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Conceptions of world history in the world history of programmes of Canadian secondary schools Walsh, Gerald 1966

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CONCEPTIONS OF WORLD HISTORY IN THE WORLD HISTORY PROGRAMMES OF CANADIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A SURVEY AND APPRAISAL by  GERALD WALSH B.A., University o f S h e f f i e l d , 1939 M.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Doctor of Education i n the Department of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966  In  presenting  requirements Columbia, for  thesis  in partial  f o r an a d v a n c e d  degree  at the University  I agree  reference  extensive granted It  this  copying  Department  gain  8,  this  shall  I  further  thesis  copying  British  IWoUf fa ,  it  that  o r by h i s  or publication  n o t be a l l o w e d  Canada  agree  make  for scholarly  1^(LAX<U%o^ of  shall  o f my D e p a r t m e n t  that  of  University  Vancouver Date  of  by t h e H e a d  financial  the Library  and study.  i s understood  The  that  fulfilment  Columbia  without  of  of  British  freely  available  permission purposes  of the  for  may be  representatives. this  thesis  my w r i t t e n  for  permission  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DOCTOR  DEGREE OF  OF EDUCATION  of  GERALD WALSH  B,A„,  University  of S h e f f i e l d , U.K., 1939  B„Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1957  M.Ed,, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1962  THURSDAY, MAY 12, 1966, AT 3:30 P.M. CONFERENCE ROOM,  EDUCATION BUILDING  COMMITTEE IN CHARGE Chairman: K. F. Argue E. D e y e l l J„ E. G i b b a r d  I . McT. Cowan  J . H. Winter  F. C. Hardwick F. H. Johnson C. E. Smith  E x t e r n a l Examiner: J . T„ Saywell York U n i v e r s i t y , T o r o n t o Research S u p e r v i s o r :  F„ H, Johnson  CONCEPTIONS OF WORLD HISTORY IN THE WORLD HISTORY PROGRAMMES  OF CANADIAN SECONDARY  SCHOOLS: A SURVEY AND APPRAISAL ABSTRACT  A programme of h i s t o r i c a l "world h i s t o r y " offerings purpose  study known as  i s p a r t of t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s  of almost a l l the Canadian  p r o v i n c e s . The  o f t h i s i n q u i r y i s t o examine and e v a l u a t e  the c o n c e p t i o n s of w o r l d h i s t o r y embodied i n these programmes. A u t h o r i z e d textbooks and p r o v i n c i a l  Department  of E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m b u l l e t i n s are the two p r i n c i p a l sources which are examined and a n a l y z e d i n order t o d i s c o v e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and scope  of the pro-  grammes, and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s they embody. The r e c e n t views of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g h i s t o r i e s on the problem  of d e f i n i n g and w r i t i n g world  history  are examined as a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n The  c o n c e p t i o n s o f . w o r l d h i s t o r y a r e sum-  marized and e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and world p e r s p e c t i v e .  C o n c l u s i o n s are drawn as t o the  b a s i c weaknesses of p r e s e n t approaches  t o the  formula-  t i o n of w o r l d h i s t o r y programmes, and some s u g g e s t i o n s are o f f e r e d as t o the d i r e c t i o n t o be f o l l o w e d i f v i a b l e programmes are t o be i n t r o d u c e d .  I  GRADUATE STUDIES  Field  of Study:  Curriculum  Curriculum Organization Secondary School Research Problems  i n the S o c i a l  Studies  i n the D. C.  Hambleton  i n Curriculum  Organization Philosophy  J , Katz  of H i s t o r y  P. J , Greven  S o c i a l Change Educational Related  C. S„  Sociology  Belshaw  C» E. Smith  Studies:  Modern P o l i t i c a l  Theory  W.  H i s t o r y of Europe, 1815-1914  J.  Stankiewicz K. McKirdy  Comparative E d u c a t i o n Philosophy  of E d u c a t i o n  J . Katz N. V.  Scarfe  Review of Research i n Methods of Teaching H i s t o r y and Geography F. C. Hardwick G. S. Tomkins  ii CONCEPTIONS OF WORLD HISTORY IN THE WORLD HISTORY PROGRAMMES OF CANADIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A SURVEY AND APPRAISAL Chairman:  Professor F. Henry Johnson  A programme of h i s t o r i c a l study known as "world, h i s t o r y " i s taught i n the secondary schools of a l l but one of the Canadian provinces. The purpose o f t h i s study was t o discover and evaluate the conceptions o f world h i s t o r y i n these programmes. Programmes were f i r s t considered i n terms of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Authorised textbooks and relevant p r o v i n c i a l Department of Education b u l l e t i n s were examined and analyzed i n order t o discover the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n in. each programme.  These were summarized under three  headings-  Catholic h i s t o r i e s , "progress" h i s t o r i e s , and h i s t o r i e s of l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — a n d were evaluated i n terms of t h e i r f a i r n e s s , balance, and the degree t o which they were considered t o be i n touch with recent trends i n h i s t o r i c a l thought and scholarship. I t was concluded that the Catholic and "progress" h i s t o r i e s are so biased as t o be d i s t o r t e d , and that only those o f l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n present well-balanced accounts. Programmes were then considered i n the l i g h t of t h e i r world perspective.  A study of programme revisions i n the 1960*s showed a trend  towards a history of more u n i v e r s a l scope than the t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r y of western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  An analysis o f a l l the programmes at present i n  force revealed a continuum ranging from h i s t o r i e s almost exclusively European t o h i s t o r i e s o f u n i v e r s a l scope.  However, i n a l l the programmes,  iii whatever the geographical scope, the emphasis on Europe i s c e n t r a l , and the perspective  i s European.  This r e s u l t s from the f a c t that the t r a n s i -  t i o n from European to world h i s t o r y has been attempted by adding  non-  western h i s t o r y to a c e n t r a l structure of European. As a basis f o r the evaluation of t h i s aspect of the programmes, the recent views of English-speaking historians who  have interested them-  selves i n the problem of defining and w r i t i n g world h i s t o r y were examined. While no general agreement was  found to e x i s t as to how  construed and written, there was  i t should be  unanimous agreement that i t i s not  an  aggregation or juxtaposition of h i s t o r i e s ; on the contrary, i t should show the interconnection I t was  of events throughout the world.  concluded that the attempt  t o make the t r a n s i t i o n from  European t o world history by means of a process of addition of  non-  western t o European h i s t o r y runs counter to the thought of h i s t o r i a n s interested i n universal history; that i t r e s u l t s e i t h e r i n a h i s t o r y which might be defined as "Europe and I t s Relations'  1  or i n a compilation,  neither of which i s world history; and that the introduction of more material i n t o an already generalized  survey r e s u l t s i n a higher degree  of generalization, a consequent l o s s of h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h , and pedagogical d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from the i n e v i t a b l e increase i n the l e v e l of abstractions.  I t i s necessary f o r curriculum-makers i n t h i s f i e l d to  make the d i s t i n c t i o n between European h i s t o r y and world h i s t o r y as d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of study.  I f the schools undertake to provide the  students with an introduction to the present world i n the l i g h t of i t s h i s t o r i c a l development, the study of world h i s t o r y i s implied.  Recent  approaches, based on the f a l s e assumption that world h i s t o r y can be achieved by adding non-western t o European h i s t o r y , must be abandoned, and replaced by h i s t o r i e s which provide a global perspective.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III. IV.  PART I INTRODUCTION  •. .  VII. VIII. IX.  10  ALBERTA  35  SASKATCHEWAN  42 61  ONTARIO  77  QUEBEC (PROTESTANT)  89  QUEBEC (FRENCH CATHOLIC)  104  QUEBEC (ENGLISH CATHOLIC)  119  X. NEW BRUNSWICK XI. XH. XIII. XIV. XV.  1  BRITISH COLUMBIA  V. MANITOBA VI.  PAGE  142  NOVA SCOTIA  157  PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND  171  NEWFOUNDLAND  188  SUMMARY OF EXISTING PROGRAMMES  195  TRENDS OF CHANGE  213 PART I I  XVI.  THE HISTORIANS AND WORLD HISTORY  234  PART I I I XVII. XVIII.  EVALUATION OF WORLD HISTORY PROGRAMMES  287  CONCLUSIONS  333  vi CHAPTER  PAGE  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A. Objectives o f World H i s t o r y Programmes  357  APPENDIX B. World H i s t o r y Programmes i n the U n i t e d States . . .  366  vii ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish here to express my sincere g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. F. Henry Johnson, the o f f i c i a l adviser f o r t h i s study, and to Dr. James Winter, f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g patience and encouragement, and f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e advice; and to the many others who have given advice and help a t v a r i o u s times, i n c l u d i n g Professor Joseph S. Katz f o r h i s guidance i n the i n i t i a l stages o f the study, and Professors E d i t h M. D e y e l l , Kenneth Argue, John E. Gibbard, F r a n c i s C. Hardwick, Clarence E. Smith, and Harry L. S t e i n who have read the manuscript i n i t s l a t e r stages.  PART I  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There i s , i n the secondary school c u r r i c u l a of the provinces across Canada, a programme g e n e r a l l y known as "world h i s t o r y .  This  11  programme i s not easy t o define since i t v a r i e s from one province t o another, but there are a t l e a s t two common elements.  Every programme  deals w i t h the h i s t o r y of western c i v i l i z a t i o n from some e a r l y time t o the present or f a i r l y recent past; and each i n c l u d e s something of the h i s t o r y of other c i v i l i z a t i o n s . 1 Since world h i s t o r y i s taught i n every province but one , and f o r e i t h e r two or three years, t h i s means t h a t i t i s taught t o thousands of students each year.  And from t h i s point of view alone, i t i s obviously  an important part of the curriculum. But i t i s important i n another sense.  Each programme presents a view of the past and of the develop-  ment o f the present out of the past which, i f accepted by the student, conditions h i s view of the present by p r o v i d i n g a framework of f a c t s , ideas, and b e l i e f s about the past by means of which the present and the emerging future can be i n t e r p r e t e d .  For many students, perhaps the  great m a j o r i t y , i t i s the only systematic study of the human past, broadly viewed, that they w i l l encounter i n t h e i r whole l i f e .  The  m a j o r i t y do not go on t o f u r t h e r formal education, and of those who do, many do not pursue the study of h i s t o r y . A l b e r t a i s the only exception.  I n t h i s sense, then, the See Chapter I I I .  2 schools have a monopoly i n the f i e l d of presenting students w i t h "an i d e a of the past.™  Of course, people garner information about the past  from many sources—books and newspapers, arguments and d i s c u s s i o n s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programmes, and so f o r t h — b u t much of i t i s f r a g mentary and needs f i t t i n g i n t o a h i s t o r i c a l framework.  The world  h i s t o r y programme provides such a framework, and i f s u c c e s s f u l l y taught, i t plays an important part i n i n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s not only a t the time, but l a t e r on i n l i f e . Recognition of the power of h i s t o r y t o mould thought and i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s i s u n i v e r s a l , and can be seen i n i t s many uses:  ini t s  systematic use f o r purposes of i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e s ; i n f o s t e r i n g and nourishing an emerging n a t i o n a l i s m ; i n achieving n a t i o n a l u n i t y i n time of war, t o mention but a few.  The h i s t o r i e s  t h a t are used i n these circumstances may be l a r g e l y m y t h i c a l , f o r nothing i s e a s i e r than t o pervert h i s t o r y .  T h e i r accuracy and t r u t h f u l n e s s ,  however, bear no r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n i n f l u e n c i n g thought and f e e l i n g .  The fact t h a t they provide an explanation of t h e past i s  the important t h i n g . Not only do schools have a v i r t u a l monopoly i n the business of presenting l a r g e numbers of students with "an i d e a of the past"; f o r many students the world h i s t o r y they study i s "the i d e a of the past," not merely an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but the t r u t h about t h e past.  Therefore,  i t i s important t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o which they are exposed be not a myth but a f a i r representation of past r e a l i t y .  The importance  of the world h i s t o r y programme i s i n d i s p u t a b l e , and the problem of  3  formulating programmes i s a d i f f i c u l t one. The word "problem™ i s used advisedly, f o r there does, indeed, seem to be a fundamental problem which has not yet been resolved i n determining the content of the programmes. The indeterminacy of the s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the amount of r e v i s i o n work which has been undertaken i n the 2 recent past, and which i s continuing i n the present. provinces r e v i s e d t h e i r programmes i n 1962:  I n Canada, three  one introduced a new pro-  gramme i n 1965; four provinces are a t present r e v i s i n g t h e i r programmes; one plans t o make r e v i s i o n s i n the near f u t u r e . Those which are being r e v i s e d are not of long standing, the oldest dating o r i g i n a l l y from t h e l a t e 194-0' s; two were r e v i s e d as r e c e n t l y as 1956 and 1958.  Furthermore,  u n c e r t a i n t y i s i n d i c a t e d by the wide v a r i a t i o n i n the content of r e v i s i o n s which are being adopted f o r use i n the schools. That t h i s i s not a uniquely Canadian problem i s borne out by the amount of experiment i n t h i s f i e l d i n the United States where a world h i s t o r y course has f o r many years been o f f e r e d a t the Grade X l e v e l . The kinds of new programmes devised i n the United States show even more d i v e r s i t y than i n Canada, and there i s a greater d i s p o s i t i o n t o e x p e r i ment with new patterns of content and organization i n order t o solve the problem of world h i s t o r y i n school. Repeated change, experiment with new approaches, the l a c k of fundamental agreement present a p i c t u r e of i n s t a b i l i t y which i s an ^Recent developments are examined i n d e t a i l i n Chapter XV, "Trends of Change. B  4 i n d i c a t i o n of a deep-seated and i n t r a c t a b l e problem i n t h i s area of the curriculum. B a s i c a l l y , the problem springs from the c e n t r a l purpose f o r which world h i s t o r y programmes are taught.  H i s t o r y can be taught f o r many  reasons, but there i s a c e n t r a l emphasis, as an examination of e x i s t i n g 3  statements of o b j e c t i v e s r e v e a l s , on the teaching of world h i s t o r y as a means of i n t r o d u c i n g the student t o the world i n which he l i v e s , of providing an understanding of the present i n the l i g h t of i t s h i s t o r i c a l development.  This i s not t o say t h a t t h i s i s e i t h e r a good or a bad  c e n t r a l purpose; i t i s merely t o s t a t e a f a c t the importance of which i s that as the meaning of "the present" or "the world i n which he l i v e s " changes s i g n i f i c a n t l y , so what i s taught i n the world h i s t o r y programme must a l s o change. What has, i n f a c t , happened i s t h a t the changes i n the world p i c t u r e since World War I I have s a t i s f i e d the great m a j o r i t y of curriculum-makers  that a study of the h i s t o r y of western c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  the t r a d i t i o n a l content, i s no longer adequate as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the present world.  Accordingly, there has been a movement i n the d i r e c t i o n  of a study which provides a broader world perspective. This i s the crux of the problem.  For while there has been v i r t u a l unanimity as t o the  need of the broader view, as i s witnessed by e x i s t i n g programmes, none of which i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a study of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , there i s a wide d i s p a r i t y of opinion as t o how t h i s broader perspective should For statements of o b j e c t i v e s f o r e x i s t i n g programmes see Appendix A.  5 be provided. L o g i c a l l y , i f i t i s agreed t h a t the world today i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y interdependent, that i t i s one community, not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r co-operat i o n , but i n the sense t h a t events i n one part o f the world have importance f o r the whole, then a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y i s i m p l i e d as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the present.  And i t i s i n the d i r e c t i o n of u n i v e r s a l i t y t h a t  world h i s t o r y programmes have been moving.  But faced with the problem  of s e l e c t i n g from the h i s t o r i e s o f a l l c u l t u r e s , or even the world's major c i v i l i z a t i o n s , those elements which could be put together t o provide a programme u n i v e r s a l i n scope y e t s t i l l pedagogically manageable, the schools have found themselves having t o deal w i t h questions t o which there seemed t o be no s a t i s f a c t o r y answers. studied?  Should a l l c i v i l i z a t i o n s be  I f so, how can t h i s be done without o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o the  degree t h a t renders the course useless i n the classroom? c i v i l i z a t i o n s be selected f o r study? grounds? tions?  Should some  I f so, which ones, and on what  What weight and emphasis should be given t o various c i v i l i z a Should the h i s t o r y of western c i v i l i z a t i o n provide the c e n t r a l  s t r u c t u r e , or does such a Europe-centred h i s t o r y imply an emphasis and perspective which denies a u n i v e r s a l viewpoint?  I n f i n e , by adopting as  the c e n t r a l purpose, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the student t o "the present," t o "the world i n which he l i v e s , " the schools have found  themselves,  whether conscious of i t or not, i n the very heart of the problem of universal history. The p r i n c i p a l purpose of t h i s study i s t o examine the problem of formulating world h i s t o r y programmes as i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the e x i s t i n g  6 world h i s t o r y programmes of Canadian secondary schools a t the present time.  The b a s i c question t h a t w i l l be asked i n examining world h i s t o r y  programmes w i l l be: what i s the world perspective that t h i s programme o f f e r s , and t o what extent i s t h i s a reasonable c o r r e l a t e of the world perspective i m p l i e d i n the o b j e c t i v e s of the programme? But t h i s i s t o consider i n d i v i d u a l programmes only i n the l i g h t of t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s . At a deeper l e v e l , i t remains t o consider the programmes i n terms of a theory or conception of world h i s t o r y .  Such a  theory i s derived from the w r i t i n g s of contemporary h i s t o r i a n s who have i n t e r e s t e d themselves i n the problem of d e f i n i n g world h i s t o r y .  While  there i s by no means unanimity among these t h i n k e r s , there i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement on c e r t a i n p o i n t s ; notably, and very important, as w i l l become evident, on what world h i s t o r y i s not.  For i t appears t h a t , a t bottom,  the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e v i s i n g world h i s t o r y programmes, stem from a b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l weakness, that i s , an assumption t h a t world h i s t o r y i s t o be achieved by adding t o a c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e of European h i s t o r y elements from the h i s t o r i e s of other c u l t u r e s or c i v i l i z a t i o n s . There i s another aspect t o t h i s problem besides that of world perspective.  This i s the question of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Each h i s t o r y  o f f e r s not only a perspective, but a l s o an explanation. Both, i n combinat i o n , present the student with a philosophy of h i s t o r y , an i d e a of how t h i n g s happened i n the past, and how the present developed out of the past.  D i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s provide d i f f e r e n t explanations of change,  and thus i n f l u e n c e our general outlook on the world. asked here i s :  The question t o be  what k i n d of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does t h i s programme o f f e r ,  7 and how v a l i d i s i t ? The method of the study i s : 1.  To discover the conception of world h i s t o r y i n each programme, to examine i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the stated o b j e c t i v e g and t o assess the extent t o which i t can serve t o r e a l i z e the objectives.  2.  To summarize the programmes i n terms of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n they embody.  3.  To compare each programme r e v i s e d since I960 with the programme i t replaced i n order t o discover the changes i n the conception of world h i s t o r y the r e v i s e d programme embodies. A l s o , by examining changes i n a l l programmes, t o discover whether there are any common trends.  U»  To examine the recent w r i t i n g s on world h i s t o r y by E n g l i s h speaking h i s t o r i a n s as a b a s i s f o r an evaluation of e x i s t i n g programmes.  5.  An e v a l u a t i o n of the conceptions of world h i s t o r y i n e x i s t i n g programmes i n terms o f : (a) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (b) world perspective together with some suggestions of the d i r e c t i o n t o be followed i f v i a b l e world h i s t o r y programmes are t o be introduced. The study i s accordingly organized i n three p a r t s :  Part  I  (Chapters II-XV) i s devoted t o an a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g programmes and recent r e v i s i o n s . The programme of each province i s f i r s t analyzed i n terms of i t s scope and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and considered i n the l i g h t of i t s own o b j e c t i v e s . A l l the programmes are then c l a s s i f i e d according t o the k i n d of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n they embody. F i n a l l y , the r e v i s i o n s of the 1 9 6 0 ' s are examined, summarized and compared.  Part  II  (Chapter XVI) i s an examination of the views of recent or contemporary h i s t o r i a n s on the subject of world h i s t o r y . I t i n c l u d e s a consideration of t h e i r thoughts on the need f o r world h i s t o r y as w e l l as of t h e i r ideas as t o how i t may be defined and w r i t t e n . From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n c e r t a i n ideas emerge which are d i r e c t l y relevant t o the problem of formulating world h i s t o r y programmes f o r schools. These ideas are a p p l i e d i n the evaluation of the programmes i n Part I I I .  8 Part I I I  (Chapters XVII and XVIII) i s an evaluation of current programmes i n world h i s t o r y i n terms of the c r i t e r i a stated above, and a summary of the conclusions about the formulation of world h i s t o r y programmes t o be drawn from the study.  The scope of the i n q u i r y i s thus l i m i t e d t o an examination and a p p r a i s a l of the conceptions of world h i s t o r y embodied i n current programmes as these are r e f l e c t e d i n textbooks and o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . I t i s not concerned, except i n c i d e n t a l l y , with questions of methodology, nor i s i t , i n any sense, a study of a c t u a l classroom p r a c t i c e . The i n q u i r y i t s e l f i s l i m i t e d by the m a t e r i a l s on which i t i s based.  These are, besides the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the Departments of  Education and prescribed textbooks, communications from departmental o f f i c i a l s and members of r e v i s i o n committees, and other books and m a t e r i a l s having a bearing on the problem.  Conceptions of world h i s t o r y  and inferences about change are drawn from an examination of these materials. I t i s recognized t h a t , i n some instances, s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n content and emphasis are made by teachers which r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s of perspective and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Nevertheless, i t i s  maintained t h a t an a n a l y s i s based on the t e x t s and programme o u t l i n e s may provide a u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n of the view of the past t o which many students are introduced. The study has a two-fold j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  In the f i r s t place, i t  may be of immediate p r a c t i c a l value t o r e v i s i o n committees.  It i s  customary f o r r e v i s i o n work t o be done by committees whose members, at the same time, c a r r y a normal l o a d of work as teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  9 or p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s .  This leaves them w i t h l i t t l e opportunity to-  become aware of what i s being done outside t h e i r own province.  This study  provides a r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e body of information which could be of value t o them i n t h e i r task.  Moreover, the study points t o f a u l t s i n some of  the programmes which might be worthy of the a t t e n t i o n of r e v i s i o n committees and other i n t e r e s t e d persons.  Secondly, and of greater importance,  the study i s an attempt t o analyze and c l a r i f y the problem of formulating world h i s t o r y programmes; that i s , i t seeks t o e x p l a i n the nature of the problem, how i t developed, and how i t may be resolved.  I n short, i n  d e s c r i b i n g and evaluating e x i s t i n g programmes, i t attempts t o penetrate to the core of the deeper problem of providing world h i s t o r y programmes.  CHAPTER I I BRITISH COLUMBIA World h i s t o r y i s taught i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools i n Grades V I I , X, and X l / X I I .  Grade V I I i s an elementary school grade, and the  Grade V I I course does not properly come w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s study. But since the courses i n world h i s t o r y are planned as a s e r i e s , and the courses i n Grades X and X l / X I I have a d i r e c t connection w i t h the Grade VII course, i t seems proper to mention i t . The world h i s t o r y courses are: S o c i a l Studies 7 (Grade V I I ) : "Our Beginnings" S o c i a l Studies 20 (Grade X ) : "Man's Progress i n the Modern Age." H i s t o r y 91 (Grade XI or X I I ) : "Modern World H i s t o r y " The theme o f the Grade V I I course i s "the ancient o r i g i n s o f our modern world"; i t s scope i s "the story o f man's progress from p r e h i s t o r i c time to the early beginning on the North American Continent."*  The pre-  s c r i b e d textbook i s The Ancient and Medieval World by Rogers, Adams and 2  Brown.  The content and p o i n t o f view o f t h i s book i s examined elsewhere.  This i s the only course i n ancient and mediaeval h i s t o r y . The Grade X course ( S o c i a l Studies 20), "Man's Progress i n the Modern Age" i s a h i s t o r y from 1500 to the present day.  This i s a required  Department o f Education b u l l e t i n : J u n i o r and High School S o c i a l Studies, 1958, p. 31. 2  See the chapter on the world h i s t o r y programme i n Saskatchewan.  course f o r a l l students i n Grade X.  H i s t o r y 91» "Modern World H i s t o r y "  i s an advanced e l e c t i v e course i n the f i e l d o f modern world h i s t o r y which i s o f f e r e d i n e i t h e r Grade XI o r Grade X I I . The Grade X Course The textbook f o r the course i s : Our World; Renaissance to Modern 3  Times by P i a t t and Drummond. Although an attempt has been made to r e l a t e the t e x t and course as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , the two are not i d e n t i c a l , since the t e x t contains more m a t e r i a l than i s considered necessary f o r the average Grade X c l a s s .  Teachers are a s s i s t e d i n the s e l e c t i o n  o f m a t e r i a l s from the t e x t by page references i n the Department b u l l e t i n . SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION The course i s organized i n seven u n i t s as f o l l o w s : Unit I . Crossing the Bridge to Modern Times U n i t I I . The Struggle f o r Democracy U n i t I I I . Nationalism U n i t e s Peoples and Disrupts Empires U n i t IV. Imperialism and New Empires Unit V. Taking Stock o f Some Peaceful Progress U n i t V I . Progress Threatened by Two World Wars U n i t V I I . Our Times  5 weeks 7 weeks 3 weeks 3 3 8 4  weeks weeks weeks weeks  The theme o f U n i t I i s "the t r a n s i t i o n from medieval to modern times."'' The study o f the Renaissance, the Age o f Discovery, the Com-  3  N. P i a t t and M. J . Drummond, Our World: Renaissance to Modern Times (Toronto: Ryerson P r e s s , c. Canada, 1956). Department o f Education b u l l e t i n , o£. c i t . , pp. 69-76. p. 68.  Ibid.  12  m e r c i a l Revolution, and the Reformation i s undertaken—"with one idea i n mind; namely, to i l l u s t r a t e how man's outlook on l i f e was changed."^  The  idea i s emphasized t h a t "other w o r l d l i n e s s " was dominant i n the middle ages, and t h a t " t h i s type o f t h i n k i n g stressed t h a t man  could do l i t t l e  7  about changing the world or h i s place i n i t . "  L i f e on earth was impor-  t a n t only so f a r as i t was a preparation f o r the "other world."  The  t u r a l , s c i e n t i f i c , economic and r e l i g i o u s changes which began about led  cul1500  eventually to our modern world. "Modern times," says the t e x t , means more than a time p e r i o d . I t i s an a t t i t u d e o f mind a l s o . I t s s p i r i t i s optimism, a b e l i e f t h a t man can b u i l d a b e t t e r world, as opposed to pessimism, the b e l i e f t h a t man i s doomed. The a t t i t u d e o f modern times i s s c i e n t i f i c , not s u p e r s t i t i o u s . I t holds a l l soc i e t y responsible f o r helping the s i c k , the poor, and the oppressed. I t recognizes the r i g h t o f an i n d i v i d u a l to improve himself without being bound by the r u l e s o f a caste system. I t stresses education f o r a l l . I t i s the freedom o f the i n d i v i d u a l to speak f o r himself i n s t e a d o f having church and s t a t e speak f o r him. . . . I t i s the pleasure o f l i v i n g comfortably here on earth, and not only l o o k i n g forward to a b e t t e r l i f e i n heaven. I t i s an a l l e g i a n c e to one's n a t i o n rather than to a feudal l o r d , and a b e l i e f t h a t one can be a good c i t i z e n o f the world as w e l l as o f h i s country. I t i s a recogn i t i o n that no one race, n a t i o n a l i t y , or r e l i g i o n has a monopoly on the t a l e n t s t h a t b e n e f i t a l l mankind. . . . I n t h i s p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n to modern times, the mediaeval p o i n t o f view and the modern p o i n t o f view were i n constant c o n f l i c t . ! ;~. . I n f a c t , even today serious d i f f e r e n c e s f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e between the mediaeval-minded and those who have the s p i r i t o f modern times.® U n i t I I i s the story o f the struggle to achieve democratic r i g h t s .  I b i d . , p. 68.  I b i d . , p. 69.  'piatt and Drummond, o£. c i t . , I n t r o d u c t i o n .  13 "The theme should be the idea t h a t these were won only by e f f o r t , s t r u g g l e , 9  and s a c r i f i c e . "  Gains made were the r e s u l t s o f r e v o l u t i o n s , which were 10  not only p o l i t i c a l , but also economic and s o c i a l .  A f t e r consideration  o f the meaning o f the term "democracy" as a form o f government and as a way o f l i f e which seeks to express the i d e a l o f the worth o f each i n d i v i d u a l regardless o f race, colour, c l a s s o r creed, the American, French and I n d u s t r i a l Revolutions are studied; and an assessment i s made o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each t o "democratic advance."**  The u n i t closes with a  s e c t i o n on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p r i v i l e g e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n a democratic s o c i e t y , the purpose o f which " i s to develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r maintaining and advancing the gains t h a t ..12 have been made." U n i t I I I takes nationalism as i t s c e n t r a l theme.  The u n i t has  three main purposes: " f i r s t , to e x p l a i n what nationalism i s ; second, t o show how i t has been an a c t i v e f o r c e i n h i s t o r y not only i n Europe, but also i n the Americas, i n A s i a , and i n A f r i c a ; and, t h i r d , t o see how 13 nationalism i n f l u e n c e s our world o f today."  S e l e c t i o n s are made from  the h i s t o r y o f South America t o i l l u s t r a t e "the story o f nationalism"; the i n f l u e n c e o f nationalism i n Europe a f t e r 1815 i s t r a c e d i n the h i s t o r y o f Germany, I t a l y , A u s t r i a and Turkey; and i n the twentieth  century  i n A s i a and A f r i c a . A summary o f the u n i t aims t o b r i n g out "the twodepartment b u l l e t i n , p. 70. Ibid. Ibid. 1 0  1 2  I b i d . . p. 71.  1 3  Ibid.  1 1  H f o l d aspect o f nationalism, as a n a t u r a l , reasonable, and c o n s t r u c t i v e 14  s p i r i t , and as an aggressive, d e s t r u c t i v e , and dangerous f o r c e . " U n i t IV has as i t s aim "to show how imperialism caused the development o f new empires and the w e s t e r n i z a t i o n o f many p a r t s o f the world. "*"'  Imperialism i s defined, and the reasons f o r the development  o f i m p e r i a l i s m i n the nineteenth century are studied.  The empire-building  a c t i v i t i e s o f the .European nations and the westward movement i n the United States are then traced.  Problems o f imperialism i n today's world are d i s -  cussed: these i n c l u d e Russian expansion and the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the c o l o n i a l empires o f European s t a t e s . The purpose o f U n i t V i s "to show how man has made progress i n things o f the mind and s p i r i t , " t h a t , " i n s p i t e o f wars, r e v o l u t i o n s , and economic c y c l e s , scholars and a r t i s t s have been busy adding to man's store o f knowledge, guiding h i s search f o r t r u t h and r e f i n i n g h i s t a s t e f o r beauty i n form, sound, and colour."*^  The meaning o f c l a s s i c i s m , romanti-  cism, and r e a l i s m i n the a r t s and l e t t e r s i s explained and exemplified i n the works o f great a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , composers and philosophers.  A sec-  t i o n i s devoted to the developments i n science from the Renaissance t o the present time. The c e n t r a l theme o f U n i t VI i s "the search f o r peace and s e c u r i t y i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the twentieth century and the problems and d i f f i c u l 17  t i e s man encountered i n t h i s search."  The purpose i s d i r e c t e d toward  15  " g i v i n g the student a background or frame of reference f o r understanding 18 present-day problems i n world a f f a i r s . "  The u n i t begins w i t h a con-  s i d e r a t i o n of the fundamental causes of war i n the twentieth century: i n t e n s i v e nationalism, m i l i t a r i s m , i m p e r i a l i s m , i n t e r n a t i o n a l anarchy, and secret diplomacy.  The u n i t i s then developed under the f o l l o w i n g  headings: 1. World War  I  2. The search f o r peace and s e c u r i t y a f t e r World War I — t h r o u g h the League of Nations, r e g i o n a l agreements, and attempts a t disarmament. 3. Economic depressions t e s t e d democracies i n the West. 4. D i c t a t o r s h i p s challenged democracy—a Communist d i c t a t o r s h i p i n Russia, a F a s c i s t d i c t a t o r s h i p i n I t a l y , a Nazi d i c t a t o r s h i p i n Germany. 5. Nationalism and i m p e r i a l i s m i n the East complicate the search f o r peace and s e c u r i t y — I n d i a , Japan, China, the Middle East. 6. World War I I . 7. Assessing progress i n the search f o r peace and s e c u r i t y . The l a s t u n i t , e n t i t l e d "Our Times," deals w i t h "major world events and problems since the end of World War I I . "  Two t o p i c s f o r study  are the U n i t e d Nations, and the Cold War, but teachers are encouraged to add to and modify the u n i t i n the l i g h t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l developments. Suggested a d d i t i o n a l t o p i c s i n c l u d e c o l o n i a l problems, nuclear power, and automation.  16  The scope of the course i n time i s , then, from about 1500  to the  present: geographically, i t expands from a European to a g l o b a l scale. EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION Emphasis i s placed on more recent developments.  Apart from the  f i r s t u n i t , which deals mainly w i t h events of the s i x t e e n t h century, the course focuses a t t e n t i o n on the l a s t two c e n t u r i e s . The t o p i c s around which the course i s organized—democracy, n a t i o n a l i s m , i m p e r i a l i s m , progress i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s — a r e t r e a t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . two u n i t s give a world-wide view of the twentieth century. however, i s on Europe and the west.  The f i n a l  The emphasis,  The s e l e c t i o n of democracy, n a t i o n -  a l i s m , and imperialism as p r i n c i p a l t o p i c s around which the course i s organized makes t h i s i n e v i t a b l e since these ideas and f o r c e s o r i g i n a t e d i n western c i v i l i z a t i o n and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has r a d i a t e d from i t . By the same token, the choice of these three ideas gives the course a p o l i t i c a l emphasis.  The u n i t on democracy provides the oppor-  t u n i t y f o r an account of the American and French Revolutions; t h a t on nationalism f o r German and I t a l i a n u n i f i c a t i o n , and the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the Hapsburg and Ottoman Empires; t h a t on i m p e r i a l i s m f o r the nineteenth century expansion of Europe and the United States, and the e f f e c t s of expansion on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s .  U n i t V I , "Progress Threatened by  Two  World Wars, 1914 to 1945," i s a study of p o l i t i c a l developments and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the twentieth century. treated.  However, other aspects are  The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution i s examined i n i t s s o c i a l as w e l l as  17  i t s p o l i t i c a l implications. the sphere o f a r t ,  U n i t V i s devoted s o l e l y to "progress" i n  l i t e r a t u r e , and science. The s o c i a l changes brought  about as a r e s u l t o f the Great Depression are mentioned, as w e l l as i t s p o l i t i c a l effects.  But the emphasis, taking the course as a whole, i s  mainly p o l i t i c a l . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n embodied i n the h i s t o r y i s a buoyantly optimist i c view o f h i s t o r y as progress.  The textbook states i t simply i n the  Introduction: . . . i n the l a s t two hundred, y e a r s , mankind has made 11  more p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and s c i e n t i f i c progress than i n the whole h i s t o r y 19  of  c i v i l i z a t i o n before."  The p e r i o d from c. 1500  to c. 1750 i s r e -  garded as a time of comparatively l i t t l e change: " P i c t u r e an imaginary sleepyhead who f e l l asleep i n Europe i n 1500 1750.  and d i d not wake up u n t i l  Would he have found l i v i n g conditions very much changed?  Probably  20 not."  The p e r i o d i s regarded as an age of t r a n s i t i o n between the medi-  aeval and the modern world. A contrast i s drawn between the middle ages and modern times.  The  middle ages i s portrayed as an age of "other-worldliness," s u p e r s t i t i o n , and changelessness.  Modern times i s synonymous w i t h science and progress.  These p o i n t s of view were i n constant c o n f l i c t , and to some extent, s t i l l are today f o r "even today serious d i f f e r e n c e s f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e between the 21 mediaeval minded and those who have the s p i r i t of modern times." Times."  P i a t t and Drummond, op_. c i t . , I n t r o d u c t i o n , "Ushering i n Modern  20 ,., Ibid. T  21,.., Ibid.  18 P o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and s c i e n t i f i c progress i n the l a s t two hundred years was mentioned above: s c i e n t i f i c progress speaks f o r i t s e l f .  Polit-  i c a l progress i s to be seen i n the extension o f p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s to a greater number o f people and nations.  I t i s t r a c e d through the r e v o l t o f  the Netherlands against Spain, the P u r i t a n and G l o r i o u s Revolutions i n England, the American Revolution and the French Revolution.  Political  progress i s a p a r t o f general s o c i a l progress, f o r w i t h the extension o f p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , the i n d i v i d u a l person, e s p e c i a l l y o f the lower orders o f s o c i e t y , was i n c r e a s i n g l y regarded as having worth and d i g n i t y .  Polit-  i c a l democracy i s the prelude to s o c i a l and economic democracy. The t e x t adopts a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the meaning o f democracy. Rights o f almost any k i n d are equated w i t h democracy—the extension o f education to a l l , r e l i g i o u s freedom, women's r i g h t s , the welfare o f the s i c k , poor and insane, progress i n the treatment o f c r i m i n a l s , and so on. This may be i m p l i c i t i n the idea o f democracy as a way o f l i f e "which 22 seeks to express a great i d e a l , the i d e a l o f the worth o f each person." But i t tends to become r i d i c u l o u s when i t gives r i s e to such  statements  i n the t e x t as: For thousands o f years, teachers whipped t h e i r p u p i l s even f o r t r i v i a l reasons, and P u p i l s were seldom given a choice o f subjects. They were f o r c e d to memorize subject matter i n s t e a d o f being encouraged t o t h i n k . . . .  'Department B u l l e t i n , p. 7 0 .  19 The modern teacher i s not a d i c t a t o r who s t r i k e s h i s p u p i l s i n order t o f o r c e them t o memorize subject matter. The modern classroom i s a place where p u p i l s work together democratically under the teacher's guidance.^3 Having t r a c e d the struggle f o r women's suffrage, the t e x t concludes: However, women have not y e t won complete e q u a l i t y w i t h men i n the eyes o f the law. Moreover, many s t i l l consider females i n f e r i o r to males. There are, even today, those who mutter against women d r i v e r s , who would h e s i t a t e t o go t o a woman ^. doctor, and who resent having a female supervisor i n business. Democracy becomes a s t i c k w i t h which t o beat the past and g l o r i f y the present.  I t i s a term which covers everything t h a t i s good and  j u s t — a n d modern. There i s a tendency to o v e r s i m p l i f y the complexity o f h i s t o r i c a l development and to d i s t o r t the view o f the past by considering events i n terms o f democracy and progress, and t h e i r opposites, autocracy and r e a c t i o n or obscurantism.  Thus: ". . . i t was undemocratic o f Hammurabi's  Code t o punish nobles l e s s severely than ordinary people f o r committing the same offence. orphans."  But i t was democratic t o show concern f o r widows and  Here, the f a l l a c y i s i n judging the a c t i o n s o f a past age  i n terms of the values o f the present time, and o f a p a r t i c u l a r form o f society a t the present time.  A s i m i l a r u n h i s t o r i c a l statement i s made  i n reference t o Henry I I o f England: "As we have learned, an a u t o c r a t i c mediaeval E n g l i s h King, Henry I I , gave a great boost t o modern democracy by i n i t i a t i n g England's system o f common law and t r i a l by j u r y . "  ^ P l a t t and Drummond, op_. c i t . , p. 152. 25 26 I b i d . . p. 87. I b i d . . p. 88.  ^Ibid.  The  20  t r u t h i n t h i s statement, which surely i s that the common law and the jury system—but not t r i a l by j u r y — h a d t h e i r beginnings i n the time o f Henry, i s d i s t o r t e d by the way i n which i t i s stated. c r a t i c " and "democracy" are used u n h i s t o r i c a l l y .  The terms "auto-  Henry I I was not an  a u t o c r a t i c mediaeval k i n g ; he was a t w e l f t h century E n g l i s h K i n g , being a King i n the manner o f a t w e l f t h century E n g l i s h King. He d i d not g i v e a "boost" t o modern democracy from any but our p o i n t o f view; the p r o v i sions which he made f o r a s s i z e s and j u r i e s , t o be understood properly, need t o be considered i n the circumstances o f the time. The dichotomous autocratic-democratic, reactionary-progressive, s u p e r s t i t i o u s - s c i e n t i f i c approach provides a t o o - s i m p l i f i e d view o f the past.  And h i s t o r y passes over from knowledge t o propaganda when t h i s  approach i s used i n the w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y .  The authors o f the textbook  seem t o be aware o f t h i s danger when they state: Some w r i t e r s use h i s t o r y f o r e v i l purposes. They t w i s t the f a c t s so as t o s t i r up hatred f o r peoples o f other r a c e s , other r e l i g i o n s , o r other n a t i o n a l i t i e s . I n f a c t , i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t even f o r an honest w r i t e r o f h i s t o r y not t o be b i a s e d by h i s background. Furthermore, world h i s t o r y i s so f u l l o f f a c t s t h a t every h i s t o r i a n must make a s e l e c t i o n o f what seems most important. The true h i s t o r i a n seeks the t r u t h despite a l l obstacles. What they might have added i s t h a t i t i s equally i l l e g i t i m a t e t o use h i s t o r y f o r good purposes, o r any purpose, i f i t means "bending" the f a c t s . The nature o f the purpose i s i r r e l e v a n t .  They are c o r r e c t when they  state that the h i s t o r i a n ' s f u n c t i o n i s t o seek the t r u t h .  I b i d . , Introduction  But t h e i r  21 approach t o the w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e s that e i t h e r they do not seek to do t h i s , o r , t h a t i f they do, they have such powerful preconceptions as t o be b l i n d t o the t r u t h . To r e t u r n t o the matter o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l progress.  In a  broader sense, i t can mean the improvement o f c o n d i t i o n s not only w i t h i n communities, but i n the r e l a t i o n s amongst them: hence springs one o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a view o f h i s t o r y as progress.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to bring  examples t o bear witness to progress i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s .  One can  p o i n t t o many t h i n g s — t h e A t l a n t i c Charter, the D e c l a r a t i o n o f Human R i g h t s , the work o f the U n i t e d Nations Organization and i t s agencies, and so f o r t h . But these examples o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation and a higher l e v e l o f human a s p i r a t i o n are not proof o f advance.  They may be i n t e r p r e t e d as  examples o f the response o f the nations t o the n e c e s s i t i e s o f a desperate situation.  And c e r t a i n l y the Two World Wars, the Cold War, and the mass  k i l l i n g which are hallmarks o f t h e twentieth century present grave d i f f i c u l t i e s to the acceptance o f a r a t h e r naive view o f progress as i s embodied i n the statement t h a t " i n the l a s t two hundred years, mankind has made more p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and s c i e n t i f i c progress than i n the whole  28 h i s t o r y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n before." The course and the t e x t meet t h i s d i f f i c u l t y by accepting the f a c t s o f war and d e s t r u c t i o n , and construing the present world s i t u a t i o n as one i n which progress i s threatened by war. I b i d . , Introduction  The theme now changes  22  from progress to the search f o r peace and s e c u r i t y , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f progress.  The optimism i s r e t a i n e d , but not the c e r t i t u d e of progress.  The f i n a l page i n the t e x t i s headed by a question, not an a s s e r t i o n . 29  "The Future: 'A Golden Age of Peace and P r o g r e s s ?  ,M  In this  f i n a l summing-up, progress i s not asserted, but the p o s s i b i l i t y o f progress i s : And what o f the f u t u r e o f the e n t i r e world? Gloomy prophets are a l l around us. Many p r e d i c t t h a t atomic and hydrogen bombs w i l l destroy c i v i l i z a t i o n . Some warn that wholesale s t a r v a t i o n faces the world. . . . Ours i s not the only era i n which there have been gloomy prophets. As we have seen, world c i v i l i z a t i o n has had i t s ups and downs. Nevertheless, the general d i r e c t i o n has been upward. L e t ' s look again a t the record: from c o l d barren caves to the comf o r t s of the modern home; from smoke s i g n a l s to the telephone; from crude nature worship to the high s p i r i t u a l and moral values of our great r e l i g i o n s ; from b a r t e r to banking; from the mumbo-jumbo o f a witch doctor to modern medical science; from the p r i m i t i v e t r i b e to the United Nations .... A simple s o l u t i o n i s o f f e r e d to the problems o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n d i s t r e s s : Perhaps the best way to prevent our c i v i l i z a t i o n from dying i s to make more people f e e l t h a t they b e n e f i t from i t . Never has i t been easier to spread c i v i l i z a t i o n than today. Why? Because a t no other time has i t been p o s s i b l e to produce and d i s t r i b u t e such a wide v a r i e t y o f goods i n such l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . No other p e r i o d has had the r a d i o , motion p i c t u r e s , t e l e v i s i o n , and so many schools, l i b r a r i e s , and newspapers. Are we going to use our superior means o f production, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and communication f o r s u i c i d e or progress?-^ The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s one i n which world h i s t o r y i s viewed from a western viewpoint.  The bulk of the content i s European h i s t o r y , and par-  t i c u l a r l y , since there i s such an emphasis on the growth o f democracy,  29  I b i d . . p. 3 0  Ibid.  469.  23  western European h i s t o r y .  The non-western world enters the p i c t u r e as  i t i s impinged on by the west.  I n d i a and China are v i r t u a l l y ignored  u n t i l western expansion brings them i n t o contact w i t h Europe and the west.  The main stream o f h i s t o r y i s the growth o f western  civilization.  Even a f t e r they enter the h i s t o r y , non-western s o c i e t i e s appear small beside the west, and they are t r e a t e d only i n s o f a r as t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the west are important.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d i n the course t h a t  recent developments i n the Far East are t r e a t e d i n U n i t VI under the heading: "Nationalism and Imperialism i n the East Complicate the Search f o r Peace and S e c u r i t y . " Indeed, the study o f recent world developments i s from a western viewpoint, the underlying question being i n e f f e c t : How are we i n the west affected? H i s t o r y 21 H i s t o r y 91 i s an e l e c t i v e course i n the h i s t o r y o f the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. I t i s o f f e r e d i n Grade XI or Grade X I I . " I t i s intended to provide a challenging opportunity to study a t an advanced l e v e l the major trends and events which have shaped the course of l a t e r modern h i s t o r y and have provided the world with i t s most serious current problems.""^ The p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s f o r the course are: "The L a t e r Modern World," and "The Twentieth Century and the Contemporary World," by C. F. Strong. 31  32  of Education b u l l e t i n : Secondary School S o c i a l Studies, I960, p. Department 114. 32 C. F. Strong, The L a t e r Modern World (Toronto: C l a r k e , I r w i n ,  2A  These are intended to be used p r i m a r i l y as references. Two course o u t l i n e s are set out i n the department b u l l e t i n .  One  known as P l a n A i s based on a "problem approach"; the other, P l a n B, i s organized c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . P l a n A.  P l a n A i s organized i n eleven t o p i c s , each o f which i s  subdivided i n t o questions o r problems dealing with important aspects o f the main t o p i c .  I n the words o f the b u l l e t i n :  The problems l i s t e d have been chosen to represent the more common problems o f the world today and to give coverage to most o f the regions o f the world. The task o f the students i s to seek the cause of these problems and study and analyze f a c t s and evidence which bear on the problems. I n t h i s way, students should gain a b e t t e r understanding o f the t h e o r i e s and movements which are shaping the course of the world today.33 The eleven t o p i c s i n the course o u t l i n e are: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI.  B r i t a i n , an Evolving Democracy i n a Changing World The United States o f America and I t s "Democratic Experiment" France, T r a d i t i o n a l Centre o f Western Europe Germany, Storm-centre o f the European Powers Europe, "Balkanized" o r "United"? The Soviet Union and the Communist Experiment The Far East, One-third o f the World's Peoples The Afro-Asian Countries L a t i n America, Democracy by E v o l u t i o n o r by Revolution? The Commonwealth, "Something New under the Sun" World i n T r a n s i t i o n  3 weeks 3 weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks 2 weeks 3 weeks 5 weeks  3 3 3 3 3 3  Three examples might be given o f the way i n which these t o p i c s are developed:  1958TI  1958); The Twentieth Century and the Contemporary World (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin,  33  Secondary School S o c i a l Studies, pp. 114-115.  25 Unit  I : B r i t a i n , an Evolving Democracy i n a Changing World  1. How can B r i t a i n maintain her economic p o s i t i o n i n t e r n a l l y and externally? 2. To what extent i s the B r i t i s h system o f democracy s t i l l a u s e f u l p a t t e r n f o r the nations o f the world? 3. I s B r i t a i n ' s welfare programme a p a t t e r n f o r the f r e e world to follow? 4 . What changes appear t o be necessary i n B r i t a i n ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n view o f the present world s i t u a t i o n ? Unit  V I : The Soviet Union and the Communist Experiment  1 . How has the Communist experiment changed Russia, and to what extent has Communism changed to s u i t Russian n a t i o n a l chara ct er i s t i c s ? 2. How democratic i s the Soviet system o f government? 3. To what extent has Communism f u r t h e r e d o r changed Russia's i n t e r n a t i o n a l aims? 4 . To what extent i s the challenge o f Communism being met? U n i t V I I : The Far East. One-Third o f the World's Peoples 1 . Can China maintain i t s new-found sense o f independence and u n i t y ? 2. To what extent does Communism appear t o be solving China's s o c i a l and economic problems? 3. Are adjustments needed i n the a t t i t u d e o f Western nations toward China? 4 . What are the major problems f a c i n g Japan? How has she attempted to solve these problems? Geographically, the course i s g l o b a l i n scope.  I t does attempt t o  give coverage t o most o f the regions o f the world. The scope i n time cannot be stated. i n which the t o p i c s are treated.  This would depend on the way  I t would be p o s s i b l e to t r e a t some o f  them h i s t o r i c a l l y by t r a c i n g development.  However, the way i n which the  sub-topics are stated i m p l i e s , i n many cases, no necessary h i s t o r i c a l approach, and t o attempt to t r e a t some o f the t o p i c s h i s t o r i c a l l y would be  26  impossible, or i r r e l e v a n t a t best.  The question: " I s B r i t a i n ' s welfare  programme a p a t t e r n f o r the f r e e world to f o l l o w ? " does not r e q u i r e an answer w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l dimension.  I t can be answered by f i n d i n g r e -  sponses to questions such as: What i s B r i t a i n ' s welfare programme? What are i t s advantages and disadvantages?  Do the former outweigh the l a t t e r ?  Are conditions i n other democracies such that the advantages of a s i m i l a r programme would outweigh the disadvantages? This i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a course i n h i s t o r y a t a l l .  I t can be  made h i s t o r i c a l , but as o u t l i n e d , i t i s more a c c u r a t e l y defined as a course i n contemporary world problems.  I t l a c k s the u n i t y of a n a r r a t i v e  or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which a h i s t o r i c a l treatment would r e q u i r e .  The f i n a l  u n i t i s an attempt to provide a focus f o r the course and to give i t a unity: This u n i t should i n c l u d e a drawing together of the major aspects of the course. The suggestions which f o l l o w should not be taken as i n d i c a t i n g the complete treatment r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s u n i t . They merely suggest a few of the l e s s obvious p o i n t s f o r study. Topics and questions suggested f o r study i n c l u d e :  34  1. Compare and contrast the p o l i t i c a l problems faced by the League o f Nations and the U n i t e d Nations i n performing t h e i r functions. 2. What f a c t o r s are promoting i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation i n economic matters? 3. To what extent have the nations o f the world co-operated i n s c i e n t i f i c , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l matters, and what successes and f a i l u r e s have been experienced? 4. I n what way are the v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l pacts and a l l i a n c e s an obstacle to the aims and work of the U n i t e d Nations? I n what ways a b e n e f i t ? 5» How can the apparent c o n f l i c t between nationalism and i n t e r nationalism be resolved? ^ I b i d . , p.  120.  27 To b r i n g i n t o one focus the t o p i c s and sub-topics of the course i s obviously extremely d i f f i c u l t .  I t does not seem p o s s i b l e t h a t ques-  t i o n s such as those o u t l i n e d above can perform t h i s u n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n . They are important and i n t e r e s t i n g questions but t h e i r i n t e g r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l i s no greater than t h a t of the questions and t o p i c s i n the r e s t of the course.  Furthermore, they are not h i s t o r i c a l questions.  Specifi-  c a l l y , of the f i v e questions, above, only numbers 1 and 3 need h i s t o r i c a l treatment, and t h i s i s i n terms of the very recent past.  A h i s t o r y course  which has as i t s main purpose the study of major trends and events i n l a t e r modern h i s t o r y must be concerned with change i n time, and not only w i t h the problems which are the end-product of the processes of change. This course s a c r i f i c e s the p r i n c i p l e of development, the study of change, to the i n t e r e s t i n present problems.  Thus, though i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g and  s t i m u l a t i n g , i t does not provide a p i c t u r e of the workings of the complex forces o f change, the movement of world h i s t o r y , i n l a t e r modern times. I n the attempt to achieve a g l o b a l perspective and i n i t s preoccupation w i t h the present, i t f a i l s to be h i s t o r y . P l a n B.  P l a n B i s based on a t o p i c a l - c h r o n o l o g i c a l approach.  It  i s organized i n t o 11 u n i t s as f o l l o w s : I. II. III. IV. V.  P r e v i e w — a b r i e f survey of some of the major events of 1 the eighteenth and e a r l y nineteenth centuries i n Europe Major Forces I n f l u e n c i n g the Nineteenth and Twentieth 1-2 Century World (Nationalism, Democracy, I n d u s t r i a l i s m , Imperialism, M i l i t a r i s m ) Reaction vs. L i b e r a l i s m (1815-1850) 3-4 The R i s e of I n d u s t r i a l i s m and S o c i a l i s m 2-3 Major Developments (1850-1914) 3  week weeks weeks weeks weeks  28  VI. VII. VIII.  IX. X.  XI.  (Developments i n B r i t a i n , France, and U.S.A., Nationa l i s m i n Europe, R e v i v a l o f imperialism) C u l t u r a l Developments o f the Nineteenth Century ( S c i e n t i f i c and a r t i s t i c developments, and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on d a i l y l i v i n g ) Rise o f M i l i t a r i s m and the F i r s t World War The P e r i o d between the Two World Wars ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and the search f o r s e c u r i t y ; National states between the wars, t o t a l i t a r i a n and democratic The Second World War The World since 1945 (The United Nations; expansion o f communism; the search f o r s e c u r i t y against communism; attempts a t European u n i f i c a t i o n ; growing nationalism i n A f r i c a and A s i a ; the Cold War) Current World Problems  1 week 2 weeks 5 weeks  2 weeks 7 weeks  4 weeks  The scope o f the course i n time i s the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; geographically " i t includes a l l areas o f the world i n which events have taken p l a c e , or are taking p l a c e , which a f f e c t the world as a whole."  35  I n the suggested time allotment, there i s s l i g h t l y more emphasis on the twentieth century.  Out o f a t o t a l a v a i l a b l e time o f 32 weeks,  14 weeks are devoted t o the p e r i o d up t o and i n c l u d i n g World War I , and 18 weeks t o the p e r i o d since 1918. Eleven weeks out o f the 34, approximately o n e - t h i r d o f the whole time, are used to study the p e r i o d since 1945. The main emphasis i s on the h i s t o r y o f Europe and the west.  The  f i r s t eight u n i t s o f the course, t h a t i s the f i r s t 21 weeks o f study, or approximately  two-thirds o f the a l l o t t e d time, are devoted almost  29 e x c l u s i v e l y t o European h i s t o r y .  There are some references t o the  growth o f nationalism i n the New World between 1815 and 1850, developments i n the United States between 1850 and 1939» developments i n the B r i t i s h Empire and Commonwealth, the "new imperialism," and the r i s e o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m i n Japan.  But the main emphasis i s on events and move-  ments i n Europe—the study o f nationalism and l i b e r a l i s m to 1850, the r i s e o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m , European c u l t u r a l developments, the causes o f and movement to World War I , the p e r i o d between the World Wars. With the Second World War, the course broadens out, and, as i t s t i t l e suggests, U n i t X, "The World since 1945," takes a much wider view, dealing with such t o p i c s as the United Nations, the expansion o f communism, the Cold War, and the r i s e o f nationalism i n A f r i c a and A s i a . The h i s t o r y has a p o l i t i c a l core.  I t traces the c h i e f p o l i t i c a l  developments i n Europe and the west i n the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, both the i n t e r n a l development o f the p r i n c i p a l states and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them.  The major forces i n f l u e n c i n g the nineteenth  and twentieth centuries are stated i n the o f f i c i a l course o u t l i n e t o be nationalism, democracy, i n d u s t r i a l i s m , imperialism, and m i l i t a r i s m , which i m p l i e s a predominantly p o l i t i c a l approach. and c u l t u r a l aspects are not neglected.  However, s o c i a l , economic  I n d u s t r i a l i s m i s studied i n i t s  r e l a t i o n to imperialism, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l reform, the r i s e o f s o c i a l i s m , and the a r t s .  L i t e r a t u r e and the a r t s are t r e a t e d i n some d e t a i l .  Develop-  ments i n science are t r a c e d and the e f f e c t s o f s c i e n t i f i c advance on s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s thought are t r e a t e d i n considerable d e t a i l .  Thus,  30  s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l developments are t r e a t e d as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l ; and not i n separate channels, i s o l a t e d one from the other, but i n their relationships. The h i s t o r y has no one theme.  " H i s t o r y , " says the t e x t , " i s a  continuous process of development and change. . . . Looking back i n t o h i s t o r y , we can d i s c e r n d i s t i n c t i v e features that seem to make one century d i f f e r e n t from the next or we can f o l l o w developments i n human 36  a c t i v i t y that we l i k e to c a l l progress."  The features which the t e x t  discerns and the patterns i t t r a c e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y imply progress. The author examines h i s t o r i c a l development minutely, and makes g e n e r a l i zations c a r e f u l l y .  Moreover, he i s perhaps too aware o f the subjective  element i n h i s t o r i e s , of the f a c t that each h i s t o r y i s somebody's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the past, to be dogmatic i n presenting a h i s t o r y f o r students i n school: I f we t r i e d to examine everything t h a t happened i n a p a r t i c u l a r century we should become hopelessly l o s t : but by s e l e c t i n g what now appear as the most important events we b r i n g some order to our study of h i s t o r y . But what are the most important events? This i s obv i o u s l y a matter of i n d i v i d u a l choice. What i s chosen depends on each man's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events i n h i s t o r y , what purpose and p a t t e r n he sees i n them. Consequently h i s t o r i a n s o f t e n disagree. . . . Students are warned of the l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s t e x t : Sometimes i t i s only by studying several d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view t h a t we ourselves can get a proper understanding of h i s t o r i c a l events. I n t h i s book there i s not enough space f o r more than one p o i n t of view to be i n c l u d e d , and so, i n reading i t , remember t h a t i t i s not  The E a r l y Modern World, p. 1 1 .  - " i b i d . , p. 1 2 .  31  i n i t s e l f the b e - a l l and e n d - a l l of the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d w i t h which i t deals.38 There i s , therefore, a t e n t a t i v e approach to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Students are reminded t h a t v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a set o f events are p o s s i b l e , as f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h i s summary o f a comparison between the nineteenth and t w e n t i e t h centuries: There are, o f course, many other comparisons t h a t can be made between the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. The r e s u l t s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as marking the progress o f mankind towards a b e t t e r l i f e or as d e f i n i n g the r i s e and f a l l of a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . But, however we i n t e r p r e t the events we have studied, i t must a t l e a s t be admitted t h a t knowledge of h i s t o r y i s necessary to an understanding o f the modern world, f o r the developments and changes that a f f e c t us today are always rooted i n the past.39 The purpose o f the author then seems to be, having decided on the events and developments he considers important enough to be i n c l u d e d i n h i s h i s t o r y , to t r a c e , describe and narrate without o f f e r i n g l a r g e generalizations.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t e n t a t i v e and kept to a minimum.  Or  as i n the passage quoted above, a choice o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d , and the student i s f r e e to come to h i s own conclusions as to the meaning of events. The i d e a o f world h i s t o r y on which the course i s based i s d e f i n e d by the author o f the t e x t .  Although, i n our own times, almost any spot  on earth may become the scene o f events of world-wide importance, the x^estern world s t i l l dominates t h i s wider stage, since from i t springs  'ibid.  3 9  I b i d . . p.  382.  32 "...  both the strongest force f o r u n i t y and the most powerful d i v i s i v e  40 f o r c e s i n the contemporary world."  The world i s d i v i d e d by the antag-  41  onism between "the Communist and non-Communist forms o f Western c u l t u r e . " I t has been given a degree of u n i t y by the spread of western science and technology, and western economic and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to the nonEuropean peoples.  Therefore, t h i s h i s t o r y i s ". . . mainly about the  recent h i s t o r y of the Western World, but e s p e c i a l l y about those events and developments i n the West which have s i g n i f i c a n c e today f o r peoples 42  everywhere." I t does not attempt "to p o r t r a y the v a r i o u s non-European cultures which, while absorbing Western ways, are a t the same time help43 ing to shape our common f u t u r e . "  Thus the h i s t o r y of the west i s the  centrepiece of t h i s world h i s t o r y . THE PROGRAMME AND ITS OBJECTIVES The programme as a whole, indeed, has the h i s t o r y of the west as i t s c e n t r a l theme.  The Grade V I I course i s a h i s t o r y of the genesis and  growth of European c i v i l i z a t i o n .  The Grade X course and H i s t o r y 91 t r a c e  the development o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the modern age, and i t s impact on the r e s t of the world's s o c i e t i e s .  Though the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s they  o f f e r are d i f f e r e n t — t h e Grade X course viewing h i s t o r y as a progressive  40 p. 14.  C. F. Strong, The Modern World, (Toronto: C l a r k e , I r w i n , 1962), 41  Ibid.  Zf2  T b i d . , pp. 14-15.  ^ b i d . . p. 15.  33  development towards a more r a t i o n a l and democratic world while the H i s t o r y 91 course i s a study of change which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o g r e s s i v e — t h e conception of world h i s t o r y i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same. the mainstream.  European h i s t o r y i s  For the author of the Grade XI t e x t , the h i s t o r i e s of  non-western s o c i e t i e s are not omitted because they are unimportant, but f o r reasons of space.  The complex story of western c i v i l i z a t i o n has to be  compressed i n t o a b r i e f account already.  To add to i t the h i s t o r i e s of  other c u l t u r e s would present an impossible problem. The c h i e f o b j e c t i v e of the programme i s to provide the student w i t h a " c l e a r e r understanding of the world i n which we l i v e through a study of 44 the background and genesis of many present-day problems."  The  importance  of the impact of Europe and the west on the r e s t o f the world i n the modern era, and i t s consequent importance i n the generation of many important present-day probelms i s undeniable.  Therefore, a h i s t o r y of the west,  broadly conceited, as i n the H i s t o r y 91 course, can c o n t r i b u t e to an understanding of the present.  I t can l e a d the student to " r e a l i z e the  interdependence of the peoples of the world" (Objective # 3)» "comprehend the f u t i l i t y and danger of modern wars" (Objective #4),  and "appreciate  the attempts a t co-operation among nations i n v a r i o u s spheres of a c t i v i t y . " (Objective # 5) Objective # 2 r a i s e s some d i f f i c u l t i e s .  I t i s to "gain some under-  standing o f why nations and peoples a c t as they do."  I n order f o r t h i s  34 aim t o be r e a l i z e d , some study of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s i s needed.  But the  h i s t o r y i n the programme i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d i n scope i n such a way as to exclude the non-western c u l t u r e s .  Therefore, while i t may l e a d  to an understanding o f why the nations and people o f the west a c t as they do, i t cannot give much i n s i g h t i n t o the a t t i t u d e s o f others.  CHAPTER I I I ALBERTA H i s t o r y i s not taught as a separate subject i n the High Schools of A l b e r t a . Therefore, there i s no world h i s t o r y or general h i s t o r y course i n A l b e r t a o f the k i n d t h a t e x i s t s i n the other provinces.  Ele-  ments o f h i s t o r i c a l knowledge are used i n the S o c i a l Studies courses, but they are used i n conjunction w i t h information and ideas from the s o c i a l sciences i n a s p e c i a l way, and w i t h a s p e c i a l purpose which i s explained i n the o f f i c i a l guide: The d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s t o r y and the contemporary s o c i a l sciences i s o f the greatest s i g n i f i c a n c e i n organizing and teaching the s o c i a l studies. The f a c t t h a t h i s t o r y alone i s unable t o exp l a i n the contemporary world was the b a s i c cause f o r the emergence o f the s o c i a l studies f i e l d , w i t h i t s broadened i n t e r e s t and current a p p l i c a b i l i t y . The course, therefore, while i t absorbs the time and much o f the subject matter formerly a l l o t t e d t o h i s t o r y , geography, c i v i c s , sociology and economics, does not l i m i t i t s e l f i n each p a r t , d i v i s i o n or u n i t t o the content o f any one o f them. The outlook i s e s s e n t i a l l y broad and exploratory, and the course i s made up o f a s e r i e s o f c o r r e l a t e d u n i t s o f study r a t h e r than conducted as a r i g i d sequence o f lessons . . . . The nature o f the study o f each o f the u n i t s i s planned t o be more than geographical and more than h i s t o r i c a l . The content o f each u n i t i s t o be used t o develop and f i x i n the minds o f the students a small number o f major understandings or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . . . which, i f the course i s properly conducted, w i l l be permanently r e t a i n e d by the student to form a s o l i d foundation f o r f u r t h e r growth i n s o c i a l understanding.^  Senior High School Curriculum Guide f o r S o c i a l Studies 10, 20, 30; Department o f Education, 1955> p» 6. ^ I b i d . , p. 7.  36  I t i s i n the l i g h t of t h i s p o i n t of view t h a t one must look at the h i s t o r i c a l elements i n the programme.  I n the J u n i o r High School the  courses are: Grade V I I Grade V I I I  Development of Canadian Culture Canada, the Commonwealth and Her Neighbours  Grade  Canada i n the Western World  IX  The h i s t o r i c a l content o f these courses i s "the h i s t o r y of Canada ( d i s covery, e x p l o r a t i o n , and settlement) i n some d e t a i l , w i t h l e s s extensive study of the Americas; and the growth of p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 3  B r i t a i n and Canada." More general h i s t o r y i s i n c l u d e d i n the Senior High School courses: The Grade X course contains a mandatory fifteen-week u n i t (Three) e n t i t l e d "Our Heritage From the Past,"• and an o p t i o n a l four-week u n i t , " L i f e i n the Middle Ages." Grade XI Modern Background of Canadian C i v i l i z a t i o n Grade X I I Canada i n the Modern World Grade X ( S o c i a l Studies 10) U n i t Three, "Our Heritage from the Past," i s d i v i d e d i n t o three parts.  The purpose of the u n i t  i s to provide a glimpse o f what has gone before i n the story of mankind, a sort of summary or overview, so t h a t we may b e t t e r understand what we are today. Since we are concerned c h i e f l y w i t h Western man, we confine the survey to those areas of e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n which a f f e c t us most d i r e c t l y , t h a t i s , the cradle o f  I n t e r i m Senior High School Curriculum Guide f o r S o c i a l Studies 10,  20,  and  30  for  1964-5, p.  6.  4  This course was introduced i n 1964, Curriculum Guide.  and has no t i t l e i n the  37 Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . -  7  The three p a r t s are: I.  From the Beginning to the Greeks 3 weeks The beginnings o f mankind, t e n t a t i v e t h e o r i e s . Some examples o f e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n s (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Phoenicia, the Hebrews, P e r s i a ) . The heritage from the e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n s , with emphasis on the developmental nature o f society over a long period.  II.  The Greeks 6 weeks H i s t o r y o f the Greeks from the formative p e r i o d t o the r i s e o f Macedonia. Everyday l i f e i n P e r i c l e a n Athens. The heritage from Greece, w i t h emphasis on the importance of ideas and the worth o f man.  III.  The Romans 6 weeks H i s t o r y o f Rome from e a r l y times t o the d e c l i n e o f the Empire. Everyday l i f e i n Rome, a t the end o f the Republic, and at the height o f the Empire. The h e r i t a g e from Rome, w i t h emphasis on order and organization.  U n i t Four ( E l e c t i v e A ) , " L i f e i n the Middle Ages," (suggested time four weeks) i s recommended f o r students who a n t i c i p a t e taking S o c i a l Studies 20.  The purpose i s "to consider the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d from the  f a l l o f Rome to the Renaissance w i t h respect t o p o l i t i c a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e on s o c i e t y . " ^ I. II. III.  5  I t s three sections are:  P o l i t i c a l Organization Economic Features o f the Middle Ages The C u l t u r a l P a t t e r n o f L i f e i n the Middle Ages  I b i d . , p. 14.  6  I b i d . , p. 17.  38 Grade XI ( S o c i a l Studies 20) Grade X I I ( S o c i a l Studies 30) I n each of these years the course includes s i x u n i t - t o p i c s . I n U n i t I each geographic background may be taken as an example of a way or ways i n which the s o c i a l and economic development of a people has been or i s i n f l u e n c e d by p h y s i c a l surroundings. Natural resources and r e s u l t a n t standards of l i v i n g are r e l a t e d to the student's impressions from contemporary and current events studies. Reading m a t e r i a l s are consulted from a t o p i c a l r a t h e r than from a chronological standpoint. I n U n i t I I an economic viewpoint prev a i l s as the n a r r a t i v e accounts i n the several reference books concerning trade, commerce and t r a v e l are examined. I n U n i t I I I , the h i s t o r i c a l element becomes more prominent, and w i l l suggest present-day a p p l i c a t i o n s of the conclusions reached about the s o c i a l environment of peoples i n other times. U n i t IV i s both h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l , U n i t V and VT s o c i o l o g i c a l i n the main but a l l three combine, i n the general understandings to be sought, d e f i n i t e conclusions from a l l f i v e of the s o c i a l sciences. The u n i t - t o p i c s f o r Grade X I , "Modern Background of C i v i l i z a t i o n s , " are: I.  II.  The Expansion of Habitable and Productive Areas since the Beginning of the Modern Age 1. S c i e n t i f i c Thinking i n Geography i n the Renaissance Period 2 . The Geography of Discovery and C o l o n i z a t i o n 3 . The E f f e c t of E x p l o r a t i o n and E a r l y C o l o n i z a t i o n upon the Parent C i v i l i z a t i o n 4. Present Day D i s t r i b u t i o n of Population Contrasted with t h a t a t the Beginning of the Modern P e r i o d 5. The A p p l i c a t i o n to a Modern S i t u a t i o n of the Concepts Learned i n t h i s U n i t The E f f e c t of Science on our Economic L i f e 1. The D i s t i n c t i v e I n d u s t r i a l Character of Modern Civilization 2 . The A p p l i c a t i o n of Science to Industry 3 . The Economic P r i n c i p l e s of Modern Production and Distribution 4. A p p l i c a t i o n to a Modern S i t u a t i o n of the Concepts Learned i n t h i s U n i t  39  III.  The R i s e of Nationalism: The Expansion of European Empires 1. The Formation of Nation-States a t the Beginning o f the Modern Age (England, France, Spain) 2. Imperial Expansion and C o l o n i a l R i v a l r y (Economic Factors) (Spain, Great B r i t a i n , France) 3 . The Concepts o f Nationalism and L i b e r a l i s m (Great B r i t a i n , France, America) 4. Imperial A s p i r a t i o n s i n the Late 19th Century 5. The A p p l i c a t i o n to a Modern S i t u a t i o n o f the Concepts Learned i n t h i s U n i t  IV.  The Development o f Parliamentary Government i n B r i t a i n and i n Canada: A Comparison w i t h the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the U n i t e d States  V.  S o c i a l Enlightenment and Reform 1. S o c i a l Problems i n England P r i o r to the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution: Remedies Attempted 2. S o c i a l Conditions R e s u l t i n g from the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution 3 . Enlightenment and S o c i a l Improvement 4. The Assumption o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r S o c i a l Reform by the State  VI.  The Background of Canadian C u l t u r a l and R e l i g i o u s Development 1. A D e f i n i t i o n o f Culture: Examples 2. The S p i r i t o f the Renaissance 3 . The Reformation k. Features of C u l t u r a l and R e l i g i o u s L i f e i n B r i t a i n and Other Countries 5. Features o f Canadian and C u l t u r a l L i f e  The Grade X I I ( S o c i a l Studies 30) course, "Canada i n the Modern World," i s organized as f o l l o w s : I. II. III.  The I n f l u e n c e of Geography on the Development o f Canada Canada and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade The Search f o r S e c u r i t y i n the Twentieth Century 1. The Dawn o f the Twentieth Century 2. European Democracies and D i c t a t o r s h i p 3 . The Search f o r Peace i n a Divided World  IV.  Nationalism and the Modern World 1. The Advance o f Canadian Nationalism 2. Nationalism i n the B r i t i s h Empire and Commonwealth 3. Recent Expression o f Nationalism  V.  The Canadian C i t i z e n and H i s Governments 1. The Development o f M u n i c i p a l Government i n Canada 2. The Features and Functions o f M u n i c i p a l and School Corporations 3. Some Problems o f M u n i c i p a l Government 4. Some Problems o f the Senior Governments  I t can thus be seen that the use o f h i s t o r y i n t h i s programme i s h i g h l y f u n c t i o n a l ; that i s , elements o f h i s t o r i c a l knowledge are selected and brought to bear on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , or problems.  Together w i t h  knowledge from geography, c i v i c s , sociology and economics, these elements are used "to e x p l a i n the contemporary world." They are scattered throughout the courses so t h a t , f o r the most p a r t , h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y i s l o s t . This i s perhaps i n e v i t a b l e , given the p o i n t o f view on which the programme i s based which aims t o e x p l a i n the contemporary world and which f i n d s the h i s t o r i c a l approach, by i t s e l f , unable to achieve t h i s aim. This i s not a programme i n h i s t o r y i n which c o n t i n u i t y and development are t r a c e d by the study o f events and p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  I t i s not a  general or world h i s t o r y course, although i t contains many o f the h i s t o r i c a l elements which go t o make up a world h i s t o r y course. The world h i s t o r y course, t r a c i n g a process o f change through time, has c o n t i n u i t y and an organic u n i t y which i s i m p l i e d i n the study o f change through concrete instances.  I t s prime purpose i s to show how change came about and  also to i l l u m i n a t e not only the present, which i s the r e s u l t o f t h i s process o f change, but the past as w e l l .  The purpose o f t h i s programme i s to  a  e x p l a i n the present, not p r i m a r i l y the process by which the present came i n t o existence.  As Johnson says;  H i s t o r y that traces development i n e v i t a b l y includes f a c t s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the present. I t s fundamental question i s not what matters now but what mattered then. I t s primary mission i s to e x h i b i t l i f e as i t was and to show what the things were t h a t shaped past l i v i n g . . . . I n t r a c i n g development, textbooks w r i t t e n by scholars aim a t organic c o n t i n u i t y ; the f u n c t i o n a l approach l i m i t s development to s p e c i a l phases d i r e c t l y suggested by the present and t r e a t s them separately, assuming f o r each a s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y that renders unnecessary any general exploration of the past.7 This programme i s based on such a f u n c t i o n a l approach.  Elements  o f h i s t o r i c a l knowledge are introduced as the r a t i o n a l e of the course r e q u i r e s t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n , not as are r e q u i r e d by the needs of h i s t o r i c a l continuity.  Thus i t i s not a study of world h i s t o r y any more  than i t i s a course i n geography, economics, sociology or p o l i t i c a l science.  Henry Johnson, Teaching o f H i s t o r y i n Elementary and Secondary Schools ( r e v . e d i t i o n ; New Yorks Macmillan, 1940), p. 121.  CHAPTER IV SASKATCHEWAN The world h i s t o r y course i n Saskatchewan i s a three-year sequence i n Grades IX, X and X I .  The Grade IX course deals w i t h ancient  and medieval h i s t o r y ; the Grade X course w i t h the p e r i o d from the Renaissance to 1848; the Grade XI course w i t h the p e r i o d from 1848 to the present time.  Thus, i n three years, the student i s presented w i t h a  h i s t o r y which extends from e a r l i e s t man to the contemporary world. P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r i n c r e a s i n g depth i n treatment as the grade l e v e l r i s e s , so t h a t the content i n grade XI i s appreciably more det a i l e d than t h a t i n the grade IX course, which i s much broader i n scope. I n other words, modern h i s t o r y i s studied more i n t e n s i v e l y than ancient and medieval.  Two years are devoted to the p e r i o d since 1500 compared  with one f o r the p e r i o d up to 1500.  One o f these years deals w i t h the  l a s t hundred years (from 1848 to the present time). The textbooks authorized f o r the use o f the students are: Grade IX The Ancient and Medieval World, by Rogers, Adams, and Brown^ Grade X The E a r l y Modern World, by C. F. Strong Grade XI The Modern World, by C. F. S t r o n g ?  3  L. B. Rogers, F. Adams, W. Brown, The Ancient and Medieval World (Toronto: Clarke, I r w i n , c. Canada, 1949). 2  C. F. Strong, The E a r l y Modern World (Toronto: Clarke, I r w i n , 1961). 3  -T. F. Strong, The Modern World (Toronto: Clarke, I r w i n , I962).  <  There i s a close correspondence between the t e x t s and the course o u t l i n e s as l a i d out i n the o f f i c i a l b u l l e t i n of the Department o f Education. The Grade IX Course SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION The Grade IX course, Ancient and Medieval H i s t o r y , consists of s i x major t o p i c s : I.  II.  III. IV. V. VI.  E a r l y Beginnings (The Earth before the Time of Man, E a r l y Man, E a r l y Man i n North America, Races and Languages o f Mankind)  3 weeks  The Cradles o f C i v i l i z a t i o n 8-9 weeks (The E f f e c t of Geography upon E a r l y C i v i l i z a t i o n s , Egypt, the F e r t i l e Crescent) Grecian C i v i l i z a t i o n  8-9 weeks  Roman C i v i l i z a t i o n  8 weeks  The R e l i g i o n s o f Mankind  2 weeks  Medieval C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe  4 weeks  The course i s designed to provide the means whereby students can l e a r n o f the o r i g i n s o f society i n the e a r l y ages o f p r i m i t i v e man, and study the general development o f our c u l t u r e t o the end o f the Middle Ages. I t i s important f o r students to see how a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g r  Program o f Studies f o r the High School: S o c i a l Studies: Grade 9> Grade 10, Grade 11; Department o f Education, Government o f the Province of Saskatchewan.  LA geography and economics, have i n f l u e n c e d the course o f human history.5 T h i s emphasis on the development o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n f i t s i n w i t h the statement o f the broad f u n c t i o n o f the whole sequence which i s to provide a group o f Canadian young people w i t h an understanding of the development o f a c i v i l i z a t i o n o f which they are a p a r t and some impressions o f other c u l t u r e s both contemporary and past. For t h i s reason, the courses have been organized around the c i v i l i z a t i o n which developed i n B r i t a i n and Western Europe and which has spread to t h i s continent. At the same time the course also provides f o r some study o f the j n a j o r i t y o f peoples o f A s i a and A f r i c a . " I n t h i s course, the only p a r t which i s not concerned purely w i t h the development o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n i s U n i t V, the R e l i g i o n s o f Mankind.  This b r i e f u n i t sketches the h i s t o r y and b e l i e f s o f Hinduism,  Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism, Mohammedanism, and C h r i s tianity.  The s e c t i o n on Mohammedanism mentions i n a few words the Moor-  i s h expansion i n North A f r i c a , the B a t t l e o f Tours, and the Moorish c i v i l i z a t i o n i n Spain. of the course.  This u n i t seems to have no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e s t  The reason f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n given i n the t e x t i s t h a t  the h i s t o r y o f the world's d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s has o f t e n a f f e c t e d the h i s t o r y o f the nations themselves. So we s h a l l want t o l e a r n something about the d i f f e r e n t great r e l i g i o n s i n our study o f the ancient world.' This i s not very meaningful i n view o f the f a c t that the c i v i l i zations o f I n d i a and China do not form p a r t o f the course a t a l l , and Islam i s mentioned but b r i e f l y .  I b i d . , Grade 9, p. 9.  I b i d . . p. 5.  I b i d . , p. 221.  A5  The p a t t e r n o f the course i s not unusual, except t h a t medieval Europe receives rather b r i e f treatment.  One quarter o f the time f o r the  course i s spent on Greece, one quarter on Rome, one quarter on the other ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s , and one eighth on medieval c i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe. This i s a h i s t o r y , not so much o f Europe as o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n . The story o f c e n t r a l and eastern Europe does not enter i n t o i t . The Byzantine empire, and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe, does not form p a r t o f t h i s h i s t o r y . I t i s a h i s t o r y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , or rather o f a number o f s o c i e t i e s each o f which i s t r a c e d from i t s r i s e t o i t s f a l l , and each o f which i s assessed i n terms o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . Thus p a r t two o f U n i t I I I , Grecian C i v i l i z a t i o n , which i s e n t i t l e d "The Growth o f Greek C i v i l i z a t i o n and I t s Contribution to Modern Society," deals with: Crete; r i s e o f the c i t y states (Sparta, Athens); c o l o n i a l expansion; repulse o f the Persians; the Golden Age o f Athens and i t s outstanding t h i n k e r s ; the Empire o f Alexander the Great; Greece's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c i v i l i z a t i o n ; language, l i t e r a t u r e , drama, a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , philosophy, science, mathematics, and p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e .  Rome i s s i m i -  l a r l y t r e a t e d , as the t i t l e o f Chapter 7 i n the s e c t i o n on Rome i n the t e x t suggests: "Rome Passed on the Torch o f C i v i l i z a t i o n . "  I b i d . , p. 12. I  Rogers, Adams, Brown, op_. ext., p. 208.  9  EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION The h i s t o r y traces the evolution o f c i v i l i z a t i o n : "To f o l l o w the t r a i l o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , from the dawn o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the minds o f the f i r s t man, t o the present accomplishments o f mankind, t h a t i s the purpose 10 of t h i s book."  I n t h i s process each society makes i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n  which i s added to man's c u l t u r a l heritage. Perhaps you w i l l l e a r n f i r s t the strange story o f e a r l y man, and how he l i v e d i n the days when he f i r s t moved upon the earth. Then you w i l l read o f the ancient peoples o f the Egyptians, the nations which i n h a b i t e d the Tigris-Euphrates v a l l e y , the Hebrews, the Phoenicians and the Greeks, and o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . You w i l l see how the Romans gathered together and made t h e i r own the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a l l these peoples, then on t o the new nations which sprang up i n Europe a f t e r the f a l l o f the Roman Empire. You w i l l l e a r n how l i f e and l e a r n i n g slowed down during the Middle Ages only t o awaken again i n the days o f the r e v i v a l of l e a r n i n g . ^ The development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , i t s progress, then i s cumulative. There are periods when the process i s slow, and periods when i t a c c e l erates: You w i l l r e c a l l t h a t there was such a time ( o f r a p i d change) i n Greece i n her Golden Age. Such progress was not t r u e o f the feudal world. Now ( i n the Renaissance) we came to.a time when, once again, the tempo o f l i f e speeded up . . . . But whether progress i s r a p i d or slow, i t i s continuous and, seemingly, i n e v i t a b l e : "You should keep i n mind t h a t there are no sharp 1 breaks i n the h i s t o r y o f man's progress. One t h i n g leads t o another."  1 0  I b i d . , p. v.  1 : L  Ibid.  1 2  I b i d . , p. 294.  l 3  I b i d . . p. 296.  The h i s t o r i c a l process i s cumulative, f o r a great and simple t r u t h t h a t h i s t o r y t e l l s us i s t h a t nothing i s ever l o s t . Each c u l t u r a l group has made some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the r i s e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , and our way o f l i f e , and our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s the sum t o t a l o f a l l the c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n s t h a t ever e x i s t e d . ^ Thus, we who l i v e today stand a t the end o f a process o f c u l t u r a l accretion.  H i s t o r y i s the development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n a d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n ,  towards a higher l e v e l o f c i v i l i z a t i o n .  And j u s t as we enjoy the f r u i t s  of t h i s process, so we have a duty t o cherish, preserve, augment, and pass i t on.  I n t h i s process  t h i s country, i n i t s t u r n , i s the i n h e r i t o r o f a l l the knowledge and a l l the c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e o f a l l the nations t h a t have e x i s t e d . And y o u — i n Canada i n t h i s twentieth century are the h e i r o f a l l the thoughts and a l l . t h e a c t s o f the men and women who i n h a b i t e d t h i s earth before you. There i s an almost i n e v i t a b l e tendency i n h i s t o r y o f t h i s k i n d to  see the past through the eyes o f the present, and not i n i t s own terms,  and thereby to d i s t o r t the past.  I f we see the middle ages through  twentieth century eyes, i t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o judge i t by our values and standards and thereby to misunderstand i t s l i f e .  I f we stand a t the end  of a long process o f progress through the development and accumulation o f c u l t u r e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to avoid seeing the past as i n f e r i o r , since a l though i t made i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o progress, i t was a t a lower l e v e l o f development than our present c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Therefore, i t i s easy t o be  condescending to the p a s t , t o d i s t o r t and misunderstand i t , and thereby  1 4  I b i d . , p. x v i i i .  15lbid., p. x i x .  48 to misunderstand the present as w e l l .  R e f e r r i n g to people o f former  times the t e x t says: "Yet the people who were f o r c e d to get along w i t h 16 out telephones, and movies, and r a d i o s , d i d not have too bad a time." Surely t h i s i s an u n h i s t o r i c a l and misleading way o f regarding the past, from which we can l e a r n nothing but o f our s u p e r i o r i t y t o the people o f the past. There i s a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y about human progress i n this history.  Progress may be slowed down i n c e r t a i n p e r i o d s , speeded  up i n others, but i t i s always t a k i n g place. i s change i n a d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n .  Nor i s i t merely change; i t  That i s , by i n v e n t i o n and the a c c r e t i o n  of c u l t u r a l elements provided by successive c i v i l i z a t i o n s , the conditions of human existence are improved.  I t i s an o p t i m i s t i c view o f the past,  and o f the present which has evolved from i t i n a process o f continuous development. As the t e x t has i t : The world we l i v e i n i s a very wonderful place. We wish t o speak t o a f r i e n d whose home i s h a l f way across t h e c i t y ; we p i c k up a phone, d i a l a number, and i n a matter o f seconds we are t a l k i n g with him. Above our heads f l y giant a i r p l a n e s , carrying passengers, f r e i g h t , and m a i l which i n a few hours w i l l be on the opposite side of the continent. When we press a button our homes are flooded w i t h l i g h t ; we t u r n a switch and heat f o r cooking i s there a t once. The t u r n o f another switch f i l l s our homes w i t h music being played hundreds o f miles away, perhaps i n another country. Many homes have now, and most soon w i l l have t e l e v i s i o n sets through which, on small screens, the a c t i o n s o f p l a y e r s on a b a s k e t b a l l f i e l d miles away are shown seconds a f t e r the a c t i o n takes p l a c e . I f we wish t o go on a journey, great steam-driven engines, o r automobiles are w a i t i n g t o rush us across the country a t s i x t y miles an hour, or more. ?  49  From the non-material p o i n t o f view, the p i c t u r e i s j u s t as b r i g h t .  As  c i t i z e n s o f a democracy, we enjoy p r i v i l e g e s , such as the " r i g h t to e l e c t the governments which w i l l conduct our a f f a i r s , "  the r i g h t s o f t r i a l by  j u r y , f r e e speech, a f r e e press, freedom o f r e l i g i o u s conscience, and the r i g h t to an education. Not a l l people a t a l l times have enjoyed these p r i v i l e g e s ; not a l l people even i n our own time enjoy them. That we have them i s the r e s u l t o f a long s e r i e s o f ideas and experiments and sometimes bloody struggles i n which l i v e s were l o s t , on the p a r t o f many men, i n many nations, a t many periods o f the story o f our world. A strand o f the theme i s the growth o f democracy.  Here again, there  i s a tendency to look a t the past through the eyes o f the present. Thus the Peasants R e v o l t i n England i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the struggle o f the 1  common people f o r t h e i r r i g h t s and freedoms: The peasant r e v o l t was a complete f a i l u r e . Yet i t was a sign o f a ferment f o r freedom that was a t work among the common people, and t h a t was to become more a c t i v e i n the f o l l o w i n g centuries. The r e v o l t reminded those i n power t h a t the common people could be dangerously strong against the r u l e r s , and t h a t they would continue to demand t h e i r r i g h t s . ^ 2  Although t h i s r e v o l t was put down, the oppressed peasants were beginning to i n s i s t on a b e t t e r l i f e . 2 1  This i s to a s c r i b e our own a s p i r a t i o n s and way o f thought to the E n g l i s h peasant o f the 14th century. I t i s to assume that because we t h i n k t h a t the peasant was oppressed and i l l - u s e d , that the peasant thought so, too; t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , he thought i n terms o f h i s freedom and h i s r i g h t s .  286.  These are doubtful assumptions to make.  18. I b i d . , p. x i x .  19-I b i d . , p. x i x .  Ideas about  20I b i d . , p. 285.  21I b i d ,;•> P«  50  freedom and r i g h t s d i d not become p a r t of the consciousness of men i n Europe to any appreciable degree u n t i l the 16th century; and then i t was not the peasants who fought f o r these ideas, but a l i m i t e d number of men mainly of the middle c l a s s ; the common people d i d not become p o l i t i c a l l y important u n t i l l a t e r .  Freedom was not something there to be achieved;  i t was something t h a t was defined as i t was achieved, i n the course of history. This approach to h i s t o r y leads to anachronisms: During the Middle Ages there were not many people i n the upper classes who thought much about what happened to the peasant, though h i s hard work provided a l l t h e i r needs and l u x u r i e s a l i k e . I n f e u d a l times there was no c o n s i d e r a t i o n given to e q u a l i t y or freedom from w a n t . ^ These statements may or may not be t r u e .  The p o i n t i s t h a t they  are meaningless because they are a n a c h r o n i s t i c , since they imply judgments about f e u d a l society i n terms of values derived from our  own.  To t r y to t h i n k of the Middle Ages i n terms of e q u a l i t y or freedom from want i s to erect b a r r i e r s to understanding.  The purpose of such  statements seems to be to e s t a b l i s h t h a t the common people were oppressed and e x p l o i t e d by powerful and s e l f i s h f e u d a l l o r d s , and t h a t on both s i d e s , there was a consciousness of t h i s oppression and e x p l o i t a t i o n .  This i s how  such a s i t u a t i o n might appear to us, i f i t e x i s t e d today, but i t i s h i g h l y doubtful i f i t appeared so to any but a t i n y m i n o r i t y l i v i n g a t the time. Their world-view was v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from ours, and the purpose of h i s -  51 t o r i c a l study i s to a r r i v e a t some understanding o f that world-view. To sum up, t h i s course i s a study of the development o f western European c i v i l i z a t i o n to the beginning of the modern era i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of a rather naive l i b e r a l democratic idea o f progress. The Grade X and Grade XI Courses SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION The Grade X course covers the h i s t o r y o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n from the Renaissance p e r i o d to the r e v o l u t i o n s of 1848. f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the t e x t .  The course  The course o u t l i n e c o n s i s t s of seven major  topicsS  I.  II.  III.  The Renaissance and the Modern World 3 weeks ( o r i g i n s of the Renaissance, Renaissance A r t , Science; Age of Discovery) The R e v o l u t i o n i n the C h r i s t i a n Church and Contemporary Developments i n England (Reformation, Counter-Reformation, R e l i g i o n and P o l i t i c s i n Western Europe, S o c i a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l Developments i n England)  6 weeks  The Bourbons and the Stuarts ( T h i r t y Years War, the P u r i t a n Revolution, E n g l i s h P o l i c y i n England and Scotland, France under L o u i s XIV, European expansion overseas)  7 weeks  The B u i l d i n g o f Empires ( R i s e o f R u s s i a , Growth o f A u s t r i a and P r u s s i a , B r i t a i n and France i n the Seven Years' War)  3 weeks  S o c i a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l Developments o f the l ? t h and 18th Centuries ( S o c i a l L i f e i n England, Progress of the A r t s , the Advance of Science)  2 weeks  11  IV.  V.  52 VT.  VII.  The Age o f Revolution ( i n d u s t r i a l Revolution, American Revolution, French Revolution and Napoleon, Revolt of Spanish American c o l o n i e s , f u r t h e r Development i n Industry and A g r i c u l t u r e )  8 weeks  Revolutions on the Continent and Reforms i n Great Britain (Greek Independence)  4 weeks  I t i s important f o r students to understand the broad underlying forces which i n f l u e n c e d European c i v i l i z a t i o n during t h i s p e r i o d , and to see how a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s such as geography, economics, i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , and s t r i f e w i t h other powers a f f e c t e d the development of n a t i o n a l s t a t e s . Of great s i g n i f i c a n c e , too, i s a knowledge of the outstanding l e a d e r s , who through t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n to a cause, were instrumental:'in changing men's minds to new courses of action. 3 2  The Grade XI course completes the sequence b r i n g i n g the story from the mid-nineteenth  century up to the present day.  Thus, the  whole of the l a s t year i s devoted to the study of the l a s t hundred years, compared w i t h the whole of ancient and medieval h i s t o r y i n the f i r s t year, and the p e r i o d of some three to four hundred years i n the second year. Two reasons are given f o r the d e c i s i o n to give r e l a t i v e l y more time to the immediate past.  The f i r s t one i s t h a t although  contemporary Western s o c i e t y i s the product o f a development s t r e t c h i n g back to ancient P a l e s t i n e , Greece and Rome, and to appreciate i t s most important and enduring q u a l i t i e s one must study i t i n t h a t perspective . . . i t s immediate c o n d i t i o n , i t s current problems, dangers and o p p o r t u n i t i e s grow out of events of the more recent past, and i t i s n a t u r a l and proper to examine these events more c l o s e l y with a view to gaining i n s i g h t , i n t o the s i t u a t i o n i n which we f i n d ourselves today. ^ 2  23  p. 8.  Program of Studies f o r the High School: S o c i a l Studies, Grade X, 24  Strong, The Modern World, p. 1 3 .  53  The second i s that the scope of the h i s t o r y o f "Western C i v i l i z a t i o n " has been broadened by the f a c t t h a t the Western powers drew the r e s t o f the world i n t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and economic o r b i t . So i t i s that any h i s t o r y o f the West i n the l a s t hundred years n e c e s s a r i l y expands more and more nearly to the dimensions o f world h i s t o r y . At the p o i n t where t h i s book takes up the story, Europe i s s t i l l the stage on which the most s i g n i f i c a n t events unfold. Where i t breaks o f f , i n our own times, almost any spot on earth may become the scene of world-wide importance.^5 Thus whereas the Grade X course i s almost s o l e l y a h i s t o r y o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n , the Grade XI course, while mainly concerned with developments i n the western world, also embraces the i n f l u e n c e o f the West on the r e s t o f the world. There are s i x major t o p i c s : I.  Nationalism i n the Nineteenth Century 6 weeks ( U n i f i c a t i o n of I t a l y and Germany; the T h i r d French Republic; Russia, A u s t r i a and the Balkans; Nationalism and Sectionalism i n the U n i t e d States; the Growth o f Self-Government i n the B r i t i s h Empire)  II.  European P o l i t i c a l Developments and Imperialism i n the 6 weeks Nineteenth Century ( I n d u s t r i a l i s m and the New Imperialism; P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Reform i n B r i t a i n ; England and I r e l a n d ; the German Empire; French Domestic and Foreign P o l i c i e s , 1871-1894; Europe and America; Imperialism i n A f r i c a and the Far East; the B r i t i s h Empire, 1900-1914)  III.  S o c i a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l Developments o f the Nineteenth 1 week Century (The A r t s ; Science and Society)  IV. 2  The F i r s t World War and I t s Aftermath  5 l b i d . , p. 5.  7 weeks  5U (The War; Peace T r e a t i e s and the League o f Nations; the Defeated Peoples A f t e r the War; Post-War Developments i n B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d States, and the Far East; the E f f e c t of the F i r s t World War on S o c i a l Conditions) V.  New Approaches to Government and the Second World Wa] (Soviet Russia; F a s c i s t I t a l y ; Nazi Germany; the Spread o f A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m ; the "New Deal" i n the United States; the Far East; Prelude to the Second World War; the War)  VI.  7 weeks  The Problem o f Peace and the World since 194-5 7 weeks (The United Nations Organization; Post-War Settlements; Expansion o f Soviet Power i n Europe and A s i a ; the United States and the Western World; Post-War B r i t a i n ; the C o l o n i a l Revolution and the Retreat from A s i a and A f r i c a ; the Middle East; the Korean War; the Re-Arming o f Germany; the Progress of Science and Technology) EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  "The s o c i a l studies courses which are o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages r e f l e c t the twentieth century approach to h i s t o r y which takes i n t o consideration r e l a t e d geographic, p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f a c t s , " says the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the course.  This i s a f a i r d e s c r i p t i o n of the  h i s t o r y i n Grades X and X I . The h i s t o r y has a p o l i t i c a l core, i n t h a t the greatest emphasis i s given to the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l development o f the major west European s t a t e s , the U n i t e d States, and the Commonwealth countries, and to the r e l a t i o n s between the s t a t e s . However, t h i s core i s supplemented by sections on s o c i a l , economic and i n t e l l e c t u a l developments.  I n Grade X, the textbook has chapters on "Wealth and Poverty i n  26  Ibid.  55  Elizabethan England," "The Age o f Shakespeare,"  " S o c i a l L i f e i n 18th  Century England," "Achievement i n the A r t s , " and "The Advance o f Science."  I n Grade X I , there are chapters on " P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  Reform i n B r i t a i n , " " B r i t a i n i n the Late V i c t o r i a n Age," "The A r t s i n the Nineteenth Century," "Science and Society," "The F i r s t World War and S o c i a l Change," " B r i t a i n and the Welfare State," and "Science and C i v i l i zation. " Thus, although, p o l i t i c a l emphasis i s primary, t h i s i s not a narrowly p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l , economic, and  i n t e l l e c t u a l aspects o f l i f e are not neglected, and p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s given to the growth o f science, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o i n d u s t r y , and the s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f t h i s process. I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the Grade IX t e x t , the t e x t s f o r Grades X and XI have no s i n g l e underlying theme.  History, i t i s stated, i s a 27  continuous process o f development and change.  I n order to make sense  of the past, the h i s t o r i a n must s e l e c t "what now appear as the most im. 28 portant events." The d e c i s i o n about what are the most important events i s a matter o f i n d i v i d u a l choice.  "What i s chosen depends on  each man's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f events i n h i s t o r y , what purpose and p a t t e r n 29  he sees i n them."  The purpose and p a t t e r n which the author o f these  t e x t s sees c e r t a i n l y does not consist o f a simple l i n e o f progressive Strong, The E a r l y Modern World, p. 11. 28  T1  . ,  29 , . , T  56  development.  Rather, each age i s faced w i t h problems, dangers and  o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are the legacy o f the past.  The way i n which problems  are faced, dangers averted, and o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e a l i z e d or l o s t , c o n s t i t u t e s change, but not n e c e s s a r i l y progress.  Progress i s p o s s i b l e — i n s c i e n t i f i c  knowledge, f o r example, or i n economic production.  But progress i s not  thought o f i n general t e r m s — a s the progress o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , an upward trend i n the whole o f human l i f e . The meaning o f progress i s l i m i t e d to advance i n some p a r t i c u l a r aspect o f l i f e , and progress i n one aspect may l e a d t o the c r e a t i o n o f problems i n others.  S c i e n t i f i c advance represents progress, but not i n  an u n l i m i t e d sense, f o r though i t has broadened man's understanding o f nature and increased h i s c o n t r o l over i t , i t has r a i s e d problems.  I t has  helped t o corrode r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f ; i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o i n d u s t r y , i t has created problems i n human r e l a t i o n s ; and, a p p l i e d t o warfare, i t has, i n our time, r a i s e d the fundamental question o f the s u r v i v a l o f the human race. In  short, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not reduce the complexity o f  h i s t o r i c a l events t o a s i m p l i s t i c formula, whereby a l l change i s construed as progress.  The reader i s reminded t h a t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a  matter o f what meaning the h i s t o r i a n sees i n the past, and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , there must be room f o r d i s c u s s i o n and d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Such a  p o i n t o f view lends i t s e l f t o a t e n t a t i v e approach t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about the events o f the past. interpretation:  The student i s advised o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f one  57  Sometimes i t i s only by studying several d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view t h a t we ourselves can get a proper understanding of h i s t o r i c a l events. I n t h i s book there i s not enough space f o r more than one p o i n t o f view to be included, and so, i n reading i t , remember t h a t i t contains only one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events and i s not i n i t s e l f the b e - a l l and e n d - a l l o f the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d w i t h which i t deals. THE PROGRAMME AND ITS OBJECTIVES The programme as a whole, t h a t i s , the courses i n Grades I X , X, and X I , covers the development o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n from i t s beginnings to the present time.  "Contemporary Western s o c i e t y , " i t i s s a i d , " i s the  product o f a development s t r e t c h i n g back to ancient P a l e s t i n e , Greece, and Rome, and to appreciate i t s most important and enduring q u a l i t i e s one must study i t i n that perspective."  However, the most i n t e n s i v e treatment  i s given t o the h i s t o r y o f the l a s t century, not only because t h i s p e r i o d , immediately preceding our own has s p e c i a l relevance t o current problems, but a l s o because i n t h i s p e r i o d , the scope of the story has widened enormously as the Western world drew the r e s t o f the world i n t o i t s p o l i t i c a l and economic system. . Even that p a r t of A s i a which kept i t s independence was f o r c e d , a t gun p o i n t , to open i t s doors t o Western t r a d e r s , promoters and missionaries. Western science and technology, Western economic and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , Western dress, and even European languages spread widely i n t o other p a r t s o f the world. At l e a s t so f a r as i t s m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e was concerned, Western c i v i l i z a t i o n was on the way to becoming world-wide, a development which continues s t i l l , a t a quickening pace. So i t i s t h a t any h i s t o r y o f the West i n the l a s t hundred years n e c e s s a r i l y expands more and more nearly t o the dimensions of world h i s t o r y . *  3  °Ibid.  31  T h e Modern World, p. 14.  58 The Grade XI course i s a h i s t o r y of the West, but because the 32 "Western world s t i l l dominates t h i s wider stage," the recent h i s t o r y of the West i s a major p a r t of world h i s t o r y .  The course i s  mainly about the recent h i s t o r y of the Western world, but e s p e c i a l l y about those events and developments i n the West which have s i g n i f i c a n c e today f o r peoples everywhere. I t shows how the West has, by the road o f imperialism, imposed on the r e s t o f the world something o f i t s own image.33 Since i t n e c e s s a r i l y compresses a very complete story i n t o a b r i e f space, " i t does not attempt to portray the various non-European c u l t u r e s which, while absorbing Western ways, are a t the same time helping to shape our  34 common f u t u r e . " While the h i s t o r i c a l view of the programme broadens from Europe, to western c i v i l i z a t i o n , and f i n a l l y to the whole world, the viewpoint remains European. There are two p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s stated f o r t h i s programme. One i s what might be c a l l e d the heritage o b j e c t i v e : Each generation of Canadian youth £says the Department b u l l e t i n ) f a l l s h e i r to a great h e r i t a g e , a heritage which includes a high degree o f c u l t u r a l development, a high standard o f l i v i n g , and a p o l i t i c a l system which promotes personal freedom . . . . Our heritage i s the work o f mankind through the ages. As such, i t i s f o r them to cherish, to augment, and to pass on. The broad f u n c t i o n o f the high school s o c i a l studies i s to provide a group of Canadian young people with an understanding of the development of a c i v i l i z a t i o n of which they are a p a r t and some impressions o f other cultures both contemporary and past. For t h i s reason, the courses have been organized around the c i v i l i z a t i o n  3 2  Ibid.  3 3  Ibid.  Program of Studies f o r the High School: S o c i a l Studies, Grade X, 1961, p. 5.  59  which developed i n B r i t a i n and Western Europe and which has spread t o t h i s continent. A t the same time the course also provides f o r some study o f the 'majority peoples' o f A s i a and Africa.35 This o b j e c t i v e i s r e a l i z a b l e through the courses, since they trace the development o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s impact on the r e s t o f the world. The second o b j e c t i v e i s broader: The s o c i a l studies should provide a body o f sound f a c t u a l knowledge and awaken a consciousness f o r the chronological sequences of events i n human h i s t o r y . Together these should promote an understanding o f how the present has grown out o f This o b j e c t i v e i s not so c l e a r l y a t t a i n a b l e through t h i s programme. To be sure, the courses do t r a c e "how the present has grown out o f the past," but they do i t from a European or Western p o i n t o f vieV.  The  "human h i s t o r y " mentioned i s Western h i s t o r y , and i t i s i n t h i s l i g h t t h a t students w i l l understand the development o f the present.  The Grade  XI t e x t , which i s most concerned with h i s t o r y on the world l e v e l , s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s t r i c t s i t s scope.  The book  shows how the West has, by the means o f imperialism, imposed on the r e s t o f the world, something o f i t s own image. Here i s matter enough t o e x p l a i n the l e n g t h o f t h i s book. You may imagine, then, what i t s s i z e would be i f i t were t o attempt t o t r a c e also the many other strands which, f o r any p a r t i c u l a r people, make up the f u l l f a b r i c o f t h e i r h i s t o r y . . . ; i t does not attempt t o p o r t r a y the v a r i o u s non-European c u l t u r e s which, while absorbing VJestern ways, are a t the same time helping t o shape our common future.37  35.  Ibid.  37,  36.  Ibid.  The Modern World, p. 1 5 .  60  I n other words, because the author considers t h a t to t e l l the whole story, i t would be necessary to t r a c e the h i s t o r i e s o f non-Western s o c i e t i e s , and since t h i s would be v i r t u a l l y impossible f o r reasons of space, he w r i t e s about "the recent h i s t o r y of the Western world, but e s p e c i a l l y about those events and developments i n the West which have op s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r peoples elsewhere."  That i s , an understanding of how  the present has grown out of the past i s presented through a h i s t o r y of the impact of the West on the non-Western s o c i e t i e s .  I f t h i s view of  the meaning of world h i s t o r y i s accepted, i f as the t e x t a s s e r t s the  39 recent h i s t o r y of the West i s a major p a r t of World h i s t o r y , o b j e c t i v e may be taken as r e a l i z a b l e .  then the  I f , on the other hand, the view  i s taken t h a t Western h i s t o r y and world h i s t o r y are not to be equated thus, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the o b j e c t i v e being r e a l i z e d i s i n dispute.  'Ibid.  3 9  I b i d . , p. 14.  CHAPTER V MANITOBA The programme i n general h i s t o r y i n Manitoba extends over three years.  The Grade VII course i s a h i s t o r y of ancient and medieval times,  w i t h a f i n a l chapter added to the o r i g i n a l t e x t e n t i t l e d "Modern Times," the theme of which i s "the part played by B r i t a i n i n the making of the 1  modern world."  In Grade IX the h i s t o r i c a l development of selected  nations i s traced from e a r l i e s t times to the present.  The Grade XII  course i s a d e t a i l e d study of the p o l i t i c a l , development of Europe since 1500;  the f i n a l t o p i c of t h i s course adopts a wider view, dealing w i t h  world p o l i t i c a l developments i n the twentieth century. The Grade VII Course SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  c The t e x t f o r the Grade VII course i s Builders of the Old World. The Department of Education b u l l e t i n does not recommend the omission of any parts of the t e x t ; i t i s therefore assumed that the whole of i t i s studied and that the t e x t comprises the course.  The t e x t i s organized i n  nine u n i t s as f o l l o w s : Junior High Grades;  S o c i a l Studies, Guidance, 1961, p. 40.  Gertrude Hartman, Lucy S. Saunders, A l l a n Nevins and F. E. T i n k l e r , Builders of the Old. World (revised e d i t i o n ; Toronto: Copp C l a r k , 19575^  62  Unit I Unit II Unit I I I Unit IV Unit V Unit VI Unit VII Unit VIII Unit IX  Days before History The Land of the Pharaohs E a r l y Nations i n Southwest A s i a Greek C i t i e s of Long Ago Rome Wins and Loses an Empire Wandering Tribes Become Nations New Ways of L i v i n g Foundations of Freedom Modern Times  The course thus follows a f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n — t h e e a r l i e s t l i f e of man, c i v i l i z a t i o n i n ancient Egypt and the F e r t i l e Crescent, Greece, Rome, the Middle Ages i n Europe.  Unit V I I I , Foundations of Freedom,  focuses on the beginnings of p o l i t i c a l and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s i n England: the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the jury system, Magna Carta, the f i r s t parliaments, the beginnings of p o l i t i c a l consciousness among "the people" as they " l a i d the foundations of democracy and began b u i l d i n g the representative 3  government which was t o make them a n a t i o n of free people."  The f i n a l  u n i t , "Modern Times," which has been added t o the o r i g i n a l t e x t , t r a c e s i n some eighty pages the h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n from 1500 t o the present time.  Topics dealt w i t h are the Renaissance, the Reformation, the age  of e x p l o r a t i o n , the influence of B r i t i s h science and invention on modern l i v i n g , the agrarian and. i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n s , the humanitarian movement, King v s . Parliament, overseas expansion .and the growth of Empire and Commonwealth. Each u n i t i s divided i n t o about twelve or f i f t e e n parts each of 3  I b i d . , p. 325«  63 which i s an essay o f one or two pages on some aspect o f the t o p i c — the influence o f geography, s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s customs, p o l i t i c a l and economic p r a c t i c e s , a biographical sketch o f a famous personage, e t c . Imaginary conversations and speeches are f r e e l y used i n the manner o f Thucydides, and numerous quotations from contemporary sources are s p r i n k l e d throughout the book.  Except f o r the l a s t u n i t , the text contains  almost no dates. An example o f the approach i s the u n i t on Greece.  I t consists o f  f i f t e e n topics which give a well-rounded, i f somewhat i d e a l i z e d p i c t u r e o f Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n s The City-States o f Hellas Greek Houses and Farms Growing up i n Sparta and Athens The Gods o f the Greeks The Olympic Games The Tale o f Troy F i r s t Steps i n Democracy The Greeks Defend Their Freedom The Athenians a t Marathon The Spartans a t Thermopylae The Wooden Walls Save Athens The Golden Age o f P e r i c l e s Lovers o f Wisdom Greece Loses Her Freedom The G i f t s o f Greece to C i v i l i z a t i o n The l a t e r Middle Ages i s p i c t u r e d through a s i m i l a r series o f snapshots o f l i f e i n i t s various aspects} I n a Medieval Castle Learning to Be a Knight Feasting and Revelry Hunting and Hawking A Tournament Serfs and Nobles How the Land was Divided  64 How the Peasants L i v e d Holy Men Help the People Making Books i n a Monastery The Good S i r Francis Men Follow the Sign o f the Cross In a Medieval Town The Cathedral Builders Butcher, Baker and Candlestick-Maker Markets and F a i r s The Towns Win T h e i r L i b e r t y Traders East Kings and Towns Unite Against the Nobles EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  As the t i t l e s o f these t o p i c s suggest, the emphasis i s mainly on s o c i a l h i s t o r y .  The aim seems to be to provide the children with a  view o f the l i f e o f s o c i e t i e s a t various times i n a series o f crosssectional or "patch" studies.  This i s true o f the f i r s t seven u n i t s .  The l o n g i t u d i n a l threads are the growth of c i v i l i z a t i o n and o f freedom. The motif o f the growth o f freedom becomes dominant i n the l a s t two u n i t s , and the emphasis s h i f t s from the p o r t r a y a l of l i f e through crosssectional studies to a narrative depicting the r i s e of democracy and the growth o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y .  "This h i s t o r y , " writes Nevins i n the  Introduction, stresses the common experience o f mankind and t r e a t s h i s t o r y as a continuous onward movement, showing how the world o f Caesar grew from the world o f the Sumerians, and that o f Charles Martel and S t . Francis from the world o f Caesar • • • • The upward struggle t h i s book records d i d not end with the discovery o f the New World. The e f f o r t o f men to achieve f u l l e r l i b e r t y gives each r i s i n g generation new tasks to perform. I t i s the hope o f the authors o f Builders o f the O l d World that i t w i l l equip i t s readers with a sense o f t h e i r place i n the long caravan o f humanity,  65 and i n s p i r e them to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that w i l l f a l l to them i n a world that i s growing more and more u n i f i e d . 4  Unfortunately, i n t h e i r attempt to trace "the e f f o r t o f men to achieve f u l l e r l i b e r t y , " the authors f a l l v i c t i m to the errors o f d i s tortion.  U n i t VXU,  "Foundations o f Freedom," i s an account o f English  h i s t o r y i n the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries i n terms o f the struggle o f the "people" to achieve freedom. simplification.  I t suffers from over-  We are t o l d that before the thirteenth century, "Kings  and nobles had r u l e d exactly as they wished,"  5  but that "with a p a r l i a -  ment made up o f t h e i r representatives the people o f England gained the power to make the laws f o r t h e i r own welfare," that "through representa-  6 t i v e government the people gained power to r u l e t h e i r own l i v e s ; " "during the Middle Ages," i t i s stated, "the p l a i n people o f England  7 slowly gained p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y . " The l a s t u n i t , the added chapter, takes a generally s i m i l a r p o i n t of view.  The Middle Ages i s regarded somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y — a s a time o f  ignorance and s u p e r s t i t i o n — b u t the general theme i s s i m i l a r , the progressive r e a l i z a t i o n o f freedom and a better l i f e f o r more people: "The mind and heart o f mankind are not content to remain long i n ignorance and bondage.  Man's mind i s always seeking a f t e r new knowledge  and h i s heart i s always desiring freedom." I b i d . , p. v i . 'ibid.  7  I b i d . , p.  I b i d . , p.  325.  324.  So, the Middle Ages gave  66 place to a new age i n which "the people were beginning to think f o r themselves," and "were beginning to b e l i e v e that each i n d i v i d u a l should be  8 f r e e to think as he wished and to a c t as he thought best."  Curiosity  and the desire f o r l i b e r t y provide the d r i v i n g f o r c e towards progress i n science and invention, and i n the growth o f democracy.  The common people  b e n e f i t i n increased well-being and a greater share i n government. Inevitably, the past suffers i n comparison with the present as contemporary values are imported u n h i s t o r i c a l l y i n t o the past. for  In  1750,  example, homes were "without telephones, r a d i o s , TV sets, and e l e c t r i c  l i g h t s — o n l y smelly, smoky tallow candles; homes without r e f r i g e r a t o r s , or  9 cupboards f u l l o f canned and packaged foods;"  and, a t that time, one  would hesitate to go out i n t o the street, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r d a r k — " i f the narrow, muddy road could be c a l l e d a s t r e e t " — f o r f e a r o f attack by thieves.  "However, there was l i t t l e reason f o r going o u t — n o movies, no  bowling a l l e y s , no skating r i n k s , In f a c t no places o f amusement except p o s s i b l y a very few theatres i n great c i t i e s l i k e London."*^ The past appears v a s t l y i n f e r i o r to the present In such a comparison, and the way In which the comparison i s made precludes any opportunity f o r a proper understanding o f the past.  I t also prevents the  student from attaining an understanding o f h i s own age and provides Instead a view o f the present which can only f o s t e r complacency and f e e l i n g s of  superiority. 8  I b i d . . p. 335.  9  I b i d . . p. 355.  1 0  I b i d . . p.  356.  67 Th© c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l theme i s the growth o f the freedom of the people, as they achieved p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s and established a system o f democratic government i n a c o n f l i c t with the kings which l a s t e d from the thirteenth century to the eighteenth.  Here the preoccupation with de-  mocracy and the r i g h t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l leads to a one-sided and d i s t o r t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as these values are projected a n a c h r o n i s t i c a l l y i n t o the thirteenth, fourteenth, f i f t e e n t h , and sixteenth centuries.  The Grade IX Course SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  The textbook f o r the course i s Story o f Nations (Manitoba e d i t i o n ) , * * a United States t e x t r e v i s e d f o r use i n Canadian schools. I t i s organized i n t o twelve parts: Part Part Part Part Part Part Part Part  I.  The French People Established a Nation, and Spread the Ideas o f L i b e r t y , Equality, and F r a t e r n i t y . I I . The Netherlands and Belgium were Wrested from Ruthless Foes and a Hungry Sea. I I I . Spain and Portugal Became Powers, then Gave Way to Other Nations. IV. The Leaders o f I t a l y Sought the Grandeur that was Rome. V. The Germans B u i l t a Strong Nation and T r i e d to Conquer the World. VI. Scandinavia i s the Home o f Three Hardy Nations. V I I . A S h i f t i n g B e l t o f Buffer States Extends from the B a l t i c to the Mediterranean. V I I I . The Peoples of Russia Awakened to the P o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r Vast Land.  **Lester B. Rogers, Fay Adams and Walter Brown, Story o f Nations (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin).  68 Part Part  . IX. X.  Part  XI.  Part  XII.  Ancient China i s Struggling to Become a Modern Nation. Japan Became a World Power and Set Out to Dominate the Orient. The American Nations, Their Welfare, and Their Destinies are Closely Interwoven. Devastating Wars Have Made I t Necessary to Face World Problems R e a l i s t i c a l l y .  D e t a i l s o f the course are given i n the Department o f Education b u l l e t i n : Course: The Part VI. Part VII. Part XI. Part  XII.  text w i l l be studied I n f u l l except as below: Geography only. Geography only. General geography o f L a t i n America p l u s the d e t a i l e d study o f Mexico and either B r a z i l or Argentina. I n the study o f the two World Wars, only causes and e f f e c t s are n e c e s s a r y . "  The scope o f the course, In time, i s from the e a r l i e s t beginnings of the nations to the present time.  The "Story o f France," f o r example,  begins with Cromagnon man, while the "Story o f the Low Countries" begins with Caesar's subjugation o f the Belgae. global.  Geographically, the scope i s  While the emphasis I s on western Europe, Russia, China, Japan,  and L a t i n America are studied. The b a s i s o f s e l e c t i o n o f the nations Included i n the course I s stated i n the Introduction to the text: Story o f Nations i s necessarily s e l e c t i v e . . . . Within one book i t would obviously not be possible to t e l l the s t o r i e s o f a l l the nations or groups, or even the complete story of any one great people. Story o f Nations employs the method o f c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n . Only l a r g e national groups are discussed i n d e t a i l , and here are i n cluded only those events and names which are needed to show how our  l 2  I b i d . . p. 40.  69  13  modern world came i n t o being.  The purpose o f the authors I n producing the t e x t i s to t e l l the s t o r i e s o f the nations with which Canada has had t o deal and with whom we must l e a r n to get on . • • today, whether we l i k e i t or not, we must understand world conditions, f o r they are bound to a f f e c t us . . . . I f we are to l i v e successfully i n our own country, which i s so much a part o f the world, we must understand how conditions i n the r e s t o f the world have come about. The course i s organized i n the form o f a series o f h i s t o r i c a l sketches o f selected nations o r groups o f nations, with a f i n a l u n i t which attempts to draw the threads together i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the world s i t u a t i o n which has developed i n the twentieth century.  Each sketch  follows a similar pattern o f developments f i r s t a section on the geography of the country and i t s influence on the h i s t o r y o f the nation; then a gen* e r a l i z e d narrative o f the h i s t o r y o f the nation, mainly p o l i t i c a l i n emphasis; f i n a l l y , a concluding section on the s p e c i a l contributions o f the society to the progress o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , or t o learning or the a r t s , or a discussion o f some s p e c i a l q u a l i t y or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the society. Thus: A r c h i t e c t s , Painters, and Writers o f Spain and Portugal Have Added Colour t o C i v i l i z a t i o n . ^ 5  16 Modern I t a l i a n s Have Contributed to Science and Music.  17 L i f e i n Japan i s a Strange Mixture o f O l d and New.  l 3  l 5  I b i d . . p. x i i . J M d . » p. 71.  ^ I b i d . . p. x i i . l 6  I b i d . . p. 105.  l 7  I b i d . . p. 291.  70 Th« course i s not so much a h i s t o r y as a congeries o f miniature h i s t o r i e s placed side by side within the covers o f the same book*  The  obvious danger i n t h i s form o f organization i s l a c k o f u n i t y or integration*  To some extent, there i s mention i n each story o f the r e l a t i o n s o f  that p a r t i c u l a r nation with others, and a degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s thereby achieved.  Thus, i n the story o f France, B r i t a i n and Germany come i n  f o r mention, and i n the story o f Spain, the r e l a t i o n s o f Spain with the Netherlands, B r i t a i n , Germany and I t a l y are touched upon.  The deficiency  i s obviously evident to the authors, since i n t e g r a t i o n i s attempted i n two other ways.  I n the f i n a l u n i t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the European -  nations i n the modern age are r a p i d l y s u r v e y e d — i n four pages o f the t e x t . The two World Wars are then dealt with, and the problems o f our time are explained i n terms o f the search f o r security. A second device i s a series o f time l i n e s which are cumulative. The f i r s t t i m e - l i n e i s the one on French h i s t o r y , the second i s on French, h i s t o r y and that o f the Low Countries.  Each successive chapter  adds another p a r t , so that eventually a time l i n e i s b u i l t up which shows major events i n France, the Low Countries, Spain, I t a l y , Scandinavia, Russia, and Germany from 1500 to the present time.  EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  Since the basis o f organization i s the nation, the h i s t o r i e s are mainly p o l i t i c a l i n emphasis, although s o c i a l and economic aspects o f each nation's l i f e receive attention i n the f i r s t section, and c u l t u r a l  71 aspects i n the l a s t one. The treatment o f the h i s t o r y o f each nation i s highly generalized. Thus, the h i s t o r y o f France from Cromagnon man to the Fourth  Republic  i s covered i n some twenty-five pages o f the text; Germany from Caesar to H i t l e r i n nineteen pages: Russia from pre-Christian times to the death o f S t a l i n also i n nineteen pages.  Many o f the generalizations are therefore  so broad as to be either meaningless or h i s t o r i c a l l y unsound.  What, f o r  instance, i s a Grade IX student t o make o f t h i s paragraph which i s by no means atypical? During most o f the h i s t o r y o f the T h i r d Republic, the middle c l a s s or bourgeoisie, had the most influence i n the government o f France. They were democratic and n a t i o n a l i s t i c i n t h e i r i d e a l s ; but i n t h e i r desire f o r national prosperity they p a i d considerable attention to the wishes o f the bankers and c a p i t a l i s t s . The f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f France i n the 20th century was influenced by two strong f o r c e s — n a t i o n a l i s m and imperialism. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n these generalized narratives.  I f there i s a theme which underlies them a l l , i t i s the  idea o f the progress o f c i v i l i z a t i o n .  "To follow the t r a i l o f c i v i l i -  zation from the dawn o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the mind o f p r i m i t i v e man to the present accomplishments o f mankind i s nothing l e s s than high 19 adventure."  Each nation has contributed something t o the fund o f  human achievement.  Intertwined with the idea o f progress are the ideas  o f l i b e r t y and democracy. I b i d . , p. 32.  Even though man's progress along the path o f I b i d . , p. x.  72  c i v i l i z a t i o n has been hindered by human jealousies and man i s impelled forward by these i d e a l s .  misunderstandings,  Even i n the l i g h t o f the World  Wars, the tone o f optimism remains: An exciting and sorry t a l e i t i s . Yet i t i s one that we must understand i f our own democratic way o f l i f e i s to continue f o r long. I t i s a record o f jealousies, o f war, o f clashes o f ideas about human r i g h t s and kinds o f government, and o f the culmination o f a l l these things i n World War I and World War I I . But the story I s not a l l sordid. We s h a l l see the constant l i g h t o f democracy and the l o v e o f l i b e r t y i n the heart o f men; we s h a l l observe the e f f o r t s o f the peacemakers and t h e i r reasonable hopes f o r the future; and we s h a l l mark the tremendous advances made by modern man i n science, education, and the a r t of living. ® 2  The Grade XII Course This course i s e n t i t l e d "Modern C i v i l i z a t i o n .  n  The prescribed 21  textbook i s History o f Western C i v i l i z a t i o n since 1500.  The  course  o u t l i n e as l a i d out i n the Department's Programme o f Studies does not coincide with that o f the text. SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  The course i s organized i n t o eleven t o p i c s : Topic  I.  P o l i t i c a l Ideas and I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Europe a t the Beginning o f the 16th Century A. B r i e f Introduction—The Medieval Unity o f Europe B. The New Monarchies C. Charles V and the Hapsburgs  I b i d . , p. x i l . 21 Carleton J . H. Hayes, Marshall W. Baldwin and Charles W. Cole, History o f Western C i v i l i z a t i o n since 1500 (New York: Maendllan, 1962). 22  Programme o f Studies, Senior High Schools, 1963-64, pp. 38-44.  73 Topic  U.  The Religions Upheaval o f the 16th Century A. U n i v e r s a l i t y o f the Medieval Church B. The Protestant Reformation C. The Catholic or Counter-Reformation Topic I I I . Absolutism A. I t s Successes: 1. France 2. Russia 3* Prussia B. I t s F a i l u r e s : 1. The Butch Republic 2. England Topic IV. Balance o f Power and Colonial R i v a l r y i n the 18th Century Topic V. The French Revolution and Napoleon A. Background and Early Course B. Napoleon!s;Military Dictatorship Topic VI. Conservative Reaction and the Re-Settlement o f Europe A. Congress o f Vienna B. The Concert o f Europe (Events o f the 1820*8) C. The I n d u s t r i a l Transformation o f Europe D. Charles X's reactionary aims and Ordinances— the J u l y Revolution"—"The C i t i z e n King" E. The Events o f 1848 F. The S i t u a t i o n i n 1852 i n France, A u s t r i a , and I t a l y Topic V I I . L i b e r a l i s m and Nationalism a f t e r 1852 A. F r a n c e — t h e Second Empire B. I t a l i a n U n i f i c a t i o n , Nationalism, and Liberalism C. German U n i f i c a t i o n — N a t i o n a l i s m without L i b e r a l i s m D. Nationalism as a Disruptive Force E. Russia Topic V I I I . International P o l i t i c s to 1907 Topic IX. The War o f 1914-1918 and the Search f o r Peace A. Germany's Challenge to the Entente B. The War C. Peace Settlements D. League o f Nations E. The Promise o f the Twenties Topic X. The Rise o f T o t a l i t a r i a n Dictatorships A. Communist Russia B. F a s c i s t I t a l y C. Nazi Germany M  Topic  XI.  The War o f 1930-1945 A. B. C. D.  T o t a l i t a r i a n Aggression The Struggle (World War I I ) I n Search o f Peace Cleavage between East and West  Despite the t i t l e , Modern C i v i l i z a t i o n , t h i s i s not a h i s t o r y o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , nor y e t o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  I t i s a rather  74 severely p o l i t i c a l and diplomatic h i s t o r y o f Europe.  The United States  barely appears.  The B r i t i s h Empire and Commonwealth i s not mentioned  i n the o u t l i n e .  European exploration and expansion i n the sixteenth and  seventeenth centuries i s not included.  The "New Imperialism" o f the l a t e  nineteenth century i s s i m i l a r l y omitted; Topic V I I I . where one would expect t o f i n d i t under the heading "International P o l i t i c s t o 1907»" i s developed through s i x sub-topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  The Three Emperors' League—the Congress o f B e r l i n The Dual A l l i a n c e The Three Emperors* A l l i a n c e The Reinsurance Treaty The lapse o f the Bismarck system, and the end o f France's isolation  6. The T r i p l e Entente, 1904-7 The course broadens out i n the l a s t topics "The War o f 19301945," which includes treatment o f the Sino-Japanese War, the Second World War, the United Nations, Nato, the Colombo Plan, and the "cleavage between East and West."  I n e f f e c t , i n t h i s f i n a l t o p i c , the course  substitutes a world view f o r a European view. EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  The course i s almost exclusively p o l i t i c a l and diplomatic h i s tory.  The l a t t e r h a l f o f the seventeenth century i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms  o f absolutism, i t s successes and f a i l u r e s , the eighteenth century i n terms o f the balance o f power and the French Revolution, the nineteenth century i n terms o f l i b e r a l i s m and nationalism, with a section devoted to the i n d u s t r i a l transformation o f Europe.  The t e x t i s much broader i n i t s  75 treatment, including chapters on such topics as: c u l t u r a l trends i n the sixteenth century, r e l i g i o n and the Enlightenment, Romanticism, and s c i e n t i f i c progress, the impact o f science and technology on society i n the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, aspects o f contemporary c i v i l i zation, r e l i g i o n and a r t i n an age o f confusion and change, etc. However, none o f these aspects i s included i n the o u t l i n e o f the course which hews to a "past p o l i t i c s " l i n e .  Thus the students are introduced  to WindischgraVtz, J e l l a c i c and Schwarzenburg, but not, as f a r as one can determine, to Darwin, Spencer, Pasteur, or Mendel. Moreover, t h i s i s the past p o l i t i c s o f Europe.  Only i n the f i n a l  t o p i c i s a wider view taken, and here the emphasis i s s t i l l p o l i t i c a l : the second World War, the search f o r peace, the "world threat o f communism." There i s no mention o f such problems as the changes i n A f r i c a and A s i a , over-population, the impact o f science and technology on world r e l a t i o n ships, which are important, not only i n themselves, but also because they make more complex the problem o f the r e l a t i o n s between the communist and "free" worlds.  The course, i n f i n e , presents a narrow view o f the past  and a r e s t r i c t e d view o f the present.  THE PROGRAMME AND ITS OBJECTIVES  The programme f a l l s between two stools so f a r as the attainment o f i t s objectives i s concerned.  The main purpose o f the "Modern C i v i l i -  zation" course i s stated as being "to give the student a knowledge o f the growth and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f nations that w i l l a s s i s t him i n understanding  76 the modern world i n which he l i v e s . "  23  What the course does, i n f a c t ,  provide f o r the student i s a study o f the p o l i t i c a l development and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f European nations since 1500,  which may w e l l a s s i s t him  i n understanding how modern Europe emerged, but which l a c k s the breadth necessary to provide him with an understanding o f the world i n which he lives.  The perspective i s too European, and the emphasis i s too p o l i t i c a l .  The Grade IX Course, on the other hand, while i t has broader geographical scope, s u f f e r s from the f a c t that i t traces the growth o f nations without satisfactorily  showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst them.  Thus, a knowledge  of the movement o f world h i s t o r y which the stated purpose o f the course requires i s not obtainable from either c o u r s e — t h e Grade XII course because i t i s not concerned with events on a world scale, the Grade IX course because i t traces the development o f i n d i v i d u a l nations i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from one another.  2 3  I b i d . . p. 38  CHAPTER VI ONTARIO Ontario has two programmes of world h i s t o r y .  There i s a one-year  course e n t i t l e d "The Development o f Modern C i v i l i z a t i o n " which i s mandatory f o r a l l students i n the Four-Tear Programme, and a two-year sequence e n t i t l e d "World History" f o r students i n the Five-Tear Programme. Four-Tear Programme i s designed to meet the needs o f students who enter business or industry on graduation a t the end o f Grade XII.  The will The  Five-Tear Programme i s designed to l e a d to further education. I.  SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  Grade XI. Four-Tear Programmes "The Development o f Modern C i v i l i z a t i o n " This course was introduced on an experimental b a s i s i n September 1964.  I t represents an ambitious attempt to present a survey o f h i s t o r y  i n one year, and i t must have presented those who formulated i t with d i f f i c u l t problems o f s e l e c t i o n and emphasis.  The statement o f objectives  reveals an uncertainty as to whether t h i s i s a course i n world h i s t o r y or the h i s t o r y o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  "Inevitably," i t says, "Europe domi-  2 nates a story o f the development o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  A little  l a t e r , however, i t i s stated that "an awareness o f the relevance o f world c f . Curriculum C i r c u l a r RP-9 ^ I b l d . . p. 1.  78 h i s t o r y to the p u p i l ' s world may be disclosed to him by frequent r e f e r ences to contemporary events . • .  The course o u t l i n e reveals that i t  i s a compromise; i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a history o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n , with here and there a reference to A s i a t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n s : "Although some e f f o r t has been made to consider the emergence o f A s i a t i c countries to world prominence, the entire continents o f A f r i c a , the Americas and A u s t r a l i a have, o f necessity, been either s l i g h t e d o r omitted." 5  The course i s organized as f o l l o w s :  y  Pre-Historic Man River C i v i l i z a t i o n s (the Indus, Yangtze, N i l e and Mesopotamia) Hellenic C i v i l i z a t i o n The Roman World Religions o f the Near and Far East The C h r i s t i a n Church i n Western Europe The Break-down o f Feudal Society The Renaissance The Reformation and the Counter-Reformation The Rise o f the Nation States and the Beginning o f Wholesale Trade The Age o f Reason and Science The French Revolution and Napoleon The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution Liberalism Nationalism Imperialism China and Japan World Wars. Communism and S o c i a l Democracy  Two new textbooks have been prepared f o r t h i s course.  ^Ibid.  4  Ibid.  5  Both t r e a t  I b i d . . pp. 2-4.  ^They are: Blanche E. S n e l l et a l . , Patterns i n Time (Toronto:  1964); and D. W. L. E a r l , Roots o f the PresentTToronto: Pitman, 1964).  Dent,  79 history as the study o f c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n s rather than i n terms o f the view o f history as progress and advancement. This course i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n i t s conception o f world h i s t o r y as the Five-Year Programme.  Therefore, the comments to be made  on the Five-Year Programme w i l l apply to i t .  The Five-Year Programme:"World History" This programme i s i n two parts with the d i v i s i o n between them a t approximately 1500 A.D.  Part I i s taught i n Grade XI and Part I I i n  Grade XII.  PART It ANCIENT HISTORY I . The Nations o f the Eastern Mediterranean World A. The threshold o f h i s t o r y B. The dawn o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n two great r i v e r v a l l e y s (c. 4000 B.C.—c. 500 B.C.) C. The dawn o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n India and China (c. 4000 B.C.) I I . Greece A. The Aegean World ( c . 36OO B.C.—c. 1000 B.C.) B. Greek ways o f l i v i n g and thinking ( c . 1000 B.C.— c. 500 B.C.) C. The triumph o f Greek freedom i n the struggle with Persian despotism D. The Golden Age o f Athens E. The Peloponnesian War—Greek against Greek F. The conquests o f Alexander the Great and the H e l l e n i z a t i o n o f the East H I . Rome A. The settlement o f I t a l y ( c . 2000 B.C.—c. 600 B.C.) B. The r e i g n o f law and order i n I t a l y under Rome C. The spread o f Roman power i n the Mediterranean world D. The decline o f Roman morale i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e life E. The l a s t years o f the Republic F. The Roman Empire  80 PART I : MEDIEVAL HISTORY I . T r a n s i t i o n to the Medieval World A. Causes o f the i n t e r n a l decay o f the Roman Empire B. The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Roman Empire C. Development o f the Roman Church i n the West I I . The Medieval World ( c . 600 to c. 1300) A. The struggle f o r reconstruction o f society and government B. Medieval c i v i l i z a t i o n a t i t s height (12th and 13th centuries) I I I . The T r a n s i t i o n to Modern Times (14th, 15th c e n t u r i e s ) — the period o f the Renaissance A. The decline o f feudalism B. Empire and papacy C. The beginnings o f the modern world D. The r e l i g i o u s upheaval  PART I I : MODERN HISTORY I . The Modem World from 1500 to 1763 A. Absolute and l i m i t e d monarchy B. Commercial and c o l o n i a l r i v a l r y C. Science, r a t i o n a l i s m and the b e l i e f i n progress I I . The World from I763 to 1850 A. The era o f the French Revolution B. The r i s e o f l i b e r a l i s m and nationalism to 1850 H I . The World from 1850 to 1919 A. The changes i n industry and communication from the middle o f the nineteenth century to the F i r s t World War B. The spread o f l i b e r a l i s m and nationalism to 1914 C. The F i r s t World War, 1914-1918 IV. The World from 1919 to 1945 A. Experiments i n internationalism B. The Americas since 1914 C. Recent economic and s o c i a l trends D. T o t a l i t a r i a n Experiments E. Developments i n China F. Immediate causes and events o f the Second World War V. The World Since 1945 A. The Atomic Age B. The United Nations C. Changes i n Asia and A f r i c a D. Democracy v s . Communism E. Democracy, our way o f thought and l i f e  81 As i n the Four-Year Programme, there i s a choice o f textbooks. For Grade U  the authorized textbooks as given i n the Department o f Edu7  cation c i r c u l a r  are:  Fishwick et a l . : The Foundations o f the West (Clarke, Irwin) Lavender et a l . : A Thousand Ages Trev. edition; McGraw-Hill) Trueman: The Enduring Past (rev. edition; Ryerson) For Grade XII: Reid, Mclnnist Our Modern World (rev. edition; Dent) Richards, Cruiokshank: The Modern Age (rev. edition; Longmans) Latitude i n the treatment o f course content i s implied i n the statement i n the curriculum b u l l e t i n : I f a teacher wishes to analyse a t o p i c i n some d e t a i l , setting aside four to s i x weeks f o r a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n by h i s p u p i l s o f a l l available references and theories, he should plan h i s year's work accordingly. A measure o f uniformity i s ensured since ". . . a l l major themes should be studied to provide the continuity necessary f o r a course i n •World H i s t o r y . ' "  9  The scope o f the programme i n time i s from p r e h i s t o r i c man to the present time.  Geographically i t i s g l o b a l .  I n the early stages the h i s -  tory includes the ancient r i v e r v a l l e y c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f the N i l e , T i g r i s Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow River, then the focus narrows to Greece, Rome and medieval Europe, and f i n a l l y broadens out again to g l o b a l pro-  C i r c u l a r 14,  1965.  ^Curriculum S.9, 1962, p. 5. ^Ibid.  82 portions with the expansion o f Europe. II.  EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  One year i s given over to the period up to 1500 A.D., year to the period from 1500 to the present. programme added  11  and one  A recent r e v i s i o n o f the  a survey o f events from 1945 to the present and a  treatment o f the cultures o f India and C h i n a , "  10  with a view to creating  "a better understanding o f the place that these areas now h o l d and the 11 influence they are l i k e l y to exert i n the modern world."  "On account  of the ever-increasing number and complexity o f events i n the h i s t o r y o f recent years, the length o f time that can be given to e a r l i e r events i n 12 man's h i s t o r y must be c u r t a i l e d . "  Thus there i s an increased emphasis  on the present, with an accompanying broadening o f view.  These are the  changes whereby a course i n Ancient, Medieval and Modern History has been transformed i n t o a course i n World History. The t r a n s i t i o n i s thus e a s i l y made, but i n s p i t e o f the change i n the t i t l e o f the course, the history remains predominantly  European.  India and China disappear a f t e r the introductory u n i t i n Grade XI which describes the dawn o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the r i v e r v a l l e y s .  India r e -  emerges i n the introductory u n i t i n Grade XII with the Anglo-French conf l i c t o f the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and China a century 1 0  I b i d . . p. 4 .  1 1  Ibid.  1  ^Ebld.  83 later.  I t i s i n the f i n a l u n i t o f the Grade XII course, "The World  Since 1945»" that the history becomes t r u l y global. The aspects o f history which are emphasized vary with the period. The parts dealing with Greece, Rome and medieval Europe are h i s t o r i e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , embracing many a c t i v i t i e s — p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, r e l i g i o u s , a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l .  Thus, there i s a section e n t i t l e d  "Greek Ways o f L i v i n g and Thinking ( c . 1000 B.C.-c. 500 B.C.)," and another on "The Golden Age o f Athens." p i c t u r e o f a way o f l i f e .  Both attempted to give a rounded  There i s similar treatment o f the early Repub-  l i c a n period and o f the imperial age o f Rome, and o f the High Middle Ages. I n the modern period, with which the Grade XII course i s concerned, the emphasis i s much more p o l i t i c a l , although by no means exclusively so. The r i s e o f national monarchies, t h e i r c o n f l i c t s i n Europe and overseas, l i b e r a l i s m and nationalism i n the nineteenth century, the causes and events o f the World Wars, and democracy versus communism, are some o f the p r i n c i p a l themes.  Within t h i s framework, some attention i s given to i n t e l -  l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and economic h i s t o r y .  One section i s devoted to the r i s e  o f science, rationalism and the b e l i e f i n progress, another to the r i s e and spread o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m up to World War I , and a t h i r d to s o c i a l and economic trends i n the twentieth century with p a r t i c u l a r reference to developments i n power, transport and communication, and industry, and the problems a r i s i n g out o f these developments. This programme presents a view o f world history from a European, o r western, standpoint.  The l i n e o f development which i t traces runs  84 from the anoient r i v e r v a l l e y c i v i l i z a t i o n s , through Greece and Rome to medieval Europe, thence to modern Europe, and, through i t s expansion to the whole world i n the twentieth century.  I t i s the t r a d i t i o n a l history  o f Europe, broadened a t one end to include the Indus and Yellow r i v e r c i v i l i z a t i o n s , and a t the other, to encompass the world.  Between these  extremities i s a study o f the development o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n from the Greeks to the end o f the nineteenth century, with a p o l i t i c a l emphas i s i n the p e r i o d between 1500  and  1900.  One d i f f i c u l t y i n attempting to make the s h i f t from a European history to a world h i s t o r y by a process o f addition i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the treatment o f India and China i n the Grade H I  course.  These cultures  are b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d — a short h i s t o r i c a l sketch, r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l structure, l i t e r a t u r e and a r t .  These surveys do not form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  the h i s t o r y , but appear f o r what they are—appendages tacked on to a European h i s t o r y .  Moreover, the treatment i s cursory. I n one textbook,*-  f o r example, India and China each merits three pages compared with double the amount f o r Germany under Bismarck and four times the amount f o r the career o f Napoleon  Bonaparte.  This European emphasis shows i n other ways.  The introduction to  the Grade XI course i n the Department b u l l e t i n , r e f e r r i n g to the development o f early c i v i l i z a t i o n s makes the rather s t a r t l i n g assertion that man " . . .  gradually . . .  i n h i s r e l i g i o u s thinking . . .  attained the  <J. H. Stewart Reid and Edgar Mclnnis, Our Modern World (rev. edition; Toronto* Dent, 1963), pp. 483-489.  85  conception o f one God and to the Hebrew writers the world s t i l l turns 14 f o r the most exalted expression o f r e l i g i o u s thought*"  A tendency to  equate the world with western c i v i l i z a t i o n appears i n the same b u l l e t i n i n a p o l i t i c a l reference: "The Russian Empire collapsed i n the war  and  emerged through r e v o l u t i o n as the Soviet State with i t s challenge o f communism to world s o c i e t y . "  While to the nations o f the West, the  1 5  U.S.S.R. has appeared as a challenge, t h i s i s by no means true f o r the r e s t o f the world.  For many i n the non-Western world. Russian communism  has appeared l e s s o f a threat than as an example o f how t h e i r economic problems might be solved.  To these people, the threat to world society  comes not from the U.S.S.R. and communism alone, but rather from the p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t between the U.S.S.R. and the United States, and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f nuclear war. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to make generalizations about the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the history i n t h i s programme embodies.  The framework o f essentials  l a i d down by the Department as a minimum requirement does shape the course to some extent i n that i t determines what themes, periods, and c i v i l i z a t i o n s are included f o r study and which are not.  And to t h i s ex-  tent, the general shape and structure o f the h i s t o r y i s defined by the Department.  But where there i s opportunity on the part o f the teacher to  Curriculum S.9, ' i b i d . , p.  24.  1962,  p.  6.  86 exercise h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment, i n s e l e c t i n g parts o f the course f o r s p e c i a l emphasis, and i n making a choice among a number o f authorized textbooks, each o f which has a d i f f e r e n t range o f emphases, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to generalize.  So f a r as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n I s concerned, the t e x t -  books have one thing i n common: they are not organized about a single theme or p r i n c i p l e such as, f o r example, the idea o f man's progress.  The  goal o f each seems to be, as one text claims, "to write a f a i r , i n t e r e s t 16 i n g , and, above a l l , responsible h i s t o r y " ;  that i s , to write a h i s t o r y  which attempts to discover and r e l a t e the t r u t h about the past, not to use the past to support some preconceived notion o r b e l i e f . III.  THE PROGRAMME AND ITS OBJECTIVES  The aims o f teaching h i s t o r y are l a i d out together f o r Grades 17  XI, XII, and Grade XIII. '  The Grade XIII course i s e n t i t l e d ,  "Canada and the Modern World," and consists o f three parts: Part I , C o l o n i a l Beginnings i n North America; Part I I , The United States o f America; and Part I I I , Canada, 1796-to the present. stated. The f i r s t one i s *  There are s i x alms  To give an understanding o f the sources and development o f European and other c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n order that the p u p i l may not only appreciate our debt to the past but may better comprehend the world i n which he now l i v e s .  D. Fishwick, B. Wilkinson, and J . C. Cairns, The Foundations o f the West (Toronto* Clarke, Irwin, 1963), p. i x . ^ C u r r i c u l u m S.9,  I962, p. 3.  87 The key words i n this statement are "and other civilizations." I t may be conceded that this programme may give the student an understanding of European civilization since i t i s , i n the main, a history of European civilization.  But, as the o f f i c i a l outline clearly shows, and  a study of the textbooks confirms, the attention devoted to "other civilizations" i s extremely limited and superficial.  The student i s  made aware that they exist, and they have an ancient tradition.  He i s  also made aware, i n the f i n a l unit, that the problems of importance today are problems of world-wide significance, and that these civilizations are involved i n them i n a significant way.  However, the programme does  not include material which could give an understanding of the development of these civilizations.  This would require a history of these c i v i l i z a -  tions, and this the programme does not provide.  Thus the aim, as stated,  cannot be achieved. The second aim indicates the extent to which the emphasis and perspective of the programme are European, or western: To indicate to the pupil that the crowning achievement i n this long evolution of institutions and ideas i s to be found i n the creation of democracy with i t s ideals of social equality and of government. The implication here i s that, since democracy i s the crowning achievement of history, and since this i s an achievement of the West, then western civilization i s superior to other civilizations.  Such a  view of history militates against the understanding of other c i v i l i zations implied i n the f i r s t objective. The fourth aim i s :  88  To l e a d the p u p i l to r e a l i z e the growing interdependence of nations and peoples i n the modern age. and so to appreciate the need o f a s p i r i t o f tolerance, neighbourliness and cooperation. This aim i s r e a l i z a b l e .  The f i n a l u n i t , "The World Since 1945"  i s designed to bring out the interdependent nature o f the modern world.  CHAPTER VII QUEBEC (PROTESTANT) World h i s t o r y i s taught i n the Protestant schools o f Quebec i n Grades V I I I , IX and XI.  The course i n Grade VIII i s a h i s t o r y o f the  ancient and medieval world; i n Grade IX the h i s t o r i e s o f selected nations are studied; i n Grade XI the subject i s modern h i s t o r y since 1763. Each course i s o u t l i n e d i n terms o f the authorised textbook.  The  textbooks are: Grade VIII Grade IX Grade XI  The Ancient and Medieval World The Story o f Modern Nations? The Modern Age3  1  The Grade VIII Course This h i s t o r y v i r t u a l l y begins with the Hebrews and Phoenicians, since the f i r s t parts o f the t e x t which deal with the story o f early  man  and with the ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f Egypt and Mesopotamia, are assigned f o r general reading only. The course consists, i n e f f e c t , o f the remaining s i x p a r t s o f the textbook, which are:  t e s t e r B. Rogers, Fay Adams, and Walker Brown, The Ancient and Medieval World (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, c. Canada, 194957" ^Fay Adams et a l . , The Story o f Modern Nations (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, c. Canada, 1958). ^Denis Richards and J . E. Cruickshank, The Modern Age (Toronto: Longmans, c. 1955)*  4  1963 Supplement to the Handbook f o r Teachers, p. 22.  90  Part Four:  The Hebrews and Phoenicians Made New Contributions to World Progress Part F i v e : Learning} A r t and C i t i z e n s h i p Brought Glory to Greece Part Six: The Romans Organized a Vast Empire Part Seven: The F a i t h o f Mankind i s Expressed i n Many Religions ( C h r i s t i a n i t y . Islam. Hinduism. Buddhism) Part Eight: Chivalry, Serfdom and the Church Characterized the Feudal World Part Nine: The Medieval World Awakened: The Renaissance and the Reformation The nature o f the content and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h i s t e x t i s examined i n greater d e t a i l as p a r t o f the world h i s t o r y programme i n Saskatchewan. The Grade IX Course SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  The textbook, The Story o f Modern Nations, i s organized i n twelve p a r t s .  Eleven parts t r e a t the h i s t o r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l nations o r  nations c l o s e l y r e l a t e d geographically (e.g. the Low  Countries); the  f i n a l part deals with the World Wars and the problem o f achieving peace. The organization i s as follows:  Part One: Part Two: Part Three: Part Four: Part Five: Part Six:  The French People Established a Nation and Spread the Ideas o f L i b e r t y , Equality and F r a t e r n i t y The Netherlands and Belgium Were Wrested from Ruthless Foes and a Hungry Sea Spain and Portugal Became Great Powers, Then Gave Way to Other Nations The Leaders o f I t a l y Sought the Grandeur that was Rome The Germans B u i l t a Strong Nation and T r i e d to Conquer the World The Peoples o f Russia Awakened to the P o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r Vast Land  91  Part Seven: P a r t Eight:  Ancient China i s Straggling to Become a Modern Nation Japan Became a World Power and Set Out to Dominate the Orient P a r t Nine: The B r i t i s h Peoples B u i l t an Empire and Spread Ideas o f Self-Government P a r t Ten: A Nation Dedicated to L i f e . L i b e r t y and the P u r s u i t o f Happiness Part Eleven: Dominion from Sea to Sea P a r t Twelve: Devastating Wars Have Made I t Necessary to Face World Problems R e a l i s t i c a l l y From t h i s text, "the minimum assignment consists o f Part One (France), Nine (Great B r i t a i n ) and Ten (the United States) with f i v e other parts o r with three other parts i f Part Eleven (Canada) i s included. Since there i s a choice among the nations to be studied, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the course to be e n t i r e l y a study o f western h i s t o r y . I f the teacher chooses, the course may include China and Japan.  India  appears i n the p a r t on Great B r i t a i n , which i s mandatory. The course i s unusual i n the choice o f the nation o r "the people" as the organizing p r i n c i p l e .  The h i s t o r y o f each nation i s traced with  the minimum o f reference to i t s r e l a t i o n s with other nations.  Thus, i n  e f f e c t , the course consists o f a series o f separate and p a r a l l e l , but r e l a t i v e l y unrelated national h i s t o r i e s .  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s mode o f  organization i s given i n the parent book from which t h i s course i s abstracted:^ When Storv o f Nations appeared i n i t s f i r s t version, i t s organi-  5  2>id.  ^Lester B. Rogers, Fay Adams, and Walker Brown, Story o f Nations (New York: Henry Holt, 1952), p. i v .  92 zation broke sharply away from the t r a d i t i o n a l t o p i c a l organization o f most high-school world h i s t o r i e s designed f o r the one-year course* P u p i l s using the textbook found they could read the story o f each nat i o n as a continuous narrative. I f they wanted to follow one nation's h i s t o r y , they were no longer forced to turn to the index and make notes o f page references, then l a b o r i o u s l y pick up a b i t here and a b i t there i n an attempt to piece together the story o f any one country. Years o f teaching had convinced us that the average p u p i l i n the early years o f high school had d i f f i c u l t i e s enough with the f a c t s and meanings o f world h i s t o r y without scrambling the s t o r i e s and breaking up the continuity o f events. The story o f each nation has a s i m i l a r pattern o f development. Each begins with a geographical background.  This i s followed by a short,  highly generalized sketch o f the nation's h i s t o r y from the e a r l i e s t times to the present.  F i n a l l y , there i s a section on the unique q u a l i t i e s o f  the nation's culture o r on the contribution that the nation has made to civilization.  Thus, the pattern f o r the section on France i s as follows}  T i t l e : The French People Established a Nation and Spread the Ideas o f L i b e r t y , Equality, and F r a t e r n i t y 1. The Geography o f Their Land Has Influenced the Story o f the French 2. The French Formed a Nation and Their Monarchs Became Supreme 3. The S p i r i t o f France Broke Forth i n Revolution and the People Struggled f o r L i b e r t y 4. French A r t i s t s , S c i e n t i s t s and Philosophers Have Made France a Centre o f Modern Culture  The disadvantage o f t h i s form o f organization i s that, while i t undoubtedly does make i t easy f o r the student to trace the story o f each nation as a continuous narrative, i t makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r him to perceive the broad movements i n European o r world h i s t o r y .  The national  s t o r i e s are seen separately, but not i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Thus, move-  9 3  ments and forces such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, l i b e r a l i s m , nationalism, i n d u s t r i a l i s m and imperialism are viewed, not i n broad International perspective, but from a series o f national viewpoints*  The  American Revolution and the French Revolution are treated mainly i n the s t o r i e s o f the American and French people respectively, but the i n t e r national significance o f these events i s not brought out.  The course i s  an aggregate o f separate national biographies, not a European o r a world history* An attempt i s made to overcome the l a c k o f u n i t y inherent i n t h i s approach*  Two methods are used*  time l i n e s which are cumulative.  F i r s t l y , the book contains a series o f Thus, i n Part One, there i s a time l i n e  o f French h i s t o r y , i n P a r t Two, a time l i n e f o r France and the Low Countries, i n Part Three, a time l i n e f o r France, the Low Countries, and Spain and Portugal.  This device can be used to demonstrate the concur-  rence o f events i n the several countries.  A second method i s the use o f  a f i n a l section which traces r a p i d l y the growth o f nationalism, i n d u s t r i a l ism and imperialism, and surveys the events, leading through the World Wars to the present world s i t u a t i o n .  However, t h i s f i n a l section i s not a r e -  quired u n i t o f study, and i t i s therefore possible to have a course which does not contain t h i s f i n a l u n i f y i n g section.  EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  Interpretation i s r e l a t e d to the organization o f the course.  The  section on each nation represents an attempt to understand that nation  94 through a knowledge o f i t s ". . . national inheritance, . . . geographic environment, • . • resources, • • • legitimate aspirations, • • . and 7 contributions to c i v i l i z a t i o n . " 1  I n the case o f the democracies,  tory i s interpreted as the growth o f p o l i t i c a l freedom*  his-  I t i s presented  as the struggle o f the common man to achieve h i s democratic r i g h t s , which are regarded as being i n existence and merely waiting to be r e a l i z e d . Thus o f Magna Carta i t i s said: " I t d i d not permit the common man to have a v o i c e i n government.  H i s r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n govern-  Q ment were s t i l l to be recognized." i s l e f t vague.  The meaning o f the term "common man"  I n the quotation above, i t seems to mean every man, but  on the next page, t h i s does not seem to be the case.  Referring to the  f i r s t E n g l i s h parliament, the text says: "Thus some o f the middle classes were given a v o i c e i n the government . . . . The common man was winning his rights." nistically.  The terms "the people" and "democracy" are used  anachro-  Thus, we read that, i n the fourteenth and f i f t e e n t h cen-  t u r i e s , " . . . the barons disregarded democratic processes i n government 9  to b u i l d up t h e i r own power against the kings."  And, r e f e r r i n g to the  Wars o f the Roses: "Xou may wonder why the people stood f o r a l l t h i s strife."  1 0  Henry I I , i t i s asserted, "• • • made the kingship important  i n the eyes o f the p e o p l e . " I n a Whig i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s kind, i t Rogers, Adams, and Walker, Story o f Nations, p. v. 11  *Adams e t a l . , The Story o f Modern Nations, p. 288. ' i b i d . , p. 290.  1 0  Ibid.  l i  I b l d . . p. 285.  95 i s not surprising to f i n d that " . . .  democracy took a step backward  12 under Cromwell";  that "• • . b y  begun f o r England";*-* that " . . .  1700 democratic government had r e a l l y during the nineteenth century the 14  struggle f o r the r i g h t s o f the common man continued";  and that, looking  back from the end o f the nineteenth century, i t could be seen that  "...  great p o l i t i c a l reforms had been accomplished down through the centuries since the B a t t l e o f Hastings i n 1066.  The people had won a hard f i g h t  f o r t h e i r r i g h t f u l representation under a l i m i t e d monarchy."*-' The history o f France receives similar treatment.  I t i s i n two  main parts: the formation o f the nation, and the struggle o f the French people f o r l i b e r t y .  I n the p a r t e n t i t l e d , "The S p i r i t o f France Broke  Forth i n Revolution and the People Struggled f o r Liberty,"*** French h i s tory i s portrayed as the struggle o f the people f o r freedom.  The Revolu-  t i o n i s explained as the response o f the mass o f the people to oppression, -an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n proved f a l s e as long ago as 1856 by de Tocqueville i n The- O l d Regime and the French Revolution: The costly grandeur o f V e r s a i l l e s was, however, only a veneer o f elegance covering the hardship and poverty endured by the majori t y o f the people. The oppression they suffered and the r e b e l l i o u s f e e l i n g s i t aroused l e d to a bloody r e v o l u t i o n that changed the e n t i r e course o f the h i s t o r y o f F r a n c e . 17  I n the nineteenth century, " . . .  the French people continued to 18  s t r i v e f o r the r i g h t to govern themselves."  1 2  1 5  I b i d . , p. 298. I b i d . . p. 305.  1 3  i 6  I b i d . . p. 300. I b i d . . p. 20.  * ^ I b i d . . p. 304. * Ibid. 7  1 8  I b i d . . p. 30.  96  The idea o f "the people" as an e n t i t y conscious o f i t s r i g h t s , and therefore a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , enters momentarily into the h i s t o r y o f Russia.  Dealing with conditions i n the p e r i o d immediately a f t e r Waterloo,  the text declares that " . . . ary.  the government i t s e l f had become r e a c t i o n -  There was a widening gap between what the Russian people had and 19  what they were determined to win f o r themselves."  I n the main, how-  ever, the h i s t o r y o f Russia i s w r i t t e n i n accordance with the idea that ". • .we  must . . .  t r y to see Russia i n the l i g h t o f her h i s t o r y rather 20  than to make comparisons with ourselves." Each nation has i t s own motif by means o f which i t s growth and development are traced, the purpose being to bring the student to a 21 "...  sympathetic understanding o f other people"  through a knowledge  o f t h e i r h i s t o r y and culture: "Our students i n high school must understand what makes other nations ' t i c k — w h a t makes them think and act as they do." 1  I f there i s an underlying theme, i t i s the idea o f the progress o f c i v i l i z a t i o n to which a l l these peoples have made t h e i r contribution i n one way o r another—whether  i n the realm o f a r t s , l e t t e r s , science, p h i l o s -  ophy, government, or technology.  Each nation, i n i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e  has made some contribution to the progress o f mankind.  An a u x i l i a r y theme  i s the progressive improvement i n the l i f e o f the common man. I b i d . . p. 181. ^ I b i d . . p. 192. 1 9  21 Rogers, Adams, and Walker, Story o f Nations, p. v. 2 2  Ibid.  way,  Forces  97  which have retarded o r blocked progress are twofold: f i r s t l y , i n t e r national r i v a l r i e s which have l e d to wars; and, secondly, f o r c e s o f r e a c t i o n and oppression which have denied the common man h i s r i g h t s . History culminates i n a s i t u a t i o n today i n which the people o f these nat i o n s are faced with the problem o f war which must be solved i f progress i s to continue. The Grade XI Course The text f o r the Grade XI course i s The Modern Age.  The  Department's Guidance Syllabus states: The Grade XI examination w i l l be based on the entire book. The following o u t l i n e i n d i c a t e s which parts require more d e t a i l e d study and which may be dealt with more generally. I t should be c l e a r l y understood that the p u p i l s ' general knowledge o f the parti not assigned f o r s p e c i a l study w i l l be t e s t e d on the examination.' The t e x t i t s e l f states: . . . Teachers w i l l f i n d that there i s more material i n t h i s t e x t than can be dealt with i n one year. From t o p i c s i n the Course o f Study, intensive and extensive assignments may be made from The Modern Age. 35  -'Denis Richards and J . E. Cruickshank, The Modern Age (Toronto: Longmans, e. 1955)* Oil  Department o f Education, Quebec: Guidance Syllabus i n H i s t o r y , Grade XI, n.d., mimeographed. ^Richards and Cruickshank, op. c i t . . p. i i i .  98  SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  The scope o f the h i s t o r y i n time i s from 1500 A.D. to the present, with the main emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The contents o f the t e x t are arranged i n twenty-four chapters as follows:  A: B: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16: 17. 18: 19: 20: 21: 22:  Development o f Monarchy i n Europe, 1500-1760 C o l o n i a l Expansion and C o n f l i c t , I5OO-I763 The Growth o f New Ideas Causes o f the French Revolution Progress o f the French Revolution, 1789-1795 The Revolutionary Wars and the Career o f Napoleon, 1793-1815 The Congress System, 1815-1830 France, 1815-1871 The Metternich Period i n Germany, and the Austrian Empire, 1815-1851 The U n i f i c a t i o n o f I t a l y , 1815-1870 Bismarck and the U n i f i c a t i o n o f Germany, I85I-I87I Great B r i t a i n , 1760-1954 The Growth o f the United States The Eastern Question, 1815-1878 China and Japan to 1954 Russia and Poland, 1789-1914 The German Empire and the T h i r d French Republic, 1871-1907 The Balkans and the Approach to the F i r s t World War, 1900-1914 The F i r s t World War and the Peace Settlement, 1914-1932 The Development o f the B r i t i s h Commonwealth S o c i a l and Economic Developments since 1850 Totalitarianism Causes and Events o f World War I I The Period Since 1945  Of these twenty-four chapters, only the f i v e which deal with the growth o f the United States, China and Japan, the growth o f the Commonwealth, the causes and events o f World War I I , and the world since 1945 are not concerned exclusively with events i n Europe. ^  seventeen d e a l  ;  The remaining  not so much with western c i v i l i z a t i o n as with Europe i n  the nineteenth and twentieth centuries since attention i s given to  99  Russia, Austria, the Balkans, and the Near Eastern question.  EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION I t i s mainly a p o l i t i c a l and diplomatic h i s t o r y .  One chapter i s  devoted to i n t e l l e c t u a l matters; that i s Chapter 1, which has two parts, one o f which i s concerned with the beginnings o f modern science and the other with the Enlightenment. 22),  Five chapters, (chapters 10, 19,  20, 21,  are either wholly or i n p a r t devoted to s o c i a l and economic develop-  ments.  For the r e s t , the t o p i c s are p o l i t i c a l and diplomatic.  treated i n considerable d e t a i l .  These are  Thus, i n Chapter 12, "The Eastern Ques-  t i o n , 1815-1878," there i s a d e t a i l e d account o f the causes, events and r e s u l t s o f the Crimean War and developments i n the Balkans to the Congress of Berlin.  The degree o f d e t a i l i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t that among the  names that enter i n t o t h i s account are those o f Lord Raglan, Marshal St. Arnaud, S t r a t f o r d de R e d c l i f f e , Todleben, Milos Obrenovic, Alexander Karageorgovic and Prince Charles o f Hohenzollern.  S i x pages are devoted  to the Crimean War and a f u r t h e r s i x to the a f f a i r s o f the Balkans i n the mid-nineteenth century.  S i m i l a r l y , Bismarck's work i n German u n i f i c a t i o n  and h i s domestic and f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s between 1871 and 1890 are treated i n d e t a i l , taking some twenty-five pages o f the text. While there i s such emphasis on the p o l i t i c a l development o f European states and the r e l a t i o n between, them, there i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e attention p a i d to other aspects. One chapter o f about twenty-eight pages traces s o c i a l and economic developments since 1 8 5 0 — i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the  100 r i s e o f labour unions, s o c i a l reforms, and socialism. This i s about the same space as that given to Bismarck.  Apart from the account o f the  beginnings o f modern science i n Chapter 1, there i s l i t t l e on the h i s t o r y o f science, nothing o f the work o f Dalton, Mendeleev, E i n s t e i n , the Curies, Darwin or Pavlov. the a r t s or o f thought.  Nor i s there any reference to the h i s t o r y o f Thus, the student meets Polignac, but not Hugo,  S i r Samuel Romilly but not Lord Tennyson, Stein and Hardenburg but not Goethe, or Hegel, or Beethoven.  I n s p i t e o f the claim that the text i s  26 a h i s t o r y o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  the f a c t i s that i t i s f o r the most  p a r t a rather narrowly p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f Europe i n the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The f i n a l chapter i n the book, "The Period Since 19^5»" exemplifies the d i f f i c u l t y o f deciding what to select f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a world h i s t o r y course.  The chapter represents the attempt to make a t r a n s i t i o n from a  European to a global perspective. 1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  I t contains nine sections:  The Atomic Age The United Nations The Non-Political Work o f the United Nations Organization Democracy vs. Communism The Middle East Asia To-day The C i v i l i z a t i o n o f India The C i v i l i z a t i o n o f China Democracy—Our Way o f L i f e  Obviously, not a l l o f these t o p i c s , perhaps not any, can be t r e a t e d i n  2 6  I b i d . , p. 549.  1031  any depth i n a chapter of forty-three pages*  The chapter i s journalism  rather than history, since i t merely presents topics of current interest and importance as an aggregation, without providing a structure which a history should supply*  I t indicates the problem involved i n defining any  course which has, as i t s purpose, to introduce the student to the present world; that i s , the question of what world history i s * The answer given, i n this instance, i s that i t i s European history with a transition after 1945 to a global viewpoint*  But i t i s not a good answer*  I t i s doubtful  whether the claims made for the text are justifiable, i n view of the superf i c i a l nature of the account of the period since 194-5, when i t promises to  • • provide the basis for f u l l and intelligent discussion of a l l  27 the topics of Modern World History." This history reveals no dominant pattern of development.  The  selection of topics for treatment i s mainly p o l i t i c a l and, for the most part, i n European history*  Within the framework of this selection, there  i s no single broad theme. The history i s narrative rather than interpretative.  Where generalizations are made, they are confined to particular  historical movements or episodes, and there i s no attempt to reveal largescale patterns or movements, or to detect the direction of events. The Grade XI course selects parts of this text for more detailed study.  Two complete chapters, on the causes of the French Revolution  the unification of Germany, are assigned for special study. Ibid., p. i l l .  and  The chapter  102 on the United States i s s i m i l a r l y treated, except f o r a b r i e f section e n t i t l e d . "The I n d u s t r i a l Age." Other t o p i c s selected f o r s p e c i a l emphas i s include: the reasons f o r the r i s e and decline o f Napoleon Bonaparte, and an account o f h i s achievements; the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution; the growth o f democracy, and the r i s e o f the Labour Party i n B r i t a i n ; a sketch o f Chinese h i s t o r y since the Revolution o f 1911* and o f Japanese h i s t o r y since 186?. THE PROGRAMME AS A WHOLE  The programmes o f several provinces have a u n i t y which derives from the f a c t that the same t e x t i s used f o r the whole programme or, i n other cases, that the programme i s planned as a sequence. has no such u n i t y .  This programme  There i s overlapping from one year to another i n the  content o f the courses.  The Grade VIII and IX courses have evidently  been planned as a complete sequence f o r the b e n e f i t o f students who leave school before Grade XI. Unity i s also l a c k i n g i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n embodied i n the courses.  The Grade VIII and IX courses present h i s t o r y as a reoord o f  progress, with a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the achievement o f p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , whereas the Grade XI course i s a d e t a i l e d narrative which eschews i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s kind. The emphasis i s European, although i n each course there i s some non-western h i s t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Grade IX course i n which the h i s t o r y o f India, China and Japan may appear.  The Grade VIII course i s  103 v i r t u a l l y the t r a d i t i o n a l ancient and medieval European h i s t o r y , with a u n i t on the world* s r e l i g i o n s added to i t *  The Grade XI course includes  the non-western world as i t i s impinged on by the West together with the very b r i e f descriptions o f the culture o f I n d i a and China, and the survey o f world problems i n the l a s t u n i t o f the course* No objectives are stated f o r the programme.  CHAPTER  V m  QUEBEC (FRENCH.CATHOLIC)  This i s a three-year programme.  Two textbooks are used:  L 'Heritage du Vieux Monde and Le Monde Moderns. Les Ameriaues et l e Canada,* both by Gerard F i l t e a u .  The headings i n the programme o f  study and the textbooks are i d e n t i c a l .  I n addition, the text contains  a table o f the chapters f o r study i n each month*  I t i s assumed, there-  f o r e , that the texts represent the course o f study, and since they bear the stamp o f the censor, i t i s also assumed that they are c l o s e l y f o l lowed*  SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION  The scope, i n time, o f the three-year series o f courses, i s from the e a r l i e s t times o f man to the present; geographically i t i s centred i n Europe and the Americas, although A f r i c a and Asia enter the story from time to time, and world problems are considered b r i e f l y i n the concluding section.  The narrative begins with p r e h i s t o r i c man, proceeds to Egypt  and the Middle East, thence to Greece, Rome and medieval Europe;  European  expansion broadens the canvas to include the Americas, and eventually, i n the twentieth century, the whole world.  Thus, while t h i s h i s t o r y has a  Gerard F i l t e a u , L'Heritage du Vieux Monde (Quebec. Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogie, 1956), and Le Monde. Moderne. Les Ameriques et l e Canada (Quebec! Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogie, 1957).  105 world perspective i n the l a s t p a r t , i t i s f o r the most p a r t a h i s t o r y o f western Europe and i t s expansion i n t o the Americas.  Central and eastern  Europe are barely mentioned; Russian h i s t o r y from the establishment o f Novgorod to the time o f Peter the Great, and P o l i s h h i s t o r y are d e a l t with i n a page each; A u s t r i a i s mentioned i n the context o f the T r i p l e A l l i a n c e and the settlement o f Europe a f t e r the F i r s t World War. L Heritage da Vieux Monde i s the text f o r Grades V U I and IX. 1  The Grade VIII course covers the p e r i o d from the dawn o f c i v i l i z a t i o n to the Crusades.  I n Grade IX the story i s continued to about 1600.  Le  Monde Moderne, Les Ameriques et Le Canada i s the t e x t f o r Grade X; i t deals with the p e r i o d from 1600 to the present. The courses are organized as follows: L Heritage da Vieux Monde 1  Grade VIII 1 s t Part The Dawn o f C i v i l i z a t i o n Chapter 1. P r e h i s t o r i c Man 2. The F i r s t C i v i l i z a t i o n s Egypt—The Orient 2nd P a r t L i f e i n Greece 3* Greece: the country, the people 4 . Greek expansion 3rd Part L i f e i n Rome 5 . The Beginnings o f Rome and the Republic 6. The Roman Empire 4 t h P a r t The Establishment o f C h r i s t i a n i t y 7. The Beginnings o f C h r i s t i a n i t y 8. The Barbarians 9 . The Menace o f Islam 5 t h P a r t Feudalism 10. Charlemagne 11. The Feudal System 12. The Church i n Feudal Times 13. The Crusades  106 Grade IX 6th Part  The B i r t h o f Modern Europe 14. England 15« The Kingdom o f France 16. The 100 Years War 17* Spain and Portugal 18. Germany and I t a l y C i v i l i z a t i o n i n the Middle Ages 19* The C h r i s t i a n L i f e 20. Education and culture 21. Urban L i f e , trade and c r a f t s The End o f the Middle Ages to the Beginning o f Modern Times 22. The Misfortune o f the Church 23. The Renaissance 24. The Protestant Revolt 25. The Awakening o f the Catholic S p i r i t 26. The Wars o f R e l i g i o n and the Catholic Renaissance i n France 1  7th Part  8th Part  Grade X Le Monde Moderne. Les Amerioues et l e Canada 1st  2nd  3rd  4th  5th  6th  Part The D i s c o v e r i e s — S p a i n i n America Chapter 1. The Discovery o f the East 2. America 3* The Spanish Conquest 4. America under Spanish Rule 5. The E f f e c t s o f the Discoveries Part England i n Europe and America 6. The Evolution o f England 7* The English Colonies Part France i n Europe and America 8. The Century o f Louis XIV 9* The French Colonies Part Franco-Britain R i v a l r y i n Europe and America 10. The Anglo-French Wars 11. The American Revolution Part The End o f a World 12. The Revolutionary S p i r i t 13* The Revolution i n France and Europe Part The Post-Revolutionary World 14. The New Europe 15* The Emancipation o f L a t i n America 16. A Giant i n Growth: the United States  107 7th Part  8th Part  9th Part  10th Part  The C i v i l i z a t i o n o f the 19th Century 17* The Machine Age and the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution 18. The S o c i a l Problems o f the 19th Century 19. The L i f e o f the S p i r i t Modern Imperialism 20. The Empires 21. The B r i t i s h Empire Imperialism and the Struggle f o r World Hegemony 22. International Chaos and the War o f 1914 23. The T o t a l i t a r i a n States 24. Democracy and Dictators On a World Scale 25. The Actual P o l i t i c a l World 26. The Problems o f C i v i l i z a t i o n EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  There i s a heavy concentration of emphasis on ancient and medieval h i s t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the l a t t e r . are devoted to the period ending about 1600.  Two years out o f three Some idea o f the balance  o f the history may be gained by a comparison o f the time a l l o t t e d to certain topics.  Two and a h a l f months are given to the t o p i c o f  "Feudalism," and a similar time to a d e s c r i p t i o n o f " C i v i l i z a t i o n i n the Middle Ages;" "The Establishment o f C h r i s t i a n i t y " receives two months. Compared with t h i s , the following groups of t o p i c s receive one month each: 1; The Growth of the United States i n the Nineteenth Century The Machine Age and the Age o f the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution The S o c i a l Problems o f the Nineteenth Century 2. International Chaos and the War o f The T o t a l i t a r i a n States Democracies and Dictators The courses i n Grades V I H  1914  and IX are purely European h i s t o r y .  The Grade X course s h i f t s the perspective f i r s t to Europe and i t s ex-  108 pansion i n North and South America, l a t e r to the "new imperialism" of the nineteenth century, and f i n a l l y to the world since the Second World War. The core o f the h i s t o r y i s r e l i g i o u s , and the theme i s the growth o f a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . Rome.  A t the centre i s the Church o f  There are three stages i n t h i s h i s t o r y — t h e ancient world, the  world o f medieval Europe, and the modern world.  The ancient world i s  preparatory to the coming o f Christ; the middle ages sees the growth and r e a l i z a t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n ; i n the modern period, the influence o f the Church has declined, c i v i l i z a t i o n has made material but not moral progress, and i n the modern world the Church o f f e r s mankind a solution to i t s problems. In t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the b i r t h o f C h r i s t i s the p i v o t a l event of h i s t o r y : There follows the c a p i t a l event o f h i s t o r y , the b i r t h o f C h r i s t and the establishment o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . We s h a l l see how the Church transformed the world, creating a c i v i l i z a t i o n new and f a r superior to any the world had known t i l l then, how i t overcame innumerable obstacles i n order to maintain i t , t o perfect i t , and pass i t on t o us. Before the coming o f C h r i s t , h i s t o r y lacks a moral dimension because men have not the C h r i s t i a n example to follow, or because men do not understand God's purposes.  Although man from the beginning  appears as a r e l i g i o u s being, "the memories that Adam transmitted t o  .teau, L'Heritage dn Vieux Monde. Preface,  109 his  descendants became quickly confused."  and man, i n h i s ignorance,  confused God with the v i s i b l e proofs o f h i s existence. Only the Hebrews succeeded i n conserving the divine r e v e l a t i o n .  Thus, while the ancient  c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f pre-Christian times made contributions to the progress of  c i v i l i z a t i o n , they lacked the moral and s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s which  could only come with C h r i s t i a n i t y .  The Phoenicians spread knowledge,  but "sensual, p e r f i d i o u s , d e c e i t f u l , helped greatly to corrupt the morals of  the peoples they v i s i t e d . " ^  Of the Greeks i t i s said:  The Greeks believed i n a future l i f e , i n a paradise, the ELysian f i e l d s , and i n a h e l l , Tartary. Their paradise was easy to a t t a i n . Such a r e l i g i o n could not be the source o f great moral v i r t u e s ; a l s o , morals, simple and honest enough i n the beginning, became corrupt, and, i n time,.Greece was a school o f v i c e which poisoned the ancient world. Despite t h e i r f a u l t s and weaknesses, the Greeks, however, thanks to t h e i r genius, succeeded i n creating a very great c i v i l i z a t i o n , the greatest i n the ancient world. Too exclus i v e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c , a r t i s t i c , and i n t e l l e c t u a l , i t y e t lacked moral greatness. C h r i s t i a n i t y alone w i l l be able to correct t h i s weakness and make o f i t a work t r u l y complete. 7  The coming o f C h r i s t a l t e r s the whole l i f e o f mankind, giving to i t the moral dimension previously l a c k i n g : Up to t h i s point, we have studied h i s t o r y before the coming of C h r i s t i a n i t y . We have seen man l e f t to h i s own powers accomplish important progress i n the material and i n t e l l e c t u a l order, but succeeding only i n b u i l d i n g a world without moral greatness, from which charity and j u s t i c e were absent. . . . At the moment when the Roman Empire reached the height o f i t s power was born i n Bethlehem He who was to change completely the  I b i d . , p. 22. ' i b i d . . p. 38.  Ibid. 6  Ibid«  7  I b l d . . p. 58.  110 l i f e o f humanity. The b i r t h o f Jesus C h r i s t constitutes the c a p i t a l event o f h i s t o r y . Since then, h i s teachings and those o f h i s Church have governed the l i f e o f men." In the r u i n s o f the Roman Empire, the Church w i l l r e v e a l i t s e l f as the only force representing order and hope.  " I t w i l l assume with  decision and firmness the immense task o f converting and c i v i l i z i n g the 9 new peoples and o f leading Europe t o the t r u t h . " I n the l i g h t o f these statements, the emphasis given t o the Middle Ages i s understandable, f o r i n t h i s period, C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n grew and f l o u r i s h e d ; and i n t h i s process the Church was the s p i r i t u a l and p o l i t i c a l guide.  "The influence o f r e l i g i o n was revealed everywhere."*  The desire to know God better l e d t o the establishment  o f schools  and u n i v e r s i t i e s , the f l o u r i s h i n g o f monasteries and nunneries; the f a i t h o f the people was affirmed i n the construction o f superb cathedrals. I n the towns "a new kind o f l i f e was born o f the organization o f the corporations which attempted to put into p r a c t i c e the teachings o f r e l i 11 gion i n respect o f j u s t i c e and c h a r i t y . " "The Church, a f t e r having humanized Europe, gave i t a p a r t i c u l a r l y b r i l l i a n t c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the 12 twelfth and the thirteenth centuries,"  a c i v i l i z a t i o n "impregnated with  13 Catholicism."  J  The end o f the Middle Ages coincided with a decline i n the i n . fluence o f the Church: 8 I b i d . , p. 109. 1 1  Ibid.  1 2  9 Ibid.  I b i d . . p. 3^5.  10 I b i d . , p. 289. 1 3  I b i d . . p. 291.  0  Ill The momentary weakness o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l authority provoked unfortunate reactions which r e s u l t e d i n a c r i s i s , i n open r e v o l t , and i n the foundation o f new churches. The C h r i s t i a n u n i t y o f Europe was s h a t t e r e d . ^ The decline o f the Church's influence d i d not h a l t the march o f material and i n t e l l e c t u a l progress.  A new form o f c i v i l i z a t i o n was born,  l a c k i n g i n the C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t , but presenting, nevertheless, aspects.  brilliant  I n the r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t s o f t h i s time, the French people  affirmed t h e i r wish to remain l o y a l to the true f a i t h and knew a renewal o f f a i t h , an event which had a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the h i s t o r y o f Canadat I t i s i n t h i s epoch o f Catholic renaissance that the foundation o f New France takes place. This p r o v i d e n t i a l circumstance explains the r e l i g i o u s and a p o s t o l i c character which i s revealed throughout our h i s t o r y . 15 Out o f the Renaissance came two destructive forces, "that o f f r e e thought i n the world o f l e t t e r s , and that o f f r e e enjoyment i n high  16 society."  Protestantism l e n t i t s weight to the "free thinkers."  The  philosophers, the Encyclopaedists, and the Freemasons devoted t h e i r e f f o r t s to the destruction o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and the overthrow o f the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l order i n France. V o l t a i r e t y p i f i e s these forces: V o l t a i r e was the most complete incarnation o f the i r r e l i g i o n o f the eighteenth century. To French corruption and f r i v o l i t y , he added the h a t e f u l fanaticism that he had gone t o l e a r n i n England, i n the school o f the d e i s t s o f that country. . • • For nearly a century, he l e d the campaign (against C h r i s t i a n i t y ) with a s p i r i t  14  I b i d . , p. 345.  15  Ibid.  ^ F i l t e a u , Le Monde Moderne. p. 247.  112 of i r r e l i g i o u s proselytism the rancour o f which i s disconcerting, and he was, according to the expression o f a great modern poet, the missionary o f the d e v i l to the men o f h i s time. He i s scarcely read now, but h i s s p i r i t has remained as the e v i l genius o f the modern world, and s t i l l today, the C h r i s t i a n cannot look a t h i s hideous mask without a f e e l i n g o f fear and h o r r o r . 1 7  With the suppression o f the J e s u i t s due to the e f f o r t s o f freemasons and philosophers, the p r i n c i p a l force capable o f keeping these forces i n check was removed, and a society which had already learned to doubt everything, which had ceased to believe i n the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l , received with enthusiasm the new gospel, destined to bring, i t thought, u n i v e r s a l happiness.*° Since the end o f the Middle Ages, h i s t o r y i s resolved i n t o a struggle between two opposing sets o f forces: the Church and " f r e e thinkers," C h r i s t i a n i t y and atheism, f a i t h and scepticism; moral v i r t u e and materialism, orthodoxy and error, t r u e and f a l s e prophets.  The  Middle Ages was the period i n which men most nearly attained the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l o f l i f e , when the p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e and charity guided conduct. "The world has become more and more m a t e r i a l i s t and has thought to f i n d happiness i n well-being, s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the appetites and o f i t s egoism."' The moral problems o f our times are the gravest and are a t the source o f a l l the others. The d e c h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f society i s above a l l responsible. The nineteenth century, taken up with admiration o f i t s e l f following the triumphs o f science, t r i e d to i n s t a l l a new r e l i g i o n , that of progress.  17.  I b i d . , p. 250. 19. I b i d . , p. 499. >  18. I b i d . , p.  20.  Ibid.  253.  113 The s o l u t i o n to our problems resides i n moral reform, i n the  regeneration  o f morals. Pius XI has affirmed i t i n a great e n c y c l i c a l : i t i s the C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t alone which can regenerate society and return to i t the a c t i v e v i r t u e which i t has l o s t since knowledge has been separated from morality. The C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t alone can e f f e c t i v e l y remedy the excessive.preoccupation with perishable things, the origin of a l l vices. A l l the problems o f our t i m e — p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic—"can f i n d 22 t h e i r solution i n the p r a c t i c e o f j u s t i c e and c h a r i t y . " The great threat today to our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s communism.  "For  Marx and h i s d i s c i p l e s , there e x i s t s but one r e a l i t y : matter, o f which 23 society i s but an evolved form." The communist system i s more than a negation of r e l i g i o n s ; i t constitutes a r e l i g i o n , that o f matter. I t even proposes a pseudo-redemption o f humanity by i n t e r n a t i o n a l revolutions destined to bring about the r e i g n on earth o f an i l l u s o r y paradise o f j u s t i c e , equality, and brotherhood i n work. 24  The dazzling promises of communism have seduced crowds made unhappy by the abuses o f economic l i b e r a l i s m , and deprived o f strength by the r e l i g i o u s and moral neglect i n which they are plunged. 5 2  I t i s necessary f o r our world to choose between the communist ideology and the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l to resolve economic, s o c i a l and moral d i f f i c u l t i e s . No nation can any longer i s o l a t e i t s e l f and claim to l i v e i t s l i f e without taking account of the others. One solution only i s possible, that i n d i c a t e d by Pius XII: return to the p r i n c i p l e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , both within states and i n the r e l a t i o n s between states. Moreover, the Church, by i t s secular action, has demon-  21  I b i d . , p. 499.  2"? ^ I b i d . . p. 493.  2 2  I b i d . . p. 498.  2k  I b i d . , p. 494.  2$ I b i d . , p. 495.  114  strated that i t constitutes the sure guide, the only true guide, against which the forces o f e v i l w i l l not know how to p r e v a i l . 2° The problems o f our c i v i l i z a t i o n can be simply solved i f we p r a c t i s e the v i r t u e s of j u s t i c e and  charity.  The text concludes with a l i s t o f the Popes since 1846. a short account o f the work and ideas o f each.  and  The f i n a l word i s a  statement o f the strength, the authority and the mission o f the Church: The Church o f our days constitutes the highest moral authority. . . . I t knows how to meet the needs o f man. . . . I t s past action i s the guarantee o f the future and o f i t s unceasing v i t a l i t y . Even i n the dark and d i f f i c u l t days through which humanity t r a v e l s , the Church constitutes the lighthouse which shows i t the sure way. Today, more than ever, we can have f u l l t r u s t i n the words o f C h r i s t : 'Thou a r t Peter, and on t h i s rock, I w i l l b u i l d my Church: the gates o f H e l l s h a l l not p r e v a i l against H e r . ' 27  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l process i s moral and religious. of history.  The b i r t h o f C h r i s t , i t i s claimed,:} i s the " c a p i t a l event" Man's past i s explained and judged i n terms o f the degree  to which the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s o f charity and j u s t i c e are r e a l i z e d under the guidance o f the Church o f Rome.  Thus, the h i s t o r y i s a eulogy o f the  Middle Ages, a period i n which western c i v i l i z a t i o n most nearly achieved the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l ; pre-Christian c i v i l i z a t i o n s are necessarily d e f i c i e n t i n the moral dimension, and are therefore incomplete; i n modern times, c i v i l i z a t i o n has declined, i n a sense, because of the r i s e o f  scepticism,  this-worldliness, and materialism, and a corresponding neglect o f the v i r t u e s o f charity and j u s t i c e .  I b i d . , p. 499.  I b i d . , p.  504.  115 The borderline between B i b l i c a l statement and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , between sacred and secular h i s t o r y i s blurred.  The story o f Adam and Ere,  o f Noah, and o f the Divine r e v e l a t i o n to Noah are treated as f a c t s : I n our Sacred History, we learned how God created our f i r s t r e l a t i v e s , Adam and Eve, and how, because o f t h e i r s i n , they were driven from the earthly Paradise and condemned, l i k e w i s e t h e i r p o s t e r i t y , to work, sickness, and death. We also learned that the descendants o f Noah were dispersed across the face o f the earth. A l l these f a c t s we know because God, much l a t e r , revealed them to Moses • • . . 2 ° Joan o f Arc i s stated as having, i n f a c t , encountered the Archangel Michael and as having heard the voices o f Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. One i s i n c l i n e d to question the v a l i d i t y o f some judgments, which seem designed to f i t a point o f view rather than to express h i s t o r i c a l truth.  Were the Phoenicians,  as i s stated, " p e r f i d i o u s , sensual,  d e c e i t f u l , and corrupters o f the morals o f the peoples they v i s i t e d ? " And was the Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n l a c k i n g i n moral greatness?  V o l t a i r e and  the Encyclopaedists r e s p e c t i v e l y are condemned f o r t h e i r views i n such terms as: "the e v i l genius o f the modern world," "hypocrites," "partisans  29 o f impiety,"  and i t i s asserted that they struck a t r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , 30  "the foundation o f s o c i a l and moral l i f e , "  but no examples o f t h e i r  ideas are given to support these judgments.  They are condemned, as i t  F i l t e a u , L*Heritage du Vieux Monde, p. 13* 'ibid., p. 250.  3  °Ibid.. p. 251.  116 were, without t r i a l , as the enemies o f r e l i g i o n and the Church, and therefore, o f mankind. This i s an over-simplified view o f h i s t o r y — g o o d versus e v i l , the Church and the true f a i t h versus unbelief and materialism.  Itis a  dogma rather than a balanced h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The diagnosis o f our t i m e s — t h a t the world's problems can be solved by a return to the p r a c t i c e o f charity and j u s t i c e — p r o v i d e s the opportunity to over-simplify the h i s t o r i c a l process by ignoring the complex i n t e r p l a y o f s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c t o r s i n h i s t o r y . The world perspective i s that o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n — t h e growth o f a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n i n western Europe and i t s expansion i n t o the Americas.  The indigenous s o c i e t i e s o f the A m e r i c a s — c i v i l i z e d , semi-  c i v i l i z e d , and b a r b a r i a n — a r e  studied a t some length, as an introduction  to the h i s t o r y o f the Americas a f t e r the a r r i v a l o f Europeans.  The story  o f the Spanish e f f o r t i n Central and South America i s treated i n some d e t a i l (about 30 pages o f the text) and i n a manner very sympathetic to Spain, as can be seen from the claim that "the c i v i l i z i n g work o f Spain i n America constitutes the greatest success i n h i s t o r y a f t e r that o f the 31 Roman Empire."  French and English c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y receive equally  d e t a i l e d treatment.  The l a s t part o f Le Monde Moderne—"On a World  Scale"—adopts a global perspective, and deals with the period since the Second World War very generally, l a r g e l y i n terms o f the choice before F i l t e a u , Le Monde Moderne. p. 80  117 the world between communism and the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l . OBJECTIVES  The objectives o f the whole h i s t o r y programme i . e . the three years of world h i s t o r y , i n Grades V I I I , IX, and X plus the Grade XI course, "French Catholic C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Canada," are: 1. To open horizons on the o r i g i n and development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and on the contribution of d i f f e r e n t peoples. 2. To i n d i c a t e the preponderant r o l e o f the Church i n the b u i l d i n g of our c i v i l i z a t i o n . 3. To e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f o r the understanding o f our contemporary world and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the midst o f which we l i v e . 4. To develop c l a r i t y o f thought and a c r i t i c a l sense. 5. To contribute to moral growth i n developing a s o c i a l sense, a sense o f human s o l i d a r i t y , l o v e o f the Church.32 Of these objectives, the second i s the one most f u l l y attainable by these courses i n world h i s t o r y , f o r i t i s the central theme of t h i s h i s t o r y to demonstrate the v i t a l p a r t played by the Church i n the development o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Indeed, i n the preoccupation with  t h i s purpose, the h i s t o r y emphasizes the r o l e o f the Church to such a degree as to preclude the attainment of the t h i r d objective—-the establishment o f a basis f o r the understanding of our modern world.  The  struggle between the Church and C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s on the one hand, and the  •Programme D Etudes des Eooles Secondaires. 1963, P« 1  201.  118 persons, i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i d e a s , which represent e v i l o r e r r o r , on the other, becomes i n the contemporary world the c o n f l i c t between Roman C a t h o l i c C h r i s t i a n i t y and communism.  This i s t o o v e r - s i m p l i f y the world  s i t u a t i o n , and t o mislead the student as t o the complexity of the con- • temporary world and i t s problems.  Moreover, the r e l i g i o u s and moral  emphasis leads t o an underplaying of the importance of such f a c t o r s as science and technology i n the making of the modern world.  It i s signifi-  cant t h a t Saint Joan has four pages of the t e x t devoted t o her, while Newton i s not mentioned, and that God's r e v e l a t i o n t o Moses i s accepted as h i s t o r i c a l f a c t while e v o l u t i o n i s described as a "badly e s t a b l i s h e d s c i e n t i f i c hypothesis."  33  The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , l i t e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d , cannot be a t t a i n e d through the content of the programme, which i s f o r nine hundred pages of the t e x t the h i s t o r y of one c i v i l i z a t i o n , Western C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , and only i n the l a s t twenty takes a wider view of the meaning of c i v i l i z a t i o n , and of the h i s t o r y of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  "For s e v e r a l  thousand years," says the t e x t , "the West ignored I n d i a . I t i s only w i t h the conquests of Alexander that t h i s country makes i t s entry i n t o 34  history."  Thus, h i s t o r y i s pre-empted by the West; and, accordingly,  the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e should be amended t o read:  "the o r i g i n and develop-  ment of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  oo  - ^ F i l t e a u , Le Monde Moderne, p. 382.  34  " I b i d . , p. 16.  CHAPTER IX QUEBEC (ENGLISH CATHOLIC) The world h i s t o r y programme i n the E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c high schools of Quebec c o n s i s t s of two courses. The course i n F i r s t Year High i s ancient and medieval h i s t o r y : the course i n Fourth Year High, Modern H i s t o r y I , i s a survey o f modern world h i s t o r y from the Renaissance to the  outbreak o f World War I . Both the courses are o u t l i n e d i n the o f f i c i a l course of study i n 1  terms o f the t e x t .  Speaking o f the f i r s t year course, the course of  study says that teachers "have but to implement the purpose of the t e x t book."  2  F i r s t Year High SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION The scope, i n time, i s from the e a r l i e s t beginnings down to the l a t e r Middle Ages.  Beginning w i t h Adam and Eve, the story o f man's h i s -  t o r y i s t r a c e d through p r e h i s t o r i c times, the ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f the Middle East, Greece and Rome to medieval Europe and the o r i g i n s o f the  European nations.  Course of Study f o r the E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c High Schools, 1963, pp. 78, 84. 2  I b i d . , p. 79.  120  The course i s organized i n seven u n i t s which are i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t seven u n i t s o f the t e x t .  The t e x t i s a United States book, approv  by the censor, and bearing the stamp o f the Bishop o f Chicago.  I t i s by  Goebel, Quigley, and O'Laughlin and i s e n t i t l e d Our O l d World Background, The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the course i s as f o l l o w s : Unit  I . The Dawn o f H i s t o r y Before H i s t o r y Became a S t u d y — C l u e s , the Stone Age, the G i f t o f F i r e , E a r l y Government—the Clan o r T r i b e , the Age o f Metals, Invention o f W r i t i n g . The Ancient E a s t — T h e regions i n h a b i t e d by the v a r i o u s peoples mentioned, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s organiz a t i o n s , evidences o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l progress which can s t i l l be seen and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s which have come down to us.  Unit  I I . L i f e Among the Greeks The G r e e k s — T h e i r l a n d , people, c i t y s t a t e s , education, democratic government, r e l i g i o n , wars with P e r s i a , t h e i r c u l t u r e — a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , the drama, oratory; Alexander and h i s empire.  U n i t I I I . L i f e Among the Romans The Romans—Their country, l i f e among them, o r i g i n s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e , t h e i r r e l i g i o n , meaning o f r e p u b l i c , c l a s s e s , character o f people, the empire, d e s t r u c t i o n o f Carthage, conquest o f Greece, d e c l i n e o f the R e p u b l i c — causes; r i s e o f Caesar; Augustus—the Golden Age o f Rome Our debt to Rome—Greek c u l t u r e , a r c h i t e c t u r e and engineering, language and l i t e r a t u r e , law and government. Unit  IV. The Triumph o f C h r i s t i a n i t y B i r t h o f C h r i s t , the Apostles, persecutions, martyrs, growth o f the Church, Constantine and the E d i c t o f M i l a n (313 A.D.); Council o f Nicea (325 A.D.)—Nicene Creed, D i v i s i o n o f the E m p i r e — i t s weaknesses; barbarian i n vasions, f a l l o f Western Roman Empire, s u r v i v a l o f the  3  Old  Edmund J . Goebel, Thomas J . Quigley, John E. O'Laughlin, Our World Background (River Forest, I l l i n o i s : Laidlaw Brothers, 1959). Course o f Study, p. 80.  121  Church. The Moslem Threat—Mohammed-Moslem f a i t h , Mohammedan Conquests—Defeat by Charles M a r t e l a t Tours i n 7 3 2 ; contributions to our c i v i l i z a t i o n . The Conversion of E u r o p e— M i s s i o n of the C h u r c h — t o found a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n ; the M o n k s — t h e i r monasteries, r u l e schools, Gregory the Great; conversion o f the European nations. Achievements of the M i s s i o n a r i e s — b y the year 1000 p r a c t i c a l l y a l l Europe converted. Unit  Unit  V. The Feudal P e r i o d O r i g i n of the Feudal System; The F r a n k s — C l o v i s , Pepin, the Papal States; Charlemagne— h i s conquests, coronation as "Emperor o f the Romans" (800 A.D.), h i s government, h i s work f o r education, h i s p i e t y , h i s death and the d i v i s i o n of h i s empire. Feudalism—Lords and V a s s a l s , homage, c a s t l e s and l i f e i n them; l i f e i n f e u d a l t i m e s — t h e page, the squire, tournaments; the s e r f s — t h e i r r i g h t s and d u t i e s , t h e i r homes, c l o t h i n g and food, amusements, c u l t i v a t i o n , feudal community. The Church and F e u d a l i s m — P o l i t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l leadership of the Church; the Work of the C h u r c h — C h i v a l r y ; c o n t r i b u t i o n to c i v i l i z a t i o n — m o n a s t e r i e s , schools, manuscripts, e t c . V I . E a r l y England  U n i t V I I . New Nations on the Continent F r a n c e — E a r l y k i n g s , Capetians, St. L o u i s , Hundred Years* W a r — S t . Joan of Arc, her v i c t o r y at Orleans (1428), her martyrdom, r e s u l t s of the war. Spain—The Moors, Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , defeat of the Moors at Grenada (14-92). P o r t u g a l — O r i g i n of the Kingdom o f . Germany and I t a l y — T h e Holy Roman Empire; the I n v e s t i t u r e s t r u g g l e — G r e g o r y V I I and Henry IV, Concordat o f Worms; Frederick Barbarossa, l o s s of I t a l y . EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION " I t i s hardly necessary to s t a t e , " says the course of study, " t h a t a C a t h o l i c System of Education, the C h r i s t i a n and C a t h o l i c concept  122  should permeate and v i v i f y a l l H i s t o r y Teaching.""' I t goes on t o state that no h i s t o r i c a l view o f mankind i s e i t h e r complete or true i f i t f a i l s to recognize man's o r i g i n as a d i v i n e l y created being, h i s f a l l e n nature, h i s redemption and h i s e t e r n a l destiny.^  The most d e c i s i v e event  throughout a l l h i s t o r y , according t o the t e x t , was the b i r t h o f C h r i s t ; and among the important developments was the r i s e and growth o f the C a t h o l i c Church.  " P u p i l s are helped i n t h i s book t o appreciate the v a s t contribu7  t i o n made by the Church to the advance o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  World h i s t o r y  properly taught should imbue p u p i l s with a sense o f p r i d e i n t h e i r C a t h o l i c heritage.^ These statements provide the key to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e r e d i n this history.  I n the evolution o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , the r o l e o f  C h r i s t i a n i t y and the C a t h o l i c church i s c e n t r a l .  The C a t h o l i c Church  survived both the persecutions o f the Romans and the onslaughts o f the barbarians.  I t then "turned i t s a t t e n t i o n t o a great and g l o r i o u s mis9  s i o n , which was to convert and c i v i l i z e the peoples o f Europe."  Thus the  l i f e o f C h r i s t and the beginnings o f the Church are d e a l t with i n some det a i l and much emphasis i s given t o the conversion o f Europe to C h r i s t i a n i t y a f t e r the f a l l o f the Roman Empire. I b i d . , p. 7 9 .  The migration o f the barbarian t r i b e s  Ibid.  r  Goebel _et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 5« i  Course o f Study, p. 7 9 . Goebel et a l . , OJD. c i t . , p. 136.  123 threatened the very l i f e o f the Church, but a t the same time, i t provided an opportunity: . . . j u s t as the Church had survived the Roman persecutions, so the Church survived the i n v a s i o n s . The Church now had the opportunity to create a c i v i l i z a t i o n founded on C h r i s t i a n ideas.10 In t h i s work the monks played an important p a r t .  The t e x t out-  l i n e s the l i f e and work o f St. Anthony, S t . B a s i l , and St. Benedict. I t also deals a t some l e n g t h w i t h the m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r w o r k — t h e conv e r s i o n o f the Franks by St. Remigius, and o f the I r i s h by St. P a t r i c k , the missions o f St. Columba and St. Columban, St. G a l l , St. Augustine, St.  A i d a , St. Boniface, St. Ansgar, St. V i r g i l ,  St. Stephen o f Hungary,  Saints C y r i l and Methodius, S t . Olga and St. V l a d i m i r . Thus the Church became "the teacher and adviser o f a l l Europe; and i t l e d the peoples o f Europe—Roman and C e l t , Teuton and S l a v — i n t o the great C a t h o l i c c i v i l i z a 11 t i o n o f the Middle Ages."  Moreover, i t "helped feudalism t o grow and 12 develop i n the proper way." By i n t r o d u c i n g the ideas o f c h i v a l r y , the Church was able t o make the methods o f warfare milder, and " i t was the Church t h a t taught the knights the i d e a l s o f t r u t h , honor, p u r i t y and 13 loyalty."  Warfare was r e s t r i c t e d under the Peace o f God, which f o r -  bade knights from f i g h t i n g i n the v i c i n i t y o f churches, monasteries, or other sacred p l a c e s , and under the Truce o f God which forbade f i g h t i n g on c e r t a i n days o f the year. 10. I b i d . , p. 171. 13-I b i d . , p. 247.  The Church enforced these r u l e s by the  11. I b i d . , p. 243.  124  t h r e a t o f excommunication. F i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n order t o c i v i l i z e the b a r b a r i a n t r i b e s , the monasteries spread throughout Europe, and grew i n s i z e .  Their work  broadened; the monks preserved l e a r n i n g , e s t a b l i s h e d schools, pioneered 14  i n improving a g r i c u l t u r e , cared f o r the s i c k and poor. The Church also helped t o u n i f y England.  The u n i t y o f the Church  r e s u l t i n g from the Synod o f Whitby . . . helped t o b r i n g n a t i o n a l u n i t y . A t Church c o u n c i l s men from a l l the v a r i o u s kingdoms came together . . . p r e j u d i c e s were broken down . . . and when people throughout England came t o have the same r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and t o have the same Church r u l e s and customs, i t was easier to u n i t e them under one government. 15 I n France, "with the help o f the Church, a new l i n e o f kings gradually subdued the nobles," and "St. Joan o f Arc l e d her people to v i c t o r y against England."  Under Ferdinand and I s a b e l l a , the Moors were f i n a l l y  d r i v e n out o f Spain and "the people o f Spain were now able t o develop t h e i r country i n t o a great C a t h o l i c n a t i o n . " * ^ A strong p a t r i o t i s m developed i n the v a r i o u s countries o f Europe. Yet they were u n i t e d by the Church and shared a great adventure. . . . The Crusades . . . brought about many changes i n Europe. Upon these changes much o f the modern world was b u i l t . 1 7 Thus, i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the Church played the c e n t r a l r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n o f medieval c i v i l i z a t i o n — c o n v e r t i n g the barbarian t r i b e s to C h r i s t i a n i t y , counteracting the v i o l e n c e o f feudal l i f e w h i l e f o s t e r i n g  14.  I b i d . , p. 2 5 0 .  17I b i d . , p. 3 2 0 .  15.  I b i d . . p. 2 7 8 .  16.  I b i d . , p. 3 4 7 .  125  the ideals of chivalry, unifying individual nations and at the same time uniting the nations, preserving learning, educating the young, and caring for the sick and needy. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to exaggerate the extent to which the Church and the Catholic faith enter into this history and colour the interpretation. The influence of the Church on European civilization i s particularly emphasized by the detailed treatment given to the lives of the saints, the organization of the Church, the influence of the Church on kings and emperors, and l i f e i n the monasteries. The history i s further coloured by the way i n which i t incorporates as historical fact items which are not universally accepted as such. The very f i r s t words of the text are of this, sort: In your Bible history you learned how God created our f i r s t parents, Adam and Eve. You know that because they sinned against God, they were driven from the Garden of Eden. You also learned that when the descendants of Noe attempted to build the Tower of Babel, they were dispersed to various parts of the earth. A l l this was revealed by God to Moses at a later time, for i n very early days probably no one could w r i t e . ^ Referring to the ancient peoples and their contributions to the growth of civilization, the text says: The Hebrews, who lived i n the midst of these other peoples, alone preserved the belief i n one true God. To them God made the promise that He would send a Messias, who would redeem man from the effects of sin.*9 In this way, the borderline between sacred and secular history  Ibid.. p. 11.  Ibid.. p. 12.  126  i s crossed and recrossed.  History and dogma are fused as the following  description of man's early development clearly shows: Man also drew pictures on the cave walls, and many of these may s t i l l be seen today. This i s the earliest attempt at art. Later, pictures were used as an early form of writing. This a b i l i t y of early man to draw and paint should be no surprise, because he had many g i f t s which animals do not have. As you know, man i s made 'to the image and likeness of God.' Even after Adam and Eve disobeyed God and were driven from the Garden of Eden, man did not lose a l l these g i f t s . Slowly—very slowly—man began to make improvements i n his struggle to l i v e without fear of his surroundings.20 The l i f e of Christ i s treated i n a similar manner. To the generally accepted facts of the place and time of his birth, l i f e and death are added items from the dogma of the Church: He was nailed to a cross and suffered death. But three days later, on the f i r s t Easter, He arose from the dead, giving f i n a l proof that He was God. For forty days He remained on earth, preparing the apostles and disciples for the task of spreading his teachings to the whole world. Then He ascended into heaven. But before He l e f t , He had promised that He would send the Holy Ghost to guide His followers, and to remain with them forever.21 Other miracles are incorporated into the narrative, including the appearance i n the sky of a cross to the Emperor Constantine before the Battle of Milvian i n 312 A.D., and Joan of Arc's vision of St. Michael and her messages from St. Catherine and St. Margaret. Thus the course i s an amalgam of historical facts and Church dogma, making i t more i n the nature of a creed than a history.  This lends the  whole book a strongly inspirational tone, which i s accentuated by the  Ibid.. p. 14.  Ibid.. pp. 138-139.  127 s t o r i e s o f the r e l i g i o u s devotion o f s a i n t s , m i s s i o n a r i e s , and martyrs. Fourth Year High SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION This course i s described i n the o f f i c i a l course of study as "a survey o f Modern World H i s t o r y , " which i s "general, covering but the main features; i t does not c a l l f o r a d e t a i l e d study o f p a r t i c u l a r countries.  Great B r i t a i n and France, countries w i t h which our own H i s 22  t o r y i s i n t i m a t e l y connected are covered more f u l l y than others."  The  survey begins w i t h a b r i e f account o f the Renaissance and a more d e t a i l e d study o f the Reformation and counter-Reformation. I t then traces the growth o f France, B r i t a i n , Germany, I t a l y , Spain, R u s s i a , China and Japan from the e a r l i e s t times to about 1914, g i v i n g greatest emphasis to the modern period.  U n l i k e most other world h i s t o r y courses, i t c a r r i e s the  story o n l y up to the outbreak o f the F i r s t World War. As i n the case o f the F i r s t Year High course, t h i s course i s 23 stated i n terms o f the textbook, World H i s t o r y f o r a Better World. U n i t V I I . The Culture of the Middle Ages Chapter 2. Humanism Changes Man's Perspective U n i t V I I I . The R i s e o f National States The Story i n B r i e f Chapter 1. Church and State Compete f o r Power  22 Course o f Study, p. 84. W i l l i a m L. Neff and Mabel G. P l a n e r , World H i s t o r y f o r a Better World (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1958). ' 2 3  ,r  128 Chapter 2. The Protestant R e v o l t A f f e c t s the Status Quo Chapter 3» The C a t h o l i c Reaction L i m i t s the Spread o f Protestantism Unit  Unit  IX. From Frankland t o T h i r d Republic i n France The Story i n B r i e f Chapter 1. France Becomes a National State Chapter 2. R e v o l u t i o n Overthrows the Ancient Regime Chapter 3. Reaction Follows R e v o l u t i o n Chapter 4. The T h i r d Republic Brings a New Order Chapter 5« France Makes Contributions i n Culture and Science X. Expansion Empire Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter  Unit  Unit  o f England from a Small Nation t o a Great 1. B r i t a i n I s U n i t e d Under a Monarchy 2. Absolutism Reigns i n Tudor England 3» Parliament Wins i n a Struggle With the Stuart Kings 4. The Hanoverian Kings Become Involved i n Many Wars 5» The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n Changes B r i t a i n 6. B r i t a i n B u i l d s an Empire ?. Great B r i t a i n Makes Contributions i n Culture and Science  X I . The Growth o f Germany, A u s t r i a , and I t a l y out o f the Holy Roman Empire The Story i n B r i e f Chapter 1. The Holy Roman Empire Develops Into the German Conference Chapter 2. Germany I s U n i t e d Around P r u s s i a Chapter 3» Germany Makes Contributions i n Culture and Science Chapter 4. I t a l y Also Grows Out o f the Holy Roman Empire Chapter 5» Modern I t a l y Makes Contributions i n Culture and Science X I I . S p a i n s R i s e and B i d f o r a P l a c e i n the Sun The Story i n B r i e f *~ Chapter 1. Romans, Moors, and C h r i s t i a n s Occupy Spain Chapter 2. Nations V i e f o r Spanish Power Chapter 3« Spain Discovers and Explores the Western Hemisphere Chapter 4. Spain Makes Contributions i n Culture 1  129 U n i t X I I I . The Rise o f C z a r i s t Russia The Story i n B r i e f Chapter 1. Neighbors Thwart the Ambitious Russians Chapter 2. The Czars Rule Russia Chapter J>. Russia Makes Contributions i n Culture Unit  XIV. O r i e n t a l Nations i n a Modern World The Story i n B r i e f " Chapter 1. E a r l y China Has a D i s t i n c t Culture Chapter 2. Occidentals Discover China Chapter J. Japan Becomes a Modern Nation EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION  This h i s t o r y has a purpose and a theme.  World H i s t o r y f o r a  Better World was w r i t t e n to prepare youth to take i t s place i n a world wherein human r i g h t s are respected. The world has t r u l y become i n t e r dependent. . . . What happens even i n a very remote place frequently a f f e c t s the whole world; therefore, conditions w i l l become b e t t e r when the majority of the people, i n c l u d i n g p o t e n t i a l c i t i z e n s , have a b e t t e r understanding of those who t r a v e l e d before them on the road to c i v i l i z a t i o n . These people have a t times t r a v e l e d together peacef u l l y f o r the betterment of a l l ; but a l l too o f t e n , because of greed and jealousy, they have engaged i n t e r r i b l e wars, thus h a l t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n . 24 25 The theme i s "man's long struggle f o r human r i g h t s . " are  Human r i g h t s  defined as "those r i g h t s which are based on the n a t u r a l law: a law  n a t u r a l to men because i t was w r i t t e n by God i n the hearts of men and 26 men's reason can know i t through r e f l e c t i o n . "  The n a t u r a l law i s  u n i v e r s a l and immutable, and since i t was not made by l e g i s l a t o r s , no s t a t e may take i t away. 24 I b i d . , p. v i i .  " I t i s the law t h a t places man above the s t a t e ; 2^  -''Ibid., p. x v i i .  26  I b i d . , p. x v i i .  130  i t gives us l i f e , l i b e r t y , and possessions; i t embodies a l l those r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s which man must observe to carry out i t s precept: 'do 2?  good and avoid e v i l . "  1  Human r i g h t s were f i r s t expressed i n the Ten Commandments.  Plato  and A r i s t o t l e handed down the concept o f a u n i v e r s a l and immutable law; l a t e r t h i s concept was stated by Cicero.  I n C h r i s t ' s teaching a new  s p i r i t o f e q u a l i t y and b r o t h e r l y l o v e was born. To a government based on such teaching, human r i g h t s could have r e a l meaning. Since that day man has been s t r u g g l i n g f o r those r i g h t s , which he has come t o recognize, though slowly, through experience, s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , and the awakening o f h i s moral conscience.^ H i s t o r y i s the record o f man's achievements and f a i l u r e s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n o f human r i g h t s .  E a r l y C h r i s t i a n s suffered martyrdom f o r t h e i r  f a i t h and t h e i r martyrdom caused C h r i s t i a n i t y t o spread more r a p i d l y . the  When  barbarians invaded the Roman Empire, they q u i c k l y assimilated, the c u l 29  ture o f the West, i n c l u d i n g the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n .  Feudalism, "taught  a l l respect f o r contract"; "everyone had h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y which he accepted and which i n p r i n c i p l e was guaranteed by contract."  Kings were  expected to f o l l o w C h r i s t i a n teaching and observe the n a t u r a l law; t h e i r subjects were not bound t o obey unjust laws. By the beginning o f the t h i r t e e n t h century some people had become s u f f i c i e n t l y aware o f t h e i r r i g h t s to f o r c e King John o f England to sign Magna Charta. I t was a l s o i n t h i s century t h a t Thomas Aquinas prepared h i s Summa Theologica which was a complete ex-  131 p l a n a t i o n o f man's r e l a t i o n to h i s f e l l o w man and to God.30 When kings began to head the churches as w e l l as the s t a t e s , absolutism took on a new meaning.  People were taught t h a t they must obey r u l e r s  even though they were unjust.  I n a l l countries, C a t h o l i c as w e l l as  Protestant, absolutism took on t h i s new meaning; human r i g h t s were f o r 31 gotten.  By the seventeenth century absolutism was again  challenged.  The idea o f human r i g h t s found expression i n the w r i t i n g s o f Bellarmine, Locke, and J e f f e r s o n .  I t became "the b a s i s f o r the parliamentary  system  i n England," was incorporated i n t o the D e c l a r a t i o n o f Independence o f the United States, the B i l l o f R i g h t s , and the French D e c l a r a t i o n o f the 32 Rights o f Man and the C i t i z e n . World War I made i t evident that "to avoid future, wars one nation must have respect f o r the r i g h t s o f another n a t i o n , j u s t as one i n d i v i d u a l must respect the r i g h t s and d i g n i t y o f another i n d i v i d u a l . "  Woodrow  Wilson embodied t h i s idea i n h i s Fourteen P o i n t s ; F r a n k l i n Roosevelt expressed "the idea o f human r i g h t s between nations" i n h i s Four Freedoms; 33  and the same idea was expressed i n the A t l a n t i c Charter. I t was accepted on a world-wide b a s i s when the General Assenbly o f the United Nations 34  adopted the U n i v e r s a l D e c l a r a t i o n o f Human Rights. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y i s a v e r s i o n o f the doctrine o f progress.  As the t e x t p o i n t s out, i t i s "the story o f man, h i s f a i l u r e s  as w e l l as h i s achievements. I t i s the story o f h i s l o n g , u p h i l l climb 30.I b i d . , p. x i x . 31I b i d . , p. xx. 3 Ibid. 2  33.  I b i d . , p. x x i .  34.  I b i d . , p. 7 9 3 .  132  to present-day c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  35  I t i s the struggle f o r and progressive  r e a l i z a t i o n o f freedom: "the observance o f human r i g h t s based on the n a t u r a l l a w — n o more, no l e s s . "  And the n a t u r a l law i s "the unwritten  law, known from r i g h t reason, which embodies those r i g h t s to which a l l , without exception, are e n t i t l e d . " unchanging.  The n a t u r a l law i s u n i v e r s a l and  I t i s the b a s i c t r u t h without which freedom l o s e s i t s true  meaning and becomes l i c e n s e . The sophists o f ancient Greece b e l i e v e d that there was no such t h i n g as t r u t h ; whatever appears t o be t r u e i s t r u e , they s a i d . M a c h i a v e l l i (1469-1527) i n h i s book The P r i n c e argued that the end j u s t i f i e s the means. I n more recent times American philosophers have embraced pragmatism. This too holds t h a t there are no b a s i c t r u t h s , that t r u t h can be t e s t e d only by i t s consequences, and what works i s good. 37 From h i s t o r y we can l e a r n "not only how man came t o recognize h i s e s s e n t i a l d i g n i t y , but also to l e a r n something o f h i s o b l i g a t i o n s i f 38  he i s t o maintain i t . "  " I n t e l l e c t u a l l y honest students must eventually  recognize that there are God-given human r i g h t s based on the n a t u r a l law; that such r i g h t s are u n i v e r s a l and i n the l i g h t o f the time f a c t o r are  39 eternal."  Once the b a s i c idea o f human d i g n i t y and o f man's i n a l i e n a b l e  r i g h t s i s t r u l y understood, "we w i l l view w i t h greater concern s e l f i s h n e s s , greed, l u s t f o r power, and unwillingness t o l i v e according to C h r i s t i a n principles."^ The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the theme o f human r i g h t s based on n a t u r a l law 3 5  3 8  I b i d . . p. 2 . I b i d . , p. 4.  3 6  3 9  I b i d . . p. 7 9 2 . I b i d . , p. 6.  3 7  I b i d . . p. 7 9 1 .  ^ I b i d . . p. 4.  133 to the w r i t i n g of t h i s h i s t o r y leads to the condemnation by the authors of those ideas and p r a c t i c e s which c o n f l i c t w i t h the expression of n a t u r a l law.  The h i s t o r y thus has a high moral tone.  Absolutism i s con-  t r a r y to l i b e r t y as an expression of n a t u r a l law, and i s therefore condemned. The margins of the pages contain a running commentary on the n a r r a t i v e i n d i c a t i n g the state o f human r i g h t s a t a p a r t i c u l a r time.  For  example, the u n i t on C z a r i s t Russia contains these marginal comments: 41 "Peter the Great d i d not recognize 'one law f o r a l l . ' " Alexander I I I 42 (1881-1894): "Natural law not recognized." Under Nicholas I I (189443 1 9 1 ? ) : "Finns l o s t human r i g h t s . " favourably.  S o c i a l i s m , too, i s regarded un-  Under the T h i r d Republic, " s o c i a l i s m threatened France."  Having explained the meaning of s o c i a l i s m , the t e x t puts forward a "More Democratic View": There i s a l a r g e body of people who do not b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l i s m , y e t they h o l d t h a t workingmen have not been t r e a t e d f a i r l y . They think t h a t a system should be adopted whereby workers would have a share i n management and a p a r t of the p r o f i t s . This does not mean that the i n d u s t r i e s are to be handed over to the government or to the workers; f o r businessmen who organize i n d u s t r y and r i s k t h e i r money i n business e n t e r p r i s e s , and thereby provide employment f o r many people, are e n t i t l e d to a f a i r r e t u r n on t h e i r investments. Furthermore businessmen, because of t h e i r t r a i n i n g and experience, should be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d to manage business than are the workers.45 C e r t a i n t h i n k e r s , whose views are considered i r r e l i g i o u s or m a t e r i a l i s t i c , or i n some way c o n f l i c t with n a t u r a l law are condemned.  44. I b i d . . p.  357.  ^ I b i d . , p. 401.  1  134 M a c h i a v e l l i was "the product o f an age t h a t was s e t t i n g aside r e l i g i o n 46 and dropping to a low state o f m o r a l i t y . "  The teaching o f Rousseau,  was " l a r g e l y responsible f o r the t e r r i b l e events during the French Revolution" since "absolute power was merely t r a n s f e r r e d from the king 47 to the people (general w i l l ) , and whatever the people w i l l e d was r i g h t . " The philosophies o f Hegel and Nietszche are "contrary to our idea o f 48 human r i g h t s , "  Hegel because he stated that the i n d i v i d u a l , when  occasion demands, must be s a c r i f i c e d f o r the good o f the whole, and Nietszche because o f h i s anti-democratic and a n t i - C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s . Marx i s condemned since "out o f t h i s philosophy developed modern Com49 munism." What are "human r i g h t s " ? The t e x t defines them as "our c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t i e s , and . . . our property r i g h t s . "  5 0  "Because each  i n d i v i d u a l i s sacred, he has c e r t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s which Democracy guarantees by law."  These i n c l u d e freedom o f r e l i g i o n , the r u l e o f law,  freedom to seek t r u t h and t o secure accurate information, freedom o f speech, o f assembly, o f the press and r a d i o , freedom to form voluntary organizations, the r i g h t to f r e e e l e c t i o n s and government by the representatives o f the e l e c t o r s , the r i g h t t o own property, the r i g h t o f 51  contract and c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. The study o f h i s t o r y shows the r e a l i z a t i o n o f these r i g h t s and 46 U7 US I b i d . , p. 2 5 0 . 'ibid.. p. 314. I b i d . , p. 480. ^Ibid.  5  °Ibid., p. 3.  5 1  I b i d . . pp. 6 5 6 - 6 5 7 .  135  l i b e r t i e s by an i n c r e a s i n g number of people. We t a l k i n our time of our c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t i e s and of our property r i g h t s as though man had always had them. As we study h i s t o r y we l e a r n t h a t both these assumptions are f a l s e . There have been times when people h e l d t h a t might was r i g h t . Kings claimed to r u l e by d i v i n e r i g h t . They were i n time overthrown by the n o b i l i t y , and government was i n the form o f an o l i g a r c h y — r u l e by the few. F i n a l l y the concept became acceptable to a growing number o f men t h a t there are human r i g h t s such as ' l i f e , l i b e r t y and the p u r s u i t o f happiness, which are i n a l i e n a b l e or God-given r i g h t s which one man may not take from another. Governmental c o n s t i t u t i o n s do not g i v e these r i g h t s , they merely guarantee them.52 The study of h i s t o r y thus shows us how we came to enjoy our r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s , and from i t we can l e a r n something of our o b l i g a t i o n s i f we are to maintain them. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , to f i n d t h a t t h i s h i s t o r y i s mainly p o l i t i c a l i n emphasis as i t t r a c e s the e f f o r t s o f "the people" to achieve t h e i r "God-given r i g h t s . " individuals.  I t i s a l s o h i s t o r y w r i t t e n i n terms of  "In studying h i s t o r y , we might t h i n k of the p o l i t i c a l  leaders as the main characters, sometimes noble, but a l l too o f t e n i g noble."  The noble ones are those who, l i k e Louis IX o f France, was  "guided by the p r i n c i p l e s o f equity and j u s t i c e , . . . who recognized the 53  n a t u r a l law and respected human r i g h t s "  ; the ignoble were such as King 5k  John who "completely disregarded the r i g h t s o f h i s people." I t i s , i n a d d i t i o n , a h i s t o r y of the growth of c i v i l i z a t i o n — "Looking back from our vantage p o i n t i n the twentieth century, we see  man  slowly, so very slowly, breaking the f e t t e r s t h a t bound him p h y s i c a l l y , 5 2  I b i d . , p. 3.  5 3  I b i d . . p. 298.  5  ^ I b i d . , p.  367.  136  mentally, and even m o r a l l y .  1,55  Men produced works o f a r t , developed  systems of thought, and learned how to c o n t r o l some o f the f o r c e s o f nature.  This p a r t o f human a c t i v i t y i s t r e a t e d separately from the  political.  The l a s t s e c t i o n o f the h i s t o r y o f each n a t i o n , w i t h the ex-  ception o f China and Japan, i s devoted to a summary o f the nation's cont r i b u t i o n i n science, or c u l t u r e , or both.  These are, f o r the most p a r t ,  l i s t s o f names of famous w r i t e r s , a r t i s t s , or s c i e n t i s t s , w i t h comments on c e r t a i n outstanding i n d i v i d u a l s .  I n the Chapter e n t i t l e d "Great  B r i t a i n Makes Contributions i n Science and Culture," f o r example, there are b r i e f comments on S i r Thomas More, S i r F r a n c i s Bacon and Shakespeare f o l l o w e d by t h i s paragraph: Other noted E n g l i s h w r i t e r s are: M i l t o n , famous f o r Paradise Lost: John Locke, f o r T r e a t i s e on C i v i l Government; Robert Burns, f o r The C o t t e r s Saturday Night and many l y r i c poems; S i r Walter S c o t t , f o r The Lady of the Lake, Ivanhoe, and many others; Charles Dickens, f o r O l i v e r Twist, David C o p p e r f i e l d , and others; Robert Louis Stevenson, f o r Treasure I s l a n d ; Rudyard K i p l i n g , f o r The Jungle Book and Kim.56 1  S i m i l a r comments are made under the heading o f "Music," and, under "Science," b r i e f paragraphs are w r i t t e n about Bacon, Newton, Faraday, and Darwin, but i n no case i s there any attempt to r e l a t e these i n d i v i d u a l s to the times i n which they l i v e d . As with most h i s t o r i e s which "look back from our vantage p o i n t i n the twentieth century," there i s a tendency to judge the past i n terms of present values.  5 5  "One who wishes to understand h i s t o r y , " says the t e x t  I b i d . , p. 2.  5 6  I b i d . . p. 436.  137 i t s e l f , "must develop h i s t o r i c a l mindedness: the a b i l i t y to understand the inner nature of an e v e n t — a l l the f a c t o r s that caused i t to happen." t h i s i s what t h i s h i s t o r y s i g n a l l y f a i l s to do.  Yet  The commitment to the  use o f the idea of "human r i g h t s " i n the treatment o f events i n a l l periods and places d i s t o r t s and misleads. I t leads to such statements, again to take an example from B r i t i s h h i s t o r y as: "Though the E n g l i s h people were the f i r s t to r e j e c t autocracy, they have moved only slowly towards democracy" and, " U n t i l the Reform Acts o f the nineteenth century, 57 England was a r i s t o c r a t i c — n o t democratic," much true or untrue as meaningless.  both o f which are not so  Or to the summary o f "Democracy i n  England," which i s f u l l of misconcQnceptions which derive from an imp l i c i t comparison w i t h American democracy: Some people hold t h a t B r i t a i n ' s system i s the most democratic p o s s i b l e , but there are dangers i n i t . There i s no p r o t e c t i o n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l or f o r m i n o r i t y groups. The w i l l o f the people represented i n the House o f Commons i s supreme. There i s no check by a second house; there i s no veto; and there i s no Supreme Court to which an i n d i v i d u a l may appeal i f he f e e l s oppressed. Parliament could vote i t s continuance i n o f f i c e and become a ' d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . • 58 The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the concept to the h i s t o r y of Russia and Germany gives o f f moral heat but does not contribute to h i s t o r i c a l i l lumination.  The actions of a u t o c r a t i c r u l e r s are not to be understood  i n the degree to which they repressed or advanced the cause o f human rights. ' i b i d . , p. 402.  5 8  I b i d . . p. 407.  138 Although h e a v i l y European i n emphasis, the course has a g l o b a l scope.  U n i t XIV (China and Japan) occupies twelve pages o f the t e x t .  I n d i a , Canada, A u s t r a l i a and South A f r i c a are a l l d e a l t w i t h b r i e f l y i n  59 a chapter on the B r i t i s h Empire.  The notable omission i s the U n i t e d  States, save f o r reference to the American Revolution i n the u n i t s on B r i t a i n and France. THE PROGRAMME AND ITS OBJECTIVES The general purpose o f t h i s two-year programme i n world h i s t o r y 60  i s to prepare the p u p i l f o r h i s r o l e as a c i t i z e n and member o f s o c i e t y . I n order t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l may be able to p l a y h i s proper p a r t as a c i t i z e n , he must have an i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s o c i e t y i n t o which he i s born.  A casual knowledge o f a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s not suf-  ficient.^ Since these i n s t i t u t i o n s are not present-day growths but are the r e s u l t o f a long progressive e v o l u t i o n , beginning w i t h the e a r l i e s t times, he should be acquainted with the process o f t h i s e v o l u t i o n . He must l e a r n that i t was not confined to any one p e r i o d or to one p a r t i c u l a r region or race; that modern c i v i l i z a t i o n i s a comp o s i t e o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by p r a c t i c a l l y a l l countries and a l l races. He must know whence these c o n t r i b u t i o n s came and thus be f a m i l i a r w i t h the o r i g i n and growth o f the s o c i a l organizations which surround him. The emphasis on the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f " p r a c t i c a l l y a l l countries and a l l races" would seem t o imply a very broad view o f h i s t o r y , a u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y . But, i n f a c t , modern c i v i l i z a t i o n means modern  59I b i d . , U n i t X, Chapter 6 , p. 410 f f . ^ C o u r s e o f Study, p. 78.  ^Ibid.  139 Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , and the h i s t o r y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a h i s t o r y of European c i v i l i z a t i o n .  This i s i n e v i t a b l e when i t i s accepted t h a t " i n  a C a t h o l i c System of Education, the C h r i s t i a n and C a t h o l i c concept of h i s t o r y should permeate and v i v i f y a l l H i s t o r y Teaching," t h a t "no  his-  t o r i c a l view of mankind i s e i t h e r complete or true i f i t f a i l s to recogn i z e man's o r i g i n as a d i v i n e l y created being, h i s f a l l e n nature, h i s redemption, and h i s e t e r n a l destiny," and that "the most important event 62  throughout a l l h i s t o r y was the b i r t h of C h r i s t . " The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s are set out f o r the course i n F i r s t Year High.  They are not s p e c i f i e d i n the case of the course i n Fourth Year  High, but the same o b j e c t i v e s would seem to apply i n the Fourth Year as i n the F i r s t Year course. The main o b j e c t i v e s are: 1. To enable our p u p i l s to have a c l e a r e r understanding of own modern c i v i l i z a t i o n [ s i c } by g i v i n g them a knowledge of the o r i g i n and development of our i n s t i t u t i o n s , and o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made to our c i v i l i z a t i o n by various peoples i n ancient and mediaeval times; 2. To emphasize the part played by the C a t h o l i c Church i n ancient and mediaeval times and i t s g l o r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n to our present c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e : 3. To l a y a mental foundation f o r the study of Modern World H i s t o r y and f o r a more comprehensive study of the H i s t o r y of Canada.°3 These o b j e c t i v e s are concerned with the development of "our c i v i l i z a t i o n , " that i s , European c i v i l i z a t i o n , and with the C a t h o l i c heritage as an important part of t h a t development.  6 3  Ibid.  The h i s t o r y i n the  140  world h i s t o r y programme i s p r i m a r i l y European.  I n the f i r s t year course  i t i s wholly so, and i n the f o u r t h year course, i t i s almost e n t i r e l y so. The f i n a l u n i t — o n China and J a p a n — i s an appendage to what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a h i s t o r y of the major European nations. The t e x t r e v e a l s the e s s e n t i a l viewpoint i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y statement to t h i s u n i t : So f a r we have made no study of the Far East: China and Japan. This does not mean t h a t they were unheard of u n t i l l a t e i n h i s t o r y or t h a t t h e i r people were u n c i v i l i z e d or not worthy of study. China has a very o l d c i v i l i z a t i o n , perhaps o l d e r than any other. The Far East, however, played l i t t l e p a r t i n world h i s t o r y u n t i l modern times, when Europeans found t h e i r way to t h a t area. Consequently, there was l i t t l e reason to study these lands e a r l i e r i n t h i s course. ^" 0  The greatest gap i s the v i r t u a l omission of the h i s t o r y of the United S t a t e s — a d e f i c i e n c y which does not seem to be made up i n the h i s tory courses f o r the second and t h i r d years ( E n g l i s h medieval h i s t o r y and Canadian h i s t o r y , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  This may be because the t e x t i s a U n i t e d  States book, and i t s authors would t h e r e f o r e take f o r granted t h a t U n i t e d States h i s t o r y would be taught somewhere else i n the programme. Whether the programme contributes to a " c l e a r understanding" of our modern c i v i l i z a t i o n s depends on the a c c e p t a b i l i t y to the reader of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t embodies.  And t h i s i n t u r n depends upon the degree to  which the emphasis on the p a r t played by the Church i n the development of western c i v i l i z a t i o n i s acceptable.  Many would c r i t i c i z e the h i s t o r y as  being hopelessly one-sided i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , subordinating a l l cons i d e r a t i o n s to the hypothesis t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y and the Church have  Neff and P l a n e r , OJD. c i t . , p. 559*  141 played a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the h i s t o r y o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n .  In fact,  i n the achievement o f the second o b j e c t i v e , i t could be argued, the programme cannot properly achieve i t s f i r s t ; t h a t , i n emphasizing the cont r i b u t i o n o f the C a t h o l i c Church, the course obscures the i n f l u e n c e o f other f a c t o r s — s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l — i n the development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe, and t h a t t h i s emphasis or b i a s i s c a r r i e d to the p o i n t a t which i t ceases to be h i s t o r y and becomes dogma. I t must be concluded that the second o b j e c t i v e i s achievable through t h i s programme, f o r the c e n t r a l emphasis i s on the v i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the Church to the development o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , and that the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s r e a l i z a b l e or not according to the view taken o f what cons t i t u t e s "a c l e a r e r understanding" o f our modern c i v i l i z a t i o n ;  whether,  i n short, one i s prepared to accept the premises, stated above, on which the h i s t o r y i s based, and the treatment o f the f a c t s based on those premises.  CHAPTER X NEW BRUNSWICK The world h i s t o r y programme i s a three-year sequence i n Grades X, X I , and X I I .  For English-speaking students, the textbook i s World  H i s t o r y by Smith, Muzzey, and L l o y d . *  For French-speaking students,  there are two t e x t s : L*Heritage du Vieux Monde and Le Monde Moderne, Les Ameriques et l e Canada, both by Gerard F i l t e a u . English-speaking students i s examined here.  The programme f o r  The programme f o r French-  2  speaking students i s examined elsewhere. SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION The course content i s o u t l i n e d i n the Programme o f Studies f o r 3  High Schools  as f o l l o w s :  Grade  X World H i s t o r y , Smith, Muzzey, and L l o y d ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ) P a r t s I-IV, Pages 1 - 1 8 9 . Grade XI P a r t s V-VI, Pages 1 9 0 - 3 6 9 . Grade X I I Pages 370 t o end o f t e x t (p. 748). An examination o f the t e x t r e v e a l s the f o l l o w i n g organizations o f  content:  it-  Emma P. Smith, David S. Muzzey, and Minnie L l o y d , World H i s t o r y : The Struggle f o r C i v i l i z a t i o n ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; Toronto: Ginn & Company,  n.d.J.  2  See Chapter V I I I .  3  ^Outline o f Programme o f Studies f o r High Schools, 1963-1964, p. 34.  4 Smith, Muzzey, and L l o y d , OJD. c i t . , V I - V I I .  143  Grade X P a r t I The Foundations o f C i v i l i z a t i o n Chapter I.  Man's E a r l i e s t Discoveries and Inventions What C i v i l i z a t i o n I s How Our Remote Ancestors L i v e d L i f e i n the Long Stone Age Part I I Earliest  II. III.  Civilizations  What the Egyptians Accomplished C i v i l i z a t i o n s o f Western A s i a Part I I I  IV. V. VI. VII.  The Great C i v i l i z a t i o n s o f Greece and Rome  How the Greeks L i v e d and Governed Themselves What the Greeks Gave t o C i v i l i z a t i o n How Rome Became the F i r s t Great C a p i t a l i n the West Roman C i v i l i z a t i o n and I t s Influence on the West P a r t IV The Middle Ages  VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV.  How Barbarians Invaded the Empire How C h r i s t i a n i t y Became the R e l i g i o n o f Europe How Feudalism Developed i n Medieval Europe Germany and France i n the Middle Ages B u i l d i n g a National Government i n England The Crusades Bring East and West Together How the Growth o f Medieval Towns Promoted Progress  Grade XI P a r t V XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII.  Beginnings o f the Modern World  How Europe Regained the Past and Made New Progress Beginnings o f our Modern National States The Breakup o f the Medieval Church How R e l i g i o n was Added to the Causes o f War i n the 16th Century France under Her Grand Monarch, Louis XIV The Making o f Modern England The R i s e o f Russia, A u s t r i a , and P r u s s i a as Great Powers How European Nations Sought Their Fortunes Overseas The Eighteenth C ntury: the Threshold o f our Own Times e  P a r t VI The Struggle f o r Democracy XXIV. XXV. XXVI.  The French Revolution and I t s Meaning Napoleon Bonaparte, Master o f Europe The Congress o f Vienna Fastens the O l d Regime on Europe  144 Chapter XXVII. XXVIII. Grade X I I XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII. XXXIV.  Growth of the Revolutionary S p i r i t i n Europe (1815-1848) The Coming of Machinery Changes the World Part VII  The Growth of Nationalism and Imperialism  Germany and I t a l y Become National States The German Empire and the T h i r d French Republic The B r i t i s h Empire i n the Nineteenth Century How the Romanovs Ruled Russia How Europeans Came to Control a Large P a r t of the Earth! Imperialism Rapid Progress of the Nineteenth Century Part V I I I  The F i r s t World War  XXXV. The Coming of the F i r s t World War XXXVI. The F i r s t World War XXXVII. The Making of the Peace Settlements P a r t IX XXXVIII. XXXIX. XL. XLI. XLII. XLIII.  The Reconstruction of Europe Problems L e f t by the F i r s t World War B r i t a i n and France a f t e r the War Revolutionary Governments i n Russia, I t a l y , and Spain The R i s e of T o t a l i t a r i a n Powers The Coming of the Second World War Part X  XLIV. XLV. XLVI. XLVII.  The Second World War  Europe F a l l s under the Nazi Terror A Global War The Beginning of the End V i c t o r y a t Last P a r t XI  XLVIII. XLIX.  Europe and the Treaty of V e r s a i l l e s  The Age of Atomic Power  The Never-Ending Search f o r Peace Turmoil i n A s i a  A p a r t of the h i s t o r y programme i s the study of current a f f a i r s . A l l students w r i t i n g Departmental Examinations i n e i t h e r E n g l i s h or French w i l l be expected to know some of the current h i s t o r y  145  i n c l u d i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of U n i t e d Nations, UNESCO, NATO, etc.  K  I n both h i s t o r y programmes, only the important phases of the Second World War should be emphasized. Examine w i t h the p u p i l s the d r i f t of the world i n t o the camps since 1 9 4 5 . O u t l i n e i n p a r t i c u l a r the attempts o f the U n i t e d Nations to deal w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . O u t l i n e the a c t s of aggression of Russia and her s a t e l l i t e s . The a c t i o n of the U n i t e d Nations i n dealing w i t h the t r o u b l e spots i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the world should be noted.° The scope, i n time, i s from e a r l i e s t man to the present. g r a p h i c a l l y , i t i s g l o b a l , but w i t h the emphasis on Europe.  Geo-  The n a r r a t i v e  traces the h i s t o r y of c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n Egypt and i n Western A s i a , thence v i a Crete, Greece and Rome, to medieval and modern Europe.  The  expansion  of Europe broadens the h i s t o r y so t h a t i t i n c l u d e s the Americas, I n d i a , A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, China, Japan and A f r i c a . The p a r t of the h i s t o r y to be studied i n Grade X i s from f i r s t beginnings to the end o f the Middle Ages.  •  Of t h i s p e r i o d , the t e x t  devotes about o n e - t h i r d of i t s pages to Greece and Rome, about twof i f t h s to the Middle Ages, and the remainder to a d i s c u s s i o n of the meaning of c i v i l i z a t i o n , some comments on p r e h i s t o r i c man, and the h i s t o r y of the e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n the N i l e V a l l e y and Western A s i a . I n Grade XI the p e r i o d studied i s from 1500 to 1848.  Grade X I I  covers the l a s t hundred years, about o n e - t h i r d being devoted to the second h a l f of the nineteenth century, and the remaining two-thirds to the twentieth century.  The Grade X I I course takes up one-half of the  146  pages of the t e x t . EMPHASIS AND INTERPRETATION The emphasis i s predominantly on western Europe.  The growth  and expansion of European c i v i l i z a t i o n i s the c e n t r a l theme.  The h i s -  t o r y of other p a r t s of the world i s i n c l u d e d when i t i s r e l e v a n t to t h i s theme.  The Byzantine Empire enters b r i e f l y i n t o the n a r r a t i v e w i t h the  f a l l of Rome, the Crusades, and the capture of Constantinople. and spread of Islam i s mentioned.  The r i s e  Russia enters i n the eighteenth cen-  t u r y , introduced by a b r i e f sketch of i t s development from the time of the i n c u r s i o n of the Slavs i n t o c e n t r a l and south-east Europe, but xtfith no mention of Russian expansion i n t o c e n t r a l A s i a i n the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth centuries.  The Americas, I n d i a , China, Japan, A f r i c a ,  A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand appear i n the context of European expansion. As t h i s i s a h i s t o r y of c i v i l i z a t i o n — t h e s u b t i t l e of the t e x t i s "The Struggle f o r C i v i l i z a t i o n " — t h e h i s t o r y i s n e c e s s a r i l y broad i n the treatment of the past.  I t has a p o l i t i c a l core, as the authors of the  t e x t recognize: . . . i t has been necessary to say a good deal about governments and wars. The government i s the framework w i t h i n which people l i v e together . . . . The struggle between men and nations f o r wealth, l a n d and power has gone on since e a r l i e s t times. A true account of the past must n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e features which have had such an important i n f l u e n c e on man's h i s t o r y . '  147 However, i f p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y events must be i n c l u d e d as a necessary p a r t of a h i s t o r y of c i v i l i z a t i o n , they are not the most important, f o r these thin gs are only a p a r t of the story. Governments have proved f l e e t i n g and wars i n d e c i s i v e . Boundaries have constantly s h i f t e d back and f o r t h across the map. Kings and diplomats who have s a c r i f i c e d the l i v e s of t h e i r people i n bloody wars have vanished and l e f t no mark. As H. G. Wells so a p t l y describes them, •They were no more than a number of troublesome . . . schoolboys p l a y i n g about and doing t r a n s i t o r y mischief amid the accumulating m a t e r i a l s upon the s i t e o f a great b u i l d i n g whose nature they d i d not