UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The fictional world in four novels by Brian Moore. Harrison, Richard Terrence 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A8 H4.pdf [ 3.71MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104845.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104845-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104845-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104845-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104845-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104845-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104845-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104845-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104845.ris

Full Text

THE FICTIONAL WORLD IN FOUR NOVELS BY BRIAN MOORE by RICHARD TERRENCE HARRISON B. A., Un iver s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of ENGLISH We accept th i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i I m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , , I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date / C / ? 6S Abstract The f i c t i o n a l worlds of Brian Moore's four novels are, i n th i s thes i s , explored f o r the i r r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t y and to the ac t i on and o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the novels . The argument rests on the premise that the nature of the world a nove l i s t creates a f f e c t s the ac t i on which i s poss ib le i n the novel and predisposes that ac t ion to ce r t a i n kinds of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It a l so assumes that fo r th i s sort of i nves t i ga t i on , some workable de sc r i p t i on of a f i c t i o n a l world can be a r r i ved at by examining such features as the se l ec t i on of d e t a i l , the ordering p r i n -c i p l e s , and the language with which that world i s created, as w e l l as the n a r r a t o r ' s po s i t i on i n r e l a t i o n to the f i c t i o n . The introductory chapter i s devoted to e laborat ing these premises and i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to modern f i c t i o n i n a general way. The next four chapters analyse the f i c t i o n a l worlds i n Br ian Moore' four novels i n order of pub l i ca t i on , marking any d i scernable connection they have with the ac t i on of the novels and judging the i r in f luence on the reader ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a c t i o n . These chapters examine Moore i i techniques of p ro jec t ing an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y , with occas iona l compari-son with the methods of other nove l i s t s and more frequent comparisons among the four novels, designed to trace signs of development i n h i s techniques. Chapter Two deals with Judi th Hearne, t rac ing p a r t i c u l a r l y the fate of the aging s p i n s t e r ' s r e l i g i o u s and romantic impulses i n a world which might be descr ibed as r h e t o r i c a l l y , as we l l as s p i r i t u a l l y , c o n s t r i c t i n g . In Chapter Three, the world of dehumanized s o c i a l forces i n The Feast of Lupercal i s examined together with the f a i l u r e of the Be l fas t schoolmaster Diarmuid Devine to o f f se t these forces with any strong human q u a l i t i e s or values transcending the claims of s o c i a l ex-pedience. A large part of Chapter Four, deal ing with The Luck of Ginger  Coffey, Moore's only novel set i n Canada, i s concerned with developments i n the author ' s techniques. Its f i c t i o n a l world i s found to be larger, and to accommodate more of the i n d i v i d u a l humanity of h i s characters . Greater r e l i ance on representat iona l techniques has a l so a f fec ted the depth and range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s f i c t i o n . Chapter F i v e , on Brian Moore's l a te s t novel, An Answer from Limbo, i s less a study of develop-ment than of innovat ion i n the author ' s methods. The e f f e c t of f i r s t -person na r ra t i on i s examined, and the compl icat ion of the f i c t i o n a l world by the development of three d i s t i n c t perspect ives on the ac t ion , corresponding to the three main characters . The concluding chapter summarizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the f i c t i o n a l worlds of the four novels, and attempts a genera l cha rac te r i za t i on of i i i Moore's techniques of presenting an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y , r e l a t i n g them to the o v e r a l l e f f ec t s of h i s f i c t i o n . The d i f fe rences traced i n the e a r l i e r chapters are a l so drawn together i n an e f f o r t to f i nd some pat-tern of development i n the changes. On the bas is of th i s one character -i s t i c of h i s f i c t i o n , Br ian Moore i s f i n a l l y compared with other nove l i s t s as a means of est imating h i s po s i t i on i n the stream of modern f i c t i o n . 11/ Contents 1. Introduct ion: const i tuents of a f i c t i o n a l world . . . . p. 1 2. Jud i th Hearne p. 9 3. The Feast of Lupercal p. 21 4. The Luck of Ginger Coffey p. 39 5. An Answer from Limbo p. 57 6. Conclusion p. 74 7. Bibl iography p. 83 8. Appendix: Le t te r from Brian Moore . p. 86 Acknowledgement The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge with thanks the pat ient guidance Dr. Donald G. Stephens i n preparing th i s thes i s . THE FICTIONAL WORLD IN FOUR NOVELS BY BRIAN MOORE Chapter 1: Introduct ion Comparing novels which project widely d i f f e r i n g i l l u s i o n s of r e a l i t y makes i t c l ea r that the nature of the f i c t i o n a l world created mater i a l l y a f f e c t s the range of s i gn i f i c ance the work as a whole can have. Even when the im i t a t i on of l i f e i n the novels i s on a s im i l a r "mimetic l e v e l , " to use Northrop F r y e ' s term, the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the world created predispose the ac t i on to c e r t a i n kinds of meaning or i n t e r p r e -tation.' '" Those who concede, for example, that I sabel Archer from James's The P o r t r a i t of a Lady could not ex i s t i n a scene with Joyce ' s Leopold Bloom w i l l a l so agree that th i s i s not because of d i f fe rences between London and Dubl in i n the r e a l wor ld. The two characters have d i f f e r e n t modes of existence because the f i c t i o n a l worlds of which they are a part ^ " H i s t o r i c a l C r i t i c i s m : Theory of Modes," Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (Pr inceton Un iver s i t y Press, 1957), pp. 33-67. -2-are d i f f e r e n t l y created, and the f i n a l s i gn i f i c ance of the i r appearance must d i f f e r as surely as the immediate impressions !they make. The na-ture of th i s dependence of o v e r a l l s i gn i f i c ance on the q u a l i t i e s of the f i c t i o n a l world can only be approached through a c lose examination of how that world i s cons t i tu ted . F i c t i o n a l worlds vary i n the elements of human experience they con-ta in or rec rea te . Proportions of phys i ca l , emotional and psycho log ica l experience are bas ic determiners. Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, f o r example, i s a compendium of phys i ca l d e t a i l , whi le Crusoe's psychology remains as rudimentary as a contr ivance fo r catching w i ld goats. This re su l t s as much from the type as the quantity of d e t a i l . Phys ica l experience i s recreated i n documentative d e t a i l as opposed to, say, the v i v i d sen-sory d e t a i l of a D. H. Lawrence short s tory . Psycholog ica l de sc r i p t i on too may recreate mental states a n a l y t i c a l l y from without or d e s c r i p t i v e l y from w i th in a per sona l i t y , and i t may conf ine i t s e l f to conscious ly ordered mental processes or attempt to recreate the greater bulk of i n -voluntary a s soc i a t i ve a c t i v i t y . S im i l a r l y , emotions may be confined to c l e a r l y de f inab le - -even s o c i a l l y acceptab le—s ta te s of f e e l i n g or may inc lude signs of dark, chaot ic subterranean s t i r r i n g s . Ana lys i s i s not always most productive i n these fundamental terms. Dos Passos, f o r example, i n h i s "Newsreel" sect ions of U. S. A. attempts to introduce in to h i s f i c t i o n a l world a complex part of our c u l t u r a l experience s e l -dom seen i n f i c t i o n . - 3 -The author's choice of language helps to determine the elements of experience recreated i n more than simply the d e t a i l i t denotes. Its con-notative values produce the nebulous fringes of perception; i t s f i g u r a t i v e uses determine the type of experience the metaphor introduces as a c o r a l -lary to the l i t e r a l a c t i o n . Dickens' r e l i g i o u s metaphors i n describing Coketown, f o r example, help to transform the moral judgment i n Hard Times into s p i r i t u a l condemnation. If any q u a l i t y of the f i c t i o n a l world has d i r e c t bearing on a novel's f i n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t s scope of human ex-2 perience has, as Mark Schorer points out i n his "Technique as Discovery." He shows i n h i s f i r s t example how a concentration on merchantile and mea-surable elements of l i f e changes Moll Flanders from the moral lesson Defoe intended to a kind of audit of the wages of s i n . The v a r i e t y of experience, p a r t i c u l a r l y psychological experience, i n a f i c t i o n a l world w i l l depend pa r t l y on narrative point of view i n the Jamesian sense, but the concept i s of l i m i t e d value for t h i s inves-t i g a t i o n . Both The P o r t r a i t of a Lady and Ulysses, for example, are nar-rated from a point of view which could be described as " s e l e c t i v e om-niscience, " yet the s i m i l a r i t y i s i n c i d e n t a l . The term i s i t s e l f mis-leading to the extent that i t suggests the coincidence of the f i c t i o n a l and r e a l worlds or some existence of the f i c t i o n a l world beyond what i s given or implied i n the n a r r a t i v e . The value of approaching a novel 2 Forms of Modern F i c t i o n , ed. William Van O'Connor (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 9-30. -4 -as though i t s f i c t i o n a l world were an a r t i f a c t rather than a view of the r e a l world (one of James's "windows on l i f e " ) depends on the po s s i -b i l i t y of apprec iat ing some organic r e l a t i o n between the ethos and the ac t i on of the novel which i s de-emphasized i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approach. In part i t depends on the l im i t s of presentat ion being s i g n i f i c a n t as l im i t s not of v i s i o n but of a c t i on i n the nove l . The term "pe r spec t i ve " i s more apt, with i t s imp l i c a t i on of arrange-ment and d i s t o r t i o n as q u a l i t i e s of the landscape rather than of the viewer. Experience making up a f i c t i o n a l world arranges i t s e l f i n a ce r t a i n perspect ive according to the proport ion and emphasis devoted to var ious elements. Leopold Bloom's f a s c i n a t i o n with the world " p a r a l -lax" draws a t ten t i on to the changing perspect ive i n Ulysses. The elements of Bloom's world i n the strongly sensuous morning scene where he eats " the inner organs of beasts", are not i n the same perspect ive as i n l a t e r mock-romantic scenes. A more extreme example i s Fau lkner ' s The Sound  and the Fury, where the elements foremost i n the perspect ives of Benjy, Quentin, and Jason are so d iverse that three separate f i c t i o n a l worlds are p r o v i s i o n a l l y created and can be u n i f i e d only by painstaking r e -const ruct ion around ha l f a dozen recognisable points of correspondence. To consider a novel with u n i f i e d perspect ive, Schorer ' s de s c r i p t i on of Mo l l Flanders would put Ch r i s t i an values near the d iminishing point of the perspect ive with economic concerns i n the foreground. Such d e s c r i p -t ions often revea l a k ind of moral or thematic perspect ive corresponding - 5 -to the phys i ca l one. C lose ly re la ted to the matter of experience i s the manner of a r -ranging i t , the system underly ing the ordering of de s c r i p t i on and nar -r a t i o n . The i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y i n f i c t i o n stems not only from i n d i v i -dual correspondences with l i f e , which any l i t e r a r y form can have, but 3 from creat ing a sense of the process of l i f e . Any of the elements which lend cont inu i ty to human experience can act as the ordering p r i n -c i p l e behind th i s sense of process. Our sense of the cont inu i ty of time and of movement through space are a resource of rea l i sm i n na r ra -t i v e . Together with phys i ca l d e t a i l s of circumstance they tend to produce that documentive rea l i sm f i c t i o n shares with h i s t o r i c a l repor -tage. They are a main f ac to r i n the strong i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y generated by the Ha l i fax explos ion scenes of Hugh MacLennan 1s Barometer R i s i ng . C lose ly re l a ted are the ordering of cause and e f f e c t and patterns of l o g i c i n both phys ica l and psycho log ica l a c t i on genera l l y . A l l these are r a t i o n a l , r e l a t i v e l y object ive sources of order. More subject ive elements l i k e states of f e e l i n g and patterns of a s soc i a t i on can a l so provide con t i nu i t y . The c h i l d Stephen's r e f l e c t i o n s i n the opening of A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t , or the a s soc i a t i ve f l i g h t s of the heroine i n Mrs. Dalloway, are good examples of subject ive ordering, emphasizing the i l l o g i c rather than the log i c of human l i f e . 3 For the spec i a l r e l a t i o n of f i c t i o n to the process of r e a l i t y , see A lber t Cook, The Meaning of F i c t i o n (Detro i t : Wayne Un iver s i t y Press, 1960), p. 94. -6-Language helps again to determine the ordering p r i n c i p l e . In psy-cho log i ca l de sc r i p t i on Henry James never allowed himself the freedom (he would have ca l l ed i t looseness) of expanding assoc iat ions used by Mrs. Woolf'3 to present the m u l t i - r e l a t i o n a l qua l i t y of subject ive ex-per ience. His descr ip t ions are l i nea r and e x p l i c i t , exacting the l a s t p o s s i b i l i t y of subt le re l a t i on sh ip of ideas from the grammar of the language. Grammar genera l ly has a tendency to r a t i o n a l ordering of experience, just as a d i s rup t ion of syntax i s often used to convey a suspension of r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . F i gu ra t i ve language i s one of the ch ie f resources of subject ive order ing. As the subject of metaphor may i n t r o -duce new elements to the f i c t i o n a l world, the abundance and strength of metaphor may provide a new ordering p r i n c i p l e . In The Great Gatsby, f o r example, the p o s s i b i l i t y of Gatsby's dream emerging i n r e a l sub-stance and s i gn i f i c ance i s inherent i n Nick Carraway 1s e a r l i e s t d e s c r i p -t i ve passages: " . . . there was an excitement i n her vo i ce that men who had cared f o r her found d i f f i c u l t to fo rge t : a s inging compulsion, a whispered ' L i s t en , ' 1 a promise that she had done gay, exc i t i ng things just a whi le s ince and that there were gay, exc i t i ng things hovering 4 i n the next hour . " In the metaphor with which Carraway creates the f i c t i o n a l world, human fee l i ng s are g iven an immunity to l o g i c a l con-s t r a i n t which i s necessary to penetrate beyond the "vu lgar and mere-t r i c i o u s " i n Gatsby's dream. 4 (New York: Scr ibners, 1953), p. 9. - 7 -Metaphor a l so contr ibutes to the r ichness and subt lety of a f i c -t i o n a l world, though many other elements of technique are invo lved.^ A Katherine Mansf ie ld short story, fo r example, could serve as a para-digm of the use of subt ly suggestive d e t a i l . Imp l i c i t expos i t ion and rendering of a t t i tudes give her f i c t i o n a r i c h "background" qua l i t y , with varying degrees of i l l u m i n a t i o n . The reader i s i n c l i n e d to view her world as immediate, human and problematic; an abst ract "moral " would be i r r e l e v a n t . By comparison, 3 the e x p l i c i t , f u l l y externa l i zed world of many of Morley Cal laghan 's s to r ie s lends i t s e l f to a l l e g o r i z a t i o n . James Joyce achieves another sort of subt lety by re fus ing to point the imp l i c a t i on of the a c t i o n . Statement, f e e l i n g , gesture remain unanalysed, carry ing t h e i r suggestive power i n t h e i r arrangement, i n v i t i n g i n t e r p r e -ta t i on by the na r ra t i ve s t i l l n e s s i n which they are suspended. As the example of Joyce suggests, the reader ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f i c t i o n a l a c t i on i s in f luenced by the prominence of the narrator , the degree to which he i s f e l t as an evaluat ing, analys ing force i n the wor ld. The less he i s f e l t , the more re l i ance there i s on representa-t i on rather than statement, and the greater the chance of the ac t ion acqu i r ing that suggestive ambiguity which draws s i gn i f i c ance from areas not s t r i c t l y conscious. This i s not p rec i se l y a qua l i t y of the f i c t i o n a l world, but i t i s observable i n the way the world i s presented. Though For some of the methods of assessing the r ichness of a f i c t i o n a l world employed here, and f o r the idea of i t s e f f e c t on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f i c t i o n , see E r i c h Auerbach, "Odysseus' Scar, " Mimesis, trans. W i l l a rd Trask (New York: Anchor, 1957), passim. -8-many of these matters of form and technique are objects of ana lys i s i n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t contexts, they can, without any i n ten t i on of en-croaching, be examined here s p e c i f i c a l l y fo r t h e i r e f f e c t on the f i c -t i o n a l world and the ethos i t provides fo r the ac t i on of a nove l . Some dependence of s i gn i f i c ance on f i c t i o n a l world may be seen c l e a r l y enough i n extreme contrasts and unfami l i a r s t y l e s ; i t i s much less evident, though i t cannot be less e f f e c t i v e , i n the novels of a wr i t e r l i k e Brian Moore. Moore fo l lows conventions of r e a l i s t i c pre -sentat ion so. f a m i l i a r to twentieth-century readers that they are taken fo r granted, hardly recognized as conventions. Any textua l examination of the f i c t i o n a l worlds of h i s four novels w i l l need occas ional con-t ra s t ing examples to d i s p e l the f i l m of f a m i l i a r i t y from h i s techniques. Chapter 2: Jud i th Hearne Brian Moore's Jud i th Hearne presents the world of a Be l fa s t sp ins ter who seeks to escape the hard mater ia l nece s s i t i e s of l i f e on a d im in i sh -ing income by indulg ing i n reminiscences, romantic f an tas ie s , and a l c o h o l . It inc ludes her thoughts and her f ee l i ng s , which revolve c h i e f l y around the boarding house where her l a s t romantic hope i s na ive ly attached to James Madden, and around a church where she suf fers the fear that her dreams of e terna l recompense f o r a l i f e of s t e r i l e righteousness may be v a i n . It i s a world of c a r e f u l l y enumerated c i r cumstant i a l d e t a i l , of spots on the carpet, s h i l l i n g s and spoons of cocoa. Rooms, s t reets and bu i ld ings are c a r e f u l l y descr ibed phy s i c a l l y , but i n r a t i o n a l i z e d terms, r a re l y with any v iv idness of sensory impressions. Miss Hearne's lodgings, f o r example: A cha i r , broadbeamed, straightbacked, sat i n the a lcove by the bay window, an old pensioner s ta r ing out at the s t r e e t . Near the bed, a dress ing table, made f a m i l i a r by her b o t t l e of cologne, her combs and brushes, and her l i t t l e round box of rouge. Across the worn carpet was a wardrobe of brown varnished wood with a long panel mirror set i n i t s door.^ (Toronto: McClel land and Stewart, 1964), p. 19. Subsequent quo-tat ions are from th i s e d i t i o n . -10-Th e d e s c r i p t i o n of the room continues i n an orderly panorama. Experience too i s usually r a t i o n a l i z e d , orderly and continuous, with l i t t l e evidence of sensations and with a meticulous preservation of time and space ordering. The room described above i s seen at seven-ten A.M.; Miss Hearne l i e s i n bed for twenty minutes. Clocks are u b i -quitous throughout the novel. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the n a r r a t i v e pre-serves a c a r e f u l chronological sequence. So she smiled at Mary and was introduced by Mrs. Henry Rice. The hammer was given into her hands and she fumbled with i t , saying thank you, and that she would return i t as soon as she had f i n i s h e d hanging her p i c t u r e . Mrs. Henry Rice said there was no hurry and to l e t them know i f she needed anything else, and then Miss Hearne went back up the two f l i g h t s of s t a i r s to her room. (p. 17) This summarized na r r a t i v e with i n d i r e c t dialogue serves mainly to pre-serve the l o g i c a l and chronological sequence of events while moving Miss Hearne from one scene to the next. The realism of actions as w e l l as objects i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . With a few exceptions, mental a c t i v i t y i s also l o g i c a l and conse-cutive. States of mind and human emotions are f i n i t e and f u l l y expressed. Thus, she did not shirk consideration of the f a c t that she had sat up a l l night i n a chair, that she might have made a l o t of noise, that everyone might know her secret. She was drunk, so she found these p o s s i b i l i t i e s amusing but un-l i k e l y . She did not forget her unpleasant con-versation with Mrs. Henry Rice. She remembered i t with r e l i s h and her mind triumphantly a l t e r e d the fa c t s to a more bold, more heroic pattern. (p. 89) This passage might be termed i n t e r n a l " a n a l y s i s " rather than description, -11-s ince i t presents not the play of instantaneous impressions across the surface of a mind (to adapt Henry James's term) but a state of mind as an accomplished f a c t . Pure psycho log ica l de sc r i p t i on , i n thisesense, i s less common i n Jud i th Hearne, but where i t does appear, i t i s s im i -l a r l y o rder l y . Fr iends with the l i ke s of Mrs. Rice, Miss Hearne said to h e r s e l f . Oh, Moira doesn ' t understand things at a l l . How could I be f r iends with that f a t thing and how could something, a ser ious th ing - -a love a f f a i r - - j u s t blow over l i k e that? Oh, Moira wouldn't know, s i t t i n g here i n the middle of her chickens l i k e some contented hen. (p. 121) Even when sub jec t i ve l y presented, Miss Hearne 1s thoughts are s y n t a c t i -c a l l y and l o g i c a l l y connected, a f t e r the manner of i n t e r n a l monologue rather than stream of consciousness. The scrupulous a t ten t ion to l o g i c a l , commonsense aspects of ex-perience i n th i s perspect ive i s complemented by the choice of language which i s genera l ly mundane and l i t e r a l , seldom suggestive or f i g u r a t i v e l y r i c h . The infrequent f i g u r a t i v e uses of language themselves emphasize the prosa ic qua l i t y of the d e s c r i p t i o n ; Bernard Rice i s " l i k e some mon-strous baby swelled to man s i z e , " has a face " the colour of cottage cheese," and when he laughs h i s cheeks "wobble l i k e white pudding." The metaphor i s homely. The dearth of r e l i g i o u s metaphor i n p a r t i c u l a r i s notable i n a novel i n which so much of the ac t ion i s over t l y con-cerned with r e l i g i o n . The metaphor does l i t t l e to l i b e r a t e the imagina-t i o n from the phy s i c a l l y and moral ly cons t r i c ted world of Jud i th Hearne. -12-Like many of the a d j e c t i v e s - - h o r r i d f a t t y , dear aunt, sneaky t h i n g — i t personal izes the d e s c r i p t i o n . The choice of much of the d e t a i l , too, reveals that the na r ra t i ve focus has been at l eas t cond i t i ona l l y d i s -placed to the mind of the aging sp in s te r . Hairpins, lace d o i l i e s and china dogs are objects of fas t id iouss female a t t e n t i o n . The only unra t iona l i zed subject ive elements i n Jud i th Hearne 1s world are her fantas ies , her add i c t i on to a l coho l , and her bonds with the p ic tures of her aunt and the Sacred Heart.^ In these l i e the major c o n f l i c t and the major ac t i on of the nove l . Her fantas ies are not, l i k e her usual mental a c t i v i t y , re s t ra ined and l o g i c a l . She i s seen bu i ld ing i l l u s i o n s of beauty about her image i n the mi r ror : "Gipsy, she thought fondly, l i k e a gipsy g i r l on a chocolate box." Her fantas ies are a po ten t i a l source of v i t a l i t y to carry her sub jec t i ve l y beyond the very measured confines of her l i f e , but she c a l l s he r se l f back ("Gipsy i n -deed'.") to the r e a l i t y of ha i rp in s and the ever-present c lock (p. 20). Her sexual f antas ies go fur ther a f i e l d : "That handsome boy bathing that day at Greystones, standing up i n h i s t i gh t bathing trunks, h i s bump of v i r i l i t y s t i c k i n g out, he would enfold me, he would run grace-f u l l y with me up the strand to the dunes" (p. 103). Note p a r t i c u l a r l y the run-on sentence, the romantic vagueness of the se t t ing , and the concentrat ion on the subject ive power of des i re unconstrained by any ^ James Madden's sexual des i re i s given s im i l a r treatment. I t i s anarchic enough to occasion one of the few d i s rupt ions of the syntax, but i t has too l i t t l e bearing on the cen t r a l ac t ion of the novel to deserve separate examination. -Im-p r a c t i c a l cons iderat ions . But even such inward indulgence i s not v i ab l e i n the meticulous world of Jud i th Hearne. Her consciousness re jec t s i t ; she suf fers remorse, as she does a f t e r succumbing to a lcohol i sm, which a l so produces powerful non - ra t i ona l experiences which are sub jec t i ve ly portrayed. Then, whi le the b o t t l e of cheap whiskey beat a chat ter ing d r i bb l i n g tattoo on the edge of the tumbler, she poured two long f ingers and leaned back. The yel low l i q u i d r o l l e d slowly i n the g lass, opulent, o i l y , the key to contentment. She swallowed i t , f e e l i n g i t warm the p i t of her stomach, slowly spreading through her body, steadying her hands, f i l l i n g her with i t s secret power. Warmed, re laxed, her own and only mistress , she reached fo r and poured a tumbler f u l l of d r ink . (pp. 83-84) Sense impressions of the l iquor and of her movements are v i v i d ; d i r e c t metaphor replaces the usual s imi les ; l o g i c and time are temporari ly subdued. I t i s not simply a matter of i n t o x i c a t i o n d i sorgan iz ing her r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s . The time i s before and during her f i r s t dr ink . I t i s a triumph of strong anarchic des i re over those f a c u l t i e s . But the e f f ec t s of th i s des i re i nev i t ab l y leave Miss Hearne a more abject v i c t i m of her own p r a c t i c a l concerns — the expense, the s ickness, the danger of d i sgrace. There remain only her aunt ' s photograph and the oleograph of the Sacred Heart. To both she a t t r i bu te s a degree of sen-t ience and w i l l : "The photograph eyes were stern and quest ioning, sharing Miss Hearne's own misgivings about the condi t ion of the bedsprings . . . " (p. 9 ) . When tempted by dr ink, she looks to the oleograph fo r s trength: -14-"He looked down, wise and stern and k ind ly , His f ingers ra i sed i n warn-ing . No, He sa id, you must not do i t . It would be a mortal s i n " (p. 83). However i r o n i c a l l y intended, the two form a major part of Miss Hearne 1s p r i va te drama, and they have, i n i t i a l l y at leas t , cons iderable e f f i c a c y w i th in the subject ive world of Jud i th Hearne. With them watching over her, as on her f i r s t n ight at Mrs. R i c e ' s , a new place becomes home. She said good night to them both, then switched of f the bed l i g h t and lay, snuggled i n , with on ly : her nose and eyes out of the covers, remembering that both of them were there i n the darkness. They make a l l the d i f f e rence , Miss Hearne thought. . . . (p. 18) The photograph gradual ly loses i t s power as Miss Hearne recognizes the p robab i l i t y that the o ld woman has ruined her l i f e . The Sacred Heart, however, i s cen t ra l to her r e l i g i o u s f a i t h which produces the c r u c i a l scenes of subject ive i n ten s i t y i n the church. The world so presented i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Jud i th Hearne's, and from the outset there are f a i n t signs of some larger perspect ive i n whichu th i s world i s viewed. There i s no obvious i n t ru s i on by the narrator u n t i l the second chapter, but a s l i g h t l y i r o n i c tone i n presenting the aging s p i n s t e r ' s viewpoint i s evident from the f i r s t . The very l i nd i v i dua l i zed nature of the metaphor, the ad jec t i ves , and some of the d e t a i l draws a t -tent ion from the things observed to the observer. The reader i s separated from and observing Miss Hearne. Before any d i r e c t eva luat ion by the nar ra tor , there i s a c lear suggestion of hypocrisy i n Miss Hearne's ac t ions . The "bad house" Mrs. Rice speaks of i s the sort of place that " shou ldn ' t -15-be mentioned," ye t at i t s mention, Miss Hearne " leaned forward, her black eyes nervous, her face open and eager" (p. 15). The irony i s only confirmed by d i r e c t na r ra t i ve comment on her game of i l l u s i o n s be-fore the mi r ror : "Her angular face smiled s o f t l y at i t s g lassy image. Her gaze, dece iv ing, transforming her to her imaginings, changed the contour of her sal low-skinned face, s k i l f u l l y refash ion ing her long pointed nose on which a small c h i l l y tear had gathered" (p. 20). Be-cause much of Miss Hearne's viewpoint i s inherent i n the imaginative co lour ing of the desc r i p t i on , the reader experiences and sympathizes with i t , but he cannot i d e n t i f y with i t . U l t imate ly he must examine and judge i t , presumably w i th in some broader perspect ive which def ines the whole f i c t i o n a l world i n which Jud i th Hearne 1s b e l i e f s and act ions must prove themselves. The other characters whose viewpoints are adopted from time to time throughout the novel provide few clues to th i s larger perspect ive . Each has h i s own severely l i m i t i n g s e l f - i n t e r e s t s and v a n i t i e s : almost i n -va r i ab l y they are presented i r o n i c a l l y . Their v i s i o n does not extend to any higher r e a l i t y . The only exception to the i r o n i c tone i s the O ' N e i l l household, which i s sympathet ical ly presented. They cher i sh the comforts of a contented family l i f e ; they know that Miss Hearne i s a bore, but the i r humane b e l i e f i s that aging and lonely people need someone to ta lk to . Their view i s l o g i c a l — e a c h of us may be old and lonely some day—but hardly adequate to Miss Hearne's needs. Their -16-d isguised p i ty emphasizes the general lack of honest human f e e l i n g and understanding i n the world that surrounds Judi th Hearne. Beyond i s a Be l fa s t evident i n rare passages of d i r e c t comment and de sc r i p t i on by the nar ra tor . I t i s one with Miss Hearne's p r i va te world i n i t s concentrat ion on the common-sense, empi r i ca l elements of exper-ience. It d i f f e r s from hers c h i e f l y i n lacking any p o s i t i v e l y presented subject ive q u a l i t i e s . Much of the de sc r i p t i on i s c i r cumstant i a l , rep le te wi th object ive d e t a i l , but at the same time suggestive of meanness and poverty of s p i r i t . This time, the bus was almost empty as i t rushed through the g r i t t y gloom of evening, down grey drab s t reets , f r inged by row upon row of mean l i t t l e working-c lass houses, b r i c k - r e d , stone-grey, each and every one the same. At each window, between f ray ing lace cur ta ins , a coloured vase, a set of crossed Union Jacks, or a f i g u r i n e of a l i t t l e g i r l holding her s k i r t s up to wade, sat l i k e l i t t l e a l t a r s , turned toward the s t reet fo r the e d i f i c a t i o n of the neighbours. (p. 125) The d e t a i l s are a l l genera l ized to epitomize the narrow, unimaginative, barren s p i r i t s of the inhab i tant s . The human values are reduced to negatives jus t as human motives and a sp i ra t ions when they appear i n Miss Hearne, James Madden and var ious minor characters, are reduced by i r o n i c treatment. It i s a land where a l l dreams are c a l c u l a b l e . The rare r e -l i g i ou s metaphor of f l ags and t r i nke t s as a l t a r s becomes s i g n i f i c a n t a i n the l i g h t of Jud i th Hearne's search f o r some transcendent meaning i n r e -l i g i o n . At times the n a r r a t o r ' s den ia l of human value i n the Be l fa s t se t t ing -17-i s more e x p l i c i t . The fo l lowing de sc r i p t i ve passage inc ludes a f a i r l y complete eva luat ion . Then, under the great dome of the bu i l d ing , r inged around by forgot ten memorials, bordered by the gar r i son neatness of a Garden of Remem-brance, everything that was Be l fas t came in to focus . The newsvendors c a l l i n g out the great events of the world i n f l a t , uninterested U l s te r vo ices ; the drab facades of the bu i ld ings grouped around the Square, proclaiming the v i r tue s of trade, hard deal ing and Presbyter ian r ighteousness. The order, the neatness, the f l o o d l i t cenotaph, a white respectable phal lus planted i n s ink ing I r i s h bog. The Protestant dearth of ga iety, the Protestant s u r f e i t of order, the dour U l s te r burghers walking proudly among these monuments to the i r med iocr i ty . (p. 76) A l l the moral, s p i r i t u a l and aes thet i c s i gn i f i c ance of the scene i s ex-te rna l i zed , rendered f i n i t e and measurable i n d i r e c t a s s e r t i o n . Though such passages are rare, the same tendency toward conscious eva luat ion i s evident i n the language of Miss Hearne 1s expository reminiscences and i n the dramatic scenes of the novel , which are never allowed to reach that pur i ty of drama found, f o r example, i n the Christmas dinner scene from A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t . Some i n t e r n a l monologue always issues from the wings, drawing a t ten t i on to some s p e c i f i c a l l y conscious concerns at issue i n the scene. And the na r r a to r ' s i rony i s always pointed; never innocent as i t i s i n Joyce ' s Christmas scene. The values e x p l i c i t l y denied i n th i s eva luat ive de s c r i p t i on are everywhere i m p l i c i t l y denied by the perspect ive of the f i c t i o n a l wor ld. The den ia l i s i m p l i c i t i n more object ive de sc r i p t i on as w e l l as i n the -18-l i ve s of the characters (though they are not p ro tes tant s ) . The presen-t a t i on of t h e i r experiences gives precedence to that " s u r f e i t of order" re fe r red to here. A l l human experience and human des i res are reduced to r a t i o n a l terms, re fe rab le to the " ga r r i son neatness" of th i s larger world of object ive f a c t s . Where human f e e l i n g threatens to escape in to the i n f i n i t e imaginative dimensions of f a i t h , love or worship, the world of ob jec t i ve circumstances reasserts i t s e l f to mark i t as i l l u s i o n . The feeb le anarchy of Jud i th Hearne's r e l i g i o u s fee l ing s su f fers th i s f a te con t i nua l l y . Though i t can transcend the minor ordering of her own pr i va te experience, i t cannot d i sp lace the ordering of the larger perspect ive . Here she approaches the church i n need of reassurance: But there i n f ront of her was Saint F i n b a r ' s , i t s Gothic sp i re u p l i f t e d l i k e two praying hands, a grey r e l i g i o u s place, the house of God i n the peace of n i ght . (p. 101) The church i s transformed, animated by a rare access of s p i r i t u a l v i t a l -i t y . But immediately the broader common-sense perspect ive reasserts i t s e l f i n a commercial metaphor. The church was empty: c leared of i t s stock of r i t u a l s , invocat ions, prayers, a deserted s p i r i t u a l warehouse wai t ing new consignments. (p. 101) In her time of doubt, when she i s tempted to be l i eve that the tabernacle contains only round wafers of unleavened bread, her f a i t h can at f i r s t recover i n her own mind: "0 God, God forg ive me! she c r i e d , f a l l i n g on her knees. Forg ive me, 0 Sacred.Heart, f o r the t e r r i b l e doubt the d e v i l put i n my head. 0 my guardian angel, sh ie ld me, protect me. Forg ive -19-me, 0 God, for I have sinned. I have blasphemed." The next words assert the p r i o r c la im of empi r i ca l f a c t : The footsteps returned. " Y o u ' l l have to leave now, m i s s i s , " the old s ac r i s t an sa id . His soutane was unbuttoned, showing a d i r t y brown pu l lover under-neath. She looked in to h i s old d i sco loured eyes, searching fo r secret s . But saw only that he was t i r e d , that he wanted to c lose the church, that he wanted her to go. (p. 103) The d i r t on h i s brown pu l lover does more than the absence of secrets i n h i s eyes to d i s p e l mysteries from th i s wor ld. Such treatment i s not pecu l i a r to the r e l i g i o u s scenes i n the nove l . S imi lar juxtapos i t ions are e f fected whenever mar i t a l a sp i ra t ions or a l coho l overcome Miss Hearne's r a t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t . In th i s perspect ive Jud i th Hearne 1s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h could never survive except i r o n i c a l l y w i th in a de lu s iona l world of her own. Its complete des t ruc t ion re su l t s from her demand for a s ign. A sign, to her, must be phys i ca l , observable, l i k e the sunl ight cast through the church window on her and Madden, or a proposal of marriage, a bo l t of 8 l i gh tn ing , or an angry f i r e - b r e a t h i n g god emerging from the tabernac le. The rewards of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f must be t rans la tab le in to empi r i ca l f a c t . The answer to her plea i s again impl ied i n the o v e r a l l perspect ive . Her f i n a l solace i s i n the only poss ib le r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of her subject ive experiences and her environment. Her des i re fo r r e l i g i o n she ascr ibes g In th i s respect she bears out the ancient t r a d i t i o n of her name. " J u d i t h " i n Hebrew s i g n i f i e s "Jewess." -20-to a need fo r a community of f e e l i n g with her countrymen. In the hos-p i t a l she returns to her p ic tures wi th a new understanding. She smi led. The f a m i l i a r things. How often I 've thought that . And on the dress ing tab le, her aunt i n sepia tones. Aunt D 'Arcy ' s p i c t u r e . More r e a l now than aunt h e r s e l f . For she i s gone. I t i s here. I t i s part of me. And You. Were You ever? Is th i s p i c tu re the only You? I t i s here and You are gone. I t i s You. No matter what You are, i t s t i l l i s part of me. She c losed her eyes. Funny about those two. When they ' re with me, watching over me, a new place becomes home. The l a s t elements of subject ive freedom are f i n a l l y r a t i o n a l i z e d in to l o g i c a l conscious human sentiments. Jud i th Hearne i s i n harmony with the f i c t i o n a l world of which she i s a par t . Chapter 3: The Feast of Lupercal The opening l i nes of The Feast of Lupercal revea l severa l dominant features of i t s f i c t i o n a l wor ld: "Diarmuid Devine, B. A. (Junior and 9 Senior Eng l i sh ) , stood at h i s desk s i z i n g h i s books in to a p i l e . " The l i nes revea l f i r s t the prominence of the narrator and second the most common type of d e t a i l . The narrator i s more obtrus ive than i n Jud i th Hearne, as i s shown i n the d i rectness with which he introduces and p r o v i s i o n a l l y def ines the cen t r a l character . Expos i t ion throughout i s more i n c l i n e d to be d i r e c t , not as s imi la ted in to the characters ' r e -miniscences. Devine's past takes shape i n passages l i k e th i s : " The i r fa ther , h i s and J o s i e ' s , had died fourteen years ago. Their poor mother fol lowed him to the grave one year l a t e r . He and Jos ie had been l e f t a lone. Jos ie got married and he moved to d igs " (p. 9 ) . If the words "poor" and "d i g s " are to mark th i s as Devine 1 s own r e f l e c t i o n , i t i s 9 (Boston: L i t t l e Brown, 1957), p. 3 - - subsequent quotations are from th i s e d i t i o n . -22-not p l aus ib l y s t imulated. D i rec t statement from the outset helps to reduce the schoolmaster to an i r o n i c l e v e l . The scrupulous d e t a i l and o f f i c i a l phrasing of h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n i t i a t e an i r o n i c tone which character izes h i s treatment i n the nove l . That the purely l o c a l d i s -t i n c t i o n of teaching " Jun io r and Senior Eng l i sh " should be important enough to mention at th i s stage suggests that Devine 1 s i s a soul which can be def ined i n such infra-human terms. The terms are " s o c i a l " i n the broadest sense of the word. They descr ibe no i n d i v i d u a l human q u a l i t i e s i n the man, but h i s p o s i t i o n i n a s o c i a l order. Devine ex i s t s mainly as a s o c i a l being s t rugg l ing f o r a s a t i s f a c to ry po s i t i on i n that order, and i n a f i c t i o n a l world i n which the s o c i a l elements of experience predominate. Broadly the rea l i sm of th i s world i s s im i l a r to that of Jud i th Hearne. The c i r cumstant i a l rea l i sm of phys i ca l d e t a i l i s genera l ly maintained, though not qu i te as prominent: Taking o f f h i s ra incoat and hat, Mr. Devine went i n to h i s den. The f i r e was drawing and i t was not dark y e t . A la te afternoon sun shone through the i ron-barred basement windows, beyond which he could see the back garden with washing on a long l i n e . (p. 11) The d e t a i l i s documentive, without sensory v iv idness ; " r a i ncoa t " , "ha t " , " f i r e " , "garden", and "washing" are unpar t i cu l a r i zed as are the verbs " t ak ing " , "went", "shone" and " see " . Events form a continuous process through time and space; Devine i s e x p l i c i t l y moved in to h i s den, and -23-the back garden i s the l a s t stage i n a panorama of the room. Some more overt ly purposeful d e t a i l may be found i n the f i r s t scene when the school b e l l sends the pup i l s , the masters and the p r i e s t s with the i r canes scurry ing to the next c l a s s : At that moment, i n a small cubbyhole o f f the entrance h a l l of Saint Michan's Col lege, the h a l l porter pushed a key i n to the switchblock and pressed i t down. An e l e c t r i c b e l l , deafeningly loud, screamed out in to co r r i do r s , cry ing unheard i n empty dormi-t o r i e s , echoing across wet p lay ing f i e l d s to d ie i n the faraway mists over Be l fa s t Lough. (p. 3) Devine, who i s so acutely aware of a l l s o c i a l pressure, can an t i c i pa te accurate ly the sounding of the b e l l which contro l s the per iod i c move-ments of human l i f e w i th in the co l lege and penetrates even beyond. Dehumanized s o c i a l order at i t s purest, the b e l l i s a poss ib le analog of the whole ac t i on of s o c i a l forces i n the nove l . L ike the b e l l , var ious forces of s o c i a l approbation and d isapproval dr ive the compla-cent schoolmaster i n to a romantic involvement with Tim Heron's young mdece., Una Clarke, who i s dr iven, i n turn, to l u r ing Devine in to a com-promising s i t u a t i o n . In an unsuccessful attempt to sh ie ld himself from the forces of outraged propr iety , he betrays her t ru s t—and h i s own s e l f -re spec t—by denying any part i n her d i sgrace. The b e l l i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y appropr iate analog, s ince i t i s operated by Old John. The h a l l porter i s appropr ia te ly the s.toney a r b i t e r of fates on a larger sca le by r e -maining deaf to any d i r e c t intercourse with the inmates whi le carry ing t h e i r most guarded secrets to the co l lege pres ident . The m i l i t a n t -24-s o c i a l code of the school, l i k e the sound of the b e l l , extends in to the s o c i a l surroundings, as Diarmuid Devine p a i n f u l l y learns . Very l i t t l e of the d e t a i l , however, a t t r a c t s such specu la t ion . In terna l , l i k e externa l , experience i s connected and r a t i o n a l . Much of i t i s i n the c o l l o q u i a l form of Devine's i n t e r n a l monologue: "He f e l t damned sorry fo r Young Connol ly" (p. 5 ) . Fee l ings are f i n i t e and i d e n t i f i a b l e , usua l ly qu i te e x p l i c i t . Thoughts are f u l l y conscious and l o g i c a l l y arranged, even when heightened emotions demand a c l o se r d e s c r i p t i o n f o r immediacy of e f f e c t . Devine, when faced with the r e a l i t y of h i s s i n f u l dreams, i s incompetent but always l o g i c a l : And he, what should he do? Undress? Be i n bed and wait ing? Or jus t s i t here? With shame he thought of h i s naked body. He would look awful, h i s turned- in knees, h i s narrow chest, and, merc i fu l God', long white underwear. (p. 147) His sentences su f fe r from the urgency of h i s fear , but h i s thoughts r e -main l o g i c a l l y ordered. Heightened f e e l i n g does not produce the sensory v iv idness found at the onset of Jud i th Hearne's a lcohol i sm, or the strength of metaphor accompanying i t . To do j u s t i c e to the complexity of Devine's f ee l i n g s , h i s love scene does contain an occas iona l s im i l e : " A f r a i d , he kne l t once more, as though i n genuf lec t ion before the a l t a r of her body" (p. 145). But the strength of the l o g i c a l order i s r a re l y suspended, even i n moments of f e e l i n g , by stronger forms of metaphor. In sp i te of bas ic s i m i l a r i t i e s i n r e a l i s t i c technique, the s e l e c t i o n of d e t a i l and of language make th i s world considerably d i f f e r e n t from -25-that of Jud i th Hearne. The conventional or s o c i a l d e t a i l s of any charac-ter , scene or ac t i on outweigh the r a d i c a l l y personal, sensory and sub-j e c t i v e d e t a i l . The in t roduc t ion of Diarmuid Devine by h i s academic po s i t i on i s a f i r s t s i gn. The same tendency i s evident i n the de sc r i p -t i on of h i s s t ree t : He l i ved midway between the school and the c i t y , i n a quiet avenue once prosperous, now f a i l i n g . I ts small f ront gardens had a naked, communal look, oc-casioned by the wartime removal of t h e i r i r on r a i l -ings f o r use i n making tanks. The r a i l i n g s had not been replaced, the avenue had not recovered. Dusty squares of lawn, enclosed by low stone para-pets, lay l i k e neglected empty pools i n f ronto f the houses. It was an avenue whose f i r s t owners had moved to new areas, making way fo r widows on annu i t ie s , salesmen on commission and policemen-';: pensioned o f f . (p. 11) De ta i l s of i t s economic h i s to ry "once prosperous" may suggest something of i t s appearance, but phys ica l d e t a i l i s s l i g h t . Its past and i t s present dec l i ne are mainly of s o c i a l importance, l i k e the d e s c r i p t i o n of the inhabi tants by the i r s o c i a l categor ies "widows salesmen and p o l i c e -men." There i s no personal d e t a i l of the people or of what the s t reet means to Devine. He l i v e s there because "some of the houses took i n boarders. " The expository part of the de s c r i p t i on has a s o c i o l o g i c a l tone. Character ana lys i s shares th i s b i a s . In the de s c r i p t i on of Diarmuid Devine 1 s appearance, the language i n p a r t i c u l a r i s notab le. He was a t a l l man, yet d id not seem so: not youthfu l , yet somehow young; a man whose appearance -26-suggested some pa in fu l uncer ta in ty . He wore the jacket and waistcoat of a business su i t , but h i s trousers were sag-kneed f l a n n e l s . His black brogues clashed wi th loud Argyle socks. The m i l i t a r y bravura of h i s large mustache was denied by weak eyes, c i r c l e d by i l l - f i t t i n g spectac les . S im i l a r l y , h i s ha i r , worn long and untidy behind the ears, thinning to a sandy shoal on h i s f reck led brow, o f f se t the V i c t o r i a n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of waistcoat, gold watch chain and s ignet r i n g . (p. 6) The f i r s t sentence i s phys i ca l de sc r i p t i on i n personal terms: " t a l l , young, uncer ta in ty . " The res t of the de s c r i p t i on evokes comparisons wi th a ser ies of s o c i a l conventions, whether by t y p i c a l features , " loud Argyle socks, ha i r worn long and unt idy , " or by spec i a l i zed terms l i k e "business, m i l i t a r y , V i c t o r i a n . " The only qua l i t y presented with more i n d i v i d u a l than s o c i a l s i gn i f i c ance i s Devine's weakness of character . It i s appropr iate that th i s personal t r a i t i s represented by a past iche of c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i a l modes i n h i s dress, s ince i t i s a weakness not to any dreams or appet i tes spr inging from w i th in but to a l l externa l s o c i a l pressures, from the threat of r u i n to the frown of a lady on a passing tram. The preference f o r s o c i a l d e t a i l i s not confined to descr ib ing the v a c i l l a t i n g conformity of the cen t ra l character . Even the f i e r y Tim Heron's s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s analysed as a s o c i a l reac t ion : " A l l h i s l i f e , h i s constant fear had been that he would be overlooked, h i s constant pre -occupation the seeking out of fanc ied i n s u l t s . . . His bony body was warped by t i c s and tremblings of suppressed rage, h i s e l e c t r i c - b l u e eyes f l i c k e r e d -27-to and f ro i n search of a sneak at tack" (p. 17). If any more r a d i c a l l y personal components of character underly th i s pattern of s o c i a l response, they are never c l e a r . Characters are present i n th i s world not i n the i r fundamental humanity, but as s o c i a l beings. To use a chemical metaphor, the reader i s given not the i r atomic s tructures but t h e i r va lences . As the e a r l i e r descr ip t ions show, expository d e t a i l has the same emphasis. Devine's character i s developed by expos i t ion of h i s fami ly background, h i s f a t h e r ' s occupation and s o c i a l standing, the schools the boy attended and h i s ten years at St. Michan 's . Purely personal d e t a i l s , l i k e h i s remembered fear when as a c h i l d he watched h i s fa ther swim out to sea leaving him alone on the beach, are r a r e . Few of Devine's memories have that inward qua l i t y of f e e l i n g . More t y p i c a l i s the ex-p lanat ion of the boys Father Creely catches spreading scandal: "They were jun ior boys, four teen-year -o lds , from the Glens of Antr im. That was why Corny had been t e l l i n g the other two when Father Creely sneaked up and overheard them. They always to ld each other everyth ing. They were a l l Cushendall boys together" (p. 93). Once they are categor ized by the i r c u l t u r a l background, the i r characters are expla ined. I f th i s world has an explanat ion i t l i e s i n s o c i a l causes. Not su rp r i s i n g l y , the s o c i a l emphasis extends i n to the revealed consciousness of Diarmuid Devine, which inc ludes most of the nove l ' s psycho log ica l a c t i o n . As h i s judgment of the b e l l i n te r va l s suggests, he i s acutely sens i t i ve to s o c i a l ordering and to i t s con t ro l s . His -28-c h a r a c t e r i s t i c gesture i n conversat ion i s to see i f anyone i s overhear-i n g — t h e pup i l s , the Dean, h i s landlady, the waitress i n the tea shop. When Maloney i s joking coarsely at Tim Heron's party, Devine 's concern i s not to condemn or contrad ic t h i s scandalous remarks about Tim's daugh-ter, but to keep them qu iet : "Whisht man, somebody might hear . " When Tim Heron i s excor ia t ing him i n the school hallway, Devine i s only pa r t l y concerned with v i n d i c a t i n g h i s honour. He wants to avoid calumny: " 'Whisht ' . ' Mr. Devine murmured, with a warning look at the half-opened classroom door" (p. 157). His mind i s occupied less with how things are than with how they w i l l look to others. Even the s l i gh t s on h i s manhood which goad him in to the main ac t i on of the novel do not r a i se serious se l f -doubt s . The s ins of h i s imagination assure him of h i s sexual normalcy, but he worries about the appearance he presents to the world: " I t was a shock, dammit, to f i n d out you were a laughingstock" (p. 9 ) . The shock i s e s p e c i a l l y v i o l e n t to a man whose conduct i s a l l or iented outward, set i n a pattern to evoke the proper response from everyone around him. Even h i s view of himself i s genera l ly ex te rna l . When he f i r s t meets Una Clarke and ponderously attempts conversat ion, he i s st imulated mainly by the outward view of himself he imagines: "by j ingo, here he was, f l i r t i n g with a g i r l . " He enjoys the novelty of the experience, but without los ing s ight of i t s e f f e c t . He hopes the garrulous Maloney w i l l spread the story among the other masters at St. Michan 's . The terms i n -29-which he judges himself r e f l e c t the same outward o r i e n t a t i o n . He des-pises h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y when he compares i t with s o c i a l norms which have popular acceptance: His face was of another species from the handsome men who da i l y looked down on him from c i ga re t te , shaving cream, and ha i r ton ic advertisements. Wouldn't he look r i d i cu l ou s on a cinema poster? (p. 53) That he can draw h i s standards of comparison from even the s u p e r f i c i a l and romantic world of commercial a r t shows that he stands i n d i s c r i m i n a -te l y i n awe of pub l i c t a s te . His centre of judgment must lodge i n any convenient s o c i a l convention because he has no enduring personal standard. He has no moral p r i n c i p l e s strong enough to transcend the claims of s o c i a l expedience and form a bas is f o r i n d i v i d u a l judgment. As he r e f l e c t s c a f t e r taking an i n t e r e s t i n Una Clarke and then hearing Maloney's scandal about her: " Information about a stranger meets no defense. In the balance against nothing, i t weighs complete" (p. 31). The "noth ing " balanced against i t i s Devine's independent judgment. His more studied r e f l e c t i o n s revea l an e x p l i c i t b e l i e f i n the power of s o c i a l forces to match h i s conscious preoccupation with s o c i a l appear-ances. He blames h i s own s o c i a l inept i tude e n t i r e l y on h i s ear ly t r a i n -ing : " I t was the education i n I re land, dammit, he had said i t many a time. He had been a boarder at th i s very school, shut o f f from g i r l s u n t i l he was almost a grown man" (p. 9).. And he attempts to understand h i s own experience by reference to borrowed stereotypes; protestant -30-g i r l s are "hot s t u f f , " french k i s s i n g i s " d i r t y , " protestants are the h o s t i l e establ ishment. The l a s t b i t t e r blow of h i s defeat i n the novel i s that he has not even been allowed to d isgrace himself and f i t in to a s o c i a l l y acceptable pattern of f a i l u r e . He w i l l never be " a man to be gossipped about, a man who ruined h imse l f . " Success or f a i l u r e i s measured i n the appearance you present to the wor ld. A great deal of th i s emphasis might simply be sa id to charac ter ize Diarmuid Devine, fo r i t does. He i s a timorous and dependent soul , i n abject need of acceptance by h i s fe l lows and i n constant fear of s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . I t nonetheless forms a large proport ion of the psycho log ica l r e a l i t i e s of the novel, and fo r var ious reasons which w i l l become apparent, i t s coincidence with the emphasis i n d i r e c t nar ra t i ve statements makes i t more than usua l ly s i g n i f i c a n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g the o v e r a l l perspect ive of th i s f i c t i o n a l wor ld. The dominance of s o c i a l values i n that perspect ive i s es tab l i shed by the d e t a i l . The order l ines s of documentive rea l i sm a l so favours the convent ional , conscious, s o c i a l parts of experience over the i n d i v i d u a l , the r a d i c a l and the i n t u i t i v e . Aside from spec i a l i zed s o c i o l o g i c a l terms, the language, i n i t s prosa ic qua l i t y and dearth of f i g u r a t i v e usage helps to conf ine the dimensions of i n d i v i d u a l human values, to keep them i n the background of the perspect ive when they are present at a l l . The irony with which Devine 1 s constant s o c i a l anxiety i s viewed should presuppose the presence of some transcendent moral value i n the perspec--31-t i v e , but there i s nothing i n the ac t i on that could e s t ab l i sh the i r o n i c norm. Devine's one piece of a - s o c i a l l y motivated behaviour, h i s confron-ta t i on of Heron and the co l lege a u t h o r i t i e s , i s rewarded by h i s accep-tance back in to the s o c i a l system. The irony must be fo r Devine's i n -e f fect iveness rather than h i s aim of s o c i a l acceptance. The perspect ive i s more cons i s tent than i n Jud i th Hearne, par t l y because the na r ra t i ve technique i s s impler. Though Devine's react ions and thoughts are a part of most scenes i n the novel , the na r ra t i ve focus i s never thoroughly d i sp laced to h i s consciousness. His perceptions usua l ly ex i s t i n a larger context of na r ra t i ve comment on him and on the scene as a whole. Jud i th Hearne's p r i va te viewpoint, though i t i s i r o n i c a l l y exposed, i s sustained fo r much longer periods without the i n -t rus ion of any broader view of r e a l i t y . Her experience i s more thoroughly developed, i nc lud ing as the novel progresses, a broader range of her sensations, her thoughts, and the impulses which l i e below her conscious-ness. In The Feast of Luperca l , Devine 's running i n t e r n a l monologue i s never allowed to develop as an autonomous view of the ac t i on d i s t i n c t from the n a r r a t o r ' s . I t i s regu la r l y in terrupted by comment, "Mr. Devine d id not know anything about wine," by some externa l view of Devine, " h i s body was unpubl ic " or by the na r ra t i ve machinery of "he thought" or "Mr. Devine said to h imse l f . " The perspect ive i s imposed by the narrator , and extends in to the r e f l e c t i o n s of the main character, who i s viewed more externa l l y than Jud i th Hearne. Because the i r o n i c pretense of Devine's -32-view i s never sustained, the irony of tone i s c l ea re r but less subt le . The f i c t i o n a l world i s held f i rm ly i n the given perspect ive by the n a r r a t o r ' s eva luat ive tendency. Characters are analysed, l i k e Devine and Heron, when they are introduced. Una Clarke i s the lone exception, developing through the ac t i on and the comments of other characters . The purest d e s c r i p t i v e passages conta in a f i n a l word of ana ly s i s , l i k e the d e s c r i p t i o n of Tim Heron's s t ree t : "Here, people went to bed ear ly , rose ear ly , and had a t i r i n g day" (p. 16). The ana ly s i s , aga in , i s soc io -l o g i c a l . The large proport ion of scenic nar ra t ion does not lead to any con-s i s ten t withdrawal of the nar ra tor . The dramatic scenes, l i k e the l a t e r scenes of Devine and Heron, are an except ion. They are more purely dramatic than any i n Jud i th Hearne, with less accompaniment of i n t e r n a l monologue. In such scenes, autonomy of representat iona l techniques i s not l i m i t e d . Less dramatic scenes make f ree use of i n t e r n a l monologue i n which occas ional h in t s of ana lys i s emerge i n sp i te of what could'Lbe c a l l e d the l y r i c i n t e n s i t y of the scene. The near-seduct ion scene i n Devine's f l a t , f o r example, bu i ld s to an i n ten s i t y at the time of Una's profess ions of love: "Now I ' l l t e l l you , " she sa id . "I love you, Dev. I love you. " Gratefulness f i l l e d him. He put h i s hands on her neck and k i ssed her on the l i p s . But her mouth opened, her tongue probed. The reverence was profaned. He kne l t back sw i f t l y on h i s heels , hearing the short shocked gasp of h i s own breath. (p. 145) -33-The b r i e f passage i s mainly omniscient nar ra t ion , but the sentence "The reverence was profaned" i s not de s c r i p t i ve l i k e "Gratefu lness f i l l e d him." I t analyses the whole turn of events, and i t i s not Devine 1 s ana l y s i s . His reac t ion to that type of caress i s already shown to be more s p e c i f i c : "Damn her soul, who taught her tha t ! " (p. 144) Besides imposing a r i g i d perspect ive, the prominent narrator tends to ex terna l i ze the world of The Feast of Luperca l , to expose i t f u l l y to conscious judgment. There are no areas of dimly perceived background, no enigmatic f i g u r e s . E x p l i c i t expos i t ion draws a l l elements of the world in to the f u l l y i l luminated foreground. Each p i c tu re on Diarmuid Devine 's w a l l , each habit he has c u l t i v a t e d , has a h i s to ry which appears i n d e t a i l with the f i r s t mention of i t s subject: "In the years of teach-ing, he had learned to ca l cu l a te each forty-minute per iod without r e -ference to h i s watch" (p. 3 ) . More f u l l y and more promptly even than i n Jud i th Hearne, each suggestive d e t a i l i s g iven e x p l i c i t meaning. S i tua t ions , too, have the i r s i g n i f i c a n c e - - u s u a l l y t h e i r s o c i a l s i g n i f i -c a n c e — f u l l y ex te rna l i zed . Mr. Devine's encounter with the " o l d ones" i n Tim Heron's best par lour i s reminiscent of Joyce ' s "The Dead," but the i r e f fec t s provide a u se fu l contras t . Here the imp l i ca t ions of the s i t u a t i o n are caught and confined i n a d i r e c t ana ly s i s : Out of i t , i n th i s room, the old ones and the maiden lad ies waited f o r Mr. Devine to br ing some of the party to them. And when he could not, they wished that he would go, they could discuss him then, they could use him as a s t a r t i ng point to begin again that -34-f a m i l i a r conversat iona l pi lgr image from the unsa t i s fy ing present to the f a m i l i a r past. (p. 24) Unanalysed, the old aunts i n "The Dead" are mutely express ive; the i r range of s i gn i f i c ance could not be captured e x p l i c i t l y without l o s s . These old people, though admittedly they appear fo r only a moment, are confined to the given s i gn i f i c ance , and t h e i r bearing on Devine i s a l so made e x p l i c i t . He too i s i n danger of becoming old and neg lected. Even the dashing mephistophelean f i gu re of Dean McSwiney i s not l e f t the romantic appeal of shadowy and s i n i s t e r motives. His design on the p re s ident ' s cha i r and h i s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of such wor ld ly ambi-t ions are c l e a r l y exposed i n the scene i n h i s study. The Dean sees the dead coa l s t i f l i n g the f i r e i n h i s grate as analogous to the old p r e s i -dent impeding the progress of the school . The image i t s e l f , with the ambiguous imp l i ca t ions of the f i r e Dean McSwiney i s s t i r r i n g up i s a r a r i t y , f o r the presentat ion of meaning i s usua l ly as unambiguous as i t i s e x p l i c i t and l i t e r a l . In a f i c t i o n a l world with such externa l i zed s i gn i f i c ance , the ac t i on tends to be unproblematic, to i n v i t e conscious judgment. The i n t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l forces provides the e s sen t i a l ac t i on of the nove l . There are no forces of i n d i v i d u a l human w i l l set up against them, no element of r a d i c a l l y personal perceptions or values ( ins ide or outs ide the main character) s u f f i c i e n t to produce such i n d i v i d u a l w i l l . Diarmuid Devine i s not an antagonist of s o c i a l conventions, but a more or less pass ive v i c t i m of the i r c o n f l i c t i n g demands. He cons i s ten t l y -35-evinces the personal human emotion of fear , which evokes compassion, but h i s i n d i v i d u a l , spontaneous mot ivat ion i s so feeble i t provides l i t t l e r e l i e f from and no oppos i t ion to the ever-present externa l pres -sures. The t ruth he fears , that he i s s t r i v i n g to be a l l things to a l l men and would betray h i s own mother to avoid a quar re l , i s the u l t imate i n s e l f l e s s s o c i a l adjustment. He i s i n th i s i r o n i c way " d i v i n e . " He i s so attuned to convention and to the w i l l of others that h i s personal des i res are s t i l l b o r n . Even h i s " l o v e " fo r Una Clarke seems an attempt to conform to the habi ts expected of a young man, i n sp i red by a fear of growing old and neglected or of being a laughingstock. Its f i r s t trembling urgency, when he has met Una at the party, i s eas i l y overcome by Maloney 1 s gossip about the g i r l ' s past. As he waits fo r the bus i t recovers b r i e f l y , urging him to re turn to the party, but g ives way to h is fear of o f fend-ing the bus conductor who i s wait ing f o r him to board. Later, when Una draws him toward the r e a l i z a t i o n of a l l h i s f antas ies , both love and strong des i re could be expected of him. He i s conscious instead of the d isapproval of h i s f a t h e r ' s p i c ture on the wa l l above him. The scene i s made comic by the incongrui ty of h i s thoughts and emotions: "But she smiled and lay down, f u l l length, on the rug. He saw that h i s d i r t y old s l i pper s were i n t h e i r cardboard box, a few inches from her head. He leaned over, as i f to k i s s her, and shoved them behind the fender" (p. 144). Any number of t r i v i a l outward concerns can d i s t r a c t him from -36-int imacy. He fears he may f r i gh ten the g i r l , fears i t not f o r her sake, but because she might scream and cause Mrs. Dempsey to send f o r the p o l i c e . From the point at which Una's i n ten t i on becomes c l ea r , he i s moved not by des i re but by h i s fear that anything he could say to stop the procedure would offend her: "He t r i e d to phrase i t - - h e had been taken i l l , something he had eaten, no doubt. But he could not say i t . " (p. 148). L ike Jud i th Hearne, Devine depends on s o c i a l approbation, but he has no corresponding a lcohol i sm, Sacred Heart, or fantas ies to s t i r him from w i t h i n . I t i s probably s i g n i f i c a n t that h i s name i s l e f t o f f the programs by the dramatic c i r c l e , that h i s body i s " unpub l i c , " that he l i s t e n s unseen to the conversations of others. In a sense, he i s not there; he has no i d e n t i t y . The c o n f l i c t i n g demands of s o c i a l normalcy, of propr ie ty , of personal l oya l t y operate through him. Except fo r the more or less s o c i a l l y or iented dr ives of ambition, ind ignat ion, and r e -venge, none of the bas ic human passions have any prominence i n th i s wor ld. There i s no des i re , love, f r i endsh ip , compassion or joy. Even the s a in t l y Dr. Keogh, when he saves Heron and Devine from t h e i r own f o l l y and the Dean's mal ice, i s shown to act less from compassion than f o r admin i s t ra -t i ve expedience and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of putt ing Dean McSwiney i n h i s p lace . Devine 's confess ion to Tim Heron involves ne i ther love nor exact honesty, but by s a c r i f i c i n g other concerns to personal l oya l t y , he regains h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t and i s accepted back in to the community. r -37-Though the expiatory r i t u a l of the Roman Feast of Lupercal i s em-phasized by the t i t l e , i t has only s u p e r f i c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n to the ac t i on of the nove l . The p r i e s t s and schoolmasters with t h e i r canes, the scourges of a dry conventional mora l i ty , might be seen i r o n i c a l l y as p r i e s t s of s t e r i l i t y . The impotent Devine, by p lac ing himself i n the way of the mad Heron as the Roman women placed themselves i n the path of the Luperc i , i s paying f o r h i s transgress ions against the mora l i ty of the community, and i r o n i c a l l y being rendered less f e r t i l e by the a c t . But the r i t u a l can be accepted only with reservat ions , because the world of the novel does not extend to those psychic depths at which s in and exp ia t ion take p lace . Devine, i n h i s moment of poss ib le s in , i s not a f r a i d of damnation but of r i d i c u l e . He thinks of s i n : "In th i s , h i s own s o l i t a r y bed where he had sinned a thousand times i n s i n f u l imaginings, repented n i gh t l y i n mumbled acts of c o n t r i t i o n , i n th i s bed th i s very night, r e a l s i n would be consummated" (p. 146). He i s more a f r a i d , however, of looking l i k e " a comedian i n long drawers." The " s i n " f o r which he su f fer s i s i n d i s -c r e t i o n . An emphasis on purely s o c i a l values and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , an exc lu -s ion of more in t imate ly personal f ee l i ng s and motivat ions, and a scrupu-lous ly e x p l i c i t ex te rna l i z i ng of a l l thought, f e e l i n g , and s i gn i f i c ance i n the novel leave no room f o r the moral and psycho log ica l depths at which s in takes p lace. The ac t ion concerns the conscious e f f ec t s of sys-tems consciously evolved. There i s no glimpse of subconscious depths, -38-no evidence of those pr iva te substrata of consciousness which manifest themselves i n dreams, fantas ies , impulses, i n love, i n f a i t h or i n poetry. Chapter 4: The Luck of Ginger Coffey The occas ional passages of loose ly connected impressions rep lac ing r a t i o n a l l y ordered de sc r i p t i on i n The Luck of Ginger Coffey produce one feature of i t s f i c t i o n a l world d i s t i ngu i sh ing i t from those of Moore's f i r s t two nove ls . In Judi th Hearne and The Feast of Luperca l , such impressions and sensations emerging without the r e s t r a i n t of r a t i o n a l arrangement i nd i ca te abnormal emotional s tates : James Madden's lus t , Jud i th Hearne's a lcohol i sm, Diarmuid Devine's panic. Port ions of Ginger Cof fey ' s environment appear i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y under normal circumstances, as on h i s f i r s t morning walk i n downtown Montreal: Slow s t r o l l across Dominion Square, everyone hurry ing save he, every face f i xed i n a grimace by the p a i n f u l wind, eyes narrowed, mouths pursed, dr iven by th i s c rue l c l imate to an abnormal head-bent h e l t e r - s k e l t e r . ^ This sentence fragment, f i r s t of a l l , i s a departure from form, and the ^ (New York: D e l l , 1962), p. 18--subsequent quotations are from th i s e d i t i o n . -40-ser ies of genera l ized impressions used to portray a s p e c i f i c scene i s un fami l i a r . The s l i g h t l y chaot ic f i n a l impression of a "head-bent h e l t e r - s k e l t e r " adds to the e f f e c t of greater subject ive emphasis and arrangement than could be expected i n scenes of calm from e i the r of the e a r l i e r novels . The passage ind ica tes i n part a mod i f i ca t ion of the cen t ra l charac ter ' s po s i t i on i n the na r ra t i ve s t ructure , a greater de-s c r i p t i v e adherence to h i s impressions, but a l so a re l axa t i on of c e r t a i n conventions of de s c r i p t i ve ordering which helped to form the f i c t i o n a l worlds of Jud i th Hearne and The Feast of Luperca l . The d i f fe rences i n nar ra t i ve and de s c r i p t i ve technique can ea s i l y be overstated. The framework of r e a l i s t i c f i c t i o n conventions i s s t i l l strong. Through most of the ac t ion , cont inu i ty of movement through time and space i s preserved. Time i s i t s e l f important, as Coffey r e f l e c t s on time wasted, on the time elapsed i n h i s l i f e , and as he attempts to meet or to avoid deadl ines when things must be done. He has only so much time to prove h imse l f , before he must admit defeat and return to I reland or g ive h i s wi fe her freedom. The time of the day i s prominent as 'he rushes from the "T iny Ones" depot at four to the Tribune at s ix, and as he moves minute by minute toward Grosvenor's apartment or toward an adul tery appointment i n a cheap h o t e l . Even where i t i s i n c i d e n t a l , cont inu i ty of s p a t i a l movement i s u sua l l y maintained: He l e f t the room, c a l l i n g to Pau l i e . "Apple? Arethose sandwiches ready ye t ? " > -41 -"Hold your horses, Daddy, I'm making them." He went in to the h a l l , put on h i s coat and hat. Paul ie came out with sandwiches i n a brown paper bag. She gave them to him and he took her by the shoulders, k i s s i n g her pale cheek . . . . He went out, c l o s ing the apartment door behind him, and i n the common hallway put on h i s overshoes. (p. 91) This nar ra t ion serves mainly to preserve cont inu i ty of movement. Co f fey ' s act ions are de ta i l ed but d e s c r i p t i v e l y bare, and with the exception of "brown" paper bag and "pa le " cheek, completely divorced from sensat ion. Note the generic rather than s p e c i f i c verbs: " l e f t , went, came, gave, took," and the unpar t i cu l a r i zed nouns: "room, h a l l , hat, coat, overshoes, sandwiches." Phys ica l d e t a i l , too, i s prominent from the f i r s t , with some of the e f f e c t of c i r cumstant i a l real i sm, but as the opening l i ne s revea l , the proport ion and s e l e c t i o n of d e t a i l show signs of more d i r e c t purpose: F i f t e e n do l l a r s and three cents. He counted i t and put i t i n h i s t rousers -pocket. Then picked h i s Tyrolean hat off the dresser, wondering i f the two A lp ine buttons and the l i t t l e brush dingus i n the hathand weren't a shade jaunty f o r the place he was going. S t i l l , they might be lucky to him. And i t was a love ly morning, c l ea r and c r i s p and c lean. Maybe that was a good augury. Maybe today his ship would come i n . James Franc i s (Ginger) Coffey then r i sked i t in to the k i t chen . (p. 7) The money i s counted to the cent, along with the adornments on h i s s p e c i -f i c a l l y Tyrolean hat. Yet the apparently scrupulous d e t a i l inc ludes nothing of Co f fey ' s other garments or of the bedroom, beyond the presence -42-of a dresser i n i t . The same s e l e c t i v i t y i s operat ive on a larger sca le l a te r i n the nove l . Co f fey ' s second apartment, fo r example, i s given no p a r t i c u l a r features except two bedrooms, a l iv ingroom and a k i t chene t te . Though h i s f i r s t twenty d o l l a r s i s counted out by the cent, the money he makes at h i s jobs i s never accounted f o r . The d e t a i l i s more purposeful than c i r cumstant i a l , and more so than i n the two previous nove ls . While i n Jud i th Hearne the oppressive weight of phys i ca l d e t a i l was s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s e l f , here more of the d e t a i l s are e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y . The money/ which i s a l l too read i l y countable i s Co f fey ' s main concern, the hat and h i s anxiety over i t revea l the "persona" behind which he i s t ry ing to hide h imse l f . Elsewhere i n the novel, and p a r t i c u l a r l y where the de s c r i p t i on i s unmistakably from Cof fey ' s point of view, the d e t a i l s share th i s q u a l i t y . The second prospect ive employer Coffey meets i s de ta i l ed to embody the uny ie ld ing meanness of a business community which has no place f o r him. "H . E. Kahn wore a blue su i t with narrow lape ls which curved up to the points of h i s t i gh t , white, t ab - co l l a red s h i r t . His black t i e knot was the s i ze of a grape and the t i e i t s e l f narrow as a r u l e r . The mouth above i t was a l so narrow; narrow the needle nose, the eyes . . . " (p. 27). The e f f e c t reaches a comic extreme with H. E. Kahn, but i t i s t y p i c a l that th i s minor f i gu re has no q u a l i t i e s working simply as p l au s ib le upholstery to h i s character . Nor do characters appear, as some of the boarders i n Jud i th Hearne or Diarmuid Devine's col leagues, to populate the land acceptably. -43-The se lected d e t a i l i s not, l i k e the d e t a i l s of St. Michan's Col lege i n The Feast of Luperca l , suggestive of analogs to the whole a c t i o n . I t does not a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l a t ten t ion , wi th the poss ib le exception of the per iod i c use of m i r ro r s . The images i n mirrors present a v i s u a l p a r a l l e l to Co f fey ' s degree of self-knowledge at var ious stages i n the a c t i o n . M i r rors have the same value to some extent i n the e a r l i e r novels, but Coffey extends the i r use. He sees h i s image i n mirrors and windows, and l a t e r r e f l e c t e d i n other characters l i k e Wilson, Old B i l l y Davis, and " C r i p p l e Mate" i n the recur r ing newspaper head l ine. The opening l i ne s of the novel a l so i nd i ca te the proport ion of sub-j e c t i v e d e t a i l to be found with the ob jec t i ve . Coffey i s wondering about the hat and about h i s luck, h i s " sh ip coming i n . " The morning i s " l o v e l y " and may be a "good augury." The s e l e c t i o n of the verb " r i s k e d i t " adds to the d e t a i l s which present Co f fey ' s hopes and fears more than h i s phy-s i c a l presence. Such subject ive r e a l i t i e s as hope, fear , love, hatred and despair are p l e n t i f u l and var ied throughout the nove l . They take forms ranging from Cof fey ' s obvious w i sh - fu l f i lmen t dreams of a world where "you t r a v e l i n to b e a u t i f u l jungles with four Indian companions, climb a dozen d i s t an t mountain peaks, s a i l r a f t s i n endless t rop i c seas" (p. 40), to the human fee l i ng s i m p l i c i t i n an afternoon s t reet scene: F ive o ' c l o ck . In the f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t the s t ree t l i gh t s f l a r e d . Down came the o f f i c e workers, s p i l l i n g out in to the s t reet s , re leased, fac ing the f reez ing bus terminal waits, the long, slow-stopping journey home. (p. 108) -44-The hardships of " f r e e z i n g wai ts " and "s low-stopping journey" imply the workers' f ee l i ng s as v i v i d l y as the metaphor " s p i l l e d out" descr ibes the i r appearance. Ginger Co f fey ' s conscious thoughts are regu la r l y occupied by such deeply personal emotions as love and l o y a l t y . He wants to penetrate to the meaning of the words, but not i n abs t rac t ions . They are always connected with immediate experience. -Love, he f i nds , i s not "being the great stud" or " s tay ing together fo r Pau l i e ' s sake" or "going to bed with the l i ke s of Grosvenor." When Vera t e l l s him love i s u n s e l f i s h , he immediately i d e n t i f i e s i t with h i s p lan to do a " f a r fa r bet ter th ing" by u n s e l f i s h l y g i v ing h i s wi fe her freedom. He thinks about hope and the need to keep i t a l i v e through h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , though he sees him-se l f as "running up h i l l , h i s hope i n h i s mouth, h i s shins kicked by people who have no f a i t h i n him" (p. 40). He searches i n the same con-crete terms fo r some meaning i n human contact, e spec i a l l y when l o n e l i -ness has made him doubt that he means anything to humanity: "He had no one. He was three thousand miles from home, across ha l f a f rozen con-t inent and the whole A t l a n t i c Ocean. Only one person i n th i s c i t y , only one person i n the world, r e a l l y knew him now: knew the man he once was, the man he now was" (p. 155). In a very concrete way he i s t ry ing to capture the essence of h i s l one l i ne s s . In a s im i l a r way he t r i e s to f i n d some absolute moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s act ions, and i n p a r t i c u -l a r , fo r h i s ambit ions. He weighs them against the moral claims of the -45-r e l i g i o n and the I r i s h soc iety he has re jected to pursue them. More than anything e lse about him, Ginger Co f fey ' s tendency to con-s ider l i f e i n terms of subject ive absolutes--hope, f a i t h , love, l o y a l t y - -marks h i s r e f l e c t i o n s o f f from those of Jud i th Hearne or Diarmuid Devine. I t extends the dimensions of the nove l ' s psycho log ica l wor ld . Jud i th Hearne sought moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n w i th in the codology of a r e l i g i o n . Devine w i th in the conventions of a soc ie ty . For Coffey, both these con-cerns are p a r t i a l . He i s worr ied, l i k e Devine, about pub l i c success and about what people think of him. His ambition to become "Cof fey, the ed i t o r " and even h i s personal vani ty make that c l e a r . He quiets h i s wi fe i n the ho te l d in ing room for fear of what people w i l l think, though the personal imp l i ca t ions of the i r quarre l are much more serious than i t s pub l i c e f -f e c t . He almost prefers going through with the adultery evidence to offending the p r o s t i t u t e sent to stage i t . He i s mor t i f i ed when an I r i s h g i r l he has known i n bet ter times recognizes him i n h i s Tiny Ones uniform because the people i n I reland w i l l see the i r lack of f a i t h j u s t i f i e d : Ha, ha', c r i ed a l l the c o u n t r i f i e d young th icks he had gone to school with, who now, ordained and Roman-collared, regu la r l y lectured the l a i t y on p o l i t i c s and love. Ha, ha1, c r i ed the p o l i t i c i a n s North and South, united as always i n f o s te r ing the ignorance which alone made poss ib le the i r separate powers . . . . Emigrate, would you? We to ld you so. Their laughter d ied . What did i t matter? What d id they matter, so long as he was not going home? (p. 123) -46-The descr ip t ions of the "young th i ck s " and p o l i t i c i a n s show that h i s fear of the i r scorn i s balanced by an equal contempt fo r them. He i s able to r e j e c t them pa r t l y because h i s des i re f o r recogn i t ion can s t i l l be s a t i s f i e d by h i s new homeland. Eventual ly he must a l so r e j e c t the opinion of the new world as he stands i n the p r i s oner ' s dock: " A l l he was th i s morning, fac ing pr i son and ru in , was an excuse fo r courtroom s a l l i e s . So what d id i t matter, h i s l i f e i n th i s world, when th i s was what the world was l i k e ? " (p. 209) He i s able to r e j e c t them because there are other sources of strength i n h i s l i f e . His most fundamental values are not dependent upon pub l i c op in ion. The personal qua l i t y of h i s moral judgments i s evident i n h i s v i s i t to the church. His r e l i g i o u s doubts form an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast with Jud i th Hearne's. If there was a God above, was that what God wanted? To make him poor i n s p i r i t ? To make him c a l l pax, to make him give up, to herd him back with the other sheep i n the fo ld? He looked at the tabernac le. His large ruddy face set i n a scowl as though someone had struck i t . His l i p s shut t i gh t under h i s ginger mustache. I never could abide a bu l l y , he said to the tabernac le. (P. 24) Ch r i s t i an submissiveness does not s a t i s f y Co f fey ' s p r iva te e t h i c a l s tan-dards. And he hab i tua l l y fo l l ows .h i s thoughts through to an e t h i c a l judgment, i n h i s own down-to-earth terms, "I never could abide a b u l l y . " The prominence of such concerns i n the psycholog ica l a c t i v i t y of the novel opens the p o s s i b i l i t y , i f not the necess i ty , of the ac t i on leading -47-to some judgment about l i f e i n absolute moral terms. The psycho log ica l element i n The Luck of Ginger Coffey, despi te i t s greater scope, has broadly s im i l a r organizing p r i n c i p l e s to that i n Moore's f i r s t two novels . With the exception of occas iona l c o l l e c t i o n s of impressions l i k e those f i r s t mentioned, i t fo l lows the r a t i o n a l , sen-tence form of i n t e r n a l monologue. There i s no determined attempt at the a s soc i a t i ve freedom of "stream of consciousness" i n the manner of V i r g i n i a Woolfe. The opening l i nes do revea l an increased tendency toward psy-cho log i ca l d e s c r i p t i o n . Ana lys i s i s rare and always b r i e f . Reminiscences have an increased importance, and t h e i r way of obtruding in to the momen-tary consciousness shows a s l i g h t re l axa t i on of the r a t i o n a l order. In a quiet admin i s t ra t ive conversat ion, fo r example, Coffey watches h i s wi fe and r e c a l l s h i s tormenting f an tas ie s : "She ta lked. He watched her l i p s move; those l i p s which at night k i ssed a s t ranger ' s ha i ry f l ank s . Ta lk ing, making noises of motherhood, that mouth which each night he heard cry out i n de s i re " (p. 145). The d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s experiences and h i s fantas ies i s not as d e f i n i t e as i n the case of Diarmuid Devine's t imid imaginings or the extravagant outburst of Jud i th Hearne's repressed longings. The shadowy realm of Co f fey ' s hopes and fears draws nearer the sur face. The greater r o l e h i s f antas ies themselves play i n the psy-cho log i ca l ac t i on pref igures the part Mrs. T ie rney ' s dreams play i n Moore's four th nove l . The opening l ines of The Luck of Ginger Coffey are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c -48-of a new technique of expos i t ion appearing i n th i s t h i r d nove l . Moore's i m p l i c i t rendering of character and of the opening s i t u a t i o n i n Co f fey ' s home i s reminiscent of Katherine Mans f ie ld ' s methods. The Tyrolean hat impl ies a great deal about Co f fey ' s d i s p o s i t i o n and h i s a t t i t u d e toward h imsel f ; h i s f a i t h i n luck and auguries i s revea l ing , as i s h i s personal idiom: "h i s ship would come i n " and " l i t t l e brush d ingus. " The s tra ined fami ly r e l a t i o n s and Co f fey ' s way of dea l ing with them emerge t e l l i n g l y i n " r i s k e d i t " i n to the k i t chen . The atmosphere of h o s t i l i t y not met squarely by the cen t ra l f i gu re i s extended i n the same scene by the word-ing used when h i s wi fe stops him at the door "before he could f l e e the coup," and when he f i n a l l y "got c lean away." A bare reference to " the t i c k e t s " begins a gradual i n t roduct ion of h i s w i f e ' s determination to return to I re land, just as "the place he was going" prepares the reader fo r Co f fey ' s counterplan of going to the employment o f f i c e and beginning again to seek h i s success i n the new wor ld. The se t t ing i s i d e n t i f i e d by reference to a "Montreal Roads Department t r a c t o r . " The expos i t ion of Co f fey ' s character continues as he leaves the house: "Coffey wagged the policeman the old sa lute i n pass ing. " The b r i e f sentence impl ies not only a m i l i t a r y background but a whole complex of a t t i tudes toward himself and other people. The method, i n add i t i on to serving the ends of economy and p l a u s i b i l i t y , enriches the qua l i t y of background i n the a c t i o n . The reader ' s imagination i s set to work e laborat ing the f i c -t i o n a l world, extending the poss ib i l i t ie s through every ambiguity of suggestion. -49-The sense of depth and background i s not l o s t when more e x p l i c i t expos i t ion begins to develop a past f o r the characters, s ince i t emerges i n reminiscences st imulated by Co f fey ' s present a c t i v i t i e s — the s ight of a church, a statue, a man, or an a p p l i c a t i o n form. Some of Jud i th Hearne 1s reminiscences are lengthy, not we l l motivated; some of Devine's fami ly background i s provided by au tho r i a l i n t ru s i on s . Co f fey ' s memories, l i k e the i m p l i c i t expos i t ion, preserve the h i s t o r i c a l perspect ive, the sense of the past held i n the present. Imp l i c i t character de l i nea t i on and re l i ance on Co f fey ' s own r e f l e c -t ions are symptomatic of a greater withdrawal of the narrator from the f i c t i o n a l wor ld. The nar ra t i ve focus i s sh i f t ed more thoroughly to the cen t ra l character than i n the two previous novels . The world i s l a rge ly the pr i va te world of Ginger Coffey, as can be seen from the appearance of h i s i n d i v i d u a l idiom i n much of the de sc r i p t i on and na r r a t i on . Jud i th Hearne's p r i va te world was a l so d i s t ingu i shed by her idiom (horr id f a t t y , dear aunt) but here there are fewer a l t e r n a t i v e v iewpoints. The nar-r a t o r ' s omniscience i s sh i f ted to another charac ter ' s mind only once. I t moves very b r i e f l y to M. Beauchemin i n the f i r s t job interv iew. Other-wise the world contains what Coffey can see and know, and occas ional d i r e c t n a r r a t i o n . While there i s greater r e l i ance on the main charac ter ' s view of the ac t i on and greater acceptance of the perspect ive he imposes on i t , the f ac t that he must i n the end re-order ce r t a i n prominent features of i t -50-shows that h i s cannot be the whole f i c t i o n a l world i n i t s f i n a l perspec-t i v e . But to take that as the only evidence would lead to a c i r c u l a r argument, expla in ing the ac t i on by the f i c t i o n a l world a f t e r determining the f i c t i o n a l world from the a c t i o n . That Co f fey ' s v i s i o n i s imperfect and that something ex i s t s beyond i t are implied. l in the s l i g h t l y i r o n i c tone sustained by the b r i e f e s t of as ide comments and by odd signs of Co f fey ' s ch i ld i shness and van i t y . His idiom i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d enough to draw a t ten t i on from the thing observed to the observer. He descr ibes the Canadians as " l i k e Ruskis, " a woman's footwear as " b i g b loothers of boots , " Gerry Grosvenor as "the d r i p p i e s t long drink of water. " His expressions l i k e " f l u t e , " "steady the b u f f s , " and "shanks maring i t " correspond to Jud i th Hearne's homely metaphor i n removing the reader to an i r o n i c height from the character. The irony i s percept ib le , though the i r o n i c norm i s l e f t obscure u n t i l Coffey i s i n the end presumably brought in to l i n e with i t . D i rec t na r ra t i ve i nd i ca t i ons of the irony are rare and b r i e f , mingled with Co f fey ' s own views: Be l l s , c a l l i n g to the noon mass i n the B a s i l i c a , t o l l e d out across the c i t y i n a c lea r and f reez ing tone, waking him from an exhausted sleep in to a world without end, amen. Slowly they focused, the f ac t s of h i s l i f e . Someone lo s t , someone s to len, someone strayed. But the morning habit of a l i f e -time, k i ck ing now with i t s head cut o f f , must begin to balance the good with the bad. The habi ts of an hab i tua l r a t i o c i n a t o r must be f i xed i n hope. And so, l e t ' s see. At leas t he had gained a l i t t l e v i c t o r y by running away l a s t n ight . (p. 164) -51 -"The habits of an hab i tua l r a t i o c i n a t o r must be f i xed i n hope" i s not Co f fey ' s idea, though what goes before i s mixed, and what fo l lows i s thoroughly from his point of view. This i s t y p i c a l of the na r ra t i ve comment i n the nove l . With so l i t t l e d i r e c t eva luat ion, the i r o n i c norm can only be i n f e r r e d from what others say about Coffey (his w i fe , fo r example, c a l l s him a " s e l f i s h brute" and a " g l o r i f i e d secretary " ) and from the ac t i on i t s e l f . Most of Co f fey ' s ambitions are unrea l i zed ; he must eventual ly thrust a l l dreams of personal " v i c t o r i e s " and wor ld ly success from h i s mind. But the main bases of h i s world stand through h i s adjustment to the a c t i o n . L i f e i s s t i l l comprehensible as a matter of human hope, despair , love, and--as the climax demonstrates?:--joy. His perspect ive i s , i n the main, va l i d , though ce r t a i n features of i t , marked from the beginning by an i r o n i c tone, are not v i a b l e i n the complete f i c t i o n a l wor ld. The f i g u r a t i v e language which i n d i v i d u a l i z e s Co f fey ' s i n t e r n a l mono-logues i s not a lone. The quant ity of metaphor draws the novel in to c lo ser correspondence with Moore's f i r s t than his second.''"''' I t i s common i n de sc r i p t i on , as i n th i s f i r s t appearance of the Tribune composing room: In rows, l i k e c h i l d r e n i n some strange classroom, the l inotypers threaded t h e i r l i t t l e t ines of words . . . . A foreman i n s t i f f white c o l l a r and black kn i t ted t i e moved with e c c l e s i a s t i c  tread up the a i s l e . As he drew l e v e l with Coffey he leaned over, hand to h i s ear, i n smi l ing dumbshow  inqu i ry as to the v i s i t o r ' s bus iness. [ i t a l i c s mine] (p. 61) ^ This i s true of many aspects of the novels, though the author confirms that they were wr i t ten i n the i r order of pub l i c a t i on , i n a l e t t e r to the present wr i t e r , 13 A p r i l 1965. -52-Much of the metaphor i s r e l i g i o u s , l i k e " e c c l e s i a s t i c t read . " A f t e r one of the managing e d i t o r ' s v i s i t s to the proofreaders with h i s " f a n a t i c eye starved f o r t r oub le , " they r e v i l e him i n chorus: " . . . monks per-forming a r i t e of exorcism--the proofreaders downed ga l leys and intoned a short chant of MacGregorian abuse" (p. 73). The pun on Gregorian chants makes the f i gu re quite i n t r i c a t e . Another i d e n t i f i a b l e body of metaphor has a m i l i t a r y subject; as ide from the proofreaders, the union-ized workers i n the composing room are immune to the e d i t o r ' s au thor i t y : "Here, old ba t t l e s had been fought, o ld f o r t s abandoned. Here the enemy was i n f u l l command, camped permanently w i th in MacGregor's wa l l s " (p. 72). The qua l i t y of the metaphor i s more s i g n i f i c a n t than the subjects i t in t roduces . The a s soc i a t i ve freedom i t produces can be seen i n the comparison of the proofreaders ' obscen i t ies to a r e l i g i o u s r i t e . Often i n de s c r i p t i on the same freedom i s apparent. Mel t ing f r o s t i s descr ibed as "changing gray f i e l d s t o n e o f f i c e f ronts to the colour of a dead man's sk in " (p. 13). Old B i l l y Davis ' open mouth d i sp lays "gaps of gums po l i ced by ancient denta l surv ivor s " (p. 67). The most complete freedom of meta-phor i s i n Co f fey ' s epiphanic moment on the courthouse steps when he ex-periences the joy of becoming part of humanity and a l l c rea t ion by aban-doning h i s pretensions to the wor ld ' s admirat ion: For one l i b e r a t i n g moment he became a c h i l d again; l o s t himself as a c h i l d can, l e t t i n g himself go i n to the morning, a drop of water j o in ing an ocean, m y s t i c a l l y becoming one. He forgot Ginger Coffey and Ginger ' s l i f e . No longer was he a man running u p h i l l against hope, -53-h i s shins k icked, h i s luck running out. He was no one: he was eyes s ta r ing at the sky. He was the sky. (p. 214) The passage ends a hal f -page de s c r i p t i on i n which the extravagance of the metaphor l i be ra te s a s im i l a r subject ive i n t e n s i t y i n Co f fey ' s sen-sat ion of joy. The p o s s i b i l i t y of such i n t e n s i t y extends the f i c t i o n a l world to a depth impossible i n the two e a r l i e r nove l s . The metaphorical representat ion a l so adds poet ic ambiguity to Cof fey ' s epiphany, with the attendant p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s i gn i f i c ance extending i n to areas of compre-hension not s t r i c t l y conscious. These va r i a t i on s i n s t ructure and technique produce a f i c t i o n a l world with an extended scope of human experience and an increased emphasis on subject ive elements. The extension i s needed to admit Ginger Coffey, with h i s d i sda in f o r the "mis leading f ac t s of a l i f e " as he sees them entered on an a p p l i c a t i o n form. Yet the ac t i on of the novel , h i s w i f e ' s hatred, h i s f a i l u r e , h i s experiences with the po l i ce , lead him gradual ly toward an acceptance of what he comes to regard as the " t r u e f a c t s " of h i s l i f e . The f i c t i o n a l world beyond h i s consciousness proves uncongenial to many of h i s subject ive va lue s - -h i s ambitions, h i s des i re fo r v i c t o r i e s , h i s idea of the marriage bond and of love. He recognizes th i s i n the courtroom: "Unsurely but surely he came to that . His hopes, h i s ambi-t ions , h i s dreams: what were they but shams?" (p. 209). He f inds he no longer lus t s f o r h i s wi fe, that she i s another i l l u s i o n he no longer has. The d i s i l l u s i onment of the cen t r a l character i s f a m i l i a r from Moore's f i r s t two nove ls . Jud i th Hearne and Diarmuid Devine are both -54-brought to a p a i n f u l acceptance of hard s o c i a l and mater i a l fac t s i n t h e i r worlds which crush the i r we l l -nur tured f anc i e s . The movement of the ac t i on i s s im i l a r , but i n Co f fey ' s world i t does not have quite the same s i g n i f i c a n c e . The imaginative elements of h i s world are of severa l s o r t s . There i s a corpus of romantic fanc ies ranging from h is occupat ional ambitions to h i s pr ide i n h i s sexual prowess which might a l l be re l a ted to h i s chi ldhood dream of escaping to a land where he can sca le d i s t an t mountain peaks. They are a l l more or less autonomous fanc ies , not evoked by ex-perience but conscious ly summoned, feeding not on h i s experience but on popular stereotypes. He t r i e s to dress himself , f o r example, l i k e a Dubl in squire, and fanc ies the ro le of a great lover though he bores his w i f e . The t i t l e "Cof fey of the Tribune" sounds glamorous though he knows nothing of newspaper work. The new world i s cen t ra l to these fanc ies of because of the l u s te r / the stereotypes he, as an immigrant, takes fo r the r e a l i t y . America i s a "go-ahead" p lace, and Canada i s jus t l i k e America as seen i n the movies. A l l these fanc ies are treated with i rony from the beginning; i n G inger ' s phrasing the stereotypes are ea s i l y recognized, and the r e a l i t y with which they f a i l to conform i s often juxtaposed with them i n Co f fey ' s own d i r e c t percept ions . Other imaginative elements are less vo luntary, inherent i n d i r e c t nar ra t ion or i n Co f fey ' s percept ion. The desc r ip t i ons of Montreal, s t ree t scenes embued with the s p i r i t and l i f e of the people, and with Co f fey ' s own fee l i ng s , these are the un i ron i c imaginative e l e --55-ments. They appear i n the metaphor and are re l a ted to Co f fey ' s concrete way of v i s u a l i z i n g the essence of human s i t ua t i on s . The strongest ex-ample i s i n the strongest metaphor, when Coffey stands on the courthouse steps. The gratu i tous , i r r a t i o n a l emergence of joy at h i s darkest moment of d i s i l l u s i onment demonstrates the v i a b i l i t y of strong subject ive e l e -ments i n the f i c t i o n a l world of the nove l . I ts appearance as an e p i -phanic moment and i t s extravagant metaphor, as much as the presence of joy i t s e l f , make the climax of the novel anything but a rea s se r t i on of purely r a t i o n a l va lues . Admittedly, The Luck of Ginger Coffey i s the f i r s t of Moore's novels to sound an op t im i s t i c note i n the climax, but a l i n e such as "He was no one: he was eyes s ta r ing at the sky. He was the sky" would be impossible i n the two e a r l i e r novels, jus t as i t would be nonsense i n a Jamesian novel though i t might ea s i l y appear i n a novel by Joseph Conrad. The f i c t i o n a l world of The Luck of Ginger Coffey, with i t s p a r t i c u l a r perspect ive on human experience makes such a climax poss ib le , i f not qu i te necessary. The nature of Ginger ' s f i n a l understanding of love i s i n keeping with h i s habits of mind, with the general withdrawal of the narrator , and the re su l t an t r e l i ance on representat ion rather than statement: Love--why, I ' l l t e l l you what love i s : i t s you at seventy - f i ve and her at seventy-one, each of you l i s t e n i n g for the o ther ' s step i n the next room, each a f r a i d that a sudden s i l ence , a sudden cry, would mean a l i f e t i m e ' s ta lk i s over. (p. 221) I t i s not an explanation, but a c o r r e l a t i v e , mute but express ive. L ike -56-th e climax, i t has a qua l i t y which might be c a l l ed metaphoric or poet ic , which gives the novel a g reater depth and range of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Chapter 5: An Answer from Limbo Brendan T ie rney ' s f i r s t - p e r s o n nar ra t ion i n An Answer from Limbo changes the perspect ive of the f i c t i o n a l world as w e l l as the way the reader accepts that world. A f i r s t - p e r s o n narrator enjoys more freedom i n h i s a t t i t ude toward the reader and toward h i s m a t e r i a l . Northrop Frye d i s t ingu i shes from the novel proper a whole category of f i c t i o n , the "confess ion " form, narrated i n the f i r s t person and i n c l i n e d to an 12 in t rover ted , i n t e l l e c t u a l tone. In th i s case, Brendan's i n t ro spec t i on occupies the greater part of h i s account. He i s cont inua l l y examining h i s own motives: "Wasn't i t the need to run which made me . . . book my 13 one way passage out , " h i s own sensat ions: "I am l i v i n g not i n New York, but i n a world of my characters " (p. 101). His observations are i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d by h i s a n a l y t i c a l in tent ions 12 " R h e t o r i c a l C r i t i c i s m : Theory of Genres," Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (Pr inceton Un iver s i t y Press, 1957), p. 308. 13 (New York: D e l l , 1963), p. 27--subsequent quotations are from th i s e d i t i o n . -58-and the terms i n which he conducts h i s ana l y s i s : "Resentment i s , perhap a key to my character " (p. 6 ) . Both the abstract d i c t i on - - " re sen tment , " " charac te r " - - and the syntax are i n t e l l e c t u a l ; the parenthet i ca l "perhaps i s a trademark of i n t e l l e c t u a l detachment. His mother's death he analy-ses: "The temporal l i f e was, f o r her, a secondary th ing . For me, i t i s a l l there i s . Because of th i s d i f f e rence i n b e l i e f , a gate shut between us. Because of that gate, she died t ry ing to reach me" (p. 284). The short sentences and simple d i c t i o n are i n th i s instance decept ive; the r h e t o r i c a l arrangement of the ideas i n p a r a l l e l , i n t e r l o c k i n g sentences presents the pure l o g i c of a s i t u a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y strong i n sensat ion and sentiment. Moore i s drawing on some of the resources of the confes-s ion form. Moore's characters i n the e a r l i e r novels have been i n t ro spec t i ve , but the f i r s t - p e r s o n re l a t i on sh ip with the reader gives Brendan Tierney new freedom for extended ana lys i s — even ph i l o soph i ca l d i g re s s ions—and for an i n t e l l e c t u a l tone. A declared narrator gives the impression of l i cen s i ng d i r e c t au tho r i a l address of the reader, which i s why Henry James disapproved of i t and why Northrop Frye bu i ld s a separate category 14 of f i c t i o n around i t . When Brendan, fo r example, i s t r y ing to show the in jus t i ce of h i s having to support a widowed mother, he i s able to say "no, no, l e t me exp la in i t i n another way" (p. 6). He claims the p r i v i l e g e of d i r e c t l y , s e l f - consc i ou s l y addressing the reader. His own 14 James re fe r s to the f i r s t - p e r s o n as " the darkest abyss of romance The Art of the Novel (New York: Scr ibners, 1937), p. 320. -59-" r e f l e x i v e " a t t i t ude , or open awareness of h i s story as a story, enables him to s t ructure i t very d e l i b e r a t e l y and to comment upon i t to the reader i n ways which would be thought impert inent of an omniscient, undeclared 15 nar ra tor . The f i r s t e f f e c t th i s has on the f i c t i o n a l world, or on Brendan's port ion of i t , i s to draw i n t e l l e c t u a l experience in to the foreground of the perspect ive . The very quest ion which awaits the "answer from limbo" i s moral i n substance but i n t e l l e c t u a l i n tone: " Y o u ' l l s a c r i f i c e other people, a l l r i g h t . But w i l l you s a c r i f i c e you r se l f ? " (p. 21) The abst ract and f i g u r a t i v e verb " s a c r i f i c e " puts the moral quest ion i n to a d i f f e r e n t context than does, fo r example, Mrs. T ie rney ' s ear ly impres-s ion of her son: "Oh, you haven't changed, my boy, you ' re s t i l l the same stuck-up wee fe l low, th inking your se l f a cut above the re s t of the world around you" (p. 34). L ike Ginger Coffey, she grasps moral ques-t ions i n very concrete terms. The f i r s t - p e r s o n na r ra t i on a l so helps to win from the reader a greater acceptance of Brendan's point of view. In more f a m i l i a r phras-ing, i t helps the reader to i d e n t i f y with Brendan. In the f i r s t three novels, Moore deals i r o n i c a l l y with h i s characters . The na r ra t i ve focus may be sh i f t ed more cons i s tent ly to the mind of one main character, but always with reservat ions induced by an i r o n i c tone. Brendan T ie rney ' s account i s the f i r s t s incere rather than i r o n i c displacement of the nar -^ For the term " r e f l e x i v e a t t i t u d e , " see A lber t Cook, The Meaning  of F i c t i o n , pp. 24-37. -60-r a t i v e focus . Brendan has no personal or d i a l e c t a l i d io syncras ie s to make the reader aware of h i s l i m i t a t i o n s ; h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m i s not i n -f l a t e d or con t r i ved . There i s none of the machinery of tonal i rony, though there i s dramatic i rony i n such inc idents as Brendan's m i s i n te rp re ta t i on of h i s w i f e ' s sexual submissiveness mid-way through the nove l . His i g -norance i s known from ac t ion seen i n Jane's part of the n a r r a t i v e . Gener-a l l y , h i s weaknesses as a character are revealed by him; as narrator he remains absolute as long as he occupies the stage. The ac t i on may prove that h i s view i s p a r t i a l , but that view and the perspect ive i t imposes must be ser ious ly accepted w i th in t h e i r own bounds. Those bounds d imin ish as he recedes i n to h i s world of nove l -wr i t ing , and more of the ac t i on takes shape i n the minds of h i s w i fe , who replaces him as the wage-earner, and h i s mother, who has come from Ireland to tend h i s ch i l d ren u n t i l domestic c o n f l i c t s dr ive her from h is home to the she l ter of a lonely apartment. The other two main points of view, Mrs. T ie rney ' s and Jane ' s , cannot be accepted as unreservedly, though ne i ther i s t reated with cons i s tent i r ony . Mrs. Tierney has a few pecu-l i a r i t i e s l i k e her expression "some Dago Dan you wouldn't t rus t your g i r l s w i t h , " but they fade as the story progresses. There i s even a tendency to lapse suddenly from th i r d to f i r s t person nar ra t ion i n her port ions of the book. Jane i s the object of more d i r e c t na r ra t i ve ana l y s i s : "Jane Tierney dreamed of dark rav i shers . . . " (p. 22), but th i s too diminishes gradual ly i n to i n t e r n a l monologue and psycho log ica l d e s c r i p --61 -t i o n . The a l t e r n a t i o n among the three viewpoints may e l iminate the need fo r much tonal irony and d i r e c t ana l y s i s . The p l u r a l i t y of views creates s t r u c t u r a l l y the same ambiguity that irony creates t o n a l l y . Each view-point br ings d i f f e r e n t elements of experience i n to high r e l i e f , yet des-p i te the recur r ing metaphor i n the novel about people l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t "wor lds , " the three create a s ing le f i c t i o n a l wor ld. They may be regar-ded as d i f f e r e n t perspect ives on that world, but the i r s i m i l a r i t i e s are enough to hold the f i c t i o n together. In Brendan's perspect ive, states of mind and moral abst ract ions are more prominent than concrete experiences. F i gu ra t i ve language i s p l en -t i f u l , though i n keeping with Brendan's preoccupations, the metaphor has more ingenuity than v i v i dnes s : "What spectac le more degrading than these V i l l a g e Rimbauds, covered i n the vomit of s i c k l y past iche . . . " (p. 56). The f i gu re depends on an equivocat ion i n the meaning of " s i c k l y , " which i n the usual expression " s i c k l y pas t i che" denotes weakness more than nausea. Again, i n h i s de sc r i p t i on of Max Bronstein: "Through some telepathy of f a i l u r e we know each o ther ' s paths, re s t ing places, d r ink ing w e l l s . Yet which of us i s the hunter? I f e e l i t i s he. But i n my need for h i s company am I not b i r d to h i s snake?" (p. 9) As i t extends, the f i gu re shows signs of s t r a i n i n changing from animals of prey to a b i r d and a snake. S imi lar beast and in sec t metaphors are common i n h i s des-c r i p t i o n s of people. The l i t e r a t i are " t i c k s " on the back of l i t e r a t u r e ; he and h i s wi fe are two "cockroaches" cut o f f from the warm, dark d r a i n -pipe; Solomon S i l v e r i s an "eag le " i n h i s cool eyr ie above the c i t y , -62-Mrs. MacAnaspey i s a black "crow" f l app ing a f t e r him to protect her " h i d -eous baby b ru te . " The subjects of metaphor are perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t than i n the previous novels . In keeping with Brendan's withdrawal from the c i r c l e of humanity, the demeaning metaphor he app l ies to people helps to reduce the i r moral va lue . As might be expected, c l a s s i c a l and l i t e r a r y metaphors and a l l u s i on s are common: Sisyphus. "Each fcimeol labour to push the stone of my domestic d i f f i c u l t i e s up and out of s ight, i f f a l l s back and crushes me" (p. 204), "Ah, Mamma, Mamma. There are f a r f e w e r things i n heaven than are dreamt of i n your phi losophy" (p. 82). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he appl ies r e l i g i o u s metaphor mainly to h i s work, speaking of being bap-t i sed i n to a new "communion" when he dedicates h i s l i f e to wr i t i n g , and wondering as he impassively views a woman's thigh, i f h i s " voca t i on " has made him an " anchor i te " who i s above these things of the f l e s h . His expressed moral conv ic t ions bear out th i s comparison. His moral judgments, with which he i s preoccupied a great dea l , a l l p lace the claims of h i s wr i t i ng f i r s t : " 'Hav ing a family to support i s one th ing. But there are more important th ing s ' " (p. 34). His mother's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c reac t ion i s , "Important, what could be more important than looking a f t e r your wife and ch i ld ren? " Later, when he i s r e s i s t i n g the e d i t o r ' s sug-gest ions f o r h i s manuscript he says, " . . .when I woke th i s morning the quest ion of to cut or not to cut seemed the most important moral dec i s ion of my l i f e " (p. 260). Later s t i l l , some other moral values seem to l i e i n the background when he descr ibes the same morning with the knowledge -63-of h i s mother's death: "She lay dying on the f l o o r of a strange apar t -ment whi le I, her son, ran senseless about the c i t y , qu ibb l ing over words" (p. 280). The changed wording from "moral dec i s i on " to "qu ibb-l i n g " shows that some more broadly humanistic values are emerging and i t i s by them that he judges himself i n the end as " that other cur ious ly vulgar watcher" at h i s mother's grave. As the comparison of himself to an anchor i te reveals , Brendan con-sc ious ly emphasizes the gradual disappearance of f l e s h l y appet i tes and everyday human concerns from h i s l i f e . The conscious substance of h i s mind does change as the ac t ion progresses, but tona l ly h i s phys i ca l and emotional experience never does enjoy much emphasis. He wr i tes of "day-dreaming f i t f u l l y and l a s c i v i o u s l y " about a woman on the subway and of the g i r l i n the orange su i t with a "magnif icence of but tocks , " but the language i s not sensual. I t tends to reduce the i n tens i t y of such ex-perience and s h i f t the emphasis from h i s des i res to h i s s e l f - a n a l y s i s . Though these are the sa l i en t s of Brendan's perspect ive, i t re ta in s the framework of r e a l i s t i c conventions, inc lud ing h i s t o r i c a l data of time and place f o r h i s ac t ions . The time cont inu i ty has some odd i t ies r e s u l t -ing from f i r s t person na r ra t i on . A revealed narrator using the past tense i s i nev i t ab l y wr i t i ng i n retrospect about the ac t ion , and must be i n a po s i t i on to know and judge i t completely from the outset. To r e -store the sense of present, progress ing ac t i on and e l iminate the charac-t e r ' s foreknowledge, Moore has Brendan wr i te i n the present tense. Each segment of h i s account i s a retrospect on one stage of the ac t ion , but -64-each i s composed i n a time present: "That stranger who i_s my parent i s as leep. 'She 's a s l eep , ' a vo ice sa id to me . . . " (p. 43) This preserves suspense i n much the same manner S i n c l a i r Ross does with Mrs. Bent ley ' s d iary ent r ie s i n As fo r Me and My House. The conventions of documentive rea l i sm provide a nucleus of data Brendan's perspect ive shares with the other two. Mrs. T ie rney ' s per-spect ive holds the phys i ca l and documentive elements nearer the f o r e -ground; phys i ca l d e t a i l i s more complete, phys i ca l sensations more f r e -quent and v i v i d . Here i s a t y p i c a l fragment. The sun came through the bamboo b l i n d , ha l f l i g h t i n g the room. Mrs. T ie rney ' s mouth and nose f e l t dry. She turned her head on the p i l l ow and saw her l i t t l e alarm clock beside the Chinese paper lamp. F ive past s i x . She reached out and took up her watch. F i ve past e leven. That was I r i s h time. (p. 48) Note the scrupulous cont inu i ty of movement through time and space, the d e t a i l , the prosa ic language, and the simple sentence s t ruc ture . The sentences i n Mrs. T ie rney ' s por t ion of the story are t y p i c a l l y short, simple, and uniform i n the subject -verb-object sequence. Metaphors are never numerous or strong. Mrs. Tierney l i v e s among the common-sense perceptions of da i l y l i f e . They are too s t ra ight - forward to demand complex syntax, l i k e the equal ly concrete forms of her fundamental ist r e l i g i o n . God, she be l ieves , i s v i s i b l y punishing her when her ch i l d ren turn against her. Frank F innerty i s not a moral man, because he l i v e s f o r h i s "own s e l f . " Unl ike her son, Mrs. Tierney does not deal i n abs t rac t ions . She does not analyse her own b e l i e f s or f ee l i ng s , and there i s l i t t l e externa l -65-ana ly s i s of them. Objects, act ions and fee l ing s she i s involved i n may have s i gn i f i cance , but i t i s not e x p l i c i t , as i t i s i n Brendan's case. The re l i ance on representat ion rather than statement i n her sect ion may exp la in the apparent paradox of her dreams. For a l l her concrete r e a l i t i e s , the unra t iona l i zed s tu f f of dreams l i e s su rp r i s i ng l y c lose to the surface of her consciousness. But then, because of the unsubtle qua l i t y of her waking l i f e , the dreams provide the only access to the subconscious depths of her f ee l i ng s , and they do i t i n an appropr ia te ly representat iona l way. In dreams, people and inc idents from her waking r e a l i t y i n te r ac t with her b e l i e f s . Her deeper hopes and fears f i n d em-bodiment and form more or less symbolic arrangements. The young lover she embraces i n d i s c r e t e l y on the beach, f o r example, 'turns suddenly in to her son Rory, c r y s t a l i z i n g a l l her fears of sexual s i n . In her dream of f i n a l judgment, her family and f r i ends bear witness against her, recal l -l i n g a l l the moral doubts she cannot face consc ious ly . Her conscious adherence to C h r i s t i a n moral and s p i r i t u a l law has the r i g i d i t y of unspoken assumption. She simply has no choice but to bapt ize the ch i l d ren , though she knows the present human su f fe r i ng she may cause he r se l f and others. When she fears Liam may d ie , the unspoken author i ty of her s p i r i t u a l laws i s apparent i n her thoughts of her son: "0 Brendan, Brendan, why d i d n ' t you bapt ize him, what do your s i l l y no-t ions matter now, you can wr i te a l l the books you want but you have f a i l e d i n your duty" (p. 99). A s im i l a r absolute code of d u t y - - f i l i a l , s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s - - i s i m p l i c i t i n a l l her waking judgments, d is turbed only by the ac t i on i n her dreams. -66-Physical actions play a large part i n Jane's portion of the novel, too, but for her they have more sensory vividness and are usually r e l a t e d to strong emotions. Resentment, shame, hatred, and desire are the f o c a l points of her world, surrounded by the experiences which excite them. The s t i m u l i of her resentment of Mrs. Tierney, f o r example, appear as r a t i o n a l i z e d accounts of actions and dialogue, the old woman's words and deeds. Jane describes one of the "maddening l i t t l e i n c i d e n t s " which set her against the older woman. Jane never serves tea, has never used the s i l v e r tea service her mother-in-law sent as a wedding g i f t . That afternoon when Jane came back from downtown she found Mrs. Tierney waiting for her i n the l i v i n g room with a s i l v e r tea service, hot buttered toast, and t h i n l i t t l e bread-and-butter s l i c e s . "I just made us a cup of tea," Mrs. Tierney said. "I found this teapot on a top shelf i n the kitchen. I hope you don't mind me using i t . " The service, l a s t seen tarnished and wrapped i n newspaper, now gleamed i n reproach. (p. 50)' The account i s r a t i o n a l , with circumstantial d e t a i l down to the "bread-and-butter s l i c e s " and d i r e c t quotation. I t a l l leads quite purposefully to the idea of reproach Jane sees i n i t , which i s i n turn important be-cause i t stimulates her resentment. Her growing sexual revulsion for Brendan i s stimulated by a combina-tio n of sensation (he i s not covered with hair) and r a t i o n a l i z e d action (he i s p r e d i c t a b l e ) . The s t i m u l i of her desire f o r V i t o appear mainly as sensations: His skin was dark i n a way that had nothing to do with the sun. His teeth were large and white. His s h i r t s l e e v e s were r o l l e d up and she saw an animal coating of black hair, thick on h i s forearms, -67-c u r l i n g over h i s l inked gold watchband. As she stared at him she remembered her shock at the assured, c rue l way h i s f ingers seized at her f l e s h . "Go away," she sa id; but th i s time her vo ice was shaky. (p. I l l ) The de ta i l ed and v i v i d sensations are a l l i n the i n t e r e s t of the des i re betrayed by her vo i ce . They are i n te rac t i n g with her sexual fantas ies as she recognizes that th i s man i s " the f l e s h and blood of a l l those dark rav ishers she had dreamed o f . " She he r se l f i d e n t i f i e s the source of these darker impulses as masochism, though she i s not normally ana ly-t i c or i n t r o s p e c t i v e . She usua l ly looks no fur ther than the emotion and i t s externa l cause. What a n a l y t i c a l depth her por t ion of the novel has i s imposed by externa l ana l y s i s : " S i n was, to Jane, an archa ic word . . . . But i n the d i s pa r i t y between dream and r e a l i t y she had a sense of wrongdoing, a vague g u i l t that f o o l i s h fantasy could rear so t e r r i b l y large i n the midst of f ac t . . . " (p. 22). This type of ana ly s i s , and her own aware-ness of her emotions g ive f a i r l y e x p l i c i t s i gn i f i c ance to the elements of her l i f e . The range of things s t imulat ing her emotions br ing a wide va r i e ty of experience in to her perspect ive — sensation, r a t i o n a l r e f l e c -t ion, emotion, imag inat ion—but always with emotion i n the foreground. In the end, when her world i s no longer animated by the emotions which have dr iven her, she i s l i f e l e s s . Her view of the c i t y provides a v i s u a l analog: "She sat u n t i l the darkness faded, the red neon glow behind the bu i ld ings d ied i n a gray milk sky. The c i t y was no longer on f i r e . It seemed dead" (p. 276). -68-The language i n Jane's sect ions of the novel helps to e s t ab l i s h the emphasis. Her regular i n t e r n a l monologue contains a f a i r l y large propor-t ion of emotional ly toned express ions. A sample paragraph contains: "b lessed moment," " the cosmos crumbled," " p e r f e c t l y dreary , " " inane quest ions" "she could scream" (p. 52). Her term of d e r i s i o n fo r Mrs. Tierney i s "Mrs. Let Me," and her i n a b i l i t y to confide i n Brendan she c a l l s the "most t e r r i b l e " part of the old woman's " v i s i t a t i o n . " . Her speech and her thoughts are punctuated by emotional i n t e r j e c t i o n s such as " a l l r i g h t , " " d e f i n i t e l y not , " "God knows," and " f o r godsakes." In moments of heightened emotion her expressions are proport ionate ly i n t e n -s i f i e d . V i t o i s va r ious l y descr ibed as "a b u l l y , " a " lousy s t ink ing r a t , " an " i m i t a t i o n Brando tough" and a "ba s ta rd . " Emotion i s i m p l i c i t i n her view of l i f e as much as i t i s e x p l i c i t l y on her mind. F i gu ra t i ve usage i s f a i r l y frequent, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the he ight -ened sensations of her c o l l i s i o n s with V i t o d i s rupt the r a t i o n a l order-ing of her experience: She was on the sofa. Time stopped: she was on the f l o o r . Something was hurt ing her back: i t was her handbag. He came at her again and she moaned and clung to him. It was a s t reet acc ident; she could not remember what happened. Her h a i r was a l l over her face . (p. 150) The e r r a t i c syntax, the chaot ic impressions, and the strong metaphor, " t ime stopped, i t was a s t reet acc ident " i nd i ca te the power her sensations have to overcome the r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i n her world. Her use of r e l i -gious metaphor i s revea l ing . Just as Brendan app l ies i t to h i s work, she -69-applies i t to the sex act. Their lovemaking a f t e r a quarrel i s a " r i t e of atonement," "an act of communion." The narrative omniscience s h i f t s b r i e f l y to the minds of others i n the novel--to L i s a , to a policeman, to Ted Ormsby--but t h e i r views are too b r i e f to be worth examining i n d i v i d u a l l y , with the possible exception of Ormsby's. He has a minor choric function i n the beginning, just as Father Keogh has at the end of The Feast of Lupercal. Each has the wis-dom to judge and to predict the action of the novel. Each might be said to be i n touch with the moral laws of h i s f i c t i o n a l world. Ormsby asks the ce n t r a l question about Brendan Tierney to which the novel gradually supplies the answer. His suspicions of Brendan and humane concern f o r Mrs. Tierney are what Brendan himself comes to i n the end. Most of the s h i f t s , however, are mechanically convenient. The s h i f t to the p o l i c e -man who bears the news of Mrs. Tierney's death, i n p a r t i c u l a r , creates an e f f e c t s i m i l a r to the sudden changes of scene or camera angle i n movies. Considered together, the main e f f e c t of the minor viewpoints i s to increase awareness of the narrator's presence i n the f i c t i o n a l world. There are, of course, two narrators: Brendan and the omniscient, anony-mous being who takes a small part i n Jane's and Mrs. Tierney's accounts and a prominent part i n b r i e f viewpoints l i k e Ted Ormsby's. The presence of t h i s second narrator s l i g h t l y diminishes the authority of Brendan's narration but without ever becoming more than a minor f a c t o r . Each main character's portion of the novel, because of i t s i n d i v i -dual emphasis on experience of various kinds, on i n t e l l e c t i o n , sensation, -70-or emotion, imposes a d i f f e r e n t perspect ive on the f i c t i o n a l world of An Answer from Limbo. What re su l t s i s not as c l o se l y u n i f i e d as, fo r example, the world of The Luck of Ginger Coffey with i t s cons i s tent nar ra t i ve focus on Ginger ' s mind, or of Hugh MacLennan's Barometer R i s - ing, where the point of view s h i f t s from N e i l Macrae to Penelope to Major Murray, but the perspect ive remains the same. The s h i f t s here involve more than d i f fe rences i n knowledge of or personal involvement i n the a c t i o n . Each, fo r example, sees the spare room prepared for Mrs. Tierney d i f f e r e n t l y : as an a r t i s t i c c rea t ion , as a bare h o s p i t a l room, as " tha t room Japanned by J a n e " — y e t each inc ludes some v i s u a l impres-s ion of i t . The separat ion i s not l i k e that i n Fau lkner ' s The Sound and  The Fury, where points of coincidence i n Benjy ' s , Quentin 's and Jason's nar ra t i ves must be c a r e f u l l y sought. The accounts here never diverge or c o n f l i c t se r ious ly enough to make inc idents from one perspect ive un-recognizable i n another. I t i s not the f i c t i o n a l ethos but the charac-ters who d i s in teg ra te and lose a l l communication with each o t h e r . ^ A l l three main characters say at some time that they have had no choice but to act as they d i d . Mrs. Tierney says she had no choice but to bapt ize the c h i l d r e n . Jane says she could not al low the older woman to stay i n her home. Brendan could not defend h i s mother because Jane i s the indispensable a l l y i n h i s work. The tragedy of Mrs. T ie rney ' s ^ For a contrary view, see Michael Hornyansky: "The problem i s that Mr. Moore confronts us with severa l d i s t i n c t wor lds—Brendan ' s , Jane ' s , Mrs. T ie rney ' s , and some minor ones, a l l d i f f e r e n t , even i n -compatable, and touching only at the edges." See h i s "Countr ies of the Mind," Tamarack Review (Winter 1963), p. 64. -71-death i s i nev i t ab le pa r t l y because of the i r d i f f e r e n t ways of exper ienc-ing l i f e , but par t l y too because of a c e r t a i n r i g i d i t y and lack of under-standing i n the i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Their views of l i f e , under other c i r -cumstances, could be complementary, though here without communication or sympathy they are simply i s o l a t i n g . In the end, Brendan's becomes the synthes iz ing perspect ive, pa r t l y because he i s success fu l , but a l so because h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l view can, at leas t i n i t s own terms, comprehend the other two. He analyses h i s mother's moral p o s i t i o n : She was shocked by what she found here. She thought i t her duty to do something and so she bapt ized my ch i l d ren i n a meaningless ceremony i n the bathroom; she to ld them f o o l i s h myths about her God] I t was f o r those crimes that we banished her. (p.- 281) This i s one way of understanding Mrs. T ie rney ' s po s i t i on , though i t does scant j u s t i c e to the r e a l i t i e s of her torment. Brendan a l so analyses h i s own and Jane's po s i t i on i n r e l a t i o n to h i s mother 's : Is my b e l i e f i n my ta lent any less an act of super s t i t i ous f a i t h than my mother's b e l i e f i n the power of indulgences? And, as f o r the eth ics of my creed, how do I know that my ta lent j u s t i -f i e s the s a c r i f i c e s I have asked of others i n i t s name? 0 Mamma, I s a c r i f i c e d you; I see your yel low face [ s i c ] . Jane, I abandoned you: I look at you now and know that a l l i s changed. (p. 285) He c r i t i c i z e s h i s e a r l i e r presumption, though not p rec i se l y h i s e t h i c a l standards. He sees h i s w i f e ' s estrangement, though with even less under-standing of her experience of i t than he has of h i s mother's s u f f e r i n g . The other two perspect ives are r e f l e c t e d i n Brendan's i n another -72-way, though i t i s not made e x p l i c i t . The f a i l u r e of Jane and Mrs. Tierney co inc ides with a f a i l u r e i n Brendan's p r i va te world of those elements which are dominant i n t t h e i r perspect ives . Jane, ru led by passions, i s l e f t drained of emotion, just as Brendan becomes so barren of emotion he cannot " f e e l " but only record . In the beginning, emotion and des i re had at leas t a minor part i n h i s l i f e . The t r a d i t i o n a l values h i s mother c a r r i e s to her grave a l so lose the i r f a i n t hold on h i s a t t e n t i o n . He i s no longer capable of being " appa l l ed " by h i s c h i l d r e n ' s table manners, f o r example, or even by his mother's "mechanized l a s t descent" which he duly records. These are the elements of himself he has l o s t and s a c r i -f i c e d i n becoming an a r t i s t . Like Stephen T'D.edalus i n A P o r t r a i t of the  A r t i s t , he has become a l ienated from port ions of himself by r e j e c t i n g h i s env i ronment.^ If, f o r that matter, Joyce ' s tone i s i r o n i c toward Stephen's joy at h i s apotheosis in to an a r t i s t , as the appearance'of Stephen i n Ulysses might suggest, then Brendan T ie rney ' s d i s t a s te fo r h i s own transformed state i s a c lose p a r a l l e l . Brendan's f i n a l synthesis leaves the novel with a moral s i gn i f i c ance i n predominantly i n t e l l e c t u a l , abstract terms. Yet the c reat ion of the other perspect ives makes i t apparent that h i s view i s p a r t i a l . The ac -t ion impl ies the need fo r some more broadly humane outlook without the l i m i t a t i o n s of any of the three. That a l l three are obl iged to remain p a r t i a l i n the i r understanding i s one of the main i m p l i c i t statements the novel makes. The statement i s l im i ted by the f a c t that the reader ^ A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t i s a c tua l l y re fer red to twice i n the nove l . -73-can un i te the three comprehensibly i n one f i c t i o n a l wor ld. To compare the novel again with The Sound and the Fury, Moore's can be taken as a statement about human pe r sona l i t i e s , whi le Fau lkner ' s novel makes a com-parable statement about the nature of human experience. Chapter 6: Conclusion Examining the i l l u s i o n s of r e a l i t y i n each of Br ian Moore's four novels leads i nev i t ab l y to devoting more a t ten t ion to minor d i f fe rences than to the i r very subs tant ia l s i m i l a r i t i e s . With few exceptions, charac-ters and inc idents could be moved from one novel to another a f t e r only minor adaptat ions. The strong bas is they a l l have i n techniques of docu-mentive rea l i sm tends i n each case to produce an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y i n which both the elements and the organiz ing p r i n c i p l e s are or iented to the needs of communication. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , we se lec t and arrange our perceptions to make them more read i l y communicable, often at the expense of our sense of how l i f e r e a l l y assorts and arranges i t s e l f i n the i n d i -v i d u a l experience of i t . Communication always has needs to be met, but the extent to which some nove l i s t s seek to d iminish and d isguise the i r e f f e c t on experience i s apparent i n the more subjec t i ve ly ordered f i c t i o n s of people l i k e V i r g i n i a Woolf and James Joyce. Moore's i s the r e a l i t y of conscious r e f l e c t i o n , on which the log i c of cause and e f f e c t has begun to impose i t s e l f . In th i s respect h i s work has something i n -75-common with what i s loosely termed " n a t u r a l i s t i c " f i c t i o n . In Judith Hearne and The Feast of Lupercal p a r t i c u l a r l y , where the protagonists show very l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e exercise of free w i l l , a pattern of inexorable causes and e f f e c t s a t t r a c t s notice. Judith Hearne brings her own misfortunes upon herself, but a substantial portion of the novel dwells on her economic and s o c i a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n by "dear Aunt D'Arcy", on accidents of the economy which have reduced her to poverty, and on her c l a s s i c introduction to the f a t a l habit of t i p p l i n g . Not just her p o s i t i o n , but her pathetic character seem to be the product of natural forces i n her society. Diarmuid Devine has already been discussed as a v i c t i m of more purely s o c i a l forces; he even explains himself as a product of s o c i a l mismanagement. Moore's f i c t i o n a l worlds, with t h e i r temporal continuity and circumstantial d e t a i l lend themselves to the n a t u r a l i s t s ' inductive approach to analysing s o c i a l causes. This q u a l i t y puts him closer to Mordecai Richler than to anyone else prominent i n Canadian f i c t i o n . R i c hler i s more flamboyant, but h i s f i c -t i o n a l worlds have a s i m i l a r kind of realism and a s i m i l a r emphasis on s o c i a l causes. The i r o n i c tone i n which he creates Duddy Kravitz i s l i k e Moore's treatment of the c e n t r a l figures i n h i s f i r s t three novels. Morely Callaghan's novels also show a concern for i n d i v i d u a l s v i c t i m i z e d by s o c i a l forces, but i n h i s f i c t i o n the s o c i a l forces are deductively presented; they e x i s t as p r i o r conditions and are embodied i n characters l i k e the Montreal publisher Joseph Carver i n The Loved and the Lost, -76-through whom they operate with a l l e g o r i c a l s i m p l i c i t y . The general spareness of Cal laghan's f i c t i o n a l worlds, l i k e the symbolic separat ion of Montreal in to the mountain and the r i v e r draws the s i gn i f i c ance of h i s novels c lo ser to a l l egory than Brian Moore's ever come. Moore pub-l i shed h i s f i r s t novel with f i r s t - p e r s o n nar ra t ion only three years l a t e r than Hugh MacLennan produced George Stewart 's story i n The Watch that  Ends the Night, but the preoccupations of the two nove l i s t s are so d i f -ferent that i t i s only su rpr i s ing that the i s o l a ted techn ica l s i m i l a r i t y produces any resemblance i n the novels . The e f f e c t of an i n t e l l e c t u a l , r e f l e c t i v e narrator common to the confess ion form i s seen i n some of George Stewart 's c l o s ing comments: " . . . to be able to love the mys-18 tery surrounding us i s the f i n a l and only sanct ion of human ex i s tence . " I t i s recognisably a statement of the same order as Brendan T ie rney ' s "I have l o s t and s a c r i f i c e d myself" (p. 288) . I t might even be regarded as an a f f i rma t i ve counterpart of Brendan's discovery that he has ceased to love or respect the mystery surrounding him. An Answer from Limbo i s the most d i f f i c u l t of Moore's novels to re l a te to any pattern of development i n h i s manner of c reat ing a f i c -t i ona l wor ld. Between Judi th Hearne and The Luck of Ginger Coffey, the change i n h i s methods p a r a l l e l s roughly the h i s t o r i c a l development of the modern novel by a general withdrawal of the narrator from the f i c -t i o n a l world. The Feast of Lupercal does not f i t i n to th i s pattern I o (New York: Signet, 1960), p. 349. -77-through most of i t s length, s ince the narrator i s more prominent and the irony toward the main character more pointed than i n the f i r s t nove l . I t does advance the tendency, though, i n i t s dramatic scenes, which have a new freedom from comment and i n t e r n a l monologue, seen again i n the th i rd nove l . In most other respects i t seems a movement away from rather than toward the features which develop fu r ther i n The Luck of Ginger Coffey. Accompanying the withdrawal of the narrator i s a greater r e l i a n c e on r e -presentat iona l techniques, as can be seen i n the climax and denouement of The Luck of Ginger Coffey. At the same time, an increase i n the quan-t i t y and strength of metaphor and i m p l i c i t expos i t ion enr ich and enlarge the extent of the f i c t i o n a l wor ld. I t becomes more complex and prob le -matic, e spec i a l l y with the development of a more d e l i c a t e balance of the i r o n i c tone toward the main character. Ginger Coffey occupies the nar-r a t i v e focus i n almost the Jamesian ro le of a forming i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r the a c t i o n . He i s s t i l l regarded ambiguously, but he i s sens i t i ve , and, i n a p r im i t i ve way, a r t i c u l a t e . The reduct ion of tonal irony i s one tendency which does continue into the fourth novel, with the serious acceptance of Brendan T ie rney 1 s point of view. Brendan himself becomes the i r o n i s t when he t e l l s , f o r example, of h i s imperfect im i ta t i on of a " p a t e r f a m i l i a s " or of h i s c h i l d -i sh ambition to d ie at t h i r t y with h i s poet ic g i f t s t i l l unclouded. Many other techniques seem to have remained s t a t i c , l i k e the use of metaphor, or to have regressed, l i k e the pur i ty of dramatic scenes and the use of -78-i m p l i c i t expos i t i on . These reach a l im i ted excel lence i n The Luck of Ginger Coffey, but the attempt at more ambitious techn ica l scope i n the 19 fourth novel d i s rupts them. The l a s t novel i s hard to compare eva lua t i ve ly with the others be-cause f i r s t - p e r s o n nar ra t ion opens up expressive p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a d i f -fe rent sor t . Brendan Tierney, besides speaking d i r e c t l y to the reader, i s the f i r s t thoroughly a r t i c u l a t e character Moore has c reated. The qua l i t y of h i s understanding i s a source of e x p l i c i t meaning, not from without, l i k e the n a r r a t o r ' s ana lys i s i n The Feast of Luperca l , but from w i th in the f i c t i o n . His a t t i t ude toward h i s story, evident i n comments l i k e , " s h a l l I descr ibe myself and get i t over w i t h , " draws the f i c t i o n a l world a l l i n to the foreground yet i t creates freedom fo r a more open and de l i be ra te impos i t ion of a r t i s t i c form on the a c t i o n . In th i s case the freedom produces only a few extended metaphors, usua l ly i r o n i c , l i k e Brendan's comparison of himself to the b l i n d beggar on the subway as he f e e l s h i s way " t ap - tap " through the h o s t i l i t y i n h i s household t ry ing to mediate the quar re l s . A world of documentive r e a l i t y i s i n c l i n e d to be f i n i t e , even i n i t s subject ive dimensions and to c o n s t r i c t the imaginative expansion of sub-j e c t i v e experience. The trend i n Moore's f i c t i o n a l worlds i s toward a s l i g h t re l axa t i on of the r a t i o n a l order ing, mainly i n a greater freedom 19 Which may have been a f ac to r i n George Woodcock's judgment of An  Answer from Limbo as an " i n t e r i m exerc i se " rather than a completed work of the qua l i t y to be expected from a n o v e l i s t l i k e Brian Moore. See "A Close Shave," Canadian L i t e ra tu re (Spring 1963), p. 70-72. - 7 9 -of metaphor, to admit those i n f i n i t e imaginative expanses i n which such human absolutes as love, f a i t h , and joy can develop. This expansion of the world i s a l so i n c l i n e d to draw i n more of the subject ive experience that occurs at depths not access ib le to the conscious mind but shadowed f o r th i n dreams, fantas ies , and impulses. Ginger Co f fey ' s epiphanic moment on the courthouse steps might be compared'with the type of ex-perience James Joyce portrays i n some of h i s f i c t i o n . Here, f o r example, i s Stephen IDLedalus i n the f i r s t f l u sh of h i s ded icat ion to the a r t i s t ' s purpose i n A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t . He c losed h i s eyes i n the languor of s leep. His eye l id s trembled as i f they f e l t the vast c y c l i c movement of the earth and her watchers, trembled as i f they f e l t the strange l i g h t of some new wor ld. His soul was swooning in to some new world, f a n t a s t i c , dim, uncerta in as under sea, traversed by cloudy shapes and beings. A world, a glimmer, or a flower? Glimmering and trembling, trembling and unfo ld ing, a breaking l i g h t , an opening f lower, i t spread i n endless succession to i t s e l f . . . . The freedom of metaphor i s s im i l a r , the experience s i m i l a r l y i r r a t i o n a l and l i m i t l e s s , without any reference to time, space, or l o g i c . This tendency i n Br ian Moore's f i c t i o n , however, i s s l i gh t , and Ginger Co f fey ' s i s a rare experience. I t may have been what prompted one c r i t i c , wr i t i n g i n Canadian L i t e r a - ture shor t ly a f t e r the pub l i ca t i on of The Luck of Ginger Coffey, to r e f e r 21 to Moore as the " h e i r " of James Joyce. Though h i s f i c t i o n i s more of ten 20 (New York: Modern L ibrary , 1944), p. 200. 21 Jack Ludwig, "M i r ro r of Moore," Canadian L i t e r a tu re (Winter 1961), 23. ' -80-compared to Joyce ' s than to anyone e l s e ' s , the s i m i l a r i t i e s are mainly i n things other than the nature of the i r f i c t i o n a l worlds. Some of the ideas which can be abstracted from the i r f i c t i o n are s im i l a r , l i k e the idea that I r i s h soc iety i s paralysed and s t i f l i n g . Though Moore wr i tes of Be l fa s t rather than Dubl in, a great many de sc r i p t i ve s i m i l a r i t i e s i n se t t ing and custom are to be expected from the i r common n a t i o n a l i t y , l i k e the resemblances between the boarding house i n Joyce ' s story of that name and i n Jud i th Hearne. A number of Moore's characters have counter-parts i n Joyce ' s work. Brendan Tierney, i n h i s r o l e of nascent a r t i s t i s somehow re l a ted to Stephen ED.idalus; Diarmuid Devine might owe some-thing to both Leopold Bloom and James Duffy from "A Pa in fu l Case." Jud i th Hearne's v i s i t s to Professor O ' N e i l l ' s house have something i n common with Mar ia ' s evening out i n "C l ay , " but the i r s i gn i f i c ance i s a l together d i f f e r e n t . The s i m i l a r i t y seems strong only when they are considered outside the context of " the i r f i c t i o n a l worlds, as though they were i n -c idents r e c a l l e d from l i f e . The analogous s i tua t ions of the o ld maids might, i n f a c t , serve as examples of the e f f e c t the f i c t i o n a l world can have on the s i gn i f i c ance of d e s c r i p t i v e l y s im i l a r i n c i den t s . In add i t i on to i t s symbolic import, the Hallow Eve game reveals Mar ia ' s po s i t i on i n the household through the react ion that fo l lows her choice of the c lay : She f e l t a so f t wet substance with her f inger s and Was surpr i sed that nobody spoke or took o f f her bandage. There was a pause f o r a few seconds; and then a great deal of s c u f f l i n g and whisper ing. -81-Somebody said something about the garden, and at l a s t Mrs. Donnelly said something very cross to one of the next-door g i r l s and t o l d her to throw i t out at once: that was no play. Maria under-stood that i t was wrong that time and so she had to do i t over again: and this time she got the prayerbook. The youngsters are making game of the old lady, while the hostess p o l i t e l y t r i e s to chastise them and to protect Maria from t h e i r rudeness. This, among other things, i s clear though not only Maria's but the narrator's innocence i s maintained throughout. His irony i s never pointed. By comparison, i n the analogous s i t u a t i o n i n Judith Hearne, a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s made external and f i n i t e by the narrator's evaluation and the charac-ter's i n t e r n a l monologue. A f t e r Miss Hearne has r e c a l l e d an incident from the O'Neill boy's infancy, she sees her mistake: But they turned glowering faces at her, r e j e c t i n g the often heard story. Children do not l i k e to be reminded of th e i r baby days. Oh, I know that. Why did I put my foot i n i t ? Shaun got up off the rug and looked at the clock. "Holy smoke'. I t ' s past three. I t o l d Rory Lacey I'd be over at h i s house at three." His mother looked at him, her eyes cold to the falsehood. (p. 63) Hugo McPherson, i n the L i t e r a r y History of Canada, refers to " e f f e c t s borrowed from Joyce" i n Judith Hearne, but i t i s p r e c i s e l y the e f f e c t of 23 these two s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s which v a r i e s . Though there are such i s o -lated correspondences i n the work of Moore and Joyce, the difference i n 22 Dubliners (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963), p. 103. 23 " F i c t i o n 1940-1960," L i t e r a r y History of Canada, ed. C a r l F. Klinck et a l (University of Toronto Press, 1965), p. 718. -82-t h e i r manner of c reat ing a f i c t i o n a l world makes any s i m i l a r i t y i n over-a l l e f f e c t u n l i k e l y . Any c la im of resemblance would have to be confined to Joyce ' s e a r l i e r works, Dubl iners and A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t , and then the s i m i l a r i t i e s are more pronounced i n Moore's short s to r ie s than i n h i s novels . His story "Gr ieve f o r the Dear Departed," fo r example, comes nearer to creat ing a Joycean world than any of the nove ls . The con s t i t u t i on of Brian Moore's f i c t i o n a l worlds places him more c e n t r a l l y i n the h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of the novel than James Joyce. If the novel i s taken as p r imar i l y a form presenting man i n t e r a c t i n g with others, with the resu l tant emphasis on the s o c i a l form and moral sub-stance of h i s act ions , then the elements of most of Moore's f i c t i o n are we l l designed to serve the t r a d i t i o n a l ends of the nove l . The very p r i n -c i p l e s which uni fy h i s f i c t i o n in to an i l l u s i o n of the process of r e a l i t y — log i c , measurable space, c lock t ime—except f o r the i r s pec i a l i zed s c i en -t i f i c app l i ca t i on s , are conveniences of s o c i a l organ izat ion i n the broader sense of the term. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that even h i s a r t i s t , Brendan Tierney, has many moral and few aes thet i c preoccupations. He i s not, l i k e Stephen Daedalus, fa sc inated by words. He i s the a r t i s t as s o c i a l being rather than "as a young man." Brian Moore does s t r i v e , e spec i a l l y i n The Luck of Ginger Coffey, to represent man i n h i s more in t imate ly personal re l a t i on sh ip s to h i s god and to himself , but the elements which form the common bas is of h i s f i c t i o n a l worlds throw the greater emphasis on man as a conscious s o c i a l be ing. -83-Bibl iography I L i s t of Works by Br ian Moore Moore, Br ian. An Answer from Limbo. New York: D e l l , 1963. . The Feast of Luperca l . Boston: L i t t l e Brown, 1957 . ._ Jud i th Hearne. Toronto: McClel land and Stewart, 1964. . The Luck of Ginger Cof fey. New York: D e l l , 1962. . "Gr ieve fo r the Dear Departed," A t l a n t i c , CCIV (August 1959) , 43-46. • . " L i on of the Af ternoon, " A t l a n t i c , CC (November 1957), 79-83. . "Next Thing was Kansas C i t y , " A t l a n t i c , CCIII (Feb-ruary 1959), 77-79. . "Sassenach," A t l a n t i c , CXCIII (March 1957), 47-49. . "A Voca t ion , " The I r i s h Genius, ed. Devin A. G a r r i t y . New York: Signet, 1960, pp. 125-128. II L i s t of A r t i c l e s About Br ian Moore F u l f o r d , Robert. "Robert Fu l f o rd Interviews Brian Moore," Tamarack  Review (Spring 1962), 5-18. Hornyansky, M ichae l . "Countr ies of the Mind," Tamarack Review (Winter 1963), 58-68. Ludwig, Jack. "M i r ro r of Moore," Canadian L i t e ra tu re (Winter 1961), 18-23. . " F i c t i o n fo r the Majors , " Tamarack Review (Autumn 1960) , 65-71. -84-Moore, Br ian. "Housekeeping i n I re l and , " A t l a n t i c , CCX (November 1962), 118-123. . Let ter to the wr i te r , 13 A p r i l 1965. . "Monster F i s h i n g , " A t l a n t i c , CCVIII (July 1961), 117-118. Stedmond, John. " I n t roduc t i on , " Jud i th Hearne, by Br ian Moore. Toronto: McClel land and Stewart, 1964. Stobie, Margaret. "Novel Ch ron i c l e , " Tamarack Review (Summer 1957), 72-73. Tallman, Warren. " I r ishman's Luck," Canadian L i t e r a tu re (Autumn 1960), 69-70. Woodcock, George. "A.Close Shave," Canadian L i t e ra tu re (Spring 1963), 70-72. I l l L i s t of General Works Consulted Auerbach, E r i c h . "Odysseus' Scar, " Mimesis: The Representation of  Rea l i t y i n Western L i t e r a tu re , t rans. W i l l a rd Trask. New York: Anchor, 1957. Cook, A l b e r t . The Meaning of F i c t i o n . De t ro i t : Wayne Un ivers i ty Press, 1960. Ede l , Leon. The Modern Psycholog ica l Novel. New York: Gossel and Dunlap, 1964. For s ter , E. M. Aspects of the Novel. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963. Frye, Northrop. " H i s t o r i c a l C r i t i c i s m : Theory of Modes," Anatomy  of C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays. Pr inceton Un ivers i ty Press, 1957. . " Rhe to r i ca l C r i t i c i s m : Theory of Genres," Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays. Pr inceton Un ivers i ty Press, 1957. James, Henry. The Art of the Novel: C r i t i c a l Prefaces. New York: Scr ibners, 1937. -85-Lubbock, Percy. The Cra f t of F i c t i o n . New York: V ik ing , 1960. McPherson, Hugo. " F i c t i o n 1940-1960," L i t e r a r y History of Canada:  Canadian L i t e ra tu re i n Eng l i sh , General ed. Car l F. K l i nck . Un ivers i ty of Toronto Press, 1965. O'Connor, Wi l l iam Van, ed. Forms of Modern F i c t i o n : Essays Co l lected  i n Honor of Joseph Warren Beach. Bloomington: Indiana Un i -v e r s i t y Press, 1959. Pacey, Desmond. Creat ive Writ ing i n Canada: A Short History of  Engl ish-Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . Toronto: Ryerson, 1961. Scholes, Robert, ed. Approaches to the Novel: Mater ia l s fo r a Poet ic s . San Franc i sco: Chandler, 1961. -86-Appendix 1 2 2 0 0 Irede I I, S x u d l o C i t y . Cal A p r i l 1 3 , 1 9 6 5 . Dear R i c h a r d H . r r J s o n : F i r s t o f a l l , i n answer to y o u r l e t t e r , I d i d n o t p u b l i s h a n y t h i n g u n t i l I came to C a n a d a . S t o r i e s w h i c h m i q h t be o f i n t e r e s t t o you a p p e a r e d In t he f o l l o w i n g : A p a p e r b a c k c a l l e d THE 11? I SH GENIDUS ( an A m e r i c a n c o m p a n y ) e c U t e d , I t h i n k by D'XJSXKiKXiiXSH D ^ v i n - A d a i r , a New Y rk P ° b l i s h l n g c o m p a n y , c o n t a i n s a s t o r y o f mine c a l l e d l A V O C A T I O N / A n d o t h e r s t o r y w h i c h m i q h t be o f i n t e r e s t was c a l l e d UNCLE T and a p p e a r e d f i r s t i n a New Yo rk M a g a z i n e c a l l e d ^ -GENTLEMAN 'S QUARTERLY . ch,-%<\Cj 1•^•cA<L' I am s o r r y I c a n n o t be more p r e c i s e a b o u t t h e ' ^ s s u e s , b u t I am a t p r e s e n t t h r e e t h o u s a n d m i l e s f r o m my f i l e s and home b a s e and w i l l be h e r e t h r o u g h A u g u s t . I ' a m w r l t l n g an o r i g i n a l f i l m s c r i p t w i t h A j f r e d H i t c h c o c k . T n e F a s t o f L u p e r c a l was w r i t t e n a f t e r J u d i t h H e a r n e . J . H . was w r i t t e n , as I remember i n 1953-54 and I p e r c a l was w r i t t e n 5 5 - 5 6 -I f t h e r e a r e any o t h e r q u e s t i o n s I can h e l p you w i t h , you can f i n d me a t t h e a b o v e a d d r e s s . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104845/manifest

Comment

Related Items