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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Isolation in George Eliot's novels James, David Lewis 1966

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ISOLATION I N GEORGE ELIOT'S NOVELS  by DAVID LEWIS JAMES  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n ,  1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October,  1966  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that  per-  m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y ;.purposes may  be granted by the Head of my Department or by .  his representatives.  I t i s understood that; copying or p u b l i -  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not without my  written  Department of  permission.  MGLISH  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date  ~ ml /£>.•  be  allowed  •y V ^ v i -  :  ii ABSTRACT  A constant individual's  theme i n G e o r g e E l i o t ' s n o v e l s  struggle to find  a place  i s the  i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , by  l e a r n i n g h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s and o v e r c o m i n g them. self  felt  the isolation,  Christianity, isolation  c a u s e d by h e r ' c o n v e r s i o n '  from t h e p a s t .  from past  t r a d i t i o n s and b e l i e f s i s h e r c o n c e r n  Meaningful  while the individual world.  Contact  from  Linked with t h i s f e e l i n g of  for the i n d i v i d u a l ' s attaining h e r e and now.  She h e r -  a c l e a r v i s i o n of r e a l i t y  social relations are impossible  i s deluded about t h e n a t u r e  b e t w e e n t h e s e l f and t h e w o r l d  p o s s i b l e when t h e i n d i v i d u a l  of the real  i s only  sees t h e n e c e s s i t y t o c a s t o f f  s e l f i s h d e s i r e s and l o s e h i m s e l f  i n concern f o r others.  This  i s f r e q u e n t l y by means o f a t r u e m a r r i a g e o r a sound v o c a t i o n . C h a p t e r I I ( T h e : D r e a m e r ) shows how G e o r g e  Eliot's  choice  of subject matter,  nature  o f common h u m a n i t y , c a u s e d h e r t o show up t h e p r e -  v a i l i n g v i c e , of romantic  and i n s i s t e n c e on t h e o r d i n a r y  dreaming, of her heroines.  Self-  d e l u s i o n b a s e d o n w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t i s a v i c e she i s p a r t i c u larly  averse  child-like  t o . The d r e a m e r i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  innocent,  with animals  c u t o f f from t h e a d u l t world,  o r b i r d s , and t h u s c u t o f f f r o m t h e human  I n C h a p t e r I I I (The T r a n s g r e s s o r ) i n which a g u i l t y past  we w i l l  and h i m s e l f .  world.  s e e t h e way  i s unsuccessfully concealed.  transgressor frequently attempts t o l i v e a l i e , others  and a l s o  The  to deceive  T h i s i n h i b i t s t h e f r e e f l o w o f human  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e x c l u d e s  him from acceptance i n s o c i e t y .  The  i n w i t h h i s own g u i l t y  transgressor  i s locked  s e c r e t and  i i i u n a b l e t o make c o n t a c t w i t h t h o s e who a r e most w i l l i n g t o help him. In Chapter  IV (The T y r a n t ) a f u r t h e r  manifestation  o f i s o l a t i o n i s s e e n i n t h e d e s i r e f o r power o v e r T h i s i s o f t e n s e e n s u b t l y i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f men women.  others. towards  I n d e n y i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f women, t h e t y r a n t ,  i n v a r y i n g degrees, i n h i b i t s free  relationship.  C h a p t e r V ( T h e I d e a l i s t ) d e a l s w i t h t h o s e who h a v e v i s i o n and p r i n c i p l e s ,  b u t who h a v e i n some way been u n a b l e  t o r e l a t e t h e s e t o t h e human c o n t e x t . always  The i d e a l i s t i s  shown t o be i n some way c u t o f f f r o m a r e a l i s t i c  v i s i o n of himself or s o c i e t y . The f i n a l  c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e m o r a l norm r e p r e s e n t -  ing clear v i s i o n ,  social  and d o m e s t i c harmony.  The C h u r c h  o f E n g l a n d c l e r g y and t h e m e n t o r c h a r a c t e r s h a v e t h e f u n c t i o n s of humanising  the i d e a l i s t s ,  and b r o a d e n i n g t h e  v i s i o n of the egoists. In the novels the attainment of c l e a r v i s i o n linked with a r e a l i s t i c  adjustment  t o s o c i e t y , an awareness  o f t h e n e e d s o f o t h e r s , and an a t t e m p t problems.  t o understand  their  This process frequently attains a semi-religious  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r George E l i o t , often  i s always  and C h r i s t i a n p a r a l l e l s a r e  drawn. I  shall  t r a c e t h i s p r o c e s s whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l  l e a r n s t o s e e h i m s e l f and o t h e r s i n t h e i r t r u e n a t u r e , and thus breaks through the w a l l of r e s t r i c t i n g v i s i o n , becomes i n t e g r a t e d  into  society or rejected  by  it.  and e i t h e r  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. II. III. IV. V. VI.  Page INTRODUCTION  1  THE DREAMER  21  THE TRANSGRESSOR  47  THE TYRANT  71  THE I D E A L I S T  90  CONCLUSION  115  SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY  127  Bibliographical  Note  The e d i t i o n o f G e o r g e E l i o t ' s n o v e l s  u s e d i s Works o f  G e o r g e E l i o t . 10 v o l s . ( E d i n b u r g h and L o n d o n : W i l l i a m B l a c k w o o d and S o n s , 1 9 0 1 ) . this  The i n d i v i d u a l w o r k s a p p e a r i n  e d i t i o n as f o l l o w s : Adam Bede: v o l . I The M i l l  (abbreviated  AB.)  on t h e F l o s s : v o l . I I . . . ( a b b r e v i a t e d  MF.)  Romola: v o l . I l l Scenes of C l e r i c a l L i f e : v o l . IV . . S i l a s M a r n e r . The L i f t e d  V e i l : v o l .V (abbreviated  SM.,  F e l i x H o l t : v o l . VI  ( a b b r e v i a t e d FH. )  Middlemarch : v o l . V I I  ( a b b r e v i a t e d M. )  D a n i e l Deronda: v o l . V I I I  (abbreviated  The S p a n i s h G y p s y : v o l . I X T h e o p h r a s t u s S u c h and E s s a y s : v o l . X  DP.)  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Individual  i s o l a t i o n and t h e f a i l u r e  w i t h one's f e l l o w s i s a major concern century w r i t e r . and  t o communicate  of the twentieth  N o v e l i s t s a s v a r i o u s a s L a w r e n c e and J o y c e ,  d r a m a t i s t s a s d i v e r s e a s Chekhov and E l i o t  occupied w i t h t h i s problem.  F o r George E l i o t  are preand t h e  Victorians,  h o w e v e r , i s o l a t i o n had a more c o n f i n e d m e a n i n g .  In Dickens,  T h a c k e r a y and G e o r g e E l i o t we s e e s o c i a l  norms  from which the i n d i v i d u a l  f r e q u e n t l y d e v i a t e s , but t h e r e i s  not  f o r meaning i n l i f e  t h e same u r g e n t  quest  i n U l y s s e s o r The C o c k t a i l P a r t y . traditional  that there i s  In the nineteenth  century,  b e l i e f s had become u n d e r m i n e d , and men w e r e  b e i n g c u t o f f f r o m what h a d been h e l d s a c r e d and i n c o n t r o vertible  f o r c e n t u r i e s , b u t men s t i l l  domestic  virtues.  T h e r e was a b e l i e f ,  upheld  p u b l i c and  and we s e e t h i s i n  t h e b e n e v o l e n c e and f e l l o w - f e e l i n g o f t h e J o h n J a r n d y c e s and W i l l i a m D o b b i n s , i n human g o o d n e s s . While  the twentieth-century novelist  w i t h t h e o u t c a s t from s o c i e t y , t h e V i c t o r i a n a s b l a m e w o r t h y t o some d e g r e e . the i n d i v i d u a l Tulliver's  tends  to resist  the f a m i l i a r w o r l d of duty  sympathi  sees t h e o u t s i d e r  One s e e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r  t o become p a r t o f a s o c i a l u n i t  failure  to  i n Maggie  "the great temptation" to leave  i n S t . Ogg's.  In contrast, Ursula  Brangwen i n D. H. L a w r e n c e ' s The R a i n b o w h a s t o r e s i s t t h e p r e s s u r e s of s o c i a l duty her p e r s o n a l  salvation.  and f a m i l y l o v e i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e  2  The one who  isolated  fails  individual  to f i n d  i n George E l i o t ' s n o v e l s i s  i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n h i s community.  s h a l l c o n s i d e r h e r e some o f t h e m a i n i m p e d i m e n t s p r e v e n t him  from f i n d i n g  that  significance i n existence  by  w i d e n i n g h i s sympathy w i t h h i s f e l l o w s and l e a d i n g a useful  life.  The  common f a c t o r s s h a r e d by a l l t h e  f i g u r e s are a f a i l u r e to  t o see r e a l i t y  and a  understand or sympathise w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w s .  a l a c k of o b j e c t i v i t y all  clearly  We  socially  isolated failure  A l l share  i n t h e i r v i e w o f t h e w o r l d , but not  a r e e q u a l l y i m p r i s o n e d i n t h e i r own  f a l s e world  hence c u t o f f from r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s .  and  Dorothea  and  Maggie l a c k o b j e c t i v e v i s i o n but have abundant  sympathy, w h i l e  C a s a u b o n and H e t t y r e m a i n p r e c l u d e d f r o m v i t a l  relationship.  The p r o c e s s by w h i c h a c e n t r a l h i m s e l f of i l l u s i o n ,  figure learns to divest  and t o see h i m s e l f and o t h e r s f o r what  t h e y a r e , i s as i m p o r t a n t t o G e o r g e E l i o t A u s t e n or Henry  James.  as i t i s t o Jane  T h i s a s p e c t o f her work has  adequate  t r e a t m e n t f r o m R e v a Stump, J e r o m e T h a l e and  Carroll,  among o t h e r r e c e n t c r i t i c s . ' ' *  Mr C a r r o l l  show how  David  B o t h M i s s Stump  and  an a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n i n t h e n o v e l s  i n v o l v e s p r o g r e s s from i l l u s i o n r e g e n e r a t i o n , and  received  through disenchantment  each c r i t i c p o i n t s out t h e  to  significance  2  of  Christian  parallels.  See R e v a Stump, Movement and V i s i o n i n G e o r g e E l i o t ' s N o v e l s ( S e a t t l e : U n i v . o f Washington, 1959); Jerome T h a l e , The N o v e l s o f G e o r g e E l i o t (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v . , 1 9 5 9 ) ; D a v i d C a r r o l l , "An Image o f D i s e n c h a n t m e n t i n t h e N o v e l s o f George E l i o t , " Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , X I ( I 9 6 0 ) , 29-41.  a full  See C a r r o l l , p . 3 0 ; Stump, p p . 4 8 - 5 1 . The l a t t e r g i v e s a n a l y s i s o f t h e 'upper room' s c e n e i n Adam Bede.  W i t h o u t i n any way these c r i t i c s ,  I intend  the i n d i v i d u a l  either  community  invalidating  the arguments of  t o examine t h e p r o c e s s  whereby  achieves i n t e g r a t i o n into the  by w i d e n i n g a w a r e n e s s o f , and sympathy w i t h h i s  f e l l o w s , o r becomes r e j e c t e d have found a r e w a r d i n g l i f e happiness.  Mr C a r r o l l ,  by t h e s o c i e t y w h e r e he m i g h t of s o c i a l  s e r v i c e or domestic  by s t r e s s i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n  framework  i n which the process of s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n takes p l a c e ,  cites  t h e i n f l u e n c e o n t h e n o v e l s o f The L i f e o f J e s u s , C r i t i c a l l y E x a m i n e d , w h i c h was G e o r g e E l i o t ' s S t r a u s s ' s Leben Jesu. Eliot in  t r a n s l a t i o n of David  I t seems t o me,  however, t h a t  George  i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h e m p h a s i s i n g t h e p l a c e o f  s o c i e t y than w i t h h i s personal  man  salvation.  Though she r e j o i c e s i n t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m t h e " w r e t c h e d g i a n t ' s bed o f dogma" r e p r e s e n t i n g C h r i s t i a n t y r a n n y , George E l i o t does not g i v e q u i t e t h e same v a l u e t o p e r s o n a l v i s i o n t h a t H e n r y James d o e s . George E l i o t  and h e r f e l l o w V i c t o r i a n s ,  comes when t h e way ship i s c l e a r l y Eliot  to social  seen.  For  t h e moment o f v i s i o n  i n t e g r a t i o n and human  fellow-  V i s i o n i s o f no v a l u e t o G e o r g e  u n l e s s a c c o m p a n i e d by a s y m p a t h e t i c ' a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r s  and a d e s i r e t o s e r v e them.  She c a n n o t r e j o i c e ,  Woolf does, over the achievement o f a r t i s t i c B r i s c o e i n To The L i g h t h o u s e . such as W i l l  Ladislaw,  t h e edge o f s o c i e t y .  as V i r g i n i a  vision  F o r George E l i o t ,  by  the a r t i s t ,  i s a suspicious figure d r i f t i n g O n l y when W i l l  Lily  on  t a k e s on d o m e s t i c  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d o e s he become s o c i a l l y  respectable.  S e v e r a l c o m m e n t a t o r s on G e o r g e E l i o t  have remarked  on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i e t y i n her work.  The m i n u t e  d e t a i l e d p o r t r a i t s o f S t . Ogg's and M i d d l e m a r c h  do more  t h a n m e r e l y p r o v i d e a. f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s . s o c i e t i e s have a m o r a l  function,  world of hard f a c t to which adapted.  George E l i o t  the i n d i v i d u a l  i s t o become  i n s i s t s on t h e o r d i n a r y and  a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l human dreams and  we  But, u n l i k e  s e e s no g r e a t e r m o r a l w i s d o m i n t h e  peasant  t h a n i n t h a t o f the town.  less,  The  and no m o r e , c o r r u p t t h a n t h e i r  and v i s i o n  yardstick For  as f o r W o r d s w o r t h , t h i s i s t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h  George E l i o t  no  humdrum  i d e a l s are measured.  f i n d our h a p p i n e s s , or not at a l l .  life  These  i n that they represent a  n a t u r e of these w o r l d s of f a c t , which p r o v i d e the  George E l i o t ,  and  i s vouchsafed  Bede, o r t o G o d f r e y  Wordsworth  simple  simple f o l k  social  are  superiors,  t o s i m p l e c r a f t s m e n , s u c h as Adam  C a s s t h e " g r e a t e s t man  i n Raveloe. .' 1  George E l i o t wants t h e r e a d e r t o d i v i d e h i s sympathy o v e r whole group and  who  a r e r e a l l y r a t h e r o r d i n a r y b u t who  thus capable of g i v i n g  and r e c e i v i n g  George E l i o t ' s n o v e l s perhaps easily  to the sort of schematic  on them. any one  No  do n o t l e n d  There  who  a s m o r t a l s who  are not r e a l i s e d men.  The  sympathy. themselves  exclusively  into  some h a v e a s p e c t s o f t h r e e o r f o u r o f  c a t e g o r i e s I have chosen.  of  a r e human  t r e a t m e n t I i n t e n d t o impose  c h a r a c t e r i n the novels f i t s  t y p e , and  l o v e and  first  a  a r e no v i l l a i n s o r live  f i g u r e s a r e i n d i v i d u a l i s e d and  the  tyrants  i n t h e ways  given  substance  See D a v i d C a r r o l l , " F e l i x H o l t : S o c i e t y as P r o t a g o n i s t , N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y F i c t i o n , X V I I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 2 3 7 - 2 5 2 . The r o l e of s o c i e t y as one o f t h e m a i n p r o t a g o n i s t s i n S i l a s M a r n e r i s c o n s i d e r e d by W . J . H a r v e y , The A r t o f G e o r g e E l i o t ( L o n d o n , 1961), p.170.  e v e n down t o t h e m e l o d r a m a t i c chosen,  however,  approaching  seem t o me.  Raffles. t h e most  t h e theme o f i s o l a t i o n .  d e a l w i t h the v a r i o u s i s o l a t i n g individual fellows,  leading  w h i c h we  The c a t e g o r i e s s u c c i n c t method o f  The  c h a p t e r s will  . .<  f a c t o r s which prevent  the  the  life  of v i t a l  relationship  have  seen  i s a dominant  with his  concern of  the  author. As figure  I have  said,  is a failure  world.  a unifying  f e a t u r e of the  t o a c h i e v e an o b j e c t i v e v i e w  T h i s l i m i t a t i o n p r e v e n t s him  relationship by h i e own  with o t h e r s , f o r h i s view  predilections  sees A r t h u r Donnithorne  and  primarily  as a f e l l o w c r e a t u r e l i a b l e  this  rather  narrow view  sympathise.  Dorothea's  results view  the  o f them i s c o l o u r e d Thus Adam Bede  as t h e  s q u i r e ' s son  t o commit  rather  great error,  i n a l a c k of a b i l i t y  t o be a n y t h i n g but  and  to  of Casaubon i s d i s t o r t e d  need to serve i n a noble cause,  marries proves  of  achieving a true  prejudices.  than  h e r own  from  isolated  by  and  t h e man  she  the l o f t y  scholar  of  her  ideals. Although v a r y i n g degrees the i s o l a t e d  figures,  for  One  others.  not  a l l are without  sees a d e f i c i e n c y  the t y r a n t s  and  d r e a m e r s , but  idealists.  Tom  Tulliver's  causes  him  t o be  of f e e l i n g mainly  scarcely  result  unglamourous l i f e  however, though  mundane m a t t e r s  the a b i l i t y  at a l l . i n  t o o h a r s h t o w a r d s M a g g i e , and  t h e e a r n e s t and  Lyon,  distinguish a l l  c i r c u m s c r i b e d view  day-dreams o f m a r r i e d c o m f o r t of  of egoism  frequently  of l i f e ,  i n her  feel  among  the  of f a m i l y  duty  Rosamond V i n c y  later  resentment  o f her husband.  a b s t r a c t e d from  shows a d e s i r e  to  Rufus  t h e more  to understand  those  6 who  are not  i n sympathy with  his ideals.  The  such as Lyon, F e l i x H o l t , Dinah M o r r i s and seldom f a i l may  sympathy, even to those  the other  isolated  figures f a i l  who  i n some degree  g i v e a pure and d i s i n t e r e s t e d love to o t h e r s .  t h e i r own  needs before those of o t h e r s .  and Casaubon, who to  Dorothea Brooke  s c a r c e l y seem to deserve such f e e l i n g . All  to  to g i v e love and  idealists  l o v e , share  are at o p p o s i t e  this limitation.  They put  Both Maggie T u l l i v e r  extremes i n t h e i r The  ability  i d e a l i s t , by c o n t r a s t ,  c o n s i d e r s others before h i m s e l f , but h i s f a i l u r e i s that has  he  an o v e r - o p t i m i s t i c view of the amount of good i n them. The  dreamer i s perhaps the f u r t h e s t removed from  r e a l i t y of a l l the i s o l a t e d she does not  f i g u r e s , f o r , u n l i k e the t y r a n t ,  seek the good o p i n i o n of the world.  She  has  not, moreover, the double v i s i o n of the t r a n s g r e s s o r  who  somehow t r u s t s that h i s d o u b t f u l a c t s w i l l be masked by some s p e c i a l providence  and h i s own  good i n t e n t i o n s .  The  dreamer,  such as Hetty or Rosamond, does not r e l a t e her dreams to anything  i n the world  does not consider  of a c t u a l i t y that surrounds her.  the p o s s i b i l i t y of l i f e  e v o l v i n g i n any  other way  than i t does i n the f a i r y - t a l e world  ination.  While the dream l a s t s ,  b e l i e v e world  she  and when i t v a n i s h e s ,  of her  imag-  i s suspended i n a makethe dreamer i s f r e q u e n t l y  unable to r e c o n c i l e h e r s e l f to r e a l i t y . to  She  Maggie, r e t u r n i n g  St. Ogg's a f t e r her escapade with Stephen, f e e l s h e r s e l f  "an outlawed s o u l " (MF.  Bk. VI, Ch. XIV).  Only Esther i s  able to r e t u r n to the r e a l world where r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p o s s i b l e , and  even f o r her the "vanished  ecstasy  . . . had  left  i t s wounds" ( F H . Ch. The  isolation  XLIV).  d i s t o r t e d v i s i o n o f t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r and from r e a l i t y  are d i f f e r e n t  from the  his  dreamer's.  U n l i k e the dreamer, the t r a n s g r e s s o r i s v e r y concerned t h e good o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s , b u t he own He  nature  as he  i s about the n a t u r e  f o n d l y imagines  his responsibility  a v o i d the  F r e q u e n t l y he a t t e m p t s f o r p a s t w r o n g s , and  he c a n a t o n e f o r them by f u t u r e r e p a r a t i o n s . Donnithorne  imagines  he h a s done h e r . hidden  As  about h i s  of the o u t s i d e w o r l d .  he c a n d e c e i v e o t h e r s and  sequences of h i s past e v i l . minimise  i s as c o n f u s e d  for  he c a n c o m p e n s a t e H e t t y  con-  to  believes  Arthur f o r the wrong  l o n g as h i s d e s t r u c t i v e d e e d s r e m a i n  A r t h u r f e e l s h i m s e l f t o be a n o b l e p e r s o n .  A l l the  t r a n s g r e s s o r s a r e i n some r e s p e c t h y p o c r i t e s a t t e m p t i n g cover  a p r i v a t e shame w i t h a d e c e p t i v e a p p e a r a n c e .  to  Only  when t h e p u b l i c f r o n t i s t o r n away, as i t i s m e r c i l e s s l y t o r n away f r o m B u l s t r o d e , i s t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r a g a i n a b l e  to  e n t e r i n t o n o r m a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p . The  t y r a n t i s l e s s deluded  t r a n s g r e s s o r about the n a t u r e his  than the dreamer o r  of the world  v i e w i s n a r r o w e d by h i s own  o u t s i d e him,  code o f conduct.  assumption of s u p e r i o r i t y over o t h e r s prevents s y m p a t h i s i n g w i t h t h e i r w e a k n e s s e s , and seeing t h e i r as o t h e r  strength.  Tom  t h a n an i n f e r i o r  guided  by h i s w i s d o m and  at  love for P h i l i p  her  i d e a of f a m i l y duty.  Tulliver  the  His  him  from  p r e c l u d e s him  can never  see  c r e a t u r e whose n a t u r e h i s c o n c e p t i o n of duty.  but  from  Maggie  i t i s to He  be  scoffs  because i t i s opposed t o h i s r e s t r i c t e d C a s a u b o n s e e s D o r o t h e a o n l y as  a  8 servant  to h i sfutile  d e c l i n i n g years. and  s c h o l a r s h i p and a c o m f o r t t o h i s  He d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d h e r n e e d t o l o v e ,  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l i v e s of others. Nearly  r e a l world others  a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s who a r e i s o l a t e d  and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e n u i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  see t h e i r  of t h e i r  from t h e  fellow mortals  own d e v i s i n g .  This  a s f u n c t i o n a r i e s i n schemes  i s as t r u e o f H e t t y  who dreams  o f m a r r i a g e t o t h e s q u i r e ' s s o n a s D o r o t h e a who s e e s h e r s e l f m i n i s t e r i n g t o a mind such as Locke o r P a s c a l . only  schemes t h a t do n o t a b s o l u t e l y m i s f i r e a r e t h o s e o f  F e l i x Holt her  Perhaps the  i ndiverting  cottages.  t h e r i o t e r s and D o r o t h e a i n b u i l d i n g  The v a l u e  of the purely d i s i n t e r e s t e d act i s  shown by t h e e x a m p l e s o f R u f u s L y o n a n d S i l a s M a r n e r . respond t o the c a l l  t o l o v e and by so d o i n g  l i m i t a t i o n s of the l i f e  they  spontaneous. isolate  These  acts  a r e s e l f l e s s and  I n them i s no a d m i x t u r e o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t  from awareness o f o t h e r s . A realistic  integration. and  discover the  h a v e been l e a d i n g .  are r e l e v a n t t o our d i s c u s s i o n because they  Both  v i s i o n of the world  Only those,  i s the key t o s o c i a l  s u c h a s F e l i x H o l t , who s e e p e o p l e  t h e m s e l v e s f o r what t h e y  a r e , r a t h e r t h a n f o r what  would be, have t h i s k e y . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f Adam Bede,  none o f t h e f o u r m a i n f i g u r e s p o s s e s s e s t h i s k e y . h i m s e l f h a s h i s m o r a l b l i n d s p o t s , and i t i s o n l y Mr who i s a b l e t o s u g g e s t t o A r t h u r terrible  take part  ( A B . Ch. X V I ) .  Adam, A r t h u r  Irwine  confined  and D i n a h a l l  i n an a d v a n c e t o w a r d s t r u e v i s i o n and a  understanding.  Adam  t h a t "our deeds c a r r y  consequences . . . t h a t a r e h a r d l y ever  to ourselves"  they  sympathetic  T h i s moment o f r e v e l a t i o n i s a s c r u c i a l t o  George E l i o t  as t o T. S. E l i o t  Barbara Hardy  has  or V i r g i n i a Woolf,  shown, i t i s a l w a y s p r e c e d e d by a 4  of  i n c o m p l e t e n e s s and u n r e a l i t y .  in  t h e awakening  This feeling  i s a stage  f i g u r e s i n the novels never  s t a t e of awareness,  and  some s u c h as H e t t y and  Casaubon a r e i n c a p a b l e of q u i c k e n i n g t o t h e i r  is  feeling  i n w h i c h s e l f must become a b s o r b e d .  Many o f t h e i s o l a t e d  vironment.  as  from e g o c e n t r i c i t y t o the r e c o g n i t i o n of  a world o u t s i d e the s e l f ,  reach t h i s  and  social  en-  H e t t y never l e a r n s the moral l e s s o n that the world  n o t m e r e l y a p r o v i d e r o f c o m f o r t and  s e c u r i t y f o r her.  Though she p a s s e s t h r o u g h t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s s i m i l a r those of Maggie,  E s t h e r and G w e n d o l e n H a r l e t h ,  learns to love.  She r e m a i n s a l i t t l e c h i l d  the  l o v e of o t h e r s .  her l a s t at  she n e v e r  depending  L i k e C a s a u b o n ' s and S t e p h e n  s c e n e i s one o f s e l f - - p r e o c c u p a t i o n .  t h e end o f t h e n o v e l , a s we  on  Guest's,  We  see C a s a u b o n and  see h e r Stephen,  harbouring f e e l i n g s of antagonism to the w o r l d i n which h a s been u n a b l e t o f i n d human r e l a t i o n s h i p . imprisoned  i n h e r own  animal imagery  to  she  Hetty i s  s e l f i s h w o r l d , and t h e p a g a n  and  so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r i n t h e n o v e l  u n d e r l i n e s her d i m i n u t i v e moral  status.  C h r i s t i a n f o r g i v e n e s s i n her l a s t  Her  attitude  speech emphasises  to  her  utter  f a i l u r e t o l e a r n any m o r a l l e s s o n t h r o u g h h e r s u f f e r i n g : "And t e l l h i m , " H e t t y s a i d i n a r a t h e r s t r a n g e r v o i c e , " t e l l him . . . f o r t h e r e ' s nobody e l s e t o t e l l him . . . a s I went a f t e r h i m , and c o u l d n ' t f i n d h i m . . . and I h a t e d h i m and c u r s e d him o n c e . . . but D i n a h s a y s I s h o u l d  B a r b a r a . H a r d y , "The Moment o f D i s e n c h a n t m e n t i n G e o r g e E l i o t ' s N o v e l s , " - R e v i e w o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , N.S. V ( J u l y , 1 9 5 4 ) , 256-64.  10 f o r g i v e hitn . . . a n d I t r y . . . f o r e l s e God won't f o r g i v e me" [ [ a u t h o r ' s elipseTj ( A B . C h . X L V I ) . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h human b e i n g s l e a r n t o see a n d l e a r n t o l o v e n o r m a l l y ends i n s o c i a l u n i o n , t h e r e are  c a s e s where t h i s does n o t happen.  For Hetty  Sorrel,  P h i l i p Wakem, M a g g i e T u l l i v e r , L y d g a t e and A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e t h e r e i s n o r e w a r d i n human f e l l o w s h i p . deprived of the right  A l l a r e i n some way  t o become ' - r e i n s t a t e d i n s o c i e t y .  H e t t y , a s we h a v e s e e n , d o e s n o t l e a r n t h e l e s s o n o f a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d s o f o t h e r s , b u t A r t h u r and M a g g i e d o l e a r n t h a t t h e r e c a n be no good for t h e m s e l v e s t h a t i s b a s e d o n P h i l i p a n d L y d g a t e are n e v e r  another's misery.  isolated  f r o m r e a l i t y a n d s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i n t h e same way  as t h e o t h e r s and t h e i r  final  o s t r a c i s m i s somewhat  g r a t u i t o u s a l t h o u g h Lydgate does f a i l  t o see Rosamond f o r  what she r e a l l y i s . George E l i o t i s e s p e c i a l l y of  severe i n h e r judgement  t h o s e , s u c h a s A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e , H a r o l d Transome a n d  L y d g a t e , who m i s u n d e r s t a n d t h e t r u e m e a n i n g o f l o v e . treating  women a s o b j e c t s o f b e a u t y o r d e c o r a t i o n  By  each  b e t r a y s h i s own human n a t u r e , a n d e v e n i d e a l i s t s , such a s A r t h u r and Lydgate, a r e i n h i b i t e d activity  by t h e i r  of  own n a t u r e .  their  The  final  from s i g n i f i c a n t  f a i l u r e t o come t o t e r m s w i t h t h e r e a l i t y  estrangement  o f M a g g i e and P h i l i p  The M i l l  o n t h e F l o s s t o be a s p e c i a l  relation  between f a i l u r e t o l o v e and s o c i a l  obvious.  social  B o t h M a g g i e and P h i l i p  and r o m a n t i c l o v e ,  but one f e e l s  shows  case i n which t h e  finally  isolation i s not  triumph over  t h a t Maggie,  like  selfish  Lydgate,  11 loses f a i t h is  unable  i n h e r s e l f t h r o u g h h e r own p a s t f a i l u r e .  t o t a k e a p l a c e i n S t . Ogg's a s w i f e and m o t h e r ,  j u s t as Lydgate  i s unable t o accept h i s r o l e of medical  research at the fever hospital of and  i n Middlemarch.  The t r a g e d y  b o t h c a s e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no a t o n e m e n t f o r p a s t i n The M i l l  Philip  She  errors,  on t h e F l o s s i t i s t h e i n n o c e n t , such as  and L u c y , who s u f f e r by t h e d e f a u l t o f M a g g i e and  Stephen. The and P h i l i p  c o n t r a s t between t h e f i n a l  t o Maggie r e v e a l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  nature of their and  l e t t e r s o f Stephen  selfishly  love.  Stephen's  i sstill  immature, demanding  insistent:  "Maggie c a l l me b a c k t o y o u i - c a l l me b a c k t o l i f e and goodness! I am b a n i s h e d f r o m b o t h now. I h a v e no m o t i v e s : I am i n d i f f e r e n t t o e v e r y t h i n g . Two m o n t h s h a v e o n l y deepened t h e c e r t a i n t y t h a t I c a n never c a r e f o r l i f e w i t h o u t you. W r i t e me o n e word - s a y 'Come!'" (MF. Bk. V I I , Ch. V ) . Philip of  a c h i e v e s something  o f s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n , and a  sense  a 'new power' t h r o u g h h i s v e r y a c t o f l o v i n g w i t h o u t  demanding any r e c o g n i t i o n : yours:  "And remember t h a t  I am  unchangeably  yours not w i t h s e l f i s h w i s h e s , but w i t h a d e v o t i o n  t h a t e x c l u d e s s u c h w i s h e s " ( B k . V I I , Ch. I I I ) . George E l i o t d i s t i n g u i s h e s s h a r p l y between r o m a n t i c l o v e and a l t r u i s t i c  love.  the dreamer-heroines and in  The r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f  a r e f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t e n s i o n  embarrassment i n t h e e a r l y the e a r l y meetings  Rosamond.  stages.  of Stephen  a n d M a g g i e , and L y d g a t e and  I n each c a s e t h e emphasis i s on p h y s i c a l  b u t e s a n d b o t h women a r e i d e a l i s e d A s we s h a l l  T h i s i s emphasised  see, t h i s tendency  attri-  as o b j e c t s o f beauty.  t o s e e t h e l o v e d one a s a  12 p r i z e , as an o b j e c t by  t o be won,  i s f r e q u e n t l y accompanied  a s s o c i a t i o n s o f music or drama.^  to romantic one,  and  of the  charm t h a t p r e v e n t s  The  music i s r e l a t e d  c l e a r v i s i o n of the  t h e drama i s o f t e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h a f a l s e  self.  In each case the  o n l y from c l e a r v i s i o n ,  but  individual  loved posturing  i s cut o f f  not  a l s o from the p o s s i b i l i t y  pure r e l a t i o n s h i p with another,  and,  by e x t e n s i o n ,  of  with  society. The  isolated  f i g u r e i n the n o v e l s  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y o r an i n a b i l i t y c o n j o i n t and  i n the world  to f e e l .  the  failure  Frequently  by a f a i l u r e these  love.  We  l o v e among t h e d r e a m e r s , s u c h as H e t t y  The  see  the  or Rufus Lyon's w i t h  dreamers i n the n o v e l s  do n o t  t h a n t h e i r own has  and  good t h e y  live  light,  candle and  o f e g o i s m , and  r e l a t e s them t o t h e  which sees i n the w o r l d  the  Casaubon,  higher  i n a m o r a l vacuum.  p a r a l l e l s that r e l a t e to Hetty.  to  themselves.  r e l a t e t o any  d r a w n a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m i r r o r i m a g e r y and  Vincy's  failure  a r e i n v a r i o u s ways u n a b l e  Since  insular  failure  Esther.  influences outside  are  vision  o r Rosamond and  t o make c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r they  of  b a r r i e r s are  love i n Dorothea's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  or Dinah's w i t h H e t t y ,  prevented  t o see r e s u l t s e i t h e r i n a  t o l o v e o r an o v e r - i d e a l i s t i c  idealistic  i s always  She  ideal  R e v a Stump  Narcissus  e x a m i n e s a l s o Rosamond  Casaubon's f e e b l e t a p e r imperfect  egoistic  a r e f l e c t i o n o f i t s own  of  vision  desires.  F o r a. d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t h e a t r i c a l i m a g e r y i n D a n i e l D e r o n d a see W. J . H a r v e y , pp. 237-240. Stump, pp.  28-29.  13 But, vision as  as  i s not  I have a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d such  a c r u c i a l m o r a l weakness f o r G e o r g e  l a c k of f e e l i n g .  her  isolated  but we The  dreamer  and  there are  might  as  b e i n g due  to a f a i l u r e  t o see  be d o i n g j u s t i c e  to her moral  philosophy.  i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  transgressor vision,  sum  by the  up  a reflected vision,  a distorted  vision,  idealist  a misplaced  figures  by  from  of  I t i s apposite to note,  both  By  a vital  R u f u s L y o n and  concern  and  in their  sympathy  and  whose e a g e r n e s s  she  realistic  has  she  viding  no  Nevertheless  a humanly r e v e a l i n g o f o t h e r s , but  worldly  vision. A persistent  understanding regard,  that  reconcile practical  by  limitations  Denner  shows  Transome, but  this  own  lie.  interests  and  o f Mr  scarcely and  Casaubon.  t h e Dodson  function not  is Celia,  Dorothea's " n o t i o n s "  sisters  o n l y of  l i m i t a t i o n s of  in  pro-  amusing commentary on  showing t h e  motif  w h i c h i s made e x p l i c i t  and  but  l i t e r a l l y short-sighted.  exterior  Cadwallader  clearly,  limited  a r e marked  view of l i f e .  on 'the F l o s s have t h e  connect,"  in this  a  clearly,  Brooke have t h e  sympathy w i t h  follies  "Only  see v e r y  of  the  t o o b t a i n her mother's j e w e l l e r y i s  Denner, Mrs  Mill  vision.  whose l i v e s  knows where h e r  sees o n l y the r e p u l s i v e  Celia, The  Celia  t y r a n t by  sympathetic  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Mrs  because  concealed,  of  Dorothea,  c o n t r a s t Denner and  partly  life  care f o r o t h e r s , are  inherent  the  i n t h e n o v e l s who  are c u t , o f f others.  the l i m i t a t i o n s  Eliot  We  figures  would not  above, l a c k of  the  a purely  i n t h e n o v e l s o f E. M. F o r s t e r ,  i n Howards End,  v i r t u e s with  i s an  the a b i l i t y  says F o r s t e r , "the p r o s e  and  attempt  to  to love. the p a s s i o n . "  14 George E l i o t ,  too,  i s v e r y much c o n c e r n e d w i t h  of  knowledge f r o m f e e l i n g .  in  a human, r a t h e r  way  Ch.  i n w h i c h an  about Mrs  XXXVII).  Garth,  t o her  who  that  "feeling's a  C a s a u b o n i s an  obsessional  a complete  has  t h a n a d o c t r i n a l way.  to l e a r n , p a i n f u l l y , (AB.  Dinah M o r r i s  to  divorce  l e a r n to  s o r t of  knowledge"  e x t r e m e example o f  to f e e l the  for others.  social  c h i l d r e n simultaneously  feel  Adam Bede comes  the  p u r s u i t of knowledge can  inability  represents  the  In  bring  contrast,  norm, g i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n  in intellectual  and  moral  concerns. It usually vision  i s within  the  takes place. and  Here t h e r e  self-motivated  It  i s i n the  We  see m a r r i a g e as  family  that the  a t r u e m a r r i a g e i s not or  the  egoist.  partnership, f o r Tom  family unit  The  and  there  relationship, and  the  possible  i s no  Harold  ideals  equal  chiefly  Garths.  Casaubon ship,  and  The  seem s a d l y  of  Ladislaw  as  f o r the d i s t o r t e d  put  figure.  into practice.  s o c i a l l y mature,  f o r the  incurable  f o r Hetty  We  see  among m i n o r  limited  i n the and  an  of  an  the  Poysers  Tulliver ideal  or  partner-  whose  human b a s i s .  Godfrey, Dorothea  characters.  his  stable  idealist,  in a solidly  D i n a h , Nancy and  complementary  light  Arthur,  i n which  f i g u r e s , s u c h as  m a r i t a l o b j e c t i v e s o f Mr  unequal  like  happy m a r r i a g e s ,  f e l l o w s h i p make f o r a  and  romantic  or  Transome's m a r r i a g e ,  however, g r o u n d e d  t h i n k s o f Adam and  the  integration  isolated  first  marriage  u s u a l l y between a r e a l i s t are,  place  the  i d e a l s are  final  Rosamond-Lydgate m a r r i a g e i s an  or Maggie;  respect  i s no  a c t i o n of  reward  mother's, i s a t r a v e s t y . mutual  that  and  One  15  These m a r r i a g e s a r e u s u a l l y and  blessed with  children,  i t i s o f t e n by t h e i r c h i l d r e n , o r l a c k o f them, t h a t we  can t e s t t h e success o r f a i l u r e o f t h e m a r r i a g e . o f t h e m a r r i e d s t a t e i s o f more i n t e r e s t than i t i s f o r Jane Austen.  to h i s l i f e  heroine.  woman a n d h e r c h i l d the c o n s t r i c t i n g  than  Not o n l y S i l a s Marner f i n d s a meaning  by means o f a c h i l d ,  Rufus Lyon,  Eliot  and j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  b u t a l s o S e t h Bede, who  makes h i s c l o s e s t c o n t a c t w i t h D i n a h nephew.  t o George  I t i s children rather  wedding b e l l s t h a t a r e t h e reward George E l i o t  The n a t u r e  through the care of h i s  too, finds i n the love of a penniless a power w h i c h c a u s e s h i m t o o v e r t h r o w  influence of h i s church.  I n saving another  human b e i n g f r o m t h e w r e c k , L y o n h a s t o r e j e c t p a r t i a l l y many previously held A moral by h i s a t t i t u d e  convictions. index t o a c h a r a c t e r i s p r o v i d e d , moreover, towards  children.  T h o s e who t e a c h and c a r e  f o r t h e y o u n g show t h a t t h e y h a v e b r o k e n  f r e e f r o m t h e i r own  self-absorbing concerns.  be r e c a l l e d , i s  Hetty, i t w i l l  i m p a t i e n t w i t h h e r c h a r g e s , w h i l e H a r o l d Transome l e a v e s t h e c a r e o f h i s s o n t o h i s man D o m i n i c some.  Mrs Garth, l i k e F e l i x H o l t ,  and t o t h e s e n i l e Mr T r a n i sa diligent  o f t h e m a n n e r s , m i n d s and m o r a l s o f t h e y o u n g . The  Mill  on the F l o s s ,  Wakem, i n  i s a t h i s most s y m p a t h e t i c i n t h e  s c e n e where he c o n s e n t s t o t h e i d e a o f h i s s o n ' s w i t h the daughter  instructor  marriage  o f h i s enemy.  C h i l d l e s s m a r r i a g e s a r e common among t h e i s o l a t e d a n d isolating rootless  figures.  There  i s no p r o g e n y  s o c i e t y o f S t . Ogg's.  f o r t h c o m i n g from t h e  M i s s Stump p o i n t s o u t t h e  c o n t r a s t between t h e l i f e - g i v i n g w o r l d o f Hayslope  and t h e  16 t r a g i c , doomed w o r l d Marner, i s o l a t e d and  by h i s c r i m e ,  Godfrey Cass, i n  remains, i n e f f e c t ,  r e j e c t e d by h i s n a t u r a l c h i l d .  Featherstone his  o f S t . Ogg's.^  i s the f r o g - f a c e d Rigg  birthright  humanity.  The  t o B u l s t r o d e who  Casaubon i s , of c o u r s e ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of Hetty's  V i n c y s miscarriage i s obvious; off  of the  have c o n s i d e r e d  selfish  the f u n c t i o n of  t h e n a r r o w o r d i s e n g a g e d c h a r a c t e r may more o b v i o u s l y d i r e c t  of i s o l a t i o n i s provided the Church of England The  the  The We  s o c i a l and m o r a l i d e a l  social relevance, P h i l i p  is left  D i n a h M o r r i s and  67.  problem  egocentric  treatment  see  m e r e l y comment and  D a n i e l D e r o n d a , as w e l l as P h i l i p ,  Stump, p.  A  and  him  heroine  of the mentor  sometimes p r o -  i n the k i n d of l i f e  o f f f r o m n o r m a l human c o n t a c t .  o f S t . Ogg's.  that  i n which  i n t o the  l e a d s , a s i n F e l i x H o l t , o r as w i t h P h i l i p ,  shut  acts.  s o c i e t y , and  s t e r n c r i t i c o f t h e wayward and  t h e F l o s s , he may  Rosamond  clergymen.  however, v a r i e d t h r o u g h o u t .  viding  context,  by t h e f i g u r e s o f t h e m e n t o r  i s common t o most o f t h e n o v e l s . is,  Bulstrode's  be m e a s u r e d .  insight  from  themselves  f a m i l y , i n p r o v i d i n g a frame of r e f e r e n c e  f u r t h e r and  sells  In t h i s  c h i l d m u r d e r and  f r o m n o r m a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s by We  who  childless, while  b o t h women c u t  1  Peter  alienated himself  daughters are given only a passing mention. the wider  childless  o n l y i s s u e of  Featherstone,  has  Silas  i n The  advise, being  Mill  he on  himself  T h i s i s the case w i t h but w h e r e a s D e r o n d a f i n d s  the o u t c a s t of the s o c i e t y Mary G a r t h  are female mentors  17 in  their  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Hetty  Sorrel  and F r e d V i n c y  respectively. The light  function  o f t h e mentor  upon t h e dilemma o f t h e i n s u l a r  b r i n g human v a l u e s t o b e a r , the o b j e c t i v e world, Both D i n a h and  by s t i m u l a t i n g  Dinah's  visit  as symbolic  to r e a c h Casaubon through  pupil,  but i n f a c t  the n e c e s s i t y The  case  clergymen  an a w a r e n e s s o f  and human  fact.  own a r t i f i c i a l and  to H e t t y ) i n as Dorothea's  forgotten  i s that  attempts  to refer  but t o h e l p  t h e p r i s o n has futile  t h e medium o f s c h o l a r s h i p ,  the n o v e l as l a b y r i n t h i n e ,  i r o n y of Dorothea's  t o throw  t r y to reach the hearts of Hetty  C a s a u b o n who a r e l o c k e d i n t h e i r  thus a s i g n i f i c a n c e  figure,  the world of s o c i a l  and D o r o t h e a  exclusive worlds.  in  i s not merely  and d e a d .  she s e e s h e r s e l f  efforts seen  The as t h e  to teach her scholar-husband  h i s learning  of the Church  t o t h e human of England  condition.  also provide  human s t a n d a r d s a g a i n s t w h i c h we c a n measure t h e s e l f i s h and solitary far  figures.  removed  insistence  T h e s e m a t u r e and b e n i g n g e n t l e m e n a r e  from d o c t r i n a l on s o c i a l  debate,  and m o r a l  and p r o v i d e a l e s s  duty  urgent  t h a n do t h e m e n t o r s .  Mr I r w i n e , D r . Kenn, Mr F a r e b r o t h e r and even " S p o r t i n g J a c k " L i n g o n have a humane and m o d e r a t i n g fellows. but  T h e s e men have a f a i r  a g r e a t e r degree  concerned  parishioners.  their  figure  o f human  than t h e i r  Practical  w i t h d o i n g t h e duty which  see them t o be t a c t f u l and  degree  on t h e i r failing,  o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s and  s u f f e r i n g s of the i s o l a t e d provincial  influence  communities.  n a r r o w and  and humane, t h e y a r e l i e s n e a r e s t them.  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g The r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n both  their  We homes  between p a r s o n and  18 s q u i r e ' s son  i n Adam Bede i s i n f o r m a l and  B o t h g a i n by  t h i s contact  way.  Mr  Farebrother  L y d g a t e , and only  does not  a decent makeshift.  high q u a l i t y .  hide h i s l i m i t a t i o n s i s not  Farebrother  Farebrother,  unlike Bulstrode, and  nature.  He  does not  carcase  ... Before  into  i s not  the  see  sees the i s not  him  up  their  fortunes  and  l o s s o f h i s g o l d and  child of  Eppie.  self,  and  social  is  D o r o t h e a and  and  we  interdependent  are c o n s i d e r i n g ,  i n the p l a c e  renunciation  Esther  has  The  i n one  of G o d f r e y ' s  aspects  by  neglected prison  s h u t away i n some  sealed  Although  of the c a t e g o r i e s of  S i l a s has  give  Silas  S i l a s t h u s becomes l i b e r a t e d f r o m t h e  e a s i l y placed  transgressor.  XVII).  sympathetic world  the d i s c o v e r y  t h e p a s t , w h i c h he  world's  as a "doomed  compartment of h i s mind, i s s u d d e n l y r e l e a s e d . i s not  the  a c c e p t humble d o m e s t i c i t y .  Marner i s r e s t o r e d to the the  and  T h i s means a v o l u n t a r y  s e l f i s h or m a t e r i a l concerns.  himself.  become r e - i n t e g r a t e d  to learn that his l i f e  of  in  worldly  . . . f o r heaven" (Ch.  f i g u r e can  l i v e s of o t h e r s .  i s astute  a f r a i d of  a  unlike  t r u t h about  the r e s t of the w o r l d  isolated has  he  only  d e l u d e d a b o u t h i s own  to n o u r i s h  s o c i e t y , he  w i t h the  but  being  w h i c h i s s a i d t o be o f  h i s t h e o l o g i c a l o p p o n e n t s , i n t h a t he n o t of o t h e r s ,  clergyman,  as a human  i s an e x c e p t i o n a l man  his opinions  from  a model  I t i s h i s value  to h i s preaching,  indulgence,  agreeable.  i n a human, r a t h e r t h a n a d o c t r i n a l  makes i t p l a i n t h a t he  that gives value  mutually  he  isolation  o f t h e d r e a m e r and  the  d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t h i s dream ( o f c h i l d r e n  o f g o l d ) comes t r u e , and  his 'guilt'  i n the minds of the narrow s o c i e t y of L a n t e r n h i s r e s t o r a t i o n i n the  was  Yard.  only Though  human f a m i l y i s somewhat f o r t u i t o u s ,  19 S i l a s l e a r n s t h e c r u c i a l m o r a l l e s s o n t h a t t h e r e c a n be no human c o n t a c t cal  activity All  w h i l e he d e v o t e s h i s l i f e  the i d e a l i s t s  a failure  mechani-  and t h e p u r s u i t o f w e a l t h . i n the novels  tolerance f o r the vagaries of t h e i r is  to a sterile  show a g r e a t  fellows.  In fact i t  t o temper t h e i r t o l e r a n c e w i t h wisdom  causes v i t a l misjudgements.  deal of  Adam c a n n o t c o n c e i v e  that of Hetty's  d o i n g w r o n g , and D i n a h t o o h a s d e l u s i o n s a b o u t h e r n a t u r e . Dorothea m i s i n t e r p r e t s Casaubon's c h a r a c t e r obvious warnings of her s i s t e r .  i n s p i t e of the  Mr L y o n t e n d s t o i n d u l g e  his  d a u g h t e r and g i v e f r e e r e i n t o h e r f o l l i e s .  and  r e a l i s m h a v e t o go hand i n hand b e f o r e  ship,  a vital  relation-  s u c h a s t h a t b e t w e e n Adam and D i n a h o r D o r o t h e a and  Ladislaw,  can take  Tolerance Christian ideal, This  Sympathy  ideal  place.  and w i s d o m d i s t i n g u i s h G e o r g e seen i n t h e F a r e b r o t h e r s  Eliot's  and t h e I r w i n e s .  i s n o t a l w a y s t o be f o u n d w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , a n d  its  l a c k i s i n s i s t e d o n by t h e a u t h o r  St.  Ogg's and t h e w o r l d  of Lantern  i n her p o r t r a y a l of  Yard.  t h a t t h e o s t r a c i s m o f M a g g i e and S i l a s  I t i s c l e a r here  shows t h e l a c k o f  v i s i o n of society rather than that of the i n d i v i d u a l . Eliot,  h o w e v e r , s e e k s t o w i d e n sympathy and a v o i d s  condemnation of these occupied  various isolated  one .  overt  She shows them t o be p r e -  w i t h r e l i g i o u s form r a t h e r than t h e s p i r i t  Christian feeling.  trated  societies.  George  of true  Her open-mindedness i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  f i g u r e s we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g i s w e l l  by h e r f i n a l p l e a f o r Tom T u l l i v e r :  o f u s , was i m p r i s o n e d . . i f you a r e i n c l i n e d  illus-  "Tom, l i k e  w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f h i s own t o be s e v e r e  every nature  on h i s s e v e r i t y ,  20 remember t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t o l e r a n c e l i e s those  with  who h a v e t h e w i d e r v i s i o n " ( B k . V I I , Ch. I I I ) . This p l e a f o r tolerance addressed t o the reader  r e m i n d s us o f s i m i l a r p l e a s on b e h a l f o f B u l s t r o d e and Casaubon. put  himself  G e o r g e E l i o t f r e q u e n t l y demands t h a t t h e r e a d e r i n a n o t h e r ' s p l a c e , and he w i l l  then l e a r n that  t h e r e c a n be no f i n a l j u d g e m e n t p a s s e d on a human Though G e o r g e E l i o t s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e s figure,  she sees him t o m e r i t  off  from t h e world  and  awareness.  extend  by h i s l a c k o f s y m p a t h y  In using another t o f u l f i l  some f u n c t i o n  t h e dreamer, the t r a n s g r e s s o r , t h e  t y r a n t and t h e i d e a l i s t v i o l a t e George E l i o t ,  the isolated  s y m p a t h y i n t h a t he i s c u t  outside himself  o f t h e i r own y e a r n i n g  being.  however, p l a c e s  a f u n d a m e n t a l human l a w .  t h e onus on t h e r e a d e r t o  sympathy, as D o r o t h e a d o e s , even t o t h e u n s y m p a t h e t i c .  CHAPTER II THE DREAMER  The in  dreamer  the r e a l  i s incapable of r e l a t i o n s h i p with  world,  allegiance.  because  Frequently  princess or a fine  she sees  others  she d e l u d e s  lady.  The r e a l  as o w i n g h e r  herself world  that  Maggie T u l l i v e r ,  ations of being where  she s e e s  an e r r i n g herself  i d e a o f h e r own v a l u e squire's  dream o f a w o r l d be  gratified The  by  assessing  t o endure the h u m i l i -  runs  as a queen.  away t o t h e g y p s i e s  Hetty  Sorrel's inflated  causes her t o delude her.  Esther  r a t h e r shabby  flattering  herself  that the  and Rosamond,  social  environment,  o f l u x u r y and e a s e where e v e r y whim  will  admirers.  dreamer h a s a l s o a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d  w h i c h combined w i t h  quently  child,  son i s i n l o v e w i t h  contemptuous o f t h e i r  unable  she i s a  i s n o t b r i g h t and  g l a m o u r o u s enough f o r h e r , and i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y to h e r ego.  others  her e g o c e n t r i c i t y p r e v e n t s  objectively  h e r own  suspended w h i l e  drama o r r o m a n t i c  situation.  she i s under  literature.  imagination her from  Thought  the s p e l l  i s fre-  of music,  Under t h e s e d u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e  of P u r c e l l ' s music, Maggie i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o Stephen's Esther  i s once caught r e a d i n g  B y r o n by F e l i x ,  should  be more c o n c e r n e d  social  As  remove, t h e dreamer  enclosed  and m o r a l  f e e l s she  questions.  l o n g as she c a n r e m a i n i n h e r f a n t a s y w o r l d ,  true r e l a t i o n s h i p with one  with  who  world  others feels  i s confronted  21  i s impossible secure. by h a r s h  charm.  and r e a l i t y  where i s at  But when t h e a r t i f i c i a reality,  t h e dreamer  22 experiences  p a i n and  ing  cannot marry Hetty  t h a t he  of a l l her  suffering.  So A r t h u r ' s  b r i n g s about "the  (AB.,  Ch.  XXXI).  w i t h Stephen i n v o l v e s v o l u n t a r y experience. life  soft  of  She  s t r u g g l e " and  stream s t i l l  be  expedition  submission  dream-like  "lulled  to sleep with  and  fading l i k e  f i n d George E l i o t  Bk.  V I , Ch.  XIII).  a l l are c r i t i c i s e d  The  f o u n d "no  v a n i t y , and  utility"  Ch.  (AB.  who  has  VI).  Ch.  for this.  We  Ch.  power frequently  kittenish  George E l i o t ,  l i k e her  almost  her  of ornament  to  Even the u n c a l c u l a t i n g Maggie T u l more m o r a l a w a r e n e s s t h a n  share of feminine  vanity.  She  the looks  t o be w o r s h i p p e d " ( B k .  V,  whose  b e a u t y of young f r i s k i n g t h i n g s , r o u n d - l i m b e d ,  circumventing  VII).  own  less tolerant  I l l ) , though Maggie l a c k s the v a n i t y of Hetty,  gambolling,  account  T h e r e i s , m o r e o v e r , an  "a d i v i n i t y w e l l p l e a s e d  beauty i s "the  (AB-  own  consciousness.  the p r e f e r e n c e  l e s s beauty and  o t h e r d r e a m e r s , has down l i k e  her  w e a k n e s s o f w h i c h she was  than feminine  liver,  on  entitled  s u s p i c i o n of charming, or m e r e l y p r e t t y ,  i n a l l the novels.  Poyser,  land  chapter  p o i n t i n g the c o n t r a s t between  l a c k of moral f i b r e .  Puritanical  Mrs  that  the dreamers d e l i g h t i n e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r  s e d u c t i o n , and  "the  the wondrous a e r i a l  so much as o t h e r s ' , on a w a k i n g t o f u l l  heroines  to a  r e a l i t y of  "Waking" d e s c r i b e s Maggie's s u f f e r i n g , not  All  new-  f l o w i n g over her, w i t h those d e l i c i o u s  o f t h e w e s t " (MF.,  c h a r m and  shattering  Maggie's rowing  needs to escape from the  visions melting,  of  explain-  l i t t l e d r e a m w o r l d , t h e c r u s h i n g b l o w on h e r  born p a s s i o n "  old  letter  you  by a f a l s e a i r o f  innocence"  23 The likely less  dreamers can  t o be u n p l e a s a n t ,  to o t h e r s .  from a l l those thus  wilful sent and  not  who  feel  time,  in their  own  t h e need  to escape,  know them and  only cut  Barbara  the  Esther  suspended p r e s e n t .  heart  and  indulge  a double  who  cannot  escape t h e i r  Hetty and  unreal  static,  and  reality,  and  Rosamond a r e n o t  nature are  of t h e i r  ;scarcely modified  stantiality  of t h e i r  enchantment  i s an  maturity. Esther  dreams.  essential  Self-denying  show t h r o u g h  possible  dreams.  w h e r e a s M a g g i e and  to those  love  their  who  George  Eliot  Esther  disand  Hetty,  Maggie,  They resemble c h i l d r e n world.  aware o f Their  the  fragmentary  a s p i r a t i o n s remain  e v e n by  contact  become aware o f  with the  i n t h e i r progress  renunciations  escape from the world  of  insub-  distowards  s u c h as t h a t w h i c h M a g g i e  separate  of  changing  T h e i r movement t o w a r d s stage  by  i n a kind  themselves ever  fairy-tale  their pre-  present,  imaginations  or g r o w i n g o l d i s n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d .  by  i n the  sense of  and  away They  others  t h e reason."'''  their  idea of  with  t h a t both  b r e a k between p a s t  The  are  the  to run  also isolated  Hardy p o i n t s out  b r e a k between t h e  Rosamond and  but  by  e g o i s m , when  become anonymous.  o f f from c o n t a c t  Wordsworth were " h a u n t e d by  f u t u r e consequences t h a t  c a u s e p a i n t o t h e m s e l v e s , much  e x c l u s i o n of r e a l i t y ,  integration: the  or  Embalmed  dream i s b r o k e n t h e y  are  see no  and  i s only  selfish  dreaming.  B a r b a r a H a r d y , "The Moment o f D i s e n c h a n t m e n t i n G e o r g e E l i o t ' s N o v e l s , " R e v i e w o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , N. S. V (July,  1954), p. 261.  2 4  Hetty  i s i n c a p a b l e o f l o v e f o r she  f a l s e world, dominant  seeing only a r e f l e c t i o n  image c h a n g e s , as we  the n o v e l , from a reality  integration  into  the world;  A r t h u r , her  her,  she d e s i r e s o n l y d e a t h own  to f l e e  pain, from  justifying Fear loving  her  and  when h e r  my  t o go  misery"  s e l f - p r e - o c c u p i e d to the spaces,  into  the green  (Ch. XLV)*. Alone  Hetty fields  Hetty i n the  always b o l t e d the door"  an  seen  only of  and  in vain  awareness i n H e t t y of  awareness brought  on  by  tries  remains  self-  end. i n another the  fundamental  d e c l a r e s "I should  security  self-  of fancy c o l l a p s e s  - I hated  i s afraid  (Ch. XV).  to marry  Conscious  also  again  of  i s shattered  i s going  Hetty  o f t h o s e whose u n r e a l f a b r i c  human c o n t a c t .  arouse  child,  human o b l i g a t i o n s .  when t o u c h e d , b y a c t u a l i t y .  through  w h i c h becomes  illusion  for herself.  abandons h e r own  of w i d e open  The  t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y  h e r o i n e , Gwendolen H a r l e t h , shows up  insecurity  like  prison,  would-be c a p t i v e g a l l a n t ,  she  in a  follow Hetty's progress  For Hetty  that  her  of h e r s e l f .  the m i r r o r to the dark  f o r her.  i s living  and  of her  Only  never  'em  so i n  s u s p i c i o u s of bedroom  "she  Dinah i s able  the o u t s i d e w o r l d ,  f e a r r a t h e r than  by  but  to  it is  sympathy  as  Dinah o p t i m i s t i c a l l y b e l i e v e d . I n h e r dreams o f t h e decked on  L i k e Gwendolen and  snob, much c o n c e r n e d  o t h e r s , but  relations.  She  sees  herself  c l o t h e s , wife of C a p t a i n Donnithorne,  by many a d m i r e r s .  social on  in fine  future, Hetty  Hetty  with  i s without  i s rootless,  the  affection  h a v i n g no  looked  Rosamond, she  effect  she w i l l  for friends  t i e s with  the  as  is a  make and past.  25 The  importance  of family t i e s ,  f o r George E l i o t , continually isolation  to f i n d  h a s a l r e a d y been r e m a r k e d  apparent  the past,  and w i l l  be  a s we examine t h e p r o b l e m o f human  i n more d e t a i l .  extravagant  and o f l i n k s w i t h  narcissistic  The r e l a t i o n s h i p vision  between  Hetty's  o f t h e f u t u r e , and h e r f a i l u r e  any g e n u i n e human a f f e c t i o n  i s brought  out i n t h i s  passage: They a r e b u t d i m , i l l - d e f i n e d p i c t u r e s t h a t h e r n a r r o w b i t o f an i m a g i n a t i o n c a n make o f t h e f u t u r e ; b u t o f e v e r y p i c t u r e she i s t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e , i n f i n e c l o t h e s ; Captain D o n n i t h o r n e i s v e r y c l o s e t o h e r , p u t t i n g h i s arm round h e r , p e r h a p s k i s s i n g h e r , and e v e r y b o d y e l s e a d m i r i n g and e n v y i n g h e r - e s p e c i a l l y Mary B u r g e , whose new p r i n t d r e s s l o o k s v e r y c o n t e m p t i b l e by t h e s i d e o f H e t t y ' s r e s p l e n d e n t t o i l e t t e . Does any sweet o r sad memory m i n g l e w i t h t h i s dream o f t h e f u t u r e - any l o v i n g t h o u g h t o f h e r second p a r e n t s - o f t h e c h i l d r e n she had h e l p e d t o t e n d - o f any y o u t h f u l companion, any p e t a n i m a l , any r e l i c o f h e r own c h i l d h o o d even? Not one. . . . H e t t y c o u l d have c a s t a l l h e r p a s t l i f e b e h i n d h e r , and n e v e r c a r e d t o be r e m i n d e d o f i t a g a i n . . . . H e t t y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d how anybody c o u l d be v e r y f o n d o f middle-aged people. And a s f o r t h o s e t i r e s o m e c h i l d r e n . . . - a s bad a s b u z z i n g i n s e c t s t h a t w i l l come t e a s i n g y o u on a hot day when y o u want t o be q u i e t ( C h . X V ) . The  dreamer  dream-world.  sees o t h e r s as p l a y i n g p a r t s i n h e r own  L i k e Gwendolen H a r l e t h , H e t t y  the a r t o f s e d u c t i o n .  This inevitably  harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p . true a f f i n i t y  where one p a r t y  at  the expense o f t h e o t h e r . her a f f e c t i o n s  Even a t t h e f u n e r a l romantic  leads to a lack of  T h e r e c a n be no s i n c e r e  no  and  i s skilled i n  seeks  Hetty  a r e as s h a l l o w  to gain  affection,  fulfillment  i s i n love with  as h e r v i s i o n  o f Mam's f a t h e r ,  herself,  i s narrow,  Petty i s indulging i n  day-dreams o f A r t h u r , w o n d e r i n g when he w i l l  appear  26 in  church,  hurt  and i f he w i l l  by A r t h u r ' s  possibility The  face  and  he may have changed  the r e a l i s a t i o n To admit  comforting  shape i t s e l f  she h o l d s  a child.  a 11  over  all  those  who  the  human b e i n g  was a l o n e  fast  the g i r l s to feel  words o f t h e i r  other is  hugged  Hetty, too, last  meeting,  fear that  the future  incapable of  gratified  p r i d e , a s a. s u p e r i o r i t y  the devastating solely  l o n e l i n e s s which  have r e l i e d  island  e g o i s t s i n the novels  was gone."  Insensi-  t h e dreamer,  like  such as Casaubon o r B u l s t r o d e ,  of Arthur's of help,  "She  o f dreams, and a l l r o u n d h e r  human balm o f l o v e c a n be a p p l i e d t o H e t t y ' s  the p r o s a i c l i f e  comes t o  f o r comfort:  t o t h e w i s h e s and f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s ,  j e c t s Dinah's o f f e r  i s already  f o r t h e m s e l v e s on t h e r e m o v a l o f  on whom t h e y  on h e r l i t t l e  But H e t t y  h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e to the p o s s i b l e c r i t i c i s m  face  with  her s e c r e t — t h a t a great  she knew" ( C h . X X X ) .  live  when t h e c o n t e n t s  of her  t o the d e l u s i o n s o f her i m a g i n a t i o n  was t h e d a r k , unknown water where A r t h u r tive  refusal  i n some way q u i t e u n l i k e h e r dream" ( C h .  her-—with  beginning  cherished  that a l l i s not w e l l  t h e "dim, u n d e f i n e d  "She s t i l l  gentleman l o v e d  about h e r .  i n her o b s t i n a t e  Cut o f f from t h e s u b s t a n t i a l w o r l d ,  loving, like  h i s mind  i s what Gwendolen c a n n e v e r d o .  to Arthur's  XXX).  n o t even admit t h e  o f the baseless nature  to the world  seeks t o exclude  might  When h e r p r i d e i s  i s p e r h a p s h e r most  There i s a d e s p e r a t i o n  marriage  clings  at her. will  p r i d e o f t h e dreamer  fantasies. her  n e g l e c t , Hetty  that  possession. to  glance  letter feeling  of others. hurt  are revealed.  No  pride She r e -  shame a t h a v i n g t o  she had r e j e c t e d i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n .  27 "She  c o u l d never  could  s t s y h e r e and  b e t t e r bear  (Ch.  and  never  She see  any  any  i s no  the  later  Dorothea,  and  a p u r s u i t that  his  s c h o l a r s h i p may  for  the  false  novels.  be.  of the  -  s i n k i n g back  to run  away  old faces  she into  that  again"  glass:  that  i n the  she m i g h t  complain  s h a t t e r i n g of  blow on nature  her  who  has  animal,  outcast  deluded  heroines,  from  Gwendolen, as  face,  and  isolated  of  i t - with  in  them f o r any  Eliot  Unlike  l o v e o f Adam finds  a  her......... the  crushing  pleasure-craving  XXXI). i s seen as  the  later  a wounded  romantically with  i n her  she  s o r r o w s but  as  with  the  was  i n her  rounded  her  what w i l l  narrow thoughts,  own" be  (Ch. t h e end  XXXVII).  and delusions  childish  despairing soul, looking and  tear-  companion  Maggie, E s t h e r ,  grief  of  futile  remains, \mlike  the narrow heart  apart  (Ch.  her  love  reddened,  like  dream-world,  afflicted  Hetty  s c a r c e l y makes human c o n t a c t  unloving,  asks the reader  wandering,  little  society.  She  hard,  almost  - t h a t would p i t y  "Poor w a n d e r i n g H e t t y , the  the  at her  r e j e c t e d humanity,  Hetty  other mortal.  love.  looks  an o v e r p o w e r i n g p a i n "  Hetty,  however  rejects  " I t was  to  a l l her  and  new-born p a s s i o n ,  with  who  than the  glamour o f a romance w i t h A r t h u r ,  stained  face  figure  absorbs, him,  Hetty,  herself,  of  like  old l i f e  E v e n C a s a u b o n has  communion o n l y w i t h  any  than  more i s o l a t e d  of  The  would  the  XXXI). Perhaps there  in  on w i t h  s o m e t h i n g q u i t e new  the o l d everyday round. v e r y morning,  go  no  out room  George  " o f her o b j e c t l e s s  from a l l l o v e " (Ch.XXXVII).  Because o f  her  28 failure of  to break through  relationship  a child  or  clinging the  novel.  an a n i m a l ,  perform  by  the  fate any  self  into  remains at the  w i t h no  meaning. and  Hetty  service  death  t o t h e community  life  level  (Ch.  end  from  of  f o r she  such  of  XXXVII)  i s excluded  r e u n i o n at the  i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  a  the  i s unable  as A r t h u r  does  r e n u n c i a t i o n o f h i s p l a c e as s q u i r e . The  c o n t r a s t between H e t t y  p r e f i g u r e d i n an  Fable with  a Great  Mrs  H a r d y ' s book on  two  hamadryads,  Idione  spent  her  early  As Mrs  Hardy  Idione  and  fable  Maggie  H i e r a , who  story  lies  called  lived own  by  us  Little  of  a lake.  reflection  i n which  A  in  tells  the r e f l e c t i o n s of the  story  Tulliver  i s paraphrased  "The  " T h e r e i s a sense  books.  and  by G e o r g e E l i o t  days l o o k i n g at her  says,  Eliot's  The  Sorrel  George E l i o t :  tS->e p a t t e r n o f t h i s  JjGeorge  essay  Moral.  water, H i e r a i n watching  and  of  a " h u n t e d , wounded b r u t e "  of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  Her  to  is  with others, Hetty  to a l i f e  scenes  the b a r r i e r s  i n the  sky  both  and the  clouds. moral  at the h e a r t of a l l her  T h i s i s the c o n t r a s t of the  in-turned  3 and  the o u t - t u r n e d  and  she  i s also  but,  apart  that  are exposed  at  least  by  the  from  i n the  attitudes  heart."  isolated Philip  Maggie i s a dreamer, l i k e  from  Wakem, i t i s t h e  r a t h e r than first  common f e e l i n g w i t h  those  p a r t o f The  of o t h e r s  such  her  limitations  Mill  as h e r  on t h e  society,  of  of Maggie h e r s e l f . Floss,  Hetty,  others Maggie,  i s isolate*  f a t h e r and  Mr  Filey  o f George E l i o t :  A  Study  2 in  B a r b a r a Hardy, The N o v e l s Form ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 8 1 . 3  Ibid.  29 who is  tend a  t o t h i n k her  and  i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l because  vivid  shows sympathy and  imagination, unlike  but p r o s a i c , "can't  and  her  intelligence,  b r o t h e r Tom  of narrow s e n s i b i l i t y ,  abide  books" her  I , Ch.  to  miller.  Luke, however, i s u n a b l e  about  share  (Bk.  attempts  literary  European t r a v e l .  lessness and  She  sees  fellows,  declaring  Dutchmen, "but know about  and  seems h a r s h  to  Maggie f l e e s  understand,  i n t o her  ability  to f e e l ,  impulsive nature imagination,  spoils  impatient her  attic,  pushing  to share Maggie's  plodding,  and  a hunger  even  head  enthusiasm  Maggie shows a  seeks wider  rest-  f o r knowledge  contact with  her  to Luke's i n d i f f e r e n c e  f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s , Luke  to her, to her  and  I , Ch.  about  - we  IV).  ought But  those n e a r e s t her  attic  because  and  because  find  sympathy  drives  fail  nails  her mother  she  her c o u s i n Lucy  feels  t o o much.  and  her  her  i s forced  Her  highly  brother's  develop  into  the  rabbits;  brushes,  being  isolation  away t o t h e g y p s i e s  i n t h e mud.  in  i n i t s surroundings,  so c a r e f u l l y  She  runs  i s constricted  M a g g i e day-dreams by  to look after  triviality. later  she  she  family f r i c t i o n ,  to  fails  the h a i r  and  not  p r i v a t e world.  and  with  but  causes  failing  i t s own  booming m i l l she  i s slow,  doll.  Maggie i s i s o l a t e d ,  creates  a  is practical  w i t h Luke, the  c r e a t u r e s " (Bk.  when t h e w o r l d  her  delight  i n response  fellow  has  the p o i n t l e s s n e s s of making a p a t c h -  t h e y ' r e our our  and  I l l ) , whereas Maggie  i n her narrow environment,  experience.  who Tom  Even as a c h i l d  work f o r h e r Aunt G l e g g ,  to  she  girl. Maggie  and  silly  after  Maggie's quest  for a  in  30  r o m a n t i c dream i s as b l a t a n t after  the chimera  returns,  has d i s s o l v e d  chastened,  Ilotty's r e t r e a t and m o r a l  into  t o her f a t h e r .  not only  codes,  as H e t t y ' s , b u t u n l i k e  because  but a l s o  hard  reality,  There  Hetty, she  is no r e t u r n  from  she t r a n s g r e s s e s s o c i a l  because  she r e j e c t s  the world of  teality. A l s o u n l i k e Hetty, Kaggie relationship sympathise brother  with her.  She h a s human t i e s The f a m i l y  r e c k l e s s n e s s of her f a t h e r ' s determination  such  dying,  suit  arch-enemy,  of y e t another  t h a t would a  t o Mrs G l e g g , draws Tom and M a g g i e responds  to the t h r i l l  in toils,  illusion:  "Here,  enable her t o renounce  Brooke  and n e e d  t o be l o v e d , n o t m e r e l y  in  t h e son o f  secrets  the help of  moreover  of  - here  life was  outward  c a n become a S t . T h e r e s a . admired,  At the l a s t meeting  t h e Red Deeps, b e f o r e Tom's  she v i t a l l y  She c a n no more be a Thomas  i n t h e age and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  the n o v e l .  her f a t h e r  t h e n , was a s e c r e t  things";  Dorothea  throughout  With  a l l other  n e e d s t h e human c o n t a c t o f o t h e r s . living  self-abnegation  But Maggie i s n o t t h e p e r s o n who c a n  t h e w o r l d o f "outward  a Kempis,  from  e s t r a n g e d f r o m h e r , M a g g i e goes i n p u r -  ( B k . I V , Ch. I I I ) .  renounce  of  excluded  and P h i l i p ,  s u b l i m e h e i g h t t o be r e a c h e d w i t h o u t  things"  to the c h a l l e n g e of  o f Thomas a Kempis.  h e r b r o t h e r engaged  on by t h e  a t t a c k on Wakem, and h i s p r o u d  a loan  and r e s p o n d s  the i n f l u e n c e  father's  w i t h her f a t h e r , h e r  t h e f a m i l y , w h i l e Maggie remains  industry,  through  her  to repay  understand o r  d o w n f a l l , brought  however, Tom's p r i d e  re-instating  affectionate  even w i t h t h o s e who do n o t a l w a y s  and P h i l i p .  together.  enters into  callous  she d o e s ,  than  Maggie's dependence are i n s i s t e d of ^ h i l i p  interference  on  and M a g g i e in their  31 relationship, withdrawal  Philip  from  exposes  life.  He  the e r r o r  shows i t as but  o f M a g g i e ' s t o evade t h e o b l i g a t i o n by  e s c a p i n g from  given  the world.  s t r e n g t h to renounce  but P h i l i p  of Maggie's another  intended attempt  o f , b e i n g a human b e i n g  Maggie b e l i e v e s external  ills  and  she w i l l  be  temptations,  declares:  "No, you w i l l n o t , M a g g i e : no one has s t r e n g t h g i v e n t o do what i s u n n a t u r a l . I t i s mere c o w a r d i c e t o seek s a f e t y i n negations. No c h a r a c t e r becomes s t r o n g i n t h a t way. You w i l l be thrown i n t o t h e w o r l d some day, and t h e n e v e r y r a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f y o u r n a t u r e t h a t you deny now, will a s s a u l t you l i k e a savage a p p e t i t e " (Bk. V, Ch. I I I ) . Maggie of  human d e l i g h t ,  fallacious. motives  seen  song,  her  herself  her  to enter the  ideal,  w h i c h he  p o i n t s out 4 and  that  to l u r e  Although  criticised  by  of  this  Philip's  the use  indicates  as  of  that  be the  sympathy w i t h M a g g i e ' s dream o f retreat  the author  day-dreams o f H e t t y S o r r e l i s p r o p h e t i c , and  from d u t y ,  world  sees  w h i c h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e n o v e l may  i s n o t w h o l l y out  isolation.""* not  renounce  George E l i o t  as an a t t e m p t  author  and  as t e m p t i n g  were n o t w h o l l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d  Philip's  is  sees P h i l i p  as  o f Maggie's from strongly  reality  as a r e t h e v u l g a r  o r Rosamond V i n c y , P h i l i p ' s v o i c e  Maggie i s u n a b l e  to s t i f l e  her  emotional  needs. Painting novels  as w e l l  i n underlining  as m u s i c  the dangers  has  i t s function  of not  i n the  seeing the  reality  4 MF,  Bk.  V, Ch.  III.  "^For comment on t h e p a r t p l a y e d by m u s i c i n s e d u c i n g M a g g i e f r o m r e a l i t y see H a r d y , p. 217 and H a r v e y p . 138  32 o f o n e ' s own sits to  nature.  for a portrait  i n Middlemarch.  o f a madonna, and  tall one  portrait  by P h i l i p  Hamadryad, d a r k of the  vision  f i r trees"  i s here not  this  less  who  has  as one "the  coronet,  full  looked  and  she w i l l  s t r o n g and  noble,  V,  Ch.  III).  t o M a g g i e ' s own  time  power n o t  down l i k e  over  i s to prove  George E l i o t  i s very  able  to suggest  dawning o f p a s s i o n as  skillfully  with  Rosamond V i n c y .  Hetty  a drug,  Sorrel  dream: from  arms b a r e ,  her  in  the the  and  Hetty her hair  baubles intensity  hanging  i n her of her  e a r s " (Ch. X V ) , distracted  bedroom, Maggie c o n s i d e r s t h e p a s t where her - p r e o c c u p a t i o n firm  grasp,  She  The  in a curly  and  thus  had  sense  of many,  evokes she  the does  heady e f f e c t ,  eyes  beautiful  neck  m a t c h e s Maggie Alone  to s l i p  into  t o work:  of  and back,  Tulliver  i n her  day's o u t i n g w i t h  the m i s c h i e f begins  as  enactment  t a n g l e down h e r  her  and  effects  her  passion.  caused  that  power t o charm.  w i t h Maggie as  drama, h e r  but  intoxicating  c h e e k s f l u s h e d and  imaginary  neverthe-  black  i n the  t h i s power h a s .  "her  dream  well pleased  i s shown i n Adam Bede a f t e r H e t t y ' s  glistening  and  the b r i g h t  the  from  artistic  extravagant  d i s a s t r o u s to the l i v e s  of  her w i l d  Philip's  a coquette  a  issued  h e r s e l f , merely,  which the r e a l i s a t i o n  of  just  t h a t of a d i v i n i t y  Though n o t  for a  "look l i k e  Rosamond a r e , M a g g i e i s aware o f her  T h i s power  sits  as queen o f g y p s i e s , but  lustrous face, with  be w o r s h i p p e d . "  Hetty  so M a g g i e  i n which  (Bk.  parallel  of h e r s e l f ,  others:  and  Dorothea  Casaubon i s p l e a s e d  be p a i n t e d as t h e l e a r n e d A q u i n a s ,  second  to  J u s t as,  Stephen his  33 "Her  eyes  head was  and  c h e e k s had  an a l m o s t  t h r o w n backward, and  palms outward  and  with that  t o accompany m e n t a l  voice.  The  absorbed reverie  of the  in  i n the f i r s t  up  to the  lulling  s p e l l as  the  fully  resonance  to sleep of the  of past  love,  beginnings of another  as of  she Stephen's  moral  of the n o v e l , i s  boating expedition.  i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n into  the  t e n s i o n of t h e arms w h i c h i s a p t  c o n s c i e n c e , w h i c h i s t o become t h e c r i s i s prefigured  her  h e r hands were c l a s p e d w i t h  t o e n j o y i n g t h e r h y t h m and  effect  brilliancy;  a b s o r p t i o n " ( B k . V I , Ch. I I I ) .  Maggie g i v e s h e r s e l f gives herself  feverish  Here the  dreamer,  i s drawn from  one  f a r more d e v a s t a t i n g  i t s effects:  She- f e l t ' '• l o n e l y , cut o f f from P h i l i p - the o n l y p e r s o n who had e v e r seemed t o l o v e h e r d e v o t e d l y , as she had a l w a y s l o n g e d t o be l o v e d . But p r e s e n t l y t h e r h y t h m i c movement o f t h e o a r s a t t r a c t e d h e r , and she t h o u g h t she s h o u l d l i k e t o l e a r n how t o row. T h i s r o u s e d h e r f r o m her r e v e r i e . . . (Bk. V I , Ch. I I ) U n l i k e H e t t y , Maggie n e v e r w i t h her w h o l e s e l f ; and  she  becomes a m o t i v e  i s always c o n s c i o u s l y or  obligations. S t . Ogg's; and  i t never  Maggie she  suffers  i s denied  s u r r e n d e r s to the  i n the hard p r o s a i c w o r l d  a legitimate outlet  this  human need  l o v e are the enticements If  genuine  love,  is  denied,  then  the  f o r the  of music  "rational  substitutes  are  f o r her  and  romantic  satisfaction sought.  affections  by G e o r g e  soothing e f f e c t s  of  her  of  o f an anodyne,  o f w h i c h a r e c o n s t a n t l y p o i n t e d out  Linked with  living,  s u b - c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f  her p a s s i o n f o r Stephen i s something  dangers  for  dream  the  Eliot. of  literature. . . . nature,"  Maggie i s n o t  as  34 vain  as H e t t y ,  based  but her s u b s t i t u t e l i f e  a s i t i s n o t on n a i v e  i s as i n s u b s t a n t i a l ,  dreams o f t h e f u t u r e , b u t on a  w i l f u l m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of present  realities.  I t was n o t t h a t she t h o u g h t d i s t i n c t l y o f Mr S t e p h e n G u e s t , o r d w e l t on t h e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t he l o o k e d a t h e r w i t h admiration; i t was r a t h e r t h a t she f e l t t h e h a l f - r e m o t e p r e s e n c e o f a w o r l d o f l o v e and b e a u t y and d e l i g h t , made up o f v a g u e m i n g l e d images f r o m a l l t h e p o e t r y and romance she had e v e r r e a d , o r had e v e r woven i n t o h e r dreamy r e v e r i e s . . . . The m u s i c was v i b r a t i n g i n h e r s t i l l - " ^ u r c e l l ' s m u s i c , w i t h i t s w i l d p a s s i o n and f a n c y - and she c o u l d n o t stay i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n o f that bare, l o n e l y p a s t . She was i n h e r b r i g h t e r a e r i a l w o r l d a g a i n " (Bk. V I , Ch. I I I ) . As "brighter it  would  Barbara aerial  Hardy p o i n t s out, world"  literature.  She f e e l s  a non-moral  and p u r e l y  tempting  imaginative  that the surrender sensuous e x p e r i e n c e  of Maggie T u l l i v e r ' s  has a t times  that  element i n  of one's s e l f t o i s reprehensible.  surrender  to Stephen's  something o f the f l a v o u r of an  incantation.  The r h y t h m o f t h e o r o s e ,  and  c r e a t e an a l m o s t  sibilants  The p o s i t i v i s t  I t i s p e r h a p s her l i m i t a t i o n  i s suspicious of the purely  description  the glory  c a u s e s h e r t o be s u s p i c i o u s o f s u b j e c t i v e  approaches to r e a l i t y .  Her  i s a d e l u s i o n r a t h e r than  be f o r W o r d s w o r t h or C o l e r i d g e .  i n George E l i o t  she  f o r George E l i o t t h e  and t h e u s e o f l i q u i d s  Tennysonian s p e l l  on t h e  reader: The b r e a t h o f t h e young, u n w e a r i e d d a y , t h e d e l i c i o u s r h y t h m i c d i p o f t h e o a r s , t h e f r a g m e n t a r y song o f a p a s s i n g b i r d . . . . Some low, subdued, l a n g u i d e x c l a m a t i o n o f l o v e came f r o m S t e p h e n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e ( B k . V I , Ch. X I I I ) .  Hardy, p . 196.  35 The  language here  seduction, surrender  and  fits  perfectly  the moral e v i l  to the  spirit  into  of  the c o n t e x t  suspension  o f dream and  of  of thought.  enchantment  The  i s s o o n made  explicit: t h o u g h t d i d n o t b e l o n g t o t h a t e n c h a n t e d haze i n w h i c h t h e y were e n v e l o p e d - i t b e l o n g e d t o t h e p a s t and t h e f u t u r e t h a t l a y o u t s i d e the haze. M a g g i e was o n l y d i m l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e banks . . . and d w e l t w i t h no r e c o g n i t i o n on t h e v i l l a g e s . . . . A t a l l t i m e s she was so l i a b l e t o f i t s o f a b s e n c e , t h a t she was l i k e l y enough t o l e t her way-marks p a s s u n n o t i c e d (Bk. V I , Ch. X I I I ) . Whereas H e t t y hers  to  sleep.  r e q u i r e d i f an  is  t o be m a i n t a i n e d . she  seeks to  supposing  a fence  the  by  Maggie  i n f l u e n c e of a drug,  and  u n s p e a k a b l e charm i n b e i n g  told  everything decided  . . . she was  of having  said  heaven of t h e i r  f o r her  what t o do,  future l i f e ,  Maggie f i n d s  a t e words made a v i s i o n  of  t o her  been b e f o r e ;  the  than  time  i t had  excluded  ever  such  a l l realities"  M a g g i e wakes from  her  a life  (Bk.  yields that  isolation  to Stephen " t h e r e was and  hardly  o r done a n y t h i n g d e c i s i v e ; ' . '  and  laxity  l e a d s t o an  finds  a  Maggie  moral  submits  others  Hetty,  s u b m i t t i n g to  The  i s ignored  vigilance  like  of t h i s world,  Stephen.  allows  the needs of  become r e a l i t y .  a g a i n s t the harshness  world  and  restricted  t o become so,  g e n u i n e human c o n t a c t .  under  shows t h a t a c o n s t a n t  t h a t i t can  r e s u l t s when t h e r e a l  if  c o n s c i e n c e , Maggie  Maggie i s not  the v o i c e o f the charming  from  no  awareness of r e a l i t y  allows herself  dream and  has  George E l i o t  is  but  Sorrel  as an  having conscious  Dreaming o f  the  "Stephen's p a s s i o n -  more f u l l y  present  and  the v i s i o n  V I ,  Ch.  sleep, l i t e r a l l y  for  X I I I ) .  and  metaphoric-  36 ally, own  to f i n d  dread"  (Bk. V I , Ch. X I V ) .  true position into  she i s " a l o n e w i t h  The r e a l i s a t i o n  and h e r o b l i g a t i o n s  a world  where  had  returned  from  her  father,  dreams,  h e r own memory and h e r  action  contrite,  t o o t h e r s b r i n g s h e r back  i s once a g a i n p o s s i b l e .  t h e world, o f t h e g y p s i e s  so Maggie  of her  As  she  to the love of  r e t u r n s t o S t . Ogg's f o r s a k i n g i d l e  knowing t h a t t h r o u g h  her  b r e a c h o f f a i t h and c r u e l s e l f i s h n e s s . . . she had r e n t t h e t i e s t h a t had g i v e n m e a n i n g t o d u t y , and had made h e r s e l f an o u t l a w e d s o u l , w i t h no g u i d e b u t t h e wayward c h o i c e o f her own p a s s i o n (Bk. V I , Ch. X I V ) . At  t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f The M i l l  cally  u n i t e d t o Tom  who  love,  associated with duty  on t h e F l o s s ,  r e p r e s e n t s her p a s t  rejected  with  Tom  by t h e s o c i e t y  i s not j u s t  duty  o f S t . Ogg's.  a convenient  between p a s s i o n and d u t y ,  criticises  possible  this  " f o r people  themselves  legitimate  but she i n death  r e s o l u t i o n of the  conflict  but i s a l s o  hypocritical  lies,  Her u n i o n  a martyrdom  hands o f a s u s p i c i o u s and m a t e r i a l i s t i c Eliot  and  i s symboli-  to the f a m i l y .  Maggie r e t u r n s t o t h e p l a c e where is  Maggie  society.  s o c i e t y where  at the George i t was  t o h o l d many p a g a n i d e a s , and b e l i e v e  good c h u r c h  people  notwithstanding"  (Bk. IV, Ch. I ) .  As t h e i m a g e r y p a t t e r n makes u s aware, M a g g i e has moved the  limited  Deeps  satisfaction  to the C h r i s t i a n Rosamond V i n c y ,  of being  fulfilment  a pagan d e i t y  i n t h e Red  of s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g  t h o u g h n o t as s h a l l o w  from  as H e t t y  love.^ Sorrel,  For a f u l l a n a l y s i s o f Maggie's p r o g r e s s i o n towards C h r i s t i a n l o v e see B e r n a r d J . P a r i s , E x p e r i m e n t s i n L i f e : G e o r g e E l i o t ' s Q u e s t f o r V a l u e s ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1 5 6 - 1 6 8 .  37 never  manages t o l o v e .  romantic shocked  d e l u s i o n s , but into reality  M i d d l e m a r c h her  her  she  consequent  by W i l l  romance, l e a d s t o no  earns.  She  p r o f e s s i o n except  has  being  rejection  of  their  At  no  under on  1  f r e s h awareness.  suffers  catharsis,  Ladislaw s  o p i n i o n o f h e r husband  amount o f money he medical  L i k e Maggie,  t h e end  of  i s decided  by  other  for i t s social  the  respect for  and  the  financial  rewards. Rosamond V i n c y ,  Transome, has  a l l the  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s t h a t a young l a d y ' s f i n i s h i n g  academy  give.  She  ments  such  learns social as  fried  Mrs  decorum, p o i s e , and  s i n g i n g and  a more d e e p l y - d y e d fastidious  like  p l a y i n g the p i a n o .  snob t h a n H e t t y ,  education.  h e r r i n g s , and  She  cannot  i s careful  from  of the o t h e r  Hetty  romantic realism  f o r she  bear  She  has,  i n h e r dreams o f i n Rosamond, and  had  s m e l l of  i h the  beautiful.  c o n c e a l s her  a  moreover,  future happiness, she  has  t h a t her f a t h e r ' s  shallow m a t e r i a l i s t s  to G w e n d o l e n - s h e i s v e r y  attain-  Rosamond i s  the v u l g a r  to conceal  money i s made by m a n u f a c t u r i n g . hall-mark  polite  can  the novels,  Though  there i s a  claws  from  hard  their  victim: Rosamond was n o t one o f t h o s e h e l p l e s s g i r l s who b e t r a y t h e m s e l v e s unawares, and whose b e h a v i o u r i s awkwardly d r i v e n by t h e i r i m p u l s e s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g s t e e r e d by wary g r a c e and p r o p r i e t y (M., Ch. X X V I I ) . Rosamond's v i e w o f L y d g a t e that  he  stranger who  i s a medical  i s coloured  by t h e  fact  man,  and  hence n o t v u l g a r , and  to Middlemarch.  She  i s more r e a l i s t i c  than  Hetty,  s q u i r e ' s son,  like  her  dreams o f m a r r i a g e  t o the  but  also  a  38 in  t h a t she  siders w i l l  weaves a d r e a m - f a b r i c b r i n g her domestic  around  bliss  and  t h e man  she  con-  social  envy.  E v e r s i n c e t h a t i m p o r t a n t new a r r i v a l i n M i d d l e m a r c h she had woven a l i t t l e f u t u r e . . . S t r a n g e r s , w h e t h e r w r e c k e d and c l i n g i n g t o a r a f t , o r d u l y e s c o r t e d and a c c o m p a n i e d by p o r t m a n t e a u s , have a l w a y s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e v i r g i n mind . . . And a s t r a n g e r was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o R o s a m o n d s s o c i a l romance . . . She j u d g e d o f h e r own symptoms as t h o s e o f a w a k e n i n g . l o v e ( C h . X I I ) . 1  Like in  t h e m i r r o r , and,  her  own  and  sees  dreams f r o m o n l y what  reflected to  the  isolated  reality by  reality,  neighbour. she  i n the f a b l e , like  Hetty  Sorrel,  the world. she w o u l d  Rosamond g a z e s a t  (Ch. X X V I I ) .  i s thus  Lydgate  conceal  Rosamond l o o k s a t t h e  like  i t t o be.  As  the  world  candle  arrangement  i t , so d o e s Rosamond's v i e w o f t h e  h i s very nature, and  herself  she w i s h e s t o  i n the p i e r - g l a s s g i v e s a f l a t t e r i n g  s c r a t c h e s on  distort  of  Idione  The  s e l f i s h person,  can never  cut o f f from  who  have a c l e a r  contact with  and  she  is  view  his  showers f l a t t e r i e s upon Rosamond  i s a pretty g i r l ,  world  because  i n turn  e s t i m a t e d them as t h e o p e n i n g i n c i d e n t s o f a p r e c o n c e i v e d romance,. . . . I n Rosamond's romance i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y to i m a g i n e much a b o u t t h e i n w a r d l i f e o f t h e h e r o , o r o f h i s s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s i n the w o r l d : o f c o u r s e he had a p r o f e s s i o n and was c l e v e r , as w e l l as s u f f i c i e n t l y handsome; but t h e p i q u a n t f a c t about L y d g a t e was h i s good b i r t h , w h i c h . . . p r e s e n t e d m a r r i a g e as a p r o s p e c t o f r i s i n g i n r a n k and g e t t i n g a l i t t l e n e a r e r t o t h a t c e l e s t i a l c o n d i t i o n on e a r t h i n w h i c h she would have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h v u l g a r p e o p l e (Ch, .XVI). " ; Rosamond, i n f a c t , gain  social  Tertius  sees Lydgate  advancement, and  Lydgate  as he was  as a t o o l  by w h i c h  i s "occupied not  i n h i m s e l f , but w i t h  she  can  exactly with his  relation  39 to  h e r " (Ch. X V I ) .  entirely  on how  Her  o p i n i o n of Lydgate  he r e s p o n d s  t o her music  depends  and  her  almost  taste i n  dress. U n l i k e H e t t y and M a g g i e , Rosamond a t t a i n s in  that  she m a r r i e s t h e man  worldly  bliss.  when t h e two artificial  are u n i t e d  manners.  "as n a t u r a l  She  as  of  f a l s e - s e e m i n g has  the person beneath. associated, figure  thought,  and  shall  of s t r i p p i n g a humbling  The  sorrow  t o her  of  elegant behaviour to five  see i n t h e c a s e o f away t h e i n s u l a t i n g  and  humanising  effect  i s not  layers on  are  often  isolated  W i t h Rosamond, However, t h e  realities  her  f o r one  moments o f u n b u r d e n i n g  contact  of being married to a  as w e a l t h y  i n whose r e s e a r c h  sufficiently  moment  e v e r been when she was  As we  These  d o c t o r who  and  petulantly  i n her  deportment  t o human c o n t a c t .  provincial  the c r u c i a l  i n the n o v e l s , w i t h the r e t u r n of the  i s very fleeting.  are not  returns  she had  the r e l i e f  that  i s when Rosamond i s d i v e s t e d  y e a r s o l d " (Ch. XXXI). Bui s t r o d e ,  seems t o r e p r e s e n t a l l  It i s significant  moment f r o m r e s p e c t f u l being  who  h e r dream,  as she m i g h t  she c a n f i n d  rewarding f o r her.  She  no  have  interest,  complains  husband:  " I am s u r e you do n o t n e g l e c t y o u r work. You a r e a l w a y s a t t h e H o s p i t a l , or s e e i n g p o o r p a t i e n t s , o r t h i n k i n g about some d o c t o r ' s q u a r r e l ; and t h e n a t home y o u a l w a y s want t o p o r e o v e r y o u r m i c r o s c o p e and p h i a l s . C o n f e s s you l i k e t h e s e t h i n g s b e t t e r t h a n me" (Ch. X L I I I ) . The  i g n o b l e dream i s n e v e r  Rosamond, and of  like  f a r away f r o m t h e b o u r g e o i s e  Emma B o v a r y  the m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n ,  a f t e r m a r r i a g e , might  and  she i s s i c k e n e d by she r e a l i s e s  make c o n q u e s t s  and  the  realities  " t h a t women,  e n s l a v e men"  even  (Ch.  XLIII).  40 George E l i o t  u n d e r l i n e s the  fond  illusion:  How d e l i g h t f u l t o make c a p t i v e s • from.: t h e t h r o n e o f m a r r i a g e w i t h a h u s b a n d as c r o w n - p r i n c e by y o u r s i d e - h i m s e l f a s u b j e c t - w h i l e t h e c a p t i v e s l o o k up f o r e v e r h o p e l e s s , l o s i n g t h e i r r e s t p r o b a b l y , and i f t h e i r a p p e t i t e t o o , so much t h e b e t t e r ! (M. Ch. X L I I I ) Rosamond's g r a n d L i k e Maggie, ness at the have no  she  illusions  comes t o l e a r n  are of course  t h a t t h e r e can  e x p e n s e o f o t h e r s , and  her  shattered. be no  happi-  substitute-life  can  endurance.  The t e r r i b l e c o l l a p s e o f t h e i l l u s i o n t o w a r d s w h i c h a l l h e r hope had been s t r a i n e d was a s t r o k e w h i c h had t o o t h o r o u g h l y shaken her; her l i t t l e w o r l d was i n r u i n s , and she f e l t h e r s e l f t o t t e r i n g i n the midst of a l o n e l y bewildered c o n s c i o u s n e s s (M., Ch. L X X V I I I ) . Unlike Hetty, trivial any of  dreams t o t h e one  feeling  t h e need  L i m i t e d as  they  unlike  she  while  happened neither "vagrant  she  confesses  (Ch.  (Ch.  Lydgate  The  for  LXXX),  reproach  confesses  l e s s d i s c o n t e n t e d with Lydgate,  tiredness.  incapable forgiving wrongs  a human  But,  again  self-justification, blame o f what  she her.  i s anxious The  return  that from  LXXX) t o t h e human c o n d i t i o n i s empha-  s i s e d when Rosamond f i n a l l y her  t h e need  feels  to the  insensitivity.  to D o r o t h e a "the  i s e n t i r e l y mine"  fancy"  i s both  she d o e s manage t o r e p a i r  Rosamond has  L a d i s l a w nor  a c t i o n s , and  own  her  Hetty never  i s , Rosamond i s a l i v e  b r o k e n by h e r  Hetty,  injure.  to o b t a i n f o r g i v e n e s s , or of  d o e s t o o t h e r s , and  relationship  for  the l u x u r y of c o n f e s s i n g  blame a t t a c h i n g t o h e r  others. she  Rosamond has  and  human n e e d s o f e a c h o f  are recognised i n t h i s  passage:  that Dorothea r e m a r k s on the m a r r i a g e  has made his partners  41 He l i f t e d up h i s l a r g e w h i t e hand t o obey h e r , and f e l t t h a n k f u l f o r t h i s l i t t l e mark o f i n t e r e s t i n him. Poor Rosamond's v a g r a n t f a n c y had come b a c k t e r r i b l y scourged--meek enough t o n e s t l e u n d e r t h e o l d d e s p i s e d s h e l t e r . .. .. .. . L y d g a t e had a c c e p t e d h i s n a r r o w e d l o t w i t h sad r e s i g n a t i o n . He had c h o s e n t h i s f r a g i l e c r e a t u r e , and had t a k e n t h e b u r t h e n o f her l i f e upon h i s arms. He must w a l k as he c o u l d , c a r r y i n g t h a t burthen, pitifully (Ch. L X X X I ) . E s t h e r Lyon  has  the  "vagrant  f a n c y " o f Rosamond,  becomes more aware o f t h e n e e d s o f o t h e r s t h r o u g h c o n t a c t w i t h her is  thus  less  father,  isolated  comes o f a w e a l t h y relationship  of her  from  family;  neither  herself  d e s p i t e the growing  and  capacity  to f e e l .  "a f i n e  - not n a t u r a l "  which F e l i x Felix  as  puppets  of  pride"  lust  and  Esther  She  who  has has  about  Maggie.  the  on  of  "The  first  spun-glass  Byron.  Dream", "whose  should disorder  Byron's  on  book E s t h e r i s r e a d i n g ,  the author of he  nature  an u n c a n n y k n a c k o f  h i s stomach  heroes  he  s e e s as  t h a t were e v e r p u l l e d  by  the  (Ch.  over  k n o c k s down, i s a volume o f  that  who  a reducing effect  a sort  The  She  from  of F e l i x  and  "the  strings  V).  i s , however, c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s  romantic v i s i o n  Rosamond.  as was  i s deluded  lady . . .  d e s p i s e m a n k i n d " (Ch. V ) . most p a l t r y  cut o f f  sham, d i s m i s s e s her  accidentally  o f a h e r o was  i s she  influence  this  (Ch. V ) .  i s disgusted with  notion  and  Felix,  h y p o c r i s y and  acquaintance affair  the world,  zealous preacher.  environment  as t h e n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s , she  detecting  her  but  close  t h e mundane t h a n Rosamond,  by a c o n s t r i c t i n g  Nevertheless, her  a poor  but  o f her  smarts under  future  obsessed  than are H e t t y  the c r i t i c i s m  by  and  of F e l i x ,  although  42 she  has  wit  contrasts  enough t o p a r r y  with  short-sighted the  the  conflict  other-worldliness  father,  humanistic  the  i n Esther  man  she  than H e t t y ,  between h e r  so  as  elegance,  and  of her  i t i s j u s t as Felix.  the  desire  she  luxury,  She  wonders "what  gaiety,  or  for  some i d e a l w h i c h would  w i s h t o be  is a  elegant  good  opinion  her took  of  absence of a l l XV).  Though  considers  admired  integrate  to  less self-centred  romance" (Ch.  i s t o r n between t h e  Red  there  an  the  i n the  she  the  opposed  s o r t o f v i e w s he  s m a r t s u n d e r F e l i x ' s r u d e n e s s and  in  t o be  i s far  she  somewhat  absent-minded,  sharply  to gain  t o make i t seem v a l u a b l e  is  worldliness  Nevertheless  need  most r e s p e c t s .  Her  Rosamond o r Gwendolen, f o r t h i n k i n g o f  would-be l o v e r life  but  i d e a l s of  lady with admirers, of  his attacks.  and  him the  her  life.  Her  s i m i l a r t o M a g g i e ' s when she  parts  with  ungallant, necessity position Philip  Deeps:  She was v e r y f o n d o f n e t t i n g , b e c a u s e i t showed t o a d v a n t a g e b o t h her hand and h e r f o o t ; and a c r o s s t h i s image o f F e l i x H o l t ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e and contempt t h e r e p a s s e d t h e v a g u e r image of a p o s s i b l e somebody who would a d m i r e her hands and f e e t , and d e l i g h t i n l o o k i n g a t t h e i r b e a u t y , and l o n g , y e t n o t d a r e , t o k i s s them. L i f e would be much e a s i e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f such a l o v e . . . - . * . . Her l i f e was a heap o f f r a g m e n t s , and so were h e r t h o u g h t s ; some g r e a t e n e r g y was n e e d e d t o b i n d them t o g e t h e r (FH. Ch. XV). Like not  Rosamond, E s t h e r  admire her.  right  As  i s impatient  a p r e t t y woman she  t o be w o r s h i p p e d ,  charm.  Nevertheless  father,  j u s t as H e t t y  she  but  Felix  i s able  i s able  believes  i s not to cast  to cast  w i t h men  deluded her  h e r s on  who  she  has  by  her  spell Mr  do  on  a  her  Poyser  and  43 Adam Bede, and  Rosamond on  comes i n c o n t a c t . father, are  her  united  Although no  under  the  knowledge o f  clothes,  his  was  (Ch.  VI).  of  (Ch.  love,"  but  has  Eliot's pretty  some o f  girls.  pretty,  fanciful  and  dream of Ch.  a fairy  III).  had  ever admired  ful  movements, w h i c h had  her  Calypso"  felt  But within  are as  days to  see  brighter  his  selected  course,  t i o n dwelt without  and  history"  i s d a r k and  b l o n d e L u c y who  has  not  the  " d i d not  |~Felix]  her  believe  Esther see  that  girls  at  her  dawning o f  her  own  own  grace-  school  f e e l s i n some sense the  call  inferior  the r e a l i s a t i o n narrow  imagina-  i n a d e q u a c y makes  considerations  Harold  he  long neck, or  made a l l t h e  been a p l e a s a n t  and  what  a l l George  i n the  d e s i r a b l e match w i t h Transome  polished  old  everything  in life  shallowness of  of  (MF.  so w o r l d l y  like  heritage  t a l e romance f o r Maggie  t h i s f e e l i n g of  a man  a p p e a r a n c e and that  X).  self-  "sweet-  peculiar  romantic  human i d e a l s beyond her  her,  " I t had  the  hands or  i n t h i s we  a more s o c i a l l y her:  her  (Ch.  t o F e l i x , and  tion.  Esther  daughter  a b s e n t - m i n d e d manner, and  i t i s the  VI,  there  whims o f  i s ashamed o f  Maggie, of  Bk.  that  she  and  she  her  s u f f e r i n g and  " i s the  l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g and  exactly  his  " h i s d r e a r y p i e t y , which  Esther  w i t h whom  father  to the  VI)  embarrassingly  seems t o h e r that  depth u n t i l  Lyon's s u b j e c t i o n  and  e v e r y man  shows a f f e c t i o n f o r  has  Queen E s t h e r "  largeness  she  love  sacrifice. voiced  almost  itself  shape  influence  v a r i e t y i n her  monotonous  Transome, w i t h  a  manners  more l u x u r i o u s  .... life  of  distinguished  he  suggested  to  on  w h i c h her  imagina-  . . . painful effort"  (Ch.  XVIII).  her  44 Esther's from  her  rejects real  first  stage of r e t u r n to the r e a l  self-flattering her  romantic  dreams i s shown when she  i d e a of a hero,  f l e s h - a n d - b l o o d one Byronic heroes  like  n i g h t ' s d e c o r a t i o n s seen  (Ch. X X I I ) .  The  comes when she to  l o v e him  no  own  mind"  that  and  about  The  and  she  something  sober  dawn"  development  her f a t h e r ,  third  finds  and  The  final  "her  i n her  intensest  i n the realm  of  disenchantment  o f f a n c y , and  she  reaches  charms o f a r b i t r a r y  Just  c u t s Dorothea  "that  arrangement"  that  state of  o f f from  (Ch.  t h e human t i e s  so E s t h e r ' s f a s h i o n a b l e dreams, b e c o m i n g from  her  i n the i m a g i n a t i o n with a l l  the f a c t i t i o u s  s e p a r a t e her  life  realisation  b e l o n g i n g to the a c t u a l presence  t h i n g s w h i c h have l o n g d w e l t  as w e a l t h  stage i s the  her  inheri-  monde has none o f t h e charm i n r e a l i t y  had  comes  s t a g e comes when  l u x u r y becomes a r e a l i t y  (Ch. X X X V I I I ) .  it  would  to look  i n the  a  "The  l o n g e r i n h e r dreams, where she"made t h i n g s t o  the haute  needs,  l e a r n s t o see  i n her m o r a l  truth  i n consequence.  o f Transome C o u r t ,  was  stage  finally  of F e l i x :  were b e g i n n i n g  l e a r n s the  dream o f w e a l t h tance  second  and  i n the p e r s o n  favourite last  world  a satisfying  life  with  XLIV). she  reality, t h e man  she  loves: Her i m a g i n a r y m a n s i o n had n o t been i n h a b i t e d j u s t as Transome C o u r t was; h e r i m a g i n a r y f o r t u n e had n o t been a t t e n d e d w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e w h i c h she was u n a b l e t o sweep away. She h e r s e l f , i n h e r U t o p i a , had n e v e r been what she was now. The f i r s t s p o n t a n e o u s o f f e r i n g o f h e r woman's d e v o t i o n , t h e f i r s t g r e a t i n s p i r a t i o n o f h e r l i f e , was a s o r t o f v a n i s h e d e c s t a s y w h i c h had l e f t i t s wounds. (Ch. X L I V ) . As w i t h a l l v a r i e t i e s  of w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t ,  the  path  45 by w h i c h t h e c o v e t e d sidered be  by E s t h e r .  transformed  into  prize  i s t o be o b t a i n e d  She i g n o r e s t h e means by w h i c h a lady,  " i nfact,  impossible  t o h e r , except  like  U t o p i a s , was f i l l e d  other  independent supply  dulgence,  p r i v a t e Utopia,  delightful  (Ch. XXXVIII).  t h e most v i v i d  details  be r e a l i s e d .  Her day-dreams  i n which  Such i n s u l a r i t y  but none c o n s i d e r s  such minute p a r t i c u l a r i t y  of i n -  such  a  from t h e r e a l i t i e s  t h e human c o n d i t i o n i s common t o t h e o t h e r  have c o n s i d e r e d ,  which,  results  of her l i f e  b u t i g n o r e t h e human c o n t e x t  dream c o u l d of  with  she c a n  t h e change had seemed  i n her l i t t l e  of processes"  her w i t h  i s not con-  d r e a m e r s we  :her~. d e s i r e d g o a l  with  as E s t h e r :  She had ' s e e n -the' .very_ mat i n t h e c a r r i a g e , had s c e n t e d t h e d r i e d r o s e - l e a v e s i n h e r c o r r i d o r s , had f e l t t h e s o f t c a r p e t s u n d e r h e r p r e t t y f e e t , and s e e n h e r s e l f , as she r o s e from h e r s o f a c u s h i o n s , i n t h e c r y s t a l p a n e l t h a t r e f l e c t e d a l o n g d r a w i n g - r o o m , where t h e c o n s e r v a t o r y f l o w e r s and t h e p i c t u r e s o f f a i r women l e f t h e r s t i l l w i t h t h e supremacy o f charm. She had t r o d d e n t h e m a r b l e f i r m g r a v e l o f h e r g a r d e n - w a l k s and t h e s o f t deep t u r f o f h e r lawn . . . and she had had s e v e r a l a c c o m p l i s h e d cavaliers a l l a t once s u i n g f o r h e r hand ( C h . X X X V I I I ) . But  u l t i m a t e l y Esther,  that are  l i k e Maggie T u l l i v e r ,  h e r dream i s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e t o o aware o f t h e f e e l i n g s  sist  i n pursuing  with  reality.  of others  an i n s u b s t a n t i a l  o f most u n t r o u b l e d  ungenerous"  ence o f o t h e r turn  egoism E s t h e r  (Ch. XXXVIII). lives  Being  heroines  they  F o r "even i n h e r shrank from  sensitive  "Elysian  t o see  t o be a b l e t o p e r -  o u t s i d e h e r own, E s t h e r  h e r a t t e n t i o n away f r o m  Both  e x i s t e n c e i n which  themselves occupy the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . times  i s able  anything  to the e x i s t i s forced to  indulgence"  and !'to  46 g a z e on and  on  proud  the degrading, a humiliating  hard  e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r human b e i n g s ,  l o s s w h i c h was  g a i n " (Ch. X X X V I I I ) .  the obverse  of her  L i k e M a g g i e , but u n l i k e  and  Rosamond, E s t h e r a c c e p t s t h e r e a l  world  and  duty  the f a i r y - t a l e  which can  are p o s s i b l e  i s but  be no  and  a projection  relationship.  she r e j e c t s of t h e  self,  and  i n which  i n which  own  Hetty love world, there  CHAPTER THE  The  TRANSGRESSOR  t r a n s g r e s s o r has some o f t h e d r e a m e r ' s  characteristics nature,  III  i n t h a t he d e l u d e s  and f r e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t s  tinguished  from  h i m s e l f about  to l i v e  a lie.  h i s own He i s d i s -  t h e d r e a m e r , however, i n t h a t he i s c o n c e r n e d  w i t h d e c e i v i n g o t h e r s a s much a s d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f . Donnithorne,  Godfrey  Cass,  B u l s t r o d e and Mrs Transome need  t h e good o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s b e f o r e t h e y of  themselves.  certain  standards The  prestige, position take  transgressor delusions The enter  same t i m e seeks  and  by o t h e r s .  above h i s f e l l o w s .  other  to maintain  has d e s t r o y e d Hetty.  h i s elevated i n fact, their  unworthy o f t h e eminence t h e  t o i n d u l g e i n c l a s s dreams.  His  forms.  them about  his friendly  he c a n l e a d  a normal  with others while h i s own n a t u r e .  relationship  the p o s s i b i l i t y  Bulstrode  social  to perpetrate  Owing t o h i s s o c i a l  free relationship  he d e c e i v e s  o f some  and G o d f r e y ,  themselves  t r a n s g r e s s o r imagines into  a person  social position  d o e s n o t need  take  Arthur  and t h u s p r o v e  o f t h e community.  approve  to relate to  t^e n e c e s s i t y to maintain  advantage o f t h e i r  faith  he  accepted  and he f e e l s  can wholly  see i n them a n e e d  transgressor i s usually  immoral d e e d s ,  and  We t h u s  Arthur  of marriage  shows a p i o u s  Arthur  w i t h Adam  though  between Adam  to  t h e community o f M i d d l e m a r c h , and by so d o i n g  he  c a n g l o s s over  47  at the  and r e s p e c t a b l e  h i s disreputable past.  life  front  believes  Mrs Transome and  48 Godfrey Cass a l s o  seek r e f u g e  behind  a front of false  seeming. This is  a l s o combined  science. of  r e l i a n c e on c r i m e s r e m a i n i n g  guilt.  i n the t r a n s g r e s s o r with  The t r a n s g r e s s o r  being  unmasked This  goodness.  and d i s g r a c e d ,  good  itself  finances  i n M i d d l e m a r c h , and A r t h u r  by t h e f e a r  b u t a l s o by a s e n s e o f i n h i s need t o  wrongs by a c t s , o r a t l e a s t  Thus B u l s t r o d e  however,  an a c t i v e c o n -  i s haunted not o n l y  frequently manifests  atone f o r past  concealed,  r e s o l u t i o n s of  t h e new f e v e r h o s p i t a l  D o n n i t h o r n e a s p i r e s t o be t h e  s q u i r e , and p r o m i s e s H e t t y  anything  she n e e d s  short of  r marriage.  G o d f r e y C a s s b e l i e v e s he c a n make up f o r p a s t  deficiencies an  by h i s l o v e  f o r Nancy, and M r s Transome  e s c a p e f r o m t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h e r own a c t i n h e r l o v e  for  Harold. There  this  i s a strong  sudden change t h a t  effect  in hislife.  element  the transgressor  indulges  make r e p a r a t i o n f o r any i n i q u i t y o u r s and e m e r g i n g new-formed. that  of wishful  thinking i n  b e l i e v e s he c a n  Though he d o e s n o t i n d u l g e  dreams, t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r  of  seeks  i n Utopian  i n the fantasy by s h e d d i n g p a s t  This  blindness  relationship  b o t h f r o m h i s own p a s t  i n the present.  makes a m o c k e r y o f A r t h u r ' s some s a m b i t i o n 1  guilty  past  effected,  This  separation open  to consequences  i d e a l s o f s q u i r e d o m and Mrs T r a n -  f o r her son.  prevents  misdemean-  and f r o m  blindness  he c a n  to the fact  "our deeds d e t e r m i n e u s " emphasises t h e d u a l  the transgressor  that  The b a l e f u l  Bulstrode's  influence of a  h o s p i t a l scheme f r o m  and one s e e s t h e w o r k i n g o f Nemesis  against  being  49 Godfrey  in his failure This urgency  acts  i s allied,  t o have c h i l d r e n by Nancy.  t o escape from t h e consequence o f p a s t  i n the transgressor,  with  reliance  on P r o v i d e n c e .  The t r a n s g r e s s o r  believes  that Providence  has a s p e c i a l  welfare,  and t h a t  himself with but  Mrs  believe that  sequences of t h e i r  his affair Despite  with  their  from past  Arthur Hetty  dealings realities,  Donnithorne  will  have <  burdens o f g u i l t  Bulstrode,  can-escape the con-  a c t s , and t h a t P r o v i d e n c e  will  look  after  interests. As  George L e v i n e  morally  likely.''* novels they  in his  f o r h i s covert  Transome and G o d f r e y b e l i e v e t h e y  their  interest  He i s t h u s c u t o f f n o t o n l y  disastrous results.  it  be p u n i s h e d  a l s o from f u t u r e p r o b a b i l i t i e s .  cannot  frequently  anyone a s w e l l - m e a n i n g o r a s d e v o u t a s  can never r e a l l y  others.  an o p t i m i s t i c  reprehensible T h o s e who  p o i n t s o u t , George E l i o t to rely  indulge  gamble on t h e i r  This  on t h e u n u s u a l o r t h e u n -  i n any f o r m o f g a m b l i n g  a r e i n some way d e c e i v i n g  respect.  considered  i n the  t h e m s e l v e s o r one whom  i s as t r u e f o r A r t h u r  wrongdoings remaining  and G o d f r e y ,  concealed,  L y d g a t e and Gwendolen H a r l e t h , who a c t u a l l y  who  as f o r  s t a k e money on  possibilities. J u s t , as t h e transgvessor.• r e l i e s c h a n c e b r i n g i n g him p e r s o n a l ability,  well-being  on t h e v a g a r i e s o f and s o c i a l  so d o e s he blame h i s d e s t i n y when t h i n g s The e l e m e n t  of s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n  respectgo  badly  for  him.  i s very pro-  the  G e o r g e L e v i n e , " D e t e r m i n i s m and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Works o f G e o r g e E l i o t , " PMLA, LXXVII ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 2 7 2 .  50 nounced  i n Arthur  dilemma  from  who a t t e m p t s  himself  as c r u e l ,  and s a y s b i t t e r l y  t o be f o r t u n a t e  it's  star that  We the  ideals.  We  aspiration these  i s felt  a genuine  t o be n o b l e .  i n l a r g e measure e g o t i s t i c  and B u l s t r o d e  both  improve  But  when  or Dorothea. member  of the  and t h u s make up f o r h i s own d e f i c i e n c i e s .  Arthur  see t h e m s e l v e s a s p h i l a n -  their  communities.  The compen-  i d e a l s o f M r s Transome and G o d f r e y a r e more d o m e s t i c , d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a d e s i r e t o g i v e  domestic well-being The f a i l u r e their  own n a t u r e  relationships. Bulstrode ability, deserve the  that  s e e k s t o become a r e s p e c t e d  t h r o p i s t s who w i l l  of  of the s e l f - d e l u s i o n of  see i n t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r  t o w a r d s an i d e a l  Donnithorne  the  XLII).  to the genuine i d e a l s of F e l i x Holt  community  satory  ( F H . Ch.  . . .  when we examine t h e s u b s t a n c e o f h i s  frequently  The t r a n s g r e s s o r  being  he i n h e r i t s "  a s p i r a t i o n s appear  compared  o f her son: " I used t o  - and he i s f o r t u n a t e  c a n see a f u r t h e r a s p e c t  transgressor  to f e e l  Mrs Transome, t o o , s e e s h e r  wish Harold n o t my  t h e blame f o r h i s  o n t o e v e n t s f o r w h i c h he l i k e s  he h a s no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . future  to s h i f t  of these results  Arthur  i s forced  they  previously characters  and r e s t o r e  jeopardised. to face  h i s f r i e n d s h i p with  closest affection.  transgressor  to conceal  human  Adam,  a mask o f p i e t y and r e s p e c t -  and G o d f r e y and Mrs Transome d e c e i v e their  the r e a l i t y  i n t h e breakdown o f t h e i r  destroys  t o adopt  love  those  The d e s p e r a t e  h i s true nature  intimates  leaves  him a l o n e l y and o u t c a s t  some f e l t  " t h a t h e r son was a s t r a n g e r  who  attempt of  even from h i s  figure.  Mrs  t o h e r " and t h a t  Tran-  51 she was  "excluded  f r o m her  Cass i s d i s s a t i s f i e d while  both  Thus the his  Arthur  and  society.  Bulstrode are  after  Harold's  attendance  of  a reconciliation  is  r e c o n c i l e d t o Nancy a f t e r  my  and  daughter  his  case  dealings with  the  (Ch.  XVII),  society.  at h i s mother's there  and  h i s c o n f e s s i o n but  (Ch.  by  bed-  possibility Godfrey  is  punishment  estranged . . . for  XX).  transgressor f a i l s  o t h e r s and  i s no  h i s mother.  " I t ' s p a r t o f my  t o d i s l i k e me"  In every  hearth"  h i m s e l f r e j e c t e d by  guilt,  between H a r o l d  feels:  Godfrey  c u t s h i m s e l f o f f from o t h e r s  h i s d i s c o v e r y of her  from E p p i e  I).  f o r c e d to leave  deception u l t i m a t e l y finds  Despite  (Ch.  his "childless  t r a n s g r e s s o r who  initial  side  with  son's w o r l d "  i s punished  t o be  open i n  for this.  The  crucial  opportunity for confession i s f r e q u e n t l y missed.  Godfrey  can n e v e r  bring himself  frankness  w i t h Nancy and  he  ever  should  XVII).  The  atonement as  time  Eppie  confess  result  of  to her this  progresses.  on,  under Nancy's r e f u s a l  at  became more and  the  to confess  crucial  thus  about E p p i e "  to confess  be  wrong and  avoided,  t o adopt  but  her,  more d i f f i c u l t " his infatuation  moment, and  s u f f i c i e n c y prepares only  truth  by  t h e way  complete  impossible  imagines that the  f o r h i s past  c o n f e s s i o n would  fails  the  failure  Godfrey  for  too  " i t seemed t o him  f o r p a s t wrongs becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  w o u l d make up  error  to the p o i n t of  difficult adoption  of  the n e c e s s i t y "as  any  time  passed  retrieval  for Hetty  to h i s downfall.  of  Arthur  t o Mr  t o h i s own  c o n f i d e s i n h i s w i f e when t h e r e s u l t s  (Ch.  i s that  (Ch. X V I I ) .  trusting  that  Irwine  self-  Bulstrode  of a l i f e  of  52 deception  b r i n g about  some i s t o o p r o u d  their  t o admit  public disgrace, her f o l l y  and Mrs  to Harold  Tran-  even when he  demands t h e t r u t h . Some o t h e r category  appear t o belong  i n this  b u t do n o t , b e c a u s e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  distinguish  them f r o m t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r s  incidental  S o r r e l i s not r e a l l y  override the  seen a s a  transgressor;  remains i n the s t a t e of innocence g i v e n  conscience.  Dunstan Cass's v i l l a i n y  to those  and h i s r o b b e r y  S i l a s M a r n e r do n o t c o n s t i t u t e t r a n s g r e s s i o n d e g r e e as t h e f i g u r e s we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h , an  active conscience.  with  show a f a i l u r e  failure this  of trust  defect  rather  of true v i s i o n  and a  a l l o f whom have  Vincy  corresponding  T h e y a r e c u t o f f by  t h a n by t h e n a t u r e  of t h e i r  crimes.  and R u f u s L y o n , who a r e n o t i n any  Each f e e l s , to deceive  relationship  with  They a r e l i k e  their  though f o r v e r y  another,  those  they  different  and e a c h i s r e s t o r e d care  the transgressor  secret which rankles,  f o r by t h e i r  i n that  they  but b o t h a r e i m p e l l e d  s e c r e t f o r t h e sake o f one t h e y  and  to t r u s t  isolation.  takes  place  i n human l o v e  that  In a l l the cases  before  reasons, to free  b o t h have a to confessing  love.  causes t h e i r  except A r t h u r ' s  the story begins.  guilt  confessions.  W i t h t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r s we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h failure  of  i n t h e same  s e n s e c r i m i n a l , s u f f e r some o f t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s  the need  without  The t r a n s g r e s s o r s we a r e c o n c e r n e d  i n human sympathy.  Both F r e d  feelings.  that  similarities.  Hetty she  characters  We t h u s  i t i s the insecurity the crime  see t h e e f f e c t s  53 of  the  crime  feeling  in isolating  of g u i l t ,  ostracism. scarcely  their  Bulstrode  transgressors efface  t r a n s g r e s s o r through his isolation  Transome and  guilt  through  Godfrey  to themselves,  his  social  will  much l e s s  to  i s t h e most b l a t a n t s e l f - d e c e i v e r  i n t h a t he  seems a l m o s t  own  of  the  t o have managed  to  transgressor.  He  to confess  illicit  his past. Arthur  Donnithorne  loses confidence relationship strode,  sinners  and  Mrs  i n another  sufficiency.  is a typical  i n h u m a n i t y and  with Hetty  Godfrey  confiding  Arthur  by  t o Mr  his passion  t o Mr  relationship on A r t h u r  of  friend.  Irwine,  h i s own  i s inhibited  p r i d e and  from f i r m  his indulgences. Irwine,  but  He  Bul-  from  interesting  selfof  the  resolution  to  intends to  confess  owing t o t h e v e r y i s not  Like  desire for  glib  informal  sufficient  t o r i s k demeaning h i m s e l f  George E l i o t  his  the r e c t o r .  i s p e r h a p s t h e most  between them t h e r e  f o r him  fails  Transome, he  i n t h a t he v a c i l l a t e s  rationalisation  his  r a t h e r than  B u l s t r o d e , Mrs  admit  another.  the  pressure  i n the  eyes  of  admits t h a t the o l d forms of  c o n f e s s i o n were b e t t e r t h a n  the  i n f o r m a l ones, f o r  when you have p u t y o u r mouth t o one end o f a h o l e i n a s t o n e w a l l , and a r e aware t h a t t h e r e i s an e x p e c t a n t ear a t t h e o t h e r end, you a r e more l i k e l y t o say what you came o u t w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f s a y i n g (AB. Ch. X V I ) . Failure  t o a c k n o w l e d g e h i s weakness t o h i m s e l f  exposing despite  i t to another h i s noble  Arthur ideal  i d e a l s of duty  never  of conduct  b r i n g about A r t h u r ' s  and  as t h e  f e a r of  downfall,  good s q u i r e .  acknowledges the d i s p a r i t y the r e a l i t y  and  o f h i s own  between h i s  nature.  He  has  54  the disarming f a c i l i t y  to r e c o g n i s e and admit h i s own f a u l t s  w h i l e at the same time he makes l i g h t of them. see that they are at odds with h i s i d e a l s .  He cannot  He i s proud  of h i s candour r e g a r d i n g h i s own f a i l i n g s , having "an agreeable confidence that h i s f a u l t s were a l l of a generous k i n d - impetuous, warm-blooded, l e o n i n e ; crafty, reptilian. thorne  never c r a w l i n g ,  I t was not p o s s i b l e f o r Arthur Donni-  to do anything mean, d a s t a r d l y , or c r u e l " (Ch. X I I ) .  I t i s t h i s s e l f - a p p r o v i n g q u a l i t y that causes Arthur to minimize the wrongs he does to Hetty and Adam. A r t h u r b e l i e v e s he can compensate those who s u f f e r from h i s generous f a u l t s .  Though honest  i n h i s dealings  with h i s f e l l o w men, Arthur f a i l s to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b l e consequences  to others of h i s rash a c t s .  He does not see,  as Irwine does, that "our deeds c a r r y t h e i r t e r r i b l e consequences . . . that are h a r d l y ever c o n f i n e d to o u r s e l v e s " (Ch. XVI).  Arthur tends to see o t h e r s as o b j e c t s that can  be manipulated  f o r h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n , and t r e a t s them i n  a non-human way.  He b e l i e v e s he i s one who  i f he should u n f o r t u n a t e l y break a man's l e g i n h i s r a s h d r i v i n g , w i l l be able to pension him handsomely; or i f he should happen to s p o i l a woman's e x i s t e n c e f o r her, w i l l make i t up to her with expensive bons-bons, packed up and d i r e c t e d by h i s own hand (Ch. X I I ) . J u s t as Arthur b e l i e v e s he can escape from h i s dilemmas by compensating the v i c t i m s of h i s s e l f i s h a c t s , so do Mrs Transome, Godfrey  and Bulstrode imagine they can make r e p a r a t i o n  f o r past wrongdoing. and Ladislaw,  Bulstrode o f f e r s money to Lydgate  seeking thereby to salve h i s conscience and  55 e s c a p e p u n i s h m e n t or be  she  will  him  a w o r t h y g e n t l e m a n , and  daughter the  good  exposure.  he  had  optimistic  to her  Mrs  illegitimate Godfrey  once r e j e c t e d . belief  Transome vows t h a t son H a r o l d  s e e k s t o adopt  In a l l these  that a later  and  good c a n  make the  cases  we  see  efface a past  wrong. Arthur Though he Mr  of  he  danger.  reliance  the  typical  optimism of the  admits h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  Irwine,  real  has  of  will  not  After the  admit  to Hetty's  to himself  the  charms  t h a t he  h i s s e d u c t i o n of Hetty  t r a n s g r e s s o r on  transgressor.  we  is in  see  external  the  to any typical  superintendence  Providence:  A r t h u r t o l d h i m s e l f he d i d n o t d e s e r v e t h a t t h i n g s s h o u l d t u r n out b a d l y - he had n e v e r meant b e f o r e h a n d t o do a n y t h i n g h i s c o n s c i e n c e d i s a p p r o v e d - he had been l e d on by c i r cumstances. T h e r e was a s o r t o f i m p l i c i t c o n f i d e n c e i n him t h a t he was r e a l l y s u c h a good f e l l o w a t b o t t o m P r o v i d e n c e would n o t t r e a t him h a r s h l y (Ch. X X I X ) . Arthur social the of and  never  good a r e  harm he  sees  incompatible  d e s i r e f o r the  feast,  bound up  h i s own  with  of  human b e i n g s  in  an o p e r a t i o n o f  to  H a y s l o p e on  his casual attitude There i s a strong  ideals.  egoism.  to  degree  Though h i s n a t u r a l g e n e r o s i t y  h i s sympathy  t h e m s e l v e s and  He  are  for others fails  tends  to  t o use  self-aggrandisement.  his grandfather's  h i s good  a s p i r a t i o n s to  good o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s  speech at the  on  with  causes i n d i v i d u a l s .  egoism i n h i s s o c i a l  himself  t h a t h i s grand  death  f o r t u n e i n h i s new  is closely  see  role  the  them as  Arthur and  shown i n h i s  value agents  returns  congratulates as  squire:  He w o u l d show t h e L o a m s h i r e p e o p l e what a f i n e c o u n t r y g e n t l e m a n was . . . He f e l t h i m s e l f . . . l o o k i n g a f t e r  56 f a v o u r i t e p l a n s o f d r a i n a g e and e n c l o s u r e . . . a d m i r e d on sombre m o r n i n g s as t h e b e s t r i d e r . . . spoken w e l l o f on m a r k e t - d a y s as a f i r s t - r a t e l a n d l o r d . . . m a k i n g s p e e c h e s a t e l e c t i o n d i n n e r s and showing a w o n d e r f u l knowledge o f a g r i c u l t u r e (Ch. X L I V ) . The  c o n t r a s t between A r t h u r  for  her  and  Dorothea  ' n o t i o n s ' o f b u i l d i n g new  cottages  show an u n s e l f i s h n e s s undreamed o f of  social  i n Arthur's  poor  conception  between t h e p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g  Arthur  D o n n i t h o r n e and  nature  of A r t h u r ' s  Fred Vincy  isolation  Both are  self-indulgent  by  and  trusting  f o r the  virtue.  A comparison  birth  i s pronounced,  i s afraid  i n another.  pursuits,  and  b r i n g s out  from r e a l i t y  young men  but  the  and  Arthur  of compromising  young  absolute  human c o n t a c t . i s a gentleman  his position  Fred merely p l a y s at  i s fortunate i n his friendship  with  a family  Arthur  shares  sympathy abound.  with  of imagination concerning  Vincy  anxieties  and  a failure  needs of o t h e r s .  w e l l - m e a n i n g , and this  concern  their  concern  only operates  have been g r a t i f i e d .  Both a r e  after  After  sensitive  for others  a l l of t h e i r  Adam's a t t a c k on  own  physical,  first,  and  r e g a r d i n g t h e wrong done t o K e t t y he  her  able  f o r a l l the  F r e d does not before be  t o do  he  realises  righted either  both  i t i s humiliation that Arthur  a good d e a l f o r h e r ,  t e a r s she would  need  and  pleasures  him,  and  be  to  suffer  that t h e r e are by g i f t s  and  feels  (Ch.  that Arthur  some wrongs t h a t  o f money or  feels  make up  shed about him"  i n t h e way  the  i s s i n c e r e , but  verbal  might  by  gentlemanly-  i n w h i c h common-sense and Fred  men  sympathy,  "he to XXI).  does cannot  for his  57 s e l f - c e n t r e d v i e w o f h i s own Mrs  Garth's  censure.  had  c o n s i s t e d almost  seem d i s h o n o u r a b l e "  his  a l l else  guilt  confide  entirely  (Ch. X X I I I ; my  i n another.  Fred  conference  with  to  his foolish  without for  losing  what he  qualities. pulsion of  in  own  i s more i s o l a t e d  himself  the o p p o r t u n i t y  i s able  t o have  and  indulgences  pleasures in  to  unreserved  realistic  Garth  family,  to a compassionate  These people  accept  ear him  Owing t o h i s s o c i a l  position,  A r t h u r ' s com-  o t h e r s i s much g r e a t e r , and from  a man  actions.  failed  to l i v e  Arthur  seeks  up  t o admit and  The  the  a sense  t o h i s own  than  sense  George E l i o t  deceit  h i s own  and  and  misdeeds.  b e c a u s e he  standards,  rationalises  sentiment  i t i s i n Fred,  t r u t h o f h i s own  best  himself that further  his  self-regarding  of a l i e n a t i o n  to excuse h i m s e l f .  by w h i c h A r t h u r  h i s moral  of h i s e s t a t e i s i n d i r e c t  i s more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i s unable  convinces  love their  Arthur  sympathetic  must  about  s u f f e r s misery  process  t h a t he  illusions  t o h i s own  Arthur  beforehand  a r e under no  what i s demanded  h e n c e he He  i s and  sense  by  italics).  Arthur  t o o much e s t e e m .  to deceive  contrast  and  s i n c e he d e n i e s  confess  i n the  i n the world,  the  i s dislodged  "His p a i n i n the a f f a i r  Though b o t h F r e d before  conduct  yet  has still  d e s c r i b e s the wrongdoing,  i s the o n l y  and  practical  right: No man c a n e s c a p e t h i s v i t i a t i n g e f f e c t o f an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t his own s e n t i m e n t o f r i g h t , and t h e e f f e c t was s t r o n g e r i n A r t h u r b e c a u s e o f t h a t v e r y need o f s e l f - r e s p e c t w h i c h , w h i l e h i s c o n s c i e n c e was s t i l l a t e a s e , was one o f h i s b e s t safeguards. S e l f - a c c u s a t i o n was t o o p a i n f u l t o him - he c o u l d n o t f a c e i t . He must p e r s u a d e h i m s e l f t h a t he had n o t  58  been v e r y much t o blame; he began even t o p i t y h i m s e l f f o r t h e n e c e s s i t y he was u n d e r o f d e c e i v i n g Adam: i t was a c o u r s e so o p p o s e d t o t h e h o n e s t y o f h i s own n a t u r e . But t h e n i t was t h e o n l y r i g h t t h i n g t o do ( C h . X X I X ) . When A r t h u r ' s c o n s c i e n c e i s n o t a t e a s e , the honest  c o u r s e , and c o n f i d i n g  attempting  to r e c t i f y  humanity, further and deal  act of cruelty  i s a hardening  to h i s fellows.  o f c l a u s t r o p h o b i a because  from  of g u i l t  and a  Arthur's  isolation  of h i s r e f u s a l to  Eliot:  I n t h i s s t a t e o f mind i n t o l e r a b l e p r i s o n to down upon him a l l t h e conflicting feelings, open a i r ( C h . X X I X ) . This  shut-in isolation  feeling  Cass  t h e f o u r w a l l s o f h i s room made an him; t h e y seemed t o hem i n and p r e s s crowd o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h o u g h t s and some o f w h i c h would f l y away i n t h e  i s analogous  of Ketty after  A comparison  to the actual  her s e l f - i s o l a t i n g  between A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e  h e l p s to b r i n g out the e s s e n t i a l  gressor,  and a l s o  shows t h e d i f f e r e n t  and  Arthur's repentance.  and  both  avail last  human b e i n g and  i n an u n d i s s e m b l i n g way w i t h Adam a r e u n d e r l i n e d by  George  and  i n another  of taking  h i s own w r o n g d o i n g , he r e t r e a t s  and t h e r e s u l t  feeling  instead  finally  find  i n compensating brought  for their  to the p o s i t i o n  w r o n g d o i n g , and e a c h injured.  wealth  Arthur  finds  i s finally  nature of Godfrey's similar  errors.  Godfrey  backgrounds, a r e o f no  E a c h man  i sat  to confess h i s  f o r g i v e n e s s from one he has reconciled  t o Adam,  t h e n a t u r e o f H e t t y ' s f o r g i v e n e s s , a s we have dubious.  and G o d f r e y  and p a t r o n a g e  of having  crime.  nature of the trans-  Both men have  that  imprisonment  although  seen, i s  r e c e i v e s Nancy's l o v e and sympathy  in his  59 distress,  but f i n d s  he has f o r f e i t e d  But whereas A r t h u r p l e a d s t h a t injured past  by h i s d e f a u l t ,  the Poysers  Godfrey  believes  love.  s h o u l d n o t be  he c a n r e p a i r  wrongs and seems unaware o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f e e l i n g s  of o t h e r s . and  h i s daughter's  Arthur r e a l i s e s  that  i s prepared to s a c r i f i c e  he h a s f a i l e d  himself.  i n h i s duty,  He d e c l a r e s  t o Adam:  one o f my r e a s o n s f o r g o i n g away i s , t h a t no one e l s e may l e a v e H a y s l o p e - - m a y l e a v e t h e i r home on my a c c o u n t . I would do a n y t h i n g , t h e r e i s no s a c r i f i c e I w o u l d n o t make, t o p r e v e n t any f u r t h e r i n j u r y t o o t h e r s t h r o u g h m y - - t h r o u g h what has happened ( C h . X L V I I I ) . Godfrey's best  idea of duty  reparation  position  i n v o l v e s no such  he c a n o f f e r  and t h e c h a n c e  self-denial.  h i s wronged d a u g h t e r  o f a good m a r r i a g e .  The  i s social  He d e c l a r e s t o  Silas: "You're p u t t i n g y o u r s e l f t h o u g h I'm s o r r y t o h u r t what I ' v e l e f t undone, I on t a k i n g c a r e o f my own (Ch. X I X ) . Although Godfrey's put  idea  of duty  himself i n another's place,  t h e woman he has wronged. does not f a i l His  i n t h e way o f h e r w e l f a r e ; and y o u a f t t : r what y o u ' v e done, and f e e l now i t ' s my d u t y t o i n s i s t daughter. I want t o do my d u t y "  ideal  centred,  o f domestic  he d o e s ,  After  u n l i k e A r t h u r , marry  his initial  error,  t o t h e opium a d d i c t ,  happiness,  and h i s l o n g i n g  compensate His love  i n h i s duty  shows a f a i l u r e t o  though  for children  manent a f f e c t i o n good he p r e f e r r e d  to pursue"  self-  show h i s need t o background.  f o r "some t e n d e r  . . . some i n f l u e n c e easy  Molly Farren.  basically  f o r h i s own e m o t i o n a l l y i m p o v e r i s h e d  f o r Nancy and h i s l o n g i n g  Godfrey  per-  t h a t would make t h e  (Ch. I l l ) ,  contrasts  with  60 Arthur's rather already that  learnt  lofty  cavalier  t r e a t m e n t o f women.  G o d f r e y has  t h e l e s s o n t h a t A r t h u r has t o l e a r n  ideals  a r e no s u b s t i t u t e  later,  f o r honest p e r s o n a l  relationship. G o d f r e y has t h e t y p i c a l in  that  he i m a g i n e s  which h i s conduct future.  Godfrey  sequences" of  seeing  lingering  optimism of the t r a n s g r e s s o r  he c a n e f f a c e  an u n p l e a s a n t p a s t i n  h a s been r e p r e h e n s i b l e w i t h a believes  he c a n a v o i d  the "hateful  Nancy and g a t h e r i n g  some f a i n t  regard" (Ch. I I I ) .  He s e e s Nancy a s " t h e f a r - o f f  prize"  i n d i c a t i o n s of her  ( C h . I l l ) f r o m whose sweet  he w i l l  take "draughts of f o r g e t f u l n e s s "  attempt  to o b l i t e r a t e  the r e a l i t y  on f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . to h i s father  priation  of h i s past. Godfrey  A l t h o u g h he h u m i l i a t e s  a s he a d m i t s  to the misappro-  o f money, G o d f r e y gambles on h i s d e e p e r  remaining Nancy  insofar  presence  ( C h . X I I ) i n an  L i k e F r e d V i n c y and A r t h u r D o n n i t h o r n e ,  himself  concealed.  He s h r i n k s  guilt's  from t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  s h o u l d e v e r know o f h i s d e l i n q u e n c y , t r u s t i n g  h i s own  special Providence w i l l  o f Nancy's l o v e : hoping  "He f l e d  The  him f r o m  some f a v o u r a b l e consequences"  see t h e dreams o f t h e m i s c r e a n t  him o f f f r o m t h e r e a l i t y  precluding  that  to h i s usual refuge, that of  save him f r o m u n p l e a s a n t  (Ch. I X ) . Once a g a i n we  that  s a f e g u a r d him f r o m t h e l o s s  f o r some u n f o r e s e e n t u r n o f f o r t u n e ,  c h a n c e w h i c h would  cutting  con-  o f h i s p a s t , and " s n a t c h t h e s t r a n g e g r a t i f i c a t i o n  bright-winged  relies  blissful  o f h i s own a c t s ,  the p o s s i b i l i t y  o f human  and t h u s  sympathy.  a m b i v a l e n t n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s mind makes  61 it  almost  Eliot  i m p o s s i b l e f o r o t h e r s t o d e a l w i t h him.  emphasises  nature  and  the r i f t  between t h e r e a l i t y  h i s compensating  reliance  on  George  of h i s  future  dreams:  Let him l i v e o u t s i d e h i s income, o r s h i r k t h e r e s o l u t e h o n e s t work t h a t b r i n g s wages, and he w i l l p r e s e n t l y f i n d h i m s e l f d r e a m i n g o f a p o s s i b l e b e n e f a c t o r . . . . L e t him n e g l e c t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s o f f i c e , and he w i l l m e n t a l l y a n c h o r h i m s e l f on t h e c h a n c e , t h a t t h e t h i n g l e f t undone may t u r n out n o t t o be o f t h e s u p p o s e d i m p o r t a n c e . Let him b e t r a y a f r i e n d ' s c o n f i d e n c e , and he w i l l . . . hope t h a t h i s f r i e n d w i l l n e v e r know (SM. Ch. I X ) . Just  as A r t h u r d e l u d e s h i m s e l f t h a t  selfishness so G o d f r e y and  build  atonement to  has n o t believes  i s optimistic Godfrey  possibility ises  Hetty,  can g l o s s o v e r h i s p a s t i n d u l g e n c e s for himself.  and n a i v e .  and  o f o t h e r s now  of h i s deceit  His idea  of  L i k e A r t h u r on h i s r e t u r n i n the death of h i s w i f e ,  gladness" i n another's  h i m s e l f on h i s own  t h e good o p i n i o n  between Adam and  s e e s o n l y good  finds only " r e l i e f  Congratulating in  he  a rift  a future happiness  Hayslope,  and  caused  h i s act of  death.  good f o r t u n e ,  and  that  t h e r e i s no  he  feels  being r e v e a l e d , Godfrey  rejoicing  rational-  his duplicity:  Where, a f t e r a l l , would be t h e u s e o f c o n f e s s i n g t h e p a s t to Nancy Lammeter, and t h r o w i n g away h i s h a p p i n e s s ? - nay h e r s ? . . . As f o r t h e c h i l d , he would see i t was c a r e d for: he w o u l d n e v e r f o r s a k e i t ; he would do e v e r y t h i n g but own i t . P e r h a p s i t w o u l d be j u s t as happy i n l i f e w i t h o u t b e i n g owned by i t s f a t h e r . (Ch. X I I I ) . Godfrey's of  h i s daughter  time  she  s u b c o n s c i o u s need  to atone  for his  E p p i e makes him want t o a d o p t  i s twelve years o l d .  understanding of S i l a s  His f a i l u r e  in  i s i n keeping with h i s  her  rejection  from  the  sympathetic subjective  6 2  view  of the w o r l d .  others  He  f o r " i t had  rather part  projects  never  with his l i f e  in  he  and  "by  easy  he had  he  Silas  would  i s b e i n g b e n e v o l e n t , when  attempting to salve  a common f a l l a c y ,  because  that  onto  than w i t h Eppie" (Ch. X V I I ) .  deludes himself that i s merely  desires  o c c u r r e d to him  Godfrey fact  h i s own  he  imagined  p r i v a t e motives  his conscience,  t h e measure would  be  for desiring i t "  (Ch. X V I I ) . Godfrey to r e s i s t he  shows t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s p r o u d d e t e r m i n a t i o n  confession  can r e c t i f y  of h i s past misconduct.  and  set r i g h t  of E p p i e .  But  t h e r e i s no way  the p a s t .  are l e f t pride  marriage, band and not in  losing  she w o u l d  Like  had  f o r the  we  sunk h i s  as a  so much as h i s f a i l u r e  that  that  repentance  f u t u r e can  Because o f a w i t h d r a w a l  Godfrey  " t h e r e ' s d e b t s we  t o a c t i n a human and  wrong, G o d f r e y  Godfrey  Godfrey's o r i g i n a l  the o t h e r t r a n s g r e s s o r s ,  money d e b t s " (Ch. X X ) ,  failure  atone  hus-  crime i s to  trust  forgiveness.  to the r e a l i s a t i o n  resolutions  can  to h i s confession  have a c c e p t e d b o t h G o d f r e y  i n the novel  human l o v e and  that  Godfrey  Nancy by a f r a n k a d m i s s i o n b e f o r e  E p p i e as a d a u g h t e r .  stressed  i n which  From Nancy's r e s p o n s e  risked  hearth"  h i s p a s t m i s d e e d s by t h e a d o p t i o n  with the p o s s i b i l i t y  and  imagines  the p r e s e n t m a l a i s e o f h i s " c h i l d l e s s  (Ch. XVII)  for  He  of  has  can't pay  like  o f p a s t wrongs  i n no way  make up  and  f o r the  s y m p a t h e t i c manner t o o t h e r s .  sympathy c a u s e d  by h i s own  i s e s t r a n g e d from h i s daughter,  to accept h i s l i m i t e d  t o come  l o t with resignation.  He  and  he  learns  past comes to  63 be content with what he has been g i v e n , and d i s c o v e r s with h u m i l i t y that even t h i s i s f a r more than h i s d e s e r t s . Godfrey  f i n a l l y r e t u r n s to the o b j e c t i v e world, the o n l y  realm where love and t r u t h can operate t o g e t h e r : "And you, Nancy, i n s p i t e of a l l ;  I got  and yet I've been grumbling  and  uneasy because I hadn't something e l s e - as i f I deserved it"  (Ch.  XX).  L i k e Godfrey Cass, Mrs Transome, i n F e l i x H o l t , deludes h e r s e l f that out of past wrongdoing may joy.  She  imagines  have a meaningful still  come f u t u r e  she can make up f o r past d e f i c i e n c i e s  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p with her son while there i s  a b a r r i e r of d e c e i t between them.  She wonders i f "she  was  going to reap an assured joy? - to f e e l that the doubt-  ful  deeds of her l i f e were j u s t i f i e d  a kind Providence "to  had  by the r e s u l t , s i n c e  sanctioned them"(Ch. I ) .  be no longer t a c i t l y p i t i e d  She  by her neighbours  hopes  f o r her  l a c k of money, her i m b e c i l e husband, her g r a c e l e s s e l d e s t born, and the l o n e l i n e s s of her l i f e ;  but to have at her  side a r i c h , c l e v e r , p o s s i b l y a tender  son" (Ch. I ) .  The p a t t e r n of past g u i l t  i n h i b i t i n g present  relation-  ship i s common i n the n o v e l s , but Mrs Transome i s perhaps more o b v i o u s l y i s o l a t e d  i n that she has grown o l d and  l i v i n g on fond imaginings. imagines  L i k e Arthur and Godfrey,  lonely, she  she can achieve happiness while at the same time  i n d u l g i n g i n subterfuge.  The  t r a n s g r e s s o r f a i l s to r e a l i s e  that s e c r e t s hinder the p o s s i b i l i t y of human c o n t a c t ;  he  i s under the n e c e s s i t y of keeping up a f a l s e appearance, f r e q u e n t l y before one whose love or r e s p e c t he seeks.  So,  64  Mrs Transome son's  i s i n t>e i n c o n g r u o u s  love while keeping  must n e v e r  know" ( C h .  Mrs Transome Vincy  to herself  son, Durfey,  shatter of  h e r dreams  Durfey's  death  her l i f e "  Bulstrode, Godfrey,  because  (Ch.  f o r h e r own  he c a n by h i s v e r y e x i s t e n c e  f o r Harold. bring  desire  Fred  She h a s a h a t r e d f o r h e r  The "good t i d i n g s "  back t o Transome C o u r t  Mrs Transome e x p e c t s t o f u l f i l to  " s e c r e t s w h i c h h e r son  H a r l e t h the t a c i t  good o u t o f a n o t h e r ' s d e a t h . eldest  of seeking her  I).  shares with  and Gwendolen  position  (Ch. I)  a son whom  her dreams, and " g i v e u n i t y  I).  Mrs Transome n e v e r  s e e s her son a s an  independent  p e r s o n who may have i d e a l s  and a s p i r a t i o n s o f h i s own.  is  i n that  like  Godfrey  and A r t h u r  p r o j e c t i o n s o f h e r own w i s h e s . unlike him,  her i d e a l i s e d  and a " s e n s e  vision  When h e r son p r o v e s  ( C h . I ) . She i s n o n p l u s s e d  Godfrey  i s when E p p i e d e c i d e s t h a t  g a m b l e r , who mately Vincy  father  father.  seeks  We  b o r n made h e r l i f e refusal  to accept  a "hideous their  Gwendolen  t o grow, l i k e  and  restless,  like  (Ch. I ) . T h i s w i s h  life  and ease of the  i s legiti-  as i n F r e d  f o r the death  of her  first-  (Ch. I ) . I t i s t h e  causes Godfrey,  Mrs Transome,  Bulstrode  "haggard,  t h o s e who w a t c h i n o t h e r to load  than  as s t r o n g l y  lottery"  l o t that  and  of wealth  see t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Her d e s i r e  that  she p r e f e r s p o v e r t y and  to a l i f e  h i s , i n M r s Transome j u s t  a  i n t h e same way  t o o b t a i n more f r o m  o r Gwendolen.  t o be  o f him, she b a r e l y r e c o g n i s e s  terror"  w i t h her n a t u r a l  she s e e s o t h e r s o n l y a s  o f s t r a n g e n e s s came upon her l i k e  t h e l o v e o f her f o s t e r  She  feverish  lotteries"  t h e w h e e l o f c h a n c e i n h i s own  65 favour  causes  the t r a n s g r e s s o r t o wish  George E l i o t  o f h i s own  evil  finally  nature.  The  f o r c e s him  past  to face  c a t c h e s up  t r a n s g r e s s o r and  retribution  realises  become an o u t c a s t o f H a y s l o p e ,  sees  he  has  in "his childless  (Ch. X V I I ) . omen o f  Mrs  Mrs  frequently f a l l s  home t h e a s p e c t  Transome f i n d s  future bliss, In  to others.  always exposes the hollow n a t u r e of  t r a n s g r e s s o r ' s dream, and reality  o r do  but  i n her  a reminder  Transome t h e  sense  of a  the  with  on  the  him. and  the  Arthur .  Godfrey  retribution"  son's r e t u r n not  of past  of g u i l t  an  guilt.  i s almost  as  strong  as t h e f e a r  o f her  c o v e r t d e a l i n g s b e i n g unmasked.  Arthur  and  do n o t  suffer  Mrs  almost  philanthropic  below t h e Arthur  be  religious  (Ch. X X I X ) .  life  sensibility  She  share  he  bore"  (Ch.  has  Like  tried  intact"(Ch.  g u i l t y memory "as  like  i n her  remain even  g u i l t - r i d d e n of  the  of h i s a c t s  suicide,  o f Jermyn, Mrs  and  a  who  has  bared  power o v e r  "whose b r a n d  she  who  and  e v e r y word j o g g i n g  been c u t i n h e r  and  Transome,  "her woman's p r i d e  IX), finds  secret,  But  in  a shadow a c r o s s h i s i m a g i n a t i o n "  t o keep  t h e man  another.  feelings  They  consciousness.  of the r e v e l a t i o n  i f i t had  hates  activities.  by H e t t y ' s p o s s i b l e  . . . fell  as  t h e y have b e t r a y e d  i s the l e a s t  In the presence  a l l her  IX).  who  i s afraid caused  "sudden dread  (Ch.  and  Donnithorne,  t h a t would  same d e g r e e  manages t o s u b l i m a t e h i s g u i l t  s u r f a c e o f h i s own  transgressors,  had  i n the  Transome i n t h e knowledge t h a t  Bulstrode his  Godfrey  her  arm"  her  by  the  secretly  IX). B u l s t r o d e , Mrs  Transome a t t e m p t s  to cut  herself  66  off  from t h e p a s t ,  pleasures live  and  she h a s o n l y d r e a d  a fragmentary  was w i t h  was s t i l l  passions  life  t h e dreamer.  i s divorced  "she  and f i n d s t h a t  before  young and a r d e n t  and  c u t o f f f r o m human c o n t a c t  existence" her  reduced  i n their  and l o v e  to l i v e  (Ch. XXXIV). purpose,  she f i n d s " t h e g r e a t  f o r her to the l i t t l e  (Ch. XXXIV).  the  f o r any u n s e l f i s h  tale  story  o f h e r own  The n e c e s s i t y f o r d e c e p t i o n  cuts  o f f f r o m t h e son she has wronged, and h e r one d r e a d t h e r e v e l a t i o n t o him o f t h e t r u t h :  of  God's a n g e r o r mercy, b u t o f h e r s o n ' s .  of  what m i g h t  (Ch.  be b r o u g h t , n o t by d e a t h ,  "She was n o t t h i n k i n g She was t h i n k i n g  but by  life"  XXXIV). Bulstrode  g u i l t y past  of  as i t  she c r a v e s , but  i n her dread"  is  one  cases  i n her t e r r o r s ;  were l i v i n g  Transome has f a i l e d  t h i s world  The a t t e m p t t o  Kirs Transome has grown o l d and l o n e l y ,  Mrs  of  her.  i s as f u t i l e  from t h e r e s p e c t  of the past  instead of prospective  attempts  by a d o p t i n g  l i k e Antonio  to escape the i n f l u e n c e of h i s  an e n t i r e l y  i n The Tempest who "made  h i s memory, t o c r e d i t  h i s own l i e . "  transgressors are disturbed their  future, Bulstrode  guilt  and e x p e c t s Until  Bulstrode gressors. intrigue  new c h a r a c t e r .  future  by t h e i r  tries  . . . a sinner  Whereas t h e o t h e r  past  t o sever  and c o n c e r n e d f o r  h i s connection  f e e l s none o f t h e i n s e c u r i t y He manages t o j u s t i f y  through r e l i g i o u s  and f i n a n c i a l zeal.  with  rewards.  t h e moment when h i s u g l y p a s t  of l i e s  He i s  i s revealed,  of the other  to himself  a  complicated  f r a u d , by a l a t e r  Bulstrode  trans-  compensation  i s n o t however a  conscious  67 hypocrite an  agent  firmly  i n t h e way t h a t  Raffles  is.  o f God, and t a k e s on t h e r o l e  b e l i e v e s h i s duty  (Ch. X I I I ) ,  and r e f o r m s  h i s own l i f e  He  accountableness"  i n accordance  with h i s  None o f t h e o t h e r t r a n s g r e s s o r s  blindness to past g u i l t 2  a "kind of  of judge.  i s one o f " s a c r e d  own c o n c e p t i o n o f m o r a l i t y . have t h i s  He s e e s h i m s e l f as  w h i c h one c r i t i c  s e e s as  innocence."  Though G o d f r e y  i s i m p e l l e d by h i s p a s t w r o n g d o i n g t o  make amends by becoming w o r t h y o f Nancy's l o v e ,  he i s u n l i k e  Bulstrode  Bulstrode  sees  He n e v e r  sufficiently In  truly  honest  his pride,  some, b u t w h i l e  i s this  further  that  as d i v i n e l y  repents of h i s past  inspired b e c a u s e he i s  o r humble.  B u l s t r o d e may  she i s m a i n l y  ance and h e r s o n ' s c e n s u r e , It  of s u p e r i o r i t y .  h i s compensatory a c t i v i t i e s  virtues. not  i n h i s l a c k o f sense  alienates  be compared  concerned  with  t o Mrs T r a n -  social  appear-  Bulstrode's pride i s s p i r i t u a l .  him f r o m  treacherous a c t suggests  others.  itself  O n l y when a  t o him d o e s he become  aware o f h i s e s s e n t i a l h u m a n i t y , f o r t h e n t h e r e i s s t r a n g e , p i t e o u s c o n f l i c t i n t h e s o u l o f t h i s unhappy man, who had l o n g e d f o r y e a r s t o be b e t t e r t h a n he r e a l l y was who had t a k e n h i s s e l f i s h p a s s i o n s i n t o d i s c i p l i n e and c l a d them i n s e v e r e r o b e s , so t h a t he had w a l k e d w i t h them as a d e v o u t q u i r e , t i l l now . . . t h e y . . . t h r e w o u t common c r i e s f o r s a f e t y ( C h . L X X ) . The confess  t r a n s g r e s s o r pays the p r i c e  h i s wrongdoing,  Hardy, p. 183.  of h i s f a i l u r e to  and i s c u t o f f f r o m  sympathy.  He  68 is  also unable  usually  unable to f o r g i v e the i n j u r y .  giveness it  t o make amends t o t h e i n j u r e d one who i s  i s dubious,  difficult  gressor  while  or i m p o s s i b l e  who has f i r s t  deceived  them.  Apart  transgressors,  except  Mrs  from p e r s o n a l Godfrey,  incur  the past"  (Epilogue).  their  own  leave  s o c i e t y , and r e s i g n t h e i r there  Sympathy  and he  condemnation.  " t h e r e was  Arthur  finally  returning silence  social  and A r t h u r t o  pretensions.  the i n t e r -  and l e a r n s t o see h i m s e l f i n  f r o m one who r e c o g n i s e s t h i s new a w a r e n e s s .  c a n be no atonement, and t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r  he i s n o t w h o l l y  a l l the  i s some f o r m o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  r e c e i v e s p u b l i c opprobrium one,  social  He comes t o r e c o g n i s e  needs u s u a l l y accompanies there  rejection,  P u b l i c o p i n i o n , as w e l l as  d e p e n d e n c e o f human b e i n g s , perspective.  h i s human Although frequently  and d i s d a i n f r o m t h e i n j u r e d  outcast  f r o m human l o v e .  shake hands and A r t h u r  "was a l l wrong f r o m t h e f i r s t  So Adam  realises  that  and h o r r i b l e wrong has  come o f i t " ( C h . X L V I I I ) .  G o d f r e y does keep N a n c y ' s  and  " i t i s too l a t e  realises  things" Mrs  that  although  ( C h . X X ) , he must r e s i g n h i m s e l f  Transome f i n d s i n E s t h e r  daughter's tendance" The only  (Ch.  transgressor  by h i s o r i g i n a l  find  subsequently  s e n s e o f shame, f o r c e s B u l s t r o d e  the transgressor.  and E p p i e  l e a v e s Transome C o u r t ,  f o r her f u n e r a l a t which event  Nevertheless  for-  t o show sympathy t o t h e t r a n s -  about  for  Ladislaw  i n j u r e d them, and  Transome v o l u n t a r i l y  only  Harold,  Thus H e t t y ' s  some  to h i s l o t .  one t o " s o o t h e h e r w i t h  a  L).  alienates himself  crime,  t o mend  love  from o t h e r s n o t  but through h i s f a i l u r e t o  69  trust  i n t h e l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  futile  attempt  t o be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  f r o m t h e warmth those and  o f human sympathy.  whom he s h o u l d  Mrs Transome  redeemed and  the t r u t h  Godfrey,  almost  the grace  isolated  and G o d f r e y  are subsequently  o f t h e i r wives'  outcast not only  incapable of the s e l f l e s s  her  and  still  act.  Whereas  their  Arthur  concerned  to remain i n  seeks a wealthy Her f i n a l  somewhat by E s t h e r ' s p i t y ,  self-pitying,  from  r e p r i e v e and e n t r e a t s Adam t o  s o n as a way o f a t o n e m e n t .  gated  Arthur  Mrs Transome  h i s i n f l u e n c e t o persuade the Poysers Mrs Transome  love,  o f t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r s s i n c e she  manages t o o b t a i n H e t t y ' s  Hayslope,  Bulstrode  f r o m Adam, Nancy, Mrs B u l -  but a l s o f r o m human b r o t h e r h o o d .  r e m a i n s t h e most  use  He i s f o r c e d t o d e c e i v e  respectively.  whereas B u l s t r o d e  through  In a  he c u t s h i m s e l f o f f  So A r t h u r ,  Mrs Transome a r e t r a g i c a l l y  society  is  trust.  hide  s t r o d e and H a r o l d But  of others.  shows  future for  suffering,  h e r t o be  above a l l w i t h  miti-  impenitent  t h e concealment  of her wrongdoing. The t r a n s g r e s s o r comes t o l e a r n p a i n f u l l y cannot that  order  nothing  for others  the universe of value  there  the p u b l i c sphere  make s y m p a t h e t i c Lydgate t r e a t s attractive  t o h i s own d e s i r e s , and  c a n be a c h i e v e d  and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  For George E l i o t in  according  contact  h i s wife  without  a  concern  diminution of the s e l f .  i s no p o s s i b i l i t y  while  t h a t he  of p l a i n - d e a l i n g  a t t h e same t i m e  i n domestic  one f a i l s t o  relations.  J u s t as  as a c h e r i s h e d p o s s e s s i o n , , an  ornament, so A r t h u r  i s condemned  by Adam f o r  70 "making a p l a y t h i n g " of H e t t y her that  as  a man  ought  to care"  n e i t h e r B u l s t r o d e nor  ideals  of p u b l i c  predisposition ordered  by  service  and  "caring nothing  (Ch. XXX). Arthur  It i s  f o r both  t o see o t h e r s p l a y i n g a p a r t  themselves.  significant  i s able to put  into practice,  about  h i s noble have  i n a world  the  CHAPTER FOUR THE  The  t y r a n t shows o n l y a r e s t r i c t e d  those  who.  moral  soundness.  gressor but  TYRANT  he  feels  are  He  lacking  is like  in his failure  by w h i c h he standard  judges  that  isolates  o t h e r s ' needs. who  had  The  the  himself  has  others.  resolution  t h e dreamer  to put  u n l i k e them i n t h a t he  in firm  sympathy f o r  and  the  and  trans-  i n another's  place,  a c o n s i s t e n t moral  I t i s the  limitation  t y r a n t from a f u l l  tyrant i s typified  by Tom  standard of  this  awareness of Tulliver  a mind  s t r o n g l y marked by t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s that c r e a t e s e v e r i t y - s t r e n g t h of w i l l , conscious r e c t i t u d e o f p u r p o s e , n a r r o w n e s s o f i m a g i n a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t , g r e a t power o f s e l f - c o n t r o l , and a d i s p o s i t i o n t o e x e r t c o n t r o l o v e r o t h e r s (MF. Bk. V I , Ch. X I I ) . The affairs  of others.  down t h e i r "as o"  i f they doing  t y r a n t sees  tools took  t h e moment t h e i r no  pleasure  Adam f e e l s  qualified  We  Tulliver*s  uncompromising  see  attitude  Casaubon f e e l light  of  Vincy  censures and  own  w o r k i n g day  I).  in  the  the  was  judge t h e i r  limited  Bulstrode's banker  standard  to  71  own  duty,  s l o v e n l y conduct  of  in  Tom  Both B u l s t r o d e  and  fellow mortals  i n the  of e x c e l l e n c e .  "tyrannical  everywhere"  afraid  of h i s  same need t o c o n s t r a i n o t h e r s to h i s s i s t e r .  throw  i s complete  Confident  i n his devotion  to reprove  t h e y must  their  bishop  the  arbiter  i ' t h e i r work, and  a s t r o k e t o o much" (Ch. and  play  as m o r a l  So Adam condemns t h e workmen who  rectitude,  others.  himself  spirit,  (Ch. X I I I )  Mayor  wanting  to  because of  72  his  r e l u c t a n c e t o s a y he knows no harm o f F r e d .  disapproves  of Ladislaw's  l a c k o f v o c a t i o n even b e f o r e h i s  personal  jealousy develops,  visiting  Lowick.  Cognate w i t h tyrant's of  almost  h i s conduct  standards  into  and he d i s c o u r a g e s  t h i s n e c e s s i t y to reprove  total  lack of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m .  so c o m p l e t e l y question.  t h a t he n e v e r  to  h i m s e l f as a moral  and u n -  and n a r r o w p a t h  example t o o t h e r s :  neglect  Tom, a f t e r  t h a t ' s a man's p l a i n  i s unable  a s one n e g l i g e n t i n h i s d u t y ,  never  does f o r g e t  and  his obligations  i n judgement  deeply  felt  Although  Maggie f o r h e r  and he i n s i s t s  inadequacies  tyranny.  "a. v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  people's  shrank  from"  reflection  of moral  own  worth.  (Ch. X I I I ) ,  he saw  of himself i n the coarse  t o D o r o t h e a when he sees  accuser"  for their  e r r o r s was a d u t y  u n f l a t t e r i n g m i r r o r " o f Mr V i n c y ' s m i n d .  outward  Tom  T h e i r need t o  as a c o n s c i o u s n e s s  " t o p o i n t out other  attitude  t h a t he  ( B k . I , Ch. V ) .  i s as much a c o m p e n s a t i o n  t h a t Mr B u l s t r o d e r a r e l y  his  duty"  and C a s a u b o n a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m  Adam i n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  stand  undertake  t o see h i m s e l f i n h e r  place  Bulstrode  "IfI  of duty,  be my p a y b i g o r  he h a s r e p r o v e d  of h i s r a b b i t s ,  He a p p r o v e s  So Adam, who i s h o n e s t  . . . i t seems t o me,  (Ch. X X I V ) .  others i s the  h i s own  do a b i t o' work, I ' l l do i t w e l l ,  little  him from  calls  ashamed i n f o l l o w i n g t h e s t r a i g h t sees  Casaubon  Casaubon  hardens  h e r as "a c r u e l  ( C h . XX) who t h r e a t e n s t h e c i t a d e l  of h i s  scholarship. The  tyrant frequently f a i l s  to take  account  of the  73 feelings  of o t h e r s i n h i s eagerness  scheme o f p e r f e c t i o n .  t o p r o m o t e h i s own  Adam h a s no p a t i e n c e w i t h a man who  would  bang a n a i l  it.  H i s v i e w o f h i s own " p l a i n d u t y "  such  as A r t h u r  thising  with  ideals.  i n c r o o k e d l y b e c a u s e he was n o t p a i d f o r  i s very  t h o s e who f a i l  Tom, l i k e  standards.  disapproves jealous  Wakem and  b r i n g s out h i s i n s e n s i t i v i t y .  of Ladislaw's  to their  journalistic  to  sympathise  own.  Casaubon  activities, Personal  and i s resentment  him t o p e r p e t r a t e a mean a c t o f w h i c h Adam would  however,  identify  themselves  error.  with  a cause which  and a t t e m p t In t h i s  s e l v e s as d e f e n d e r s  the noble  hatred of P h i l i p  some o f t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y  or noble,  against  Tom T u l l i v e r ' s  t h e t y r a n t s show a m i s p l a c e d  to t h a t cause.  than  to P h i l i p  of h i s i n f l u e n c e over Dorothea.  All  great  her n e g l e c t  t o h e r " c r u s h i n g sense o f  and C a s a u b o n t o o a r e u n a b l e  have been i n c a p a b l e . has,  h i s own m o r a l  t o Maggie's p l e a s a f t e r  t h o s e whose v i e w s a r e o p p o s e d  drives  t o prove  ( B k . I , Ch. V ) . H i s a t t i t u d e  Bulstrode  h i s sympa-  t o measure up t o h i s own h i g h  and i n s e n s i t i v e  Maggie's l o v e f u r t h e r  with  and t h i s p r e v e n t s  Adam, a t t e m p t s  He i s d e a f  of h i s r a b b i t s , misery"  clear,  and t h a t o f o t h e r s  Wakem  of Casaubon's. idealism. they  feel  They t o be  to c o n s t r a i n others to subscribe  d e v o t i o n t o a cause they  of right  In the cases  s e e them-  a g a i n s t wrong, o r t r u t h o f B u l s t r o d e and C a s a u b o n  c a u s e has a f a r g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t  i t has w i t h Tom o r Adam. B o t h B u l s t r o d e and Casaubon u s e t h e i r  service  as a c o v e r  fortheir  ideals of  own i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s .  d e l u s i o n goes a s f a r as b l a t a n t h y p o c r i s y .  Though  Bulstrode's both  74 carefully  conceal  Pulstrode  i s t h e more h y p o c r i t i c a l ,  gap  from themselves t h e i r  between h i s p r e a c h i n g  and  C a s a u b o n ' s a s p i r a t i o n s and their  own  s c a l e of  pre-eminent,  but  his f u t i l e  Casaubon has  guilt  from o t h e r s  excellence.  He  weaker, l e s s  capable,  narrow path. his  own  So  Tom  are  and  the  quarrel Philip his  and  and  t r e a t s him  i s one  He with  of hatred  f a t h e r ' s enemy, but  defeats  h i s opponent  siderate  regards  see  the  are  to f o l l o w h i s  those  who  do  and  own  not  share  Fred  unsympathetic. as  well  i s , however, u n l i k e Adam i n who  knows h i s own  strength  overpowers  Bob  Jakin after  contempt.  His  a t t i t u d e to  i s not  also physically  but  who  physical strength  b e c a u s e he  afterwards  only  the  son  deformed.  t r e a t s him  Tom  t y r a n t ' s a t t i t u d e of  as weaker t h a n  women i n g e n e r a l . and  himself  Adam p i t i e s  their  of  Adam  in a  con-  was  of the  of  contempt  for  those  a l s o i n h i s treatment  Petty  C a s a u b o n have more t h a n  V i c t o r i a n male's assumption indeed  those  manner.  We  her.  with  inclined  Adam show g r e a t  o f one  his  r e s o l u t i o n i n h i s p u r s u i t of  s u c h as M a g g i e , A r t h u r ,  Tom  as  suspicions  of p i e t y .  frequently proscriptive  morally.  themselves  a front  h i s r e l a t i o n s with  arrogance  physically  see  In  conceals  patience  or not  s t r e n g t h of p u r p o s e .  having  he  little  s t r e n g t h of w i l l ,  or Ladislaw,  as  has  between  carefully  himself with  shows g r e a t  greater  scholarship.  s e c r e t f e a r s and  h i s work, w h e r e a s B u l s t r o d e  tyrant  is a  h i s p r a c t i c e than  about  The  fallibility,  for there  e x c e l l e n c e b o t h men  and  own  sexual  but  does not  their  share  superiority.  o p i n i o n t h a t M a g g i e was  a silly  of  criticise of  the "Tom  little  75 thing; of  a l l g i r l s were s i l l y .  his sister,  her  I , Ch.  minister of  and meant a l w a y s  h i s housekeeper,  (Bk.  . . . Still  V).  very  fond  t o t a k e c a r e o f h e r , make  and p u n i s h h e r when she d i d wrong"  Casaubon  sees i n Dorothea  t o h i s n e e d s and  carry  out  one  who  will  t h e more m e n i a l  tasks  scholarship. In h i s zealous p u r s u i t  tyrant  tends  frequently sympathetic cause soft  and  justice  consideration that  t h i n g s go  his father.  rather  t o t h o s e who  Tom and  some o f t h e i n f l e x i b i l i t y  as h o s t i l e  to Dorothea's  really  tyrant  understands  (Ch.  never  has  "speaking  IV)  he  was  repents of h i s  for  retributive  o f t h e Wakerns he  aspirations  as he  shows  and  i s negative  defence  i s the  feelings least  the c h e r i s h e d  as a form  deficient  of  of  for others, i s impatient with o f her  husband.  i n his father,  t o be done by  He  will  seeing merely  that  i t isn't  >-  i n running headlong  to r u i n "  x  him  Tom  calls  [his] f a t h e r ,  not  but  to encourage Tulliver  h i m s e l f from  sees t h e i r  So Adam, who  i n h i s sympathy  "there's a duty  IV).  Adam  h i s nephew L a d i s l a w ,  not o n l y i s o l a t e s  a c k n o w l e d g e t h e good  (Ch.  i t .  give  scheme f o r b u i l d i n g c o t t a g e s .  h i s m o t h e r f o r her  duty  than  He  o f an O l d T e s t a m e n t l a w - g i v e r .  to h i s p o l i t i c a l  self-indulgence.  [hisj  Tulliver  i n h i s concern  f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s , but he  the t y r a n t s  of o t h e r s .  need  t h e wrong way"  t h a n human t r e a t m e n t  Casaubon never  the  i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to a v o i d  to h i s s i s t e r  The  purpose,  immerses h i m s e l f i n h i s work r a t h e r  letting  severity  o f h i s own  t o be unaware o f t h e f e e l i n g s  to regret  t o o h a r d on  is  he was  Philip's  declaration  of  76 love  f o r Maggie  "high-flown  nonsense"  Casaubon m i s i n t e r p r e t s L a d i s l a w s 1  in  the l i g h t It  control  o f h i s own p r e j u d i c e s about  his  own  are not c l e a r l y  scholarly  best w i t h  endeavour,  the s c i o l i s m  adventurers"  has s u c c e e d e d idle  purposeful  financial  This  h i s nephew. self-  of Fred's  Secure  ideals  Casaubon, devoted  to  h i s nephew as " a s s o c i a t e d or p o l i t i c a l  Bulstrode disapproves "expensive  i n the b e l i e f  strongly,  education  but i n g i v i n g  him e x t r a -  o f h i s own  d e a l i n g s , B u l s t r o d e condemns " l a x  (Ch. X I I I ) .  s u s p i c i o n i s extended  whose n a t u r e s  particularly  to those  a r e u n l i k e t h e t y r a n t ' s i n b e i n g more  m i n d e d and s y m p a t h e t i c . do  sees  i n nothing  habits."  moneylending"  defined.  of l i t e r a r y  (Ch. XXXVII).  though p e r h a p s r i g h t l y ,  vagant  f o r Dorothea  t h a t t h e t y r a n t i s s u s p i c i o u s o f t h o s e whose  purposes  which  friendship  i s p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f h i s own power o f  and  at  (Bk. V, Ch. V ) .  not f i t i n t o  Tom i s s u s p i c i o u s o f t h o s e  broadwho  h i s own c a t e g o r i e s :  He had a v a g u e n o t i o n t h a t t h e d e f o r m i t y o f Wakem's s o n had some r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a w y e r ' s r a s c a l i t y . . . and he f e l t , t o o , a h a l f - a d m i t t e d f e a r o f him as p r o b a b l y a s p i t e f u l f e l l o w , who n o t b e i n g a b l e t o f i g h t y o u , had c u n n i n g ways o f d o i n g y o u a m i s c h i e f by t h e s l y (Bk. I I , Ch. I I I ) . Casaubon i s s u s p i c i o u s not o n l y o f Carp but  of Ladislaw  grudging ship,  friendship  Brasenose,  Bulstrode  extends  t o t h e V i n c y ' s on t h e g r o u n d s o f k i n -  but d i s a p p r o v e s There  in  and D o r o t h e a t o o .  and  heartily  o f t h e humane Mr  i s a s t r o n g element of P u r i t a n i c a l  the m a j o r i t y of the t y r a n t s ,  and a l l b r i n g  Farebrother. negation  their  77 n a r r o w n e s s t o bear Casaubon i s s a d l y inward  sources"  normal h e a l t h y  i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with aware t h a t  life.  concludes that  man  Bulstrode  m o r e o v e r , who  "deeply p a i n f u l  influential All  o f f from a  Tom and Adam p u t h a r d work and d u t y or s o c i a l recreation.  "had an e a g e r  enjoyment o f t a n g i b l e  Bulstrode,  " t o o much on t h e  ( C h . I I ) he h a s c u t h i m s e l f  b e f o r e any f o r m o f p h y s i c a l  little  by f e e d i n g  others.  things"  i n h i s exclusion  life  I ti s  as a  (Ch. X I I I ) ,  from duty a t the h o s p i t a l .  a r e adept  this to  long  at g i v i n g moral  homilies  "that's t h e b e s t  t u r n s h i s s c r u t i n i s i n g "moral l a n t e r n " and c a n n o t  b r o t h e r - i n - l a w on t h e e r r o r attitude  i s frequently  Maggie r e g a r d i n g The  frequently  of Arthur's  sees as f a u l t y . full  of  apparent  begin  Tom's  to h i s magisterial  i n h i s conversations  with  such  a s we  t o s y m p a t h i s e w i t h h i s f a t h e r , and first  the tyrant  attempt  at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ,  to destroy  and l o a t h i n g  t o comprehend.  their love,  Bul-  (Ch, X I I I )  a lecture  o f h i s ways.  So Tom f o r c e s  of suspicion  cannot  resist  assumption of moral r i g h t e o u s n e s s ,  drives  referred  her wrongdoing.  i n Adam's f a i l u r e  rejection  I've heard  r o l e o r as a •• s c h o o l m a s t e r , w h i l e  a l l hisvisitors,  see  sarmunt  Sandy J i m  (Ch. I ) . Casaubon i s f r e q u e n t l y  in hisclerical  strode on  while"  irony  worldly  and he i s  when t h e i r own s e n s e o f r i g h t has been f l o u t e d . s a y s t o Adam w i t h  with  (Ch. X I I I ) .  s e e s Mr F a r e b r o t h e r  to contemplate"  the tyrants  inward  Lydgate  r e l a t i o n s h i p s he  Maggie and P h i l i p  apart,  f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h he  In h i s heedless  Tom shows a l l t h e r u t h l e s s n e s s  disruption of a r b i t r a r y  78 power when i t d e l u d e s i t s e l f cause.  He r e s p o n d s t o P h i l i p  i t i s defending a noble only  with  t h r e a t s and  ridicule: " I f y o u d a r e t o make t h e l e a s t a t t e m p t t o come n e a r h e r , o r w r i t e t o h e r , o r keep t h e s l i g h t e s t h o l d on h e r m i n d , y o u r puny m i s e r a b l e body . . . s h a l l n o t p r o t e c t y o u . I ' l l t h r a s h y o u - I ' l l h o l d you up t o p u b l i c s c o r n . Who wouldn't laugh at the i d e a o f your t u r n i n g l o v e r t o a f i n e g i r l ? " (Bk. V, Ch. V ) . Casaubon between D o r o t h e a  shows h i s power t o d e s t r o y and L a d i s l a w  he  too f e e l s j u s t i f i e d  he  f e e l s threatens  his  ivay o f l i f e .  underlying  attempts his  f o r the merit  h i s wife's  work a f t e r h i s d e a t h .  fate  that  control By  the l i v i n g  scrupulous care own p r i d e The  Hence he and p u b l i s h  His self-righteousness  i t i s an o u t g r o w t h  He f e a r s f o r h i s p e r s o n a l  to h i s w i l l ,  i s dis-  honour  It. i s t h e i r o n y o f  by w h i c h he a t t e m p t s t o  and v i n d i c a t e h i s l i f e ,  proves  futile.  to p r o h i b i t Dorothea's re-marriage h i s  "exorbitant : claims  his  promise to s i f t  Tom and Adam n e v e r d o .  the c o d i c i l  attempting  with  o f h i s own work, f o r h i s  f r o m Adam's o r Tom's i n t h a t  a way t h a t  that  and i s n o t i n a c c o r d  t h r o u g h t h e agency o f s c h o l a r s h i p .  o f h i s own i n s e c u r i t y . in  i n frustrating a friendship  But  But C a s a u b o n i s u n l i k e Adam o r Tom i n h i s  to obtain  tinguished  i n a l e s s c r u d e manner.  h i s reputation  anxiety  immortality  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r himself  had e v e n b l i n d e d h i s  f o r h i s own c h a r a c t e r  and made him d e f e a t  by s h o c k i n g men o f o r d i n a r y  fear  towards Dorothea  honour"  (Ch.  L).  behind Casaubon's p r o s c r i p t i v e measures are not present  i n the circumscribed  moral  79  philosophy criticism do  that  morbid  o f Tom o r Adam.  He i s v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e  o f o t h e r s whereas t h e y a r e n o t , f e e l i n g  their  own e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n  i s impregnable.  s u s p i c i o u s o f a l l who c o u l d p o s s i b l y  pre-eminence as a s c h o l a r .  Obsessed  monumental p r o d u c t i o n s " ( C h . X X I X ) , Ladislaw to v i s i t  h i s wife.  a r u t h l e s s despot  to Dorothea's  doubt h i s  w i t h h i s own he d e c l i n e s  to allow  i n Casaubon;  he i s w h o l l y  n e e d s and w h i l e f e e l i n g  that  of wifehood"  there  insensitive  " t h i s woman was (Ch. XXIX),  makes o f h e r , i n S i r James's words, a " h o r r i b l e  sacrifice"  XXIX). The  tyrant  other people's  i s frequently  feelings.  h i s own p r e j u d i c e s , rather  than  their  difficult rightly  He j u d g e s  reason  y e t a c t wrongly  to the r e a l  of their  actions  So C a s a u b o n f a i l s t o  for visiting  Dorothea.  Iti s  that Arthur can f e e l  i n his relationship  Tom d e s p i s e s h i s s i s t e r ' s  nature of  them, i n t h e l i g h t o f  results  intentions.  f o r Adam t o u n d e r s t a n d  failure  blind  by t h e l i k e l y  good  see L a d i s l a w ' s r e a l  any  "minor  Under t h e b l a n d e x t e r i o r  t o o young t o be on t h e l e v e l  (Ch.  Casaubon's  p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h i s own r e p u t a t i o n makes him  unjustly  is  as t h e y  feelings,  with  Hetty.  and i s u n c o n s c i o u s o f  t o a c t as a f u l l y - r e s p o n s i v e  human b e i n g :  " I f y o u r f e e l i n g s a r e so much b e t t e r t h a n mine, l e t me see y o u show them i n some o t h e r way t h a n by c o n d u c t t h a t ' s l i k e l y t o d i s g r a c e u s a l l . . . P r a y , how have y o u shown y o u r l o v e , t h a t y o u t a l k o f , e i t h e r t o me o r my f a t h e r ? By d i s o b e y i n g and d e c e i v i n g u s . I have a d i f f e r e n t way o f showing my a f f e c t i o n " (Bk. V, Ch. V ) . Tom commands M a g g i e t o submit and  c a n do s o m e t h i n g  to himself, since  he has power  i n t h e w o r l d , w h e r e a s she c a n m e r e l y  80 feel. the  He f e e l s  important  the other  t h a t Maggie's p a s s i o n s  d e c i s i o n s t h a t must  George E l i o t  impotence o f being The  is  a woman i n a w o r l d  L i k e many o f  suffers  where men  inability  dominate.  to c r i t i c i s e  I t i s o n l y a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l  a b l e t o . see  from t h e  o t h e r s i n b o t h Adam and Tom i s  by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  themselves.  be made.  h e r o i n e s , Maggie  need t o c e n s u r e  accompanied  are irrelevant to  h i s own d e f i c i e n c i e s  i n judging  t h a t Adam too h a r s h l y :  " I t ' s t r u e what y o u s a y , s i r : I'm h a r d - i t ' s i n my n a t u r e . I was t o o h a r d w i t h my f a t h e r f o r d o i n g wrong. I ' v e been a b i t h a r d t o e v e r y b o d y b u t h e r . . . . But f e e l i n g overmuch a b o u t h e r has p e r h a p s made me u n f a i r t o y o u . I ' v e known what i t i s t o r e p e n t and f e e l i t ' s t o o l a t e . . . I ' v e no r i g h t t o be h a r d t o w a r d s them as have done wrong and r e p e n t " (Ch. X L V I I I ) . Adam r e s p o n d s  to Arthur's  appeal  vows " t o do my work w e l l , place  to the person  Tom i s n o t . moral  and make t h e w o r l d  f o r them a s c a n e n j o y  reconciled  the world,  i t " (Ch. X L V I I I ) .  who h a s i n j u r e d  Adam v o l u n t a r i l y  superiority,  t o s t a y on t h e e s t a t e and  him i n a way t h a t  renounces h i s p o s i t i o n of  a s he i s t o t h e n e e d s o f o t h e r s .  I n Tom's r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h Maggie  is  Adam i s  and t a k e s upon h i m s e l f t h e b u r d e n s o f  made more a l i v e  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  a b i tbetter  t h e r e i s no i n c r e a s e  t h o u g h t h e i r m u t u a l need  f o r each  other  recognised. Mr  unless  r e c o g n i s e s h i s need  i t i s i n the capacity of a s c h o l a s t i c  admirer. triviality light  Casaubon never  He s h u t s h i m s e l f o f f from o f human c o n c o u r s e ,  of their value  as t o o l s  f o r others, assistant or  what he r e g a r d s  seeing others only t o h i s own r e s e a r c h .  as t h e  i n the He h a s  81 no  opinion  and  to o f f e r  i n the  d i s c u s s i o n between Mr  S i r James C h e t t a n about  first  speech  shows him  land  buried  Brooke  improvement, and  i n h i s own  his  concerns:  I have been u s i n g up my e y e s i g h t on o l d c h a r a c t e r s l a t e l y ; t h e f a c t i s , I want a r e a d e r f o r my e v e n i n g s ; but I am f a s t i d i o u s i n v o i c e s , and I c a n n o t e n d u r e l i s t e n i n g t o an imperfect reader. I t i s a m i s f o r t u n e , i n some s e n s e s : I f e e d t o o much on t h e i n w a r d s o u r c e s ; I l i v e t o o much w i t h t h e dead (Ch. I I ) . C a s a u b o n ' s need combined w i t h Tulliver high  f o r human v i t a l i t y  a demand f o r p e r f e c t i o n .  in this  respect  demands t o t h e  does not  realities  like  moved f r o m  of  the  the  V).  fails  to enforce  enshrined  i n such n o b l e  she  is  t r e a t i n g h i s chosen wife  slave,  capable f o r he  capability  of  h e r e i n we  see  existence  of  Mr as  that  of  of  i s d e l i g h t e d to  b e l i e v e s "the an  ardent  own"  (Ch.  S i l a s Marner,  to  Adam, others.  a u t h o r i t y of  and  But  as  an  [her]  Casaubon admiring  sex  affection,  complete  and  is its and  the  V).  C a s a u b o n ' s p u r s u i t i s as  needs a devotee to g i v e able  charm o f  to round  and  serve.  self-sacrificing  i t s fitness our  great  far re-  f i g u r e s as Hooker  Locke, under which only  and  that  s t r i c t u r e s upon the  his  schoolmaster's  o f Tom  D o r o t h e a , however, C a s a u b o n r e p r e s e n t s  scholarship,  suspects  T h i s view i s not  their  Tom  to r e l a t e  a s o r t of  i n f l e x i b l e moral outlook  b o t h o f whom w i s h  is like  Celia  had  be  human c o n d i t i o n ,  sympathy.  (Ch.  shown t o  He  t h a t he  " a l l l e a r n e d men  v i e w o f young p e o p l e "  To  only,  temper them w i t h  Casaubon,  i s thus  but him  transfer his passion  solitary  unlike Silas, love  and  for gold  and Mr  sympathy.  isolating  Casaubon Marner  i n t o a genuine  is  love  82 of Eppie, ferred  own  only  VII).  t o t h o s e who  " i t has  t h e r e was  conceives  for this  the  " i s not  Although  of the m e r i t s of the  fond of  the p i a n o "  covered  with  i s fatigued.  the world  of marriage  receiving  love.  l o v e , and  But  won  a lovely  noble-hearted  (Ch. X) and  and  comfort,  t o w h i c h he i s a world  human c o n t a c t . own  w h i c h he was  as u t t e r l y  an o l d  as an  giving  takes  she i s  harpsi-  antidote to  he  finds  girl  expects  comforting  delight  as w e l l  he  had  walked  not  won  taper  him  delight"  light be  i n the w o r l d  no of h i s  "a weary e x p e r i e n c e  condemned t o l o n e l i n e s s  had  i n hand"  to bring  i n which t h e r e can  in  as  " t h a t t h o u g h he  Dorothea  i n marriage  the  a reward g r a n t e d  Casaubon, i m p r i s o n e d  scholarship, finds  had  C a s a u b o n f i n d s no  where "he  apart  music,  i s to complete  D o r o t h e a as  self-denial,  life,  be  associates  i n h i s l a b o u r s and  which e n t a i l s  Seeing  His dark  Casaubon  George E l i o t  t h o u g h he  him  h i s y e a r s of  (Ch. X ) .  vouchsafed  books ( C h . V I I ) .  for  and  of  bookworm, Casaubon.,  Dorothea  f u n c t i o n of a s s i s t i n g  when he  o f h i s abandon-  e f f e c t s of romantic  the r i g o u r of h i s s t u d i e s .  him  some d e f i c i e n c y  true r e l a t i o n s h i p .  C a s a u b o n l o o k s upon h i s m a r r i a g e  wifely  twice  e q u a l p a r t n e r s h i p , f o r he n e e d s t o  intoxicating  at Lowick,  trans-  o n c e or  i s a revelation  into  be  the p o s s i b i l i t y  show t h e madness o f p a s s i o n a t e  e q u a l l y dubious  chord  never  of h i s pre-eminence.  with  cannot  f o r the moderation  enter  i n c a p a b l e o f an  pains to  who  He  ardour  In f a c t  that possibly  deficiency,  assured  it  human b e i n g .  Dorothea to account  his  scholarly  1  h i s mind  ment" ( C h .  is  Casaubon s  t o any  crossed in  but  as  in  i n the  83 despair the  which  sometimes t h r e a t e n e d him w h i l e t o i l i n g  morass of a u t h o r s h i p "  Dorothea's distant  sympathy,  (Ch. X ) .  being only  from h i s l a b o u r s ,  possible  prying  Casaubon  needs  and r e l i e s  and  he  on D o r o t h e a ' s  stands i n p l a c e crowded  of "that  Casaubon him  i n terms  who  will  "young  chilling  administer  The  He  measured to  the r u b r i c , "  i n fact  but as a h o u r s and  that  knowledge or  o f Casaubon  front,  shows "a mind  (Ch. XX).  Casaubon  to  a devout  is  highly  pupil  frescoes.  seem t o have i s s u e d  sympathy"  But  sensitive  whom he  He  finds  where he most needed Casaubon's  revive  his  spirits  impede h i s  i s shown by h i s  speaks  i n which  give  functionary  influence  i n "a  reading  according  years f u l l  i n a blank absence  Hiding  like  vaporous  enthusiasm to  of  b e h i n d an o f f i c i a l  shows t o D o r o t h e a o n l y  slave.  which  she c a n  human t i e s  t o n e , as o f a c l e r g y m a n  and  Dorothea  audience  hours w i t h the  to h i s t i r e d  of Raphael's  official  (Ch. X ) .  . . .  (Ch. X ) .  impersonal q u a l i t y  opinion  criticism,  and v e n e r a t i o n  ideal  c a r e t o a l l o w no n o t e o f p e r s o n a l his  tyrant-egoists,  D o r o t h e a , n o t f o r what  finds  any  the reach of  to himself"  shades"  needs  a l l the  trust  o f human e n r i c h m e n t ,  by a p p l a u s e . work.  Like  his laborious uncreative  pressure of Tartarean  from  a t e a s e when she i s s u i t a b l y  i s beyond  as a means o f encouragement  shrinks  thus h i n d e r e d from  or c r i t i c i s m . to f e e l  He  in  of  interest impersonal  a cold  d e f e r e n c e as  t h e pedagogue he  i s , Casaubon  t o any w a n i n g  i n the e n t h u s i a s m of h i s  "capable of a g i t a t i n g soothing"  tyranny, l i k e  him  cruelly  just  (Ch. XX)* Tom's, s e e k s t o  constrain  84 another  t o a c t i n a manner p r e c o n c e i v e d  C a s a u b o n ' s p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h i s own scholar  father.  Casaubon  senses  i n Ladislaw.  communicate w i t h  He  comparable  revenging a critic  His  conflicts  t o Tom's r e f u s a l  with  their  own  Tom  and  Casaubon accept  but  are  themselves  affection and  his wife  that  alive"  Casaubon  from  extravagant the  "always s a i d  vainly has  remarks t h a t  more o f Tom  is Philip.  because i t  warped  ideals.  Tom  has  a  which v a n i s h e s w i t h  as a m o n s t e r who  due,  childthe  incarcerates  I t i s apposite to note 'my  Both  repressive guardianship.  is here  l o v e , ' when h i s manner  the g r a n d i o s e  or Adam, but  i n t h a t he  was  he  d e l u s i o n s of  c o n t a c t , but which can  needs o t h e r s t o share Behind  "doubtless  t h e medium o f support  no  the  is distinguished his  t h e mask o f  t h e r e i s a p a t h e t i c human b e i n g  c h o s e n i s one  a  l o v e o f o t h e r s as t h e i r  craving for reputation.  to f i n d  has  XXII).  either  l e a r n e d man  to  i n t h i s matter  relationship,  a sternly  (Ch. X X I I ) .  t h e dreamer  Dorothea  s t o n e p r i s o n a t L o w i c k " where she  C a s a u b o n has dreamer t h a n  the  the  f o r Dorothea's  w i t h whom she  egotistically  by L a d i s l a w  the c o l d e s t " (Ch.  a rival  basically unloving.  hardens i n t o  " i n that  and  t o a l l o w Maggie t o see  for his sister  C a s a u b o n i s seen  "buried  a  t h e wrongs done t o h i s  tyranny  Both, t y r a n t s s e e k t o r e s t r i c t  years,  r e p u t a t i o n as  therefore forbids  the o n l y person  genuine understanding.  like  himself.  i s as g r e a t as Tom* s o b s e s s i o n w i t h r e d e e m i n g  f a m i l y ' s r e p u t a t i o n and  regard  by  trying  s c h o l a r s h i p he  life.  some a n c i e n t G r e e k has  George  Eliot  observed  85 that  behind  the  must a l w a y s be our  b i g mask and our  poor  little  t i m o r o u s l i p s more or  (Ch.  speaking-trumpet,  which the  pride  chance  and  tyrant  George E l i o t  e y e s p e e p i n g as u s u a l  the  strong  f e e l s t o be  t o be  desire  his  h i s c h i e f weakness.  t o meet P h i l i p ,  and  tries  c a u s e s him  t o deny l o v e  to h i s f a t h e r .  man  to  made aware o f  h i s own  and  learn  Tom  never  restricted  in their  to the  need of o t h e r s  negation,  (MF.  Bk.  the VI,  Tyranny i n the  but  The  money:  "A  warm man  until  thus  he  is  Casaubon they  remain  appears  insensitivity  irrational  b i a s of  positive qualities Ch.  only  the  that  replaces  for characters  in detail.  recognises was  tenacious the  mind create  XII).  n o v e l s not  i s true  Featherstone  difficult  i s g r e a t l y concerned with  this  Peter  the  rectitude  rigidly  to  have been c o n s i d e r i n g  Maggie  to l e a v e  tyrant  i t i s by  by  Ladislaw  prejudices.  becomes a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t .  how  and  weak man  frequently see  denies  It i s  i n p u r p o s e and  George E l i o t  " s t r o n g l y marked by  shown  f o r freedom from a r b i t r a r y c o n t r o l  s e l f - e x c l u s i v e n a t u r e and  severity"  f o r the  w e a k n e s s e s and  becomes d e c i s i v e  h i s deeds.  skill  relationships.  by  he  Tom  t h e s e as d o e s Adam, and  strong  that  his very  feel  are  t o f o r c e him  i n h i s own  strong  independence  Casaubon f o r b i d s  Adam's p r i d e  the  for  strength  district.  in  and  l e s s under anxious c o n t r o l "  a c c e s s t o L o w i c k Manor and  for  there  XXIX). The  the  the  Waule.  The  i s that Ay,  love,  It i s interesting  other only  than those  human warmth  associated  ay;  but  with  money's a good  we  86 egg, in  and i f you've g o t money t o l e a v e ( M . , Ch. X I I ) .  a warm n e s t "  finds but  h i s own "warm n e s t "  I t i s appropriate  not i n the f l o r i d  i n t h e uncommunicative  "frog faced"  F e a t h e r s t o n e , who i n d u l g e s tyranny,  or love  i n t e r e s t e d Mary G a r t h who s e r v e s  in  Daniel  i s as s t e r i l e  . . out o f l o v e "  their self  need  leading points of  attempt  into  (Ch. L 1 V ) .  to prove they  slavery,  out,  The  case the r i v a l r y  of love,  and b o t h  are self-contained  and deny her-  feels "satisfaction i n  (Ch. L I V ) .  As B e r n a r d  frigidity  i s an  f o r m a s t e r y and h e r u n w i l l i n g n e s s  of herself  love.  where a l l t h e o s t e n s i b l e  In t h i s  and G r a n d c o u r t  captive"  through  Gwendolen i n e f f e c t s e l l s  Gwendolen's s e x u a l  her d e s i r e  others,  even f o r t h e d i s -  . . . and she had n o t m a r r i e d  f o r dependence.  h i s wife  anything  Rigg.  as Casaubon's w i t h  power p r e v e n t s any p o s s i b i l i t y  partners  family  him so c o n s i d e r a t e l y .  "was a c o n t r a c t  a d v a n t a g e s were on h e r s i d e  for  Joshua  and l e s s c a p a b l e o f r e d e m p t i o n  Gwendolen's m a r r i a g e  .  Vincy  r e l a t i o n s h i p between Gwendolen and G r a n d c o u r t , Deronda,  Dorothea,  t h a t he  i n h i s own f o r m o f p e t t y  shows no a p p r e c i a t i o n  The  behind you l a y i t  Paris expression to give  t o another.''"  need o f t h e t y r a n t  t o have them p e r f o r m  to control the l i v e s of actions  that  conform t o h i s  own o v e r p o w e r i n g c o n t r o l , r e s u l t s i n h i s t r e a t i n g them i n a  l e s s t h a n human way.  t o make o t h e r s  play  There a r e elements of t h i s  a part  conceived  by t h e s e l f  desire  i n many  Bernard P a r i s , E x p e r i m e n t s i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s Q u e s t f o r V a l u e s ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v . P r e s s , 1965), p . 234.  87 other of  c h a r a c t e r s who do n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e g e n e r a l  the t y r a n t .  apparent There in  i n the a t t i t u d e  i sa failure  Lydgate's  attributes. ardour,  eyelid"  to recognise  He s e n s e s  danger  shoulders  (Ch. X V I ) .  of Harold  Maggie,  of personality  and i s b a f f l e d  by D o r o t h e a ' s  . . .exquisite curves before marriage  i n Lydgate's  mind  f e e t and o f l i p and  Rosamond i s  t o a flower;, by t h e  she h a s become h i s " b a s i l p l a n t "  This denial of i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,  to  the value  i n s t e a d who h a s " s m a l l  Although  compared  of Middlemarch  attitude  i s frequently  c o n t i n u a l emphasis on Rosamond's p h y s i c a l  turned  repeatedly  view of others  o f men t o w a r d s women i n g e n e r a l .  and c h o o s e s a w i f e  perfectly  end  This egotistic  pattern  seen more s t r i k i n g l y  Transome t o h i s mother  (Finale). i n the  and Tom T u l l i v e r  i s n o t i c e d t o o i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f H e t t y and  Rosamond t o w a r d s men. H e t t y l i k e d t o f e e l t h a t t h i s s t r o n g , s k i l l f u l , keen eyed man was i n h e r power, and w o u l d have been i n d i g n a n t i f he had shown t h e l e a s t s i g n o f s l i p p i n g f r o m u n d e r t h e yoke of h e r c o q u e t t i s h t y r a n n y . . . She f e l t n o t h i n g when h i s e y e s r e s t e d on h e r , but t h e c o l d t r i u m p h o f knowing t h a t he l o v e d h e r (Ch. X I I I ) . There the  i s here,  admiration  affection. and  t o o , something o f E s t h e r Lyon's d e l i g h t i n of a suitor  Rosamond  her c a l c u l a t i o n  through  watchful  unconcerned  f o r whom she h a s no r e a l  secretly plans "had a s h a p i n g  blue  activity  t o Lydgate  and l o o k e d  eyes,  whereas L y d g a t e ' s  l a y b l i n d and  as a j e l l y - f i s h  which gets melted  without  knowing i t " (Ch. X X V I I I ) .  This d e s i r e to use others f o r  ends o f one's own, seen b l a t a n t l y 'treating'  her marriage  o f the Sproxton  miners,  i n Harold results  Transome's i n a spurious  88 relationship, seeker  isolated  impregnable seem t h a t  p o s i t i o n o f t h e t y r a n t makes him a p p e a r  t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f human sympathy.  just  a s he i s i n h i b i t e d  i s also incapable  s a i n t and s i n n e r .  moral  tyranny,  suffering, and  first  when he r e c o g n i s e s a period  the  i s expanded  tyrant  Casaubon,  of intense  Bulstrode,  are unable  another, are  to love h i s father his injustice  after  to achieve  sufficiently,  to Arthur.  suffering i s required  Tom and H a r o l d  a passionate  towards those  It  before  being.  Transome have  a period  o f mean a c t s t o t h e i r  some d e g r e e o f s p i t e  The  t h r o u g h h i s own  their  o f s u f f e r i n g , but affection for  and so r e m a i n f r a g m e n t e d c r e a t u r e s .  capable  citadel,  The t r i u m p h o f Adam  t o t h e s c a l e o f a human  moments o f human c o n t a c t they  showing l o v e so  He l e a r n s t o shed h i s m a n t l e o f  when he r e a l i s e s ,  seems t h a t  I t would  t o see t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l o v i n g  t h a t he h a s f a i l e d  finally  from  of r e c e i v i n g i t .  Bede i s p e r h a p s h i s a b i l i t y both  t o e i t h e r t h e power-  or h i s v i c t i m . The  he  w h i c h has no human v a l u e  A l l four  f e l l o w s , and a l l show who t h r e a t e n  their  f r o m w h i c h human sympathy a p p e a r s a s weakness.  more t h e s t r e n g t h  t h e more i r r a t i o n a l  of the t y r a n t ' s f o r t r e s s  i s threatened  and p e t t y he becomes i n h i s d e f e n c e .  So Mrs Transome, who h a v i n g  failed  to love  a p o s i t i o n where she c a n i s s u e a r b i t r a r y  retreats into  commands,  found t h e o p i a t e f o r her d i s c o n t e n t i n t h e e x e r t i o n o f h e r w i l l about s m a l l e r t h i n g s . . . l i k e d e v e r y l i t t l e s i g n o f power h e r l o t had l e f t h e r . She l i k e d t h a t a t e n a n t s h o u l d s t a n d b a r e headed below h e r a s she s a t on h o r s e back . . . t o i n s i s t t h a t work done w i t h o u t h e r o r d e r s s h o u l d be undone . . . t o be c u r t s e y e d and bowed t o ( C h . I ) .  89 T h o s e who a t t e m p t defeated,  or remain o u t s i d e r s .  f r o m communion w i t h thwart ful. with  The f a t e  by c o n q u e s t  Their roles  of others  Raffles.  With these,  i s consequently  authority their  over  except  another  own e m o t i o n a l  l o n e l y unlamented  tyrant-villains a s wit'  1  life.  while  Bulstrode  a t t e m p t s t o g a i n power and E s t h e r ' s  Of is  to wield  have  i s forced to leave  love.  Tom  gains  i s a strong suspicion  connivance.  a l l t h e t y r a n t f i g u r e s we have c o n s i d e r e d , i t  and made t o f e e l  reparation  f o r past mistakes.  t h e r e i s no m o r a l  through  sympathetic  t h e n e c e s s i t y and v i r t u e o f Adam comes t o r e a l i s e  excellence i n strength alone,  be i n f o r m e d  gain h i s f u l l his  there  o n l y Adam Bede who i s t r a n s f o r m e d  must  we  but i n h i s r e t u r n t o  his sister  endurance,  it  figures  H a r o l d Transome i s b a l k e d i n  t h e r e s p e c t o f h i s community,  authorial  Cass  Casaubon and F e a t h e r s t o n e  his  of  Dunstaiii  i s a compensation f o r t h e p o v e r t y  deaths,  with  o f t h e more  p o s s i b l y Adam, t h e need  s o c i e t y he h a s d e c e i v e d .  union  unsuccess-  as i n a c c o r d  a l l the other  the  sympathetic  attempt t o  i s usually  t h e demands o f Nemesis as i s t h e f a t e conceived  a r e always  c u t them o f f  f e l l o w s , and t h e i r  of Grandcourt  have c o n s i d e r e d ,  of  their  t h e happy r e l a t i o n s h i p  melodramatically and  to thrive  with  sympathy.  that  and t h a t  He d o e s i n e f f e c t  s t a t u s a s a human b e i n g  only  when he s w a l l o w s  p r i d e , and r e n o u n c e s h i s power t o p u n i s h A r t h u r by  leaving  t h e community:  "God f o r b i d I s h o u l d make t h i n g s w o r s e f o r y o u . I u s e d t o w i s h I c o u l d do i t , i n my p a s s i o n - b u t t h a t was when I t h o u g h t y o u d i d n ' t f e e l enough. I ' l l s t a y s i r , I ' l l do t h e b e s t I c a n . I t ' s a l l I ' v e g o t t o t h i n k o f now - t o do my work w e l l , and make t h e w o r l d a b i t b e t t e r p l a c e f o r them a s c a n e n j o y i t " ( C h . X L V I T I ) .  CHAPTER THE  The  idealist  FIVE  IDEALIST  i s c u t o f f from  h i s f e l l o w s n o t by an  a b s e n c e o f sympathy b u t by a f a i l u r e of  reality.  t o take  full  account  He f r e q u e n t l y has an o v e r - o p t i m i s t i c v i e w o f  h i s own power t o redeem o t h e r s , and i n h i s own z e a l to take  account  o f human  limitations.  He i s u n l i k e t h e o t h e r considered  His failure  to  i n h i s own n a t u r e  tragedy  isolated  s i n c e he i s p r i m a r i l y  others. flaws  with  ideals  by a f a t a l The  the welfare  concerned  all  a selfish  social  o n l y by a p a r t i a l  limitations. cut in  themselves,  undergo the p r o c e s s  o f f from their The  Until  concerned  equilibrium.  she  their  Holt  with  here,  Dinah M o r r i s , consistently  but a r e e f f e c t i v e  of d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r  t h i s process  about  Both a r e c o n -  compromise o f t h e i r  human r e a l i t i e s ,  i s complete  i n their ideals.  They  own and o t h e r s ' they  and o n l y p a r t i a l l y  remain effective  striving. idealists  the s o c i a l  reality.  brings  passion.  are concerned  either with  good o f o t h e r s o r t h e i r m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e . and  t h e good o f  o f o t h e r s , but j e o p a r d i s e  R u f u s L y o n , D o r o t h e a Brooke, and F e l i x  altruism  have  i n h i m s e l f , due  and M a g g i e .  i d e a l i s t s we a r e m a i n l y  others before  with  or that of society,  lapse into  however, manage t o f i n d  put  f i g u r e s we  t o b r i n g out the best  i n the cases of Lydgate  cerned  fails  idealist  Dorothea  does n o t l i v e  finds  the s p i r i t u a l  Both t h e r e l i g i o u s  have t o compromise w i t h  human  she i s u n l i k e S t . T h e r e s a  i n that  i n an age when f a i t h wrought m i r a c l e s .  90  91 D i n a h has t o a c c e p t  t h a t n o t a l l share  and  intervention.  faith  i n divine  The figures  idealist  her tone,  the  she i s more s y m p a t h e t i c George E l i o t  application  schemes, but she a l s o idealists  and  shares  f o r a widening  conscious  Rufus Lyon,  into  i s very  than  of t h e i r  extends  critical  nobly  towards  of the l i m i -  worldly  experience  conceived of her  T h e r e i s more t h a n a  i r o n y i n her treatment but t h e i r  isolated  some o f t h e y e a r n i n g s  awareness.  fervour  considerable irony  conscious  o f t h o s e who l a c k t h e n e c e s s a r y  the e f f e c t i v e  little  the other  Though t h e r e i s o c c a s i o n a l l y  idealist.  tations for  from  i n t h e d e g r e e o f sympathy George E l i o t  towards him. in  i s different  her r e l i g i o u s  of Dinah  Morris  human s y m p a t h i e s a r e n e v e r  called  question. The  irony i s directed  at t h e i r p a r t i a l  realities  w h i c h a r e sometimes o v e r l o o k e d  religious  fervour.  naive ideals  enthusiasm  Dinah p r o j e c t  and  fail  fact.  she a t t e m p t s  a s w e l l as i n h e r s y m b o l i c  and  their  their  In the l i m i t a t i o n  Casaubon they  and  realistic The  t o r e a l i s e her  myopia.  vision  of their  from  Both Dorothea of the t r u t h  the o b j e c t i v e  judgements r e g a r d i n g  are thus obvious  1  t o Lyon i n the  own p e r s o n a l v i s i o n  to d i s t i n g u i s h  and  i n the i d e a l i s t s  Dorothea i s comparable  w i t h which  blindness to  Hetty  t a r g e t s f o r t h e humorous,  comment o f t h e a u t h o r .  detachment  o f R u f u s L y o n and D i n a h M o r r i s a s much i n t h e i r  from  the world  of a c t u a l i t y  shows i t s e l f  pre-  dilection  f o r pedantic  l a n g u a g e as i n George E l i o t ' s  comment.  She p o r t r a y s t h e s e r a t h e r p r i g g i s h D i s s e n t e r s a s  direct  92 human and  l o v a b l e people  whose aim  to the d i s t r e s s e d ,  r a t h e r than  d o x o l o g i e s o f a Mr  Tyke or  Seth  Bede and  attempting  i s t o extend  f o l l o w the  Bulstrode.  sympathy  self-centred  In her p o r t r a y a l  Dinah M o r r i s , George E l i o t  of  i s obviously  to overthrow a contemporary p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t  t h e E v a n g e l i c a l Movement: " I t i s t o o p o s s i b l e t h a t t o some of my  r e a d e r s M e t h o d i s m may  pitched  g a b l e s up  preachers  and  dingy  mean n o t h i n g more t h a n  streets,  hypocritical  jargon"  however, i s more s u g g e s t i v e o f religion "of  than  of  Seth  and  sleek grocers,  Dinah,  who  The by  enthusiasm  q u a r t e r l y reviews  h y p o c r i s y , does not  occasionally nature Seth  and  D i n a h by  t o have v e r y (Ch.  III).  villagers on  the  Although  to t e a r s ,  (Ch.  Dinah,  always provoke  though u n t a i n t e d  sympathy,  sums up  t h e o r i e s and  Dinah's  very  t h e mundane  the p o s i t i o n  effect  Dinah i s absent presence  of  t h a n k Heaven!! sublime  feelings"  sermon moves many o f  t h e permanent  L I I I ) where her  and  o f her  from would  the have  the  preaching harvest inhibited  merry-making. Seth  not  erroneous  and  (Ch. I I I ) .  saying " i t i s possible,  them i s d o u b t f u l .  supper  and  George E l i o t  not  conversions, i n  shows a l a c k o f c o n t a c t w i t h  of o t h e r s .  of h i s  p o r t i c o e s , " but " b e l i e v e d  visions"  of Seth  This,  were M e t h o d i s t s  i n present miracles, i n instantaneous by dreams and  III). 1  i n chapels with p i l l a r e d  revelations  sponging  Bulstrode s practice  t h a t modern t y p e w h i c h r e a d s  attends  (Ch.  low-  and  D i n a h a r e w o r t h y members o f t h e  because of t h e i r  e m p h a s i s on  the v i r t u e  of  human r a c e living  a  93 life  consonant  with  the Gospels,  but because o f t h e i r  capacity  f o r l o v e and sympathy w i t h  So  having  Seth,  had h i s s u i t  the sorrows  of marriage  of others.  rejected  i n s t e a d of b u r s t i n g out i n t o w i l d a c c u s i n g apostrophes t o God and d e s t i n y . . . i s r e s o l v i n g , a s he now w a l k s homeward u n d e r t h e solemn s t a r l i g h t , t o r e p r e s s h i s s a d n e s s , t o be l e s s bent on h a v i n g h i s own w i l l , and t o l i v e more for o t h e r s , as Dinah does (Ch. I I I ) . But w h i l e and  t o l i v e more f o r o t h e r s , D i n a h  cannot her to  S e t h l e a r n s t o want n o t h i n g f o r h i m s e l f ,  lead  an e n t i r e l y  equilibrium  accept  isation  h e r own human n e e d s .  is  to yours  so k n i t  you" (Ch. Dinah's  fragile  that  Whether  of her fellows  i t be a r a t i o n a l -  response  h a s t o admit  removal  to divine  t o Adam: "My  i t i s but a d i v i d e d  from  or e t h e r e a l q u a l i t y  life  realities  soul  I live  i s emphasised  others find  i n her.  by t h e  Adam's  f a c e t o t h e "snowdrop f l o w e r s "  ( C h . X I ) , w h i l e Adam h i m s e l f s e e s h e r as a l i l y her v i s i t  she h a s  LIV).  m o t h e r compares D i n a h ' s  After  maintain  L i k e Dorothea,  o f these needs, or a profound u l t i m a t e l y Dinah  t h a t she  and s t i l l  f o r t h e improvement  prompting,  without  life,  a s a human b e i n g .  renounce her ardour  and  selfless  has t o l e a r n  to Hetty during the l a t t e r ' s  (Ch. X I ) .  imaginary  drama i n h e r bedroom, we s e e h e r " c o v e r e d w i t h h e r l o n g white like  d r e s s , her p a l e f a c e f u l l a lovely  corpse  o f subdued  emotion,  almost  i n t o which the soul has r e t u r n e d "  (Ch. X V ) . Though D i n a h ' s to her  be compared  excessive self-mortification  t o B u l s t r o d e ' s abstemiousness  own s e l f - d e p r i v a t i o n  i n no way i n h i b i t s  i s not  o f d i e t , and her i m a g i n a t i v e  94 participation removed f r o m  i n t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f o t h e r s , she i s a t t i m e s the a b i l i t y  Although Dinah seen  t o see p e o p l e  has h e r s e l f  i n the Methodist  the q u a l i t y  soul"  others.  of s e l f l e s s n e s s not  b r i c k m a k e r , who "had u n d e r t a k e n  f~his] hard t a s k w i t h the s i n g l e his  realistically.  eye t o t h e n o u r i s h m e n t  ( C h . X X I ) , she h a s t o o o p t i m i s t i c She i s unaware t h a t  Hetty's cool  a view o f  Furthermore  D i n a h m i s t a k e s H e t t y ' s t e r r o r , when h e r f u t u r e p r o g n o s t i c a t e d , f o r a genuine  "Dinah and  had n e v e r  with her benignant  stirring and  of a divine  impulse.  who i s s a i d  She k i s s e d  need  to forgive Arthur.  meeting  a last sign  o f h e r d u t y t o o t h e r s , and  borne  i n the p r i s o n .  isolation  felt  a deep j o y i n t h e f i r s t  of the i d e a l i s t  human n a t u r e i s t y p i f i e d  While  Dinah  i s unable towards  from t h e r e a l i t i e s  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  and H e t t y , who c o n s t a n t l y  escape  o u t when t h e two embrace i n  W h i l e H e t t y l o o k s t o D i n a h as  Dinah  to  j o y " (Ch. XV).  h e r l o v e was welcomed" ( C h . X L V ) .  The  promptings  thing,  Dinah's misconception of  hope o f r e s c u e , " D i n a h  that  the sobbing  t o have a "key t o u n l o c k h e a r t s , " i s u n a b l e  Hetty's nature i s further first  i t was t h e  appeals t o Hetty, Dinah, the  b r i n g her t o a r e a l i s a t i o n  the  of  i n t h i s way b e f o r e ,  began t o c r y w i t h h e r f o r g r a t e f u l  one  sufferings  prompting:  h o p e f u l n e s s she t r u s t e d  Despite a l l the devotional  to  religious  seen H e t t y a f f e c t e d  of  attitude to  Adam i n d i c a t e s h e r w i s h n o t t o m a r r y h i m .  are  . . .  fail  between  t o communicate.  t o c o n c e i v e o f a p e r s o n w i t h no  a nobler existence, Hetty i s powerless  f r o m h e r own e g o c e n t r i c v i e w o f t h e w o r l d .  95 George E l i o t  sums up  the p o s i t i o n  thus:  I t i s our h a b i t t o say t h a t w h i l e t h e l o w e r n a t u r e c a n n e v e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e h i g h e r , t h e h i g h e r n a t u r e commands a complete view of the lower. But I t h i n k t h e h i g h e r n a t u r e has t o l e a r n t h i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n as we l e a r n t h e a r t o f v i s i o n , by a-good d e a l o f h a r d e x p e r i e n c e , o f t e n w i t h b r u i s e s and g a s h e s i n c u r r e d i n t a k i n g t h i n g s up by t h e wrong end, and f a n c y i n g o u r s p a c e w i d e r t h a n i t i s (Ch. XV). This idealist  "hard  i n suffering  only  by a p a r t i a l  torn  between h e r  she  s e e s her  that  experience" frequently  affection"  "struggle by g i v i n g  vision  o f C a s a u b o n , and  being  same way  than  imprisoned  "the a r t of  her and  as "a g r e a t  her  i d e a l s of  Dorothea has  ideal.  suffers  realism.  Felix  and  N e v e r t h e l e s s both F e l i x  sufficiently  are not  compromised,  practise  them  We consequent from and  (Epilogue).  both F e l i x  She  resolves marrying  f o r her  erroneous  too,  and  and  till  but  he  sense  leave  continued  got  gray  Though t h e i r Lyon  he  common  Lyon  Johnson  life  suffers in  censure, by  a  and  ideals  are f o r c e d  to  elsewhere.  see t h e i d e a l i s t ' s failure  the w o r l d . frequently  "Mr  prosperous,  r a t h e r more p r o s p e r o u s "  temptation"  and  Holt,  receiving public  feels  duty;  to accept, i n marriage,  T r e b y Magna, where t h e i n s i d i o u s blond  Dinah  service  r e t a i n s h i s i d e a l s which are c h a r a c t e r i s e d and  the  vision"  her C h r i s t i a n  a g a i n s t " (Ch. L I I ) . up  In the  exalted  learns  l o v e f o r Adam and  Adam.  less  he  compromise w i t h h i s i d e a l s .  "earthly  she must  her c o n f l i c t  and  involves  He  to r e l a t e  limitation  of v i s i o n  and  to r e a l i t y  i n Lyon's  abstraction  seems b l i n d  his  to the o p i n i o n s of o t h e r s  overlooks e s s e n t i a l matters  such  as h i s  96 spectacles worldly are  b e f o r e the p u b l i c  falls  on  considered  respectively. school  boys,  tittered and  L y o n as  L y o n , who  after  i s "too  a t him  i s hooted  absent  (Ch.  "the one  are  devoted  seaport  Dorothea,  she  with refusing (Ch. the  II).  So  Sir  t o be  as  is left  Lyon's g i f t s  James C h e t t a m  the  but  to poverty,  facts  contempt  his  like affinities  h i s v o c a t i o n where he  support  congregation  her  was in  a  daughter.  a f o r t u n e has  second  i s of  know l o v e , but  t o be giving  in  order  to maintain  feel  by  the  or  content up"  pleasure  "wise D i s s e n t i n g  "a p o o r m i n i s t e r must who  kept  him"  either  of  (Ch.  t o t h e demands of  VI).  prospects  advantage.  sympathies  sacrifice  love.  be  Dorothea's  i s as d e v o i d o f amorous  financial  to  ambitious  to understand  first  has  the  householders  Through h i s o u t g o i n g to  by  are admired  they  fails  s i n c e the  submitting  to  suspected  substantial  marriages  a  does not,  her mother's j e w e l l e r y , " l i k e s  matrons" of Treby, below t h e  small  T h i s l a c k o f n o r m a l human a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s c a u s e s  idealist  loving.  who  towns" ( C h . V I ) , t o m a r r y  undertake  until  of  Celia  free-  Dorothea  of a l a r g e I n d e p e n d e n t  p e n n i l e s s widow and who  and  Though he  L y o n g i v e s up  southern  the  the world  Felix  possessions.  evident.  o f our  from  shares with  admired p a s t o r  and  who  IV).  D i n a h M o r r i s , avow a l i f e her  Poyser by  the  Dorothea,  s h o r t s i g h t e d to n o t i c e t h o s e  - too  p u r e l y world  s c o r n of  i t does on D i n a h and by Mrs  Rufus Lyon  to  The  somewhat r i d i c u l o u s  petty impulses"  for  debate.  the  idealist  some p a r t o f  D i n a h g i v e s up  her  his  comes ideals  preaching,  the Wesleyan c o n f e r e n c e ,  and  97 Rufus,  too, puts domestic happiness before matters of  mere d o c t r i n e , conscience  that  church  he  i s so d e e p l y i m p l a n t e d i n R u f u s  he f e e l s  guilt  i n r e n o u n c i n g t h e dogma o f h i s  i s similar  o r shook  secret  sacrificed showing  their  Just their off  h i s ideals  a t h i s memory"  (Ch. V I ) . Although  l o v e when he d i s c l o s e s  Lyon never  forgets  t o h i s own p r i v a t e  that  to her he once  interest i n  to Annette. as t h e o t h e r i s o l a t e d  life  failure  seen t h i s  figures  are slaves to  so t h e i d e a l i s t  cuts  by h i s d e v o t i o n t o d u t y .  t o subdue p a s s i o n  applied  the world  and h i s w o r l d had f o r g o t t e n  own s e l f i s h p a s s i o n s ,  supposed have  heads  by E s t h e r ' s  from normal  tries  His  t o D i n a h ' s , b u t when he c h o s e  o f her b i r t h ,  love  o f human e m o t i o n s .  he had f a l l e n  i s rewarded  the  in his  ideal  knew t h a t  him,  continually  Puritan  f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n  struggle "he  he s u f f e r s  for i t .  The Lyon  though  and t o r m e n t s h i m s e l f  to c a r r y out h i s n o b l e s t  He  and M a g g i e .  Rufus  frequently  because  of a  obligations.  i n t h e c a s e o f D i n a h , and w i l l  to Dorothea  himself  We  see i t as  Lyon never  forgets  t h a t t h e p a s s i o n f o r t h i s woman, w h i c h he f e l t t o have drawn him a s i d e f r o m t h e r i g h t a s much a s i f he had b r o k e n t h e most solemn vows . . . f o r a b e i n g who had no g l i m p s e o f h i s t h o u g h t s i n d u c e d a more t h o r o u g h r e n u n c i a t i o n t h a n he had e v e r known ( C h . V I ) . In t h i s  case the l i m i t a t i o n s  o f Lyon's  ideals  are apparent  t o t h e r e a d e r , but n o t t o L y o n h i m s e l f , whose p e r v e r s e conscience perfection.  e n s l a v e s him t o a p u r e l y George  Eliot's  attitude  i n t e l l e c t u a l model o f t o Lyon's  conflict  98 between t h e by  her  his  spiritual  d e p i c t i o n of  conscience  Lyon r e g r e t s an  object  still  die  out  on  the  debate  the  an  deeply  "gone a s t r a y  public  by  ideal way  the  human need  his  "lapse as  a f t e r h i s own altar"  Philip  into transgression  supreme."  He  XV).  Mr  command" ( C h . The  w h i c h t o him  feels  egoism  b e h i n d Mr  Lyon's z e a l  i s emphasised  by  writing this  XV).  the past  "lapse but  by  deludes himself against wield  with  the  only  indulging that  he  a  Debarry,  comment:  good R u f u s f e l t  r e m i n d s us the  feels  Though Mr  Lyon c o u l d  Vincy,  "this  in this  a need  that  the of  himself  Divine  never  be  (M.  Ch.  to atone  for  contest,  i n the  as  one  war  gifted  speech  a r m o u r y " (Ch.  that  to  . . .  XV)  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of they  accused,  tyrannical spirit,  things"  trivial  divided  Bulstrode's  s c r i p t u r e s so  everywhere"  rather  finely  brought  his "rebellious  i s God's a d v o c a t e  H i s view of  weapons o f  to  banker  great  t o Mr  subsequent  i n t o t r a n s g r e s s i o n " of  according  of  to  the wider r e l a t i o n s of  " i l l u m i n a t e d thought,  inevitably  and  letter,  Lyon not  falsehood.  choicer  "a  e l e v a t i o n o f mind w h i c h i s i n f a l l i b l y  Mr.  desires,"  the  by G e o r g e E l i o t ' s  a pre-occupation  (Ch.  anticipates  to d i s p l a y " t r u t h "  and  and  fire  XV).  e x h i b i t " e r r o r " i s manifest' i n h i s l e t t e r  serenity  has  l e t the  equivalent  and  "After  he  Lyon e a g e r l y  was  salve  against  i n w h i c h D e b a r r y ' s d e p u t y d e f a u l t s as  opportunity  to  Debarry.  d e s i r e s , and |~hasj  (Ch.  i s shown  i n which Lyon attempts  open d e b a t e w i t h  regarded  the  and  as  favoured Bulstrode  wanting to p l a y  XIII), his personal  events  himself. is  by  bishop bias  99 is the  evident  i n h i s view o f the debate,  key f i g u r e ,  as "a h e a v e n l y  i n w h i c h he i s t o be  indication"  L y o n i s shown t o be c u t o f f from and  although  his  religious  faced  with  guidance  a situation  i n everyday  C h r i s t i a n who  Lyon a g a i n f i n d s  i n isolating  parentage,  Confronted  with  Esther's natural  and f a i l u r e  father,  to himself that the t o go t o h e a v e n ,  w i t h on e a r t h t o u c h i n g (Ch. XV).  than  t h e human p r o -  r e g a r d i n g h e r own  the i n d i v i d u a l  because of the n a t u r e  "heavenly  more c r e d e n c e  w i t h whom he hoped  of v i s i o n  the  When f a c e d w i t h  i s possibly  to converse  failure  where d i v i n e  tbe knowledge.  s e c r e t s of h i s experience"  united  life  he i s " o b l i g e d t o admit  of h i s church,  were n o t e a s y  vision,  understanding,  In the novel  Esther the t r u t h  Rufus Lyon d e l a y s g i v i n g  novels,  and  o f Mr Lyon i s g i v e n l i t t l e  blem o f t e l l i n g  members  n o r m a l human  b i a s l e a v e s him f r e q u e n t l y a t a l o s s when  Mr H o l t ' s " l e a d i n g s . "  Maurice  compassion  i s not forthcoming.  indication" old  he shows g r e a t  (Ch. XV).  the deeper  As so o f t e n i n t h e o f communication a r e  from  of her r e l i g i o u s  H e t t y ' s r e a c t i o n s , and R u f u s L y o n f e e l s  reality.  Dinah,  zeal, misinterprets t h e need  for a  frame o f r e f e r e n c e o u t s i d e t h a t w h i c h he p r e v i o u s l y f e l t be u l t i m a t e t r u t h . occurred  "For the f i r s t  time  t o t h e m i n i s t e r t h a t he s h o u l d  a d v i s e r who  had more w o r l d l y t h a n  to  in his life i t be g l a d o f an  spiritual  experience"  (Ch. X V ) . Mr L y o n i s shown t o have a m y o p i c v i e w o f p r e s e n t realities,  but a broad  Christian,  whose c a l c u l a t i o n s  present  security,  vision  of e t e r n a l v e r i t i e s .  Maurice  t h r e a t e n t o undermine  Lyon's  amazes him by a p p e a r i n g  as a  self-confident  100 and  distinguished  his  s p e c t a c l e s t o s u r v e y t h i s man."  breakfast arrive Lyon,  at the t r u t h like  snatched  is  o t h e r s who liable  their  so  of  limitation an  Mr  Lyon  to  ...  "nervously puts Lyon f o r g e t s  like  effect"  i t appears.  attempt  (Ch. X V ) ,  George E l i o t  Though  s u b s c r i b e s to i d e a l s  on  i s not  that  He  darting  and  Mr  hard-  Lyon  that  the  the p r o d u c t i o n  the  stumbling,  to d i s c o v e r the nature  impersonal  "cool,  insists  to bear  (Ch. XVI)  "Mr  . . . action.  H o l t abounds w i t h  "so much c o n s c i e n c e an  to  occupied with  as i f t h e y were  Christian  But  i n his zeal  . impulsive  on  his  t h e medium o f argument.  of l i f e  Felix  antithesis.  slight  in  Lyon  are h a b i t u a l l y  (Ch. X V I ) ,  w o r l d l y " men  bringing of  through  at the d e t a i l s  him"  eyed,  Mr  and n e g l e c t s h i s a p p e a r a n c e  s u b j e c t s , was  past  gentleman.  crippling  at times  blindly,  of a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e ,  have been c o n s e c r a t e d  by  time: F o r what we c a l l i l l u s i o n s a r e o f t e n , i n t r u t h , a w i d e r v i s i o n o f p a s t and p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s - a w i l l i n g movement of a man's s o u l w i t h t h e l a r g e r sweep o f t h e w o r l d ' s f o r c e s a movement t o w a r d s a more a s s u r e d end t h a n t h e c h a n c e s o f a s i n g l e l i f e (Ch. X V I ) . Mr that  are  L y o n i n many ways t r a n s c e n d s shown t o be  Dissenters. for  h i s use  He  c u r r e n t among t h e  incurs  the censure  the  limitations  ideals  of h i s  of  the  fellow-clergy  o f F e l i x ' s name i n a sermon, and  the  more i n f l u e n t i a l h e a r e r s were o f t h e o p i n i o n , t h a t i n a man who had so many l o n g s e n t e n c e s a t command as Mr L y o n . . . t h i s naked u s e o f a n o n - s c r i p t u r a l T r e b y name i n an a d d r e s s t o t h e A l m i g h t y was a l l t h e more o f f e n s i v e ( C h . X X X V I I ) . The  need  causes sphere,  to detach  the  scriptures  from  the world  t h e D i s s e n t e r s t o remove m o r a l i t y t o t h e and  not  to inform t h e i r  ideals  by  of  reality  spiritual  constant  101 reference  t o t h e human l o t .  r e l i g i o u s devotee  Although Rufus  who a t t i m e s  h a s an a r d e n t c o n c e r n w i t h t h e m o r a l i t y  in  such  as m e d i c i n e  We have remarked Lyon's  conduct,  guidance, weal. Mr  quality  of egoism i n  and i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of s p i r i t u a l  a certain  but he i s n e v e r  isolated  f o r l o n g from  to l i v e  to F e l i x  her where h e r d e s t i n y  i n p r i s o n which  by books.  scholarship,  v i e w i t h Casaubon,  But i n h i s a t t i t u d e  her u p b r i n g i n g and f i n a l 'Lowick  Cicero.'  sitting  marriage,  shows  Mr L y o n  does at  a s he d o e s  which  time w e l l  o f t h e Book o f D a n i e l ,  gone t o t h e l i m b o o f m i s t a k e n  ( C h . X L I ) , on t h e a p p e a r a n c e  of h i s c h i l d  '"Ah, my b e l o v e d c h i l d " '  of  and t h u s u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y m a k i n g a b r e a c h  wall, him" is and  through which (Ch. X L I ) .  thus  seen  Lyon's The  of Dorothea  She i s c o n c e r n e d  her neighbour Nevertheless  i s always  rather  . . . upsetting  a pile in his  of scholarship  t o normal  informed Brooke  human c o n t a c t ,  by human  are s o c i a l  sympathy. rather  with doing p r a c t i c a l  t h a n t e a c h i n g him t o l i v e  she h a s c e r t a i n  he^i  g e t up t o him and k i s s barrier  t o be no impediment  ideals  religious.  Esther could  The a r t i f i c i a l  isolation  from  i n mastering a l l  exclaims, books,  surrounded  he i s f a r removed  Though " a b s o r b e d  interpretations  criticism"  finally  t o E s t h e r , and h i s p a r t i n  those p a i n s t a k i n g a r e by t h i s  f o r Esther  lies.  In h i s o b s e s s i o n with times almost  t h e common  a t Transome C o u r t ,  a c q u i e s c e s , and i t i s he who a r r a n g e d  to pay the v i s i t  the  o f human c o n d u c t  and p o l i t i c s .  Aware o f E s t h e r ' s d e s i r e  Lyon  i sa  shows h i m s e l f a v i s i o n a r y ,  he  spheres  Lyon  religious  traits  than  good t o  righteously. that  D i n a h and  102 Lyon  share.  She  James C h e t t a m We  i s , at l e a s t  "given to s e l f  see f r o m h e r a t t i t u d e  determination words,  "she  frequently  to renounce  likes  mortification"  horse-riding  g i v i n g up"  The  religious  St. Theresa p a r a l l e l  makes i t p l a i n  lives.  that  Dorothea's  a very limited  She  "spiritual  i s one  that  in Celia's  George  Eliot  form,  and  and  zealous nature  t o t h e age  i n which  In her n o b l e a s p i r a t i o n s  shows a n a i v e o p t i m i s m  D i n a h , who  similar  she  works i n a s o c i e t y which  i s susceptible  and o r d e r w h i c h  perform the f u n c t i o n  ledge  f o r the a r d e n t l y w i l l i n g  i s too absolute  could  soul"  D o r o t h e a ' s need  environment  i s influential  misjudgement  of  coherent  (Prelude).  f o r the "imperfect  social  to escape  i n bringing  f o r human  to Dinah's,  faith  lives.  sacri-  i s drawn i n M i d d l e m a r c h  i s " h e l p e d by no  she  her  scholarship.  to her enthusiasm, Dorothea  which  zeal  i n the s u b j u g a t i o n of  ideals  relevance  her  i s i l l - m a t c h e d w i t h t h e meanness o f  (Prelude),  Dorothea  but u n l i k e  ism  and  o f t h e " l a t e r - b o r n T h e r e s a s " whose  grandeur  opportunity" good  jewellery  compares h e r t o S t . T h e r e s a , a l t h o u g h h e r  i n order to serve a s t e r i l e  have o n l y  and S i r  (Ch. I I ) .  that,  (Ch. I I ) .  i s not v e r y dramatic, c o n s i s t i n g  pleasure  to C e l i a  t o her m o t h e r ' s  does not take a s p e c i f i c a l l y fice  according  o f knowHer  ideal-  state" in  from her  about  social  her  limited  fatal  Casaubon.  Dorothea  is like  short-sightedness, vision.  Lyon  typified  the l i v e s  Rufus Lyon, not o n l y  but a l s o  i s abstracted  i n her  i n the l i m i t a t i o n  physical  of her  f r o m t h e m efl.ee and  of those devoid of s p i r i t u a l  strife  realistic which  substance  103 i n T r e b y Magna. c e r n not  He  reality  that  Dorothea does not  But  on  they  r e m a r k on  d i s c o v e r s what  and  Dorothea  alike  she  feel  the  b e l i e v e s t o be  s o u l s of o t h e r s ,  from the  she  are  h i s great  immediate  considered as  fads  Per by  ideals  her  a means o f  sister,  ever  being  able to  among p e o p l e  with  "do  mental the that  Her  Virgin,  and  iveness  of  marriage  her  religious  Santa C l a r a  but  order,  (Ch.  In her saviour,  i s able  own she  frustrated  to  by  are S i r James  suit. see  Whereas some  anything  Christian,  nobly  quality  dislike  simple  IV).  of  throughout  the merely  orna-  d r e s s i n g of Dinah, We  i s comparable garments  (Ch.  are  told  i s compared  and  the  artist  or  initially  to t h a t of the  . . . gave her  she  of  living  i s emphasised  a f i n e quotation from the  t o Casaubon  them a c t i v e  Dorothea d e s p a i r s  to the  "plain  is  enco\iraged  Felix  Puritanical  "poor d r e s s "  practical,  his influence  his undesired  c a r e l e s s appearance of Lyon. her  she  such p e t t y thoughts"  i s comparable  with  soul.  into practice,  Dorothea's r e l i g i o u s Middlemarch.  and  forwarding  of h i s i d e a l s  the  for b u i l d i n g cottages  L y o n t h r o u g h h i s i n f l u e n c e on transfer  and  Dorothea needs to g i v e  i s a woman, however,  start.  for  con-  Casaubon's r e p u l s i v e e x t e r i o r  Dorothea's i d e a l s  Since  mainly  in their  to l i e behind i t .  whereas L y o n i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d  help.  new  are  f o r t h e mere e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e but  spiritual  but  and  the  Blessed impress-  Bible"(Ch. I ) .  In  to a neophyte of Naumann p a i n t s her  her a as  XXII). way  Dorothea  i s unable,  i s saint,  despite  devotee  a l l her  and  renunciations  104 of  horse-riding,  puppy d o g s ,  genuine r e l i g i o u s  experience.  w i t h h e r t i m e , and because  her l i f e  h e r m a r r i a g e t o Casaubon,  on  those around There  over  felt  h e r was  justifies  but  a misguided  "the e f f e c t  quality  to the great  organ  I  deeply the c o l o u r s  suppose  that  ring  and  bracelet  to j u s t i f y  and  "all  her d e l i g h t  her. m y s t i c r e l i g i o u s Tulliver  (Ch. I ) .  Just  so d o e s  gems:  i n the c o l o u r s  j o y " (Ch. I ) .  They  by m e r g i n g  Dorothea,  after  the v i t a l  even p a r t i a l l y  of the p a s t  world  such as D o r o t h e a  around  him  misguided of  like mother's trying  like  Maggie o f Thomas  bid for  c a p t u r e s the  con-  i s shown t o be c u t o f f f r o m t o some d e g r e e .  are at best  attempts at martyrdom.  some o f h e r m o t h e r ' s  spiritual  i s precluded.  o r Maggie i s c a p a b l e e i t h e r  token r e n u n c i a t i o n s which  scent.  them i n  the i d e a l s  her age  sacred  t h o u g h t was  e x p e r i e n c e , from which  faith  as  look  religious  who  a  like  gems a r e u s e d  t h e w h i l e her  exulted  " I t i s strange  i s seen h e r e m a k i n g an u n s u c c e s s f u l  secrated  as she  she f i n d  a Kempis,  idealist  (Finale).  D o r o t h e a p u t s on h e r  i n her p i o u s a s p i r a t i o n  The  sacrifice  i n her enthusiasm f o r  emblems i n t h e R e v e l a t i o n o f S t . J o h n . fragments of heaven"  per-  of her b e i n g  seem t o p e n e t r a t e one,  i s t h e r e a s o n why  key  than She  diffusive"  meaning i n the beauty of her mother's how  find  are out of  itself.  t o have r e l i g i o u s m e a n i n g .  her v i s i t  cameos, t o  o f them r a t h e r  incalculably  i s an e f f u s i v e  and  ideals  g r e a t w o r k s and makes o n l y  in  objects  Her  i t i s i n spite  o f them t h a t  f o r m s no  jewellery  The  individual  of merely  inefficacious,  Dorothea's  giving  j e w e l s and h e r f r u i t l e s s  or of up  marriage  105 bear  out  the  fact  that  she  o f n o t h i n g , whose l o v i n g unobtainable instead  goodness  i s a "Saint Theresa,  heart-beats  and  foundress  sobs a f t e r  . . . a r e d i s p e r s e d among  an  hindrances,  o f c e n t e r i n g i n some l o n g - r e c o g n i s a b l e d e e d "  (Prelude). Dorothea, authority. rather  Her  u n l i k e Dinah, spiritual  o r d i n a r y and  seeks  most m e n i a l  kind  ception  so l o n g as  sees m a r r i a g e  a cause which  her  a human  t o endow t h e  p e d e s t r i a n s c h o l a r Casaubon w i t h e x a l t e d  Dorothea i s prepared  She  serve  hunger c a u s e s  qualities.  duty.  to  i s noble  f o r ardent  service  i t accords with  as  her  of  the  ideals  of  an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v o t i o n  and  selfless,  o f what c o n s t i t u t e s  and  she  has  to  no  con-  a genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p .  She  r e t a i n e d v e r y c h i l d l i k e i d e a l s about m a r r i a g e . She f e l t s u r e t h a t she w o u l d have a c c e p t e d t h e j u d i c i o u s Hooker . . . or J o h n M i l t o n when h i s b l i n d n e s s came on; rsr any o t h e r g r e a t men whose odd h a b i t s i t w o u l d have been g l o r i o u s p i e t y t o e n d u r e (Ch. I ) . Her  simple  innocence  contrasts with  dreams o f Rosamond V i n c y who knowledge and  service,  Dorothea's idea of  thus  n o t i o n of t h e need  would have been s c o r n f u l  for  of  really  d e l i g h t f u l marriage"  as  husband was  a sort  of  teach  e v e n Hebrew, i f you  wished  it".(Ch.  seen  divine  by  i n that  bends her ideal. but  father,  Dorothea i s r e l a t e d she  has  an  ideal  c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y  Once a g a i n p e o p l e f o r what  are not  the viewer  would  and  I).  D o r o t h e a as a f a t h e r - f i g u r e  authority.  heroines  are,  no  "the  "where y o u r you  and  has  t h e more w o r l d l y  could  Casaubon i s  invested with  to the  o f what  day-dreaming  she w a n t s ,  to conform w i t h seen like  one  truly  and  that  f o r what  them t o be.  they Dinah's  106 misinterpretation to  of Hetty's tears  i s an a p p o s i t e  the s i t u a t i o n here. D o r o t h e a h a s t h e same r e f o r m i n g  in  parallel  Dinah,  b u t she i s opposed  z e a l that  t o her i n t h a t  i s seen  she s e e k s t o  break out o f her narrow  environment  existence  Her s e r v i c e i s t h u s l e s s d i s i n t e r e s t e d ,  for  for.herself.  her "exalted  e n t h u s i a s m about  enthusiasm which Dorothea's "the but  was l i t c h i e f l y  i d e a l s about  t h e ends  n i c e t i e s of the trousseau t h e y have t h e i r  In h e r view o f the f u t u r e Casaubon, role but  as a L o c k e ,  beside  escape  i s , i n fact,  of " v i l l a g e  clergy, The  round  life  courses,  learned  L i k e Maggie,  o r i n h e r more d e v o u t  towards  shuns  stood  h e r " (Ch.  her means o f  the narrow  local  Scripture Characters" i s that  (Ch.  i t removes h e r but a l a b y r i n t h  maze o f s m a l l  paths  that l e d  and abandons h e r i n t h e even more  maze o f Casaubon's Dorothea  III).  p a t r o n a g e o f t h e humbler  seemed n o t h i n g  a walled-in  creature  of domestic i n s i g n i f i c a n c e  idealism  which  no w h i t h e r " ( C h . I l l ) , frustrating  Casaubon's  [who| had s u d d e n l y  Dorothea  o f Female  i r o n y of Dorothea's  f r o m "a s o c i a l  of p l a t e "  brand o f e g o i s t i c v a n i t y .  a Pascal  charities,  the p e r u s a l  of p e t t y  the p a t t e r n  i n Dorothea's view,  from the t r i v i a l  I l l ) ,  o f m a r r i a g e do n o t i n c l u d e  o u t h i s hand  and p r o v i n c i a l m e d d l i n g . world  (Ch.  an  r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f and  messenger  h e r p a t h and h e l d  Casaubon  is  She s e e s him n o t as an o r d i n a r y  a Milton,  moods a s "a winged  nobler  by i t s own f i r e "  she i s u n a b l e t o v i s u a l i s e c l e a r l y  and h i s n e e d s .  a  t h e ends o f l i f e  [_or]  own p e c u l i a r  and o b t a i n  scholarship..  sheds one i n e f f e c t i v e way o f  III).  107 life  f o r another which  idealists the  are c h a r a c t e r i s e d  find  role  salvation  or n o b l e .  by  way  because  rewarding  manifests i t s e l f  Stephens  strange  of t h i s  w o r l d , and  exaltation - just  and  rather  see them  hazy  own  sounds  of t h e i r  qualities.  judgments  They  and  There  (Bk. V I , Ch.  is a  highly-strung,  and p e t t y r o u n d  instruction  fuller  a corresponding deficiency i n  comoarable  f o r "she and  The more  hunger  hungry  schoolroom, w i t h  of t a s k s "  III).  shows a more i n t e l l e c t u a l  by g i r l i s h  of a  idealism.  f o r the Casaubons  "In poor Maggie's  and d e l i g h t "  altruistic  "not t o be  to the  satis-  nibblings  o f a d i s c u r s i v e mouse" ( C h . I I I ) . i s v e r y aware o f t h e p e t t i n e s s  s u r r o u n d h e r , and  than Maggie.  But  i s much more o b j e c t i v e  she d o e s n o t r e a l l y  between i n t e l l e c t u a l The  and  yearning for a richer  come away f r o m a t h i r d - r a t e  Dorothea that  relationships,  the h a l f - r e m o t e presence of a world of love  Dorothea fied  their  t o o much sympathy  i t s jarring  beauty  i s romantic  o f the v e r y n a t u r e of t h e i r  in their  t h e power o f a s s e s s m e n t  felt  as women, and  and Maggie a r e b o t h seen as d e p r i v e d  e d u c a t i o n , and  have p e r h a p s  all  o f f the  background. Dorothea  nature  escape  cast  enriching personal suitors,  Both  to  to a cause that  the n a t u r e of t h e i r  a distorted  life  environment,  in their position  self-surrender  Cut o f f from any  both misjudge  limited  inherent  ineffective.  by an a r d e n t d e s i r e  thwarting i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r  constricting  in  proves equally  consider  c o n c e p t i o n and p r a c t i c a l  same h a z i n e s s seen i n M a g g i e ' s  ideal  and  hypocrisy  i n her the  ideals  gulf  reality.  of a " h a l f - r e m o t e  108 p r e s e n c e " c a n be d i s c e r n e d i n D o r o t h e a ' s "the  indefiniteness  summer h a z e "  (Ch.  that  Ill),  has p e n e t r a t e d t h i s It  i s worthy  is  i n fact  of  a world of love  breaks There  through  with  that  and  and  The  drifting  willing  servience path"  i n which  Dorothea  two  thick  that  she  o f her  people  would  ideal. Maggie  remote  presence idealism  dissatisfaction. apparent  life found  i s frequently  submission of Dorothea  (Ch. I I I ) .  virtue  i s never  l a c k of c o n t r o l  " t o a g u i d e who  of  quality  of the i d e a l  quality  and  feeling  of  envelops  "the h a l f  determined  picture  This  of  a  b e a u t y , " whereas D o r o t h e a ' s  v a g u e f a n c i e s o f M a g g i e , who images of  like  imagines  t h e miasma t h a t  the i n d e f i n i t e  mental  Casaubon.  but D o r o t h e a  o f her v i s i o n  i s a precise  Dorothea's  hung i n h e r mind,  o b s c u r i t y with the l i g h t  of note  part  realisation  she  in  i s to  i n the  rather  associated  over  her  own  sub-  a l o n g the g r a n d e s t  c o n c e i v e s of a l i f e are u n i t e d  with  destiny.  t a k e s the form of  t a k e her  lead  of  i n a grand  superlative ideal:  "I s h o u l d l e a r n e v e r y t h i n g t h e n . . .... .... I t w o u l d be my d u t y t o s t u d y t h a t I m i g h t h e l p him t h e b e t t e r i n h i s g r e a t works. T h e r e would be n o t h i n g t r i v i a l about our l i v e s . E v e r y d a y t h i n g s w i t h us would mean t h e g r e a t e s t t h i n g s . I t w o u l d be l i k e m a r r y i n g F a s c a l . I s h o u l d l e a r n t o see the t r u t h by t h e same l i g h t as g r e a t men . . . I s h o u l d see how i t was p o s s i b l e t o l e a d a g r a n d l i f e h e r e - now - i n E n g l a n d " (Ch. I I I ) . Dorothea's devote the  her  life  s e a r c h f o r an  i s perhaps  with  the l a n d l o r d ,  and  to which  more g r o u n d e d  author's r e f e r e n c e to Sinbad  a c t u a l l y p l a n s to b u i l d  ideal  she  can  in actuality  (Ch. I l l ) s u g g e s t s .  good c o t t a g e s and  than She  d i s c u s s e s them  she r e p e a t e d l y a t t e m p t s  t o make h e r  109 husband is  due  the  see not  the r e a l to the  impracticality  s t r e n g t h o f her  own  ardour  service,  and  of  drives i n others.  these  her  significance  o f h i s work. o f her  Her  "notions"  f o r knowledge and  corresponding  blindness  The  great  between  knowledge i s r e v e a l e d when, a f t e r  Casaubon's  and  egocentric  engagement,  faith  s u p p l i e d a l l t h a t Mr  unsaid"  (Ch.  nothing  of  Hetty's, real  V).  the  or  Thus a l t h o u g h  fairy  tale  world  small measurable  sign  i s apt  sky,  and  and  in girls  to c o n j u r e  coloured  by  failure  and  this  to Dorothea a f t e r and  a diffused  feeling her  with  seemed  inflated  see  as  t h i m b l e f u l of m a t t e r  in  ambitions  to  a  expectations  f o r a l l t h e day  had  The XX)  th?t  d a n g e r s of become;  "the  dreaming  dreamed o f by  obvious  finding  a n t e - r o o m s and  husband as  to  she  in  and  her  winding  (Ch. X X ) .  When  f o r Dorothea,  a limited  f o r h i s work,  "knowing  large vistas  to l e a d nowhither"  her  every  vast  image o f Casaubon i s s h a t t e r e d  comes t o  nature,  o f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t comes e a r l y  comes t o r e a l i s e  passages which  For  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are  t o measure up  marriage.  she  the  (Ch. I I ) .  h u s b a n d ' s mind were r e p l a c e d  she  or  them t o  wonder, hope, b e l i e f ,  of r e a l i t y  wide f r e s h a i r which  and  leave  have  i n Maggie's,  sweet, a r d e n t  b e l i e v i n g much" (Ch.  D o r o t h e a who  the u n r e a l  "Dorothea's  seemed t o  a p p l i c a t i o n of  i n a sense of disenchantment  heroines,  little  seen  t h i n g s , but  of  up  shape o f k n o w l e d g e "  results  stilted  shows a d e f i c i e n c y o f mundane e x p e r i e n c e .  illimitable,  The  the  belief  Dorothea's i d e a l s  quality  Rosamond's, y e t  " s i g n s are  the  C a s a u b o n ' s words  to  weakness  and  speech r e c o g n i s i n g the  but  social  to the  gap  failure  human  i s able  to  being bring  110 him  the  comfort  exceptional  and  among t h e  personification oracle. who of  Her  i n her her  - Walter  how  clever (Bk.  or  she TV,  to escape  Ch.  theories  of  personal  bias.  and  to  Felix  is rightly  all  show the their  to  life  anything  the  how  great  wretched  something  on  and  for  the  by  t h e y m i g h t do  ale, extension  There  i s a pragmatic  weal,  and  declares  extension cast "one  theories,  better  better  of of  He  "till  than  suffrage boozing"  than  begin  rejects and  and  seeks  spend they  can  swilling  can  n e v e r mean  (Ch.  to F e l i x ' s attachment must  practical  clock-repairing.  r e a l i s e s that  something they love  of  Felix  conduct.  of p o l i t i c a l  He  sources  X).  which  connection  quack m e d i c i n e  of  less  theory  remotest  of  person  his  have a  strict  (Ch.  he  one  b a s e s h i s i d e a l s on  humble t r a d e  beer.  into  actions"  but  since  i n that  of o t h e r s  doctrine  her  too,  "for a binding  give  suspicious  f o r them but  he  welfare  and  miners that  themselves with  some  idealists  ^orothea,  and  wages on  show t h e r e ' s  Maggie,  environment  h i s i d e a l s i n any  of making a l i v i n g  instead  him  to  an  of  dreary  s u r e l y do  careful observation  turns  to  the  seek f o r t h e o r i e s  chicanery  tell  is  seeks a  would go  other  of  own  some b e a r i n g  and  the  sought  knowledge  experience  "she  Dorothea  amazing p a s t ,  the  s o r d i d and  would  i s unlike  with that  d o e s not  he  incarnation He  her  she  s e e s C a s a u b o n as  - and  i s unlike  devotion  bring  Dorothea  III).  Holt  law.  needs.  i n that  and  the  perhaps  was,  s e e k an  divine  could  ideal,  he  f o r a guru i s s i m i l a r to that  Scott,  Felix does not  idealists  her  need  that  home, dreamed t h a t  man  her"  of  need  own  sympathy  somewhere;  XI). to the I ' l l  common  Ill begin (Ch.  a t what  potential  has  than  prattling  with  the o t h e r  the  her  ideals,  from  ardent  w i s h e s and In  that  finds  i t .  The  beliefs  accepts flaws  not  care  i s alone  i n her  Sproxton"  isolated  in diverting  fail  based  as  i t i s on  knowledge.  f o r o t h e r s the  idealist  w i t h what  an o u t s i d e r i n h i s community,  and  In the  same  to e n t e r t a i n  altruistic  can  with  their  o f f from  the p o s s i b i l i t y  others,  but  both  they  the  find  apropos of h i s v o c a t i o n , that  Felix  Felix  and  life Dorothea  contact  seek t o l e a d  with a  remarks to E s t h e r ,  "women, u n l e s s t h e y  . . . they  right.  common g r o u n d  are  or E l i z a b e t h F r y s , g e n e r a l l y t h i n k t h i s  t h i n g madness, u n l e s s  and  is inevitably  religious and  of  obvious  deems t o be  man  idea  so i s  line  leading their  renounce wealth  o f human p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Theresas  of  way  a sympathetic  weaknesses.  are cut  The  she  honest  t h e mass o f h i s f e l l o w s o n l y by sympathising  up  on p r a c t i c a l  i s that Dorothea's i s merely involvement  her  i s impatient  to measure  the drunken r i o t e r s .  u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y u p r i g h t and  Saint  She  of  i n Dorothea's i d e a l i s m  i n h i s a d h e r e n c e t o an  The  life  Dorothea i s of  complicity i n Bulstrode's delinquency,  a practical  with  of human  t h e weakness o f human  refusal  not  of  at  i s more t o l e r a n t  uncle.  s u s p i c i o n o f t h e community.  Lydgate's  difference  than  t h o s e who  and  his disinterested  the  conduct  sympathetic  He  i t s abstract constitutions,  Dorothea  Felix  but  whereas F e l i x  spring  incurs  idealists.  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of  as he  and  begin  assessment  s u p e r s t i t i o u s mother  nature  of  I'll  a more r e a l i s t i c  m e n t a l l y wavering  to  nose.  XI). Felix  his  i s u n d e r my  read  of  i t i n the  sort Bible"  112 (Ch. X X V I I ) . endeavour regarded  I n a n o n - r e l i g i o u s age, a d i s i n t e r e s t e d  to serve o t h e r s w i l l , as f o l l y  by t h e w o r l d l y .  t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s community being  an u n d i s c i p l i n e d  agitator  Though h i s i d e a l s  his of  Felix  i s condemned by  with  subversive  are firmly  based  i n actuality,  F e l i x ' s m i s c a l c u l a t i o n of the extravagance  i n jeopardy.  compared w i t h delusions  His vulnerability  Dinah's view o f Hetty's  about  h e r e may be  repentance  humanism a r e r e p r e s e n t e d Both  seek t o make t h e i r Felix  social  accepts  l o t , while  i s not f e l t  one o f s o c i a l  by F e l i x lives  the l i m i t e d Deronda  awareness o f t h e i r sense  and D o r o t h e a ' s  Casaubon.  Two o p p o s i t e p o l e s o f G e o r g e E l i o t ' s  is  optimism i n  t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e r i o t e r s p l a c e s h i s i d e a l s and  .reputation  but  intentions  privilege.  has some o f t h e i d e a l i s t ' s u n j u s t i f i e d  f e l l o w men.  be  b e c a u s e he i s s u s p e c t e d o f  t o w a r d s t h e s t a t u s quo o f c l a s s  Felix  i t seems, i n e v i t a b l y  H o l t and D a n i e l  significant  of r e l i g i o u s Deronda.  by s e r v i n g o t h e r s  d e s t i n y of improving  seeks  religious  ideal  their  t o draw them t o g e t h e r  tradition.  by t h e s o c i a l - r e a l i s t  The t r u e Felix;  by an  religious  h i svocation  service:  I w i l l n e v e r be r i c h . I d o n ' t c o u n t t h a t as any p e c u l i a r virtue, . . . I have no f e l l o w - f e e l i n g w i t h t h e r i c h a s a class; t h e h a b i t s o f t ' ^ e i r l i v e s a r e o d i o u s t o me. T h o u s a n d s o f men have wedded p o v e r t y b e c a u s e t h e y e x p e c t t o go t o h e a v e n f o r i t . . . w h a t e v e r t h e hopes f o r t h e w o r l d may be - w h e t h e r g r e a t o r s m a l l - I am a man o f this generation; I w i l l t r y t o make l i f e b e t t e r f o r a few w i t h i n my r e a c h ( C h . X X V I I ) . But Felix  like  i s finally  the other  i d e a l i s t s we have d e a l t  f o r c e d t o cornoromise.  with,  The w o r l d l y  113 community o f T r e b y puts  his ideals  district. and  need  age  or  also  r e n o u n c e s h i s vow  i s u n l i k e the other  to j u s t i f y  a religious principle.  and  they  though F e l i x in  Felix  idealists  Dorothea,  the C h r i s t i a n  concerned  the other seeks  l e s s concerned  Daniel  that his  he  with  idealists  t o make men  f o r themselves,  social in  tradition  but  and  a selfless  o t h e r minds, LXIX).  ment  "the  such  and  of  He  and  self-  practice.  zeal with  a  noble  idealists by  in  modifying  identity  i s a combination  seeking to  has  d e s i r e to  h i s d o c t r i n e of  which of  "awaken a movement  been awakened  awful  face of duty than  idealist  brotherhood. human l i v e s  . . .  a private  i n the novels  w o r l d l y appearance or p r o f i t , for  he  i n my  own"  Gwendolen comes t o r e c o g n i s e i n t h i s move-  something e l s e The  lies.  as has  But  more aware o f o t h e r s  p l a c e i n s o c i e t y not  idealist  their  eternal v e r i t i e s ,  by d i s c o v e r i n g h i s p e r s o n a l  religious  behind  and  to others.  i s u n l i k e the other  where h i s d u t y  (Ch.  is  He  finds his final  shows him  V)  feels  Dinah M o r r i s  D e r o n d a combines r e l i g i o u s  purpose.  ideals,  (Ch.  i n t h a t he  l e s s n e s s has much i n common w i t h C h r i s t i a n  practical  the  of c h a s t i t y  seek t o communicate t h i s  i s not  common w i t h  serve.  leaves  h i s good d e e d s by r e f e r e n c e t o a p a s t  Lyon are c o n s c i o u s of ideals,  L i k e L y o n he  finally  Esther.  Felix no  t h e p l a c e where F e l i x  into practice.  Felix  marries  i s not  They  and  a religion  c o n s o l a t i o n " (Ch.  LXIX).  a l l show a contempt a l l r e c o g n i s e the  seek a • r e u n i f i c a t i o n  to a s o c i a l  . . . which  or r e l i g i o u s  for  need  and r e d e d i c a t i o n  principle.  Their  problem, which to  relate  condition  t h e i r noble of  feelings will faith  the  i s variously  an  aspiration  imperfect  o f t e n take  aspect  of  r e s o l v e d , as we  f o r humanity to  s o c i a l state, the  illusion"  aspect (M.  have  i n which  of e r r o r ,  Finale).  and  seen, i s "the great great  CHAPTER V I CONCLUSION  The concerned of  problem o f i s o l a t i o n with which George E l i o t i s i s a d u a l one.  isolation  from  danger o f being Sorrel  feelings of  both  into  natures  other  The o t h e r  aspects of i s o l a t i o n are  t o both  than  the past  h i s own,  isolated  i n vacuo they prove  and t h e  o f a sense  George E l i o t  incapable of as M a g g i e ' s  except  possibly  f o r themselves  or t o t h e r e a l i t y  to achieve  this  finds  o f human b e i n g s  of the p a s t . i t as important  to i t s p l a c e i n the context  Maggie T u l l i v e r  finds  f o r the  supreme moment,  little (Bk.  the misery  with  individual t o be  tradition. her b r o t h e r , a t  when t h e y  t h e d a y s when t h e y  hands i n l o v e ,  V I I , Ch. V ) .  o f human  reconciliation  t h e end o f The M i l l on t h e F l o s s , one  insist-  and t h e  be aware o f h i s own r o o t s a s i t i s f o r s o c i e t y  alive  experienced  existence  t h e v a l i d i t y o f George E l i o t ' s  ence on t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e absolute value  a world  to the past failure  such  figures,  i d e a l i s t s , a l l seek t o b u i l d  by o t h e r s , and i n t h e i r  of  In Hetty  Tom, t o o , h a s o n l y a "dim u n d e r s t a n d i n g "  w h i c h h a s no r e l a t i o n  to  traditions.  these  effect  and a l s o t h e  (M.F. Bk. I I , Ch. I ) , and i s a l m o s t  Fhilip's.  the  past  i s oblivious  of others.  history  insight or  out o f f from  Hetty  the c r i p p l i n g  the i n f l u e n c e o f humanity  a n d Tom T u l l i v e r  manifest.  She sees  relive " i n  had c l a s p e d  and roamed t h e d a i s i e d  Though t h e r e i s a g l o s s i n g  fields over  their together" o f much  o f Maggie's c h i l d h o o d , t h e r e i s , i n t h i s  115  116 passage,  an  almost Wordsworthian  a childhood a later  rich  life  sense o f c o n t i n u i t y  w i t h a sharpened  o f human  awareness  between  o f n a t u r e and  love:  Our d e l i g h t i n t h e s u n s h i n e on t h e d e e p - b l a d e d g r a s s t o d a y m i g h t be no more t h a n t h e f a i n t p e r c e p t i o n o f w e a r i e d s o u l s , i f i t were n o t f o r t h e s u n s h i n e and t h e g r a s s i n t h e f a r - o f f y e a r s , w h i c h s t i l l l i v e i n u s , and t r a n s f o r m our p e r c e p t i o n i n t o l o v e (MF. Bk. I , Ch. V ) . The of  their  and  isolated  own  past  figures  or  and  are f r e q u e n t l y  seek t o e s c a p e  Bulstrode deliberately  selves,  either  are f i n a l l y  from  it.  seek t o a n n i h i l a t e  forced  Silas  Marner  their  past  to accept t h e i r  need f o r  human d e p e n d e n c e when t h e p a s t  becomes a l i v i n g  B o t h Adam and A r t h u r ,  different  through past past  life,  failures.  context is  but  of the past also  and  growing  i s apparent not only  i n t' e r e l i g i o u s n  and  t o l e a r n more a b o u t  and m e d i c a l wisdom o f o t h e r s immensely minds.  that  They  Casaubon  application.  bring  father  to l i f e  i n stature i n the  that  fruitful  through the moral to  t h e w o r l d o f books  their in a  a l l his learning  With  Lydgate  b o t h M a g g i e and related  seeking to discover  laws  to a r e l i g i o u s  way  and  t h e hunger or  It  they are  humanity  Both f i n d  by  personal  one.  i s unable to d e s p i t e  knowledge i s a l w a y s In  sense o f a  historical  t h e m s e l v e s and  c o n t a c t w i t h minds o f p r e v i o u s ages.  own  learn  i s revealed.  t h e s t r e n g t h o f b o t h Maggie and L y d g a t e  able  memory.  o n l y comes t o a p p r e c i a t e h e r  n e c e s s i t y of l e a r n i n g  an a w a r e n e s s  ways,  H e t t y seems t o have no  while Esther  when her p a s t The  in their  unaware  social  t h a t u n d e r l i e man's m o r a l  p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , M a g g i e and L y d g a t e a c h i e v e v i t a l  for ideal. and  117 contact  w i t h minds o f o t h e r ages.  Thomas a KempisJ  |~of  the d i r e c t  (MF. of  Bk.  and  large  "by  Lydgate's the b r i e f  enough f o r many h e i r s "  with  interest and  Ch.  Dinah M o r r i s attempts  bliss  terrors  and  excitement  Dorothea  present r e a l i t i e s  d e s p i t e h i s lack of  to b r i n g  of C h r i s t i a n i t y  that  background  t o her  associated  to a l e s s e r  cut  o f f from  extent Middlemarch  the v i t a l i t y  S t . O g g s a r e "a k i n d 1  t h e e a r t h on w h i c h t h e y provincial pared of are like  t h e Rhone."  unconscious a n t s and  contrast  with  of t h e i r  The  noble  Hayslope. in  w i t h h i s work. society  o f S t . Ogg's,  society,  IV,  because  I).  efforts  t h o s e who  built  the grand  The  with  narrow  i s com-  angular  skeletons  heritage,  Their  people  Tullivers  Dodsons and  beavers.  The  it is  of keeping  Ch.  e x i s t e n c e o f t h e Dodsons and  on  the  consciousness of  to "these d e a d - t i n t e d , hollow-eyed  villages  of  arouses  o f p o p u l a t i o n out (Bk.  have  the r e a l i t y of  of past t r a d i t i o n s .  live"  does  con-  immortal  to the people  George E l i o t c r i t i c i s e s the and  i n an  Casaubon's s c h o l a r s h i p  i s i n l a r g e measure due  the r e l i g i o u s  of  a realm  t h e more mundane i n h a b i t a n t s o f T r e b y ,  context.  nature  c a r e e r of  left  a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of h i s p l a c e i n the w o r l d  The  message"  XV).  to r e l a t e  Rufus Lyon,  was  and  i n the  glorious  Alexander,  (M.  i d e a l i s t s a l l seek  eternal v e r i t i e s .  tact  M i d d l e Ages  o f a human s o u l ' s b e l i e f  . . . l i k e another  The to  III).  i s fired  B i c h a t , who  "this voice  came t o |_herj as an u n q u e s t i o n e d  IV, Ch.  fevers  out o f t h e f a r - o f f  communication  experience,  F o r Maggie  and  and  the  Tullivers  build  blindly  aspirations  castles  of  the  118 Rhine which  "had been  raised  who had a c e r t a i n g r a n d e u r  by an e a r t h - b o r n r a c e . . .  of the w i l d  b e a s t i n them" (Bk. I V ,  Ch. I ) . The  society  o f S t . Ogg's i s i s o l a t e d  t h e human t r a d i t i o n ship. past  i s allied  with a f a i l u r e  respect  own f l o c k , "  seems t e n d i n g substitution tion,  which  and sense o f m u t u a l and r e g r e t s  towards  Eliot,  like  to represent  every p a r i s h  to the  inter-  III).  due  not only  of t i e s  to "earliest  b e l i e f s were f o r George  among  - towards the to o b l i g a -  ( B k . V I I , Ch.  D r . Kenn, b e l i e v e s  II).  that "the  o f t h e community, so  a spiritual  t o g e t h e r by  father"  (MF. Bk.  VII,  with the Church of England i s associations  memories,"''" b u t t o t h e p a t e r n a l ness of i t s d o c t r i n e .  dual  everything  f o r the adherence  the f e e l i n g  than  t o Maggie o f " t h e  "at present  s h o u l d be a f a m i l y k n i t  Her a f f i l i a t i o n  this  responsibility  i n the past"  b r o t h e r h o o d under  Ch.  that  the r e l a x a t i o n  has i t s r o o t s  ought  Christian  D r . Kenn r e v e a l s  o f wayward c h o i c e  George Church  to relate  t o be aware o f human  i n h i s community when he s p e a k s  want o f f e l l o w s h i p |j h i s j  fellow-  for self-preservation rather  f o r human v a l u e s . )  isolation  the f a i l u r e  from  (The c l a n n i s h n e s s o f t h e Dodsons and T u l l i v e r s  b a s e d on an a n i m a l need  that  f r o m a s e n s e o f human  As w i t h H e t t y and S i l a s  dependence. is  but a l s o  not only  poetic  n a t u r e and human  The C h u r c h , Eliot,  and most  inclusive-  however outmoded i t s  remained  a humanly  enriching  G e o r g e E l i o t , The George E l i o t L e t t e r s , e d . G o r d o n S. H a i g h t , (New Haven, 1954-55*1, v o l . I V , p . 2 1 4 . Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s a r e documented i n t e r n a l l y .  119 institution outside that  themselves.  I t made p e o p l e George E l i o t  "the contemplation  religion  and l i f t s  The because is  f o r her.  wrote t o Sara  o f whatever  i s great  Hennell  i s itself  us out o f our egoism" ( L e t t e r s ,  isolated  they  aware o f a w o r l d  f i g u r e s we have c o n s i d e r e d  are i s o l a t e d  a r e unaware o f t h e v a l u e o f human b e i n g s .  t h e sense  104).  IV,  It  o f human v a l u e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s a l l t h e  Church of England  clergymen  i n the novels.  The d i f f e r e n c e  i n Adam Bede between t h e z e a l o u s  and s e v e r e Mr Ryde and t h e  mild  i s mainly  and good-humoured Mr I r w i n e  Once a g a i n we  see t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e b r o a d  narrow view of r e l i g i o n . and  that " r e l i g i o n ' s  accepts  human  limitations  something e l s e  besides doctrines  n o t i o n s " (Ch. XVII). The  Veil  Irwine  and t h e  shows l o v e t o h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , and, l i k e Adam, he  realises and  one o f t o l e r a n c e .  n a r r a t o r o f George E l i o t ' s  short  s t o r y The L i f t e d  shows how t h e l o s s o f a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r s  state of n u l l i t y , the unloved a worship Latimer  and he f i n d s  t h a t f o r " t h e u n l o v i n g and  t h e r e i s no r e l i g i o n  of d e v i l s "  possible,  ( L V . Ch. I I ) .  C h a r l e s Meunier  feeling,"  so d o e s Adam Bede f i n d  doing  the r i g h t  no w o r s h i p  with  t h a t " i t came from " i t isn't  the c l e v e r community o f  notions  things - i t ' s feelings"  sets  (Ch. X V I I ) .  Latimer  d e s p i s e s h i s f a t h e r f o r money-making and h i s  brother  for h i s insensitivity,  b u t he f i n d s  o f human sympathy when he c e a s e s greater value  t o him t h a n  but  J u s t as t h e e m b i t t e r e d  f i n d s o f h i s bond o f f r i e n d s h i p  scientist  people  leads to a  to judge  t h a t h i s moments  them a r e o f f a r  "the curse of i n s i g h t "  (Ch.  II)  120 w h i c h h a s c u t him o f f f r o m poisoned  other people  enriched. zation  shows t h a t o n l y by s y m p a t h e t i c  and o t h e r  Without  the v i t a l  this  gain  failing  T h o s e who  the world  themselves  the q u a s i - d i v i n e g i f t  The  dreamer c e a s e s free  figure  growth,  becomes an e m o t i o n a l  with the the t r a n s from  giving By  or t h o s e  of others  or m o r a l  cripple.  t o grow, t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r i s i n h i b i t e d t h e t y r a n t i s c o n f i n e d by t h e v e r y  s h a c k l e s he a t t e m p t s to learn  seek t o  o f human l o v e .  t o r e c o g n i s e h i s own l i m i t a t i o n s  isolated  from  i s hampered and  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the dreamers,  the  spirit  process of c r o s s - f e r t i l i -  from  and t h e t y r a n t s i s o l a t e  receiving  contact  H e t t y , Mrs Transome and C a s a u b o n ,  something f o r themselves  gressors,  has  constant  i s t h e human  t h e r e a c h o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p .  single-minded  and  times  growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l  he may become, l i k e beyond  o t h e r s and  his life.  George E l i o t with  contact with  t o p l a c e upon o t h e r s , and t h e i d e a l i s t  t h a t he c a n o n l y f l o u r i s h  i n a human e n v i r o n -  ment . The novels Garth  sympathetically treated figures  are those  such  as I r w i n e ,  whose l o v e f o r o t h e r s  concern tests  most  for t^eir  practical  the value of r e l i g i o n  s p r e a d i n g human h a p p i n e s s . a conviction and  of the e f f i c a c y  the s p i r i t u a l  blight  Farebrother  i s combined w i t h well-being.  and C a l e b scrupulous  George  ideal  clergyman  Eliot  by i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Although  she had " t o o p r o f o u n d  that l i e s  i n a l l sincere  faith,  t h a t comes w i t h N o - f a i t h , t o  have any n e g a t i v e p r o p a g a n d i s m " i n h e r ( L e t t e r s her  i nher  i s a man l i k e Mr I r w i n e  IV,  64-5),  who, i n t h e  121 words o f Adam Bede, " d i d n ' t go and  "didn't  s e t up  (Ch. X V I I I ) . order such  Irwine  o f m i n d s who as Mr  doctrines that  f o r being  pant  Ryde or Mr  and  speritial  Farebrother after  the  are  never 2  romances.  from o t h e r  ideal"  (AB.  Ch.  relate  It i s only  in this  setting  efficacious. quite lost Her  own  her  youthful suspicion  novels,  apart  from  directed  end  of  The  isolated  towards the p r a c t i c a l setting.  t h e i r v a r i o u s ways, f a i l approach to other function  to  people,  and  are  between l o v e and i n fact  for  realises,  u n l i k e the  i s not Caleb  self-sufficient,  and  taken  view of m o r a l i t y .  o r Pdam  an  but  the  His religion  figure,  or  to  Garth  the p l a c e of  isolated  in  humane  In Caleb  needs a goal  shows t h e p r a g m a t i s m o f Tom  constricted  figures, and  were  nature  work i s c o m p l e t e .  p r i d e has  He  the  Romola,  and  f r e q u e n t l y unable  society.  professional him.  showing  show a p r a c t i c a l  as u s e f u l members o f  identification  "lofty  their  o f human e n d e a v o u r ,  in his social  folks"  XVII)  were s e t i n t h e o r d i n a r y w o r l d  o f man  experience"  are u n l i k e the  Tyke, i n t h a t t h e y  religion  George E l i o t  deep  so d i f f e r e n t  t o common h u m a n i t y .  l o v e and  of novels  and  into  that  man  ideal. lacks  their  Though h i s  v i r t u a l d i v i n i t i e s were good p r a c t i c a l schemes, a c c u r a t e work, and t h e f a i t h f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f u n d e r t a k i n g s . . . t h e r e was no s p i r i t o f d e n i a l i n C a l e b , and t h e w o r l d seemed so wondrous t o him t h a t he was r e a d y to a c c e p t any number o f s y s t e m s . . . i f they d i d not i n t e r f e r e with the best l a n d - d r a i n a g e , s o l i d b u i l d i n g , c o r r e c t measuring, and j u d i c i o u s b o r i n g ( f o r c o a l ) . (Ch. X X I V ) .  F o r her f e a r o f t h e v i t i a t i n g e f f e c t o f S c o t t and o t h e r s on t h e m i n d s and m o r a l s o f t h e young see L e t t e r s , p p . 21-24.  I,  122  theses  Caleb,  Mr  of  isolated  the  m i n d e d n e s s and  Irwine  and  function.  wholly  blissful  f i g u r e s not  s t a t e and  figures,  e i t h e r by  ment, f a i l ask  on  others  f i g u r e s we with  life  than they  the n e a r e s t  the  and  of doing  the  a dedicated  or u n l i k e l y , environ-  They e i t h e r  demand more Felix  i n t e g r a t e d of  sums up  isolated  human  lives.  of g i v i n g .  socially  have d e a l t w i t h ,  a purpose with  effective  capable  to being  not  The  to t h e i r  f o r t h e m s e l v e s or  are  task  their their  extraordinary  nostrums u n r e l a t e d full  the  anti-  open-  found  good f o r o t h e r s .  dreaming of  to l i v e  t o o much o f  the  in their  i n having  s e t about  possible practical  relying  only  are  They have c h e e r f u l l y a c c e p t e d  greatest  by  Farebrother  s e l f l e s s n e s s , but  social  or  Mr  H o l t , who  the  the v a l u e  from is  isolated  of  a  life  stoicism.:  as t o t h e amount o f r e s u l t he may see f r o m h i s p a r t i c u l a r work - t h a t ' s a tremendous u n c e r t a i n t y : t h e u n i v e r s e has n o t been a r r a n g e d f o r t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s f e e l i n g s . As l o n g as a man s e e s and b e l i e v e s i n some g r e a t good, h e ' l l p r e f e r w o r k i n g t o w a r d s t h a t i n the way he's b e s t f i t f o r (Ch. X L V ) . George E l i o t of  the  isolated  f i g u r e by  She  has  little  and  the  transgressor  of o t h e r s . that  "we  VII,  113).  contact  can  with  work f o r t h e  The  t e s t s the  their  t i m e f o r the which  dreamer  live Their  and  be  and  wishful shows no  effect  can  i s always  be  on  society. the  dreamer  concern f o r the  welfare  f e a r s prevent the  ideals  t h i n k i n g of  transgressor  reality,  good o f o t h e r s  George E l i o t  final  h e l p f u l without  hopes and  present  hopes, dreams and  never  realise  happiness"  (Letters,  them f r o m making  o n l y p l a c e where  effective  done.  s u s p i c i o u s o f mere  theory,  123  and  always seeks a p r a c t i c a l and human framework i n which  i t may be t e s t e d .  Her q u a r r e l with P o s i t i v i s m i s due to 3  the Utopian q u a l i t y of i t s hypotheses. her  As we have seen,  c r i t i c i s m of the t y r a n t and the i d e a l i s t  t h e i r f a i l u r e to r e l a t e t h e i r personal to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r human environment. ideals f a i l text.  nobler right'. fail  of good  T h e i r ideas and  saw her f u n c t i o n as "that of the.  not the d o c t r i n a l teacher  - the r o u s i n g of the  emotions, which make mankind d e s i r e the s o c i a l 1  ( L e t t e r s , VII, 44).  to allow  others  conception  when they are a p p l i e d to the s p e c i a l human con-  George E l i o t  aesthetic,  i s based on  The t y r a n t and the i d e a l i s t  f o r the d i v e r s i t y of human nature, and expect  to adopt t h e i r own p r i n c i p l e s .  George E l i o t  sees i t  as "the quackery of i n f i d e l i t y to suppose that i t has a nostrum f o r a l l mankind, and to say to a l l and s i n g u l a r 'Swallow my o p i n i o n s  and you s h a l l be whole'" ( L e t t e r s , I,  162). The and  t y r a n t and the i d e a l i s t  the t r a n s g r e s s o r  i n that they are l e s s concerned w i t h  mere s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n , serve  and make strenuous e f f o r t s to  an i d e a l that i s o u t s i d e  to l e a r n t h e ' l e s s o n conform to p u r e l y  are u n l i k e the dreamer  themselves, but they have  that human beings cannot be made to  t h e o r e t i c a l models of p e r f e c t i o n , and  they must " t u r n to the t r u t h of f e e l i n g as the o n l y u n i v e r s a l bond" ( L e t t e r s I , 162). I t i s the r e l u c t a n c e p r o s c r i p t i v e measures f o r others See  Letters, III, 439  to l a y down  that makes the clergymen  124 of  Hayslope  influence  and s o c i a l  It of  and M i d d l e m a r c h  i s not the t r u t h  o f Irwine  his  Tyke.  rival  Will  Maskery  truth  that f i n a l l y j u s t i f i e s a of f e e l i n g  f o r the Methodists,  Irwine  as a man.  shown i n t h e  or Farebrother f o r  i s seen a s "an i d l e  a s p e r s i o n he p r o v e s  s h e p h e r d " by  Farebrother  h i s v a l u e n o t as a d i v i n e  would no d o u b t d i s a g r e e w i t h h i s  mother's reproach  t h a t he u n d e r v a l u e s  doing undervalues  God ( C h . X V I I ) .  and a l t h o u g h  "not a l t o g e t h e r i n the r i g h t  b e c a u s e o f h i s contempt  h i m s e l f and i n so  In h i s d e a l i n - s with  o t h e r s he shows h u m i l i t y and t a c t ,  realisation  person's  (AB. Ch. V ) , and i n a c c e p t i n g t h e g r a i n o f  i n this  himself  human  o f t h e o r i e s o r even t h e v a l i d i t y  f o r George E l i o t , but t h e t r u t h  tolerance  but  an e f f e c t i v e  force.  professional effort  life  such  he may  feel  v o c a t i o n " (Ch. XVII)  for scriptural  o f h i s own human f r a i l t y ,  s c h o l a r s h i p and h i s i t i s doubtful i f  4 George E l i o t w o u l d By world,  acceptance  Farebrother,  energies peevish their  a stoic  a g r e e w i t h him.  i r r i t a t i o n over  they  philosophy Lydgate, without  and G a r t h  i n f u t i l e struggles after  honest  others,  Irwine  of their  endeavour take  their  limited  do n o t d i s s i p a t e  t o make l i f e  of 'meliorism. "* 1  their  t h e u n a t t a i n a b l e and  the v a g a r i e s of t h e i r  stand  l o t i n the  firmly  a little behind  Farebrother  fellows.  In  better f o r George  Eliot's  t a c t f u l l y warns  no amount o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d e d i c a t i o n w i l l t h e acknowledgement o f t h e l i m i t e d  nature  avail o f human  For the o p p o s i t e view o f F a r e b r o t h e r ' s c h o i c e of v o c a t i o n see W. J . H a r v e y , The A r t o f G e o r g e E l i o t , ( L o n d o n ,  1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 243-44. See L e t t e r s , V I , 2 8 7 , 333-4.  125 beings. In of  her choice of subject matter  i t , George E l i o t  truth  attempts  t h a t has u n i v e r s a l  validity.  dogma, maxims and e t h i c a l All  the i s o l a t e d  figures  become s o m e t h i n g o t h e r do  so.  nature zeal got  In both cases  and r e f e r  a human and m o r a l Her a v e r s i o n i s t o  principles  that are p r o s c r i p t i v e .  i n the novels  than they  f o r what i t i s ,  to find  they fail  and i n h e r t r e a t m e n t  either  seek t o  a r e , o r t o make  others  t o see and a c c e p t  Farebrother t r i e s  him t o t h e n a t u r e  o f man:  human  t o modify  "You have n o t o n l y  t h e o l d Adam i n y o u r s e l f a g a i n s t y o u , but . . . a l l  those descendants  of the o r i g i n a l  Adam who f o r m  the society  around y o u " (Ch. X V I I ) .  I t i s therefore necessary  for  but a l s o  professional  being well  success  as t h e w o r s t  In humanity,  e l e m e n t s o f man.  h e r n o v e l s George E l i o t and i t i s t h e sad f a t e  he f a i l s  to r e a l i s e  h i s f e l l o w men.  an h o n e s t Sproxton  sympathise Arthur  himself  and u s e f u l  miners  with  isa  emphasises the oneness o f of the i s o l a t e d  Only  h i s sympathies  life.  selfish  arouses  So F e l i x  different i n the  t o them c a n he  has t o l i v e  and a n t i - s o c i a l  and i n a  among sense  behaviour,  t h e sympathy and r e g a i n s t h e  o f Adam when he f i n a l l y  i n the p o s i t i o n  figure  by p u t t i n g h i m s e l f  b e f o r e he c a n u n d e r s t a n d  their  Donnithorne  friendship  this  t h a t he i s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y  p l a c e o f o t h e r s and e x t e n d i n g  the  To a c c e p t  t h e best as  but e n r i c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  i n ; k i n d from  live  not only  f o r o n e ' s g a i n as a human  t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t one has community w i t h  chastening  that  Lydgate's  persuades  o f wrongdoer  him t o put  (AB. Ch. X L V I I ) .  The  126  isolated inside other feel  figures  frequently  themselves people.  fail  to look deeply  b e f o r e t h e y d e c i d e what  Because t h e y  the unconscious  Mrs Transome  and C a s a u b o n a r e e i t h e r  deliberately  blind  three  like  harshly reward  to f e e l  treated and  naturally  results  with others.  comes f r o m  from  a life  acts.  unaware  treatment. in a failure like  Tom  They f e e l  they Hetty,  and a l l have  been  they deserve greater  This failure  t o be  to recognise t h e i r Tulliver,  from  of, or  short-comings,  lack  objective fellowship  "the i n s i g h t  a h a r d l y - e a r n e d e s t i m a t e o f t e m p t a t i o n , or  vivid  and i n t e n s e enough  wide f e l l o w - f e e l i n g w i t h a l l t h a t Ch. I I ) .  their  t h e y a r e i n n o c e n t v i c t i m s who  So t h e y ,  that  own  by t h e w o r l d .  special  they expect  are not s e l f - c r i t i c a l  need t o j u s t i f y  to their  enough  t o have c r e a t e d a  i s human" (MF.  Bk. V I I ,  127 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources E l i o t , George. The George E l i o t L e t t e r s , ed. Gordon S. Haight. 7 vols. New Haven: Yale Univ. P r e s s , 1954-1955, and  . Works of George E l i o t . 10 v o l s . Edinburgh London: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, 1901,  Secondary Sources Bennett, Joan. George E l i o t , Her Mind and Her A r t . Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1948. C a r r o l l , David. " F e l i x H o l t : S o c i e t y as P r o t a g o n i s t , " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , XVII (1962), 237=252. . "An Image of Disenchantment i n the Novels of George E l i o t , " Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , XI (1?£C) 29-41. C e c i l , David. "George E l i o t , " E a r l y V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s : Essays i n R e v a l u a t i o n . New ed. London: Penguin Books, 1948. Hardy, Barbara. "The Moment of Disenchantment i n George E l i o t ' s Novels," Review of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , N.S., V (1954), 256-64. New  ed.  . The Novels of George E l i o t : A Study i n Form. London: Athlone Press, 1963.  Harvey, W. J . The A r t of George E l i o t . Windus, 1961.  London: Chatto and  L e a v i s , F. R. The Great T r a d i t i o n : George E l i o t , Henry James, Joseph Conrad. New ed. London: Chatto and Windus, 1948, L e v i n e , George. "Determinism and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the Works of George E l i o t , " PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 268-279. P a r i s , Bernard J . Experiments i n L i f e : George E l i o t ' s Quest For V a l u e s . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e Univ. P r e s s , Stang, R i c h a r d , ed. D i s c u s s i o n s of George E l i o t , Boston: .Heath, 1960 .  1965.  128  S t u m p R e v a . Movement and V i s i o n i n G e o r g e E l i o t ' s S e a t t l e : U n i v . o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 19-59. s  T h a l e , J e r o m e . The N o v e l s o f G e o r g e E l i o t . Columbia Univ. P r e s s , 1959 e  New  Novels.  York:  

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