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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Isolation in George Eliot's novels James, David Lewis 1966

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ISOLATION IN GEORGE ELIOT'S NOVELS by DAVID LEWIS JAMES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Oc t o b e r , 1966 In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly ;.purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by . his representatives. I t i s understood that; copying or publi-cation of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. •y V ^ v i - : Department of MGLISH The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada ~ ml /£>.• Date i i ABSTRACT A c o n s t a n t theme i n George E l i o t ' s n o v e l s i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t r u g g l e t o f i n d a p l a c e i n the community, by l e a r n i n g h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s and overcoming them. She h e r -s e l f f e l t t h e i s o l a t i o n , caused by her ' c o n v e r s i o n ' from C h r i s t i a n i t y , from the p a s t . L i n k e d w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n from p a s t t r a d i t i o n s and b e l i e f s i s her c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t a i n i n g a c l e a r v i s i o n of r e a l i t y here and now. M e a n i n g f u l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a re i m p o s s i b l e w h i l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s deluded about t h e n a t u r e o f the r e a l w o r l d . C o n t a c t between the s e l f and the w o r l d i s o n l y p o s s i b l e when the i n d i v i d u a l sees the n e c e s s i t y t o c a s t o f f s e l f i s h d e s i r e s and l o s e h i m s e l f i n c o n c e r n f o r o t h e r s . T h i s i s f r e q u e n t l y by means o f a t r u e m a r r i a g e or a sound v o c a t i o n . C h apter I I (The:Dreamer) shows how George E l i o t ' s c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and i n s i s t e n c e on the o r d i n a r y n a t u r e of common humanity, caused her t o show up the p r e -v a i l i n g v i c e , of r o m a n t i c dreaming, of her h e r o i n e s . S e l f -d e l u s i o n based on w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t i s a v i c e she i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y a v e r s e t o . The dreamer i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c h i l d - l i k e i n n o c e n t , c u t o f f from t h e a d u l t w o r l d , and a l s o w i t h a n i m a l s or b i r d s , and t h u s c u t o f f from t h e human w o r l d . I n Chapter I I I (The T r a n s g r e s s o r ) we w i l l see the way i n which a g u i l t y p a s t i s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n c e a l e d . The t r a n s g r e s s o r f r e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t s t o l i v e a l i e , t o d e c e i v e o t h e r s and h i m s e l f . T h i s i n h i b i t s t he f r e e f l o w o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e x c l u d e s him from acceptance i n s o c i e t y . The t r a n s g r e s s o r i s l o c k e d i n w i t h h i s own g u i l t y s e c r e t and i i i u n a b l e t o make c o n t a c t w i t h t h o s e who a r e most w i l l i n g t o h e l p him. I n Chapter IV (The T y r a n t ) a f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i s o l a t i o n i s seen i n the d e s i r e f o r power over o t h e r s . T h i s i s o f t e n seen s u b t l y i n t h e a t t i t u d e of men towards women. I n d e n y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f women, the t y r a n t , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , i n h i b i t s f r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p . C hapter V (The I d e a l i s t ) d e a l s w i t h t h o s e who have v i s i o n and p r i n c i p l e s , but who have i n some way been unable t o r e l a t e t h e s e t o t h e human c o n t e x t . The i d e a l i s t i s always shown t o be i n some way c u t o f f from a r e a l i s t i c v i s i o n of h i m s e l f or s o c i e t y . The f i n a l c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the m o r a l norm r e p r e s e n t -i n g c l e a r v i s i o n , s o c i a l and domesti c harmony. The Church of E n g l a n d c l e r g y and the mentor c h a r a c t e r s have the f u n c t i o n s of humanising the i d e a l i s t s , and b r o a d e n i n g the v i s i o n of t h e e g o i s t s . I n t h e n o v e l s the a t t a i n m e n t of c l e a r v i s i o n i s always l i n k e d w i t h a r e a l i s t i c adjustment t o s o c i e t y , an awareness of t h e needs o f o t h e r s , and an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p r o blems. T h i s p r o c e s s f r e q u e n t l y a t t a i n s a s e m i - r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r George E l i o t , and C h r i s t i a n p a r a l l e l s a r e o f t e n drawn. I s h a l l t r a c e t h i s p r o c e s s whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o see h i m s e l f and o t h e r s i n t h e i r t r u e n a t u r e , and thus breaks t h r o u g h the w a l l of r e s t r i c t i n g v i s i o n , and e i t h e r becomes i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s o c i e t y or r e j e c t e d by i t . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . THE DREAMER 21 I I I . THE TRANSGRESSOR 47 IV. THE TYRANT 71 V. THE IDEALIST 90 V I . CONCLUSION 115 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 127 B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Note The e d i t i o n of George E l i o t ' s n o v e l s used i s Works of  George E l i o t . 10 v o l s . ( E d i n b u r g h and London: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, 1 9 0 1 ) . The i n d i v i d u a l works appear i n t h i s e d i t i o n as f o l l o w s : Adam Bede: v o l . I ( a b b r e v i a t e d AB.) The M i l l on t h e F l o s s : v o l . I I . . . ( a b b r e v i a t e d MF.) Romola: v o l . I l l Scenes of C l e r i c a l L i f e : v o l . IV . . S i l a s Marner. The L i f t e d V e i l : v o l . V ( a b b r e v i a t e d SM., F e l i x H o l t : v o l . VI ( a b b r e v i a t e d FH. ) Middlemarch : v o l . V I I ( a b b r e v i a t e d M. ) D a n i e l Deronda: v o l . V I I I ( a b b r e v i a t e d DP.) The S p a n i s h Gypsy: v o l . IX T h e o p h r a s t u s Such and E s s a y s : v o l . X CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t i o n and t h e f a i l u r e t o communicate w i t h one's f e l l o w s i s a major c o n c e r n of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r . N o v e l i s t s as v a r i o u s as Lawrence and J o y c e , and d r a m a t i s t s as d i v e r s e as Chekhov and E l i o t a r e p r e -o c c u p i e d w i t h t h i s problem. For George E l i o t and the V i c t o r i a n s , however, i s o l a t i o n had a more c o n f i n e d meaning. I n D i c k e n s , Thackeray and George E l i o t we see s o c i a l norms from w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l f r e q u e n t l y d e v i a t e s , but t h e r e i s not t h e same u r g e n t quest f o r meaning i n l i f e t h a t t h e r e i s i n U l y s s e s or The C o c k t a i l P a r t y . I n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s had become undermined, and men were b e i n g c u t o f f from what had been h e l d s a c r e d and i n c o n t r o -v e r t i b l e f o r c e n t u r i e s , but men s t i l l u p h e l d p u b l i c and domestic v i r t u e s . There was a b e l i e f , and we see t h i s i n the benevolence and f e l l o w - f e e l i n g o f the John J a r n d y c e s and W i l l i a m Dobbins, i n human goodness. W h i l e t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y n o v e l i s t tends t o sympathi w i t h t h e o u t c a s t from s o c i e t y , the V i c t o r i a n sees t h e o u t s i d e r as blameworthy t o some degree. One se e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o become p a r t o f a s o c i a l u n i t i n Maggie T u l l i v e r ' s f a i l u r e t o r e s i s t " the g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n " t o l e a v e the f a m i l i a r w o r l d of duty i n S t . Ogg's. I n c o n t r a s t , U r s u l a Brangwen i n D. H. Lawrence's The Rainbow has t o r e s i s t t h e p r e s s u r e s of s o c i a l duty and f a m i l y l o v e i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e her p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n . 2 The i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l i n George E l i o t ' s n o v e l s i s one who f a i l s t o f i n d i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n h i s community. We s h a l l c o n s i d e r here some of the main impediments t h a t p r e v e n t him from f i n d i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e i n e x i s t e n c e by w i d e n i n g h i s sympathy w i t h h i s f e l l o w s and l e a d i n g a s o c i a l l y u s e f u l l i f e . The common f a c t o r s shared by a l l the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s are a f a i l u r e t o see r e a l i t y c l e a r l y and a f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d or sympathise w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w s . A l l share a l a c k of o b j e c t i v i t y i n t h e i r v i e w o f the w o r l d , but not a l l a r e e q u a l l y i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e i r own f a l s e w o r l d and hence c u t o f f from r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . Dorothea and Maggie l a c k o b j e c t i v e v i s i o n but have abundant sympathy, w h i l e Casaubon and H e t t y remain p r e c l u d e d from v i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h a c e n t r a l f i g u r e l e a r n s t o d i v e s t h i m s e l f of i l l u s i o n , and t o see h i m s e l f and o t h e r s f o r what th e y a r e , i s as i m p o r t a n t t o George E l i o t as i t i s t o Jane A u s t e n or Henry James. T h i s a s p e c t o f her work has r e c e i v e d adequate t r e a t m e n t from Reva Stump, Jerome T h a l e and David C a r r o l l , among o t h e r r e c e n t c r i t i c s . ' ' * Both M i s s Stump and Mr C a r r o l l show how an a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n i n the n o v e l s i n v o l v e s p r o g r e s s from i l l u s i o n t h r o u g h disenchantment t o r e g e n e r a t i o n , and each c r i t i c p o i n t s out t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e 2 of C h r i s t i a n p a r a l l e l s . See Reva Stump, Movement and V i s i o n i n George E l i o t ' s  N o v e l s ( S e a t t l e : U n i v . o f Washington, 1959); Jerome T h a l e , The N o v e l s of George E l i o t (New York: Columbia U n i v . , 1959); David C a r r o l l , "An Image of Disenchantment i n t h e N o v e l s of George E l i o t , " Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , X I ( I 9 6 0 ) , 29-41. See C a r r o l l , p.30; Stump, pp. 48-51. The l a t t e r g i v e s a f u l l a n a l y s i s of the 'upper room' scene i n Adam Bede. Without i n any way i n v a l i d a t i n g the arguments of t h e s e c r i t i c s , I i n t e n d t o examine the p r o c e s s whereby the i n d i v i d u a l e i t h e r a c h i e v e s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e community by w i d e n i n g awareness o f , and sympathy w i t h h i s f e l l o w s , o r becomes r e j e c t e d by the s o c i e t y where he might have found a r e w a r d i n g l i f e o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e or domes t i c h a p p i n e s s . Mr C a r r o l l , by s t r e s s i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n framework i n which the p r o c e s s o f s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , c i t e s the i n f l u e n c e on the n o v e l s of The L i f e of Jesus, C r i t i c a l l y  Examined, w h i c h was George E l i o t ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of D a v i d S t r a u s s ' s Leben Jesu. I t seems t o me, however, t h a t George E l i o t i s more concerned w i t h e m p h a s i s i n g the p l a c e of man i n s o c i e t y t h a n w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n . Though she r e j o i c e s i n the l i b e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l from t h e "wretched g i a n t ' s bed o f dogma" r e p r e s e n t i n g C h r i s t i a n t y r a n n y , George E l i o t does not g i v e q u i t e the same v a l u e t o p e r s o n a l v i s i o n t h a t Henry James does. F o r George E l i o t and her f e l l o w V i c t o r i a n s , the moment of v i s i o n comes when the way t o s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and human f e l l o w -s h i p i s c l e a r l y seen. V i s i o n i s o f no v a l u e t o George E l i o t u n l e s s accompanied by a sympathetic'awareness of o t h e r s and a d e s i r e t o serve them. She cannot r e j o i c e , as V i r g i n i a Woolf does, over the achievement o f a r t i s t i c v i s i o n by L i l y B r i s c o e i n To The L i g h t h o u s e . F or George E l i o t , the a r t i s t , such as W i l l L a d i s l a w , i s a s u s p i c i o u s f i g u r e d r i f t i n g on the edge of s o c i e t y . Only when W i l l t a k e s on domes t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y does he become s o c i a l l y r e s p e c t a b l e . S e v e r a l commentators on George E l i o t have remarked on the importance o f s o c i e t y i n her work. The minute and d e t a i l e d p o r t r a i t s o f S t . Ogg's and Middlemarch do more t h a n m e r e l y p r o v i d e a. framework f o r the c h a r a c t e r s . These s o c i e t i e s have a m o r a l f u n c t i o n , i n t h a t they r e p r e s e n t a w o r l d o f hard f a c t t o which the i n d i v i d u a l i s t o become adapted. George E l i o t i n s i s t s on the o r d i n a r y and humdrum n a t u r e o f t h e s e w o r l d s of f a c t , which p r o v i d e the y a r d s t i c k a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l human dreams and i d e a l s are measured. For George E l i o t , as f o r Wordsworth, t h i s i s the w o r l d i n which we f i n d our h a p p i n e s s , or not at a l l . But, u n l i k e Wordsworth George E l i o t sees no g r e a t e r m o r a l wisdom i n the s i m p l e peasant l i f e t han i n t h a t o f the town. The s i m p l e f o l k a r e no l e s s , and no more, c o r r u p t than t h e i r s o c i a l s u p e r i o r s , and v i s i o n i s v o u c h s a f e d t o s i m p l e c r a f t s m e n , such as Adam Bede, or t o Godfrey Cass the " g r e a t e s t man i n Raveloe. 1.' George E l i o t wants the r e a d e r t o d i v i d e h i s sympathy over a whole group who are r e a l l y r a t h e r o r d i n a r y but who are human and thus c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g l o v e and sympathy. George E l i o t ' s n o v e l s perhaps do not l e n d t h e m s e l v e s e a s i l y t o t h e s o r t o f schematic t r e a t m e n t I i n t e n d to impose on them. No c h a r a c t e r i n t h e n o v e l s f i t s e x c l u s i v e l y i n t o any one t y p e , and some have a s p e c t s o f t h r e e or f o u r of t h e c a t e g o r i e s I have chosen. There are no v i l l a i n s o r t y r a n t s who are not r e a l i s e d f i r s t as m o r t a l s who l i v e i n the ways of men. The f i g u r e s are i n d i v i d u a l i s e d and g i v e n substance See D a v i d C a r r o l l , " F e l i x H o l t : S o c i e t y as P r o t a g o n i s t , N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y F i c t i o n , X V I I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 237-252. The r o l e of s o c i e t y as one o f the main p r o t a g o n i s t s i n S i l a s Marner i s c o n s i d e r e d by W.J.Harvey, The A r t of George E l i o t (London, 1961), p.170. even down to the melodramatic R a f f l e s . The c a t e g o r i e s chosen, however, seem to me. the most succinct method of approaching the theme of i s o l a t i o n . The chapters will . .< d e a l with the v a r i o u s i s o l a t i n g f a c t o r s which prevent the i n d i v i d u a l l e a d i n g the l i f e of v i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f e l l o w s , which we have seen i s a dominant concern of the author. As I have s a i d , a u n i f y i n g f e a t u r e of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e i s a f a i l u r e to achieve an o b j e c t i v e view of the world. T h i s l i m i t a t i o n prevents him from a c h i e v i n g a true r e l a t i o n s h i p with o t h e r s , f o r h i s view of them i s c o l o u r e d by h i e own p r e d i l e c t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s . Thus Adam Bede sees Arthur Donnithorne p r i m a r i l y as the s q u i r e ' s son r a t h e r than as a f e l l o w c r e a t u r e l i a b l e to commit great e r r o r , and t h i s r a t h e r narrow view r e s u l t s i n a l a c k of a b i l i t y to sympathise. Dorothea's view of Casaubon i s d i s t o r t e d by her own need to serve i n a noble cause, and the man she m a r r i e s proves to be anything but the l o f t y s c h o l a r of her i d e a l s . Although v a r y i n g degrees of egoism d i s t i n g u i s h a l l the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s , not a l l are without the a b i l i t y to f e e l f o r o t h e r s . One sees a d e f i c i e n c y of f e e l i n g mainly among the t y r a n t s and dreamers, but s c a r c e l y at a l l . i n the i d e a l i s t s . Tom T u l l i v e r ' s c i r c u m s c r i b e d view of f a m i l y duty causes him to be too harsh towards Maggie, and Rosamond Vincy day-dreams of married comfort r e s u l t i n her l a t e r resentment of the earnest and unglamourous l i f e of her husband. Rufus Lyon, however, though f r e q u e n t l y a b s t r a c t e d from the more mundane matters of l i f e , shows a d e s i r e to understand those 6 who are not i n sympathy with his i d e a l s . The i d e a l i s t s such as Lyon, F e l i x Holt, Dinah Morris and Dorothea Brooke seldom f a i l to give love and sympathy, even to those who may scarcely seem to deserve such f e e l i n g . A l l the other isolated figures f a i l i n some degree to give a pure and disinterested love to others. They put th e i r own needs before those of others. Both Maggie T u l l i v e r and Casaubon, who are at opposite extremes i n their a b i l i t y to love, share t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . The i d e a l i s t , by contrast, considers others before himself, but his f a i l u r e i s that he has an over-optimistic view of the amount of good i n them. The dreamer i s perhaps the furthest removed from r e a l i t y of a l l the isolated figures, f o r , unlike the tyrant, she does not seek the good opinion of the world. She has not, moreover, the double v i s i o n of the transgressor who somehow trusts that his doubtful acts w i l l be masked by some special providence and his own good intentions. The dreamer, such as Hetty or Rosamond, does not relate her dreams to anything i n the world of a c t u a l i t y that surrounds her. She does not consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of l i f e evolving i n any other way than i t does i n the f a i r y - t a l e world of her imag-ination. While the dream l a s t s , she i s suspended i n a make-believe world and when i t vanishes, the dreamer i s frequently unable to reconcile herself to r e a l i t y . Maggie, returning to St. Ogg's after her escapade with Stephen, feels herself "an outlawed soul" (MF. Bk. VI, Ch. XIV). Only Esther i s able to return to the r e a l world where relationship i s possible, and even for her the "vanished ecstasy . . . had l e f t i t s wounds" (FH. Ch. XLIV). The d i s t o r t e d v i s i o n o f the t r a n s g r e s s o r and h i s i s o l a t i o n from r e a l i t y a r e d i f f e r e n t from the dreamer's. U n l i k e t h e dreamer, the t r a n s g r e s s o r i s v e r y concerned f o r t h e good o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s , but he i s as c o n f u s e d about h i s own n a t u r e as he i s about the n a t u r e of the o u t s i d e w o r l d . He f o n d l y i m a g i n e s he can d e c e i v e o t h e r s and a v o i d the con-sequences of h i s p a s t e v i l . F r e q u e n t l y he a t t e m p t s t o m i n i m i s e h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a s t wrongs, and b e l i e v e s he can atone f o r them by f u t u r e r e p a r a t i o n s . A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e imagines he can compensate H e t t y f o r the wrong he has done h e r . As l o n g as h i s d e s t r u c t i v e deeds remain h i d d e n A r t h u r f e e l s h i m s e l f t o be a n o b l e p e r s o n . A l l the t r a n s g r e s s o r s are i n some r e s p e c t h y p o c r i t e s a t t e m p t i n g t o c o v e r a p r i v a t e shame w i t h a d e c e p t i v e appearance. Only when the p u b l i c f r o n t i s t o r n away, as i t i s m e r c i l e s s l y t o r n away from B u l s t r o d e , i s the t r a n s g r e s s o r a g a i n a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o normal human r e l a t i o n s h i p . The t y r a n t i s l e s s d e l u d e d than the dreamer o r the t r a n s g r e s s o r about the n a t u r e o f the w o r l d o u t s i d e him, but h i s v i e w i s narrowed by h i s own code of conduct. H i s a ssumption of s u p e r i o r i t y o v er o t h e r s p r e v e n t s him from s y m p a t h i s i n g w i t h t h e i r weaknesses, and p r e c l u d e s him from s e e i n g t h e i r s t r e n g t h . Tom T u l l i v e r can never see Maggie as o t h e r than an i n f e r i o r c r e a t u r e whose n a t u r e i t i s t o be g u i d e d by h i s wisdom and h i s c o n c e p t i o n of d u t y . He s c o f f s at her l o v e f o r P h i l i p because i t i s opposed t o h i s r e s t r i c t e d i d e a of f a m i l y d u t y . Casaubon sees Dorothea o n l y as a 8 s e r v a n t t o h i s f u t i l e s c h o l a r s h i p and a comfort t o h i s d e c l i n i n g y e a r s . He does not u n d e r s t a n d her need t o l o v e , and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l i v e s of o t h e r s . N e a r l y a l l the c h a r a c t e r s who are i s o l a t e d from the r e a l w o r l d and the p o s s i b i l i t y of genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s see t h e i r f e l l o w m o r t a l s as f u n c t i o n a r i e s i n schemes of t h e i r own d e v i s i n g . T h i s i s as t r u e of H e t t y who dreams o f m a r r i a g e to the s q u i r e ' s son as Dorothea who sees h e r s e l f m i n i s t e r i n g t o a mind such as Locke or P a s c a l . Perhaps the o n l y schemes t h a t do not a b s o l u t e l y m i s f i r e a r e thos e o f F e l i x H o l t i n d i v e r t i n g the r i o t e r s and Dorothea i n b u i l d i n g her c o t t a g e s . The v a l u e of the p u r e l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d a c t i s shown by t h e examples of Rufus Lyon and S i l a s Marner. Both respond t o the c a l l t o l o v e and by so d o i n g d i s c o v e r the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the l i f e t h e y have been l e a d i n g . These a c t s a r e r e l e v a n t t o our d i s c u s s i o n because they a re s e l f l e s s and spontaneous. I n them i s no admi x t u r e o f the f a c t o r s t h a t i s o l a t e from awareness of o t h e r s . A r e a l i s t i c v i s i o n of the w o r l d i s the key t o s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Only t h o s e , such as F e l i x H o l t , who see p e o p l e and t h e m s e l v e s f o r what they a r e , r a t h e r t h a n f o r what th e y would be, have t h i s key. At the b e g i n n i n g of Adam Bede, none o f the f o u r main f i g u r e s p o s s e s s e s t h i s key. Adam h i m s e l f has h i s m o r a l b l i n d s p o t s , and i t i s o n l y Mr I r w i n e who i s a b l e t o suggest t o A r t h u r t h a t "our deeds c a r r y t e r r i b l e consequences . . . t h a t a re h a r d l y ever c o n f i n e d t o o u r s e l v e s " (AB. Ch. X V I ) . Adam, A r t h u r and Dinah a l l t a k e p a r t i n an advance towards t r u e v i s i o n and a sy m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s moment o f r e v e l a t i o n i s as c r u c i a l t o George E l i o t as t o T. S. E l i o t o r V i r g i n i a Woolf, and as Barbara Hardy has shown, i t i s always preceded by a f e e l i n g 4 of i n c o m p l e t e n e s s and u n r e a l i t y . T h i s f e e l i n g i s a stage i n t h e awakening from e g o c e n t r i c i t y t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of a w o r l d o u t s i d e the s e l f , i n w h i c h s e l f must become absorbed. Many of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s i n the n o v e l s n e v e r r e a c h t h i s s t a t e of awareness, and some such as H e t t y and Casaubon a r e i n c a p a b l e of q u i c k e n i n g t o t h e i r s o c i a l en-v i r o n m e n t . H e t t y never l e a r n s the m o r a l l e s s o n t h a t the w o r l d i s not m e r e l y a p r o v i d e r of comfort and s e c u r i t y f o r h e r . Though she p a s s e s t h r o u g h t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of Maggie, E s t h e r and Gwendolen H a r l e t h , she never l e a r n s t o l o v e . She remains a l i t t l e c h i l d depending on the l o v e of o t h e r s . L i k e Casaubon's and Stephen G u e s t ' s , h e r l a s t scene i s one o f s e l f - - p r e o c c u p a t i o n . We see her at the end of the n o v e l , as we see Casaubon and Stephen, h a r b o u r i n g f e e l i n g s of antagonism t o the w o r l d i n w h i c h she has been u n a b l e t o f i n d human r e l a t i o n s h i p . H e t t y i s i m p r i s o n e d i n her own s e l f i s h w o r l d , and the pagan and a n i m a l imagery so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her i n the n o v e l u n d e r l i n e s her d i m i n u t i v e m o r a l s t a t u s . Her a t t i t u d e t o C h r i s t i a n f o r g i v e n e s s i n her l a s t speech emphasises her u t t e r f a i l u r e t o l e a r n any moral l e s s o n through her s u f f e r i n g : "And t e l l him," H e t t y s a i d i n a r a t h e r s t r a n g e r v o i c e , " t e l l him . . . f o r t h e r e ' s nobody e l s e t o t e l l him . . . as I went a f t e r him, and c o u l d n ' t f i n d him . . . and I h a t e d him and c u r s e d him once . . . but Dinah says I s h o u l d Barbara. Hardy, "The Moment of Disenchantment i n George E l i o t ' s N o v els,"-Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , N.S. V ( J u l y , 1954), 256-64. 10 f o r g i v e hitn . . . and I t r y . . . f o r e l s e God won't f o r g i v e me" [[author's elipseTj (AB. Ch. X L V I ) . A l t h o u g h the p r o c e s s by which human b e i n g s l e a r n t o see and l e a r n t o l o v e n o r m a l l y ends i n s o c i a l u n i o n , t h e r e are c a ses where t h i s does not happen. For H e t t y S o r r e l , P h i l i p Wakem, Maggie T u l l i v e r , Lydgate and A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e t h e r e i s no reward i n human f e l l o w s h i p . A l l a r e i n some way d e p r i v e d of the r i g h t t o become ' - r e i n s t a t e d i n s o c i e t y . H e t t y , as we have seen, does not l e a r n the l e s s o n of aware-ness of the needs of o t h e r s , but A r t h u r and Maggie do l e a r n t h a t t h e r e can be no good for t h e m s e l v e s t h a t i s based on an o t h e r ' s m i s e r y . P h i l i p and Lydgate are never i s o l a t e d from r e a l i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d i n t h e same way as the o t h e r s and t h e i r f i n a l o s t r a c i s m i s somewhat g r a t u i t o u s a l t h o u g h Lydgate does f a i l t o see Rosamond f o r what she r e a l l y i s . George E l i o t i s e s p e c i a l l y severe i n her judgement of t h o s e , such as A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e , H a r o l d Transome and Lyd g a t e , who m i s u n d e r s t a n d the t r u e meaning of l o v e . By t r e a t i n g women as o b j e c t s of beauty o r d e c o r a t i o n each b e t r a y s h i s own human n a t u r e , and even i d e a l i s t s , such as A r t h u r and Ly d g a t e , are i n h i b i t e d from s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l a c t i v i t y by t h e i r f a i l u r e t o come t o terms w i t h the r e a l i t y of t h e i r own n a t u r e . The f i n a l estrangement of Maggie and P h i l i p shows The M i l l on t h e F l o s s t o be a s p e c i a l case i n which the r e l a t i o n between f a i l u r e t o l o v e and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i s not o b v i o u s . Both Maggie and P h i l i p f i n a l l y t r i u m p h over s e l f i s h and r o m a n t i c l o v e , but one f e e l s t h a t Maggie, l i k e L y d g a t e , 11 l o s e s f a i t h i n h e r s e l f t h r o u g h her own p a s t f a i l u r e . She i s u n a b l e t o t a k e a p l a c e i n S t . Ogg's as w i f e and mother, j u s t as Lydgate i s un a b l e t o accept h i s r o l e of m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h at the f e v e r h o s p i t a l i n Middlemarch. The t r a g e d y of b o th c a s e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no atonement f o r p a s t e r r o r s , and i n The M i l l on t h e F l o s s i t i s the i n n o c e n t , such as P h i l i p and Lucy, who s u f f e r by the d e f a u l t of Maggie and Stephen. The c o n t r a s t between the f i n a l l e t t e r s o f Stephen and P h i l i p t o Maggie r e v e a l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the n a t u r e of t h e i r l o v e . Stephen's i s s t i l l immature, demanding and s e l f i s h l y i n s i s t e n t : "Maggie c a l l me back t o y o u i - c a l l me back t o l i f e and goodness! I am ba n i s h e d from both now. I have no m o t i v e s : I am i n d i f f e r e n t t o e v e r y t h i n g . Two months have o n l y deepened t h e c e r t a i n t y t h a t I can never c a r e f o r l i f e w i t h o u t you. W r i t e me one word - say 'Come!'" (MF. Bk. V I I , Ch. V ) . P h i l i p a c h i e v e s something of s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n , and a sense of a 'new power' t h r o u g h h i s v e r y a c t of l o v i n g w i t h o u t demanding any r e c o g n i t i o n : "And remember t h a t I am unchangeably y o u r s : y o u r s not w i t h s e l f i s h w i s h e s , but w i t h a d e v o t i o n t h a t e x c l u d e s such w i s h e s " (Bk. V I I , Ch. I I I ) . George E l i o t d i s t i n g u i s h e s s h a r p l y between r o m a n t i c l o v e and a l t r u i s t i c l o v e . The r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s of th e d r e a m e r - h e r o i n e s a re f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t e n s i o n and embarrassment i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s . T h i s i s emphasised i n the e a r l y meetings of Stephen and Maggie, and Lydgate and Rosamond. I n each case the emphasis i s on p h y s i c a l a t t r i -b u t e s and bo t h women are i d e a l i s e d as o b j e c t s o f beauty. As we s h a l l see, t h i s tendency t o see the l o v e d one as a 12 p r i z e , as an o b j e c t t o be won, i s f r e q u e n t l y accompanied by a s s o c i a t i o n s o f music or drama.^ The music i s r e l a t e d t o r o m a n t i c charm t h a t p r e v e n t s c l e a r v i s i o n o f the l o v e d one, and t h e drama i s o f t e n connected w i t h a f a l s e p o s t u r i n g o f the s e l f . I n each case the i n d i v i d u a l i s c u t o f f not o n l y from c l e a r v i s i o n , but a l s o from th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f pure r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r , and, by e x t e n s i o n , w i t h s o c i e t y . The i s o l a t e d f i g u r e i n the n o v e l s i s always p r e v e n t e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n t h e w o r l d by a f a i l u r e of v i s i o n o r an i n a b i l i t y t o f e e l . F r e q u e n t l y t h e s e b a r r i e r s are c o n j o i n t and the f a i l u r e t o see r e s u l t s e i t h e r i n a f a i l u r e t o l o v e or an o v e r - i d e a l i s t i c l o v e . We see the f a i l u r e t o l o v e among the dreamers, such as H e t t y or Rosamond and t h e i d e a l i s t i c l o v e i n Dorothea's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Casaubon, or Dinah's w i t h H e t t y , or Rufus Lyon's w i t h E s t h e r . The dreamers i n the n o v e l s are i n v a r i o u s ways u n a b l e t o make c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s o u t s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . S i n c e t h e y are i n s u l a r and do not r e l a t e t o any h i g h e r i d e a l t h a n t h e i r own good they l i v e i n a m o r a l vacuum. Reva Stump has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the m i r r o r imagery and N a r c i s s u s p a r a l l e l s t h a t r e l a t e t o H e t t y . She examines a l s o Rosamond V i n c y ' s c a n d l e of egoism, and Casaubon's f e e b l e t a p e r of l i g h t , and r e l a t e s them t o t h e i m p e r f e c t e g o i s t i c v i s i o n w h ich sees i n the w o r l d a r e f l e c t i o n o f i t s own d e s i r e s . For a. d i s c u s s i o n o f the p a r t p l a y e d by t h e a t r i c a l imagery i n D a n i e l Deronda see W. J . Harvey, pp. 237-240. Stump, pp. 28-29. 13 But, as I have a l r e a d y suggested above, l a c k of v i s i o n i s not such a c r u c i a l moral weakness f o r George E l i o t as l a c k of f e e l i n g . We might sum up the l i m i t a t i o n s of her i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s as being due to a f a i l u r e to see c l e a r l y , but we would not be doing j u s t i c e to her moral p h i l o s o p h y . The dreamer i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a r e f l e c t e d v i s i o n , the t r a n s g r e s s o r by a d i s t o r t e d v i s i o n , the t y r a n t by a l i m i t e d v i s i o n , and the i d e a l i s t by a misplaced v i s i o n . Nevertheless t h e r e are f i g u r e s i n the n o v e l s who see very c l e a r l y , but are c u t , o f f from a v i t a l l i f e of sympathetic understanding of o t h e r s . I t i s a p p o s i t e to note, i n t h i s r egard, that both Rufus Lyon and Dorothea, whose l i v e s are marked by concern and care f o r o t h e r s , are l i t e r a l l y s h o r t - s i g h t e d . By c o n t r a s t Denner and C e l i a Brooke have the l i m i t a t i o n s i nherent i n t h e i r r e a l i s t i c view of l i f e . Denner shows sympathy and c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Mrs Transome, but t h i s i s p a r t l y because she knows where her own i n t e r e s t s l i e . C e l i a , whose eagerness to o b t a i n her mother's j e w e l l e r y i s s c a r c e l y concealed, has no sympathy wi t h Dorothea's " n o t i o n s " and she sees o n l y the r e p u l s i v e e x t e r i o r of Mr Casaubon. C e l i a , Denner, Mrs Cadwallader and the Dodson s i s t e r s i n The M i l l on 'the F l o s s have the function not only of p r o -v i d i n g a humanly r e v e a l i n g and amusing commentary on the f o l l i e s of o t h e r s , but showing the l i m i t a t i o n s of a p u r e l y w o r l d l y v i s i o n . A p e r s i s t e n t motif i n the n o v e l s of E. M. F o r s t e r , which i s made e x p l i c i t i n Howards End, i s an attempt to r e c o n c i l e p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e s with the a b i l i t y to l o v e . "Only connect," says F o r s t e r , "the prose and the p a s s i o n . " 14 George E l i o t , too, i s very much concerned wi t h the d i v o r c e of knowledge from f e e l i n g . Dinah M o r r i s has to l e a r n to f e e l i n a human, r a t h e r than a d o c t r i n a l way. Adam Bede comes to l e a r n , p a i n f u l l y , that " f e e l i n g ' s a s o r t of knowledge" (AB. Ch. XXXVII). Casaubon i s an extreme example of the way i n which an o b s e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t of knowledge can b r i n g about a complete i n a b i l i t y to f e e l f o r o t h e r s . In c o n t r a s t , Mrs Garth, who r e p r e s e n t s the s o c i a l norm, g i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n to her c h i l d r e n simultaneously i n i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral concerns. I t i s w i t h i n the f a m i l y u n i t that f i n a l i n t e g r a t i o n u s u a l l y takes p l a c e . Here there i s no p l a c e f o r the d i s t o r t e d v i s i o n and s e l f - m o t i v a t e d a c t i o n of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e . I t i s i n the f a m i l y that i d e a l s are f i r s t put i n t o p r a c t i c e . We see marriage as the reward of the s o c i a l l y mature, and a true marriage i s not p o s s i b l e f o r the i n c u r a b l e romantic or the e g o i s t . The Rosamond-Lydgate marriage i s an unequal p a r t n e r s h i p , and there i s no marriage f o r Hetty or A r t h u r , f o r Tom or Maggie; Harold Transome's marriage, l i k e h i s mother's, i s a t r a v e s t y . We see happy marriages, i n which mutual r e s p e c t and equal f e l l o w s h i p make f o r a s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p , c h i e f l y among minor f i g u r e s , such as the Poysers and the Garths. The m a r i t a l o b j e c t i v e s of Mr T u l l i v e r or Casaubon seem sadly l i m i t e d i n the l i g h t of an i d e a l p a r t n e r -s h i p , u s u a l l y between a r e a l i s t and an i d e a l i s t , whose i d e a l s are, however, grounded i n a s o l i d l y human b a s i s . One t h i n k s of Adam and Dinah, Nancy and Godfrey, Dorothea and L a d i s l a w as complementary c h a r a c t e r s . 15 These m a r r i a g e s a r e u s u a l l y b l e s s e d w i t h c h i l d r e n , and i t i s o f t e n by t h e i r c h i l d r e n , o r l a c k o f them, t h a t we can t e s t t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f the m a r r i a g e . The n a t u r e of the m a r r i e d s t a t e i s of more i n t e r e s t t o George E l i o t t h an i t i s f o r Jane A u s t e n . I t i s c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h a n wedding b e l l s t h a t a re the reward and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the George E l i o t h e r o i n e . Not o n l y S i l a s Marner f i n d s a meaning t o h i s l i f e by means o f a c h i l d , but a l s o Seth Bede, who makes h i s c l o s e s t c o n t a c t w i t h Dinah through the c a r e o f h i s nephew. Rufus Lyon, t o o , f i n d s i n the l o v e o f a p e n n i l e s s woman and h e r c h i l d a power wh i c h causes him t o o v e r t h r o w t h e c o n s t r i c t i n g i n f l u e n c e of h i s c h u r c h . I n s a v i n g another human b e i n g from the wreck, Lyon has t o r e j e c t p a r t i a l l y many p r e v i o u s l y h e l d c o n v i c t i o n s . A moral i n d e x t o a c h a r a c t e r i s p r o v i d e d , moreover, by h i s a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d r e n . Those who t e a c h and c a r e f o r t h e young show t h a t t h e y have broken f r e e from t h e i r own s e l f - a b s o r b i n g c o n c e r n s . H e t t y , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i s i m p a t i e n t w i t h her c h a r g e s , w h i l e H a r o l d Transome l e a v e s t h e c a r e o f h i s son t o h i s man Dominic and t o the s e n i l e Mr T r a n -some. Mrs G a r t h , l i k e F e l i x H o l t , i s a d i l i g e n t i n s t r u c t o r o f the manners, minds and m o r a l s of the young. Wakem, i n The M i l l on the F l o s s , i s at h i s most s y m p a t h e t i c i n the scene where he c o n s e n t s t o the i d e a of h i s son's m a r r i a g e w i t h the daughter o f h i s enemy. C h i l d l e s s m a r r i a g e s a r e common among the i s o l a t e d and i s o l a t i n g f i g u r e s . There i s no progeny f o r t h c o m i n g from the r o o t l e s s s o c i e t y of S t . Ogg's. M i s s Stump p o i n t s out the c o n t r a s t between the l i f e - g i v i n g w o r l d of Hayslope and the 16 t r a g i c , doomed w o r l d of S t . Ogg's.^ Godfrey Cass, i n S i l a s  Marner, i s o l a t e d by h i s c r i m e , r e m a i n s , i n e f f e c t , c h i l d l e s s and r e j e c t e d by h i s n a t u r a l c h i l d . The o n l y i s s u e of P e t e r F e a t h e r s t o n e i s the f r o g - f a c e d R i g g F e a t h e r s t o n e , who s e l l s h i s b i r t h r i g h t t o B u l s t r o d e who has a l i e n a t e d h i m s e l f from humanity. Casaubon i s , of c o u r s e , c h i l d l e s s , w h i l e B u l s t r o d e ' s d a u g h t e r s are g i v e n o n l y a p a s s i n g mention. In t h i s c o n t e x t , the w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f H e t t y ' s c h i l d murder and Rosamond V i n c y 1 s m i s c a r r i a g e i s o b v i o u s ; both women cu t t h e m s e l v e s o f f from normal human r e l a t i o n s h i p s by s e l f i s h a c t s . We have c o n s i d e r e d the f u n c t i o n o f s o c i e t y , and t h a t o f the f a m i l y , i n p r o v i d i n g a frame of r e f e r e n c e i n w h i c h the narrow or disengaged c h a r a c t e r may be measured. A f u r t h e r and more o b v i o u s l y d i r e c t i n s i g h t i n t o the problem of i s o l a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by the f i g u r e s o f the mentor and the Church of England clergymen. The s t e r n c r i t i c of the wayward and e g o c e n t r i c h e r o i n e i s common t o most of t h e n o v e l s . The t r e a t m e n t of the mentor i s , however, v a r i e d t h r o u g h o u t . We see him sometimes p r o -v i d i n g the s o c i a l and m o r a l i d e a l i n the k i n d of l i f e he l e a d s , as i n F e l i x H o l t , or as w i t h P h i l i p , i n The M i l l on  t h e F l o s s , he may m e r e l y comment and a d v i s e , b e i n g h i m s e l f shut o f f from normal human c o n t a c t . T h i s i s the case w i t h D a n i e l Deronda, as w e l l as P h i l i p , but whereas Deronda f i n d s s o c i a l r e l e v a n c e , P h i l i p i s l e f t the o u t c a s t of the s o c i e t y o f S t . Ogg's. Dinah M o r r i s and Mary G a r t h are female mentors Stump, p. 67. 17 i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Hetty S o r r e l and Fred Vincy r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f u n c t i o n of the mentor i s not merely to throw l i g h t upon the dilemma of the i n s u l a r f i g u r e , but to help b r i n g human v a l u e s to bear, by s t i m u l a t i n g an awareness of the o b j e c t i v e world, the world of s o c i a l and human f a c t . Both Dinah and Dorothea t r y to reach the he a r t s of Hetty and Casaubon who are loc k e d i n t h e i r own a r t i f i c i a l and e x c l u s i v e worlds. Dinah's v i s i t to H e t t y ) i n the p r i s o n has thus a s i g n i f i c a n c e as symbolic as Dorothea's f u t i l e e f f o r t s to reach Casaubon through the medium of s c h o l a r s h i p , seen i n the novel as l a b y r i n t h i n e , f o r g o t t e n and dead. The i r o n y of Dorothea's case i s that she sees h e r s e l f as the p u p i l , but i n f a c t attempts to teach her scholar-husband the n e c e s s i t y to r e f e r h i s l e a r n i n g to the human c o n d i t i o n . The clergymen of the Church of England a l s o p r o v i d e human standards a g a i n s t which we can measure the s e l f i s h and s o l i t a r y f i g u r e s . These mature and benign gentlemen are f a r removed from d o c t r i n a l debate, and p r o v i d e a l e s s urgent i n s i s t e n c e on s o c i a l and moral duty than do the mentors. Mr Irwine, Dr. Kenn, Mr Farebrother and even " S p o r t i n g Jack" Lingon have a humane and moderating i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r f e l l o w s . These men have a f a i r degree of human f a i l i n g , but a g r e a t e r degree of understanding of the problems and s u f f e r i n g s of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e than t h e i r narrow and p r o v i n c i a l p a r i s h i o n e r s . P r a c t i c a l and humane, they are concerned with doing the duty which l i e s nearest them. We see them to be t a c t f u l and understanding i n both t h e i r homes and t h e i r communities. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between parson and 18 s q u i r e ' s son i n Adam Bede i s i n f o r m a l and m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e . Both g a i n by t h i s c o n t a c t i n a human, r a t h e r t h a n a d o c t r i n a l way. Mr F a r e b r o t h e r does not h i d e h i s l i m i t a t i o n s from L y d g a t e , and makes i t p l a i n t h a t he i s not a model clergyman, o n l y a decent m a k e s h i f t . I t i s h i s v a l u e as a human b e i n g t h a t g i v e s v a l u e t o h i s p r e a c h i n g , which i s s a i d t o be o f a h i g h q u a l i t y . F a r e b r o t h e r i s an e x c e p t i o n a l man u n l i k e h i s t h e o l o g i c a l opponents, i n t h a t he not o n l y i s a s t u t e i n h i s o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s , but he sees the t r u t h about h i m s e l f . F a r e b r o t h e r , u n l i k e B u l s t r o d e , i s not a f r a i d of w o r l d l y i n d u l g e n c e , and i s not deluded about h i s own and the w o r l d ' s n a t u r e . He does not see the r e s t of the w o r l d as a "doomed c a r c a s e . . . t o n o u r i s h him . . . f o r heaven" (Ch. X V I I ) . B e f o r e the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e can become r e - i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s o c i e t y , he has t o l e a r n t h a t h i s l i f e i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h the l i v e s of o t h e r s . T h i s means a v o l u n t a r y r e n u n c i a t i o n of s e l f i s h o r m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n s . Dorothea and E s t h e r g i v e up t h e i r f o r t u n e s and accept humble d o m e s t i c i t y . S i l a s Marner i s r e s t o r e d t o the s o c i a l and s y m p a t h e t i c w o r l d by the l o s s of h i s g o l d and the d i s c o v e r y of G o d f r e y ' s n e g l e c t e d c h i l d E p p i e . S i l a s t h u s becomes l i b e r a t e d from th e p r i s o n of s e l f , and the p a s t , which he has shut away i n some s e a l e d compartment of h i s mind, i s suddenly r e l e a s e d . A l t h o u g h he i s not e a s i l y p l a c e d i n one of the c a t e g o r i e s of i s o l a t i o n we are c o n s i d e r i n g , S i l a s has a s p e c t s of the dreamer and the t r a n s g r e s s o r . The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t h i s dream ( o f c h i l d r e n i n the p l a c e o f g o l d ) comes t r u e , and h i s ' g u i l t ' was o n l y i n the minds of the narrow s o c i e t y of L a n t e r n Y a r d . Though h i s r e s t o r a t i o n i n t h e human f a m i l y i s somewhat f o r t u i t o u s , 19 S i l a s l e a r n s the c r u c i a l m o r a l l e s s o n t h a t t h e r e can be no human c o n t a c t w h i l e he d e v o t e s h i s l i f e t o a s t e r i l e mechani-c a l a c t i v i t y and t h e p u r s u i t of w e a l t h . A l l the i d e a l i s t s i n the n o v e l s show a g r e a t d e a l of t o l e r a n c e f o r the v a g a r i e s of t h e i r f e l l o w s . I n f a c t i t i s a f a i l u r e t o temper t h e i r t o l e r a n c e w i t h wisdom t h a t c auses v i t a l misjudgements. Adam cannot c o n c e i v e o f H e t t y ' s d o i n g wrong, and Dinah t o o has d e l u s i o n s about her n a t u r e . Dorothea m i s i n t e r p r e t s Casaubon's c h a r a c t e r i n s p i t e of t h e o b v i o u s w a r n i n g s o f her s i s t e r . Mr Lyon t e n d s t o i n d u l g e h i s d a ughter and g i v e f r e e r e i n t o her f o l l i e s . Sympathy and r e a l i s m have t o go hand i n hand b e f o r e a v i t a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p , such as t h a t between Adam and Dinah o r Dorothea and L a d i s l a w , can t a k e p l a c e . T o l e r a n c e and wisdom d i s t i n g u i s h George E l i o t ' s C h r i s t i a n i d e a l , seen i n the F a r e b r o t h e r s and t h e I r w i n e s . T h i s i d e a l i s not always t o be found w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , and i t s l a c k i s i n s i s t e d on by the autho r i n her p o r t r a y a l of St . Ogg's and t h e w o r l d of L a n t e r n Yard. I t i s c l e a r here t h a t t h e o s t r a c i s m of Maggie and S i l a s shows t h e l a c k o f v i s i o n of s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l . George E l i o t , however, seeks t o widen sympathy and a v o i d s o v e r t condemnation of t h e s e s o c i e t i e s . She shows them t o be p r e -o c c u p i e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s form r a t h e r than the s p i r i t of t r u e C h r i s t i a n f e e l i n g . Her open-mindedness i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e v a r i o u s i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s we are c o n s i d e r i n g i s w e l l i l l u s -t r a t e d by her f i n a l p l e a f o r Tom T u l l i v e r : "Tom, l i k e e v e r y one of u s , was i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n the l i m i t s of h i s own n a t u r e . . . i f you a r e i n c l i n e d t o be severe on h i s s e v e r i t y , 20 remember t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t o l e r a n c e l i e s w i t h t h o s e who have the w i d e r v i s i o n " (Bk. V I I , Ch. I I I ) . T h i s p l e a f o r t o l e r a n c e addressed t o the r e a d e r reminds us of s i m i l a r p l e a s on b e h a l f of B u l s t r o d e and Casaubon. George E l i o t f r e q u e n t l y demands t h a t the r e a d e r put h i m s e l f i n a n o t h e r ' s p l a c e , and he w i l l t hen l e a r n t h a t t h e r e can be no f i n a l judgement passed on a human b e i n g . Though George E l i o t s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e s t he i s o l a t e d f i g u r e , she sees him t o m e r i t sympathy i n t h a t he i s cut o f f from t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e h i m s e l f by h i s l a c k of sympathy and awareness. I n u s i n g a n o t h e r t o f u l f i l some f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r own y e a r n i n g the dreamer, the t r a n s g r e s s o r , the t y r a n t and t h e i d e a l i s t v i o l a t e a fundamental human law. George E l i o t , however, p l a c e s the onus on t h e r e a d e r t o extend sympathy, as Dorothea does, even t o the u n s y m p a t h e t i c . CHAPTER II THE DREAMER The dreamer i s in c a p a b l e of r e l a t i o n s h i p with others i n the r e a l world, because she sees o t h e r s as owing her a l l e g i a n c e . F r e q u e n t l y she deludes h e r s e l f t h at she i s a p r i n c e s s or a f i n e l a d y . The r e a l world i s not b r i g h t and glamourous enough f o r her, and i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y f l a t t e r i n g to her ego. Maggie T u l l i v e r , unable to endure the h u m i l i -a t i o n s of being an e r r i n g c h i l d , runs away to the gy p s i e s where she sees h e r s e l f as a queen. Hetty S o r r e l ' s i n f l a t e d i d e a of her own value causes her to delude h e r s e l f t h at the s q u i r e ' s son i s i n lov e with her. E s t h e r and Rosamond, contemptuous of t h e i r r a t h e r shabby s o c i a l environment, dream of a world of lu x u r y and ease where every whim w i l l be g r a t i f i e d by admirers. The dreamer has a l s o a h i g h l y developed i m a g i n a t i o n which combined with her e g o c e n t r i c i t y prevents her from a s s e s s i n g o b j e c t i v e l y her own s i t u a t i o n . Thought i s f r e -q u e n t l y suspended while she i s under the s p e l l of music, drama or romantic l i t e r a t u r e . Under the se d u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e of P u r c e l l ' s music, Maggie i s s u s c e p t i b l e to Stephen's charm. E s t h e r i s once caught r e a d i n g Byron by F e l i x , who f e e l s she should be more concerned with s o c i a l and moral q u e s t i o n s . As long as she can remain i n her fa n t a s y world, where tr u e r e l a t i o n s h i p with others i s imp o s s i b l e and r e a l i t y i s at one remove, the dreamer f e e l s secure. But when the a r t i f i c i a e n c losed world i s confronted by harsh r e a l i t y , the dreamer 21 22 e x p e r i e n c e s p a i n and s u f f e r i n g . So A r t h u r ' s l e t t e r e x p l a i n -i n g t h a t he cannot marry H e t t y b r i n g s about "the s h a t t e r i n g o f a l l her l i t t l e dreamworld, the c r u s h i n g blow on her new-born p a s s i o n " (AB., Ch. X X X I ) . Maggie's rowing e x p e d i t i o n w i t h Stephen i n v o l v e s v o l u n t a r y s u b m i s s i o n t o a d r e a m - l i k e e x p e r i e n c e . She needs t o escape from the r e a l i t y of "the o l d l i f e of s t r u g g l e " and be " l u l l e d t o s l e e p w i t h t h a t s o f t stream s t i l l f l o w i n g over her, w i t h t h o s e d e l i c i o u s v i s i o n s m e l t i n g , and f a d i n g l i k e the wondrous a e r i a l l a n d o f the west" (MF., Bk. V I , Ch. X I I I ) . The c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d "Waking" d e s c r i b e s Maggie's s u f f e r i n g , not on her own account so much as o t h e r s ' , on awaking t o f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l l t h e dreamers d e l i g h t i n e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r power of s e d u c t i o n , and a l l a r e c r i t i c i s e d f o r t h i s . We f r e q u e n t l y f i n d George E l i o t p o i n t i n g t h e c o n t r a s t between k i t t e n i s h charm and l a c k o f m o r a l f i b r e . There i s , moreover, an almost P u r i t a n i c a l s u s p i c i o n of charming, or m e r e l y p r e t t y , h e r o i n e s i n a l l t h e n o v e l s . George E l i o t , l i k e her own Mrs P o y s e r , found "no weakness of which she was l e s s t o l e r a n t than f e m i n i n e v a n i t y , and the p r e f e r e n c e of ornament t o u t i l i t y " (AB. Ch. V I ) . Even the u n c a l c u l a t i n g Maggie T u l -l i v e r , who has l e s s beauty and more m o r a l awareness than t h e o t h e r dreamers, has her share of f e m i n i n e v a n i t y . She l o o k s down l i k e "a d i v i n i t y w e l l p l e a s e d t o be w o r s h i p p e d " (Bk. V, Ch. I l l ) , though Maggie l a c k s the v a n i t y of H e t t y , whose beauty i s "the beauty of young f r i s k i n g t h i n g s , r o u n d - l i m b e d , g a m b o l l i n g , c i r c u m v e n t i n g you by a f a l s e a i r of i n n o c e n c e " (AB- Ch. V I I ) . 23 The dreamers can see no f u t u r e consequences that are l i k e l y to be unpleasant, or cause p a i n to themselves, much l e s s to o t h e r s . Embalmed i n t h e i r own egoism, when the dream i s broken they f e e l the need to escape, to run away from a l l those who know them and become anonymous. They are thus not only cut o f f from contact with others by t h e i r w i l f u l e x c l u s i o n of r e a l i t y , but a l s o i s o l a t e d i n the p r e -sent time, Barbara Hardy p o i n t s out that both George E l i o t and Wordsworth were "haunted by a double sense of d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n : by the break between past and p r e s e n t , and by the break between the heart and the reason."''' Hetty, Maggie, Rosamond and Esther i n d u l g e t h e i r i maginations i n a k i n d of suspended p r e s e n t . The idea of themselves ever changing or growing o l d i s never c o n s i d e r e d . They resemble c h i l d r e n who cannot escape t h e i r f a i r y - t a l e world. Hetty and Rosamond are not aware of the fragmentary and u n r e a l nature of t h e i r dreams. T h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s remain s t a t i c , and are ; s c a r c e l y modified even by contact w i t h r e a l i t y , whereas Maggie and E s t h e r become aware of the insub-s t a n t i a l i t y of t h e i r dreams. T h e i r movement towards d i s -enchantment i s an e s s e n t i a l stage i n t h e i r p r o g r e s s towards m a t u r i t y . S e l f - d e n y i n g love such as t h a t which Maggie and Esther show through t h e i r separate r e n u n c i a t i o n s i s o n l y p o s s i b l e to those who escape from the world of s e l f i s h dreaming. Barbara Hardy, "The Moment of Disenchantment i n George E l i o t ' s Novels," Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , N. S. V ( J u l y , 1954), p. 261. 2 4 Hetty i s i n c a p a b l e of love f o r she i s l i v i n g i n a f a l s e world, seeing o n l y a r e f l e c t i o n of h e r s e l f . The dominant image changes, as we f o l l o w Hetty's p r o g r e s s through the n o v e l , from the m i r r o r to the dark p r i s o n , which becomes a r e a l i t y f o r her. For Hetty there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the world; when her i l l u s i o n i s s h a t t e r e d that A r t h u r , her would-be c a p t i v e g a l l a n t , i s going to marry her, she d e s i r e s o n l y death f o r h e r s e l f . Conscious only of her own p a i n , she abandons her own c h i l d , and t r i e s i n v a i n to f l e e from her human o b l i g a t i o n s . Hetty remains s e l f -j u s t i f y i n g and s e l f - p r e - o c c u p i e d to the end. Fear of wide open spaces, seen a l s o i n another s e l f -l o v i n g heroine, Gwendolen H a r l e t h , shows up the fundamental i n s e c u r i t y of those whose u n r e a l f a b r i c of fancy c o l l a p s e s when touched,by a c t u a l i t y . Hetty d e c l a r e s "I should never l i k e to go i n t o the green f i e l d s again - I hated 'em so i n my misery" (Ch. XLV)*. Hetty i s a f r a i d and s u s p i c i o u s of human c o n t a c t . Alone i n the s e c u r i t y of her bedroom "she always b o l t e d the door" (Ch. XV). Only Dinah i s able to arouse awareness i n Hetty of the o u t s i d e world, but i t i s an awareness brought on by f e a r r a t h e r than by sympathy as Dinah o p t i m i s t i c a l l y b e l i e v e d . In her dreams of the f u t u r e , Hetty sees h e r s e l f as decked i n f i n e c l o t h e s , wife of C a p t a i n Donnithorne, looked on by many admirers. L i k e Gwendolen and Rosamond, she i s a s o c i a l snob, much concerned with the e f f e c t she w i l l make on o t h e r s , but Hetty i s without a f f e c t i o n f o r f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s . She i s r o o t l e s s , having no t i e s w i t h the p a s t . 25 The importance of f a m i l y t i e s , and of l i n k s with the p a s t , f o r George E l i o t , has a l r e a d y been remarked and w i l l be c o n t i n u a l l y apparent as we examine the problem of human i s o l a t i o n i n more d e t a i l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Hetty's extravagant n a r c i s s i s t i c v i s i o n of the f u t u r e , and her f a i l u r e to f i n d any genuine human a f f e c t i o n i s brought out i n t h i s passage: They are but dim, i l l - d e f i n e d p i c t u r e s that her narrow b i t of an i m a g i n a t i o n can make of the f u t u r e ; but of every p i c t u r e she i s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , i n f i n e c l o t h e s ; C a p t a i n Donnithorne i s ve r y c l o s e to her, p u t t i n g h i s arm round her, perhaps k i s s i n g her, and everybody e l s e admiring and envying her - e s p e c i a l l y Mary Burge, whose new p r i n t dress looks v e r y contemptible by the side of Hetty's resplendent t o i l e t t e . Does any sweet or sad memory mingle with t h i s dream of the f u t u r e - any l o v i n g thought of her second p a r e n t s - of the c h i l d r e n she had helped to tend - of any y o u t h f u l companion, any pet animal, any r e l i c of her own childhood even? Not one. . . . Hetty could have c a s t a l l her past l i f e behind her, and never cared to be reminded of i t again. . . . Hetty d i d not understand how anybody c o u l d be v e r y fond of middle-aged people. And as f o r those tiresome c h i l d r e n . . . - as bad as buzzing i n s e c t s that w i l l come t e a s i n g you on a hot day when you want to be q u i e t (Ch. XV). The dreamer sees o t h e r s as p l a y i n g p a r t s i n her own dream-world. L i k e Gwendolen H a r l e t h , Hetty i s s k i l l e d i n the a r t of s e d u c t i o n . T h i s i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s to a l a c k of harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p . There can be no s i n c e r e a f f e c t i o n , no true a f f i n i t y where one p a r t y seeks to ga i n f u l f i l l m e n t at the expense of the other. Hetty i s i n love with h e r s e l f , and her a f f e c t i o n s are as shallow as her v i s i o n i s narrow, Even at the f u n e r a l of Mam's f a t h e r , P e t t y i s i n d u l g i n g i n romantic day-dreams of Ar t h u r , wondering when he w i l l appear 26 i n church, and i f he w i l l glance at her. When her p r i d e i s hurt by A r t h u r ' s n e g l e c t , Hetty w i l l not even admit the p o s s i b i l i t y that he may have changed h i s mind about her. The p r i d e of the dreamer i s perhaps her most c h e r i s h e d p o s s e s s i o n . There i s a d e s p e r a t i o n i n her o b s t i n a t e r e f u s a l to f a ce the r e a l i s a t i o n of the b a s e l e s s nature of her f a n t a s i e s . To admit to the world that a l l i s not w e l l with her marriage i s what Gwendolen can never do. Hetty, too, c l i n g s to A r t h u r ' s c o m f o r t i n g words of t h e i r l a s t meeting, and seeks to exclude the "dim, undefined f e a r that the f u t u r e might shape i t s e l f i n some way q u i t e u n l i k e her dream" (Ch. XXX). Cut o f f from the s u b s t a n t i a l world, i n c a p a b l e of l o v i n g , she holds f a s t to the d e l u s i o n s of her im a g i n a t i o n l i k e a c h i l d . "She s t i l l hugged her s e c r e t — t h a t a great gentleman lo v e d her-—with g r a t i f i e d p r i d e , as a. s u p e r i o r i t y over a 11 the g i r l s she knew" (Ch. XXX). But Hetty i s alre a d y beginning to f e e l the d e v a s t a t i n g l o n e l i n e s s which comes to a l l those who l i v e s o l e l y f o r themselves on the removal of the human being on whom they have r e l i e d f o r comfort: "She was alone on her l i t t l e i s l a n d of dreams, and a l l round her was the dark, unknown water where Arthur was gone." I n s e n s i -t i v e to the wishes and f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s , the dreamer, l i k e other e g o i s t s i n the no v e l s such as Casaubon or B u l s t r o d e , i s h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e to the p o s s i b l e c r i t i c i s m of o t h e r s . No human balm of love can be a p p l i e d to Hetty's hurt p r i d e when the contents of A r t h u r ' s l e t t e r are r e v e a l e d . She r e -j e c t s Dinah's o f f e r of help, f e e l i n g shame at having to face the p r o s a i c l i f e she had r e j e c t e d i n her im a g i n a t i o n . 27 "She c o u l d never s t s y here and go on w i t h the o l d l i f e - she c o u l d b e t t e r bear something q u i t e new than s i n k i n g back i n t o the o l d everyday round. She would l i k e to run away that v e r y morning, and never see any of the o l d f a c e s a g a i n " (Ch. XXXI). Perhaps there i s no more i s o l a t e d f i g u r e than Hetty i n any of the l a t e r n o v e l s . Even Casaubon has the love of Dorothea, and a p u r s u i t that absorbs, him, however f u t i l e h i s s c h o l a r s h i p may be. Hetty, who r e j e c t s the l o v e of Adam f o r the f a l s e glamour of a romance with A r t h u r , f i n d s communion o n l y with h e r s e l f , and looks at her reddened, t e a r -s t a i n e d f a c e i n the g l a s s : " I t was almost l i k e a companion that she might complain to - that would p i t y her......... The s h a t t e r i n g of a l l her l i t t l e dream-world, the c r u s h i n g blow on her new-born p a s s i o n , a f f l i c t e d her p l e a s u r e - c r a v i n g nature with an overpowering p a i n " (Ch. XXXI). Hetty, who has r e j e c t e d humanity, i s seen as a wounded animal, o u t c a s t from s o c i e t y . U n l i k e the l a t e r r o m a n t i c a l l y deluded h e r o i n e s , Hetty s c a r c e l y makes human contact with any o t h e r m o r t a l . She remains, \mlike Maggie, E s t h e r , and Gwendolen, as i s o l a t e d i n her g r i e f as she was i n her d e l u s i o n s of l o v e . "Poor wandering Hetty, with the rounded c h i l d i s h f a c e , and the hard, u n l o v i n g , d e s p a i r i n g s o u l , l o o k i n g out of i t - with the narrow heart and narrow thoughts, no room i n them f o r any sorrows but her own" (Ch. XXXVII). George E l i o t asks the reader what w i l l be the end "of her o b j e c t l e s s wandering, apart from a l l l o v e " (Ch.XXXVII). Because of her 28 f a i l u r e to break through the b a r r i e r s of s e l f i n t o a l i f e of r e l a t i o n s h i p with o t h e r s , Hetty remains at the l e v e l of a c h i l d or an animal, a "hunted, wounded b r u t e " (Ch. XXXVII) c l i n g i n g to a l i f e w ith no meaning. Hetty i s excluded from the scenes of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and r e u n i o n at the end of the n o v e l . Her f a t e i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and death f o r she i s unable to perform any s e r v i c e to the community such as Arthur does by the r e n u n c i a t i o n of h i s p l a c e as s q u i r e . The c o n t r a s t between Hetty S o r r e l and Maggie T u l l i v e r i s p r e f i g u r e d i n an e a r l y essay by George E l i o t c a l l e d A L i t t l e F a b l e with a Great Moral. The f a b l e i s paraphrased i n Mrs Hardy's book on George E l i o t : "The s t o r y t e l l s us of two hamadryads, Idione and H i e r a , who l i v e d by a l a k e . Idione spent her days l o o k i n g at her own r e f l e c t i o n i n the water, H i e r a i n watching the r e f l e c t i o n s of the sky and clouds. As Mrs Hardy says, "There i s a sense i n which both the moral and tS->e p a t t e r n of t h i s s t o r y l i e s at the heart of a l l her JjGeorge E l i o t ' s books. T h i s i s the c o n t r a s t of the i n - t u r n e d 3 and the out-turned h e a r t . " Maggie i s a dreamer, l i k e Hetty, and she i s a l s o i s o l a t e d from common f e e l i n g with her s o c i e t y , but, apart from P h i l i p Wakem, i t i s the l i m i t a t i o n s of others that are exposed r a t h e r than those of Maggie h e r s e l f . Maggie, at l e a s t i n the f i r s t p a r t of The M i l l on the F l o s s , i s i s o l a t e * by the a t t i t u d e s of o t h e r s such as her f a t h e r and Mr F i l e y 2 Barbara Hardy, The Novels of George E l i o t : A Study i n Form (London, 1963), p. 81. 3 I b i d . 29 who tend to t h i n k her s i l l y and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l because she i s a g i r l . Maggie shows sympathy and i n t e l l i g e n c e , and has a v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n , u n l i k e her brother Tom who i s p r a c t i c a l but p r o s a i c , and of narrow s e n s i b i l i t y , Tom i s slow, p l o d d i n g , and "can't abide books" (Bk. I, Ch. I l l ) , whereas Maggie even attempts to share her l i t e r a r y d e l i g h t w i t h Luke, the head m i l l e r . Luke, however, i s unable to share Maggie's enthusiasm about European t r a v e l . Even as a c h i l d Maggie shows a r e s t -l e s s n e s s i n her narrow environment, and a hunger f o r knowledge and experience. She sees the p o i n t l e s s n e s s of making a patch-work f o r her Aunt Glegg, and seeks wider c o n t a c t w i t h her f e l l o w s , d e c l a r i n g i n response to Luke's i n d i f f e r e n c e about Dutchmen, "but they're our f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s , Luke - we ought to know about our f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s " (Bk. I, Ch. I V ) . But when the world seems harsh to her, and those nearest her f a i l to understand, Maggie f l e e s to her a t t i c and d r i v e s n a i l s i n t o her d o l l . Maggie i s i s o l a t e d , not because she i s c o n s t r i c t e d i n her a b i l i t y to f e e l , but because she f e e l s too much. Her imp u l s i v e nature causes f a m i l y f r i c t i o n , and her h i g h l y develop i m a g i n a t i o n , f a i l i n g to f i n d sympathy i n i t s surroundings, c r e a t e s i t s own p r i v a t e world. Maggie day-dreams by the booming m i l l and f a i l s t o look a f t e r her b r o t h e r ' s r a b b i t s ; she s p o i l s the h a i r her mother so c a r e f u l l y brushes, being impatient w i t h t r i v i a l i t y . She i s f o r c e d i n t o i s o l a t i o n i n her a t t i c , and l a t e r she runs away to the g y p s i e s a f t e r pushing her c o u s i n Lucy i n the mud. Maggie's quest f o r a 30 romantic dream i s as b l a t a n t as Hetty's, but u n l i k e Hetty, a f t e r the chimera has d i s s o l v e d i n t o hard r e a l i t y , she r e t u r n s , chastened, to her f a t h e r . There is no r e t u r n from Ilotty's r e t r e a t not o n l y because she t r a n s g r e s s e s s o c i a l and moral codes, but a l s o because she r e j e c t s the world of t e a l i t y . A l s o u n l i k e Hetty, Kaggie enters i n t o a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p even with those who do not always understand or sympathise with her. She has human t i e s with her f a t h e r , her brother and P h i l i p . The f a m i l y d o w n f a l l , brought on by the r e c k l e s s n e s s of her f a t h e r ' s a t t a c k on Wakem, and h i s proud d e t e r m i n a t i o n to repay a loa n to Mrs Glegg, draws Tom and Maggie to g e t h e r . however, Tom's p r i d e responds to the c h a l l e n g e of r e - i n s t a t i n g the f a m i l y , while Maggie remains excluded from such i n d u s t r y , and responds to the t h r i l l of s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n through the i n f l u e n c e of Thomas a Kempis. With her f a t h e r dying, her brother engaged i n t o i l s , and P h i l i p , the son of her f a t h e r ' s arch-enemy, estranged from her, Maggie goes i n pur-s u i t of yet another i l l u s i o n : "Here, then, was a se c r e t of l i f e t h a t would enable her to renounce a l l other s e c r e t s - here was a sublime height to be reached without the help of outward t h i n g s " (Bk. I V , Ch. I I I ) . But Maggie i s not the person who can renounce the world of "outward t h i n g s " ; moreover she v i t a l l y needs the human contact of o t h e r s . She can no more be a Thomas a Kempis, l i v i n g i n the age and the environment she does, than Dorothea Brooke can become a St. Theresa. Maggie's dependence and need to be lov e d , not merely admired, are i n s i s t e d on throughout the n o v e l . At the l a s t meeting of ^ h i l i p and Maggie i n the Red Deeps, before Tom's c a l l o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i r 31 r e l a t i o n s h i p , P h i l i p exposes the e r r o r of Maggie's intended withdrawal from l i f e . He shows i t as but another attempt of Maggie's to evade the o b l i g a t i o n o f , b e i n g a human being by escaping from the world. Maggie b e l i e v e s she w i l l be g i v e n s t r e n g t h to renounce e x t e r n a l i l l s and temptations, but P h i l i p d e c l a r e s : "No, you w i l l not, Maggie: no one has s t r e n g t h g i v e n to do what i s u n n a t u r a l . I t i s mere cowardice to seek s a f e t y i n n e g a t i o n s . No c h a r a c t e r becomes strong i n that way. You w i l l be thrown i n t o the world some day, and then every r a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n of your nature that you deny now, w i l l a s s a u l t you l i k e a savage a p p e t i t e " (Bk. V, Ch. I I I ) . Maggie sees P h i l i p as tempting her to enter the world of human d e l i g h t , and renounce her i d e a l , which he sees as f a l l a c i o u s . George E l i o t h e r s e l f p o i n t s out t h a t P h i l i p ' s 4 motives were not wholly d i s i n t e r e s t e d and the use of P h i l i p ' s song, which i n the context of the novel may be seen as an attempt to l u r e from duty, i n d i c a t e s that the author i s not wholly out of sympathy with Maggie's dream of isolation.""* Although t h i s r e t r e a t of Maggie's from r e a l i t y i s not c r i t i c i s e d by the author as s t r o n g l y as are the v u l g a r day-dreams of Hetty S o r r e l or Rosamond Vincy, P h i l i p ' s v o i c e i s p r o p h e t i c , and Maggie i s unable to s t i f l e her emotional needs. P a i n t i n g as w e l l as music has i t s f u n c t i o n i n the n o v e l s i n u n d e r l i n i n g the dangers of not seeing the r e a l i t y 4 MF, Bk. V, Ch. I I I . "^For comment on the p a r t played by music i n seducing Maggie from r e a l i t y see Hardy, p. 217 and Harvey p. 138 32 of one's own nature. J u s t as, i n Middlemarch. Dorothea s i t s f o r a p o r t r a i t of a madonna, and Casaubon i s p l e a s e d to be p a i n t e d as the l e a r n e d Aquinas, so Maggie s i t s f o r a second p o r t r a i t by P h i l i p i n which she w i l l "look l i k e a t a l l Hamadryad, dark and strong and noble, j u s t i s s u e d from one of the f i r t r e e s " (Bk. V, Ch. I I I ) . P h i l i p ' s a r t i s t i c v i s i o n i s here p a r a l l e l to Maggie's own extravagant dream of h e r s e l f , not t h i s time as queen of g y p s i e s , but neverthe-l e s s as one who has power not over h e r s e l f , merely, but o t h e r s : "the f u l l l u s t r o u s f a c e , w i t h the b r i g h t b lack coronet, looked down l i k e t h a t of a d i v i n i t y w e l l p l e a s e d to be worshipped." Though not a coquette i n the sense that Hetty and Rosamond are, Maggie i s aware of her power to charm. T h i s power i s to prove d i s a s t r o u s to the l i v e s of many, and George E l i o t i s v e r y able to suggest the i n t o x i c a t i n g e f f e c t s which the r e a l i s a t i o n of t h i s power has. She evokes the dawning of p a s s i o n as s k i l l f u l l y with Maggie as she does with Hetty S o r r e l and Rosamond Vi n c y . The heady e f f e c t , as of a drug, i s shown i n Adam Bede a f t e r Hetty's enactment of her w i l d dream: Hetty "her cheeks f l u s h e d and her eyes g l i s t e n i n g from her imaginary drama, her b e a u t i f u l neck and arms bare, her h a i r hanging i n a c u r l y t a n g l e down her back, and the baubles i n her e a r s " (Ch. XV), matches Maggie T u l l i v e r i n the i n t e n s i t y of her d i s t r a c t e d p a s s i o n . Alone i n her bedroom, Maggie c o n s i d e r s the past day's o u t i n g with Stephen where her - p r e o c c u p a t i o n had caused her to s l i p i n t o h i s f i r m grasp, and thus the m i s c h i e f begins to work: 33 "Her eyes and cheeks had an almost f e v e r i s h b r i l l i a n c y ; her head was thrown backward, and her hands were c l a s p e d with the palms outward and with that t e n s i o n of the arms which i s apt to accompany mental absorption"(Bk. VI, Ch. I I I ) . Maggie g i v e s h e r s e l f up to the s p e l l as f u l l y as she g i v e s h e r s e l f to e n j o y i n g the rhythm and resonance of Stephen's v o i c e . The e f f e c t of the l u l l i n g to sleep of the moral conscience, which i s to become the c r i s i s of the n o v e l , i s p r e f i g u r e d i n the f i r s t b oating e x p e d i t i o n . Here the dreamer, absorbed i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n of past l o v e , i s drawn from one r e v e r i e i n t o the beginnings of another f a r more d e v a s t a t i n g i n i t s e f f e c t s : She- f e l t ' '• l o n e l y , cut o f f from P h i l i p - the o n l y person who had ever seemed to l o v e her devotedly, as she had always longed to be l o v e d . But p r e s e n t l y the rhythmic movement of the oars a t t r a c t e d her, and she thought she should l i k e to l e a r n how to row. T h i s roused her from her r e v e r i e . . . (Bk. VI, Ch. I I ) U n l i k e Hetty, Maggie never surrenders to the dream w i t h her whole s e l f ; i t never becomes a motive f o r l i v i n g , and she i s always c o n s c i o u s l y or s u b - c o n s c i o u s l y aware of her o b l i g a t i o n s . Maggie s u f f e r s i n the hard p r o s a i c world of St. Ogg's; she i s denied a l e g i t i m a t e o u t l e t f o r her a f f e c t i o n s and her p a s s i o n f o r Stephen i s something of an anodyne, the dangers of which are c o n s t a n t l y p o i n t e d out by George E l i o t . Linked with t h i s human need f o r the soothing e f f e c t s of l o v e are the enticements of music and romantic l i t e r a t u r e . I f genuine l o v e , the " r a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n of . . . n a t u r e , " i s denied, then s u b s t i t u t e s are sought. Maggie i s not as 3 4 v a i n as Hetty, but her s u b s t i t u t e l i f e i s as i n s u b s t a n t i a l , based as i t i s not on naive dreams of the f u t u r e , but on a w i l f u l m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of present r e a l i t i e s . I t was not th a t she thought d i s t i n c t l y of Mr Stephen Guest, or dwelt on the i n d i c a t i o n s that he looked at her wit h a d m i r a t i o n ; i t was ra t h e r that she f e l t the half-remote presence of a world of love and beauty and d e l i g h t , made up of vague mingled images from a l l the p o e t r y and romance she had ever read, or had ever woven i n t o her dreamy r e v e r i e s . . . . The music was v i b r a t i n g i n her s t i l l - " ^ u r c e l l ' s music, with i t s w i l d p a s s i o n and fancy - and she c o u l d not stay i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n of that bare, l o n e l y p a s t . She was i n her b r i g h t e r a e r i a l world again" (Bk. VI, Ch. I I I ) . As Barbara Hardy p o i n t s out, f o r George E l i o t the " b r i g h t e r a e r i a l world" i s a d e l u s i o n r a t h e r than the g l o r y i t would be f o r Wordsworth or C o l e r i d g e . The p o s i t i v i s t i n George E l i o t causes her to be s u s p i c i o u s of s u b j e c t i v e approaches to r e a l i t y . I t i s perhaps her l i m i t a t i o n that she i s s u s p i c i o u s of the p u r e l y i m a g i n a t i v e element i n l i t e r a t u r e . She f e e l s that the surrender of one's s e l f to a non-moral and p u r e l y sensuous experience i s r e p r e h e n s i b l e . Her d e s c r i p t i o n of Maggie T u l l i v e r ' s surrender to Stephen's tempting has at times something of the f l a v o u r of an i n c a n t a t i o n . The rhythm of the orose, and the use of l i q u i d s and s i b i l a n t s c r e a t e an almost Tennysonian s p e l l on the rea d e r : The breath of the young, unwearied day, the d e l i c i o u s rhythmic d i p of the oars, the fragmentary song of a p a s s i n g b i r d . . . . Some low, subdued, l a n g u i d exclamation of love came from Stephen from time to time (Bk. VI, Ch. X I I I ) . Hardy, p. 196. 35 The language here f i t s p e r f e c t l y i n t o the context of s e d u c t i o n , and the moral e v i l of suspension of thought. The surrender to the s p i r i t of dream and enchantment i s soon made e x p l i c i t : thought d i d not belong to that enchanted haze i n which they were enveloped - i t belonged to the past and the f u t u r e that l a y o u t s i d e the haze. Maggie was only dimly conscious of the banks . . . and dwelt with no r e c o g n i t i o n on the v i l l a g e s . . . . A t a l l times she was so l i a b l e to f i t s of absence, that she was l i k e l y enough to l e t her way-marks pass u n n o t i c e d (Bk. V I , Ch. X I I I ) . Whereas Hetty S o r r e l has no conscience, Maggie allows hers to s l e e p . George E l i o t shows that a constant v i g i l a n c e i s r e q u i r e d i f an awareness of r e a l i t y and the needs of others i s to be maintained. Maggie i s not r e s t r i c t e d l i k e Hetty, but she allows h e r s e l f to become so, by submitting to a dream and supposing that i t can become r e a l i t y . Maggie seeks a fence a g a i n s t the harshness of t h i s world, and y i e l d s to the v o i c e of the charming Stephen. The moral l a x i t y that r e s u l t s when the r e a l world i s ignored leads to an i s o l a t i o n from genuine human c o n t a c t . Maggie submits to Stephen as i f under the i n f l u e n c e of a drug, and f i n d s "there was an unspeakable charm i n being t o l d what to do, and having e v e r y t h i n g decided f o r her . . . she was h a r d l y conscious of having s a i d or done anything decisive;'.' Dreaming of the heaven of t h e i r f u t u r e l i f e , Maggie f i n d s "Stephen's p a s s i o n -ate words made a v i s i o n of such a l i f e more f u l l y present to her than i t had ever been before; and the v i s i o n f o r the time excluded a l l r e a l i t i e s " (Bk. V I , Ch. X I I I ) . Maggie wakes from her sleep, l i t e r a l l y and metaphoric-36 a l l y , to f i n d she i s "alone with her own memory and her own dread" (Bk. VI, Ch. XIV). The r e a l i s a t i o n of her t r u e p o s i t i o n and her o b l i g a t i o n s to others b r i n g s her back i n t o a world where a c t i o n i s once again p o s s i b l e . As she had r e t u r n e d from the world, of the gypsies to the lo v e of her f a t h e r , so Maggie r e t u r n s to St. Ogg's f o r s a k i n g i d l e dreams, c o n t r i t e , knowing that through her breach of f a i t h and c r u e l s e l f i s h n e s s . . . she had re n t the t i e s t h a t had g i v e n meaning to duty, and had made h e r s e l f an outlawed s o u l , with no guide but the wayward cho i c e of her own p a s s i o n (Bk. VI, Ch. XIV). At the c o n c l u s i o n of The M i l l on the F l o s s , Maggie i s symboli-c a l l y u n i t e d to Tom who r e p r e s e n t s her past and l e g i t i m a t e l o v e , a s s o c i a t e d with duty to the f a m i l y . Maggie r e t u r n s to the p l a c e where duty l i e s , but she i s r e j e c t e d by the s o c i e t y of St. Ogg's. Her union i n death w i t h Tom i s not j u s t a convenient r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t between p a s s i o n and duty, but i s a l s o a martyrdom at the hands of a s u s p i c i o u s and m a t e r i a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . George E l i o t c r i t i c i s e s t h i s h y p o c r i t i c a l s o c i e t y where i t was p o s s i b l e " f o r people to ho l d many pagan i d e a s , and b e l i e v e themselves good church people n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g " (Bk. IV, Ch. I ) . As the imagery p a t t e r n makes us aware, Maggie has moved from the l i m i t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n of being a pagan d e i t y i n the Red Deeps to the C h r i s t i a n f u l f i l m e n t of s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g l o v e . ^ Rosamond Vincy, though not as shallow as Hetty S o r r e l , For a f u l l a n a l y s i s of Maggie's p r o g r e s s i o n towards C h r i s t i a n l o v e see Bernard J . P a r i s , Experiments i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s Quest f o r Values ( D e t r o i t : Wayne State Univ. P r e s s , 1965), pp. 156-168. 37 never manages to l o v e . L i k e Maggie, she s u f f e r s under romantic d e l u s i o n s , but her consequent c a t h a r s i s , on being shocked i n t o r e a l i t y by W i l l L a d i s l a w 1 s r e j e c t i o n of t h e i r romance, lead s to no f r e s h awareness. At the end of Middlemarch her o p i n i o n of her husband i s decided by the amount of money he earns. She has no other r e s p e c t f o r the medical p r o f e s s i o n except f o r i t s s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l rewards. Rosamond Vincy, l i k e Mrs Transome, has a l l the accomplishments that a young l a d y ' s f i n i s h i n g academy can g i v e . She l e a r n s s o c i a l decorum, p o i s e , and p o l i t e a t t a i n -ments such as s i n g i n g and p l a y i n g the piano. Rosamond i s a more deeply-dyed snob than Hetty, f o r she has had a f a s t i d i o u s e ducation. She cannot bear the v u l g a r smell of f r i e d h e r r i n g s , and i s c a r e f u l to conceal that her f a t h e r ' s money i s made by manufacturing. She has, moreover, the hall-mark of the other shallow m a t e r i a l i s t s i h the n o v e l s , from Hetty to Gwendolen-she i s very b e a u t i f u l . Though romantic i n her dreams of f u t u r e happiness, there i s a hard r e a l i s m i n Rosamond, and she conceals her claws from t h e i r v i c t i m : Rosamond was not one of those h e l p l e s s g i r l s who betray themselves unawares, and whose behaviour i s awkwardly d r i v e n by t h e i r impulses, i n s t e a d of being steered by wary grace and p r o p r i e t y (M., Ch. XXVII). Rosamond's view of Lydgate i s c o l o u r e d by the f a c t t h a t he i s a medical man, and hence not v u l g a r , and a l s o a s t r a n g e r to Middlemarch. She i s more r e a l i s t i c than Hetty, who dreams of marriage to the s q u i r e ' s son, but l i k e her 38 i n that she weaves a dream-fabric around the man she con-s i d e r s w i l l b r i n g her domestic b l i s s and s o c i a l envy. Ever s i n c e that important new a r r i v a l i n Middlemarch she had woven a l i t t l e f u t u r e . . . Strangers, whether wrecked and c l i n g i n g to a r a f t , or duly e s c o r t e d and accompanied by portmanteaus, have always c i r c u m s t a n t i a l f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the v i r g i n mind . . . And a stranger was a b s o l u t e l y necessary to Rosamond 1s s o c i a l romance . . . She judged of her own symptoms as those of awakening.love (Ch. X I I ) . L i k e Idione i n the f a b l e , Rosamond gazes at h e r s e l f i n the m i r r o r , and, l i k e Hetty S o r r e l , she wishes to conceal her own dreams from the world. Rosamond looks at the world and sees o n l y what she would l i k e i t to be. As the candle r e f l e c t e d i n the p i e r - g l a s s g i v e s a f l a t t e r i n g arrangement to the s c r a t c h e s on i t , so does Rosamond's view of the world d i s t o r t r e a l i t y (Ch. XXVII). The s e l f i s h person, who i s i s o l a t e d by h i s very nature, can never have a c l e a r view of r e a l i t y , and i s thus cut o f f from c o n t a c t with h i s neighbour. Lydgate showers f l a t t e r i e s upon Rosamond because she i s a p r e t t y g i r l , and she i n t u r n estimated them as the opening i n c i d e n t s of a preconceived romance,. . . . In Rosamond's romance i t was not necessary to imagine much about the inward l i f e of the hero, or of h i s s e r i o u s business i n the world: of course he had a pro-f e s s i o n and was c l e v e r , as w e l l as s u f f i c i e n t l y handsome; but the piquant f a c t about Lydgate was h i s good b i r t h , which . . . presented marriage as a prospect of r i s i n g i n rank and g e t t i n g a l i t t l e nearer to that c e l e s t i a l c o n d i t i o n on e a r t h i n which she would have nothi n g to do with v u l g a r people (Ch, .XVI). " ; Rosamond, i n f a c t , sees Lydgate as a t o o l by which she can g a i n s o c i a l advancement, and i s "occupied not e x a c t l y with T e r t i u s Lydgate as he was i n h i m s e l f , but w i t h h i s r e l a t i o n 39 to her" (Ch. XVI). Her o p i n i o n of Lydgate depends almost e n t i r e l y on how he responds to her music and her t a s t e i n d r e s s . U n l i k e Hetty and Maggie, Rosamond a t t a i n s her dream, i n t h at she m a r r i e s the man who seems to represent a l l w o r l d l y b l i s s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the c r u c i a l moment when the two are u n i t e d i s when Rosamond i s d i v e s t e d of her a r t i f i c i a l manners. She r e t u r n s i n her sorrow f o r one moment from r e s p e c t f u l deportment and elegant behaviour to being "as n a t u r a l as she had ever been when she was f i v e y ears o l d " (Ch. XXXI). As we s h a l l see i n the case of Bui strode, the r e l i e f of s t r i p p i n g away the i n s u l a t i n g l a y e r s of f alse-seeming has a humbling and humanising e f f e c t on the person beneath. These moments of unburdening are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d , i n the n o v e l s , with the r e t u r n of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e to human c o n t a c t . With Rosamond, However, the contact i s v e r y f l e e t i n g . The r e a l i t i e s of being married to a p r o v i n c i a l doctor who i s not as wealthy as she might have thought, and i n whose r e s e a r c h she can f i n d no i n t e r e s t , are not s u f f i c i e n t l y rewarding f o r her. She complains p e t u l a n t l y to her husband: "I am sure you do not n e g l e c t your work. You are always at the H o s p i t a l , or seeing poor p a t i e n t s , or t h i n k i n g about some d o c t o r ' s q u a r r e l ; and then at home you always want to pore over your microscope and p h i a l s . Confess you l i k e these t h i n g s b e t t e r than me" (Ch. X L I I I ) . The i g n o b l e dream i s never f a r away from the bourgeoise Rosamond, and l i k e Emma Bovary she i s sickened by the r e a l i t i e s of the medical p r o f e s s i o n , and she r e a l i s e s "that women, even a f t e r marriage, might make conquests and enslave men" (Ch. X L I I I ) . 40 George E l i o t u n d e r l i n e s the fond i l l u s i o n : How d e l i g h t f u l to make c a p t i v e s • from.: the throne of marriage w i t h a husband as crown-prince by your side - h i m s e l f a subject - while the c a p t i v e s look up f o r ever hopeless, l o s i n g t h e i r r e s t probably, and i f t h e i r a p p e t i t e too, so much the b e t t e r ! (M. Ch. XLIII) Rosamond's grand i l l u s i o n s are of course s h a t t e r e d . L i k e Maggie, she comes to l e a r n that there can be no happi-ness at the expense of o t h e r s , and her s u b s t i t u t e - l i f e can have no endurance. The t e r r i b l e c o l l a p s e of the i l l u s i o n towards which a l l her hope had been s t r a i n e d was a stroke which had too thoroughly shaken her; her l i t t l e world was i n r u i n s , and she f e l t h e r s e l f t o t t e r i n g i n the midst of a l o n e l y bewildered consciousness (M., Ch. LXXVIII). U n l i k e Hetty, Rosamond has the l u x u r y of c o n f e s s i n g her t r i v i a l dreams to the one they i n j u r e . Hetty never f e e l s any blame a t t a c h i n g to her a c t i o n s , and i s both i n c a p a b l e of f e e l i n g the need to o b t a i n f o r g i v e n e s s , or of f o r g i v i n g o t h e r s . L i m i t e d as she i s , Rosamond i s a l i v e to the wrongs she does to o t h e r s , and she does manage to r e p a i r a human r e l a t i o n s h i p broken by her own i n s e n s i t i v i t y . But, again u n l i k e Hetty, Rosamond has the need f o r s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n , f o r while she confesses to Dorothea "the blame of what happened i s e n t i r e l y mine" (Ch. LXXX), she i s anxious that n e i t h e r L a d i s l a w nor Lydgate reproach her. The r e t u r n from "vagrant fancy" (Ch. LXXX) to the human c o n d i t i o n i s empha-s i s e d when Rosamond f i n a l l y confesses that Dorothea has made her l e s s d i s c o n t e n t e d with Lydgate, and remarks on h i s t i r e d n e s s . The human needs of each of the marriage p a r t n e r s are r e c o g n i s e d i n t h i s passage: 41 He l i f t e d up h i s l a r g e white hand to obey her, and f e l t t h a n k f u l f o r t h i s l i t t l e mark of i n t e r e s t i n him. Poor Rosamond's vagrant fancy had come back t e r r i b l y scourged--meek enough to n e s t l e under the o l d despised s h e l t e r . .. .. .. . Lydgate had accepted h i s narrowed l o t w i t h sad r e s i g n a t i o n . He had chosen t h i s f r a g i l e c r e a t u r e , and had taken the burthen of her l i f e upon h i s arms. He must walk as he c o u l d , c a r r y i n g that burthen, p i t i f u l l y (Ch. LXXXI). E s t h e r Lyon has the "vagrant fancy" of Rosamond, but becomes more aware of the needs of others through c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h her f a t h e r , a poor but zealous preacher. She i s thus l e s s i s o l a t e d from the mundane than Rosamond, who comes of a wealthy f a m i l y ; n e i t h e r i s she cut o f f from r e l a t i o n s h i p by a c o n s t r i c t i n g environment as was Maggie. N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e the growing i n f l u e n c e of F e l i x over her as the novel progresses, she i s deluded about the nature of h e r s e l f and the world, and t h i s has a r e d u c i n g e f f e c t on her c a p a c i t y to f e e l . F e l i x , who has an uncanny knack of d e t e c t i n g h y p o c r i s y and sham, d i s m i s s e s her on f i r s t acquaintance as "a f i n e lady . . . a s o r t of spun-glass a f f a i r - not n a t u r a l " (Ch. V ) . The book Es t h e r i s r e a d i n g , which F e l i x a c c i d e n t a l l y knocks down, i s a volume of Byron. F e l i x i s d i s g u s t e d with the author of "The Dream", "whose n o t i o n of a hero was that he should d i s o r d e r h i s stomach and d e s p i s e mankind" (Ch. V ) . Byron's heroes he sees as "the most p a l t r y puppets that were ever p u l l e d by the s t r i n g s of l u s t and p r i d e " (Ch. V). Esther i s , however, c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s obsessed by her romantic v i s i o n of her f u t u r e than are Hetty and Rosamond. She smarts under the c r i t i c i s m of F e l i x , although 42 she has wit enough to p a r r y h i s a t t a c k s . Her w o r l d l i n e s s c o n t r a s t s with the o t h e r - w o r l d l i n e s s of her absent-minded, s h o r t - s i g h t e d f a t h e r , but i t i s j u s t as s h a r p l y opposed to the humanistic i d e a l s of F e l i x . N e vertheless there i s a c o n f l i c t i n E s t h e r between her d e s i r e to be an elegant lady w i t h admirers, and the need to g a i n the good o p i n i o n of the man she most r e s p e c t s . She i s f a r l e s s s e l f - c e n t r e d than Hetty, Rosamond or Gwendolen, f o r t h i n k i n g of her would-be l o v e r she wonders "what s o r t of views he took of l i f e so as to make i t seem v a l u a b l e i n the absence of a l l elegance, luxury, g a i e t y , or romance" (Ch. XV). Though she smarts under F e l i x ' s rudeness and c o n s i d e r s him u n g a l l a n t , she i s t o r n between the wish to be admired and the n e c e s s i t y f o r some i d e a l which would i n t e g r a t e her l i f e . Her p o s i t i o n i s somewhat s i m i l a r to Maggie's when she p a r t s with P h i l i p i n the Red Deeps: She was v e r y fond of n e t t i n g , because i t showed to advantage both her hand and her f o o t ; and across t h i s image of F e l i x H o l t ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e and contempt there passed the vaguer image of a p o s s i b l e somebody who would admire her hands and f e e t , and d e l i g h t i n l o o k i n g at t h e i r beauty, and long, yet not dare, to k i s s them. L i f e would be much e a s i e r i n the presence of such a l o v e . . . - . * . . Her l i f e was a heap of fragments, and so were her thoughts; some great energy was needed to bind them together (FH. Ch. XV). L i k e Rosamond, Est h e r i s impatient with men who do not admire her. As a p r e t t y woman she b e l i e v e s she has a r i g h t to be worshipped, but F e l i x i s not deluded by her charm. N e v e r t h e l e s s she i s able to cast her s p e l l on her f a t h e r , j u s t as Hetty i s able to c a s t hers on Mr Poyser and 43 Adam Bede, and Rosamond on almost every man with whom she comes i n c o n t a c t . Although she shows a f f e c t i o n f o r her f a t h e r , her l o v e has no depth u n t i l f a t h e r and daughter are u n i t e d under the knowledge of h i s s u f f e r i n g and s e l f -s a c r i f i c e . Lyon's s u b j e c t i o n to the whims of "sweet-v o i c e d Queen E s t h e r " (Ch. VI) " i s the p e c u l i a r h e r i t a g e of l a r g e n e s s and of l o v e , " but she i s ashamed of h i s o l d c l o t h e s , h i s embarrassingly absent-minded manner, and what seems to her " h i s dreary p i e t y , which s e l e c t e d e v e r y t h i n g that was l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g and romantic i n l i f e and h i s t o r y " (Ch. V I ) . E s t h e r has some of the shallowness of a l l George E l i o t ' s p r e t t y g i r l s . Maggie, of course, i s dark and not e x a c t l y p r e t t y , and i t i s the blonde Lucy who has the f a n c i f u l dream of a f a i r y t a l e romance f o r Maggie (MF. Bk. VI, Ch. I I I ) . E s t h e r " d i d not b e l i e v e that he |~Felix] had ever admired her hands or her long neck, or her grace-f u l movements, which had made a l l the g i r l s at school c a l l her Calypso" (Ch. X ) . E s t h e r f e e l s i n some sense i n f e r i o r to F e l i x , and i n t h i s we see the dawning of the r e a l i s a t i o n that there are human i d e a l s beyond her own narrow imagina-t i o n . But as t h i s f e e l i n g of her own inadequacy makes i t s e l f f e l t w i t h i n her, so w o r l d l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the shape of a more s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e match with Transome i n f l u e n c e her: " I t had been a p l e a s a n t v a r i e t y i n her monotonous days to see a man l i k e Harold Transome, with a d i s t i n g u i s h e d appearance and p o l i s h e d manners . . . . he suggested to her that b r i g h t e r and more l u x u r i o u s l i f e on which her imagina-t i o n dwelt without . . . p a i n f u l e f f o r t " (Ch. X V I I I ) . 44 E s t h e r ' s f i r s t stage of r e t u r n to the r e a l world from her s e l f - f l a t t e r i n g dreams i s shown when she f i n a l l y r e j e c t s her romantic i d e a of a hero, and l e a r n s to see a r e a l f l e s h - a n d - b l o o d one i n the person of F e l i x : "The f a v o u r i t e Byronic heroes were beginning to look something l i k e l a s t n i g h t ' s d e c o r a t i o n s seen i n the sober dawn" (Ch. X X I I ) . The second stage i n her moral development comes when she l e a r n s the t r u t h about her f a t h e r , and comes to l o v e him i n consequence. The t h i r d stage comes when her dream of wealth and luxury becomes a r e a l i t y i n her i n h e r i -tance of Transome Court, and she f i n d s "her i n t e n s e s t l i f e was no longer i n her dreams, where she"made t h i n g s to her own mind" (Ch. XXXVIII). The f i n a l stage i s the r e a l i s a t i o n that the haute monde has none of the charm i n r e a l i t y that i t had i n the realm of fancy, and she reaches " t h a t s t a t e of disenchantment belonging to the a c t u a l presence of t h i n g s which have long dwelt i n the i m a g i n a t i o n with a l l the f a c t i t i o u s charms of a r b i t r a r y arrangement" (Ch. XLIV). J u s t as wealth c u t s Dorothea o f f from the human t i e s she needs, so E s t h e r ' s f a s h i o n a b l e dreams, becoming r e a l i t y , would separate her from a s a t i s f y i n g l i f e with the man she l o v e s : Her imaginary mansion had not been i n h a b i t e d j u s t as Transome Court was; her imaginary f o r t u n e had not been attended with circumstance which she was unable to sweep away. She h e r s e l f , i n her Utopia, had never been what she was now. The f i r s t spontaneous o f f e r i n g of her woman's dev o t i o n , the f i r s t great i n s p i r a t i o n of her l i f e , was a s o r t of vanished e c s t a s y which had l e f t i t s wounds. (Ch. XLIV). As w i t h a l l v a r i e t i e s of w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , the path 45 by which the coveted p r i z e i s to be obtained i s not con-s i d e r e d by E s t h e r . She ig n o r e s the means by which she can be transformed i n t o a lady, " i n f a c t , the change had seemed im p o s s i b l e to her, except i n her l i t t l e p r i v a t e U t o p i a , which, l i k e other U t o p i a s , was f i l l e d with d e l i g h t f u l r e s u l t s independent of p r o c e s s e s " (Ch. XXXVIII). Her day-dreams supply her with the most v i v i d d e t a i l s of her l i f e of i n -dulgence, but ignore the human context i n which such a dream co u l d be r e a l i s e d . Such i n s u l a r i t y from the r e a l i t i e s of the human c o n d i t i o n i s common to the other dreamers we have c o n s i d e r e d , but none c o n s i d e r s :her~. d e s i r e d goal w i t h such minute p a r t i c u l a r i t y as E s t h e r : She had 'seen -the' .very_ mat i n the c a r r i a g e , had scented the d r i e d r o s e - l e a v e s i n her c o r r i d o r s , had f e l t the s o f t c a r p e t s under her p r e t t y f e e t , and seen h e r s e l f , as she rose from her sofa cushions, i n the c r y s t a l panel that r e f l e c t e d a long drawing-room, where the co n s e r v a t o r y f l o w e r s and the p i c t u r e s of f a i r women l e f t her s t i l l with the supremacy of charm. She had trodden the marble f i r m g r a v e l of her garden-walks and the s o f t deep t u r f of her lawn . . . and she had had s e v e r a l accomplished c a v a l i e r s a l l at once suing f o r her hand (Ch. XXXVIII). But u l t i m a t e l y E s t h e r , l i k e Maggie T u l l i v e r , i s able to see that her dream i s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e with r e a l i t y . Both heroines are too aware of the f e e l i n g s of ot h e r s to be able to p e r -s i s t i n p u r s u i n g an i n s u b s t a n t i a l e x i s t e n c e i n which they themselves occupy the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . For "even i n her times of most untroubled egoism E s t h e r shrank from anything ungenerous" (Ch. XXXVIII). Being s e n s i t i v e to the e x i s t -ence of other l i v e s o u t s i d e her own, Est h e r i s f o r c e d to tur n her a t t e n t i o n away from " E l y s i a n i n dulgence" and !'to 46 gaze on the degrading, hard experience of other human beings, and on a h u m i l i a t i n g l o s s which was the obverse of her own proud g a i n " (Ch. XXXVIII). L i k e Maggie, but u n l i k e Hetty and Rosamond, Es t h e r accepts the r e a l world i n which love and duty are p o s s i b l e and she r e j e c t s the f a i r y - t a l e world, which i s but a p r o j e c t i o n of the s e l f , and i n which there can be no r e l a t i o n s h i p . C H A P T E R I I I T H E T R A N S G R E S S O R The t r a n s g r e s s o r has some of the dreamer's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n that he deludes h i m s e l f about h i s own nature, and f r e q u e n t l y attempts to l i v e a l i e . He i s d i s -t i n g u i s h e d from the dreamer, however, i n that he i s concerned w i t h d e c e i v i n g others as much as d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f . Arthur Donnithorne, Godfrey Cass, Bulstrode and Mrs Transome need the good o p i n i o n of others before they can wholly approve of themselves. We thus see i n them a need t o r e l a t e t o c e r t a i n standards accepted by o t h e r s . The t r a n s g r e s s o r i s u s u a l l y a person of some s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , and he f e e l s t^e n e c e s s i t y to ma i n t a i n h i s e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n above h i s f e l l o w s . Arthur and Godfrey, i n f a c t , take advantage of t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n to p e r p e t r a t e t h e i r immoral deeds, and thus prove themselves unworthy of the f a i t h of the community. Owing to h i s s o c i a l eminence the t r a n s g r e s s o r does not need to i n d u l g e i n c l a s s dreams. His d e l u s i o n s take other forms. The t r a n s g r e s s o r imagines he can le a d a normal l i f e and enter i n t o f r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p with o t h e r s while at the same time he de c e i v e s them about h i s own na t u r e . Arthur seeks to m a i n t a i n h i s f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p with Adam though he has destroyed the p o s s i b i l i t y of marriage between Adam and Hetty. Bulstrode shows a pi o u s and r e s p e c t a b l e f r o n t to the community of Middlemarch, and by so doing b e l i e v e s he can g l o s s over h i s d i s r e p u t a b l e p a s t . Mrs Transome and 47 48 Godfrey Cass a l s o seek refuge behind a f r o n t of f a l s e seeming. T h i s r e l i a n c e on crimes remaining concealed, however, i s a l s o combined i n the t r a n s g r e s s o r w i t h an a c t i v e con-s c i e n c e . The t r a n s g r e s s o r i s haunted not onl y by the f e a r of being unmasked and d i s g r a c e d , but a l s o by a sense of g u i l t . T h i s f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n h i s need to atone f o r past wrongs by a c t s , or at l e a s t r e s o l u t i o n s of goodness. Thus Bulstrode f i n a n c e s the new f e v e r h o s p i t a l i n Middlemarch, and Arthur Donnithorne a s p i r e s to be the good s q u i r e , and promises Hetty anything she needs short of r marriage. Godfrey Cass b e l i e v e s he can make up f o r past d e f i c i e n c i e s by h i s lov e f o r Nancy, and Mrs Transome seeks an escape from the consequences of her own act i n her love f o r Harold. There i s a strong element of w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g i n t h i s sudden change that the t r a n s g r e s s o r b e l i e v e s he can e f f e c t i n h i s l i f e . Though he does not indu l g e i n Utopian dreams, the t r a n s g r e s s o r i n d u l g e s i n the f a n t a s y that he can make r e p a r a t i o n f o r any i n i q u i t y by shedding past misdemean-ours and emerging new-formed. T h i s b l i n d n e s s to the f a c t that "our deeds determine us" emphasises the dual s e p a r a t i o n of the t r a n s g r e s s o r both from h i s own past and from open r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p r e s e n t . T h i s b l i n d n e s s to consequences makes a mockery of A r t h u r ' s i d e a l s of squiredom and Mrs Tran-some1 s ambition f o r her son. The b a l e f u l i n f l u e n c e of a g u i l t y past prevents B u l s t r o d e ' s h o s p i t a l scheme from being e f f e c t e d , and one sees the working of Nemesis a g a i n s t 49 Godfrey i n h i s f a i l u r e to have c h i l d r e n by Nancy. T h i s urgency to escape from the consequence of past a c t s i s a l l i e d , i n the t r a n s g r e s s o r , with an o p t i m i s t i c r e l i a n c e on Providence. The t r a n s g r e s s o r f r e q u e n t l y b e l i e v e s that Providence has a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n h i s w e l f a r e , and that anyone as well-meaning or as devout as hi m s e l f can never r e a l l y be punished f o r h i s cov e r t d e a l i n g s with o t h e r s . He i s thus cut o f f not onl y from past r e a l i t i e s , but a l s o from f u t u r e p r o b a b i l i t i e s . A rthur Donnithorne cannot b e l i e v e that h i s a f f a i r with Hetty w i l l have < d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s . Despite t h e i r burdens of g u i l t B u l s t r o d e , Mrs Transome and Godfrey b e l i e v e they can-escape the con-sequences of t h e i r a c t s , and that Providence w i l l look a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . As George Levine p o i n t s out, George E l i o t c o n sidered i t m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e to r e l y on the unusual or the un-likely.''* Those who indulge i n any form of gambling i n the nov e l s are i n some way d e c e i v i n g themselves or one whom they r e s p e c t . T h i s i s as true f o r Arthur and Godfrey, who gamble on t h e i r wrongdoings remaining concealed, as f o r Lydgate and Gwendolen H a r l e t h , who a c t u a l l y stake money on p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Just, as the transgvessor.• r e l i e s on the v a g a r i e s of chance b r i n g i n g him pe r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and s o c i a l r e s p e c t -a b i l i t y , so does he blame h i s d e s t i n y when t h i n g s go badly f o r him. The element of s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s very pro-George Levine, "Determinism and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the Works of George E l i o t , " PMLA, LXXVII (1962), p. 272. 50 nounced i n Arthur who attempts to s h i f t the blame f o r h i s dilemma from himself onto events f o r which he l i k e s to f e e l he has no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Mrs Transome, too, sees her f u t u r e as c r u e l , and says b i t t e r l y of her son: " I used to wish Harold to be f o r t u n a t e - and he i s f o r t u n a t e . . . i t ' s not my s t a r that he i n h e r i t s " (FH. Ch. X L I I ) . We can see a f u r t h e r aspect of the s e l f - d e l u s i o n of the t r a n s g r e s s o r when we examine the substance of h i s i d e a l s . We f r e q u e n t l y see i n the t r a n s g r e s s o r a genuine a s p i r a t i o n towards an i d e a l t h a t i s f e l t to be noble. But these a s p i r a t i o n s appear i n l a r g e measure e g o t i s t i c when compared to the genuine i d e a l s of F e l i x Holt or Dorothea. The t r a n s g r e s s o r seeks to become a res p e c t e d member of the community and thus make up f o r h i s own d e f i c i e n c i e s . Arthur Donnithorne and Bulstrode both see themselves as p h i l a n -t h r o p i s t s who w i l l improve t h e i r communities. The compen-sat o r y i d e a l s of Mrs Transome and Godfrey are more domestic, being d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a d e s i r e to g i v e love and r e s t o r e the domestic w e l l - b e i n g they p r e v i o u s l y j e o p a r d i s e d . The f a i l u r e of these c h a r a c t e r s to face the r e a l i t y of t h e i r own nature r e s u l t s i n the breakdown of t h e i r human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Arthur d e s t r o y s h i s f r i e n d s h i p with Adam, Buls t r o d e i s f o r c e d to adopt a mask of p i e t y and r e s p e c t -a b i l i t y , and Godfrey and Mrs Transome deceive those who deserve t h e i r c l o s e s t a f f e c t i o n . The desperate attempt of the t r a n s g r e s s o r to conceal h i s true nature even from h i s i n t i m a t e s l e a v e s him a l o n e l y and ou t c a s t f i g u r e . Mrs Tran-some f e l t "that her son was a stranger to her" and that 51 she was "excluded from her son's world" (Ch. I ) . Godfrey Cass i s d i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s " c h i l d l e s s h e a r t h " (Ch. XVII), while both Arthur and Bulstrode are f o r c e d to leave s o c i e t y . Thus the t r a n s g r e s s o r who cuts himself o f f from o t h e r s by h i s i n i t i a l d e c e p t i o n u l t i m a t e l y f i n d s h i m s e l f r e j e c t e d by s o c i e t y . Despite Harold's attendance at h i s mother's bed-side a f t e r h i s d i s c o v e r y of her g u i l t , there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between Harold and h i s mother. Godfrey i s r e c o n c i l e d to Nancy a f t e r h i s c o n f e s s i o n but i s estranged from Eppie and f e e l s : " I t ' s p a r t of my punishment . . . f o r my daughter to d i s l i k e me" (Ch. XX). In every case the t r a n s g r e s s o r f a i l s to be open i n h i s d e a l i n g s with others and i s punished f o r t h i s . The c r u c i a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n f e s s i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y missed. Godfrey can never b r i n g h i m s e l f to the p o i n t of complete frankness w i t h Nancy and " i t seemed to him i m p o s s i b l e that he should ever confess to her the t r u t h about Eppie" (Ch. X V I I ) . The r e s u l t of t h i s f a i l u r e to confess i s that atonement f o r past wrongs becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t as time p r o g r e s s e s . Godfrey imagines that the adoption of Eppie would make up f o r h i s past wrong and the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n f e s s i o n would thus be avoided, but "as time passed on, under Nancy's r e f u s a l to adopt her, any r e t r i e v a l of e r r o r became more and more d i f f i c u l t " (Ch. X V I I ) . Arthur too f a i l s to confess h i s i n f a t u a t i o n f o r Hetty to Mr Irwine at the c r u c i a l moment, and by t r u s t i n g to h i s own s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y prepares the way to h i s d o w n f a l l . Bulstrode o n l y c o n f i d e s i n h i s wife when the r e s u l t s of a l i f e of 52 d e c e p t i o n b r i n g about t h e i r p u b l i c d i s g r a c e , and Mrs Tran-some i s too proud to admit her f o l l y to Harold even when he demands the t r u t h . Some other c h a r a c t e r s appear to belong i n t h i s c ategory but do not, because the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i s t i n g u i s h them from the t r a n s g r e s s o r s o v e r r i d e the i n c i d e n t a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . H etty S o r r e l i s not r e a l l y seen as a t r a n s g r e s s o r ; she remains i n the s t a t e of innocence g i v e n to those without c o n s c i e n c e . Dunstan Cass's v i l l a i n y and h i s robbery of S i l a s Marner do not c o n s t i t u t e t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n the same degree as the f i g u r e s we are d e a l i n g with, a l l of whom have an a c t i v e c o n s c i e n c e . The t r a n s g r e s s o r s we are concerned wi t h show a f a i l u r e of t r u e v i s i o n and a corresponding f a i l u r e of t r u s t i n human sympathy. They are cut o f f by t h i s d e f e c t r a t h e r than by the nature of t h e i r crimes. Both Fred Vincy and Rufus Lyon, who are not i n any sense c r i m i n a l , s u f f e r some of the t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s g u i l t f e e l i n g s . Each f e e l s , though f o r very d i f f e r e n t reasons, the need to deceive another, and each i s r e s t o r e d to f r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p with those they care f o r by t h e i r c o n f e s s i o n s . They are l i k e the t r a n s g r e s s o r i n that they both have a se c r e t which r a n k l e s , but both are im p e l l e d to c o n f e s s i n g t h e i r s e c r e t f o r the sake of one they l o v e . With the t r a n s g r e s s o r s we are d e a l i n g w i t h i t i s the f a i l u r e to t r u s t i n human love that causes t h e i r i n s e c u r i t y and i s o l a t i o n . In a l l the cases except A r t h u r ' s the crime takes p l a c e before the s t o r y begins. We thus see the e f f e c t s 53 of the crime i n i s o l a t i n g the t r a n s g r e s s o r through h i s own f e e l i n g of g u i l t , r a t h e r than h i s i s o l a t i o n through s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m . B u l s t r o d e , Mrs Transome and Godfrey w i l l s c a r c e l y admit t h e i r g u i l t to themselves, much l e s s to another. Bulstrode i s the most b l a t a n t s e l f - d e c e i v e r of the t r a n s g r e s s o r s i n that he seems almost to have managed to e f f a c e h i s p a s t . Arthur Donnithorne i s a t y p i c a l t r a n s g r e s s o r . He l o s e s confidence i n humanity and f a i l s to confess h i s i l l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Hetty to Mr Irwine, the r e c t o r . L i k e B u l -strode, Godfrey and Mrs Transome, he i s i n h i b i t e d from c o n f i d i n g i n another by h i s own p r i d e and d e s i r e f o r s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y . Arthur i s perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g of the s i n n e r s i n that he v a c i l l a t e s from f i r m r e s o l u t i o n to g l i b r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n of h i s indulgences. He i n t e n d s to confess h i s p a s s i o n to Mr Irwine, but owing to the v e r y i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between them there i s not s u f f i c i e n t p r e s s u r e on Arthur f o r him to r i s k demeaning himsel f i n the eyes of h i s f r i e n d . George E l i o t admits t h a t the o l d forms of c o n f e s s i o n were b e t t e r than the i n f o r m a l ones, f o r when you have put your mouth to one end of a hole i n a stone w a l l , and are aware that there i s an expectant ear at the other end, you are more l i k e l y to say what you came out w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of saying (AB. Ch. XVI). F a i l u r e to acknowledge h i s weakness to hims e l f and f e a r of exposing i t to another b r i n g about A r t h u r ' s d o w n f a l l , d e s p i t e h i s noble i d e a l s of duty as the good s q u i r e . Arthur never acknowledges the d i s p a r i t y between h i s i d e a l of conduct and the r e a l i t y of h i s own nature. He has 5 4 the disarming f a c i l i t y to recognise and admit his own fa u l t s while at the same time he makes l i g h t of them. He cannot see that they are at odds with his ide a l s . He i s proud of his candour regarding his own f a i l i n g s , having "an agreeable confidence that his f a u l t s were a l l of a generous kind - impetuous, warm-blooded, leonine; never crawling, cr a f t y , r e p t i l i a n . It was not possible for Arthur Donni-thorne to do anything mean, dastardly, or c r u e l " (Ch. XII). It i s thi s self-approving quality that causes Arthur to minimize the wrongs he does to Hetty and Adam. Arthur believes he can compensate those who suffer from his generous f a u l t s . Though honest i n his dealings with his fellow men, Arthur f a i l s to consider the possible consequences to others of his rash acts. He does not see, as Irwine does, that "our deeds carry their t e r r i b l e con-sequences . . . that are hardly ever confined to ourselves" (Ch. XVI). Arthur tends to see others as objects that can be manipulated for his own s a t i s f a c t i o n , and treats them i n a non-human way. He believes he i s one who i f he should unfortunately break a man's leg i n his rash driv i n g , w i l l be able to pension him handsomely; or i f he should happen to sp o i l a woman's existence for her, w i l l make i t up to her with expensive bons-bons, packed up and directed by his own hand (Ch. XII). Just as Arthur believes he can escape from his dilemmas by compensating the victims of his s e l f i s h acts, so do Mrs Tran-some, Godfrey and Bulstrode imagine they can make reparation for past wrongdoing. Bulstrode offers money to Lydgate and Ladislaw, seeking thereby to salve his conscience and 55 escape punishment or exposure. Mrs Transome vows that she w i l l be good to her i l l e g i t i m a t e son Harold and make him a worthy gentleman, and Godfrey seeks to adopt the daughter he had once r e j e c t e d . In a l l these cases we see the o p t i m i s t i c b e l i e f t h a t a l a t e r good can e f f a c e a past wrong. Arthur has the t y p i c a l optimism of the t r a n s g r e s s o r . Though he admits h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to Hetty's charms to Mr Irwine, he w i l l not admit to h i m s e l f that he i s i n any r e a l danger. A f t e r h i s seduction of Hetty we see the t y p i c a l r e l i a n c e of the t r a n s g r e s s o r on the e x t e r n a l superintendence of P rovidence: Arthur t o l d h i m s e l f he d i d not deserve that t h i n g s should t u r n out badly - he had never meant beforehand to do anything h i s conscience disapproved - he had been l e d on by c i r -cumstances. There was a sort of i m p l i c i t c onfidence i n him that he was r e a l l y such a good f e l l o w at bottom Providence would not t r e a t him h a r s h l y (Ch. XXIX). Arthur never sees that h i s grand a s p i r a t i o n s to s o c i a l good are incompatible with h i s c a s u a l a t t i t u d e to the harm he causes i n d i v i d u a l s . There i s a strong degree of egoism i n h i s s o c i a l i d e a l s . Though h i s n a t u r a l g e n e r o s i t y and d e s i r e f o r the good o p i n i o n s of others are shown i n h i s speech at the f e a s t , h i s sympathy f o r others i s c l o s e l y bound up with h i s own egoism. He f a i l s to see the v a l u e of human beings themselves and tends to use them as agents i n an o p e r a t i o n of self-aggrandisement. Arthur r e t u r n s to Hayslope on h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s death and c o n g r a t u l a t e s h i m s e l f on h i s good f o r t u n e i n h i s new r o l e as s q u i r e : He would show the Loamshire people what a f i n e country gentleman was . . . He f e l t h i m s e l f . . . l o o k i n g a f t e r 56 f a v o u r i t e p l a n s of drainage and enclosure . . . admired on sombre mornings as the best r i d e r . . . spoken w e l l of on market-days as a f i r s t - r a t e l a n d l o r d . . . making speeches at e l e c t i o n d i n n e r s and showing a wonderful knowledge of a g r i c u l t u r e (Ch. XLIV). The c o n t r a s t between Arthur and Dorothea i s pronounced, f o r her 'notions' of b u i l d i n g new cottages f o r the poor show an u n s e l f i s h n e s s undreamed of i n A r t h u r ' s conception of s o c i a l v i r t u e . A comparison between the p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g young men Arthur Donnithorne and Fred V i n c y b r i n g s out the absolute nature of A r t h u r ' s i s o l a t i o n from r e a l i t y and human c o n t a c t . Both are s e l f - i n d u l g e n t young men but Arthur i s a gentleman by b i r t h and i s a f r a i d of compromising h i s p o s i t i o n by t r u s t i n g i n another. Fred merely p l a y s at gentlemanly-p u r s u i t s , and i s f o r t u n a t e i n h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a f a m i l y i n which common-sense and sympathy abound. Arthur shares with Fred Vincy a f a i l u r e of i m a g i n a t i o n concerning the a n x i e t i e s and needs of o t h e r s . Both are s e n s i t i v e and well-meaning, and t h e i r concern f o r others i s s i n c e r e , but t h i s concern o n l y operates a f t e r a l l of t h e i r own p l e a s u r e s have been g r a t i f i e d . A f t e r Adam's a t t a c k on him, both v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l , i t i s h u m i l i a t i o n that Arthur f e e l s f i r s t , and r e g a r d i n g the wrong done to K e t t y he f e e l s "he might be able to do a good deal f o r her, and make up to her f o r a l l the t e a r s she would shed about him" (Ch. XXI). F r e d does not need to s u f f e r i n the way that Arthur does before he r e a l i s e s that there are some wrongs that cannot be r i g h t e d e i t h e r by g i f t s of money or sympathy, f o r h i s 57 s e l f - c e n t r e d view of h i s own conduct i s d i s l o d g e d by Mrs Garth's censure. "His p a i n i n the a f f a i r beforehand had c o n s i s t e d almost e n t i r e l y i n the sense that he must seem d i s h o n o u r a b l e " (Ch. XXIII; my i t a l i c s ) . Though both Fred and Arthur love t h e i r own p l e a s u r e s before a l l e l s e i n the world, Arthur i s more i s o l a t e d i n h i s g u i l t s i n c e he denies h i m s e l f the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n f i d e i n another. Fred i s able to have unreserved conference with the sympathetic and r e a l i s t i c Garth f a m i l y , to c onfess h i s f o o l i s h indulgences to a compassionate ear without l o s i n g too much esteem. These people accept him f o r what he i s and are under no i l l u s i o n s about h i s moral q u a l i t i e s . Owing to h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , A r t h u r ' s com-p u l s i o n to deceive o t h e r s i s much g r e a t e r , and h i s sense of what i s demanded from a man of h i s e s t a t e i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to h i s own a c t i o n s . The s e l f - r e g a r d i n g sentiment i n A r t hur i s more h i g h l y developed than i t i s i n Fred, and hence he i s unable to admit the t r u t h of h i s own misdeeds. He s u f f e r s misery and a sense of a l i e n a t i o n because he has f a i l e d to l i v e up to h i s own best standards, and yet s t i l l A r thur seeks to excuse h i m s e l f . George E l i o t d e s c r i b e s the p r o c e s s by which Arthur r a t i o n a l i s e s h i s own wrongdoing, and convinces h i m s e l f that f u r t h e r d e c e i t i s the only p r a c t i c a l r i g h t : No man can escape t h i s v i t i a t i n g e f f e c t of an o f f e n c e against h i s own sentiment of r i g h t , and the e f f e c t was stronger i n A r t h u r because of that v e r y need of s e l f - r e s p e c t which, w h i l e h i s conscience was s t i l l at ease, was one of h i s best safeguards. S e l f - a c c u s a t i o n was too p a i n f u l to him - he c o u l d not face i t . He must persuade himse l f that he had not 58 been very much to blame; he began even to p i t y h i m s e l f f o r the n e c e s s i t y he was under of d e c e i v i n g Adam: i t was a course so opposed to the honesty of h i s own nature. But then i t was the onl y r i g h t t h i n g to do (Ch. XXIX). When A r t h u r ' s conscience i s not at ease, i n s t e a d of t a k i n g the honest course, and c o n f i d i n g i n another human being and attempting to r e c t i f y h i s own wrongdoing, he r e t r e a t s from humanity, and the r e s u l t i s a hardening of g u i l t and a f u r t h e r act of c r u e l t y to h i s f e l l o w s . A r t h u r ' s i s o l a t i o n and f e e l i n g of c l a u s t r o p h o b i a because of h i s r e f u s a l to d e a l i n an undissembling way wit h Adam are u n d e r l i n e d by George E l i o t : In t h i s s t a t e of mind the four w a l l s of h i s room made an i n t o l e r a b l e p r i s o n to him; they seemed to hem i n and p r e s s down upon him a l l the crowd of c o n t r a d i c t o r y thoughts and c o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s , some of which would f l y away i n the open a i r (Ch. XXIX). T h i s s h u t - i n f e e l i n g i s analogous to the a c t u a l imprisonment and i s o l a t i o n of K e t t y a f t e r her s e l f - i s o l a t i n g crime. A comparison between Arthur Donnithorne and Godfrey Cass helps to b r i n g out the e s s e n t i a l nature of the t r a n s -g r e s s o r , and a l s o shows the d i f f e r e n t nature of Godfrey's and A r t h u r ' s repentance. Both men have s i m i l a r backgrounds, and both f i n a l l y f i n d that wealth and patronage are of no a v a i l i n compensating f o r t h e i r e r r o r s . Each man i s at l a s t brought to the p o s i t i o n of having to confess h i s wrongdoing, and each f i n d s f o r g i v e n e s s from one he has i n j u r e d . Arthur i s f i n a l l y r e c o n c i l e d to Adam, although the nature of Hetty's f o r g i v e n e s s , as we have seen, i s dubious. Godfrey r e c e i v e s Nancy's love and sympathy i n h i s 59 d i s t r e s s , but f i n d s he has f o r f e i t e d h i s daughter's l o v e . But whereas Arthur p l e a d s that the Poysers should not be i n j u r e d by h i s d e f a u l t , Godfrey b e l i e v e s he can r e p a i r past wrongs and seems unaware of the nature of the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s . Arthur r e a l i s e s that he has f a i l e d i n h i s duty, and i s prepared to s a c r i f i c e h i m s e l f . He d e c l a r e s to Adam: one of my reasons f o r going away i s , that no one e l s e may leave Hayslope--may leave t h e i r home on my account. I would do anything, there i s no s a c r i f i c e I would not make, to prevent any f u r t h e r i n j u r y to others through my--through what has happened (Ch. X L V I I I ) . Godfrey's idea of duty i n v o l v e s no such s e l f - d e n i a l . The best r e p a r a t i o n he can o f f e r h i s wronged daughter i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and the chance of a good marriage. He d e c l a r e s to S i l a s : "You're p u t t i n g y o u r s e l f i n the way of her w e l f a r e ; and though I'm s o r r y to hurt you aftt:r what you've done, and what I've l e f t undone, I f e e l now i t ' s my duty to i n s i s t on t a k i n g care of my own daughter. I want to do my duty" (Ch. XIX). Although Godfrey's idea of duty shows a f a i l u r e to put hims e l f i n another's p l a c e , he does, u n l i k e A r t h u r , marry the woman he has wronged. A f t e r h i s i n i t i a l e r r o r , Godfrey does not f a i l i n h i s duty to the opium a d d i c t , M o l l y F a r r e n . His i d e a l of domestic happiness, though b a s i c a l l y s e l f -c e n t r e d , and h i s l o n g i n g f o r c h i l d r e n show h i s need to compensate f o r h i s own e m o t i o n a l l y impoverished background. H i s love f o r Nancy and h i s l o n g i n g f o r "some tender per-manent a f f e c t i o n . . . some i n f l u e n c e that would make the good he p r e f e r r e d easy to pursue" (Ch. I l l ) , c o n t r a s t s w i t h 60 A r t h u r ' s r a t h e r c a v a l i e r treatment of women. Godfrey has alr e a d y l e a r n t the l e s s o n that Arthur has to l e a r n l a t e r , t h a t l o f t y i d e a l s are no s u b s t i t u t e f o r honest p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Godfrey has the t y p i c a l optimism of the t r a n s g r e s s o r i n that he imagines he can e f f a c e an unpleasant past i n which h i s conduct has been r e p r e h e n s i b l e with a b l i s s f u l f u t u r e . Godfrey b e l i e v e s he can avoid the " h a t e f u l con-sequences" of h i s p a s t , and "snatch the strange g r a t i f i c a t i o n of seeing Nancy and g a t h e r i n g some f a i n t i n d i c a t i o n s of her l i n g e r i n g regard" (Ch. I I I ) . He sees Nancy as "the f a r - o f f bright-winged p r i z e " (Ch. I l l ) from whose sweet presence he w i l l take "draughts of f o r g e t f u l n e s s " (Ch. XII) i n an attempt to o b l i t e r a t e the r e a l i t y of h i s p a s t . L i k e Fred V i n c y and Arthur Donnithorne, Godfrey r e l i e s on f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Although he h u m i l i a t e s h i m s e l f to h i s f a t h e r i n s o f a r as he admits to the misappro-p r i a t i o n of money, Godfrey gambles on h i s deeper g u i l t ' s remaining concealed. He s h r i n k s from the p o s s i b i l i t y that Nancy should ever know of h i s delinquency, t r u s t i n g that h i s own s p e c i a l Providence w i l l safeguard him from the l o s s of Nancy's l o v e : "He f l e d to h i s u s u a l refuge, that of hoping f o r some unforeseen t u r n of f o r t u n e , some f a v o u r a b l e chance which would save him from unpleasant consequences" (Ch. I X ) . Once again we see the dreams of the miscreant c u t t i n g him o f f from the r e a l i t y of h i s own a c t s , and thus p r e c l u d i n g him from the p o s s i b i l i t y of human sympathy. The ambivalent nature of the t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s mind makes 61 i t almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r others to deal w i t h him. George E l i o t emphasises the r i f t between the r e a l i t y of h i s nature and h i s compensating r e l i a n c e on f u t u r e dreams: Let him l i v e o u t s i d e h i s income, or s h i r k the r e s o l u t e honest work that b r i n g s wages, and he w i l l p r e s e n t l y f i n d h i m s e l f dreaming of a p o s s i b l e benefactor. . . . Let him n e g l e c t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of h i s o f f i c e , and he w i l l m e n t a l l y anchor himself on the chance, that the t h i n g l e f t undone may t u r n out not to be of the supposed importance. Let him betray a f r i e n d ' s c o nfidence, and he w i l l . . . hope that h i s f r i e n d w i l l never know (SM. Ch. IX). J u s t as Arthur deludes h i m s e l f that h i s act of s e l f i s h n e s s has not caused a r i f t between Adam and Hetty, so Godfrey b e l i e v e s he can g l o s s over h i s past indulgences and b u i l d a f u t u r e happiness f o r h i m s e l f . His i d e a of atonement i s o p t i m i s t i c and n a i v e . L i k e Arthur on h i s r e t u r n to Hayslope, Godfrey sees only good i n the death of h i s wife, and f i n d s o n l y " r e l i e f and gladness" i n another's death. C o n g r a t u l a t i n g h i m s e l f on h i s own good f o r t u n e , and r e j o i c i n g i n the good o p i n i o n of others now that he f e e l s there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s d e c e i t being r e v e a l e d , Godfrey r a t i o n a l -i s e s h i s d u p l i c i t y : Where, a f t e r a l l , would be the use of c o n f e s s i n g the past to Nancy Lammeter, and throwing away h i s happiness? - nay hers? . . . As f o r the c h i l d , he would see i t was cared f o r : he would never forsake i t ; he would do e v e r y t h i n g but own i t . Perhaps i t would be j u s t as happy i n l i f e without being owned by i t s f a t h e r . (Ch. X I I I ) . Godfrey's subconscious need to atone f o r h i s r e j e c t i o n of h i s daughter Eppie makes him want to adopt her from the time she i s twelve years o l d . H i s f a i l u r e i n sympathetic understanding of S i l a s i s i n keeping with h i s s u b j e c t i v e 6 2 view of the world. He p r o j e c t s h i s own d e s i r e s onto o t h e r s f o r " i t had never occurred to him that S i l a s would r a t h e r p a r t with h i s l i f e than w i t h Eppie" (Ch. X V I I ) . Godfrey deludes himself that he i s being benevolent, when i n f a c t he i s merely attempting to s a l v e h i s conscience, and "by a common f a l l a c y , he imagined the measure would be easy because he had p r i v a t e motives f o r d e s i r i n g i t " (Ch. X V I I ) . Godfrey shows the t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s proud d e t e r m i n a t i o n to r e s i s t c o n f e s s i o n of h i s past misconduct. He imagines he can r e c t i f y the present malaise of h i s " c h i l d l e s s hearth" (Ch. XVII) and set r i g h t h i s past misdeeds by the adoption of Eppie. But there i s no way i n which Godfrey can atone f o r the p a s t . From Nancy's response to h i s c o n f e s s i o n we are l e f t with the p o s s i b i l i t y that had Godfrey sunk h i s p r i d e and r i s k e d l o s i n g Nancy by a f r a n k admission before marriage, she would have accepted both Godfrey as a hus-band and Eppie as a daughter. Godfrey's o r i g i n a l crime i s not s t r e s s e d i n the novel so much as h i s f a i l u r e to t r u s t i n human l o v e and f o r g i v e n e s s . L i k e the other t r a n s g r e s s o r s , Godfrey has to come to the r e a l i s a t i o n that " there's debts we can't pay l i k e money debts" (Ch. XX), that repentance of past wrongs and r e s o l u t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e can i n no way make up f o r the f a i l u r e to act i n a human and sympathetic manner to o t h e r s . Because of a withdrawal of sympathy caused by h i s own past wrong, Godfrey i s estranged from h i s daughter, and he comes to accept h i s l i m i t e d l o t w i t h r e s i g n a t i o n . He l e a r n s to 63 be content with what he has been given, and discovers with humility that even th i s i s far more than his deserts. Godfrey f i n a l l y returns to the objective world, the only realm where love and truth can operate together: "And I got you, Nancy, i n spite of a l l ; and yet I've been grumbling and uneasy because I hadn't something else - as i f I deserved i t " (Ch. XX). Like Godfrey Cass, Mrs Transome, i n F e l i x Holt, deludes herself that out of past wrongdoing may come future joy. She imagines she can make up for past d e f i c i e n c i e s and have a meaningful relationship with her son while there i s s t i l l a barrier of deceit between them. She wonders i f "she was going to reap an assured joy? - to f e e l that the doubt-f u l deeds of her l i f e were j u s t i f i e d by the r e s u l t , since a kind Providence had sanctioned them"(Ch. I ) . She hopes "to be no longer t a c i t l y p i t i e d by her neighbours for her lack of money, her imbecile husband, her graceless eldest-born, and the loneliness of her l i f e ; but to have at her side a r i c h , clever, possibly a tender son" (Ch. I ) . The pattern of past g u i l t i n h i b i t i n g present r e l a t i o n -ship i s common in the novels, but Mrs Transome i s perhaps more obviously isolated i n that she has grown old and lonely, l i v i n g on fond imaginings. Like Arthur and Godfrey, she imagines she can achieve happiness while at the same time indulging i n subterfuge. The transgressor f a i l s to r e a l i s e that secrets hinder the p o s s i b i l i t y of human contact; he i s under the necessity of keeping up a false appearance, frequently before one whose love or respect he seeks. So, 64 Mrs Transome i s i n t>e incongruous p o s i t i o n of seeking her son's love while keeping to h e r s e l f " s e c r e t s which her son must never know" (Ch. I ) . Mrs Transome shares with B u l s t r o d e , Godfrey, Fred V i n c y and Gwendolen H a r l e t h the t a c i t d e s i r e f o r her own good out of another's death. She has a hatred f o r her e l d e s t son, Durfey, because he can by h i s v e r y e x i s t e n c e s h a t t e r her dreams f o r Haro l d . The "good t i d i n g s " (Ch. I) of Durfey's death b r i n g back to Transome Court a son whom Mrs Transome expects to f u l f i l her dreams, and "give u n i t y to her l i f e " (Ch. I ) . Mrs Transome never sees her son as an independent person who may have i d e a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s of h i s own. She i s l i k e Godfrey and Arthur i n that she sees others only as p r o j e c t i o n s of her own wishes. When her son proves to be u n l i k e her i d e a l i s e d v i s i o n of him, she b a r e l y r e c o g n i s e s him, and a "sense of strangeness came upon her l i k e a t e r r o r " (Ch. I ) . She i s nonplussed i n the same way that Godfrey i s when Eppie d e c i d e s that she p r e f e r s poverty and the love of her f o s t e r f a t h e r to a l i f e of wealth and ease w i t h her n a t u r a l f a t h e r . We see the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the gambler, who seeks to o b t a i n more from l i f e than i s l e g i t i -mately h i s , i n Mrs Transome j u s t as s t r o n g l y as i n Fred V i n c y or Gwendolen. Her d e s i r e f o r the death of her f i r s t -born made her l i f e a "hideous l o t t e r y " (Ch. I ) . I t i s the r e f u s a l to accept t h e i r l o t that causes Godfrey, Bulstrode and Gwendolen to grow, l i k e Mrs Transome, "haggard, f e v e r i s h and r e s t l e s s , l i k e those who watch i n other l o t t e r i e s " (Ch. I ) . T h i s wish to loa d the wheel of chance i n h i s own 65 favour causes the t r a n s g r e s s o r to wish or do e v i l to o t h e r s . George E l i o t always exposes the hollow nature of the t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s dream, and f i n a l l y f o r c e s him to face the r e a l i t y of h i s own nature. The past catches up with the transgressor and r e t r i b u t i o n f r e q u e n t l y f a l l s on him. Arthur . r e a l i s e s he has become an o u t c a s t of Hayslope, and Godfrey sees i n " h i s c h i l d l e s s home the aspect of a r e t r i b u t i o n " (Ch. X V I I ) . Mrs Transome f i n d s i n her son's r e t u r n not an omen of f u t u r e b l i s s , but a reminder of past g u i l t . In Mrs Transome the sense of g u i l t i s almost as strong as the f e a r of her c o v e r t d e a l i n g s being unmasked. Arthur and Godfrey do not s u f f e r i n the same degree as Mrs Transome i n the knowledge that they have betrayed another. B u l s t r o d e almost manages to sublimate h i s g u i l t f e e l i n g s i n h i s p h i l a n t h r o p i c and r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . They remain below the s u r f a c e of h i s own consciousness. But even Arthur Donnithorne, who i s the l e a s t g u i l t - r i d d e n of the t r a n s g r e s s o r s , i s a f r a i d of the r e v e l a t i o n of h i s a c t s that would be caused by Hetty's p o s s i b l e s u i c i d e , and a "sudden dread . . . f e l l l i k e a shadow across h i s i m a g i n a t i o n " (Ch. XXIX). In the presence of Jermyn, Mrs Transome, who had a l l her l i f e t r i e d to keep "her woman's p r i d e and s e n s i b i l i t y i n t a c t " ( C h . IX), f i n d s every word j o g g i n g her g u i l t y memory "as i f i t had been cut i n her bared arm" (Ch. IX). She hates the man who has power over her by the share he has i n her s e c r e t , and "whose brand she s e c r e t l y bore" (Ch. I X ) . L i k e B u l s t r o d e , Mrs Transome attempts to cut h e r s e l f 6 6 o f f from the p a s t , and f i n d s that i n s t e a d of p r o s p e c t i v e p l e a s u r e s she has only dread before her. The attempt to l i v e a fragmentary l i f e i s as f u t i l e i n t h e i r cases as i t was with the dreamer. Kirs Transome has grown o l d and l o n e l y , and i s d i v o r c e d from the resp e c t and love she craves, but "she was s t i l l young and ardent i n her t e r r o r s ; the p a s s i o n s of the past were l i v i n g i n her dread" (Ch. XXXIV). Mrs Transome has f a i l e d to l i v e f o r any u n s e l f i s h purpose, and cut o f f from human contact she f i n d s "the great s t o r y of t h i s world reduced f o r her to the l i t t l e t a l e of her own e x i s t e n c e " (Ch. XXXIV). The n e c e s s i t y f o r de c e p t i o n c u t s her o f f from the son she has wronged, and her one dread i s the r e v e l a t i o n to him of the t r u t h : "She was not t h i n k i n g of God's anger or mercy, but of her son's. She was t h i n k i n g of what might be brought, not by death, but by l i f e " (Ch. XXXIV). Bul s t r o d e attempts to escape the i n f l u e n c e of h i s g u i l t y past by adopting an e n t i r e l y new c h a r a c t e r . He i s one l i k e Antonio i n The Tempest who "made . . . a sinner of h i s memory, to c r e d i t h i s own l i e . " Whereas the other t r a n s g r e s s o r s are d i s t u r b e d by t h e i r past and concerned f o r t h e i r f u t u r e , Bulstrode t r i e s to sever h i s connec t i o n w i t h g u i l t and expects f u t u r e rewards. U n t i l the moment when h i s ugly past i s r e v e a l e d , B u l s t r o d e f e e l s none of the i n s e c u r i t y of the other t r a n s -g r e s s o r s . He manages to j u s t i f y to himself a complicated i n t r i g u e of l i e s and f i n a n c i a l f r a u d , by a l a t e r compensation through r e l i g i o u s z e a l . B u l strode i s not however a conscious 67 h y p o c r i t e i n the way that R a f f l e s i s . He sees h i m s e l f as an agent of God, and takes on the r o l e of judge. He f i r m l y b e l i e v e s h i s duty i s one of "sacred accountableness" (Ch. X I I I ) , and reforms h i s own l i f e i n accordance w i t h h i s own conception of m o r a l i t y . None of the other t r a n s g r e s s o r s have t h i s b l i n d n e s s to past g u i l t which one c r i t i c sees as 2 a "kind of innocence." Though Godfrey i s impelled by h i s past wrongdoing to make amends by becoming worthy of Nancy's l o v e , he i s u n l i k e B u l s t r o d e i n h i s l a c k of sense of s u p e r i o r i t y . B u l strode sees h i s compensatory a c t i v i t i e s as d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d v i r t u e s . He never t r u l y repents of h i s past because he i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y honest or humble. In h i s p r i d e , Bulstrode may be compared to Mrs Tran-some, but w h i l e she i s mainly concerned w i t h s o c i a l appear-ance and her son's censure, B u l s t r o d e ' s p r i d e i s s p i r i t u a l . I t i s t h i s that a l i e n a t e s him from o t h e r s . Only when a f u r t h e r treacherous act suggests i t s e l f to him does he become aware of h i s e s s e n t i a l humanity, f o r then there i s strange, p i t e o u s c o n f l i c t i n the soul of t h i s unhappy man, who had longed f o r years to be b e t t e r than he r e a l l y was -who had taken h i s s e l f i s h p a s s i o n s i n t o d i s c i p l i n e and c l a d them i n severe robes, so that he had walked w i t h them as a devout q u i r e , t i l l now . . . they . . . threw out common c r i e s f o r s a f e t y (Ch. LXX). The t r a n s g r e s s o r pays the p r i c e of h i s f a i l u r e to confess h i s wrongdoing, and i s cut o f f from sympathy. He Hardy, p. 183. 68 i s a l s o unable to make amends to the i n j u r e d one who i s u s u a l l y unable to f o r g i v e the i n j u r y . Thus Hetty's f o r -giveness i s dubious, while Harold, L a d i s l a w and Eppie f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t or imp o s s i b l e to show sympathy to the t r a n s -g r e s s o r who has f i r s t i n j u r e d them, and subsequently deceived them. Apart from p e r s o n a l r e j e c t i o n , a l l the t r a n s g r e s s o r s , except Godfrey, i n c u r s o c i a l condemnation. Mrs Transome v o l u n t a r i l y l e a v e s Transome Court, r e t u r n i n g o n l y f o r her f u n e r a l at which event "there was s i l e n c e about the p a s t " ( E p i l o g u e ) . P u b l i c o p i n i o n , as w e l l as t h e i r own sense of shame, f o r c e s Bulstrode and Arthur to leave s o c i e t y , and r e s i g n t h e i r s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s there i s some form of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n f o r the t r a n s g r e s s o r . He comes to rec o g n i s e the i n t e r -dependence of human beings, and l e a r n s to see h i m s e l f i n p e r s p e c t i v e . Sympathy from one who r e c o g n i s e s h i s human needs u s u a l l y accompanies t h i s new awareness. Although there can be no atonement, and the t r a n s g r e s s o r f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e s p u b l i c opprobrium and d i s d a i n from the i n j u r e d one, he i s not wholly o u t c a s t from human l o v e . So Adam and Arthur f i n a l l y shake hands and Arthur r e a l i s e s t h a t he "was a l l wrong from the f i r s t and h o r r i b l e wrong has come of i t " (Ch. X L V I I I ) . Godfrey does keep Nancy's lo v e and r e a l i s e s that although " i t i s too l a t e to mend some t h i n g s " (Ch. XX), he must r e s i g n h i m s e l f to h i s l o t . Mrs Transome f i n d s i n Est h e r one to "soothe her with a daughter's tendance" (Ch. L ) . The t r a n s g r e s s o r a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f from o t h e r s not on l y by h i s o r i g i n a l crime, but through h i s f a i l u r e to 69 t r u s t i n the love and understanding of o t h e r s . In a f u t i l e attempt to be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t he cuts h i m s e l f o f f from the warmth of human sympathy. He i s f o r c e d to deceive those whom he should t r u s t . So Arthur, Godfrey, B u l s t r o d e and Mrs Transome hide the t r u t h from Adam, Nancy, Mrs Bu l -strode and Harold r e s p e c t i v e l y . But whereas Bulstrode and Godfrey are subsequently redeemed through the grace of t h e i r wives' l o v e , Arthur and Mrs Transome are t r a g i c a l l y o u t c a s t not only from t h e i r s o c i e t y but a l s o from human brotherhood. Mrs Transome remains the most i s o l a t e d of the t r a n s g r e s s o r s s i n c e she i s almost i n c a p a b l e of the s e l f l e s s a c t . Whereas Arthur manages to o b t a i n Hetty's r e p r i e v e and e n t r e a t s Adam to use h i s i n f l u e n c e to persuade the Poysers to remain i n Hayslope, Mrs Transome s t i l l seeks a wealthy f u t u r e f o r her son as a way of atonement. Her f i n a l s u f f e r i n g , m i t i -gated somewhat by E s t h e r ' s p i t y , shows her to be impenitent and s e l f - p i t y i n g , concerned above a l l with the concealment of her wrongdoing. The t r a n s g r e s s o r comes to l e a r n p a i n f u l l y that he cannot order the u n i v e r s e a c c o r d i n g to h i s own d e s i r e s , and that n o t h i n g of v a l u e can be achieved without a concern f o r o t h e r s and a corresponding d i m i n u t i o n of the s e l f . For George E l i o t t here i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of p l a i n - d e a l i n g i n the p u b l i c sphere while at the same time one f a i l s to make sympathetic contact i n domestic r e l a t i o n s . J u s t as Lydgate t r e a t s h i s wife as a che r i s h e d p o s s e s s i o n , , an a t t r a c t i v e ornament, so Arthur i s condemned by Adam f o r 70 "making a p l a y t h i n g " of Hetty and " c a r i n g n o t h i n g about her as a man ought to c a r e " (Ch. XXX). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that n e i t h e r Bulstrode nor Arthur i s able to put h i s noble i d e a l s of p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n t o p r a c t i c e , f o r both have the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to see others p l a y i n g a p a r t i n a world ordered by themselves. CHAPTER FOUR THE TYRANT The t y r a n t shows onl y a r e s t r i c t e d sympathy f o r those who. he f e e l s are l a c k i n g i n f i r m r e s o l u t i o n and moral soundness. He i s l i k e the dreamer and the t r a n s -g r e s s o r i n h i s f a i l u r e to put himself i n another's p l a c e , but u n l i k e them i n that he has a c o n s i s t e n t moral standard by which he judges o t h e r s . I t i s the l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s standard that i s o l a t e s the t y r a n t from a f u l l awareness of o t h e r s ' needs. The t y r a n t i s t y p i f i e d by Tom T u l l i v e r who had a mind s t r o n g l y marked by the p o s i t i v e and negative q u a l i t i e s that c r e a t e s e v e r i t y - s t r e n g t h of w i l l , c onscious r e c t i t u d e of purpose, narrowness of i m a g i n a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t , great power of s e l f - c o n t r o l , and a d i s p o s i t i o n to exert c o n t r o l over others (MF. Bk. VI, Ch. X I I ) . The t y r a n t sees h i m s e l f as moral a r b i t e r i n the a f f a i r s of o t h e r s . So Adam condemns the workmen who throw down t h e i r t o o l s the moment t h e i r working day i s complete "as i f they took no p l e a s u r e i ' t h e i r work, and was a f r a i d o" doing a stroke too much" (Ch. I ) . Confident of h i s own r e c t i t u d e , and uncompromising i n h i s d e v o t i o n to duty, Adam f e e l s q u a l i f i e d to reprove the s l o v e n l y conduct of o t h e r s . We see the same need to c o n s t r a i n others i n Tom T u l l i v e r * s a t t i t u d e to h i s s i s t e r . Both Bulstrode and Casaubon f e e l they must judge t h e i r f e l l o w mortals i n the l i g h t of t h e i r own l i m i t e d standard of e x c e l l e n c e . Mayor Vin c y censures B u l s t r o d e ' s " t y r a n n i c a l s p i r i t , wanting to p l a y bishop and banker everywhere" (Ch. X I I I ) because of 71 72 h i s r e l u c t a n c e to say he knows no harm of Fred. Casaubon disapproves of Ladislaw's l a c k of v o c a t i o n even before h i s pe r s o n a l j e a l o u s y develops, and he discourages him from v i s i t i n g Lowick. Cognate with t h i s n e c e s s i t y to reprove o t h e r s i s the t y r a n t ' s almost t o t a l l a c k of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . He approves of h i s conduct so completely that he never c a l l s h i s own standards i n t o q u e s t i o n . So Adam, who i s honest and un-ashamed i n f o l l o w i n g the s t r a i g h t and narrow path of duty, sees h i m s e l f as a moral example to o t h e r s : " I f I undertake to do a b i t o' work, I ' l l do i t w e l l , be my pay b i g or l i t t l e . . . i t seems to me, t h a t ' s a man's p l a i n duty" (Ch. XXIV). Tom, a f t e r he has reproved Maggie f o r her n e g l e c t of h i s r a b b i t s , i s unable to see hi m s e l f i n her p l a c e as one n e g l i g e n t i n h i s duty, and he i n s i s t s that he never does f o r g e t h i s o b l i g a t i o n s (Bk. I, Ch. V ) . Buls t r o d e and Casaubon are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Tom and Adam i n the b a s i s of t h e i r tyranny. T h e i r need to stand i n judgement i s as much a compensation f o r t h e i r own deeply f e l t inadequacies as a consciousness of moral worth. Although "to p o i n t out other people's e r r o r s was a duty that Mr Bulstrode r a r e l y shrank from" (Ch. X I I I ) , he saw "a. v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e f l e c t i o n of himself i n the coarse u n f l a t t e r i n g m i r r o r " of Mr Vincy's mind. Casaubon hardens h i s a t t i t u d e to Dorothea when he sees her as "a c r u e l outward accuser" (Ch. XX) who threatens the c i t a d e l of h i s s c h o l a r s h i p . The t y r a n t f r e q u e n t l y f a i l s to take account of the 73 f e e l i n g s of ot h e r s i n h i s eagerness to promote h i s own scheme of p e r f e c t i o n . Adam has no p a t i e n c e w i t h a man who would bang a n a i l i n cro o k e d l y because he was not p a i d f o r i t . H is view of h i s own " p l a i n duty" and that of others such as Arthur i s very c l e a r , and t h i s prevents h i s sympa-t h i s i n g with those who f a i l to measure up to h i s own high i d e a l s . Tom, l i k e Adam, attempts to prove h i s own moral standards. He i s deaf to Maggie's p l e a s a f t e r her n e g l e c t of h i s r a b b i t s , and i n s e n s i t i v e to her " c r u s h i n g sense of misery" (Bk. I, Ch. V ) . His a t t i t u d e to P h i l i p Wakem and Maggie's l o v e f u r t h e r b r i n g s out h i s i n s e n s i t i v i t y . B u l s t r o d e and Casaubon too are unable to sympathise w i t h those whose views are opposed to t h e i r own. Casaubon disapproves of Ladislaw's j o u r n a l i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , and i s j e a l o u s of h i s i n f l u e n c e over Dorothea. Personal resentment d r i v e s him to p e r p e t r a t e a mean act of which Adam would have been i n c a p a b l e . Tom T u l l i v e r ' s hatred of P h i l i p Wakem has, however, some of the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of Casaubon's. A l l the t y r a n t s show a misplaced i d e a l i s m . They i d e n t i f y themselves with a cause which they f e e l to be great or noble, and attempt to c o n s t r a i n o t h e r s to subscr i b e to t hat cause. In t h i s d e v o t i o n to a cause they see them-s e l v e s as defenders of r i g h t a g a i n s t wrong, or t r u t h a g a i n s t e r r o r . In the cases of Bulstrode and Casaubon the noble cause has a f a r grea t e r degree of s e l f - i n t e r e s t than i t has wit h Tom or Adam. Both Bulstrode and Casaubon use t h e i r i d e a l s of s e r v i c e as a cover f o r t h e i r own i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s . B u l s t r o d e ' s d e l u s i o n goes as f a r as b l a t a n t h y p o c r i s y . Though both 74 c a r e f u l l y conceal from themselves t h e i r own f a l l i b i l i t y , P u l s t r o d e i s the more h y p o c r i t i c a l , f o r there i s a g r e a t e r gap between h i s preaching and h i s p r a c t i c e than between Casaubon's a s p i r a t i o n s and h i s f u t i l e s c h o l a r s h i p . In t h e i r own s c a l e of e x c e l l e n c e both men see themselves as pre-eminent, but Casaubon has s e c r e t f e a r s and s u s p i c i o n s about h i s work, whereas Bulstrode c a r e f u l l y conceals h i s g u i l t from others and h i m s e l f with a f r o n t of p i e t y . The t y r a n t shows great r e s o l u t i o n i n h i s p u r s u i t of e x c e l l e n c e . He has l i t t l e p a t i e n c e with those who are weaker, l e s s capable, or not i n c l i n e d to f o l l o w h i s own narrow path. So h i s r e l a t i o n s with those who do not share h i s own s t r e n g t h of w i l l , such as Maggie, Arthur, Fred or Ladislaw, are f r e q u e n t l y p r o s c r i p t i v e and unsympathetic. Tom and Adam show great p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h as w e l l as s t r e n g t h of purpose. Tom i s , however, u n l i k e Adam i n having the arrogance of one who knows h i s own s t r e n g t h p h y s i c a l l y and m o r a l l y . He overpowers Bob J a k i n a f t e r t h e i r q u a r r e l and t r e a t s him with contempt. H i s a t t i t u d e to P h i l i p i s one of hatred because he i s not only the son of h i s f a t h e r ' s enemy, but a l s o p h y s i c a l l y deformed. Adam de f e a t s h i s opponent but afterwards t r e a t s him i n a con-s i d e r a t e manner. We see the t y r a n t ' s a t t i t u d e of contempt f o r those he regards as weaker than hi m s e l f a l s o i n h i s treatment of women i n g e n e r a l . Adam p i t i e s P e t t y but does not c r i t i c i s e her. Tom and Casaubon have more than t h e i r share of the V i c t o r i a n male's assumption of sexual s u p e r i o r i t y . "Tom indeed was of the o p i n i o n that Maggie was a s i l l y l i t t l e 75 t h i n g ; a l l g i r l s were s i l l y . . . . S t i l l he was v e r y fond of h i s s i s t e r , and meant always to take care of her, make her h i s housekeeper, and punish her when she d i d wrong" (Bk. I, Ch. V ) . Casaubon sees i n Dorothea one who w i l l m i n i s t e r to h i s needs and c a r r y out the more menial tasks of s c h o l a r s h i p . In h i s zealous p u r s u i t of h i s own purpose, the t y r a n t tends to be unaware of the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s . He f r e q u e n t l y immerses himsel f i n h i s work r a t h e r than give sympathetic c o n s i d e r a t i o n to those who need i t . Adam has cause to r e g r e t that i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to avoid "speaking s o f t and l e t t i n g t h i n g s go the wrong way" (Ch. IV) he was too hard on h i s f a t h e r . Tom T u l l i v e r never repents of h i s s e v e r i t y to h i s s i s t e r and i n h i s concern f o r r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e r a t h e r than human treatment of the Wakerns he shows some of the i n f l e x i b i l i t y of an Old Testament l a w - g i v e r . Casaubon never r e a l l y understands h i s nephew Ladislaw, and i s as h o s t i l e to h i s p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s as he i s n e g a t i v e to Dorothea's scheme f o r b u i l d i n g c o t t a g e s . The t y r a n t not o n l y i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f from the c h e r i s h e d f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s , but he sees t h e i r f e e l i n g s as a form of s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e . So Adam, who i s the l e a s t d e f i c i e n t of the t y r a n t s i n h i s sympathy f o r o t h e r s , i s impatient w i t h h i s mother f o r her defence of her husband. He w i l l not acknowledge the good i n h i s f a t h e r , seeing merely that " there's a duty to be done by [his] f a t h e r , but i t i s n ' t >-[h i s j duty to encourage him i n running headlong to r u i n " x (Ch. IV). Tom T u l l i v e r c a l l s P h i l i p ' s d e c l a r a t i o n of 76 love f o r Maggie "high-flown nonsense" (Bk. V, Ch. V ) . Casaubon m i s i n t e r p r e t s L a d i s l a w 1 s f r i e n d s h i p f o r Dorothea i n the l i g h t of h i s own p r e j u d i c e s about h i s nephew. I t i s perhaps because of h i s own power of s e l f -c o n t r o l t h a t the t y r a n t i s s u s p i c i o u s of those whose i d e a l s and purposes are not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . Casaubon, devoted to h i s own s c h o l a r l y endeavour, sees h i s nephew as " a s s o c i a t e d at best w i t h the s c i o l i s m of l i t e r a r y or p o l i t i c a l a d v enturers" (Ch. XXXVII). Bulstrode disapproves s t r o n g l y , though perhaps r i g h t l y , of Fred's "expensive education which has succeeded i n nothi n g but i n g i v i n g him e x t r a -vagant i d l e h a b i t s . " Secure i n the b e l i e f of h i s own p u r p o s e f u l f i n a n c i a l d e a l i n g s , Bulstrode condemns " l a x moneylending" (Ch. X I I I ) . T h i s s u s p i c i o n i s extended p a r t i c u l a r l y to those whose natures are u n l i k e the t y r a n t ' s i n being more broad-minded and sympathetic. Tom i s s u s p i c i o u s of those who do not f i t i n t o h i s own c a t e g o r i e s : He had a vague n o t i o n that the de f o r m i t y of Wakem's son had some r e l a t i o n to the lawyer's r a s c a l i t y . . . and he f e l t , too, a h a l f - a d m i t t e d f e a r of him as probably a s p i t e f u l f e l l o w , who not being able to f i g h t you, had cunning ways of doing you a m i s c h i e f by the s l y (Bk. I I , Ch. I I I ) . Casaubon i s s u s p i c i o u s not onl y of Carp and Brasenose, but of La d i s l a w and Dorothea too. Bulstrode extends grudging f r i e n d s h i p to the Vi n c y ' s on the grounds of k i n -s h i p , but disapproves h e a r t i l y of the humane Mr F a r e b r o t h e r . There i s a strong element of P u r i t a n i c a l n e g a t i o n i n the m a j o r i t y of the t y r a n t s , and a l l b r i n g t h e i r 77 narrowness to bear i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s . Casaubon i s sadly aware that by feed i n g "too much on the inward sources" (Ch. II) he has cut h i m s e l f o f f from a normal h e a l t h y l i f e . Tom and Adam put hard work and duty before any form of p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n . Lydgate concludes that B u lstrode "had an eager inward l i f e w ith l i t t l e enjoyment of t a n g i b l e t h i n g s " (Ch. X I I I ) . I t i s Buls t r o d e , moreover, who sees Mr Farebrother as a w o r l d l y man "deeply p a i n f u l to contemplate" (Ch. X I I I ) , and he i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n h i s e x c l u s i o n from duty at the h o s p i t a l . A l l the t y r a n t s are adept at g i v i n g moral h o m i l i e s when t h e i r own sense of r i g h t has been f l o u t e d . Sandy Jim says to Adam with i r o n y "that's the best sarmunt I've heard t h i s long w h i l e " (Ch. I ) . Casaubon i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to i n h i s c l e r i c a l r o l e or as a • schoolmaster, while B u l -strode t u r n s h i s s c r u t i n i s i n g "moral l a n t e r n " (Ch, XIII) on a l l h i s v i s i t o r s , and cannot r e s i s t a l e c t u r e to h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w on the e r r o r of h i s ways. Tom's m a g i s t e r i a l a t t i t u d e i s f r e q u e n t l y apparent i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Maggie r e g a r d i n g her wrongdoing. The assumption of moral r i g h t e o u s n e s s , such as we see i n Adam's f a i l u r e to sympathise with h i s f a t h e r , and r e j e c t i o n of A r t h u r ' s f i r s t attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , f r e q u e n t l y d r i v e s the t y r a n t to de s t r o y r e l a t i o n s h i p s he sees as f a u l t y . So Tom f o r c e s Maggie and P h i l i p a p a r t , f u l l of s u s p i c i o n and l o a t h i n g f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p which he cannot begin to comprehend. In h i s heedless d i s r u p t i o n of t h e i r l o v e , Tom shows a l l the r u t h l e s s n e s s of a r b i t r a r y 78 power when i t deludes i t s e l f i t i s defending a noble cause. He responds to P h i l i p o n l y with t h r e a t s and r i d i c u l e : " I f you dare to make the l e a s t attempt to come near her, or w r i t e to her, or keep the s l i g h t e s t hold on her mind, your puny m i s e r a b l e body . . . s h a l l not p r o t e c t you. I ' l l t h r a s h you - I ' l l hold you up to p u b l i c scorn. Who wouldn't laugh at the i d e a of your t u r n i n g l o v e r to a f i n e g i r l ? " (Bk. V, Ch. V ) . Casaubon shows h i s power to de s t r o y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Dorothea and Lad i s l a w i n a l e s s crude manner. But he too f e e l s j u s t i f i e d i n f r u s t r a t i n g a f r i e n d s h i p that he f e e l s t h r e a t e n s h i s r e p u t a t i o n and i s not i n accord w i t h h i s ivay of l i f e . But Casaubon i s u n l i k e Adam or Tom i n h i s u n d e r l y i n g a n x i e t y f o r the merit of h i s own work, f o r h i s im m o r t a l i t y through the agency of s c h o l a r s h i p . Hence he attempts to o b t a i n h i s w i f e ' s promise to s i f t and p u b l i s h h i s work a f t e r h i s death. His s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s i s d i s -t i n g u i s h e d from Adam's or Tom's i n that i t i s an outgrowth of h i s own i n s e c u r i t y . He f e a r s f o r h i s p e r s o n a l honour i n a way that Tom and Adam never do. It. i s the i r o n y of f a t e that the c o d i c i l to h i s w i l l , by which he attempts to c o n t r o l the l i v i n g and v i n d i c a t e h i s l i f e , proves f u t i l e . By attempting to p r o h i b i t Dorothea's re-marriage h i s "e x o r b i t a n t : claims f o r himself had even b l i n d e d h i s scrupulous care f o r h i s own c h a r a c t e r and made him defeat h i s own p r i d e by shocking men of o r d i n a r y honour" (Ch. L ) . The f e a r behind Casaubon's p r o s c r i p t i v e measures towards Dorothea are not present i n the c i r c u m s c r i b e d moral 79 p h i l o s o p h y of Tom or Adam. He i s v u l n e r a b l e to the c r i t i c i s m of o t h e r s whereas they are not, f e e l i n g as they do that t h e i r own e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n i s impregnable. Casaubon's morbid p r e - o c c u p a t i o n with h i s own r e p u t a t i o n makes him u n j u s t l y s u s p i c i o u s of a l l who c o u l d p o s s i b l y doubt h i s pre-eminence as a s c h o l a r . Obsessed with h i s own "minor monumental p r o d u c t i o n s " (Ch. XXIX), he d e c l i n e s to allow L a d i s l a w to v i s i t h i s w i f e . Under the bland e x t e r i o r there i s a r u t h l e s s despot i n Casaubon; he i s wholly i n s e n s i t i v e to Dorothea's needs and while f e e l i n g t h at " t h i s woman was too young to be on the l e v e l of wifehood" (Ch. XXIX), makes of her, i n S i r James's words, a " h o r r i b l e s a c r i f i c e " (Ch. XXIX). The t y r a n t i s f r e q u e n t l y b l i n d to the r e a l nature of other people's f e e l i n g s . He judges them, i n the l i g h t of h i s own p r e j u d i c e s , by the l i k e l y r e s u l t s of t h e i r a c t i o n s r a t h e r than t h e i r good i n t e n t i o n s . So Casaubon f a i l s to see Ladislaw's r e a l reason f o r v i s i t i n g Dorothea. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r Adam to understand that Arthur can f e e l r i g h t l y yet act wrongly i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Hetty. Tom d e s p i s e s h i s s i s t e r ' s f e e l i n g s , and i s unconscious of any f a i l u r e to act as a f u l l y - r e s p o n s i v e human being: " I f your f e e l i n g s are so much b e t t e r than mine, l e t me see you show them i n some other way than by conduct t h a t ' s l i k e l y to d i s g r a c e us a l l . . . Pray, how have you shown your l o v e , that you t a l k o f , e i t h e r to me or my f a t h e r ? By d i s o b e y i n g and d e c e i v i n g us. I have a d i f f e r e n t way of showing my a f f e c t i o n " (Bk. V, Ch. V ) . Tom commands Maggie to submit to h i m s e l f , since he has power and can do something i n the world, whereas she can merely 80 f e e l . He f e e l s that Maggie's p a s s i o n s are i r r e l e v a n t to the important d e c i s i o n s that must be made. L i k e many of the other George E l i o t h e r o i n e s , Maggie s u f f e r s from the impotence of being a woman i n a world where men dominate. The need to censure o t h e r s i n both Adam and Tom i s accompanied by a corresponding i n a b i l i t y to c r i t i c i s e themselves. I t i s onl y at the end of the novel that Adam i s able to . see h i s own d e f i c i e n c i e s i n ju d g i n g too h a r s h l y : " I t ' s t r u e what you say, s i r : I'm hard - i t ' s i n my nature. I was too hard with my f a t h e r f o r doing wrong. I've been a b i t hard to everybody but her. . . . But f e e l i n g overmuch about her has perhaps made me u n f a i r to you. I've known what i t i s to repent and f e e l i t ' s too l a t e . . . I've no r i g h t to be hard towards them as have done wrong and repent" (Ch. X L V I I I ) . Adam responds to A r t h u r ' s appeal to stay on the e s t a t e and vows "to do my work w e l l , and make the world a b i t b e t t e r p l a c e f o r them as can enjoy i t " (Ch. X L V I I I ) . Adam i s r e c o n c i l e d to the person who has i n j u r e d him i n a way that Tom i s not. Adam v o l u n t a r i l y renounces h i s p o s i t i o n of moral s u p e r i o r i t y , and takes upon himsel f the burdens of the world, made more a l i v e as he i s to the needs of o t h e r s . In Tom's r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with Maggie there i s no i n c r e a s e of understanding, though t h e i r mutual need f o r each other i s r e c o g n i s e d . Mr Casaubon never r e c o g n i s e s h i s need f o r o t h e r s , u n l e s s i t i s i n the c a p a c i t y of a s c h o l a s t i c a s s i s t a n t or admirer. He shuts h i m s e l f o f f from what he regards as the t r i v i a l i t y of human concourse, seeing others only i n the l i g h t of t h e i r v a l u e as t o o l s to h i s own r e s e a r c h . He has 81 no o p i n i o n to o f f e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n between Mr Brooke and S i r James Chettan about land improvement, and h i s f i r s t speech shows him b u r i e d i n h i s own concerns: I have been u s i n g up my e y e s i g h t on o l d c h a r a c t e r s l a t e l y ; the f a c t i s , I want a reader f o r my evenings; but I am f a s t i d i o u s i n v o i c e s , and I cannot endure l i s t e n i n g to an imperfect reader. I t i s a m i s f o r t u n e , i n some senses: I feed too much on the inward sources; I l i v e too much with the dead (Ch. I I ) . Casaubon's need f o r human v i t a l i t y i s thus shown to be combined w i t h a demand f o r p e r f e c t i o n . He i s l i k e Tom T u l l i v e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t only, that he f a i l s to r e l a t e h i s high demands to the r e a l i t i e s of the human c o n d i t i o n , and does not temper them with sympathy. C e l i a suspects that Casaubon, l i k e " a l l learned men had a sort of schoolmaster's view of young people" (Ch. V ) . T h i s view i s not f a r r e -moved from the i n f l e x i b l e moral outlook of Tom and Adam, both of whom wish to enforce t h e i r s t r i c t u r e s upon o t h e r s . To Dorothea, however, Casaubon r e p r e s e n t s the a u t h o r i t y of s c h o l a r s h i p , enshrined i n such noble f i g u r e s as Hooker and Locke, under which she i s d e l i g h t e d to serve. But Casaubon i s o n l y capable of t r e a t i n g h i s chosen wife as an admiring s l a v e , f o r he b e l i e v e s "the great charm of [her] sex i s i t s c a p a b i l i t y of an ardent s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g a f f e c t i o n , and h e r e i n we see i t s f i t n e s s to round and complete the e x i s t e n c e of our own" (Ch. V ) . Mr Casaubon's p u r s u i t i s as s o l i t a r y and i s o l a t i n g as that of S i l a s Marner, but u n l i k e S i l a s , Mr Casaubon needs a devotee to g i v e him love and sympathy. Marner i s a b l e to t r a n s f e r h i s p a s s i o n f o r g o l d i n t o a genuine love 82 of Eppie, but Casaubon 1s s c h o l a r l y ardour cannot be t r a n s -f e r r e d to any human being. In f a c t " i t has once or twice crossed h i s mind that p o s s i b l y there was some d e f i c i e n c y i n Dorothea to account f o r the moderation o f h i s abandon-ment" (Ch. V I I ) . He never conceives the p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s own d e f i c i e n c y , f o r t h i s i s a r e v e l a t i o n vouchsafed o n l y to those who enter i n t o t rue r e l a t i o n s h i p . Casaubon i s i n c a p a b l e of an equal p a r t n e r s h i p , f o r he needs to be assured of h i s pre-eminence. Although George E l i o t takes p a i n s to show the madness of p a s s i o n a t e l o v e , and a s s o c i a t e s i t w i t h the i n t o x i c a t i n g e f f e c t s of romantic music, she i s e q u a l l y dubious of the m e r i t s of the bookworm, Casaubon., who " i s not fond of the p i a n o " though he had an o l d h a r p s i -chord at Lowick, covered with books (Ch. V I I ) . Casaubon looks upon h i s marriage as an a n t i d o t e to the r i g o u r of h i s s t u d i e s . Dorothea i s to complete the w i f e l y f u n c t i o n of a s s i s t i n g him i n h i s l a b o u r s and comforting him when he i s f a t i g u e d . But Casaubon f i n d s no d e l i g h t i n the world of marriage which e n t a i l s g i v i n g as w e l l as r e c e i v i n g l o v e . Seeing Dorothea as a reward granted him f o r h i s years of s e l f - d e n i a l , he f i n d s "that though he had won a l o v e l y and noble-hearted g i r l he had not won d e l i g h t " (Ch. X ) . H i s dark l i f e , where "he walked taper i n hand" (Ch. X) and to which he expects Dorothea to b r i n g l i g h t and comfort, i s a world apart i n which there can be no human c o n t a c t . Casaubon, imprisoned i n the world of h i s own s c h o l a r s h i p , f i n d s i n marriage "a weary experience i n which he was as u t t e r l y condemned to l o n e l i n e s s as i n the 83 d e s p a i r which sometimes threatened him while t o i l i n g i n the morass of a u t h o r s h i p " (Ch. X ) . He s h r i n k s from Dorothea's sympathy, being only at ease when she i s s u i t a b l y d i s t a n t from h i s l a b o u r s , and thus hindered from any p o s s i b l e p r y i n g or c r i t i c i s m . L i k e a l l the t y r a n t - e g o i s t s , Casaubon needs to f e e l he i s beyond the reach of c r i t i c i s m , and r e l i e s on Dorothea's "young t r u s t and v e n e r a t i o n . . . as a means of encouragement to h i m s e l f " (Ch. X ) . Dorothea stands i n p l a c e of "that c h i l l i n g i d e a l audience which crowded h i s l a b o r i o u s u n c r e a t i v e hours with the vaporous p r e s s u r e of T a r t a r e a n shades" (Ch. X ) . Casaubon needs Dorothea, not f o r what she can g i v e him i n terms of human enrichment, but as a f u n c t i o n a r y who w i l l administer to h i s t i r e d hours and r e v i v e h i s s p i r i t s by applause. He f i n d s i n f a c t that human t i e s impede h i s work. The impersonal q u a l i t y of Casaubon i s shown by h i s care to a l l o w no note of p e r s o n a l enthusiasm to i n f l u e n c e h i s o p i n i o n of Raphael's f r e s c o e s . He speaks i n "a measured o f f i c i a l tone, as of a clergyman r e a d i n g a c c o r d i n g to the r u b r i c , " and shows "a mind i n which years f u l l of knowledge seem to have i s s u e d i n a blank absence of i n t e r e s t or sympathy" (Ch. XX). H i d i n g behind an o f f i c i a l impersonal f r o n t , Casaubon shows to Dorothea o n l y a c o l d deference as to a devout s l a v e . But l i k e the pedagogue he i s , Casaubon i s h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e to any waning i n the enthusiasm of h i s p u p i l whom he f i n d s "capable of a g i t a t i n g him c r u e l l y j u s t where he most needed soo t h i n g " (Ch. XX)* Casaubon's tyranny, l i k e Tom's, seeks to c o n s t r a i n 84 another to act i n a manner preconceived by h i m s e l f . Casaubon's p r e - o c c u p a t i o n with h i s own r e p u t a t i o n as a s c h o l a r i s as great as Tom* s obse s s i o n w i t h redeeming the f a m i l y ' s r e p u t a t i o n and revenging the wrongs done to h i s f a t h e r . Casaubon senses a c r i t i c and a r i v a l f o r Dorothea's regard i n Ladislaw. He t h e r e f o r e f o r b i d s Dorothea to communicate with the only person with whom she has a genuine understanding. H i s tyranny i n t h i s matter i s comparable to Tom's r e f u s a l to allow Maggie to see P h i l i p . Both, t y r a n t s seek to r e s t r i c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , because i t c o n f l i c t s with t h e i r own e g o t i s t i c a l l y warped i d e a l s . Both Tom and Casaubon accept the love of others as t h e i r due, but are themselves b a s i c a l l y u n l o v i n g . Tom has a c h i l d -l i k e a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s s i s t e r which vanishes w i t h the years, and hardens i n t o a s t e r n l y r e p r e s s i v e g u a r d i a n s h i p . Casaubon i s seen by Ladislaw as a monster who i n c a r c e r a t e s h i s w i f e " i n that stone p r i s o n at Lowick" where she i s " b u r i e d a l i v e " (Ch. X X I I ) . I t i s a p p o s i t e to note here that Casaubon "always s a i d 'my l o v e , ' when h i s manner was the c o l d e s t " (Ch. X X I I ) . Casaubon has more of the grandiose d e l u s i o n s of the dreamer than e i t h e r Tom or Adam, but he i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the dreamer i n that he needs o t h e r s to share h i s extravagant c r a v i n g f o r r e p u t a t i o n . Behind the mask of the l e a r n e d man there i s a p a t h e t i c human being t r y i n g v a i n l y to f i n d c o n t a c t , but the medium of s c h o l a r s h i p he has chosen i s one which can support no l i f e . George E l i o t remarks that "doubtless some an c i e n t Greek has observed 85 that behind the b i g mask and the speaking-trumpet, there must always be our poor l i t t l e eyes peeping as u s u a l and our timorous l i p s more or l e s s under anxious c o n t r o l " (Ch. XXIX). The p r i d e and the strong d e s i r e f o r independence which the t y r a n t f e e l s to be h i s s t r e n g t h are shown by George E l i o t to be h i s c h i e f weakness. Tom denies Maggie the chance to meet P h i l i p , and Casaubon f o r b i d s L a d i s l a w access to Lowick Manor and t r i e s to f o r c e him to l e a v e the d i s t r i c t . Adam's p r i d e i n h i s own s k i l l and r e c t i t u d e causes him to deny love to h i s f a t h e r . It i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the strong man to f e e l f o r the weak man u n t i l he i s made aware of h i s own weaknesses and p r e j u d i c e s . Casaubon and Tom never l e a r n these as does Adam, and thus they remain r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The t y r a n t appears strong by h i s v e r y negation, but i t i s by i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the need of o t h e r s f o r freedom from a r b i t r a r y c o n t r o l that he becomes d e c i s i v e i n purpose and r i g i d l y t e n a c i o u s i n h i s deeds. George E l i o t i s g r e a t l y concerned w i t h the s e l f - e x c l u s i v e nature and i r r a t i o n a l b i a s of the mind " s t r o n g l y marked by the p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s that c r e a t e s e v e r i t y " (MF. Bk. VI, Ch. X I I ) . Tyranny i n the novels not only r e p l a c e s l o v e , but f r e q u e n t l y becomes a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see how t h i s i s t r u e f o r c h a r a c t e r s other than those we have been c o n s i d e r i n g i n d e t a i l . The o n l y human warmth Peter Featherstone r e c o g n i s e s i s that a s s o c i a t e d with money: "A warm man was Waule. Ay, ay; money's a good 86 egg, and i f you've got money to leave behind you l a y i t i n a warm n e s t " ( M . , Ch. X I I ) . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e that he f i n d s h i s own "warm n e s t " not i n the f l o r i d V incy f a m i l y but i n the uncommunicative " f r o g f a c e d " Joshua Rigg. Featherstone, who in d u l g e s i n h i s own form of p e t t y tyranny, shows no a p p r e c i a t i o n or love even f o r the d i s -i n t e r e s t e d Mary Garth who serves him so c o n s i d e r a t e l y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Gwendolen and Grandcourt, i n D a n i e l Deronda, i s as s t e r i l e as Casaubon's with Dorothea, and l e s s capable of redemption through l o v e . Gwendolen's marriage "was a c o n t r a c t where a l l the o s t e n s i b l e advantages were on her side . . . and she had not married . . . out of l o v e " (Ch. L1V). In t h i s case the r i v a l r y f o r power prevents any p o s s i b i l i t y of l o v e , and both p a r t n e r s attempt to prove they are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and deny t h e i r need f o r dependence. Gwendolen i n e f f e c t s e l l s her-s e l f i n t o s l a v e r y , and Grandcourt f e e l s " s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l e a d i n g h i s wife c a p t i v e " (Ch. LI V ) . As Bernard P a r i s p o i n t s out, Gwendolen's sexual f r i g i d i t y i s an e x p r e s s i o n of her d e s i r e f o r mastery and her u n w i l l i n g n e s s to g i v e anything of h e r s e l f to another.''" The need of the t y r a n t to c o n t r o l the l i v e s of o t h e r s , to have them perform a c t i o n s that conform to h i s own overpowering c o n t r o l , r e s u l t s i n h i s t r e a t i n g them i n a l e s s than human way. There are elements of t h i s d e s i r e to make others p l a y a p a r t conceived by the s e l f i n many Bernard P a r i s , Experiments i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s  Quest f o r Values ( D e t r o i t : Wayne State Univ. Press, 1965), p. 234. 87 other c h a r a c t e r s who do not conform to the general p a t t e r n of the t y r a n t . T h i s e g o t i s t i c view of ot h e r s i s f r e q u e n t l y apparent i n the a t t i t u d e of men towards women i n g e n e r a l . There i s a f a i l u r e to re c o g n i s e the value of p e r s o n a l i t y i n Lydgate's c o n t i n u a l emphasis on Rosamond's p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . He senses danger and i s b a f f l e d by Dorothea's ardour, and chooses a wife i n s t e a d who has "small f e e t and p e r f e c t l y turned shoulders . . . e x q u i s i t e curves of l i p and e y e l i d " (Ch. XVI). Although before marriage Rosamond i s r e p e a t e d l y compared i n Lydgate's mind to a flower;, by the end of Middlemarch she has become h i s " b a s i l p l a n t " ( F i n a l e ) . T h i s d e n i a l of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , seen more s t r i k i n g l y i n the a t t i t u d e of Harold Transome to h i s mother and Tom T u l l i v e r to Maggie, i s n o t i c e d too i n the a t t i t u d e s of Hetty and Rosamond towards men. Hetty l i k e d to f e e l that t h i s strong, s k i l l f u l , keen eyed man was i n her power, and would have been i n d i g n a n t i f he had shown the l e a s t sign of s l i p p i n g from under the yoke of her c o q u e t t i s h tyranny . . . She f e l t n o t h i n g when h i s eyes r e s t e d on her, but the c o l d triumph of knowing that he loved her (Ch. X I I I ) . There i s here, too, something of Esther Lyon's d e l i g h t i n the admiration of a s u i t o r f o r whom she has no r e a l a f f e c t i o n . Rosamond s e c r e t l y p l a n s her marriage to Lydgate and her c a l c u l a t i o n "had a shaping a c t i v i t y and looked through w a t c h f u l blue eyes, whereas Lydgate's l a y b l i n d and unconcerned as a j e l l y - f i s h which gets melted without knowing i t " (Ch. XXVIII). T h i s d e s i r e to use others f o r ends of one's own, seen b l a t a n t l y i n Harold Transome's ' t r e a t i n g ' of the Sproxton miners, r e s u l t s i n a spurious 88 r e l a t i o n s h i p , which has no human value to e i t h e r the power-seeker or h i s v i c t i m . The i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n of the t y r a n t makes him appear impregnable to the i n f l u e n c e of human sympathy. I t would seem that j u s t as he i s i n h i b i t e d from showing lo v e so he i s a l s o i n c a p a b l e of r e c e i v i n g i t . The triumph of Adam Bede i s perhaps h i s a b i l i t y to see the n e c e s s i t y of l o v i n g both s a i n t and s i n n e r . He l e a r n s to shed h i s mantle of moral tyranny, f i r s t when he r e a l i s e s , through h i s own s u f f e r i n g , that he has f a i l e d to love h i s f a t h e r s u f f i c i e n t l y , and f i n a l l y when he re c o g n i s e s h i s i n j u s t i c e to A r t h u r . I t seems that a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e s u f f e r i n g i s r e q u i r e d before the t y r a n t i s expanded to the s c a l e of a human being. Casaubon, B u l s t r o d e , Tom and Harold Transome have t h e i r moments of human contact a f t e r a p e r i o d of s u f f e r i n g , but they are unable to achieve a p a s s i o n a t e a f f e c t i o n f o r another, and so remain fragmented c r e a t u r e s . A l l four are capable of mean ac t s to t h e i r f e l l o w s , and a l l show some degree of s p i t e towards those who t h r e a t e n t h e i r c i t a d e l , from which human sympathy appears as weakness. The more the s t r e n g t h of the t y r a n t ' s f o r t r e s s i s threatened the more i r r a t i o n a l and p e t t y he becomes i n h i s defence. So Mrs Transome, who having f a i l e d to love r e t r e a t s i n t o a p o s i t i o n where she can i s s u e a r b i t r a r y commands, found the o p i a t e f o r her d i s c o n t e n t i n the e x e r t i o n of her w i l l about smaller t h i n g s . . . l i k e d every l i t t l e s i g n of power her l o t had l e f t her. She l i k e d t h a t a tenant should stand bare headed below her as she sat on horse-back . . . to i n s i s t that work done without her orders should be undone . . . to be curtseyed and bowed to (Ch. I ) . 89 Those who attempt to t h r i v e by conquest are always defeated, or remain o u t s i d e r s . T h e i r r o l e s cut them o f f from communion with t h e i r f e l l o w s , and t h e i r attempt to thwart the happy r e l a t i o n s h i p of ot h e r s i s u s u a l l y unsuccess-f u l . The f a t e of Grandcourt i s consequently as i n accord with the demands of Nemesis as i s the f a t e of the more m e l o d r a m a t i c a l l y conceived t y r a n t - v i l l a i n s Dunstaiii Cass and R a f f l e s . With these, as wit' 1 a l l the other f i g u r e s we have c o n s i d e r e d , except p o s s i b l y Adam, the need to w i e l d a u t h o r i t y over another i s a compensation f o r the poverty of t h e i r own emotional l i f e . Casaubon and Feather stone have l o n e l y unlamented deaths, while Bulstrode i s f o r c e d to leave the s o c i e t y he has deceived. Harold Transome i s balked i n hi s attempts to g a i n power and Es t h e r ' s l o v e . Tom gains the r e s p e c t of h i s community, but i n h i s r e t u r n to sympathetic union with h i s s i s t e r t here i s a strong s u s p i c i o n of a u t h o r i a l connivance. Of a l l the t y r a n t f i g u r e s we have c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s only Adam Bede who i s transformed through sympathetic endurance, and made to f e e l the n e c e s s i t y and v i r t u e of r e p a r a t i o n f o r past mistakes. Adam comes to r e a l i s e that there i s no moral e x c e l l e n c e i n strengt h alone, and that i t must be informed with sympathy. He does i n e f f e c t only g a i n h i s f u l l s t a t u s as a human being when he swallows h i s p r i d e , and renounces h i s power to punish A r t h u r by l e a v i n g the community: "God f o r b i d I should make t h i n g s worse f o r you. I used to wish I c o u l d do i t , i n my p a s s i o n - but that was when I thought you d i d n ' t f e e l enough. I ' l l stay s i r , I ' l l do the best I can. I t ' s a l l I've got to t h i n k of now - to do my work w e l l , and make the world a b i t b e t t e r p l a c e f o r them as can enjoy i t " (Ch. XLVITI). CHAPTER FIVE THE IDEALIST The i d e a l i s t i s cut o f f from h i s f e l l o w s not by an absence of sympathy but by a f a i l u r e to take f u l l account of r e a l i t y . He f r e q u e n t l y has an o v e r - o p t i m i s t i c view of h i s own power to redeem o t h e r s , and i n h i s own z e a l f a i l s to take account of human l i m i t a t i o n s . He i s u n l i k e the other i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s we have co n s i d e r e d s i n c e he i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the good of o t h e r s . H i s f a i l u r e to b r i n g out the best i n h i m s e l f , due to flaws i n h i s own nature or that of s o c i e t y , b r i n g s about tragedy i n the cases of Lydgate and Maggie. Both are con-cerned with the welfare of o t h e r s , but j e o p a r d i s e t h e i r i d e a l s by a f a t a l l a p s e i n t o a s e l f i s h p a s s i o n . The i d e a l i s t s we are mainly concerned with here, however, manage to f i n d s o c i a l e q u i l i b r i u m . Dinah M o r r i s , Rufus Lyon, Dorothea Brooke, and F e l i x Holt c o n s i s t e n t l y put others before themselves, but are e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r a l t r u i s m o n l y by a p a r t i a l compromise of t h e i r i d e a l s . They a l l undergo the process of d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r own and o t h e r s ' l i m i t a t i o n s . U n t i l t h i s process i s complete they remain cut o f f from human r e a l i t i e s , and onl y p a r t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r s t r i v i n g . The i d e a l i s t s are concerned e i t h e r with the s p i r i t u a l good of o t h e r s or t h e i r m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e . Both the r e l i g i o u s and the s o c i a l i d e a l i s t have to compromise with human r e a l i t y . Dorothea f i n d s she i s u n l i k e St. Theresa i n that she does not l i v e i n an age when f a i t h wrought m i r a c l e s . 90 91 Dinah has to accept that not a l l share her r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r and f a i t h i n d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n . The i d e a l i s t i s d i f f e r e n t from the other i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s i n the degree of sympathy George E l i o t extends towards him. Though there i s o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l e i r o n y i n her tone, she i s more sympathetic than c r i t i c a l towards the i d e a l i s t . George E l i o t i s very conscious of the l i m i -t a t i o n s of those who l a c k the necessary w o r l d l y experience f o r the e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r nobly conceived schemes, but she a l s o shares some of the yearnings of her i d e a l i s t s f o r a widening awareness. There i s more than a l i t t l e c onscious i r o n y i n her treatment of Dinah M o r r i s and Rufus Lyon, but t h e i r human sympathies are never c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . The i r o n y i s d i r e c t e d at t h e i r p a r t i a l b l i n d n e s s to r e a l i t i e s which are sometimes overlooked i n the i d e a l i s t s 1 r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r . Dorothea i s comparable to Lyon i n the naive enthusiasm w i t h which she attempts to r e a l i s e her i d e a l s as w e l l as i n her symbolic myopia. Both Dorothea and Dinah p r o j e c t t h e i r own p e r s o n a l v i s i o n of the t r u t h and f a i l to d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r v i s i o n from the o b j e c t i v e f a c t . In the l i m i t a t i o n of t h e i r judgements r e g a r d i n g Hetty and Casaubon they are thus obvious t a r g e t s f o r the humorous, and r e a l i s t i c comment of the author. The detachment of Rufus Lyon and Dinah M o r r i s from the world of a c t u a l i t y shows i t s e l f as much i n t h e i r p r e -d i l e c t i o n f o r pedantic language as i n George E l i o t ' s d i r e c t comment. She p o r t r a y s these r a t h e r p r i g g i s h D i s s e n t e r s as 92 human and l o v a b l e people whose aim i s to extend sympathy to the d i s t r e s s e d , r a t h e r than f o l l o w the s e l f - c e n t r e d d o x o l o g i e s of a Mr Tyke or B u l s t r o d e . In her p o r t r a y a l of Seth Bede and Dinah M o r r i s , George E l i o t i s o b v i o u s l y attempting to overthrow a contemporary p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t the E v a n g e l i c a l Movement: " I t i s too p o s s i b l e that to some of my readers Methodism may mean no t h i n g more than low-p i t c h e d gables up dingy s t r e e t s , s l e e k g r o c e r s , sponging preachers and h y p o c r i t i c a l j a r g o n " (Ch. I I I ) . T h i s , however, i s more suggestive of B u l s t r o d e 1 s p r a c t i c e of h i s r e l i g i o n than of Seth and Dinah, who were Methodists not "of that modern type which reads q u a r t e r l y reviews and attends i n chapels with p i l l a r e d p o r t i c o e s , " but " b e l i e v e d i n present m i r a c l e s , i n instantaneous c o n v e r s i o n s , i n r e v e l a t i o n s by dreams and v i s i o n s " (Ch. I I I ) . The enthusiasm of Seth and Dinah, though u n t a i n t e d by h y p o c r i s y , does not always provoke sympathy, and o c c a s i o n a l l y shows a l a c k of contact w i t h the mundane nature of o t h e r s . George E l i o t sums up the p o s i t i o n of Seth and Dinah by saying " i t i s p o s s i b l e , thank Heaven!! to have v e r y erroneous t h e o r i e s and very sublime f e e l i n g s " (Ch. I I I ) . Although Dinah's sermon moves many of the v i l l a g e r s to t e a r s , the permanent e f f e c t of her preaching on them i s d o u b t f u l . Dinah i s absent from the harvest supper (Ch. L I I I ) where her presence would have i n h i b i t e d the merry-making. Seth and Dinah are worthy members of the human race not because of t h e i r emphasis on the v i r t u e of l i v i n g a 93 l i f e consonant with the Gospels, but because of t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r love and sympathy with the sorrows of o t h e r s . So Seth, having had h i s s u i t of marriage r e j e c t e d i n s t e a d of b u r s t i n g out i n t o w i l d a c c u s i n g apostrophes to God and d e s t i n y . . . i s r e s o l v i n g , as he now walks homeward under the solemn s t a r l i g h t , to r e p r e s s h i s sadness, to be l e s s bent on having h i s own w i l l , and to l i v e more for o t h e r s , as Dinah does (Ch. I I I ) . But while Seth l e a r n s to want n o t h i n g f o r h i m s e l f , and to l i v e more f o r o t h e r s , Dinah has to l e a r n t hat she cannot l e a d an e n t i r e l y s e l f l e s s l i f e , and s t i l l m a i n t a i n her e q u i l i b r i u m as a human being. L i k e Dorothea, she has to renounce her ardour f o r the improvement of her f e l l o w s and accept her own human needs. Whether i t be a r a t i o n a l -i s a t i o n of these needs, or a profound response to d i v i n e prompting, u l t i m a t e l y Dinah has to admit to Adam: "My soul i s so k n i t to yours that i t i s but a d i v i d e d l i f e I l i v e without you" (Ch. L I V ) . Dinah's removal from r e a l i t i e s i s emphasised by the f r a g i l e or e t h e r e a l q u a l i t y others f i n d i n her. Adam's mother compares Dinah's face to the "snowdrop f l o w e r s " (Ch. X I ) , wh i l e Adam hi m s e l f sees her as a l i l y (Ch. X I ) . A f t e r her v i s i t to Hetty d u r i n g the l a t t e r ' s imaginary drama i n her bedroom, we see her "covered with her long white d r e s s , her p a l e face f u l l of subdued emotion, almost l i k e a l o v e l y corpse i n t o which the soul has r e t u r n e d " (Ch. XV). Though Dinah's e x c e s s i v e s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n i s not to be compared to B u l s t r o d e ' s abstemiousness of d i e t , and her own s e l f - d e p r i v a t i o n i n no way i n h i b i t s her i m a g i n a t i v e 94 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s u f f e r i n g s of ot h e r s , she i s at times removed from the a b i l i t y to see people r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Although Dinah has h e r s e l f the q u a l i t y of s e l f l e s s n e s s not seen i n the Methodist brickmaker, who "had undertaken . . . f~his] hard task with the s i n g l e eye to the nourishment of h i s s o u l " (Ch. XXI), she has too o p t i m i s t i c a view of o t h e r s . She i s unaware that Hetty's c o o l a t t i t u d e to Adam i n d i c a t e s her wish not to marry him. Furthermore Dinah mistakes Hetty's t e r r o r , when her f u t u r e s u f f e r i n g s are p r o g n o s t i c a t e d , f o r a genuine r e l i g i o u s prompting: "Dinah had never seen Hetty a f f e c t e d i n t h i s way before, and with her benignant hopefulness she t r u s t e d i t was the s t i r r i n g of a d i v i n e impulse. She k i s s e d the sobbing t h i n g , and began to c r y with her f o r g r a t e f u l j o y " (Ch. XV). Despite a l l the d e v o t i o n a l appeals to Hetty, Dinah, the one who i s s a i d to have a "key to unlock h e a r t s , " i s unable to b r i n g her to a r e a l i s a t i o n of her duty to o t h e r s , and the need to f o r g i v e A r t h u r . Dinah's misconception of Het t y ' s nature i s f u r t h e r borne out when the two embrace i n f i r s t meeting i n the p r i s o n . While Hetty looks to Dinah as a l a s t hope of rescue, "Dinah f e l t a deep j o y i n the f i r s t s i g n that her love was welcomed" (Ch. XLV). The i s o l a t i o n of the i d e a l i s t from the r e a l i t i e s of human nature i s t y p i f i e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Dinah and Hetty, who c o n s t a n t l y f a i l to communicate. While Dinah i s unable to conceive of a person with no promptings towards a n o b l e r e x i s t e n c e , Hetty i s powerless to escape from her own e g o c e n t r i c view of the world. 95 George E l i o t sums up the p o s i t i o n thus: I t i s our h a b i t to say that while the lower nature can never understand the h i g h e r , the higher nature commands a complete view of the lower. But I t h i n k the higher nature has to l e a r n t h i s comprehension as we l e a r n the a r t of v i s i o n , by a-good d e a l of hard experience, o f t e n with b r u i s e s and gashes i n c u r r e d i n t a k i n g t h i n g s up by the wrong end, and f a n c y i n g our space wider than i t i s (Ch. XV). T h i s "hard experience" f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e s the i d e a l i s t i n s u f f e r i n g and he l e a r n s "the a r t of v i s i o n " o n l y by a p a r t i a l compromise w i t h h i s i d e a l s . Dinah f e e l s t o r n between her love f o r Adam and her C h r i s t i a n duty; she sees her " e a r t h l y a f f e c t i o n " as "a great temptation" that she must " s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t " (Ch. L I I ) . She r e s o l v e s her c o n f l i c t by g i v i n g up her i d e a l s of s e r v i c e and marrying Adam. In the same way Dorothea s u f f e r s f o r her erroneous v i s i o n of Casaubon, and has to accept, i n marriage, a l i f e l e s s e x a l t e d than her i d e a l . F e l i x H o l t , too, s u f f e r s i n being imprisoned and r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c censure, but he r e t a i n s h i s i d e a l s which are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by common sense and r e a l i s m . N e v e r t h e l e s s both F e l i x and Lyon leave Treby Magna, where the i n s i d i o u s "Mr Johnson continued blond and s u f f i c i e n t l y prosperous, t i l l he got gray and r a t h e r more prosperous" ( E p i l o g u e ) . Though t h e i r i d e a l s are not compromised, both F e l i x and Lyon are f o r c e d to p r a c t i s e them elsewhere. We see the i d e a l i s t ' s l i m i t a t i o n of v i s i o n and h i s consequent f a i l u r e to r e l a t e to r e a l i t y i n Lyon's a b s t r a c t i o n from the world. He seems b l i n d to the o p i n i o n s of o t h e r s and f r e q u e n t l y o v erlooks e s s e n t i a l matters such as h i s 96 s p e c t a c l e s before the p u b l i c debate. The scorn of the w o r l d l y f a l l s on Lyon as i t does on Dinah and Dorothea, who are c o n s i d e r e d somewhat r i d i c u l o u s by Mrs Poyser and C e l i a r e s p e c t i v e l y . Lyon, who i s hooted a f t e r by the f r e e -s c h o o l boys, i s "too s h o r t s i g h t e d to n o t i c e those who t i t t e r e d at him - too absent from the world of small f a c t s and p e t t y impulses" (Ch. I V ) . Rufus Lyon shares with F e l i x and Dorothea a contempt f o r p u r e l y world p o s s e s s i o n s . Though he does not, l i k e Dinah M o r r i s , avow a l i f e devoted to poverty, h i s a f f i n i t i e s to her are e v i d e n t . Lyon g i v e s up h i s v o c a t i o n where he was "the admired p a s t o r of a l a r g e Independent congregation i n one of our southern seaport towns" (Ch. V I ) , to marry a p e n n i l e s s widow and undertake to support her daughter. Dorothea, who u n t i l she i s l e f t a f o r t u n e has to be content w i t h r e f u s i n g her mother's j e w e l l e r y , " l i k e s g i v i n g up" (Ch. I I ) . T h i s l a c k of normal human a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s causes the i d e a l i s t to be suspected by the ambitious or p l e a s u r e l o v i n g . So Lyon's g i f t s are admired by the "wise D i s s e n t i n g matrons" of Treby, but they f e e l "a poor m i n i s t e r must be below the s u b s t a n t i a l householders who kept him" (Ch. V I ) . S i r James Chettam f a i l s to understand e i t h e r of Dorothea's marriages s i n c e the f i r s t i s as devoid of amorous p r o s p e c t s as the second i s of f i n a n c i a l advantage. Through h i s outgoing sympathies the i d e a l i s t comes to know l o v e , but has to s a c r i f i c e some p a r t of h i s i d e a l s i n order to m a i n t a i n l o v e . Dinah g i v e s up her preaching, submitting to the demands of the Wesleyan conference, and 97 Rufus, too, puts domestic happiness before matters of mere d o c t r i n e , though he s u f f e r s c o n t i n u a l l y i n h i s cons c i e n c e f o r i t . The P u r i t a n i d e a l i s so deeply implanted i n Rufus Lyon that he f e e l s g u i l t i n renouncing the dogma of h i s church f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of human emotions. His s t r u g g l e i s s i m i l a r to Dinah's, but when he chose the world "he knew that he had f a l l e n and h i s world had f o r g o t t e n him, or shook t h e i r heads at h i s memory" (Ch. V I ) . Although he i s rewarded by E s t h e r ' s love when he d i s c l o s e s to her the s e c r e t of her b i r t h , Lyon never f o r g e t s that he once s a c r i f i c e d h i s i d e a l s to h i s own p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t i n showing l o v e to Annette. J u s t as the other i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s are sl a v e s to t h e i r own s e l f i s h p a s s i o n s , so the i d e a l i s t cuts h i m s e l f o f f from normal l i f e by h i s de v o t i o n to duty. He f r e q u e n t l y t r i e s to subdue p a s s i o n and torments h i m s e l f because of a supposed f a i l u r e to c a r r y out h i s n o b l e s t o b l i g a t i o n s . We have seen t h i s i n the case of Dinah, and w i l l see i t as a p p l i e d to Dorothea and Maggie. Rufus Lyon never f o r g e t s t h a t the p a s s i o n f o r t h i s woman, which he f e l t to have drawn him as i d e from the r i g h t as much as i f he had broken the most solemn vows . . . f o r a being who had no glimpse of h i s thoughts induced a more thorough r e n u n c i a t i o n than he had ever known (Ch. V I ) . In t h i s case the l i m i t a t i o n s of Lyon's i d e a l s are apparent to the reader, but not to Lyon h i m s e l f , whose pe r v e r s e conscience enslaves him to a p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l model of p e r f e c t i o n . George E l i o t ' s a t t i t u d e to Lyon's c o n f l i c t 98 between the s p i r i t u a l i d e a l and the human need i s shown by her d e p i c t i o n of the way i n which Lyon attempts to salve h i s c o nscience by an open debate with P h i l i p Debarry. Lyon r e g r e t s deeply h i s "lapse i n t o t r a n s g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t an o b j e c t s t i l l regarded as supreme." He f e e l s he has "gone a s t r a y a f t e r h i s own d e s i r e s , and |~hasj l e t the f i r e d i e out on the a l t a r " (Ch. XV). Mr Lyon e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e s the debate i n which Debarry's deputy d e f a u l t s as "a great p u b l i c o p p o r t u n i t y which to him was e q u i v a l e n t to a command" (Ch. XV). The egoism behind Mr Lyon's z e a l to d i s p l a y " t r u t h " and e x h i b i t " e r r o r " i s manifest' i n h i s l e t t e r to Mr Debarry, and i s emphasised by George E l i o t ' s subsequent comment: " A f t e r w r i t i n g t h i s l e t t e r , the good Rufus f e l t t h a t s e r e n i t y and e l e v a t i o n of mind which i s i n f a l l i b l y brought by a p r e - o c c u p a t i o n with the wider r e l a t i o n s of t h i n g s " (Ch. XV). Mr. Lyon not o n l y f e e l s a need to atone f o r the past "lapse i n t o t r a n s g r e s s i o n " of h i s " r e b e l l i o u s d e s i r e s , " but by i n d u l g i n g i n t h i s r a t h e r t r i v i a l c o n t e s t , deludes h i m s e l f that he i s God's advocate i n the war a g a i n s t f a l s e h o o d . H i s view of him s e l f as one g i f t e d to w i e l d " i l l u m i n a t e d thought, f i n e l y d i v i d e d speech . . . the c h o i c e r weapons of the D i v i n e armoury" (Ch. XV) i n e v i t a b l y reminds us of B u l s t r o d e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events a c c o r d i n g to the s c r i p t u r e s so that they favoured h i m s e l f . Though Mr Lyon c o u l d never be accused, as B u l s t r o d e i s by V i n c y , of " t h i s t y r a n n i c a l s p i r i t , wanting to p l a y bishop and banker everywhere" (M. Ch. X I I I ) , h i s p e r s o n a l b i a s 99 i s e vident i n h i s view of the debate, i n which he i s to be the key f i g u r e , as "a heavenly i n d i c a t i o n " (Ch. XV). Lyon i s shown to be cut o f f from normal human v i s i o n , and although he shows great compassion and understanding, h i s r e l i g i o u s b i a s leaves him f r e q u e n t l y at a l o s s when faced with a s i t u a t i o n i n everyday l i f e where d i v i n e guidance i s not forthcoming. In the novel the "heavenly i n d i c a t i o n " of Mr Lyon i s given l i t t l e more credence than o l d Mr H o l t ' s " l e a d i n g s . " When faced with the human pro-blem of t e l l i n g E s t h e r the t r u t h r e g a r d i n g her own parentage, Rufus Lyon d e l a y s g i v i n g tbe knowledge. Confronted with Maurice C h r i s t i a n who i s p o s s i b l y E s t h e r ' s n a t u r a l f a t h e r , Lyon again f i n d s he i s " o b l i g e d to admit to h i m s e l f that the members of h i s church, with whom he hoped to go to heaven, were not easy to converse with on earth touching the deeper s e c r e t s of h i s experience" (Ch. XV). As so o f t e n i n the no v e l s , f a i l u r e of v i s i o n and f a i l u r e of communication are u n i t e d i n i s o l a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l from r e a l i t y . Dinah, because of the nature of her r e l i g i o u s z e a l , m i s i n t e r p r e t s Hetty's r e a c t i o n s , and Rufus Lyon f e e l s the need f o r a frame of r e f e r e n c e o u t s i d e that which he p r e v i o u s l y f e l t to be u l t i m a t e t r u t h . "For the f i r s t time i n h i s l i f e i t oc c u r r e d to the m i n i s t e r that he should be g l a d of an a d v i s e r who had more w o r l d l y than s p i r i t u a l e x p e rience" (Ch. XV). Mr Lyon i s shown to have a myopic view of present r e a l i t i e s , but a broad v i s i o n of e t e r n a l v e r i t i e s . Maurice C h r i s t i a n , whose c a l c u l a t i o n s t h r e a t e n to undermine Lyon's present s e c u r i t y , amazes him by appearing as a s e l f - c o n f i d e n t 100 and d i s t i n g u i s h e d gentleman. Mr Lyon "nervously puts on h i s s p e c t a c l e s to survey t h i s man." Lyon f o r g e t s h i s b r e a k f a s t and n e g l e c t s h i s appearance i n h i s z e a l to a r r i v e at the t r u t h through the medium of argument. "Mr Lyon, l i k e o t h ers who are h a b i t u a l l y occupied with impersonal s u b j e c t s , was l i a b l e to ... . i m p u l s i v e . . . a c t i o n . He snatched at the d e t a i l s of l i f e as i f they were d a r t i n g past him" (Ch. XVI), F e l i x H o l t abounds with " c o o l , hard-eyed, w o r l d l y " men l i k e C h r i s t i a n (Ch. XV), and Mr Lyon i s t h e i r a n t i t h e s i s . But George E l i o t i n s i s t s that the b r i n g i n g of "so much conscience to bear on the p r o d u c t i o n of so s l i g h t an e f f e c t " (Ch. XVI) i s not the c r i p p l i n g l i m i t a t i o n i t appears. Though stumbling, at times b l i n d l y , i n an attempt to d i s c o v e r the nature of a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e , Mr Lyon s u b s c r i b e s to i d e a l s that have been consecrated by time: For what we c a l l i l l u s i o n s are o f t e n , i n t r u t h , a wider v i s i o n of past and present r e a l i t i e s - a w i l l i n g movement of a man's soul w i t h the l a r g e r sweep of the world's f o r c e s -a movement towards a more assured end than the chances of a s i n g l e l i f e (Ch. XVI). Mr Lyon i n many ways transcends the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t are shown to be c u r r e n t among the i d e a l s of the D i s s e n t e r s . He i n c u r s the censure of h i s f e l l o w - c l e r g y f o r h i s use of F e l i x ' s name i n a sermon, and the more i n f l u e n t i a l hearers were of the o p i n i o n , that i n a man who had so many long sentences at command as Mr Lyon . . . t h i s naked use of a n o n - s c r i p t u r a l Treby name i n an address to the Almighty was a l l the more o f f e n s i v e (Ch.XXXVII). The need to detach the s c r i p t u r e s from the world of r e a l i t y causes the D i s s e n t e r s to remove m o r a l i t y to the s p i r i t u a l sphere, and not to inform t h e i r i d e a l s by constant 101 r e f e r e n c e to the human l o t . Although Rufus Lyon i s a r e l i g i o u s devotee who at times shows h i m s e l f a v i s i o n a r y , he has an ardent concern with the m o r a l i t y of human conduct i n such spheres as medicine and p o l i t i c s . We have remarked a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y of egoism i n Lyon's conduct, and i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l guidance, but he i s never i s o l a t e d f o r long from the common weal. Aware of E s t h e r ' s d e s i r e to l i v e at Transome Court, Mr Lyon a c q u i e s c e s , and i t i s he who arranged f o r Esther to pay the v i s i t to F e l i x i n p r i s o n which f i n a l l y shows her where her d e s t i n y l i e s . In h i s ob s e s s i o n with s c h o l a r s h i p , Mr Lyon does at times almost v i e with Casaubon, s i t t i n g as he does surrounded by books. But i n h i s a t t i t u d e to E s t h e r , and h i s p a r t i n her u p b r i n g i n g and f i n a l marriage, he i s f a r removed from the 'Lowick C i c e r o . ' Though "absorbed i n mastering a l l those p a i n s t a k i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the Book of D a n i e l , which are by t h i s time w e l l gone to the limbo of mistaken c r i t i c i s m " (Ch. X L I ) , on the appearance of h i s c h i l d he^i exclaims, '"Ah, my beloved c h i l d " ' . . . u p s e t t i n g a p i l e of books, and thus u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y making a breach i n h i s w a l l , through which Esther could get up to him and k i s s him" (Ch. X L I ) . The a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r of s c h o l a r s h i p i s thus seen to be no impediment to normal human c o n t a c t , and Lyon's i s o l a t i o n i s always informed by human sympathy. The i d e a l s of Dorothea Brooke are s o c i a l r a t h e r than r e l i g i o u s . She i s concerned with doing p r a c t i c a l good t o her neighbour r a t h e r than t e a c h i n g him to l i v e r i g h t e o u s l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s she has c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s t r a i t s that Dinah and 1 0 2 Lyon share. She i s , at l e a s t a c c o r d i n g to C e l i a and S i r James Chettam "given to s e l f m o r t i f i c a t i o n " (Ch. I I ) . We see from her a t t i t u d e to her mother's j e w e l l e r y and her d e t e r m i n a t i o n to renounce h o r s e - r i d i n g t h a t , i n C e l i a ' s words, "she l i k e s g i v i n g up" (Ch. I I ) . George E l i o t f r e q u e n t l y compares her to St. Theresa, although her z e a l does not take a s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s form, and her s a c r i -f i c e i s not v e r y dramatic, c o n s i s t i n g i n the su b j u g a t i o n of p l e a s u r e i n order to serve a s t e r i l e s c h o l a r s h i p . The St. Theresa p a r a l l e l that i s drawn i n Middlemarch makes i t p l a i n that Dorothea's i d e a l s and zealous nature have o n l y a v e r y l i m i t e d r e l e v a n c e to the age i n which she l i v e s . She i s one of the " l a t e r - b o r n Theresas" whose " s p i r i t u a l grandeur i s i l l - m a t c h e d with the meanness of o p p o r t u n i t y " ( P r e l u d e ) , In her noble a s p i r a t i o n s f o r human good Dorothea shows a naive optimism s i m i l a r to Dinah's, but u n l i k e Dinah, who works i n a s o c i e t y which i s s u s c e p t i b l e to her enthusiasm, Dorothea i s "helped by no coherent s o c i a l f a i t h and order which could perform the f u n c t i o n of know-ledge f o r the a r d e n t l y w i l l i n g s o u l " ( P r e l u d e ) . Her i d e a l -ism i s too absolute f o r the "imperfect s o c i a l s t a t e " i n which she l i v e s . Dorothea's need to escape from her l i m i t e d environment i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n b r i n g i n g about her f a t a l misjudgement of Casaubon. Dorothea i s l i k e Rufus Lyon, not only i n her p h y s i c a l s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s , but a l s o i n the l i m i t a t i o n of her r e a l i s t i c v i s i o n . Lyon i s a b s t r a c t e d from the m efl.ee and s t r i f e which t y p i f i e d the l i v e s of those devoid of s p i r i t u a l substance 103 i n Treby Magna. He and Dorothea are a l i k e i n t h e i r con-c e r n not f o r the mere e x t e r n a l appearance but f o r the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y that they f e e l to l i e behind i t . Dorothea does not remark on Casaubon's r e p u l s i v e e x t e r i o r but d i s c o v e r s what she b e l i e v e s to be h i s great s o u l . But Dorothea's i d e a l s are immediate and p r a c t i c a l , and whereas Lyon i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with h i s i n f l u e n c e on the s o u l s of o t h e r s , Dorothea needs to give them a c t i v e h e l p . Since she i s a woman, however, she i s f r u s t r a t e d from the s t a r t . Per i d e a l s f o r b u i l d i n g c o t t a g e s are c o n s i d e r e d fads by her s i s t e r , and enco\iraged by S i r James mainly as a means of forwarding h i s u n d e s i r e d s u i t . Whereas Lyon through h i s i n f l u e n c e on F e l i x i s able to see some t r a n s f e r of h i s i d e a l s i n t o p r a c t i c e , Dorothea d e s p a i r s of ever being able to "do anything nobly C h r i s t i a n , l i v i n g among people w i t h such p e t t y thoughts" (Ch. I V ) . Dorothea's r e l i g i o u s q u a l i t y i s emphasised throughout Middlemarch. Her P u r i t a n i c a l d i s l i k e of the merely orna-mental i s comparable to the simple d r e s s i n g of Dinah, or the c a r e l e s s appearance of Lyon. We are t o l d i n i t i a l l y t h a t her "poor d r e s s " i s comparable to that of the Blessed V i r g i n , and her " p l a i n garments . . . gave her the impress-i v e n e s s of a f i n e quotation from the B i b l e " ( C h . I ) . In her marriage to Casaubon she i s compared to a neophyte of a new r e l i g i o u s order, and the a r t i s t Naumann p a i n t s her as Santa C l a r a (Ch. X X I I ) . In her own way Dorothea i s s a i n t , devotee and s a v i o u r , but she i s unable, d e s p i t e a l l her r e n u n c i a t i o n s 104 of h o r s e - r i d i n g , puppy dogs, j e w e l l e r y and cameos, to f i n d genuine r e l i g i o u s experience. Her i d e a l s are out of key with her time, and i t i s i n s p i t e of them r a t h e r than because of them that her l i f e j u s t i f i e s i t s e l f . She p e r -forms no great works and makes only a misguided s a c r i f i c e i n her marriage to Casaubon, but "the e f f e c t of her being on those around her was i n c a l c u l a b l y d i f f u s i v e " ( F i n a l e ) . There i s an e f f u s i v e q u a l i t y i n her enthusiasm f o r o b j e c t s f e l t to have r e l i g i o u s meaning. J u s t as she e x u l t e d over her v i s i t to the great organ so does she f i n d a sacred meaning i n the beauty of her mother's gems: " I t i s strange how deeply the c o l o u r s seem to p e n e t r a t e one, l i k e scent. I suppose that i s the reason why gems are used as s p i r i t u a l emblems i n the R e v e l a t i o n of St. John. They look l i k e fragments of heaven" (Ch. I ) . Dorothea puts on her mother's r i n g and b r a c e l e t and " a l l the while her thought was t r y i n g to j u s t i f y her d e l i g h t i n the c o l o u r s by merging them i n her. mystic r e l i g i o u s j o y " (Ch. I ) . Dorothea, l i k e Maggie T u l l i v e r i n her pious a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r the i d e a l s of Thomas a Kempis, i s seen here making an u n s u c c e s s f u l b i d f o r r e l i g i o u s experience, from which her age i s p r e c l u d e d . The i d e a l i s t who even p a r t i a l l y captures the con-s e c r a t e d f a i t h of the past i s shown to be cut o f f from the v i t a l world around him to some degree. The i n d i v i d u a l such as Dorothea or Maggie i s capable e i t h e r of merely token r e n u n c i a t i o n s which are at best i n e f f i c a c i o u s , or of misguided attempts at martyrdom. Dorothea's g i v i n g up of some of her mother's jewels and her f r u i t l e s s marriage 105 bear out the f a c t that she i s a " S a i n t Theresa, foundress of n o t h i n g , whose l o v i n g h e a r t - b e a t s and sobs a f t e r an unobtainable goodness . . . are d i s p e r s e d among hindrances, i n s t e a d of c e n t e r i n g i n some l o n g - r e c o g n i s a b l e deed" ( P r e l u d e ) . Dorothea, u n l i k e Dinah, seeks to serve a human a u t h o r i t y . Her s p i r i t u a l hunger causes her to endow the r a t h e r o r d i n a r y and p e d e s t r i a n s c h o l a r Casaubon with e x a l t e d q u a l i t i e s . Dorothea i s prepared f o r ardent s e r v i c e of the most menial kind so long as i t accords with her i d e a l s of duty. She sees marriage as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v o t i o n to a cause which i s noble and s e l f l e s s , and she has no con-c e p t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s a genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p . She r e t a i n e d very c h i l d l i k e i d e a l s about marriage. She f e l t sure that she would have accepted the j u d i c i o u s Hooker . . . or John M i l t o n when h i s b l i n d n e s s came on; rsr any other great men whose odd h a b i t s i t would have been g l o r i o u s p i e t y to endure (Ch. I ) . Her simple innocence c o n t r a s t s with the more w o r l d l y dreams of Rosamond Vincy who has no n o t i o n of the need f o r knowledge and s e r v i c e , and would have been s c o r n f u l of Dorothea's idea of "the r e a l l y d e l i g h t f u l marriage" as one "where your husband was a s o r t of f a t h e r , and could teach you even Hebrew, i f you wished i t " . ( C h . I ) . Casaubon i s thus seen by Dorothea as a f a t h e r - f i g u r e i n v e s t e d w i t h d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y . Dorothea i s r e l a t e d to the day-dreaming heroines i n that she has an i d e a l of what she wants, and bends her c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y to conform w i t h that i d e a l . Once again people are not seen t r u l y f o r what they are, but f o r what the viewer would l i k e them to be. Dinah's 106 m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Hetty's t e a r s i s an app o s i t e p a r a l l e l to the s i t u a t i o n here. Dorothea has the same reforming z e a l that i s seen i n Dinah, but she i s opposed to her i n that she seeks to break out of her narrow environment and o b t a i n a nob l e r e x i s t e n c e f o r . h e r s e l f . Her s e r v i c e i s thus l e s s d i s i n t e r e s t e d , f o r her " e x a l t e d enthusiasm about the ends of l i f e i s an enthusiasm which was l i t c h i e f l y by i t s own f i r e " (Ch. I l l ) , Dorothea's i d e a l s about the ends of marriage do not i n c l u d e "the n i c e t i e s of the trousseau [_or] the p a t t e r n of p l a t e " but they have t h e i r own p e c u l i a r brand of e g o i s t i c v a n i t y . In her view of the f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f and Casaubon, she i s unable to v i s u a l i s e c l e a r l y Casaubon's r o l e and h i s needs. She sees him not as an o r d i n a r y c r e a t u r e but as a Locke, a M i l t o n , a Pa s c a l or i n her more devout moods as "a winged messenger [who| had suddenly stood beside her path and hel d out h i s hand towards her" (Ch. I I I ) . Casaubon i s , i n f a c t , i n Dorothea's view, her means of escape from the t r i v i a l round of domestic i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r o v i n c i a l meddling. Dorothea shuns the narrow l o c a l world of " v i l l a g e c h a r i t i e s , patronage of the humbler c l e r g y , the p e r u s a l of Female S c r i p t u r e C h a r a c t e r s " (Ch. I I I ) . The i r o n y of Dorothea's i d e a l i s m i s that i t removes her from "a s o c i a l l i f e which seemed nothin g but a l a b y r i n t h of p e t t y courses, a w a l l e d - i n maze of small paths that l e d no whither" (Ch. I l l ) , and abandons her i n the even more fru s t r a t i n g learned maze of Casaubon's s c h o l a r s h i p . . L i k e Maggie, Dorothea sheds one i n e f f e c t i v e way of 107 l i f e f o r another which proves e q u a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e . Both i d e a l i s t s are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by an ardent d e s i r e to escape the thwarting i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r environment, c a s t o f f the c o n s t r i c t i n g r o l e inherent i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n as women, and f i n d s a l v a t i o n by s e l f - s u r r e n d e r to a cause that i s romantic or noble. Cut o f f from any e n r i c h i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , both misjudge the nature of t h e i r s u i t o r s , and see them i n a d i s t o r t e d way because of the very nature of t h e i r own l i m i t e d background. Dorothea and Maggie are both seen as deprived of a rewarding education, and t h e i r y e a r n i n g f o r a r i c h e r f u l l e r l i f e m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e i r r a t h e r hazy i d e a l i s m . They have perhaps too much sympathy fo r the Casaubons and Stephens of t h i s world, and a corresponding d e f i c i e n c y i n the power of assessment of t h e i r q u a l i t i e s . There i s a strange e x a l t a t i o n "In poor Maggie's h i g h l y - s t r u n g , hungry nature - j u s t come away from a t h i r d - r a t e schoolroom, with a l l i t s j a r r i n g sounds and p e t t y round of t a s k s " f o r "she f e l t the half-remote presence of a world of love and beauty and d e l i g h t " (Bk. VI, Ch. I I I ) . The more a l t r u i s t i c Dorothea shows a more i n t e l l e c t u a l hunger "not to be s a t i s -f i e d by g i r l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n comoarable to the n i b b l i n g s and judgments of a d i s c u r s i v e mouse" (Ch. I I I ) . Dorothea i s v e r y aware of the p e t t i n e s s and h y p o c r i s y that surround her, and i s much more o b j e c t i v e i n her i d e a l s than Maggie. But she does not r e a l l y c o n s i d e r the g u l f between i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n and p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y . The same haziness seen i n Maggie's i d e a l of a "half-remote 108 presence" can be d i s c e r n e d i n Dorothea's r e a l i s a t i o n of "the i n d e f i n i t e n e s s that hung i n her mind, l i k e a t h i c k summer haze" (Ch. I l l ) , but Dorothea imagines that she has p e n e t r a t e d t h i s o b s c u r i t y with the l i g h t of her i d e a l . I t i s worthy of note that the miasma that envelops Maggie i s i n f a c t p a r t of her v i s i o n of "the h a l f remote presence of a world of love and beauty," whereas Dorothea's i d e a l i s m breaks through the i n d e f i n i t e f e e l i n g of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . There i s a p r e c i s e and determined q u a l i t y apparent i n Dorothea's mental p i c t u r e of the i d e a l l i f e she i s to lead with Casaubon. T h i s q u a l i t y i s never found i n the r a t h e r vague f a n c i e s of Maggie, who i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with images of d r i f t i n g and l a c k of c o n t r o l over her own d e s t i n y . The w i l l i n g submission of Dorothea takes the form of sub-s e r v i e n c e "to a guide who would take her along the grandest p a t h " (Ch. I I I ) . Dorothea conceives of a l i f e of s u p e r l a t i v e v i r t u e i n which two people are u n i t e d i n a grand i d e a l : "I should l e a r n e v e r y t h i n g then. . .... .... I t would be my duty to study that I might help him the b e t t e r i n h i s great works. There would be nothing t r i v i a l about our l i v e s . Everyday t h i n g s with us would mean the g r e a t e s t t h i n g s . I t would be l i k e marrying F a s c a l . I should l e a r n to see the t r u t h by the same l i g h t as great men . . . I should see how i t was p o s s i b l e to l e a d a grand l i f e here - now - i n England" (Ch. I I I ) . Dorothea's search f o r an i d e a l to which she can devote her l i f e i s perhaps more grounded i n a c t u a l i t y than the author's r e f e r e n c e to Sinbad (Ch. I l l ) suggests. She a c t u a l l y p l a n s to b u i l d good c o t t a g e s and d i s c u s s e s them with the l a n d l o r d , and she r e p e a t e d l y attempts to make her 109 husband see the r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s work. Her f a i l u r e i s due not to the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of her " n o t i o n s " but to the s t r e n g t h of her own ardour f o r knowledge and s o c i a l s e r v i c e , and her corresponding b l i n d n e s s to the weakness of these d r i v e s i n o t h e r s . The great gap between b e l i e f and knowledge i s r e v e a l e d when, a f t e r Casaubon's s t i l t e d and e g o c e n t r i c speech r e c o g n i s i n g the engagement, "Dorothea's f a i t h s u p p l i e d a l l that Mr Casaubon's words seemed to leave u n s a i d " (Ch. V). Thus although Dorothea's i d e a l s have no t h i n g of the f a i r y t a l e q u a l i t y seen i n Maggie's, or H e t t y ' s , or Rosamond's, yet the a p p l i c a t i o n of them to the r e a l world shows a d e f i c i e n c y of mundane experience. For " s i g n s are small measurable t h i n g s , but i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are i l l i m i t a b l e , and i n g i r l s of sweet, ardent nature, every s i g n i s apt to conjure up wonder, hope, b e l i e f , v a s t as a sky, and c o l o u r e d by a d i f f u s e d t h i m b l e f u l of matter i n the shape of knowledge" (Ch. I I ) . The f a i l u r e of r e a l i t y to measure up to e x p e c t a t i o n s r e s u l t s i n a sense of disenchantment f o r a l l the day dreaming h e r o i n e s , and t h i s f e e l i n g of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t comes e a r l y to Dorothea a f t e r her marriage. The dangers of "knowing l i t t l e and b e l i e v i n g much" (Ch. XX) become; obvious to Dorothea who comes to r e a l i s e t h ? t "the l a r g e v i s t a s and wide f r e s h a i r which she had dreamed of f i n d i n g i n her husband's mind were r e p l a c e d by ante-rooms and winding passages which seemed to l e a d nowhither" (Ch. XX). When the u n r e a l image of Casaubon i s s h a t t e r e d f o r Dorothea, and she comes to see her husband as a l i m i t e d human being w i t h i n f l a t e d ambitions f o r h i s work, she i s able to b r i n g 110 him the comfort and sympathy that he needs. Dorothea i s e x c e p t i o n a l among the i d e a l i s t s i n that she seeks a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of her i d e a l , and sees Casaubon as an o r a c l e . Her need f o r a guru i s s i m i l a r to that of Maggie, who i n her need to escape the s o r d i d and dreary environment of her own home, dreamed that "she would go to some great man - Walter S c o t t , perhaps - and t e l l him how wretched and how c l e v e r she was, and he would s u r e l y do something f o r her" (Bk. TV, Ch. I I I ) . F e l i x H o l t i s u n l i k e the other i d e a l i s t s s i n c e he does not seek an i n c a r n a t i o n of h i s i d e a l s i n any one person or d i v i n e law. He i s u n l i k e ^orothea, too, i n that h i s t h e o r i e s of d e v o t i o n to the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s have a l e s s p e r s o n a l b i a s . Dorothea sought " f o r a b i n d i n g theory which c o u l d b r i n g her own l i f e and d o c t r i n e i n t o s t r i c t connection w i t h that amazing p a s t , and give the remotest sources of knowledge some bearing on her a c t i o n s " (Ch. X ) . F e l i x does not seek for t h e o r i e s but bases h i s i d e a l s on p r a c t i c a l experience and c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n of conduct. He r e j e c t s the c h i c a n e r y of making a l i v i n g by quack medicine and turns i n s t e a d to the humble trade of c l o c k - r e p a i r i n g . F e l i x i s r i g h t l y s u s p i c i o u s of p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s , and seeks to show the miners that they might do b e t t e r than spend a l l t h e i r wages on beer. He r e a l i s e s that " t i l l they can show t h e r e ' s something they love b e t t e r than s w i l l i n g themselves with a l e , extension of s u f f r a g e can never mean anything f o r them but extension of boozing" (Ch. X I ) . There i s a pragmatic c a s t to F e l i x ' s attachment to the common weal, and he d e c l a r e s "one must begin somewhere; I ' l l I l l begin at what i s under my nose. I ' l l begin at Sproxton" (Ch. X I ) . F e l i x has a more r e a l i s t i c assessment of human p o t e n t i a l than the other i d e a l i s t s . He i s more t o l e r a n t of h i s p r a t t l i n g s u p e r s t i t i o u s mother than Dorothea i s of her m e n t a l l y wavering but sympathetic u n c l e . She i s impatient with the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of those who f a i l to measure up to her i d e a l s , whereas F e l i x accepts the weakness of human nature as he f i n d s i t . The flaws i n Dorothea's i d e a l i s m s p r i n g from i t s a b s t r a c t c o n s t i t u t i o n s , based as i t i s on ardent wishes and b e l i e f s and not on p r a c t i c a l knowledge. In h i s d i s i n t e r e s t e d care f o r o t h e r s the i d e a l i s t i n c u r s the s u s p i c i o n of the community. In the same way that Dorothea i s alone i n her r e f u s a l to e n t e r t a i n the idea of Lydgate's c o m p l i c i t y i n B u l s t r o d e ' s delinquency, so i s F e l i x i s o l a t e d i n h i s adherence to an a l t r u i s t i c l i n e of conduct i n d i v e r t i n g the drunken r i o t e r s . The obvious d i f f e r e n c e i s that Dorothea's i s merely a sympathetic and not a p r a c t i c a l involvement with what she deems to be r i g h t . The uncompromisingly u p r i g h t and honest man i s i n e v i t a b l y an o u t s i d e r i n h i s community, and can f i n d common ground wi t h the mass of h i s f e l l o w s o n l y by l e a d i n g t h e i r l i f e and sympathising with t h e i r weaknesses. F e l i x and Dorothea are cut o f f from the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e l i g i o u s c ontact with o t h e r s , but they both renounce wealth and seek to lead a l i f e of human p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F e l i x remarks to E s t h e r , apropos of h i s v o c a t i o n , that "women, u n l e s s they are S a i n t Theresas or E l i z a b e t h F r y s , g e n e r a l l y t h i n k t h i s s o r t of t h i n g madness, u n l e s s . . . they read of i t i n the B i b l e " 112 (Ch. XXVII). In a n o n - r e l i g i o u s age, a d i s i n t e r e s t e d endeavour to serve o t h e r s w i l l , i t seems, i n e v i t a b l y be regarded as f o l l y by the w o r l d l y . F e l i x i s condemned by the m a j o r i t y of h i s community because he i s suspected of being an u n d i s c i p l i n e d a g i t a t o r w i t h subversive i n t e n t i o n s towards the s t a t u s quo of c l a s s p r i v i l e g e . Though h i s i d e a l s are f i r m l y based i n a c t u a l i t y , F e l i x has some of the i d e a l i s t ' s u n j u s t i f i e d optimism i n h i s f e l l o w men. F e l i x ' s m i s c a l c u l a t i o n of the extravagance of the p a s s i o n s of the r i o t e r s p l a c e s h i s i d e a l s and .reputation i n jeopardy. H i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y here may be compared with Dinah's view of Hetty's repentance and Dorothea's d e l u s i o n s about Casaubon. Two o p p o s i t e p o l e s of George E l i o t ' s i d e a l of r e l i g i o u s humanism are represented by F e l i x H o l t and D a n i e l Deronda. Both seek to make t h e i r l i v e s s i g n i f i c a n t by s e r v i n g others but F e l i x accepts the l i m i t e d d e s t i n y of improving t h e i r s o c i a l l o t , while Deronda seeks to draw them together by an awareness of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n . The t r u e r e l i g i o u s sense i s not f e l t by the s o c i a l - r e a l i s t F e l i x ; h i s v o c a t i o n i s one of s o c i a l s e r v i c e : I w i l l never be r i c h . I don't count that as any p e c u l i a r v i r t u e , . . . I have no f e l l o w - f e e l i n g with the r i c h as a c l a s s ; the h a b i t s of t'^eir l i v e s are odious to me. Thousands of men have wedded poverty because they expect to go to heaven f o r i t . . . whatever the hopes f o r the world may be - whether great or small - I am a man of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n ; I w i l l t r y to make l i f e b e t t e r f o r a few w i t h i n my reach (Ch. XXVII). But l i k e the other i d e a l i s t s we have d e a l t w i t h , F e l i x i s f i n a l l y f o r c e d to cornoromise. The w o r l d l y 113 community of Treby i s not the p l a c e where F e l i x f i n a l l y p uts h i s i d e a l s i n t o p r a c t i c e . L i k e Lyon he leaves the d i s t r i c t . F e l i x a l s o renounces h i s vow of c h a s t i t y (Ch. V) and m a r r i e s E s t h e r . F e l i x i s u n l i k e the other i d e a l i s t s i n that he f e e l s no need to j u s t i f y h i s good deeds by r e f e r e n c e to a past age or a r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e . Dorothea, Dinah M o r r i s and Lyon are conscious of the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n behind t h e i r i d e a l s , and they seek to communicate t h i s to o t h e r s . But though F e l i x i s not concerned with e t e r n a l v e r i t i e s , he has i n common with the other i d e a l i s t s a s e l f l e s s d e s i r e to serve. F e l i x seeks to make men more aware of others and l e s s concerned f o r themselves, and h i s d o c t r i n e of s e l f -l e s s n e s s has much i n common with C h r i s t i a n p r a c t i c e . D a n i e l Deronda combines r e l i g i o u s z e a l with a noble p r a c t i c a l purpose. He i s u n l i k e the other i d e a l i s t s i n that he f i n d s h i s f i n a l p l a c e i n s o c i e t y not by m o d i f y i n g h i s i d e a l s , but by d i s c o v e r i n g h i s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y which shows him where h i s duty l i e s . He i s a combination of s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i d e a l i s t seeking to "awaken a movement i n other minds, such as has been awakened i n my own" (Ch. LXIX). Gwendolen comes to r e c o g n i s e i n t h i s move-ment "the awful face of duty . . . a r e l i g i o n . . . which i s something e l s e than a p r i v a t e c o n s o l a t i o n " (Ch. LXIX). The i d e a l i s t i n the n o v e l s a l l show a contempt f o r w o r l d l y appearance or p r o f i t , and a l l r e c o g n i s e the need f o r brotherhood. They seek a • r e u n i f i c a t i o n and r e d e d i c a t i o n of human l i v e s to a s o c i a l or r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e . T h e i r problem, which i s v a r i o u s l y r e s o l v e d , as we have seen, i s to r e l a t e t h e i r noble a s p i r a t i o n f o r humanity to "the c o n d i t i o n of an imperfect s o c i a l s t a t e , i n which great f e e l i n g s w i l l o f t e n take the aspect of e r r o r , and great f a i t h the aspect of i l l u s i o n " (M. F i n a l e ) . CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION The problem of i s o l a t i o n with which George E l i o t i s concerned i s a dual one. She sees the c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t of i s o l a t i o n from the i n f l u e n c e of humanity and a l s o the danger of being out o f f from past t r a d i t i o n s . In Hetty S o r r e l and Tom T u l l i v e r both these aspects of i s o l a t i o n are ma n i f e s t . Hetty i s o b l i v i o u s to both the past and the f e e l i n g s of o t h e r s . Tom, too, has only a "dim understanding" of h i s t o r y (M.F. Bk. I I , Ch. I ) , and i s almost i n c a p a b l e of i n s i g h t i n t o natures other than h i s own, such as Maggie's or F h i l i p ' s . The other i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s , except p o s s i b l y the i d e a l i s t s , a l l seek to b u i l d a world f o r themselves which has no r e l a t i o n to the past or to the r e a l i t y experienced by o t h e r s , and i n t h e i r f a i l u r e to achieve t h i s e x i s t e n c e i n vacuo they prove the v a l i d i t y of George E l i o t ' s i n s i s t -ence on the interdependence of human beings and the absolute v a l u e of a sense of the p a s t . George E l i o t f i n d s i t as important f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to be aware of h i s own r o o t s as i t i s f o r s o c i e t y to be a l i v e to i t s p l a c e i n the context of human t r a d i t i o n . Maggie T u l l i v e r f i n d s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with her br o t h e r , at the end of The M i l l on the F l o s s , when they r e l i v e " i n one supreme moment, the days when they had cl a s p e d t h e i r l i t t l e hands i n l o v e , and roamed the d a i s i e d f i e l d s t ogether" (Bk. V I I, Ch. V ) . Though there i s a g l o s s i n g over of much of the misery of Maggie's c h i l d h o o d , there i s , i n t h i s 115 116 passage, an almost Wordsworthian sense of c o n t i n u i t y between a c h i l d h o o d r i c h with a sharpened awareness of nature and a l a t e r l i f e of human l o v e : Our d e l i g h t i n the sunshine on the deep-bladed grass today might be no more than the f a i n t p e r c e p t i o n of wearied s o u l s , i f i t were not f o r the sunshine and the grass i n the f a r - o f f y e a r s , which s t i l l l i v e i n us, and transform our p e r c e p t i o n i n t o love (MF. Bk. I, Ch. V ) . The i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s e i t h e r are f r e q u e n t l y unaware of t h e i r own past or seek to escape from i t . S i l a s Marner and B u l s t r o d e d e l i b e r a t e l y seek to a n n i h i l a t e t h e i r past s e l v e s , and are f i n a l l y f o r c e d to accept t h e i r need f o r human dependence when the past becomes a l i v i n g memory. Both Adam and A r t h u r , i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t ways, l e a r n through past f a i l u r e s . Hetty seems to have no sense of a past l i f e , w h i l e Esther only comes to a p p r e c i a t e her f a t h e r when her past i s r e v e a l e d . The n e c e s s i t y of l e a r n i n g and growing i n s t a t u r e by an awareness of the past i s apparent not only i n the p e r s o n a l context but a l s o i n t'ne r e l i g i o u s and h i s t o r i c a l one. I t i s the s t r e n g t h of both Maggie and Lydgate that they are able to l e a r n more about themselves and humanity through con t a c t w i t h minds of p r e v i o u s ages. Both f i n d the moral and medical wisdom of others immensely f r u i t f u l to t h e i r own minds. They b r i n g to l i f e the world of books i n a way that Casaubon i s unable to d e s p i t e a l l h i s l e a r n i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n . With both Maggie and Lydgate the hunger f o r knowledge i s always r e l a t e d to a r e l i g i o u s or s o c i a l i d e a l . In seeking to d i s c o v e r laws that u n d e r l i e man's moral and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , Maggie and Lydgate achieve v i t a l 117 c o n t a c t with minds of other ages. For Maggie " t h i s v o i c e |~of Thomas a KempisJ out of the f a r - o f f Middle Ages was the d i r e c t communication of a human s o u l ' s b e l i e f and experience, and came to |_herj as an unquestioned message" (MF. Bk. IV, Ch. I I I ) . Lydgate's i n t e r e s t i n the nature of f e v e r s i s f i r e d "by the b r i e f and g l o r i o u s career of B i c h a t , who . . . l i k e another Alexander, l e f t a realm l a r g e enough f o r many h e i r s " (M. Ch. XV). The i d e a l i s t s a l l seek to r e l a t e present r e a l i t i e s to e t e r n a l v e r i t i e s . Rufus Lyon, d e s p i t e h i s l a c k of con-t a c t with the more mundane i n h a b i t a n t s of Treby, does have a consciousness of h i s p l a c e i n the world i n an immortal c o n t e x t . Dinah M o r r i s attempts to b r i n g the r e a l i t y of the b l i s s and t e r r o r s of C h r i s t i a n i t y to the people of Hayslope. The excitement that Casaubon's s c h o l a r s h i p arouses i n Dorothea i s i n l a r g e measure due to her consciousness of the r e l i g i o u s background a s s o c i a t e d with h i s work. George E l i o t c r i t i c i s e s the s o c i e t y of St. Ogg's, and to a l e s s e r extent Middlemarch s o c i e t y , because i t i s cut o f f from the v i t a l i t y of past t r a d i t i o n s . The people of St. Ogg 1s are "a kind of p o p u l a t i o n out of keeping with the e a r t h on which they l i v e " (Bk. IV, Ch. I ) . The narrow p r o v i n c i a l e x i s t e n c e of the Dodsons and T u l l i v e r s i s com-pared to "these d e a d - t i n t e d , hollow-eyed angular s k e l e t o n s of v i l l a g e s on the Rhone." The Dodsons and the T u l l i v e r s are unconscious of t h e i r noble h e r i t a g e , and b u i l d b l i n d l y l i k e ants and beavers. T h e i r e f f o r t s and a s p i r a t i o n s c o n t r a s t with those who b u i l t the grand c a s t l e s of the 118 Rhine which "had been r a i s e d by an earth-born race . . . who had a c e r t a i n grandeur of the w i l d beast i n them" (Bk. IV, Ch. I ) . The s o c i e t y of St. Ogg's i s i s o l a t e d not only from the human t r a d i t i o n but a l s o from a sense of human f e l l o w -s h i p . As with Hetty and S i l a s the f a i l u r e to r e l a t e to the past i s a l l i e d with a f a i l u r e to be aware of human i n t e r -dependence. (The c l a n n i s h n e s s of the Dodsons and T u l l i v e r s i s based on an animal need for s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r than r e s p e c t f o r human v a l u e s . ) Dr. Kenn r e v e a l s t h i s dual i s o l a t i o n i n h i s community when he speaks to Maggie of "the want of f e l l o w s h i p and sense of mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among |j h i s j own f l o c k , " and r e g r e t s that "at present e v e r y t h i n g seems tending towards the r e l a x a t i o n of t i e s - towards the s u b s t i t u t i o n of wayward choice f o r the adherence to o b l i g a -t i o n , which has i t s r o o t s i n the p a s t " (Bk. V I I , Ch. I I ) . George E l i o t , l i k e Dr. Kenn, b e l i e v e s that "the Church ought to repr e s e n t the f e e l i n g of the community, so that every p a r i s h should be a f a m i l y k n i t together by C h r i s t i a n brotherhood under a s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r " (MF. Bk. V I I , Ch. I I I ) . Her a f f i l i a t i o n with the Church of England i s due not only to " e a r l i e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and most p o e t i c memories,"''" but to the p a t e r n a l nature and human i n c l u s i v e -ness of i t s d o c t r i n e . The Church, however outmoded i t s b e l i e f s were f o r George E l i o t , remained a humanly e n r i c h i n g George E l i o t , The George E l i o t L e t t e r s , ed. Gordon S. Haight, (New Haven, 1954-55*1, v o l . IV, p. 214. Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s are documented i n t e r n a l l y . 119 i n s t i t u t i o n f o r her. I t made people aware of a world o u t s i d e themselves. George E l i o t wrote to Sara H e n n e l l that "the contemplation of whatever i s great i s i t s e l f r e l i g i o n and l i f t s us out of our egoism" ( L e t t e r s , IV, 104). The i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s we have co n s i d e r e d are i s o l a t e d because they are unaware of the v a l u e of human beings. I t i s the sense of human v a l u e s that d i s t i n g u i s h e s a l l the Church of England clergymen i n the n o v e l s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n Adam Bede between the zealous and severe Mr Ryde and the m i l d and good-humoured Mr Irwine i s mainly one of t o l e r a n c e . Once again we see the c o n t r a s t between the broad and the narrow view of r e l i g i o n . Irwine accepts human l i m i t a t i o n s and shows l o v e to h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , and, l i k e Adam, he r e a l i s e s t h a t " r e l i g i o n ' s something e l s e besides d o c t r i n e s and n o t i o n s " (Ch. XVII). The n a r r a t o r of George E l i o t ' s short s t o r y The L i f t e d  V e i l shows how the l o s s of awareness of others leads to a s t a t e of n u l l i t y , and he f i n d s that f o r "the u n l o v i n g and the unloved there i s no r e l i g i o n p o s s i b l e , no worship but a worship of d e v i l s " (LV. Ch. I I ) . J u s t as the embittered Latimer f i n d s of h i s bond of f r i e n d s h i p with the c l e v e r s c i e n t i s t C h a r l e s Meunier that " i t came from community of f e e l i n g , " so does Adam Bede f i n d " i t i s n ' t n o t i o n s sets people doing the r i g h t t h i n g s - i t ' s f e e l i n g s " (Ch. XVI I ) . Latimer d e s p i s e s h i s f a t h e r f o r money-making and h i s brother f o r h i s i n s e n s i t i v i t y , but he f i n d s that h i s moments of human sympathy when he ceases to judge them are of f a r gr e a t e r v a l u e to him than "the curse of i n s i g h t " (Ch. II) 120 which has cut him o f f from contact with others and poisoned h i s l i f e . George E l i o t shows that o n l y by sympathetic contact with other people and other times i s the human s p i r i t e n r i c h e d . Without t h i s constant process of c r o s s - f e r t i l i -z a t i o n the v i t a l growth of the i n d i v i d u a l i s hampered and he may become, l i k e Hetty, Mrs Transome and Casaubon, beyond the reach of human r e l a t i o n s h i p . Those who seek to g a i n something f o r themselves from the world with the single-minded d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the dreamers, the t r a n s -g r e s s o r s , and the t y r a n t s i s o l a t e themselves from g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g the q u a s i - d i v i n e g i f t of human l o v e . By f a i l i n g to r e c o g n i s e h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s or those of others the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e becomes an emotional or moral c r i p p l e . The dreamer ceases to grow, the t r a n s g r e s s o r i s i n h i b i t e d from f r e e growth, the t y r a n t i s c o n f i n e d by the ve r y shackles he attempts to p l a c e upon o t h e r s , and the i d e a l i s t has to l e a r n that he can only f l o u r i s h i n a human e n v i r o n -ment . The most s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y t r e a t e d f i g u r e s i n her no v e l s are those such as Irwine, F a r e b r o t h e r and Caleb Garth whose lov e f o r ot h e r s i s combined with scrupulous concern f o r t ^ e i r p r a c t i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . George E l i o t t e s t s the v a l u e of r e l i g i o n by i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n spreading human happiness. Although she had "too profound a c o n v i c t i o n of the e f f i c a c y that l i e s i n a l l s i n c e r e f a i t h , and the s p i r i t u a l b l i g h t that comes with N o - f a i t h , to have any n e g a t i v e propagandism" i n her ( L e t t e r s IV, 64-5), her i d e a l clergyman i s a man l i k e Mr Irwine who, i n the 121 words of Adam Bede, "didn't go i n t o deep s p e r i t i a l experience" and " d i d n ' t set up f o r being so d i f f e r e n t from other f o l k s " (Ch. X V I I I ) . Irwine and F a r e b r o t h e r are u n l i k e the " l o f t y order of minds who pant a f t e r the i d e a l " (AB. Ch. XVII) such as Mr Ryde or Mr Tyke, i n that they r e l a t e t h e i r d o c t r i n e s to common humanity. I t i s o n l y i n t h i s s e t t i n g that l o v e and r e l i g i o n are e f f i c a c i o u s . George E l i o t never q u i t e l o s t her y o u t h f u l s u s p i c i o n 2 of n o v e l s and romances. Her own n o v e l s , apart from Romola, were set i n the o r d i n a r y world of human endeavour, and were d i r e c t e d towards the p r a c t i c a l end of showing the nature of man i n h i s s o c i a l s e t t i n g . The i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s , i n t h e i r v a r i o u s ways, f a i l to show a p r a c t i c a l and humane approach to other people, and are f r e q u e n t l y unable to f u n c t i o n as u s e f u l members of s o c i e t y . In Caleb Garth the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between love and work i s complete. H i s p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i d e has i n f a c t taken the p l a c e of r e l i g i o n f o r him. He r e a l i s e s , u n l i k e the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e , that man i s not s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and needs a goal or an i d e a l . Caleb shows the pragmatism of Tom or Pdam but l a c k s t h e i r c o n s t r i c t e d view of m o r a l i t y . Though h i s v i r t u a l d i v i n i t i e s were good p r a c t i c a l schemes, accurate work, and the f a i t h f u l completion of undertakings . . . there was no s p i r i t of d e n i a l i n Caleb, and the world seemed so wondrous to him that he was ready to accept any number of systems . . . i f they d i d not i n t e r f e r e with the best land-drainage, s o l i d b u i l d i n g , c o r r e c t measuring, and j u d i c i o u s b o r i n g ( f o r c o a l ) . (Ch. XXIV). For her fear of the v i t i a t i n g e f f e c t of Scott and o t h e r s on the minds and morals of the young see L e t t e r s , I, pp. 21-24. 122 Caleb, Mr Irwine and Mr F a r e b r o t h e r are the a n t i -theses of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s not only i n t h e i r open-mindedness and s e l f l e s s n e s s , but i n having found t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . They have c h e e r f u l l y accepted t h e i r not wholly b l i s s f u l s t a t e and set about the task of doing the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e p r a c t i c a l good f o r o t h e r s . The i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s , e i t h e r by dreaming of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y or u n l i k e l y , or by r e l y i n g on nostrums u n r e l a t e d to t h e i r human e n v i r o n -ment, f a i l to l i v e f u l l and e f f e c t i v e l i v e s . They e i t h e r ask too much of l i f e f o r themselves or demand more from ot h e r s than they are capable of g i v i n g . F e l i x H o l t , who i s the nearest to being s o c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s we have d e a l t with, sums up the v a l u e of a l i f e with a purpose w i t h a d e d i c a t e d stoicism.: as to the amount of r e s u l t he may see from h i s p a r t i c u l a r work - t h a t ' s a tremendous u n c e r t a i n t y : the u n i v e r s e has not been arranged f o r the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of h i s f e e l i n g s . As long as a man sees and b e l i e v e s i n some great good, h e ' l l p r e f e r working towards that i n the way he's best f i t f o r (Ch. XLV). George E l i o t t e s t s the hopes, dreams and i d e a l s of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e by t h e i r f i n a l e f f e c t on s o c i e t y . She has l i t t l e time f o r the w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g of the dreamer and the t r a n s g r e s s o r which shows no concern f o r the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s . The dreamer and t r a n s g r e s s o r never r e a l i s e t h a t "we can l i v e and be h e l p f u l without happiness" ( L e t t e r s , V I I , 113). T h e i r hopes and f e a r s prevent them from making contact with present r e a l i t y , the only p l a c e where e f f e c t i v e work for the good of others can be done. George E l i o t i s always s u s p i c i o u s of mere theory, 123 and always seeks a p r a c t i c a l and human framework i n which i t may be tested. Her quarrel with Positivism i s due to 3 the Utopian quality of i t s hypotheses. As we have seen, her c r i t i c i s m of the tyrant and the i d e a l i s t i s based on thei r f a i l u r e to relate their personal conception of good to their p a r t i c u l a r human environment. Their ideas and ideals f a i l when they are applied to the special human con-text. George E l i o t saw her function as "that of the. aesthetic, not the doc t r i n a l teacher - the rousing of the nobler emotions, which make mankind desire the soc i a l right'.1 (Letters, VII, 44). The tyrant and the i d e a l i s t f a i l to allow for the d i v e r s i t y of human nature, and expect others to adopt their own p r i n c i p l e s . George E l i o t sees i t as "the quackery of i n f i d e l i t y to suppose that i t has a nostrum for a l l mankind, and to say to a l l and singular 'Swallow my opinions and you sha l l be whole'" (Letters, I, 162). The tyrant and the i d e a l i s t are unlike the dreamer and the transgressor i n that they are less concerned with mere s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n , and make strenuous e f f o r t s to serve an ide a l that i s outside themselves, but they have to learn the'lesson that human beings cannot be made to conform to purely theoretical models of perfection, and they must "turn to the truth of feeling as the only universal bond" (Letters I , 162). It i s the reluctance to lay down pro s c r i p t i v e measures for others that makes the clergymen See Letters, III, 4 3 9 124 of Hayslope and Middlemarch such an e f f e c t i v e human i n f l u e n c e and s o c i a l f o r c e . I t i s not the t r u t h of t h e o r i e s or even the v a l i d i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t that f i n a l l y j u s t i f i e s a person's l i f e f o r George E l i o t , but the t r u t h of f e e l i n g shown i n the t o l e r a n c e of Irwine f o r the Methodists, or Farebrother f o r h i s r i v a l Tyke. Irwine i s seen as "an i d l e shepherd" by W i l l Maskery (AB. Ch. V), and i n a c c e p t i n g the g r a i n of t r u t h i n t h i s a s p e r s i o n he proves h i s va l u e not as a d i v i n e but as a man. Far e b r o t h e r would no doubt d i s a g r e e with h i s mother's reproach that he undervalues h i m s e l f and i n so doing undervalues God (Ch. XVI I ) . In h i s d e a l i n - s w i t h others he shows h u m i l i t y and t a c t , and although he may f e e l h i m s e l f "not a l t o g e t h e r i n the r i g h t v o c a t i o n " (Ch. XVII) because of h i s contempt f o r s c r i p t u r a l s c h o l a r s h i p and h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of h i s own human f r a i l t y , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f 4 George E l i o t would agree w i t h him. By a s t o i c acceptance o f t h e i r l i m i t e d l o t i n the world, F a r e b r o t h e r , Irwine and Garth do not d i s s i p a t e t h e i r e n e r g i e s i n f u t i l e s t r u g g l e s a f t e r the u n a t t a i n a b l e and peevi s h i r r i t a t i o n over the v a g a r i e s of t h e i r f e l l o w s . In t h e i r honest endeavour to make l i f e a l i t t l e b e t t e r f o r ot h e r s , they take t h e i r stand f i r m l y behind George E l i o t ' s p h i l o s o p h y of 'meliorism. 1"* F a r e b r o t h e r t a c t f u l l y warns Lydgate, no amount of p r o f e s s i o n a l d e d i c a t i o n w i l l a v a i l without the acknowledgement of the l i m i t e d nature of human For the opp o s i t e view of F a r e b r o t h e r ' s c h o i c e of v o c a t i o n see W. J . Harvey, The A rt of George E l i o t , (London, 1961), pp. 243-44. See L e t t e r s , V I , 287, 333-4. 125 beings. In her choice of subject matter and i n her treatment of i t , George E l i o t attempts to f i n d a human and moral t r u t h that has u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y . Her a v e r s i o n i s to dogma, maxims and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s that are p r o s c r i p t i v e . A l l the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s i n the novels e i t h e r seek to become something other than they are, or to make others do so. In both cases they f a i l to see and accept human nature f o r what i t i s , F a r e b r o t h e r t r i e s to modify Lydgate's z e a l and r e f e r him to the nature of man: "You have not only got the o l d Adam i n y o u r s e l f a g a i n s t you, but . . . a l l those descendants of the o r i g i n a l Adam who form the s o c i e t y around you" (Ch. XVI I ) . I t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary not only f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l success but a l s o f o r one's g a i n as a human being to r e c o g n i s e that one has community with the best as w e l l as the worst elements of man. To accept t h i s i s a chastening but e n r i c h i n g experience. In her nove l s George E l i o t emphasises the oneness of humanity, and i t i s the sad f a t e of the i s o l a t e d f i g u r e that he f a i l s to r e a l i s e t h a t he i s not e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n ; k i n d from h i s f e l l o w men. Only by p u t t i n g h i m s e l f i n the p l a c e of o t h e r s and extending h i s sympathies to them can he l i v e an honest and u s e f u l l i f e . So F e l i x has to l i v e among the Sproxton miners before he can understand and i n a sense sympathise with t h e i r s e l f i s h and a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour, Arthur Donnithorne arouses the sympathy and r e g a i n s the f r i e n d s h i p of Adam when he f i n a l l y persuades him to put himself i n the p o s i t i o n of wrongdoer (AB. Ch. XLVII). The 126 i s o l a t e d f i g u r e s f r e q u e n t l y f a i l to look deeply enough i n s i d e themselves before they decide what they expect from other people. Because they are not s e l f - c r i t i c a l they f e e l the unconscious need to j u s t i f y t h e i r a c t s . Hetty, Mrs Transome and Casaubon are e i t h e r unaware of, or d e l i b e r a t e l y b l i n d to t h e i r own short-comings, and a l l three l i k e to f e e l they are innocent v i c t i m s who have been h a r s h l y t r e a t e d by the world. They f e e l they deserve greater reward and s p e c i a l treatment. T h i s f a i l u r e to be o b j e c t i v e n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t s i n a f a i l u r e to r e c o g n i s e t h e i r f e l l o w s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . So they, l i k e Tom T u l l i v e r , l a c k "the i n s i g h t t h a t comes from a hardly-earned estimate of temptation, or from a l i f e v i v i d and i n t e n s e enough to have c r e a t e d a wide f e l l o w - f e e l i n g w i t h a l l that i s human" (MF. Bk. VII, Ch. I I ) . 127 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources E l i o t , George. The George E l i o t Letters, ed. Gordon S. Haight. 7 v o l s . New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1954-1955, . Works of George E l i o t . 10 vols. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1901, Secondary Sources Bennett, Joan. George E l i o t , Her Mind and Her Art. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1948. C a r r o l l , David. " F e l i x Holt: Society as Protagonist," Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , XVII (1962), 237=252. . "An Image of Disenchantment i n the Novels of George E l i o t , " Review of English Studies, XI (1?£C) 29-41. C e c i l , David. "George E l i o t , " Early V i c t o r i a n Novelists: Essays in Revaluation. New ed. London: Penguin Books, 1948. Hardy, Barbara. "The Moment of Disenchantment i n George E l i o t ' s Novels," Review of English Studies, N.S., V (1954), 256-64. . The Novels of George E l i o t : A Study i n Form. New ed. London: Athlone Press, 1963. Harvey, W. J. The Art of George E l i o t . London: Chatto and Windus, 1961. Leavis, F. R. The Great T r a d i t i o n : George E l i o t , Henry James, Joseph Conrad. New ed. London: Chatto and Windus, 1948, Levine, George. "Determinism and Responsibility i n the Works of George E l i o t , " PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 268-279. Paris, Bernard J . Experiments i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s Quest For Values. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1965. Stang, Richard, ed. Discussions of George E l i o t , Boston: .Heath, 1960 . 128 Stump s Reva. Movement and V i s i o n i n George E l i o t ' s N o v e l s . S e a t t l e : U n i v . of Washington P r e s s , 19-59. T h a l e , Jerome. The Novels of George E l i o t . New York: Columbia U n i v . P r e s s , 1959 e 

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