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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Urban development of central Vancouver Island Forrester, Elizabeth Anne Marshall 1966

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T H E U R B A N D E V E L O P M E N T O F C E N T R A L V A N C O U V E R ISLAND  by E L I Z A B E T H ANNE M A R S H A L L F O R R E S T E R B . S c , The University of Glasgow, I960  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F ARTS in the Department of Geography  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A September, 1966  1  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree that the L i b r a r y shall make it f r e e l y available for reference and study.  I further agree  that p e r m i s s i o n for extensive copying of this thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes m a y be granted by the Head of m y Department or by his representative.  It is understood  that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without m y written p e r m i s s i o n .  Department of Geography The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver 8, Canada. Date:  September 12,  1966.  ABSTRACT  The thesis is a study of the urban development of Central Vancouver Island, an area which lacks economic homogeneity. Throughout the period of settlement, agriculture has been second in importance to coal mining and later to the forest industry.  Much  of the settlement in the region has been as a result of the utilization of three natural resources - coal, forest and land suitable for cultivation.  Access to a means of transport was the early factor  limiting expansion of settlement, in particular access to the coast and steamers from Victoria.  As transport facilities on land  improved, occupation of inland areas took place.  The first urban settlement in the region was  associated  with coal mining in the Nanaimo area, and later farther north at the Cumberland-Union mines.  The second phase of urban growth  occurred from 1900-1930, a period characterized by decreasing profits from -coal mining and greater'importance  of forest industries.  This phase is marked by the growth of Duncan and Gourtenay as service centres for their respective agricultural hinterlands and by changes in the location of mining centres.  A rapid increase of population occurred as a result of advances in the forest industry, and of concurrent increase in the service industries, between 1931 and 1961.  This third phase of settle-  ment is characterized by an improved and expanded highway system  iii w h i c h g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d the g r o w t h of a h i e r a r c h y of u r b a n  centres,  both s e r v i c e and i n d u s t r i a l ,  settled  a r e a of the  a l o n g w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f the  Island. j  A  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d n u m b e r of  c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s p r e s e n t i n the u r b a n c e n t r e s of C e n t r a l V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d w a s c a r r i e d out.  C o m p a r i s o n of the  obtained with those p u b l i s h e d for a s i m i l a r study i n South West i n d i c a t e s t h a t m o s t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e s e n t i n the l a t t e r ural region are  also present in Central Vancouver Island,  results Iowa,  agricult-  but to a  l e s s m a r k e d d e g r e e b e c a u s e of the p r e s e n c e of a l a r g e r n u m b e r industrial centres.  A n o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n . i s that the  centres through this period.illustrates  study of t r a d e  the fact that t h o s e  w h i c h are of a high o r d e r  i n a h i e r a r c h y t e n d to i n c r e a s e  r a p i d l y than  centres.  lower order  Five centres, and L a d y s m i t h , were functions  Nanaimo,  Courtenay,  and m o r p h o l o g y .  T h i s r e v e a l e d the i m p o r t a n c e r a i l w a y s and highways,  resulted in industrial expansions  and,  in some cases,  centres more  the A l b e r n i s  s e l e c t e d for d e t a i l e d study of t h e i r  transport facilities, wharfs,  service  Duncan,  of  changing of  w h i c h have increase  of  functions.  T h e c e n t r a l and p o r t l o c a t i o n of N a n a i m o has  l e d to i t s  growth  iv as the m a j o r wholesale distribution point for the a r e a and it is as the tributary a r e a to Nanaimo that the region attains unity.  Despite  the v a r i e t y of economic backgrounds to which the urban centres owe their existence,  and the e a r l y growth of settlement in widely  separated locations, the development of a network of communications has allowed the evolution of a h i e r a r c h y of urban places within the region.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS Chapter I  INTRODUCTION Problem Approach  II  T H E ORIGINS O F S E T T L E M E N T IN C E N T R A L V A N C O U V E R ISLAND Agriculture Coal mining Forest Industries Urban Centres  III  T H E URBAN HIERARCHY WITHIN C E N T R A L V A N C O U V E R ISLAND The Urban Hierarchy in 1961 The Development of a Trade Hierarchy 1931-61  IV  URBAN L A N D USE D E V E L O P M E N T Nanaimo Duncan Courtenay The Albernis Lady smith Summary  V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Stages of Urban Development Transportation: Transport as a Locational Factor Effect of Transport upon the Growth of Urban Centres Effect of Transport Facilitie upon Urban Morphology The Urban Hierarchy  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX - Population, Central Functions and Functional Units for Central Vancouver Island Urban Centres  LIST O F T A B L E S  Table I  Page C o r r e l a t i o n s between Population, F u n c t i o n a l Units and C e n t r a l Functions  31  II  Vancouver Island: Selected C i t i e s : Population 1921-61  50  III  Vancouver Island: Selected C i t i e s : Retail Trade  50  IV  Population, C e n t r a l Functions and Functional Units C e n t r a l Vancouver Island U r b a n C e n t r e s , 1961  110  LIST O F M A P S  C e n t r a l Vancouver Island C e n t r a l and Southern Vancouver Island C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1881 C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1891 C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1901 C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1911 C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1921 C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1931 The Nanaimo C o a l f i e l d The U r b a n H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island 1961 The T r a d e A r e a s of Nanaimo The Development of the T r a d e H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island 1931 The Development of the T r a d e H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island 1941 The Development of the T r a d e H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island 1951 The Development of the T r a d e H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island 1961 The Structure of the Labour f o r c e for Selected C i t i e s 1941  viii  Map 17  18  Page The Structure of the Labour F o r c e for Selected C i t i e s 1951  51  The Structure of the Labour F o r c e for Selected C i t i e s 1961  51  19  . C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Nanaimo 1931  53  20  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Nanaimo 1941  55  21  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Nanaimo 1951  57  22  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Nanaimo 1961  59  23  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan 1931  61  24  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan 1941  63  25  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan 1951  65  26  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan 1961  67  27  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of C o u r t e n a y 1931  69  28  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Courtenay 1941  71  29  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Courtenay 1951  73  30  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Courtenay 1961  75  31  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of: the A l b e r n i s 1931  77  32  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the A l b e r n i s 1941  79  33  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the A l b e r n i s 1951  81  34  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the. A l b e r n i s 1961  83  35  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y smith 1931  85  36  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1941  87  37  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1951  89  38  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1961  91  LIST O F FIGURES  C o r r e l a t i o n between Population and F u n c t i o n a l Units C o r r e l a t i o n between Population and C e n t r a l Functions The U r b a n H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island The Structure of the T r a d e H i e r a r c h y of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population Growth, for Selected C i t i e s 1921-61  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The w r i t e r would like to acknowledge assistance, a d v i s o r y and f i n a n c i a l , r e c e i v e d f r o m s e v e r a l p e r s o n s .  both She is  indebted to D r . A . L . F a r l e y and D r . D. Hooson for their valuable c r i t i c i s m s of the thesis at v a r i o u s stages, and also to D r . W. Hardwick for many helpful suggestions.  M r . John  B r y a n t has p r o v i d e d invaluable cartographic advice and drafted the final i l l u s t r a t i o n s on pages 8,  9, 14 and 51.  Financial assist-  ance was r e c e i v e d f r o m a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a n Grant and f r o m the P . E . O International S c h o l a r s h i p F u n d .  September,  1966  E. A. M .  Forrester  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  The P r o b l e m Many geographical studies have been made of the urban development of North A m e r i c a n areas that are b a s i c a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l .  In addition  m u c h has been written on aspects of the geography of individual urban centres.  L i t t l e , apparently,  has been published about regional urban  development in a r e a s which do not have substantial a g r i c u l t u r a l  development.  Vancouver Island is an a r e a of this type where only a few urban settlements have a g r i c u l t u r a l o r i g i n s .  T h i s study attempts to determine the c h a r a c t e r  of u r b a n development within part of Vancouver Island. The region,  shown on M a p 1, has been d e l i m i t e d to include the zone  of continuous settlement, r u r a l and urban, along the east coastal plain of Vancouver Island excluding the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a region but including the Alberni  Valley.  T h i s region was chosen for a geographical study of urban  settlement because there is variety in both size and function of the urban centres and also because the region is the wholesale trade a r e a of N a n a i m o . Both of these factors suggest that while the a r e a provides scope for the /study of s e v e r a l different f a c t o r s of urban development,  a h i e r a r c h y of  central places m a y exist, that might give a degree of unity to the region. T h i s region w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as C e n t r a l Vancouver Island.  M a p 1.  Central Vancouver  llsland  3  The  Approach R. E .  D i c k i n s o n states that:  "The geographical  study of an u r b a n  c e r n e d with four m a i n p r o b l e m s : c u l t u r a l conditions that w e r e  settlement is  first,  the p h y s i c a l  the r e a c t i o n s  of t h i s  in its functional and m o r p h o l o g i c a l development, i m p a c t of h i s t o r i c a l events; t h i r d ,  the life a n d  the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s  surrounding  territory.  b e t w e e n the  a s p e c t of study,  This urban  namely,  however,  w i t h the p r o b l e m s  Archives,  has  suggested by D i c k i n s o n .  although d e a l i n g w i t h the  Chapters  of the  portion,  ( c h a p t e r 2),  two and t h r e e of  r e g i o n as a w h o l e and  Victoria,  B. C. .  Newspaper  In the p r e p a r a t i o n  chapter region.  files,  unpublished  manuscript  centennial histories  f r o m the w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s  of c e n s u s d i v i s i o n s w e r e  were  determined  p r o v i d e d b y the D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of  T h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e o n the  m e n t i n t h e r e g i o n p r i o r to. 1931 v a r i e s l o c a l i t i e s it offers  of  of the m a p s of p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n p r i o r  t o 1931 ( M a p s 3.-8) t h e b o u n d a r i e s  Statistics.  the  i n v o l v e d an e x a m i n a t i o n of s o u r c e s i n the P r o v i n c i a l  a c t i v i t i e s o n the I s l a n d a n d s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s  consulted.  itself  w h i c h i s a study of the o r i g i n s of  m a t e r i a l a n d e a r l y p h o t o g r a p h s of the r e g i o n , pioneer  important  1 , 1  d e t a i l e d s t u d y of f i v e s e l e c t e d u r b a n a r e a s w i t h i n the  The first settlement,  its  of a r e g i o n r a t h e r than a s i n g l e c e n t r e c o n c e r n s  t h e s i s d e a l w i t h the u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t four is a m o r e  a  study of an i n -  study of C e n t r a l V a n c o u v e r Island,  development  both as  w i t h i n it;  a further  comparison.  the  settlement and  I n a d d i t i o n to the  dividual settlement there is,  to  the  nucleus,  organization  settlement viewed areally,  w h o l e a n d w i t h r e s p e c t to the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s fourth,  and  i n v o l v e d i n the o r i g i n s of  n u c l e u s of settlement; second,  of the c o n t e m p o r a r y  con-  settlement origins and  develop-  i n quantity and quality and for  l i t t l e for a study of this  kind.  some  4 T h r e e activities,  coal m i n i n g , f o r e s t r y and agriculture have been  the m a j o r propellants to the development of the economy of the Island as a whole.  The f i r s t section of the study is therefore concerned with the  influence of these activities upon the settlement pattern, growth within C e n t r a l Vancouver Island.  location and  A s the utilization of natural  r e s o u r c e s is dependent upon the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e and m a r k e t ,  the  development of transportation f a c i l i t i e s on the Island has been c o n s i d e r e d as one of the m a j o r locational influences of urban settlement.  The second portion of the thesis,  (chapter three), continues the  study of u r b a n development in the region up to the present t i m e .  A survey  of a l l the f a c t o r s involved in the growth of the economy of the region within the last thirty y e a r s is beyond the scope of this study.  Instead an  attempt has been made to determine f i r s t , if an urban h i e r a r c h y does exist within the region at present, h i e r a r c h y f r o m 1931 to 1961.  and second, the structure of this  T h i s has been based upon a survey of the  central functions present within a l l the urban settlements of the region.  To determine the structure of the h i e r a r c h y i n 1961 the ions between size of settlement,  correlat-  number of types of central function, and  number of functional units were examined in an attempt to discover what relationships existed at that date.  In o r d e r to d i s c o v e r if the r e l a t i o n -  ships in a sample a r e a not p r i m a r i l y a g r i c u l t u r a l are s i m i l a r to those for an a g r i c u l t u r a l region the results were c o m p a r e d to those determined for Southwest Iowa by B . J. L . B e r r y ,  H . G . B a r n u m and R. J .  A different method had to be used.for 1931,  19-41, and 1951  Tennant.  because  2  although the number of c e n t r a l functions present i n the various urban centres at e a r l i e r dates can be determined f r o m telephone  directories,  it i s not p o s s i b l e to obtain the population data f o r unincorporated centres p r i o r to 1956 when such figures were f i r s t included i n the Census of  3 Canada.  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r i e s  l i s t estimated populations  for many unincorporated settlements but there i s no indication given as to the a r e a l basis of the population estimate.  Further,  i n cases where  the population i s known f r o m the census there i s frequently considerable discrepancy.  T h e r e f o r e , the method used to establish the h i e r a r c h y for  e a r l i e r y e a r s is s i m i l a r to that used by J . R. B o r c h e r t i n " T h e U r b a n i s a t i o n of the Upper M i d West 1930-1960" . 4  T h i s i s based upon levels of  trade activity and r e q u i r e s less i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  The h i e r a r c h y which  has e m e r g e d f r o m this application for the p e r i o d 1931-1961 indicates changes.in the economy of the region and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , changing t r a n s portation patterns and associated alterations in a c c e s s i b i l i t y . A f t e r the study of u r b a n development upon a regional b a s i s ,  five  of the m a j o r settlements were selected for a detailed examination of their m o r p h o l o g i c a l and functional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  T h i s examination  f o r m s the t h i r d portion (chapter four) of the thesis.  Development of these  five centres as r e f l e c t e d i n the changing patterns of c o m m e r c i a l land use was mapped for the p e r i o d 1931-1961.  P r e s e n t c o m m e r c i a l land use was  plotted i n the f i e l d , and at the same time interviews were c a r r i e d out in an attempt to establish previous use of the city lots.  The greater part  of the compilation of the maps for 1931, 1941, and 1951 was a c c o m p l i s h e d  6 by using the B. C, Telephone directories which provide the street addresses of commercial establishments.  These addresses were related to those  determined in the course of field work. The information obtained by interview and from the British Columbia Directories for 1931 and 1941 was used to check the land use plotted from the telephone directories.  It had  been intended to carry this phase of the study further into the past, but telephone directories for the area prior to 1931 list only a portion of the commercial businesses.  Furthermore, a diligent search for material  clearly indicated that other available sources were not sufficiently reliable to warrant such an attempt within the scope of this study.  F r o m these urban land use maps a study of the morphological development as related.to changing functions, transport facilities and population was possible for each of the. five centres.  Comparison of the  relative importance of the various factors to the growth of individual centres was also attempted.  Chapter five summarizes the main findings of the study and also highlights the importance of transport facilities as a jn^'jor factor in the urban development of Central Vancouver Island.  ''"Dickinson, R. E. , "The Scope and Status of Urban Geography; an Assessment", Land Economics, XXIV, (August 1948), p. 224. 2 Berry, B. J. L. , G. H. Barnum and R. J. Tenant, "Retail Location and Consumer Behaviour", Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association, Vol. 9 (1962), pp. 65-106.  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r i e s , as distinct f r o m the B. C . -Telephone d i r e c t o r i e s , do not give a d d r e s s e s when l i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l establishments, and, as listings are under the names of residents ther is no guarantee that the business is actually in the community in which the owner r e s i d e s . A  B o r c h e r t j J, R. , The U r b a n i s a t i o n of the Upper M i d - W e s t 1930-1960, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1963. 4  CHAPTER  II  T H E ORIGINS O F S E T T L E M E N T IN C E N T R A L V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D It was not until fifty y e a r s after Captain Vancouver had e s t a b l i s h ed its existence as an i s l a n d that the colonization of Vancouver Island began. Within the f i r s t decade of settlement, that is by 1850,  the three economic  activities which have played m a j o r r o l e s in the development of the Island had been established; a g r i c u l t u r e ,  coal m i n i n g and f o r e s t r y .  The present  pattern of urban settlement has its o r i g i n s in the e a r l y development of these industries and their a s s o c i a t e d transport f a c i l i t i e s .  In 1843 the Hudson Bay Company constructed F o r t V i c t o r i a and agriculture developed on a l i m i t e d scale in the adjacent a r e a of the Saanich P e n i n s u l a and in the Colwood d i s t r i c t .  Disputes between Great  B r i t a i n and the United States as to the location of the international boundary were settled in 1846 when the O r e g o n T r e a t y was signed establ i s h i n g the f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l on the mainland, and the m i d d l e of the channel between Vancouver Island and the mainland, as the boundaries of the crown colonies.  P r i o r to this conclusion of the dispute,  several  R o y a l Navy ships had been sent to V i c t o r i a as a precautionary m e a s u r e and this had i n c r e a s e d the demand for foodstuffs to such an extent that the a g r i c u l t u r a l labour f o r c e of fifty had to be augmented by training Indians to m i l k cows and use a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s . ^  C o a l m i n i n g c o m m e n c e d in 1849 at F o r t Rupert in the northeast.  T h i s activity was also undertaken by the Hudson's Bay Company  CENTRAL & SOUTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND Railways  VICTORIA::  Map  2.  C e n t r a l and Southern Vancouver Island. Source: South Western, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 0 m i l e s to 1 i n c h ) D e p a r t m e n t of L a n d s a n d Forests, B. C.  10 and the c o a l was sold to the P a c i f i c M a i l Steamship Company,  The coal  at F o r t Rupert did not prove extensive and the m i n e r s were unwilling to r e m a i n due to the hostility of the natives; consequently, i n 1852  operations  4 t r a n s f e r r e d to the Nanaimo d i s t r i c t .  P r i o r to 1852 a l l the white people  on Vancouver Island with the exception of one f a m i l y and servants,  were  5 employees of the Hudson's Bay C o m p a n y .  The o p t i m i s m regarding the  prospects of the Nanaimo coal mines brought s e v e r a l shiploads of genuine settlers, m i n e r s and their f a m i l i e s f r o m mining areas of B r i t a i n . 1852 and 1861,  Between  55, 408 long tons of coal were exported. ^  The f i r s t l u m b e r operations other than the c l e a r i n g of land for a g r i c u l t u r e began at M i l l s t r e a m , near E s q u i m a l t in 1848.  A second  g m i l l went into operation at Sooke in 1850  followed shortly by m i l l s at  M i l l Bay and Genoa Bay. Agriculture The development of the m i n e s at Nanaimo and the subsequent gold r u s h to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e d an i n c r e a s e d and reliable m a r k e t for a g r i c u l t u r a l produce.  A s a result agriculture in the  Saanich P e n i n s u l a became well established, while the Cowichan and C o m o x v a l l e y s began to develop as significant a g r i c u l t u r a l n u c l e i .  These  three areas of e a r l y and continuing a g r i c u l t u r a l importance are the locations best suited to agriculture due to their position on the sheltered east coast of the Island where r a i n f a l l is c o m p a r a t i v e l y low and temperatures m i l d .  The frost free p e r i o d is longer than in other areas of Canada  11  with two hundred and eighty-two days in V i c t o r i a and approximately two hundred days in most of the rest of the east coast.  At Duncan where the  f r o s t free season is shorter,  one hundred and f i f t y - f i v e days, there are  higher s u m m e r temperatures  and a greater n u m b e r of hours of sunshine  q than elsewhere.  The soils of these areas are d e r i v e d f r o m g l a c i a l  and m a r i n e deposits whereas in the adjacent upland lithosols and extensive rock outcrops are c o m m o n .  The areas of e a r l i e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l  settlement were those with a p a r k l a n d type of vegetation which was m o r e e a s i l y c l e a r e d than the heavy coniferous forest in surrounding a r e a s . S u m m e r drought was a p r o b l e m for the e a r l y settlers. Within C e n t r a l Vancouver Island two areas of m a j o r a g r i c u l t u r a l importance e m e r g e d - Cowichan V a l l e y and C o m o x V a l l e y . Cowichan V a l l e y in 1858 had one settler f a r m i n g near Quamichan L a k e and i n the next two y e a r s he was joined by an additional nineteen f a r m e r s . F a r t h e r north around C h e m a i n u s , settlement rights were granted to two hundred and twelve persons in 1859 - m a i n l y u n s u c c e s s f u l gold m i n e r s r e t u r n e d f r o m the C a r i b o o region.  T h i s settlement was not s u c c e s s f u l  p a r t l y due to the lack of sufficient a c c e s s i b l e and .potentially productive land and probably also to the l a c k of a g r i c u l t u r a l skills on the part of the settlers.  The twenty-nine f a r m e r s settling on Salt Spring Island at the  ,.11 same time were m u c h m o r e s u c c e s s f u l . In addition to c l e a r i n g the land the f a r m e r s had to solve the p r o b l e m of transporting their produce to V i c t o r i a which was the m a i n  12 market.  Cowichan Bay or M a p l e Bay were the ports of c a l l of the  monthly and later weekly steamer which was the only connection with V i c t o r i a or Nanaimo, Somenos  The f i r s t r o a d built was to allow settlers at  a c c e s s to the steamer at M a p l e B a y .  .Chemainus did not have  a regular steamer c a l l and this lack of communication m a y have played a part in the difficulties of the settlers there.  Meat and butter were the  m a i n items which were shipped out f r o m Cowichan and the Gulf Islands.  The second m a j o r a g r i c u l t u r a l area, although v e r y much m o r e isolated due to its location 140 m i l e s north of V i c t o r i a was v e r y little later than Cowichan in i n i t i a l settlement.  Evidence as to the date of  the f i r s t settlers reaching C o m o x is contradictory. however,  It does seem  certain,  that although there may have been one or two persons in the  a r e a by I860, the f i r s t r e a l settlement began in 1862 with two groups of British origin,  one direct f r o m B r i t a i n and the other,  for the gold r u s h , f r o m A u s t r a l i a .  a r r i v i n g too late  By the end of that year there was  a population of about sixty almost a l l of whom were single m e n .  These  settlers found that the areas best suited to agriculture were those around the present sites of Sandwich and C o m o x in areas containing M e r v i l l e and L a z o soils both of which.are associated with p a r k l a n d rather than forest vegetation.  Potatoes and poultry were immediately found to do well and  i n 1863 a h e r d of D u r h a m cattle was brought f r o m near V i c t o r i a to f o r m the basis of the d i s t r i c t ' s stock.  A s the numbers of Chinese employed at  the Nanaimo mines i n c r e a s e d the production of pork in the C o m o x valley became v e r y profitable.  The pigs were allowed to run loose and were  frequently used to clear out the soil before planting.  The problem of transportation was greater here than in Cowichan. There were no graded roads prior to 1877 and no regular steamer service until 1870 when the service from Victoria to Nanaimo was extended to call monthly at Comox.  In 1875 this was increased to a fortnightly service.  Agricultural development in other areas of central Vancouver Island was very limited.  The first agricultural settlers arrived in the  Alberni area in 1857 followed by a second group between 1861 and 1865, when the first sawmill was in operation, providing a local market for produce.  The difficulty of clearing suitable land for agriculture and per-  haps the less favourable climate, in comparison with the east coast, restricted the agricultural development and it is unlikely that more than 15 thirty families have at any time made a living from agriculture.  In  the immediate vicinity of Nanaimo the unfavourable soils and terrain greatly limited agriculture and from an early date small farms were operated on a part-time basis only. During this early phase the settlement within these agricultural areas had little commercial development associated with it, and settlement was therefore entirely rural,. Coal Mining The importance of the coal mining areas of Vancouver Island as the focal points for population growth throughout the early years of  CENTRAL VANCOUVER ISLAND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION  Maps 3-8  C e n t r a l Vancouver Island Population Distribution 1881-1931. Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics  15 settlement is i l l u s t r a t e d by maps 3, 4,  and 5.  T h r e e m a j o r coal bearing  seams are present in the east coast region, the Douglas, Newcastle and Wellington seams (Map 9) of which the f i r s t two were frequently m i n e d in the same a r e a s and were seldom m o r e than fifty feet apart i n depth.  Although m i n i n g began at Nanaimo i n 1852 the big expansion of the industry came in 1869 when Robert Dunsmuir d i s c o v e r e d coal at Wellington. ^  Two y e a r s later D u n s m u i r , Diggle and Company were  working at Wellington while the Vancouver C o a l Company operated at Nanaimo.  T h e s e were the only two communities of significant size north  of V i c t o r i a at the time of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of Nanaimo in 1874. grew rapidly and by 1877  Nanaimo  there were 1, 150 adults and three hundred  C h i n e s e , while nearby Wellington had a population of 1, 000.  It is obvious  that other i m m i g r a n t s to the a r e a by then had decided that Nanaimo was, or was to become,  the c o m m e r c i a l centre for the d i s t r i c t .  were fifty r e t a i l and twenty-four s e r v i c e establishments c o m p a r e d with one store and an hotel at Wellington.  In 1877 there  in Nanaimo as  17  Between 1880 and 1890 the Vancouver C o a l Company (later the New Vancouver M i n i n g and L a n d Company) extended its operations to Chase R i v e r and N o r t h f i e l d , while the D u n s m u i r interests developed in Millstone Valley.  (See M a p 9).  The building, in 1.886, of the E s q u i m a l t  and Nanaimo Railway and at the same time the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to the west coast p r o v i d e d a m o r e r e l i a b l e m a r k e t than any that the Nanaimo m i n e s had p r e v i o u s l y supplied.  M a p 9.  The Nanaimo Coalfield.  m a r y Report,  Canada Department  British Columbia, Paper  47. 22,  G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of C a n a d a ,  Source: of M i n e s ,  M a p 54 A , A c c p m p a n y i n g S u m 1911;  and N a n a i m o  Canada Department  1947.  Coalfield,  of M i n e s and  /Resources  17 The depletion of the Wellington m i n e s caused changes in the location pattern of the producing m i n e s and of the m i n e r s ' dwellings by 1900.  In 1895 South Wellington came into production, m i n i n g the New-  castle and Douglas seams, followed shortly by a new mine at Extension u t i l i z i n g the Wellington seam.  At f i r s t the m i n e r s m o v e d near to the pit  head at Extension but this was not acceptable to the management for several reasons.  J a m e s D u n s m u i r p r e f e r r e d to have the m i n e r s employed  by his company l i v e in company towns but the owner of the land around the pit head, although w i l l i n g to lease to individuals, would not s e l l in o r d e r to allow a town site to be set out.  In addition there had p r e v i o u s l y  been trouble with the.miners at the Nanaimo m i n e s and it was felt that Extension was too close to N a n a i m o .  A t h i r d p r o b l e m which faced the  D u n s m u i r Company was that of transporting the coal to a convenient s hipping point.  The route o r i g i n a l l y planned, although p a r t i a l l y c o n -  structed, had to be abandoned because it had to c r o s s part of the land owned by the New Vancouver C o a l M i n i n g and L a n d Company between Extension and Departure Bay and due to the r i v a l r y between companies,  a c c e s s was not granted.  the two  18  F o r these reasons Dunsmuir decided to construct a company town at Oyster Harbour - later to be named L a d y s m i t h . noticeably  T h i s town is  different f r o m the others on the Island in that the m a j o r i t y of  its buildings were brought by r a i l either direct f r o m Wellington or f r o m Extension having p r e v i o u s l y been m o v e d there f r o m Wellington.  Many  of the hotels and stores which were m o v e d to L a d y s m i t h still exist today  although some of the m i n e r s ' houses have been demolished.  T o ensure  that his m i n e r s had little contact with those at Nanaimo, Dunsmuir made a ruling that a l l employed at E x t e n s i o n must live i n L a d y s m i t h .  Thus  i n c r e a s e i n employment at E x t e n s i o n f r o m 800 to 1, 300 f r o m 1900 to 1903 r e s u l t e d in the r a p i d growth of L a d y s m i t h to 2, 500 by 1903.  1 9  The  town was i n c o r p o r a t e d in 1904.  The Nanaimo region was not the only a r e a in which the coal bearing seams were of sufficient size to warrant development.  The  Baynes Sound C o l l i e r y had an a r e a of 5, 000 a c r e s of coal land ten m i l e s southwest of C o m o x .  T h i s company was f o r m e d in 187 5 and by 1877 had  constructed three and a half m i l e s of tramway and storage and handling 20 f a c i l i t i e s at the wharf with a capacity of 300 tons per day. of the m i n e s was,  however, only 50 tons per day.  The output  In 1889 the focus of  the m i n i n g industry in the region shifted to Union and C u m b e r l a n d , and by 1897 between 700 and 1, 000 tons were being ^produced.  By this date  C u m b e r l a n d had grown r a p i d l y and had a department store, nine r e t a i l stores, five s e r v i c e p r e m i s e s ,  four hotels and two sawmills in addition  21 to the m i n e s . The development of the C u m b e r l a n d mines r e s u l t e d in an expansion of agriculture in the C o m o x d i s t r i c t despite the lack of a direct r o a d .  The f a r m e r s managed to transport their produce by t r a i l  until the r o a d was built.  Until the development of the m i n e s at C u m b e r -  land, most of the settlers in the C o m o x a r e a were situated on the east  19 side of the Puntledge R i v e r although a bridge had been constructed in the 22 70's.  At the same time as the r a p i d expansion of C u m b e r l a n d , a  townsite was l a i d out around the bridge with the l a r g e r section to the 23 west.  The originator of this site was r i d i c u l e d because it did not seem  that a town between C o m o x and the m i n i n g a r e a could become a r e a l i t y . The Courtenay of today is ample proof of Joseph M c P h e e ' s foresight.  By  1897 there was a hotel on either side of the bridge and about ten other c o m m e r c i a l establishments,  including M c P h e e ' s general store and a  post office on the west side. The building of the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l r o a d to Nanaimo in 1886 for use of the coal industry had caused the settlers of Cowichan V a l l e y to demonstrate the need for a station in the Cowichan a r e a .  They  chose a convenient location at which to halt the t r a i n on its inaugural run and the P r e s i d e n t of the r a i l r o a d consented to this point, Duncan's c r o s s 24 ing,  becoming a regular halt.  The focus of Cowichan V a l l e y almost  i m m e d i a t e l y shifted f r o m Cowichan Bay and the steamer wharf to A l d e r l e a the f i r s t name given to the new townsite at the r a i l halt. this name was r a r e l y used. commercial Forest  It appears that  By 1900 there were still only a handful of  enterprises.  Industries A l l of the settlements along the east coast had by 1900  engaged,  with v a r y i n g importance,  in the l u m b e r industry.  become  In the Cowichan  area, Sayward's M i l l at M i l l Bay had been established by 1862 and there was a second s u c c e s s f u l m i l l at C h e m a i n u s .  A m i l l at Genoa Bay was u n s u c c e s s -  20 ful and short l i v e d . Lake.  25  In 1884 logging operations began at Cowichan  The Chemainus m i l l ,  after changing hands s e v e r a l times,  passed  into the owner ship of the V i c t o r i a L u m b e r and Manufacturing Company and had a daily output of sixty thousand feet when a new m i l l was built in 1890 with a capacity of five hundred thousand feet and having one hundred 26 and fifty employees.  A s the economy in the Cowichan V a l l e y became  slightly m o r e d i v e r s i f i e d , agriculture also f l o u r i s h e d and in 1896 the Cowichan C r e a m e r y A s s o c i a t i o n was f o r m e d and within two y e a r s had an annual turnover of $10,  369.  27  The C o m o x V a l l e y saw s i m i l a r developments at slightly later dates; the f i r s t s a w m i l l being established in 1872 on the west side of the Puntledge u t i l i z i n g some of the v e r y heavy stands of Douglas F i r i n the region.  Up until this time it appears that the Puntledge R i v e r was in  some way dammed, probably by logs, in such a way that the a r e a now known as L e w i s P a r k and the present side of the Courtenay Hotel were frequently flooded and consequently avoided by the settlers.  When the  s a w m i l l began production it was using a diverted s t r e a m for power and it appears that there could have been some connection between this d i v e r s i o n and the return, at about the same time, of the Puntledge to its o r i g i n a l course and volume.  T h i s made possible the substitution of O Q  a bridge for the row boat c r o s s i n g .  0  0  In 1900 the C o m o x C o - o p e r a t i v e  C r e a m e r y was opened only four y e a r s later than the Cowichan C r e a m e r y . E a r l y logging in the Nanaimo a r e a was as a tributary industry  21 of coal mining and shows the same fluctuations. By 1882 the Millstream Saw Mills had a capacity of forty-five thousand feet per day and employed sixty men  and the same firm was  also shipbuilding although to that date 29  had only completed one or two ships. In the Alberni Valley the first attempt to establish a lumber industry was made in I860 when a sawmill was constructed.  Between  1861 and 1865 thirty-five million feet were shipped - including rough and dressed timber, a large part of it being ships spars for the Clyde shipyards in Britain.  The problems of land transport and accessibility  forced the m i l l to close down in 1865 because they could no longer obtain sufficient timber. ^0  F r o m the 1880's on, several small operations  commenced with logging and sawmilling.  In 1894 the first paper mill  in British Columbia was located in Alberni. success from the outset.  It was  There was no chance of  a rag mill, unsuited to the use of wood 31  pulp, and its isolated location ensured that rags would not be available. By 1900 Alberni possessed two schools, two churches, six retail stores and three hotels. In addition to these three main economic developments there were few occupations other than in service functions in central Vancouver Island.  Around Alberni and in other parts of the Island there were small  isolated mines and numerous prospectors.  Nanaimo, by far the largest  of the settlements north of Victoria, early developed subsidiary industries providing for the local market. In 1882 there was  a soda water works, a  brewery,  a furniture factory,  a newspaper,  a tannery,  the Nanaimo F r e e P r e s s ,  blacksmiths,  shoemakers,  and  established in 1874.  Urban Centres At the turn of the century the mining towns of Nanaimo and C u m b e r l a n d were the only settlements north of V i c t o r i a which could truly be c a l l e d urban with sizable populations engaged in n o n - r u r a l occupations.  L a d y s m i t h , although a year later surpassing C u m b e r l a n d  in size , had only just had its townsite l a i d out.  Although there were only the two truly urban centres,  the  pattern upon which the urban development of c e n t r a l Vancouver Island was to p r o g r e s s was already set. quickly established  Nanaimo, although a m i n i n g town, had  other s u b s i d i a r y industries and s e r v i c e s which e a r l y  established it as a city of m o r e d i v e r s i f i e d economy than any other of central Vancouver Island.  L a d y s m i t h and C u m b e r l a n d were completely  dependent upon the p r o s p e r i t y of coal mining while another p r i m a r y industry - l u m b e r i n g - had resulted in the concentration of settlement in the A l b e r n i V a l l e y .  Duncan and Courtenay showed s i m i l a r i t i e s of development in that each was the collection and distribution centre for an a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a in which, p r i o r to 1900,  forest industries played a secondary r o l e .  In  addition, the location of a p a r t i c u l a r transport f a c i l i t y played a major role in determining the situation of these towns within the region which they serve,  i . e. the E . and N . R a i l r o a d station at Duncan and the bridge  23 over the Puntledge at Courtenay.  F r o m 1900 to 1930 there were r a d i c a l changes in the coal industry.  M a r k e t s had always been p r e c a r i o u s and p r i o r to the F i r s t  W o r l d War s e v e r a l labour strikes had a damaging effect on those which did exist.  A f t e r the war decreasing m a r k e t s combined with the depletion  of the most a c c e s s i b l e and valuable coal seams r e s u l t e d i n a r a p i d drop in employment in m i n i n g .  In 1921 L a d y s m i t h and C u m b e r l a n d were second  and t h i r d cities in size within the c e n t r a l Vancouver Island a r e a but by this date the population of both was d e c r e a s i n g .  L a d y s m i t h s economy 1  was becoming d e p r e s s e d as s m a l l industries established in the f i r s t ten y e a r s of the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y ,  (for example,  a cigar factory,  a stove works,  two b r e w e r i e s and a bottling w o r k s , a shingle m i l l and a smelter) had a l l c l o s e d down.  By 1928 the mines at E x t e n s i o n had c e a s e d production and  although they reopened for short spells s e v e r a l times in the next few y e a r s they were never again a m a j o r source of employment.  The Nanaimo mines  w h i c h r e a c h e d their peak production in 192 3 showed a slow decline and were later in c l o s i n g than those at E x t e n s i o n . ^  At C u m b e r l a n d the mine  employment dropped steadily f r o m the end of the f i r s t W o r l d War although one mine was still in v e r y l i m i t e d production in 1961.  At the same time as this decline in m i n i n g , the importance of the forest product industry was i n c r e a s i n g steadily throughout the region and in p a r t i c u l a r ii/the A l b e r n i V a l l e y with s a w m i l l s c o m m e n c i n g operations at G r e a t C e n t r a l and at P o r t A l b e r n i in the m i d - t w e n t i e s .  Only in the  L a d y s m i t h vicinity was l u m b e r i n g unimportant and there not because of lack of suitable timber but because the company holding the timber rights had not c a r r i e d out any operations.  During the p e r i o d f r o m 1900 to 1930,  as i l l u s t r a t e d by maps 6, 7  and 8, those towns dependent on coal mining declined in their relative to other c e n t r e s .  importance  Nanaimo although not decreasing in population  (as in the case of L a d y s m i t h ) ,  did not i n c r e a s e at a rate comparable to  that of Duncan and Courtenay while the A l b e r n i s - in p a r t i c u l a r A l b e r n i - had begun  Port  the v e r y r a p i d growth which was to continue into  the 1950's.  Within central Vancouver Island the most significant factor in the settlement pattern p r i o r to 1930 was the coal m i n i n g industry.  The  f i r s t phase of settlement was associated with the m i n e s i n the Nanaimo region and later at C u m b e r l a n d .  The presence of m i n e r s as a m a r k e t  p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y impetus for a g r i c u l t u r a l development.  Early  settlement dependent on agriculture was scattered within two m a i n a r e a s , the Cowichan and C o m o x v a l l e y s .  A s transport f a c i l i t i e s i m p r o v e d and  the amount of cultivated land i n c r e a s e d , w i t h i n these f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t i e s ,  two s e r v i c e centres e m e r g e d  at Duncan and at Courtenay.  The second phase of settlement in Vancouver Island was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the development of s e r v i c e centres and significant expansion in the forest industry concurrent with a decrease in the importance of coal m i n i n g after W o r l d W a r 1.  25 1 Ormsby, Margaret, A. , British Columbia: a History; Evergreen M c M i l l a n C o . of Canada L t d . , Vancouver, 1958, p. 92. 2  Ibid. , p. 95.  3  Loc.  4  Press,  cit.  Matheson, M . H , , Some E f f e c t s of C o a l m i n i n g upon the Development of the Nanaimo A r e a . M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1950, p.10.  5 O r m s b y , op. cit. , p. 99. 6  British Columbia Directory,  1892,  p. 51.,  7  O r m s b y , op. c i t . , p. 114.  8  I b i d . , p.116.  9  Day, J . H . , L . F a r s t a d and D. G . L a i r d , Soil Survey of Southeast Vancouver Island, and Gulf Islands, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Report N o . 6 of the B. C . Soil Survey 1959, Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1959.  10  Duncan, Kenneth, A H i s t o r y of Cowichan V a l l e y ; Unpublished essay p. 2.  ;  11 Ibid; and E . B. N o r c r o s s , The W a r m L a n d , E v e r g r e e n P r e s s L t d . , Nanaimo B . C . , 1959, p. 13. 12  Hughes, Ben, H i s t o r y of the C o m o x "Valley 1862-1945, P r e s s ( V . I . ) L t d . , Nanaimo, B . C . , p. 11.  Evergreen  13  Duncan, E r i c , F i f t y seven Y e a r s in the C o m o x V a l l e y , The C o m o x A r g u s C o . L t d . , Courtenay, B. C . , 1934, p. 4.  14  Ibid. ., p. 25.  15  B. C . B u r e a u of E c o n o m i c s and Statistics, Regional Index of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver Island, Department of Industrial Development, T r a d e and C o m m e r c e , V i c t o r i a , B. C . , 1961, p. 21.  16  Matheson, op. cit. p. 10.  17  British Columbia Directory,  18  D a v i s , Isabelle, The F o r t y n i n t h P a r a l l e l C i t y ; A n E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y of L a d y s m i t h , B . A , H i s t o r y E s s a y ; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1953, p. 3. ; and The C i t y of L a d y s m i t h 50th A n n i v e r s a r y , L a d y s m i t h C h a m b e r of C o m m e r c e , 1954, pp. 19-23.  1877.  26 20  Hughes,, op. cit, , p. 23.  21 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r y 1897-98, p. 724. 22  Duncan, E , , op. c i t . , p. 24.  23  Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 36.  24 N o r c r o s s ,  op. c i t . , p. 48.  25 Ibid. , p. 46. 26 Ibid. , p. 51. 27  Manager of Cowichan C r e a m e r y - interview.  28  Duncan, E . , op. c i t . , p. 31.  29  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a -Directory 1882-83.  30  H i l l , H a z e l A. E . , T a l e s of the A l b e r n i V a l l e y , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , , 1952, p. 15.  Hamby P r e s s L t d . ,  31 Ibid. , p. 16. 32  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r y , 1889-1900, p. 149.  33  British Columbia Directory,  1882-83, p. 156-157.  34 Report of the M i n i s t e r of M i n e s , V i c t o r i a , B . C . , 1900-1929. 35  The C i t y of L a d y s m i t h 50th A n n i v e r s a r y ,  op. c i t . , p. 28.  CHAPTER  III  T H E U R B A N H I E R A R C H Y WITHIN C E N T R A L , V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D  The p e r i o d f r o m 1931 to the present has been one of r a p i d urbanisation on Vancouver Island.  A greater number of f a c t o r s have been at work during  this phase of urban development than in preceeding phases.  F o r e s t indust-  r i e s take the place of coal m i n i n g as the basic economic activity and as the chief factor i n the location of s e v e r a l c e n t r e s .  S e r v i c e functions, however,  have become m u c h m o r e important, and are related i n part to the total population i n c r e a s e and to the development of a tourist industry.  It is  because of the apparent importance of s e r v i c e functions i n the urban growth of the area, that an attempt to determine whether or not an urban h i e r a r c h y has developed was m a d e .  The m a j o r i t y of studies that have been c a r r i e d out to demonstrate the development of c e n t r a l place h i e r a r c h i e s have u s e d one of two general approaches.  T r a f f i c into urban centres f r o m the surrounding a r e a provides  one m e a s u r e of centrality..  The second is by the number and size of functions  p r o v i d e d i n the c e n t r a l p l a c e s .  In the B r i t i s h and E u r o p e a n setting,  studies  of the f i r s t type appear to have been the most c o m m o n , due perhaps to the availability of relevant i n f o r m a t i o n , such as the frequency and use of bus services.  T h i s type of information is l e s s relevant i n N o r t h A m e r i c a - and  is s i m i l a r l y becoming l e s s meaningful i n E u r o p e because of i n c r e a s i n g automobile t r a f f i c .  Statistics for private transport are m o r e difficult to  28 obtain than those for public transit.  The second approach to the develop-  ment of h i e r a r c h i e s is the m o r e c o m m o n in N o r t h A m e r i c a n literature and m a y be a straightforward c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on the presence of. c e r t a i n functions or m a y be a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n dependent upon c o r r e l a t i o n of s e v e r a l types of data.  T h i s second approach appears to have been used,  in most c a s e s , where there i s considerable homogeneity in the p h y s i c a l and economic setting.  The most popular a r e a for this type of study  appears to have been the A m e r i c a n M i d - W e s t .  It appeared to the w r i t e r that a h i e r a r c h y of central places might exist and it was decided to use methods s i m i l a r to those applied to areas of the M i d - W e s t to determine if a h i e r a r c h y c o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d .  It was  essential that the method u s e d could be projected back in time to make possible a study of changes in the h i e r a r c h y . data,  The collection of traffic  although time consuming, is feasible for a study of the present,  to obtain s i m i l a r data for past decades is generally i m p o s s i b l e .  but  Information  relating to the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by urban centres can however be obtained t hroughout the p e r i o d during which telephones have been i n c o m m o n use.  It has been shown, in Chapter II, that the region under study, C e n t r a l Vancouver Island, is not an a r e a of economic homogeneity.  T h i s study of  the c e n t r a l functions of urban areas of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island while f o r m i n g an integral part of the thesis ^study of urban development within the region, can also be c o n s i d e r e d as a case study, in a region lacking homogeneity, of the relationships between the population and number of central  29 functions present in the urban c e n t r e s .  The U r b a n H i e r a r c h y in 1961 It was possible to conduct a m o r e detailed study of the functions of u r b a n centres for 1961 than for preceeding years because of the availability of m o r e complete population data f r o m the Census of Canada, and also information obtained in the f i e l d regarding central functions.  The number  of types of r e t a i l and s e r v i c e functions and the number of times each function was offered within each centre were noted in the f i e l d .  The twenty-three  urban centres which had a population of over one hundred and had at least eight c e n t r a l functions were u s e d in the analysis that followed.  A l l centres  l i s t e d in the 1961 Census of Canada as having a population greater than one hundred were examined to determine whether or not eight central functions were present.  U s i n g these data and the population statistics f r o m the Census a simple l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n analysis was c a r r i e d out to determine what relationships,  if any,  central functions, type of activity,  existed between the three distributions - population,  and functional units.  for example,  C e n t r a l function is defined as a  that of a church, bank or shoe store, with-  out r e g a r d to size, while a functional unit is defined as that part of any establishment whichprovides a single central function.  Thus one estab-  lishment m a y have s e v e r a l functional units, for example in the case of a department  store.  1  The central functions which are m o s t c o m m o n in  C e n t r a l Vancouver Island are l i s t e d i n F i g u r e IV (p. 36).  CORRELATION BETWEEN POPULATION AND FUNCTIONAL UNITS  CORRELATION BETWEEN POPULATION AND CENTRAL FUNCTIONS •  •  •16000  -10,000  •15000  /  /  /  I -5,000  /  / •  •14000  z  0  z o  "4000  /  (-  •  < _l o_  •  < a  0-  o  O  a.  •  •  -1000  •  •  /  •3000  /  CL  /  •  Coefficient  7  •2 0 0 0  •  P = 20 52 F . U . -  /  •  of  • •  25-2 Correlation =  Regression  •  •  /  -500. / V* /  0-92  /  (log)R = 00I39C.F. +2-48 Coefficient of Correlation = 0- 888  Line  Regression Line  s  •  •  t  / /•  •  •  -1000/  *• / •/  •• 100  2 00  300  FUNCTIONAL  4 00  5 00  600  7<J0  0  2.0  F i g . I C o r r e l a t i o n between population and functional units  40  60  CENTRAL  UNITS  F i g . II  80  I0p  C o r r e l a t i o n between population and functions  12,0  FUNCTIONS  central  31 The three c o r r e l a t i o n s which e m e r g e d as the most significant were between;  population and functional units (linear),  functions (log-linear),  population and central  and functional units and c e n t r a l functions (log-  linear) as shown by F i g u r e s I, II and III. CORRELATIONS TABLE 1  C.F.  Functional  Log F. U.  Units (F. U . )  (L. F . U. )  Population (P)  0. 76  0. 92  0. 84  L o g Population ( L . P . )  0. 888  0. 74  0. 91  0. 898  0. 987  C e n t r a l Functions ( C F . ) Regression Lines L. P. P L. F . U.  0.0139 20.52 0.0175  C F . + 2.81 F . U . - 25.2 C F . + 0.9507  It i s to be expected that as the size of a centre i n c r e a s e s , number of functional units present would also i n c r e a s e .  the  In southwest  Iowa, where v i r t u a l l y a l l urban development i s for the purpose of providing services for surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l areas, the c o r r e l a t i o n i s high,  0. 979  with only two of approximately 70 centres having significant parts of their population dependent upon activities other than t e r t i a r y central functions. Qn Vancouver Island the c o r r e l a t i o n is s t i l l high, 0. 92, but there are significant d i f f e r e n c e s .  The population of urban centres i n Southwest Iowa  i n c r e a s e s by a factor of 17. 6 times the number of functional units (P  17. 6 F . U, - 162. 7) , while on Vancouver Island this factor is 20. 52.  T h i s difference is due to the s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of the total population of  THE URBAN HIERARCHY OF CENTRAL  VANCOUVER ISLAND 1961  CORRELATION BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL UNITS •IOOO  AND  CENTRAL  FUNCTIONS  .  CITIES  .  -500  TOWNS  -100  VILLAGES (log)F.U. = 0 0175 C F + Coefficient  0-95  of Correlation => 0 - 9 8 7  Regression  Line  CITY  80  100  120  ®  TOWN  •  VILLAGE  1  CENTRAL  FUNCTIONS  F i g . Ill and Map 10  The Urban H i e r a r c h y  of C e n t r a l Vancouver  Island  Vancouver Island resident outside the urban a r e a s .  A l m o s t a l l of those urban centres that have lower populations than the number of functional units present suggests, are s e r v i c e rather than i n d u s t r i a l centres: N a n a i m o , Courtenay, P a r k s v i l l e and Q u a l i c u m B e a c h .  Duncan, C a m p b e l l R i v e r ,  Nanaimo being both an i n d u s t r i a l and  s e r v i c e centre is only slightly below the n o r m while A l b e r n i , the l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l centre, deviates greatly with a population excess of approxi m a t e l y 6, 000 over that indicated by the number of functional units, and L a d y s m i t h , a d o r m i t o r y centre, is exactly on the n o r m .  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the log of the population and the number of c e n t r a l functions present in the centres of Vancouver Island is c o n s i d e r -  3 ably lower than that for southwest Iowa,  0. 89,  as c o m p a r e d with 0. 95.  T h i s is partly due to the p r e s e n c e , on Vancouver Island, of c o m p a r a t i v e l y '/ y  new i n d u s t r i a l centres where the i n c r e a s e i n population has; far/Outstripped the development of r e t a i l and s e r v i c e functions.  In addition, ,the l a r g e r  cities of the region under study, Nanaimo and the A l b e r n i s , have ajhigher population than any included i n the study of southwest Iowa, and they fewer central functions per thousand population than the n o r m .  have  In the  development of large cities a point must be reached when v e r y few new v  central functions r e m a i n to be added, although the number of functional units w i l l s t i l l continue to m u l t i p l y .  It appears to the w r i t e r that Nanaimo  and the A l b e r n i s have reached the point at which there is a considerable decline in the rate of i n c r e a s e of central functions.  Apart f r o m Nanaimo  34 the s e r v i c e centres of central Vancouver Island have a s i m i l a r excess of functions in relation to the size of centre as they did functional units.  The only relationship calculated which shows a stronger  correlation  in Vancouver Island than in southwest Iowa is that between the log of functional units and the number of central functions, 0. 987,  as c o m p a r e d  4 to 0. 976.  The groupings of centres which are apparent in the scatter  d i a g r a m ( F i g . Ill) bear no immediate relation to the economic base of the centre but indicate c e r t a i n factors related to the presence of central functions.  Where there are l e s s than twenty central functions there seems  to be little duplication of s e r v i c e s and therefore there are l e s s than the expected number of functional units. of s e r v i c e s ,  In contrast, the greatest duplication  shown by an excess of functional units, o c c u r s where the  number of c e n t r a l functions exceeds thirty, but not seventy.  Centres  with m o r e than seventy functions have approximately the expected number of functional units. These three groupings have been u s e d to develop the urban h i e r a r c h y shown on map 10 for c e n t r a l Vancouver Island for 1961.  V i l l a g e s are  defined as those centres which have l e s s than twenty central functions and usually have l e s s than the number of functional units expected.  Twenty  to seventy c e n t r a l functions, and m o r e functional units than the average for the region determine those centres c l a s s i f i e d as towns.  C i t i e s , having  developed to maturity have the relationships between functional units and central functions that approximate to the n o r m for central Vancouver Island.  Although it is on the basis of the groupings shown on figure III that the classification has been made and map  10 drawn, the centres thus  classed together do tend to be similarly grouped in figures I and II. Three broad generalisations based on these three diagrams may  be made.  First, that, with the exception of Youbou, the three categories of centre determined from figure III also rank the centres by size of population. (Reasons for Youbou s anomalous position are discussed on page 4 5 ) . 1  Second, all villages tend to have approximately the same number of central functions and functional units, and the number of each which are present bears little relationship to the population of the village.  The third  generalization is that towns and cities, having a variety of economic base, have a wider range in number of functions and functional units present.  The Development of the Trade Hierarchy, 1931-61. The method used to determine the changing urban hierarchy for central Vancouver Island between 1931 and 1961 is similar to that applied to 5  urban centres in the American Mid-West by J. Borchert.  In this method  the population size of each centre is irrelevant, but the importance of each as a trade centre is considered.  The basis of the hierarchy was evolved  for 1961 and the same criteria employed for the earlier dates using data obtained from B.C.  Telephone Directories.  The twenty-three centres upon  which the previous analysis is based were again used.  Centres which have  been excluded were all of the lowest order in 1961, and it does not appear, from a study of the telephone directories that any of them would have had a higher classification between 1931 and 1961.  THE  S T R U C T U R E O F T H E T R A D E HIERARCHY  OF C E N T R A L Wholesale  Machinery E l e c t r i c a l Goods F e e d Supply Automobile P a r t s Natural Gas Bulk O i l Paper Lumber Tobacco Groceries  Retail Stores 6r S e r v i c e s  Sporting Goods Music Funeral Parlor Variety Candy Coal Liquo r Jewelry Self S e r v i c e L a u n d r y Furniture Bakery Florist Radio & T . V . Shoes Supermarket Dry Cleaners Auto Sales Fuel O i l Appliances M a r i n e Sales  I  VANCOUVER  Additional  ISLAND  Functions  Required All  Functions  Present 16  16  +  Ann. Soles Value S5M.  Drug Store Beauty P a r l o r Clothing E l e c t r i c a l Repair Building M a t e r i a l s Bank Barber Hardware Hotel / M o t e l Bar Restaurant Grocery G e n e r a l Store Post O f f i c e S e r v i c e Station Minimum  Full  Convenience Convenience HAMLET  Fig. IV  VILLAGE  Partial Shopping ,  Complete Complete Shopping Shopping l  TOWN  CITY  WholesaleRetail MAJOR  T h e S t r u c t u r e of the T r a d e H i e r a r c h y o f C e n t r a l Vancouver Island  CITY  M a p 11 T r a d e  Areas of N a n a i m o  F o r the purposes of developing a trade h i e r a r c h y ,  only the types of  r e t a i l and wholesale functions available were c o n s i d e r e d , that i s , it was i m m a t e r i a l to this part of the analysis whether a centre had ten g r o c e r y stores or one.  The number of different types of r e t a i l and wholesale  functions which were present i n each centre in 1961 was o b s e r v e d i n the field.  The functions were then ranked according to the number of centres  in which they appeared.  ( F i g . IV)  It was o b s e r v e d that the 35 most  ubiquitous functions were not the same in Vancouver Island as in either the Upper M i d - W e s t ^  or i n southwest Iowa. ^  These functions were then  grouped as shown on figure IV using natural breaks in the number of occurrences  in o r d e r to establish ranks in the trade h i e r a r c h y .  F i v e l e v e l s of trade centre e m e r g e d as a result of this analysis and were designated 'hamlet , 1  ' v i l l a g e , 'town , ' c i t y , and 'major c i t y . 1  1  1  1  The  'hamlet' or m i n i m u m convenience centre i s one in which at least three of the four m o s t c o m m o n functions are present,  while a l l four are present in .  a ' v i l l a g e ' , or f u l l convenience centre, with the addition of at least three functions f r o m the next group. c o m m o n functions.  ' T o w n s ' and ' c i t i e s ' p o s s e s s the twelve most  The division between towns and cities for 1961 was not  based upon the number of functions present in addition to the twelve. Between the categories of ' v i l l a g e ' and 'major city' there seemed to be three groups of c e n t r e s .  F i r s t , those having only a few functions in excess of the  twelve but having a considerable duplication of existing functions.  Second,  those having s e v e r a l functions in addition to the twelve but with little duplication and low annual sales value, and the t h i r d group which have  38 s e v e r a l functions, duplication and sizeable annual sales (over $5, 000, It was decided that for 1961,  000).  only the t h i r d group would be c l a s s e d ' c i t i e s '  in the trade h i e r a r c h y , while the other two groups are 'towns'.  For  e a r l i e r dates a l l centres having complete shopping f a c i l i t i e s ,  regardless  of sales value, have been c o n s i d e r e d ' c i t i e s ' .  1  The 'major city  or r e t a i l -  wholesale centre is one which has m o r e than eight wholesale functions in addition to complete shopping f a c i l i t i e s .  The pattern of the trade h i e r a r c h y ,  shown for 1961 on map 15, which  e m e r g e d as a result of this analysis shows that irasteaekof an a r e a l pattern, such as is present in the A m e r i c a n M i d - W e s t , a l i n e a r development is present on Vancouver Island. circular,  Instead of trade areas which are approximately  the r e s t r i c t i o n of settlement to the n a r r o w coastal plain results i n  the elongation of trade areas along this p l a i n .  C e r t a i n centres tend to stand apart f r o m the h i e r a r c h y due to the s p e c i a l i z e d function of the centre.  Chemainus, C u m b e r l a n d , C o m o x and  Q u a l i c u m Beach a l l possess sufficient functions to be c l a s s i f i e d as complete shopping centres but have annual sales of l e s s than $5, 000, 000.  E a c h of  these towns, with the exception of C u m b e r l a n d has a specific function and the towns which have sizeable populations engaged i n n o n - s e r v i c e occupations appear to be able to support a greater number of functions for the size of population than other c e n t r e s .  The total revenue for the r e t a i l functions of  the centres tends to be l e s s if the centre is not a genuine trade centre.  From  this it can be deduced that on Vancouver Island the threshold population r e q u i r e d for the entrance of a p a r t i c u l a r function into an urban centre tends  DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRADE HIERARCHY OF CENTRAL VANCOUVER 0  Major City  ©  City  ®  Town  o  Village  •  Hamlet  Campbell River  Campbell  Campbell Rivertf^  River  •  Courtenay  Courtenay.  Courtenay  "J^OjComox C umberland .9* 7Royston ®  Cumberland®  I  The  ISLAND  /® A,  Albernis \  C umberland®  T h 8  \  Quatibum Beach-  Parksville  1  Parksville ® *  Lantzville Wellington*  Wellington^ Nanaimc South Lake Cowichan *  f ^  Chemoinusq)  Shawnigan • Lake  a  r  J\J t(] «Htody.jnith  Duncan®  Nanaimo South Wellington  \  Wellington*  0  J^i  Lake Cowichan  • \ Cowichan(Bay J) nil)/' r^S* A  N anaimow~ ,> South \ Wellington" / *$  Youbou  C  Lake Cowichan  ® ChemoinuseJ  \  Wellington^  iCrofton ^ Cowichan(Bay ShawnigonO  1  j__j^J  I)  fik  K  Ouncon(^)  ^  The Development of the Trade H i e r a r c h y  ,1  Cov«ich'an(Bay ShawnigonO Lake  1961  1941 M a p s 12-15  T  ®R£adysmith  ChemainusS  0  ICrofton Duncan^ I \\ •V Cowichan(Bay Shawnigan • . 1 ) n \ 0 p\  ®  a  of C e n t r a l Vancouver Island 1931-61  40 to be lower if the trading population is entirely contained within the centre than where it i s m o r e widely scattered.  Within the region under study the trade a r e a of the individual centres has not been determined in detail except in the case of Nanaimo where questionnaires were sent to a l l wholesale f i r m s and to twenty per cent of the r e t a i l establishments.  It can be seen f r o m map 11 that the whole of the  region under study comes within the wholesale distribution a r e a of N a n a i m o . T h i s is true for a l l of the wholesale f i r m s in Nanaimo except f a r m supplies which the a r e a south of Nanaimo r e c e i v e s f r o m V i c t o r i a , and o i l and l u m b e r which are distributed f r o m s e v e r a l points in the region.  M a p 11 also shows  the large a r e a f r o m which over 60 per cent of N a n a i m o ' s stores have regular c u s t o m e r s ,  while weekend c u s t o m e r s come to the l a r g e r  stores,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the department stores, f r o m a large a r e a to the north of the city, and, s u p r i s i n g l y , f r o m the A l b e r n i s which has the l a r g e r population. To the south of Nanaimo the trade a r e a is m o r e r e s t r i c t e d , of Chemainus making V i c t o r i a their centre for m a j o r  residents south  purchases.  The pattern of the trade h i e r a r c h y has become m o r e complex as a variety of stimulants to the economy of the Island have a r i s e n . At the same time the i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y of the population due to private created,  transport has  in many a r e a s , alternative centres to which a c c e s s is available.  To fully understand the present urban h i e r a r c h y , it is n e c e s s a r y to have a knowledge of the changes, the last few decades.  and their causes, which have o c c u r r e d throughout  41 1931 In 1931 only one centre, Nanaimo, had sufficient r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s to be c l a s s i f i e d as a ' c i t y ' , that is as a complete shopping centre.  Although  Nanaimo far exceeded the m i n i m u m requirements for this category,  there  were not sufficient wholesale functions to warrant c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a wholes a l e - r e t a i l centre or 'major c i t y ' .  The mining industry of Nanaimo at this  time was s t i l l of considerable importance and p r o v i d e d the m a i n base for the economy. E x t e n s i o n m i n e s had recently been c l o s e d down and employment at C u m b e r l a n d m i n e s was declining rapidly, therefore L a d y s m i t h and C u m b e r land were in an unhealthy economic state as the stores and s e r v i c e s within them were dependent upon the mine p a y r o l l s .  A s a result these two cities  which were next to Nanaimo i n population ranked in the h i e r a r c h y with Duncan, Courtenay and the A l b e r n i s as p a r t i a l shopping centres or 'towns'. Duncan and Courtenay were genuine centres of trade with v e r y little basic industry within the urban area,  and therefore,  existed to provide s e r v i c e s  for the surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l and l u m b e r i n g population.  The forest  industries in A l b e r n i had not begun the r a p i d expansion which o c c u r r e d in the next twenty y e a r s ,  and although essentially i n d u s t r i a l , they did provide  s e r v i c e s for the surrounding a r e a but the external trade population was small.  The dominance of Nanaimo was due p a r t i a l l y to its long establishment but also to the combination of i n d u s t r i a l and s e r v i c e functions in a central location within the region.  The two centres at 'town' l e v e l with important  r o l e s as trade centres had developed at almost the furthest extremities of  42 settlement within the region, that i s ,  outside N a n a i m o ' s r e t a i l trade a r e a  at that t i m e . Between the 'towns' or p a r t i a l shopping centres, convenience centres had developed.  ' v i l l a g e s ' or full  P a r k s v i l l e and Q u a l i c u m Beach  developed adjacent to each other midway between the A l b e r n i s , Courtenay and N a n a i m o . is,  The trade a r e a of P a r k s v i l l e extended towards A l b e r n i ,  including H i l l i e r s and C o o m b s , while that of Q u a l i c u m Beach  along the coastal p l a i n towards Courtenay.  that  extended  In addition to serving s m a l l  trade a r e a s , these centres were beginning to p e r f o r m the functions, well developed, of r e t i r e m e n t and r e s o r t centres.  Chemainus,  now  mentioned  in the p r e v i o u s chapter (p.11 ) as having been the site of a successful  saw-  m i l l had developed as an i n d u s t r i a l centre, a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement in the vicinity having been u n s u c c e s s f u l ,  and by 1931 had reached ' v i l l a g e ' l e v e l  in the h i e r a r c h y .  It can be seen f r o m map 12 that within the immediate trade areas of the three m a i n s e r v i c e c e n t r e s , N a n a i m o ,  "Courtenay and Duncan the other  centres were of m i n i m u m convenience or 'hamlet' l e v e l .  F o r 'city' l e v e l  functions, the population of the whole a r e a was tributary to Nanaimo except for the residents of the a r e a f r o m Duncan south, where a c c e s s to V i c t o r i a , the l a r g e s t urban centre on the Island, was as easy as to Nanaimo.  1941 In the p e r i o d 1931 to 1941 r e t a i l functions in Duncan, Courtenay and the A l b e r n i s had i n c r e a s e d sufficiently to warrant their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as  43 complete shopping centres and thus to join Nanaimo at 'city' l e v e l on the trade h i e r a r c h y .  The population of the A l b e r n i s had i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r -  ably due to i n d u s t r i a l expansion,  and the number of r e t a i l functions had  grown i n o r d e r to s e r v i c e this large population, but external trade r e m a i n ed s m a l l .  Map 13 indicates that, as in the case of Nanaimo, Duncan and  Courtenay had at least one ' v i l l a g e ' , and an i n d u s t r i a l 'town' within their respective trade a r e a s .  In these two cases the i n c r e a s e in population of  the external trade a r e a was of considerable significance as a cause of the higher status of the centre i n the h i e r a r c h y , expansion in the forest i n d u s t r i e s .  and is m a i n l y accountable to  The development of Lake Cowichan  f r o m m i n i m u m convenience to p a r t i a l shopping centre was due to the extension of logging and s a w m i l l i n g activities around Cowichan L a k e .  Although three additional centres were in 1941 of 'city' l e v e l and Nanaimo did not have sufficient wholesale functions to achieve level,  several services,  a higher  both r e t a i l and business, not available in the  other cities or only in l i m i t e d range,  did draw trade f r o m the whole of  c e n t r a l Vancouver Island with the same a r e a of exception as in 1931.  * 1951 Between 1941 and 1951 most c e n t r a l Vancouver Island centres had shown a significant movement upwards in the trade h i e r a r c h y .  Nanaimo  i n c r e a s e d the number of wholesale f a c i l i t i e s to an extent sufficient to warrant the introduction of a separate category of regional wholesale and r e t a i l centre, or 'major c i t y ' .  The development of these wholesale  functiori« ?ff>lfewed the r a p i d i n c r e a s e in population throughout the whole ;  44 region p r i n c i p a l l y as a result of the expansion of f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s .  One of the m o s t significant changes, indicating r a p i d expansion of industry in the northern part of the region, was that of C a m p b e l l R i v e r f r o m ' v i l l a g e ' to complete shopping centre or ' c i t y ' .  L i k e Courtenay  and Duncan, C a m p b e l l R i v e r i s a trade rather than an i n d u s t r i a l centre. Of the i n d u s t r i a l centres Chemainus had reached p a r t i a l shopping l e v e l by 1951 as had the two r e s o r t and r e t i r e m e n t centres of P a r k s v i l l e and Qualicum Beach.  Interviews with residents of the a r e a indicate that  while Chemainus r e m a i n e d at the l e v e l of a convenience centre,  the  population looked to Duncan for 'town' and 'city' l e v e l functions.  The  expansion of f a c i l i t i e s i n Chemainus to p a r t i a l shopping had the effect not only of p r o v i d i n g residents with 'town' l e v e l functions but by so doing detracted f r o m Duncan's economic influence to such an extent that Duncan c e a s e d to be the m a i n centre for 'city' l e v e l functions.  That is when  Duncan c e a s e d to provide both 'city' and 'town' l e v e l functions for Chemainus the lack of choice of goods plus i n c r e a s e d private m o b i l i t y caused the residents of Chemainus to t r a v e l north to Nanaimo for higher order  services.  Developments to 1961 The last decade has seen v i r t u a l l y no change in the pattern of the trade h i e r a r c h y .  Although s e v e r a l c e n t r e s , P a r k s v i l l e , Q u a l i c u m Beach,  L a d y s m i t h and Chemainus developed sufficient r e t a i l functions to become complete shopping centres, the value of r e t a i l sales was l e s s than $5, 000, 000 and therefore d i d not warrant i n c l u s i o n in the h i e r a r c h y at  45 'city' l e v e l .  T h e s m a l l e r centres tend to have r e m a i n e d as m i n i m u m or  full convenience centres with the exception of C o m o x which has changed status to a p a r t i a l shopping centre.  T h i s development within the Courtenay  'city' trade a r e a i s attributable to the influence of the R. C . A . F . base at C o m o x , which had a p a y r o l l of approximately 2, 000 persons i n 1961.  Two towns whose h i s t o r y has been s i m i l a r l y influenced by the fate of coal m i n i n g , have now become v e r y different i n their economic  status.  L a d y s m i t h i s now a thriving r e s i d e n t i a l community for w o r k e r s i n forest i n d u s t r i e s , while i n C u m b e r l a n d little employment has r e p l a c e d m i n i n g . It i s s u r p r i s i n g that C u m b e r l a n d has retained the m a j o r i t y of the central functions which were present i n 1931, although the number of functional units has d e c r e a s e d greatly.  One centre which is lower i n the h i e r a r c h y than might be expected is Youbou, a f o r e s t industry centre on Cowichan L a k e .  Its population  (1,153) is m u c h greater than that of Q u a l i c u m Beach (759) and almost the same as that of P a r k s v i l l e (1,183), both of which a r e 'town' l e v e l .  Despite  the size of the population, the p r o x i m i t y to the 'town' functions of Lake Cowichan appears to have r e s t r i c t e d to 'hamlet' l e v e l the growth of s e r v i c e functions i n Youbou. Conclusion It i s evident f r o m the preceeding analysis that a trade h i e r a r c h y has developed within central Vancouver Island but that there are d i f f e r ences between this h i e r a r c h y and those developed i n an a r e a chiefly  46 dependent upon agriculture.  The hierarchy in Vancouver Island is a  result of a combination of two types of centres: a) Population concentrations due to industrial development. b) Service centres for external population.  Most of the urban centres in central Vancouver Island fall into one or other of these two categories but the one centre which plays an important role in both capacities, Nanaimo, is the one which has far outstripped the others - not in population, the Albernis being larger in 1961,  but in number and variety of services offered.  It would appear that Vancouver Island centres which develop as a result of expansion of a specific economic base such as industry, tourism, or armed forces and which for these purposes have a closely congregating population, develop more retail functions that would appear probable from the annual retail sales value.  This suggests that where a fairly large  resident population provides a market, many types of retail services are established, but with a total sales value which is fairly low.  Where  customers from rural areas have to travel several miles to have access to the majority of retail functions, the tendency is to bypass the lower order centres in the hierarchy and to accomplish all or the majority of retail transactions in 'city' level centres.  The Vancouver Island trade  centre which serves an external population in addition to its residents w hile it may  provide only the same number of types of service as an  industrial centre has duplication of these functions thus providing a greater degree of selection which is influential in the customers choice of shopping  centre.  T h i s is e x e m p l i f i e d in the case of the residents of Chemainus,  whose change of custom for ' c i t y ' l e v e l goods f r o m Duncan to Nanaimo has p r e v i o u s l y been d i s c u s s e d .  It appears that the greater the selection  of me rchandise available the longer the distance the external trade population is p r e p a r e d to t r a v e l .  T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y evident in the case of  the c u s t o m e r s to Nanaimo stores who are residents of the A l b e r n i s .  Despite this tendency to t r a v e l further to a c c o m p l i s h m a j o r  pur-  chases, the population growth of the entire region under study has been such that no centres have been b y p a s s e d by l o c a l population to such an extent that they have descended to the h i e r a r c h y .  However,  centres have not developed beyond the l e v e l attained i n 1931, fore have dropped in their relative position i n the h i e r a r c h y .  several and thereThese  'static' places are of two types - the hamlets near l a r g e r trade centres, for example,  around N a n a i m o , in the Courtenay a r e a and near Duncan,  and towns such as C u m b e r l a n d where the economic base has not been stable and the town therefore in d e p r e s s i o n .  Different approaches have been u s e d to determine the urban and trade h i e r a r c h i e s .  F o r 1961 maps 10 and 15 indicate that the results  obtained are s i m i l a r .  The f i r s t and m o r e complex method does provide  m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n in addition to the actual h i e r a r c h y .  The correlations  between size of population, number of central functions and functional units make it possible to c o m p a r e the urban growth patterns of this a r e a with the patterns for other areas in s i m i l a r or different environments. Due to the difficulty of obtaining population data, the second method,  48 based on l e v e l s of trade activity and r e q u i r i n g l e s s i n i t i a l data,  is a more  appropriate approach for an h i s t o r i c a l study of urban growth within a region.  1 B e r r y , B . J . L . , H . G . B a r n u m and R. J . Tennant, " R e t a i l L o c a t i o n and C o n s u m e r Behaviour, " P a p e r s and P r o c e e d i n g s of the Regional Science A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 9 (1962), p. 68. 2  Ibid. , p. 70  3 ibid; v 4 Ibid. " S B o r c h e r t , J . R. , The U r b a n i s a t i o n of the Upper M i d - W e s t 1930-1960, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1963. 6 Ibid., p. 12 7  B e r r y et. a l . op. c i t . p p . 74-76.  CHAPTER  IV  URBAN L A N D USE D E V E L O P M E N T  The third phase of urban development on Central Vancouver Island is one in which forest industries have taken over the role formerly held by coal mining.  Within the thirty year period from 1931 the advances in  the forest industry have been as striking as those in the coal mining industry prior to 1900. . During this time forest products have become the most important item in the British Columbian economy and on Vancouver Island the establishment of sawmills, shingle mills, and in particular pulp and paper-mills have been the most dominant feature of economic growth. Many of these have been located away from existing centres and have resulted in the establishment of new settlements, and all have caused a growth of the labour force not only in manufacturing but also in logging and in service industries.  Those centres which were entirely dependent upon coal mining have either changed their economic base to forest industry or have, become relatively insignificant.  Settlements which originated as trade  centres increased as the logging operations created growth in the population of their tributary areas.  Of the urban centres which had emerged by 1931 five have remained comparatively important till the present day.  These centres, although  not today the five largest urban areas, have been studied in detail, to  50 TABLE  II  Vancouver Island - Selected C i t i e s - Population 1921- 61 192 1  1931  1941  1951  1961  Nanaimo"  6, 304  6, 745  6, 635  7,196  14,135  Duncan  1,178  '-1, 843  2,189  2, 784  3, 726  810  1, 219  1, 737  2, 553  3,485  1, 596  3, 058  6, 391  A l berni 540 P o r t A l b e r n i 1, 056  702 2, 356  1, 807 4, 584  3, 323 7, 845.  4, 616 i i r , 560  1, 443.  1, 706  2, 094  2, 173  Courtenay Albernis  Ladysmith  Source:  1, 967  Census of Canada, 1951 V o l . 1 .  16, 176  Table 9, 1961 V o l . 1 . Table 9.  TABLE Vancouver  11, 168  III  Island - Selected C i t i e s - R e t a i l T r a d e N u m b e r of Stores 1931 1941 1951  1961  Sales $'000 1931 1941  1951  Nanaimo  177  176  169  173  4, 327  5, 858 19, 016  Dune an  76  98  85  103  1, 725  2, 511  X  X  74  81  155  156  Courtenay Albernis Alberni Port Alberni  X  X  58  97  47 108  39 117  X  X  45  33  Ladysmith  X  X  1, 070 X  Not available  24, 008  8, 380 12,982 9, 319  11, 401 '  13,737  7, 050  X  x 3,. .104 5, 467 2, 341 10, 633 15, 283 X  Source: Census of Canada 1951 V o l . VII Table 5, 1961 V o l . V I x  1961  2,619  2,795  Table 6.  THE A L B E R N I S NANAIMO  DUNCAN COURTENAY LADYSMITH  Professional & Managerial ii;jD>Clerical Service Finance 8. C o m m e r c e T r a n s p o r t & Communication Manufacturing & Construction  ^j|s2> P r i m a r y  Industry  Labouring Not stated  M a p s 16-18  The Structure of the Labour F o r c e for Selected C i t i e s 1941-1961. Outside c i r c l e r e p r e s e n t s total population; inner c i r c l e represents total labour f o r c e . F i g . V Population growth for Selected C i t i e s ; 1921-1961. Source: Census of Canada 1941, 51 and 61  52  determine both the changes in location and amount of land used for commercial and industrial purposes and some of the reasons for these change s.  Three factors have played major roles not only in determining the location of urban areas, but also the patterns of land use within each; transport facilities, character of the site, and function of the centre. Thus three of the centres, Nanaimo, the Albernis and Ladysmith, that developed in port locations show certain similarities.  Duncan,  Courtenay and Nanaimo which are the main trade centres of the region also have similar characteristics.  Nanaimo Nanaimo, unlike Duncan and Courtenay, did not develop, initially as a service centre and up to the present time a large proportion of the labour force, as can be seen in maps 16-18, has been employed in industry.  The majority of industrial employers, first the coal companies  and subsequently the forest industries, have been located outside of the city.  Due to the presence of the first coal mines at the Nanaimo water-  front dock facilities were established early and Nanaimo continued to be the main shipping point for coal and forest products from the surrounding area.  It has also remained the main residential area although since  1931 much of the expansion has been outside the city limits.  The decline in employment came later in the Nanaimo mines than in those at Extension and Cumberland.  The peak production year  was  M a p 19  Commercial  L a n d U s e of N a n a i m o ,  1931  54 1923 when over 1. 2 million tons were produced, and at that time 3, 400 miners were employed by Western Fuel Company and it was not until 1929 that there was a significant decline. Fuel mines came in 1939.  The closure of all Western  Smaller companies continued production but  between 1945 and 1949 the total annual production of all mines in and around Nanaimo was between 300, 000 and 350, 000 tons which was similar to the annual production prior to 1880. *  The area most suited to the development of dock facilities and also the site of the original mines was virtually an island, only connected to the mainland near the present location of Comox Road and the Ravine, now Terminal Avenue, was an arm of the sea.  The settlers built their  town along the waterfront and a causeway was constructed to span the Ravine at Commercial Street.  The dumping of coal slag gradually  filled up the depression and Cameron Island became completely joined to the mainland.  The laying out of the second section of the town in an  unusual radial pattern took place in 1864, having been planned in England and drawn out on contour maps, with the result that instead of the North American grid pattern this section of the town has a distinctive pattern 2 similar to that of many British towns of the same period. 'o, • '• •  The problem  which confronted the planners was considerable as at that time the Ravine had not been filled in and the commercial area was already congested. By 1931 four distinct sections of the town were apparent; the original area of settlement on Cameron Island; the residential mining  M a p 20.  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d U s e of N a n a i m o  1941  56 town consisting l a r g e l y of m i n e r s ' houses l a i d out in the r a d i a l street pattern; the Harewood or F i v e A c r e s d i s t r i c t where a f a r m belonging to the Vancouver C o a l Company had been divided into five a c r e lots for m i n e r s ' smallholdings (not shown on map 19): and the Newcastle d i s t r i c t north of M i l l s t o n e R i v e r which was the most recent r e s i d e n t i a l development.  It can be seen f r o m map 19 that the c o m m e r c i a l development in  1931 was l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to the a r e a of the o r i g i n a l settlement along the waterfront between the Indian R e s e r v e and M i l l s t o n e River, and  4 extending two or three blocks inland.  C o m m e r c i a l Street contained  the great m a j o r i t y of the stores and many of the s e r v i c e functions while the waterfront had most of the wholesale, premises.  storage and transportation  The e a r l y date of development and the r e s t r i c t e d site has  r e s u l t e d in v e r y s m a l l lots in the m a i n c o m m e r c i a l a r e a .  Beyond the  C a m e r o n Island section only a few scattered stores and s e r v i c e s  appear  along the r a d i a l streets of the newer town, extending westwards  towards  the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y .  Although m i n i n g was s t i l l the m a i n  basis of the economy at this t i m e , N u m b e r One M i n e ,  shown on map 19  at the south end of Esplanade, was the only mine operating within the city l i m i t s . Between 1931 and 1941 the number of r e t a i l p r e m i s e s stayed m o r e or l e s s constant (Table III),  but the annual sales i n c r e a s e d 36 per cent  indicating that although little change had o c c u r r e d in the a r e a u s e d for r e t a i l p u r p o s e s , the businesses had expanded within their existing premises.  The changes which had o c c u r r e d were the i n c r e a s e in  NANAIMO C O M M E R C I A L LAND USE  1951  £3  rrjj'—  IJjSffi  Retail stores  [.. .. ] Transport and communication  " | * | Retail and professional services  liij^H  Automobile sales and s e r v i c e 680 yards  Map 21  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of N a n a i m o ,  1951  I Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s  |H| Wholesale and storage  ffiffl  Industry Public buildings and playing fields  58 importance of the E . and N . Railway a r e a as a location for wholesale firms,  and also the change i n the use of waterfront property f r o m coal  storage and shipping to l u m b e r storage.  During the 1930's despite the  depression, N a n a i m o ' s role as the s e r v i c e centre for c e n t r a l Vancouver Island became well established as s e v e r a l wholesale f i r m s , the m a j o r i t y of which handled food products, were located there.  After W o r l d War II, a p e r i o d of r a p i d expansion o c c u r r e d as the forest product i n d u s t r i e s i n c r e a s e d their employment to such an extent that they became almost as important a factor i n the Nanaimo economy as coal had been twenty y e a r s before.  The sulphate pulp m i l l at H a r m a c ,  southeast of N a n a i m o , was the most significant single development. The population i n c r e a s e within the C i t y of Nanaimo was not l a r g e , between 1941 and 1951.  561,  T h i s was due m a i n l y to the fact that the a r e a  within the city boundary was almost entirely occupied and new suburban development was f o r c e d outside the boundary.  T h e r e was not a s i g n i f i -  cant change i n the amount of land used for r e t a i l or s e r v i c e purposes, but there was a v e r y significant, 225 percent,  i n c r e a s e i n the annual  r e t a i l sales which would indicate a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n the importance of existing stores.  Increase i n the amount of land o c c u p i e d by wholesale  establishments, however, was m o r e noticeable, m a i n l y near to the E . and N . R a i l w a y and was an indication of the i n c r e a s i n g importance of Nanaimo as the wholesale centre.  The next decade brought s e v e r a l changes.  A n i n c r e a s e d use of the  land i n the (Vicinity of both the waterfront and the E . and N . Railway for s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s , wholesale and storage o c c u r r e d at the same time as  M a p 22  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of N a n a i m o ,  1961  60 the Island Highway attracted the development of a shopping centre in the Newcastle district.  Despite this development, and the location of a  Safeway supermarket and Simpson Sears on large sites on Terminal Avenue, there was again no significant change in the number of retail stores nor was the rate of increase in sales comparable to that of the previous decade, 26 per cent as compared to 225 per cent. this time there was  During  a distinct increase in the importance of wholesale  activity not only in food products but also automobile parts.  Most of  these establishments are located on Terminal Avenue where many of the sales and service premises are also located. \  Until the introduction of the British Columbia F e r r y service to Victoria in I960 the ferry crossing from Vancouver to Nanaimo, either by Canadian Pacific or Black Ball Ferry, was the fastest and most direct route to Vancouver Island.  Many Vancouver wholesale firms  distributing goods on Vancouver Island made use of these ferry crossings and, as the volume of goods increased several firms have opened branch outlets in Nanaimo. By 1961 Nanaimo was well established as the main wholesale outlet for most of Vancouver Island, as shown on Map  11.  Several firms, for example, Safeway, still continue to send their produce by trailer from Vancouver via the  Horshoe Bay to Nanaimo ferry now  operated by British Columbia F e r r i e s . The restricted and hilly site on'which the first settlers constructed their town remains today as the congested commercial core of Nanaimo. This, in conjunction with the surrounding radial street pattern, makes  Retail stores  I  Retail and professional services  Wholesale and storage  Automobile sales and service  Industry. WSM Public buildings and playing fields  Hotels a n d ' r e s t a u r a n t s 0  Map 23  [Transport and communication  220  440yaras  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan  1931  62 Nanaimo distinctive among the towns of central Vancouver Island in that the traditional North American rectilinear pattern has been .-avoided, except in the more distant residential areas.  Duncan Forty-five years after the opening of Duncan Station on the r a i l way,  the commercial land use of the city was  still located close to the  railway and restricted to approximately eight blocks of the original townsite.  The selection of the site of Duncan, being due to its suita-  bility for halting the inaugural run of the railway, was fortuitously on an area suitable for the development of a town. ^  However, although  the area immediately around the railway is flat, an Indian Reserve, located one block south of the station, and a steep bluff beginning three blocks west of the station did limit the early residential development to' the areas east and north of the commercial district. J  On the land use map  for 1931 (map  23), it can be seen that the  majority of the retail and service functions were located within two blocks of the railway station and to the west of the tracks, on Craig and Station Streets.  The junction of these two streets was the location  of three of the original retail establishments, Cowichan Merchants, Island Drug Company and Jaynes Hardware. ^  Service establishments  such as laundries and medical offices were less centrally located than the retail establishments while the automotive sales and service firms congregated along Government Street and its continuation on Trunk Road  DUNCAN COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1941  H  Retail and professional services  | _  Automobile sales and service  lilllllill  Hotels and restaurants  0  Map 24  WB  Wholesale and storage Industry  fflffij  220  Public buildings and playing fields  440yards  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan 1941  64 where they were m o r e l i k e l y to attract custom f r o m ' t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . Such industry and wholesaling as there was within the city bounds was situated beside the r a i l w a y .  The m a i n industry, Cowichan C r e a m e r y  (established 1895), supplied butter for the V i c t o r i a m a r k e t , food supplies, and p r o c e s s e d poultry.  manufactured  The C r e a m e r y although i m p o r t -  ant in the s e r v i c e s it o f f e r e d for the surrounding f a r m population had a p a y r o l l of only twenty-eight p e r s o n s .  By 1941 the population of the town had grown by 346 to 2, 189, that of the total s e r v i c e a r e a i n c r e a s e d by 3, 900 to 13, 835.  while  Within the  c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t of the town, that is the a r e a of the land use survey,  the  i n c r e a s e i n land u s e d for c o m m e r c i a l purposes was not large although there was a considerable i n c r e a s e i n the number of s e r v i c e and r e t a i l businesses within the town. this.  T h e r e are at least two apparent reasons for  The new r e s i d e n t i a l development within the city at this time being  on the p e r i p h e r y s e v e r a l s m a l l general stores and other b u s i n e s s e s ,  for  example a m o t e l , had been established outside the land use survey a r e a . Secondly, during the ten year p e r i o d p r i o r to 1941 s e v e r a l new businesses located not on the fringes of existing c o m m e r c i a l development but within the c e n t r a l a r e a where the use of city lots became m o r e intensified, many p r e m i s e s being subdivided to accommodate m o r e than one use. The developments within the town, while obviously reflecting m o r e growth than that of the population of the city, would most probably have been c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r but for the expansion of some of the s m a l l e r centres such as Chemainus to serve their own population.  DUNCAN COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1951  Retail stores Retail and professional services  Transport and communication | Wholesale and storage  Automobile sales and service  Industry  Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s  Public buildings and playing fields 440yards  M a p 25  C o m m e r c i a l Land Use  of D u n c a n  1951  66 The pattern of intensifying commercial activity within approximately eight city blocks continued between 1941 and 1951.  This is  apparent not only from a study of the land use at this time but also from the fact,that although the actual number of retail outlets decreased from 92 to 85, there was a sales increase of 234 per cent from 1941 to 1951.  Although part of this may be accounted for by the increased  cost of merchandise, it still gives evidence of a substantial increase in the retail trade of the city.  It would appear that the rapid increase  in retail stores in the period 1931 to 1941 was followed by a period of consolidation while the rapid increase in numbers of retail services did not occur until the 1941 - 1951 period.  The city of Duncan, being  the route and service centre of Cowichan Valley, has become the administrative centre.  In addition to the municipal, offices several  government offices are located here, for example, the Departments of Indian Affairs, Welfare, and Agriculture. Throughout the history of the city of Duncan the original townsite around the railway remained the focus of development.  Residential  construction occurred to the east of the railway and also to the northwest, while the Indian R e s e r v e to the south and, to a lesser extent, the North Cowichan municipality in the north had a restricting effect on expansion in those directions.  The morphology of the city was drastically  altered by the construction of the Trans Canada Highway, as can be seen on map 26.  Intended to bypass the bottleneck of the commercial centre  of Duncan, the highway was sited five blocks east of the railway.  By  DUNCAN COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1961  Retail stores  Transport and communication  Retail and professional services  WS Wholesale and storage  Automobile sales and service  jji^jj Industry  mill Hotels  0  Map 26  ffttttttH Public buildings and playing  and r e s t a u r a n t s 220  fields  440yards  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Duncan 1961  1961  the effects of this highway location were very apparent.  establishment of six new  The  service stations on the highway had obviously  begun to affect the prosperity of the service stations on Government Street, although none of these had yet been forced out of business. In addition to service stations, other highway oriented businesses, for example, restaurant, drive-in eating places and supermarkets were attracted to sites on or near the highway, where more adequate parking facilities could be developed than in the city centre.  The next phase in the commercial development was along Trunk Road, the main connection between the old and new concentrations of commerce.  The firms established here tended to be either branches  of firms still functioning within the central area or else relocating firms from the older buildings.  Within the land use survey area but  in North Cowichan to the north of the Duncan city boundary the Cowichan Junibn^Senior High School and a stadium were the main non-residential land users but some commercial development had begun to extend beyond the city limits.  The lack of industry in Duncan and the provision  of many services from a comparatively early date have probably been the factors which have led to the development of Duncan as a retirement centre.  Although not as important in Duncan as in Victoria this  segment of the population is significant.  Despite the fact that the railway was the causal factor in the location of*the service centre for the Cowichan Valley, within Duncan it has not had a major effect on the subsequent land use development.  COURTENAY COMMERCIAL LAND USE  Retail stores | Retail and.professional services | Automobile sales and service Hotels and restaurants  t  I Transport and communication  WS& Wholesale and storage Industry Bffffl Public buildings and playing fields 440yards  Map 27  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Courtenay 1931  The location of highways has had far greater influence upon land use development than any other factor.  Courtenay The Courtenay townsite, like that of Duncan, was laid out on a comparatively flat site, to the west of the bridge over the Puntledge river which was the chief locating factor. Although Joseph McPhee owned the greater part of the townsite which he had laid out the site he chose for his own store was on the steep river bluff, as were the other original stores.  The first store to locate on the flat land was  Lavers at the junction of Fifth Street and what is now Cliffe Avenue.  Q  The concentration, by 1931, of retail and service functions along the main street, Fifth Street, and the three cross streets iirBmediately west of the river can be seen to be similar to the Duncan pattern by comparison of maps 37 and 23.  So too was the comparatively  large  number of service stations, six, located around the central area. There was little industry, or wholesale and storage facilities within the city in 1931 and the only significant industry, Comox Co-operative Creamery, was the counterpart of Cowichan Creamery in Duncan and served the same purposes.  The terminal of the E. and N. Railway  appears to have had little influence on the location of commercial establishments prior to 1931.  The second railway appearing on map 27,  the Comox Logging Railway, was a one-purpose facility conveying logs from the Headquarters area to booming grounds near Union Bay.  Between 1931 and 1941 although there was considerable in the total number of r e t a i l stores and s e r v i c e s ,  increase  the commercially-  developed a r e a did not i n c r e a s e significantly but rather became c o n solidated and the lots m o r e intensively u t i l i s e d .  The i n c r e a s e in  s e r v i c e stations began the extension of the c o m m e r c i a l a r e a along C l i f f e Avenue.  The rate of growth of the population of Courtenay f r o m 1941 to 1951 was m u c h greater than that of Duncan, 109 per cent as c o m p a r e d to 51 per cent, but there is not a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y large i n c r e a s e i n either the amount of land used for c o m m e r c i a l purposes or the number of r e t a i l sales and s e r v i c e establishments.  This is probably due to the  fact that although Courtenay grew v e r y quickly, the population of C o m o x V a l l e y did not i n c r e a s e as r a p i d l y as that of Cowichan V a l l e y .  In  addition, the p r e c a r i o u s state of the coal mines at C u m b e r l a n d caused considerable unemployment in the Courtenay trade a r e a .  By 1951 considerable i n c r e a s e s in s e r v i c e functions can be seen on map 29.  The concentration of r e t a i l stores is on F i f t h Avenue with  s e r v i c e functions on Sixth and on c r o s s streets, and hotels and motels in m o r e outlying parts but still on m a i n routeways - in p a r t i c u l a r the Island Highway.  At the same time some c o m m e r c i a l development near  the railway t e r m i n a l o c c u r r e d .  The m a i n post-war development has  been since 1951 with considerable expansion of wholesale and r e t a i l e stablishments near the E . and N . Railway, m o r e motels locating along the Island Highway, the l u m b e r industry developing on the east side of  Map 29  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Courtenay  1951  74 the r i v e r and the m a i n c o m m e r c i a l core expanding south.  A considerable  i n c r e a s e also o c c u r r e d in c i v i c building, and Courtenay like Duncan has become a regional administrative centre.  A s has been shown, the development of Courtenay has been v e r y s i m i l a r to that of Duncan and is l a r g e l y dependent on the same factor; the p r o s p e r i t y of the l u m b e r industry.  Neither town is i n d u s t r i a l i z e d but  both provide s e r v i c e s for an extensive area, in which logging and other forest industries are of p r i m a r y importance.  E a c h serves as collection  and distribution point for produce f r o m a well developed a g r i c u l t u r a l area. In addition,Courtenay p r i o r to W o r l d War II had within its s e r v i c e a r e a many s m a l l m i n i n g communities and C u m b e r l a n d .  The location of the  C o m o x A i r Base within the Courtenay trade a r e a has p r o v i d e d an i m p o r t ant additional revenue to the a r e a , and the F e d e r a l Government has become the l a r g e s t employer in the region.  In addition, the popularity of the region  for both winter and s u m m e r sports has c r e a t e d a demand for additional hotel, m o t e l , m a r i n a and transportation  Courtenay, depression.  services.  like Duncan, has never known a time of r e a l  At the time when the coal industry was dying out, which it  did m u c h m o r e gradually than in the Wellington and E x t e n s i o n m i n e s , logging activity was at its peak in the immediate vicinity of Courtenay. A s logging m o v e d further into the hinterland, the importance of the C o m o x A i r Base has i n c r e a s e d .  The c o m p a r a t i v e l y stable economy has  resulted in the steady growth of the c o m m e r c i a l core of the city.  The  present uncertainty about the future of the a r m e d s e r v i c e s must be a  Map 30  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of Courtenay  1961  source of concern to commercial establishments in the locality.  If a  decline in personnel at the base does occur the rapidly developing tourist industry may  succeed in sustaining the economy through a  difficult period.  The Albernis The townsites of Port Alberni and Alberni are both located on the Alberni Canal, a sea inlet navigable by ocean freighters.  Alberni  appears to have been the original settlement, having the oldest post office, and yet the site of the Anderson Sawmill, established in I860, was on the waterfront near the present location of the Government Wharf in Port Alberni. F r o m 1900 to the present day Port Alberni has exceeded Alberni in size and commercial activity.  The only apparent reasons for  this are the deep water and less restricted harbour at the site of Port Alberni providing easy docking for ships, and the location of the first mill at this point.  Alberni had the flat townsite where residential and  commercial building was  easier, but despite this the hilly Port Alberni  attracted the great majority of the commercial development and most of the population expansion.  A s already stated (p. 21 early failure of the first sawmill.  ) the lack of available timber caused the It was not until the 1920's that the  lumber industry gained a strong foothold in the Alberni Valley.  The  key  to the expansion of the industry then and the continuous expansion since, lies in changing transport technology which has continuously expanded the  Map 31  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the A l b e r n i s  1931  78 area from which lumber is accessible to the mills at Port  Alberni.  The increasing use of mechanised transport on land and several means of ocean transport for the logs has resulted in a continuous increase in the utilization of the vast forest resources of western Vancouver Island. Until the last decade the Albernis have been the only west coast settlements with comparatively  easy access to the populated east coast of  the Island and as a result the twin cities have grown to be the largest urban settlement of B. C. outside the lower mainland and Victoria.  Port Alberni had much more rapid rates of growth of population and commercial activity between 1921 and 1931 when Port Alberni's population increased 123% and Alberni by 30% (Table II). It can be seen on map  31 that in 1931 the two cities were fairly self contained as to the  services provided.  Johnston Road which runs at right angles to the  Somass River was the location of almost all the commercial establishments in Alberni while in Port Alberni many of the well established firms were in the process of relocating along Third Avenue.  The early  commercial development took place around the site of the old Anderson mill, that is, near the waterfront on Argyle Street and on Kingsway and F i r s t Avenue.  The number of transient workers employed in the mills  is reflected in the large number of hotels located around the original commercial core of Port Alberni.  The site of Alberni was flat and easily  developed and the townsite had been laid out with wide streets and large lots, with the exception of one block on Johnston where two lots had been subdivided to provide thirteen lots for retail purposes. In Port Alberni  Map 32  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the A l b e r n i s  1941  80 the lots were half the size of those i n A l b e r n i , t h i r t y - t h r e e feet wide as c o m p a r e d to sixty six feet.  One result of this s m a l l e r lot size is  that l e s s land has been taken up for c o m m e r c i a l use than the number of establishments would suggest and thus s e r v e d to prevent extensive sprawl of the c o m m e r c i a l a r e a .  The c o m m e r c i a l activity i n A l b e r n i was s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d to providing s e r v i c e s for the resident population, r e t a i l stores and services,  three s e r v i c e stations,  an hotel and a couple of coffee b a r s .  P o r t Albernii,in addition to providing for its own population, had some services,  for example the C r e d i t B u r e a u and p o o l r o o m , which catered  for the whole d i s t r i c t .  F r o m map 16 it is apparent that the labour f o r c e of the A l b e r n i s was v e r y dependent upon industry, both manufacturing and primary.  In addition  as shipbuilding,  to the m a i n sawmills, s u b s i d i a r y industries such  sash and door, and m e t a l working were developing  although of m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e .  M o s t of the shipbuilding was concerned  with fishing boats.  The next decade saw r a p i d expansion of the forest i n d u s t r i e s . In 1934 B l o e d e l , Stewart and Welch a c q u i r e d ownership of the'sawmill at G r e a t C e n t r a l Lake and then extended the work i n P o r t A l b e r n i at the Somass Saw and Shingle M i l l .  The following year H . R.  McMillan  took over the A l b e r n i P a c i f i c Saw M i l l and expanded into plywood p r o duction.  A l l of the f o r e s t product plants have been located on the  THE A L B E R N I S COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1951 I Transport and communication  | Retail stores  j  [ Retail and professional services  | | | £ ] Wholesale and storage  Automobile sales and service Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s  Industry M B S Public buildings S. playing fields  860yards  Map 33  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the A l b e r n i s  1951  waterfront to facilitate collection and export of the finished products. Population increase accompanied this expansion but unlike the previous ten year period, Alberni grew at a faster rate than Port Alberni, 158 per cent as compared to 95 per cent. In absolute terms Port Alberni was still growing more rapidly but the tendency of employees to locate further from their place of work was noticeable and Alberni's role as a dormitory area for industrial workers was established at this time. Most of the commercial expansion during this time as in all the other cities in central Vancouver Island seems to have beenwithin the existing commercially developed area, that is, some lots were subdivided to accommodate a larger number of businesses and there was also expansion of existing firms. The only significant land use change was the movement of a few establishments north away from the centre of commercial development (i.e. Third Avenue and Argyle) along Third Avenue North which is the main connecting street with Alberni.  This was the beginning of a trend which has continued to the  present time.  It would appear that rapid increases in population take five to ten years to be reflected in land use changes because, although the rate of population growth had decreased for the Albernis from one hundred and nine per cent, 1931-1941, to seventy-five per cent from 1941-1951, there was considerable expansion in the number of commercial establishments both in Alberni and Port Alberni.  Those in Port Alberni  continued the trend of developing towards Alberni and at the' same time  THE A L B E R N I S COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1961 Wffl Retail s t o r e s  (  WBM Transport and communication  Retail and professional services  [jjgj Wholesale  Automobile sales and service'  g^jj  j Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s  and storage  Industry  |fj§|§  Public buildings a.'playing fields  BBOyards  Map 34  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of the A l b e r n i s  1961  there was an i n c r e a s e in the number of l o c a l c o r n e r stores.  With  the i n c r e a s e in r e t a i l businesses a s m a l l number of wholesale establishments also located i n P o r t A l b e r n i , the m a j o r i t y adjacent to the r a i l w a y .  E a c h decade during the p e r i o d of study has had significant expansion in the forest industries resulting in the i n c r e a s e d population of the c i t i e s .  F i r s t the establishment of the sulphate m i l l i n 1947  and then the doubling of the sulphate paper capacity between 1955 and 1956 have been the m a j o r factors resulting i n the growth of population. In addition to the i n c r e a s e d number of s e r v i c e s located along T h i r d Avenue N o r t h , the m a j o r i t y of which were automobile sales and service,  two other areas of P o r t A l b e r n i e m e r g e d as.locations  new development.  for  The f i r s t , R e d f o r d Avenue, shows a development  s i m i l a r to that in Duncan and Nanaimo along the T r a n s Canada Highway. T h i s has been along R e d f o r d Avenue, the m a i n route out of the A l b e r n i s , where s e r v i c e stations and a shopping centre have located.  Here  parking space c o u l d be m o r e r e a d i l y made available and the  eastward  expanding r e s i d e n t i a l areas s e r v e d .  The second a r e a of new expansion  was in a d i s t r i c t rather i s o l a t e d f r o m the m a i n c o m m e r c i a l areas of Port  A l b e r n i to the northeast.  H e r e rather than r e t a i l stores and  s e r v i c e s the development has been of wholesale,  storage and transport  s e r v i c e s and some s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s .  The land use pattern of the A l b e r n i s is quite unlike that of any of the other towns under study.  T h e r e are two f a c t o r s which account  LADYSMITH  COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1931  Retail s t o r e s  Transport and communication  Retail and professional services  Wholesale and storage  Automobile sales and s e r v i c e  Industry  Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s 0  Map 35  WM 220  Public buildings and playing fields 440yards  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1931  for this.  The development of two separate centres at A l b e r n i and at  P o r t A l b e r n i has given r i s e to a pattern of multiple n u c l e i in contrast to the other towns of the region which show a tendency to develop in concentric zones with some sector development.  In addition, P o r t  A l b e r n i is the only one of the five urban areas where a substantial amount of land a r e a within the city is u s e d for industry.  Ladysmith The economy of L a d y s m i t h was at its lowest ebb in 1931, date for which the land use map (Map 35) was p r e p a r e d .  the  C o a l mining had  ceased at E x t e n s i o n and little other alternative employment was available for the inhabitants of the D u n s m u i r company town.  The previous  decade had seen a decrease in population of 27 per cdht, f r o m 1, 967 to 1, 443.  T h i s seems a l l the m o r e r e m a r k a b l e at a time when the  average i n c r e a s e of population i n a l l other i n c o r p o r a t e d centres in Central Vancouver Island was 30 per cent.  The townsite of L a d y s m i t h was l a i d out with little r e g a r d for the convenience of the r e s i d e n t s .  Despite the fact that s e v e r a l  a r e a s i n the v i c i n i t y would have p r o v i d e d flat sites for development, the one chosen is almost entirely steeply sloping.  It can be seen  f r o m map 35 that the o r i g i n a l site was l a i d out in a completely r e c t i l i n e a r pattern with the c o m m e r c i a l development along F i r s t Avenue which runs northwest to southeast one block up f r o m the foot of the hill.  T h i s was also the street u s e d by throughtown t r a f f i c .  Between  Baden P o w e l l and K i t c h e n e r Streets'thai five blocks of F i r s t Avenue  LADYSMITH  COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1941 _d  SECOND  mm  mm  uu  AVENUE  •JtU DJLLI LTD  i FIRST  A V E N U E  I Retail s t o r e s  |  Transport and communication  | Retail and professional services  JHJ1  Automobile sales and s e r v i c e  Ij^^i  | Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s  Wholesale and storage Industry Public buildings and playing fields  Map 36 C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1941  consist mainly of buildings transferred there from Extension. In 1931 despite the depression it appears that most of these buildings were in commercial use, most establishments being used for retail rather than service purposes.  With a population only four hundred  less than that of Duncan, Ladysmith had only two service stations in contrast to eleven at Duncan. One striking feature is the fact that only three hotels remain of the thirteen hotels and boarding houses present in 1904.  However, even three hotels was out of proportion  to the size of the population in view of the fact they were not products of an attempt to attract tourists.  The commercial land use in 1941 gives little indication of the improved economic circumstances of the town and it is probable that by that date those firms which had remained in business but on the verge  of bankruptcy, were once again serving a population  sufficiently large and prosperous to sustain them but not yet attracting new business.  The improvement in the town circumstances came about due to a severe gale which in 1933 blew down large stands of timber in the area west of Ladysmith.  Up to that time no attempt had been made to  utilize the available timber resources. The realization that the windfelled timber would soon become worthless caused the owners to sell their holdings to Comox Logging and Railway Company (a subsidiary o  of Canadian Western Lumber Company) in 1936.  Operations began  immediately in the vicinity of Ladysmith and within two years three  LADYSMITH  COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1951  X  | Retail stores  Transport and communication  | Retail and professional services  Wholesale and storage  Automobile sales and s e r v i c e  Industry  [ Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s 0  Map 37  Public buildings and playing fields 220  440yards  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1951  90  hundred men were employed and by 1941 the population of Ladysmith was approaching the 1921 figure.  During the second World War  con-  siderable expansion took place and a railway was built to the Nanaimo Lakes area. Until then all work was carried on using trucks and tractors which was unusual at that time.  When the original townsite was laid out the majority of the lots were larger than in other towns on the Island, and although there was a significant increase between 1941 and 1951 in the number of commercial establishments and in the types of service offered this is not apparent from the land use maps. Many of the lots in the commercial district were subdivided and more extensively used.  The statistics for the city from 1941 to 1961 would appear to indicate that the population increase in the first ten years of this period, twentythree per cent, was not sustained after 1951 (table II). By 1951 the area within the city boundary was almost entirely occupied and some residential development had already spread beyond.  The  subsequent increase in population is in the unorganized territory adjacent to the city.  In 1961 an estimate gave the population of the  contiguous residential area as 800, making the total population of the urban area approximately 3, 000. ^°  The boundaries of the Village of  Ladysmith have been re-located since the 1961 census and the new boundary is shown on the inset in map  35.  The previous boundary  includes little more than the area shown on the land use maps 35-38.  LADYSMITH  COMMERCIAL LAND USE 1961  | Retail stores  fcfj-j  | Retail and professional services Automobile sales and s e r v i c e [  | Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s  Map 38  fflBl  Transport and communication [Sjffij Wholesale and storage Industry Public buildings and playing fields  C o m m e r c i a l L a n d Use of L a d y s m i t h 1961  Ladysmith is now a residential town for the employees of the forest industry.  The Comox Logging and Railway Company,  now  a subsidiary of Crown Zellerbach, in 1961 employed four hundred, the majority living in Ladysmith.  McMillan Bloedel and Powell River  have logging operations near Chemainus and Ladysmith and have a sawmill at Chemainus and a pulp m i l l at Harmac, north of Ladysmith. A l l of these have many employees resident in the Ladysmith area. Other industries are still few and small.  Since 1955 oyster culture  has been increasing but employment in 1961 was only between twenty and thirty.  Ladysmith harbour provides suitable facilities both for  commercial fishing and for pleasure craft.  The most striking feature of the commercial land use pattern is the lack of change from 1931 to 1961.  A study of the  establishments  listed in the B. C. Directories indicate that if it had been possible to compile maps for 1911 and 1904, little variation.  it is probable that they would show  The changes from a mining town to a centre of un-  employment and then to a residential area for the various aspects of the lumber industry do not seem to be reflected in the urban land use. At no stage in the town's history has it provided services for more than a very small area around the town, and during the period of growth since 1941 more and more of the residents travel north to Nanaimo for major purchases and services. Summary E c h of the central Island towns which has developed because a  of the need focr port facilities has been on a site which is steeplysloping with the result that there is deep water immediately offshore but the townsite has been inconvenient to its residents.  The  early retail and service areas were all located near to the waterfront. In the case of Port Alberni these services have relocated on the wider and more convenient Third Avenue higher up the hill.  The  commercial area of Nanaimo has expanded but Commercial Street remained the location of the major retail and service establishments because of the central nature of this- street, in a town which is semicircular in site, and the proximity of the wharfs which are the supply points.  This street probably has the largest retail sales of any on  the Island outside of Victoria despite being one of the most inconvenient and congested from the point of view of traffic.  The waterfront  areas of the three ports have not developed in similar ways.  Storage,  wholesale and transport facilities occupy most of the Nanaimo waterfront with only a few small industrial sites.  Alberni, in contrast,  has almost all its waterfront property in industrial use and  Ladysmith,  no longer significant as a port, has virtually unused waterfront apart from log storage and pleasure craft.  The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway was the locational factor for many of the wholesale and storage premises particularly in Duncan where there is no waterfront but also in Nanaimo where the waterfront is very congested and in Port Alberni where the waterfront has little influence on any goods other than forest products and oil which are  commodities moved by sea rather than by road or rail.  The streets or highways carrying traffic, other than the local urban traffic are those on which automobile sales and service functions and tourist accommodation tend to locate, frequently on the periphery of the commercial core area. In addition with the growing congestion of these core areas shopping centres tend to develop on or near the highways and removed from the original retail and service locations.  On only two towns do these changes in transport facilities seem to have had little dynamic effect.  The commercial land use patterns  of Ladysmith and Alberni have changed very little during the period of study despite residential growth that has been quite considerable in both towns within and without their boundaries.  In these cases it  would appear that the towns have become residential areas.with commercial cores which do not provide services for a population from outside the town, nor do they provide more than the basic services for their own inhabitants being overshadowed by the development of their neighbouring towns, Nanaimo and Port Alberni.  1 Matheson, M. H. , Some Effects of Coalmining upon the Development of the Nanaimo Area, M. A, Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1950, p. 76. 2 Johnson, P. M. , A Short History of Nanaimo, Evergreen Press Ltd., Nanaimo, B.C., 1958, p. 17. 3 Ibid, p. 18. 4 Due to the fact that no city maps, other than the current issues, were available the commercial land use for each centre at all dates has been plotted on the 1961 base.  95  5. Chapter II, page 17. 6  Information obtained from photographs in Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C.  7 7 Manager, Cowichan Creamery - interview 1961. 8  Hughes, Ben. History of the Comox Valley 1862-1945, Evergreen Press Ltd. , Nanaimo, B. C. , p. 37.  9  Davis, Isabelle Fortyninth Parallel City: An Economic History of Ladysmith , B. A. Essay, University of British Columbia, 1953, p. 39.  10  The City of Ladysmith 50th Anniversary, Ladysmith Chamber of Commerce, 1954, p. 34.  CHAPTER  V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  The growth of settlement on Vancouver Island has been largely dependent upon the utilization of three major resources; coal, forests and land suitable for agriculture.  The distribution  of these resources and the pattern of transport'facilities which emerged in conjunction with their use have been largely responsible i  for the location of settlements, for their growth in population, for the type and increase of land use within the settlements and for changes in the relative importance of centres within the region.  Stages of Urban Development Three phases of urban development can be determined: 1.  Prior to 1900 urban settlement of Central \\ancouver Island was  entirely restricted to the three coal mining communities of Nanaimo, Cumberland and Wellington.  Although agriculture was well establish-  ed by 1900 in both Cowichan and Comox Valleys, the service centres of Duncan and Courtenay were still in their infancy. Logging occurred during this early phase mainly in order to clear the land but sawmills had been established at M i l l Bay, Chemainus, Nanaimo, Courtenay and at Port Alberni. 2.  The last of these was unsuccessful.  Between 1900 and the mid-1920's, the second phase of urban  development occurred.  Many of the early coal mines were worked out  and shifts in location of the mining population took place, for example, from Wellington to Ladysmith via Extension.  Despite the opening of  new mines, the depletion of reserves and uncertain markets  resulted  in a rapid decline of the coal industry commencing immediately after the F i r s t World War. At the same time as these developments in the mining industry the service centres of Cowichan and Comox Valleys, Duncan and Courtenay, grew rapidly as both agriculture and forestry expanded in their respective hinterlands.  The re-establishment of sawmilling  gave the impetus necessary for urban settlement within the Alberni Valley. 3.  The third phase, of which the present pattern is a continuation,  began in the 1 9 2 0 ' s when coal resources were dwindling and mine employment was becoming increasingly unstable.  Fortunately,  for  the welfare of the miners, at approximately the same time the utilization of forest resources was increasing rapidly and many miners were able to turn to logging or sawmilling for employment. Ladysmith,  in particular, is an example of a mining community which  completely changed its economic base to logging.  Not all the towns  which grew with the forest industry were old mining towns.  Port  Alberni, the largest centre of forest industry within the region, from its earliest origins had forest products as its reason for existence. New towns such as Chemainus and Lake Cowichan developed in this boom of expansion of the forest industries.  A characteristic of this  third phase of development is that the economic base of settlement of central Vancouver Island became more diversified with the increasing importance of the tourist industry, retirement into the area, and the Royal Canadian Air Force Base at Comox.  Transportation The role of transportation in the urban development of this region has been threefold. Transport facilities have been influential in the choice of the original location for urban centres, and have affected the rate of growth of many centres and the morphology within the centres.  Transport is not by any means the only factor involved  in the urban development, but it is the one factor which is most commonly important in this region. 1. Transport as a Locationa.1 Factor Water transportation was the only type of public transport available to the settlers of Central Vancouver Island until 1886, and therefore the steamers plying between Victoria, Cowichan Bay, Nanaimo and Comox were a vital lifeline.  The earliest settlements  at Nanaimo and in Cowichan and Comox Valleys were restricted to an area from which it was possible to reach a steamer wharf in one days journey.  The produce from the two agricultural settlements were  conveyed by steamer to the markets at Nanaimo and Victoria, while coal was exported to San Francisco from Nanaimo and later Union Bay and Ladysmith.  The lack of regular steamers to Alberni Valley  made the position of settlers there very precarious, and therefore  99 their numbers were v e r y l i m i t e d .  L a n d transportation in the f o r m of the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo Railway, which in 1886 was opened f r o m V i c t o r i a to Nanaimo, p r o v i d e d a much neededlink between V i c t o r i a and the rest of the settled part of the Island and was instrumental in the choice of locations, for the city of Duncan and later L a d y s m i t h .  initially,  F o l l o w i n g the railway  development the highway network began to expand f r o m l o c a l s e r v i c e roads to provide connections between a l l the settled parts of Vancouver Island and in so doing opened up new areas for settlement and also encouraged the development of s e r v i c e centres such as Courtenay.  The advent of the private automobile and the resultant m o b i l i t y of private individuals b a s r e s u l t e d in growth of the tourist industry in N o r t h A m e r i c a and in Central Vancouver Island towns such as Q u a l i c u m Beach and P a r k s v i l l e are an outcome of this growth in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  2. Effect of T r a n s p o r t upon the Growth of U r b a n C e n t r e s The influence of transport f a c i l i t i e s upon the location of e a r l y communities has been mentioned.  V a r i a t i o n in the rates of growth of  e a r l y settlements was p a r t i a l l y due to the extent of coal r e s e r v e s , also in the case of Nanaimo to its -advantageous -  but  situation in a c e n t r a l  position, within the settled region of the Island, where port f a c i l i t i e s could be developed.  Nanaimo and other towns which have developed  m a i n l y to provide s e r v i c e s for r u r a l residents, and Courtenay, or for t o u r i s t s ,  for example Duncan  as i n the case of Q u a l i c u m Beach,  100  have been very dependent initially upon public transport such as the railway and latterly upon good highway connections.  The development of several urban centres has been dependent upon transportation aspects of forest industries.  Some forest industry  centres located either for easy collection of raw materials,as for instance Lake Cowichan, or for easy shipment of the finished product, for example, Chemainus.  The Alberni Valley, the west coast area  with relatively easy access both to vast supplies of raw materials and to the settled area on the east coast plain of the Island was advantageously placed for urban development based upon forest industries.  The mobility of population today, due to the automobile, has had an effect upon the development of urban centres.  Those concen-  trations of population in central Vancouver Island which occur due to resource development are slow to develop retail services if they are located in close proximity to an established centre, for example, Youbou and Crofton.  In contrast to this is the growth of Comox, very  close to Courtenay, to provide services for personnel at the R. C. A. F. base.  3.  Effect of Transport Facilities upon Urban Morphology Within the urban places in central Vancouver Island, transport  facilities are a fundamental part of the morphological development. As can be seen from the maps of commercial land use the original commercial cores were all located beside the most important transport  function of the day.  In the case of Nanaimo, and of Port Alberni, this  was the waterfront, in Duncan the railway station, in Courtenay the bridge, and in Ladysmith the main road.  Later communication  developments have caused changes in this pattern due to alteration in accessibility, type of transport, and parking requirements.  The  most important changes which can be seen on the land use maps have been associated with the development of the Trans Canada Highway. Of the five towns under detailed study, the land use changes in association with the highway have been most striking at Duncan, illustrated by a comparison of maps 25 and 26, but maps 22, 30 and 34 indicate that Nanaimo, Courtenay and Port Alberni also have notable developments along the highway.  Where a new highway is  built, space can be obtained for large parking areas, and these sites are advantageous for functions serving population outside of the centre in question and often also the suburban residents. In Nanaimo, the orientation of large space using services such as supermarkets and service stations is not only evident in the less central parts of town but also near the waterfront along Terminal Avenue.  The Urban Hierarchy P r i o r to 1930 settlement developed independently in several areas within the Central Vancouver Island region but with comparatively little interaction between these.  By 1931 transport facilities  had so developed that interaction throughout the whole region was comparatively easy and the development of a trade hierarchy can be  102 distinguished.  Although the boundaries of commercial activity of  individual centres are difficult to determine it would appear that there have not been many major changes in the patterns of trade movement since 1931.  Around the larger 'cities' small 'villages' have not tended to increase their trade functions unless great economic base expansion has taken place, as in the case of Comox.  This is due  to the preference of the majority of shoppers for as large a selection as possible and thus, the accessibility of a 'city' offering this selection and in addition other services not provided in lower order 'towns', tends to inhibit growth of services in smaller centres.  Although  travel has become faster and easier since 1930 the total population growth of the region has been such that despite the fact that these smaller centres have not increased their functions neither have they lost many. They and the mining 'towns' of Cumberland and Ladysmith became less important in the region as a whole; and have remained in the same classification in the hierarchy while being surpassed by others.  The statistical analysis of central function and population data suggests that, while between these factors the relationship present in areas with considerable urban development tends to be similar, whether the main basis of the economy is agriculture or industry, this relationship is not quite as clear cut in a non-  103  agricultural area.  The correlation factor between population size  and number of central functions or functional units is not as high in Vancouver Island as it is in the American Mid-West due to the fact that two types of towns exist; those which are largely dependent upon industry and those which provide services for surrounding population in addition to that of the centre.  As the population of Central Vancouver Island has grown and transport facilities have been improved, the interaction of population within the region has also increased and in such a way that although - not homogeneous, the region has achieved a degree of unity. Nanaimo has developed as the focus of much of the trade movement and of transport routes, and has maintained its position as the most important if not the largest centre in the region.  It would appear that the rapid growth of population associated with the developments in the forest industry is becoming slower, and . unless some new resource can be developed or new industry introduced, consolidation within existing urban areas is likely to continue. The location or re-location of commercial services on or near the highways or other new transport facilities is also likely to continue* particularly in the case of service centres.  Resort and residential  activity, such as at Parksville and Qualicum Beach, may  be the type  of development that will increase more rapidly in the immediate future.  104  Due to the broad scope of this study it has not been possible to deal with every urban centre in detail.  Rather, an attempt has  been made to determine the factors involved in the intial settlement of Central Vancouver Island and the forces which have subsequently created change and growth of urban centres.  It has become apparent  that the most important single determining factor in ithe initial ;  utilization of resources has been transport.  The first mining settle-  ments were located on the waterfront, as were the first lumber mills. Expansion inland took place as land transport facilities were developed. Technological change, in particular the advent of the automobile and truck, and the resulting improvement of accessibility have been determinants in the evolution of a hierarchy of urban centres.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Bartholomew, H a r l a n d , L a n d U s e s i n A m e r i c a n C i t i e s ; C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1955. 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Soil Survey 1959, Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r ; 1959. Unpublished M a t e r i a l Canada, B u r e a u of Statistics; Population for E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t s by E n u m e r a t i o n A r e a s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1870, 1881, 1891 and 1901. ; D i s t r i c t s and Subdistricts of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; Census 1911. '  ji.- D i s t r i c t s and Subdistricts of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; Census 1921. ; D i s t r i c t s and Subdistricts of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; Census 1931  109. D a v i s , IsabeTLle, The F o r t y n i n t h P a r a l l e l C i t y : A n E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y of L a d y s m i t h ; B. A . H i s t o r y E s s a r y ; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1953. 1  Duncan, Kenneth, A H i s t o r y of Cowichan V a l l e y ; Unpublished E s s a y ; No date. Howell, Jones, G . I. , A Century of Settlement Change: A Study of the E v o l u t i o n of Settlement P a t t e r n s i n the L o w e r M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; M , A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. Matheson, M . H . , Some E f f e c t s of C o a l M i n i n g upon the Development of the Nanaimo A r e a ; M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1950.  Other Sources P e r s o n a l interviews with: C i v i c O f f i c i a l s of A l b e r n i , Courtenay, Duncan, L a d y s m i t h , Nanaimo and P o r t A l b e r n i . O p e r a t o r s of a l l c o m m e r c i a l establishments in A l b e r n i , Courtenay, Duncan, L a d y s m i t h and P o r t A l b e r n i . Questionnaires: Sent to a l l wholesale establishments i n Nanaimo - 70 per cent r e p l i e d . Sent to 20 per cent sample of r e t a i l establishments - 60 per cent replied. Interviews ( c a r r i e d out by U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a students) with operators of r e t a i l establishments in C a m p b e l l R i v e r , C a s s i d y , C h e m a i n u s , Comox, Crofton, Cumberland, F r e n c h Creek, H i l l i e r s , Lantzville P a r k s v i l l e , Q u a l i c u m B e a c h , Royston, Shawnigan L a k e , South Wellington, Union Bay and Wellington.  no APPENDIX  T A B L E IV -  POPULATION, C E N T R A L FUNCTIONS AND FUNCTIONAL UNITS, C E N T R A L V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D U R B A N C E N T R E S , 1961*  U r b a n Centre  Albernis  Population  16176  N o . of C e n t r a l Functions  N o . of Functional Units  102  512  Campbell River  3f37  81  256  Courtenay  3485  98  327  Comox  1756  23  36  Cumberland  1303  33  50  Royston  700  8  15  Union B a y  600  9  12  Duncan  3726  90  319  Cowichan B a y  140  8  8  Crofton  493  9  14  M i l l Bay  268  9  13  Shawnigan L a k e  438  9  10  Ladysmith  2173  60  106  Chemainus  1518  62  114  L a k e Cowichan  2149  44  64  Youbou  1153  11  13  Nanaimo  14135  110  729  Lantzville  135  9  9  S. Wellington  409  13  14  Wellington  599  15  15  Parksville  1183  107  107  Qualibum Beach  759  65  65  Cedar  230  11  11  * E x c l u d i n g those p l a c e s with l e s s than eight c e n t r a l functions or l e s s than 100 population  

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