UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Mikhail Bulgakov and his works Galichenko, Nicholas Vladimirovich 1965

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MIKHAIL BULGAKOV AND HIS WORKS  by  NICK GALICHENKO  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT of SLAVONIC STUDIES  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSLTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1965.  In the  requirements  British  for  Columbia,  available  for  mission for purposes his  presenting  I  agree  extensive  without  this  thesis  my w r i t t e n  Department  of  in partial  degree at  the L i b r a r y  study,  copying of  I  this  the U n i v e r s i t y shall  May 10,1965  make i t  f u r t h e r agree thesis  It for  is  understood  for  that  financial  gain s h a l l  permission*  ^  •  Columbia,  of  of freely per-  scholarly  that,copying  Slavonic Studies/ Russian,  P  fulfilment  by the Head o f my Department  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 Canada Date  that  r e f e r e n c e and  may be g r a n t e d  of  thesis  an advanced  representatives.  cation  this  or or  not be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT  The scholarly purpose of t h i s thesis i s to i l l u s t r a t e the p o s i t i o n occupied by Mikhail Afqnasyevich Bulgakov (189119 +0) i n Soviet satire p a r t i c u l a r l y and i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e 1  as a whole, since the dilemma i n which the author under anal y s i s found himself, was  shared by Soviet authors of diverse  backgrounds and l i t e r a r y ideas. Early princedom Russia, the Kievan State and the ent i r e pre-Petrine epoch with i t s archaic structure, enrooted convervatism  and primitivism did not regard l i t e r a t u r e ,  grammer and education as valuable assets to the Russian citizen.  Of greater importance was defence against invading  hordes of nomads, the search for food for d a i l y l i f e and the observance of ancient orders, s o c i a l customs, superstitions and firm b e l i e f i n the old f a i t h . It was Peter the Great's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by means of enormous e f f o r t s and the introduction of vigorous, often drastic laws and methods, to smash through the century-old crust of ancient " i c e " covering the Russian land, the Russian soul and mentality. When he began to trim the boyar s beards, some pre1  ferred suicide to humilation, and others death beneath the axe of the state executioner.  It seems that s i m i l a r l y Russian l i t e r a t u r e has a l ways led and leads a path of suffering i n a d i f f i c u l t  de-  fense of i t s l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s against oppressive odds and very l i k e l y w i l l continue to do so i n the future. Such a beginning, t h i s virus i n the body of Russian l i t e r a t u r e - the pushing of various impeding  stakes i n bet-  ween the spokes of c r e a t i v i t y , never was cured by the app l i c a t i o n of any e f f e c t i v e antidotes. Thus was the fate of Russian l i t e r a t u r e decreed, so that within i t may  always be juxtaposed the Pushkins with  the Dantes, the Lermontovs with Martynovs, Bulgakovs and Tarsis  1  with the Khrushchevs, Brezhnevs and t h e i r party suc-  cessors . In the works of each of Russia's l i t e r a r y giants prose writers and poets a l i k e , each paragraph, l i n e and word fought with a Herculeqn w i l l and might i t s way towards l i f e i n the hearts and minds of the people. For t h i s reason tyrants, regardless of bloodlines, fear the growth, significance and active role of l i t e r a t u r e . For this reason Russian l i t e r a t u r e , developing and r e f i n i n g i t s e l f always remained very caustic i n tone, very heavy i n theme and had many enemies everywhere - among the strong of the world, i n the darkest kingdoms of egoists, bureaucrats, secret services and other organs of suspicion, censorship  - 3 -  and  enslavement. Were not a l l the persons sincerely connected with  l i t e r a t u r e condemned as r i o t e r s , rebel-rousers and revolutionaries?  And how many special rules governed and  regulate the printing presses?  still  Where else but i n Russia did  the shameful employment of " z i t s - e d i t o r s " e x i s t , whose duty i t was to s i t out j a i l terms for their employers - editors and publishers of newspapers and journals - who were sentenced by rule of other men,  not law?  F i n a l l y , what mountains of l i t e r a r y works were censored and what number of t h e i r authors defamed? It may be deduced, that over twenty-five percent of a l l l i t e r a r y workers i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e perished either p h y s i c a l l y or morally and died one of these deaths. Such "attention" paid to l i t e r a t u r e by i t s oppressors could not help but leaveatraee on i t s h i s t o r y . It i s u n l i k e l y that our evaluation of Russian l i t e r a ture as one baptized i n storm and f i r e i s incorrect. very elements continue to temper i t today.  Why  These  else would  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c genres l i k e "laughter through tears", "notes from penal and mental i n s i t u t i o n s " (imaginary and factual) and "dreamt p r e v a i l i n i t ? What indeed did the Russian l i t e r a r y figure character-  - h -  i s t i c a l l y represent?  He was the object of suppression,  c r i t i c i s m , censorship, and other extreme measures. had the writer to be on a l e r t for?  What  Dangerous intrigue i n the co  the case of Pushkin, ill-fame for Bulgakov and death f o r Pasternak. In Soviet times, a l l of these "pleasures" awaited each writer and poet i f he could not reconcile himself with and "thank" from the bottom of his heart h i s hateful overlords, the rulers of the bodies and souls of the Russian people. In completing a major thesis on M.Bulgakov, i t was necessary f i r s t of a l l to keep i n mind a great Russian l i terature, whose image may be likened to a Sorrowful Beauty, who presents before the peoples of the world- her magnificent exterior and mature personality, while mourning for the people of her own land. yet  I wish to c a l l her by the ancient  appropriate a p e l l a t i o n - "a mourner of the Russian soul". In contrast to French l i t e r a t u r e - a coquettish being,  and German l i t e r a t u r e - a home economist, Russian l i t e r a t u r e despite the presence of Krylov, Chekhov, Gorbunov and l a t e r Zoschenko - always bore the stamp of "laughter through tears". Mikhail Bulgakov i n the history of Russian l i t e r a t u r e was at one and the same time a part of i t s heritage and an educational, scandalous embarrassment f o r the Soviet govern-  -  ment.  5 -  But f o r Russia i t s e l f , M i k h a i l Bulgakov was one  those rare people who  give impetus and v i t a l i t y to a n a t i o n -  a l l i t e r a t u r e that w i l l l i v e  i  of  forever.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  This t h e s i s has been w r i t t e n under the highlyi n s p i r i n g s u p e r v i s i o n o f professor V". Revutsky, whose c r i t i c i s m and cooperation throughout the course o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was i n v a l u a b l e .  I s i n c e r e l y thank Mr.Revut-  sky f o r h i s a t t e n t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , I thank the Department Head, Dr. J.O. S t . C l a i r - S o b e l l , and members o f the Faculty o f Slavonic Studies f o r t h e i r combined assistance at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  i n my years o f study  TABLE  O F  CONTENTS  CTpaHHga BHorpa$HMecKaH  1  CnpaBKa  2  n e p e n e H IlpoH3BefleHHtt M . E y j i r a K O B a  rJIABA 1 P y c c K a a J l H T e p a T y p a B npe^y^^eBOJiJiiouHOHHbiH I l e p H O ^  4  r^aBa l ' l  PyccKoe  OdmecTBO 20-x T O ^ O B  12  111  TjiaBa  Odman r i o j i H T H H e c K a a CHTyaijHH B B nocjiepeBOjnouHOHHHHM I l e p H O ^  r^aBa  POCCHH  14  IV 16  IIojioKeHHe H a yKpaHHe r^aBa V PeBOJiioijHOHHHe T^aBa  20  DTanti  VI A H a j i H 3 OTj;ejrbHHx n p o H 3 B e ^ e H H M M . E y j i r a K O B a rioBecTr. "PoKOBHe  flHua"  JibHBoraa^a  24 24 28  Ho.13 nOXOX^eHHH ^HMHKOBa  30  KHTattcKaa  36  5OM  HCTOPHH  31  n&eca  "JJfm T y p C u H u x "  38  nbeca  "Eer"  47  nteca  "BarpoBHft  '!-3KH3HI>  Tocno^HHa  OCTPOB"  ne M o j i b e p d "  62 83  ii riocjie^HHe Rem  JIHK  IlyniKHHa  KHXOT  Ilteca  3aK^KHeHHe  "HBaH BacH/nbeBHH"  H  Appendix  BHBO,H  CTpaHHua 91 97 101  106  113  Footnotes Bibiliography  116  M. ByJirAKOB H ErO TBOP^ECTBO  BHorpafl)HHecKafl  onpaBKa B y j r r a K O B p o ^ H a c a 3/15  M i i x a H ^ ArfaHacbeBHM B  K H e B e , Ha  anaj;eMHH.  ynpaHHe, y-mncn  cpe^He-yMefjHoro KHeBCKHft  B  ro^y,  3 a T e u BepHyjica  CMOJieHCKOfi r y d e p H H H .  n e p B t r H MaaeHfeKHH p a < s c K a 3 . nncaTe^bCTBOM, d p o c H B  ymeji  oMHrpauuro  ra3eTe  H  KHJI  H  ceae  KneB  H  B  ro^y  B 1921  B  1919  3aHHJicfl  rosy, pery-  ro^y B y j r r a K O B  EepjmHe, co-sTpy^HHMaa  "HaKaHyHe".  p e n o p T e p o i i H cpejibeTOHHCTOM  »Mop  B 1920  Me^HUHHy.  padoTaji  BepHyBmHCB B M o c K B y  TOJIOX^HX  B  B  npaKTHKOtt.  JIHPHBIM B  OH  rOfly.  B jiHTepaType M. E y j i r a K O B H&H&n BHCTynaTb HanacaB  B  ByjrraKOB nocTynHa  ro^a /1916-1917/ p a d o T a / i 3eMCKHM B p a n e M  3 & H H M & J I C H HaCTHOJi  ro^a  no oKOHMaHHH  Me^HIJHHCKHfi CbaKyJIbTeT, KOTOpfclH  OKOHMKJI C OTJHMHeM B 1916  HHKOJIBCKOM,  KHeBcKott r u M H a 3 H H •  3aBe,neHHfl B 1909  yHHBepCHTeT Ha  JlBa  B  1891  KHeBCKofi ^ y x o B H O t t  ceiibe npocpeccopa  EyjiraKOB  Man  xypHa/roB  OTOTO  6OHJIHCI»  uojiofloro  B 1923  By/rraKOB p a d o T a j i  ro^y,  B pa3HHx r a 3 e i a x . ByjiraKOBa,  Tan  aBTopa He o c o d e H H O  KSK  MTHTCH  Pe^aKTopa  anajiH,  MTO  coBeTCKHMH  neH3opaMH.  TaKHM o f j p a 3 0 M , c o B e T C K a n  n a p T H H H a a u;eH3ypa  HBHJiacb  B  - 2 XJIH  M.  By^traKOBa n e p B o f l n p e r a ^ o f i H a n y T H K c e p i . e 3 H o f l  jiHTepaType. M.  By^traKOBa O T H O C H T  SoJibffloro j n m n a a o H a .  K HHC/iy p y c c K H X  OH H 3 B e c T e H ,  KEK aBTop  jipaMaTypr,  caTHpHK,  nnc&TejiH  a p a M a T y p r a , COCJIVXHJI eMy  K  CKaa u e H 3 y p a DTO HOCTb.  CTa^a  H a B T o p poMaHOB.  HHHHTB  BtiHyjm.no  eMy  roicaTejiH  pafjoTaa TaM o 1 9 3 0 no caji n b e c y "Mojibep".  npenHTCTBHH. JiHTepaTypHyro j r e a T e j i b -  KOHcyjibTaHTOM  n p n MXAT H  RJIK O T O T O T e a T p a OH  riocjie^HHe n a T b  TeaTpe.  y M e p ByjiranoB B MocKBe 1 0 MapTa 1 9 4 0 r o ^ a . opraHH30BaH  HanH-  Eyara-  jieT c B o e t t X H 3 H H  K O B p a d o T a ^ i KOHcy/tbTaHTOM n p n B o j b m o M  B e n e p e r o naMHTH 6un  KaK  n ^ o x y w oryxCy - c o B e T -  ocTaBHTb  1 9 3 6 ro;u  pa3CKa30B,  ycnex EyjiraKOBa,  pa3HHe  By^raKOB Hanaji pafioTaTb  rracaTejieft  JIOMOM A K T e p a  B  riepBtitt  0KTa6pe  DToro roaa. B COBeTCKHX JIHTepaTypHblX HCTOHHHKax OTMeMeHO, EyaraKOB Hcno;iB30Ba^ TeHeBue HOCTH  CTOPOHH  COBSTCKOH ^eMcTBHTejib-  B q e j i H X e e ;rj*CKpeflHTauHH H o c M e a H H a , . O H  nncaTe^eM ^HTepaTypu  KpafiHero npaBoro $ ^ a H r a coBpeiieHHott H BiipB3HTejieM n p a B o 6 y p x y a 3 H H X  cjioeB  CMHTaeTCH pyccKoft coBeTCKoro  odmecTBa. riepeneHb npoH3Be.geHHfi M.  MTO  EyjiraKOBa.  " 3 a n H C K H H a M a H x e T a x " . 1 9 2 3 r . JKypHaji " P O C C H H " KpHTHMeCKHe ^aHHHe OTCyTCTByWT.  "Pc-KOBBie H f t n a " .  3 -  1925  r.  "He^pa".  AjiiMaHax  " ^ n a B o ^ H a ^ a " . 1925 r . C d o p H H K paecica30B. / " K H T a f i c K a a K c T o p H a " , "ROU HO.13", "iIOXOSCfleHHH MHMHKOBa"/.  "Beaaa T B a p ^ H a " . "Ran T y p r j H H H x " .  1925 r . P o M a H . H y p H a j i  "POCCHH".  1926 r . I l e p B a a H3BecTHaa n t e c a .  "3oftKHHa K B a p T H p a " .  1926  r . Koue^Ha.  "Ber". 1927 r. I l b e c a . "BarpoBHM  OCTPOB".  1928 r . nteca.  "EHSHB  T o c n o f l H H a Re M o j i t e p a " . 1933 Kaa noBecTb.  "Kac5ajia  CBaToni". / " M o a t e p " / . I l o c T a B ^ e H a B 1936 r .  r.  BHorpad)HHec-  HanncaHO  B 1930  r.  "riocaej5HHe . H H H " . /"nyniKHH /. 1935 r . £ p a M a . 11  "HBaH BacHJibeBHM .  1935  " B ^ a x e H C T B o " . 1935  r . K o M e f l n a T a K o r o xe  "A^aii H EBa".  r . ^r,paMa.  11  ",HOH  1938'r. CueHHHecKHft  KHXOT".  "BaTyM".  1935  1939  r.  roroJia. B  xaHpa.  BapnaHT•  Ilbeca.  IIpoH3Be^eHHe B y a r a K O B a caMocToaie^bHHM  Kouewa,  r . ^aHTacTHnecKaa  "rioxox^eHHa  npoH3Be^;eHHeM, c/iejtoBaBniHM  ^HHHKOBa"  6uno  xapaKTepaM  A n t e c y " M e p T B t i e Rywvi" a B T o p c o 3 ^ ; a j i c j i e j i y a Porojiro  HHCUeHHpOBKe.  B noc^e^HHe  r o ^ H XH3HH E y a r a K O B  Hanncn  HecKoabKO  onepHHX jiHdpeTTO - " M H H H H H r i o x a p c K H t t " , "^epHoe  Mope",  "JTIeTp B e ^ H K H H ,  poMaH  11  "MacTep  "Tamenh" n o M o n a c c a H y ,  H MaprapHTa".  pOMaH " 3 a n H C K H  He3aKOHHeHHHM  IIOKOHHHKa".  3SHOHMHJ  ocTajica c a T H p H n e c K H f t  rJIABA 1 PyCCKAfl JHTAPATyPA B nPEflPEBOJIPUHOHHaft ITEPTO IIpeflpeBo^ioiiHOHHHK pH30Ba^ca  nepnofl B pyccKott JiHTepaType x a p a K T e H^eHHHX n o 3 H U H 8 .  nepecMOTpoii C T a p u x  n o c j i e peBOJiroijHH rcepeoueHKH  1905 r o j a p e a K i j H a  Hapoj^HOCTH,  no^yMHBmHe iimpoKoe  fjypxya3Hoft,  jreyapHaT.  XHSHH.  HOBHe see P O C T K H  pacnpocTpaneHHe  M. T o p b K o r o , A. K y n p H H a H  Bcex odJiocTax  BO  Bbi3Bajra H e o d x c u H M o c T b  naeftHHx ueHHocTett.  0<5maa K y j i b T y p a o c T a B a j i a c b  Ta^taHTy  HacTynHBniaa  flpyrux,  o'jr.aro.napa  .naBajiH c e d a  Ha HauHOHajibHyio cu,eHy  PeaKima B c a n e c K H  dopojiacb  3HaTb  BHXO^H^ npo-  c H a n o p o M peBoarouHOHHtix  H,zr,eH, H 3 T a Copbda 6 y p x y a 3 H o 8 K y a b T y p H H c a i i o ^ e p x a B H o r o pexHMa  npoTHB  OTpaxemie  peBo/HoqHOHHoro  B TorflauiHeH  npoJieTapHaTa  pyccKoH  JTHTepaType.  C o c T o a H a cayxo'e y n p a B a m e r o H  noDTH c / i y x H J i H  DTOTO  po.ua c M H T a ^ H C b  Bee  onopoft  npOTHBHHKH  GBodoflHoro  HOBbie  Ji0 3 y H r H  B JiHTepaType  H,neH H a p o ^ H H M e c K o r o x a p a K T e p a ,  H  KjieflMHJiHCb  BJiaCTH.  ^opeBOJtiouMOHHaa  J i H T e p a T y p a He  nyTH RJin c B o e r o p a s B H T H a H He p a c n o j i o r a a  T B o p n e c K o f t r r a m e t t , yrjtyCnajiacb neccHMH3Ma  uejiaM, H n n c a T e j i H  BjiacTH.  TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M p y c c K a a HMejia  K J i a c c a , pyccKHe nHcaiejiH  KJiaccoBtiM  x e T e , K T O BuflBHraa  BijCKa3tiBaHOBHe KaK  onpe^ejceHHLiM  H Haxo,HH/ia CBoe  B oxHjuaHHH  B MHP BHCOKHX  peBOJiroqHOHHofi  rpo3H.  nepexuBaHHff H  - 5 ieis. d j n o c e  x  TeM B  t5e^Hee  CTaHOBHJiacb  nepHojt d o j i b i n n x  K 6ypacya3HHM  cBoero HOM  H  XHBonHcaTb  no  B  HHcne  BO  cBoen  Ha  TewaTHKe,  JIH H H a a  BejiHKaa He  o^Hy  OTpaeejib  cTapoK  KOHcepBaTHB-  des  nHTaTejibHoft  nHcaTejieH.  BCH  KpacoTe no  CBOHM  Tacany  ea H  HCTopna  -  BejiHHHro,  (popMaM  JieT.  TPH  B pe3yjibTaTe  TaK  H  JiHTedora-  OTO  yBJieKaTejib-  coaepacaHHio  HCTOKH  ee  TepaioTca  Pyccnaa  JiHTepaTypHyio  ^eftcTBya npoflyKUHio  JiHTepaTypa  peBOJiionHH.  B  H  TBopnecKHe  Ha  cpeati  H  corjiacHOM BHCOKOTO  0Ka3ajiacb  K  JiHTepaTypa  da3HpoBajiacb  OdHJIHH n H T a T e J I & H O H  3JieMeHTa,  pjttSKaa  n y B C T B H T e jifeHa  HCKyccTBO.  cymecTBOBaHHa  Kaflpax,  3TH  OKTadptCKoE  KyjibTypn  JiHTepaTypa H  TBOpMeCKHX  CBodojiH.  ^aBajiH  nyTH  de3  MHororpaHHocTH,  HMeHHO n o o T O M y Ha  ocTajracb  H e j i o p a 3yMeHHio•  npoTaxeHHH C B o e r o  HHCJieHHHX  H  no  y^apaM, K a K  BceM  necKOH  Tpa,HHUHH  BeKOB.  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H Ha cneHy  rojiax  1913-1920  JiHTepaTypHHX  3anaT  npoH3oraeji  B cBoeM  pa3nBejia  pa3BHTHH  npoiujia  B ro.zi.ax  rpynna JiHTepa-  MHOTO-  uyKax.  1921-1924  H opraHH3an,HOHHoe  opraHH3au.HH.  B ro,zr,ax  TBOpHHCTBa.  oTMe-  yKpenjieHHe  1925-1928  JIHTepaTy PH  naTHJieTHewy  njiaHy.  npoJieTapcKHX  xecTOKHMH  C T a j i H napTHHHHH K O H T p o j i b H n a p T H H H a n  JiHTepaTypHHX o p r a H H s a i j H H .  BpeMeHH  napTHHHHH  03Ha-  ycHJiHJiacb  Bojiee  yKa3Ka.  CBofjojja TBopne.cTBa  connajiHCTHMecKoro peajiH3Ma.  IIonyT-  TojDtH 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 2  jjHKT&Typa  r o j j a H flo n o c J i e ^ H e r o  DTOTO  EyjiraKOB.  B TBop^ecKHx  (pyTypH3M.  CBOdOflH  MeHOBajiHCb H b ^ H H e H H e M  TypH H e  otpopMHJiacb  n p o j o e r a p c K H x JiHTepaTypHHX opraHH3an,HH.  HHKH noJiyMHJIH dOJIbine  npe^ejiaMH  Ilocjie  6HJIH cztejiaHH n o n t i T K H npH.zr.TH K I l p o -  oneKa n o n y T H H K O B  jipyxecKaa  npoJieTapcKHX  Btmieji M.  Hapoacaajiacb  KyjitType n e p e s  jieTapcKoH MajiHOb  OHa  po-  KOHTppeBOJIK>U.HOHHfcie TeH,H,eHU.HH B  B 0 3HHKJIH  CoBeTCKan J i H T e p a T y p a MHCJieHHbie  HX BOflHTejibCTBOM  H  C  1932  orpaHHHHBajiacb 3axHM  JiHTepa-  ocjiadeBaji.  Haii Ka,»xeTCH C T p a H H o f t cBodojiy,  KaK noHHTHe  jiHTepaTypH  HMeHHO  CBOBOM  B IIPE^EJIAX.  (5e3npe^ejibHocTH.  SHJIO T a K O B H M  MM  Ho HanpBJieHHe  - CBOdojja B  npe^ejiax.  noHHiiaeM coBeTCKOH  -  CoBceM  He^aBHO  B  -  2 3  "ripaBjie"  <5>eBpajiH c e r o  21-ro  OT  rojia  noHBH^acb CTaTbTH r^aBHoro pe^aKTopa ra3eTH A . PyMAHqeBa nop, 3ar/raBHeM " I l a p T H H cjie^tyiomee ero  H  ripHBO^HM u s  HHTejijrareHijHH."  BucKa3UBaHHHt  "no^JiHHoe TBopnecTBo ...  jiaeT codoft Bticuiee npoHBJieHHe HejioBenecKoro CTHMyjiHpoBaTJbCH npHKa30M, He n o ^ x o ^ a , MeJioMHotl  oneKH  H  DTOB  flyxa.  OHO  CT&TBH  npej^cTaBHe  uoxeT  TepriHT KaseHHO-dropoKpaTHHecKoro  peKJiaMeHTattHH, Hdo  HCXO^HT  H3  odmec-  TBeHHbix noTpedHocTett, nojiyMHBmHx <£>opMy BHyTpeHHero nodyxjeHHH yneHoro  TaTOM  HJTH  xyjr,oxHHKa.  CHOXHOH  yc/roBHfl: X H 3 H H , odcTaHOBKe  nepepadoTKH  TBopnecTBo,  HBJiHfoiiieecH pesyjib-  cosHaHHH oniiTa, 3HaHHft, HadJno,n.eHHft, ijejieH  noHCKa, D K c n e p H M e H T a ,  HCKy^JTBa TpedyeT H  B  MHPOBO33peHHH H  KHOBeHHH M H e H H f t .  CTHJiett  IIojt^HHHoe  IlJiojroTBopHoe  BO3MOXHO  c B o d o f l H o r o BtipaxeHHH HayKH,  pasBHTHe  H a J I H H H H pa3JIHHHHX  xaHpoB, copeBHy»mHxcH  JIHHHOCTH,  codoH.  H  CTO;I-  JiHTepaTypbi  niKO^ H HanpBJieHHft,  Mexijy  JIHUIS B  H  pa3JIHHHHX  , , 1 +  OcTaeTCH TOJibKO noxejiaTt, MTO K TaKOMy saKjironeHHio npnuiJia r a 3 e T a "IIpaB^a" HaKaHyHe da du.  M. B y ^ r a n o B  JIOXHJI MO  nnTH^ecHTHjieTHH Haurax  ^Heft eMy  coBeTCKoH BJiacTH•  ECJIH  ceftMac M H o r o e npocTHJiocb  TJ1ABA  AHAJM3 OTj;EJIb,HHX  riepe^  noBecTbio  HM  MaHxeTax".  He  noBecTb  nPOH3BE^EHH0 M.  "PoKOBbie  flaeTCH  flttua"  aHajiH3  EyJTTAKOBA  CHJIH H a n H c a H H " 3 a n n c K H  B BHfly  OTcyTCTBHH  MaTepnajiOB.  "PoKOBtie  Httua"  HpoHHHecKaa  - OTO  $aHTacTHKa.  KpHTHK  neTp nH^bCKHH B CBOett B C T y n H T e J I b H O f l C T a T b e  nnuieT:  "Bee  jiyMe  ^epxHTea  Ha n y c T H K e ,  CHJIOii TOJIOBOKpyXHTejIbHOrO  C  aftuaMH H ,  caMbie  KaKOM—TO M a j i e H b K O M  Ha  - nycTHK BOT,  BTopoft  - cjiynaftHOCTb, CaMHe  (J>aHTa3HH O T K p H T H  y^HBHTejibHbie  TpHyM$ajibHHt!  MajiHHOBHe  poBaTejibHaa  HPOHHH  HaromeM n e T y x o B  nepenyTaHHbie  HUIHKH  HeCfJHTOHHHe B03MOXHOCTH,  CTpairaeftniHe npoderaKT  B 3ara^OHHOM,  JiacKOBtift,  H Heodi-J acHHMHe  TOKH,  B afluax  MepuaioiiieM C B e T e  H Kyp  npo$eceopa  pacuBeTmeft  OT  noBajibHoro  H pajocTHHtt  BiiflyMaHHOM  e/r&imHT-  co3peBaioT  nepcHKOBa H B K a p T H H a x  ByjiraKOB.  "PoKOBue  odMaH.  Ona-  "^odpoKype",  oxpa-  M o p a H B DtfieKTe  HeOXHflaHHOCTH peSy/IbTaTOB  MOCKBH H B H3o6paxeHHH  /M.  1928 r . / ^  jodpo^yniHHft  3BynHT H B OTOM  aiUHKOB H B C K a 3 0 M H O H  ra^oB."  XHB;QTBopHOtt  aBua.  CBepmaeTca  $nrype  eiopnpH3H.  CTyK.  KpacnoM  pa 3MHOXeHHH •  3aMaHHHBtie n y T H . npoHcxOffHT  COSHTHH, ca  K OTOft IlOBeCTH  BejHHHHott c n r o j i K y , o<5jia,n.aiouieM M y ^ o ^ e H c T B e H H o H  3aTeM  Ha  Hftqa"  "PoKOBae  no-BecTb  VI  3TOH O I U H S K H H B  dyflymett,  BoeHHoro noxo.ua  Hftn,a".  H3-B0  nepenyTaHHHX  fiyjiTO Ha  6u  3eMHHX  JlHTepaTypa,  Pnra,  - 25 -  ripoipeccop FlepcHKOB. yneHHHH soojior H  06paTHMCH K T u n a M . ^HpeKTOp 3 0 0 H H C T H T y T a BOT  HecKOJibKo  B MoCKBe. IDTPHXOB,  nHTH^eCHTHJieTHHH XOJIOCTaK.  pHcyiomHx ero nopTpeT. "B 191^ro^y  Tor.ua  y npcxpeccopa OTHHJIH H 3 naTH KOMH&T T P H .  CTenaHOBHe / a K O H O M K e / : - ECJIH O H H He npeKpaTaT O T H Mapba CTenaHOBHa, a ye^y "Kan,  B H He  T3K-TO-C.  3HaeTe,HeM OTJiHHaioToa  "Ha  Ta30BHX noneK HeT CTbijiHTecb.  rojme rctfibi OT npecMbi-  npocTO c M e t i i H O , MOJIO,HOH  y TOJIHX T O ^ O B .  OHH  OTcyTOTByioT•  B H , BepoaTHO, U a p K C H C T ? "  K a p T O H K e diuro HaneMaTaHHO H 3 a m H H M  ApKa^beBHM BpoHCKHtt.  6e30dpa3Ha,  3arpaHHii.y."  KaiomHxca?, cnpauiHBaji IlepcHKOB. - 3TO MejioBeK.  Mapbe  3aaBHJi  OH  mpncpTOM:  GoTpy^HHK M O C K O B C K H X xypHajiOB.  Ajibdppe^ - "KpaCHUH  oroHeK , " K p a c H H H n e p e r * " , KpacHbiff xypHaji", "KpacHutt npoxeKTop" 11  H  ra3eTH "KpacHaa B e n e p H a a MocKBa".  ero  - TOHH  K H O P T O B O H MaTepn, - M O H O T O H H O  cKa3aji  IlepcH-  K O B H CMaXHyJI K O p T O M K y nop. C T O J . "  "H  He  HHTaio ra3eT, C K a 3 a j i IlepcHKOEi H H a c y n n j i c a .  xe, n p o c p e c c o p ,  HexHO  cnpocH/i Ajibfppea.  FIoTOMy MTO  OHH  Ho  noneMy  nenyxy K a -  Kyio-TO nnrayT, H e a a f l y M H B a f l c t OTBeTHji n e p c H K O B . " KaK  Burjiaj;aT  ^pyrne n e p c o H a x n  CyxoHbKaa c T a p y t n K a , npeflCTaBHTejibHHna 3aBeTHHX Tpa,nHij;eH.  oKOHOMKa,  MOCKOBCKOTO  DTOTO  pa3CKa3a?  Mapba CTenaHOBHa, -  MemaHCTBa,  xpaHHTejibHHiia  riepexHB C T a p u t t P O C O H H C K H H  OTO  BeTxo-  naTpnapxajibHHH  - 26 Mapba CTenaHOBHa nyBCTBOBajia cedn JinmHen  yKJiafl,  HOBOMy nOpHflKy tpopMauHflx.  HHX  ripH  cpej^H padoHHx H KOJixo3ax  HX  CKOPO  H  MH  B HOBHX  COHHa^b-  BcipenaeM MapbK CTenaHOBHy  cpe^H napTHHHoro c o c T a B a .  H  H  B  THCHHH.  CTapHK Bjiac, yM^paeT  CTOPOX,  de3KOPMHHH.  OT  B o n p o c y ByjrraKOB n r a e i : "JlBa^naTHH ro,n BHineji eme xyxe  OTOMy  EoJibiiiyio HHKHTCKyio nepeHMeHOBajra  fleBaTHaanaToro. % c u ,  CTpoe  cpejiH cJiyxaniHx  HHCTHTyTOKHM no  HOBOM  - dojibme  paCTBOpHBUIHCb  HCMe3Jia,  HeHyxHOft  H  Bpe3aHHue  cTeHy ifoiia Ha yrjiy TepneHa  B  H  B  yjiHuy TepneHa.  MOXOBOM,  ocTaHo-  BHJIHCbHa O^HHHa^naTH C H e T B e p i b K H , HaKOHen, B TeppapHHX 3 0 0 J I O THMeCKOrO KBaKmeH,  HHCTHTyTa 3aTeM  3K3eMnJIHp  BOCeM BejIHKOJienHHX  H3SOXJIH  1$ OdblKHOBeHHHX 3Cad  H ,  MTO  H  HHCTHTyTa y  de^HHx  CTapHK^  ra,noB -  Bjiaca HyXHO HO  HaKOHeU, HCKJIIOHHTejIbHeHIlIHM  xadH CypHHaMCKOH.  Bcjre^ 3a xadaMH nepecejiHJiCH CTOPOX  DK3eMnJIHpOB  dHJIO  Bjiac.  jiynniHM  B  MHP  6e3CMeHHHH  IIpHMHHa cMepTH ero dtuia Ta xe,  de3KopMHiiai  KOpMHTb MyKOH,  a  Xad  MyHHfclMH MepBHMH,  nocKOJibKy nponajia nepBan, nocTOJibKy ncne3JIH H BToptie". AccHCTeHT HBaHOB - desnapTHHHHH cneuHajiHCT.  de3HHHHHaTHBHHH H  cJiyxauiHH HOBOMy  HOBilft HHCTHTyTCKHH CBOKt dady no3xe  H3  JjepeBHH  cj;ejiaHHHfi  yxo^  B  npoTHB  KpecTbHH  B  cTpoio  TOJibKo  H3-3a  BesH^eKHHM, .neHer.  CTOpOX, IlaHKpaT, ^yMaKIIIHtt BbinHCaTb  MoCKBy -  3TO  ero  KOJIXO3HHKOM.  BOJIH  ropofl  B  eCTb  nepBtie  dHBLUHft  KpeCTbHHHH,  ro^u peBOJiiotrHH duji  -  27 -  BH3BaH npesc^e B c e r o rojio.zi.oM H p a 3 B a j r o M AjiencaH^p  cejiBCKOtf  CeMeHOBHM P O K K , 3aBeflyromHtt  DKOHOMHKH.  KOJIXO30M " K p a c H H H  HB/tneTCH npeflCTaBHTejieM MOJio.zr.HX H H^eHHHX napTHftHHX K a ^ p o B  Jlyn",  ropeBmHx nJiaMeHeM peBOJironHH.  Ilpocpeccop I l e p c H K O B ,  CTaji c J i y x H T b 60JibuieBHKaii p a f l H  HayKH•  COBXO3,  MTO6H, H c n o j i b 3 y H  IlepcHKOBa,  flBHHyTb  on«T H  CTaptifi yneHHft  OHTy3HacT P O K K npnuieji B  3HaHHH C T a p o p e x H M H o r o  Bnepea H a y K y H c e j i b C K o e  npotjieccopa  conHajiHCTHnecKoe  X 0 3HHCTBO. HHTepecHa CnorpacpHa A . G . OH  cjiyxHJi dbjieftTHCTOM  OH  CpocHJica  HHH. May3ep.  PoKKa:  B aHcaMdjie  B oTKpuToe  MaDCTpo  Mope B O M H H ,  no 1 9 1 7 ro.ua  "BnjioTb  IleTyxoBa.  cMeHHB (pjiefiTy  B  peBOJiiouHio  Ha ryfJHTeJib-  3aTeM OH BcnjiH JI H a peBOJiionHOHHOH noBepxHOCTH yxe  B POJIH pe^aKTOpa r a 3 e T H , HJieHa BHCOKOtt X 0 3affCTBeHH0H KOMHCHH, npocjiaBHjica  patfoTaMH n o opoiueHHK T y p K e c T a H C K o r o  KOHeMHO, HJieHOM napTHH KOMMyHHCTOB—60 JlbllieBHKOB • 3aBJia,zi.ejia  Kyp  c M e j i a a peBojiioiiHOHHaa  B pecnydJiHKe npn noMooiH  $OH  noBecTH  H,nea B 0 3po^HTb  Kpaa.  EHJI O H  HM nOJIHOCTblO  BTeneHHH M e c a u a  K p a c H o r o Jiyna n p o < p e c c o p a riepcHKOBa."  - rojioj;Hoe, xojioj;Hoe, B a p B a p c K o e  cyraecTBOBa-  HHe. r i e n y p K a B npo<peccopcKoft KBapTHpe, KOTopyio TonHJia Mapba CTenaHOBHa, OKOHOMKa,  30JI0HeHHMH  TOJiKOBtnHHa coBeTCKHX yMpexfleHHfl. CTpax  nepe^ m y .  Ilo^ ocjioxHeHHa jiyneft  CosHaHHe  CTyJIbHMH.  iHKOCTb  TOJinH,  f3e3-  BropoKpaTH3M ynpaBjieHHa.  de3noMoniHOCTH H de3<3ain,HTH0CTH»  "POKOBHMH HHnaMH ' aBTOp nOHHMajI peBOJHOHHOHHbie  H Henopa.zi.KH, K O T p p n e  KOMMyHH3Ma.  1  BHJiynHJiHCb  nop, TenjiOM  KpacHux  -  28 -  He^OCTaTOHHOyBHJieTb B OTOft nc-BeCTH TOJIbKO 3Jio6Hoe niHneHHe H o c T p y w  caTHpy.  B Hett n p o r a a A H B a e T  BOBJieMeHHtiM B peBO/nouHOHHyio  ynacTHHKaM H COBpeiieHHHKaM  TaKOft x e "CMex C K B O S B c u e SKI" MBI BH,HHM B  peBojrrouiHH. A.n.  dypro  H coxajteHHe K  ^exoBa,  a eme p a H e e  B TBopnecTBe  TBopvecTBe  Torojia.  JtbHBOTOaja  CMeCfe (JiaHTa3HH C  flettCTBHTeabHOCTblO.  BejiiHKoe B MajioM.  CTHKa.  Tuna, p a ^ c B e H H b i e r e p o i o  "UlHHejIH", "JlBOHHHKy" ^OCTOeBCKOTO. CKoro  H  ae/ronpoH3Bo^HtTejiH.  xapaKTepH,  fleRCTBHH  MejiKO H r a y n o . Ka3ajiHCb  CapKa3M H KMOPHToro^eBCKoIt  OlTHCHBaeTCH THdeJIb COBeT-  Teita H e e  otJiopMJieHHe,  THnbi H H X  H nOCTynKH - BCe DTO flbHBOJIbCKH-ypOflJIHBO,  T a K H 6HJTO B j r e B c T B H T e j i b H O C T H B T e BpeMeHa. coBepmeHHO HeodtiHHHMH H  3ByMajiH K a K aHeKjiOT,  TaKne H a 3 B a H H H ynpex^eHHH H ^oJixHOCTett: TjiaBcaxap, UeHTpocnHHKa, ToccTpax, UeHTpocejrb^b, ynpo^KowapM, 3aMKOMnoMop,n,e /3aMecTHTejib  KOMHecapa n o M O P C K H M  Hanxo3, ynpaBjieji H n p o n a n  flejiaii/,  r y d n p o $ o d p , HanKaHii,  "adpaKaaadpa".  BxOflflUIHe H HCXOJUHmHe H O M e p a , KOMaHflHpOBKH H y j 5 0 C T O B e T H C H ^ H t i e TOJinu c j i y x a m H X H  peHHH,  KpaTHMecKHfl jiadnpHHT. KaK  uotxa  cTaTb  ...  de3TOJiKOBmHHa.  TaKOB d.HJi T o r j a  jre/ioBoft  Eropo-  cmnb.  TeMoft jiHTepaTypHoro n p o n s B e j i e H H H radejib  ^ e j i o n p o H 3 B o ^ H T e j i H , HMeHHO, B cHJiy jiibHBOJibCKoro p a 3 M a x a <J>aHTa3HH,  c cKa3KH, B e c b M a  noxoxeft  H a dtuib T O T O B p e M e H H .  -  -  29  ATMoc$epa "nbRBonnajiu" D T O flypauKaa H r p a  Hyw  B de3CMucjieHf >  nepecTaHOBKy ruaxMaTHtix $nryp Ha l o c K e , KprjDca HrpoKH He  3HawT  4>yHKqHf! He o^HOtt H 3 H H X .  HeHTO no,n.odHoe BHflejI CaCHO-  nHceu; KptuioB K o r ^ a CKa3aji B CBoeft dacHe "KBapTeT ': 1  -"y^apHJiH JJocTottHa  B  JHepyT. A TOJiKy HeT  CMMHKH.  rJiynecTt Ha3MBaTbca KOHTppeBOJiromieft.  JIH  noMeiiy xe xH3He*Haa r j i y n o c T b , H3odpaxeHHaa Ha  KoHeMHo, HeT.  (SyMare, .nejiaeT ee a B T o p a KOHTppeBo;nou;HOHepoM. Han  nopTOBa KyTepbMa  "^bflBOJiHa^e"  B  rioneMy x e Heno 3BO JiHTejibHO aBTopy "KhKBOJiK&xu".  Be^b  OHa  ^e/ronpoH3BOflHTejib  coBeTCKoft  cjiyxedHoft  HOPO^HHX n p H M H H  ca.  .."  aBjraJiacb  KOPOTKOB,  HepapxHH, nornd  H COdblTeft,  CpeflH  peBOJUouHefi.  peBOJiroijHH Ha3BaHHe  DTOK  dbiJia T o r ^ a  H  Be,nb onncaH-  HOPTOBOE  KyTepbMoft.  caiian HHMToxHaa $ H r y p a B  B  p e 3 y j i b T a T e MHOTHX p a 3 -  npHUIJIOCb  KOTOptlX  eMy  OMyTHTb-  G n a c a a c b O T n p e c ^ e ^ o B a H H a cTpaniHoro, dpHToro K a j i b c o H e p a ,  co CTapHHH^rMyniKeTOHOM napaneTa,  noKanHyjica Ha  - "Jlynuie CMepTb OTHOineHHe JIH H a  B  veil  ByjiraKOBa  cMeHy  pynax,  HeM, BHTaHyJica  no3op". B K  KOPOTKOB  DTHX  B3odpajica Ha cTOjrd BO  cjioBax  Becb pocT MOXHO  dypxya3HOMy  ABTOP  He  CTpoio.  BH^eji ^ p y r o r o  CMepTb  KpHKHya:  ycMOTpeTb  TeM nojiHTHHecKHM nopa,n,KaM, KOTopue npHniJIo3yHr "Jlynme  no3op" - D T O JiosyHr d e J i o r B a p j i e K i i e B , dopoBuiHxca apMHH.  H  CMepTb  ien  B pa,aax dejiofi  BHxo^a H3 c o 3 f l a B i u e r o c a no-io-  xeHHa,  KaK  Kofia.  Ho K TOMy xe BHBo^y B Te BpeMeHa npHxczpuiH H e TOJibKo  j:ejionp6H3BO^HTe^H.  flJia  cBoero  repoa, fleaonpoH3BOflHTe;ia KopoT-  CaMH rracaTejiH npe;inoMHTajra  TBopnecKyro  -  30  -  cMepTb T B o p n e c K o u y no3opy H y x o ^ H ^ H B 3MHrpau,Hio. nocTHTJia  MHOTHX  3aftueBa,  KMOPHCTOB  TaKaa cy^bfja  H3 H H X : KynpHHa, ByHHHa, ApuHdaiiieBa, To<pcpH H  ABepneHKO,  IIODTOB  VAuejieha,  BajibMOHTa,  3HHaH^H  THnnHyc, MapHHbi IJ,BeTaeBott, (pHTiococpoB H nHcaTejiefi UlecTOBa, MepexB e p ^ a e B a , MypaBbeBa, AjijiaHOBa  KOBCKOTO,  JOM  KHa3a  H  BOJIOHCKOTO.  Ho.13 "jOM HOMep 1 3 " .  OlHKapHHft flOM DjIbllHT.  .UonycTHM, ^ T O  3TO - PoccHa. -  "B  ^ B a naca  HOHH,  Kor^a  BO  Bcex KOMHaTax dtiBiuero  reHepa^ibCKoro ocodHHKa, a Hbme - P a d o n e n KoMMyHH, no^ TpanbeM H  inydaMH,  CBepHyBuiHCb KaK codaneHKH, cna^H  ^KJH - B  KBapTHpe  5 0 , KOMHaTa 5 CTajio K a K B paro". B  Ma^eHbKOtt  KBaj;paTHKH.  neMe^Ke  padOTHHiia AHHymKa xr^ra napKeTHiie  pe3y^bTaTe noxap  B  IleperpeB n e r a  H  H  ^HMOXO^OB,  r n d e j i b poua,  BOT  H B e e .  nepeHacbimeHHe TeMnepaTjcpott  HepacHHTaHHbix Ha D T O ycTpoftcTB. IlepeHacH^eHHe xHJiHiUHoti n^onia^H, HeflonycKaBmee HOBHK, -  BO3MOXHOCTH  noxapHoro  KOHTpojia, a  He3aHHTepecoBaHHkitt, de3pa3 JIHHHHH  KOMMyHa.  noxapa H  CKHX  de3rpaMOTHHH  H  EbiBuiHtt cod CTBeHHHK - BJiapeneu. noma HOMep radejiH  13  XO3HHH MO  ^oMa H e aonycTHJi dti.  TaK, K a 3 a ^ o c b ByjiraKOBy, norndaeT "ITEPE".  rjiaBHoe  H  Poccna  OT  BcaKHx  O T n e p e r n d o B , nepecTpoeK, nepeHHanHBaHHa, H nepen^HOT-  OKCnepHMeHTOB.  - 31 ABTOP  oinHdcfl.  BHcejiHHy. OH  HeT.  HMeji  xe  H  IIOMeMy  ,5a, x a j i e j i .  POCCHIO. OH  npaBo fjOHTbcn,  npaBHTe^eft. TyT  BHXHJia.  EHJIH  K  JReJiaji  HTO  KoHeHHO,  p y K Hepa3yM-  OT  yro.zi.Ho.  GKOJIBKO  Tpe  KOHTppeBOJIIOHHH•  B a B p B a p c K o r o c H H M odpameHHH.  B  cropHT  OTOMy ocHOBaHHH.  HJIH  r e H e p a j i b C K o r o jnoMa B padonyio KOMMyHy.  rioneMy Ha^o doHTbca  npecTynjieHHeia odpameHHe O H n p o T e c T y e T npo.THB  ROM. HOMep 13 CHMBOJIOB.  oflHO ^HTepaTypHoe npoH3Be,neHHe.  HH  TaoiHTb aBTopa Ha  HTO  e& r n d e j i n .  OH  POCCHH  ByjrraKOB H e CHHTaeT ouiHdKoM  POCCHK.  3a  H  poua. HOMep 13. .Ua, x a j i b .  EMy xajib reHepaJibCKoro  HaJieji  HHX  POCCHH  "llocaeflHeM jHe'&jOojixeHHUHHa.  Bes  OneHb  CHMBo;iH3HpoBajK HHX  MHOTO  He  OCXO^HTCH  OCTPHX  Ho e r o Be,nb He CHHTaioT  CHMBOJIOB KOHTP-  peBO^IOUHOHepOM . ECJIH HX  CHMBOJIH  - Bemb o n a c H a n , n o n e ^ y BJiacTb He 3anpeTHJia  y n o T p e d ^ e H H H B nopn.zi.Ke n p H K a s a .  ECJIH  OAHH  nponeHT H,na, p a c -  TBopeHHHH B MHJiJiHOHax yMOB, c n a c o d e H npoH3BecTH pa3pymeHHe B HenoKOJiedHMoM, :. HeHarpyuiHMoft  H  de3cnopHOft  ^OKTPHHH,  TO  HTO  xe  DTO 3a .ZTOKTpHHa?  IIOXOXjeHHH MHMHKOBa. BOT  aBTopa,  HO  3a DTy  Beuib c^te^oBajio, aencTBHTejibHO, p a 3 C T p e ; i H T b  He M. E y j i r a K O B a , a H. rorojrn.  nycTHJi no c B e T y ryjiHTb pyccKHe KOM  o(5pa3e.  DTO  OH  H  HHKTO  .zrpyrofi  odpa3H,H HCKonaeMux B: H e j i o B e n e c -  3TO OH Bocneji poccHHCHHe nopHflKH CTapbix BpeMeH BO  BceM H X y p o ^ c T B e , H O O H H o K a s a j i n c b DTO OH Ha3BajI BetUH CBOHMH HMeHaMH.  XHBH  H  B  JlHKOCTb  coBeTCKoe B p e i c n . - .ZIHKOCTblO,  32 rjiynocTb roroflb,  - r j i y n o c T b i o , caMo^ypcTBO - caMoaypcTBOM. HTO  KOMMyHHCTHnecKHe  KPHTHKH  ono3Ha/iH  B  BuHOBaT JIH  ero THnax  CBOHX COBpeMeHHHKOB. "noxoxfleHHe ^HHHKOBa" npeflno^HeceHbi aBTopa.  ToroJieBCKHe xapaKTepu nepeHeceHH  r ^ e oKaaHBaeTCH iraoro MecTa  XJIX  aBHaHTropHCTOB, K a K 3TO <5HJIO  B  pa3JiHHHoro  HHTaTejuo, KaK C O H B  coBeTCKyio  POCCHKJ,  pojia MomeflHHKOB  roroJieBCKHe BpeMeHa.  H  ABTOP  COBeTCKHX nOXOX^eHHtt MHHHKOBa K a K dbl TOBOPHT, H T O 3 a napajiHHM (Jiaca^OM  KOMMVHHCTHMeCKOft  BHetUHOCTH  CKpHBaeTCH  ro roJieBCKan  %HMb". TaK  H a n p H M e p , rocTHHHua, H3  Buexaji ^ H M H K O B , - " H 3  uiejieH  BMecTO  CTO  JieT TOMy Ha3a^  Bbirjinjiejia nonpeacHeMy. BbirjiHjDiHBajiH  dojibuie c ^ e j i a j i o c b , HanpHMep,  KOTOPOH  HO  <3HJIH H  BHBecKH  TapKaHH  H  .naxe  HX  K a K dy^TO  HeKOTopue H 3 M e H e H b H u a .  TaK,  "rocTHHHija" B H c e j i n j i a K a T c Ha^nHCbio:  "OdmexHTHe HOMep T a K o f t - T o " H caMo codoM, r p a 3 b H rajocTb dtiaa TaKaa, o KOTopoft Torojib ,naxe  ITOHHTHH  CpejCH HHHOBHHX dlOpOKpaTOB nyBCTBOBaJi cedn, K a K ptida  B  Bojie.  He HMeji."  COBeTCKHX  yHpeH,H.eHHft MHMHKOB  OdcTaHOBKa,  aTMOc(J>epa H THnti dropoKpaTOB HBjiHJiHCb  BHyTpeHHna  d JtaroijapHoH noMBofi, Ha  KaKOtt paCLIBeTaJIH XyJIbHHHeCKHe TaJiaHTH MHHHKOBa. POCCHH  Ho3j;peBHx.  marHyjia  OT  onoxn ^BajomaToro  CTOJieTHH B BeK  - 33 -  OnncaHHoe B "noxoxaeHHH MHHHKOBa" n p o H c m e c T B H e c e r o aHKe-roft cnHcaHo c TO  fleScTBHTejibHOCTH.  6HI &n~.  onHcaHHH  JlHHHaa a H K e i a co3^aHa dHJia KaK 6yx-  JIHMHOCTH e e  06Jia^aTejiH.  Ha  caMOM  xe  flejie  aHKeTa H ee 3 a n o j i H e H H e <5HJIO wepaMH H MeTOjroM c o B e T C K o r o cHCKa. EcTecTBeHHO,  Bee c o B e T C K H e  HTO  rpascnaHto HeHaBH^eJiK a H K e T H H  doajiHCb npoqeflypH H X 3ano^iHeHHa. 3aKaHMHBaioTCH B  neKjie:  pojiHHe B  -"MaTb? . 1  fleHbrH?  "noxoxjQieHHfl MHMHKOBa" BCTpeneH  - r p e n e j i a, - M a T b ? l  Bop!'. 6spe3aTb ero,  BCKPHJIH e r o , TyT  XHBOTe'.  c  HHM  aBTopa  T&e uvuuma.-pR&'i Tp,e H E -  Mep3aBii.al  y  H e r o 6pHJi;raaHTH  OHH."  Bjiaro^apaT a B T o p a 3 a p a s o d J i a n e H H e MomeKHHKa H cnpainHBaioT ero,  MTO  CBOH  jiaBHO  aa  OH  xoneT.  OTO  Tep3aBiuHe e r o  ABTOP  6e3KopucTeH,  yBaji  nopa^OMHtifi JiHTepaTop jto/rxeH dbiTb  MTO  H npodopMOTaji  MHOK) HeaaBHO  H ... dan.,  y  npojraHH  MeHa  Bee  ... JlaMny B 25 cBeneH ..."  Ha  TpydKy:  B  -"HHMero, KpoMe coHHHeHHft coMHHeHHa  6UJIO H e B U J I O X H ^  xeaaHHa.  - "BpioKH ... $yHT c a x a p y Ho B ^ p y r BcnoMHHJi,  Hynb-nyTb  ToroJia B n e p e n j f e T e ,  KaKOBtie  H a TOJiMKe.  CTOJie  30Ji0T00dpe3HHH  roro.ibi"  DnnjioroM "noxox^eHHft ^HMHKOBa" npHBejeHw EyjiraKOBHM T a K H e cjioBa: -"npooHyjica.  H HHMero: H H MHMHKOBa, H H Ho3jo;peBa H ,  r j i a B H o e , H H T o r o J i a ..."  - 34 MTO  xe  ocTajrocb a B T o p y ?  Tejiio noHflTHO.  ABTopy  OH  He  o c T a j i a c b coBeTCKaH  BceM e a HenpHBJieKaTejibHOM  06  TOBOPHT  (New York. A l f r e d A. Knopf  Be^eHHe  "nernepa"  TonjieHHott KOMHaTe Ha x H 3 H b KOTOpyiO dor  OHH  B  eMy  dor  3TOT B  TOnHTb  aodp  napa  JiettcTBHTejibHocTb  K  HHM  „  6  nemepe.  B  TOJIbKO  noxoxa  3Kejie3Haa n e n K a ,  OjUHH  Mac  B fleHb , - 3TO  Tor^a,  TOJibKO  He-  3HMOH B  xH3Hb  Hx  "rioxox^eHHax  B  Kor^a  c  ^HMHKOBa" cpaBHHBaeT  roroJieBCKHMH  BpeMeHaMH.  ee C ^Ou^HCTOpHMeCKHM nepHO^OM, C neiliepHHMH n n c a T e j i a KaK  dy^TO-dbl,  Mirsky  D.S.  OHH  npn-  x e p T B y Ton;iHBo.  ByjiraKOB  Oda  KHHTH  pa3dnpaa npoH3-  xHBeT  rieTepdypre.  nejioBeKa  COCTOHHHH  H3  Prince  by  MnpcKoff,  "Bypxya3HaH  coBeTCKOM  nepBoduTHoro  neajepbi.  HOCHT  B  CTPOKH  1926).  nHcaTejie 3aMaTHHe TOBOPHT:  BO  BH^e.  Contemporary Russian L i t e r a t u r e 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 2 5  o  HHTa-  HO  .neftCTBHTejibHocTb  3^ecb dyaeT yMecTHo npHBecTH c ^ e ^ y m n e  B cTaTbe  OTOM,  CTOHT  du Ha  nepeKjiHKaioTca  ^pyr  c  3aMHTHH  coBeTCKyw cpaBHHBaeT  yCJIOBHaMH  apyrou  H  XH3HH.  oda,  KOHTppeBOJnOUHOHHOf! TOMKe 3peHHH.  KaK  Ho  3Ta  KOHTppeBoJiKUHOHHOCTb He e c T b OTpnuaHHe coBeTCKOH BJiacTH• a ee KpHTHKa.  CaTHpa - Bemb o c T p a a H Ma.no npnaTHaa  H a BKyc.  CjieayeT  JIH pa3CTpejiaTb nainaTb CajiTHKOBa-w*e,H,pHHa? A 3JiodHue onnrpaMMH  A. IlyniKHHa KOB  Ha  n p a B H T e j i e f t uapcKoM  caMOjjepxaBHHx nopaflKOB  H  POCCHH  HpaBOB?  pa3Be  EMJIH.  He A  dtuiH  pa3Be  KPHTHOTO  dtuia  - 35 peBOJiioiiHH?  B 3peHHa  He-r.  KaxflOM a K T e T B o p n e c T B a e c T b n p o T e c T , e c r a  CBorjo^Horo  jnecnoTH3M H  JIOX,  B  Ceflbix  ra3eTe  nHuieT:  "HoBoe  "HeKOTopaa  .Hyuiax"  3TOT,  npeKpacHoro  B  B a T b He  Pycb.  TOT  iacTb  pyccKoro  .zrajieKa"  (paKT,  HTO  IlycTb  OT  ToroJia M H O T O H  Ryvm" JIOM.  npofloaxaiOT  „8 •  B  H3  cBoeft  c o B e T C K y i o P O C C H I O , HO  B HaiH B e K ,  HOCHT  MHoro  ropa  "MepTBux  B  Moero  MyflHoro,  nooMe."  ?  " l I o x o x a e H H a x ^HHHKOBa" T o x e H a ^ t o  eCJIH  ^pyroH  OeBpBjin  BOHH,  3eMJie H  B XH3Hb,  H CodaKeBHHa  KOCTKM,  coduTHfi H  S p o f l H T b no  15-ro  nnmeT: "y^HBHTejibHMM  Mbl B r J I H ^ H M C f l  nycTB H a c HO  aBjineTCH  B  HaK^eM  H MHOTHX OT^ejiaioT  repoH e r o  Tenepb, K a K B  ycMaTpn—  coBeTCKyio  no^JiHHyio  Toft xe r a 3 e T e OT  B  11  OHH  6 <S>eBpBjiH 1965  Tedn  Heft H ^HHHKOBa H K o p o f i o H K y H MaHHJIOBa flpyrnx.  AH^peft  c T a ;ieT H a 3 a ^ , .naBHO 3 a K 0 H M H J i c a  "MepTBbie JyuiH  GTaTbe  KPHTHK  3 p H T e ^ n yBHflHT  Pycb'. Bnxy  JpyroE o C o s p e B a T e j i b B  OT  BocKJiHKHyji rorojib  K a p H K a T y p y Ha  cjiynaax.  KapHKaTypy H a H H K O JiaeBCKyio P O C C H I O .  "Pycbl  6yjiraKOBCKHX  E. TpoT,  KaMeHb MO JIHHT B T a i c n x  CJIOBO"  PyccKoe  H a M a B n i H H C H CBbiuie  n o j i b 3 y rorojia.  HenpaB^a,  ro^a M O C K O B C K H H X y ^ o x e c T B e H H H t l Teaip  rpoTecK H  TO^bKO  Ho cnop  TOJIBKO  JHCHCKHe C T p a ^ a H H H ,  Hbio H o p K e "MepTBbie Hymn" T o r o j i H .  noKa3aji B  nona,ziaioT  HaoHJiHe.  Hanajie OTOTO  B  B  aBTopa  B nojie  "MepTBtie  flajieKOM  npoin-  -  36 -  KCTOPHH.  K-HTafiCKag  B KpyroBopoT  peBoaiouHOHHofl dopbdbi 20-x r o ^ O B BMecTe c  pyCCKHMH fJOpKUlHMHCH CTOpOHaMH OKa3aJIHCb BTHHyTHMH H JHOflH , HH — K a K o r o npHMoro dblJIH  KHTaHHH H ^TO  BHJICH  OTHomeHHH.K  B  pyccKOtt  DTO  HMeromne.  peBOJiiouHH H e  JiaTBIUIH.  (JaKTe 3HaMeHaTe^bHoro?  OTOM  Uoveuy  H a  Hew ocTaHO-  ByjiraKOB?  M.  Bo B e e B p e M e H a H y B c e x H a p o ^ O B B c e r ^ a HMejio necTO H C noJib30BaHHe  HaeMHoft  OCHOBHHM MOTHBOM  HH0 3eMHoM DTOTO  BCTpeTHTb  BO  2ce oxpaHHHKOB opraHax  BpeMH peBOJIIOLrHH H  najianett  B  HMMyHHTeT KHTanueB  B  B cHJiy  CBoefl  J i e ^ O B a ^ H O T HHX x e C T O K O C T b A3HaThi jraT/iHBocTH  K  B  peBOJnouHfix.  KHTaMueB K xajIOCTH, H  JiaTHiueM  MOKHO  pOJIHX $>pOHTOBHX COJI^aT  c y a e d H t i x , cJiejicTBeHHbix  6JIH30CTH  ,  dtiJio a T a K -  KapaTejibHiix  H  H HeHaBHCTb  KOTOpOMy  HHKaKHe H  OT^ejibHHe HauHOHa^tbHHe  rpynnpoBKH  yKpaHHi^H  Mexfly  H e 6HJIH  ByjiraKOB,  CMepTH- H  K  no-  pexHMy,  npncymH.  peBOJIIOHHH H e  ^acTO dopoaHCb  Mexfly  codofi  de3 pa3 JIHHHH KJiaccoBoft npn-  yKpaHHin>i - npoTHB p y c c K H x ,  HaKOHeu,  yHac-  K POCCHH.  DMOHHH  TBOPHJI  orpaHHMHBajiacb dopbdoft KJtaccoB.  H,  njieMeHaM  n p o n o r a H f l e (5HJIH noJie3Hti peBojnon,HOHHOMy  HHCTpyMeHT,  Ha^jiexHOCTH.  K repMaHCKHM  CHJiy C B o e r o $ a H a T H 3 M a » n p e s p e H H H  Ha yKpaHHe, r ^ e XHJI  HHaeB  H  B/iacTH•  JIaTHiiiH  KaK  dHJI  CBoKcTBeHHa c j i a B H H a M .  KOTopan  n p n BottHax  CHJIH  codoft.  pyocKHe  npn  - npoTHB  TaKOM  yKpa-  xapaKTepe  - 37 6opbdH HH0 3eMU.il - ZiaTilHlH H KHTaftU.il BeCbMa rOJtH/IHCfe, TaK jteflcTOBajiH  no  He  nyBCTBa, He no coodpaxeHHHM  BejieHHio  KaK  OHH  Bticmeft  cnpaBej;jiHBocTH, a no.npHKa3y. yKpaHHCKoe HaM  H  JiaTHinaM.  OTTa^KHBaHHe  3e "KHTaMcKaa KHTaeu -  nponuioM  ^ajieKOM  B  Bpax^edHO  KHTaftijeB  OT  HCTOPHH"  Xop.fi.  .  TajiaHTOM  odJia,zr,aji  OH  H  UeHTpajibHoft  oraeM  ByjiraKOB  $Hrypoft Biicuieft  KHTaft-  K  MeneM  H  HecKH pa33opeHHe  H  OTpa3HJi  OTHOCHJIOCB  Hapo^bi  OTH  nepe3 yKpaHHCKHe npocTopii  npoxo^HJiH 3TO  oneHb  HacejieHHe  CMepTb.  H  CBoeu pa3CKa-  B  pascKa3a  EBJiaeroH  npHuejia.  TOHHOCTH  BojibmeBHKH cseziajiH ero nyjieMeTHHKOM. npHnejibHan CKHH  TOMHOCTB  $aHaTH3M npeBpaTHJiH  XOJIH,  MHpHoro  HHKorjta He HcniiTOBaji CTpaxa. KHTaHna-nyjreMeTMHKa npoflojrxa^  JiHiueHa  Xoxn  OKpyxeHHH KyjibTypti,  He  dii.no  nyBCTBo  cTpajiaeT  XOJIH  npHMHTHBHOrO  OdCTaHOBKe  OT  eme  no  TeM  HsyBepa.  B  pncyeT  ABTOP  onH303»  B  H  doro  Kor^a  IUTHKOM,  a3HaT-  a  OH  OTOTO XORX  pa3jtyKH  dbiJia  OMOLTHM.  npeacTaBJiHJi XHTbH.  no  OH  Haxo/iHCb  cedn  KaK  B  MocKBe,  B  KHTae,  dy.ZI.TO  B  B  poflHOft  TOCKOBajI,  HO  3TO  a  HHCTHHKT  .HHKapn, KOTopbift  HCTOPHH"  ByjiraKOB  y^apHJi  po,n.HHe,  KyjibTypti.  TeMe o scejiTOft  onacHOCTH,  KOTopan  3anyraHHOMy  coBeTCKOMy  odbiBaTejuo  npe^cTaBJiHJiacb  Kofi.  KHTaftua  cnepTH  K  dejiorBap,H.eeu; npoTKHyji  PaecKa30M "KHTaftcKan Bcero  npH3peHHe  cTpejiaTb.  euje  Rywa.  Xo^io  ero  dojiee,  MTO  y Bcex  eme  dbiao  B  naMHTH  yace  B  KpoMe TO  BnoJiHe  KOHCJJJIHKT  BpeMH  peajibC  KHTaeM.  - 38 ribeca  "JHH  TypdHHbix"  3Ta n t e c a  *1A  CHHTaeTCH  BH3Bajta MouiHyio BOJiHy  Me6a.ru.  MXHTejibKue  anojioraeft dejioro  TpaBJiH coBeTCKOH n p e c c H H  3JIOSHOM ABTOP  aHTHCOBeTCKHft .upaMaTypr  flBHxeHHH.  "Rneti  H TpaBHM  OHa caMHe  TypdHHbix" 6UJI 3aKJieMMeH,  Kan  coBeTCKott nenaTbio po nocjte^HHx  ^HeHcBoeH X H 3 H H .  BnHa M.  E y j i r a K O B a s a K J i r o n a j i a c b B TOM, H T O OH  d e j i o r B a p a e f t i i e B He  3BepteM  CKHMH JLIORbUVL C HX  noKa3aji  c noroHaMH H a n j i e n a x , a SCHBHMH p y c -  CBeTJIblMH He JtOBGHeCKHMH CTOpOHaMH.  ByjrraKOB  nocTaBHJI c e d e 3 a ^ a n e t t n o K a 3 a T b CTpaniHoe BpeMH p a c n a ^ a B n e p B b i e TORU  peBOJiiorjHH.  G o B e T C K a n BJiacTb y B H ^ e j i a B ".HHHX T y p d H H b i x "  npH3tiB K Hj;eajiH3aHHH npHMKHyBmeft K dejiorBap,zi;eHCKOMy .nBHxeHHio pyCCKOH  HHTe^JIHreHHHH. B T O M , H T O r i b e c a "Rim  HOBKe, MOJI,  JlyHanapcKHft  od BHHHJI P e n e p T K O M .  ^ a j i o B03MoxHOCTb  roBopHT:  Ero  nonycTHTejibCTBo,  n y d J i H K e y B H ^ a T b KOHTppeBOJnon,HHOHHyio n b e c y ,  no^orpeBaBmyio aHTHCOBeTCKHe /"HCTOPHH  T y p d H H b i x " dbiJia p a 3 p e m e H a K n o c T a -  TeHfleHUHH.  KPHTHK  H.  C o B e T C K o r o T e a T p a " n.y. , H3J5.HM. ^ e x o B a  PopnaKOB, 1956 r . /  "B xyjuoxecTBeHHbift T e a T p Ha n b e c y " J H H T y p d H H b i x " n o J i o M -  HHnaJia T a n a c T b p y c c K o r o o d u i e c T B a , K O T o p y w dojibuieBHKH OKpecTHJiH "dHBinHMH JHo^bMH ', Jno^H, y KOTopbix Teppop H rpajiciaH C K a n BOftHa . 1  OTHHJIH  po^Hux.  JITORVL,  KOTopue HeKor^a H  BeJIOft ApMHH H pO^CTBeHHHKH T e x , KTO IIHK).  ripHiiiJiH CMOTpeTb  nbecy H  caMH dHJiH B  BMeCTe  Te, K T O  pH,nax  C Hefl yillJIH B DMHTpa-  Ha,2ieHJicH, H T O  DTOT  TaK^b - B e c T H H K npHMHpeHHH c o B e T C K o f l B J i a c T H c ee BparaMH  * IA Appendix  cneK...  -  ... K  3TO  noj;jiHHOMy  TPH3H  dburn H e  Hy,ny.  3pHTejiH,  "dejiodaHflHTbi"  npe^CTaBHTejib coBemaHHH B  dypxya3Hio,  1 9 2 7  KOTopan  CTaHHCJiaBCKoro H MTO-xe,  XO,HHT  MXAT,  B  repoeB nbecbi  ro,n,  H  Hanajio  HTodu  H a Hee  ^eTbipe ro^a.  TaKHM  KOMMyHHCTHHecKoK  nbecax  KpHTHKe H  OTOTO  HapO,SHbIMH d b l J I H H H M H  H3odpaxajiHCb  cBoen n b e c e  noJioxHTejibHbiMH  a  rjia3aMH rpax-  xpoHHKa  3aHHMaioT  a  flen-  B p e M H jieftcTBHH jjpaMaTyprHHec-  xpoHHKa c  3 T O He  O^HOH  dejKorBap.zieHii.bi  TypdHHHX.  noJioxHTeJibHHMH K a n e c T B a M H .  B  ",HHH  odpa30M, M e c T O  3HaMeHHH,a;.ropo^cKaH  o^Ha  repon  OTO  3aj;yMaHHoe  Booduie, a  Hbie  xHJieTKy  B  codoM n b e c a  ropojoM,  c e M e H H a n xpoHHKa - c .npyroft.  H30dpaxajIHCb  nonJianaTbCH  ^ e M c T B H H ntecH  CTOPOHH H  coBeTCKHx  TeaTpajib-  H e r*Jia3aMH n o ^ H T H K a ,  3 T O H e UIHPOKO  DnoxnajibHoro  ceiiba  jnaseft.  ripexjie B c e r o ,  1 9 1 9  napTHH  fJOJIbmeBHTCKOH  9  o r p a H H n e H o O^HHM  H e c K O J i b K H M H MecnuaMH.  C  MHorojieTHett  " J H H T y p d H H b i x " npHBJieKaioT  cedn."  ropo,na K n e B a .  CTBHH  Ho  H3-no^ c n y ^ r a  aTHTaHHH  ro,ny c K a s a j i :  nocMOTpeTb  1 9 1 8  nojiOTHO  noJiOMHHHajiH  ArHTnpona B K T l / d / MaH^ejibntTaM H a  onjiaKHBaTb  KOHeq  Koe  HTO  OHH  B odJiane X H B H X  jiHTepaTypaBe^a-HccjiejoBaTejia? BOHHH  noJIOMHHKH H  B KOHue KOHiieB, npeflCTaBJineT  TypdHHbix", e c j i H  jaHCKoH  a  My^oM 6UJIO T O ,  MeJIOBeKO—HeHaBHCTHHMeCKOfi  B j i p y r no^HHJiHCb  HOM  -  3 9  OTO  nepnoj;a  yxe  6UAO  KpacHue  dOraTbipHMH,  CTpauiHO.  BoeHHbie  repon  Ha^te J i e H H H M H  BCeMH  B npoTHBonojixHOCTb  HM  dejibie  K a K ^ereHepaTHBHbie H J I H O T H .  noKa3a;i H X  HopMaJibHHMH Jiio^bMH, H H e  KanecTBaMH,  a  c  M. c  BoeH-  ByjiraKOB  • Kp.HHatn.HMH  odbiMHHMH H e j i o B e n e o K H M H .  BOT  DTO  - 40 B  Ty o n o x y  Benuft  Ka3ajiocb CTpaniHtiM  H  o<J)Huep He  dtiTb  MOT  ^paMaTypra.  npecTynJieHHeu OH  nejioBeKOM.  dtiTb  MOT  TOJibKO  3BepeM.  PyccKHK Hapoj; 3Hajt, H T O OTO HenpaBj;a H BajioM BajiHJiH H a cneKTaKjib. HocHjra jm n t e c a arHTau.HOHHHH,' KOHTppeBOJHOLJHOHHHM KTep? CKOH  a  KoHenHO, ^ a . BJiacTH  arHTanHH  Ho  OTO He 6una arHTauHH  ycTaHOBJieHHe neTJiiopoBCKoK  H  3a cBepxeHne  coBeT-  reTMaHCKott BJiacTH,  HJIH  3a npH3HaHHe noJioxHTejibHbix KanecTB  npocJioKKe H a p o ^ a ,  xapa-  B HHTejuinreHTCKoK  KOTopyio BJiacTb OKpecTHjia O6MHM  CJIOBOM  -  KOHTP-  peBOJIIOUHfl.  KaKHe nejioBeK  COCJIOBHH  BoeHHHx  HJIH  THnti j^eKcTByioT  npo$eccHft,  KacaeTCH  JIHU; MOSCHO  eodiiTeft,  Korjia  B  dopbde  HeMHH  c  reTMaHOM,  KpacHan He  3a  ycTaHOBHTt,  pa3BepHyBuiHxcH yKpaHHCKyro  neTJiropa,  apMHH doJibiueBHKOB.  npHHHJia  KOMMyHH3M, H  CeMHa^aTb  KHOina H3 rHMHa3HCTOB  O^HH  xeHmHHa - c e c T p a dpaTbeB o $ H i j e p o B . jeftCTByiomHx  ntece?  B  TaHHM  odpasoM, no  ynpaHHe  TeppHTopHio  B  1918-1919 r o i i a x ,  cniHdJiHcfe neTbipe  ,zr,odpoBOJibHecKaH  3TO dbiJio  xapaKTepy  BoeHHbiH croxeT nbecbi  HTO Ha  o,n,Ha  H  apMHH JleHHKHHa Kor^a  BpeMH,  fflaHCH 6oJibmeBHKOB  CHJIH:  Ha  H  eme  ynpaHHa  nofje^y  6HJIH  BecbMa  HeBeJIHKH.  Ha Hbett CTpoHe Hejib3H  Ha  dtiJio  TOHHO  dbijiH  onpe^ejiHTb,  CTopoHe coBeTCKoK  Pa^y.  HO  yKpaHHCKoro  O#HO  dbiJio  HCHO  HacejieroiH, -  OHH  dbiJTH  He  BJiacTH H KOJtJieKTHBH3au,HH, a TaKxe H e H a  CTopoHe HeMneB, pa3orHaBuiHX HeHTpajibHyio  CHMnaTHH  yKpaHHCKHft  jieMOKpaTHHecKHtt  napjiaMeHT.  - 41 -  Men,  BOT H H X "  3a  Mexjry  npoMHM, TeM,  .ZTJIH So^bmeBHKOB.  cBodoay  CBOJO  d u J i a onacHa n & e c a " ^ H H TypdH-  H  M T O  OHa y B e K O B e M H J i a  KaK OHa ee n o H H M a j i a .  He3aBHOHMocTb,  H  dopbdy yKpanHH Ilbeca  ByjiraKOBa He TaK KOHTppeBOJirouHOHHa, KaK aHTHKOMMyHHCTHMHa. TaK H^eajiH3HpyeT  d e j i o r B a p f l e f t u e B , KaK pa3BeHMHBaeT HanrpaHHoe  repoMcTBO KpacHHx o&nuepoB nbecax H  C O B e T C K H X nponaraH^HCTCKHx  B  $ H j i b M a x / B p o H e y n o e s f l V ^ a n a e B / *Pa3rpoM7 ^HCejiesHbift  H  He  H O T O K ' '  ^pyrne/. Pa3(5epeM  oT^ejibHbie  xapaKTepu  TyPBHH AjieKceft Bacn^beBHM -  ^ e f t c T B y K a ^ H X nau,:  noJIKOBHHK  B KOHHe KapTHHH nepBoM, H a penjiHKy  apTHjrjiepHCT,  3 0  JieT.  TH  3Haeui, a 3aMeTHJi, M T O O H / T a j i b d e p r / Ha Kpbicy noxox", d p a T A/ieKceft TypdHH .QTBenaeT:  HHKOJIKH  H3BecTH0,  M T O  B  3THX  Kpucu.  KopadJib,  Korfla onacHocTb  "A  ^ O M Ham  "Ajieuia,  - Ha KopadJib" ...  y r p o x a e T Kopadjno, c Hero yderaioT  cjioBax AjieKceH TypdHHa,  c KOToporo d e r y T  HHKOJIKH:  K P H C H  -  B H ^ H O  noxoat Ha  M T O H X KOU  co3HaHHe o d p e n e H H O C T H  deaoro j;BHxeHHH. B  KapTHHe  BTopoM,  3b«M otJiHnepaM: " B o t e y CTpauiHoe  Hac  new  BoftHa,  M H  MOM  B O  BpeMH  yxHHa, AjieKceM  npHrpajin.  HeMen,  Men  3adepn. BajnoTa  B  3aBcer^aTaeB  Ka$e.  Boodme  Bee Ha  Hauie  CBeie.  y  o$HuepcTBo npe-  Ka^eHHan apMHH.  TaK O H T e d e H noM.neT B o e B a T b . B KapMaHe."  #py-  y Hac T e n e p b .zrpyroe, dojiee  do/ibuieSHKH... Tenepb no3.zr.Ho, T e n e p b  BpaTHJiocb  T O B O P H T  y Hero,  noftflH ero y Mep3aBua,  - 48 B  3THX CJIOBax HapHay C 0O3HaHHeM On%HOCTH dOJII>IlieBH3Ma  pa3JieHHMO H e B e p H e B C T O H K O C T B H d o e c n o c o d H O C T b  HCHO  ocpnuepcTBa,  cTaporo  y KOToporo OTHHJIH B e e ^oporoe B XH3HH - p o ^ H H y ,  H^eajiu H Ha^ex^y Ha B03pox,neHHe POJIHOH P O C C H H .  AjieKceft  TypdHH roBopHT, H T O y Hero H a C T O KHKepoB - C T O  RBamarh  CTy^eHTOB, H .nepxaT O H H BHHTOBKy KaK JionaTy. ToBopa  o dy^ymnocTH  POCCHH,  AjieKceM  TypdHH TaK n p e a -  CTaBJiaeT cede dopbdy deJiux jjHBH3eH npoTHB doJibineBH3Ma: "HJIH MU H X 3 a K o n a e M , /3a  HJIH,  BepHee,  BCTpeny c K p a c H o K  O H H Hac.  Ilbio sa BCTpeny,rocnojja."  apt/men/.  B KapTHHe n e p B o t t TpeTbero flencTBHH AjieKcen TypdHH He  BepHT yxe ^axe B T O , M T O H a Roay MOXHO dy^eT c o d p a T b dejiyio apMHK) H HanaTb K p y n H H e onepauHH n p o T H B d o j i b i n e B H K O B . O H "Ha JOH?  THTe  Tex xe reHepajioB H T y xe niTadHyro opaBy.  BHT  jipaTbCH  c codCTBeHHHM H a p o a o M .  B H BCTpe-  O H H Bac 3 a c T a -  CjiyiuaHTe MeHH  RpysbH  MHe, doeBOMy ocpnuepy nopyMHJIH TOJiKHyTb Bac B ,npaKy.  MOH'. EHJIO  Taii,  Ha J o H y , B H BCTpeTHTe T O xe caMoe.  PHT:  TOBO-  dn  3a MTO'.  Ho He  3a M T O .  H Bail roBopio:  dejioMy ^BHxeHHio  KOHeil,. "  AjieKceft TypdHH n o r n d a e T  KOTopott O H cjiyxHJi yMepjia paHbiue e r o . B CMepTH A j i e K c e n  Hflen,  TypdHHa, B y j r r a K O B MHTKHX AjieKceH OTOM  CMepTbio ocpHuepa H a IIO3HU;HHX.  n o K 0 3aji H dejiyio H^eio H dejioro otpnuepa B  3aflyiueBHHx T O H a x .  BcHKaa HjjeH 3acjiyxHBaeT yBaxeHHa.  TypdHH He O T p H u a e T HjjeM H B C B O H X npoTHBHHKax.  Be JIH MHe ero nymn.  B  - 43 5pyrHM HHTepecHHM .neftcTByioiUHM GTyji3HHCKHM,  JIHU;OM  BpoHecJiaBOBHH -  A^eKcaHj;p  nbecbi  KanHTaH  HB J i n e T C H  JieT.  29  npeflCTaBJineT codott Be^HKO^epxaBHyio nacTb p y c c K o r o cbnuiero  Ha  ejiHHoft  ruiaTcjbopMe  BTopoft n e p B o r o  fleflcTBHH,  BO  H  BpeMH  j^paTbCH jrpyrnM  H  o$HHepaM  xpaHH  HO  "HMnepnio PoccHficKyro Ha  yxHHe  ... CTyjs,3HHcKHK  1 1  MH noioT  CBOeTO JUHBH 3HOHa.  COJIASLT  rJiaBHHM o6pa30M ynamancH CTapaHHH CTy,H3HHCKOrO  MM  BoeHHOMy  Kor^a yxoflHTb Ha  OJUHH  Ron  K  cnajiCH,  He  "3aBTpa  cTaHy  He  H  Hnxe,  HMnepaTopcKHft  BH^HM  MOJio.ir.ex,  pa3  eme  no^-  H  CBOM  - "Eoxe,  THMH  rojioc.  CTy^3HHCKoro, o d y n a 3TO  6hUl8L  coBepuieHHO H e d o e c n o c o d H a H ,  yBe JIHHHTb H OdyHHTb apMeftcKHe ero  o<|>Hu;epcKoro  Ka,npH,  CBH —  CTpeM jreHHH  ^ejry.  H3 o<jbHuepoB B H C K a 3 H B a e T ^eHHKHHy, C T y & 3 H H C K H f t  CJIOXHJI  OH  6yxeit 3amHinaTb B c e r ^ a . "  Bee dpocHTb H BtiBecTH AHBH3HOH Ha ^ O H . " He  nHTb  TaK KaK H3BeCTHO, HTO  ^eTejibCTByeT o npo$eccHOHajibHOCTH yHHTb c o J i ^ a T  DTOT  npHCoe^HHneT  B TpeTbeM aettcTBHH n b e c u K)Q]HM  TOCT  caMoonpe^eJieHne.  Ha  Kor^a npncyTCTByiomHe uapn  3a 3,nopoBbe e r o  coBeTyro". E^HHOHejrejiHMeii CTy.zr.3HHCKHft He n p n -  He  3HaeT n p a B a ynpaHHti TBepx^aeT:  TOCT  CTyfl3HHCKHtt r o B o p H T t  yicpaHHH.  noflj;y / 3 a reTMaHa/,  KapTHHe  y TypdHHiix, a^bioTaHT  yxHHa  reTMaHa, nopyHHK OlepBHHCKHft, n p e ^ j i a r a e T CBeTJiocTH reTMaHa Been  o$Hu.epcTBa,  B  He^ejiHMott.POCCHH.  OH  opyxHH  H  MHeHHe,  TOBOPHT:  HTO  Ha,n,o  "BepHO, Ha^o  0<J>Hii.ep G T y p , 3 H H c K H M  eme  TBep.no HaMepeH npo^oJixaTb d o p b d y  npOTHB SOJIbUieBHKOB. DTHM  pemeHHeM  O T ^ e j i b H o r o o$HU,epa npoji.oji.xaTb soopyxeHHyro  - 44 d o p b d y ByjiraKOB  H^iero d e j i o r o  OHHCTHJI  flBHxeHHa  KJieBeTH e r o  OT  3a dejiuMH a p i i n a M H dojibuieBHKH He n p H 3 H a B a j r a  BparoB.  H^eftHOCTH.  XoRHHUU MHeHHeM  O  HHKaKoK  dejIOft TBapflHH dtlJIO TO,  dejiorBapaeftcKHft cdpczt,, xax.zr,ymHH MineHHa 3a yTepaHHbie  B MTO  MeTBepTOM  o3a^aMHJi  noHHMaio T e n e p b . neTJiiopott.  KaK  npe^cTaBJiHK  JlyHnie  OH  "He  TOBOPHT:  B c e r o HaM  no,HHaTbca H  DTO  npHBHJierHH.  dHJI  jjettCTBHH nOBOpOT BOeHHHX COdHTHtt  CTy^3HHCKoro.  H  MTO  TaKOB  3Haio, HHMero yftTH  BCJie^  3a  dejiorBap^ettubi, y x H B e M c a o doJibuieBHKaMH,  MH,  He  He  cede."  CHOBa, H B DTHX CJIOBax, C T y 3 H H c K H $ HiieeT B BHfly j j a j i b HeHuiyio d o p b d y  npoTHB  MmujraeBCKHt! T O B O P H T , XHTb  B KpaCHOft  CKHH  B0 3 p o x a e T :  OHH  POCCHK)  BHjieTb,  GCCP. PHT:  CJiejiyeT  OH  Kor^a  ",Ua K a K a a x e  DTO  C T yjJ(  MepTy  K  DTO  y Hac  H  B  BO3M0XHoe  BejiHMHe  BH.H.HT  , HJIH  Havraae? HOBOK  He  Kor^a XOMeT  oxHBaTb  POCCHH.  OH  B TOBO-  Poccna - B e j i H K a a j i e p x a B a . . . "  K a M e c T B e nocJie,n.HHX MepT x a p a K T e p n c T H K H npHBecTH  CTyjI.3HH-  apMHH,  p y c c K a a apMHa,  3HHCKHM He  cjiy-  doJibraeBHKaM H  - pycoKafl  rocyj^apcTBeHHocTH, KOTopaa OH  uiTadc-KannTaH  HaMepeH nepettTK K  apMHH, nOTOMy MTO  He BepHT  B  MTO  npHKOHMHJIH? 1 "  HaMaJia  "BHJia  doJibiueBHKOB.  cJiejtymHe e r o  Cxyfl, 3HHCKHKJ  " f l BHXy,  CTyjj;3HHCKHft: /Ha  npojior,a KOMy o n H J i o r " .  cjioBa:  MTO  H  OflHHOK".  3aMeMaHHe H H K O J I K H O  TypdHHtix - BejiHKHft n p o j i o r  K  CTy^3HHCKoro,  HOBOH  TOM,  MTO  Benep y  HCTopHMeoKoft n b e c e / - "KoMy  D T O 8 3aKJiK>MHTejibHott <£>pa3oft  M.  ByjiraKOB  - 45 BHHec  n p n r o B o p dejioMy . n B H x e H H i o ,  B 0 3 j j a B .zioJixHoe e r o H ^ e f t H t i M  n p e j u c T O B H T e JIHM .  B nbece BUBe^reH JIHHHHH a^biOTaHT r e T i i a H a , nopyHHK IIIepBHHCKHH, JleOHHfl K ) p b e B H H , H  JiryH,  MejIKHH KapbepHCT, npHTBOpIIIHK  aerKOMHCJieHHHH odoxaTejib xeHniHH, HeMHOxKO n e B e u , , nyT-  MyTb ocpHijep H n e j i o B e K  de3 TBep^ux  HpaBCTBeHHHx y c T o e B .  Ero  He  coMHeHHa, OH H e doHTcn TpeBor H He CTpainHTca nopaxeHHft.  MynaioT Kor^a  DTD -  dexajr reTMaH, O H y K p a j i e r o 3OJIOTOH nopTCHrap, o n p a B f l b i B a a  3T0 xejiaHHeM coxpaHHTb HCTopHnecKyio qeHHocTb /nopTCHrap r e T MaHa y K p a H H w / . BoeHHaa  .nodJiecTb n o p y M H K a IJIepBHHCKoro oneHb HeBeJiHKa»  K o r ^ a reTMaH dexaji H UJepBHHCKHH o c T a j i c f l H e y ,neji, O H odpaTHJica K  EjieHe  MOXHO B  BacH^beBHe  Tajibdepr c  TaKOft (ppa3ofi: "EjieHa BacHJibeBHa,  y Bac c n p H T a T b c n ' ? "CettHac ocpHiiepoB dy^yT HCKaTb".  KneBe oxHaajiH n p H x o . u a doJibtueBHKOB, IIIepBHHCKHH npeodpa3HJic«  ;.-npojreTapHH  OHKax." Cy^yT.  "B  HTO  B  Mep3KOft marine H H30^paHHOM najibTO, B C H H H X  O H TOBOPHT  EjreHe BacHJibeBHe: " G e r o ^ H H HOHbto KpacHue  OTajio dtiTb, coBeTCKaa BjiacTb H TO My n o ^ o d H o e l "  BacHJtbeBHa cnpauiHBaeT: "MeMy xe B H p a ^ y e T e c b ?  A  Kor^a  MOXHO  EjieHa  no^yMaTb,  BH CaMH 6OJIbllieBHK I " IIIepBHHCKHH OTBeHaeT t "H COHyBCTByKHIIHH '•  najibTHiuKO H y JUBopHHKa HanpoKaT B 3 A J I .  naJibTHniKO." KOTRS.  TyT  3TO  -  de3napTHHHoe  xe OH coodmaeT, H T O npHHHT Ha flojrxHOCTb n e B i i a .  pa3j;aioTCH 3 a cueHoM ^ajieKHe nyiueHHHe y^apu,  o3HaHaioqHe  BCTynaeHHe doJibineBHKOB, EjieHa cnpauiHBaeT: "HeyxTO dott onHTb?" IIIepBHHCKHH en OTBenaeT: " H e T .  O T O cajnoT .  dojibiueBHKaM TaK xe JierKO H CBodojUHo,  11  KaK O H  DlepBHHCKHft cajnoTyeT cojnoTOBaji r e T M a H y .  - 46 DTOT OTpaxeHHH Hapo.ua,  KaK  de3npHHUHriHLi8  CTOHBuiero  HBJineTCH  - BejiHKaa  POCHH  MbimaaeBCKoro H3  H  TpaKTHpOM.  HTO  OH  H^eHi.B  HO  pa^ax  dy^eT ... -  HOBaa  x^HTel"  B  dyfleT '. 1  dy^ymeM  B03pox-  MbiuuiaeBCKHfl  He  cpa3y  npejjcTaBjiaeT  OH  dopromHxca  KpecTfcaH,  peBOJiionHOHHbix  MbiuiJiaeBCKHH roBopHT:  B O T 3 T H CaMbie  y TypdHHbix,  yxHHa  sa  peBO-  BOKCK.  "A MyxenKH  dOTOHOCHH OKaaHHbie  COHH-  MbirajiaeBCKHM  npoH3-  cHejiaji?  ^TO?  BottHy.  H  no^BbinHB,  "Pa3Be  MOHO^tor:  npo<peccHOHajibHbift  x e npeKpaTHJi  " H  H a c POCCHH  JocToeBCKoro."  3HaMeHaTe^bHHK  HM  BOMHU.  B  B .aeHCTBHH n e p B O M  norHajiH?"  3 T H nOR  Bpena  yBepeHHOCTb  TypdH-  "JHH  A j i e K c e E TypdHH e r o cnpauiHBaeT: "3aMeu x e B a c  TaM  rocno^HHa  penJiHKy:  dy.neT,  B  MbiiujiaeBCKHH.  " J a , d y ^ e T , dy^eT  HeHaBH^amero  BoeBaTb  daH^HTHl  TaKHe,  H  paccMaTpHBaeTCH  BHKTOPOBHH  "ripexHeK He  3aKJH0HeHHK.  TpaKTHp  HOCHT  cpeaH p y c c K o r o  3aaBJiaeT: "BbiJia y  ropenbio  n e n j i a rpaxaaHCKoft  nop  Bo  HHTepecax  B  AjieKcefl TypdHH  KOTopoe  BHKTOP  sBynHT  HanHOHajibHbie  B O T e r o ejioBa.  HeHHa  <5HJIH  E y j i r a K O B a no e r o n b e c e  eoMHeBaeTca:  codoit d e j i o r o ofpHuepa, jiKHHOHHbie  BOMHH  MbiuiJiaeBCKHft no^aeT  npe,zr,cKa3HBaeT:  DTOMy  K  c  CTyja;3HHCKHfl  CTy^3HHCKHM  cjioBax  npHiueji  aBTopoM  KaK  JIHIIOM,  uiTadc-KanHTaH  flepxaBa".  jyiHrnJiaeBCKHfi  ^eHHH  TBopnecTBa  aHajiH3e  B KOHue nbecbi  DTHX  r_Bap,zrHio,  ^efiCTByiOIUHM  IIOC^e^HHM  By^ei".  dejiyio  3a  nbecy  IUepBHHCKHfi.  JleOHH^  Hbix" -  B  B o n o x y rpax^aHCKoM  HCTHHH.  HacToameM  BBe,neH  THII  COK)3  OTO  napeydHfin.  OpyT: "BoftHbi He KTO?  dyTHJiKoft ... naBjia IleTpoBHHa  Hapo^l  Be,nb  OTO  IleTp Tperaft . . . Hy  H&po\"  OTJIHHHO  ... OH  CodcTBeHHHfi ^BopaHHH i i a p a no Mop^e KHa3b  n o p T c n r a p o M no y x y . . A  DTOT...  -  3a6un  Kan e r o  ..  MyxHKaM n p H H T H o e ero  6OM6O8  c  A  DTO  OTeaecTBO,  OnflTb HflH  BO  Korjia  1  coBceM  He^aBHo  C dOJIbffleBH3MOM  "fl  dojibuieBHKOB,  3a  KpaflHeft Hapo,n  Mepe  He  B  c  HO  uenn.  BH^a/IH?  XH3Hb.  Torjia H H  oTenecTBO? H  BceMy 3a  CTapoMy  KOTopoe  OH  r i p H M H p e H H e MbiinJiaeB-  K O M M y H H 3M  DTO  3 a KOMMyHHCTOB nycTb  H  /noKa3HBaeT  KOMMyHHCTOB."  HaBo3 B npopyde.  Hapczc npoTHB  3aKJi»MHTejrbHofi  cueHe  KaK  MbimjiaeBCKHH n p e ^ c T a B J i a e T  opKecTp  cJibiuiHTe?  nbeca  3a  MTO?  Ha n o 3 o p / r e n e p a j i b i / .  HeT.  H  roBopHT I  OH  roBopHT: Kor^a  eMy TOXe,  OJIHO H  . . . MHe  ModHJiH3yioT.  no  6yny 3 H a T b , MTO H Sy^y c j i y x H T b B p y c c K o f t apMHH.  HaMH.  "Ber"  3a  IDHIII Mbim^ai«j.BCKHM?  60JIblljeBH3M  npHdjiHxaHCb,  nbeca  ro^a.  TOJibKO n p o T H B  Bee  "rocnojja,  reHepajiii.  H a M H H a e T C H H3nOJTBOJIb , K o r a a OH  T O B O P H T : "Hy,  Ha^oejio H 3 o 6 p a x a T b  apMHtt, MbinuiaeBCKHK  P O C C H H , TOMy O T e M e c T B y ,  JIapHOCHK pa3HCHHJI, MTO MtmiJiaeBCKHft  de/mx  T O T O B 6UJI o T j j a T b  CKOTO  TaK  1  Hy,  KoMy n o K a 3 H B a e T  noJiocaTux.  nepTett  BHHOBaTH  dpocHJiH  yKJia.n.y ^opeBOJirouHOHHofi eme  BceM  pyuaer,  HeroaneB ."  npHHHHti n o p a x e H H H  3 T H M CBeT JIOCTHM?'.  K  UIHID . "  mHiu/.  HX Hajro,  jieBHTbCOT MeTHpHajmaToro  BOKJK) c  "H  cHMnaTHMHtift, paH,  ocBodoxy HX,  3a DTO'. I I o p o T b  K BHBo^yv, MTO  npHxoflHT  -  6aKeH6'ap,ziaMH,  cnejiaro,  AHajiH3Hpyn  47  /1937  "Ber"  3TO  Hac."  nbecbi,  HrpaeT  Kor^a  HHOM,  "HHTepHaijHOHa.fi , H H K T O 11  dojibnieBHKOB  KpacHbie  3 a cneHofi H 3 j r a j i e K a ,  3pHTejibH0My  sany:  H^yT."  roj/  JiorHnecKH BHTeKJia H3  "^HeE TypdHHtix"  H  - 48 HBjiHJiacb  npo^ojisceHHeM  3adpocHJiH  cofjHTHH  -  dejiorBapfleficKHx  npe,zi,cTaBHTejieft  Ha3BaHa TaKxe "BoceMb  CHOB"  ,  3arpaHHU,eft,  ".HHefit"  6ejio.r.o aBHxeHHfl.  onpe^ejiaeT  To,  oTHOffleHHe  Kyj;a nteca  MTO  aBTopa  Heft.  K  C B H ^ e T e j i b C T B y e T , a B o o d p a x a e T , npeflCTaBJiaeT, npoBH^HT.  ABTOP  He  Iltece  npe^nocjiaH  onnrpad):  "Be3CMepTHe IloKofica,  -  THXHE  KTO  CBOM  cBeTJibitt d e p e r . der."  KOHMHJI  JKyKOBCKHtt. B  DTHX  n o o T a E y j i r a K O B ^ejiaeT  cJioBax  noHHTHHx - H a  fje3CMepTHH  CMaCTJIHBOM  ynOKOeHHH.  CMOTPHT  Ha KTO  HX  repoeB  RJIH  nryMeH;  " E e r e " 2 CepacpHMa  B  CHH  H  npotpeccopa;.  K a p a c y d a 3 a p c K H f i ; IlaHCHH  JIHH H  MHHOB  pa:3HHX  IlepBHH COH n p o H c x o ^ H T CHH  - BTpoH, TpeTHM  niecToK -  B  IlapHxe oceHbio  H  TOM  der  flByx  Ha  H  coxajieHHH,  xe  roay.  Mojioaan n e T e p -  AcppHKaH  - apxHenncKon  -  MOHax,  flpaxjifcitt  H  MHOxecTBO  BoeHHux  HauHOHajibHOCTeM.  B CeBepHoK TaBpHH, B 1920  MeTBepTHtt -  KoHCTaHTHHono Jie B  CBOH  Kop3yxHHa,  ApTyp ApTypbeBHM - TapaKaHHH uapb  rpax^aHCKHx  H  KOHMHJI  TaKHMH TJia3aMH, noJiHHMH  d y p r c K a n jjaMa; roJiydKOB H  KTO  Ha  cBoeR nbecw E y j i r a K O B .  BHBe^eH  cHMfpspanojibCKHtt  Tex,  y^apeHHe  jieTOM  1920  B B  1921  BocbMoM  COH  roay  B  ro^y.  rojiy.  KpuMy.  IlHTHft  Ce^bMof!  -  - oceHbio  Torsa  B  xe  B KoHCTaHTHHonoJie • B O T co,zi;epxaHHe n b e c u TaBpHH  BpeMH  OT  BpeMeHH  ... OceHbio  BcnHXHBajiH  1920  KopoTKHe  rojua B don.  CeBepHoft IIOTOM  deane  - 49 yiiiJiH 3a IlepeKon H n t i T a j i H C b . z t e p x a T b c a B KptiMy. H  HanHHaeTCH T O ,  o neM  roBopHT  Xjiy,n;oB: "B . n e T C T B e  reHepaji cyMepKH,  HM  B n b e c e KOMaHflyroruHft  B  dtuio.  KyxHio p a 3  yjjajiocb  He  <£POHTOM Bouieji  B  TapaKaHH Ha ruiHTe, a 3 a x e r c n H H K y , H H P K , a O H H  H  OTO  CnHMKa B O 3 B M H pa. H n o r a e H H .  xajiH.  3TO  Cjiutny,  OHH  node-  JiannaMH mypmaT,  inyp-myp, M y p - M y p ... H y Hac Toxe Mrjia H mypmaHHe... C M O T P K H jtyMaio K y j i a d e r y T ? Kan d,yx."  C KyxoHHoro  TapaKaHH B Beppo.  CTOJia  -  HaMHHaeTCH d e r . Cpe^H derymHx reHepajroB, Bbicniero j t y x o B e H C T B a ,  H e o x H ^ a H H O OKa3ajiHCb XBoe c a B P O C C H H codtiTeft.  MOJIOJIHX  Jiro^efi, jjajieKHx O T  HHHOBHHKOB, coBepmaBniHx-  ripHBaT-jioueHT n e T e p d y p r c K o r o y H H B e p c H T e T a  Cepreft TojiydKOB H xeHa TOBapHma-MHHHCTpa Cepa$HMa K o p s y x H H a .  B  dejioft apMHH K o p 3 y x H H a d p o c a e T  uiTade  r e H e p a j i y X j i y ^ o B y B JIHUO  CMeJioe odBHHeHHe: ireHOH HecjiwxaHHoro n a j i a n e c T B a OH n u T a e T c a y^epxaTb  B C B O H X p y K a x pa3jioraromyK)ca apMHK).  0(J)Hu;epH ydex.ir.eHbi, MTO  H  n e p e ^ H H M H KOMMyHHCTKa.  uiTade K o p 3 y x H H , o T p H K a e T c a  OT  c a M XjiynoB H 0Ka3aBmHfica  xeHii H Cepa$HMy OTnpaBjiaioT  ero B  B  KOHTp-pa3Be^Ky. TeHepaji-Maftop B  cyMaToxe  MapHOTa, cjiyMaftHbiff 3HaKOMiifi KopsyxHHott,  "dera" oTdnsaeT  ee y K O H T P — p a 3 B e j j M H K O B H B M e c T e  co  CBOHMH COJI^aTaMH yBO 3 H T Ha napOXO^,OTXOflamHH B KOHCTaHTHHOIIOJIb •  Mexjjy TeM ToJiydKOB,  MeTaBuinttca  jnodHT, HeoxH^aHHO BCTenaeT  B noncKax  xeHuiHHH, KOTopyio OH  Xjiyjj;oBa H BMecTe c HHM Toxe nona^aeT  B KoHCTaHTHHOnO Jib • G na^eHHeM KpuMa, nojraaa odpeneHHOCTb conpoTHBJieHHa CTaHOBHTca acHa jjjia Xjiy^oBa.  O H HanHHaeT noHHMaTb, MTO  dopbda  -  50  6e3Li.ejii>Ha, de3CMHCJieHa, a xecTOKocTb - npecTynJieHHe, nepe,n  ^pyrHMH, H O H nepea caMHM codoft.  Ha, nocjie^Hero  0dpa3 cojij^aTa KpanHJiH-  jirojjet!, noBeuiaHHtix no ero  BepeHHue  npecjie^yeT ero, He ocTaBJineT ero  npHKasy,  3aBo,zr,HT r e p o e B nbecti  Ber ropoay  desKOHeHHott  B  c  uiapMaHKoft  pa3ticKHBaH  TojiydKOB  H H  CTaMdyji.  B  He TOJibKO  Ha  MTHOBeHHe.  O ^ H O  MOJITO  no  X O ^ H T  OHa  Cepe$HMy.  CBO»  XHBeT B OTMafeHott HHtueTe c ^apHOToH H e r o noxoflHoH xeHoH JlrocbKoM.  ^apHOTy  nepTHMH, a  pe3HHOBMMH  KaHbHx  derax.  HapHOTy. doraTbift  -  DTO  Ha K  MHJiJiHOHepy  Cepa$HMH,  dHBtiiHft  TOBapHm-MHHHCTpa  H  B O T ,  ce^bMoJt  c rojio^y,  ^oaie^uieH  p,o  ocTaBJiaeT  Kop3yxHH noJiHoro  ^apHOTa peuia»T exaTb  H  H  B  B  cJiyMaftHo  nojiHUHK),  et Ma^eMya3ejib  <J>pexoJibH,  OHa  dHTb,  napnx,  T H C H H H O  jnoJiJiapoB.  ToJiydKOBa  TOJiydKOB  H  H  dHBraan  HBjiHeTca  KapTOHHofi  3aBH3aBiiieflcfl  xe JlrocbKa -  BHHrpHUieM  Bcero noxoxnfi  dojibuie  uBeTa r e H e p a j i MapHOTa  flBajjuaTb  Hero  OrpOMHHM  MOxeT  JIHMOHHOTO  Kop3yxHHy H  H ,  C O H ,  Bbi3BaTb  B  MTodti noMOMb  TojiydKOB  KopayxHH xoMeT  C  peHb  Tapa-  aeHbraMH.  Hrpe, BHHrpwBaeT  ^apHOTH.  TparHMecKHtt  B  ncztbixaTb  KajibcoHax  B  C O H .  3a  npoHrptmaeT Ha  jneHbra H X  TopryeT Ha 6a3ape  O H  xejiaeT  MejioBeK.  KopsyxHHy  H  He  OTMaHHHH 0epa<J)HMe, K  HaxojjHT  OHa  MTO  Myx  Ho  apMHH  BbipyMeHHbie  TojiydKOB  JIiocbKa, 3aflBHB,  H3  BHTOHHIOT  OnoMHHBuiHCb,  ^lapHOTy  BbipyHa-  nojipyra  MapHOTa  B0 3BpamaK)TCH  CTaiidyji.  3^ecb H O C T H ,  oTKpHBaeTCH  dojie3HeHOH  T O C K H  nocjie^HHK no  Po^HHe,  C O H .  COH  KOTOpaH,  - nojiHbiff de3BHX0flKaK  O H H  ayMaKT,  - 51 "Boe npocTHT  noftMeT .  He MoryT xHTb  11  H  B  H3THaHHH  Toj/dKOB H CepacpHiia, KOTopan Bee roTOBa o T ^ a T b , HHinbdbi CHOBa yBHfleTb "cHer Ha KapaBaHHOH .  PeiuaeT B e p H y T b c a  11  HHft X ^ y ^ o B ,  XOTH  H  3HaeT,  MoxeT dtiTb - pa^jTpeji. KpamrHHa  e r o x^eT c y p o B o e HaKasaHHe.  HTO  H HaMHHaeT TanTb npH3paK B e c T O B o r o  - odpa3 HeyMOJIHMOH c o B e c T H ,  B. KaBepHH,  B  H3MynaH-  .HOMOH H  CBOHX  KOTOPOM  OT  HHKy.ua He yftTH.  3aiieTKax "0 .upaMaTyprHH M.  /KypHaji T e a T p , 10 O K T f l d p n 1956  EyjiraKOBa"  ro.ua, H3flaTe;rbCTBO "HcKyccTBo"  M o c K B a / npHBo^HT cjie,ii;yioiiiee MHeHHe o n b e c e "Ber" nocTaHOBniHKa H.n.  AKHMOBa: yMep He 3a^oJiro  "ABTOP  Ho.padoTaTb n b e c y .  RO  BOHHH  /2-OM  Ho, no MoeMy yd extern™, ee .aonjiHHJia  Bee Heonpe,nejieHHoe cTajio onpejo;ejieHHHM.  He Mor  MHPOBOK/ H  HHTepecHO,  HCTOPHH.  MTO n p n  nOMTH nOJIHOM OTCyTCTBHH B n b e c e nOJIOXHTeJIbHHX THnOB peBOJIIOUHOHJiarepa,  HOTO  B  HeM omymaeTca  cHJia  yj;apoB  KpacHofi apMHH  H  KO-  n e M H a a n o d e ^ a peBOJiioii.HH. MacTepcTBO E y j i r a K O B a , KaK j t p a i i a T y p r a , 3 a c T a B j i H e T Hac c OCOdeHHHM BHHMaHHeM  OTHOCHTbCH  K 3TOH n b e c e , npaBJ[HBOCTb  KOTO-  POH, TOMHOCTb H HpKOCTb XapaKTepOB, CnpaBe^ JIHBOCTb BHBO.HOB, MoaceT  dbiTb,  B  HaKoR  TO  CTeneHH  j a x e npeBocxo^HT  H^MepeHHe  nlO aBTopa. Ilbeca "Ber" H e n o x o x a Ha .Hpyrne npoH3Be,neHHH B y j i r a K O B a . Ero  TajiaHTy c B O M C T B e H H O H3aiuecTBO, JierKOCTB nocTpoeHHH,  jiHBocTb. B apyroM.  B "Bere" HeT  DTOM  JierKoM H r p t i .  O^HH  COH  myT-  nepexo^HT  yMaCTHHKH DTHX BOCbMH CHOB - JHORVL OdpeMeHHOTO MHpa.  - 52 -. B HcnoJib30BaHHH  JiHTepaTypHoS  npHMepaM  DKcnpecoHOHHCTCKoro  BH^aji  3ana,ne.  Ha  B  KaKoM  acaHp  flpaMbi  "CHOB" ByjiraKOB cJie^oBaji  CTHJIH,  JiynmHe odpa3u,H K O T o p o r o OH  "Ber"?  yKJia^HBaeTCH  M. T o p b K H f l H a 3 B a j i o T y 13  nbecy  B  "npeBocxojjHeftuieft  nbece  HeT nodejiHTejieft  KOMeflneM  c rjiydoKO  CKPHTHM  caTHpHMecKHM . 11  - OJJ;HH nodexcneHHtie H T e u H e M e H e e  OHa  ydeacnaeT HHTaTejia B n p a B O T e H O B O T O , peBOJirouHOHHoro noHHMaHHfl KH3HH.  K p H T H K a n t e c t i "Ber" n o c j i e PannoBCKHe  p,orMaTHKH  CTpaflaHHH K J i a c c o B o r o  TaKoH TpnjmaTH  RJIR  MXAT, EHJIH  jipyxda.  Beni^Te^ff X j i y j i O B a  Ha n b e c y  nop c n y j i o M .  C KOTOPHM  xaxe  onosTH3npoBaTb  H T O OHa B T e n e H H H  A Bep,b HanncaHa OHa dbiJia  ByJiraKOBa cBH3UBajia T e c H a n  y x e pacnpejrejieHbi  roTOBHJica HrpaTb  B DnH30^HHecKHx  KaK MOCKBHH i BaTajioB,  npnocTaHOBJieHH THKaM  de3nomajj;Ha.  POJIH.  apTHCT X M e j i e B ;  pojib  Cepa$HMBi  TBop-  TeHepajia poJib  MapHOTH  - TapacoBa;  pojib  - AHJipOBCKaa.  Jtaxe enema  nonHTKy  npHBeJi K TOMy,  p e n e T H p o B a j i K a n a j i o B H CTaHHinjH; JIlOCbKH  B nbece  dtuia  Bpara.  JieT n p o J i e x a j i a  cnennajibHO necKaa  B3rjiHji  ycMOTpejin  e.e> n o c T a H O B K H  KeapoB,  3aHHTH  rpndOB.  TJiaBpenepTKOMOM, KOTOPH8 B  He nOCHHTajICH  cneKTaKJia  POJIHX 6HJIH  C KOJIJieKTHBOM  TeaTpa,  B . H . HeMHnp^HH-AaHHeHKO H z t a i e  CoxpaHHJica  npoTOKOJi  TaKHe  MacTepa  PeneTHqHH  yroay  dti JIH  pannoBCKHM K p n -  C MHeHHeM nOCTaHOBUJHKa c MHeHHeM M .  odcyxjieHHH nbecti  "Ber",  TopbKoro.  cocTOHBiuerocn  -  B  TeaTpe  B C-KTadpe  1928  53  -  3aaBHB,  rQ^a.  MTO  peBOJiioqHH r j i a B p e n e p T K O M a H,neT MHMO n b e c t i , Ha  OTOM  ofjcyx^eHHH:  "Co  CTOPOHH  uiHBaHHH d e j m x reH-epajioB.  3TO  MHTaji T P H pa3a.  3 T a nbeca  KHM  "Ber"  co^epxaHneM.  aBTopa  "orjiyuiHTejibHafl" M,  He  ToptKHft CKa3aji  BHxy  HHKaKoro p a c K p a -  - npeBocxoflHeMmaa KOMe^HH.  c rjiydoKHM,  yMejio C K P H T H M  - BeJIHKOJienHan Bemb, K O T o p a a  H  ee  caTHpHMecdy,neT HMeTb 12  aHacpeMCKHM H paMnbi.  ycnex,  BOT, Ho  He  JleHHHrpa^cKOM dojibme B  KHe  H He  B TeaTpe HM6HH  T e a T p e , pyKOBO^HMHM H.  B n o c T a H O B K e H.A.  BaxTaHroBa,  AKHMOBHM,  Ko/uieKTHBy  Bcero  T e a T p a 6UJIO H C H O ,  TeaTpu.  o  KOJiJieKTHBa.  MTO  B  yxe  "Ber",  a  3a  dojibuion CTaBa  nbecy  O T Hcxo^ra e r o  3aBHCHT jj;a;ibHeftiiiaa c y ^ b d a n b e c h i . flpyrae  cBeT  H He  KOTOPHH  Bcero  3aBe^oMO BRJHOHajioH B MHoroJieTHWK) d o p b d y  B  TOR,/  IloHpoBCKoro.  c B H ^ e T e J i b c T B y e T npex^ie  cMejiocTH p e x n c e y p i i H  BO MHoroM  HeyaaMa n o ^ T B e p ^ H T  "Ber , 1  npocTO ^ejioM  noMeMy  padOTa  H a ^ "BeroM  11  padoTti  y,naMa o T K p o e T eft JHaBHHinHHe  KpHTHMec-  B CTajiHHrpa,ae d i i J i a H e  n o ^ r o T O B K O f i OMepe^HOH n p e M b e p t i , a  codHTHeM H  KPOBHHM  B c e r o KOJiJieKTHBa.  H.A. CKHTaHHH  IIOKpOBCKHtt,  C03^aBafl  o M H r p a H T O B , Hcnojib3yeT  peaJIHCTHMeCKHe KapTHHH "CHH"  RJIH  1  Eyjira-  Hana^KH.  BOT  H  B MXAT  nocTaHOBKa  TBopMecKofl  jopory  1957  ro.ua TOMy Ha3aj s a a B H J i o H a M e p e H H H n o c T a B H T b  3Ta  KOBa.  / " T e a T p " Ho.8,  H a K O H e i i , o T a npeBpcxczmaa Kotaej^Ha y B H ^ e j i a  .CTa^HHrpa^e  TeaTp  yBepaio Bac..."  TOTO,  MTodbi  XH3HH npn  - 54 noMomH 3jieMeHTOB ^ocTHTHyTb ynacTByeT  yc^oBHOCTH  eme d o j i b n i e r o H  xyfloxHHK  CneKTaKJib pa.  CrymaeTCH  CJIOBHO  BOT  CTHxaeT  6pe3xeT  B DTOM  HaHHHaeTCfl c BHCOKOH  TeMHOTa, H  Ha  TioJie  pexnccepcKOM  H  TpeBoxHoft HOTH  B03HHKaeT  aKKopjuaMH  yBepTiopa H  oroHeK  dyuiyrouiHft  KpoMeuiHoH  JIHK  B H p H B a a H3  KOHTOpKy,  CBO^U.  BHflHeft,  CTaHOBHTCH  03apaeTca  CKyno  EtepKByniKHI  06jiynHBuiHecH  pemeHHH  3ajirm,  OHH  Ho  3aropaeTca  peiUeTKOM  ydpaHCTBO OKHO,  I I o c T e n e H H O BOSHHKaioT K a K H e - T o  OTMeTJIHBeH,  KOTO-  npH3paMHO  ydoroe  TeMHOTH  3adpaHHOe  CHexHtiH  Mrjie  CBHTOTO,  opKecT-  BHxpa.  pa3(5ymeBaBiuerocH  B HacTynHBiuett  ^aiina^KH,  jpyraH,  CBeMKa,  MOHaCTHpCKOft  OHH  ododineHHH.  TeaTpe  KOMno3HTop.  norjiouiaioTCH  pHe  KHe,  B oKcnpecc'HOHHCTCKOM  H 3 jr.a;ieKa n p H r j i y m e H H O ^ O H O C H T C H o p y ^ n M H i i e  yparaH.  oflHa  H  Kan  HaMHHaiOT  HH3-  tpHrypu,  .HBHTaTbCfl  H  TOBOpHTb.  TaK, B  CJIOBHO  TeMHOM y r j i y  H3  JiexHT  CMyTHoro  Ha  "MaaaM  BapafiaHMHKOBa",  mopoxy  "XHMHK  npodHparomaaca ee  BeHHBiH H  Ha  TOTO  reHepaji  TpeBoxHO  DTOM  JIHIU  Cepreft  MHpa,  OT  BOT  MHdbHnecKaa  npHC^ymHBaeTca  K Kax,noMy  AcppHKaH.  BOT H  roJiydKOB.  noHBjineTCH  yBepeHHoft  noxo^KOf!  dy^eHOBeut B a e B .  npHMeTaMH  Ten  - OH  KOToporo  deryT  A Mexjty  -  nbecH.  .iiaMa CepatpHMa K o p 3 y x H H a  tpoHe pemHTejibHOft,  caMHMH oduiHMH  MapHOTa  repon  apxnenHCKonoM  B KpuM n e T e p d y p r c K a a  penJiHK.  HOBOTO  BO3HHKai0T  - nepeojieTbiH  11  HacTopoxeHHHM  orpaHHMHJicH HecKOJibKO  BOT  npHBaT-jroueHT  cnyTHHK  H  MaxpoB  jraBKe  CHa  BaeBa,  repon  JpaMaTypr  pa.Ji eMy  ejiHHCTBeHHbift nbecbi H  MyxecT-  Bcero  npejiCTaBHTejib p a c K p t i T H e ••;  -  55  -  o d p a 3 a cocTaBJinjio o,n,Hy H3 TpyflHeHuinx  DToro  npHTOM oneHb BaxHbix  H  sa^aM nocTaHOBujHKa H a K T e p a . BaeB oneHb KOHKpeTeH H oneHb n e j i o B e n e H .  H .zraace KopoTKan  penjiHKa, KOTopan B HTeHHH MoxeT o c T a T b c n He3aMeneHHOft H H e 3 H a H H T e J i b H o f i , n p H O f j p e T a e T B e r o HcnojmeHHH CMHCJI..  HeoscHjiaHHO rjiydoKHft  .  Bo3MymeHbitt T e M , H T O B MOHacTtipe O K a 3 a j r a c b JHCZIH,  BaeB roTOB p a c n p a B H T b c n c  CTOHH  BapaSaHHHKOBOH  H  ysHaeT,  HHMH.  HO  B,npyr  nocTopoHHe OH  y xeHiUHHH H a n a j i H C b  HTO  Bcero o^Ha p e n j i H K a : "HauiJia BpeMH, M e c T o p o x a T b " .  nAJien  Jiexauieft Ha THXO,  K  r y d a M , KanaeT ro;ioBoM,  .naBKe  Ha  H  DTO  MOTJO  i i i i n o H K a x no^xo^HT  xeHiHHHe, yKptiTOH nonoHoft,  coKpymeHHO, ynacTJiKBo  po^H.  Ho BaeB npHKJia^Bi-  6HTb cKa3aHo sjiodHO, n p e 3 p H T e ^ b H O , xecTOKO. BaeT  CJIHUIHT  pacKpuBaeTCH  TOBOPHT  OTH  K  cJioBa  e r o raydoKan  ryMaHHOCTb, e r o x e a a H H e H roTOBHocTb noMOHb H e ; i 0 B e K y B de,zre. H  Kor.ua BaeB CHOBa yxo^HT  CH, - HTOdfel npHHHTb y n a C T H e  B  - CTpeMHTejibHO, K a K  KaKHX-TO  cyujHocTb  H  npHMoe,  H  C  noHBHJi—  npOHCXO^HIKHX 3 a KyjIHCaMH  dOJIbfflHX COdfelTHHX H CypOBHX dOHX, BMeCTe C HHM Bee neJioBenHoe, necTHoe  H  HOBOH  yxo^HT CO CHeHH H  CHJIOH  odHaxaeTCH  codpaBfflHxcH 3^ecb derjieuoB.  ITpoHcxo^HT MrHOBeHHan T.paHccpopMaiiHH: aHHHKOBoM H3 no,a. nonoHu c  KPHKOM  BMecTO  Ma^aM Eapad-  deineHOH p a ^ o c T H noHBJineT  CH  r e H e p a j i MapHOTa, cdpacbiBaeT T y j i y n , odopanHBancb apxHenncKonoM "XHMHK  MaxpoB , Becb "HoeB KOBner" O K H B J i n e T C H , c y e T H T C H MOHaxn, 11  -  pa3^aeTCH HOTO  H  3BOH  56  KaK dy.nTO, H3daBHBiiiHCb  KOJIOKOJIOB  HeHaBHCTHoro dyjeHHOBqa, H O 3TO  HM M H p a .  HeHaBHCTHOTO  H3daBHJiHCb  OHH  H  HaMHHaeTCH  fleftCTBHe  B  HBJineTCH  nbecti,  B  3aMHc5l,  cneKTaKJie  paCKpHT cypoByio  BH^eHHR,  TeM  TparHMecKHx  KOTOPHM renepajia  npoKjj;eT n e p e 3 B  cBoeM  fHaHHeHKo MTO  "jiiocbKHHoro  KOToporo  penH  H THnH rOTOJieBCKHX  xaHOBCKHH, CorjracHO  H  HO  CHJia,  HM  c  DTOTO  CKBOSHoe  BHHBjieH  nOCTaHOBKH,  pescHccep-  coHeTawuieM  c rnnepdoJinMHOCTbio Koumap-  HenpHMHpHMOCTb  c  rjiydoKHM  BcaeT BO Becb p o c T  HaxjiedHHKa", Tocna  no  po  H  pacKpH-  odpa3 ^apHOTH,  H  odcyacHeHHH repoft  "^apHOTa KOMe^Hft  -  odpa3a,  HHr^e  TeM B H C T a B j i e H  He  B  dpaBoro  ocTaeTca  KOHUSI  po^HHe H H H e M y H e M o a c e T  B.K.  nbeca TO^BKO  B  OTH  pyKOBo^CTBOM  K.  ypemeft KOTOPOM  npoHBJieHO  Hanona3 e r o  TOM  HayHHTb.  HeMHpoBHHcMHCJie,-  H G K B O 3HHK-,HMy—  XjieCTaKOB  cneKTaKJiH "Ber" nop,  co3flaHHoro  BMecTe c  OTMeTJIHBO  npHHUHn  Bojibiuoft aKTepcKoM  odJiHMHTejibHan  cocTaBJineT  dy,2eT B t i c M e H H T a K see K a K H  KpHTKKe  noKpoBCKoro. rjiydHHy  OH  HMeHHO  Becb c n e K T a K J i b , npeBpamancb H3  pa.xe  MTO  OTU;H  noJioaceHHft.  H  H a ynoMHHyTOM  roBopHT,  KOTOPHE  peajiHCTHHHOCTb  3T0ft K a p T H H e  B  MejiOBeKOM,  B  OCHOBHOft  cy^ed  H  jieftTMOTHBOM.  ee  caTHpHMecKyio  " M T O BH,  ^apHOTti:  .UpanaTb H a j r o i "  JIH?  nepBoM cneHe  STOK  HHX  yxe  HTO  naHHHecKHM d e r ,  TOT  yxe OKHfi  odejiHCb,  dejieHH  cTpamHoro  OT  MHMOJieTHOe B 0 3BpameHHe K XH3HH  npepiiBaeT 3Jioft Bonjib cnoxBaTHBaiecoca CBHTHe,  CTpaui-  OT  nepcoHaxH '. 1  pexnccepa  CHHHUHHa Hajip  nvirpe  He  npHMHpeHHe BHyTpeHHHft"  npH3HaTb  ocnadJieHa c MHP  ^lapHOToM, - Mnp  -  noTepHBoiero noHBy, TOCKyiomero,  nejioBeKa, cnocoCHoro  Euie H  nbecbi  K  dopoTbca  OT  H  peMHBOCTb,  HOCTb  3amHTy  cnop  dere,  HeBe^oMoH  de3BHXo,5HOCTH  B onH30ite  MejioBeKa  noflodHbix.  rjre  c  c  ocTpaa  KOTOPHM  BHHyx^eH  dexaTb.  noHCKH n y T H  TanoH  1 1  .  K&KHM-  dopbda  Mexfly H a -  aBaHTiopu  DTa  p a c c i c a 3biBaeT  -  BejeT  H  ntiTaeTca npoTHBO-  Xjiy^oB H e H a B H ^ H T  coji,naTOM  C  B Xjiy,zr,OBe  pacKpHBaioTca  B BeJIHKO — 3a  6e3,nap-  npHTny  o T a -  K p a n H J i H H H M , BCTaBiiiHM H a  H e o x H , n a H H O npncJiyiuHBaeTca K  Haxo^a  HO noTOM  B HHX Kpynnnn c  ... JyuieBHaa  do;ie3Hb X j i y j o B a  peuieHHft, c J i o x H b i x ,  CTajiHHrpa^cKOM  MacuiTadHOCTH,  CT&HOBHTc a B b i p a x e H H e M  T O eMy  KanoM  T e n x e HccTynjieHHHeM  H e p a 3 p e u i H M o C T H - TpedoBa^ia  B  uiTada H  cHaHajra  OH  BO  CH^HT H a  OH  de^orBap^eftcKoft  KOToporo  Xjiy^OB  npaB^H,  nepexo.zi.oB. RO  noaBJiaiouiHMca  "iIoBecHTb  CO6OH,  C O T K p H T O H H3^eBKOH  HaftniHx n c H x o j i o r H H e c K H x  BbipocTaeT  caMHM  noTOM  coji,aaTa,  H  jnodHMoe:  HOBOMy M H p y ,  e r o H a BHCHJraii.y  pe3KHx  c  BpaHrejieM,  H  cJiOBaM  Xjiy^oB,  odpeneHHOcTH  "y^aB^eHHbix".  ^ep3KHM  H H e -  cpnrypa  x e IIoKpoBCKoro/ B e e BpeMa  3TH d e 3npecTeHHbie c  MacniTadHaa  C T a H u t H O H H O M 3ajie,  cBoe  TOTO  KOToporo  KOTOpOMy  H  paKaHbeM  JiaeT  TOMy  cneHax  JienHbix  eme  SpocaeT  noHHMaHHeM  HeHaBHCTbio  doJiee  B OT,najieHHH O T ocpHiiepoB C B o e r o  TO B H y T p e H H H t t  pocTaiomHM  ropa3^o  - OTO r e H e p a ; i  /B n o c T a H O B n e  KJIKKHH  H  B npocTopHOM  H3CTynjieHHeM  KaKoM  cioxHaa  TafjypeTe  BHCOKOM TO  dojiee  cneKTaKJia  H  onycTHBmerocH  noflHaTbca.  "CHe",  BTOPOM  57 -  a  dojie3Hb  OT aKTepa T O H nopoft  H  o^eHb  cneKTaKJie r p n r y p a  n p n KOTopott  cy^ed  -  MHOTHX  OTnpaB-  cy,nbda apyrnx,  X^y^OBa O^HOTO eMy  -  58  -  ^paiiaTypr H36pa.n CTporyio CHMMeTpHHHocTb B KOMno3HUHOHHOM  nocTpoeHKH n b e c t i ,  HanHcaHHBie "CHa"  Korjia flHKOMy 6e3CMBicJieHHOMy  P O C C H H ,  noJioBHHa n b e c t i n e p e -  BTopan  rpe deccjiaBHo  KoHCTaHTHHonoJib,  H  Bee norjrauiaiomHM C T a H O B H T c a nyBCTBo 6e3BHXo^-  H  3nH30,nax  cneKTaKJie  DTOT  3aMbiceji . i p a M a T y p r a  (5ypH, CMHTeHHH  HaBH3HHBHH  jiettT-MOTHB,  odopBaHHtiM  M O T H B  ECJIH  CTpaxa,  H  P H H O H H O E  He noKHj;aeT r e p o e B .  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Ho H B n o f l T e K C T e  MHT  MHCJIb O TOM, MTO B C e 3TO 6 H J I O ,  He^b3H  3adHTb,  MTO B O B c e M  JIKflHM, ntlTaBEIHMGH H C K a T b  KouiMapHbie XOTH 11  RJIH  CHere  nepexHTOM  CMaCTbe  aKTepoB 3 B y -  DTOTO HHKOr.Ha  3aKJiioMeH  cypoBHft  B H e CyjTbStl CBOeK  BCTynaeT  ypoK  PO^HHH.  B CBOH  npaBa,  r e p o e B 3 T a x H 3 H b eme o r p a H H M e H a npe,n,CTaB;ieHHeM o H H e CBH3aHa  c fjopbdofi  Ho O T a C B H 3 B . O T O y M a c T H e  HCKpeHHe  ribeca  MTO B C e T O  O H H n p e p B a j i n c b ; : ., XH3Hb  H a KapaBaHHOft"  Hapo^a. ero  n b e c u H B K a x f l o E HHTOHaijHH  H MecTHO  "BarpoBHH  no n o B o ^ y KAMEPHOM T e a T p e ,  H TpyjoM  B X H 3 H H npH.neT  po^Horo  K T e M ,KTO  HineT.  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ByjiraKOBCKan uejieBan yCTaHOBKa HeflBycMucjieHHa; eMy Ha.no n o K a 3 a T b 3pHTejno, MTO c o B e T C K o M n.eH3ypoM''3anpaBJIHIOT ^ y p a M K H . HO OH XOMeT n O K 0 3 a T b OTO T a K MTOfJbl n e p B H M MOXHO fiUJIO B T e p e T b OMKH / x O T H fJH nO.3, SaTOJIOBKOM/ a  * 2 A Appendix Note  -  6 3  -  apyrae caMH n o c T H T J i H d u HacTonmyio cyTb Bemeft. H  "TeHepajibHaa p e n e T H H H f l " n o f l H o c H T C H H e k a K c a T H p a H H e naM^JieT ,zr,axe, a K a K c n j i o u i H o e HJjieBaTejibCTBp Ha,n BceM:. COBeTCKHM TeaTpaJIbHHM CTpOHTeJIbCTBOM. BOT  o neM p a c c K a 3 U B a i o T 3pHTejno:  MoJio^oK-aBTop c nceB^oHHMOM 3K»Jib-BepH H a n n c a j i no cpoHHOMy 3 a K a 3 y ^ H p e K T o p a T e a T p a H ^ e o j i o r H M e c K y r o n b e c y nojr, H a 3 B a H H e M EarpoBtift O C T P O B . Ee H H K T O enie He HHTaji, HO T a K K 3 K O T B e T p a d O T H H K C a B B a JlyKHH, O T KOToporo 3 a B H C H T p a 3 p e m e H H e n o c T a H O B K H , y e 3 x a e T B OTnycK, T O j n i p e K T o p p e m a e T HeMejuieHHO x e ycTpoHTb nojrayio r e H e p a j i b Hyio peneTHUtHK) - B r p H M e , KocTJOMax, c M O H T H P O B K O M H - V naxe My3UKajibHUM conpoBoacieHHeM. Hon cy(|>Jiepa. Bu3uBaKT C a B B y H a cneKTaKJib H noKasuBaioT e M y " E a r p o B u f t OCTPOB", r ^ e B a M nyHHO o d p n c o B U B a e T C H , KaK H a H e o d H TaeMOM o c T p o B e K p a c H O K O x n e CKH^uBaiOT C B o e r o i i a p a , BOK)K)T c "dejiuMH a p a n a M H " - e B p o n e f t u a M H , KaK K p a c H O K O x n x npe^aeT dejiuft BudpaHHHft H M H Boxflb H KaK B KOHqe K O H I J O B OHH 3aXBaTUBaK)T B CBOH p y K H BCK) BJiaCTb H a o c T p o B e . G a B B e Majio CMOTpeTb c o c u e H u , O H B j i e 3 a e T B O BpeMH fleiicTBHa Ha KopadJib /aKTHBHoe y n a c T H e H a r a x oTBeT — padOTHHKOB B T e a T p a j I b H O M CTpOHTeJIbCTBe - T a K HTO JIH noHHMaTb?/ H B e e x e 3 a n p e m a e T n b e c y . noneMy? CaBBa He H a r a e j i B <$>vmajte n b e c u M e x ^ y H a p o ^ H u H KJiaccoBoft C O J I H flapHOCTH: a H r j i H H C K H e MaTpocu H e C O W J I H K KpacHOKOXHM'Ha d e p e r , a o c T a j i H C b H a cBoeM KopadJie. Ho H e C M y m a f t T e c b . KaK H H y d H T H B e e p e m e H H e M CaBBu, B H X O ^ OTHCKHBaeTca MOMeHTajibHo: y H e r o H a r j i a 3 a x y c H J i H H M H n o M p e x a n e p e p a d o T U B a e T C H KOHert, - K a H r / i n f l c K H e M O P H K H , noKBHTaBuiHCb c H a n a j i b C T B O M H d y p x y a s n e f t , jiHKyioniHe d p a T a w T c a H a d e p e r y c KpacHOKoxHMH. C a B B a onapoBaH. n b e c a pa3peHefta. O H o d e u i a e T peKOMeHjjaBaTb e e B c e M no^Bejj;oMecTHUM e M y T e a T p a M , a a B T o p a n p e B o 3 H O C H T po H e d e c . O^HaKO, ecJiH jjoBojieH C a B B a , T O p a 3 o p e H a B T o p , p a 3 paxaioiUHficH o c T e p B e H e j i o H THpajj;oft n o a j i p e c y y r H e T a T e j i e f t M0JI0.2.UX T a J i a H T O B . KaKoft npeKpacHoM M o r ^ a d u d u T b faKaH c i o x e T H a H KaHBa CaTHpHHeCKHX ySOpOB. H KaKHM XaJIKHM, ydOTHM BbirjIHflHT ByjiraKOB B OBoeft n b e c e H B M e c T e c Heft. npoTHB $ a K T a He nonpeiui* - c a T H p H H e c K o r o TajiaHTa y B y j i r a K O B a H e T . E c T b cjiroHa, jD;axe d e i u e H a a n e H a , a x a j i o T y n o e : H e n p o H 3 a e T . c  npaB^a, dtiBaeT, H T O jipaMaTypr, He cnpaBjinncb c K O n o J i o x e H H H , KOMneHOHpyeT o c T p o y M H D f t n r p o f t GJIOB. Ho B " B a r p o s o M O c T p o B e " HeT H D T O T O . Cnjiom n o H T H Bee d a H a j i b H o , n j i o c K O , CTepTO H jj;emeBO. M O X H O H 3 B e H H T b caMyro rpydyio p y r a H b , ecjiH OHa TajiaHTJiHBa. Ho H T O noflejiaeiut, K o r j i a H^eT TOJibKO c K B e p H u f t jj;ymeK, n a x y n n f t RO H e B b m o c H -  MH3MOM  -  64 -  MOCTH. PflflOM, TaK C K a 3 a T b , C O C K B 0 3 H B I M ^eflOTBHeM ' , — o d C T p e j i o M Hauieft .HpaMaTyprHnecKOft ueH3ypBi, - K ^ e T eme H TaK Ha3HBaeMoe 'no^BO^Hoe . B T O M , K a K aBTop p a 3 t i r p H B a e M o f i RJIB CaBBti n b e c K H o d p n c o B B i B a e T dppbSy K p a C H O K O X H X c "fiejitiMH a p a n a M n " , e c T b C B O H n p H B K y c . Macca KpacHOKOXKX BtiBejieHa C T a ^ O M , o p ^ o t ! tfHKapeft, KOTOPBIX j i e r K O KyrtHTB ^ e m e B o f l npHMaHKoft. 3TO " n p H J i o x e H H e " B O C H O B H O K H ^ e e , n o x a j i y f t C T O H T " C K B O S H O T O .zieftcTBHH". 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TanpoBtiM;  EyjiraKOBa  KaMepHoro  T . e . n o jiHHHHJrpoTec*Horo  ypo,n./rHBBix  KHMH  a K T a nbecbi  HB J i n e T C H  TeaTp.  r p - n a JKiojib-BepHa B  H3BepxeHHeM  ByjiKaHa H  MaTpOCaMH•  - TeaTp B  c o BceMH  ropoae.  Ho co Bceft  e r o .nonoTonHoft  CTpyK—  e r o 3acKopy3JiBiMH o d u i e - T e a T p a j i b H B i M H c u e H H H e c -  H aKTepcKHMH  mTaMnaMH,  KOTopBift,  nonaB  B dypHoe  TeneHHe  -  peBoJIM14HH,  HacKopo,  see a p c e H a j i a CTaBHTb  Ha  CBOHX CBoeM  HTO  HO  H 3 o d p e T a T e j i b H u x cpejj:cTB,  CBOHM  oneHb  nceBflOHHMOM  nponee  rauKHK  H3BepxeHKeM  H  nponee.  H  jj;HpeKTop  /OH  H  no  JiiodoMy  T e a T p a reHajjHft  H  noHTH  oda nojiHti  "CaBBofi J l y K H n e M ,  TeaTpoM  -  3aBHCHT  "pa3peineHbHne  1 1  RJIH n o J i y n e H K H yroflHO  nbeca  OTOTO  Hdo HJIH  cy$jiepa  KOCTKMax, H d o  ycTpaHBaTb "CaBBa  JtyKH.H  ypo^^HBo d r o p o K p a T H n e K H  B  BneperoHKH  OT  Hero  OT  3Toro  1 1  CaBBH  "npn-  JlyKHna"  sanpemeHbHije".  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BocnpHHHB  HeOdHKHOBeH-  flpaMaTypr  KypbepcKHx,  reHepajibHyio 11  $0He  MaTpocatra H  aHrjiHKcKHMH  "paspemeHbHua"  nepec|)acoHHBaTb n b e c y ,  Ha  Hapo^HOCTHMH,  naHcjaH.zr.oBHH H  Ha  nbeca.  sanasy  yrHeTeHHbiMH  ByjinaHa,  ace H i o j i b - B e p e H / , o d a  cnocodJIHWTCH"  cyMHHiuecH,  JHOCHJI Hrojib-BepHa, H a c T O J i b K O ,  peBOJiMU,HOHHyio n b e c y c dypacynMH,  ace nojj;  ace  MTO  H3JIK)6jieHHOM XCKJIb-BepHOBCKOft "3K30TWKH" nHUieT  HHTepBeHnHHMH,  Kan  HH  c y r y d o "njieoJiorHMecKHe"  TOJIBKO  .HaMoraTijKHM  B3HJI e r o H M H  CBOeM  -  " n p u c n o c o d H J i c f l " H CTaji c noMoiUbft s e e T O T O  cueHe  JpaiiaTypr  65  Henorpe-  r e H a j n i e B Ila(|)HJOBHHeH H J l a M o r a f u K H x , n e p e cnex nbeca,  B  djiopoKpaTHnecKOM  ocjien-  cBoeM He B e j j a a , H T O BMecTe c H H M H HacaacnaeT O T B p a T H T e J i b —  Hoe  MemaHCTBO, de3npHHi_r,HnHoe n p n e n o c o d J t e H n e c T B O H njio^HT  Bae  uiTaMna BceB^o-peBOJirouHOHHax  nbec,  cnocodHax  ypoflJiH-  JiHinfcocKBepHHTb  - 66 Reno peBOJironHH  odpaTHyio  cbirpaTb  H  aHTH-odmecTBeHHyio p o j i b ,  3aMe-  H H H no^JiHHuti nacpoc H cHJiy peBOJirooHDHHofi npHpo^H MemaHCKHM cn&KCHponoM  KOBaTHM  B  onoxy,  Hamy  Ha Ham  jiaeTca,  de3noMomHoro onoxy  uiTaMnopaHHoro c y p o r a T a .  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RO  nyTeM caTHpii H H c n p o B e p r H y T b r o T O B H e nycTbie uiTaMnti KaK BeHHoro  HB-  nopa,n-  B  no^odHHx  uejib n p e c j r e ^ y e T  - cneKTaKJib,  OCTPOB"  ^KHBOCTb  HSXHTHX  KyjibTypHO-BaxHyio  H  "EarpoBHft  TeaTpe  peBOJirouHH,  KyjibTypnoM  KpacHHx  H  H  Becb  TpaKTOBKH, My3HKajibHoro  TaK  CTHJib H  B  "MOHTaxa"  TeaTpajibHbiM o d p a 3 H. BanejiHC - "0  TyseMnax".  w B  TeaTpe  TeHa^Ha naH<pHJiHHa npHKjiKHHJiacb  ribeca, n y f l e c H a a n b e c a KpacHHXTy3eMqax  -  DTa  rpax^aHHHa nbeca...  KaTacTpoipa.  SCiojib-BepHa o d e j m x a p a n a x  H  - 67 - K npe^CTaBjieHHW B o c n p e m a e T c a Secnouia^HHH H  BceMorymHtt C a B B a JlyKHH.  - noTOMy, T e H a ^ H H naHtJjHJioBHH, flejiaioT?  CMOTPHT  HTO  TaKoft n p n r o B o p  - Ho s a  HO  HTO?  MaTpocH  npHcoejiHHH^HCb K  xe  ... M.epes MHHyTy T e a T p TeHajiHH n a H -  dyjiraKOBCKoro  y x e COJIHJ;HOM ce^eioiiieM d o p o ^ o t t . 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B doJibuiHHCTBe  cyMeBuiHx BbipocTH  TeaTp,  MTO  I  MaTepnaji B  pe-  T e a T p HMeHH  CaMblMH  "XoMy P e d e H K a "  nbecH,  -  C B O H pyKH  M  BeHHoy  ^paiia-  npe^fHBjiHeMHx  TO,  OCTPO  ceftMac T e a i p u HaMajiH  noayMaTb  coBeTCKott  noHHMaHHH x a p a K T e p a HbiHeuiHero  cKa3a^cH  CejibBHHCKoro  pe-  eme Ha  HueTB  odmecTBeHHbix TpedoBaHHH,  Mepe3BHMaHHo  "KpH3Hc"  /"Kjion"  "KoMaH,zrapM  KpenKHM  pa3roBopu o  BO3O6HOBHHETCH  OdemaiOIIIHe dblTb H CaMblMH aKTHBHHMH H  ce30He  TyprHw  dbi TOHI>KO  od O T c y T C T B H H xopomeM H KpenKoff  "KpH3Hca"  -  CHOBa  HCTKHHOTO  AJIR  3TOT  KOTOPOM  0Ka3ajiCH  JieT, H d o B H X o c H O B e  pn^a  nepTyapHoro B  yc^oBHHx  KpnsHce,  npoTHxeHHH  -  cneKTaK^eM.  HecoMHeHHO,  nfc-ecH.  ycjioBHHx  B HHHX  TaKHx  nepTyapHOM  69  TeaTpoB  H B Toxe  xapaKTepa  H  TeaTpa  C OTHM  cbirpajiH  He  BHyTpeHe ceftMac  Meai H a o d o p o T . CBH3H  yxe  BOT noHHxeHHaa  CBOIO poJib  j;paMaTyprHH  TO  TeKymero  B  - 70 H e j i b 3 H vMOJiHaTb neTKoro CTBHe  TaKxe  o T O M , M T O OTcyTCTBHe TBep^oro H  pyKOBO,n.CTBa T e a T p a M H  MeTKOH nOJIHTHHeCKOM  ^ e M c T B O B a j i H noHHxeHHK)  co  JIHHHH B 0TOM p y K O B O ^ C T B e  ypoBHH  K  Henocpe^cTBeHHOMy  He HMen  TaHOBOK;  MH OCTaHOBHM HMeKT  dojiee  HJIH  MeHee  HH CBOeft noJIHTHMeCKOJl,  O C T P O B " ,  IUHPOKHS  T e a T p a j i b H b i x noc-  H O B H X  ocBeTHTB nocTaHOBKH  O C T P O B "  H3.MH  aBTopa,  B  H  dHTOBoro TH  T O T  yKjian,  KaMepHOM TeaTpe, H "HteHa"  3a3Bynaji  HeoxHjjaHHo.  CBOKJ  (popMajibHO  nepeflOByro  H 3 Bcex  Hamnx  JIaxe O T H r n e H H t i K CTOJieTHeft TpajHUHefl.  oKa3a^ca  pea;iH3Ma H e n 3 d e x H o  KaK TOJIbKO B X H 3 H H ,  KaK c o C T o p o -  TeaTpa  ycTaHOBKy, n o cymecTBy H a n d o J i e e KOHcepBaTHBHHft  MajiuM T e a T p  KaKHe  TeaTpa.  T e a T p HecMOTpa Ha  TeaTpoB.  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H  OH  B  o^HHaKOBo  0CTpOBCj<DrO.  noTpeCHOCTb TaKOM  TaK  T e a T p a HHKor,zr,a  cTaBHji  HMeHHO B TaKOM  6ypxya3HH  BH^e  Jierno  O H  y^oBjieTBopKft  H B e e x e 3 a n o c j r e ^ H H K rojt  npHxoja;HTCH  Ren&Th  KaK  O T O B O P O K ! /  TeaTp  onycTHT  Hory.  nocMOTpeji  H Bjjpyr, TeaTp  AJIH  THMeCKOtt 1  . . . npblTH  "BarpoBHti OJTHO3HHM/  CKa3aji:  "B  noBopoTa  rpy^H.  B  nor  MHororoJiocoro  XHX  - HH  o^HHOMKy,  P.aTb, caMH  T O M  O T H X  KaMepHoro  C M O T P H T  M O K ,  TeaTpa C K O J I B K O  J I B H O C T H .  Kyna  x,naTb  OcTaBajiocb  O H  Kor.ua  nocTaBHJi  3HSHeHHH,  ee  O H  "BarpoBHft  H O H  Heoxn^aH-  M. ByjiraKOBa  /aBTopa,  CTHJie, o  nojiH-  H T O - T O  MTO  KOMe^nnx  HH B 3 H T b BapaT  r y j i H T b - K BpaH^;eHC5yprcKHM  BopoTaM  cTenenn  po T a K o f t  O T Hero jrejiaeTca BiwyMaH:  - H a CTaptlX no yTpy  cTaBuuero y x e  eme TeftHe  K O T O P O M  MpeBOBein.aTe.nfl, n y c T o e  cede  He B J i e n e T .  H H H T O  /Eor  Ho He  - pa, n p e j r c T a B T b e ,  HeoSmHTejibHoe,  Pa3roBop  Hory,  H3BeCTHy»  spHTeJia.  .neftcTBHTe  K  CocjpoKJia  no JiHTHHecKoff  CTHJie e c T b  D T O M  H30JiHpoBaHHoe,  B  padoTe  H  . . .  O C T P O B "  HanncaH  B  ero  Ky.ua  Becfctfa s e M H o r o  TeaTpa  KaMepHoro  JleKOKa  3pejiHrae, HMeHHO  n  ".nodporo H a M a j i a "  PJIK  n b e o y He TOJibKO  O C T P O B " ,  HOH  B H H S .  H  H O B O T O  npH3HaKH HeKOToporo  n e T y x , npex,ne neM n o c T a B H T b  CTaBHT,  yattjma  BH,He OH y^OBJieTBOpHJI  J i e r K O n e p e T a u i H T b e r o H a 3eMjira,  Koe-KaKHe  H  B "H3biCKaHO-KpacHBOM  nepecTaJi  HaMeTHJiHCfc'  npoMHO H e c B H S H B a j i o o c  H H H T O  O T O  o,HHHOKoe, decHeHKe B  Hedo/ree  KaK  M O H O -  B K J i a j j H B a H H e i H.neft,  XOJIOCTflKOB,  KO$e,  Kor^a-To  KOTOpbie  caMH d p e i o T C H ,  H caMH PJIH  cedn  noxoCnflT B  opnn  codnpaioT  VLpyr  - 72 ijBeTH.  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" c JIVXHTB  KOHeii,  c  noxapu  Tpy-  npejjcTaBHir  MaTpocH  B OTMaaHHH.  He  Ho  "MexjiyHapoji-  P e n o p T e p HIOJIB B e p H  He n p n ^ e T c a o n H C H B a T b  dexaBuiHe  rjiyneftuiHfi  ABTOP  3ax-  O T HauiecTBHa  B HeM H H o c T p a H H t i e  Ty3eMUaM.  AJIH  yrHeTaeMbie  nodex^aioT, -  BepH"  naHcpHJiHMa  peBOJiioiiHio n p o T H B  H a po,HHHy  HeMejuieHHo HMnpoBH3HpyeT H nBeca  "JKioJib  TyseMHH,  OTdHBaraTca  Ty3eMH,H  cyuiecTOMy,  K  peneTHtiHio H n p o c M O T p  BO3Bpamai0Tca KOHMaeTca  no  B TeaTp TeHa^Ha  ycTpaHBaioT  KpacHHe  K BOCCTaBLUHM  peBOJiKUHeK"  ByeTt  apanti  dejiue  HOBOMy H a p o j 5 y " .  H npHTauiHJi e e  npoxo,HHMna K n p H - K y K H ,  BjiacTb  TeHa^Hfl  napojuHa  Co^epxaHHe  reHepaJiBHyw  BaTHBmero  T e JIB  -  roJio^HHH p a n o p T e p H a n H c a j i no,n n c e B ^ O H H M O M  HeMejjJieHHO y c T p a H B a T B  B  (poptie  peBOJHOHHio.  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OMeBH^Ha, H n o J i H T H M e c K a a  X y j j r o x e c T B e H H a a HeMomb  3Jioda e e  cTOJib d e 3 3 y d a ,  o d t i B a T e J i b , H e c M O T p a H a 3a3HBaiom.ee o d a B j i e H H e  O ' H e H J i a " n o B e p H y j i c a K Heft c n n H o M .  TeaTpa  Ha K  nbeca  MTO "HMeHH  - 74 Kyuaercn, KaMepHoro H^eio  TeaTpa  3a^ana  B cneKTaKjie, -  HeS  ocTpoBa,  c  BejiHKOJienHofi  ByjiKaHa  TOTO,  B  KaMepHoro  y^apeHHe. aKTe  nocjie^HeM  B  nBecu.  Bepx,  "cBOdO^U  TOJIBKO  pBeTCH  BonjiB  TBepcKoro  cTapue  .HBHXeHHfl, Bcero  CJIOBOM  23,  dyjiBBapa  He H a M T H .  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K  HHCJiy  COSHTHH  npejiOM jiHJiHCb 3 , a e c b H e T O J i b K O C K B 0 3 b npH3My n o j i H T H H e c -  B3THJ;OB a B T o p a  HHTejibHoe  HHKy  HjeT  He  XHBonHCHOCTb ee  HaCTOJIbKO  XPOHHK  OT^eJlbHHX DnH30^0B H  HaCKOJIbKO H C T Q P H H e C K a H  XPOHHKH, RJIH  HCTOpHHeCKHX  B oT^ejibHOCTK,  onoxn  rpoMos^KocTb,  TopHeft x a p a K T e p H O Cefinac  reponx  HBjieHHflx H  cuoMa H e K O T o p a n  Kax^tiK  HX  pH,H  HCTopHnecKHx  HCKaxeHHe  xapaKTepa.  /aBTop nepe3  aBTopcKyio  HCTOPHH  TaKOM M T e p n a j i e  codbiTefi  - fJiiBiueK s e e p / ,  1905 ro^a.  TSKHM  TeaTp  dnorpatpHio dtiaa  nyTeM  BaxTaHroBa  IIpaB^a,  HO  poMaH  npomjiH BecbMa  H  .zronojipoMaHTH-  H 3 B p a m e H a BjtiBOHHe.  nbiTajrcn  nocTpoHTb  xpo-  McTHCJiaBCKoro no^Beprcn  - 77 y,H,a JIHBUIHM H3 Hero  3H3.HHTeJIfeHHM XHpypTHMSCKHM o n e p a U H H M , AOJIK) OCepOBCKOfi  HyK)  ABTop-repoH  repoH  Haxeft  "npHCTpaCHOCTH" H a B T O p C K O T O CaMOJIKOOBaHHa.  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H xy^oxecTBeHHyio  D T O M  njiaBHO,  3HaneHHa.  onoxn  3Ta  ueHHOCTH H  aKiieHTHpyeTca, -  flaHHoB  pa,n n e p c o -  xapaKTepHCTHKaMH,  iuiaBHOM p a c K p u T H H c o d u T f l B  3TOM  npeflCTaji  X P O H H -  cKa3aTb,  CHMOHOBy y ^ a j i o c b  MaTepnajia  JIHWHJIH  TaK  TeaTpajibHofi  3aMeHaTejibHyio TeaTp  ^JIH  pa3-  npe^cTaBJieHHaa,  TOJibKO n p H B e T C T B O B a T b  HyXHO  no^MeHeH j B y i i H  HCKJiie-MHTejibHbix ycHJiHtt c o  TpedoBajia y x e  HTOdti C T a T b  H  3pHTejieM  pa,n onH30^0B B T o p o c T s n e H H o r o  H  repoHnecKoro  naKo  H3 ntecH  onepauHH, Mexay npoHKM,  cueHe  JlnmeHHaa  1905  HsraaH  Boodme  nepcoHaxaMH.  JIHHHHMH  Ky  <5HJI  H3BeCT-  3aMeMaTejibHoro  cnpaBHJica  c  npHKOBaiia K c e d e  cy,zr,bdy.  X H B H M H  conyBCT-  CoMHtie n e p c o H a x n  - 78 n t e c u npoxoflflT BOjraeHHeM  He  HO  cneKTaKJib,  nepe3  Mexay T e M , n r p a  3pHTejiH.  JiynuieM n o x B a j i u .  c o n p o B O x ^ a e M u e nojiHUM BHHMaHHeM, aKTepoB  sacjiyxHBaeT  x e cjiynHjiocb?  MTO  A K T e p u H nocTaHOBiiiHK HauuiH B n b e c e T O T T O H cnoKOHHott  Bepniu K a x f l O M y cjiopy, x e c T y  npocTOTu, Korfla  Ilepea  xeft.  HaMH,  HecoMHeHHO,  O,HHH  TpajibHoK  cTaHOBHTCH  CTHJIH  nepcoHa-  flBHxeHHio  H3 n y T e f i H O B O T O p e a j i H 3 M a ,  KOTopoMy y c T p e M J i a e T C H x y f l o x e c T B e H H u f i peaJiHCTHMecKoro  H  onoxn.  CTHJib  K  npeofjJia^aHHe  cefinac Handojiee OCTPOM H u e H -  B c e x o d J i a c T H x HCKycTBa. Ha T e a T p e , H§L c n e H y 3auiTaM-  BO  noBaHHOMy "Hac^e^cTBeHHOMy"  p e a j i H 3 M y co3,zr,aioTCfl s j r e M e H T u  CTHJIH,  •apKO T e a T p a j i B H o r o n o d)opne, r j i y d o K O p e a J i H C T H H e c K o r o n o c y m e c T B y . 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Bcero 3 K H 3 H e H -  OTJiHMaeTca  TaKoro  BHyTpeHHHM X O J I O H K O M B e e T OT  c i i e n H n e p c o H a x e M H KaxeTca TOHKan  B  CTHJIH?  c ^ e p x a H H o f t , cnoKOHHO-coepe,n;oTOHeHoft nrpti  3ajioM B C T a J i a MHpa,  K  noc<naHOBKa "Ha K P O B H " T O B O P H T n p e x ^ e  3aMeTHOH n o H H s e H H O C T i K . pea^H3Ma  6y,2ieT nOBH,HHMOMy COCTOflTb OCHOBHOM  peajiH3Ma.  ^ y M a e T c a , MTO od  H  dy.21.TO M e x ^ y c u e H o K H 3pHTe?iBHUM  cqeHa,  KOTopan OT^eJiaeT  Bac  OT  - 79 OCHOBHOM B  c e d e , MTO  Tpex  3TOTO p e a J I H 3 M a  HapyuieHa CBa3b  HM  Mexfly  HMeHHO  B TOM, MTO OH  3aMKHyT  RByun C T o p o n a M H p a M n u ,  MTO,  HHHMH cJioBaMH, HapyuieHa BO3MOXHOCTB H e n o c p e j i c T B e H H o r o B o c n p H a — THH,  3MOI4HOHa^bHOrO BOCnpHflTHH  KOMy a c e , KaK He B a x T a H r o B i j a M , 3HaTb  Ho HTHH?  H T a M , rpe  duGTpo|cKaMeT  B  Bepx,  3a x H B o e  CHJiy TOKOTO  no^JiHHHBilt T e M n e p a M e H T n o c T a H O B m . H K a H  c 3a,nyMaHHoro  cocKajib3HBaeT  .iceBaioT  CneKTaKJIH.  Jiep  apKHe  n ^ a H a , TaM T e M n e p a T y p a TaeT H  OTHyacaeHHOCTH  onH3oj;u  aKTepa  cneKTaKJia  3pHTejia  B#pyr s a MacoBHe,  B "AKBapnyMe", MOCKOBCKOM  TejiecpoHHBiK p a 3 r o B o p K o d u J i K H H a H T a K jj;ajiee.  BocnpH-  Ho 3,necb y x K O H n a e T -  c a p e a ; i H 3 M , n o KpaftHeft M e p e , T O T D n n r o H C K H t t p e a j i H 3 M , K O T O P U H B 0 3 BejjeH  B CHCTeMy n o c T a a o B K o K  "Ha K p o B H ' . 1  H p K H e , nojiJiHHo T e a T p a j i b H u e DnH30jj;u nodHBaioT HHX  CBOHX  ocTajib-  C O d p a T b e B - d e 3 y K O p H 3 H e H O OTUIJIH(J)OBaHHHX, HO TyCKJIHX, K a K  x e M M y r , no c o c e ^ C T B y  TaK  c ajiMa30M.  d u J i a p e m e H a cy.zr.bda c n e K T a K J i a  H O T O , H O x o j i o f l H o r o H JIHUI H 3 p e ^ K a TBopMecKoro  c o r p e B a e M o r o TenjioM noaJiKHHo  cneKTaKJieM, Ha KOTOPOM  HOBaa n b e c a K . 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TpyuiHH p a d o T a e T  B MauiHHy,  KOJIJieKTHB  c (poctpopHHM  3aMuc.ua  no^podHee  3aKBacKH,  MHOTO  HpaMaTyprHHecKH  onpe^ejiHHH  H3HKa, n p H M H O r O - O d p a 3 H O C T H OTHOUieHHtt OHa  B KOJiJieKTHB,  CTaBJieHHH  npenpacHO  3TH KaMecTBa  BjirodJieHHuM  POCCHMCKOM  -  -  jno,zreH, H O H e n p H B o ^ H T  HHxeHep-H3odpeTaTejib  Hue  JieTepaTypHHM / H O He ^ p a M a T y p r n -  pncoBaTb  OcTaHOBHMca  Maccy,  TpeHeB  e r o HOBOE nbecu:  desfleMcTBeHHa,  B  CBOHM  "HeHa"  KanecTBa  OH yMeeT  doraTCTBOM  TexHHK,  nocpe^CTBeHHoro  H3UKOM H M a C T e p C T B O M xaHpOBHX 3 a p H C O B O K .  BJia^eiOUIKM  B  BecbMa  O H He sepHT  HX.  CpeflH  B e r o npejn;-  KOTOpHX  MHOTO  H TOJibKO H e K O T o p u e  s a p a j o w , K O T o p u e ^awT o r o H b .  cTapon  Tanoe  CHHTaH-  npejjcTaB-  -  81  -  jieroie - pe3yjn>TaT He d a p c K o r o npe3peHHH K KOJiJieKTHBy, H O K O H flOBoro  HHTejiJiHreHTCKoro HH.zr.HBH.zt.ya JIH3Ma TpyiuHHa.  H  BOT  DTOT  HHJIHBHjryajIHCT HHXeHep, CydeKTHBHO OTTaJIKHBaiOajHttCfl OT MacCH H o d mecTBeHHOCTH,  BejteT O S ^ K T H B H O noJie3Hyio ueHHyio TBopnecKyio padOTy  Ha coBeTCKOM 3aB0^e Ha n o J i b 3 y Macce H odmecTBy. DTa Teiia o c j i o x e H a eme BCTpenHbH TeMoM dbiTOBoro n o p n ^ K a . MCeHa TpymHHa,  Bepa MnxafiaoBHa,  npoTHBocTOHT  BH^yajiHCTy, KaK odmecTBeHHO—aKTHBHHft THn.  cBoeMy Myxy - H H ^ H IIoKa Myx B O 3 H J I C H C  MepTexaMH, x e H a yuijia c T O J I O B O H B odniecTBeHHyio padOTy. noMBe B c e M b e TpyinHHtix BO3HHKaioT K O A J I K K T H paapHB. OT  Myxa.  H a OTOM  3KeHa  yxoRKT  Be3noMom.HHR B xHTeftcKOM CMbicjie, TpyrnHH CTaHOBHTca  xepTBoft H H T P H T "peBoJIIOHHOHHO-cjppa3eoJXOTHHeoKoro"npOXBOCTa H BupynaeT  c B o e r o dtiBuiero M y x a .  OHH  CXO^HTCH  BHOBB,  yxe Ha HOBHX  Hanajrax: B jinne xeHH odmecTBeHHOCTb KaK dyflTO depeT Bepx Hajj; HHTeJIJIHTeHTCKHM aHapXH3MOM Myxa. KaKaa  x a p a K T e p H a a nocTOHOBKa B o n p o c a : "cydeKTHBHo Bpax-  ^edHHft, H O odeKTHBHO  noJiesHHE HHxeHepl"  n p a B j i a , TpeHeB a a j i e e  KOMeKTHBa He a ^ p e c y e T , B ocTajibHOM TpyuiHH Bnojrae JioftHJieH H no  CBoeMy npe^aH coBeT C K O M B j i a c T H .  Ho p^jr. H e c y p a 3 H U . H  OJieMeH-  TapHbix HejienocTeft, KOTopue npHHyx^eH ^ejiaTb TpyiuHH Ha cueHe n o Bo.ie  aBTopa, pa3odJianaioT HaflyMftKHOCTb H BH^TpeHtoio <f>ajibrn TaKOH  nocTaHOBKH npodJieMH.  HejcapoM  TpeHeB H e C M O T noKa3aTb y x o f l a  TpyiuHHa H3 CBoero HH^HBH^yajibHoro a H a p x H 3 M a B coBeTCKyro o d mecTBeHHOCTb.  OH  BHHyx^eH dHJi noMeHftTb odmecTBeHHOCTb  xeHoit T p y i n H H a , X O T H H o d m e c T B e H H H u e M , npejj;cTaBJiHiomeM BecbMa c j i a d o .  HO  ...  Haiuy odmecTBeHHOCTb  H DTaKaa "ojiHueTBopeHHan odmecT-  - 82 co  BeHHocTb" -  x e H a l . . /  de.zr.bi nap  Bpnji  npHMHpHJica  S C T B e H H O C T H H XeHbl ,  CTaBHT  TaK  -  C K B O 3 H T  TaKHX  p-pjme rjia3a  ByjiraKOBa  B  npnderaa  B cBodo^Hoe  B BBie T a K  /Ha  He  CTHJUO  nbece  cneKTaKJib  KpoBH  1 1  H  HHTejrjrHreHUHH  Bonpo-  nocTaHOBKH ...  yiiuiH THnHMHBie OcTpoBe"  "EarpoBbift  "Eena"/  O H  H  B H J H M ,  TeH^eHiiHH npodyeT  HeT,  yx  B  O C T P O B "  M T O O T  coBeTCKoro  C B O H  CHJIBI  B  H  pze  3opKoro penep-  caTHpe,  CHMBOJiH3Ma.  "Ha  KpoBH  1 1  /C.  McTHCJiaBCKoro/  "3KeHe"  /K.  TpeHeBa/  BHJJHM  nojunepKHBaeTca  apKHe 3apHcoBKH, KaK dbiTO-  nbece  "HH3Hb  rioDTOMy*, n p H C T y n a a  H M caTHpy  B CHMBOJiHMecKOM  BepCHK) O XH3HH  TeHj;eHii,HeM ^-an x e ,  "Ha  KaK  K CBoefi  Tocno^HHa pe Mojibepa" B y J i r a K O B o d ' e ^ H H a e T  CBOdOJ^HyiO HCTOpHMeCKyK)  K  odm»  H  OTHomeHHe K HCTopHHecKHM d)aKTau.  Hcnojib30BaHHyio  oiaeTca  codoM  c  peuiHTb."  H HH^HBHHyajibHBie /rpymHH/.  cjie^yiomeft  no-  nOKOpHJICH.  HO H e  B de3noMoniHocTH T a K o t t  H  "BarpoBOM  K  Hapn^y  npodJieMy o CTapoft  paccMOTpejiH  nocTaHOBKH  Tyapa.  npHMHpHJICH,  npodJieMH H e  s^ecb  MBI  cymecTBOBaHneM  CBoeft  noKa3aTbca, M T O  MoxeT  KJiacCOBO-aBTodnorpacpHMecKoe  HeMTO  cpopMax  c  pemaeT  H  CTapHft H H T e j u i e r e H T . ca  3pHTejia B .neftcTBHTejibHOCTH  JIH ydex^aeT  rpyuiHHCKHM H H ^ H B H ^ y a j i H 3 H O M .  cKopee  rpyuiHH  npH3Ha.KaMH " K y M O B C T B a " /HHMero H e n o ^ e j i a e m  BceMH  KpoBH  1 1  apKHM d b i T O B H M 3 a p n c o B K a M ,  C .  nJiaHe,  MoJIbepafc  CTPOHT  peaJIHCTHMeCKOft  McTHCJiaBCKoro^  KaK  B  "3KeHe"  CBOK  K.  H  odpa-  TpeHeBa.  -  "SKH3Hb  rocnoflHHa  H  of HH  ByjiraKOB  pp.228-229/C  Moliere,  TpeTte,  HBjiaeTCH,  KaK H 3 B e c T H O ,  odpaTHoe:  CO6HTHM  ByjiraKOB  Mojibepa.  nopTpeTa pH» He  yKpamaeT.  e r o CTaTB>e  CTapme^  B  H H M H  dpaKe,  dejicTBHH B 3 T O M  rjia3ax  B cyxoM  K O T O P O M  C T O H T  H o KOTopott Hajj;  BTopxeHHe  H a HaiiiHx  RJIR  HHTOHaU,HH  npo-  nepeneHe  ncnxoJiorHHecKoro  He p a s r / i a ^ H m  H C T O -  B y j i r a K O B H H M e r o He CKpblBaeT H  repoft,  ry^HT  HTO MOHOJIOT,  MaTepnaji  He naMHTHHK,  tfpyroe,  O T OH H T O , H H  TeaTp.  B  .HparoueHHuM  O T O  OpraH  CTBeHHaa KOHI>.  B  TeaTpa.  Tenepb,  BTopraeTCH  B O T O H , MOK  O H BjBoe  B03MoxcHue  jiaBHO.  3 T O HMeHHO n o p T p e T .  KH3HH.  KOTopoM  npo3a  Haiueji  BCnOMHHTB,  npHHajiJiexHocTBK)  npoH3omJio  HCXOJIHT  "OflHOBpeMeHHO, eCJIH  B OCOdeHHOCTH  B npo3y  TeaTpa  B. KABEPHH  roBopHT  Mojibep" / F.N. Bulgakov's autobiography  ero  H  H poMaHOM,  o,zt,HOBpeMeHHO H t)Horpac!)Hefi,  Hccjie^oBaHHeM"  H C T o p H n e c K H M  "Mnxanji  /'&L32-33/  j e MojiBepa"  nsnnerofi  KHHra  "DTa  83 -  nojj;  BeHHOM  roBopHT, MpanHO,  HTO  c ^eByuiKoM, OHa e r o c o d -  npejj;cKa3HBaH Bce-  H B e e 3TH npe.ztcKa3aHHH  onpaB-  .,16 ^HBaiOTCH. "TajiaHT  ByjiraKOBa  jiH3e p a d O T H M o j i B e p a . CBoero H H t i y ,  repoH. ee  JIiojoBHKa, Baiocb  nodopojj;oK  H  ^paMaTypra  A B T O P  xeHy  BparoB.  H  nejioBeKa.  e r o - MajiJieHy  Mojibepa, Ilepej;  O H cpe^Hero  Hexopoui  codofi.  a  H O C  UIHPOKHH  Ho rjia3a  H  TOJIBKO  Bexap,  cyTyjioBaT,  CJIOBOM,  e r o npHMenaTejibHu.  fl  O H  Kopojin B T J I H ^ U -  co Bnajiofi  uiHpoKO-paccTaBJieHu  njiocKHK,  aHa-  e r o jirodoB-  Mojibep: "fl xajj;HO  pocTa,  B  HHTaTejiaM  3HaMeHHTyio a K T p n c y ,  HaMH  H a CMyrjioM H c K y j i a c T O M JiHije ocTpuM,  0 K a 3 a J i C H He  KaK d u npejj;eTaBJiHeT  He TOJIBKO  ApMaHfly,  jipy3eM  B DToro  rpy^BK.  CTH  ROHh  Jla  -  rjia3a,  #0 KpafiHO-  HHTaw B H H X  -  84 -  ycMeuiKy H B T O x e BpeMH H 3 y M J i e H n e n e p e f l  KHHra  H  TparHMecKyio  B MHpe  no^oBHHoft  ro^H,  KOMe^Horpatp  BeKa.  MecTO  TpareflHH  repott  -  Cyxb6u  odonx  nHcaTeJieft  HacTOJIBKO  xe  onoxn  -  MocKBa,  MHxami  nncaTejiB  -  HacKOJiBKO  (3JIH3KH,  OT CT&JIHHCKOM  B penepTyap  BKJIIOHHJI  ee  HCTOPHH  .HaBHHX  CH  xe  <J>paHUHH  uiecTHaaqaToro  BeKa  CCCP.  Byjir&KOB,  oe30Ha.  c/ie,zryK)mero  H  m a r o B p a d o T H nap " M o J i B e p o M  Ha npoTHBojeMcTBHe  <£>Hrypa  OKa3ajiHCB  H ByjiranoBa  B e c H O H 1932 TOT  "MojiBep".  noBTopHJiacB  BpeMeH.  nepBtix  O^HOK  1930-1936  ByjiranoB,  MoJiBepa onoxa  BpeMH  K. C T a H H G J i a B C K O M y HOByio n B e c y  npe^JioxHJi  C  MonBepy.  K  npoxHJi CTpauiHyio  MonBep,  B aTMoedpepe r o H e H H H H n p H T e c H e H H f l , ro.na,  JiiodoBBio  XH3HB."  rjiaBHHH  ja^eKa  -  MHPOM.  T p a r e ^ H H n o B T o p n j i a c B cnycTH H e M H o r H M dojiBiue M e n jisa  Ero c  BHyuieHa n o o T H H e c K O K  ByjiranoBa  BejiHHaftniHH  oKpyxaiomHM  H3  co  npHMHH  CTOPOHH  HBJIHJIOCB ,  (ppaHiry3CKoro ^ p a M a T y p r a  HOM  o3jiodJieHHHM  TaK  pyjiraKOB d u j i  npoTHB  Hero  y x e 3apaHee  BtiffijiH TaKHe n B e c H  opraHOB  CHJiaM  nocjie  BpaxfledeH  TeaTp  HaTOJTKHyjr-  n,eH3ypti.  KOHeHHO,  MojiBepa  1 1  HMH aBTOpa  nBeCH.  cTana o c o d e H H O nocTaHOBKH T e M , MTO H3  HeHaBHCT-  "TapTiocpa".  nop  e r o  nepa  KaK " J H H T y p d H H H x " H T a K H e K H H T H , K a K  "^HaBOHHa^a".  He  Majiyro  POJIB  curpajio  TaKxe  H T O , HTO aBTop  Bupa3HJi  B  - 85  "Mojibepe" T p a r e f l H K  reHHajibHoro  M H  K o p o j i e B C K o r o jn;ecnoTH3Ma.  He  MOT  He  -  eTCKHft  COK>3 H r o H e H H H Ha  H B H J I C H  caM  nop  opranbi uiTbiKH.  6HJIO  npe^jioxceHO n e p e p a d o T a T b  B  "TapTKXpa".  H3B6CTHO TOJIbKO  CKOJibKo  nojioxeHHe nonaji  nepenepKMBaTb  ByjiraKOB,  C O M H H H T B  nbecH  "Mojibep".  flpyryio,  C O B -  x e p T B o f t KOTOPHX  MoJibep d o p o j i c a  KaxflHM  oxecToneHHee.  npaBHBiiiHe  MoJibep  JIH H H  oft  T P H X ^ H  B  MXAT,  H H T K H  npn-  aBTopy  nepepadaTbiBaji  "Mojibepa" H a n n c a j i B y j i r a K O B  M T O  K  pexHccep  3acTaBjiHJiH 3a  flPyrHM  TepneHHe, B  H.ropnaKOB.  e r o BCTynHTb  B cnopu  pexnccepcKHe  njiaHH.  BH,zry n o J i H o r o  c  pa3pymeHHH  Moero  BMecTO npHHHTOft T e a T p o M Moeft  KaTeropHMecKH  co3^taHHH n e p B o r o  cneKTaKJia  o d p a T H J i e a c nncbMOM K  OTKa3biBaiocb  3 a "Mojibepa" npo^ojixajiacb  c o KRR  C  noTepaBmnft  H  3aMbicjia H n o n H T O K  nbecbi  JieT  OMHH  "Coodmaio B a M ,  Bopbda  nbecy.  BapnaHTOB  r i p o T e c T b i napTHftHoft o n o 3 H u ; H H  nHT  B  e M y OJIHOMy.  B TpyjiHoe  xy^oxecTBeHHoro  CHJIH,  Ilocjie n e p B o f t see nyd  "MoJibepa"  pexnecepy:  3aMbiceji  BH3HBaji nofl03peHHe  TBopnecTBa,  napTHftHbie  H  HHJIH  H  TaKOft  C T O P O H H  c T a p o f t $paHii,HH n o n a s a T b  B H ^ O M  cBodofly  KaK  CHjia-  C  ByjrraKOB.  UeH3ypHBie  aBTopoM  CTOJiKHOBeHHH  B  C noJiHTHMecKoft  n o K a 3 a T b C H pHCKOBaHHHM, TaK  T a f i H H x HanepeHHHx a B T o p a  CBoero  xyfloxHHKa  eme  BapnaHTa.  ,  O T  nepe,irejioK  MeTbipe. r o ^ a CTOJIBKO  xe  T O  JieT  ecTb H  3 a "TapTiocpa".  roflOM H ^ e o j i o r H M e c K a a KoMHTeT n o  BoftHa c T a H O B H J i a c b  .nejiaM H C K y c c T B a  He  xejiaji  Bee  OTCTynaTb  - 86 mar.  HnJHa  napTHftHtie aKTHBHOCTH  MXAT  TpedoBajiH  nbecti  C H H T H H  c  penepTyapa.  Cy,ztbdy cneKTaKJiH peuiHJi T o p b K H M . BHjiHeKmero HHM  nHcaTejin  MoJibepa  BapnaHT  IIpeMbepa HMeji y nydJiHKH  15-ro  npHKa3  dbiJi  ntec  H  H3  pemaeT  KpeMJia  MepHHJiH  H  xyjiHJiH  "MoJibepy"  BUHec  caM  He  H  nbecy  "BHeuiHHtt  nocjie  B O  H  CTpaHe nenaTb.  napTHHHan dti  M T O  aBTopa.  T O  cTajio.  H H  npn-  GnepTHbiM  "MoJibepa",  pe^aKiiHOHHaa  H c|)ajibiiiHBoe  dJiecK  a  O H nocMOTpeji  CTajiHH.  CneKTaKJib  B coBeTCKoft  Ho,  spHTejib,  cJie.nyioiii.Htt jr,eHb B "npaB^e" n o H B H J i a c b -  nbece  oKOHHaTejib-  H  1936 ro,na.  cbeBpajin  - ocy,n,HTb n b e c y  K P H T H K H  roJioBKOM  EyjiraKOBa,  o  pa3peiueH.  HCKJiroMHTejibHtrH y c n e x .  cneKTaKJiH paH  BparoB  ntui  dbiJi, HaKOHen,  cocTOHJiacb  cyjj[bdy  roBop  oxjiajj;Hji  OT3tiB  IIpeKpacHbifi  CTaTbH  a  nop  Ha 3a-  cojiepacaHHe".  cejjbMoro npejj;cTaBJieHHK n b e c a  3anpemeHa.  dtuia  noe^HHOK xy^oxHHKa c de3jj(yiiiHoft r o c y j i a p c T B e H H o M BjiacTbio 3aKOHMHJICH  TaK  xe,  KaK  MHoroj/ieT Ha3aji,  Kor^a  nodex,neH  dtui  Mojibep. BbiJia BjiacTbio,  a  o,zr,Ha pa3HHu;a  "MoJibep"  nbecy "Kadajia npeMbepe. CTajiHH?  Ero  OT3HB  UHTHpyeM  pacKptiBaeTCH  -  H3  cueHa  TaK  H  "TapT^" ocTajicn  CBflTom"  dtui  nojj;  / M o j i b e p / cMOTpejr  '  •_-,  npeflCTaBjineT  J  KopoJieBCKoH  3anpeTOM.  dHJi O T p H u a T e j i b H t i f t . nbecbi:  pa3peuieH  Mero  caM He  CTajiHH M O T  He  JleMcTBHe n e p B o e /  TeaTp  najie-Poajib.  Ha 3aMeTHTb  "3aHaBec  Taxejitie  - 87 3aHaBecti.  3ejieHaa  a$Hrua c repdaMH  "KoMe^HaHTH r o c n o ^ H H a  ..."  yxe  B  flByx  D T H X  nocjie,n,HHx cjroBax -  Ha n p a B O B o e noJioxeHHe c o B e T C K H X a p T H C T O B .  Heien  Hbie apTHCTH, TBopinj pojieft  B  Ha Hefl KpynHo:  opHaMeHTaMH.  H  cooTBeTCTBHH  c  He  O H H  3aMHCJiOM  C B O 6 O ^ -  aBTopa, a  KOMe^naHTbi r o c n o ^ H H a CTa/iHHa. HeMaaD HpoHHH H B cjieayioiUHx cjioBax MoJibepa: "Bame BejiHMecTBO ... GBeTJiettuiHfi r o c y ^ a p b .  AKTepu rpynnBi Tocna^HHa,  BepHenuiHe H Bceno^jiaHHeMiiiHe c j i y r H BauiH, nopynHJin MHe Bac, Ham  3a  Ty HecjibixaHHyio HecTb, KOTopyio  TeaTp ... H  ynecTb,  M T O  B  B O T ,  B H  3ajie n p n c y T C T B y e T  CTajiHH.  C^e^OBaTejibHO,  Ba  ByjaranoBa odpameHHbie K CTajiHHyJ JierKO J I H ,  K  Kopojiio <S>paHUHH, a  JUJIH  Ha^o  O T H  O T O  C J I O -  j i e r K o Jib B HHTepMejtHH  COJIHUe "JpaHHHH MHe CMeiUHTbl Bti HeceTe  noceTHB  c o p ... HjBaM H e n e r o He Mory CKa3aTb,"  - a p T H C T a odpameHH He  "Ax,  d Jiaro,zi.apHTb  0 K a 3 a j i H HaM,  c j i o B a MoJibepa  flpaMaTypra  Bee  ...  Hac KopojieBCKoe dpeMH.  H KOMe^HaHT, HHMTOXHaH p o j i b , Ho  H cjiaBeH y x TeM, M T O H r p a j i B TBoe BpeMH,  JIK^OBHKI  H O  T O T  ... B e / i H K H f t l . . . OpaHHy3CKHHl M l Kopojib.'i I  KaK dy,HTO  B  npeKpacHO  3HaeT,  3 T H X  cjioBax BocxBajieHne M T O  KopoJin /CTajiHHa/,  He MoxeT pacMHTUBaTb Ha n o x B a j i y  H3  y c T E y j i r a K O B a H M T O no,n BHeuiHocTbio BocxBajieHHH sa/iy T e a T p a nper/'<z5 JlHOCHTCfl Hjj;oBHTaa HacMemKa. )  HaMajio B T o p o r o ^eficTBHH n b e c u noKa3HBaeT  H r p y JIio^oBHKa  -  c &e  yjiHneH  nycTb  MoineHCTBe.  B  Ha  RHTh  B  B KapTH.  JleccaKOM  38  MapKH3  JIIO^OBHK  Me can. B Tiopgwy H A&Th  pncyeT  H a Hefi K p e c T H K H  odpyraTb  A HO8  eMy  BOT  KopoJia -  Ty,na CBeMKy H KOJiofly K a p T  H HyjiHKH.  c MyuiKeTOM,  KOTopue nponrpaiOT, n a p T H H H H H .zrejieii., CTajiHHa n r p a T b  MoieT  KpanjieHbiMH oxpaHa  BHBeji H e c n p a B e H J i H B y i o  H  Harpa^HTb  ^raTb napTHfiHOMy u a p e ^ B o p n y xopoiuyio  ynacTByioT BapcpojioMefl  n o xopy  apxneriHCKon  ero  IloJioyMHHti B O  rocy^apcTBe  I l a p H x a IIIappoH,  X H T P H M  OH  odyMHT  noMTH  DTO  cnpaBe,n.JiHBoro  ca-  japo-  IlooTOMy O H  KapT.  oTnpaBHTb  HMeHHe  B  -  onH30fl,  Kopojib  B  K O T O P O M  OTeq  J I K ^ O B H K ,  CHJia,  dpaT  BepHocTb  -  nncaHHa.  XpncTe  noaBHJica  O T O  aoJixHocTb.  BaptpoJioMeM, npHrJiatueHHbift npe,n  K o p o J i a JIioHOBHKa n o n p o T e K i i H H IIIappoHa, ero  H  nbecbi H 3 o d p a x a e T c a  CBameHHoro  He-  cTajiHHCKyw n e H 3 y p y .  - dpo^aMHK nponoBe^HHK H d p a T  MJieHH K a d a j i H  -  CTajiHHy.  BH,HOM  KOJio^y KpanjieHHX  Bejieji  JleccaK  IIo^  ByjiraKOB  JleccaKy  Re  CTajiHHa.  noxHHKa  HMeTb  MTodH  B KapTbi B n p n e M -  0,zr.HorJia3Ha: -  -  Jajiee,  KopoJia,  KapTaMH.  MyuiKaTep  CTajiHHy H e o d x o ^ H M o  noaBJiaeTca  pyKOBO^HTejieM.  dbiTb n o J i e 3 e H  Bepna.  Baji x H 3 H b  a no3sce  Hrpa  HeKOTopne BbinrpaioT.  K O T O P H H  ero  JleccaK.  CTajiHHbiM napTHftHbix  npneM  O T O  -  n p H c y T C T B y r o T o,ziHorjia3biH  nrpe  MouieffiwKa. - Re  orapaBHTb  3aTeM  3 T O pacuiHcppoBHBaeTca.  K a K Bee  IlpHKa3HBaeT n o c a -  ero.  c a n o r a H K , npH3BaHHbifi n o n p H K a 3 y  KapTOMHoro  OH  MeMeHHHMH K a p T a M H .  HaKa3HBaeT  npHJHBopHtie, MyuiKaTep  cnpaBe^JiHBHH  nrpaeT  ripn  HMeHne BMecTe c .rteHbraMH.  ^yoHHHT,  -  aHTHxpncTf  coodmaeT  KopoJiio,  a^QBHTHM M e p B b ,  OHH  MTO  B  rpbi3yuiHft  - 89 no^Horae TpoHa. rjoroMepscKHM  ero  e r o JKaH-BaTHCT Mojibep. "Coxra e r o B M e c T e c  HMH  TBopeHHeM''"TapTiodp"  C H H O B uepKBH TpeSyeT  H^eT, eT  6UJI  cocjiaBniHCb Ha  cueHy  DToro  o n H 3 0 i [ e n p n e M a MoJibepa J I K ^ O B H K O M ,  M o J i b e p a 6OHJICH  6H, H T O  JIio^oBHKa o ero  jj;eTHX O T B e n a e T ,  yna3HBaji He  pa3  Ha^o  EyjiraKOBy  X H B y T ero  CTajiHH.  Ha  EyjiraKOBy  MOM  DTO  6HJIO  MecTe  Mojibep Ha B o n p o c ByjiraKOB MOT  JIWROBVLK  yKa3a.zr MoJibepy,  To x e  JIrojj;oBHK pa3petuHJi MoJibepy n o TBopnecTBo  B jrajibHeMiueM  HajieHJicH H CTajiHH,  CnejiaB DTy y c T y n K y MoJibepy, cjiyroM.  nn.  KaoaTbCH c ocTopoxHOCTbK.  nottfleT n o npaBHJibHOMy n y T H .  nocTejibHHM  BH.zr,eM B e e T O ,  n b e c t i H j r p y r a e npoH3Be,zr,e-  C T a H O B K y "TapTio$a" c y c J i O B H e M , H T O ero  "MoJibepa."  MM  H T O O H H He x H B y T .  npHHHCjieHHbie K KOHTp-peBOJiKHHOHHHM. ecTb TeMbi, K O T O P H X  TaK CTajiHH peuiHJi o n y -  B y j i r a K O B Ha  ubinJieHKe noflMemaH  H T O He  "^nycTHTb  Mojibep c y x a c o M npHHHMaeT  npHrjiameHHe JIiojioBHKa n o y x H a T b HtinjieHKOM. B  pemaeT  ByjiraKOBa.  xapaKTepH30BaJiacb o n o x a C T a j i H H a .  HTO  B C H coBeTCKan p r j -  B n b e c e JIKJJCOBHK? JlnneMepHO  6e3o'oxHHKa MoJibepa.  Kapaiomyro p y K y H a  3,zr,ecb p e n b  TpefiyeT.  cTHTb C B O K ) T f l x e jiyio p y K y H a M.  HHH,  Tan.  KpHTHKy H r o J i o c H a p o j r a , J I K J I O B H K  <5H OTBeTHTb C T a j i H H y ,  BepHbix  K p H T H K a - OTeu. BapcfoJioMeft T p e d y -  x e pemeHHe npHHHMaeT  KaKoe  B  DTy  By^raKOBa BMecTe c e r o nbecaMH.  mecTBeHHOCTb, H K O 6 H ,  CBOK  BocnpHHHTb  KOHeMHO, o M. B y j i r a K O B e .  coxxeHHH  MHP  DToro."  AOjrxen  CTaJIHH  Becb  Ha njiouia,zr,H.  HCHO  JIK^OBHK -  onpejj;ejiH^  H3MeHH O H  p a T y p H o r o n o B e ^ e H H H , C T a ; i H H C K H e Siiara nocbina/iHCb  pa3peuiHB  JIHHHK>  6u Ha  ero JiHTe-  Hero.  - 90 OT MojiBep  pajiocTH,  BocKjraqaeT:  UlappoH^  IlapHxa  ero  H O  noptiB  cMacTJIHB JHOSOBB  Tpe  KOPOJIB'.  H  BH  M O C K B H / .  e r o "MojiBep" pa3pemeH K n p e ^ c T a -  MTO  CKopo npoft^eT  Re  "TapTKKp"."  GTajiHHy - p e 3 y j i B T a T  K  "TapTiocpa",  apxHenncKon  - o d u i e c T B e H H o e MHeHHe  B H cJibiinHTe? P a 3 p e m e H  ByjiraKOB BJieHHK),  JIioflOBHK pa3peuiHJi n o c T a H O B K y  "JlrodJiro T e d a ,  /ApxHenocKon  cJiHtuHTe?  D T O T  MTO  -  npH3paMHoft  O T  nopnBa.  MHHyTHoro  JHO6BH  CTajiHHy y  K  ocTaeTCH.  B y j i r a K O B a H H M e r o He  2, B  KOHiie  TpeTtro  neMcTBHH  JIIO^OBHK  xyjiHTHJieM  pejiHTHH,  HBJiHe.TOH He  T O J I B K O  6e3fJOKHHK.  CTaJiHH CMHTaji B y j i r a K O B a He  KOMMyHH3Ma B  e r o npoH3BejieHHax,  B  xe  O T O H  nacTH  n B e c a MojiBep  noHHMaio  ... fl,  noji3aji?  ... Bauie  6 JH0,noJiH3a,  KaK  Ba  SBynajia 6u  Ho  a He  yMeio  ,HJiH 3 T o r o . BaMH'. "  rpH3HHM  MoxeT,  6HTB  "3a  H  H O  T O J I B K O  JIioHOBHKy: JIBCTHJI?  fl,  HaM^eTe  B H  npecTynHHK-  H  rpH3HHM  6 H T B  OH  T O B O P H T  MacoB  BeMepa r o c n o ^ H H  cueHe  H  IlpHMHHOH  TyT  xe  6HJI  H  nnmeT:  ne  CTajiHH,  jocTaTOMHO  BaM  Ho  jpyroro  KopoJifl  H  He  A  6JI 10,2.0JIH3HHMaji  POJIB  MepHaH  pox^eH nepe,n  aKTep B  ApraHa,  noKaflHHfl H e y M o J I H M O M  3 T o r o ABHJiocB HeMHJiocTB  MoxeT, Majio  HyxHa jiecTB?  " C e M H a n u a T o e cpeBpajifl.  MoJiBep, HcnoJiHflfl  noxHuieH d e 3  Ranee  TaKoro  riocJieflHroio R&Hb MoJiBepy B KOHiie nBecbi B 0 3,naeT JIarpaHx.  xyjiHTejieM  "3anTO? He  BaMH HyxHO n o J i 3 a T B ?  TaK  MojiBep  M T O  MoJiB'epa. B-ycTax"ByJiraHOrr  THpa.ua  ToBapnm  M T O ?  M T O  xe  3Ta  riepeji.  CMHTaio,  Majio  TRe  MojiBep? ..."  J I B C T H T B .  fl  BaM  C H ,  aHTHKOMMyHHCTOM.  H  T O B O P H T  BeJiHMecTBo,  TaKi'  H O  y d ex,nae T  ^ec«Tb ynaji  CMepTBio.  Kadajial..."  Ha  -  B  cjioBax  O T H X  pojib  dopua  nOKaaHHH  MpaKodecna  H <5e3 n p H 3 H a H H a  ByjiraKOBa  Toxe  JleHHHCKOM  . H O K T P H H H .  npQJiejHHe  dtuiH  "RJIH  TaKOB: HauieM  e r o cjiaBH  cjiaBH."  BTopoM  BHHwaHHe  RJIH.  H  GTpocpa,  Kadajia  nhecu  H3dpaHHtie  o riyuiKHHe. He HyxHO,  IlepBHH H O O H  B  JleTe He  GJioraeMaa  3 a cy,nbdy  a  aBTopa,  npoH3BeaeHHa cy,nbda  onnrpad) ,n.Jia  HyxeH  OHerHH".  CTpax H e 3 a c o d c T B e H H y w  POCCHIO  cy,nbdy  B y j i r a K O B cMHTaeT  H MoxeT  TOJibKO  C B O H  HajieaTbca, M T O  H X coxpaHHT.  B  KaK n p o p o K a  ByjiraKOB ro  EyjiraKOBHM  noTOHeT  e r o npoH3Be,neHHH.  npocJiaBjiaioinHMH  MaaKOBCKHM MecTO,  MapKco-  MHOM."  3ByMHT  onnrpacpax  O T H X  THdejIH  cyjjbdoH  "EBreHHM  B  IIpHMHHaMH  o n n r p a d ) K riyniKHHy:  MoxeT,  B H T B  nepHaa  H  onnrpacpH  y x e HHMero  coxpaHeHaa  "H  O H yiueji H3 X H 3 H H d e s  KOMMyHH3Ma MejIOBeMHHM.  CTaJiHHa  nrpaa  1934-1935/  Ha ceda  o MoJibepe  nbecH  Bcio x H 3 H b  KOHeu..  C B O H  KOMMyHH3Ma,  H S M H J I O C T B  J H H/riyuiKHH/  OdpamaioT HJia  npe^BH^HT  ByjiraKOB  npoTHB  91 -  o  MHeHHa,  B  T O M ,  MeM  nbece  C B O H X  npoH3Be^;eHHax  peBOJiiouHH,  M T O O H  o TOM,  C0 3jn;aji  Box,na B  o MoJibepe  aBTop  peBOJiroiiHH  pyccKOft  M T O cjiyxnjio  CTaBHJi  ceda H  ee  JiHTepaType  H a nepBoe neBqa.  dojiee  B H C O K O -  eMy TeMaMH.  BHCKa3aJi  cBoe MHeHHe o B 3 a H M o —  -  OTHOiueHHHx MoJibepa c cyjj;b6o$i "TapTK>(|>a".  92  -  J I K ^ O B H K O M  B  H  "nocjiejHHX  CTopoHbi n o 3 T , T B o p e n m e ^ e B p o B  nocTHnneft  O  T a xe  ^ H H X "  rop^ocTb  H  paHa  T a xe  POCCHK).  KOMe^HH.  C ByJiraKOBHM  Ero 3 a T p a B H J i H  IIoneMy B y j i r a K O B  cnejiaJiH  H  TeMy  H3dpaji  H  KaK  T O M H O  C B H 3 H  Tena.  rndejiH  C  C  3 T H M  O ^ H O H  c jpyroft  P O C C H H ,  poHH 3Jitie 3aBHCTHHKH, npHflBopHtie HHTpHra, ocHpoTHBuian  B  pyejib,  pesyjibTaTe  B  no  C T O -  HOTaM d t u i a  e5e3  B H H H  riyuiKHHa  RJIR  pa3tir-  BHHOBaTtiM.  co3^;aHHH  4 nbecti,  KOTopoft $aKTHMecKH n o K a 3 a H  B  JIHUI  O,IHH  B e j i H K o r o noDTa H TOJibKO n y T b n p H O T K p t i T a CeMttHyH) X H 3 H b . yfJHttCTBO riyiUKHHa JtaHTeCOM nacTHbix MHorne  Mecnu  H  dblJIO He  M H O T O  X H S H H  3 a B e c a B e r o HacTHyio,  TOJibKO OT,HejIbHtIM (JaKTOM  B3aHMooTHomeHHH. B;_ae,jie • ydiiHCTBa riyuiKHHa CKptiTtie Tatotie npyxHHti  B  ^ecHTKOB  ynacTBOBajiH  ynacTHHKOB.  HHCJie JjefiCTByiOfflHX JIHU n b e c t i Ha3BaHtI COpOK HHJIHBHJiyajIbHblX neTtipe  rpynnti  H  TOJina.  Macca  3Ta  B C H  jncHeM n o K a 3 a H a  BiueH B KOHne HHBapa H B H a n a j i e <£eBpajiH 1837  n b e c e o FlyuiKHHe B y j i r a K O B  B  onpaBjiaTbCH. TparHMecKHe TOJibKO  BtixBaTHB H 3 TparanecKOH JIHH,  aBTop  coBeTCKoM  OTBenajio  dti c r y c T H J i  eMy  B nbece  onpaBjiaHHH•  H  jeMcTBOBa-  rojta.  O(3BHHHJI  X H 3 H H  JIHII,  H  HHKOMy  He ,naji  riyuiKHHa n o c j i e ^ H H e  KpacKH, HTOdbi noKCteaTb  peaKUHio p y c c K o f t  oduiecTBeHHOCTH.  M T O n p o H c x o ^ H J i o Mexjiy B y j i r a K O B t i M ,  TOMy,  BjiacTbio H c o B e T C K O H  HHKOMy o n p a B j i a T b C H He j i a j i a  KaK  p a c c n p a B y c riyuiKHHtiM  3TO  Bcex  B  pduiecTBeHHOCTbio;  ByjiraKOB  "riyniKHH" noTOMy, H T O coBeTCKaa  B nbece  He  jj;aji  BjiacTb  "riocjie^HHe ^ H H H " $ a K T H M e c K H  -  93 -  H3odpaxeHH  MHorae  jjyojiH,  npH^BopHHX  H H T P H T  co cJiaBoft  OTflejieHHH  c riymKHHUM,  orjmecTBeHHbiM KOTopofi  6HJI  ne  TOJIBKO  nyoJiB  B nBece  -  BeHenHKTOB, K y K O J I B H H K ,  dpaTHH  ropnno HeHaBH^HT riyuiKHHa, B TaKoe x e noJioxeHHe  KaK  Morjia  pacneHHTB  Heft  H  npoJiHBaeT  KOMMyHHCTHHBCKHe  H  3Ta nBeca  dHJia o d f l B j i e H a  He 6 H J I O  IIoTOMy H H X  JHHHX  3Ta  nBeca  nbecu  VOM,  ynpeK  H T O  HauieMy  H^eajiy  H3 KapTHHH  ,nHeft  aeftCTByroiiiHx  HJIH  H C T O P H H  BJiacTH  B  HeBOJiBHO.  B  ByjiraKOBa.  npecJie,noBaHHH aBTopa  odpameHa  K  npoH3Be.rreHHe  KapTHHy ,naxe  He,iapoM x e n b e c a  HaM, H T O  O T  JHCHHM  Hama  npncyTCTByeT  ero Tpare^HH Tex,  K T O  "nepeji. H  B  no-  K  nocjie,HHeft Kax^OM  CTaHOBHTCH  cnocodcTByeT  oKaHHHBaeTcn  B H  coBeTCKoft  jirodoBB  nepBoft po  riymKHHa.  Ho. 10,  T O B O P H T :  Ho npoHTHTe ee BHHMaTe J I B H O  JIHU.,  nocJie,n.-  O  BjiacT B npecJie,noBajia c a M o r o  B nBece riyniKHH H e 3 P H M O  BJiaCTB  O^HaKO,  H H M .  nocJie^HHx ^Heft  cnpaBejJIHBOCTH,  D T O  HesaMeTHO Bcex  He  M o c K B a / B. K a B e p H H  OHa B c e u e j i o  riyuiKHHy npoHH3HBaeT CTpaHHHH.  c  "3aMeTKax o apaMaTyprnH B y j i r a K O B a " / " T e a T p "  HyBCTByeTe, K  C O 6 H T H H  coBeTCKoft  H3^. HcKyccTBO.  Bepb  KpHTHKa?  FloHerjiy?  nejiBio e n HanHcaHHH fjujia  HaMH nBeca H C T o p H H e c K a n .  DnoxH,  coBeTCKan  IlyillKHHa HTHT H C O B e T C K a H  Bpe^HOft.  o riyniKHHe, KaK n a p c K a n  B 1956  dpocajia  jiHTepaTypHan  3aBHj;yeT e n y .  M T O  cjie3H o p a c n p a B e  riyuiKHHa, a peajiBHbie  nyinKHHCKHX  B y j i r a K O B CTaBHJi H c e d n .  KOHTp-peBOJIWHHH.  H T O  3Ta  JKyKOBCKHft.  OTy n b e c y  B  oTnyineHHH  KO3JIOM  JiHTepaTopa  noTOMy  TpeTBero  majionan J a H T e c a c  P O C C H H ,  cpnrypHpyioT  MyoJih  xaHflapMCKoro  flereHepaTHBHoro  BpeMeH  BepoHTHO  c JaHTeeoM.  OyiiiKHHa, .zryojiB  CTpoeM KOHcepBaTHBHoft riyniKHH.  riyuiKHHa  M O H O J I O T O M  cjioBe. Tpare-  eft  BOJIBHO  areHTa  - 94 npHCTaBJieHHC-rO  OXpaHKH,  TyMaH HHKO/raeBCKoro yTpaTti.  T O  eMy  *ITO  B  3aca^HJi  X H B O T  Ra,  B H T K O B .  He  He  npn  Ha  HH  jiajiH, M T O  pyKH  ycjibixajia,  MeM.  fl  mar.  HH,  eme ...  MHe  caM  yrpt!3eHHa caMHM  B KOHeMHo,  B  ero  C T H X .  A  ... fl c p a 3 y  B  a  TaM  TOJIBKO  ynyaji  MHoro  H3  OJJ;HH  3a  B  B HHHTOxec-  O H ,  jrpyroe  iypa  MeHa He  H BH63anHoe  Hy,  cjiyra  F o H M a p o B o f t , HHKHTa,  H  M H O T O  " H  H  TOCKa MTO  ero."  no^JiocTH.  ropeMH  3HaKT,  OHJIO."  JIK)6HJI  M H O T O  a.  MecTO n o c -  OTKpuTHe,  riyuiKHHa  H  yunue.  H T O C H .  HaHBHHMH cjioBaMH;  D T H M H  TyT  H  npHnuio e r o B p e M a .  npecjiejioBaTejieft  riyuiKHHe  H  npaB^H.  nepBOM ^ e M c T B H H  He Sy^eT  3,ziecb B e p t e n ,  -  M T O  coBecTH, H pacKaaHHe,  nbece o  nycKajin, Kyjxa  xeHa  Bor,  norpyxeHHbift  .zreHb MeHH  T O T  KpHKHyTb,  H C T H H H H M  y x e r o .npxH.naioTCfl.  MyBQTByeTca  H H M T O X H H K  He  HTO(5H  He  O ^ H O T O  . . .  " A j i e K c a H f l p a HHKOJiaeBHa, flepeBHK...  3aKycHBa;i,  K y ^ a Ha/jo, noTOMy  npn^eT  Uyjin -  . . .  a noTOM  H H , H H  ope^y-TO  B  MHoroe  D T O T  ... HajieM-na  MO3XHT?  - H e j i o B e K no^HeBOJibHHtt,  npaMO H a p e H K y ,  H  reHHa H T H i e c T b  Aft, a f t , a f t l . . .  ... Be,nb H H K o r ^ a  T B O  MeHa  D T O  CMOTpHTejibma.  MTO6H  Berawe  MeHH coceT? ... Ra, T p y ^ H O n o M H p a j i , ox, MyMHJica.  D T O  O H  C T p o a , HyBCTByromero  BCK) JIOXfeH  0KBO3b  CMyTHO  " 17 " B H T K O B .  %o  K riyiUKHHy H  B  yMOJiHTe B H  HHTepe  T O B O P H T :  e r o / n y u i K H H a / , noe,n,eM B  ^odpa,  A ^ e K c a H j r p a HHKOJiaeBHal  B O T  B c n o M H H T e Moe  ..."  C J I O B O . . .  O H  -  npe^HycTBHe CKopo H O  yeflHHeHHe  cdHJiocb.  e r o xeHa,  H H K H T H ,  HaTajiHH  H3 I l e T e p d y p r a ?  fl B O B c e  Hexony  C O M T H  HOCTbK,  KOTopan  riyuiKHHa  -  JaHTec:  yxo.zr.HTe ." 1  K O MHe."  nojoH^HTe  cHyuiHBaeTCH.  11  flepeBHio  TaK  T O B O P H T  yua  jepeBHe,  B  ^ a H T e c a riyuiKHHa  "JIaHTec  1 1  ,zi;odpa,  d Jiarojjapio  oTBenaeT  noKopHO."  H3HCKaHHoM  JaHTeca.  riyuiKHHy.  /HojideraeT  K  oray,  H H T H M -  B O T cqeHa  "Eoxe  riyuiKHHa:  He C K a x e T ?  X H 3 H H :  CTOJiHiiy?  rioKHHyTb  eme p a 3 K K ^ a j i K H .  HJIH  X H 3 H B ,  o ^epeBencKoM  M O M ,  Heodxo^HMO  HaM  3 a B T p a H a d a j i y y BopoHUOBott  HHKHTa  oneHb  dH e r o  cnacjio  B 3HMHeM  JlaHTec n o B o p a H H B a e T C H H y x o ^ H T .  CKaxeT  HH33.MTO H e c K a x e T . "  nejiyeT  "ilpHMjHTe  riyuiKHHa:  noroBopHTb."  B  riyuiKHHa  euje doJibme BOOjtiyiueBjineT  JtaHTec:  He dy,neT  n p a r a T b C H B ^epeBHe?  C  yxaxHBaHHa  IlHTepe  H T O B  HHKOJiaeBHa  "BexaTb  Ha  95 -  ca,zry  OHa n p n -  H e T , He C K a x e T ,  C M O T P H T  B  Hero/  "0  ropbKaa  OTpaBai"  JUH HTodn  nero  JaHTeca?  apHCTOKpaTHH?  HBHJiacb  IlyuiKHH,  aTMOccpepa  RJIH  roBopHT  BOT  Hero  riyuiKHHa  o IlyuiKHHe  3aHHMaTbca  Bauiero  T O T O ,  EyjiraKOBy?  riyuiKHHa?  ,5 J I H  HTodn  P O K O B O M ,  T O T O ,  RJIH  T O T O ,  HTodH  X H B O — o n n c a T B HpaBH  BCH 3 T a aTMOCCpepa,  B e e ycHJiHH,  npHJioxHJiH  HSBOJiHTe  HJIH  RJIH.  DTa cueHa  xapaKnHTep-  B K O T O p o E XHJI H T B O p H J I  T a K x e , KaK  H  coBeTCKaa  ByjiraKOBa.  CodpaTbH  HTO  xeHy  cKOMnpoMeHTHpoBaTb  TepH30BaTb CKOM  noTpedoBajiacb  codpaTa  no jiHTepaTypHoK  HTOdBi  onepHHTb  flenTejibHOCTH  riyuiKHHa  TaKxe  B odiuecTBe. B O T  Ca^TbiKOB'/odpamaHCtiK B e H e f l H K T O B y / :  noo3HeM? no nepy  BeHe^HKTOBt  riyuiKHHa  He^aBHO  Ja-c:  OnacHoe  B TpeTteM  "H T a K , 3aHHTHe.  OT,n.e jieHHH  e r o BejiHHecTBa  C O 6 C T B 6 H H O H  KOTopue  H H T P H T H ,  HHKOJian  K a H u e j i a p H H OTO,zrpajiH."  BejiHCb  n e p B o r o npoTHB H e r o .  nyuiKHHCKHX  DnHrpaM.  jiocb  MHeHHe  Tanoe  HHKOJiaK HCKJiKMan  B  o  nyuiKHHa,  H M O H H  HacTpoHJiH TOH  3TOMy n o M o r a j i HenpHMHpHMuK  pe3yjibTaTe  y HHKOJian  D T O T O  IlepBoro  ocTa-  nyuiKKHe.  IlepBHM:  ^odpa.  BOKpyr  /TlyuiKHH/ c n o c o d e H H a Bee,  nenoBeK  "3TOT  H H d;iaroroBeHHfl  K  doxecTBy,  H H  JirodBH  OTenecT  K  By."  B jj;pyroM H  roBopio  jj;ypHO  cede,  AjieKcaHjrp  Tenepb  K O H M H T .  H3BecTHe c  H  nyfflKHH yMHUI JieHHO C T B O M  ocKopdjieH  Becb  0$HH.ep:  H cKopdbio.  B  KOH  OdpamaWTCfl  B  3TOM  DTO  KpHTHKa.  D T O  T O ,  C T H X H  M T O  Hapojj; B n b e c e  M  H  npHHHJi aKTe  cjiHuiajiH c e f i n a c , n p a B ^ a .  D T H M  OMep3HTe JlbHblM ydHH-  3aMOJiMaTbl.. . BejiHKoro  C HapOflOM,  rpax,zraHHHa  BJiacTb  coBepuiHJiacb  B p y M e H a Hejj;ocToMHHM  KBapTajibHbift, npefljioraroinHM  To, M T O  o$Huep  roBopHT  c EyjiraKOBbiM.  "Bypn  noTOMy, Jinna-M,  KaK C HeBOJIbHHKaMH. .."  onH30,ne  nyuiKHHa:  O H  Hapo^.  "THdejib  cnyHHJiocb  K O H H H T  EeHKeH^opbi/,  0cJ)Huep B MeTBepTOM  To, M T O M  HeorpaHHMeHHan  M T O  " O H jrypHO  BHxy."  Od^yMaHHO y d H T .  H  KBapTajibHBiM:  CTpaHe  O T O  "Corpax^aHe'.  K P H M H T :  / sic.  XPHCTO<|)OPOBHH:  o CMepTH nyuiKHHa p y c c K H M  rJiydoKHM B03MymeHHeM  nbecti  C H  HHKOJiaft nepBbift r o B o p H T J  cjiynae  MTJIOIO  Hedo  o npHMHHax  B  nbece  KpoeT,  3aMOJiMaTb, rndejiH nyuiKHHa,  M H O T O  B H X P H  p a 3 npHBO^HT  CHexHbie  KpyTH.  To,  nan  3Bepb, BOT,  OHa  MTO  -  97  -  3aBoeT,  T O  3anJianeT  norydHJio  jianHoft t/rrjioft i r a p H 3 M a .  ROH  / 1 9 3 8 rojjta/  H3BecTHa  /llbeca  vs Her  BceM  OTOMy  CepBaHTeca  nbecu  "ROH  HeKOTopbix  B  HTajiHio H o n p e n e j i H J i c a  B03MOXHOCTb  HcnaHHK. AJIXHP,  jiHMHoro rona  KaK p a d . pa3opeHHa  xeHHjica,  ywtep C e p B a H T e c  H C T O P H H  Korna  cjiyxaKoM  Bjia^eTb  MeTupe  Mepe3  onn-  pyccKoe  dHJi  JieT  o ROH  CepBaHTecy  B  BtiKynJieH  1616  ropy  KnxoTe  Cynbda  Jinua. ron  c e i i b e f i H3  B nojirax,  niecTHnecaTH  BoceMb  dbiJi c x B a M e H  yexaji  H  yBe3eH ueHOH  CnycTa  CH^eji  sa H H X  neBaTH  JieT  B  ron  ponHyw  B  1 5 8 0 rony  padcTBa.  JieT.  BoceM-  p a H e H vs.  Bo3BpaTHJica  dbiJia onydJiHKOBaHa  dbiJio n a T b n e c a T  aBTopa  CnycTa  dtui  B  no-  OTOM  cMacTba  B noncKax  rony  Byjira-  CepBaHTeca.  X H 3 H H  pyKoft.  1575  aBTopa  cynbdoft  c  C n y c T a eme  y M.  O T K J I H K  duJiJHeBOJibHHKOM.  BeMHo n p e d b i B a j i B  H S  Odpa-  IlegajibHoro  H3jioraTb.  y nyxoBHoro  JieBoM  rona,  riaTb  3jj;ecb  cxonHa  CepBaHTec  B apMHK.  nouieji n o d p o B O J i b n e u  noTepaji  MepTax  HanoMHHM cpaKTbi  K H X O T " .  ee  - punapa  ocHOBaHHft.  JieT O T p o n y n c n a H e q ,  HafluaTH  B  codHTHH,  yKpbiBtnaa  Hauuia T a K o H  KnxoTa  dbiJio HecKOJibKO  BecTH  OH  Henpop-  CepBaHTecy/  HanodHocTH  ROK  FIoMeMy H C T o p H a  KOBa?  no  Ron K n x o T a JIaMaHMCKoro  H C T O P H H  B  Hedo  JieT n o c j i e  CTO  Ilo33ce, noMTH  yKpbiBiuaa  noryfJHJia H B y j i r a K O B a .  K H X O T  3a,  - dypa,  . E H T H . "  B n t e c e , H e n p o r J i H ^ H a a Mrjiia KOMMyHH3i/ta,  caHHbix Hedo,  riyuiKHHa  KaK  MeTbipe  B TiopbMe.  O T  1605  pony. rony,  -  TaKHM EyjiraKOBa,  98  odpasoM, cy.zr.bda o d o n x  dtuia HanojmeHa  THxe  H3BecTHO,  K H X O T "  nncaTejieft  - CepBaHTeca  nepexHBaHHHMH  JIHMH  H  H  MaccoM  pa3-  OMapOBaHHtt.  KaK jieH B  JIeHHHrpajr,e  B  ra3eie  1941  B  "H3BecTHH  M  jiomeHHH a p T H C T a H .  ropy. 20-ro  / O T  EyjrraKOBa  TeaTpajibHbiM MapTa  1941  "Ron K H X O T "  ^lepKacoBa  H naTeTHMeH.  TejieH  " A O H  O H od^a^aeT npocTOH  K.  K P H T H K  3acTaBJifleT  noM,  H O  TporaTejibHOM  "B  cMemeH, x a j i o K ,  POJIH  CaHMO IlaHCH n o K a 3 a j i $ H r y p y J i y K a B o r o  B.  A P T H C T  ^epscaBHH  ropa./ n H c a j i :  BonTpora-  B e r o Hejie-  cepBaHTecoBCKoro ptmapa  de3yMHH.  nocTaB-  H e j i o B e H e c K o H HCKpeHHOCTbio  KOTopaa  xeHocHa: TaK,KaK  JiiodHTb  dHJi BnepBbie  T O P H H  H  HcnoJiHeHHH  B  npocTO^yuiHoro  opy-  "ilbecH"  e r o odpHCOBaji GepBaHTec."/M. ByjiraKOB  • 18 H3,zu  HcKycTBO,  MocKBa.  1 9 6 2 rop.  M e p e 3 MecHH n o c j i e npeMbepa  "JIOH  K H X O T "  B  CTP.  478-480/.  JleHHHrpaacKoro MocKBe  / B  TeaTpe  K P H T H K  H.  A H H C H M O B  nncaji:  " ^ O H K H X O T " ,  TOJibKO  TporaTejieH,  TOJibKO  3adaBeH,  jieHHoe  "de3yMHe"  He  TaK  padOTy  rpo3HO, A.  cneKTaKJia  BaxTaHroBa/.  H M C H H  KaKHM  TOJibKO  cocTOHJiacb  ero nrpaeT  KapTHHeH,  e r o JiHiueHo T p a r H H e c K o r o C B o e r o  KaK  y  CepBaHrreca.  TopioHOBa, KOToptiB  K P H T H K  pacKptui  cMHCJia oneHHJi  B H C O K O  npocTyio  a  .nyuiy  C H M O H O B ,  npocJiaBH  coBceM  aKTepcKyio  BepHoe  H  cepjj;-  19 ue  CaHMO I l a H c u 3HaMHT,  KaK  y  c npeBocxo,nHofi  "Rem  RJIH M e r o  CepBaHTeca.  CepBaHTeca? niyio p o j i b BaHHan Ha  ^ J I H  HrpajiH  K H X O T "  HpaBOB  pejinrHH,  Myjzecax  H  H  ecTecTBeHHocTbio."  y apTHCTa H  JJ;JIH  K O T O  Torflaumero MHCTHKa  BHMHCJiax•  H  "Ron K H X O T "  odiqecTBa,  ptmwpcKaa  TaKHM  TaK  CHMOHOBa He  odpa30M,  rpo3eH,  rpo3eH y  K O T O P O M  dojib-  jiHTepaTypa,  O C H O -  B  "Rem  K H X O T "  -  -  -  odJiHMHTejib  3TO  H  CoBeTCKHtt BpeneHa  ByjiraKOBa,  H O  aBTopoM  ntecti  KHXOT",  KnxoTa  H  B  peBOJiioHHH,  H3  -  KaK  M.  MeHal  H^TH  c  ByjiraKOB  TpeTbero  CaHMO n a H c a  depeTca  ^ O H  K H X O T ,  3 T Oa,  BaMHI  H O B O M  maroB.  C B O O M  BOT  B  nepBuft  repoio  Ha3BaH  Koro  B H  CaHMoi  CJiuniHTe  HMeeT  KOTopyio  B  BURJ  BepoHTHO  Tex,  "CeHbop  M O H  nepno^;  TeaTpajibHHM  Ha n p e c j i e ^ o B a H H e CaHMo:  Ron  nbecbi.  o6pa3e?  OTOM  aKT n b e c t i  TOJIOC?  ... Mti c T a H e M  BJiacTH. KHXOTO'. . . .  nacTyxaMH,  a  .."  rydepHaTopoM  BbicoKOM noJiosceHHH  paCKpHBaeTCH  OTMaCTH  ^eftCTBHH, K o r ^ a  CBoeMy o p y x e H o c n y  .aaTb  K  Ta  cep^neM".  HecMOTpa  nocJie/JHHH'  CeHbop  Ha  OTHOuieHHio  BepHHM  H  OHJIOCH(|)CKH{i CMHCJI n b e c t i  MaeT  MHCJiHjica  od JiHMHTejibOTBe  o p y s c e H o c e u , ,2IPH K n x o T a ,  EyjiraKOBy,  3aKjnoMaeT  yMMpaHTei  KapTHHe  rpo3HOM  B  EyjiraKOBa H KpoeTca  .nyuioft  OKpyxeHHH  BOT  corjiaceH  M T O  (3HJI -  BO  odJiHMHTejib.  HMeHHO, Kan  y E y j i r a K O B a no  ocTajicaJBepeH  B3rjiHHHTe  O H  dHJio  CHMnaTHa,  CTopoHbi  KTO  He  MTOC5H  He  H  co  "npocTOp  CBoero  dtiTb  B  CaHMO I l a H c a K P H T H K O M  xejiflji  MoxeT  ofjJiHMHTejibCTBe C O B e T C K H X n o p n j i K O B  3aMeTHTb  M O X H O  ByjiraKOB  npej;no^oraTb,  MOXHO  odmecTBy.  KOToporo  KHXOT,  ^ O H  -  ynpeK  X H B O M  "J^OH  99  repnor  ocTpoBa  od'aBjiaeT,  EopaTapna.  B  Mor  Ha3Ha-  M T O  O H  Aon  K H X O T  HecKOJibKO H a c T a B j i e H H t t , O H  UieCTOH  MTOdbi  B  OT JIOXHHX  dbi ydepeMbca  O T H HacTaBJieHHa:  "Cnymaft MeHa CaHMO, BHHMaTejibHO. TbK-BHesanHO ,HJia n o j i y n e H H a  Mero  HHOM  TpaTHT HeHMOBepHbie ycHJiHa  nojiyHHJi T O ,  H ,  roHHMbift  - 100 HecTOJirodHeM  HJIH  annHOCTbio, n p n d e r a e T  cpencTBaM.  DTO  a  ca  Ha  Teda,  MTO  He n p n n H C H B a j i  T H  He H a n y s a j i c a ,  KaK  nJia dH  cKa3aTb?  Ax  dH HacMemeK  na!  rpoMne  dynTO  cyn^H  cnaBH TBI  CaHHO,  H  Ben*  K&xnoe  -  Teda  nepecTaHb  OneHb HHTepecHBie n a e T Ron  "Bo JiaMTe  ee  dyneT,  dajiB3aMa.  BHJieSTe  He npHKOHHaT  M O X H O  y  OHa  Bac  Bac  noJiHa  KaK  ocTajiacb ee,  BBI  nyMaTb,  B  neBHToM K  DTO  MHe  H T O  capKa3M  enKHM  odpamaeTca  JIIO-  HCTHHy  HIUH  HHKaK  He KaK  B  "  He  BBI3Ka3HBaHHax  O T H X  GTajiHHy.  K  CoBeT-  3aMenaeT. H a npoinaHHe  ocodeHHOCTH d e p e r a T e r o J i o B y , He n o n c T a B -  B  onHa  CaHHO  c  OT  cKJiHHKa  D T O T O  Ron  K H X O T ,  cJiOBaMHt  TOTO,  HTO  cnnn "ja,  H  D T O T  -  eMy  Ha  D T O  HTO  neHb  H BCTpeHaK  eme,  ecjin  odocTpeHHaa BpenHJi.  B  cBoeM  KOHHaeTCH, MO0  Bac  dajib3aM."  oneHb  cKaMbe  xajiKO  ObepadpacoBa  noTOMy  npHKOHHHT  K O T O P H H  MHCJieM  ropuioK.. . . M T O  O b e p a d p a c o B danb3aM  T S K H M H  CTpaiHHO  yMHBix  c e H b o p , K nbHBOJiy,  ByjiraKOBa,  KapTHHe  O H H B  T J I H H H H H H  B dOK), TO y x , H a B e p H O ,  H  HCHO.  dojiTaTbl  D T O T O  ...  He dynb rpydHM<cHH3meMH,  T e HacT^BjieHHa, KOTopHe  pa3jieTHTca,  Ra, Tau y  ceHbop?  HpoHHH  y#ap. OHa  ecJiH  H T O  codon  T H  KnxoTy:  BpeMH n p a n n  non  cynbH  MoxceT d H T b a n p e c o B a H O B y j i r a K O B H M  CJIOBO  cKaa K p H T H K a c n e n a j i a Bnn,  CaHHO  npoH3BOJiy.  K  HTodu  dyneui cynHTb  T H  cTaporo  XH3HH.  B  Han  cBajiHBwee-  Cynn CBoero Bpara T a K ,  ...  M H J I O C T H B O T O  BHnHiu e r o BnepBne - npomy  cnaBa  3HaH, H T O  cnacTbe,  3acjiyraM,  codCTBGHHBIM  Korna dynem c y n H T b , He n p n d e r a f t  noBciony HeyTOMHMo.  HTodH  HenHCTHM,  nopoft  B C H K H M ,  T O T O ,  JiaryuiKa, H H 3 d e x a n  eme MHe x o T e n o c b  nefil  Tede  CKasan  K O  3aKaT  nsope, CaHHO,  COBCeM  - 101 -. coBceM  O H  KHxoTa  llbeca  B  3jial"  npoHSBeneHHH,  "HBaH jfeeft" M H  CTaBHM n o 3 x e ,  KpHTHHecKoro  apXHBax .  MOCKOBCKHX CTaBHTb  HHBapH HM",  H a ee cneT  caMOM n e j i e ,  B  KOMe^HK) oflHy H 3  11  xyxe  dojibHoft Kyum  ROH  ByjiraKOBa.  X O T B  HanncaHa x p o H H n e c K H  H  1935  B  rony,  MaTepnajia.  H O  odpa3  nteca  O T O H  0 KOMe^HH "HBaH  paHb-  O T O T O  coBepiueH-  BacHJibeBHM" H e T  e e xpaHHTCH B  PyKonncb  / B r a 3 e T e "HoBoe  cymecTByeT  nHTb  neTBepTOMy  H  C B O H X  PyccKoe  CJIOBO"  KOMe^HH  H  BTopoe  nHTOMy npe,nnoJioxeHHHM, "HBaH B a c H J i b e B H H ' ,  - ByjiraKOB  - OTO  nepenejiaji  CorJiacHO  ByjiraKOB  B . TpydeiI,KHM,  BaCHJIbeB-  IlepBoe  idtui  HanncaHHoM H e  1  13-ro  O T  "HBaH  npennoJioxeHHH.  caTHpHHecKHX n o B e c T e M .  B C O T p y n H H H e C T B e HJIH C KHH3eM  HJIH  H O  T a K KaK x a n p  KOMennfl B y j i r a K O B a .  pe^aKTOpoM K O M e ^ H H a  CaHHO,  TOR3./ rOBOpHT ' "MTO K a c a e T C f l  B  eMy,  HejioseK  B C C C P 3 T y KOMe^HIO He peatJHJIHTHpOBaJIH  3aBajiHinHH  1965  T O  HarpaxneH  KpHKe  Jlynu  COdHpaiOTCH.  He  B.  K O T O P H M  3jia,  EejioM  ro.ua/  "ROH H n x o T a " ,  O T J i H H a e T c a O T npenHnym.HX.  oduiHpHoro  Puuapb  CTpanaHHH  BacHJibeBHH H  neneu.  M H O T O  npe^cMepTHOM  O T O M  "HBaH B a c H J i b e B H n " /1935  "riocjienHHx  flapa,  Ha c s e i e  BH^eTb nyiueBHtie  M O X H O  KoMenHa  HO  3a.noJIHHTB  nparoiieHHoro  jiewHJi u e H f l C B o f J o n H l  njieHa HeTy  me  3 T y nycTOTy  H  MeHfl c a M o r o  JIHUIHJI  -  nycTOH  TpeTB-  T O J I B K O  H M  caMHU,  HJIH CO UlKBapKHHHM  eui,e c K e M - T O .  A B T O P  rpo3Horo, CTajiHHa  KOMe^HH  "HBaH B a c H J i b e B H H  e r o onpHHHHKOB,  c e r o TeppopoM.  MajnoTy  11  CBH3BiBaeT  CKypaTOBa  onoxy  c daToraMH  HBaHa H onoxy  - 102 IIpH  MTeHHH  yBeJiHMeHHBiH  CTH  rpoTecK  nsecti,  D T O S  npocTH  n b e c u odpamaeT  DTO.H  danaraHHoro  xapaKTepti  H  B nepBOM  aKTe  3HHanna  KOMennn  xeHa  ero  Ktopx  MHJiocnaBCKHtt - a K T e p ,  aKTa  BosHHKaeT  H3odpeTaTeJifc annapaTa  Hanonodne  iujioe H B B I 3 B a T b  H3odpa3Hji  aBTOp  poro MTO C H  BOJiHyioT  H Mory Ha  HeT,  MeHHO  TpncTa  H  B O BpeMH 1 JieT  Hasan He3Haji  B npouiJioe H y B n n e T b  co  BceMH  THMocpeeBa  cnoKoMHO  roBopHT  BaeT  T S K H M H  ero  3HHanna,  H  KOHCTpynpoBaHHeM  K O T O P B I M  MHpI  dpocHJia  comjiacb  cam THMocpeeB, a n p y r cjiOBaMH:  "Bu  njiioHbTe,  TnMocpeeBa,  "Jejio  H Mory  C ttapeM  c  H  Od  D T O M  e r o MHJiocjiaBCKHH M T O  H3odpaxeHa  OHa  Bac  KaK  npyroMy.  MTodBi y n e p x H B a T b  Myx,  eft H y x e H ,  codoft xHJiyio nnomanb.  /  ycnoKaH-  dpocnjial"  aBTopoM onHoro  Tpo-  OnHOBpe-  yxacaMH.  npyrHM.  npo-  HBanoM  O T  KaK  T O M  TpncTal..  Ha  M T O  B  K O T O -  HBHHyTb-  MBicjieHHan MOJionan xeHiuHHa, nepexonnman THMocpeeB,  npo-  BocKpecHTb  . . . " THMOcpeeBy y n a e T C H  npeBHioio M o c K B y .  H  H O B O T O  jiiodHTeneM,  J[a  Bnepen.  cTpacTHMH  xeHa  H nbHK.  oTpHuaTejibHBiH THn, H O  npocTOBaTBiM  e r o npHMynaMH,  xeHa  M O X H O  BBI noHHMaeTe,  HJIH  ynpaBnoMa,  H nonBJiHioTCfl H o a H  npodJieMu. O H roBopHT/ByHine/:  TaKoro H3odpeT8.HHH  HHKHyTb 3HBIM  dojibiune  THMocpeeB,  K0Hii.e n e p B o r o  B  THMocpeeB He  e r o orpaHHHeHHUM  npoHHKHyTb  nsecTH,  DKpane.  - H3odpeTaTejib  ByHiua.  yBjieneH  panHonpHeMHHHa,  ero na  KpaHHO-  ycTynaeT  y j i b H H a AH,gpeeBHa,xeHa  Tpo3Horo  THMocpeeB  no  ByjiraKOBa.  ynpaBHOM  HoaHHa  ioMopy He  npe-  Tnnti  neftcTBHH.  cTaBuiHe TeMoH n b e c B i ,  neftcTByioT  -KHHoaKTpHca,  najiaTa  BHHMaHne HecKOJibKO  T e a T p e / , a no  B c e x npyrnx n p o H 3 B e n e H H H  KMopy  cedn  KOMenHHHoro  codtiTHH,  B danaraHHOM  /KaK  Ha  JierKO-  JiiodOBHHKa 3a  K  - 103 yjiBHHa odmHX  AHflpeeBHa, i e H a H He  nepTax  ynpaBflOMa,  a  yx  ^OKa3aji  nyTeM  pox.zr.eHHa Mott n a n a a  H T O  O H H  npe^CTaBJieHHa  THnoB  n o f l o d H H x ByHuie  BajiH c B o e npoHcxox,neHHe,  ApTHCT Bee  xecTBo.  Ha  xe  TaK:  TeaTpoB. a  "fl  A  Ha  H T O  BaM  ee  Ha3Baji."  BaM  KOMejinMHaa  3 B O H H T  - HeH3BecTHo, UlnaK j i y M a e T , eTca  H O  HoaHHa  HTO  ero  RO  VOK  Ha  Rene  Moero  oneBH^HO,  IlaHTejiea'.'" OHH  C K P H -  peBOJirouHOHHoro M e n a .  O T  - TeaTpajibHoe  O H  KOTOpOTO  apTHCTOM,  BeJIHKHM  e r o (JaMHJiHK,  $aMHJiHa?  Tpo3Horo UOR  coodmaa, B  HTO  KHaseM,  H H H T O -  MnjioczraBCKHM  KOMHaTe  H3BecTHaa,  CJIHIHKOM  ^ettcTBHe pa3iirpbiBaeTca,  3aHaBec  H T O  e r o odoKpajia  OHa  x H J i e n IIInaK  noaBJiaeTca  e r o odoKpa^H.  K T O  nodbiBaji  HBaH  H  dJiOH.zr.HHKa.  uapb  H  odoKpaji  ero  rpo3HHtt.  A K T nepBHit  3aKaHHHBa-  My3biKoM.  no  cBH^eTejibCTBy  npeji;Ha3HaHajiacb Ha  Moa  K^oyHajca.  MHJIHHHK),  B  MeHa  Bpemn B y j i r a K O B a .  Ceda  /oTBe-  T O B O P H T  Ha3HBaMTe  noxox  H  ^ H M H O C T B .  r o c y j j a p c T B e H H b i x dojibmnx H K a M e p H u x  apTHCT  C noaBjieHHeM KaK  caMOM  B O  K o r ^ a ByHiua c n p o c H J i y H e r o  OTBeTHJi  HTodti  MHHT  cede  TaKHM, o d p a 3 0 M ,  H  yMTH  HTO6H  MHJIOCJiaBCKHM  3HaTb.  JTOJIXHU  rpaHHii.y,  3a  yexaji  He  o  ^OKyMeHTOB,  Kynepa riaHTejiea. fl  Hauiero  6H^O  MHOTO  BH  "HHKOJiatt HBaHOBHH,  3ara,zr,OHHyK>  ceda  ByHiua caM  THMO$eeB Ha3tiBaeT e r o K H H 3 e M . THMocpeeBy/:  B  aBTopoM  xapaKxepHa.  ynpaBjron ByHiua n p e ^ C T a B J i n e T H3  qan  BbinncaHa  uapa  HoaHHa  RRK  B.  3aBajiHinHHa n b e c a  M O C K O B C K O T O  rpo3Horo  TeaTpa  npHKptiBaeT  "HBaH  caTHpti•  caTHpy  Ha  B  BacHjibeBHH nbece  coBeTCKyro  11  caTHpa BjiacTb  H  104 -  e e nopa^KH.  Bo  BTOPOM a K T e HoaH:' H THMocpeeB  B KOMHaTe THMOoJeeBa. MaHyTaa  onepe^HHM  THMOc|>eeBa,  od-  B KOHije B T O p o r o a K T a llInaK  THMocfeeB n b a H C T B y e T OTOT  3nH30,H  c fJHBuiHM  HsaHOM Tp03HHM  B CBOett K B a p T H p e .  lUnana c n n c a H  C06£TCKOE: jjeHcTBHTeJIBHOCTH H n o o T O M y  c  3aKyctiBaK)T  TOHe H CO CUeHH OHO, BepOHTHO,  CMeuiHee, neM n p n HTeHHH.  .HOHOCHT MHJIHUHH, HTO H H x e H e p  H  P a 3BHTHe j j e M c T B H a BO  - HKHHHM.  BTOPOM a K T e JiaHO B CaTHpHMeCKOM BHTJia^HT  3HHaH,n.a, x e n a  IIoaBJiaeTca  jnodoBHHKOM  TIBIOT Bo^uy  u;apeM  ^OHOCHTeJIbCTBa  pa.H,  KaK  3ajiK)HHTejibHiifl aKKopjj; a K T a .  B TpeTteM npejicTaBJiaroinaa  aKTe p a 3 b i r p H B a e T c a  CMecb  BHMHCJia c H C T o p H H e c K o f t n p a B ^ o M .  .ztaxe uiBeflCKHfl n o c o j i . CTaeT iJtapeM, H a j r e B a a HHM n p H d e r c T B e . H  rycffapu.  ntecu  KOMHaTe.  K me neMy  IloaBJiaeTca  u a p H n a Mapcjpa B a c H J i t e B H a , OPPHHHHKH  B odmeft H e p a 3 d e p n x e H MHJIHHHH.  KoHeu  "HBaH BacH.7ifc.eBHH" DTO dujr COH  KOTopuft padOTaeT Hajj; H 3 d p e T e H H e M  MOXHO BO3BpaTHTb  npouiJioe  annapaTa,  d u TO HedbiJio.  B CCCP OHa dbiJia  H e dbiJia H H r ^ e  ocTajiocb  B 1935 r o ^ y .  noTOMy,  H CTajiHHa,  odCTaHOBKH HH TOM o n o x n HH a p y r o f t .  KOMHaTe THMocJieeBa,  o nocTanoBKe nbecu  3anpemeHa  nocTaBJieHa?  rpo3Horo  n p n noMouiH  B Hamy o n o x y .  coxajieHHK) H e T T e a T p a j i b H t i x peu,eH3HM  3Ta nbeca  HHHTOxecTBO,  KaK npodyxjj;eHHe HHxeHepa THMo$eeBa B cBoefi  CBeji RBe o n o x H , H o a H H a H  - apTHCTHnecKoe  ynacTByeT  u a p c K H e o^eacjibi o c T a B J i e H H u e HoaHHOM T p o 3 -  OKasHBaeTca, B c a nbeca  THMOcpeeBa, KOToporo  MnjiocjiaBCKHft  ynacTByeT  H3odpaxeH,  CMexoTBopHaa KOMe^na,  no-  HTO e e cioxeT  He n o K a a a B  ycnoBHM  T o , HTO p a 3 H r p 6 ) B a j i o c b B  dti y 3 p H T e j i a  d e 3 BcaKHx  nojiHTHnec-  - 105 KHX  BUBonoB.  Tor,aa n o n e M y  GaTHpHnecKoe c  noJiHTHHecKott  H  e r o OKpyxeHHH.  npaBHTejieft TTeTpa  BeaHKoro.  CBoett  ynap HHe  KaK  ero  "fiBaH  - uapa  pa3.senaJI  CCGP?  r  npaBHTejiett  CCGP  nsyx  rpo3Horo  MeponpnaTHH.  na  H HMnepa-ropa ceda  IlosTOMy, MTodu  rpo3Horo,  neMapm  O T O T  - CTaJTHHa  pyccKHX  n o JiHTHKy H CHHTajr  HX  CTa^HHa  B  B a c H J i b e B H H " HanpQj|sjDT £tf0  HoaHHa  H H 3 d p a j i MBaHa  OTBeTOM  3anpemeHa  CTajiHH n o H H T a j i  rocynapcTBeHHbix  dajrHHy.  du/ia  BepxoBHX  HSBecTHO,  BpeMeHH  caTHpu ByjiraKOB no  OHa  nbcu  npoTHB  CTajiHH  HX  npoflonxaTejieM  ocTpne  C T O P O H H  ciaporo  xe  od'eKTOM  HaHecTH  dujio  sanpeme-  nbecu.  /  KpoMe HanpaBJieHO 3TOMy H  H  T O T O ,  B  aBjtaeTca  o HenocTatKax  caTHpHnecKoe ocTpne  dtiTOByio  cTopoHy  KpHTHKa  ByjiraKOBa  padotH  "HBaHa  coBeTCKoft  "xHJiKoonoB  o 11  BacHJibeBHHa"  SCH3HH.  Kpn3Hce  H P K H M  XCHJIHOIHOS  / X H H H U I H U X  npHMepoM  njiomnnH  KoonepaTHBOB/.  f  - 106 -  3AKJIOTEHHE H  COBeTGKafl KperiHJiH  K  K p H T H K a H HCTOpHKH COBeTCKOtl JiHTepaTypu  npn-  M- EyJlTAKOBA apjibiK KOHTp-peBOJiioqHOHepa, j i H T e -  J I H H H O C T H  paTypHoro  B H B O J  o T i i i e n e H u a H MajioBaxHyio  Ha  dbnrypy  apeHe  JiHTepaTypHofi  CCCP. Ha  TBopnecTBo  KOMMyHHMsscTHMecKHH n n a K a T peBoaroiiHOHHol  Ha 3pHTejiH  H:noJiHbix T O J I B K O  HajioxeHa  SyHTapa  H  "Bpe,zr,HO.  T J i a 3 a H yuiH p y c c K o r o noBa  nJioTHaa  BJiacTH  yxHmpeHHH  jiHTepaTypHoe  -  HaBemaH  6HJI  npenocTeperaroiiiHH  ... OnacHoi  ... IIpOTHBO-  . . . "  ycTa,  dbiJia  nHcaTejia  O T O T O  -  KaK  M. ByJirAKOBA,  HHTaTejia H T e a T p a j i B H o r o  3Ka  JIXH,  napTHfiHoro  dbi BbinepKHyTB  H O  onopoHHTB  H  H3  d)aHaTH3Ma  pyccKoft  X H 3 H H  noTOMCTBe  B  ero  HacjiencTBo.  Ka3a;iocB,  neficTBHTejiBHO  npoHHo  fiujia  y c T a H O B J i e H a H TBep—  no noKa3aHa KOHTp-peBOJiK>n.HOHHOCTB M. ByJirAKQBA, K O T o p u f t , yTBepxnajia  K  puraji H  JiHKa  C T & J I H H C K H X  K HOBOMy  HeHaBHCTH  CoJiBiiieBHTCKHe  ynpaBJieHHH H r p a 3 H u e  TaK  npoiiuio  M H O T O  C T H H J I H  O T  nop,  JiHTepaTypu,  -  B  KaK cBoeft  fjeuieHOfl CJIIOHOft H H 3 -  nopanKH,  HpaBH,  Boxneft  npneMu.  JieT.  IIpH3peHHbie o c T a H K H M&B30Jiea  nepxHMopn  CTpOIO POCCHH nJieBaJICH  x y j i y Ha  MynoBHmHyio  MeTonw  He  CTajiHHa,  e r o CTeHaMH.  BbiuiBepHyTbie H 3 j i e H H H C K o r o  3pa CTaJIHHa,  KaK  MpaMHP.fi  107  naMHTH  BpeMeR.'-  HcnaHCKof?  npe^caBHTejiHMH  .HaBHO Ka  -  Bcero  yMep  BceMorymHtt  THpaH  pyccKHM  npaBHtitt  H C T O P H H  -  cBoe  CKaxeT  penb  ce^aHHM  -  -  H  CKa3aHO  O T O CJIOBO  Mu  JJoBoJibHO'.  TpedyeM  H  npoTHBHH-  IIOMTH  de3-  EyJTTAKOB X H B H M  c'e3^0B,  H  nona,  MepTBUM  H  npojj;oJixaeT  3BynaTb  KOH(f)epeHHqHK,  H a noji^epxKy  TaK  cBodo^u T B o p n e c T B a  3a-  1 riHcaTejib,  nooT, My3UKaHT, HHKorjta H e dyj^yT  K O J i e H H 1 O H H He poxjjeHu,  MTodu n o ; i 3 a T b l  onpaBjraHHe  H  BejjeTCH c e t t n a c  HBJieHHaH  BOHHa TBOpneCKOft  THpaHKefi  H c DToro  PexHMy  e r o aHTHHapoJIHHX  - HHrjj;e  H  HHHorzta  nocTBJieHM H a  Henero  pacMHTH>-  MeponpHHTHft!  o$(l)Hii.HajibHO  Heod-  H H T e J I J I H r e H U H H C KOMMyHHCTHHeCKOM  KpoBaBoro  B e e name H name  $poHTa  cjiumaTCH  nodejiH.  ElHcaTejiH, maicniiero XH3Hb rpoMKo  cy^tn  . . . CKa3aH0  Kasc^uM Mac c T p n d y H H  xyjj;oxHHK, a p T H C T ,  3ByKH  aHTHKOMMyHHCT MnxanJi  D T H  H codpaHHH:  -  BaTb  de33amHTHHH  H  6e3npHCTpacHeftuiHM  O T O T  ero.  ^ o j i r o xjjajiH jtBa  CTaJIHH  HOCH$  nepe^osuMH  C J I O B O .  GeMnac Kaxfluft  ByjiraKOB.  nncaTejib  HaKOHeu;,  o c y x j i a e T C H BceMH  H H K B H 3 H U ; H H ,  H e j i o B e n e c T B a H B C C C P H BHe  M.  H  _  3aHBHJIH  nOKOHMHTb  nonyBCTBOBaB  coBeTCKoro  nejioBeKa  o cBoeM ejHHO^yuiHOM  C jyXOBHUM  JieT n p e d t i B a e T  jiyHOBeHHe  P O C C H H .  padCTBOM,  cBexero  B03.ayxa,  O T KOMMyHHCTKHecKoro H  TBepj^oM  B KOTOpOM  HaMepeHHH  O M H -  cMpa,na, HaBcer^a  BOT yx C K O p O nHTb^eCj|T  - 108 JI,ocTaTOMHO BCITOMHHTB H H a s B a T b iiHHa,  E. EBTymeHKO,  aBTopa  B. T a p c H c a .  - " r i a j i a T a Ho.7" HaHecJia  KOToporo  OH B p a n  B cBeTe pacKpenomeHHH M. B y j i r a K O B a HHOH a p o M a T  B. n a c T e p H a K a . A. C o j r a e H H -  CTpauiHan n o B e c T b  KOMMVHH3My CTpauiHbift y j i a p , OT  JIH Korjj;a H H d y n b  Boodmie o n p a B H T C f l .  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He n p o T H B BJiacTH  dopoJiCH  H Jio3yHTH,  PeBOJiwiiHH H He 3 a cBepsceHne jnodofl  OH n e p o M  KOTopue  3aKOHHoM  H CJIOBOM, HO 3 a T e peBOJiroiiHOHHbie vipew.  dbiJiH yKpaneHbi y POCCHH B p e 3 y j i b T a T e  aHTH—  HapCHHOH OKTHdpbCKOfi K O M M y H H CTHHeCKOft PeBOJIKUHH , KOTOpaH no  c e d e HBjinjiacb  He n p o T H B dopoJiCH  M.  caMa  ysce KOHTp-peBOJiioiiHett.  ycTaHOBJieHHH  ByjiraKOB,  HopMaMH H n o p a n K a M H  HO n p o T H B eroHapona  HOBHX HOPM H n o p a n K O B  nncaji H  nopadomeHHH OTHMH "HOBHMH" H crpaHH,  JioHJibHeKiuHM  rpasc,iraHH-  HOM KOTOPOH OH dblJI BCK CBOK) 3CH3Hb.  HacTynHjio HMeHaMH.  BpeMH,  Kor.ua BeuiH .HOJIXHH dbiTb H a 3 B a H H CBOHMH  - 109 PyccKHtt c  nncaTejiH nopy B  Hapojj; H H K o r j j a  THpaHOM,  pyKax  onoxn,  Kor^a  ace nncaTejiH d t i J i a e r o Hyxa,  6 O ^ H O T O  HeT  KOToporo  He  H  3KH3Hb  H  noDTOMy He  ero  CTpaHti  B  HyacaaeTCH  nyrajio  M.  THpaHOB,  H  Menb  -  M T O  O H  Kor.ua "OH  FoBopn  npn  P O C C H H  CTaHeT  ynoMHHyJiH pacKpHTHH BOpHM 0 6  H M H  o  yMep  HOBOM  acH3HH,  3a  pyKax  THpaHa, C B O -  KaHjiajiH.  nncaTejiH H nejioBeKa.  nejioBeHa,  o  joporn  KOMy  HHKorjja  He  6HJI  CBo6ojra  ocyacaeH  DTO O^HO  "BypeBecTHHHe".  CHJiaMH Hapo.ua  C T p O K e H CJIOBe HeHCTOBOrO H M  CBOM  npopoMecKHfl  npn-  CTpaiUHOft  cpaaceHHbitt H e n p a B ^ o H , H O B O  naji,  CJIHUJHTCH  CBO6O,HHO8,  Hee,  H  OHa  H  ero  ByjiraKOBa noBecTH.  noBecTb ^JIH  T O  o M.  H H K O  njiefljj;e n K c a T e j i e M  B. Tapcnca  3HaMeHHH M. OTOft  B  pyccnoro  B 0 3Me3.nHfl, KaparouiHft  ByjiraKOBa  co3,naji  PoccneM,  scan  MpanHyio  THpaHaM1"  "CMepTb  B y p e B e c T H H K M. BceM,  caMyio  CHJiy  B  Kan  - T o p b K H H H3peK  SypeBecTHHK  B  pea6HJiHTauHH.  Korjj;a-TO  H  6HJIH  noe^HHKa  3ano3,aajioH H JinueMepHoK  ByjiraKOB  HyHHJICH HM B KaaCHOM n p O H 3 B e ^ e H H H ,  roBop  Bepa  ByjiraKOBa,  H a p o j t a M.  H  P O C C H H  maHCH  TBepj;aa  naac^oro p y c c K o r o  TopEKHH nucaji  MaKCHMa.  B  Hyxc^H jj;aace oacn^aTb KaKoM-TO  B co3HaHHH  M.  Bee  cTpauiHoro  T O T O  yjiepacaT. HHKaKHe  ocp$HUiHajibHott pea6HJiHTaij;HH  CJIOBO  pa3tirpa/icH  K O T O P H H  doJituieBH^TCKoM  3a6y.neT  He  H  r,na  ace  -  "rH6ejib  ByjiraKOBe e r o He  nooTOB  "najiaTa  THpaH aM  cKaacyT*.  -  3a6yjieT".  - 6yHTapeft,  Ho.7".  pyccKoft jiHTepaTypbi,  B  M H  qejinx noro-  1"  - 110 BOT  HTO  irameT o "IlajiaTe Ho. 7"  3anHCKH" T a 3 e T a HoBoe PyccKoe  CJIOBO  B . CaMapHH O T  /JlHTepaTypHtie  25-ro Anpejia  1965  ro^a/:  " n a ^ a T a Ho.7" - aBTodHorpac£>HHecKaH n o B e c T t . Pepoft ee B a j i e H T H H A j i M a s o B / B . T a p c H c / n o c a x e H B cyMacuie,B,niHM nou 3a n e p e CHJiKylcBOHX p y K o n n c e K 3a rpaHHny, H O O H BepHT, H T O B t i p B e T C H Ha cBodojj;y. CTpauiHO B cyMacmejraieM jroMe 3,nopoBOMy n e j i o B e K y , HO CTpauiHO B n e p B y i o H O H B . H c n a c e H H e JIHUI T O J I B K O B dOJIbfflHX, n p O C T O p H U X , B0 3BHIIieHHHX~ MHCJIHX.  ocodeHB  O ^ H O M  -  MHCJIH . . . HO K T O - T O C K a 3 a J I , HTO H a H a T b ^ y M a T b , 3HaHHT HanaTb M H P . A p a 3 B e S T O J i e r K o — HeHaBH,n,eTb,pou B K O T O P O M T H KHBeui? H B O T n e p B a n y T e u i H T e j i b H a a M H C J I B : B e ^ b pou, B K O T P O M T H xHBeui, - He Becb M H p H ecjiH oy,n.bda T e d n 3adpoCHJia B 3TO JIOTOBO KOMMyHHCTHHeCKHX 3 J I O ^ e e B , TO B e j b O H a MoxeT H c n a c T H T e d n . T H Be^b 3Haem, H T O y T e d n ecTb H p y s b H B O BceM M H p e , O H H ^yMajoT o T e d e , I H J I I O T T e d e ^ o d p t i e c JioBa. BajiepHft TapcHc nnmeT He o n p o n u i O M , He o n p e c T y n j i e H H H x "nyjibTa J I H H H O C T H " . 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KepTBbi,  KaK  cppoHTa, e c j i H d u KaKoM  HneojiorHH  HfiKOMneTeHTHOH  c de3ycJiOBHoM  dneHHe  H napTHHHoft  MeJioBeMecTBa n o p y K a M  c M. B y j i r a K O B U M ,  noJixeH  nopuB,  oKpHKa  -  Baxa, M o n a p T a , M a M K O B C K o r o , P y d e H -  KyJIBTypHOro  K O M H T E T , KaKoS  C H H H .  cBodonu.  KJiaBnma  H  ^ocToeBCKoro  CBH3aji  OT  K H C T H  nHKTaTa, nojiHueHcKoro  MHKejiB  dyjjB  cnoBa,  BbirJianejiH d u TBopeHHH  xaJiKO  ycjioBHH  TBopMecKHH  M H C J I B ,  TOJIBKO  J i H T e p a T y p u H ee' n p o r p e c c  TBopMecTBo, pa3BHTHe  TOJIBKO  C H T B  He H a n p a c H H .  B dopBde  c  Ha P O C C H H ,  OHa  pyccKoM  noHBe,  ynoclpeHHOH  pacuBeTeT  nHiuHtiM  iiBeTOM  6yfleT  EH  O,HHOH  H 3 jiynrnHx  6h\Ji BepeH  B  cJie3aMH  H  KPOBBK)  HOBaa c B O f j o n H a a K y j i b T y p a  Mnpe.  B C K X H 3 H B  HaponoB  MnxaHJi  ByjiraKOB.  H. B. rAJTMMEHKO  H  -  113 -  APPENDIX  IA  -  K o k c T p y K i i H H poMaHa H  ByjiraKOB  nbecy  2A  -  "JHH  rto noBony  "Bejian  yjiyHiiiHJi "Bejiyio  TBap^HK)", nepenejiaB  3H6KOH,  ero Ha  TypdHHbix".  OTcyTCTBHH  TeKCTa n b e c b i  aHajiH3 n b e c b i He c j i e n y e T . BaxHHX  T B a p ^ H H " dHJia H e M H o r o  CTaTtH  nOHCHHT£/IbHHM  od  D T O M  3aMeTKaM  "BarpoBuft  O C T P O B " ,  BuiecTO H e r o npHBe^eHbi  cneKTaKjie.  OdpaTHTecb  HCTOMHHKOB H o . . l 3 j l ^ &  K  15.  Tpn  - Ilk FOOTNOTES 1  A. Tolstoy, Sochirtenia (with an introduction by V.R. Scherbina) volume I . Moscow. GIZ, 1 9 5 3 .  2  K.Fedin, Sovremenniki (chapter on "Analysis of Khozhdeniye po Mukam' ) volume VI, Moscow, GIZ, 1951+  3  B. Brainina, Valentin Katayev. Moscow, GIZ, i 9 6 0 , p.88  h  A.Rumiantsev, "The Party and the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " . Pravda, Moscow, February 2 1 , 1965.  5  M. Bulgakov, The Fatal Eggs and Other S t o r i e s . Riga, Literature, 1928.  6  D.S.Mirsky, Contemporary Russian Literature ( 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 2 5 ) , New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1926.  7  Andrei Sedykh, "At the Premiere of 'Dead Souls'". Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York. February 6, 1 9 & 5 .  8  E. Grot, "Analysis of 'Dead Souls'". Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York, February 1 5 > 1965.  9  N. Gorchakov, The History of Soviet Theatre. New York, Chekhov Publishing House, 1956, pp.13^-135.  1  10  V. Kaverin, "Zametki ol Dramaturgii Bulgakova". Theatre Monthly'Journal No.10, Moscow. "Iskusstvo", October, 1956, p.73.  11  Ibid, p.73  12  A.Askoldov, "Vosem Snov". Theatre Monthly Journal No.8 Moscow, "Iskusstvo", August 1 9 5 7 , 1 ^ . 6 3 .  13  Moscow Kamerny Theatre, "commentary on a rate performance of 'Bagrovy Ostrov'"  ih \A.Y.Tairov, "Documentary on "Bagrovjy Ostrov" (performance ** ^KN> as above. 15 I.Bachelis, " 0 Belykh Arapakh i Krasnykh Tuzemtsakh" 16  M. Bulgakov, Moliere. (an autobiography o f ) , Moscow, "Iskusstvo," 1933. PP.228-229  17  o p . c i t . V.Kaverin, "Zametki..", Theatre Monthly Journal, No.10 p.20  18  M. Bulgakov, Plays. Moscow, "Isskusstvo, 1962, pp.*f 78-^-80  -  115  -  19  Ibid.  20  V.Zavalishin, "The Plavs of M.Bulgakov". Novoe Russkoye Slovo, New York, J a n u a r y ' 1 3 , 1 9 & 5 .  21  Tarsis V. "Palata No.7" (introductory comments by V.Samarin) Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York, A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 6 5 .  22  Ibid,  (introductory comments by K. Pomerantsev.) In a separate a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Gefsimanskava Noch"  - 116 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Brainina, B., Valentin Katayev, Moscow, GIZ, i 9 6 0 . Bulgakov M, The Fatal Eggs and Other Stories. Riga, "Literature 1928.  C o l l e c t i o n of Stories, New York, Chekhov Publishin House, 1 9 5 2 . Moliere(an autogiography  o f ) , Moscow, "Iskusstvo",  1933.  gPlays. Moscow, "Iskusstvo", 1 9 6 2 . The White Guard (a novel) Paris,"Concorde" 1 9 2 7 . Fedin K. Sovremenniki (chapter on "Analysis of Khozhdeniye no Mukam") volume VI, Moscow, GIZ 1 9 5 ^ . :  Gorchakov, N. The History of Soviet Theatre. New York, Chekhov, Publishing House, 1 9 5 6 . Theatre i n Soviet Russia. New York, Columbia University, Press, 1 9 5 7 . Mirsky D.S., Contemporary Russian Literature ( 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 2 5 ) New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1 9 2 6 . Reshetar John, S. J r . , The Ukrainian Revolution (1917-1920) Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Press 1 9 5 2 . S t a l i n I.V. Sochinenia. Volume I I , ("A Reply to B i l l Belotserkovskv" of March 1 9 2 9 ) , Moscow, GIZ P o l i t l i t , 19^9.  Struve Gleb, Twenty Five Years of Soviet Russian L i t e r a t u r e. (1918-19^3)? ed.London. George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 19k6. n  e  w  Tolstoy A. Sochinenia. Volume I, (Introduction by V.R. Scherbina), Moscow, GIZ 1 9 5 3 . Z a v a l i s h i n V. Early Soviet Writers. New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1 9 5 8 .  - 117  -  Periodicals Askoldov A. "Vosem Snov". Theatre Monthly Journal No.8, Moscow, "Iskusstvo", August 1 9 5 7 . Grot E., "Analysis of 'Dead Souls'". Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York, February 1 5 , 1 9 ° 5 . Kaverin V. "Zametki of Dramaturgii Bulgakova". Theatre Monthly Journal No.10, Moscow, "Iskusstvo", October 1 9 5 6 . Mayakovsky V. "Mavakovskv and Soviet L i t e r a t u r e " . A r t i c l e s from "Nauka", Moscow 196k, pp.32^-325. Rumiantsev A. "The Party and the I n t e l l i g e n t s i a " . Pravda, Moscow, February 2 1 , 1 9 6 5 * Sedykh Andrei, "At the Premiere of 'Dead Souls', Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York, February 6 , 1 9 6 5 . Tarsis V. "Palata No.7". (comments by K. Pomerantsev and V. Samarin), Novoye Russkoy Slovo. New York, A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 6 5 . (Pomerantsev comments i n "Gefsimanskaya Noch") Zavalishin V. "The Plays of M.Bulgakov". Novoye Russkoye Slovo, New York, January 1 3 , 1 9 6 5 . The following source on M.Bulgakov's "Bagrovy Ostrov" are unavailable to t h i s date i n the U.B.C. Library and were consulted from Manuscript Copies. For t h i s reason they appear i n an incomplete Bibliographical form: Bachelis I. " 0 Belykh Arapakhi i Krasnykh Tuzemtsokh" Moscow Kamerny Theatre "commentary on a rare performance "Bagrovy Ostrov". Tairov A.Y. "Documentary on (the same performance Ostrov.)  of  of Bagrovy  The following sources on Bulgakov were not consulted but are l i s t e d i n the order of t h e i r appearance i n the Bibliogrpahy to P i s a t e l i Sovremennoy Epokhi, Moscow, Akademia Nauk, 1 9 2 8 : Bulgakov M. "D'tavoliada"(collected stories) Moscow,"Nedra", 1 9 2 5 . Pereverzev V. "Novinki B e l l e t r i s t i k i " . pechat' i Revolutsiz, book No.5, Moscow, 192*+.  -  118  -  Lirov M. Noviy Mir, book No.6,Moscow, 1 9 2 5 . P e c h a t i Revolutsia, book 5 and 6, Moscow, 1 9 2 5 . 1  Pravdukhin V. Krasnaya Nov , book No.3, Moscow, 1 9 2 1  Osinsky N. "Literatufnye Zametki", Pravda No.170 Moscow, July 28, 1 9 2 5 . Lunecharsky A. "Dnl Turbinvknl'. Krasnaya Gazeta No.234-, Moscow, October 5 , 1 9 2 6 . Mustangova, Pechat'i Revolutsia, book No.3, Moscow, 1 9 2 7 .  


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