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An evaluation of Perry's neighbourhood unit concept : a case study in the Renfrew Heights area of Vancouver,… Wang, Chi-Chang 1965

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AN EVALUATION OF PERRY'S NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT CONCEPT: A CASE STUDY I N THE RENFREW HEIGHTS AREA OF VANCOUVER, B.C.  by  CHI-CHANG WANG  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1965  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s requirements British freely  f o r an  Columbia, available  may  be  I agree  that  the L i b r a r y  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  study.  I further  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  t h e Head o f my  I t i s understood  that  copying  my  written  be  permission.  and  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date: A p r i l ,  1965.  Regional  Columbia,  of  Planning  or  agree  that  scholarly  Department  t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  o f Community  the  s h a l l make i t  of  Department  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  permission f o r extensive copying purposes  in partial  o r by  his  publication  allowed  without  i ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o attempt t o v a l i d a t e the pre-supposed h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t The a p p l i c a t i o n o f P e r r y ' s T  neighbourhood u n i t t h e o r y and i t s scheme i n Vancouver i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s p h y s i c a l a s p e c t and i s n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n its social  aspect'. The  study program i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t s t e p s :  1.  Reviewing the h i s t o r i c a l aspect of Perry's theory.  2.  D e s c r i b i n g P e r r y ' s t h e o r y and i t s scheme and d e f i n i n g i t s goal.  3.  Summarizing t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n .  4«  E x a m i n i n g t h e main c r i t i c i s m s o f P e r r y ' s t h e o r y .  5.  A n a l y z i n g and e v a l u a t i n g P e r r y ' s t h e o r y i n d e t a i l .  6.  S u r v e y i n g t h e Renfrew H e i g h t s a r e a i n Vancouver, B.C.  7.  I n d u c t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e survey f i n d i n g s .  S.  From t h e f i n d i n g s , e v a l u a t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s . Through t h i s program, t h e f i r s t f i v e s t e p s have  h e l p e d t h e w r i t e r t o have a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g theory.  of Perry's  From t h e f i n a l t h r e e s t e p s i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e  hypothesis i s v a l i d . From t h e whole study i t i s concluded t h a t P e r r y ' s neighbourhood u n i t t h e o r y and i t s scheme a r e s t i l l  useful.  The b a s i s f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s n o t because o f t h e g o a l o f P e r r y ' s t h e o r y , b u t because t h e t h e o r y p r o v i d e s maximum p o s s i b l e  ii facilities  i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area with  character.  F i n a l l y i t i s concluded  application  of a theory  application  does not  i t sself-contained  t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l  is critical,  reduce the value  and  the f a i l u r e of i t s  of the  theory.  iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS F o r encouragement, guidance and f o r h e l p i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I would l i k e t o acknowledge g r a t e f u l  indebtedness  to the f o l l o w i n g : To Mr. W.E. Graham, P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , o f Vancouver C i t y , f o r h i s i n t e l l i g e n t a n a l y s i s and v a l u a b l e  experience  t h r o u g h which I o b t a i n e d some i n s i g h t i n t o P e r r y ' s Neighbourhood theory; To Mr. B. Wiesman, A s s i s t a n t P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , A s s i s t a n t P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r o f Vancouver C i t y , f o r h i s guidance i n the c o l l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l ; To Mr. J.B. C h a s t e r , P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , because o f h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f P e r r y ' s neighbourhood t h e o r y i n Vancouver, I f o u n d t h e most s u i t a b l e survey a r e a - Renfrew H e i g h t s ; To D r . L.C. Marsh, P r o f e s s o r o f S o c i a l Work, f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s on r e a d i n g ; To D r . H.P. O b e r l a n d e r ,  Head o f t h e Community and  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Program, f o r h i s encouragement; To D r . K . J . C r o s s , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f t h e Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Program, f o r h i s s y m p a t h e t i c ,  detailed,  and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f every p a r t o f t h i s work;  iv  To D r . financial British  help  A.  Fong, a good f r i e n d  o f my  last  year  of  o f mine, f o r  study  i n the  her  U n i v e r s i t y of  Columbia; To M r s .  E.S.  H a r r i e s f o r s m o o t h i n g my  English,  and  typing i t ; And her  lastly,  patience with  my  to Mrs. long  T.H.  C h i a n g Wang, my  absence.  wife,  for  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Abstract  i  Acknowledgments  i i i  CHAPTER I.  II.  THE NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT CONCEPT Introduction  1  A.  P e r r y ' s Neighbourhood U n i t Concept  4  B.  V a r i a t i o n s on t h e Theme o f t h e U n i t  7  C.  A Review o f C r i t i c i s m o f P e r r y ' s Theory  1$  D.  The Program o f t h e T h e s i s  23  AN ANALYSIS OF PERRY'S NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT AND ITS THEME  25  Introduction  25  A.  S t r e e t System  29  B.  Residence  30  C.  Church  32  D.  Shopping C e n t e r  33  E.  Recreational F a c i l i t i e s  34  F.  School  39  G.  P e o p l e and Environment  45  Conclusion III.  1  4<3  NEIGHBOURHOOD SURVEY OF THE RENFREW HEIGHTS AREA OF VANCOUVER, B.C  50  Introduction  50  A.  51  The Reasons f o r t h i s Survey  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  PAGE The Neighbourhood U n i t as seen by C l a r e n c e A. Ferry  2.  6  L i n k a g e Diagram o f CBD and S u r r o u n d i n g Neighbourhoods  26  3.  L i n k a g e Diagram o f a Neighbourhood*s F u n c t i o n s  4«  The Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a v e l Time t o Work f o r t h e P e o p l e o f t h e Renfrew Neighbourhood  5.  The Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  ....  2$  60  and T r a v e l Time t o  Shopping F a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e People o f t h e Renfrew Neighbourhood 6.  The Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  6l and T r a v e l Time t o  R e c r e a t i o n a l A r e a s f o r t h e People o f Renfrew Neighbourhood 7.  62  T r a v e l Times t o S c h o o l f o r t h e Student o f t h e Renfrew Neighbourhood  S.  65  The T r a v e l Time t o Church f o r t h e P e o p l e o f Renfrew Neighbourhood  9-  The T r a v e l l i n g Time f o r P e o p l e V i s i t i n g  66 Renfrew  Neighbourhood 10.  The T r a v e l Time t o L o c a l S t o r e s f o r t h e P e o p l e o f Renfrew Neighbourhood  11.  68  69a  The Frequency w i t h which t h e P e o p l e o f Renfrew Neighbourhood Use t h e i r L o c a l P a r k  71  CHAPTER  PAGE B.  The P l a n n i n g o f t h i s Survey  52  C.  The Renfrew H e i g h t s Community  54  D.  The F i n d i n g s and t h e i r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  57  E.  The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Survey F i n d i n g s i n R e l a t i o n t o the Hypothesis  IV.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  75 77  A.  Summary  77  B.  Conclusion  Si  APPENDICES 1.  MAP 1  '.".2'. MAP :  3.  -4.  37  2  S3  MAP 3  39  The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  90  BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION  93 114  FIGURE 12.  PAGE The R e l a t i o n s h i p  between  T r a v e l Time a n d t h e  Number o f S o c i a l V i s i t s People 13  o f Renfrew  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Visits  p e r Month f o r t h e 72  Neighbourhood  between  t h e Number o f S o c i a l  p e r Month and t h e I n t e n s i t y o f  Friendship  73  or Kinship  L I S T OF MAPS MAP 1.  Location  2.  The L a n d Use o f Renfrew  3•  S u r v e y Map o f Renfrew  o f Renfrew  Neighbourhood,  V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  Neighbourhood  o f Vancouver  Neighbourhood o f Vancouver  &7 88 89  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE 1.  Recreational  A c r e a g e and P o p u l a t i o n  Neighbourhood  of a 57  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  At  first  restricted  the concept of the neighbourhood  t o mean a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h no  and p o l i t i c a l m e a n i n g . emerged,  certain  Webster's "people long  As t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e  defining  S e v e n t h New  enough t o become w e l l  structure, economic  but  Dictionary  another."^  appear.  lived  o t h e r i n many ways.  They  economic,  d e f i n e s i t as  When p e o p l e l i v e t o g e t h e r  T h e r e was  at f i r s t  community  no  political  characteristics  and p h y s i c a l l e v e l s were e v i d e n t .  P e o p l e who  social,  neighbourhood  acquainted, certain  certain unifying  n e i g h b o u r s were f r i e n d s ,  was  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s became a p p a r e n t .  Collegiate  l i v i n g n e a r one  characteristics  special  unit  relatives,  For  on t h e  example,  or business associates.  i n a neighbourhood b e n e f i t e d borrowed  social,  or l e n t  tools  and  each labour,  and h e l p e d e a c h o t h e r i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s ;  people gathered  t o g e t h e r a f t e r work t o d r i n k ,  o r p l a y games w i t h  each  e a t , dance,  other.  The numerous and  origins  of the neighbourhood  complex,  unit  c o n c e p t were  b u t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f some o f t h e t h r e a d s  W e b s t e r s S e v e n t h New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . G. and M e r r i a m Company, S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass., U.S.A., 1 9 6 3 , p . 5 6 6 . T  C.  2  which were woven i n t o the f i n a l concept have been recorded, evidences of others can be detected.  and  Clarence Perry, the  o r i g i n a t o r of the concept i n i t s c l a s s i c a l form, gives c r e d i t to three sources which have i n f l u e n c e d him.^  F i r s t , there  was  the community centre movement: second, he had f i r s t hand experience of l i v i n g i n a s u c c e s s f u l neighbourhood--Forest  Hills  Gardens i n the Borough of Queens, New York C i t y ; and l a s t ,  he  was i n f l u e n c e d by urban s o c i o l o g i s t s such as Charles Horton Cooley.  The general idea of neighbourhoods was and i s i n f l u e n c e d  by s o c i o l o g i s t s * impressions of the ethnic settlements i n c e r t a i n American c i t i e s , and by t h e i r knowledge of community l i f e i n many of the older c i t i e s i n other p a r t s of the world.3 The Community Centre Movement o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Toynbee H a l l , which was organized i n 13&5  by Canon Barnett and h i s  a s s o c i a t e s i n the East End of London.  I t s purpose was to provide  a place where the i n h a b i t a n t s could meet f o r r e c r e a t i o n , education and f o r general s o c i a l o u t l e t s .  In 1909, Perry set  ^ Clarence Arthur Perry, Housing f o r the Machine Age, New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1939, ch. 9« 3 Charles Horton Cooley, S o c i a l Organization, New S c r i b n e r ' s , 1920. p. 20.  York,  ^ J.A.R. P i m l o t t , Toynbee H a l l - 50 Years of S o c i a l Progress, London, Dent, 1935*  3 out  to investigate activities  being  carried  York.  Perry,  preparations its  environs.  Forest  on i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  The movement f i n a l l y  I n 1922  Hills  the  o f Toynbee  s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s i n New  w o r k i n g f o r t h e R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n ,  f o rh i s part  Hall  r e c e i v e d i t s name i n R o c h e s t e r . ^  of the Regional  Plan  began  o f New Y o r k and  H i s s o l u t i o n was i n s p i r e d by h i s e x p e r i e n c e s a t Gardens.  For the s o c i o l o g i c a l concept,  s i m i l a r t o those  aspects  of the neighbourhood  P e r r y was v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by C o o l e y ' s  i n t i m a t e , f a c e - t o - f a c e community.  Cooley  theory of  has s t a t e d :  By p r i m a r y g r o u p s I mean t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i n t i m a t e f a c e - t o - f a c e a s s o c i a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n . They a r e p r i m a r y i n s e v e r a l senses, b u t c h i e f l y i n that they are fundamental i n forming the s o c i a l n a t u r e and i d e a s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The r e s u l t o f intimate association, psychologically, i s a certain f u s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s i n a common w h o l e , so t h a t one's v e r y s e l f , f o r many p u r p o s e s a t l e a s t , i s t h e common l i f e and p u r p o s e o f t h e g r o u p . Perhaps the s i m p l e s t way o f d e s c r i b i n g t h i s w h o l e n e s s i s by s a y i n g t h a t i t i s a 'we', i t i n v o l v e s t h e s o r t o f sympathy and m u t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r w h i c h 'we' i s t h e n a t u r a l expression. One l i v e s i n t h e f e e l i n g o f t h e whole and f i n d s t h e c h i e f aim o f h i s w i l l i n t h a t f e e l i n g . 0  5  Perry,  ojo. c i t . , Ch. 9«  Charles Horton Cooley, S c r i b n e r ' s , 1920, p . 2 3 . D  Social  Organization,  New  York,  4 Cooley  and the s o c i o l o g i s t s o f the pre-war days had found t h a t  urban l i v i n g seemed t o l a c k the n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s o f r u r a l T h i s l a c k o f n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s , they concluded,  was  life.  one o f the  major u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f urban l i v i n g . A.  PERRY S NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT CONCEPT T  Based upon C o o l e y s f  theory, Perry evolved h i s  neighbour-  hood u n i t t h e o r y w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d i n h i s book Housing f o r the Machine Age J  The  neighbourhood u n i t , a scheme t o f o s t e r the  f a m i l y l i f e o f the.community, was  a c t u a l l y f i r s t described i n  one o f t h r e e monographs t h a t made up volume 7!  "Neighbourhood  and Community P l a n n i n g " i n the R e g i o n a l Survey o f New i t s E n v i r o n s , w h i c h was w r i t t e n by C A . 1929*'  I n Housing f o r the Machine Age,  t h e o r y and l i s t e d  York  and  P e r r y and p u b l i s h e d i n P e r r y developed  his  s i x p r i n c i p l e s which are as f o l l o w s :  1. S i z e : A r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t development should p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r t h a t p o p u l a t i o n f o r which one elementary s c h o o l i s o r d i n a r i l y r e q u i r e d , i t s a c t u a l a r e a depending upon i t s p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . 2. Boundaries: The u n i t s h o u l d be bounded on a l l s i d e s by a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , s u f f i c i e n t l y wide t o f a c i l i t a t e i t s b y p a s s i n g , i n s t e a d of p e n e t r a t i o n , by through traffic. 3. Open Spaces: A system o f s m a l l p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n spaces, planned t o meet the needs of the p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood, s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d .  P e r r y , OJD. c i t . , pp.  51-52.  5 4. I n s t i t u t i o n S i t e s : S i t e s f o r t h e s c h o o l and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v i n g s e r v i c e spheres c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e l i m i t s o f t h e u n i t s h o u l d be s u i t a b l y grouped about a c e n t e r point., o r common. 5. L o c a l Shops: One o r more shopping d i s t r i c t s adequate f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o be s e r v e d , s h o u l d be l a i d out i n the c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f t h e u n i t , p r e f e r a b l y a t t r a f f i c j u n c t i o n s and a d j a c e n t t o s i m i l a r d i s t r i c t s o f a d j o i n i n g neighbourhoods. 6. I n t e r n a l S t r e e t System: The u n i t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h a s p e c i a l s t r e e t system, each highway b e i n g p r o p o r t i o n a l t o i t s p r o b a b l e t r a f f i c l o a d , and t h e s t r e e t as a whole b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e u n i t and t o d i s c o u r a g e i t s use by t h r o u g h traffic.® (For i l l u s t r a t i o n see Diagram I , p. 6) W i t h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s P e r r y b e l i e v e d t h a t a neighbourhood community i>n which t h e fundamental needs o f f a m i l y l i f e would be met more c o m p l e t e l y t h a n t h e y were by t h e u s u a l r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s i n c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s would d e v e l o p .  I n t h e s e schemes,  the neighbourhood was r e g a r d e d b o t h as a u n i t o f a l a r g e r whole and  as an e n t i t y . ^ The  neighbourhood u n i t p r i n c i p l e proposed a c i t y whose  r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were p l e a s a n t ;  healthy,  w i t h adequate open  space and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; s a f e , i n a m o t o r - c a r age, w i t h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f dangerous t h r o u g h t r a f f i c ; self-contained, with  °  Perry,  9  Ibid.  locally  shops, and s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s ;  CJD. c i t . , pp. 51-52.  6  •VELA IN OPEN DEVELOPMENT. PREFERABLY 160 ACRES" m AMY C A S E IT 5H0ULD  MOUSE ENOUGH PEOPLE TO REQUIRE ONE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL • EXACT SHAPE NOT ESSENTIAL BUT BEST WHEN ALL SIDES ARE FAIRLY EQUIDISTANT FROM CENTER:  A SHOPPING- DfSTPJCT MIGHT BE SUBSTITUTED FOR.CHURCH SITE  SHOPPING- DISTRICTS IN PERIPHERY AT TRAFFIC JUNCTIONS AND PREFERABLY BUNCHEP JN FORM  kTEN PERCE OF A RE. A TO RECREATION  AND PARIC5PACE.  INTERIOR STREETS NOT WIDER. THAN REQUIRED FOR SPECIFIC USE AND GIVING EASY ACCESS TO SHOPS AND COMMUNITY CENTER, ^ y  STREET  TRAFFIC JUNCTION  Reproduced from New York Regional Plan Volume 7. Fi'gxira- 1. The Neighbourhood Unit as seen by Clarence A. Perry.  7 and  identifiable,  definition  both through  i n n e r c o h e s i o n , and the  o f precise boundaries.  neighbourhood  unit  . The  basic  function  was t o p r o v i d e a p h y s i c a l  o f the  environment  which would r e g e n e r a t e and m a i n t a i n primary, f a c e - t o - f a c e social  c o n t a c t s and a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the  city.  I n 1947> James D a h i r d e f i n e d , t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d based  on P e r r y ' s c o n c e p t ,  unit,  as follows:,  One o f t h e most p l e a s a n t m e m o r i e s o l d t i m e r s have i s o f t h e f r i e n d l y community s p i r i t t h a t u s e d t o be so s t r o n g y e a r s ago. T h i s p l a n aims t o c o n f i r m a n d r e c r e a t e t h a t c o n g e n i a l f e e l i n g i n modern g a r b , t h r o u g h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e town i n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d units o f 1500 f a m i l i e s (5000 p e o p l e ) e a c h . By l i v i n g i n a compact community e n v i r o n m e n t , c h i l d r e n w i l l d e v e l o p a sense o f s e c u r i t y and b e l o n g i n g , w h i l e a d u l t s w i l l f e e l themselves c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a p e r s o n a l social unit. W i t h Framingham g r o w i n g i n t o a l a r g e r more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d community, t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d unit w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e c u r i t y and p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l c i t i z e n s i n community l i f e . - 1  P e r r y ' s neighbourhood as a m a i n theme upon w h i c h variations.  The c o n c e p t  innumerable  permutations. B.  The  city  concept might  be r e g a r d e d  p l a n n e r s have e l a b o r a t e d many  h a s been t h e b a s i c  substance o f  VARIATIONS ON THE THEME OF THE UNIT  Classically of a r e s i d e n t i a l  unit  0  d e f i n e d , the neighbourhood  area's  size,  boundaries,  open  unit  consists  spaces,  1° James D a h i r , The N e i g h b o u r h o o d U n i t P l a n , New Y o r k , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1947, p . 5*  8 institution As a u n i t ,  sites,  local  shops and an i n t e r n a l  i t i s complete  and p r e c i s e .  street  system.  Unfortunately,  similar  p r e c i s i o n was n o t t o be f o u n d i n P e r r y ' s i d e a s a b o u t t h e neighbourhood u n i t ' s town's c e n t r e . to  state  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other u n i t s  I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s , he was c o n t e n t  the principle  considered  and t h e  an e n t i t y ,  whole o f t h e c i t y .  that  e a c h n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t was t o be  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e p a r t  The h i e r a r c h i c a l  s y s t e m he p u t f o r w a r d was  thus: r e s i d e n c e : neighbourhood: c i t y . formulation of the idea,  of the great  Since Perry's  t h e r e have b e e n  a large  original  number o f  s u g g e s t e d v a r i a t i o n s d e v e l o p i n g t h e theme o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d unit.  Some o f t h e s e were c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e u n i t  particularly location of  i t s size,  o f shops.  itself,  t h e n a t u r e o f i t s b o u n d a r i e s , and t h e  O t h e r s have been  concerned w i t h t h e system  r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n n e i g h b o u r h o o d a n d town, a n d have  suggested m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the h i e r a r c h y understanding o f the neighbourhood u n i t review t h e d i f f e r e n t  Clarence theories,  of units.  For a  full  i t i s necessary to  developments.  Stein,  made c e r t a i n  a pioneer i n the application o f Perry's important extensions t o the idea.  i n c r e a s e d t h e number o f s t e p s i n t h e h i e r a r c h y ,  advocating  He small  neighbourhoods, groups o f neighbourhoods o r d i s t r i c t s  (supporting  such l a r g e - s c a l e  centres  which might  facilities  l i e beyond  a s h o s p i t a l s and c u l t u r a l  t h e scope o f i n d i v i d u a l  neighbourhoods)  9 u n i t i n g t o form the c i t y .  He a l s o extended the  beyond t h e c i t y i n t o the r e g i o n .  hierarchy  A more r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e  from P e r r y was found i n S t e i n ' s uncompleted p l a n o f Radburn, i n which t h e r e are t h r e e o v e r l a p p i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  The  p r a c t i c a l S t e i n saw i n t h i s s u g g e s t i o n a g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y planning, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to future  development  The t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s were i m p o r t a n t ,  schemes.  however, because  the emphasis changed from the boundary (no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d the i n v i o l a b l e b a r r i e r )  t o t h e core o f the  house,  as  neighbourhood.  Walter Gropius, i n h i s investigations into houses,  in  as at T o e r t o n - D e s s a u , developed t h e o r g a n i c  standardized series:  s t r e e t , n e i g h b o u r h o o d , town; and i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s  tall  apartment b l o c k , the p a r a l l e l s e r i e s : d w e l l i n g ,  apartment b l o c k  (or ' s u p e r h o u s e h o l d ' ) ,  .The s t e p  neighbourhood and t o w n .  inter-  mediate between d w e l l i n g u n i t and neighbourhood arose out o f G r o p i u s ' concept o f the changing r o l e o f the f a m i l y i n German s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s g r e a t e r s t r e s s on the i n d i v i d u a l on the hand, and on the l a r g e n o n - k i n s h i p community groups on the W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r m e d i a t e  other.  s t a g e , G r o p i u s ' i d e a was  C l a r e n c e S t e i n , Towards New Towns f o r A m e r i c a , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957* p . 31« 12  one  Liverpool  W a l t e r G r o p i u s , Die S o c i o l o g i s c h e n Grundlagen der M i n i m a l Wohnung, D i e F u s t i g , 1930*  10 very  c l o s e to the neighbourhood u n i t  unknown t o him, America, theory,  he  in America.1/hen  identified  s t r e s s e d the  himself with  and  hood u n i t ,  precinct,  suggested  the  had  shops and  main r o a d s to  been t h e  districts'.  p o p u l a t i o n s o f f r o m 6000-S000  schools,  the  polated city.  by  social  social neighbour-  U.S.S.R. a d e c i s i v e  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  people,  facilities,  n e i g h b o u r h o o d unit.-*-5  T h i s was  d w e l l i n g and  to  unit  and and  T h e r e was  were e q u i p p e d  were a p p a r e n t l y a larger unit  residential  district,  which with  were s e p a r a t e d  s c a l e between the m i c r o - d i s t r i c t s termed the  residential  These m i c r o - d i s t r i c t s ,  s t r e t c h e s of greenery,  i n the  neighbourhood  s a i d that i n the  change i n town p l a n n i n g had 'micro  himself migrated  the  series:  developed,  city.-^  Georgi Minervin  called  he  as  sequence of development f o r  viability,  areas  concept  from similar  inter-  and  the  total  and  was  a group  * S e i g f r i e d G i e d i o n , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o S e r t ' s , Can Our C i t i e s S u r v i v e ? , C a m b r i d g e , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942, r e p o r t s t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f t h e t h i r d c o n g r e s s o f CIAM i n B r u s s e l s (1930) on "How t o o r g a n i z e whole groups o f d w e l l i n g s i n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t s " and names G r o p i u s as one o f t h e principal lecturers. F o r a f u l l e x p o s i t i o n o f G r o p i u s ' v i e w p o i n t see h i s R e b u i l d i n g Our C o m m u n i t i e s , C h i c a g o , P a u l T h e o b a l d and C o l , 1945* See a l s o t h e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e o r g a n i c n a t u r e o f G r o p i u s ' town p l a n n i n g . 15 Georgi M i n e r v i n , "Recent Developments i n S o v i e t A r c h i t e c t u r e " , P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e , June 1961, pp. 1 7 2 - 7 3 •  11 or  cluster  comprising Russian  plan.  or f o u r m i c r o - d i s t r i c t s with  major c u l t u r a l  town p l a n n i n g ,  idential city.  of three  the  sports f a c i l i t i e s .  series  (was  buildings, micro-district,  Even  centre Thus i n  postulated)  residential  s m a l l towns were a l r e a d y  adopting  of.res-  district  a  and  nucleated  1 6  i n 1943,  In South A f r i c a , was  and  a  put  forward  School.  This  u n i t was  t o be  I t was housing unit. school,  by  an  the Witwatersrand  scheme p r o p o s e d t h e a  'housing  unit',  advanced r e p l a n n i n g  University Architectural  f o l l o w i n g systems b a s e d upon an  t o have a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y units, The  p l u s a community  combination  provided  the  o f two  next  transportation routes, with  i n the  centre,  c o n s t i t u t e d the  metropolitan  area. '' 1  the  the  largest  basic school.  2600 p e r s o n s .  Two  c e n t r e , formed a neighbourhood  town.  centre,  Towns l i n k e d by  i n the  high unit.  i n d u s t r i e s and  added f a c i l i t i e s unit  plus a  s c a l e , a community  F o u r s u c h community u n i t s p l u s a c i v i c a g r i c u l t u r a l h o l d i n g s made up  The  elementary  neighbourhood u n i t s ,  step  scheme  major  of a r e g i o n a l  hierarchy,  the  7  T h e v i l l a g e " i l l u s t r a t e d i n A r c h i t e c t u r e USSR, 11, 1961, p . 31 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s f i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f some 1500-2000 p o p u l a t i o n e a c h g r o u p e d a r o u n d a town c e n t r e w i t h f u l l s o c i a l facilities. l D  the  •^The r e p o r t on t h e e x h i b i t i o n ' R e b u i l d i n g S o u t h A f r i c a ' i n S o u t h A f r i c a n A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , September and O c t o b e r ,  1943.  12 I n t h e same y e a r , Forshaw the  County  Plan.  They  brought out  suggested a neighbourhood  o f 6000-10,000 p e o p l e , b a s e d on t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ,  unit the  o f London  and A b e r c r o m b i e  minimum u n i t  were t o be  These neighbourhood  r e g a r d e d as s u b - u n i t s o f l a r g e r  communities. Abercrombie regional  f o r redevelopment.  I n t h e G r e a t e r London expanded  level,  the basic  contain  one  buildings  became t h e  community,  E a c h community  o r more n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t s ,  and open  called  In planning at the  planning unit  with a p o p u l a t i o n of perhaps 60,000.  units  of the next year,^9  Plan  upon t h i s i d e a .  units,  as  would  together with those  s p a c e s w h i c h w o u l d make i t l a r g e l y  contained.  E a c h community w o u l d have  o f i t s own,  y e t i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y w o u l d be i n harmony w i t h t h e  complex  form, l i f e  and a c t i v i t i e s  Gibberd,^ p o p u l a t i o n o f about  Ibid.,  p.  of the region  character  as a  whole.^0  of a  5000, r e l a t e d t o t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ,  ! 9 p t r i c k Abercrombie, H.M.S.O., 19452 0  and a  a c c e p t i n g a neighbourhood u n i t  F o r s h a w and A b e r c r o m b i e , M a c M i l l a n and Co., 1943. a  a life  self-  County  o f London  G r e a t e r London  Plan,  P l a n 1944,  London, London,  113.  ^ F r e d e r i c k G i b b e r d , Town D e s i g n , L o n d o n , Press, 1953.  was  Architectural  concerned He  with v a r i a t i o n s  achieved  designs,  a small-scale unit  as i n H a r l o w .  the neighbourhood facilities required cluster oould  such  His  as  libraries  reasonably  support  similar  cluster  h e a l t h c e n t r e s would  had  a single,  The .new  official  British  In the  New  on t h e  perimeter,  peripheral  neighbourhood.  found  i n the  o f the  p.  213*  heart  w i t h i n the u n i t ,  suggested. examples,  were a r t e r i a l  i n the  been  neighbourthe  a n a l y s i s o f New  neighbourhoods appeared i n t h r e e  British  Perry's boundaries  T  Town  roads,  of the u n i t .  and  boundaries.  and  open  space  The  ideal  size  and  aspects. .  P u b l i c open s p a c e s  a c t i n g as  2 2  British  t h a t d i v e r g e n c i e s between P e r r y ' s  as P e r r y  i n the  Ibid.,  small  application  t o be  A  w h i c h would, i n  towns, as a g r o u p , have  Anthony G o s s  Towns, s h o p s t e n d e d  concentrated  be  I n most r e s p e c t s , P e r r y ' s f o r m u l a t i o n o f  neighbourhoods i n d i c a t e d  was  a p o p u l a t i o n o f 15,000,  s y s t e m m i g h t be  been f o l l o w e d .  various  town c e n t r e .  extra f a c i l i t i e s ,  c o n s i s t e n t examples o f t h e  hood t h e o r y .  groups of  large-scale unit  as w e l l as i n the  argument, u n b a l a n c e  Town o f G l e n r o t h e s .  t h e most  the  and  such  series.  a r g u e d t h a t , i n a l a r g e town,  of three neighbourhoods, with  A  theory  He  ends o f t h e  i n h i s housing  answer t o t h e  cluster.  i n o u t l y i n g areas,  Gibberd's  New  i n s c a l e at both  was —  not became  a l t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s t h e one New  Towns, t o be  adopted —  an a r b i t r a r y  would  appear, i n the  10,000: t h i s d i d n o t r e l a t e  to  a s i n g l e p r i m a r y s c h o o l as i n P e r r y ' s f o r m u l a . ^ Henry  Churchill's  sociologically-oriented  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n two  units,  and t h e  'school u n i t ' .  family,  s o c i a l neighbourhood,  n e i g h b o u r h o o d was  Churchill's ideal bourhoods.  'neighbourhood'  established  school unit  and  the  series:  city.  The  as a s m a l l a r e a o f a f a i r l y  a neighbourhood f e e l i n g .  planning unit,  The  comprised s e v e r a l  and w o u l d be  city,  ultimate unit,  social neighsubdivision  co-terminous with the school,  census, h e a l t h  social  school  I t connected w i t h the smallest p o l i t i c a l  of the c i t y , police,  His theory  defined  nature which f o s t e r e d  the s o c i a l  theory^4  and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  voting,  sub-  d i v i s i o n s o f t h e town. The a full  Chicago P l a n Commission's  pattern of c i t y  development  grouped neighbourhoods. comprised  o f 514  related  I t was and  R e p o r t o f 1946^5 c o n t a i n e d  b a s e d on n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  suggested that  the c i t y  be  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d neighbourhoods,  -'Anthony G o s s , " N e i g h b o u r h o o d Town P l a n n i n g Review, A p r i l 1961.  Units i n B r i t i s h  New  ^ H e n r y S. C h u r c h i l l , The C i t y i s t h e P e o p l e . New R e y n a l and H i t c h c o c k , 1945, c i t e d i n D a h i r , op. c i t . , 2  and  and  Towns",  York, p . 35*  ^ P r e l i m i n a r y Comprehensive C i t y P l a n o f C h i c a g o , Chicago P l a n Commission, 1946. I n f o r m a t i o n i n D a h i r , op. c i t . , p .  59  communities.  square The  mile  i n area,  suggested  n e e d s o f an  The  but  elementary  area f o r a high  t h i s was  a  and  The  community was  community,  industrial  'well-balanced'  quarter density.  4*000-12,000, r e l a t e d t o t h e  45,000 t o 90,000 p e o p l e , The  a  v a r i e d w i t h the  from  school.  school.  cultural  constituting  ' n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' was  p o p u l a t i o n was  neighbourhoods, of  social,  typical  and  a cluster  was  the  of  service  complete w i t h a l l  ancillaries, small c i t y .  was  regarded  A linked  as  network  26 of  the  59  c o m m u n i t i e s made up  The  as  a whole.  P l a n was  similar  i n some r e s p e c t s t o  Chicago  P l a n of the p r e v i o u s  year, ?  but  further  step to the  b a s e d on  Detroit  Chicago  the  elementary  bourhood u n i t s , branch  series,  library  2  s c h o o l , a minor group o f f o u r  b a s e d on facilities  an  intermediate  and  units provided  f o r a population of  advocate  of the  a minor c i v i c  cellular  school area,  supermarket  community o f 7-10  with  added  one  w h i c h became a n e i g h b o u r h o o d  major group o r  were e q u i p p e d  Detroit  the  theory  shopping,  neighwith  and  neighbourhood u n i t s .  unit,  a These  75,000-100,000 p e r s o n s ,  centre.  Eliel  Saarinen,  o f town p l a n n i n g ,  and an  submitted  ^ G i l b e r t H e r b e r t , The N e i g h b o u r h o o d U n i t P r i n c i p l e and O r g a n i c T h e o r y , The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 11, no. 2, New S e r i e s J u l y 1963, U n i v e r s i t y o f K e e l e , p. 176. ? T h e D e t r o i t C i t y P l a n Commission, D a h i r , ojo. c i t . , pp. 59-60. 2  1945*  Information  in  16 alternative  plans  b a s i c u n i t o f 200 related  city  settlement  and  block  u n i t on  an  levels.^  industrial  t o meet t h e large  gridiron  entirely  limited  areas,  and  s y s t e m be  different  i n area to  be  densities). social  and  the  institutions. organic  But  i t should  T  radius  housing,  w o u l d be  life,  cultural,  a l s o be  small  i n t e n t i o n that these  i n v a r i o u s ways.  The  % ) a h i r ,op.  c i t . , p.  basic  unit i t s e l f  new  of  commercial (and  large  hence enough  individual,  and  and  a  settle-  large  enough  hygienic  enough t o p r e s e r v e  t h a t democracy might p r e v a i l  a combination o f u n i t s would  29  This  p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s . ^  Hilberseimer s  2  scale.  requirements of the  communal,  the  r e p l a c e d by  a walking  I t s population  community l i f e , . s o  individual  combined  necessary  Hilberseimer,  of v a r y i n g p o p u l a t i o n s  personal  or  suggested that  enough t o o f f e r v a r i e t y i n work and  support  Paul  Ludwig  town p l a n n i n g ,  of the  initial  i n c l u s t e r s which i n t u r n  minutes, would c o n s i s t of balanced  of d i f f e r e n t  to  school  of organic  ment u n i t w o u l d be 15-20  homes, o r g a n i z e d  to different  another apostle archaic  f o r D e t r o i t b a s e d upon a s m a l l  i t  settlement was  a  and  each  was  units  simple  be  community,  c o n s t i t u t e a complex community,  60.  L u d w i g H i l b e r s e i m e r , The N a t u r e o f C i t i e s , T h e o b a l d and Co., 1955, p. 193-  an  Chicago,  and  17  an aggregation of these communities, complex or simple, would create a d i v e r s i f i e d c i t y f u l l y equipped w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , educational and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . 3 ^ The term 'unit of settlement* was also used by Herry and P e r t z o f f . 31 This u n i t ( r e f e r r e d to a l t e r n a t i v e l y as a ' r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t ' ) housed from 500-2,000 f a m i l i e s , or 8,000-20,000 people. I t was made up of a combination of smaller u n i t s or 'neighbourhoods' of 30-60 f a m i l i e s each.  These terms are confusing,  because the s i z e of the r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t (800 persons) i s approximately that of a neighbourhood as g e n e r a l l y conceived. However, the system i t s e l f i s c l e a r .  "A f l e x i b l e system i s  postulated, with neighbourhood boundaries f l u i d and overlapping, to r e f l e c t and accommodate a s o c i a l system which i n i t s e l f  was  constantly changing."32 A l l these d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s only i n v o l v e d departures i n d e t a i l s from Perry's f o r m u l a t i o n .  Such departures concen-  t r a t e d on the planning of schools which arose from t e c h n i c a l planning d i f f i c u l t i e s , and not from d o c t r i n a i r e o p p o s i t i o n to  3°Hilberseimer, Nature of C i t i e s , p.  216.  3 1 rman Herry, Constantin P e r t z o f f , and Erna Herry, "An Organic Theory of C i t y Planning, " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, A p r i l 1944, pp. 1 3 3 - 5 . H e  32  H e  rbert,op_. c i t . , p.  177.  Perry's theory.  A fundamental divergence from Perry i s noted  when sub-units were introduced i n t o the neighbourhood concept. This divergence happened when the metropolitan area grew t o a certain size.  The hierarchy of the r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t w i t h i n a  m u n i c i p a l i t y needed a bigger u n i t .  S t e i n ' s d i s t r i c t , the  r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t i n the USSR, the community u n i t both i n South A f r i c a and London, and Gibberd's c l u s t e r , a l l were organized from three or four neighbourhoods.  However, adding a l a r g e r  sub-unit t o the top neighbourhood s e r i e s d i d not a f f e c t or change the basic concept of Perry's neighbourhood; and although h i s neighbourhood concept has been adopted w i t h varying modi f i c a t i o n s i n many parts of the world, the theory and i t s basic formula have remained e s s e n t i a l l y unaltered since 1930* C.  THE CRITICISM OF PERRY'S THEORY  There were many books and a r t i c l e s -- some of them developing Perry's concept, some of them evaluating or c r i t i c i z i n g i t -- which have been published i n the l a s t t h i r t y years. Three of these a r t i c l e s , two by R. Isaacs33  a n  d one by Herbe rt34  33Reginald Isaacs, "Are Urban Neighbourhoods  Journal of Journal of "Frontiers Theory and 34  Possible?" Housing, July-August, 1943S "The Neighbourhood Theory, the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Spring, 1943; of Housing Research - the Neighbourhood Concept i n A p p l i c a t i o n " , Land Economics, v o l . 25, February, 1949»  G  i l b e r t Herbert, "The Neighbourhood Unit's P r i n c i p l e and Organic Theory", The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 11, no. 2, J u l y , 1963, pp. 165-213.  19 •were t h e most  challenging.  Reginald Isaacs,  Chairman  o f t h e Department  P l a n n i n g a t Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , wrote Neighbourhoods American  Possible?",  Institute  published  an a r t i c l e ,  " A r e Urb.an  i n the Journal of the 1948,  o f P l a n n e r s . 'July t o A u g u s t ,  t h a t t h e c o n c e p t was most f a u l t y  o f City-  indicating  and r e q u i r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  examination: 1. I s i t s o c i o l o g i c a l l y possible to create neighbourh o o d s i n t h e complex u r b a n s t r u c t u r e , 2. I s t h e neighbourhood u n i t adequate as a p h y s i c a l concept f o r planning? 3. S h o u l d t h e c o n c e p t be c h a l l e n g e d on t h e b a s i s t h a t i t l e n d s i t s e l f t o t h e purposes o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n since i t s most w i d e s p r e a d a p p l i c a t i o n h a s been i t s m e t h o d i c a l use f o r s e g r e g a t i o n ? 4« T h a t t h e s c h o o l c a n n o t be t h e f o c u s f o r t h e neighbourhood; 5. T h a t t h e c h u r c h c a n n o t be p l a n n e d t o f i t i n t o a n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t system.35 Isaac's f i r s t to  question  create neighbourhoods  very  sensible,  —  i n t h e complex  even i f i t was n o t q u i t e  t h e r e were many n e i g h b o u r h o o d s living  Is i t sociologically urban  structure?  clear.  Everyone  have some s o c i a l  it  i s impossible to create  but I s a a c s might  knew  v o l . 25,  People  of the  have meant  a s o c i o l o g i c a l neighbourhood  I s a a c s , Land Economics,  was  activity.  Isaac's questioning of the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y seems i l l o g i c a l  —  i n C h i c a g o and New Y o r k .  t o g e t h e r n a t u r a l l y would  neighbourhood  possible  F e b r u a r y 1949,  that  unit i n  p. 73'  20 the  complex  urban  structure.  s o c i o l o g i c a l neighbourhood o n l y have p h y s i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s but  The  author contends that  i s a neighbourhood which  proximity  o f homes, s c h o o l s ,  I f none o f t h e s e phenomena a r e e v i d e n t then t h a t neighbourhood I n t h i s way,  unit  in a  should not  shops  s h o u l d have a g r e a t many s o c i a l  neighbourhood,  i s not a s o c i o l o g i c a l  i n Vancouver  will  and  activities.  neighbourhood.  the author tends t o agree w i t h I s a a c s .  of a neighbourhood  a  A  attempt t o prove  survey this  (see C h a p t e r I I I ) .  The  second  as a p h y s i c a l  question  —  I s the neighbourhood  concept f o r planning? —  one.  Perry  expected that  would  bring face-to-face relationships  scheme f a i l e d  t o do  examined  critically  The  third  on t h e b a s i s t h a t ination  since  a valid  one.  question  —  unit  I f the  applications,  then  This question w i l l  t o the purpose  i t s most w i d e s p r e a d a p p l i c a t i o n  o f t h e group."3°  be  was  of  challenged discrim-  h a s been i t s  self-contradictory  to  S e g r e g a t i o n means " s e p a r a t e d f r o m o t h e r s  I f a group  3 Webster's D i c t i o n a r y , 6  among p e o p l e .  S h o u l d t h e c o n c e p t be  i t lends i t s e l f  question.  first  i n Chapter I I .  m e t h o d i c a l use f o r s e g r e g a t i o n ? — his f i r s t  to the  adequate  h i s scheme o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d  so i n i t s p r a c t i c a l  I s a a c ' s q u e s t i o n w o u l d be  i s related  unit  of people l i v i n g  p.  782.  i n a neighbourhood  21 were s t r o n g l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r ,  neighbourhood  unit  q u e s t i o n was  c o u l d be  invalid.  a sociological unit  I f both the f i r s t  were w e l l - f o u n d e d , t h e n t h e doubt the  scheme i t s e l f .  t h e n t h a t means t h e and t h e  and t h i r d q u e s t i o n s  s h o u l d n o t have been p u t  Community i n A m e r i c a , 3 7 w h i c h will  be  "The  P e o p l e and T h e i r  The of  fourth point  fifth  —  — was  p o i n t was  g r o u p s , none o f w h i c h w o u l d  In  be t r u e i n c e r t a i n  fact,  might  be  Christian two  be  a critical  one.  societies  a solution.  37Roland  problem  of  n o t as c r i t i c a l .  I s a a c s presupposed  i n v o l v e many d i f f e r e n t have a m a j o r i t y .  A church located  The Community and Company, 1964.  religious  This  presupposition  everywhere.  are C h r i s t i a n .  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  c h u r c h e s i n hhe  be  of 'School'.  i n a neighbourhood.  L . Warren,  This w i l l  a r e a s but c e r t a i n l y not  some d i f f i c u l t i e s  Rand-McNally  This  t h a t t h e s c h o o l c a n n o t be t h e f o c u s  most p e o p l e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a  or three d i f f e r e n t  would  i n I963•  Environment".  a neighbourhood might  might  published  i n Chapter I I under the t o p i c The  that  was  The  f u r t h e r i n Chapter I I under the t o p i c  the neighbourhood  reviewed  on  That i s a s o c i a l problem t o which R o l a n d L.  W a r r e n h a d g i v e n a r e a s o n a b l e a n a l y s i s i n h i s book,  examined  first  between  In that  case,  neighbourhood i n one  There  setting  centre  neighbourhood i s  i n America,  Chicago,  22 not  r e s t r i c t e d by t h e b o u n d a r i e s  of t h a t neighbourhood —  o t h e r words, i t i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l t h e s u r r o u n d i n g Thus I s a a c s  fifth  1  c h a l l e n g e h a s no c r i t i c a l  I n 1963, G. H e r b e r t  criticized  in  areas.  significance.  Perry's p r i n c i p l e ;  s t a t e d t h a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t was n o t an o r g a n i c  he  concept  because: 1. I t s t r e s s e s the part, but not the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p a r t and w h o l e ; 2. I t l e a d s t o g r o w t h by a g g r e g a t i o n and n o t by synthesis; 3« In e f f e c t , is  It i s inflexible Herbert  inflexible  and n o n - o r g a n i c .  ing of the c i t y  one  and o r g a n i c .  s h o u l d be o r g a n i c , t h a t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  functions i n the c i t y .  areas  in cities.  m o d i f i c a t i o n s may be n e c e s s a r y . within i t s e l f .  design i s the planner's  i s a guide  H i s concept  job.  t h e blame s h o u l d be l a i d concept  of the unit  ^Herbert,  i s a theoretical  circumstances,  As a t h e o r y ,  i tstill  and n o t by s y n t h e s i s .  itself.  pp.  some  remains  i n actual  I t i s q u i t e t r u e t h a t bad p l a n n i n g  on t h e p l a n n e r ' s  OJD. c i t . ,  i n the designing  How t o u s e i t o r g a n i c a l l y  l e a d s t o growth b y a g g r e g a t i o n  the  Instead the actual design-  so t h a t when i t i s a p p l i e d i n e v e r y d a y  consistent  scheme  However, i t i s n o t t h e u n i t  Perry's neighbourhood u n i t of r e s i d e n t i a l  change.3°  has s a i d t h a t t h e neighbourhood u n i t  w h i c h must be f l e x i b l e  the d i f f e r e n t  and p r o h i b i t s  '165-213 .  However,  s h o u l d e r s and n o t on  THE  PROGRAM OF THE THESIS  A t h e s i s h a s one o r more h y p o t h e s e s w i t h t h e g o a l o f the t h e s i s b e i n g t o attempt t o v e r i f y  The  program  order followed.  of the thesis  objective  the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t unit  thesis  i n i t s physical  i n i t s social aspects.  THE PROGRAM  A n a l y z i n g t h e g o a l s and g o a l forms unit  program.  i s t o attempt t o v e r i f y  i s not successful  B.  neighbourhood  of the  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f P e r r y ' s neighbourhood  but i s s u c c e s s f u l  1.  outline  THE GOALS  of t h i s  concept i n Vancouver  aspects,  i s a brief  T h i s t h e s i s has t h e f o l l o w i n g A.  The  these hypotheses.  concepts  a.  Street  System  b.  Church  c.  Shopping  d.  Residence  e.  Recreation  f.  School  g.  P e o p l e and Environment  Centre  of Perry's  24 2.  The s t u d y o f t h e Renfrew  neighbourhood  i n Vancouver,  B.C. a s a c a s e s t u d y . a.  The S u r v e y  b.  The A n a l y s i s  c.  The C o n c l u s i o n C.  THE SUMMARY AND  1.  The  summary  2.  The  conclusion  CONCLUSION  25 CHAPTER I I THE ANALYSIS OF PERRY'S NEIGHBOURHOOD THEORY AND ITS SCHEME INTRODUCTION P e r r y ' s neighbourhood u n i t i s , as mentioned i n t h e f i r s t chapter,  a g u i d i n g scheme f o r d e s i g n i n g urban r e s i d e n t i a l  a r e a s and should be o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e city.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a neighbourhood and t h e o t h e r  a r e a s o f t h e c i t y can be shown by a l i n k a g e 2).  1  diagram (see page  F i g u r e 1 (page 2) shows t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : 1.  The l i n k a g e a]_ from neighbourhood N-]_ t o CBD shows  t h a t people l i v i n g i n t h e neighbourhood can go t o and from CBD where t h e y can work, shop, p l a y , e t c . 2.  The l i n k a g e from neighbourhood N-j_ v i a t h e r o u t e b]_  t o t h e suburbs shows t h a t p e o p l e have easy a c c e s s t o t h e adjacent  town o r c i t y .  L i n k a g e i s t h e manner o r s t y l e o f b e i n g u n i t e d (Webster's Seventh New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y , o_p_. c i t . . p. 4 9 2 . ) The roads, s t r e e t s , l a n e s , p a t h s and o t h e r t r a n s i t a r e a s a r e t h e a c t u a l l i n k a g e s among a l l t h e f u n c t i o n s i n t h e c i t y . A l i n k a g e diagram shows t h e a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s i n an a r e a .  26  Legend: CBD.  \ The c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t o f a  N-j_, N^, N3, N^, N^, a  l > 2> a  3>  a  a  V  5>  a  a  The neighbourhoods around CBD  6  '  Clie l  i  n  k  a  8  N5, b-j_,  \>2>  \>y  *V  ^5' 6 b  The l i n k a g e C  between  C3  "  "  ' »  C4  »  "  "  C5  n  ti  C  «  «  F i g u r e 2..  between N^, N^, N^,  s  ^ " i  > «  e  N^,  respectively.  i> 3> 4> 5 ' to the suburbs r e s p e c t i v e l y .  "  6  e  to CBD  T t i e l i n k a  "  2  city.  e s  : f > r o m  and N ' 2  N  2  "  N  N  H  N  . .• •"  N3  N3  »  . W4  »  N  5  N  5  «  N  G  N  6  «  %  L i n k a g e Diagram o f CBD and Surrounding Neighbourhoods  27  3.  The l i n k a g e C]_ between neighbourhoods N-j_ and N  t h e l i n k a g e between (neighbourhoods living  2  and  and N]_ shows t h a t people  i n d i f f e r e n t neighbourhoods can oommunicate w i t h  each  o t h e r by u s i n g t h e s e l i n k a g e s . 4.  A l l t h e p h y s i c a l l i n k a g e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  as  s o c i a l and economic l i n k a g e s t o o , because p e o p l e c o u l d use t h e road t o go t o work, shopping, v i s i t i n g  or r e c r e a t i o n .  F i g u r e 2 i s a l i n k a g e diagram which shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s i n a neighbourhood (see page 28). From F i g u r e s 1 and 2 one may  see the i n t e r n a l and  e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a neighbourhood.  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e  f u n c t i o n s o f p h y s i c a l element o f a neighbourhood i s g i v e n Two  below.  q u e s t i o n s must be answered when a n a l y z i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f  elements i n a neighbourhood 1.  I s the element n e c e s s a r y t o the c e r t a i n a s p e c t o f  neighbourhood? 2.  Does P e r r y ' s  scheme l o c a t e the element i n the r i g h t  place? The a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l ' elements; D.  A.  S t r e e t System; B.  Shopping C e n t r e ; E. R e c r e a t i o n  G. P e o p l e and E n v i r o n m e n t .  R e s i d e n c e ; C. Church;  F a c i l i t i e s ; F.  School;  28  Legend: 1.  School  S  2.  Church  C  3. Community Hall  M  4. Park or Playground^  P  5. Residence  O  6. General Store  G  7. Street 8. Path Figure 3 . Linkage Diagram of a Neighbourhood.'s.Functions  A.  STREET SYSTEM  The u n i t i s bounded by a r t e r i a l  routes on a l l sides  and i s provided w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r n a l s t r e e t system which should be designed to f a c i l i t a t e  c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the u n i t  and t o discourage i t s use by through t r a f f i c .  The a r t e r i a l  street should f i t i n t o the whole network of communication of the c i t y .  The neighbourhood i s l i n k e d by the a r t e r i a l  street  to the c i t y - c o r e and t o the other component p a r t s of the urban area.  2  S t r e e t s are very important i n planning.  The v e h i c u l a r  t r a f f i c oh the street can be very heavy and f o r a pedestrian to cross a busy s t r e e t without having t r a f f i c s i g n a l s i s very dangerous.  The s t r e e t system comprised of a g r i d i r o n p a t t e r n  i s easy f o r through t r a f f i c t o use. A c u r v i l i n e a r s t r e e t system discourages through t r a f f i c ; i n a d d i t i o n , i t gives a v a r i e t y t o the s i z e , shape, and o r i e n t a t i o n of the b u i l d i n g l o t s which w i l l provide a good'setting f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l design of the i n d i v i d u a l houses.. Perry's street system i s very good i n p r i n c i p l e ; i t i s quite hard t o apply.  I f i t i s overdone, then the whole neigh-  bourhood w i l l become a maze which gives d i f f i c u l t y to the outside people i n v i s i t i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h i s area.  Perry, op_. e i t . , pp. 51-2.  30 F i g u r e 2 ( p . 28) shows the l a y o u t o f the s t r e e t i n the  system  neighbourhood. B.  RESIDENCE  A neighbourhood i s an area f o r people t o l i v e i n , and the p o s s e s s i o n o f a house and a p l o t o f l a n d i s one o f man's primary a s p i r a t i o n s . families,  D i f f e r e n t people have d i f f e r e n t  incomes, and d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s .  kinds of houses.  They need  s i z e s of different  I n o r d e r t o meet t h e s e needs, a neighbourhood  s h o u l d p r o v i d e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f houses, semi-detached houses,  such as detached  houses,  s i d e - b y - s i d e d u p l e x e s , up-and-down d u p l e x e s ,  row houses and a p a r t m e n t s .  A neighbourhood w i t h the same s t y l e ,  s i z e and scheme o f house w i l l become monotonous.  Too many  v a r i e t i e s o f houses w i l l make the environment complex and chaotic.  P l a n n e r s s h o u l d group the h o u s i n g a c c o r d i n g t o  s i z e and h e i g h t and a r c h i t e c t s  its  s h o u l d a p p l y t h e i r magic hand to  r e l a t e them i n a harmonious way, even i f t h e y d e s i g n them as individual units.  But ' s h o u l d ' does not mean t h e y would o r  a c t u a l l y c o u l d ; when p e o p l e l i k e t o have i n d i v i d u a l they have t o s u f f e r from an inharmonious  freedom,  environment.  A residence i s a b a s i c l i v i n g u n i t i n a neighbourhood. That a neighbourhood i s good o r not s h o u l d be measured by the f u n c t i o n o f the r e s i d e n c e s  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y .  A r e s i d e n c e as a b a s i c l i v i n g u n i t i s a complex i n itself.  F o r example, a c o u p l e have two c h i l d r e n ; one i s a boy  31 six  years  o l d , the other  different  i s a teenage g i r l .  a c t i v i t i e s which g e n e r a l l y need d i f f e r e n t  T h i s f a m i l y needs a t l e a s t the  boy  should  scholar,  a three-bedroom house.  living etc.  room; t h e b o y ' s m o t h e r , b e i n g  practicing Outside  piano  every  of these  This l i v i n g unit  daily  centre  the  b o u r h o o d may  i n which t h e boy's mother  good a c c e s s  units  and  some v e r y  Perry's neighbourhood. bourhood u n i t  c a n buy  their of the  t o t h e h i g h w a y o r speedway by w h i c h  l i v i n g units,  complex.  encourage t h e i r  needs o f these  rooms,  education;  school f o r the education  a r e woven t o g e t h e r .  conflict, basic  have 1,000  storage  a s c h o o l f o r the boy's  f a t h e r c a n go t o h i s w o r k i n g p l a c e  simple  t h i n g s , t h e y need a  n e e d s an e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d i n g a p l a y -  goods, a s e n i o r h i g h  teenage g i r l ,  a profes-  s t u d i o ; the boy's  room, d i n i n g room, b a t h r o o m , k i t c h e n and  shopping  a  n i g h t , needs a sound-proof  individual  g r o u n d f o r t h e boy t o p l a y , a  Moreover,  T  needs a study  chamber.  facilities.  have a p l a y a r e a ; t h e b o y s f a t h e r , b e i n g  s i o n a l p a i n t e r , o u g h t t o have a good s i z e d sister,  E a c h o f them h a s  conveniently.  neigh-  some o f w h i c h may  The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s e  The p l a n n e r  A  should  common i n t e r e s t s  be  very  1,000  e l i m i n a t e any  and f u l f i l l  the  units.  scheme d i d g i v e t h e above c o n v e n i e n c e From t h e r e s i d e n t ' s v i e w p o i n t ,  scheme i s q u i t e  Perry's  i n the neigh-  good.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e s i d e n c e  and t h e o t h e r  f u n c t i o n s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s shown i n F i g u r e 2, page  28.  32 C.  The and  i n fact  desire  to worship  the place  CHURCH  i s one o f man's b a s i c  of worship  i s the f o c a l  s e t t l e m e n t s i n most a r e a s o f t h e w o r l d . Christian  Church  w o r s h i p God.  instincts  point  o f most  In North America the  i s the major place f o r people gathering t o  A neighbourhood,  as a l a r g e  living  unit,  should  have a c h u r c h a n d t h e b e s t p l a c e f o r i t a c c o r d i n g t o P e r r y ' s scheme, i s i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d e t e r o r boundary hood  How many c h u r c h e s a n e i g h b o u r -  s h o u l d have o r what d e n o m i n a t i o n  d i d not mention suggested.  density  and t h e r e a r e no u s e f u l  data that  c a n be  of believers  among t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e s i z e a n d  of the population.  The church  t h e c h u r c h e s may be P e r r y  T h i s depends upon t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f v a r i o u s  denominations  The  of the unit.  o r at the perim-  fifth  aspect of Isaacs' c r i t i c i s m  c a n n o t be p l a n n e d t o f i t i n t o  r e a s o n was t h a t  the service  bourhood  His criticism  b u t i t c a n n o t be p r o v e d  can go t o o t h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d worship  a neighbourhood  unit  system.  s p h e r e s o f t h e c h u r c h do n o t  c o i n c i d e with t h e neighbourhood's. up t o a p o i n t  i n d i c a t e d that the  everywhere.  i s justified People  either  c h u r c h e s once o r t w i c e a week t o  o r c a n s h a r e t h e u s e o f t h e same c h u r c h i n t h e n e i g h ( e v e n t h e community  centre).^  3chicago Commons and o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s have welcomed many church groups t o share t h e use o f t h e i r b u i l d i n g s : T a y l o r , Graham, C h i c a g o Commons t h r o u g h F o r t y Y e a r s , C h i c a g o , 111., 1936, p . 193.  33 The racial  and  C h u r c h has  an i m p o r t a n t  economic c l a s s e s .  Church has  not  accomplished  function in  integrating  I t i s unfortunate  this goal.  I f the  that Church  c a n n o t o f f e r v a l u a b l e i d e a s o r methods o f j o i n i n g together, about  then  the  a change i n t h e  s t r u c t u r e of the  the  the  juke  'dates', meals, the  automatically flock T  cokes'  and  boxes; the and  the  bourhoods.  of the  one  o f t h e most  This focal For  to the  listen  and  the  shopping  'top f i f t y '  According  centre w i l l  Such a c e n t r e has  can  records  on,  for  ^ E r i c and M a r y J o s e p h s o n , Man A l o n e , P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1963, P« 167.  Technical Bulletin,  on  scheme,  several neigh-  as:  New  can  bachelor  to Perry's  overlap  been d e f i n e d  of  their  A group of commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s planned, d e v e l o p e d and managed as a u n i t , w i t h o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g p r o v i d e d on t h e p r o p e r t y , and r e l a t e d i n l o c a t i o n , s i z e and t y p e o f shop t o t h e t r a d e a r e a t h a t t h e u n i t s e r v e s - g e n e r a l l y i n an o u t l y i n g suburban area.5  5Urban L a n d I n s t i t u t e J u l y 1953, p. 6.  be  c a f e where t h e y  d r o p i n , o f f and  like.  important  example, t h e y o u t h  nearest  to the  point  o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l meet w i t h  adults w i l l  cigarettes,  sphere  area.  a s o c i a l meeting p l a c e .  dring their  bring  neighbourhood.  s t o r e s are  points in a residential  area  people  SHOPPING CENTRE  L o c a l neighbourhood  considered  still  d e c l i n i n g ^ " number o f b e l i e v e r s w i l l  D.  focal  the  York,  no.  Dell  20,  34 A study o f shopping h a b i t s , ^ r e v e a l e d t h a t 80-90 p e r cent o f shopping i s done by -women -who do most o f t h e i r downtown shopping around noon and v i s i t between 4 and 6 P.M.  suburban  centres approximately  O n e - t h i r d o f p u r c h a s i n g i s i m p u l s i v e , so  t h a t a wide s e l e c t i o n o f goods a t a c o n v e n i e n t l o c a l s t o r e w i l l pay o f f . and  People g e n e r a l l y buy t h e i r 'convenience' goods l o c a l l y  ' h i g h e r o r d e r goods' (such as c l o t h e s , f u r n i t u r e ,  etc.)  from downtown.  television,  R e c e n t l y t h e improvement o f t h e q u a l i t y  of goods, t h e s c a l e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s and t h e ease o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e l o c a l  shopping  c e n t r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t people l i k e t o shop l o c a l l y . ? E.  RECREATION  FACILITIES  THE PLAY AREAS, PARKS AND COMMUNITY CENTRE R e c r e a t i o n i s good f o r o u r minds and b o d i e s . need a p l a c e f o r c u l t u r e and new i d e a s ; t h e i r nervous  People systems  need r e l a x a t i o n from t h e p r e s s u r e o f modern l i f e and t h e i r b o d i e s b e n e f i t from sun and good e x e r c i s e .  The o b j e c t o f l i f e  nowadays i s t o have a h i g h e r c u l t u r e and a h e a l t h i e r ation —  6  s t r o n g i n mind and body, w e a l t h y and happy.  Ibid.  ?Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n , no. 24«  civiliz-  35 A neighbourhood s h o u l d p r o v i d e a r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a which can achieve these t h i n g s .  Someone may argue t h a t people i n the  urban a r e a are m o b i l e ; p e o p l e w i t h c a r s can go any p l a c e t h e y want; t h e r e i s no need t o have a community c e n t r e o r park i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  This i s true only to a c e r t a i n  degree.  I n f a c t t h e r e are many o t h e r f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e the f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l space and f a c i l i t i e s These  need  i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  are: a.  C h i l d r e n need p l a y a r e a s near t h e i r homes.  b.  O l d p e o p l e and mothers w i t h b a b i e s need a park t o  t a k e a walk i n every d a y . c.  P e o p l e who cannot o r do not want t o j o i n i n the  weekend exodus; who have weekend s h i f t - w o r k ; who have dependents;  infirm  who do not have a c a r o r . d o not l i k e the f u s s and  b u s t l e o f the l o n g , hot d r i v e s away from t h e i r homes do need recreational f a c i l i t i e s d. too.  i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  Cars g i v e convenience t o people but o f f e r problems  I n downtown a r e a s the i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s  of parking  d i s c o u r a g e people from spending t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e i n the downtown area and d r i v e people back on t o t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . The p a t t e r n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s o f P e r r y ' s n e i g h b o u r hood scheme i s shown i n F i g u r e 2 ( p . 2 6 ) .  A p a r k i s i n the  neighbourhood c e n t r e and p l a y a r e a s are e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d  36 through  t h e whole a r e a .  accessible  t o t h e whole  A community c e n t r e n e a r t h e p a r k i s neighbourhood.  Recreational f a c i l i t i e s active of the al  and p a s s i v e .  Standards  t e n a c r e s p e r 1,000 overall  city  g e n e r a l l y are d i v i d e d i n t o f o r recreation with  persons  were a c c e p t e d  p i c t u r e f o r both  active  a figure  as t h e i d e a l f o r  and p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n -  facilities. 1.  The P a r k o r P l a y  The  p l a y area of a neighbourhood  following  Area  Small  b.  Apparatus area f o r o l d e r  c.  Open s p a c e f o r i n f o r m a l p l a y  d.  Surfaced  space f o r p r e - s c h o o l  children  —  tot lots  children  a r e a f o r c o u r t games,  such  as t e n n i s ,  volleyball, etc. Playing  football,  provide the  itemsI  a.  handball,  should  field  f o r games,  such  as s o f t b a l l ,  touch  mass games, e t c .  f.  Paddling  g.  S h e l t e r and d r e s s i n g rooms w i t h t o i l e t s ,  facilities,  pool wash  d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s , and maybe an a r e a f o r q u i e t  games, i n s t r u c t i o n ,  crafts,  etc.—  although  these  activities  37 are  better carried  which  should  out i n p a r t  o f t h e community  centre,  a d j o i n the playground.  TABLE I RECREATIONAL  ACREAGE AND  Facility  POPULATION OF A NEIGHBOURHOOD  1,000  3,000  5,000  Persons (acres)  Persons (acres)  Persons (acres)  Playground Area^  2.75  4.00  6.00  Neighbourhood Park (Area i n normal h o u s i n g development)  1.50  2.50  3.50  Neighbourhood P a r k (Area i n m u l t i - f a m i l y d e v e l o p m e n t where no private yards)  2.00  4.00  6.00  1 1  the p.  "Derived froml Neighbourhood,  4$.  American P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , P l a n n i n g P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , Chicago, 1948,  9 Nat i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n S t a n d a r d , See P l a n n i n g t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d U n i t , o p . c i t . , p . 48. -^Committee p.  49.  1 1  Ibid.  on t h e H y g i e n e o f H o u s i n g , A.P.H.A. - ojo.  cit.,  38  2.  The Community Centre  The community centre serves many of the r e c r e a t i o n a l requirements of the neighbourhood.  The term 'community centre*  has a v a r i e t y of connotations i n Canada. I t i s u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as being a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g , which must serve a panoramic f u n c t i o n . Under one roof p r o v i s i o n must be made t o meet the educational, s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the e n t i r e community. Included under these broad headings are l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , clubrooms f o r men and women, teenagers and c h i l d r e n ; equipped w i t h gymnasium, bowling a l l e y s , swimming pools, auditorium, separate accommodation f o r nursery schools, h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , a l l requirements of an e f f i c i e n t community centre ... and every allowance should be made f o r growth and change.12 The elements l i s t e d above may not be found i n the e x i s t i n g neighbourhood because (1) the l i s t e d elements overlap w i t h the element of the neighbourhood's school; ( 2 ) people i n the area are not i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s ; (3) the neighbourhood does not have enough population to provide such equipment. Co-operation between school and community centre i s needed.  The school gymnasium, stage, l i b r a r y and p l a y i n g  f i e l d should be a v a i l a b l e t o everyone i n the area a f t e r school hours and the community centre should set aside s p e c i a l periods  -^Gwen F i f e , Community Centres i n Canada. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1 9 4 5 .  39  f o r school use such as swimming pool, h a l l , t e n n i s courts and other p l a y i n g equipment. F.  SCHOOL  Perry's neighbourhood consisted of an elementary school, church, community h a l l , open space, residences and l o c a l shops, a l l of which were o r g a n i c a l l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d by a street system.  The s i z e of the neighbourhood was determined  by the optimum s i z e of the elementary school and a l l the other f u n c t i o n s were i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the school as w e l l .  The  school i s the key f a c t o r i n the neighbourhood design concept. The s t a r t i n g point i n analyzing Perry's neighbourhood theory should be the school.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between school and  other f u n c t i o n s of the neighbourhood was shown i n Figure 2, p. 26. the  The s t r e e t w i l l b r i n g a l l the supplies from outside  neighbourhood and a l l the students w i t h i n the neighbour-  hood t o the school. 1.  The Goals of the Neighbourhood School  First: est,  the neighbourhood school provides the cheap-  safest and f a s t e s t means of t r a n s p o r t i n g the c h i l d from  home to school.  The f a r t h e r a school i s from the home, the  more time i s spent i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n process, the more s t r e e t s , e s p e c i a l l y major s t r e e t s , must be crossed by the walking c h i l d , and the more the parents are obliged to transport the c h i l d with expensive p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  40 S e c o n d : many e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e  schools  should  be  small. Third: from the  "Educators believed  security that  and  able  t o have t h e i r  that  they  should  children  came f r o m l e a r n i n g and  same f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t " . - ^ be  that  They f e l t  that  benefitted  living  able  to r e t u r n to  the  children  c l a s s m a t e s as p l a y m a t e s a f t e r be  in  school  should  school  for after-  15 school  c l a s s e s and Fourth:  summarized  by  T h i s major purpose i s q u i t e  saying  between t h e  school  should,  often  and  know, c o n f i d e  programs. ^  that  and  the  does,  i n , and  for  school  local  family.  serve  as  The  an  neighbourhood  This  community p r e s s u r e s  improvements.  and  school  i n v i t a t i o n to parents  work w i t h i t s s t a f f .  administration  school  best  e d u c a t o r s want a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  good c h a n c e f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e central  complex b u t  the  political  Thus t h e  to  offers a on  the  authorities  neighbourhood  school  -'N.L. E n g e l h a r d t , N.L. E n g e l h a r d t , J r . , and S t a n t o n L e g g e t t , P l a n n i n g E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l B u i l d i n g s , 1953* ! ^ F r e d Hechinger, "Neighbourhood School Concept," Y o r k T i m e s , June 26, 1963•  New  • ' P a t r i c i a C a y s S e x t o n , E d u c a t i o n and Income: I n e q u a l i t i e s I n Our P u b l i c S c h o o l s , New Y o r k , The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1961, p . 115.  41  can r e f l e c t the values and goals of the community i t serves, and can gain the community(s l o y a l t y and support.  Stated  from a d i f f e r e n t perspective, the neighbourhood school i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the b e l i e f that education should be l o c a l l y controlled. 2.  An E v a l u a t i o n of the Goals of the Neighbourhood  School. (a)  The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem:  t h i s i s governed by  three f a c t o r s ; time and walking distance, s a f e t y , and cost. i.  Time and walking d i s t a n c e .  Most educators  say  an elementary school c h i l d should not spend more than t h i r t y minutes g e t t i n g to school and that a secondary school c h i l d . should not spend more than an hour.  Taking these as c r i t e r i a ,  a c h i l d can walk or bike considerably more than three quarters of a m i l e . ^  0  The size of the neighbourhood could be l a r g e r  than the one w i t h a quarter-mile radius suggested by Perry.-'-''  7  ii.  Safety.  I t i s quite important to keep the c h i l d  from accidents but i t appears unreasonable to assume that the danger of accidents increases d i r e c t l y with the number of major i n t e r s e c t i o n s he crosses.  Experience proves that the  c h i l d ' s safety i s more r e l a t e d to the types of t r a f f i c  - ^ N a t i o n a l Council on School House Construction, Guide f o r Planning School P l a n t s , 1 9 5 8 . -^Perry, OJD. c i t . p. 5 3 *  42 s i t u a t i o n s he c o n f r o n t s For  example, a c h i l d  with  traffic  controls. should the to  r a t h e r than the distance  i s s a f e r c r o s s i n g a major i n t e r s e c t i o n  c o n t r o l s than  a minor i n t e r s e c t i o n without  How t o c o n t r o l t h e t r a f f i c  be c o n s i d e r e d  planners.  by t h e t r a f f i c  f o r the pedestrian  engineers  and  I f s a f e t y i s paramount, t h e b e s t  solution i s  d r i v e t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m home t o s c h o o l by p r i v a t e c a r ,  public  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r a school bus. i i i .  Cost.  transporting  books?  I t i s reasonable  c h i l d r e n t o school?  more i m p o r t a n t  Why  port  the c h i l d  and t e a c h e r s .  t o a good  poor neighbourhood  temporary  such as s a l a r i e s ,  Now, most o f t h e e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d  equipment  standard  n o t s p e n d money f o r t h e buildings,  school i s a b e t t e r s o l u t i o n than  o f l o w e r income r e s i d e n t s a r e v e r y library  t o a s k why spend money  f a c t o r s of education,  The n e i g h b o u r h o o d  school buses.  the  he w a l k s .  school  limited  schools  i n environment,  F o r the time being,  to trans-  instead of staying i n the  s c h o o l w h i c h c o u l d n o t be d e v e l o p e d up t o  i n a short time,  and c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  as a  s o l u t i o n b u t n o t t h e b a s i c one.  (b)  The S c h o o l  The  second g o a l  keep t h e s c h o o l  small  Size  Problem  o f the neighbourhood  -- t h e i d e a l  s c h o o l u n i t i s 400 p u p i l s . 2,000 p u p i l s , i t i s q u i t e  size  I f there  school  i s to  f o r the elementary  i s a l o c a t i o n drawing  easy t o b u i l d  five  separate  43 b u i l d i n g s at the one l o c a t i o n or one b u i l d i n g d i v i d e d i n t o five divisions. plant.  The school i s s i m i l a r t o an i n d u s t r i a l  I f organized c a r e f u l l y with equipment, teachers,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e t c . , i t does not matter how l a r g e i t i s . 18  I t can s t i l l be very good.  One a u t h o r i t y on the subject  has s a i d , "When a school plant i s a c t u a l l y planned i n every d e t a i l t o care f o r the enrollment i t houses, the question of optimum size i s s e t t l e d " , ^ and therefore the school should emphasize the l o c a t i o n where i t can best o f f e r a chance t o the c h i l d t o l e a r n and exercise — f o r example, l o c a t e d near a zoo, museum, a t h l e t i c centre o r l i b r a r y , (c)  Child Security  The t h i r d goal of the neighbourhood school i s p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d with a sense of s e c u r i t y by having the school as.a part of the home environment. studies,  '  Yet two recent  have pointed out that lower-class students  18  John S. H a d s e l l , Chairman, De Facto Segregation i n the Berkeley P u b l i c Schools, Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , U n i f i e d School D i s t r i c t , I963. Frank Riessman, The C u l t u r a l l y Deprived C h i l d , New York, Harper and Brothers, X 9 6 2 . . ^Seaton, i b i d . 21  E n g e l h a r d t , i b i d , p. 53•  44 feel  quite insecure i n school, indeed  school,  or i n s e c u r i t y  upon t h e a t t i t u d e the attitude  child.  i s a f e e l i n g which  o f t h e l o w e r - c l a s s home t o w a r d  f e e l i n g s toward  class feel  or h i g h e r  school.  close  secure.  Parent  Support  The f e e l i n g  i s no e v i d e n c e  of the school,  o f Schools school i s a  of the students' parents, but  indicating that physical proximity i s  condition f o rthis  physical proximity specialists  —  of teachers  They t e a c h  The e d u c a t i o n and p a r e n t s .  should  at different  times  come  of children The  at school; the parents  c a n communicate b y phone o r l e t t e r .  necessity  S u p e r v i s i n g needs  t h e good s u p e r v i s i n g t h a t  teachers teach the children them a t home.  support.  or a u t h o r i t i e s .  needs t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n  but  of insecurity  f o u r t h goal o f t h e neighbourhood  need t h e support  a necessary  from  b a c k g r o u n d s have  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s c h o o l and t h e f a m i l y .  Schools there  education  The c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e  i s n o t t h e r e f o r e because o f t h e l o c a t i o n  The  depends  i n s e c u r e and t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e m i d d l e  class feel  (d)  The f e e l -  o f t h e s c h o o l s toward t h e l o w e r - c l a s s  C h i l d r e n coming f r o m d i f f e r e n t  2 2  different lower  alienated i n  e v e n t h o u g h t h e s c h o o l i s c l o s e t o home.  ing of security  and  feel  teach  and p l a c e s  T h e r e i s no  f o rphysical proximity.  A l l a n Blackman, " P l a n n i n g and t h e I n t e g r a t e d S c h o o l " , I n t e g r a t e d E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 11, No. 4 , A u g u s t - S e p t e m b e r , 19&4, p . 3«  4.  Re-evaluation  The f o u r arguments that the four purposes of the neighbourhood school do not have a very strong base and the elementary school i s not an appropriate f a c t o r t o determine the s i z e of neighbourhood.  In addition,  a u t h o r i t a t i v e opinion i n d i c a t e s that schools should be l o c a t e d i n a pleasant  environment. 3 2  The w r i t e r t h i n k s that the s i z e of a neighbourhood should not be determined by an elementary school.  Even the  time and distance of t r a v e l l i n g t o a school are not c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s and most parents w i l l pay bus f a r e . I t does not, however, j u s t i f y the f a c t that a neighbourhood should not or could not have a good elementary school l o c a t e d at the neighbourhood centre.  Everyone agrees that  a school l o c a t e d i n a depressed neighbourhood i s not good f o r the c h i l d r e n . depressed areas.  The c i t y should t r y t o renew these No area s t a r t s depressed from i t s  founding, and the centre of the neighbourhood, i f i t i s a well-designed neighbourhood, should be a pleasant l o c a t i o n for  an elementary school. G.  THE PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT  According t o t h e i r needs, people do change t h e i r environment by i n t r o d u c i n g new designs, operations or new Engelhardt,  ibid.  46  ideas.  They may a l s o move t o a new e n v i r o n m e n t .  as an e n v i r o n m e n t  i s o r g a n i z e d i t molds people i n t o  c e r t a i n way o f l i f e . d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r organic  community  sewers.  on t h e l i f e  The environment.  hospitals,  The factor.  of the people i s  s t r u c t u r e which h a v i n g . stores,  recreational  transportation,  water,  Any scheme o f an u r b a n u n i t  such  power, g a s  s h o u l d be b a s e d  pattern of the people.  economic  factor  The r a t e  community g r o w t h ,  i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o an u r b a n  o f economic  growth  i s the rate of  and v i c e - v e r s a .  physical  environment  Some may a r g u e t h a t  any p h y s i c a l  environment  That i s t r u e  i f i t i s worth thing  i s another important  nowadays p e o p l e may  t o whatever  The most  critical  distance  one h a s t o t r a v e l  ation.  pattern  a  and o t h e r k i n d s o f s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p e o p l e  as s c h o o l s , and  The l i f e  functions provides jobs,  facilities  As l o n g  t h e y want i t t o b e .  a l o t o f money t o change i t .  i n the physical  environment  t o get t o the place  T h e r e f o r e an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n  ment i s t h e r o a d o r s t r e e t  change  i s the  of destin-  i n an e n v i r o n -  system.  P e o p l e a r e s o c i a l b e i n g s ; when t h e y g e t t o g e t h e r , they w i l l  have s o c i a l  relationships.  People l i v i n g i n  different  environments  relationships. each  will  F o r example:  games.  p e o p l e need  departments  of the  most o f them have r e c e i v e d a s s o c i a t e w i t h each interest  personal roles,  The  other, instead  which  in  result  provide  People l i v i n g  of  churches, park,  structure  by  like.  t h e o r y , as  unit  physical  scheme,  Rather,  The  the an scheme  i n Perry's neighbours u c h as  playgrounds, might  a s p e c t , but not because  a good e n v i r o n m e n t .  community  they  associations within  of P e r r y ' s neighbourhood  i t s social  or  their  p e o p l e , from h i s t h e o r y .  organized.  centre,  social  r e g e n e r a t e and m a i n t a i n p r i m a r y ,  hood have a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t i e s community  training,  are r e l a t e d to  c o n t a c t s and  f o r urban  of  Because  chapter, i s to provide a  will  social  very w e l l  pattern  o f by p r o f e s s i o n ,  Perry d e r i v e d h i s neighbourhood  environment  drinking,  s u c h as t h e R o t a r y C l u b , o r t h e  i n the f i r s t  face-to-face city.  specialized  with  organizations  g o a l o f P e r r y ' s neighbourhood  environment  The  to help  same o r g a n i z a t i o n .  or o r g a n i z a t i o n s which  mentioned  dancing,  They work f o r d i f f e r e n t  2  different  -- c h a t t i n g ,  Urban p e o p l e have a d i f f e r e n t  activities. ^  is  rural  k i n d s of  o t h e r i n t h e i r work; a f t e r work, t h e y a s s o c i a t e  each o t h e r i n r e c r e a t i o n and  have d i f f e r e n t  the  school, and 'shops.  n o t be  successful  scheme d i d n o t  i t i s because  l e a d s p e o p l e t o have d i f f e r e n t  the kinds  relationships.  ^Roland Rand M c N a l l v 2  L . W a r r e n , The Community i n A m e r i c a , and Comnanv. 1963. D . ^L.  Chicago,  48  CONCLUSION Except f o r the s o c i a l aspects ( d e f i c i e n c i e s ) , i t i s concluded t h a t there are no other defects i n Perry's neighbourhood u n i t .  The arguments to support t h i s con-  c l u s i o n are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s ? 1.  People l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t areas have d i f f e r e n t  social relationships.  Why  should urban people have the  same s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as r u r a l people?  Perry's  i m p o s i t i o n on urban people of a face-to-face r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a mistake. 2.  The ethnic group, no matter whether there i s a  neighbourhood scheme provided or not, w i l l c l u s t e r themselves i n t o c e r t a i n areas.  This i s a s o c i a l problem which  should not be used to attack Perry's neighbourhood u n i t . 3.  According to C h r i s t a l l e r ' s space theory, urban  planning has to have a h i e r a r c h y system.  A neighbourhood  u n i t can be e a s i l y adopted i n the h i e r a r c h y . used e a s i l y , why 4.  I f i t can be  should we destroy the theory?  In i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , the planner can vary the scheme  to f i t i n t o the master plan of the whole urban area.  As D  the w r i t e r mentioned i n the f i r s t chapter, a theory i s a guide i n doing a c t u a l work. job.  How to use i t i s a planner's  A f a i l u r e i n applying i t i s not the theory's f a u l t .  5. years  P e r r y ' s i d e a s have b e e n u s e d and " f r o m  hood u n i t ,  with  Canada t o M e x i c o , t h e b a s i c E e r r y  thirty neighbour-  o n l y minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s , has served as t h e  development m o d u l e . " ^ for  f o r more t h a n  so many y e a r s  That  t h e t h e o r y has been a p p l i e d  and i n so many c o u n t r i e s , p r o v e s i t s  value.  ^ A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , Neighbourhood Boundaries, P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e I n f o r m a t i o n Report No. 1 4 1 , C h i c a g o , I 9 6 I , p . 8 .  50 CHAPTER I I I A NEIGHBOURHOOD SURVEY I N THE RENFREW HEIGHTS AREA OF VANCOUVER, B.C.  Introduction A survey and  interpreting  i s a scientific  method o f c o l l e c t i n g ,  d a t a on a s p e c i f i c  s u b j e c t -which i s t o be  studied.  A s u r v e y must be o r g a n i z e d v e r y  different  processes  and  interpretation  sincerely,  concerned  with  o f d a t a must  with i n t e g r i t y  carefully,  collection,  be c a r r i e d  and w i t h o u t  impartial: policy  a specific  bias.  i s correct,  n o r t o suggest  classifies  mutual r e l a t i o n  facts  that  technique  concept  a particular  a particular  o f any k i n d w h a t e v e r , who  methods o f c l a s s i f y i n g ,  interpreting  objective  t h e studies.""'"  the survey only r e v e a l s f a c t s .  The d a t a t h e m s e l v e s  or to  " S t u d i e s must be  and d e s c r i b e s t h e s e q u e n c e s ,  method."  classification  This  that  t h i s may emerge f r o m  a n a l y s i s o f d a t a from  scientific  i n detail.  t h e t a s k i s n e i t h e r t o prove  w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e ;  who  problem  and t h e  o u t o b j e c t i v e l y and  h e l p s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o examine a p a r t i c u l a r investigate  analyzing  sees  The  "The man their  i s applying the  are not science; the  and a p p l y i n g a r e s c i e n c e .  1 J o h n N. J a c k s o n , S u r v e y s f o r Town and C o u n t r y L o n d o n , H u t c h i n s o n and Co. L t d . , 1963, p . 2 0 .  Planning,  2 K. P e a r s o n , The Grammar o f S c i e n c e , 1911, p p . 1 0 - 1 2 .  51  In order t o accomplish  an e f f e c t i v e survey, the problems  to be solved must f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d .  This requires the c l e a r  formulation of the o b j e c t i v e s of the survey, an' e x p l i c i t s t a t e ment of the problem i n meaningful terms and the rigorous e x c l u s i o n of subjects marginal to the c e n t r a l theme of the investigation.3 The survey can be done by observation, questionnaires, i n t e r v i e w s , and by the study of e x i s t i n g sources of information. The problem and the object of the survey w i l l determine which method or combination o f methods ought t o be used. Sampling i s an important technique w i t h i n the survey model, and i n v o l v e s two important  and i n t e r r e l a t e d aspects:  (1) the s i z e of the sample; and (2) the s e l e c t i o n o f the sample. A sample must avoid b i a s i n the s e l e c t i o n o f the population and must not be i n f l u e n c e d by human preference.  As Dr. Jackson  i n d i c a t e s , "each u n i t enjoys an equal or known chance of selection.  No s e c t i o n or group can be favoured, the sample  should be representative".^" A.  Reasons f o r the Survey i n the Renfrew Heights Area The object of t h i s survey i s t o attempt t o v e r i f y the  proposed hypothesis, that i s "that the a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's  ^Jackson,  Surveys f o r Town and Country Planning, p. 20.  ^ I b i d . , p. 62.  52 neighbourhood u n i t concept i n Vancouver i s not s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s s o c i a l aspects but i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s p h y s i c a l aspects." A f t e r an i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 5 the w r i t e r  determined  that there were no neighbourhoods i n Vancouver which were designed e x a c t l y according to Perry's neighbourhood u n i t  concept,  but that there were s e v e r a l neighbourhoods which were developed using some of Perry's ideas, such as Renfrew Heights, Fraserview, Skeena Terrace, and the Strathcona P u b l i c Housing areas.  Of  these areas, there i s a s e c t i o n of Renfrew Heights which conforms very c l o s e l y to Perry's neighbourhood u n i t concept, namely that area bounded by the Grandview Highway on the north, Rupert Street on the west, Boundary Road on the east, and Twenty-second Avenue on the south.  (see Appendix 1, Map 1, Page 87).  It is  t h i s area, h e r e a f t e r described as the Renfrew neighbourhood, which has been chosen to t e s t the hypothesis. B.  The Planning of This Survey The method of survey used here combines d i r e c t observ-  a t i o n , the use of questionnaires and i n t e r v i e w s , and the study of e x i s t i n g sources of i n f o r m a t i o n .  The w r i t e r f i r s t  observed  the Renfrew area by d r i v i n g around i t , studying the h i s t o r y of the community and the school, and by Interviewing such key people  5Mr. Wiesman, A s s i s t a n t Planner, and Mr. J.B. Chaster, Planner f o r Vancouver C i t y , provided a great deal of assistance here.  53 as Mr. J . S m i t h , t h e P r i n c i p a l o f t h e Renfrew E l e m e n t a r y  School.  I n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l , t h a t e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e a r e a was very meagre, and t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e time f o r i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed and a p p l i e d . In order to obtain a representative c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the a r e a , a random sampling t e c h n i q u e  was used (see Appendix 2,  Map 2, Page 88) t o determine where t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would be These q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i v i d e d i n t o 9 p a r t s  distributed.  (see Appendix 4, Page 91, designed  92).  Q u e s t i o n s one and two a r e  t o determine t h e s t a b i l i t y o f l i v i n g i n t h e Renfrew  Neighbourhood.  Q u e s t i o n s t h r e e and f o u r a r e designed t o  determine p u b l i c o p i n i o n about ~X>he s t r e e t system o f t h i s Question  area.  f i v e l o o k s f o r s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s why people choose t o  l i v e there.  The l a s t f o u r i t e m s a r e o r g a n i z e d  i n a tabular  form, each i n c l u d e s f o u r o r more q u e s t i o n s which are r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e neighbourhood, such as t h e s c h o o l , church, park and s t o r e s .  Answers t o these l a s t f o u r i t e m s were  used p r i m a r i l y t o g i v e support  t o Question  five.  A l e t t e r was a t t a c h e d t o each q u e s t i o n n a i r e e x p l a i n i n g t h e purpose, f u n c t i o n , scope and t h e r e a s o n s f o r choosing area.  this  F o r t h e convenience o f t h e r e c i p i e n t s a r e t u r n envelope,  addressed and stamped, was  enclosed.  Questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d t o 105 of the_625 houses i n the area.  Sixteen r e p l i e s were received, representing a  r e t u r n of f i f t e e n per cent of those d i s t r i b u t e d .  Since t h i s  r e t u r n was considered low, i t was decided to f o l l o w up the questionnaires by i n t e r v i e w i n g another twenty-four  residences,  also chosen on a random b a s i s t o give a sample of f o r t y , representing 6 . 3 per cent of the t o t a l area under study.  The  l o c a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l r e p l i e s and i n t e r v i e w s are o u t l i n e d on Map 2 of Appendix 3 , page 88. C.  The Renfrew Heights Community 1.  The development No d e t a i l e d l i t e r a t u r e could be found on the h i s t o r y of  t h i s area.  However, a newspaper a r t i c l e was found which stated  the f o l l o w i n g : Town planning i s emphasized i n the lay-out of 601 homes f o r rent t o veterans i n the Renfrew Height housing p r o j e c t being b u i l t by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation. S i t e of the homes i s 120 acres, formerly' uncleared land, l a r g e l y c i t y owned between Grandview Highway, Rupert S t r e e t , Boundary Road and 22nd Avenue.° The development was s t a r t e d i n 1948 and most of the housing completed i n 1949*  The o r i g i n a l plans f o r the area  included f u l l y paved s t r e e t s and boulevards.  An adequate  commercial and shopping zone, w i t h r e c r e a t i o n centres, churches  °v"ancouver D a i l y Province, "New Renfrew Scheme i s Planned 'Town'," October 2, 1948, P- 12.  55 and  s c h o o l s , was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d when t h e h o u s e s were  P r o v i s i o n h a d b e e n made f o r p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d izing  safety considerations f o rthe children.  o n l y been p a r t i a l l y  carried  commercial f a c i l i t i e s street through  22nd  within the area.  p l a n has been f o l l o w e d  emphas-  These p l a n s  have  a r e p r e s e n t l y no  However t h e o r i g i n a l  and t h e r e  a r e no g r i d  roads or  s t r e e t s i n the area. The  of  out s i n c e there  areas,  built.  Renfrew E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l ,  l o c a t e d at the corner  Avenue and R u p e r t S t r e e t , was b u i l t  1954, a s e p a r a t e  annex t o t h i s  in  s c h o o l was b u i l t  1928.  Later, i n  i n the center  o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d on a l o t w h i c h had been p r e v i o u s l y s e t aside f o rt h i s  purpose.7  There i s a s m a l l beside  community h a l l ,  built  in  1958-59,  t h e Renfrew s c h o o l annex, l o c a t e d a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f  F a l a i s e Avenue and W o r t h i n g t o n D r i v e .  T h i s h a l l was b u i l t by  the Vancouver Parks Board a t t h e request Renfrew H e i g h t s .  A United  o f the people  of  C h u r c h i s l o c a t e d a t t h e n o r t h end  o f F a l a i s e Park. 2.  The E x i s t i n g  Conditions  i n 1965.  T h e r e a r e p r e s e n t l y 625 h o u s e s i n t h e Renfrew hood.  T h e s e encompass 8 d i f f e r e n t  many s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n d e t a i l .  ;  7lnformation  basic types  neighbour-  o f houses  with  The a r e a h a s 357 two-bedroom  from t h e Vancouver School  Board.  56 228  houses,  There are  a l s o 8 houses s p e c i a l l y  veterans^  and  1937  24  miscellaneous  t o 1945>-^ b e f o r e  lots  are  and  southeast  Most  of the  design  place.  The  generally w e l l maintained. feet  100  wide by  run from the  c e n t e r where t h e  internal  feet  Most  i n length.  northwest,  northeast  s c h o o l annex i s l o c a t e d .  o n l y l a w n and  g a r a g e s and  traffic  street  It facilitates  discourages  area  around  a few  t r e e s and  lacks  and p l a n t i n g .  closely.  no  33  parks  p a r k a r e a has  The  but  belt  to the  f o r paraplegic  the main development took  s m a l l , about  Three green  designed  houses.  h o u s e s w h i c h were b u i l t  h o u s e s a r e wood c o n s t r u c t i o n and o f the  8 four-bedroom  t h r e e - b e d r o o m h o u s e s and  through  b o u n d e d on  and  Two southwest  the  area. 3  shown on Map  traffic.  although area  a l l s i d e s by  access to the  c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the  cars are parked  difficulty,  i s light  system f o l l o w s P e r r y ' s  The  l a n d use  ( A p p e n d i x 3 Page  shopping  c o r n e r and  i s very  traffic quiet.  the  within The  the  area i s good  o f Renfrew'Neighbourhood i s 89)•  zones are l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the on  h o u s e s have  c r e a t i n g some  s t r e e t s which provide  east boundary.  9lbid. l O l n t erviews  curbs,  g e n e r a l l y the  arterial  neighbourhood  However most o f t h e  along the  itself  concept  with r e s i d e n t s of the  area.  area,  at  In a d d i t i o n to  the the  57  United  Church- w i t h i n t h e a r e a ,  there  i s a Pentecostal  a c r o s s B o u n d a r y Road and an A n g l i c a n east  D.  at the i n t e r s e c t i o n  The F i n d i n g s 1.  the  success  period the  the  of i t s planning.  o f an a r e a  Stability  The r e s u l t s  who  o f the survey  0 - 5  years  30%  6 - 1 0  »  33%  years  9*2  of the  indicates  years  Ownerships 33$  67%  Own  home.  longer  and up ..... 37%  Rent  have l i v e d  The  own t h e i r homes t h e h i g h e r i s  Average  The  i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  P e r i o d of Residences  10  b.  i s an i n d i c a t o r o f  the greater i s the s t a b i l i t y  and t h e more p e o p l e  a.  Neighbourhood  and t h e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e h o u s e .  period of residence  stability.  and S m i t h S t r e e t .  o f t h e Renfrew  degree o f s t a b i l i t y  of residence  district  C h u r c h one b l o c k f u r t h e r  and t h e i r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  The S t a b i l i t y  The  of l a u r e l  Church  findings indicate that t h e r e more t h a n  I t i s evident  seven out o f t e n f a m i l i e s  s i x years,  and 67% own t h e i r  own  t h a t t h e Renfrew n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s v e r y  58  stable and can be considered  quite successful i f s t a b i l i t y i s  used as a measure of i t s success.  However, the success of a  design i s not only dependent upon the s t a b i l i t y , but also upon other f a c t o r s such as the s t r e e t system, the parks and the schools. 2.  The Street System a.  The Function of the S t r e e t  Generally the f u n c t i o n of a street i s t o provide access and communication, and the more d i r e c t i s the s t r e e t , the more convenient i s the communication.  However, according to Perry's  theory the s t r e e t system i n a neighbourhood has an e x t r a f u n c t i o n , that i s , to discourage through t r a f f i c and thus reduce noise and accidents. b.  The Survey Findings  From the survey r e s u l t s , the w r i t e r found that most of the r e s i d e n t s p r e f e r the e x i s t i n g Renfrew s t r e e t layout t o thel gridiron street pattern.  Furthermore most of them l i k e the  safety and quietness of the neighbourhood. The r e s u l t s from the questionnaires a r e ; Renfrew Residents' Preference  Renfrew Street Layout  Like l Dislike :  80% 20%  G r i d i r o n Street Layout 30% 70%  59  These data i n d i c a t e that the e x i s t i n g s t r e e t layout i s successful and support t h i s aspect of Perry's concept.  The only  disadvantage w i t h t h i s type of s t r e e t layout i s that i t can be complex and confusing t o strangers i n the area. 3.  The E x t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s of the Renfrew  Neighbourhood  The success of an area i s not only dependent upon i t s i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , but also upon i t s convenient e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which can be measured by a c c e s s i b i l i t y , convenience t o p u b l i c t r a n s i t , and time-distance f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  The e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  shown by a c t i v i t i e s such as employment, major shopping and Question 6 attempts t o determine these r e l a t i o n s h i p s  recreation.  f o r the study area.  The r e s u l t s of question 6 are shown i n  Figure 4 (page 60), Figure 5 (page 6 l ) , Figure 6 (page 6 2 ) , and r e l a t e t o employment, major shopping and major r e c r e a t i o n respectively. Figure 4 shows the mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o work and the corresponding t r a v e l times f o r working people i n the neighbourhood.  I t was found that 62 per cent of those working t r a v e l  by car and 38 per cent t r a v e l by bus.  The average t r a v e l time  by car was seventeen minutes while by bus i t was t h i r t y - s e v e n minut e s.  Trayel__Time (Minutes)...  .so  Average 17 Minutes  Average 25 Minutes  .70  SO  SO O  • a  AO  D  B B  B|  B B|  ny I a O B B B I a a a aa |l B B B B B B| a a • |i a a a a a a a| a aa B a a o a a a al I  j30  l a B B B B a a a B B B B B B B B B B B k a B B B B a B B B B I  -2oi  B B  B  B  B  B  B  B  B  B  B  B  B  B B B B B B B B B B B B B B  B|  B U BBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBQ • BBBBBBBBBBBB  B  • B B B B B B B B B B B B ] I B B B B B B B B B B a a B B B B B B B B B B B B  IBBBBBBBBBBaa B B B B B B B B B B B B IBBBBBBBBBBBB B B B B B B B B B B B B IBBBBBBBBBBBB  iioL  .?.f.r.r.?.*.'.*.« '.'.* 1  • • a  T  62%  B  Bl B  a  .Wo  1  By  Car  Bus •  People T r a v e l l i n g t o Work -£or the -people- o f Renfrew Neighbourhood /  F i g u r e . 4 . T h e . M o d e o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and. T r a v e l Time t o .Work for. the People o f - t h e Renfrew Neighbourhood.  T r a v e l Time (Minutes) ' Average 7 Minutes  TO!  Average. 15.5 Minutes  Average 35 Minutes  70  .60  a • • B a • OB BB B B B B B E IB B 1  BO  B S C |B B a a B B B li B B B E B B • H E  .40  3  30]  f  B B B B  B  ,B "B S°  • a B AB B H B B B B B B B B B B B E B B B B B B B B B B B B B B 1 B B B B B B B 7*7-* B B B B B B B B O B B B B B a B a B a B • B • B B B B B B B B B B B • •:-: B B B B B B a :•:•» B B B B B B ( B B B B B B B >:-B B B B B B B ( .S;lB B B B B B B rl-f.'.'.'m'm'm'm' * )*B B B B B B B I I'lL' B B • B B B I B • 1 I  C  .30  UOL  14%  .Walking People.Travelling  B •  66%  By Car.  20%  By Bus .  to Shopping'Facilities.  F i g u r e ^ . _The Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a v e l Time t o Shopping F a c i l i t i e s "for the People . o f the Renfrew Neighbourhood, I'M'  62  T r a v e l Time (Minutes)  r  80  Average 7 . 6 Minutes  Average 20 Minutes  Average 31 Minutes  7.0  60  50 B  B  p  40  B  30  B B B B  B  a  I  a  1  B B I B B B B I  1  a s  U~B~HT u • a B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B • B B B B .-.•a B B O B B B B B B B B B B B B B B .0 B B B B B B B B B Vi B B B B B B B B B B VP B B B B B B B B B • •) B B B B B B B B B B .VO B B B B B B B B B .V BB B B B B B B B B ] "<B B B B B B B B B B 1.i B B B B O B B B B B • •0 B B B B B B B B B  20  >•t 0 to  B  :i.a..n 1 1 1,1 1 1 1 1  • • 29%  Walking  42%  . 29% -, "  1  1  i  By Car  By Bus  -•"  1  People T r a v e l l i n g - t o ..Reuireational Areas  F i g u r e 6,_  The Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a v e l Time t o R e c r e a t i o n a l Areas f o r the People of Renfrew Neighbourhood.  63  Figure 5 i n d i c a t e s that fourteen per cent of the people walk to shopping l o c a l l y and take an average of seven minutes to reach the s t o r e s ; twenty per cent of the people go by bus and reach the shopping center i n an average of t h i r t y - f i v e minutes; s i x t y - s i x per cent go by car and take an average of f i f t e e n and one h a l f minutes. The survey shows that forty-two per cent of the people do not go out f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  However,'Figure  6 demonstrates  that of those who do go out f o r r e c r e a t i o n , twenty-nine per cent walk to the r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n ; forty-two per cent d r i v e , and twenty-nine per cent take the bus.  E i t h e r walking or d r i v i n g  b r i n g s them to the d e s t i n a t i o n w i t h i n twenty minuteis while most of the t r i p s by bus take f o r t y - f i v e minutes. 4.  The Educational Aspect The convenience of school f a c i l i t i e s to homes i s quite  important, e s p e c i a l l y f o r elementary schools where the c h i l d r e n are i n the younger age groups.  Perry's concept v i s u a l i z e s the  school as being w i t h i n an easy walking distance of a l l the area that i t serves. Renfrew Elementary School and i t s annex serve an area bounded on the north by the Grandview Highway, on the east by Rupert S t r e e t , on the west by Boundary Road, and on the south by  64  T w e n t y - f i f t h Avenue, that i s , an area about one t h i r d l a r g e r than the Renfrew Neighbourhood development i t s e l f (Figure 7, page 65). Eighty-three per cent of the households have students, of which f o r t y - s i x point one per cent attend the elementary school, t h i r t y point nine per cent attend the j u n i o r high school and twenty-three per cent attend the senior high school. 5.  The Church Although there i s a United Church i n the neighbourhood  and s e v e r a l other churches j u s t outside the area, the r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y seems very s l i g h t ; 73*3 per cent of the people do not belong t o a church; of those who do go t o church h a l f of them go o c c a s i o n a l l y and h a l f of them go r e g u l a r l y once a week. The walking distance from home t o church i s g e n e r a l l y not more than f i f t e e n minutes.  Figure 8, page 66) shows the f i n d i n g s .  The  d e c l i n e of r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y i s a s o c i a l problem which i s not caused by l a c k o f churches but may be caused by the new urbanized life. 6.  The L o c a l Community Center The Renfrew Heights Community Center i s l o c a t e d at  292 East 22nd Avenue.  This Center serves a large area which i s  bounded by Kingsway on the south, F i r s t Avenue on the north  T r a v e l Time (Minutes).  TP  Average 8 . 7 Minutes  Average 14 Minutes  Average 16.6 Minutes  ISO  J30  B O B a B  a a! a a aa a a a B B S J n a a a B B B B ; H e KJ o B a .-j » a • a • o il J a a a a a •aannma UBet, 3a E n B B  J  ;  :  y l B B B B B B B B ]  i a a a a a  46.1%  Elementary School  30.9%. ••.  J u n i o r H.S..  23%. '  Senior-H.S.  Students Attending'' School  F i g u r e 7-__Travei_Times t o School f o r the Student o f the Renfrew" Neighbourhood. > ;  ana  T r a v e l Time (Minutes) 40_  Average 10 Minutes  " Average 9 Minutes  .38.  30_  -25.  .20.  Occasionally  Regularly  F i g u r e 8. __The_Travel _Time t o Church f o r the People of. Renfrew Neighbourhood.  67 F r a s e r S t r e e t on  t h e west and  R e n f r e w Community C e n t e r was iations an  and  indoor  eight the  or  twice  a week. study  The  area  Neighbourhood.  and  added i n Hall in  i s the  Originally and  a n (  has  ^  t h e way  average  14•4  The  of a c t i v i t i e s .  built  a month and  this  older  residents join this  e v e n know t h a t F a l a i s e  i s the  i n 1956  L o c a l Community  k i t c h e n were Falaise  does n o t  have much  d a n c e s i n t h e h a l l once  i n the  carried  on.  or Most  r e s i d e n t s d i d not  area.  Store  has  a r e a does n o t have a s t o r e  within  i t s t e r r i t o r y but  living  in this  within  a maximum o f f i f t e e n m i n u t e s w a l k i n g  can  house  caretaker's  1963-64.  s o c i a b l e but  Renfrew N e i g h b o u r h o o d  area  and  o n l y a c t i v i t y now  was  c e n t e r once  as a f i e l d  a c t i v i t y b u t many new  Hall  living  s e r v i n g Renfrew  auditorium  There are  or  6'0).  p»  d r e s s i n g rooms i n t o be  seven  has  m i n u t e s walk  o n l y a d i r e c t o r ' s room, a  twice  The  i s an  Community H a l l  p u b l i c washrooms.  195&-59  to t h i s  The assoc-  It  Some p e o p l e  a r e a go  i t was  i s a place f o r people  7.  1964-  study  F i g u r e 9,  (See  Hall  Renfrew Park,  suite,  Center  east.  six local  swimming p o o l , gymnasium, a u d i t o r i u m and  Renfrew N e i g h b o u r h o o d  the  or  the  opened on S e p t e m b e r 12,  officially  Falaise  for  b u i l t by f i v e  o t h e r rooms f o r games o r t e a c h i n g .  in  from  B o u n d a r y Road on  buy  s t o r e s on their  daily  i t s periphery. goods f r o m time.  People  local The  stores,  average  Travel_Time (Minutes)  68  , 70  Average T r a v e l Time 14.5 Minutes  BO .  41%  41%  18%  People. V i s i t i n g . Renf rew He rght s...Communityjpenter  F i g u r e 9»  1  The T r a v e l l i n g Time f o r People V i s i t i n g Neighbourhood ~~  Renfrew  t r a v e l time f o r l o c a l shopping i s seven minutes (see Figure 1 0 , p.6'9'a)'  Some people do not use the l o c a l store, but instead  order from a b i g company with a d a i l y d e l i v e r y t o the door. Some do not patronize t h i s convenient and g e n e r a l l y cheaper service because they p r e f e r an immediate choice of a wider v a r i e t y of goods.  The l o c a l stores s t i l l serve  73*4  per cent  of the people i n the area on an average frequency of three times a week. Another s i g n i f i c a n t feature of l o c a l shopping i s that the  small grocery store has d e c l i n e d and. l a r g e r stores have  come on t o the scene.  The l a r g e r food stores, such as Safeway,  K e l l e r s and Skidmore, have more v a r i e t y on t h e i r shelves and b e t t e r q u a l i t y at a f a i r and reasonable p r i c e .  People now can  f i l l most needs l o c a l l y and do not need t o go downtown t o shop. The Renfrew Heights area does not have a store w i t h i n i t s area, but rather the l o c a l stores have developed around the surrounding area.  This r e s u l t demonstrates that Perry's neigh-  bourhood u n i t scheme provides shopping f a c i l i t i e s i n i t s periphery, which i s both correct and p r a c t i c a l . 8.  L o c a l Park and Playground The Renfrew Neighbourhood area has two parks: one i s  Renfrew Park and the other i s F a l a i s e Park.  The l a t t e r was  T r a v e l Time (Minutes)  .70  Average 7 Minutes  so  30  IO  59%  /  . 23%  '  18%  -  People Shopping at L o c a l  Stores  \  F i g u r e 10. The T r a v e l Time t o L o c a l Stores f o r the People o f "~ Renfrew" Neighbourhood.  70  separated i n t o two p a r t s , one back of the school and the other to the east of i t . i n the park.  There i s no unusual design or landscaping  F a l a i s e was planted w i t h t r e e s l a s t year.  People  l i v i n g i n the area have a good-sized park and playground but are not very much drawn to the park although the c h i l d r e n do go there to play every day i n the summer, not because of the scenery but because of the playground where they can play b a s e b a l l . seven per cent of the neighbourhood Figure 11  (page 71)  Forty-  people use the l o c a l parks.  shows the frequency w i t h which the people  use the l o c a l parks. 9.  The V i s i t i n g A c t i v i t i e s People are s o c i a l beings, whose s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t  t h e i r l i f e pattern.  The kind of l i f e p a t t e r n people p r e f e r i s  r e l a t e d to geographical, s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s . Types of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are d i f f e r e n t f o r people i n d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , c r e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t l i f e p a t t e r n s . People l i v i n g i n Renfrew Neighbourhood have a very complex p a t t e r n of s o c i a l activities.  S y n t h e s i z i n g the survey f i n d i n g s , three major  phenomena were found.  F i r s t , t r a v e l time f o r v i s i t i n g v a r i e s  i n v e r s e l y w i t h the number of times that a person v i s i t s (see Figure 12, p. ? 2 ) .  Secondly, the closeness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the number of v i s i t s (see Figure 13, p. 73)*  T h i r d l y , the patterns of the  Times.... Per Week  71 Average 3 . 4 Times  .7  6  36% 1  14% •  11  36%  14%  '  .People_Visitirig...Lp.cal„P.aiks..... ,  Figure  .The Frequency w i t h which the People.of Renfrew " " Neighbourhood Use t h e i r L o c a l Park." >  Travel.Time. (Minutes)  72  _1  IO  2  .Number of S o c i a O i s i t s  F i g u r e 12".  per..Month..  The_ R e l a t i o n s h i p between T r a v e l Time and jbhe..Number of S o c i a l V i s i t s per Month f o r the People of Renfrew Neighbourhood. i  Number of V i s i t s  Increasing-Intensity  of Friendship or Kinship  \  Figure  1 3 . The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Number o f S o c i a l V i s i t s peT--Month-an-d-the—Intensi'ty"of"Friendship o r K i n s h i p .  74 location always  of friends  consider neighbours  c a n be n e i g h b o u r s The  differ  from  as f r i e n d s .  but neighbours  w r i t e r was c u r i o u s a b o u t  so.  People  said  that  others to discuss t h e i r  private  about  their  our neighbours. affairs,  own t o o t h e r s .  other."  have l i v e d  Another  10.  friends".  point  was  our f r i e n d s  People  do n o t l i k e  n o r do t h e y l i k e t o  f o r a cup o f t e a .  i s that  some p e o p l e  that  We h a r d l y of this  area  t o g e t h e r f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s , and b e i n g v e t e r a n s , These p e r s o n s  and c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t y p i c a l  of rural  have t h e "we" people.  Reasons f o r p e o p l e c h o o s i n g t o l i v e i n Renfrew Neighbourhood People  including attempts  "friends  I t i s o n l y once i n a w h i l e  have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r . feeling  do n o t  comment and a s k e d why t h i s  we g e t t o g e t h e r w i t h o u r n e i g h b o u r s know e a c h  I n o t h e r words,  "we know many t h i n g s a b o u t about  People  are not n e c e s s a r i l y  this  b u t we know v e r y l i t t l e  talk  person to person.  choose  to live  i n an a r e a f o r many  those  a l r e a d y mentioned  to find  why t h e p e o p l e  Renfrew Neighbourhood. classified a.  into  The s o c i a l  The r e s u l t s  aspect.  chosen of this  People  t h e y would l i k e  The e c o n o m i c than  have  chapter. to live  Question 5 i nthe  q u e s t i o n c a n be  two a s p e c t s a s f o l l o w s :  veterans, b.  i n this  reasons,  aspect.  other areas.  thought  that  being  t o be t o g e t h e r .  Rent and t a x a t i o n were  lower  75  E.  The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Survey Findings and the Hypothesis The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the survey f i n d i n g s i s as f o l l o w s : 1.  The r e s u l t s show the Renfrew area t o be very s t a b l e .  2.  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e the e x i s t i n g street system i s quite successful.  3.  The Renfrew neighbourhood  area has easy access and good  roads t o l i n k i t with the surrounding area. k*  The Renfrew Neighbourhood area not only has an adequate elementary school w i t h i n i t s boundaries but a l s o has Windermere High School near by. People l i v i n g i n t h i s area have no d i f f i c u l t y with regard t o education f o r their children.  5.  Generally speaking, people i n t h i s area are not associated to any great extent with the churches.  6.  Some people, but not a l l , use the l o c a l community center as a place f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .  7.  The Renfrew Neighbourhood area has no l o c a l store w i t h i n i t s area but there are enough l o c a l stores i n the adjacent area t o meet people's needs.  8.  The Renfrew Neighbourhood area has a good-sized park and playground, but t h i s i s not very w e l l  9.  equipped.  Many people are i n c l i n e d not to associate s o c i a l l y with t h e i r neighbours.  76  10.  Many of the people chose t o l l i v e i n Renfrew neighbourhood because they had common i n t e r e s t s and wanted to be together; others were a t t r a c t e d by the cheap rent and low taxes of t h i s area over other areas. From the above i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the survey f i n d i n g s ,  the Renfrew Neighbourhood area i s considered quite s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s p h y s i c a l aspects, such as the s t r e e t system, easy access, good linkage w i t h other areas, convenient schools, churches, community center, parks and playgrounds; but i t i s not considered e f f e c t i v e i n i t s s o c i a l aspects, such as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n church or community center a c t i v i t i e s , and only l i m i t e d s o c i a l contact between neighbours.  From these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the survey  f i n d i n g s , the w r i t e r ' s hypothesis -- "that the a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's neighbourhood u n i t theory i n Vancouver i s . n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s s o c i a l aspect but i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s p h y s i c a l aspect" i s proved  correct.  77  CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A.  The Summary The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to t r y to prove the pre-  supposed hypothesis " t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's neighbourhood scheme i n Vancouver i s not s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s s o c i a l aspect but i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s p h y s i c a l aspect". In order to v a l i d a t e the hypothesis a f u l l  understanding  of Perry's neighbourhood theory and i t s scheme i s needed. the h i s t o r i c a l aspects were reviewed.  First,  Perry was i n f l u e n c e d by  urban s o c i o l o g i s t s , the community center movement, and a f i r s t hand experience of l i v i n g i n a s u c c e s s f u l neighbourhood. Perry's theory and i t s scheme was described, and i t was  Second, found  that i t s goal i s to e s t a b l i s h a pleasant, convenient, and healthy r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t which w i l l generate and maintain, face-to-face s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the people.  T h i r d , the d i v e r s i f i e d  v a r i a t i o n s i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's theory and i t s scheme were summarized. Perry's concept envisaged a s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v i n g the neighbourhood and the c i t y .  Others have enlarged upon the  hierarchy of steps w i t h i n the o v e r a l l community s t r u c t u r e .  78  Clarence S t e i n increased the number of steps i n the hierarchy by advocating small neighbourhoods, groups of neighbourhoods or d i s t r i c t s , and the c i t y . Walter Gropius gives an intermediate u n i t between d w e l l i n g and neighbourhood, by advocating that the h i e r a r c h y should be d w e l l i n g , apartment block or superhousehold,  neigh-  bourhood, and town. The U.S.S.R. has a s i m i l a r hierarchy to that which S t e i n has given.  I t i s d w e l l i n g s , m i c r o - d i s t r i c t (the same as the  neighbourhood), r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t (three or four  neighbourhoods),  •and the c i t y . The Witwatersrand  U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i t e c t u r a l ISchool i n  South A f r i c a suggests the most complex system i n v o l v i n g d w e l l i n g , housing u n i t , neighbourhood u n i t , community u n i t and town. A l l the v a r i a t i o n s suggest d i f f e r e n t ways of applying Perry's theory.  V a r i a t i o n s are unnecessary i n applying the  neighbourhood scheme to a small c i t y , but c e r t a i n v a r i a t i o n s are needed i n a l a r g e c i t y .  Planners w i l l make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s  i n applying Perry's theory. C r i t i c i s m s of Perry's theory i n d i c a t e two main p o i n t s  —  one r e l a t e d to i t s s o c i a l aspects and the other to i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . The d e f i c i e n c y of Perry's theory i n i t s s o c i a l aspect i s due to  79  the mistake that Perry makes i n t r y i n g to l e t the urban people have a r u r a l - t y p e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Perry's scheme a c t u a l l y  provides a b e t t e r environment f o r a face-to-face s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ship but urban people have a d i f f e r e n t l i f e p a t t e r n , and do not l i v e i n the same way as r u r a l people.  This i s a s o c i a l problem  which perhaps can eventually be solved by s o c i o l o g i s t s and geographers.  The a p p l i c a t i o n of any theory should be based  p r i m a r i l y on i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y .  A theory i s  only responsible f o r i t s consistency w i t h i n i t s e l f , but i t s r e a l i z a t i o n l i e s with the planners. Perry's theory was analyzed and evaluated item by item i n order t o obtain a b e t t e r understanding  of i t and to determine  whether i t i s s t i l l u s e f u l . A summary of some of the various aspects of the concept are as f o l l o w s : 1.  The S t r e e t System A neighbourhood u n i t bounded on a l l sides by a r t e r i a l  s t r e e t s , with s u f f i c i e n t width t o f a c i l i t a t e bypassing, i s a very good idea and provides good linkage with other areas.  The  i n t e r n a l s t r e e t system, designed t o f a c i l i t a t e c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the nieghbourhood u n i t and to discourage i t s use by through t r a f f i c , i s another good feature which gives a safe and quiet environment.  80  2.  Residential F a c i l i t i e s A neighbourhood i s an area f o r l i v i n g and should  encompass d i f f e r e n t kinds of residences t o meet the people's needs.  A neighbourhood u n i t scheme should provide a convenient  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s and other functional units. 3.  Church A r e s i d e n t i a l area should provide the necessary f u n c t i o n s  f o r the people.  Nowadays the pressures of competition drive  people to the breaking p o i n t .  People go to church to f i n d  strength and f a i t h , t o conquer t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , and t o release t h e i r tensions.  I t i s concluded that a neighbourhood should have  adequate church f a c i l i t i e s . 4.  Shopping Center People have d a i l y needs which can be catered t o by having  l o c a l shops nearby.  Formerly, a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t always had  a few corner stores t o supply people w i t h d a i l y goods. l a s t twenty years, many stores have organized themselves one area which became a shopping center.  I n the into  Perry had t h i s idea  t h i r t y years ago, and t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n of Perry's theory should be appreciated. 5.  Recreation Recreation i s an important aspect of people's needs.  81 There are many kinds of r e c r e a t i o n , but these can be l i m i t e d to two p a r t i c u l a r types, one p h y s i c a l and one c u l t u r a l .  The  play-  grounds and parks i n a neighbourhood provide f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , and the community center provides f o r both p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n —  indoor games, sports, c r e a t i v e  expression i n a r t s and c r a f t s , e t c .  A community center i s a  good s o c i a l center and contributes to the development of cultural pursuits.  The community center helps to o f f s e t any  l a c k of community f a c i l i t i e s i n the elementary i s l o c a t e d i n the same area.  school, which  Perry suggested c l u s t e r i n g a l l  the important functions at the center of a neighbourhood, not only f o r p h y s i c a l convenience to the people but also f o r economic reasons. A f t e r the a n a l y s i s of Perry's neighbourhood theory and i t s scheme, a survey of the Renfrew neighbourhood of Vancouver C i t y was c a r r i e d out as an example of the neighbourhood u n i t concept. B.  The  Conclusion From the above c a r e f u l study the w r i t e r found the  f o l l o w i n g to be t r u e : 1.  Perry's Neighbourhood theory and i t s scheme are consistent within  itself.  82 2.  Perry's theory i s s t i l l a p p l i c a b l e and quite u s e f u l .  3.  The manner i n which Perry's theory i s a p p l i e d i s very c r i t i c a l to i t s success. The a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of Perry's theory and i t s  scheme already supports the f i r s t p o i n t ; the survey of the Renfrew neighbourhood demonstrates that Perry's theory i s s t i l l u s e f u l but some defects caused by i t s method of a p p l i c a t i o n require greater c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Since the a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's neighbourhood theory and i t s scheme i n Vancouver i s not s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s s o c i a l aspects, should we t r y to apply t h i s theory and scheme f u r t h e r ? Nowadays, people are very busy, independent and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . For example, they work eight hours a day, f i v e days a week r e g u l a r l y ; they work f o r wages and need no help from anyone; and they have s u f f i c i e n t money to meet t h e i r everyday needs. These f a c t o r s allow people to be more independent.  People  l i v i n g i n an urban area have many and v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s i n recreation.  They have v a r i e d educational backgrounds; some may  have v o c a t i o n a l or c o l l e g e education, some may l e a r n s o c i a l science, some pure science, some engineering.  They may have  d i f f e r e n t philosophies or b e l i e f s , and many may b e l i e v e i n God but few go to church; a few of them t r u s t i n t h e i r own but most depend on f a t e .  efforts  Urban people are very complex and  83  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s even more complex.  A neighbourhood i s a  r e s i d e n t i a l area f o r -which an environment should be provided t o meet these requirements. The way t o meet complex requirements i s t o provide a maximum v a r i e t y of f a c i l i t i e s f o r them.  It i s  concluded from the case study that Perry's Neighbourhood Unit does provide an adequate range of f a c i l i t i e s . The a n a l y s i s of the d e t a i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's Neighbourhood Unit theory and i t s scheme can be c l a s s i f i e d as follows: 1.  The Street System The design of the Renfrew Neighbourhood's s t r e e t system  i s overdone and could have been s i m p l i f i e d and s t i l l have f a c i l i t a t e d c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the u n i t and disoouraged through traffic.  The a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s bounding the area would have been  b e t t e r as boulevards, making a green b e l t t o exclude much of the noise of the t r a f f i c . 2.  Size Since i t i s commonly acknowledged that c h i l d r e n can spend  up t o t h i r t y minutes walking to school, then the s i z e of both school and neighbourhood could be l a r g e r .  I f a h a l f mile radius  c i r c l e i s used as the neighbourhood area, t h i s would be four times as b i g as Perry's suggestion of a quarter mile r a d i u s .  84 A l a r g e r area could support b e t t e r equipment f o r the school, b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s i n the neighbourhood, such as an indoor swimming p o o l , gymnasium, auditorium and studio i n the community center; g o l f l i n k s i n the park, and more equipment i n the playground.  The b e t t e r the equipment of the school, the higher  the school standard.  The greater the v a r i e t y of the f a c i l i t i e s ,  the more people w i l l use them.  In a d d i t i o n , as the s i z e of the  neighbourhood increases, population i n c r e a s e s , and provides more q u a l i f i e d leaders to generate more s o c i a l 3.  activities.  Church Before s t a r t i n g t o l a y out the neighbourhood plan the  planner should make a survey of the people who w i l l be l i v i n g i n the area and reserve at l e a s t one s i t e f o r a church, even i f the survey proves t h a t there i s no immediate need. 4.  Shopping Center Shopping centers are becoming l a r g e r and more complex  than a few years ago. A l a r g e r shopping center means a l a r g e r trade area.  Locating the shopping center on the circumference  of the u n i t , at the t r a f f i c  j u n c t i o n s and adjacent t o s i m i l a r  a d j o i n i n g neighbourhoods, as Perry suggests, i s considered s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r a l a r g e r s i z e d neighbourhood. 5.  Park and Playground Parks and playgrounds  should be w e l l equipped and  85 designed,  and n o t s i m p l y  have i n t e r e s t i n g , lawns,  spaces.  a park  benches, barbecues, f i r e p l a c e s ,  should  provide  a small  space f o r p r e - s c h o o l  b.  apparatus f o r older c h i l d r e n ; space f o r i n f o r m a l  a surfaced handball,  e.  area  e t c . Neighbourhood  f o r court  children —  games,  s u c h as t e n n i s ,  f o r games such a s s o f t b a l l ,  g.  a s h e l t e r and change b u i l d i n g w i t h  pool;  facilities,  drinking fountains,  q u i e t games, i n s t r u c t i o n , these  activities  out  i n t h e community  the  playground.  i s more e a s i l y  washing  and p e r h a p s an  crafts,  which  area  etc; —  should  carried adjoin  be u s e d more i n t e n s i v e l y i f  v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s  contact  toilets,  are o f t e n b e t t e r  center,  P a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s w i l l a greater  touch  mass games, e t c .  a wading  although  tot lots;  play;  f.  for  play  volleyball, etc.;  a playing f i e l d football,  picnic  the followings^  a.  d.  should  w i n d i n g p a t h w a y s , b e a u t i f u l t r e e s , f l o w e r s and  c. an open  Social  F o r example,  c l e a r p o o l s , b r o o k s , w a t e r f a l l s and f o u n t a i n s ;  tables, areas  open  are provided.  generated through r e c r e a t i o n than  I D e r i v e d f r o m A m e r i c a n P u b l i c 'Health A s s o c i a t i o n , P l a n n i n g t h e Neighbourhood, P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , Chicago^ 1 9 4 8 , p . 48.  86  through a s s o c i a t i o n s of working or h e l p i n g .  Recreational  f a c i l i t i e s are becoming c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n a neighbourhood. One  of the grounds on which Perry's theory has been  most s e r i o u s l y c r i t i c i z e d i s that the concept promotes segrega t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on r a c i a l grounds.  However.there i s  no concrete evidence to support t h i s c r i t i c i s m .  The  racial  problems are s o c i a l ones going beyond the layout patterns of communities, and are l i k e l y to be as s i g n i f i c a n t with other layout patterns as w i t h hhis one of P e r r y ' s .  P r i o r to a  comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the whole subject, the had t r i e d to f i n d reasons to oppose Perry.  Now  author  i t i s con-  cluded that Perry's theory i s s t i l l very u s e f u l i n our complex, changing urban way of l i f e .  The w r i t e r does not agree with  the s o c i a l goal of Perry's concept, but supports the theory because i t i s very f u n c t i o n a l and provides the maximum p o s s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s i n a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e s i d e n t i a l environment.  The  a p p l i c a t i o n of hhis valuable theory i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner i s a c r i t i c a l operation; l a c k of understanding  w i l l introduce b i a s ;  improper a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l produce a nonfunctional u n i t ; and  any  over-emphasis or l a c k of a t t e n t i o n i n c e r t a i n of i t s d e t a i l s w i l l d i s t u r b i t s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d character.  However, i t may  be con-  cluded that i n s e n s i t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of the theory i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the f a u l t of the theory  itself.  88 Appendix 2 nooe  seoo E  SSOOE  s4oo e  I  f \, yv. / •i  M  Ii• 1  School  "l"  •fail  l«  PUT  «M« M » » * • I M M l l l  T CKtlNECRINO  MtlHUI M • C I - t . l i t l l l M PM  i  \sv '-" lr  SSOOE  Church  Communi t y H a l l  Gas  Park  Residence  Map  |  TWENTY-SECOND  Station  It  OCPARTWEHT, VANCOUVER, 1.0.  f M tPPf <# « . » < • « » • •  r ' r Fisf  \t l  3400 E  V//////A  1  M  >  'I.' SSOOE.  i  A . It  2. The Land Use o f Renf rev'Neighbourhood  • • • • r  liiilil  T  89  Appendix 3 3400 E  5300 E  3400 E  S500E  3300E  Legend. 1. Interview Locations 2. Location of Questionnaire Response  ItaLC  l«  P U T  TNI •)•» « a f ( • • • a l l • *  ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, VANCOUVER, B.C. I M CITY Of MMCOUVI* a l l U M I l H« « I N * H i l L I T * • » » TMC c w i C K i i i or « F O » M » I I O « • H O W  Map 3. The Survey Map of Renfrew Neighbourhood  90  APPENDIX 4. A.  The l e t t e r attached to the questionnaire Fort Camp, U.B • C o, Vancouver 8,  B.C.  Dear S i r or Madam: I am undertaking a study i n an attempt to evaluate Perry's Neighbourhood Unit Theory - a standard scheme i n designing urban neighbourhoods - as part of the requirement f o r a degree i n Community and Regional Planning at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Your neighbourhood i s an example of one designed according to Perry's theory. The boundaries of your neighbourhood are: Grandview Highway on the north, Twenty-second Avenue on the south, Rupert Street to the west and Boundary Road to the east. This survey i s an attempt to study c e r t a i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and the opinions of the people concerning the d e s i r a b i l i t y of l i v i n g i n t h i s area. The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey w i l l be u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l development i n other areas of the Vancouver area. I would very much appreciate i t i f you would complete the attached questionnaire .and r e t u r n i t i n the stamped s e l f addressed envelope which I have provided. No names or addresses of any i n d i v i d u a l s answering the questionnaire w i l l be mentioned i n the study. I t i s only meant to show the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and the a t t i t u d e s of the r e s i d e n t s of t h i s area. Sincerely, Frank C C . Wang, Graduate Student, Community and Regional Planning, U.B.C  B. Questionnaires of Survey 1. 2. 3.  How Long have you l i v e d i n the present house? Do you own your house? . Do you l i k e the o v e r a l l street. layout?  4. 5.  Would you p r e f e r a g r i d i r o n street system? Why do you l i k e l i v i n g here? The reasons are:  6.  a. b. d. f.  Near Near Near Near  to to to to  place of employment school . c. Near park . e. Near shopping center . g.  h.  Good neighbours  j.  Other reasons  .  .91 . .  . to playground to church Good environment  i . Convenient p u b l i c transit  .  Please complete the t a b l e t o i n d i c a t e : a. The names of places where you work, shop and play outside your neighbourhood. b. c. d.  The method of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n you use. The time i t takes t o go there from your home. The distance from your home.  Activity  Employment  Major Shopping  Recreation  A. Location . B. Travel time (Minutes) C. Method o f Transportation D. Distance (Mile) 7.  A. B. C. D. E.  I f you have c h i l d r e n attending school, please complete the t a b l e below: Elementary Junior Senior High School School High School Name of school No. o f c h i l d r e n T r a v e l time from home to school Method of t r a n s portation Distance from home to school  Questionnaire  92  - 2 -  8.  I f you use the f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n s i d e your neighbourhood please complete the t a b l e below: Facility  Church  Local Community Center  Local Community L o c a l Store Park  Local Playground  A. Name B. Distance from home (mile) C. Method of t r a n s portation D. Travel time from home (minutes) E. Frequency (per week) F. "Reasons: 1. Convenient 2. Good q u a l i t y 3 . Others 9.  V i s i t s : On the t a b l e below please give information about the l o c a t i o n of your good neighbors, r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s whom you v i s i t r e g u l a r l y . D i s t r i c t of l o c a t i o n  No. monthly  visits  Travel time from home (minutes) Method of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Distance (miles) from home.  93 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Abercrombie, P a t t r i c k , Greater London Plan 1944, London H.M.S.O. 1945 Uses the"community as a basic u n i t i n r e g i o n a l planning.  2.  Adams, Frederick J . ' " S h a l l We Ration Crowding?", The Technology Review,- V o l . XLv, No. 7, May, 1943, pp. 368-7°. Recommends o v e r - a l l standards of maximum population density to meet the worst conditions of land crowding, emphasizing l i m i t a t i o n on high d e n s i t i e s imposed by p r o v i s i o n of adequate, f a c i l i t i e s and open spaces. Adams, Thomas. Design of R e s i d e n t i a l Areas: Basic Considerat i o n s , P r i n c i p l e s and Methods. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1934, 295 P P « , i l l u s . , maps, plans, t a b l e s , charts, diagrams. (Harvard C i t y Planning Studies No. 6.) H i s t o r i c a l background, a n a l y s i s of basic p r i n c i p l e s involved i n s i t e planning, and examples of outstanding neighbourhood plans.  3«  4»  A d v e r t i s i n g Service G u i l d . An Inquiry i n t o People's Homes. A Report Prepared by Mass-Observation f o r the G u i l d . London: John Murray, 1943, 228 pp., charts, diagrams, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment and the dwelling u n i t desired by B r i t i s h people, as determined by l a r g e scale i n t e r v i e w i n g procedure.  5.  Agg, Thomas, R. The Construction of Roads and Pavements. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1940, 483 pp., i l l u s . Moderately t e c h n i c a l presentation of basic p r i n c i p l e s of s t r e e t and highway design and engineering.  6.  A l s c h u l e r , Rose H. Children's Centers. New York: National Commission f o r Young C h i l d r e n , 1942, 165 pp., i l l u s . Outlines d e s i r a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , programs, s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , housing and equipment f o r c h i l d r e n ' s centers.  7.  American A s s o c i a t i o n of School Administrators, Commission on T r a f f i c Safety. Safety Education. Eighteenth Yearbook, Washington: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1940, 544 pp. Safety requirements i n l o c a t i n g , planning and equipping school b u i l d i n g s .  94  8.  American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . Standards and Planning f o r P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . Chicago; The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1944, 12 pp. Concise statement on"the s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s , s i z e , s t a f f and f i n a n c i a l report necessary f o r a good l i b r a r y .  9.  American M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n , American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n . A c t i o n f o r C i t i e s ; A Guide f o r Community Planning. Chicago: P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Service, 1943, 77 pp., maps, diagrams". ( P u b l i c a t i o n No. 86.) Guide to comprehensive community planning. Section 300 i s e s p e c i a l l y pertinent t o community s e r v i c e s and facilities.  10.  American P u b l i c Health A s s o c i a t i o n , Committee on Community Organization f o r Health Education. Community Organizat i o n f o r Health Education. Cambridge, Mass.: The Technology Press, 1941, 120 pp., ' charts. Organizations and s e r v i c e s f o r h e a l t h programs, e s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d t o r u r a l communities.  11.  ; _, Planning the Neighbourhood, P u b l i c Admini s t r a t i o n Service, Chicago, 1948. Gives a complete l i s t of equipment f o r a park and play area.  12.  , Committee on the Hygiene of Housing. An A p p r a i s a l Method f o r Measuring the Q u a l i t y of Housing. Part I , Nature and Uses of the Method. New York: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1945, 71 pp., i l l u s . , charts. Outline of method f o r c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s and a p p r a i s a l of housing and i t s environment.  13»  , Op. c i t . Part I I I , A p p r a i s a l of Neighborhood Environment, New York: The A s s o c i a t i o n . In press, 1948. D e t a i l e d procedure f o r appraising the neighborhood environment.  14-  , . Basic P r i n c i p l e s of H e a l t h f u l Housing. 2d ed. New"York: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1939, 31 P P « P h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n the planning of housing some neighbourhood and community aspects.  99  15 •  » . Housing f o r Health. (Papers presented under the auspices of the Committee.). Lancaster, Pa.: Science Press P r i n t i n g Co., 1941? 221 pp., charts, diagrams. Standards of housing i n r e l a t i o n to h e a l t h ; a c o l l e c t i o n of papers on d i f f e r e n t aspects of housing and h e a l t h .  16.  , __. . Subcommittee on "Home S a n i t a t i o n . "Problems of Water Supply and Sewage D i s p o s a l i n the S e l e c t i o n of Housing S i t e s , " The American C i t y , October, 1941, pp. 67-69. Summary of b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of s a n i t a t i o n i n connection with p u b l i c or i n d i v i d u a l water supply and sewage i n s t a l l a t i o n s .  17.  American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Neighbourhood Boundaries, Planning Advisory Service Information Report No. 141, Chicago, 1961, p. 8. Evaluation of Perry's neighbourhood theory.  18.  Anon. " D i s t r i c t Heating", Journal of the Town Planning I n s t i t u t e , V o l . XXXIII, No. 1, November-December, 1946, pp. 15-16.  Summary of present p r a c t i c e s i n community heating i n England.  19.  Anon. ' "Microclimatology: A B i g Word •"for the Study of Small-size .Weather", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. March, 1947pp. 114-19, i l l u s . . . . Observations and f a c t s regarding the e f f e c t of l o c a l c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s on housing and s i t e planning.  20.  Anon. " O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Sunshine". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, June, 1938, pp. 18-22, i l l u s . , diagrams. S o l a r mechanics and some conclusions regarding o r i e n t a t i o n based on a v a r i e t y of research undertakings.  21.  Anon. "Planned Neighbourhoods f o r 194X." Eight a r t i c l e s on neighbourhood planning. A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. October, 1943. E n t i r e issue devoted to I .this problem. S p e c i a l items on l a n d Planning, Shopping Centers, Schools, S t r e e t l i g h t i n g , Landscaping, T r a f f i c , Playgrounds and A n a l y s i s of Obsolescent Neighborhoods.  96' 22.  Anon. " P u b l i c Health Centers", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, J u l y , 1942, pp. 63-78, i l l u s . , . p l a n s . A n a l y s i s and suggested standards f o r several types of h e a l t h centers.and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the community.  23.  Anon. "Shopping Centers — A Neighborhood Necessity". B r i e f Summary of Findings of the Community B u i l d e r s ' C o u n c i l . Urban Land, September and October-November, 1944/ i l l u s . Standards f o r shopping centers, s i z e , l o c a t i o n , population served and other r e l a t i o n s t o r e s i d e n t i a l . areas.  24«  Jtaasni. "Shopping F a c i l i t i e s i n Wartime", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, October, 1942, pp. 62-78, i l l u s . , plans, diagrams. Shopping f a c i l i t i e s standards f o r war housing projects.  25.  Anon. "What C o n s t i t u t e s M u n i c i p a l Refuse?" The American C i t y . June, 1947,'pp. 102-3. Summary of municipal garbage and refuse d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s f o r 25 c i t i e s .  26.  B a b b i t t , Harold E.. Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1946, 692 pp. Standard reference on the design, construction and operation of sewage d i s p o s a l works. Bauer, Catherine. "Good Neighborhoods", The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science, November, 1945, pp. 104-15* A n a l y t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f neighborhood from s o c i o l o g i c a l point of view. A r t i c l e f a v o r i n g d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n neighborhoods and against segregation and race d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from the s o c i a l point of view.  27-  28.  Black, R u s s e l l Van Nest. Planning f o r the Small American C i t y : An Outline of P r i n c i p l e s and Procedure E s p e c i a l l y A p p l i c a b l e t o the C i t y of F i f t y Thousand or Less. Chicago: P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Service., 1944, 36 pp., i l l u s . , diagrams. ( P u b l i c a t i o n No. 87.) A manual on making and c a r r y i n g out the small c i t y plan and on the p r i n c i p a l elements of the p l a n .  97 29•  Blackman, A l l a n . "Planning and the Integrated School", Integrated Education, V o l . 11, No. 4, August-September, 1 9 6 4 . G i v i n g b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i n designing schools.  30.  Branch, M e l v i l l e C., J r . Urban Planning and P u b l i c Opinion; N a t i o n a l Survey Research I n v e s t i g a t i o n . P r i n c e t o n : Bureau of Urban Research, 1942, 87 P P « , maps, diagrams. (Research S e r i e s No. 1.) - A n a t i o n a l research survey p o l l i n g p u b l i c opinion on housing and neighborhoods — "neighborhood s a t i s f a c t i o n s . "  31.  B u i l d i n g Research Board, A c o u s t i c s Committee, M i n i s t r y of Works. Sound I n s u l a t i o n and A c o u s t i c s . London: H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1944, 80 pp., charts, i l l u s . (Post-War B u i l d i n g Studies No. 14.) . Acoustics standards, w i t h chapters on transmission and c o n t r o l of outdoor noises.  32.  -  , L i g h t i n g Committee, M i n i s t r y of Works, The L i g h t i n g of B u i l d i n g s . London: H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1944, I64 pp., charts, i l l u s . (Post-War B u i l d i n g Studies No. 1 2 . ) Daylight and sunlight standards.-  33-  B u t l e r , George D. New Play Areas: Their Design and Equipment. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1938, 242 pp., illus. P r i n c i p l e s , standards and d e t a i l e d requirements f o r the design of playgrounds, p l a y f i e l d s and other r e c r e a t i o n areas.  34»  C e n t r a l Housing Advisory Committee, M i n i s t r y of Health* Design of Dwellings. London: H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e 1944, 75 pp., plans, t a b l e s . Recommendations as t o postwar design, planning, l a y o u t , standards of c o n s t r u c t i o n and equipment of housing and of r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods.  35.  Chicago Plan Commission. B u i l d i n g New Neighborhoods: S u b d i v i s i o n Design and Standards. Chicago: The Commission, 1943, 44 P P « , i l l u s . , maps, diagrams. Comprehensive guide f o r s u b d i v i s i o n , planning and l e g i s l a t i o n ; based to considerable extent on FHA practices.  36.  C h u r c h i l l , H e n r y S. and R o s l y n I t t l e s o n . N e i g h b o r h o o d D e s i g n and C o n t r o l . An A n a l y s i s o f t h e P r o b l e m s o f Planned S u b d i v i s i o n s . New Y o r k : The N a t i o n a l Committee on H o u s i n g , I n c . , 1 9 4 4 , 39 pp. A s t u d y o f "The o b s t a c l e s p r e v e n t i n g t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f ' p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s ' as w e l l as some o f t h e i r e s s e n t i a l requirements".  37*  and • W i l l i a m H. L u d l o w . D e n s i t i e s i n New Y o r k C i t y , R e p o r t t o C i t i z e n s ' H o u s i n g C o u n c i l by Committee on C i t y ' P l a n n i n g and Z o n i n g . New Y o r k ? The C o u n c i l , 1 9 4 4 , 1 0 2 pp. c h a r t s . T e c h n i c a l study of urban p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to c i t y planning, i n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of measurement m e t h o d s . C r i t e r i a on d e s i r a b l e c i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h e a l t h f a c t o r s and o t h e r s t a n d a r d s more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o New Y o r k C i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s .  38.  C i t i z e n s ' H o u s i n g C o u n c i l o f New Y o r k , Committee on New H o u s i n g . • R e p o r t and Recommendations. New Y o r k : 1 9 3 8 , 19 - 46 pp., t a b l e s . Mimeo. P r o p o s e d s t a n d a r d s f o r community d e s i g n and o p e r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o work, s h o p p i n g and t o u r b a n f a c i l i t i e s generally. Standards f o r design of s t r u c t u r e and s i t e i n c l u d e d .  39«  The  40.  Codes o f P r a c t i c e Committee f o r C i v i l Engineering, P u b l i c W o r k s and B u i l d i n g , M i n i s t r y o f W o r k s . British S t a n d a r d Code o f P r a c t i c e CPs 1944:. I n t e r i m Code o f F u n c t i o n a l R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r D w e l l i n g s and Schools. Chapter K A ) , Daylight". London: B r i t i s h Standards I n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 4 4 , 38 pp., d i a g r a m s , c h a r t s . D e a l s with the o v e r r i d i n g f u n c t i o n a l requirements. P r o v i d e s g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : S t a n d a r d s , D e s i g n s and S i t i n g o f B u i l d i n g s . Appendices give t a b l e s , d a y l i g h t f a c t o r p r o t r a c t o r s . , Op. c i t . C h a p t e r I I I , P r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t N o i s e, London: I B r i t i s h S t a n d a r d s I n s t i t u t i o n , 1944, 17 pp.,- c h a r t s . M e t h o d s o f sound i n s u l a t i o n a g a i n s t o u t d o o r and indoor noises.  '-9%  41.  , B r i t i s h Standard Code of P r a c t i c e CPS: 1945; Code of F u n c t i o n a l Requirements of B u i l d i n g s . Chapter 1(B), Sunlight," Houses, F l a t a and Schools Only. London: B r i t i s h Standards I n s t i t u t i o n , 1945, 6 pp., diagrams. Recommended requirements f o r sunlight p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o rooms f o r l a t i t u d e s comparable to those of Great B r i t a i n .  42.  Colcord, Joanna C. Your Community: I t s P r o v i s i o n f o r Health, Education, Safety and Welfare. New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1941, 261 pp., i l l u s . Comprehensive survey questions f o r examination of housing, planning and zoning. Health care, r e c r e a t i o n , education and other f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s .  43.  Connecticut State Department of Health. P r i v a t e Water S u p p l i e s. H a r t f o r d : The Department, undated, 27 pp., i l l u s . , diagrams..Gives p r a c t i c a l standards f o r design and l o c a t i o n ; safety considerations, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to .location of sewage d i s p o s a l .  44«  Cooley, Charles Horton. S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . New York, S c r i b n e r ' s , 1920. Cooley, a famous s o c i o l o g i s t of pre-war days, gave big i n f l u e n c e to Perry's theory.  45«  Dahir, James, The Neighbourhood Unit P l a n , New York, the R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1947. Dahir*s book I s the f i r s t book of studying the neighbourhood u n i t p l a n .  46.  The D e t r o i t C i t y Play Commission, 1945* Having a system of neighbourhood that i n c l u d e s a minor group of four neighbourhood u n i t s and a major group of 7-10 neighbourhood u n i t s .  47-  Dufton, A.F. and H.E. Beckett. "The Heliodon -- An Instrument f o r Demonstrating.the Apparent Motion of the Sun", J o u r n a l of S c i e n t i f i c Instruments, V o l . IX, 1932, pp. 251-56, i l l u s . Describes method of studying i n s o l a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s by a n a l y s i s of scale models.  100 48.  Engelhardt, N.L. "The Dover Community School", Recreation. January, 1940,.pp. 538-41,. 582-83, plans.. D e s c r i p t i o n of school b u i l d i n g s planned f o r community use. Also contains a statement of p r i n c i p l e s underl y i n g such use.  49•  , Planning School B u i l d i n g Programs. New York: Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1940, 574 PP«, i l l u s . , diagrams. Analyzing and f o r e c a s t i n g school population, s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s , b u i l d i n g programs and costs and a r c h i t e c t u r a l problems.  50.  and N.L. Enge.lhardt, . J r . Planning the Community School. New York: American Book Company, 1940, 188 pp. p l a t e s . (Adult Education S e r i e s . ) Concerned p r i m a r i l y with a r c h i t e c t u r a l aspects.  51.  , and Leggett, Stanton, Planning Elementary School B u i l d i n g s , 1953* Analyzing elementary school b u i l d i n g s from an educator's' view.  52.  Fawcell, Charles B. A R e s i d e n t i a l Unit f o r Town and Country Planning. B i c k l e y , Kent: U n i v e r s i t y of London Press, 1944, 72 pp. I n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n and recommendations f o r t h e . i d e a l s i z e of a community.  53'  F i f e , Given Community Centres i n C a n a d a , Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1945Given the standard of Canada neighbourhood park.  54«  Forshaw, T.H. and P a t r i c k Abercrombie. County of London Plan 1943. London: Macmillan and Co., L t d . , 1943, W pp., i l l u s . , charts, diagrams.' One of the outstanding B r i t i s h plans f o r postwar redevelopment; emphasizes d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n .  55.  Fulcomes, Edwin S. Secondary Schools as Community Centers. New York: American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult•Education, 1940, 103 pp. One of a s e r i e s of studies on the use of school b u i l d i n g s f o r adult and community purposes- (Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) . An e x c e l l e n t survey of f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s that are given i n community schools..  101 56.  Gibberd,  F r e d e r i c k , Town D e s i g n ,  London A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Press,  1953P r e s e n t i n g a new" h i e r a r c h y o f r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m s m a l l h o u s i n g g r o u p s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d and a c l u s t e r o f t h r e e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a s a community. 57.  58.  G i l b e r t H e r b e r t , The N e i g h b o u r h o o d U n i t P r i n c i p l e and O r g a n i c T h e o r y , The S o c i o l o g i c a l E e v i e w , V o l . 11, No. New S e r i e s , J u l y I963, U n i v e r s i t y o f K e e l e . V a r i a t i o n s of Neighbourhood u n i t analyzed.  2,  G o s s , A n t h o n y , " N e i g h b o u r h o o d U n i t s i n B r i t i s h New Towns", Town P l a n n i n g Review, A p r i l , 1961. G o s s s A n a l y s i s o f New Town n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n d i c a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between P e r r y ' s and t h e B r i t i s h . T  59*  G r o p i u s , D i e S o z i o l o g i s c h e n G r u n d l a g e n d e r M i n i m a l Wohnung, Die Fustig, 1930. S u g g e s t i n g t a l l apartment b l o c k s f o r the c i t y . R e b u i l d i n g Our C o m m u n i t i e s , T h e o b a l d and Co., 1945.  60.  Chicago,  Paul  H a n d s e l l , J o h n S. DeFacto Segregation i n the Berkeley P u b l i c Schools, Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , U n i f i e d School  District, An  1963•  a n a l y s i s of Berkeley  Public  schools.  61.  H a r r i s o n , D o n a l d Dex. " P l a n n i n g a g a i n s t Noise? Layout of S t r u c t u r e s t o M i n i m i z e Sound T r a n s m i s s i o n , " - P e n c i l P o i n t s , J a n u a r y , 1944, p p . 43-50, i l l u s . T e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f methods o f p r o t e c t i n g dwellings, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n multi-family structures, against noise.  62.  Hechinger, Fred. " N e i g h b o u r h o o d S c h o o l C o n c e p t " , New Y o r k T i m e s , June 26, 1963. A p p l y i n g new e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y i n s c h o o l b u i l d i n g .  63.  Hermann, Henry, C o n s t a n t i n P e r t z o f f , and E r n a H e n r y , "Ah O r g a n i c T h e o r y o f C i t y P l a n n i n g , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, A p r i l , 1944. S u g g e s t i n g 500-200 f a m i l i e s as a u n i t o f s e t t l e m e n t .  102  64.  Heydecker, Wayne D. and Ernest P. Goodrich. "Sunlight and Daylight f o r Urban Areas", Regional Survey of New York and I t s Environs, V o l . V I I . New York: Regional Plan A s s o c i a t i o n , 1929, pp. 142-209, i l l u s . Performance standards f o r sunlight and d a y l i g h t penetration.  65.  Hilberseimer, L.S. The New C i t y : P r i n c i p l e s of Planning, Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1944, 192 pp., i l l u s . , diagrams. P r o f u s e l y i l l u s t r a t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of c i t y planning p r i n c i p l e s ; s p e c i f i c data on o r i e n t a t i o n , i n s o l a t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to topography and densities.  66.  , The Nature of C i t i e s , Chicago, Paul Theobald and C o l . 1955A new settlement u n i t on an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t scale was suggested.  67.  Holy, R u s s e l l A. The R e l a t i o n s h i p of C i t y Planning to School Plant PI annlng. New York: Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1935, 135 P P « , i l l u s . A d e t a i l e d survey and a n a l y s i s of the extent t o which school plant planning has been i n t e g r a t e d w i t h general c i t y planning.  68.  I l l u m i n a t i n g Engineering S o c i e t y , Committee on Street and Highway L i g h t i n g . Recommended P r a c t i c e of Street L i g h t i n g . New York: The Society, 1940, 36 pp., charts, tables.  69.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , I n s t i t u t e f o r draining i n Municipal Administration, Municipal Fire . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Chicago: The I n s t i t u t e , 1946, 667 pp., charts. Text f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of f i r e department o f f i c e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , containing chapters on: (3) o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , (6) department b u i l d i n g s and.equipment, (7) d i s t r i b u t i o n of equipment and personnel, (S) f i r e alarm s i g n a l i n g systems.  103  70.  Isaace, Reginald. "Are Urban Neighbourhoods P o s s i b l e ? " Journal of Housing, July-August, 1948• "The Neighbourhood Theory", Journal of The American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Spring, 1948' " F r o n t i e r s of Housing Research — the Neighbourhood Concept i n Theory and A p p l i c a t i o n " l a n d Economics, " V o l . 25, February, 1949' A most c r i t i c a l review of Perry's neighbourhood theory.  71.  Kincheloe, Samuel C. The Imerican C i t y and I t s Church. New York? Friendship Press, 1938, 177 P P « , charts, maps. An a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the c i t y , the e f f e c t s of the church and the l a t t e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to urban l i v i n g .  72.  Lautner, Harold W. S u b d i v i s i o n Regulations. Chicago? P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , 1941, 346 pp.,.tables, diagrams. Useful a n a l y s i s of some 284 s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s with emphasis on standards.  73«  league of Nations Health Organization. The Hygiene of Housing, B u l l e t i n No. 4, V o l . V I . Geneva, Switzerland: August, 1937, pp. 505-50. Recommendations regarding the hygiene of environmental conditions i n the d w e l l i n g and concerning noise and housing.  74«  LeGraw, Charles S., J r . , and Wilbur S. Smith. Zoning A p p l i e d to Parking." Saugatuck, Conn.: The Eno Foundation f o r Highway T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , 1947, 47 pp., charts, t a b l e s . Comparative study of various zoning p r o v i s i o n s f o r parking. Gives valuable information on p r a c t i c e s i n zoning f o r parking and on p h y s i c a l requirements of facilities.  75«  Liepmann, Kate K. The Journey to Work. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., L t d . , 1944, 194 P P « , maps. A c a r e f u l t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s of community h a b i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n England, but with some reference t o • experience elsewhere. Includes d e t a i l e d study of wartime p r a c t i c e s at some B r i t i s h manufacturing p l a n t s .  104 76.  Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a . Comprehensive Z o n i n g P l a n , O r d i n a n c e No. 90,500. L o s A n g e l e s ! P a r k e r & C o l . 1946, 96 p p . Comprehensive z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e a n d map, n o t a b l e f o r i t s provisions f o roff-street parking.  77*  Low, T h e o d o r e L . The Museum a s a S o c i a l I n s t r u m e n t . New Y o r k ! Committee on E d u c a t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f M u s e u m s , " M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1942, 70 pp., bibliography. A s t u d y o f t h e p l a c e o f t h e museum i n t h e community — i t s use as a s o c i a l - e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t .  78.  M a r g o l d , S t e l l a K. H o u s i n g A b r o a d up t o W o r l d V a r I I . Cambridge, M a s s . ! M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , D e p a r t m e n t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1942, 314 p p . Mimeo. A n a l y s i s o f housing, p a r t i c u l a r l y procedures f o r p l a n n i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g and f i n a n c i n g g r o u p h o u s i n g i n E u r o p e , w i t h b r i e f c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h U.S.  79«  Mayer, A l b e r t a n d J u l i a n W h i t t l e s e y . " H o r s e Sense P l a n n i n g , I I " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, December, 1943, p p . 77-82, illus. S h o p p i n g c e n t e r i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a f f i c and consumer accessibility.  80.  M i n e r v i n , G e o r g i . "Recent Development ecture. Progressive Architecture,  81.  M i n n e s o t a Department o f H e a l t h , D i v i s i o n o f S a n i t a t i o n , Manual o f Water Supply S a n i t a t i o n . S t . P a u l : The  D i v i s i o n , 1941, r e v . 1943* General information ground water.  i n Soviet ArchitJune 1961.  and p r i n c i p l e s  pertaining to  32.  Morrow, C. E a r l . "Community S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , J u n e , 1940, p p . 99-120, i l l u s . , map, p l a n s , t a b l e s , diagrams. Analysis of factors a f f e c t i n g design of l o c a l shopping c e n t e r s , w i t h examples.  83.  N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s . Standard Schedule f o r G r a d i n g C i t i e s and Towns o f t h e U.S. w i t h R e f e r e n c e to t h e i r F i r e Defense and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s . New Y o r k : The B o a r d , 1942, 78 p p . I n d i c a t e s r e l a t i v e importance o f v a r i o u s conditions and equipment w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o o r d i m i n i s h f i r e hazard.  105  84.  N a t i o n a l Council on School House Construction. Planning School P l a n t s , 1958. Gives the c r i t e r i a f o r school planning.  85.  National Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n . Play Space i n New Neighbourhoods. New York: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1939, 23 pp. A b r i e f summary of p r i n c i p l e s , recommendations and general standards f o r r e c r e a t i o n areas, and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o housing and neighbourhood.  86.  87.  .  Guide f o r  , Schedule f o r the A p p r a i s a l of Community Recreation, New York: 1944, 31 pp. Mimeo. Recreation standards and scoring system f o r land and water areas, b u i l d i n g s and indoor f a c i l i t i e s .  , Standards: Playgrounds, P l a y f i e l d s , Recreation B u i l d i n g s , "Indoor Recreation F a c i l i t i e s . New York: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1943, 16 pp. Recommended standards f o r various types of a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n areas and f a c i l i t i e s .  88.  N a t i o n a l Safety C o u n c i l . C r i t i c a l Speeds at B l i n d I n t e r s e c t i o n s . Chicago: The Council, 1940, 8 pp. Mimeo. ( P u b l i c Safety Memo No. 73.) . Standards f o r speed r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to sight distances.  89.  New York C i t y Noise Abatement Commission. C i t y Noise. New York: The Commission, 193°, 12 f 308 pp., i l l u s . , maps, t a b l e s . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the measurement•of noise, i t s e f f e c t on people and some means of c o n t r o l l i n g i t .  90.  New York State Department of Commerce. S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l — A Step Toward Better Communities. Albany: 1946,  35 PP-  Manual of s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s with suggested model ordinances. 91.  New York State D i v i s i o n of Housing. Recommended Standards f o r P u b l i c Housing P r o j e c t s , Albany: State of New York Executive Department, 1942, 13 pp. Standards r e l a t i v e t o s i t e , nondwelling f a c i l i t i e s , r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s and dwelling u n i t s .  1C6 92.  N i c h o l a s , R. C i t y o f Manchester P l a n . Norwich and London: J a r r o l d & Sons, L t d . , 1945* 273 pp., i l l u s . , charts.,, diagrams. I n c l u d e s d e t a i l e d standards on d e n s i t i e s and a l l r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood development a s p e c t s . Although i t deals mainly with B r i t i s h experience, i t o f f e r s most u s e f u l d a t a .  93*  P e r r y , C l a r e n c e A r t h u r . Housing f o r the Machine Age. New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1939, 261 pp., illus. The problems i n p l a n n i n g neighbourhoods -- e s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d toward a p p l i c a t i o n o f the•neighbourhood concept t o d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .  94-  95• 96.  _• "The Neighbourhood U n i t " , R e g i o n a l Survey o f New Y o r k and I t s E n v i r o n s . V o l . V I I . New Y o r k : R e g i o n a l P l a n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1929, pp. 22-140, illus. Emphasizes neighbourhood concept i n r e f e r e n c e t o urban p l a n n i n g o r r e p l a n n i n g . P i m l o t t , J.A.R., Toynbee H a l l - 50 Y e a r s o f S o c i a l London, Dent, 1935•  Progress.  and M a r g u e r i t e P. W i l l i a m s . New York S c h o o l Centers and t h e i r Community P o l i c y . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1931, 7'8 pp., i l l u s . , c h a r t s . The s c h o o l i n " t h e community, i t s " u s e f o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ; e s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d to t h e New York s c h o o l s .  97.  Pond, M. A l l e n . "How Does Housing A f f e c t H e a l t h ? " P u b l i c H e a l t h R e p o r t s , V o l . L X I , No. 19, May 10, 1946, pp. 665-72. ( R e p r i n t No. 2717 from P u b l i c H e a l t h Reports.) C o r r e l a t i o n o f h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s o f health attained.  98.  Pound, G.T. " P l a n n i n g f o r D a y l i g h t " , J o u r n a l o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , V o l . X X X I I I , No. 4, May-June, 1947, pp. 93-100, diagrams. P r i n c i p l e s o f d e n s i t y and d a y l i g h t a d m i s s i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n o f " d a y l i g h t p r o t r a c t o r s " recommended f o r use i n checking~adequacy o f s i t e p l a n s .  107  99•  P r e l i m i n a r y Comprehensive C i t y Plan of Chicago, Chicago Plan Commission, 1946. A f u l l pattern of c i t y development based on neighbourhoods and group neighbourhoods.  100.  Regional Plan A s s o c i a t i o n of New York. From Plan to R e a l i t y , New York: The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1942, 69 pp. i l l u s . Review of accomplishments i n r e g i o n a l development i n New York area, notably i n f i e l d s of c i r c u l a t i o n and recreation.  101.  Sanders", S.E. and A.J. Rabuck. New C i t y Patterns: The A n a l y s i s of and a Technique f o r Urban R e i n t e g r a t i o n . New York: Reinhold P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1946, 197 P P « . i l l u s . , diagrams. P a r t i c u l a r l y good sections on planning o b j e c t i v e s and on layout of neighbourhood u n i t s .  102.  S c o t t , Warren J . "Municipal Refuse D i s p o s a l i n Connecticut", Connecticut Health Bu&letin, V o l . £XI, No. .6, June, 1947,  pp. 151-59-  C r i t i c a l evaluation of refuse c o l l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l methods, e s p e c i a l l y from the p u b l i c health point of view. Reprints a v a i l a b l e from. Connecticut State Department of Health, H a r t f o r d . 103.  Segoe, L a d i s l a s and Others. L o c a l Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Chicago: The I n s t i t u t e f o r T r a i n i n g i n M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1941, 684 pp., i l l u s . , t a b l e s , diagrams forms. • A t e c h n i c a l manual on c i t y planning. Comprehensive and d e t a i l e d .  104-  S e r t , Jose L. Can Our C i t i e s Survive? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1942, 259 pp., i l l u s . , diagrams. An a n a l y s i s of urban problems, i n c l u d i n g those of s h e l t e r , "neighbourhoods", r e c r e a t i o n , industry,. • t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a f f i c f a c i l i t i e s . Recommendations f o r t h e i r a n a l y s i s and s o l u t i o n s based on proposals formulated by the Congress Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne.  108 105.  Sexton, P a t r i c i a Cays. Education and Income: Inequal• i t i e s i n our P u b l i c Schools. New York, The V i k i n g Press, 1961. Supports the neighbourhood school i d e a .  106.  South A f r i c a n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, September and  October,  1943-  A report on the e x h i b i t i o n 'Rebuilding South A f r i c a ' . 107.  S t e i n , Clarence S. and Catherine Bauer. "Store B u i l d i n g s and Neighbourhood Shopping Centers", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, February, 1934, p p . 1 7 5 - ^ 7 , - i l l u s . Standards f o r number and k i n d of* s t o r e s , space requirements, l o c a t i o n , form and c o n t r o l s .  108.  S t e i n , Clarence. Towards New Towns f o r America. L i v e r p o o l , U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. S t e i n , a pioneer i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of Perry's t h e o r i e s , made c e r t a i n important extensions to.the i d e a .  109.  S t e i n e r , J.F. American Community i n .Action: Case Studies of American Communities. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1928, 392 pp. A good a n a l y s i s of community s t r u c t u r e and growth, i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h 20 case s t u d i e s .  110.  Stonorov, Oscar and Louis Kahn. You and Your Neighbourhood: A Primer. New York: Revere Copper and Brass, Inc., 1944, 9o" P P « , i l l u s . , maps, diagrams. An easy-to-read pamphlet d i r e c t e d to l a y p u b l i c , g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n to the replanning of neighbourhoods by community p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  111.  S t r e e t and Highway L i g h t i n g Safety Bureau. Safe S t r e e t s at Night. New York: The Bureau, 1944, 24 P P » , i l l u s . , charts. S e r i e s of a r t i c l e s emphasizing incidence of t r a f f i c deaths due to inadequately l i g h t e d s t r e e t s .  112. ' Syracuse-Onondage Post-War Planning C o u n c i l . Community F a c i l i t i e s . Syracuse, N.Y.: 1944, unpaged, charts, t a b l e s . Mimeo. Standards f o r e d u c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and shopping f a c i l i t i e s , t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n and r e l a t i o n to the planning of r e s i d e n t i a l areas — the r e s u l t of c i t i z e n and l o c a l agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the formation of "goals" r a t h e r than "standards".  1Q9  113•  Taylor Graham, Chicago Commons through Forty Years. Chicago, 111., 1936. Chicago Commons and other settlements have "welcomed many church groups t o share the use of t h e i r b u i l d i n g s .  114.  Tinker, M i l e s A. " I l l u m i n a t i o n Standards", American Journal of P u b l i c Health, V o l . XXXVI, No. 9, September, 1946, pp. 963-73. Recommended standards f o r l i g h t i n g i n home, o f f i c e f a c t o r y and school, -with emphasis on h e a l t h i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  115.  Toledo-Lucan County Plan Commissions. Neighbourhoods Planned f o r Good l i v i n g ; S u b d i v i s i o n Standards and Regulations, Toledo; Tbledo-Lucan County Plan Commissions, 1946, 37 P P « , maps. E s s e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n standards, recommended r e g u l a t i o n s and suggested procedure, with I l l u s t r a t i o n s of poor and good s u b d i v i s i o n s .  116.  Tolman, S.L. "Ground Garbage - I t s E f f e c t upon the Sewer System, and Sewage Treatment- P l a n t " , Sewage Works Journal , May, 1947, pp." 441-60. A d i s c u s s i o n of operating experiences at community garbage-grinding s t a t i o n s .  117.  Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Technical B u l l e t i n No. 20, J u l y 1953. D e f i n i n g the content of shopping centre.  118.  U.S. Children's Bureau. Health and Medical Care f o r Children.• A "Preliminary Statement Submitted to the White House Conference on' C h i l d i e n In a Democracy. Washington, D.C.: 1940, pp. 161-206. Mimeo. Survey of c h i l d h e a l t h progress i n c l u d i n g standards and recommendations f o r f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s .  119.  U.S. Federal Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Low Rental Housing f o r P r i v a t e Investment. Washington, D.C.; Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1940, 31 P P « , photos, plans, diagrams, sketches. S i t e and u n i t plans f o r group housing. Mention of c i t y plan r e l a t i o n s h i p .  120.  i  , Planning P r o f i t a b l e Neighborhoods. Washington, D.C.; Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 193$, 35 pp« i l l u s . (Technical B u l l e t i n No. 7)« P r i n c i p l e s of good land s u b d i v i s i o n that make neighbourhoods more d e s i r a b l e , with emphasis on good s t r e e t l a y o u t . W e l l i l l u s t r a t e d with diagrams.  H Q  121.  , S u b d i v i s i o n Standards. Washington, D.C: Government-Printing O f f i c e , 1939* 18 pp. ( C i r c u l a r No. 5.) O u t l i n e of standards required i n e l i g i b l e FHA projects.  122.  " Successful S u b d i v i s i o n s : P r i n c i p l e s of Planning f o r Economy and P r o t e c t i o n against Neighbourhood B l i g h t . "Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1940, 29 pp.* i l l u s . , plans. (Land Planning B u l l e t i n No." 1.) Suggested p r i n c i p l e s of planning neighborhoods f o r p r o f i t a b l e investment and appeal to homeowners.  123.  U.S.  Housing A u t h o r i t y . "Children's Outdoor Play Apparatus: Planning Community Space and Equipment. P r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t f o r d i s c u s s i o n purposes. Washington, D.C.: 1940* 16 pp., Mimeo. Discusses b r i e f l y the f a c t o r s to be considered i n p r o v i d i n g outdoor play apparatus. Gives d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r sandboxes, swings, s l i d e s , climbing s t r u c t u r e s , e t c . Subdivided i n t o : f a m i l y use areas, preschool areas, r e c r e a t i o n area f o r c h i l d r e n and adults. Brief bibliography.  124.  • Design of Low-Rent Housing: Planning the S i t e . Washington, D.C: 1939* 84 pp., i l l u s . , plans, sketches Mimeo. (Revision, B u l l e t i n No. 11 on P o l i c y and Procedure.) P r i n c i p l e s of design, s i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , open spaces and p l a n t i n g .  125.  • S i t e Planning. Washington, D.C: 1938, 20 pp., Mimeo. ( B u l l e t i n No. 11 on P o l i c y and Procedure.) ' Design c r i t e r i a and standards f o r s i t e plans.  126.  . S i t e S e l e c t i o n . Washington, D.C: 1939, 20 pp. Mimeo. ( B u l l e t i n No. 18 on P o l i c y and Procedure.) Basic f a c t o r s considered i n the s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s f o r USHA-aided p r o j e c t s -- i n c l u d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p to c i t y planning, size of s i t e , t r a f f i c and other problems.  127«  • Technical D i v i s i o n . Design of Low-Rent Housing P r o j e c t s : Checking L i s t f o r Development of S i t e Plans. Washington, D.C.: June, 1939* 15 P P « Mimeo. An o u t l i n e of the Important elements i n developing s i t e plans.  Ill 128.  U.S. N a t i o n a l Bureau of Standards. A Glossary of Housing Terms. Compiled by Subcommittee on D e f i n i t i o n s , C e n t r a l Housing Committee on Research, Design and Construction. Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1942, -32 pp. Very u s e f u l glossary of housing and planning terms.  129«  U.S. N a t i o n a l Housing Agency. A C h e c k l i s t f o r the Review of L o c a l S u b d i v i s i o n Controls. Washington, D.C.; The-Agency, 1947, 43 pp. (NHA Technical S e r i e s No. 1.) C h e c k l i s t of l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s , and t e c h n i c a l design standards to f a c i l i t a t e review of l o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s .  130.  Federal P u b l i c Housing A u t h o r i t y . Minimum P h y s i c a l Standards and C r i t e r i a f o r the Planning and Design of FPHA-Aided Urban. Low-Rent Housing, Washington, D.C.s The A u t h o r i t y , 1945, 14 pp., charts. S p e c i f i c requirements f o r design of dwellings, s i t e and nondwelling f a c i l i t i e s .  131.  , • • P u b l i c Housing Design: A Review of Experience i n Low-Rent Housing. Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1946, 294 P P « , i l l u s . , plans. Extremely valuable p r a c t i c a l guide to design of s i t e s , dwellings and community f a c i l i t i e s .  132.  , . Standards f o r War Housing: Excluding Temporary Housing. A r e v i s i o n of the former standards f o r .defence housing. Washington, D.C: The A u t h o r i t y , 1942, unpaged, i l l u s . , charts. Mimeo. D e t a i l e d standards prescribed by FPHA as manual f o r f i e l d workers.  133.  U.S. O f f i c e of Education. P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures i n the Organization of S a t i s f a c t o r y L o c a l School U n i t s . Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939, I64 pp., charts, t a b l e s , maps. ( B u l l e t i n No. 2, L o c a l School Units P r o j e c t . ) Considers attendance areas and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  134.  U.S. P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e . " I n d i v i d u a l Sewage Disposal Systems" (Recommendations of the J o i n t Committee on Rural S a n i t a t i o n ) , P u b l i c Health Reports, V o l . L V I I I , No. 11, March 12, 1943, 33 pp. (Reprint No. 246I from P u b l i c Health Reports.) Standards f o r d i s p o s a l of domestic sewage i n areas not served by sewer systems.  112  135«  •  " P u b l i c ' H e a l t h S e r v i c e D r i n k i n g Water S t a n d a r d s " , P u b l i c H e a l t h R e p o r t s , V o l . I X I , . N o . 1 1 , March 1 5 , 1 9 4 5 , 31  PP-  S t a n d a r d s o f p u r i t y f o r water used i n i n t e r s t a t e commerce and recommended f o r acceptance by s t a t e agencies.  136.  . " R u r a l W a t e r - S u p p l y S a n i t a t i o n " (Recommenda t i o n s o f the J o i n t Committee on R u r a l S a n i t a t i o n ) , P u b l i c H e a l t h R e p o r t s , Supplement No. 185, 1 9 4 5 , 5© P P S t a n d a r d s f o r development of i n d i v i d u a l w a t e r supplies.  137*  [' H o s p i t a l F a c i l i t i e s S e c t i o n . "The S m a l l H e a l t h - C e n t r e H o s p i t a l " , P e n c i l P o i n t s , - June, 1 9 4 6 , pp.  74-76.  D e s i g n , c o s t s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a l o c a l c e n t r e and 1 0 - b e d h o s p i t a l .  health  138.  USSR A r c h i t e c t u r e 1 1 , I96I. V i n d i c a t i n g f i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f some 1 , 5 0 0 - 2 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n each grouped around a town c e n t r e w i t h f u l l social f a c i l i t i e s .  139•  V i l l a n e u v e , M a r c e l . ' P l a n n i n g Neighbourhood Shopping C e n t e r s , . New Y o r k : N a t i o n a l Committee on H o u s i n g , 1 9 4 5 , 33 P P « , i l l u s . , diagrams. A study o f r e t a i l t r a d e r e q u i r e m e n t s and the use o f p u r c h a s i n g power as a y a r d s t i c k i n p l a n n i n g t o meet them.  140.  W a r r e n , R o l a n d L . , The Community i n A m e r i c a , C h i c a g o , Rand-McNally and Company, 1 9 6 4 . G i v e s a d e t a i l e d , r a t i o n a l and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the g r e a t change o f urban s o c i e t y .  141•  W e b s t e r ' s Seventh New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y , G . and C . M e r r i a m Company, S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s . , U . S . A . , I 9 6 3 .  142.  W h e e l e r , Joseph L . and A l f r e d L . G i t h e n s . The American P u b l i c L i b r a r y B u i l d i n g , New York? C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1 9 4 1 , 4 ° 4 P P ' , i l l u s . , d i a g r a m s . P l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f the l i b r a r y w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s e r v i c e . P a r t s 1 and 2 c o n t a i n d a t a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g community r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  113-  143•  W r i g h t , Henry. Rehousing Urban A m e r i c a . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935, 173 pp. i l l u s . , p l a n s , c h a r t s , diagrams. Comprehensive study o f group h o u s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y of R e l a t i v e l y l o w - d e n s i t y group h o u s i n g . S i t e p l a n s and f l o o r p l a n s .  144*  W r i g h t , Henry M. and' R.J. Gardner-Medwin. D e s i g n o f N u r s e r y and E l e m e n t a r y " S c h o o l s . London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1938, 120 pp., i l l u s . , diagrams. P r i m a r i l y a r c h i t e c t u r a l but w i t h recommendations on s i t e s e l e c t i o n and on r e l a t e d p l a y a r e a s .  

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