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A mineralogical and chemical study of the lower Fraser River alluvial sediments Mackintosh, Erven E. 1964

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A MINERALOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE LOWER FRASER RIVER ALLUVIAL SEDIMENTS by ERVEN E . MACKINTOSH B . S . A . , The University of Saskatchewan, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF SCIENCE in the Department of S o i l Science We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER .OF SCIENCE  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 196h  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  Columbia, I  available mission  for extensive be  of  written  Department  of  and  by  for  the  study*.  the  the  Library  I further  Head o f my  Columbia,  agree for  that  of •  not  per-  scholarly or  c o p y i n g or  shall  of  make i t f r e e l y  Department  that  f i n a n c i a l gain  fulfilment  University  shall  this thesis  permission*  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 Canada ?  degree at  I t i s understood  this thesis  w i t h o u t my  advanced  c o p y i n g of  granted  representatives.  cation  this thesis i n partial  agree that  for reference  p u r p o s e s may his  presenting  be  by publi-  allowed  ii  ABSTRACT  A mineralogical and chemical study was conducted on the clay fractions of lower Fraser River a l l u v i a l sediments.  The  major objectives of the study were to characterize the mineralogy of these sediments and to evaluate the influence of a marine environment and sedimentary phases of deposition on their mineralogical content. Twenty-one sampling sites representing the four major s o i l 'series developed on these sediments and six sea bottom samples were collected.  Surface and subsurface samples were taken for  the s o i l series. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the coarse and fine clay fractions of a l l samples and the total K, Mg and Ca contents of the clay fractions were also investigated. With the exception of samples from the Pitt Meadows area, there was a marked similarity in the clay mineral suite present in these sediments.  The major clay mineral components of the  coarse clay fraction were montmorillonoid and chlorite.  Lesser  amounts of micaceous material and several interstratified clay minerals were also present.  The interstratified clay minerals  identified included a randomly interstratified chloritemontmorillonoid and chlorite-mica and i n a limited number of cases regularly interstratified chlorite-montmorillonoid.  The  identification of a regularly interstratified chlorite-mica was quite questionable.  Ill Positive identification of kaolin was prevented i n most instances by a heat unstable chlorite.  However, kaolin was  identified i n a sample from the Pitt Meadows area and there was strong evidence to suggest its presence i n other samples. Quartz, feldspars and amphiboles were the only nonphyllosilicates identified. The fine clay fractions were dominated by montmorillonoid and much lesser amounts of chlorite.  Micaceous material, inter-  stratified clay minerals and quartz were present in only questionable amounts and in some instances appeared to be absent. The chlorite was identified as an iron rich variety possessing thermally unstable higher order reflections.  A  progressive decrease i n the relative intensity of these reflections was observed on heating from hOO to +50°C. 1  Furthur heating to  500°C resulted i n the disappearance of the peaks. The montmorillonoid component identified appeared to be of two types:  An octahedrally substituted member and a  tetrahedrally substituted member;  The presence of the latter  mineral prevented identification of vermieulite. The results support the findings of other workers that marine deposited sediments are highly detrital i n nature, dominantly reflect their source area and are influenced by sea water to only a minor extent.  Diagenesis of 1*+ A° material  of the marine sediments was indicated by X-ray diffraction analyses.  Chemical analyses were also indicative of the minor  influence of a marine environment.  Mineralogical variations within and among s o i l series were largely quantitative in nature.  These variations tended  to be minimized within a particular s o i l series.  Mineralogical  differences between the two clay fractions were observed, however these were to be expected. The variations noted in the mineralogy of the clay fractions of these sediments were attributed to sedimentary processes, seasonal variations i n the detrital components carried by rivers, yearly variations in particular source areas and the local influence of sediments carried by several tributaries of the lower Fraser River that flow out of the Coast Mountains. The X-ray and chemical analyses indicated that there was a valid basis for continued mapping of the Pitt s o i l series separate from the Monroe and Fairfield series.  The two sampling  sites from the Pitt Meadows were considerably higher in randomly interstratified chlorite-montmorillonoid and lower in micaceous material than those of the other sediments.  Chemical analyses  were also indicative of these differences. The variability noted i n soils from the Pitt Meadows area may be related to the influence of sediments carried by the Alouette River.  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is made to Dr. E . H. Gardner, for his sound advice and inspiration offered throughout the conduct of this research.  The author is indebted to Dean  B. A. Eagles, Mr. L. Farstad, Dr. H. F. Fletcher, Dr. W. H. Mathews, Dr. C. A. Rowles and Mr. P. N. Sprout for their valuable advice and assistance. The author is grateful to the National Research Council of Canada for the financial aid received i n the form of a Research Grant. Special thanks are extended to G. G. Runka and H. A. Luttmerding for assistance i n collecting s o i l samples and to Dr. W. H. Mathews for suppling several of the sea samples. The author wishes to express his appreciation to his wife, G a i l , for her patience and understanding throughout the conduct of this research and for typing of the manuscript.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE REVIEW ... (i) Description of the area ( i i ) X-ray identification of clay minerals ( i i i ) Diagenesis of clay minerals i n a marine environment. ... • (iv) Review of the mineralogy of Fraser River sediments......  2 2 5  METHODS AND MATERIALS (i) X-ray analyses... . (a) sample preparation. (b) preparation and treatments of slide specimens............ .**• (c) slide peeling. ( i i ) Sample preparation for mechanical and chemical analyses ( i i i ) Determination of total K, Ca and M g . . . . . . . . . . . . (iv) Descriptions and locations of sampling s i t e s . . . (a) Sea samples • (b) Ladner s o i l series (c) Grigg s o i l series.. •• (d) Monroe s o i l s e r i e s . . . • (e) Fairfield s o i l series RESULTS AND DISCUSS ION I Interpretation of X-ray diffraction analyses... (i) 2-0.2 micron fraction (a) characterization of chlorite and identification of k a o l i n . . . . . . . . . . . (b) vermiculite identification (c) interstratified clay m i n e r a l s . . . . . . ( i i ) less than 0.2 micron f r a c t i o n . . . . . II Nature of sediments. • (i) detritus vs diagenesis ( i i ) content of "rock flour" III Relation of s o i l s e r i e s . . . . . . . . . IV Relation to previous work • V Potassium contents  8 11 13 13 13 13 15 15 16 16 17 19 19 19 20 21 21 21 27 31 33 37 37 39 h6 k7 h9 50  CONCLUS ION  52  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  56  APPENDIX  63  vi Appendix I Fe removal vs Fe present for method of mechanical analyses Appendix II Mechanical analyses of soils and sediments  vii LIST OF TABLES Table I II  Page X-ray diffraction properties of soils and sediments  23  Total K, Mg and Ca of the clay-sized f r a c t i o n . . .  h2  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure I II III IV V VI  Page Map of lower Fraser Valley indicating sampling sites.  18  X-ray diffraction tracing of Fairfield - k, 11-25 inches, 2-0.2 microns.  22  X-ray diffraction tracing of Ladner - 1, 0-10 inches, 2-0.2 microns.  29  X-ray diffraction tracing of Monroe - 6, 0-9 inches, 2-0.2 microns  3^  X-ray diffraction tracing of Fairfield - h, 0-11 inches, less than 0.2 microns.  38  X-ray diffraction tracing of Sea sample - 3, 2-0.2 microns  hi  A MINERALOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE LOWER FRASER RIVER ALLUVIAL SEDIMENTS  INTRODUCTION  The recent advancements in.X-ray diffraction techniques have resulted i n the development of clay mineralogy to a point, where i t now finds application i n numerous fields of the applied sciences.  In s o i l science, i t has proved to be useful i n the  study and characterization of soils i n relation to their formations, classification and u t i l i z a t i o n . Up to the present, only a limited amount of mineralogical work has been conducted on the soils of British Columbia. Therefore, i t was decided to undertake furthur studies using these techniques. Preliminary work was carried out on several soils in the spring of 1963 and from this, i t was decided to conduct furthur work on some of the a l l u v i a l sediments found in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia.  These sediments are of considerable  geological interest and provide the parent material of some of the most productive soils of the region. The present study is largely devoted to X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fractions of several of these sediments. The major objectives were to characterize their mineralogy and to evaluate the effect that such factors as a marine environment and sedimentary phases of deposition have on their mineralogical content.  LITERATURE REVIEW (i) Description of the area The lower Fraser Valley is located in the extreme south west corner of the British Columbia mainland.  It is a triangular  shaped area bordered by the Strait of Georgia on the west, the Coast Mountains on--the north and the Canada-U.S. A. border on the south.  The Cascade Mountains which form the apex of the triangle  are located approximately 80 miles to the east of the Strait of Georgia (Figure 1).  This area forms one of the largest blocks  of arable agricultural land in British Columbia. The major physiographic feature of the lower Fraser Valley is the Fraser River whose basin lies almost entirely within the province of British Columbia and has its,source in the Yellowhead Pass in the Rocky Mountains (k8).  It attains a length of approx-  imately 856 miles and drains an estimated 90,000 sq. mi. area (5 *). 1  Within the lower Fraser Valley, the Fraser River exhibits  a braided channel pattern (50) and terminates in a growing delta at the Strait of Georgia. The physiography of the land mass of the lower mainland, described herein, consists of four major divisions: - recent delta - recent floodplain - raised delta - upland area associated with the Pleistocene Age. The recent delta begins where the f i r s t distributary is given off at New Westminster and extends approximately 19 miles to the Strait of Georgia ( 3 ) .  Tidal flats extend an additional 3 miles  3 seaward from the edge of the dyked areas of the delta.  The  delta is reported to be growing at the rate of 28 feet per year at 50 fathom contour and at a somewhat lesser rate i n shallower waters (5*0»  For the most part, the delta area is below the  high tide mark and the region is dyked to exclude flood tides. The majority of the soils in the delta area are mapped within the Ladner soil series ( 6 8 ) . Recent floodplain deposits occupy an area adjacent to the Fraser River from New Westminster to Agassiz.  The width of  the floodplain in this region is quite variable, reaching a maximum in the Chilliwack region and being of more limited extent from Chilliwack to New Westminster due to the adjacent uplands. The elevation of these sediments ranges up to sea level (20).  feet above the  Dykes are located adjacent to the river flanks  to prevent flooding during the freshet months of May, June and July.. The floodplain deposits appear to be typical of those, reported i n other areas ( 8 3 ) . Extensive areas of lateral accretion deposits^* occur adjacent to the river banks.  These  deposits are generally charaterized by gentle ridge and swale topography and are largely mapped within the Monroe and Fairfield 1 Lateral accretion deposits are formed on the inside of a river bend due to the existance of circulatory motion associated with the channel bend. Material for their formation is derived from lateral cutting of the drainage channel or directly from the drainage basin i t s e l f ( 8 3 ) . Happ et a l (33) attributes their formation to bed load, however, Wolman & Leopold (83) indicate that the texture of lateral accretion deposits need not be coarser than the associated vertical accretion deposits.  its o i l series (20). The lateral accretion and channel f i l l deposits i n the southwestern Chilliwack area are blanketed by varying depths of 2  vertical accretion deposits.  Soils developed on these particular  deposits are largley mapped within the Grigg s o i l series (20). The formation of vertical accretion deposits at present is minimized due to the extensive dyking practices. The raised delta is considered to have similar origin and composition to the recent delta but is of greater age having been deposited when the land was 50 - 150 feet lower than i t is at the present time C+8). The upland areas are usually associated with glacial deposits of the Pleistocene age.  These vary in elevation from 50 to 1100  feet above sea level (*f, 5). The regions south of the Fraser River, between New Westminster and the Cascade Mountains, are for a large part occupied by the raised delta and glacial deposits.  Vertical accretion deposits are formed when water overflows the banks of i t s channel and spreads out on the adjacent lands. As the water spreads out and reduction i n velocity occurs, the coarser sediments are dropped forming natural levees along the border of the channel. The finer sediments are carried further and deposited as thin layers over the entire floodplain surface (33, 83). According to Happ et a l (33) these deposits are composed almost entirely of sediments carried as suspended load. Doeglas (22) describes the suspended load of a river as consisting of particles less than 50 microns ( s i l t size). Wolman & Leopold t83) report that i n many cases vertical accretion deposits are only minor in extent, however, the particular physiography of the Chilliwack region would favor formation of extensive vertical accretion deposits.  5  The present study i s l i m i t e d t o the areas described as the recent d e l t a and recent f l o o d p l a i n of the Fraser R i v e r , ( i i ) X-ray i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l a y minerals Due to the complexity of c l a y mineral i d e n t i f i c a t i o n h e r e i n , i t i s f e l t that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n warrants a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n than o r d i n a r i l y would be presented. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of X-ray analyses o f s o i l s and sediments has become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex as f u r t h u r refinements i n X-ray equipment and techniques have been made.  Problems i n c l a y mineral  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are t o a large part inherent i n the c l a y minerals themselves.  The f a c t that most c l a y minerals, e s p e c i a l l y mont3  morillonoids,  v e r m i c u l i t e s and c h l o r i t e s e x h i b i t varying degrees  of isomorphous s u b s t i t u t i o n r e s u l t s i n t h e i r s p e c i f i c chemical, p h y s i c a l and c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c properties varying  accordingly.  The f a c t that extensive isomorphous s u b s t i t u t i o n occurs i n c l a y minerals has l e d a number o f workers to believe  that  continuous isomorphous s e r i e s e x i s t between c e r t a i n c l a y mineral types (Jh,  75, 79).  Several isomorphous s e r i e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the montmorillonoid group (5D and one o f these, the montm o r i l l o n i t e - b i e d e l l i t e s e r i e s i s now considered to extend t o include v e r m i c u l i t e , thus forming a continuous s e r i e s from a high o c t a h e d r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d end member to a high t e t r a h e d r a l l y The term montmorillonoid, h e r e i n , designates a group o f 2:1 l a t t i c e type c l a y minerals that expand to approximately 17.65 A° on Ca s a t u r a t i o n and g l y c e r a t i o n . Montmorillonite i s recognized as a member o f t h i s group e x h i b i t i n g octahedral s u b s t i t u t i o n .  6  s u b s t i t u t e d end member (73»  75, 79).  I f such a s e r i e s e x i s t s between montmorillonoids and v e r m i c u l i t e s , than d i s t i n c t i o n between the two groups becomes one o f d e f i n i t i o n .  Weiss (7*+) has suggested a c r i t i c a l value  of 0.55 equivalents  of t e t r a h e d r a l s u b s t i t u t i o n per  u n i t s of s t r u c t u r e f o r separation o f the two groups.  O^QCOH^  Minerals  which approach t h i s a r b i t r a r y value, may t h e r e f o r e , e x h i b i t p r o p e r t i e s of both groups, namely, expansion on s o l v a t i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n to 10 A° on K s a t u r a t i o n a t room temperature. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v e r m i c u l i t e i n the presence of the above described minerals becomes very confusing instances almost impossible.  and i n some  Walker (73) found, using Mg s a t u r a -  t i o n and g l y c e r a t i o n , that v e r m i c u l i t e s and montmorillonoids approaching the value designated by Weiss could be separated. In many cases, the use o f Mg s a t u r a t i o n and g l y c e r a t i o n may be s u f f i c i e n t to d i s t i n g u i s h the two, however, the presence o f l a r g e amounts of c h l o r i t e may prevent t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n even with the above c r i t e r i o n .  C h l o r i t e s which have a 001 r e f l e c t i o n i n the  v i c i n i t y o f 13.80 - 1^.80 A° (10, 53) may coincide w i t h the s i m i l a r r e f l e c t i o n o f v e r m i c u l i t e a t l*f.30 - Ik.kO A° (7 *). 1  Greene-Kelley (7*+) using L i s a t u r a t i o n and g l y c e r a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between high and low t e t r a h e d r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d montmorillonoids.  The use o f t h i s method would If  determine i f an intermediate  c l a y mineral  was present, however,  The term "intermediate c l a y mineral" designates a c l a y mineral e x h i b i t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f both the montmorillonoid and v e r m i c u l i t e  7  t h i s would s t i l l not a l l o w i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an o r d i n a r y vermiculite. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f kaolin-* from c h l o r i t e i s somewhat complicated by the f a c t that the 0 0 L r e f l e c t i o n s o f k a o l i n c o i n c i d e w i t h those of c h l o r i t e .  The 001 and 002 r e f l e c t i o n s o f  k a o l i n a t 7.13 and 3.57 A° approximate the 002 and 00k c h l o r i t e peaks a t 7.07 and 3.53 A°.  Normally, k a o l i n c l a y minerals are  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from c h l o r i t e s by heating to temperatures v i c i n i t y o f 500 - 550°C.  i n the  The k a o l i n r e f l e c t i o n s are reported as  being destroyed by temperatures  o f t h i s order while the c h l o r i t e  r e f l e c t i o n s remain r e l a t i v e l y unchanged.  However, numerous cases  have been reported ( l * , 27, *+5» 72, 80) where the higher order 1  r e f l e c t i o n s o f chlorite*- are thermally unstable a t temperatures of 500°C and lower.  This g e n e r a l l y prevents d i s t i n c t i o n o f the  two groups by heat treatments and other c r i t e r i o n must be used. Several treatments have been proposed i n order t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between k a o l i n and c h l o r i t e (2, 8, 9, 10, 21, * f l , 53) however, none appear to be u n i v e r s a l l y accepted (72).  Due t o the  great v a r i a b i l i t y o f c h l o r i t e s (10, 13, 21, 36, ^5, 53, 57, 65, 69) i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a u n i v e r s a l c r i t e r i o n f o r d i s t i n c t i o n between the two groups w i l l be a t t a i n e d f o r sometime. Procedures  groups. Such a c l a y mineral would c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y show t e t r a h e d r a l s u b s t i t u t i o n approaching the value assigned by Weiss (7*0 f o r separation o f the two groups. 'Kaolin i s used t o designate a group o f 1:1 l a t t i c e type a l u m i n o - s i l i c a t e s w i t h a 0 0 L sequence of peaks i n the neigborhood of 7.13 and 3*57 A°, K a o l i n i t e i s recognized as a member of t h i s group.  8 f o r t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e , depend on the part i c u l a r type of c h l o r i t e under study. C e r t a i n r e f l e c t i o n s however, are i n d i c a t i v e of the presence of k a o l i n . Weaver (78)  reports the formation of a doublet peak  or a broading of the peak a t 3»53 - 3«57 A° as a good i n d i c a t i o n of i t s presence, since when both k a o l i n and c h l o r i t e are present t h e i r respective peaks are s l i g h t l y o f f s e t . ported by Murray (57),  003  This i s a l s o sup-  G r i f f i n (26)  and Taggart et a l . ( 7 D .  The presence of a peak a t 2.38  A° corresponding to the  k a o l i n r e f l e c t i o n i s a l s o u s u a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of k a o l i n , since  the 006  c h l o r i t e r e f l e c t i o n i s absent or very weak due to a  s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r (8, ( i i i ) Diagenesis  10,  26,  ^3,  57,  78).  of c l a y minerals i n a marine environment  The m i n e r a l o g i c a l content of transported  terrestrial  m a t e r i a l s v a r i e s considerably i n extent and k i n d .  Deposition  of  t h i s m a t e r i a l has r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the composition of marine sediments and i n many cases, as w i t h the Fraser R i v e r , r e s u l t s i n the formation of l a r g e d e l t a s . The f i n e f r a c t i o n s of these transported m a t e r i a l s have o f t e n been c l a s s i f i e d as a l u m i n o - s i l i c a t e s (81).  The i n f l u e n c e of a  marine environment on such m a t e r i a l has r e s u l t e d i n considerable  The term "diagenesis" u t i l i z e d h e r e i n , includes a l l m o d i f i cations that the basic c l a y mineral l a t t i c e s undergo between d e p o s i t i o n and l i t h i f i c a t i o n under conditions that are normal to the surface or outer p a r t of the c r u s t . This d e f i n i t i o n i s more consistent w i t h the views of Weaver (77) and excludes secondary f a c t o r s such as c a t i o n adsorption r e a c t i o n s .  9 controversy i n recent years. E s s e n t i a l l y , two extreme views have developed on the subject of diagenesis; the d e t r i t u s school and the diagenesis school. The d e t r i t u s school a r d e n t l y supported by Weaver (77) R i v i e r e (66),  the l a t t e r as discussed by Whitehouse (81),  and favor  marine deposited sediments as being h i g h l y d e t r i t a l i n nature, dominantly r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r source area and only being  slightly  modified by the d e p o s i t i o n a l environment. Although Weaver i s considered to be a strong supporter of the d e t r i t u s school, one must remember that h i s basic concept of diagenesis d i f f e r s from that of other workers.  Weaver  (78)  considers the basic c l a y mineral l a t t i c e , which i s i n h e r i t e d from the source m a t e r i a l , as being the s i g n i f i c a n t parameter of c l a y minerals and m o d i f i c a t i o n s caused by the adsorbed cations are secondary, derived parameters r e f l e c t i n g the character of the d e p o s i t i o n a l environment.  He considers t h a t , from a  g e o l o g i s t s p o i n t of view, the term diagenesis, when a p p l i e d to c l a y s should be r e s t r i c t e d to changes i n the basic c l a y mineral l a t t i c e and should not include c a t i o n adsorption r e a c t i o n s which comprise a good number of the diagenetic changes reported. The second school, which includes such workers as Grim et a l (29, 31,  32)  Nelson (60  and Powers (63,  6*+)  strongly  supports diagenesis as the major or dominant process determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l a y minerals i n a marine environment. Other workers (25,  *+6,  kj,  55,  62)  p r e f e r to adapt a more  moderate view and u t i l i z e both concepts to e x p l a i n the nature of  10 c l a y minerals i n marine sediments. Whitehouse (81,  82)  has provided evidence, based on  l a b o r a t o r y work, to support both contentions. The evidence suggests a v a r i a b l e response of c l a y minerals to a marine environment.  This i s to be expected, however, as  diagenesis i s nothing more than the response of unstable mineral m a t e r i a l to a t t a i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the new environment.  There-  f o r e , considerable v a r i a t i o n i n diagenetic m o d i f i c a t i o n s may be expected depending on the s t a b i l i t y or s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of the source m a t e r i a l to a l t e r a t i o n and on the environment i t s e l f  (30).  Length of time of exposure and d i f f e r e n t i a l s e t t l i n g tendencies appear to be the main f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g c l a y mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the environment i t s e l f (30,  55,  62,  81).  Work i n the Chesapeake Bay area (60, C a r o l i n a coast (27)  63,  and the Gulf of Mexico (32)  6h), the North appears to have  e s t a b l i s h e d that montmorillonite undergoes transformations to c h l o r i t e and i l l i t e i n a marine environment.  Such transforma-  t i o n s are a l s o supported by the l a b o r a t o r y work of Whitehouse (82).  C a i l l e r e e t a l (15)  and Slaughter & Milne (67)  both  s u c c e s s f u l l y formed a c h l o r i t e - l i k e structure from montmorillonite i n the laboratory by p r e c i p a t i t i n g a Mg(0H) l a y e r i n the i n t e r 2  layer positions.  Bradley (8)  thereby concludes that the Mg  content and high pH of sea water would cause a s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n Powers (6h) has proposed an i l l i t e to c h l o r i t e transformation and Grim (28) modification.  a k a o l i n i t e to i l l i t e or c h l o r i t e  However, Weaver (78)  and Whitehouse (82)  have  11 cited strong evidence to disprove such alterations. Weaver (76, 78) also contends that complete transformations of montmorillonite to chlorite and i l l i t e are highly unlikely and that mixed-layered clay minerals are the more probable products of diagenesis. The probability of the reconstitution of degraded sediments,, such as degraded chlorite or i l l i t e , i n marine waters resulting in improved crystallinity has received support from most workers (8, 28, 58, 59, 78, 8 0 ) . Murray et a l (58, 59) favors diagenetic changes as appearing in the form of changes i n the crystallinity of the clay minerals rather than changes in the basic clay mineral type. Most workers agree that alterations of clay minerals do occur i n a marine environment.  However, these changes are  generally of a minor nature in quantitative terms and for the most part, marine sediments are usually reported as being highly detrital in nature (25, 26, h6> 55, 56, 58, 59, 6 2 , 71, 77, 78, 80). (iv) Review of the mineralogy of Fraser River sediments Only a limited amount of mineralogical analyses have been conducted on the soils of the Fraser River floodplain and these have been restricted to the delta region. Clark et a l (17) analyzed one site from the Ladner s o i l series and reported montmorillonite, chlorite, interstratified montmorillonite-chlorite, i l l i t e , quartz and feldspar as being present in the clay fraction. Comar (19) described the mineralogy of two sites within  12 the delta; a Ladner and a Nicomekl s o i l series.  He reported  montmorillonite, chlorite, micaceous minerals, feldspar and quartz as being present, but indicated that the presence of vermiculite and kaolinite could not be established. Clark et a l (18) also reported kaolin in the yellow mottles found in soils of the Nicomekl area.  METHODS AND MATERIALS  ( i ) X-ray analyses M i n e r a l o g i c a l analyses were conducted using a P h i l i p s X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n u n i t equipped w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a l counter and P h i l i p s recorder.  CuK<?< r a d i a t i o n was employed with a tube  p o t e n t i a l and current o f ho k i l o v o l t s and 20 milliaraps.  1°  divergance, 0.1 mm r e c e i v i n g and 1° s c a t t e r s l i t s were used i n a l l determinations.  Low  angle  reflections  ( 2 ° - 5 ° ) were rerun  using i° divergance and s c a t t e r s l i t s and a 0.1 mm r e c e i v i n g slit. (a) sample preparation. A 10 gm. a i r d r i e d s o i l sample was u t i l i z e d f o r separating the sand, s i l t and c l a y f r a c t i o n s f o r X-ray analyses.  PH was  adjusted to 3*5 using HC1 and organic matter was then o x i d i z e d w i t h H 02 (*+9). Free i r o n oxides were removed w i t h ^2^2%. 2  employing Mackenzies method "a" (52).  The samples were dispersed  i n calgon (ho) and the sand f r a c t i o n was removed using a 300 mesh sieve.  Separation o f the s i l t and two c l a y  accomplished  1  f r a c t i o n s was  by e e n t r i f u g a t i o n .  (b) preparation and treatments o f s l i d e specimens The o r i e n t e d glass s l i d e technique was employed f o r X-ray analyses throughout the study.  Clay suspensions were placed on  precleaned 26 x ^7 mm petrographic glass s l i d e s and allowed to d r y  The c l a y was separated i n t o coarse and f i n e f r a c t i o n s which correspond to 2-0.2 and <0.2 microns, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Ih  (16).  Drying was accomplished with a heat lamp (35°C).  2  Ca and K saturated specimens were employed for the X-ray analyses.  Saturated specimens were obtained by washing the  desired aliquot of clay suspension three times in a IN chloride solution of the particular element, followed by two washings i n d i s t i l l e d water. Solvation of Ga saturated specimens was carried out u t i l i z i n g glycerol and heating to 100°G for 2 hours ( 5 1 ) . solvation was conducted in moisture tins. in imcomplete expansion of material. were, therefore, employed. 1, 2 and 3 hours.  Initially,  However, this resulted  Rubber sealed glass jars  Samples were heated for periods of  Complete expansion of material was observed  with the 2 hour heating period.  Prior to the X-ray analyses the  solvated samples were held i n a dessicator for 12 - 16 hours. A series of heat treatments (100, 200, 300, hOO, *+50, 500 and 550°C) were run on K saturated specimens of eight different samples.  Heat treatments were conducted in a muffle furnace,  heating at the appropriate temperature for 1 hour.  Temperatures  of 300, hOO and 550°C were selected for the final heat treatments of K saturated specimens, along with the 35°C temperature.  The  35, 300 and 550°C temperatures are those normally used i n the identification of vermiculite, montmorillonoid and kaolin,  2 Normally, saturated clay suspensions are dried at room temperatures (25°C). Several checks were run on 25 and 35°C specimens to determine any affect the latter temperature may have on K saturated slides. X-ray patterns, were identical. In order to speed up operations, the heat lamp was utilized for drying specimens.  15 respectively.  An additional heat treatment at *+00°C was  necessary in order to characterize the chlorite present, (c) slide peeling The problem of peeling of 2 - 0 . 2 micron clay on the glass slides when heated to greater than +00°C appeared to be largley 1  affected by the amount of clay dispensed onto the slide. t i a l l y , 15 mgms of clay per sq. i n . of slide was used.  IniSuch a  concentration gave excellent results for Ca saturated specimens and K saturated specimens up to *tOO°C.  However, cooling of  slides heated to temperatures greater than fOO°C resulted i n l  peeling and flaking of the clay i n practically a l l cases.  Several  methods of cooling and various types of slides, including stainless steel slides, were employed to prevent peeling. these proved satisfactory.  None of  Finally, reduction of the suspension  concentration to 7 mgms per sq. i n . of slide prevented furthur peeling.  This concentration of clay gave satisfactory X-ray  patterns. Peeling was not a problem with the \ f 0 . 2 micron fraction, ( i i ) Sample preparation for mechanical & chemical analyses The clay fraction obtained from mechanical analyses was also employed for the chemical determinations. and passed through a 2 mm sieve.  Samples were air dryed  A 20 gm sample was used.  Or-  ganic matter was destroyed with H2O2 (^9) however, pH was not adjusted for these samples.  Several samples were run to deter-  mine the effect on Fe removal on the mechanical analyses. Results (Appendix I) indicate that the presence of free iron  16  oxides i n these s o i l s had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the mechanical analyses.  ma2^2 k treatment was, t h e r e f o r e , omitted. 0  The samples were dispersed i n calgon (*+()).  The sand was  removed using a 300 mesh s i e v e , d r i e d a t 110°C, weighed and stored.  The s i l t and c l a y f r a c t i o n s were determined by the p i p e t t e  method o f Kilmer & Alexander  (^9).  The s i l t plus c l a y suspension remaining a f t e r mechanical analyses was c e n t r i f u g e d t o separate the two r e s p e c t i v e f r a c t i o n s . The c l a y f r a c t i o n was washed three times i n IN Ammonium a c e t a t e , followed by two washings i n d i s t i l l e d water.  The samples were  dryed a t 110°C, ground i n an agate motar and stored f o r chemical analyses. ( i i i ) Determination of t o t a l K, Ca and Mg. Jackson's method (39)  f o r semimicrochemical s i l i c a t e  analyses was employed i n determining t o t a l K, Ca and Mg.  Dis-  s o l u t i o n of the samples was accomplished using the h y d r o f l u o r i c perchlorate a c i d method. K was estimated w i t h a Perkin-Elmer model l*f6 flame s p e c t r o photometer using l i t h i u m as an i n t e r n a l standard and Ca and Mg were determined by the versene method.  Erroneous r e s u l t s were  obtained when Ca and Ca plus Mg were determined on the same a l i q u o t as suggested by Jackson.  Ca and Ca plus Mg were, t h e r e -  f o r e , determined on separate a l i q u o t s .  Ca plus Mg was determined  using d u p l i c a t e and i n some cases t r i p l i c a t e samples. ( i v ) D e s c r i p t i o n s and l o c a t i o n s o f sampling s i t e s Twenty-one sampling s i t e s , representing the four major s o i l s e r i e s developed on Fraser R i v e r a l l u v i u m , along w i t h s i x sea  17  bottom samples were c o l l e c t e d .  Figure I i n d i c a t e s t h e i r  l o c a t i o n s w i t h the exception of S-7. Samples of the various s o i l s e r i e s were g e n e r a l l y taken along fence l i n e s to minimize the a f f e c t s o f l i m i n g , f e r t i l i z a t i o n and other management f a c t o r s . of each s o i l p r o f i l e were taken. represented the Aa or Ah horizon.  Surface and subsurface sample I n a l l cases the surface sample The subsurface samples, de-  pending on the s o i l s e r i e s are B or C horizons, (a) Sea samples Samples S - l , 2 & 8 represent sediments taken from the littoral  environment.  With the exception o f sample, S-2,  these  are h i g h l y gleyed sediments and g e n e r a l l y emitt H S gas. 2  Samples S-3, 5 & 7 were taken from the bottom o f the S t r a i t of Georgia i n 930,  5^0 and 1362 f e e t o f water, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  According to Mathews^ these samples represent Fraser R i v e r a l l u v i u m that has been i n contact w i t h sea water f o r no more than 3 - 5  years.  Sample S-7, which i s not shown i n Figure I , i s located to the northwest o f the map area o f f Ballenas I s l a n d a t ^9° 12' 55" N l a t i t u d e and 1 2 3 ° 17' 35" W l o n g i t u d e .  'Symbols used i n Figure I and h e r e a f t e r denote the f o l l o w i n g : S - sea sediments, L - Ladner s o i l s e r i e s , G - Grigg s o i l s e r i e s F - F a i r f i e l d s o i l s e r i e s and M - Monroe s o i l s e r i e s . Numbers designate the p a r t i c u l a r sampling s i t e s w i t h i n each o f the above groupings. The l i t t o r a l environment i s described as that area which extends from mean high t i d e to mean low t i d e (61). Dr. W. H. Mathews - personal communication  19 (b) Ladner s o i l s e r i e s The Ladner s o i l s e r i e s which i s c l a s s i f i e d as an b r t h i c to degraded dark gray g l e y s o l , i s the most extensive s e r i e s mapped i n the present d e l t a region (68).  The m a t e r i a l from  which these s o i l s are derived belong to the S a l i s h Group and represents a mixture of marine and non-marine sediments deposited by the Fraser R i v e r  (68).  Topography of the areas sampled was l e v e l to gently undulating, with the exception of L - 3 which was gentle ridge and swale. the l a t e s t s o i l survey of the d e l t a area (68),  In  L - 3 has been  mapped w i t h i n the Crescent s e r i e s , however, i n the present  study  i t has been included i n the Ladner s o i l s e r i e s . I n t e r n a l drainage of s o i l s of the Ladner s e r i e s i s poor due to the heavy massive s t r u c t u r e and during most months, the s o i l s are influenced by a high water t a b l e . As a r e s u l t , the s u b s o i l s are o f t e n h i g h l y mottled. A t o t a l of f i v e s i t e s were sampled. (c) Grigg s o i l s e r i e s Four s i t e s i n t h i s s e r i e s were 'sampled.  The Grigg s o i l  s e r i e s has developed on v e r t i c a l a c c r e t i o n deposits i n the eastern end of the Fraser V a l l e y . dark gray g l e y s o l ( 2 0 ) .  I t has been c l a s s i f i e d as an o r t h i c  Topography i s l e v e l to g e n t l y undulating.  Drainage i s poor and consequently  the B and C horizons are mottled.  (d) Monroe s o i l s e r i e s The Monroe s o i l s e r i e s has developed on l a t e r a l a c c r e t i o n deposits adjacent to the Fraser R i v e r .  They are w e l l drained  20  s o i l s which have been c l a s s i f i e d as m u l l regosols  (20).  Topography i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ridges and swales.  Six sites  were sampled from t h i s s e r i e s . Sample M - 6 a t present i s mapped w i t h i n the P i t t s e r i e s (37).  However according to Runka,^ on remapping of the P i t t  Meadows area, t h i s s i t e w i l l be mapped as a member of the Monroe series. (e) F a i r f i e l d s o i l s e r i e s The F a i r f i e l d s o i l s e r i e s are separated from the Monroe s e r i e s on the b a s i s o f drainage and are c l a s s i f i e d as gleyed m u l l regosols developed  on l a t e r a l a c c r e t i o n deposits (20).  Generally  the F a i r f i e l d s e r i e s occupies the lower p o s i t i o n s and the Monroe s e r i e s , the somewhat higher p o s i t i o n s on the ridge and swale topography.  S i x s i t e s were sampled i n the F a i r f i e l d  series.  F - 6 i s mapped as a poorly drained member o f the P i t t s e r i e s (37).  On remapping however, i t w i l l be included i n the 7  F a i r f i e l d series.  6 & 7  Mr. G. Runka - personal communication  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  I Interpretation of X-ray diffraction analyses X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fractions of these soils and sediments indicated them to be mineralogically similar, however, the mineralogy of the coarse and fine clay fractions from the same sampling sites were different. Results of the X-ray analyses of the coarse and fine clay fractions are presented in Table I. (i) 2-0.2 micron fraction To illustrate interpretation of X-ray patterns for the coarse clay fraction, a Fairfield subsoil sample (F - h) was chosen.  Figure II depicts the X-ray diffraction tracing of this  sample. The relatively strong peak at l ^ ^ l A° which expanded to 17.65 A° on glyceration was attributed to montmorillonoid. Subsequent K saturation and heat treatments were necessary i n order to contract the 1^.71 A° peak to 9.95 A°.  The residual  peak remaining at Ih*20 A° after K saturation and glyceration, along with an integral sequence of higher order reflections at 7.07, ^.69, 3.53 and 2.82 A° were attributed to chlorite.  The  possibility of vermiculite contributing to the Ih A° peak is discussed in a later section. The presence of micaceous material^ was confirmed by a  "The term micaceous material herein, designates a mineral or minerals with a 001 reflection close to 10 A° which is unaffected by glyceration, K saturation or heat.  Figure II  X-ray diffraction tracing of  Table I  X-ray diffraction properties of soils and sediments Size fraction-  Samples  Depth unenes;  less than 0 . 2 microns  2-0.2 microns -  i  V  ? ? 1 i I  2 2 2 2 2 2  ? ?  k  3  I I  2 2  3 3  3 3  I I  7-21+  1 2  3 3  0-10 10-2V  h  0-8 8-2*+  2 2  M  C  M/C  -  0-12  3 3 2 2 1 2  3 3 3 3 3 3  1  0-10 10-25  3 3  2  0-10 10-2>f  3  0-7  K  .- M  G  M/C  I  V  K  •  if  2 1 2 2 1 2  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  ? ?  ?  ? ? ?  -  Sea sediments 1 2 3 5 7 8  0-10 0-8  *  •  ? ? ?  —  —  %  — —  -  k k  •  ? ?  k  2 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  ? ?  2 2  ? 9  ? ?  k h  2 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  ? ?  I I  1 2  ?  ?  h k  2 2  1 1  '1 1  »  *>  ?  ?  k  3  I i  2 3  ?  ? ?  h h  2 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  ?  3 3  I I  1 1  ? ?  h k  2 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  -  Ladner series  5  3  M  Table I cont'd Size fraction Samples  Depth kincnes;  less than 0 . 2 microns  2-0.2 microns  . M /  M/C  I  Y  1 1  1 2  ? ?  K  M  C  M/G  I  V  K  2 2  1 1  1 1  ?  -  ?  Grigg series 1  0-11 11-20  3 3  3 3  2  0-10 10-22  3 3  3 1+  1 1  2 2  ? ?  ?  if  2 2  1 1  1 1  9  3  0-10 .~10-2*f  3 3  if  1 1  2 2  ?  AH ?  h h  2 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  h  0-9 9-20  1 2  3  1 1  1 1  9 * 9  ?  -  h h  2 3  1 1  1 1  ? 9  T  2 2  ?  _  ?  2 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  _  ?  h h  h h  .  9  •  ? 9  ? •  ?  ?  ? _  ? ?  Monroe series 1  0-9 9-20  3 3  h  3  1 1  2  0-11 4.1-26  3  3 3  1 1  2 2  ? ?  ? ?  h  h  if  1 1  1 1  1 1  ? ?  ?  3  0-6 6-18  if  h  h  3  1 1  2 2  9 • 9  ? ?  if if  1 1  1 1  1 1  ? ?  ? ?  0-9 9-2**  h h  if 3  1 1  2 2  9  ? ?  if if  1 1  1 1  1 ?  ?  9  • *  ?  9  ?  ?  • ?  Table I cont'd Size fraction Samples -  Depth ^incnes^ -  less than 0 . 2 microns  2-0.2 microns  K  M  C  M/C  I  ?  >  1 1  1 1  1 ?  ? ?  -  1 ?  1 1  1 1  3....  ? ?  _  k h  2 2.  1 1  1 1  ? ?  ? ?  2 2  1 -' 1  1 1  9  ?  ? ?  M  c  M/G  I  V  K  3 3  3 3  1 1  2 2  ? ?  _  1 2  3 3  2 2  1 1  _  Monroe cont'd 5 6  0-9 9-23 0-7 7-20  —  —  ? ? ?  Fairfield 1. series 1  0-8 8-18  3 3  3 3  1 ?  2 2  ?  9  9  ?  2  0-8 8-20  3 3  h  3  1 ?  2 2  ? 9  ? ?  h  3  0-5 5-18  3  >  3 3  i I  2 2 '  9  _  ?  k  if  1 2  1 1  1 1  ? ?  _  • ?  h  0-11 11-25  if h  3  k  I I  2 2  ?  ?  -  if if  1 1  1 1  1 1  9 •  ?  5  0-10 10-2**  3 3  3 3  ? ?  2 2  ? ?  k h  2 2  1 1  ? 1  ?  ?  6  0-6 6-2*f  1 1  3 3  2 2  1 1  ? ?  2 2  2 2  3 3  ? ?  _ 9  9 •  9 • 9 9  ?  *  0  9  ?  9  ?  Table I  cont'd*  Semiquantitative estimations of clay mineral contents are made on the basis of comparisons of areas within the strongest peak. 'Meaning of symbols: M - montmorillonoid; C - chlorite: M/G - randomly interstratified montmorillonoid-chlorite; I - micaceous material; V - vermiculite; K - kaolin; ? - probably a slight amount present; 1 - small amount present; 2 -low-moderate amount present; 3 - moderate amount present; h - large amount present.  27  moderate peak a t 9.95 A° along with a i n t e g r a l sequence o f higher order r e f l e c t i o n s a t h.98, 3.32, 2.50 and 1.99 A ° . The basal spacings of the micaceous component p e r s i s t e d  during  g l y c e r a t i o n , K s a t u r a t i o n and the heat treatments, however, the r e l a t i v e l y i n t e n s i t y of the 9.95 A° peak increased and heat due to c o n t r a c t i o n of montmorillonite  on K s a t u r a t i o n  and p o s s i b l y  vermiculite. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of k a o l i n and e s p e c i a l l y v e r m i c u l i t e are somewhat questionable i n many instances.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r  p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s , along with those of mixed-layered minerals w i l l be discussed  i n more d e t a i l i n a f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .  Considerable q u a n t i t i e s of n o n - p h y l l o s i l i c a t e minerals were i d e n t i f i e d i n the coarse c l a y f r a c t i o n of these sediments. A r e l a t i v e l y strong peak a t 3.3*+ A° and, a somewhat weaker peak h.23 A° was a t t r i b u t e d to quartz (1). A v a r i e t y of f e l d s p a r s appeared to be present i n d i c a t e d by a s e r i e s of peaks a t 3.17, 3.20, 3.2 +, 3.66, 3.68 and ^-.02 A° 1  (1).  The r e f l e c t i o n s are i n d i c a t i v e of both potash and p l a g i o c l a s e  feldspars.  However, without the a i d of camera techniques, as-  c r i b i n g a p a r t i c u l a r peak to a s p e c i f i c f e l d s p a r i s very d i f f i c u l t . A r e l a t i v e l y weak peak a t 8.^2 A° was a t t r i b u t e d t o amphiboles (38). (a) c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of c h l o r i t e and i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n of k a o l i n The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of k a o l i n i n many instances depends on f o r t u i t o u s r e s o l u t i o n of i t s r e f l e c t i o n s from those of c h l o r i t e or on the c h l o r i t e content being so small that c h l o r i t e r e f l e c t i o n s  28 do not mask those of kaolins. The identification of kaolin, herein, proved to be d i f f i c u l t for two reasons.  F i r s t l y , the presence of relatively large amounts  of heat unstable chlorite tended to mask the kaolin peaks. Normally, kaolin can be identified by heat (9).  However, since  the higher order reflections of chlorite were thermally unstable, this prevented the use of heat treatments for positive identification. Secondly, i f kaolin minerals are present they are i n minor quantities.  Normally, i f kaolin and chlorite are present i n  somewhat similar amounts, identification of the two components can be made.  The 001 and 002 kaolin reflections at 7.13 and  3.57 A ° , respectively, are slightly offset from the chlorite 002 and 00k reflections at 7.07 and 3.53 A° thus forming twin peaks.  However when one is present in much smaller amounts, this  is not the case ( 7 D . Figures II, III, or IV indicate the diffraction properties of the chlorite in these soils and sediments.  Relatively strong  002 and 00h reflections at 7.07 and 3.53 A° respectively, as compared to much weaker peaks at  1^.20, h.71 and 2.82 A° which  correspond to the 001, 003 and 005 chlorite reflections are supposedly characteristic of an iron rich chlorite (10). Comar also reports an iron rich chlorite in these soils  (19).  K saturated specimens heated to 300°C resulted in the 001 reflection at 1^.20 A° shifting to 13.80 A°.  The higher order  reflections remained unchanged at this temperature.  Further  29 Figure III I  1  1  1  X-ray diffraction tracing of 1  1  1  r  1  T  LADNER-I 0-10 INCHES  2-0-2 MICRONS  o  Degrees 2 6  i  i  i  1  30 heat treatments to *+00 and l+50°C r e s u l t e d i n a progressive descrease i n the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y of the high order c h l o r i t e k • ' • : r e f l e c t i o n s u n t i l a t 500°C left.  Weaver (75)  no evidence of these peaks were  r e p o r t s t h i s to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many  chlorites. The f a c t that the 002 and 0 0 ^ c h l o r i t e r e f l e c t i o n prog r e s s i v e l y d i m i n i s h on heat treatments make the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of k a o l i n d i f f i c u l t since the 0 0 L r e f l e c t i o n s of k a o l i n a l s o disappear a t 500°C (38). Pinsak and Murray ( 6 2 ) a t t r i b u t e d any r e s i d u a l peak remaining a t 7 A° a f t e r heat treatment to h50°C to k a o l i n i t e .  However, due  to the wide v a r i a b i l i t y noted i n c h l o r i t e s i t i s f e l t that such a c r i t e r i o n should not be used f o r the present i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . K a o l i n i s given a question mark i n Table I , i f a 2.38 A° peak i s present i n combination w i t h a doublet or shoulder on the low angle side of the OOh c h l o r i t e r e f l e c t i o n a t 3.53 A°.  This  i n d i c a t e s that there i s probably a l i g h t amount present.^ Only i n one case, Figure IV i s k a o l i n p o s t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d . A twin peak a t 7.07 and 7*13 A  6  along w i t h a doublet occuring  a t 3.53 and 3.57 A° and a weak peak a t 2.38 A° i s taken as c o n c l u s i v e evidence f o r the presence of k a o l i n . -ray t r a c i n g s of the 500°C heat treatment are not shown, however they are very s i m i l a r to the 550°C treatment. Figure I I I contains a +50°C heat treatment. 1  -'The various treatments proposed ( 2 , 9, 21) f o r i d e n t i f y i n g k a o l i n have not been attempted i n the present study. However an attempt w i l l be made to d i s t i n q u i s h k a o l i n by one of these t e s t and the r e s u l t s w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e a t a l a t e r date.  31  (b) vermiculite identification Problems i n distinguishing between vermiculite and raontmorillonoid have been discussed i n detail i n the literature section. Normally, any contraction to 10 A° upon K saturation at room temperature is attributed to vermiculite.  In the present  study however, there appears to be evidence to suggest that an intermediate clay mineral is present which exhibits properties of both the above groups.  The present of such a mineral, of  course, makes the identification of vermiculite d i f f i c u l t . Figures II, III, IV or VI indicate the response of the lh A° peak to the K saturation and heat treatments.  The  contraction to 10 A° that occurs at 35°C would normally be attributed to vermiculite.  However, when one considers the  extent of expansion of the ik A° peak and compares this to the contraction to 10 A° on K saturation, plus the ease with which the peak collapses, i t appears that a portion of the expanded material contracted to 10 A°. This also supported by the results of the ( 0 . 2 micron fraction (Figure V).  The <0.2 micron fractions are characterized  by a relatively intense Ih A° peak which on solvation almost completely expands to 17.65 A°.  Usually a weak peak or a  slight shoulder at lh A° was observed after solvation.  Peaks  at 7 A , ^.70 and 3.53 A° which reacted to heat treatments i n 0  a similar fashion to those i n the 2-0.2 micron fraction were attributed to chlorite.  On this basis, part or a l l of the lh A°  32 peak remaining a f t e r s o l v a t i o n must be due to c h l o r i t e .  However,  on K s a t u r a t i o n (35°C) a s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n i n t e n s i t y o f the 10 A° peak was observed i n many cases.  The extent of t h i s  increase appeared to be too great to compensate f o r the 1*+ A° peak l e f t a f t e r s o l v a t i o n .  Therefore, one can only conclude that  a p o r t i o n of the expandable m a t e r i a l i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the 10 A° peak on K s a t u r a t i o n (35°C). Assuming the previous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o r r e c t and considering the d e f i n i t i o n o f a montmorillonoid h e r e i n , one concludes that the montmorillonoids i d e n t i f i e d i n these s o i l s and sediments cons i s t s o f two types, an o c t a h e d r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d member and a t e t r a h e d r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d member. as a intermediate  The l a t t e r being designated  type c l a y mineral approaching i n charge, the  value i n d i c a t e d by Weiss (7^) f o r separation of the v e r m i c u l i t e and montmorillonoid groups. Weaver (79) reported a somewhat s i m i l a r case with a Womble clay.  He a t t r i b u t e d the f a c t that the c l a y mineral expanded  to 17 A° on s o l v a t i o n and r e a d i l y contracted  to 10 A° on K  s a t u r a t i o n (room temperature) to a high i n t e r l a y e r charge, proba b l y due mainly to t e t r a h e d r a l s u b s t i t u t i o n .  Weaver  considers  such minerals to have been derived from mica type m a t e r i a l . Walker (73) used Mg s a t u r a t i o n and g l y c e r a t i o n to d i s t i n g u i s h between v e r r a i c u i i t e s and montmorillonites.  However, the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v e r m i c u l i t e i n the s o i l s under study would s t i l l be d i f f i c u l t i n many cases due to the r e l a t i v e l y large q u a n t i t i e s of c h l o r i t e that appears to be present i n B. C. s o i l s  33 (13, 17, 72). Vermiculite is indicated as probably being present i n Table I. (c) interstratified clay minerals Recent work has shown interstratified clay minerals \to be quite abundant in soils and sediments.  Both regular and  randomly Interstratified minerals are common.  They generally  involve an expandable and a non-expandable component such as montmorillonite and i l l i t e , although other combinations of clay minerals appear to be possible ( 7 6 ) . Interpretation of mixed-layered clay minerals was made according to Weaver ( 7 6 ) . Randomly interstratified chlorite-montmorillonoid was identified in practically a l l samples.  Most samples appeared  to contain relatively small quantities.  An exception to this  was noted with the Monroe and Fairfield sites #6.  Both the coarse  and fine clay fractions appear to contain relative large amounts of such a interstratified mineral i n comparison to the remaining sites sampled. Figure IV contains the X-ray diffraction tracing of a Monroe surface s o i l sample (M - 6 ) . A relatively strong peak centered on 1^.2^ A° was attributed mainly to randomly interstratified chlorite-montmorillonoid.  The montmorillonoid component  was identified by partial expansion of the l*f A° peak on glyceration and the development of a broad band from 10 - lh.20 A° on K saturation and heat (550°C) indicated the presence of chlorite  Figure IV X-fay diffraction tracing of  35  and also montmorillonoid. In some instances, a regularly interstratified chloritemontmorillonoid, similar to that described by Earley (23) also appeared to be present.  A relatively weak peak at  29.*f2-A°  which expanded to approximately 32 A° on glyceration and contracted to 23.8 A° on K saturation and heat (300°C) was attributed to such a mineral (Figures II & III). A review of literature indicates that interstratification involving chlorite-mica components are relatively uncommon (8, h7y 7 6 ) . However, this was not the case with the present sediments.  A peak at 11.0^ A° was attributed to a randomly inter-  layered chlorite-mica (Figures II & III).  Stability of the peak  on solvation, K saturation and heat excluded the possibility of a montmorillonoid, vermiculite or kaolin component, thereby _ indicating a mixed-layered chlorite-mica.  The fact that an  integral series of higher order peaks were not observed, i n dicated the interstratification to be of a random nature. Peak intensities of this mineral indicated i t to be concentrated in the coarse clay and fine s i l t fractions and being of lesser quantities or absent in the fine clay and coarse s i l t 6 fractions.  This coincides with the chlorite and mica components  of these fractions also.  X-ray analyses of the coarse and fine s i l t fractions of these sediments are being conducted by Dr. E . H. Gardner, Dept. of Soil Science and w i l l be reported at a later date.  36  The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f r e f l e c t i o n s a t 15.65?  7.8^, 5.21 and  3.89 A ° was u n c e r t a i n (Figures I I , I I I & I V ) .  However, two p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t e d i n v o l v i n g a r e g u l a r l y i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d chlorite-mica  and a n o n - p h y l l o s i l i c a t e ,  taranakite.  Although low angle r e f l e c t i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y o f 1 - k° 20 f o r the above s e r i e s o f peaks could not be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , there was evidence to suggest the m i n e r a l was a r e g u l a r l y i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d chlorite-mica.  This was observed i n the r e a c t i o n o f  the peaks to heat treatments and a l s o i n the p a r t i c u l a r  fractions  i n which the r e f l e c t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d . Heat treatment o f the K saturated s l i d e s to +50°C caused 1  the 7.8^, 5.21 and  3.89 A° peaks to disappear.  Since the c h l o r i t e  i d e n t i f i e d h e r e i n , i s thermally unstable, the disappearance o f the above r e f l e c t i o n s would be a n t i c i p a t e d . As i n the case o f the randomly i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d c h l o r i t e mica, the content o f t h i s mineral i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i z e f r a c t i o n appeared to c o i n c i d e w i t h the c h l o r i t e and mica contents o f that fraction. Taranakite, a hydrated potassium aluminum i r o n phosphate, i s reported w i t h h k l r e f l e c t i o n s a t 15.5, 7.6, 5.8, h.h and (1).  3.83 A°  These r e f l e c t i o n s d i f f e r somewhat from those observed and  suggest that the mineral i s probably not The  taranakite.  p o s s i b i l i t y o f the 7.8*+ A° and 3.89 A° peak being due to  a p a r t i a l l y dehydrated h a l l o y s i t e was ruled out.  Both  Brindley  (9) and Grim (28) r e p o r t d spacings o f t h i s order f o r metah a l l o y s i t e and s i m i l a r temperatures (*+00 - +5G°C) to completely 5  37 dehydrate i t to 7.20 A°.  Brindley et a l (11, 12) reported a  progressive shifting of the 001 reflection at 7.8 A° to 7.2 A° on dehydration.  In the present study a progressive diminishing  of the intensity of the two peaks were observed on heating to *+50°C but the d spacings remained constant, ( i i ) <0.2 micron fraction Interpretations of the diffraction patterns were made in a similar manner to the 2-0.2 micron fraction.  Figure V contains  the X-ray diffraction tracing of a Fairfield surface sample (F - h) which is f a i r l y typical of the fine clay samples.  Results of  X-ray analyses of this fraction are found in Table I. The <0.2 micron fractions, with the exceptions of the two Pitt Meadow sites ( M - 6 & F - 6 ) , were dominated by montmorillonoid.  Chlorite is present i n somewhat lesser amounts and  micaceous material is present i n very low or questionable amounts. The identification of kaolin and vermiculite was furthur complexed by the-broader, more diffuse nature of the peaks that is characteristic of X-ray diffractograms of this fraction.  No  further attempts, therefore, were made in order to identify them. Their presence in Table I is indicated as questionable. The content of non-phyllosilicate minerals i n this fraction was very low. most cases.  Feldspars and amphiboles appeared to be absent in The presence of quartz was indicated i n several  instances by a weak peak at 3«3^ A . 0  II Nature of sediments X-ray analyses indicates the sediments are quite similar  39 mineralogically.  Variations in mineralogy however, were  observed between the two clay fractions. The mineralogical similarity of these sediments is to be expected.  Doeglas (22) reported a mineralogical variation  between the greater than 50 micron fraction and the less than 50 micron fraction due to mode of transporataion.  Particles less  than 50 microns were carried as suspended load and sand particles (^50 microns) were moved by saltation resulting in differentiation of the two fractions due to velocity.  He furthur stated that such  segregation was at a minimum in the clay fractions and would only account for quantitative variations in mineralogy. Source area variations would be practically non-existant due to physical mixing during transportation. On this basis, clay mineral assemblages would represent a sum total mineralogy of the specific source areas and qualitative variation would be non-existant or of a minor nature. Quantitative variations observed can probably be accounted for by sedimentary processes, seasonal variation i n the detrital components carried by rivers, variations in specific source areas from year to year and the local influence of sediments carried by several tributaries of the lower Fraser River, (i) Detritus vs diagenesis The mineralogical analyses supports the findings of many other workers (26, 55, 62, 71, 78) that marine deposited materials are mainly detrital in nature and dominantly reflect their source area.  However, there appears to be evidence to suggest that  diagenesis i s operative to a minor extent. Evidence to support t h i s contention i s found i n both the X-ray and chemical analyses. Figures I I and VI c o n t a i n the X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n t r a c i n g s of t y p i c a l samples from f r e s h water and sea water respectively.  environments,  I n a l l cases, there i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n  the nature of the 1*+ A° peak of samples from these two p a r t i c u l a r environments.  Samples from f r e s h water environment show c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c a l l y sharp, r e l a t i v e strong, symmetrical Ih A° peaks.  The  comparable peaks of the marine samples on the other hand, are of considerably lower i n t e n s i t y , asymmetrical, being somewhat broader and more d i f f u s e i n nature, c o n t a i n i n g several shoulders on the low angle side.  S o l v a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n v a r i a b l e expansion of the  Ih A° peak. The more d i f f u s e nature o f the Ih A° peak, along w i t h the shoulders on the low angle side are considered to be due to i n t e r l a y e r contamination o f expandable m a t e r i a l , such as montmorillonoid.  The presence of i n t e r l a y e r e d contaminant plus the  r e l a t i v e decrease i n i n t e n s i t y of the Ih A° i s considered to represent a d i a g e n e t i c change. S i m i l a r m o d i f i c a t i o n s were observed i n bore hole samples from 7  the D e l t a area taken a t 100 - 200 f e e t depths.  These samples  would represent Fraser R i v e r a l l u v i u m deposited i n sea water hundreds of years ago. Table I I contains the t o t a l K, Ca and Mg of the c l a y f r a c t i o n s of these s o i l s and sediments. Dr. E. H. Gardner - personal  communication  hi  Figure VI X-ray diffraction tracing of  Table II  Total K, Mg and Ca of the clay-sized fraction  Samples  Sea sediments 1 2 3 5  Depth (inches)  0-10 0-8  k  5 Grigg series 1  3  Monroe series 1  2.05  1.56 1.49  2.10 1.91  0-10 10-25 0-10  3  % Mg  1.99  0-12 Ladner series 1  % K  l.ko l.kl  Ca  O.fk  oM  0.56 0.65  1.77  1.82 1.55  1.91  1.2k  0.27 0.32  1.55  1.80  1.26  O.ho  10-2k  1.97 1.93  1.26  0.31 0.25  0-7  1. ?9 1. 55  1.36 l.ko  0.31 0.28  7- 2^ 0-10  l.ko  10-2k  1.95  1.6k  1.31 l.*f6,  0.31 0.35  0-8 8- 2*1-  1.68 1.61  1.28  0.28 0.28  0-11 11-20  1.26  1.38 1.3k  0.28 0.31  0-10 10-22  l.ko  1.25  1.1k  0.25 0.28  0-10 10-2^  l.i+9 l.k6  1.26 1.28  0.28 0.28  0-9 9-20  1.1k  1.9*  1.79  O.kO  0-9 9-20  1.65 1.59  1.^1 l.ko.  0.31 0.25  0-11 11-26  1.13 1.^3  0. 88  O.Ik  0-6 6-18  l.k6 l.k9  1. ko  0.31 0.25  1.65  1.61  l.kQ  1.35  0.3k  0.25  Table II cont'd Samples  Monroe (cont'd)  Depth (inches)  %K  % Mg  % Ca  k  0-9 9-2*  1.3* l.*0  1.32 1.39  0.28 0.28  5  0-9 9-23  l.*7 l.*o  1.26 1.28  0.25 0.22  6  0-7 7-20  0.92 0.90  1.03 0.90  0.11+ 0.11  0-8 8-18  1.69 1.60  1.1* 1.03  0.28 0.25  0-8 8-20  1.72 1.7*  1.50 1.37  0.28 0.25  5-18  1.76 1.73  I.1+6 1.52  0.31 0.28  h  0-11 11-25  1.52 1.42  1.52 1.53  0.28 0.28  5  0-10 10-2*+  1.*+*+ l.*6  1.17 1.26  0.20  6  0-6 6-2*  1.10 0.92  0.80 0.57  0.12 0.1*  Fairfield series 1 2 3  0.22  Analyses reported on basis of oven-dry weight after NHj saturation of the exchange system.  In most cases, the sea samples and the Ladner s o i l s , most of which were o r i g i n a l l y deposited i n sea water, are higher i n t o t a l K, Ca and Mg, e s p e c i a l l y K and Ca, than the sediments deposited i n f r e s h water environments. Exchangeable c a t i o n data (20, 37 > 68) a l s o appears to r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of sea waters. Although exchangeable Mg i s . r e l a t i v e l y high i n a l l Fraser River f l o o d p l a i n sediments, there appears to be a general increase i n the exchangeable Mg content as the S t r a i t of Georgia i s approached.  Expressing the ex-  changeable Mg of the s u b s o i l as a percentage of the base exchange c a p a c i t y , the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s are obtained: F a i r f i e l d - 38$, Monroe - 22$, P i t t - h%  Grigg - 36$,  and Ladner - 50$.  On the basis of the present data, i t appears that m o d i f i cations of sediments a f t e r d e p o s i t i o n i n marine waters takes the form of simple i o n exchange r e a c t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s of m a t e r i a l s to i n t e r l a y e r p o s i t i o n s as advocated by Weaver and Grim  (77)  (30).  Powers (6*)  reported the p r e f e r e n t i a l adsorption of Mg over  K i n a marine environment.  Considering the r e l a t i v e l y constant  r a t i o n of Mg:K i n sea water approximately 3*1  (70),  the p r e f e r -  e n t i a l adsorption of Mg onto the exchange system could be p r e d i c t e d according to the mass a c t i o n law. In only one case, S - 7» i s there evidence to support p r e f e r e n t i a l absorption of Mg over K i n t o i n t e r l a t t i c e p o s i t i o n s . Percentages represent averages of the f o l l o w i n g : Grigg - 1 p r o f i l e , 6 subsamples; F a i r f i e l d - 1 p r o f i l e , 3 subsamples; Monroe - 1 p r o f i l e , *t subsamples; P i t t - 3 p r o f i l e s , 11 sub samples; Ladner - 3 p r o f i l e s , 9 subsamples.  **5 In S - 7, the total K and Mg was 1.55 and 1.82$, respectively. The reverse i n these contents was noted i n a l l other marine deposited sediments.  However, the particular nature of the  sedimentary environment and possibly the clay minerals themselves help explain this. Several workers ( 3 0 , 55» 62) have stated that length of time of exposure to sea water is a major factor in diagenetic changes. Milne (55) reports that alteration of clay minerals can be expected i n an area where the sedimentation rate is low and sufficient time is available for chemical equilibria between sea water and clay minerals, however, i n an area of active deposition due to the blanketing effect of overlying clay material and insufficient time of exposure, diagenetic modification is at a minimum. The specific area described herein, is one of active deposition.  Therefore, absorption reactions would be at a minimum.  However, the particular nature of S - 7 is such, that diagenesis would be expected to be the most pronounced of the marine sediments sampled.  S - 7 occurs i n I362 feet of water, *f0 - 50  miles northwest of the other sea samples.  Mechanical analyses  (Appendix II) indicates that 97% of the sample is less than 20 microns.  This sample, therefore, represents a considerable  greater period of exposure to sea water and a minimizing of the blanketing effect. Bradley (8) states that much of the recent sediments transported by rivers into oceans is of a degraded nature.  This does  *6 not appear to be the case w i t h Fraser R i v e r sediments.  The  r e l a t i v e sharp d i f f r a c t i o n peaks of the micaceous and c h l o r i t i c components would i n d i c a t e they are not of a degraded nature. Since Grim (30)  and Doeglas (22)  r e p o r t that no a l t e r a t i o n or  regrading of sediments occurs during t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r e s h water, the present sediments r e f l e c t a source area of a r e l a t i v e l y low weathering i n t e n s i t y . This i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the presence of amphiboles disappear r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n the weathering sequence  which  (*2).  No p a r t i c u l a r sequence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of mixed-layered c l a y minerals was observed to support Grims contention (32)  that  diagenesis proceeds v i a a randomly i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d stage or Weavers theory (76)  that mixed-layered c l a y minerals are the  probable products of marine diagenesis. ( i i ) Content of rock f l o u r  1 0  X-ray and mechanical analyses appear to support the content i o n of Armstrong (3» *> 5)» Johnston (¥+) and Mathews  11  that  Fraser R i v e r a l l u v i u m i s composed to a large extent of "rock f l o u r * X-ray analyses i n d i c a t e the f i n e and coarse s i l t f r a c t i o n s are dominated by n o n - p h y l l o s i l i c a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y quartz and 12 feldspars. C h l o r i t e and micaceous m a t e r i a l appear to be 10  The term "rock f l o u r " h e r e i n , designates r o c k - m a t e r i a l formed by p h y s i c a l grinding.processes and therefore i s composed l a r g e l y of unweathered mineral p a r t i c l e s .  •^Dr. W. H. Mathews - personal  communication  Dr. E. H. Gardner - personal  communication  b7  concentrated in the coarse clay and fine s i l t fractions.  Both  minerals are found in the sand fractions, however their content decreased quite markedly in the fine clay fraction, the mica.  especially  The particular size fractions in which the chlorite  and mica are concentrated and the symmetry of their peaks on X-raying suggests they are relatively unweathered and have resulted largely from physical breakdown. Mechanical analyses (Appendix II) are also indicative of a high content of "rock flour".  In a majority of the cases, the  s i l t content of these sediments range between 60 - 75% and the clay content is sually less than 30$. for 60 - 100$ of the s i l t fraction.  Fine s i l t usually accounts Pettijohn (61) reports s i l t  to be the product of physical breakdown. I l l Relation of s o i l series Mineralogical variations of the clay fraction within and among; s o i l series appears to be relatively small.  Quantitative  variations existed however, but these tended to be minimized within each specific s o i l series. The largest quantitative variations in mineralogy within a particular s o i l series were found within the Fairfield and Monroe series.  This is probably to be expected since they occupy  the largest area i n terms of distance. X-ray diffractograms of Monroe and Fairfield samples from any one particular area are almost identical.  Such similarities  are probably reflected in the nature of the deposits.  Both  series are developed on lateral accretions deposits and are  k8 separated merely on the b a s i s of drainage.  Although  drainage  i s considered to be a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the c l a y mineral content of s o i l s (7j  *+0> ^6),  when one considers the r e l a t i v e age of  these s o i l s the e f f e c t of such a parameter would probably be very small or n e l i g i b l e . S i t e s 3 and *f of the above two s e r i e s are l o c a t e d on the northern side of the Fraser River on Nicomen I s l a n d and a t Agassiz, respectively.  On the b a s i s of X-ray d i f f r a c t o g r a m s ,  samples from these p a r t i c u l a r areas appear to c o n t a i n more montm o r i l l o n o i d than the r e s p e c t i v e s i t e s located on the southern f l a n k s of the Fraser R i v e r . Although sedimentary processes  may  account f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , the p o s s i b i l i t y of the i n f l u e n c e of sediments from the H a r r i s o n R i v e r should not be overlooked. The sampling s i t e s from the P i t t Meadows area, M and F - 6, d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r both i n mineralogy and chemistry from the remaining Monroe and F a i r f i e l d samples and f o r that f a c t from the r e s t of the s o i l s and sediments sampled.  Figure IV contains the  X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n t r a c i n g of M - 6 (0-9"). The c l a y f r a c t i o n , u n l i k e other samples, appears to be dominated by randomly i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d c h l o r i t e - m o n t m o r i l l o n o i d . This was true of both the coarse and f i n e c l a y f r a c t i o n s . Other samples contained such a mixed-layer mineral but only i n minor or questionable amounts. The micaceous mineral content was considerably lower i n these s i t e s as compared to other s o i l s . i n the X-ray and chemical analyses.  This was r e f l e c t e d both  The 10 A° peak was  *9 considerably weaker in the 2-0.2 micron fraction than those of other areas.  Chemical analyses (Table I) also indicate a  much lower K content.  Percent total K was in the neighborhood  of 0.92$ for soils in the Pitt Meadows area, while the other soils averaged  or higher.  The Pitt Meadow soils also  contained relatively low amounts of Ca and Mg. Sampling sites i n this area appeared to be on soils developed on typical lateral accretion deposits of the Fraser River floodplain.  Morphologically they were very similar to the other  Monroe and Fairfield soils which were sampled. The variation i n mineralogy of the Pitt Meadows samples may possibly be accounted for by the influence of sediments carried by the Alouette River. "Mathews (5*) reported that very l i t t l e sediment is being added to the Fraser River below Hope by tributaries, since nearly a l l the rivers pass through lakes in their lower courses.  However, the Alouette River has developed  a small floodplain and i t is quite probable that sediments from this river have influenced the mineralogy of the surrounding soils to some degree. The data suggests, that several of the rivers, such as the Harrison and Alouette, which flow out of the Coast Mountains have had a greater influence on the mineralogy of these sediments than was previously suspected.  However, furthur mineralogical  studies of the sediments of these particular rivers would be necessary to confirm this. IV Relation to previous work A suite of clay minerals somewhat similar to those reported  50 by C l a r k e t a l ( 1 7 ) and Comar ( 1 9 ) f o r the Ladner s o i l s e r i e s i s i n d i c a t e d by the present work.  Comar ( 1 9 ) reported d i f f i -  c u l t i e s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v e r m i c u l i t e and k a o l i n i t e . s i m i l a r problem was confronted i n the present work.  A  However,  r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y suggest small amounts of k a o l i n minerals are present.  In a d d i t i o n to the c l a y m i n e r a l s u i t e reported by  Clark et a l and Comar, a randomly i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d c h l o r i t e mica was  identified.  Comar ( 1 9 ) i d e n t i f i e d the c h l o r i t e i n the Ladner s o i l s as an i r o n r i c h v a r i e t y which d i f f e r s from the i r o n c h l o r i t e , described h e r e i n , i n that i t s higher order r e f l e c t i o n s possessed considerably more thermal s t a b i l i t y .  The v a r i a b i l i t y i n the  thermal s t a b i l i t y of the c h l o r i t e higher order r e f l e c t i o n s noted i s probably a t t r i b u t a b l e to pretreatment methods.  Comar d i d  not remove i r o n p r i o r to X-raying whereas, i n the present study, f r e e i r o n was removed by the d i t h i o n i t e method (52). et a l (3*+,  Harward  35) have reported s i m i l a r discrepancies i n X-ray  diffractograms due to pretreatment of samples. V Potassium contents Although the present study was not conducted i n r e l a t i o n to a K problem, i t i s f e l t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n warrants a d i s c u s s i o n as a p o s s i b l e b a s i s f o r f u t u r e work. Considerable v a r i a t i o n i n response to K f e r t i l i z a t i o n has been noted i n s o i l s of the lower Fraser V a l l e y , e s p e c i a l l y on s o i l s i n the eastern sector of the V a l l e y .  X-ray and chemical  analyses (Table I I ) suggests that the K contents of these s o i l s  51 are quite high.  However, considerable amounts of the K  appears to be tied up in the form of primary mica minerals (largley white mica) and feldspars.  X-ray analyses indicates  that both minerals are concentrated largely in the s i l t fraction. Both feldspars and white micas are reported to release comparatively small amounts of K on weathering (2M-). Variable response may also be related to the type of clay mineral.  As discussed in a previous section, results suggest  the presence of a high tetrahedrally charged clay mineral having properties similar to a montmorillonoid. Montmorillonoids, such as beidellite, which exhibit a high interlayer charge are reported to fix greater quantities of K than are the octahedrally substituted members (2*f). The data suggest that these soils are relatively high i n reserve K and the variable response noted i n K f e r t i l i z a t i o n may well be correlated with the mineralogy of these soils.  CONCLUSION  X-ray analyses were conducted on Fraser River a l l u v i a l sediments deposited under fresh water and sea water environments. Results indicate that the sediments are highly detrital in nature and dominantly reflect their source area.  Marine diagenesis  appears to be operative to a minor extent.  This is illustrated  by the decreased intensity of the l*f A° peaks of marine samples and the existance of several shoulders on the low angle side of the lk A° peak which are attributed to interlayer contamination of expandable clay minerals resulting from the influence of a marine environment.  Although most of the soils of the Ladner  series were originally deposited in sea water, their X-ray diffraction patterns are more characteristic of those sediments formed under a fresh water environment. Chemical analyses were also indicative of the minor i n fluence of a marine environment.  The total K, Mg and Ca'-contents  of the clay fractions of the marine sediments were somewhat higher than those found in the s o i l samples furthur up the Valley.  The exchangeable Mg content also increased due to the  effect of marine conditions, however i n the present study, cation adsorption reactions are not considered to constitute a diagenetic reaction. The soils and sediments are composed chiefly of "rock flour" consisting largley of quartz, feldspars and moderate amounts of mica minerals and chlorite.  The high s i l t contents (60 - 7%)  of these samples furthur supports this.  The high content of  53 "rock flour" and the presence of relatively easily weathered minerals i . e . amphiboles is suggestive of a source area of a relatively low weathering  intensity.  The major components identified in the 2-0.2 micron fraction were montmorillonoid and chlorite.  Considerable amount of  micaceous material, quartz and feldspar were also present. With the exception of regularly interstratified montmorillonoidchlorite which was identified in a limited number of samples, minor amounts of randomly interstratified montmorillonoidchlorite and chlorite-mica were found in a l l samples.  The  identification of a series of peaks at 15.65, 7 . 8 * , 5«21 and 3.89 A° as a regularly interstratified chlorite-mica was quite questionable. Kaolin appeared to be present in minor amounts in most samples however, positive identification was prevented in most instances by the presence of a heat unstable chlorite.  The  particular nature of the montmorillonoid also prevented identification of vermiculite. Quartz, feldspars and amphiboles were the only nonphyllosilicates identified in this fraction. The <'0.2 micron fractions were dominated by montmorillonoids and moderate amounts of chlorite.  Micaceous material and inter-  stratified clay minerals were present i n very low or questionable amounts.  With the exception of minor amounts of quartz, the  non-phyllosilicates appeared to be absent from this fraction. Evidence suggests that the montmorillonoid component  i d e n t i f i e d consisted of two types:  An oetahedrally  substituted  member and a t e t r a h e d r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d member which e x h i b i t e d properties of both the v e r m i c u l i t e and montmorillonite  groups.  The presence of the l a t t e r mineral prevented p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a vermiculite  mineral.  The c h l o r i t e was characterized as an i r o n r i c h v a r i e t y possessing thermally unstable r e f l e c t i o n s a t 7.07, +«71, 3*53 1  and 2.82 A°.  A progressive  decrease i n the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y  of the c h l o r i t e higher order r e f l e c t i o n s was observed on heating from kOO to +50 G and f u r t h u r heating 1  o  appearance of the peaks.  to 500°C r e s u l t e d i n d i s -  Discrepencies i n the thermal s t a b i l i t y  of the c h l o r i t e peaks reported by Comar (19) and i n the present study, are a t t r i b u t e d to pretreatment methods. M i n e r a l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n and among s o i l s e r i e s were l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to a q u a n t i t a t i v e nature.  Although m i n e r a l o g i c a l  v a r i a t i o n s were noted, w i t h reference to k a o l i n and r e g u l a r l y i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d chlorite-montmorillonoid,  these minerals were  present i n minor q u a n t i t i e s and t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n many instances was somewhat questionable.  Assessment, therefore, of  the m i n e r a l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n i n these sediments i s quite d i f f i c u l t and probably not too meaningful.. The q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s noted i n the mineralogy o f these sediments i s a t t r i b u t e d to sedimentary processes, seasonal v a r i a t i o n s i n the d e t r i t a l components c a r r i e d by r i v e r s , y e a r l y v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r source areas and the l o c a l influence of sediments c a r r i e d by s e v e r a l t r i b u t a r i e s o f the lower Fraser  55 R i v e r that flow out o f the Coast Mountains. X-ray and chemical analyses i n d i c a t e d that there i s a v a l i d basis f o r continued mapping of the P i t t s o i l s e r i e s separate from the Monroe and F a i r f i e l d s e r i e s .  X-ray  diffraction  p r o p e r t i e s of these s o i l s i n d i c a t e d a much higher content o f randomly i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d c h l o r i t e - m o n t m o r i l l o n o i d and a cons i d e r a b l y lower micaceous mineral content then the remainder of s o i l s and sediments sampled.  T o t a l K, Ca and Mg contents  of the c l a y f r a c t i o n of s o i l s from the P i t t Meadows area were a l s o considerably lower than those of the remaining s i t e s sampled. The v a r i a b i l i t y noted i n s o i l s from the P i t t Meadows area may be r e l a t e d to the i n f l u e n c e of sediments c a r r i e d by the A l o u e t t e River.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  American S o c i e t y f o r Testing M a t e r i a l s . 1 9 6 3 . Index (inorganic) to the power d i f f r a c t i o n f i l e . P h i l a d e l p h i a . ( S p e c i a l Technical P u b l i c a t i o n ( * 8 - M 2 ) .  2.  Andrew, R. W., M. L. Jackson & K. Wada. I 9 6 0 . 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McCarter, 1958. Diagenetic m o d i f i c a t i o n of c l a y mineral types i n a r t i f i c a l sea water. Clays & Clay M i n e r a l s , Nat. Acad. Sc.-Nat. Res. Coun., Pub. #566. pp 81-119.  83.  Wolman, M. G. & L. B. Leopold. 1957. R i v e r f l b o d p l a i n s : Some observations on t h e i r formation. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 282-C.  APPENDIX  Appendix I Samples  Sea sediments 8 Ladner s e r i e s 1 b  Fe removal  Depth (inches) 0-12 10-25 0-10  vs Fe present f o r method o f mechanical analyses .  %  sand  %  % clay  silt 1  2  1  2  1  2  11.70  10.50  68.1+0  70.80  19.90  18.71  lb.  1.90  15.60 2.20  67.10 71.30  65.90 72.80  18.90 26.80  18.50 25.00  b.bo  67.50  69.20  29.30  26.*f0  00  Grigg s e r i e s 3  10-2^  3.20  Monroe s e r i e s 2  0-11  30.10  30.00  b 8.20  52.00  21.70  18.00  11-25  16.70 12.30  18.^0 11.30  hb.ho  68.00  67.OO 50.00  15.30 *fl.30  l*f.60 38.70  F a i r f i e l d series b  6  0-6  *1 - Fe removed by Na d i t h i o n i t e using Mackenizie's method "a" (52); 2 - Fe present.  ON  Samples  1 2 3 5 Ladner series 1 2 3 4 5 Grigg series 1  Appendix II  Mechanical analyses of soils and sediments  Depth (inches)  Sand  0--10 0-•8  1.07 11.67  2-20//  18.71  59.17 65.90  1*.79 18.50  SiL SiL  70.1* 67.52  27,63 26.60  SiCL-SiL SiCL-SiL  9.91  72.89 72.15  26.50 25.*6  SiL-SiCL SiL-SiCL SiL-SiGL SiL  32.91  26.26 36.65  5*. 68 51.06  15. *6  68.14  *.75  10.50  *3.05  0--10 10, ^25  26.04 15.60  0--10 10--2*  2.23 5.88  29.25  C30  Textural class  SiL SiL SiL SiL-L SiC SiL  3.02 27.75  0--12  —  total  48.60  *8.09 *1.26 32.57  HI  10.31 21.21 20.28  Cla lay  7*. 32 69.30 61.5* 52.71 51.62 70.80  64.01  17.95 28.31  •  S i l t 00 20-^0//  20.14  16.48  24.60  19.03 20.51 18.91  48.02  07-- 2 4  2.39  62.2*  0--10 10- - 2 4  2.20 17.38  55.9* 23.73  72.80 62.47  25.00 20.15  -  16.86 38.7*  63.68  *.22  67.90  31.83  SiCL  7.56 5.6*  *9.25 49.88  12.28 23.*5  61.53 73.33  30.90 21.02  SiCL SiL  o.  -8  0--11 11--20  mm  Appendix I I cont'd Samples  Grigg (cont'd) 2  Depth (inches)  0-10 10-22  S i l t {%)  Sand f of \ \%)  Clay W  Textural class  2-20yU  20-50//  total  12. l*f  i+7.11 57.68  10.00 5.02  57.11 62.70  30.75 36.76  SiCL SiCL  03  SiCL SiL-SiCL  3  0-10 10-2*f  If. 1+0  i+9.if8 53.19  13.82 16.01  63.30 69.20  32.67 26A0  b  0-9 9-20  !:K  57.J+0 50. if 8  16.71 26.ifif  7^.11 76.92  22.11+ 19.23  SiL SiL  0-9 9-20  7.22 *+. 68  15.1+9 24.26  69.58 77.7b  23.19 17.57  SiL SiL  2  0-11 11-26  30.00 7*+. 96  5^.09 53. ba 30.61 10.51  21.39 8.27  52.00 I8.78  18.00 6.25  SiL SL-LS  3  0-6 6-18  if 3 . M  26.87  34.19 20.if0  27.86 25.13  62.05 *+5.53  11.08 11.06  SiL L  b  0-9 9-2*+  21.70 21.77  if 0.05  27.37 29.85  67. if 2 63.if2  lif.80  10.87  SiL SiL  5  0-9 9-23  7.90 15.25  ifif.62  56.18  16.27 2*+. 76  69.38  72.'i+5  19.76 15.36  SiL SiL  6  0-7 7-20  16.05 21.1+0  35.95 36.93  26.98 26.80  62.93 63.73  20.97 li+.87  SiL SiL  Monroe s e r i e s 1  33.57  ON  1  Appendix I I  cont'd  Samples  Depth (inches)  F a i r f i e l d series 1  2  3  4  5 6  Sand  S i l t (%)  (*)  Clay w  2 - 2 0 ^  20-50^  total  50.41  14.31  64.72  29.22  71.77  22.49  18.81  71.5*  6.9*  69.96  23.1* 28.81  0-8 8-18  6.05 5.73  55.75  0-8 8-20  5.31 1.13  63.02  0-5 5-18  9.51 9.71  0-11  12.41  11-25  18.40  0-10 10-24 0-6 6-24  53.36  16.02  *7.51 .  24.96  46.16  29. *3  41.5*  24.^2  35.57  13.10 13.91  11.30 18.76  18*02  72. *7 75.59  1*.70  31.43  66.06 67.00  1*.60  47.99  14.71  62.70  41.5*  29.5*  71.39  43.89 39.64  6.11  50.00  7.39  *7.03  21.31 2*. 19 1*.69  38.70 3*. 21  Textural class  SiCL SiL SiL SiCL-SiL SiL SiL SiL SiL SiL-SiCL SiL SiCL SiCL  ON ON  

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