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Child protection in Great Britain : a survey of recent trends, with particular reference to the patterns… Constabaris, Kathleen Ann 1964

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CHILD PROTECTION I N GREAT B R I T A I N :  A SURVEY OF RECENT TRENDS,  WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE PATTERNS OF CO-OPERATION BETWEEN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES  by K a t h l e e n Ann C o n s t a b a r i s Robert John F r e d e r i c k D o r i s Catharine Lennie Elaine Elizabeth  Lovecky  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1964  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  In  presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  available  agree that for  in partial  advanced degree at I agree that  the  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  p u r p o s e s may  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  copying or  gain  s h a l l not  be  be  Jj  this  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  S o c i a l Work  -lYl^  /<?6><V>.  University shall I  the  of  make i t  this  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood thesis  for  written  the  further  copying of  g r a n t e d by  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . Date  the  study.  his representatives. p u b l i c a t i o n of  f u l f i l m e n t of  Library  permission for extensive  scholarly  School of  thesis  financial  permission.  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  study.  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  I further  c o p y i n g of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  I t i s understood  t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada.  thesis  financial  permission.  In  presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  available  agree that for  i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at I agree  that  the  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  p u r p o s e s may  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  copying or  gain  s h a l l not  be  be  Social  this  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . 8, Canada.  I  the  of  further this  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood thesis  the  s h a l l make i t  copying of  g r a n t e d by  Work  University  study.  his representatives. p u b l i c a t i o n of  the  Library  permission for extensive  scholarly  School of  thesis  for  written  financial  permission.  In presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at I agree that  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree that for  thesis  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  copying or  gain  s h a l l not  School of  be  be  this  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  S o c i a l Work  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . Date  I  further  copying of  g r a n t e d by  of  s h a l l make i t  study.  his representatives. p u b l i c a t i o n of  University  Library  permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  the  the  this  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood thesis  the  for  written  financial  permission.  ABSTRACT  The s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s of the western nations are administered i n almost a l l cases through a combination of v o l u n t a r y and s t a t u t o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The patterns of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u b s i s t i n g between these two kinds of welfare agency e x h i b i t wide v a r i a t i o n s from one country to another, and between one area of s e r v i c e and another w i t h i n the same country. Although there i s an extensive l i t e r a t u r e on the subject purporting to s t a t e the nature and scope of the r o l e s p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d to each of the two kinds of agency, i t i s not i n f a c t apparent e i t h e r t h a t the claims of a t t r i b u t i o n s on which t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e s t s are v a l i d or t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s of the agencies themselves conform i n a regular way to the model. The present study deals with one area of welfare s e r v i c e s i n one j u r i s d i c t i o n , namely c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e i n England and Wales a t the present time. I t attempts to determine what the character of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare i s , to evaluate the r e l a t i v e advantages and disadvantages of t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p , and to o f f e r a number of hypotheses designed to e x p l a i n the i d i o s y n c r a s i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s conceived as one of a number of p r o j e c t e d . s t u d i e s , a l l of which are to be concerned with assessing the p l a u s i b i l i t y of conventional accounts of the p u b l i c - p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l causes of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t are a c t u a l l y observable, and with c o n t r i b u t i n g to the development of a theory of the matter which would a s s i s t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of r e a l i s t i c , e f f i c i e n t and l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t methods of o r g a n i z i n g and adm i n i s t e r i n g s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s . The main f i n d i n g s of the study are t h a t : 91) marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i o n s between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c welfare agencies e x i s t even between the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of a s i n g l e area of s e r v i c e , — i n t h i s case, between delinquency, adoption, p r o t e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the s i n g l e area of c h i l d welfare; (2) these d i f f e r e n c e s seem as o f t e n as not to be the r e s u l t of h i s t o r i c a l accident r a t h e r than of p r i n c i p l e d adherence to a coherent view of what the p r i v a t e - p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p ought to be; (3) the problem of e x p l a i n i n g the sources of the h i s t o r i c a l accidents i n question does not appear to be amenable to any general mode of explanation i n the present s t a t e of our knowledge of the subject; ( 4 ) gross i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s are a common consequence of u n w i l l i n g n e s s or i n a b i l i t y to come to terms with the problems a r i s i n g from the co-existence of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  T o M r . A d r i a n M a r r i a g e , o u r thesis a d v i s o r , a n d to the m a n y o v e r s e a s a g e n c i e s w h o s o g r a c i o u s l y f u l f i l l e d o u r r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , w e w i s h to a c k n o w l e d g e o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n a n d t h a n k s .  TABLE  Juvenile Delinquency defined. Statutory and  OF  The  CONTENTS  i n d i v i s a b i l i t y of c h i l d  welfare.  V o l u n t a r y R e l a t i o n s h i p d e f i n e d and d e s c r i b e d .  The  h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of s t a t u t o r y a n d v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s .  The  d i l e m m a of the v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s . in England. and  The  J u v e n i l e c o u r t s defined and d e s c r i b e d .  juvenile court procedure.  Adult magistrate  S e l e c t i o n of j u v e n i l e c o u r t j u s t i c e s .  M e r i t s of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s y s t e m . system.  o r i g i n s of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t  W e a k n e s s e s of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t  S t a t u t o r y c h a n g e s a f f e c t i n g the o p e r a t i o n of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t  s i n c e 1933.  The  p o w e r s of the c o u r t .  private relationship.  Conclusions.  After care.  Evaluating public-  CHAPTER I - 1  JUVENILE DELINQUENCY  JUVENILE DELINQUENCY  SERVICES  DEFINED  In the o p i n i o n of W. D a v i d W i l l s , f o r m e r  Borstal employee  a n d a u t h o r of t h e book, " C o m m o n S e n s e a b o u t Y o u n g O f f e n d e r s " , delinquents a r e "young o f f e n d e r s between eight a n d seventeen,  juvenile  whose way  of l i f e i s i n g e n e r a l a t v a r i a n c e w i t h w h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e to s o c i e t y at l a r g e , a n d w h o a r e r e p e a t e d l y g u i l t y of o f f e n c e s w i t h , connotation."  T h e delinquent behaviour  of t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e f r e q u e n t l y  gets t h e m i n t o t r o u b l e w i t h t h e l a w ; b u t w h e t h e r h e n d e d by the law, behaviour  runs  ( i n g e n e r a l ), a m o r a l  o r not they a r e  appre-  they a r e s t i l l delinquents i f , as M r . W i l l s says,  c o n t r a r y to what  commonly called delinquency,  society  deems  appropriate.  i s essentially a process  their  What i s  of i n v o l v e m e n t .  T h i s i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s of d i f f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a n d i s r e a l l y not b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m that p r o c e s s w h e r e b y a y o u n g s t e r b e c o m e s a n a c t i v e a n d p a r t i c i p a t i n g m e m b e r of a c l u b o r g r o u p . difference lies  n o t i n t h e b a s i c p r o c e s s but i n the s t a n d a r d  The  behaviour  p a t t e r n o f the g r o u p w i t h w h o m h e b e c o m e s a l i g n e d o r i n v o l v e d , i f y o u like.  Group m e m b e r s h i p i s a dynamic thing and an individual joining a  d e l i n q u e n t g r o u p m o v e s , d e p e n d i n g o n the h o l d the g r o u p h a s o n h i m ,  1  W i l l s , W. D a v i d , C o m m o n Sense about Y o u n g O f f e n d e r s , V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . , L o n d o n , 1962, p. 17.  on  CHAPTER  1 - 2  the e x p e r i e n c e s c o n f r o n t i n g h i m , a n d o n t h e c h o i c e h e m a k e s a s a r e s u l t of t h e h o l d a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e s , or towards conventional  e i t h e r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of c r i m e ,  behaviour.  T H E INDIVISIBILITY O F C H I L D  WELFARE  A l t h o u g h j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s a d i s t i n c t p r o v i n c e of c h i l d w e l f a r e , it h a s an i n d i v i s i b l e connection with the other p r o v i n c e s of c h i l d w e l f a r e , a n d s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e n e v e r be c o n s i d e r e d i n u t t e r isolation.  T h e k i n d s of c o n d i t i o n s s u c h a s f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  p r e c i p i t a t e s o c i a l c h a n g e , t h e m o r a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s of t h e a g e , w h i c h give r i s e to o r a r e a s s o c i a t e d with j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y ,  a r e the same  k i n d s o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h g i v e r i s e a l s o to d e p e n d e n c y , n e g l e c t a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s of c h i l d w e l f a r e . boundaries  H e n c e , t h e r e i s a n i m p e r a t i v e n e e d f o r the  between the different c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s ,  (including those  w h i c h d e a l w i t h j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y ) , to be k e p t f l u i d , a n d f o r t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e l e v e l of c o - o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s , w h e t h e r they be p u b l i c l y o r p r i v a t e l y  sponsored.  STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY RELATIONSHIP DEFINED AND DESCRIBED In B r i t a i n a w i d e s p r e a d p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n s t a t u t o r y a n d v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s i s a m o d e r n c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  The  s t a t u t o r y a g e n c i e s a r e a g e n c i e s a u t h o r i z e d a n d s u p p o r t e d by p u b l i c authority with specific mandate and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and with m o r e s p e c i a l i s t and p r o f e s s i o n a l staffs on the w h o l e than the v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s w h i c h a r e d e v i s e d f r o m and s u p p o r t e d by a " d i f f u s e d c o n c e r n of p r i v a t e  CHAPTER  1 - 3 1  c i t i z e n s f o r c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of p u b l i c w e l f a r e " . agencies  Small  voluntary-  a r e l a r g e l y s t a f f e d by u n p a i d v o l u n t e e r s , a l t h o u g h t h e l a r g e r  v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s do d e p e n d g r e a t l y on a c o r e of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . B e t w e e n the m a j o r v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s i s a k i n s h i p - t h e two The  a n d the s t a t u t o r y a g e n c i e s  there  s e r v i c e s h a v e i n v i e w p u r p o s e s of the s a m e k i n d .  p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s r e l y on v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s e i t h e r to  m e n t the w o r k of t h e i r own  supple-  o f f i c e r s , o r to u n d e r t a k e s u c h o t h e r s e r v i c e s  as f a l l i n t o the f r a m e w o r k of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h a s  research  projects, prison visiting, family welfare,  and they,  a g e n c i e s ) , g i v e f i n a n c i a l h e l p to that end.  It c o u l d be s a i d that the  p r o v i n c e and  (the s t a t u t o r y  s t r e n g t h of v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s i s t h e i r d i r e c t a n d  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i n d i v i d u a l o r s m a l l g r o u p .  special  personal  It c o u l d a l s o be s a i d that  t h e s p e c i a l p r o v i n c e of the s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s i s w i t h m a t e r i a l m e a n s environmental conditions. there has  and  But these statements a r e only p a r t l y true -  b e e n a n d i s o v e r l a p p i n g of the one i n t o the p r o v i n c e ,  i f you  like,  of the o t h e r : i . e . the v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s h a v e b e e n a n d a r e a c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g and  e n c o u r a g i n g m a t e r i a l f a c i l i t i e s , a n d the s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s  a l s o h a v e b e e n a n d a r e e n c o u r a g i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h p r o b l e m s of i n d i v i d ual w e l f a r e . . A t the p r e s e n t t i m e both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  agencies  w o u l d a c c e p t the c r i t e r i a n that the t e s t of t h e i r w o r k i s the extent to w h i c h it enables  individual men  a n d w o m e n to a c h i e v e p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y , h e a l t h  and  welfare.  1  H e a t h e r i n g t o n , S i r H e c t o r , " T h e R o l e of the V o l u n t a r y S e r v i c e s i n Contemporary Britain", Social Service Quarterly, Winter, 1962, V o l u m e X X X V I No. 3, L o n d o n , D e c e m b e r , 1962 - F e b r u a r y , 1963.  CHAPTER  1 - 4  THE HISTORICAL D E V E L O P M E N T OF V O L U N T A R Y AND STATUTORY SERVICES  In B r i t a i n the w h o l e a p p a r a t u s of s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s i v e s f r o m the w o r k of e a r l y v o l u n t a r y  associations which in turn  t h e i r s e r v i c e s f r o m the w o r k of the c h u r c h e s . both b e f o r e and  a f t e r the R e f o r m a t i o n , was  of n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g we  now  The  derive  Christian Church,  the i n s p i r a t i o n a n d  call social services.  der-  support  B r i t a i n o w e s to the  C h u r c h the b e g i n n i n g s of e d u c a t i o n , h o s p i t a l s , a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r r e l i e f of the p o o r and  the h a n d i c a p p e d .  The  C h u r c h e n c o u r a g e d and  drew upon  p r i v a t e c h a r i t y , i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p , to c a r r y out i t s g o o d w o r k w h i l e i t k e p t m o s t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o w e r s . State t o o k v e r y l i t t l e , a n d u n t i l the c e n t u r y w a s  U n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  i n s o m e c a s e s , no p a r t i n s e r v i c e s to the n e e d y  w e l l u n d e r way  a n d the n e e d s of a new  individual  s o c i e t y i n the m i d s t of p l e n t y f o r c e d the State to b e c o m e m o r e i n the m a t t e r of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s - s e r v i c e s a r m e d w i t h m o r e and  far m o r e extensive  e f f o r t s of c h u r c h a n d the i n t e r v e n t i o n and grew rapidly. s e r v i c e s was  the  i n scope than those provided private charity.  by the  provident authority,  combined  F r o m this point i n h i s t o r y  a c t i o n of the State i n e v e r y f i e l d of h e a l t h and  H o w e v e r , the p r e s e n t day  s t a t u t o r y p o s i t i o n of the  not a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a s i n g l e step.  l o n g p e r i o d of a c t i o n by a v o l u n t a r y  It was  on, welfare social  p r e c e d e d by  a  a s s o c i a t i o n of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s i n a l l  f i e l d s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e t o w a r d s , f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t , m i t i g a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l h u m a n s u f f e r i n g , and t o w a r d s b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l change i n g o v e r n m e n t a l policy.  A l l the e f f o r t s of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , w h i c h  i t s o r i g i n a b o u t one h u n d r e d a n d  f i f t y y e a r s ago,  had  were directed towards  b r o a d s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s s u c h a s b e t t e r h o u s i n g f o r the p o o r .  The  w o r k of  CHAPTER t h e s e p e o p l e m a r k e d a new  1 - 5  development i n Britain's social awareness  a n d m a r k e d the a b i l i t y of that a w a r e n e s s t o . a f f e c t d e l i b e r a t e s o c i a l change.  The  e f f o r t s of t h e s e v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s , h a v i n g t h e i r  i n the C h u r c h and  origin  s p r e a d i n g to s e c u l a r g r o u p s , f i n a l l y a c t e d as a  p u l s i v e a g e n t to the State, w h i c h b e g a n p r o v i d i n g i t s own  pro-  instruments  for  b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l change.  THE  DILEMMA  OF  THE  VOLUNTARY  AGENCIES  A l t h o u g h v o l u n t e e r s , both i n d i v i d u a l s and  societies, did  m u c h to m i t i g a t e the s u f f e r i n g of m a n y , s o m e of t h e i r n u m b e r saw  the  e v e n t u a l n e c e s s i t y f o r State i n t e r v e n t i o n w h e n the s c o p e of p u b l i c s u f f e r i n g b e c a m e too b i g a n d u n w i e l d y f o r p a t c h y a n d p i e c e m e a l m o p p i n g operations. o f t e n do,  H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y of v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s d i d , a n d  still  r e t a i n a n a t t i t u d e of r e s e n t m e n t t o w a r d s the s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s  f o r " t a k i n g o v e r " s o to s p e a k , t h e i r r i g h t f u l f u n c t i o n s . the v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s h a d  c h i l d w e l f a r e d i d t h e y f e e l t h i s way. b e h a l f of c h i l d r e n i n 1933  For  a long time  c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s , and w e r e i n t u r n ,  u p o n as t h e s o l e p r o t e c t o r s of the d e p r i v e d .  was  up  and  looked  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of  W i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n  e s p e c i a l l y i n 1948,  m e a n i n g that the State  a s s u m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s a r e a , the  b o d i e s b e g a n to f e e l t h r e a t e n e d i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n of s u p r e m a c y . a l m o s t a c e n t u r y of d o m i n a n c e t h e y , a f t e r 1948,  on  voluntary After  w e r e no l o n g e r the m a j o r  s p o n s o r s of s e r v i c e s a n d t h e y d i d not t a k e to t h i s k i n d l y a n d f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t to a d j u s t to the i d e a that the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , " h i t h e r t o c o n s i d e r e d hardly  deserving  of the  s t a t u s of c o l l e a g u e  in child  care  services  as had,  CHAPTER I ( a f t e r 1948), s o m e s u p e r v i s o r y  -  6  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c h i l d r e n in child  care". H o w e v e r , b e y o n d the t h r e a t to the p r e s t i g e of the tary agencies,  was  the t h r e a t to t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e c a u s e d by  volunthe  m o v e m e n t of s t a t u t o r y a g e n c i e s i n t o m o s t b a s i c f u n c t i o n s of v o l u n t a r y care.  The  voluntary agencies were i n a dilemma.  p o s s i b i l i t y that i f t h e y r e s p o n d e d a n d a c q u i e s c e d  On  one h a n d was  the  to the c h a n g e s r e s u l t i n g  f r o m the i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d b r o a d e n i n g of s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s , t h i s m i g h t be p r o c l a i m i n g t h e i r s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n a n d c a u s e t h e m to l o s e the p u b l i c support they had f o r m e r l y  enjoyed.  On  the o t h e r h a n d , i n v i e w of the  l a r g e a m o u n t of s t a t u t o r y e x p a n s i o n , was  the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h e y m i g h t  not be a b l e to j u s t i f y t h e i r d u p l i c a t i o n of s t a t u t o r y f u n c t i o n s .  Samuel  M e n s c h e r s a y s "the i n a b i l i t y of v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s to r e s o l v e the  dilemma  b e t w e e n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a n d the d e m a n d s of the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n h a s g r e a t l y l i m i t e d t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r 2 f o r m i n g a constructive relationship with statutory s e r v i c e s . " How quents?  d o e s the f o r e g o i n g a f f e c t s e r v i c e s to j u v e n i l e d e l i n -  W h a t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the v o l u n t a r y a n d the p u b l i c  agencies i n this a r e a ?  To  e x a m i n e t h i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y to t a k e e a c h s e r -  v i c e e x i s t i n g f o r the y o u n g o f f e n d e r a n d  d e s c r i b e the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  b e t w e e n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e .  1  M e n s c h e r , S a m u e l : " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p of the V o l u n t a r y and Statutory C h i l d - C a r e S e r v i c e s i n E n g l a n d " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , V o l u m e X X X I I C h i c a g o , 1958, P a g e 75.  2  Menscher, Samuel:  Ibid, P a g e  76.  CHAPTER THE  1 - 7  O R I G I N S O F T H E J U V E N I L E C O U R T IN E N G L A N D The  c o m m o n way of d e a l i n g with j u v e n i l e delinquents,  no m a t t e r h o w y o u n g t h e y w e r e , b e f o r e 1908 a n d the e s t a b l i s h i n g o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , w a s to s e n t e n c e t h e m to p r i s o n c e l l s a n d b i r c h i n g f o r no m a t t e r w h a t o f f e n c e .  T h e r e was v e r y r a r e l y any differential t r e a t -  m e n t , a l t h o u g h p r i o r t o 1908, t h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r of s t a t u t e s w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e c o u r t s to d e a l w i t h c h i l d r e n i n o t h e r w a y s b e s i d e s ment.  T h e r e w a s t h e b e g i n n i n g of a p r o b a t i o n s y s t e m , t h e r e w e r e  i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l s a n d r e f o r m a t o r i e s , but o n l y the m o r e and  forward-looking  e n l i g h t e n e d of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s u s e d t h e s e m e t h o d s .  The die-hards  k e p t o n u s i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s - p r i s o n a n d b e a t i n g s . 1908  imprison-  C h i l d r e n A c t a l l this began to change.  With the  In the p a s t f i f t y y e a r s  there  h a s b e e n a c o m p l e t e r e v o l u t i o n i n the m e t h o d s of d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s b o t h o n a p u b l i c l e v e l a n d o n a p r i v a t e one,  though statutory  p r o v i s i o n h a s p a v e d t h e w a y f o r , a n d s e t the c o u r s e a n d c o - o r d i n a t e d t h e e f f o r t s i n s o m e c a s e s , of v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n .  T h e juvenile courts which  d e t e r m i n e the fate of y o u n g o f f e n d e r s , t h r o u g h the y e a r s , h a v e b e e n r e l y i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y upon treatment  and education for these young people rather  than upon punishment p e r se.  In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c o u r t s a r e g e a r i n g t h e i r  s e n t e n c i n g o f d e l i n q u e n t s t o what w i l l h e l p t h e m i n t h e i r f u t u r e l i v e s - t o rehabilitative training and education.  In s e n t e n c i n g d e l i n q u e n t s t h e c o u r t s  h a v e r e c o u r s e t o a v a r i e t y of i n s t r u m e n t s  a n d r e s o u r c e s , but b e f o r e d e s -  c r i b i n g t h e m a n d the p u b l i c - p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g i n t h e m , l e t u s f i r s t c o n s i d e r t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t i t s e l f - o n e i n s t a n c e of i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f a t e o f i t s t r o u b l e d y o u n g p e o p l e .  CHAPTER J U V E N I L E C O U R T S D E F I N E D AND  1 - 8  DESCRIBED  J u v e n i l e c o u r t s t o d a y , to d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h j u v e n i l e s , a s d e f i n e d by t h e C h i l d r e n A c t of 1908  are summary magistrates  - i . e. t h e y a r e c o u r t s p r e s i d e d o v e r by l a y m a g i s t r a t e s t r y the l e s s s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s . c o u r t , the t e r m ever nature,  s u m m a r y has  ordinarily  H o w e v e r , i n the c a s e of the j u v e n i l e a wider meaning.  (with the e x c e p t i o n o f h o m i c i d e ) ,  the j u v e n i l e s u m m a r y c o u r t s .  and  courts  A l l o f f e n c e s of w h a t -  a r e (as of 1959), t r i e d  by  T h e s e c o u r t s m e e t i n a r o o m or b u i l d i n g  a p a r t f r o m the r e g u l a r r o o m s o r b u i l d i n g s w h e r e a d u l t s a r e t r i e d , i n o r d e r to p r o t e c t t h e y o u n g o f f e n d e r " f r o m c o n t a m i n a t i o n with c r i m i n a l c o u r t s and 1963  through contact  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h a d u l t offenders."'''  ( A s of the  C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u n g P e r s o n A c t , j u v e n i l e s a r e t r i e d i n the  c o u r t r o o m a s a r e a d u l t s - a r e t r o g r a d e s t e p to the v e r y of a d u l t o f f e n d e r s a v o i d e d p r i o r to t h i s A c t ) .  The  1963  contamination A c t w i l l not  e x a m i n e d i n t h i s p a p e r a s w i l l not o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n o r e v e n t s s e r v i c e s to d e l i n q u e n t s a f t e r 1959,  same  be  improving  except i n p a s s i n g .  C o u r t s d e a l i n g with c h i l d r e n and y o u n g o f f e n d e r s f r o m e i g h t to s e v e n t e e n a r e a m a t t e r of i n t e r e s t to e v e r y p e r s o n w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e i n any  c a p a c i t y , as i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  j u s t i c e i n s u m m a r y c o u r t s - e.g. social agencies lawyers  and,  concerned  teachers,  social workers,  a n d of s t a t u t o r y d e p a r t m e n t s , m a g i s t r a t e s '  of c o u r s e , m a g i s t r a t e s t h e m s e l v e s .  s t a f f s of clerks,  E a c h of t h e s e p e r s o n s  o r b o d i e s a p p r o a c h e s the m a t t e r f r o m the a s p e c t w i t h w h i c h he i s m o s t  1  C a v a n a g h , W. E . , T h e C h i l d a n d the C o u r t , L o n d o n , 1959, p a g e 59.  Victor Gallancz Ltd.,  CHAPTER familiar:-  the c h i l d , the f a m i l y ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e .  1 - 9  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , the l a w a n d the  S o m e of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , b o d i e s a n d s e r -  v i c e s a r e m o r e i n t e r e s t e d a n d a w a r e of the t r e a t m e n t of the y o u n g offenders,  s o m e a r e m o r e a w a r e of the n e e d t o p r e s e r v e  civil liberties.  T h i s m a k e s f o r s o m e c o n f u s i o n of p u r p o s e w h i c h i s f u r t h e r a d d e d t o b y the i n t r o d u c t i o n of e x a m p l e s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w h o s e l e g a l s y s t e m s , c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e a n d p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y b e a r n o r e s e m b l a n c e t o the  British  systems' heritage and history. . A s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the p r e s e n t  (1959) j u v e n i l e c o u r t s  a r e c o u r t s of s u m m a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n a n d a r e g o v e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y b y a c t s of P a r l i a m e n t .  T h e r e a r e other s u m m a r y courts dealing with adults and  h e a r i n g p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s of c a s e s - the d o m e s t i c s u m m a r y c o u r t s summonses for desertion or failure to provide  support.  hearing  T h e greater  b u l k of the w o r k of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n ces  - c r i m i n a l charges, e.g. l a r c e n y .  T o u n d e r s t a n d the p r o c e d u r e of  t h e s e c o u r t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k at the p r o c e d u r e f o r t r y i n g c r i m i n a l s i n the o r d i n a r y s u m m a r y (adult) c o u r t s . p r o c e e d i n g s take place in a magistrate's m o r e s o t h a n i t n e e d be, time and simple.  T h e c o u r t r o o m i n w h i c h the court is usually imposing -  f o r the p r o c e e d i n g s a r e f a i r l y e c o n o m i c a l o f  T h e r o o m m u s t b e l a r g e e n o u g h to h o l d the B e n c h ,  con-  s i s t i n g o f f r o m two t o s e v e n m a g i s t r a t e s ,  m o s t of w h o m a r e l a y ; (In the  j u v e n i l e c o u r t the n u m b e r of m a g i s t r a t e s  s i t t i n g on the B e n c h i s u s u a l l y  three,  one of w h o m  should be a w o m a n - or, two w o m e n m a y s i t alone.);  the B e n c h ' s c l e r k , w h o i s a l a w y e r - a p r o f e s s i o n a l ; the c o u r t the p a r t i e s a n d t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d w i t n e s s e s ; the p r e s s  a n d i n an adult court a reasonable  officers;  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  n u m b e r of the p u b l i c . In  C H A P T E R I - 10 addition to a c c o m m o d a t i n g a l l these p e r s o n s , a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r seating of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s w i l l h a v e to be m a d e . - e . g . t h e m e m b e r s of t h e B e n c h a n d t h e i r c l e r k s h o u l d s i t c l o s e e n o u g h t o c o n f e r on t h e c a s e w i t h o u t b e i n g o v e r h e a r d a n d y e t n o t so c l o s e a s to c a u s e crowding  and d i s c o m f o r t .  T h e c l e r k m u s t not be so c l o s e to the b e n c h  m e m b e r s that h e a p p e a r s to be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s of t h e m a g i s t r a t e s , y e t c l o s e enough f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h h i s m a g i s t r a t e s c l e a r i n g u p p o i n t s of l a w , e t c .  T h e w i t n e s s e s g i v i n g e v i d e n c e n e e d to  be v i s i b l e a n d e a s i l y a u d i b l e b o t h to t h e B e n c h a n d t o t h e p a r t i e s  con-  c e r n e d and t h e i r l e g a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i f any. F o r t h e s i m p l i c i t y of t h e p r o c e e d i n g s m a n y o f t h e m a g i s trates' c o u r t s a r e too i m p o s i n g  - i n m a n y c a s e s the B e n c h sits  several  f e e t off t h e f l o o r o f t h e c o u r t r o o m  w h i l e the c l e r k i s s u s p e n d e d h a l f - w a y  b e t w e e n t h e f l o o r a n d the B e n c h .  T h e d e f e n d a n t c o m e s a t t h e b o t t o m of  this a r r a n g e m e n t - on the f l o o r . m e n t does not usually apply.  In j u v e n i l e c o u r t t h i s l a t t e r  arrange-  S o m e a t t e m p t i s m a d e to h a v e t h e d e f e n d -  ant n e a r t o t h e B e n c h - to m a k e t h e a t m o s p h e r e m o r e i n f o r m a l , but t h e r e s u l t i s not e n t i r e l y i n l i n e with the needs a n d c a p a c i t i e s of c h i l d r e n i n trouble.  Usually everyone  i s a r r a n g e d around a l a r g e b o a r d - r o o m table  inra 'small r o o m - defendant,  parents, social workers,  the l o c a l authority  m e m b e r s of t h e p r e s s , p o l i c e , t h e m a g i s t r a t e s ' c l e r k , a n d t h e m a g i s t r a tes; and i n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s it i s d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n p r o p e r d i s t a n c e or a v o i d crowding.  It i s c o n f u s i n g h e r e f o r t h e j u v e n i l e t o k n o w w h o h i s  judges a r e , w h e r e a s i n a n adult m a g i s t r a t e s ' c o u r t t h e r e i s no p o s s i b l e doubt i n t h i s m a t t e r .  O f t e n c h i l d r e n confuse the c l e r k with "the Judge".  CHAPTER I -  11  In a d d i t i o n to the c o u r t r o o m i t s e l f , t h e r e w i l l n e e d to be r o o m s a d j o i n i n g w h e r e the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d representatives; places where witnesses  can consult their  legal  c a n wait u n t i l they a r e c a l l e d ;  p l a c e s w h e r e , i n a n a d u l t h e a r i n g , p r i s o n e r s c a n be h e l d u n t i l t h e i r c a s e s a r e h e a r d and p l a c e s w h e r e m a g i s t r a t e s c a n gather  together  b e f o r e a n d d u r i n g a c a s e to c o n s u l t a n d to c o n s i d e r t h e i r v e r d i c t . . A s w e l l as a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r a l l the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d ,  t h e r e w i l l n e e d to  be o f f i c e s p a c e f o r the c l e r k a n d h i s a s s i s t a n t s to a t t e n d to the  endless  p a p e r w o r k t h e r e i s a t t a c h e d to c o u r t s .  A D U L T M A G I S T R A T E AND  JUVENILE COURT  T o c o n s i d e r the p r o c e d u r e  PROCEDURE  i n an adult m a g i s t r a t e s ' c o u r t  which, with some m o d i f i c a t i o n s , i s duplicated i n a juvenile court. c l e r k of the c o u r t r e a d s a s h o r t s t a t e m e n t to the d e f e n d a n t  of the a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t h i m  a n d the d e f e n d a n t i s t h e n a s k e d w h e t h e r h e  " g u i l t y " o r "not g u i l t y " .  The  pleads  If he p l e a d s " g u i l t y " , t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t o n l y  a b r i e f a n d f o r m a l a c c o u n t of the c a s e a g a i n s t the d e f e n d a n t w i l l be  pre-  s e n t e d , a f t e r w h i c h t h e B e n c h w i l l p r o c e e d to a n n o u n c e t h e s e n t e n c e . If the d e f e n d a n t p l e a d s "not g u i l t y " i t i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r e n t i r e l y a n d m u c h l o n g e r to d e a l w i t h . who  First,  the p r o s e c u t i o n w i l l c a l l t h e i r  takes  witnesses,  g i v e e v i d e n c e ; t h e n the d e f e n d a n t i s i n v i t e d to q u e s t i o n t h e s e  witnesses.  If the B e n c h d e c i d e s t h e r e i s a c a s e to a n s w e r , the d e f e n d a n t i s a s k e d to give h i s a n s w e r s .  He  c a n do t h i s i n one  of two w a y s at h i s p r e f e r e n c e : -  e i t h e r by g o i n g i n t o t h e w i t n e s s b o x a n d s w e a r i n g he m a y  be q u e s t i o n e d about w h a t he h a s  or he m a y  said,  an oath i n w h i c h  case  or anything else relevant;  c h o o s e to s i m p l y t e l l h i s t a l e f r o m w h e r e h e i s s t a n d i n g , i n  CHAPTER  1-12  w h i c h c a s e h e c a n n o t be q u e s t i o n e d b e y o n d b e i n g a s k e d to c l a r i f y thing he has  s a i d , the m e a n i n g of w h i c h i s not c l e a r to t h e B e n c h .  W h i c h e v e r x>w>ay he c h o o s e s to a n s w e r , h e m a y h i s own  some-  w i t n e s s e s , i f any.  next c a l l i n h i s support  A f t e r the B e n c h h a s h e a r d b o t h p r o s e c u t i o n  a n d d e f e n c e , t h e y d e c i d e w h e t h e r to c o n v i c t o r a c q u i t t h e d e f e n d a n t , then publicly announce their d e c i s i o n .  and  T h e d e c i s i o n to c o n v i c t a n d t h e  s u b s e q u e n t p a s s i n g of s e n t e n c e c o m e s a f t e r h e a r i n g t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s r e c o r d and w h a t e v e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s known about h i m for this  or may  be o b t a i n e d  purpose. The foregoing procedure is somewhat m o d i f i e d i n juvenile  c o u r t s - e.g. c h a r g e s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n s i m p l e r t e r m s  to c h i l d r e n s o that  they m i g h t u n d e r s t a n d t h e m , and m o r e g e n t l e n e s s of m a n n e r i s e m p l o y e d to e n c o u r a g e  t h e v e r y y o u n g a n d t i m i d t o t a k e p a r t i n the p r o c e e d i n g s . Before examining  s o m e of the m e r i t s a n d d e m e r i t s of t h e  j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and f o l l o w i n g this with f i r s t the l e g i s l a t i o n which,  over  the y e a r s , h a s b r o u g h t t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t t o i t s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n a n d t h e n the m e t h o d s of t r e a t m e n t a t i t s d i s p o s a l , l e t u s c o n s i d e r f o r a m o m e n t the j u s t i c e s s e r v i n g o n t h e B e n c h of t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s .  SELECTION OF  JUVENILE COURT  A s mentioned  JUSTICES  p r e v i o u s l y , the j u v e n i l e c o u r t p a n e l m u s t  c o n s i s t of at l e a s t two l a y j u s t i c e s (the p r o f e s s i o n a l o r S t i p e n d i a r y Justice may  s i t a l o n e ) , but not m o r e t h a n t h r e e , one of w h o m m u s t be a  woman. . As  of 1959 t h e J u s t i c e s s e r v i n g on the j u v e n i l e c o u r t p a n e l a r e  c h o s e n by t h e w h o l e b o d y of J u s t i c e s f o r t h e p e t t y s e s s i o n a l d i v i s i o n , from amongst themselves.  T h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o be p e o p l e  concerned  CHAPTER for  1-13  t h e w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n - p e o p l e i n y o u t h w o r k , p a r e n t s , a s p r i n k l i n g  o f , ( n o t n e a r l y enough,) s o c i a l w o r k e r s ,  and i n t e r e s t e d and  business people concerned with voluntary child welfare. m a d e u n d e r the J u s t i c e s of the P e a c e A c t i n 1949,  prominent By  Rules  Justices are required  to r e t i r e f r o m the j u v e n i l e c o u r t p a n e l at the a g e o f s i x t y - f i v e . m o s t s u i t a b l e age f o r a J u s t i c e ' s f i r s t appointment t h i r t y a n d f o r t y , a n d no one, i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d , his  f i r s t appointment.  The  to the p a n e l i s b e t w e e n s h o u l d be o v e r f i f t y  on  R u l e s c l e a r l y i n t e n d that the J u s t i c e s on the  j u v e n i l e p a n e l o r B e n c h be i n the n o r m a l or  The  g r a n d p a r e n t s , but no o l d e r .  age r a n g e of e x p e r i e n c e d p a r e n t s  B y the J u v e n i l e C o u r t R u l e s of  J u s t i c e s a r e s e l e c t e d f r o m a l l the J u s t i c e s of e a c h d i s t r i c t .  1954,  They are  a p p o i n t e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s a n d a c h a i r m a n a n d deputy c h a i r m a n  are elected  by t h o s e a p p o i n t e d . . In L o n d o n the J u s t i c e s of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s a r e nominated  b y the H o m e S e c r e t a r y a n d a r e c h o s e n f r o m t h e l a y m a g i s t r a t e s  of the C o u n t y of L o n d o n .  MERITS OF  THE  JUVENILE COURT  SYSTEM  T h e p r e s e n t m e t h o d of o p e r a t i o n of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s i n B r i t a i n e x h i b i t s a n u m b e r o f a d m i r a b l e f e a t u r e s a m o n g w h i c h a r e the following: 1.  C h i l d r e n m a y not be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r h o m e s a g a i n s t the w i l l o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , w i t h o u t a C o u r t O r d e r .  2.  P a r e n t s h a v e the r i g h t t o a p p e a l to a h i g h e r c o u r t i f t h e y o b j e c t to a C o u r t O r d e r .  3.  C h i l d r e n m a y n o t be k e p t i n c u s t o d y a day l o n g e r t h a n n e c e s s a r y without a C o u r t O r d e r , t h e r e f o r e s o m e C o u r t s s i t on h o l i d a y s to a v o i d t h i s . T h i s m e a n s l o n g h o u r s of p r e s s u r e d w o r k f o r the C o u r t s .  CHAPTER  1-14  4.  C h i l d r e n a r e p r e s u m e d innocent u n t i l they a r e p r o v e n g u i l t y , a n d t h e y h a v e t h e r i g h t to t e l l t h e i r s i d e o f t h e s t o r y when t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence, and the right to c r o s s - e x a m i n e p o l i c e a n d o t h e r s t e s t i f y i n g a g a i n s t t h e m . C h i l d r e n who a r e too y o u n g m a y h a v e adults conduct their defence for them.  5.  T h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t B e n c h m a y not a c t on i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d outside the C o u r t a n d the J u s t i c e s m u s t c o n v e y to t h e p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e w r i t t e n r e p o r t s w h i c h influenced their d e c i s i o n s - such as r e p o r t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s into s c h o o l r e c o r d , h o m e background, health and character. The information f o r t h e s e r e p o r t s i s now g a t h e r e d b y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y C h i l d r e n ' s D e p a r t m e n t a n d by the c o u r t p r o b a t i o n officer i n m o s t areas.  6.  T h e p r e s e n t J u v e n i l e C o u r t B e n c h m u s t be s a t i s f i e d that a c h i l d under f o u r t e e n knew what h e was d o i n g was w r o n g before finding h i m guilty.  7.  M a g i s t r a t e s of J u v e n i l e C o u r t s d o n o t p r e j u d g e o r t a k e s i d e s and they m u s t a c c e p t c r i t i c i s m f r o m h i g h e r c o u r t s i f they f a i l i n t h e i r duties f o r s o m e r e a s o n .  8.  T h e p r e s e n t day J u v e n i l e C o u r t i s s e r v e d by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who a r e , f o r the m o s t p a r t , t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers.  9.  The Juvenile Court provides a meeting ground for a l l the s o c i a l a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h i l d a n d h i s family.  10.  WEAKNESSES  T h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t i s able to c o m m a n d the s e r v i c e s of s p e c i a l i s t s i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s , a s w e s h a l l s e e l a t e r , and i t c a n take d e c i s i v e a c t i o n a n d e n f o r c e these decisions.  OF THE JUVENILE COURT  SYSTEM  1.  U n d e r s t a f f i n g of t h e w h o l e s y s t e m Juvenile Courts.  a n d of the i n d i v i d u a l  2.  Small and crowded  3.  Inadequately f u r n i s h e d and s m a l l waiting r o o m s .  4.  T o o l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o u r t r o o m p r o c e d u r e by t h e c h i l d r e n and their parents, and too little time, with the p r e s s u r e of m a n y c a s e s , f o r t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o d o a p r o p e r j o b o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e p r o c e d u r e t o t h e m .  courtrooms.  CHAPTER 5.  1-15  P o o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p r o c e d u r e l e a d s to t i m i d i t y a n d s o m e t i m e s downright fear i n some c a s e s . T h i s t i m i d ity a n d f e a r m i g h t v e r y w e l l i n t e r f e r e with the way the c h i l d conducts h i m s e l f i n h i s r e s p o n s e s to i n q u i r i e s m a d e to h i m . T h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o f e e l that i f n o n - c r i m i n a l m a t t e r s  - e. g. c h i l d r e n i n n e e d of c a r e a n d p r o t e c t i o n , b e y o n d p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l a n d t r u a n t i n g , w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e c o u r t a n d d e a l t w i t h by a s p e c i a l c o u r t o r S t a t u t o r y W e l f a r e C o m m i t t e e , m a n y of the p r o b l e m s a n d w e a k n e s s e s m e n t i o n e d  h e r e w o u l d not o c c u r . . P e r h a p s  the a u t h o r i t y t a k i n g o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t i n t h o s e m a t t e r s of c a r e , p r o t e c t i o n a n d t r u a n c y c o u l d a p p o i n t a p a n e l o f e x p e r t s - social workers,  psychologists,  educationalists, perhaps a m i n i s t e r ,  under the c h a i r m a n s h i p of a l a y a s s e s s o r , to e x a m i n e and d i s c u s s each c a s e a n d d e c i d e what a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y to take i n each child's b e s t interests.  T h e a c t i o n taken m a y be s o m e t h i n g w h i c h the p r e s e n t set-up i s  not g e a r e d t o p r o v i d e , a n d i t w o u l d h a v e t h e f o r c e o f l a w . The  I n g l e b y C o m m i t t e e i n I960 s u g g e s t e d that t h e a g e of  c r i m i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be r a i s e d f r o m  eight y e a r s to twelve y e a r s a n d  i f t h i s w e r e d o n e t h e n a l l c h i l d r e n u n d e r t w e l v e c o u l d be d e a l t w i t h b y t h i s special authority.  Another  suggestion which might  eliminate a weakness  o c c u r i n g t o d a y i s to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r J u v e n i l e C o u r t trates.  Magis-  A t p r e s e n t t h e R u l e s p r o v i d e o n l y f o r s e l e c t i o n of t h o s e w h o  best suited and e x p e r i e n c e d f o r the work.  seem  There a r e voluntary courses  a r r a n g e d f o r J u s t i c e s but nothing l a i d down as a h a r d a n d fast r u l e . W o u l d i t n o t be a w i s e m o v e t o h a v e s o m e s o c i a l w o r k e r s a s r e g u l a r m e m b e r s of J u v e n i l e C o u r t B e n c h e s ?  T h e r e a r e other w e a k n e s s e s i n the  J u v e n i l e C o u r t s w h i c h w i l l be b r o u g h t out w h e n w e p r o c e e d l a t e r t o a  CHAPTER  1-16  d i s c u s s i o n of s o m e of the s e r v i c e s w h i c h the C o u r t i s e m p o w e r e d to a n d the w a y  use,  i n which it uses them.  STATUTORY CHANGES A F F E C T I N G THE O P E R A T I O N OF THE J U V E N I L E COURT SINCE  1933  L e t us e x a m i n e s o m e s t a t u t o r y c h a n g e s s i n c e 1933 a f f e c t e d the J u v e n i l e C o u r t ' s o p e r a t i o n , i n m o s t cases,  i n c r e a s e d i t s p o w e r and  which brought,  m o r e p r o t e c t i o n a n d b e t t e r s e r v i c e s to the c h i l d r e n i t  served. The  p r i n c i p a l p r o v i s i o n s of the C h i l d r e n a n d  P e r s o n s ' A c t of 1933  Young  c o n c e r n c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s w i t h r e s p e c t to c h i l d r e n ,  e s p e c i a l l y the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r j u v e n i l e c o u r t s a n d the h a n d l i n g offenders.  of y o u n g  P r o c e d u r e s b e g a n to be i n s t i t u t e d , a n d p r o v i s i o n s b e g a n to  be m a d e i n 1933,  w h i c h w e r e not e v e n e n v i s i o n e d i n 1908  courts were first established.  when these  M a n y of the p r o v i s i o n s m a d e f o r  and t r e a t m e n t , both e d u c a t i o n a l and  diagnosis  s o c i a l , f a l l r i g h t o u t s i d e the p e n a l  system. The  C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u n g P e r s o n s ' A c t of 1933  no c h i l d u n d e r the age  of e i g h t c a n be g u i l t y of any  offence.  b e t w e e n the a g e s of e i g h t a n d f o u r t e e n i s a l s o e x e m p t f r o m  s t a t e d that The  child  criminal  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y u n l e s s i t c a n be p r o v e d that he k n e w that w h a t he w a s was  wrong.  The  y o u n g s t e r b e t w e e n the a g e s of f o u r t e e n a n d  doing  seventeen  ( o v e r f o u r t e e n a n d u n d e r s e v e n t e e n ) i s c a l l e d by the A c t a " y o u n g p e r s o n " , and i s h e l d c r i m i n a l l y  responsible,  W h e n h e r e a c h e s the age  and  l i a b l e to m o r e s e v e r e t r e a t m e n t .  of s e v e n t e e n , the y o u n g p e r s o n b e c o m e s a n a d u l t  a n d i s t r i e d i n the a d u l t c o u r t s but the c o u r t s h a v e s o m e r e s t r i c t i o n s u p o n t h e m i n d e a l i n g w i t h the y o u n g a d u l t .  put  CHAPTER  1-17  W i t h the p a s s i n g of the 1933 A c t , j u v e n i l e c o u r t s w e r e d e f i n e d a s m a g i s t r a t e s c o u r t s s p e c i a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d to d e a l w i t h y o u n g d e l i n q u e n t s as we  have seen e a r l i e r i n this p a p e r .  A l s o we  have  seen  that the p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n the m a g i s t r a t e s ' c o u r t s i s a p p l i e d i n the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s w i t h s o m e m o d i f i c a t i o n s - e . g . one of the R u l e s of the A c t - R u l e 5 a l l o w s the p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n of a c h i l d o r y o u n g p e r s o n to h e l p h i m  to c o n d u c t h i s d e f e n c e i n c l u d i n g the c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n of  the p r o s e c u t i o n ' s w i t n e s s e s .  R u l e 6 d i r e c t s the C o u r t to e x p l a i n the  c h a r g e to the c h i l d i n s i m p l e l a n g u a g e h e c a n u n d e r s t a n d . too m a n y c a s e s a n d u n d e r s t a f f i n g a s we  P r e s s u r e of  h a v e s e e n do not a l w a y s g i v e  the B e n c h a n d t h e i r c l e r k t i m e to f o l l o w t h i s R u l e a d e q u a t e l y . i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n of the A c t - S e c t i o n 59 (1) d e l e t e s the t e r m s  An "convic-  t i o n " a n d " s e n t e n c e " a n d s u b s t i t u t e s the t e r m s " f i n d i n g of g u i l t " a n d "an o r d e r m a d e upon such a f i n d i n g " . A n o t h e r f a c e t of the C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u n g P e r s o n s ' A c t , S e c t i o n 47, p r o v i d e s that a j u v e n i l e c o u r t m u s t s i t i n e i t h e r a n o t h e r r o o m o r a n o t h e r b u i l d i n g f r o m o t h e r c o u r t s i n o r d e r that the j u v e n i l e s served may  not be c o n t a m i n a t e d by a d u l t o f f e n d e r s . S t i l l a n o t h e r s e c t i o n of the A c t , S e c t i o n 49, f o r b i d s n e w s -  p a p e r r e p o r t s of j u v e n i l e p r o c e e d i n g s to r e v e a l the n a m e , a d d r e s s , s c h o o l , o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r s l i a b l e to l e a d t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c h i l d o r y o u n g p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d i n the p r o c e e d i n g s e i t h e r a s a d e f e n d a n t o r witness. T h e c o u r t t r y i n g j u v e n i l e s m u s t c o n s i s t of not m o r e t h a n t h r e e m a g i s t r a t e s a l l of w h o m a r e " s p e c i a l l y c h o s e n b e c a u s e of t h e i r aptitude i n dealing with c h i l d r e n and  for their  interest i n juvenile  CHAPTER matters. "  1-18  1  S e c t i o n 44(1) of the 1933  A c t s a y s that e v e r y c o u r t d e a l -  i n g w i t h the y o u n g p e o p l e u n d e r s e v e n t e e n m u s t h a v e r e a l c o n c e r n f o r their w e l f a r e and m u s t r e m o v e them f r o m u n d e s i r a b l e surroundings find proper  p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r education and  training.  S e c t i o n 57 of the A c t s a y s that a j u v e n i l e m a y  be s e n t to  a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l f o r t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n o r c o m m i t t e d to the of a f i t p e r s o n ,  u n d e r a fit p e r s o n  o r d e r , i f f o u n d g u i l t y of a n  f o r w h i c h a n a d u l t c o u l d be s e n t to p r i s o n .  A  But a c h i l d under eight y e a r s suitably  c h i l d ( u n d e r f o u r t e e n ) r e m a i n s at a s c h o o l f o r t h r e e  y e a r s o r f o r f o u r m o n t h s a f t e r s c h o o l l e a v i n g age, a young person  care  offence  m u s t not be s e n t to a s c h o o l u n l e s s f o r s o m e r e a s o n h e c a n n o t be d e a l t w i t h at h o m e .  and  (between f o u r t e e n and  whichever comes later;  seventeen) under sixteen r e m a i n s  at a s c h o o l f o r t h r e e y e a r s a n d i f s i x t e e n o r o v e r u n t i l h e i s n i n e t e e n . In the m e a n t i m e h e m a y  be r e l e a s e d on l i c e n s e .  ( T h i s w i l l a l l be d e a l t  with m o r e fully when I d e s c r i b e approved schools. ) A l s o , a c c o r d i n g to S e c t i o n 57 of the 1933 f o u n d g u i l t y of c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s m a y  Act, all juveniles  b e p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n ,  discharged  conditionally, or discharged absolutely. By 1933,  S e c t i o n 54 of the C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u n g P e r s o n ' s A c t of  a delinquent juvenile may  be h e l d ( d e t a i n e d ) i n a h o m e up to a  m o n t h i f f o u n d g u i l t y of a n o f f e n c e f o r w h i c h a n a d u l t c o u l d be s e n t to p r i s o n , o r i f h e h a s f a i l e d to p a y a f i n e .  1  S e c t i o n 55 of the C h i l d r e n a n d  G i l e s , F . T., T h e C r i m i n a l L a w P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England. 1963, p a g e 173.  CHAPTER Young Person's  1-19  A c t 1933, a l l o w s the c o u r t s to o r d e r t h a t a n y f i n e  i m p o s e d o n a j u v e n i l e f o u n d g u i l t y of a c r i m e m a y b e p a i d b y h i s p a r e n t s or  guardians. S e c t i o n 48 of t h e A c t f u r t h e r p r o t e c t s t h e j u v e n i l e b y  s t a t i n g that i f a y o u n g p e r s o n o r c h i l d h a s b e e n o n p r o b a t i o n o r h a s b e e n d i s c h a r g e d c o n d i t i o n a l l y by the c o u r t f o r an offence, and then when he i s seventeen he c o m m i t s another offence, this offence m a y be dealt with i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t a g a i n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e p e r s o n i s now a n a d u l t l e g a l l y . F o l l o w i n g the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the C u r t i s  Committee  w h i c h m e t i n 1946 a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t that n o s i n g l e n a t i o n a l d e p a r t ment had responsibility for child welfare i n England and Wales,  some  s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s w e r e w r o u g h t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t of c h i l d r e n a n d y o u n g persons,  by t h e C h i l d r e n A c t of 1948.  T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h e  C o m m i t t e e s a i d i n e s s e n c e t h a t " t h e s c o p e of p u b l i c s u p e r v i s i o n s h o u l d be b r o a d e n e d t o e x t e n d c h i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s to c h i l d r e n  over  n i n e a n d u p to s i x t e e n b o a r d e d out b y p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s ; t o a l l c h i l d r e n taken into c a r e by foster parents without r e w a r d and whether f o r adoption o r not; t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n v o l u n t a r y h o m e s , t h r o u g h r e g i s t r a t i o n a n d i n s p e c 1 t i o n of a l l f a c i l i t i e s " . The  C o m m i t t e e a l s o s a i d that t h e d e g r e e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d  by e n f o r c i n g l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o r e c e i v e i n t o c a r e a l l  c h i l d r e n c o m m i t t e d by a court, and "to a c c e p t g u a r d i a n s h i p over a l l o r p h a n s w i t h o u t a l e g a l g u a r d i a n a n d c h i l d r e n d e s e r t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s . " 1  K a m m e r e r , Gladys: B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n C h i l d Welfare S e r v i c e s D e t r o i t , W a y n e State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962, p a g e 63.  2  I b i d . p. 63.  2  CHAPTER  1-20  It w a s s t r e s s e d t h a t b o a r d i n g out of c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r h o m e s w a s e s s e n t i a l , but t h e q u a l i t y of p l a c e m e n t a n d s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h a t p l a c e m e n t s h o u l d be r a i s e d b y i m p r o v i n g t r a i n i n g o f s t a f f a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d b y m o r e c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of t h e m . . O n e v e r y i m p o r t a n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w a s that the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d w e l f a r e w o r k s h o u l d b e u n d e r one n a t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t a n d that this d e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d h a v e p o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y o v e r both l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A t the l o c a l l e v e l , a l l c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , t h e C o m mittee recommended,  s h o u l d be c e n t r a l i z e d i n one d e p a r t m e n t u n d e r one  c o u n c i l c o m m i t t e e c r e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r that p u r p o s e . . T h i s c o m m i t t e e s h o u l d a n s w e r o n l y t o the n a t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s for  children.  A t t h e h e a d of t h i s l o c a l G o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t ,  the C h i l d r e n ' s D e p a r t m e n t , s h o u l d be a p e r s o n  called  - a children's officer -  a s p e c i a l i s t i n c h i l d c a r e a p p r o v e d at.the n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  She m u s t h a v e  no o t h e r d u t i e s . . T h e C o m m i t t e e s t r e s s e d t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m a d e t o k e e p a c h i l d i n i t s own h o m e u n l e s s that h o m e w a s p r o v e d isfactory.  W h e n the c h i l d w a s t o b e p l a c e d b y the l o c a l C h i l d r e n ' s  ment, the d e p a r t m e n t should c o n s i d e r f i r s t adoption, then b o a r d i n g then r e s i d e n c e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the c o m m u n i t y .  unsatDepartout,  It w a s r e c o m m e n d e d b y  the C o m m i t t e e t h a t e a c h t y p e of p l a c e m e n t s h o u l d b e i m p r o v e d . The  C o m m i t t e e f e l t that t h o u g h t h e a p p r o v e d s c h o o l h a d a  p l a c e i n the t r a i n i n g of d e l i n q u e n t s , t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s s h o u l d h a v e m o r e f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e type of c o m m i t m e n t s t h e y m a d e - e. g. b e i n g a b l e to c o m m i t s o m e d e l i n q u e n t s to t h e c a r e of the l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t , just as they c o m m i t t e d n e g l e c t e d a n d destitute c h i l d r e n f o r c a r e to that  CHAPTER  1-21  authority. The  C o m m i t t e e f u r t h e r felt that r e m a n d h o m e s  be u s e d f o r s h o r t s t a y p u r p o s e s o n l y as p l a c e s f o r s t u d y a n d t i o n , not f o r p u n i t i v e p u r p o s e s .  should observa-  T h e y a l s o f e l t that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t s f o r a f t e r - c a r e of the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c u s t o d y s h o u l d be c l e a r l y l a i d down, a n d a r e g u l a r a f t e r - c a r e p r o g r a m developed, including i m p r o v e m e n t s i n vocational opportunities for children. The  C h i l d r e n A c t of 1948,  f o l l o w i n g the C u r t i s  Commit-  tee's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , r e q u i r e d the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s - that i s the c o u n t i e s and  c o u n t y b o r o u g h s , to p r o v i d e  c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n up to  eighteen  y e a r s i f this p r o v e d n e c e s s a r y - i . e . i f they a r e orphaned, d e s e r t e d if their parents a r e incapable, either t e m p o r a r i l y supporting them properly.  or permanently,  or  of  C a r e by a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i s a f i n a l p u b l i c  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but i t i s not i n t e n d e d i n any w a y t i v e s o r f r i e n d s of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  to r e l i e v e p a r e n t s ,  In f a c t one  rela-  of the d u t i e s of the  l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o r c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t i s to m a k e s u r e that p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s c a r r y out t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , a s a r e s u l t of the A c t , was and  provide  A  f u r t h e r duty  to a c t as a f i t p e r s o n  c a r e f o r t h o s e c o m m i t t e d to t h e m u n d e r f i t p e r s o n  orders  f r o m the c o u r t s , i n c a s e s of p a r e n t a l c r u e l t y , n e g l e c t a n d m o r a l d a n g e r to c h i l d r e n . mission  In a c t i n g as a f i t p e r s o n , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e g i v e n  to p a y  up to the age  f o r the c o s t s of e d u c a t i o n  of twenty.) one who  o r t r a i n i n g of the y o u n g p e r s o n s  h a v e b e e n c o m m i t t e d to t h e m , w h e r e the  p a r e n t s a r e u n a b l e to a s s u m e t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . pay,  per-  W h e r e the p a r e n t s  can  t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d to do s o , o r at l e a s t c o n t r i b u t e to the m a i n t e n a n c e  CHAPTER  1-22  of t h e i r c h i l d r e n u p to the a g e of s i x t e e n at l e a s t .  When children reach  s i x t e e n a n d find f u l l - t i m e employment, they then b e c o m e  responsible  for t h e i r own m a i n t e n a n c e . By  the A c t of 1948 l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s m u s t p r o v i d e  a b o a r d i n g out h o m e , o r i n a h o m e m a n a g e d b y a p r i v a t e o r i n a h o m e r u n b y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . out h o m e s a r e ,  u n d e r the  Voluntary  care in  organization,  homes and boarding  1948 Act, s u b j e c t to i n s p e c t i o n a n d r e g u l a t i o n  by the H o m e O f f i c e . A l s o , the a f t e r - c a r e of c h i l d r e n o v e r f i f t e e n ( s c h o o l l e a v i n g age),  but u n d e r e i g h t e e n ,  w h o w e r e i n the c a r e of a v o l u n t a r y  o r g a n i z a t i o n up to s c h o o l - l e a v i n g a g e m u s t a t t h i s t i m e be t a k e n o v e r b y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n w h o s e a r e a the c h i l d r e n l i v e .  In t h i s r e g a r d  co-op-  eration between l o c a l authorities, a n d between l o c a l authorities and voluntary organizations i s required.  T h e r e m u s t be a r r a n g e m e n t s m a d e  b e t w e e n t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d b o d i e s f o r the g i v i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n  about  c h i l d r e n m o v i n g f r o m the a r e a of o n e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r b o d y i n t o the t e r r i t o r y of another o r g a n i z a t i o n o r body.  . A s the C u r t i s C o m m i t t e e  recom-  m e n d e d , e v e r y l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i s r e q u i r e d u n d e r the A c t to set up a c h i l d r e n ' s c o m m i t t e e a n d a p p o i n t a f u l l - t i m e c h i l d r e n ' s o f f i c e r w i t h the c o n s e n t of the H o m e The  Secretary.  C h i l d r e n A c t o f 1948 c r e a t e d the A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l on  C h i l d C a r e w h i c h w a s m a d e up o f e s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n s t o a d v i s e the H o m e S e c r e t a r y welfare  statutes.  r e the c a r r y i n g out of h i s d u t i e s u n d e r v a r i o u s  child  T h e c h a i r m a n a n d s e c r e t a r y of t h i s C o u n c i l w e r e  a p p o i n t e d b y the H o m e S e c r e t a r y but o t h e r m e m b e r s f o r s p e c i a l s u b c o m m i t t e e s w e r e a p p o i n t e d by the a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o n n o m i n a t i o n b y the Home  Secretary.  CHAPTER 1-23 U n t i l 1958,  Parliament  w a s o b l i g e d to p a y g r a n t s n o t i n  e x c e s s of f i f t y p e r c e n t of t h e i r e x p e n s e s , t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of the w o r k of the l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t , i n c l u d i n g e x p e n s e s of r e m a n d h o m e s , a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s a n d c h i l d r e n s e n t to approved schools.  Parliament  a l s o , u n t i l 1958,  h a d to c o n t i n u e t o p a y  p r o p o r t i o n a t e g r a n t s of the n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t to the l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s for c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d into c a r e u n d e r fit p e r s o n o r d e r s .  A f t e r 1958,  h o w e v e r , b l o c k g r a n t s t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e m a d e b y the H o m e O f f i c e for r e m a n d homes and approved schools.  A l s o , the H o m e O f f i c e u n d e r  the 1948 A c t w a s e m p o w e r e d to i n s p e c t a l l p r e m i s e s f o r c h i l d r e n , r u n by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , a l l f o s t e r a n d a d o p t i v e a n d r e c e i v i n g h o m e s a n d the c h i l d r e n i n these  homes.  In the s a m e y e a r , passed in Britain.  1948, t h e C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t w a s  T h i s A c t a p p l i e s m o r e d i r e c t l y to the s e r v i c e of d e l -  i n q u e n t s t h a n d o e s the C h i l d r e n A c t .  It e m p o w e r s the H o m e  Secretary  to p r o v i d e t h r e e n e w t y p e s of f a c i l i t i e s f o r d e l i n q u e n t s : r e m a n d detention centres and attendance centres.  centres,  I w i l l d i s c u s s these p r o v i s i o n s  m o r e f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r - a f t e r I h a v e c o m p l e t e d the r e v i e w of the legislation.  S u f f i c e i t to s a y that the H o m e S e c r e t a r y r e t a i n s b y t h i s A c t  the b r o a d r u l e - m a k i n g p o w e r o v e r r e m a n d h o m e s , r e m a n d c e n t r e s , detention centres a n d attendance c e n t r e s . U n d e r the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t of 1948 the p o w e r t o s e n d y o u n g p e r s o n s to p r i s o n i s r e s t r i c t e d . . A j u v e n i l e c o u r t m a y not  commit  a y o u n g p e r s o n u n d e r s e v e n t e e n to p r i s o n , n o r m a y the a s s i z e c o u r t s o r q u a r t e r s e s s i o n s s e n d a y o u n g p e r s o n u n d e r f i f t e e n to p r i s o n . . If, h o w e v e r , a y o u n g p e r s o n i s c o m m i t t e d to b e t r i e d at the q u a r t e r s e s s i o n s w i t h a  CHAPTER v i e w to s e n t e n c i n g h i m C o u r t s A c t of 1952  to B o r s t a l , he m a y ,  1-24 by v i r t u e of the M a g i s t r a t e s ' .  S e c t i o n 28, b e sent to a r e m a n d c e n t r e a n d  failing  that to p r i s o n , i f the c o u r t f e e l s h e i s too u n r u l y to be s e n t to a r e m a n d home. The  M a g i s t r a t e s ' C o u r t A c t of 1952  has m a n y m o r e  sec-  t i o n s w h i c h a p p l y d i r e c t l y to j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . S e c t i o n 21 s a y s that any c h i l d ( u n d e r f o u r t e e n ) m u s t t r i e d by a s u m m a r y c o u r t , w h a t e v e r the c r i m e (the c h i l d ) h a s assizes.  be  - except h o m i c i d e .  If h e  b e e n c h a r g e d w i t h h o m i c i d e , h e m u s t be c o m m i t t e d to  N e i t h e r the c h i l d n o r h i s p a r e n t s c a n c l a i m t r i a l by j u r y . If,  h o w e v e r , a c h i l d i s c h a r g e d j o i n t l y w i t h a p e r s o n f o u r t e e n o r o l d e r , the magistrates may  c o m m i t t h e m both f o r t r i a l .  S e c t i o n 20 of t h i s A c t (1952) s a y s that a m a g i s t r a t e s ' court may  deal with a young p e r s o n  over fourteen charged with  i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of h o m i c i d e i f i t a p p e a r s so to do,  a n d i f the y o u n g p e r s o n h a s c o n s e n t e d  h e r e f u s e s to be so t r i e d , p r o c e e d i n g s as a p r e l i m i n a r y  any expedient  to s u m m a r y t r i a l .  b e f o r e the j u v e n i l e c o u r t  If  continue  examination.  S e c t i o n 25 of t h e A c t s a y s that a y o u n g p e r s o n  charged  with a s u m m a r y offence f o r w h i c h , i f he w e r e an adult, he w o u l d r e c e i v e m o r e t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s i n p r i s o n , h a s the s a m e r i g h t as a n a d u l t to a s k for  t r i a l by j u r y . S e c t i o n 107 of the 1952  magistrates  Magistrates' Courts Act prohibits  s e n d i n g a n y o n e u n d e r s e v e n t e e n to p r i s o n . The  C h i l d r e n and Young P e r s o n s '  m o d i f i e d the l a w i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s .  A m e n d m e n t A c t of  1952  S o m e of t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s a p p l y  CHAPTER I to j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s :  -25  e.g. s p e c i a l r e c e p t i o n c e n t r e s f o r the c a r e and  s t u d y of c h i l d r e n u n d e r t w e l v e r e m a n d e d t h e r e by t h e c o u r t s w e r e v i d e d to t a k e the p l a c e of t h e o r d i n a r y r e m a n d h o m e .  pro-  W i t h the e s t a b -  l i s h m e n t of t h e s e c e n t r e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to k e e p c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n a w a y f r o m b a d i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h m i g h t be f o u n d i n r e m a n d h o m e s . this A c t the c o u r t s a r e e m p o w e r e d  A l s o , by  to t r a n s f e r c h i l d r e n u n d e r t w e l v e  f r o m r e m a n d h o m e s to s p e c i a l r e c e p t i o n c e n t r e s a n d v i c e v e r s a . A n o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g l a w c a m e w i t h S e c t i o n 5 of t h e 1952 A m e n d m e n t A c t w h i c h e m p o w e r e d school orders  without the consent  the c o u r t s to m a k e a p p r o v e d  of t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y .  Before  this  A m e n d m e n t A c t t h e p r a c t i c e of t h e c o u r t s h a d b e e n to n a m e the a p p r o v e d s c h o o l . S e c t i o n 6 p r o v i d e s that w h e r e t h e c o u r t h a s b e e n i n f o r m e d  that a  c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e c h i l d s h a l l b e s e n t t h e r e to s t a y u n t i l it i s d e t e r m i n e d w h a t a p p r o v e d s c h o o l w o u l d b e s t s u i t h i m .  However, i f  the c o u r t c o n s i d e r s i t u n d e s i r a b l e to s e n d a s p e c i f i c c h i l d to a c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l a n d k n o w s of a p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o v e d s c h o o l w h o s e m a n a g e r s a r e w i l l i n g to t a k e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , i t m a y s o o r d e r t h e c h i l d s e n t d i r e c t l y t h e r e .  POWERS OF  THE  COURT  In the f o r e g o i n g , I h a v e d e a l t w i t h s t a t u t o r y c h a n g e s , a n d C o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n , p r i m a r i l y d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n , uptol955.  H o p e f u l l y , the f o r e g o i n g h a s s e r v e d to i l l u s t r a t e the g a l a x y of pow-  e r s p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l of the m a g i s t r a t e s . L e t u s s u m m a r i z e t h e m : The magistrates  of a j u v e n i l e c o u r t t r y i n g a c h i l d f o u n d  g u i l t y of a n o f f e n c e f o r w h i c h a n y a d u l t c o u l d o n l y b e f i n e d may, a child or young p e r s o n either absolutely or conditionally; may  discharge place h i m  CHAPTER 1 - 2 6 on p r o b a t i o n ; m a y f i n e h i m ; m a y s e n d h i m to e i t h e r a d e t e n t i o n o r a n a t t e n d a n c e c e n t r e ; m a y o r d e r h i s p a r e n t s to p a y c o s t s . magistrates  centre If t h e  e m p l o y a n y one of t h e f i r s t f o u r m e t h o d s i n d e a l i n g w i t h a  delinquent j u v e n i l e , they m a y o r d e r h i m t h r o u g h h i s p a r e n t s to pay damages. If t h e c h i l d i s f o u n d g u i l t y of a n o f f e n c e f o r w h i c h a n a d u l t m a y b e s e n t to p r i s o n o n l y  (no f i n e ) , t h e m a g i s t r a t e s m a y s e n d h i m t o  a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l ; m a y c o m m i t h i m to t h e c a r e o f a f i t p e r s o n ; m a y s e n d h i m to a r e m a n d h o m e ; m a y put h i m o n p r o b a t i o n . T h e s e p o w e r s of t h e c o u r t c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s . T h e f i r s t g r o u p r e p r e s e n t s t h e p u n i t i v e p o w e r s of t h e c o u r t ; t h e s e c o n d group represents its less punitive powers.  In t h e f i r s t g r o u p a r e  i m p r i s o n m e n t (only w h e n a l l other m e t h o d s fail) f o r those between fifteen and twenty-one; r e m a n d h o m e s ; detention c e n t r e s ; attendance c e n t r e s ; fines.  In t h e s e c o n d g r o u p a r e a b s o l u t e d i s c h a r g e ; c o n d i t i o n a l d i s c h a r g e ;  fit p e r s o n o r d e r s ; c l a s s i f y i n g schools; c o m m i t t a l a p p r o v e d schools; B o r s t a l committal;  probation.  Although committal.to  an approved  o r to a B o r s t a l i s p u n i s h m e n t i n o n e s e n s e , i t i s a l s o i n a n o t h e r  school  sense  t r e a t m e n t a s i t o f f e r s t h e y o u n g o f f e n d e r t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n s o that h e m i g h t b e c o m e a m o r e u s e f u l c i t i z e n on h i s  REMAND  discharge.  HOMES T h e s h o r t e s t f o r m of p u n i t i v e d e t e n t i o n that i s a v a i l a b l e t o  the c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t i s d e t e n t i o n i n a r e m a n d h o m e .  T h e 1939 A c t s t i p u -  l a t e s that t h i s r e s o u r c e i s to b e u s e d o n l y w h e n a l l o t h e r m e t h o d s a r e found to be u n s u i t a b l e .  T h e s t a t e d p u r p o s e of t h e r e m a n d h o m e i s to  CHAPTER d e t a i n t e m p o r a r i l y , c h i l d r e n who  1-27  a r e w a i t i n g f o r t h e f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of  t h e i r c a s e s by j u v e n i l e c o u r t ; o r who  r e q u i r e f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n by  s k i l l e d s t a f f of the r e m a n d h o m e b e f o r e a d e c i s i o n c a n be m a d e by c o u r t ; o r who  the  the  a r e w a i t i n g f o r a v a c a n c y i n an a p p r o v e d s c h o o l . R e m a n d h o m e s a r e s m a l l and l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r ; they  are  not to be c o n f u s e d w i t h r e m a n d c e n t r e s w h i c h a r e not y e t i n e x i s t e n c e , but a r e e n v i s i o n e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of o b s e r v a t i o n a n d a s s e s s m e n t by  a  t e a m of e x p e r t s , w h o s e r e p o r t w i l l h e l p the c o u r t to d e c i d e w h a t k i n d of treatment  to o r d e r .  S o m e r e m a n d h o m e s - e.g.  Stamford House Remand  H o m e i n L o n d o n - a l r e a d y do t h i s ; b u t t h e i r p r i m a r y  f u n c t i o n r e a l l y i s to 1  " r e t a i n p o s s e s s i o n of the b o d y u n t i l i t i s r e q u i r e d e l s e w h e r e . " J a n u a r y 1,  1955,  As  local authorities operated fifty-one remand homes:  t h i r t y - s i x f o r b o y s , f o u r t e e n f o r g i r l s , a n d one m i x e d h o m e . . T e n a l l y a p p r o v e d v o l u n t a r y h o m e s w e r e u s e d f o r a few o p e r a t i o n of r e m a n d h o m e s i s a p u b l i c d u t y . many substandard  of  nation-  c h i l d r e n , but the  P r i o r to J a n u a r y ,  1955,  r e m a n d h o m e s , a d m i n i s t e r e d by v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s ,  existed. T h e w o r k of R e m a n d H o m e s i s o r g a n i z e d i n f u l l a w a r e n e s s that t h e r e i s n e e d f o r p r o g r a m s i n e d u c a t i o n , tasks.  T h e i r staffs a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y  and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s .  r e c r e a t i o n , and  assigned  l a r g e a n d i n c l u d e both p r o f e s s i o n a l  O f t e n the h e a d of the r e m a n d h o m e i s a  p s y c h o l o g i s t ; p r o v i d e s c o n s u l t a t i o n i n s u b m i t t i n g r e p o r t s to c o u r t . a d d i t i o n to a m e d i c a l a d m i s s i o n 1  W i l l s , W.  David,  examination,  regular medical  C o m m o n Sense About Young Offenders,  In  services page  110.  CHAPTER are available.  The  staff a l s o c o m p r i s e s  i n s t r u c t o r s , and h o u s e p a r e n t s .  The  1-28 t e a c h e r s , c r a f t s and  games  s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s u b m i t s the r e p o r t s  of a l l t h e s e s t a f f m e m b e r s c o n c e r n i n g the b e h a v i o r of the c h i l d , to the c o u r t , as w e l l as h i s own  evaluative r e p o r t . . A m e d i c a l r e p o r t and  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y , p e r s o n a l , school history are also The  a and  submitted.  s t a f f i n g of r e m a n d h o m e s h a s b e e n i m p r o v e d  by  r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s , w h i c h a r e o f f e r e d by t h e C e n t r a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l in C h i l d C a r e i n co-operation with s e v e r a l local education authorities. S t a f f s of a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s a n d p r o b a t i o n h o s t e l s a r e a l s o i n v i t e d to p a r ticipate i n these courses.  One  g r e a t a d v a n t a g e of s u c h t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s  i s t h a t t h e y g i v e the s t a f f m e m b e r s o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s c o m m o n  prob-  lems. The  f i n a n c i n g of r e m a n d h o m e s , w h i c h u s u a l l y s e r v e  s e v e r a l l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i s c o m p l i c a t e d and p o s e s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problem.  One  s y s t e m of f i n a n c i n g w a s  c o n t r i b u t i n g on a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s .  b a s e d upon each l o c a l a u t h o r i t y  U n t i l 1958,  h a l f the c o s t s f o r - r e m a n d  h o m e o p e r a t i o n , w i t h i n e a c h l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , w e r e b o r n e by the  Treasury  g r a n t s ; s i n c e that y e a r b l o c k g r a n t s w e r e s u b s t i t u t e d . P r i o r to 1955,  p l a n s w e r e m a d e to e x p a n d the n u m b e r of  r e m a n d h o m e s to a c c o m m o d a t e d i f f e r e n t age  groups.  However, since  t h e r e h a s b e e n a d r o p i n the r e m a n d s c h o o l o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n , n o t h i n g h a s b e e n done i n t h i s r e g a r d . m e n t e d i n t h e 1952  N e i t h e r h a v e the p r o v i s i o n s b e e n i m p l e -  C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u n g P e r s o n s ( A m e n d m e n t A c t ) f o r the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s p e c i a l r e c e p t i o n c e n t r e s f o r the c a r e a n d  s t u d y of  c h i l d r e n u n d e r the age of t w e l v e ; as a r e s u l t the y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , to  CHAPTER their detriment,  a r e o f t e n e x p o s e d to the m o r e h a r d e n e d y o u n g o f f e n d e r .  S i n c e one punish, benign  1 - 2 9  of the f u n c t i o n s of the r e m a n d h o m e s i s to  t h e r e g i m e m u s t be s t r o n g e n o u g h to f u l l f i l t h i s f u n c t i o n ; y e t e n o u g h to i n s t r u c t a n d i n f o r m c o n s t r u c t i v e l y .  DETENTION  CENTRES No  teen may  y o u n g p e r s o n b e t w e e n the a g e s of f o u r t e e n a n d  be s e n t to a r e m a n d h o m e as a p u n i t i v e m e a s u r e w h e n a  tion centre is available.  A s we  they  are  a d m i n i s t e r e d a n d f i n a n c e d by the P r i s o n C o m m i s s i o n and not by Children's Department. '.'short, s h a r p  deten-  have seen previously, detention centres  w e r e p r o v i d e d f o r u n d e r the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t of 1948;  the  T h e s e c e n t r e s a r e i n t e n d e d to a d m i n i s t e r  shock" treatment  to t h e i r i n m a t e s , w h o s e s t a y i s n o r m a l l y  up to t h r e e m o n t h s , a n d c a n n o t be l o n g e r t h a n s i x m o n t h s . t r e s c a n n o t be u s e d f o r t h o s e who tution.  seven-  These  cen-  h a v e s e r v e d a t e r m at a B o r s t a l i n s t i -  D e t e n t i o n c e n t r e s a r e u s e d by the c o u r t s o n l y i f o t h e r m e t h o d s  of d e a l i n g w i t h the y o u n g o f f e n d e r s e e m i n a p p r o p r i a t e ; t h e y a r e u s e d f o r the o l d e r d e l i n q u e n t , but not one who  has  b e e n so s e r i o u s l y d e l i n q u e n t a s  to h a v e s e r v e d a t e r m i n B o r s t a l . It i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the s t a f f to p l a n a r e g i m e f o r a d e t e n t i o n c e n t r e w h e n i t s p o p u l a t i o n f l u c t u a t e s so m u c h ; s o m e b e i n g c o m m i t t e d f o r one m o n t h , a n d  o t h e r s as l o n g as s i x m o n t h s .  The  regime is brisk,  i n v i g o r a t i n g a n d d i s c i p l i n e d ; i t i s no doubt i n t e n d e d to m a k e the i n m a t e a w a r e that i t i s a p u n i s h m e n t .  T h e w h o l e day f r o m 6:15  a.m.  to 9:00p.m.  i s p l a n n e d to e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of " l o a f i n g " a n d i n c l u d e s a c a d e m i c classes, craft classes, trade classes, organized sport activities,  and  CHAPTER chores and repairs.  1-30  T h e d e t e n t i o n c e n t r e s c o n c e n t r a t e on a n o n -  p u n i t i v e t y p e of t r a i n i n g w i t h e m p h a s i s u p o n e d u c a t i o n a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e h o w e v e r , that y o u n g p e o p l e h a v e m u c h d i s l i k e d r e t u r n i n g to t h i s c e n t r e - i n f a c t , f e a r e d i t . Both r e m a n d homes and detention centres have a separate b o a r d of v i s i t o r s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t o f 1948.  T w o m e m b e r s of t h e s e b o a r d s a r e t o b e j u s t i c e s of t h e p e a c e .  T h e f u n c t i o n of t h e s e b o a r d s i s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e H o m e S e c r e t a r y . T h e l a w r e q u i r e s b o a r d m e m b e r s to v i s i t t h e i n m a t e s  of the h o m e s a n d  c e n t r e s f r e q u e n t l y , to h e a r c o m p l a i n t s a n d t o r e p o r t t h e s e to t h e H o m e S e c r e t a r y at t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n .  M e m b e r s of t h e s e b o a r d s , b y s t a t u t e ,  h a v e t h e r i g h t of a c c e s s to t h e r e m a n d h o m e s a n d d e t e n t i o n c e n t r e s at any t i m e - a m u c h b r o a d e r i n s p e c t o r i a l p o w e r t h a n m o s t a d v i s o r y b o a r d s are given.  T h i s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e b e l i e f that t h e s e b o a r d s o f v i s i t o r s 1  a r e m o r e t h a n a d v i s o r s ; t h e y a r e i n d e e d " w a t c h d o g s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " T h i s i s a p t l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r a u t h o r i z a t i o n of t h e e x a c t p u n i s h m e n t f o r e a c h o f f e n c e , e v e n t h o u g h the l a w s p e l l s out t h e e x a c t t y p e of c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t to be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r c e r t a i n s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s i n t h e institution.  .ATTENDANCE  CENTRES U p t o 1955, t h e r e w e r e t h i r t y - t w o a t t e n d a n c e c e n t r e s i n  existence i n England and Wales.  1  K a m m e r e r , Gladys, P a g e 74.  T h e s e c e n t r e s a r e intended f o r boys  B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n  Child Welfare  Services,  CHAPTER 1-31 b e t w e e n the a g e s of t w e l v e a n d s e v e n t e e n w h o h a v e c o m m i t t e d a n o f f e n c e f o r w h i c h , i f they h a d been o l d e r , they w o u l d h a v e been sent to p r i s o n . The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a t t e n d a n c e  c e n t r e s i s v e s t e d i n the  C h i l d r e n ' s D e p a r t m e n t of the H o m e O f f i c e .  The law limits m a x i m u m  attendance  d i s t r i b u t e d i n p e r i o d s of  at t h e s e c e n t r e s to t w e l v e h o u r s ,  t h r e e h o u r s p e r day,  u s u a l l y a Saturday  r e g i m e a t the a t t e n d a n c e  e v e r y other week.  The brisk  centres - physical training, crafts instruction,  f i r s t a i d l e c t u r e s , boys' club activities - i s d e t e r m i n e d  b y the H o m e  O f f i c e but a d m i n i s t e r e d l o c a l l y b y p o l i c y d e p a r t m e n t o f f i c e r s .  These  o f f i c e r s a r e a p p o i n t e d r e g u l a r l y bycthe H o m e O f f i c e C h i l d r e n ' s  Depart-  m e n t , o n the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of the c h i e f c o n s t a b l e i n the d i f f e r e n t localities.  T h e y a r e r e n u m e r a t e d above their n o r m a l s a l a r y for this  w o r k , a n d a r e a l l o w e d to v a r y the p r o g r a m t o fit the l o c a l s e t t i n g .  The  p o l i c e a t t e m p t to w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h l o c a l y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e p a r t of t h e i r p r o g r a m , a n d e n c o u r a g e the b o y s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e v a r ious organizations when their attendance  at the c e n t r e s i s n o l o n g e r a n  obligation. J u v e n i l e c o u r t m a g i s t r a t e s w e r e a t f i r s t r e l u c t a n t to u s e t h e s e c e n t r e s , b e i n g d o u b t f u l of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s .  H o w e v e r , the c e n t r e s  have gained i n p o p u l a r i t y a n d a r e often u s e d as a m i l d punishment, i n t e n d e d to b e of a c o n s t r u c t i v e a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i v e n a t u r e . . A t t e n d a n c e c e n t r e s a r e not i n t e n d e d to b e a s u b s t i t u t e f o r p r o b a t i o n o r f o r a p p r o v e d /  s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , but r a t h e r t o o c c u p y b o y s d u r i n g the a t t e n d a n c e  period  " i n a m a n n e r c o n d u c i v e to h e a l t h of m i n d a n d b o d y . 1  M c C l i n t o c k , F . H. , A t t e n d a n c e C e n t r e s , M a c M i l l a n a n d C o . L t d . , L o n d o n , 1961, p a g e 7.  CHAPTER The  1-32  o n l y p u n i t i v e f a c t o r about t h e c e n t r e s i s that t h e y r e q u i r e b o y s to  g i v e u p f o u r of t h e i r S a t u r d a y  afternoons.  FINING The court magistrate to t h i s study, two-thirds  f i n a l p u n i t i v e m e a s u r e m e t e d out b y t h e j u v e n i l e  is fining.  Since this p r a c t i c e i s only i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d  i t w i l l s u f f i c e to n o t e t h a t c o u r t s u s e t h i s m e t h o d i n a b o u t  of a l l n o n - i n d i c t a b l e (petty) o f f e n c e s .  T h e p r a c t i c e of f i n i n g  i s intended t o i n s t i l l i n the y o u n g p e r s o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i s a c t i o n s . I r o n i c a l l y enough, up to 1959, t h e p a r e n t s  of c h i l d r e n u n d e r  fourteen  w e r e o b l i g e d to p a y t h e f i n e i m p o s e d b y the c o u r t o n t h e c h i l d .  The  o b j e c t of t h i s w a s t o b r i n g h o m e t o t h e p a r e n t s t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g  respon-  sibility for their children. The  s e c o n d group of p o w e r s the m a g i s t r a t e s  court has a r e  the l e s s p u n i t i v e a n d , i n m o s t c a s e s , m o r e t r e a t m e n t a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i v e oriented.  T h e s e include absolute discharge,  conditional discharge, fit  person orders, classifying schools, approved schools, B o r s t a l institutions and  probation.  ABSOLUTE  DISCHARGE Absolute  or unconditional discharge is usually used for a  t r i f l i n g offence - e.g. r i d i n g a b i c y c l e after d a r k without " h i t c h i n g " a r i d e on a m o v i n g v e h i c l e . e x c e p t w h e n the m a g i s t r a t e s reasonably  a light, or  This disposition is rarely used  a r e c e r t a i n that t h e c h i l d i s n o r m a l , w i t h a  good f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d .  T h e u s e of t h i s p o w e r m a y b e d e t r i -  m e n t a l i f t h e c h i l d i s s e n t to a r e m a n d h o m e f o r a w e e k s o that i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  CHAPTER  1-33  c a n be m a d e b e f o r e a f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s a r r i v e d a t .  The  absolute dis-  c h a r g e i s s e l d o m g i v e n by the c o u r t w i t h o u t the m a g i s t r a t e p o i n t i n g out to the boy the s t u p i d i t y o r m a l i c i o u s n e s s o r f o o l h a r d i n e s s of h i s d e e d . T h i s a c t i o n c a n be s u c c e s s f u l i f a p p l i e d to t h o s e c h i l d r e n who  have stable  f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d s a n d h a v e c o m m i t t e d no o t h e r o f f e n c e .  CONDITIONAL  DISCHARGE Conditional discharge may  c h a r g e with a little " s t i f f e n i n g " added. the j u v e n i l e B e n c h m a y  be d e s c r i b e d as a b s o l u t e d i s F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c h a i r m a n of  d i s c h a r g e a c h i l d with a w a r n i n g - "If you  commit  any o t h e r o f f e n c e i n the n e x t t w e l v e m o n t h p e r i o d , y o u w i l l be l i a b l e to be p u n i s h e d f o r b o t h t h a t a n d t h i s one,  f o r w h i c h we  are discharging you  now." The  absolute discharge i n its essence,  believes in a child;  the c o n d i t i o n a l d i s c h a r g e t a k e s a l l the v i r t u e out of the d i s c h a r g e a n d i n effect,  " c a s t s d o u b t b o t h on the c o u r t s w i s d o m a n d on i t s b e l i e f i n the 1  child.  T r u s t w h i c h i s not a b s o l u t e i s w o r s e t h a n no t r u s t . "  If the c o u r t  f e e l s t h a t a c h i l d n e e d s h e l p , p r o b a t i o n w o u l d be m o r e b e n e f i c i a l , we  s h a l l s e e l a t e r , p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s a r e <so o v e r - w o r k e d that t h i s  tion, though a d m i r a b l e  1  but,  Wills,  W.  David,  i n t h e o r y , i s not a l t o g e t h e r a p r a c t i c a l  op_. c i t . , p a g e  129.  one.  as  sugges-  CHAPTER FIT  1 - 3 4  PERSON ORDER A  " f i t p e r s o n o r d e r " i s brought into use when a child's  h o m e i s so unsuitable, as to r e q u i r e r e m o v a l a n d p l a c e m e n t i n a substitute h o m e .  In a d d i t i o n to t h o s e c h i l d r e n i n n e e d of c a r e a n d p r o t e c t i o n ,  a fit p e r s o n o r d e r  i s a l s o u s e d w i t h c h i l d r e n who h a v e c o m m i t t e d a n  i n d i c t a b l e offence, w h i c h i n adult c o u r t w o u l d entail i m p r i s o n m e n t . . F i t p e r s o n s h a v e the p o w e r s a n d d u t i e s of the c h i l d ' s parents,  u n t i l the c h i l d r e a c h e s the a g e of e i g h t e e n .  It i s not o f t e n that  a n i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n w i l l t a k e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a f i t p e r s o n , s o ,  more  o f t e n t h a n not, t h i s d u t y f a l l s to the p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l a u t h o r i t y ' s c h i l d r e n ' s officers.  T h e c h i l d r e n ' s o f f i c e r h a s s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s at h i s d i s p o s a l  f o r the c a r e of the c h i l d t u r n e d o v e r to h i m . h e c a n , m a k e u s e of f o s t e r p a r e n t s . provide  H e may, a n d does w h e r e v e r  In c a s e s w h e r e i t i s not p o s s i b l e to  a f o s t e r h o m e , t h e c h i l d w i l l be p l a c e d i n a c h i l d r e n ' s h o m e , o r m a y  i n d i f f i c u l t c a s e s i f the c h i l d s e e m s i n n e e d of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , b e s h i f t e d by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y to a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l f o l l o w i n g a p p l i c a t i o n to a j u v enile court for p e r m i s s i o n The  to do t h i s .  Home Secretary  is given b r o a d i n s p e c t o r a l powers over  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d r u l e - m a k i n g p o w e r s a s to c h i l d r e n c o m m i t t e d to f i t persons.  T h e p o w e r of the H o m e S e c r e t a r y  f r o m the c a r e of t h e p e r s o n to w h o m h e h a s  extends to d i s c h a r g i n g a c h i l d b e e n c o m m i t t e d , i f that p e r s o n  d o e s not f u l f i l l the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the H o m e O f f i c e . The  T r e a s u r y i s o b l i g e d to r e i m b u r s e the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y  for a l l expenses h e has  i n c u r r e d i n d i s c h a r g i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s a f i t  p e r s o n , o r i n a d d i t i o n to the p r o p o r t i o n a l g r a n t s to the l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s .  of the n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t  CHAPTER CLASSIFYING  1-35  SCHOOLS The  England and Wales:  c o u r t has a c c e s s to s i x c l a s s i f y i n g schools i n f o u r f o r b o y s a n d two f o r g i r l s .  s c h o o l i s u s e d to a s s e s s  The classifying  o r to c l a s s i f y a y o u n g s t e r , i n o r d e r t o a r r a n g e  h i s p l a c e m e n t i n the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o v e d s c h o o l . Since B r i t i s h legislation permits  separate  accommodation  a n d t r e a t m e n t of c h i l d r e n o n t h e b a s i s of t h e i r f a i t h , R o m a n C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n a r e n o t s e n t to c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s .  U p o n b e i n g f o u n d g u i l t y of  a n o f f e n c e , t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c o f f e n d e r i s s e n t d i r e c t l y to a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l of h i s f a i t h . The  f i r s t c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1943, w i t h -  out b e n e f i t of l e g i s l a t i o n , b u t s i m p l y b y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n .  The law  w a s a m e n d e d i n 1952 w h e r e b y t h e c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l a t t a i n e d l e g a l  recog-  n i t i o n . . A s o f 1958, t h e c o u r t m u s t , b y o r d e r of the H o m e O f f i c e ,  commit  a c h i l d w h o i s b e i n g sent to a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l f i r s t l y to a c l a s s i f y i n g school for assessment.  H o w e v e r , i f a c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l i s not a v a i l a b l e  the c h i l d i s s e n t d i r e c t l y to a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l . B e c a u s e l o c a l ' a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e s l o w to r e p o r t t o t h e w i s h e s of the H o m e O f f i c e t o e s t a b l i s h c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s , t h e H o m e O f f i c e t u r n e d to t h e b o a r d of m a n a g e r s of v o l u n t a r y a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s . fore,  e a c h c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l i s g o v e r n e d b y i t s own v o l u n t a r y b o a r d of  m a n a g e r s a n d i s i n no w a y u n d e r the s p o n s o r s h i p The  There-  of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y .  o p e r a t i o n a l c o s t s of c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s f a l l s d i r e c t l y o n the T h e r e i s a good, d e a l of c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n  schools and approved schools. r e p o r t on the v a c a n c i e s  Treasury.  classifying  Each classifying school receives a weekly  of e v e r y a p p r o v e d s c h o o l i n its r e g i o n .  This  CHAPTER  1-36  i n f o r m a t i o n n a t u r a l l y i n f l u e n c e s the d e c i s i o n a s to w h e r e to s e n d the individual.  F u r t h e r co-operation between c l a s s i f y i n g schools  and  a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s i s s h o w n i n that t h e h e a d s of c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s i n v i t e t h e m a n a g e r s of a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s to s i t i n on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n The  conferences.  H o m e O f f i c e f a c i l i t a t e s the c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two t y p e s of  s c h o o l s by h o l d i n g , f r o m t i m e to t i m e ,  m e e t i n g s of t h e i r m a n a g e r s  and  heads. The  p e r m a n e n t s t a f f m e m b e r s at a c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l  i n c l u d e the h e a d m a s t e r ,  ( u s u a l l y a n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t ) , the m a t r o n  (a n u r s e ) , t e a c h e r s , h o u s e m a s t e r s a n d h o u s e m i s t r e s s e s , m a i n t e n a n c e staff.  An  and  e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , a m e d i c a l doctor, and  p s y c h i a t r i s t a r e e m p l o y e d on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s .  O n l y one  six had a permanent psychiatric social worker in C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s two  phases:  c a t i o n , t h e m e t h o d u s e d b e i n g the c o n f e r e n c e . at t h i s c o n f e r e n c e  office  The  a  s c h o o l out of  1955. a s s e s s m e n t and  allo-  material discussed  i s the r e s u l t of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g ( i n t e l l i g e n c e  p e r f o r m a n c e testing), m e c h a n i c a l aptitude testing, and p s y c h i a t r i c w o r k i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the y o u n g o f f e n d e r a n d h i s f a m i l y .  In v e r y  and social  serious  c a s e s , the d i a g n o s t i c r e p o r t of a p s y c h i a t r i s t i s i n c l u d e d , a l o n g w i t h the r e p o r t s of the s c h o o l t e a c h e r ,  the m a t r o n , t h e m e d i c a l d o c t o r a n d  t i o n a l s t a f f ( r e p o r t i n g on w o r k a t t i t u d e s ) .  The  voca-  assessment conference is  p r e s i d e d o v e r by the p s y c h o l o g i s t a n d a t t e n d e d b y the p r i n c i p a l , the d e p u t y p r i n c i p a l , the h o u s e p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , a n d  the  psychiatric social worker involved. The  allocation conference  approved school), is  ( a l l o c a t i n g t h e boy  o r g i r l to a n  p r e s i d e d o v e r by the h e a d m a s t e r o r p r i n c i p a l ,  and  CHAPTER  1-37  i s a t t e n d e d by t h e d e p u t y w a r d e n , t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r , master or housemistress, schools i n the d i s t r i c t .  each child's  house-  a n d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m one of t h e a p p r o v e d  S o m e t i m e s the p s y c h o l o g i s t i s a s k e d to c l a r i f y  o r e l a b o r a t e on a boy's o r g i r l ' s r e p o r t at t h e c o n f e r e n c e ;  sometimes  the o f f e n d e r h i m s e l f i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o s t a t e h i s p r e f e r e n c e or interest i n training.  The time for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v a r i e s between three  w e e k s a n d eight w e e k s . Sir B a s i l Henriques, magistrates i n England, schools.  one o f t h e b e s t k n o w n j u v e n i l e c o u r t  e x p r e s s e s two m a i n o b j e c t i o n s t o c l a s s i f y i n g  F i r s t l y , i n t h e o p i n i o n of S i r B a s i l , t h e a s s e s s m e n t  process  s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e a t r e m a n d h o m e s s o that t h e c h i l d w o u l d n o t h a v e t o suffer by m o v i n g twice b e f o r e he r e a c h e d the p r o p e r a p p r o v e d s c h o o l . However, i f the r e m a n d h o m e s d i d a s s e s s m e n t s for a p p r o v e d schools, s p e c i a l p e r s o n n e l w o u l d h a v e t o be a d d e d to the e x i s t i n g s t a f f s .  This  w o u l d e n t a i l c o n s i d e r a b l e expense, not to m e n t i o n the d i f f i c u l t y , i f not the i m p o s s i b i l i t y , Secondly,  of a c q u i r i n g s p e c i a l s t a f f f o r e a c h r e m a n d h o m e .  S i r B a s i l f e e l s that c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s i n d e c i d i n g w h a t a p p -  r o v e d s c h o o l the c h i l d s h o u l d go to, i s u s u r p i n g t h e p o w e r o f t h e j u d i c -  iary.  O n the other hand, c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l staffs do h a v e the p r o p e r  qualifications  APPROVED  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s n e c e s s a r y to m a k e such d e c i s i o n s .  SCHOOLS A p p r o v e d s c h o o l s h a d t h e i r o r i g i n i n the e a r l y nineteenth  c e n t u r y " r a g g e d " schools e s t a b l i s h e d by p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s for n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n d a n g e r of b e c o m i n g d e l i n q u e n t .  F r o m the r a g g e d  schools  e v o l v e d t h e i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l s w h i c h , up t o 1933, r e c e i v e d i n t o c a r e  those  CHAPTER  1-38  c h i l d r e n c o m m i t t e d by the c o u r t s f o r c a r e a n d p r o t e c t i o n . 1933,  P r i o r to  r e f o r m a t o r i e s had been established for training juvenile delin-  q u e n t s c o m m i t t e d by the c o u r t f o r o f f e n c e s . t i o n s no l o n g e r e x i s t ; the 1933  T o d a y t h e s e two  institu-  C h i l d r e n and Y o u n g P e r s o n ' s A c t m e r g e d  the two i n t o one c a t e g o r y - the a p p r o v e d s c h o o l , w h i c h r e c e i v e s b o t h t y p e s of c h i l d r e n f o r m e r l y s e r v e d i n s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s .  However, ninety  p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n of today's a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s a r e j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s a n d the r e m a i n i n g t e n p e r c e n t a r e j u d g e d to be  pre-delinquent.  T h i s s y t e m i s w i d e l y c r i t i c i s e d a n d p o i n t s up a r e a l . l a c k i n the^ B r i t i s h child welfare program.  Why  a r e t h e r e not h o m e s , r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s  a n d h o s t e l s f o r t h e s e p r e - d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own that the p a r e n t s c a n v i s i t t h e m ?  Secondly,  why  localities  i s t h e r e not m o r e  so  pre-  v e n t i v e a n d p r o t e c t i v e w o r k done w i t h t h e p a r e n t s by t h e l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t s to h o l d f a m i l i e s t o g e t h e r a n d to h e l p to r e h a b i l i t a t e p a r e n t s s o t h a t t h e y m i g h t r e c e i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n b a c k i n t o the f a m i l y , u p o n t h e i r d i s c h a r g e , w i t h m o r e l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ?  This would m i n i m i z e  ( h o p e f u l l y ) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c u r r i n g m i s c h i e f on the p a r t of the c h i l d a n d the p o s s i b i l i t y of the c h i l d o n c e m o r e b e i n g t a k e n a w a y f r o m h i s parents. As  of J a n u a r y  1st, 1955,  t h e r e w e r e one h u n d r e d  twenty-seven approved schools in England supervision.  and  and W a l e s under H o m e O f f i c e  T w e n t y - s i x of t h e s e s m a l l i s h s c h o o l s w e r e m a n a g e d by  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d one h u n d r e d a n d one w e r e u n d e r p r i v a t e o r v o l u n t a r y b o a r d s of m a n a g e r s .  ( A s of A u g u s t 28th,  1963,  t h e r e w e r e one  hundred  and eighteen a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s , e i g h t y - f o u r f o r boys and t h i r t y - f o u r f o r g i r l s , t w e n t y - s e v e n m a n a g e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and ninety-one  managed  CHAPTER  1-39  b y v o l u n t a r y b o a r d s of m a n a g e r s ) . Approved schools are residential,  existing for children  a n d y o u n g o f f e n d e r s w h o m the c o u r t s b e l i e v e n e e d a f a i r l y l o n g p e r i o d of e d u c a t i o n a l a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g a w a y f r o m h o m e . g i v e n a n d the c h a r a c t e r of the s c h o o l s v a r y w i d e l y .  The  In g e n e r a l  training education,  a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s f o l l o w f a i r l y c l o s e l y the c u r r i c u l u m of the o r d i n a r y primary  and  secondary schools. F o r the b o y s a n d g i r l s o v e r the s c h o o l l e a v i n g a g e  i s v o c a t i o n a l a n d t r a d e t r a i n i n g g i v e n of a l l k i n d s - e.g.: woodworking, horticulture, farming, n a m e but a few.  there  metal working ,  s h o p w o r k , m e c h a n i c a l t r a i n i n g , to  (There are also three nautical schools  now.)  In a d d i t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g t h e r e a r e m u s i c and a r t i n s t r u c t i o n , c l a y - m o d e l l i n g , leather tooling, c a n e w o r k , c l u b s of v a r i o u s k i n d s , s w i m m i n g , b o x i n g ,  toy-making,  table tennis, tum-  b l i n g , d e b a t i n g a n d d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s . R e p a i r i n g a n d r e b u i l d i n g of the o l d b u i l d i n g s that h o u s e t h e m i s a n o t h e r  p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y f o r the b o y s i n  approved schools. In m a n y r e s p e c t s s u c h as s p o r t s , h o b b i e s a n d r e c r e a t i o n s ; i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; i n h o l i d a y l e a v e ; i n the p r o v i s i o n of s p e n d i n g f o r t h o s e who  money  a r e i n g o o d f a v o r ; i n the c l u b t y p e of a s s o c i a t i o n f o u n d i n  s o m e s c h o o l s - the " h o u s e s " ( w h i c h a r e g r o u p s c o n t a i n i n g b o y s f r o m a l l d o r m i t o r i e s a n d u n i t s b o u n d t o g e t h e r f o r c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t s ) the a p p r o v e d s c h o o l r e s e m b l e s an E n g l i s h b o a r d i n g The  school.  c o m p a r a t i v e f r e e d o m and f r e q u e n t h o m e l e a v e s (if t h e  h o m e i s s u i t a b l e ) f o r the b o y s ' s c h o o l s do not a p p l y to the g i r l s ' b e c a u s e of t h e m o r a l d a n g e r to g i r l s l e f t to t h e i r own  devices.  schools However,  CHAPTER  1-40  t h e y m a y h a v e two l e a v e s a y e a r a n d j u s t b e f o r e t h e y l e a v e t h e s c h o o l t h e y a r e t r i e d out b y t h e d a y i n a j o b .  If t h e y a r e s u c c e s s f u l a n d c o m e  to n o h a r m t h e y a r e d i s c h a r g e d o n l i c e n s e . T h e r e a r e n o " m i x e d " s c h o o l s but t h e s c h o o l s do s p e c i a l i z e i n m a n y o t h e r w a y s b e s i d e s t h e q u e s t i o n of w h i c h s e x t h e y c a t e r f o r . T w o of t h e c h i e f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e a g e a n d r e l i g i o n .  T o t a k e age:-  t h e r e a r e j u n i o r s c h o o l s f o r b o y s f r o m e i g h t to f i f t e e n o n e n t r y ; i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s f o r b o y s f r o m t h i r t e e n to s e v e n t e e n ; f o r b o y s f r o m f i f t e e n t o n i n e t e e n y e a r s of a g e .  and senior schools  T h e overlap i n ages i s  due t o t h e f a c t that a c h i l d m a y b e r e q u i r e d t o s t a y a m a x i m u m years or until a particular birthday.  of t h r e e  ( T h e ages differ slightly f o r the  g i r l s . ) N o b o y r e m a i n s i n a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l b e y o n d t h e a g e of n i n e t e e n . In t h e s p h e r e  of r e l i g i o n t h e r e a r e s c h o o l s w h i c h c a t e r f o r J e w s a n d f o r  Roman Catholics. A s w e l l a s age and r e l i g i o n there a r e other  specialties.  S o m e s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s e n i o r s c h o o l s , p u t a h e a v y e m p h a s i s o n a particular trade or vocation.  T h e s e d i f f e r f r o m s c h o o l to s c h o o l . T h e  c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s take t h e s e s p e c i a l t i e s into c o n s i d e r a t i o n when they a r e a s s e s s i n g a boy f o r , a n d a l l o c a t i n g h i m to, an a p p r o v e d s c h o o l . T h e r e i s no u n i f o r m The  staffing pattern for approved schools.  d i r e c t o r of each s c h o o l i s a h e a d m a s t e r with a l l the r e q u i r e m e n t s  s e t by t h e E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t r y f o r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s a n d h e a d m a s t e r s . A s a r u l e the deputy h e a d m a s t e r i s a l s o a t e a c h e r .  In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e two  m e m b e r s of t h e s t a f f t h e r e a r e a l s o o t h e r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s a n d v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s ( c r a f t s m e n and shop f o r e m e n ) , h o u s e m a s t e r s  andhousemis-  t r e s s e s with, s a d l y enough, no s p e c i a l i z e d s o c i a l w o r k o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e  CHAPTER 1 - 4 1 t r a i n i n g , a l t h o u g h at o n e t i m e t h i s w a s a r e q u i r e m e n t  f o r the j o b l a i d  d o w n b y the H o m e O f f i c e ; but s i n c e t r a i n e d p e o p l e w e r e i n s h o r t s u p p l y this r e q u i r e m e n t  was dropped.  O t h e r m e m b e r s o f the staff a r e a m a t r o n  (either a dietitian or nurse), an a s s i s t a n t m a t r o n , a school office c l e r k and a m a i n t e n a n c e a n d d o m e s t i c staff.  Farm  schools usually have a  b a i l i f f i n c h a r g e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m a n d a n u m b e r of f a r m l a b ourers.  T h e r e i s n o f u l l - t i m e c h a p l a i n i n the s c h o o l , n o s o c i a l w o r k e r s  and no group o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s .  However, a local  m e d i c a l d o c t o r a n d a l o c a l d e n t i s t m a k e w e e k l y v i s i t s to the s c h o o l p e r a r r a n g e m e n t . . A n a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f group, w h o m I w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r , a r e the w e l f a r e o f f i c e r s (fifty i n a l l E n g l a n d ) .  T h e s e p e o p l e a r e a t t a c h e d to  i n d i v i d u a l a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s t o s u p e r v i s e c h i l d r e n out o n l i c e n c e . R e c e n t l y a v e r y s m a l l b e g i n n i n g h a s b e e n m a d e i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r e a t m e n t  in approved schools.  B y 1955,  three boys' a p p r o v e d schools h a d added p a r t - t i m e psychologists and p s y c h i a t r i s t s to their staffs. tric treatment  O n e of the g i r l s ' s c h o o l s h a d h a d  psychia-  a s a p a r t of i t s r e g i m e f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d g i r l s  s i n c e 1949. E a c h a p p r o v e d s c h o o l , whether i t i s o p e r a t e d by a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o r a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , h a s i t s o w n b o a r d of m a n a g e r s which has and  v e s t e d w i t h i n i t the p o w e r to d e t e r m i n e p o l i c y a n d p r o g r a m  select staff.  Not a l lprivate or voluntary approved schools are tied  to a d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  religious group o r charity organization; some w e r e  o r g a n i z e d b y g r o u p s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h n o b a c k i n g but t h e i r own, w h o r e c r u i t e d b o a r d m e m b e r s f r o m t h o s e i n the c o m m u n i t y f e e l i n g the s a m e way  a s t h e m s e l v e s about s t a r t i n g a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l .  In o r d e r t o s t a r t  C H A P T E R I - 42 s u c h a s c h o o l t h e n e w l y a p p o i n t e d b o a r d of m a n a g e r s m u s t b e c e r t i f i e d by the H o m e O f f i c e .  T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e m a y be r e v o k e d at a n y t i m e i f the  o p e r a t i o n of the s c h o o l i s j u d g e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b y the H o m e O f f i c e u p o n inspection.  In i i k e f a s h i o n the b o a r d of m a n a g e r s of s c h o o l s r u n b y t h e  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s m u s t b e a p p r o v e d b y the H o m e  Secretary.  I n s p e c t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l s i d e of a p p r o v e d s c h o o l w o r k is administered  j o i n t l y i n E n g l a n d b y the H o m e O f f i c e C h i l d r e n ' s D e p a r t -  m e n t I n s p e c t o r a t e a n d t h e I n s p e c t o r a t e of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . T h i s p l a n of j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on w i t h o u t f r i c t i o n .  Local  education a u t h o r i t i e s m a y be brought into r e l a t i o n s h i p with a p p r o v e d schools i n p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t i e s , only when a p p r o v e d schools send pupils to r e g u l a r c o u n c i l s c h o o l s i n the l o c a l i t y f o r f u r t h e r a c a d e m i c w o r k o r i f the a p p r o v e d s c h o o l o b t a i n s , o n a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s f r o m the l o c a l i t y , a teacher for c o m m e r c i a l subjects or s o m e such other subject for w h i c h i t d o e s not r e q u i r e a f u l l - t i m e No  teacher.  p a r t of the c o s t of o p e r a t i n g a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l f a l l s  on any v o l u n t a r y body - a l l c o s t s a r e b o r n e by g o v e r n m e n t a l The  Home Office estimates  agencies.  the a n n u a l p e r c a p i t a c o s t f o r a l l a p p r o v e d  s c h o o l s i n the c o u n t r y a n d t h i s f i g u r e i s k n o w n a s the " f l a t r a t e " . f l a t r a t e i s a l l o c a t e d t o e a c h s c h o o l o n the b a s i s of i t s e s t i m a t e d  The inmate  l o a d - the H o m e O f f i c e p a y i n g h a l f the f l a t r a t e , a n d the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y h a v i n g c h i l d r e n i n a n y s c h o o l p a y i n g the o t h e r h a l f .  The Home Office  a l s o p a y s t o e a c h s c h o o l the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f l a t r a t e a n d t h e actual expenditures  of t h e p r i o r y e a r b y the s c h o o l .  L o c a l authority-  o p e r a t e d a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s t e n d to b e a l i t t l e m o r e e x p e n s i v e to o p e r a t e t h a n v o l u n t a r i l y m a n a g e d o n e s b e c a u s e the l a t t e r a r e not c h a r g e d b y the  CHAPTER  1-43  local authority children's departments which undertake a f t e r - c a r e supervision.  It i s not c l e a r y e t w h a t a f f e c t the new  h a v e on the s y s t e m of f i n a n c i n g a p p r o v e d  block grants  (1958) w i l l  schools.  P a r e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d to m a k e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s f o r the c a r e of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the s a m e way  that t h e y  are  r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e to c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t s f o r o t h e r t y p e s of c a r e g i v e n by the l a t t e r .  The  courts can order  p a r e n t s to p a y  the a p p r o v e d  s c h o o l f o r the c a r e of t h e i r c h i l d a n d i t i s up to the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n a n c i n g the c h i l d ' s a p p r o v e d s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , to e n f o r c e order.  S o m e l o c a l authorities enforce this order w e l l , others  this  are lax in  t h e i r e n f o r c e m e n t of i t .  BORSTAL, W h e n the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s f o r m the i m p r e s s i o n  that n o n e of  the i n s t r u m e n t s at t h e i r d i s p o s a l s e e m s u i t a b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r y o u n g p e r s o n (boy) but f e e l that b o r s t a l m i g h t be the a n s w e r , t h e y m u s t him him.  f o r t r i a l and  l e t the q u a r t e r  commit  s e s s i o n s d e c i d e w h a t i s to be d o n e w i t h  R e l a t i v e l y few y o u n g p e r s o n s a r e a f f e c t e d by t h i s , as the w r i t of the  c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t r u n s o n l y to s e v e n t e e n a n d a boy h a s i f y f o r B o r s t a l w h i c h d e a l s w i t h an age A  B o r s t a l sentence may  to be s i x t e e n to q u a l -  g r o u p f r o m s i x t e e n to t w e n t y - o n e . o n l y be p a s s e d a f t e r the C o u r t i s  s a t i s f i e d that t h i s s e n t e n c e i s e x p e d i e n t f o r the y o u n g p e r s o n ' s s o to do a n d w i l l be i n s t r u m e n t a l mitted.  Also,  considered  in preventing  B o r s t a l sentence may  reformation  further c r i m e s being  o n l y be p a s s e d a f t e r the C o u r t  a r e p o r t , by the P r i s o n C o m m i s s i o n , of the p h y s i c a l a n d  t a l s t a t e of the  offender.  comhas men-  CHAPTER The  1-44  s e n t e n c e i s f o r f o u r y e a r s , up t o t h r e e y e a r s of w h i c h  o n l y c a n b e s p e n t i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n - t h e r e m a i n d e r of the s e n t e n c e i s after-care.  (The m i n i m u m t i m e i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n i s now s i x m o n t h s a n d  the m a x i m u m t i m e two y e a r s , f o l l o w e d b y two y e a r s a f t e r - c a r e . )  After  s e n t e n c i n g , the b o y g o e s t o a c l a s s i f y i n g c e n t r e w h e r e c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n l e a d s to a d e c i s i o n a s t o w h i c h B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l b e s t s u i t h i s needs.  T h e B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y , i n the r i g o r s of t h e i r  d i s c i p l i n e i n the n a t u r e of the b u i l d i n g s , i n the t y p e of w o r k o r t r a d e t r a i n i n g , a n d i n t h e d e g r e e of c o n f i n e m e n t . institutions.  T h e r e a r e "open" and " c l o s e d "  T h e h a r d e n e d , t o u g h y o u t h w i l l be s e n t to a " c l o s e d " i n s t i t u -  tion while the seemingly  m i l d e r , m o r e a m e n a b l e a n d p r o m i s i n g type m a y  be s e n t t o a n " o p e n " i n s t i t u t i o n . sentence with good conduct. The  A s i n p r i s o n , a boy m a y earn a m o d i f i e d  F e w boys ever complete their full  sentences.  B o r s t a l s y s t e m t o o k i t s n a m e f r o m t h e v i l l a g e of B o r -  s t a l , K e n t , w h e r e t h e e a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s on b o y s b e t w e e n s i x t e e n a n d t w e n t y - o n e w e r e c a r r i e d out i n 1902 i n a n o l d c o n v i c t p r i s o n p r i o r t o t h e p a s s i n g of t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r i m e A c t ,  1908. T h i s A c t a u t h o r i z e d t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s m a l l B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of y o u n g o f f e n d e r s b e t w e e n s i x t e e n a n d t w e n t y - o n e who a p p e a r e d i n n e e d of s u c h pline.  disci-  T h e B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d the l a t e s t e x t e n s i o n of the  reformatory  system.  T h e r e a r e now t w e n t y - t h r e e  of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s .  B o r s t a l provides a brisk rigorous and industrious regime, t h o u g h t to be b r a c i n g a n d i n v i g o r a t i n g a n d t h i s i s c o u p l e d w i t h a c a r e f u l s t u d y of e a c h i n m a t e ' s n e e d s . The contained men.  s y s t e m ' s p u r p o s e i s t o t r a i n w a y w a r d l a d s to b e s e l f -  T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y of t r a d e t r a i n i n g of v e r y  CHAPTER  1-45  h i g h q u a l i t y , b u t i t u n f o r t u n a t e l y gets v e r y l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n o n the outs i d e , a l t h o u g h that i s i n no w a y t h e f a u l t of the P r i s o n  Commissioners.  In a d d i t i o n to t h e h i g h c a l i b r e t r a d e t r a i n i n g , t h e r e i s a l s o a n e x c e l l e n t recreational and crafts The  programme.  s t a f f of B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s m a d e u p of h o u s e -  m a s t e r s , a g r e a t m a n y of w h o m at t h e p r e s e n t t i m e a r e s o c i a l w o r k e r s ; group c o u n s e l l o r s ; t r a i n e d school teachers and vocational people. of the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g i s d o n e i n e v e n i n g  Much  c l a s s e s , four or five evenings a  week by four h u n d r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d by a r r a n g e m e n t with the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  T h e r e a r e twelve f u l l - t i m e , a n d ten p a r t - t i m e tutor-  o r g a n i z e r s i n t h e s y s t e m , w h o s e t i m e i s s p e n t i n a m i x t u r e of t e a c h i n g and  organizing. A d d i t i o n a l staff a r e m a i n t e n a n c e people,  personnel.  Unfortunately,  cooks and c l e r i c a l  only t h r e e t r a i n i n g institutions h a v e r e g u l a r  attendant a n d v i s i t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p s y c h i a t r i c staff, but s e v e r a l h a v e visiting psychologists and c l i n i c a l psychologists, and m e d i c a l doctors and nurses. B o r s t a l i s t o t a l l y a s t a t e f i n a n c e d a n d o p e r a t e d p l a n , but the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s f i g u r e v e r y p r o m i n e n t l y sentence - the a f t e r - c a r e aspect.  i n one a s p e c t of t h e  H o w e v e r , as this p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d  o n l y w i t h c h i l d r e n a n d y o u n g o f f e n d e r s b e t w e e n the a g e s of e i g h t a n d s e v e n t e e n , t h e a f t e r - c a r e of B o r s t a l i n m a t e s w i l l n o t b e d i s c u s s e d i n that s e c t i o n of m y  paper.  CHAPTER  1-46  PROBATION I w o u l d l i k e now t i m e s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t  to c o n s i d e r the f i n a l o r d e r , a n d  some-  o r d e r , that a j u v e n i l e c o u r t c a n m a k e i n  r e l a t i o n to a y o u n g o f f e n d e r a n d that i s the p r o b a t i o n o r d e r .  A  pro-  b a t i o n o r d e r r e q u i r e s t h a t the c h i l d o r y o u n g p e r s o n be u n d e r the  super-  v i s i o n of a c o u r t e m p l o y e d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r f o r not l e s s t h a n one  year,  nor m o r e than t h r e e .  This order may  be c a r r i e d out w h i l e the y o u n g  o f f e n d e r i s l i v i n g at h o m e , o r i f the c o u r t f e e l s i t i s n e c e s s a r y  f o r the  f u t u r e w e l f a r e of the c h i l d that he be r e m o v e d f r o m h i s h o m e , w h i l e  he  is r e s i d i n g i n a s p e c i a l h o m e - a probation h o m e or hostel. The  E n g l i s h p r o b a t i o n s y s t e m c a n be t r a c e d to t h e l a t t e r  h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y to t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d Society, w h o s e a i m was drink.  As  Temperance  to c u r b the t e n d e n c y i n m a n y to t a k e s t r o n g  the m o s t c o m m o n p l a c e to f i n d the h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l w a s  the  m a g i s t r a t e s ' c o u r t , the T e m p e r a n c e S o c i e t y a p p o i n t e d f r o m t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p m i s s i o n a r i e s to a t t e n d s e s s i o n s of the L o n d o n C o u r t s i n o r d e r to a s s i s t a n d b e f r i e n d t h o s e w h o m d r i n k h a d b r o u g h t lo.w..  These  i o n a r i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d no o f f i c i a l s t a t u s , w e r e e n c o u r a g e d by the m a g i s t r a t e s a n d the p o l i c e , w h e n i t w a s not w i t h o u t r e s u l t s .  As  missboth  s e e n that t h e i r e f f o r t s w e r e  t i m e w e n t on t h e s e m i s s i o n a r i e s b e c a m e f a m i l i a r  f i g u r e s i n c o u r t a n d the p o l i c e a n d m a g i s t r a t e s b e g a n to l o o k to t h e m f o r h e l p with other p r o b l e m s b e s i d e s d r u n k e n n e s s .  Matrimonial  difficulties,  e m p l o y m e n t p r o b l e m s , a n d a l l k i n d s of s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d not be p r o p e r l y d e a l t w i t h o n a n o f f i c i a l b a s i s b e g a n to be p a s s e d Police Court m i s s i o n a r i e s .  From  t h e i r c o u r t w o r k , the e n t h u s i a s m  o v e r to the  L o n d o n w h e r e the m i s s i o n a r i e s b e g a n  for using these people i n difficult  and  CHAPTER puzzling cases  1-47  s o o n s p r e a d to o t h e r l a r g e c i t i e s .  Soon, t o o , o t h e r  C h u r c h of E n g l a n d T e m p e r a n c e S o c i e t i e s b e g a n to do c o u r t w o r k . w e r e the foundations  than Thus  of the p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e l a i d s o m e t h i r t y y e a r s  b e f o r e i t s o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h i s c o u n t r y - i . e. i n 1907 w i t h t h e p a s s i n g of t h e P r o b a t i o n of O f f e n d e r s  Bill.  What h a d b e e n a v o l u n t a r y  s e r v i c e o f f e r e d to the c o u r t s b e c a m e one the c o u r t s c o u l d o f f i c i a l l y u s e and pay f o r .  T h e n u m b e r s of t h e s e o f f i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  g r e w a n d g r e w u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y m o s t of t h e l a r g e r c o u r t s i n t h e c o u n t r y h a d a p p o i n t e d t h e m . . A t f i r s t s o m e of t h e m c o n t i n u e d t o b e f i n a n c i a l l y supported  - p a r t l y f r o m c h u r c h f u n d s a n d g r a n t s i n a i d f r o m the State  a n d l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n o r d e r to m a k e up t h e i r f u l l s a l a r y .  But later,  a f t e r the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t of 1925, p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s b e c a m e f i n a n c e d s e r v a n t s of the c o u r t . a p p o i n t one o r m o r e  publicly  E a c h d i v i s i o n a l court was r e q u i r e d to  officers.  . A s the s t a t u s of p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s h a s c h a n g e d , s o a l s o has  their work.  A f t e r t h e A c t of 1908 i n s t i t u t i n g j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , t h e  e m p h a s i s on w o r k w i t h y o u n g p e o p l e on the p a r t of the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s became m o r e marked.  Now  m o r e p r o b a t i o n c a s e s c o m e f r o m the j u v e n i l e  c o u r t s than f r o m any other c o u r t s .  The probation officers also work  a c t i v e l y i n m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g , a s the i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e t i m e s  very  s e e m s to  h a v e c a u s e d a n i n c r e a s e i n the i n s t a b i l i t y of m a r r i a g e s a n d  consequently  the f l o w of p e o p l e  Government  s e e k i n g a d v i c e to s a v e t h o s e m a r r i a g e s .  c o m m i t t e e s of e n q u i r y h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d  the g r e a t e r u s e of t h e t r a i n e d  p r o b a t i o n officer i n this difficult m a r i t a l work.  Further, recent legisla-  t i o n (1957) h a s d e c r e e d that p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , i n a d d i t i o n to a l l t h e i r o t h e r d u t i e s , s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a f t e r - c a r e of c e r t a i n o f f e n d e r s  C H A P T E R I - 48 released f r o m prison, approved schools and B o r s t a l institutions.  The  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ' t r a i n i n g m u s t b e g e a r e d to t h e v a r i e t y of w o r k h e i s l i k e l y t o b e c a l l e d u p o n to p e r f o r m . S i n c e 1946 p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s u n d e r t h i r t y h a v e been r e q u i r e d to u n d e r t a k e a f u l l - t i m e s o c i a l s c i e n c e d i p l o m a at a u n i v e r s i t y , b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o b a t i o n t r a i n i n g w h i c h i s f r o m n i n e m o n t h s t o o n e y e a r i n d u r a t i o n a n d c o n s i s t s of l e c t u r e s o n psychiatry, psychology,  c r i m i n o l o g y , law, c a s e w o r k , s o c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  a f t e r - c a r e , h u m a n growth and development, and m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . The  B e n c h of a j u v e n i l e c o u r t a l w a y s c o n s i d e r s p r o b a t i o n  as a p o s s i b i l i t y a n d i s anxious can,  a s the m a g i s t r a t e s  to m a k e t h e o r d e r w h e n e v e r i t h o n e s t l y  f e e l that p r o b a t i o n i s a p o s i t i v e a n d f o r w a r d -  looking a p p r o a c h to juvenile delinquency  and can, i n m a n y c a s e s ,  affect  m u c h better results by establishing friendly r e l a t i o n s h i p s and setting g o o d a n d r e a l i s t i c e x a m p l e s , t h a n c a n m a n y of the o t h e r a c t i o n s o r o r d e r s that t h e y (the m a g i s t r a t e s ) h a v e r e c o u r s e t o .  AFTER-CARE I w o u l d now l i k e to c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y a f t e r - c a r e as i t a p p l i e s to j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y ,  p u t t i n g m o s t of t h e e m p h a s i s u p o n a f t e r - c a r e of  juveniles licensed from approved schools. " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a f t e r - c a r e i s d i v i d e d as to a d m i n i s t r a tion and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s the w e a k e s t link i n B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c a r e of j u v e n i l e delinquents."'''  Kammerer, p a g e 357.  G l a d y s M.,  T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e d i v i s i o n i s that t h e  British and A m e r i c a n Child Welfare  Service,  C H A P T E R I - 49 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a f t e r - c a r e of i t s c h a r g e s i s i n t h e b o n d s o f e a c h a p p r o v e d s c h o o l w h i c h a c c o r d i n g l y m a k e s i t s own a r r a n g e m e n t s .  This  r e s u l t s i n n o o v e r - a l l u n i f o r m i t y of a r r a n g e m e n t e v e n i n s u p e r v i s i n g a l l the c h i l d r e n f r o m a s i n g l e s c h o o l .  T h e H o m e O f f i c e does not s u p e r -  v i s e t h i s a s p e c t of c a r e c l o s e l y enough, n o r d o e s i t m a k e a n y a t t e m p t s to c o r r e l a t e , n a t i o n a l l y , e f f o r t s i n t h i s  regard.  O n e m u s t c o n s i d e r a f t e r - c a r e w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k of c o m m i t t a l it-self.  A c h i l d l e s s than f o u r t e e n at the t i m e the c o u r t c o m -  m i t s h i m m a y b e d e t a i n e d i n a n a p p r o v e d s c h o o l up t o t h r e e y e a r s , o r u n t i l h e r e a c h e s t h e a g e of f i f t e e n y e a r s a n d f o u r m o n t h s , w h i c h e v e r of the two i s l o n g e r .  A young p e r s o n over fourteen years  c o u r t c o m m i t s h i m m a y be h e l d f o r t h r e e y e a r s , whichever i s longer.  at t h e t i m e t h e  o r until he i s nineteen,  A c h i l d who i s r e l e a s e d b e f o r e h i s p e r i o d of deten-  t i o n i s c o m p l e t e d h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d f o r r e l e a s e b y t h e b o a r d of m a n a g e r s of t h e s c h o o l , o n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e h e a d m a s t e r o r h e a d m i s t r e s s . If t h e c h i l d i s r e l e a s e d w h i l e s t i l l s e r v i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r of h i s d e t e n t i o n , the b o a r d of m a n a g e r s m u s t o b t a i n t h e a p p r o v a l of the H o m e  Secretary.  The  l i c e n s i n g p e r i o d f o r a c h i l d r u n s f r o m the date of h i s r e l e a s e to t h e  end  of h i s d e t e n t i o n p e r i o d .  s u p e r v i s i o n begins,  W h e n that p e r i o d i s c o m p l e t e d , a p e r i o d of  lasting three years  or until age eighteen for those  under fifteen when l i c e n s i n g expires and until age twenty-one for c h i l d r e n over fifteen when licensing expires - whichever i s longer. a r e two s t a g e s  Thus,  there  of a f t e r - c a r e . B r i t a i n h a s two m a j o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s o u r c e s  c a r e of j u v e n i l e s l i c e n s e d f r o m a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s .  for after-  T h e y a r e the P r o b a t i o n  S e r v i c e a n d the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y c h i l d r e n ' s d e p a r t m e n t s .  E a c h of t h e s e  CHAPTER  1-50  s e r v i c e s h a v e h i g h l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f o r m e r , but they a r e not u s e d enough.  M a n y a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s h a v e t h e i r own w e l -  f a r e o f f i c e r s , q u i t e o f t e n u n t r a i n e d , a n d t h e y p r e f e r to u s e t h e m r a t h e r t h a n r e q u e s t h e l p f r o m e i t h e r of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d  services.  This i s  unfortunate b e c a u s e often the w e l f a r e o f f i c e r finds i t d i f f i c u l t to v i s i t the c h i l d i n h i s h o m e setting, either b e c a u s e of g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e o r s c h o o l p o l i c y , a n d thus a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f o l l o w - u p c a s e w o r k w i t h t h e child and his family is m i s s e d .  A local authority worker has a splendid  opportunity f o r just such w o r k , a n even better one than the P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who i s so p r e s s e d f o r t i m e . It h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d that t h e r e i s a g r e a t n e e d f o r o f f i c i a l l y appointed t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s at p r i s o n s , B o r s t a l institutions a n d a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s to h e l p t h e i n m a t e s w i t h p r o b l e m s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e w e l f a r e o f f i c e r s a n d o f f i c i a l s of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e n e i t h e r the t i m e n o r the s k i l l to cope.  T h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s c o u l d be i n  c l o s e t o u c h w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a f t e r - c a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to i n f o r m t h e m of t h e p r o g r e s s  each c h i l d they w i l l s e r v e , i s m a k i n g .  They could also  i n f o r m t h e m s e l v e s of t h e b a c k g r o u n d s of t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r institution either by d i r e c t contact with the f a m i l i e s o r by c o n s u l t a t i o n . with f a m i l y and c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s o r o f f i c e r s who m i g h t be i n v o l v e d and " s t a r t at o n c e t o d e a l w i t h h o m e d i f f i c u l t i e s , p e r s o n a l a n x i e t i e s a n d the q u e s t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t . "  1  1  Dawtry, F r a n k : " A f t e r - C a r e for Delinquents" - Social S e r v i c e R e v i e w - V o l u m e X X I V N u m b e r 4, L o n d o n , W C 1 , P a g e 174, M a r c h - M a y 1951.  CHAPTER 1 - 5 1 The  l i n k b e t w e e n the w o r k e r i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a n d the  a p p r o p r i a t e w o r k e r o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g the f o r m e r w i t h v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n of h e l p to h i m i n h i s w o r k w i t h the c h i l d , m a y a l s o p a v e the w a y f o r a d e q u a t e a f t e r - c a r e , a s the a f t e r c a r e w o r k e r w i l l r e c e i v e the c h i l d i n t o h i s c a r e k n o w i n g s o m e t h i n g o f h i s p r o b l e m s , h i s h o p e s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e .  EVALUATION OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE  RELATIONSHIP  In the f o r e g o i n g d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s of the s e r v i c e s to j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , o n e f a c t b e c o m e s c l e a r the u n i t y of d i r e c t i o n g i v e n to a l l s u c h s e r v i c e s by the D e p a r t m e n t of the H o m e O f f i c e .  Children's  E v e n i n institutions managed privately  - i . e . s o m e a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s a n d a l l c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s , the H o m e O f f i c e keeps c l o s e a n d continuous s u p e r v i s i o n and has  been  instrumental  i n o b t a i n i n g i n t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a h i g h l e v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e o v e r the  years. H o w e v e r , at the l o c a l l e v e l , t h e r e i s n o j o i n i n g l i n k  b e c a u s e of the p r i v a t e m a n a g e m e n t of the a p p r o v e d a n d c l a s s i f y i n g schools.  T h i s r e s u l t s i n v a r i a t i o n s i n the t y p e s of a f t e r - c a r e s e r v i c e s  d e p e n d i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l b o a r d s of m a n a g e r s a n d " c a n n o t b e s a i d t o i m p r o v e the  q u a l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of t h i s  aspect  of c h i l d r e n ' s  services. "  1  Kammerer, page 363.  G l a d y s M., B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n C h i l d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ,  CHAPTER  1-52  I a m n o t s u g g e s t i n g b y t h e a b o v e r e m a r k s that t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t i n s e r v i c e s f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s ; I a m m e r e l y p o i n t i n g out that o n t h e l o c a l l e v e l f r a g m e n t a t i o n tion begins.  of a d m i n i s t r a -  V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e a c o n s t r u c t i v e p a r t to p l a y  at t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i n b r i n g i n g s e r v i c e s t o y o u n g o f f e n d e r s , a n d w i l l no doubt c o n t i n u e t o do s o i n t h e f u t u r e .  " T h e c o m b i n a t i o n of s t a t u t o r y  responsibility-.with voluntary effort i s e s s e n t i a l for a c r e a t i v e a p p r o a c h 1  to t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n of h u m a n n e e d s . "  CONCLUSIONS The outstanding  u s e of l a y m a g i s t r a t e s  - e x a m p l e o f a c o m b i n a t i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e by p r i v a t e c i t i -  z e n s a n d the w o r k of s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s . lem  i s i t s e l f a notable - not to s a y  It i s n o t t h e t r i v i a l i t y of t h e p r o b -  o r i t s s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n s that l e a d s to t h e u s e of " v o l u n t e e r s " r a t h e r  t h a n p a i d ( s t i p e n d i a r y ) m a g i s t r a t e s ; i t i s t h e e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e a c c e s s t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t p r o v i d e s t o r e s e r v e s of e x p e r i e n c e ,  talent and  g o o d w i l l i n t h e r a n k s of " o r d i n a r y " c i t i z e n s . One would, i n any case,  e x p e c t that the s c o p e of v o l u n t a r y  a c t i o n be l i m i t e d i n a f i e l d of s e r v i c e that h a s t h e m o s t d i r e c t  connection  w i t h one of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l (if n o t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l ) f u n c t i o n s of t h e S t a t e , v i z . t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of p u b l i c o r d e r t h r o u g h t h e e n f o r c e m e n t of t h e c r i m i n a l law. Where non-statutory  agencies  and private persons a r e  t a rbe y i S oncwiaeyt s i e that s a n da r S oecmi aolr e P o lciicryc,u mRsocurtil be ed dg e i1n v o lRvoeodf,f ,i tMnaadteulrianlel ,y t eVnodlsu nto a n d K e g a n P a u l L t d . , L o n d o n , 1957, p a g e 283.  CHAPTER and  1-53  r e g u l a t e d by l a w t h a n i s p r o b a b l y t h e c a s e i n o t h e r f i e l d s .  Never-  t h e l e s s t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two m a j o r e x a m p l e s ( w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) of t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r t that p r i v a t e a c t i o n c a n p l a y even i n a field like this:  the a p p r o v e d s c h o o l s  and probation.  " p r i v a t e " i n o r i g i n , a n d t h e f o r m e r s t i l l i s to a l a r g e extent.  Both w e r e Another  e x a m p l e of the i m p o r t a n t p a r t p r i v a t e a c t i o n c a n and i s p l a y i n g i n the f i e l d of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y w o u l d b e t h e c l a s s i f y i n g s c h o o l s have been described  i n this  (which also  chapter).  One can observe i n this field,  as i n others,  the f a m i l i a r  t r e n d to t h e p r o g e s s i v e  t r a n s f e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e f r o m  private  b o d i e s to p u b l i c o n e s .  W h e t h e r t h i s t r e n d p e r m i t s one t o p r e d i c t t h e  e v e n t u a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e of p r i v a t e e f f o r t s , o r m e r e l y i t s p e r s i s t e n c e i n a l t e r n a t i v e a n d n o v e l f o r m s , i t i s n o t e a s y to d e c i d e .  Personally,  how-  e v e r , I f e e l (as I h a v e a l l u d e d t o p r e v i o u s l y ) that t h e p r e s e n c e of p r i v a t e b o d i e s i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e c o m p l e t e s a t i s f a c t i o n of h u m a n n e e d s . O n e c a n n o t e a l s o t h e c o m m o n p r a c t i c e f o r t h e State t o " y i e l d " t o p r i v a t e b o d i e s i n m a t t e r s s e e m i n g to do w i t h t h e s u b j e c t of religious upbringing  and instruction.  T h i s s e c t a r i a n b a s i s of m u c h  private action i s an important and interesting phenomenon, and is proba b l y i n d i c a t i v e of c e r t a i n b a s i c v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s . It c a l l s out f o r h i s t o r i c a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d  research.  CHILD PROTECTION IN GREAT BRITAIN:  A. SURVEY OP RECENT  TRENDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE PATTERNS OF CO-OPERATION BETWEEN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY CHILD WELFARE; AGENCIES  Part  I  Part  II  Part  -INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Scope o f Survey; When P r o t e c t i o n i s R e q u i r e d ; The Meaning o f ' V o l u n t a r y ' -GROWTH OF RESPONSIBILITY OF THE LOCAL AUTHORITY The A c t s o f 1932 and 1933; The A c t i n B r i e f ; C o n d i t i o n s L e a d i n g up t o and I n c l u d i n g World War I I ; How the R e s p o n s i b i l i t y was Divided!; P r e v a i l i n g A t t i t u d e s towards D e p r i v e d C h i l d r e n ; R e s i d e n t i a l N u r s e r i e s ; The Wartime Hostels: Scheme; The Care o f C h i l d r e n ( C u r t i s ) Committ e e ; F i n d i n g s o f t h e C u r t i s Committee; The C h i l d r e n A c t o f 1948; The C h i l d r e n ' s . Department; The A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l o f C h i l d ! Care; T r a i n i n g and. Programs; R e f r e s h e r Courses; The 1948 A c t and I t s E f f e c t s on t h e V o l u n t a r y Organization  I I I -THE GREAT VOLUNTARY SOCIETIES The N.S.P.C.C; V o l u n t a r y Work w i t h 'Problem F a m i l i e s ' ; O f f i c i a l A t t i t u d e s Toward the Voluntary S o c i e t i e s  Part  IV  Part  V  -TRENDS AFTER 1948—SUBSEQUENT PAPERS AND; LEGISLATION The C o - o r d i n a t i o n C i r c u l a r o f 1930; E f f e c t s o f t h e 1948 A c t Seen i n E s t i m a t e s ; 1932 Amendment t o the C h i l d r e n and Young Person's Act (1933); The C h i l d r e n A c t , 1938; B l o c k Grants -FISCAL RELATIONS BETWEEN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY AGENCIES The Cost o f Care; The N a t i o n a l A s p e c t s o f Financing  Part  VI  Part  VII  Part  Part  VIII  LX  -THE OPERATION OF ONE LOCAL AUTHORITY—THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL (L.C.C.) V o l u n t a r y Agencies C o n t r i b u t i n g t o C h i l d Welfare i n L.C.C. A u t h o r i t y — T h e Children's Care Committees; F a m i l y S e r v i c e s i n London -SOME OTHER ASPECTS OF CHILD CARE A i d s f o r I l l e g i t i m a t e C h i l d r e n ; The Homes: P r o v i d e d ; The P a r t P l a y e d by N.C.U.M.C.; The Twenty-four Hour Nursery; T r a i n i n g Homes f o r Mothers -THE CURRENT SCENE Some R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Report -CONCLUSION  Statistics;  The I n g l e b y  II - 1  CHILD PROTECTION IN GREAT BRITAIN:  A SURVEY OF RECENTJ  TRENDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE PATTERNS OF CO-OPERATION BETWEEN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES  Scope o f the Survey The time range o f t h i s s u r v e y w i l l be r o u g h l y from 1935  t o 1962, and the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l purview w i l l be  limited  t o England and Wales.  S i n c e c h i l d r e n can be c o n -  s i d e r e d i n need o f care up t o the age o f twenty-one the  years,  age l i m i t s w i l l be from b i r t h t o l e g a l m a t u r i t y .  When P r o t e c t i o n i s Required! In the e n s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n , the  legal  j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r extending p r o t e c t i o n to a c h i l d  are  examined i n d e t a i l .  As a rough guide t o the p r i n c i p l e s  u n d e r l y i n g such j u s t i f i c a t i o n s however, the words o f Lord. B e v e r i d g e w i l l do as w e l l as a n y t h i n g we know o f . Most c h i l d r e n h a p p i l y f i n d a l l t h e i r needs, o t h e r t h a n f o r e d u c a t i o n , and s i m i l a r t e c h n i c a l h e l p , met f o r them w i t h i n t h e i r homes o r through t h e i r p a r e n t s . There a r e some f o r whom t h i s normal p r o v i s i o n through the f a m i l y f a i l s . These c h i l d r e n  II - 2  ares t o be, found! i n two p l a c e s , some o u t s i d e p a r e n t s ' homes, some i n t h e i r homes. 1  The  Meaning o f  their  'Voluntary'  As a . r u l e , the t y p i c a l v o l u n t a r y agency m e n t i o n e d ^ i n t h i s paper w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d  as an o r g a n i z a t i o n , s e t up  meet a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l need, which, though i t may r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d from s t a t u t o r y s o u r c e s , accountable any  be;  still  remains*  t o p r i v a t e groups o f c i t i z e n s o t h e r t h a n —  f o r m a l sense —  to  in  t o a government department o r committee,  Penelope H a l l i s more e x p l i c i t , s t a t i n g t h a t : Thes term ' v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l s e r v i c e • ... i s used: here t o denote o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t y which i s i n the main independent o f government c o n t r o l — ' p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , i n the s e r v i c e o f mankind' as L o r d i B e v e r i d g e d e s c r i b e s i t . T h i s i s not the same as v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e , which i s s e r v i c e undertaken by i n d i v i d u a l s without remune r a t i o n . The v o l u n t e e r h e l p e r may, and f r e q u e n t l y i s , t o be= founds working i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e , but h& may a l s o be found, as a s c h o o l manager, member o f an a r e a a d v i s o r y committee o f the N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e Board, o r h o s p i t a l management committee', o r s e r v i n g on the l o c a l c o u n c i l . On the o t h e r hand, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may, and. do, employ f u l l - and: p a r t - t i m e s a l a r i e d ! workers, but t h i s does not a f f e c t t h e i r e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r , which depends on the f a c t t h a t t h e y owe t h e i r e x i s t e n c e : t o the i n i t i a t i v e and; c o n t i n u e d support o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and not the S t a t e . 2  1 Beveridge, Lord. Voluntary Action. & Unwin L t d . , London, 194-8, pp. 235-234.  George A l l e n  2 H a l l , Penelope. The S o c i a l S e r v i c e s o f Modem E n g l a n d . Routledge and Kegan P a u l L t d . , I960, p. 343.  II ~ 3 A c t u a l l y , i t can be: shown that many voluntary organizations i n B r i t a i n today do i n f a c t owe  t h e i r continued  existence.  to the s t a t e . (A prime example would be the National Society f o r the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.) The reasons f o r and, the consequences of t h i s apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i l l  be  discussed more„fully below.  GROWTH OF RESPONSIBILITY OF THE LOCAL AUTHORITY  The Acts of 1932 Two  and! 1933  pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n of paramount importance to  the concerns of t h i s study were enacted! i n 1932 and  1933.  Both incorporated! many provisions of the Children's Act of 1908.  The Children and Young Persons* Act of 1933  consol-  idated some provisions of the P u b l i c Health Act, the major provisions of the Act of 1908, parts of the 1932 measure.  and the f i v e  outstanding  Because so much of the l e g i s -  l a t i o n which followed! i n l a t e r years harkened. back to the± 1933 Act, i t would seem appropriate that we l i s t i t s more s i g n i f i c a n t clauses.  The account which follows i s based on  o f f i c i a l summaries, published! by the M i n i s t r y of Health.  1  Pertaining to those? who undertake or propose to undertake the reception of c h i l d r e n f o r reward, and a l l f o s t e r parents: 1 The reader more i n t e r e s t e d i n the general p i c t u r e , than i n l e g i s l a t i v e d e t a i l , i s d i r e c t e d to page 11^ on which a summary of the act w i l l be found.  II - 4  1) The i n t e n d e d r e c e p t i o n f o r reward o f a) c h i l d r e n under the age o f n i n e y e a r s must be n o t i f i e d , p r i o r t o r e c e p t i o n t o the p r o p e r a u t h o r i t i e s . 2) The p e r i o d o f n o t i f i c a t i o n on r e c e p t i o n i s changed! from b e i n g r e q u i r e d 48 hours a f t e r r e c e p t i o n t o aO i n the case o f the i n i t i a l r e c e p t i o n o f a c h i l d , not l e s s t h a n seven days p r i o r t o r e c e p t i o n ; b) i n the case o f any o t h e r c h i l d , not l e s s t h a n 48 hours b e f o r e r e c e p t i o n ; c ) i n the case; o f a c h i l d a l r e a d y b e i n g c a r e d f o r , without reward, w i t h i n 48 hours changing t o an u n d e r t a k i n g t o r e c e i v e f o r reward; d) i n an emergency a d m i s s i o n , n o t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n 12 hours a f t e r r e c e p t i o n i s a v a l i d defence; e) n o t i f i c a t i o n o f change o f r e s i d e n c e must be g i v e n a t l e a s t seven days p r i o r t o s u c h change, except i n case o f emergency, when n o t i f i c a t i o n may t>e g i v e n w i t h i n 48 hours a f t e r the change; f ) n o t i f i c a t i o n o f the d e a t h o r t r a n s f e r e n c e o f aa c h i l d must be g i v e n w i t h i n 24 hours. N o t i f i c a t i o n under t h i s s e c t i o n , o f t h e c h i l d ' s d e a t h o r t r a n s f e r e n c e must be g i v e n t o the person from whom the c h i l d was r e c e i v e d as w e l l as t o the? local authority. 3) Manner o f N o t i f i c a t i o n ; N o t i f i c a t i o n may be g i v e n by r e g i s t e r e d m a i l t o the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , c o r o n e r , o r i n d i v i d u a l person concerned, a t the p l a c e o f b u s i n e s s o f the former, o r the l a s t known address o f the l a t t e r . 4)  "For Reward"; P r o v i d i n g f o r care " f o r reward" i s t o be deemed such i f t h e r e be any payment o r g i f t o f money o r money's worth, " o r promise t o make such, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether t h e r e i s any i n t e n t i o n o f p r o f i t or not".  5)  Time o f N o t i f i c a t i o n ; P r e v i o u s l y the time l i m i t f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s f o r f a i l u r e t o n o t i f y was h e l d t o be s i x months from the b e g i n n i n g o f the time o f f a i l u r e to n o t i f y . Consequently, p r o s e c u t i n g was d i f f i c u l t because t h i s whole p e r i o d might have elapsed, p r i o r to discovery of f a i l u r e to n o t i f y . Such f a i l u r e i s now made "a c o n t i n u i n g o f f e n c e " so t h a t the s i x months' l i m i t may a p p l y t o the end. o f the p e r i o d o f f a i l u r e t o n o t i f y .  II - 5  6) Women V i s i t o r s : A t l e a s t one o f t h e I n f a n t P r o t e c t i o n V i s i t o r s r e t a i n e d : by each l o c a l a u t h o r i t y must be woman. Where o n l y one person i s appointed- she must be a woman. 7) Home:. V i s i t i n g : The s c r u t i n y , a d v i c e andi d i r e c t i o n o f the:: v i s i t o r i s t o extend, n o t o n l y t o t h e n u r s i n g c a r e b u t a l s o t o t h e g e n e r a l h e a l t h and. w e l l being o f the c h i l d i n order t o assimilate; t h e work o f t h e i n f a n t p r o t e c t i o n more c l o s e l y to child; welfare s e r v i c e s . 8)  Power i s g i v e n t o e n f o r c e by l e g a l a c t i o n , the l i m i t i n g o f t h e number o f c h i l d r e n kept i n any f o s t e r home. Compulsory c o n d i t i o n s a l s o may be imposed, wherever the t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n i n care exceeds a s p e c i f i e d ! t o t a l .  9) The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i s g i v e n power t o s e c u r e the? removal o f c h i l d r e n i n u n s u i t a b l e premises o r environment, o r w i t h u n s u i t a b l e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . (The c l a s s e s o f persons d e s c r i b e d as u n f i t f o r such placements i n c l u d e those u n f i t by r e a s o n o f o l d age, i n e b r i e t y , i m m o r a l i t y o r c r i m i n a l conduct, o r f o r any o t h e r r e a s o n , u n f i t t o have t h e c a r e o f a c h i l d . ) D e t r i m e n t a l environment as w e l l as u n s u i t a b l e f o s t e r p a r e n t s o r premises a r e r e c o g n i z e d as ground f o r a c t i o n both b e f o r e and a f t e r reception. Persons c o n v i c t e d under t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n A c t o f an o f f e n c e o f c r u e l t y must r e c e i v e t h e w r i t t e n s a n c t i o n o f the: l o c a l a u t h o r i t y t o kee;p any f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . 10) The; l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n s t e a d o f t h e v i s i t o r i s made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p l y i n g t o a Court o f Summary J u r i s d i c t i o n f o r an o r d e r f o r removal o f any c h i l d t o a p l a c e o f s a f e t y — t h e a u t h o r i t y ' s power t o i s s u e such o r d e r o n l y on a p p l i c a t i o n o f a v i s i t o r i s r e s c i n d e d . However, on p r o o f o f imminent danger to h e a l t h o r w e l l being o f the c h i l d , a s i n g l e J u s t i c e may make an Order on a p p l i c a t i o n o f a v i s i t o r o r o t h e r a p p o i n t e d o r a u t h o r i z e d person andi i f need be may e x e r c i s e t h a t power ex p a r t e .  II  1 1  - 6  ) Advertising; I t i s made an o f f e n c e t o p u b l i s h an a d v e r t i s e m e n t by an i n d i v i d u a l o r a s o c i e t y which does n o t s t a t e t r u l y t h e name and r e s i d e n c e o r o f f i c e o f t h e person o r s o c i e t y r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i s e n j o i n e d t o make arrangements; f o r s c r u t i n y o f l o c a l newspapers and: f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e l e v a n t advertisements i n order t o enforce t h i s s e c t i o n .  12)  Other P r o v i s i o n s ; N o t i c e t o the Coroner o f t h e d i s t r i c t " i n which t h e body l i e s " must be g i v e n w i t h i n 24 hours o f a? c h i l d ' s death by t h e person who has had c a r e o f t h e c h i l d . An i n q u e s t i s required unless a s a t i s f a c t o r y c e r t i f i c a t e o f a d u l y q u a l i f i e d m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r i s produced;. S e c t i o n 7 o f t h e A c t o f 1908, w i t h r e g a r d t o i n s u r a n c e remains u n a l t e r e d . No one a c c e p t i n g f o r care any c h i l d f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s , may have an i n s u r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h a t c h i l d ' s life. Any i n s u r a n c e o r attempt a t i n s u r a n c e o f a c h i l d ' s l i f e i s an o f f e n c e on the p a r t o f t h e person i n s u r i n g and, o f t h e company o r agents i s s u i n g the p o l i c y .  T h i s c o n s o l i d a t i n g a c t was passed^ by t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t and came i n t o f o r c e November 1, "an A c t t o C o n s o l i d a t e  1933.  Calledt  C e r t a i n Enactments r e l a t i n g t o  Persons Under t h e Age o f E i g h t e e n  Y e a r s " , t h e a c t i s found  i n c h a p t e r 12, o f t h e B r i t i s h S t a t u t e s , P a r t I , 1933. F u r t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the a c t a r e t h e following:— Part I :  Cruelty to Children  T h i s p a r t I i s a re-enactment w i t h l i t t l e o r no change o f t h e e x i s t i n g law which d e a l s w i t h t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f c r u e l t y t o c h i l d r e n , and w i t h d e f i n i t i o n o f exposure t o moral and! p h y s i c a l danger.  II - 7  Part  II:  The Employment o f C h i l d r e n  The major emphasis here l i e s i n t h e i n s i s t e n c e t h a t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e t o conform t o c e r t a i n minimum n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . I n the new A c t , c h i l d r e n under twelve cannot be employed except i n l i g h t a g r i c u l t u r a l work. L o c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s may make by-laws r e g u l a t i n g t h i s . A c h i l d may be employed o n l y two hours a day on s c h o o l d a y s . A c h i l d : i s a p e r s o n under 14, o r who a t t a i n s age o f 14 d u r i n g a s c h o o l y e a r . The e x c e p t i o n i s c h i l d r e n s i n g i n g i n c h o i r s , paid, o r not, a r e n o t deemed employed. Employment o f C h i l d r e n  i n Entertainments  No c h i l d i s t o take p a r t i f a charge t o t h e audience i s involved. Certain concessions follow, i n c l u d i n g entertainments f o r c h a r i t y . Dangerous Performances T h i s s e c t i o n p r o t e c t s c h i l d r e n from b e i n g t r a i n e d as a c r o b a t s and c o n t o r t i o n i s t s w i t h o u t s p e c i a l licence. Employment Abroad This section entertainers Street  p r o t e c t s c h i l d r e n from b e i n g used as outside o f England.  Trading  Power i s g i v e n t o t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y t o make by-laws; r e g u l a t i n g o r p r o h i b i t i n g s t r e e t t r a d i n g by persons under e i g h t e e n . Part  I I I o f t h e 1933 A c t d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f  c h i l d r e n and young persons i n r e l a t i o n t o c r i m i n a l and summary p r o c e e d i n g s .  B e s i d e s s e t t i n g up t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f  juvenile  I I I d e s c r i b e s Methods Treatment, and  courts,  Part  an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e system o f b o a r d i n g out by means o f  II - 8  committal t o the care o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y as a f i t person.  ^  I t then goes on i n ( s e c t i o n 62) t o d e a l w i t h B o a r d i n g Out: ...A. c h i l d o r young p e r s o n foundl t o be i n need o f c a r e o r p r o t e c t i o n may be committed t o t h e care o f any f i t p e r s o n whether a r e l a t i v e o r n o t who i s w i l l i n g t o undertake t h e care o f him. I f , t h e r e f o r e , the c h i l d o r young person i n q u e s t i o n has a s u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n o r f r i e n d who comes forward and o f f e r s , t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t , t o take c a r e o f him an o r d e r can be made committing t h e c h i l d o r young person to his care. But t h e r e a r e many c a s e s , w h e r e — t h o u g h no r e l a t i v e o r f r i e n d a p p e a r s — t h e r e may be s t i l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g someone w i t h some s u i t a b l e home where t h e c h i l d o r young person may be boarded o u t . The A c t p r o v i d e s f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n by d e c l a r i n g t h a t a. l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l be deemed; t o be aa f i t person ( s e c t i o n 76) and.orders may be c o n s e q u e n t l y made committing c h i l d r e n and young persons t o t h e care o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i f t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o undertake t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ! The i n t e n t i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t was t h a t c h i l d r e n and young persons so committed t o t h e c a r e o f a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y should: be boarded out w i t h s u i t a b l e f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  P a r t V I o f t h e A c t i s supplemental and d e f i n i t i v e i n character.  I t purports that:  -A ••child i s d e f i n e d as a person under t h e age o f f o u r t e e n y e a r s , and ai "young person" as a. person under t h e age o f seventeen y e a r s o f age. -The " l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s " r e f e r r e d t o throughout t h e Act a r e d e f i n e d by s e c t i o n 96 r e a d i n g , t h a t s u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r the c i t y o f London, "those powers and d u t i e s s h a l l as r e s p e c t s c h i l d r e n , be powers and d u t i e s o f l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s f o r elementary e d u c a t i o n , and, as r e s p e c t s o t h e r persons, be powers and d u t i e s o f c o u n c i l s o f c o u n t i e s and county boroughs". A g e n e r a l o r d e r o f t h e Home S e c r e t a r y a u t h o r i z e s t h e N.S.P.C.C.. to i n s t i t u t e proceedings f o r b r i n g i n g before the c o u r t any c h i l d o r young person i n need o f care or protection. 11  Concerning boarding-out, the r e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y  that:  Arrangements', f o r B o a r d i n g Out: "the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l make arrangements f o r every c h i l d o r young  II - 9  p e r s o n committed t o t h e i r c a r e t o be boarded out as soon as p o s s i b l e w i t h a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r p a r e n t . Not more than two f o s t e r c h i l d r e n s h a l l be boarded out i n the same home a t the same time; u n l e s s a l l t h e f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s o r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . Not more t h a n one f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l be boarded out i n a home i n which any o t h e r c h i l d o r young person i s placed! with the f o s t e r - p a r e n t e i t h e r permanently o r t e m p o r a r i l y , n o r s h a l l any f o s t e r c h i l d be boarded out i n a home i n which t h e r e i s more than one c h i l d o r young person so p l a c e d . A f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l n o t be boarded out o r be a l l o w e d t o remain boarded out i n a home i n which t h e r e a r e more than f o u r o t h e r c h i l d r e n o r young persons r e s i d e n t . No f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l be boarded out w i t h any person who i s a t any time o r who has been w i t h i n 12 months p r e c e d i n g i n r e c e i p t o f poor r e l i e f , and: i f a f o s t e r - p a r e n t a t any time r e c e i v e s poor r e l i e f e v e r y f o s t e r - c h i l d boarded out w i t h him s h a l l be withdrawn from h i s c a r e . No f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l be boarded out w i t h o u t a*, c e r t i f i c a t e o f a m e d i c a l o f f i c e r as t o h i s b o d i l y h e a l t h and mental h e a l t h and c o n d i t i o n and as t o s u i t a b i l i t y f o r b o a r d i n g o u t . A. f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l not be boarded out o r be a l l o w e d t o remain w i t h any a) persons who have a t any time been convictedt o f an o f f e n s e which r e n d e r s him u n f i t t o be a. f o s t e r - p a r e n t , o r b) a p e r s o n o c c u p y i n g o r r e s i d i n g i n premises w i t h l i c e n s e f o r s a l e o f i n t o x i c a t i n g liquor. Before r e c e i v i n g a f o s t e r - c h i l d t o be boarded out w i t h him, a. f o s t e r - p a r e n t s h a l l s i g n i n the form i n t h e s c h e d u l e t o t h e s e r u l e s o r i n a form t o the l i k e e f f e c t an u n d e r t a k i n g i n d u p l i c a t e , one copy o f which s h a l l be r e t a i n e d by t h e f o s t e r parent and t h e o t h e r by t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . On the d e l i v e r y o f t h e f o s t e r - c h i l d t o t h e f o s t e r - p a r e n t he s h a l l g i v e a w r i t t e n acknowledgement o f h a v i n g r e c e i v e d the c h i l d i n t o h i s c u s t o d y and o t h e r a r t i c l e s , such as c l o t h i n g which accompanied t h e f o s t e r - c h i l d . A f o s t e r - p a r e n t s h a l l n o t become o r c o n t i n u e t o be a p a r t y t o any c o n t r a c t f o r t h e purpose o f i n s u r i n g t h e payment t o him f o r h i s own b e n e f i t o f a sum o f money upon i l l n e s s o r death o f a f o s t e r c h i l d boarded out w i t h him and where t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y have r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t the f o r e g o i n g p r o h i b i t i o n has been i n f r i n g e d the f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l be immediately withdrawn from the f o s t e r - p a r e n t .  I I - 1Q  R e l i g i o u s Persuasion: I n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n 84 (3) o f the A c t , a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n s e l e c t i n g t h e p e r s o n w i t h whom a f o s t e r - c h i l d i s t o be boarded out s h a l l , i f p o s s i b l e s e l e c t a p e r s o n who i s o f t h e same r e l i g i o n as t h e f o s t e r - c h i l d o r who g i v e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t the? f o s t e r - c h i l d w i l l be brought up i n accordance w i t h that religious persuasion. S u p e r v i s i o n and V i s i t i n g : The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l arrange f o r e v e r y f o s t e r - c h i l d t o be v i s i t e d w i t h i n a month o f h i s b e i n g boarded out and t h e r e a f t e r as o f t e n as may be n e c e s s a r y b u t n o t l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than once each t h r e e months. Where a number o f f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n are boarded o u t i n t h e same l o c a l i t y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l i f p r a c t i c a l , a p p o i n t a Committee o f hot l e s s than t h r e e persons, one a t l e a s t o f whom s h a l l be a woman, who s h a l l v i s i t by one o r more o f t h e i r number each f o s t e r - c h i l d a t the times r e q u i r e d and s h a l l make s u c h arrangements as may be e n t r u s t e d t o them.for the care and. s u p e r v i s i o n o f the f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n . P r o v i d e d t h a t where t h e l o c a l i t y i s beyond t h e a r e a o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n s t e a d o f a p p o i n t i n g a Committee, may e n t e r i n t o an arrangement f o r these purposes w i t h the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o f the l o c a l i t y . M e d i c a l C a r e : The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l arrange that medical a t t e n t i o n , i n c l u d i n g d e n t a l treatments, s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r each f o s t e r - c h i l d . Every f o s t e r - c h i l d s h a l l w i t h i n a month o f h i s b e i n g boarded o u t be? c a r e f u l l y examined by the d o c t o r who: w i l l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n and. a f u l l r e p o r t o f such e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l be forwardedl to the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . P l a c i n g f o r Employment: When a f o s t e r - c h i l d has: p a s s e d r t h e age a t which he i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o attend. a p u b l i c elementary s c h o o l , t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l make arrangements i n c o n s u l t a t i o n when d e s i r a b l e w i t h the f o s t e r - p a r e n t s , f o r p l a c i n g him i n s u i t a b l e employment. Where a f o s t e r - c h i l d has been p l a c e d i n employment and cannot c o n v e n i e n t l y c o n t i n u e t o r e s i d e w i t h t h e f o s t e r - p a r e n t , t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s h a l l make; s u i t a b l e arrangements f o r h i s care and s u p e r v i s i o n .  II -  The  Act i n B r i e f The  A c t o f 1933  d e f i n e s a c h i l d o r young p e r s o n i n need!  o f c a r e o r p r o t e c t i o n as one guardian, and  11  or a parent  guardianship,  a) who  or guardian  has no p a r e n t  or  u n f i t to e x e r c i s e  i s e i t h e r f a l l i n g i n t o bad  care  associations,  o r exposed t o moral danger, o r beyond c o n t r o l , o r i s t r e a t e d o r neglected", i n a manner l i k e l y t o cause  him  u n n e c e s s a r y s u f f e r i n g o r i n j u r y t o h e a l t h ; o r b) who a v i c t i m of a s p e c i f i e d offence sexual  offence)  r e q u i r e s care or p r o t e c t i o n ;  from r e c e i v i n g  been c o n v i c t e d  years  by f i n e o r imprisonment f o r any  o f age,  for  education.  C o n c e r n i n g c r u e l t y , the s t a t u t e makes i t an punishable  been  o r i s a member o f a household i n which s u c h  o r c) i n r e s p e c t o f whom a. v a g r a n t has him  has  ( i n c l u d i n g c r u e l t y o r a*  an o f f e n c e has been committed; and  preventing  ill-  p e r s o n over  w i l f u l l y to assault, i l l - t r e a t ,  abandon o r expose h i m — o r cause any  offence; 16  neglect,  o f these t h i n g s t o  done t o h i m — i n a manner l i k e l y t o cause him  be  unnecessary  s u f f e r i n g or i n j u r y to h e a l t h . F o l l o w i n g 1933> almost e v e r y y e a r saw  some amendment o r  a d d i t i o n to the a c t , o r a newer v e r s i o n o f i t . I n f a n t L i f e P r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s o f the 1932 were amended, by the C h i l d r e n and  I n 1938, Act  the  (part V),  Young Persons Act o f  1938.  T h i s a c t extended the powers o f J u v e n i l e C o u r t s t o a l l o w when r e v o k i n g order  instead.  a f i t person order,  them,  to s u b s t i t u t e a supervision  I t a l s o improved; the machinery t o d e a l  with  I I - 12  t r u a n c y c a s e s , and t h e law was m o d i f i e d i n r e s p e c t t o t h e s p e c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n o f J u v e n i l e C o u r t s i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e Area.  Each new a c t o r s e c t i o n o f i t however,  brought few r e a l l y r a d i c a l changes i n the treatment o f c h i l d r e n i n need o f c a r e — n o t , Act of. 1948. important,  that i s , u n t i l the C h i l d r e n  S i n c e t h e l a t t e r p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n i s so  a c l e a r e r understanding  o f the c o n d i t i o n s and  a t t i t u d e s which p r e v a i l e d a t the time, and o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l events which h e l p e d t o shape t h e a c t , a r e needed.  C o n d i t i o n s L e a d i n g up t o and i n c l u d i n g World War I I  How t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y was D i v i d e d Up u n t i l 1948 no s i n g l e government department had e x c l u s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d w e l f a r e , which, on,the c o n t r a r y , was shared.between a number o f d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c authorities. delinquency  C h i l d r e n who had been b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s f o r o r because t h e y were i n need o f c a r e came under  the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Home O f f i c e . supervised.Poor destitute child.  The M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h  Law l o c a l government u n i t s f o r the u t t e r l y Handicapped c h i l d r e n came under t h e  M i n i s t r y o f Education, while mentally d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n came under the Board o f C o n t r o l .  L a s t l y , the war orphans  were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the M i n i s t r y o f P e n s i o n s , was f e l t  as i t  they s h o u l d n o t be s t i g m a t i z e d by c o n t a c t w i t h a  I I - 13  workhouse.  I f , however, c h i l d r e n were r e c e i v e d  o p e r a t e d by v o l u n t a r y  i n t o homes  workers and s o c i e t i e s , t h e y came  under Home O f f i c e s u p e r v i s i o n .  Boarding out o f c h i l d r e n  was a r r a n g e d l o c a l l y by e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s who were a l s o responsible  t o the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h f o r enforcement o f  •-child l i f e  protection"  inspection  provisions.  (This r e f e r s t o  o f p r i v a t e homes where c h i l d r e n under n i n e y e a r s  o f age were t a k e n i n t o f o s t e r care: as a r e s u l t o f a r r a n g e ments made p r i v a t e l y by t h e i r f a m i l i e s . ) One r e s u l t o f d i v i d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n any f i e l d i s administrative refuse  evasiveness.  to receive  Local  a u t h o r i t i e s were able: to:  c h i l d r e n who had been committed t o t h e i r  custody, and sometimes they d i d s o .  Such r e f u s a l s  heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the v o l u n t a r y  placed  s o c i e t i e s , which,  w i t h t h e i r q u a s i - m i s s i o n a r y r a t i o n a l e , were h a r d put t o i t to refuse  any c h i l d .  Prevailing Attitudes  towards Deprived; C h i l d r e n  Two reasons may e x p l a i n p u b l i c i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the p l i g h t o f t h e d e p r i v e d c h i l d b e f o r e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f 1946.  One may l i e i n the p a t t e r n  described the  of divided r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  above, which made i t almost i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s i g n  o b l i g a t i o n t o improve s e r v i c e s  t o any one government-  department; the o t h e r may be the c h a r a c t e r a t t i t u d e s toward! needy people g e n e r a l l y ,  of public  which were  still  II - 1 4  h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Poor Laws o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h century.  Under t h i s i n f l u e n c e , there: was a d i s p o s i t i o n t o  h o l d t h a t s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s were expected t o p r o v i d e s h e l t e r f o r c h i l d r e n who came under t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n , b u t not s u b s t i t u t e homes.  Audrey W i l s o n , d e s c r i b i n g t h e  a t t i t u d e s o f the pre-War e r a , w r i t e s : I n some c a s e s i t was s t i l l assumed! t h a t such c h i l d r e n should" be g r a t e f u l f o r a n y t h i n g done f o r them; t h a t t h e y were a burden t o t h e rate: payers; t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be kept under c o n t r o l , taught t h e i r d u t y t o t h e i r b e t t e r s and:, be assigned! r a n k s i n u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r as soon as? possible. When p l a c e d i n a, j o b t h e y were expected t o fend: f o r themselves. If, later, such c h i l d r e n d r i f t e d , i n t o crime, produced: i l l e g i t i m a t e o f f s p r i n g , showed no i n i t i a t i v e ; , o r a l t e r n a t e l y d i s p l a y e d , a marked; grudge a g a i n s t s o c i e t y , no one r e g a r d e d such behavior; as t h e r e s u l t o f treatment r e c e i v e d . 1 The; War y e a r s ushered i n new t h r e a t s , t o the; p h y s i c a l : and- moral w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n , n o t o n l y because o f the; dangers  o f a i r a t t a c k s and t h e l i k e ,  but a l s o because; Q:£  the almost i n e v i t a b l e d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n f a m i l y l i f e : whichi r e s u l t e d from t h e u n s e t t l e d : c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the; time, e s p e c i a l l y among those? whose a b i l i t y t o cope was m a r g i n a l i n ordinary circumstances.  Evacuation o f children  from  v u l n e r a b l e c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n moreover, brought t h e problems o f the.: d e p r i v e d c h i l d t o t h e n o t i c e o f t h e people who had. h i t h e r t o known n o t h i n g o f such m a t t e r s . s t a n d a r d s were r i s i n g ,  Social  ( f u l l employment, f o r example, was;  1 W i l s o n , Audrey. P r o g r e s s i n C h i l d ; Care, N a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' s Home, Highbury Park, London, 1957,""p. 13.  II  achieved! f o r the f i r s t  -  15  time i n B r i t i s h h i s t o r y  during  World War  I I ) , and! the n a t i o n began t o expect  andiexperience  standards  o f h e a l t h care; and! economic s e c u r i t y which  fifty  y e a r s e a r l i e r had been a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o a f o r t u n a t e  few,  A. concerned awareness o f the need o f every c h i l d f o r p e r s o n a l a f f e c t i o n and care was  p e r c o l a t i n g down from  remote h e i g h t s o f e x p e r t p s y c h i a t r i c o p i n i o n t o the of  the p o p u l a r p r e s s .  The  the  levels  s u b j e c t became a m a t t e r o f  p u b l i c comment and debate andi t h e r e was t h a t something ought t o be done.  a diffuse  sense  In t h i s g e n e r a t i v e l y  p r o p i t i o u s atmosphere, a number o f n o v e l andi p a t h - f i n d i n g p r o j e c t s were c r e a t e d , and some o f these deserve  a more;  detailed inspection.  Residential  Nurseries  Set up o r i g i n a l l y by the "Save the C h i l d r e n Fund", at v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the M i n i s t r y of  H e a l t h , t h e r e were t w e n t y - e i g h t  E n g l a n d , Wales and  such n u r s e r i e s i n  S c o t l a n d by 1944.  The:; Fund, co-operated:  w i t h the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h i n f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e c o u n t r y houses i n r e l a t i v e l y s a f e r e c e p t i o n a r e a s ; c l o s e was  liaison  maintained; w i t h the M i n i s t r y by the Fund *s • o f f i c e r s ;  andi  the n u r s e r i e s were s t a f f e d i n accordance w i t h the M i n i s t r y ' s regulations.  II -  16  Another l i n e o f a c t i v i t y o f the Save the C h i l d r e n Fundi was  concerned  w i t h p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n whose mothers had  t o work away from home.  N u r s e r i e s and n u r s e r y s c h o o l s were;  e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a s where o f f i c i a l h e l p d i d not e x i s t was  still  inadequate.  or  Where the n u r s e r i e s were i n a r e a s  v u l n e r a b l e t o a e r i a l a t t a c k , a i r r a i d s h e l t e r s were provided; by the Fund. Even under the mass e v a c u a t i o n scheme, many c h i l d r e n s t i l l remained! i n London, spending  n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t i n air-  raid, shelters with t h e i r families.  Save the C h i l d r e n Fundi  workers o r g a n i z e d and  equipped  playgrounds  thus i n i t i a t i n g the s e r v i c e ; w h i c h was  i n the  shelters-—  l a t e r t o be e s t a b l i s h e d !  on a: more permanent f o o t i n g i n t h e i r J u n i o r C l u b s s e c t i o n .  The Wartime H o s t e l s Scheme Seeking  t o f i n d i the s o l u t i o n f o r the problem posed  those evacuated  c h i l d r e n whose e m o t i o n a l  c u l t i e s made the u s u a l b o a r d i n g and  or s o c i a l  by  diffi-  foster-home arrangements  i m p r a c t i c a b l e , the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h s e t up a h o s t e l scheme which was  f i n a n c e d by a 100  per cent g r a n t t o each  c o u n c i l , a l t h o u g h each c o u n c i l was  expected  k i n d ! o f s e r v i c e b e s t s u i t e d t o l o c a l need.  county  to develop  the -  H o s t e l s were  o r g a n i z e d f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e o f c h i l d r e n who was  had come;  from broken or unhappy homes, and  treatment  g i v e n by ai  v i s i t i n g team o f p s y c h i a t r i s t and  p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker,  11-17  b o t h o f whom were t o be r e s i d e n t i n t h e l o c a l i t y i n q u e s t i o n . The  average l e n g t h o f s t a y ranged from two t o f o u r y e a r s , i t  being  felt  t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n were i n need n o t  so much o f a s u b s t i t u t e home as a p r i m a r y home e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h i s was a s t a t u t o r y v e n t u r e , i t was p a r t l y by v o l u n t a r y  administered  h e l p , i n t h a t the county c o u n c i l  a p p o i n t e d a committee o f r e s i d e n t s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e operation  o f the h o s t e l s .  f o r the  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note p a r e n -  t h e t i c a l l y , t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  arrangement l i k e t h i s i s :  a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e ( d e p l o r e d by some American a u t h o r i t i e s ) o f h a v i n g a team o f " e x p e r t s " r e p o r t i n g t o a. team o f laymen, who i n t h e i r t u r n , take ax d i r e c t and o f t e n p e r s o n a l  The  Gare o f C h i l d r e n The  i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d r e n  served.  ( C u r t i s ) Committee  exposure t o p u b l i c view .of t h e c o n d i t i o n s  under  which so many c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g t h a t the e v a c u a t i o n scheme made p o s s i b l e caused: a widespread f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l uneasiness.  I n 1943, t h e Women's Group on P u b l i c W e l f a r e ,  j o i n t l y w i t h the N a t i o n a l  C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e , pub-  l i s h e d a study o f c h i l d welfare  e n t i t l e d Our T o w n s — a  Close-  Up_. Then i n J u l y 1944 a: l e t t e r t o The Times from Lady A l l e n o f Hurtwood, a Chairman o f the N u r s e r y S c h o o l s '  Association,  c a l l e d : a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p l i g h t o f c h i l d r e n deprived- o f normal p a r e n t a l c a r e .  T h i s l e t t e r was f o l l o w e d  by o t h e r s ,  II  - 18  some s u p p o r t i n g t h e work o f t h e orphanages, b u t manydescribing  regimes o f i n e x c u s a b l e harshness andi a s y s t e m a t i c  l a c k o f p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n and. a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n involved. Some time a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Lady A l l e n ' s  letter  a c h i l d , Dennis 0 ' N e i l l , . d i e d ! w h i l e i n t h e c a r e o f one authority  but boarded, out under a n o t h e r .  condition  o f c h i l d r e n i n care was g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d : by  the d i s c l o s u r e s made a t the i n q u e s t 1945.  Interest  on h i s d e a t h i n January  I t was found! t h a t the, boy had died! o f a c u t e  failure  following violence  applied  i n the:;  cardiac  t o h i s c h e s t and.back  w h i l e he was i n a s t a t e o f undernourishment and n e g l e c t . At the  ensuing t r i a l  the  foster-parent,  at Stafford! Assizes  was found! g u i l t y o f manslaughter and!  sentenced t o s i x y e a r s i n p r i s o n . neglect, The  i n March 1945, Gough,  His wife,  convicted- o f  was imprisoned! f o r s i x months. p u b l i c i t y r e s u l t i n g from t h i s t r i a l r e s u l t e d ! i n thee  government s e t t i n g up a "Care o f C h i l d r e n Committee", t h e prime t a s k o f which was "to enquire: i n t o e x i s t i n g methods o f providing  f o r c h i l d r e n who from l o s s o f p a r e n t s o r from any  cause whatever are: deprived! o f a normal home l i f e w i t h t h e i r own p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s ; and t o c o n s i d e r  what  further  measures s h o u l d be t a k e n t o ensure t h a t these c h i l d r e n a r e brought up under d i r e c t c o n d i t i o n s  best c a l c u l a t e d to  compensate them f o r t h e l a c k o f p a r e n t a l  care."  The Committee  I I - 19  was  soon re-named t h e C u r t i s Committee, a f t e r i t s  Chairman Miss  ( l a t e r Dame) Myra C u r t i s , t h e P r i n c i p a l  o f Newnham C o l l e g e , Cambridge.  F i n d i n g s o f the C u r t i s One  Committee  o f the Committee's major f i n d i n g s was t h a t i n many  c h i l d r e n ' s "homes", t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g were n o t h i n g l e s s than a p p a l l i n g .  They mentioned the l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l  attention, lack of spontaneity, u n t r a i n e d . s t a f f , s c a r c i t y o f t o y s , the h e r d i n g t o g e t h e r o f c h i l d r e n i n l a r g e groups, and t h e absence o f h e a l t h y and r e g u l a r c o n t a c t s w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . C h i l d r e n were o f t e n housed w i t h t h e e l d e r l y , s i c k and m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g account. An example o f t h i s k i n d o f motley c o l l e c t i o n was found, i n one county. An o l d Poor Law i n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d i n g accommodation f o r 170 a d u l t s , i n c l u d i n g o r d i n a r y workhouse accommodation, an i n f i r m a r y f o r s e n i l e o l d people and a few men and women c e r t i f i e d as e i t h e r mentally d e f e c t i v e or mentally disordered. In t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n t h e r e were twenty-seven c h i l d r e n , age s i x months t o f i f t e e n y e a r s . Twelve c h i l d r e n up t o t h e age o f e i g h t e e n months were t h e c h i l d r e n o f the women i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , about h a l f o f them s t i l l b e i n g nursed! by each mother. I n the same room i n which these c h i l d r e n were b e i n g c a r e d f o r was a Mongol i d i o t , aged, f o u r , o f g r o s s appearance, f o r whom t h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y no accommodation elsewhere. A f a m i l y o f f i v e normal c h i l d r e n , aged about s i x t o f i f t e e n who had been admitted on a r e l i e v i n g o f f i c e r ' s o r d e r , had been i n the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t e n weeks. This f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g a boy o f t e n and a*, g i r l o f f i f t e e n were s l e e p i n g i n the same room as a. three year o l d hydrocephalic i d i o t , o f very  II  -  20  u n s i g h t l y type, whose bed was screened o f f i n the c o r n e r . The f i f t e e n y e a r o l d g i r l had been employed d u s t i n g the women's i n f i r m a r y ward. These c h i l d r e n had been admitted i n the middle o f the n i g h t when t h e i r mother had l e f t them under a hedge a f t e r e v i c t i o n from t h e i r home. No p l a n appeared t o have been made f o r them. Another f a m i l y o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n , aged e i g h t t o twelve, were s l e e p i n g i n the 'nursery' p a r t o f the b u i l d i n g . They had been brought i n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n on a 'place o f s a f e t y order. We were t o l d i n the e d u c a t i o n and p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e o f f i c e s t h a t t h e i r case wouldl s h o r t l y be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h a view t o f u r t h e r a c t i o n , but t h e y had a l r e a d y been i n the workhouse f o r f o u r months. We were t o l d i n a n o t h e r county t h a t i n some o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s a r e a t h e r e was nowhere t o put the o l d e r c h i l d r e n t o s l e e p except i n the a d u l t wards. Children had o c c a s i o n a l l y been sent back to t h e i r homes i n which t h e y had been n e g l e c t e d because i t was thought b e t t e r f o r them t h a n the c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e y would have had t o be c a r e d f o r i n the workhouse. 1 1  One t o be  o f the main d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the c h i l d care  emphasized by the C u r t i s Committee r e p o r t was  o f t r a i n i n g f o r s t a f f , both v o l u n t a r y  the  paid.  Behind  t h i s , Audrey W i l s o n s u g g e s t s , l a y "...the t a c i t  assump-  t i o n t h a t t h e i r work was enough t o n e c e s s i t a t e  and  program  n e i t h e r important n o r  training."  up o f the C e n t r a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l  (Following  lack  difficult: the s e t t i n g  i n C h i l d . Care i n 1947>  t r a i n i n g courses f o r b o a r d i n g - o u t v i s i t o r s and  child  care;  o f f i c e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n c e r t a i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , and. up t o the  end  o f 1954,  412  women and  24 men  had  1 Report o f Care o f C h i l d r e n Committee p a r a . 140. 2  W i l s o n , op.  c i t . , p.  28.  been awarded:  (1946),H.M.S.0.,  I I - 22.  t h e ? C o u n c i l ' s c e r t i f i c a t e on s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  completing  t h e i r year's t r a i n i n g . ) Beveridge,  commenting on the f i n d i n g s o f t h e C u r t i s -  Committee, observes  t h a t they c o n c e n t r a t e d on  ...children i n public i n s t i t u t i o n s or i n voluntary homes, whether t h e l a t t e r a r e m a i n t a i n e d by p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r conducted as businesses. The t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n thus coming under review was 125,000 of whom about 40,000 a r e i n l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n s t i t u t i o n s , about 40,000 i n v o l u n t a r y homes andi 45,000 i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n c l u d i n g Approved! S c h o o l s , remand homes and! Approved p r o b a t i o n homes andi hostels f o r juvenile offenders, andia great v a r i e t y o f f o s t e r homes. Some, both o f the Approved! s c h o o l s and o f t h e f o s t e r homes, a r e maintained! by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s andi some by voluntary agencies. A l t o g e t h e r o f t h e 125,000 c h i l d r e n p r o b a b l y h a l f a r e now i n t h e c a r e o f a p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y , and; h a l f i n the c a r e o f ai v o l u n t a r y agency. 1 In examining t h e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s kept  especially  f o r c h i l d r e n t h e Committee was n o t q u i t e so gloomy, but it  was by no means c h e e r f u l .  The b u i l d i n g s were u n s u i t a b l e :  i n a number o f ways, w i t h stone f l o o r s , h a l f - t i l e d w a l l s , hard wooden c h a i r s and p l a i n wooden t a b l e s .  Long d o r m i -  t o r i e s housed; row upon row o f white counterpaned beds, no> o t h e r f u r n i t u r e b e i n g i n evidence  except a b e d s i d e l o c k e r .  The: l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g cared; f o r made i n d i v i d u a l care i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s v i r t u a l l y impossible:. R i g i d ; systems o f s e g r e g a t i o n were o f t e n i n f o r c e , so t h a t a c h i l d , would" spend, most o f h i s time o f h i s own sex and age group.  1  Beveridge,  op. c i t . ,  i n the s o c i e t y o n l y  When the number o f c h i l d r e n  p. 2 3 5 .  II -  22  came t o t h i r t y o r more, s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e was the day.  I f one  a general  uproar.  c h i l d t a l k e d , i n bed,  the o r d e r  t h i s could lead to  Audrey W i l s o n , commenting on  barracks-like existence,  this  writes:  T h i s v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f l a r g e numbers, s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , f e a r , suppressed or repressed : n a t u r a l f e e l i n g s , was a l l too o f t e n surrounded by another o n e — t h i s time a p h y s i c a l one o f a h i g h w a l l and locked, g a t e s around a group o f Homes. The compound would c o n t a i n the s c h o o l , c h u r c h , s t o r e s , p l a y i n g f i e l d , swimming b a t h , l a u n d r y , garden, n u r s e r y f o r young c h i l d r e n , so t h a t t h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y no n e c e s s i t y , andi o f t e n , no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n t o go beyond the l o c k e d g a t e s u n t i l they l e f t the Home.... S t a t u t o r y c h i l d r e n ' s Homes were c o n s i d e r e d p l a c e s o f s h e l t e r , and l o g i c a l l y , i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d and not allowed t o run away. A l though c h i l d r e n c o u l d not be blamed f o r the misdemeanours o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s , i n f a c t 'the s i n s o f f a t h e r s were v i s i t e d ! upon the: c h i l d r e n ' . E x c e p t by the e n l i g h t e n e d , i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n were s t i g m a t i z e d ; theboy whose f a t h e r was i n p r i s o n would not be allowed t o f o r g e t i t ( o s t e n s i b l y l e s t he s h o u l d f o l l o w i n the p a r e n t a l f o o t s t e p s ) , the: g i r l whose mother was a p r o s t i t u t e might be reminded t h a t she h e r s e l f s h o u l d be wary o f immorality. The idea* was t h a t c h i l d r e n had t o be p r o t e c t e d , a g a i n s t the v i c i o u s n e s s t h a t was i n them and f i r m l y t r a i n e d i n t o o t h e r forms o f b e h a v i o u r . A g a i n , i t i s o n l y f a i r t o add. t h a t home c o n d i t i o n s , b e f o r e the c h i l d r e n came i n t o c a r e , had o f t e n made them tough, c e r t a i n l y d i s t u r b e d , and sometimes v i c i o u s and. p e r v e r t e d . In many c a s e s the s t a f f were a f r a i d o f them and! sometimes f o r t h e i r own s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n had t o m a i n t a i n v e r y s t r i c t c o n t r o l . Any s i g n o f k i n d n e s s was r e g a r d e d as s o f t n e s s by b o t h boys and g i r l s and.an avalanche o f d i s o r d e r would f o l l o w . Such c o n t r o l , o f c o u r s e , l e d t o problems o f d e c e i t , s t e a l i n g , c r u e l t y , sex p e r v e r s i o n and i n c o n t i n e n c e , but the commection between the two was not p e r c e i v e d . Moreover, when numbers were so g r e a t , and m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s so hard, i t was: d i f f i c u l t f o r the s t a f f t o be k i n d ; t h a t some d i d a c h i e v e a: warm  of  I I - 23  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n was a t r i b u t e t o t h e i r o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and. l a r g e heartedness. 1 There were o c c a s i o n a l e x c e p t i o n s , where a p r o g r e s s i v e ; a u t h o r i t y o r an i n s p i r e d o f f i c i a l had succeeded i n k e e p i n g h i s c h a r g e s ' needs uppermost i n mind.  But t h i s was f a r  from the common r u n o f t h i n g s . I n t u r n i n g t o the homes m a i n t a i n e d by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the Committee found a. v a r i e t y o f s p o n s o r s h i p which extended from the t h r e e l a r g e s o c i e t i e s , each f o r thousands  caring  o f c h i l d r e n i n homes e s t a b l i s h e d a l l o v e r the  country, t o — a t  the o t h e r e x t r e m e — s m a l l v i l l a homes  managed by a l o c a l committee and f i n a n c e d by a l o c a l f o r seven t o t e n l o c a l  charity  children.  Among the t h r e e l a r g e s o c i e t i e s r e f e r r e d t o , Dr. Barnardo's Homes, a t the time o f t h e Committee's R e p o r t , m a i n t a i n e d some 7,500 c h i l d r e n , the C a t h o l i c C h i l d : Welfare C o u n c i l was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r about 14,000, and the  Church  o f E n g l a n d C h i l d r e n ' s S o c i e t y accounted: f o r more than 6,000. There was  a l s o the N a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' s Homes, a t t h a t  time  h a v i n g more than 3,000 c h i l d r e n i n i t s d i r e c t c a r e , and w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a n o t h e r 1,000 making a d o p t i o n arrangements.  f o r whom i t was  There were a l s o f o u r s m a l l e r  a g e n c i e s — t h e S h a f t e s b u r y Homes, the A r e t h u s a T r a i n i n g S h i p , the J e w i s h Board o f Guardians, and the C h i l d r e n ' s Aid' S o c i e t y ,  1  W i l s o n , op. c i t . ,  pp. 2 8 - 2 9 .  II  - 24  which were a s s o c i a t e d : w i t h the l a r g e r ones t h r o u g h the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s Homes. The  C u r t i s Committee summarized i t s i m p r e s s i o n s  of the  v o l u n t a r y homes i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. In t h e main, homes r u n by the v o l u n t a r y Committees and o r g a n i z a t i o n s expressed, t h e s i n c e r e and g e n e r a l d e s i r e o f t h e i r f o u n d e r s t o do good t o those i n s p e c i a l need, and t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e homeless c h i l d a t a p e r i o d i n t h e n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y when t h e s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s were n o t as developed as they are today. Although o f t e n hampered by l a r g e b u i l d i n g s which made d i f f i c u l t t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s so n e c e s s a r y t o t h e f u l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r work, t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t as a group t h e v o l u n t a r y homes f e l l below t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f c h i l d c a r e now o b t a i n i n g throughout t h e c o u n t r y . I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e y were w e l l above i t . ( P a r a . 227)  The p r i n c i p a l recommendations o f t h e C u r t i s . Committee were: a) b)  c)  d)  That r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c a r e o f deprived! c h i l d r e n a t the c e n t r a l government l e v e l s h o u l d be i n one department. The. c e n t r a l department s h o u l d be empowered: t o make r u l e s under which c h i l d r e n might be boarded! out o r maintained! i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e s e r u l e s being a p p l i e d to voluntary organizations e q u a l l y with l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . That a l l v o l u n t a r y homes s h o u l d be r e g i s t e r e d , w i t h and. i n s p e c t e d : by t h e c e n t r a l department, but t h a t s u b j e c t t o g e n e r a l r u l e s and! t o t h i s i n s p e c t i o n , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be f r e e t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n the; care o f c h i l d r e n . That each l o c a l a u t h o r i t y should, s e t up a C h i l d r e n ' s Committee and a p p o i n t a Children's:O f f i c e r w i t h adequate s t a f f t o d e a l w i t h t h e care o f deprived c h i l d r e n .  II  - 25  The. p u b l i c a t i o n o f the C u r t i s Committee's Report  was  f o l l o w e d ! w i t h i n e i g h t e e n months by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a Bill  i n P a r l i a m e n t which was designed, t o implement  a l l t h e Report's  The  almost  major recommendations.  C h i l d r e n A c t o f 194-8. T h i s a c t embodied t h e recommendations o f t h e C u r t i s ;  Committee, c h i e f o f which was the. c r e a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n of  C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r t o g e t h e r w i t h the new c o r r e l a t i v e ;  departments o f government.  I t a l s o p l a c e d s q u a r e l y upon  the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t h e d u t y o f t a k i n g i n t o c a r e  children  who had. been committed t o t h e i r custody by c o u r t o r d e r . T h i s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e governments o f c o u n t i e s and. county boroughs had the d u t y t o p r o v i d e c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n up t o the age o f e i g h t e e n s h o u l d t h e i r w e l f a r e r e q u i r e public: , 1  care,—by  v i r t u e o f t h e i r b e i n g orphaned: o r d e s e r t e d , o r  t h e i r p a r e n t s b e i n g t e m p o r a r i l y o r permanently i n c a p a b l e of  ' p r o v i d i n g f o r p r o p e r accommodation, maintenance and  upbringing'. The  Care o f C h i l d r e n Committee-had recommended: a l s o t h a t  p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n adoption, the boarding-out  through  o f c h i l d r e n and r e s i d e n t i a l  children's homes—in that order.  R e g u l a t i o n s l a i d down  s i n c e t h e C h i l d r e n A c t o f 1948 have made i t i l l e g a l a p r o f i t from the f o s t e r i n g o f c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h for  t o show remuneration  c l o t h i n g and food i s allowed by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o r  I I - 26  voluntary organization responsible.  ( S p e c i a l payments  can be made f o r u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . )  In practice  r e s u l t s i n some economy o f o p e r a t i o n , because  this  boarding-  out i s much cheaper f o r t h e a u t h o r i t y than t h e s e t t i n g up o f r e s i d e n t i a l care i n t h e form o f c h i l d r e n ' s homes. There are. important p r o v i s i o n s under t h e C h i l d r e n A c t r e s p e c t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f c a r e t h a t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s must provide f o r c h i l d r e n - i n - c a r e .  The Home O f f i c e has r e g u -  l a t o r y powers over b o a r d i n g o u t o f c h i l d r e n by t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and i f t h e need a r i s e s , i t c a n arrange t o p r o v i d e , e q u i p and m a i n t a i n c h i l d r e n ' s homes. A l t h o u g h t h e Home O f f i c e r e t a i n e d a g e n e r a l o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e c o u n c i l s o f c o u n t i e s and county b o r oughs were d e s i g n a t e d : the " l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s " f o r the purposes  o f the a c t .  E v e r y l o c a l a u t h o r i t y had t h e  o b l i g a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a C h i l d r e n ' s Committee t o d i s c h a r g e its  f u n c t i o n s under t h e a c t .  I n c l u d e d here was t h e d u t y  o f a p p o i n t i n g a C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r t o c a r r y o u t t h e work o f the committee.  S i n c e t h i s C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r was t o be t h e  key p e r s o n i n l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h i s o r h e r appointment had t o be made i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the S e c r e t a r y o f State.. Such l o c a l C h i l d r e n ' s Committees, as t h e y came t o be c a l l e d , were t o be made up p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f t h e e l e c t e d ! members o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y .  T h i s n u c l e u s had t h e r i g h t  t o co-opt n o n - e l e c t e d persons who were p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d , f o r such w o r k — i n  o t h e r words t o co-opt w i l l i n g v o l u n t e e r s .  I I - 2?  U n t i l 1958 P a r l i a m e n t  c o n t i n u e d t o have t h e o b l i g a t i o n  o f p a y i n g g r a n t s t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , n o t t o exceed per cent o f t h e i r expenses, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h taken i n t o c a r e .  fifty  children  I n s p e c t i o n powers h e l d by t h e Home O f f i c e  a p p l i e d t o a l l t h e premises m a i n t a i n e d  by l o c a l  authorities  i n c l u d i n g f o s t e r homes, a d o p t i v e homes and r e c e i v i n g homes, as w e l l as the c h i l d r e n t h e r e i n . A u t h o r i t i e s were a l s o i n s t r u c t e d by t h e a c t t o s e t up Reception  Centres where c h i l d r e n would be t a k e n on a r r i v a l  i n c a r e t o r e c e i v e m e d i c a l examinations  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t e s t s and be observed, by r e s i d e n t and n o n - r e s i d e n t A f t e r b e i n g admitted  staff.  t o a r e c e p t i o n c e n t r e , a c h i l d might  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o an i n t e r m e d i a t e home, and from t h e r e a. foster-home o r l o n g - s t a y home.  Prom e i t h e r o f t h e s e , he  might a g a i n be m o v e d — t h i s time  t o another  another  c h i l d r e n ' s home.  foster-home o r  I f the c h i l d has t r o u b l e a d j u s t i n g  t o t h e a d u l t s i n charge o f him he may make a v a r i e t y o f moves; b u t these moves must, t o conform t o t h e s p i r i t o f 1948  A c t , be caused, by a, r e a l emergency r a t h e r than an  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e whim.  The  C h i l d r e n ' s Department A c r e a t i o n o f t h e 1948 A c t , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Department  i s a major d i v i s i o n o f t h e Home O f f i c e , the P a r l i a m e n t a r y head o f which i s a m i n i s t e r who h o l d s by v i r t u e o f t h i s  II  - 28  o f f i c e a s e n i o r membership i n the C a b i n e t . s e r v a n t h o l d i n g the t i t l e t h i s Department.  A  civil  o f A s s i s t a n t U n d e r s e c r e t a r y heads  There are f o u r d i v i s i o n s :  2) J u v e n i l e C o u r t s and A d o p t i o n ;  1) C h i l d  Care;  3) Approved; S c h o o l s ;  and  4) the I n s p e c t o r a t e . The: f i r s t  t h r e e C h i l d r e n ' s Departments c o n c e r n  l a r g e l y w i t h the development o f s t a n d a r d s .  themselves  These are  e x p r e s s e d andi c o d i f i e d i n r e g u l a t i o n s c a l l e d S t a n d i n g  Orders—  a form o f d e l e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l e d s t a t u t o r y  instruments.  They come b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t and w i t h i n a c e r t a i n  time  become law i f they meet w i t h no o b j e c t i o n s t h e r e . fourth d i v i s i o n — t h e  The.-  I n s p e c t o r a t e — a c t s as l i a i s o n between  the n a t i o n a l government and the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s  and  voluntary organizations.  The  A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on C h i l d  Care  Another s t a t u t o r y product o f the 1948  A c t i s an  A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , the members o f which a?e a p p o i n t e d by the Home S e c r e t a r y so as t o secure r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from  every  f i e l d o f knowledge h a v i n g t o do w i t h c h i l d w e l f a r e . Members of  t h i s Council also constitute a non-statutory advisory  committee, the C e n t r a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l which  concerns  i t s e l f w i t h the many k i n d s o f t r a i n i n g and s t a f f  develop-  ment needed t o meet the h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s r e q u i r e d by the 1948  Act.  I I - 29  T r a i n i n g Programs The  t r a i n i n g f o r c h i l d ! care o f f i c e r s c o n s i s t s o f a  one y e a r course which i s open t o s u i t a b l e people s o c i a l s c i e n c e degrees  with  or with c e r t i f i c a t e s i n teaching,  h e a l t h v i s i t i n g , s o c i a l work o r s i m i l a r f i e l d s .  The  c o u r s e s a r e seldom f u l l because o f the p a u c i t y o f people with the p r e r e q u i s i t e education. e d u c a t i o n a l requirements  People w i t h o u t  such  f o r the c h i l d care o f f i c e r  course  but w i t h o t h e r d e s i r a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , a r e e l i g i b l e f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y y e a r o f t r a i n i n g a t Bedford C o l l e g e ( U n i v e r s i t y o f London) o r t h e London S c h o o l o f Economics and- P o l i t i c a l Science.  Students e n r o l l e d ! i n e i t h e r phase o f t h e t r a i n i n g  scheme a r e e l i g i b l e  f o r Home O f f i c e g r a n t s .  F o l l o w i n g t h e C e n t r a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l ' s recommendations, the Home O f f i c e a l s o sponsored: a l o n g and a s h o r t course f o r houseparents.  T h i s move s t i m u l a t e d many l o c a l  children's  committees t o d e v e l o p c o u r s e s o f t h e i r own f o r houseparents: in their districts.  I n 1954, n i n e such c o u r s e s were g i v e n —  f i v e by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s through t h e i r l o c a l  education  departments,  and f o u r by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e i r  own s t a f f s .  The C e n t r a l T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l ' s " l e t t e r o f  r e c o g n i t i o n " i s awarded! t o s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s .  By the;  end o f 195-^j 900 women and 150 men had. r e c e i v e d , such f o r m a l acknowlegements.  I I - 30  Refresher  Courses  Up t o the end.of  1954  t h i r t e e n b r i e f c o u r s e s had  h e l d f o r c h i l d c a r e o f f i c e r s a l r e a d y employed who  been  had  not  had the n e c e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n a l background t o r e g i s t e r f o r By t h a t d a t e , 323  the r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g program. had  persons  attended. Many houseparents  were a l r e a d y employed a t the time  p a s s i n g o f the a c t , a n d i f o r these p e o p l e ,  of  intensive  r e f r e s h e r courses o f from ten days t o t h r e e weeks d u r a t i o n have been g i v e n . • nature  Most o f the c o u r s e s are o f a g e n e r a l  ( e . g . c h i l d psychology, home and garden management)  but a few  are designed, t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d  o f the work o f houseparents,  aspects  such as the problems o f  "managing" d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . Commenting i n 1957  on the e f f e c t s o f the  training  programs, Audrey W i l s o n wrote: H a p p i l y , c o - o p e r a t i o n between a l l workers i n the c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e has improved d u r i n g the; p a s t seven y e a r s . D u r i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g , both c h i l d care o f f i c e r s and houseparents are enabled t o see something o f each o t h e r ' s work and t o a p p r e c i a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y and d i f f i c u l t y o f i t . Many c h i l d c a r e o f f i c e r s have p r e v i o u s l y worked as houseparents and t h i s g i v e s them a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s who are working i n c h i l d r e n ' s Homes. O c c a s i o n a l l y the o u t s i d e workers t r a n s f e r from b o a r d i n g - o u t t o c h i l d r e n ' s Homes, but t h i s i s not o f t e n the; case as most o f them p r e f e r the freedom o f n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l work. 1  1  W i l s o n , op. c i t . ,  p.  24.  31i  II  The  1948 A c t and I t s E f f e c t on One V o l u n t a r y  Organization  W i t h i t s s t r o n g emphasis on c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e work o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c h i l d w e l f a r e Act o f 1948 p l a c e d  the Children's  c o n t r o l o f voluntary agencies f i r m l y  under government c o n t r o l . but  agencies,  T h i s i t d i d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways,  c h i e f l y through the new i n s p e c t i o n powers and p e r s o n n e l  o f t h e Home O f f i c e . Many o f t h e p r i v a t e : c h i l d ! w e l f a r e a semi-autonomous s t a t u s b e f o r e 1948  a g e n c i e s had: enjoyed!  the proclamation  o f the:  A c t , and none more so, perhaps, t h a t the N a t i o n a l  S o c i e t y f o r the P r e v e n t i o n  o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n . The;  S o c i e t y d e r i v e s i t s powers from a R o y a l C h a r t e r  which  d i r e c t s i t t o "prevent t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e wrongs o f c h i l d r e n " and t o e n f o r c e  the law. f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n —  and. t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t e n e n t a i l s immediate emergency a c t i o n , unhampered by s t a t u t o r y p r o t o c o l .  Thus t h e S o c i e t y  can range f r e e l y o v e r t h e whole f i e l d , o f problems i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n , without f i r s t  checking  t o see which s t a t u t o r y  a u t h o r i t y might p r o p e r l y be i n v o l v e d . Yet  i t was s e m i - i r r e s p o n s i b l e powers l i k e these t h a t  the a c t was i n t e n d e d  to control.  The S o c i e t y was a c c o r -  d i n g l y informed by t h e Government t h a t N.S.P.C.C. I n s p e c t o r s , would now come under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e I n s p e c t o r s ^ o f the C h i l d r e n ' s Department o f t h e Home O f f i c e . was  g i v e n the c h o i c e  o f agreeing  arrangement o r o f h a v i n g  The S o c i e t y  Voluntarily to this  the Government e n f o r c e  i t s ruling  II  w i t h an A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t .  - 32  The  S o c i e t y agreed:.  On  the;  n a t i o n a l scene, the Home O f f i c e I n s p e c t o r s were t o have no c o n t r o l over the S o c i e t y ' s o f f i c i a l s , but the  latter  were henceforward under o b l i g a t i o n t o r e p o r t on m a t t e r s needing to  r e c t i f i c a t i o n t o the C h i l d r e n ' s Department, t h e r e  be c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r i n c o n c e r t w i t h the D i r e c t o r , Even w i t h the 1948  Act however, the N.S.P.C.C. r e t a i n s  much o f i t s t r a d i t i o n a l independence on the l o c a l scene. ^  THE  The  GREAT VOLUNTARY SOCIETIES  continued  e x i s t e n c e andi a c t i v i t y o f v o l u n t a r y  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d i s evidence vitality  o f the p e r s i s t e n t  o f a c e r t a i n e v a n g e l i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d concern  with  the moral w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n which i s a d i s t i n c t i v e tradition in British social l i f e .  State p r o v i s i o n of  c h i l d w e l f a r e i s aided; andi supplemented i n v a r i o u s ways by a g r e a t number o f these v o l u n t a r y bodies> both those l o n g - s t a n d i n g such as the N.S.P.C.C. and those  of  o f more  r e c e n t o r i g i n l i k e the F a m i l y S e r v i c e U n i t s , founded d u r i n g World War  I I t o work w i t h problem  Such v e n e r a b l e  families.  i n s t i t u t i o n s as the Dr. Barnardo Homes,  the N a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' s Homes and  the Church o f England  1 There i s a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r y o f the work o f the N.S.P.C.C. below. See pp. 3 3 - 3 6 .  I I - 33  Waifs and S t r a y s S o c i e t y  ( l a t e r re-named t h e C. o f E .  C h i l d r e n ' s S o c i e t y ) a l l saw the l i g h t o f day i n the l a t e nineteenth  century.  They were founded by f e r v e n t  church  men o r l a y members who had been moved t o a c t i o n by the d r e a d f u l c o n d i t i o n s o f c h i l d n e g l e c t which came i n the wake o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n .  These a r e now c o n -  s t i t u e n t s o c i e t i e s o f the National Council o f Associated! C h i l d r e n ' s Homes, w i t h which a l a r g e number o f s m a l l e r v o l u n t a r y homes have a l s o a f f i l i a t e d The  themselves.  National S o c i e t y f o r the Prevention  of Cruelty  t o C h i l d r e n acknowledges a s i m i l a r o r i g i n , h a v i n g  been  founded by Benjamin Waugh, a l a y E v a n g e l i c a l p r e a c h e r whose c r u s a d i n g  s p i r i t was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , among  o t h e r t h i n g s , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of j u v e n i l e court  l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1908*  The  N.S.P.C.C. The  had  N.S.P.C.C. began as a London S o c i e t y i n 1884-, but  extended i t s scope t o t h a t o f a n a t i o n a l feody as l i t t l e  as f i v e y e a r s l a t e r . Charter,  having  I n 1895 i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d , by R o y a l  assigned  t o i t two main purposes:  1) t o  p r e v e n t the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e wrongs o f c h i l d r e n and t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e i r morals;  2) t o take a c t i o n f o r the^  enforcement o f laws f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n .  I I - 34  The N . S . P . C . C . Once i t brought  has had rough passages  a l i b e l a c t i o n and: won i t ;  i n i t s history. another time: i t  had t o r e q u e s t f o r m a l i n q u i r y i n t o i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o c l e a r i t s name o f v i l i f y i n g charges and i t succeeded.in t h i s a c t i o n too.  And i t has l i v e d , w i t h the  p r o b l e m — a l w a y s c a p a b l e o f p r o v o k i n g embarrassment o r a c a n d a l — o f j u s t i f y i n g i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n people's domestic  privacies.  In t h e e a r l y days the S o c i e t y even had; t o p r o v i d e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r expansion.  Whenever i t suggested;, the?  f o r m a t i o n o f a c h a p t e r i n a new town, t h a t town would: v o c i f e r o u s l y p r o c l a i m the absence o f any c o n d i t i o n s which would-imply  a need! f o r the s e r v i c e s o f t h e N . S . P . C . J C .  H a p p i l y , t h e cases o f a p p a l l i n g b r u t a l i t y which were common i n the e a r l y days a r e now r a r e , c h i e f l y because t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d s o f competent parenthood  have r i s e n .  cases r e p o r t e d , t o t h e S o c i e t y today would have  Most o f the^ passed  unnoticed', i n the h a r s h e r days o f f o r t y o r f i f t y y e a r s ago. The  cases t y p i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h by the N . S . P . C . C .  i n v o l v e such t h i n g s as e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g ,  today  gambling,  indifference, f i l t h ,  b r u t a l i t y , and o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e s u i c i d e  of a s i n g l e parent.  I n e v e r y case t h e I n s p e c t o r e n t e r s the:  home n o t t o p u n i s h b u t t o rescue: the c h i l d r e n , and most o f the time t h i s can be done by h e l p i n g t h e p a r e n t s . The S o c i e t y has a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t i n e x t e n d i n g thee scope  o f i t s laws t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n .  U n t i l 1889 t h e r e  I I . - 35  was  no g e n e r a l l e t d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s r i g h t s .  In  t h a t y e a r , the N.S.P.C.C helped! t o secure passage o f the: first  " C h i l d r e n ' s C h a r t e r " , which a s s e r t e d ! t h a t "no  person  h a v i n g the custody, charge o r c a r e o f a boy under f o u r t e e n o r a g i r l under s i x t e e n might n e g l e c t o r i l l - t r e a t  such  a child  suffering."  i n a manner l i k e l y t o cause i t unnecessary  T h i s a c t a l s o removed the requirement e v i d e n c e on o a t h .  that a c h i l d give  .(There had- been cases where the  had been too young t o understand  child!  the n a t u r e o f an o a t h ,  c o n s e q u e n t l y had not been a b l e t o g i v e e v i d e n c e . )  The  o r i g i n a l " C h i l d r e n ' s C h a r t e r " has s i n c e been developed, c o u r s e , i n many ways, n o t a b l y by the A c t s o f 1894, 1908  and 1933*  A l l t h e s e measures owe  and  of  1904,  much t o the continued,  e f f o r t s o f the. N.S.P.C.C In the y e a r 1960-61 the N.S.P.C.C. d e a l t w i t h n e a r l y 40,000 c a s e s , i n v o l v i n g a t o t a l o f o v e r 112,000 c h i l d r e n . In a q u a r t e r o f the c a s e s , the p a r e n t s themselves a d v i c e about the p r o p e r c a r e o f t h e i r Most cases are brought the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  children.  t o the n o t i c e o f t h e S o c i e t y by  A s u b s t a n t i a l number o f cases are  r e f e r r e d by p o l i c e , s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s o r o t h e r and a few  sought  officials,  are d i s c o v e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y by the S o c i e t y ' s  i n s p e c t o r s i n the course o f t h e i r work.  P a r e n t s were  prosecuted f o r n e g l e c t i n g or i l l - t r e a t i n g t h e i r  children  i n fd.nly 354  corres-  ponding  cases  ( l e s s than one p e r c e n t ) ; the  number i n 1901-02 was  2,839.  I I - 36  The  N.S.P.C.C. employs men i n s p e c t o r s and women  visitors.  Each i n s p e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n v e s t i -  gation of a l l alleged c h i l d neglect  o r c r u e l t y found i n  h i s a r e a and f o r t a k i n g a p p r o p r i a t e  action—if  necessary,  a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with h i s l o c a l branch s e c r e t a r y , t o whom he r e p o r t s a l l h i s c a s e s .  Where p r o s e c u t i o n i s  proposed, t h e case i s r e f e r r e d t o h e a d q u a r t e r s .  The  honorary branch s e c r e t a r i e s , who a r e o f t e n s o l i c i t o r s o r members o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e take an important share o f t h e work.  There a r e i n a l l over 30>0C-0 v o l u n t a r y  c o l l e c t o r s and o t h e r a u x i l i a r y p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t l y engaged i n t h e p e r s o n a l  who a r e n o t  work w i t h p a r e n t s and:  children. When i t appears from t h e i n s p e c t o r ' s i n i t i a l v i s i t t o the home t h a t m a t e r n a l inadequacy i s the cause o f t h e t r o u b l e , he may ask a woman v i s i t o r t o take c h a r g e .  The  women v i s i t o r s r e c e i v e a s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g t o enable them by r e g u l a r v i s i t i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n t o educate as w e l l as t o encourage mothers i n methods o f hygiene and home-making. Each v i s i t o r t a k e s c a s e s from two o r t h r e e i n s p e c t o r s and. her case l o a d i s l i m i t e d t o 2 3 .  U n l i k e the i n s p e c t o r , t h e  woman v i s i t o r does n o t wear a u n i f o r m .  Voluntary  Work w i t h  S o c i a l work w i t h  'Problem F a m i l i e s ' f a m i l i e s who a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y unable  I I - 37  t o manage t h e i r l i v e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , o f home l i f e  and whose  standards  and c h i l d care g i v e cause f o r c o n c e r n ,  been undertaken,  i n B r i t a i n as elsewhere,  has  by many s o c i a l  a g e n c i e s ; but none has been so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s f i e l d o f s o c i a l work as the F a m i l y S e r v i c e U n i t s . A v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s workers undertake i n t e n s i v e : casework w i t h f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r own London and  homes i n f o u r areas i n  i n several other E n g l i s h cities—Birmingham,  B r a d f o r d , B r i s t o l , L e i c e s t e r , L i v e r p o o l , Manchester, Oldham S a l f o r d , S h e f f i e l d , S t o c k p o r t and York. o f f i v e t o t e n s o c i a l workers, men the l o c a l a r e a and  Each u n i t c o n s i s t s  and women who  c e n t r e o f work.  live in  Each worker i s r e s p o n -  s i b l e f o r g i v i n g p e r s o n a l h e l p , f r i e n d s h i p and s u p e r v i s i o n , o f t e n o v e r l e n g t h y p e r i o d s o f time, t o a n y t h i n g between and 25 f a m i l i e s a t a t i m e .  The  u n i t s r e c e i v e both  12  referral  and a s s i s t a n c e from the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s o f the areas i n which t h e y work.  O f f i c i a l A t t i t u d e s Toward the V o l u n t a r y F o l l o w i n g the 1948  Act t h e r e was  an  Societies understandable  p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o the e f f e c t t h a t the v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s had had  t h e i r day,  and t h a t "the s t a t e " c o u l d now  a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d welfare.  assume  But the i n v e t e r a t e  and double-edged B r i t i s h h a b i t o f d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g by  halve  II -  reasserted i t s e l f .  On  38  August 3 ,  p u b l i c a t i o n of a j o i n t c i r c u l a r  1950,  f o l l o w i n g the  (see below) from  m i n i s t r i e s involved i n c h i l d care, urging n a t i o n between p u b l i c and statement w i t h the t i t l e appeared i n The probably  Times.  full  voluntary agencies, " A u t h o r i t i e s and  the  co-ordian  editorial  the C h i l d " .  Its painstaking judiciousness i s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p r e s e n t  state of  official  opinion i n B r i t a i n . The c i r c u l a r e x h o r t s e v e r y l o c a l a u t h o r i t y t o a s s i g n t o one o f f i c e r the duty o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g the v a r i o u s l o c a l s e r v i c e s concerned w i t h the w e l f a r e o f n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . I t i s not e x p l i c i t y s t a t e d t h a t t h i s i s t o be the C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r a p p o i n t e d under the r e c e n t A c t , but perhaps t h e r e i s here no need! o f r i g i d u n i f o r m i t y . What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t the c o - o r d i n a t i n g o f f i c e r , i n b r i n g i n g about r e g u l a r meetings o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the l o c a l s e r v i c e s , i s charged t o i n c l u d e those o f the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s working f o r c h i l d c a r e . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l u e o f p r i v a t e benevolence from which the whole impulse t o b e t t e r the c o n d i t i o n o f c h i l d r e n has come i s no more than t h e i r due; but i t i s not always made. Though i t would be unwise t o assume t h a t the f e r v o u r t h a t goes i n t o the v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e : cannot be matfcched by p a i d o f f i c i a l s , t h e r e i s much t o be done f o r c h i l d r e n by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s which the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine i s bound t o do l e s s w e l l , and sometimes cannot do a t a l l . S t a t u t o r y powers which s t r e n g t h e n the hands o f p u b l i c s e r v a n t s w i t h i n t h e i r defined; l i m i t s , may c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y p a r a l y s e them once these l i m i t s are overpassed; the more c o n s c i e n t i o u s the o f f i c i a l i n d i s c h a r g i n g the duty l a i d upon him by law, the more d i f f i d e n t he i s apt t o be i n assuming a duty t h a t the law has not mentioned. I f the i n i t i a t i v e now t a k e n from W h i t e h a l l h e l p s t o keep the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s a l i v e , and f o s t e r s f r i e n d l y c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e i r h i g h l y t r a i n e d workers and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r t s p o s s e s s i n g a d i f f e r e n t range o f accomplishments, i t w i l l . b e b e n e f i c i a l beyond i t s immediate o b j e c t 1  I I - 59  o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g w e l f a r e d u t i e s where t h e y have tended t o d i v e r g e o r o v e r l a p . 1  TRENDS AFTER 1946—SUBSEQUENT PAPERS AND  The  Co-ordination C i r c u l a r of J u l y 31,  On  1950,  LEGISLATION  1950  the Home O f f i c e w i t h the  o f H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n  Ministries  issued a j o i n t c i r c u l a r to  local  a u t h o r i t i e s u r g i n g upon them the importance o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g whatever r e s o u r c e s might be a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r areas  f o r the h e l p o f c h i l d r e n who  t r e a t e d i n t h e i r own  homes.  The  were n e g l e c t e d o r  circular  ill-  said:  I f e f f e c t i v e h e l p i s t o be g i v e n a t an e a r l y s t a g e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be c o - o r d i n a t e d use o f the s t a t u t o r y and v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s . . . . The M i n i s t e r s are c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t i s by means o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n t h a t t h i s complex problem can b e s t be d e a l t w i t h . Without c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n may not r e a c h the s e r v i c e which c o u l d be o f most a s s i s t a n c e u n t i l v a l u a b l e time has been l o s t . 2 The  c i r c u l a r went on t o recommend t h a t c o - o r d i n a t i n g  committees be c r e a t e d i n each l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , each a chairman whose appointment was  t o be made l o c a l l y .  expenses i n c u r r e d f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n were t o be  1 " A u t h o r i t i e s and August 3 , 1950.  having  the C h i l d " , The  Any  chargeable  Times, London,  2 C i r c u l a r 157/50 (Home O f f i c e ) , C i r c u l a r 87/50 ( M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h ) , C i r c u l a r 225/50 ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ) , J u l y 31, 1950.  11-40  t o the C h i l d r e n ' s Department.  The  chairman was  to  call  together at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s t a t u t o r y and v o l u n t a r y w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , t o d i s c u s s t h e i r common problems and d e c i d e rtiich o f the l o c a l s e r v i c e s c o u l d b e s t meet the needs o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  These c o - o r d i -  n a t i n g committees f o c u s s e d much o f t h e i r a t t e n t i o n o f •problem f a m i l i e s ' , o f t e n working w i t h l o c a l F a m i l y S e r v i c e Units.  These committees were t o be i n a d d i t i o n t o the  a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s committees. Many l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have s e t up such  committees,  and have asked members o f the N.S.P.C.C. and agencies  t o serve on them.  The  other voluntary  committees depend f o r t h e i r  s u c c e s s v e r y l a r g e l y on the a b i l i t y o f the  designated  o f f i c e r and on the k i n d o f l e a d he g i v e s .  The  o f f i c e r " i s u s u a l l y found officer,  The  t o be the l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s  i f t h i s p o s i t i o n has been  E f f e c t s o f the 1948  "designated  filled.  Act Seen i n E s t i m a t e s  1951-52 S e l e c t Committee on E s t i m a t e s , C h i l d  Care,  drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between the cost of boarding-out  and o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e .  s t r e s s e d the need o f b o a r d i n g - o u t both o f c h i l d w e l f a r e and economy.  I t therefore  i n the a l l e g e d i n t e r e s t In deference  to t h i s  i n d i c a t i o n o f what W h i t e h a l l i s l i k e l y t o f a v o u r , pressure: i s sometimes e x e r t e d on a c h i l d c a r e o f f i c e r t o go  beyond  I I - 41  the bounds o f good homes i n h e r a r e a and employ m a r g i n a l o r i s o l a t e d foster-homes. and v o l u n t a r y smaller  But s i n c e the l a r g e r s t a t u t o r y  homes have been disbanded t o make way f o r  '-cottage-type" homes o f twelve o r fewer  children,  some e x p e r t s f e e l t h a t modern " r e s i d e n t i a l " c a r e i s o f t e n preferable  t o f o s t e r - c a r e , even i f i t i s somewhat more  costly.  1952  Amendment t o the C h i l d r e n and Young P e r s o n s ' A c t Major s e c t i o n s o f the 1953 The 1952  orders.  Act d e f i n e s  (1935)  A c t s p e l l out f i t person "need o f c a r e and  protection"  b r o a d l y , thus g i v i n g l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s more leeway f o r individual interpretation. b e f o r e the J u v e n i l e  They were now  required  to bring  C o u r t s c h i l d r e n and young persons  who,  they had been i n f o r m e d , were i n need o f c a r e o r p r o t e c t i o n , unless,  a f t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e y found such  unnecessary.  (The f a m i l y might  action  q u i c k l y mendi i t s ways, upon  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o r a l t e r n a t e s o u r c e s o f c a r e be found.  Another important amendment i n the 1952  quickly A c t gave  a u t h o r i t y t o b r i n g c h i l d r e n and young persons b e f o r e the^ Juvenile  Court who  might be i n need o f c a r e  f o r reason of i l l - t r e a t m e n t or neglect  or protection  without  thereby  c r e a t i n g a commitment t o p r o s e c u t e the p a r e n t s o r r e s p o n s i b l e adults i n a senior court. Secretary  I n t h i s Act the Home  i s g i v e n broad i n s p e c t i o n powers o v e r  local  I I - 42  a u t h o r i t i e s and r e g u l a t o r ' s power i n r e g a r d t o t h e admini s t r a t i o n o f " f i t person"  orders.  has power t o d i s c h a r g e a c h i l d  The Home S e c r e t a r y a l s o  from t h e care o f the  person  to whom he has been committed.  The  C h i l d r e n A c t , 1958 T h i s A c t i s concerned  care o f f o s t e r - c h i l d r e n . persons  c h i e f l y with p r o v i s i o n s f o r the I t s t a t e s i t t o be t h e duty o f  taking a foster-child  into their  care t o n o t i f y  the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i f the c h i l d i s below t h e l i m i t o f compulsory s c h o o l age o r i f h i s c a r e and maintenance a r e undertaken f o r reward f o r a p e r i o d exceeding whenever such persons  are n e i t h e r r e l a t i v e s  one month, n o r guardians  o f the c h i l d i n q u e s t i o n .  Block  Grants  That same y e a r P a r l i a m e n t  e s t a b l i s h e d a system o f b l o c k  g r a n t s f o r c h i l d care work i n c o u n t i e s and county  boroughs.  These new g e n e r a l g r a n t s a r e f o r two y e a r p e r i o d s , b u t may d i f f e r i n amount i n each o f the two y e a r s .  F o r the  first  y e a r t h e t o t a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n was t o be at291,250,000, a sum which c o n s t i t u t e d . 55*5 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l t o be spent by both n a t i o n a l and l o c a l governments.  II -  43  FISCAL RELATIONS BETWEEN STATUTORY AND; VOLUNTARY AGENCIES  The  q u a l i t y o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n between s t a t u t o r y  voluntary  c h i l d welfare  and  a g e n c i e s i s b o t h measured: arid:  a s s i s t e d by the n a t u r e o f the  f i n a n c i a l arrangements between  them.  and  In B r i t a i n , the d e s i g n  maintenance o f these  arrangements ace g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d through the good  offices  o f the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e . Founded i n 1919,  the C o u n c i l promotes c o - o p e r a t i o n  on  an a r e a b a s i s by means o f the r u r a l community c o u n c i l s i n country  areas,  the urban c o u n c i l s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n the  towns, the county c o u n c i l s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e , and c o u n c i l s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e which may co-extensive  geographically  w i t h e x i s t i n g county lines..  L o c a l committees which d e a l w i t h f r e e t o accept But  not be  area  s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s are  o r r e j e c t the h e l p o f f e r e d by the: C o u n c i l .  the C o u n c i l has  been entrusted; w i t h and: has wielded! a;  p o w e r f u l economic s a n c t i o n i n some areas where i t has  been  the o f f i c i a l  agency f o r the disbursement o f c e r t a i n g o v e r n -  ment f u n d s .  I t can,  t h e r e f o r e , impose c o n d i t i o n s and; i n s i s t  on the maintenance o f c e r t a i n minimum s t a n d a r d s f o r agency r e q u e s t i n g An u n s t a b l e  any  assistance.  f i n a n c i a l base i s one  o f the most s e r i o u s  problems f a c i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i o u s now  t h a t new  i t has  become  f u n d - r a i s i n g methods are  needed t o compensate f o r the v i r t u a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f  the  II -  44  benefactions of wealthy patrons.  " U n i v e r s a l " canvassing  i s now  the o r d e r o f the day,  urgent  need! f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n fund r a i s i n g among v o l u n t a r y  agencies.  and w i t h i t has  come a more  I n L i v e r p o o l , the j o i n t e f f o r t s o f the C o u n c i l  o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e and  P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e S o c i e t y have l e d t o  the development o f the U n i t e d V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s . With the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l management and  trade  unions,  t h i s c o l l e c t i v e body i s a b l e t o g a r n e r weekly pennies between 60,000 and 550  firms.  The  70,000 persons working i n  handled  approximately  money i s then d i s t r i b u t e d among the  c h a r i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d , w i t h the scheme.  from  local  Distributions  are  by means o f a scheme approved by the C o u n c i l o f  S o c i a l S e r v i c e — t h e amounts f o r each c h a r i t y b e i n g worked! out by a committee o f the c i t y ' s l e a d i n g c h a r t e r e d account a n t s and  a a l e a d i n g aafcuary.  A prominent f e a t u r e o f the  campaign i s t o keep s u b s c r i b e r s c o n s t a n t l y informed t h e i r money i s b e i n g used f o r . scheme proved  So s u c c e s s f u l has  i n L i v e r p o o l that other c i t i e s ,  o f what  this  notably  Manchester, are o r g a n i z i n g s i m i l a r m o n e y - r a i s i n g  schemes  upon the same model. Grant-aid i s another v o l u n t a r y bodies  source  are e l i g i b l e  o f f i n a n c i a l support  t o r e c e i v e from e i t h e r  c e n t r a l government o r from l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  which the  Funding  arrangements o f t h i s k i n d however, r a i s e s e r i o u s  questions  about the scope t h e y l e a v e the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the i n n o v a t o r y and t o be  unorthodox a c t i v i t i e s which are supposed;  among t h e i r prime reasons  f o r existence.  II -  45  The; C o s t o f Care The  average weekly c o s t i n the  maintaining i n the  a c h i l d i n a boarding-home was «*fl. 10s.  f o l l o w i n g y e a r i t was  ©^"1. 12s.  l#d.  F o r c h i l d r e n i n l o c a l a u t h o r i t y homes the 9s.  and ^€6.  homes, as the  l i d . a n d ^ O * 2s.  f i g u r e s do not  9&L.  respectively.  (The  costs.)  n e c e s s a r i l y r e l i e v e d of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n care. f i n a n c i a l l y able  to do  voluntary 1  financial I f they  so, they are r e q u i r e d , t o  are  contribute  l o c a l - a u t h o r i t y f o r maintenance o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n up  t o the age  The  Rather  quotedl c o s t s f o r t h e s e were«£2.  include administrative  P a r e n t s are not  t o the  9d.  paid! by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r placements i n  voluntary 18s.  4d;  e s t i m a t e d t o have r i s e n t o  comparable f i g u r e s werec£6. I s . 4d l e s s was  f i s c a l y e a r 1954-55 o f  of  National  sixteen.  Aspect o f  Grants-in-aid  Financing  covering regular operating  costs to  any  l o c a l a u t h o r i t y are u s u a l l y f o r t h c o m i n g from the Home O f f i c e ( C h i l d r e n ' s Department) even i f a p a r t i c u l a r a u t h o r i t y f a i l e d t o conform t o n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s . comes t o a p p r o v a l  of plans  for local capital  But  has  when i t  construction,  1 C h i l d r e n i n the Care o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s i n E n g l a n d and.Wales, G r e a t B r i t a i n Accounts and Papers, V o l . XXXVI, 1955-56.  11-46  the Home O f f i c e h o l d s the upper hand. Children's  I n t h i s way, the  Department i s a b l e to s e t and e n f o r c e  s t a n d a r d s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s  national  institutions.  Moreover, powers o f t h i s k i n d can o f t e n be used w i t h f a r g r e a t e r v e r s a t i l i t y than might be guessed from t h e i r  formal  scope; and i t may be imagined, t h a t g e t t i n g money f o r a. b u i l d i n g sometimes i n v o l v e s g e t t i n g a p p r o v a l other things  f o rcertain  a t the same time!!  THE OPERATION OP ONE LOCAL AUTHORITY—THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL (L.C.C.)  The: London County C o u n c i l has the most e l a b o r a t e and the l a r g e s t l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t a i n . ^ " I t s ; Children's  Committee has t w e n t y - f o u r members, i n c l u d i n g  the L.C.C. chairman and deputy chairman.  F o u r t e e n o f the  members must be e l e c t e d c o u n c i l l o r s , and seven a r e co-opted members.  The e l e c t e d c o u n c i l l o r s a r e named t o t h e  committee each y e a r ; t h e co-opted members s e r v e  an i n d e f i n i t e  term o f o f f i c e .  three-year  The chairman i s e l e c t e d , f o r a  term, i s a member o f the m a j o r i t y i n t h e work o f the C h i l d r e n ' s  p a r t y , and i s e x p e r i e n c e d  Committee.  Co-opted members  are n o t s e l e c t e d by the Committee; the Committee may make  1 The L.C.C. has r e c e n t l y been a s s i m i l a t e d t o a new and comprehensive s t r u c t u r e o f government f o r the e n t i r e g r e a t e r London a r e a . D e t a i l s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e a t the time o f w r i t i n g .  I I - 47  s u g g e s t i o n s on t h i s s c o r e , but t h e e l e c t e d government o f the L.C.C. a c t u a l l y a p p o i n t s t h e co-opted members. considerations  e n t e r h e r e , as the L.C.C. i s ai t e s t i n g  ground f o r p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s o f n a t i o n a l importance. describes  Party  Kammerer  the t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n ' s department i n the f o l l o w i n g  manner. J u s t as each l o c a l a u t h o r i t y works o u t i t s own c h i l d r e n ' s committee p a t t e r n f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f the v a r i o u s types o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and f u n c t i o n a l programs s t r e s s e d by t h a t a u t h o r i t y , so the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Department i n each B r i t i s h l o c a l a u t h o r i t y r e f l e c t s l o c a l needs. Those l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s which a r e l a r g e enough t o operate the f u l l scale o f c h i l d ! welfare f a c i l i t i e s ranging from r e c e p t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i t h c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s t a f f a l l t h e way t o approveds c h o o l s and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a f f may be expectedi t o p r e s e n t a more complex departmental s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t i n g the v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . I f a l a r g e a r e a . i s covered, geographical factors also enter into s t r u c t u r a l considerations. Figures  c i t e d by Kammerer i n d i c a t e t h a t on J u l y 31» 1954  t h e r e were 2,258 persons employed by the C h i l d r e n ' s  Depart-  ment o f t h e L . C . C , 11,900 o f whom were r e s i d e n t i a l o r homes s t a f f , 231 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o r c l e r i c a l s t a f f , and! 127  v i s i t o r s o r s u p e r v i s i n g f i e l d o f f i c e r s d i r e c t i n g casework. A rough i n d i c a t i o n o f the number o f c h i l d r e n s e r v e d i s seen i n t h e f i g u r e s f o r January 1, 1955> when 4,968 c h i l d r e n were i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l care schools  ( o f whom 428 were i n approved  operated! by t h e L.C.C.) and about 2,000 were  boarded o u t i n f o s t e r homes.  1 Kammerer, G l a d y s . B r i t i s h and American C h i l d -•Welfare S e r v i c e s . Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t , 1962, p. 138.  11-48  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the L.C.C. C h i l d r e n ' s  Department, headed by a c h i l d r e n ' s o f f i c e r ,  features  d e p a r t m e n t a l u n i t s under t h i s o f f i c e r ' s d i r e c t i o n .  three These  are headed by a. C h i e f A s s i s t a n t C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r , an Administration  and E s t a b l i s h m e n t s  a Chief Inspector  C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r , and.  o f C h i l d Care.  A f t e r the C h i l d r e n A c t o f 1948 the L.C.C. the l o c a l H e a l t h Department t o c o n t i n u e  permitted  i t s work o f i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n i n t o f o s t e r h o m e s — a duty performedi by t h i s department under t h e C h i l d L i f e P r o t e c t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s b e f o r e S p e c i a l i z a t i o n occurs L.C.C. f i e l d  staff.  the a c t .  i n the assignment o f cases among  There a r e " g e n e r a l i s t " caseworkers  who f i n d f o s t e r homes and p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n them, i n addition to placing c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . these,  t h e r e are s p e c i a l d u t i e s o f f i c e r s — s o m e  Besides o f whom  s p e c i a l i z e i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t work o r a d o p t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Others might s p e c i a l i z e i n the a f t e r - c a r e work c a r r i e d on with adolescents  r e l e a s e d from L.C.C. approved  schools.  The; L.C.C. o p e r a t e s such a v a s t number o f children's:; i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g enormous grouped c o t t a g e schools  homes w i t h  on the grounds, t h a t t h e y need an i n t e r n a l  mental i n s p e c t o r a t e t o work e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e i r andi check on programming.  departstaffs  I I - 49  V o l u n t a r y Agencies Authority:  The  C o n t r i b u t i n g to C h i l d Welfare  i n L.C.C..  C h i l d r e n ' s Care Committee  I n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the c e n t u r y , v o l u n t a r y c h i l d r e n ' s committees grew up i n some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t a i n . At t h a t time  the emphasis o f t h e s e committees was  on f e e d i n g  the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , many o f whom came t o s c h o o l i n a d e q u a t e l y nourished.  Today t h e i r concern i s f o r the unhappy, malad-  justed c h i l d .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h Act t o  the c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s i s another ibilities.  facet of t h e i r  T h e i r work today i s c a r r i e d on i n the  responsarea  s e r v e d by the L.C.C. A. unique  arrangement has been worked out i n London w i t h  these Care Committees.  The L.C.C. employs a s t a f f o f about  60 t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers as o r g a n i z e r s o f the  committees,  which f o r t h e i r p a r t are composed o f v o l u n t a r y workers (some 2,670 i n a l l ) .  The  committees are a t t a c h e d t o both  primary and-secondary s c h o o l s , o r groups o f such s c h o o l s . T h e i r d u t i e s , b e s i d e s those mentioned above, i n c l u d e v i s i t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s homes i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any t h a t might i n v o l v e b o a r d i n g - o u t ,  making recommendations f o r  b o a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n , and, when the c h i l d has h e l p i n g t o p l a c e him  i n work placement.  worker p l a y s an important i n touch with f a c i l i t i e s t r a i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n .  problem  The  l e f t school, Care Committee  p a r t i n p u t t i n g the s c h o o l - l e a v e r f o r f u r t h e r education, v o c a t i o n a l If difficulties  a r i s e over j o b s ,  the v o l u n t a r y worker, guided by a. s o c i a l worker, v i s i t s  the  I I ..- 50  home; and  her c o n f i d e n t i a l r e p o r t s t o the  o f f i c e r do much t o b r i d g e the gap earning a The  employment  between s c h o o l  and  living.  l i f e h i s t o r y o f the C h i l d Care Committees demon-  s t r a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y i n the e v o l u t i o n o f a v o l u n t a r y agency.  When they were founded they drew t h e i r  funds from p r i v a t e v o l u n t a r y ? d o n o r s .  Now  f i n a n c e d by  government, they r e c r u i t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r from v o l u n t a r y s o u r c e s ;  the  staff  so t h a t they have, i n e f f e c t , become  a government agency s t a f f e d , by p r i v a t e v o l u n t e e r s .  Family The  S e r v i c e s i n London L.C.C  has  estimated,  on the b a s i s o f a survey made  i n 1955-56 o f a l l f a m i l i e s , i n the County w i t h c h i l d r e n under f i v e , t h a t 1,4-3  p e r cent o f such f a m i l i e s were  "problem f a m i l i e s " , , o r , more o f t e n , p o t e n t i a l "problem families". imental  The  C o u n c i l therefore appointed,  f o r an  exper-  p e r i o d , workers whose d u t i e s were t o l i e  e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h those  f a m i l i e s who  had become an  o f c o n c e r n as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t s w i t h h e a l t h the s c h o o l s , the w e l f a r e  object  visitors,  department, o r i n o t h e r ways.  Among the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s concerned,  the  London C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f House Workers, has a d v i c e groups to h e l p mothers who otherwise  the;  o r g a n i z e d home:  have been e v i c t e d , o r  made homeless, t o a c h i e v e  more s a t i s f a c t o r y  I I - 51  standardss o f homemaking and! c h i l d care d u r i n g  t h e time  t h e y a r e l i v i n g i n temporary accommodations p r o v i d e d the  local  by  authority,  SOME OTHER ASPECTS OP CHILD) CARE:  Aids  f o r Illegitimate; Children According  t o the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the Unmarried  Mother and Her C h i l d (N..C.U.M.C.), f i f t y p e r cent o f unmarried mothers go t o v o l u n t a r y before  agencies f o r assistance;  and a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d l i s born." ' 1  Under the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h services therein provided  Service. Act,  the s p e c i a l  f o r the unmarried; mother and h e r  c h i l d , a r e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , as part; of t h e i r general But  d u t i e s towards mothers and young c h i l d r e n .  the d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s a g e n c i e s were t h e f i r s t  i n t h i s f i e l d , working from w h a t — w i t h B i b l i c a l warrant.*— we may c a l l a t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n compassion f o r a group considered, by many people t o be beyond the p a l e . authorities often s t i l l  p r e f e r to discharge  Local  t h e i r respon-  s i b i l i t i e s by s u b s i d i z i n g , i n v a r i o u s ways, the workers  1 T h i s f i g u r e , combined w i t h o t h e r i l l e g i t i m a c y f i g u r e s t o f o l l o w , were g l e a n e d from an u n p u b l i s h e d paper s u p p l i e d t o the w r i t e r by the N.C.U.M.C.  I I - 52  and mother and baby homes p r o v i d e d by the v o l u n t a r y bodies.  A few l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s employ s p e c i a l  social  workers o f t h e i r own f o r t h i s j o b , but out o f 160 mother and baby homes i n England d i r e c t l y p r o v i d e d by l o c a l The  and Wales, o n l y about 50 a r e authorities.  "moral" workers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f t h e Church  of England  (which p r o v i d e s i t s own t r a i n i n g program)  p r o v i d e a casework s e r v i c e throughout  the c o u n t r y . Mothers  who do n o t c o n t a c t v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s u s u a l l y go t o almoners, c h i l d care o f f i c e r s , and o t h e r l o c a l a u t h o r i t y workers. Some appear t o g e t no h e l p from s o c i a l workers a t a l l . The; p o l i c y o f t h e w e l f a r e department o f the N.C.U.M.C.. i s ; t o r e f e r t h e many who a p p l y f o r h e l p t o the most a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l w e l f a r e workers, and t o o f f e r l e g a l , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r s e r v i c e s t o s o c i a l workers f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e i r clients.  D i r e c t h e l p i s t o be g i v e n by the C o u n c i l o n l y  where t h e c l i e n t w i l l n o t , o r f o r some r e a s o n cannot, be referred.  The  Homes P r o v i d e d The  most prominent i n s t i t u t i o n a l f i g u r e i n t h i s  i s t h e Church o f E n g l a n d . throughout  A network o f homes i s provided,  the c o u n t r y by l o c a l D i o c e s a n  Committees working i n d e p e n d e n t l y , England.Council function.  fieldi  o r Deanery  w i t h the Church o f  f o r S o c i a l Work r e t a i n i n g a c o - o r d i n a t i n g  The Roman C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e S a l v a t i o n  II  - 53  Army, t h e Free Churches and c e r t a i n non-denominational bodies a l s o provide  homes.  A s u r p r i s i n g v a r i e t y o f homes i s a v a i l a b l e .  The  m a j o r i t y , known as "mother and baby homes" p r o v i d e  pre-  sold p o s t - n a t a l c a r e , w i t h a normal s t a y o f s i x weeks b e f o r e the c h i l d ' s b i r t h and s i x weeks a f t e r .  The mothers w i l l  u s u a l l y be c o n f i n e d i n h o s p i t a l , though t h e r e a r e a s m a l l number o f m a t e r n i t y homes w i t h l y i n g - i n f a c i l i t i e s  which  are g e n e r a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r the v e r y young unmarried There a r e " s h e l t e r s " d e s i g n e d m a i n l y e a r l i e r months o f pregnancy.  mothers.  f o r g i r l s i n the  These g i r l s can l a t e r be  t r a n s f e r r e d t o mother and baby homes, o r t o any o f s m a l l number o f a n t e - n a t a l h o s t e l s which p r o v i d e both and  c e r t a i n k i n d s o f remunerative  work.  accommodation  There i s a l s o a.  v e r y l i m i t e d amount o f p o s t - n a t a l accommodation where t h e mother can l i v e i n w i t h h e r c h i l d as a r e s i d e n t but go out to  work d u r i n g t h e day. Some mother and baby homes admit a l l types o f unmarried  mothers, i n c l u d i n g m a r r i e d women h a v i n g an e x t r a - m a r i t a l pregnancy; some s p e c i f y a f i r s t for  pregnancy o n l y , o r c a t e r  a p a r t i c u l a r age group; one home r u n by t h e Church  Army f o r the L.C.C. c a t e r s f o r young s c h o o l g i r l s and provides a f u l l  s c h o o l programme under a q u a l i f i e d  There a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y England  and Wales each y e a r .  teacher.  48,000 i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s i n I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t  about one t h i r d o f these c h i l d r e n a r e born t o c o h a b i t i n g parents.  The mothers o f a f u r t h e r t h i r d a r e c a r e d f o r by  I I - 5-+  t h e i r f a m i l i e s , often with statutory assistance. remaining t h i r d  The;  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16,000 unmarried mothers)  need s p e c i a l h e l p , which may o f t e n i n c l u d e  residential  care. The g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e percentage o f i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s s i n c e 1955 has been a s s o c i a t e d . w i t h a growth i n t h e number o f p r e c i s e l y t h a t c l a s s o f young unmarried mothers who  a r e most l i k e l y t o need r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e .  R e p o r t s from  all  o v e r the c o u n t r y i n d i c a t e t h e i n c r e a s i n g s t r a i n on t h e  c a p a c i t i e s o f these homes, and c o r r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y i n p l a c i n g c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f unmarried  mothers.  The P a r t P l a y e d by N.C.U.M.G.. Because  the. N..C..U.M.C. i s non-denominational i n  c h a r a c t e r , i t has succeeded i n r e m a i n i n g detached from t h e sectarian r i v a l r i e s  o f the v a r i o u s v o l u n t a r y  groups working i n t h i s f i e l d , fill  religious  and has thus been a b l e t o  an important i n t e g r a t i v e and c a t a l y t i c r o l e .  I t was  l a r g e l y owing t o p r e s s u r e from t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t h e L e g i t i m a c y A c t s o f 1926 and 1959 were passed.  (These laws  e n a b l e d the c h i l d born o f an unmarried mother t o be s u b s e q u e n t l y l e g i t i m a t e d by the marriage o f h i s p a r e n t s . They a l s o l e d t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s h o r t e n e d b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e , a v a i l a b l e t o everyone, which c o n c e a l t h e f a c t of  illegitimacy).  I I - 55  A\ c o m p a r a t i v e l y y o u t h f u l body (founded i n 1918)  the.  N.C.U.M.C.. i s v i g o u r o u s l y a c t i v e b o t h i n r e s e a r c h and i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the needs o f i t s c l i e n t c o n s t i t u e n c y a t s o c i a l and c h i l d w e l f a r e c o n f e r e n c e s . comparative  I t has  sponsored!  s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r unmarried  motherhood i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , and has r e g u l a r l y pressed, f o r the a d o p t i o n o f more l i b e r a l p o l i c i e s a t home.  The Twenty-Four Hour Nursery A c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n i n the o f a s s i s t a n c e t o the mother who  may  i n a f a m i l y and i s i n v o l v e d working  provision  be the s o l e wage-earner s h i f t s or l a t e  hours  ( e . g . bus c o n d u c t r e s s e s and c a f e w o r k e r s ) , i s the device, o f a r e s i d e n t i a l n u r s e r y where a . c h i l d may  stay f o r five  a h a l f days a week, r e t u r n i n g home f o r the weekend. n u r s e r i e s are now  and Such  b e i n g maintained, by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n  i n d u s t r i a l areas l i k e Birmingham, where a t w e n t y - f o u r n u r s e r y i s r u n by the M e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f H e a l t h . who  may  b e n e f i t from such a scheme are unmarried  hour  Others mothers,  and mothers c o n f i n e d t o h o s p i t a l whose husbands are  working  out-of-town. C h i l d r e n may  be admitted t o t h e s e n u r s e r i e s a t a  minimum age o f s i x weeks.  A l t h o u g h as many as a t h i r d  the t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f 30 c h i l d r e n may  be day  children,  i n f e c t i o u s i l l n e s s has not posed a s e r i o u s problem.  In  of  I I - 56  c e r t a i n c a s e s , however, the matron has been known t o m a i n t a i n a s i c k bay o v e r the weekend. problem  Staffing i s a  f o r such a n u r s e r y , a l t h o u g h the Birmingham  venture has been approved  f o r t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t nurses;  s p e c i a l i z i n g i n n u r s e r y work.  T r a i n i n g Homes f o r Mothers T r a i n i n g i n home-making i s a v a i l a b l e t o mothers  who  have been found g u i l t y o f n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n by the c o u r t s .  A t r a i n i n g course f o r mothers who  g i v e n a p r i s o n sentence  have been  o f t h r e e months o r more f o r c h i l d  n e g l e c t was s t a r t e d i n 1952 i n the women's p r i s o n i n Birmingham. Holloway  A s i m i l a r program i s now  i n operation at  P r i s o n i n London, where a. p a r t o f t h e  premises  has been e s p e c i a l l y adapted, and p r o v i d e d w i t h the type o f equipment l i k e l y t o be found i n the women's homes.  The  12-week course p r o v i d e s both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n elementary  homemaking and c h i l d  care.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , mothers c o n v i c t e d o f c h i l d n e g l e c t may be p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n w i t h a requirement f o r f o u r months,  to r e s i d e ,  usually  i n a home where they can be i n s t r u c t e d i n  the c a r e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n and homemanagement.  They  u s u a l l y take t h e i r c h i l d r e n under f i v e y e a r s o f age w i t h them and when t h e y r e t u r n home the mothers remain  f o r a.  p e r i o d o f time under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  I I - 57  T h i s type o f t r a i n i n g i s p r o v i d e d a t the E l i z a b e t h F r y T r a i n i n g Home i n York, and Crowley House i n Birmingham. I n a d d i t i o n t o mothers who have appeared b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s t h e s e homes a l s o take mothers f o r whom a p e r i o d o f r e s t and  t r a i n i n g may a v e r t a breakdown o f f a m i l y l i f e .  Brentwood R e c u p e r a t i v e wholly preventive.  Centre  At.  i n C h e s h i r e , t h e work i s  A l l these homes r e g a r d a f t e r - c a r e by  the body s p o n s o r i n g t h e mother's s t a y as an e s s e n t i a l part: o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o c e s s , and t h e r e s u l t s  achieved!  through  encouraging.  t h i s i n s i s t e n c e on f o l l o w - u p have been  THE: CURRENT SCENE:  SOME REPRESENTATIVE. STATISTICS; THE INGLEBY REPORT  A. summary, i f c r u d e , n o t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s o f c h i l d n e g l e c t (as t h e y impinge on t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a t any r a t e ) i s d e r i v a b l e from  f i g u r e s p u b l i s h e d i n a: White  Paper o f 1956. The number o f c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t p a r e n t s i s v e r y s m a l l ( 5 4 0 ) — l e s s than one p e r c e n t ; and; l e s s than two p e r c e n t (718) have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e death o f t h e i r mothers. On the o t h e r hand, 2,761 were d e s e r t e d by t h e i r mothers and 5,088 came i n under a f i t person o r d e r . By f a r t h e b i g g e s t number, 24,005 needed c a r e because o f t h e i n c a p a c i t y o f parents o r guardians. 1  1 C h i l d r e n i n t h e Care o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s i n England and Wales, Great B r i t a i n Accounts and Papers. V o l . XXXVI, 1955-56T  II. - 58  More r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s are f u r n i s h e d by John S t r o u d , w r i t i n g i n September, 1965.  He  says:  The l a t e s t Home O f f i c e f i g u r e s show t h a t on March 51, 1962 t h e r e were 63,648 c h i l d r e n i n care (England and Wales). D u r i n g the twelve months p r e v i o u s 47,471 c h i l d r e n came i n t o care and 46,019 were d i s c h a r g e d — a t o t a l o f 93,4-90 d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g the utmost d e l i c a c y and c a r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o a l l t h e s e , cases where c h i l d care o f f i c e r s were concerned, but a l t e r n a t i v e arrangements were e v e n t u a l l y made i n v o l v e d a f u r t h e r 57,044 c h i l d r e n ; and c h i l d care o f f i c e r s a c t e d as g u a r d i a n s ad l i t e m on b e h a l f of 13,259 c h i l d r e n . 1 S t r o u d goes on t o p r o t e s t the overwhelming burden o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i m p l i e d i n the new  C h i l d r e n Act of  1963.  T h i s A c t came about as a r e s u l t o f the work o f the Ingleby  p  Committee.  CONCLUSION What g e n e r a l t e n d e n c i e s can be d i s c e r n e d i n the p r e s e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c h i l d w e l f a r e agencies  i n Britain?  even from t h i s b r i e f account  I t w i l l be abundantly  evident  o f the r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f the:  1 S t r o u d , John. " C h i l d r e n a t R i s k " , New (No. 5 0 ) , September 12, 1963, p. 14.  Society,  2 The work o f t h i s committee (whose r e s e a r c h covered, the p e r i o d from December 1956 t o O c t o b e r I960) s t r e s s e d ! the: r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o p r e v e n t o r f o r e s t a l l s u f f e r i n g (through n e g l e c t ) o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes.  II  s u b j e c t and  -  59  our s k e l e t a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c u r r e n t s t r u c -  t u r e o f s e r v i c e s , t h a t the v o l u n t a r y t o p l a y not merely an important but field  of welfare  concerned. and  a g e n c i e s are  an i n t e g r a l p a r t i n the:;  programming w i t h which we  have been c h i e f l y  Whether t h i s i s more the outcome o f  administrative adaptation  continuing  to h i s t o r i c a l  than o f an a r t i c u l a t e l y conceived! and  legislative  circumstance;  systematically  mented p l a n o f " p a r t n e r s h i p " i s a q u e s t i o n which few would answer i n the same way,  even i f a l l the  r e q u i s i t e f o r an answer were a v a i l a b l e . i s put  on one  s i d e , the o b s e r v a t i o n  But  i f t h i s problem  can s t i l l  be made t h a t o f the  c r e a t i v i t y i n at l e a s t  a r e a o f the B r i t i s h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g present  scope and! e l a b o r a t e n e s s The  people  evidence  the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s appear t o c o n s t i t u t e one n i f i c a n t s o u r c e s o f energy and  imple-  sigone the;  o f governmental i n v o l v e m e n t .  main i s s u e f o r the f u t u r e seems t o hinge  on  whether the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s can a v o i d becoming s u b s e r v i e n t as they become i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent on p u b l i c f u n d s , and  o t i o s e as t h e governmental s e r v i c e s become more  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d , s o p h i s t i c a t e d and students  versatile.  o f the s u b j e c t have grave doubts as t o  p r o b a b i l i t y of t h i s .  As Penelope H a l l  Many e x p e r t the  writes:  Even i n a w e l f a r e s t a t e , t h e r e are t a s k s t o which p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s concerned t o f u r t h e r the w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i r f e l l o w s may s t i l l f e e l themselves c a l l e d , but many such o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f a l l e n on d i f f i c u l t times, and are h a r d p r e s s e d t o f i n d the wherewithal t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r work, s i n c e c o s t s are r i s i n g , and s o u r c e s o f income d r y i n g up. Consequently, they are coming t o r e l y more and more on g r a n t s - a i d  I I - 60  from l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and c e n t r a l g o v e r n ment departments and i t may be t h a t , except on a v e r y l i m i t e d s c a l e i n p i o n e e r o r v e r y c o n t r o v e r s i a l work, the days o f t h e s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n — t h a t i s , an o r g a n i z a t i o n working a b s o l u t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y without s t a t e o r l o c a l a u t h o r i t y a s s i s t a n c e o f any k i n d — a r e a t an end. The emphasis today i s on p a r t n e r s h i p , a p a r t n e r s h i p i n which the c e n t r a l government, the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y and the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l have t h e i r p a r t s t o p l a y , and i n which the S t a t e , r e c o g n i z i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e work o f the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s s i s t s i t t o p l a y i t s p a r t . Hence t h e S t a t e andi the: l o c a l a u t h o r i t y give, f i n a n c i a l support t o t h e v o l u n t a r y body and so h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h i t s s t a t u s as w e l l as making i t s continued, existence: p o s s i b l e ; i n r e t u r n they make use o f the machinery i t has b u i l t up, and b e n e f i t from t h e t r a d i t i o n i t has established. 1_ Lord Beveridge too, although  a f e r v e n t advocate o f  the v a l u e o f " v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n " h i n t s t h a t t h e days o f the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l are numbered.  sense,  He s a y s :  V o l u n t a r y a c t i o n i s needed t o do t h i n g s which the S t a t e s s h o u l d n o t do, i n t h e g i v i n g o f a d v i c e , o r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the use o f leisure. I t i s needed t o do t h i n g s which the S t a t e i s most u n l i k e l y t o do. I t i s needed.to p i o n e e r ahead o f the S t a t e and make e x p e r i ments. I t i s needed! t o g e t s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d which cannot be g o t by p a y i n g f o r them. 2> Yet L o r d B e v e r i d g e i s u n c e r t a i n as t o where for t h i s voluntary action w i l l  come from.  1  H a l l , op. c i t . , pp. 350-351.  2  Beveridge,  op. c i t . , p. 3 0 2 .  He  support  concludes  I I - 61  The g e n e r a l p u b l i c up t o the p r e s e n t have, shown themselves more r e a d y t o g i v e f o r f a m i l i a r h u m a n i t a r i a n purposes than f o r new s o c i a l experiments, t y p i f i e d by the C i t i z e n s ' A d v i c e Bureau o r the M a r r i a g e Guidance C o u n c i l . I n the unequal s o c i e t y o f the p a s t the promoters o f experiments could" i n t e r e s t wealthy i n d i v i d u a l s t o donate. They may f i n d i t hard t o s e c u r e enough p r i v a t e g i v e r s i n the f u t u r e . The S t a t e on b e h a l f o f democracy may have t o do what the a r i s t o c r a c y d i d b e f o r e . 1  Beveridge, i b i d . ,  p. 317*  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books  M i e n , A., and Morton, A., T h i s i s Your C h i l d , Routledge andiKegan P a u l L t d . , London, 1961. Barman, S., The E n g l i s h B o r s t a l System, P.S. K i n g and. Son L t d . , London, 1934. Beveridge, William, V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n , George A l l e n andi Unwin L t d . , London, 1948. Cavenagh, W.E., The C h i l d ! andi the C b u r t , V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . , London, 1 9 5 ^ F o r d , Donald, The D e p r i v e d C h i l d and the Community, C o n s t a b l e and Co. L t d . , London, 1955* P y v e l , T.R., The I n s e c u r e O f f e n d e r , P e l i c a n Books Ltd!., M i d d l e s e x , 1963. G i l e s , P.T., C h i l d r e n and the Law, Penguin Books Ltd!., M i d d l e s e x , 1939. ~ ., The C r i m i n a l Law, Penguin Books L t d . , M i d d l e s e x , 1963. 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VIII, 1953-54"; C h i l d r e n i n Care o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s i n England and Walesy Great B r i t a i n Accounts and Papers, V o l . XXXVI, 1955-56.  Government  Bills  C h i l d r e n and Young P e r s o n s ' B i l l . and Papers, V o l . I, 1932-33.  Great B r i t a i n  Accounts  A d o p t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ( R e g u l a t i o n ) B i l l as Amended byS t a n d i n g Committee C. Great B r i t a i n Accounts and. Papers, V o l . I , 1938-39. C h i l d r e n and Young P e r s o n s ' A c t Amendment. Accounts and Papers, V o l . I , 1937-38.  Great  Britain  Summary o f t h e Main P r o v i s i o n s o f the C h i l d r e n B i l l , G r e a t B r i t a i n Accounts and! Papers, V o l . XXII, 1947-48. A d o p t i o n o f C h i l d r e n B i l l as Amended by S t a n d i n g Committee E. Great B r i t a i n Accounts and Papers, V o l . I , 1948-49. Adoption B i l l , 1950.  Great B r i t a i n Accounts  C h i l d r e n B i l l , Amendment. V o l . I , 1957-58.  and Papers, V o l . I ,  Great B r i t a i n Accounts  and Papers,  Legislation  H a l s b u r y ' s S t a t u t e s o f England, Volume 2 9 , C o n t i n u a t i o n o f Volume 1950, B u t t e r w o r t h and Co. L t d . , London, 1951. H a l s b u r y ' s S t a t u t e s o f England, Volume 38, C o n t i n u a t i o n o f Volume 1958, B u t t e r w o r t h and Co., L t d . , London, 1959.  ADOPTION  The Relationship Between Statutory a n d V o l u n t a r y A d o p t i o n S e r v i c e s in England and Wales  by ELAINE ELIZABETH  LOVECKY  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment o f the R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l of S o c i a l W o r k  A c c e p t e d a s c o n f o r m i n g t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the d e g r e e of M a s t e r of S o c i a l W o r k  S c h o o l of S o c i a l W o r k  1964 T h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  C H A P T E R III  ADOPTION  ADOPTION S E R V I C E S AS AN I N T E G R A L COMPONENT OF A CHILD W E L F A R E PROGRAM W i t h i n the m a n y p a r t s of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o g r a m , a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t a m a j o r m e t h o d of p r o v i d i n g c a r e f o r the c h i l d w h o s e p a r e n t s a r e u n a b l e  to do so o n a l o n g t e r m b a s i s .  W h a t e v e r a c c i d e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s it m a y exhibit, the e s s e n c e  of adoption  i s to be f o u n d i n t h e f o r m a l , l e g a l t r a n s f e r e n c e of the c u s t o m a r y r i g h t s a n d d u t i e s of n a t u r a l p a r e n t s t o s o m e p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s a s s u m e c a r e o f the c h i l d .  a p p l y i n g to  F o r c h i l d r e n d e p r i v e d of a h o m e a n d i n n e e d  of s o c i a l p r o t e c t i o n , a d o p t i o n m a y be one of the b e s t o f a l l p o s s i b l e d i s p o s i t i o n s ; a n d i n d e e d , i t w a s e x p l i c i t l y d e c l a r e d to be so by t h e Curtis Report  of 1948: We w i s h to e m p h a s i z e t h e e x t r e m e s e r i o u s n e s s of t a k i n g a c h i l d a w a y f r o m e v e n a n i n d i f f e r e n t h o m e . T h e a i m m u s t b e to f i n d s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r - i n d e e d m u c h b e t t e r - i f i t t a k e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g a s u b s t i t u t e h o m e . T h e m e t h o d s w h i c h s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e m a y b e t r e a t e d u n d e r t h r e e m a i n h e a d s of a d o p t i o n , boarding-out, and residence i n communities. We h a v e p l a c e d t h e s e i n o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y s e e m t o u s t o s e c u r e the w e l f a r e and. h a p p i n e s s of the c h i l d . 1  1  K o r n i t z e r , M a r g a r e t , C h i l d A d o p t i o n i n the M o d e r n W o r l d , W y m a n & S o n s L t d . , L o n d o n , 1952, p a g e 8.  Ill  -  2  P e r s o n s w i s h i n g to a d o p t c h i l d r e n i n E n g l a n d a n d may  Wales  do s o : (a) b y m a k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n to a l i c e n c e d a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y o r  the C h i l d r e n s ' D e p a r t m e n t of the l o c a l w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t y ; (b) b y a r r a n g i n g to r e c e i v e a c h i l d t h r o u g h a " t h i r d p a r t y " , i . e . a n y who  person  a c t s a s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a n d the p e r s o n s  w i s h i n g to adopt; o r (c) b y a " d i r e c t p l a c i n g " , w h e r e b y the m o t h e r o r l e g a l g u a r d i a n p l a c e s the c h i l d w i t h the a d o p t e r s w i t h o u t a n mediary.  inter-  E a c h of t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s i s r e g u l a t e d b y l a w , a n d  i n v o l v e s c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s of l e g a l s a n c t i o n a n d The  each  procedure.  r i s k s f o r the c h i l d i n h e r e n t i n a d o p t i o n s  arranged  e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by the m o t h e r o r b y a " t h i r d p a r t y " h a v e b e e n a p r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e of the h i s t o r y of a d o p t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n B r i t a i n . was  p r i m a r i l y as a response  It  to t h i s p r o b l e m , a s w e l l a s to c l a r i f y a  l o n g - s t a n d i n g u n c e r t a i n t y c o n c e r n i n g the r i g h t s of the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , that the p r e s e n t s y s t e m of l e g a l c o n t r o l s a n d The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s f a c t  a s we  s a f e g u a r d s has  evolved.  s h a l l show m o r e fully b e l o w  i s t h a t the s u b j e c t of a d o p t i o n t e n d s to be d e a l t w i t h i n B r i t a i n a s a p r o b l e m of p o s t f a c t u m s u r v e i l l a n c e r a t h e r t h a n a s a " c r e a t i v e " w e l f a r e service.  T h i s a p p r o a c h is perhaps nowhere m o r e c l e a r l y and  i n g l y i n e v i d e n c e t h a n i n the r e q u i r e m e n t - t h a t i n e v e r y a d o p t i o n  revealcase  the c o u r t h e a r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n a p p o i n t a " g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m " who  has  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r e p o r t i n g to the c o u r t o n the c o n t i n u i n g s u i t a b i l i t y o f the a d o p t i o n p l a c e m e n t a s a h o m e f o r the c h i l d . ^  1  T h e s p e c i f i c d u t i e s of the g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m r e g a r d i n g the r e p o r t to c o u r t a r e s p e l l e d out i n the A d o p t i o n A c t , 1958.  Ill  -  3  D e p e n d i n g u p o n the c h o i c e of the a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s , an adoption hearing may  take place i n either a juvenile c o u r t , a  c o u r t , or a high c o u r t .  In j u v e n i l e c o u r t , the h e a r i n g i s b e f o r e a  m a g i s t r a t e , a n d the p r e s e n c e required in court.  The  of b o t h the c h i l d a n d the a d o p t e r s i s  h e a r i n g i n county  c o u r t i s b e f o r e a judge  h a s w i d e r d i s c r e t i o n a r y p o w e r s i n the c o n d u c t the j u v e n i l e c o u r t m a g i s t r a t e , a n d m a y requirements  county  c o n c e r n i n g the a t t e n d a n c e  who  of the h e a r i n g t h a n d o e s  u s e t h e s e p o w e r s to w a i v e the of the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d .  The  a p p l i c a t i o n in high c o u r t is before a Judge in C h a m b e r s , and i n these c a s e s i t i s t h e p r a c t i c e to a p p o i n t the s o l i c i t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s a s the g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m . * A D O P T I O N L E G I S L A T I O N IN  BRITAIN  A l t h o u g h adoption was l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l 1926,  not m a d e t h e s u b j e c t of e x p l i c i t  a n u m b e r of i n f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t s e x i s t e d  p r i o r to that t i m e w h e r e b y p e o p l e t o o k i n t o t h e i r h o m e s c h i l d r e n  who  h a d not b e e n b o r n to t h e m .  was  In s o m e i n s t a n c e s a l e g a l a g r e e m e n t  e n t e r e d into by the a d o p t e r s a n d the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n beyond this f o r any  but t h e r e w a s  of the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d .  The  e v e n t u a l e m e r g e n c e i n the t h i r d d e c a d e of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y of a w h i c h put the s u b j e c t i n s o m e k i n d of r a t i o n a l o r d e r w a s a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s The  and  no  law  the r e s u l t of  interests.  F i r s t W o r l d War's i m m e n s e casualty l i s t s brought  to p u b l i c n o t i c e the p l i g h t of l a r g e n u m b e r s of " w a r  orphans"; while its  1  F e w e r t h a n one p e r c e n t of a l l a d o p t i o n s go t h r o u g h h i g h c o u r t ; m o s t a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e h e a r d i n the l o w e r c o u r t s , w h e r e c o s t s a r e m u c h l e s s .  2  E d w a r d s , E l i z a b e t h , " T h e L a w on C h i l d A d o p t i o n " , S o c i a l W o r k , a Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w of F a m i l y C a s e w o r k , J a n u a r y , 1950, p a g e 380.  Ill  -  4  e p h e m e r a l sexual encounters called a somewhat m o r e reluctant a t t e n t i o n to a d i f f e r e n t g r o u p o f " w a r b a b i e s " .  The short-term  response  to t h i s i n c r e a s e i n the n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g h o m e s w a s the a r r a n g e m e n t of adoptions by t h r e e types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s : a s s o c i a t i o n s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n s e r v i c e t o t h e u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r ; s o m e o f the l a r g e children's societies, a new category represented and  s u c h a s B a r n a r d o ' s a n d the W a i f s a n d S t r a y s ; a n d  of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s k n o w n a s ' a d o p t i o n  societies',  i n 1919 o n l y b y t h e N a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n A d o p t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n  the N a t i o n a l A d o p t i o n S o c i e t y . As  these o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i d e n e d the scope of t h e i r w o r k i n  the a d o p t i o n f i e l d , h a z a r d s of a n u n r e g u l a t e d  placement system became  p r o g r e s s i v e l y apparent, s o m e t i m e s with tragic c l a r i t y a n d f o r c e . C h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n w e r e e x p o s e d not o n l y t o f i n a n c i a l exploitation a n d p e r s o n a l a b u s e , but a l s o to s e r i o u s l e g a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The  a d o p t e d c h i l d h a d no l e g a l s t a t u s i n the f a m i l y i n w h i c h he w a s r a i s e d ,  and  he w a s u n a b l e to o b t a i n a b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e i n t h e n a m e b y w h i c h he  was known.  A t the s a m e t i m e , a d o p t i n g  f u t u r e c l a i m s o f the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , the c h i l d .  Natural parents  parents were defenseless  against  who r e m a i n e d t h e l e g a l g u a r d i a n s o f  f o r t h e i r p a r t , e v e n i f t h e y d e s i r e d to r e -  l i n q u i s h the c h i l d , c o u l d at a n y t i m e be a s k e d t o r e s u m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i m .  In t h e f a c e of t h i s i m p o s s i b l e  situation, a demand a r o s e f o r  s o m e m e a n s of p r o t e c t i n g the r i g h t s o f a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the m o u n t i n g n u m b e r o f de f a c t o  adoptions.  In A u g u s t 1920, a c o m m i t t e e u n d e r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p of S i r A l f r e d H o p k i n s o n was appointed  to c o n s i d e r the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f l e g a l  r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d o p t i o n a n d t h e f o r m that i t m i g h t t a k e .  The committee  Ill  -  5  r e p o r t e d i n 1921, u n e q u i v o c a l l y r e c o m m e n d i n g l e g a l a d o p t i o n . 1922 a n d  1924,  Between  s i x b i l l s p r o v i d i n g f o r l e g a l a d o p t i o n w e r e s u b m i t t e d to  P a r l i a m e n t ; but n o t one of t h e m r e a c h e d the statute b o o k s .  The  strange  p r o p e n s i t y o f the s u b j e c t of a d o p t i o n to e x c i t e v i o l e n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n h a d the s i m u l t a n e o u s e f f e c t s of a b o r t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , but of k e e p i n g the i s s u e a l i v e . c h a i r m a n s h i p of M r . problem. formed  The  A c c o r d i n g l y , i n 1924 a s e c o n d c o m m i t t e e , u n d e r the J u s t i c e T o m l i n , was  a p p o i n t e d to e x a m i n e the  T o m l i n Committee submitted a draft B i l l which later  the b a s i s of the 1926  Act.  T h e A d o p t i o n A c t o f 1926 w a s identifying those elements  chiefly concerned with  i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s  a n d the c h i l d w h i c h w e r e to s e r v e a s the c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h m u s t be fied before an Adoption O r d e r was  c o u l d be g r a n t e d .  The  i n f a n t to be  satisadopted  to be u n d e r the a g e of t w e n t y - o n e , a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t r e s i d i n g i n  E n g l a n d or Wales, and u n m a r r i e d .  A d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s n e e d not be  B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s but m u s t be r e s i d e n t a n d d o m i c i l e d i n E n g l a n d o r W a l e s a n d at l e a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s of a g e ,  (although age q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e  m o d i f i e d i n the c a s e of r e l a t i v e a d o p t i o n ) . A m a l e a p p l i c a n t a l o n e c o u l d not adopt a f e m a l e c h i l d except i n v e r y s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r c o u l d be g r a n t e d the c o n s e n t w a s l e g a l p e r s o n who  was  Before  r e q u i r e d of e v e r y  a p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n of the i n f a n t , o r who  was  l i a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e to the s u p p o r t of the i n f a n t . ^  1  T h e r e w e r e c e r t a i n v e r y s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h the l a s t r e q u i r e m e n t c o u l d be w a i v e d , but t h e y n e e d not d e t a i n u s .  Ill The  c o u r t was  -  6  e m p o w e r e d to d i s p e n s e w i t h the  i n c a s e s w h e r e the p e r s o n s w h o s e c o n s e n t  consent  w o u l d o r d i n a r i l y be r e q u i r e d  h a d a b a n d o n e d o r d e s e r t e d the i n f a n t , c o u l d not be f o u n d , w e r e i n c a p a b l e of g i v i n g s u c h c o n s e n t , o r the s u p p o r t of the i n f a n t  a l t h o u g h i n f a c t l i a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e to had either p e r s i s t e n t l y neglected or  r e f u s e d to c o n t r i b u t e s u c h s u p p o r t , o r w a s  a person whose  ought, i n the o p i n i o n of the c o u r t , t o be d i s p e n s e d w i t h . adoption was  had  consent  The  c o n s e n t to  to a s s i g n p a r e n t a l s t a t u s to a s p e c i f i e d p e r s o n w h o s e n a m e  a n d a d d r e s s w e r e to a p p e a r on the f o r m . that s o m e p e r s o n o r body was  F i n a l l y , the A c t p r o v i d e d  to be a p p o i n t e d a s g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m , to  r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of the i n f a n t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t . T h e A c t of 1926 h a d the e f f e c t of c o d i f y i n g a n d  legalizing  a s y s t e m of c h i l d p l a c e m e n t w h i c h h a d b e e n p r e v a l e n t f o r y e a r s i n a de f a c t o f o r m .  It w a s  b a s e d u p o n the a s s u m p t i o n  that the p a r t i e s i n -  v o l v e d w e r e a w a r e of one a n o t h e r s i d e n t i t y , e v e n to the p o i n t that the l  n a t u r a l parent was the a d o p t i o n .  r e q u i r e d to be p r e s e n t i n c o u r t to g i v e c o n s e n t to  W r i t t e n a d o p t i o n c o n s e n t s w e r e r e v o c a b l e by the p a r e n t  u p to the t i m e t h a t the A d o p t i o n O r d e r w a s a timid approach  granted.  to a d o p t i o n a n d a c c o m p l i s h e d  a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of the s t a t u s of the a d o p t e d  The A c t r e f l e c t e d  little beyond legal child.  T e n y e a r s e l a p s e d b e f o r e the q u e s t i o n e n t e r e d t h e l l e g i s lative r e a l m again.  A  P a r l i a m e n t a r y C o m m i t t e e , u n d e r the  s h i p of F l o r e n c e H o r s b r u g h , w a s  a p p o i n t e d i n 1936,  m e t h o d s u s e d b y the a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s a n d to m a k e  chairman-  to e x a m i n e the recommendations  r e g a r d i n g the m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t be s u p e r v i s e d o r controlled.  The  r e p o r t of t h i s c o m m i t t e e l e d , i n c o u r s e of t i m e , to  Ill  -  7  the A d o p t i o n of C h i l d r e n ( R e g u l a t i o n ) A c t , 1939, w h i c h ( l i k e m u c h o t h e r i n t e n d e d l e g i s l a t i o n ) d i d n o t c o m e i n t o e f f e c t u n t i l J u n e 1, 1943 b e c a u s e of the d e l a y s o c c a s i o n e d b y the m o r e p r e s s i n g b u s i n e s s o f the W a r . T h i s A c t s t i p u l a t e d that a d o p t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s c o u l d be m a d e only by r e g i s t e r e d adoption s o c i e t i e s o r by p r o p e r l y constituted local authorities.  R e g i s t r a t i o n of the a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s w a s m a d e t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  Steps w e r e taken to c o n t r o l the  a c t i v i t i e s of a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s b y m a k i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n c o n d i t i o n a l u p o n s a t i s f a c t i o n of c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s of p r o c e d u r a l r i g o u r : the b a c k g r o u n d s of b o t h the c h i l d a n d the a p p l i c a n t s w e r e t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d p r i o r to p l a c e m e n t of a c h i l d , a n d e a c h a d o p t i o n c a s e w a s to be r e v i e w e d b y a C a s e C o m m i t t e e ; n a t u r a l p a r e n t s w e r e to s i g n a  memoranduiruindicating  that t h e y u n d e r s t o o d the m e a n i n g o f a d o p t i o n ; a n d a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d of t h r e e m o n t h s w a s a p p o i n t e d b e f o r e the a p p l i c a n t s c o u l d p e t i t i o n f o r the i s s u a n c e of a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r .  A p p l i c a n t s w e r e r e q u i r e d to a p p l y  f o r a n o r d e r w i t h i n s i x m o n t h s of p l a c e m e n t , a n d i f t h e y f a i l e d t o do t h i s , o r i f a n O r d e r w a s r e f u s e d , o r i f the a d o p t e r s w e r e f o u n d to b e u n s u i t a b l e , the c h i l d w a s t o b e r e m o v e d .  Penalties were provided for viola-  t i o n s o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n {which h a d t o be r e n e w e d a n n u a l l y ) c o u l d be c a n c e l l e d . O n l y o n e s e c t i o n of the A c t d e a l t w i t h " t h i r d p a r t y " adoptions.  It w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i f a c h i l d w e r e p l a c e d , o t h e r t h a n  t h r o u g h a r e g i s t e r e d a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y o r a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , the t h i r d p a r t y w a s o b l i g e d t o n o t i f y t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n w h o s e a r e a the a d o p t e r s r e s i d e d s e v e n d a y s p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d a r r i v i n g i n the h o m e . C h i l d r e n u n d e r the a g e of n i n e p l a c e d t h r o u g h a n i n t e r m e d i a r y w o u l d  Ill  -  8  r e m a i n u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y u n t i l a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r was granted.  In c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r a d o p t i o n s  a r r a n g e d t h r o u g h a n a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y , t h e r e w a s no l e g a l p r o v i s i o n f o r a probationary p e r i o d i n either third party or l o c a l authority In t h i r d p a r t y p l a c e m e n t s ,  placements.  m o r e o v e r , t h e r e was little p r o v i s i o n f o r  a s s e s s m e n t o f the s u i t a b i l i t y of the a d o p t e r s .  The court could issue an  I n t e r i m O r d e r t o p e r m i t the g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m to r e v i e w t h e a d o p t i o n placement  m o r e t h o r o u g h l y than was p o s s i b l e i n the s e v e n days.  But if  s u c h a n a d j o u r n m e n t was not m a d e , a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r c o u l d be a p p l i e d for  a n d g r a n t e d at any t i m e a f t e r p l a c e m e n t ,  w i t h no m o r e t h a n a s u p e r -  ficial and perfunctory inquiry. The A c t a l s o p r o h i b i t e d adoption a d v e r t i s e m e n t s by i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d r u l e d t h a t no one o t h e r t h a n a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y c o u l d g i v e or  r e c e i v e m o n e y i n c o n n e c t i o n with adoptions except with the e x p r e s s  c o n s e n t o f the c o u r t . T h e A c t o f 1939 d i d not m e e t the n e e d f o r d e c i s i v e l y  new  a d o p t i o n p o l i c i e s that w e r e so o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e d , b u t i n s t e a d c o m b i n e d t h r e e d i v e r g e n t c o d e s of a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s i n a n unequal a n d u n s t a b l e amalgam.  While  s t a n d a r d s of s e r v i c e w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a d o p t i o n  s o c i e t i e s , adoptions a r r a n g e d by t h i r d p a r t i e s ( c o m p r i s i n g , a s it h a p p e n e d , the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p l a c e m e n t s ) r e m a i n e d  unregulated.  Apart  f r o m the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s , the r o l e of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s r e m a i n e d  u n c l e a r ; a n d the statutory p r o v i s i o n  w h i c h s t a t e d that l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s m i g h t a r r a n g e a d o p t i o n s w a s  inter-  p r e t e d i n a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t w a y s . It w a s  c h i e f l y owing to the p r o m p t i n g s  o f the a d o p t i o n  Ill  -  9  s o c i e t i e s t h a t i n 1945 a c o m m i t t e e , u n d e r the c h a i r m a n s h i p of Mr.  J u s t i c e G a m o n , w a s s e t u p t o e x a m i n e t h e d e f e c t s i n the e x i s t i n g  law a n d to m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r its i m p r o v e m e n t .  The Gamon  R e p o r t w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1947, a n d m a n y of i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s sequently b e c a m e law. benefit f r o m  sub-  A d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s , m o r e o v e r , c o u l d not f a i l to  c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s that w e r e o c c u r r i n g at t h i s  t i m e i n the f i e l d o f c h i l d w e l f a r e i n g e n e r a l , n o t a b l y i n the w a k e of t h e C u r t i s R e p o r t of 1948 w h i c h , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , p r o c l a i m e d a d o p t i o n to b e t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n i n n e e d of p e r m a n e n t homes.  T h e c r u c i a l p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n to e m e r g e f r o m  t h i s p e r i o d of  c h a n g e , o f c o u r s e , w a s the C h i l d r e n A c t of 1948. A s i d e f r o m  its other  m e r i t s , i t s e r v e d a s a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i n the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s ; a n d b y m a k i n g it m a n d a t o r y f o r e v e r y l o c a l a u t h o r i t y to  set up a c h i l d w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s t a f f e d b y a f u l l - t i m e C h i l d r e n ' s  O f f i c e r , the A c t b r o u g h t a b o u t a d r a m a t i c e n l a r g e m e n t o f the c a p a c i t y of t h e s e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to p r o v i d e d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n a n d their families. T h e A d o p t i o n A c t o f 1949 t o o k a n o t h e r  s t e p i n the d i r e c -  t i o n o f u n i f o r m i t y of p r a c t i c e b y r e q u i r i n g a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d o f t h r e e m o n t h s i n e v e r y c a s e of a d o p t i o n . innovation, however, was its attempt  Its m o s t f a r - r e a c h i n g  to p r o v i d e f o r the " a b s o r p t i o n "  of the a d o p t e d c h i l d i n t o the f a m i l y a s i f he w e r e " b o r n to t h e a d o p t e r s . " In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t p r o v i d e d f o r c o n c e a l m e n t o f the i d e n t i t y o f the a d o p t e r f r o m t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t b y a l l o w i n g the a d o p t e r s to be r e f e r r e d to b y a s e r i a l n u m b e r o n the c o n s e n t f o r m .  Since a g e n e r a l consent to  a d o p t i o n c a n n o t be t a k e n i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , a s p e c i f i c c o n s e n t c o u l d  Ill  -  10  now be g i v e n without d i s c l o s i n g the a p p l i c a n t s i d e n t i t y .  The natural  p a r e n t w a s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d to be p r e s e n t i n C o u r t , c o n s e n t s s i g n e d b e f o r e a J u s t i c e o f P e a c e b e i n g now a d m i s s i ble a s e v i d e n c e .  In a n  e f f o r t t o e n s u r e that the m o t h e r w o u l d a d h e r e to h e r d e c i s i o n o n c e t h e c h i l d h a d b e e n p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n , c o n s e n t s c o u l d not be t a k e n u n t i l the c h i l d w a s s i x w e e k s o l d .  Furthermore,  once the p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n  h a d s i g n e d c o n s e n t t o a d o p t i o n , he c o u l d n o t r e m o v e the i n f a n t f r o m the h o m e o f the a d o p t e r s w h i l e the a p p l i c a t i o n w a s p e n d i n g e x c e p t b y l e a v e of the c o u r t .  T h e c o n s e n t s n e c e s s a r y to p r o c e e d i n a d o p t i o n w e r e  n a r r o w e d to p a r e n t s a n d g u a r d i a n s a n d p e r s o n s l i a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e t o the c h i l d ' s s u p p o r t u n d e r o r d e r o r a g r e e m e n t .  A t the s a m e t i m e , the  g r o u n d s o n w h i c h the c o u r t c o u l d d i s p e n s e w i t h a c o n s e n t w e r e n a r r o w e d i n the c a s e of " p e r s o n s w h o s e c o n s e n t ought to b e d i s p o s e d w i t h " to r e s p o n d e n t s who c o u l d not be f o u n d , o r who w e r e i n c a p a b l e of g i v i n g their consent, or were "unreasonably witholding" consent. or person giving p r i m e  T h e parent  consent c o u l d s p e c i f y the r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n  i n w h i c h the c h i l d w a s t o b e r a i s e d . C e r t a i n g a i n s i n c i v i l status w e r e a l s o s e c u r e d f o r the child.  A c h i l d a d o p t e d b y a c i t i z e n o f the U n i t e d K i n g d o m a n d C o l o n i e s  a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c q u i r e d c i t i z e n s h i p f r o m the date o f the A d o p t i o n i f he h a d not p o s s e s s e d it b e f o r e . h i s n e w n a m e i n the " A d o p t e d  Order  E a c h adopted child was r e g i s t e r e d i n  Children Register", and was given a  " b i r t h d a y " i f h i s r e a l o n e h a p p e n e d to b e u n k n o w n . It w a s n o t u n t i l the p a s s a g e  of t h i s A c t that a d o p t e d  c h i l d r e n c o u l d b e t r e a t e d i n l a w a s t h e a d o p t e r s c h i l d r e n i n m a t t e r s of ,  inheritance.  B e f o r e t h i s , adopted c h i l d r e n c o u l d not i n h e r i t a n y p a r t of  Ill the e s t a t e of a n a d o p t e r who  -  11  d i e d i n t e s t a t e , n o r c o u l d the a d o p t e r  i n h e r i t i n the c a s e of the d e a t h of the a d o p t e d c h i l d . The  four A c t s dealing with adoption w e r e consolidated in  the A d o p t i o n A c t ,  1950.  In 1953 parliamentary  a d o p t i o n l a w a n d p r a c t i c e was  c o m m i t t e e c h a i r e d by M r .  m a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and  r e v i e w e d by a  G e r a l d H u r s t ; i n 1958,  the  c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s c o m m i t t e e ' s r e p o r t w e r e  e m b o d i e d i n the A c t w h i c h g o v e r n s a d o p t i o n p r a c t i c e s at the  present  time. U n d e r t h i s A c t , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e e m p o w e r e d to r e m o v e c h i l d r e n placed for adoption in unsuitable homes. i s r e q u i r e d to r e t u r n the c h i l d c o n c e r n e d to the a d o p t i o n  The  society or  local authority within seven days after r e c e i v i n g notice f r o m a u t h o r i t y of the i n t e n t i o n to t e r m i n a t e  the  the p l a c e m e n t , o r w r i t t e n s e v e n  d a y s f r o m the date the a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e f u s e d o r w i t h d r a w n . mum  applicant  The  l e n g t h of n o t i c e to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s of a n i n t e n d e d p l a c e m e n t  minion  the p a r t of a " t h i r d p a r t y " i s e x t e n d e d b y t h i s A c t f r o m one w e e k p r i o r to the a c t u a l p l a c e m e n t to two. circumstances  H o w e v e r , s h o u l d the c h i l d be p l a c e d i n  i n v o l v i n g an e m e r g e n c y , then notice may  l a t e r t h a n one w e e k a f t e r the c h i l d h a s b e e n p l a c e d .  be g i v e n not  S e c t i o n 41 of the  A c t e m p o w e r s l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to i n t e r d i c t w o u l d - b e a d o p t e r s  in third  p a r t y p l a c e m e n t s i f , i n the o p i n i o n of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , the p r o p o s e d p l a c e m e n t s e e m s l i k e l y to be d e t r i m e n t a l to the c h i l d . adopters  can appeal  The  would-be  s u c h a d e c i s i o n i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t , but i f t h e i r  a p p e a l i s not s u c c e s s f u l , the c o u r t c a n m a k e a n o r d e r f o r the c h i l d ' s removal.  In the d i s p o s a l of c o n s e n t s ,  the c a t e g o r y i n v o l v i n g  Ill  -  12  a b a n d o n m e n t , n e g l e c t a n d p e r s i s t e n t i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f the c h i l d w a s b r o a d e n e d to i n c l u d e those p e r s o n s  "who h a d p e r s i s t e n t l y f a i l e d w i t h o u t  r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e t o d i s c h a r g e the o b l i g a t i o n s o f a p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n .  1 1  T h e adoption l e g i s l a t i o n of E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s r e v e a l s a fragmentary  approach  t o the s u b j e c t ; a n d t h i s i n t u r n i s no doubt the  o u t c o m e o f the s u c c e s s i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f the a t t i t u d e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of different h i s t o r i c a l epochs.  In the 1 9 2 0 s , f o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h the I  n e e d f o r l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n of the p a r t i e s to a n a d o p t i o n w a s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d a n d c l e a r l y s e e n , the s a f e g u a r d s a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d w e r e t e n t a t i v e and inadequate  p i n n e d down to a l e v e l of i n e f f e c t u a l i t y by the f e a r  that t o go a n y f u r t h e r w o u l d e n c o u r a g e i m m o r a l i t y b y a l l o w i n g t h e u n m a r r i e d , m o t h e r to d i s p o s e of h e r c h i l d w i t h e x c e s s i v e e a s e . A l t h o u g h the 1926 A c t w a s m o t i v a t e d p a r t l y b y a w e l l m e a n i n g d e s i r e to i m p r o v e the l o t o f the h o m e l e s s c h i l d , i t s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n t h i s r e g a r d w e r e m o d e s t , not to s a y m e a g r e .  It w a s n o t u n t i l  the A c t o f 1949, t h a t the r i g h t s o f the a d o p t e d c h i l d w e r e m a d e a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n of t h e l a w . P r i o r t o t h i s t i m e , c h i l d r e n w e r e n o t h e l d to be f u l l m e m b e r s o f the a d o p t e d f a m i l y i n m a t t e r s o f i n h e r i t a n c e , a n d a d o p t e d c h i l d r e n c o u l d not i n h e r i t p r o p e r t y u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y n a m e d i n the w i l l .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r o p e r t y of the c h i l d , i n the e v e n t of h i s d e a t h ,  p a s s e d t o h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s ; a n d i n the e v e n t that the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s c o u l d not be l o c a t e d , the p r o p e r t y p a s s e d t o the C r o w n r a t h e r t h a n t o the a d o p t i v e p a r e n t s . A n attempt to e s t a b l i s h s o m e u n i f o r m i t y of p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d i s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y i n e v i d e n c e , but the a t t e m p t i s n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n c e i v e d o r s u s t a i n e d , l e a s t o f a l l i n r e g a r d to the i r r a t i o n a l  Ill  -  13  d u a l i t y of the t r e a t m e n t of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d the v o l u n t a r y societies.  A t h r e e m o n t h p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d f o r c h i l d r e n p l a c e d by  adoption s o c i e t i e s was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1939,  but t h i s s a m e p r o v i s i o n  was  n o t e x t e n d e d to c h i l d r e n u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s u n t i l 1949.  S i m i l a r l y , w h e n a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r was  r e f u s e d i n the c a s e of a n  a d o p t i o n a r r a n g e d b y a s o c i e t y , the s o c i e t y w a s  r e q u i r e d by the  Act  to r e m o v e the c h i l d f r o m the h o m e ; y e t i t w a s  Act  that r e f u s a l o r w i t h d r a w a l of a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r  a u t h o r i t y to t e r m i n a t e the  1939  o n l y u n d e r the  1958  p e r m i t t e d the l o c a l  placement.  E m b e d d e d i n E n g l i s h a d o p t i o n l a w a r e a n u m b e r of p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h a r e b o u n d to g i v e r i s e t o s e r i o u s c o n c e r n w h e n one c o n s i d e r s the m o m e n t o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s  of c o m m i t t i n g  a c h i l d to the c a r e  of two p e o p l e u p o n w h o m he i s g o i n g to be d e p e n d e n t f o r a m a j o r p a r t of his chances  of h a p p i n e s s i n l i f e .  M a r r i e d c o u p l e s a r e not r e q u i r e d to  a d o p t j o i n t l y , a n d a l t h o u g h the c o n s e n t of the s p o u s e of a n a p p l i c a n t i s r e q u i r e d , i t c a n be d i s p e n s e d w i t h i n c a s e s w h e r e the m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r c a n n o t be f o u n d o r i s i n c a p a b l e of g i v i n g h i s c o n s e n t , or i n c a s e s w h e r e the h u s b a n d a n d w i f e a r e s e p a r a t e d on what i s p r e s u m e d to be a permanent basis. ^  N o n e of t h i s i s c a l c u l a t e d to s e c u r e u n i f o r m l y  c o m p e t e n t a n d s u i t a b l e a d o p t i v e p a r e n t s f o r the d e p e n d e n t c h i l d . p e r s o n s a r e s t i l l l e g a l l y e l i g i b l e to a d o p t c h i l d r e n .  Consents  t a k e n u n t i l the c h i l d i s s i x w e e k s o l d , t h u s d e l a y i n g p l a c e m e n t  Single  cannot  be  of the  c h i l d i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s ( f a r f r o m u n c o m m o n ) w h e r e the n a t u r a l m o t h e r  1  G r e a t B r i t a i n , A d o p t i o n A c t , S e c t i o n 5 (4),  1958.  Ill  -  14  i s w i l l i n g a n d a b l e to r e a c h a d e c i s i o n w e l l b e f o r e t h i s p o i n t . On  the o t h e r h a n d , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a n a t u r a l p a r e n t  --  e i t h e r m o t h e r o r p u t a t i v e f a t h e r - - t o a d o p t the c h i l d e i t h e r a l o n e o r jointly with a m a r r i a g e from  p a r t n e r , a n d b y t h i s m e a n s to p r o t e c t the c h i l d  the o p p r o b r i u m of i l l e g i t i m a c y .  In the c a s e of a n  unmarried  m o t h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r h e r to c h a n g e h e r n a m e , h e r own  adopt  c h i l d , a n d o b t a i n a b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e f o r the c h i l d w h i c h c o n t a i n s  no e v i d e n c e that he w a s  b o r n out of w e d l o c k .  A D O P T I O N SERVICES P R O V I D E D BY A D O P T I O N S O C I E T I E S AND L O C A L AUTHORITIES It i s of a p i e c e w i t h the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s of d e v e l o p m e n t of the B r i t i s h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t h a t a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e by v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t .  The  first  adoptions  w e r e a r r a n g e d u n d e r the a u s p i c e s of l a r g e c h i l d r e n s h o m e s a s e a r l y a s 1  1869,  w h e n the N a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n s H o m e w a s  F i r s t W o r l d War,  founded.  F o l l o w i n g the  w i t h i t s s y m b i o t i c p r o b l e m s of a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n  the n u m b e r s of d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n a n d l a r g e n u m b e r s of p a r e n t s b e r e f t of t h e i r s o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a d e c l i n e i n the m o r a l a c e r b i t y of p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s i l l e g i t i m a c y , the d e m a n d f o r a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s r o s e s h a r p l y , and t h e r e was The  a m u s h r o o m g r o w t h of a d o p t i o n  Hurst Committee Report  societies.  * c l a s s i f i e s adoption  s o c i e t i e s u n d e r t h r e e m a i n h e a d i n g s : t h o s e w h o s e f u n c t i o n i s l i m i t e d to b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s a n d c h i l d r e n who  1  have been  R e p o r t of the D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e of the A d o p t i o n of C h i l d r e n ( H u r s t R e p o r t ) G r e a t B r i t a i n A c c o u n t s a n d P a p e r s , V o l u m e VIII, 1953-54, p a g e 8.  Ill  -  a c c e p t e d by the s o c i e t y f o r a d o p t i o n ;  15 C h i l d r e n s H o m e s , (both l a r g e , 1  national associations and small,locally based denominational  societies)  whose o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n was to a r r a n g e p l a c e m e n t f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c a r e , b u t who i n r e c e n t y e a r s h a v e e x t e n d e d  t h e i r s e r v i c e s to other  children; and " m o r a l w e l f a r e " a s s o c i a t i o n s , whose adoption work i s undertaken  chiefly i n connection with s e r v i c e s to u n m a r r i e d The  mothers.  g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s i s  m a r k e d l y u n e v e n , s o that s o m e a r e a s m a y b e w e l l p r o v i d e d w i t h adoption s o c i e t i e s while o t h e r s m a y have few or none.  T h e county of  Kent, f o r e x a m p l e , does not have a single r e g i s t e r e d adoption s o c i e t y w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s , w h i l e a stone's t h r o w a w a y i n t h e c o u n t y of London there a r e several. * T h i s uneven distribution has o c c u r r e d c h i e f l y b e c a u s e a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s t e n d to h a v e b e e n s e t u p w h e r e s t r o n g l o c a l c u r r e n t s of o p i n i o n - g e n e r a l l y r e l i g i o u s i n c h a r a c t e r have sharpened  the p e r c e p t i o n o f the n e e d f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s .  societies themselves national i n scope,  The  differ widely, some being large i n scale and  others being s m a l l and local.  Sectarian adoption  s o c i e t i e s m a y g i v e h e a v y e m p h a s i s t o t h e r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s of a d o p t i o n , and a c c o r d i n g l y d e a l with applications only f r o m those p r o f e s s i n g the s a m e f a i t h ; t h o u g h s o m e w i l l a c c e p t a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m the m e m b e r s o f other churches  i f s a t i s f i e d that the h o m e w i l l p r o v i d e a n a c c e p t a b l e  religious environment.  T h e r e a r e no s p e c i f i c a l l y J e w i s h a d o p t i o n  s o c i e t i e s , b u t J e w i s h a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s c a n o b t a i n a c h i l d t h r o u g h one  1  Kornitzer, Margaret:  Correspondence  Ill  -  16  of the l a r g e r n o n - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the l a w i t s e l f , the a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s a r e f r e e to f o r m u l a t e t h e i r o w n  p o l i c i e s ; and this they s o m e -  t i m e s do a l o n g v e r y d i v e r g e n t l i n e s i n d e e d .  The  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the  c r i t e r i a of f i t n e s s i n a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a p r e r o g a t i v e of e a c h society; and, a s a r e s u l t m a n y i d i o s y n c r a t i c v a r i a t i o n s a r e to be f o u n d i n the s t a n d a r d s u s e d .  I r o n i c a l l y , of a l l the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s , i t i s the v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s w h i c h a r e m o s t s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by law. 1954 m a d e i t q u i t e c l e a r that t h e r e w a s  Y e t the H u r s t R e p o r t * of  a w i d e r a n g e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the A d o p t i o n S o c i e t i e s R e g u l a t i o n A c t (1943) i n r e g a r d to s u c h m a t t e r s a s v i s i t i n g a n d the m e t h o d s u s e d by a n d the d e g r e e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a c c e p t e d by the S o c i e t i e s ' C a s e  Committees.  In s p i t e of the w h i m s i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e i r p o l i c i e s , the v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s p r o v i d e a l i m i t e d a n d s t e r e o t y p e d r a n g e o f services.  K o r n i t z e r r e p o r t s that i f the c h i l d i s u n h e a l t h y o r h a s a  s e r i o u s c o n g e n i t a l d e f e c t , i s the o f f s p r i n g of a n i n c e s t u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r i s of r a c i a l l y m i x e d p a r e n t a g e , i t w i l l not be a c c e p t e d f o r a d o p t i o n . N e i t h e r c o u l d the s o c i e t i e s be s a i d to h a v e s h o w n a n e x t r a v a g a n t w i l l i n g n e s s to extend t h e m s e l v e s  on b e h a l f of the p a r e n t o f f e r i n g the c h i l d f o r  adoption:  1  H u r s t R e p o r t , op. c i t . , p a g e  2  Kornitzer, Margaret,  68  op. c i t . , p a g e  78  Ill  -  17  T h e l i a b i l i t y of the s o c i e t i e s f o r t h e c a r e of c h i l d r e n w h o m t h e y a r e t r y i n g to p l a c e i s l i m i t e d , f o r the m o t h e r o r o t h e r g u a r d i a n i s r e s p o n s i b l e not m e r e l y u n t i l t h e b a b y i s h a n d e d o v e r b u t u n t i l the a d o p t i o n o r d e r i s m a d e . If the a d o p t i o n f a i l s f o r a n y r e a s o n , the m o t h e r m a y b e a s k e d t o t a k e the c h i l d b a c k at s h o r t notice. ^ 9  The  Hurst committee  f o u n d that t h e r e w e r e two  c o m m o n l y v o i c e d c r i t i c i s m s of a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s .  Firstly,  societies  w e r e f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d to be p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n a r e a s t o o r e m o t e t o m a k e r e g u l a r v i s i t i n g b y t h e i r o w n s t a f f a p o s s i b i l i t y , y e t a t the s a m e t i m e f a i l i n g t o m a k e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r s o m e o t h e r s u i t a b l e p e r s o n to v i s i t the adoption home. a p r a c t i c e of e m p l o y i n g  S e c o n d l y , f e w o f the a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s m a d e properly qualified professional workers.  H u r s t C o m m i t t e e ' s v i e w w a s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e f e c t l a y w i t h the s o c i e t i e s The  1  The  second  inadequate f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s .  l o c a l authorities, f o r their part, have a s s u m e d a n  i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the a d o p t i o n f i e l d o n l y i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t y e a r s ; a n d e v e n at t h a t , t h e y h a v e y e t to s u c c e e d i n i n t e g r a t i n g that r o l e w i t h their other c h i l d w e l f a r e  services.  W h e n the f i r s t a d o p t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n w a s e n a c t e d i n 1926, l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e g i v e n the d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a r r a n g i n g adoptions for c h i l d r e n i n their care and acting as guardian a d litem. B u t at that t i m e t h e y l a c k e d the q u a l i f i e d s t a f f t o do e i t h e r p r o p e r l y . H e n c e , f o r t h e t w e n t y y e a r s that p a s s e d b e f o r e the C h i l d r e n A c t o f  1  Ibid ,  p a g e 78.  2  H u r s t R e p o r t , o p . c i t . , p a g e 9.  Ill 1948  m a d e it p o s s i b l e to o r g a n i z e  -  18  s u c h w o r k t h r o u g h the n e w  Children's  O f f i c e r s , a d o p t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e w e r e a r r a n g e d b y a v a r i e t y of l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s : the s t a t u t o r y d u t i e s of the W e l f a r e A u t h o r i t y w e r e p e r f o r m e d b y the H e a l t h  Department, guardians a d  l i t e m w e r e u s u a l l y c h o s e n f r o m the E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s w a s c a r r i e d out b y t h e T r e a s u r e r ' s Department. The at the p r e s e n t  a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d b y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s  t i m e i n c l u d e the s u p e r v i s i o n of a d o p t i o n p l a c e m e n t s , the  a r r a n g e m e n t o f a d o p t i o n s , a n d the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s . In i t s s u p e r v i s o r y  c a p a c i t i e s , the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y h a s  three distinct functions. 1. W e l f a r e a u t h o r i t y . U p o n r e c e i v i n g n o t i c e of a n i n t e n d e d p l a c e m e n t b y a t h i r d p a r t y , the a u t h o r i t y m u s t i n s p e c t the p r o p o s e d h o m e , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r the c h i l d i s to be a d o p t e d , a n d t a k e a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n found. 2. S u p e r v i s i n g a g e n c y . W h e n e v e r notice of i n t e n t i o n to a p p l y f o r a n A d o p t i o n O r d e r i s r e c e i v e d , but p r i o r to t h e a c t u a l l o d g i n g of a n a p p l i c a t i o n i n c o u r t , s u p e r v i s i o n i s to f o l l o w , ( e v e n i n c a s e s w h e r e the c h i l d h a s b e e n p l a c e d d i r e c t l y b y i t s m o t h e r o r g u a r d i a n , o r w h e r e the m o t h e r i s h e r s e l f g o i n g to a d o p t the c h i l d ) . T h e s u p e r v i s i n g a u t h o r i t y , i n E n g l i s h l a w , i s a r e s p o n d e n t to the a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d the a u t h o r i t y ' s r e p o r t has t h e r e f o r e to be s u b m i t t e d i n c o u r t . 3. G u a r d i a n a d l i t e m . A t the t i m e that a n a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n i s b r o u g h t b e f o r e the c o u r t , a g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m i s a p p o i n t e d t o r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of the i n f a n t . T h e d u t i e s of t h i s p o s i t i o n a r e to u n d e r t a k e a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the a d o p t i o n p l a c e m e n t a n d to s u b m i t to c o u r t a r e p o r t concerning these findings.  Ill  -  19  T h e m a j o r p o r t i o n of the a d o p t i o n w o r k of l o c a l authorities is in supervising, a d o p t i o n that t a k e s p l a c e .  i n one of the a b o v e c a p a c i t i e s , e v e r y  In m a n y - i n s t a n c e s  a local authority will  undertake both g u a r d i a n ad l i t e m and s u p e r v i s i n g  duties.  W e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s a r e l e g a l l y e m p o w e r e d to a r r a n g e a d o p t i o n s but w h e t h e r o r not t h e y do so i s o p t i o n a l .  Many local authori-  t i e s l i m i t t h e i r a d o p t i o n w o r k to c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , t h o u g h a f e w a r r a n g e a d o p t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n not i n t h e i r c a r e a s w e l l .  The  do i s s u e of  w h e t h e r o r not l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d a r r a n g e a d o p t i o n s i s one w h i c h C h i l d r e n s * O f f i c e r s m o s t often d i s a g r e e .  upon  S o m e a r e of the  o p i n i o n that i t i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t h e i r w o r k , but o t h e r s f e e l that i f t h e y w e r e to h a v e a h a n d i n the a c t u a l p l a c e m e n t  of c h i l d r e n , it m i g h t  a f f e c t t h e i r i m p a r t i a l i t y i n g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m duties.'''  2 The Hurst Committee  f o u n d e v i d e n c e t h a t the  O f f i c e r s of s o m e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e a c c e p t i n g  Childrens  1  and placing c h i l d r e n  on t h e i r own  i n i t i a t i v e w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e  Children's  Committee.  T h e H u r s t R e p o r t a l s o f o u n d that s o m e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s  w e r e placing c h i l d r e n i n h o m e s outside t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  boundaries  w i t h o u t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the h o m e o r n o t i f i c a t i o n of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y i n w h o s e a r e a the h o m e w a s  situated.  the d e f e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n f o r s u p e r v i s o r y  A  s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m was  v i s i t i n g a f t e r the p l a c e m e n t  been effected.  1  Kornitzer, Margaret,  2  H u r s t R e p o r t , op. c i t . , p a g e 7.  m a d e of  op. c i t . , page  85.  had  Ill  -  20  O n e n o t a l t o g e t h e r o b j e c t i o n a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e of the f a c t that the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e not s o c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s a s t h e a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s , i s that a d o p t e r s  who a r e a b o v e  the a g e l i m i t s a c c e p t a b l e t o a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s , b u t who desire safeguards  nevertheless  not p r o v i d e d by p r i v a t e p l a c e m e n t s , a r e often  success-  f u l i n o b t a i n i n g a c h i l d t h r o u g h the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . ^ The  v a r i e t y i n p o l i c y a n d u n e v e n e s s of s e r v i c e e x h i b i t e d  by the d i f f e r e n t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l s o o f the w o r k of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  A s Kornitzer  says:  It i s n o t a t a l l e a s y - i n d e e d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e - t o l a y d o w n that l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s do t h i s o r c h i l d r e n ' s o f f i c e r s do not do t h a t , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a d o p t i o n w o r k . F r o m p l a c e to p l a c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the l a w a n d of a n a u t h o r i t y ' s duty m a y v a r y . Children's O f f i c e r s a r e s t i l l feeling their way a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y . M r . K e n n e t h B r i l l , S e c r e t a r y of the C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , p o i n t e d out a t t h e H e a l t h C o n g r e s s at S o u t h p o r t i n 1951 that "No m e m b e r of a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y ' s s t a f f c a n s p e a k f o r the o p i n i o n s of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s g e n e r a l l y . " ^  In v i e w of b o t h the v a r i e t y a n d q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d b y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t m a y n o t b e w i t h out s i g n i f i c a n c e that o v e r t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y o n l y a b o u t o n e q u a r t e r o f the a d o p t i o n o r d e r s g r a n t e d a r e i n r e s p e c t of a d o p t i o n s a r r a n g e d societies or local authorities.  1  K o r n i t z e r , M a r g a r e t , op. c i t . , p a g e 4 3 .  2  K o r n i t z e r , M a r g a r e t , o p . c i t . , p a g e 86.  3  H u r s t R e p o r t , op. c i t . , p a g e 12.  by  Ill  - 21  THE RELATIONSHIP B E T W E E N STATUTORY AND V O L U N T A R Y A G E N C I E S IN T H E A D O P T I O N F I E L D The  s t r u c t u r e o f the p r e s e n t B r i t i s h " w e l f a r e  state"has  b e e n a s s e m b l e d p a r t l y f r o m components c r e a t e d e x p r e s s l y f o r the p u r p o s e , a n d p a r t l y f r o m m a t e r i a l s l y i n g t o h a n d i n the f o r m o f the existing voluntary s e r v i c e s .  1  According  to H e t h e r i n g t o n , 2  whose  v i e w s a r e i n m a n y w a y s t y p i c a l , the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the s t a t u t o r y and voluntary bodies mentarity  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i d e n t i t y of p u r p o s e b u t c o m p l e -  of f u n c t i o n , w i t h the w o r k of v o l u n t e e r s s u p p l e m e n t i n g that o f  the a u t h o r i t i e s , w h o i n t u r n a s s i s t the v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s  financially.  3  Newman  , i n a s i m i l a r v i e w a s s e r t s that the p a r t n e r s h i p e x i s t i n g  b e t w e e n the s t a t u t o r y a n d v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s i s one o f the  striking  f e a t u r e s o f the B r i t i s h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , p o i n t i n g out, h o w e v e r , that t h e r e i s a m a r k e d u n e v e n e s s i n the q u a l i t y o f t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p f r o m l o c a l i t y to l o c a l i t y .  T h e q u e s t i o n r a i s e d b y the f a c t s r e v i e w e d  here,  h o w e v e r , i s w h e t h e r the d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n the m o d e l of " p a r t n e r s h i p " a n d the r e a l i t y of s o m e t h i n g m a n i f e s t l y l e s s h a r m o n i o u s i s not s o g r e a t a s t o c a s t doubt o n the v e r y c r e d i b i l i t y of the m o d e l .  T h e question i s  p o s e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s h a r p n e s s i n r e g a r d to the m a t t e r o f the f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s of p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s .  1  T h e i s s u e of w h e t h e r B r i t a i n d o e s i n f a c t h a v e a w e l f a r e s t a t e i s d i s c u s s e d b y R. T i t m u s s i n " T h e W e l f a r e S t a t e : I m a g e s a n d R e a l i t i e s " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , M a r c h , 1963.  2  H e t h e r i n g t o n , H e c t o r , " T h e R o l e of the V o l u n t a r y S e r v i c e s i n C o n t e m p o r a r y B r i t a i n " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , W i n t e r 1962, p a g e 90.  3  Newman, E . , "An A m e r i c a n Looks A t B r i t i s h Social S e r v i c e " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , S u m m e r , 1961, p a g e 6.  Ill  -  22  W i t h the r i s i n g c o s t s of new together  and  expanded s e r v i c e s ,  w i t h the d e c l i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s of  r a i s i n g f u n d s , v o l u n t a r y w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n E n g l a n d a r e now  dependent  upon statutory subsidies for their v e r y  welfare  f i e l d , the p a t t e r n of s u b v e n t i o n now  survival.  i n f o r c e was  In the c h i l d e s t a b l i s h e d by  the  C h i l d r e n A c t of 1948.  T h i s A c t set f o r t h f o u r t y p e s of p u b l i c g r a n t to  the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s :  " t o k e n s u b s i d i e s " i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the v a l u e of a  voluntary  s e r v i c e to the c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e ; s u b s i d i e s of a c o s t -  s h a r i n g v a r i e t y to a s s i s t w i t h v o l u n t a r y p r o g r a m s w h i c h the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s w i s h to e n c o u r a g e a n d f r o m w h i c h t h e y h o p e i n s o m e way  to  b e n e f i t ( s u c h a s s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t r a i n i n g s c h e m e s ) ; p a y m e n t s of the p e r c a p i t a o r p r o - r a t e d k i n d f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d to i n d i v i d u a l s f o r w h o m the a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; a n d integral service p r o g r a m s which a voluntary on a delegated  payments for  organization is providing  b a s i s o n b e h a l f of a p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . ^ The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e s e s u b s i d i e s , h o w e v e r , i s  c l o s e l y b o u n d u p w i t h the q u e s t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e ,  i n any  given  case,  of a s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r p r o v i s i o n ; i f the g r a n t i s p e r missive  a n d not m a n d a t o r y , the s u b s i d y m a y  reliability.  The  extent of the s u b s i d y  v a r y both i n amount  i s a l s o d e p e n d e n t u p o n the  a m o u n t that c a n be l e v i e d f r o m the c o n s u m e r s of v o l u n t a r y i n the f o r m of f e e s or  1  and  services  donations.  M e n c h e r , S., " F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n V o l u n t a r y and S t a t u t o r y B o d i e s i n the B r i t i s h S o c i a l S e r v i c e s " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , J u n e 1958, p a g e s .140, 141.  Ill  -  23  D i r e c t s u b s i d i e s i n the c h i l d w e l f a r e granted to voluntary  field a r e usually  societies by l o c a l authorities.  Central government  s u b s i d i e s by c o n t r a s t , a r e s e l e c t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r , a n d u s u a l l y l i m i t e d to n a t i o n a l b o d i e s f o r w o r k w h i c h f a l l s o u t s i d e t h e d i r e c t s e r v i c e f i e l d , o r to s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s of v a r i o u s k i n d s . the v o l u n t a r y  organizations  T h e r e s u l t h a s b e e n to p l a c e  in a precarious and unsatisfactory financial  position. The  financial r e l a t i o n s h i p between statutory and voluntary  bodies in adoption s e r v i c e s i s positively poor.  T h e i n c o m e of the v o l u n -  t a r y adoption s o c i e t i e s i s h e a v i l y dependent on voluntary  contributions.  A d o p t e r s a r e a s k e d f o r d o n a t i o n s w h e n a d o p t i n g a c h i l d but a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s cannot c h a r g e a f e e f o r a r r a n g i n g  adoptions.  In s o m e c a s e s  societies m a y obtain a d i s c r e t i o n a r y grant f r o m a statutory l o c a l a u t h o r i t y to h e l p t h e m w i t h t h e i r w o r k , but t h e y a r e n o t s u b s i d i z e d b y the H o m e O f f i c e .  T h o s e a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s w h i c h f u n c t i o n a s p a r t of a  c h u r c h " m o r a l w e l f a r e " o r g a n i z a t i o n o r of a l a r g e c h i l d r e n s ' h o m e d e r i v e t h e i r r e v e n u e s f r o m the p a r e n t b o d y . The  f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f the v o l u n t a r y  s o c i e t i e s was  d e s c r i b e d by the H u r s t C o m m i t t e e a s f o l l o w s : T h i s c o m m i t t e e d i d not f e e l that i t c o u l d m a k e a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o the f i e l d of o p e r a t i o n o f a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s a n d t h e i r c a r r y i n g out o f v i s i t s , o r to the e m p l o y m e n t of t r a i n e d w o r k e r s , b e c a u s e it i s c l e a r to u s f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e we h a v e r e c e i v e d that m o s t s o c i e t i e s a r e f i n a n c i a l l y unable to c a r r y any further burdens. T h e effect of such r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,' w o1u l d be to c l o s e d o w n a n u m b e r of s o c i e t i e s .  1  H u r s t R e p o r t , op. c i t . , p a g e 10.  Ill The  -  24  l e g a l f r a m e w o r k of the s e r v i c e a s p e c t s o f t h e  s t a t u t o r y - v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s s e t out i n the A d o p t i o n ( R e g u l a t i o n s ) A c t o f 1939, now i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the 1958 A d o p t i o n A c t . S t a n d a r d s of s e r v i c e w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r v o l u n t a r y w e r e to b e e n f o r c e d  societies which  by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t h r o u g h r e g i s t r a t i o n .  U n l e s s a n a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y w a s so r e g i s t e r e d , i t c o u l d n o t a r r a n g e adoptions.  U n d e r the A d o p t i o n A c t o f 1958, r e g i s t r a t i o n of a n a d o p t i o n  s o c i e t y c a n b e r e f u s e d i f the s o c i e t y i s not a c h a r i t a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n , i f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the s o c i e t y c o m m i t t e e of m e m b e r s , p u r p o s e of a r r a n g i n g  a r e not c o n t r o l l e d b y a  responsible  i f a n y p e r s o n e m p l o y e d i n the s o c i e t y f o r the  a d o p t i o n s i s not a fit a n d p r o p e r p e r s o n to b e so  e m p l o y e d , i f the n u m b e r of p e r s o n s e m p l o y e d i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to m a i n t a i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t y a t a c c e p t a b l e  l e v e l s , or i f any p e r s o n  t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o r c o n t r o l o f the s o c i e t y , o r a n y m e m b e r of i t , h a s b e e n c o n v i c t e d o f a n o f f e n s e u n d e r t h e A c t .  A  r e g i s t r a t i o n a u t h o r i t y c a n a t a n y t i m e c a n c e l the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a n a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y o n a n y g r o u n d w h i c h w o u l d e n t i t l e the a u t h o r i t y t o r e f u s e a n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f the s o c i e t y .  Regulations  g o v e r n i n g the p r o c e d u r e f o r n o t i f i c a t i o n of a n a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y w h e n a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y p r o p o s e s to r e f u s e o r c a n c e l r e g i s t r a t i o n , a n d p r o v i s i o n f o r a p p e a l by the s o c i e t y , a r e c o n t a i n e d Secretary  i n S e c t i o n 31 (the  of State i s e m p o w e r e d u n d e r S e c t i o n 32 t o m a k e  regulations  r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s to be m e t i n t h e a d o p t i o n w o r k o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . ) A l o c a l a u t h o r i t y c a n at any t i m e r e q u i r e a r e g i s t e r e d a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y to p r o d u c e any b o o k s , d o c u m e n t s , o r a c c o u n t s r e l a t i n g t o i t s m a n n e r of d i s c h a r g i n g i t s d u t i e s .  Ill  -  25  A l t h o u g h a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s a r e l e g a l l y o b l i g e d to h a v e s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f f o r the e f f i c i e n t p e r f o r m a n c e of a l l the t a s k s t h e y undertake,  they a r e often c o m p e l l e d  c h i e f l y b e c a u s e o f l a c k of m o n e y ,  to r e q u e s t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to i n s p e c t h o m e s a n d s u p e r v i s e c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e the a r e a w i t h i n w h i c h a g i v e n s o c i e t y m a y  be o p e r a t i n g .  This  h e l p i s u s u a l l y w i l l i n g l y g i v e n , but the a u t h o r i t i e s take t h e p o s i t i o n that the s o c i e t i e s ought to do t h e i r own  w o r k w h e n e v e r they can,  and  t h e y w i l l n o t , f o r e x a m p l e , a p p r o v e a d o p t e r s on b e h a l f o f a d o p t i o n societies. *  On  the o t h e r h a n d , a C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r m a y  ask  an  a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y to m a k e the n e c e s s a r y a r r a n g e m e n t s i n c a s e s w h e r e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e a n u m b e r of b a b i e s who  c a n be m a d e a v a i l a b l e  for adoption. The  f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c i e s f o r the r e g u l a t i o n o f c h i l d  w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s of r e g u l a t i o n i t s e l f ment.  The  a n d the  i s v e s t e d by P a r l i a m e n t i n the c e n t r a l  process govern-  s e r v i c e r o l e of the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t i s e x c l u s i v e l y of a n  i n d i r e c t n a t u r e , b e i n g c o n f i n e d to s u c h m a t t e r s a s s u p p o r t i n g n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r d u t i e s , e.g.  personnel training p r o g r a m s . S t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s o v e r the y e a r s h a v e a c q u i r e d a  p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o v e r the p o l i c i e s of p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s ,  chiefly  b e c a u s e of the p o o r f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f the v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . D u r i n g the 1940*8, h o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s  1  Kornitzer, Margaret,  op.  a movement towards a coalition  c i t . , page  90.  Ill  -  26  r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g the v a r i o u s a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s a s they p e r c e i v e d the n e e d to m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n m a t t e r s of a d o p t i o n p o l i c y a s a group,  r a t h e r than a n u n c o - o r d i n a t e d aggregate  of i n d i v i d u a l b o d i e s .  A  number of meetings and conferences were held i n connection with which the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of S o c i a l S e r v i c e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i zational role.  A t a c o n f e r e n c e i n M a y , 1950, t h e S t a n d i n g  Conference  f o r S o c i e t i e s R e g i s t e r e d f o r A d o p t i o n w a s f o r m e d , to c o - o r d i n a t e informational, r e s e a r c h , and adoption p r a c t i c e s .  A l l existing adoption  s o c i e t i e s a r e m e m b e r s of the S t a n d i n g C o n f e r e n c e .  This organization  h o l d s r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s to d i s c u s s m a t t e r s o f a d o p t i o n p o l i c y a n d p r a c t i c e , a n d i t s c o l l e c t i v e v i e w s a r e c o m m u n i c a t e d to t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e p a r t m e n t s of g o v e r n m e n t .  T h e Standing C o n f e r e n c e a l s o  sends  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n s ' O f f i c e r s m e e t i n g s , a n d conversely, a member  o f the C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i s d e l e -  g a t e d t o the S t a n d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . ^ A n a n n u a l c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d b y t h e S t a n d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , w h i c h i s a t t e n d e d by a d o p t i o n w o r k e r s  from  p u b l i c a n d v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s a l l o v e r the c o u n t r y . ASSESSMENT OF THE  RELATIONSHIP  T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of a d o p t i o n s i n E n g l a n d a r e a r r a n g e d at the i n i t i a t i v e of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , e i t h e r t h r o u g h t h i r d p a r t i e s o r by d i r e c t p l a c e m e n t  o f the c h i l d b y h i s g u a r d i a n .  So f a r a s t h e l o c a l  a u t h o r i t i e s a n d the adoption s o c i e t i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , the w o r k of a d o p t i o n p l a c e m e n t  1  the m a j o r p a r t of  i s done b y t h e l a t t e r , e v e n t h o u g h t h e s e  Moore, Joyce, Senior Adoption Officer, D r . Barnardo's Correspondence.  Homes,  Ill  - 27  s o c i e t i e s a d m i n i s t e r o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l a d o p t i o n services.  T h e l o c a l authorities confine  p a r t , t o the s u p e r v i s i o n of a d o p t i o n The  their a c t i v i t i e s , f o r the m o s t  cases.  p h y s i o g n o m y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t a t u t o r y  a n d v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s i n the B r i t i s h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n the p a s t .  T o e x a m i n e t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  h o w e v e r , w o u l d r e q u i r e a n a n a l y s i s of the p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f the t i m e s i n a d e t a i l w h i c h i s b e y o n d the s c o p e o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y .  In.the b r i e f e s t t e r m s , one  c o u l d s a y that t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n q u e s t i o n , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , w a s  charac-  t e r i z e d b y a d o m i n a n c e of the v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s , the r a p i d g r o w t h a n d w i d e r a n g i n g a c t i v i t i e s of w h i c h w e r e s u c h a p r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e of the s o c i a l l i f e o f B r i t a i n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  Of this phenomenon,  Beveridge has written: The nineteenth century i n B r i t a i n was a time of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i z e , n o t o n l y i n p u r s u i t o f g a i n , but a l s o i n s o c i a l r e f o r m . In the n i n e teenth century m a n y m e n m a d e fortunes f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n m e e t i n g the n e e d s of t h e i r f e l l o w s . M a n y o t h e r s , d r i v e n by s o c i a l cons c i e n c e to a t t a c k w a n t , s q u a l o r , i g n o r a n c e , disease and illness, inspired or created s o c i e t i e s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s to s e r v e t h e i r a i m s . The  combination  of c a t a c l y s m i c s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c  changes a n d a d o g m a t i c a l l y i m p l a c a b l e p h i l o s o p h y of l a i s s e z - f a i r e m a d e t h i s p e r i o d o f B r i t i s h h i s t o r y a t i m e of p r o f o u n d h a r d s h i p f o r t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e ; a n d i t w a s t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s e s u f f e r i n g s i n the o n l y  1  B e v e r i d g e , W. , V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n , U n w i n B r o t h e r s L t d . , G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1948, p a g e 13.  Ill  -  28  i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r m s the p o l i t i c a l d o c t r i n e s of the age that the v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s a r o s e .  As  Madeline  could sanction  Rooff  says:  A s i n d u s t r i a l , s o c i a l and demographic changes high-lighted poverty and d i s t r e s s , m o r a l i t y a n d r e l i g i o n c o m b i n e d to e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p h y . A t the s a m e t i m e the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e d e t e r m i n e d the p a t t e r n w i t h i n w h i c h the w e l l - t o - d o s h o u l d b e c o m e the b e n e f a c t o r s of the 'lower o r d e r s * . 1  D u r i n g the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , the c e n t r a l i z i n g f o r c e s of a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , c h a n g e s i n the p o w e r r e l a t i o n s of the s o c i a l c l a s s e s , a n d a u t o n o m o u s d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o u r v i e w s of the r o l e of the S t a t e , h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a m a j o r i n c r e a s e i n the r e s p o n s i bilities and  s c o p e of g o v e r n m e n t . The  l e g i s l a t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s t r e n d i n the f i e l d of  a d o p t i o n (and i n o t h e r f i e l d s of c h i l d w e l f a r e ) was p a s s a g e i n 1948  of the C h i l d r e n A c t .  s i g n a l i z e d b y the  W i t h the c r e a t i o n of C h i l d r e n s ,  D e p a r t m e n t s c a l l e d f o r b y t h i s A c t , the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s (as the a n d l e v e l of g o v e r n m e n t m o s t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d ) b e c a m e e n g a g e d i n the a d o p t i o n f i e l d .  1  branch  strategically  In d e f e r e n c e to t h i s d e c i s i v e e x t e n s i o n of  the s c o p e of the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , the v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p e l l e d to u n d e r t a k e a r a d i c a l r e o r i e n t a t i o n b o t h of t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s a n d their activities.  The  s u r v i v a l of t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the e r a of the  w e l f a r e s t a t e i s i n f a c t d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i r v e r y a b i l i t y to do j u s t t h i s . The  m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s preoccupations which w e r e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n a r e  1  so  persistently  Roof, Madeline, Voluntary Societies and S o c i a l P o l i c y , R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l L t d . , L o n d o n , 1957, p a g e 253.  Ill strong even today,  -  29  p a r t i c u l a r l y , perhaps, in a field like adoption  w h e r e c o n c e r n s of t h i s s o r t s e e m so m u c h m o r e c o g e n t t h a n i n m a n y o t h e r f i e l d s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e .  The  m a j o r i t y of a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s  have a r e l i g i o u s b i a s in their w o r k and their organization.  M o s t of the  sectarian  c e r n e d w i t h s e r v i n g t h o s e of t h e i r own will accept applications  an  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l element in agencies are avowedly con-  faith.  f r o m p e o p l e of a n y  The  national  societies  r e l i g i o u s g r o u p , but  set t h e i r f a c e s f i r m l y a g a i n s t the p r o f e s s e d l y n o n - r e l i g i o u s . ^ f e r v e n t e x p o n e n t s of the r e l i g i o u s a p p r o a c h a r e welfare" associations, m e r i t s and  s i n c e one  of t h e s e m o r a l w e l f a r e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e The  registered  l e a d us to a s k  As  Beveridge  adoption  most  "moral the Many  societies.  of c o n t e m p o r a r y  life,  w h e t h e r t h i s a p p r o a c h to a d o p t i o n  w o r k i s not at l e a s t a l i t t l e u n a c c o m o d a t i n g , a n d view, even arrogant.  The  of l i f e u p o n t h e i r c l i e n t s .  undisputed secularization  however, must surely  p e r h a p s the  have  of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l a i m s i s to u r g e  c l a i m s of the C h r i s t i a n way  still  f r o m s o m e p o i n t s of  observes:  T h a t t h e r e has b e e n a l o s s of r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e is certain. T h a t t h i s m e a n s a w e a k e n i n g of one of the s p r i n g s of v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n f o r s o c i a l advance is equally certain. T h e l i v e s of the p i o n e e r s s h o w how m u c h of t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n f o r s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y m o s t of t h e m o w e d to their religious belief. D i m i n i s h e d influence o f the C h u r c h m u s t be t a k e n a s one of the c h a n g e s i n the e n v i r o n m e n t of v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n . Religious orientations  n e v e r t h e l e s s r e m a i n as  i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n the B r i t i s h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s .  With  an  the  1  T h e s o c i e t y w i l l want to k n o w t h a t the a p p l i c a n t s h a v e a s i n c e r e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f a n d that t h e y w i l l a r r a n g e f o r t h e i r a d o p t e d c h i l d r e n to h a v e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . A d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s do not a c c e p t atheist applicants.  2  B e v e r i d g e , W.  ,  op.  cit. ,  page  225.  Ill  -  30  " w e l f a r e s t a t e " a s s u m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of b a s i c n e e d s , the c h u r c h e s h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d , i n f r a m i n g t h e i r r o l e , on i m p o r t a n c e of the s p i r i t u a l a n d both clients and w o r k e r s .  p e r s o n a l a s p e c t s of s o c i a l w e l f a r e f o r  In 1941,  a " C h u r c h e s g r o u p " was  b y the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of S o c i a l S e r v i c e . was  the  The  established  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s g r o u p  to i n t e g r a t e c h u r c h w o r k i n the c o m m u n i t y t h r o u g h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of c h u r c h m e m b e r s i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a n d the i n v o l v e m e n t of c h u r c h representatives  at b o t h the n a t i o n a l a n d  l o c a l l e v e l s of p o l i c y m a k i n g .  S i n c e the f o r m a t i o n of t h i s c o u n t r y - w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n u m b e r of s i m i l a r g r o u p s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d at the l o c a l l e v e l . The  r o l e of the g o v e r n m e n t i n t h i s f i e l d i s s t i l l not a  m a t t e r of c l e a r a g r e e m e n t i n B r i t a i n . t h e r e a r e t h o s e who  Q u i t e a p a r t f r o m the f a c t that  q u e s t i o n the v e r y p r o p r i e t y of m a k i n g a d o p t i o n  s e r v i c e s a p a r t of the w o r k of g o v e r n m e n t , the l o n g d e l a y e d e n t r y the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s into the d i r e c t s e r v i c e f i e l d h a s m e a n t that has  of  there  s c a r c e l y b e e n t i m e to w o r k out a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r the e f f e c t i v e ,  d a y - t o - d a y c o l l a b o r a t i o n of p u b l i c a n d  private organizations.  A  truly  h o s t i l e c r i t i c of the B r i t i s h s y s t e m m i g h t s a y that it p r e s e r v e d the w o r s t f e a t u r e s of p r i v a t e w e l f a r e ( e . g . hand-to-mouth financing) and (e.g. p e r f u n c t o r y said already,  sectarian tendentiousness  the w o r s t f e a t u r e s  s e r v i c e s and  procedural  and  of p u b l i c w e l f a r e  formalism).  i t i s s m a l l w o n d e r that m o s t a d o p t i o n s a r e  As  we  have  still arranged  on a " t h i r d p a r t y " b a s i s . The  administration  of a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s t o d a y i s a l s o  a f f e c t e d by the p e c u l i a r B r i t i s h b e l i e f that the g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m s h o u l d be a p e r s o n d i f f e r e n t f r o m the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o r a d o p t i o n s o c i e t y  Ill w o r k e r who  -  31  p l a c e d the c h i l d ; a b e l i e f w h i c h r e s t s on the a s s u m p t i o n  that t h i s a f f o r d s the o n l y m e a n s of e n s u r i n g court.  It i s d i f f i c u l t to see why  a n o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t to  the p r e s u m p t i o n of c o m p e t e n c e  and  i m p a r t i a l i t y w h i c h m u s t e x i s t to g i v e s a n c t i o n to the w o r k of the p e r s o n m a k i n g the a d o p t i o n study s h o u l d not a l s o be a p p l i e d to t h a t p e r s o n i n h i s c a p a c i t y a s a n a g e n t of the c o u r t .  In b o t h c a s e s he i s  a c t i n g a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d .  What o c c u r s  i n p r a c t i c e i s that a d o p t i o n a p p l i c a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e l i g i b i l i t y - o r i e n t a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h two before and  different w o r k e r s , once  once after placement. Another serious short-coming in B r i t i s h adoption  s e r v i c e s d e r i v e s f r o m the w i d e s p r e a d r e s o r t to " p r i v a t e " a r r a n g e m e n t s , i t s e l f a p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e of the p o o r q u a l i t y of the system.  As  things p r e s e n t l y stand,  "official"  this p r a c t i c e a l m o s t inevitably  m e a n s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s u i t a b i l i t y o f the a p p l i c a n t s b e f o r e the p l a c e m e n t of the c h i l d . g u a r d i a n a d l i t e m d u r i n g the p r o b a t i o n a r y  A l t h o u g h the d u t i e s of the  p e r i o d a r e c o n d u c i v e to g o o d  a d o p t i o n p r a c t i c e s i f a n a s s e s s m e n t h a s a l s o b e e n m a d e p r i o r to the p l a c e m e n t , the r e s u l t s c a n be d e v a s t a t i n g f o r the c h i l d i f it b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y to s a y at the e n d of the p r o b a t i o n a r y c a n n o t be r e c o m m e n d e d .  And  p e r i o d that the a d o p t i o n  this t u r n of events i s m a d e v e r y  m o r e likely when pre-placement investigation is lacking.  much  It w a s  u n t i l the 1958  A c t that the p o w e r e v e n to r e m o v e the c h i l d by the  a u t h o r i t y was  granted.  h o m e of p a r e n t s who  Up  not local  to that t i m e , the c h i l d c o u l d r e m a i n i n the  had been p u b l i c l y p r o c l a i m e d unsuitable i n c o u r t .  A l t h o u g h the h o m e l a y u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y u n t i l  Ill the c h i l d w a s  -  32  e i g h t e e n y e a r s o l d , t h i s was  only with a v e r y modest  v i e w t o e n s u r i n g that the c h i l d ' s w e l f a r e w a s  not b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d i n  the s o m e w h a t s t a r k t e r m s of the C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u n g P e r s o n s A c t of 1933. CONCLUSIONS The  case for assigning responsibility for adoption  s e r v i c e s e x c l u s i v e l y t o e i t h e r the a d o p t i o n s o c i e t i e s o r the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i s not a s t r o n g one  on e i t h e r s i d e .  It i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r the  s m a l l n u m b e r of s o c i e t i e s p r e s e n t l y i n e x i s t e n c e t o c o v e r the n e e d s of the w h o l e c o u n t r y ; a n d e v e n now,  their uneven distribution necessitates  p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h o s e a r e a s w h e r e t h e r e i s no adoption society.  If, on the o t h e r h a n d , a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s w e r e m a d e  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a l o n e , the s t a n d a r d s of adoption s e r v i c e s could decline even below present levels unless there were m a j o r internal a d m i n i s t r a t i o n changes.  In b a l a n c i n g the r e s p e c -  t i v e c l a i m s of t h e i r v a r i o u s c h i l d w e l f a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the a g a i n s t the o t h e r , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y  one  to a c c o r d  a d o p t i o n a l o w p r i o r i t y , f o r the s i m p l e r e a s o n that t h e i r r e s o u r c e s a r e exhausted  i n doing jobs f o r w h i c h (unlike adoption) they h a v e a n i n -  escapable statutory responsibility.  J u s t how  h a r d - p r e s s e d they a r e at  the p r e s e n t t i m e i s g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g i t e m  from  the " L o c a l A u t h o r i t y N e w s " f e a t u r e of C h i l d A d o p t i o n (the o f f i c i a l j o u r n a l of the S t a n d i n g C o n f e r e n c e  of S o c i e t i e s R e g i s t e r e d f o r A d o p t i o n ) .  M r . J . B. C h a p l i n , B i r m i n g h a m C h i l d r e n ' s O f f i c e r i n f o r m s u s that h i s d e p a r t m e n t h a s r e - o p e n e d i t s l i s t s f o r a p p l i c a n t s to adopt a c h i l d . The a p p l i c a t i o n l i s t was c l o s e d d u r i n g 1962, p a r t l y on a c c o u n t of the v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of p e o p l e w a i t i n g to a d o p t ,  Ill  -  33  a n d p a r t l y o w i n g to a n a c u t e The  reader  staffing situation. *  i s r e m i n d e d that B i r m i n g h a m i s t h e s e c o n d  largest city i n B r i t a i n ! If the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t a t u t o r y a n d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of a d o p t i o n i s t o b e c o m e the " p a r t n e r s h i p " i t i s s o o f t e n a n d s o g l i b l y s a i d to b e , t h e r e m u s t b e d e c i s i v e i m p r o v e m e n t in at least three m a i n 1.  areas.  U n i f o r m i t y of P r a c t i c e .  T o curb a r b i t r a r y variation i n s e r v i c e s ,  j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f c o m m o n  problems,  the a s s e s s m e n t of p u b l i c n e e d s , the p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the s c o p e a n d d i r e c t i o n of c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , the t a s k s of s t a n d a r d - s e t t i n g a n d the f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s a i m e d e i t h e r a t c h a n g e s i n l e g i s l a t i o n o r at  i m p r o v e m e n t s i n p r o g r a m s extending  b e y o n d the b o u n d s o f s t a t u t o r y  obligation. 2.  C o - o r d i n a t i o n of S e r v i c e s .  The Hurst Report  r e v e a l e d that m a n y  r e g i s t r a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s take l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the w o r k o f the  societies  r e g i s t e r e d w i t h t h e m a n d m a k e l i t t l e u s e o f the i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h the Adoption Societies Regulations To  r e q u i r e b e a n n u a l l y f u r n i s h e d to t h e m .  prevent wasteful overlapping of s e r v i c e s and socially h a r m f u l gaps  in s e r v i c e s , habits of m u t u a l i n d i f f e r e n c e s u c h a s these m u s t give way to 3.  systematic and principled Financing.  co-operation.  B o t h the e x i s t e n c e a n d the n a t u r e o f the s t a t u t o r y -  v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l h i n g e u p o n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a i r a n d  1  T h e S t a n d i n g C o n f e r e n c e of S o c i e t i e s R e g i s t e r e d f o r C h i l d A d o p t i o n , S p r i n g / S u m m e r , 1963, p a g e 3 5.  2  Hurst Report,  op. c i t . ,  p a g e 10.  Adoption,  Ill v i a b l e s y s t e m of f i s c a l p r o c e d u r e s .  -  34 The precarious financial  p o s i t i o n o f the v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s s e r i o u s l y i m p a i r s t h e r a n g e a n d q u a l i t y o f t h e i r p r e s e n t s e r v i c e s , a n d the s a m e b u d g e t a r y has important  predicament  c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r the c a l i b r e o f s t a f f e n g a g e d i n the  p r o v i s i o n of t h o s e s e r v i c e s .  Effective adoption w o r k i s i m p o s s i b l e  without q u a l i f i e d staff i n adequate n u m b e r s .  Regular financial grants  to t h e v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e i m p e r a t i v e i f the B r i t i s h s y s t e m o f a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s i s t o r e m a i n p r e d i c a t e d , a s i t now i s , o n the p r i n c i p l e t h a t p u b l i c b o d i e s s h o u l d m a k e t h o s e s e r v i c e s p o s s i b l e and  s t i p u l a t e what t h e y a r e to b e , b u t that p r i v a t e g r o u p s s h o u l d h a v e  the j o b o f a c t u a l l y p r o v i d i n g t h e m .  E v e n when c r i t i c i s m is withheld  c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i g n o f the h o u s e , one m a y o b s e r v e p o s s i b l e to m a k e b r i c k s without  straw.  that i t i s s t i l l n o t  TABLE OP CONTENTS  Chapter 4.  Public-Private Relationships i n a Few S e l e c t e d Areas o f S e r v i c e to C h i l d r e n and Youth i n England and Wales  Page  Part I.  Employment o f C h i l d r e n and Young People  2.  Part I I .  General S e r v i c e s to C h i l d r e n  8.  Part I I I .  S e r v i c e s f o r Mothersand Young C h i l d r e n  10.  P a r t IV.  Welfare o f School  23.  P a r t V.  Recreation  Part VI.  S e r v i c e s f o r S p e c i a l Groups  Children  and H o l i d a y s  1.  27. 44.  Appendix: A.  Membership S t a t i s t i c s o f S.C.N.V.Y.O. O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n England and Wales.  TABLES IN THE TEST Table  1.  Table 2.  Boys' Clubs B u i l d i n g Schemes Awarded M i n i s t r y o f Education Grants  37.  Number o f Members and F i n a n c i a l Resources o f V o l u n t a r y Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n s .... 40.  Chapter  4»  The  P u b l i c - P r i v a t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a Few S e l e c t e d Area3 o f S e r v i c e t o C h i l d r e n and Youth i n England and Wales  first  three chapters o f t h i s study have d e a l t w i t h  p u b l i c - p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n three major areas o f c h i l d welfare:  N e g l e c t , Adoption and J u v e n i l e Delinquency.  The  aim o f t h i s p r e s e n t c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e survey of  those e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n and youth i n  England and Wales which cannot r e a d i l y be brought under any one of  the major c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  Out o f a myriad o f  such s e r v i c e s we have s e l e c t e d s e v e r a l t y p i c a l groupings a r e b e l i e v e d capable o f shedding  which  l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between v o l u n t a r y and s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s .  These broad  areas  w i l l be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s which a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e of  this  relationship. The s i x areas chosen a r e :  (1)  S e r v i c e s d e a l i n g w i t h the employment o f c h i l d r e n and young people. (2) General S e r v i c e s a f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n . (3) S e r v i c e s f o r Mothers and Young C h i l d r e n . (4) S e r v i c e s f o r School C h i l d r e n . (5). R e c r e a t i o n and H o l i d a y S e r v i c e s . (6)  S e r v i c e s f o r S p e c i a l Groups. These s i x a r e a s , i n some ways, represent a continuum i n  t h a t the f i r s t two a r e a s a r e p r o v i d e d almost b o d i e s ; the middle and  the l a s t  t o t a l l y by s t a t u t o r y  two by both s t a t u t o r y and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s ;  two by v o l u n t a r y , though w i t h i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n  by s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s . I t i s w e l l known that d u r i n g the 1940's i n England, b e g i n n i n g even b e f o r e the end o f the Second World War, a s e r i e s  of measures were passed which r e o r g a n i z e d and improved the whole range o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n .  These i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y  the Family Allowances A c t o f 1945,  h u t a l s o the C h i l d r e n A c t o f  1948,  important l e g i s l a t i o n i n  which stood out as the f i r s t  England  e n t i r e l y devoted  o f normal home l i f e  t o the w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d d e p r i v e d  through the absence o r i n c a p a c i t y o f h i s  parents o r guardians.  Besides these there were t h e N a t i o n a l  H e a l t h S e r v i c e A c t (1946) and the E d u c a t i o n A c t (1944), as w e l l as others w i t h a more i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e , such as t h e N a t i o n a l Insurance A c t o f 1946. We s h a l l observe, i n the f o l l o w i n g review, the i n f l u e n c e of  t h i s and o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n on the range and scope o f v o l u n t a r y  a c t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n and youth.  Part I .  Employment o f C h i l d r e n and Young People  The laws on the employment of c h i l d r e n i n England and Wales a r e c o n t a i n e d mainly i n the C h i l d r e n and Young Persons A c t of  1933, as amended by the E d u c a t i o n A c t s o f 1944 and 1948. I n  g e n e r a l , the A c t imposes a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f r e s t r i c t i o n s on the employment o f c h i l d r e n under s c h o o l - l e a v i n g age, b u t g i v e s l o c a l education a u t h o r i t i e s power t o make by-laws modifying o r 1 supplementing  the statutory provisions i n certain respects.  Thus, the A c t p r o h i b i t s the employment o f a c h i l d u n t i l he has a t t a i n e d the age of 13 u n l e s s a u t h o r i t y i s g i v e n i n l o c a l by-laws for 1  him t o be employed by h i s parent o r guardian i n l i g h t C h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n , r e v i s e d A p r i l 1962, B r i t i s h S e r v i c e s , Canada.  Information  -  3 -  a g r i c u l t u r a l or h o r t i c u l t u r a l work. A g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n i n the 1944 i t appears  E d u c a t i o n Act i s that i f  to a l o c a l education a u t h o r i t y t h a t a s c h o o l c h i l d i s  being employed i n such a manner as to be p r e j u d i c i a l t o h i s h e a l t h , or otherwise render him u n f i t t o o b t a i n the f u l l o f h i s e d u c a t i o n , i t may,  benefit  by n o t i c e i n w r i t i n g served upon the  employer, p r o h i b i t him from employing  the c h i l d , o r impose such  r e s t r i c t i o n s upon h i s employment o f the c h i l d as appear to be expedient i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d . Young people under 18 employed i n i n d u s t r i a l  premises  ( f a c t o r i e s , workshops, slaughter-houses, s h i p y a r d s , docks and warehouses) are p r o t e c t e d by the F a c t o r i e s A c t s , which are a d m i n i s t e r e d by the M i n i s t r y o f Labour and e n f o r c e d by i t s Factory Inspectorate. and 18 may  The hours that young people between 16  work are l i m i t e d to 48 i n a week and n i n e i n a  a l t h o u g h some overtime i s allowed more than 100  day,  (up to s i x hours a week but not  hours a year n o r more than 25 weeks a y e a r ) .  people under 16 a r e l i m i t e d to 44 hours a week.  Adequate i n t e r v a l s  f o r meals must be arranged f o r young people, and g i r l s may be employed a t n i g h t .  Young  not  The hours o f work o f young shop-workers  a r e a l s o l i m i t e d t o 44 hours a week f o r those under 16 and hours f o r those between 16 and 18  48  (under the Shops A c t , 1950).  L i m i t a t i o n s have a l s o been enacted f o r the employment o f young people  i n miscellaneous occupations,  boys, van boys and Act,  (such as errand and  the l i k e ) under t h e Young Persons  lift  (Employment)  1938. Apart from the g e n e r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on l i f t i n g ,  carrying  o r moving a n y t h i n g so heavy as t o be l i k e l y to cause the c h i l d  i n j u r y , some l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l a r e a s , have adopted by-laws t h a t p r o h i b i t work i n v o l v i n g heavy s t r a i n ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , p u l l i n g sugar b e e t s ) or work under the c o n t r o l a gang master, and  make v a r i o u s  the c h i l d ' s h e a l t h and  w e l f a r e , e.g.  c e r t i f i c a t e s as to f i t n e s s be The  other provisions by  of  f o r safeguarding  r e q u i r i n g that m e d i c a l  obtained.  C h i l d r e n and Young Persons A c t , 1933,  p r o h i b i t s young  persons under 16 years from engaging or being employed i n s t r e e t t r a d i n g , but l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s are g i v e n power by  the Act  to make  by-laws that p e r m i t young persons between the ages of 15 and to be  employed by t h e i r p a r e n t s i n s t r e e t t r a d i n g .  a u t h o r i t i e s may  Local  a l s o make by-laws r e g u l a t i n g or p r o h i b i t i n g s t r e e t  t r a d i n g by persons under the  age  of 18.  k i n d p r o v i d e , among other t h i n g s , committee can  16  Most by-laws o f t h i s  t h a t i f a j u v e n i l e employment  f i n d more s u i t a b l e employment f o r the young person  concerned w i t h i n a reasonable d i s t a n c e  o f h i s home, or i f he  is  r e g u l a r l y engaged or employed i n some other f u l l - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n , t h i s s h a l l be a ground f o r r e f u s i n g the The Act  o f 1933  makes s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n  t a k i n g p a r t i n entertainments. employment.) take p a r t  ( I t does not  for children  r e l a t e merely to  I t p r o v i d e s that a c h i l d under the age  i n any  of 12 may  entertainment i n connection w i t h which any  whether f o r admission o r not,  i s made to any  More r e c e n t l y the C h i l d r e n based upon the  application.  o f the  1963,  recommendations o f the I n g l e b y Report, I960,  C h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n , op. c i t .  charge, 1  audience.  and Young Persons A c t ,  not  has  - 5mad© i t a requirement that "... a c h i l d o f 13 (14 where compulsory s c h o o l - l e a v i n g age i s r a i s e d t o 16} o r more b u t s t i l l o f compulsory s c h o o l - l e a v i n g  age, w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o have a l i c e n s e  i n order to take p a r t i n a performance f o r which a n admission charge i s made and f o r a l l r a d i o , o r t e l e v i s i o n o r f i l m appearances. The  l i c e n s e i s t o be granted by t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y as a mandatory  duty provided  that i t i s s a t i s f i e d that the c h i l d i s f i t to take  p a r t i n the performance, that proper p r o v i s i o n has been made to secure h i s h e a l t h and k i n d treatment, and that h i s education 1 w i l l not suffer? To guard a g a i n s t f i n a n c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , a c o n d i t i o n may be imposed t h a t earnings be p a i d t o t h e county court or t o t r u s t e e s .  The Home O f f i c e w i l l p r e s c r i b e general  regulations  about d r e s s i n g rooms, l a v a t o r i e s , hours o f work, approved and  so on. A f t e r the middle o f 1964, a c c o r d i n g  t o t h i s new  l e g i s l a t i o n , appearance i n pantomime o r "shoddy t o u r i n g w i l l be impossible  for children.  lodgings,  troupes"  The problem, o f course, was  to balance t h e need t o prevent e x p l o i t a t i o n o f young performers 2 w i t h the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g them w i t h experience. This b r i e f summary o f l e g i s l a t i o n t e l l s us nothing the p r o v i s i o n o f employment s e r v i c e s f o r youth i n B r i t a i n .  about The  r o l e o f the State here i s c a r r i e d out through the Youth Employment S e r v i c e which i s under the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l Youth Employment E x e c u t i v e ,  s t a f f e d by o f f i c e r s o f t h e M i n i s t r y of.  Labour and the M i n i s t r y o f Education.  The purpose o f t h i s s e r v i c e  i s t o help young people l e a v i n g s c h o o l and young workers under 1  " C h i l d r e n i n Entertainment", S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , Winter, 1963  2  Ibid.  - 618 years  o f age a t the s t a r t o f t h e i r working l i f e .  e x e c u t i v e i s appointed s i b l e t o Parliament  The j o i n t  by t h e M i n i s t e r o f Labour, who i s respon-  f o r the Youth Employment S e r v i c e as a whole.  L o c a l l y the s e r v i c e i s operated  1  i n most areas through  Youth Employment O f f i c e s e s t a b l i s h e d by l o c a l education a u t h o r i t i e s in  accordance w i t h the schemes submitted by them t o the M i n i s t e r  o f Labour and approved by him. are not i n operation,  I n those areas where such schemes  the s e r v i c e i s operated  by the l o c a l  office  o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Labour. The main f u n c t i o n s o f the s e r v i c e a r e to c o l l e c t and disseminate  i n f o r m a t i o n on c a r e e r s , p r o v i d e  t a l k s i n schools,  g i v e v o c a t i o n a l guidance, f i n d s u i t a b l e employment and keep c o n t a c t w i t h young workers t o help them s e t t l e down. The  youth employment o f f i c e r i n t e r v i e w s  each  15-year-old  s c h o o l - l e a v e r i n d i v i d u a l l y d u r i n g h i s o r h e r l a s t term to a d v i s e on t h e c h o i c e o f employment which, as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , matches his  o r h e r c a p a b i l i t i e s and o f f e r s f u l l scope f o r t r a i n i n g and  progress  under s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s .  s t a f f i s g e n e r a l l y present and  the parents  A member o f t h e s c h o o l  ( i n t e r v i e w s a r e u s u a l l y h e l d a t school)  a r e i n v i t e d to a t t e n d .  The o f f i c e r i s s u p p l i e d  w i t h a c o n f i d e n t i a l s c h o o l r e p o r t on h e a l t h , g e n e r a l  ability,  e d u c a t i o n a l attainments and s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e s t o guide him i n a d v i s i n g each boy and g i r l . V o c a t i o n a l guidance i n c l u d e s advice f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s now s e t up i n over 100 i n d u s t r i e s .  on v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and t r a i n i n g schemes  There i s a scheme o f grants  S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n B r i t a i n , r e v i s e d August 1961. Information S e r v i c e s .  British  t o a s s i s t s e l e c t e d boys and g i r l s t o t r a i n i n i n d u s t r y away from home i f they are unable to o b t a i n s u i t a b l e employment w i t h i n daily travelling  distance.  The youth employment o f f i c e r n o t only puts young people who  r e q u i r e the s e r v i c e i n touch w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e  employers, but  a l s o maintains c o n t a c t with young workers t o a d v i s e  them about  any problems connected with s e t t l i n g down i n t h e i r work. The value o f the Youth Employment S e r v i c e i s widely recognized  i n B r i t a i n , and both young people and  employers  are  u s i n g i t t o an i n c r e a s i n g extent, a l t h o u g h i t s use i s e n t i r e l y voluntary.  The  Employment and  s e r v i c e , which was  r e c o n s t i t u t e d under the  T r a i n i n g A c t , 1948,  i s well established for  15-year-old s c h o o l - l e a v e r s .  There i s s t i l l  scope f o r development  o f i t s work f o r o l d e r s c h o o l - l e a v e r s . This i s where the v o l u n t a r y youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s come i n . They are v e r y much concerned a t present Youth Employment S e r v i c e .  The Boys  1  about t h i s gap  Club movement has  p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e w i t h i t s "Adjustment t o  i n the been  Industry"courses  1through which over 12,000 boys have passed. i n J u l y 1963, ment met  three hundred delegates  In the same v e i n ,  from the Boys' Club move-  a t S h e f f i e l d f o r a two-day conference,  sponsored by  the  N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Boys Clubs, w i t h the theme "Boys a t Work". These examples i l l u s t r a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n  that  the  v o l u n t a r y youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c l u b s e v i d e n t l y f e e l t h a t they have an important r o l e to p l a y i n the matter o f s e r v i c e s t o 1  2  "Problems o f the Working Boy", I b i d . , pp. 4-8.  Challenge,  J u l y 1963,  p.  5.  - 8 working boys.  When we t u r n to the s e c t i o n on the Youth S e r v i c e  below, we w i l l have a more complete p i c t u r e o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s t a t u t o r y  bodies.  Part I I .  General S e r v i c e s  to C h i l d r e n  In t h i s s e c t i o n we w i l l be l o o k i n g a t a v a r i e t y o f f i n a n c i a l arrangements t o help  f a m i l i e s which thereby i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t  children. Family allowances a r e b e n e f i t s which have been  provided  by the State s i n c e August 1946 under the P a m i l y Allowances A c t o f June, 1945*  Over 3lr m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s i n Great B r i t a i n a r e  r e c e i v i n g allowances and the number o f c h i l d r e n on whose b e h a l f they a r e p a i d i s about 5f m i l l i o n .  An allowance i s p a i d f o r each  c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y ( i n c l u d i n g an adopted c h i l d ) , other f i r s t or only  child.below  the age l i m i t s .  than the  The age l i m i t s a r e  15 years f o r c h i l d r e n who leave s c h o o l a t t h a t age, 16 years f o r those who a r e handicapped, and 18 years f o r those who remain a t s c h o o l o r are a p p r e n t i c e s .  The amount i s 8/- a week f o r the  second c h i l d , and 10/- f o r the t h i r d and each subsequent c h i l d i n  1  a  family. Family allowances a r e p a i d from t h e Exchequer, and t h e i r  o b j e c t i s t o b e n e f i t the f a m i l y as a whole; they belong t o t h e mother, but may be p a i d t o e i t h e r t h e mother o r the f a t h e r . i s no insurance subjects  There  q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and parents who a r e not B r i t i s h  o r who a r e B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s born abroad may  C h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n , op. c i t . , p. 18.  claim  allowances i f they s a t i s f y s p e c i a l r e s i d e n c e c o n d i t i o n s . Other f i n a n c i a l arrangements,  1  which i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t  c h i l d r e n are the N a t i o n a l Insurance, I n d u s t r i a l I n j u r i e s  Insurance  and N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e schemes. The N a t i o n a l Insurance scheme makes p r o v i s i o n for. those i n s u r e d i n case of unemployment, s i c k n e s s , death, i n j u r y or 2 retirement. There a r e a l s o a number o f s p e c i a l allowances t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n whose f a t h e r o r mother ( c o n t r i b u t o r ) i s k i l l e d as the 3 r e s u l t of an i n d u s t r i a l a c c i d e n t or p r e s c r i b e d d i s e a s e .  These  allowances a r e designed t o be f l e x i b l e and meet the needs o f v a r i o u s circumstances and  situations.  F i n a l l y , the N a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e scheme makes p r o v i s i o n f o r dependent c h i l d r e n under 16, g r a d u a t i n g the amount a c c o r d i n g to  age. Other f i n a n c i a l arrangements t o help f a m i l i e s a r e  War  Pensions and Allowances, which b e n e f i t c h i l d r e n o f widows o f s e r v i c e men,,war orphans,  and c h i l d r e n o f war  disablement  p e n s i o n e r s ; Income Tax R e l i e f s ; and L i a b i l i t i e s .  Regarding the  l a t t e r i t i s important t o note that Family Allowances  and  widows' and orphans' pensions and allowances a l r e a d y mentioned are p a r t o f t a x a b l e income (except that allowances f o r the c h i l d r e n of war widows a r e exempted as a s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n ) . s e c u r i t y b e n e f i t s , though p a i d e q u a l l y t o a l l e l i g i b l e  Thus s o c i a l citizens,  Ibid. F o r a f u l l e r account of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s see the C e n t r a l O f f i c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r e n c e pamphlet S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n B r i t a i n , a v a i l a b l e through the B r i t i s h i n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s .  1  2  5  C h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n , op. c i t . , p.  20  - 10 regardless  o f t h e i r income, a r e  o f most v a l u e  to those  paying  a  low  r a t e o f t a x on a s m a l l income o r w i t h t o o  s m a l l an  income  to  pay  tax at a l l .  Part I I I . (a)  Services  Maternity  and  Maternity  Child Welfare  and  established before  voluntary for on  the  Services  National Health  t h e movement t h a t had  b e e n s t a r t e d i n the  depots  e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n 1899  Interest  as  f o r the  Maternity an  u n d e r two,  and  Local 1918, few  and later  1905 carried  mothers. and  Child  Welfare Service i s of  example o f a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a s  from i t s i n c e p t i o n , between s t a t u t o r y and Madeline Rooff  well  o f 1946,  such s e r v i c e s s i n c e  weekly s u p e r v i s i o n o f babies  The  Service Act  power to p r o v i d e  Infant milk  i n schools  Children  C h i l d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s were a l r e a d y  the  a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e had thus developing  f o r M o t h e r s a n d Young  has  pointed  out  voluntary  particular  i t has  been  bodies.  that  The e a r l y s u c c e s s o f the movement was due i n l a r g e measure t o t h e c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n a g r o u p o f m e d i c a l o f f i c e r s o f h e a l t h and t h e i r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s on t h e one h a n d , and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e o t h e r . At a l a t e r stage the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y was i n c l u d e d i n t h e p a r t n e r s h i p . The combined schemes p u t i n f a n t w e l f a r e on a s o u n d f o o t i n g , v&ille t h e v o l u n t a r y e l e m e n t h e l p e d t o b u i l d up t h e e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e r v i c e . The M a t e r n i t y and C h i l d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e became, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s , one o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r a n d g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e o f the social services.^ The  nature  a c c o u n t of the  of this  scope and  partnership  will  structure of current s e r v i c e s .  R o o f f , M a d e l i n e , V o l u n t a r y S o c i e t i e s and R o u t l e d g e and K e g a n P a u l L t d . , London, 1957, 1  become c l e a r e r f r o m  Social Policy, p . 30.  an  - 11 The  N a t i o n a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e makes f r e e p r o v i s i o n f o r  a n t e - n a t a l and  p o s t - n a t a l care f o r expectant  c o n f i n e m e n t a t home o r i n h o s p i t a l . effort  i n recent  mothers and  years  m o t h e r s and  T h e r e has  been  for  constant  t o i n t e g r a t e the h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r  children with  the  tripartite  s t r u c t u r e o f the  National  1 Health Service. Health v i s i t o r s , training, advise and  who  expectant  c h i l d - b e a r i n g and  a r e nurses m o t h e r s on  give parents  management o f c h i l d r e n up  to f i v e  come w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h e be  s u p e r v i s e d by  school nurse.  the  tioners'  surgeries, or i n t h e i r  The  O f f i c e r of  welfare  preventive  own  u n d e r t a k e the  clinical  f i v e babies  Social  i n her  homes.  general  well  practi-  every baby i s of  part of the advisory  health authorities.  birth  to arrange  three out  taken  increasingly  Services i n B r i t a i n ,  instructional  cit.,  and  o f f i v e mothers r e c e i v e  about  to the welfare  op.  their  centres or under  c e n t r e s were m a i n l y  and  General  ante-natal care of patients i n  year  children  c a p a c i t y as  Almost  h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s , and  the  when t h e  by d o m i c i l i a r y m i d w i v e s ,  More t h a n  u n d e r one  Originally  o f age,  and  e i t h e r i n the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y  some a n t e - n a t a l s u p e r v i s i o n a t w e l f a r e ments made b y l o c a l  the n u r t u r e  Health.  l e a v i n g the w e l f a r e c e n t r e s  relaxation classes.  of pregnancy  following notification  c e n t r e s a r e now  assisted  on  centres, hospitals,  s e r v i c e s of the l o c a l  practitioners,  charge,  welfare  the h e a l t h v i s i t o r ,  the Medical  years  i s given  and  to  advice  additional  S c h o o l H e a l t h S e r v i c e a n d may  maternal  v i s i t e d by  a l l aspects  same h e a l t h v i s i t o r  This advice child  with s p e c i a l  t h r e e out  centres.  concerned p.  14.  arrange-  with  the  of  -  12  narrower objects of ensuring physical progress. range o f h e l p special  that the  Today t h e a i m  for parents  follow-up  -  and  clinics  c h i l d made  reasonable  i s t o p r o v i d e a much w i d e r  their  children.  This includes  f o r premature i n f a n t s and  other  1 infants and  requiring  s p e c i a l care;  p h y s i c a l handicaps  a d v i c e and likely and  treatment;  and  t o cause emotional  t a c k l e d e a r l y ; and  child  for of  development.  expectant age.  and  to parents  a n t i c i p a t o r y guidance  program with up-to-date of  help  the e a r l y  disturbances  on s e e k i n g  i n the c h i l d  In order and  A priority  child  that the  "... first  i n 1900, year  detected  education  dental service i s available  welfare  c h i l d r e n under f i v e c e n t r e s a l s o a c t as vitamin  years distri-  preparations  Foods S e r v i c e .  to dramatize  Child Welfare  are  factors  t e a c h i n g methods e m b r a c i n g a l l a s p e c t s  b u t i o n p o i n t s f o r the n a t i o n a l d r i e d m i l k and under the Welfare  medical  work by w h i c h  a complementary modem h e a l t h  n u r s i n g m o t h e r s and  M a t e r n i t y and  d e t e c t i o n of mental  the  significance  S e r v i c e , Madeline o f e v e r y 1,000  of l i f e .  By  1950  R o o f f has  o f the  Maternity  p o i n t e d t o the  c h i l d r e n born,  154  died  the i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y rate  2 fallen  to 29.9." She has e x p l a i n e d t h i s f a c t a s f o l l o w s . The s e r v i c e d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f s o c i a l needs and a c o n s i d e r a b l e r i s e i n the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . I t was t o be expected t h a t mothers and c h i l d r e n would s h a r e i n t h e g e n e r a l improvement o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e x p e r i e n c e h a d shown t h a t s u c h g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s was n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c c o m p a n i e d b y a reduction i n the infant m o r t a l i t y rate unless s p e c i a l c a r e was t a k e n . Much c r e d i t i s due t o  1  See  2  P a r t VI  Rooff,  M.,  on op.  s e r v i c e s t o S p e c i a l Groups. cit.,  p.  29.  fact  during had  - 13 the m a t e r n i t y and c h i l d w e l f a r e movement which f o r f i f t y y e a r s , i n s p i r e d the work of the c e n t r e s , h e l p i n g by s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t to improve the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d and t o educate the mothers and sometimes the f a t h e r s , to take f u l l advantage of the facilities. 1  Thus, Rooff i s p o i n t i n g t o one  o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s  of t h e v o l u n t a r y agency or p r i n c i p l e , i . e . , to h e l p those needing s e r v i c e s t o use the e x i s t i n g ones.  She  says t h a t today (1950),  a l t h o u g h standards have v a s t l y improved, "... there i s s t i l l 2 c a l l f o r v i g i l a n c e and propaganda". She a l s o notes t h a t :  a  The e a r l y s t r e s s on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a p r o p e r l i n k between h o s p i t a l s , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l o c a l authorities i s s t i l l relevant. The need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l the s e r v i c e s r e l a t i n g to the w e l f a r e o f mothers and c h i l d r e n i s a matter of p a r t i c u l a r concern s i n c e the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e A c t , 1946, threw the q u e s t i o n i n t o prominence."3 In other words, what R o o f f i s s a y i n g i s t h a t with s e r v i c e s and  improved  l e g i s l a t i o n the need f o r v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n o f t e n  i n c r e a s e s r a t h e r than d i m i n i s h e s ; p a r t l y because o f the apparent and o f new  r e a l complexity  o f the s e r v i c e s and  a l s o because  gaps which appear. At t h i s p o i n t we  should mention t h a t t h i s movement grew  out of a number of d i s t i n c t but such as the f i r s t  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p r a c t i c a l ventures  t e n t a t i v e e f f o r t s to appoint h e a l t h v i s i t o r s ;  the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s t o secure the e a r l y n o t i f i c a t i o n births, etc..  Rooff d e s c r i b e s a number o f the e a r l y examples  o f e f f e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n and Ibid. 2  I  M  d  of  *  3  Ibid.  4  I b i d . , pp. 34-35.  the b a r r i e r s that had  t o be overcome.  4  - 14 I n the p i o n e e r phase she e x p l a i n s t h a t "... no g r e a t advance c o u l d be made u n t i l the v a r i o u s l o c a l experiments were more b r o a d l y .1 based". The F i r s t World War, as a t h r e a t to s u r v i v a l , quickened the i n t e r e s t i n the movement while a t the same time a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t i g h t e n e d up and the q u a l i t y o f v o l u n t a r y and s t a t u t o r y e f f o r t 2 was more c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e d .  V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were  warned t h a t t h e y would earn a grant only i f t h e i r work was " c o o r d i n a t e d as f a r as was p r a c t i c a b l e " w i t h the p u b l i c h e a l t h and  s c h o o l medical s e r v i c e s o f the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . Although  t h e expense o f the war i n c r e a s e d and many s o c i a l  s e r v i c e s were reduced, the i n c r e a s i n g value p l a c e d on i n f a n t l i f e l e d , between 1916 and 1918, t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the number o f i n f a n t w e l f a r e c e n t r e s , both s t a t u t o r y and v o l u n t a r y . The M a t e r n i t y and C h i l d Welfare A c t , 1918, though p e r m i s s i v e was a l s o p o p u l a r w i t h the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and made p o s s i b l e a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n s i o n o f the movement i n the i n t e r - w a r Grants, mostly payable  t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , were extended t o  cover a number o f s e r v i c e s I n c l u d i n g h o s p i t a l treatment up t o f i v e years help s e r v i c e .  years.  of children  o f age, l y i n g - i n homes, and t h e c o s t o f a home  E v e n t u a l l y t h e p r o v i s i o n o f food f o r expectant  and n u r s i n g mothers and f o r c h i l d r e n under f i v e was s a n c t i o n e d and g r a n t - a i d e d .  Creches and day n u r s e r i e s , c o n v a l e s c e n t  homes,  homes f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f widov/ed and d e s e r t e d mothers and f o r i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n (mostly p r o v i d e d by v o l u n t a r y  agencies)  Ibid.> P« 41 * , p. 46 3 I b i d . , p. 47 4 The M a t e r n i t y and C h i l d Welfare S e r v i c e was not made a duty f o r the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s u n t i l the p a s s i n g o f the N a t i o n a l Health S e r v i c e A c t , 1946. 1  2  I  M  d  - 15  -  were a l l i n c l u d e d i n the scheme, w h i l e p r o v i s i o n was  made f o r  g r a n t - a i d f o r experimental work (whether by l o c a l a u t h o r i t y  or  v o l u n t a r y agency) concerned with the h e a l t h o f expectant mothers, n u r s i n g mothers and i n f a n t s and conditions  o f g r a n t - a i d was  c h i l d r e n under f i v e .  and  of  the  the requirement that the work should  be l i n k e d w i t h t h a t of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . l o c a l l e v e l was  One  Coordination  at  the  thus g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by government a c t i o n ,  i n the p r o c e s s ,  g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was 1  being  given  to  statutory authorities. A change i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e method marked the new ship:  a l l v o l u n t a r y agencies a p p l y i n g  f o r g r a n t - a i d were r e q u i r e d t o do o r i f not,  relation-  to the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y  so through the l o c a l  authority,  to send the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y a copy of the a p p l i c a t i o n  a t the same time as i t was  sent  to the l o c a l government Board.  The Board noted w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n the i n c r e a s e i n the number of 2 centres and  gave much c r e d i t to p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e f o r t h i s advance.  The post-war economic d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t e d i n a c u t t i n g o f a l l s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n c l u d i n g the M a t e r n i t y Service.  However, v o l u n t a r y e n t e r p r i s e had  by e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n p i l o t c e n t r e s . been c o n c e n t r a t i n g  The  and  C h i l d Y/elfare  eased the s i t u a t i o n M i n i s t r y had  gradually  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and,  f i n a n c i a l l y , the process was L o c a l Government A c t o f 1929.  completed by the passage o f the The Exchequer grants  to  voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s were to be r e p l a c e d by an annual c o n t r i b u t i o n from the a p p r o p r i a t e 1 -  I b i d . , p.  50  2  I b i d . , p.  51  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s who  were t o r e c e i v e a  block  grant  from the  Treasury.  among t h e v o l u n t a r y lowering In fact to  see  than  16  -  This caused considerable  organizations.  of standards  with  and  the M i n i s t r y took  organizations  the amount r e c e i v e d i n s t a n d a r d Just p r i o r  total  o f 3,261  financial loss  should  precautions  r e c e i v e not  less  years.  t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War,  reports  showed a  c e n t r e s , o f w h i c h 2,433 were p r o v i d e d  by  local  authorities.  O n l y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l homes were  the  organizations  voluntary  homes f o r m o t h e r s a n d  babies  by  The  statutory bodies.  a t t e n t i o n t o the v a l u e  and  the withdrawal o f c e n t r a l i n s p e c t i o n .  t h e r e were s a f e g u a r d s , that the voluntary  They f e a r e d  heartburning  i n the lead, with compared w i t h  over a  less  M i n i s t e r of Health  hundred  t h a n 10  continued  provided to  call  of voluntary a c t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y  of services. The  second stage  o r g a n i z a t i o n s was attempt  marked by a n  to coordinate  s o c i e t i e s w h i c h had Madeline Rooff  i n the  development o f the extension  voluntary  i n range and  t h e work o f t h e many n a t i o n a l  s p r u n g up.  describes  the  In t h i s  efforts  by  voluntary  s e c t i o n of her  of these  an  societies  book to  by coordinate  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , " . . . f e d e r a t i o n , o c c a s i o n a l l y by A  amalgamation and,  more r a r e l y , b y  the  d e c i s i o n o f an  association 2  to She  leave  the  field  to other  r e f e r s t o a number o f e f f o r t s  o r g a n i z a t i o n s as  the  The 2  who  on b e h a l f  f o r Maternity  N a t i o n a l Baby W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , t h e I b i d . , p . 52 I b i d . , pp. 57-62.  were d o i n g  s i m i l a r work".  of such noteworthy  C e n t r a l C o u n c i l f o r I n f a n t and  ( l a t e r the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l  1  agencies  and  Child  C h i l d Welfare Welfare),  National Association for  - 17 the  Prevention  and  t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a t e r n i t y and In her  review  o f I n f a n t M o r t a l i t y and  societies  C h i l d Welfare  summary o f t h e work o f t h e s e  of trends  difficulty  f o r the Welfare  of  Centres.  s o c i e t i e s and  t o w a r d s a m a l g a m a t i o n , R o o f f p o i n t s out  o f f i n d i n g a way  among "...  these  w h i c h were s o f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n  Infancy,  her the  multitudinous  to changing  their  titles  1 and  extending  difficult is  t h e i r aims".  p r o b l e m s t o be  She  says  f a c e d b y an  t h a t one  o f t h e most  energetic voluntary society  t o d e c i d e when i t s work i s done, when i t i s t i m e  f o r i t to  r e t i r e a l t o g e t h e r , o r t o s i n k i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y and with a kindred society.  Within  t h e M a t e r n i t y and  Movement t h e n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s of  this  i s s u e and I n the  f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War on  was  very important.  first  the  control  In the  Medical p r a c t i t i o n e r  attendance  by  C o u n c i l s , and  officer  authority.  Thirdly,  duties: 1  I b i d . , pp.  62-65.  of  the  some o f t h e  over  convalescent  e a c h c o v e r i n g a wide a r e a ,  had  to  e s t a b l i s h a new  had  were  relationship.  at a l o c a l  e v e r y m o t h e r now  and  o f h e a l t h was  a l l counties  effect  level  the c h o i c e  of  ( a n d , when r e q u i r e d , a g y n a e c o l o g i s t ) i n  centre, c l i n i c  the m e d i c a l  the  s e r v i c e s were o r g a n i z e d  a doctor  a d d i t i o n to the  Two  p l a c e , the M i n i s t e r took  H o s p i t a l Boards,  voluntary bodies  under Executive  aware  t h e work o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s  o f most o f t h e h o s p i t a l s a n d  c r e a t e d , and  Welfare  t o have done much t o s e c u r e c o o r d i n a t i o n .  years  Regional  Child  seem t o h a v e b e e n k e e n l y  National Health Service Act  homes.  amalgamate  the l o c a l and  midwifery  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the l o c a l  a u t h o r i t y had  county  s e r v i c e s f o r which  b o r o u g h s now  health  e x t e n d e d powers had  an  and  obligation  - 18 to p r o v i d e m a t e r n i t y and c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and they became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a number of a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d o m i c i l i a r y n u r s i n g and home h e l p , o f d i r e c t and  children.  P r o v i s i o n was  concern  made, as i n p r e v i o u s  to mothers  legislation,  f o r c o o p e r a t i o n between s t a t u t o r y bodies and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e a c t i o n of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s to the A c t n a t u r a l l y guarded. e a r l y work was was  On the one hand they saw  their  completed; the need f o r l o c a l centres and c l i n i c s  established.  But,  on the o t h e r hand, there were examples of  i n d i f f e r e n c e o r complacency where the medical was  t h a t much o f  was  o f f i c e r of h e a l t h  i g n o r a n t o f the work o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or f e l t  h e a l t h v i s i t o r s could do a l l t h a t was of a medical  o f f i c e r might prevent  necessary.  that  The h o s t i l i t y  a recommendation to the l o c a l  a u t h o r i t y to g r a n t - a i d a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n or t o make use its  experience The  on an agency b a s i s .  c h i e f need was  to ensure that the v a r i o u s schemes  f o r the w e l f a r e o f mothers and responsibility, and we  of  c h i l d r e n worked smoothly.  Divided  i n f a c t , made t h e - q u e s t i o n o f c o o r d i n a t i o n urgent,  f i n d both s t a t u t o r y and v o l u n t a r y agencies  the means to t h i s end.  concerned with  As Rooff p o i n t s out, "... i t i s t y p i c a l  of the p a r t n e r s h i p today t h a t , while the M i n i s t r y ' s pamphlets s e t out c l e a r l y what s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d , they look t o the v o l u n t a r y bodies  to persuade parents  which h e l p e d whenever new  to use  them.  I t was  note'  Hence, v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n f o r maternal  and c h i l d w e l f a r e , whether i n i n s t i t u t i o n s 75  'personal  ideas needed to be made p o p u l a r or w e l l .1  t r i e d methods r e a f f i r m e d . "  I b i d . , p.  the  or i n the community,  - 19 far  -  from becoming redundant w i t h the extension o f the N a t i o n a l  H e a l t h S e r v i c e , i s s t i l l i n g r e a t demand: new  both the o l d and  v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s seek a l l the support  f i n a n c i a l and p e r s o n a l , t h a t they may  they can  the b e t t e r f u l f i l l  the  get, their  f u n c t i o n s as p a r t n e r s w i t h the s t a t u t o r y bodies i n c a r r y i n g out social policy. It  i s obvious  from t h i s b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l p i c t u r e of the  development o f the present m a t e r n i t y and  c h i l d welfare  service,  t h a t v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s have p l a y e d a prominent r o l e and  that  t h e i r continued c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t a t u t o r y bodies depends upon t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n schemes f o r the development of  the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s :  and i n v i t e We  o n l y so can they speak from  experience  confidence. are a l s o made aware t h a t the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s  are under c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n f i n a n c i a l l y a s , "... g r a n t s from t r u s t funds are u s u a l l y on a s h o r t term b a s i s , f o r an  experimental  p e r i o d ; payments from s t a t u t o r y bodies are dependent on. the good w i l l o f the a u t h o r i t y ; the p u b l i c i s not always e n l i g h t e n e d i n its  c h a r i t a b l e g i v i n g and 1  no immediate appeal."  some o f the l e s s spectacularxwork  Not a l l s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s , f o r example, a r e  as c o o p e r a t i v e as the London County C o u n c i l , which as a a u t h o r i t y has for  continued, i n s p i t e of expanding i t s own  mothers and  c h i l d welfare  has  local services  c h i l d r e n , to s u b s i d i z e v o l u n t a r y m a t e r n i t y  and  services.  In g e n e r a l i t has been the mothers' and b a b i e s ' homes, and  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r r a n g i n g r e c u p e r a t i v e h o l i d a y s , which have I b i d . , p.  291.  - 20  -  l o s t most s i n c e the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e came i n t o e f f e c t i n 1946;  and  t h e i r case alone would serve to i l l u s t r a t e the. manner  i n which v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s may  w i t h e r away when the s t a t e  moves d e c i s i v e l y i n t o a f i e l d o f s e r v i c e i n which they c o u l d , i n theory, c o n t i n u e (b)  to p l a y a u s e f u l p a r t .  Welfare Foods S e r v i c e T h i s e x i s t s to ensure t h a t a l l expectant  c h i l d r e n are a b l e to o b t a i n the m i l k and necessary  other b a s i c foods  f o r t h e i r h e a l t h y development, and t h a t such development  not be impeded by simple  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of c o s t .  began i n the e a r l y days of the Second World War M i l k scheme was continue  mothers and young  s t a r t e d i n 1940.  I t was  The s e r v i c e when the  decided i n 1946  National to  the extended scheme as a n u t r i t i o n a l measure.  Expectant  mothers, c h i l d r e n under f i v e , and  c h i l d r e n under 16 who (oc occupation)  handicapped  are unable to attend s c h o o l or a  c e n t r e , can get a p i n t o f m i l k a day  from t h e i r m i l k s u p p l i e r s .  training  f o r 4d.  They can a l s o get n a t i o n a l d r i e d m i l k  a t an e q u i v a l e n t p r i c e as an a l t e r n a t i v e to l i q u i d m i l k ,  and  orange ^ f u i c e , cod l i v e r o i l and v i t a m i n A and D t a b l e t s at c o s t p r i c e s from the w e l f a r e foods d i s t r i b u t i o n centres run by 1 health authorities. (c)  V a c c i n a t i o n and  local  Immunization  Arrangements f o r v a c c i n a t i o n a g a i n s t smallpox, d i p h t h e r i a and p o l i o m y e l i t i s , without  charge, as p a r t of the N a t i o n a l  Health  S e r v i c e s , a r e made by a l l l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s ; i n a d d i t i o n ,  C h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n , op. c i t . , p.  21.  - 21 most l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s have s i m i l a r arrangements f o r v a c c i n a t i o n a g a i n s t whooping cough, and many f o r v a c c i n a t i o n a g a i n s t tetanus.  vaccination against tuberculosis i s 1 available to certain children. (d)  BCG  N u r s e r i e s and Nursery  Schools  There are some 550 d a y - n u r s e r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n under f i v e i n Great B r i t a i n t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d by l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s or v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s working w i t h them.  There are a l s o over  600 p r i v a t e or f a c t o r y n u r s e r i e s which must be r e g i s t e r e d the l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s — also  ( i n accordance  A c t , 1948)  a requirement  which a p p l i e s  w i t h the N u r s e r i e s and Childminders  to persons  who  Regulation  "mind" f o r reward more than two  under f i v e years o f age of mhom they are not r e l a t i v e s i n the A c t ) , from more than one household.  with  children  (as d e f i n e d  There are a l s o p u b l i c  and p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l n u r s e r i e s , both kinds being s u b j e c t to 2 inspection. A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n (about one i n 10) of c h i l d r e n a t t e n d n u r s e r y schools or c l a s s e s ; the age range In the former i s normally two t o f i v e , and  i n the l a t t e r , three to f i v e .  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d n u r s e r y s c h o o l i s the i d e a l .  Pew  A separate new  schools have been p r o v i d e d s i n c e the Second World War, has been necessary f i r s t  nursery for It  to i n c r e a s e the p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n  o f compulsory s c h o o l age. maintained  and  In I960 t h e r e were 454 n u r s e r y  schools  by l o c a l education a u t h o r i t i e s i n England and Wales  w i t h 21,757 p u p i l s and 963 1  Ibid.  2  I b i d . , p.  22.  t e a c h e r s ; t h e r e were a l s o 197,273  c h i l d r e n under f i v e years o f age i n maintained primary s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were 2G d i r e c t g r a n t n u r s e r y schools w i t h 747  p u p i l s and 41  teachers.  There were a l s o a number o f p r i v a t e  1 nursery schools. Because s t a t u t o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n has been concentrated m a i n l y on c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l age, v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s have c o n t i n u e d t o experiment,  almost without a i d , i n the f i e l d  maternal and c h i l d w e l f a r e .  An example o f an experiment  S o c i a l Therapy, begun i n 1950,  of in  i s "Brentwood", which aims at  d i s c h a r g i n g a p r e v e n t i v e f u n c t i o n i n regard to the problem of the working c l a s s housewife and her>:.children. i s to p r o v i d e f o r those mothers who  I t s major aim  need a h o l i d a y away from  t h e i r c h i l d r e n by m a i n t a i n i n g the c h i l d r e n i n a w e l l run n u r s e r y f o r a t h r e e week p e r i o d , thus e n a b l i n g the mother to recuperate a t h e r l e i s u r e and  to see her c h i l d r e n o n l y when she wants t o .  Brentwood remains an e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y endeavour, r e c e i v i n g  no  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from s t a t u t o r y sources and b e i n g dependent on payments from i t s guests or r e f e r r i n g a g e n c i e s .  Hence, i n  o r d e r t o operate s e c u r e l y i t would need t o have a r e g u l a r g r a n t 2 from e i t h e r c e n t r a l o r l o c a l government. I t i s not o n l y v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t i e s t h a t experiment, In 1953  however.  the C i t y o f Leeds' I n f a n t Welfare Department, together  w i t h the West R i d i n g County C o u n c i l and H o s p i t a l , cooperated  i n an experiment  the Leeds' M a t e r n i t y  to ensure c o n t i n u i t y o f  n u r s i n g c a r e f o r the i n f a n t r e t u r n i n g home from a m a t e r n i t y 1  Ibid.  Moffat, C h r i s t i n e , "An Experiment i n S o c i a l Therapy", S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , D e c . 1 9 4 9 to Feb. 1950, v o l . . x x i i i , - n o . 3 .  2  23  hospital.  The  s e r v i c e begins  h e a l t h department to  of babies  need s p e c i a l n u r s i n g  o f the for  -  when t h e h o s p i t a l i n f o r m s  due  t o be  supervision.  discharged  there  are  I t i s t h e n the  s u p e r v i s o r o f m i d w i v e s t o a l l o c a t e one  the b a b y , and  who  o f her  i s a team o f s p e c i a l n u r s e s ,  a l s o t r a i n e d midwives, employed f u l l t i m e  on  the  the considered  responsibility staff to who  care  are  followup  care  1 of these i n f a n t s . A n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t , s t a r t e d i n 1951, is  not  only voluntary  agencies  which pioneer.  Hospital,  Bristol,  babies  t o s i x months o l d , c o u l d be  one to  up  o r two  c r e a t e d a new  babies.  T h e r e was  sleep i n cubicles b u i l t  a l s o shows t h a t i t Southmead  i n f a n t s department  end  28  nursed i n c u b i c l e s f o r f o r 12  a l s o accommodation  at the  i n which  o f the  ward w i t h  mothers their  own s i t t i n g room, k i t c h e n , b a t h r o o m a n d l a v a t o r y . By t h i s means t h e mothers d u r i n g t h e i r s t a y i n h o s p i t a l would l e a r n a g r e a t  ,  deal about  2  t h e management o f  the  child.  T h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s i n the m a t e r n a l and field cult  by  local  h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s are  f o r voluntary  sustain  their  societies,  claims  (a)  School  Health  1  innovatory  of School  diffi-  same f i e l d ,  and  to  pioneering  role.  Children  Service  Regular medical provided  Welfare  welfare  t h u s m a k i n g i t more  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  to a uniquely  P a r t IV.  child  examinations and  f r e e through the  School  Health  dental Service  inspections to  every  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d W e l f a r e R e v i e w , v o l . v i i , no. I b i d . , v o l . v , no.  5y  p.  196.  3,  are  child  1953,  p.  166.  - 24 attending a school maintained School  clinics  specialist Service. Medical bring  by l o c a l  education  authorities.  deal w i t h minor a i l m e n t s b u t treatment  s e r v i c e s i s arranged  through  the National  Dentistry i s provided  through  the School  examinations  to l i g h t  requiring Health  Dental Service.  u n d e r t h e S c h o o l H e a l t h S e r v i c e may a l s o  c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e s p e c i a l  education by reason  1 of d i s a b i l i t y The substitute  o f body o r mind.  School  H e a l t h S e r v i c e i s i n no way i n t e n d e d a s a  f o r the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e , and parents  c h i l d r e n a r e as f r e e a s any o t h e r c i t i z e n s on b e h a l f o f t h e i r At  t h e same t i m e  over  50 y e a r s )  curative, although the  children,  that special medical  (and has r e c o g n i z e d f o r  care, both preventive and  i s e s s e n t i a l to the welfare  o f growing-children.  Health Service i s closely coordinated  National Health Service, i t continues  organized by the l o c a l lations (b)  education 2 made b y t h e M i n i s t e r .  School Welfare  themselves,  o f a l l t h a t the l a t t e r has t o o f f e r .  the State recognizes  the School  to avail  of school  as a s e p a r a t e  authorities,  Thus, with  entity  subject to regu-  Services  S i n c e t h e e a r l y days o f t h i s  century  voluntary children's  c a r e c o m m i t t e e s , i n t e n d e d a s a l i n k b e t w e e n s c h o o l a n d home, h a v e been a t t a c h e d  t o a number o f p r i m a r y  schools i n B r i t a i n .  In  L o n d o n , however, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s u n i q u e i n t h a t t h e L o n d o n C o u n t y C o u n c i l employs t r a i n e d care  committees.  s o c i a l workers t o o r g a n i z e the  They r e c r u i t a n d t r a i n t h e v o l u n t a r y  care  See P a r t V I on S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s t o G r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Guidance. . . . 1  2  Children i n Britain,  op. c i t . ,  p . 22.  Child  - 25 committee workers (about  2,670 i n a l l ) , a c t as a l i n k with  other  departments o f t h e London County C o u n c i l , and a r e a v a i l a b l e to the v o l u n t a r y workers f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n . which are a t t a c h e d to both primary and o f s c h o o l s , are appointed  "...  The  committees,  secondary schools or groups  to d e a l w i t h a l l matters which 1  a f f e c t the w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d o u t s i d e the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m " . These d u t i e s i n c l u d e v i s i t i n g the homes of the c h i l d r e n to advise parents about m e d i c a l treatment  recommended by the s c h o o l  and t o see that i t i s c a r r i e d out, to give a d v i c e and on other s c h o o l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , and  information  t o f o l l o w up on recommen-  dations f o r the c h i l d to be educated away from home. committee workers cooperate  doctor  Care  c l o s e l y w i t h teachers, school a t t e n -  dance o f f i c e r s and youth employment o f f i c e r s , and have a v a l u a b l e r o l e i n h e l p i n g n e g l e c t e d and maladjusted  children.  Gut of s c h o o l hours, the o l d e r c h i l d r e n may  belong  to  2 one  or more of the youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  may  j o i n j u n i o r branches of the same o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  designed  The younger c h i l d r e n Clubs  specially  f o r c h i l d r e n over f i v e and under 15 have been s t a r t e d  by the Save the C h i l d r e n Fund, managed by f u l l - t i m e wardens or by parents and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h an  experienced 3  o r g a n i z e r from the Fund.  P l a y c e n t r e s and  "adventure  playgrounds"  are o r g a n i z e d under a f u l l - t i m e l e a d e r by some l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s .  Some o f these p l a y c e n t r e s were  e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y f o r those c h i l d r e n from two 2  See  P a r t V on R e c r e a t i o n and  to f i v e  who  Holidays.  ^ Adventure playgrounds a r e open spaces intended f o r c h i l d r e n ' s use and p r o v i d e d w i t h u n c o n v e n t i o n a l apparatus to a l l o w i m a g i n a t i v e play.  - 26 were brought  to the d o c t o r s because 1  a b e h a v i o u r problem.  they were " s u f f e r i n g "  from  (See P a r t VI on S e r v i c e s to S p e c i a l Groups.)  Other p o p u l a r resources are the Saturday morning cinema c l u b s f o r c h i l d r e n and s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s arranged by museums and libraries.  (See P a r t V on R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . )  The Save the C h i l d r e n Fund mentioned  above i s an example  of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h headquarters i n London, which has engaged i n p i o n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n i n England and Y/ales as w e l l as many o t h e r p a r t s of the w o r l d .  I t s a c t i v i t i e s are very miscellaneous.  F o r esample,  i n l a r g e c i t i e s i n England i t has p r o v i d e d n u r s e r y p l a y groups, j u n i o r c l u b s w i t h an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on p r a c t i c a l  training  through the Duke o f Edinburgh Award Scheme and the Outward Bound 3 —• Trust ; the I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o l i d a y Home f o r C h i l d r e n , H i l l House Inworth Essex, which c o n c e n t r a t e s on i n t e r - r a c i a l groups of needy c h i l d r e n from i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s i n the U.K.. operates a r e s i d e n t i a l open-air s c h o o l f o r g i r l s , and f o r maladjusted c h i l d r e n .  I t also another  (See P a r t VI on S e r v i c e s to S p e c i a l  Groups.)  I t s p o l i c y Is " c h i l d r e s c u e f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by c h i l d . . . 4 w e l f a r e and c h i l d development" , hence i t has c o n c e n t r a t e d much o f i t s energy i n recent years on o t h e r p a r t s of the world where 1  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d Welfare Beview, v o l . i v - v i , 1950. S t a r t e d i n 1956 ( f o r boys) w i t h the a i d of a grant from the King George VI Foundation, and was extended t o g i r l s i n 1958. It was designed by the Duke o f Edinburgh to o f f e r i n c e n t i v e s and f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s to young people (boys 14-19, g i r l s 14-20). 5 The Outward Bound Trust maintains f i v e " s c h o o l s " o f f e r i n g 26-day " c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g " courses f o r boys and g i r l a . 4 I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d Welfare Review, v o l . x v i , no. 3 , 1962, p. 186. 2  it  f e e l s the c h i l d r e n a r e i n g r e a t e r need.  I n 1961 alone i t  d i s t r i b u t e d over £100,000 among v a r i o u s Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s . I t s main source  o f income continues t o be v o l u n t a r y g i f t s  supporters i n t h e U.K. and the Commonwealth. I n d u s t r y i n 1961, i t s penny-a-week appeal  from  I n Commerce and 1  r a i s e d £183,703.  The Save t h e C h i l d r e n Fund has c o l l a b o r a t e d s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n with many v o l u n t a r y agencies, and some have even a f f i l i a t e d with i t .  One example was the N a t i o n a l Under-Fourteens  C o u n c i l , which sprang  from the i n i t i a t i v e  o f a group o f people  concerned w i t h the growth o f j u v e n i l e delinquency  among s c h o o l  children.  training  One o f i t s c h i e f t a s k s was t o organize  courses of  f o r youth c l u b l e a d e r s . The S.C.F. was running f o u r and 2 these c l u b s i n London a l i k e number i n the p r o v i n c e s i n 1951 A  and a t that time was appealing  f o r more premises and funds.  a l o n g with other n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , had t h e i r wishes  They,  granted  a decade l a t e r when the M i n i s t e r o f Education accepted the " 3 recommendations o f t h e Albemarle Report. Part V. (a)  Recreational  R e c r e a t i o n and Holidays  Facilities  The use boys and g i r l s made o f t h e i r l e i s u r e time outo f - s c h o o l o r a f t e r - w o r k i n g hours was u n t i l  recent years  regarded  as o u t s i d e the sphere o f government, u n l e s s i t t r a n s g r e s s e d law and order or came w i t h i n the ambit o f formal education. guidance of young people  x  2  3  Ibid. I b i d . , v o l . v, no. 1, See P a r t V.  The  i n p u r p o s e f u l r e c r e a t i o n was l e f t t o  1951, p. 33.  - 28 individuals  and v o l u n t a r y bodies 1 undertake I t . However, w i t h B r i t a i n ' s l a r g e urban areas,  high  b u i l d i n g , and an acute surprising  that  which f e l t  legacy  post-war housing  (England) s h o u l d have r e p o r t e d  shortage,  i n 1948 a s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n  t o meet t h e s e  children, i n spite 2  needs.  t h e n h a v e b e e n p l a n n e d w i t h a due p r o p o r t i o n of playing  f i e l d s a n d community b u i l d i n g s .  the  small playgrounds a t h a l f - m i l e i n t e r v a l s , City  local and  o f Plymouth, has a c h i e v e d  education  (except  training the  authorities are required  to their  A number o f a  Schools  standard  built  by  t o have p l a y g r o u n d s o f an a r e a  numbers.'  K i n p George V I F o u n d a t i o n h a s p r o v i d e d  centres  f o r the  coaches, l e a d e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s i n each o f  four countries  o f t h e U.K., a s one o f t h e schemes f o r t h e  o f young p e o p l e on w h i c h i t s p e n t  money c o n t r i b u t e d  a l s o made a g r a n t the  distri-  of sports  benefit the  aim.  since  and a t l e a s t one,  f o rinfants' schools), playing fields  proportionate The  this  estates  and s u i t a b l e  u r b a n l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have a d o p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e of  i t i s not  Council f o r Education  Many o f t h e New Towns a n d p o s t - w a r h o u s i n g  bution  towns a n d  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r  p r o v i s i o n f o r the f r e e - t i m e needs o f s c h o o l o f some d e v o t e d e f f o r t s  upon t o  of old industrial  demand f o r l a n d  the C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y  called  hostel block  to the King  George V I M e m o r i a l Fund.  It  o f £ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o t h e London C o u n t y C o u n c i l f o r o f t h e p r o j e c t e d N a t i o n a l Y o u t h and  S o c i a l Work i n B r i t a i n , Children  n e a r l y £1,200,000 o f  i n Britain,  op. c i t . , p . 6 4 .  op. c i t . , p . 2 5 .  Sports  - 29 1 Centre a t the C r y s t a l P a l a c e .  L o c a l p r o j e c t s to remedy past  d e f i c i e n c i e s by the a c q u i s i t i o n of p l a y i n g f i e l d s and are being promoted as funds permit.  playgrounds  L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have power  to use p u b l i c funds f o r such purposes, and  the N a t i o n a l P l a y i n g  F i e l d s A s s o c i a t i o n , a v o l u n t a r y body, gives a d v i c e and  grants  to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and v o l u n t a r y schemes. Other r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  f o r c h i l d r e n are  the  c h i l d r e n ' s cinema c l u b s , which u t i l i z e the s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n ' s f i l m s o f the Rank O r g a n i z a t i o n and  the C h i l d r e n ' s F i l m Foundation  2  f o r r e g u l a r Saturday morning performances; s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s ; s p e c i a l museum f a c i l i t i e s ;  etc.  library  3  In g e n e r a l , then, with l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s moving i n t o the area o f r e c r e a t i o n more and more, we have a new developing bodies.  between the v o l u n t a r y agencies  and  partnership  the s t a t u t o r y  In the next s e c t i o n we w i l l deal w i t h t h i s i n g r e a t e r  detail. (b)  Youth S e r v i c e s (Clubs and Youth The  to p r o v i d e  Organizations)  object o f the Youth S e r v i c e s i n England and Wales i s f o r the l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s of young people  to o f f e r them o p p o r t u n i t i e s , complementary to those  o f home,  formal education and work, f o r d i s c o v e r i n g and developing p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s , so t h a t t h e y may  and  their  be b e t t e r equipped to be  4  r e s p o n s i b l e members o f a f r e e and c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y . A study o f the e x i s t i n g youth s e r v i c e s and the  1  2  3 4  C h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n , op. c i t . , p.  26.  iPid.  Ibid. S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n B r i t a i n , op.  c i t . , p.  32.  partner-  - 30 ship  t h a t e x i s t s between v o l u n t a r y  p r o v e s t o be v e r y  and s t a t u t o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  i l l u m i n a t i n g , as i n t h i s area  s e r v i c e s p l a y a very prominent  role.  the voluntary  They a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o  1 as  t h e "backbone"  observers and  o f t h e y o u t h s e r v i c e s , a n d some f o r e i g n  have f e l t  that i n this  voluntary bodies  field  especially  a r e a c t u a l l y i n business  "... S t a t u t o r y  together,  rather  2 than d i s t i n c t i v e In  operations  recent,years,  committed i t s e l f  has  been a n a n x i o u s  goals."  however, p a r t i c u l a r l y  to doing  undertook to provide  t o w a r d s common  something about  s i n c e t h e Government  the "youth problem" and  more money t o t h e e x i s t i n g debate as t o whether these  organizations,  there  organizations  3 were m a k i n g t h e b e s t we l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t structure  shared  voluntary to  departments, l o c a l  organizations and the churches.  some v o l u n t a r y  first  examine t h e  education a u t h o r i t i e s ,  T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t  t h o u g h t h e r e i s t h e f e a r on t h e p a r t o f  s e r v i c e s t h a t i n c r e a s i n g government i n t e r v e n t i o n  i n this.  The h e t e r o g e n e i t y  a n a t u r a l outcome o f t h e f a c t loped  d e b a t e , we must  Before  f o r y o u t h s e r v i c e s i n E n g l a n d a n d Wales  by the education  Impose u n i f o r m i t y ,  may r e s u l t  of this  resources.  o f t h e Youth S e r v i c e i n England and Wales.  Responsibility is  use o f t h e i r present  spontaneously during  o f these  services i s  t h a t most y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the course  o f the l a s t  deve-  century i n  response t o miscellaneous v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s . Between t h e two Ibid. H a n d a s y d e , E . , " B r i t i s h S o c i a l Work t h r o u g h A m e r i c a n E y e s " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . xxx,. n o . 1, June-Aug., 1956, -  1  2  pp. 114-116. 3 B a t t e n , T. R., " Y o u t h O r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e C h a n g i n g Needs o f Y o u t h " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . x x x i v , n o . 1, June-Aug.,  I960.  - 31 World Wars, some o f the l o c a l education a u t h o r i t i e s t r i e d t o help and c o o r d i n a t e v o l u n t a r y work i n t h e i r areas J u v e n i l e O r g a n i z a t i o n Committees.  through  I n the 1930's the S t a t e a l s o  began to promote s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n and i n 1939  brought i n t o being what i s now  c a l l e d the Youth  S e r v i c e as a p a r t n e r s h i p o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and c e n t r a l government.  The s t a t u s o f youth s e r v i c e s  as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system o f Great was  confirmed by the Education A c t o f The education  Britain  1944.  departments p r o v i d e g r a n t s - i n - a i d o f the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t r a i n i n g work o f n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s to help meet the c o s t s of t r a i n i n g f u l l - t i m e youth l e a d e r s and o f the premises and 1  equipment o f youth c l u b s  p r o v i d e d by v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s . L o c a l education a u t h o r i t i e s cooperate  with voluntary  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r a r e a s ; most g i v e f i n a n c i a l help and premises and  lend  equipment; most a l s o employ youth o r g a n i z e r s to  help i n the promotion and' encouragement o f youth work.  Where  v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d inadequate,  local authorities  themselves organize youth c e n t r e s and c l u b s .  Most l o c a l a u t h o r i -  t i e s have appointed bodies are  youth committees on which o f f i c i a l and  voluntary  represented.  In a d d i t i o n to such grants as are r e c e i v e d from the S t a t e and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may 1  See  Table 1, page 37.  r e c e i v e help  -  32  -  from c h a r i t a b l e t r u s t s f o r the f u r t h e r a n c e o f s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , 1 n o t a b l y from King George's J u b i l e e Trust and, f u r i n g the years 1953-60, the King George. VI Foundation, which d i s t r i b u t e d n e a r l y £1.2  m i l l i o n from the memorial fund i n remembrance o f the  King.  The g r e a t e r p a r t of the funds of the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s , 2 however, r a i s e d by t h e i r own In 1958  efforts.  the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n ,  aware t h a t the Youth  S e r v i c e needed to do more to a s s i s t young people, appointed committee under the the s i t u a t i o n and accepted  a  chairmanship of Lady Albemarle, to review  t o a d v i s e on s t e p s . t o be  i n principle  taken.  The  Minister  the Committee's recommendations, p u b l i s h e d  i n i t s r e p o r t i n February, I960, and announced immediate  increases  i n f i n a n c i a l help f o r the headquarters of n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a b u i l d i n g programme of £7 m i l l i o n to be s t a r t e d i n the next t h r e e years, more grants i n c l u d i n g experimental  to v o l u n t a r y p r o j e c t s ,  ones, and immediate steps t o i n c r e a s e  the number o f t r a i n e d f u l l - t i m e l e a d e r s .  In January 1961  N a t i o n a l C o l l e g e f o r the T r a i n i n g of Youth Leaders was Leicester.  a  opened a t  The M i n i s t e r i s a d v i s e d by a Youth S e r v i c e Development  Council. This government a c t i o n was the p a r t o f those concerned. new  On  met  w i t h mixed f e e l i n g s on  the one hand I t sparked a  great  i n t e r e s t i n the problems of youth w i t h a r e s u l t i n g enthusiasm  E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1935 to advance the welfare of t h e younger generations; the T r u s t Fund i s a p p l i e d f o r the b e n e f i t o f the young people of the U.K.. King George V s a n c t i o n e d the inaugur a t i o n o f the T r u s t by the then P r i n c e of Wales, and the d e d i c a t i o n to i t o f the n a t i o n ' s g i f t o f approximately £1 m i l l i o n , s u b s c r i b e d as a thank o f f e r i n g - t o mark h i s s i l v e r j u b i l e e . 1  2  See  Table 1, page  37.  - 33  -  on the p a r t of many v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but there was for  doubt and  f e a r as w e l l .  room  T. R. Batten, w r i t i n g i n the summer  of I960, wondered whether the t r a d i t i o n a l purposes o f the e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s t i l l  valid.  1  '  The Committee had had three main aims:  2  (1) (2)  t o j u s t i f y the need f o r a Youth S e r v i c e i n an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y ; i n view of the f a i l u r e of the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s to a t t r a c t so _ many o f the over f i f t e e n s , to analyze the contemporary scene and the a t t i t u d e s and outlook of young people today; (3) to make workable proposals f o r p o l i c y , machinery and, t o a c e r t a i n extent, performance. It  c r i t i c i z e d a system "...  education  to those who  which gave the b e n e f i t s of s o c i a l  remained w i t h i n the s h e l t e r e d environment  o f an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and made the most n i g g a r d l y p r o v i s i o n for  those whose need was  p a r t l y recognized by the  so much g r e a t e r .  T h i s need was  only  ' l e a r n i n g f o r l e i s u r e ' concept of f u r t h e r  education; between the ages of 15  and 21,  young people s t i l l  had  3 to  l e a r n how  to l i v e i n an a d u l t world."  Batten saw  the need f o r l e a d e r s o f youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s  to  f i n d meaningful ways of s a t i s f y i n g "... the n a t u r a l d e s i r e o f today's young people f o r more independence, more c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own to  a f f a i r s , and more r e c o g n i t i o n from a d u l t s of t h e i r approach 4 adult status."  Recognizing  the problem that at l e a s t 60  per  cent o f a l l young people s t a y o u t s i d e the c l u b s and t h a t " ... one was  doing anything  no  about i t , " he proposed a s o l u t i o n i n terms  of the Youth Organizations joining f o r c e s with the people's  organizations  Batten, T. R., op. c i t . "The Albemarle Report", S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . xxxiv, no..1, June - Aug. I960,-pp. 2-5. 3 B a t t e n , T. R., op. c i t . 4 Ibid. 2  - 34 on  t h e new h o u s i n g  estates and exerting pressure  a u t h o r i t i e s who were m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e  on t h e l o c a l  f o r t h e development o f  1  t h e new e s t a t e s . T h i s was n o t t h e f i r s t the n e e d f o r v o l u n t a r y work t h e y  do l e s t  t i m e t h a t someone h a d s p o k e n o f  youth organizations  they use t h e i r small  of t h e s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s and those This, i n fact,  t o s c r u t i n i z e the  reserves  of other  i n mere  voluntary  agencies  with  h i s r e p o r t on The O u t l o o k  f o r Y o u t h Work w h i c h t o many p e o p l e a p p e a r e d t o amount f o r a " . . . Root a n d B r a n c h B i l l  administration, 2 y o u t h work".  ... o f t h e v o l u n t a r y  Brew a g r e e d t h a t f o r him t h i s  societies.  i s t h e m a i n t h e s i s o f L . J . B a r n e s who i n 1948  s h o c k e d many v o l u n t a r y  proposal  replication  was a p o i n t  to a  i n the f i e l d of  organizations  engaged i n  t h e r e was a p r o b l e m o f o v e r - l a p p i n g , b u t o f departure  f o r considering the question  o f how t o b r i n g a b o u t a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Y o u t h S e r v i c e s s o that  they  could  t u r n t h e i r main e n e r g i e s  p i o n e e r i n g and research.  He p o i n t e d  effect  o u t t h a t "... v o l u n t a r y  draining operations i n 1939,  y o u t h work o f v a r i o u s  Education  A c t , which converted  f u r t h e r Education drained  Officers;  local  C i r c u l a r I486, w h i c h h a d t h e t o the admini-  a u t h o r i t i e s ; i n 1944, t h e  e x c e l l e n t youth organizers  into  a n d i n 1948, t h e C h i l d r e n A c t , w h i c h  o f f both c l u b leaders and organizers  i n t o t h e new  Ibid.  Brew, J . M a c A l i s t e r , "The D a r l i n g Young", S o c i a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . x x i i , no.,3, 1948. . . „ 2  3  3  s i n c e 1939".  o f t r a n s f e r r i n g many e x c e l l e n t c l u b l e a d e r s  strative  1  experiment,  -  y o u t h work h a s s u f f e r e d t h r e e He r e f e r s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g :  towards  Ibid.  Service  - 35 1 profession  of Children's  Officer.  Brew r a i s e s f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s concerns  of this  study.  He  w h i c h a r e germane t o  argues t h a t  the  " ...  centre  the of  .2 g r a v i t y i n y o u t h work has has  changed," c l a i m i n g  become a m e t h o d o f f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n .  much o f t h e d a y - t o - d a y work o f t h e nature  be  voluntary,  p e o p l e w o u l d be b o d y , he lized  s i n c e he  doing  and  unrelated.  training  essentially  the  ment was  going  this point  those  fears.  to take  away w i t h a  of volunteers.  t h a t we  great  devitathis  This  latter  number o f y o u t h otherwise  writing fifteen  years  pattern  c o n s i d e r how o f the  of problem  organizations, uncoordinated  ago  when  that the  there govern-  instructive  f a r e v e n t s have  justified  r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t has  e x e m p l i f i e d i n the area  a  of the Youth  in  fact  Service  examine n e x t . That area  i s the Boys' Club  Movement, w h i c h has  g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d s i n c e t h e m a i n recommendations;:of t h e Ibid. 2  on  deal  over the Youth S e r v i c e , i t I s  i n time to  emerged I s p e r h a p s  statutory  h i s ideas  f e a r among t h e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s  The  for a  u n c e r t a i n and  sums up  same work, b u t  Inasmuchas Brew was widespread  that  t h e n e e d f o r a " C e n t r a l C o m m i s s i o n " and  i n e v i t a b l e when t h e r e a r e a v a s t  all  at  as v o l u n t e e r s  He  t r a i n i n g w h i c h w o u l d do  d u p l i c a t i o n i n the  thinks  Y o u t h S e r v i c e must o f i t s  r e l u c t a n t to s e r v e  proclaiming  he  a p p e a r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t most  c o n d i t i o n of the^agencies.  system o f  was  Yet  i s understandably concerned a t the private  i s s u e by  is  and  t h a t f o r many i t  Ibid.  been Albemarle  - 36 Report  were a c c e p t e d b y t h e government i n I960.  there had been a p e r i o d  Prior  to this  o f more t h a n 20 y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h  almost  1 no b u i l d i n g two  f o r t h e Youth  decades,  determined  During  these  t h e spokesman f o r t h e B o y s ' C l u b Movement, t h e  National Association those c l u b s ,  S e r v i c e was p e r m i t t e d .  o f Boys C l u b s was v e r y a c t i v e  e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e new h o u s i n g  to o b t a i n reasonable premises.  d u r i n g one f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d  In supporting  a r e a s , w h i c h were Hence, the A s s o c i a t i o n ,  (1955-60), f i n a n c i a l l y  assisted  over  2 100 s u c h schemes. Because o f t h i s of a nationwide  work and a l s o b e c a u s e  s u r v e y o f t h e n e e d f o r new B o y s ' C l u b s , t h e N.A.B.C.  was f u l l y p r e p a r e d when t h e M i n i s t r y policy  o f expansion.  G-eorge J u b i l e e assisted  Trust  With  special  o f Education adopted i t s  funds  and t h e M i n i s t r y  obtained from t h e King  of Education,  t h e N.A.B.C.  t h i s new p o l i c y b y a p p o i n t i n g a team o f o f f i c e r s t o  concentrate The  on d e v e l o p m e n t work. result  was t h a t b y t h e e n d o f 1961 t h e schemes  proposed  by t h e l o c a l  totalled  n e a r l y £14 m i l l i o n ,  to t h e Youth M a r c h , 1963.  authorities  and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s  while the building  ceiling  allocated  S e r v i c e h a d o n l y r e a c h e d £7 m i l l i o n b y t h e end o f Accordingly, the M i n i s t e r decided that  onwards, l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d lists  o f the completion  after consulting  v o l u n t a r y youth  from  to submit  organizations.  priority He  d e c i d e d .that schemes e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e programme a p p r o v e d M a r c h 31,  1963 w o u l d b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r  National Association 2  Ibid.  sponsors  o f Boys C l u b s A n n u a l  t o take  Report,  1963-64  also up t o their  1962-63.  c h a n c e when t h e 1963-64 (See  1  - 37 lists  were p r e p a r e d  by l o c a l  authorities.  Table 1 below.)  Table  1.  Year  Boys C l u b s B u i l d i n g Schemes Awarded M i n i s t r y o f Education Grants 2.  Total  Number o f Schemes  Cost  1959-60  18  £180,000  1960-61  32  £298,000  1961-62  75*  £761,000  1962-63  75  £723,000  1963-64  40  £662,000  ^ ( i n c l u d i n g 13 schemes c o s t i n g £163,000 i n t h e " c r a s h " programme f o r t h e d e s i g n a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s ) But i n 1963-64 t h e r e were 55 schemes c o s t i n g £650,000. w h i c h f a i l e d t o g e t I n t o t h e programme.  T h e s e c h a n g e s i n g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y were v e r y and  discouraging t o the voluntary youth  t h e y were s e e n  frustrating  organizations.  Moreover,  as a t h r e a t by the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n  that  when c o m p e t i n g w i t h  they  d i d not f e e l assured  the l o c a l  e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t y schemes  of impartial  by  the M i n i s t r y .  by  reference t o disappointment  and equal c o n s i d e r a t i o n  The v o l u n t a r y v i e w p o i n t  i s explained not only  a t the l o w e r i n g o f t h e Y o u t h  The 1963-64 b u i l d i n g c e i l i n g r e m a i n e d a t £3 m i l l i o n . A breakdown o f 75 p e r c e n t shows 57 l o c a l a u t h o r i t y p r o j e c t s c o s t i n g £917,000 40 b o y s c l u b s p r o j e c t s c o s t i n g £662,000 54 p r o j e c t s f r o m a l l o t h e r v o l u n t a r y organizations costing £756,000. Compare these- f i g u r e s w i t h t h o s e shown i n T a b l e 1, a b o v e . N.A.B.C. A n n u a l R e p o r t ,  1962-63.  - 38 Service  B u i l d i n g C e i l i n g but  a l s o by  reference  to the  following  consideration. I t has a l w a y s b e e n t h e p r a c t i c e i n t h e Y o u t h S e r v i c e f o r the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o g i v e d i r e c t c a p i t a l g r a n t s o f up t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t t o w a r d s a p p r o v e d schemes o f v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s . L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have p e r m i s s i v e powers t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e s e g r a n t s b y up t o 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t . A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s do n o t e x e r c i s e i t a t a l l o r o n l y ... t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . But i n f a v o r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a b o y s ' c l u b c a n r e c e i v e 75 p e r c e n t o f the c o s t o f a b u i l d i n g a n d e q u i p m e n t t o be r a i s e d f r o m _ voluntary sources. 1  However, t h e u n l i k e l y that  the  to t h e i r  grant-aid  the  goes on  f o r the  level  e x p e n d i t u r e s by  capital  grants to  years the  to v o l u n t a r y  their local  very  r e a l , and  implications  one  r a t e s , were  In that  1  Ibid.  2  Ibid.  powers  to  recommendation  M i n i s t e r should  cease to g i v e  that they should  capital  thereafter  look  a u t h o r i t i e s f o r such h e l p . ) organizations  w h i c h t h e M.A.B.C. s e e s as  t o the  14-20  age  club  appears to  having  voluntary  serious  initiative,  organizations  group, and  be  which are  most  hence a "major step  .  to  a  •  Service".  s p i t e of  since l o c a l  going  A l b e m a r l e Committee  2 Youth  (as  organizations.  f o r f u t u r e p r o g r e s s and  c o n c e r n e d w i t h the  local  exercising permissive  threat to voluntary  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard  state-run  very  of voluntary  b o d i e s and  education  Thus t h e  of the  expenditures  ( T h i s would f o l l o w from the that a f t e r f i v e  t o e x p l a i n t h a t i t was  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , h a y i n g been c r i t i c i z e d  they always a r e j ) to add  report  this  "watchdog" a t t i t u d e , i t s h o u l d  c o n s u l t a t i o n went i n t o e f f e c t  be  mentioned  (1963-64),  voluntary  - 39 p r o j e c t s h a v e amounted t o 60 p e r c e n t  o f the  total allocated,  and  I n 1964-65 t h e r e h a s b e e n a n i n c r e a s e  o f £1 % m i l l i o n  the  1963-64 programme w i t h n e a r l y h a l f o f t h i s  over  sum g o i n g t o  1 voluntary projects. On  the  face o f i t these  they have n o t s t i l l e d  criticism  For  example, C h r i s B r a s h e r ,  the  N.A.B.C. h a s t h i s  "The  local  education  figures look  from the v o l u n t a r y  e d i t o r o f Challenge,  t o say about these  c o n s i d e r a t i o n they  should.  organizations.  ( p u b l i s h e d by  e v e n t s o f 1963-64.  a u t h o r i t i e s are n o t operating  t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e a n d ... q u i t e u r g e n t the  satisfactory, but  the  consul-  schemes a r e n o t g e t t i n g  Nor are  the v o l u n t a r y  bodies  2 always a c t i n g i n union." o f 60 p e r c e n t to  o f M i n i s t r y funds which i s s a i d t o have  then,  we s e e t h a t a g r e a t  been a r o u s e d w i t h i n t h e v o l u n t a r y  legislative to  changes o f the p a s t  s e e why t h e  3  Ibid.  of suspicion  y o u t h movement b y t h e  few y e a r s .  S t a n d i n g C o n f e r e n c e on N a t i o n a l B u l l e t i n , Nov. 1963, p . 3. Brasher,  deal  I ti s not d i f f i c u l t  youth s e r v i c e i s i n such a s t a t e a t the present  1  2  gone  voluntary bodies, saying that ... i t does n o t mean t h a t t h e same p e o p l e who o n l y g o t 20 p e r c e n t p r e v i o u s l y now h a v e t h r e e t i m e s a s much. A number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s o p e r a t e d i n t h e 1963-64 b u i l d i n g programme w h i c h were n o t r e l e v a n t b e f o r e . U n t i l a breakdown o f t h e f i g u r e i s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t does n o t represent q u i t e so r o s y a p i c t u r e o f t h esuccess o f j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a s , o n t h e f a c e o f i t , w o u l d seem, the case. 3 In general,  has  He a l s o u r g e s c a u t i o n a b o u t t h e f i g u r e  Chris, "Editorial",  Voluntary  Challenge,  Youth  Organizations  J u l y 1963.  - 40 time.  There are a v a s t number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged  i n " c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g " and they a l l need funds to c a r r y on and expand t h e i r work w i t h c h i l d r e n and youth. dependent  We have seen 1  the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Boys' Glubs  how  has become  on grants from the c e n t r a l government, l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s , and the c h a r i t a b l e t r u s t s .  The same c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l  w i t h many other l a r g e n a t i o n a l youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Table 2.  No. o f Members* and F i n a n c i a l Resources' of V o l u n t a r y Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n s  1  (England and Wales)  Adolescent  Conditional Total Grants from Voluntary Sources Membership Membership M i n . o f E d . £ £  (14-20)  Organization  Boys B r i g a d e  25,129  Boy  88,355  Scouts  Church  Lads  N. A. B. Girls  Assoc. Brigade  C.  Friendly  Soc.  81,768  445,242  Total Income £  5,500  56,409  61,90S  10,000  167,848  177,84£  1,975  15,539  17,514  5,363  13,778  114,459  137,959  43,000  83,900  126,90C  4,005  22,227  3,250  15,449  18,69<  * Membership f i g u r e s from Standing Conference on N a t i o n a l V o l u n t a r y Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n s Annual Report, 1961-62. **A11 f i n a n c i a l f i g u r e s from Annual Reports o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s , 1962-63.  The above f i g u r e s s e r v e to show a number of i n t e r e s t i n g relationships.  1  The N.A.B.C, which has almost 84 per cent of I t s  The N.A.B.C. a n d t h e N.A.Y.C. ( N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Y o u t h C l u b s ) have the. l a r g e s t membership o v e r s c h o o l - l e a v i n g age (See T a b l e 2, a b o v e . )  - 41 membership b e t w e e n t h e ages o f 14 a n d 20, r e c e i v e d o v e r t i m e s a s much f i n a n c i a l as  any o f the other  worthy t h a t its  total  i.e.,  this  youth serving  from the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n organizations.  amount o f £43,000 r e p r e s e n t s  income f o r t h a t y e a r ,  f o r the training  o f new B o y s ' G l u b s . it  assistance  i s the voluntary  but that t h i s  Thus t h e s e f i g u r e s s e r v e youth organizations  I t i s note-  over a t h i r d o f grant  of f u l l - t i m e club leaders  was c o n d i t i o n a l ,  and t h e s t a r t i n g  t o r e m i n d us  t h a t a r e t h e most  subsidized. Twenty-six o f the l a r g e s t o f the n a t i o n a l youth  tions, and  each w i t h  at least  Youth Organizations,  Conference o f National  a c o n s u l t a t i v e body.  C o n f e r e n c e i s "... t o c o n s i d e r principle  organizations;  to statutory or other  persons  to represent  1  The p u r p o s e o f t h e  appropriate  a n d recommen-  a u t h o r i t i e s ; to appoint  2  Since  i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1936, t h e SCNVY0 h a s w o r k e d c l o s e l y  s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s and e n g a g e d I n many a c t i v i t i e s t h i s purpose.  of evidence Albemarle  the  t h e C o n f e r e n c e on e x t e r n a l b o d i e s when  required."  fulfill  the voluntary  and s t r e n g t h e n i n g  t o make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  dations  o f 10  Voluntary  means o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g  i n y o u t h work a n d o f e x t e n d i n g  constituent  organiza-  10,000 members between t h e a g e s  21, b e l o n g t o t h e S t a n d i n g  with  that  w h i c h a r e engaged i n  work on w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y p u t s p r i o r i t y heavily  four  Recent  i n order to  examples h a v e b e e n i t s s u b m i s s i o n  to the Central Advisory  Council  f o r Education  and t o the  Committee.  1  General Information  2  Bulletin,  I t was c r e a t e d b y t h e N a t i o n a l  published Council  b y SCNVY0. of Social Service.  - 42 The work o f t h e Conference I s made p o s s i b l e by funds from the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e , s u b s c r i p t i o n s from member o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a grant  from t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n .  1  The Conference has worked hard on b e h a l f o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and has attempted t o promote e f f e c t i v e  cooperation  between the v a r i o u s p a r t n e r s i n the Youth S e r v i c e a t l o c a l and national levels.  T h i s work has been complicated  by the f a c t  that  the v a r i o u s v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l l aim at the broad g o a l o f " c h a r a c t e r formation", tance  and are much concerned w i t h the impor-  of " s p i r i t u a l values".  However, the member o r g a n i z a t i o n s  a r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ones w i t h a long t r a d i t i o n o f 2 s e r v i c e to youth. We mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t there was a marked c o n f l i c t  o f o p i n i o n as to whether the e x i s t i n g  youth  s e r v i c e s were keeping up with the changing problems o f youth. Some o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t going out t o young people,  and there I s evidence  o f d e c l i n i n g membership i n  some o f these, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 15-18 age range.  The Boy  Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n has had a drop o f over 10,000 s i n c e 1962 and  the Boys Brigade  has a l s o noted a drop i n membership i n  s p i t e o f the f a c t of an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the r e l e v a n t age range i n England and Wales.  In general,  those  "uniformed" o r g a n i z a t i o n s which a r e r u n i n connection w i t h a' church or a chapel have found i t d i f f i c u l t 1  2 3 4  t o r e t a i n membership  Annual Report and D i r e c t o r y , SCNVYO, 1961-62. See Appendix A f o r d e t a i l s o f s i z e , e t c . , o f member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 54th Annual Report o f the Committee of the C o u n c i l , J u l y 1963. Annual Report o f the Boys Brigade, 1962-63, p. 88.  - 43 a f t e r a g e 14  14-20.  o r t o r e c r u i t new membership  f o r t h e age r a n g e  Y e t they a l l c o n t i n u e to promote t h e i r s e r v i c e s and  compete f o r f u n d s w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . B r i g a d e , which  i s actually a part  w e l l a s a N a t i o n a l Boys' control  o f the Church  Lads  o f E n g l a n d as  O r g a n i z a t i o n , i s completely under the  o f the c l e r g y y e t receives  Education.  The C h u r c h  funds from the M i n i s t r y o f  T h e r e a r e many o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s  of this  nature  w h i c h h a v e s p r u n g up i n t h e p a s t t o meet c e r t a i n n e e d s a n d h a v e survived into the c r i t i c s  the present.  Thus t h e r e may be g o o d r e a s o n f o r  to question the efficacy  has i t s r o o t s  i n the past.  with increasing Yet t h e stress  o f a youth service  that  And s u c h q u e s t i o n s have b e e n  insistence  since  on s p i r i t u a l  the Albemarle Report  training  raised  appeared.  and e d u c a t i o n which  prompted  the b e g i n n i n g v o l u n t a r y y o u t h s e r v i c e s and w h i c h has remained at  t h e c o r e o f much o f t h e y o u t h s e r v i c e  essence o f the voluntary  i s h e l d t o be t h e  c o n t r i b u t i o n even today.  Many p e o p l e  1 agree w i t h this  statement by the Late S i r Hubert  Llewellyn  Smith:  F o r l e a d e r s h i p i n the c l u b