UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The fictional world in four novels by Brian Moore. Harrison, Richard Terrence 1965

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THE FICTIONAL WORLD IN FOUR NOVELS BY BRIAN MOORE  by  RICHARD TERRENCE HARRISON B. A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of ENGLISH  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming to the  r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  June, 1965  In p r e s e n t i n g the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  Columbia,  available for mission  representatives,,  cation  of  w i t h o u t my  Department  this  by  the  Head o f my  University  of  gain  Columbia  6S  for  copying or  shall  not  freely per-  scholarly  Department o r  that  permission.  / ?  of  s h a l l make i t  thesis  of  / C  fulfiIment  I further agree that  this  for financial  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  study.  the  Library  It i s understood  thesis  written  the  copying of  granted  in p a r t i a l  advanced degree at  r e f e r e n c e and  be  thesis  I agree that  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may his  this  be  by publi-  allowed  Abstract  The f i c t i o n a l worlds thesis,  of B r i a n Moore's  four novels are,  this  e x p l o r e d f o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t y and to the a c t i o n and  o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the n o v e l s .  The argument r e s t s  on the premise  the n a t u r e of the world a n o v e l i s t c r e a t e s a f f e c t s possible  in  i n the n o v e l and p r e d i s p o s e s  interpretation.  It  that  the a c t i o n which  t h a t a c t i o n to c e r t a i n k i n d s  a l s o assumes t h a t f o r t h i s  s o r t of  is of  investigation,  some workable d e s c r i p t i o n of a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d can be a r r i v e d a t by examining such f e a t u r e s as ciples,  the s e l e c t i o n of d e t a i l ,  and the language w i t h which t h a t world i s  the n a r r a t o r ' s chapter i s  the o r d e r i n g  prin-  c r e a t e d , as w e l l as  p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the f i c t i o n .  The i n t r o d u c t o r y  devoted to e l a b o r a t i n g these premises and i l l u s t r a t i n g  their  a p p l i c a t i o n to modern f i c t i o n i n a g e n e r a l way. The next f o u r c h a p t e r s a n a l y s e  the f i c t i o n a l worlds  i n B r i a n Moore'  f o u r n o v e l s i n o r d e r of p u b l i c a t i o n , marking any d i s c e r n a b l e c o n n e c t i o n they have w i t h the a c t i o n of the n o v e l s and judging the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a c t i o n .  t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on  These c h a p t e r s examine Moore  ii  techniques of p r o j e c t i n g an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l son w i t h the methods of o t h e r n o v e l i s t s among the f o u r n o v e l s , techniques.  designed  and more f r e q u e n t  comparisons  to t r a c e s i g n s of development i n  Chapter Two d e a l s w i t h J u d i t h Hearne,  the f a t e of the aging s p i n s t e r ' s  religious  tracing  In Chapter Three,  i n The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l i s Belfast  and romantic impulses  pedience.  in a  spiritually,  the w o r l d of dehumanized s o c i a l  forces  examined together w i t h the f a i l u r e of  schoolmaster Diarmuid Devine to o f f s e t  s t r o n g human q u a l i t i e s  his  particularly  w o r l d which might be d e s c r i b e d as r h e t o r i c a l l y , as w e l l as constricting.  compari-  or v a l u e s  transcending  these f o r c e s w i t h any the c l a i m s  of s o c i a l  A l a r g e p a r t of Chapter Four, d e a l i n g w i t h The Luck of  C o f f e y , Moore's only n o v e l s e t i n Canada, i n the a u t h o r ' s  techniques.  Its  is  the  exGinger  concerned w i t h developments  f i c t i o n a l world i s  found to be  and to accommodate more of the i n d i v i d u a l humanity of h i s  larger,  characters.  Greater r e l i a n c e on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l techniques has a l s o a f f e c t e d the depth and range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s  fiction.  Moore's l a t e s t n o v e l , An Answer from Limbo,  is  l e s s a study  ment than of i n n o v a t i o n i n the a u t h o r ' s methods. person n a r r a t i o n i s  Chapter F i v e ,  on B r i a n  of d e v e l o p -  The e f f e c t of  first-  examined, and the c o m p l i c a t i o n of the f i c t i o n a l  w o r l d by the development of three d i s t i n c t p e r s p e c t i v e s on the a c t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r s . The c o n c l u d i n g chapter summarizes worlds  of  the f o u r n o v e l s ,  the s i m i l a r i t i e s  i n the f i c t i o n a l  and attempts a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of  iii  Moore's  techniques of p r e s e n t i n g an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y ,  to the o v e r a l l e f f e c t s of h i s e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s are a l s o  fiction.  them  The d i f f e r e n c e s t r a c e d i n the  drawn t o g e t h e r i n an e f f o r t to f i n d some p a t -  t e r n of development i n the changes.  On the b a s i s of t h i s  istic  finally  of h i s  relating  f i c t i o n , B r i a n Moore i s  as a means of e s t i m a t i n g h i s  one c h a r a c t e r -  compared w i t h o t h e r  novelists  p o s i t i o n i n the stream of modern f i c t i o n .  11/  Contents  1.  Introduction:  2.  c o n s t i t u e n t s of a f i c t i o n a l world  p.  1  J u d i t h Hearne  p.  9  3.  The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l  p.  21  4.  The Luck of Ginger Coffey  p. 39  5.  An Answer from Limbo  p. 57  6.  Conclusion  p. 74  7.  Bibliography  p. 83  8.  Appendix:  L e t t e r from B r i a n Moore  . . . .  . p. 86  Acknowledgement  The w r i t e r wishes  to acknowledge w i t h thanks  Dr. Donald G. Stephens i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s  the p a t i e n t guidance  thesis.  THE FICTIONAL WORLD IN FOUR NOVELS BY BRIAN MOORE  Chapter 1:  Introduction  Comparing n o v e l s which p r o j e c t w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g i l l u s i o n s  of  reality  makes i t c l e a r t h a t the n a t u r e of the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d c r e a t e d m a t e r i a l l y affects  the range of s i g n i f i c a n c e  when the i m i t a t i o n of l i f e to use Northrop F r y e ' s created predispose tation.''"  the work as a whole can have. Even  i n the n o v e l s  on a s i m i l a r  "mimetic  term, the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the a c t i o n to c e r t a i n k i n d s  Those who concede, f o r example,  The P o r t r a i t  is  of a Lady c o u l d not e x i s t  Bloom w i l l a l s o agree t h a t  this  level,"  of the w o r l d  of meaning or i n t e r p r e -  t h a t I s a b e l A r c h e r from James's  i n a scene w i t h J o y c e ' s Leopold  i s not because of d i f f e r e n c e s between  London and D u b l i n i n the r e a l w o r l d .  The two c h a r a c t e r s have d i f f e r e n t  modes of e x i s t e n c e because the f i c t i o n a l worlds  of which they are a p a r t  ^ "Historical Criticism: Theory of Modes," Anatomy of ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957), pp. 33-67.  Criticism  -2a r e d i f f e r e n t l y c r e a t e d , and the f i n a l must d i f f e r as  s u r e l y as  significance  the immediate i m p r e s s i o n s  t u r e of t h i s dependence of o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e  of t h e i r appearance !they make.  on the q u a l i t i e s  the f i c t i o n a l world can only be approached through a c l o s e of how t h a t w o r l d i s  The n a of  examination  constituted.  F i c t i o n a l w o r l d s v a r y i n the elements of human e x p e r i e n c e they c o n t a i n or r e c r e a t e .  Proportions  of p h y s i c a l ,  e x p e r i e n c e are b a s i c d e t e r m i n e r s .  Defoe's  emotional and  psychological  Robinson Crusoe,  i s a compendium of p h y s i c a l d e t a i l , w h i l e C r u s o e ' s  psychology  as rudimentary as a c o n t r i v a n c e f o r c a t c h i n g w i l d g o a t s . as much from the type as is  the q u a n t i t y  of d e t a i l .  too may r e c r e a t e mental s t a t e s from w i t h i n a p e r s o n a l i t y , ordered mental processes voluntary associative  analytically  This  remains results  Physical experience  r e c r e a t e d i n documentative d e t a i l as opposed to,  sory d e t a i l of a D. H. Lawrence s h o r t s t o r y .  f o r example,  say,  the v i v i d  Psychological  sen-  description  from w i t h o u t or d e s c r i p t i v e l y  and i t may c o n f i n e i t s e l f  to  consciously  or attempt to r e c r e a t e the g r e a t e r bulk of  activity.  Similarly,  to c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e - - e v e n s o c i a l l y may i n c l u d e s i g n s of dark,  emotions may be c o n f i n e d  acceptable—states  of f e e l i n g  c h a o t i c subterranean s t i r r i n g s .  not always most p r o d u c t i v e i n these fundamental terms. "Newsreel" sections  in-  Analysis  Dos Passos,  is for  example,  in his  into his  f i c t i o n a l w o r l d a complex p a r t of our c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s e l -  dom seen i n f i c t i o n .  of U. S. A. attempts  or  to i n t r o d u c e  -3-  The  author's  experience  c h o i c e of language h e l p s  r e c r e a t e d i n more than simply  to determine the elements of  the d e t a i l i t denotes.  I t s con-  n o t a t i v e v a l u e s produce the nebulous f r i n g e s of p e r c e p t i o n ; i t s f i g u r a t i v e uses determine the type of e x p e r i e n c e  the metaphor i n t r o d u c e s as a  lary  r e l i g i o u s metaphors i n d e s c r i b i n g  to the l i t e r a l a c t i o n .  Dickens'  coral-  Coketown, f o r example, h e l p to t r a n s f o r m the moral judgment i n Hard Times into s p i r i t u a l  condemnation.  I f any  d i r e c t b e a r i n g on a n o v e l ' s f i n a l  quality  of the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d  significance,  has  i t s scope of human ex2  p e r i e n c e has, He  as Mark Schorer  shows i n h i s f i r s t  example how  s u r a b l e elements of l i f e intended  p o i n t s out i n h i s "Technique as  Discovery."  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on m e r c h a n t i l e and mea-  changes M o l l F l a n d e r s from the moral l e s s o n Defoe  to a k i n d of a u d i t of the wages of s i n .  The v a r i e t y  of experience,  particularly  i n a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d w i l l depend p a r t l y  p s y c h o l o g i c a l experience,  on n a r r a t i v e p o i n t of view i n  the Jamesian sense,  but the concept  tigation.  P o r t r a i t of a Lady and U l y s s e s , f o r example, are  Both The  i s of l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r t h i s i n v e s -  r a t e d from a p o i n t of view which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as " s e l e c t i v e n i s c i e n c e , " y e t the s i m i l a r i t y  is incidental.  l e a d i n g to the e x t e n t t h a t i t suggests and  The  term i s i t s e l f  the c o i n c i d e n c e of the  nar-  ommis-  fictional  r e a l w o r l d s or some e x i s t e n c e of the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d beyond what  i s g i v e n or i m p l i e d i n the n a r r a t i v e .  The v a l u e of approaching  a novel  2 Forms of Modern F i c t i o n , ed. W i l l i a m Van I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 9 - 3 0 .  O'Connor  (Bloomington:  -4-  as  though i t s  the r e a l w o r l d bility  f i c t i o n a l w o r l d were an a r t i f a c t r a t h e r than a view of (one of James's "windows on l i f e " )  depends on the  possi-  of a p p r e c i a t i n g some o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n between the ethos and the  a c t i o n of the n o v e l which i s  de-emphasized i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approach.  In p a r t i t depends on the l i m i t s  of p r e s e n t a t i o n b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t  as  l i m i t s not of v i s i o n but of a c t i o n i n the n o v e l . The term " p e r s p e c t i v e " i s more apt, w i t h i t s ment and d i s t o r t i o n as q u a l i t i e s viewer.  of the landscape  i m p l i c a t i o n of  arrange-  r a t h e r than of  the  E x p e r i e n c e making up a f i c t i o n a l world arranges  c e r t a i n perspective according to v a r i o u s  elements.  itself  to the p r o p o r t i o n and emphasis  devoted  Leopold Bloom's f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the w o r l d " p a r a l -  l a x " draws a t t e n t i o n to the changing of Bloom's w o r l d i n the s t r o n g l y  perspective in Ulysses.  sensuous morning  The elements  scene where he eats  " t h e i n n e r organs of b e a s t s " , a r e not i n the same p e r s p e c t i v e as mock-romantic s c e n e s .  in  later  A more extreme example i s F a u l k n e r ' s The Sound  and the Fury, where the elements foremost i n the p e r s p e c t i v e s of Quentin,  in a  Benjy,  and Jason a r e so d i v e r s e t h a t t h r e e s e p a r a t e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s  are p r o v i s i o n a l l y  c r e a t e d and can be u n i f i e d only by p a i n s t a k i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n around h a l f a dozen r e c o g n i s a b l e  points  of  To c o n s i d e r a n o v e l w i t h u n i f i e d p e r s p e c t i v e ,  Schorer's  re-  correspondence. d e s c r i p t i o n of  M o l l F l a n d e r s would put C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s near the d i m i n i s h i n g  point  of  the p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h economic concerns i n the f o r e g r o u n d .  Such d e s c r i p -  tions  corresponding  o f t e n r e v e a l a k i n d of moral or thematic p e r s p e c t i v e  -5-  to the p h y s i c a l Closely ranging ration.  it,  one.  r e l a t e d to the matter of e x p e r i e n c e i s  the manner of  ar-  the system u n d e r l y i n g the o r d e r i n g of d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r -  The i l l u s i o n  of r e a l i t y i n f i c t i o n stems not only from i n d i v i -  d u a l correspondences w i t h l i f e ,  which any l i t e r a r y form can have,  but  3 from c r e a t i n g a sense of the process which lend c o n t i n u i t y c i p l e behind t h i s  of  life.  Any of the elements  to human e x p e r i e n c e can a c t as  sense of p r o c e s s .  the o r d e r i n g  Our sense of the c o n t i n u i t y  prinof  time and of movement through space a r e a r e s o u r c e of r e a l i s m i n n a r r a tive.  Together w i t h p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s  of c i r c u m s t a n c e they tend to  produce t h a t documentive r e a l i s m f i c t i o n shares w i t h h i s t o r i c a l r e p o r tage.  They are a main f a c t o r i n the s t r o n g  by the H a l i f a x Closely logic  i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y  e x p l o s i o n scenes of Hugh MacLennan s 1  Rising.  r e l a t e d are the o r d e r i n g of cause and e f f e c t and p a t t e r n s  i n both p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i o n g e n e r a l l y .  are r a t i o n a l ,  r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e sources of o r d e r .  elements l i k e s t a t e s  of f e e l i n g and p a t t e r n s  provide c o n t i n u i t y .  The c h i l d Stephen's  A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t , Mrs.  Barometer  generated  Dalloway,  the i l l o g i c  More  of a s s o c i a t i o n  these  subjective can a l s o  r e f l e c t i o n s i n the opening  or the a s s o c i a t i v e  flights  of the h e r o i n e  are good examples of s u b j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g ,  r a t h e r than the l o g i c  All  of  of human  of in  emphasizing  life.  3 F o r the s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n of f i c t i o n to the process of r e a l i t y , see A l b e r t Cook, The Meaning of F i c t i o n ( D e t r o i t : Wayne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p. 94.  -6Language h e l p s a g a i n to determine the o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e . c h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n Henry James never allowed h i m s e l f (he would have c a l l e d i t  looseness)  In  psy-  the freedom  of expanding a s s o c i a t i o n s  used by  Mrs. Woolf'3 to p r e s e n t the m u l t i - r e l a t i o n a l q u a l i t y of s u b j e c t i v e experience.  His d e s c r i p t i o n s are l i n e a r and e x p l i c i t ,  possibility language.  e x a c t i n g the  of s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p of i d e a s from the grammar  of  last  the  Grammar g e n e r a l l y has a tendency to r a t i o n a l o r d e r i n g of  experience, suspension  j u s t as a d i s r u p t i o n of syntax of r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l .  is  Figurative  r e s o u r c e s of s u b j e c t i v e o r d e r i n g .  o f t e n used to convey a  language i s  As the s u b j e c t of metaphor may i n t r o -  duce new elements to the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d ,  the abundance and s t r e n g t h  metaphor may p r o v i d e a new o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e . f o r example,  the p o s s i b i l i t y  stance and s i g n i f i c a n c e t i v e passages:  " . . .  is  'Listen,'  1  In The Great  i n h e r e n t i n Nick Carraway s 1  sub-  earliest descrip-  there was an excitement i n her v o i c e t h a t men a singing  a promise t h a t she had done gay,  j u s t a w h i l e s i n c e and that there were gay,  compulsion,  exciting  things  e x c i t i n g things hovering  4 i n the next h o u r . "  In  the metaphor w i t h which Carraway c r e a t e s  f i c t i o n a l w o r l d , human f e e l i n g s s t r a i n t which i s n e c e s s a r y tricious" 4  are g i v e n an immunity to l o g i c a l  to p e n e t r a t e beyond the " v u l g a r  i n G a t s b y ' s dream.  (New York:  of  Gatsby,  of G a t s b y ' s dream emerging i n r e a l  who had cared f o r her found d i f f i c u l t to f o r g e t : a whispered  one of the c h i e f  Scribners,  1953),  p.  9.  the con-  and mere-  -7-  Metaphor a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the r i c h n e s s and s u b t l e t y t i o n a l world,  though many other elements of  A Katherine Mansfield  short story,  digm of the use of s u b t l y r e n d e r i n g of a t t i t u d e s  technique a r e i n v o l v e d . ^  suggestive d e t a i l .  I m p l i c i t e x p o s i t i o n and  g i v e her f i c t i o n a r i c h "background" The r e a d e r i s  By c o m p a r i s o n , the e x p l i c i t ,  e x t e r n a l i z e d world  lends i t s e l f  to a l l e g o r i z a t i o n .  James Joyce a c h i e v e s another s o r t of s u b t l e t y by r e f u s i n g i m p l i c a t i o n of carrying  the a c t i o n .  stillness  f e l t as an e v a l u a t i n g ,  The l e s s he i s  felt,  t i o n r a t h e r than statement, acquiring  the r e a d e r ' s  to p o i n t  inviting  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  analysing  not s t r i c t l y c o n s c i o u s . is  This i s  the  f o r c e i n the on r e p r e s e n t a -  the chance of the a c t i o n  t h a t s u g g e s t i v e ambiguity which draws s i g n i f i c a n c e  but i t  interpre-  suspended.  the more r e l i a n c e there i s and the g r e a t e r  the  remain unanalysed,  i n f l u e n c e d by the prominence of the n a r r a t o r ,  degree to which he i s  world,  i n which they a r e  the example of Joyce suggests,  f i c t i o n a l action is  world.  f e e l i n g , gesture  t h e i r s u g g e s t i v e power i n t h e i r arrangement,  t a t i o n by the n a r r a t i v e As  Statement,  " m o r a l " would  fully  3  of many of Morley C a l l a g h a n ' s s t o r i e s  quality,  i n c l i n e d to view  immediate, human and p r o b l e m a t i c ; an a b s t r a c t  be i r r e l e v a n t .  fic-  f o r example, c o u l d serve as a p a r a -  w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of i l l u m i n a t i o n . her w o r l d as  of a  not p r e c i s e l y a q u a l i t y  o b s e r v a b l e i n the way the world i s  from areas  of the f i c t i o n a l  presented.  Though  F o r some of the methods of a s s e s s i n g the r i c h n e s s of a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d employed h e r e , and f o r the i d e a of i t s e f f e c t on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f i c t i o n , see E r i c h Auerbach, "Odysseus' S c a r , " Mimesis, t r a n s . W i l l a r d Trask (New York: Anchor, 1957), passim.  -8many of  these matters  of form and technique a r e o b j e c t s of a n a l y s i s  e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t contexts,  in  they can, w i t h o u t any i n t e n t i o n of e n -  c r o a c h i n g , be examined here s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e i r e f f e c t on the  fic-  t i o n a l w o r l d and the ethos i t p r o v i d e s f o r the a c t i o n of a n o v e l . Some dependence of s i g n i f i c a n c e c l e a r l y enough i n extreme c o n t r a s t s less evident, writer  though i t  l i k e B r i a n Moore.  s e n t a t i o n so. f a m i l i a r f o r granted,  and u n f a m i l i a r  it  i s much  cannot be l e s s e f f e c t i v e , i n the n o v e l s Moore f o l l o w s  conventions  h a r d l y r e c o g n i z e d as c o n v e n t i o n s .  examples  styles;  of h i s  of a  of r e a l i s t i c p r e -  to t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r s t h a t they are  of the f i c t i o n a l worlds trasting  on f i c t i o n a l w o r l d may be seen  Any t e x t u a l  examination  f o u r n o v e l s w i l l need o c c a s i o n a l  to d i s p e l the f i l m of f a m i l i a r i t y from h i s  taken  con-  techniques.  Chapter 2:  B r i a n Moore's who seeks  J u d i t h Hearne p r e s e n t s  the w o r l d of a B e l f a s t  to escape the hard m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s of  i n g income by i n d u l g i n g It  J u d i t h Hearne  life  spinster  on a d i m i n i s h -  i n r e m i n i s c e n c e s , romantic f a n t a s i e s ,  and a l c o h o l .  i n c l u d e s her thoughts and her f e e l i n g s , which r e v o l v e c h i e f l y around  the b o a r d i n g house where her l a s t romantic hope i s n a i v e l y a t t a c h e d to James Madden, and around a church where she s u f f e r s dreams of e t e r n a l recompense f o r a l i f e vain.  It  of s t e r i l e r i g h t e o u s n e s s  may be  i s a w o r l d of c a r e f u l l y enumerated c i r c u m s t a n t i a l d e t a i l ,  spots on the c a r p e t , buildings  the f e a r t h a t her  s h i l l i n g s and spoons of c o c o a .  are c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d p h y s i c a l l y ,  r a r e l y w i t h any v i v i d n e s s  of  Rooms, s t r e e t s and  but i n r a t i o n a l i z e d terms,  of sensory i m p r e s s i o n s .  Miss H e a r n e ' s  lodgings,  f o r example: A c h a i r , broadbeamed, s t r a i g h t b a c k e d , sat i n the a l c o v e by the bay window, an o l d p e n s i o n e r s t a r i n g out a t the s t r e e t . Near the bed, a d r e s s i n g t a b l e , made f a m i l i a r by her b o t t l e of cologne, her combs and brushes, and her l i t t l e round box of rouge. Across the worn c a r p e t was a wardrobe of brown v a r n i s h e d wood w i t h a long p a n e l m i r r o r set i n i t s d o o r . ^  (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, t a t i o n s a r e from t h i s e d i t i o n .  1964),  p.  19.  Subsequent quo-  -10-  Th e d e s c r i p t i o n of the room c o n t i n u e s Experience with  little  of time and ten A.M.;  too i s u s u a l l y r a t i o n a l i z e d ,  evidence  The  continuous,  room d e s c r i b e d above i s seen a t  Hearne l i e s i n bed  q u i t o u s throughout  o r d e r l y and  of s e n s a t i o n s and w i t h a m e t i c u l o u s p r e s e r v a t i o n  space o r d e r i n g .  Miss  i n an o r d e r l y panorama.  the n o v e l .  f o r twenty minutes.  More s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  seven-  Clocks are u b i -  the n a r r a t i v e p r e -  serves a c a r e f u l c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence. So she smiled a t Mary and was i n t r o d u c e d by Mrs. Henry R i c e . The hammer was g i v e n i n t o her hands and she fumbled w i t h i t , saying thank you, and t h a t she would r e t u r n i t as soon as she had f i n i s h e d hanging her p i c t u r e . Mrs. Henry R i c e s a i d t h e r e was no hurry and to l e t them know i f she needed a n y t h i n g e l s e , and then Miss Hearne went back up the two f l i g h t s of s t a i r s to her room. (p.  17)  T h i s summarized n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n d i r e c t d i a l o g u e serves mainly serve the l o g i c a l and Hearne from one  to p r e -  c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence of events w h i l e moving Miss  scene to the next.  The  r e a l i s m of a c t i o n s as w e l l as  objects i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . With a few cutive.  e x c e p t i o n s , mental a c t i v i t y  i s a l s o l o g i c a l and  S t a t e s of mind and human emotions a r e f i n i t e and  fully  Thus, she d i d not s h i r k c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f a c t t h a t she had s a t up a l l n i g h t i n a c h a i r , t h a t she might have made a l o t of n o i s e , t h a t everyone might know her s e c r e t . She was drunk, so she found these p o s s i b i l i t i e s amusing but unlikely. She d i d not f o r g e t her unpleasant conv e r s a t i o n w i t h Mrs. Henry R i c e . She remembered i t w i t h r e l i s h and her mind t r i u m p h a n t l y a l t e r e d the f a c t s to a more b o l d , more h e r o i c p a t t e r n . (p. T h i s passage might be  termed i n t e r n a l " a n a l y s i s " r a t h e r than  conseexpressed.  89) description,  -11-  since i t  p r e s e n t s not the play of i n s t a n t a n e o u s  s u r f a c e of a mind (to adapt Henry James's an accomplished f a c t . is  impressions across  term) but a s t a t e of mind as  Pure p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , i n  thisesense,  l e s s common i n J u d i t h Hearne, but where i t does appear, i t  larly  the  is  simi-  orderly. F r i e n d s w i t h the l i k e s of Mrs. R i c e , M i s s Hearne s a i d to h e r s e l f . Oh, M o i r a d o e s n ' t understand t h i n g s at a l l . How c o u l d I be f r i e n d s w i t h that f a t t h i n g and how c o u l d something, a s e r i o u s t h i n g - - a l o v e a f f a i r - - j u s t blow over l i k e that? Oh, M o i r a w o u l d n ' t know, s i t t i n g here i n the middle of her c h i c k e n s l i k e some contented hen. (p. 121)  Even when s u b j e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t e d , M i s s H e a r n e s thoughts  are s y n t a c t i -  1  c a l l y and l o g i c a l l y rather  connected, a f t e r the manner of i n t e r n a l monologue  than stream of  consciousness.  The s c r u p u l o u s a t t e n t i o n to l o g i c a l , perience i n this perspective i s  complemented by the c h o i c e of  which i s g e n e r a l l y mundane and l i t e r a l , rich.  commonsense a s p e c t s  Bernard R i c e i s  The metaphor i s homely.  cheeks "wobble l i k e w h i t e  emphasize  cottage  pudding."  The d e a r t h of r e l i g i o u s metaphor i n p a r t i c u l a r  i s n o t a b l e i n a n o v e l i n which so much of the a c t i o n i s cerned w i t h r e l i g i o n .  language  " l i k e some mon-  s t r o u s baby s w e l l e d to man s i z e , " has a f a c e " t h e c o l o u r of c h e e s e , " and when he laughs h i s  ex-  seldom s u g g e s t i v e or f i g u r a t i v e l y  The i n f r e q u e n t f i g u r a t i v e uses of language themselves  the p r o s a i c q u a l i t y of the d e s c r i p t i o n ;  of  o v e r t l y con-  The metaphor does l i t t l e to l i b e r a t e the i m a g i n a -  t i o n from the p h y s i c a l l y and m o r a l l y c o n s t r i c t e d w o r l d of J u d i t h Hearne.  -12-  L i k e many of the a d j e c t i v e s - - h o r r i d f a t t y , personalizes reveals  the d e s c r i p t i o n .  dear aunt,  sneaky  thing—it  The c h o i c e of much of the d e t a i l ,  too,  t h a t the n a r r a t i v e f o c u s has been a t l e a s t c o n d i t i o n a l l y  dis-  p l a c e d to the mind of the aging s p i n s t e r .  Hairpins,  c h i n a dogs a r e o b j e c t s of f a s t i d i o u s s f e m a l e  lace d o i l i e s  and  attention.  The only u n r a t i o n a l i z e d s u b j e c t i v e elements i n J u d i t h H e a r n e s 1  w o r l d a r e her f a n t a s i e s ,  her a d d i c t i o n to a l c o h o l , and her bonds  the p i c t u r e s of her aunt and the Sacred H e a r t . ^ c o n f l i c t and the major a c t i o n of the n o v e l . her u s u a l mental a c t i v i t y , illusions fondly,  r e s t r a i n e d and l o g i c a l .  on a c h o c o l a t e b o x . "  source of v i t a l i t y  a r e not,  She i s  seen b u i l d i n g  "Gipsy,  she  Her f a n t a s i e s  but she c a l l s h e r s e l f back  go f u r t h e r a f i e l d :  t h a t day a t Greystones, bump of v i r i l i t y  standing  sticking  are a  " T h a t handsome boy  up i n h i s  t i g h t bathing  (p.  20).  bathing  trunks,  his  out, he would e n f o l d me, he would run g r a c e -  f u l l y w i t h me up the s t r a n d the r u n - o n sentence,  thought  ("Gipsy i n -  to the r e a l i t y of h a i r p i n s and the e v e r - p r e s e n t c l o c k  Her s e x u a l f a n t a s i e s  like  to c a r r y her s u b j e c t i v e l y beyond the v e r y  measured c o n f i n e s of her l i f e , deed'.")  these l i e the major  Her f a n t a s i e s  of beauty about her image i n the m i r r o r :  l i k e a gipsy g i r l  potential  In  with  to the dunes"  (p.  103).  Note p a r t i c u l a r l y  the romantic vagueness of the s e t t i n g ,  and the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the s u b j e c t i v e power of d e s i r e u n c o n s t r a i n e d by any  ^ James Madden's s e x u a l d e s i r e i s g i v e n s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t . It i s a n a r c h i c enough to o c c a s i o n one of the few d i s r u p t i o n s of the syntax, but i t has too l i t t l e b e a r i n g on the c e n t r a l a c t i o n of the n o v e l to deserve s e p a r a t e e x a m i n a t i o n .  -Im-  practical  considerations.  But even such inward i n d u l g e n c e i s not v i a b l e  i n the m e t i c u l o u s w o r l d of J u d i t h Hearne. she s u f f e r s  remorse, as  Her c o n s c i o u s n e s s  she does a f t e r succumbing  rejects  to a l c o h o l i s m ,  a l s o produces p o w e r f u l n o n - r a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s which are  it;  which  subjectively  portrayed. Then, w h i l e the b o t t l e of cheap whiskey beat a c h a t t e r i n g d r i b b l i n g t a t t o o on the edge of the tumbler, she poured two long f i n g e r s and leaned back. The y e l l o w l i q u i d r o l l e d slowly i n the g l a s s , o p u l e n t , o i l y , the key to contentment. She swallowed i t , f e e l i n g i t warm the p i t of her stomach, slowly spreading through her body, s t e a d y i n g her hands, f i l l i n g her w i t h i t s s e c r e t power. Warmed, r e l a x e d , her own and only m i s t r e s s , she reached f o r and poured a tumbler f u l l of d r i n k . (pp. Sense i m p r e s s i o n s  of the l i q u o r and of her movements are v i v i d ;  metaphor r e p l a c e s the u s u a l subdued.  It  is  similes;  l o g i c and time a r e  The time i s  temporarily  b e f o r e and d u r i n g her f i r s t  a triumph of s t r o n g a n a r c h i c d e s i r e over those But the e f f e c t s of t h i s d e s i r e i n e v i t a b l y  the danger of d i s g r a c e .  Miss Hearne's (p. 9 ) .  drink.  the  sickness,  photograph and the  To both she a t t r i b u t e s a degree of  "The photograph eyes were s t e r n and q u e s t i o n i n g ,  own m i s g i v i n g s about the c o n d i t i o n of the b e d s p r i n g s  When tempted by d r i n k ,  she looks  It  l e a v e M i s s Hearne a more  There remain only her a u n t ' s  oleograph of the Sacred H e a r t .  her  faculties.  a b j e c t v i c t i m of her own p r a c t i c a l concerns — the expense,  t i e n c e and w i l l :  direct  not simply a matter of i n t o x i c a t i o n d i s o r g a n i z i n g  rational faculties. is  83-84)  to the oleograph f o r  sensharing ..."  strength:  -14-  "He looked down, wise and s t e r n and k i n d l y , ing.  No, He s a i d , you must not do i t .  It  His f i n g e r s  r a i s e d i n warn-  would be a m o r t a l s i n "  However i r o n i c a l l y i n t e n d e d , the two form a major p a r t of M i s s p r i v a t e drama, and they have,  i n i t i a l l y at  least,  w i t h i n the s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d of J u d i t h Hearne. her,  as on her f i r s t n i g h t a t Mrs.  Rice's,  (p.  83).  Hearne s 1  considerable efficacy  With them watching  over  a new p l a c e becomes home.  She s a i d good n i g h t to them b o t h , then switched o f f the bed l i g h t and l a y , snuggled i n , w i t h o n l y her nose and eyes out of the c o v e r s , remembering t h a t both of them were t h e r e i n the d a r k n e s s . They make a l l the d i f f e r e n c e , M i s s Hearne thought. . . . :  (p. The photograph g r a d u a l l y  loses i t s  power as M i s s Hearne r e c o g n i z e s  probability  t h a t the o l d woman has  however,  c e n t r a l to her r e l i g i o u s  is  scenes of s u b j e c t i v e i n t e n s i t y The w o r l d so p r e s e n t e d i s from the o u t s e t t h e r e a r e f a i n t t h i s world i s viewed.  r u i n e d her l i f e .  n a t u r e of the metaphor,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Judith Hearne's,  i n t r u s i o n by the n a r r a t o r  i r o n i c tone i n p r e s e n t i n g  e v i d e n t from the f i r s t .  the a g i n g  The v e r y l i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  The r e a d e r i s  separated  Before any d i r e c t e v a l u a t i o n by the  a c l e a r s u g g e s t i o n of h y p o c r i s y  The "bad house" Mrs.  until  the a d j e c t i v e s , and some of the d e t a i l draws a t -  from and o b s e r v i n g M i s s Hearne. there i s  and  s i g n s of some l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e i n whichu  t e n t i o n from the t h i n g s observed to the o b s e r v e r .  narrator,  Heart,  f a i t h which produces the c r u c i a l  There i s no obvious  viewpoint i s  The Sacred  the  i n the c h u r c h .  the second c h a p t e r , but a s l i g h t l y spinster's  18)  R i c e speaks of i s  the s o r t  i n Miss Hearne's  of p l a c e t h a t  actions.  "shouldn't  -15-  be m e n t i o n e d , " y e t a t i t s mention, M i s s Hearne " l e a n e d forward, her b l a c k eyes nervous,  her f a c e open and eager"  (p.  15).  The i r o n y  is  only confirmed by d i r e c t n a r r a t i v e comment on her game of i l l u s i o n s f o r e the m i r r o r : Her gaze,  "Her a n g u l a r  deceiving,  face smiled s o f t l y  transforming  contour of her s a l l o w - s k i n n e d  her to her i m a g i n i n g s ,  face,  skilfully  p o i n t e d nose on which a s m a l l c h i l l y  with i t ,  changed the  the r e a d e r e x p e r i e n c e s and  sympathizes  U l t i m a t e l y he must examine  presumably w i t h i n some broader p e r s p e c t i v e which d e f i n e s  variably  actions  themselves.  The o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s whose v i e w p o i n t s  has h i s  Be-  imaginative  1  throughout  long  (p. 2 0 ) .  the whole f i c t i o n a l w o r l d i n which J u d i t h H e a r n e s b e l i e f s and must prove  image.  i n h e r e n t i n the  but he cannot i d e n t i f y w i t h i t .  and judge i t ,  glassy  r e f a s h i o n i n g her  t e a r had g a t h e r e d "  cause much of M i s s Hearne's v i e w p o i n t i s c o l o u r i n g of the d e s c r i p t i o n ,  at i t s  be-  the n o v e l p r o v i d e few c l u e s  own s e v e r e l y l i m i t i n g  to t h i s  self-interests  they a r e p r e s e n t e d i r o n i c a l l y .  to any h i g h e r r e a l i t y .  larger perspective.  and v a n i t i e s :  almost  sympathetically  of a contented f a m i l y  life;  Each in-  T h e i r v i s i o n does not extend  The only e x c e p t i o n to the i r o n i c tone i s  O ' N e i l l household, which i s the comforts  a r e adopted from time to time  presented.  the  They c h e r i s h  they know t h a t M i s s Hearne  a bore, but t h e i r humane b e l i e f i s  that aging and l o n e l y people need  someone to t a l k  logical—each  to.  T h e i r view i s  is  of us may be o l d and  l o n e l y some d a y — b u t h a r d l y adequate to M i s s Hearne's needs.  Their  -16-  disguised  pity  understanding Beyond i s  emphasizes  the g e n e r a l l a c k of honest human f e e l i n g and  i n the w o r l d t h a t surrounds a Belfast  e v i d e n t i n r a r e passages of d i r e c t comment and  d e s c r i p t i o n by the n a r r a t o r . in its ience.  It  is  one w i t h M i s s H e a r n e ' s p r i v a t e w o r l d  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the common-sense, It  e m p i r i c a l elements of  d i f f e r s from hers c h i e f l y i n l a c k i n g any p o s i t i v e l y  subjective q u a l i t i e s .  Much of the d e s c r i p t i o n i s  w i t h o b j e c t i v e d e t a i l , but a t poverty of  J u d i t h Hearne.  experpresented  circumstantial,  replete  the same time s u g g e s t i v e of meanness  and  spirit. T h i s time, the bus was almost empty as i t rushed through the g r i t t y gloom of evening, down grey drab s t r e e t s , f r i n g e d by row upon row of mean l i t t l e w o r k i n g - c l a s s houses, b r i c k - r e d , s t o n e - g r e y , each and every one the same. A t each window, between f r a y i n g l a c e c u r t a i n s , a c o l o u r e d v a s e , a s e t of c r o s s e d Union J a c k s , or a f i g u r i n e of a l i t t l e g i r l h o l d i n g her s k i r t s up to wade, sat l i k e l i t t l e a l t a r s , turned toward the s t r e e t f o r the e d i f i c a t i o n of the n e i g h b o u r s . (p. 125)  The d e t a i l s are a l l g e n e r a l i z e d to e p i t o m i z e the narrow, barren s p i r i t s negatives  of the i n h a b i t a n t s .  The human v a l u e s  It  is  a r e reduced by i r o n i c  a land where a l l dreams a r e c a l c u l a b l e .  l i g i o u s metaphor of f l a g s and t r i n k e t s as a l t a r s the l i g h t  are reduced to  j u s t as human motives and a s p i r a t i o n s when they appear i n M i s s  Hearne, James Madden and v a r i o u s minor c h a r a c t e r s , treatment.  unimaginative,  of J u d i t h Hearne's  becomes  The r a r e r e significantain  search f o r some transcendent meaning i n r e -  ligion. At times  the n a r r a t o r ' s  d e n i a l of human v a l u e i n the B e l f a s t  setting  -17-  i s more e x p l i c i t .  The f o l l o w i n g  d e s c r i p t i v e passage i n c l u d e s a f a i r l y  complete e v a l u a t i o n . Then, under the g r e a t dome of the b u i l d i n g , r i n g e d around by f o r g o t t e n memorials, bordered by the g a r r i s o n neatness of a Garden of Rememb r a n c e , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was B e l f a s t came i n t o focus. The newsvendors c a l l i n g out the g r e a t events of the w o r l d i n f l a t , u n i n t e r e s t e d U l s t e r v o i c e s ; the drab facades of the b u i l d i n g s grouped around the Square, p r o c l a i m i n g the v i r t u e s of t r a d e , hard d e a l i n g and P r e s b y t e r i a n r i g h t e o u s n e s s . The o r d e r , the neatness, the f l o o d l i t cenotaph, a white respectable phallus planted i n sinking I r i s h bog. The P r o t e s t a n t d e a r t h of g a i e t y , the P r o t e s t a n t s u r f e i t of o r d e r , the dour U l s t e r burghers w a l k i n g p r o u d l y among these monuments to t h e i r m e d i o c r i t y . (p. 76) All  the m o r a l ,  ternalized,  s p i r i t u a l and a e s t h e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e  rendered f i n i t e and measurable i n d i r e c t a s s e r t i o n .  such passages are r a r e , is  of the scene i s  the same tendency toward c o n s c i o u s  e v i d e n t i n the language of M i s s H e a r n e s e x p o s i t o r y 1  scene from A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t .  reminiscences  i n the Christmas  i n the scene.  p o i n t e d ; never i n n o c e n t as The v a l u e s  it  is  to dinner  Some i n t e r n a l monologue always  i s s u e s from the wings, drawing a t t e n t i o n to some s p e c i f i c a l l y concerns a t i s s u e  Though  evaluation  and i n the dramatic scenes of the n o v e l , which are never a l l o w e d r e a c h t h a t p u r i t y of drama found, f o r example,  ex-  And the n a r r a t o r ' s  irony i s  i n J o y c e ' s Christmas  e x p l i c i t l y denied i n t h i s  conscious always  scene.  evaluative d e s c r i p t i o n are  everywhere i m p l i c i t l y denied by the p e r s p e c t i v e of the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d . The d e n i a l i s  i m p l i c i t i n more o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n as w e l l as  i n the  -18-  lives  of the c h a r a c t e r s  (though they are not p r o t e s t a n t s ) .  The p r e s e n -  t a t i o n of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s g i v e s precedence to t h a t " s u r f e i t of o r d e r " r e f e r r e d to h e r e .  A l l human e x p e r i e n c e and human d e s i r e s a r e reduced  to r a t i o n a l  r e f e r a b l e to the " g a r r i s o n n e a t n e s s "  terms,  w o r l d of o b j e c t i v e f a c t s . the i n f i n i t e i m a g i n a t i v e  Where human f e e l i n g t h r e a t e n s dimensions  of f a i t h ,  of o b j e c t i v e c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e a s s e r t s  itself  to mark i t as  into  the w o r l d  illusion.  feelings  suffers  Though i t can t r a n s c e n d the minor o r d e r i n g of  her own p r i v a t e e x p e r i e n c e , i t perspective.  larger  to escape  love or w o r s h i p ,  The f e e b l e anarchy of J u d i t h Hearne's r e l i g i o u s this fate continually.  of t h i s  cannot d i s p l a c e  Here she approaches  the o r d e r i n g of the  the church i n need of  larger  reassurance:  But t h e r e i n f r o n t of her was S a i n t F i n b a r ' s , i t s G o t h i c s p i r e u p l i f t e d l i k e two p r a y i n g hands, a grey r e l i g i o u s p l a c e , the house of God i n the peace of n i g h t . (p. 101) The church i s ity. itself  transformed, animated by a r a r e a c c e s s  of s p i r i t u a l  But immediately the broader common-sense p e r s p e c t i v e  vital-  reasserts  i n a commercial metaphor. The church was empty: c l e a r e d of i t s stock of r i t u a l s , invocations, prayers, a deserted s p i r i t u a l warehouse w a i t i n g new consignments. (p. 101)  In her time of doubt, when she i s contains  only round wafers  r e c o v e r i n her own mind: her knees.  tempted to b e l i e v e t h a t the t a b e r n a c l e  of unleavened bread, her f a i t h can a t " 0 God, God f o r g i v e me! she c r i e d ,  F o r g i v e me, 0 S a c r e d . H e a r t ,  put i n my head.  0 my g u a r d i a n a n g e l ,  for  first  falling  on  the t e r r i b l e doubt the d e v i l  s h i e l d me, p r o t e c t me.  Forgive  -19-  me, 0 God, f o r I have s i n n e d .  I have blasphemed."  The next words  assert  the p r i o r c l a i m of e m p i r i c a l f a c t : The f o o t s t e p s r e t u r n e d . " Y o u ' l l have to l e a v e now, m i s s i s , " the o l d s a c r i s t a n s a i d . His soutane was unbuttoned, showing a d i r t y brown p u l l o v e r u n d e r neath. She looked i n t o h i s o l d d i s c o l o u r e d eyes, searching for secrets. But saw only t h a t he was t i r e d , t h a t he wanted to c l o s e the church, t h a t he wanted her to go. (p. 103) The d i r t on h i s brown p u l l o v e r does more than the absence of in his  eyes to d i s p e l m y s t e r i e s from t h i s w o r l d .  peculiar  to the r e l i g i o u s  scenes i n the n o v e l .  a r e e f f e c t e d whenever m a r i t a l a s p i r a t i o n s Hearne's r a t i o n a l In  secrets  Such treatment i s Similar  not  juxtapositions  or a l c o h o l overcome M i s s  restraint.  t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e J u d i t h Hearne s r e l i g i o u s 1  f a i t h c o u l d never  s u r v i v e except i r o n i c a l l y w i t h i n a d e l u s i o n a l w o r l d of her own. complete d e s t r u c t i o n r e s u l t s her, must be p h y s i c a l ,  from her demand f o r a s i g n .  observable,  church window on her and Madden,  l i k e the s u n l i g h t  cast  A sign,  Its to  through the  or a p r o p o s a l of m a r r i a g e ,  a bolt  of 8  lightning,  or an angry f i r e - b r e a t h i n g god emerging from the t a b e r n a c l e .  The rewards of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f must be t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o e m p i r i c a l f a c t . The answer final  to h e r p l e a i s a g a i n i m p l i e d i n the o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e .  solace i s  i n the only p o s s i b l e  e x p e r i e n c e s and her environment.  Her  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of her s u b j e c t i v e  Her d e s i r e f o r r e l i g i o n she a s c r i b e s  g In t h i s r e s p e c t she bears out the a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n of her name. " J u d i t h " i n Hebrew s i g n i f i e s " J e w e s s . "  -20-  to a need f o r a community of f e e l i n g w i t h her countrymen. pital  she r e t u r n s  In  the h o s -  to her p i c t u r e s w i t h a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  She s m i l e d . The f a m i l i a r t h i n g s . How o f t e n thought t h a t . And on the d r e s s i n g t a b l e , her aunt i n s e p i a tones. Aunt D ' A r c y ' s p i c t u r e . More r e a l now than aunt h e r s e l f . F o r she i s gone. It i s here. It i s p a r t of me. And You. Were You ever? Is t h i s p i c t u r e the only You? I t i s here and You a r e gone. I t i s You. No matter what You a r e , i t s t i l l i s p a r t of me. She c l o s e d her eyes. Funny about those two. When t h e y ' r e w i t h me, watching over me, a new p l a c e becomes home. I've  The l a s t elements of s u b j e c t i v e freedom are f i n a l l y r a t i o n a l i z e d logical  c o n s c i o u s human s e n t i m e n t s .  the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d of which she i s  J u d i t h Hearne i s a part.  into  i n harmony w i t h  Chapter 3:  The opening f e a t u r e s of i t s  lines  The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l  of The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l r e v e a l s e v e r a l  f i c t i o n a l world:  " D i a r m u i d Devine,  B. A.  dominant  ( J u n i o r and 9  Senior E n g l i s h ) , The l i n e s  stood a t h i s desk s i z i n g h i s books i n t o a p i l e . "  reveal f i r s t  the prominence of the n a r r a t o r and second the  most common type of d e t a i l . J u d i t h Hearne, as i s and p r o v i s i o n a l l y  The n a r r a t o r i s more o b t r u s i v e  shown i n the d i r e c t n e s s w i t h which he i n t r o d u c e s  defines  the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r .  i s more i n c l i n e d to be d i r e c t , not a s s i m i l a t e d miniscences. father,  Devine's  p a s t takes  h i s and J o s i e ' s ,  Exposition  throughout  i n t o the c h a r a c t e r s '  shape i n passages l i k e t h i s :  had d i e d f o u r t e e n y e a r s ago.  f o l l o w e d him to the grave one y e a r l a t e r . alone.  than i n  re-  "Their  T h e i r poor mother  He and J o s i e had been l e f t  J o s i e got m a r r i e d and he moved to d i g s "  " p o o r " and " d i g s " are to mark t h i s as D e v i n e s 1  (p. 9 ) .  If  the words  own r e f l e c t i o n , i t  is  9  (Boston: L i t t l e Brown, from t h i s e d i t i o n .  1957),  p. 3 - - subsequent q u o t a t i o n s  are  -22-  not p l a u s i b l y  stimulated.  reduce the schoolmaster official  phrasing  characterizes his  D i r e c t statement from the o u t s e t h e l p s  to an i r o n i c l e v e l .  to  The s c r u p u l o u s d e t a i l and  of h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n i t i a t e an i r o n i c tone which treatment i n the n o v e l .  That the p u r e l y l o c a l  t i n c t i o n of t e a c h i n g " J u n i o r and S e n i o r E n g l i s h " enough to mention a t t h i s  dis-  should be important  stage suggests t h a t D e v i n e s 1  is  a s o u l which  can be d e f i n e d i n such infra-human terms. The terms a r e " s o c i a l " i n the b r o a d e s t sense of the word. d e s c r i b e no i n d i v i d u a l human q u a l i t i e s a s o c i a l order. a satisfactory  They  i n the man, but h i s p o s i t i o n  Devine e x i s t s mainly as a s o c i a l being s t r u g g l i n g  in for  p o s i t i o n i n that o r d e r , and i n a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d i n which  the s o c i a l elements of e x p e r i e n c e predominate. Broadly Hearne.  the r e a l i s m of t h i s w o r l d i s  similar  to t h a t of J u d i t h  The c i r c u m s t a n t i a l r e a l i s m of p h y s i c a l d e t a i l i s  maintained,  generally  though not q u i t e as prominent:  Taking o f f h i s r a i n c o a t and h a t , Mr. Devine went i n t o h i s den. The f i r e was drawing and i t was not dark y e t . A l a t e a f t e r n o o n sun shone through the i r o n - b a r r e d basement windows, beyond which he c o u l d see the back garden w i t h washing on a long l i n e . (p. 11) The d e t a i l i s documentive, w i t h o u t sensory v i v i d n e s s ; "fire",  "garden",  "taking",  "went",  and "washing"  "raincoat",  "hat",  a r e u n p a r t i c u l a r i z e d as a r e the v e r b s  " s h o n e " and " s e e " .  through time and space; Devine i s  Events form a continuous  process  e x p l i c i t l y moved i n t o h i s den, and  -23-  the back garden i s  the l a s t stage i n a panorama of the room.  Some more o v e r t l y p u r p o s e f u l d e t a i l may be found i n the scene when the s c h o o l b e l l sends the p u p i l s , w i t h t h e i r canes s c u r r y i n g  to the next  the masters  first  and the  priests  class:  At t h a t moment, i n a s m a l l cubbyhole o f f the entrance h a l l of S a i n t M i c h a n ' s C o l l e g e , the h a l l p o r t e r pushed a key i n t o the s w i t c h b l o c k and pressed i t down. An e l e c t r i c b e l l , d e a f e n i n g l y l o u d , screamed out i n t o c o r r i d o r s , c r y i n g unheard i n empty d o r m i t o r i e s , echoing a c r o s s wet p l a y i n g f i e l d s to d i e i n the faraway m i s t s over B e l f a s t Lough. (p. 3) Devine, who i s  so a c u t e l y aware of a l l  a c c u r a t e l y the sounding  s o c i a l pressure,  of the b e l l which c o n t r o l s  can a n t i c i p a t e  the p e r i o d i c move-  ments of human l i f e w i t h i n the c o l l e g e and p e n e t r a t e s even beyond. Dehumanized s o c i a l order a t i t s  purest,  the b e l l i s  of the whole a c t i o n of s o c i a l f o r c e s i n the n o v e l . various  forces  analog  L i k e the b e l l ,  of s o c i a l a p p r o b a t i o n and d i s a p p r o v a l d r i v e the compla-  cent schoolmaster  i n t o a romantic involvement w i t h Tim H e r o n ' s  mdece., Una C l a r k e , who i s promising  a possible  situation.  driven, i n turn,  In an u n s u c c e s s f u l  young  to l u r i n g Devine i n t o a com-  attempt to s h i e l d h i m s e l f  the f o r c e s of outraged p r o p r i e t y , he b e t r a y s her t r u s t — a n d h i s r e s p e c t — b y denying any p a r t i n her d i s g r a c e . appropriate analog, is  since i t  is  operated by Old John.  a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e s.toney a r b i t e r of f a t e s  maining deaf  The b e l l i s  to the c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t .  self-  porter  s c a l e by r e -  to any d i r e c t i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the inmates w h i l e  t h e i r most guarded s e c r e t s  own  a particularly  The h a l l  on a l a r g e r  from  carrying  The m i l i t a n t  -24-  s o c i a l code of the s c h o o l , social  surroundings,  l i k e the sound of the b e l l ,  as Diarmuid Devine p a i n f u l l y  of the d e t a i l , however, a t t r a c t s Internal,  "He f e l t damned s o r r y f o r Young C o n n o l l y "  and l o g i c a l l y  arranged,  quite e x p l i c i t .  s i n f u l dreams,  little  i n t e r n a l monologue:  (p. 5 ) .  F e e l i n g s are  Thoughts a r e f u l l y  finite  conscious  even when heightened emotions demand a c l o s e r  d e s c r i p t i o n f o r immediacy of e f f e c t . of h i s  Very  connected and r a t i o n a l .  i n the c o l l o q u i a l form of D e v i n e ' s  and i d e n t i f i a b l e , u s u a l l y  learns.  such s p e c u l a t i o n .  l i k e external, experience i s  Much of i t i s  extends i n t o the  is  Devine, when f a c e d w i t h the r e a l i t y  incompetent but always  logical:  And he, what should he do? Undress? Be i n bed and w a i t i n g ? Or j u s t s i t here? With shame he thought of h i s naked body. He would look a w f u l , h i s t u r n e d - i n knees, h i s narrow c h e s t , and, m e r c i f u l God', long white underwear. (p. 147) His  sentences  s u f f e r from the urgency of h i s  main l o g i c a l l y vividness  ordered.  found a t  the onset of J u d i t h Hearne's a l c o h o l i s m ,  "Afraid,  feelings,  suspended, In  his  (p.  145).  sensory  To do j u s t i c e to the c o m p l e x i t y simile:  though i n g e n u f l e c t i o n b e f o r e the a l t a r  But the s t r e n g t h of the l o g i c a l  even i n moments of f e e l i n g , by s t r o n g e r  s p i t e of b a s i c  re-  or the  l o v e scene does c o n t a i n an o c c a s i o n a l  he k n e l t once more, as  of h e r body"  thoughts  Heightened f e e l i n g does not produce the  s t r e n g t h of metaphor accompanying i t . of D e v i n e ' s  f e a r , but h i s  similarities  in realistic  order i s  rarely  forms of metaphor.  t e c h n i q u e , the  selection  of d e t a i l and of language make t h i s w o r l d c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from  -25-  that of J u d i t h Hearne. ter,  The c o n v e n t i o n a l or s o c i a l d e t a i l s  scene or a c t i o n outweigh the r a d i c a l l y p e r s o n a l ,  jective detail.  of any  sensory and  The i n t r o d u c t i o n of Diarmuid Devine by h i s  position is  a first  t i o n of h i s  street:  sign.  The same tendency i s  characsub-  academic  e v i d e n t i n the d e s c r i p -  He l i v e d midway between the s c h o o l and the c i t y , i n a q u i e t avenue once prosperous, now f a i l i n g . Its s m a l l f r o n t gardens had a naked, communal look, o c c a s i o n e d by the wartime removal of t h e i r i r o n r a i l i n g s f o r use i n making t a n k s . The r a i l i n g s had not been r e p l a c e d , the avenue had not r e c o v e r e d . Dusty squares of lawn, e n c l o s e d by low stone p a r a p e t s , l a y l i k e n e g l e c t e d empty p o o l s i n f r o n t o f the houses. I t was an avenue whose f i r s t owners had moved to new a r e a s , making way f o r widows on a n n u i t i e s , salesmen on commission and policemen-';: pensioned o f f . (p. 11) Details of i t s  of i t s  economic h i s t o r y  "once p r o s p e r o u s " may suggest  appearance, but p h y s i c a l d e t a i l i s  p r e s e n t d e c l i n e a r e m a i n l y of s o c i a l of the i n h a b i t a n t s men."  There i s  means to D e v i n e . boarders."  slight.  importance,  by t h e i r s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s  Its  something  p a s t and  l i k e the d e s c r i p t i o n  "widows salesmen and p o l i c e -  no p e r s o n a l d e t a i l of the people or of what the He l i v e s  its  t h e r e because "some of the houses  The e x p o s i t o r y p a r t of the d e s c r i p t i o n has a  street  took  in  sociological  tone. C h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s shares Devine s 1  appearance,  this bias.  In  the d e s c r i p t i o n of  the language i n p a r t i c u l a r i s  notable.  He was a t a l l man, y e t d i d not seem so: not y o u t h f u l , y e t somehow young; a man whose appearance  Diarmuid  -26-  suggested some p a i n f u l u n c e r t a i n t y . He wore the j a c k e t and w a i s t c o a t of a b u s i n e s s s u i t , but h i s t r o u s e r s were sag-kneed f l a n n e l s . His b l a c k brogues c l a s h e d w i t h loud A r g y l e socks. The m i l i t a r y b r a v u r a of h i s l a r g e mustache was denied by weak eyes, c i r c l e d by i l l - f i t t i n g spectacles. Similarly, his hair, worn long and u n t i d y behind the e a r s , t h i n n i n g to a sandy s h o a l on h i s f r e c k l e d brow, o f f s e t the V i c t o r i a n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of w a i s t c o a t , g o l d watch c h a i n and s i g n e t r i n g . (p. 6) The f i r s t young,  sentence i s  physical d e s c r i p t i o n i n personal  uncertainty."  The r e s t of the d e s c r i p t i o n evokes  with a series  of s o c i a l  Argyle  h a i r worn long and u n t i d y , "  socks,  "business,  military,  individual  than s o c i a l  It  is  appropriate  Victorian."  comparisons  significance  springing  "loud  or by s p e c i a l i z e d terms  like  The only q u a l i t y p r e s e n t e d w i t h more is  that t h i s p e r s o n a l  any dreams or a p p e t i t e s  "tall,  c o n v e n t i o n s , whether by t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s ,  D e v i n e ' s weakness  trait is  of c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i a l modes i n h i s d r e s s ,  pressures,  terms:  character.  r e p r e s e n t e d by a p a s t i c h e  since i t  is  a weakness  from w i t h i n but to a l l  from the t h r e a t of r u i n to  of  not  external  to  social  the frown of a lady on a p a s s i n g  tram. The p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d e t a i l i s vacillating Heron's his  not c o n f i n e d to d e s c r i b i n g  c o n f o r m i t y of the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r .  self-assertion  is  Even the f i e r y Tim  a n a l y s e d as a s o c i a l r e a c t i o n :  " A l l his  c o n s t a n t f e a r had been t h a t he would be o v e r l o o k e d , h i s  o c c u p a t i o n the seeking out of f a n c i e d i n s u l t s by t i c s  and t r e m b l i n g s  of suppressed rage,  his  the  life,  constant  pre-  . . . His bony body was warped e l e c t r i c - b l u e eyes f l i c k e r e d  -27-  to and f r o i n s e a r c h of a sneak a t t a c k "  (p.  17).  p e r s o n a l components of c h a r a c t e r u n d e r l y t h i s they are never c l e a r . fundamental humanity, the r e a d e r i s  but as  s o c i a l beings.  character i s  his father's  the boy a t t e n d e d and h i s details,  p a t t e r n of s o c i a l  like his  show, e x p o s i t o r y d e t a i l has  o c c u p a t i o n and s o c i a l  standing,  ten y e a r s a t S t . M i c h a n ' s .  family  schools personal  remembered f e a r when as a c h i l d he watched h i s  fourteen-year-olds,  was why Corny had been t e l l i n g up and overheard them.  Few of  More t y p i c a l i s scandal:  world has an e x p l a n a t i o n i t  acutely sensitive  That sneaked  t h e i r characters are explained.  lies  the s o c i a l  in social emphasis  As h i s  They  Once they a r e c a t e g o r i z e d If  this  causes. extends i n t o the r e v e a l e d  of Diarmuid Devine, which i n c l u d e s most of the  psychological action.  "They  from the Glens of A n t r i m .  (p. 9 3 ) .  Devine's  the ex-  the other two when F a t h e r C r e e l y  C u s h e n d a l l boys t o g e t h e r "  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  father  They always t o l d each other e v e r y t h i n g .  by t h e i r c u l t u r a l background,  he i s  the  Purely  p l a n a t i o n of the boys F a t h e r C r e e l y catches s p r e a d i n g were j u n i o r boys,  the same  developed by e x p o s i t i o n of h i s  memories have t h a t inward q u a l i t y of f e e l i n g .  consciousness  their  To use a c h e m i c a l metaphor,  swim out to sea l e a v i n g him a l o n e on the beach, a r e r a r e .  were a l l  response,  g i v e n not t h e i r atomic s t r u c t u r e s but t h e i r v a l e n c e s .  Devine's  background,  any more r a d i c a l l y  C h a r a c t e r s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h i s w o r l d not i n  As the e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n s emphasis.  If  judgment of the b e l l  intervals  to s o c i a l o r d e r i n g and to i t s  novel's suggests,  controls.  His  -28-  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c gesture i n conversation i s ing—the  pupils,  When Maloney i s  the Dean, h i s  landlady,  but to keep them q u i e t :  Tim Heron i s  the w a i t r e s s  scandalous  i n the t e a shop.  157).  His mind i s  a r e than w i t h how they w i l l  Devine i s  daughWhen  only  partly  He wants to a v o i d calumny:  Mr. Devine murmured, w i t h a warning (p.  concern  remarks about T i m ' s  e x c o r i a t i n g him i n the s c h o o l h a l l w a y ,  classroom door"  overhear-  "Whisht man, somebody might h e a r . "  concerned w i t h v i n d i c a t i n g h i s honour. "'Whisht'.'  anyone i s  j o k i n g c o a r s e l y a t Tim H e r o n ' s p a r t y , D e v i n e ' s  i s not to condemn or c o n t r a d i c t h i s ter,  to see i f  look a t the h a l f - o p e n e d  o c c u p i e d l e s s w i t h how t h i n g s  look to o t h e r s .  Even the s l i g h t s on h i s  manhood which goad him i n t o the main a c t i o n of the n o v e l do not  raise  serious  his  self-doubts.  The s i n s of h i s  i m a g i n a t i o n a s s u r e him of  s e x u a l normalcy, but he w o r r i e s about the appearance he p r e s e n t s to the world: (p. 9 ) .  "It  was a shock,  The shock i s  o r i e n t e d outward,  dammit,  to f i n d out you were a  laughingstock"  e s p e c i a l l y v i o l e n t to a man whose conduct i s  all  s e t i n a p a t t e r n to evoke the proper response from  everyone around him. Even h i s view of h i m s e l f  is generally external.  When he f i r s t meets  Una C l a r k e and ponderously attempts c o n v e r s a t i o n , he i s  stimulated mainly  by the outward view of h i m s e l f he imagines:  here he was,  f l i r t i n g with a g i r l . " without  losing  "by j i n g o ,  He enjoys the n o v e l t y of the e x p e r i e n c e , but  s i g h t of i t s  effect.  He hopes the g a r r u l o u s Maloney  spread the s t o r y among the other masters a t S t . M i c h a n ' s .  The terms  will in  -29-  which he judges h i m s e l f pises  his  r e f l e c t the same outward o r i e n t a t i o n .  He d e s -  own i n d i v i d u a l i t y when he compares i t w i t h s o c i a l norms which  have p o p u l a r a c c e p t a n c e : His f a c e was of another s p e c i e s from the handsome men who d a i l y looked down on him from c i g a r e t t e , shaving cream, and h a i r t o n i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . Wouldn't he look r i d i c u l o u s on a cinema p o s t e r ? (p. That he can draw h i s  standards  of comparison from even the s u p e r f i c i a l  and romantic w o r l d of commercial a r t t e l y i n awe of p u b l i c t a s t e .  53)  shows t h a t he stands  indiscrimina-  His c e n t r e of judgment must lodge i n any  c o n v e n i e n t s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n because he has no enduring p e r s o n a l  standard.  He has no moral p r i n c i p l e s  of  strong  enough to transcend the c l a i m s  expedience and form a b a s i s f o r i n d i v i d u a l judgment.  As he r e f l e c t s c a f t e r  t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n Una C l a r k e and then h e a r i n g M a l o n e y ' s her:  "Information  against nothing, against i t  is  about a s t r a n g e r meets no d e f e n s e .  i t weighs complete"  Devine's  independent  (p. 3 1 ) .  social  In  scandal  about  the b a l a n c e  The " n o t h i n g "  balanced  judgment.  His more s t u d i e d r e f l e c t i o n s r e v e a l an e x p l i c i t b e l i e f i n the power of s o c i a l f o r c e s ances. ing:  He blames h i s "It  time.  to match h i s  was  conscious  own s o c i a l  i n e p t i t u d e e n t i r e l y on h i s  the e d u c a t i o n i n I r e l a n d ,  (p. 9)..  early  appeartrain-  dammit, he had s a i d i t many a  He had been a boarder a t t h i s v e r y s c h o o l ,  u n t i l he was almost a grown man" his  preoccupation with s o c i a l  shut o f f from g i r l s  And he attempts  own e x p e r i e n c e by r e f e r e n c e to borrowed s t e r e o t y p e s ;  to understand protestant  -30-  g i r l s are "hot s t u f f , "  french k i s s i n g is  h o s t i l e establishment. is  " d i r t y , " protestants  are the  The l a s t b i t t e r blow of h i s d e f e a t i n the n o v e l  t h a t he has not even been allowed to d i s g r a c e h i m s e l f and f i t  a socially  a c c e p t a b l e p a t t e r n of f a i l u r e .  be gossipped  about,  into  He w i l l never be " a man t o  a man who r u i n e d h i m s e l f . "  Success  or f a i l u r e  is  measured i n the appearance you p r e s e n t to the w o r l d . A g r e a t d e a l of t h i s Diarmuid Devine,  emphasis might simply be s a i d  f o r i t does.  He i s  a b j e c t need of acceptance by h i s criticism. realities its  It  to c h a r a c t e r i z e  a timorous and dependent s o u l ,  f e l l o w s and i n c o n s t a n t f e a r of  n o n e t h e l e s s forms a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the  of the n o v e l , and f o r v a r i o u s  c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h the emphasis  i t more than u s u a l l y  significant  in  social  psychological  reasons which w i l l become apparent,  i n d i r e c t n a r r a t i v e statements  makes  i n i d e n t i f y i n g the o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e  of t h i s f i c t i o n a l w o r l d . The dominance of s o c i a l v a l u e s by the d e t a i l . conventional,  The o r d e r l i n e s s conscious,  the language,  usage h e l p s  in its  established  of documentive r e a l i s m a l s o f a v o u r s  s o c i a l parts  the r a d i c a l and the i n t u i t i v e . terms,  i n that perspective i s  of e x p e r i e n c e over the i n d i v i d u a l ,  A s i d e from s p e c i a l i z e d  sociological  p r o s a i c q u a l i t y and d e a r t h of  to c o n f i n e the dimensions  figurative  of i n d i v i d u a l human v a l u e s ,  them i n the background of the p e r s p e c t i v e when they are p r e s e n t a t The i r o n y w i t h which D e v i n e s 1  constant  the  s o c i a l a n x i e t y i s viewed  to keep all.  should  presuppose the presence of some transcendent moral v a l u e i n the p e r s p e c -  -31-  tive,  but t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the a c t i o n t h a t c o u l d e s t a b l i s h  norm.  Devine's  one p i e c e of a - s o c i a l l y  motivated b e h a v i o u r ,  t a t i o n of Heron and the c o l l e g e a u t h o r i t i e s , tance back i n t o the s o c i a l  system.  is  the i r o n i c his  rewarded by h i s  confronaccep-  The i r o n y must be f o r D e v i n e ' s  in-  e f f e c t i v e n e s s r a t h e r than h i s aim of s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e . The p e r s p e c t i v e i s more c o n s i s t e n t because the n a r r a t i v e and thoughts is  technique i s  simpler.  Though D e v i n e ' s  a r e a p a r t of most scenes i n the n o v e l ,  never thoroughly d i s p l a c e d to h i s  usually  than i n J u d i t h Hearne,  exist  consciousness.  partly  reactions  the n a r r a t i v e His  focus  perceptions  i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t of n a r r a t i v e comment on him and on  the scene as a whole.  J u d i t h Hearne's p r i v a t e v i e w p o i n t ,  ironically  s u s t a i n e d f o r much longer p e r i o d s w i t h o u t the i n -  exposed,  is  t r u s i o n of any broader view of developed,  i n c l u d i n g as  sensations, ness.  In  reality.  Her e x p e r i e n c e i s more  the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s ,  her thoughts,  though i t  It  is  regularly  conscious-  running i n t e r n a l monologue  never a l l o w e d to develop as an autonomous view of the a c t i o n from the n a r r a t o r ' s .  thoroughly  a broader range of her  and the impulses which l i e below her  The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l , D e v i n e ' s  is  is  distinct  i n t e r r u p t e d by comment, "Mr.  Devine  d i d not know a n y t h i n g about w i n e , " by some e x t e r n a l view of Devine,  "his  body was u n p u b l i c " or by the n a r r a t i v e machinery of "he thought"  "Mr.  Devine s a i d to h i m s e l f . "  The p e r s p e c t i v e i s  imposed by the n a r r a t o r ,  and extends i n t o the r e f l e c t i o n s of the main c h a r a c t e r , who i s more e x t e r n a l l y than J u d i t h Hearne.  or  viewed  Because the i r o n i c p r e t e n s e of  Devine's  -32-  view i s  never s u s t a i n e d ,  the i r o n y of tone i s  c l e a r e r but l e s s  subtle.  The f i c t i o n a l w o r l d i s h e l d f i r m l y i n the g i v e n p e r s p e c t i v e by the narrator's  e v a l u a t i v e tendency.  C h a r a c t e r s are a n a l y s e d ,  and Heron, when they a r e i n t r o d u c e d .  Una C l a r k e i s  l i k e Devine  the lone e x c e p t i o n ,  d e v e l o p i n g through the a c t i o n and the comments of o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . The p u r e s t d e s c r i p t i v e passages c o n t a i n a f i n a l word of a n a l y s i s , the d e s c r i p t i o n of Tim Heron's rose e a r l y ,  street:  and had a t i r i n g day"  (p.  like  " H e r e , people went to bed e a r l y , 16).  The a n a l y s i s ,  again,is  socio-  logical . The l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of s c e n i c n a r r a t i o n does not l e a d to any c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d r a w a l of the n a r r a t o r .  The dramatic scenes,  scenes of Devine and Heron, a r e an e x c e p t i o n . dramatic  later  They a r e more p u r e l y  than any i n J u d i t h Hearne, w i t h l e s s accompaniment of i n t e r n a l  monologue.  In  not l i m i t e d .  such scenes, autonomy of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s  c a l l e d the l y r i c i n t e n s i t y flat,  professions  is  Less dramatic scenes make f r e e use of i n t e r n a l monologue  i n which o c c a s i o n a l h i n t s  Devine's  l i k e the  of  of a n a l y s i s emerge i n s p i t e of what could'Lbe of the scene.  f o r example, b u i l d s  The n e a r - s e d u c t i o n scene  to an i n t e n s i t y a t  the time of U n a ' s  love:  "Now I ' l l t e l l y o u , " she s a i d . "I love you, I love y o u . " G r a t e f u l n e s s f i l l e d him. He put h i s hands on her neck and k i s s e d her on the l i p s . But her mouth opened, her tongue p r o b e d . The r e v e r e n c e was profaned. He k n e l t back s w i f t l y on h i s h e e l s , h e a r i n g the s h o r t shocked gasp of h i s own b r e a t h . Dev.  (p.  in  145)  -33-  The b r i e f passage i s mainly  o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t i o n , but the sentence "The  r e v e r e n c e was p r o f a n e d " i s not d e s c r i p t i v e l i k e " G r a t e f u l n e s s him."  It  analyses  analysis.  the whole t u r n of e v e n t s , and i t  His r e a c t i o n to t h a t type of c a r e s s  more s p e c i f i c : Besides  is  i s not  Devine s 1  a l r e a d y shown to be  "Damn her s o u l , who taught her t h a t ! "  imposing a r i g i d p e r s p e c t i v e ,  filled  (p.  144)  the prominent n a r r a t o r  to e x t e r n a l i z e the w o r l d of The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l , to expose i t to c o n s c i o u s  judgment.  no e n i g m a t i c f i g u r e s . w o r l d i n t o the f u l l y Devine's wall,  There a r e no areas  tends  fully  of dimly p e r c e i v e d background,  E x p l i c i t e x p o s i t i o n draws a l l elements of illuminated foreground.  the  Each p i c t u r e on Diarmuid  each h a b i t he has c u l t i v a t e d , has a h i s t o r y which appears  i n d e t a i l w i t h the f i r s t mention of i t s  subject:  "In  the y e a r s  of  i n g , he had l e a r n e d to c a l c u l a t e each f o r t y - m i n u t e p e r i o d w i t h o u t f e r e n c e to h i s watch"  (p. 3 ) .  cance—fully  g i v e n e x p l i c i t meaning.  too, have t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e - - u s u a l l y externalized.  Mr. D e v i n e ' s  i n Tim Heron's b e s t p a r l o u r i s  re-  More f u l l y and more promptly even than  i n J u d i t h Hearne, each s u g g e s t i v e d e t a i l i s Situations,  teach-  their social  signifi-  encounter w i t h the " o l d  ones"  r e m i n i s c e n t of J o y c e ' s "The Dead,"  t h e i r e f f e c t s provide a useful contrast.  Here the i m p l i c a t i o n s  s i t u a t i o n are caught and c o n f i n e d i n a d i r e c t  analysis:  Out of i t , i n t h i s room, the o l d ones and the maiden l a d i e s w a i t e d f o r Mr. Devine to b r i n g some of the p a r t y to them. And when he c o u l d not, they wished t h a t he would go, they c o u l d d i s c u s s him then, they c o u l d use him as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t to b e g i n a g a i n t h a t  of  but the  -34-  f a m i l i a r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p i l g r i m a g e from the u n s a t i s f y i n g p r e s e n t to the f a m i l i a r p a s t . (p. Unanalysed,  the o l d aunts  range of s i g n i f i c a n c e These o l d p e o p l e ,  24)  i n "The Dead" are mutely e x p r e s s i v e ;  their  c o u l d not be captured e x p l i c i t l y w i t h o u t  loss.  though a d m i t t e d l y  they appear f o r only a moment,  are  c o n f i n e d to the g i v e n s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  and t h e i r b e a r i n g on Devine i s  also  made e x p l i c i t .  He too i s  i n danger of becoming o l d and n e g l e c t e d .  Even the dashing mephistophelean f i g u r e of Dean McSwiney left  the romantic a p p e a l of shadowy and s i n i s t e r m o t i v e s .  on the p r e s i d e n t ' s  c h a i r and h i s  ambiguous i m p l i c a t i o n s  is  of  of the s c h o o l .  design ambi-  The Dean sees  e x p l i c i t and l i t e r a l .  The image i t s e l f ,  the f i r e Dean McSwiney  f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of meaning i s  significance,  study.  not  the  the f i r e i n h i s g r a t e as analogous to the o l d p r e s i -  dent impeding the progress  rarity,  His  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of such w o r l d l y  t i o n s are c l e a r l y exposed i n the scene i n h i s dead c o a l s t i f l i n g  is  is  usually  with  s t i r r i n g up i s as unambiguous  the a as  it  In a f i c t i o n a l world w i t h such e x t e r n a l i z e d  the a c t i o n tends  to be u n p r o b l e m a t i c ,  to i n v i t e  conscious  judgment. The i n t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l f o r c e s p r o v i d e s the n o v e l .  the e s s e n t i a l a c t i o n of  There are no f o r c e s of i n d i v i d u a l human w i l l  s e t up a g a i n s t  them, no element of r a d i c a l l y p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s or v a l u e s o u t s i d e the main c h a r a c t e r )  (inside  s u f f i c i e n t to produce such i n d i v i d u a l  Diarmuid Devine i s not an a n t a g o n i s t of s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s , or l e s s p a s s i v e v i c t i m of t h e i r c o n f l i c t i n g demands.  or  will.  but a more  He c o n s i s t e n t l y  -35-  evinces  the p e r s o n a l human emotion of f e a r , which evokes  but h i s  individual,  little sures.  relief  spontaneous m o t i v a t i o n i s  from and no o p p o s i t i o n  The t r u t h he f e a r s ,  men and would b e t r a y h i s in selfless is  habits  provides  to the e v e r - p r e s e n t e x t e r n a l p r e s -  that he i s  striving  to be a l l  t h i n g s to  own mother to a v o i d a q u a r r e l , i s  s o c i a l adjustment.  He i s  in this  all  the u l t i m a t e  i r o n i c way " d i v i n e . " that h i s  He  personal  stillborn.  Even h i s  " l o v e " f o r Una C l a r k e seems an attempt to conform to the  expected of a young man, i n s p i r e d by a f e a r of growing o l d and  n e g l e c t e d or of b e i n g a l a u g h i n g s t o c k . when he has met Una a t the p a r t y , about the g i r l ' s  past.  is  Its  easily  s t r o n g d e s i r e c o u l d be expected of him. father's  she smiled and lay down, f u l l  of h i s  length,  gossip  1  recovers b r i e f l y , f e a r of o f f e n d -  fantasies,  He i s  L a t e r , when Una both l o v e and  conscious  i n s t e a d of  p i c t u r e on the w a l l above him.  i s made comic by the i n c o n g r u i t y  urgency,  overcome by M a l o n e y s  f o r him to b o a r d .  draws him toward the r e a l i z a t i o n of a l l h i s  of h i s  trembling  but g i v e s way to h i s  the bus conductor who i s w a i t i n g  disapproval  first  As he w a i t s f o r the bus i t  u r g i n g him to r e t u r n to the p a r t y , ing  so f e e b l e i t  so a t t u n e d to c o n v e n t i o n and to the w i l l of o t h e r s  desires are  compassion,  thoughts  on the r u g .  the  The scene  and emotions:  "But  He saw t h a t h i s  dirty  o l d s l i p p e r s were i n t h e i r cardboard box, a few i n c h e s from her head. He leaned over, as i f (p.  144).  to k i s s her, and shoved them behind the f e n d e r "  Any number of t r i v i a l outward concerns can d i s t r a c t him from  -36-  intimacy.  He f e a r s he may f r i g h t e n the g i r l ,  but because she might scream and cause Mrs. police.  i t not f o r her  Dempsey to send f o r  sake,  the  From the p o i n t a t which Una's i n t e n t i o n becomes c l e a r , he  moved not by d e s i r e but by h i s  f e a r t h a t a n y t h i n g he c o u l d say  the procedure would o f f e n d h e r : taken i l l , (p.  fears  to  is stop  "He t r i e d to phrase i t - - h e had been  something he had eaten, no doubt.  But he c o u l d not say  it."  148). L i k e J u d i t h Hearne, Devine depends on s o c i a l a p p r o b a t i o n , but he  has no c o r r e s p o n d i n g a l c o h o l i s m , from w i t h i n .  It  is  probably s i g n i f i c a n t  programs by the dramatic c i r c l e , listens  of p r o p r i e t y ,  t h a t h i s name i s  of o t h e r s .  to s t i r  l e f t off  "unpublic,"  In a sense,  operate through him.  oriented drives  of a m b i t i o n ,  him the  t h a t he  he i s  The c o n f l i c t i n g demands of s o c i a l  of p e r s o n a l l o y a l t y  more or l e s s s o c i a l l y  or f a n t a s i e s  t h a t h i s body i s  unseen to the c o n v e r s a t i o n s  t h e r e ; he has no i d e n t i t y .  venge,  Sacred Heart,  not  normalcy,  Except f o r  indignation,  the  and r e -  none of the b a s i c human p a s s i o n s have any prominence i n t h i s w o r l d .  There i s no d e s i r e ,  love,  friendship,  compassion or j o y .  Even the  saintly  Dr. Keogh, when he saves Heron and Devine from t h e i r own f o l l y and the Dean's m a l i c e ,  is  shown to a c t l e s s from compassion  t i v e expedience and the s a t i s f a c t i o n Devine's  than f o r  of p u t t i n g Dean McSwiney  administrain his  place.  c o n f e s s i o n to Tim Heron i n v o l v e s n e i t h e r l o v e nor exact honesty,  but by s a c r i f i c i n g o t h e r concerns to p e r s o n a l l o y a l t y , s e l f - r e s p e c t and i s  a c c e p t e d back i n t o the community.  he r e g a i n s  his  r  -37-  Though the e x p i a t o r y r i t u a l of the Roman F e a s t of L u p e r c a l i s emp h a s i z e d by the t i t l e , of the n o v e l .  i t has only s u p e r f i c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n to the a c t i o n  The p r i e s t s and schoolmasters w i t h t h e i r canes,  the  scourges  of a dry c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y , might be seen i r o n i c a l l y as p r i e s t s sterility. mad Heron as is  The impotent Devine, by p l a c i n g h i m s e l f  i n the way of  of  the  the Roman women p l a c e d themselves i n the p a t h of the L u p e r c i ,  paying f o r h i s  transgressions  a g a i n s t the m o r a l i t y of the community,  and i r o n i c a l l y b e i n g rendered l e s s f e r t i l e by the a c t .  But the r i t u a l  can be accepted only w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s , because the w o r l d of the n o v e l does not extend to those p s y c h i c depths a t which s i n and e x p i a t i o n take place.  Devine,  but of r i d i c u l e .  i n h i s moment of p o s s i b l e He t h i n k s  of s i n :  "In  sin, this,  i s not a f r a i d of his  damnation  own s o l i t a r y bed where  he had sinned a thousand times i n s i n f u l imaginings, repented n i g h t l y mumbled a c t s  of c o n t r i t i o n , i n t h i s bed t h i s v e r y n i g h t ,  be consummated" (p.  146).  real  s i n would  He i s more a f r a i d , however, of l o o k i n g  " a comedian i n long d r a w e r s . "  The " s i n "  f o r which he s u f f e r s  in  is  like indis-  cretion. An emphasis  on p u r e l y s o c i a l v a l u e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , an e x c l u -  s i o n of more i n t i m a t e l y p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and m o t i v a t i o n s ,  and a s c r u p u -  lously  significance  e x p l i c i t e x t e r n a l i z i n g of a l l  thought,  f e e l i n g , and  i n the n o v e l l e a v e no room f o r the moral and p s y c h o l o g i c a l depths which s i n takes p l a c e . tems c o n s c i o u s l y  at  The a c t i o n concerns the c o n s c i o u s e f f e c t s of  evolved.  There i s no glimpse  of subconscious  sys-  depths,  -38-  no e v i d e n c e of those p r i v a t e s u b s t r a t a themselves i n dreams, f a n t a s i e s ,  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s which m a n i f e s t  impulses,  i n l o v e , i n f a i t h or i n p o e t r y .  Chapter 4:  The Luck of Ginger  The o c c a s i o n a l passages of l o o s e l y rationally  connected i m p r e s s i o n s  f i c t i o n a l world d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  two n o v e l s .  impressions  In  i t from those of  J u d i t h Hearne and The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l ,  and s e n s a t i o n s  emerging w i t h o u t  the r e s t r a i n t of  arrangement i n d i c a t e abnormal emotional s t a t e s : J u d i t h Hearne's alcoholism, Coffey's as  on h i s  replacing  ordered d e s c r i p t i o n i n The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y produce one  f e a t u r e of i t s first  Coffey  Diarmuid D e v i n e ' s  environment appear i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y  Portions  under normal  such  rational  James Madden's  panic.  Moore's  lust, of  Ginger  circumstances,  f i r s t morning walk i n downtown M o n t r e a l : Slow s t r o l l a c r o s s Dominion Square, everyone h u r r y i n g save he, every f a c e f i x e d i n a grimace by the p a i n f u l wind, eyes narrowed, mouths pursed, d r i v e n by t h i s c r u e l c l i m a t e to an abnormal head-bent h e l t e r - s k e l t e r . ^  This  sentence fragment,  ^ this  (New York: edition.  Dell,  first  of a l l ,  1962),  p.  is  a d e p a r t u r e from form, and the  18--subsequent  quotations  are from  -40-  series  of g e n e r a l i z e d i m p r e s s i o n s  unfamiliar.  The s l i g h t l y  helter-skelter" arrangement  used to p o r t r a y a s p e c i f i c scene  is  c h a o t i c f i n a l i m p r e s s i o n of a " h e a d - b e n t  adds to the e f f e c t of g r e a t e r  s u b j e c t i v e emphasis  and  than could be expected i n scenes of calm from e i t h e r of  e a r l i e r novels.  The passage i n d i c a t e s  i n p a r t a m o d i f i c a t i o n of  the  c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r ' s p o s i t i o n i n the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , a g r e a t e r s c r i p t i v e adherence to h i s  impressions,  the  but a l s o a r e l a x a t i o n of  de-  certain  conventions of d e s c r i p t i v e o r d e r i n g which h e l p e d to form the f i c t i o n a l worlds  of J u d i t h Hearne and The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l .  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n n a r r a t i v e and d e s c r i p t i v e technique can be o v e r s t a t e d . strong.  The framework of r e a l i s t i c f i c t i o n conventions  Through most of the a c t i o n ,  and space i s  preserved.  on time wasted,  Time i s  easily is  still  c o n t i n u i t y of movement through  itself  important,  on the time e l a p s e d i n h i s  life,  as C o f f e y  reflects  and as he attempts  meet or to a v o i d d e a d l i n e s when t h i n g s must be done.  time  He has  only  to  so  much time to prove h i m s e l f , b e f o r e he must admit d e f e a t and r e t u r n to I r e l a n d or g i v e h i s w i f e her freedom. as'he  rushes  The time of the day i s  from the " T i n y Ones" depot a t f o u r to the T r i b u n e a t  and as he moves minute by minute toward G r o s v e n o r ' s an a d u l t e r y appointment i n a cheap h o t e l . c o n t i n u i t y of s p a t i a l movement i s u s u a l l y  apartment or  Even where i t maintained:  He l e f t the room, c a l l i n g to P a u l i e . "Apple? A r e t h o s e sandwiches ready y e t ? "  >  prominent  is  six, toward  incidental,  -41-  " H o l d your h o r s e s , Daddy, I'm making them." He went i n t o the h a l l , put on h i s coat and hat. P a u l i e came out w i t h sandwiches i n a brown paper bag. She gave them to him and he took her by the s h o u l d e r s , k i s s i n g her p a l e cheek . . . . He went out, c l o s i n g the apartment door behind him, and i n the common hallway put on h i s overshoes. (p. 91) T h i s n a r r a t i o n serves mainly  to p r e s e r v e c o n t i n u i t y of movement.  Coffey's  a c t i o n s a r e d e t a i l e d but d e s c r i p t i v e l y b a r e , and w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of "brown" paper bag and " p a l e " cheek, c o m p l e t e l y d i v o r c e d from Note the g e n e r i c r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c v e r b s : took,"  and the u n p a r t i c u l a r i z e d nouns:  " l e f t , went,  "room, h a l l , h a t ,  sensation.  came, coat,  gave, overshoes,  sandwiches." Physical d e t a i l ,  too,  is  prominent from the f i r s t ,  e f f e c t of c i r c u m s t a n t i a l r e a l i s m ,  but as  w i t h some of  the opening l i n e s r e v e a l ,  the  the  p r o p o r t i o n and s e l e c t i o n of d e t a i l show s i g n s of more d i r e c t purpose: F i f t e e n d o l l a r s and t h r e e c e n t s . He counted i t and put i t i n h i s t r o u s e r s - p o c k e t . Then p i c k e d h i s T y r o l e a n hat o f f the d r e s s e r , wondering i f the two A l p i n e buttons and the l i t t l e brush dingus i n the hathand w e r e n ' t a shade jaunty f o r the p l a c e he was g o i n g . S t i l l , they might be lucky to him. And i t was a l o v e l y morning, c l e a r and c r i s p and clean. Maybe t h a t was a good augury. Maybe today h i s s h i p would come i n . James F r a n c i s (Ginger) C o f f e y then r i s k e d i t i n t o the k i t c h e n . (p. 7) The money i s fically  counted to the c e n t , along w i t h the adornments  Tyrolean hat.  n o t h i n g of C o f f e y ' s  Yet the a p p a r e n t l y scrupulous  other garments  detail  on h i s  speci-  includes  or of the bedroom, beyond the presence  -42-  of a d r e s s e r i n i t .  The same s e l e c t i v i t y i s  l a t e r i n the n o v e l .  Coffey's  second apartment,  no p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s except two bedrooms, Though h i s  first  makes a t h i s  jobs  twenty d o l l a r s is  o p e r a t i v e on a l a r g e r  is  f o r example,  given  a l i v i n g r o o m and a k i t c h e n e t t e .  counted out by the c e n t ,  the money he  never accounted f o r .  The d e t a i l i s more p u r p o s e f u l than c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , i n the two p r e v i o u s n o v e l s . of p h y s i c a l d e t a i l was  and more so  While i n J u d i t h Hearne the o p p r e s s i v e  significant  are e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y . is  is  scale  in itself,  here more of the  The money/ which i s  all  than weight  details  too r e a d i l y  countable  C o f f e y ' s main c o n c e r n , the hat and h i s a n x i e t y over i t r e v e a l the  " p e r s o n a " behind which he i s novel,  trying  to h i d e h i m s e l f .  and p a r t i c u l a r l y where the d e s c r i p t i o n i s  p o i n t of view,  the d e t a i l s  employer C o f f e y meets i s a business  share t h i s  quality.  Elsewhere i n the  unmistakably  The second p r o s p e c t i v e  d e t a i l e d to embody the u n y i e l d i n g meanness  community which has no p l a c e f o r him.  tab-collared shirt.  His b l a c k  t i e knot was  and the t i e i t s e l f narrow as a r u l e r . narrow the needle nose,  the eyes  has no q u a l i t i e s working  of h i s  tight,  the s i z e of a grape  The mouth above i t was a l s o narrow;  . . ."  comic extreme w i t h H. E. Kahn, but i t  of  " H . E. Kahn wore a  b l u e s u i t w i t h narrow l a p e l s which curved up to the p o i n t s white,  from C o f f e y ' s  is  (p. 2 7 ) .  The e f f e c t reaches a  t y p i c a l t h a t t h i s minor  simply as p l a u s i b l e u p h o l s t e r y  to h i s  figure  character.  Nor do c h a r a c t e r s appear, as some of the boarders i n J u d i t h Hearne or Diarmuid D e v i n e ' s  colleagues,  to p o p u l a t e the land a c c e p t a b l y .  -43-  The s e l e c t e d d e t a i l i s not,  l i k e the d e t a i l s  i n The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l , s u g g e s t i v e It  of S t . M i c h a n ' s  of analogs to the whole a c t i o n .  does not a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n , w i t h the p o s s i b l e  of the p e r i o d i c use of m i r r o r s .  College  exception  The images i n m i r r o r s p r e s e n t a v i s u a l  parallel  to C o f f e y ' s degree of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e  action.  Mirrors  at various  stages i n the  have the same v a l u e to some e x t e n t i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s ,  but C o f f e y extends  t h e i r use.  He sees h i s  and l a t e r r e f l e c t e d i n other c h a r a c t e r s and " C r i p p l e Mate"  image i n m i r r o r s and windows,  l i k e Wilson,  Old B i l l y  Davis,  i n the r e c u r r i n g newspaper h e a d l i n e .  The opening l i n e s  of the n o v e l a l s o  i n d i c a t e the p r o p o r t i o n of  j e c t i v e d e t a i l to be found w i t h the o b j e c t i v e . the hat and about h i s  luck, h i s " s h i p  and may be a "good a u g u r y . "  C o f f e y i s wondering  coming i n . "  The morning i s  The s e l e c t i o n of the v e r b " r i s k e d i t "  Such s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s as hope, f e a r ,  and d e s p a i r a r e p l e n t i f u l and v a r i e d throughout forms ranging  from C o f f e y ' s  love,  the n o v e l .  about  "lovely"  to the d e t a i l s which p r e s e n t C o f f e y ' s hopes and f e a r s more than h i s s i c a l presence.  sub-  adds phy-  hatred  They take  obvious w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t dreams of a world  where "you t r a v e l i n t o b e a u t i f u l j u n g l e s w i t h f o u r I n d i a n companions, climb a dozen d i s t a n t mountain peaks, (p. 4 0 ) ,  to the human f e e l i n g s  sail  rafts  i n endless  tropic  i m p l i c i t i n an a f t e r n o o n s t r e e t  seas"  scene:  Five o'clock. In the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t the s t r e e t l i g h t s f l a r e d . Down came the o f f i c e workers, s p i l l i n g out i n t o the s t r e e t s , r e l e a s e d , f a c i n g the f r e e z i n g bus t e r m i n a l w a i t s , the l o n g , s l o w - s t o p p i n g journey home. (p. 108)  -44-  The h a r d s h i p s workers'  of " f r e e z i n g w a i t s "  feelings  and " s l o w - s t o p p i n g  j o u r n e y " imply  as v i v i d l y as the metaphor " s p i l l e d o u t "  the  describes  t h e i r appearance. Ginger C o f f e y ' s  conscious  deeply p e r s o n a l emotions as  thoughts  l o v e and l o y a l t y .  to the meaning of the words,  stud"  or " s t a y i n g  w i t h the l i k e s  such  He wants to p e n e t r a t e  -Love, he f i n d s ,  together f o r P a u l i e ' s  of G r o s v e n o r . "  o c c u p i e d by  but not i n a b s t r a c t i o n s .  connected w i t h immediate e x p e r i e n c e . great  are r e g u l a r l y  sake"  They a r e always is  not " b e i n g  or " g o i n g to bed  When V e r a t e l l s him l o v e i s  unselfish,  he immediately i d e n t i f i e s i t w i t h h i s p l a n to do a " f a r f a r b e t t e r by u n s e l f i s h l y g i v i n g h i s w i f e h e r freedom.  through h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  s e l f as " r u n n i n g up h i l l ,  h i s hope i n h i s mouth, h i s (p. 4 0 ) .  though he sees h i m s h i n s k i c k e d by  He searches i n the same c o n -  c r e t e terms f o r some meaning i n human c o n t a c t ,  e s p e c i a l l y when  ness has made him doubt t h a t he means a n y t h i n g  to humanity:  one.  He was  t h r e e thousand m i l e s  from home, a c r o s s  t i n e n t and the whole A t l a n t i c Ocean.  (p.  155).  c a p t u r e the essence of h i s  half a frozen con-  for his ambitions.  trying  In a s i m i l a r way he t r i e s  f i n d some a b s o l u t e moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s a c t i o n s , lar,  city,  only  knew the man he once was,  In a v e r y c o n c r e t e way he i s  loneliness.  loneli-  "He had no  Only one person i n t h i s  one person i n the w o r l d , r e a l l y knew him now: the man he now was"  thing"  He t h i n k s about hope and  the need to keep i t a l i v e  people who have no f a i t h i n him"  the  to to  and i n p a r t i c u -  He weighs them a g a i n s t the moral c l a i m s  of  the  -45-  r e l i g i o n and the I r i s h s o c i e t y he has r e j e c t e d to pursue them. More than a n y t h i n g  e l s e about him, Ginger C o f f e y ' s  s i d e r l i f e i n terms of s u b j e c t i v e a b s o l u t e s - - h o p e , marks h i s It  tendency to c o n -  faith,  love,  loyalty--  r e f l e c t i o n s o f f from those of J u d i t h Hearne or Diarmuid D e v i n e .  extends  the dimensions  of the n o v e l ' s  psychological world.  Hearne sought moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n the codology Devine w i t h i n the conventions of a s o c i e t y .  Judith  of a r e l i g i o n .  For C o f f e y ,  both these c o n -  cerns are p a r t i a l . He i s w o r r i e d , people t h i n k of him. even h i s  l i k e Devine,  about p u b l i c success and about what  His a m b i t i o n to become " C o f f e y ,  p e r s o n a l v a n i t y make t h a t c l e a r .  He q u i e t s h i s w i f e i n the  h o t e l d i n i n g room f o r f e a r of what people w i l l implications fect.  offending  think,  of t h e i r q u a r r e l a r e much more s e r i o u s  He almost  the e d i t o r " and  though the p e r s o n a l  than i t s  public  ef-  p r e f e r s going through w i t h the a d u l t e r y evidence to  the p r o s t i t u t e sent to stage i t .  He i s m o r t i f i e d when an I r i s h  g i r l he has known i n b e t t e r times r e c o g n i z e s him i n h i s because the people i n I r e l a n d w i l l  Tiny Ones u n i f o r m  see t h e i r l a c k of f a i t h  justified:  Ha, ha', c r i e d a l l the c o u n t r i f i e d young t h i c k s he had gone to s c h o o l w i t h , who now, ordained and R o m a n - c o l l a r e d , r e g u l a r l y l e c t u r e d the l a i t y on p o l i t i c s and l o v e . Ha, ha , c r i e d the p o l i t i c i a n s North and South, u n i t e d as always i n f o s t e r i n g the ignorance which a l o n e made p o s s i b l e t h e i r separate powers . . . . Emigrate, would you? We t o l d you so. T h e i r l a u g h t e r d i e d . What d i d i t matter? What d i d they m a t t e r , so long as he was not going home? (p. 123) 1  -46-  The d e s c r i p t i o n s  of the "young t h i c k s " and p o l i t i c i a n s  show t h a t  f e a r of t h e i r s c o r n i s balanced by an equal contempt f o r them. a b l e to r e j e c t them p a r t l y because h i s be s a t i s f i e d by h i s new homeland.  sallies.  So what d i d i t m a t t e r , h i s like?"  there are o t h e r sources values  life  dock:  He i s  " A l l he  courtroom  i n t h i s w o r l d , when t h i s  was  a b l e to r e j e c t them because  of s t r e n g t h i n h i s  life.  His most fundamental  are not dependent upon p u b l i c o p i n i o n .  The p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y to the c h u r c h . Judith  (p. 209)  still  E v e n t u a l l y he must a l s o r e j e c t the  f a c i n g p r i s o n and r u i n , was an excuse f o r  what the w o r l d was  He i s  d e s i r e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n can  o p i n i o n of the new w o r l d as he stands i n the p r i s o n e r ' s was t h i s morning,  his  His  of h i s moral judgments  religious  is  evident i n his  doubts form an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t  visit with  Hearne's. If t h e r e was a God above, was t h a t what God wanted? To make him poor i n s p i r i t ? To make him c a l l pax, to make him g i v e up, to herd him back w i t h the o t h e r sheep i n the f o l d ? He looked a t the t a b e r n a c l e . His l a r g e ruddy f a c e s e t i n a scowl as though someone had s t r u c k i t . His l i p s shut t i g h t under h i s g i n g e r mustache. I never c o u l d a b i d e a b u l l y , he s a i d to the t a b e r n a c l e . (P. 24)  C h r i s t i a n submissiveness dards.  And he h a b i t u a l l y  judgment,  in his  does not s a t i s f y follows.his  Coffey's  thoughts  own d o w n - t o - e a r t h terms, "I  private ethical  through to an e t h i c a l  never c o u l d a b i d e a b u l l y . "  The prominence of such concerns i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l opens the p o s s i b i l i t y ,  if  stan-  not the n e c e s s i t y ,  a c t i v i t y of  of the a c t i o n  the leading  -47-  to some judgment about l i f e The p s y c h o l o g i c a l its  greater  Moore's  i n a b s o l u t e moral  element i n The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y ,  scope, has b r o a d l y  first  of i m p r e s s i o n s  two n o v e l s .  similar  Woolfe.  organizing  principles  With the e x c e p t i o n of o c c a s i o n a l  l i k e those f i r s t mentioned, i t f o l l o w s  tence form of i n t e r n a l monologue. associative  terms.  There i s  despite to t h a t  collections  the r a t i o n a l ,  i n the manner of  The opening l i n e s do r e v e a l an i n c r e a s e d tendency toward Analysis  is  sen-  no determined attempt a t  freedom of " s t r e a m of c o n s c i o u s n e s s "  chological description.  in  r a r e and always b r i e f .  the  Virginia psy-  Reminiscences  have an i n c r e a s e d importance, and t h e i r way of o b t r u d i n g i n t o the momentary consciousness  shows a s l i g h t r e l a x a t i o n of the r a t i o n a l o r d e r .  a quiet administrative w i f e and r e c a l l s h i s l i p s move;  those  conversation,  tormenting f a n t a s i e s :  of motherhood,  heard c r y out i n d e s i r e " fantasies  is  (p.  145).  his  He watched her hairy  flanks.  t h a t mouth which each n i g h t he  The d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s  o u t b u r s t of J u d i t h H e a r n e ' s  experiences Devine's repressed  The shadowy realm of C o f f e y ' s hopes and f e a r s draws n e a r e r  the s u r f a c e .  The g r e a t e r r o l e h i s f a n t a s i e s  chological action prefigures Moore's  talked.  not as d e f i n i t e as i n the case of Diarmuid  t i m i d i m a g i n i n g s or the extravagant longings.  "She  l i p s which at n i g h t k i s s e d a s t r a n g e r ' s  T a l k i n g , making n o i s e s  and h i s  f o r example, C o f f e y watches  In  the p a r t Mrs.  themselves p l a y i n the  T i e r n e y ' s dreams play  psy-  in  fourth novel.  The opening  lines  of The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  -48of a new technique of e x p o s i t i o n appearing  third novel.  Moore's  i m p l i c i t r e n d e r i n g of c h a r a c t e r and of the opening s i t u a t i o n i n  Coffey's  home i s  in this  r e m i n i s c e n t of K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d ' s  methods.  The T y r o l e a n hat  i m p l i e s a g r e a t d e a l about C o f f e y ' s d i s p o s i t i o n and h i s a t t i t u d e himself; idiom:  his  f a i t h i n luck and a u g u r i e s  "his  is  revealing,  as i s  his  s h i p would come i n " and " l i t t l e brush d i n g u s . "  i n t o the k i t c h e n .  extended i n the same scene by the w o r d -  i n g used when h i s w i f e stops him a t  t i c k e t s " begins a gradual r e t u r n to I r e l a n d , for Coffey's  j u s t as  tellingly  The atmosphere of h o s t i l i t y not met  s q u a r e l y by the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s  coup," and when he f i n a l l y " g o t  the door " b e f o r e he c o u l d f l e e the  c l e a n away."  A bare r e f e r e n c e to " t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n of h i s w i f e ' s  d e t e r m i n a t i o n to  " t h e p l a c e he was g o i n g " prepares the r e a d e r  c o u n t e r p l a n of going to the employment o f f i c e and  a g a i n to seek h i s  success  personal  The s t r a i n e d  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and C o f f e y ' s way of d e a l i n g w i t h them emerge in "risked i t "  i n the new w o r l d .  The s e t t i n g  by r e f e r e n c e to a " M o n t r e a l Roads Department  tractor."  of C o f f e y ' s  the house:  c h a r a c t e r c o n t i n u e s as he leaves  the policeman the o l d s a l u t e i n p a s s i n g . "  The b r i e f  is  beginning  identified  The e x p o s i t i o n " C o f f e y wagged  sentence  implies  not only a m i l i t a r y background but a whole complex of a t t i t u d e s h i m s e l f and o t h e r p e o p l e .  The method, i n a d d i t i o n to s e r v i n g  of economy and p l a u s i b i l i t y , action.  The r e a d e r ' s  t i o n a l world, suggestion.  toward  toward  the ends  e n r i c h e s the q u a l i t y of background i n the  imagination  is  s e t to work e l a b o r a t i n g  extending the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the  through every ambiguity  ficof  -49-  The sense of depth and background  i s not l o s t when more e x p l i c i t  e x p o s i t i o n begins to develop a p a s t f o r the c h a r a c t e r s , i n reminiscences  s t i m u l a t e d by C o f f e y ' s  of a church, a s t a t u e , 1  f a m i l y background i s like  not w e l l m o t i v a t e d ;  p r o v i d e d by a u t h o r i a l i n t r u s i o n s .  the i m p l i c i t e x p o s i t i o n ,  emerges  p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s — the s i g h t  a man, or an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m .  Hearne s reminiscences are lengthy,  since i t  Some of  Judith  some of  Devine's  Coffey's  memories,  p r e s e r v e the h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ,  the  sense of the p a s t h e l d i n the p r e s e n t . I m p l i c i t c h a r a c t e r d e l i n e a t i o n and r e l i a n c e on C o f f e y ' s t i o n s are symptomatic f i c t i o n a l world.  of a g r e a t e r w i t h d r a w a l  The n a r r a t i v e f o c u s i s  of the n a r r a t o r from the  s h i f t e d more thoroughly  c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r than i n the two p r e v i o u s n o v e l s . the p r i v a t e w o r l d of Ginger C o f f e y , of h i s  largely  by her i d i o m ( h o r r i d  but here t h e r e are fewer a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s .  omniscience i s  Judith fatty,  The n a r -  s h i f t e d to another c h a r a c t e r ' s mind only once.  moves v e r y b r i e f l y to M. Beauchemin i n the f i r s t  wise  The w o r l d i s  as can be seen from the appearance  p r i v a t e w o r l d was a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d  dear aunt)  It  to the  i n d i v i d u a l i d i o m i n much of the d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r r a t i o n .  Hearne's  rator's  own r e f l e c -  job i n t e r v i e w .  the w o r l d c o n t a i n s what C o f f e y can see and know, and  Other-  occasional  direct narration. While  there i s  g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on the main c h a r a c t e r ' s view of  a c t i o n and g r e a t e r acceptance of the p e r s p e c t i v e he imposes  on i t ,  f a c t t h a t he must i n the end r e - o r d e r c e r t a i n prominent f e a t u r e s of  the  the it  -50-  shows t h a t h i s tive.  cannot be the whole f i c t i o n a l world i n i t s  f i n a l perspec-  But to take t h a t as the only e v i d e n c e would l e a d to a c i r c u l a r  argument,  e x p l a i n i n g the a c t i o n by the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d a f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g  the f i c t i o n a l world from the a c t i o n .  That C o f f e y ' s v i s i o n i s  imperfect  and t h a t something e x i s t s beyond i t are i m p l i e d . l i n the s l i g h t l y  ironic  tone s u s t a i n e d by the b r i e f e s t of a s i d e comments and by odd s i g n s Coffey's  c h i l d i s h n e s s and v a n i t y .  His  idiom i s  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d enough  to draw a t t e n t i o n from the t h i n g observed to the o b s e r v e r . the Canadians boots,"  He d e s c r i b e s  as " l i k e R u s k i s , " a woman's footwear as " b i g b l o o t h e r s  Gerry Grosvenor as " t h e d r i p p i e s t long d r i n k of w a t e r . "  expressions  of  l i k e " f l u t e , " "steady  the b u f f s , "  and "shanks maring  of  His it"  correspond to J u d i t h Hearne's homely metaphor i n removing the reader to an i r o n i c h e i g h t from the c h a r a c t e r . the i r o n i c norm i s  The i r o n y i s  l e f t obscure u n t i l C o f f e y i s  brought i n t o l i n e w i t h  perceptible,  i n the end presumably  it.  D i r e c t n a r r a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of the i r o n y are r a r e and b r i e f , with Coffey's  though  own v i e w s :  B e l l s , c a l l i n g to the noon mass i n the B a s i l i c a , t o l l e d out a c r o s s the c i t y i n a c l e a r and f r e e z i n g tone, waking him from an exhausted s l e e p i n t o a w o r l d w i t h o u t end, amen. Slowly they f o c u s e d , the f a c t s of h i s l i f e . Someone l o s t , someone s t o l e n , someone s t r a y e d . But the morning h a b i t of a l i f e time, k i c k i n g now w i t h i t s head cut o f f , must b e g i n to b a l a n c e the good w i t h the b a d . The h a b i t s of an h a b i t u a l r a t i o c i n a t o r must be f i x e d i n hope. And so, l e t ' s see. At l e a s t he had gained a l i t t l e v i c t o r y by running away l a s t n i g h t . (p. 164)  mingled  -51-  "The habits Coffey's  of an h a b i t u a l r a t i o c i n a t o r must be f i x e d i n hope" i s  idea,  though what goes b e f o r e i s mixed, and what f o l l o w s  t h o r o u g h l y from h i s  p o i n t of v i e w .  comment i n the n o v e l .  This i s  is  t y p i c a l of the n a r r a t i v e  With so l i t t l e d i r e c t e v a l u a t i o n ,  can only be i n f e r r e d from what o t h e r s say about C o f f e y example, c a l l s  not  the i r o n i c norm  (his w i f e ,  for  him a " s e l f i s h b r u t e " and a " g l o r i f i e d s e c r e t a r y " )  and  from the a c t i o n i t s e l f .  Most of C o f f e y ' s  a m b i t i o n s a r e u n r e a l i z e d ; he  must e v e n t u a l l y t h r u s t a l l dreams of p e r s o n a l " v i c t o r i e s " and w o r l d l y success his  from h i s mind.  adjustment  But the main bases of h i s w o r l d stand  to the a c t i o n .  of human hope, d e s p a i r , perspective i s ,  Life is  still  through  comprehensible as a matter  l o v e , a n d - - a s the climax demonstrates?:--joy.  i n the main, v a l i d , though c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of i t ,  from the b e g i n n i n g  His  marked  by an i r o n i c tone, a r e not v i a b l e i n the complete  f i c t i o n a l world. The f i g u r a t i v e logues i s  not a l o n e .  language which i n d i v i d u a l i z e s C o f f e y ' s The q u a n t i t y  c l o s e r correspondence w i t h M o o r e ' s i n d e s c r i p t i o n , as i n t h i s f i r s t  i n t e r n a l mono-  of metaphor draws the n o v e l first  than h i s  second.''"'''  It  into is  common  appearance of the T r i b u n e composing  In rows, l i k e c h i l d r e n i n some s t r a n g e classroom, the l i n o t y p e r s threaded t h e i r l i t t l e t i n e s of words . . . . A foreman i n s t i f f w h i t e c o l l a r and b l a c k k n i t t e d t i e moved w i t h e c c l e s i a s t i c t r e a d up the a i s l e . As he drew l e v e l w i t h C o f f e y he leaned over, hand to h i s ear, i n s m i l i n g dumbshow i n q u i r y as to the v i s i t o r ' s b u s i n e s s . [ i t a l i c s mine] (p. 61)  ^ T h i s i s t r u e of many a s p e c t s of the n o v e l s , though the author c o n f i r m s t h a t they were w r i t t e n i n t h e i r order of p u b l i c a t i o n , i n a l e t t e r to the p r e s e n t w r i t e r , 13 A p r i l 1965.  room:  -52-  Much of the metaphor i s  religious,  like "ecclesiastic tread."  one of the managing e d i t o r ' s v i s i t s  After  to the p r o o f r e a d e r s w i t h h i s  eye s t a r v e d f o r t r o u b l e , " they r e v i l e him i n chorus:  ".  "fanatic  . . monks p e r -  forming a r i t e of e x o r c i s m - - t h e p r o o f r e a d e r s downed g a l l e y s and i n t o n e d a s h o r t chant of MacGregorian abuse" chants makes  the f i g u r e q u i t e i n t r i c a t e .  metaphor has a m i l i t a r y i z e d workers "Here,  i n the composing room a r e immune to the e d i t o r ' s  authority:  abandoned.  of the metaphor i s more s i g n i f i c a n t The a s s o c i a t i v e  Here the enemy  as " c h a n g i n g  obscenities  Old B i l l y D a v i s '  by a n c i e n t d e n t a l s u r v i v o r s " in Coffey's  than the  to a r e l i g i o u s  apparent.  gray f i e l d s t o n e o f f i c e f r o n t s  13).  walls"  (p.  72).  subjects  freedom i t produces can be seen i n the  i n d e s c r i p t i o n the same freedom i s  phor i s  old forts  command, camped permanently w i t h i n MacGregor's  comparison of the p r o o f r e a d e r s '  (p.  Another i d e n t i f i a b l e body of the u n i o n -  introduces.  skin"  The pun on G r e g o r i a n  a s i d e from the p r o o f r e a d e r s ,  The q u a l i t y it  subject;  o l d b a t t l e s had been fought,  was i n f u l l  (p. 7 3 ) .  Melting  is  Often  described  to the c o l o u r of a dead man's  open mouth d i s p l a y s  (p. 6 7 ) .  frost  rite.  "gaps of gums p o l i c e d  The most complete freedom of meta-  e p i p h a n i c moment on the courthouse steps when he e x -  p e r i e n c e s the joy of becoming p a r t of humanity and a l l c r e a t i o n by abandoning h i s  pretensions  to the w o r l d ' s  admiration:  F o r one l i b e r a t i n g moment he became a c h i l d a g a i n ; l o s t h i m s e l f as a c h i l d can, l e t t i n g h i m s e l f go i n t o the morning, a drop of water j o i n i n g an ocean, m y s t i c a l l y becoming one. He f o r g o t Ginger C o f f e y and G i n g e r ' s l i f e . No l o n g e r was he a man running u p h i l l a g a i n s t hope,  -53-  h i s s h i n s k i c k e d , h i s luck running o u t . no one: he was eyes s t a r i n g a t the sky. the sky. (p. 214) The passage ends a h a l f - p a g e the metaphor  d e s c r i p t i o n i n which the extravagance  liberates a similar  s a t i o n of j o y .  The p o s s i b i l i t y  world to a depth i m p o s s i b l e  subjective intensity i n Coffey's of such i n t e n s i t y extends  i n the two e a r l i e r n o v e l s .  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s o adds p o e t i c ambiguity attendant p o s s i b i l i t i e s h e n s i o n not s t r i c t l y  He was He was  of s i g n i f i c a n c e  to C o f f e y ' s  of sen-  the f i c t i o n a l  The m e t a p h o r i c a l epiphany, w i t h the  extending i n t o areas  of compre-  conscious.  These v a r i a t i o n s  i n s t r u c t u r e and technique produce a f i c t i o n a l  world w i t h an extended scope of human e x p e r i e n c e and an i n c r e a s e d on s u b j e c t i v e elements.  The e x t e n s i o n i s needed to admit Ginger  w i t h h i s d i s d a i n f o r the " m i s l e a d i n g entered on an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m . hatred,  his  f a i l u r e , his  facts  of a l i f e "  life.  e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the p o l i c e ,  The f i c t i o n a l world beyond h i s  to many of h i s his  i d e a of  courtroom: tions,  no l o n g e r has.  subjective values--his  what were they but shams?"  The d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  Moore's  first  two n o v e l s .  t h a t she i s  wife's  the " t r u e f a c t s " proves  of  uncongenial  his desire for v i c t o r i e s ,  He r e c o g n i z e s  " U n s u r e l y but s u r e l y he came to t h a t .  lusts for his wife,  them  lead him g r a d u a l l y  consciousness  ambitions,  the m a r r i a g e bond and of l o v e .  h i s dreams:  Coffey,  Y e t the a c t i o n of the n o v e l , h i s  toward an a c c e p t a n c e of what he comes to r e g a r d as his  as he sees  emphasis  this  His hopes,  (p. 209).  i n the his  He f i n d s  another i l l u s i o n he no  of the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s  ambi-  familiar  he  longer  from  J u d i t h Hearne and Diarmuid Devine a r e both  -54-  brought  to a p a i n f u l acceptance of hard s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l f a c t s  t h e i r worlds which crush t h e i r w e l l - n u r t u r e d f a n c i e s . the a c t i o n i s  similar,  in  The movement of  but i n C o f f e y ' s w o r l d i t does not have q u i t e  the  same s i g n i f i c a n c e . The i m a g i n a t i v e is  elements of h i s w o r l d are of s e v e r a l s o r t s .  a corpus of romantic f a n c i e s r a n g i n g  to h i s  pride in his  p e r i e n c e but c o n s c i o u s l y popular stereotypes.  wife.  his mountain  fancies,  not evoked by ex-  summoned, f e e d i n g not on h i s  e x p e r i e n c e but on  He t r i e s  and f a n c i e s  to d r e s s h i m s e l f ,  the r o l e of a g r e a t  f o r example,  like a  l o v e r though he bores  his  The t i t l e " C o f f e y of the T r i b u n e " sounds glamorous though he knows  nothing  of newspaper work. of  The new w o r l d i s  c e n t r a l to these  because of the l u s t e r / t h e s t e r e o t y p e s he, as an immigrant, reality. as  ambitions  to a land where he can s c a l e d i s t a n t  They are a l l more or l e s s autonomous  Dublin squire,  occupational  s e x u a l prowess which might a l l be r e l a t e d to  c h i l d h o o d dream of e s c a p i n g peaks.  from h i s  There  America i s  a "go-ahead"  p l a c e , and Canada i s  fancies  takes f o r  just  the  l i k e America  seen i n the movies. All  Ginger's  these f a n c i e s a r e t r e a t e d w i t h i r o n y from the b e g i n n i n g ; phrasing  the s t e r e o t y p e s are e a s i l y  w i t h which they f a i l  to conform i s  own d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n s .  i n h e r e n t i n d i r e c t n a r r a t i o n or i n C o f f e y ' s of M o n t r e a l ,  r e c o g n i z e d , and the r e a l i t y  o f t e n juxtaposed w i t h them i n  Other i m a g i n a t i v e  elements a r e l e s s perception.  own f e e l i n g s ,  Coffey's  voluntary,  The d e s c r i p t i o n s  s t r e e t scenes embued w i t h the s p i r i t and l i f e  and w i t h C o f f e y ' s  in  of the p e o p l e ,  these a r e the u n i r o n i c i m a g i n a t i v e  ele-  -55-  ments.  They appear i n the metaphor and are r e l a t e d to C o f f e y ' s  way of v i s u a l i z i n g ample i s  the essence of human s i t u a t i o n s .  i n the s t r o n g e s t  concrete  The s t r o n g e s t  metaphor, when C o f f e y stands on the  ex-  courthouse  steps. The g r a t u i t o u s , of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  i r r a t i o n a l emergence of joy a t h i s d a r k e s t moment  demonstrates  the v i a b i l i t y  of s t r o n g  ments i n the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d of the n o v e l .  Its  phanic moment and i t s  as much as  joy i t s e l f ,  extravagant metaphor,  of Moore's  novels  Admittedly,  appearance as an e p i -  the s k y " would be i m p o s s i b l e  The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y i s  he was eyes s t a r i n g  a t the sky.  i n the two e a r l i e r n o v e l s ,  be nonsense i n a Jamesian n o v e l though i t might e a s i l y by Joseph Conrad.  possible,  the presence of of  the  to sound an o p t i m i s t i c note i n the c l i m a x ,  a l i n e such as "He was no one:  with i t s  ele-  make the climax of the n o v e l a n y t h i n g but a r e a s s e r t i o n  purely r a t i o n a l values. first  subjective  but  He was  j u s t as i t  would  appear i n a n o v e l  The f i c t i o n a l w o r l d of The Luck of Ginger  Coffey,  p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e on human e x p e r i e n c e makes such a climax i f not q u i t e n e c e s s a r y .  The n a t u r e of G i n g e r ' s with his habits  f i n a l understanding  of l o v e i s  of mind, w i t h the g e n e r a l withdrawal  of  and the r e s u l t a n t r e l i a n c e on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than  i n keeping  the n a r r a t o r , statement:  Love--why, I ' l l t e l l you what l o v e i s : i t s you a t s e v e n t y - f i v e and her a t s e v e n t y - o n e , each of you l i s t e n i n g f o r the o t h e r ' s step i n the next room, each a f r a i d t h a t a sudden s i l e n c e , a sudden c r y , would mean a l i f e t i m e ' s t a l k i s o v e r . (p. 221) It  is  not an e x p l a n a t i o n , but a c o r r e l a t i v e , mute but e x p r e s s i v e .  Like  -56th e c l i m a x ,  i t has a q u a l i t y which might be c a l l e d metaphoric or p o e t i c ,  which g i v e s the n o v e l a g r e a t e r depth and range of  significance.  Chapter 5:  An Answer from Limbo  Brendan T i e r n e y ' s f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n i n An Answer from Limbo changes the p e r s p e c t i v e of the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d as w e l l as reader accepts  that world.  the way the  A f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r enjoys more freedom  i n h i s a t t i t u d e toward the r e a d e r and toward h i s m a t e r i a l . F r y e d i s t i n g u i s h e s from the n o v e l proper a whole category the " c o n f e s s i o n "  form, n a r r a t e d i n the f i r s t  Northrop of  fiction,  person and i n c l i n e d to an  12 introverted,  i n t e l l e c t u a l tone.  In  this  occupies the g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s a c c o u n t . his  own m o t i v e s :  "Wasn't i t 13  one way passage o u t , "  his  case,  Brendan's  introspection  He i s  continually  examining  the need to run which made me . . . book my  own s e n s a t i o n s :  but i n a w o r l d of my c h a r a c t e r s "  (p.  "I  am l i v i n g not i n New York,  101).  His o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d by h i s a n a l y t i c a l i n t e n t i o n s 12 "Rhetorical Criticism: Theory of G e n r e s , " Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p. 308. 13 (New York: D e l l , 1963), p. 27--subsequent q u o t a t i o n s a r e from this edition.  -58-  and the terms i n which he conducts h i s a n a l y s i s :  "Resentment i s ,  a key to my c h a r a c t e r "  diction--"resentment,"  (p. 6 ) .  Both the a b s t r a c t  perhap  " c h a r a c t e r " - - a n d the syntax are i n t e l l e c t u a l ; the p a r e n t h e t i c a l "perhaps is  a trademark of i n t e l l e c t u a l detachment.  ses: all us.  "The temporal l i f e was, there i s .  His m o t h e r ' s  f o r h e r , a secondary  she d i e d t r y i n g  r h e t o r i c a l arrangement of the i d e a s the pure l o g i c  and sentiment.  (p. 284).  in parallel,  is  The  instance deceptive; interlocking  of a s i t u a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y s t r o n g  Moore i s  F o r me, i t  a gate shut between  to r e a c h me"  s h o r t sentences and simple d i c t i o n a r e i n t h i s  presents  thing.  Because of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n b e l i e f ,  Because of t h a t gate,  death he a n a l y -  drawing on some of the r e s o u r c e s  in  the  sentences sensation  of the c o n f e s -  s i o n form. Moore's  c h a r a c t e r s i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s have been i n t r o s p e c t i v e ,  but the f i r s t - p e r s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e a d e r g i v e s Brendan T i e r n e y new freedom f o r extended a n a l y s i s — even p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l t o n e .  digressions—and  A d e c l a r e d n a r r a t o r g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n  l i c e n s i n g d i r e c t a u t h o r i a l address  of  of  the r e a d e r , which i s why Henry  James d i s a p p r o v e d of i t and why Northrop F r y e b u i l d s a s e p a r a t e  category  14 of f i c t i o n around i t .  When Brendan, f o r example,  the i n j u s t i c e of h i s having say " n o ,  no,  trying  to support a widowed mother, he i s  l e t me e x p l a i n i t  p r i v i l e g e of d i r e c t l y ,  is  i n another way"  self-consciously  (p. 6 ) .  addressing  to show able  He claims  the r e a d e r .  to the  His  own  14 James r e f e r s to the f i r s t - p e r s o n as " t h e d a r k e s t abyss of romance The A r t of the Novel (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r s , 1937), p. 320.  -59-  "reflexive"  attitude,  or open awareness  of h i s  s t o r y as a s t o r y ,  enables  him to s t r u c t u r e i t v e r y d e l i b e r a t e l y and to comment upon i t  to the r e a d e r  i n ways which would be thought i m p e r t i n e n t of an o m n i s c i e n t ,  undeclared  15 narrator. The f i r s t p o r t i o n of i t ,  e f f e c t t h i s has on the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d , is  The v e r y q u e s t i o n which awaits the "answer  limbo" i s moral i n substance but i n t e l l e c t u a l i n tone: other p e o p l e , a l l r i g h t .  a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t than does,  sacrifice  Tierney's early  (p. 3 4 ) .  L i k e Ginger C o f f e y ,  she grasps moral  The  into impresthe  t h i n k i n g y o u r s e l f a cut above the r e s t of  the  ques-  i n v e r y c o n c r e t e terms. The f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n a l s o h e l p s  g r e a t e r acceptance of Brendan's ing,  the moral q u e s t i o n  f o r example, Mrs.  from  (p. 21)  "Oh, you h a v e n ' t changed, my boy, y o u ' r e s t i l l  same s t u c k - u p wee f e l l o w ,  tions  "You'll  But w i l l you s a c r i f i c e y o u r s e l f ? "  a b s t r a c t and f i g u r a t i v e v e r b " s a c r i f i c e " puts  world around y o u "  Brendan's  to draw i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t o the foreground  of the p e r s p e c t i v e .  s i o n of her son:  or on  i t helps  p o i n t of v i e w .  In more f a m i l i a r  the reader to i d e n t i f y w i t h Brendan.  n o v e l s , Moore d e a l s  i r o n i c a l l y with his  may be s h i f t e d more c o n s i s t e n t l y always w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s account i s  to win from the r e a d e r a  the f i r s t  characters.  In  the f i r s t  phrasthree  The n a r r a t i v e  to the mind of one main c h a r a c t e r ,  induced by an i r o n i c t o n e .  focus but  Brendan T i e r n e y ' s  s i n c e r e r a t h e r than i r o n i c d i s p l a c e m e n t of the n a r -  ^ F o r the term " r e f l e x i v e a t t i t u d e , " of F i c t i o n , pp. 2 4 - 3 7 .  see A l b e r t Cook,  The Meaning  -60-  rative focus.  Brendan has no p e r s o n a l or d i a l e c t a l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s  make the r e a d e r aware of h i s f l a t e d or c o n t r i v e d . there i s  limitations;  There i s  his  i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m i s not  s e x u a l submissiveness  mid-way  Brendan's  h i s weaknesses  remains a b s o l u t e as t h a t h i s view i s must be s e r i o u s l y  through the n o v e l .  His  long as he o c c u p i e s  the s t a g e .  the wage-earner,  shape i n the minds  novel-writing,  of h i s w i f e , who r e p l a c e s  and h i s mother, who has come from I r e l a n d  to  c h i l d r e n u n t i l domestic c o n f l i c t s d r i v e her from h i s home to  T i e r n e y ' s and J a n e ' s ,  neither is liarities  The o t h e r two main p o i n t s  cannot be accepted as u n r e s e r v e d l y ,  treated with consistent  irony.  Mrs.  the s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s .  suddenly from t h i r d to f i r s t  of the book.  Jane i s  diminishes  gradually  There i s  (p. 22),  girls  even a tendency  the o b j e c t of more d i r e c t n a r r a t i v e . . ."  though  t r u s t your  person n a r r a t i o n i n her  "Jane T i e r n e y dreamed of dark r a v i s h e r s  of view,  T i e r n e y has a few p e c u -  l i k e her e x p r e s s i o n "some Dago Dan you w o u l d n ' t  w i t h , " but they fade as to l a p s e  imposes  a c c e p t e d w i t h i n t h e i r own bounds.  the s h e l t e r of a l o n e l y apartment. Mrs.  Gener-  The a c t i o n may prove  p a r t i a l , but that view and the p e r s p e c t i v e i t  and more of the a c t i o n takes  tend h i s  ig-  as a c h a r a c t e r are r e v e a l e d by him; as n a r r a t o r he  Those bounds d i m i n i s h as he recedes i n t o h i s world of  him as  though  misinterpretation  norance i s known from a c t i o n seen i n J a n e ' s p a r t of the n a r r a t i v e . ally,  in-  none of the machinery of t o n a l i r o n y ,  d r a m a t i c i r o n y i n such i n c i d e n t s as  of h i s w i f e ' s  to  portions  analysis:  but t h i s  i n t o i n t e r n a l monologue and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  too  descrip-  -61-  tion.  The a l t e r n a t i o n among the t h r e e v i e w p o i n t s may e l i m i n a t e the need  f o r much t o n a l i r o n y and d i r e c t a n a l y s i s . structurally  the same ambiguity  The p l u r a l i t y  of views  that irony creates t o n a l l y .  creates  Each v i e w -  p o i n t b r i n g s d i f f e r e n t elements of e x p e r i e n c e i n t o h i g h r e l i e f , y e t p i t e the r e c u r r i n g metaphor i n the n o v e l about people l i v i n g "worlds,"  the t h r e e c r e a t e a s i n g l e  f i c t i o n a l world.  des-  in different  They may be r e g a r -  ded as d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h a t w o r l d , but t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s enough to h o l d the f i c t i o n In  Brendan's  together.  perspective, states  of mind and moral a b s t r a c t i o n s  more prominent than c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s . tiful,  though i n keeping w i t h Brendan's  more i n g e n u i t y Village  than v i v i d n e s s :  Rimbauds,  Figurative  language i s  preoccupations,  the metaphor  "What s p e c t a c l e more degrading  covered i n the vomit of s i c k l y  pastiche  nausea.  expression " s i c k l y  Again,  t e l e p a t h y of f a i l u r e we know each o t h e r ' s paths, Yet which of us i s  for his  company am I  figure  the hunter?  not b i r d to h i s  I feel i t  snake?"  shows s i g n s of s t r a i n i n changing  and a snake. criptions  Similar  of p e o p l e .  has  than these  . . ."  (p.  56).  which  p a s t i c h e " denotes weakness more than  i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Max B r o n s t e i n :  wells.  are  plen-  The f i g u r e depends on an e q u i v o c a t i o n i n the meaning of " s i c k l y , " i n the u s u a l  are  "Through some  resting  places,  i s he.  (p. 9)  from animals  As i t  drinking  But i n my need extends,  of prey to a b i r d  beast and i n s e c t metaphors a r e common i n h i s The l i t e r a t i are " t i c k s "  the  on the back of  des-  literature;  he and h i s w i f e are two " c o c k r o a c h e s " c u t o f f from the warm, dark d r a i n pipe;  Solomon S i l v e r  is  an " e a g l e "  in his  c o o l e y r i e above the c i t y ,  -62-  Mrs. MacAnaspey  i s a b l a c k "crow" f l a p p i n g a f t e r him to p r o t e c t her  "hid-  eous baby b r u t e . " The s u b j e c t s of metaphor are perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t previous novels. of humanity,  In keeping w i t h Brendan's w i t h d r a w a l from the  the demeaning metaphor he a p p l i e s  t h e i r moral v a l u e . and a l l u s i o n s  to people h e l p s  circle to reduce  As might be expected, c l a s s i c a l and l i t e r a r y metaphors  are common:  Sisyphus.  " E a c h fcimeol labour to push the  stone of my domestic d i f f i c u l t i e s up and out of s i g h t , crushes me" (p. 204),  " A h , Mamma, Mamma.  r e l i g i o u s metaphor mainly  if  falls  back and  There a r e f a r f e w e r t h i n g s  heaven than a r e dreamt of i n y o u r p h i l o s o p h y " he a p p l i e s  than i n the  (p. 8 2 ) .  to h i s work,  in  Significantly,  speaking  t i s e d i n t o a new "communion" when he d e d i c a t e s h i s  life  wondering as he i m p a s s i v e l y views a woman's t h i g h ,  if  of b e i n g bap-  to w r i t i n g ,  his  and  " v o c a t i o n " has  made him an " a n c h o r i t e " who i s above these t h i n g s of the f l e s h . His expressed moral c o n v i c t i o n s bear out t h i s  comparison.  His moral  judgments, w i t h which he i s p r e o c c u p i e d a g r e a t d e a l , a l l p l a c e the c l a i m s of h i s w r i t i n g f i r s t :  "'Having  a family  there are more important t h i n g s ' " reaction is,  to support i s  (p. 3 4 ) .  one t h i n g .  His m o t h e r ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  " I m p o r t a n t , what c o u l d be more important than l o o k i n g  your w i f e and c h i l d r e n ? "  L a t e r , when he i s  g e s t i o n s f o r h i s manuscript he says,  ".  But  resisting  the e d i t o r ' s  after sug-  . .when I woke t h i s morning the  q u e s t i o n of to c u t or not to cut seemed the most important moral d e c i s i o n of my l i f e "  (p. 260).  Later s t i l l ,  some o t h e r moral v a l u e s  seem to  lie  i n the background when he d e s c r i b e s the same morning w i t h the knowledge  -63-  of h i s m o t h e r ' s d e a t h : ment w h i l e I, words" ling" it  her son,  (p. 280).  "She  lay d y i n g on the f l o o r of a strange  ran s e n s e l e s s  about the c i t y ,  shows t h a t some more b r o a d l y h u m a n i s t i c v a l u e s  v u l g a r watcher" a t h i s m o t h e r ' s  emphasizes  i n the end as " t h a t  everyday human concerns from h i s  life.  of f l e s h l y  The c o n s c i o u s  the a c t i o n p r o g r e s s e s ,  dreaming f i t f u l l y and l a s c i v i o u s l y " i n the orange  language i s  p e r i e n c e and s h i f t  It  tends  the emphasis  and p l a c e f o r h i s a c t i o n s .  inevitably writing  s t o r e the sense of p r e s e n t ,  of Brendan's  to h i s  of  "day-  but the  of such ex-  self-analysis.  perspective, i t  retains  i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l data of some o d d i t i e s  A revealed narrator using  time  result-  the past  c o m p l e t e l y from the o u t s e t .  progressing  Moore has  segment of h i s account i s  his  i n r e t r o s p e c t about the a c t i o n , and must be  i n a p o s i t i o n to know and judge i t  foreknowledge,  desires  The time c o n t i n u i t y has  person n a r r a t i o n .  of  p h y s i c a l and  He w r i t e s  to reduce the i n t e n s i t y  the framework of r e a l i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s ,  tense i s  substance  and  about a woman on the subway and of  from h i s  Though these a r e the s a l i e n t s  i n g from f i r s t  Brendan c o n -  s u i t w i t h a " m a g n i f i c e n c e of b u t t o c k s , "  not s e n s u a l .  curiously  appetites  but t o n a l l y h i s  emotional e x p e r i e n c e never does enjoy much emphasis.  the g i r l  other  to an a n c h o r i t e r e v e a l s ,  the g r a d u a l disappearance  mind does change as  are emerging and  grave.  As the comparison of h i m s e l f sciously  over  The changed wording from " m o r a l d e c i s i o n " to " q u i b b -  i s by them t h a t he judges h i m s e l f  ter's  quibbling  apart-  To r e -  a c t i o n and e l i m i n a t e the c h a r a c -  Brendan w r i t e i n the p r e s e n t t e n s e .  a r e t r o s p e c t on one stage of the a c t i o n ,  Each but  -64-  each i s  composed i n a time p r e s e n t :  " T h a t s t r a n g e r who i_s my parent  asleep.  'She's asleep,'  a voice said  to me . . . "  suspense  i n much the same manner S i n c l a i r  (p. 43)  This  Ross does w i t h Mrs.  is  preserves  Bentley's  d i a r y e n t r i e s i n As f o r Me and My House. The c o n v e n t i o n s Brendan's  p e r s p e c t i v e shares w i t h the other two.  spective holds ground;  of documentive r e a l i s m p r o v i d e a n u c l e u s of Mrs.  data  Tierney's per-  the p h y s i c a l and documentive elements n e a r e r the f o r e -  p h y s i c a l d e t a i l i s more complete, p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n s  quent and v i v i d .  Here i s  a typical  more f r e -  fragment.  The sun came through the bamboo b l i n d , h a l f l i g h t i n g the room. Mrs. T i e r n e y ' s mouth and nose f e l t d r y . She turned her head on the p i l l o w and saw her l i t t l e alarm c l o c k b e s i d e the Chinese paper lamp. F i v e past s i x . She reached out and took up her watch. F i v e past eleven. That was I r i s h t i m e . (p. 48) Note the scrupulous  c o n t i n u i t y of movement through time and space,  detail,  language, and the simple sentence s t r u c t u r e .  the p r o s a i c  sentences i n Mrs.  T i e r n e y ' s p o r t i o n of the s t o r y a r e t y p i c a l l y  and u n i f o r m i n the s u b j e c t - v e r b - o b j e c t sequence. numerous or s t r o n g . of d a i l y like  life.  Mrs.  Tierney l i v e s  Metaphors  believes,  is v i s i b l y  simple,  perceptions  religion.  syntax, God,  she  p u n i s h i n g her when her c h i l d r e n t u r n a g a i n s t h e r .  Frank F i n n e r t y i s not a moral man, because he l i v e s U n l i k e her son, Mrs.  short,  to demand complex  the e q u a l l y c o n c r e t e forms of her f u n d a m e n t a l i s t  The  are never  among the common-sense  They are too s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d  the  for his  T i e r n e y does not d e a l i n a b s t r a c t i o n s .  not a n a l y s e her own b e l i e f s  or f e e l i n g s ,  and t h e r e i s  "own  self."  She does  l i t t l e external  -65-  a n a l y s i s of them.  O b j e c t s , a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s  she i s  have s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  but i t  is  i s not e x p l i c i t , as i t  i n v o l v e d i n may  i n Brendan's  The r e l i a n c e on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than statement i n her may e x p l a i n the apparent paradox of her dreams. realities,  the u n r a t i o n a l i z e d s t u f f  to the s u r f a c e of her c o n s c i o u s n e s s . q u a l i t y of her waking subconscious  In dreams,  section  For a l l her c o n c r e t e  of dreams l i e s  surprisingly  close  But then, because of the u n s u b t l e  the dreams p r o v i d e the only a c c e s s  depths of her f e e l i n g s ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l way. reality  life,  case.  and they do i t  to the  i n an a p p r o p r i a t e l y  people and i n c i d e n t s from her waking  i n t e r a c t w i t h her b e l i e f s .  Her deeper hopes and f e a r s f i n d em-  bodiment and form more or l e s s symbolic arrangements.  The young  lover  she embraces i n d i s c r e t e l y on the beach, f o r example, 'turns suddenly her son Rory, final  c r y s t a l i z i n g a l l her f e a r s  of s e x u a l s i n .  judgment, her f a m i l y and f r i e n d s bear w i t n e s s  ling a l l  the moral doubts she cannot f a c e  into  In her dream of  against her,  recall-  consciously.  Her c o n s c i o u s adherence to C h r i s t i a n moral and s p i r i t u a l law has the r i g i d i t y  of unspoken assumption.  She simply has no c h o i c e but  b a p t i z e the c h i l d r e n , though she knows the p r e s e n t human s u f f e r i n g may cause h e r s e l f and o t h e r s .  When she f e a r s Liam may d i e ,  a u t h o r i t y of her s p i r i t u a l laws i s apparent i n her thoughts  i n your duty"  (p. 9 9 ) .  and r e l i g i o u s - - i s  of her son: no-  the books you want but you have f a i l e d  A s i m i l a r a b s o l u t e code of d u t y - - f i l i a l ,  i m p l i c i t i n a l l her waking  by the a c t i o n i n her dreams.  she  the unspoken  " 0 Brendan, Brendan, why d i d n ' t you b a p t i z e him, what do your s i l l y t i o n s matter now, you can w r i t e a l l  to  judgments,  social,  d i s t u r b e d only  -66-  P h y s i c a l a c t i o n s p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n Jane's p o r t i o n of the too, but  f o r her  to s t r o n g  they have more sensory v i v i d n e s s and  emotions.  Resentment, shame, h a t r e d ,  p o i n t s of her world, The  surrounded by  r a t i o n a l i z e d accounts of a c t i o n s and  her  Jane d e s c r i b e s  against  silver  one  Tierney,  d e s i r e are  the  f o r example, appear  dialogue,  focal  as  the o l d woman's words  of the "maddening l i t t l e  the o l d e r woman.  are u s u a l l y r e l a t e d  the e x p e r i e n c e s which e x c i t e them.  s t i m u l i of her resentment of Mrs.  deeds.  and  novel,  Jane never serves  and  i n c i d e n t s " which set  tea, has  tea s e r v i c e her mother-in-law sent as a wedding  never used  the  gift.  That a f t e r n o o n when Jane came back from downtown she found Mrs. T i e r n e y w a i t i n g f o r her i n the l i v i n g room w i t h a s i l v e r tea s e r v i c e , hot b u t t e r e d t o a s t , and t h i n l i t t l e bread-and-butter s l i c e s . "I j u s t made us a cup of t e a , " Mrs. T i e r n e y s a i d . "I found t h i s teapot on a top s h e l f i n the k i t c h e n . I hope you don't mind me u s i n g i t . " The s e r v i c e , l a s t seen t a r n i s h e d and wrapped i n newspaper, now gleamed i n r e p r o a c h . (p. 50)' The  account i s r a t i o n a l , w i t h c i r c u m s t a n t i a l d e t a i l down to the  a n d - b u t t e r s l i c e s " and  d i r e c t quotation.  I t a l l leads q u i t e  "bread-  purposefully  to the i d e a of r e p r o a c h Jane sees i n i t , which i s i n t u r n important cause i t s t i m u l a t e s Her  her  growing sexual  t i o n of s e n s a t i o n  (he  (he i s p r e d i c t a b l e ) .  be-  resentment. r e v u l s i o n f o r Brendan i s s t i m u l a t e d  i s not The  covered w i t h h a i r ) and  by a combina-  rationalized action  s t i m u l i of her d e s i r e f o r V i t o appear mainly  sensations: His s k i n was dark i n a way that had w i t h the sun. His t e e t h were l a r g e s h i r t s l e e v e s were r o l l e d up and she c o a t i n g of b l a c k h a i r , t h i c k on h i s  n o t h i n g to do and w h i t e . His saw an animal forearms,  as  -67-  c u r l i n g over h i s l i n k e d g o l d watchband. As she s t a r e d a t him she remembered her shock a t the a s s u r e d , c r u e l way h i s f i n g e r s s e i z e d at her flesh. "Go away," she s a i d ; but t h i s time her v o i c e was shaky. (p. Ill) The d e t a i l e d and v i v i d b e t r a y e d by her v o i c e . as  she r e c o g n i z e s  dark r a v i s h e r s of  are a l l  i n the i n t e r e s t of the d e s i r e  They are i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h her s e x u a l  t h a t t h i s man i s  She h e r s e l f i d e n t i f i e s  these d a r k e r impulses as masochism, She u s u a l l y  though she i s  those  the source  not n o r m a l l y  analy-  looks no f u r t h e r than the emotion and  e x t e r n a l cause. What a n a l y t i c a l depth her p o r t i o n of the n o v e l has i s  external analysis:  " S i n was,  to Jane, an a r c h a i c word  the d i s p a r i t y  between dream and r e a l i t y  a vague g u i l t  that f o o l i s h fantasy  m i d s t of f a c t  . . ."  (p. 2 2 ) .  of her l i f e .  T h i s type of a n a l y s i s ,  The range of t h i n g s s t i m u l a t i n g  emotion, i m a g i n a t i o n — b u t  But  in  wrongdoing,  c o u l d r e a r so t e r r i b l y l a r g e i n the and her own awareto the elements  her emotions b r i n g a wide  v a r i e t y of e x p e r i e n c e i n t o her p e r s p e c t i v e — s e n s a t i o n , tion,  imposed by  . . . .  she had a sense of  ness of her emotions g i v e f a i r l y e x p l i c i t s i g n i f i c a n c e  In  fantasies  " t h e f l e s h and b l o o d of a l l  she had dreamed o f . "  t i c or i n t r o s p e c t i v e . its  sensations  rational  reflec-  always w i t h emotion i n the f o r e g r o u n d .  the end, when her w o r l d i s no longer animated by the emotions which  have d r i v e n h e r , analog: buildings  "She  she i s  sat u n t i l  lifeless.  the darkness  d i e d i n a gray m i l k sky.  seemed dead"  (p.  276).  Her view of the c i t y p r o v i d e s a v i s u a l faded,  the red neon glow behind the  The c i t y was no longer  on f i r e .  It  -68-  The language i n J a n e ' s s e c t i o n s emphasis.  Her r e g u l a r  t i o n of e m o t i o n a l l y  of the n o v e l h e l p s  to e s t a b l i s h  i n t e r n a l monologue c o n t a i n s a f a i r l y  toned e x p r e s s i o n s .  A sample paragraph  large  " s h e c o u l d scream" (p. 5 2 ) .  Tierney i s  "Mrs.  calls  propor-  contains:  " b l e s s e d moment," " t h e cosmos c r u m b l e d , " " p e r f e c t l y d r e a r y , " questions"  "inane  Her term of d e r i s i o n f o r  Let Me," and her i n a b i l i t y  Mrs.  to c o n f i d e i n Brendan she  the "most t e r r i b l e " p a r t of the o l d woman's " v i s i t a t i o n . " .  speech and her thoughts as " a l l r i g h t , "  sified.  " d e f i n i t e l y n o t , " "God knows,"  Vito is variously  ened s e n s a t i o n s  is  In  are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n t e n -  d e s c r i b e d as " a b u l l y , "  i n her view of l i f e as much as i t  such  and " f o r g o d s a k e s . "  r a t , " an " i m i t a t i o n Brando tough" and a " b a s t a r d . "  F i g u r a t i v e usage i s  Her  are punctuated by emotional i n t e r j e c t i o n s  moments of h e i g h t e n e d emotion her e x p r e s s i o n s  the  a "lousy  stinking  Emotion i s  implicit  e x p l i c i t l y on her mind.  f a i r l y f r e q u e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the h e i g h t -  of her c o l l i s i o n s w i t h V i t o d i s r u p t  the r a t i o n a l  order-  i n g of her e x p e r i e n c e : She was on the s o f a . Time stopped: she was on the f l o o r . Something was h u r t i n g her back: i t was her handbag. He came a t her a g a i n and she moaned and clung to him. I t was a s t r e e t a c c i d e n t ; she c o u l d not remember what happened. Her h a i r was a l l over her f a c e . (p. 150) The e r r a t i c syntax, " t i m e stopped,  the c h a o t i c i m p r e s s i o n s ,  and the strong  metaphor,  i t was a s t r e e t a c c i d e n t " i n d i c a t e the power her  have to overcome the r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i n her w o r l d . g i o u s metaphor i s  revealing.  J u s t as Brendan a p p l i e s  Her use of it  sensations reli-  to h i s work,  she  -69-  a p p l i e s i t to the sex a c t .  T h e i r lovemaking  after a quarrel i s a  "rite  of atonement," "an a c t of communion." The n a r r a t i v e omniscience the n o v e l - - t o L i s a , too b r i e f  to a policeman,  to be worth examining  of Ormsby's.  shifts briefly  to the minds of o t h e r s i n  to Ted Ormsby--but t h e i r views a r e  i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n  He has a minor c h o r i c f u n c t i o n i n the b e g i n n i n g ,  F a t h e r Keogh has a t the end of The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l . dom  to judge and  to p r e d i c t the a c t i o n of the n o v e l .  just  Each has  the w i s -  Each might be  to be i n touch w i t h the moral laws of h i s f i c t i o n a l w o r l d .  as  said  Ormsby asks  the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n about Brendan T i e r n e y to which the n o v e l g r a d u a l l y s u p p l i e s the answer. Mrs.  His s u s p i c i o n s of Brendan and humane concern f o r  T i e r n e y are what Brendan h i m s e l f comes to i n the end.  shifts,  however, are m e c h a n i c a l l y  man  bears  who  an e f f e c t  the news of Mrs.  convenient.  T i e r n e y ' s death,  together,  mous b e i n g who  two n a r r a t o r s :  policecreates  or camera a n g l e i n movies.  i n the f i c t i o n a l  Brendan and  world.  the omniscient,  takes a s m a l l p a r t i n Jane's and Mrs.  a prominent p a r t i n b r i e f v i e w p o i n t s  of t h i s second  to the  the main e f f e c t of the minor v i e w p o i n t s i s to  i n c r e a s e awareness of the n a r r a t o r ' s presence There are, of course,  shift  in particular,  s i m i l a r to the sudden changes of scene  Considered  and  The  Most of the  Tierney's  l i k e Ted Ormsby's.  anony-  accounts  The  presence  n a r r a t o r s l i g h t l y d i m i n i s h e s the a u t h o r i t y of Brendan's  n a r r a t i o n but w i t h o u t  ever becoming more than a minor  factor.  Each main c h a r a c t e r ' s p o r t i o n of the n o v e l , because of i t s i n d i v i d u a l emphasis on e x p e r i e n c e of v a r i o u s k i n d s , on i n t e l l e c t i o n ,  sensation,  -70-  or emotion, imposes a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e on the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d of An Answer from Limbo. example,  What r e s u l t s  is  not as c l o s e l y u n i f i e d as,  the w o r l d of The Luck of Ginger Coffey w i t h i t s  n a r r a t i v e focus on G i n g e r ' s  Major Murray,  consistent  mind, or of Hugh MacLennan's  i n g , where the p o i n t of view s h i f t s  from N e i l Macrae  but the p e r s p e c t i v e remains  the same.  Barometer  Each, f o r example,  Tierney d i f f e r e n t l y :  sees  as an a r t i s t i c  The s h i f t s  c r e a t i o n , as a bare h o s p i t a l  of c o i n c i d e n c e i n B e n j y ' s ,  n a r r a t i v e s must be c a r e f u l l y sought. or c o n f l i c t s e r i o u s l y  some v i s u a l  Mrs.  room,  impres-  t e r s who d i s i n t e g r a t e  It  is  they d i d .  to b a p t i z e the c h i l d r e n . to stay i n her home.  Jason's  The accounts here never d i v e r g e  not the f i c t i o n a l ethos but the c h a r a c -  and l o s e a l l communication w i t h each o t h e r . ^  t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r s  c h o i c e but to a c t as  Q u e n t i n ' s and  enough to make i n c i d e n t s from one p e r s p e c t i v e u n -  recognizable i n another.  is  involvement  The s e p a r a t i o n i s not l i k e that i n F a u l k n e r ' s The Sound and  The F u r y , where p o i n t s  All  here  the spare room prepared f o r  as " t h a t room Japanned by J a n e " — y e t each i n c l u d e s s i o n of i t .  Ris-  to Penelope to  i n v o l v e more than d i f f e r e n c e s i n knowledge of or p e r s o n a l i n the a c t i o n .  for  say a t some time t h a t Mrs.  they have had no  T i e r n e y says she had no c h o i c e but  Jane says she c o u l d not a l l o w  the o l d e r woman  Brendan c o u l d not defend h i s mother because Jane  the i n d i s p e n s a b l e a l l y  i n h i s work.  The tragedy  of Mrs.  Tierney's  ^ For a c o n t r a r y view, see M i c h a e l Hornyansky: "The problem i s t h a t Mr. Moore c o n f r o n t s us w i t h s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t w o r l d s — B r e n d a n ' s , J a n e ' s , Mrs. T i e r n e y ' s , and some minor ones, a l l d i f f e r e n t , even i n compatable, and touching only a t the e d g e s . " See h i s " C o u n t r i e s of the M i n d , " Tamarack Review (Winter 1963), p. 64.  -71-  death i s  i n e v i t a b l e p a r t l y because of  ing l i f e , standing  but p a r t l y  too because of a c e r t a i n r i g i d i t y  in their personalities.  T h e i r views  cumstances,  c o u l d be complementary,  or sympathy  they are simply  In  the end, Brendan's  because he i s at  least  successful,  in its  m o t h e r ' s moral  t h e i r d i f f e r e n t ways of e x p e r i e n c -  own terms,  and l a c k of under-  of l i f e ,  under other  though here w i t h o u t  cir-  communication  isolating. becomes the s y n t h e s i z i n g  but a l s o because h i s  perspective,  partly  i n t e l l e c t u a l view can,  comprehend the other two.  He a n a l y s e s  his  position:  She was shocked by what she found h e r e . She thought i t her duty to do something and so she b a p t i z e d my c h i l d r e n i n a meaningless ceremony i n the bathroom; she t o l d them f o o l i s h myths about her God] I t was f o r those crimes t h a t we banished h e r . (p.- 281) This i s scant his  one way of understanding Mrs.  Tierney's position,  j u s t i c e to the r e a l i t i e s of her torment.  own and J a n e ' s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to h i s  though i t  Brendan a l s o  does  analyses  mother's:  Is my b e l i e f i n my t a l e n t any l e s s an a c t of s u p e r s t i t i o u s f a i t h than my m o t h e r ' s b e l i e f i n the power of i n d u l g e n c e s ? And, as f o r the e t h i c s of my c r e e d , how do I know t h a t my t a l e n t j u s t i f i e s the s a c r i f i c e s I have asked of others i n i t s name? 0 Mamma, I s a c r i f i c e d you; I see your y e l l o w face [ s i c ] . Jane, I abandoned y o u : I look a t y o u now and know that a l l i s changed. (p. 285) He c r i t i c i z e s h i s standards. standing  e a r l i e r presumption,  He sees h i s w i f e ' s  though not p r e c i s e l y h i s  estrangement,  of her e x p e r i e n c e of i t  ethical  though w i t h even l e s s u n d e r -  than he has of h i s m o t h e r ' s  The other two p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n Brendan's  suffering.  i n another  -72-  way,  though i t  i s not made e x p l i c i t .  c o i n c i d e s w i t h a f a i l u r e i n Brendan's  The f a i l u r e of Jane and Mrs. p r i v a t e w o r l d of  which are dominant i n t t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s . l e f t d r a i n e d of emotion, j u s t as he cannot " f e e l " had a t carries  l e a s t a minor p a r t i n h i s  Jane, r u l e d by p a s s i o n s ,  In  the b e g i n n i n g ,  life.  or  duly r e c o r d s .  his  emotion and d e s i r e  t h e i r f a i n t h o l d on h i s  If,  joy a t h i s  own transformed s t a t e  f o r that matter,  apotheosis  final  is  J o y c e ' s tone i s as  sacri-  ironic  toward  then Brendan T i e r n e y ' s d i s t a s t e  for  synthesis  leaves  the t h r e e .  the n o v e l w i t h a moral terms.  That a l l  i n t h e i r understanding i s  the n o v e l makes.  The statement i s  ^ A P o r t r a i t of novel.  his  a close p a r a l l e l . significance  Yet the c r e a t i o n of partial.  the A r t i s t  one of  three are o b l i g e d  the main i m p l i c i t  l i m i t e d by the f a c t  is actually  the  The a c -  the need f o r some more b r o a d l y humane o u t l o o k w i t h o u t of any of  the  the a p p e a r a n c e ' o f  other p e r s p e c t i v e s makes i t apparent t h a t h i s view i s  partial  is  of h i m s e l f by r e j e c t i n g  i n t o an a r t i s t ,  i n predominantly i n t e l l e c t u a l , a b s t r a c t  limitations  l o s t and  L i k e Stephen T'D.edalus i n A P o r t r a i t of  Stephen i n U l y s s e s might suggest,  Brendan's  He  t a b l e manners,  These are the elements of h i m s e l f he has  environment.^  tion implies  attention.  children's  he has become a l i e n a t e d from p o r t i o n s  Stephen's  emotion  even by h i s m o t h e r ' s "mechanized l a s t d e s c e n t " which he  f i c e d i n becoming an a r t i s t . Artist,  is  The t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s h i s mother  no l o n g e r capable of b e i n g " a p p a l l e d " by h i s f o r example,  elements  Brendan becomes so b a r r e n of  but only r e c o r d .  to her grave a l s o l o s e  those  Tierney  the  to remain  statements  t h a t the r e a d e r  r e f e r r e d to twice i n the  -73-  can u n i t e the t h r e e comprehensibly i n one f i c t i o n a l w o r l d . the n o v e l a g a i n w i t h The Sound and the F u r y , Moore's statement about human p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,  To compare  can be taken as a  w h i l e F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l makes a com-  p a r a b l e statement about the n a t u r e of human e x p e r i e n c e .  Chapter 6:  Examining novels  leads  the i l l u s i o n s  inevitably  Conclusion  of r e a l i t y i n each of B r i a n Moore's  to d e v o t i n g more a t t e n t i o n to minor d i f f e r e n c e s  than to t h e i r v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l  similarities.  With few e x c e p t i o n s ,  t e r s and i n c i d e n t s c o u l d be moved from one n o v e l to another a f t e r minor a d a p t a t i o n s .  four  The s t r o n g b a s i s  characonly  they a l l have i n techniques of d o c u -  mentive r e a l i s m tends i n each case to produce an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y which both the elements and the o r g a n i z i n g the needs of communication.  p r i n c i p l e s are o r i e n t e d to  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , we s e l e c t and arrange  p e r c e p t i o n s to make them more r e a d i l y communicable, of our sense of how l i f e r e a l l y a s s o r t s and arranges v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e of i t .  e f f e c t on e x p e r i e n c e i s fictions reality  often at itself  the expense i n the i n d i -  seek to d i m i n i s h and d i s g u i s e  but  their  apparent i n the more s u b j e c t i v e l y ordered  of people l i k e V i r g i n i a Woolf and James J o y c e . of c o n s c i o u s  our  Communication always has needs to be met,  the e x t e n t to which some n o v e l i s t s  in  r e f l e c t i o n , on which the l o g i c  has begun to impose i t s e l f .  In  this  Moore's  is  the  of cause and e f f e c t  r e s p e c t h i s work has  something  in  -75-  common w i t h what i s l o o s e l y termed " n a t u r a l i s t i c " In J u d i t h Hearne and protagonists  show v e r y  of i n e x o r a b l e her  own  dwells  Feast  of L u p e r c a l  causes and  on her  p a r t i c u l a r l y , where  l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e exercise  of f r e e w i l l ,  effects attracts notice.  m i s f o r t u n e s upon h e r s e l f , but  on a c c i d e n t s her  The  fiction.  economic and  J u d i t h Hearne  s o c i a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n by  f o r c e s i n her  society.  s o c i a l f o r c e s ; he  product of s o c i a l mismanagement. temporal c o n t i n u i t y and naturalists'  seem to be  Diarmuid Devine has  a v i c t i m of more p u r e l y  to poverty, and  as  as  themselves to  a  their the  causes.  R i c h l e r i s more flamboyant, but h i s  t i o n a l worlds have a s i m i l a r k i n d ironic  been d i s c u s s e d  c l o s e r to Mordecai R i c h l e r than to anyone e l s e  prominent i n Canadian f i c t i o n .  The  social  on  natural  Moore's f i c t i o n a l worlds, w i t h lend  novel  j u s t her  even e x p l a i n s h i m s e l f  i n d u c t i v e approach to a n a l y s i n g  s o c i a l causes.  Not  the product of  already  circumstantial detail  T h i s q u a l i t y puts him  brings  "dear Aunt D'Arcy",  c l a s s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n to the f a t a l h a b i t of t i p p l i n g . pathetic character  pattern  a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the  of the economy which have reduced her  p o s i t i o n , but her  a  the  of r e a l i s m and  tone i n which he  a s i m i l a r emphasis  creates  ficon  Duddy K r a v i t z i s l i k e  Moore's treatment of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s i n h i s f i r s t  three  novels.  Morely C a l l a g h a n ' s n o v e l s a l s o show a concern f o r i n d i v i d u a l s v i c t i m i z e d by  s o c i a l f o r c e s , but  presented; like  in his f i c t i o n  the  s o c i a l f o r c e s are  they e x i s t as p r i o r c o n d i t i o n s and  deductively  are embodied i n  the M o n t r e a l p u b l i s h e r Joseph Carver i n The  Loved and  the  characters Lost,  -76-  through whom they operate w i t h a l l e g o r i c a l  simplicity.  spareness  l i k e the symbolic  of C a l l a g h a n ' s f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s ,  The g e n e r a l separation  of M o n t r e a l i n t o the mountain and the r i v e r draws the s i g n i f i c a n c e h i s n o v e l s c l o s e r to a l l e g o r y lished his  than B r i a n Moore's  Moore pub-  f i r s t n o v e l w i t h f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n only t h r e e y e a r s  than Hugh MacLennan produced George S t e w a r t ' s Ends  ever come.  of  s t o r y i n The Watch t h a t  the N i g h t , but the p r e o c c u p a t i o n s of the two n o v e l i s t s  ferent that i t  is  only s u r p r i s i n g  a r e so  dif-  t h a t the i s o l a t e d t e c h n i c a l s i m i l a r i t y  produces any resemblance i n the n o v e l s .  The e f f e c t of an i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  r e f l e c t i v e n a r r a t o r common to the c o n f e s s i o n form i s George S t e w a r t ' s  later  c l o s i n g comments:  ".  seen i n some of  . . to be a b l e to l o v e the mys18  t e r y s u r r o u n d i n g us i s  the f i n a l and only s a n c t i o n of human e x i s t e n c e . "  It  is  r e c o g n i s a b l y a statement of the same o r d e r as Brendan T i e r n e y ' s  "I  have l o s t and s a c r i f i c e d m y s e l f "  (p. 288) .  It  might even be regarded  as an a f f i r m a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t of Brendan's d i s c o v e r y  that he has  ceased  to love or r e s p e c t the mystery surrounding him. An Answer from Limbo i s relate  the most d i f f i c u l t of M o o r e ' s  novels  to any p a t t e r n of development i n h i s manner of c r e a t i n g a  tional world.  fic-  Between J u d i t h Hearne and The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y ,  change i n h i s methods p a r a l l e l s  roughly  The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l does not f i t  I o  (New York:  Signet,  1960),  the  the h i s t o r i c a l development of  the modern n o v e l by a g e n e r a l w i t h d r a w a l of the n a r r a t o r from the t i o n a l world.  to  p. 349.  into this  fic-  pattern  -77-  through most of i t s  length,  s i n c e the n a r r a t o r i s more prominent and the  i r o n y toward the main c h a r a c t e r more p o i n t e d than i n the f i r s t It  does advance the tendency,  though,  in its  dramatic scenes, which have  a new freedom from comment and i n t e r n a l monologue, novel.  In most other r e s p e c t s i t  novel.  seen a g a i n i n the  seems a movement away from r a t h e r  toward the f e a t u r e s which develop f u r t h e r i n The Luck of Ginger Accompanying  the w i t h d r a w a l  presentational  of the n a r r a t o r i s  than  Coffey.  a g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on r e -  t e c h n i q u e s , as can be seen i n the climax and denouement  of The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y .  A t the same time, an i n c r e a s e i n the quan-  t i t y and s t r e n g t h of metaphor and i m p l i c i t e x p o s i t i o n e n r i c h and the e x t e n t of the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d .  It  enlarge  becomes more complex and p r o b l e -  matic,  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the development of a more d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e of  ironic  tone toward the main c h a r a c t e r .  r a t i v e focus i n almost the a c t i o n .  third  He i s  i n a p r i m i t i v e way,  Ginger C o f f e y o c c u p i e s the n a r -  the Jamesian r o l e of a forming i n t e l l i g e n c e  still  the  regarded ambiguously,  but he i s  sensitive,  for and,  articulate.  The r e d u c t i o n of t o n a l i r o n y i s  one tendency which does  i n t o the f o u r t h n o v e l , w i t h the s e r i o u s  continue  acceptance of Brendan T i e r n e y s 1  p o i n t of v i e w .  Brendan h i m s e l f becomes the i r o n i s t when he t e l l s ,  for  example,  i m p e r f e c t i m i t a t i o n of a " p a t e r f a m i l i a s "  child-  of h i s  i s h a m b i t i o n to d i e a t  t h i r t y with his  poetic g i f t  other techniques seem to have remained s t a t i c , or to have r e g r e s s e d ,  or of h i s  s t i l l unclouded.  Many  l i k e the use of metaphor,  l i k e the p u r i t y of dramatic scenes and the use of  -78-  implicit exposition.  These reach a l i m i t e d e x c e l l e n c e i n The Luck of  Ginger C o f f e y , but the attempt a t more ambitious  t e c h n i c a l scope i n the  19 fourth novel disrupts  them.  The l a s t n o v e l i s  hard to compare e v a l u a t i v e l y w i t h the others b e -  cause f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n opens up e x p r e s s i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s ferent sort. is  the f i r s t  quality  Brendan T i e r n e y , b e s i d e s  like  the n a r r a t o r ' s  w i t h i n the f i c t i o n . like,  "shall  world a l l  d i r e c t l y to the r e a d e r ,  thoroughly a r t i c u l a t e c h a r a c t e r Moore has c r e a t e d .  of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  without,  speaking  is  a source of e x p l i c i t meaning,  His a t t i t u d e toward h i s  I d e s c r i b e myself and get i t  i n t o the foreground y e t i t  story,  not from  e v i d e n t i n comments  over w i t h , " draws the f i c t i o n a l  c r e a t e s freedom f o r a more open and  freedom produces only a few extended metaphors, comparison of h i m s e l f  f e e l s h i s way " t a p - t a p "  The  a n a l y s i s i n The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l , but from  d e l i b e r a t e i m p o s i t i o n of a r t i s t i c form on the a c t i o n .  Brendan's  of a d i f -  usually  In  this  case  ironic,  the  like  to the b l i n d beggar on the subway as he  through the h o s t i l i t y  i n h i s household  trying  to mediate the q u a r r e l s . A w o r l d of documentive r e a l i t y i s s u b j e c t i v e dimensions j e c t i v e experience.  i n c l i n e d to be f i n i t e , even i n  and to c o n s t r i c t the i m a g i n a t i v e The trend i n M o o r e ' s  expansion of  f i c t i o n a l worlds  is  its  sub-  toward a  s l i g h t r e l a x a t i o n of the r a t i o n a l o r d e r i n g , mainly i n a g r e a t e r  freedom  19 Which may have been a f a c t o r i n George Woodcock's judgment of An Answer from Limbo as an " i n t e r i m e x e r c i s e " r a t h e r than a completed work of the q u a l i t y to be expected from a n o v e l i s t l i k e B r i a n Moore. See " A C l o s e Shave," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e ( S p r i n g 1963), p. 70-72.  -79-  of metaphor,  to admit those i n f i n i t e i m a g i n a t i v e  human a b s o l u t e s the w o r l d i s  as  love,  f a i t h , and joy can d e v e l o p .  a l s o i n c l i n e d to draw i n more of  t h a t occurs a t depths not a c c e s s i b l e f o r t h i n dreams,  expanses  fantasies,  i n which such  T h i s expansion of  the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e  to the c o n s c i o u s mind but  and i m p u l s e s .  Ginger C o f f e y ' s  shadowed  epiphanic  moment on the courthouse steps might be compared'with the type of p e r i e n c e James Joyce p o r t r a y s is  i n some of h i s  Stephen IDLedalus i n the f i r s t  purpose i n A P o r t r a i t of  fiction.  ex-  Here, f o r example,  f l u s h of h i s d e d i c a t i o n to the  artist's  the A r t i s t .  He c l o s e d h i s eyes i n the languor of s l e e p . His e y e l i d s trembled as i f they f e l t the v a s t c y c l i c movement of the e a r t h and her watchers, trembled as i f they f e l t the strange l i g h t of some new world. His s o u l was swooning i n t o some new w o r l d , f a n t a s t i c , dim, u n c e r t a i n as under sea, t r a v e r s e d by cloudy shapes and b e i n g s . A w o r l d , a glimmer, or a flower? Glimmering and t r e m b l i n g , t r e m b l i n g and u n f o l d i n g , a b r e a k i n g l i g h t , an opening f l o w e r , i t spread i n e n d l e s s s u c c e s s i o n to i t s e l f . . . . The freedom of metaphor i s and l i m i t l e s s ,  the e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r l y  w i t h o u t any r e f e r e n c e to time,  tendency i n B r i a n M o o r e ' s is  similar,  f i c t i o n , however,  space,  is  irrational  or l o g i c .  slight,  This  and Ginger  Coffey's  a rare experience. It  may have been what prompted one c r i t i c ,  writing  i n Canadian L i t e r a -  t u r e s h o r t l y a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y ,  to r e f e r  21 to Moore as  the " h e i r " of James J o y c e .  Though h i s  f i c t i o n i s more o f t e n  20 21  (New York: Jack Ludwig,  23.  Modern L i b r a r y , "Mirror  1944),  p.  200.  of Moore," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e (Winter '  1961),  -80-  compared to J o y c e ' s than to anyone e l s e ' s ,  the s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e mainly  i n t h i n g s o t h e r than the n a t u r e of t h e i r f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s .  Some of  i d e a s which can be a b s t r a c t e d from t h e i r f i c t i o n are s i m i l a r , idea that I r i s h society i s of B e l f a s t  p a r a l y s e d and s t i f l i n g .  the  l i k e the  Though Moore w r i t e s  r a t h e r than D u b l i n , a g r e a t many d e s c r i p t i v e s i m i l a r i t i e s  in  s e t t i n g and custom are to be expected from t h e i r common n a t i o n a l i t y , the resemblances between the b o a r d i n g house i n J o y c e ' s s t o r y of name and i n J u d i t h Hearne. parts is  i n J o y c e ' s work.  A number of Moore's  that  c h a r a c t e r s have c o u n t e r -  Brendan T i e r n e y , i n h i s r o l e of nascent  somehow r e l a t e d to Stephen ED.idalus;  artist  Diarmuid Devine might owe some-  t h i n g to both Leopold Bloom and James Duffy from " A P a i n f u l C a s e . " Hearne's v i s i t s  to P r o f e s s o r O ' N e i l l ' s  w i t h M a r i a ' s evening out i n " C l a y , " different.  The s i m i l a r i t y  Judith  house have something i n common  but t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s  altogether  seems s t r o n g only when they are c o n s i d e r e d  o u t s i d e the c o n t e x t of " t h e i r f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s , c i d e n t s r e c a l l e d from  like  as  though they were i n -  life.  The analogous s i t u a t i o n s  of the o l d maids might,  in fact,  examples of the e f f e c t the f i c t i o n a l world can have on the of d e s c r i p t i v e l y s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t s .  In a d d i t i o n to i t s  serve as  significance  symbolic import,  the Hallow Eve game r e v e a l s M a r i a ' s p o s i t i o n i n the household the r e a c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s her c h o i c e of the c l a y : She f e l t a s o f t wet substance w i t h her f i n g e r s and Was s u r p r i s e d t h a t nobody spoke or took o f f her bandage. There was a pause f o r a few seconds; and then a g r e a t d e a l of s c u f f l i n g and w h i s p e r i n g .  through  -81-  Somebody s a i d something about the garden, and a t l a s t Mrs. D o n n e l l y s a i d something v e r y c r o s s to one of the next-door g i r l s and t o l d her to throw i t out a t once: t h a t was no p l a y . M a r i a understood t h a t i t was wrong t h a t time and so she had to do i t over a g a i n : and t h i s time she got the prayerbook. The y o u n g s t e r s a r e making game of the o l d lady, w h i l e the h o s t e s s p o l i t e l y tries  to c h a s t i s e them and  among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  to p r o t e c t M a r i a from t h e i r rudeness.  i s clear  though not only M a r i a ' s but the n a r r a t o r ' s  innocence i s m a i n t a i n e d throughout. comparison,  This,  His i r o n y i s never p o i n t e d .  i n the analogous s i t u a t i o n i n J u d i t h Hearne,  By  a l l significance  i s made e x t e r n a l and f i n i t e by the n a r r a t o r ' s e v a l u a t i o n and  the c h a r a c -  t e r ' s i n t e r n a l monologue.  incident  A f t e r Miss Hearne has r e c a l l e d an  from the O ' N e i l l boy's i n f a n c y ,  she sees her m i s t a k e :  But they turned g l o w e r i n g f a c e s a t her, r e j e c t i n g the o f t e n heard s t o r y . C h i l d r e n do not l i k e to be reminded of t h e i r baby days. Oh, I know t h a t . Why d i d I put my f o o t i n i t ? Shaun got up o f f the rug and looked a t the clock. "Holy smoke'. I t ' s past t h r e e . I told Rory Lacey I'd be over a t h i s house a t t h r e e . " His mother looked a t him, her eyes c o l d to the falsehood. (p. 63) Hugo McPherson, i n the L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada, r e f e r s borrowed  from Joyce" i n J u d i t h Hearne,  but i t i s p r e c i s e l y  to " e f f e c t s the e f f e c t of  23 these two  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s which v a r i e s .  Though t h e r e a r e such  iso-  l a t e d correspondences i n the work of Moore and Joyce, the d i f f e r e n c e i n 22  Dubliners  (Harmondsworth:  Penguin,  1963), p.  103.  23 " F i c t i o n 1940-1960," L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada, ed. C a r l F. K l i n c k et a l ( U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965), p. 718.  -82-  t h e i r manner of c r e a t i n g a f i c t i o n a l world makes any s i m i l a r i t y all  effect unlikely.  Any c l a i m of resemblance would have to be c o n f i n e d  to J o y c e ' s e a r l i e r works, then the s i m i l a r i t i e s in his novels.  His  i n over-  Dubliners  and A P o r t r a i t of t h e A r t i s t ,  a r e more pronounced i n Moore's  story "Grieve f o r  short  and  stories  than  the Dear D e p a r t e d , " f o r example,  comes n e a r e r to c r e a t i n g a Joycean world than any of the n o v e l s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n of B r i a n Moore's c e n t r a l l y i n the h i s t o r i c a l the n o v e l i s  t r a d i t i o n of  stance of h i s a c t i o n s ,  the n o v e l than James J o y c e .  on the s o c i a l form and moral  then the elements of most of Moore's  to serve the t r a d i t i o n a l ends of the n o v e l .  c i p l e s which u n i f y h i s logic,  p l a c e s him more If  taken as p r i m a r i l y a form p r e s e n t i n g man i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h  o t h e r s , w i t h the r e s u l t a n t emphasis  w e l l designed  f i c t i o n a l worlds  measurable  f i c t i o n are The v e r y  f i c t i o n i n t o an i l l u s i o n of the p r o c e s s  space,  sub-  prin-  of r e a l i t y —  clock time—except for their specialized s c i e n -  t i f i c applications,  a r e conveniences of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the broader  sense of the term.  It  is  significant  t h a t even h i s a r t i s t ,  T i e r n e y , has many moral and few a e s t h e t i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . l i k e Stephen Daedalus, b e i n g r a t h e r than "as  f a s c i n a t e d by words. a young man."  i n The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y , personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s  He i s  He i s  the a r t i s t as  B r i a n Moore does s t r i v e ,  not, social  especially  to r e p r e s e n t man i n h i s more i n t i m a t e l y  to h i s god and to h i m s e l f ,  form the common b a s i s of h i s  f i c t i o n a l worlds  on man as a c o n s c i o u s  being.  social  Brendan  but the elements which  throw the g r e a t e r  emphasis  -83-  Bibliography  I  L i s t of Works by B r i a n Moore  Moore,  Brian.  An Answer from Limbo.  New Y o r k :  .  The F e a s t of L u p e r c a l .  Boston:  ._  J u d i t h Hearne.  .  The Luck of Ginger C o f f e y .  Toronto:  Dell,  1963.  L i t t l e Brown,  M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, New Y o r k :  Dell,  . " G r i e v e f o r the Dear D e p a r t e d , " A t l a n t i c , 1959) , 4 3 - 4 6 . •  .  1957 .  " L i o n of the A f t e r n o o n , " A t l a n t i c ,  1964.  1962.  CCIV (August  CC (November  1957),  79-83. . "Next Thing was Kansas C i t y , " A t l a n t i c , r u a r y 1959), 77-79. . . New Y o r k :  II  List  "Sassenach,"  Atlantic,  CCIII (Feb-  CXCIII (March 1957), 4 7 - 4 9 .  " A V o c a t i o n , " The I r i s h Genius, S i g n e t , 1960, pp. 125-128.  e d . Devin A.  Garrity.  of A r t i c l e s About B r i a n Moore  F u l f o r d , Robert. " R o b e r t F u l f o r d I n t e r v i e w s B r i a n Moore," Review ( S p r i n g 1962), 5-18.  Tamarack  Hornyansky, M i c h a e l . " C o u n t r i e s of the M i n d , " Tamarack Review (Winter 1963), 58-68. Ludwig, J a c k . 18-23.  " M i r r o r of Moore," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e (Winter  . " F i c t i o n f o r the M a j o r s , " 1960) , 65-71.  Tamarack Review  1961),  (Autumn  -84-  Moore, B r i a n . "Housekeeping 1962), 118-123. . . 117-118.  in Ireland,"  L e t t e r to the w r i t e r ,  Atlantic,  13 A p r i l  "Monster F i s h i n g , " A t l a n t i c ,  CCX  (November  1965.  CCVIII ( J u l y  1961),  Stedmond, John. " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " J u d i t h Hearne, by B r i a n Moore. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1964. Stobie, Margaret. 72-73.  " N o v e l C h r o n i c l e , " Tamarack Review  (Summer  Tallman, Warren. " I r i s h m a n ' s L u c k , " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 1960), 69-70. Woodcock, George. " A . C l o s e Shave," 1963), 70-72.  Ill  List  Canadian L i t e r a t u r e  1957),  (Autumn  (Spring  of General Works C o n s u l t e d  Auerbach, E r i c h . "Odysseus' S c a r , " Mimesis: The R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of R e a l i t y i n Western L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s . W i l l a r d T r a s k . New Y o r k : Anchor, 1957. Cook, A l b e r t . The Meaning P r e s s , 1960. Edel,  Leon. The Modern P s y c h o l o g i c a l and Dunlap, 1964.  Forster, Frye,  of F i c t i o n .  E. M.  Aspects  of the N o v e l .  Detroit:  Novel.  Wayne  University  New York:  Harmondsworth:  Gossel  Penguin,  1963.  Northrop. "Historical Criticism: Theory of Modes," Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : Four E s s a y s . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. . "Rhetorical Criticism: Theory of G e n r e s , " Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : Four E s s a y s . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957.  James, Henry. The A r t of the N o v e l : S c r i b n e r s , 1937.  C r i t i c a l Prefaces.  New York:  -85Lubbock, P e r c y .  The C r a f t of F i c t i o n .  New York:  Viking,  1960.  McPherson, Hugo. " F i c t i o n 1940-1960," L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada: Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h , G e n e r a l e d . C a r l F. K l i n c k . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1965. O'Connor, W i l l i a m Van, ed. Forms of Modern F i c t i o n : i n Honor of Joseph Warren Beach. Bloomington: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959.  Essays C o l l e c t e d Indiana U n i -  Pacey, Desmond. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n Canada: A Short H i s t o r y E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e . T o r o n t o : Ryerson, 1961. S c h o l e s , Robert, e d . Approaches to the N o v e l : Poetics. San F r a n c i s c o : Chandler, 1961.  Materials  of  for a  -86Appendix  1 2 2 0 0 Irede I Sxudlo City.  13, 1965.  April  Dear  Richard  F i r s t of anything Stories  H.rrJson:  a l l , in until I which  I, Cal  answer to your l e t t e r , came t o C a n a d a .  miqht  be o f  interest  to  I did  you  not  appeared  publish In  t h e f o l l o w i n g : A p a p e r b a c k c a l l e d THE 11? I SH GENIDUS ( an A m e r i c a n c o m p a n y ) e c U t e d , I t h i n k b y D'XJSXKiKXiiXSH D ^ v i n - A d a i r , a New Y r k P ° b l i s h l n g c o m p a n y , c o n t a i n s a s t o r y o f mine c a l l e d l A V O C A T I O N / Andother s t o r y which UNCLE T a n d a p p e a r e d  miqht first  GENTLEMAN'S QUARTERLY. I am I am base film  be o f i n t e r e s t was c a l l e d i n a New Y o r k M a g a z i n e c a l l e d ^ -  h,-%<\ j •^• ' C  c  1  cA<L  s o r r y I c a n n o t be m o r e p r e c i s e a b o u t t h e ' ^ s s u e s , b u t a t p r e s e n t t h r e e t h o u s a n d m i l e s f r o m my f i l e s a n d home a n d w i l l be h e r e t h r o u g h A u g u s t . I ' a m w r l t l n g an o r i g i n a l s c r i p t with A j f r e d Hitchcock.  T e F ast o f was w r i t t e n , 55-56-  L p e r c a l was w r i t t e n a f t e r J u d i t h H e a r n e . a s I r e m e m b e r i n 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 a n d I p e r c a l was  can  with,  n  help  you  u  If t h e r e a r e any y o u c a n f i n d me a t  J.H. written  other questions I the above a d d r e s s .  

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