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Characteristics of the multi-problem family : a study of child care, crime, juvenile delinquency and… Carlile, Collin 1966

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CHARACTERISTICS OF T H E M U L T ! P R O B L E M FAMILY A Study of Child Care, Crime, Juvenile Delinquency and Economic Dependency as Related to Family Functioning in the Multi-Problem Family. by Collin Carlile J ohn • R. Cushni e [R oy -Fanjg Kenneth J . Pauli H elen A . Ruckle Ailsa Walker Arthur A . Veroba Thesis Submitted in Partial Fullment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required' for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1966 The University of British Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in- p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a in s h a l l not.be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. School of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ^ ^ ^ ^ A/66 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. School of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. i v A B S T R A C T " F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d With C r i m e and Juvenile Delinquency, E c o n o m i c Dependency, and Inadequate C h i l d C a r e In: M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s " . A thesis presented by C o l l i n C a r l i l e , John Gushnie, Roy Fong,, Kenneth P a u l i , Helen.Ruckle, A i l s a Walker and A r t h u r V e r o b a . The purpose of this study was to explore a s s o c i a t i o n s between the f a c t o r s of c h i l d c a r e , c r i m e and:juvenile delinquency, and economic dependency, and s e l e c t e d f a m i l y functioning v a r i a b l e s . T hese f a m i l y functioning variables, were chosen f r o m the scale u t i l i z e d by G e i s m a r -A y r e s i n the St. P a u l Study on M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s . Simple random sampling was used to select 100 cases f r o m a group of 250 cases p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d and i n use by the V ancouver A r e a Development P r o j e c t . The source m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d of A r e a Develop-ment P r o j e c t case p r o f i l e s and s c o r e sheets, and s e l e c t e d case f i l e m a t e r i a l . The c o l l e c t e d data was s o r t e d and tabulated i n such a manner as to allow c o m p a r i s o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n between the s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s . . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the ratings used was a s s u m e d as a l l data was p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d by V a n c o u v e r A r e a Development P r o j e c t Staff who had been t r a i n e d i n u t i l i z i n g the r a t i n g s c a l e . T h i s study was an " e x - p o s t - f a c t o f ; s u r v e y and t h e r e f o r e was not 1 intended to n e c e s s a r i l y delineate any complex e t i o l o g i c a l patterns. No f a c t o r s were found to be highly a s s o c i a t e d with any of the f a m i l y functioning, v a r i a b l e s though s e v e r a l incidents of moderate a s s o c i a t i o n w e r e f o u n d . The f a m i l y functioning factor most c l o s e l y associated, with economic dependency was the absence of one parent f r o m the home. The factor most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with inadequate c h i l d c a r e was the inadeq-uate behaviour of the mother. The factor most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with delinquency and c r i m e was inadequacy i n the behaviour, of the mother and . inadequacy i n m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The m a j o r significant findings of this study would seem to indicate that it has f u l f i l l e d i t s purpose by u n d e r l i n i n g the need f o r f u r t h e r studies of f a m i l y functioning v a r i a b l e s within the context of m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . Such future studies would n e c e s s a r i l y be i n t e n s i f i e d both i n depth and'focus. •'• ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would:like to extend our sincere appreciation to all those who contributed to this study. The information and data provided by the Vancouver Area Development Project staff.made -the completion of this study possible* Of particular note, we would like to thank Miss Beverly Ayres andiMrs. E. Keyes for theiri interest and co-operation. Special gratitude is extended to Dr. John Crane of the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia whose encouragement, c r i t i c i s m and suggestions were invaluable. T A B L E OF CONTENTS Chapter I. Problem Formulation The development of the concept of the multi-problem family. Definition of the multi-problem family. The theoretical framework. Previous research in child care, crime and juvenile delinquency and economic dependency. Outline of the research report . . 1 Chapter II. Research Design and Methodology The hypotheses and assumptions of child care, crime and juvenile delinquency and economic dependency. The level of research design. Sampling procedures. Methods of gathering data for the child care, crime and juvenile delinquency and economic dependency sections ~ . 30 Chapter III. Data Analysis and Findings Introduction. Analysis of data for child care, crime, juvenile delinquency and economic dependency. Common findings of the three sections . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 Chapter IV. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions in child care, crime, jufeenile delinquency and economic dependency. Implications of findings for practitioners, policy ^ makers, clients and researchers 104 Appendices: A. Definitions of Family Functioning Variables . . . . . . .114 B. Bibliography . . . . .118 Tables: Tabfee I Child Care as Related to Marital Relation-ships and Sibling Relationships . . . . . . . . . 60 Table II Child Care as Related to Family Solidarity and the Behaviour of the Father . . 60 Table III Child Care as Related to the Behaviour of the Mother and Older Children . 61 Table IV Child Care as Related to the Behaviour of Younger Children and Informal Social A s s o c i -ations 61 v i i Table V Child Care as Related to Formal Social Associations and Sources of Income . . . . . 62 Table VI Child Care as Related to the Job Situation and Use of Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table VII Child Care as Related to Household Physical Fac i l i t i e s and Housekeeping Practices . . . . 63 Table VIII Child Care as-Related to Health Problems and Health Practices . . . . . . 63 Table IX Child Care as Related to the Use of School and Church Resources *. . . .: . 64 Table X Child Care as Related to the Use of Health Resources and Social Agencies . . . . . . . . 64 Table XI Child Care as Related to the Use of Recreat-ional Resources . .. • . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Table XII Differences in Family Relationships between, Families Whose Parents had Crim i n a l Records and Families Whose Parents had no Crim|iial Records 65 Table XIII Differences in Individual Behaviour between Families Whose Parents had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents had no Criminal Records 68 Table XIV Differences in Care and Training of Children between Families Whose Parents had Crim i n a l Records and Families Whose Parents had no Crimi n a l Records 70 Table XV Differences in Social Activities between Families Whose Parents had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents had no Criminal Records . . . 71 Table XVI Differences in Economic Practices between Families Whose Parents had Criminal Records and Families whose Parents had no Cr i m i n a l Records . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 v i i i T , 1 J Table XVII Differences in Household Practices between Families Whose Parents had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents had no Crim i n a l Records ......... 74 Table XVIIIDifferences in Health Practices between Families iWhose Parents had Crim i n a l Records and FamilieajkWhose Parents had no Cri m i n a l Records 7$ Table XIX Differences in Use of Community Resources between Families Whose Parents had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents had no Crim i n a l Records . . . 76 Table XX Differences in Family Relationships in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children 76 Table XXIci;Differences in Family,Relationships in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children . 76 Table XXII Differences in Individual Behaviour in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinqtient Children 80 Table XXIII Differences in Care and Training, of Children in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children 81 Table XIV Differences in Social Activities in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children . . 83 Table XV Differences in Economic Practices in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Table XVI Differences in Household Practices in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Table XVII Differences in Health Practices in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children . . 87 Table XVIII Differences in Use of Community Resources in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children 88 ix Table XIX ••• Comparison of Crime Among Parents with Delinquency in Children . . . . . . . . . 89 Table XXX Comparison of Psychiatric Problems Among Parents with Delinquency in Children . . . . • . . . . . . . • • • • • . 90 Table XXXI Reason:: for F i r s t Agency Contact by Three Levels of Economic Chronicity . . . 93 Table XXXII Differences in Age of Families as shown in Three Levels of Economic Chronicity . . 94 Table XXXIII Differences in Size of Family by Three Levels of Economic Chronicity . ....... 95 Table XXXIV Differences in the Number of Parents in the Hqme by Three Levels of Economic Chronicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 I Table X X X V Differences in Three Family Functioning Factors by Three Levels of Economic Chronicity 97 . Table XXXVI Further Differences in Three Family Functioning Factors by Three Levels of Economic Chronicity 97 CHARACTERISTICS OF T H E MULTI P R O B L E M FAMILY A Study of Child Care, Crime, Juvenile Delinquency and Economic Dependency as Related to Family Functioning in the Multi-Problem Family. C H A P T E R I A. THE SOCIAL WORK P R O B L E M 1. Development of the Concept of the MultIL*Problem Family The concept of the multi-problem family has developed specifically out of the family's inability to function adequately i n its environment. E a r l i e r students of the p r o b l e m i n G r e a t Britian thought in terms of a "social problem group" rather than specific families. It was the sub- normality of intelligence that was seen as the main factor contributing to the economic dependency of this group. During the last decade in Great Britian emphasis has shifted from the intelligence factor to the personality factor. The inability of the multi-problem family to cope with its environment is now attributed to the "immature emotional development" of one or both of the spouses. Psychological and sociological studies of the multi-problem family have been noticeably rare, and in general the social sciences have failed to deal with individuals in the framework of the family group. In the United States, there have been,important development over the past die£afLe,i^6rri.:a5 f k i r l y -simple .to a more sophisticated conceptual level'. "In 195 2, criteria used for identifying multi-problem families focused on number and chronicity of problems in certain defined areas: chronic economic dependency, i l l health and maladjustment. The evidence of two or three of the problems was considered sufficientto characterize the family as multi-problem. " ( 9, P. 26) - 2 -In the St. P a u l Study the focus shifted to the " l e v e l of functioning" of the f a m i l y which involved measurement of two c r i t e r i a : (a) the ; r o l e performance of the members of the f a m i l y , and (b) the l e v e l of s o c i a l functioning; i n the family. With the San Mateo Study, a further shift i n emphasis developed. ., The focus turned to the problem area of maladjustment. Multi-problem f a m i l i e s were char a c t e r i z e d as pathological, and attention focused on the degree of pathology found; in, the f a m i l y . The question a r i s e s as to the value of a concept w h i c h i s so broad and comprehensive i n character that i t has come to include a heterogeneous collection of types of family. At times i t i s used to indicate any f a m i l y with problems so severe that i t r e s i s t s a l l efforts made towards its rehabilitation. It does not include the r i c h multi-problem f a m i l y . Its main value appears to have been l e s s as an incentive to greater _ sophistication i n f a m i l y diagnosis than as a.spur to more c r i t i c a l thinking about the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , their co-ordintation, integration and planning. Both i n Great B r i t i a n and North A m e r i c a , although in different ways, the past decade has seen a variety of p r o j e c t s s t u d i e s , and f r e s h approaches to treatment. 2. Definition of the M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l y The multi-problem f a m i l y i s much easier to describe than;to define. A number of descriptive terms have been used to describe the seriously disorganized family. They include hard-core, s o c i a l l y delinquent, deprived, d i s t r u s t f u l , hard-to-reach, and others. , The t e r m "multi-problem f a m i l y " , more widely used than the others, poses some problems of its own with - 3 -regard to definition because it refers to problems rathern than specific traits. The expression "multi-problem family" was f i r s t proposed as a descriptive term for the seriously disorganized families in the St. Paul Study of 1948. The term was used by the survey team for this study, the Family Unit Report Study. In this survey the term was used to designate families with serious problems in more than one of the following areas: social adjustment, health, economic behaviour, and recreational needs. The serious difficulty with this definition is its vagueness. In the Family Unit Report Study, a problem was a pathological condition which needed treatment. Also the four areas designated are so brpa'd that a breakdown in only one of the areas might result in a serious impairment of the family's capacity rto function as a unit. The Family Centred Project of St. Paul, one of the outgrowths of the Family Unit Report Study^ concentrated much of its research work upon an effort to develop a conceptual foundation.for studying the nature of, and the giving o l service to, the multi-problem family. (The definition of the multi-problem family developed in the St. Paul Study, was refined in the New Haven Neighbourhood Improvement Project.) The term "multi-problem family", as used in the book Understanding  th e Multi - Problem F am ily by L. L. Geismar and Michael A. LaSorte, denotes a, family, with disorganized social functioning of an order that adversely affects the following sets of behaviour: (1) relationships m 4 -inside the family, (2) relationships outside the family group, and ( 3) the performance of tasks such as those concerned with health, economic and household practices that are designed'to maintain the family as a physical unit. The value of this definition, according to the authors lies in the relatedness of the definition'to social practice and its potential for measurement. The adequacy of a concept can be judged only in relation to its uses. The chief purpose here was searching for a method leading to early detection of -multi -problem behaviour. However, for purpose of both the St. Paul and Vancouver studies, and with recognition of the limitations in the data-gathering process, a crude but operational definition of multi-problem< family was decided upon. ( This definition was a modification of that used by;the 1948 St. Paul Family Unit Report Study.) A multi-problem family was defined in both the St. Paul and Vancouver surveys as one with one or more children under the age of eighteen which,is characterized by (1) serious: behaviour disorders as evidenced by verified neglect, delinquency, metal disorders, emotional disturbance, severe conflicts in interpersonal relations and the like, and (2) problems in one or both of the following areas: economic functioning which included continuous or intermittent relief, or public assistance, excessive debts, problems around money, management, and health functioning, particularly a serious health ciondition in adults and children. 3. Social Work Practice Ramifications: of the Multi-Problem Family The rapidly increasing incidence of disordered and delinquent - 5 -behavior inmany areas throughout the country has focus sed the attention of agencies on the need to bring help to the socially disorganized family or now commonly called the multi-problem family, whobe members are contributing so heavily to community problems. The multi-problem family can be described as having more than its share of physical and emotional problems, a long history- of financial dependency, poor housing, a frequently, changing family unit, heavy incidence of mental retardation or illness, and a pattern of behaviour that is often violent and in conflict with accepted social standards. This type of family tends to perpetuate its problems and thus increases the community's burden and deprives society,of useful human resources. The community has a responsibility to interrupt the cycle of social . deterioration by bringing together a l l its forces in planning ways and means of reaching these families and staying with them until some level of stability has been achieved. B oth the New York and St. Paul projects used a combination of local agencies working together to consolidate the services to the families chosen for the project. Research helped the agencies working with,the families to know what was best for that family. Close: co-operation was required between the agencies involved so that every necessary service was supplied when needed. In- the Vancouver study, the ainv is to provide an integrated program of intensive casework, group work, health and community organization under one administration. The co-operation of the agencies involved was - 6 -essential as one worker would be assigned to co-ordinate the v a r i e d services required for the f a m i l y . Social workers were provided to work f u l l - t i m e one the project f a m i l i e s , thus keeping the case-load s m a l l enough for effective treatment. A l l s o c i a l work with disorganized f a m i l i e s must have defined minimum standards of s o c i a l functioning. These provide the basis for accepting f a m i l i e s f o r s e r v i c e , f o r making a s o c i a l diagnosis, for casework planning, and for closing a case. The casework involved must be f a m i l y oriented, that i s , the f a m i l y must be viewed as an interacting group and individual problems of members treated as affecting a l l members of the f a m i l y . The caseworkers must be w e l l trained i n f a m i l y treatment concepts and be prepared to undertake such demanding, time-consuming work. B . THE P R O B L E M fcOR R E S E & R C H 1. . Research Ramification of the M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l y Having defined the cotocept of the "multi-problem f a m i l y " , one may be faced with the matter of delineating its s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In other words, what do f a m i l i e s so c l a s s i f i e d have i n common i n terms of the r o l e performance of its individual members. The findings of two previous studies c a r r i e d out by the Community Services Society of New Y o r k and the St.. P a u l F a m i l y Centred P r o j e c t tend to show some consistency i n the nature of the multi-problem fa m i l y . Complementary stuclies are required to determine whether these findings w i l l withstand repeated scrutiny. Once the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e id e n t i f i e d , manypother ar e a s are open to study. E x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h can be c a r r i e d out to d i s c o v e r the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between :the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i a l functioning, and p a r t i c u l a r l y between these and such daviant kinds of behaviour as c h i l d neglect, c r i m e , c h r o n i c e c o n o m i c dependency, a l c o h o l i s m , truancy, delinquency and many others. A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h suggestions have been made by the St.. P a u l F a m i l y , C e n t r e d l P r o j e c t . F i r s t l y , what a r e the v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with f a m i l y functioning or malfunctioning, of the s t r u c t u r a l l y , incomplete or "broken f a m i l y " and of the s t r u c t u r a l l y complete home ? Secondly, what makes the s t r u c t u r a l l y incomplete, or f o r that matter, the s t r u c t u r a l l y complete family, p a r t i c u l a r l y subject to s o c i a l o r p e r s o n a l malfunctioning? A t present, the r e s e a r c h staff of the Vancouver A r e a ; D e v e l o p m e n t ; P r o j e c t has outlined four a r e a s f o r t h e i r own, inves t i g a t i o n . . T h e s e a r e : a. Study of changes i n f a m i l y functioning to a s s e s s the impact of s p e c i a l treatment s e r v i c e s being o f f e r e d . A follow-up study c o u l d be made to find out which combination of f a c t o r s a r e connected with p o s i t i v e o r negative outcome of treatment. b. Study of treatment methods employed with a .view to r e l a t i n g these to changes i n f a m i l y functioning. Other a r e a s f o r future r e s e a r c h with,respect t o treatement s e r v i c e s included-the Neighbourhood Development S e r v i c e s and the " u s u a l " agencies being p r o v i d e d to the two corfcrol groups of m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s by other s o c i a l welfare agencies; i n the r e g u l a r fashion. A s it i s one of the m a j o r goals of the p r o j e c t to determine the - 8 -r e l a t i v e effectiveness of integrated welfare s e r v i c e s , r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d towards a c o m p a r i s o n of r e s u l t s i n treatment and c o n t r o l groups w i l l follow. c. Study of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes brought about by the p r o j e c t . The a i m to to study the community o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n br i n g i n g about the s u c c e s s f u l c ompletion of the P r o j e c t so that s i m i l a r treatement p r o j e c t s can be esta b l i s h e d elsewhere with the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y . The Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a has submitted a r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l f o r study of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes to the Canadian C o u n c i l on Ur b a n and R e g i o n a l R e s e a r c h and it i s expected that the C o u n c i l w i l l finance the r e s e a r c h undertaking . d. Study i n depth of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . O r i g i n a l l y the r e s e a r c h staff's p r o p o s a l was worded in this way: "It i s pro p o s e d i n this study to undertake s y s t e m a t i c i n q u i r i e s into the b i o l o g i c a l .psycMataie.,. ^pByoholog jcf t l l , economic, and s o c i a l f a c t o r s which may or may not be a s s o c i a t e d with m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . " However, after c o n s i d e r a b l e thought and consultation with experts i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , the P r o j e c t decided to l i m i t its scope to the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i n view of the i m m e n s i t y of the p r o b l e m s inv o l v e d . . The pre s e n t focus; i s to determine the e a r l y trndividual and f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with c h r o n i c economic dependency with a view to p r o v i d i n g some means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n the e a r l y stages of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . Such a study could be followed by other e x p l o r a t o r y studies to d i s c o v e r e a r l y f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with c r i m e , delinquency, a l c o h o l i s m , and other f o r m s of deviance. 2. Questions P o s e d f o r Study a. How do the special factors of economic dependency, crime and juvenile delinquency and physical and emotional care and training of children significantly correlate with other specified areas of family functioning ? b. Are the correlations identified in this study significantly similar to the like correlations of other studies on family functioning? c. Are the compared correlations significant in isolating diagnostic factors for early identification of family functioning? 3 . Aspects to be Investigated Three main aspects of family functioning, namely, economic dependenc crime and juvenile delinquency, and the physical and emotional care and training of children, were chosen for study. These aspects were chosen for the following reasons: a. The Area Development Project staff requested that these three areas be studied as the comprehensive study of all research aspects is beyond the resources of the present A.D. P. staff. b. The available data from the Area Development Project fully covers these three aspects. c. The members of this study project see these three areas as being significantly important and inter-related with.family functioning. This seems to be borne out in ot^ fe-sr studies of a similar nature* There is also general concern in.this area by other disciplines. d. These three aspects are usually well documented and present good prospe for data collection in future research. This study ties in with the goals announced by the Area Development Project and will contribute - 10 -toward structuring etiological and associative f a c t o r s . e. The practitioner -may w e l l discover that the results of the study of these three factors w i l l be helpful i n delineating r e l a t i v e factors i n diagnosis, planning and treatment i n any given family unit. f. Previous experiences and interests of the participants i n this study led to the choice of the specific factors to be examined. 4 . General Pertinence of the Study This study should prove of value to other researchers who are attempting to establish,causative factors i n economic dependency, delinquency, and neglect, by providing some clues as to what areas of f a m i l y functioning may, be f r u i t f u l for further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . It w i l l give an added dimension to the F a m i l y Centred P r o j e c t of Vancouver by providing a more intensive look at some aspects of family functioning and how they relate to the total p i c t u r e , as w e l l as i l l u s t r a t i n g one methodology i n which the Project's data may be further amplified. The p r a c t i t i o n e r may well discover the results of this study to be useful i n helping to delineate r e l a t i v e factors i n his assessment and treatment of any given f a m i l y unit. Since "family-centredness" i n diagnosis differs somewhat f r o m generally used evaluations i n s o c i a l work, i t may well be instrumental i n pointing the way to further refinements i n casework methods, which w i l l i n the long view, improve services to the "hard-to-reach-families." We must keep i n mind that the r e s e a r c h undertaken i s only exploratory i n nature and makes no attempt to show causal f a c t o r s . F o r this reason the practitioner must exercise caution i n attempting to use these findings i n a - 11 -conclusive way. C. T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K T he theoretical framework of this study rests on four main concepts. They are family treatment, the fam i l y as arsriclaiys?y-stem, f a m i l y disorganization, and f a m i l y taks and functions. T h e o r e t i c a l l y the o r i g i n of this study is to produce information on the relationships of f a m i l y functioning between the different types of task performance. 1. . F a m i l y Treatment Modern s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e stresses the importance of the family-centred approach i n both diagnosis and treatment of individuals. With this approach comes the need to increase our ab i l i t y to help individuals and fa m i l i e s who are experiencing diff i c u l t i e s i n personal and s o c i a l functioning. To do t h i s , we must understand more f u l l y f a m i l y interaction. F a m i l y interaction r e f e r s to the daily, patterns of family behaviour and management, pattern of response to stress and problems and patterns of agreement and disagreement in values and standards which are of major significance to f a m i l y equilibrium and d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . T o achieve such understanding, i t seems necessary to view the functioning, of the individual personality i n the context of the dynamics of f a m i l y r o l e . The phenomena of fam i l y l i f e are revealed at three i n t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s : (a) multiple interaction patterns between fa m i l y members, beginning with the central relationship of man and wife (b) the personal development of each fa m i l y member and (c) the interaction of the family unit with the outside community. - 12 -T reatment of the f a m i l y and its individuals should be viewed i n the context of the total p s y c h o - s o c i a l diagnosis of the f a m i l y . T h i s evaluation should be made i n t e r m s of the c u r r e n t functioning of the f a m i l y and of its h i s t o r i c a l development. " T h i s approach, because it r e l a t e s behaviour to the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , i s seen as most promising; i n our effort to seek ways i n which societ y i n g e n e r a l and the s o c i a l welfare community in p a r t i c u l a r may cope with the p r o b l e m s of family, d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " . ( 6, P. 23) 2. The F a m i l y as a S o c i a l S y s t e m "The f a m i l y is conceptualized as a s y s t e m or aggregate of i n t e r -dependent parts with an und e r l y i n g degree of or g a n i z a t i o n . The parts of the f a m i l y s y s t e m are s o c i a l r o l e s that a r e r e c i p r o c a l l y r e l a t e d and i n t e r a c t i v e , r e l a t i v e to more o r l e s s c l e a r l y or vaguely defined g o a l s " . ( 6, P. 37) The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f a m i l y s y s t e m breaks down. When the r o l e s of the s y s t e m are no longer i n t e g r a t e d and unable to work together f o r the strength of the system. The functions of the N o r t h ' A m e r i c a n f a m i l y a r e d e c r e a s i n g as the community shares i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a r e a s such as economic p r a c t i c e s , health, education, and r e c r e a t i o n . The four m a j o r r o l e s i of the f a m i l y today a r e re p r o d u c t i o n , s h e l t e r , and p h y s i c a l c a r e f o r f a m i l y members, emotional c a r e and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the young. A s a chain i s as strong as its weakest l i n k , the functioning, of the f a m i l y unit can be a s s e s s e d i n t e r m s of the functioning of its i n d i v i d u a l m e mbers. T h i s individual's functioning or r o l e performance-includes the - 1 3 -behaviour, attitudes, and feelings e x p r e s s e d i n his i n t e r a c t i o n with his environment. Adequate s o c i a l functioning of the i n d i v i d u a l i s a s s e s s e d against s o c i a l l y acceptable n o r ms of r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e based:on our c u l t u r e . Adequate s o c i a l functioning of the f a m i l y is t h e r e f o r e a s s e s s e d on its a b i l i t y to c a r r y out the r o l e s of the four m a j o r functions a s s i g n e d to i t by the l a r g e r s o c i a l s y s t e m . 3. The S o c i a l l y D i s o r g a n i z e d F a m i l y The s o c i a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l y i s unable to function at a l e v e l that meets community standards. Inadequate functioning i n one a r e a tends to s p r e a d and be a s s o c i a t e d with disfunctioning i n other a r e a s . C h i l d c a r e and the training, of c h i l d r e n i s ; one p r o b l e m - r i d d e n a r e a f o r the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y . A s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n tend to be t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m one generation to the next, i t i s understandable that p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s f o c u s s i n g on the functions of c h i l d r e a r i n g . The f a m i l y develops a pattern of dependency on outside s o u r c e s f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of its b a s i c needs, e s p e c i a l l y economic needs. T h i s dependency can bef seen as a r e s u l t of the p e r s o n a l inadequacy, p e r s i s t e n t f a i l u r e s , h opelessness and r e j e c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d b y the f a m i l y in t r o u b l e . "The v e r y c h r o n i c i t y and p e r s i s t e n c e of c r i s e s i n these f a m i l i e s and of t h e i r f a i l u r e i n s o c i a l functioning, show why prevention is among the most di f f i c u l t y p r o b l e m s i n the whole f i e l d of s o c i a l work and s o c i a l w e l f a r e . " (9,P.40) The m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y has s e r v e d to d i r e c t a great deal of attention on an.important question i n the-planning,, integration, and c o -- 14 -ordination of s e r v i c e s at the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . "In spite of important d i f f e r e n c e s between Canada and the United States and G r e a t B r i t i a n of s i z e , l e v e l s of government, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i c y there i s a g e n e r a l movement t o w a r d s a m o r e sy s t e m a t i c a pproach to e a r l i e r detection and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s i n t r o u b l e . " ( 9, P41) The emphasis was o r i g i n a l l y on the nature of the p r o b l e m s of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y but i t has now shifted to the a r e a of f a m i l y d i a g n o s i s . A diagnosis of a f a m i l y must take into account both i n d i v i d u a l behaviour and adjustment and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y unity. In the f o r m e r an evaluation of the individual's s o c i a l functioning b ased on total r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e i s a c q u i r e d . In the l a t t e r an a s s e s s m e n t i s made of the members' a b i l i t y to m aintain a cohesive, integrated f a m i l y unit. 4. .Three Sign i f i c a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the T r e a t m e n t of*the S o c i a l l y  D i s o r g a n i z e d F a m i l y T h e r e s e a r c h c r i t e r i a u sed by the A r e a Development P r o j e c t of Vancouver i n s e l e c t i n g t h e i r t r e a t m e n t group of m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s indicate the importance -attributed to economic dependency, c r i m e and j u v e n i l e delinquency, and b e l o w - m a r g i n a l c a r e of c h i l d r e n as s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or symptoms; of the total disfunctioning of this f a m i l y unit. N e a r l y a l l m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s have s u f f e r e d f r o m s e r i o u s economic s t r e s s . In m o re recent years,- the c o n c l u s i o n has been r e a c h e d that p r o t r a c t e d economic dependency and problem.functioning, often extending over s e v e r a l generations,. cannot be the r e s u l t of f i n a n c i a l p overty alone. Instead the concept of personal and social disorganization suggests multiple causes for the families' failure to adjust to society. During the last ten years, economists have pointed to the con-sistently high correlation between economic deprivation and various types of deviant behaviour such as crime and juvenile delinquency. The major cause of juvenile delinquency as seen by Cloward and Ohlin in their book, Delinquency and Opportunity, is the discrepancy between the success goals of an individual and the legitimate means by which he can attain these goals. Economic deprivation therefore may lead to the use of illegitimate means by many of the members of the problem family. The importance of adequate child care need.not be stressed. However, the apparent lack of it in many multi-problem families points up the need for treatment and intervention by social welfare agencies. This need can best be met by the establishment of a co-ordinated family-centre and neighbourhood-centred programme of treatment. 5 . Categories of Social Functioning Our conceptual approach to the multi-problem family is based on the categories of social functioning developed by Geismar and Ayres for use in the St. Paul Family Centred Project. , The eight major categories with which, we are concerned are: a. Family relationships and Family unit. Relationships among family members and family sub-groups in terms of their collective ability to maintain a cohesive social system. b. Individual behaviour and Adjustment. - 16 -Individual f a m i l y members' soci a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n terms of their to t a l role performance. c. Cair e and Training of C h i l d r e n . d. S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s . e. Economic P r a c t i c e s . f. Household P r a c t i c e s . g. Health Conditions and P r a c t i c e s . h. Use of Community Resources. The information collected by the A r e a Development P r o j e c t of Vancouver on the above basis lends i t s e l f to our study of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the treatment and control groups i n this project. D. PREVIOUS R E S E A R C H 1. C h i l d Care A considerable number of studies, i n process at the present time, are characterized by a p r i m a r y focus on the M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l y . Many of the aspects of this type of f a m i l y are s t i l l being studied i n a rather general way. It i s not our intent to provide an exhaustive review of the l i t e r a t u r e . The m a t e r i a l that follows may only be considered as representative. Available information f a l l s r e a d i l y into two main categories. Most of the f i e l d studies contain an element of service with a s o c i a l work orientation. Hece the emphasis is on the collection and c o r r e l a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l data on a f i r s t hand basis. In general, findings are indicative of areas of further study rather than conclusive or t h e o r e t i c a l . Although a certain amount of emphasis is placed upon: tireatement, the main purpose is most often the construction and testing of hypotheses. There is an attempt to be conclusive and studies proceed relatively unhampered by pragmatic considerations. There have been several attempts to gain a scholarly overview of the determinants of child care. However, there continues ;to be a dirth of conclusive material other than that contained within those studies i which.deal with severe deprivation, a. John Bowlby, Child Care and the Growth of Love Bowlby examines child care cross-culturally and endeavors to attest to the validity of each item in an exhaustive collection of investigatory reports. He concludes that although many factors lie behind the level of child care, maternal behaviour and the strength of familial bonds are the major determinants. b. Geismar and Ayres, Families in Trouble G eismar and Ayres corroborate the above findings. In addition they point out that lack of family solidarity^may be significantly related to a high incidence of deviant behaviour on the part of family members. c. Welfare Council of Ottawa,, Multi-Problem Families This study consists of a sample, of forty-seven multi-problem families in the city of Ottawa. It attempts to describe what these families are like, what their major problems appear to be, and how they are presently using the helping resources, of the community. , In a general way, physical child neglect, in the sense of abuse or - 18 -poor c a r e with r e s p e c t to food, clothing and c l e a n l i n e s s was found to be a r e a l i t y f o r one t h i r d of the c h i l d r e n . E m o t i o n a l neglect, i n the sense of l a c k of affection, t r a i n i n g and:proper d i s c i p l i n e was applicable f o r one half of the c h i l d r e n . One f i f t h of the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d inadequate m e d i c a l or n u r s i n g c a r e . A t the same time, neglect i s not p r e s e n t i n twenty per c e n t of the f a m i l i e s . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y i s was found that: 1) T h i r t y - s e v e n of the f a m i l i e s s t i l l had an intact m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , but m a r i t a l d i s c o r d was p r esent i n seventy-five percent of the f a m i l i e s . 2) A l m o s t without exception, housing was too c o s t l y , too crowded, or i n poor p h y s i c a l condition. 3) M o r e than t h i r t y - t h r e e percent of the fathers worked r e g u l a r l y , but the wages were low. ( A v e r a g e of $231 per month). 4) Twenty-three f a m i l i e s were tot a l l y or p a r t i a l l y dependent on public a s s i s t a n c e . 5) A l m o s t without exception, the f a m i l i e s were i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y because; of inadequate income or poor money management. 6) Two t h i r d s of the men were i n good p h y s i c a l health,\ whereas two t h i r d s of the wo mien were i n poor health. Only half o f the c h i l d r e n were r e p o r t e d as healthy. 7) T h i r t y p e r c e n t of the c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d v a r i o u s behaviour p r o b l e m s and acting out behaviour. 8) Only a v e r y s m a l l percentage of c h i l d r e n made use of the v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . - 1 9 -9) F a m i l y , cohesiveness was strong i n t h i r t e e n f a m i l i e s , average i n eighteen f a m i l i e s and weak in ten f a m i l i e s , d. . Leontine,.Young, Wednesday's C h i l d r e n T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study attempts to develop/:; f a m i l y p r o f i l e from, a; sampIe;.of one hundred and eighty f a m i l i e s i n which, c h i l d neglect and abuse was present. The f a m i l i e s were not i d e n t i f i e d as m u l t i - p r o b l e m , although c e r t a i n l y many of them would appear to meet the G e i s m a r and A y r e s c r i t e r i a . Data was drawn e n t i r e l y f r o m the case r e c o r d s of both public and p r i v a t e , r u r a l and m e t r o p o l i t a n c h i l d welfare agencies. The f a m i l i e s were di v i d e d into four groups. The c r i t e r i o n f o r s e v e r e neglect was inadequate feeding. Moderate neglect was defined as a l a c k of c l e a n l i n e s s , l a c k of adequate clothing, or f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e m e d i a l c a r e . C o n s i s t e n t and,violent beating by one or both.parents was c l a s s i f i e d as severe abuse, whereas moderate abuse was taken to c o n s i s t of o c c a s i o n a l and l e s s violent beeitings, usually, when parents were drunk or under s t r e s s . . Seventy-seven'families abused their-children,. whereas; one hundred and three neglected them. . T h r e e g e n e r a l areas d i s p l a y e d a si g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to-the f o u r t y p o l o g i e s . These-were: P a r e n t a l . Behaviour •towards: the-child, M a r i t a l R o l e s , and.Family.-Standards-of Beh a v i o u r . C e r t a i n i t e m s were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the total s a m p i e : 1) -Truancy and f a i l u r e at school were regarded-with indifference-by the parents i n fifty-two p e r c e n t of the c a s e s . - 2 0 -2) H i g h i n c i d e n c e of s i b l i n g q u a r r e l l i n g was p r e s e n t . 3) I n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e and ex p e c t a t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n o c c u r e d i n n i n e t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of the f a m i l i e s . 4) V e r b a l and p h y s i c a l abuse between p a r e n t s was fr e q u e n t and c o m m o n tec adt;gir ofips. * 5) F a m i l i e s w e r e shown'.to have no: f o r m a l t i e s i n e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the cases;,. ,6) S t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h .friends o r r e l a t i v e s was n o n - e x i s t e n t i n s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the group. 7) R e a l i s t i c money management was i n d i c a t e d by o v e r twenty p e r c e n t of the f a m i l i e s . 8) The l a c k of s h a r e d g o a l s , o r d e r e d s t r u c t u r e o r c o n t i n u i t y , was .common to s e v e n t y - f i v e ' p e r c e n t of the f a m i l i e s . 9) Standards: of h o u s e h o l d c l e a n l i n e s s w e r e poor i n s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the f a m i l i e s . 10) A n ; i n a b i l i t y ' t o use h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s o r to ob t a i n i m m e d i a t e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n was- i n d i c a t e d ' i n 'ninety-six p e r c e n t of the group. C o m m e n t O n e the b a s i c i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e s of the m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y , i s the l a c k of adequate, .child-care. A d e s c r i p t i o n of a f a m i l y as b e i n g - m u l t i -p r o b l e m a t i c , may.be,. i n - f a c t , another way of s a y i n g that poor child:.care i s p r e s e n t . T h i s study i s . c o n c e r n e d w i t h a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t o t h e r f a m i l y functioning, v a r i a b l e s ha-ve-'to c h i l d c a r e - p r a c t i c e s . - 21-2. C r i m e and:Juvenile D e l i n q u e n c y M o s t of t h e ; p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h that has been done on d e l i n q u e n c y and c r i m e c o v e r e d a wide range of f a m i l i e s both, m u l t i - p r o b l e m and o t h e r w i s e . The q u e s t i o n f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n r e v i e w i n g such, s t u d i e s i n , t h i s w i d e r range w i l l be to d e t e r m i n e whether s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s w i l l found i n the m u l t i - p r o b l e m , f a m i l i e s i n our- s a m p l e , a. H a r r i e t C. W i l s o n , D e l i n q u e n c y and C h i l d N e g l e c t In 1955, H a r r i e t C. W i l s o n made a study of 52 m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s i n C a r d i f f , W a l e s . These w e r e f a m i l i e s who had been a c t i v e with^many s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and were s u s p e c t e d to be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by " c h i l d n e g l e c t " . The study was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c a u s a t i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y among the y o u n g s t e r s w i t h i n these f a m i l i e s . •In.the homes where d e l i n q u e n c y e x i s t e d , t h e r e was m a t e r i a l d e p r i v a t i o n , l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n and d i s c i p l i n e by e i t h e r p a r e n t , a p o o r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y between delinquent boys and t h e i r f a t h e r s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r e n t s was found to be u n s t a b l e i n m o r e than h a l f the f a m i l i e s v i s i t e d . The delinquent c h i l d r e n h o w e v e r , tended not t o come f r o m homes w i t h p a r e n t s w i t h c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s . T h e s e c h i l d r e n d i d not belong to-accepted p e e r groups such^as Boy, Scouts o r G i r l G u i d e s . They tended to be below p a r i n s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . O n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s had m e n t a l i l l n e s s i n one o r other.of the p a r e n t s . . T h e r e a r e many u n a n s w e r e d questions i n t h i s s t u d y , but the c o m p a r i s o n w i t h our study s h o u l d b e - i n t e r e s t i n g e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the W i l s o n study was done - 22 -i n E n g l a n d where conditions may be. some what different. ., T h e r e may,- however, be enough s i m i l a r i t y to make such a c o m p a r i s o n v a l i d . b. John R . E l l i n g s t o n , P r o t e c t i n g Our C h i l d r e n f r o m C r i m i n a l C a r e e r s E l l i n g s t o n attempts to d i s c o v e r the ipsyscholdgical clues that determine whether^ or not a c h i l d s h a l l become a delinquent. He outlines many of the items as outlined the previous study r e v i e w e d but i n m o r e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s , such as the need.to be l o v e d ? the need f o r competency, f r e e d o m t o grow, etc. He postulates that.to change-the habits, one must change the environment by. putting the c h i l d i n a c a m p - s i m i l a r to an a r m y camp f o r p r o p e r t r a i n i n g and s a t i s f y i n g work. T h i s is the type of camp advocated by the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y i n 1945. E l l i n g s t o n d i s c u s s e s delinquency.control at the community l e v e l , . mentioning that much r e f o r m is needed i n the treatment of the delinquent, both f r o m the point of view of understanding the cause of delinquency so that the p r o p e r c o r r e c t i v e treatment may .be undertaken before it i s too late,-and }to the r e f o r m of the institutions to which some.of the delinquents mus.t eventually be committed. He postulates as some of the causes of delinquency, such conditions as i m m i g r a n t parents f o r c i n g t h e i r A m e r i c a n - b o r n , c h i l d r e n to c o n f o r m to t h e i r owa patterns of behaviour which a r e different :to those of the r e s t of the neighbourhood i n which he l i v e s and whether it provides-a lawless gang to enlist him-in i t s l a w l e s s n e s s or whether i t p r o v i d e s playmates who a r e s u p e r v i s e d by a strong neighbourhood s o l i d a r i t y with many wholesome r e c r e a t i o n a l , educational and r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . - 2 3 -El l i n g s t o n ' s r e v i e w of some studies done on this subject p r o v i d e us;.with examples of c o m p a r i s o n with our own study which a r e somewhat different f r o m the f i r s t study mentioned. c. Sheldon a n d i E l e a n o r Glueck, U n r a v e l i n g Juv e n i l e Delinquency The G l u e c k s , i n the e a r l y 1940's, used matched p a i r s to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of delinquents and non-delinquents with r e s p e c t to a s e r i e s of f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to (1) the f a m i l y , and ( 2) the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the delinquent. The delinquents were boys who had been committed by the Boston J u v e n i l e C o u r t to the L y m a n School for Delinquents. Although this was a captive group and the c h i l d r e n were not l i v i n g at home with t h e i r parents, there were some i n t e r e s t i n g findings i n that many s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s i t i c s were found among, these boys.. The . Gluecks l a b e l l e d these the attributes of delinquents although Sophia.M. Rob i s o n i n her book J u v e n i l e Delinquency, Its Nature and C o n t r o l , c r i t i c i z e s the findings by saying that these attributes a r e m o r e l i k e l y to be those which would cause c o m m i t t a l to an institution than to be common to a l l delinquents. She also says that the population of the L y m a n School i s not a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e population, having a v e r y high percentage of c h i l d r e n with f o r e i g n - b o r n p a r e n t s . T h e r e a r e no negroes and only nine J e w i s h c h i l d r e n . Despite these c r i t i c i s m s , the Gluecks' scale would be a'very i n t e r e s t i n g one to use as a b s i s f o r tests i n our study to see how c l o s e l y we come to t h e i r r e s u l t s . d. S o p h i a M . Robison, J u v e n i l e Delinquency, Its Nature and C o n t r o l R o b i s o n reviews many studies to do with delinquency, giving the h i s t o r y of delinquency i n the United States and the efforts made to b r i n g it under c o n t r o l . She has a chapter on delinquency i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , including Canada,,England and Wales, F r a n c e and A l g i e r s , . Germany, and the^ USSR. She c o v e r s many approaches to the theory of causation, f r o m the c l a s s i c a l and c l i n i c a l to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , and ant h r o p o l o g i c a l . She then goes on to discuss the juvenile court, juvenile probation j. c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s for, j u v e n i l e s and other s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . ,Her r e v i e w of these studies p r o v i d e s us with many suggie^iioriajfor hypotheses which Will be c o v e r e d i n part E . e. L.L. G e i s m a r and B e v e r l y A y r e s , F a m i l i e s in,Trouble T h i s study i s used as a b a s i s f o r the present study being done by the Van<oouver A r e a Development P r o j e c t , on which our study i s based. It can offer us r e s u l t s which w i l l be e a s i l y comparable to ou r s because we w i l l be using-the same cate g o r i e s of f a m i l y functioning. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , it w i l l be most i n t e r e s t i n g to compare r e s u l t s . 3. E c o n o m i c Dependency The section on the C h r o n i c i t y of economic dependency was seen as being m a i n l y concerned with pertinentfimdingsrand points of c o m p a r i s o n contained i n five s i m i l a r s t u d i e s . A s u r v e y of p r e v i o u s l y r e s e a r c h e d m a t e r i a l f a i l e d to provi d e any study which had approached the p r o b l e m m a i n l y f r o m the viewpoint of c h r o n i c i t y of economic dependency as a diagnostic f a c t o r . However, most s i m i l a r studies had r e l a t e d this factor to f a m i l y functioning as a r e f l e c t i o n of g e n e r a l adequacy. - 25 -a. Geismar and Ayfres, F a m i l i e s i n Trouble In the St. P a u l Study, as reported by Geismar and A y r e s , (1) the authors report that 97% of the f a m i l i e s studied showled problems i n f a m i l y relationships and family unity. S i m i l a r l y , 91%'.-.of those fa m i l i e s indicated problems i n economic practices. , T h i s latter group showed the following distribution in the breakdown of economic pr a c t i c e s : 73% - i n source of income 63% - i n use of money 16 % - in-employment pattern and nature of job. Of these figures, we chose the factor of 'use of money' as being p a r t i c u l a r l y significant to this study. F u r t h e r investigation of the G eismar-Ayres analysis showed that f i n a n c i a l dependency was highly associated w i t h one-parent homes. It was for this reason that recipients of Mother's Allowance were included i n this study. It was expected that a s i m i l a r finding would be manifest i n our study sample as Geismar and A y r e s attribute the absence of the male head of f a m i l i e s as being the main^reason for economic dependency. In the 48 broken f a m i l i e s on whom Geismar and A y r e s reported, three men ..(only parent i n the home) were working f u l l time and nine 'women.' contributed to the family income. Functionally, the P r o j e c t Fa.milies seemed to be p a r t i c u l a r l y bogged down i n f a m i l y relationships and unity, economic practices and c h i l d care. F a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y , m a r t i a l relationships, incidence of behaviour disorders (not adjudicated), money management, physical care of the - 26 -children, housekeeping practices and health practices were found by the project to be the most useful indices of the families* over-all social functioning. x Broken homes were not found to be related to many .factors of social functioning. It must be remembered that in these families, desertion, separation and divorce were only one factor i n a broad measure of social disorganization and that the separation of husband and wife more often serve to relieve the over-all strain on the family ratherf... than to aggravate it. Problem drinking, the most frequent type of acting-out behaviour was associated with lack of solidarity, marital conflict, problems in economic functioning of the family and adult crime. Adequacy in housekeeping standards was also found by the Geismar -Ayres study to be directly associated 'with money coming in to the family. A shortitime span between the first marriage of the woman and the family's firs t registration with social agencies proved to be related; to over-all problematic family functioning, marital conflict and to problems in use of community resources. This association gave rise to a hypothesis regarding a direct association between the length of time after marriage a family manages without outside aid and the family's capacity to meet various problem situations. b. Dorothy Coomb.e, Rehabilitation Services for the Chronically Dependent The second study chosen for comment was a thesis by Dorothy, Coombe. (2) This study was initiated to secure and analyze facts about a group of Vancouver, - 27 -B.C. families who were considered to be chronically dependent, in relationship to family circumstances and the needed intervention of the City Social Service Department. The sample families revealed major problems: financial, health and social adjustment. Typically most of the homes were broken, with the majority of the fathers absent or intermittently out of the homes because of social problems. Miss Coombe found that 80% of the parents had serious personality behaviour problems or relationship difficulties. Most of the services rendered were in relation to economic and health needs. Exceptionally few families revealed potentials for self-maintenance. In support of this Miss Coombe pointed out that 46% of the sample group had been completely financially dependent for more than seven years. In considering the similarity of location and sample group, in the present study we assumed that there would be significant duplication of these findings. c. Harriet C. Wilson, Delinquency and Child Neglect Harriet C. Wilson, in her study entitled 'Delinquency and Child Neglect', ( 3) discusses the significance of money management and patterns of spending. She b states: "There is ample evidence of the very real struggle of practically a l l the farmies in making ends meet ..... "(11, P.107) Further comment from Miss Wilson makes it clear that in most cases, only a person with great self-discipline and good intelligence would be able to manage and that in many cases even such a person as this could not avoid - 28 falling into debt. The families that Miss Wilson studied were families previously on long-term, state-maintained allowances and whose active income was below the subsistence level. d. Bradley Buell, Community Planning for Human Services Bradley Buell and Associates in Community Planning for Human Services, (4) show that 40% of the community's families needed and used the services of 108 health, welfare and recreational organizations. However, he further points out that 7% of the families in the community were dependent on the community for financial support. Mr. Buell elaborates by stating that he found that only 6% of the community's families were commanding over 50% of all the dependency, health and maladjustment services in the community. The following associations were also observedin this study: 77% of the dependent families also had health and/or adjustment problems. 58% of the maladjustment families had health and/or dependency .problems. 38% of the families with health problems had dependency and/or adjustment problems. e. Welfare Council of Ottawa, Multi-Problem Families A fifth study by the Planning Committee on Child and Family Services of the Welfare Council of Ottawa, entitled"Multi-Problem Families"( 5) supports the above findings. Almost without exception, the families studied were in serious financial difficulties. In many cases, the available wage income or Public Assistance benefits plus Family Allowance were not sufficient to provide for family, living at a reasonable minimum standard of health and decency. Further support for findings of other studies was found here in that 75% of the families studied indicated severe discord in family relation-ships, though approximately 80% of this study's sample group were two-parent households. E. OUTLINE OF RESEARCH REPORT 1. Chapter Headings a. Chapter I - Problem Formulation b. Chapter II - Research Design and Methodology c. Chapter III - Data Analysis and Findings d. Chapter IV - Conclusions and Recommendations 2. Author s a.) Chapter III 1) Child Care - John R. Cushnie t Kenneth J. Pauli 2) Crime and Juvenile Delinquency - Roy Fong Helen A. Ruekle A i l s a Walker 3) Economic Dependency - Collin Carlile Arthur A. Veroba b) The remaining chapters in the thesis were written collectively by a l l members of the group. C H A P T E R II A. HYPOTHESES AND ASSUMPTIONS. 1. Child Care a. Hypotheses The major hypothesis of the Child Care section of this study states that a relationship exists between child care and total family functioning in multi-problem families. .  In particular, it is hypothesized that each of the twenty-one independent variables that follow are related to the level of child care that is given. 1) Marital Relationship; It is hypothesized that there is a positive association between child care and the marital relationship as suggested in the Ottawa Study. 2) Family Solidarity: The studies reviewed agree upon the significance of family solidarity as apaninme indiee of child care. It is hypothesized that there is a strong positive association between the two variables. 3) Behaviour of Mother: The Bpwlby study clearly points out the significance of maternal behaviour. It is hypothesized that there is a strong positive association between child care and the behaviour of the mother. 4) Behaviour of Father: It is hypothesized that there is a positive relationship between child care and the behaviour of the father. 5) Sibling Relationships: The?Young study indicated a high incidence of sibling discord. It is hypothesized that there is a positive association ... 31 -between ch i l d care and sibling relationships. 6) Behaviour of Older C h i l d r e n : It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between child care and the behaviour of the older children. 7) Behaviour of Younger Children: It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between ch i l d care and the behaviour of the younger children. 8) Informal Social Associations: The Young study suggests that inadequate i n f o r m a l s o c i a l associations characterize problem f a m i l i e s . It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between ch i l d care and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l associations. 9) F o r m a l Social Associations: The Young study suggests that inadequate f o r m a l s o c i a l associations characterize problem f a m i l i e s . It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between child care and f o r m a l s o c i a l associations. 10) Source of Income: It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between ch i l d care and source of income. 11) Job Situation: It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between child care and the job situation. 12) Use of Money: It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between child care and the use of money. 13) Household P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s : The Ottawa study suggests that costly and crowded housing characterizes problem f a m i l i e s . It i s hypothesized that there i s a positive association between child care and household physical - 32 -facilities. 14) Housekeeping Standards: It is hypothesized that there is a positive association between child care and housekeeping standards. 15) Health Practices: It is hypothesized that there is a positive • association between child care and health practices. 16) Health Problems: Bowlby. suggests that health problems are characteristic of children experiencing inadequate child care. It is hypothesized that there is a positive association between child care and health problems. 17) Use of School Resources: The Young study illustrates that problem families tend to use school resources inadequately. It is hypothesized that there is a positive association between child care and use of school resources. 18) Use of Church Resources: It is hypothesized that there is a •positive association between child care and use of church resources. 19) Use of•• Health Resources: The Young study indicates that problem families tend to make inadequate use of health resources. It is hypothesized that there is a positive association between child care and use of health resources. 20) Use of Social Agencies: It is hypothesised that there is a positive association between child care and use of agency resources. 21) Use of Recreational Resources: The Ottawa study states that only a small percentage of the children of problem families make use of recreational resources. It is hypothesized that there is positive association •i; 1 - 33 -between child care and the use of recreational resources. !, b. Operational Definitions of Variables The operational definitions of the dependent and independent variables follow the guides provided by the Geismar and Ayres criteria for measuring family functioning. (See Appendix A)-2. Crime and Juvenile Delinquency a. Hypotheses 1) There a{re differences in family functioning between the families of children with Children's Court records and those who have not. It is expected that the differences in family functioning will include poor family relationships, poor care and training of children, poor school achievement and probably some material deprivation. 2) There are no differences in the numbers of children known to the Children's Court and those who are not, who come from families where one or both parents have a history of contact with a correctional agency. 3) There are no significant differences in the numbers of children known to the Children's Court and those who are not, who come from families where one or both parents have had psychiatric problems. 4) There are differences in family functioning in families where one or both parents have had a history of contact with correctional agencies and families who have not. b. Operational Definition of Variables 1) Primary Variables - 3 4 -a) The p r i m a r y variables for the f i r s t , second and t h i r d hypotheses w i l l be the children known to the Children's Court and those not known;;to the Court, of the f a m i l i e s of both the treatment and control groups of our study. If there i s more than one ch i l d i n the family, known to the Children's Court, this family, w i l l be equated with a fa m i l y with the same number of children of equivalent age i n the control group. b) The p r i m a r y variables for the fourth hypothesis w i l l be parents who have had contact with c o r r e c t i o n a l agencies and parents who have not. 2) Secondary V a r i a b l e s a) The secondary variables for both the f i r s t and fourth hypotheses w i l l be the adequate, m a r g i n a l and inadequate ratings for each of the items of fa m i l y functioning as l i s t e d below: (1) F a m i l y Relationships and F a m i l y Unity (a) M a r i t a l Relationship (b) P a r e n t - C h i l d Relationship ( c) Sibling Relationship ( d) F a m i l y Solidarity, - this r e f e r s to the unity and cohesiveness of the family. ( 2) Individual Behaviour and Adjustment of Parents cat-egorized under the following headings: Socially Delinquent Behaviour, Me n t a l - P h y s i c a l State and Role Performance as Spouse, Parent, Bread-winner, Homemaker, and Member of the Community. Individual Behaviour and Adjustment of C h i l d r e n under the following headings: Acting-Out Behaviour, Me n t a l - P h y s i c a l State, Role Performance as C h i l d , P u p i l and as Member of Peer Groups. ( 3 ) Care and Training-of C h i l d r e n under the following headings: - 3 5 -(a) P h y s i c a l Care (b) Training Methods (including Emotional Care) (4) S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s under the headings: (a) Informal Associations (extended family, friends, r e c r e a t i o n a l activities) ( b) F o r m a l Associations ( member ship i n clubs, unions, business associations, etc.) ( 5 ) Economic P r a c t i c e s under the headings of: (a) Source and Amount of Income (b) Job Situation ( c) Use of Money ( 6 ) Household P r a c t i c e s under the headings: ( a) PhysicalTEaci ' l i t i e iS (b) Housekeeping Standards ( 7 ) Health Conditions and P r a c t i c e s under the headings: (a) Health Problems ( b) Health P r a c t i c e s ( 8 ) Use of Community Resources under the headings: ( a) School ( b) Church . ( c) Health Resources ( d) S o c i a l Agencies (;e) Recreational Agencies b) The secondary variables for the second hypothesis w i l l be parents who have had a hi s t o r y of contact with c o r r e c t i o n a l agencies and those who have not. c) The secondary variables for the t h i r d hypothesis w i l l be parents who had had psychi a t r i c problems and those who have not. 3 . Economic Dependency a. .Hypothesis F o r the purpose of this section of the study, we chose the following areas of f a m i l y functioning as being significantly related to chronicity of economic dependency. These relationships were indicated i n the studies -36,-mentioned i n Section D and appeared to be r e c u r r e n t and common themes by c o m p a r i t i v e evaluation of the findings of these studies. 1) F i r s t l y , f a m i l y - r e l a t i o n s h i p p roblems, p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t i n g to dysfunction i n m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with c o n c u r r e n t economic p r o b l e m s . The high c o r r e l a t i o n of one parent f a m i l i e s highlighted this concept. In our study we expect a s i m i l a r pattern to develop. 2) Secondly, dysfunctioning i n i n d i v i d u a l behavior of parents, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the father, seemed significant as r e l a t e d to economic problems. A g a i n we expect a duplication with findings of the present study. 3) T h i r d l y ; the c a r e and t r a i n i n g of c h i l d r e n was pointed out i n both the B r a d l e y B u e l l and the G e i s m a r - A y r e s studies as being one of the three m a i n a r e a s of "bogging down" functionally f o r m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y marked:in r e l a t i o n to the p h y s i c a l c a r e of c h i l d r e n . T h i s was significant i n 20% of the cases as r e p o r t e d in the St. P a u l Study. B r a d l e y B u e l l also r e l a t e s that of the 40$ of the community using welfare s e r v i c e , only 6% of these f a m i l i e s used a total of 50% of the dependency health and maladjustment s e r v i c e s . It was t h e r e f o r e a s s u m e d that this coupled with the high.incidence of economic dependency i n the M u l t i P r o b l e m F a m i l y group-indicated a high a s s o c i a t i o n of these f a c t o r s and would be duplicated i n the findings of this study. 4) F o u r t h l y , Household p r a c t i s e s were in d i c a t e d as being c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to money management and were studied f r o m this viewpoint only. - 37 -S i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was expected to be found. 5) /Health p r a c t i c e s were viewed as a factor i n economic dependency as health-problems pr o h i b i t or r e s t r i c t adequate economic functioning. T h i s was seen as an e x t r e m e l y f l e x i b l e v a r i a b l e and no s p e c i f i c expectations were fo r m u l a t e d on this b a s i s . 6) Use of money was r e v i e w e d as this was seen as being an important area, of dy sfunctioning i n both the St. P a u l Study and the Dorothy Coombe Study. A l s o we f e l t that inadequate handling of funds would be a s s o c i a t e d with c h r o n i c dependency. b. O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n of V a r i a b l e s E c o n o m i c c h r o n i c i t y w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by taking the number of months in which f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e has been r e c e i v e d d i v i d e d by the number of months of m a r r i a g e . T h i s w i l l be a r b i t r a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d as being the number of months since the f i r s t m a r r i a g e and w i l l include common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p s and one parent households. F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e included s o c i a l a i d and mother's allowance but excluded o l d age a s s i s t a n c e , contributory i n s u r a n c e income, pensions, support f r o m r e l a t i v e s , c h i l d support and r e l a t e d m e a s u r e s of s e l f -dependence. The s i x v a r i a b l e s chosen - f a m i l y functioning, i n d i v i d u a l behaviour, cajre and t r a i n i n g of c h i l d r e n , household p r a c t i c e s , health p r a c t i c e s , and use of money were studied f r o m the viewpoint and m e a s u r e m e n t f a c t o r s set out by the G e i s m a r - A y r e s St. P a u l Study and at, present in use by the V a n c o u v e r A r e a Development P r o j e c t . - 3 8 -The sample study was chosen as indicated i n previous sections above, and chronicity was determined oh -tbjg: basis of the formula outlined i n a later section. The sample group was then divided into thirds. The t h i r d with the highest rate of incidence w i l l be deemed to show chronicity, the t h i r d with the lowest incidence w i l l be viewed as not chronic. The middle group was seen as being of intermediate chronicity. We assumed the degree of competence and s k i l l i n making judgements pertaining to the indicated variables and the specific ratings of adequacy or inadequacy of functions are r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . . This i n turn assumed va l i d i t y of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of standards of minimum and adequate functioning i n the chosen variables. Here again i t i s emphasized that the tools of measurement for these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were those used i n the St. P a u l Study and at present being used i n the Vancouver A r e a Development Project. 4. Value Assumptions Iimplicit within^ this study are certain underlying assumptions which ref l e c t the operative value system upon which the r e s e a r c h was based. The following w i l l serve as a means of i l l u s t r a t i o n . The study assumes that: (a) The investigation of the family as a unit i s an appropriate and f r u i t f u l area of study. (b) The family i s the major identification and s o c i a l i z a t i o n vehicle i n our culture, acting as the l i a i s o n agent between i t and the individual. - 3 9 -( c) It i s p o s s i b l e to investigate the f a m i l y unit with the tools at hand. ( d) M u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s can be a r b i t r a r i l y defined as a single, i d e n t i f i a b l e typology. ('•§) On the b a s i s of our c u l t u r a l concept of f a m i l y health, there i s a need to study and treat those f a m i l i e s i d e n t i f i e d as multi-problem, (f) C h i l d neglect, juvenile delinquency and ch r o n i c economic dependency are c o n s i d e r e d to be undesirable and deviant behaviour patterns. B . L E V E L O F R E S E A R C H D E S I G N 1. R e s e a r c h D e s i g n O f the two types of e x p e r i m e n t a l designs - p r o j e c t e d and ex post facto, the la t t e r was used. In contrast to the p r o j e c t e d design where ex p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups are compared after r e s e a r c h e r s have exposed the ex p e r i m e n t a l group to a set of stimuli,' the ex post facto approach r e c o g n i z e s that the set of s t i m u l i has a l r e a d y been introduced. M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y : T i m e I ( Before) G n u p A X St i m u l i Group B X 1 N 6 S t i m u l i The act u a l data c o l l e c t i o n begins after time 2 has a r r i v e d or has pas s e d F o r example, i n our study at time 2 , delinquency r e p r e s e n t e d by X^ and non-delinquency by X } have a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d and we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n what s t i m u l i are a s s o c i a t e d with both outcomes. In some cases, as r e g a r d s our poject there i s some questions as to whether the s t i m u l i o r independent T i m e 2 ( A f t e r ) x 1 - 40 -variables preceeded or followie d the outcomes. Our r e s e a r c h group used the ex post facto design for various reasons. Several s o c i a l workers at the Vancouver A r e a Development P r o j e c t had requested r e s e a r c h data concerning factors associated with economic dependency, crime, juvenile delinquency, and c h i l d neglect i n multi-problem f a m i l i e s . The s uggested project looked f e a s i b l e because the m a t e r i a l from which conclusions could be drawn to answer some of the questions posed was readily available. The facts and conclusions we had hoped to obtain seemed to be of general interest and value i n f i l l i n g the gaps i n knowledge about the multi-problem family. 2. C o n t r o l of Interfering Variables C o n t r o l of int e r f e r i n g variables was achieved i n various ways: a. In order to ensure that we were dealing with multi-problem f a m i l i e s only those f a m i l i e s indicated as being such by the Vancouver A r e a Development P r o j e c t were used as the population from which the sample was drawn. We understand that only after careful scrutiny, analysis, and evaluation were the P r o j e c t f a m i l i e s f i n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as being of a multi-problem nature. b. To ensure that what conclusions we drew would be ty p i c a l of multi-problem f a m i l i e s i n the Vancouver A r e a Development Proj e c t , we selected a random sample by the method described i n a l a t e r section. c. To differentiate between f a m i l i e s characterised by adequate, marginal, and inadequate c h i l d care, score sheets, which were completed by trained workers employed by the A r e a Development Proj e c t and which : - 41 -contained the rating of each fa m i l y a c cording to the l e v e l of functioning i n the area of care and training of children, were carefully checked. d. To differentiate between (1) f a m i l i e s with parents who had contact with c o r r e c t i o n a l institutes and f a m i l i e s with,parents who had no contact with c o r r e c t i o n a l institutes (11) f a m i l i e s with delinquent children and f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children (111) f a m i l i e s with one parent and f a m i l i e s with two parents (IV) f a m i l i e s with p s y c h i a t r i c parents and f a m i l i e s with non-psychiatric parents, family;profiles and s t a t i s t i c a l sheets completed by the same trained workers were caref u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d to obtain information for appropriate ratings. e. To differentiate between f a m i l i e s characterized by non-chronicity, intermediate chronicity, and chronicity, data i n terms of the number of months on public assistance and the number of months the f a m i l y has been established was extracted from f i l e s and p r o f i l e s documented by the same trained workers. The; number of months on .public assistance was divided by the number of months the family had been established and a percentage was obtained. Non-chronicity was defined by a range of 0% to 19%; intermediate chronicity by 20% to 38%; chronicity by. 39% to 100%. f. To determine the functioning of each fa m i l y i n the some or a l l of the major categories and sub-categories, score sheets containing this information and completed by trained workers were ca r e f u l l y studied. 3. Plan.of Data A n a l y s i s Frequency distribution tables are used to assist in data analysis. Data on dependent or independent variables ( i . e . categories of s o c i a l functioning) are summarized, and tabulated i n such a way as to be easily related to associated variables, as for example, delinquency and non-delinquency. Percentages are calculated horizontally and/or v e r t i c a l l y i n order to compare the data i n terms of percentage and to establish associations between dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s . As c r i t e r i a f o r determining the m i n i m a l s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l of confidence, we decided on the following two rules : a. to compute percentages on a base of 20 cases as a general rule and to interpret percentages cautiously i f the base was less than 20 (there were a few instances of l e s s than 20 cases being used but i n nearly a l l cases the base was 20 or l a r g e r ) . b. to regard a difference between two groups on one variable as significant i f it was at l e a s t 20%. F o r deciding deferent degrees of association, we therefore developed a terminology in the findings chapter. This was developed i n lieu, of using chi square with which few of the group were f a m i l i a r . C. S A M P L I N G P R O C E D U R E As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the sample group used f o r the purposes of this study were chosen from the large sample group being u t i l i z e d by the Vancouver A r e a Development Project. F r o m the outset, it was recognized that maintenance of the div-is i o n s of treatment and control groups being u t i l i z e d by the A r e a Development P r o j e c t was not necessary for the purposes of this study as we were interested only in the various ratings applied to the families a.s of the time of their entry into the project and were not concerned with the effects of treatment applied thereafter. This posed an i n i t i a l problem as no combined masterlist of project families was available. We therefore combined the groups that the Area Development Project had designated as East Control, South Control; and Treatment into one alphabetically-arranged master list . This study group had previously decided that a fair representation would be obtained by selecting our sample group by random choice. We therefore randomly chose case number one and then chose every secbnd case thereafter, until such time as the one-hundred cases we required for our sample group was obtained. The master list was thus prepared and the random procedure described above was completed. A review of the cases chosen in this faishion revealed that'll cases were without sufficient information for this ex post facto field survey. This necessitated a repetition of the random choice procedure on the remaining cases and by this means, our sample group of one hundred cases was obtained. D. METHODS.OF GATHERING DATA 1. Child Care Generally speaking, data for the Child Care section of this study originates from one main source, that being the "fOatline" of Social Diagnosis" from the Vancouver Area Development Project. This outline makes explicit and puts order into the case recording - 44;-on each fa.frjiilly by describing functioning under the nine major and twenty-three minor categories of the F a m i l y Functioning Scale. Sources of information f o r the outline include not only the regular recording but also such m a t e r i a l as School Reports, P o l i c e Reports, summaries from other agencies, case conference notes, h i s t o r y of registrations with agencies, and p s y c h i a t r i c summaries. F o r those f a m i l i e s who have already been s t a t i s t i c a l l y rated according to the i n f o r m a t i o n on the outline, the ratings were used rather than the outline i t s e l f . Where there was insufficient or no information i n the category a double checkback to the recording or other appropriate material'was made. Since-it i s the purpose of this study to gain a static picture of the multi-problem family before treatment by the project, only data from the initialrieacDjrilmgand outline for Social Diagnosis w'fls used. This was generally after two f u l l interviews by,the F. C. P. worker and within two months of the acceptance of the family for the; project. (5, P. 58) Subsequent outlines by the project w i l l , of course, be taken to measure movement, but have no pertinence for this study. P r o j e c t workers were in s t r u c t e d to omit from the f i r s t outline any gains or movement by the f a m i l y after early contacts with the worker. The G e i s mar-Ayres pro f i l e of family functioning as previously appended, i s the basis for data collection and analysis. Since data i s d i r e c t l y derived from the Vancouver A. D. P.. , r e l i a b i l i t y of the findings of the project can also be used for validation in this study. R e l i a b i l i t y - 45'-was considered i n two major areas: Judgements regarding family-functioning, and judgements made in constructing the Outline of Social Diagnosis. This study has trichotomized the seven.point judgement scale of f a m i l y functioning, using the categories - adequate, marginal, and inadequate. Adequate includes above marginal, near adequate and adequate, whereas inadequate includes below marginal, near adequate and inadequate. M a r g i n a l w i l l remain the same. The categories "not known" and "not applicable" w i l l also be used. We would hypothesize that trichotomization w i l l increase r e l i a b i l i t y , since s p e c i f i c i t y i s required. It w i l l be noted that certain categorizations have not been included. P a r e n t - C h i l d relationship has not been u t i l i z e d because of i t s relatedness to the dependent variable. Relationship to the F. C P . worker also was not used since family movement i s not being studied. 2. C r i m e and Juvenile Delinquency The source of data for the C r i m e and Juvenile Delinquency section was b a s i c a l l y the same as.in the previous section. Information* regarding c r ime and juvenile delinquency was obtained from the h i s t o r y of r e g i s t r a t i o n with agencies as were r e f e r r a l s for p s y c h i a t r i c examinations. This information allowed us to identify the delinquents and non-delinquents, the parents with c r i m i n a l records and those without c r i m i n a l records. A l l information on family functioning was taken from the G eismar-Ay r e s pro f i l e of f a m i l y functioning, using the eight major categories and - 46 -twenty-one minor categories as variables. The sevenpoint scale was reduced to the three - adequate, marginal and inadequate as mentioned in Section I. 3. Chronicity of Economic Dependence In studying the relationship of the chronicity of economic dependence to family/characteristics and functioning we found that useful data was available from the Area Development Project's case records in the following form: a) Family life history data. b) General family characteristics (age of family members, economic status, housing, deviant behaviour, etc.) c) His£(Sry of agency contacts. d) Length of time in receipt of financial assistance, and financial assistance costs. e) School performance records. f) School health records. g) Selected items (Parent Attitude Research Inventory). The Area Development Project staff used the above case record data along with family interviews to complete a profile of family functioning on each family in our sample group at the point that the family was first accepted into the project. They adopted the "profile of family functioning" used by Geismar and Ayres in the St. Paul Project. This completed profile wfas our main measurement of family functioning within our sample group. However, in the study of the - 47 -chronicity of economic dependence we omitted several categories. The five categories that were retained were previously indicated as being: family/relationships, individual behaviour, care and training of the children, household practices, and health practices. Each of the above five had sub-categories which also were included as indicated iii the "profile of family functioning". Each of the sub-categories and the categories i n the profile of each sample family were rated by the A. D. P. staff according to their level of social functioning. The general cr i t e r i a used for levels of social functioning were "inadequate", marginal or "adequate". In order to measure the chronicity of economic dependence we devised the following schedule for gathering data which was applied to each sample family: (A) (B) (<2) Sample Time since casehead Time casehead was Percentage Case No. first established family in receipt of financial B/A x 100 — status . assistance . Interpretation of the above schedule "Time" mentioned in both (A) and ( B) referred to the total number of months. "Casehead" mentioned in both ('A) and ( B) referred to the female parent in the home. In cases where the female parent was absent the male parent was considered casehead. "Establishment of family status" referred to in ( A) was defined by one of the following conditions: (i) date of establishment of first legal or common-law marriage. ( ii) date of birth of the oldest child in the home. In cases where both conditions applied the earlier date took precedence. "Financial Assistance" referred to in ( B) was defined previously in section E to include only social aid and mothers allowance. - 48 -" T h e p e r c e n t a g e " r e f e r r e d t o - i n ( C ) m e a n t t h e t i m e c a s e h e a d w a s i n r e c e i p t o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e d i v i d e d b y t h e t i m e c a s e h e a d f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y s t a t u s m u l t i p l i e d b y 100. A g e n c y c a s e r e c o r d s p r o v i d e d a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a p p l i -c a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e s c h e d u l e t o o u r s a m p l e g r o u p . T h e h i g h e s t c h r o n i c i t y w j a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t . C H A P T E R III A. INTRODUCTION The previous chapter portrays the resea r c h design, sampling procedures, and methods of gathering data pertinent to this study. The concern of the present chapter i s with the analysis of the collected data. Data i s examined as.it relates to the questions which this study purports to study. (See Chapter II). The areas of analysis are a r r -anged i n the order outlined below. •1. C h i l d Care 2. C r i m i n a l Parents and Delinquency i n C h i l d r e n 3. Economic Dependency The association of any two variables i s explored i n accordance with a "twenty percent r u l e " . If there i s more than a twenty percent difference between two groups, the difference i s taken to be significant. As a guide, percentage differences between groups were described i n the following terms: 0 - 20 percent - The variables are apparently independent 21 - 40 pe rcent; - The variables are moderately independent •41. - 80 percent - The variables are strongly associated 81 - 100 percent - The variables are near identity T h i s method of making comparisons was used i n l i e u of chi squared. B. D A T A ANALYSIS 1. C h i l d Care M a r i t a l Relationships as Related to C h i l d Care: Of the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 58% demonstrated inadequate m a r i t a l relations, as compared to 10% with adequate relations, and - 5 0 -1 7 % with marginal relationships. Significance is amplified upon consideration that in 1 5 % of the cases, the marital relationship variable was hot applicable. inadequate marital relationships predominate within a l l child care categorizations. There is a strong association of inadequate martial relationships with marginal and inadequate child care, and less emphatically so with adequate child care. There i s l i t t l e significant difference between adequate and marginal relationships in any of the Child care categories. Child care does not vary significantly in any one of the marital relationship categories. Sibling Relationships as Related to Child Care: Of the sample of 1 0 0 families, 5 1 % demonstrated adequate sibling relationships as compared with i 2 4 % with marginal sibling relationships and 1 7 % with inadequate sibling relationships. Signi-ficance of non-applicable cases was negligible. Generally there is a strong positive association between child care and sibling relationships. This approaches identity when relfeting adequate child care to adequate sibling relationships. 1 Although not as definitive, the trend holds true for marginal child care and adequate sibling relationships. Association breaks down 1 For the purposes of this study, the descriptive phrase "approaches identity" is taken to denote two variables that seemingly represent soine ^ o'mmon phenomenon', v ' - - : " " ' '<•'••':• •' "• "r'•'•' '•• Vy":- • :y—: - 51; -however, where ch i l d care i s inadequate. L i t t l e significant difference i n sibling relationships was found'in this category. F a m i l y Sol i d a r i t y as Related to C h i l d Care: Of the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 51% demonstrated inadequate fa m i l y s o l i d a r i t y , as compared with 26% with adequate family s o l i d a r i t y , and 23% with m a r g i n a l family s o l i d a r i t y . There were no non-applicable cases. A strong positive association exists between fa m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and child care as reflected by the high degree of relationship between inadequate c h i l d care and inadequate family s o l i d a r i t y . The same positive association exists between adequate ch i l d care and adequate f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y . The trend can be further demonstrated by the significant differences between adequate and inadequate f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y as well as adequate and inadequate child case, within the two adequate categories. Behaviour of Father as Related to C h i l d Care: Of the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 63% demonstrated inadequate behaviour of father, as compared with.8% with adequate behaviour and 10% with m arginal behaviour of father. Significance i s amplified upon consideration that i n 19% of the cases, behaviour of the father was non-applicable. Inadequate behaviour of the father;predominates i n a l l child care categories. There i s a strong association with marginal and inadequate chi l d care and le s s emphatically so with adequate ch i l d care. There - 5 2 -i s l i t t l e significant difference between adequate and m a r g i n a l behaviour of father i n any of the c h i l d care categories. C h i l d care does not vary significantly i n any one of the behaviour of father categories. Behaviour of Mother as Related to C h i l d Care: Of the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 4 9% demonstrated inadequate behaviour of mother^ as compared with 23% with adequate behaviour of mother and 27% with.marginal behaviour of mother. The significance of non-applicable cases was negligible. A strong positive association exists between the behaviour of mother and child care as reflected by the high degree of relationship between adequate behaviours of mother and adequate c h i l d care. The same positive association exists between inadequate behaviour of mother and inadequate c h i l d care. The trend can be further demonstrated by the highly significant difference between adequate and inadequate behaviour of mother as we l l as adequate and inadequate child care within the two adequate categories. However, this may be an ar t i f a c t u a l association stemming from the nature of the rating scale. Behaviour of Older C h i l d r e n a s Related to C h i l d Care: Of the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 44% demonstrated inadequate behaviour of older children, as compared with 16% with adequate behaviour, and 11% with marginal behaviour. The significance i s amplified upon consideration that i n 29% of the cases, behaviour of older children was not appli cable. A slight positive association'was found between adequate behaviour of older children and child care. A similar association exists with inadequate behaviour of older children and child care. Of those families providing inadequate child care, there is a strong tendency for the behaviour ofthe older children,to be inadequate. Behaviour of Younger Children as Related to Child Care: Of the sample of 100 families, 42% demonstrated adequate behaviour of younger children, as compared with 24% with marginal behaviour and 25% with Inadequate behaviour. The significance of non-applicable cases was negligible. Adequate behaviour of younger children predominates where child care is adequate and to a lesser extent where child care is marginal. There is little significant difference in the behaviour of younger children when child care is inadequate. A moderately positive association between inadequate behaviour of younger children and child care can be demonstrated. . i Informal Social Associations as Related to Child Care: Of the '^arfrple of 100 families, 46% demonstrated marginal information associations, as compared with, 39% with adequate associations and 14% with inadequate associations. The significance of non-applicable cases was negligible. T h i s variable is characterized by relatively high marginal scores of between 40 and: 50%. Where child care is adequate there is a tendency for informal associations to be adequate or marginal, but not; inadequate. There is little significant difference between - 54 -i n f o r m a l s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s where c h i l d c a r e i s inadequate. F o r m a l Sociali R e l a t i o n s h i p s as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of f o r m a l s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s c a t e g o r i z e s 3 8 % as adequate, 5 5 % as m a r g i n a l and 4% as inadequate. F o r 3% of the f a m i l i e s , this v a r i a b l e was not applica b l e . M a r g i n a l f o r m a l s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s are s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to adequate c h i l d c a r e and m o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d to inadequate c h i l d care. G e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n shows that 93 percent of the f a m i l i e s demonstrate adequate o r m a r g i n a l f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -ships. Adequate and inadequate c h i l d c a r e groups do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m each other i n the a r e a of f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -ships. Source of Income as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of s o u r c e s of income c a t e g o r i z e s 4 5 % as adequate, 30% as m a r g i n a l and 25% as inadequate. T h e r e i s evidence that adequate source of income i s m o d e r a t e l y a s s -o c i a t e d with adequate c h i l d c are. In contrast, inadequate source of income appears to be independent of inadequate c h i l d c a r e . T h e r e does not appear to be a significant d i f f e r e n c e between the three c h i l d c a r e groups with r e s p e c t to source of income. Job Situation as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : O f the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 22% demonstrated adequate job situations as. compared with: 12% with m a r g i n a l job situations and 19% :- 55 -, with inadequate job situations. T h e r e a r e a l a r g e number of non-applicable cases, i n the o r d e r of 47%. No significant a s s o c i a t i o n between c h i l d c a r e and the job situation can be demonstrated. It should be noted however, that the sample has been cut by almost 50%. Use of Money as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : Of the sample of 100 f a m i l i e s , 61% demonstrated adequate use of money, as compared with 2 4 % with m a r g i n a l use of money and 15% using money inadequately. T h e r e were no non-applicable c a s e s . T h e r e i s a strong p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n , approaching identity between adequate use of money and adequate c h i l d c a r e . A v e r y strong p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n also exists between adequate use of money and m a r g i n a l c h i l d c a r e . No significant d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the use of money when c h i l d c a r e i s inadequate. Household P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of household p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s c a t e g o r i z e s 6 5 % as adequate, 14% as m a r g i n a l , and 20% as inadequate. T h e r e i s evidence that adequate household p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s approach identity with adequate c h i l d c a r e . In .contrast, inadequate household p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s appear to be independent, of inadequate of inadequate c h i l d c a r e . Although there i s a m o d e r a t e l y significant d i f f e r e n c e between the-adequate and inadequate c h i l d c a r e groups, i t should be borne i n mind that 6 5 % of a l l : f a m i l i e s i n the study show - 56 -adequate hotap'ebodd p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . Housekeeping Standards as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of housekeeping standards c a t e g o r i z e s 7 0 % as adequate, 10% as m a r g i n a l and 18% as inadequate. In 2% of the cases, this v a r i a b l e i s not a p p l i c a b l e . T hese i s evidence that adequate housekeeping standards approach • identity with adequate c h i l d c a r e . In contrast, inadequate housekeeping standards a r e n e a r l y independent of inadequate c h i l d c a r e . Although there i s a m o d e r a t e l y si g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the inadequate c h i l d c a r e group and the other two groups with r e g a r d to adequate and inadequate housekeeping standards, i t should be borne i n m i n d that 70% of a l l f a m i l i e s i n the study show adequate house-keeping standards. Health P r o b l e m s as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of health p r o b l e m s c a t e g o r i z e s 5 5 % as adequate, 25% as m a r g i n a l , a n d 1 9 % as inadequate. T h e r e - i s evidence that an adequate l e v e l of health p r o b l e m s i s h i g h l y a s s o c i a t e d with adequate c h i l d c a r e . In contrast however, an inadequate l e v e l of health p r o b l e m s appears to be independent of inadequate c h i l d c a r e . In comparing the three c h i l d c a r e groups there i s a tendency of the adequate c h i l d c a r e group to have an adequate l e v e l of health p r o b l e m s . Health P r a c t i c e s as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of health p r a c t i c e s -57 -ca t e g o r i z e s 6 4 % as adequate, 18% as m a r g i n a l , and 17% as inadequate. T h e r e i s evidence that adequate health p r a c t i c e s approach identity withadequate c h i l d c a r e . Inadequate health p r a c t i c e s a r e m o d e r a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with inadequate c h i l d c a r e . T h e r e i s a di f f e r e n c e between the adequate and inadequate c h i l d c are groups with r e s p e c t to health p r a c t i c e s . T h i s i s balanced, however, when co n s i d e r a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d to the tendency f o r a l l groups to show adequate health p r a c t i c e st Use of School R e s o u r c e s as R e l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e ; A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of use of school r e s o u r c e s c a t e g o r i z e s 61% as adequate, 17% as m a r g i n a l , and 14% as inadequate. In 8% of the cases, this v a r i a b l e was not applicab l e . T h e r e i s evidence that adequate use of sc h o o l r e s o u r c e s approaches identity with adequate c h i l d c are. In contrast, however, inadequate use of school r e s o u r c e s i s independent of inadequate c h i l d c a r e . T h e r e i s a tendency for a l l c h i l d c a r e groups to make adequate use of school r e s o u r c e s , a tendency which i n c r e a s e s as the l e v e l of c h i l d c a r e moves towards adequate. Use of C h u r c h R e s o u r c e s as Re l a t e d to C h i l d C a r e : A breakdown of the 100 f a m i l i e s i n t e r m s of the i r use of church r e s o u r c e s c a t e g o r i s e s 4 5 % as adequate, 17% as m a r g i n a l , and 2% as inadequate. In 3 6 % of the cases, this v a r i a b l e was not app l i c a b l e . In general, f a m i l i e s f o r whom this v a r i a b l e i s applicable • tend to make adequate use of church r e s o u r c e s . T h i s tendency was most evident i n the m a r g i n a l c h i l d c a r e group. - -58-* Use of Health Resources as Related to Child Care: A breakdown of the 100 families in terms of use of health resources categorized 63% as adequate, 21% as marginal and 11% as inadequate. In the five cases where this variable was not applicable child care was rated as inadequate. There is evidence that adequate use of health resources is strongly associated with adequate child care. Inadequate use of health resources appears to be independent of inadequate child care. The tendency for all child care groups to make adequate use of health resources increases as the level of child care moves toward adequate. Use of Social Agencies as Related to Child Care: A breakdown of the 100 families in terms of their use of social agencies categorizes 57% as adequate, 30% as marginal and 12% as inadequate. There is evidence that the adequate use of social agencies approaches identity with adequate child care. In contrast, inadequate use of social agencies is independent of inadequate child care. In general, there is a tendency for the adequate use of agency resources to increase as the level of child care moves towards ads. adequate. Use of Recreational Resources as Related to Child Care: Of the sample of 100 families, 44% demonstrated adequate use of recreational resources as compared with 24% who use resources marginally and 6% who use resources inadequately. The significance is amplified upon consideration.that in 26% of the cases, use of - 5 9 -recreational resources was not applicable. Adequate and marginal child care are strongly associated with the adequate use of recreational resources. The inadequate use of resources is completely independent of these two child care categories. Where child care is inadequate, no significant difference was found in the use of recreational resources. T A B L E I Child Care as Related to Marital and Sibling Relationships Child Care Marital Relationships Sibling Relationships Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. (20) (25) (40) (15) 17 (85) (5) 2 (,7) 18 (20) (.60) (13) 20 ( 67) (23) (3) (10) (7) Inade. 4 (8) (12) 32 (64) (16) 14 (28) 16 (32) (3 2) (8) T o t a l (,%) 10 17 58 15 51 24 17 T A B L E II Child Care as Related to Family Solidarity and Behaviour of Father Ade. . eii.nxi.y i _ Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. \N. A, Ade. 13 (65) 5 (25) 2 (10) : - 2 (10) 4 (20) 9 (45) 5 (25) Marg. 9 ( 30) 10 ( 33) 11 (37) - 1 (3) 5 (17) 20 (67) 4 (13) Inade. 4 ( 8) 8 (16) 3 5 (76) 5 (10) •1 (2) 34 (68) 10 (20) Total (%) 26 23 51 - 8 10 63 19 - 61 -T A B L E III Child Care as Related to Behaviour of Mother and Older Children Child Care Behaviour of Mother Behavidur of Older Children Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade 16 ( 80) 4 (20) •- - 7 (35) 1 (5) 4 (20) 8 (40) Marg. 6 (22) 10 (37) IS ( 27) 1 (3) 4 (13) 6 (20) 11 (37) 9 (30) Inade. 1 (2) 13 (26) 36 (72) - 5 (10) ,; 4 (8) 29 (58) 12 (24) Total (%) 23 27 49 1 16 11 14 29 T A B L E IV Child Care as Related to Behaviour of Younger Children and Informal Social Associations Child Care Behaviour of Younger Children Informal Social Associations Ade. Marg. Inade. . N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. -N.A. Ade. 14 3 1 2 12 8 (70) (15) (5) (10) (60) (40) Marg. 15 8 5 2 12 14 4 (50) (26) (17) (7) (40) (47) (13) Inade. 13 13 9 5 15 24 10 1 :( 26) (26) ( 38) ( 10) (30) (48) ( 20) (2) Total (%) 42 24 25 9 39 46 !4 1 T A B L E V C h i l d Care as Related to F o r m a l Social^^Associations and Sources of Income C h i l d Care F o r m a l Social Associations Sources of Income Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. 5 (25) 14 (70) 1 (5) 12 (60) 5 (25) 3 (15) Marg. 17 (57) 12 (40) 1 (3) - 13 (44) 7 (23) 10 (33) Inade. T6 (3 2) 29 (58) 3 (6) 2 (4) 20 (40) 18 (36) 12 (24) :-Total (%) 38 55 4 3 40 30 25 ; -T A B L E VI C h i l d Care as Related to Job Situation and Use of Money C h i l d Care Job Situation Use of Money Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. 6 (30) 1 (5) 2 (10) 11 (55) 19 (95) 1 (5) -Marg. 6 (20) 5 (17) 7 (23) 12 (40) 24 (80) 4 (13) 2 (7) : -Inade. 10 (20) 6 (12) 10 (20) 24 (48) 18 (36) 19 (38) 13 (26) -Total (%) 22 12 19 47 61 24 15 - 63 -T A B L E VII Child Care as Related to Household Physical Facilities and Housekeeping Practices Household Physical Facilities Hduseke'ep^ngiP^ f Child Care Ade. M arg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. 17 (85) 2 (10) 1 (5) 19 (95) 1 (5) Marg. 23 (77) 4 (13) 3 (10) 23 (76) ,5 (17) 2 (7) Inade. 25 ( 50) 8 (16) 16 (32) 1 (2) 28 (56) (10) 15 (30) (4) Total (%) 65 14 20 70 10 18 T A B L E VIII Child Care as Related to Health Problems and Health, Practices Child Care Health Problems health Practices Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade, Marg. Inade.. N.A, Ade. 15 (75) 3 (15) 2 (10) - 17 (85) 2 (10) 1 (5) -Marg. 16 (53) 9 (30) ;5 (17) 21 (70) '6 (20) 3 (10) . . . Inade. 24 (48) 13 ( 26) 112 (24) 1 (2) 26 (52) 10 (20) 13 (26) 1 (2) Total (%) 55 25 19 1 64 18 17 1 - 64 -T A B L E IX C h i l d Care as Related to Use of School Resources and "Gl^r<fh3ResaurJces a r c s C h i l d Care Use of School Resources Use of Church Resources Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. 18 ( 90) 1 (5) - 1 (5) 11 (55) 2 (.10) 7 (35) Marg. 19 (63) 4 (17) 4 (13) 2 (7) 19 (63) 5 (17) 6 ( 20) Inade. 24 (48) 12 (24) 10 (20) 4 (8) 15 (30) 10 (20) 2 (4) 23 (46) Total (%) 61 17 14 8 45 17 2 36 T A B L E X C h i l d Care as Related to Use of Health Resources and Social Agencies C h i l d Care Use of Health Resources Use of Social Agencies Ade. Marg. Inade. N.A. Ade. Marg. Inade. N. A. Ade. 17 (85) 3 (15) : 19 (95) 1 (5) - -Marg. 23 (76) 5 1 (17) 2 (7) 19 (64) 9 (30) 1 (3) 1 (3) Inade. 23 (46) i 1 3 (26) 9 , (18) 5 (10) 19 (38) 20 (40) 11 (22) -Total (%) 63 21 11'. 5 57 30 12 1 - 65 -T A B L E XI Child Care as Related to Use of Recreational Resources Child Care Use of Recreational Resources Ade. M a r g . Inade. N.A. Ade. 12 (60) 5 (25) 3 (15) Marg. 16 (53) 5 (17) - 9 (30) Inade. 16 (372), 14 (28) 6 (12) 14 (28) Total (%) 44 24 6 26 2. Crime and Juvenile Delinquency a. Criminal Parents: T A B L E XII Differences in Family Relationships Between Families Whose Parents Had Crimi n a l Records and Families Whose Parents Had No Crim i n a l Records. Fam.Relat. Marital Relat. Parent-Child Siblings Fam.Solid N. C. C. N.C. C. N.C. C. N.C. C. N.C. N.K. — — — — - — 3 9% 2 6% — ' — N.A. — — 8 24% 6 18% — — 1 3% — — — . ADE. 6 18% 8 24% 2 6% 5 15% 9 27% 6 18% 15 45% 19 58% 8 24% 9 •27% MARG. 7 21% 10 30% 2 6% 8 24% 8 24% 11 33% 7 21% 9 27% 8 24% 10 30% INADE. 20 61% 15 46% 21 647 14 43% 16 49% 16 49% 7 21% 3 9% 17 52% : 14 43% 100% T O T A L 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 - 66 -When comparing c r i m i n a l with n o n - c r i m i n a l parents there were no significant differences i n the inadequate, marginal, and adequate levels of functioning with regard to family relationships. The substantial differences were found among the f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l parents and fa m i l i e s without c r i m i n a l parents. Of the parents with c r i m i n a l records 61% were inadequate as compared with 21% and 18% who were marginal and adequate respectively. Moreover, regarding n o n - c r i m i n a l parents, a substantially higher percentage of parents were inadequate than adequate, the ratio being 4 6 % to 24%. When family relationships are considered i n terms of its sub-categories of fa m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and parent-child relationships, we find a s i m i l a r pattern: a lack of significant differences between c r i m i n a l and non-c r i m i n a l parents and in each:of these sub-categories, a preponderance of fa m i l i e s with both c r i m i n a l and non-criminal parents functioning on an inadequate basis. With respect to sibling relationships, the latter trend was reversed. In f a m i l i e s of both c r i m i n a l and non-c r i m i n a l parents, there was a s i g n i f i -cantly :higher percentage of f a m i l i e s with adequate sibling relationships than f a m i l i e s with m a r g i n a l or inadequate \sibling relationships. Among f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l records, 4 5 % were adequate, 21% were marginal, and 21% were inadequate; among f a m i l i e s with n o n - c r i m i n a l records, the ratio was 58%, 27% and 9% respectively. However, there were again no significant differences between f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l and non-criminal.parents with respect to sibling relationships on each of the three levels of functioning. This last statement should be qualified as no information could be obtained :.- 67'-on three f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l parents and on two f a m i l i e s with n o n - c r i m i n a l parents. Another exception to the general pattern i s found: i n the area of m a r t i a l relationships. There i s a moderate association between inadequate m a r i t a l relationships and c r i m i n a l behaviour as 6 3 % of the f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l parents were inadequate compared to only 42% of the f a m i l i e s with n o n - c r i m i n a l parents. One can assume that impulsiveness, lack of s o c i a l control and s o c i a l concern,productive of c r i m i n a l behaviour also account for disharmony i n m a r i t a l relationships among a greater number of homes with c r i m i n a l parents. The above findings may be explained i n the following way. With the exception of m a r i t a l relationships, the fact that f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l : parents showed no significant differences when compared with n o n - c r i m i n a l . parents i n terms of family relationships can-be accounted for by the m u l t i -problem nature of these homes. With respect to the findings on sibling relationships, we can assume that because of the poor m a r i t a l situation between parents and/or the poor parent-child relationships, the children are united by their common opposition to the parents and within this alliance by the mutual satisfaction of emotional needs f o r which they depend on* eachother. - 68 -T A B L E XIII Differences in-Individual Behaviour Between F a m i l i e s Who'se Parents Had C r i m i n a l Records and F a m i l i e s Whose Parents Had No C r i m i n a l Records. Individual Behaviour Father Mother Older Ch i l d r e n C. N.C. C. N. C. C. N.C. C. N.C. C. N.C. N.K. — — — 2 6% — — — ' — — 1 3% N.A. — — 7 21% 6 18% — 1 3% 9 27% 6 18% 3 9% 3 9% ADE. 4 12% 3 9% 5 15% 8 24% 6 18% 8 24% 4 12% 12 36% 16 4 8 % MARG. 9 27% 8 24% 2 6% 4 12% 10 30% 9 27% 4 12% 5 15% 11 33% 8 24% INADE. 20 61% 22 67% 24: 73%/} 16 4 9 % 15 46% 17 52% 12 37% 18 55% 7 21% •5 15% 100% T O T A L 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 Younger Ch i l d r e n In terms of individual behaviour, we find the same trend that prevailed with respect to family relationships. No significant differences between fa m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l and non-criminal parents were discovered; a fact which again can be explained by the multi-problem nature of the homes. However, there were significantly more c r i m i n a l and non-criminal parents on an inadequate basis, than on a m a r g i n a l or adequate basis: for c r i m i n a l parents the ratio was 61% to 27% and 12% respectively and for n o n - c r i m i n a l parents 66% to 25% and 9% respectively. Inidividual behaviour viewed sub-categorically i n terms of the behaviour of the father, mother, and older children produced the same pattern. The only exceptions were with respect to the conduct of fathers and younger - 6 9 -c h i l d r e n . In the l a t t e r instance, the percentages of younger c h i l d r e n coming f r o m c r i m i n a l and n o n - c r i m i n a l homes who were found to be adequate was g r e a t e r than the percentage found to be m a r g i n a l and inadequate. However, i n accordance with the g e n e r a l pattern, no significant d i f f e r e n c e s could be d i s c o v e r e d between f a m i l i e s of c r i m i n a l p arents and f a m i l i e s of n o n - c r i m i n a l parents with r e s p e c t to the i n d i v i d u a l behaviour of younger c h i l d r e n . The fact that the highest percentages of f a m i l i e s with and without c r i m i n a l parents should relate to homes having younger c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y i n g adequate behaviour can-perhaps be accounted for by the existence of r e l a t i v e l y adequate siblings r e l a t i o n s h i p s . It i s p o s s i b l e that younger c h i l d r e n l i k e t h e i r o l d e r s i b l i n g s are exposed to poor p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but that the negative effects of this situation are n e u t r a l i s e d by the harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n with o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . The other exception to the g e n e r a l pattern i s the conduct of f a t h e r s . In comparing f a t h e r s f r o m c r i m i n a l and n o n - c r i m i n a l homes, 7 3 % of the f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l parents were inadequate in i n d i v i d u a l behaviour, whereas on 4 8 % of the f a m i l i e s with n o n - c r i m i n a l : parents were inadequate i n i n d i v i d u a l behaviour. In. other words, fathers f r o m homes, with c r i m i n a l parents are m o r e iacKiiedfto be inadequate i n i n d i v i d u a l behaviour than fathers f r o m homes without c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s . Since the father tends to be the parent having a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , i t can be a ssumed that inasmuch as c r i m i n a l behaviour i s an i n d i c a t i o n of defective s o c i a l i s a t i o n , other manifestations of poor i n d i v i d u a l behaviour a r e also l i k e l y to o c c u r . T h i s finding was - 70 -expected, since c r i m i n a l behaviour among fathers, i n some instances, o c c u r r e d during the marriage and i s a f o r m of inadequate individual behaviour. T A B L E X I V Differences i n Care and Training of Children'Between F a m i l i e s Whose Parents Had C r i m i n a l Records and F a m i l i e s Whose Parents Had No C r i m i n a l Records. Care & Training of Cfcikifceff r a i n i n g PhysTogTiSarfear 3 TraffiinigiiM^Hddsli od's> C. C. N. C. C. ~0—•—cr-N. C. ADE. 7 21% 6 18% 19 58% 22 67% 5 15% 4 12% MARG. 10 30% 9 27% 15% 4 12% 7 21% 5 15% ~ INADE. 16 49% 18 55% 9 27% 7 21% 20 61% 24 73% 100% T O T A L 33 33 33 33 33 33 In regard to the care and training of children there was again no significant differences between f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l parents and f a m i l i e s with n o n - c r i m i n a l parents. Almost 50% of the f a m i l i e s i n both groups were inadequate and thus conform to the general pattern of family functioning in a l l multi-problem f a m i l i e s . With respect to the sub-category of training methods, the findings were i n accord with this pattern, except for the fact that l a r g e r percentages of both types of fa m i l i e s were inadequate. Of the f a m i l i e s with c r i m i n a l records, 61% were inadequate: of the f a m i l i e s with non-criminal records, 7 2% were inadequate. In contrast to this trend, significantly more c r i m i n a l and no n - c r i m i n a l parents gave adequate rather than marginal or inadequate ph y s i c a l care to 71 their children. Among families with criminal records, 57% were adequate in this respect, 15% were marginal and 27% were inadequate: among families with non-criminal parents, the ratio was 66%, 12% and 21% respectively. When comparing criminal and non-criminal families in relation to physical care, however, there were no substantial differences in any of the three levels of functioning. T A B L E XV Differences in Social Activities Between,Families Whose Parents Had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents Had No Crim i n a l Records. Social Activities Informal Association Formal Association CT. N.C. C. N. C. C. N.C. ADE. 14 43% 14 43% 13 39% 15 45% 13 39% 10 30% MARG. 14 43% 23 39% 13 39% 14 42% 15 46% 20 61% INADE. 5 15% 5 15% • 7 22% 4 12% 5 15% 1 3% 100% T O T A L 33 33(1) 33 33( 2) 33 33(3) In regard to social activities, there were no significant differences between families with criminal parents and families with non-criminal parents. This was equally true in the sub-categories of informal and formal social associations. Most of the families of both types were found to be functioning adequately and marginally. For example, in relation 1 3% of Non-Criminal Parents were rated as Not Applicable in this category. 2 3% of Non-Criminal Parents were rated as Not Applicable in this category. 3 6% of Non-Criminal Parents were rated as Not Applicable in this category. to social activities, 43% of the families with parents were functioning adequately, 43% marginally and only 15% inadequately. Of the families with non-criminal parents 43% were functioning adequately, 39% marginally, and 15% inadequately. The percentage of families, in both groups, functioning marginally and adequately were about the same, except in connection with formal associations. In this latter case, among families with non-criminal parents, a significantly higher percentage of families were functioning marginally than adequately. The ratio was 61%.to 30%. T A B L E XVI Differences in Economic Practices Between Families Whose Parents Had Criminal; Records and Families Whose Parents Had No C r i m i n a l Records. Economic Sources of Use of Practices Income Job Situation Money c . N. C . , c . N.C. c . N.C. C. N.C. N.K. — ' — — — 6 18% 2 6% — 1 3% N.A. — — — — 12 36% 13 3:9% — ADE. 11 33.3% 19 58% 9 27% 19 58% 4 12% 10 30% 19 58% 20 61% MARG. 11 33.3% 7 21% 13 40% 8 24% 4 12% 3 9% 9 27% 7 21% INADE. 11 33. 3% 7 21% 11 33% 6 18% 7 22% 5 16% 5 15% 5 15% 100% T O T A L 33 33 33 ,33 33 33 33 33 A significant difference was found in adequate functioning in,the area of economic practices of criminal and non-criminal parents. The differences in the marginal and inadequate ratings were not significant. . It is interesting - 73 -to note, however, that the group of criminal parents was divided evenly between the three categories. The same pattern prevails when one compares the two groups in sources of income. The significant difference in the adequate functioning is 58% to 27% in favour of the non-criminal parents. This would seem to indicate a close association between sources of income and economic 1 practices generally. As approximately one-half of these families have no breadwinner in the home, 54% of the criminal parents were listed into these categories. There was no significant difference in the comparison of the remaining sample. In the use of money, there was no significant difference between the ratings of these two groups, both groups had over 80% of their families rated as adequate or marginal in their functioning. Since both groups have been under agency care they no doubt have received guidance in this area. - 74 -T A B L E XVII Differences i n Household P r a c t i c e s Between F a m i l i e s Whose Parents Had C r i m i n a l Records and F a m i l i e s Whose Parents Had No C r i m i n a l Records. Housekeeping Household P r a c t i c e s P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s Standards G" N.C. C N.C. C. N. C. ADE. 20 61% 20 61% 21 64% 19 58% 20 61% 21 64% MARG. 3 9% 6 18% 5 15% 4 12% 4 12% 5 15% INADE. 10 30% 6 18% 7 21%_ 9 27% 9 ,27% 6 ia% 100% T O T A L 33 33(1) 33 33(1) 33 33(1) The functioning of the c r i m i n a l and non-cr i m i n a l parents with respect to household practic e s was p r a c t i c a l l y identical. Of both groups 60% were rated as having adequate pra c t i c e s , physical f a c i l i t i e s and housekeeping standards. There i s apparently an independent relationship between household practice s and c r i m i n a l or non-criminal parents. The functioning of both groups i n this area i s comparable to their economic practices where a close association between the two areas i s noted.; As mentioned previously, guidance and p r a c t i c a l help i n these areas has no doubt had i t s effect. 1 Of the N o n - C r i m i n a l Parents 3% were rated as Not Known i n this category. - 75 -T A B L E XVIII Differences in Health Practices Between Families Whose Parents Had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents Had No Criminal Records. Health Practices Health, Problems C. N.. C. c N.C. ADE. 21 64% 17 52% 16 49% 16 49% MARG. 7 21% 12 36% 11 33% 8 8% INADE. 5 15% 3 9% 6 18% & 24% 100% T O T A L 33 33.(1] 33 33 (1) There was no significant difference noted in the area of health -practices between the criminal and non-criminal parents. Again over 80% of both groups were rated adequate or marginal in this respect. This independent relationship is similar to that found in economic practices and household practices.: 1 Of the Non-Criminal Parents 3% were rated as Not Known in this category. - 76 -.TABLE XIX Differences in Use of Community Resources Between Families Whose Parents Had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents Had No C rimihaEIRecor dsv ../.al Use of Commercial Res. School Church C. TN. C. C . N.C. C. N.C. N. K. — — — 2 6% — 1 3% N.A. — — 2 6% ; 2 6% 12 37% 12 37% • ADE. 21 64% 20 61% 21 64% 18 55% 13 39% 12 37% MARG. 10 30% 9 27% 7 21% 5 15% 7 21% 7 21% INADE. 2 6% 4 12% 3 9% 6 13% 1 •3% 1 3% 100% T O T A L 33 33 33 33 33 33 T A B L E XX Differences in Use ©f Community Resources Between Families Whose Parents Had Criminal Records and Families Whose Parents Had'No Criminal Records. Recreational Health Resources Social Agencies Agencies C. N. C. C. N. C. C. N.C. N.K. — — — — — 1 3% 1 8 10 N.A. 3% 24% 31% 20 17 ' 17 14 18 11 ADE. 61% 5 2% 5 2% 43% 55% 33% 8 8 9 13 7 7 MARG. 24% 24% 27% 59% 21% 21% 5 5 7 5 " 4 INADE. 15% 15% 21% 15% ..12% 100% ;. T O T A L 33 33 33 33 33 33; - 7 7 -The trend shpwsn in health practices and household practices continues to hold true in the use of community resources, with a slightly higher percentage of both groups in the adequate and marginal areas. This overall pattern remained in the use of school and health resources and in the U v s e of social agencies, with no significant difference apparent. Although 40% of both groups were in the nbn^ch applicable rating with respect to the use of the church resources the same trend was apparent in the remainder of the sample. There was a significant difference in the adequate use of recreatio'nal agencies. Of criminal parents 55% were in this rating as compared to 33% of the non-criminal parents. None were given an inadequate rating in this area in the criminal group. Perhaps those with criminal records came to the notice of agencies sooner and more encourage-ment was given in the use of recreational agencies to these families. School personnel, as an example, usually show added concern for those children whose parents are in contact with the courts. - 78 -b. Delinquent C h i l d r e n : T A B L E X X I Differences i n F a m i l y Relationship i n the F a m i l i e s of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. Adequate M a r g i n a l Inadequate Total ID . N.D. D. N. D. D. N.D. D. N.D. F a m i l y 3 6 11 9 22 21 36 36 Relationships ff% 17% 31% 25% 61% 58% 100% 100% M a r i t a l 3 5 8 7 22 19 36 36 Relationships 8% 14% 22% 19% 61% 53% 100% 100% P a r e n t - C h i l d 3 5 7 10 26 21 36 36 Relationships 8% 14% 19% 28% 72% 58% 100% 100% Sibling 21 16 9 HO 1 9 36 36 ; Relationships 58% 44% 25% 28% 3% 25% 100% 100% F a m i l y 7 6 6 10 23 20 36 36 Solidarity 19% 17% 17% 28% 64% 56% 100% 100%-Note - There were s m a l l percentages of f a m i l i e s rated Not Applicable i n . the M a r i t a l Relationships Group indicating one-parent f a m i l i e s . There were also s m a l l percentages i n the Not Known category of Sibling Relation-ships indicating the information required was not available. The largest percentage of the f a m i l i e s of our sample were rated Inadequate i n Family, Relationships -- this included the f a m i l i e s of both the delinquent and non-delinquent children. There was l i t t l e difference between the f a m i l i e s of either delinquent or non-delinquent children except in the matter of Sibling Relationships where the f a m i l i e s of delinquents had a greater percentage of adequate sibling relationships than the f a m i l i e s of non-delinquents, although the difference i s not considered significant. Of greater significance i s the moderate association between non-delinquency and Inadequate Sibling Relationships where the comparison i s 25% for the non-delinquents and 3% for the delinquents. This latter finding was i n definite contrast to that of H a r r i e t C. Wilson (11, P. 129) who found a.'a strong feeling of loyalty between brothers and s i s t e r 1 who are strengthened - 7 9 -by sharing the 'ups and downs of l i f e ' . These were the non-delinquent children of a study of problem f a m i l i e s . The finding that delinquent children were on better terms with their siblings than non-delinquent children, suggests that the former tend to establish an alliance among themselves against the outside world. Moreover, i t i s possible that as the older siblings are in c l i n e d to be delinquent as suggested by our findings, the younger siblings admire and respect their acts of bravado, thus contributing to the cohesivenas^of the sibling group. The remaining findings were comparable to those of Jephcott and C a r t e r as quoted by H a r r i e t C. Wilson (11, P. 24). They found that delinquency was concentrated i n the inadequate homes of their study, where the parents had poor m a r i t a l relationships and often an almost complete d i s r e g a r d for their children. In our study which was taken from a sele ction of multi-problem f a m i l i e s , such poor functioning as was found, might be expected. This would also account for the s i m i l a r i t i e s of the findings between both delinquent and non-delinquent children. - 80 -TABLE XXII Differences in Individual Behaviour in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Ghildf en. Adequate Marginal Inadequate Total D.. N.D. D. N. D. D. N.D. D. N.4D. Individual Behaviour 1 3% 3 8% 6 17% - 7 19% 29 81% 26 '72% 36 100% 36 100% Father — 5 14% 4 11%. 3 8% 27 75% 23 64% 36 100% 36 100% Mother 3 8% 11 31% 9 25% 14 39% 23 64% 11 31% 36 100% 36 100% Older Children 1 3% 7 19% 6 17% 6 17% 29 81% 22 61% 36 100% 36 1100% i Younger Children 19 53% 17 47% 8 22% 11 31% • 2 i 6% 5 14% 36 100% 36 -100% Note - There were 14% of both the families of delinquents and non-delinquents where there was no father in the home. There was one mother-less home where there were delinquent children. 20% of the homes of delinquent children either had no younger children or their behaviour was not known and 8% of the non-delinquents with no younger children. Individual behaviour tended to be adequate only in the younger children of the families of both the delinquent and non-delinquent children. The delinquent children were themselves in the group of older children which would account for the high percentage of these children in the •inadequate functioning group ( 81%). There were also alarge number of non-delinquent children in the inadequate functioning group ( 61%) which might be accounted for by the fact that many of these children were either pre-delinquent or hadn't been caught yet and brought before the Children's Court. The behaviour of the fathers of both groups of children was mainty inadequate with the delinquent children having no fathers in the ' i ' adequate group. There were 14% of the fathers out of the home in both groups. It w->uld not appear that the behaviour of the father had an - 8 1 -appreciable effect on the delinquency of the children. The behaviour of the mother, on the other hand, would seem to be moderately associated with the delinquency of the children. The delinquent children had 6 4 % of their mothers behaving inadequately while only 3 1 % of the non-delinquent group had their mothers in this category. Even this latter percentage would seem to be large-if a comparison could be made with non-multi-problem families. These findings are borne out in the Geismar-Ayres Study ( 5 , P. 6 6 ) where the mothers were found to carry on their drinking and other types of inadequate behaviour in the home where it would have a much more upsetting effect on the children. The fathers tended to carry out their inadequate behaviour outside the home where it would have little or no effect on the children. ; TABLE XXIIT Differences in Care and.Training of Children in the Families of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. Adequate Marginal Inadequate Total D : ? Nv.B. D . N. D . D . N. D . D . N. D . Care & Training 2 7 1 3 6 21 2 3 3 6 3 6 of Children 6 % 1 9 % 3 6 % 1 7 % 5 8 % 6 4 % 1 0 0 % 1 0 0 % Physical 2 5 1 8 7 3 4 15 3 6 3 6 Care 7 0 % 5 0 % 1 9 % 8 % 11% 4 2 % 1 0 0 % 1 0 0 % Training 4 8 5 2 8 2 7 3 6 3 6 Methods 11% 2 2 % 1 4 % 7 8 % 7 5 % 1 0 0 % 101D% Note - There were no ratings in the Not-Known or Not-Applicable categories. The care and training of children including training methods was found to be largely inadequate in the families of both delinquent and non-delinquent children, with no appreciable difference between them. This finding could be accounted for by the small range of families but it does bear out other studies in the delinquent group where the Harriet C. Wilson -82 - • study (11, P. 125) found that delinquency was closely associated with poor control and supervision of children. The physical care given, however, was better for the delinquent children than the non-delinquent - 70% of the delinquent children were receiving adequate physical care while only 50% of the non-delinquent group were in the-adequate category. This i s a negative relationship as is that in the Inadequate category where 42% of the non-delinquents were receiving inadequate care while only 11% of the : delinquents were in this group. .. This provides a moderate and inverse association between inadequate physical care and delinquency. A possible explanation here might be that the parents of the delinquent children, not being able to cope with their emotional needs, may work harder ' to'provide them, with g-Vod physical care. However, Geismar and Ayres ( 5, P. 61) found a correlation between physical neglect, housekeeping standards and health practices. Since our study has a fairly high rating for both delinquent and non-delinquent children in all three areas of physical care, housekeeping standards, and health practices,, one might reason that the reverse of Geismar-Ayres findings 'could be true, that adequate physical care would be related to adequate housekeeping standards and adequate health practices. - 83 -T A B L E X X I V Differences i n Social A c t i v i t i e s i n the F a m i l i e s of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. Adequate Margin a l Inadequate Tota: D. N.D. D. N.D. D. N.D. D. N.D. Soc i a l 11 13 17 18 6 5 36 36 A c t i v i t i e s 31% 36% 47% 50% 17% 14% 100% 100% Informal 12 11 14 20 8 5 36 36 A c t i v i t i e s 3 3% 31% 39% . 5 6 % 22% .14% 100% 100% F o r m a l 12 14 19 1 3 36 3,6 -A c t i v i t i e s 3 3 % 39% . 4 7 % 53% 3% 8% . 100% 100% Note - There were 6% of the delinquent group who were hot-knownin the Soc i a l Informal A c t i v i t i e s categories and 17% of the same group not-known rn the F o r m a l A c t i v i t i e s category. Social A c t i v i t i e s including both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l associations are shown to be mainly either marginal or adequate, weighing more towards the former. This was true f o r both the f a m i l i e s of delinquent and non-delinquent children with no appreciable difference between them. This would appear to indicate that s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s have no bearing on the delinquency of childreni Other studies found that the delinquent group of children tended not to have f o r m a l p e e r group associations themselves which would be generally true of multi-problem f a m i l i e s i n general. Delinquent children tended to join neighbourhood gangs etc. , rather than Boy Scouts or other sponsored boys 1 clubs. (11, P. 77). - 84 -T A B L E X X V Differences i n Economic P r a c t i c e s i n the F a m i l i e s of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. .IT n - E a l . ! Adequate Ma r g i n a l Inadequate Total D. N. D. D. N. D. D. N, D. D. N. D. Economic 9 18 17 6 10 12 36 36 P r a c t i c e s •25% 50% 47% 17% 28% 33% 100% 100% Sources of 16 15 11 12 9 9 36 36 Income 44% 42 % 31% 33% 25% 25% .100% 100% Job —- 6 9 6 5 8 10 36 36 Situation 17% • 25% 17% 14% . 22% 28% 100% 100% Use of 17 17 12 6 7 12 36 36 Money 47% 4 7 % 3 3 % 17% 19% 33% 100% 100% Note - There were 4 5 % of the delinquent group-in the not-known or not-applicable category for Job Situation and 33% of the non-delinquent g n u p with this rating. 3% were not-known i n the Use of Money for the non-delinquent group. In regards to economic practices, a significant difference was found between f a m i l i e s with delinquent children and f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children. 50% of the f a m i l i e s with non-delinquents were adequate whereas only 25% of the f a m i l i e s with delinquents were adequate. Moreover, 47% of the f a m i l i e s with delinquents were m a r g i n a l whereas only 17% of the f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children were marginal. Most of the f a m i l i e s ( approx. 75%) with delinquent and;non-delinquent children ranges from the marginal l e v e l of functioning to the adequate. While this latter pattern was also true of the sub-categories of economic -p r a c t i c e s , namely, sources of income, job situation, and use of money, no significant differences were found between f a m i l i e s with delinquent children and f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children. However, as far as job situation i s concerned, this statement should be q u a l i f i e d a s no information could be obtained on six f a m i l i e s with delinquent children - 85 -and four f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children. Those i n the non-applicable category would r e f e r to those f a m i l i e s receiving public assistance. In short, when considering economic practice; and i t s r a m i f i c a -tions, there was found to be a moderate association between non-delin-quency and adequate economic practic e s i n general and between delinquency and marginal l e v e l of functioning.in this p a r t i c u l a r area. In other words, i n multi-problem homes where economic practices are satisfactory, children are l i k e l y to be non-delinquent; i n multi-problem homes where economic practices are marginal, children are l i k e l y to become delinquent. To account f o r the contributing effects of marginality on delinquency, s e v e r a l suggestions are offered. While marginal economic practices did not frustrate basic needs, i t i s possible that cu l t u r a l l y determined needs were not met. That i s , the desire for luxury goods, such as sports equipment and other items favoured by youth and conveying status within the peer group, was not satisfied. Owing to poorer economic practices, i t i s assumed that a discrepancy existed between the l e v e l of aspiration and the l e v e l of achievement. When the abil i t y to obtain such consumptive goods i s denied to the adolescent, the tendency i s to achieve the desired m a t e r i a l objects by i l l e g i t i m a t e means. L i k e most other delinquents a great number of delinquent children i n our study had been charged with theft. Another possible explanation i s that the delinquent children identified with the m a r g i n a l pattern of behaviour of the parents i n terms - 86 of using money, coping with employment and the various sources of income. In this way, i t i s assumed that the incorporation of these parental patterns contributed to personality factors conductive to delinquency. This i s supported by H a r r i e t C. Wilson 1 s findings. (11, P,146) T A B L E X X V I Differences i n Household P r a c t i c e s i n the F a m i l i e s of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. Adequate M a r g i n a l Inadequate Total D. N.D. D. N.D. D. N.D. D. N.D. Household P r a c t i c e s 20 56% 12 ,33% 1 8 22% 10 28% 8 22% " 8 •,22% 36 100% 36 100% Housekeeping Standards 20 56% 15 42% 8 >22% 9 25% 7 19% 11 •31% 36 100% 36 100% P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 18 50% 18 50% 9 25% 4 11% 9 25% 13 36% 36 100% 36 100% Note - There i s one not-know case i n each category of the non-delinquent group. In terms of household pr a c t i c e s , no significant differences were found between f a m i l i e s with delinquent children and f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children. Generally speaking, i n both types; of f a m i l i e s , almost or more than one-half were adequate. F o r example, in the group of f a m i l i e s with delinquent children 55% were adequate as compared with . only 22% that were mar g i n a l and 22% that were inadequate. The same trend was found among f a m i l i e s with non-delinquent children: 47% were adequate whereas only 28% were marginal and only 22% were inadequate. A s i m i l a r pattern was found with respect to the components of household pra c t i c e s , that i s , p h y sical f a c i l i t i e s and housekeeping standards. - 87 -T A B L E X X V I I Differences i n Health P r a c t i c e s i n the F a m i l i e s of. Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. Adeq uate M a r g i n a l Inac equate Tota 1 D. . N.D. D. N.D. •E>. N.D. D. N.D. Health P r a c t i c e s 20 56% 16 44% •11 31% 13 36% 3 8% 7 19% 36 •100% 36 100% Health Problems 12 33% 17 4 7 % 14 ; 39% 9 •25% 8 22%. 10 29% 36 100% 36 100% Note - There are 6% of the f a m i l i e s of delinquents rated as not-known: i n both-categories. In the area of health p r a c t i c e s , 56% of the f a m i l i e s of delinquents were rated as adequate while only 44% of the f a m i l i e s of non-delinquents w-eterit^&fis:sciat^gar.y. TTh^areK-wa'S:.no isignificant difference i n the marginal and inadequate categories. In health problems, the non-delinquents outnumbered the delinquents by 47% to 33% but this difference i s too s m a l l to be of any r e a l significance. Theheonclusion drawn i s that health practices have no bearing on the delinquency of children. 88 -T A B L E XXVIII Differences i n Use of Community Resources i n the F a m i l i e s of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Children. Adequate Mart ji n a l Inadequate Tota D. N. D. D. N.D. D. N.D. • D. N.D. '•J - 2 . £ •- 13 25 6 - 6 16 3 36 36 School (.1);, 'fx • .. *36% 69% 17% 17% 44% 8% 100% 100% 15 14 6 12 2 36 36 Church ( 2) 42% 39% 17% 33% 6% 100% 100% 17 20 8 8 3 8 36 36 Health ( 3) 47% 56% 22% 22% 8% 22% 100% 100% S i c i a l 13 21 16 • 11 7 4 J 36 36 Agencies 36% 58% 44% 31% 19% 11% 100% 100% Recreational Agencies (4) 11 21 11 8 7 2 36 36 . 31% 58% 31% 22% 19% 6% 100% 100% The f a m i l i e s of non-delinquents r a t e d b e t t e r i n most categories under this heading. In the o v e r a l l use of community resources, the f a m i l i e s of non-delinquents were found to function adequately i n 6.7% while 50% of the f a m i l i e s of delinquents were i n this category. The same pattern was found i n the use of s o c i a l agencies and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s although the non-delinquents rate better i n the adequate category indicating a moderate association between use of so c i a l agencies, r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and non-delinquency. The poor use of s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies by delinquents suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that delinquents t r y to solve their family-generated problem s by rebelling against institutions outside of the family. . The information on the use of the church was riot too significant. About one-third of both groups were not-applicable or riot-known withno 1 4% of the cases were non-applicable i n this category. 2 32% of the cases were non-applicable i n this category. 3 11% of the cases! were non-applicable i n this category. 4 17% of the c a s e i were non-applicable i n this category. 89 -appreciable difference in the ratings of the remainder. A similar situation was found in the ufe of health resources with over 20% not rated. The outstanding difference was found in the use of the school facilities where 69% of the non-delinquent group were rated as functioning adequately while only 36% of the delinquent group were in this category. Of the delinquent group 44% were rated as inadequate while only 8% of the non-delinquent group were inadequate. This was found to be true in other studies where delinquents were found to be below par in school achievement. Delinquent children are less interested in school, and hence do not do as well. They tend to play truant which results in getting them into trouble with the school authorities, thus making them even more dis-satisfied. They are bebelling against authority figures and eventually leave school. Few of the delinquents of our study were sti l l in school. The poor use of school facilities is similar to the findings of other studies such as Harriet C. Wilson (11, P. 105) and Jephcott and Carter as quoted in Harriet C. Wilson.(11, P. 24). They found that delinquent children tended to under-achieve, had poor school adjustrrre^mt and eventually dropped out. .. T A B L E XXIX Comparison of Crime Among Parents with Delinquency in Children. Parents with or without history of contact with correctional agencies. With Without Total D elinquent Children 6 11% 47 89% 53 100% Non-Delinquent Children 1 5 26% 43 74% 58 100% When comparing the percentages of parents from families with and without delinquent children, in terms of criminal record among the fir m e r , no significant differences were found. This finding is in keeping with that of Harriet C. Wilson (11, P. 144). She discovered that past criminal activities on the part of the parents was not a contributing factor to delinquency among the children. We might also note that in both types of families those with and without delinquent children; a substantial majority of the parents in both instances did not have criminal records, the percentages being 89% and 74% respectively. T A B L E XXX Comparison, of Psychiatric Problems Among Parents with Delinquency in Children. Parents with or without history of psychiatric problems. With Without Total D elinquent 8 45 53 Children 15% '85% IQ:Q% Non-Delinquent 13 45 58 Children .23% 77% 100% As to whether or not parents had psychiatric disturbances as indicated by committal to mental institutions, no significant differences were found when comparing families with delinquent children and families with non-delinquent children. In other words, mental illness was not a factor contributing to delinquency among multi-problem families. This finding is in accord with that of the Geismar-Ayres Study ( 5, P. 63) where delinquency could not be attributed to mental illness in the home, but was viewed as a result of a combination of factors of malfunctioning. In our study, only a small percentage of parents from homes with delinquent and - 91 -non-delinquent children had a h i s t o r y of p s y c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s , the per-centages being 15% and 23% respectively. 3. Economic Dependency a. V a r i a b l e s f r om the G e i s mar-Ayres Scale: 1) F a m i l y Relationships: Marginality i n F a m i l y Relationships tends to be moderately associated with marginality or intermediacy i n the chronicity groups. Adequacy or Inadequacy i n F a m i l y relationships does not show significant association with any of the chronicity groups. 2) Individual Behaviour: Adequacy as opposed to Inadequacy i n Individual Behaviour tends to be moderately associated with chronic economic dependence whereas, inadequacy as opposed to adequacy in:Individual Behaviour tends to be moderately associated with intermediacy of economic chronicity. A concentration of marginality as opposed to inadequacy i n .Individual Behaviour i s moderately associated with chronic economic dependency. Further, there appears to be no significant association between any l e v e l of functioning and the non-chronic economic dependency group. 3) C are and Training of Children: M a r g i n a l i t y and Adequacy i n Care and T r a i n i n g of C h i l d r e n are both moderately associated with chronic economic dependence. Similarly;; Adequacy and Inadequacy i n this functioning factor a r e moderately associated with intermediacy i n economic dependency. 4) Household P r a c t i c e s : This factor of f a m i l y functioning i s apparently independent from economic chronicity. No groups showed as much as - 9 2 -2 0 % difference from any other group. 5) Health P r a c t i c e s : Adequacy i n Health P r a c t i c e s i s moderately associated with chronic economic dependency. Adequacy as compared with margtnality shows a tendency towards moderate association with non-chronic economic dependency. 6) Use of Money: Inadequacy as opposed to adequacy tends to be moderately associated with intermediacy i n ecommic dependence. Adequacy and marginality as opposed to inadequacy both tend to be moderately associated with chronic economic dependence. b. Other V a r i a b l e s : When the total sample groups had been c l a s s i f i e d as to chronicity t f economic dependence as outlined i n Chapter II of this study, we found that 3 3 f a m i l i e s i n the sample indicated a chronicity rating from 0 to 1 8 . 7 % . This was designated as our non-chronic group. Thirty-four f a m i l i e s were found to have chronicity ratings of 2 0 to 3 7 . 8 % and these were designated as our intermediate chronicity group. The remaining 3 3 f a m i l i e s , having the highest chronicity ratings ranging from 3 9 to 8 5 % were designated as being our chronic group. This o v e r - a l l designation accounted for 1 0 0 % of the sample group and the three groups were then held constant for a l l factor comparisons. . The following table shows the study sample distribution i n terms of refasons for f i r s t contact with a s o c i a l agency. -93 -T A B L E X X X I Reasons for F i r s t Agency Contact by Three L e v e l s of Economic Chronicity. Reason for F i r s t Contact F i n a n c i a l Other Non-Chronic 2 9. 5% . 31 39.3% Intermediate 7 33.3% 27 34, 2% Chronic 12 57.2% 21 26. 5% T O T A L , CASES 21 100% 79 100% This table shows that for 79% of the total cases, the f i r s t contact was for other than f i n a n c i a l reasons. F o r those cases whose f i r s t contact was for f i n a n c i a l reasons, 57. 2% were i n the chronically dependent group. In comparison, only 9. 5% of the cases i n the fi n a n c i a l contact group were found i n the non-chronic group. When one compares the two categories of reasons for f i r s t contact, i t i s significant that the percentage findings indicated that when f i r s t contact was for fi n a n c i a l reasons, the p o s s i b i l i t y that chronicity would develop was more than double those chances i f the reason f o r f i r s t contact was other than financial. Conversely, there was a 30% difference indicated;in the non-chronic group between " f i n a n c i a l " and "other" categories, with the higher percentage f a l l i n g i n the "other" category. This bears out the previous findings. In viewing the three groups of f a m i l i e s i n rel a t i o n to the length of - 94 -time since establishment of f a m i l i e s , the measurement was v i e w e d i n terms of months of marriage or months since b i r t h of the oldest child, whichever was the greater. The folio win g table shows the distribution and the percentages for this factor: T A B L E X X X I I Differences i n Age of F a m i l i e s as Shown i n .Three Levels of Economic Chronicity. Number of Months F a m i l y Established 1-50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 301 !& Non-Chronic — • 1 (20) 3(12. 5) 10 (38. 5) 6 ( 25) 7 (58. 3) 6 (75) Intermediate — 11 (20) 10(41.7) 6 ( 23.0) 12 (50) 3 ( 25.0) 2 (25) Chronic 1 (100) 3 (60) 11 (45. 8) 10 (38.5) 6 ( 2. 5) 2 (16,7) 100% Total 1 . 5 24 26 24 12 8 The general picture showsh i n the above table i s that 56% of the total f a m i l i e s had been i n existence for l e s s than 201 months; that'is,, 16 and 3/4 y^rs. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the non-chronic group had a majority of f a m i l i e s f a l l i n g i n the 201 through 301 month categories. Conversely, the chronic group conformed to the o v e r - a l l i g e n e r a l p i c t u r e presented above. We therefore assumed that s i n c e t h e younger f a m i l i e s spent a greater proportion of time since marriage on public assistance than did;the older f a m i l i e s , this might r e f l e c t changing public assistance p o l i c i e s making it easier to procure public assistance. „ The intermediate chronicity group were exactly evenly divided on either side of the 200 month category and therefore the f a m i l y a"ge factor was seen as apparently independent far this group. - 95 -We assumed at the beginning of this study that large families would be characteristic of the chronic financially dependent families. Our findings however, do not substantiate this assumption. TABLE XXXIII Differences in Size of Family by Three Levels of Economic Chronicity ^  Number of Children in the Home One to Two Three to Five Six or More Non-Chronic 7 (38.9) 21 (33.9) 5 ( 25. 0) Intermediate 3 (16.7) 21 (33.9) 10 ( 50.0) Chronic 8 (44.4) 20 ( 32. 2) 5 ( 25.0) 100 % Total 18 62 20 There is very little difference between the chronic and non-chronic groups as can be seen from the above table. There was, however, a tendency for families in the intermediate group to be larger. However, 62% of thetotal families were in the three to five children category and the frequency distribution found in this category was very close for all three chronicity groups. , With regardto the number of parents in the home, we assumed at the beginning of this study that one parent homes would be highly associated with chronic economic dependency. . - 96 -T A B L E X X X I V Differences, i n the Number of Parents i n the Home by Three L e v e l s of Economic C h r o n i c i t y . Numbearof Parents i n the lome Both Single Non-Chronic 21 ( 51. 2) 12 (23.0) Intermediate 12 (29.3) 22 (37.3) Chronic 8 (19.5) 25 (42.4) 100 % Total 41 59 In. viewing the total sample, 59% are noted as being one parent homes. F a m i l i e s i n which both parents were present showed 5 1 % as being non-chronic i n comparison with 20% for the chronic group. S i m i l a r l y , i n the single parent f a m i l i e s , only 20% were non-chronic while 4 2 % were chronic. This was taken as substantiation of our o r i g i n a l assumption. We now tu r n to analyzing the data found concerning the six f a m i l y functioning factors taken from the G e i s m a r - A y r e s (5) and previously mentioned i n E: of this Study. Because we found that the frequency distribution.in the f a m i l y functioning factors used reflected a r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r e r picture than did some of the percentage findings, we have included the following summary tables f o r reader c l a r i f i c a t i o n . - 97/-TABLE XXXV Differences in Three Family. Functioning Factors By Three Levels Of Economic Chronicity. Care And Family Relationships Individual Behaviour Training of Children Ade. Marg. Inade. Ade. Marg. Inade. Ade. Marg. Inade. Non- " Chronic 7 (35) 4 (14.8) 22 (41.6) 3 (27.3) 7 ( 29. 2) 23 ( 35.4) 4 . ( 20) 10 (32.3) 19 (38. 8) Inter-mediate 4 ( 20) 15 (55.6). 15 (28. 3) 2 (1-8.4) b (25) 26 (40) 8 (4D) 5 (163. 1) 21 (42. 8) Chronic 9 (45) 8 ( 29.6) 16 (.30.1) 6 (54. 3) 11 (45.8) 16 (24.6) 8 (40) 16 (51.6) 9 (18.3) 100 % Total 20 27 53 11 24 65 20 31 49 TABLE XXXVI Further Differences in Three Family Functioning Factors by Three Levels Of Economic Chronicity. Household Practices Healt l Practices Use of Mone1 f Ade. Marg. Inade. Ade. Marg. Inade. Ade. Marg. Inade. Non-Chronic 23 (32.4) 5 (41.7) 4 (22.3) 21 (3 2.3) 6 (25) • 5 (50) 30 . (32. 8) 6 (25) 6 (42.9) Inter-im ediate 21 (30.4) 5 (41.7) 8 (44.6) 17 ( 26. 2) 13 (54.2) 4 (40) 18 (29.5) 9 (37.5) 7 (50) Chronic 25 (36.2) 2 (16.6) 6 (33,1) 27 (41.5) 5 ( 20. 8) 1 (10) 23 (37.7) 9 (37.5) 1 (7,1) 100 % Total 69 12 18 65 24 10 71 24 14 Referring to Table XXXV, we found that for two of the three functioning factors the majority of cases were in the inadequate category; 53 cases in Family Functioning 65 cases in Individual Behaviour, as compared to only 49 cases in Care and Training of Children. Generally, we found the number of cases in the chronic economic dependency group 'falling in the inadequate category of family functioning factors was much smaller than the number of cases in the non-chronic group falling-into the same category. This was true-for all three factors - 98 -included in Table XXXV.: Referring to Table XXXVI, contrary to the frequency pattern found in the previous table, we found that for the three family functioning factors, the majority of cases were in the adequate category; 71 cases in Household Practices, 65 cases in Health Practices, and 61 cases in Use of Money. In comparing the chronic and non-chronic economic dependency groups, we found that the number of cases falling into the adequate category in the first two family functioning factors was greater for the chronic economic dependency group. To summarize the findings, we had expected that inadequate family relationships would tend to characterize the chronic economically dependent group. Our findings however, showed.only a moderate association between marginal family relationships and the intermediate chronicity groups. We had expected that the inadequate individual behaviour factor would be associated with the chronic economically dependent group. The findings showed no significant relationship betweenthese two factors, however it was interesting that in, the adequate individual-behaviour category, the chronic economically dependent group showed moderate association as opposed to the intermediate and.non-chronic groups. The Care and Training; of Children factors showed that marginality and adequacy in child care and training were both moderately associated with chronic economic dependence. This negates our assumption that the chronic economic dependence would be associated with inadequate care and - 9 9 -training of children. In studying household practices, our findings showed this factor of family functioning to be apparently independent of the chronicity of economic dependence. We had also thought that-inadequate health practices would be associated with chronic economic dependence, however our analysis showed the opposite; that is, that adequacy in Health Practices was found to be moderately associated with, the chronic economically dependent group. We had stated that inadequate use of money would be associated with chronic economic dependence. Analysis of the findings showed the opposite .to be true; that is that adequacy and marginality in use of money were moderately associated with the chronic economically dependent group. It was interesting that analysis of the six family functioning factors mentioned above showed t ha t the chronic economic dependency group had generally a higher percentage of cases in the adequate category and a lower percentage of cases in the inadequate category than the non-chronic or intermediate categories respectively. Generally, the difference was not at a significant level for this study. There was twice as great a tendency for the sample group families to become chronically.financially dependent if their first agency contact was for economic reasons than if the first contact was for other than ecaJrbmic reasons. More than three quarters of the sample, group families first - 100 -contacted a social agency for other than financial reasons. It was interesting to find that for the sample group there was a tendency for the younger families to be included in the chronic economically dependent group. Perhaps this reflects changing social assistance policies, or a trend from.two parents.toward more economically dependent one parent families,, or perhaps a combination of these two factors. Family size tended to be in the 3 to 5 children range, which is considered today to be a large family. Bothithe chronic and the non -chronic group tended towards slighlty larger families than the other two chronicity groups. Because 4ur;Haniple group had a majority of one parent families, we expected an association of one parent families and the chronic economic dependency group. The analysis of our data showed a moderate association between one-patent families and the chronic dependency group; that is to say that if the family was one-parent, there was a greater tendency for it to be in the chronic economic dependency group. 4. Common Findings The three groups concerned with child care, crime and delinquency, and economic chronicity were able to arrive at the following common findings: a. Family Relationships On the adequate and inadequate levels of functioning, all three groups dealing with child care, crime and delinquency, and economic .- - 101-chronicity, found no significant association between these group variables and family relationships. Marginality, in economic dependency, however, was moderately associated with marginality in family relation-ships. b. Individual Behaviour With respect to the major category of individual behaviour, there were no common findings but inadequate behaviour of the mother is strongly associated with inadequate child care and moderately associated with delinquency. c. Care and Training of Children As far as care and training of children are concerned, there were no common findings in the two groups concerned with economic chronicity, and crime and delinquency, d* Social Activities Concerning the sub-categories of social activities, namely, informal and formal associations, adequacy and marginality were characteristic of most delinquents and non-delinquents. This trend is also applicable to child care groups in relation to informal and formal associations. e. ,• Use of Money In terms of using money - a sub-category of economic practices the trend was found to be towards adequacy in all three groups. f. Sources of Income In regards to another sub-category of economic practices, that is, sources of income, in both child care and crime and delinquency groups, - 102 -the trend is towards adequacy in sources of income. g. Household Practices No significant association was found between household practices on one hand and economic dependency, crime, and delinquency on the other. Of the total sample of multi-problem families, the majority have adequate household practices. h. Health Practices In health practice, the trend is towards adequacy in all three groups. i . Use of Schools In all three child care groups and criminal and non-criminal parent families, the trend is towards adequacy. In the delinquency group, no major trend was observed but there was a moderate association between non-delinquency and adequate use of schools, j. Use of Church For;those who attended church, the trend is toward adequacy but no significant association was found between use of church on one hand and child: care, crime, and delinquency on the other, k. Use of Health Resources In the use of health resources, the two groups concerned with child care, and crime and delinquency,. found that the trend is towards adequacy. 1. Use of Social Agencies In the use of social agencies, adequacy and non-delinquency were 103 -moderately associated but in the groups dealing with child care and crime and delinquency the trend is towards adequacy, m. Use of Recreational Agencies In the use of recreational agencies, adequacy is moderately associated with non-delinquency but as in the use of social agencies, the trend for both child care and crime and delinquency groups, again, is towards adequacy. GHAPTER IV A. CONCLUSIONS 1. Child Care The two variables, of thispart of the study, which were most clearly and consistently associated with child care were family solidarity and the behaviour of the mother. It is difficult to assess, however, if the two variables are independent of each other or if there is a spurious relationship between them and we are, in fact, measuring different aspects of one, more general function. If, with additional research, independence can be proven, these two categories might well become useful indices in judgements of child care. An interesting parallel can be drawn between marital relationships and the behaviour of the father. In both cases the incidence of inadequacy i s high and varies little, irrespective of the child care provided. A relationstypnbetween the two, of course, can be expected since part of the rating of the father's behaviour is his performance as a spouse. Yet the mother's behaviour is also rated in this manner and does trio* show the same trend. This might well suggest that the behaviour of the father and marital relationships are closely related. Certainly the mother's behaviour is much more aligned to child care than that of the father. One significant difference between the behaviour of older and younger children is that older children show a much greater tendency to be rated as inadequate when child care is inadequate. This could possibly be explained by the fact that the younger children 1 have not yet reached adolescence where acting out behaviour is morse common and noticeable. - 105 -The younger children also, have not had as much:time for their problems to come to someone's^ attention outside the family. Contrary to the stereotype, the multi-problem family generally illustrated a good ability tb manage money, with: only 15%.in the inadequate category. F o r those giving inadequate child care, almost as many used money adequately as inadequately. At ieast two comments would appear appropriate to these findings. F i r s t l y , it is likely that the incomes are so meager, that families must become adept at budgetting to manage bare subsistence. On the other hand, inadequate child care does not appear to be the result of deprivation through financial management. The pattern of findings shows marked similarities in the use of school and health resources and social agencies. Almost a l l of those giving adequate child care use these resources adequately, whereas only one-half to one-third of the inadequate child care group use them adequately. Several conclusions seem to be derivable from this. Those families who use one set of resources will tend to also use the others. The families who most need help are least likely to approach or co-operate with resource agencies. Possibly this is the result of previous alienation and may have been a contributing factor as to why the family is now multi-problematic. We might also ask ourselves if there is a tendency to rate child care practices lower when'a family indicates an unco-operative attitude. 2» Crime and Delinquency In this study criminal behaviour of parents was moderately associated - 106 -with.inadequacy in marital relationships, individual'behaviour of father, economic practices and source of income. In other words, criminal parents were inferior to non-criminal parents, with respect to functioning in these areas. The above findings on criminal parents suggest several possible explanations. Since in some cases, criminal behaviour occurred during marriage, and: in'most cases was committed by the iather, this would influence the rating of the father's behaviour. It is suggested that the same factors which account for criminal behaviour, namely impulsiveness, lack of inner controls and social consciousness, also contribute to poor marital adjustment, poor economic practices and inadequacy in sources of income. Since the latter includes obtaining money by fraudulent means, the finding was to some extent anticipated. Moreover, the personality traits referred to would be contributing factors to financial dependency, which is one implication of inadequacyin sources of income. Low income, another implication, together with these traits could be a precipitafe of criminalactivity. It is also recognized that incarceration of the father would mean reliance of the family on public assistance, which would eocplain the rating on sources of income for families with criminal parents. In view of the possible significance of the findings relative to criminal patents, additional study to determine the relationships between criminal behaviour and its apparent association in the four areas indicated seems warranted. . • - 107 -Delinquency was moderately and inversely associated with inadequacy in sibling relationships and physical care. It can be stated that generally delinquents in comparison with non-delinquents came from homes where their siblings were dn better terms with each.other and where the-physical care given by the parents to their children was superior. Moreover, delinquency was found to be moderately associated with inadequacy of the individual behaviour of the mother and of the older sibling and marginally in ecpnomic practices. Non-delinquency was moderately associated with adequacy in economic practices. In essence, then, our study showed that in families with delinquents, the behaviour of mothers and older siblings and economic practices tended to be poorer when compared "to families with non-delinquents. Non-delinquency was moderately associated with adequacy in the use of schools, social and recreational agencies. That is to say, delin-quents came fro TO homesv.''which made inferior use of these particular community resources. The meaning; of these findings is difficult to assess. The following are some tentative conclusions. Delinquency in:the multi-problem family may be in part a fighting response to the multiple frustration and depriv-ation faced by the child. This response may be more likely to occur where the child is of robust health. It is quite possible that the robust health i s to some degree a product of better child care. It may also tend to influence the person making ratings of child care in the direction of giving more positive ratings. - 108 -Another possible explanation's that mothers of delinquent children are unable to show love and affection and therefore compensate by giving physical care. The emotional deprivation would thus give rise to delin-quency. Further intensive researchanto the emotional capacity of the mothers may be helpful in-addingi to our knowledge of delinquency in multi-problem, families. The finding that delinquent children tended to get along better with their peers than children in families where no delinquency occurs suggests a banding together of the delinquent children against the world outside the family. It is possible that in such families, conflicts are more likely to be projected baaio the relationships outside of the family. Further study of patterns of conflict resolution in the families might help to clarify this issue. An alternate explanation may be that since older siblings are inclined to be more delinquent, the younger siblings regard their wayward activities against society with admiration and in this way contribute'to the harmonious relationships among the siblings. An examination of the degree of identification with older siblings may be worthwhile in deter-mining whether this is a factor accounting for the cohesiveness found among the siblings. Moreover, the findings: on both the relationship 1 with siblings, the Quality of physical care and: the behaviour of older siblings appears to be worth further study. The finding with respect to the positive relationship between delin-quency and poor economic practices suggest two possibilities Which might account for delinquency. F i r s t l y , identification with the parents* inadequate - 109-pattern of behaviour related to use of money, coping with employment and the various sources of income. Secondly, larceny to obtain culturally desired goods conveys more status than basic consumption goods.! Since many of the delinquencies involved theft and ,since the delinquents were not apparently suffering from material deprivation, it is assumed that parents, of delinquents are insensitive to the cultural needs of children and/or unable to satisfy them because of their poor economic practices. A study of juvenile court records to determine the kind of items stolen and a comparative study of the mothers' sensitivity may be of considerable value. The fact that-the mothers of delinquents tend to display; inadequate behaviour is somewhat supportive of this contention. ., The finding with regard to the positive relationship between the mother's behaviour and delinquency was expected. It is possible that mothers tend to manifest inadequate behaviour in the home where it would exert considerable disturbing influence on the children. The finding that non-delinquency is associated with adequacy in relationships with a variety of community agencies supports the suggestion given above about patterns of conflict resolution in the families. Additional suggestions for further study include the findings on the relationship between delinquency on one hand and on the other economical practices, mother's behaviour, and use of various community resources, especially the school, and social and recreational agencies. 3. Economic Dependence The findings of this study indicated a high incidence of one parent - 110-families and their moderate association with chronic economic dependence. Chronic economic dependence, in turn, was moderately associated with the adequate category of care and training of children, health practices, and use of money. This negated our primary assumption and indicated the probability that the intensified use of services from various social agencies permits these families to function* more adequately in these areas. The relationships between economic dependence and care and training of Children appearedj to be quite complex. It was at first, surprising that chronic receipt of public assistance was associated with adequate care and training of children since one would expect chronic receipt of public assistance to involve a marginal standard of living over a longer ^period of time. A hypothesis to explain this relationship is as follows: the positive^ relationship of chronic economic dependence and adequate care and training of children,is simply a reflection of the fact that the families who receive long term assistance are more likely to be one parent families. In these families there-is less marital strife than, in the two-parent, multi -problemrfamilies. Frequently, after the father leaves, the family situation stabilises and the care and training of children improves. If correct, this hypothesis suggests an additional line of enquiry which would involve holding the family lijfe cycle stage constant when relating the adequacy of care and training of childrento the absence of one parent. It may well be that the stabilisation of the family and the improvement in child care that frequently foljlows upon the departure of the father is only a temporary improvement: that when the children: reach the adoles-- n r . . - -cent stage conflicts again develop. Whether this is so would be revealed by an analysis in which family life cycle stage is held constant. The finding that chronic economic dependence is associated with adequate health practices, use of money, and care and training of children, appears to be a gratifying one from the point of view of public welfare administration. It suggests that public assistance programs may well be achieving to some degree theirpurposes of stabilizing and strengthening family lijte. B . IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS The following are the implications of our findings for: practitioners, policy-makers and administrators, clients, and researchers. Treatment Implications for Practitioners The exploratory nature of this study precludes anyrdefinite state-ment concerning treatment implications. Our findings reveal no clear Cut; sub-types of multi-problem; families which could be used in family diagnosis. This may stem from a limitation in the concept "multi-problem family" which covers an enormous range of different kinds of families. However, the fact that our analysis did not reveal clear cut types likely reflects the limited nature of the analysis itself. Inter-relating variables, two at a time, is an insufficient basis on which to construct a typology since this leaves too many factors uncontrolled. Our findings do suggest some possibilities for multi-vaorfa^fe;analysis of family profiles, for example, examining the correlates of adequacy of child care while holding constant the family life cycle stage -••112'.-and family composition ( especially the presence or absence of the father). Implications for Policy-makers and Administrators This study, as such, does not presume to develop any basis for policy or administrative formulations. The Area Development Project, of which this study is a small part, will no doubt have findings upon which fir m recommendations maybe based. Implications for Client Group This study contributes to the general knowledge of the multi-problem family unit although of itself it is of no immediate value to the client because of the inconclusiveness of the findings and the research orientation of the study. It may be a contributory factor to further research and definitive knowledge of this group. Implications for Researchers Some research suggestions have already been indicated. The following are additional considerations?: It does not seem in examining the research instruments that the factors viewed are independent. We may be concerned with an'artifactual problem. The scale upon which the Geismar-Ayres profile is based is perhaps not appropriate as this is an accumulative scale demonstrating an h i e r a r c h i c a l relationship between items. The lack of independence suggests the need for further experimentation with the rating scheme, particularly analysis designed to ascertain the independent components of family functioning. This study suggests that there are three areas of consideration - 113.-that would be pertinent to further research. F i r s t l y , the analysis of the data above has relied upon a rather crude, statistical methodology. The judicious use of multi-variant analysis would likely offer refinement and result in a more fruitful employment of data. Secondly, since no control group w£.s used the findings were limited to our arbitrarily selected multi-problem,family group. Lastly, conclusive examination of family functioning; in the multi-problem family will only ensue when longitudinal studies of variables have been completed. Such studies would likely produce more decisive findings than the "ex post facto" design of which our present study is representative. - 114 -APPENDIX A DEFINITION OF FAMILY FUNCTIONING VARIABLES Marital Relationship will include those situations where one partner has legal responsibility toward the other or where there is a continuing extra-marital relationship of significance to family function-ing. The variable may be defined as the provision of financial support, the couple's residence together, the presence and effect of extra-marital, relations, the quality of the emotionalities and the degree of marital conflict. Parent-Child Relationship may be defined as the degree of parent-child affection, the quality and consistency of discipline, the child's sense of belonging and security, the amount of mutual concern and respect and the degree of parent-child conflict. Relationships Among.the Children maybe defined as the quality of the emotional ties, the ability to share and.feel loyalty toward each other, and the degree of sibling conflict. Family Solidarity may be defined as the degree of affection and the quality of the emotional ties among .family members, and the amount of cohesiveness as evidenced by the communality of goals, activities and responsibilities within the family. Behaviour of Mother may be defined as the amount and consequences of socially-delinquent behaviour a s i t affects the individual and the family, the degree to which the mental and/or physical state permits the perfor-mance of the mother's functions •-- as spouse, parent, homemaker, and community member. - 115--. Behaviour of F a t h e r may be defined as the amount and consequences of s o c i a l l y - d e l i n q u e n t behaviour as it affects the i n d i v i d u a l and the f a m i l y , the degree to which the mental: and/or p h y s i c a l state p e r m i t s the p e r f o r m -ance of the father's functions -- as spouse, parent, breadwinner and community member. Beha v i o u r of C h i l d r e n i s c o n s i d e r e d under two su b - c a t e g o r i e s --•children f r o m 1. - .9 y e a r s and- children 1 1 0 and;over.. C h i l d r e n permanently out of the home a r e not c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s v a r i a b l e may be defined as .—-the amount and; consequences of acting out behaviour as it affects the indi v i d u a l 1 and the f a m i l y , the degree to which, the mental and/or p h y s i c a l state p e r m i t s the p e r f o r m a n c e of the child's functions as c h i l d , p u p i l , and member of peer groups. P h y s i c a l C h i l d C a r e may be defined as the state of c l e a n l i n e s s i n clothes and p e r s o n , the adequacy of diet and the c a r e of health needs. C h i l d T r a i n i n g Methods and E m o t i o n a l C a r e may be defined as the degree of affection f o r the c h i l d r e n , the emotional atmosphere,and the s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of p a r e n t a l expectations on c h i l d behaviour. 'Informal S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s may be defined as the degree and quality of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with;relatives, neighbours-and;£riends. F o r m a l S o c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n s may be defined as the degree of ac t i v i t y and co-operation with o r g a n i s e d s o c i a l groups. Source and Amount of Income may be defined as the degree to which the f a m i l y i s dependent on public funds ( except pensions, A. D. C., A. B. , etc.) and the amount of income a v a i l a b l e to meet f a m i l y needs. - 116 -Job Situation may be defined as the regularity of the work pattern and the adequacy of the job performance as evidenced by the suitability of capabilities, the degree of satisfaction-with the employer and fellow employees. Use of Money may be defined as the amount of agreement over control of income, the adequacy of budgetting and money management and the degree to which purchase of necessities takes precedence, over luxuries. Physical. Facilities may be defined as the condition of the property, the availability of space in the home and the availability of necessary household equipment. Housekeeping Standards may be defined as the degree to which the living quarters are kept orderly and sanitary, the regularity of meals and diet planning. Health Problems may be defined as the degree to which physical i l l health effects the individual in his various roles. Health Practices may be defined as the amount of concern about i l l health, the promptness with which medical advice is sought and.followed and the degree to which disease prevention is practiced. Use of School Resources may be defined as the value placed upon education by the parents, the degree of co-operation with school personnel and the child's attendance, perf/ormance and attitude toward school. Use of Church Resources may be defined as the attitude towards the church and the regularity of attendance and participation in church . - 117 -groups and activities. (Applicable only where there are active church ties). Use of Health'Resources (including mental health) may be defined as the attitude of the family toward health resources and the degree of promptness and co-operation with which available health facilities are used. Use of Social Agencies (including probation, employment agencies, etc.) may be defined as the -attitude i o f the ;famfly toward social agencies and the degree of appropriate utilization of the agencies for meeting needs. Use of Recreational Resources may be defined as the attitude of the family toward recreational resources and the degree to which the resources are utilized to provide satisfaction and socialization. APPENDIX B - BIBLIOGRAPHY - 118 -Bibliography 1. Bowlby, John, Child Care and the Growth of Love. Middlesex, Eng. , Penguin Books Inc. , 1953. 2. Buell, Bradley, Community Planning for Human Services, New York, Columbia University, 1952. 3. Coombe, Dorothy, Rehabilitation Services for the Chronically Dependent. M..S..W. Thesis, U. B.C. , Vancouver, 1961. 4. Ellingston, John R. , Protecting Our Children from C r i m i n a l Careers, New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 1948. 5. Geismar, LivandAyres, Beverly, Families in Trouble, Family Centred Project, St. Paul, Minnesota, January 1958. 6. Geismar, L and LaSorte, Understanding the Multi-Problem Family, New York, Association Press, 1964. 7. Glueck, Sheldon and Glueck, Eleanor, Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency, New York, The Commonwealth Fund, 1950. 8. Robison, Sophia M. , Juvenile Delinquency, Its Nature and Control, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. 9. Schlesinger, Benjamin, The Multi-Problem Family, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1963. 10. Welfare Council of Ottawa, Multi-Problem Families, Planning Committee on Child and Family Services, Ottawa, October, 1961. 11. Wilson, Harriet C. , Delinquency and Child Neglect, London, George Allen Ltd. , 1962 12. Young, Leontine, Wednesday's Children, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964. : 

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