Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A Linguistic study of the assimilation of English loanwords into Japanese Hirano, Akiko 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A8 H5.pdf [ 5.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104846.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104846-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104846-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104846-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104846-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104846-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104846-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104846-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104846.ris

Full Text

A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF THE ASSIMILATION OF ENGLISH LOANWORDS INTO JAPANESE D AKIKO IilRANO B.A., Tsuda C o l l e g e , 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of C l a s s i c s , D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required, standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 6 5 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requ i rements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Co lumbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy. I f u r t h e r agree that p e r -m i s s i o n f o r ex tens i ve copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that, copy ing or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n permis s ion^ Department of ga&gsleR, M Y i i g i O T O f f.1flgUJLSt4SS The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e PP A p r i l r 1Q65 ABSTRACT When and where there i s c u l t u r a l "borrowing there w i l l always "be the p o s s i b i l i t y of "borrowing words which are asso-c i a t e d w i t h i t . Since 1868 E n g l i s h has had a remarkable i n f l u e n c e on the Japanese language and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the Second World War through the wide-spread a u d i o - v i s u a l media the number of E n g l i s h loanwords i n Japanese, along w i t h new objects or p r a c t i c e s i ntroduced, has been i n c r e a s i n g . This t h e s i s attempts the o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the a s s i m i l a t i o n of E n g l i s h loanwords i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of Japanese so that they may f u l f i l l t h e i r communicative func-t i o n . Since loanwords alone c o n s t i t u t e the corpus f o r the l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s the ana l y s t i s n a t u r a l l y r e q u i r e d to adopt r i g o r o u s l y s c i e n t i f i c procedures f r e e from the domi-n a t i o n of metaphysics and psychology but at the same time i t should be borne i n mind that we are d e a l i n g w i t h the "whole man" expressing h i m s e l f and h i s c u l t u r e . For the purpose of t h i s study E n g l i s h loan-elements are e s t a b l i s h e d i n the context of s i t u a t i o n , i . e . i n t h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l context and are then examined at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s — L e x i c a l , Grammatical and P h o n o l o g i c a l , as to t h e i r degree of a s s i m i l a t i o n . The present w r i t e r admits mutual working of elements abstracted at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s . That i s , u n i t s obtained at one l e v e l might serve to solve the problems l e f t unsolved at the other l e v e l s e i t h e r below or above. I n s p i t e of the great number of E n g l i s h loanwords they have been w e l l a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of Japanese. The f a c t o r s at pl a y i n a s s i m i l a t i o n of loan-elements are: (a) I n t e r n a l 1. Sheer absence of equivalent exponents at v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the Japanese s t r u c t u r e 2. pressure of the system 3. p r o d u c t i v i t y of ce r t a i n ' forms i+. popular p a t t e r n s i n coinage 5. u n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of equivalent exponents i n Japanese (b) E x t e r n a l 1. d i f f e r e n t channels of b o r r o w i n g — o r a l and w r i t t e n 2. the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background at the time when the p a r t i c u l a r element was borrowed 3. the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background of the o r i g i n a l i n t r o d u c e r and/or that of the l a t e r users 4. the w r i t i n g system of Japanese To some extent the f u t u r e of the Japanese language i n connection w i t h c u l t u r a l borrowing may be p r e d i c t e d . Although the phonological'and grammatical systems of a language are not e a s i l y a f f e c t e d by c u l t u r a l "borrowings, the gaps i n the system may he gr a d u a l l y f i l l e d . F l u c t u -a t i o n i s more prominent at the l e x i c a l l e v e l . The symmetry of the language s t r u c t u r e at the l e x i c a l l e v e l r e q u i r e s the presence of terms "both generic and s p e c i f i c , a b s t r a c t and concrete. Some E n g l i s h elements may be added to s a t i s f y these requirements. Some w i l l be added to the set of vocabulary to b r i n g about v a r i e t y and s u b t l e t y i n the way experience i s a r t i c u l a t e d . I f E n g l i s h elements behave qu i t e d i s t i n c t i v e l y from the n a t i v e and jiongo elements, i t w i l l be methodologi-c a l l y acceptable to admit the existence of d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a w i t h i n Japanese. Another important f e a t u r e to be i n v e s t i g a t e d i s how f a r l e x i c a l p a t t e r n i n g depends on grammar i n the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n of loanwords. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present w r i t e r wishes to express her h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g people f o r t h e i r help and c o n t r i -b u tions to her t h e s i s : Prof. R. J . Baker and Dr. G. L. B u r s i l l - H a l l f o r guidance and h e l p f u l suggestions i n the i n i t i a l stage of the research. Dr. R. Gregg f o r h i s patience and d i l i g e n c e i n going through the f i r s t d r a f t of the t h e s i s and above a l l , f o r stimulus to s c h o l a r s h i p . Dr. M. A. K. H a l l i d a y f o r h i s i n s p i r i n g l e c t u r e s and good counsel at The 1964 L i n g u i s t i c I n s t i t u t e at Bloom-in g t o n , Indiana. Prof. Ogawa of A s i a n Studies Department f o r h i s c a r e f u l reading of the f i r s t d r a f t . The present w r i t e r i s a l s o indebted to World Univer-s i t y Service of Canada which made her two years' study at U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia p o s s i b l e . There are many other people I cannot acknowledge p e r s o n a l l y but my debt i s none the l e s s heavy. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1. BACKGROUND TO TKL S JLDY . . . . . . . . . . 1 P o s i t i o n of E n g l i s h loanwords i n the •Jap a ne s e vo c abular-y The term lcsnv/orc 1 and the m a t e r i a l s used-E a r l i e r s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g loanwords in-Japanese Scope and purpose o f the st u d y I I . THEORETICAL PROBLEMS 6 Methods o f approach L e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s I I I . SOCIO-CULTURAL LEVEL 12 IV. LEXICAL LEVEL 17 V. GRAMMATICAL LEVEL 3k-VI. PHONOLOGICAL LEVEL 53 V I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . 98 C o n s o l i d a t i o n C o n c l u s i o n s and problems t o be s o l v e d i n the f u t u r e . FOOTNOTES 1 0 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 0 CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The Japanese vocabulary may be roughly d i v i d e d i n t o three groups: yamato-kotoba ( o r i g i n a l Japanese), j i o n g o , and the loanwords from European languages. Jiongo means words which are represented by Chinese characters whether they are of c l a s s i c a l Chinese o r i g i n or homemade a f t e r the model of Chinese. They are now p a r t and p a r c e l of the Japanese vocabulary and ha r d l y seem a l i e n . Jiongo has great advantage i n the c o i n i n g of new words because of i t s s t r u c -t u r e , i . e . one character r e p r e s e n t i n g one s y l l a b l e and one morpheme. With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the middle of the 16th century, words borrowed from P o r t u -guese, Spanish and Dutch made t h e i r appearance i n the Japanese vocabulary, and w i t h 1868 as a t u r n i n g p o i n t E n g l i s h took t h e i r p l a c e , and E n g l i s h loanwords have been i n c r e a s i n g i n number i n s p i t e of the i n t e r r u p t i o n caused by the Second World War. E s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the War the wide-spread a u d i o - v i s u a l media of a d v e r t i s i n g and the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a considerable knowledge of E n g l i s h brought about the frequent borrowings from E n g l i s h i n our d a i l y conversation. The f o l l o w i n g i s a t a b u l a t i o n of what has been mentioned above: 2 C u l t u r a l Contact P e r i o d (esp. language) Heian Era 9 - 1 3 cent. Muromaci Era 14 - 16 cent. Edo Era 1 7 - 1 8 cent. M e i j i Era 19th cent. Taisho and Showa e a r l y 20th cent. Present Time Chinese Portuguese Dutch E n g l i s h , German, French E n g l i s h , German, French E n g l i s h , French, I t a l i a n , etc. The p r o p o r t i o n of loanwords i n the Japanese vocabulary recorded i n two important d i c t i o n a r i e s (Genkai, f i r s t e d i t i o n published i n 1889, and R e i k a i k o k u g o j i t e n , f i r s t e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n 1956) has been c a l c u l a t e d by a Japanese scholar)."*" GENKAI REIKAIKOKUGOJITEN Number Per Number Per of Words Cent of Words Cent Yamatokotoba J iongo Sino-Japanese hyb r i d s Loanwords Others 21,817 1 3 , 5 4 6 2,724 551 4 6 5 55- 8 34.7 7.0 1.4 1.1 14,798 21,656 2,307 1,428 204 36. 6 53.6 5.7 3.5 0.5 Total- 39,103 100. 0 • 40,393 100. 0 Any s t a t i s t i c a l study shows that among the items c l a s s e d as loanwords, E n g l i s h has the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n , n e a r l y 90 per cent. E n g l i s h loanwords d e a l t with, i n t h i s t h e s i s are c h i e f l y 3 the ones which are e s t a b l i s h e d i n Japanese and are i d e n t i -f i e d g r a p h o l o g i c a l l y w i t h the forms w r i t t e n i n Katakana. Reference w i l l be made to t r a n s i t i o n a l forms whenever i t i s found necessary. To quote from U r i e l Weinreich, "When a speaker of language X uses a form of f o r e i g n o r i g i n not as an on-the-spot borrowing from language Y, but because he has heard i t used by others i n X-utterances, t h e n ' t h i s borrowed element can be considered, from the d e s c r i p t i v e view-point, 2 to become a p a r t of language X." The corpus f o r the present study i s drawn mainly from the domestic and c u l t u r a l columns of a t y p i c a l Japanese news-, paper, "The A s a h i , " w i t h some a d d i t i o n a l data. Approximately 1500 sentences and sub-sentences c o n t a i n i n g E n g l i s h loanwords were c o l l e c t e d over. a. p e r i o d of three months. At the phono-l o g i c a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s the forms represent the E n g l i s h (Standard Southern B r i t i s h ) forms t r a n s f e r r e d or i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the Tokyo d i a l e c t . The present w r i t e r who i s a speaker of the Tokyo d i a l e c t used h e r s e l f as an informant most of the time. O c c a s i o n a l l y reference i s made to American E n g l i s h forms. The p h o n o l o g i c a l problems of E n g l i s h loanwords were d e a l t w i t h by the present w r i t e r i n the t h e s i s submitted as a p a r t i a l requirement f o r the B.A. at Isuda College i n Tokyo i n 1962 . According to the b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l survey made at that time, most of the books on loanwords are simply inven-t o r i e s of loanwords i n r e l a t i o n to other c u l t u r a l importations h from v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s w i t h some reference to the h i s t o r i c a l "background. I t i s true that these provide i n t e r e s t i n g sources of inf o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n since c u l t u r a l loanwords are i n a sense a reminder of what one n a t i o n has taught another. As Sapir puts i t , "One can almost estimate the r o l e which v a r i o u s peoples have played i n the development and spread of c u l t u r a l ideas "by t a k i n g note of the extent to which t h e i r v o c a b u l a r i e s have f i l t e r e d i n t o those of other people." These studies are, however, f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y from the l i n g u i s t i c viewpoint. U s u a l l y a couple of pages are spent on pho n o l o g i c a l problems but they are f a r from being based on c a r e f u l phonetic a n a l y s i s . The present w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , t r i e d to observe and describe the pho n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s i n an unprejudiced way paying c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to the phonetic f e a t u r e s before making a b s t r a c t i o n s from them. Because of the present w r i t e r ' s l i m i t e d back-ground i n l i n g u i s t i c s at that time, however, the method of approach was c l o s e r to that of a phonemicist than to that of a p h o n o l o g i s t , which meant that the problems de a l t w i t h were not always capable of s o l u t i o n . Since loanwords alone c o n s t i -t u t e the corpus f o r the l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s , the a n a l y s t i s n a t u r a l l y r e q u i r e d to adopt r i g o r o u s l y s c i e n t i f i c procedures f r e e from the domination of metaphysics and psychology, but at the same time i t should be remembered that "the object of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . . . i s to make statements of meaning so that we may see how we use language to l i v e , " ^ i n other words, to deal w i t h the whole man expressing h i m s e l f and h i s c u l t u r e . T h i s t h e s i s t h u s a t t e m p t s to give an o v e r a l l d e s c r i p -t i o n o f the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f E n g l i s h loanwords i n t o the s t r u c t u r e o f Japanese, w h i c h i s g e n e t i c a l l y so d i f f e r e n t f r om E n g l i s h , so t h a t they may f u l f i l t h e i r communicative f u n c t i o n . CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL PROBLEMS 1. The view of meaning adopted and the method of approach. The remarkable progress of l i n g u i s t i c s as an autono-mous d i s c i p l i n e would have been impossible without Ferdinand de Saussure's synchronic approach, i . e . , p r i o r i t y of a n a l y s i s of " e t a t s de langue," to which we owe the conception of a l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . This conception, however, v a r i e s from one school to another. " I t i s p o s s i b l e to say that those t h e o r i e s which derive from de Saussure (e.g. the c i r c l e s of l i n g u i s t i c s i n Geneva, Copenhagen and Prague) manifest some dichotomy, some dualism, e.g. s i g n i f i a n t and s i g n i f i e , form and substance, expression and content, form and content, e t c . , whereas the London and (the t r a d i t i o n a l ) American schools have insisted.,much more on a p u r e l y formal approach i n p h o n o l o g i c a l and grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n and have produced what might be c a l l e d a syntagmatic-paradigmatic theory of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . " - ' The " t r a d i t i o n a l " American schools (which may be roughly equated v/ith the B l o o m f i e l d i a n approach) and the London school do not c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e of av o i d i n g the weak-ness of the p u r e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l and metaphysical approaches, and of f o l l o w i n g r i g o r o u s l y s c i e n t i f i c procedures f o r 7 l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . In other words, the expression of ideas i s one of the f u n c t i o n s of a language hut i s not a c r i t e r i o n t h a t can be used f o r throwing l i g h t on language d e s c r i p t i o n . However, B l o o m f i e l d i n h i s "Stimulus—>Response" approach, a r b i t r a r i l y l i m i t s h i s context of s i t u a t i o n to what are p o t e n t i a l l y or a c t u a l l y common, observable and measurable data." Consequently he could not help saying that the s t a t e -ment of the meaning i s the weak p o i n t i n language study f o r i t should r e q u i r e r e d e f i n i n g i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l terms as st a t e s of the speaker's body, whereas, to F i r t h , "the object of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . . . i s to make statements of meaning so that we may see how we use language to l i v e . " " ' 7 Another c r i t i -cism o f t e n made about d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i s t s i s that they put so much emphasis on " s t r u c t u r e " that they sometimes ignore the observable f a c t s which r e f l e c t " l i n g u i s t i c r e a l i t y " or even make f a c t s submit to the requirements of a method. ' L i n g u i s t i c r e a l i t y has been neglected, • says g M a r t i n e t , 'because of i t s close r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the world, e n t i r e universe of things and ideas which w i l l keep l i n g u i s -t i c s from e s t a b l i s h i n g a neat scheme of d e s c r i p t i o n . ' I t i s the present w r i t e r ' s opinion that nothing should be s a c r i f i c e d to the p r i n c i p l e of s i m p l i c i t y i n l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n . Facts must be state d . They must be st a t e d t e c h n i c a l l y and the statement should be found a p p l i c a b l e on a renewed connection.with experience. Events are i n a l l cases a b s t r a c t i o n s from r e a l i t y which i s the t o t a l i t y of the speaker's experience. L i n g u i s t s should accept "the whole man i n h i s p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g , " i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This w i l l l e a d the a n a l y s t s to the concept of meaning "as modes of behavior i n r e l a t i o n to the other elements i n the o context of s i t u a t i o n , " which p o s t u l a t e s the need f o r l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s . 2. Levels of a n a l y s i s . Both the London and the t r a d i t i o n a l American schools accept these l e v e l s but i n a d i f f e r e n t way. Scholars such as B l o c h , Hockett, Trager, e t c . , accepted that each of these l e v e l s should be c l e a r l y and sharply d i s t i n g u i s h e d from others and be described without depending- on the others, i n ascending order beginning w i t h phonology. I n Pike's theory, on the other hand, " l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s e x i s t but mixing of. 10 l e v e l s w i t h mutual dependence of one l e v e l on another," i s admitted. I n the theory of J . R. F i r t h and h i s colleagues of the London school each l e v e l of a n a l y s i s i s regarded as d e a l i n g v/ith one of the congruent modes i n t o which the "meaning" i s dispersed l i k e the d i s p e r s i o n of l i g h t i n t o a spectrum f r e e from a h i e r a r c h i c a l importance, sometimes i n descending order beginning v/ith the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , proceeding through c o l l o c a t i o n and grammar to phonology and phoneti c s , and sometimes i n the opposite order. Take, f o r example, p h o n o l o g i c a l study. I s the phono-l o g i c a l inventory dynamic or s t a t i c ? On t h i s p o i n t the present w r i t e r h e s i t a t e s to accept the approach which f i n d s s a t i s f a c t i o n simply i n segmenting and reducing the utterance to phonemes. The pho n o l o g i c a l inventory should he r e l a t e d to the utterance as a- whole i n i t s f u n c t i o n . In t h i s way u n i t s obtained i n one l e v e l of a n a l y s i s might serve to solve the problems l e f t unsolved i n the other l e v e l s e i t h e r below or above. I n Japanese accent serves not only to d i f f e r -e n t i a t e one word from another, but also to b i n d together l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s . I t s most important f u n c t i o n i n the languag may be to serve as a grammatical device, that i s , to d e l i m i t one p h o n o l o g i c a l phrase from another. The vo i c e d versus v o i c e l e s s c o n t r a s t i s a matter of grammar r a t h e r than of phonology i n the sets of n a t i v e vocabulary i n Japanese. When the present w r i t e r found h e r s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n to expect the mutual i n f l u e n c e of elements a b s t r a c t e d on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , F i r t h ' s prosodic approach proved to be most h e l p f u l . At the same time, to deal w i t h f e a t u r e s Toeculiar to Japanese, help from another approach i s a l s o sought. I t may be added here that the recent trend i n l i n g u i s t i c s i s toward the admittance of mutual dependence of one l e v e l on another. At the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s h e l d at Bloomington, Indiana, i n 196h, i n s p e c i a l l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d by such sch o l a r s as Chomsky and P i k e , great i n t e r e s t was shown concerning grammat i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s on l e x i c a l p a t t e r n i n g and v i c e versa. I t seemed a l s o that an atta c k on grammar without a necessary p r i o r phonemic a n a l y s i s no longer provoked a controversy.• The procedure f o r the present w r i t e r to take then i s to i s o l a t e and e s t a b l i s h the items i n the corpus each i n i t s 10 context of s i t u a t i o n to s t a t e the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , which w i l l he f o l l o w e d by statements of meaning at l e x i c a l (or c o l l o c a t i o n a l ) , grammatical and p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l s . At the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l or s i t u a t i o n a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s the s o c i a l environment i n which speech i s used and what i t i s used f o r w i l l be stated. A l a r g e p a r t of the p h y s i c a l , concrete environment i n which language i s used may be i r r e l e v a n t and an attempt should be made to set up the g e n e r a l i z e d a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i e s . " I t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to separate the s i t u -a t i o n a l and c o l l o c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of statement, f o r the s i t u a t i o n 'determines' i n l a r g e measure c o l l o c a t i o n i n any given t e x t . (However), the l e v e l of c o l l o c a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h i n t e r i o r r e l a t i o n s i n t e x t s , that of the s i t u a t i o n , w i t h e x t e r i o r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r text.""1""1' Whether or not syntax and morphology should be d e a l t w i t h separ-a t e l y w i l l depend upon the nature of the language under d i s c u s s i o n . D i s t i n c t i o n between the two used to be made by the t r a d i t i o n a l American l i n g u i s t s : morphology i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the more inti m a t e combinations of morphemes; syntax i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a r g e r combinations described under morphology. 1 2 In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study i t w i l l be i m p r a c t i c a l to draw a hard and f a s t l i n e of d i v i s i o n between morphology and syntax, because the p h y s i c a l counterpart of an E n g l i s h morpheme i n Japanese may not be n e c e s s a r i l y a morpheme but sometimes a word, a phrase or a u n i t intermediate between these, due to formal and/or semantic amalgamation. 11 The present w r i t e r owes the a n a l y s i s made i n t h i s t h e s i s c h i e f l y to the theory d e r i v i n g from a B r i t i s h view of l i n g u i s t i c s and that of a Japanese l i n g u i s t , Dr. Shiro H a t t o r i , hut she t h i n k s i t reasonable to choose v a r i o u s methods of approach to the m a t e r i a l whose v a r i e t y i n q u a l i t y i s obvious from i t s v a r y i n g f u n c t i o n s . "Any account of a language w i l l be an adequate statement, provided i t d e s c r i b e s , comprehensively and economically, what i s heard (and read) i n the language and enables the an a l y s t to "renew connection" 13 w i t h f u r t h e r experience of i t . " C H A P T E R I I I S O C 1 0 - C U L T U R A L L E V E L In t h i s chapter an attempt w i l l he made to describe "the context of s i t u a t i o n " i n which the E n g l i s h loanwords i n Japanese came i n t o use. At the s i t u a t i o n a l and/or s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c p a r t of the speakers' c u l t u r e i s i n v o l v e d . In other words the s o c i a l environment i n which speech i s used and what i t i s used f o r i n the s o c i a l environ-ment are s i g n i f i c a n t and w i l l he described. The r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s w i l l be: — the t rend of the times — r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o u n t r i e s where c u l t u r a l borrowing takes place — the content of c u l t u r a l borrowing -- p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s , age, sex — the nature of the medium of mass communication With the 1 8 6 0's as a t u r n i n g p o i n t the Japanese people, now set f r e e from c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n , and w i t h t h e i r eyes wide-opened to Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , engaged i n absorbing what-ever came to them from Europe and America. The e s t a b l i s h -ment of modern f a c i l i t i e s f o r communication and t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , the founding of t e x t i l e and canning i n d u s t r i e s w i l l s u f f i c e to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s f a c t . As a n a t u r a l 1, consequence of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new things to Japan, E n g l i s h names f o r them were learned w i t h the exception of those cases i n which new d e s c r i p t i v e names were coined out of the n a t i v e vocabulary, e.g. chiku-on-ki the machine f o r accumulating sound, i . e . a record p l a y e r . Some of the f i r s t E n g l i s h words were ' /bur a/" i / (brush), / h a N k a t / i / (handkerchief), / / a t s u / ( s h i r t ) , /baketsu/ ( b u c k e t ) , etc. They may have p o s s i b l y been the r e s u l t of . on-the-spot borrowings of E n g l i s h by merchants, s a i l o r s and longshoremen. The f a c t t h a t t h e s e w o r d s f i r s t c a m e i n by the "ear-route" b e c o m e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e problem of i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s of a s s i m i l a t i o n . W i l l i n g n e s s and c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s of the people to be Westernized are al s o seen i n t h e i r adoption of E n g l i s h terms r e l a t e d to dress and i t s ornaments cooking, music and e t i q u e t t e . Some examples of t h i s type are: / r e e s u / ( l a c e ) , / r i b o N / (ribbon)and / k a r e e r a i s u / (curry and r i c e ) . The students of E n g l i s h i n those days were a l s o respon s i b l e f o r such words as / i n k i / (ink) and /naihu/ ( k n i f e ) . As the reading p o p u l a t i o n of E n g l i s h increased the set of vocabulary learned was no longer l i m i t e d to the names of "nouveau""- d a i l y goods, but some t e c h n i c a l terms and words a s s o c i a t e d w i t h new concepts came i n t o u s e a n d were gradu-a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , e.g. / s a N p u r u / (sample), / e N d 3 i N / ( e n g i n e ) Ik /paaseNto/ (per cent). This tendency was remarkable u n t i l the temporary stoppage of borrowing due to World War I I . Borrowing by the "eye-route" or s p e l l i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phonological s t r u c t u r e of c e r t a i n words d i s t i n c t from the e a r l i e r form of borrowing and from the post-war one spread.by the a u d i o - v i s u a l media, e.g. /airoN,/(iron) , /guroobu/ (glove). A few doublets i n d i -c a t i v e of these d i f f e r e n t contexts of s i t u a t i o n i n which one and the same form was borrowed are as f o l l o w s : / s u t o r a i k i / and / s u t o r a i k u / are both from E n g l i s h " s t r i k e . " The former i s used to mean "to refuse to continue to work u n t i l c e r t a i n demands are met"; the l a t t e r , " ( i n b a s e b a l l ) a p i t c h e d b a l l which i s struck at bixt missed." A f t e r World War I I , through school education and the remarkable progress of mass communication, the number of people w i t h considerable knowledge of E n g l i s h g r e a t l y increased. Apart from the f l o o d of f o r e i g n words i n a d v e r t i s e -ments w i t h the supposed p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t made on custo-mers, E n g l i s h words came to make frequent appearances i n d a i l y conversation of those w i t h considerable education. P o s s i b l e reasons seem to be: 1) a show of knowledge which w i l l serve to impress l i s t e n e r s ; 2) the l a c k of equiva-l e n t n a t i v e term; 3) p r e c i s i o n and e f f i c i e n c y of some E n g l i s h words and idioms compared wi t h n a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t s ; .and', 4) the 15 shades of meaning created by the co-existence of E n g l i s h and Japanese l e x i c a l items. This s i t u a t i o n added c o m p l i c a t i o n to the s t r u c t u r e of the language as a whole. Some examples at the ph o n o l o g i c a l and l e x i c a l l e v e l s w i l l be shown below: E n g l i s h . Form I Form I I Form I I I p a r t y p d : t i pa'at/ii patettee p a f e t i i t i c k e t t i k a t t/ike 1Qto i c e tea a i s t i : - - aisuitj?i d i e s e l d i : z a l d 3 ? i s e r u - d J i z e r u r a d i o r e i d i o ra?d3,io Form I shows the o l d form; Form I I , a t r a n s i t i o n a l form; Form I I I , post-war form. The use of the a l i e n sequences, - t i - and - d i - , which used to be r e g u l a r l y replaced by -tfi- and -dsi- i s not unusual now, and to some extent the choice from among the three i n the cases above r e f l e c t s the speakers' background, t h e i r age, education, etc. No a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t s , however, i n such a case as / r a d s i o / which has acquired a f u l l standing as a part of - Japanese vocabulary. The meaning came to be shared by the na t i v e and the loanwords i n some cases. N a t u r a l l y a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the meaning of the o r i g i n a l i s s e l e c t e d i n the usage and the rest.has g i v e n way to the n a t i v e equivalent. usage: ( E n g l i s h equivalent) 1. Mr A i s t a l l A-san wa sega t a k a i 2. Mr. A i s t h i n A-san wa y a s e t e i r u 3« Mr. A i s neat and s t y l i s h A-san wa sumaato da k* Mr. A i s c l e v e r A-san wa k a s h i k o i Remarks: Both No. 3 and i+ could he "Mr. A i s smart," i n E n g l i s h , hut the usage i n Japanese i s r e s t r i c t e d to No. 3. D e s c r i p t i o n such as t h i s which r e l i e s mainly on the nat i v e speakers' i n t u i t i o n i s not always h i g h l y recommended hut the use of extensive c o l l o c a t i o n w i l l make up f o r i t s defects. A-san wa sumaato da ga B-san wa izunguri s h i t e i r u . Mr. AfNom. Smart i s hut Mr. B.(Nom. rshort and i s ( P a r t i c l e lpart . 1 f a t * A-san wa sumaato da ga B-san wa n i h u i . Mr. A smart Mr. B. slow and d u l l The examples above show the meaning of /sumaato/ from E n g l i s h /sma:t/by i t s c o l l o c a b i l i t y w i t h /zUNguri/ and i t s i n c o l l o c a b i l i t y w i t h / n i b u i / . The statement of the meaning of a word by the use of c o l l o c a t i o n as a means of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. CHAPTER IV LEXICAL LEVEL "The way e x p e r i e n c e i s a n a l y s e d d i f f e r s f r o m one l a n g u a g e t o a n o t h e r . The s e t o f h a b i t s we c a l l a l a n g u a g e s u g g e s t s t h e b r e a k i n g up o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a number o f e l e m e n t s f o r w h i c h t h e l a n g u a g e i n q u e s t i o n h a s e q u i v -a l e n t s . " l i + When a w o r d i s b o r r o w e d f r o m one l a n g u a g e t o a n o t h e r i t may become a n a d d i t i o n a l e l e m e n t o r i t may c o n f l i c t v / i t h a n e l e m e n t i n t h e r e c i p i e n t l a n g u a g e . The f o r m e r i s t h e c a s e i n w h i c h a w o r d came a l o n g v / i t h a new o b j e c t o r p r a c t i c e a n d s t a y e d i n s p i t e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n . In t h e l a t t e r c a s e , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a t t h e l e x i c a l l e v e l o f t h e l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n s h a r i n g a r t i c u l a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e l e m e n t s i n t h e r e c i p i e n t l a n g u a g e , b y w h i c h p r o c e s s r i c h n e s s i n s h a d e s o f m e a n i n g i s i n c r e a s e d . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l i f t h e o r i g i n a l m e a n i n g i s d i s t o r t e d . A. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o r a N p u <trump ( W e s t e r n ) c a r d s o r p l a y i n g c a r d s B. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n E n g l i s h m e a n i n g l o u d speaker-s e w i n g m a c h i n e e v e n i n g d r e s s m o r n i n g c o a t J a p a n e s e  s u p i i k a a  m i s i n  i h u n i N g u  mooniN gu Shown b e l o w a r e t h e i n t e r e s t i n g c a s e s i n w h i c h s p e c i i z a t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n l o a n w o r d s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e e x i s t e n t f o r m s : A. N a t i v e e l e m e n t 1. t e n u g u i 2. k a s i 3. c j a k. g j u u n j u u 5. j u n o m i ( z jawaNi ) 6. s a k a z u k i 7. t e n p u r a B. L o a n e l e m e n t 1. t a o r u < t o w e l 2. k e e k i < c a k e 3- t i i < t e a U-. m i r u k u < m i l k 5^ k a p p u < c u p 5 2 . k o p p u < k o p ( D u t c h ) 6-^  g u r a s u < g l a s s 6g g a r a s u < g l a s ( D u t c h ) 7. h u r a i < f r y 19 The semantic content shared by A and B: A. 1. a cotton towel of Japanese type 2 . cake i n general B. 1. a Western type of towel 2 . Western cake 3. Japanese green tea 3. Western tea i+. cow's mi l k i n general 4. M i l k f o r tea; m i l k f i x e d f o r babies 5. a cup f o r green tea 5 i a cup f o r black t e a , a cup as a p r i z e 6. Japanese wine-cup 5 2 d r i n k i n g container Western type of d r i n k i n g g l a s s 6 2 g l a s s , as a m a t e r i a l 7« a t y p i c a l Japanese d i s h 7. . Y/estern type of cooked by deep-frying deep-frying In 4 and 7 an element A and an element B appear i n the same morphological environment w i t h d i f f e r e n t reference. A. gjuunjuu-bin B. miruku-bin (re g u l a r b o t t l e f o r milk) (milk b o t t l e f o r babies) A. e b i - t e n B. e b i - h u r a i ( d e e p - f r i e d shrimps - Japanese s t y l e ) ( d e e p - f r i e d shrimps - Western s t y l e ) The semantic range covered by the n a t i v e term tew pura 20 a n d t h e E n g l i s h - l o a n t e r m h u r a i w i l l he d i s c u s s e d . O b j e c t P r e d i c a t o r I 1 I 1 c f . e h i o t e N p u r a n i s u r u e h i o h u r a i n i s u r u B o t h c a n he t r a n s l a t e d " t o d e e p - f r y s h r i m p s o r a l o b s t e r . " The g e n e r i c t e r m age-mono can r e p l a c e e i t h e r teNpura a n d h u r a i w h i c h a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . C o o k i n g t e r m B a t t e r U t e n s i l  1. t e N p u r a n i s u r u w heat f l o u r s k i l l e t o r p a n 2. h u r a i n i s u r u b r e a d crumb " " " 3. a g e m o n o n i s u r u i n d e f i n i t e " " " I n g r e d i e n t M e t h o d 1. e.g. s h r i m p f r y i n o i l 2 ti I I ti ti 3 I I it I I ti W o r c e s t e r S a u c e Lemon G r a t e d R a d i s h On t o p o f S t e a m e d R i c e i n a B o w l 1. n e v e r n e v e r a c c e p t a b l e a c c e p t a b l e 2. a c c e p t a b l e a c c e p t a b l e n e v e r n e v e r 3. n e u t r a l n e u t r a l n e u t r a l n e u t r a l 21 R e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n s a r e a b s t r a c t e d a s f o l l o w s : 1) P r e p a r a t i o n i . a k i n d o f b a t t e r i i . a k i n d o f u t e n s i l 2) C o o k i n g i . t h e way i n g r e d i e n t s a r e t r e a t e d i i . a k i n d o f i n g r e d i e n t • 3) S e r v i n g i . a k i n d o f c o n t a i n e r u s e d f o r s e r v i n g i i . s e a s o n i n g i i i . r e l i s h E s p e c i a l l y 1 ( i ) i s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e a n d 3 ( i ) , 3 ( i i ) a n d 3 ( i i i ) a r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n m a k i n g d i s t i n c -t i o n b e t w e e n t h e E n g l i s h - l o a n t e r m a n d t h e n a t i v e one. I n o t h e r w o r d s , w h e t h e r l i n g u i s t i c a l l y o v e r t o r n o t , a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n a l t y p e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h o s e g i v e n a b o v e does s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e s e t e r m s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t one o f t h e m a i n c o n c e r n s a t t h e l e x i c a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i s a n a t t e m p t t o a b s t r a c t t y p e s o f i n t e r n a l , a s w e l l a s e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n s , w h i c h w i l l i n f l u e n c e the. way E n g l i s h l o a n - w o r d s c o n f o r m t o t h e J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e . O v e r l a p p i n g i s u n a v o i d a b l e a t t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a n d t h e l e x i c a l l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e t h e m e a n i n g o f i t e m s i s " f u n c t i o n " i n t h e c o n t e x t o f 22 s i t u a t i o n , i . e . " f u n c t i o n " a g a i n s t i t s t o t a l c u l t u r a l b a c k -g r o u n d . H o w e v e r , a t t h e l e x i c a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e m e a n i n g w i l l he s t r e s s e d more t h a n t h a t o f t h e e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n . One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l he c o l l o c a t i o n , t h a t i s , t e n d e n c y o f l e x i c a l i t e m s t o c o - o c c u r . H e r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h an E n g l i s h e l e m e n t a s o b j e c t o f a J a p a n e s e v e r b a n d t h a t w i t h a n E n g l i s h e l e m e n t a s s u b j e c t o f a J a p a n e s e v e r b w i l l be e x a m i n e d f r o m t h e v i e w -p o i n t o f c o l l o c a t i o n . I n t h e s e t y p e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , p a r t o f t h e m e a n i n g o f a n o u n u s e d a s s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t i s shown b y t h e v e r b i t f u n c t i o n s w i t h . What i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e i s w h e t h e r a b o r r o w e d e l e m e n t k e e p s i t s c o l l o c a t i o n a s i n t h e o r i g i n a l E n g l i s h e v e n i f i t i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o J a p a n e s e a t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a n d g r a m m a t i c a l l e v e l s . M i s i N s e w i n g m a c h i n e , w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n a s a n e x a m p l e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n shows i n t e r e s t i n g c o l l o c a t i o n . O b j e c t V e r b 1. m i s i N o humu 2. m i s i N o k a k e r u 3. m i s i N o h o d o k u P a r a l l e l e x a m p l e s o f t h e c o l l o c a b i l i t y o f e a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e v e r b s w i l l be s o u g h t . 23 1. 2. m i s i N ( < s e w i n g m a c h i n e ) p e d a r u ( < p e d a l ) o r u g a N ( < o r g a n ) h a t a o r i k i m i s i N ( < s e w i n g m a c h i n e ) r a z i o ( < r a d i o ) o humu p e d a l a s e w i n g m a c h i n e o humu p e d a l ( a b i c y c l e ) o humu p e d a l a n o r g a n o humu p e d a l a l o o m £ k a k e r u sew b y m a c h i n e o k a k e r u t u r n on t h e r a d i o r e k o o d o ( < r e c o r d p l a y e r ) o k a k e r u t u r n on t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r o k a k e r u i r o n ( v . ) a i r o N (< i r o n ) d e N w a ( t e l e p h o n e ) m e z a m a s i ( a l a r m c l o c k ) k o t e ( c u r l i n g i r o n ) o k a k e r u phone ( v . ) o k a k e r u s e t a n a l a r m - c l o c k o k a k e r u i r o n ( v . ) D e r i v a t i v e n o u n s a r e a i r o N - k a k e a n d m i s i N - k a k e . 3 . m i s i N ( s e w i n g m a c h i n e ) £ h o d o k u u n p i c k nuime ( s t i t c h ) o h c d o k u u n s t i t c h i t o ( t h r e a d ) o h o d o k u u n r a v e l himo ( t i e , s t r i n g ) o h o d o k u u n t i e P a r a l l e l c o l l o c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h a n d i n J a p a n e s e i s s e e n o n l y i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p . T y p e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s i n t o J a p a n e s e a t t h e l e x i c a l l e v e l w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b y t h e u s e o f c o l l o c a t i o n . I. C o l l o c a t i o n i n t h e o r i g i n a l i s e i t h e r i g n o r e d o r a b a n -d o n e d a n d t h e c o l l o c a t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t i s b o r r o w e d . 24 1 .(a) An E n g l i s h noun i s adopted as an a d d i t i o n a l item added to a range of s p e c i f i c Japanese terms which c o l l o c a t e w i t h a verh i n common. In the o r i g i n a l E n g l i s h the h a b i t u a l company the noun keeps i s a range of s p e c i f i c verbs, e.g. beru ( < b e l l ) ga naru. The b e l l r i n g s . 1 .(b) An E n g l i s h element i s adopted i n one sense only, but shares i t s o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h a number of n a t i v e elements. i . The semantic range may be d i v i d e d between the loan and the n a t i v e elements. i i . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n usage may take place between the na t i v e and the loan elements, e.g. s p e c i f i c versus general; concrete versus a b s t r a c t ; l i t e r a r y versus c o l l o q u i a l as the r e s u l t of l a t e r developments, e.g. b a r a N s u ( < balance) o tor u . 1 .(c) The E n g l i s h element which i s n e u t r a l as to i t s connotation i n the o r i g i n a l keeps the h a b i t u a l company of a d e l i m i t i n g verb i n Japanese, e.g. muudo (< mood) g a tadayoo. 1.(d) D i f f e r e n c e i n grammatical c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s i -t a t e d the loan element s e l e c t i n g a verb from the set of n a t i v e vocabulary, e , S ' suiQci (< swit/) o hineru. 1 .(e) Others. 2. C o l l o c a t i o n i n the o r i g i n a l i s to great extent kept. 25 2. (a) The n a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t shows s i m i l a r behavior i n its-r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h v e r b s , e.g. memo (< memo) o t o r u . T a k e a memo. 2.(b) The c o l l o c a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d i s t r a n s -l a t e d f r o m E n g l i s h , e.g. s u p o Q t o (< s p o t ) o a t e r u . H i t t h e s p o t . S u b j e c t b e r u (< b e l l ) s a i r e N ( < s i r e n ) k a n e s u z u d o r a I l l u s t r a t i o n s N o m i n a t i v e V e r b ga n a r u ga n a r u ga n a r u uwa s a {rumour ga n a r u m u t e k i ( f o g - h o r n ) ga n a r u g o s i p p u (< g o s s i p ) ga t o b u m • G O D U dema ( f a l s e r u m o u r ) ga t o b u t o r i ( b i r d ) ga t o b u The b e l l r i n g s The s i r e n b l o w s The b e l l c h i m e s s o u n d s The b e l l t i n k l e s The b e l l p e a l s s t r i k e s The f o g - h o r n s o u n d s The g o s s i p s p r e a d s l i k e a w i l d f i r e The r u m o u r g e t s a b r o a d The f a l s e r umour r u n s The r u m o u r f l i e s c f . g o s i p p u . ga h i r o m a r u uwasa ga h i r o m a r u dema ga h i r o m a r u The g o s s i p s p r e a d s The r u m o u r s p r e a d s The f a l s e r umour s p r e a d s 26 h a N d o r u (< h a n d l e ) £ mawasu T u r n s a h a n d l e wa (hoop) 0 mawasu T r u n d l e s a hoop koma ( t o p ) o mawasu S p i n s a t o p n e k u t a i ( < n e c k - t i e ) o s i m e r u T i e a n e c k - t i e o h i ( h e l t o r s a s h ) o s i m e r u F a s t e n a h e l t s a m i s e no i t o 0 s i m e r u T i g h t e n up t h e s t r i n g s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t r o o p u ( < r o p e ) 0 t a g u r u H a u l s i n a r o p e nawa ( r o p e , c o r d ) o t a g u r u i t o 0 t a g u r u R e e l s i n s t r i n g t a k o - i t o o t a g u r u R e e l s i n t h e s t r i n g c f a k i t e k o o d o ( < c o r d ) 0 t a g u r u Draws i n a c o r d l .Cb) akuseNto (< a c c e n t ) o t s u k e r u A c c e n t u a t e k j o o z j a k u ( s t r o n g a n d weak) 0 t s u k e r u P l a c e s t r e s s a c c e n t k o o t e e ( h i g h a n d l o w ) o t s u k e r u P l a c e p i t c h a c c e n t h e N k a o . t s u k e r u G i v e v a r i e t y i r o o t s u k e r u E m b e l l i s h ( c o l o u r ) . e.g. o-kesjoo (make-up) n i . akuseiv/to o t s u k e r u s o d e ( s l e e v e s ) n i . a k u s e t f t o o t s u k e r u s j o k k u (< s h o c k ) o u k e r u Be s h o c k e d s j o o g e k i ( s h o c k ) 0 u k e r u Be s h o c k e d The f o r m e r i s c o l l o q u i a l ; t h e l a t t e r , l i t e r a r y . 27 c f . kaNdeNSuru z i s i N . " ga. a t t a "baraN s u (<balance) o t o r u t s u r i a i ("balance) o t o r u h e i k i N (<balance) o t o r u "baraN s u ( < b a l a n c e ) t s u r i a i h e i k i N h a r a N . s u ( < h a l a n c e ) ' t s u r i a i h e i k i N -h a r a N s u ( < h a l a n c e ) t s u r i a i h e i k i N . k i N k o o h a r a N . s u n o t o r e t a baraN s u n o t o r e t a k a t a a s i de k e i k i N o t a m o t s u o t a m o t s u o t a m o t s u o usinau o usinau o u s i n a u ga k u z u r e r u ga k u z u r e r u ga k u z u r e r u ga k u z u r e r u s j o k u z i k j o o i k u o t o r u R e c e i v e a s h o c k S h o c k s were f e l t B a l a n c e B a l a n c e , be i n ' harmony K e e p o n e ' s b a l a n c e K e e p b a l a n c e Be i n k e e p i n g w i t h K e e p o n e ' s b a l a n c e L o s e b a l a n c e Be o u t o f p r o p o r -t i o n L o s e o n e ' s b a l a n c e W e l l - b a l a n c e d d i e t B a l a n c e d e d u c a t i o n K e e p o n e ' s b a l a n c e o n one f o o t B a l a n c e i s more a b s t r a c t a n d h e i k i N i s more c o n c r e t e i n u s a g e , 28 l . ( c ) muudo ( < mood) k u u k i ( a i r ) k a o r i ( f r a g r a n c e ) kumo ( c l o u d ) t a d a y o o ga t a d a y o o ga. t a d a y o o ga t a d a y o o ga t a d a y o o d r i f t s a b o u t , f l o a t e.g. Kono h e y a wa muudo ga a r u . Kono h e y a wa h u r r i k i ga a r u . Ano h i t o n i wa muudo ga a r u . Ano h i t o n i wa h u w i k i ga a r u . c f . muudo (< mood) o k a k i t a t e r u k j o o m i ( c u r i o s i t y ) o k a k i t a t e r u k j o o S j ' u u ( n o s t a l g i a ) o k a k i t a t e r u ''"There i s a mood, i n t h i s room T h e r e i s a n atmos-p h e r e i n t h i s r o om w T h e r e i s a mood i n t h a t p e r s o n T h e r e i s a n atmos-p h e r e a b o u t t h a t p e r s o n * A r o u s e mood A r o u s e i n t e r e s t A r o u s e n o s t a l g i c mood Mood i n E n g l i s h c o u l d be "good" o r " b a d , " b u t i s n e u t r a l b y i t s e l f . I n J a p a n e s e i t " f l o a t s " i n t h e a i r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i n g s , g i v e i n d i v i d u a l i t y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t b s a y t h a t t h i s u s a g e i s a n i n s t a n c e o f b a c k f o r m a t i o n a t t h e l e x i c a l l e v e l , i . e . "mood" was i s o l a t e d , f r o m mood-music. * juumoa ( < humour) s j a r e z j'oodaa o t o b a s u o t o b a s u o t o b a s u D i s p l a y humour E x e r c i s e t a c t C r a c k a j o k e 29 c f . .iuumoa a i k j o o G h u r i m a k u o h u r i m a k u Be p r o f u s e o f humour Be p r o f u s e o f s m i l e s Humour i n E n g l i s h c o u l d he "goo d " o r " i l l " h u t i s n e u t r a l b y i t s e l f e x c e p t f o r t h e c o n n o t a t i o n i m p l i e d b y s u c h p h r a s e s a s " d r y humour" a n d "a s e n s e o f humour." I n J a p a n e s e i t i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h " c o m i c a l i t y . " l . ( d ) s j a b e r u ( < s h o v e l ) kuwa h o o k a s u s j o o t e N . p i N ' t o o i r e r u o i r e r u o a w a s e r u o a w a s e r u o a w a s e r u S h o v e l Hoe F o c u s imazinees.joM (< i m a g i n a t i o n ) o h a t a r a k a s e r u Use o n e ' s i m a g i n -s o o z o o r j o k u c i r j o k u o h a t a r a k a s e r u a t i o n s i r o o k u s u k e z j u u r u (< s c h e d u l e ) y o t e e ( p l a n ) n i t t e i (a d a y ' s p r o g r a m ) p u r o g u r a m u ( p r o g r a m ) c f . " " s u k e z j u u r u o h a t a r a k a s e r u Use o n e ' s i n t e l l i -g e n c e o h a t a r a k a s e r u Use o n e ' s i n s i g h t o K u m u o kumu o kumu o icumu < s c h e d u l e ) y o t e e o t a t e r u c f . o t a t e r u Make a s c h e d u l e Make a p l a n Make a d a y ' s p r o g r a m Make a p r o g r a m O r g a n i z e a s c h e d u l e O r g a n i z e a p l a n 30 n i t t e i o t a t e r u Organize a program c f . c f . puroguramu ( < program) o t a t e r u c f . Organize a program merodii (< melody) o kucizusamu Hum a melody u t a r u u r u ( < r u l e ) k i s o k u h o o r i c u r u u r u k i s o k u h o o r i c u p u r a i h a s i i (< p r i v a c y ) t a i m e N ( f a c e ) c i i ( s t a t u s ) siNyoo ( c r e d i t ) o kucizusamu _c mamoru o mamoru o mamoru n i s i t a g a u n i s i t a g a u n i s i t a g a u £ tamocu o tamocu o tamocu o tamocu :.(h) supotto (< spot) o a t e r u Hum a song Observe r u l e s Observe r u l e s Observe the law Obey r u l e s Obey r e g u l a t i o n s Obey the law Maintain p r i v a c y Maintain face Maintain s t a t u s M a i n t a i n c r e d i t H i t the spot The type 1 .(a) w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l here Ob j e c t P a r t i c l e Verb b i s u k e t t o (< b i s c u i t ) o sakana ( f i s h ) o kee k i (< cake) imo (potato) omoci ( r i s e cake) o o o E n g l i s h 31 O b j e c t P a r t i c l e h o t t o k e e k i ( < h o t - c a k e ) o n i k u ( meat) o tamago ( e g g ) p a n (bread.) V e r b c o What d e v i c e s a r e u s e d t o . d i f f e r e n t i a t e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o o k i n g , w i t h o u t w a t e r , w i l l b e shown b e l o w : A d j u n c t P r e d . i c a t o r 1) h u r a i p a N ( < f r y i n g pan) de y a k u t e N p i ( p r i m i t i v e o v e n ) de y a k u ami ( g r i d i r o n ) de y a k u h i b a c i ( c h a r c o a l b r a z i e r ) de y a k u t o o s u t a a ( < t o a s t e r ) de y a k u obuN (< oven) de y a k u c f . s umi ( < c h a r c o a l ) de y a k u A d j u n c t s e r v e s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e " y a k u " b y s p e c i f y i n g the. f u e l a n d k i t c h e n u t e n s i l s w i t h w h i c h c o o k i n g i s done. I n E n g l i s h , t o o , when " b r o i l " a n d " r o a s t " t a k e p l a c e o u t s i d e t h e o v e n , t h e y a r e c a l l e d , " p a n - b r o i l " and. " p a n - r o a s t . " The t e r m " F r e n c h - t o a s t " i s a g o o d e x a m p l e , t o o . I t s i g n a l s some-t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o r d i n a r y t y p e o f t o a s t , i . e . done i n t h e s k i l l e t w i t h f a t , n o t " i n t h e t o a s t e r o r o v e n w i t h o u t f a t o r g r e a s e . " 2) j{ OIJUN < oven niku (meat) o huraipaN de de) - m a r u - y a k i n i s u r u ami de e t c . O b j e c t A d j u n c t P r e d i c a t o r A s i s shown ahove i n t h e c a s e o f " n i k u o r n a r u - y a k i n i s u r u ' " t h e a d j u n c t " o b U M de" i s o p t i o n a l , w h i l e i n t h e c a s e o f " n i k u o y a k u " t h e a d j u n c t i s t h e t h i n g t h a t must he s p e c i -One o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n b e e f s t e a k a n d r o a s t b e e f l i e s i n t h e way meat i s c u t a n d t h e s i z e o f t h e p i e c e s , a l t h o u g h b o t h c o u l d be y a k i - n i k u i n J a p a n e s e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y w i t h t h e h e l p o f s u c h n a t i v e t e r m s a s " m a r u - y a k i " a n d " s u g a t a - y a k i " where t h e shape o f i n g r e d i e n t s i s a m a r k e d f e a t u r e . s p e c i f y b y u s i n g g e n e r i c t e r m y a k u . The p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e f i r s t c o n j u n c t i v e f o r m o f a v e r b a s a n o m i n a l i z e r , h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t s u c h h y b r i d s a s b a t a a - y a k i , o i r u - y a k i o n t h e a n a l o g y o f n a t i v e f o r m s a s f o l l o w s : f i e d . y a k i < y a k u ( N o m i n a l ) ( V e r b P r e s e n t C o n c l u s i v e ) 3) B e s i d e s t h o s e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e t h e r e i s a n o t h e r way t o 33 s a k e ( s a l m o n ) o m i s o - y a k i s i o - y a k i " b a t a a - y a k i n i s u r u o i r u - y a k i E n g l i s h ( s a l t y h e a n p a s t e ) ( s a l t ) ( < h u t t e r ) ( < o i l ) O b j e c t P r e d l c a t o r G r . Noun N. — y a k i n i L e x . M a i n i n g r e d i e n t s e a s o n i n g -B u t t e r a n d o i l a r e e q u a t e d w i t h s e a s o n i n g . Verb s u r u s a k e o ( h u r a i p a N de) ( b a t a a - y a k i w i t h f r y i n g p a n L o i r u - y a k ] n i L o i r u - y a k i ) s u r u O b j e c t A d j u n c t P r e d i c a t o r I n t h e s e n t e n c e a b o v e , t h e A d j u n c t become o p t i o n a l , b e c a u s e t h e u t e n s i l where i t i s c o o k e d , ( i . e . , a f r y i n g p a n ) . i s i m p l i e d b y b a t a a - y a k i o r o i r u - y a k i i n c o n t r a s t w i t h m i s o -y a k i a n d s i o - y a k i , w h i c h a r e done o n ' t h e g r i d i r o n . C H A P T E R V G R A M M A T I C A L L E V E L a. k o w b f i h u mass jupc^tsto r o o r u k jeJbetsu h u r a i b J i N zu puresuhalmu b. s u k e e t o r ^ N k u h u r a i p a N daNSuhobru c. sutoQk3?Ngu sixr3Qpa h a i h f l i r u p otetocSQpu d. hamuegjgusu c i k i N r a ' i s u k areersDisu e. 1. suutsukePi su h u r u u t s u k e e k i e.2. b a k e t s u s j a ' t s u s f i t s u d o o n a t s u su\itsu k o : n d h i i f mse/t p a t e i t o u r o u l d k s b i d s f r a i d b i : n z p r e s t ham s k e i t i r r i n k • f r a i i r j . pan . , * ,16 dainsir i_ h o : 1 s t o k i r j Z s l i p 3 z h a i h i : l z p a t e i t o u t/ip.s haem on egz t/ikan sn r a i s k A r i an r a i s s ( j ) u : t k e i s f r u : t k e i k b A k i t f&:t / i : t ddunat s ( j ) u: t 35 What i s s t r i k i n g a b o u t t h i s l i s t o f E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o r m s i s 'the o m i s s i o n o f s o u n d s / t , d; i n ; s, z; s n / i n a, b , c, a n d d, a n d t h e i n s e r t i o n o f / s / i n e. F u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n , h o w e v e r , w i l l r e v e a l o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s a b o u t them. F i r s t l y , t h e s o u n d s o m i t t e d a r e i n a b s o l u t e A u s l a u t o r , more g e n e r a l l y , s o u n d s i n a n u n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r e s e n c e o f o n l y one a c c e n t k e r n e l i n t h e a d o p t e d f o r m shows i t i s t r e a t e d a s one w o r d o r a s a u n i t , w h e t h e r i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m i s a s y n t a c t i c a r r a n g e m e n t o r a m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e s e i m p l y t h a t t h e f o r m s a r e s o l i d morphemes. What i s more i n t e r e s t i n g a n d p r e s u m a b l y i s a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a t p l a y h e r e w i l l be t h e J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s ' i g n o r a n c e o f a n d / o r i n d i f f e r e n c e .to t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f t h e s o u r c e l a n g u a g e due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e -g o r i e s b e t w e e n t h e two l a n g u a g e s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . / t , d; i n ; s, z; a n / o m i t t e d i n g r o u p s a , b , c , d, a n d / s / i n s e r t e d i n g r o u p e, a r e a l l morphemes. S i n c e number a s a g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r y h a s no p r o m i n e n t f u n c t i o n i n J a p a n e s e , e x c e p t f o r some c a s e s i n w h i c h - r a , - t a c i , -domo a r e a t t a c h e d t o n o m i n a l s t o s i g n a l t h e i r p l u r -a l i t y , ( e . g . w a t a k u s i (I) w a t a k u s i - t a c i (We) ) , t h e p l u r a l e n d i n g o f E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s may be e a s i l y d i s r e g a r d e d . T h i s w i l l e x p l a i n g r o u p c. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s , one o r two other examples i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s l i n g u i s t i c f a c t w i l l he given; i c i h u i i t o [ i t / i $ i u i : to ] one f e e t go i N c i [go i n t / i ] f i v e inch"1"^ Group e w i l l i n v o l v e hoth p h o n o l o g i c a l and grammatical f a c t o r s . For example, f r u i t s and doughnuts must have come i n t h e i r p l u r a l forms and have been used i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r number i n every context. I n some cases, the r e g u l a r a d d i t i o n of /o/ to the w o r d - f i n a l / t / f a i l e d to occur because of the a s p i r a t i o n of / t / i n some E n g l i s h speakers' p r o n u n c i a t i o n perceived by the o r i g i n a l i n t r o d u c e r . In that case, / t s u / w i l l n a t u r a l l y be adopted, p a r t l y because i t i s a f u l l y accept-able sound sequence i n Japanese and p a r t l y because i t i s p h o n e t i c a l l y very close to the p l u r a l form of the o r i g i n a l , e s p e c i a l l y when the w o r d - f i n a l / u / i s devocalized. In a. and b., deprived of the i n f l e x i o n a l s u f f i x e s |-Dj and {-in]| the items are t r e a t e d as being stem-formative elements to be made i n t o compounds. For one reason, i n s p i t e of the syntactic'arrangement of two forms i n E n g l i s h these two forms are c l o s e l y interdependent, or almost seman-18 t i c a l l y amalgamated. For another reason, t r a n s l a t i o n of s u f f i x e s prevents naturalness and conciseness i n expression Remarks: By the use of Present Conclusive A t t r i b u t i v e and Past Conclusive A t t r i b u t i v e forms, a Japanese verb can occur i n a m o d i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e w i t h a noun head. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , 37 p o s s i b l e t o r e p l a c e E n g l i s h V - e d N b y J a p a n e s e V- aw., t h e o r -e t i c a l l y , e.g. mass n u s i t a p o t e t o p u r e s u s i t a harnu When t h e i n t r a n s i t i v e f o r m o f t h e v e r b o c c u r s a s a m o d i f i e r o f a n o u n , t h e n oun i s d e s c r i b e d when t h e t r a n s i -t i v e f o r m o f t h e v e r b o c c u r s a s a m o d i f i e r , t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e n o u n i s a m b i g u o u s . I t c o u l d b e e i t h e r " p e r f o r m e r " o f t h e a c t i o n o r " u n d e r g o e r o f t h e a c t i o n . " E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e w i t h E n g l i s h e l e m e n t s a s m o d i f i e r s w i l l b e g i v e n b e l o w : P a s t C o n c l u s i v e A t t r i b u t i v e o f I n t r a n s i t i v e V e r b s u t a a t o s i t a d a k t a i The g r o u p w h i c h s t a r t e d P a s t C o n c l u s i v e A t t r i b u t i v e  o f T r a n s i t i v e V e r b s u k a u t o s i t a k a N t o k u a. The d i r e c t o r who s c o u t e d b. The d i r e c t o r who was s c o u t e d I n f a c t t h e s t r u c t u r a l a m b i g u i t y shown above c a n be c l a r i f i e d b y e x p a n d i n g i n f l e c t e d w o r d s t o make w o r d g r o u p s t h a t p a t t e r n l i k e s e n t e n c e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e E n g l i s h v e r b - n o u n c o n s t r u c t i o n i s s i n g l e - w o r d m o d i f i c a t i o n , and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s do n o t o c c u r i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e . S i m i l a r r e a s o n s h o l d t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f d, w h e r e / a n / i s o m i t t e d a n d two n o u n s a r e j u x t a p o s e d t o f o r m a compound. J. guriN p i > i s u h o w a i t o s o b s u b a r u k i i s e ' e t a a b A l k i s w e t a o r _ _ c f . b l a J k b g j d o r _ a n d blaek b a : d o r _ __ The a b o v e e x a m p l e s a r e compound n o u n s w h i c h w e r e , i n t h e o r i g i n a l , n o m i n a l g r o u p s c o n s i s t i n g o f a m o d i f i e r E. g r i :n p i : s o r _ ( h ) w a i x s o : s o r 38 realized by an adjective and a head realized by a noun. How-i t happens cannot be explained by the discussion of the nature of one language. One possible explanation w i l l be that by making the nominal group, which is syntactic, into a compound we discard the addition of a native adjectival ending, (i.e. -na or - i ) . Another thing which w i l l encourage this device l i e s in the structure of English nominal group as follows: 19 E. nominal group doenh d o e n h deictic v deter- ordinative epithet nominal head \ miner \» quantifier \i adjective modifier \/noun d d d o o . o ^ ••• * * ei * e^-n^ ^  ±ni ±n< ya.b.c .a b c i l l i i - 1 m i 1 i e.g.all the other Card.Ord.Sup. three second best In such nominal groups as "green peas" and "white sauce" insertability of other elements between (ejand {h} is very rare, It i s remarkable that this device i s extended also to the following cases in which the head i s from the native vocab-ulary. epithet head \fAd.1. \ N. kurasiQkuoKgaku classic(al) music popjuraakasju popular singer INsutaltosjokuhiN instant food regjuraabaHgumi regular program W h e t h e r t h e y a r e h y b r i d compounds g e n e t i c a l l y a s w e l l a s f o r m a l l y ( a n d / o r s y n c h r o n i c a l l y ) o r a r e p a r t i a l l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n s i s n o t c l e a r , a n d i s o f no c o n c e r n t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e p o i n t e d o u t h e r e t h a t t h e r e e x i s t n o m i n a l g r o u p s i n w h i c h E n g l i s h a d j e c t i v e s t a k e t h e a t t r i b u t i v e f o r m o f a J a p a n e s e i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x , i . e . - n a . M i - E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t mo daw na i e m o d e r n h o u s e s u m a a t o n a h i t o s m a r t man r oma N c i Q k u n a u t a r o m a n t i c s o n g a k a d e m i q k u n a h U N i k i a c a d e m i c a t m o s p h e r e s o h u t o n a a z i s o f t t a s t e T h e s e a d j e c t i v e s c h a n g e t h e i r f o r m s , a c c o r d i n g t o p o s i t i o n i n t h e s e n t e n c e , a s f o l l o w s : 1. P r e s e n t c o n c l u s i v e - a t t r i b u t i v e 2. P r e s e n t c o n j e c t i v e 3. F i r s t c o n d i t i o n a l 4 . F i r s t c o n j u n c t i v e 5. A d v e r b i a l 6. P a s t c o n c l u s i v e - a t t r i b u t i v e 7. P a s t c o n j e c t u r a l 8. S e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l 9 . S e c o n d c o n j u n c t i v e 10.. A l t e r n a t i v e 40 1. ano uta wa romaNciQkuda 2. 4. 5. 6. 7. r omaw c i ^ k u c t a r o o r o m a N c i Q k u n a r a b a . . . rornaN ciQk-u.de I ' o m a N.ciQkuni. .. r oma N c i Q k u d a t t a r oma N c i Q k u d a t t a r o o T h a t s o n g i s r o m a n t i c T h a t s o n g w i l l he r o m a n t i c I f t h a t s o n g i s r o m a n t i c T h a t s o n g i s r o m a n t i c a n d . . . i n a r o m a n t i c way T h a t s o n g was r o m a n t i c T h a t s o n g must h a v e "been r o r n a N c i Q k u d a t t a n a r a h a . . . I f i t was Q • 1.0. r o r n a N c i Q u d a t t a r i . • . T h a t s o n g was r o m a n t i c a n d / o r . .. The m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s some of t h e i n t e r -e s t i n g s h a p e s o f E n g l i s h - l o a n a d j e c t i v e s . T h a t i s , s t e m -d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x a s a w h o l e i s t r e a t e d a s a s t e m o f a n a d j e c t i v e i n J a p a n e s e , e.g. t a i m u r i i n a ( t i m e - l y ) + na a k a d e r n i Qkuna ( a c a d e m y - i c ) + na s u p i i d i i n a ( s p e e d - y ) + na T h e n , what w i l l he t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f s p e e d i l y w h i c h i s a n a l -e d a s [ s t e m + { y } - t ( l y ^ ] ? The a n s w e r i s " s u p i i d i i n i . " I t seems a t a g l a n c e a s i f ( l y ] [ w e r e r e p l a c e d b y " n i , " b u t i t w o u l d be more c o n v i n c i n g t o r e g a r d i t a s a c o n j u g a t i o n a l f o r m No. 5 w i t h " s u p i i d i i " a s a stem. M o s t o f t h e a d j e c t i v e s p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d , ( e . g . m o d e r n , s m a r t , v 41 r o m a n t i c , e t c . , ) c a n t a k e t h i s a d v e r b i a l f o r m w i t h - n i i n s p i t e o f t h e a b s e n c e o f e q u i v a l e n t a d v e r b s w i t h t h e d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x i n t h e o r i g i n a l , E n g l i s h . I t i s w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g h e r e t h a t n o t a s i n g l e c a s e was f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t d a t a i n w h i c h an E n g l i s h - l o a n a d j e c -t i v e f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e J a p a n e s e a d j e c t i v e a k a i . ( r e d ) w h i c h c o n j u g a t e s — i . - k a r o o . - k e r e b a . - k u . //wu//. - k a t t a . - k a t t a r o o . - k a t t a r a ( b a ) . - k u ( t ) t e . - k a t t a r i . Some o t h e r n a t i v e e l e m e n t s may b e a d d e d t o a n E n g l i s h -l o a n a d j e c t i v e i n t h e m o d i f i e r -K . h e a d s t r u c t u r e . A d j . N. E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t i N s u t a t o n o o r e N z i g a k a t t a N a t i v e e x a m p l e s a r e : t a k u s a n n o m i d o r i g a k a t t a j i c u e n kumo hON i r o s p o n t a n e o u s p e r f o r m a n c e o r a n g i s h c l o u d many b o o k s g r e e n i s h c o l o u r - g a k a t t a u s e d h e r e t o make " o r a n g e " a t t r i b u t i v e i s P a s t c o n c l u s i v e - a t t r i b u t i v e f o r m o f a v e r b k a k a r u , o f w h i c h f u n c -t i o n a s a n i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x i s s i g n a l e d b y t h e v o i c i n g o f t h e i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t /k->g/. A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , n o t o n l y a d j e c t i v e b u t noun c o u l d be t h e stem. A q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s a b o u t t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h n o m i n a l g r o u p s c o n s i s t i n g o f n o m i n a l 42 m o d i f i e r and head: aNzeNpiN sa f e t y p i n n. -n. n. . h. \ noun \ noun c f . aNzeNna piN Innumerable hyb r i d N-N compounds are found i n the present data. The most s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r w i l l be the absence of If N m o d i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n Japanese, and the presence of N-N compounds i n which the second element i s head as i n the E n g l i s h N N_modification s t r u c t u r e . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s to put the f i r s t c o n j u g a t i o n a l form of the i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x -da ( i . e . -na which i s a t t r i b u t i v e ) to the nominal m o d i f i e r , which, however, i s not as concise as a compound. This i s n e i t h e r a new device nor a s p e c i a l device f o r adopting the E n g l i s h loanwords, but since 1868 i t has been popular to make N-N compounds by p u t t i n g Chinese elements together without u s i n g any na t i v e i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x or p a r t i c l e s whenever a new term i s needed f o r a new concept or p r a c t i c e . The f o l l o w i n g are some of the hy b r i d s : Group A E.N. - J.N. piano-baNsoo piano-accompaniment saabisu-kikaN service-agency meekaa-kikaN •maker-goods k a r o r i i - k e e s a N calory-reckoning puriNto-moyoo p r i n t - p a t t e r n k3 A s h o r t f o r m o f E.N. - J.N. G r o u p B t e r e h i - h u N k a p a a m a - e k i J.N. - E.N. ka-.N k o o - b a s u z i do o s 3 a-huumu r o k u o N - t e e p u g a k u s e e - h o o r u k e Q k o N s i k i - s i i z u N t e l e v i s i o n - c u l t u r e p e r m a n e n t w a v e - s o l u t i o n S i g h t - s e e i n g - h u s •car-boom r e c o r d i n g - t a p e s t u d e n t - h a l l w e d d i n g - s e a s o n A s h o r t f o r m o f J.N. a N p o - d e m o a s h o r t f o r m o f E.N. n . C I N a g e - s u t o a g a i n s t amendment o f t h e s e c u r i t y p a c t wage i n c r e a s e - s t r i k e - d e m o n s t r a t i o n f r o m i . a N z e N h o s j o o z j o o y a k u . k a i t e i . ( h a N t a i ) -s e c u r i t y p a c t amendment a g a i n s t i i . C I N g i N n e a g e . ( y o o k j u u ) wages i n c r e a s e demand One t h i n g w h i c h i s n o t e w o r t h y a b o u t t h e s e compounds g i v e n a b o v e i s t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e e l e m e n t i n t h e s e i s , a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , i t s e l f a C h i n e s e compound i n o r i g i n o r a t l e a s t a home-made C h i n e s e compound, i . e . , s o - c a l l e d 20 J i o n g o . P r o f . K i n d a i c h i s a y s i n h i s b o o k , N i h o n g o t h a t J i o n g o n i p p e d o f f t h e b u d s o f r e N , y o o - k e i w h i c h i s a n i n f l e c t i o n a l f o r m o f t h e J a p a n e s e v e r h c a p a b l e o f f u n c -t i o n i n g a s a noun. The p r e s e n t w r i t e r may a r g u e a g a i n s t t h i s b y s h o w i n g some e x a m p l e s b e l o w . I t i s s t i l l p r o d u c t i v e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s . a i r o N - k a k e < k a k e r u i r o n - w o r k i n g ( w i t h ) b o t a N - t s u k e < t s u k e r u b u t t o n - f i x i n g b o o t o - k o g i < k o g u b o a t - r o w i n g t a i r u - b a r i < h a r i < h a r u t i l e - c o v e r i n g o i r u - y a k i < y a k u o i l - r o a s t i n g beekow-mak i < maku b a c o n -w r a p p i n g k u r i i mu-n i < n i r u c r e am-c o ok i n g b a t a a - i t a m e < i t a m e r u b u t t e r - f r y i n g z.junia-muki<muku j u n i o r - s u i t i n g s u r i r a a - z i t a t e < s i t a t e < s i t a t e r u t h r i l l e r - m a k i n g S u b j e c t Ob j e c t P r e d i c a t o r \ N o m i n a l G r o u p \ N o m i n a l G r o u p \ V e r b a l G r o u p w a t a k u s h i wa a i r o N - k a k e o s u r u I ( p a r t i c l e ) i r o n i n g ( p a r t i c l e ) do The r e n y o o k e i , a n i n f l e c t i o n a l f o r m o f a v e r b , i s t e n t a t i v e l y g i v e n t h e s t a t u s h e r e o f a d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x . I n c o m b i n a t i o n v / i t h an E n g l i s h l o a n e l e m e n t , i t h a s a n o m i n a l f u n c t i o n s y n t a c t i c a l l y a n d m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y i t b e l o n g s t o t h e b o r d e r - l i n e b e t w e e n compound a n d d e r i v a t i o n . The p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s s e e n i n s u c h c a s e s a s b a r i < h a r i a n d 45 z i t a t e < s i t a t e are i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r s t a t u s a s hound forms. As was already pointed o u t i n t h i s chapter, no b e t t e r sources f o r d e r i v a t i o n a l or stern-formative elements e x i s t than JioNgo, u s u a l l y represented b y one symbol which c o n s i s t s o f one s y l l a b l e and one morpheme. Here are some hybrids w h i c h a l s o belong to the b o r d e r - l i n e cases. amerika-see America-made ku r i i n i w g u - y a cleaning-shop peesuto-zjoo paste-form p u r i i \ j t o - z i p r i n t - m a t e r i a l guree-kee grey-type dorama-huu drama-style tekuniQku-zjoo technique-concerning saakuru-si (-si<zassi?) circle-magazine zjazu-ka j a z z - a r r a n g i n g m a i - s i i z u N every-season koN-siizuW this-season See ( ^  ), ya ( /| ) , zjoo (;»<) , z i ) , kee huu ( ) , z j c o ( JL ) , s i ( i * . ) , ka U t ) , mai ( ) , S° )> kow( ^  ) are quite l i m i t e d i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n as f r e e forms, but they are of t e n used as bound forms i n d e r i v -a t i o n . Which E n g l i s h words are s e l e c t e d to be combined w i t h t h e s e Jiongo element seems to be determined, not only by grammatical, but al s o by l e x i c a l f a c t o r s . Take m a i - s i i z u N f o r example. There e x i s t the f o l l o w i n g compounds w i t h a he r n a i - b j o o e v e r y - s e c o n d ma i - h u N e v e r y - m i n u t e m a i - j i k a w e v e r y - h o u r m a i - n i c l e v e r y - d a y m a i - s j u u e v e r y - w e e k m a i - c u k i e v e r y - m o n t h - e v e r y - s e a s o n m a i - t o s i e v e r y - y e a r " c a s e v i d e " i n t h e s e t o f n a t i v e v o c a b u l a r y . N a t u r a l l y , m a i - s i i z u N i s c o i n e d t o f i l l t h e gap i n t h e s y s t e m . * $ & tf\ & 9 % A H y b r i d n o u n s i n w h i c h E n g l i s h o r J a p a n e s e a f f i x e s a r e u s e d a r e n o t n umerous. s u m a a t o - s a s m a r t n e s s , c f . a t s u - s a < a t s u i h e a t < h o t samu-sa<samui c o l d n e s s < c o l d The d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x - s a , w h i c h i s a n o m i n a l i z e r , i s a d d e d t o t h e s t e m o f t h e a d j e c t i v e . Two e x a m p l e s were f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t d a t a o f a J a p a n e s e p r e f i x a t t a c h e d t o t h e E n g l i s h stem. o- i s an h o n o r i f i c p r e f i x , b u t t h e use of the f o l l o w i n g f o r m s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o women's s t y l e of speech: o - s e u c i o - s e n t i m e n t a l o - n j u u o - new D e r i v a t i o n c o v e r s o t h e r a r e a s a s w e l l . 47 A. A f f i x a t i o n ( T h i s h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d so f a r ' B. S h o r t e n i n g . B . l . The c l i p p e d f o r m s B. 2. A c r o n y m s C. B a c k f o r m a t i o n 3.1. The c l i p p e d f o r m 2 morae p u r o s u t o demo r o k e 3 morae e k i s u k o w b i m a i k u 4 morae d e p a a t o s u t o m a i . a p a a t o p r a i d A k . / a n ; pr§_„ f e / . s n . a l s t r a i k dem.a n s t r e i . J'QXI l o u . k e i ./on e k s . t r a e k t k p i i i . "'oi. n e i . fon. mai.kr©.f oun d i . p a : t.mant s t o : s t r e p , t o u . m a i . s i n a p f l : t . m a n t h a u s I n m o s t o f t h e s e c a s e s s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n s a n d morpheme d i v i s i o n s i n t h e s o u r c e l a n g u a g e a r e d i s r e g a r d e d . A s t h e r e s u l t o f c l i p p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d p r o d u c t i o n a r e homo-p h o n e s [ p u r o ] , w h i c h , d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t , c o u l d b e u s e d a s a s h o r t f o r m o f p r o g r a m a nd p r o p a g a n d a a s w e l l . Some o f t h e h y b r i d s w i t h " p u r o " a s an e l e m e n t a r e : p u r o - y a k j u u m a s u - p u r o d o k u r i c u - p u r o B. 2 . A c r o n y m s a z i - b i r a s e k o - h a N r i m o - k o N p u r o - r e s u C. B a c k f o r m a t i o n d a b u r u d A b l s a N d o - s u r u s s n ( d ) v / i t / > B e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e w o r d - f i n a l / r u / t o p r e s e n t C o n c l u s i v e F o r m of ' a v e r b , d a b u r u i s a n a l y s e d a s d a b u r +• u a n d c o n j u g a t e d a s f o l l o w s : p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s e b a l l mass p r o d u c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t p r o d u c t i o n " s d S i t e i t i r j b i l " sekand-haend r i m o u t kontr6u,l p r 9 f e / o n a l r e s l i i j 1 . P r e s e n t c o n c l u s i v e a t t r i b u t i v e d a b u r . u 2 . P r e s e n t c o n j e c t u a l d a b u r . o o 3 . F i r s t c o n d i t i o n a l d a b u r . e h a k. F i r s t c o n j u n c t i v e d a b u r . i 5 . I m p e r a t i v e d a b u r . e 6 . P a s t c o n c l u s i v e a t t r i b u t i v e d a b u t . t . a 7 . P a s t c o n j e c t u r a l d a b u t . t a r . oo 8. S e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l d a b u t . t a r . a 9 . S e c o n d c o n j u n c t i v e d a b u t . t . e 1 0 . A l t e r n a t i v e d a b u t . t a r i "Sandwich." seems t o h a v e b e e n a n a l y s e d a s s a n d -a f f i x , a n d s a n d i s t r e a t e d a s s t e m - f o r m a t i v e o f a v e r b . U9 T h u s , we g e t t h e f o r m s a n d o - s u r u , w h i c h means " t o p u t some-t h i n g h e t w e e n two p i e c e s l i k e a s a n d w i c h . " V e r b a n d V e r b a l s S u r u i s a J a p a n e s e v e r b w h i c h f u n c t i o n s a s a v e r b a -l i z e r when i t i s u s e d a s a n i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x . A l m o s t a l l t h e E n g l i s h - l o a n v e r b s a r e u s e d a s a s t e m o f a compound v e r b f o r m e d w i t h t h i s s u f f i x s u r u . The s t e m d o e s n o t a l w a y s h a v e t o b e v e r b ( l ) b u t may be v e r b a l g r o u p (2), n o u n (3) a n d i t s s h o r t f o r m . (4). E x a m p l e s : (1) k a b a a - s u r u r i i d o - s u . r u d o r a i b u - s u r u a r e w z i - s u r u s u t a a t o - s u r u (2) b e e s u a Q p u - s u r u k a m u b a Q k u - s u r u s j a Q t o a u t o - s u r u (3) s u k e Q c i - s u r u memo-suru s a a b i s u - s u r u k o o r a s u - s u r u (h) - r o k e - s u r u p i i a a r u - s u r u c o v e r l e a d d r i v e a r r a n g e s t a r t " b a s e - u p " come-back s h u t - o u t s k e t c h memo s e r v i c e c h o r u s l o c a t i o n p r o p a g a n d a 50. £ Come b a c k } + s u r u 1. k a m u b a Q k u s u . r u 2. k a m u b a Q k u s i . yoo 3• kamub aQku s u . r eb a 4. k a m u b a Q k u s i . 5. kamub aQku s i . . r o 6. k a m u b a Q k u s i . t . a 7. k a m u b a Q k u s i . t a r . o o ' 8. k a m u b a Q k u s i i t a r . a (ba.) 9. k a m u b a Q k u s i . t e 10. k a m u b a Q k u s i . t a r . i s e r v i c e + s u r u s a a b i s u s u . r u s a a b i s u s i . y o o s a a b i s u s u . r e b a s a a b i s u s i . s a a b i s u s i . r o s a a b i s u s i . t a s a a b i s u s i . t a r . oo s a a b i s u s i . t a r . a ( b a ) s a a b i s u s i . t e s a a b i s u s i . t a r . i W h a t e v e r k i n d o f s t e m t h e y h a v e t h e y b e l o n g t o t h e same c l a s s a s f a r as c o n j u g a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . 1. P r e s e n t c o n c l u s i v e - a t t r i b u t i v e s u t a a t o s u . r u 2. P r e s e n t c o n j e c t u r a l s u t a a t o s i . yoo 3. F i r s t c o n d i t i o n a l s u t a a t o s u . r e b a 4. F i r s t c o n j u n c t i v e s u t a a t o s i . 5. I m p e r a t i v e s u t a a t o s i . r o 6. P a s t c o n c l u s i v e - a t t r i b u t i v e s u t a a t o s i . t . a 7. P a s t c o n j e c t u r a l s u t a a t o s i . t a r . o o 8. S e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l s u t a a t o s i . t a r . a ( b a ) 9. S e c o n d c o n j e c t u r a l s u t a a t o s i . t . e 10. A l t e r n a t i v e s u t a a t o s i . t a r . i 51 Some a u x i l i a r y v e r b s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s e E n g l i s h -l o a n v e r b s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n . A* s u t a a t o s t . a s e + i n f l e c t i o n a l e n d i n g s t e m E. l e t «v s t a r t 1. s u t a a t o s . a s e . r u 2. . a s e . y o o 3. . a s e . r e b a 4. . a s e 5. . a s e . r o 6 . . a s e . t a 7. . a s e . t a r . o o 8. . a s e . t a r . a 9. . a s e . t . e 10. . a s e . t a r . i B. r i i d o s +• a r e + i n f l e c t i o n a l e n d i n g s t e m E. g e t b e a t e n 1. r i i d o s . a r e . r u 2. . a r e . y o o 3. . a r e . r e b a h. . a r e 5. . a r e . r o 6. . a r e . t . a 7. . a r e . t a r . o o 8. . a r e . t a r . a . 9. • a r e . t . e 10. . a r e . t a r . i B e s i d e s s u r u , t h e v e r b d e k i r u , s u f f i x e s b u r g a n d meku, may s e r v e t o v e r b a l i z e some E n g l i s h - l o a n n ouns a n d a d j e c t i v e s . 1. e.g. s u t a a t o - d e k i . r u modaN-buru dorama-meku 2. d e k i y o o . b u r . o o .mek.oo 3. d e k i r e b a . b u r . e b a .mek.eba U. s u t a a t o . d e k i . b u r . i .meki 5. * d e k i . r o . b u r . e . .mek.e 6. s u t a a t o . d e k i . t a . b u t . t . a . m e i t a 7. . d e k i t a r . o o . b u t . t a r . o o . m e i t a r . o o 8. . d e k i t a r . a (ba) . b u t . t a r . a . m e i . t a r . a 9. . d e k i t e . b u t . t e . m e i t e 10. . d e k i t a r . i . b u t . t a r . i . m e i . t a r . i E n g l i s h : "be a b l e " p r e t e n d t o be " l o o k l i k e t o s t a r t " m o d e r n " drama" L a s t l y , t h e r e i s one c a s e i n w h i c h no a f f i x was n e c e s -21 s a r y , i . e . d a b u r . u < d o u b l e . CHAPTER V I PHONOLOGICAL LEVEL The E n g l i s h f o r m [ p a : t i ] i s adopted and i s spoken by some [paVt/i: ], by o t h e r s , [pa1:te:]-> and -by s t i l l o t h e r s , [ p a ^ t i : ] , as was p o i n t e d out i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o the command o f E n g l i s h on the p a r t o f the o r i g -i n a l i n t r o d u c e r o r a l a t e r u s e r , some f o r e i g n sound sequences may be spoken even i n the n a t i v e c o n t e x t or t h e y may be r e p l a c e d by the n a t i v e sequences. The c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the example above, however, r e v e a l s the f a c t t h a t i n any case the s y l l a b i c p a t t e r n of the f o r m i s c o n s i s t e n t , i . e . CWCW. The b a s i c s y l l a b i c p a t t e r n s o f Japanese are as f o l l o w s : 1. /CV/ /C/ stands f o r p ; t ; k ; s 2. /CW/ b;d;g;z 3. /CVN/ a l l d /m;n;>j/, /w/, / r / 4. /CVQ/ 5. /CSV/ 6. /CSW/ /S/ sta n d s f o r / j / 7. /CSVN/ i u 8. /CSVQ/ /V/ sta n d s f o r e o a E v e r y n a t i v e speaker o f Japanese, however, i s more sen s i -t i v e t o the u n i t w h i c h i s c a l l e d a "mora" by Dr. H a t t o r i , 54 i . e . " p h o n emic s p a n s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l d u r a t i o n , " t h a n t o t h e s o - c a l l e d s y l l a b l e s l i s t e d a b o v e . W h i l e a s y l l a b l e w h i c h e n d s w i t h a s h o r t v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d s t o .one m o r a , a s y l l a b l e w h i c h e n d s w i t h a l o n g v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d s t o two morae. I n t h e e x a m p l e a b o v e , i n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e c f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e s e q u e n c e - t i - , a l l t h r e e f o r m s c o n s i s t o f CV f V + CV + V, i . e . f o u r morae. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e w i l l be ,/haMdobaQgu/ ( c f . / h s n d b a g / ) w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f s i x morae: / h a / , M/, / d o / , / b a / , /Q/, and / g u / . The p a t t e r n s o f morae s u g g e s t e d h e r e a r e : /CV/, A\/, a n d /Q/. O t h e r s a r e : /V/, /SV/, a n d /CSV/. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e mora a s a p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t l i e s i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p v , i t h a c c e n t w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The i n v e n t o r y o f morae i n T o k y o d i a l e c t w i l l be shown b e l o w : / a , i» u , e, °> j a , j o / /wa, /ma, m i , mu, me, mo, mj'a, m j u , m j o / / p a , P i , p u , p e , po , P j a , p j u , p j o / / b a , b i , b u , b e , bo , b j a, b.ju, 13 J O / / s a , s i , s u , se , so , s j a , S J U , s j o / / z a zi , ZU , z e . . z o , Z J U , z j o / / t a , t e , t o / / d a , de , d o / 55 / a , i» u, e, o, j a , j u , Do/ / c i , c u c j a , c j u , c j o / / n a , n i , n u , n e , no , n j a , h j u , h j o / / r a , r i , r u , r e , r o , r j a , r j u , r j o / / k a , k i , k u , k e , k o , k j a , k j u , k j o / / g a , g i 9 g u , g e , go , g j a , g j u , g j o / / h a , h i , h u , h e , h o , h j a , h j u , h j o / / N / /Q/ I n n a r r o w t r a n s c r i p t i o n t h e i n v e n t o r y i s a s f o l l o w s : [ a , i , u i , e, o, j a , j i u , [wa ] [ma, m i , mm, me, mo, m j a , mjiu, mjo] [ p a , p i , pui, p e , p o , P j a , PJm, P j o ] ["ba, h i , hiu, h e , h o , h j a , h j i u , 'bjo] [ s a , n> siu, s e , s o , / ui» /°] [ z a , zui, z e , z o , (a) 3a, ( d ) 3 n i , (01)30] [ t a t e , t o ] [ da d e , do] t s i u , t/a, t f UI, [ n a , n i , niu, n e , n o , n j a , nJra, n j o ] [ r a , r i , r u i , r e , r o , r j a , r JW, r j o ] [ k a , k i , k i u , k e , k o , k j a , k j m , k j o ] [ g a , g i > gui, ge , g o , g j a , g j i u , g j o ] [ r j a , [ha, 1 3 1 > 5 i » rjui, r j e , h e , g o , h o , rj ja, 9 j a , i] J L' J 5 " j o ] Q j o ] [n] [m], [ 3 3 ] [V] [n] /Q/ b e f o r e i d e n t i c a l v o i c e l e s s s t o p s . A s i s c l e a r f r o m t h i s , t h e J a p a n e s e s y l l a b i c p a t t e r n a d m i t s n e i t h e r c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r s n o r c o n s o n a n t a l e n d i n g s s i n c e two c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t s n e v e r b e l o n g t o one mora a n d no c o n s o n a n t b u t fa / and /Q/ c a n f o r m a mora b y i t s e l f . One o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s o f w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s t o o b s e r v e i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e c h a n g e i n t h e s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e . A t l e a s t two c a s e s w i l l be p r e d i c t a b l e : t h e a d d i t i o n o f a v o w e l t o t h e w o r d - f i n a l c o n s o n a n t e x c e p t / N / a n d t h e i n s e r t i o n o f a v o w e l b e t w e e n c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o -n a n t s t o f o r m a n e x t r a mora. T h e r e a r e a l s o some " c a s e s v i d e s " i n t h e s y s t e m . The most i m p o r t a n t o n e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e b o r r o w i n g s f r o m E n g l i s h a r e / w i , wu, we, wo/, / t i , t ( j ' ) u / a n d / d i , d ( j ) u / . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s e g a p s w i l l be f i l l e d up e i t h e r b y t h e n e a r e s t c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e e x i s t e n t s y s t e m o r b y t h e ne1// p h o n e m i c s e q u e n c e s . I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e c h o i c e w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d b y o r t h o g r a p h y . I n t h e w r i t t e n f o r m o f t h e J a p a n e s e s y l l a b a r y , t h e t a - l i n e , t h e d a - l i n e a nd t h e v / a - l i n e r u n a s f o l l o w s , r e s p e c t i v e l y : The " t a - l i n e " [ t a , t / i , t s i u , t e , t o ] The " d a - l i n e " [ d a , d j i , &3ia, d e , d o ] c f . The " z a - l i n e " [ z a , &3±, d 3m, z e , z o ] The " w a - l i n e " [wa, i , u i , e, o ] T h i s e x p l a i n s s u c h c a s e s a s [ t / i k e ^ Q t o ] f o r [ t i k s t ] a n d L d ^ i * 1 : z e r i u ] f o r [ d i : z ( s ) l ] . T h a t d o e s n o t e x h a u s t t h e p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s , f o r t h e J a p a n e s e s o u n d s y s t e m l a c k s morae w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t s , / f , v;6 ,b ; 1/. A s f o r v o w e l s , E n g l i s h a nd J a p a n e s e w i l l b e c o m p a r e d b y t h e u s e o f t h e s i m p l i f i e d p a t t e r n o f t h e s y s t e m ; E n g l i s h J a p a n e s e i u i u e A e o a o a To be c o n c r e t e , i n t h e J a p a n e s e s o u n d s y s t e m [ S ] , [ A ] , [ O ] a n d [ a ] a r e u n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a n d . c o n v e r g e o n / a / a l t h o u g h i n r e l a t i o n w i t h p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s , p h o n e t i c r e a l i z -a t i o n o f / a / g r e a t l y v a r i e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e gaps i n t h e J a p a n e s e s y s t e m , t h e o r i g i n a l i n t r o d u c e r o r a l a t e r u s e r w i l l f a i l t o i d e n t i f y o r d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n p a r t i c u l a r s o u n d s w h i c h w i l l be m a n i -f e s t e d b y t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one phoneme f o r a n o t h e r o r b y t h e d r o p p i n g o f a s o u n d . The problems at the phono l o g i c a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s w i l l be roughly d i v i d e d i n t o two: (1) the change i n a s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e (2) the change i n phonematic u n i t s This s e c t i o n deals w i t h the change i n a s y l l a b i c s t r u c -ture. a . [pai] /cv/ / p a i / / c w / b. [ p e t ] / p e Q t o / /CVQCV/ c. [pen] / c 1 v c 2 / / p e w / / C V N / / d . [paes] / p a s u / /cvcv/ e. [pa: t ] / p a a t o / /cwcv/ f. [peis".] / p e e s u / /cwcv/ g. [pAmp ] C 2 = CC / p O N p u / /CVNCV/ h. [ p A l p ] ' / c 1 v c 2 / c 2 = CC / p a r u p u / /cvcvcv/ i . [ s p i : d ] / C - J C g / c l = CC / s u p i i d o / /cvcwcv/ j . [ s p r i g ] /c-jVcy c l = ccc / s u p u r i N g u / /CVCVCVNCU/ In E n g l i s h h.c.d. share the same s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e i n which the s y l l a b l e nucleus c o n s i s t s of a simple vowel d i s t i n g u i s h e d e i t h e r from the cases e, f and i , in-which the s y l l a b l e nucleus i s compound or from the cases g and h, which have consonant c l u s t e r s at the s y l l a b l e f i n a l . As the r e s u l t of t h e i r a s s i m i l a t i o n to the Japanese s y l l a b i c p a t t e r n , however, each of them has a d i f f e r e n t form of r e a l i z a t i o n i n Japanese, i . e . , b. /CVQCV/ c o n s i s t i n g of two s y l l a b l e s or three morae; c. / C V N / of one s y l l a b l e or two morae, and d. /CVCV/ of two s y l l a b l e s and two morae. There i s no problem about the f a c t that a l l C 2 !' s except /-n/, as - i s seen i n the case of c, which i s replaced by /k/, should form a mora by employing an a d d i t i o n a l vowel. D i f f e r -ence between b. and d. then, seems to be due to the nature of the G 2 ' s . C 2 i n b.: / t / . v o i c e l e s s stop preceded by a simple vowel C 2 i n d.: / s / v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e preceded by a simple vowel The question i s whether or not the occurrence of /Q/ i s determined by the manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n . I n the n a t i v e set of vocabulary, /Q/ used to occur only before v o i c e l e s s stops /p, t , k/, as w e l l as / s / and / c / , which are a l s o v o i c e l e s s consonants. /Q/ corresponds to the l a r y n g e a l t e n s i o n during the f i r s t h a l f of the geminated consonants. In some cases i n 6D Japanese i t s pi'esence and absence serve to d i s t i n g u i s h , one word from another as f o l l o w s : • CVCV CVQCV /saka/ (slope) versus /saQka/ ( w r i t e r ) / oto/ (sound) versus / oQto/ (husband) Concerning /Q/ i n E n g l i s h loanwords there should be at l e a s t two things worth i n v e s t i g a t i n g , i n comparison w i t h /Q/ i n n a t i v e words: 1. I s the d i s t r i b u t i o n more l i m i t e d or extended? 2. Has i t a d i s t i n c t i v e f u n c t i o n ? Group I CVC CVQCV CVCV CWCV E n g l i s h Japanese Japanese Japanese / t i p / / t / i Q p u / / k A.p/ /kaQpu/ /nob/ /noQbu/ Group I I / h i t / / h i Q t o / c f . / h i t o / c f . / h i i t o / / n e t / /neQto/ / h a t / /haQto/ c f . / h a t o / c f . / h a a t o / / p o t / /poQto/ / f u t / /huQto/ /bed/ /beQdo/ /hed/ /heQdo/ 61 Group I I I CVC CVQCV CVCV CWCV E n g l i s h Japanese Japanese Japanese / k l & s i k / /kurasiQku/ /nek/ /neQku/ / t r A k / . /toraQku/ /huk/ /huQku/ //ok/ /sjoQku/ / e g / /eQgu/ /hseg/ /haQgu/ /dog/ /doQgu/ Group IV / s t s f / /sutaQhu/ / p A f / - /pahu/ / I A V / - /rahu/ / o l i v / - - / o r i i h u / Group V /ha©/ - /basu/ Group VI / r a i s / - /misu/ /hos/ - /hosu/ / D A S / - /hasu/ /d3sz/ - / z j a z u / 62 CVQCV CVCV CWCV Japanese Japanese Japanese /raQs j u / /maQsju/ /maQci/ / p i Q c i / /baQdzi/ / z j a Q d z i / /naQcu/ From Groups I to I I I , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of /Q/ i s extended, so that i t can occur before voiced stops. I r r e g u l a r i t y found i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of /Q/ i n Groups IV to V I I , which dea l w i t h f r i c a t i v e s may be due to the f a c t that out of these only VI and V I I have equivalents i n the n a t i v e sound system. The only p o s s i b l e statement may be that /Q/ f a i l s to occur before v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e s . The occurrence of /Q/ before a f f r i c a t e s w i l l substan-t i a t e i t s status as a phoneme. As a co n c l u s i o n i t . i s p o s s i b l e to say that the choice always f a l l s on /CVQCV/, not /CVCV/ as an a s s i m i l a t e d form of E n g l i s h /C^ VC ?/ when the s y l l a b l e nucleus i s a simple vowel Group V I I . CVC E n g l i s h /meet// Group.VIII /mseV / / p i t / / /bff ld3/ / d S A d o / Group IX /n,vts/ 63 and. when Cg i s v o i c e l e s s stops /p, t , k/ and. a f f r i c a t e s /tf, d.3, t s / and. that /Q,/ may a l s o he f o l l o w e d by the v o i c e d stops /b, d, g/ and /f /. As f o r i t s f u n c t i o n , two examples are shown from Group I of the minimal p a i r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the use of /Q/. / h i t o / versus / h i Q t o / (man) ( h i t ) /hato/ versus /haQto/ (dove) (hat) The i n s e r t i o n of a vowel between consecutive conson-ants, as i n the case g. h. i . and j . i s based on the same p r i n c i p l e that governs the a d d i t i o n of a vowel to the word-f i n a l consonants and increases the number of s y l l a b l e s from . one to three or f o u r . In g. and j " . as the r e s u l t of r e p l a c e -ment by / N / , /m/ and. / r j / come to form a mora by themselves. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s matter w i l l be made afterwards. What w i l l happen to the s y l l a b l e nucleus which i s compound—long vowels or dipthongs, i n other words? Examples are a. e. f. and i . As the second element of a compound nucleus, ( i . e . a g l i d e ) i s given a f u l l s t atus as a mora, i n the Japanized form, two consecutive vowels which correspond to two morae, e x i s t . The d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the changes made i n the s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e of E n g l i s h words a s s i m i l a t e d to Japanese w i l l be given below: 1) The a d d i t i o n o f a v o w e l t o t h e w o r d - f i n a l c o n s o n -a n t e x c e p t /-n/: _ i . / u / i s a d d e d t o : / p / , A / AV. A A A / / e / , A>/ A A A / A s / //"A /3/ A / A / , / g / i i . / i / i s a d d e d t o : /// A / / , A s / A / i i i . / o / i s a d d e d t o : A / , A / i v . The c h a n g e t o / N / o f t h e w o r d - f i n a l / n / a n d / r j / E x a m p l e s : / p / -t- A / [ p a i p ] [pa'ipiu] [ t e i p ] '[tefepiu] . [ r o u p ] [ r c 5 1 : P u i ] [ g r u p ] [gruj>.:-pm] [ t j u : l i p ] [ t / t u t r f p p u i ] / V + / V /m/ + /u/ (/f/-»/h/) + / V (/v/_>/V) / V (/6/->/s/ + / V / S / + / V [nob] [haan] [krim] [ ne im] [ t i :m] [ n a i f ] [ha.:f ] [stsef ] [ d r a i v ] [ k 9 : v ] [ a t / i : v ] [bjse] [ r e i s ] [ k D : s ] [ s a : k 9 s ] [dgu:s] [ndbiu ] [ hata ui ] [krfJ.mra ] [ ne'temiu ] [ t/a?:mui] [naU i^u] [hairfrn] [smta^ji] [ t/i1 :$ui] [ do r aHbui ] [kalrbui], [at/?:biu ] [ba'stu] [re1: sm] [ko1: s ui] [seCrkasiu] [d3ii:siu ] A / 4 A / A s / 4 A / / / / + A / A / + / V ( A / - > A / ) 4 A / A / + A / [dssez] [ f r u t s ] [ b A k l t s ] [TAf] [tref] [rmf] [ i r j g l i / ] [ " b e i 3 ] [1*11:3] [ h i : l ] [ tails 1 ] [bo:1] [pu:l] [ f o : k ] [ t r A k ] [ma:k] [kuk] [dsa'zui] [^uiriit: tsiu] [baketsui] [maV/ui] [iwguirx//ui] [be1:3111] [ri?: 3ui] [hftrui] [ ta'orm] [bo1: rui] [pui!: rm] [ho 1: ton] [tor-sJkkm] [ma'akm] [kclkkui] 67 A / + A / A / + - / ! / A / + A / A / + A / A / + A / [hsend bssg] [hot dog] [eg] [ k e i k ] [ s t e i k ] [ii]k] [ s t r a i k ] [hrA/] [ l A l l t / ] [ s w i t / ] [ b e n t / ] [meet / ] [ 5 r - ind 3 ] [ s p A n d 3 ] [h33d3 ] [ s t e : d 3 ] [handoba'gguij [hotto dcJggui] [e^ggui] [ k e ' r k i ] [ sure eh k i ] [ i \ ) k i ] c f . [ i n k i u ] [ suitoraMki ] c f . [surtorefikui] [biura/i ] ( c f . [-buiray/tu] ) [ r a ' n t / i ] [ s u i f t t / i ] [ b e ' n t / i ] [ m s f t t / i ] [ o r e'ndsi ] [ s u r p o n d 3 i ] [ b a , d d 3 i ] [ s u i t e 7 : d 3 i ] 68 i n . A / + A / A / + A / I V . A / +~7N/ V. (A)/ - > / N/ + / g u / [bset] [ p r i n t ] [ t e n t ] [ h i n t ] [spi:d] [ko:d] [mu:d] [episoud] [keen] [pen] [fssn] [ t r e i n i n ] [ k l i :nin] [taimirj] [mo :nirj ] [Wtto] [piurinto] [te'nto] [hJnto] [suipfrdo] [ko^do] [ mii: do ] [episo1: do. AS?N/ /peW /huaN/ /1 o r e e n iNgu/ / k r i i n l N g u / /taimiNgu/ /mcJoniNgu/ 69 O n l y a f e w e x a m p l e s o f t h e i n s e r t i o n o f a v o w e l h e t w e e n c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t s w i l l s u f f i c e s i n c e t h e ' c h o i c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r v o w e l t o i n s e r t d e p e n d s on t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t o f t h e t w o , w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as t h e a d d i t i o n o f a v o w e l t o t h e w o r d - f i n a l c o n s o n a n t . c l u s t e r k l -k r -- k t -- k n -v o w e l i n s e r t e d / V A-/ /w AV A/ - k s -/ i / -mp--mb-•cf . -m E. [klo.:.s] [kri :mj [dokte] [ p i l c n i k ] [ s e k s e s g r i [ h o k s a ] [ e k s t r e ] [ m i k s o ] [tekst] [ s d : m p l ] [ s i i r i b e l ] [hasm] J. [kuirasiu] [kiur^rmw] [dJkmta:] LPikumSkkiu] [a'kra.sesari: ] [bo^kiusa: ] [ e k i suitor a] [m 5 k i s a : ] [te'kisuito] [ sampuirai ] [/Smhorui] [ hstm ui ] E. [ e k s t r o j i n f a c t h a s f o u r c o n s o n a n t s i n s u c c e s s i o n , w h i c h n e e d t o h a v e t h r e e v o w e l s i n s e r t e d , i n o r d e r t o g i v e a permissible s e q u e n c e i n t h e s o u n d s y s t e m o f J a p a n e s e . T h u s : / e k s t r a / -> / e k i _ s u t o r a / VCCV v c c c c v 2 s y l l a b l e s vcvcvcvcv 5 s y l l a b l e s What d e t e r m i n e s t h e c h o i c e o f a s p e c i f i c v o w e l t o a d d o r i n s e r t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f E n g l i s h f o r m s t o t h e J a p a n e s e p h o n e m i c p a t t e r n h a s n o t y e t h e e n e x p l a i n e d up t o t h i s p o i n t . The p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n seems t o be t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e c o n s o n a n t i n q u e s t i o n 2. p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e c o n s o n a n t i n q u e s t i o n 3 . a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o n s o n a n t s 4. a u d i t o r y i m p r e s s i o n p r o d u c e d b y c o m b i n a t i o n s o f 1 , 2 a n d / o r 3 5. p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e s y s t e m / k / , / g / + /W may be e x p l a i n e d b y 2. T h a t i s , t h e p r i n -c i p a l members o f / k / a n d / g / w h i c h a r e v e l a r s t o p s a r e o f t h e b a c k v a r i e t y i n r e a l i z a t i o n so t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n o f a b a c k v o w e l / a / c a u s e s t h e l e a s t c o m p l i c a t i o n . I n s p i t e o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c u s t o m o f a d o p t i n g / k / a s / k u / a n a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e f o r m a s c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e o r i g i n a l h a s made t h e a d d i t i o n c f /1/ p o s s i b l e t o a / k / o f f r o n t v a r i e t y due t o t h e a d j a c e n t v o w e l , e.g. / r n i k i s a a / ( m i x e r ) ; / s u t e Q k i / ( s t i c k ) . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t i m e , i t h a s so happened, t h a t t h e f o r m s w i t h / i / a d d e d a n d / u / added no?/ c o - e x i s t , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t d o m ain o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t and- a l s o s u g g e s t i n g d i f f e r e n t m e d i a ( i . e . a u d i o and. v i s u a l ) b y w h i c h t h e f o r m s were l e a r n e d . A good, e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s a d o u b l e t : / s u t o r a i k i / a n d / s u t o r a i k u / . S i m i l a r l y /suteQki/ is- reserved for a walking s t i c k , while /suteQku/ i s only used as an element o f such a compound as /aisukuriimusuteQku/ (ice-cream s t i c k ) . The choice o f forms between /iKku/ and / i N k i / i s , however, merely the matter of i n d i v i d u a l taste for they repre sent one and the same thing. /$/ i s another example which has two possible forms of adoption: with / i / or with /u/. The sequences / j f i / , / t / i / and / d j i / are free from any a r t i c u l a t o r y problem because of the front and p a l a t a l q u a l i t y shared by the conso-nants and the vowels i n combination. On the other hand such a form as /raO^u/ w i l l be explained by the following f a c t . In some native speakers' rather exaggerated pronunciation of /// and / j / the protruding of the mouth creates a resonance chamber narrow and deep which produces a tamber associated with /u/. [PJ> Lb]»[$land £m] are b i - l a b i a l sounds which i n them-selves contain the tamber sim i l a r to u-sound which w i l l , i n turn, be conformed to the native tin.]. "The 1-sound produced with a given-vowel position of the main part of the tongue always has a noticeable acoustic resemblance to that vowel . . . Tongue p o s i t i o n of 'dark'l i s ( l u ) . " 2 2 E / r / and E / l / converge on J / r / .'. J / r / + /u/ E x c e p t i o n T / b i r - a / for- „ / b i l / / u / f a i l e d t o be a d d e d i n t h i s c a s e f o r two r e a s o n s . 1) T h e r e a l r e a d y e x i s t s a w o r d b i r u w h i c h i s f r o m b u i l d i n g . 2) I t i s v e r y o f t e n u s e d i n t h e s e n s e o f a d v e r t i z i n g h a n d b i l l w h i c h f l u t t e r s down. J a p a n e s e p h o n a e s t h e t i c -word w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h i s . f l u t t e r i n g o f b i l l s , l e a v e s , e t c . i s h i r a h i r a . I t so h a p p e n s a l s o t h a t t h e v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t o f J a p a n e s e / h / i s / b / . C o n s e q u e n t l y i n a s s o c i a t i o n m a t h h i r a h i r a a n d b i r a came i n t o u s e . T h i s i s one o f t h e g o o d e x a m p l e s o f f o l k e t y m o l o g y . A s f o r / t / , / d / + / o / t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e s y s t e m seems t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t . No s u c h morae a s / t i / , / t u / , / d i / a n d / d u / e x i s t i n t h e J a p a n e s e s y l l a b a r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t / t / a n d / d / s h o u l d t a k e v o w e l s f r o m / a / , / e / a n d / o / . Among t h e s e J a p a n e s e [ o ] i s m o s t i n d e f -i n i t e , t h e r e f o r e i s f l e x i b l e as t o i t s b a c k n e s s a n d i t s d e g r e e o f o p e n i n g . The p a t t e r n o f a d o p t i o n may h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n f i x e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e w o r d f i n a l / t / a n d / d / i n t h e e a r l i e r l o a n w o r d s f r o m , s a y , D u t c h , a s / t o / a n d / d o / . The t r e a t m e n t o f n a s a l s i n E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s r e f l e c t s t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e J a p a n e s e s o u n d s y s t e m . The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s o f / N / a r e p h o n o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d : 7 3 [ n ] , [ n ] , ' [rj], [ra], [v] 1. /hoN / [ h o n ] "book 2. / I I O N t o / [ h o n t o ] b o o k a n d 3 . /hoN g a / [hoi] rja] o r [ l i o n g a ] book (S) 4. / I I O N mo/ [horn mo] book a l s o 5. / I I O N o/ [ho o] book (0 ) T h a t i s why t h e w o r d - f i n a l / n / does n o t e m p l o y any v o w e l b u t a s a c o n d i t i o n a l v a r i a n t o f / N / f o r m s a mora b y i t s e l f , e.g. /pew./ •< /pen/ /f) / w h i c h h a s a mora v a l u e a p p e a r s o n l y when i t i s f o l l o w e d b y v e l a r c o n s o n a n t s . I t l e d t o t h e w o r d - f i n a l / - ! ) / ' s i n l o a n w o r d s t a k i n g an a d d i t i o n a l mora b e g i n n i n g w i t h h o m o r g a n i c c o n s o n a n t s . T h u s , we g e t s u c h f o r m s a s [ t o r e e n S r j r j u . /toreeniNgu/ a n d [ k r i rnrrjrju] / k r i i n i N g u / . [m] c a n n o t s t a n d b y i t s e l f i n t h e w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n b u t i t c a n , a s a member o f / N / , when f o l l o w e d b y b i - l a b i a l c o n s o n a n t s . T h e r e f o r e , /hamu/ < / I w n / ; / s a N p u r u / < / s a : m p l / . P h o n e t i c a l l y t h e n c l u s t e r s - n i b - , -mp- i n l o a n w o r d s r e m a i n a s t h e y a r e , i t seems. They a r e , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e E n g l i s h o nes i n some i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s not i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e p h o n e t i c f e a t u r e s o f a phoneme but o f t h e s y l l a b i c a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e y are h o m o r g a n i c h a s made t h e c o m b i n a t i o n v e r y c l o s e i n E n g l i s h but i n J a p a n e s e [m] i s s y l l a b i c o r i n o t h e r w o r d s i t h a s t h e d e f i n i t e d u r a t i o n of one mora a n d [p ] , a n d [ b ] r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r m s a n o t h e r mora w i t h t h e a d j o i n i n g vowel. 74 sa:Jnpl sa!mpuru GYGC CVNCVCV 2 s y l l a b l e s 3 s y l l a b l e s 4 morae L a s t l y some examples w i l l be g i v e n i n w h i c h s h o r t v o w e l s i n the o r i g i n a l a r e g i v e n the d u r a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t o f two morae i n Japanese. e.g. s o : s e : d 3 i f o r s o s i d 3 /CWCWCV/ /CVCVC/ k o : h i : k o f i /CWCW/ /CVCV/ The n a t i v e s p eakers o f Japanese are s e n s i t i v e t o the r e l a t i v e l e n g t h o f each c o n s t i t u e n t u n i t , so t h a t they r e c o g -n i z e / s o / and / s i / l o n g e r t h a n / d 3 ; / and t r y t o conform these i n t o morae. Thus, [ d 3 ] t a k e s v o w e l / i / t o form a mora and c o n s e q u e n t l y / s o / a n d / s i / t a k e an a d d i t i o n a l vowel i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i n a l v o w e l s so t h a t they become t w i c e as l o n g as / d 3 / w i t h o u t a g r e a t change i n a c o u s t i c q u a l i t y . That i s , / s o o / : / s e e / : / z i / = 2 morae: 2 morae :1 mora.. T h i s does n o t e x p l a i n [ k o : h i : ] s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and y e t i n t e r m s o f r a t i o / k o / : / h i / — /koo/: / h i i / m 1:1. The s o l u t i o n based upon the way i n w h i c h loanwords a r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d i n the r e c i p i e n t language (which was i l l u s t r a t e d above) w i l l throw l i g h t , upon the case d e a l t w i t h a t the 75 b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n i n w h i c h / h i Q t o / n o t / h i . t o / r e p l a c e d E n g l i s h / h i t / . T h a t i s , / h i t / i s p e r c e i v e d a n d i n t e r -p r e t e d a s 1 mora + 0 mora n o t a s a n a t i v e w o r d / h i t o / w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f 1 mora + 1 mora. I n o r d e r t o f o r m a mora / t / t a k e s / o / , so t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e number o f morae r e q u i r e d b e f o r e / t o / becomes.2. J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s h a v e two a l t e r n a -t i v e s t o t a k e h e r e : h i i o r h i Q . B e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f / h i i / i n a n o t h e r w o r d ( e . g . / h i i t o / f o r E n g l i s h / h i j t / , t h e l a t t e r i s e m p l o y e d . h i t , h i Q t o h i t o 1 mora 4 non-mora 2 morae 4 1 mora 1 mora 4 1 mora. 2 morae 4 1 mora To sum up t h e n , v a r i o u s d e v i c e s a r e d e t e c t e d f o r t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s t o t h e s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e o f J a p a n e s e w i t h "mora" as i t s b a s i c u n i t . A c c e n t I n f a c t "mora" i s the. one t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d s t a c c a t o r h y t h m o f J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e . A p a r t f r o m t h i s s t a c c a t o r h y t h m a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p i t c h a c c e n t r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e q u e n c e o f h i g h a n d l o w p i t c h e s i n s u c c e s s i v e morae a s i s shown on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e : 76 27) o r e p r e s e n t s a mora; • , t h e a c c e n t k e r n e l . o o o ssfeicasu c i r c u s 0 0 . 0 gurinrpu group 0 0 • o haNka'ci handicerchief o o o o supiido speed A s i s c l e a r f r o m t h e e x a m p l e s above w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d l o a n w o r d s , w h a t e v e r k i n d o f s t r e s s t h e y h a d i n t h e s o u r c e l a n g u a g e , f o l l o w t h e a c c e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e r e c i p i e n t l a n g u a g e . F i r s t o f a l l g e n e r a l r u l e s a b o u t a c c e n t o f J a p a n e s e 2k w i l l be d e s c r i b e d : 1. E v e r y mora i s p r o n o u n c e d e i t h e r ''high" o r "low" w i t h i n a w o r d o r a l i n g u i s t i c u n i t . The c h a n g e f r o m " h i g h " t o " l o w " d oes n o t o c c u r w i t h i n one more a s i s ' t h e c a s e i n C h i n e s e . 2. I f t h e f i r s t mora i s " h i g h , " t h e s e c o n d mora i s i a l w a y s " l o w , " a n d v i c e v e r s a . 3. No two " h i g h s " e x i s t , w i t h i n - a word, o r a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t , w i t h " l o w " b e t w e e n them. ' 77 4. A s t h e r e s u l t o f 2 a n d 3 t h e a c c e n t o f J a p a n e s e s e r v e s t o d e m a r c a t e l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s . 5. T h e r e a r e some m i n i m a l p a i r s i n w h i c h a c c e n t , n o t a s e g m e n t a l phoneme, s e r v e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h one f o r m f r o m a n o t h e r . e.g. p a r t i c l e a. / h a s i / * o (ga) c h o p s t i c k s h . / h a s i / o * ( g a ) b r i d g e c. / h a s i / o 0 (&8-) edge D r . H a - t t o r i c a l l s t h e " h i g h " i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by t h e " l o w " t h e a c c e n t k e r n e l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a c c e n t k e r n e l we c a n c l a s s i f y v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f a c c e n t . I n P a t t e r n a , t h e a c c e n t k e r n e l f a l l s . o n t h e f i r s t m o r a ; i n P a t t e r n b , o n the. s e c o n d . P a t t e r n c i s a t o n i c . A s t h e number o f morae i n c r e a s e s o t h e r p a t t e r n s w i l l be e x p e c t e d . I t i s a ssumed t h a t l o a n w o r d s w i l l f o l l o w t h e f a v o r i t e t y p e o f a c c e n t i n t h e d i a l e c t u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . N a t i v e s p e a k e r s w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y r e a c t t o a s t r a n g e p l a c e - n a m e o r a n u n f a m i l i a r name o f a p e r s o n i n J a p a n e s e u s i n g t h e f o r m w h i c h may be c a l l e d " p o t e n t i a l . " 78 2 morae 3 morae h morae 5 morae 6 morae P a t t e r n • • • • y a 0 ba s u o o r a z i o O O O saabisu O o o o k o N s a a t o P a t t e r n / / • • • b 4 0 o o a P a a t o o o o o maneez;jaa o o o o o sukarasiQ-pu P a t t e r n o • o • o • c o o h a N k a c i 0 o o bisukeQto o O 0 o badomiNton P a t t e r n a J J o o • O 0 0 z .jaanarizumu P a t t e r n e J J P a t t e r n f J P a t t e r n g  J o o o i w k u o o o o tONneru J O O 0 o o c u b e r u k u r i N A s l a n t i n g l i n e w i t h J. shows that no example i s found among loanwords but the p a t t e r n e x i s t s i n the na t i v e vocabulary. 79 Pur t her e xamp1e s: • P a t t e r n a 2 morae ba'su (bus) get's u (gas) haViiu (ham) P a t t e r n b P a t t e r n c P a t t e r n g 3 morae ra?zio ( r a d i o ) i N k u ( i n k ) 4/ morae s a V b i s u ( s e r v i c e ' s^akasu ( c i r c u s ) r S i d a a ( l e a d e r ) apaVto (apartment) suma'ato (« ( s m a r t ) suteQki (stick) h.aNka'ci towneru ( h a n d k e r c h i e f ) ( t u n n e l ) k o o b J i ( c o f f e e ) (sponge) 5 morae ko^nsaato^ ( c o n c e r t ) 6 morae maneez j a a (manager) s u k a r a s i Q p u ( s c h o l a r -s h i p ) P a t t e r n g c u b e r u k u r i N ( t u b e r c u l i n ) b i sui<;e\to ( b i s c r . i t ) sukurSQpu ( s c r a p ) sasupe'Nsu (suspense) badomj?N to N (badminton) P a t t e r n d zjaanariFzuuru ( j o u r n r l i s i u ) saNC fcfQci (sand' \ i c r ) maamare'edo (marmalade) 80 Q u i t e an e x t e n s i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s seen i n the a c c e n t p a t t e r n o f E n g l i s h loanwords i n Japanese, and y e t i t i s p o s s i b l e to suggest P a t t e r n a as one o f the ready-made p a t t e r n s f o r a s t r a n g e word i n s p i t e of -eke l i m i t a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t d a t a . I t i s t.lso w o r t h n o t i c i n g t h a t i n P a t t e r n a the a c c e n t icernel c o r r e l a t e s w i t h s t r e s s i n the o r i g i n a l , a l t h o u g h the conv e r s e i s not always t r u e . I n some cases t h e r e are more th a n one p o s s i b i l i t y even i n the speech o f t h e same i n d i v i d u a l . P a t t e r n a P a t t e r n g e.g. 3?Nku v s . iNku bo'taN v s . b o t a N I t seems t h a t some i n t e r n a l f a c t o r r a t h e r t h a n such an e x t e r n a l f a c t o r as the s p e a k e r s ' s o c i a l s t a t u s i s a t p l a y here. T h i s k i n d o f f l u c t u a t i o n i n a c c e n t p a t t e r n i s by no means u n u s u a l i n the s e t o f n a t i v e v o c a b u l a r y . I t i s s a i d t h a t some o f the " w e l l - w o r n " words tend, t o be a t o n i c , i . e . t o f o l l o w P a t t e r n g. 81 The examples below i n d i c a t e the d i f f e r e n c e i n accent p a t t e r n between a word i n i s o l a t i o n and the same word i n combi-n a t i o n w i t h another word to form a compound. This may to some extent l e a d to the occurrence by analogy of some a t o n i c forms even i n i s o l a t i o n . I t i s , however, only one of the p o s s i b l e explanations. • c o • c f . /iwku/ o o and /iNkubiU./'o , o ( i n k - b o t t l e ) • o • /basu/ o. and/basumici/ o o (bus-street) • o o • / r a / / u / o o / r a / J u d o k i / o o (rush-hour) No. 3 and No. k of the r u l e s about accent i n Japanese should be r e c a l l e d here. ^ b a s u ^ i n "basumici" loses i t s inherent accent to conform to that of "basumici" as a whole which has only one accent k e r n e l . Thus accent i n Japanese p l a y s an important r o l e i n the demarcation of the l i n g u i s t i c u n i t . I t serves to. l i n k phonology with grammatical l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . L a s t l y i t should be po i n t e d out that not a s i n g l e minimal p a i r was found among E n g l i s h loanwords i n which accent was a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e . D i f f e r e n c e i n the prosodi.c f e a t u r e s of the two languages have brought about some char a c t e r i s t i c s " w h i c h are yet to be discussed: 1. the dropping of sounds 2. d e v o i c i n g of vowels i n unaccented p o s i t i o n between voiceless-consonants 82 1. the dropping c f a sound a) koNkuri f o r k3nkri:t haNkeici hanks t / l f rdosu i!6us_t ramune lemoned What i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c about the s e words i s t h a t they a r e f a i r l y o l d loans i n f r e q u e n t use and that they are most l i k e l y to have entered the language by the "ear-route." Because the n a t i v e speakers of Japanese, who o r i g i n a l l y i n t r o -duced these words, were not accustomed to s t r e s s accent, they e a s i l y m i s s e d the u n s t r e s s e d p a r t of a word e s p e c i a l l y i n the w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n . The ne x t group of words i n which the dropping of a sound i s seen i n v o l v e s not only p h o n o l o g i c a l but a l s o morphological problems. A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of these i s to be found, t h e r e f o r e , at the grammatical l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . I n short /d/ and / t / i n the examples below are' morpho-phonemes: b) koNbfihu f o r ko:nd b i : f kONdeNSumfruku kondenst milk h u r a i b J i N z u f r a i d b l : n z 2. d e v o c a l i z a t i o n o f [ i ] and[ui]. e.g. supuuN spun CVCWN (o) sutoroo s t r o : CVCVCW (0) s u k i i s k i : CVCW 83 Because of the d e v o c a l i z a t i o n o f / x x / between v o i c e l e s s consonants i n u n a c c e n t e d p o s i t i o n sup-, s u t - and suk- are p h o n e t i c a l l y c l o s e to the o r i g i n a l c l u s t e r s but are not so p h o n o l o g i c a l l y . That i s [stu] forms one mora and [p ] , [ t ] and [k] r e s p e c t i v e l y belong to another mora, w i t h a vowel f o l l o w i n g them. cf . d e v o c a l i z a t i o n of [ i ] and[ui] between v o i c e l e s s consonants and /Q/ which i s t h e i r allophone, e.g. [c_itto] ( h i t ) and[$tutto] ( f o o t ) . The change i n phonematic u n i t s w i l l be discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n . With the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the inventory of Japanese phonemes t h i s problem was already p r e d i c t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the conformation of E n g l i s h loanwords to Japanese. That i s , Japanese l a c k s the f o l l o w i n g consonants / f , v ; 6 , o / (Case I) and some p a r t i c u l a r combinations of sounds. (Case I I ) such as / t i , t ( j ) u , d i , d ( j ) u , w i , we/. Each phoneme has i t s value i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the other phonemes i n the phono-l o g i c a l system of the language. Ytoat i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n one language i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so i n another. Por i n s t a n c e , / r / and / l / converge on / r / i n Japanese. Japanese vowels are u n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the viewpoint of E n g l i s h . (Case I I I ) . A H these w i l l give r i s e to the s u b s t i t u t i o n of Japanese phonemes f o r E n g l i s h o n e s . C a s e I J . E. / h / f o r / f / a. [ h ] h. [ $ ] c. [c] a. me gsJho n me ge f o u n jhxnihoVmui j u n i f o :m h. $u?an f a n $ui iruxmui f i l m c. c j t r i z u i f j u : z / V . f o r /V/ [ d o r a l i h u i ] [ d r a i v ] [ h e r a n d a ] [vgraanda] [grdh'bui] [ g l A v ] / s / f o r / e / [ s u r r i r t u ] [ 6 r i l ] [ o : s o do'kkiusiu ] [5:6 s d o k s ] [ m a r a s o n ] [maeraOan] / z / f o r / b / [ g j a ' z a : ] [gffibs] [rfzotmui] [ r i b sm] . ["bturaza1: ] [ h r i v b a ] 85 S u b s t i t u t i o n t a k e s p l a c e u s u a l l y between two sounds which a r e near i n the p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n and/or i n the manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . A b r i e f phonemic d e s c r i p t i o n i n a r t i c u l a t o r y and a c o u s t i c terms i s g i v e n below t o show the f a c t o r s a t p l a y i n t h o s e eases. P o i n t o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner o f A r t i c u l a t i o n h g l o t t a l v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e g p r e - p a l a t a l " " $ b i - l a b i a l " " f l a b i o - d e n t a l " " . b b i - l a b i a l v o i c e d s t o p V l a b i o - d e n t a l " f r i c a t i v e B1 b i - l a b i a l " ". 5 b l a d e - a l v e o l a r v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e 6 d e n t a l " " z d e n t a l or a l v e o l a r - voiced f r i c a t i v e 5 d e n t a l 11 " 86 _ _ _ _ h . f $ g h P V 6 & Vocalic/Consonantal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Compact/Diffuse _ _ + _ _ _ _ _ Grave/Acute + + + + 4 4 Tense/Lax + + + + _ _ _ + 4 Optimal C o n s t r i c t i v e - 4 4 4 - 4 + 4 4 Optimal Stop 2) Case I I / t e / f o r / t i / / t / i / [ps?:te:] [ p d : t i ] 1) [ p i r t e r e 1 : ] [ p i : t i : e i ] [ p a ^ t / i : ] [ p d : t i ] [ p i : t / i : e1: ] [ p i : t i : e i ] c f . 3) [ p a h t i : ] [pu: t i ] [ p i : tire" 1:] [ p i : t i : e i ] F u r ther examples: 2) [ t/l':mui ] [ t i :m] [suit/3?:riu] [ s t i i l ] [pmrastut/Skkui] [ p l s s t i k ] [t/ike'tto] [ t i k e t ] 87 A H these forms are f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and speakers have no choice but to use these forms. /1 su/ [tsu:r3suito ] [ t sub e rwktui- i n ] A / V [ama t/ua] [ t/u^rippui] [ s i t / u 1 : ] 1. ..  [<a.3i] [ r a d 3 i o ] [smtadsio] [6^ 31?: zerui] 2. [de] [ako: debn] [ dezalin] [depa:to] c f . 3 . [komedi1:] N.B. 1. [d 3f:zemi^ [di 1 : zeru] [ deza?in] [dizslin] 2. 3. 1, [ f o r .or f o r f o r o i r u i s a : 03 i n j A u / [ t u a r i s t ] [ t ( j ) u b a : k j u l i n ] A j u / [gem at jua] [ t j u : l i p ] [ s t j u : ] [ d i ] [ r e i d i o u ] [ s t j u : d i o u ] [ d i : z a l ] [ d i ] [oko*: dian] [ d i z a i n ] [ dipd:t (department store) [ kdmadi] : [ de : zerui] : [ d 3 i z a i n ] ; [oiruisa:din] 2. [oiruisa 1: den 1 88 T h e s e a r e p o s s i b l e c o e x i s t e n t f o r m s . The s i g n * i n d i -c a t e s t h a t t h i s f o r m i s n o t h e a r d . Trie e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e " c a s e s v l d e s " i n t h e s y s t e m p r o d u c e d by t h e v a r i e t y o f m e d i a t h r o u g h which, a f o r m maj' be i n t r o d u c e d , h a s a l r e a d y b e e n 25 g i v e n . E x c e p t i o n : f o r [ d i ] [ piid.ir ] [ r i ] [ p u i r i n ] c f . [ m e r i j a a u ] f o r P o r t u g u e s e m e d i a s J u d g i n g f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t J a p a n e s e [ r] i s so c l o s e t o E n g l i s h a l v e o l a r [ d ] i n a r t i c u l a t i o n , t h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n i s n o t u n u s u a l , e s p e c i a l l y i f we r e c a l l t h a t E n g l i s h m e d i a l i n t e r -v o c a l i c [ d ] . may be f l a p p e d . c f . c f . [ u i i ] [ui i n d o ] [ui i s u l c i ? : ] o [ au-ftt/i] [uxe] [ui e'au t o ] [ u i e t t o ] L - i ] [ s a n d o f t t / ' i ] f - e ] [ se 1: t a : ] [ u i o ] [ui O"1: t a : ] [ wo: t a ] f o r f o r f o r i or f o r [ w i ] [ w i n d o u ] [ w i s k i ] [ s w i t / ] ' [ we] [ w e i s t ] [ w e t ] [ w i ] [ ssSnwitf 1 [ we] [ s w e t a ] [ wo ] wo t a 1 89 Case I I I /v/ f o r /!/ a n d / r / [ rvP: rtu ] [ r u : 1 ] [r e^rnu] [ r e i l ] [ r e 1 : sua] [ r e i s ] a n d [ l e i s ] [ d 3 ] f o r / 3 / [ 3 ] / d 3 / [ r e d j a 1 : ] l e 3 g : . [ r e s a 1 : ] [behdsm] b e i 3 [be1:3m] c f . [ b a ' d d 3 i ] b s d 3 C a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l r e v e a l t h e f a c t t h a t [ d 3 ] a n d [3] a r e u s e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y i n t h e same p e r s o n ' s p r o n u n c i a -t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y may be r e g a r d e d a s f r e e v a r i -a n t s . J . E. [g ] f o r / g / [n ] AV T h i s shows c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y i n a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e age o f e. s p e a k e r . A s f a r as t h e Tok y o d i a l e c t i s c o n c e r n e d , w o r d - i n i t i a l ,/g/ i s p r o n o u n c e d a s a J a p a n e s e / g / w h i l e w o r d - m e d i a l o r w o r d - f i n a l / g / and. /x\/ c o n v e r g e on J a p a n e s e [ r ] i n seme p e o p l e ' s p r o n u n c i a t i o n a n d 90 o n [ g ] i n . t h a t o f o t h e r s , w i t h a f e w e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s , i n w h i c h /Q/ occurs'. J . f o r 3. ( 1 ) I n f o r m a n t A [ r j / n / [ k m r i r n f r j r j m ] k l i m i r j [ha'yjfta : ] hfJrja : • [ / % ) & : ] s i n a ; I n f o r m a n t B [ k u i r i :nxrjgiu] [ h a n g a r ] [/£r)ga:] (2) J . f o r E. I n f o r m a n t A [ i j ] / g / [/lura 1:] J u g a : [ r3?:riu] l U g [ pu.; r o qui r 5 mix; ] p r o u g r 33m I n f o r m a n t B [ g ] [ J t a g o 1 : ] [ r S i g o i ] [ pwrogiuramiu] (3) J - f o r I n f o r m a n t A [ g ] / g / I n f o r m a n t B a) w o r d - i n i t i a l / g / e.g. [ g u i r i ' m ] , [ guxre 1: ] h) a f t e r /Q/ e.g. [handcba'ggui], [ h o t t o d c f g g m ] 91 R e m a r k s : I n b) s u b s t i t u t i o n o f v o i c e l e s s f o r v o i c e d s o u n d may o c c u r a f t e r /Q,/ a s f c l l o v / s : [h a n c o b a k k u i ] To sum up: I n f o r m a n t A E. [13 -I  g] E. [ V o w e l + 13] E. [ V o w e l + g] I n f o r m a n t B E. / g / a n d / n / J, ^ 1 + v o "'el ^  [ V o w e l + rig] V o w e l : l o n g [ V o w e l + g-j_ + gg] V o w e l : s h o r t [ g ] [rj-j^] i s a member o f / N / , v e l a r i z e d b e f o r e / g / . [rj^ ] i s a member o f / g / n a s a l i z e d due t o i t s p h o n e t i c ^ e n v i r o n m e n t i n To k y o d i a l e c t . [g-jj i s a member o f /Q/. V.re c a n n o t i g n o r e a n o t h e r g r o u p o f p e o p l e who a g r e e w i t h n e i t h e r I n f o r m a n t A n o r I n f o r m a n t B. T h a t i s , t h e y u s e [ g ] a n d [13] f r e e l y w i t h o u t c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e t o r e g a r d [ n ] a s a f r e e v a r i a n t o f [ g ] . T h e s e two c a s e s , ( i . e . [3.] v e r s u s [ d 3 ] , [ g ] v e r s u s [13]) a r e d e a l t w i t h d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m one l i n g u i s t t o a n o t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e E i n a r Haugen s a y s , " c o n t r a s t o f [ z ] and [ d z ] , [g] a n d [ n ] , i s m a r g i n a l , b e l o n g i n g t o a s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n a 26 s t r u c t u r a l d i m e n s i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n , " w h i l e D r . H a t t o r i r e g a r d s [ g ] and. [rj] a s s e p a r a t e phonemes. A r g u m e n t 92 c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i s not our p r e s e n t concern. A / f o r A / A / A / A : / A : / A / f o r A / [ m a t t / i ] [ m s t j ] [ s a r a d a ] [ s ^ l a d ] [haWi] [h£sm] A / f o r A / [raY/oi] [vAf] [ h a t a : ] [bi-ta ] [ r ^ n t / i ] [lAnt/] A / f o r A / [sasrapensiu] LS aspens] [pa'dsama] [ps<l3a:m8z] [ anauinsa: ] [ s r i u n s a ] A / for A : / LS£?:lcasi.n] [ s a : k a s ] i'stuha1: t o ] [ s k a : t ] [a^siu] [Q:6] 93 The replacement of sounds i n E n g l i s h loanwords by n a t i v e sounds may be due to f a c t o r s other than phonological-sometimes grammatical and sometimes o r t h o g r a p h i c a l . Case i V 1. Voiced <- v o i c e l e s s Diphthong's (the l e v e l l i n g of diphthongs] S p e l l i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n 1. Examples J a p a n e s e puiromalido f o r p_ i : tf i p a\r e. s o nu nji?: _s b e ' t t o 2 7 me'tarui handoba'kkui baQt£i rui1: z E n g l i s h bfournaid (peips} b i : tf peers s o l n j u : z bed medol han(d) basg bsd.3 l u : s (loose a d j . Often v o i c e l e s s vs. v o i c e d c o n t r a s t i n the set of n a t i v e vocabulary i s more a matter of grammar than that of phonology. In Japanese, the i n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s consonant of a word i n i s o l a t i o n i s voiced when i t i s an element of a compound as f o l l o w s : k a m i ( p a p e r ) - o r i g a m i ( f o l d i n g p a p e r ) s a k u r a ( c h e r r y h l o s s o m s ) - h a j z a k u r a ( c h e r r y l e a v e s ) _take (harnhoo) - ao d a k e ( g r e e n hamhoo) c u r u ( c r a n e ) - o r i z u r u ( p a p e r c r a n e ) A g a i n , a l i m i t e d number o f nouns a r e p l u r a l i z e d b y d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s e c o n d e l e m e n t v o i c e d . e.g. k i ( t r e e ) k i g i ( t r e e s ) P o r t h i s r e a s o n v o i c e l e s s - v o i c e d c o n t r a s t i s s o m e t i m e s i g n o r e d "by t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f J a p a n e s e i n t h e i r d a i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h i s a n a l o g y i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o t h e f o r m s b o r r o w e d f r o m E n g l i s h a n d i n some c a s e s v o i c e l e s s a n d v o i c e d c o n s o n a n t s a r e u s e d a l m o s t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . I n c l a s s a. abov e t h e s e f o r m s a r e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a n d no a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t s , w h i l e i n C l a s s b. s u b s t i t u t i o n o f v o i c e l e s s c o n s o -n a n t s f o r t h e v o i c e d o n e s i s more f r e q u e n t i n t h e s p e e c h o f o l d e r p e o p l e w i t h v e r y l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h . R e p l a c e -ment i n C l a s s c. r e s u l t e d i n t h e w r o n g c h o i c e o f t h e p a r t o f s p e e c h . A n o t h e r f a c t o r s h o u l d a l s o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r -a t i o n . T h a t i s , i n t h e J a p a n e s e w r i t i n g s y s t e m c a l l e d k a t a k a n a t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v o i c e l e s s a n d v o i c e d morae I s i g n a l l e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d i a c r i t i c m a r k s , w h i c h c o u l d be e a s i l y m i s s e d . _sima (island) C/ima ] h a n a ( f l o w e r ) _sima_zima ( i s l a n d s ) [/imad3.ima ] many k i n d s o f h a n a b a n a ( f l o w e r s ) QR ha k a s a t a c u P a ' 7 ha ga za da zu ? " •v" 2. L e v e l l i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i p h t h o n g s a n d t r i p h t h o n g . a. b. c. E x a m p l e s a. E. [e|] [ o u ] [ a u a j J . k e e k i t e e h u r u he 'ekoN petepaa metekaa -> -> -> J . • [ e : ] [ o : ] [awa: ] /ee/ / o o / /awaa/ W 2 morae W " VCW 3 morae f o r E. k e i k t e i h l h e i k n p e i p o m e i k s e x c e p t i o n s : epurd'n f o r e i p r s n are'Nzi oreind.3 kc?o t o ctebaa no1© t o bo'onasu hoomusi 1Qku k o u t O U V 9 n o u t b o u n a s h d u m s i k 96 e x c e p t i o n s : p o s u t o <^ p o u s t c. • l i u r a w a k f l a u o tawa|a t a u a s j a w a a / a u a I n C a s e s a. a n d b. t h e g r e a t e s t f a c t o r seems t o be t h e J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s ' h a b i t s o f p r o n o u n c i n g t h e s e q u e n c e s [ e i ] a n d [ o u ] a s [ e : ] 3-n(3- [ o : ] a s f a r a s t h e Tokyo d i a l e c t i s c o n c e r n e d . P o r e x a m p l e t h e t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n o f t h e t e r m " E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e " i n J a p a n e s e f r o m t h e h i r a k a n a w r i t i n g i s / e i g o / a n d y e t i t i s p r o n o u n c e d [ e r r j o ] b y t h e m a j o r i t y . L i k e w i s e / o t o u s a n / ( f a t h e r ) i s p r o n o u n c e d [ o t o : s a n ] . T h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n f a i l s t o o c c u r o n l y when morpheme d i v i s i o n h a p p e n s t o o c c u r b e t w e e n / o / a n d / x x / , a n d b e t w e e n / e / a n d / i / . e .g. [ k e i t o ] k e ( w o o l ) + i t o ( s t r i n g - ) [ o u t f i ] o ( p r e f i x ) + u t / i ( h o u s e ) N a t u r a l l y i n a d o p t i n g l o a n w o r d s where no s u c h f a c t o r i s a t p l a y m o n o l i n g u a l J a p a n e s e v . i l l p r o n o u n c e [ e i ] a n d [ o u ] a s [ e : ] and [ o : ] . [aua] i s p e r c e i v e d a s c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e morae a n d y e t i t i s n o t i n t e r p r e t e d a s [ a u a ] b e c a u s e no s u c h s e q u e n c e e x i s t s w i t h i n a morpheme i n J a p a n e s e . W i t h o u t t h e number o f morae b e i n g c h a n g e d i t i s r e p l a c e d by. [&'jvaaj. 3 . T h i s g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h r e g u l a r s u b s t i t u t i o n f a i l e d t o t a k e p l a c e b e c a u s e o f s p e l l i n g p r o n u n -c i a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f them a r e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d , most l i k e l y having come i n by eye-route. /o/ grctabu huroN.to koVipasu supOH z i c f . r e g u l a r change / o / sukc?ppuj kokkiu hc?kk.;: f o r / a / f o r / A / f o r A / g l A V f r A n t klmpas spAnd.3 sku:p kuk c f . r e g u l a r change: /u/ or /uu/ f o r / u ( : ) / / a / f o r / e i / apturiko ntto' e i p r i k o t cf. r e g u l a r change: /ee/ f o r / e i / Another e x p l a n a t i o n i s that the l a s t item i s from ' • American E n g l i s h . There are some other examples of t h i s k i n d i n which the r e g u l a r s u b s t i t u t i o n f a i l e d to occur: / a / f o r / o / American katai-i(ito) kotn katn kefraa k e ! r e z z i k o l a . sukarasSQpu k d l s * kdlids kdlids skdla/ip s k d l 9 t / i p CHAPTER V I I SUM'JA R Y A N D CONCLUSIONS The d e g r e e o f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s i n t o J a p a n e s e w i l l he m e a s u r e d a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s t o some e x t e n t b y a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n : what i s i t t h a t s i g n a l s a l o a n e l e m e n t ? I n o t h e r w o r d s , c a n we d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t a l o a n e l e m e n t shows a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n o f i t s own? The c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l p r o b l e m s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be made a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . • The f a c t o r s a t p l a y i n t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f l o a n e l e m e n t s a r e : (a) I n t e r n a l 1. S h e e r a b s e n c e o f e q u i v a l e n t e x p o n e n t s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t h e J a p a n e s e s t r u c t u r e 2. p r e s s u r e o f t h e s y s t e m 3 . p r o d u c t i v i t y o f c e r t a i n f orms' 4 . p o p u l a r , p a t t e r n s i n c o i n a g e 5. u n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f e q u i v a l e n t e x p o n e n t s i n J a p a n e s e (b) E x t e r n a l 1. d i f f e r e n t c h a n n e l s o f b o r r o w i n g — o r a l a n d w r i t t e n 2. t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d a t t h e t i m e when t h e p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t was b o r r o w e d 99 3 . the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background of the o r i g i n a l i n t r o -ducer and/or that of the l a t e r users. h. the w r i t i n g system of Japanese Ph o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l (a) prosodic f e a t u r e s : A l l E n g l i s h elements must conform to one of the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b i c p a tterns of Japanese, without exception: /CV/, /CW/, /CVN/, /CVQ/S /CSV/, /CSVV/, /CSVN/ and /CSVQ/ through l ) the a d d i t i o n c f a vowel to the w o r d - f i n a l conso-nants and 2) the i n s e r t i o n of a vowel between consecutive consonants. These, together w i t h the i n s e r t i o n of /Q/ a f t e r a simple vowel before v o i c e l e s s stops and a f f r i c a t e s (some-times a l s o before v o i c e d stops and /'f./ ) , r e s u l t - i n the remarkable increase of the number of s y l l a b l e s . /Q/ which i s p h o n o l o g i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d w i l l i n the long run emerge as a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e . A marker of a loan element i n t h i s connection i s /Q/ before v o i c e d stops /b, d, g/. Secondly, an E n g l i s h item conforms to one of the normal p i t c h accent p a t t e r n s of Japanese r e s u l t i n g from the sequence of high and low p i t c h e s i n successive morae. The f a v o r i t e accent p a t t e r n s seem to be e i t h e r the one i n which the accent 29 k e r n e l f a l l s on the f i r s t mora or the atonic p a t t e r n , -out of course these p a t t e r n s are not n e c e s s a r i l y markers of loan elements. The expected increase i n the number of s y l l a b l e s f a i l s 100 to occur when a consonant i n an un-stressed s y l l a b l e or the w o r d - f i n a l morpho-phoneme i s dropped, (b) Phonernatic u n i t s / f , v; 6, b/ are replaced by the Japanese counterparts /h, b; s, z/ and l i k e w i s e p a r t i c u l a r CV combinations / t i , t ( j ) u , d i , d ( j ) u ; we/ are r e p l a c e d by / c i (or t e ) , c ( j ) u , z i (or de), z ( j ) u , ue/. / r / and / l / converge on Japanese / r / ; /as, a, a:, 9,A /, on /a/. 30 These apply to the s o - c a l l e d "conservative d i a l e c t . " ^ F l u c t u a t i o n i s seen i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the speakers who have a considerable knowledge of E n g l i s h , where phono-l o g i c a l gaps are f i l l e d by. the adoption of / t i , t ( j ) u : d i , d ( j ) u / i n recent loans. Remarks: These speakers, however, s t i c k to the use of the n a t i v e counterparts i n the l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d loans. e.g. r a z i o < r a d i o , cikeQto< t i c k e t The o c c a s i o n a l use of [ f ] i s recognized i n t h i s i n n ovating d i a l e c t . One of the great d i f f e r e n c e s seems to l i e i n the arrangement of morae. In s p i t e of the mathematical p o s s i -b i l i t i e s of combinations of morae, combinations which a c t u -a l l y appear as c o n s t i t u e n t s of a Japanese word are r e s t r i c t e d . Loanwords, on the other hand, are f r e e from such r e s t r i c t i o n so long as each c o n s t i t u e n t i s given a mora value. For example, such sequences as / s u p i - / and /supu-/ do not occur i n the o r i g i n a l Japanese, though they c o n s i s t of a c t u a l Japanese morae. 101 G r a m m a t i c a l l e v e l D e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x e s a n d i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x e s a r e u s u a l l y d e a l t w i t h u n d e r s e p a r a t e h e a d i n g s s i n c e t h e f o r m e r i s t h e m a t t e r o f m o r p h o l o g y a n d t h e l a t t e r , o f s y n t a x . A s f a r a s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f l o a n w o r d s i s c o n c e r n e d , i t seems more a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i n f l e c t e d i t e m s a n d t h a t o f u n i n f l e c t e d o n e s . H e r e i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x e s a r e d e f i n i t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w o r d - f o r m a t i o n . 1. F o r m a t i o n o f a w o r d w h i c h i s i n f l e c t e d : a. A d j e c t i v e E. s t e m 4 na e.g. s o h u t o - n a ( s o f t ) b. V e r b E. s t e m •+ s u r u e.g. s u t a a t o - s u r u ( s t a r t ) 2. F o r m a t i o n o f a w o r d w h i c h i s n o t i n f l e c t e d : a. compound E. - J. J . - E. b. d e r i v a t i v e i . E n g l i s h s t e m w i t h J a p a n e s e a f f i x e s i i . sho r t f o rms c l i p p e d f o r m s a c r o n y m s i i i . b a c k f o r m a t i o n c. b o r d e r - l i n e c a s e s F o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h y b r i d s a s a w h o l e : i . G r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s i n E n g l i s h a r e i g n o r e d i n m o s t c a s e s , i i . The morpheme sha p e i n t h e o r i g i n a l i s i g n o r e d . L o a n e l e m e n t s a r e t a k e n as b e i n g s t e m - f o r m a t i v e . 1 0 i i i . H y b r i d s f e l l o w t h e i r own a c c e n t p a t t e r n . r a N c i < l u n c h c f r a N c i a o k i < l u n c h - t i m e ( a t o n i c ) i v . Some a f f i x e s a r e p r o d u c t i v e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f E n g l i s h e l e m e n t s , e . g . : The a d j e c t i v e - f o r m a t i v e s u f f i x - n a , t h e v e r b a -l i z e r - s u r u a n d t h e n o m i n a l i z e r , w h i c h i s t h e f i r s t c o n j u n c t i v e f o r m o f a v e r b . A m a r k e r o f a l o a n e l e m e n t : A d j e c t i v e s a n d n o u n s b e l o n g i n g t o t y p e s o t h e r t h a n t h e -na t y p e a n d - s u r u t y p e do n o t g i v e E n g l i s h - J a p a n e s e h y b r i d s w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n , d a b u r . u < d o u b l e . Some o f t h e A - N a n d N - 2£ h y b r i d compounds a r e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s A N , N N_ a t t h e s y n t a c t i c l e v e l . L a s t l y , two s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s w i l l be g i v e n . - J a p a n e s e i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h i n a d j e c t i v e s b u t one d e v i c e i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e : an e l e m e n t a l i e n o r n a t i v e may be u s e d a s a s t e m a n d made a d j e c t i v a l b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f - n a . One o f t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d b y t h e a d o p t i o n o f i n n u m e r a b l e C h i n e s e e l e m e n t s i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t o o many homonyms, w h i c h o f t e n e n o u g h i n t e r f e r e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t some E n g l i s h e l e m e n t s may b e o f u s e i n a v o i d i n g t h i s a m b i g u i t y i n s p e e c h w h i l e t h e n a t i v e e q u i v a l e n t w i l l b e s e t a s i d e f o r l i t e r a r y u s e . 1 0 3 Lexical l e v e l The same t o t a l f i e l d of meaning i s , f o r purposes of communication, cut d i f f e r e n t l y from one language to another. In other words " d i s t i n c t i o n within a perceived f i e l d i s a matter that i s c u l t u r a l l y conditioned, learned and passed 31 on." Different types of l i n g u i s t i c units are used for a r t i c u l a t o r y experience. I t i s a well-known fact i n the hist o r y and develop-ment of the English language that a d i s t i n c t i o n came to be made, between anCanimal and i t s f l e s h by the use of p a r a l l e l sets of l i n g u i s t i c items, native and French. In Japanese, too, v a r i e t y and subtlety have been created i n the way experience was broken up into communicable b i t s by the i n t r o -duction of English elements. The function of an English loan-element i s revealed through the study of in t e r n a l and external contexts of sit u a t i o n i n which i t occurs. i . I t may be a simple additive element by i t s e l f , i i . I t may mean an addition of a p a r t i c u l a r variety to a set of existent items, i i i . As the r e s u l t of i t s c o n f l i c t with a native equivalent either a "generic" or " s p e c i f i c " sense i s selected i n the use of a loan-element, i v . Likewise either an "abstract" or "concrete" sense, i s selected. 1 0 4 I n s p i t e o f the g r e a t number of E n g l i s h loanwords they have been w e l l a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of Japanese. To some e x t e n t the f u t u r e o f the Japanese language i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c u l t u r a l b o r r o w i n g may be p r e d i c t e d . A l t h o u g h the p h o n o l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l systems o f a language a re no t e a s i l y a f f e c t e d by c u l t u r a l b o r r o w i n g s , gaps i n the system may. be g r a d u a l l y f i l l e d . F l u c t u a t i o n i s more p r o m i -nent a t the l e x i c a l l e v e l . A l o n g w i t h new o b j e c t s and p r a c t i c e s new terms c o n s t a n t l y come and go from v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the w o r l d . The symmetry o f the language s t r u c t u r e a t the l e x i c a l l e v e l r e q u i r e s the presence of terms b o t h g e n e r i c and s p e c i f i c , a b s t r a c t and c o n c r e t e . Some E n g l i s h elements may be added to s a t i s f y t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . Some w i l l be added to the s e t o f v o c a b u l a r y t o b r i n g about v a r i e t y and s u b t l e t y i n the way e x p e r i e n c e i s a r t i c u l a t e d . T h i s i s what the a n a l y s i s made i n t h i s t h e s i s has r e v e a l e d . Some o f the problems to be d i s c u s s e d i n the f u t u r e w i l l now be p r e s e n t e d : I f E n g l i s h elements behave q u i t e d i s t i n c t i v e l y f r om the n a t i v e and j i o n g o elements i t w i l l be m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t o admit the e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a w i t h i n . Japanese. F o r convenience sake p h o n o l o g i c a l problems w i l l be d i s c u s s e d h ere. I n O l d Japanese the w o r d - i n i t i a l [ r ] and v o i c e d consonants were unknown u n t i l the p e r i o d of Ch i n e s e i n f l u e n c e . / Q / , / N / , /CSV/ as independent s y l l a b l e s d i d not e x i s t e i t h e r . The w o r d - i n i t i a l [p] whi c h had undergone the change p > <| > h r e v i v e d t h r o u g h c u l t u r a l b o r r o w i n g from 105 P o r t u g u e s e . The way f o r the a c c e ptance of these items had u n d o u b t e d l y been p r e p a r e d by the onomatopoeic words and 32 p h o n a e s t h e t i c words-which o f t e n f o l l o w p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s p e c u l i a r t o t h e m s e l v e s . Thus, the v o i c e l e s s v e r s u s v o i c e d c o n t r a s t i s o f g r e a t p h o n o l o g i c a l importance i n modern Japanese whereas i n the o r i g i n a l . n a t i v e s e t o f v o c a b u l a r y the v o i c e l e s s consonant becomes v o i c e d o n l y t o mark the j u n c t i o n i n i t i a l . I n o t h e r words i t i s a morpho-phonemic m a t t e r . I f t h i s morpho-phonemic change f a i l s t o o c c u r in- compounding, i t w i l l o f t e n be a marker of l o a n -words. I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o - e x i s t e n t phonemic systems s h o u l d be s e t up to c l a r i f y the p h o n o l o g i c a l problems i n J a panese, as Eugene Henderson has s u g g ested f o r Siamese, as f o l l o w s : i , a p r i m a r y system, i i , a n a t u r a l i z e d secon-dary system, and i i i , a f r a g m e n t a r y " a l i e n " system. B e r n a r d B l o c h r e j e c t e d t h i s i d e a o f c o - e x i s t e n t phonemic systems as f a r as Japanese i s c o n c e r n e d , and y e t he s a y s , "the i n n o v a t i n g d i a l e c t o f s t a n d a r d c o l l o q u i a l Japanese ... . i s w o r t h d e s c r i b i n g i n f u l l . . . . " T h i s means he s t i l l a dmits c o - e x i s t e n c e of phonemic systems on d i f f e r e n t p l a n e s , i . e . i n terms of v a r i e t i e s o f the language a c c o r d i n g to the s p e a k e r s of d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s , d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n . P o r convenience s a k e , however, the i n n o v a t i n g d i a l e c t i s d e s c r i b e d w h o l l y i n terms o f i t s d i f f e r e n c e f rom the c o n s e r v a t i v e as f o l l o w s : 106 (1 ) c e r t a i n o f i t s phonemes have a w i d e r d i s t r i b u t i o n , e n t e r i n g i n t o c o m b i n a t i o n s t h a t a r e f o r e i g n t o the c o n s e r -v a t i v e d i a l e c t (2) i t e x h i b i t s a phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n between two sound t y p e s w h i c h i n the c o n s e r v a t i v e d i a l e c t , a r e a l l o p h o n e s o f a s i n g l e phoneme; and (3) i t c o n t a i n s one sound t y p e , c o n s t i t u t i n g a new phoneme, w h i c h i s n o t 33 p r e s e n t i n the c o n s e r v a t i v e d i a l e c t a t a l l . (2) A t the l e x i c a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i t must c o n s t a n t l y be s t r e s s e d t h a t c o l l o c a t i o n i s v i t a l l y I n f l u e n c e d by the e x t e r n a l c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n and the l a t t e r , i n t u r n , by c o l l o c a t i o n . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s t i l l t o be i n v e s t i -g a t e d i n the f u t u r e i s how f a r l e x i c a l p a t t e r n i n g depends on grammar i n the p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f loanwords. FOOTNOTES Tat sue- Miyajima, "Kindai-nihongo n i okeru tango no mondai," Gengo S e i k a t s u (Tokyo: A p r i l , 1958). p U r i e l Weinreich, Languages i n Contact, F i n d i n g s  and Problems (New York: L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e of New York, 1953), p. 11. Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , Language (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. , 1949)",' PP.193-194• ^"J. R. F i r t h , "A Synopsis of L i n g u i s t i c Theory," Studies i n L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s ( S p e c i a l volume of the P h i l o l o g i c a l Society) (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1957), P. 23. % . L. B u r s i l l - H a l l , "Levels A n a l y s i s : J . R. F i r t h ' s Theories of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s , " Canadian J o u r n a l of L i n g u i s t i c s , p. 125« ^R. H. Robins, "A Problem i n the Statement of Meaning," Lingua, I I I , 1952, p. 126. " ^ F i r t h , l o c . c i t . Q Andre M a r t i n e t , A F u n c t i o n a l View of Language (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 196T) , pp~ 4~-5« Summarized by the present w r i t e r . 9j. R. F i r t h , "The Technique of Semantics," Transac-t i o n s of the P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1953, p. 53. (TPhSjT"" 1 0 B u r s i l l - H a l l , p_p_. c i t . , p. 126. "''"'"Mitchell, "The Language of Buying and S e l l i n g i n Cyrenaica: A S i t u a t i o n a l Statement," Hesperis, 1957, P. 53. 12 See Gleason, Hockett, Sledd et a l . 1^ B u r s i l l - H a l l , .on. c i t . , p. 186. " ^ M a r t i n e t , op_. c i t . , p. 22. t e n t a t i v e study of some c u l i n a r y terms i n Japanese at the 1 l e x i c a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s was done by the present w r i t e r during the Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , 1964 at Bloomington, Indiana. 108 1^The form "dance h a l l " i s a l s o acceptable e s p e c i a l l y i n American E n g l i s h . -^The a t t r i b u t i v e use ra t h e r than a d j u n c t i v a l use may have been borrowed. e.g. (a) f i v e - i n c h (noun) - ^ M a r t i n e t , ap_. cit., p. 47. -^These symbols were used by M. A. K. H a l l i d a y i n h i s l e c t u r e at the 1964 L i n g u i s t i c I n s t i t u t e at Bloomington. means "be r e a l i z e d by." 2 0 H a r u h i k o K i n d a i c h i , Nihongo (Tokyo, Iwanarni, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 24. 2 l S e e p. 48.. 2 2 D a n i e l Jones, An Outl i n e of E n g l i s h Phonetics (Tokyo: Maruzen, I9607}" pp. 174-175. 2"^See p. 77. 24 K i n d a i c h i , 2 5 S e e p. 56-57. 2 ^ E i n a r Haugen, "Japanese Phonemics: Some A l t e r -nate S o l u t i o n s , " ELEC P u b l i c a t i o n s , IV, i 9 6 0 , p. 42. 0 7 'This word may be from Dutch. p Q Dr. Gregg suggested the phonetic f e a t u r e s of E n g l i s h w o r d - i n i t i a l and w o r d - f i n a l v o i c e d consonants as one of the s o l u t i o n s . That i s , u s u a l l y the on-glide and o f f - g l i d e i s p h o n e t i c a l l y v o i c e l e s s : ' /b-/ [pb- ] /-b/ [ -bp] /d-/ [ t d - ] /-d/ [ -dt] /g-/ [kg- ] /-g/ [ -gk] 2 ^ c f . "When borrowed from a non-tonal language words are found on a l e v e l tone . . . " from "Go-existent Phonemic Systems" by E. J. A. Henderson, Language, XXV, Ho. 1, 1949, p. 139. 1 0 9 Bernard B l o c h , "Studies i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese: Phonemics," Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. M a r t i n Joos (Washington: American C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 3 4 6 . -^Paul Bohanan, S o c i a l Anthropology (Ne?/ York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 3o. 'AO F i r t h , op_. cit., p. 3 7 . 33 Bloch, l o c . c i t . BIBLIOGRAPHY A. 1. BOOKS IN ENGLISH A l l e n , H arold B. A p p l i e d E n g l i s i x L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. , 1 9 5 8 . B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Language. London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 8 . Bohannan, Pa u l . S o c i a l Anthropology. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1963. Bradley, Henry. The Making of E n g l i s h . London: MacMillan and Co. L t d . , 1957. P i r t h , J . R. Papers- i n L i n g u i s t i c s . London: Oxford P r e s s , 1957. . The Tongue of Men and Speech. London: Oxford Pre ss, 1964. P r i e s , Charles C. The S t r u c t u r e of E n g l i s h . London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1959* Gleason, Ii. A. , J r . An I n t r o d u c t i o n to D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Henry Holt and Company, I 9 6 I . H a l l , Robert A., J r . L i n g u i s t i c s and Your Language. New York: Doubleday and Company, I n c . , I960. H a l l i d a y , M. A. K. The Language of the Chinese Secret  H i s t o r y of the Mongols. Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1959. Han, M. S. Japanese Phonology: An A n a l y s i s Based Upon  Sound Spectrograms. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 19"6*27~ Hockett, C. P. A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: MacMillan, 1958. Jakobson, Roman. P r e l i m i n a r i e s to Speech A n a l y s i s . Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press", I96I. Jones, D a n i e l . An O u t l i n e of E n g l i s h Phonetics. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons L t d . , Tokyo: Maruzen, i960. . The Phoneme: I t s Nature and Use. Cambridge: W. He f f e r and Sons L t d . , 1950. I l l J o o s , M a r t i n ( e d . ) ' Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s . Washington: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l o f Lea r n e d S o c i e t i e s , 1 9 5 7 . K l e i n j a n s , E v e r e t t . A D e s c r i p t i v e - Comparative Study P r e d i c t i n g I n t e r f e r e n c e f o r Japanese i n L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h  Noun-Head M o d i f i c a t i o n P a t t e r n . Tokyo: T a i s h u k a n P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1 9 5 9 . Lado, R o b e r t . L i n g u i s t i c s a c r o s s C u l t u r e . Ann A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . M a r t i n e t , Andre. A F u n c t i o n a l View o f Language. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 . S a p i r , E. Language. New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and W o r l d , I n c . , 1949-S a u s s u r e , F e r d i n a n d de. Course i n G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s . London: P e t e r Owen L t d . , 19"6*0. S i n c l a i r , J . McH. " B e g i n n i n g the Study o f L e x i s , " I n  Memory o f J . R. F i r t h . ed. C. E. B a z e l l , e t a l . London: Longmans, 1 9 6 4 . S l e d d , James. A S h o r t I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E n g l i s h Grammar. C h i c a g o : S c o t t , Foresman, 1959. Strang.V, B a r b a r a . Modern E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e . London: Edward A r n o l d ( P u b I i s h e r s ) L i d . , 1 9 6 2 . ~ T r u b e t z k o y , N. S. P r i n c i p e s de P h o n o l o g i e . t r a n s , by J . C a n t i n e a u . L i b r a i r i e c. K l i n c k s i e c k , 1 9 5 7 . W e i n r e i c h , U r i e l . Languages i n C o n t a c t , F i n d i n g s and. Problems. New York: L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e c f New York. A. 2 . BOOKS IN JAPANESE H a t t o r i , S h i r o . Gengogaku no Hoho. (A Method i n L i n g u i s -t i c s ) Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, i 9 6 0 . . Onseigaku. ( P h o n e t i c s ) . Tokyo: Iwanami Shote n , I 9 6 0 . " , Nihongo no K e i t o . (Genealogy of Japanese) Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1 9 5 9 . , and I c h i k a w a , S a n k i ( e d . ) . S e k a i Gengo G r a i s e t s u . (An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Languages o f the World) Tokyo: Iwanami Shot e n , 1959« 112 dimbo, I tarn. Nihongo Oiiseigaku. (Japanese Phonetics) Tokyo: Sanseido, 19ol7 K i n d a i c h i , Haruhiko. Nihongo. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, I 9 6 0 , Mio, I sago. lianas h i - Kotoba no Bumpo. Grammar of C o l l o q u i a l Japanese -) Tokyo: Hosei Daigaku Shuppan-kyoku, 1958. O n i s h i , Masao. Oyo Onseigaku. (Applied Phonetics) Tokyo: M e i j i Shoin, 1933-• Sakuma, Kanae. Nihongo no Gengoriron. (Philosophy of Japanese) Tokyo: Koseisha Koseikaku, 1959. S h i r a i s h i , D a i j i . Nihongo no Hasso. (Way of Thinking i n Japanese) Tokyo: Tokyo-do, 1962. Bloch, Bernard. "Studies i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese I . I n f l e c t i o n , " J o u r n a l of the American O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , 6 6 : 9 7 - 1 0 9 , June, 194"6°~' A.07-s7T." . "Studies i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese I I I . D e r i v a t i o n of I n f l e c t e d Words," J . A .0 . 8 . , 6 6 : 3 0 4 - 3 1 5 , December, 1 9 4 6 . B. 1 . : PERIODICALS IN ENGLISH B u r s i l l - H a l l , G. i i . "Levels A n a l y s i s , " Canadian Journal °L L i n g u i s t i c s , (Pert l) 6 : 1 2 4 - 1 3 6 . Autumn, l"9S0; T P a r t I I ) 6*7164 - 1 9 1 , S p r i n g , 1 9 6 1 . "The L i n g u i s t i c T h e o r i e s of J. R. F i r t h , " Thought (Canadian C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s ) , I96I. F i r t h , J. R. " A p p l i c a t i o n s of General L i n g u i s t i c s , " Transactions of the P h i l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1957. (TPhS) . "A synopsis of L i n g u i s t i c Theory," Studies i n L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s : Special Volume of the P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 7 ~ l - 3 2 , 1957-H a l l i d a y , M. A. E. "Grammatical Categories i n Modern Chinese," TPhS, 177-224, 1956. 11.3 K a u g e n , E i n a r . " J a p a n e s e P h o n e m i c s : Some A l t e r n a t e " S o l u t i o n s , " ELEC P u b l i c a t i o n s , I V , I 9 6 0 . H e n d e r s o n , E u g e n i e . "The P h o n o l o g y o f L o a n w o r d s i n Some S o u t h - E a s t A s i a n L a n g u a g e s , " - TPhS, 131-158, 1951. H i l l , A. A. " G r a m m a t i c a l i t y , " W o rd, 17: 1-10, 1961. M c i n t o s h , A n g u s . " P a t t e r n s a n d R a n g e s , " "Language.' 37: 325-337, 1961. M i t c h e l l , T. P. "The L a n g u a g e o f B u y i n g a n d S e l l i n g i n C y r e n a i c a : A S i t u a t i o n a l S t a t e m e n t , " H e s p e r i s * 31-71, 1957. P i k e , K e n n e t h L. " I n t e r - p e n e t r a t i o n o f P h o n o l o g y , M o r p h o l o g y a n d S y n t a x , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e E i g h t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Conp;ress o f L i n g u i s t i c s , 36T-371, 1958"*. R o b i n s , R. H. " P r o b l e m i n t h e S t a t e m e n t o f M e a n i n g , " L i n g u a . 3: 121-137, 1952. . " A s p e c t s o f P r o s o d i c A n a l y s i s , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Durham P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1 " ( J 3 ) . l . 1957. B. 2. PERIODICAL I N JAPANESE M i y a j i m a , T a t s u o . " K i n d a i - n i h o n g o n i o k e r u t a n g o no m o n d a i , " Gengo S e i k a t s u , A p r i l , 1958. C. DICTIONARIES I w a s a k i , T a m i h e i a n d Kawamura, J u j i r o . ( e d . ) . K e n k y u s h a ' s New E n g l i s h - J a p a n e s e D i c t i o n a r y . T o k y o : K e n k y u s h a , 1953. K a t s u m a t a , S e n k i c h i r o . New J a p a n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . T o k y o : K e n k y u s h a , 1 9 5 4 . H i s a m a t s u , S e n i c h i , e t a l . K o kugo Sogo J i t e n ( J a p a n e s e D i c t i o n a r y ) . T o k y o : O b u n s h a , T963. H i r a y a m a , T e r u o . Z e n k o k u A k u s e n t o J i t e n ( A c c e n t D i c t i o n a r y ) . T o k y o : T o k y o -do', I96T. INDEX Academic, 39, 40 Accent, 2 6 Accessary, 6 9 Accordion, 87 Achieve, 6 5 Agitation, 48 Amateuer, 87 America, 45 Announcer, 92 Apartment, 47, 7 9 Apricot, 9 7 Arrange, 49 Bacon, 44, 95 Badge, 6 2 , 67, 8 9 , 9 3 Badminton, 78, 79 Bag, 61 Balance, 24, 27 Ball, 66 Base up, 49 Bat, 6 8 Bath, 6 5 Beach parasol, 9 5 Bed, 6 0 , 9 3 Beige, 6 6 , 93 Bell, 24 B i l l , 48, 7 2 Biscuit, 30, 78, 79 Boat, 44 Bonus, 9 5 Book, 61 Boom, 43 Boss, 61 Boxer, 69 Brother, 8 4 Brush, 13, 67 Bucket, 13, 34 Bulky, 37 Bus, 43, 61, 78, 79, 81 Butter, 3 3 , 44, 92 Button, 44, 80 Gake, 67, 95 Calory, 42 Can, 6 8 Chicken, 34 Chief, 6 5 Chorus, 49 Circle, 4 5 Circus, 65, 76,. 79, 92 Class, 6 9 Classic, 3 8 , 61 Cleaning, 45, 68, 73, 9 0 Coat, 96 Coffee, 74 Collar, 97 College, 97 Colour, 97 Combination, 47 Come back, 49, 5 0 Concert, 78, 79 Concrete, 8 2 Oondenced milk, 8 2 Cook, 66, 97 Cord, 2 6 , 68 Corned beef, 34, 47, 8 2 Cotton, 97 Course, 6 5 Cover, 49 Cream, 44, 64, 6 9 Cup, 18, 60 Curry and rice, 13, 34 Curve, 6 5 Dancing h a l l , 3 4 Demonstration, 43, 47 Department, 47, 87 Design, 87 Diesel, 87 Doctor, 69 Doughnut, 34 Double, 48 115 •JDrama, 45 Drive, 49, 65, 84 Earth, 92 Egg, -61, 67 Engine, 13 English, 66 Episode, 68 Evening,.18 Extra, 47, 69 Pan, 68 Pat, 60 Film, 84 Flower, 96 Focus, 29 Foot, 60, 83 Fork, 66 Fresh, 66 Fried beans, 34, 82 Front, 97 Fruit, 34, 66 Fry, 18, 19, 20 Frying pan, 31, 33, 34 Fuze, 84 Gas, 79 Gathered, 84 Glass, 18 Gloves, 14, 84, 97 Gossip, 25 Gray, 45 Green peas, 37 Group 64, 76 Half, 65 Hall, 43 Ham, 64, 65, 69, 73, 92 Ham and eggs, 34 Handbag, 54, 67, 90, 93 Handkerchief, 13, 76, 82 Handle, 26 Hanger, 90 Hat, 60, 63 Head, 60 v. Heat, 60, 63 Heel, 66 High-heels, 34 Hint, 68 Hit, 75, 83 Hook, 97 Homesick, 95 Hot cake, 31 Hot dog, 67, 90 Hour, 96 Humour, 28 Ice tea, 15 Imagination, 29 Inch, 36 Ink, 13, 67, 71, 78, 80, 81 Instant, 38 Iron, 14, 23, 44 Jazz, 45, 61, 66 Journalism, 78, 79 Judge, 62 Juice, 62 Junior, 44 Knife, 13, 65 Knob, 60, 64 Lace, 13, 89 Lead, 49, 51 Leader, 79, League, 90 Leisure, 89 Lemonade, 82 Location, 47 Loose, 93 Love, 61 Lunch, 67, 92, 102 Machine, 18, 22 Maker, 95-Manager, 78, 79 Marathon, 84 Mark, 24, 66 Marmalade, 79 Mash, 37, 62, 66 Mashed potato, 34 116 Mass, 48 Popular, 38 Pot, 60 Match, 6 2 , 67, 92 Megaphone, 47 Potato, 34 Melody, 30 Pressed ham, 34, 37 P r i n t , 42, 45, 68 Memo, 25 Microphone, 47 P r i v a c y , 30 M i l k , 18, 19 Production, 4 7 , 48 Miss, 61 P r o f e s s i o n a l , 47, 48 Mixer,.69, 70 Program, 30, 90 Modern, 39 P. T. A., 86 Mood, 2 8 , 66 P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , 49 Morning, 18, 68 Pudding, 88 P u f f , 61 Pulp, 58 Name, 6 5 Neck, 61 Pump, 58 News, 9 3 Note, 9 5 Race, 6 5 Nuts, 6 2 Radio, 15,.23, 78, 79, 8 7 , 100 Record, 23 O i l , 33, 44 Regular, 38 O i l sardine, 87 Remote c o n t r o l , 48 O l i v e , 61 Rhythm, 84 Orange, 4 l , 67 Ribbon, 13 Roast, 8 2 Organ, 23 Orthodox, 84 R o l l e d cabbage, 34 Romantic, 39, 40 Rope, 2 6 , 64 Rouge, 66 Oven, 31 Over, 95 Pace, 58 .. Rule, 30, 89 Pajamas, 92 Rush, 6 2 , 66, 71, 81, 92 Paper, 9 5 P a r t , 58 Salad, 92 Pa r t y , 15, 86 Sample, 13, 69 Pass, 58 Sandwitch, 48, 79, 8 8 Sausage, 74 Paste, 45 Pen, 58, 68, 73 Scho l a r s h i p , 78, 7 9 , 9 7 Pet, 58 Schedule, 29 Scoop, 97 Permanent wave, 43 Per cent, 14 Pedal, 23 Scout, 3 7 Scrap, 79 Piano, 42 Season, 43, 45 P i c n i c , 69 P i e , 58 Second-hand, 48 Sentimental, 46 Serv i c e , 42, 49, 78, 79 Sheet, 34 P i n , 42 Pi p e , 64 P i t c h , 6 2 S h i r t , 13, 34 P l a s t i c , 8 6 P o o l , 66 Shock, 2 6 , 61 Shovel, 29 Shower, 96 Shut o u t , 49 S i n g e r , 90 S k a t i n g , 34 S k e t c h , 49 S k i i , 82 S k i r t , 92 S l i p p e r s , 34 Smart, 16, 39, 46, 79 S o f t , 39, 101 Speaker, 18 Speed, 68, 76 Speedy, 40 Sponge, 67, 97 Spoon, 82 Spot, 30 S t a f f , 61, 65 Stage, 67 S t a r t , 49, 50, 52, 101 Steak, 67 S t e e l , 86 Stew, 87 S t i c k , 70, 71, 79 S t o c k i n g , 34 Straw, 82 S t r e p t o r n ! c i n e , 47 S t r i k e , 14, 43, 47, 67, 70 S t u d i o , 87 Sugar, 90 S u i t , 34 S u i t - c a s e , 34 Suspense, 79, 92 Sweater, 88 S w i t c h , 24, 67, 88 Symbol, 69 T a b l e , 95 Tape, 43, 64 Tea, 18 Team, 65, 86 Technique, 45 T e l e v i s i o n , 43 Tent, 68 T e x t , 69 T h r i l l , 84 T h r i l l e r , 44 T i c k e t , 57, 86, 100 T i l e , 44 T i m e l y , 40 Tim i n g , 68 T i p , 60 T o a s t e r , 31 T o u r i s t , 87 Towel, 18, 66 Tower, 96 T u b e r c u l i n , 78, 79, T u l i p , 64, 87 Tu n n e l , 78 T r a i n i n g , 68, 73 Truck, 61, 66 Trump, 17 U n i f o r m , 84 Veranda, 84 Waste, 88 Water, 88 Wet, 88 Window, 88 Whisky, 88 White sauce, 37 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104846/manifest

Comment

Related Items