whether i t i s pure or The  s t u d y , nor  The  term i n  distinguishes  applied.  s e c t i o n s of a n a l y s i s under the headings below are  i n t e n d e d not o n l y t o d i s c o v e r the t y p e s of p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h developed and  which e x i s t , but a l s o why  these  the ways i n which they e n t e r i n t o p e n i t e n t i a r y  administration. TYPES OF STATISTICAL AND The  RESEARCH USAGE  senior administrative, senior operating  and  inmate  t r a i n i n g groups were q u e s t i o n e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s t a t i s t i c s and and r e s e a r c h istration.  research  t e c h n i q u e s had  and  the ways i n which s t a t i s t i c a l  been used i n p e n i t e n t i a r y admin-  S i x t y p e s of usage were d i s c o v e r e d  which d i f f e r  not o n l y as t o r e c e n c y of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n but a l s o e x t e n t of use  i n administration.  published  N o t h i n g was  documents t o i n d i c a t e any  found i n the f i l e s  or  a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r y of  They are as f o l l o w s ; (1) P r e p a r a t i o n estimates.  of s t a f f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and  (2) P r e p a r a t i o n  of Annual R e p o r t s .  financial  (3) Answers t o q u e s t i o n s i n the House of Commons and f o r m u l a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s . (4) P r e p a r a t i o n  of R o y a l Commission R e p o r t s .  (5) Attempts a t measurement of programs o r s t u d i e s f o r purposes of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g u i d a n c e . (6) Academic and s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s by s t a f f or o u t s i d e r s .  professional  use.  61 I n g e n e r a l terms t h e r e l a t i v e importance  and c e n t r a l i t y o f  t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s t o p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d under t h e i r s e p a r a t e headings below. P r e p a r a t i o n o f S t a f f E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and F i n a n c i a l  Estimates  As l o n g as t h e r e has been a P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e i n advance t h e number o f s t a f f and amount o f equipment t o c a r e f o r and t r a i n inmates. converted t o d o l l a r s , are submitted t o Treasury  These needs,  Board on an  annual b a s i s , p r e p a r a t o r y t o a p p r o v a l o f t h e Budget i n t h e House o f Commons.  I n a v e r y elementary  way these e s t i m a t e s a r e  l i n k e d t o s t a t i s t i c s i n t h a t they a r e always based on t h e e s t i m a t e d inmate p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e coming y e a r .  The purpose  and method o f p r e p a r i n g s t a f f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and f i n a n c i a l e s t i m a t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y so w e l l understood  t h a t no f u r t h e r  r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o t h i s use o f s t a t i s t i c s i n p e n i t e n t i a r y administration. P r e p a r a t i o n o f Annual  Reports  Annual Reports have been s u b m i t t e d a n n u a l l y by t h e S e r v i c e t o P a r l i a m e n t s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n as r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t e . These r e p o r t s c o n t a i n s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e major a s p e c t s o f p e n i t e n t i a r y operations i n the preceding In a d d i t i o n , b e g i n n i n g i n 1937,  year. t h e Dominion Bureau o f  S t a t i s t i c s has s u p p l i e d an e l a b o r a t e supplement o f inmate s t a t i s t i c s which.has always been a t t a c h e d t o t h e Report.  Prior  t o t h a t date these f i g u r e s were c o m p i l e d by t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y  62 S e r v i c e i t s e l f w i t h l e s s a c c u r a c y and l e s s c o m p l e x i t y . I t w i l l be c l a r i f i e d l a t e r t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a f f has a c l e a r i d e a o f t h e purpose o f Annual Report  Statistics.  Answers r e q u e s t e d i n t h e House o f Commons and F o r m u l a t i o n o f L e g i s l a t i v e P r o p o s a l s S t a t i s t i c s were a l s o produced a t h e a d q u a r t e r s  either  as a r e s u l t o f a r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e o r i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f such a r e q u e s t .  Because o f t h e  p o l i t i c a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h a v i n g prompt answers t o q u e s t i o n s asked o f t h e J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r by h i s opponents, s t a t i s t i c s i n c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s have been k e p t on s u b j e c t s which were c o n s i d e r e d l i k e l y t o arouse d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e House.  Some  examples a r e t h e numbers and b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f drug o f f e n d e r s , y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s , female o f f e n d e r s and s e x u a l offenders. Commissioner  Some o f t h e s e s e r i e s were r e p o r t e d a n n u a l l y i n t h e o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s Annual Report and o t h e r s were  kept as u n p u b l i s h e d c u m u l a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a t h e a d q u a r t e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e M i n i s t r y o f J u s t i c e has c a l l e d upon the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e t o s u p p l y s t a t i s t i c s from time t o time when new l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o p e n i t e n t i a r y  inmates  o r t h e i r crimes was c o n t e m p l a t e d . P r e p a r a t i o n o f R o y a l Commission R e p o r t s B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e Archambault Commission t h e r e has been a t r e n d toward t h e use o f s t a t i s t i c s i n f o r m u l a t i n g recommendations o f R o y a l Commissions.  Certainly  63 from 1936  t o the p r e s e n t a l l major p u b l i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , which  d e a l t w i t h the o p e r a t i o n s of the p e n i t e n t i a r y system, have r e q u i r e d b o t h the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and  the  P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e t o f u r n i s h d a t a on which t o base c o n c l u s i o n s . Attempts a t Measurement of Programs o r S t u d i e s f o r Purposes of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Guidance T h i s usage of s t a t i s t i c s seems t o be a r e c e n t a t i o n which accompanied the advent of the o r i e n t e d regime of G e n e r a l  G i b s o n i n 1946.  innov-  rehabilitation Consistent  with  t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t use o f s t a t i s t i c s f o r program measurement has  o c c u r r e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a s most c l o s e l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d care and t r a i n i n g of inmates. A r e c e n t development i s the p r o c e d u r a l study by an o u t s i d e commercial o r government department. these have t a k e n p l a c e a t the r e q u e s t  undertaken A few  of  of the Commissioner f o r  the purpose of i n c r e a s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y or f o r m u l a t i n g l o n g range p l a n s . Academic and S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s by P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f o r O u t s i d e r s A l s o s i n c e 194-6  t h e r e have been a number of s t u d i e s  u n d e r t a k e n e i t h e r by p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n the S e r v i c e as a m a t t e r of t h e i r own  academic i n t e r e s t o r by r e s e a r c h e r s  o u t s i d e the S e r v i c e who The  from  were i n need of a c a p t i v e p o p u l a t i o n .  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of the a n a l y s i s d e a l s i n g r e a t e r  d e t a i l w i t h the academic, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and R o y a l s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o above.  Commission  64 TYPES OF PENITENTIARY RESEARCH From t h e responses t o i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and u s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e f i l e s , an attempt was made t o c o m p i l e an u n d u p l i c a t e d  l i s t o f a l l known s t u d i e s r e s p e c t i n g  t i a r y inmates o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  peniten-  The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n  Table I I . As noted i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e use o f t h e term 'research'  h e r e i n has a very broad meaning.  Hence any s t u d y ,  however s i m p l e , as l o n g as i t was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p e n i t e n t i a r y i n m a t e s , programs o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , was i n c l u d e d .  No  s t u d y was i n c l u d e d which was completed p r i o r t o 1914 and o n l y one  i s known t o have t a k e n p l a c e b e f o r e  that date.  No c l a i m  i s made t h a t t h e l i s t i s a b s o l u t e l y complete b u t a f a i r l y exhaustive  search  f a i l e d t o r e v e a l any o t h e r s t u d i e s .  On t h i s  b a s i s t h e t o t a l number o f s e p a r a t e r e s e a r c h e s was one hundred and  eight. Penitentiary research  i n t h e above sense can be  c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s as f o l l o w s ; (a) O f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s such as t h e R e p o r t s o f R o y a l Commissions. (b) Academic o r s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s . (c) P r o c e d u r a l s t u d i e s i n t o methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o p e r a t i o n and program e f f e c t i v e n e s s . P r i o r t o 1946 t h e r e was no r e c o r d o f a study o t h e r the o f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t y p e . two  than  There seems t o be a t l e a s t  i n t e r l o c k i n g reasons f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  The p r i m a r y  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e towards i n m a t e s , p r i o r t o  TABIE I I Studies Concerning P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates o r Operations* ~ iear Name or Subject of Study  R o y a l Commission on P e n i t e n t i a r i e s Report on R e v i s i o n o f P e n i t e n t i a r y Regulations Royal Commission on P e n i t e n t i a r i e s Causes of Crime Report o f General R.B. Gibson I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients of Inmates Electroencephalograms of Offenders Appraisal of S t a t i s t i c s Inmate A c c i d e n t s 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients of Inmates H e a l t h Opinion Survey P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s on A l c o h o l i c s Incidence of T u b e r c u l o s i s i n Inmates Inmates Committing Sexual Offences Against C h i l d r e n 1948-53 R e c i d i v i s m o f Dale Carnegie Course Graduates R e c i d i v i s m and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Employment Follow-up and V o c a t i o n a l Training Study o f C a p i t a l Case Offenders Study of C o r p o r a l Punishment Administered to Offenders Report on C a p i t a l and C o r p o r a l Punishment Inmates Admitted t o P e n i t e n t i a r y on F i r s t Sex Offence R e c i d i v i s m o f Sex Offenders C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Sex Offenders A l c o h o l i c Offenders Sexual Offenders Report of I n q u i r y i n t o P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures o f the Remission S e r v i c e Number of Sex Offenders i n P e n i t e n t i a r i e s 1956 R e c i d i v i s m i n I n c e s t Cases Study o f C r i m i n a l Sexual Psychopaths Study of Homosexual Offenders Report on C r i m i n a l Sexual Psychopaths A t t i t u d e s o f Inmates B r i t i s h Columbia P e n i t e n t i a r y Administration  Of  Completion  AUSPICES n„„~„„ c e ™ ment  Peniten- Penitentiary tiary „ . S e r v i c e Employee J  TYPE Student Academic O f f i c i a l Adminisor or Inves- t r a t i v e ProScientific t i g a t i o n Guidance Interest fessional  PERSISTENCE Ad Hoc  1914  X  X  X  1921  X X  X X  1938 1946 1947 1948 1950 1950 1950 1951 1951 1951 1953  X  X  X X X X X X X X X X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X X X  X X X  X X  X X X  X X  1953  X  1954 1954  X  X X  -  X X  1955 1955  X X  X X  X X  1955  X  X  X  1956  X X X  1956 1956 1956 1956 1956 1956 1957 1957 1957 1957 1958 1958 1958  X  X  X X X X  X  X X  X X  X  X  X X X X  X X X X X X  X X X X X  X  X X X X X X  X  X  X  X  Continuous  TABLE I I - Continued Studies Concerning P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates o r Operations*  Name o r Subject o f Study  La C o m p l i c i t e C r l m l n e l l e Sexual Offenders T e s t s on Aging A l c o h o l i s m and Homosexuality Psychomotor R i g i d i t y Incidence of Mental I l l n e s s Among Inmates 1945-58 S t a f f Leave Studies S t a f f T r a i n i n g Study Deceased Employees Study 1954-59 S t a f f A c c i d e n t Study S t a f f Separations Study C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Study R e c i d i v i s m and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Penitentiary Service R e c i d i v i s m and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o l l i n s Bay Program Assessment a t F e d e r a l T r a i n i n g Center The P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l a t St. Vincent-de-Paul P e n i t e n t i a r y Psychological Services a t S t . Vincent-de-Paul P e n i t e n t i a r y Presentation of a Basic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n Criminology Dynamics Involved i n Family Offences Appearing Before the Court Some Rights Duties and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n Penology and Suggested Changes lies R e l a t i o n s O b j e c t i v e s au Seln du Monde P e n i t e n t i a i r e Problems i n E s t a b l i s h i n g a Therapeutic Relationship i n a Prison Community The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f C r i m i n a l i t y and Some T e n t a t i v e Hypotheses C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Drug Addicted Female Inmates C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Drug A d d i c t s at B r i t i s h Columbia P e n i t e n t i a r y  Year of Completion  AUSPICES  TYPE  Peniten- P e n i t e n Governtiary tiary ment S e r v i c e Employee  1958 1958 1958 1958 1958  Student or f  e  ssi;  n  a  l  Academic O f f i c i a l Adminisor Investrative Scientific t i g a t i o n Guidance Interest  X X X X X  X X X X X  1958 1954-58 1958 1959 1959 1959 1959  X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X  1947-59  X  X  1949-59  X  X  1952-59  X  X  PERSISTENCE Ad Hoc  Continuous  X X X X X  X X X X X  cn CD  I959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  1959  X  X  X  i960  X  X  X  i960  X  X  X  TABLE I I - Continued Studies Concerning P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates o r Operations*  Name o r Subject o f Study  A c c i d e n t s I n v o l v i n g Eye I n j u r i e s a t C o l l i n s Bay P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates Sentenced to P e n i t e n t i a r y when Under 16 Years 1955-60 • Communication and Destlmulation Compulsive F o r g e r s E f f e c t s of the Drug L y s e r g i c A c i d on Inmates P e r s o n a l i t y P a t t e r n s and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Response I n d u s t r i a l P l a n f o r Canadian Penitentiaries La Theraple de Groupe au P e n i t e n c i e r Summary Report o f C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Committee E f f e c t s of S o c i a l I s o l a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r a c t i c e s i n the Penitentiary Service Survey o f O r g a n i z a t i o n and Administration D i v i s i o n P a i n Thresholds of A d d i c t s and Non-Addicts A f t e r Image and Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory R e c i d i v i s n T o f Dale Carnegie Course Graduates Study o f A r s o n i s t s Age and Metabolism of S t e r o i d s P e r c e p t u a l I n h i b i t i o n s and S o c i a l Learning A n a l y s i s of C r i m i n a l H i s t o r i e s R e c i d i v i s m o f Sex Offenders i n Penitentiaries Inmates A t t a c k i n g O f f i c e r s The Late Comer to Crime F a m i l y C o n f l i c t s and C r i m i n a l Behaviour C r i m i n a l A c t i n g Out In Cases of R e a c t i v e Depression The Problem o f R e c i d i v i s m and T r e a t ment of t h e Late Comer to Crime Some P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects of Sentencing  Year of Completion  AUSPICES  TYPE  Student n^r*™ Peniten- PenitenGovern- . . . . or ment *iar/ t±!F* ProS e r v i c e v Employee f  i960  X  i960 i960 i960  X  e  s  s  l  o  n  a  O f f i c i a l Adminis«; . ,. or * ?* Scientific t i g a t i o n Guidance ^ t ^ t r  l  m l c  ± V e  X X  X X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X X  X  i960  X  i960 i960  Ad ConHoc tinuous  X  X X  i960  PERSISTENCE A c a d  X X  i960 I96I  X  I96I  X  X  X  I96I  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X X X  X X X  X X  X X  X X  X  X  X X X  196l  X  X  X  1961  X  X  X  I96I  X  X  X  I96I  X  X  X  X  I96I  X  1961 X X  I96I I96I 1961 I96I I96I I961 1961 I96I  •  X X  •, X X  TABLE I I - Concluded S t u d i e s Concerning P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates o r Operations*  Name o r Subject o f Study  P e n i t e n t i a r y Inmates with More Than Two B r o t h e r s i n P e n i t e n t i a r i e s Adopted Inmates P e r s o n a l i t y Types by Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t i e s In Canadian Penitentiaries C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Indian Offenders E f f e c t s o f the Drug L y s e r g i c A c i d on Inmates Survey o f T r a n s c r i b i n g and Typing Services Survey o f P i l e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s C u s t o d i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Inmates Based on P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i a Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory V a l i d a t i o n Scales and E f f e c t of Cultural Differences Leary I n t e r p e r s o n a l Check-List A l c o h o l i s m i n Inmates Tatoos and Offences Male Homosexuality and Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory P e n i t e n t i a r y Disturbances S u i c i d e s and Attempted S u i c i d e s o f Inmates V a l u e Systems; Inmates and S t a f f F a m i l y Experiences o f Inmates Offender P e r s o n a l i t y Types C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Offender Types by Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory V a l i d a t i o n o f A d u l t Education T e s t s P i l o t Study A d d i c t P a r o l e Study C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A d d i c t s and Non A d d i c t s P r e d i c t i o n of Recidivism * As of September 1, 1963.  Year of Completion  AUSPICES' Government  Peniten- P e n i t e n tiary tiary S e r v i c e Employee  1962 1962  TYPE Student or f e  ss°;  n a l  PERSISTENCE  Academic O f f i c i a l Admlnlsor Invest- t r a t l v e Scientific t i g a t i o n Guidance Interest  Ad Hoc  X X  X X  1962 1962  X  X X  1963  X  X X  Continuous  1962  1963 1963  X X  X X  1963  X  1963 1963 1963 1963  X  1963  X X X X  X X X X  X  X X  X X  X  X X X  X X X X  X X X  incomp. incomp. incomp. incomp. incomp.  X X  X X  incomp. incomp. incomp. incomp. incomp.  X X X X  X X X X  X X  CD CO  69 the Gibson r e g i m e , was b a s i c a l l y r e t r i b u t i v e .  There was  f o r m e r l y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e p l i g h t o f t h e inmate and hence no r e s e a r c h was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y on t h i s s u b j e c t . Coupled w i t h t h i s p h i l o s o p h y , and one symptom Qf i t , was t h e p r o v i s i o n i n t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t which a l l o w e d wardens t o e x c l u d e a l l except s p e c i a l c a t e g o r i e s o f v i s i t o r s from penitentiaries.  U n t i l t h e appointment o f Commissioner  Gibson  nobody would have been a l l o w e d i n s i d e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o do any r e s e a r c h . S i n c e 1914 t h e r e have been t e n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e o f f i c i a l type which have been o r d e r e d by P a r l i a m e n t o r t h e Department o f J u s t i c e .  Not a l l o f these f o c u s s e d d i r e c t l y on  the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e b u t a l l have i n some way i n v e s t i g a t e d e i t h e r i t s o p e r a t i o n s , i t s inmates o r t h e crimes o f p e n i t e n t i a r y inmates.  These comprise  9.2% o f t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d i e s .  T h i s type o f study has been r e c e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by some r e l i a n c e on a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a .  M a i n l y they depend on  o b s e r v a t i o n o f o t h e r systems o r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c o r r e c t i o n and the h e a r i n g o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t e s t i m o n y from e x p e r t w i t n e s s e s f o r the purpose o f making recommendations. There seems t o be a commonly h e l d b e l i e f among t h e p u b l i c t h a t o f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e completed a t g r e a t c o s t t o t h e t a x p a y e r but a r e never implemented.  This i s generally only a  h a l f - t r u t h a l t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e s h e l v i n g o f an o f f i c i a l r e p o r t can o c c u r .  More o f t e n some recommendations a r e im-  plemented and some a r e n o t , e i t h e r f o r reasons o f p o l i t i c a l expediency  o r shortage of funds.  With r e s p e c t t o p e n i t e n t i a r i e s ,  70 as we have s e e n , a l l t h e major i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i r e c t l y  focused  on S e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s have brought about some changes i n administration. S t a r t i n g i n 1946 t h e S e r v i c e began t o encourage types of r e s e a r c h .  Beginning  a t t h a t time s t u d e n t s and  p r o f e s s i o n a l people were a l l o w e d on v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s .  i n t o i n s t i t u t i o n s t o do s t u d i e s  A t f i r s t , as might be e x p e c t e d , t h e r e  were some b a r r i e r s r a i s e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a g a i n s t practice. 1960  -other  this  I t i s noted i n t h e f i l e s from t h e y e a r s 1946 t o  t h a t none o f t h e s e s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t  a  g r e a t d e a l o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t they would n o t impose a s t r a i n on s t a f f resources  and t h a t they would r e s u l t i n a f i n d i n g l i k e l y  to b e n e f i t the Service.  Over t h e y e a r s o u t s i d e  researchers  doing s t u d i e s i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s have been b e t t e r a c c e p t e d b u t there i s l i t t l e  e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i r work has had a d i r e c t impact  on p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s .  I n t h e e x c e p t i o n a l case t h e  a t t i t u d e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d have been changed a c e r t a i n amount upon r e a d i n g some o f t h e s e r e p o r t s and t h i s i n t u r n might have a f f e c t e d t h e i r subsequent d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . frequent  But a  comment from respondents was t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e  s t u d i e s were not f e d back t o t h e S e r v i c e .  One s e n i o r o f f i c e r  a t t h e o p e r a t i n g l e v e l i s quoted as f o l l o w s ; 'That's my b i g c o m p l a i n t . They (the r e s e a r c h e r s ) come i n h e r e , use t h e inmates as guinea p i g s and we never f i n d out t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ' . Twenty-nine out o f a t o t a l o f one hundred and e i g h t s t u d i e s o r 26.8%  fall  i n t o the l a t t e r  category.  S t a r t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e , p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f was r e c r u i t e d f o r t r e a t m e n t p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s and as t h i s o c c u r r e d for  i t was n a t u r a l t h a t they s h o u l d  conduct s t u d i e s  t h e i r own i n t e r e s t o r t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r academic  standing.  However, t h e same g e n e r a l statement c o u l d be made r e g a r d i n g these s t u d i e s i n t h a t they had l i t t l e d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o penitentiary operations. s s i o n a l s t a f f s increased should  I t i s a l s o l o g i c a l t h a t , as p r o f e i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , t h e y  do more s t u d i e s and t h e i r i n c i d e n c e i s i n f a c t i n c r e a s i n g .  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e seems t o be a r e c e n t t r e n d towards  applying  s t u d i e s by p r o f e s s i o n a l p e n i t e n t i a r y employees t o problems i n the work s i t u a t i o n .  As c l a s s i f i e d h e r e , a l l s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n  by p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e i n p a r t - t i m e the S e r v i c e , f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y .  o r f u l l - t i m e employment w i t h A t p r e s e n t t h e s e number  t h i r t y - t h r e e and comprise 3 0.5% o f t h e t o t a l . A g a i n s t a r t i n g i n 1947 t h e S e r v i c e undertook some s t u d i e s for  i t s own a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance.  or 33.3% f a l l i n t o t h i s c l a s s . leading.  Of t h e t o t a l  thirty-six  However, t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e mis-  I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n gave i t s b l e s s i n g  t o a l l s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g those i n t h e l a t t e r c a t e g o r y b u t few, u n t i l r e c e n t t i m e s , were conducted under the a u s p i c e s central administration.  of t h e  Most were i n i t i a t e d and conducted by  o f f i c e r s i n upper l e v e l p o s i t i o n s who were a n x i o u s t o l e a r n about an., a r e a of t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . extent  To a l e s s e r  some attempt was made t o measure t h e r e s u l t s o f programs.  The l a r g e s t s i n g l e b l o c k of s t u d i e s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y were i n i t i a t e d by t h e M e d i c a l  Division.  Of t h e t o t a l  number  72 of s t u d i e s i n t h i s c l a s s t w e n t y - f i v e out of t h i r t y - s i x o r 69.0% were under m e d i c a l a u s p i c e s . Most of these s t u d i e s f o c u s e d on  rehabilitation  programs, m a i n l y the m e d i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , but a t the F e d e r a l T r a i n i n g Center some measurement of s o c i a l i z a t i o n program was  undertaken.  I n the n a t u r e o f the c a s e , the r e s u l t s  o f t h i s r e s e a r c h d i d have some d i r e c t e f f e c t on  departmental  decision-making. The  l a t e s t development i n p e n i t e n t i a r y r e s e a r c h i s  the a p p l i e d p r o c e d u r a l study u n d e r t a k e n  by the c e n t r a l admin-  i s t r a t i o n of the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e .  So f a r these have been  l a r g e l y conducted  by an o u t s i d e commercial f i r m o r a department  of another government agency.  T h e i r purpose i s t o a s s e s s  the  e f f i c i e n c y o f c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o p e r a t i o n s and make recommendations f o r improvements. s t u d i e s undertaken  Examples a r e the s e v e r a l  w i t h r e g a r d t o head o f f i c e procedures  the Management A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n of the C i v i l  S e r v i c e Commission  and assessment o f p e n i t e n t i a r y i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s by f i r m o f Stevenson and K e l l o g g i n 196 2. v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h was number s i x o r 5.5%  undertaken  o f the o v e r a l l  by  the  The f i r s t o f t h i s  i n 19 59 and t o g e t h e r they  now  total.  The i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n from these d a t a i s t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r y r e s e a r c h i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e developed. s t u d i e s have been undertaken  even g i v e n the wide d e f i n i t i o n  of ' r e s e a r c h ' as i t i s used h e r e .  What has been done i s r e c e n t .  Of the t o t a l number of s t u d i e s , .96.3% have been s i n c e 1947  and 48.1%  Few  from 1960  t o the p r e s e n t .  undertaken There has- been  73 l i t t l e attempt a t c o n t i n u o u s measurement o f any a s p e c t o f penitentiary operations. ad hoc v a r i e t y .  A l l except t h r e e s t u d i e s a r e o f t h e  The main development has been i n t h e a r e a o f  the academic o r s c i e n t i f i c study by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n s i d e or outside the S e r v i c e . f a l l into this class.  Of t h e o v e r a l l t o t a l s i x t y - t w o o r 57.4% They have had l i t t l e a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o  p e n i t e n t i a r y problems o r d i r e c t impact on p e n i t e n t i a r y administration.  However, t h i s seems t o be changing and p l a n s a r e  now b e i n g made t o d i r e c t t h i s s o r t , o f r e s e a r c h of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n c e r n .  towards problems  The r e s u l t o f t h i s p o l i c y , i n t h e  long run, w i l l probably achieve a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t f o r t i a r y administration i n o r i e n t i n g operations the g o a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . most r e c e n t t y p e o f r e s e a r c h  peniten-  more i n l i n e  The p r o c e d u r a l  with  study i s the  and i s a s i g n i f i c a n t development  in  t h a t t h e s e have been i n i t i a t e d by t h e c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  in  order t o increase o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y . Research, t h e r e f o r e ,  which i s d e l i b e r a t e l y commissioned f o r t h e guidance o f t h e t o p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n p o l i c y making, i s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e l a s t f o u r y e a r s b u t seems t o be a growing t r e n d . ANNUAL REPORT STATISTICS S i n c e s t a t i s t i c s i n some form have been i n c l u d e d i n t h e body o f t h e Annual Report f o r many y e a r s , respondents i n t h e s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g  groups were q u e s t i o n e d  as t o t h e i r purpose and e x t e n t o f use i n o p e r a t i o n s . r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d under t h e headings below.  The  74 Use I n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n In questioning  t o determine whether and t o what e x t e n t  Annual Report s t a t i s t i c s were used i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , none o f the t h i r t y - t w o r e s p o n d e n t s f a i l e d t o r e p l y and t h e answers f e l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . Of t h e combined s e n i o r group 65.6% c l a i m e d t h a t they made m i n i m a l use o f s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e Annual R e p o r t .  Most  a d m i t t e d t o an o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e t a b l e s m a i n l y t o a s c e r t a i n t r e n d s o f i n c r e a s e o r decrease i n t h e inmate population.  Others i n t h i s group had made up t a b l e s from  y e a r t o y e a r p r i m a r i l y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance and t o demonstrate t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s .  Because  these s t a t i s t i c s were i l l u s t r a t i v e o f o p e r a t i o n s , they became incorporated  i n t h e Annual Report where i t became c o n v e n i e n t  f o r workers t o r e f e r t o t h e f i g u r e s i n c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s . I t was r e p o r t e d by 3 4.4%  o f t h e group t h a t t h e s e  s t a t i s t i c s were o f no use i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  operations.  These persons c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e had been a r o u t i n e annual r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r many y e a r s and i t was an e x t r a chore which d i d n o t r e s u l t i n any a s s i s t a n c e on-going a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work. is  with  A t y p i c a l comment by one member  as•follows; 'They a r e no h e l p t o m e — j u s t a n u i s a n c e ' . Purpose o f Annual Report  Statistics  The same r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t h e i r o p i n i o n  regarding  75 the purpose of p u t t i n g s t a t i s t i c s i n the Annual Report a t a l l . Of the group 12.5% answer.  The  s u b j e c t and  claimed  t h a t they d i d not know o r gave no  m a j o r i t y however had  a t l e a s t one  o p i n i o n on  this  sometimes gave a c o m b i n a t i o n of answers.  As one  answer 81.2%  of the group s t a t e d t h a t the Report  i t s e l f was  r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t e i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n p e n i t e n t i a r y  operations  t o the P a r l i a m e n t  considered  s t a t i s t i c s i n the Report as one  and  the p u b l i c .  This  group  t e c h n i q u e of p u b l i c  r e p o r t i n g o r t h a t they c o n s t i t u t e d an h i s t o r i c a l  record  of  operations. Of t h e s e respondents 31.2%  e x p r e s s e d the s i m i l a r  idea,  e i t h e r i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c r e p o r t i n g concept o r as a s i n g l e o p i n i o n , t h a t the main r e a s o n f o r the Report the s t a t i s t i c s t h e r e i n was  to j u s t i f y administrative  and  operations,  prove t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y or s u p p o r t budgetary demands. I t seems obvious i n view of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r R e p o r t s to Parliament  by the s t a t u t e s g o v e r n i n g most p u b l i c  agencies,  t h a t the f u n c t i o n of these documents i s t o p u b l i c l y account for their a c t i v i t i e s .  The  s t a t u t e g o v e r n i n g the o p e r a t i o n  the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e c o n t a i n s  such a p r o v i s i o n and,  19 61, the a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t some s t a t i s t i c s i n c l u d e d i n the R e p o r t s .  T h i s b e i n g the c a s e , the  of  until be  second  o p i n i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s would seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the  f i r s t s i n c e i t can be assumed t h a t no a d m i n i s t r a t o r would admit the i n e f f i c i e n c y of h i s department i n an o f f i c i a l r e p o r t . i s q u i t e w e l l u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e and  o t h e r government departments.  This  the A case  76 was c i t e d by one respondent where some s t a t i s t i c s were o m i t t e d from t h e Annual Report o f t h e Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , at the request of the M i n i s t e r , before t h e i r submission t o P a r l i a m e n t on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e f i g u r e s would be e m b a r r a s s i n g t o t h e government. As p a r t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n 15.6% o f r e s p o n d e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e supplementary inmate s t a t i s t i c s , s u p p l i e d by The Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s f o r attachment t o t h e R e p o r t , were f o r academic r e s e a r c h purposes.  I t i s a f a c t that the  statement which preceded t h e s e s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s from 1937 t o 1949 c o n t a i n e d a paragraph s i m i l a r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g ; ' A l l relevant information concerning convicts i n the seven Dominion p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i s summarized i n t h i s r e p o r t . The t a b l e s a r e i n d e n t e d ( s i c ) t o p r o v i d e Criminologists with information concerning convicts committed t o p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , t h e t y p e s o f crime committed and t h e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o f f e n d e r s a c c o r d i n g t o such f a c t o r s as age, economic c o n d i t i o n , r a c e , environment and o t h e r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which may s e r v e t o throw l i g h t on causes l e a d i n g t o t h e commission o f crime However, no c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e c o u l d be found t h a t these f i g u r e s were e v e r used i n r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g p e n i t e n t i a r y inmates o r t h e causes o f c r i m e — c e r t a i n l y n o t by t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e o r t h e Dominion Bureau of. S t a t i s t i c s . whether o r not employed  Researchers,  i n t h e S e r v i c e , seem i n a l l cases t o  have p r e f e r r e d t o c o l l e c t t h e i r own d a t a .  I t has a l r e a d y been  mentioned t h a t some o f t h e major R o y a l Commission  investigations  ^ A n n u a l Report o f t h e Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s f o r the f i s c a l y e a r ended March 31, 1949, ( K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1950), p. 105.  77 have had cause t o c o m p l a i n about t h e s t a t i s t i c s which were a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s and c a l l e d f o r s p e c i a l t a b u l a t i o n s t o be made f o r t h e i r purposes.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e  t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f inmate s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e Annual  Report  a r e inadequate f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f s t u d i e s . A l s o t h e w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h groups o f u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s who a r e d o i n g s t u d i e s i n C r i m i n o l o g y i s t h a t they c o n s i d e r t h e t a b l e s i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l supplement t o be u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h needs.  I t i s conceded, however,  t h a t t r e n d s t u d i e s , based upon c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s i n t h e Annual R e p o r t , ar?e p o s s i b l e s h o u l d anyone i n t h e f u t u r e want t o attempt them.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e f e e l i n g o f most r e s e a r c h e r s i s t h a t  these s e r i e s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d i n case they s h o u l d l a t e r prove t o be v a l u a b l e .  However, the v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e d a t a i s  q u e s t i o n a b l e as w i l l soon be c l a r i f i e d . A g a i n , n o t a l l t h e t a b l e s seem t o have been designed for research application.  F o r example, t a b l e s e n t i t l e d  'Weekly  E a r n i n g s When L a s t Employed By C o n j u g a l C o n d i t i o n ' , and 'Employment P r i o r t o Commitment By C o n j u g a l C o n d i t i o n ' seem t o be s l a n t e d more t o q u e s t i o n s which might be r a i s e d i n t h e House o f Commons c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u b l i c c o s t s o f s u p p o r t i n g inmates'  families.  8 5  In an attempt t o determine t h e b a s i c i n t e n t o f t h e s e statistics  5  the w r i t e r interviewed high ranking o f f i c e r s of the  I b i d . , Tables 32 and 33, p. 134.  78 S e r v i c e , who  would have been i n a p o s i t i o n t o know d e t a i l s  the arrangements made w i t h the Bureau t o produce the supplement i n 19 37. of i n t e r e s t was  statistical  I t i s s a i d a t t h i s time t h a t a g r e a t  deal  b e i n g s t i m u l a t e d i n North America by the gang  wars and o r g a n i z e d . c r i m e States.  of  of the p r o h i b i t i o n e r a i n the  United  P a r t l y because of t h i s , the O p p o s i t i o n i n the House  of Commons began t o ask q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y inmates. statistics.  These q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e d answers based on  For the f i r s t time i n 1931,  inmates of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  were i n c l u d e d i n the Census and the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d from t h i s source was  found t o be e f f e c t i v e i n a s s i s t i n g the M i n i s t e r  to s a t i s f y h i s c r i t i c s .  On t h i s b a s i s the Bureau ' s o l d ' the  P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e on p r o c e s s i n g an e l a b o r a t e  statistical  supplement on a y e a r l y b a s i s which r e l i e v e d the S e r v i c e from the work- and expense of d o i n g t h i s time consuming and t e c h n i c a l work.  I n the o p i n i o n of these respondents some of the t a b l e s  i n the s t a t i s t i c a l supplement may  have been d e v i s e d w i t h the  idea  t h a t they c o u l d be used i n r e s e a r c h .  However, t h e i r main  f u n c t i o n was  g o a l s of the Bureau and  t o f u l f i l l the expansive  e q u a l l y t o s u p p l y the S e r v i c e w i t h an a c c u r a t e and  continuous  body of i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h which t o answer the q u e s t i o n s put the M i n i s t e r .  to  As f a r as can be determined t h i s seems t o be  major f u n c t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l  the  supplement t o d a y .  Reasons f o r Lack of Change I n Annual Report S t a t i s t i c s No p r e c i s e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the Annual Report S t a t i s t i c s has been made but i t i s observed t h a t g e n e r a l l y the same  79 s t a t i s t i c s a r e now  r e p o r t e d about inmate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s as a t the t i m e of C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  As  new departments were added i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s they r e p o r t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t l y i n w r i t i n g and p a r t l y by s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s , i n the way which seems t o have b e s t demonstrated e f f i c i e n c y , economies e f f e c t e d o r p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . as a t p r e s e n t , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  their Formerly,  interested i n reporting  inmate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as e t h n i c o r i g i n , e d u c a t i o n a l  level,  r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n , t y p e o f crime and the l i k e . Where changes i n s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t e n t o r format d i d o c c u r i n the Report they seem t o have c o i n c i d e d w i t h changes i n penitentiary leadership.  Respondents  i n the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and o p e r a t i n g groups were asked t o comment upon t h i s phenomenon. No respondent d i s a g r e e d t h a t the Annual Report i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g i t s s t a t i s t i c s , had been r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t i n format and c o n t e n t over p e r i o d s o f many y e a r s . out of t h i r t y - t w o o r 9.4% t o answer. istrative the  Only t h r e e  c o u l d g i v e no r e a s o n f o r t h i s or f a i l e d  The m a j o r i t y o r 71.9% gave as the r e a s o n , admina p a t h y , unconcern o r r o u t i n e .  T h i s group m a i n l y took  view t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s g e n e r a l l y ' l e t s l e e p i n g dogs l i e '  i n the i n t e r e s t s of r u n n i n g a smooth o p e r a t i o n . dents 6.2%  c i t e d p u b l i c apathy.  Of the r e s p o n -  The comment o f one p e r s o n i n  t h i s group i s quoted as f o l l o w s ; ' I f people s t a r t s t i r r i n g t h i n g s up i n the community, p r o c e d u r e s change f a s t enough'. Another 9.4%  blamed the f e a r o f m i n i s t e r i a l r e a c t i o n , on the  b a s i s t h a t Members of P a r l i a m e n t became used t o a r g u i n g i n terms  80 of  comparative f i g u r e s and found i t c o n v e n i e n t t o have the same  s e r i e s continue year a f t e r year.  One  of these respondents  gave  an example o f a case where r e v i s i o n s were suggested i n t h e inmate s t a t i s t i c s but the o f f i c e of- the M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e would not a l l o w the changes t o be made, presumably r e p e r c u s s i o n s from the O p p o s i t i o n were f e a r e d .  because  Another  respon-  dent i n answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s quoted below; 'Let me ask you a q u e s t i o n . Have you l e a r n e d i n your s t u d y t h a t the M i n i s t e r s i g n i f i e d a change was t o be made? No? Then t h a t ' s your answer!' I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n the s e c t i o n o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t has a l r e a d y been c i t e d which s t i p u l a t e s the Commissioner o r the M i n i s t e r would d e c i d e on what s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s t o i n c l u d e i n the r e p o r t .  T h i s b e i n g the c a s e , i t would be a n a t u r a l  o c c u r r e n c e t h a t the s t a t i s t i c a l  c o n t e n t changed m a i n l y when  Commissioners o r M i n i s t e r s changed.  I n between these times the  u n v a r y i n g c o n t e n t of the r e p o r t s seems t o be an example of the r i t u a l performance  which t y p i c a l l y o c c u r s i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s and  which has been mentioned  by Merton.  The p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a f f  and  the M i n i s t e r seem t o have been c o n t e n t t o use the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s Report as the b a s i s f o r the f o l l o w i n g one f o r f e a r t h a t someone would c r i t i c i z e any change.  When a new  l e a d e r e n t e r e d the  scene who had o t h e r i d e a s and the s t r e n g t h t o i n s i s t on v a r i a t i o n s , t h e p a t t e r n was  changed but t h i s p a t t e r n i n i t s t u r n became  r o u t i n i z e d over the y e a r s .  81 INMATE STATISTICAL PROGRAM The  r e v i s i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n system f o r inmate  s t a t i s t i c s , which was c a r r i e d out j o i n t l y by t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s and t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i n 19 61 and 19 62, has a l r e a d y been n o t e d .  The r e v i s e d procedures came  i n t o e f f e c t on A p r i l 1, 1962.  The main f e a t u r e s o f t h e new  program were, t h a t much more s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  informa-  t i o n was t o be r e c o r d e d t h a n f o r m e r l y and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f was now put' i n charge o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t e a d o f t h e c l e r i c a l s t a f f and inmate a s s i s t a n t s . I t was known a t t h e time t h i s s t u d y took p l a c e  that  the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s had not u n d e r t a k e n any t a b u l a t i o n s of these data.  O f f i c e r s i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y  Service  were t h e r e f o r e asked what independent use they had so f a r made of t h e new program o f inmate s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e i r work. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Use o f Inmate S t a t i s t i c s The  g e n e r a l response was t h a t t h e s e d a t a were o f very  l i m i t e d a s s i s t a n c e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the present time.  Of  the t o t a l number o f respondents i n t h e s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and senior operative  groups, t h i r t y - o n e out o f t h i r t y - t w o o r 96.6%  s i g n i f i e d t h a t inmate s t a t i s t i c s were not used a t t h e p r e s e n t ,.time.  Only one i n t h e group f e l t t h a t t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s were  some m i n i m a l h e l p a t t h i s  time.  When respondents were asked about t h e p o t e n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e of t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s , i t became apparent t h a t t h e r e was a g e n e r a l  82 l a c k o f knowledge about t h e program.  This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  number who c o u l d n o t put f o r w a r d any o p i n i o n s o r answers. or  2 8.1%  Nine  f a i l e d t o comment, m a i n l y from l a c k o f knowledge on  which t o base a judgment.  A t y p i c a l quote i s as f o l l o w s ;  'I don't t h i n k i t ' s been g o i n g l o n g enough t o be able t o t e l l ' . However, f o u r t e e n o r 43.4% judged t h a t t h e s e  statist-  i c s would be o f p o t e n t i a l h e l p as p r e s e n t l y d e s i g n e d , p r o v i d i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s c o u l d be p r o c e s s e d and made a v a i l a b l e . n i n e o r 2 8.1% o f t h e respondents  A further  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e program  was a p o t e n t i a l h e l p t o t h e S e r v i c e b u t r e q u i r e d some changes i n content. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f Inmate S t a t i s t i c s From responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a i l e d t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e group i n charge o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d i n g , an attempt was made t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y and reliability  o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f inmates.  I n f o r m a t i o n was r e q u e s t e d under t h e s i x c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d below, a l l o f which were thought t o have some e f f e c t on t h e q u a l i t y of t h e d a t a r e c o r d e d .  In addition,  respondents;:were  asked t h e i r c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the data. Interviewing Conditions I n t e r v i e w i n g c o n d i t i o n s may a f f e c t t h e a c c u r a c y o f d a t a s u p p l i e d i n i n t e r v i e w s i n a number o f ways.  I f the i n t e r v i e w e r  i s u n a b l e , because of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t o e s t a b l i s h  83 rapport with the c l i e n t , i t i s l i k e l y that the q u a l i t y of the d a t a w i l l be i m p a i r e d .  I n t e r v i e w i n g c o n d i t i o n s were b r o k e n  down i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  of space, p h y s i c a l  p r i v a c y and time p r o v i d e d  f o r the interview  surroundings, process.  On t h e s u b j e c t o f space a l l o t m e n t s , o n l y f o u r o r 5.5% of r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t r e p l y .  Sixty-two  o r 86.1% f e l t  that  space p r o v i d e d was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g . I t had p r e v i o u s l y come t o t h e w r i t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t h a t i n some p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , s u r r o u n d i n g s i n which i n t e r v i e w i n g took p l a c e were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Sometimes i n t e r v i e w s had been  conducted i n v a c a n t c e l l s under c o n d i t i o n s o f n o i s e and poor light.  Respondents were t h e r e f o r e asked t o a s s e s s i n t e r v i e w i n g  surroundings.  Four o r 5.5% d i d n o t respond.  Of t h e b a l a n c e ,  f o r t y - e i g h t o r 66.6% d e c l a r e d t h a t s u r r o u n d i n g s were s a t i s f a c t o r y for interviewing. I n t h e m a t t e r o f p r i v a c y r e q u i r e d f o r adequate i n t e r v i e w i n g , again  5.5% made no r e p l y .  However, f o r t y - t w o  or 58.3% o f t h e t o t a l group c o n s i d e r e d  respondents  privacy of i n t e r v i e w i n g  conditions s a t i s f a c t o r y . Subsequent checks made a t h e a d q u a r t e r s and o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e two l a r g e r e c e i v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n O n t a r i o  and Quebec  c o n f i r m e d t h a t improvements had been made i n arrangements provided  for interviewing.  But i n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t a f f may  have become so accustomed t o 'making do' w i t h s u b s t a n d a r d arrangements t h a t they have a d j u s t e d  t o any i n a d e q u a c i e s o f  s p a c e , p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and p r i v a c y which might e x i s t .  84 I n t h e m a t t e r o f time adequate f o r c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r v i e w s f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes, however, o n l y twenty o r 27.7% respondents  of  c l a i m e d t h a t they had s u f f i c i e n t time c o n s i d e r i n g  t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r o t h e r d u t i e s .  T h i s seems t o depend upon  the r o u t i n e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n .  I n the w r i t e r ' s  o b s e r v a t i o n t h e r e are some r e c e i v i n g p e n i t e n t i a r i e s where t h e r e i s p r e s s u r e t o move inmates i n t o p r o d u c t i o n shops o r s a t e l l i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and the whole c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s s h o r t e n e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s end.  process  I n o t h e r s , the warden has  so o r g a n i z e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements t h a t adequate time i s a l l o t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w s . I n summary i t t h e r e f o r e seems, t h a t a t l e a s t w i t h some i n t e r v i e w e r s o r in.some i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e r e are e r r o r s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the r e c o r d i n g of s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a which r e s u l t from the above f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y the time r e q u i r e d t o conduct  adequate  interviews. U n d e r s t a n d i n g of  Purpose  I t goes almost w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t i f the s t a f f does not u n d e r s t a n d the purpose f o r which s t a t i s t i c s are c o l l e c t e d t h e reasons why  the q u e s t i o n s are a s k e d , they w i l l p r o b a b l y not  do an a c c u r a t e j o b of r e c o r d i n g .  N i n e , o r 12.4%  of t h e r e s p o n -  dents gave no answer as t o whether they understood the of c o l l e c t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c s . which may  and  This i s a rather high  purpose  percentage  i n d i c a t e t h a t some chose not t o answer r a t h e r than  admit l a c k o f knowledge.  However, t h i r t e e n o r 18.1%  a d m i t t e d they l a c k e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r o n l y p a r t i a l l y  actually understood  85 the purpose f o r which t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g  collected.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n h a s , t o some e x t e n t , been remedied i n t h a t t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s has p u b l i s h e d , f o r p e n i t e n t i a r y u s e , a P e n i t e n t i a r y R e p o r t i n g Manual which p a r t l y d e s c r i b e s t h e purposes o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t i n g .  In addition  the S e r v i c e has a p p r i s e d t h e t o p l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , i n meetings and t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , o f t h e t e n t a t i v e p l a n s which have been made f o r these s t a t i s t i c a l programs. w i l l be l a t e r c l a r i f i e d , t h e r e i s as y e t no c l e a r l y s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h program.  B u t , as defined  However, i t may be t h e case  that the p r o f e s s i o n a l leadership i n i n s t i t u t i o n s generally u n d e r s t a n d s t h e purpose o f these s t a t i s t i c s b u t t h i s t i o n has n o t been passed down t o lower l e v e l s .  informa-  T h i s l e a d s us  i n t o the next s e c t i o n which d e a l s w i t h i n t e r v i e w t r a i n i n g and experience  of s t a f f .  S t a f f T r a i n i n g and E x p e r i e n c e  i n Interviewing  I t i s generally recognized  that interviewing i s a s k i l l  t h a t can improve w i t h t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e .  The more  t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e , t h e more an i n t e r v i e w e r i s l i k e l y t o e l i c i t a c c u r a t e answers t o h i s q u e s t i o n s .  On t h i s s u b j e c t i t  was known t h a t no t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s had been g i v e n t o t h e r e p o r t i n g s t a f f by e i t h e r t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e o r t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . personnel  The s e n i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s had known i n advance the q u e s t i o n  areas which were t o appear on t h e new r e p o r t i n g forms.  However,  when' t h e system went i n t o e f f e c t no t r a i n i n g was undertaken  86 as t o the use of these forms or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of items i n g on them.  appear-  P r i o r t o A p r i l 1, 19 6 2 forms and manuals were  s u p p l i e d t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s and the system was without f u r t h e r preparation.  inaugurated  Therefore, t r a i n i n g with respect  t o p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t i n g has been a ' l e a r n by doing process'.  Furthermore, t h e r e i s no e d i t i n g program s e t  up a t the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s o r a t P e n i t e n t i a r y headquarters  whereby any m i s t a k e s on the r e p o r t forms c o u l d be  r e f e r r e d back t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c o r r e c t i o n s .  In t h i s  case i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r m i s t a k e s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l requirements never  t o o c c u r about which the r e p o r t i n g s t a f f  learns. A p a r t from the s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n i n t e r v i e w i n g f o r  s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s , the inmate t r a i n i n g group was  asked  about  t h e i r g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e i n i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s . I t was  found t h a t t h i s was  a somewhat t h r e a t e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e  f o r r e s p o n d e n t s , j u d g i n g from the q u a l i t y of the r e p l i e s . were not c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d f o r use i n t h i s  These  study.  T h e r e f o r e , the w r i t e r o b t a i n e d the same d a t a from c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h headquarters  s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f who  had access t o the  personnel f i l e s .  I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s source s u p p l i e d a c c u r a t e  i n f o r m a t i o n on the i n t e r v i e w i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g of professional i n s t i t u t i o n a l staff.  I t was  determined  that t h i r t y -  f i v e o r 48.9% had.no p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g or s p e c i a l  instruction  in interviewing.  c o u l d be  On the o t h e r hand o n l y f o u r o r 5,5%  c o n s i d e r e d t o have i n s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n i n t e r v i e w i n g .  87 I t seems t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n an i d e a l s e n s e , t h e r e i s some d e f i c i e n c y i n i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s i n t h i s group m a i n l y because members l a c k f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w t r a i n i n g and t o a l e s s e r extent lack  experience.  V e r i f i c a t i o n of Data Workers i n the f i e l d inmates can be d e c e p t i v e  of c o r r e c t i o n s r e c o g n i z e  i n i n t e r v i e w s and t h a t i t t a k e s s p e c i a l  t e c h n i q u e s t o d i s c o v e r d e l i b e r a t e e r r o r s which t h i s w i l l introduce  that  into interview material.  population  Inmates do t h i s e i t h e r  t o t r y f o r a ' b e t t e r d e a l ' i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , t o escape d i s c o v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n which might get them i n t o f u r t h e r t r o u b l e , o r f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of c o n f u s i n g  the s t a f f .  i s t h e r e f o r e e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o v e r i f y the  information  g i v e n by inmates a g a i n s t >other r e l i a b l e s o u r c e s . 18.1%  Twelve or  of the respondents f a i l e d t o answer q u e s t i o n s  v e r i f i c a t i o n of inmates s t a t i s t i c s . reported  t h a t e i t h e r no attempt was  t h a t i t was  It  F o r t y - f o u r or  concerning 61.1%  made t o v e r i f y d a t a or  o n l y done i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . The  verification  p r o c e d u r e s seem t o vary w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n .  Some have a  r o u t i n e system of v e r i f y i n g most of the s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s of the inmate's h i s t o r y but i n o t h e r s procedure.  i t i s not a w e l l developed  O p i n i o n s have been e x p r e s s e d by some of the  t h a t v e r i f i c a t i o n of d a t a i s u n d e r s i r a b l e and s h o u l d because i t reemphasizes the o f f e n d e r ' s and  not be done  crime t o the community  t h i s might damage h i s chances of r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t v.  r o u t i n e checking  personnel  of i n f o r m a t i o n i s not done however, we  Where can  assume some l a c k of v a l i d i t y i n the  data.  Forms D e s i g n I t i s also recognized  t h a t the d e s i g n of the  form can a f f e c t r e p o r t i n g a c c u r a c y s p a c i n g and g e n e r a l format. t o make on t h i s s c o r e .  statistical  i n terms of i t s w o r d i n g ,  E i g h t e e n or 25.0%  F o r t y - f i v e o r 62.5%  of the o p i n i o n t h a t forms d e s i g n was  had no comment  of r e s p o n d e n t s were  satisfactory for their  purposes. O p i n i o n of A c c u r a c y The  respondents were f i n a l l y  o p i n i o n of the accuracy  asked t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e  of the i n f o r m a t i o n they were c o l l e c t i n g .  With r e g a r d t o the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d , t w e n t y - f i v e 34.8% time.  r e p o r t e d l y f e l t the i n f o r m a t i o n was T h i r t y - s e v e n or 51.1%  sometimes a c c u r a t e and one inaccurate.  a c c u r a t e most of the  were of the o p i n i o n t h a t i t was  o r 1.4%  E i g h t o r 11.1%  or  f e l t t h a t i t was  mostly  d i d not answer.  There a r e , however, more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b i a s i n g the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l d a t a r e q u e s t e d i f i t i s not v e r i f i e d . 27.7% time.  i n interviews, especially  C o n c e r n i n g t h i s k i n d of d a t a , twenty or  of respondents c o n s i d e r e d T h i r t y - s e v e n or 51.1%  i t was  a c c u r a t e most of the  f e l t t h a t i t was  and two or 2.8%  considered  i t mostly  t w e l v e or 16.0%  d i d not answer.  sometimes  inaccurate.  accurate  On t h i s  subject  Conclusion On the s u b j e c t of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of p e n i t e n t i a r y  89 s t a t i s t i c s , M e l t z e r a p p r a i s e d the b a s i c d a t a used i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s i n 1952.  He found t h e n t h a t d e f i c i e n c i e s  e x i s t e d because of the i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s , l a c k of v e r i f i c a t i o n of d a t a , the vagueness of the d e f i n i t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o which items of i n f o r m a t i o n were r e c o r d e d  and a l a c k of comprehen-  s i v e n e s s of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d .  He a t t r i b u t e d these  d e f i c i e n c i e s t o a l a c k of communication between upper and l e v e l s of the h i e r a r c h y i n the S e r v i c e . of d a t a was  The  lower  routine collection  done because an o r d e r e x i s t e d t o do i t .  Particip-  ants a t t h a t time were aware of the poor q u a l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n , but nobody s a f e g u a r d e d a g a i n s t i t and nobody c o u l d c l e a r l y g i v e M e l t z e r 'the a c t u a l or p o s s i b l e admini s t r a t i v e uses of o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s ' .  8 6  The  author  concluded  t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , h a v i n g s e t up f o r m a l machinery f o r data c o l l e c t i o n , assumed t h a t ' i t would f u n c t i o n  adequately  and a u t o m a t i c a l l y i r r e s p e c t i v e of the a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s i t s personnel'.  8 7  Fundamentally M e l t z e r b e l i e v e d t h a t , b e f o r e  the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be r e c t i f i e d , i t was Penitentiary  of  necessary  f o r the  Service  'to c l a r i f y f o r i t s e l f and then f o r o t h e r p a r t s of the P e n i t e n t i a r y system, i t s aims i n c o m p i l i n g these statistics'.88  B . N. M e l t z e r , "An A p p r a i s a l of the Primary Data U t i l i z e d i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S t a t i s t i c s " , The Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 18, No. 1, Feb., 1952, pp. 27-40. B b  8 7  I b i d . , p. 38.  8 8  I b i d . , p.  39.  (emphasis s u p p l i e d )  90 I t seems from what has  so f a r been s a i d c o n c e r n i n g inmate  s t a t i s t i c s t h a t the same g e n e r a l as t e n y e a r s ago.  criticisms  c o u l d be made today  There has undoubtedly been improvement i n  v a l i d i t y because of the t r a n s f e r of the r e c o r d i n g  responsibility  t o the Inmate T r a i n i n g s t a f f , the improvement of forms and p u b l i c a t i o n of a manual of d e f i n i t i o n s .  But i n the l i g h t of  above responses c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e r v i e w i n g c o n d i t i o n s , l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p u r p o s e , the u n t r a i n e d and  the the  the  interviewers  l a c k of v e r i f i c a t i o n of d a t a , i t cannot be assumed t h a t  v a l i d i t y i s high.  Information  l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r f u r t h e r  confirms Meltzer's  conclusions  regarding  of s t a t i s t i c a l p o l i c i e s operating  the adverse e f f e c t  on the acceptance of the program by  staff. AMOUNT OF ADMINISTRATIVE RELIANCE ON STATISTICS AND RESEARCH  Having i n v e s t i g a t e d whether and Report and attempt was  i n what ways Annual  Inmate S t a t i s t i c s were used i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , an t h e n made t o r o u g h l y  gauge the amount of r e l i a n c e  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p l a c e d on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n making t h e i r d e c i s i o n s .  I t was  of any  kind  a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a s e t of  d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s e x i s t e d upon which penitentiary executives I t has  r e l i e d but which were h i d d e n from view.  a l r e a d y been suggested t h a t t h i s was  t o some departments and  the case w i t h  respect  t h a t some of t h e i r s t a t i s t i c s f i n a l l y  became i n c l u d e d i n the Annual Report. made t o measure the amount t o which any  No p r e c i s e attempt t y p e of s t a t i s t i c s  was  entered i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s .  However, t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s  group and t h e s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g group i n t h e f i e l d were asked i n g e n e r a l terms t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n t h e conduct o f t h e i r work.  The i n f o r m a t i o n was  checked a g a i n s t t h e w r i t e r ' s own knowledge o f p e n i t e n t i a r y operations. I t was found t h a t o n l y f o u r o r 5.5% o f t h e combined group c o n s i d e r e d t h a t they had no r e c o u r s e t o s t a t i s t i c s a t any time i n t h e i r work, a p a r t from s p e c i a l s e r i e s they might prepare f o r annual r e p o r t i n g .  On t h e o t h e r hand, no admin-  i s t r a t o r a d m i t t e d t o a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s o r r e s e a r c h i n h i s work.  S i x t y - e i g h t o r 9M-.4% c l a i m e d t h a t they  r e l i e d t o some minimal e x t e n t on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n decision-making.  However, the s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h which a r e  r e f e r r e d t o here can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d s i m p l e i n n a t u r e . c o n s i s t o f e i t h e r numbers o f inmates on which s t a f f  They  establish-  ments and f i n a n c i a l e s t i m a t e s can be based o r amounts o f commodities a g a i n s t which r a t e s o f consumption can be checked and t h e l i k e .  A t t h e p r e s e n t time m e d i c a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l  o p e r a t i o n s a r e judged  t o be t h e ones i n which t h e most s o p h i s -  t i c a t e d and c o n t i n u o u s use o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and minor s t u d i e s i s b e i n g made.  I n a d d i t i o n , as a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e r e have  r e c e n t l y been a few ad hoc p r o c e d u r a l s t u d i e s i n t o t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n , p a r t s o f which have been used t o promote e f f i c i e n c y .  I f one e x c l u d e s  financial  a c c o u n t i n g as a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e , a t y p i c a l areas w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e use o f any s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n d e c i s i o n -  92 making are the P u r c h a s i n g and F i n a n c i a l C o n t r o l departments. T h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e seems t o be r e l a t e d t o the s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e of t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s and t h e i r remoteness from the inmate, i s the f o c u s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  who  concern.  The o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t p r e s e n t r e l i a n c e  on  any s t a t i s t i c a l procedures o r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n p e n i t e n t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s i s m i n i m a l and t h a t i n the p a s t t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s have been used t o an even l e s s e r e x t e n t . Reasons f o r Non-Reliance  on S t a t i s t i c s and  Research  Respondents i n the combined h e a d q u a r t e r s and s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g groups were t h e n asked the reasons why,  i n the p a s t  and i n the p r e s e n t , more r e l i a n c e had not been p l a c e d on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h as t e c h n i q u e s of a more s c i e n t i f i c operation.  A l l respondents had knowledge and o p i n i o n s on  this subject. by one p e r s o n .  Sometimes s e v e r a l were mentioned  i n combination  These are d i s c u s s e d below i n o r d e r of the  f r e q u e n c y w i t h which they were  mentioned.  S m a l l , Simple and S t a b l e O p e r a t i o n s F o u r t e e n out of t h i r t y - t w o o r 43.7%  of the  respondents  gave as one o p i n i o n the s m a l l s i z e and s t a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n s which e x i s t e d i n former y e a r s . y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o 1960  They p o i n t e d out t h a t f o r many  and the opening of t h e farm camps, the  number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s had remained seven p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Columbia  r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c at s i x or  Between the c o m p l e t i o n o f the  P e n i t e n t i a r y i n 1878 and the y e a r 1930  British  o n l y one  i n s t i t u t i o n , C o l l i n s Bay  P e n i t e n t i a r y , was  opened.  inmates h e l d i n custody as of March 31 t h a t y e a r was By 1947  the count had  between 1947  and  3,187.  r i s e n t o 3,752, an i n c r e a s e of 17.7%.  1961-two more medium s e c u r i t y i n s t i t u t i o n s  been opened and the count had 'population  Total  89  r i s e n by 79.6%.  explosion' occurred  t h e r e was  Until  But had  this  a long period  of  r e l a t i v e l y unchanged c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g which the s i t u a t i o n was f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e and hence s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s of admini s t r a t i o n were u n n e c e s s a r y . H i g h l y P e r s o n a l i z e d and Seven o r 21.8%  Centralized  Administration  of the respondents mentioned as  an  a d d i t i o n a l o p i n i o n , the f a c t t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power w i t h i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e p r i o r t o 1960  r e s i d e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r Commissioner h i m s e l f .  There was  relatively  l i t t l e d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y and hence d e c i s i o n s became l a r g e l y a m a t t e r f o r the p e r s o n i n u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l .  The  same p a t t e r n  r e p e a t e d i t s e l f i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s where the wardens h e l d more power t h a n i s the case t o d a y . need f o r any  Thus t h e r e was  e x c e p t the top l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c a l o r r e s e a r c h  formerly  techniques.  of the employees were w o r k i n g under o r d e r s  little  t o have A l l the r e s t  and hence were not  r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e complex problems f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  ° Excluded i s the A l b e r t a P e n i t e n t i a r y which opened i n and c l o s e d i n 1920. 9  1906  94 T i g h t F i s c a l C o n t r o l and Shortage o f S t a f f An o b s e r v a t i o n made by t w e l v e o r 37.5% o f t h e group was t h a t , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e S e r v i c e had been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by extreme s h o r t a g e  o f funds and consequently  shortage  of s t a f f .  T h i s e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d any o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o p e r a t i n g on a scientific basis.  As w i l l be seen from T a b l e 1 t h e budget  i n c r e a s e d 659 . 8% from 1947 t o 1963 .  Similarly, total  i n c r e a s e d i n t h e same time p e r i o d by 30 7.2%.  staff  T h i s e x p a n s i o n as  a l r e a d y n o t e d , o n l y o c c u r r e d when t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r i n c i p l e was a c c e p t e d  for penitentiaries.  Before t h i s , o p e r a t i o n s were  based on expediency because o f l i m i t e d Custodial  resources.  Philosophy  I n t h e minds o f seven o r 21.8% o f r e s p o n d e n t s n o n - r e l i ance on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c u s t o d i a l p h i l o s o p h y which p r e v a i l e d u n t i l 1946. To quote one o f f i c e r ; 'In t h e o l d days we never s u s p e c t e d t h a t inmates would not l e a r n t h e i r l e s s o n . L a t e r we found many were coming back'. A n o t h e r i s quoted as f o l l o w s ; 'When we s t a r t e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t t h e 'Bay' was where s t a t i s t i c s f i r s t came i n t o t h e p i c t u r e ' . These comments seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t wasn't u n t i l r e c i d i v i s m came t o be r e c o g n i z e d as a problem and t h e S e r v i c e began o p e r a t i n g i n more complex ways, t h a t s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were needed.  95 No A p p r e c i a t i o n o r Understanding  o f S t a t i s t i c s o r Research  Mine o r 28.1% o f respondents remarked t h a t t h e r e was, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , no u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e r o l e o f s t a t i s t i c s and  r e s e a r c h anywhere i n government o r t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d .  Therefore,  w h i l e p e n i t e n t i a r i e s d i d not.use these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a i d s , they were n o t out o f s t e p w i t h t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d i n former days. T h i s may have been a v a l i d , comment t o make a t one p o i n t i n time b u t - i t seems t h a t b u s i n e s s g e n e r a l l y and'forward l o o k i n g government departments have been r e l y i n g upon these  techniques  f o r many y e a r s . P u b l i c Pressure . An a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e o r 9.4% o f respondents mentioned t h e extreme s e n s i t i v i t y t o p u b l i c p r e s s u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p e n i t e n iary administration.  T h i s group c l a i m e d t o have observed  over  a l o n g p e r i o d t h a t no changes' o c c u r r e d i n o p e r a t i o n s u n t i l t h e p u b l i c demanded them. remained s t a t i c .  I n between times t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  I n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s  no l o g i c a l development  of o p e r a t i o n s was p o s s i b l e and no n e c e s s i t y f o r s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h procedures a r o s e . I t i s contended t h a t a l l these r e a s o n s p r o b a b l y have a b e a r i n g on t h e type o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n t h e p a s t and i t s n o n - r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s and research. the o t h e r .  Furthermore a l l seem t o be i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d one w i t h  96 Main Techniques o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Decision  Having g e n e r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e amount o f s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h  i n f o r m a t i o n which e x i s t s and t h e l i m i t e d scope  of i t s use i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , respondents were then asked what were t h e main t e c h n i q u e s o f a r r i v i n g a t d e c i s i o n s .  The  answers can be c l a s s e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ; two d e a l i n g with s t a t i c periods  o f o p e r a t i o n and one concerned w i t h  changing s i t u a t i o n s . I n s t a t i c s i t u a t i o n s t h e major t e c h n i q u e was what w i l l be c a l l e d here ' e x p e r i e n c e ' .  Under t h i s h e a d i n g respondents  i n c l u d e d such terms as 'common sense' and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g based on 'precedent'.  Twenty-two o r 68.7% of r e s p o n d e n t s  mentioned t h a t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n s t a t i c p e r i o d s were m a i n l y made on t h e b a s i s o f e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r w i t h  personal  i n s p e c t i o n and a m i n i m a l r e l i a n c e on ' b a s i c f i g u r e s ' . f u r t h e r n i n e o r 2 8.1%  o f t h e group mentioned t h a t  A  decisions  were b a s e d , i n t h e p a s t , on l o n g e x p e r i e n c e and i n s p e c t i o n alone.  A s e n i o r o f f i c i a l i s quoted as s a y i n g ;  'In t h e p a s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s were based on the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f one man o r a group o f men. S t a t i s t i c s were n o t used t o any m e a n i n g f u l e x t e n t ' . I n dynamic s i t u a t i o n s , where a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e i n p o l i c y occurred, and  adapt.  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e was t o i m i t a t e  One o f t h e group i s quoted on t h i s s u b j e c t as  follows; 'When i t comes t o any changes we're t h e g r e a t e s t i m i t a t o r s i n the world'.  97 W i t h i n the S e r v i c e i t i s known t h a t s t a f f t r a i n i n g d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s way.  B a s i c a l l y , the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e s t a f f  program, was  c o p i e d from the W a k e f i e l d  training  system i n England  and  l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d methods f i r s t t r i e d out i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The  same process was  a g a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e x p a n s i o n of the  i n d u s t r i a l system i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . a p p l i c a t i o n of the a d a p t i v e t e c h n i q u e  The  latest  i n the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  i s the o b s e r v a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t i n g programs i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l systems of the n o r t h - e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h a view t o p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Summary R e l a t e d t o C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P e n i t e n t i a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The  o v e r a l l conclusion to t h i s m a t e r i a l confirms  the  i m p r e s s i o n "that p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of former days not d i s t i n g u i s h e d by s c i e n t i f i c o r l o g i c a l development. the o r g a n i z a t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y was  was  Because  not h i g h l y v a l u e d i n the s o c i e t y , i t  l a r g e l y i g n o r e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s d u r i n g which  f i n a n c e s were s c a r c e .  However, when c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d  b a d l y enough, t h e r e were i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and p u b l i c p r e s s u r e r e s u l t e d i n changes.  The  g o a l s t h e n became r e r - o r i e n t e d but  r o u t i n i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d once a g a i n as time went on. a p p a r e n t l y no b u i l t - i n p r o c e s s w h i c h was  which  There  was  of growth f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n  dependent on e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g  any  adjustments t h a t were made.  Long term o b s e r v a t i o n of t h i s  p a t t e r n l e d e l e v e n o r 34.4%  of r e s p o n d e n t s t o observe t h a t  p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the p a s t amounted t o d e c i s i o n s based on expediency o r emergency.  A f u r t h e r t h i r t e e n or  40,6%  98 remarked t h a t a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was l a c k o f advanced p l a n n i n g . Respondents r i g h t l y do n o t blame e x i s t e n c e o f such a p a t t e r n on past l e a d e r s .  They f e e l t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  basically  r e s i d e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c and i t s unconcern about p e n i t e n t i a r y m a t t e r s , which r e s u l t e d i n r e s t r i c t e d budgets and c o n s e q u e n t l y a r o u t i n e , y e a r by y e a r  operation.  CHANGE IN RELIANCE ON STATISTICS AND RESEARCH To attempt t o determine i f t h e r e was a change o c c u r r i n g i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e use o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h , respondents were a s k e d , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , i f t h e r e l i a n c e on these  techniques  seemed t o be on t h e i n c r e a s e , s t a y i n g t h e same, o r d e c r e a s i n g i n the r e c e n t p a s t .  No attempt was made t o measure t h e amount o f  any such changes.  The m a j o r i t y o f e i g h t e e n , o r 5 6.2%  of the r  r e s p o n d e n t s , c l a i m e d t h e i r r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h remained unchanged.  T h i r t e e n o r 40.6% c l a i m e d an i n c r e a s e and  o n l y one o r 3.1% s t a t e d t h a t h i s usage o f these t e c h n i q u e s was decreasing. A d i f f e r e n c e was noted between t h e responses o f t h e s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g group and t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s group i n t h i s  regard.  A l l the senior operators  e x c e p t one r e p o r t e d t h e same m i n i m a l  usage o f b a s i c f i g u r e s .  But more than h a l f o f t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s  group r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e and these were persons l a r g e l y i n v o l v e d i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n f o r Inmate T r a i n i n g programs. This reported d i f f e r e n c e i s consistent with the r o l e of the headquarters s t a f f i n planning p o l i c y .  The s e n i o r o p e r a t o r s i n  the f i e l d have a p p a r e n t l y n o t y e t reached t h e s t a g e o f measuring  99 the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r programs.  More on t h i s s u b j e c t w i l l be  s a i d l a t e r i n connection w i t h the present  emphasis on l o n g  range p l a n n i n g . Needs f o r F u r t h e r I n c r e a s e i n S t a t i s t i c s and Research The s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o p e r a t i n g g;roups were questioned  r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s i b l e f u r t h e r need f o r a body o f  s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s f o r use i n t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s and i n t h e S e r v i c e as a whole.  A l l members o f t h e combined  group c o u l d see an immediate f u r t h e r need f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance based on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n some a s p e c t o f penitentiary operations. without  The s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g s t a f f  pointed  e x c e p t i o n t o t h e p l a n n i n g r o l e o f h e a d q u a r t e r s as t h e  main r e a s o n f o r t h i s  need.  The inmate t r a i n i n g t o t h i s q u e s t i o n as f o l l o w s .  group i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s responded E i g h t o r 11.1% f a i l e d t o answer.  Of t h e b a l a n c e o n l y one i n d i c a t e d t h a t l e s s r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h was r e q u i r e d i n t h e S e r v i c e .  Three o r 4.2%  were d o u b t f u l about t h e need b u t s i x t y o r 8 3.3% f e l t an immediate i n c r e a s e was r e q u i r e d . In t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s o n l y f o u r o r 17.4% o f t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s group c o u l d see no need f o r i n c r e a s e d r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h .  One p e r s o n e x p r e s s e d doubt about any  i n c r e a s e d r e l i a n c e which might be n e c e s s a r y i n h i s department. These r e a c t i o n s , however, c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s p e c i a l i z e d nature of the operations i n v o l v e d .  On t h e o t h e r  hand, s i x t e e n o r 69.5% f e l t an immediate i n c r e a s e o f s t a t i s t i c s  100 and  research  d a t a would improve t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the advanced p l a n n i n g One  f o r f a c i l i t i e s and  programs.  of t h i s group commented; ' I f we don't get more s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w e ' l l c o n t i n u e t o f l y b l i n d the way we're d o i n g now'.  Another two  or 8.6%  of the h e a d q u a r t e r s group saw  s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h l a t e r date.  T h i s was  a need f o r  data i n t h e i r operations  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e c e n t  but a t a c r e a t i o n of  t h e s e departments which were s t i l l i n the p r o c e s s of  evolving  their roles. I n c o n t r a s t t o the h e a d q u a r t e r s group, o n l y t h r e e the s e n i o r o p e r a t i o n a l s t a f f e x p r e s s e d a f e e l i n g t h a t  of  statist-  i c a l d a t a c o u l d be used a t p r e s e n t i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l work.  Six,  or double t h i s number, i n d i c a t e d t h e s e needs l i e i n the  future.  Two  was  g e n e r a l reasons were g i v e n f o r t h e s e o p i n i o n s .  t h a t the procedures and  programs e f f e c t e d i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  under the MacLeod regime had The  One  not had  time t o become s t a b i l i z e d .  system, t o some p e r s o n s , appeared t o be i n such a s t a t e of  f l u x t h a t no p a t t e r n s i t was  e x i s t e d which c o u l d be measured.  s a i d t h a t t h e r e was  do the t r e a t m e n t job and  not enough Inmate T r a i n i n g s t a f f  senior  i n the f i e l d r e g a r d e d the r o l e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n  i n s t i t u t i o n s as p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o the inmates resented  to  the measurement of programs as w e l l .  I t became q u i t e apparent d u r i n g the study t h a t the executives  Secondly,  the i m p o s i t i o n of paper work on t h i s s t a f f .  t h i s paper work i s the job of s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t i n g . that p r o f e s s i o n a l s should  be r e s e r v e d  and  Part  of  The f e e l i n g  as much as p o s s i b l e f o r  101 d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t purposes no doubt i n f l u e n c e s the o p i n i o n s f i e l d executive  s t a f f regarding  of  the importance and p o s i t i o n of  s t a t i s t i c s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l management. T h i s i s a case of a duty b e i n g a s s i g n e d  t o a work group  by management which i s f u n c t i o n a l or p o t e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole but d y s f u n c t i o n a l f o r one i t s parts.  While Regional  D i r e c t o r s , Wardens, and  of  professionals  approve, i n p r i n c i p l e , the c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s and  see  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l w o r t h , i t seems a f i r m o p i n i o n of t h i s  total  group t h a t , i f they do not r e s u l t f a i r l y q u i c k l y i n p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s , they are not w o r t h c o l l e c t i n g . T h i s a t t i t u d e f i t s w i t h the r e p o r t from the inmate t r a i n i n g group t h a t they do not have enough time t o do a p r o p e r s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t i n g job.  The  s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t i n g program tends t o  be blamed f o r the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e of p r o f e s s i o n a l people i n i n s t i t u t i o n s t o do a l l the v a r i e d work now of them.  required  A l t h o u g h t h e r e seems t o be some e x a g g e r a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n on the p a r t of the o p e r a t i n g s t a f f , the  of  the  statistical  program would seem t o be h a v i n g d y s f u n c t i o n a l consequences f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o the e x t e n t  t h a t i t l i m i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l s from  p e r f o r m i n g what i s r e g a r d e d as t h e i r c e n t r a l r o l e — t r e a t m e n t of inmates.  the d i r e c t  There i s e v i d e n c e here t h a t the  formal  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s not congruent w i t h the i n f o r m a l a t t i t u d e s values  of lower l e v e l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  a bearing  T h i s i n t u r n seems t o have  on the acceptance of the s t a t i s t i c a l program  s e e m i n g l y a f f e c t s the v a l i d i t y of the s t a t i s t i c s The  and  and  themselves.  i m p o r t a n t t h i n g , however, i s t h a t most workers a t lower  and  102 h i g h e r l e v e l s i n the h i e r a r c h y have as a f i r m o p i n i o n t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s can e i t h e r now f u t u r e be b e n e f i t e d by a p r o p e r l y operated research  or i n the near  statistics  and  program.  Reasons f o r I n c r e a s e d The  R e l i a n c e on S t a t i s t i c s and  Research  combined s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o p e r a t i n g groups  were t h e n asked the r e a s o n f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n t h a t an dependency on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h e x i s t s .  increased  T h e i r answers  f e l l i n t o t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s and one minor c a t e g o r y . more t h a n one The  of these answers was  g i v e n by one  r e a s o n most o f t e n g i v e n was  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y  Often  person.  t h a t the p r o c e s s  of o p e r a t i o n s had  of  changed.  Respondents i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r concept of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e change such elements as the d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s and the acceptance of the p r i n c i p l e of r e h a b i l itation.  T h i r t y - o n e o r 96.8%  change as one answer.  o f respondents gave a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  This opinion i s c o n s i s t e n t with  the  a c t u a l changes which can be observed t o have t a k e n p l a c e s i n c e 1960.  Not o n l y have new  d i v i s i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y been  c r e a t e d a t h e a d q u a r t e r s but t h e i r D i r e c t o r s now authority f o r formulating policy. o p e r a t i o n s i n t o r e g i o n s was  possess r e a l  A l s o a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  started i n  1963.  Another major r e a s o n , g i v e n by twenty-one o r 65.6% r e s p o n d e n t s , was  of  t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n had become l a r g e r , more  complex and more dynamic.  T h i s i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what can  be observed o f the dynamics of the p e n i t e n t i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n .  103 Expansion  i n a l l phases o f o p e r a t i o n s a r e p r o c e e d i n g a t once.  Budget, b u i l d i n g s , inmates and s t a f f have a l l been expanded phenomenally s i n c e 19 47 as made c l e a r i n T a b l e 1. expansion stopped.  Four new medium s e c u r i t y  Nor has  institutions  are s c h e d u l e d t o open i n 1967 and, as a consequence o f t h e r e c e n t d i s t u r b a n c e s i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , t h e r e i s t a l k o f some s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s being b u i l t f o r the s o - c a l l e d 'psychopathic' offenders. The t h i r d major r e a s o n , g i v e n by n i n e t e e n o r 59.4% o f respondents,  amounted t o a p p l i c a t i o n o f o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e ,  e i t h e r by t h e p u b l i c o r o t h e r government departments, f o r i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y and l o n g range p l a n n i n g .  In the s e r v i c e  a t t h i s time t h e r e i s a g r e a t emphasis upon e f f i c i e n c y o f operations.  T h i s has been h e i g h t e n e d  by t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e  G l a s s c o Commission which was c o n c l u d i n g i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s when t h i s study took p l a c e .  A p a r t from t h e recommendations o f t h e  G l a s s c o Commission, however, t h e T r e a s u r y Board i s a l s o demanding g r e a t e r p r o o f o f e f f i c i e n c y and more advanced p l a n n i n g . Hence, b u i l d i n g programs a r e now r e q u i r e d t o be f o r e c a s t f i v e y e a r s i n advance and o p e r a t i n g e s t i m a t e s t h r e e y e a r s ahead. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the Service i t s e l f i s r e q u i r i n g i t s s t a f f t o f o r e c a s t b u i l d i n g needs as much as t e n y e a r s i n advance. A minor r e a s o n g i v e n by t h r e e o r 9.3% o f respondents was t h a t more d a t a had accumulated w i t h which t o do r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s undoubtedly accumulating of i t .  t r u e b u t t h e same type o f d a t a has been  f o r many y e a r s w i t h o u t any p r e v i o u s use b e i n g made  104 The i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n from t h e s e o p i n i o n s i s t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r y o f f i c i a l s a r e f e e l i n g t h e impact o f changing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g o a l s and procedures i n t h e i r work.  They see  s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h as t e c h n i q u e s t o h e l p cope w i t h t h e problems which a r e a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y and t h e need f o r l o n g range p l a n n i n g . F u t u r e Uses o f S t a t i s t i c s and Research An attempt was a l s o made t o a s c e r t a i n more s p e c i f i c a l l y from r e s p o n d e n t s what they hoped a s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h program would a c c o m p l i s h i n terms o f t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole. The main f u n c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h d a t a , i n the o p i n i o n o f twenty-seven o r 84.4% o f r e s p o n d e n t s , comes under t h e h e a d i n g o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g u i d a n c e .  There were two  c o r e s o f emphasis i n t h i s r e s p e c t , sometimes both g i v e n by t h e same p e r s o n .  F i f t e e n o r 46.9% o f respondents emphasized  short  r u n a s s i s t a n c e t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e form o f s o l u t i o n s t o p r o c e d u r a l problems.  Twenty-three o r 71.9% emphasized t h e  f u n c t i o n o f l o n g range p r o j e c t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g b u i l d i n g s , t r e a t m e n t programs and t h e l o n g term measurement o f treatment r e s u l t s . F i f t e e n o r 46.9% saw t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n t h e f u t u r e as e i t h e r i n c r e a s i n g e f f i c i e n c y , s a v i n g money o r a v o i d i n g e r r o r .  But r e a l l y t h i s i s t h e same p r i n c i p l e  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f p e n a l t i e s i n c u r r e d f o r misjudgments.  105 Seven o r 21.2% saw one main f u n c t i o n o f a s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  program as t h e f i s c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f needs--  t h a t i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f i r r e f u t a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e which would 'prove' t o t h e T r e a s u r y Board t h e need f o r budgetary items. These answers r e f l e c t t h e view o f e x e c u t i v e s  that the  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s now so l a r g e , dynamic and i n v o l v e d i n - such complex o p e r a t i o n s  t h a t more p r i m i t i v e methods o f d e c i s i o n -  making w i l l no l o n g e r be p r e c i s e enough t o ensure a c c u r a c y . The  main c o n c e r n o f respondents i s t o a v o i d c r i t i c i s m from t h e  p u b l i c by b e i n g more e f f i c i e n t and making c o r r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decisions.., T h i s e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i o n i n t u r n i s l i n k e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l considerations  and t h e need t o c o n v i n c e t h e T r e a s u r y  Board t h a t t h e budgetary r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n should  be approved.  The g e n e r a l o p i n i o n i s t h a t  statistics  and r e s e a r c h w i l l a s s i s t i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n and maintenance of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t they do, they w i l l be f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e . D i v i s i o n a l Research P r i o r i t i e s Respondents were a l s o asked where they thought t h e emphasis o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  programs s h o u l d be p l a c e d  i n terms o f t h e g r e a t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e need. r e q u e s t e d t o rank D i v i s i o n s a c c o r d i n g  They were  t o these p r i o r i t i e s .  It  became i m m e d i a t e l y apparent t h a t t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o u t l i n e d on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r t was not d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e r e a l d i v i s i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as t h e s t a f f saw i t .  106 For  /  example, most respondents saw the M e d i c a l D i v i s i o n as  e s s e n t i a l l y p a r t of the Inmate T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n a l t h o u g h they a r e under s e p a r a t e d i r e c t i o n a t the p r e s e n t t i m e .  Others  i n c l u d e d the I n d u s t r i e s D i v i s i o n as p a r t of the Inmate T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n as w e l l .  However, t h e r e were two main approaches t o  a s s i g n i n g s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s as r e v e a l e d by respondents i n t h e i r answers.  Twenty-nine o r 90.6% of the  group f o c u s e d the needs f o r s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h on the inmate.  T h i s was based on the premise t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  e x i s t e d f o r the purpose of c a r i n g f o r inmates and w i t h o u t knowledge  o f them the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d not f u l f i l i t s purpose.  Three or 9.4%  of the r e s p o n d e n t s took the view t h a t w h i l e  c a r i n g f o r inmates was the p r i m a r y purpose of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , t h i s c o u l d not be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t f i r s t r e s e a r c h i n g  staff  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t t e r s . The r a n k i n g of s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s by D i v i s i o n v a r i e d between r e s p o n d e n t s .  However, the f o l l o w i n g  breakdown of r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s the m a j o r i t y o f o p i n i o n s i n r o u g h l y d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r of p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d . or  Twenty-nine  90.6% of respondents ranked the needs of the Inmate t r a i n i n g  Division f i r s t .  Two  or 6.2%  of the respondents took the view  t h a t s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h were o n l y needed i n t h i s and nowhere e l s e .  Division  One of t h e s e o f f i c e r s e x p r e s s e d the i d e a as  follows; ' I f I were asked t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s f o r s t a t i s t i c s i n the D i v i s i o n s I would i g n o r e a l l of them e x c e p t Inmate T r a i n i n g and I ' l l t e l l you why. I c o u l d f i n d analogous s i t u a t i o n s f i f t y times over f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f a l l the r e s t , which I c o u l d copy. But nowhere can you f i n d any i n f o r m a t i o n on how t o c o r r e c t i n m a t e s ' .  107 Twenty-seven or 84.4%  of the group ranked the M e d i c a l  t h i r d or h i g h e r ; e i g h t e e n or 56.2%  Division  of respondents ranked the  needs of the O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n t h i r d higher; twenty-four  or 7 5.0%  or  ranked the I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n  t h i r d o r lower and t w e n t y - f i v e or 7 8.1%  of the group ranked  the needs of the F i n a n a c e and S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n t h i r d or I t seems from these e x p r e s s i o n s  lower.  of o p i n i o n t h a t a l l  r e s p o n d e n t s , a t l e a s t on the s u r f a c e , are committed t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r inmates i n p e n i t e n tiaries.  The m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n i s t h a t t h i s g o a l t a k e s much  more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n e x i s t s a t the p r e s e n t time i f dangerous mistakes  i n p l a n n i n g and procedures are t o be a v o i d e d .  There-  f o r e , s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s s h o u l d be f o c u s e d  on  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of inmates and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s methods of t r e a t i n g them.  No m a t t e r what p r i o r i t i e s are s e t by  r e s p o n d e n t s , a l l f e l t t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y would be improved w i t h more s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n no m a t t e r where i t was  applied.  A g a i n t h e r e i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n from  t h e s e f i n d i n g s t h a t i n c r e a s e d use of s t a t i s t i c s and  research  are seen as f u n c t i o n a l f o r the maintenance of the S e r v i c e . ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONSHIPS IN STATISTICS AND  RESEARCH  As a f i n a l a s p e c t of t h i s s t u d y , respondents i n the h e a d q u a r t e r s and s e n i o r o p e r a t i n g groups were q u e s t i o n e d  on  t h e i r views as t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery which would b e s t p r o v i d e the s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n which a l l agreed were  necessary.  108 I t was, o f c o u r s e , known t o a l l respondents t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d i n t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e a C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n which was t e c h n i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a t i s t i c s and research.  I t has o n l y been r e c e n t l y c r e a t e d , however, and  c o u l d n o t be s a i d t o have come t o g r i p s w i t h i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s i s p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e , so f a r , o n l y  three  p o s i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the D i v i s i o n ; a D i r e c t o r , a S t a t i s t i c i a n and a S e c r e t a r y .  Only t h e D i r e c t o r ' s p o s i t i o n was f i l l e d a t  the time t h e i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e .  The S t a t i s t i c i a n ' s p o s i t i o n  was f r o z e n by t h e so c a l l e d a u s t e r i t y program and t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s p o s i t i o n was v a c a n t .  Respondents were a l s o reminded o f t h e f a c t  t h a t t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s had been i n v o l v e d r e g u l a r l y s i n c e 1937 i n p r o d u c i n g  t a b l e s o f inmate s t a t i s t i c s  f o r t h e Annual Report and had a s s i s t e d i n t h e r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l system i n 1961 and 1962. I t was f u r t h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s had an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n c o r r e c t i o n s and c o n c e i v a b l y had some p r o s p e c t i v e r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e f u t u r e program o f p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h . Members o f t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s and s e n i o r o p e r a t i o n a l groups were asked t o comment upon t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s which agencies, i n combination  these  or s e p a r a t e l y , should play i n operating  a p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h program.  Only t h r e e  o f f i c e r s o r 9.4% o f t h e t o t a l group d i d n o t respond t o t h i s question.  Of t h e r e m a i n d e r , t w e n t y - e i g h t  o r 87.5% showed e i t h e r  some doubt as t o t h e l a t e s t developments w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program o r a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d .  I n s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e r e were c e r t a i n  of  109 f a i r l y c l e a r c u t o p i n i o n s which a r o s e from q u e s t i o n i n g s u b j e c t which a r e d i s c u s s e d  on t h i s  under t h e headings below.  Role o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s There seemed t o be e i t h e r a l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f u n i v e r s i t i e s i n p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h o r a d e f i n i t e s e t a g a i n s t a c a d e m i c i a n s as not b e i n g enough t o u n d e r t a k e p e n i t e n t i a r y r e s e a r c h .  practical  Respondents who  e x p r e s s e d themselves d e f i n i t e l y on t h i s s u b j e c t seemed t o f e e l that u n i v e r s i t y researchers  were t o o ' t h e o r e t i c a l ' i n t h e i r  approach t o problems c o n f r o n t i n g t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y  administrator  and p r o b a b l y would be a l o n g time l e a r n i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l involved.  T h i s seems i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  issues  of Reckless  who, w h i l e s e e i n g t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between academia and c o r r e c t i o n s , s t a t e s t h a t some u n i v e r s i t y professors  g e n e r a l l y remain remote from t h e day t o day work o f  the c o r r e c t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and have no r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s problems. ^ 9  saw  However, seven o r 21.9% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n s p e c i a l s t u d i e s  assigned, one  1  p a i d f o r and guided by t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e .  Only  s a i d t h a t u n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n n e l s h o u l d be used i n a c o n s u l t i n g  r o l e and one o t h e r respondent saw t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v i n g a major r o l e i n the a n a l y s i s of p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s .  ^W. C. R e c k l e s s , " T r a i n i n g o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l Worker", i n P. W.Tappan, ( E d . ) , Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n , ( M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., I n c . , New Y o r k , 1951), pp. 44-45. 9  110 Role o f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s • When t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s was d i s c u s s e d , some r e t i c e n c e was e v i d e n t on t h e p a r t o f r e s p o n d e n t s . seemed as i f t h e good t a s t e o f i n t e r v i e w e e s tended  It  to restrain  whatever comments they made c o n c e r n i n g t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n because they knew t h a t t h e w r i t e r was a Bureau employee. I f any b i a s e x i s t s i n t h e answers g i v e n , i t i s t h e r e f o r e i n a conservative d i r e c t i o n .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , because o f p r e c a u t i o n s  t a k e n i n i n t e r v i e w i n g , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n below i s based on a t r u e e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n . r e v e a l , however, t h a t respondents  Questioning d i d  had l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  the r o l e o f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s as a s t a t i s t i c a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n government.  Furthermore t h e r e was  l i t t l e a c c u r a t e knowledge o f i t s c a p a c i t i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g statistical  data.  The Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s can be c a l l e d a bureaucracy,  a main g o a l o f which i s t o expand i t s o p e r a t i o n s  by p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o o t h e r government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t s s e r v i c e s do n o t n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e a n a l y s i s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a i n any depth.  T h i s can be concluded  from r e a d i n g most o f  the Bureau's p u b l i c a t i o n s , which c o n s i s t g e n e r a l l y o f a w e a l t h of s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s b u t v e r y l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these figures.  As f a r as i s known, t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n does n o t now,  nor i s t h e r e an i n t e n t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e , t o undertake t h e r e s e a r c h needs o f any o t h e r government department.  Such a  p r a c t i c e would seem t o be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  Ill goals. Furthermore, i n the area of c o r r e c t i o n s s t a t i s t i c s , the Bureau p r o b a b l y c a n n o t , w i t h i t s p r e s e n t s t a f f , e n t e r i n t o t h e more complex a n a l y s i s o f d a t a which t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y now r e q u i r e s . has  Service  I t i s t h e J u d i c i a l S e c t i o n o f t h e Bureau which  s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s o f crime and  corrections.  Table I I I describes  t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and  d u t i e s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s t a f f i n t h e J u d i c i a l Section a t the present time.  I t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e r e i s no  s i n g l e s t a f f member who has t r a i n i n g and background i n both s t a t i s t i c s and c o r r e c t i o n s who would be a b l e t o u n d e r t a k e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s f o r research purposes. Nor would t h e expanding o p e r a t i o n s Section allow t h i s .  of the J u d i c i a l  There a r e , a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , n i n e a n n u a l  s e r i e s of s t a t i s t i c s published  by t h e S e c t i o n p l u s s p e c i a l  s t u d i e s and a d d i t i o n a l c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s b e i n g p l a n n e d .  I n the  writer's observation,  already  these t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have  o v e r l o a d e d t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e s t a f f which t o t a l o n l y  twenty-  seven i n a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t e c h n i c a l and c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . Coding s t a f f has an e s p e c i a l l y heavy work l o a d such t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n dates o f some s e r i e s have r e c e n t l y been more than one  year overdue. ^ 9  F o r example, t h e p u b l i c a t i o n ' S t a t i s t i c s o f C r i m i n a l and Other Offences — 1961' was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l September, 1963. S t a t i s t i c s o f C r i m i n a l and Other Offences — 1961, (Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, 1963). y i  TABLE I I I Position Descriptions  o f the J u d i c i a l S e c t i o n and  Incumbent s Academic Education** 1  Name o f P o s i t i o n  Chief, Judicial  Section  Senior A n a l y s t  Statistician Technical O f f i c e r 6 Crime S t a t i s t i c s  Showing Academic Background, Work  Orientation  Major R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Present Incumbents*  Incumbent's Academic Orientation  Incumbent's Major Work Experience  Major R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P o s i t i o n  University Post Graduate  Sociology  Administration, tistics  University Post Graduate  Economics  A n a l y s i s of economic and demographic s t a t i s t i c s  Supervision of analysis i n a l l series and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some s e r i e s o f Judicial statistics  University Post Graduate  Criminology  C o r r e c t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of offenders  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n analysis of a l l series of J u d i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s  High School  General  P o l i c e r e c o r d s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  D i r e c t i o n of f i e l d l i a i s o n i n a l l s e r i e s of s t a t i s t i c s  J u d i c i a l Sta-  O v e r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y formul a t i o n . J u d i c i a l Section  Technical O f f i c e r 5 Operations  University  Mathematics  D i r e c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l process- D i r e c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e s s i n g and i n g and o f f i c e management o f f i c e management  Technical O f f i c e r 5 Court S t a t i s t i c s  High School  General  P o l i c e personnel and administ r a t i v e duties  E d i t i n g and c o n t r o l of court s t a t i s t i c s and some l i a i s o n —  English  P o l i c e r e c o r d s system  E d i t i n g and c o n t r o l of p o l i c e s t a t i s t i c s and some l i a i s o n —  English  P o l i c e detachment and administ r a t i v e duties  E d i t i n g and c o n t r o l of p o l i c e statistics —  English  P o l i c e detachment  E d i t i n g and c o n t r o l o f murder and p o l i c e s t a t i s t i c s —  English  E d i t i n g and c o n t r o l o f p o l i c e c o u r t and t r a i n i n g school s t a t i s t i c s and some l i a i s o n —  French  E d i t i n g and c o n t r o l of t r a i n i n g school s t a t i s t i c s and some l i a i s o n  English  Technical O f f i c e r 5 Police S t a t i s t i c s Technical O f f i c e r 3 Police S t a t i s t i c s Technical O f f i c e r 3 Police S t a t i s t i c s Technical O f f i c e r 3 Court S t a t i s t i c s Technical O f f i c e r 3 Corrections Statistics ~~* **  High School High School High School High School  High School  General General General General  General  duties  S t a t i s t i c a l coding and processing Machinist  Excludes f i v e T e c h n i c a l O f f i c e r p o s i t i o n s u n f i l l e d as of September 1, May be complete or p a r t i a l .  1963 and a l l stenographic and c l e r i c a l  —  positions.  M  113 There was  also a rather unrealistic  i d e a among p e n i t e n -  t i a r y o f f i c i a l s of the p o t e n t i a l of the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s f o r data processing.  To quote one o f f i c e r on  this  subject; 'We s h o u l d n ' t have t o b o t h e r w i t h p r o c e s s i n g the s t u f f — D.B.S. c o u l d g i v e us t h e answers i n the f l i c k of an eye lid'. But the f a c t i s t h a t d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s of the Bureau are i n maximum use.  The programming f o r r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d work  i s i d e a l l y planned a y e a r ahead.  Only o c c a s i o n a l s p e c i a l  t a b u l a t i o n s , i f not t o o time consuming o r f r e q u e n t , may produced  be  i n two o r t h r e e weeks, depending upon.other p r i o r i t i e s . A l l t h i s c o n f i r m s t h a t the Dominion Bureau of  Statistics  i s b e s t a b l e t o produce c o n t i n u o u s s t a t i s t i c a l s e r i e s on an annual b a s i s .  I t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g  f a c i l i t i e s are p r o b a b l y not f l e x i b l e enough t o e f f i c i e n t l y undertake  the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o  the numerous and complex p r o c e d u r a l problems p r e s e n t e d by a growing  c o r r e c t i o n a l agency such as the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e .  I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s f o r c o d i n g and p r o c e s s i n g of d a t a have been exaggerated requirements  i n the minds o f respondents  when, the  of a w e l l developed  p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l and  r e s e a r c h program are c o n s i d e r e d .  Nevertheless twenty-four or  75% o f respondents  saw the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i n the  r o l e of p r o c e s s e r s of p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s .  Three o r  9.4%  f e l t t h a t the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s s h o u l d a l s o be r e l i e d upon as c o n s u l t a n t s i n s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h m a t t e r s  114 and  t h r e e , o r 9.4%  a n a l y z e and  considered  i n t e r p r e t the  With r e s p e c t  that t h i s organization should also  data.  t o a s s i g n i n g c o n s u l t a t i v e and  t o the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , a p p a r e n t l y o b t a i n i n g s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f and the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e was opinions  analysis roles  the c o s t  machinery t o do t h i s work w i t h i n  a f a c t o r i n determining  of some r e s p o n d e n t s .  of  the  There seemed t o be a f e e l i n g on  the p a r t of some, t h a t T r e a s u r y Board would never a c c e p t  the  extra costs involved i n d u p l i c a t i n g services f o r p e n i t e n t i a r i e s which are a v a i l a b l e t o them from a n o t h e r department. t h e s e l i n e s one  of t h i s group i s quoted as  Along  follows;  'In o r d e r not t o d u p l i c a t e the work of a n o t h e r department i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o t a k e the b e s t they can o f f e r us i n help. We have t o do t h i s i f the s t a f f problem i s beyond our c a p a c i t y - a n d we have t o t h i n k of the T r e a s u r y Board'. There was  a l s o avoidance of the i d e a t h a t d a t a  f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be d u p l i c a t e d .  T h i s was  processing  a r e f l e c t i o n of  i n f l u e n c e of the G l a s s c o Commission R e p o r t s which have as major theme the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of government s e r v i c e  the a  facilities  i n the i n t e r e s t s of economy. R o l e o f the C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n Consistent  w i t h the above r e s u l t s , o n l y f o u r o r  of the respondents c o u l d see the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i t s own  data at t h i s time.  12.2% processing  However, t w e n t y - e i g h t o r 87.5%  felt  t h a t the C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n s h o u l d f o r m u l a t e i t s own  research  programs and  t i o n s t o p r o c e s s the d a t a .  give i n s t r u c t i o n s to other T w e n t y - f i v e o r 7 8.1%  organiza-  f e l t that  the  115 processed data should  t h e n be r e t u r n e d  Research D i v i s i o n f o r . a n a l y s i s .  t o the  Correctional  A f r e q u e n t l y heard comment  was;  ' P e n i t e n t i a r y - people s h o u l d do t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — t h e y ' r e the o n l y ones t h a t know what's i n v o l v e d . I f you haven't the knowledge o f p e n i t e n t i a r y work y o u r c o n c l u s i o n s can be away o u t ' . A l l a d m i t t e d t h a t t h i s r o l e f o r the C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n would r e q u i r e an e x p a n s i o n of i t s s t a f f . e s t a b l i s h m e n t . One  general  c o n c l u s i o n reached i s t h a t p e n i t e n t i a r y  s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  i s i m p o r t a n t enough t o be managed by  the S e r v i c e i t s e l f and t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d  come from  the Commissioner through the C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n . There seemed t o be a f e a r t h a t d e l e g a t i o n of too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the program t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s would r e s u l t e i t h e r i n the job not g e t t i n g done because of d i v i d e d j u r i s d i c t i o n not g e t t i n g done p r o p e r l y because of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Apparently  data.  the m a j o r i t y were p r e p a r e d t o see the m e c h a n i c a l  a s p e c t s of the work done by o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s , but not the e s s e n t i a l s of problem d e s c r i p t i o n and ation.  or  basic  the s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t -  Throughout t h i s a r e a of the study i t became apparent  t h a t most s t a f f were b e w i l d e r e d Research D i v i s i o n had  by the f a c t t h a t the  Correctional  n e i t h e r taken a strong l e a d e r s h i p .role  i n m a t t e r s of p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  nor  concretely  d e f i n e d the purpose of the program. I n t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s about the f o r m a l arrangements which would be a p p r o p r i a t e  administrative  t o the program, a  number of i n f o r m a l o p i n i o n s were e x p r e s s e d which h e l p t o e x p l a i n the recommended d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  One  commonly  116 e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g was t h a t t h e p r e s e n t inmate s t a t i s t i c a l system i s c o n s i d e r e d  by S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l t o be a Dominion Bureau  of S t a t i s t i c s system, f o r Bureau purposes and hence not a m a t t e r of major c o n c e r n t o t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e . t o t h e f a c t s s i n c e t h e system i s i n t e n d e d  This i s contrary  t o produce d a t a  u s e f u l t o t h e S e r v i c e and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i n p r o v i d i n g c o n s u l t a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e was a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e Commissioner.  But seemingly t h e involvement  of a n o t h e r agency changes t h e f e e l i n g o f S e r v i c e s t a f f towards a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e program. A n o t h e r a s s o c i a t e d r e a c t i o n has a l r e a d y been mentioned i n another connection.  There i s t h e f e e l i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s  that since the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s are supplying data but g e t t i n g nothing be d i s c o n t i n u e d .  concrete  s t a f f t o record the  i n r e t u r n , t h e program  should  Some r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i f i n s t i t u t i o n s  r e c e i v e some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n  from t h e program, o b j e c t i o n s  about use o f s t a f f f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes would  disappear.  One assumes t h a t i f t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n i s a b l e t o s e r v e t h e needs o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r d a t a which i s u s e f u l t o wardens i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e s t o c k o f t h e D i v i s i o n and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l and r e s e a r c h  program w i l l  rise.  Elements o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i d e , mixed w i t h a d e s i r e t h a t t h e S e r v i c e manage i t s own a f f a i r s , was conveyed by some other respondents.  F o r i n s t a n c e , one o f f i c e r was s u r p r i s e d t o  l e a r n t h a t t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s was n o t p a i d f o r processing  penitentiary s t a t i s t i c s .  'I wasn't aware o f t h a t .  He i s quoted as f o l l o w s ;  Any work done f o r us by D.B.S. ,  117 the u n i v e r s i t i e s o r elsewhere s h o u l d be p a i d f o r out o f our v o t e . 1  The  i n f e r e n c e here was p l a i n t h a t , not o n l y s h o u l d t h e S e r v i c e  pay i t s own way b u t s h o u l d c o n t r o l i t s own d e s t i n y by d o i n g s o . T h i s i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e same lack, of concern f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program noted by M e l t z e r i n 1952  e x i s t s today i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and f o r t h e same  reasons.  No c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t h e purpose o f t h e program has been f o r m u l a t e d  a t h e a d q u a r t e r s and t h e i n s t i t u -  t i o n a l s t a f f s who a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e c o r d d a t a a r e r e c e i v i n g no c o n c r e t e r e t u r n s f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s .  Therefore  t h e program  i s u n d e r v a l u e d by lower l e v e l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s as a l e a d e r i n p o l i c y determination apparently f u r t h e r d i l u t e s i n t e r e s t i n the program.  I r o n i c a l l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l s a t t h e time when  the p r i n c i p l e o f r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h i n p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s b e i n g accepted levels i n the hierarchy. p r i n c i p l e i s considered  a t upper and m i d d l e  The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t , w h i l e t h e l e g i t i m a t e , the lack of strong c o n t r o l  of t h e program by t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e and t h e k i n d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements now g o v e r n i n g  i t s operation are  not congruent w i t h t h e i n f o r m a l v a l u e s o f t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a f f on t h i s s u b j e c t .  A f i n a l q u o t a t i o n from a n o t h e r respondent  seems t o sum up t h e g e n e r a l  feeling;  'I f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t any department w i t h o u r respons i b i l i t i e s s h o u l d have i t s own Research D i v i s i o n w e l l s t a f f e d . The P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e s h o u l d l e a d t h e r e s e a r c h program and o t h e r s e r v i c e s c o u l d be brought  118 i n t o s u p p o r t our e f f o r t s . Otherwise i t would be t h e same t h i n g as a s k i n g the Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e t o assume t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e h e a l t h needs of the inmates'.  CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FROM ANALYSIS With minor changes the hypotheses p o s t u l a t e d i n t h i s paper tend t o be confirmed  by t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d .  The c o n t e n -  t i o n t h a t c o r r e c t i o n a l a g e n c i e s may be p r o f i t a b l y s t u d i e d as bureaucracies,  u s i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l method, has  been demonstrated by t h e f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s . many o f the concepts a p p e a r i n g  As we have seen,  i n the t h e o r y o f complex  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t and s u c c e s s i o n o f g o a l s , i n f o r m a l i n f l u e n c e s on f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e e f f e c t s o f c e n t r a l and m a r g i n a l  g o a l s on b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e  are a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . reveal that researchers  have a n a l y z e d  The l i t e r a t u r e does n o t the administration of  c o r r e c t i o n a l a g e n c i e s e x t e n s i v e l y i n terms o f b u r e a u c r a t i c theory.  But t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s study  confirms  t h a t these  o r g a n i z a t i o n s do n o t d i f f e r e s s e n t i a l l y from o t h e r and  bureaucracies  t h a t study o f these s t r u c t u r e s i n terms o f one o r more o f  t h e i r sub-structures correctional  c o u l d become a major t e c h n i q u e o f  research.  Concerning t h e more s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y , i t i s next c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s A n n u a l R e p o r t , i n c l u d i n g i t s supplement r e s p e c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n , have been functional f o r the penitentiary structure.  I t i s c l e a r that  they have a s s i s t e d t h e S e r v i c e t o j u s t i f y i t s o p e r a t i o n s  t o the  M i n i s t e r and t h e M i n i s t e r t o j u s t i f y h i s p o l i c i e s t o p a r l i a m e n t a r y  120 opponents.  S p e c i a l u n p u b l i s h e d s e r i e s o f s t a t i s t i c s , k e p t on  a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s o r produced ad hoc f o r answering  questions  i n t h e House o f Commons, have had t h e same f u n c t i o n . e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e Annual Report i n p r o d u c i n g a  The  favourable  image f o r t h e S e r v i c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , however, has p r o b a b l y n o t been g r e a t .  One r e a s o n f o r c o n c l u d i n g  this, i s  its limited circulation.  Only 3,484 c o p i e s were d i s t r i b u t e d  f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r ending March 31, 1962. There has never been a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l i a n c e on s t a t i s t i c s i n p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n even though use o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s s l i g h t l y on t h e i n c r e a s e .  But,  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e appears t o have always been some m i n i m a l use o f s t a t i s t i c s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e second hypothesis  i s not e n t i r e l y consistent with the f a c t s .  these 'basic f i g u r e s  1  Use o f  t o r e a c h d e c i s i o n s a r e assumed t o have  made t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s somewhat more e f f i c i e n t and hence would have been e f f e c t i v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g  the bureaucratic  structure. A few a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r a l  s t u d i e s and attempts  a t program measurement have been made s i n c e 1947. These have had  d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o problems e n c o u n t e r e d by e x e c u t i v e  s t a f f a t h e a d q u a r t e r s and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t  i n institutions.  No attempt has been made t o measure t h e q u a l i t y o f these s t u d i e s but i n s o f a r as t h e r e s u l t s were a c c u r a t e ,  i t i s judged they  were f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e departments concerned and hence t h e system.  There i s no doubt t h a t some o f t h e r e s u l t s have been  a p p l i e d by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o t h e i r work.  121 On t h e o t h e r hand, s t u d i e s done by p r o f e s s i o n a l s the S e r v i c e have been l a r g e l y n o n - f u n c t i o n a l  outside  since there i s  l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t they were a p p l i e d t o problems i n t h e S e r v i c e . The  same c o n c l u s i o n can be made w i t h r e s p e c t  t o s t u d i e s done  for  t h e i r own academic improvement by p r o f e s s i o n a l s employed i n  the S e r v i c e , e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e seems r e c e n t l y t o be an i n c r e a s ing  tendency t o a p p l y t h e s e t o p e n i t e n t i a r y problem  areas.  I t i s contended t h a t t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , because of i t s r o l e i n c a r i n g f o r s o c i e t y ' s r e j e c t e d p e r s o n s , enjoyed a poor p u b l i c image i n t h e p a s t .  Hence i t s g o a l s had a  m a r g i n a l v a l u e w i t h t h e o u t s i d e environment which i n t u r n r e s u l t e d i n long periods occurred  of neglect.  When major changes  they were t h e r e s u l t o f p u b l i c p r e s s u r e  i n v o l v i n g an o f f i c i a l e n q u i r y .  T h i s p a t t e r n was borne out i n  the. r e v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S e r v i c e . service executive  sometimes  Furthermore, long  p e r s o n n e l have a t t e s t e d t o t h e same dynamics  of p e n i t e n t i a r y development.  Therefore,  the functions of  R o y a l Commissions and s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n , e x p a n s i o n and r e c e n t s u c c e s s i o n t i a r y s t r u c t u r e cannot be d e n i e d .  i n goals of the peniten-  I n f a c t these  official  e n q u i r i e s have been t h e major means f o r e f f e c t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i n t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e . The and  p e n i t e n t i a r y b u r e a u c r a c y i s now expanding i n s i z e  complexity  o f i t s o p e r a t i o n s , which i s p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f  the r e - o r i e n t a t i o n i n i t s g o a l s .  Whereas, i n t h e p a s t ,  punishment and i n d u s t r i a l employment o f inmates were t h e main o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s , t h e s e have been succeeded by t h e  122 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f inmates which i s now t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f penitentiary operations.  T h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l change makes a t  once f o r a more i n v o l v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n and g e n e r a t e s a d d i t i o n a l problems which r e q u i r e s o l u t i o n . The  f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s now more money b e i n g v o t e d f o r  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f inmates i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e S e r v i c e i n t h e p u b l i c eye has improved. bureaucratic  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e aware o f a need t o m a i n t a i n t h i s  p r e s e n t l y i m p r o v i n g p o s i t i o n by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t  organization-  a l g o a l s a r e not o n l y b e i n g achieved'.-but b e i n g a c h i e v e d i n an e f f i c i e n t manner.  The e x e c u t i v e  t h a t a s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f  believe  program, a p p l i e d t o t h e i r  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, w i l l be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r  maintain-  i n g t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and e n s u r i n g i t s continued p u b l i c support. The  p r e s e n t l e a d e r s h i p has a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t admin-  i s t r a t i o n , l o g i c a l l y based on r e s u l t s o f s t a t i s t i c s and research,  i s c e n t r a l t o t h e maintenance and f u t u r e development  of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e  Report o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g  Committee which i s t h e  master p l a n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S e r v i c e a t t h i s t i m e . Concrete i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e program i s apparent i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and t h e p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l body o f inmate s t a t i s t i c s which has been b u i l t up s i n c e 1962. research  Y e t no  use has been made o f these d a t a , .no c r y s t a l l i z e d  p o l i c y f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  program has been e v o l v e d .  123 and  t h e r e i s c o n f u s i o n among l o w e r l e v e l p a r t i c i p a n t s as 'to the  t r u e r o l e of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n . r e g a r d a dilemma i s c r e a t e d  by the c o n t r a d i c t o r y  of the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  and  about t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  In t h i s expectations  the Dominion Bureau of  Statistics  roles i n penitentiary s t a t i s t i c s  and  research. On the one  hand the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  i s faced  with  a s h o r t a g e of e x p e r t s t a f f i n i t s C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i v i s i o n . . The  T r e a s u r y Board a c c e p t e d the p r i n c i p l e t h a t  s h o u l d be a r e s e a r c h o p e r a t i o n  w i t h i n the S e r v i c e  a t the  when the p o s i t i o n s of C o r r e c t i o n a l Research D i r e c t o r S t a t i s t i c i a n were a u t h o r i z e d .  there time  and  But t h i s amount of s t a f f c o u l d  not p o s s i b l y a c c o m p l i s h the m u l t i t u d e of s t u d i e s which would required  i f the s t a t i s t i c s and  r e s e a r c h program are t o  m a x i m a l l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r the p e n i t e n t i a r y s t r u c t u r e . i n o r d e r t o implement a c o r r e c t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s and  be  be .Therefore,  research  program, i t must attempt t o o b t a i n what o u t s i d e h e l p i s a v a i l a b l e and  the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s has  assistance.-  But p e n i t e n t i a r y l e a d e r s  supplied  some  apparently expect  valuable the  Bureau t o assume major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p o l i c i e s , d e v e l o p ment and  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of- t h i s program.  by the q u o t a t i o n  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d  from the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s Annual  Report f o r the f i s c a l y e a r e n d i n g March, 1962,  which f o l l o w s ;  'The J u d i c i a l S e c t i o n of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s has a g a i n s e r v e d us w e l l i n f u r n i s h i n g a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o our o p e r a t i o n s . We a w a i t w i t h i n t e r e s t t h e i r proposed changes i n methods of a c q u i r i n g , t a b u l a t i n g and r e p o r t i n g ' c o r r e c t i o n a l  124 statistics. Such changes we a r e c o n f i d e n t w i l l us t o improve o u r s e r v i c e ' .  enable  9 2  As p r e v i o u s l y shown, t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r P e n i t e n t i a r y  leadership  t o r e l y upon o u t s i d e r s f o r development o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s n o t congruent w i t h t h e i n f o r m a l v a l u e s h e l d by e x e c u t i v e and p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e system.  The l a t t e r  favour  l e a d e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f t h i s program from w i t h i n t h e S e r v i c e . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i s t o s u p p l y s t a t i s t i c a l s e r v i c e s and i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c and o t h e r  organizations.  I n p r o v i d i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y system t h e Bureau has assumed a measure o f i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l over t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h  program.  I t has been  p r o d u c i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l supplement t o the Annual Report f o r many y e a r s and p l a y e d  a major r o l e i n the r e v i s i o n o f t h e p e n i t e n -  t i a r y s t a t i s t i c a l program i n 1961 and 1962.  But as we have seen,  the J u d i c i a l S e c t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d as t o s t a f f which can be assigned  t o t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y program.  Data p r o c e s s i n g  facilities  a t t h e Bureau a r e s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d i n t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r production  of s p e c i a l tabulations f o r p e n i t e n t i a r y  What has not been e x p l a i n e d d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the r e s e a r c h  regarding  research.  the present  between t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i s how  program o f t h e o p e r a t i n g  department w i l l remain  f l e x i b l e and e f f i c i e n t enough t o s e r v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  goals  T h e Annual Report o f t h e Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r ending March 3X, 1962 , .(.Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 19 62), p. 8. ' 9 2  125 when l e a d e r s h i p and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the o u t s i d e agency.  I f t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i s  to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e s s i n g , w i l l i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs o v e r r i d e of t h e S e r v i c e ?  those  I t i s contended here t h a t t h e Dominion Bureau  of S t a t i s t i c s , i n s u p p l y i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e o r any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i l l be p r i m a r i l y governed by i t s own c a p a b i l i t i e s i n terms o f s t a f f and machinery a t any one p o i n t i n time.  I f these  resources  are i n a d e q u a t e t o cope w i t h i t s t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h e s e r v i c e t o o u t s i d e departments w i l l be i m p a i r e d and  consequently  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s may s u f f e r .  implementation  In a s s i s t i n g with the  o f a r e s e a r c h program w i t h i n an o p e r a t i n g department, i f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s seem l i k e l y t o o v e r l o a d t h e Bureau's c a p a c i t y t o code and process  data, i t i s probable  that s t a f f  would advocate a r e v i s i o n o f t h a t program more i n l i n e w i t h immediate c a p a c i t i e s .  their  Such c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t a r e l i k e l y t o  r e s u l t i n compromises which a r e d y s f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e o p e r a t i n g organization i n reaching research o b j e c t i v e s .  These c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n s speak a g a i n s t d e l e g a t i o n o f major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program t o any one o r a combination  of outside  agencies.  R e g a r d i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e s i g n which would be m a x i m a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n implementing t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h program, i t seems t h a t t h e i n f o r m a l v a l u e system . of t h e s t a f f r e q u i r e s t h a t l e a d e r s h i p be f i r m l y u n d e r t a k e n by the S e r v i c e .  This p a r t l y i n v o l v e s the c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of  126 o b j e c t i v e s and procedures o f t h e program and d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t i t can b e n e f i t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole.  Only i n these ways  w i l l t h e program be a c c e p t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e o p e r a t i o n the p e n i t e n t i a r y  organization.  Considering operations,  within  the s p e c i a l i z e d nature of p e n i t e n t i a r y  t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of, s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and some  s p e c i a l s t u d i e s would a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y have t o be u n d e r t a k e n by p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a f f who can be employed f o r t h e i r s k i l l s i n a n a l y s i s and e x p e r i e n c e i n c o r r e c t i o n s .  The Dominion Bureau  of S t a t i s t i c s shows no i n c l i n a t i o n o r a b i l i t y t o s u p p l y t h i s k i n d o f s e r v i c e on a l a r g e s c a l e and, i n f a c t , d i r e c t i n v o l v e ment i n p e n i t e n t i a r y r e s e a r c h own g o a l s .  Some r e s e a r c h  would seem i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s  p r o j e c t s , however, c o u l d be a s s i g n e d  t o u n i v e r s i t y departments which would r e q u i r e payment o u t o f t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y budget. Data p r o c e s s i n g  i s an o p e r a t i o n which c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o  be s u p p l i e d by an o u t s i d e agency such as t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s unless' t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y and  research  data.  program i s i m p a i r e d  statistics  by d e l a y s i n p r o d u c t i o n  o f these  I n t h a t event m e c h a n i c a l t a b u l a t i o n s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be  s u p p l i e d by t h e combined r e s o u r c e s o f s e v e r a l d a t a a g e n c i e s or.be undertaken by t h e S e r v i c e  processing  itself.  I t seems t h a t , i n o r d e r t o assume t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n t r o l of t h e program, t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e must e v e n t u a l l y make a s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n terms o f s t a f f and. p o s s i b l y machinery. and  research  There seems t o be no way t o develop a s t a t i s t i c s program which w i l l be m a x i m a l l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e  127 s t r u c t u r e and a t t h e same time a v o i d t h e expenses i n v o l v e d . I n f i n a l summary t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y suggests t h a t , i n terms o f t h e changing and more complex g o a l s of t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y b u r e a u c r a c y , a w e l l developed and r e s e a r c h  statistics  program would be i m m e d i a t e l y f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e  organizational structure.  Such a program, t o be o p t i m a l l y  e f f e c t i v e , must be c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y Service.  I t seems t h a t t h e r e i s no f u n c t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t f o r  such a program s i n c e o n l y t h i s k i n d o f development w i l l produce t h e p r e c i s e s o r t o f measurements which a r e r e q u i r e d by the S e r v i c e t o guide i t s i n c r e a s i n g l y complex o p e r a t i o n s . a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o continue  The  t o r e l y on t h e b e s t judgment o f  e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n n e l which i s r e c o g n i z e d  t o be i n a d e q u a t e  because i t does n o t always f i t t h e changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f present p e n i t e n t i a r y operations.  To t h e e x t e n t t h a t such a  program does not d e v e l o p , i t i s p o s t u l a t e d consequences w i l l ensue.  that  dysfunctional  I t seems p r o b a b l e i n those c i r c u m s t a n c e s  t h a t t h e p r i m a r y g o a l o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e w i l l become subverted,  t h e hoped f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f inmates w i l l f a i l t o  be a c h i e v e d and t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c e s t i m a t i o n w i l l consequently  diminish.  A P P E N D I X  128 APPENDIX A CANADIAN PENITENTIARY STATISTICS FOCUSED INTERVIEW GUIDE  Introduction  The purpose of these questions i s to t r y t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Canadian Penitentiary s t a t i s t i c s and research to the administration of the Service.  The answers w i l l be used i n the preparation of an unpublished stu-  dent t h e s i s . No reference w i l l be made t o any respondent's personal opinions and a l l information w i l l remain e n t i r e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l .  Question Areas (a)  Are you f a m i l i a r with the Penitentiary s t a t i s t i c a l and research program i n some of i t s aspects over the past years?  (b)  What work, (i) (ii)  have you had t o do with s t a t i s t i c s and research i n the past? i n the present?  (c)  Has your work with s t a t i s t i c s and research increased or decreased over time?  (d)  What do you think i s the reason f o r t h i s ?  (e)  What purpose  (did ) s t a t i s t i c s and research serve i n your own area of (do ) (will) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , (e.g. - f o r making p o l i c y decisions, guiding operations of programs e t c . ) . (i) (ii) (iii)  i n the past? i n the present? i n the future?  How were p o l i c y decisions made i n the past i n your department?  129  (f)  What purpose  (did ) (do ) (will)  s t a t i s t i c s serve i n the operation of the Service  as a whole, ( i ) i n the past? ( i i ) i n the present? ( i i i ) i n the future? How were p o l i c y decisions made i n the past i n the Service as a whole? (g) (h)  Which D i v i s i o n s need s t a t i s t i c a l and research information the most? I f p e n i t e n t i a r y s t a t i s t i c s and research were abolished would i t make any d i f f e r e n c e , (i) (ii)  t o your own administration? t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Service?  (i)  Were any s p e c i f i c studies ever done concerning c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n mates, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures o r types of t r a i n i n g administered t o inmates?  (j)  When were these done?  (k)  Which were on a continuing b a s i s and which were ad hoc studies?  (1)  What use were made of these?  (m) What was the purpose behind the p u b l i c a t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c s i n the Commissioner's Annual Report? (n)  Why was the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n adopted?  (o)  Why d i d t h e p a t t e r n remain unchanged so long?  (p)  What caused the p a t t e r n t o be changed i n 1962?  (q)  What do you t h i n k o f the present s t a t i s t i c a l system as p o t e n t i a l l y assisting (i) (ii)  your own work? p e n i t e n t i a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n generally?  (r)  What do you see as the respective r o l e s o f the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s program now and i n the future?  (s)  Any a d d i t i o n a l comments?  130 APPENDIX B  CANADIAN PENITENTIARY SERVICE OTTAWA 14th June, I963.  Dear S i r or Madam, A graduate student i s completing a research t h e s i s f o r the obtention of a Master's degree i n criminology, which deals with Penitentiary procedures. The Commissioner has asked everyone to cooperate with him i n t h i s undertaking, and he now has an o f f i c e i n the J u s t i c e Building, so that he may work closer to h i s sources of information. Although i t i s r e a l i z e d that the word "questionnaire" may produce an i n i t i a l negative' reaction, we would nevertheless ask you t o cooperate i n t h i s undertaking, that w i l l give our Service some idea of the usefulness of c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. You are asked to be quite frank i n your opinions even i f you f e e l that they may not agree with our own thoughts on the matter. As the time element i s important, would you make a special e f f o r t to return them to me, c/o Room , Justice Building, before June 25th. Thank you f o r your cooperation.  Jean Q^arneau, Ph.D.. Acting D i r e c t o r ( I T ) .  JG:LS  CONFIDENTIAL RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE I N STRU  C T I 0 NS  1.  Please answer a l l questions which apply t o you.  2.  Answer the questions f r a n k l y and completely but o b j e c t i v e l y .  3.  Do not confer with others on the answers, - make them completely your own.  4.  Complete a l l answers which do not require verbal answers with an "X".  5.  Please return completed questionnaires by June 25, 1963.  1.  Do you know of any studies o r research which have taken place i n your own or another f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n ? Yes  2.  No  I f the above answer i s 'Yes' please complete the f o l l o w i n g information.  Name of Study  Institution  Name of Sponsor (University Dept., Pen. Service, Student, etc.)  Purpose (Study o f ; Inmates, Training, Administrative Procedures, etc.)  Year Of Study  Which o f the above were: Continued from year t o year enter numbers One time studies  enter numbers  With respect t o the present s t a t i s t i c a l documents which you help t o complete f o r each inmate, please give answers t o the f o l l o w i n g questions: (a) I n your o p i n i o n are the i n t e r v i e w i n g conditions adequate w i t h respect to; (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)  Space  Yes  No  Surroundings  Yes  No  Privacy  Yes  No  Length o f time a v a i l a b l e  Yes  No  (b) I f the answer t o any o f the above i s 'No' i n what way are the i n t e r viewing conditions u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ?  (c) What are the t i t l e s o f the o f f i c e r s who conduct the i n t e r v i e w s regarding the: ADMISSION FORM  CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE  RELEASE FORM  133  - 3(d) Do the same o f f i c e r s conduct these interviews with the inmates at a l l times o r are interviews conducted by d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e r s from time to time? ADMISSION FORM Same O f f i c e r s  Different Officers  CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE Same O f f i c e r s  Different Officers  RELEASE FORM Same O f f i c e r s  Different Officers  (e) When interviewing do you follow the sequence of questions on the forms each time or follow a d i f f e r e n t sequence from time to time? . Same Sequence  D i f f e r e n t Sequence  ( f ) Do you understand the purpose of c o l l e c t i n g a l l the information on the, Admission Form  Yes  No  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire  Yes  No  Release Form  Yes  No  (g) Have you received formal t r a i n i n g concerning the method of completing forms apart from i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the Penitentiary Reporting Manual? Yes  No  (h) With respect to interviews you conduct t o complete the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire and Release Form, do you consider yourself, P r o f e s s i o n a l l y Trained i n Interviewing  Yes  No  Experienced  Yes  No_  i n Interviewing  ( i ) In your opinion i s the information entered on the forms, 1.  Accurate most of the time  2.  Sometimes accurate and sometimes not  3.  Mostly inaccurate .. .4  134  - k ( j ) I f the answer to (g) i s 2 or 3_ state the reasons f o r your opinion  (k) In your opinion i s the information entered on the forms concerning the personal and s o c i a l background of inmates, 1.  Accurate most of the time  2.  Sometimes accurate and sometimes not  3.  Mostly inaccurate  ( l ) I f the above answer i s 2 or 2, state the reasons f o r your opinion  (m) I s there any independent check made with outside sources to v e r i f y information given by inmates on the, Admission Form  Yes  No  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire  Yes  No  (n) Does the information received from sources other than the inmate hims e l f a s s i s t i n completing the forms? . Yes No (o) I s the design of the forms s a t i s f a c t o r y as to space allowed f o r answers, p o s i t i o n i n g of items, congruence with interviewing procedure, etc. Yes No (p) I f the above answer i s 'No' give reasons f o r your opinion:  (q)- In terms of your t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do you have s u f f i c i e n t time f o r s t a t i s t i c a l recording? Yes No ...5  135  -5  -  (r) In your opinion do s t a t i s t i c s and research a s s i s t i n the operations of penitentiaries? Yes (s) I f the answer above i s 'Yes' or "No  1  No  give the reasons f o r your opinion:  (t) Please add below any extra remarks you may wish to make about the Penitentiary s t a t i s t i c a l system:  Signature  Rank or P o s i t i o n  136 APPENDIX C  PENITENTIARY  NAME  A5ES  Last  First  DAT E  WAIVER  OF  INMATE  Middle  Y«ar  Month  OFFENCES (include appeals and results)  First  Last DATE  SIGNED  Day  No.  ADMISSION FORM  DISTRIBUTION R E S T R I C T E D AS A P P R O V E D BY DIVISIONAL DIRECTOR  ALI  AREA  PENITENTIARY  CONFIDENTIAL  ADMITTED  Day  Month  STATUTE SECTION  Middle  SENTENCE  Year  SENTENCE  COMMENCED  Day  CONSECUTIVE OR CONCURRENT  Month WHERE SENTENCED  AGGREGATE  NAME  OF MAGISTRATE  DATE  OF  OR  TYPE  JUDGE  OF  COURT  Year DATE SENTENCED  SENTENCE  P R O B A B L E D A T E O F DISCHARGE  Month BIRTH  Doy  Month  INMATE'S  NEXT  F  LAST  •  1  D  AND No.  N  a  m  <  RELATIONSHIP  SEPARATED  WIDOWED  •  •  (Type)  PENITENTLY  O F KIN A N D A D D R E S S  COMMON LAW  MEDICAL AILMENT Epi lepsy j Diabetes  • PENSION  MARRIED  •  APPARENT MAJOR Heart ailment  Year  RELIGION  Year  SINGLE  |  OF BIRTH  ADDRESS  SEX M  P L A C E  DIVORCED •  •  No. O F C H I L D R E N  •  Other (specify)  •  •  REGIMENTAL  No.  UNIT  ANDSERVICE  ON  DISCHARGE  P on It .nt i pry  >  N mb« u  Sentenced as: HEIG HT  ins.  ft. PROMINENT  B UILD  WEIG H T  MARKS,  ACCOMPLICES  COLOUR  lbs. SCARS,  N  a  TATTOOS  m  f  A N D DISABILITIES  Sentence  l  COMPILING  9 0 0 3 - 7 7 . 1 : 27-2-62  COMPLEXION  FOR  OFFICER  DISTRIBUTION  SEE REVERSE  SIDE  O F HAIR  COLOUR  OF EYES  PENITENTIARY  TRANSFER FORM  DISCHARGING INSTITUTION _  DEPARTURE DATE  Compiling Officer _  RECEIVING INSTITUTION .  ARRIVAL DATE  Compiling Officer  Title 9 0 0 3 - 7 6 . 1 : 27-2-62  FOR  DISTRIBUTION S E E R E V E R S E SIDE  137 PENITENTIARY  CLASSIFICATION QUESTIONNAIRE CONFIDENTIAL  PENITENTIARY  DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTED AS A P P R O V E D B Y DIVISIONAL D I R E C T O R  NAME O F INMATE . A R E A No.  DISTRIBUTION: Copy 1 — Inmate's institutional file Copy 2 - Judicial Section, D.B.S. Copy 3 - Penitentiary Headquarters  F . P . S . No.  S O U R C E S O F INFORMATION  CRIMINAL HISTORY Present Conviction First conviction  Place of occurrence _  Yea  No N . V .  •  •  Yes  No  •  province  • • • Yes  Offence commited with others  Previous Convictions  Y  Juvenile probation  e  No  s  N o  •  D Times  Juvenile institution .  N.V.  N  Offence commited al one  y  •  Adult probation Times  •  Yrs.  e  s  N  •  o  N  v  •  •  N.V.  •  Gaol or reformatory .  Parole violations  Age at first conviction..  •  Y  N.V.  N.V.  Penitentiary  Escapes .  •  N.V.  Total time spent in adult institutions  ALCOHOL AND DRUGS' Alcohol Alcoholic  Problem drinker  •  as alcohol directly associated with offence?  Yes  No  n  No problem  •  n  n  Drugs User Drug5 used Heroin .. Barbiturates and compounds . Marihuana Means of supporting drug habit: .  9 0 0 3 - 7 9 . 1 : 5-3-62  Add ict  Not indicated  • Prin.  •  •  •  N . V .  •  Duration of addiction or use Prin.  Sec.  •  •  •  Other opium compounds . Tranquilizers Other (specify)  • • •  yrs. Sec.  • • •  PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST RESULTS Invalid  Score  M.M.P.I. Profile  •  • • • • •  ?  L  Pd  Kir  •  F  lis  D  Hy  Pa  Pt  Se  Ma  No Testing  •  • • • • • J  •  •  Other Tests (specify)  •  •  •  PERSONAL HISTORY Education  English  Mathematics  Other (specify)  •  Education test grades .  •  _  Grade completed  Age on leaving school .  Yes  Where obtained  No  N.V.  .• • •  Disciplinary record . province or country  Occupation Occupation  Industry  Employed at time of offence  Yes  ! 1  No  I 1  N.V.  1  1  Employment pattern (two years) Employed  mos;  _mos:  Unemployed  Financial assistance .  Incarcerated _  Origin. Ethnic origin Country of birth Year of arrival in Canada . Language spoken in the home  Languages spoken by inmate  Mori ted Data  Single  ..•  Marital status  No. of Children  Married  •  No. of Dependents  Medical Condition Is the inmate fit for:  full duty  •  light duty  Common-law  .•  O  ••  •  Nature of physical or mental disability  Is this disability:  9 0 0 3 - 7 9 . 1 : 5-3-62  permanent  •  Widowed  •  •  Separated  •  > duty  •  Divorced  •  138 -  3  -  FAMILY BACKGROUND No  Yes  •  Did the subject grow up with his parents? If ' N o ' , at what age did separation occur: Reason for separation  From father .  From mother .  :  Type of family substitution _ If foster placement, how often  Was this assistance  Relationships Discipline by father Discipline by mother  Supervision by mother  Affection of father Affection of mother  • •  assistance?  temporary  •  intermittent  • •  Over strict erratic  Laz  • •  • •  • •  Suitable  Fair  Unsuitable  •  ••  Warm, overprotective  Indifferent or hostile  •  " • •  •  ACADEMIC VOCATIONAL THERAPY  SECURITY  REMARKS  Compiling Officer  9 0 0 3 - 7 9 . 1 : 5-3-62  long term  Firm but kindly  TRAINING RECOMMENDED  SPECIAL  No  Yes  Did his family have any health or welfare  PENITENTIARY  CONFIDENTIAL  RELEASE FORM  DISTRIBUTION R E S T R I C T E D AS A P P R O V E D BY DIVISIONAL DIRECTOR  PENITENTIARY  ALIASES  NAME  Lost  First  DATE  Doy  DATE  Month OF  Year  • CUSTODIAL  ADMISSION  Day  Porole  •  •  Attempt s  Yes •  Yes •  No TO  SPECIAL  P  • • •  Fomily  Intensive  EDUCATIONAL  • Max  •  a  •  I  Actively Cooperative  P  • P  P  P  • P English .  P  Psychiatrist Intensive  • P P  Diagnostic  Occasional  Intensive  P  •  •  P  P  •  P  P  P  Mathematics  Other  Arts and crafts  P  •  •  O C C U P A T I O N A L T R A I N I N G (State skills) TRADE  1.  Months i  Not Graduated  Nil  P  P  TRADE  Months  training Not graduated  Graduated  P  P  Reason not graduated  AND INDUSTRIAL  2.  Nil  TRADE  P  Not graduated  P  C O N D I T I O N ON  3.  Months in training  training  Gi iduated  Nil  Graduated  •  P Reason not  •  Reason not graduated  graduated  Nil  P  P  graduated  P R O D U C T I O N (State work area and time spent) Mos.  Unfit  • •  P  Cooperative  Occasional  TRAINING  MAINTENANCE  •  • P  P  Social  P  Reason not graduated  Fit  Custodial classification Med Min  COURSES  Months in training  MEDICAL  Year  No. of months  Diagnostic  •  Acodemic grades attained in  •  DATE  Month  P syehologi st  ACHIEVEMENTS  Graduated  Doy  •  Ambivalent  Diagnostic Occasioi al  Group  Academic  •  P  EXPIRY  Other (specify)  No. of convictions by disciplinary board  Classification Officer t Social Worker  CONTACT  VOCATIONAL TRADE  Year  Death  •  P  Uneooperativ  I I  Individual  TRAINING  No  Month  Court order release  No. of days remission lost  WARRANT  •  THERAPY OF  Day  Unconditional release  Middle  RELEASE  PROGRAMME  Actively Uncooperative  ADULT  Year  OF  If Yes, state reason and time lost.  DID I N M A T E L O S E A N Y TIME FROM TRAINING?  RESPONSE  First DATE  Month  Gradual  Force used against persons  RECORD  Escapes  TYPE  OF  RELEASE  Expiration of sentence  INMATE  Last  Middle  O F B IRT H  TYPE  OF  RELEASE DISABILITIES  Temporary  Permanent  P  P  Mos.  3 MEDICAL  CONDITION ON ADMISSION DISABILITIES  Fit  Corrected  Improved  P  P  Unlit  P P  Same Worse  P  P  EMPLOYMENT  Medical ly unfit for work  •  No employment obtained  P  Employment in trade acquired in institution  Employment in former trade  P  Hotel or Boarding house  — 1—I  RESIDENCE  . Home AGENCY  LI  Relative's home  .—. 1—1  CONTACTS  Public agency Voluntary  P  Supervi sion  Private agency Voluntary  P  Name  P  Supervi sion  I  I  P  Untrained or unski 1 led employment  P  Other (specify) — 1 1 1  Other (specify) Voluntary  P  P  None  N.E.S.  Supervi sion  P  Yes  •  No  a  P  Name  Name  PROGNOSIS GOOD  STATED DESTINATION COMPILING  9 0 0 3 - 7 8 . 1 : 27-2-62  Q  DOUBTFUL  1 1  MONEY, BONDS AND SECURITIES IN I N M A T E ' S A C C O U N T S OFFICER  FOR DISTRIBUTION S E E R E V E R S E  SIDE  POOR  n  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  139 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BOOKS  B a r n a r d , C. I . , The F u n c t i o n s of the E x e c u t i v e , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 60.  Cambridge:  B e n d i x , R., Max Weber, An I n t e l l e c t u a l P o r t r a i t , New Doubleday and Co., I n c . , 1960.  York:  B l a u , P. M., and S c o t t , R. W., Formal O r g a n i z a t i o n s , San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1962. E t z i o n i , A., A Comparative A n a l y s i s o f Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1961. G e r t h , H. H., and M i l l s , C. W., ( t r a n s l a t o r s and e d i t o r s ) , From Max Weber: Essays i n S o c i o l o g y , New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Goode, W. J . , and H a t t , P. K., Methods i n S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l Book Co., 1962. Levy, M. J . , The S t r u c t u r e of S o c i e t y , P r i n c e t o n : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952.  Princeton  Merton, R. K., S o c i a l Theory and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1957. P a r s o n s , T., S t r u c t u r e and P r o c e s s i n Modern S o c i e t i e s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. R o e t h l i s b e r g e r , F. J.-, and D i c k s o n , W. J . , Management and the Worker, Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. S e l l t i z , C , Johoda, M. , D e u t s c h , M. , and Cook, S. W., Research Methods i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , T9~61. Weber, M. , The Theory of S o c i a l and-Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n , T r a n s l a t e d by Henderson, A. M., and P a r s o n s , T., Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 19 47.  140 B.  PERIODICALS  D a v i s , K., "The Myth o f F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s as a S p e c i a l Method I n S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 24, No. 6, December, 1959, J o h n s t o n e , W., and H e n h e f f e r , B. W., " H i s t o r y o f Treatment i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s " , Canadian W e l f a r e , V o l . XXIX, No. 3-4, Ottawa: The Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Sept., 1953 . M e l t z e r , B. N., "An A p p r a i s a l o f t h e P r i m a r y Data U t i l i z e d i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S t a t i s t i c s " , The Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 18, No. 1, Feb., 1952. Merton, R. K., and K e n d a l l , P. L., "The Focused I n t e r v i e w " , American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 2, No. 6, Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , May, 19 46. P a r s o n s , T., " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach t o t h e Theory o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s " , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1, No. 1, June, 1956. , " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach t o t h e Theory o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s " , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1, No. 2, September, 19 56, C.  ARTICLES IN READERS  B a r n a r d , C. I . , " F u n c t i o n o f S t a t u s Systems", i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , Merton, R. K., e t a l , e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 19 60. B a r t o n , A. H., and L a z a r s f e l d , P. F., "Some F u n c t i o n s o f Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s i n S o c i a l Research", i n S o c i o l o g y — the P r o g r e s s o f a Decade, L i p s e t , S. M., and S m e l s e r , N. e d i t o r s , Englewood C l i f f : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1961. , and L a z a r s f e l d , P. F., "Some G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s oF Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , i n The Language o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , L a z a r s f e l d , P. F., and Rosenberg, M., e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1962.  141 B e c k e r , H. S., "The Teacher i n the A u t h o r i t y System of the P u b l i c S c h o o l " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 19 62. B u c k l e y , W., " S t r u c t u r a l F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s i n Modern S o c i o l o g y " , i n Modern S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory i n C o n t i n u i t y i and Change, B e c k e r , H., and B o s k o f f , A., e d i t o r s , New York The Dryden P r e s s , 1957. C l a r k , B. R., " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n and P r e c a r i o u s Values i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. Cloward, R. A., " S o c i a l C o n t a c t i n the P r i s o n " , T h e o r e t i c a l S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of the P r i s o n , Cloward, R. A., e t a l , e d i t o r s , New York: S o c i a l S c i e n c e Research C o u n c i l , 1960. D a l t o n , M., " C o n f l i c t between S t a f f and L i n e M a n a g e r i a l O f f i c e r s " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. D a v i s , A. K., " B u r e a u c r a t i c P a t t e r n s i n t h e Navy O f f i c e r C o r p s " , i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , Merton, R. K., e t a l , e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. D u b i n , R., " D e c i s i o n Making by Management i n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s " , i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , Merton, R. K., e t a l e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. E i s e n s t a d t , S. N., "Bureaucracy B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and D e b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. F r e i d r i c h , C. J . , "Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on Weber's A n a l y s i s of B u r e a u c r a c y " , i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , Merton, R. K., e t a l , e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. Goffman, E., "The' C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n s " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962.  142 H o p k i n s , T. K., " B u r e a u c r a t i c A u t h o r i t y : Convergence o f Weber and B a r n a r d " , i n Complex Organization's - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 19 62. J a n o w i t z , M., " H i e r a r c h y and A u t h o r i t y i n t h e M i l i t a r y E s t a b l i s h m e n t " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. ________ W r i g h t , D., and. D e l a n y , W., " P u b l i c Administration and t h e P u b l i c " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. L i p s e t , S. M., "Bureaucracy and S o c i a l Change", i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , M e r t o n , R. K., e t a l , e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. Merton, R.. K., " B u r e a u c r a t i c S t r u c t u r e and P e r s o n a l i t y " , i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , Merton, R. K., e t a l , e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. _______ " B u r e a u c r a t i c S t r u c t u r e and P e r s o n a l i t y " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York:' H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. R e c k l e s s , W. C., " T r a i n i n g o f t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l Worker", i n Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n , Tappan, P. W., e d i t o r , Mew York: McGraw H i l l Book Co., I n c . , 1951. S e l z n i c k , P., "A Theory o f O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Commitments", i n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , M e r t o n , R. K., e t a l , e d i t o r s , Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1960. • , " C r i t i c a l Decisions i n Organizational Development", i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: Holt,- R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962. u  S i l l s , D. L., "The S u c c e s s i o n o f G o a l s " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 19 62. Sykes, G. M., "The C o r r u p t i o n o f A u t h o r i t y and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n " , i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962, Thompson, D. J . , and McEwen, W. J . , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Goals and Environment", i n Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader, E t z i o n i , A., e d i t o r , New York: H o l t R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962.  143 D. ' PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER  ORGANIZATIONS  Rules and R e g u l a t i o n s made by t h e I n s p e c t o r s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P e n i t e n t i a r y R e s p e c t i n g P e n i t e n t i a r y D i s c i p l i n e 'and P o l i c y under a u t h o r i t y o f S t a t u t e 4, W i l l i a m I V , s u b m i t t e d t o t h e L t . Governor o f Upper Canada, 1836. Annual Report o f t h e Warden o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P e n i t e n t i a r y , K i n g s t o n : 1864. Annual Report o f t h e Warden of t h e P r o v i n c i a l P e n i t e n t i a r y , K i n g s t o n : 1866. Seventh Annual Report o f t h e Board o f I n s p e c t o r s o f Asylums and P r i s o n s , K i n g s t o n : 1867. F i r s t Annual Report o f t h e D i r e c t o r s o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , 1868 Annual R e p o r t s o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , 1868 - 1962. The B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , 1867, S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 30 and 31, V i c t o r i a , Chapter 3. The P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , 1906, S t a t u t e s of Canada, 6 Edward V I I , Chapter 38. An A c t R e s p e c t i n g P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , 19 39, S t a t u t e s of Canada, 3 George V I , Chapter 6. An A c t t o Amend t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , 1918, S t a t u t e s of Canada, 8-9, George V., Chapter 36. The P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1927, Chapter 154. The P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1952 Chapter 206. The P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , 1961, S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 9-10 E l i z a b e t h I I , Chapter 53. 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J . , The Changing Canadian P r i s o n , an address d e l i v e r e d March 29, 1962 a t t h e Annual M e e t i n g of the John Howard S o c i e t y of London, Ont., T o r o n t o : John Howard S o c i e t y , 1962. S t a t i s t i c s of C r i m i n a l and Other O f f e n c e s — 1961, Ottawa: The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1963. E. Administrative 1920-1963.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS  F i l e s o f t h e Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y  Service,  C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s and Commissioner's D i r e c t i v e s , 1930-63.  145 C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, O r g a n i z a t i o n arid-Methods •Survey-, of the C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y and M a i l S e r v i c e f the O f f i c e of t h e Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , May, 19 59. p  Summary o f the Recommendations C o n t a i n e d i n the Report o f the C o r r e c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Committee o f t h e Department of J u s t i c e , June 8, 1960, Mimeographed. :  M c L a u g h l i n , J . A,, A P l a n t o Develop I n d u s t r i a l Work i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , S e p t . , 1960. Management A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, P r e l i m i n a r y Report on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r a c t i c e s — O f f i c e o f t h e 'Commissioner o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , March, 19 61. Management A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, Report on a Survey o f the O r g a n i z a t i o n and O p e r a t i o n s o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n of the O f f i c e of the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , A p r i l , 1961. Stevenson and K e l l o g g L t d . , A Study o f I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t i e s i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , December, 1962. Management A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, Report on a Survey o f t h e Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e F i l e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , J u n e , 1963. Management A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, T r a n s c r i b i n g and T y p i n g S e r v i c e s — Headquarters Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , Department o f J u s t i c e , J u l y , 19 63.  

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