UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical review of "recidivism" : its implications in social policy concerning the treatment of offenders Fornataro, John Valdo 1964

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1964_A5 F6.pdf [ 5.42MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104900.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104900-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104900-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104900-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104900-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104900-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104900-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104900-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104900.ris

Full Text

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF "RECIDIVISM" I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s i n S o c i a l P o l i c y Concerning the Treatment of O f f e n d e r s .  by JOHN VALDO FORNATARO  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work 1964  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  mission  for reference  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  be  cation  of  written  Department  of  and  by  the  study,  the  for  Library  the  I further  Head o f my  agree for  that  of  not  per-  scholarly  Department  shall  of  make- i t f r e e l y  or  t h a t ; c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l gain  Columbia  fulfilment  University  shall  this thesis  permission*.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  in partial  degree at  I t i s understood  this thesis  w i t h o u t my  that  c o p y i n g of  granted  representatives.  this thesis  advanced  Columbia, I agree  available  his  presenting  be  by publi-  allowed  iii ABSTRACT The  treatment of the o f f e n d e r has assumed  importance i n Canada, as w e l l as i n other c o u n t r i e s  increasing of the  Western hemisphere, both because of the s t a t i s t i c a l r i s e i n the  incidence  of law v i o l a t i o n s and because of p e r s i s t e n t  e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over the r e s u l t s o f c u r r e n t penal p r a c t i c e s .  The r e c i d i v i s t i c o f f e n d e r has tended t o  become the f o c a l p o i n t of o f f i c i a l a c t i o n s persistence  of a t t e n t i o n .  He symbolizes the f a i l u r e  t o terminate the c r i m i n a l c a r e e r ,  and h i s  i n law v i o l a t i o n has more r e c e n t l y become a matter  of economic i n t e r e s t .  At the same time, the impression has  become g e n e r a l t h a t the r e c i d i v i s t i s l i k e l y t o be e s p e c i a l l y dangerous t o the community.  Consequently, a s u b s t a n t i a l amount  of p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e has been developed w i t h s p e c i a l t o the r e c i d i v i s t .  reference  T h i s study i s concerned t o i n q u i r e i n t o the  soundness of the r a t i o n a l e which adopts r e c i d i v i s m as an index of c r i m i n a l p e r s o n a l i t y , a c r i t e r i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , and as a v a l i d b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l p o l i c y with reference substantial proportion  t o the treatment of a very  of o f f e n d e r s .  P r e v a i l i n g p o l i c i e s concerning the r e c i d i v i s t have the e f f e c t of adding v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l y duration  t o the g r a v i t y and the  of the p e n a l t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d  In some i n s t a n c e s ,  the r e c o r d  a person t o be d e c l a r e d  upon the offender.  of r e c i d i v i s m makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r  an " h a b i t u a l  c r i m i n a l " , thus making him  iv l i a b l e t o a sentence which i s indeterminate.  Despite h i s  p o s s i b l e e l i g i b i l i t y f o r p a r o l e , the " h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l " i s under a v i r t u a l l i f e  sentence.  Professional disciplines  having an i n t e r e s t i n the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l and of the consequence o f o f f i c i a l should r e c o g n i z e  s a n c t i o n s imposed upon d e v i a n t s  i n the phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  d i s p o s i t i o n of r e c i d i v i s t s many c r i t i c a l clinical,  issues, s o c i a l ,  economic and e t h i c a l .  The  study has been predominantly  f o c u s s e d upon the  a d u l t r e c i d i v i s t i n Canada, although experience and o b s e r v a t i o n s of a r e l e v a n t nature have been d e r i v e d from other jurisdictions. examination and  T h i s i s not a "case  study" but i s based upon an  of the main l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d  o f penology.  of c r i m i n o l o g y  Both t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d  sources have been c o n s u l t e d . I n consequence of t h i s examination  the i n e s c a p a b l e  conclusion i s that recidivism, e s s e n t i a l l y a s t a t i s t i c a l  concept,  should be t r e a t e d as t o t a l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of social policy.  Moreover, there a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t  much o f f i c i a l behaviour  i n the treatment  of the o f f e n d e r  c o n t r i b u t e s d i r e c t l y and p o w e r f u l l y t o r e c i d i v i s t i c  patterns.  Present p o l i c y appears t o owe much t o the unreasoned emotions felt  concerning  the o f f e n d e r .  i n c r e a s i n g l y important r a t i o n a l grounds.  With so much a t stake, i t becomes  t h a t s o c i a l p o l i c y must r e s t upon  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The f o l l o w i n g pages owe t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n p a r t t o the s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t of Dr. Leonard Marsh i n the s u b j e c t and to h i s p e r s i s t e n t encouragement d u r i n g the course of the study. P r o f e s s o r A d r i a n Marriage has c o n t r i b u t e d the g i f t of an acute a n a l y s i s of some of the m a t e r i a l i n d r a f t form, and has o f f e r e d v a l u a b l e suggestions concerning the use o f data. To each of these s c h o l a r s the author i s deeply indebted although he alone assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the content which f o l l o w s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  C r i m i n a l R e c i d i v i s m - A Concept f o r S o c i a l Workers  Having  Significance Page  An examination i n t o the concept of c r i m i n a l i t y . When i s a c r i m i n a l a r e c i d i v i s t ? Some f u n c t i o n a l consequences of the r e c i d i v i s t l a b e l . The r e l e v a n c e and the method of t h i s study Chapter 2.  R e c i d i v i s m - P e r s p e c t i v e s on a S t a t i s t i c a l  Concept  R e c i d i v i s m as a s t a t i s t i c a l concept. Statistics on r e c i d i v i s m : what do they say and what do they mean? Some i n d i c a t i o n s of danger a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use of recidivist statistics Chapter 3.  21.  The R e c i d i v i s t - A Many-Faced Person  A view from t h e psyche. A view from the m i l i e u . Some a s s o r t e d views. A review of i n f l u e n t i a l sources of t h e o r y and of e m p i r i c a l data c o n c e r n i n g the r e c i d i v i s t i c o f f e n d e r . Some s i g n i f i c a n t areas of consensus Chapter 4.  1.  The Relevance  of R e c i d i v i s m f o r S o c i a l  33.  Policy  P r e v a i l i n g p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s , f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l ; t h e i r support i n popular and o f f i c i a l i r r a t i o n ality. The a b s u r d i t y of an a l l e g e d r e a l i s m - or the f a n t a s y of some " f a c t s " . Some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y ; some e t h i c a l and l e g a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  57.  Bibliography  72.  A CRITICAL REVIEW OF "RECIDIVISM"; ITS IMPLICATIONS IN SOCIAL POLICY CONCERNING THE TREATMENT OF OFFENDERS CHAPTER ONE CRIMINAL RECIDIVISM - A CONCEPT HAVING SIGNIFICANCE FOR SOCIAL WORK Judge Joseph Ulman i s quoted as s a y i n g t h a t " R e c i d i v i s m 1 i s a p r i c e we pay f o r our c h a o t i c , unplanned  penology".  C e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r C i c e r o observed t h a t " I t i s the nature of every man t o e r r , but o n l y the f o o l perseveres i n e r r o r " . Taken t o g e t h e r , these statements  d e c l a r e the " f o o l i s h n e s s " or  the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of our ways of d e a l i n g w i t h the law breaker, inasmuch as r e c i d i v i s m shows no s i g n of a b a t i n g and our p o l i c i e s show no s i g n of having l e a r n e d from t h o u g h t f u l l y a s s e s s e d experience. An important o b j e c t i n t h i s study i s the j u x t a p o s i n g of a number of i n f l u e n t i a l ideas and b e l i e f s about r e c i d i v i s m with t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s and w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s a r i s i n g out of c l i n i c a l and s c h o l a r l y work i n t h i s f i e l d .  Even the l e a s t  d i s c i p l i n e d o b s e r v a t i o n of experience i n the treatment of o f f e n d e r s arouses doubt about the v a l i d i t y of most premises upon which p e n a l p o l i c y i s based.  Yet these premises are  commonly accepted as s e l f - e v i d e n t " t r u t h s " , j u s t as our f o r e bears - u n c l u t t e r e d by s c i e n t i f i c data - KNEW t h a t the world was flat. 1.  Quoted i n N.P.P.A. Jour., J u l y 1958, p. 217.  - 2 Since r e c i d i v i s m has to do w i t h human l i f e , i n d i v i d u a l and  c o l l e c t i v e , and  both  i t s c o n t r o l has importance f o r  the whole community, i t i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t h a t the s u b j e c t be examined w i t h detachment.  I f f a n t a s i e s become r e p l a c e d by  f a c t s the rewards should be as g r e a t as those which accompanied the t r a n s i t i o n from a f l a t t o a s p h e r i c a l world. Who  Is a Criminal? I t i s commonly assumed t h a t "everyone knows what a  criminal i s " .  To be sure, i n i t s s i m p l e s t terms c r i m i n a l i t y  has t o do with human behaviour law.  i n v i o l a t i o n of d u l y promulgated  On the other hand, not a l l v i o l a t i o n s of law a r e , i n f a c t ,  thought of as c r i m i n a l , nor are a l l laws considered t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the b e s t i n t e r e s t s or of the mores of the community.  In j u r i s d i c t i o n s e n j o y i n g the r u l e of law,  be s a i d t h a t , although  i t can  there are no u n i v e r s a l standards  determining what i s c r i m i n a l behaviour, not a l t o g e t h e r c a p r i c i o u s .  the standards used are  Nevertheless, a t the p o i n t of  implementing the machinery of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e a great d e a l of scope f o r a r b i t r a r y judgment does e x i s t and t h i s i s of m a t e r i a l consequence t o i n d i v i d u a l s or c l a s s e s of o f f e n d e r s . George V o i d has produced a p r o v o c a t i v e p i e c e of 2 d i a l e c t i c i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of what i s meant by The  "obvious"  .2.  V o i d , George B., T h e o r e t i c a l Criminology, U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958, p. 265 f f .  criminality.  d e f i n i t i o n of a c r i m i n a l r a i s e s the most i n t r i c a t e New  York,  Oxford  - 3 -  problems i n turn.  I t i s generally understood that a criminal  i s a person who has committed a crime; that i s , one who v i o l a t e d a law.  has  Does t h i s mean that the great majority of the  population i s criminal, inasmuch as most persons who have achieved adulthood have v i o l a t e d statutes r e l a t i v e to alcohol, income taxes, or vehicular t r a f f i c at least once? I f c r i m i n a l i t y i n f e r s some degree of habituation, how many occurrences are necessary? Obviously, there are no universal d e f i n i t i o n s to answer these questions. Discussing the same problem of d e f i n i t i o n with respect to juvenile delinquency, Rubin^states "- juvenile delinquency i s what the law says i t i s , — "  .  That i s , behaviour i s not  criminal unless i t comes under l e g a l proscription.  This does  not answer the questions but provokes another. Laws are the enactments of p o l i t i c a l authorities ( i n addition to the accumulation of Common Law through j u d i c i a l precedent) and enjoy neither u n i v e r s a l i t y nor permanency.  The  apartheid practices which are l e g a l l y enjoined upon residents of South A f r i c a would constitute law v i o l a t i o n s i n Canada.  A  German c i t i z e n i s today subject to severe penalties f o r i n c i t i n g public anti-semltic sentiments: a generation ago he might have been decorated f o r the mass slaying of Jews.  To  declare that we can consider crime to consist of v i o l a t i n g only "good" laws i s to demand a d e f i n i t i o n of "good laws", and some 3.  Rubin, Sol, Crime and Juvenile Delinquency: A Rational Approach to Penal Problems, New York, Oceana Publications, 1958, p. 45.  - 4 a r b i t e r of the  community's mores.  Presumably t h i s i s an  o f f i c i a l f u n c t i o n of government; i n any  case i t i s the p r e v a i l -  i n g p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y which e x e r c i s e s  the f u n c t i o n .  Does  c r i m i n a l i t y , then, r e f e r t o s t a t e s of disagreement w i t h c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t y or t o forms of behaviour? In commenting upon the former i d e a , V o i d  observes "Under such a view, crime  can have no more u n i v e r s a l i t y or c o n s i s t e n c y  of meaning than 4  the u n c e r t a i n ,  f l u c t u a t i n g opinions  of p o l i t i c a l m a j o r i t i e s . "  I f the behaviour i t s e l f i s thought t o be c r i m i n a l , ome  intrinsically  w i l l be i n d i f f i c u l t y attempting t o a r t i c u l a t e  s p e c i f i c a l l y what k i n d of behaviour i s c r i m i n a l . achieving  consensus even i n a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l  The  hope of  jurisdiction  appears remote. V o i d a l s o asks the p r o v o c a t i v e  questions —"Does  person become a c r i m i n a l a t the time of the only when, and  i f , the  crime i s d i s c o v e r e d  perhaps only when c o n v i c t e d under due The  criminal act? and  reported?  the Or Or  process procedure?"  problem of d e f i n i t i o n i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o - c a l l e d " w h i t e - c o l l a r " c r i m i n a l s . These are  s a i d t o c o n s t i t u t e a group seldom i d e n t i f i e d  as o f f e n d e r s ,  who  enjoy p o s i t i o n s of p r e s t i g e i n t h e i r  communities and whose a c t s are r e s p o n s i b l e to t h e i r victims 4.  Void,  5.  Ibid.  formally  f o r much l a r g e r l o s s  ( g e n e r a l l y the community as a whole) than are  George B.,  Op.  C i t . , p.  267.  - 5 the depredations  of b u r g l a r s and holdpup men.  6  Sutherland  d e f i n e d t h i s phenomenon as "a v i o l a t i o n of c r i m i n a l law by a person of the upper socio-economic  c l a s s i n the course of h i s  7 occupational a c t i v i t i e s . "  On the other hand, v a r i o u s  s c h o l a r s have argued a g a i n s t the a p p l i c a t i o n of the term, "crime",  t o what i s , i n e f f e c t , commonplace business  Burgess,  f o r example, commenting on Hartung's a n a l y s i s of  p r a c t i c e s i n the D e t r o i t wholesale  practice.  meat i n d u s t r y , c a l l e d f o r a  d i s t i n c t i o n "between crimes r e c o g n i z e d by law f o r g e n e r a t i o n s and  disapproved  of by the mores  (and) new  o f f e n c e s as the  r e s u l t o f r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n or r e g u l a t i o n s by government agencies—." V o i d observes  t h a t "there i s an obvious and b a s i c  i n c o n g r u i t y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a  community's 9  l e a d e r s and more r e s p o n s i b l e elements are a l s o i t s c r i m i n a l s . " T h i s seems t o l e n d credence  t o the i d e a of a double  standard.  A l Capone, r e f e r r i n g to p o l i t i c a l and  corporation frauds, i s 10 quoted as d e s c r i b i n g these as "the l e g i t i m a t e r a c k e t s " 6. See, e.g.,Cohen,Albert, A l f r e d Lindesmith and K a r l S c h u e s s l e r , e d s . , "Crime of C o r p o r a t i o n s " , The Sutherland Papers, Bloomington, Ind., Indiana Univ. Press, 1956, p.78 f f ; S u t h e r l a n d , E.H., "White C o l l a r C r i m i n a l i t y " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Feb.1940, p. 1-12. 7. S u t h e r l a n d , E.H. "Crime and Business", The Annals of the American Academy of P o l , and Soc. S c i e n c e , Sept. 1941. p. 112. &.  Burgess, E.W., "Comment", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, J u l y 1950, pp. 32-33.  9.  V o i d , op. c i t . ,  p.  253.  10. S u t h e r l a n d , E.H.-, "White C o l l a r C r i m i n a l i t y " , o p . c i t . p . 3.  - 6 i n c o n t r a s t t o the r a c k e t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e c o g n i z e d underworld.  Barnes and T e e t e r s  express the view t h a t the  convicted  c r i m i n a l s a r e , f o r the most p a r t , r e l a t i v e l y  petty  offenders  t o o i n e f f e c t u a l t o escape d e t e c t i o n and c o n v i c t i o n .  11  I t i s not the purpose o f t h i s present examination to presume t o e s t a b l i s h a d e f i n i t i o n of the c r i m i n a l which might hope to win consensus.  The f o r e g o i n g w i l l have served i t s  purpose i f i t has i l l u s t r a t e d the f a c t t h a t a u n i v e r s a l , or even common, understanding of who i s c r i m i n a l i s a piece o f f i c t i o n , and t h a t each attempt a t d e f i n i t i o n seems t o i n t r o d u c e new p r o l i f e r a t i o n s o f the q u e s t i o n .  Obviously,  i n any  examination r e q u i r i n g a d e f i n i t i o n of the c r i m i n a l , one w i l l need t o e s t a b l i s h h i s own a r b i t r a r y l i m i t s f o r t h e purpose o f the  study, without presuming t o be a b s o l u t e The  present  study w i l l  i n his definition.  concern i t s e l f w i t h t h a t  of t h e c r i m i n a l group r e f e r r e d t o as r e c i d i v i s t s . designation  of c r i m i n a l w i l l have r e f e r e n c e  The  t o those persons  who, h a v i n g been t r i e d i n a c o u r t o f law, have been of an offence and have i n c u r r e d a p e n a l t y .  portion  This  convicted  admittedly  a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y excludes moral and mental or emotional s t a t e s or a t t i t u d e s as the c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i a of c r i m i n a l i t y , although t h e i r p e r t i n e n c e 12 the c r i m i n a l i s r e c o g n i z e d .  t o an understanding of  11.  Barnes, Harry Elmer, and Negley K. T e e t e r s , Mew Horizons i n Criminology, 3 r d ed., Englewood C l i f f s , N.H., P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1959.  12.  F o r a u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s see Cormier, Bruno M. e t a l . , " P r e s e n t a t i o n of a Basic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n C r i m i n a l i t y " , Canadian Jour, of C o r r e c t i o n s , J u l y 1959, p. 21, f f .  - 7 When I s a C r i m i n a l a R e c i d i v i s t ? The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s a r e c i d i v i s t as "one who r e l a p s e s i n t o crime."  The concept i s one which  combines c r i m i n a l a c t s w i t h r e p e t i t i o n .  Although t h e r e a r e  v a r i a t i o n s i n d e f i n i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o emphasis, t h i s term does not seem t o pose t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s i l l u s t r a t e d above.  Problems do a r i s e , however, when the v a l i d i t y of the  concept i s probed and when q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d concerning the a e t i o l o g y and the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e c i d i v i s t . Some of these matters w i l l form t h e substance of the succeeding two c h a p t e r s . Cormier notes t h a t "the common f a c t o r i n a l l d e f i n i t i o n s i s t h a t a r e c i d i v i s t i s a n o f f e n d e r who commits 13 more than one i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e . "  I n p r a c t i c e , even those  who commit n o n - i n d i c t a b l e ( g e n e r a l l y l e s s s e r i o u s ) o f f e n c e s are c l a s s e d as r e c i d i v i s t s i f they a r e c o n v i c t e d r e p e a t e d l y . Thus the Archambault  Commission d e c l a r e s " R e c i d i v i s t s may be  d i v i d e d i n t o three c l a s s e s :  (a) i n e b r i a t e s , vagrants and 14  beggars;  (b) young r e c i d i v i s t s ; and (c) confirmed r e c i d i v i s t s " .  T h i s i s a heterogenous  c o l l e c t i o n w i t h no b a s i s f o r comparison  a s i d e from t h a t of repeated i n c a r c e r a t i o n . 13. I b i d . , p. 30. 14. Report of t h e Royal Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e Penal System of Canada. Archambault, Ottawa, The King's P r i n t e r , 1938, p. 211.  - 8 The simple f a c t  of r e p e t i t i o n o f crimes might be  thought t o warrant i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c o n t r a r y , however, r e c i d i v i s t  as a r e c i d i v i s t .  On the  s t a t i s t i c s have t o do w i t h the  i n c i d e n c e o f repeated committals t o penal i n s t i t u t i o n s . Canada a d i s t i n c t i o n  i s commonly made between those whose  p r e v i o u s imprisonment federal prison.  In  o c c u r r e d i n a p e n i t e n t i a r y or i n a non-  Cormier observes t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h i s  p r a c t i c e s e r v e s no u s e f u l purpose i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  o f f e n d e r , i t i s undoubtedly intended t o convey t h e degree  of s e r i o u s n e s s which a t t a c h e s t o t h e r e c i d i v i s t  record.  The  assumption i s t h a t t h e " p e n i t e n t i a r y r e c i d i v i s t " must be more r o o t e d i n crime o r e l s e he would have r e c e i v e d the l e s s e r 15 p r i s o n sentence.  T h i s i s a p r e c a r i o u s assumption.  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Penal and P e n i t e n t i a r y Foundation takes a detached and d e s c r i p t i v e view o f t h e concept of recidivism.  I n a r e p o r t i t observes t h a t "...the  of r e c i d i v i s m i s o b j e c t i v e , b e l o n g i n g to the f i e l d  criterion o f grouping  w h i l e t h a t o f h a b i t u a l delinquency i s s u b j e c t i v e and belongs 16 t o the f i e l d  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . "  T h i s view agrees w i t h the  penal a d m i n i s t r a t o r s * usage which was r e p o r t e d by M o r r i s i n connection w i t h h i s review of t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Congress  on C r i m i n o l o g y i n London. T h i s Congress was devoted t o an 15. Cormier, op. c i t . , pp. 30-31. 16.  Modern Methods of Penal Treatment. I.P.P. Foundation mono. ( P u b l i s h e r and date not given) p. 70.  - 9 examination  of r e c i d i v i s m .  d i s t i n g u i s h between " f i r s t  M o r r i s p o i n t e d out t h a t wardens t i m e r s " and " r e c i d i v i s t s " , t h e  l a t t e r s i g n i f y i n g simply "one who, b e i n g i n p r i s o n , has been 17 there before."  This,then, i s purely a s t a t i s t i c a l  concept  having n o t h i n g whatsoever t o do w i t h the person o f the o f f e n d e r nor w i t h h i s behaviour, but simply w i t h t h e occurrence of m u l t i p l e i n c a r c e r a t i o n s .  A computer which i s f e d the  a p p r o p r i a t e simple data i s capable of t e l l i n g whether a person i s a r e c i d i v i s t o r not, a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s pragmatic and widespread usage. F r e q u e n t l y , however, r e c i d i v i s m i s p e r c e i v e d as somet h i n g other than a s t a t i s t i c a l concept. p e r c e p t i o n s assume c r u c i a l importance  These other  because o f t h e i r  i n e x o r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon p o l i c y and penal p r a c t i c e . Oxford s c h o l a r i s quoted  thus: "A r e c i d i v i s t  who n e i t h e r mends h i s ways spontaneously  An  i s the o f f e n d e r  nor l e a r n s t o a v o i d  d e t e c t i o n , and who i s n e i t h e r d e t e r r e d by the experience of c o n v i c t i o n nor reformed by- any o f the methods i n the c o u r t s ' 18 repertoire."  M o r r i s observed  i n h i s r e p o r t t h a t "there was  a wide divergence o f o p i n i o n as t o t h e meaning of the term r e c i d i v i s m " . . . . a n d t h a t there tended t o be consensus " t h a t one who continues t o commit crimes a f t e r h i s f i r s t 17.  conviction  M o r r i s , Charles V., "The T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on Criminology", F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . Washington, March, 1956, p. 49.  18. Cross, Rupert, " P r e v e n t i v e D e t e n t i o n " , The L i s t e n e r . London, B.B.C., March 26, 1964, p. 507.  - 10 i s dangerous."  19  -  F e c k l e s s n e s s and  by such statements, as  significant  dangerousness are  deposited,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  recidivists. Against  the premises u n d e r l y i n g these n o t i o n s  ranged an a r r a y of theory,  o p i n i o n and  e m p i r i c a l data which  w i l l be examined i n some d e t a i l l a t e r . has  P r o f e s s o r Weihofen  drawn a t t e n t i o n t o what i s obvious to students  behaviour; of v a l u e  are  of human  namely, t h a t "the s e r i o u s n e s s of a crime i s a matter  judgement" and 20  standard."  t h a t ..."there i s no u n i v e r s a l  H i s statement may  c a r r y g r e a t e r impace when i t  i s noted t h a t Weihofen speaks not as an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t but a scholar i n The  law.  popular press d a i l y i l l u s t r a t e s some of the  dilemmas i n h e r e n t i n those  d e f i n i t i o n s of r e c i d i v i s m which 21  exceed t h a t of s t a t i s t i c a l i n c i d e n c e . c a r r i e d three separate first  as  One  newspaper page  news items i n immediate sequence.  t o l d of a 55-year-old  l a b o u r e r who  was  "broke and  The cold"  and threw a s o f t d r i n k b o t t l e through a s t o r e window " t o t r y for a j a i l  term t o see him  t o p r i s o n f o r t h r e e months.  over t o s p r i n g " . The  He was  sentenced  second s t o r y r e p o r t e d  the  f i n i n g of a woman c o n v i c t e d of impaired d r i v i n g . In a d d i t i o n 19. M o r r i s , op. c i t . , p. 49-50. 20. Weihofen, Henry, " R e t r i b u t i o n I s Obsolete", N.P.P.A. News. New York, N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n and P a r o l e Assoc. (NPPA) Jan. I960, p. 2. 21. The  Vancouver Sun,  Jan. 12,  I960, p.  7.  - 11  -  to the $125.  f i n e she was  months.  f i n a l item came from P a r i s and  The  p r o h i b i t e d from d r i v i n g f o r told  three  how  " T h i r t y s h i v e r i n g tramps gave themselves up t o p o l i c e , seeki n g a r r e s t on minor charges so they could f i n d s h e l t e r i n warm p r i s o n s " .  No M a g i s t r a t e ' s  Court and  no l o c a l  p r o v i n c i a l p r i s o n i n Canada i s unaware of the described  i n the P a r i s r e l e a s e .  months l a t e r , r e p o r t e d  The  life  The  man  Stanley  reeve.  Grill" man  A psychiatric  s e r i o u s mental problem a p a r t was  who  L a t e r the same year a  of a municipal  r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d .."no alcoholism".  one  the s i x t y - d a y sentence of a man  ...."so he c o u l d go to j a i l . " the  phenomenon  same newspaper,  admitted " f r a u d u l e n t l y o b t a i n i n g food from the 22  threatened  or  from  r e l e a s e d under a $500. bond t o 23  "keep the peace" f o r one The  year.  f o r e g o i n g accounts do not  except i n s o f a r as the i m p o s i t i o n whether i t i s the f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y of the  of a p r i s o n sentence,  such sentence or not,  were imprisoned might be  The  the  fecklessness  of those  conceded, although i t seems  dangerous t o so l a b e l people simply indigent.  introduces  o f f e n d e r ' s becoming e l i g i b l e f o r  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a r e c i d i v i s t . who  concern r e c i d i v i s m  because they happen to  C e r t a i n l y they do not appear to have posed  k i n d of dangerous t h r e a t to others which c h a r a c t e r i z e d 22. I b i d . , Feb. 15, I960. 23. I b i d . , May 17, I960.  the the  be  - 12 impaired d r i v e r and the would-be homocide, both of whom r e c e i v e d sentences which c o u l d not i n i t i a t e nor add to t h e i r s t a t u s as  recidivists.  S e v e r a l other judgments i l l u m i n e Weihofen*s a s s e r t i o n t h a t the s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which a s p e c i f i c o f f e n c e i s viewed 24 " . . . w i l l depend upon the c u l t u r a l premises of the An Ottawa County Court Judge suspended member of Parliament who  sentence on a former  had been found g u i l t y of a c c e p t i n g a  $10,000. b r i b e w h i l e h o l d i n g o f f i c e .  In e x p l a i n i n g h i s  judgment the Judge s a i d of the o f f e n d e r "He was take t h i s o f f e r because  judge."  driven to  of the inadequate remuneration of  members of P a r l i a m e n t " (at the time remuneration was p l u s $2,000. i n tax-exempt expenses).  The judge i s f u r t h e r  r e p o r t e d as s a y i n g t h a t i t would be an i n s u l t to MPs 25 the o f f e n d e r . how  One  $8,000.  to  jail  i s c o n s t r a i n e d t o observe, p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y ,  r o u t i n e l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of inadequate income and of  p o t e n t i a l l y impaired s o c i a l s t a n d i n g are r e j e c t e d w i t h contempt by c o u r t s t r y i n g cases of l e s s n o t o r i e t y .  The  subsequent 26  r e v e r s a l of sentence by the O n t a r i o Appeal Court,  and  the  concurrence of the Supreme Court of Canada i n g r a n t i n g a f i v e year p r i s o n term, does not d i m i n i s h the f a c t t h a t a judge i n the n a t i o n * s c a p i t o l c o n s i d e r e d i t e n t i r e l y proper t o exonerate a person v i o l a t i n g p u b l i c t r u s t , s o l e l y because 24. Weihofen, op. c i t . , p. 2. 25. The Vancouver Sun, June 28, 1962. 26. I b i d . , Nov. 4, 1963.  he  - 13 had been a member of Parliament.  A n n u a l l y American b i g  business has i t s e l f a u d i t e d f o r i n t e r n a l d i s h o n e s t y , and i t s r e s u l t i n g p o r t r a i t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y uncomplimentary. Norman Jaspan "who  In  1958  heads a f i r m t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e s company  shortages" r e p o r t e d t h a t " T h e f t by t r u s t e d employees i s 27 c o s t i n g American b u s i n e s s a t l e a s t $4,000,000. a  day".  It  i s commonly r e p o r t e d by business f i r m s t h a t , f o r reasons  of  p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and o t h e r s , they seldom r e p o r t i n t e r n a l  f r a u d or t h e f t . Ira  T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the statement  of  C. Chaney, a u d i t o r of a San F r a n c i s c o bank, t h a t " I n the  fiscal  year ended June 30, 1962,  the FBI i n v e s t i g a t e d 2,262 28  cases of embezzlement i n v o l v i n g $13,435,000."  Obviously,  t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y those cases brought t o p o l i c e Presumably t h i s type of o f f e n c e i s no more  attention.  completely  i d e n t i f i e d and e x p l o r e d than are the more p a l p a b l e " s t r e e t " o f f e n c e s , only a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of which a r e ever s u b j e c t to police  intervention. In  h i s study of s o - c a l l e d "white  collar  crime",  S u t h e r l a n d e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i v e l y f a v o u r a b l e treatment the company d e f r a u d e r as due t o the f o l l o w i n g . o f f e n d i n g o f f i c i a l belongs  of  (1) the  t o the same s o c i a l c l a s s as the  judges and the employer. (2) The a l l e g e d trend away from punishment. (3) Resentment a g a i n s t w h i t e - c o l l a r e x p l o i t a t i o n i s not o r g a n i z e d and i s i n e f f e c t i v e . 27. I b i d . , May 6, 1958 28. I b i d . , Mar. 26, 1963  He makes the t e l l i n g , i f any,  - 14 p o i n t t h a t pickpockets f i n a l reference  do not  c o n t r o l newspapers.  29  A  appears h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o a d i s c u s s i o n of  the r e l a t i v i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s our o f f i c i a l a c t i o n s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s when we law.  confronted  w i t h breaches of the  A Toronto judge a c q u i t t e d the 6 l - y e a r - o l d r e c t o r of an  Anglican The  are  and  church of i n d e c e n t l y a s s a u l t i n g a 14-year-old  p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n c o r r e c t or even of a m a l i c i o u s  i s r e a l i n any  such s i t u a t i o n .  The  court would need to  boy. charge be  s a t i s f i e d of the v a l i d i t y of the charge, beyond the shadow of a doubt, before  coming t o a v e r d i c t of g u i l t y .  The  p a r t of the Canadian Press r e p o r t i s t h a t the judge  surprising explained  h i s d i s m i s s a l of the charge - not because of l a c k of evidence but  "...because of doubt about whether the boy had  consented  30  t o the Canon's a c t i o n s . "  The  laws governing t h i s type of  behaviour i n Canada c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h an offence whether t h e r e i s consent or not,  even i f both p a r t i e s are  consenting  adults.  Other c o u r t s have imposed s u b s t a n t i a l p r i s o n sentences f o r soc a l l e d "indecent  a s s a u l t s " between consenting  a d u l t males.  When young c h i l d r e n are i n v o l v e d , as i n the case c i t e d , p e n a l t i e s are g e n e r a l l y made more severe and the a d u l t i s commonly s u b j e c t e d  the  offending  to the most e x c o r i a t i n g  judicial  declamation, whether the c h i l d was a w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t or not. 29. Sutherland, E.H. 'White C o l l a r Crime. New York, Dryden Press, 1949, chaps. 7-8. 30. The Vancouver Sun, May 6, 1964, p. 15.  - 15  -  I t appears, then, t h a t business men, appointed p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s , and  others who  the esteem of the more e l i t e p a r t of the notably  l e s s vulnerable  offences  p u b l i c t r u s t and  normally enjoy  community may  be  than others when they commit t h e i r  or t h e i r l e s s e r p e c a d i l l o e s .  amount of the p r o p e r t y  e l e c t e d or  l o s s , the  confidence  Obviously  seriousness  neither  of e r o s i o n  the to  i n government i n t e g r i t y , nor  the  p o s s i b l e impairment of the moral and/or mental h e a l t h of a c h i l d can be assumed t o be sure i n d i c e s of dangerous t h r e a t s t o the p u b l i c good, norms which a u t o m a t i c a l l y o f f e n d e r as f i t f o r p r i s o n and l a t e r , f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n On the  designate  thus a candidate,  now  the  or  "recidivist".  other hand, the behaviour of some who  do  r e c e i v e p r i s o n sentences appears t o be n e i t h e r c o s t l y nor harmful t o the community.  The  a u t o m a t i c a l l y puts the o f f e n d e r  imposition  of a p r i s o n sentence  i n l i n e f o r d e s i g n a t i o n as a  r e c i d i v i s t , or, i n the event of a second or subsequent p r i s o n term, makes him  a c r i m i n a l who  is a  recidivist.  Notwithstanding some of the q u a l i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d i n wholesale f a s h i o n t o the r e c i d i v i s t i c o f f e n d e r , c a s u a l a n a l y s i s of r e l e v a n t  even the most  data provokes s e r i o u s  reservations  about endowing the r e c i d i v i s t w i t h q u a l i t a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s . A l l t h a t seems c e r t a i n i s t h a t he i s a person who,  upon  c o n v i c t i o n of an o f f e n c e , has r e c e i v e d the sentence of prisonment on more than one  occasion.  The  im-  recidivist is a  - 16 person who has been apprehended, c o n v i c t e d , i n s t i t u t i o n regardless  and sent t o an  o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n f l u e n c e d the court i n i t s d i s p o s i t i o n .  which may have  The term, recidivist},,  r e f e r s b a s i c a l l y and most r e l i a b l y t o the f a c t of repeated i n c a r c e r a t i o n s r a t h e r than t o some dynamic process  occurring  w i t h i n the offender. Some F u n c t i o n a l  Consequences o f the R e c i d i v i s t L a b e l .  Although the term r e c i d i v i s t i s not a j u d i c i a l one, i t does assume great  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  penal system b e g i n n i n g w i t h the s e n t e n c i n g p r o c e s s .  o f the The  R.C.M. P o l i c e r e f l e c t a not uncommon view of the r e c i d i v i s t . In an o f f i c i a l  p u b l i c a t i o n i t described  as c o n s i s t i n g of "(a)  prison  populations  the a c c i d e n t a l or o c c a s i o n a l c r i m i n a l ;  (b) the reformable c r i m i n a l ; (c) the h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l " . The first  two c a t e g o r i e s  vention,  a r e thought t o r e q u i r e minimal i n t e r -  b u t "...the h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l has earned the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n c o r r i g i b l e . . . " and "should be  confined  31 indefinitely.."  I t i s f a i r t o i n f e r from the context t h a t  a r e c i d i v i s t would g e n e r a l l y be thought t o be a l s o an "habitual criminal". In another s e c t i o n the p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s attempted t o suggest what might be done t o reduce environmental causes of crime.  " F i r s t l e t us endorse the s e g r e g a t i o n  o f those  h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s who l i v e from the t o i l of l a w - a b i d i n g 31. Law and Order i n Canadian Democracy: Crime and P o l i c e Work i n Canada. (Rev.1952), Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , p. 118.  - 17 s o c i e t y and i n s t i l  c r i m i n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s i n the r e c e p t i v e 32  minds of the young."  Acknowledging the a d o l e s c e n t  p r o c l i v i t y t o hero worship and t h e p o s s i b l e a t t r a c t i o n o f the c r i m i n a l f o r youth, the p o l i c e reasoned t h a t i f t h e o p p o s i t i o n were s a f e l y behind w a l l s the p o l i c e c o u l d occupy the "hero" r o l e t o the g r e a t advantage of a l l :  Disregarding  the p a t e n t l y s u p e r f i c i a l and unwarranted assumptions, these statements a t l e a s t make i t e v i d e n t t h a t , as f a r as the p o l i c e f o r c e of t h i s country  i s concerned, the r e c i d i v i s t  has v i r t u a l l y f o r f e i t e d h i s r i g h t t o l i b e r t y BY VIRTUE OF HIS RECIDIVIST STATUS. I t might appear i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o those r e a r e d the t r a d i t i o n s o f B r i t i s h j u s t i c e t h a t a person's  within  civil  l i b e r t i e s could s u f f e r abridgement because of previous j u d i c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n s which had been s a t i s f i e d .  T h i s might  be understood as a convenience d e s i r e d by p o l i c e f o r c e s whose f u n c t i o n s a r e p r i m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e t e c t i o n and apprehension of o f f e n d e r s and not with the safeguarding of c i v i l l i b e r t i e s . l e n d t h e i r support  When the j u d i c i a r y and the l e g i s l a t o r s to t h i s process  there i s good cause f o r  concern. Again the popular a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s .  p r e s s r e f l e c t s commonplace I n 1959 a Vancouver  magistrate  sentenced two young c a r t h i e v e s t o s i x months i n p r i s o n . He had r e q u i r e d a pre-sentence r e p o r t on each of t h e accused; 32. I b i d . , p. 92.  - 18 both reports were favourable.  The magistrate said he chose  his disposition" .. .because they had previous criminal 33 1  records".  On the other hand, a man  convicted under the  Narcotics Control Act, f o r i l l e g a l possession of narcotics, "..got a break i n police court...because record."  he had no previous  Sometimes devotion to the p r i n c i p l e of favouring  the allegedly f i r s t offender over the r e c i d i v i s t produces surprising anomalies.  A vagrant, convicted of stealing eight  t r a n s i s t o r radios, was  given a two-year penitentiary sentence  a f t e r the magistrate was t o l d that the offender had served 35 previous sentences i n Oakalla Prison. the same magistrate found another man $950. from a bank by f a l s e pretences.  The following month g u i l t y of obtaining In t h i s case, where the  economic loss was greater and the method demanded more c r a f t and forethought, the magistrate imposed a suspended sentence 36 "..because the accused had no previous criminal record". Commenting j u d i c i a l l y i n the course of a judgment, one magistrate observed "A man  i s not to be t r i e d again f o r his  past record, but i t must be considered and taken into 37 account."  He was the same magistrate who  two cases c i t e d immediately  above.  presided over the  One may be pardoned f o r  wondering whether the p r i n c i p l e of not trying a person on his 33. Vancouver Sun, Nov. 34. Ibid., Sept. 20,  17,  1961.  35. Ibid., Jan. 19, I960. 36. Ibid., Feb. 29, I960.  1959.  - 19 past r e c o r d was  b e i n g honoured at the v e r b a l l e v e l while  being  denied a t the more c r i t i c a l p o i n t of a p p l i c a t i o n . In an address  on s e n t e n c i n g , a s o l i c i t o r  A l b e r t a A t t o r n e y General's  of the  Department touched upon the  s e n t e n c i n g of p e r s i s t e n t o f f e n d e r s . a b l e t o undergo normal sentences  T  He r e p o r t e d them as  "..  s t a n d i n g on t h e i r heads*"  38 and d e c l a r e d t h a t " . . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s wasted" on them. . The  presumption i s t h a t " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " was  attempted.  Anderson's statement i s r e m i n i s c e n t of a passage from the Gladstone  Report which was  p u b l i s h e d inlCngland i n 1895•  Speaking of r e p e t i t i v e o f f e n d e r s the Report says "To  punish  them f o r the p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n c e i n which they are d e t e c t e d i s almost u s e l e s s ....The r e a l offence i s THE WILFUL PERSISTENCE  39 ..."  L a r g e l y as a consequence of the  Gladstone  recommendations, the form of sentence known as d e t e n t i o n " was  provided i n s t a t u t e .  provide p r i m a r i l y f o r the prolonged  "preventive  B r i e f l y , such s t a t u t e s d e t e n t i o n of the  offender  as a means of p r o t e c t i n g the p u b l i c , r a t h e r than as a punishment or as a means of c o r r e c t i n g the o f f e n d e r . U n t i l 1946  no p a r t of the C r i m i n a l Code of Canada  a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o an h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l category. S e c t i o n s 1052 recidivist.  and 1053  had some r e l e v a n c e , however, f o r the  S e c t i o n 1052  p r o v i d e d t h a t "Every person c o n v i c t -  ed of an i n d i c t a b l e offence f o r which no punishment i s 38. Anderson, J.W., Sentencing:Some S o c i a l and L e g a l I s s u e s . Calgary, John Howard S o c i e t y of A l b e r t a , 1962, p. 8. 39. Quoted i n Cross, Rupert, " P r e v e n t i v e D e t e n t i o n " , op. c i t . , p. 507.  - 20  -  s p e c i f i c a l l y provided, s h a l l be l i a b l e t o imprisonment f o r f i v e years."  S e c t i o n 1053  provided t h a t "Everyone who  c o n v i c t e d of an i n d i c t a b l e offence not punishable w i t h committed a f t e r a p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n f o r an  is death  indictable  offence i s l i a b l e t o imprisonment f o r ten y e a r s , u n l e s s some other punishment i s d i r e c t e d by any s t a t u t e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r offence."  Although  these p r o v i s i o n s made the  r e c i d i v i s t s u b j e c t t o a p o s s i b l e d o u b l i n g of h i s  sentence,  he might be p r o t e c t e d from the a d d i t i o n a l p e n a l t y i f he  had  the f o r e s i g h t t o commit an offence f o r which there e x i s t e d a l e s s e r p r e s c r i b e d maximum p e n a l t y .  I n t h i s case  the  court would be powerless t o p e n a l i z e him f o r b e i n g a recidivist. Since 1946,  amendments to the C r i m i n a l Code have  p r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n of a category of o f f e n d e r s known as " h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s " .  S e c t i o n 659 d e f i n e s the  "preventive  d e t e n t i o n " sentence as " d e t e n t i o n i n a p e n i t e n t i a r y f o r an 40 indeterminate  period".  T h i s v i r t u a l l y makes the adjudged  h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s u b j e c t e i t h e r to i n c a r c e r a t i o n or t o p a r o l e s u r v e i l l a n c e f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e .  In c o n t r a s t ,  the B r i t i s h p r o v i s i o n f o r p r e v e n t i v e d e t e n t i o n p e r m i t t e d a minimum sentence of f i v e years and a maximum of f o u r t e e n years. ing  the s o - c a l l e d h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l .  Revised 40.  The S t a t e of Washington a l s o has l e g i s l a t i o n  affect-  Chapter 9.95*040  Code of Washington provides f o r "mandatory  (3),  life  C o r r e c t i o n a l Research, B u l l e t i n #7, "What*s New I n Sentencing?", Boston, United P r i s o n Assoc. of Mass., Oct. 1957, p. 10.  - 21 imprisonment f o r such h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s , the d u r a t i o n of confinement s h a l l not be f i x e d a t l e s s than f i f t e e n y e a r s " . P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r p a r o l e a f t e r the mandatory f i f t e e n years i n p r i s o n , but t h e l i f e  sentence, as i n the case o f  Canada, makes f u l l l i b e r t y impossible except  by an order of  e x e c u t i v e clemency. It  i s arguable  t h a t those o f f e n d e r s coming under the  h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l p r o v i s i o n s a r e more than merely r e c i d i v i s t s inasmuch as t h e i r p r e v i o u s o f f e n c e s must have been i n d i c t a b l e and s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n p e n a l t i e s .  The American d i s t i n c t i o n  between misdemeanours and f e l o n i e s i s reasonably to  comparable  t h e one we make i n Canada between i n d i c t a b l e and non-  i n d i c t a b l e offences.  Thus, C a l i f o r n i a law r e q u i r e s t h a t  p r o s e c u t i o n and sentencing take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n p r i o r f e l o n i e s which may have consequences f o r t h e c o u r t ' s d i s position.  Whether f o r m a l l y or i n f o r m a l l y the same k i n d of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f past r e c o r d s occurs elsewhere a s e a r l i e r references indicate.  I n h i s review of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  crime f o r the E n c y c l o p e d i a of Criminology,  Pihlblad  i l l u s t r a t e d and r e f e r r e d t o "...the meaningless nature of 41 the d i s t i n c t i o n between misdemeanour and f e l o n y " .  Quite  a s i d e from judgments as t o the r e l a t i v e s e r i o u s n e s s of any given a c t , however, t h e r e remains the f a c t t h a t some o f f e n d e r s , 41. P i h l b l a d , C.T., " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Crime", Encyclopedia of Criminology. New York, P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1949.  - 22 -  l i k e the t r a n s i s t o r radio t h i e f , receive prison  sentences,  whereas others, l i k e the indiscreet Anglican rector or the man who defrauded the bank of $950., do not receive prison sentences although the l a t t e r offenders would have been subject to even longer  sentences.  Just l i k e school children who do poorly i n I.Q. tests or i n the "eleven plus" examinations i n England, i t becomes next to impossible f o r the r e c i d i v i s t t o have himself perceived apart from his l a b e l .  The s t a t i s t i c a l " f i n d i n g "  prints a tag so large and i n d e l i b l e that i t overshadows performance, either actual or possible. I l l i n o i s reformatory had grasped t h i s .  An adolescent i n an During an interview  the boy, known as "Baseball", said i n a sense of f u t i l i t y , "Oh, h e l l , I a i n ' t condemnin' nobody.  I t ' s just the idea  that i f anybody t r i e s to help you they w i l l help you only onc't.  I f you f o u l up, you're done; they don't give you no  more chance.  They t a l k big, a l l them people that are supposed 42  to help, but mostly they only t a l k . "  From the context i t  was evident that "Baseball" was made to f e e l hopeless not by some statute nor by a judge, but by what he perceived as a s u p e r f i c i a l and s h o r t - l i v e d interest i n his well-being on the part of those i d e n t i f i e d with the "helping professions." 42. O'Connor, Len, They Talked to a Stranger. St. Martin's Press, 1959, p. 81.  New York,  - 23 I t would appear t h a t t h e r e l a p s e of t h e r e c i d i v i s t , a p a r t from i t s s u b j e c t i v e meaning f o r h i m s e l f , d e c l a r e s previous imperfection  tacitly  o f f i c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n imperfect.  Since  i s d i f f i c u l t f o r f u n c t i o n a r i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l  people t o admit i n themselves, i t seems not unreasonable to hypothesize  t h a t the r e c i d i v i s t t r i g g e r s o f f d e n i a l and  p r o j e c t i o n mechanisms i n those who must deal w i t h him. The net r e s u l t i s t h a t the r e c i d i v i s t l a b e l tends t o r e l i e v e others o f any moral, l e g a l o r s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n on b e h a l f of the person under the l a b e l . The Why and How of t h i s Study. The Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s of the United  Nations  some years ago i d e n t i f i e d the use of t h e indeterminate sentence as a problem i n s o c i a l p o l i c y s u f f i c i e n t l y  43 important t o warrant a s p e c i a l study. ed such questions  as "Who may r e c e i v e an  I t s inquiry includindeterminate  sentence, and under what r u l e s ? " , and "Do the c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g such s e n t e n c i n g p r a c t i c e s conform t o 'ordinary c r i m i n a l law* as a g a i n s t s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s a p p l y i n g , f o r example, t o p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s ? " sought some estimate  F i n a l l y , the survey  o f the p o s s i b l e advantages and d i s -  advantages of the use o f t h i s type o f d i s p o s i t i o n . The  i n q u i r i e s were made of t h i r t e e n European c o u n t r i e s ,  f o u r i n L a t i n America, the United S t a t e s , I n d i a , Japan, New 43. United Nations, The Indeterminate Sentence. New York, U.N. Dep't. of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1954, (ST/SOA/SD/2),  - 24 Zealand, and f o u r c o u n t r i e s i n the Middle E a s t .  In a d d i t i o n ,  c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d i n Canada, A r g e n t i n a , Germany, Spain, Sweden, the U.S.S.R., and the French Centre of Comparative a n t i c i p a t e d the absence  Law.  One might have  of c l e a r consensus  i n the r e p o r t .  What i s r e i t e r a t e d i s the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " s i n c e the end of the l a s t c e n t u r y " c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a t u r e and c o n t r o v e r s y has been produced t h a t i t was  on the type of sentence under review, and  c l e a r t h a t the concept of c r i m i n a l law i t  r e p r e s e n t s p e r s i s t s as a problem, both academic and  real.  R e c i d i v i s m can be seen t o have -intimate a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the problem  i d e n t i f i e d by the U n i t e d Nations study when i t i s  noted t h a t almost i n v a r i a b l y the indeterminate sentence i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon some r e p e t i t i v e h i s t o r y of o f f e n d i n g . A j u s t i c e of the Michigan Supreme Court has  observed  t h a t r e p e a t i n g o f f e n d e r s c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t s i n g l e  group  i n penal i n s t i t u t i o n s .  he  In commenting about t h i s group  s a i d "The a s p e c t s of t h i s problem about are i t s s i z e and  e a s i e s t t o be  i t s importance  certain  to s o c i e t y .  The t o t a l c o s t of crime i s e s t i m a t e d a t twenty  billion  44 d o l l a r s a year."  Obviously r e p e t i t i v e crime i s tremendously  c o s t l y i n both human and f i s c a l terms.  The t r u e c o s t s are  v i r t u a l l y beyond p r e c i s e c a l c u l a t i o n and knowledge, but even c o n s e r v a t i v e l y c a l c u l a t e d c o s t s f a r exceed the combined 44. Edwards, George, " V e r d i c t : G u i l t y - Now NPPA News, Mar. I960, p. 1.  What?"  - 25 p u b l i c a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and e d u c a t i o n . As one o f f i c i a l Annual Report succeeds another, t h e i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t the costs become i n c r e a s i n g l y heavy. The p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work i s committed enhancing of human l i f e  i n society.  to the  D e s p i t e i t s sometimes  exaggerated p r e o c c u p a t i o n with minutiae o f p a r t i c u l a r "methods", i t s concerns ( i n e x o r a b l y push s o c i a l work t o c o n s i d e r a broad range of p u b l i c p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e  because  of t h e i r r e l e v a n c e f o r the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and of the community a t l a r g e .  P o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s which, i n the  case of r e c i d i v i s t s , a f f e c t l a r g e numbers of people  directly  and i n d i r e c t l y i n the most c r u c i a l ways, and which may  have  s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the n a t i o n s a b i l i t y to deploy i t s economic r e s o u r c e s t o b e s t s o c i a l advantage, must s u r e l y have a v a l i d c l a i m upon the p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work. Social'Work, indeed, may  have more t h a n o r d i n a r y  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e t e n t i o n and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l p o l i c i e s designed f o r the h a n d l i n g of r e c i d i v i s t s , although others may  have had more t o do w i t h i n i t i a t i n g them.  The r a t i o n a l e behind many p r o v i s i o n s which p l a c e unusual s a n c t i o n s upon the r e c i d i v i s t comparable  i s t h a t the o f f e n d e r i s  t o a s i c k person whose d i s c h a r g e from h o s p i t a l or  other p r o f e s s i o n a l care cannot be p r e c i s e l y determined i n advance of treatment.  There a r e some gross, obvious  d i f f e r e n c e s which are c u r i o u s l y overlooked, on the whole. D e c i s i o n s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these p o l i c i e s are o f t e n  - 26 i n the hands of s o c i a l workers or of other r e l y i n s u b s t a n t i a l measure upon the a d v i c e workers.  I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e ,  officials of  social  then, t h a t some a s p e c t s of  r e c i d i v i s m r e c e i v e study i n a piece of s o c i a l work T h i s examination i s focussed r e c i d i v i s t s who  have a c q u i r e d  who  research.  p r i m a r i l y upon  t h i s l a b e l i n consequence of  j u d i c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n s i n Canadian c o u r t s h a v i n g c r i m i n a l jurisdiction  (as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h J u v e n i l e and Family  and upon p o l i c i e s and i n Canada.  p r a c t i c e s r e l a t i n g t o the  Courts),  recidivist  Some European, B r i t i s h and American data w i l l  a l s o be drawn upon to put the d i s c u s s i o n i n t o broader perspective.  Considerable  r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o r e l e v a n t  sources i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h a view t o d i s c e r n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s of agreement and theory and  i n empirical observations.  been made to the p o s s i b l e u t i l i t y  f o r that practice.  of these media notwithstanding  Reference has  already  of mass communication media  as a m i r r o r of p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e , and motivation  of c o n f l i c t , i n  even of some p o s s i b l e  T h i s study w i l l make some use the f a c t t h a t they are  not  commonly thought to be r e l i a b l e as sources of research  data.  The w r i t e r i s here d e a l i n g w i t h phenomena which r a r e l y exchange t h e i r i n t e n s e l y s u b j e c t i v e c o l o u r s f o r the more o b j e c t i v e gradations t o regard as "key  of gray.  informants"  I t seems l e g i t i m a t e , not only those who  therefore,  occupy  p o s i t i o n s of academic or of o f f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n , but  also  - 27 those whose occupation  i t i s to r e c o r d t h e i r  o b s e r v a t i o n of the human scene. case f o r the s e l e c t i o n  of "key  daily-  Tremblay makes an informants"  articulate  in social  research,  45 as a g a i n s t the use Excluded who  of a s t r i c t l y random sample.  from t h i s examination w i l l be those  do not a c q u i r e m u l t i p l e p r i s o n sentences.  In  offenders practice,  these a r e not i d e n t i f i e d as r e c i d i v i s t s .  45. Tremblay, Marc Adelard, "Key Informant Technique: A Nonethnographic A p p l i c a t i o n , " The American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , Aug. 1957, pp. 688-701.  - 28  -  CHAPTER RECIDIVISM —  TWO  PERSPECTIVES ON A STATISTICAL CONCEPT  R e c i d i v i s m : A S t a t i s t i c a l Concept Reference has been made e a r l i e r t o the f a c t t h a t r e c i d i v i s m i s a s s o c i a t e d most e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h the n o t i o n of r e p e t i t i o n , and, periods  i n p a r t i c u l a r , with  of imprisonment.  r e c i d i v i s t may  non  repeated  Although the "character " of the 1  defy a n a l y s i s and a s a t i s f a c t o r y u n i v e r s a l  d e f i n i t i o n , the r e c o r d of repeated s i n e qua  the r e c o r d of  of h i s r e c i d i v i s t  incarcerations i s  THE  status.  Tappan says t h a t " R e c i d i v i s m  r a t e s may  be d e f i n e d i n  terms of the percentage of persons c o n v i c t e d of crime who  are  1 subsequently r e c o n v i c t e d . "  He e l a b o r a t e s by p o i n t i n g out  t h a t "Commonly r e c i d i v i s m r a t e s are computed on the b a s i s of the reimprisonment of o f f e n d e r s who  have p r e v i o u s l y been  2 committed t o p r i s o n . "  Thus f a r the concept i s u n l i k e l y to  pose c o n t r o v e r s i a l problems. made about the nature and  However, as i n f e r e n c e s  seriousness  of the crime problem,  based upon r e c i d i v i s t data, the f i e l d f o r immediately broadens. 1. Tappan, Paul W., Crime, J u s t i c e and McGraw-Hill, I960,, p. 58. 2.  I b i d . , footnote.  are  controversy  C o r r e c t i o n . New  York,  - 29  -  In commenting upon the deterrent potential of l e g a l penalties, Professor Andenaes of Norway points out that although "We  have figures on recidivism to t e l l how  proportion of ex-convicts commit new  crimes  large a figures  on recidivism only cover cases where the ex-convict i s 3 caught committing a new normalcy or pathology  crime.."  Regardless  of the r e l a t i v e  of the offender, then, or of the  seriousness of his acts of law v i o l a t i o n , the r e c i d i v i s t measure of the offender has to do with the number which t e l l s the frequency  of his reimprisonment.  This i s r e a l l y ALL that  one might reasonably expect to ascertain with certainty from r e c i d i v i s t data, as they presently e x i s t . One  court action which received p u b l i c i t y under the 4  t i t l e "Fingerprints C a l l Criminal Habitual"  gave dramatic  i l l u s t r a t i o n of the i n t r i n s i c a l l y s t a t i s t i c a l nature of the concept of recidivism.  The defendent had been convicted on a  substantive charge and was habitual criminal.  being proceeded against as an  Successful prosecution would r e s u l t i n the  v i r t u a l l i f e sentence intended by the habitual criminal provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada.  These provisions  are predicated upon the danger represented by the offender whose record warranted conviction as an habitual criminal. In 3. Andenaes, Johs, "General Prevention - I l l u s i o n or Reality?", Journal of Criminal Law, v o l . 43, no. 2, July-Aug. 1952, p. 181. 4.  Vancouver Sun, Aug.  8, 1963,  p. 26.  - 30 the i n s t a n c e  c i t e d , the m a g i s t r a t e  s a i d he would accept  evidence of the d e f e n d e n f s previous  as  r e c o r d the f i n g e r p r i n t  r e c o r d maintained by the F i n g e r p r i n t S e c t i o n of the R.C.M. Police.  T h i s o c c a s i o n a l s o gave v i v i d and  t a n g i b l e evidence  of the r a t h e r p e r s i s t e n t assumption t h a t the more dangerous offenders  are those who  whose number of r e t u r n s  are r e c i d i v i s t s ; t h a t i s , those to p r i s o n i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e .  Sources of R e c i d i v i s t S t a t i s t i c s . C r i m i n a l s t a t i s t i c s have t o do w i t h a wide range of processes and  a c t i o n s , from complaints of law v i o l a t i o n s t o  j u d i c i a l a c t i o n s and  to post-disposition administrative  actions  decisions).  (e.g. p a r o l e  These data are drawn from  many d i f f e r e n t sources i n d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s , most of which have scant a p p r e c i a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between a number and a s t a t i s t i c .  I t i s l i t t l e wonder, t h e r e f o r e ,  c r i m i n a l s t a t i s t i c s are commonly q u i t e as u n r e l i a b l e as are thought to be, and  they  t h a t the i n f e r e n c e s drawn from them  deserve t o be examined w i t h c r i t i c a l The  that  care.  sources of data f o r p r i s o n r e c i d i v i s t s  are  c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s t r i c t e d , s i n c e they exclude such agencies as the p o l i c e and 5.  the c o u r t s , but p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e r r o r i n  Since the s c a l e of p e n a l t i e s provided by the C r i m i n a l Code f o r d i f f e r e n t offences i s intended to bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s e r i o u s n e s s of the behaviour of the o f f e n d e r , i t i s reasonable t o i n f e r t h a t the indeterminate sentence i s designed t o combat those whose behaviour i s thought t o be most t h r e a t e n i n g to the community.  - 31 these s t a t i s t i c s seems no l e s s than f o r c r i m i n a l generally.  statistics  Penal i n s t i t u t i o n s are the primary sources of  p r i s o n r e c i d i v i s t f i g u r e s and are commonly i n c l u d e d i n departmental annual r e p o r t s .  I t might be thought that the  requested data i s so elementary  that l i t t l e  sophistication  would be necessary t o ensure the p u b l i c a t i o n of r e l i a b l e recidivist  statistics.  As i f i n comment upon such a r e f l e c t i o n , wrote A s was n  expected, any thought  Rector  of c o m p i l i n g r e c i d i v i s m  data from annual r e p o r t s f o r comparative  purposes  had t o be  abandoned e a r l y because of wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e f i n i t i o n s ,  6 i n methods of computing, and i n f a c t o r s of measurement." A f t e r o f f e r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e i l l u s t r a t i v e d e t a i l from r e p o r t s , R e c t o r observed of the methods of "...they show a t once why  annual  computation  annual r e p o r t s do not now  serve as  a r e l i a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n about the success and 7 f a i l u r e of c o r r e c t i o n a l a g e n c i e s . " t h a t Rector was  I t must be noted here  i n t e r e s t e d , i n h i s study, w i t h  i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c i d i v i s t data a l s o , and wished  nont o see whether  they o f f e r e d grounds f o r e v a l u a t i n g the outcome of d i f f e r e n t i a l dispositions. 6. Rector, M i l t o n G., " F a c t o r s I n Measuring R e c i d i v i s m as Presented i n Annual Reports", N.P.P.A. J o u r n a l . J u l y 1958, p. 218. 7. I b i d . , p. 222.  - 32 Some i n s t i t u t i o n s 8' by Rector who  i n Canada f o l l o w a p r a c t i c e  noted  ; namely t h a t of r e c o r d i n g as r e c i d i v i s t s only those  had served p r e v i o u s sentences  i n the r e p o r t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .  There i s no guarantee t h a t a p r i s o n e r who  i s recorded upon  admission as a " f i r s t t i m e r " w i l l be r e d e s i g n a t e d as a " r e p e a t e r " , d u r i n g the r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d , should i n f o r m a t i o n of a p r e v i o u s p r i s o n r e c o r d be r e c e i v e d subsequently. examples of f a u l t y  These  s t a t i s t i c a l computation should not  two  be  regarded as e x c e p t i o n a l d e v i c e s used to put a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t on i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e p o r t s .  They r e p r e s e n t , r a t h e r , the  p r i m i t i v e dearth of understanding which may great many persons  be expected  of a  charged w i t h the c o l l a t i o n of data i n  prisons. On the other hand, when a l l manner of p r e v i o u s i n c a r c e r a t i o n s are i n c l u d e d they sometimes i n c l u d e such totally different  i n g r e d i e n t s as t o c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n the  p r o p r i e t y of a s s o c i a t i n g them f o r purposes of comparison.  In a r e p o r t of the U.S.  statistical  F e d e r a l Bureau of P r i s o n s  the persons w i t h known p r e v i o u s commitments were shown a c c o r d i n g t o the j u r i s d i c t i o n under which they had been imprisoned. cent had 8.  Of those w i t h p r e v i o u s i n c a r c e r a t i o n "..55.6 per  served one  I b i d . , p.  223.  or more terms i n a F e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n ;  - 33 ...9.7 p e r cent had been c o n f i n e d under sentence  in a  m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n a r y b a r r a c k s , and ...76.4 p e r cent had served one or more terms i n State or l o c a l  institutions."  I n view o f the f a c t t h a t the grounds f o r committing  military  personnel t o b a r r a c k s may be a l t o g e t h e r u n r e l a t e d t o u s u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c r i m i n a l i t y , and t h a t committal  to a  " l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n " could r e p r e s e n t n o t h i n g more than " s l e e p i n g o f f a drunk", such a p i c t u r e resembles more a s t i l l life  of a p p l e s , c h a i r s and b o l t s than i t does a v a l i d  statistical  entity.  S t r i c t l y speaking one ought not complain  about such a  c o m p i l a t i o n of f i g u r e s i f the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g sought i s the number of those who have experienced The  imprisonment b e f o r e .  F e d e r a l Bureau*s r e p o r t i s s t r i c t l y a numerical  accounting  and not an attempt a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which so many r e c i d i v i s t t a b l e s p u r p o r t t o be.  J u s t what the u t i l i t y of such a  numerical a c c o u n t i n g might be, however, i s a very good question.  The same q u e s t i o n i s p e r t i n e n t t o v i r t u a l l y a l l s o -  c a l l e d Canadian r e c i d i v i s t s t a t i s t i c s .  The primary data a r e  so l a c k i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p a r a b i l i t y , a r e commonly so u n r e l i a b l e and incomplete, equipped  persons  t h i n g more than 9.  and a r e gathered by such  ill-  t h a t they ought not t o be p e r c e i v e d as any"interesting".  U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of J u s t i c e , F e d e r a l P r i s o n s , 1959. A review of t h e work of the F e d e r a l Bureau of P r i s o n s d u r i n g the year ended June 30, 1959. p. 26.  - 34  -  S t a t i s t i c s on R e c i d i v i s t s - a F u n c t i o n a l The  Dimension.  f a c t i s t h a t r e c i d i v i s t numbers assume a  f u n c t i o n a l importance which bears not the l e a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p to their s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y .  The  U.S.  Bureau's r e p o r t  has  the v i r t u e of not t r y i n g t o f o r c e some l e s s o n or moral from the statement t h a t out of the t o t a l number committed to F e d e r a l p r i s o n s "67.6 previous  per cent had  served  one  terms i n F e d e r a l , M i l i t a r y , State 10  institutions." The  or more  or  local  Such r e s t r a i n t i s e x c e p t i o n a l .  Gladstone Report of 1895,  t o which r e f e r e n c e  been made, c i t e d r e c i d i v i s t f i g u r e s as "...one of the by which the  system must be t e s t e d and  considerations.  I t i s not c l e a r t h a t the Archambault Commission i n the same way.  t a b l e of f i g u r e s p u r p o r t i n g  The  appreciated  Report shows a  t o show "...the growth of  r e c i d i v i s m i n Canada per 1,000  persons who  of i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s " from 1891-1936. "The  standards  judged." """""It d i d  acknowledge t h a t t h i s idea i n v o l v e d complex  these c o m p l e x i t i e s  has  have been  convicted  Then i t proceeds,  above f i g u r e s c a s t a grave r e f l e c t i o n on the methods of 12  t r e a t i n g c o n v i c t e d p r i s o n e r s i n Canada." should  not be regarded as a p r o t a g o n i s t  System", pre-Archambault or present, Commission's grounds f o r t h i n k i n g the 10.  Ibid.,  11.  C i t e d i n Cross,  Rupert, op.  12. Archambault Report, op.  The  author  of the "Canadian Penal  because he r e j e c t s the system d e f i c i e n t .  c i t . , p.  c i t . , p.  present  214.  507-  The  - 35 -  q u a l i t y of the penal system i n many j u r i s d i c t i o n s i s thought t o be r e l i a b l y portrayed by what are d e s c r i b e d as  recidivist  statistics. Even so s u b s t a n t i a l a work as t h a t of Sutherland Gressey c o n t a i n s a s u r p r i s i n g l y i l l - f o u n d e d statement. authors  r e p o r t e d t h a t , i n the U.S.A. d u r i n g 1946,  per cent of those had p r e v i o u s  and The  some 51  committed to p r i s o n s and r e f o r m a t o r i e s  committals i n comparable i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  had that  s i x per cent had had three or more committals p r e v i o u s l y . 1952  In  61 per cent of p r i s o n e r s committed t o F e d e r a l p r i s o n s  with sentences i n excess of one year had had sentences.  previous p r i s o n  From these data the authors make the  observation  t h a t " T h i s high r a t e of r e c i d i v i s m i s extremely important, i t means t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the crimes committed  for can  13 be a t t r i b u t e d to r e p e a t e r s . " crimes " s o l v e d " by a r r e s t and  The  obvious f a c t t h a t only  c o n v i c t i o n and  the  imprisonment are  accounted f o r i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i s completely  overlooked.  When i t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t only a r e l a t i v e l y small f r a c t i o n of  14 crime i s r e p o r t e d , prosecuted, S u t h e r l a n d and  Cressey's  and  punished by  imprisonment,  statement appears to be an unsupport-  able g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . 13. S u t h e r l a n d , E.H. and D.R. Cressey, P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology. New York, L i p p i n c o t t , 1955, p. 591. 14.  For some d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t see, f o r example, A u s t i n L. P e r t e r f i e l d , Youth i n Trouble, F o r t Worth, Leo Potisham Foundation, 1946; J.S. W a l l e r s t e i n and C.J. Wyle, "Our Law A b i d i n g Law Breakers", N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n , M a r - A p r i l , 1947, pp. 107-112.  -  36 -  I f t h i s were simply a semantic e x e r c i s e one might be i n d u l g e n t about statements of t h i s k i n d . tend t o become i n f l u e n t i a l i n determining p o l i c i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e treatment  E v e n t u a l l y they  o f f i c i a l a c t i o n s and  of o f f e n d e r s .  time, l i k e the c y c l i c r e c u r r e n c e o f an epidemic,  From time t o urgent  pleas  are made f o r the enactment of l e g i s l a t i o n , the promulgation of r e g u l a t i o n s and the development of r u l e s of p r a c t i c e which would make r e c i d i v i s m , a s t a t i s t i c a l phenomenon, by the most severe p e n a l t i e s a p a r t from t h e death Even t h a t supreme p e n a l t y has been suggested s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n of the indeterminate r a t i o n a l i z e d by j u s t such q u e s t i o n a b l e as q u e s t i o n a b l e  punishable sentence.  a t times.  The  sentence i s  i n f e r e n c e s from j u s t  s t a t i s t i c a l material.  On the other hand, there have been what appear t o be more sober and d i s c i p l i n e d attempts t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s about recidivists.  These range from simply f a c t u a l  observations,  such as " I t would seem t h a t between 80 p e r cent and 90 per cent of a l l p r e v e n t i v e detainees have r e v e r t e d t o crime on 15 t h e i r discharge." The f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n was based upon what the author admits t o being inadequate records.  but a v a i l a b l e  Mr. L e s l i e W i l k i n s , r e s e a r c h s t a t i s t i c i a n f o r the  Home O f f i c e , U n i t e d Kingdom, s a i d t h a t i n England "There i s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e between f i r s t and second time o f f e n d e r s committed 16 to p r i s o n . " He r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r the person committed t o 15.  M o r r i s , N o r v a l , The H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l . Cambridge Mass., Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1951, p. 79-  16.  Notes taken from an i n t e r v i e w with Mr. W i l k i n s , Oct. 8, I960.  - 37 p r i s o n f o r the f i r s t time there was a 20 per cent chance of r e c i d i v i s m , whereas upon a second  committal the p r o b a b i l i t y  r i s e s t o 70 or 80 per cent. Thompson examined a group of 1,380 r e p e a t e r s who had been examined by the c l i n i c of a Court of General S e s s i o n s . He concluded t h a t mental psychopathic  d e f e c t i v e s , p s y c h o t i c s and  ( s i c ) p e r s o n a l i t i e s comprised  8.8 per cent o f  a l l the groups examined, and, f u r t h e r , t h a t "...they were i n approximately the same p r o p o r t i o n i n a l l c l i n i c cases."  He  observed a l s o t h a t the d e f e c t i v e s almost disappear from the  17 recidivist  group a f t e r age 30.  S e l l i n , a f t e r making an a n a l y s i s of r e c i d i v i s t e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t t o young o f f e n d e r s , concluded  data  "Contrary  to the impression made by the data on r e c i d i v i s m h i t h e r t o presented, there must be a v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of o f f e n d e r s dealt with annually  t h a t never commit a second  crime.  18 ...crime r a t e s d e c l i n e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age...."  Bruno  Cormier and h i s r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e s a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y have been engaged i n s t u d y i n g the "latecomer t o crime" and have  19  i n c l u d e d an examination of the r e c i d i v i s m o f t h i s group. 17. Thompson, Charles B., "A P s y c h i a t r i c Study of R e c i d i v i s t s " , Amer. Jour, of P s y c h i a t r y . Nov. 1937, p.591-604. 18. S e l l i n , Thorsten, The C r i m i n a l i t y of Youth, P h i l a d e l p h i a Amer. Law I n s t i t u t e , 1940, p. 96. 19.  Cormier, Bruno e t a l . , "The Problem of R e c i d i v i s m and Treatment o f the Latecomer t o Crime", Canadian Jour, of C o r r e c t i o n s . Jan. 1961, p. 51-65.  -  38  -  The s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d t o these l a s t f o u r examples of r e s e a r c h i s not, f o r the present, r e l a t e d t o the s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s .  I t has t o do w i t h the f a c t  that  these s c h o l a r s have r e c o g n i z e d r e c i d i v i s t s as a "mixed  bag"  whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d not be f o r c e d i n t o some s o l i t a r y d e f i n i t i o n , but r a t h e r , r e q u i r e d a d i s p a s s i o n a t e and  thorough  e x p l o r a t i o n of l o g i c a l l y p a r t i a l i z e d " p i e c e s " of the r e c i d i v i s t constituency. Are " R e c i d i v i s t S t a t i s t i c s "  Statistics?  In view of the p r e c e d i n g m a t e r i a l , i t i s h a r d l y r h e t o r i c a l t o suggest t h a t r e c i d i v i s t r e a l l y s t a t i s t i c s at a l l .  s t a t i s t i c s are not  Again, the i s s u e i s not only  t h e o r e t i c a l but i s u l t i m a t e l y of p o l i c y What i s the importance,  significance.  f o r example, of the  U.S.  Bureau of P r i s o n s data i f they are t o be accepted as v a l i d s t a t i s t i c s ? Obviously, they have no s t a t i s t i c a l  importance.  Commenting upon r e s e a r c h methods employed i n p r e d i c t i n g m a r i t a l success, Burgess and C o t t r e l l decided "...present s t a t i s t i c a l methods d e a l w i t h averages and p r o b a b i l i t i e s  and  20 not w i t h s p e c i f i c dynamic combinations R e c i d i v i s t s a l s o are people who  of f a c t o r s . "  move w i t h i n a dynamic context.  In assembling r e c i d i v i s t f i g u r e s , not even "averages p r o b a b i l i t i e s " are u s u a l l y reckoned;  and  i t i s simply a matter of  counting items. 20.  Burgess, E.W., and L.S. C o t t r e l l , P r e d i c t i n g Success or F a i l u r e i n Marriage. New York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1939, p. 33.  - 39 Paul Meehl, a r e s e a r c h e r who has given d e t a i l e d study t o t h i s ,  concludes t h a t , i n attempting t o develop ways  of p r e d i c t i n g behaviour, p u r e l y s t a t i s t i c a l c l a s s e s c o u l d be formulated, or a case study or c l i n i c a l method o f p r e d i c t i o n 21 might be u t i l i z e d .  He c i t e s w i t h approval  Harrison's  pithy  statement "...the g l o b a l ( i . e . c l i n i c a l ) approach a t l e a s t r e s p e c t s the complexity of p e r s o n a l i t y problems and seeks 22 some elementary understanding before  bursting into figures."  Part of the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these observations  d e r i v e s from  the f a c t that r e c i d i v i s m i s d i s c u s s e d and p e r c e i v e d as a s o c i a l problem a g a i n s t which p o l i c y must be developed.  The  r a t e s of r e c i d i v i s m , then, have importance beyond t h a t of h e l p i n g estimate the housekeeping needs of the p r i s o n ' s f i s c a l year.  next  I f the f i g u r e s do not remotely i n c l u d e the  e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s of the problem, much l e s s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of them, of what p o s s i b l e s t a t i s t i c a l u t i l i t y can they be? S e v e r a l ambitious s t u d i e s have been made t o a s c e r t a i n the "success and f a i l u r e " Healy and Bronner r e p o r t e d  r a t e s of j u v e n i l e court  cases.  t h a t out of 800 boys s t u d i e d i n  Boston 24.6 p e r cent were l a t e r i n a d u l t c o u r t , i n c o n t r a s t t o 23 61 per cent of a sample of 420 boys s t u d i e d i n Chicago. 21. Meehl, Paul E., C l i n i c a l versus S t a t i s t i c a l P r e d i c t i o n : A T h e o r e t i c a l A n a l y s i s and a Review of the Evidence. Minneapolis, Univ. o f Minn., 1954, p. 3-4. 22. H a r r i s o n , R., "The TAT and Rorschach Methods of P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n C l i n i c a l P r a c t i c e " , Jour, of Psychology XV, 1943, p. 50. 23. Healy, W i l l i a m and Augusta Bronner, D e l i n q u e n t s and C r i m i n a l s , T h e i r Making and Unmaking. New York, Macmillan, 1926, pp. 245, 253.  - 40 The  Gluecks found t h a t 88.2 p e r cent of the 1,000 boys,  whose r e c o r d s  they s t u d i e d i n the Boston J u v e n i l e Court and  the Judge Baker C l i n i c , accumulated a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s o f  24 d e l i n q u e n c y w i t h i n f i v e years of t h e i r f i r s t d i s p o s i t i o n . What accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the Boston r a t e s ? Obviously  there a r e v a r i a b l e s enough t o make a p r e c i s e answer  impossible.  Dunham and Knauer s t u d i e d the r e c o r d s  of $00 boys,  a random sample drawn from 6,976 who had been before the D e t r o i t J u v e n i l e Court between 1920 and 1940, and r e p o r t e d 30.6 per cent of the sample as having been " . . r e g i s t e r e d with the D e t r o i t P o l i c e Department w i t h i n f i v e years of the time  2$ they l e f t the j u r i s d i c t i o n  o f the J u v e n i l e  Court."  These data give r i s e t o as many questions to answer.  as they seek  What i s the meaning of " r e g i s t e r e d w i t h " the  p o l i c e ? Does i t mean the same as " c o n v i c t i o n " ? The data a v a i l a b l e t o the r e s e a r c h e r s  may not have d i s c l o s e d t h i s . i  What common denominator can be d i s c o v e r e d recidivists  about r e c i d i v i s m or  by an examination o f what these s t u d i e s produce as  s t a t i s t i c s ? I n a highly perceptive  a r t i c l e , Rubin  analyzed  r e c i d i v i s m and many assumptions d e r i v e d from " s t a t i s t i c s " .  He  s t a t e d t h a t "The percentage of p r i s o n e r s who have p r e v i o u s l y committed a crime i s not a general r e c i d i v i s m r a t e . "  L a t e r he  p o i n t e d out t h a t "..the r e c i d i v i s m r a t e f o r a l l offenders i s , 24. Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor, One Thousand J u v e n i l e Delinquents. Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press, 1934, 2$.  pp. 16-59.  Dunham, H.W., and M.E. Knauer, "The J u v e n i l e Court i n i t s Relationship t o Adult C r i m i n a l i t y " , S o c i a l Forces.  Mar. 1954, pp. 290-296.  - 41 always l e s s than the percentage of r e c i d i v i s t s among 26 prisoners."  No wonder M o r r i s , r e p o r t i n g on the Congress on  C r i m i n o l o g y c o n c e r n i n g r e c i d i v i s m , wrote "There was satisfaction  with present i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i m i n a l  dis-  statistics  because of d i f f e r i n g methods of keeping them b o t h between n a t i o n s and w i t h i n n a t i o n s . "  27  None o f the f o r e g o i n g uncovers the k i n d of s t a t i s t i c a l anomaly which was  contained i n the Annual Report  of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r j u v e n i l e s . the  The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t d e s c r i b e d  severe overcrowding of h i s f a c i l i t i e s ,  h i s lack of authority  to l i m i t admissions, and the consequent n e c e s s i t y to discharge inmates r e l a t i v e l y soon a f t e r t h e i r admission. He concluded "This....we b e l i e v e , i s t o some degree r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d r a t e of r e c i d i v i s m which occurred d u r i n g the 28 year." That i s , r e c i d i v i s m becomes an a r t i f i c i a l number which tr  r e l a t e s t o the number of times a person walked i n t o a b u i l d i n g because of an e a r l i e r premature e j e c t i o n from i t .  In a d d i t i o n ,  r e c i d i v i s t data do not and cannot r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the r e p e t i t i o n i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y which occurs among white employees and employers, o r among others who  collar  a r e never reduced  26.  Rubin, S o l , " R e c i d i v i s m and R e c i d i v i s m S t a t i s t i c s " , N.P.P.A. J o u r n a l , J u l y 1958, p. 234.  27.  M o r r i s , Charles V., "The T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on Criminology", op. c i t . , p. 50.  23.  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, "Report of the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l " , Annual Report, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , Dept. of Health and Welfare, 1958, p. 86.  - 42 to  an o f f i c i a l p r i s o n s t a t i s t i c .  excusable  T h i s omission might be  but f o r t h e f a c t t h a t detected  apparently  offenders  do not account f o r the overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of  danger and of l o s s t o the p u b l i c . I t would appear t h a t the u s u a l r e c i d i v i s t f i g u r e s tell  too l i t t l e  t o be a c c e p t a b l e as s t a t i s t i c s .  They  purport t o show how many persons have been d i s p o s e d  of by  the c o u r t s by means o f imprisonment on more than one occasion.  Even t h i s cannot be assured  by the haphazard  methods of c o l l a t i o n which a r e sometimes used, but t h i s i s the i n t e n t .  The f i g u r e s do not say a n y t h i n g about t h e  d i f f e r e n t i a l c r i m i n a l p r o p e n s i t i e s o f the r e c i d i v i s t p o p u l a t i o n , nor a n y t h i n g about the l e v e l of danger they r e p r e s e n t t o s o c i e t y , and nothing for  f u t u r e behaviour.  of the p o s s i b l e  prognosis  I t can be argued t h a t the assumed  danger posed by the r e c i d i v i s t p o p u l a t i o n i s r e a l l y  over-  shadowed by the much more s e r i o u s danger i n h e r e n t i n our p r o c l i v i t y f o r abrogating j u d i c i a l safeguards  ordinary c i v i l  on such u n s u b s t a n t i a l grounds as  i n f e r e n c e s based upon shaky "evidence" "statistics".  r i g h t s and  r e f e r r e d t o as  - 43 CHAPTER THE The  RECIDIVIST  evidence  —  THREE A MANY-FACED PERSON  shows t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e to p o s t u l a t e  a s i n g l e determinant of r e c i d i v i s m , nor a s i n g l e r e c i d i v i s t "character".  D i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of departure  perceptions,  result in different  some of which appear to have s i g n i f i c a n t  of agreement.  Some of these p e r s p e c t i v e s are now  points  reviewed.  A View from the Psyche. The  phenomenon of crime seems t o have exerted  a t t r a c t i o n f o r the e x p l o r i n g i n t e r e s t i n man. p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y some r e f e r e n c e may  a strong  At almost  any  be found t o one man's  s p e c u l a t i o n about the reason f o r h i s neighbour's v i o l a t i o n of the t r i b a l codes, and h i s proposals f o r e f f e c t i n g r e d r e s s prevention.  In d i s c u s s i n g any aspect  of law v i o l a t i o n with  r e f e r e n c e t o s o c i a l p o l i c y , i t becomes important aetiological, connections l i f e and  or a t l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  between the circumstances  of  to d i s c e r n  influential,  of the  violator's  h i s o f f e n d i n g behaviour as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e ,  i f p o l i c y i s t o have the optimum b e n e f i t of r a t i o n a l i t y . A c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a t u r e has  developed d u r i n g  the  century which r e f l e c t s the b e l i e f t h a t c r i m i n a l behaviour g e n e r a l l y , and r e c i d i v i s t i c p a t t e r n s of such behaviour i n p a r t i c u l a r , are symptomatic of deep p s y c h i c d i s t u r b a n c e s  or  - 44 of  emotional or f u n c t i o n a l impairment.  Karpman has  expressed t h e view s u c c i n c t l y thus, " . . . c r i m i n a l i t y i s w i t h out  e x c e p t i o n symptomatic  of abnormal mental s t a t e s and i s an  2  e x p r e s s i o n of them."  The c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s f o l l o w s i n t h e  same a r t i c l e when the author asks i f i t i s "...too much t o ask t h a t each p r i s o n should have a f u l l - t i m e perhaps even a f u l l - t i m e p s y c h i a t r i c In  psychiatrist,  staff?"  t h e i r i n t e n s i v e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s of a  l i m i t e d number o f o f f e n d e r s , Alexander and Healy i n c l u d e d "... e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  cases o f o f f e n d e r s whom we had  l o n g known as b e i n g f a i l u r e s under p o l i c e and court procedure, p r o b a t i o n and the regime o f c o r r e c t i o n a l  3 institutions."  These s u r e l y q u a l i f y as r e c i d i v i s t s .  One of  the  phenomena t o which these w r i t e r s a t t a c h e d g r e a t meaning  was  the repeated evidence t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t s dreamed o f  being r e t u r n e d t o p r i s o n .  They i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s t o be an  e x p r e s s i o n of an i n f a n t i l e wish f o r r e g r e s s i o n and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , a d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o p r o t e c t i v e maternal care. 1. For example, see such c l a s s i c r e f e r e n c e s as A. A i c h h o r n , Wayward Youth. New York, V i k i n g Press, 1935• R. L i n d n e r , Rebel Without a Cause, New York, Grove Press, 1944. F. Alexander and W. Healy, The Roots o f Crime, New York, Knopf, 1935. F. Alexander and H. Staub, The C r i m i n a l , the Judge and the P u b l i c , New York, Macmillan, 1931. W. Healy, Mental C o n f l i c t s and Misconduct, Boston, L i t t l e , Brown, 1917. J . Bowlby, F o r t y - F o u r T h i e v e s , London, B a i l l i e r e , T i n d a l l and Cox, 1947. D. Abrahamsen, Crime and the Human Mind, New York, Columbia Univ. Press, 1944. 2.  Karpman, Benjamin, " C r i m i n a l i t y , I n s a n i t y and the Law", Jour, o f C r i m i n a l Law and Criminology, v o l . 39, 194849, PP. 584-605.  3.  Alexander, F., and W. Healy, Roots o f Crime, o p . c i t . , p. 5«  - 45 "We see the p a r a d o x i c a l motive,  expressed i n numerous  dreams, t h a t c r i m i n a l i t y i s a l s o a means o f g e t t i n g jail,....a  into  carefree, vegetative existence, g r a t i f y i n g h i s 4  i n f a n t i l e , p a r a s i t i c wishes."  There i s nothing  unusual  i n people dreaming of events which do, i n f a c t , m a t e r i a l i z e . A newspaper item r e p o r t e d t h a t a p a r k i n g meter c o i n t h i e f " . . . t o l d p o l i c e he dreamed he would be caught."^  The  q u e s t i o n i s whether o r not the psychoanalyst's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s both complete and i n f a l l i b l e . Cormier,  i n d e v e l o p i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of d e l i n q u e n t  behaviour, d e s c r i b e d one type of delinquency as " r e a c t i v e delinquency".  He a s s o c i a t e d t h i s w i t h "...the  learning  process d u r i n g m a t u r a t i o n a l s t a g e s , " and d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t from " . . t r u e delinquency.."  Fundamentally, the  d i s t i n c t i o n i s between what i s p e r c e i v e d p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y as normally motivated and as p a t h o l o g i c a l l y  motivated  behaviour; t h e q u a l i t y o f the a c t i s immaterial except as i t may p r o v i d e a c l u e t o a g i v e n p s y c h i a t r i c p e r c e p t i o n of normalcy. These two f o r m u l a t i o n s proceed from t o t a l l y  different  dynamic o r i g i n s ; the former from a s t a t e of p a t h o l o g i c a l a r r e s t o r r e g r e s s i o n , the l a t t e r from a normally  rebellious  4.  I b i d . p. 67; see a l s o pp. 54 and 58.  5.  Vancouver Sun, June 7,  6.  Cormier, Bruno e t a l . , " P r e s e n t a t i o n of a B a s i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n C r i m i n a l i t y " , Canadian Jour, of C o r r e c t i o n s , J u l y , 1959, P. 24.  1958.  -  46  -  and c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n stage of maturation which g e n e r a l l y becomes r e s o l v e d .  There i s i n common t o these, however,  the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the r e c i d i v a t i n g person i s , f o r whatever reasons, a v i c t i m of h i s own In  the f i r s t  emotional  immaturity.  i n s t a n c e , the prognosis f o r change seems bleak  u n l e s s expert c l i n i c a l treatment  i s provided.  The  second  p i c t u r e i s not a t a l l p r o b l e m a t i c a l , except as the  processes  of  may  law enforcement and  of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e a c t i o n  induce more s e r i o u s secondary  problems.  Cormier and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have been engaged i n what i s undoubtedly  the most methodical and thorough d i a g n o s t i c -  a l l y o r i e n t e d Canadian r e s e a r c h i n t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of 7 criminality.  One  of the important matters examined i n  these s t u d i e s i s the v a r i e t y of dynamic d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t i n groups of o f f e n d e r s whose h i s t o r y of r e c i d i v i s m may  otherwise  similar.  The  ( i . e . s u p e r f i c i a l l y or s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) appear c l a s s i f i c a t i o n developed f o r the a d u l t c r i m i n a l  i n c l u d e d t h r e e g e n e r i c t y p e s , whose psychodynamic from each other depends upon when i n the l i f e 7.  distinction  process the  ego  See, e.g., Cormier, Bruno et a l . , " P r e s e n t a t i o n of a B a s i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n Criminology", and "The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r i m i n a l i t y and Some T e n t a t i v e Hypotheses on i t s Abatement", both i n Canadian Jour, of C o r r e c t i o n s , J u l y , 1959. "The Latecomer t o Crime", and "The Problem of R e c i d i v i s m and Treatment of the Latecomer t o Crime", both i n Canadian Jour, of C o r r e c t i o n s , Jan. 1961. "The P e r s i s t e n t Offender", Canadian Jour, of C o r r e c t i o n s , Oct. 1963.  - 47 becomes c r i m i n a l l y i n v o l v e d and the q u a l i t y of the 8 involvement.."  The  Primary Delinquent, the Secondary  Delinquent and the Late Delinquent r e f e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o c r i m i n a l s whose egos became c r i m i n a l l y i n v o l v e d d u r i n g l a t e n c y , puberty or m a t u r i t y .  Cormier adds another  the Late Offender, t o d e s c r i b e the person who  class,  began h i s  c r i m i n a l r e c o r d as an a d u l t but "...where the o f f e n c e s are o e p i s o d i c and not p a r t of an e g o - f i x a t e d p a t t e r n " . Cormier  s t a t e s t h a t the depth study of the  Primary  Delinquent r e v e a l e d " f a i l u r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e necessary r e g u l a t i n g mechanisms f o r s o c i a l adjustment",  because  "...the s t r u c t u r i z a t i o n of the ego has been i n t e r f e r e d w i t h ... by a n a l and o r a l f i x a t i o n s . . . . H i s ego does not  succeed 10  i n going much beyond the sado-masochistic  stage.."  With  r e f e r e n c e t o the other c l a s s e s of " t r u e d e l i n q u e n t s " , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t both the Secondary and the Late  Delinquent  were a b l e t o proceed through l a t e n c y without r e s o r t i n g to " h a b i t u a l d e l i n q u e n c y " as a mechanism of a d a p t a t i o n .  The  subsequent l a p s e s were e x p l a i n e d by s a y i n g t h a t "Secondary Delinquency and Late Delinquency correspond p a r t l y t o 8. Cormier, " P r e s e n t a t i o n of a B a s i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n Criminology", op. c i t . , p. 28. 9. Cormier, "The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r i m i n a l i t y and Some T e n t a t i v e Hypotheses on i t s Abatement", op. c i t . , p. 35. 10. Cormier et a l . , " P r e s e n t a t i o n of a B a s i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n Criminology", op. c i t . , p. 32.  - 48 f i x a t i o n and  p a r t l y to r e g r e s s i o n . "  1 1  I n sharp  contrast,  the Late Offender r e c i d i v i s t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a person whose l a w - v i o l a t i o n s ..lack the " s e t " o f c r i m i n a l i t y which i s t y p i c a l of the p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e of the This offender ego  other  classes.  " . . . r e s o r t s t o crime a t p o i n t s of c r i s i s when  defences, n e u r o t i c o r h e a l t h y ,  break down.  This 12  r e g r e s s i v e s o l u t i o n i s manifested by a c r i m i n a l a c t i n g Another set of c o n c l u s i o n s has  drawn from these  out."  studies  t o do w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y p r e d i c t a b l e d e c l i n e i n  c r i m i n a l i t y as the o f f e n d e r  becomes o l d e r .  Others have  13 r e f e r r e d t o t h i s e a r l i e r a s an e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n , the M c G i l l team has explanation w i t h the remits  for i t .  been attempting t o d i s c o v e r some c l i n i c a l Cormier c o n t r a s t e d  the c r i m i n a l process  c a r e e r of c h r o n i c s c h i z o p h r e n i a ,  spontaneously", and  which "...seldom  observed that "...the c r i m i n a l  process can be seen as e v e n t u a l l y coming t o an end, how  c h r o n i c a l l y present  . . . . c r i m i n a l i t y and  but  no matter  i t was over a l o n g p e r i o d i n l i f e .  c r i m i n a l behaviour abate i n the  latter  14 part of l i f e . " A secure answer as t o why t h i s abatement 11. I b i d . p. 33. 12.  Ibid.  13.  For example see Thompson, Charles B., "A P s y c h i a t r i c Study of R e c i d i v i s t s " , Amer. Jour, of P s y c h i a t r y . Nov. 1937, pp. 591-604; Cason, Hulsey, and M.J. Pescor, "A S t a t i s t i c a l Study o f 500 Psychopathic P r i s o n e r s , " P u b l i c Health Reports. A p r i l 19, 1946, pp. 557-574.  14. Cormier, et a l . , "The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r i m i n a l i t y and Some T e n t a t i v e Hypotheses on I t s Abatement," op. c i t . ,  pp. 35-36.  - 49 occurs i s . n o t o f f e r e d , although  some h y p o t h e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s  have been s u b j e c t e d to e x p l o r a t i o n .  However, "Our  should not be c o n s i d e r e d as d e f i n i t i v e " ; i t was  attempt  confined to  l i m i t e d examples of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l changes accompanying the abatement p e r i o d .  S p e c i f i c a l l y noted were: "...the  c a p a c i t y of an o f f e n d e r t o go through a d e p r e s s i o n r a t h e r than a c t i n g i t out, and the a c q u i s i t i o n of a c a p a c i t y t o mourn normally."  Cormier added "There i s no doubt t h a t many 15  more mechanisms are i n v o l v e d . . . "  What seems s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r purposes of the present examination  i s t h a t the  c a r e e r §nd abatement of r e c i d i v i s t i c c r i m i n a l i t y ,  genesis,  while  p e r c e i v e d as i n v o l v i n g a host of v a r i a b l e s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e the c a r e e r of one  o f f e n d e r from t h a t of another,  are  n e v e r t h e l e s s viewed as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s or as f u n c t i o n s of i n t r a p s y c h i c experiences  essentially.  Quite n a t u r a l l y t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon the i n d i v i d u a l , c l i n i c a l case study f o r i t s method of inquiry.  I t a l s o suggests  a s i n g l e l i n e of defence;  through the p s y c h o l o g i c a l therapy  of the  namely,  individual.  P r o p h y l a x i s might n e c e s s i t a t e i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e r c o n s t i t u e n c y whose behaviour  i s to be m o d i f i e d —  a g a i n having a  primary  p a t i e n t or c l i e n t o f f e n d e r as the main o b j e c t of a t t e n t i o n . 15.  I b i d . , p.  48.  - 50 Although e m p i r i c a l evidence of a c o n v i n c i n g r a r e and  order i s  i s s u b j e c t to a l l manner of mental r e s e r v a t i o n s  because of p e r s i s t e n t v a r i a b l e s , much i s sometimes made of another a l l e g e d mechanism o p e r a t i n g recidivist.  I t i s the o f f e n d e r s T  punishment to h i m s e l f .  T h i s may  subconsciously  i n t e n s e need t o a t t r a c t be i n t e r p r e t e d as  f u n c t i o n of a deeply p a t h o l o g i c a l ego f u l f i l m e n t through m a s o c h i s t i c  i n the  formation  experience.  the  which seeks  Alternatively,  the mechanism i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a means by which the  offender  seduces o t h e r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , i n t o punishing  him,  thus r e i n f o r c i n g h i s p e r c e p t i o n  persons as e s s e n t i a l l y r e j e c t i n g and  hurting.  of a u t h o r i t y Although  the  r e s u l t s are not expected t o be rewarding, p u n i t i v e regimes have been r a t i o n a l i z e d on the grounds t h a t t h i s i s r e a l l y what the o f f e n d e r  i s asking f o r .  I t should be admitted t h a t , although the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i g i n i s d i a g n o s t i c , few  i f any  reputable  clinicians will  p u b l i c l y l e n d t h e i r support t o the n o t i o n t h a t s o c i e t y ought to c a p i t a l i z e upon the s e l f - p u n i s h i n g d e s i r e s of i l l  people as  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c a r r y i n g out what i s , i n e f f e c t , a regime of retaliation.  Yet  the n o t i o n i s e x p l o i t e d by others who  times c a r r y i n f l u e n c e f a r out A Metropolitan  of p r o p o r t i o n  Police Magistrate  chapter t o a w i d e l y read and " I b e l i e v e t h a t people who  some-  to t h e i r wisdom.  i n England c o n t r i b u t e d  renowned book, i n which he  a said  do wrong expect t o be punished  ...Even i f the punishment does not deter the o f f e n d e r  from  ....  - 51 r e p e a t i n g the o f f e n c e , t h a t s u r e l y i s no reason why he should  16 not be punished." P o s s i b l y the most s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n the view of the o f f e n d e r i s t h a t i t g e n e r a l l y f a i l s  clinical  t o give  adequate r e c o g n i t i o n t o those f o r c e s outside the i n d i v i d u a l which unquestionably  exert potent  i n f l u e n c e upon h i s  behaviour. A View From The M i l i e u . P o s s i b l y i n r e a c t i o n t o the emphasis given t o a clinical  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l l i f e phenomena  d u r i n g the e a r l i e r p a r t of the century, and p a r t l y as a consequence of the developing  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of s o c i o l o g i s t s ,  i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d t o an examination o f the p o s s i b l e connections  between the c r i m i n a l ' s behaviour and the  17 various socio-economic-cultural  i n f l u e n c e s surrounding  him.  Much of the s o c i o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d l i t e r a t u r e has r e f e r e n c e t o c r i m i n a l i t y i n g e n e r a l , but some has s p e c i a l p e r t i n e n c e t o recidivism, i n particular. C l i f f o r d Shaw was one of the most a r t i c u l a t e of s e v e r a l observers who became engaged i n s t u d y i n g the ecology of crime.  He found marked d i f f e r e n c e s ' i n the volume of  16. Powell, Frank J . , i n S i r Norwood E a s t , The Roots of Crime. London, Butterworth and Co., 1954, pp. 153-4* 17. E a r l i e r s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t appears t o have a r i s e n out of e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of a more g e n e r a l k i n d i n metropolitan areas.  - 52 d e l i n q u e n c y and crime between d i f f e r e n t urban a r e a s .  18  L a t e r Shaw and McKay gathered data which they o f f e r e d as evidence of s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which were 19 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of areas having marked crime c o n c e n t r a t i o n . These h i g h v u l n e r a b i l i t y a r e a s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g e n e r a l s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , lower incomes than i n areas which were more f r e e of delinquency, and by p r e v a i l i n g v a l u e s and 20 a t t i t u d e s which s a n c t i o n e d d e l i n q u e n t and c r i m i n a l behaviour. As might be a n t i c i p a t e d , Shaw d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the areas i n which crime r a t e s were h i g h a l s o had r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r a t e s of r e c i d i v i s m , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e c i d i v i s m was r e l a t e d t o the g e n e r a l l e v e l of c r i m i n a l i t y or n e a r - c r i m i n a l i t y i n the immediate community.  The c o n c l u s i o n drawn was that i t would  be e a s i e r f o r t h e o f f e n d e r t o a v o i d r e p e a t i n g h i s law v i o l a t i o n s i f h i s s o c i a l m i l i e u supported any sentiments of reform he might possess r a t h e r than making a r e l a p s e i n t o crime more easy.  Some of Shaw's o b s e r v a t i o n s were based upon  18. Shaw, C l i f f o r d R., e t a l . , Delinquency Areas. Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1929, see pp. 88, 152. 19. Shaw, C l i f f o r d R. and Henry McKay, " S o c i a l F a c t o r s i n J u v e n i l e Delinquency", N a t i o n a l Commission of Law Observance and Enforcement, (Wickersham), V o l . 2, No. 13, Washington, 1931, pp. 60-108. 20. J u v e n i l e Delinquency and Urban Areas: A Study of Rates of Delinquents i n R e l a t i o n t o D i f f e r e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of L o c a l Communities i n American C i t i e s , Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1942, pp. 435-7.  - 53 -  f i r s t - p e r s o n a c c o u n t s o r case h i s t o r i e s .  21  He r e f e r r e d t o one  of t h e s e t o show, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l p r e s s u r e and a r e c i d i v i s t i c c a r e e r .  I n t h i s case a  y o u n g s t e r r e l a t e d t h e s o c i a l o b s t a c l e s he encountered upon d i s c h a r g e from i n s t i t u t i o n , u n t i l he became committed  again  22  on o t h e r c o u n t s . The i d e a t h a t r e c i d i v i s m i s n o t o n l y made more p o s s i b l e but i s p o s i t i v e l y promoted by c e r t a i n s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s has been r e p e a t e d by o t h e r s t o t h e p r e s e n t . One o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t r e c i d i v i s t s i n t e r v i e w e d by O'Connor was a t w e n t y - y e a r - o l d "wheel" nicknamed "The g r e a t Magoo".  He  d e s c r i b e d i n g r a p h i c language how he had attempted t o "...do i t s t r a i g h t , I r e a l l y t r i e d . . . " a f t e r h i s f i r s t discharge from p r i s o n , and the r e g u l a r i t y w i t h which o b s t a c l e s were p u t i n t h e way of a l e g i t i m a t e v o c a t i o n whereas h i s r e t u r n t o crime was c u l t u r a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y rewarded.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , as he  s p e c u l a t e d about what he would do upon b e i n g r e l e a s e d a f t e r h i s c u r r e n t s e n t e n c e , Magoo s a i d " W e l l , I a i n ' t g o i n * i n t o n o t h i n * on t h e up and up.  I t ' s g o i n * t o be c r o o k e d , what I 23  do; I WON'T TAKE NO CHANCES." 21. Some o f t h e b e s t known of t h e s e comprise s e p a r a t e books, e.g., C l i f f o r d R. Shaw, The Jack R o l l e r , C h i c a g o , U n i v . of Chicago P r e s s , 1930; The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f a D e l i n q u e n t C a r e e r , C h i c a g o , Univ. of Chicago P r e s s , 1931; and B r o t h e r s i n Crime, C h i c a g o , Univ. of Chicago P r e s s , 1938. 22. Shaw, C l i f f o r d , D e l i n q u e n c y A r e a s , op. c i t . , p. 41. 23. O'Connor, Len, They T a l k e d t o a S t r a n g e r , op. c i t . , p. 199, (emphasis added).  - 54 Cohen has  suggested  Magoo's experience.  "The  a t h e o r e t i c a l explanation f o r  d e l i n q u e n t s u b - c u l t u r e i s a way  d e a l i n g with the problems of adjustment problems.  The  c h i e f l y status  delinquent s u b - c u l t u r e d e a l s w i t h  problems by p r o v i d i n g c r i t e r i a  of  these  of s t a t u s which these c h i l d r e n  24 can meet."  A f t e r examining i n d e t a i l the value system of  working and middle c l a s s e s , Cohen concluded  that  delinquency  r e s u l t s out of c o n f l i c t between value systems, the system of the l a r g e r community b e i n g v i r t u a l l y a l i e n t o and i n a c c e s s i b l e 25 t o t h a t of the delinquent s u b - c u l t u r e .  The u s u a l  Settlement  or Neighbourhood House f a i l s to a c t as a p r e v e n t i v e a g a i n s t c r i m i n a l i t y f o r t h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y p r i m a r i l y because the House, supported  by middle c l a s s sponsorship and l e a d e r s h i p ,  embodies and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e s the values and the s t a t u s system of middle c l a s s p e o p l e . . . i n c l u d i n g the p e n a l i z i n g of those who  "do  not f i t i n " .  Thus, a f t e r t a s t i n g o s t r a c i s m a t  the hands of "square Johns", the a s o c i a l or the adolescent  anti-social  or a d u l t goes back t o the a l l e y s or the bunk house  26  where r e l a t i o n s h i p s are more congenial f o r him. At another l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n , Merton has  discussed  24.  Cohen, A l b e r t K., Delinquent Boys: The C u l t u r e of the Gang, Glencoe, Free Press, 1955, p. 121.  25.  I b i d . , pp. 108 f f .  26.  I b i d . , pp. 115 f f •  - 55 the same phenomenon; namely, the emergence of deviant forms of behaviour as a consequence of "...acute  pressures  created  by the discrepancy between c u l t u r a l l y induced goals and 27 s o c i a l l y structured opportunities."  Merton borrowed  Durkhein^s term, "anomie", to describe t h i s state of v i r t u a l normlessness which provokes revolt. Professor Sprott has drawn attention to the same circumstances  facing young persons i n England, where l e v e l s  of a s p i r a t i o n are being raised out of proportion to the opportunity to s a t i s f y those aspirations.  He remarked  "Small wonder that some of them (young people) f e e l defrauded; small wonder that some of them take to using i l l e g i t i m a t e means.  'After a l l . . . . t h e whole thing*s a f i d d l e .  people got on, who  How  have  have got on? By a f i d d l e ' And every big 28  fraud case only 'goes to show*." Sutherland and Cressey i d e n t i f i e d the development of a criminal pattern, combining both appropriate attitudes and s k i l l , as one of the s i g n i f i c a n t processes i n the of a criminal.  This maturity i s important  "maturation"  not only for the  occupational or technical proficiency i t represents, but f o r the fact that " . . . C r i m i n a l i t y has become an integrated part of his personality and no c r i s i s upsets him i n case his 27. Merton, Robert K., S o c i a l Theory and Social Structure, (revised), Glencoe, Free Press, 1957, pp. 176-180. 23. Sprott, W.J.H., "Poverty, Mental I l l n e s s , and Crime", The Listener, June 13, 1963, p. 992.  - 56 p r e c a u t i o n s . . . a r e inadequate,  he takes imprisonment, 29  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y as a p a r t of h i s l i f e . ' "  Here i s the  p i c t u r e of a person, not b i t t e r l y k i c k i n g i n p r o t e s t , but c a r v i n g out h i s own  domain w i t h h i s own  these a r e , a t l e a s t , more r e a l i z a b l e . about the r e l a t i v e "immaturity"  sub-group codes because I t does r a i s e a q u e s t i o n  of the c r i m i n a l p a r t of the  p e r s o n a l i t y i n the case of the r e c i d i v i s t , s i n c e he appears fail  to  repeatedly i n carrying o f f h i s criminal e x p l o i t s with  impunity.  He may  be the person who  does not "succeed"  i n the  business of crime. In  a d d i t i o n to those who  form p a r t of a d e l i n q u e n t  s u b - c u l t u r e , through a c c i d e n t of e a r l y r e s i d e n c e or d i f f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n and e a r l y s o c i a l experience, i t has been observed t h a t others may  have l i t t l e  choice but t o j o i n  the s u b - c u l t u r e because of e f f e c t i v e e x c l u s i o n from l a r g e r community.  the  Magoo's experiences upon r e l e a s e from  p r i s o n are not c o n f i n e d t o those whose primary have been a n t i - s o c i a l .  identifications  Judge Westover has observed t h a t ex-  p r i s o n e r s are o f t e n denied access t o l e g i t i m a t e means of s e l f support.  " I f he cannot  o b t a i n employment he w i l l  necessarily  r e v e r t t o crime t o m a i n t a i n h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y  After  a p r i s o n e r i s r e l e a s e d and i s back i n s o c i e t y i t seems t o be nobody's business or concern t o see t o i t t h a t the funds, 29. S u t h e r l a n d , E.H. and D.R. Cressey, P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology, op. c i t . , p. 219.  time  - 57 and  e f f o r t a l r e a d y expended i n h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have not 30  been spent i n v a i n . " The  D i r e c t o r o f the U.S. Bureau of P r i s o n s has  concluded that "When you c o n s i d e r the handicaps the ex-prisoner 31 f a c e s , you wonder how i t i s that so many of them make good." P e r i o d i c a l l y the popular press draws a t t e n t i o n t o the " f a i l u r e " of p a r o l e e s intimate  or " e x - c o n v i c t s "  i n such a way as t o  t h a t the l a s t t h i n g one ought t o expect of those who  have been "taught a l e s s o n " i s a f u r t h e r lapse i n t o crime. On the other hand, s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h e r s , j u d i c i a r y , and p e n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  members of the  have been among the most  a r t i c u l a t e people drawing a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t a " r e s p o n s i b l e , law a b i d i n g " l i f e  i s made l e s s - a c c e s s i b l e t o  the person who has once been imprisoned than f o r others, and t h a t the very s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and processes which a r e expected t o b u t t r e s s law a b i d i n g n e s s a r e among those which make i t most d i f f i c u l t  of attainment.  A more r e c e n t t a r g e t f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l  s c r u t i n y has  been the s o c i a l system of v a r i o u s c l o s e d systems or " t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " , t o use Goffman s term, i n which the r e s i d e n t f  p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n i s o l a t i o n from the o r d i n a r y f r e e 30. Westover, Judge Harry C , " I s P r i s o n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S u c c e s s f u l ? " F e d e r a l Probation, March, 1958, p. 6. 31.  Bennett, James V., c i t e d i n F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , 1958, p. 11.  March,  -  community.  32  58 -  Some o f the most s a l i e n t  sociological  o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e s e systems, and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon those i n v o l v e d i n them, are not r e a l l y new a l t h o u g h  o t h e r s who have  drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the same phenomena may not have u t i l i z e d the same c o n s c i o u s  c o n t r o l s used by the s o c i a l  scientist.  However, the f i n d i n g s o f o b s e r v e r s , whatever t h e i r degree o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , e s s e n t i a l l y reduce themselves t o the now t r i t e t r u i s m t h a t " p r i s o n s are schools of crime." I n a r e v i e w o f the t y p i c a l e f f e c t s o f p r i s o n , Y a b l o n s k y p o i n t e d out t h a t "A c e n t r a l theme i n the (of  literature  penology) i s t h a t the p r i s o n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e m i l i t a t e s  a g a i n s t c o r r e c t i o n i n h e r e n t l y and, i n f a c t , r e i n f o r c e s n e g a t i v e and i l l e g a l b e h a v i o u r  patterns which are i n c o n f l i c t 33  w i t h the o v e r a l l s o c i a l system."  T h i s statement i s about  as complete and s u c c i n c t a summary o f t h i s k i n d o f o b s e r v a t i o n as one might w i s h ; a d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s serve o n l y t o s u p p l y new  v o i c e s r a t h e r t h a n new themes. Goffman's main a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the  of s o c i a l systems i n m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s , a l t h o u g h he has  study included  32.  For example, see Goffman, E r v i n g , Asylums, New Y o r k , Doubleday, 1961. Sykes, Gresham M., The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1958. Clemmer, Donald, The P r i s o n Community, B o s t o n , C h r i s t o p h e r P r e s s , 1940. S c h r a g , C l a r e n c e , " L e a d e r s h i p Among P r i s o n Inmates", Amer. Soc. Rev., Feb., 1954, pp. 37-42. Hayner, Norman and E l l i s Ash, "The P r i s o n Community as a S o c i a l Group", Amer. Soc. Rev., June 1939, pp. 362-369.  33.  Y a b l o n s k y , Lewis, " C o r r e c t i o n and the Doing-Time S o c i e t y " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . Mar., I960, pp. 55-60.  - 59 other forms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e i n h i s s t u d i e s alluded  to t h e i r basic  similarities.  He has  e s s e n t i a l a n t i t h e s i s which c h a r a c t e r i z e s between the  "inmate world" and  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  the  the  that  verbalized  described  the  degeneration of the  i n s t i t u t i o n administratively  i n s p i t e of the  changes are  the  relationship  human i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the  interests  viable.  He  of  noted  concern w i t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  i n some programmes, "In f a c t , i t seems t h i s c l a i m r e a l i z e d and  has  " s t a f f world" i n t o t a l  of a l l members of t h i s u n n a t u r a l s o c i e t y making the  and  i s seldom  even when permanent a l t e r a t i o n occurs, these o f t e n not  of the  kind  intended by  the s t a f f . "  34  He used a t e l l i n g e x p r e s s i o n t o d e s c r i b e what i n s t i t u t i o n s do systematically  t o t h e i r inmates - " m o r t i f i c a t i o n of  the  35 self." Sykes shrewdly d i s t i n g u i s h e d the  r e a l c e n t r e s of power w i t h i n  titled how  "The  official  a prison.  In a  Defects of T o t a l Power" he has  shown  tenuous i s the  a t the  between the  power of o f f i c i a l  " f r o n t l i n e " point  s h i p s between the  two  chapter  over inmate,  convincingly especially  of contact a t which most r e l a t i o n -  groups occur.  important e f f e c t s of the  and  prison  One  of the  s o c i a l system i s  most the  34.  Goffman, E r v i n g , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , " Symposium on P r e v e n t i v e and S o c i a l P s y c h i a t r y , Washington, W a l t e r Reed Army I n s t i t u t e of Research, 1957, p. 65.  35.  I b i d . , pp.  49-50.  - 60  -  r e d u c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t o the s t a t u s of a p e r p e t u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e prey.  Even an e s s e n t i a l l y p r o - s o c i a l inmate,  i m p r i s o n e d f o r some a c c i d e n t a l o r a t y p i c a l l a p s e , cannot be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the o f f i c e r s because any u n u s u a l show of f r i e n d l i n e s s may  be i n t e r p r e t e d as an a t t e m p t t o e x p l o i t the  r e l a t i o n s h i p - by e i t h e r s i d e - t o the d e t r i m e n t of inmates.  What may  other  be more s e r i o u s , the o t h e r inmates w o u l d ,  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , view such a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and h o s t i l i t y and would t a k e s t e p s t o make the of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i m p o s s i b l e .  The  suspicion  continuation  inmates are commonly  t o be f e a r e d much more t h a n the o f f i c e r s , and l i f e becomes quite l i t e r a l l y impossible  u n l e s s some form of accommodation  i s made t o the power s t r u c t u r e of the inmate p o p u l a t i o n . c o u r s e , t h i s amounts t o accommodation t o t h o s e who  Of  w o u l d be  judged most dangerous and most u n f i t f o r a s s o c i a t i o n i n the f r e e community.  "Conniving"  and  s u p e r f i c i a l conformity  become  36  the most n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l s k i l l s f o r s u r v i v a l .  It is l i t t l e  wonder t h a t p r i s o n s are seen as i n n a t e l y i n i m i c a l t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o c e s s and  t h a t t h e y induce what one  has d e s c r i b e d as a " r e v e r s e  observer  socialization."  Persons o t h e r t h a n s o c i o l o g i s t s have made q u i t e shrewd a n a l y s e s  of the same s o c i a l phenomena.  performing part-time 36.  as  A psychiatrist  s e r v i c e i n a Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r y t o l d  Sykes, Gresham, op.  c i t . , pp.  122-129.  - 61  a conference  -  of the ways i n which inmates adapt t h e m s e l v e s  t o imprisonment.  I t p a r a l l e l s Goffman's account of  " m o r t i f i c a t i o n " without  significant variation.  h i s audience t h a t p r i s o n s c r e a t e t h e i r own  He  reminded  societies  "...where the u l t i m a t e achievement i s t o know how  t o take  care of y o u r s e l f , " i n an u n n a t u r a l and p r e d o m i n a n t l y  predatory  37  society. A B r i t i s h committee e s t a b l i s h e d by the Home S e c r e t a r y t o examine and a p p r a i s e t h e methods used i n h a n d l i n g p e r s i s t e n t o f f e n d e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of r e l a p s e i n t o crime i n c r e a s e d w i t h the number of p r e v i o u s commitments. The  r e p o r t noted t h a t , r a t h e r than a s s u a g i n g c r i m i n a l  p r o p e n s i t i e s , p r i s o n s "...may a c t u a l l y cause p r o g r e s s i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n by h a b i t u a t i n g the o f f e n d e r s t o p r i s o n c o n d i t i o n s  38 which weaken r a t h e r t h a n s t r e n g t h e n the  character."  I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e s which can  properly  be c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n promoting c r i m i n a l i t y , L o r d Pakenham 37.  O'Connor, M a u r i c e , " I m p r e s s i o n s C o n c e r n i n g A d a p t a t i o n t o Imprisonment," P r o c e e d i n g s of the Canadian Congress of C o r r e c t i o n s , Ottawa, Canadian C o r r e c t i o n s A s s o c . , 1957, p. 117.  38. R e p o r t of the D e p a r t m e n t a l Committee on P e r s i s t e n t O f f e n d e r s , Cmd. 4090, London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1932, p. 12.  - 62 i n c l u d e d .."punishment or 'treatment*  as a potent  cause..."  R o l p h e l a b o r a t e d upon the same i d e a and u n e q u i v o c a l l y  declared  t h a t , a p a r t from the " m e n t a l l y d i s o r d e r e d " , a p e r s o n who l o c k e d up i s a c o n f i r m e d  39  is  hater.  Judge Edwards of t h e M i c h i g a n  Supreme Court p r o v i d e d  a composite p i c t u r e of a case h i s t o r y , d e r i v e d from h i s l o n g experience  on the bench of j u v e n i l e and  of c r i m i n a l c o u r t s .  I t i s the p i c t u r e of r e m o r s e l e s s l y steady d e t e r i o r a t i o n d i r e c t l y a b e t t e d by the v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h were expected t o p r o t e c t s o c i e t y and improve the o f f e n d e r .  He w r o t e b l u n t l y  " L e t us f a c e the f a c t t h a t p r i s o n , of and by i t s e l f , changes no b a s i c a t t i t u d e s of the o f f e n d e r f o r the b e t t e r Indeed, the charge t h a t our p r i s o n s a r e f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l s f o r c r i m i n a l s i s probably a l l too t r u e . " ^ People who  1  have had f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e  of p r i s o n l i f e  f r e q u e n t l y s u b s t a n t i a t e these o b j e c t i v e l y s t a t e d  observations  w i t h a c o l o u r which the " o u t s i d e r " cannot match.  A  personal  l e t t e r smuggled by a Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r y inmate t o a f r i e n d r e a d , i n p a r t , "...here i s what shocked even me  - the inmate  39.  L o r d Pakenham, Causes of Crime, London, W i e d e n f e l d N i c o l s o n , 1958, p. 39.  and  40.  R o l p h , C.H., Common Sense About Crime and Punishment, New York, M a c m i l l a n , 1961, see pp. 45 f f .  41.  Edwards, George, " V e r d i c t : G u i l t y - Now p. 1-3.  What?", op. c i t .  - 63  -  p o p u l a t i o n here i s around 400  and, h o n e s t l y , about h a l f  ( I s a i d h a l f ) are i n some way  engaged i n homosexual  practices.  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l i n g l y t o l e r a t e s , i f not  encourages ( i t j u s t t u r n s away from) these p r a c t i c e s because t h e y keep the t r o u b l e down.  There a r e about two  or t h r e e  k n i f e f i g h t s every month and always over some ' j a i l affair . 1  T h i s s t r u c k me as e x t r e m e l y  love  l u d i c r o u s i n view of  the r e c e n t t r e n d t o s o - c a l l e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  The  ' b o o k i e s ' i n the p l a c e have race r e s u l t s and odds announced over the r a d i o , a l s o f o o t b a l l p o o l s , e t c .  ... I f you  don't  know the r i g h t people ( p r i s o n e r s , t h a t i s ) you don't get a 42 t h i n g and you're i n r e a l bad shape." Another h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t and a r t i c u l a t e inmate, Tom  Runyon, w r o t e w i t h  g r e a t i n s i g h t and 43  s e n s i t i v i t y about h i s s u b j e c t i v e  of the p r i s o n .  H i s book i s a s t o n i s h i n g i n i t s l a c k of s e l f -  p i t y and i n i t s a n a l y t i c a l a s t u t e n e s s . a c h a p t e r t o a textbook  L a t e r he c o n t r i b u t e d  on c r i m i n o l o g y i n w h i c h he  the p r i s o n e r ' s t r a n s i t i o n from b e i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n o r i e n t a t i o n to being r e c i d i v i s t - p r o n e . "...a  described pro-social  He had  been  h a r d - w o r k i n g , l a r g e l y i n t o l e r a n t , honest man"  robbery  experience  who  " . . . i n s t e a d of c h a r i t y " d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n .  chose He  42.  E x c e r p t s from a l e t t e r sent by a U n i v e r s i t y - e d u c a t e d p r i s o n e r i n J u l y , I960, and r e a d by the p r e s e n t w r i t e r .  43.  Runyon, Tom,  I n F o r L i f e , New  York, N o r t o n ,  1954.  -  64  -  experienced the processes of law enforcement as e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e n t upon h i s d e s t r u c t i o n ; "With t h a t b e l i e f I l o s t r e s p e c t f o r e v e r y t h i n g about the Law except i t s power.  Where  I had been a n t i s o c i a l i n deed, w h i l e p a r a d o x i c a l l y being s o c i a l l y - m i n d e d , by the time the f i r s t  prison c e l l  door was  slammed i n my f a c e I had a r a t h e r s o l i d a n t i s o c i a l f o u n d a t i o n 44 under me."  The i n i t i a l  d e t e n t i o n , arraignment,  shocks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r r e s t ,  t r i a l and sentence might or might not  have s u p p l i e d a g e n u i n e l y " s o l i d a n t i s o c i a l f o u n d a t i o n " of themselves,  but the subsequent p r i s o n i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s d i d  n o t h i n g but c o n s o l i d a t e these d e s t r u c t i v e b e g i n n i n g s .  Later  he wrote "The m a l i c e and envy and h a t r e d I had seen on the outs i d e was a pale i m i t a t i o n of the bighouse at  me every minute I was out o f my c e l l  see t h a t imprisonment brought  v a r i e t y , and i t a t e I t wasn't hard to  out the v e r y worst  i n men,  causing them t o conceal any b e t t e r q u a l i t i e s they might have 45 l e s t others see them a s weaknesses."  (Emphasis s u p p l i e d . )  A l e s s p o l i s h e d r e c i d i v i s t , "Mustache", t o l d a j o u r n a l i s t what he p e r c e i v e d as the most l a s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n of the p r i s o n : "The k i d s t a l k about e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e I say can p i c k out the ones who know. 44. 45-  You t a l k t o a c a r t h i e f , you  , " P r i s o n Shocks", i n Robert G. C a l d w e l l , Criminology, New York, Ronald Press, 1956, p. 617. I b i d . , p. 621.  You  - 65 can l e a r n t o s t e a l a c a r .  You t a l k t o a b u r g l a r , you f i n d  out how t o be a b u r g l a r . " I f t h e observed phenomena a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e y a r e a l s o p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g e f f e c t s upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h i c and e m o t i o n a l s t a t e .  M i l l e r has  claimed emphatically that prisons i n h i b i t maturation  of t h e  47 personality, and Abrahamsen a s s e r t e d i n q u a s i - a x i o m a t i c f a s h i o n t h a t " . . . c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s r e s i s t a n c e t o 48 t h e r a p y i s f a r more pronounced i n p r i s o n t h a n o u t s i d e . " I t seems e v i d e n t t h a t e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l impairment would q u i t e n a t u r a l l y be t h e c o n c o m i t a n t s of a s o c i a l system w h i c h m e t h o d i c a l l y s t r i p p e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f any r e a l  choices  or i n d i v i d u a l i t y ! f o r l i v i n g , i n e f f e c t , as a s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g human b e i n g . Some A s s o r t e d Views E v e r s i n c e Lombroso f a t h e r e d the t h e o r y t h a t c r i m i n a l s are b o r n t h a t way, t h e r e have been o t h e r s whose c o n c l u s i o n s f o l l o w e d t h e same a e t i o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 49 determination. A l t h o u g h t h e o r i g i n a l b l u n t form i n w h i c h 46.  O'Connor, Len, They T a l k e d t o a S t r a n g e r ,  op. c i t . , p. 22.  47. M i l l e r , M i c h a e l , "A P l e a f o r S e l e c t i v e P s y c h i a t r i c Treatment f o r O f f e n d e r s " , J o u r , of C r i m . Law, Crim., and P o l i c e S c i e n c e , v o l . 37 (1946-47), pp. 377-383. 48.  Abrahamsen, D a v i d , Who Are t h e G u i l t y ? , New York, R i n e h a r t , 1952, p. 229.  49.  Some o f t h e most f a m i l i a r examples a r e Hooton,Ernest A., The American C r i m i n a l : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Study,Cambridge, Harvard U n i v . Press,1939. Kretschmer, E r n s t , Physique and C h a r a c t e r , L o n d o n , Kegan Paul,1925. S h e l d o n , W i l l i a m r l . , V a r i e t i e s " o f D e l i n q u e n t Youth,New York, Harper, 1949.  - 66 Lombroso expressed h i s ideas i s no l o n g e r i n p u b l i c t h e r e can be l i t t l e  doubt about  professional circles.  fashion,  t h e i r currency i n both l a y and  The popular press and  statutory  references to " i n c o r r i g i b l e delinquents" a t t e s t to the  former,  w h i l e some s c i e n t i f i c f o r m u l a t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n between " p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s " and behaviour p a t t e r n s c l e a r l y p l a c e them i n the l i n e a g e of the  positivists.  In some of t h e i r work, the Gluecks have g i v e n support t o the n o t i o n , t h a t b o d y - b u i l d may  be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n 50  the e x p l a n a t i o n of c r i m i n a l behaviour.  They concluded t h a t  t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d e l i n q u e n t t r a i t s , and t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n types of physique produce environmental p r e s s u r e s .  d i f f e r e n t i a l responses t o  Reckless d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  r e c i d i v i s t s whose r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n r e s u l t e d from  socio-  l o g i c a l causes and those from p a t h o l o g i c a l causes.  He  d e s c r i b e d the l a t t e r as showing a p a t t e r n of " u n c o n t r o l l a b l e r e p e t i t i o n of c r i m i n a l a c t s " but made e x c e p t i o n of one  group  s u f f e r i n g from p a t h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ; namely, "...the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l who t u r n s t o crime i n order 51 t o make a l i v i n g . " Handicaps may be e i t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 50. Glueck, Sheldon and E l e a n o r , U n r a v e l l i n g J u v e n i l e Delinquency, New York, Commonwealth Fund, 1950, ch. 15; and Physique and Delinquency, New York, Harper, 1956. 51. Reported i n M o r r i s , Charles V., "The T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on Criminology", op. c i t . , p. 50.  - 67 -  or a c c i d e n t a l i n o r i g i n , and d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t a l groups respond d i f f e r e n t l y t o v a r i o u s h a n d i c a p s .  I t becomes  a p p a r e n t , t h e n , t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n can s c a r c e l y be t a k e n alone as the explanation f o r a r e c i d i v i s t i c career; a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s may have e x e r t e d  i n f l u e n c e s o f comparable c r i t i c a l  significance. The  idea that single-cause  t h e o r i e s of c r i m i n a l i t y a r e  not l i k e l y t o be adequate t o t h e f a c t s has been d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g the p a s t few decades.  A noted f o r e n s i c  p s y c h i a t r i s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o i n t by s a y i n g t h a t the p r i s o n may c r e a t e an "...atmosphere i n which p a t h o l o g y e x i s t i n g blossoms out i n f u l l e s t e x t e n t  already  or l a t e n t states  52  become a c t i v a t e d . "  Here i s no attempt t o be d o c t r i n a i r e  about THE cause, b u t , r a t h e r , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n t i m a t e i n t e r p l a y between both o b v i o u s and s u b t l e f a c e t s o f human existence. Cormier and h i s team a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y have n o t e d t h a t t h e r e c i d i v i s t i s g e n e r a l l y seen i n a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n ; namely, h i s r e p e t i t i o n o f a n t i - l a w f u l a c t s . a s i n g l e p a r t o f the p e r s o n and o f h i s t o t a l , unsatisfactory situation.  Nevertheless  But t h i s i s o n l y relatively  I t i s t h e p a r t upon  w h i c h s o c i e t y f a s t e n s i t s o f f i c i a l a t t e n t i o n , the consequence of w h i c h i s t h e removal o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m normal s o c i e t y 52. Banay, R a l p h S., "Non-Convulsive E l e c t r o - S t i m u l a t i o n f o r T e n s i o n , C o n v e r s i o n , A n x i e t y and P a r a n o i d S t a t e s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Amer. P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c . , New Y o r k , A.P.A., 1951, PP. 104-111.  - 68 and communication.  "... and t h i s i s one of the reasons  why  he i s d i f f i c u l t t o reach f o r the p s y c h i a t r i s t and c l i n i c i a n . " Cormier comments t h a t r e m i s s i o n and r e l a p s e a r e known i n people  s u f f e r i n g from a wide assortment  of emotional and  p s y c h i c t r o u b l e s , but t h a t no stigma a t t a c h e s t o the r e c u r r e n c e of i l l n e s s of a f u n c t i o n a l s o r t .  T h i s makes i t more p o s s i b l e  t o keep p a t i e n t s under o b s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t phases of i l l n e s s , and a i d s i n the development of both p r e v e n t i v e and t h e r a p e u t i c measures.  The i n f e r e n c e made by the M c G i l l team  was t h a t t h e r e was no reason t o support  the assumption t h a t  the r e c i d i v i s t i s i n "...a c h r o n i c and permanent s t a t e , w i t h out a l t e r n a t i n g between a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour  and p e r i o d s when  54 he i s l a w - a b i d i n g . "  O f f i c i a l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s  and a c t i o n s d i r e c t e d t o t h e r e c i d i v i s t , then, have as one e f f e c t the v i r t u a l i n s u l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l from  processes  which might enhance h i s more h e a l t h y areas, and p e r i o d s o f performance.  Thus, i n some cases, r e c i d i v i s m may be the d i r e c t  outcome of management approaches t o people  suffering  periodical-  l y from more or l e s s severe episodes of f u n c t i o n a l impairment. Contemporary t e c h n i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h methods may sometimes i n h i b i t  scholars i n t h e i r investigations  so t h a t they ignore or suppress  the apparent  simply because i t  i s i n c a p a b l e of "measurement" by predetermined  methods or  because i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y e s o t e r i c t o r e f l e c t  favourably  53. Cormier, Bruno, e t a l . , "The P e r s i s t e n t Offender", Canadian Jour*, of C o r r e c t i o n s , Oct. 1963, see p.258-261. 54. I b i d . , p. 259.  - 69 upon t h e i r e r u d i t i o n .  Sometimes a s t u t e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e made  on m a t e r i a l o f t h e most c e n t r a l importance by t h o s e who a r e l e s s preoccupied intelligently  w i t h process than w i t h the product of  ingested observation.  Two  outstanding  j o u r n a l i s t s , among o t h e r s , have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n which immediate l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s make t o t h e 55  c u l t i v a t i o n of r e c i d i v i s t i c  offenders.  These a r e i n c o n t r a s t  t o t h o s e b r o a d e r s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f s u b - c u l t u r e s and o f p r i s o n s w h i c h were r e v i e w e d e a r l i e r .  F i n e s t a t e s t h e obvious  "...there  a n adequate home.  can be no home l i f e w i t h o u t  When  p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n have t o s l e e p t o g e t h e r , sometimes f i v e and s i x i n a bed r e g a r d l e s s o f sex, i n rooms used f o r a l l purposes, the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r i v a c y , t h e t e n s i o n s t h a t a r i s e from l a c k of s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s and from o v e r - c r o w d i n g , a l l combine t o degrade the f a m i l y where t h e v e r y r o o t s o f i t s l i f e s h o u l d be 56  growing s t r o n g and h e a l t h y —  i n t h e home."  Not o n l y p h y s i c a l  but c u l t u r a l and m o r a l d e p r i v a t i o n a l s o a r e o f f e r e d as a k i n d o f d e f i c i e n c y whose consequence can be p r e d i c t e d t o be r e c i d i v i s m w i t h about t h e same p r o g n o s t i c a c c u r a c y  a s one might p r e d i c t  r i c k e t s as a consequence o f v i t a m i n D d e f i c i e n c y . 55. F i n e , Benjamin, 1,000,000 D e l i n q u e n t s , New York, W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1955; r e p r i n t e d by t h e New American L i b r a r y , 1957, ( r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o t h e l a t t e r ) . S a l i s b u r y , H a r r i s o n E., The Shook-Up G e n e r a t i o n , New York, H a r p e r , 1958; r e p r i n t e d by F a w c e t t W o r l d L i b r a r y , 1959, ( r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o t h e l a t t e r ) . 56. F i n e , Benjamin, op. c i t . , p. 62.  - 70 -  A P u l i t z e r P r i z e w i n n i n g j o u r n a l i s t drew a t t e n t i o n v i v i d l y t o the " S p l i t - l e v e l delinquency i n the q u i e t  suburban  57  communities..."  where absence o f a mellowed  t r a d i t i o n , d i s p a r i t i e s i n t h e backgrounds  neighbourhood  and i n t h e  a s p i r a t i o n s of competitive-minded r e s i d e n t s s t r i v i n g f o r r a p i d s o c i a l e s c a l a t i o n , and t h e mechanized  m o b i l i t y of e s s e n t i a l l y  bored, a g g r e s s i v e young people have p r o v i d e d sometimes a more dangerous m i l i e u t h a n t h e o l d slum.  He s u b j e c t e d t o p e r s o n a l  and a c i d e x a m i n a t i o n t y p i c a l urban renewal p r o j e c t s , o u t w a r d l y a s i g n o f improvement, but i n t e r n a l l y h a r s h g h e t t o s showing " . . . t h e p l a n n e d absence o f a r t , beauty o r t a s t e , t h e g i g a n t i c masses o f b r i c k , o f c o n c r e t e , o f a s p h a l t , t h e inhuman g e n i u s w i t h w h i c h o u r know-how has been p e r v e r t e d t o c r e a t e human c e s s p o o l s worse t h a n those o f y e s t e r d a y  I t i s better described  eg  as a #20,000,000. slum." • I t i s e n t i r e l y r e l e v a n t t o f o c u s upon c o n d i t i o n s o r i n f l u e n c e s suggested a s p o w e r f u l s o u r c e s o f c r i m i n a l i t y ,  inas-  much as t h e one and o n l y p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r r e c i d i v i s m i s a s t a t i s t i c a l prison record.  I f the v e r y e x p e r i e n c e o f i m p r i s o n -  ment makes a r e t u r n more l i k e l y , q u i t e a s i d e from p o s s i b l e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s , any c o n d i t i o n s which a r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n t h i s e x p e r i e n c e may be seen as h a v i n g r e l e v a n t 57. S a l i s b u r y , H a r r i s o n E., op. c i t . , p. 94. 53. I b i d . p. 62-63.  - 71 connections w i t h r e c i d i v i s m . Some S i g n i f i c a n t Areas of Consensus A e t i o l o g i c a l and d i a g n o s t i c f o r m u l a t i o n s are o f t e n r e m i n i s c e n t  o f t h e f a b l e d " B l i n d men o f Hindustan"  each o f which d e s c r i b e d  the elephant on the b a s i s of that p a r t  grasped between h i s hands. observation  i n criminology-  The f a u l t i s not so much i n a c c u r a t e  as incomplete p e r c e p t i o n .  of the s u b j e c t recognize  Increasingly,  students  the n e c e s s i t y f o r i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t s o f a more d i s c e r n i n g approach t o its  problems. Some important p o i n t s of agreement can a l r e a d y be  i d e n t i f i e d a s having s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p o l i c y judgements w i t h reference  to recidivism.  F i r s t , there  i s wide acknowledgement  of the impact of p h y s i c a l , p s y c h i c , b i o l o g i c a l , and  socio-economic  c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s upon each other and upon i n d i v i d u a l s and  groups.  While no one f a c t o r may be d e s c r i b e d  "cause" i t s r e l e v a n c y  t o the genesis  c o r r e c t l y as  of r e c i d i v i s m may be i n -  escapable and reasonably s u s c e p t i b l e t o d e f i n i t i o n . Considerable  unanimity has been apparent i n s t u d i e s r e -  l a t i n g age t o r e c i d i v i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s .  Cormier and h i s team  found t h a t the abatement or the c e s s a t i o n of r e c i d i v i s m bears a r e a s o n a b l y p r e d i c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o such f a c t o r s as the age of the i n d i v i d u a l when he was f i r s t 59. See M o r r i s , Norval,  c o n v i c t e d and i n s t i t u t i o n a l -  The H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l , op. c i t . , p. 28.  - 72 60  i z e d , h i s p a t t e r n of r e c i d i v a t i n g t o date, and h i s present age. Comparable o b s e r v a t i o n s  have been made by others, and they a l s o  agree with Cormier i n n o t i n g t h a t the nature of the offences may  61 o f f e r a s a l i e n t index t o the r e l a t i v e r i s k of r e c i d i v i s m . I t may seem p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t , with r e s p e c t t o the l a t t e r , i t i s r e g u l a r l y reported f o r offences  t h a t both sex offenders and those  convicted  i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e , i n c l u d i n g homicide,  62 are l e s s l i k e l y t o r e c i d i v a t e than are property  offenders.  A major area of consensus i s that concerning of imprisonment.  Some assume t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l  the e f f e c t s  treatment  approaches w i l l and do produce correspondingly d i f f e r e n t prognoses f o r r e c i d i v i s m , but s o l i d r e s e a r c h One  f i n d i n g s a r e scant.  group r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e c o n v i c t i o n r a t e of r e c i d i v i s t s  subject to preventive  d e t e n t i o n i n the U.K. resembled t h a t of  other r e c i d i v i s t s "...with  the e x c e p t i o n  t h a t those sentenced t o  s h o r t sentences o f imprisonment or t o no imprisonment a t a l l 60. Cormier, Bruno et a l . , "The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r i m i n a l i t y and Some T e n t a t i v e Hypotheses on I t s Abatement", o p . c i t . 61.  See a review of r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s i n S e l l i n , Thorsten, " R e c i d i v i s m and Maturation", N.P.P.A. Jour., J u l y , 1958,  pp. 241-250.  62.  S t a t e d , during'an i n t e r v i e w , by Mr. L e s l i e W i l k i n s , see fn.p.27. A l s o see Z e i d l e r , J.C. e t a l . , "Five-Year FollowUp Study of the A f t e r - C a r e e r of P a t i e n t s Discharged from a S e c u r i t y H o s p i t a l f o r the C r i m i n a l l y Insane," Proceedings of the APA,1954,pp. 144-152. B e a t t i e , Ronald H., C a l i f o r n i a Male P r i s o n e r s Released on P a r o l e , 1946-1949: A Study of the P a r o l e Experience of t h i s Group as of January 1, 1953, Sacramento, Dep't. of C o r r e c t i o n , 1953, p. 19. O h l i n , L l o y d E., S e l e c t i o n f o r P a r o l e : A Manual f o r Parole P r e d i c t i o n , New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1951, p.52. Hayner, Norman S. and Joseph W. Rogers, A t t i t u d e s of Employers Towards H i r i n g Parolees, Unpublished survey, S e a t t l e Univ. of Washington, undated, p. 6.  -  had  73  -  somewhat fewer r e c o n v i c t i o n s . "  Tappan has echoed the  r e f l e c t i o n s o f o t h e r s by s a y i n g " P r i s o n e r r e c i d i v i s m r a t e s s h o u l d v a r y w i t h the c h a r a c t e r and program o f t h e 64  i n s t i t u t i o n ....There i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . . . " The u n d i s p u t e d e f f e c t o f p r i s o n upon the r e c i d i v i s t i s t o reduce h i s chances o f an e a r l y c e s s a t i o n f r o m law by c o m p l i c a t i n g h i s o r i g i n a l s o c i a l and p s y c h i c and  by m e t h o d i c a l l y  violation  disabilities  completing h i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n to the  life  65  of c r i m e .  Moreover, as R o y a l Commission c o n c l u d e d ,  "Punishment o r the t h r e a t o f punishment i n f l u e n c e s  their  b e h a v i o u r (psychopaths, s p e c i f i c a l l y those i n c a r c e r a t e d f o r law v i o l a t i o n ) o n l y m o m e n t a r i l y , a n d i t s more l a s t i n g e f f e c t i s t o i n t e n s i f y t h e i r v i n d i c t i v e n e s s and a n t i - s o c i a l 66  attitude."  Others have s t a t e d a s t h e i r c o n s i d e r e d  judgement t h a t the u s u a l p e n a l t i e s o f c o r r e c t i o n a l and  clinical penal  i n s t Howard i t u t i o n sLeague do notf o work i t i v e l y because t h e y tpol athe y iHome n t o the 63. r P e n ap lo s Reform, "Memorandum S e c r e t a r y ' s A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the Treatment o f O f f e n d e r s " , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the Howard League, 1961-2, p. 2. 64. Tappan, P a u l , Crime, J u s t i c e and C o r r e c t i o n , op. c i t . p.60. 65.  I n a d d i t i o n t o p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e s , see U.K., R e p o r t o f the D e p a r t m e n t a l Committee on P e r s i s t e n t O f f e n d e r s , op. c i t . , p.57. Frym, M a r c e l , "The Treatment o f R e c i d i v i s t s " , J o u r , of Crim. Law, Crim. and P o l i c e S c i e n c e , May-June, 1956, pp. 1-7. Weihofen, Henry, " R e t r i b u t i o n I s Obsolete',' op. c i t . , p. 4.  66.  U.K., R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission on the Law R e l a t i n g t o M e n t a l I l l n e s s and M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y 1954-1957, London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , p. 53.  - 74 defects of the offender's p e r s o n a l i t y , thus r e i n f o r c i n g h i s d i s t o r t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f and a f f e c t about t h e l a w a b i d i n g community.  F i n a l l y , l e s t t h e f a m i l i a r e x h o r t a t i o n be made  t o " g e t tough" and "throw t h e book" a t p e r s i s t e n t o f f e n d e r s , M o r r i s d i s c o v e r e d f r o m a s u b s t a n t i a l and c a r e f u l s t u d y "...the  that  l e n g t h o f each p e r i o d o f p e n a l confinement had no  e f f e c t on t h e subsequent i n t e r v a l between d i s c h a r g e and 68 reconviction." I n b r i e f , then, r e c i d i v i s m i s r e l a t e d t o a l l those c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t human e x i s t e n c e i n t i m a t e l y , some o f w h i c h a r e r e a d i l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o human m o d i f i c a t i o n whereas others are l e s s w e l l understood.  There a r e d i s t i n c t and wide  d i f f e r e n c e s between people c a t e g o r i z e d a s r e c i d i v i s t s .  These  d i f f e r e n c e s appear t o o f f e r s a l i e n t grounds f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment  and p r o g n o s i s ; f o r example, those  committing  a g g r e s s i v e a c t s show l e s s l i k e l i h o o d o f r e p e t i t i o n .  Finally,  the p r i s o n sentences by w h i c h s o c i e t y has sought t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f from t h e o f f e n d e r have proved t o be among the most e f f i c i e n t d e v i c e s f o r making "bad p e o p l e "  i n f i n i t e l y worse.  67. R e d l , F r i t z and David Wineman, C o n t r o l s f r o m W i t h i n , Glencoe, F r e e P r e s s , 1952, p. 23568. M o r r i s , N o r v a l , The H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l , op. c i t . , p. 369.  - 75  -  CHAPTER  FOUR  THE RELEVANCE OF RECIDIVISM FOR SOCIAL POLICY P r e v a i l i n g P o l i c i e s and P r a c t i c e s At s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n the preceding  c h a p t e r s some  i n f o r m a t i o n has emerged c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f r e c i d i v i s t r e c o r d s upon t h o s e who come w i t h i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l of r e c i d i v i s t .  definition  F o r some c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e r e a r e e x p l i c i t  p o l i c i e s which govern, w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s p r a c t i c e may r e f l e c t r a t h e r i n f l e x i b l e d e d i c a t i o n t o c e r t a i n assumptions about r e c i d i v i s t s a l t h o u g h there  i s no e x p l i c i t , mandatory  policy. The former ease, where p o l i c y i s f i x e d , i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the C r i m i n a l Code, of Canada ( P a r t XXI) with respect t o the indeterminate  s e n t e n c e , and i n p r o v i s i o n s  of t h e Code which deny t h e c o u r t d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e use of probation  i f a specific recidivist history exists.  Canadian p r o v i s i o n s f o r P r e v e n t i v e the o l d e r E n g l i s h P r e v e n t i o n  D e t e n t i o n were based on  o f Crime A c t , 1908, w h i c h had  been r e g a r d e d a s a f a i l u r e i n England e a r l i e r . vigorous  The  Despite  some  o p p o s i t i o n i n the Commons, a p p a r e n t l y t h e E n g l i s h 1  e x p e r i e n c e was n o t s t u d i e d p r i o r t o enactment  suggesting  t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n might owe more t o s e n t i m e n t than t o rationality. 1.  See Canada, House o f Commons Debates, v o l . 86, no. 104.  - 76 A n o t h e r example o f f i x e d p o l i c y i s t h a t o f t h e S t a t e of Washington s t a t u t e w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t o f f e n d e r s c o n v i c t e d as h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s c o u l d n o t r e c e i v e p a r o l e 2 consideration f o r a t l e a s t f i f t e e n years.  U n t i l 1964 t h e  f a c t o f a r e c i d i v i s t r e c o r d made a defendant i n e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e l e g a l a i d through t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Law S o c i e t y . Although  t h i s was t h e p o l i c y o f a v o l u n t a r y p r o f e s s i o n a l  s e r v i c e i t i s no l e s s c r u c i a l f o r those who may go undefended i n a c r i m i n a l a c t i o n because o f i t . Barnes and T e e t e r s , i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y of i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentences "...at present  i n the United States, reported that  (1959) a l l b u t the f e d e r a l system and n i n e 3  s t a t e s have some form o f t h e i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e n t e n c e . " sentence  This  i n v a r i a b l y r e q u i r e s some r e c o r d of r e c i d i v i s m , r a t h e r  t h a n s i m p l y an a c t o f u n u s u a l t h r e a t .  Rubin r e f e r s t o t h i s  type o f s t a t u t e as " P r o b a b l y the most u n f o r t u n a t e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e narrow d e f i n i t i o n . . . (of r e c i d i v i s m ) , " ^  -  s i n c e i t adds  u n u s u a l l y severe p e n a l t i e s t o t h e person who has been imprisoned before - r e g a r d l e s s of h i s present prognosis. 2. Chapter 9.95.040 (3), R e v i s e d Code o f Washington; see page 16 above f o r e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s . 3. Barnes and T e e t e r s , New H o r i z o n s i n C r i m i n o l o g y , op. c i t . , p. 570. 4.  R u b i n , " R e c i d i v i s m and R e c i d i v i s m S t a t i s t i c s , " op. c i t . , p. 233.  - 77 Criminal Code sections which provide f o r mandatoryincreases i n sentences f o r second and subsequent convictions also deny the court d i s c r e t i o n i n assessing what d i s p o s i t i o n i s most appropriate and s o c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l . The informal p o l i c i e s and practices invoked i n cases of recidivism are no less potent i n t h e i r e f f e c t s , and may seen as the precursors of o f f i c i a l p o l i c y often. 1962,  be  In July,  the Vancouver Sun published a series of f i v e a r t i c l e s  dealing with what i t described as the "controversial new  look"  i n penal administration.^  was  The main burden of the series  that the "do-gooders" were i n control of the d i s p o s i t i o n and the handling of offenders, that t h e i r regime was  sentimental  and s o f t , and that as a r e s u l t of shorter sentences and an easing of punishment dangerous criminals were laughing at law enforcement and were having a " f i e l d day". was  The obvious remedy  to return control to saner, hard-headed o f f i c i a l s  who  believed i n s u b s t a n t i a l punishment. The series was accompanied by e d i t o r i a l s i n similar vein, and prominence was given to news items reporting the b e l i e f of the chairman of the National Parole Board that " . . . i t was a waste of time to send a man with a long record to j a i l f o r less than two years going to commit crimes again."^  I t ' s obvious they (sic) are I t seemed superfluous,  5.  The Vancouver Sun, beginning July 3, 1962,  6.  Ibid., July 18,  1962.  p. 1.  -  73  -  a p p a r e n t l y , t h a t the press should make a examination  t o d i s c o v e r how  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  much any  r e a l and how  meticulous  change i n penal  much p u r e l y v e r b a l .  One  need not be h i g h l y knowledgeable i n t h i s area t o r e f u t e t o t a l l y the assumptions which were r e f l e c t e d both i n the s e r i e s and  i n the statement of the Parole Board chairman.  Nevertheless  they, and p u b l i c i t y l i k e them, have an i n f l u e n c e  out of p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r accuracy  or t h e i r  intelligence.  W i t h i n the subsequent p e r i o d Vancouver has a c q u i r e d q u e s t i o n a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n of p r o s e c u t i n g and defendants as h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s than any jurisdiction.  the  i m p r i s o n i n g more  other Canadian  An e d i t o r i a l r e f e r s to t h i s f a c t  with  s a t i s f a c t i o n and p o n t i f i c a t e s " I t i s a j u s t sentence and 7 important  value i n p r o t e c t i n g the p u b l i c ' s s a f e t y . "  of  It is  r e m i n i s c e n t of the a t t i t u d e which, f o r the " p u b l i c ' s safety", always suppresses I t was  the e m p i r i c i s t ,  Galileo.  Harry W a t e r f i e l d ' s misfortune  to be h a l e d  court j u s t a f t e r Vancouver had been c o n d i t i o n e d f o r a aged man two  w i t h a twenty-year crime r e c o r d .  s m a l l business e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  s h o r t sentence would do no good.  charged.  observed  He went on "We  p a r o l e board," and the news item concluded  middle-  He had broken i n t o  No t h e f t was  judge noted h i s r e c o r d of imprisonments and  into  now  The  that a have a  " L a s t month,  Parole Board chairman, T. George S t r e e t , s a i d c r i m i n a l s w i t h l o n g r e c o r d s should be g i v e n h e a v i e r j a i l terms." 7.  I b i d . , Jan. 16,  3.  I b i d . , Aug.  6,  1964. 1962.  (One  hopes  - 79 t h a t t h i s i s simply a f o r t u i t o u s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than a t a c i t e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t the j u d i c i a r y i s now i n s t r u c t e d by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency of government.) C u r i o u s l y enough, two years e a r l i e r the same man was to a p r i s o n term o f two years "..because he (the  sentenced  magistrate)  f e l t t h e c o n v i c t e d man needed the d i s c i p l i n e of the B.C. 9 Penitentiary."  The P a r o l e Board e x i s t e d a t t h a t time a l s o .  A study of employer a t t i t u d e s towards the employing of men on p a r o l e i n c l u d e d the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "Strong  negative  r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t r e c i d i v i s t s were noted by s e v e r a l . . . . Examples i n c l u d e d : 'The f a c t t h a t so many c r i m i n a l s are r e p e a t e r s makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a l l p a r o l e e s * , and 'would not c o n s i d e r a two-time  loser*."^  An i n t e r n a t i o n a l survey d i s c o v e r e d t h a t European usage, on the whole, has been t o r e g a r d r e c i d i v i s m simply as a s t a t i s t i c a l f a c t f o r purposes o f s e g r e g a t i o n or grouping, as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h " . . . i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n ' s concern w i t h the 1 nature  of o f f e n d e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r needs and a p t i t u d e s . "  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on Criminology which 9. I b i d . , J a n . 19, I960. 10.  concentrated  Hayner, and Rogers, A t t i t u d e s o f Employers Toward H i r i n g P a r o l e e s , op. c i t . , p. 7.  11. I.P.P. Foundation, Modern Methods o f Penal op. c i t . , p. 50.  Treatment.  -coupon r e c i d i v i s m brought t o l i g h t that r e c i d i v i s m "..mayr e s u l t i n increased  sentences, may exclude the o f f e n d e r  c e r t a i n sentences - as p r o b a t i o n  - or i t may c r e a t e  from  liability  12 i n the o f f e n d e r f o r otherwise innocent reference  i s t o such " a c t s " as t h e p o s s e s s i o n  I t i s evident, —a  The l a s t of tools.  then, t h a t t h e presence o f r e c i d i v i s m  s t a t i s t i c a l item —  regardless  acts."  i n the case o f an i n d i v i d u a l ,  of any other f a c t s p e r t i n e n t t o him, has the common  e f f e c t of s u b j e c t i n g him t o t h e most grievous l e g a l l i m i t a t i o n s short of the death sentence. a frame o f r e f e r e n c e ,  p e n a l t i e s and Given t h i s as  c o u r t s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s need  never see the i n d i v i d u a l nor l e a r n anything  about him but the  number which i s the measure of h i s r e c i d i v i s m .  One s o c i a l  s c i e n t i s t has made an o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h aptness f o r t h i s situation.  " I f p r e d i c t i o n s based on frequency were a l l that  were p o s s i b l e , then a H o l l e r i t h machine worked on the b a s i s of known f r e q u e n c i e s  by a robot  c o u l d p r e d i c t f u t u r e behaviour  as w e l l as a s e n s i t i v e judge." The  Absurdity  13  of an A l l e g e d Realism.  I r o n i c a l l y , those who p l e a d f o r "hard-headed r e a l i s m , " i n the form of more p u n i t i v e measures, appear t o be the most 12.  M o r r i s , Charles V., "The T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on C r i m i n o l o g y " , op. c i t . , p. 49.  13.  A l l p o r t , G.W., "The Use of P e r s o n a l Documents i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Science", S.S.R.C. B u l l e t i n , no. 49, 1942, p. 159.  - 81 abject victims of sentiment. regimentation  They prize punishment and  i n spite of i t s long history of e f f e c t s  which are diametrically a n t i t h e t i c a l to those sought. determination who  The  to give more of the same treatment to someone  has obviously deteriorated during e a r l i e r incarceration  sounds l i k e a decision of one who  has not heard the salient  f a c t s ; i t i s absurd ! After making his painstaking inquiry into habitual offenders i n the United Kingdom, Morris made the conclusion that "Not  pointed  only i s the habitual criminal a  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t member of the prison population, but he i s a part of that population r e l a t i v e l y untouched by 14 the l e g i s l a t i o n intended  to combat him."  Either the  statutory or regulatory provisions are f a u l t y , or t h e i r administration i s f a u l t y , or both are. of sentencing  A Canadian study  contained the conclusion that "The  constantly  repeated fact of recidivism negates much of the l e g a l 15 theory of the e f f e c t of punishment i n  deterrence."  Jaffary suggested that the theory and practice are not challenged  j u d i c i a l l y because "...law i s shaped by the  written decisions of the higher courts of appeal" which 14. Morris, Norval, The Habitual Criminal, op. c i t . , p. 27. 15. Jaffary, Stuart K., Sentencing of Adults i n Canada, Toronto, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1963, p. 17.  - 82 hear only a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of c r i m i n a l cases and even more r a r e l y see the defendant, and are thus " . . u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the c r i m i n a l law i n a c t i o n . " ^ 1  Another a s t u t e s o c i a l observer, commenting on an a r t i c l e by Mr. "The  John S c o t t Henderson Q.C.  entitled  A r t of P a s s i n g Sentence i n Court", r e j e c t s even the  experience of the m a g i s t r a t e - who  DOES  see c r i m i n a l  i n a c t i o n - as a r e l i a b l e guide t o p r a c t i c e .  law  Lady Wootton,  h e r s e l f "a m a g i s t r a t e f o r over t h i r t y years and  ...  e n t i t l e d t o rank as h i g h l y experienced..", p o i n t e d out t h a t "No machinery e x i s t s f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n f o r m i n g him (the judge or m a g i s t r a t e ) about the subsequent h i s t o r y of 17 those cases  ( i n which he a d j u d i c a t e d ) . "  not g e n e r a l l y heard from those who those who  With candour  impose sentence nor  from  s u p e r v i s e i t s s a t i s f a c t i o n , Lady Wootton s a i d of  m a g i s t r a t e s , judges and p r i s o n commissioners " . . . a l l  of  us...must reckon o u r s e l v e s to be great f a i l u r e s ; f o r i f the s t a t i s t i c s can be t r u s t e d , most crimes seem, i n  18  d e f i a n c e of a l l our e f f o r t s , to be i n c r e a s i n g every y e a r . " Those who have attempted t o s c r u t i n i z e the r e c i d i v i s t 16.  Wootton, Barbara, "Sentencing: A r t or S c i e n c e ? " S o c i e t y , no. 24, March 14,  17.  I b i d . , p.  19.  18.  I b i d . , p.  18.  1963,  see p.  19.  New  - 33 and the e f f e c t s of s o c i e t y * s i n t e r v e n t i o n upon through a c c e s s i b l e e m p i r i c a l data, have  him,  recorded  o b s e r v a t i o n s which negate p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the assumptions commonly h e l d on the s u b j e c t .  Numerous r e f e r e n c e s have a l -  ready been made t o grounds f o r r e f u t i n g the n o t i o n t h a t r e c i d i v i s m provides a r e l i a b l e , or even a remotely u s e f u l , guide t o the p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l  recidivist.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the n o t i o n t h a t r e c i d i v i s t s are more dangerous than other o f f e n d e r s i s the hypothesis much p r e v a i l i n g p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e d e r i v e s . Cormier and "..the  from which  Yet,  as  others have d i s c o v e r e d by studying the f a c t s  ones who  have seldom used v i o l e n c e e a r l y w i l l  tend t o r e s o r t t o i t l a t e r ; " ^ 9  a  n  (  j those who  are  not  convicted  of crimes of p a s s i o n , where v i o l e n c e i s used, r e c i d i v a t e  20 l e s s o f t e n than o t h e r s . Far from encouraging the view t h a t o f f e n d e r s w i l l  be  more e f f e c t i v e l y d e t e r r e d from r e c i d i v a t i n g by more lengthy and more p u n i t i v e imprisonment, the weight of evidence  overwhelming  d e c i s i v e l y i n d i c t s penal systems as  one  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o r e c i d i v i s m . Rubin says " R e c i d i v i s m r a t e s are i n g e n e r a l m i s i n t e r p r e t e d 19.  Cormier, e t a l . , p. 253.  20.  See  footnoted,  "The  p. 12 .  P e r s i s t e n t Offender",  op. c i t . ,  by being considered  84 -  t o o much as evidence o f c r i m i n a l i t y 21  r a t h e r than o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  policy."  1  Our p r o c l i v i t y t o  r e f e r t o t h e r e c i d i v i s t as the one who has " f a i l e d " Or has "not  responded t o treatment" i s challenged  by the most  o b j e c t i v e s t u d i e s a v a i l a b l e , and we a r e c o n s t r a i n e d examining our o f f i c i a l f a i l u r e s performance.  t o begin  of p e r c e p t i o n and of  Moreover, r e c i d i v i s t s t a t i s t i c s do not by  themselves provide a measure o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l regimes.  They " . . . f a i l t o take i n t o  account the number of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  and i n d e f i n i t e f a c t o r s  t h a t govern human conduct, ...the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  framework,...  the p r a c t i c e s o f the . . ( i n s t i t u t i o n ) , w i t h i n the environment 22 ..or w i t h i n - t h e  p a r o l e p r a c t i c e s o f any g i v e n  state."  Fourteen c o u n t r i e s r e p l y i n g t o an i n q u i r y sent by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C h i l d Welfare were " . . . v i r t u a l l y unanimous i n r e g a r d i n g  r e c i d i v i s m as a c r i t e r i o n which i s  inadequate i n i t s e l f f o r measuring treatment  effectiveness  and  also misleading  i n that i t i s a f u n c t i o n a l s o of many 23 " other f a c t o r s extraneous t o treatment." The "sentimentalists 21. Rubin, " R e c i d i v i s m and R e c i d i v i s m S t a t i s t i c s , " op. c i t . , p. 238. 22.  A r b u c k l e , Dugald S. and Lawrence Litwack, "A Study of R e c i d i v i s m Among J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , Dec. I960, p. 48.  23. M o r r i s o n , R.L., "General Report:Modern Approaches t o the R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment o f D i f f i c u l t Cases of Delinquency - A Survey o f Progress and Problems," I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d Welfare Review, v o l . 17, no. 3-4, Geneva, I.U.C.W., 1963, p. 80 (emphasis added).  - 35 are s t i c k l e r s f o r r e a l  data!  Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l P o l i c y An examination of the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o r e c i d i v i s m and r e c i d i v i s t s c r y s t a l l i z e s c e r t a i n questions of p o l i c y .  The  assumption here i s that the purpose of  s o c i a l p o l i c y i n t h i s area  i s t o a f f o r d the community the  optimum p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t l o s s and danger. u t i l i t a r i a n purpose and  This i s a  r i g h t l y c a l l s f o r the g r e a t e s t  r a t i o n a l i t y i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and  execution.  Inasmuch as r e c i d i v i s m i s i r r e l e v a n t t o and  t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  diagnosis  of the most a p p r o p r i a t e method of  d e a l i n g w i t h a s p e c i f i c o f f e n d e r a t a given time, t h i s concept should have no p l a c e i n penal p o l i c y .  In i t s place  the C r i m i n a l Code should s e t f o r t h as e x p l i c i t l y p o s s i b l e s t a t u t o r y c r i t e r i a of dangerousness. Sentencing  Act, which was  the product  as  The  Model  of s e v e r a l years* work 24  by the C o u n c i l of Judges, o f f e r s a p e r t i n e n t example.  It  e s t a b l i s h e s three c a t e g o r i e s of dangerous c r i m i n a l s and provides f o r l o n g terms o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n , up t o t h i r t y f o r any  c o n v i c t e d person coming w i t h i n one  Only a judge may 24.  of the  years,  categories.  determine whether the o f f e n d e r can  be  A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l of Judges, Model Sentencing Act, New York, N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on Crime and Delinquency, 1963, (Reproduced w i t h commentaries i n Crime and Delinquency, Oct. 1963).  - 86 l e g a l l y declared  dangerous, and  he makes h i s f i n d i n g i n the  l i g h t of presentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and, where danger i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r , the f i n d i n g s of d i a g n o s t i c centre  the  study.  As a c o r o l l a r y , and  i n acknowledgement of the  g e n e r a l l y adverse s o c i a l e f f e c t s of imprisonment, the dangerous o f f e n d e r  should  committal t o p r i s o n . c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  be d e a l t w i t h by methods other  than  Again r e c i d i v i s m i s an i r r e l e v a n t  should  which makes p r o b a t i o n  non-  not d i m i n i s h the e f f e c t of p o l i c y  a f i r s t l i n e of defence.  In the  United  Kingdom, a t l e a s t s i n c e the enactment o f the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t , 1948,  i t has  been incumbent upon the  court to provide  reasons i n w r i t i n g why  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l sentence was  rather than probation,  under c e r t a i n circumstances.  S i m i l a r l y , the p r o v i s i o n s of p a r o l e  should  be e q u a l l y  imposed  avail-  a b l e f o r use  i n the management of any person s e r v i n g a p r i s o n  sentence. The  Model Sentencing Act, w h i l e p r o v i d i n g f o r the  p o s s i b i l i t y of l o n g sentences, does make i t p o s s i b l e f o r even the dangerous o f f e n d e r Probation  and  to be e l i g i b l e f o r p a r o l e . p a r o l e a r e l a w f u l p r o v i s i o n s f o r the  s u p e r v i s i o n of a c o n v i c t e d person under sentence. c o n f u s i o n w i t h l e n i e n c y i s both l e g a l l y and erroneous.  The  undernourished c o n d i t i o n and  standards of e i t h e r a p r o b a t i o n be r e c o g n i z e d  or a p a r o l e  Their  conceptually the mediocre s e r v i c e need t o  f o r what they are, symptoms of inadequacy,  r a t h e r than as normative of the methods.  I t i s obvious t h a t  - 87 if,  as a matter o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , the community i s going t o  r e l y upon p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e f o r a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of i t s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t law v i o l a t o r s , these s e r v i c e s w i l l have t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y c u l t i v a t e d and nourished t o a h i g h l e v e l of p h y s i c a l and t e c h n i c a l adequacy.  There i s every reason f o r  l e g i s l a t u r e s t o a p p r o p r i a t e funds generously f o r these methods of crime c o n t r o l r a t h e r than s t a r v i n g them while a l l o c a t i n g hundreds of m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y f o r t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of an a l r e a d y d i s c r e d i t e d " s c h o o l of crime" system. In those i n s t a n c e s where no s a f e or f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o c u s t o d i a l c o n t r o l i s present, the i n s t i t u t i o n must be governed by the same o b j e c t i v e o f p u b l i c s a f e t y as t h a t governing justice,  other a s p e c t s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c r i m i n a l  "...penal treatment  should s t i m u l a t e and awaken the  best q u a l i t i e s of the p r i s o n e r , so t h a t he s h o u l d r e t u r n t o  25 the community a b e t t e r man."  This unambiguous statement of  i n t e n t might w e l l summarize the governing p r i n c i p l e s i n r a t i o n a l p r i s o n p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n .  This would make the  d e l i b e r a t e l y s a d i s t i c or the n e g l e c t f u l treatment  of inmates -  and even t h e i r merely c a r e l e s s h a n d l i n g - as r e p r e h e n s i b l e and as s u b j e c t t o o f f i c i a l  i n q u i r y and remedy as should be the case  i n a w e l l - a d m i n i s t e r e d h o s p i t a l m a t e r n i t y ward.  Public policy  i s here not l i m i t e d i n i t s concern t o the i n d i v i d u a l o f f e n d e r 25. I.P.P.P., Modern Methods of Penal Treatment, op. c i t . , p. XIX.  - 88 and h i s p a i n s .  I t extends t o the s a f e t y of the o f f e n d e r ' s  f a m i l y , neighbours and t o others i n the communities  where  he w i l l be a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e , and w i t h the kinds of behaviour t o be a n t i c i p a t e d of him as a consequence  of h i s  c o n d i t i o n i n g in^ p r i s o n . There a r e a l r e a d y examples of attempts t o c r e a t e an i n s t i t u t i o n a l m i l i e u , a " t h e r a p e u t i c community", f o r the r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f persons who freedom  i n t h e i r present s t a t e .  cannot be t r u s t e d w i t h  Many of these programs -  i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, i n the Scandinavian c o u n t r i e s and i n the Netherlands - have been v i s i t e d by o f f i c i a l 26 observers,  during special inquiries.  Canadian  Both the f a v o u r a b l e  and the unfavourable r e s u l t s of these programs are r i c h sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Canadian o f f i c i a l s i n t e n t upon making s u i t a b l e a d a p t a t i o n of them to Canadian  jurisdictions.  The d i r e c t o r of one such a c t i v i t y prepared an a n a l y s i s of i t s f i r s t  seven years of work.  The  report  c o n s t i t u t e d one of the p r e p a r a t o r y papers f o r the F o u r t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C r i m i n o l o g i c a l Congress a t Le Hague, I960. The r e p o r t concluded "For the s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d it  recidivist  (the problem of c o r r e c t i v e treatment) asks p r e f e r a b l y a  s o c i o t h e r a p e u t i c approach i n a community and such a 26. Canada, Archambault Report, op. c i t . , pp. 3-5; and Canada, Report of a Committee Appointed to I n q u i r e Into the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Followed i n the Remission S e r v i c e of the Department of J u s t i c e of Canada, (Fauteux), Ottawa. Queen's P r i n t e r . 1956. p. 3.  - 89 therapeutic  community can  -  only f l o u r i s h i n the s e c u r i t y of  advanced democratic c o n d i t i o n s . could say  From t h i s p o i n t of view  one  t h a t the c r i m i n a l i n a c e r t a i n s o c i e t y gets  adequate h e l p as much as the m a t u r i t y 27 tolerate."  The  of i t s members can  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the q u a l i t y of personnel  r e q u i r e d a t every l e v e l of such an e n t e r p r i s e are enough without  patent  elaboration.  Even when the problems posed by s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s of inmates are q u i t e beyond the scope of c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g there  i s no reason t o abandon the e s s e n t i a l p o l i c y g o a l s .  I f methods of a m e l i o r a t i o n are u n c l e a r expectation  the r a t i o n a l  i s that emphasis w i l l need t o be p l a c e d upon  experimentation as p a r t of a l a r g e r r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y . t r a n s i t i o n from Bedlam t o the F o r e n s i c not f a n t a s y ; and  and  C l i n i c i i i Toronto i s  t h i s h i s t o r i c a l f a c t should  u n i v e r s a l l y recognized  The  be more  where i t m a t t e r s : i n s t a t u t e , p o l i c y  regulation. Repeated r e f e r e n c e  i s made, both p o p u l a r l y and  in  s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g , t o the r e l e n t l e s s impact of s o c i o economic f o r c e s upon the o f f e n d e r ; and c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e c i d i v i s m . 27.  s p e c i f i c a l l y , to i t s  R a t i o n a l l y , s o c i a l p o l i c y ought  Hein, G.W. Arendsen, O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management of a R e s o c i a l i z a t i o n Community as a S o c i o - T h e r a p e u t i c I n s t i t u t e f o r the Treatment of N e u r o t i c C r i m i n a l s : A Report of the Experience of Seven Years P r a c t i c e , (mimeographed), Ederveen, Holland, I960, p. 5.  - 90 to take cognizance o f those economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which encourage  l a w - a b i d i n g a t t i t u d e s and behaviour.  i s n o t h i n g e s o t e r i c about  There  the reasons why a man, l o n g employed,  w i l l steal.  The reasons a r e more c o m p e l l i n g when t h e man has  dependents,  a p r i s o n r e c o r d , and an accumulation of n e g l e c t e d  h e a l t h and r e l a t e d problems which a r e v i r t u a l l y concomitants of economic p r i v a t i o n .  inevitable  The v i r t u e of " h e l p i n g  y o u r s e l f " becomes a crime when a person i s d e s t i t u t e and i s denied a c c e s s t o l e g i t i m a t e means of s e l f - h e l p .  F o r t h e sake  of the g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n of the community, p u b l i c  policy  needs t o p r o v i d e r e a l i s t i c a l l y and adequately f o r t h e p h y s i c a l requirements o f i t s c i t i z e n s , i n c l u d i n g those who have broken the law.  Such p o l i c i e s need t o be understood as  b a s i c a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n r a t h e r than as s e n t i m e n t a l e x p r e s s i o n s of g o o d - w i l l , although humanitarian implementation i s n o t i r r e l e v a n t t o the g o a l .  Adequate p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n i n t h i s  r e s p e c t would make more c l e a r and manageable the t a s k s which are a p p r o p r i a t e t o v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l w e l f a r e on b e h a l f of the offender.  W i l k i n s made the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " I f the c a u s a t i o n  of crime i s m u l t i p l e , then i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t we have sought t o a t t a c k i t on a very l i m i t e d f r o n t . . . . t o operate on 28 o n l y h a l f o f a problem may n o t even s o l v e h a l f o f i t . " 28. W i l k i n s , L e s l i e T., "What I s Crime?", New S o c i e t y , no. 42, J u l y 18, 1963, p. 16.  - 91  -  F i n a l l y , p u b l i c p o l i c y which s e t s out t o m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y of a f r e e s o c i e t y must a s s i d u o u s l y w i t h i n i t s e l f those ideas and w i t h the s t a t e d purpose.  safeguard  p r a c t i c e s which are  Reference has been made t o the  s p e c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s and  p e n a l t i e s s u f f e r e d by the  as a matter of p o l i c y .  The  may  consistent  p r o v i s i o n by which a  be d e c l a r e d an h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l r e p r e s e n t s  recidivist recidivist  not  only  i r r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g unusual punishment. becomes the means by which important h i s t o r i c l e g a l  an  It safe-  guards t o c i v i l l i b e r t i e s are abrogated f o r c e r t a i n c i t i z e n s for  those coming w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d s t a t i s t i c a l  category.  E a r l y E n g l i s h law became more c o n s i s t e n t and by m o d i f i c a t i o n ; i n d i v i d u a l s could be s p e c i f i e d a c t s i n v i o l a t i o n of law, l i m i t e d by law  civilized  sentenced only f o r  and the p e n a l t i e s were  to correspond w i t h the s e v e r i t y of the  offence.  Indeterminate sentences, on the other hand, are v i r t u a l  life  sentences imposed f o r conforming to c e r t a i n " c o n d i t i o n s " " s t a t e s " which are l a r g e l y determined by a s t a t i s t i c a l  or  record.  In a most a s t u t e d i s c u s s i o n of the s u b j e c t P r o f e s s o r Brown i d e n t i f i e d one main d i f f i c u l t y by s a y i n g "...such a system would a l l o w l e g a l punishments whose s e v e r i t y had 29 p r o p o r t i o n t o the o f f e n c e . "  Not  lost a l l  only t h i s , but e s s e n t i a l l y  t h i s exhorbitant  penalty  29.  " T h e i r Brothers* Keepers", Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , no. 3, Autumn, 1961, pp. 411-417.  Brown, D.G., v o l . 68,  i s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t imposed f o r  - 92 the s u b s t a n t i v e o f f e n c e ; as i n the case of the  so-called  juvenile "incorrigible'' t h i s next-to-ultimate penalty i s given for  b e i n g a c e r t a i n c l a s s of o f f e n d e r .  Cormier and h i s  a s s o c i a t e s have noted t h a t " L e g a l l y , c r i m i n a l i t y i s a p r a c t i c e ,  30 not an i n t e n t i o n nor a d r i v e . "  A c r i m i n a l lawyer who  defended a l a r g e number of defendants i n h a b i t u a l  has  criminal  proceedings s t a t e d "The H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l p r o v i s i o n s of the C r i m i n a l Code are a s t a r t l i n g departure from 31 concepts of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e . "  established  He then proceeded t o show  t h a t the concepts of " c e r t a i n " sentences f o r s p e c i f i e d  crime,  had y i e l d e d t o indeterminate sentences f o r l e a d i n g " p e r s i s t e n t l y a c r i m i n a l l i f e " whose evidence l i e s i n a r e c o r d of  o f f e n c e s f o r which punishment had a l r e a d y been imposed. "It  i s one of the marks of a c i v i l i z e d c u l t u r e t h a t i t  has d e v i s e d l e g a l procedures t h a t minimize the impact of emotional r e a c t i o n s and s t r i v e f o r calm and r a t i o n a l d i s 32 position." The s t r e t c h i n g of concepts of j u s t i c e t o r i d the community of troublesome  people or of p o t e n t i a l l y  people weakens the f a b r i c of c i v i l  troublesome  liberty for a l l citizens.  O b j e c t i o n t o p o l i c y and s t a t u t e which s a n c t i o n such a t t r i t i o n 30. Cormier, et a l . , " P r e s e n t a t i o n of a B a s i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n C r i m i n o l o g y , " o p . c i t . p. 22. 31. Berger, Tom, Excerpt from a l e t t e r s e n t t o the B.C. C i v i l L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , Re. H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l s , A p r i l 1$, 1964. 3 2 . Weihofen, Henry, The Urge t o Punish : New Approaches t o the Problem of Mental I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Crime. New York. F a r r a r , S t r a u s and Cudahy, 1956, p. 131.  - 93 of the more c i v i l i z i n g elements i n our h e r i t a g e s u r e l y not  r e s t upon penal s t a t i s t i c s .  need  The s a f e g u a r d i n g of the r u l e  of law and of the c i v i l r i g h t s o f the very l e a s t  citizen,  i n s p i t e of the number o f times he has been i n p r i s o n , i s r i g h t because i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the c o n d i t i o n s which make for a civilized  society.  -  94  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY O f f i c i a l Reports and S t u d i e s B e a t t i e , Ronald H., C a l i f o r n i a Male P r i s o n e r s Released on P a r o l e , 1 9 4 6 - 1 9 4 9 ' A Study o f the P a r o l e Experience o f t h i s Group as of January 1 , 1 9 5 3 , Sacramento, Department of C o r r e c t i o n , 1 9 5 3 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report o f the Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 8 . Canada, House o f Commons Debates, v o l . 8 6 , no. 1 0 4 . , Law and Order i n Canadian Democracy:Crime and P o l i c e Work i n Canada, (Rev.), Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 2 . , Report of a Committee Appointed t o I n q u i r e i n t o the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Followed i n the Remission S e r v i c e of the Department o f J u s t i c e of Canada, (Fauteux), Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 . , Report o f the Royal Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e the Penal System o f Canada" (Archambault), Ottawa, King*s Printer, 1 9 3 8 . Hammond, W.H. and Edna Chayen, P e r s i s t e n t C r i m i n a l s , London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1 9 6 3 . Howard League f o r Penal Reform, "Memorandum t o the Home S e c r e t a r y ' s A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the Treatment of Offenders* ' Annual Report of t h e Howard League, 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 . 1  Shaw, C l i f f o r d and Henry McKay, " S o c i a l F a c t o r s i n J u v e n i l e Delinquency," N a t i o n a l Commission o f Law Observance and Enforcement, (Wickersham), v o l . 2 , no. 1 3 , Washington, 1931,  PP.  60-108.  U n i t e d Kingdom, Report of the Departmental Committee on P e r s i s t e n t O f f e n d e r s , Cmd. 4 0 9 0 , London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y Office, 1 9 3 2 . U n i t e d N a t i o n s , The Indeterminate Sentence, New York. U.N. Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 4 , ( S T / S O A / S D / 2 ) . , "Minimum Rules f o r the Treatment o f P r i s o n e r s : Statement o f General P r i n c i p l e s " , A s i a and the F a r E a s t Seminar on the P r e v e n t i o n of Crime and the Treatment o f Offenders, New York, U n i t e d Nations, 1 9 5 4 .  - 95 U n i t e d S t a t e s , F e d e r a l P r i s o n s , 1959, Washington, of J u s t i c e , 1959.  Department  Books Abrahamsen, P., Crime and the Human Mind, New York, Univ. Press, 1944.  Columbia  , Who Are the G u i l t y ? , New York, R i n e h a r t , 1952. A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l of Judges, Model Sentencing A c t , New York, N.C.C.D., 1963. Aichhorn, A., Wayward Youth, New York, V i k i n g Press,  1935.  Alexander, F. and W. Healy, The Roots o f Crime, New York, Knopf, 1935. Alexander, F. and H. Staub, The C r i m i n a l , the Judge and the P u b l i c . New York, Macmillan, 1931. Banay, Ralph S., "Non-Convulsive E l e c t r o - S t i m u l a t i o n f o r T e n s i o n , Conversion, A n x i e t y and P a r a n o i d S t a t e s , " Proceedings of the American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, A.P.A., 1951, pp. 104-111. Barnes, Harry Elmer and Negley K. T e e t e r s , New Horizons i n Criminology , 3rd. ed., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1959. Bowlby, John, F o r t y - F o u r T h i e v e s , London, B a i l l i e r e , and Cox, 1947.  Tindall  Clemmer, Donald, The P r i s o n Community, Boston, C h r i s t o p h e r Press, 1940. Cohen, A l b e r t K., D e l i n q u e n t Boys: The C u l t u r e of t h e Gang, Glencoe, Free Press, 1955. , A l f r e d Lindesmith and K a r l S c h u e s s l e r , eds., "Crime of C o r p o r a t i o n s , " The S u t h e r l a n d Papers, Bloomington, Ind., Indiana Univ. Press, 1956. E a s t , S i r Norwood, The Roots o f Crime, London, Butterworth and Co., 1954. F i n e , Benjamin, 1,000,000 D e l i n q u e n t s , New York, New L i b r a r y , 1957. ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1955). Glueck, Sheldon and E l e a n o r , One Thousand Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press, 1934.  American  J u v e n i l e Delinquents,  , U n r a v e l l i n g J u v e n i l e Delinquency, New Commonwealth Fund, 1950.  York,  - 96  -  , Physique and Delinquency. New  York,Harper,1956.  Goffman, E r v i n g , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n s " , Symposium on P r e v e n t i v e and S o c i a l P s y c h i a t r y , Washington, W a l t e r Reed Army I n s t i t u t e of Research, 1957. , Asylums,  New  1961.  York, Doubleday,  Healy, W i l l i a m , Mental C o n f l i c t s and Misconduct, Boston, L i t t l e Brown, 1917. and Augusta Bronner, Delinquents and C r i m i n a l s : T h e i r Making and Unmaking, New York, Macraillan, 1926. Hooton, E r n e s t A., The American C r i m i n a l : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Study, Cambridge, Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1939. J a f f a r y , S t u a r t K., Sentencing of A d u l t s i n Canada, Toronto, Univ. of Toronto P r e s s , 1963Kretschmer, E r n s t , Physique and Character, London, Kegan Paul, 1925. L i n d n e r , Robert, Rebel Without a Cause, New  York, Grove,  1944.  Meehl, P a u l E., C l i n i c a l Versus S t a t i s t i c a l P r e d i c t i o n : A T h e o r e t i c a l A n a l y s i s and a Review of the Evidence, M i n n e a p o l i s , Univ. of Minn., 1954. Merton, Robert K., S o c i a l Theory and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , (rev.) Glencoe, Free P r e s s , 1957. M o r r i s , N o r v a l , The H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l , Cambridge, Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1951. M u l l i n s , Claud, The Sentence on the G u i l t y , L i t t l e , London, C h i c h e s t e r , Sussex, J u s t i c e of the Peace, L t d . , 1957. 0*Connor, Len, They T a l k e d t o a S t r a n g e r , New S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1959.  York,  O'Connor, Maurice, "Impressions Concerning A d a p t a t i o n t o Imprisonment," Proceedings of the Canadian Congress of C o r r e c t i o n s , Ottawa, Canadian C o r r e c t i o n s Assoc., 1957.  - 97 O h l i n , L l o y d E., S e l e c t i o n f o r P a r o l e : A Manual f o r P a r o l e P r e d i c t i o n , New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1951• O r f i e l d , L e s t e r B., C r i m i n a l Procedure from A r r e s t to Appeal, New York, N.Y. Univ. P r e s s , 1947Pakenham, Lord, Causes o f Crime, London, Wiedenfeld and Ni c o l s on, 1958""*. P i h l b l a d , C.T., " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Crime", E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Criminology , New York, P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1949. Rolph, C.H., Common Sense About Crime and Punishment, New York, Macmillan, 1961. Rubin, S o l , Crime and J u v e n i l e Delinquency: A R a t i o n a l Approach t o Penal Problems. New York, Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  WW.  Runyon, Tom, I n F o r L i f e , New York, Norton, 1954. , " P r i s o n Shocks", i n Robert G. C a l d w e l l , Criminology , New York, Ronald P r e s s , 1956. S a l i s b u r y , H a r r i s o n E., The Shook-Up G e n e r a t i o n , New York, Fawcett World L i b r a r y , 1959 ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1958). S e l l i n , T h o r s t e n , The C r i m i n a l i t y o f Youth, Amer. Law I n s t i t u t e , 1940.  Philadelphia,  Shaw, C l i f f o r d R. e t a l . , Delinquency Areas, Chicago, Univ. o f Chicago P r e s s , 1929. Shaw, C l i f f o r d R. and Henry McKay, J u v e n i l e Delinquency and Urban Areas: A Study of Rates o f D e l i n q u e n t s i n R e l a t i o n to D i f f e r e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L o c a l Communities i n American C i t i e s , Chicago. Univ. o f Chicago P r e s s . 1942. Shaw, C l i f f o r d R., The Jack R o l l e r . Chicago, Univ. o f Chicago Press, 1930. , The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f a Delinquent Career, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago P r e s s , 1931. , B r o t h e r s i n Crime, Chicago, Univ. o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938. Sheldon, W i l l i a m H., V a r i e t i e s o f Delinquent Youth, New York, Harper, 1949.  -  98 -  Sivadon, Paul, "Technics o f Sociotherapy", Symposium on P r e v e n t i v e and S o c i a l P s y c h i a t r y , Washington, Walter Reed Army I n s t i t u t e of Research, 1957. S u t h e r l a n d , E.H., White C o l l a r Crime, New York, Dryden Press, 1949. , and Donald R. Cressey, P r i n c i p l e s o f Criminology, New York, L i p p i n c o t t , 1955* Sykes, Gresham, The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n Univ. P r e s s , 1958. Tappan, Paul W., Crime, J u s t i c e and C o r r e c t i o n , New York, McGraw-Hill, I960. V o i d , George B., T h e o r e t i c a l Criminology, New York, Univ. Press, 1958.  Oxford  Warner, S.B. and Henry B. Cabot, Judges and Law Reform, Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press, 1936. Weihofen, Henry, The Urge t o Punish: New Approaches t o the Problem of Mental I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Crime, New York, F a r r a r , Straus and Cudahy, 1956. West, D.J.,  The H a b i t u a l P r i s o n e r . London, Macmillan,  1963.  Z e i d l e r , J.C. e t a l . , "Five-Year Follow Up Study o f the A f t e r Career of P a t i e n t s Discharged from a S e c u r i t y H o s p i t a l f o r the C r i m i n a l l y Insane", Proceedings of the American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, A.P.A., 1954, pp. 144152. A r t i c l e s i n J o u r n a l s and P e r i o d i c a l s A l l p o r t , G.W., "The Use o f P e r s o n a l Documents i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e " , S.S.R.C. B u l l e t i n , no. 49, 1942. Andenaes, Johs, "General P r e v e n t i o n - I l l u s i o n o r R e a l i t y ? " , Jour, o f Crim. Law, July-Aug., 1952. A r b u c k l e , Dugald S., and Lawrence Litwack, "A Study o f R e c i d i v i s m Among J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s " , Fed. Prob., D e c , I960, pp. 45-48. Brown, D.G., " T h e i r B r o t h e r s ' Keepers", Queen*s Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 68, no. 3 (Autumn 1961), pp. 411-417. Burgess,  E.W., "Comment", Amer. Soc. Rev.,  J u l y 1950, pp. 32-33.  - 99 Cason, Hulsey and M.J. Pescor, "A S t a t i s t i c a l Study of 500 Psychopathic P r i s o n e r s " , P u b l i c Health Reports, A p r i l 19, 1946, pp. 557-574. Cormier, Bruno et a l . , "The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f C r i m i n a l i t y and Some T e n t a t i v e Hypotheses on i t s Abatement", Can. Jour, of C o r r . , J u l y 1959, pp. 35-49, "The Latecomer t o Crime", Can. Jour, of Corr., Jan. 1961, pp. 2-16. , "The P e r s i s t e n t Offender", Corr., Oct. 1963, pp. 253-261.  Can. Jour, of  , "The Problem of R e c i d i v i s m and Treatment of the Latecomer t o Crime", Can. Jour, of C o r r . , Jan. 1961, pp. 51-65. , "Presentation of a Basic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C l i n i c a l Work and Research i n C r i m i n a l i t y " , Can. Jour, of Corr., J u l y 1959, pp. 21-34. Cross, Rupert, " P r e v e n t i v e Detention", The L i s t e n e r , London, B.B.C., March 26, 1964, pp. 507-508. Dunham, H.W. and M.E. Knauer, "The J u v e n i l e Court i n i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o A d u l t C r i m i n a l i t y " , S o c i a l Forces, March, 1954, pp. 290-296. Edwards, George, " V e r d i c t : G u i l t y - Now What?", N.P.P.A. News, March, i 9 6 0 , pp. 1-4. Frym, M a r c e l , "The Treatment of R e c i d i v i s t s " , Jour, of Crim. Law, Crim., and P o l . Science, May-June, 1956, pp. 1-7. H a r r i s o n , R., "The T.A.T. and Rorschach Methods of P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n C l i n i c a l P r a c t i c e " , Jour, of Psychology, v o l . 15, 1943, pp. 50 f f . Hayner, Norman and E l l i s Ash, "The P r i s o n Community as a S o c i a l Group", Amer. Soc. Rev., June 1939, pp. 362-369. H e r l i h y , Thomas, J r . , "Sentencing the Misdemeanant", Jour., Oct. 1956.  N.P.P.A.  Karpman, Benjamin, " C r i m i n a l i t y , I n s a n i t y and the Law", Jour, of Crim. Law and Crim., v o l . 39, 1948-49, pp. 584-605.  - 100  -  M i l l e r , M i c h a e l , "A P l e a f o r S e l e c t i v e P s y c h i a t r i c Treatment f o r Offenders", Jour, of Crim. Law, Crim. and P o l . S c i e n c e , v o l . 37, (1946-47), pp. 377-383. M o r r i s , C h a r l e s V., "The, T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on Criminology", Fed. Prob., March 1956, pp. 49-52. M o r r i s , N o r v a l , "Sentencing Convicted C r i m i n a l s " , The A u s t r a l i a n Law J o u r n a l , J u l y 1953. M o r r i s o n , R.L., "General Report:Modern Approaches to the R e s i d e n t i a l Treatment of D i f f i c u l t Cases of Delinquency A Survey of Progress and Problems", I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d Welfare Review, v o l . 17, no. 3 - 4 , Geneva, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C h i l d W e l f a r e , 1963. Rector, M i l t o n G., " F a c t o r s i n Measuring R e c i d i v i s m as Presented i n Annual Reports", N.P.P.A. Jour., J u l y pp. 213-229.  1958,  Rubin, S o l , " R e c i d i v i s m and R e c i d i v i s m S t a t i s t i c s " , N.P.P.A. Jour., J u l y 1953, pp. 233-240. Schrag, Clarence, "Leadership Among P r i s o n Inmates", Amer. Soc. Rev., Feb. 1954, pp. 37-42. S e l l i n , Thorsten, " R e c i d i v i s m and Maturation", N.P.P.A. Jour., J u l y 1953, pp. 241-250. S p r o t t , W.J.H., "Poverty, Mental I l l n e s s and Crime", The L i s t e n e r , London, B.B.C., June 13, 1963, pp. 991-993S u t h e r l a n d , E.H., "White C o l l a r C r i m i n a l i t y " , Amer. Soc. Rev., Feb. 1940, pp. 1-12. , "Crime and Business", The Annals,  Sept.,  1941. Thompson, C h a r l e s B., "A P s y c h i a t r i c Study o f R e c i d i v i s t s " , Amer. Jour, of P s y c h i a t r y , Nov. 1937, pp. 591-604. Tremblay, Marc A d e l a r d , "Key Informant Technique: A Nonethnographic A p p l i c a t i o n " , The American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , Aug. 1957, pp. 633-701. W a l l e r s t e i n , J.S. and C.J. Wyle, "Our Law A b i d i n g Law Breakers", N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n , M a r c h - A p r i l 1947, pp. 107-112.  - 101 Weihofen, Henry, " R e t r i b u t i o n I s Obsolete", N.P.P.A. News, Jan. I960, pp. 1-4. Westover, Judge Harry C , " I s P r i s o n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S u c c e s s f u l ? " Fed. Prob., March 1958, pp. 3-6,. "What's New i n Sentencing?", C o r r e c t i o n a l Research, B u l l e t i n #7, Boston, U n i t e d P r i s o n Assoc. of Mass., Oct., 1957. W i l k i n s , L e s l i e T., "What I s Crime?", New S o c i e t y , no. 42, J u l y 18, 1963, pp. 15-16. W i l l e , L o i s , "Money A g a i n s t Crime", Fed. Prob., Dec. 1962, pp. 34-38. Wootton, Barbara, "Sentencing: A r t or S c i e n c e ? " , New S o c i e t y no. 24, March 14, 1963, pp. 17-20. Yablonsky, Lewis, " C o r r e c t i o n and the Doing-Time S o c i e t y " , Fed. Prob., March I960, pp. 55-60. Monographs and Pamphlets Anderson, J.W. , Sentencing:Some S o c i a l and L e g a l I s s u e s , Calgary, John Howard S o c i e t y o f A l b e r t a , 1962. Hayner, Norman S. and Joseph W. Rogers, A t t i t u d e s of Employers Towards H i r i n g P a r o l e e s , (unpublished survey) S e a t t l e , Univ. of Washington. (Undated). Hein, G.W. Arendsen, O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management of a Res o c i a l i z a t i o n Community as a S o c i o - T h e r a p e u t i c I n s t i t u t e f o r the Treatment of N e u r o t i c C r i m i n a l s : A Report o f the Experience o f Seven Years P r a c t i c e , Ederveen, H o l l a n d , I960. (Mimeo.). I n t e r n a t i o n a l Penal and P e n i t e n t i a r y Foundation, Modern Methods o f Penal Treatment. I.P.P.F., (place and date of p u b l i c a t i o n not shown).  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104900/manifest

Comment

Related Items