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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of the philosophy and social welfare policy of the New Democratic Party of British Columbia : a… Gibson, Julia-Anne Kathleen 1966

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i  A STUDY OF THE PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY OF THE NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A D e s c r i p t i v e Study o f the O r i g i n s and B a s i c Tenets of t h e New Democratic P a r t y and o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the S o c i a l Welfare P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e New Democratic Movement as i t has emerged i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  by JULIA-ANNE KATHLEEN GIBSON ' FREDERICK ANGUS GUNN LARRY ANDREW HARDING DONNA MAE HAMAR JOHN TERRANCE POLLARD  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  School o f S o c i a l Work 1966 The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s in- p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree t h a t  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  the L i b r a r y and study.  s h a l l make i t I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  School of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  permission.  11 TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Chapter 1. Introduction: Historical and Philosophical Perspective: Theoretical basis from the nineteenth century. Pre- World War I in B.C. Influence of World War I and the Russian Revolution. Post-World War I Period. The development of Socialist Parties on the Prairies. The League for Social Reconstruction. The Calgary-Conference. The Regina Manifesto and the formation of the B.C. Branch of the CCF. The Depression Years in B.C. and the 1937 CCF Platform. World War II and the 1940's. The 1950's and the Winnipeg Declaration. Events leading to the founding of the New Democratic Party  1  Chapter 2. Social Welfare Policy Resolutions and Policy Statements from Annual Provincial Conventions: Introduction - Purpose, material. Party Organization and Structure. Philosophy and Principles. Socialization. Social Security. Automation. Child Welfare. Conclusion  41  Chapter 3* Analysis of the Questionnaire: General Introduction. Distribution and analysis of statistical variables. Characteristics and conclusions of specific welfare policy questions. Statistical analysis of the four variables and general welfare areas outlined within the thesis. Conclusion Chapter 4.  69  Leadership and Social Welfare Policy:  Analysis of Interviews: (1) with R.M. Strachan, Provincial Leader of the NDP; (2) with E.P. O'Neal, Secretary Treasurer of the B.C. Federation of Labour, member of the NDP Provincial Executive; (3) with David Barrett, MLA, welfare spokesman of the NDP. Includes respondents' views on socialism and social welfare, attitude towards the Welfare State, aspects of a social welfare program, conclusion 101 Chapter 5*  General Conclusions 151  Appendices: A. Manifesto of the League for Social Reconstruction, 1932. B. Calgary Conference - 8 points, 1932. C. Regina Manifesto, 1933D. CCF (B.C.) Provincial Platform, 1933. E. CCF (B.C.) Provincial Platform, 1937. F. Winnipeg Declaration of Principles, 1956. G. Resolution passed at the Canadian Labour Congress Convention held at Winnipeg, 1958.  iii  H. R e s o l u t i o n passed a t the GCF N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n M o n t r e a l , 1958. I . E x e r p t s from the 1965 J . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o E x e c u t i v e , and random K. I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e s : L. B i b l i o g r a p h y  NDP Annual C o n v e n t i o n . NDP MLA's, P r o v i n c i a l sample of p a r t y members. (1) R.M. S t r a c h a n (2) E.P. O'Neal (3) D a v i d B a r r e t t  TABLES IN THE TEXT Page Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  T a b l e 9. T a b l e 10. T a b l e 11.  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Age D i s t r i b u t i o n by Age o f Rank and F i l e and o t h e r s . . . . D i s t r i b u t i o n by E d u c a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n by O c c u p a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n by P o s i t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n i n the NDP. D i s t r i b u t i o n by Year o f J o i n i n g CCF-NDP D i s t r i b u t i o n by P o s i t i o n i n t h e P a r t y D i s t r i b u t i o n bf 'Most Urgent' P r i o r i t i e s i n W e l f a r e and non-welfare A r e a s . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Major Causes of C h i l d N e g l e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Most E f f e c t i v e Method of R e s o l v i n g J u v e n i l e Delinquency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Welfare P r i o r i t i e s  73 73 74 75 76 76 77 79 85 86 #9  iv  ABSTRACT  The p o l i c y of a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y r e f l e c t s i t s p h i l o s o p h y and h i s t o r i c a l background. S o c i a l w e l f a r e has become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f our modern s o c i e t y and as a r e s u l t a major concern o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Therefore, s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s w i l l have s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s based on t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w s . The s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s i s the p h i l o s o p h y o f the New Democ r a t i c P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s . T h i s t h e s i s has examined the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth Federation-New Democratic P a r t y from i t s i n c e p t i o n . I n d o i n g t h i s the h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l i s m has been e x p l o r e d from the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y i n Europe. The s o c i a l i s t movement began i t s development i n Canada i n t h e e a r l y 1900Ts and has e v o l v e d from a t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s t base (emphasis on the c l a s s s t r u g g l e ) t o an e s s e n t i a l l y w e l f a r e s t a t e f o c u s . The methods used t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n were drawn from a r e v i e w o f h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e r v i e w s . The r e s o l u t i o n s which were examined from t h e c o n v e n t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s d i d not demonstrate t h i s movement t o w e l f a r e s t a t i s m so c o m p l e t e l y , s i n c e a l a r g e group i n the P a r t y g i v e s a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y t o economic r e f o r m s . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e , sent t o a sample of the New Democratic P a r t y membership, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f cons i s t e n c y among them i n f a v o r of the w e l f a r e s t a t e . The t h e s i s i s , t o our knowledge, the f i r s t attempt a t p r o v i d i n g a comprehensive r e v i e w which l i n k s the p h i l o s o p h y o f the New Democratic P a r t y t o t h e i r s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y . Because p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s p l a y a major r o l e i n the g e n e s i s and d e v e l o p ment o f w e l f a r e programs, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the p u b l i c , and t o p e r s o n s d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h s o c i a l w e l f a r e , t h a t a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i c i e s of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i e s be a v a i l a b l e . T h i s t h e s i s has been an attempt t o p r o v i d e such a d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We wish t o express our s i n c e r e thanks t o t h e Boag Foundation f o r t h e i r sponsorship o f t h i s  thesis.  We a l s o wish to thank Mr. David B a r r a t t , Mr. R.M. Strachan, Mr. E.P. O'Neal, Mrs. L. Baggen and Mr. John Wood, who gave t h e i r v a l u a b l e time and c o o p e r a t i v e assistance. A l s o , we extend our g r a t i t u d e t o Mr. E . H a l l and Mr. C.B. L y t l e o f the New Democratic Party  provincial  o f f i c e f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e time and energy i n p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o r e c o r d s and i n f o r m a t i o n .  S i m i l a r l y we would  l i k e t o express thanks t o those persons who responded to our q u e s t i o n n a i r e . To those a t the s c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, UBC, we extend thanks t o Dr. G. Hamilton, and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o P r o f e s s o r Ben Chud f o r h i s support and guidance.  A STUDY OF THE PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY OF THE NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION:  HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE  In t h i s chapter an attempt w i l l be made t o t r a c e the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l development of the New Democratic P a r t y . The purpose w i l l be t o d i s t i n g u i s h changes i n i t s general p o l i c y and program which have a f f e c t e d i t s philosophy.  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s  of the v a r i o u s s i g n i f i c a n t t h e o r i s t s and p r o t e s t groups w i l l be reviewed b r i e f l y .  Because the s o c i a l i s t movement i s an i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l one, i t has been necessary t o go beyond the borders of Canada, e s p e c i a l l y f o r reference t o t h e o r i s t s of other c o u n t r i e s . Thus, our own indigenous Canadian movement was a f f e c t e d by w r i t i n g s , experiences and events both i n and outside Canada. Moreover, i t w i l l be shown that the s o c i a l i s t movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia played, a v i t a l r o l e i n the development of t h i s d i s t i n c t Canadian S o c i a l Democracy. T h i s chapter w i l l a l s o t r y to show the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the e v o l v i n g philosophy o f S o c i a l Democracy t o S o c i a l Welfare. Beginning w i t h the philosophy o f e a r l y s o c i a l i s t f a c t i o n s , and proceeding t o t h a t o f the Go-operative Commonwealth Federation, and o f the more recent New Democratic  Party, i t w i l l be shown t h a t  the tendency of the s o c i a l i s t movement toward welfare s t a t l s m i s i n e v i t a b l y l i n t e l w i t h a growing concern f o r s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y and program.  2 T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s from t h e N i n e t e e n t h  Century  D u r i n g the y e a r s o f f o r m i n g a p h i l o s o p h y , and  changing i t s name,  s t r u g g l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g h o l d i n t h e modern p o l i t i c a l  sphere, D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s m , as we know i t t o d a y , has had a v e r y unique and a c t u a l l y q u i t e c o n f u s i n g h i s t o r y .  Perhaps the  o f D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s m can be t r a c e d t o R o b e r t Owen a B r i t i s h c a p i t a l i s t who and  s o c i a l reform.  was  genesis  (1771  - 1356*),  one of t h e f i r s t t o work f o r economic  He b e l i e v e d t h a t :  " t h e e v i l s o f h i s s o c i e t y were due t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e d e p r a v i t y o f man, and he was c o n v i n c e d t h a t , j u s t a s crime and degrada t i o n were the r e s u l t o f s p e c i f i c s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n i n a new e n v i r o n ment c o u l d produce human b e i n g s endowed w i t h r a t i o n a l i t y , h a b i t s o f o r d e r , r e g u l a r i t y , temperance, and i n d u s t r y . " I From h i s w r i t i n g s and r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s , one  can c o n c l u d e t h a t  he saw unemployment as the cause o f human m i s e r y and e d u c a t i o n t h e key t o s o l v i n g t h e whole problem.  However, Owen was v e r y much  a g a i n s t the w o r k i n g c l a s s r i s i n g t o g a i n p o l i t i c a l power.  He  b e l i e v e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e o f ' s e l f - h e l p * — i l y t h r o u g h t h e t r a d e u n i o n s and develop.  as  c o - o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h he  primar-  helped  But t h i s i s o n l y one o f t h e f i r s t i n f l u e n c e s i n the  development o f D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s m as i t s p e c i f i c a l l y e x i s t s t o day i n B.C.  Of even more s i g n i f i c a n c e was Marx's t h e o r e t i c a l  p r o p o s a l f o r the complete ownership of the means o f p r o d u c t i o n . Marx's b e l i e f , though, was o n l y by r e v o l u t i o n .  that t h i s transformation could  occur  However, as p o l i t i c a l freedom i n Germany  r e s t r i c t e d by the Bismarck a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Marx had t o go t o  •••William E b e n s t e i n , Today's Isms. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1958, p. 198. 2  I b i d . . p.  199  was  3 England to have these views published.  I n 1848 he and Frederick  Engels published the Communist Manifesto f o r the German Communist Party.  By doing t h i s Marx spread h i s party's t h e o r i e s and  c i e s sooner than would o r d i n a r i l y have occurred.  poli-  In 1873 when  two B r i t i s h protest groups had been formed, one, the S o c i a l Democ r a t i c Federation, supported Marx's r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l program; the other, the Fabian S o c i e t y , disagreed with Marx and tended to adopt a more r e f o r m i s t approach.  However, the  two  groups were able to compromise and resolve t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , the r e s u l t being the Independent Labour P a r t y .  This party was  the  f i r s t to gain the o u t r i g h t support of many trade unions ( e s p e c i a l l y those of the u n s k i l l e d workers). of B r i t a i n was formed —  Then i n 1904 the S o c i a l i s t Party  the party responsible f o r r e c r u i t i n g and  educating many of B.C.'s pioneers of s o c i a l i s m . Since the Communist Manifesto has had a continuing e f f e c t on s o c i a l i s m i t would be of some value t o describe some of i t s p r i n c i p l e s , as o u t l i n e d by Marx.  Marx saw the reform systems of  Owen (England) F o u r i e r (France) and others as a r i s i n g p r i m a r i l y because they looked upon the working c l a s s "...  as being the most  s u f f e r i n g c l a s s . Only from the point of view of being the most s u f f e r i n g c l a s s does the p r o l e t a r i a t e x i s t f o r them."3  He r e j e c t e d  t h e i r attempts as useless because they s t i l l r e t a i n e d the basic s o c i a l order — class.  w i t h i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n of a c a p i t a l i s t i c r u l i n g  They advocated change through peaceful rather than r e v o l -  u t i o n a r y means, and at a slow, gradual r a t e r a t h e r than sudden and complete.  He f e l t t h e i r proposals were ^ t o p i a n * ^ ; he  saw  3fCarl Marx and Frederick Engels, Manifesto of the Communist P a r t y , edited and annotated by Frederick Engels, 182j;8, W i l l i a m Reeves, London, England, p. 28. 4  I b i d . , p.  29  4 them as being doomed t o f a i l u r e because there remained a need t o "...appeal to the f e e l i n g s and purses of the bourgeois."-  5  The  Communists, f o r whom Marx was w r i t i n g the Communist Manifesto, were advocating a method by which immediate aims could be a t tained. steps.  This was by r e v o l u t i o n r a t h e r than by drawn-out peaceful He o u t l i n e d how the p r o l e t a r i a t must, by r e v o l u t i o n , be-  come the r u l i n g c l a s s .  Then i t " . . . w i l l use i t s p o l i t i c a l  supremacy t o wrest, by degrees, a l l c a p i t a l from the bourgeoisie, to c e n t r a l i z e a l l instruments of production i n the hands of the S t a t e , i . e . of the p r o l e t a r i a t organized as the r u l i n g c l a s s ; and to increase the t o t a l of productive f o r c e s as r a p i d l y as possible.' Thus h i s strongest and basic arguments centered around the f a c t t h a t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s could only be e f f e c t i v e l y and  immediately  reformed by the f o r c i b l e overthrow of the e x i s t i n g order. Pre-World War I i n B r i t i s h Columbia For the f i r s t while a f t e r B.C.  became a province i n  there was no c l e a r l y defined party system.  l£71  This resulted i n a  number of d i s r u p t i n g changes' i n government u n t i l a party system was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1903.  The beginning B.C.  r e f l e c t e d the f e d e r a l p a t t e r n of power —  p a r t y system f i r s t  L i b e r a l and  strength and a few s o c i a l i s t and labour independents.  Conservative "From i t s  i n c e p t i o n , the party system was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a minor protest vote and t h i r d p a r t i e s . class organizations."  These p r o t e s t p a r t i e s were small workingT h e i r beginnings and development have been  5loc. c i t . 6  I b i d . , p. 21  T.M. Stanford, The P o l i t i c s of P r o t e s t : The CCF and S o c i a l C r e d i t League of B.C.. a t h e s i s presented f o r the Doctor of P h i l osophy degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1961, p. ?6. 7  5 t r a c e d i n extensive d e t a i l by Ronald Grantham i n h i s t h e s i s i n 1942 t i t l e d Some Aspects o f the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B.C. — 1898 t o 1933. but t h i s presentation w i l l be more s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned w i t h the o v e r a l l philosophy o f t h i s same s o c i a l i s t movement. During the Pre-World War I period a number of s o c i a l i s t clubs were organized and disbanded i n B.C. To name a few:  Provincial  Progressive Party (1902), United S o c i a l i s t Labour Party  (1900),  S o c i a l i s t Party o f B.C. (1902), S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada (1904), and S o c i a l Democratic Party (1907).  F o r the f i r s t w h i l e , though,  t h e i r concern centered mainly on f e d e r a l issues* P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , these f a c t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y based on Marxian ideology and drew many of t h e i r members from the lumber, mining and f i s h i n g trade unions as w e l l as from many immigrant groups.  However, t h e i r  e f f e c t i v e n e s s was l i m i t e d because they f a i l e d t o produce enough p r a c t i c a l proposals around current i s s u e s ( o l d age pensions, employment, compensation, e t c . ) .  They were a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t and  spent a great deal of time on t h e o r e t i c a l a t t a c k s on the p r e v a i l ing democratic  system.  Their e f f o r t s were centered on l i t e r a r y  work which was made a v a i l a b l e i n the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada's o f f i c i a l organ, the Western C l a r i o n . "The S o c i a l i s t Party o f Canada ... was devoted to the Marxian philosophy o f s o c i a l i s m . Their d i s c u s s i o n proceeded on a very high s c h o l a s t i c plane. One has only t o read a number o f i s s u e s of t h e i r paper, the Western C l a r i o n , t o r e a l i z e t h a t the journalism there displayed could have been penned only by men who were t r u l y Marxian scholars." 8  °Douglas P. C l a r k , Some Aspects of the Development o f t h e CCF i n B.C.. essay submitted f o r undergraduate c r e d i t i n t h e Department of H i s t o r y , U.B.C, October 1, 1945, p. 5.  6 Influence of  World War I and the Russian R e v o l u t i o n  Labour a l i g n e d i t s e l f to the s o c i a l i s t movement during the Great War as i t shared the s o c i a l i s t p r o t e s t against c o n s c r i p t i o n , and both movements had been i n v o l v e d i n the s t r i k e s of 1912 - 1913• Together they saw the war as a new business p r o p o s i t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s and were t h e r e f o r e most c r i t i c a l of Canada's support of i t .  This a t t i t u d e d i d not draw members as most Canadians  agreed with the war aims.  A l s o , a great many supporters l e f t the  movement immediately a f t e r the war because of the Russian Revolu t i o n and the aftermath of propaganda against i t .  "The Russian  R e v o l u t i o n and the r e s u l t i n g formation of communist groups i n the United S t a t e s and Canada caused a s p l i t i n the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y from which i t never recovered."9  The s o c i a l i s t s were at f i r s t  j u b i l a n t t h a t the B o l s h e v i k s had crushed Gzarism, and " . . . r a d i c a l s everywhere saw the Russians as the pioneers of a new freedom, at l e a s t f o r a w h i l e . . . However, i t was not many months before threads of doubt and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t began to weave through the rosy-colored p i c t u r e of the new s o c i e t y i n the Soviet U n i o n . " ^ Warnings spread abroad regarding the d i c t a t o r s h i p and i t s s l a v e r y overtones.  Those i n Canada, and e s p e c i a l l y i n B.C.,  who  were s k e p t i c a l and c r i t i c a l of what the Russian Communist Party was doing, became a l i e n a t e d from those who wanted t o p u b l i c l y applaud the Russians f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l f e a t s .  T h i s caused many  s p l i t s , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the 1921 formation of the Workers' Party (B.C. branch i n 1922).  The main s p l i t s w i t h i n the movement  ^Dorothy Steeves, The Compassionate Rebel. Evergreen Press Vancouver, I960, p. 71.  Ltd., 1 Q  Loc. Cit.  7  occurred during t h i s period because some of the members considered themselves s o c i a l i s t but not communist; others were d e f e c t i n g t o the more r a d i c a l Communist Movement; and there were a l s o many who, i n the c o n f l i c t and confusion, l o s t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l enthusiasm  and  merely dropped out. Post-World War I P e r i o d As f a r as one can gather from the a r t i c l e s of the Western C l a r i o n . t h e s o c i a l i s t program during the e a r l y 1920's was q u i t e radical.  E d i t o r i a l s were often emphatic a t t a c k s on c a p i t a l i s m  and the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order.  A very grim p i c t u r e was painted  of the Canadian worker who was being oppressed and enmeshed i n the p r e v a i l i n g 'Glass S t r u g g l e * .  Oftentimes the cause was  called  the Marxian S o c i a l i s t Movement and numerous a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n on the biographies of Marx and Lenin and, r e s p e c t i v e l y , on t h e i r t h e o r i e s and programs.  During t h i s time the S o c i a l i s t Party of  Canada (B.C. Section) continued to have a great deal of i n t e r e s t i n the Russian scene.  A l s o , the labour and s o c i a l i s t movements  made f u r t h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e attempts to u n i f y .  T h i s goal was not t o  be accomplished f o r some years y e t , but an important step was made i n that general d i r e c t i o n .  I n 1925 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the  S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada and the Labour P a r t i e s (formed by Labour Councils) met at the request of the Federated Labour P a r t y .  This  meeting r e s u l t e d i n the l o o s e , u n o f f i c i a l establishment of the Independent Labour P a r t y .  I t c l a r i f i e d the s i m i l a r i t i e s between  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups and formulated a working arrangement f o r the next B.C.  election.  The I.L;P. r e j e c t e d the e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l -  i s t i c system, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard t o the n a t u r a l resources (lands, f o r e s t s , mines, f i s h e r i e s ) and t h e i r secondary (mills, factories).  industries  I t s p o l i c y was d e f i n i t e l y a worker's cause  8  as evidenced i n i t s advocacy of c o l l e c t i v e ownership t o e l i m i n a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n and p r o f i t e e r i n g .  In 1932  the I.L.P. adopted the  t i t l e of i t s a f f i l i a t e , the S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada, and o f f i c i a l l y based i t s p o l i c y on Marxian d o c t r i n e . T h i s party l a t e r appointed two delegates, Angus Maclnnis and J.W. J u l y , 1932  conference i n Calgary.  Hope to attend a  This conference was the d i r e c t  forerunner t o the Regina Conference and the Establishment of the N a t i o n a l Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. The Development of S o c i a l i s t P a r t i e s on the P r a i r i e s Meanwhile across the Rockies and onto the p r a i r i e s a l l not peaceful p o l i t i c a l l y .  With the help of f e d e r a l M.P.,  was  J.S.  Woodsworth (Independent Labour P a r t y ) , the foundation of the Party was a l s o being l a i d i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan.  In  CCF 1924  Woodsworth gained the support of fourteen Progressive Party M.P. s r  and formed the s o - c a l l e d 'Ginger Group'.  The m a j o r i t y of t h i s  group represented A l b e r t a farmers and one of t h e i r goals was t o achieve more co-operation w i t h organized labour.  This e f f o r t  developed to the point t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e and labour supported each other's candidates i n the 1926  general e l e c t i o n .  J.S. Woodsworth  was t r y i n g t o r a l l y the p r a i r i e farmers t o t h i n k s o c i a l i s t i c a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y regarding the c o n t r o l of wheat marketing. v i n c i a l l e v e l , i n 1929,  At the pro-  M.J. C o l d w e l l and a number of other  Englishmen who had belonged to the labour movement i n England, organized the Saskatchewan I.L.P.  This was an urban s o c i a l i s t  movement but being only a small group i t needed the support of the farmers i n order to gain strength and become e f f e c t i v e .  Together  the Saskatchewan branches of the United Farmers of Canada and the I.L.P. worked out a program designed to protect the workers and farmers against c r e d i t o r s .  Because t h e i r proposals were ignored  9  by the Saskatchewan Conservative government, and since the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y had much i n common, they undertook to work together f o r the p o l i t i c a l movement l e a d i n g to the establishment of the CCF. A l s o , i n A l b e r t a , by 1932 the Labour P a r t i e s and the United Farmers o f A l b e r t a were i n general agreement and had pledged t h e i r support t o j o i n f o r c e s . * Thus, by 1932 the 1  time was d e f i n i t e l y r i p e i n a l l three provinces f o r t h e s o c i a l i s t f a c t i o n s t o u n i t e . A l l groups who b e l i e v e d t h a t c a p i t a l i s m should be overthrown, and t h a t a new s o c i a l order be based on production f o r use and not f o r p r o f i t , were i n v i t e d t o Calgary, A l b e r t a i n August, 1932 by the United Farmers of A l b e r t a . "J.S. Woodsworth and t h e Labour-Farmer caucus (Ginger Group) prepared t o give l e a d e r s h i p t o such a meeting."- 1  2  "The conference was attended by  the Ginger Group, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the United Farmers' o r g a n i z a t i o n s of Manitoba, A l b e r t a , and Saskatchewan, and d e l e gates from the Labour and S o c i a l i s t P a r t i e s of the three p r a i r i e 13  provinces and B.C."  J  S.M. L i p s e t summarized the assembly as  a g r a r i a n r a d i c a l s from the p r a i r i e s and Marxian s o c i a l i s t s from B.C., (men r a i s e d i n the t r a d i t i o n s of the B r i t i s h labour movement). I t marked the f i r s t time i n Canadian h i s t o r y that such a group gathered together.  14  ^George Hougham, Minor P a r t i e s i n Canadian N a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s . 186 7 - 1 9 4 0 , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 1 9 5 4 . G r a c e Maclnnis, "How the CCF Began," Understanding the CCF. published by the P r o v i n c i a l Education Committee; CCF (B.C.-Yukon S e c t i o n , Vancouver, B.C., 1 9 5 3 , p. 5* 12  .M. L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 5 0 , p. 8 6 . 1 4  I b i d . . p. 8 7  10 The League f o r S o c i a l Reconstruction Before going on t o the Calgary and Regina Conferences, i t i s necessary that another s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e be mentioned as i t has a d i r e c t bearing t o the developing of CCF philosophy. the League f o r S o c i a l Reconstruction.  It is  This o r g a n i z a t i o n was formed  by a group of d i s s e n t e r s i n eastern Canada who could be r e f e r r e d to as the ' i n t e l l i g e n c i a ' of the s o c i a l i s t movement.  I t was mainly  composed of l e c t u r e r s from the U n i v e r s i t i e s o f Toronto and M c G i l l . Rather than an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , i t was intended t o be a Canadian Fabian S o c i e t y which would a s s i s t a p o l i t i c a l  socialist  party by f u l f i l l i n g a research and educational f u n c t i o n .  One of  i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t undertakings was a book published i n 1935 t i t l e d S o c i a l Planning f o r Canada.  Some of the League's members,  such as F.H. U n d e r h i l l , were consulted, and i t s Manifesto* was r e f e r r e d t o by those who were d r a f t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s and program of the new CCF party.  For comparative  purposes see Appendices A  and C. The Calgary Conference The move towards a j o i n t p o l i t i c a l party by the labour and farmer organizations*came —  at the beginning of a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d  the Great Depression o f the 1930's.  The hardships i t caused  *See Appendix A f o r the nine clauses of the Manifesto drawn up by the League f o r S o c i a l Reconstruction. •Organizations represented a t the Calgary Conference i n 1932: - The United Farmers of A l b e r t a - The United Farmers o f Saskatchewan - The Canadian Labour Party ( A l b e r t a Section) - The Independent Labour Party (Saskatchewan) - The Co-operative Labour Party (Saskatchewan) - The Independent Labour P a r t y (Manitoba) - The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada (B.C.) - The Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees - The League f o r S o c i a l Reconstruction  11 sharpened the need f o r these o r g a n i z a t i o n s to u n i t e and at the same time provided motivation to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s they sent to the Calgary Conference t o formulate a plan f o r a more e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l order.  The Conference, held i n the Calgary Labour Temple,  accomplished three primary o b j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t was the d e c i s i o n to form and name a new p a r t y .  A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n over the many  and v a r i e d suggestions, 'Go-operative  Commonwealth Federation'  was  agreed upon w i t h the words 'Farmer - Labour - S o c i a l i s t * f o l l o w i n g . The second o b j e c t i v e was strong l e a d e r s h i p , and t h i s was a t t a i n e d by the choice of p o l i t i c a l l y prominent J.S. Woodsworth.  The  third  goal was t o define the party*s philosophy and formulate i t s p o l i t i c a l program. who  This was p a r t i a l l y accomplished by the  delegates  defined and adopted an e i g h t - p o i n t p r o v i s i o n a l program* which  was t o be f u r t h e r worked upon by a Resolutions Committee.  The  committee, chaired by M.J. C o l d w e l l , was to expand t h i s i n t o a d r a f t of the party's c o n s t i t u t i o n which would be presented f o r approval and m o d i f i c a t i o n at the scheduled J u l y , 1933  national  convention i n Regina.  Thus we have b r i e f l y traced the development of the s o c i a l i s t movement from Owen's humanistic approach, Marx's r e v o l u t i o n a r y theory, and the B r i t i s h s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n s , t o the t e n t a t i v e union of the various s o c i a l i s t groups i n Canada, with the B.C.  F a c t i o n as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . Having been p r i m a r i l y  based on Marx's t h e o r i e s set f o r t h i n the Communist Manifesto, the B.C.  s o c i a l i s t movement had been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y l e f t i s t i n  philosophy as evidenced by i t s advocacy of almost t o t a l  *For the Eight Clauses of the Calgary Conference see Appendix B.  12  n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , of the need f o r a complete new  s o c i a l order, of  i t s concern with the 'Class Struggle', of i t s attacks against the c a p i t a l i s t s , and most controversially, i t s proposal to effect change by revolution. The various groups which supported  this  philosophy to varying degrees were not u n i f i e d and so were hampered i n t h e i r attempts to i n s t i g a t e a strong, e f f e c t i v e movement. A f t e r much e f f o r t which brought only weak p o l i t i c a l recognition, these s p l i n t e r p a r t i e s i n i t i a t e d a number of moves to unite. f i r s t occurred i n B.C.  soon a f t e r World War  I when the  The  Federated  Labour Party and the Social-Democratic Party joined forces. However, the greatest impetus towards u n i f i c a t i o n was provided by the Bolshevik Revolution.  In B.C.  i t caused the s o c i a l i s t f a c t i o n s  to draw together because (1) the majority of them were not as revolutionary as the Communists and thus needed to distinguish themselves as an entity apart from the Communist Party; (2) the Communist Revolution had touched o f f a wave of outright h o s t i l i t y and condemnation against a l l s o c i a l i s t groups which was most harmful i n the democratic  countries.  This propaganda heightened  the need f o r the f a c t i o n s to band together and establish an o f f i c i a l policy. In these early stages the s o c i a l i s t factions did not have any s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s dealing with areas l i k e welfare.  Issues such as  unemployment, poverty, mental i l l n e s s , crime, etc., were t o l e r a t e d as natural r e s u l t s of the e x i s t i n g e v i l c a p i t a l i s t - r u n economy which could only be d i s p e l l e d by a new  s o c i a l i s t order.  Thus,  t h e i r welfare p o l i c y consisted mainly of providing adequate housing, and eliminating exploitation and unemployment and  thereby  creating an environment i n which every i n d i v i d u a l would have an equal opportunity to contribute to, and i n turn, receive the benef i t s from the society.  13  The Regina Manifesto and the Formation of the B.C.  Branch of the  Thus the date was set and across Canada numerous protest and s o c i a l i s t groups prepared to meet i n Regina t o approve a u n i f y i n g program which would enable them to be more e f f e c t i v e i n Canadian politics.  One hundred and t h i r t y - o n e delegates attended;  B.C.  sending s i x t e e n delegates representing the S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada (B.C.) and the Reconstruction P a r t y . * stated that these two B.C.  F.G.  Engelmann  groups provided about the strongest  s o c i a l i s t elements t o the Regina Convention because "these  and  other s o c i a l i s t groups had an experience of c a r r y i n g on i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i c y d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l u b s , w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f 15 v i r t u a l l y a l l of the members."  The prime purpose of t h i s meet-  i n g was the f o r m u l a t i o n and acceptance of a foundation document, the Regina Manifesto.  I t was an expansion of the Calgary  Confer-  ence e i g h t - p o i n t program t o a fourteen-point program** f o r a  new  s o c i a l order with the a d d i t i o n of a preamble which o u t l i n e d the basic philosophy of the movement, and a concluding paragraph s t a t i n g the purpose. The Great Depression which was g i v i n g tremendous impetus t o the s o c i a l i s t cause was at i t s worst and the attendance saw the present order as: * I n March, 1933 the B.C. League f o r S o c i a l Reconstruction became the Reconstruction Party (B.C.) and a f t e r the Regina Convention a f f i l i a t e d i t s e l f w i t h the CCF. The R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t s were l a t e r p r i m a r i l y responsible f o r o r g a n i z i n g the Associated B.C. CCF Clubs. 1 F.C. Engelmann, The CCF of Canada: A Study of Membership P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Party Policy-Making, t h e s i s submitted f o r the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy to the F a c u l t y of Graduate Studies of Yale U n i v e r s i t y , 1954, p. 146. 5  **Appendix C.^  The Regina Manifesto.  CCF  14 ...marked by g l a r i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s of wealth and opportunity, by chaotic waste and i n s t a b i l i t y ; and i n an age of plenty i t condemns the great mass of the people to poverty and i n s e c urity." n  1 6  I t s t r o n g l y denounced p r i v a t e p r o f i t as the basis to the economic system and f e l t i t s e v i l s could be "removed only i n a planned and s o c i a l i z e d economy i n which our n a t u r a l resources and the p r i n c i p a l means of production and d i s t r i b u t i o n are owned, c o n t r o l l e d and operated by the p e o p l e . T h e dominant theme of the Regina Manifesto was  socialization.  I t o u t l i n e d i t s plans f o r the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l f i n a n c i a l machinery (banking,  currency,  c r e d i t , insurance); of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, e l e c t r i c power; f o r s o c i a l i z e d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ; and the encouragement of consumers' co-operative i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Because of the Depression  the Regina Manifesto was most concerned with p u t t i n g the economy back on i t s f e e t .  The employment s i t u a t i o n was  seen as the most  c r u c i a l issue of the time and the fourteenth point of the C o n s t i t u t i o n o u t l i n e d an emergency programme which e n t a i l e d p u b l i c expenditure on "...housing, slum clearance, h o s p i t a l s , l i b r a r i e s , schools, community h a l l s , parks, r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s , r e f o r e s t a t i o n , r u r a l e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n . . . " ^ to provide work and power f o r those unemployed.  T h i s , and s o c i a l i z e d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ,  i s the f i r s t o f f i c i a l evidence of welfare p o l i c y . there would be much speculation as t o how implemented.  purchasing  The answer given was  Naturally  such a program could be  ' s o c i a l planning' t o replace  the " r u t h l e s s monopoly or e q u a l l y r u t h l e s s competition p r a c t i c e d l^The Regina Manifesto, program of the CCF, adopted at F i r s t N a t i o n a l Convention h e l d at Regina, Saskatchewan, J u l y 1933, p. 1. 1 7  loc. cit.  •^Regina Manifesto, program of the CCF, adopted at F i r s t N a t i o n a l Convention held at Regina Sask., J u l y , 1933, p. 1.  15 under C a p i t a l i s m . ^  To accomplish  n  t h i s there would have to be a  • b r i e f t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d ' d u r i n g which time a N a t i o n a l Commission would mastermind the program and  Planning  get i t under  way.  "The t a s k o f the Commission w i l l be t o p l a n f o r the p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and exchange o f a l l goods and s e r v i c e s necessary to the e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g of the economy; t o c o - o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s o f the s o c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r i e s ; t o provide f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance between the producing and consuming power; and t o c a r r y on continuous r e s e a r c h i n t o a l l branches o f the n a t i o n a l economy i n order to a c q u i r e the det a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n necessary t o e f f i c i e n t p l a n ning. The Commission w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Cabi n e t and w i l l work i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Managing Boards o f the S o c i a l i z e d I n d u s t r i e s . " ^ The  l e a d e r s h i p o f J.S. Woodsworth i n 1933,  and i n the  fol-  lowing y e a r s d i d much t o i n f l u e n c e the p o l i c y o f the p a r t y . d i d not work h i s way  He  up through the ranks of the p a r t y being a  p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t or l a b o u r r e f o r m i s t , but r a t h e r as a clergyman w i t h r e l i g i o u s and humanitarian  motivations.  Methodist He would  i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o l i t i c a l purpose by f i g h t i n g f o r such t h i n g s as o l d age  pension  l e g i s l a t i o n (1926).  When under h i s l e a d e r s h i p ,  the CCF  p a r t y g r a d u a l l y moved away from p h i l o s o p h i z i n g and i n -  stead gave g r e a t e r s t r e s s t o humanitarian  g o a l s and  practical  means t o a t t a i n them. From i t s b i r t h the CCF  Party was  approached t o j o i n f o r c e s  w i t h the more l e f t i s t Communist groups.  To emphasize t h a t i t s  p o l i c y advocated r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t t h i s move, the f o l l o w i n g clause was  i n c l u d e d i n the Regina  Manifesto:  T o w a r d s the Dawn. The CCF F e d e r a l P l a t f o r m e x p l a i n e d , N a t i o n a l O f f i c e o f the CCF, 172 W e l l i n g t o n S t . , Ottawa, ( l a t e 1930's), p. 5. 19  20  Regina M a n i f e s t o ,  op.  c i t . p. 1  16 "The s o c i a l and economic transformation can be brought about by p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , through the e l e c t i o n of a government i n s p i r e d by the i d e a l of a co-operative commonwealth and supported by a m a j o r i t y of the people. We do not b e l i e v e i n change by violence."21 I n h i s P r e s i d e n t i a l Speech J.S. Woodsworth s a i d : " I am convinced t h a t we may develop i n Canada a d i s t i n c t i v e type of S o c i a l i s m . . . . The CCF advocates peaceful and o r d e r l y methods. I n t h i s we d i s t i n g u i s h ourselves sharply from the Communi s t Party which envisages the new s o c i a l order as being ushered i n by v i o l e n t upheaval and the establishment of a d i c t a t o r s h i p . " 2 2 He meant ' d i s t i n c t i v e  1  i n t h a t he d i d not want t o model the CCF  s p e c i f i c a l l y a f t e r the B r i t i s h and/or Russian s o c i a l i s t movements. P r o v i n c i a l l y , the CCF Party was not an o f f i c i a l i d e n t i t y . Being a f e d e r a t i o n i t s p r o v i n c i a l branches were not n e c e s s a r i l y CCF though they associated themselves w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l CCF organization.  These groups had r e t a i n e d some of t h e i r f i n e d i s t -  i n c t i o n s a f t e r the Regina Convention, and i t was only through time that they were r e s o l v e d .  The B.C. delegates had been disap-  pointed that the name ' S o c i a l i s t Party' had not been adopted but they were pleased w i t h the Conference and returned t o Vancouver t o help b u i l d the new party.  The S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada (B.C.)  e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f i n an o l d house i n Vancouver as headquarters where i t s meetings were held and where c l a s s e s on s o c i a l i s t and Marxian theory were conducted.  Ernest Winch, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary  of the party, had r e s i s t e d a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the CCF as i t was l e s s  ^Regina Manifesto, op. c i t . G r a c e Maclnnis, "How the CCF Began", Understanding the CCF. Booklet No. 1, Issued by the P r o v i n c i a l Education Committee, CCF (B.C. - Yukon S e c t i o n ) , 1953, p. 8. 22  17  r a d i c a l than h i s party's l e a n i n g s .  But there were some d e s i r a b l e  advantages, and h i s party and the Reconstruction Party i n March o f 1933  On August 2 5 ,  decided t o co-operate f o r the coming e l e c t i o n .  1933 > the Reconstruction Party branches and the u n a f f i l i a t e d CCF Clubs formed the Associated Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Clubs.  Thus, three executives e x i s t e d i n B.C. —  " . . . t h a t o f the  S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada; that of the Associated CCF Clubs; and the executive of t h e B.C. s e c t i o n of the CCF P a r t y . " 3 2  The l o o s e ,  unstructured arrangement was f a r from e f f i c i e n t , s t a b l e and s a t i s f a c t o r y as there remained much d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the organization —  ranging from quite extreme l e f t to moderate l e f t .  The  membership, too, was q u i t e v a r i e d and could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . "Where the n a t i o n a l CCF was based on a g r a r i a n and labour elements, the B.C. CCF was supported mainly by labour and w h i t e - c o l l a r r e f o r m i s t e l e m e n t s . "  24  However, the  two f a c t i o n s had been s u c c e s s f u l when they combined t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the l a s t e l e c t i o n .  They had won seven seats, t h i r t y - o n e per  cent of the popular vote, and were then the o f f i c i a l Opposition to the L i b e r a l Government.  The s o c i a l i s t groups had f o r the f i r s t  time broken the stronghold of the L i b e r a l s and Conservatives i n the B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e .  A f t e r t h i s they h e l d t h e i r f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l  Convention i n V i c t o r i a i n September o f 1 9 3 3 .  Based on the pre-  ceding Regina Manifesto, they drew up a p r o v i n c i a l p l a t f o r m and Manifesto. couver.  Headquarters were set up at 8 2 8 Hornby S t r e e t , Van-  The P r o v i n c i a l Manifesto s t i p u l a t e d that i t would  ^ D o u g l a s P. C l a r k , Some Aspects of the Development of the CCF i n B.C., essay submitted f o r undergraduate c r e d i t i n the Department of H i s t o r y , U.B.C, Oct. 1 , 1 9 4 5 , p . 1 8 . Thomas M. Sanford, The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The CCF and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B.C.. t h e s i s f o r Doctor o f Philosophy i n P o l i t i c a l Science from the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 1 , p. 1 0 2 . 2/f  1$  e s t a b l i s h a P r o v i n c i a l Planning Commission t o work with the n a t i o n a l one.  I t , too, would c o n s i s t of economists,  engineers,  and s t a t i s t i c i a n s and t h e i r work would be t o "...co-ordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r i e s . . . " ^ 2  But amalgamation  was s t i l l the predominant t o p i c even though the S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada continued t o r e s i s t . —  Both groups had t h e i r own papers  the CCF had the Commonwealth and the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada  had the B.C.  Clarion.  The seven s o c i a l i s t s i n the L e g i s l a t u r e  were l e d by Rev. Robert Connell of the CCF P a r t y .  I n e a r l y 1935  the annual conventions of the s p l i t s o c i a l i s t s agreed to a j o i n t meeting of the two executives where a s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement was worked out.  The union formed the o f f i c i a l CCF Party of  B.C.  But the union was premature i n that the s o c i a l i s t and r e f o r m i s t f a c t i o n s had not r e a l l y worked out a l l t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s .  The  d i s s e n s i o n came to a head i n the l e g i s l a t i v e group, being the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the two i n t e r n a l f a c t i o n s which had the most contact w i t h , and i n f l u e n c e on, the s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s of that time.  Rev. C o n n e l l , the Opposition Leader and a r e f o r m i s t , was  c l a s h i n g with Harold Winch, a staunch s o c i a l i s t .  Connell accused  other members of the executive of being pro-communist and he openly objected to p a r t s of the party p l a t f o r m and some of the Convention d e c i s i o n s . He had attended the 1936 Convention  but  had u n t a c t f u l l y chosen t o voice h i s views at a l a t e r and more u n f e a s i b l e time.  The executive had no choice but t o expel the  u n r e l e n t i n g leader and two of h i s supporters.  Another member  l e f t the party at t h i s time on h i s own accord, thus b r i n g i n g the t o t a l to f o u r .  This l e f t j u s t three of the seven o r i g i n a l CCF  ^CCF (B.C.) 1933 P r o v i n c i a l Program and Manifesto. P r o v i n c i a l Executive of CCF (B.C.) 828 Hornby S t . , Vancouver, 1933 2  19 MLA's —  the two Winches and Dorothy Steeves.  This reduction was  a blow t o the party which caused doubts as t o whether i t was strong enough t o ever recover.  However, the CCF survived the  c r i s e s , thanks t o a u n i f i e d and strong Executive Committee, which kept calm and r a t i o n a l and d i d not a l l o w i t s e l f t o be drawn i n t o the p u b l i c b a t t l e of accusations and condemnation.  Instead i t  handled the s p l i t peaceably, expressing regret t h a t Connell had not a i r e d h i s views a t the 1936 Convention when many of the i s s u e s could have been c l e a r e d up i n t e r n a l l y . "As i t turned out, the party was consolidated r a t h e r than weakened by the events of 1936... The f i n a l endorsation o f the executive, ...was made by the 1937 Convention.... This Convention ...was i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the most important the CCF has ever h e l d , f o r i t s r e s u l t s ensured the CCF Party the place i t holds today i n B.C. politics." 2 6  Depression Years i n B.C. and the 1937 CCF P l a t f o r m During the 193© s the CCF MLA's struggled f o r r e c o g n i t i o n ?  and support by doing extensive f i e l d research and then confronti n g the House w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s .  Most s i g n i f i c a n t were Ernest  Winch's v i s i t s t o B.C.'s i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the mental h o s p i t a l s , j a i l s , and r e l i e f camps.  He revealed the need f o r  improvement of the p r i m i t i v e working c o n d i t i o n s the nurses a t T r a n q u i l l e (T.B. sanitarium) had t o endure.  He a l s o gathered  s t a t i s t i c s which i l l u s t r a t e d the high r a t e o f i n d u s t r i a l accidents and proposed t h a t t h i s was an area f o r government i n t e r v e n t i o n . As labour reform was a prominent CCF g o a l , and labour support was being encouraged, many p o l i c i e s and b i l l s were d i r e c t e d f o r i t s b e n e f i t ; e.g. —  broaden r i g h t s t o form unions, t o p i c k e t , t o  Douglas P. C l a r k , op. c i t . . p. 31  20 bargain c o l l e c t i v e l y .  Quite an i s s u e was made t o gain a wider  range of accident and disease coverage under the Workman's Compensation A c t , with s p e c i f i c reference t o s i l i c o s i s . ers,  The pension-  too, were given much a t t e n t i o n i n that the CCF f e l t the  government should give them f r e e medical a i d .  To impress upon  the government that these needs were e x i s t i n g , Ernest Winch encouraged the MLA's t o go and see what he had observed.  He went so f a r  as t o conduct guided t o u r s whenever he had the chance.  While  g a i n i n g some b e n e f i t s f o r the people, he a l s o a t t r a c t e d much a t t e n t i o n t o the CCF Party and won the respect of a l a r g e proport i o n of the population. This increased emphasis on welfare needs caused the party t o be l e s s concerned about economic matters — w i t h n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s u f f e r i n g the greatest neglect.  The extensive plans f o r a new  s o c i a l order as s t i p u l a t e d i n the Regina Manifesto were now o f secondary concern. old  Even l e s s emphasis was given t o r e p l a c i n g the  s o c i a l order a f t e r the party s p l i t i n 1 9 3 6 .  The s p l i t  left  the l o y a l s o c i a l i s t s i n the CCF Party, but i t l e f t them a b i t apprehensive about t h e i r f u t u r e .  The e f f e c t t h i s event had on  the party i s r e f l e c t e d i n the 1937 e l e c t i o n platform.  This was  probably one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t platforms ever t o be adopted because of i t s extensive departure from t h e Regina Manifesto, drawn up j u s t f o u r years p r e v i o u s l y . The program s t i l l condemned the c a p i t a l i s t i c system and re-emphasized the need f o r a new s o c i a l order.  However, there was a gaping absence of the former  p o l i c i e s of s o c i a l i z i n g i n d u s t r y , f i n a n c e , and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . The word s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' had been dropped a l t o g e t h e r . 1  Section 1 ,  which d e a l t w i t h planning, reworded the 1933 statement about a  21 " . . . s o c i a l i z e d economic plan...." ''' t o a "...new p r o v i n c i a l 2  economy...."  28  I n 1933, the Section on Finance had  read:  "Co-operation w i t h the other Provinces t o obtain a complete S o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l the f i n a n c i a l machinery of the country, — Banking, Currency, C r e d i t and Insurance, — and, i f compelled by a s i t u a t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l emergency, to develop p u r e l y P r o v i n c i a l C r e d i t , based on P r o v i n c i a l Resources." 9 2  In 1937 there was a complete r e v i s i o n and the Finance s e c t i o n then read: " C o n s o l i d a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l government debt by conversion to nonmaturing, f i x e d - i n t e r e s t bearing bonds, c a l l a b l e at option of the Government a f t e r a l i m i t e d term of years. Government support to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o reduce t h e i r debt loads. C a r e f u l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t a x burden to give greater r e l i e f to those i n the lower income brackets; higher income and i n h e r i t a n c e taxes i n the upper brackets. Tax increases on monopolitic business, s p e c u l a t i v e landholdings and a l i e n a t e d n a t u r a l resources. Taxation of corporation surpluses."30 A l s o i n 1933  the platform had c a l l e d f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n of  a l l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ; i n 1937 t h i s p r o v i s i o n had changed to "Establishment  of a l l - i n c l u s i v e Health Insurance, c o n t r i b u t i o n  to be based on a s l i d i n g scale i n accordance with income received ..."31 The r a t i o n a l e behind t h i s change can be traced t o three things:  (1) the s p l i t between the seven  people of B.C.  MLA s R  i n 1936;  (2) the  were not responding to the CCF's o f f e r of  CCF(B.C.) 1933 P r o v i n c i a l Platform and Manifesto, published by the P r o v i n c i a l Executive of C C F ( B . C ) , 828 Hornby S t . , Vancouver, 1933 28 1937 P r o v i n c i a l Programme — CCF (B.C.Section), published by the P r o v i n c i a l Executive, Vancouver, B.C., 1937, p. 1. 29 27  ^CCF(B.C) 1933 P r o v i n c i a l P l a t f o r m and Manifesto, op. c i t . p 3O1937 P r o v i n c i a l Programme — 31loc. c i t .  CCF  (B.C. S e c t i o n , op. c i t . p . l  22  'socialism  1  —  p a r t l y because they d i d not want t h i s and p a r t l y  because o f the s u s p i c i o n and f e a r which opposing p a r t i e s had i n s t i l l e d i n them. terms.  To r e s o l v e t h i s the CCF had dropped  socialist  T o t a l s o c i a l ownership and n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n were made  secondary t o government planning.  Government i n t e r f e r e n c e i n  i n d u s t r y would now be t o ensure against e x p l o i t a t i o n only; (3) there was a growing awareness t h a t f o r p r a c t i c a l reasons l e s s emphasis had t o be placed on e s t a b l i s h i n g a new s o c i a l order based on s o c i a l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s , and more emphasis on s p e c i f i c , c r u c i a l issues.  This was the depression; people needed jobs, r e l i e f ,  h o s p i t a l s , medical care, b e t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and were not t h i n k i n g i n the broader context of a new s o c i a l order.  S o c i a l i s m was too  vague t o many people; they saw i t as something t h a t r e q u i r e d many years f o r f u l f i l l m e n t ; and they doubted the CCF's a b i l i t y t o achieve such a major undertaking.  Again i t must be pointed out  that E. Winch's work probably c o n t r i b u t e d the most i n h e l p i n g others achieve t h i s awareness.  His investigating, s t a t i s t i c  gathering, and condemning o f the c o n d i t i o n s i n p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B.C., had made a deep impression i n the minds of party members. The v o t e r s , too, applauded h i s e f f o r t s ; they respected him; and many probably, decided t o support him.  A c t u a l l y what Ernest Winch  was doing was advocating s o c i a l reform — r e f o r m of the operation of p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , reform of working c o n d i t i o n s , and reform of the h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s .  S o c i a l i s m , which had u n i f i e d  the many f a c t i o n s across Canada t o form the CCF was now, i n B.C., t a k i n g on more o f a welfare character. The Depression a l s o produced a change i n party membership. I t had d e a l t the working c l a s s the harshest blow but a t the same time i t j o l t e d the middle c l a s s .  For the f i r s t time the middle  23 c l a s s was threatened economically and so i t took a c l o s e r look at the s o c i a l and economic order.  Most s t i l l concluded that con-  s e r v a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n could solve these problems, but others became somewhat more r a d i c a l and were a t t r a c t e d t o the CCF program.  Thus more of the h i g h l y t r a i n e d and educated c l a s s e s  joined the movement and brought w i t h them t h e i r i n f l u e n c e and contributions.  Members of the middle c l a s s were a l s o unemployed,  e s p e c i a l l y the younger generation j u s t e n t e r i n g the labour f o r c e . Because of the hardships the atmosphere was conducive to demons t r a t i o n s , r e l i e f camp s t r i k e s , and t r e k s .  People were i n c r e a s -  i n g l y responsive t o reform, w i t h a growing number supporting r a d i c a l reform.  For these reasons d i d the Depression help the  CCF draw support from the s k i l l e d , p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and business  groups.  ****** From t h i s b r i e f h i s t o r y of the Canadian and B.C.  socialist  movements, i t i s evident that s i g n i f i c a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l changes occurred.  The Regina Manifesto marked the departure from one of  Marx's b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s —  t h a t of change by means of r e v o l u t i o n ;  and the Canadian CCF'ers e s t a b l i s h e d q u i t e a d i s t i n c t type of socialism —  of a r e f o r m i s t r a t h e r than r e v o l u t i o n a r y nature.  Due respect f o r t h i s must be given t o i t s e a r l y l e a d e r s — Woodsworth, M.J. C o l d w e l l , Ernest and Harold Winch.  J.S.  Economic and  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, too, made a great impact on the movement. War, p r o s p e r i t y , depression, and the Russian Revolution are a l l r e f l e c t e d i n the p o l i c i e s of the CCF.  Old members and new members and an increased c l a s s represen-  t a t i o n brought o l d and new ideas and b e l i e f s together t o form a  24 modified  party.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f reform measures by some de-  t r a c t e d the E x e c u t i v e and p a r t y l e a d e r s from t h e o r e t i c a l thoughts, and brought them i n c l o s e r c o n t a c t with the immediate needs o f t h e people.  The MLA's can c l a i m a great d e a l o f c r e d i t f o r d i r e c t i n g  the Government towards e n a c t i n g new, p r o g r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n and expanding t h e s e r v i c e s o f h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and l a b o u r .  A l l these  change processes w i l l continue f o r many years y e t , and the f o r e going s e c t i o n s w i l l t r a c e them, and t h u s i l l u s t r a t e t h e s h i f t the o r i g i n a l  from  philosophy.  World War I I and the 1940*s The  previous section revealed the beginning  in socialist thinking — t h a t  o f a new t r e n d  o f a d e c r e a s i n g degree o f Marxian  i d e o l o g y r e g a r d i n g a new s o c i a l order based on n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h i s t r e n d was t o continue  d u r i n g and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the Second  World War when economic c o n d i t i o n s were markedly d i f f e r e n t those  o f the d i r t y  from  thirties.  A s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f World War I I was t h a t i t r e v e a l e d the i n f l u e n c e o f l e a d e r s h i p .  A t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , where J.S.  Woodsworth was a s t r o n g , h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d l e a d e r , t h e CCF P a r t y advocated a p a c i f i s t p o l i c y . members wanted t o a t l e a s t  Some o f the l e s s e r f e d e r a l p a r t y  send a i d but not men.  I n B.C., how-  ever, no agreement could be a r r i v e d a t r e g a r d i n g a wartime p o l i c y . Instead o f p r e s s i n g f o r a d e c i s i o n on t h i s i s s u e , the B.C. CCF chose t o concentrate  on l o c a l domestic i s s u e s .  T h i s concern and  e f f o r t f o r l o c a l a f f a i r s .seems t o have been one o f the reasons the CCF  doubled i t s l e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the 1941 p r o v i n c i a l  election. form.  They had c e r t a i n l y not changed t h e i r 1937 p a r t y  plat-  As b e f o r e , t h e i r mainstay o f s t r e n g t h came from the Vancouver  urban a r e a , but f o r t h e f i r s t time two s e a t s were won i n t h e  25  Interior.  This can p a r t i a l l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the people's d i s -  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the poor showing of the L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n during the Depression years.  The Conservatives, too, gained a t  the L i b e r a l s ' expense winning twelve seats; the CCF increased t h e i r strength t o fourteen; and there was one Independent thus g i v i n g the L i b e r a l s the remaining twenty-one.  The Conservative  leader, Mr. R.L. M a i t l a n d , had proposed t h a t a l l p a r t i e s u n i t e to form an a l l - p a r t y union government.  Harold Winch, CCF l e a d e r ,  refused t h i s on the grounds t h a t the CCF p o l i c i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t and e s p e c i a l l y on the l e a d i n g i s s u e —  the war.  The L i b e r a l s , and c e r t a i n l y the Conservatives, supported the war and welcomed the i n d u s t r i a l boom i t created, whereas the CCF, though t a k i n g no d e f i n i t e stand regarding war involvement,  con-  demned the p r o f i t motive o f the war e f f o r t . In a d d i t i o n t o the e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s there was other evidence of increased CCF support. 7609 i n 1 9 4 5 .  "Membership rose from 3523 i n 1 9 3 8 t o  At p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , the CCF i n B.C. increased  i t s share of the vote from 28$ i n 1 9 3 7 t o 33% i n 1 9 4 1 t o 37% i n 1945."^  2  Sanford described one of the f a c t o r s responsible f o r  t h i s increase i n support as due t o the growth o f trade union strength during t h i s time.  I n 1938 the newly formed Canadian  Congress of Labour s e r i o u s l y began t o s t r i v e f o r p o l i t i c a l i n volvement and chose t o a l l y i t s e l f w i t h the CCF. The other l a r g e labour union, the Trades and Labour Congress, would not give the CCF the same support and h e l d out u n t i l 1965 when the CCL and the  -^B.C. CCF o f f i c e records c i t e d i n T.M. Sanford, The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The CCF and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B.C.. t h e s i s presented f o r the degree of Doctor of Philosophy i n P o l i t i c a l Science a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 1 , p. 1 3 8 .  26  TLC merged t o form the Canadian Labour Congress.  T h i s w i l l be  discussed i n the l a s t s e c t i o n which t r a c e s the events l e a d i n g t o the formation of the New P a r t y . A j u b i l a n t day f o r CGF'ers across Canada was June 1 5 , 1944 when the Saskatchewan p r o v i n c i a l party gained f o r the CCF i t s f i r s t political victory.  But t o the dismay of many strong B.C.  s o c i a l i s t s t h i s event began the gradual watering-down of p o l i c y t h a t occurs when a party i s no longer j u s t the Opposition but the p a r t y i n power.  The Saskatchewan CCF government d i d not plan i t s  program w i t h s t r i c t adherence t o the Regina Manifesto — been drawn up j u s t eleven years p r e v i o u s l y .  which had  Some n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  of i n d u s t r i e s was enacted when the CCF took o f f i c e , but more s i g n i f i c a n t was i t s d r i v e t o pass welfare measures. "The CCF d i d not r e t u r n t o i t s advocacy o f widespread p u b l i c ownership a f t e r the 193# e l e c t i o n s (Saskatchewan). The p r o v i n c i a l p l a t f o r m o f 1 9 4 4 , the one upon which the party won power, urged government ownership only f o r n a t u r a l r e sources and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . " 3 4 "While modifying i t s goal of t o t a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the CCF has continued i t s emphasis on the extens i o n o f the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s rendered by t h e s t a t e , such as s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , h e a l t h , and educ a t i o n . . . . These s o c i a l s e c u r i t y aspects o f the party's program g r a d u a l l y assumed greater importance i n i t s propaganda as the s t r e s s i n soci a l i s m d e c l i n e d , u n t i l today ( 1 9 5 0 ) i t i s the most important part of the p r o v i n c i a l program."35 This change can p a r t i a l l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o l e a d e r s h i p .  The  33paul Fox. " O r i g i n s of the CCF and NDP," P o l i t i c s : Canada, ed. Paul Fox, McGraw - H i l l Co. o f Canada L t d . . Toronto, Ontario, 1962, p. 300. ^Seymour L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m : The CCF i n Saskatchewan. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1950, p. 132. 3 5  I b i d . . p. 133  27  Premier, T.C. worth —  Douglas, was from a s i m i l a r background as Woods-  that of the m i n i s t r y .  L i k e Woodsworth he was  concerned  i n a more d i r e c t manner w i t h the needs of the people rather than with r e s t r u c t u r i n g the s o c i a l order.  Under h i s l e a d e r s h i p one  of the f i r s t programs the GCF i n Saskatchewan strove to l e g i s l a t e was s o c i a l i z e d h e a l t h .  This was done i n gradual steps, and the  measures were acclaimed as f i r s t s i n a l l of Canada: "Saskatchewan became the f i r s t province t o provide complete f r e e diagnosis and treatment of cancer, i n c l u d i n g surgery; the f i r s t province t o provide f r e e p e n i c i l l i n to c l i n i c s and p r i v a t e doctors f o r the treatment of V.D., and the f i r s t province to provide e n t i r e l y f r e e care and treatment f o r mentally i l l ^ a n d d e f e c t i v e s i n government institutions."3° The success of the Saskatchewan CCF was instrumental i n i n s t i l l i n g high hope and increased d r i v e to the B.C. 1945  e l e c t i o n s drew near.  Party as the  The L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e C o a l i t i o n had  not operated e f f i c i e n t l y and c o - o p e r a t i v e l y , l e a d i n g the CCF to b e l i e v e that t h i s would be t h e i r b i g chance. e f f o r t s i n t h i s post-war campaign.  They put a l l t h e i r  The platform was changed from  that of a wartime p o l i c y t o one proposing and extending peacetime measures.  Some were:  h e l p i n g the f e d e r a l government r e - e s t a b l i s h  servicemen; greater co-operation w i t h i n d u s t r i a l and  agricultural  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and labour groups; expansion of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and education.-"  The most s i g n i f i c a n t change from the 1937  platform  was regarding finance:  3£-The Toronto D a i l y S t a r Reports on the Saskatchewan Government, published by the Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , Regina, Second r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , August 1946, p. 4. 37cCF Program of B.C.. 1945, published by the CCF (B.C. Yukon S e c t i o n ) , 712 Holden B u i l d i n g , Vancouver, pp. 7 - 29.  2a 1937 - " R e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a x burden t o give r e l i e f t o lower income brackets; higher income and i n h e r i t a n c e taxes i n the. upper b r a c k e t s . ^Tax i n c r e a s e s on monopolistic business, . . . " 3 ° 1 9 4 5 - "Taxation p o l i c i e s w i l l be designed t o achieve r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income on a more e q u i t a b l e b a s i s through p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l services."39 However, the outcome was most unexpected and q u i t e s h a t t e r i n g t o the CCF. They l o s t 1 1 o f t h e i r 1 6 seats and gained only 5 , thus making a t o t a l o f 1 0 .  T h e i r a t t r a c t i v e program f o r f u l l employ-  ment, planning and housing developments, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and education was not drawing votes.  What was most d i s c o n c e r t i n g ,  too, was the f a c t t h a t the o l d t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s were adopting many o f the CCF measures — e n t e r p r i s e system*.  w i t h i n the context of the ' f r e e  Thus, t o the extent t h a t the L i b e r a l -  Conservative C o a l i t i o n government implemented these measures, they r e c e i v e d the c r e d i t . As the 1 9 4 9 e l e c t i o n had produced l i t t l e change, the GGF members began t o question t h e i r p o l i c i e s t o f i n d out why they were l o s i n g t h e i r support i n B.C.  The i s s u e was centered on the  degree o f a l l e g i a n c e t o s o c i a l i s t d o c t r i n e . " I t i s t r u e t h a t advocacy o f s o c i a l ownership of the means o f production has been at the heart of s o c i a l i s t d o c t r i n e . Yet many CCF'ers b e l i e v e t h a t the s o c i a l i s t cause can be maintained and f u r t h e r e d without r i g i d adherence t o the s t r a t e g y of widespread p u b l i c  ownership."^  3&CCF Programme of B.C.. 1 9 3 7 . published by the CCF (B.C. Section] P r o v i n c i a l Executive, Vancouver, B.C., p. 3 . 39  C G F  p  r o g r a m m e  o f B.C.. 1 9 4 5 . op. c i t . . p. 3 0 .  ^°Thomas M. Sanford. The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The CCF and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B.C., t h e s i s presented f o r the degree o f Doctor of Philosophy i n P o l i t i c a l Science a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 1 , p. 1 4 4 .  29 Many members were questioning whether p u b l i c ownership of a l l means of production would a c t u a l l y b r i n g about freedom, e q u a l i t y and s e c u r i t y f o r a l l , along w i t h an increased standard of l i v i n g . There was  s t i l l a group of l e f t - w i n g CCF ers who T  retained t h e i r  s o c i a l i s t b e l i e f s but these were not shared by many of the newer, younger members.  These l a t e r r e c r u i t s were not i d e o l o g i c a l l y and  sentimentally attached to the Regina Manifesto and the which the o r i g i n a l p a r t y - b u i l d e r s had gone through.  struggles  A f i g u r e who  quite s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h i s change was Ernest Winch.  As  formerly pointed out, h i s greatest concern had always been the people i n need, and h i s attempts to help them were at the very p r a c t i c a l , down-to-earth l e v e l .  Rather than a t h e o r i s t he  had  always been an a c t i v e worker and i n the process had moved away from preaching the b a s i c Marxian ideology.  Although he  still  supported s o c i a l i s t t h e o r i e s and belonged to the m o r e - l e f t i s t f a c t i o n of the B.C.  CCF party, Ernest Winch was more renowned as  an a c t i v e worker f o r reforms. atchewan where T.C.  Douglas was  T h i s , too, had occurred i n Saskspreading a C h r i s t i a n , humanistic  s o c i a l i s m r a t h e r than Marxian S o c i a l i s m .  Other s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u -  ences, too, were the economic conditions of the 1940 s. T  ity  "Prosper-  weakened the appeal of s o c i a l i s m , and the s o c i a l i s t study  clubs of the CCF l o s t ground a c c o r d i n g l y .  Generally, the a f f l u e n t  s o c i e t y robs i d e o l o g i e s of t h e i r meaningfulness and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , for  people are caught up i n the web  of m a t e r i a l t h i n g s and l a c k  the desperation needed f o r commitment to a web  of i d e a s . " ! 4  To  Thomas M. Sanford. The P o l i t i c s of P r o t e s t : The CCF and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B.C.. t h e s i s presented f o r the degree of Doctor of Philosophy i n P o l i t i c a l Science at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1961, p. 267. 41  3 0  deal w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n we see the party de-emphasizing  i t s goal  f o r a new s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y and i n s t e a d s t r e s s i n g the need f o r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and reform.  Though s t i l l r e t a i n e d , n a t i o n a l i z a -  t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and a few s p e c i f i c industries.  Even terminology was changed —  ' s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y ' was  replaced by a 'new s o c i a l order' or the 'co-operative commonwealth'.  And most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the 1940's marked the-beginning  of labour i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the CCF ranks; an i n f l u e n c e t h a t reached greater heights i n the 1950's and l e d d i r e c t l y to the formation of the 'New Party' i n 1961. The 1950's and The Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n The L i b e r a l - Conservative C o a l i t i o n had by t h i s time run i t s course.  I n 1952 the House was d i s s o l v e d and an e l e c t i o n  c a l l e d f o r June 12; an e l e c t i o n few attempted t o p r e d i c t .  The  CCF was o p t i m i s t i c ; the L i b e r a l s and Conservatives could hope f o r no more than a m i n o r i t y government; and the new p a r t y , the S o c i a l C r e d i t , was discounted as a f o r c e . The outcome was u n b e l i e v a b l e . The CCF emerged from the e l e c t i o n w i t h eighteen seats, one l e s s than the S o c i a l C r e d i t ; the L i b e r a l s and Conservatives had f a l l e n w e l l behind the two p r o t e s t p a r t i e s , winning j u s t t e n seats between them.  T.M. Sanford explained the s u r p r i s i n g outcome:  "A key explanation i s t h a t many v o t e r s were a l i e n a t e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s , at the same time were u n w i l l i n g t o support the s o c i a l i s t CCF, and thus moved toward and vented t h e i r p r o t e s t f o r the only remaining free-enterprise alternative — Social Credit.  ^ T.M. Sanford, The P o l i t i c s of P r o t e s t : The CCF and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B.C.. t h e s i s presented f o r the degree of Doctorof Philosophy i n P o l i t i c a l Science a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a 1961, p. 162. 2  31 I t was not j u s t t h e i r own supporters that r e j e c t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s , the s o c i a l i s t s d i d l i k e w i s e .  I n the m a j o r i t y of cases  the CCF v o t e r s gave t h e i r second-choice votes t o the S o c i a l C r e d i t . For a more extensive breakdown o f the 1952 r e s u l t s , consult T.M. Sanford, The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t :  The Co-operative Commonwealth  Federation and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Chapter V I . Soon a f t e r the House opened, the S o c i a l C r e d i t o r s hoped f o r and were granted a vote o f non-confidence i n t h e i r government. T h i s provided them with the opportunity t p appeal t o the people once more; t h i s time f o r stronger support.  Opposition l e a d e r ,  Harold Winch, hoping t o prevent another e l e c t i o n , appealed t o the Lieutenant-Governor f o r a chance t o form a CCF m i n o r i t y government.  He f e l t he could make t h i s work p r o v i d i n g that he d i d not  introduce l e g i s l a t i o n which could be taken as p r o - s o c i a l i s t However, t h i s was not granted and because he had proposed t h i s without the knowledge and approval from the CCF caucus, discontent resulted.  I t was not long a f t e r that Harold Winch resigned as  party leader and turned to f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s .  The subsequent  elec-  t i o n was favorable t o the S o c i a l C r e d i t who won twenty-eight seats (45% of the popular v o t e ) , the CCF dropping t o fourteen seats (29% of the popular v o t e ) . Another prominent f i g u r e , Ernest Winch, was a l s o coming t o the end o f h i s p o l i t i c a l career.  Before he d i e d , though (1957),  he succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s l a s t welfare d r i v e — pensioners and a r t h r i t i c s .  housing f o r  Through h i s e f f o r t s the l o w - r e n t a l  New V i s t a Homes f o r Senior C i t i z e n s were planned, b u i l t , and  3 n r o t h y Steeves, The Compassionate Rebel, Evergreen Press L t d . , Vancouver, B.C., I960, (copywrite, Boag Foundation, Vancouver) , p. 182 4  0  32 i n h a b i t e d under the d i r e c t o r s h i p of the New V i s t a S o c i e t y .  The  S o c i e t y was non-profit and received p r o v i n c i a l grants amounting to one t h i r d of i t s c a p i t a l c o s t .  " I n 1953 he introduced a b i l l  i n the L e g i s l a t u r e t o guarantee the permanence of the New V i s t a p r o j e c t f o r senior c i t i z e n s and t o preserve i t s purpose under a Board of Trustees,.. . " ^ his  The b i l l was unanimously approved. For  e f f o r t s i n previous p r o j e c t s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s one,  Ernest Winch had considerable c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a t him by the far  l e f t - w i n g f a c t i o n s of the party.  They f e l t such p r o j e c t s  should, i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y , be a government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  How-  ever, once more Ernest Winch i n d i c a t e d that he was pragmatic and that h i s concern was f o r the people. Also of some s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the f a c t that a t t h e i r 1950 N a t i o n a l Convention i n Vancouver, the CCF voted i n favor of sending a Canadian contingent t o f i g h t i n the Korean War.  During  the two World Wars the CCF had objected t o sending m i l i t a r y a i d t o other countries f i g h t i n g a war. This same Convention, t o o , discussed whether a new statement of basic p r i n c i p l e s should be formulated  t o replace the Regina Manifesto.  This i s s u e was met  w i t h strong opposition by the o l d die-hard s o c i a l i s t s ( e s p e c i a l l y those from B.C.), but enough were i n favor t o n e c e s s i t a t e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on the matter.  "Delegates compromised on a proposal  t o have r e g i o n a l CCF sections work a t f o r m u l a t i n g a new d e c l a r a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s under the guidance of a n a t i o n a l committee."^ At stake were the strong s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s of the Regina Manifesto principles.  Many CCF'ers had r e a l i z e d t h a t though they p r e f e r r e d  ^ I b i d . , p. 195 4 5  I b i d . , p. 203  33 s o c i a l i s m , i t was not, i n t h e i r view, a p r a c t i c a l goal f o r Canada. They f e l t the p o s s i b i l i t y of forming a Welfare State i n i t s stead more promising.  T h i s , however, would i n v o l v e the r e v i s i o n or r e -  placement of the Regina Manifesto.  In 1956  the N a t i o n a l  CCF  C o u n c i l presented a d r a f t t o the N a t i o n a l Convention i n Winnipeg. I t was adopted as The Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s of the CCF*. l e a v i n g the Regina Manifesto  as a h i s t o r i c document.  "Its  c h i e f claim to fame was the emphasis on a new CCF o b j e c t i v e of a 'mixed economy' i n which p u b l i c l y owned i n d u s t r i e s and f r e e e n t e r p r i s e were to l i v e together h a p p i l y , although not ever after."  4 6  The Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s r e f l e c t e d the reformi s t welfare philosophy which the CCF had come t o p r a c t i c e . the CCF  While  s t i l l claimed concern w i t h the i n e q u a l i t i e s produced by  c a p i t a l i s m , t h i s document went a step f u r t h e r than the Regina Manifesto and delineated these i n e q u a l i t i e s . welfare i s s u e s —  A l l , dealt with  'want, i n s e c u r i t y , slums, o l d age,  and education.' ''' 4  But no longer was a 'new  ill-health,  s o c i a l order'  the  answer; ' s o c i a l planning' was the key, with " . . . p u b l i c , p r i v a t e and co-operative e n t e r p r i s e working together i n the people's i n t e r e s t . " Events l e a d i n g to the Founding of the New Democratic Party From A p r i l 21st  t o 25th, 195S,  the Canadian Labour Congress  held i t s Second C o n s t i t u t i o n Convention at Winnipeg.  One  of the  i s s u e s discussed at the Convention was p o l i t i c a l involvement.  It  Dorothy Steeves, The Compassionate Rebel. Evergreen Press L t d . , Vancouver, B.C., I960, (copyright, Boag Foundation), p. 208. 4  ?Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n , op. c i t . . p.  4 8  1.  I b i d . . p. 2  *See Appendix F. 1956 Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s Qff t h e CCF, ( P a r t i S o c i a l Democratique du Canada)  4 8  34 was decided t h a t w i t h i n two years time t h e r e would be formed a "...broadly  based people's p o l i t i c a l movement which embraces the  CCF,  the l a b o u r movement, farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l people  and  other l i b e r a l l y - m i n d e d persons i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s i c s o c i a l r e -  form and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n through our p a r l i a m e n t a r y  system o f  government."^9 The  CCF N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l was a d v i s e d  o f t h i s r e s o l u t i o n and  asked t o name r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o a CLC - CCF J o i n t N a t i o n a l Comm i t t e e which would l a y the ground-work f o r t h e new movement. CCF  The  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l met i n May o f 1958 and expressed i t s support  i n a r e s o l u t i o n * t o be submitted t o t h e J u l y 23-25 CCF N a t i o n a l Convention i n Montreal f o r a p p r o v a l .  Having r e c e i v e d the sanction  from both t h e CLC and CCF, the J o i n t N a t i o n a l Committee proceeded t o make plans and c o - o r d i n a t e a c r o s s Canada.  the r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g  place  "Since t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f 1958 a number o f New  P a r t y Conferences organized  by P r o v i n c i a l F e d e r a t i o n s  o f Labour,  D i s t r i c t Labour C o u n c i l s , CCF o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e CLC P o l i t i c a l Education  Department and J o i n t CLC - CCF Committees, have been  h e l d i n the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s . " ^  The m a j o r i t y were h e l d i n  O n t a r i o and B.C. and the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , CCF'ers, farmers, businessmen, and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . CLC  - CCF Commission was predominantly i n s t r u m e n t a l  The J o i n t i n s e t t i n g up  study and d i s c u s s i o n grou ps w i t h the purpose o f encouraging rank  CCF  A New P o l i t i c a l P a r t y f o r Canada, p u b l i s h e d by t h e CLC J o i n t Committee, Ottawa, Nov., 1958, p. 5.  •Appendix G - f o r t h e complete R e s o l u t i o n adopted a t the CLC Convention h e l d a t Winnipeg, A p r i l 21 - 25, 1958. Appendix H.- f o r complete R e s o l u t i o n adopted a t the CCF N a t i o n a l Convention h e l d a t Montreal, J u l y 23 - 25, 1958. ^°CCF - CLC J o i n t Meeting i n Winnipeg, Manitoba. d i s t r i b u t e d a t t h e meeting, August, 1959, p. i i .  Papers  35 and f i l e CCF and union members t o p a r t i c i p a t e and exchange i d e a s . The  p r o p o s a l s f o r a new p o l i t i c a l p a r t y based on the p r i n -  c i p l e s and i d e a l s o f t h e CCF were met with enthusiasm by many people.  They i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t and w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e  i n h e l p i n g t h e New P a r t y t o become a r e a l i t y .  S t a n l e y Knowleg,  e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e CLG and n a t i o n a l v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f the CCF e x p l a i n e d i t i n t h i s way: "The setback s u f f e r e d by t h a t p a r t y a t t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 195© and the r e a l i z a t i o n i n the p u b l i c mind t h a t the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e CCF was t h r e a t e n e d , f o c u s s e d the a t t e n t i o n o f a great many Canadians on the f a c t t h a t what the CCF stood f o r was something t h i s country d i d not want t o disappear."51 To work out some o f the d i f f e r e n c e s and t e n t a t i v e p o l i c i e s , a N a t i o n a l CCF - CLC Seminar was h e l d i n Winnipeg from August 28 30, 1959.  Three hundred d e l e g a t e s attended  —  119 from t r a d e  unions; 116 from the CCF; 33 farmers; and 36 o t h e r s . Maclnnis,  one o f t h e a t t e n d e n t s ,  Grace  s a i d o f the proposed New P a r t y :  " I t s program and p h i l o s o p h y w i l l be almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the program and p h i l o s o p h y of the CCF."-*  2  J u s t before t h e Founding Convention  the N a t i o n a l Committee  c i r c u l a t e d two pamphlets, one c o n t a i n i n g the D r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n * ; the o t h e r t h e D r a f t Program*.  1961,  With some m o d i f i c a t i o n s , these  ^ """Stanley Knowles, The New P a r t y . M c L e l l a n d p. 4 8 .  and Stewart L t d .  G r a c e M a c l n n i s , "CCF-CLC Winnipeg Seminar a Success", CCF News, f o r B.C. and the Yukon, Vol.23, No.9, September , 19$9, p 5 2  * D r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n , p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r the New P a r t y i n March, 1961. * D r a f t Program, p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r t h e New P a r t y , i n May, 1961.  36 were l a t e r endorsed by the Founding Convention.  The program i s  d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s ; the second, t i t l e d ' S e c u r i t y and Freedom*, d e a l i n g w i t h welfare measures which f a l l under f e d e r a l jurisdiction.  The magor concern i s s e c u r i t y .  "The New Party w i l l e s t a b l i s h a program of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y — a program to ensure a standard of l i v i n g which w i l l enable every Canadian to l i v e i n h e a l t h and s e l f - r e s p e c t . " ^ 3 B r i e f l y o u t l i n e d i s a n a t i o n a l h e a l t h p l a n , a n a t i o n a l retirement p l a n , an a s s i s t a n c e plan f o r those who are unemployed due t o an i l l n e s s or accident not covered by Workman's Compensation ( i n c l u d i n g maternity b e n e f i t s ) , a l i f e insurance p l a n , and increases i n veterans', f a m i l y , and b l i n d and d i s a b l e d persons*  allowances.  The New Party a l s o proposed t o combat disease by e s t a b l i s h i n g a n a t i o n a l centre f o r research.  Increased housing accommodation,  town and community planning, urban re-development, and slum clearance would a l s o be undertaken.  Canadian labourers and con-  sumers a l s o stand t o b e n e f i t from the New P a r t y ' s proposals. Included i n t h i s category, too, was an expanded program i n educ a t i o n and the a r t s . The Founding Convention i t s e l f was a s u c c e s s f u l and memorable occasion.  Held i n Ottawa, i t drew two thousand and  hundred attendents.  T.C.  two  Douglas was chosen as n a t i o n a l leader  and Michael O l i v e r , as NDP President. Although the s i x t e e n B.C.  NDP - CCF MLA's were unable t o  attend the N a t i o n a l Founding Convention due to a s p e c i a l session of the B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e , they had the opportunity t o p a r t i c i p a t e  53lbid., P. 18.  37 at the P r o v i n c i a l Convention h e l d October 27 t o 29, 1961.  A  s o c i a l welfare program on matters of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n  was  passed as an "Offensive against S o c i a l Neglect": "The NDP w i l l have as i t s primary i n t e r e s t the needs of people at a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y . I t r e c ognizes that human beings are our greatest r e sources and t h a t welfare s e r v i c e s must be focussed on i n d i v i d u a l needs and i n d i v i d u a l problems. "A new Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l make a complete study of a l l welfare needs and s e r v i c e s . I t w i l l remove the f i n a n c i a l burden of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s from the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S o c i a l Assistance allowances w i l l be r a i s e d . S e r v i c e s and pensions f o r the aged must be i n creased and there w i l l be an immediate speedup i n senior c i t i z e n s housing. 1  "There w i l l be an enlargement of s e r v i c e s t o mentally d i s t u r b e d and retarded c h i l d r e n and an expansion of j u v e n i l e and f a m i l y court s e r v i c e s . There must be a preventive approach t o delinquency, drug a d d i c t i o n , alcoholism and mental i l l n e s s . "An aggressive program f o r r e c r u i t i n g s u i t a b l e s k i l l e d s t a f f to the government s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e w i l l be undertaken. Assistance t o the U n i v e r s i t y School of S o c i a l Work and b u r s a r i e s to s o c i a l welfare s t a f f f o r f u r t h e r education w i l l be provided. I t w i l l be the p o l i c y of the government t o r a i s e educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and pract i c e standards of s o c i a l workers g e n e r a l l y , throughout the province."54 The d e t a i l and c l a r i t y of t h i s program i s considerable when compared to those of previous years.  Much of the c r e d i t f o r t h i s  goes t o Mr. David B a r r e t t , the MLA entrusted t o be the welfare spokesman f o r the B.C.  New Democratic Party.  Since h i s e l e c t i o n  i n I960 he has made emphatic bids to e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l welfare as the primary NDP program.  He has gone to great lengths i n d e f i n i n g  and i n t e r p r e t i n g the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s and needs i n t h i s f i e l d  ^"B.C. Program and C o n s t i t u t i o n " , CCF News, v o l . 25, 19 September, 1961, p. 5.  no. 9,  38  as evidenced i n the NDP paper, The Democrat* examination  For a more d e t a i l e d  of h i s views, see Chapter 17 of t h i s t h e s i s .  ******* The B.C. S o c i a l i s t movement has undergone considerable p h i l o s o p h i c a l change since 1933 when i t emerged as the CCF, Canada's f i r s t ' t h i r d ' party.  I t was mainly composed of labourers and was  based on strong Marxian t r a d i t i o n — w i t h both membership and philosophy drawn p r i m a r i l y from the S o c i a l i s t Party o f Canada (B.C.). The main d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature l a y i n i t s p o l i c y t o completely a b o l i s h the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order and r e p l a c i n g i t with a s o c i a l i s t one. I t was a 'people's' party but i t s programs were geared more towards the economy and s o c i a l order, with the people b e n e f i t t i n g as a consequence of these being implemented.  However, the  CCF was not given tthe opportunity t o govern and so t o r e t a i n and increase i t s support, i t began i n t r o d u c i n g programs which were more s p e c i f i c i n terms of people's needs.  These were the labour  and welfare programs, s t a r t i n g w i t h Ernest Winch's d r i v e t o a l l e v i a t e the p l i g h t of the mentally i l l , the aged, the c r i m i n a l , the poor, and the overworked ( o r e x p l o i t e d ) . About t h i s same p e r i o d , l a t e depression and e a r l y World War I I years, the party was t a k i n g on quite a marked r e f o r m i s t p o s i t i o n .  At times t h i s met with  considerable r e s i s t a n c e from those w i t h i n the party who recognized and feared the watering-down process which g r a d u a l l y d i d occur. A c t u a l l y what was happening was a growing awareness of the needs of the people i n r e l a t i o n t o the circumstances  of the s o c i e t y .  The party became more f l e x i b l e and t h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n the p o l i c y changes.  These changes i n p o l i c y were not f u l l y acknowledged  u n t i l 1956 when the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s was signed.  39 P u b l i e ownership was de-emphasized and s o c i a l welfare was i n c l u d e d as one of the t o p p r i o r i t i e s .  Thus d i d the CCF enter a new phase,  one which can be best described by the words 'welfare s t a t i s m ' . M.J. C o l d w e l l gave f u l l expression t o t h i s i n 1949  when he s a i d :  "When economic and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e has been uprooted; when unemployment has been banished; when decent housing r e p l a c e s a l l our slums; when a l l the resources of medical science are a v a i l able t o even the poorest u r c h i n i n the l a n d ; when the flames o f r e l i g i o u s and r a c i a l hatreds have been stamped out; when the f e a r o f g l u t t e d markets, s t a r v a t i o n p r i c e s and crop f a i l u r e s has been removed; when our o l d f o l k s are no longer shut away i n bare, l o n e l y rooms t o await t h e i r end on a s t a r v a t i o n pension; when every c h i l d i n the land has a l l the milk i t can d r i n k and a l l the food i t can eat, and when the only l i m i t t o i t s education w i l l be i t s own a b i l i t y — when a l l these t h i n g s have come to pass, then the need f o r the CCF w i l l have disappeared. I t s task w i l l have been done. But not t i l l then."55 The h i s t o r y of the s o c i a l democratic movement i n B.C. i s f u l l of t w i s t s and t u r n s both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y as w e l l as p h i l o sophically.  The main trends i n terms of philosophy can be sum-  marized as f o l l o w s : (a)  Before the o f f i c i a l formation of t h e CCF i n 1933 the s o c i a l democratic movement was concerned with welfare matters only t o the extent of r e c o g n i z i n g them; t h e i r s o l u t i o n was p r e d i c t e d as a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the new s o c i a l order which the party was proposing.  (b)  The depression and World War I I years created a new CCF outlook on the needs of the people.  Less energy  -'-'M.J. C o l d w e l l , part of a speech given i n 1949; quoted i n a paper t i t l e d H i s t o r y of the CCF: Boag Foundation C o l l e c t i o n , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U.B.C. L i b r a r y .  40 was spent expounding on the e v i l s of c a p i t a l i s m and more was being d i r e c t e d t o i d e n t i f y i n g and a l l e v i a t i n g welfare problems.  I t was during these years that the  CCF gained prominence and respect f o r the r e f o r m i s t welfare measures which i t s L e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s introduced. Although the r e f o r m i s t element of the party (NDP-CCF) g r a d u a l l y replaced the o r i g i n a l (1933, Regina Manifesto) goal t o e s t a b l i s h a new s o c i a l order, t h i s was not given o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n u n t i l 1956 when the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s was adopted.  This document  advocates a l e s s r a d i c a l form of Democratic S o c i a l i s m w i t h greater emphasis on welfare matters, and as pointed out i n t h i s chapter, a more accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the present party philosophy i s r e f l e c t e d i n the term 'welfare statisra'.  \  CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION; SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY RESOLUTIONS AND POLICY STATEMENTS FROM ANNUAL PROVINCIAL CONVENTIONS (a) Purpose The major objective of this chapter will be to assess the New Democratic Party's opinion on social welfare policy and philosophy as seen by the rank and file and to correlate these views with the official views of the party as expressed through formal policy statements. Official views as expressed by the party leadership will be examined in the fourth chapter and the third chapter will examine the individual views of members, at a l l levels, gathered through the use of a questionnaire.  This chapter will therefore be con-  fined mainly to aggregate opinions of the rank and file expressed through resolutions and official views as expressed through policy statements. In this chapter three areas are examined. (a) The party structure and organization is examined in order to evaluate the importance that rank and file resolutions play in formation of party policy.  This includes an  examination of the similarities and differences between the NDP and the CCF insofar as the importance of rank and file resolutions are concerned. (b) Resolutions of a philosophical nature are examined and correlated to the general philosophical views as developed in Chapter I.  42 (c)  The  r e s o l u t i o n s are c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c  a r e a s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and p a r t y p o l i c y on s o c i a l (b) The  tested against  official  welfare.  Material  The 1.  m a t e r i a l examined i n c l u d e s t h e  following:  T r a n s c r i p t s o f the r e s o l u t i o n s p r e s e n t e d t o the c o n v e n t i o n s o f the CCF  and  the NDP  annual 1953  f o r the y e a r s  1965.  to 2.  The  Regina M a n i f e s t o  3•  The  Winnipeg  4.  A program statement adopted by the P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l o f the CCF  5.  "The  Declaration  1954-  in  Task B e f o r e Us."  An a p p r a i s a l o f CCF  p h i l o s o p h y p r e s e n t e d t o the 1956  policy  C o n v e n t i o n by  and  the  executive. 6.  O f f i c i a l P o l i c y Statements from the CCF NDP  organ The  A statement o f NDP  8.  An i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  9.  The  The  p o l i c y endorsed by the 1965  1957,  Ernest H a l l , Secretary  1958,  1959  and  The  NDP.  1954,  I960 l i s t a l l o f the r e s o l u t i o n s sub-  organizations  but do not The  include a  r e s o l u t i o n s c a r r i e d are recorded.  1964  those  There i s no r e c o r d , however,  o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n s s u b m i t t e d by c o n s t i t u e n c y o f any  record  proceedings f o r  c o n t a i n the d i s p o s i t i o n o f a l l r e s o l u t i o n s and  g e n e r a l t h e r e i s no r e c o r d  records  r e c o r d s f o r the y e a r s  o f the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the r e s o l u t i o n s . 1965  o f the  c h i e f l i m i t a t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l are found i n the  m i t t e d by c o n s t i t u e n c y  and  convention.  Constitution.  o f the c o n v e n t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s . 1955,  the  Democrat.  7.  NDP  News and  associations.  d i s c u s s i o n o f the  In  resolutions  43 nor i s the r a t i o n a l e f o r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n given. A second major l i m i t a t i o n concerning r e s o l u t i o n s i s the f a c t t h t there were no records a v a i l a b l e f o r the years 1962 nor was the NDP  1964,  and  a  able to provide a copy of the minutes of the  founding convention.  T h i s i s most unfortunate, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  l a c k of the minutes of the founding convention of the NDP was a major development i n the h i s t o r y of the CCF  which  - NDP movement.  In a d d i t i o n to the recording of r e s o l u t i o n s , the  official  proceedings of the annual conventions often contain o f f i c i a l p o l i c y statements which along with o f f i c i a l statements published i n the CCF News and The Democrat, are used as a b a s i s f o r examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between rank and f i l e r e s o l u t i o n s and  official  policy. In order t o examine the nature of the party organization  and  structure (which a f f e c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and rank and f i l e resolutions5, the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the NDP  was  examined and an i n t e r v i e w was held with Mr. Ernest H a l l , present Secretary of the  NDP.  Party Organization and  Structure  I t i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e that i n a d d i t i o n to the f a c t , that s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s d i f f e r from the long e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i e s i n terms of philosophy, they also d i f f e r i n terms of party tion.  This d i f f e r e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t v i t a l l y a f f e c t s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between rank and f i l e and the o f f i c i a l ship.  organiza-  leader-  Perhaps i t i s necessary f i r s t of a l l to o u t l i n e the major  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the organization of long e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i e s and then to examine how  s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s are d i f f e r e n t and  t o assess to what degree the NDP party  organization.  thirdly  conforms to the model of s o c i a l i s t  kk A c c o r d i n g t o M a u r i c e Duverger, l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i e s " s u r v i v e i n t h e shape o f C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l p a r t i e s . . . They a r e based on caucuses which a r e n a r r o w l y r e c r u i t e d , r a t h e r independent o f one a n o t h e r and g e n e r a l l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d ; t h e i r a i m i s not so much t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r membership o r t o enl i s t t h e masses a s t o r e c r u i t o u t s t a n d i n g p e o p l e . " These t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s t e n d t o d i r e c t t h e i r e n t i r e l y towards e l e c t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y  1  activities  have a somewhat i r r e g -  u l a r rhythm t o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , t e n d i n g o n l y t o be v e r y a c t i v e d u r i n g e l e c t i o n s ; p a r t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t e n d s t o be m i n i m a l and t h e l e a d e r s h i p l a r g e l y i n t h e hands o f e l e c t e d p a r l i a m e n t a r y  rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e s and r e v o l v e s around p e r s o n a l i t i e s ( t h e p a r t y l e a d e r and h i s c a b i n e t ) r a t h e r t h a n i d e o l o g y .  Indeed, t h e s e p a r t i e s a r e  u s u a l l y concerned w i t h p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n i d e o l o g i c a l ones. habit."  Membership " . . . i s g e n e r a l l y based on i n t e r e s t o r  2  Duverger d e s c r i b e s s o c i a l i s t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a s . . . . "being d i r e c t e d t o o r g a n i z i n g as l a r g e a proport i o n o f t h e masses a s p o s s i b l e . . . i n w h i c h t h e p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n o f members assumes c o n s i d e r a b l e importance a l o n g s i d e t h e p u r e l y e l e c t o r a l a c t i v i t y . The p e r s o n a l a s p e c t i n l e a d e r s h i p becomes l e s s i m p o r t a n t . . . d o c t r i n e p l a y s a much more i m p o r t a n t p a r t w i t h i n t h e p a r t y ; r i v a l r i e s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g s t r u g g l e s between p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t a k e on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f c o n f l i c t s between opinion."5  These p a r t i e s a r e dependent on i n d i v i d u a l members f o r t h e i r f i n a n c e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y  have a r i g i d system o f i n d i v i d u a l  M a u r i c e Duverger, P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s ; T h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n and A c t i v i t y i n t h e Modern S t a t e . Methuen and Co. L t d . London. 1959. p. 1. 2  Duverger, o p . c i t . p. 1. 3  Ibid.  p. 1.  45  s u b s c r i p t i o n s (rather than r e c e i v i n g large donations from r e l a t i v e l y few wealthy supporters).  I n these s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s there  tends t o be a d e f i n i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the general membership composed of 'branches'.  P o l i t i c a l education as w e l l as  e l e c t o r a l a c t i v i t y assumes great importance.  A l l this inevitably  leads t o the formation of a considerable a d m i n i s t r a t i v e organization. The most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s i n terms of t h i s t h e s i s i s the f a c t t h a t s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s exercise c o n t r o l over t h e i r parliamentary ize  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i . e . they u t i l -  various procedures to ensure that party ideology i s manifested  i n parliament  by party members s i t t i n g i n parliament.  Our f i r s t  task i n t h i s chapter i s to examine the extent t o which the NDP exercises t h i s type of c o n t r o l over i t s l e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . According to Corry and Hodgetts the CCF d i d e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over the l e a d e r s h i p . "The P r o v i n c i a l and N a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s b u i l t on the constituency a s s o c i a t i o n s have c a r e f u l cons t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r ensuring t h a t the rank and f i l e of party members w i l l be heard. The party l e a d e r s h i p , whether p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l i s f o r m a l l y subject t o c o n t r o l and d e t a i l e d d i r e c t i o n by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e party a s s o c i a t i o n s . ... Annual p r o v i n c i a l and b i e n n i a l n a t i o n a l party conventions, which are widely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n s i s t on the leaders g i v i n g a f u l l account of t h e i r stewardship... Many matters which i n the o l d e r p a r t i e s would be s e t t l e d i n caucus...are dealt with i n the CCF party by the representative a s s o c i a t i o n s and conventions." 4  In the New Democratic Party i n B.C. t h i s p r a c t i c e has been modified due t o the a f f i l i a t i o n of labour union groups.  The  .A. Corry and J.E. Hodgetts. Democratic Government and P o l i t i c s . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, Toronto 1958. p. 262.  46 opinions of the rank and f i l e are s t i l l important although labour w i e l d s a considerable i n f l u e n c e because of i t s f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i butions which w i l l be examined l a t e r .  The 1965  proceedings of  the annual B.C. NDP convention c o n t a i n s , f o r example, a comprehensive p o l i c y statement which incorporated a large number of the rank and f i l e r e s o l u t i o n s passed at the convention. More important the p o l i c y statement i t s e l f which represents the o f f i c i a l view of the NDP was, to quote the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the statement "endorsed S e c t i o n by S e c t i o n at the P r o v i n c i a l Convention and P r o v i n c i a l Council."-* Resolutions o r i g i n a t e at the constituency l e v e l i n c l u d i n g those which are proposed by a f f i l i a t e d clubs and labour organizations.  A general meeting of the constituency a s s o c i a t i o n  votes on r e s o l u t i o n s proposed and forwards those accepted to a r e s o l u t i o n s committee (which i s r a t i f i e d by the p a r t y convention) which i n t u r n amalgamates s i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n s and c l a r i f i e s conf l i c t i n g resolutions.  The r e s o l u t i o n s are then voted on by the  convention and those accepted become party p o l i c y .  Those r e s o l -  u t i o n s which are not dealt w i t h by the convention due to l a c k of time are r e f e r r e d to the executive and c o u n c i l and i f endorsed by the executive and/or c o u n c i l become party p o l i c y .  According  to P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, Ernest H a l l , most of these r e s o l u t i o n s are  a c t u a l l y never dealt w i t h . T h e o r e t i c a l l y a l l party p o l i c y , i n c l u d i n g both r e s o l u t i o n s  and p o l i c y statements endorsed by the convention are b i n d i n g on l e g i s l a t i v e members.  There i s however no d i r e c t way of immedi-  a t e l y d i s c i p l i n i n g e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who f a i l to adhere to party p o l i c y , although u l t i m a t e l y the party does have methods of c o n t r o l which are vested i n the annual convention and the Proceedings, 1965  Convention.  47 constituency a s s o c i a t i o n s . The constituency a s s o c i a t i o n s can refuse t o renominate a r e b e l l i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e member and therefore withdraw party support.  The annual convention can e x e r c i s e i t s c o n t r o l by f a i l i n g  to approve the annual report of the leader of the party which again i s , i n e f f e c t , withdrawal of support. In between annual conventions which are held w i t h i n a m i n i mum  of eighteen months of each other}, there i s an attempt at i n -  formal c o n t r o l through j o i n t meetings of the party executive and the parliamentary caucus.  These meetings are held o f t e n although  not r e g u l a r l y and the degree of c o n t r o l exercised by the party executive often depends on the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the various groups i n v o l v e d at any given time. Since the i n f l u e n c e of trade and labour union  affiliates  w i l l be discussed i n a l a t e r chapter i t i s perhaps appropriate to conclude t h i s presentation of the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the NDP w i t h some comments on the r o l e of labour i n the  NDP.  Under A r t i c l e I I I ^ of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the NDP unions may a f f i l i a t e themselves with the NDP.  At present a f f i l i a t i o n i s made  to constituency a s s o c i a t i o n s and a f f i l i a t e d groups are subject to the c o n t r o l s of the constituency o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Union a f f i l i a t e s  could w i e l d a large amount of i n f l u e n c e i n the party i f the  NDP  became dependent on union f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The t h r e a t of withdrawal of such support would become a powerful t o o l f o r i n f l u e n c i n g party p o l i c y . I f f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s are used as a measure of union i n f l u e n c e , dues paid by union a f f i l i a t e s would i n d i c a t e a small  Constitution,  p.  4.  4a influence.  The convention proceedings f o r 1965,  f o r instance,  i n d i c a t e t h a t union a f f i l i a t e s contributed $732.56 f o r the s i x months ended A p r i l 30, 1964.  The t o t a l income f o r t h i s period  was $ 1 5 , 5 3 0 . 9 1 the bulk of which i s derived from i n d i v i d u a l contributions.  The unions do however, according to Ernest H a l l ,  c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l donations  during e l e c t i o n times i n the  form of cash and d i r e c t s e r v i c e s (e.g. labour, m a t e r i a l s , o f f i c e space e t c . ) .  The t o t a l amount of these c o n t r i b u t i o n s was  not  divulged, except f o r the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t they are much l a r g e r than the t o t a l dues paid through a f f i l i a t e s .  There i s therefore the  l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the labour union movement does exert a considerable i n f l u e n c e i n the  NDP.  Philosophy and P r i n c i p l e s From the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s to the present time the  socialist  movement has undergone a considerable m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t s o r g a n i zational structure.  With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of labour as a p a r t i -  c i p a t i n g group i n the CCF - NDP  the c o n t r o l s by the party conven-  t i o n over parliamentary leadership have been relaxed and made l e s s formal.  In a d d i t i o n , the NDP  no longer has a formal s t a t e -  ment of p r i n c i p l e s equal t o documents such as the Regina Manifesto (1933) or the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n ( 1 9 5 6 ) .  Convention r e s o l u t i o n s  seem to have replaced these documents and consequently have become more thorough and t h o u g h t f u l . The more recent e v o l u t i o n of the party to i t s present can be t r a c e d back to 1953 Regina Manifesto. sidered and i n 1959  By 1956  when the CCF  s t i l l adhered to the  the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n was being con-  the idea of a new party began to appear,  u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n g i n the formation of the New in  1961.  state  Democratic Party  49 In 1953,  the p r o v i n c i a l convention passed only one r e s o l u -  t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l matters. "Resolved t h a t t h i s convention r e i t e r a t e i t s bel i e f i n the Regina Manifesto and urge the n a t i o n a l c o u n c i l t o continue i t s e f f o r t s t o complete the statement of p r i n c i p l e s of the CCF and t o prepare a handbook o u t l i n i n g i n abbreviated form the fundamental p o l i c i e s of the CCF f o r the use o f CCF members and the p u b l i c . " 8  T h i s r e s o l u t i o n was an amendment of the o r i g i n a l submitted by the Commonwealth Club which contained i n i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n an i n d i c a t i o n that the party was becoming d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the manner i n which i t s general aims might be implemented.  The Commonwealth  Club r e s o l u t i o n stated t h a t "WHEREAS there i s a pronounced f e e l i n g o f uncert a i n t y among the general p u b l i c as t o the true moral and economic aims and p o l i c i e s o f the CCF and WHEREAS the rank and f i l e of the p a r t y should have a w r i t t e n p o l i c y of CCF philosophy BE IT RESOLVED t h a t a l l urgency be attached t o the completion of the statement of P r i n c i p l e s of the CCF ( r e d r a f t o f the Regina Manifesto) and t o the preparation o f a handbook o u t l i n i n g i n abbreviated form the said p r i n c i p l e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o each member and t o be a v a i l a b l e to the general p u b l i c . " (  By 1955  a restatement of the Regina Manifesto had not been  d r a f t e d , however, a program adopted by the p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l i n 1954 was presented t o the convention.  E s s e n t i a l l y , there was  very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s program and the Regina Mani-  festo.  The main reason f o r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n seems to have been  a) A reassurance t o the p u b l i c that the CCF i f e l e c t e d would  Convention Proceedings, 1953,  R e s o l u t i o n #101,  p. 70.  ^Convention Proceedings, 1953, Commonwealth Club.  R e s o l u t i o n #101,  p. 26,  50  govern c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y . "We f i n d . . . t h a t the voters need assurance that the CCF w i l l uphold the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of our government -- both before and a f t e r t a k i n g power."* 0  b) The p o l i c y on n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n was r e s t a t e d .  The  party  executive at t h i s point seemed t o want to s a t i s f y two groups the rank and f i l e and the e l e c t o r a t e .  —  This program used the term  "mixed economy" i n i t s statement on s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  The Regina  Manifesto had c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d what would be s o c i a l i z e d and what would not.  The new p r o v i n c i a l program simply s a i d the CCF would "administer a mixed economy c o n t a i n i n g both p r i vate and p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e . W i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y and finance a CCF government would proceed t o widen the area of s o c i a l ownership i n those i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s indispensable to the l i f e of the p e o p l e . " i 1  The CCF continued to undergo reexamination of i t s goals philosophy u n t i l 1956 when the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n was duced.  I t may be that the reexamination i n B.C.  and  intro-  could be p a r t i a l l y  due to the defeat suffered at the p o l l s i n 1952 and 1 9 5 3 .  Party  records show t h a t a f t e r t h e i r narrow defeat i n 1952 there were expectations that i n 1953 the CCF would win.  Defeat appears to  have come as a shock and the CCF became concerned with i t s image. I t seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of being associated w i t h t o t a l i t a r i a n government and t h e r e f o r e stated t h i s p o s i t i o n i n i t s 1956 program. Convention Proceedings, 1 9 5 5 , p. 3 8 . Convention Proceedings, 1 9 5 5 , p. 3 3 .  51  "...the p u b l i c . . . i s deeply suspicious about our r e a l a t t i t u d e s on a number of v i t a l matters. We have yet t o o b t a i n the support of people who are not s o c i a l i s t s . . . . They need to be convinced that we b e l i e v e i n the parliamentary system...that we are genuinely opposed t o a l l forms of t o t a l i t a r i a n control."12 During the period 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 6 the l e f t wing of the party r e mained s t r a n g e l y q u i e t . cussed and  New  programs and approaches were d i s -  some r e f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y was t a k i n g place w i t h  l i t t l e opposition.  In 1956 however with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n evidence of a struggle becomes apparent. The Regina Manifesto d i f f e r s from the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n i n one major  way.  The Regina Manifesto  i s s p e c i f i c where the Winnipeg Declar-  a t i o n i s broad and general.  The Manifesto  states s p e c i f i c a l l y  that "banking, currency, c r e d i t and insurance, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communications, and e l e c t r i c a l power"^ w i l l be s o c i a l i z e d .  It  a l s o s t a t e s t h a t " n a t u r a l resources and the p r i n c i p a l means of production w i l l be s o c i a l i z e d . " I  4  The Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n s t a t e s  that "The CCF has always recognized p u b l i c ownership as the most e f f e c t i v e means of breaking the stranglehold of p r i v a t e monopolies on the l i f e of the n a t i o n and of f a c i l i t a t i n g the s o c i a l planning necessary f o r economic s e c u r i t y and advance. The CCF w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , extend p u b l i c ownership wherever i t i s n e c e s s a r y . 5 nl  -^Convention Proceedings, 1 9 5 5 , p. 13  ^Regina Manifesto, p.  2.  H R e g i n a Manifesto, p.  3.  •^Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n  f  p.  3.  38.  52  The Winnipeg Declaration broadens i t s scope even further byrecognizing that " i n many f i e l d s there w i l l be a need f o r private enterprise which can make a useful contribution to our economy. The cooperative commonwealth w i l l therefore provide appropriate opportunities f o r private business as well as p u b l i c l y owned industry."! 0  Insofar as s o c i a l welfare i s concerned both the Regina Manifesto and the Winnipeg Declaration saw t h e i r economic programs as answering the needs i n the s o c i a l welfare f i e l d .  The i n t r o -  ductory statement i n the Regina Manifesto f o r example states that "...the p r i n c i p l e regulating production, d i s t r i b u t i o n and exchange w i l l be the supplying of human needs and not the making of p r o f i t s . " ' 1  It further states that "The present order i s marked by g l a r i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s of wealth and opportunity, by chaotic waste and i n s t a b i l i t y ; i n an age of plenty i t condemns the great mass of the people to poverty and i n security.... We believe that these e v i l s can be removed only i n a planned and s o c i a l i z e d economy..." 18  The introductory statement of the Winnipeg Declaration states that "The aim of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federat i o n i s the establishment by democratic means of a co-operative commonwealth i n which the supplying of human needs and enrichment of human l i f e s h a l l be the primary purpose of our society."19  16  17  Winnipeg Declaration, p. 3 . R e gina Manifesto,  p. 1.  •^Regina Manifesto, p. 1 19 Winnipeg Declaration, p. 1 7  53 S o c i a l w e l f a r e i n t h e broadest sense i s t h e r e f o r e t h e c o r n e r stone on which CCF p h i l o s o p h y has been b u i l t . o f both t h e Regina M a n i f e s t o and the Winnipeg economic d e p r i v a t i o n .  The main concern D e c l a r a t i o n was  The remedies o f f e r e d c o n s i s t e d i n t h e main,  o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f the economy, p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n a n c e and banking, monopolies, c e r t a i n other e s s e n t i a l areas.  communication and t r a n s p o r t and I t was f e l t t h a t on t h e whole  such  a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y and the-economy would l e a d t o a l e s s e n i n g o f s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and d e p r i v a t i o n .  In addition  s o c i a l i z e d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s were seen a s a complement t o economic planning.  0  Other a r e a s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e concern — care e t c . were not d e a l t w i t h by the Winnipeg  delinquency, c h i l d D e c l a r a t i o n . The  Regina M a n i f e s t o however d i d have a b r i e f s e c t i o n "Social  entitled  Justice." "While t h e removal o f economic i n e q u a l i t y w i l l do much t o overcome t h e most g l a r i n g i n j u s t i c e s i n the treatment o f those who come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e law, our present a r c h a i c system must be changed and brought i n t o accordance w i t h a modern concept of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The new system must not be based, as i s t h e present one, upon vengeance and f e a r , but upon an understanding o f human b e h a v i o u r . "  2 0  When the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Convention i n 195S, t h e r e were f i f t e e n  resolutions  submitted from c l u b s and a s s o c i a t i o n s ; t e n a g a i n s t i t ,  one f o r  i t and t h r e e e x p r e s s i n g concern over t h e way t h e D e c l a r a t i o n had been i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e convention. The p o i n t s made by those r e s o l u t i o n s d i s a p p r o v i n g t h e  Regina M a n i f e s t o , p. 7.  54 Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n can be best summarized by the f o l l o w i n g resolution. "BE IT RESOLVED t h a t the theme of the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n that there i s room f o r an extensive development of p r i v a t e c a p i t a l i n the Cooperative Commonwealth be r e j e c t e d . " 2 1  The theme of the t e n r e s o l u t i o n s stressed the r e j e c t i o n of accepting p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e as having a r o l e i n a s o c i a l i s t state.  I n t h i s respect the r e s o l u t i o n s went f u r t h e r than the  Regina Manifesto  i t s e l f , f o r while strong words were used t o de-  f i n e ' c a p i t a l i s m * there was never any c l e a r suggestion p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e should be e l i m i n a t e d .  that  A l l ten resolutions  were r e j e c t e d by the convention and the simple r e s o l u t i o n i n favor of the D e c l a r a t i o n was passed.  I t stated  "BE IT RESOLVED that t h i s CCF P r o v i n c i a l Convention welcomes the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n as a modern s t a t e ment of CCF p r i n c i p l e s . " ^ 2  The matter d i d not r e s t a t the passing of that r e s o l u t i o n however.  A composite r e s o l u t i o n was drawn up by delegates t o the  convention and r e p l a c e d those r e s o l u t i o n s opposing the Winnipeg Declaration.  This r e s o l u t i o n recognized the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n  but contained w i t h i n i t two statements which symbolized the struggle between two f a c t i o n s i n the party. "We cannot forsee the circumstances i n which the next statement w i l l be made, but we know they w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . This convention b e l i e v e s that the way t o prepare f o r the next such statement i s  2 1  195S,  R e s o l u t i o n #78, H i l l c r e s t CCF Club 1958. R e s o l u t i o n #137, p. 34.  Vancouver East Constituency  Association  55 by disavowing and r e j e c t i n g any concept or d e c l a r a t i o n that a modified and c o n t r o l l e d c a p i t a l i s m i s the u l t i m a t e goal of the CCF." and  later "We urge the CCF N a t i o n a l Convention give the l e a d by making p r o v i s i o n f o r a continuing study of s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s , so that the t h i n k i n g o f our movement may keep pace w i t h the development of our f a s t changing world." 3 2  T h i s r e s o l u t i o n was a l s o passed by the 1958 Convention i n contrad i c t i o n t o the Vancouver East r e s o l u t i o n already passed. By 1959, the struggle f o r r e d i r e c t i o n and r e d e f i n i t i o n had taken a new t u r n .  At the 1959 Convention the idea o f a 'new  party* composed of an a l l i a n c e between trade unions and the CCF was proposed.  A controversy arose and continued i n t o I960.  A  number of r e s o l u t i o n s were proposed f o r and against a new party, most of those against showing a cherished l o y a l t y to the name CCF and a f e a r t h a t the entrance of labour i n t o the party i n an o f f i c i a l way would f u r t h e r d i l u t e the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y . The new party became a f a c t when the New Democratic Party was founded i n B.C. i n 1961.  There are no complete records o f  the founding convention a v a i l a b l e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note however that the party does not have a 'manifesto' i n the form o f an o f f i c i a l statement of p r i n c i p l e s and philosophy stiich as the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n or Regina Manifesto.  The 1963 P r o v i n c i a l  Convention did however pass a r e s o l u t i o n which was e n t i t l e d "Statement of P r i n c i p l e s . "  This r e s o l u t i o n enunciates p r i n c i p l e s  Resolution #146, Statement of P r i n c i p l e s 1958\  56 s i m i l a r t o the Regina Manifesto and the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n , I t s importance f o r s o c i a l welfare i s found i n the opening statement, "The New Democratic Party i s pledged t o b r i n g about i n Canada a s o c i e t y i n which the m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l needs of humanity w i l l be f u l f i l l e d , i n order t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be able t o l i v e a meaningful and s a t i s f y i n g l i f e . " * * 2  -  The statement r e a f f i r m s the party's b e l i e f i n a system based on human r i g h t s over 'a d r i v e f o r p r o f i t . '  The statement on  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y however i s even more tempered than the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n s t a t i n g that the NDP w i l l work t o e l e c t a government which i s "pledged t o the development of d e m o c r a t i c a l l y administered i n s t i t u t i o n s i n order to b r i n g under p u b l i c ownership or c o n t r o l , our n a t u r a l resources and our basic i n d u s t r i e s . " ? 2  During the period 1953-1965, the CCF - NDP has undergone considerable change i n i t s s t r u c t u r e and t h i s has been accompanied by a change i n approach to i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l values. S t r u c t u r a l l y the change had occurred by the broadening of i t s membership to i n c l u d e the a f f i l i a t i o n of labour groups.  The  a d d i t i o n of labour t o the CCF - NDP movement i s l i k e l y to a f f e c t that o r g a n i z a t i o n  profoundly.  P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y the NDP s t i l l adheres to the maxim that s o c i e t y and the economy should be planned t o meet human needs r a t h e r than t o leave the economy t o the exigencies of the 'free market.'  The emphasis on s o c i a l i z a t i o n or n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of  ^ R e s o l u t i o n s C l , 1963. 2 5  Resolution C l ,  1963.  57 i n d u s t r y remains although not t o the same degree.  There i s  greater c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the r o l e of p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y i n the economy while s t i l l r e t a i n i n g the emphasis on planning and/or control. S o c i a l i z a t i o n (36 r e s o l u t i o n s ) The b a s i s f o r CCF - NDP philosophy as a p o l i t i c a l movement has been p r i m a r i l y the e l i m i n a t i o n of gross economic i n e q u a l i t i e s . One of the major means of o b t a i n i n g t h i s goal c o n s i s t s of a program of n a t i o n a l i z i n g or s o c i a l i z i n g various areas of the economy. As a p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l program n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s seen as an important t o o l i n the d i f f u s i o n of economic and p o l i t i c a l power t o a l a r g e r proportion of the population and hence the emphasis on n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of key i n d u s t r i e s , p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , monopolies and f i n a n c e . power l i e s .  These are the areas i n which the greatest economic There appears t o be a large group w i t h i n the NDP  who  view s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r i m a r i l y as an economic and p o l i t i c a l t o o l to achieve greater e q u a l i z a t i o n of wealth and l e s s e n i n g of economic deprivation.  This group does not see p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e or  c a p i t a l i s m as i n h e r e n t l y immoral but rather sees the misuse o f c a p i t a l and the consequent concentration of p o l i t i c a l and economic power i n t o the hands of a few as immoral.  T h e i r primary goal i s  economic e q u a l i z a t i o n rather than s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n sake. There i s however another group w i t h i n the NDP whose ideas are based on the w r i t i n g s of Marx and who tend to view p r i v a t e enterp r i s e and c a p i t a l i s m as b a s i c a l l y immoral.  This concept of immor-  a l i t y seems t o be based on the premise that p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n e v i t a b l y leads t o e x p l o i t a t i o n of wage earners.  The  contention  i s t h a t wage earners who produce the goods do not obtain b e n e f i t s  58 i n the form of p r o f i t w h i l e the to the p r o d u c t i v e  i n v e s t o r whose o n l y  contribution  system i s h i s money or c a p i t a l enjoys the  prof-  i t s without c o n t r i b u t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n p h y s i c a l e f f o r t to  the  productive  that  labour  process.  i s morally  In t h i s t h e r e  i s an element of the i d e a  good.  Both the Regina M a n i f e s t o and  the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n  t o take a 'middle ground' stance i n t h i s i s s u e by c a p i t a l i s m to be immoral but i n a t i o n but  seem  declaring  n e i t h e r c a l l f o r i t s complete  elim-  r a t h e r i t s s u b j e c t i o n to a system based on human needs  r a t h e r than the p r o f i t motive. The  two  views mentioned above o v e r l a p  w i t h i n the p a r t y .  In a d d i t i o n t h e r e  c i t i z e n s of a democracy  same type of c o n t r o l over t h e i r economic  as they t h e o r e t i c a l l y do over t h e i r p o l i t i c a l d e s t i n y . i s best a c h i e v e d , some argue, through the  destiny This  An  o f the  t o 1965  v i n c i a l CCF  for  the  r e s o l u t i o n s on s o c i a l i z a t i o n from the  indicate that a large proportion  of the  pro-  viewed n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n p r i m a r i l y as a t o o l f o r a c h i e -  v i n g economic e q u a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than as a b a s i c Most of the r e s o l u t i o n s (26  premise.  by  state.  examination o f 36  years 1953  goal  common ownership ( i . e .  s t a t e ownership) and/or c o n t r o l o f the means of p r o d u c t i o n population  groups  i s a t h i r d view which h o l d s  t h a t i t i s i n h e r e n t l y d e s i r a b l e f o r the to m a i n t a i n the  between v a r i o u s  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s  n a t u r a l resources,  philosophical  i n a l l ) up to 1958 (hydro and  called  telephone),  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y and  car  insurance. The  i n t r o d u c t i o n to these r e s o l u t i o n s c o n t a i n such statements  as 1. "Whereas the power r a t e s i n the p r o v i n c e  are high  in  59 comparison w i t h Provinces that do not have t h i s abundance (B.C.'s) of e l e c t r i c a l p o t e n t i a l ; Therefore be i t resolved t h a t we take over the B.C.E.R "26 2. "Whereas the f o r e s t s are r a p i d l y being depleted, BE IT RESOLVED that the CCF upon being e l e c t e d w i l l immediately s o c i a l i z e the f o r e s t lands of B.C. i n the name of the people."27 Most of the r e s o l u t i o n s from t h i s period are s i m i l a r . basic idea of the i m m o r a l i t y '  of c a p i t a l i s m of course was  The ex-  pressed i n the Regina Manifesto and the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n .  The  f a c t however that the r e s o l u t i o n s dealt mainly with p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and t h e i r f a i l u r e to meet p u b l i c need i n s p e c i f i c areas i n d i c a t e s a trend away from the view that c a p i t a l i s m per se, i s immoral. In 1958-59 the p h i l o s o p h i c a l aspect received b r i e f a t t e n t i o n with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n .  The  contro-  versy over t h i s change has already been discussed however the c o n f l i c t over s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l be examined f u r t h e r .  The  resol-  u t i o n s opposing the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n were defeated but the f o l l o w i n g quote i l l u s t r a t e s the t r a d i t i o n a l approach to s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i t s emphasis on the immorality of c a p i t a l i s m . 1. "... 'Our aim i s a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y ' and 'we w i l l not mistake the form of s o c i a l ownership f o r the substance of s o c i a l i s m ' and WHEREAS the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n , i n i t s support of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , departs from the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of s o c i a l i s m , ... The Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n cannot be accepted as a D e c l a r a t i o n of S o c i a l i s t P r i n c i p l e s . " 2 8  Resolution #125,  1955. 2 7  R e s o l u t i o n #83,  2 8  R e s o l u t i o n #143,  Victoria-Oak Bay Constituency North Burnaby,  Association,  1956.  Vancouver Centre A s s o c i a t i o n ,  1958.  60 The most recent records of the New  Democratic Party emphasize  p u b l i c ownership as a form of democratic popular c o n t r o l and appears to give equal status to the idea of c o n t r o l as opposed to p u b l i c ownership. "The New Democratic Party proposes to implement i t s o b j e c t i v e by democratic and evolutionary means. I t w i l l work to e l e c t a government pledged to the development of democratically administered i n s t i t u t i o n s i n order to b r i n g under p u b l i c ownership or c o n t r o l our n a t u r a l resources and our basic industries." ° 2  T h i s r e s o l u t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y statement endorsed by the P r o v i n c i a l Convention i n 1965.  The  1965  policy  statement proposes steps t o place under p u b l i c ownership, " f o r the b e n e f i t and p r o t e c t i o n of the p u b l i c , a l l remaining private.power companies, n a t u r a l gas production, ...and the B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone System."3° The  1965  p o l i c y statement a l s o proposes that a NDP  govern-  ment would "...modify and c o n t r o l the operations of l a r g e corporate organizations and where necessary, develop new i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c , j o i n t p u b l i c , p r i v a t e and cooperative organizations to balance the market and to ensure both p r o d u c t i v i t y and q u a l i t y at the highest possible l e v e l . " 3 1  Also f o r the f i r s t time i n the records examined, the idea of p u b l i c - p r i v a t e ownership of a bank i s proposed, the government having a s u b s t a n t i a l share of ownership. From the records of the l a s t four years i t would appear that  ^Resolution 30  Cl,  1963.  P o l i c y Statement, Convention Proceedings,  1965.  ^ P o l i c y Statement, Convention Proceedings,  1965.  61 the NDP has moved a considerable distance from the concept of a ' c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y ' and views p u b l i c ownership along with c o n t r o l as a v e h i c l e f o r achieving a degree of income e q u a l i z a t i o n . Broad democratic  c o n t r o l of the economy through government seems  to have become a f i r m i d e a l . Social Security —  P u b l i c Assistance and Income Maintenance Programs ( 2 2 r e s o l u t i o n s )  The main emphasis of the CCF was on economic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t was f e l t that by s o c i a l i z a t i o n and economic planning, economic i n e q u a l i t y would be e l i m i n a t e d .  Perhaps t h i s i s one reason why  s o c i a l s e c u r i t y programs are not given emphasis by the Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n nor the  Regina Manifesto.  The Regina Manifesto i n  s e c t i o n 14 e n t i t l e d "An Emergency Programme" proposed increased r e l i e f measures t o the unemployed and p u b l i c works programs as a method of temporarily d e a l i n g w i t h the c r i s i s of unemployment during the depression years.  I t stated emphatically however that  these emergency measures were "...only of temporary value, f o r the present depression i s a sign of the mortal sickness of the whole c a p i t a l i s t system and t h i s sickness cannot be cured by the a p p l i c a t i o n of  salves."32  Since the Regina Manifesto, the rank and f i l e have moved c l o s e r to what might be c a l l e d an economic reform philosophy.  As  w e l l , there has been an i n c r e a s i n g trend by the party as a whole away from the s t r i c t adherance to s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on s o c i a l s e c u r i t y measures, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the program of the B.C.  NDP.  see chapter one.  For a more complete d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t r e n d There i s a paucity of r e s o l u t i o n s on s o c i a l  Regina Manifesto, p. 8.  62  s e c u r i t y and most of the impetus f o r change seems to come from the leadership l e v e l (see chapter f o u r ) . There are f o r the period 1953-56 3 r e s o l u t i o n s on S o c i a l Allowance 3 Old Age  Assistance  1 S o c i a l Service Tax exemption 3 Debt Moratorium 8 Workmen's Compensation Board 1 Cost of L i v i n g Bonus 1 Widow's Pension 2 Unemployment Insurance The three r e s o l u t i o n s on s o c i a l allowances are proposals to increase the rate of s o c i a l allowance to a more adequate of l i v i n g .  The 1965  standard  r e s o l u t i o n on s o c i a l allowance i n d i c a t e s the  d e s i r e t o r a i s e s o c i a l allowance incomes to a more adequate standard but at the same time i n d i c a t e s the preference  f o r the  p r o v i s i o n of employment rather than p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . "WHERRAS the cost of l i v i n g has gone up sky-high, and those r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l assistance have an e x t r a hard time to e x i s t on $66 per month BE IT RESOLVED that the NDP support a p o l i c y of: a) R a i s i n g the allowance given to those on s o c i a l assistance immediately to an i n t e r i m l e v e l (pending r a i s i n g i t to a more r e a l i s t i c l e v e l a f t e r f u r t h e r study of the problem) comparable with that given Old Age Pensioners. b) G i v i n g the employable unemployed work at union r a t e s , u n t i l such time as work can be found f o r them i n i n d u s t r y , and r e t r a i n i n g them; and that such t r a i n e e s be given, while r e t r a i n i n g , an a l lowance comparable to that given an Old Age Pensioner."33  33  R e s o l u t i o n #57,  1965  63 At the same convention a p o l i c y statement expanding on the s o c i a l allowance r e s o l u t i o n was approved. "The New Democratic Party recognizes t h a t s o c i e t y must make an adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r persons unable to care f o r themselves by reason of unemployment, l o s s of the breadwinner, p h y s i c a l and other d i s a b i l i t i e s . A l l must have t h i s as a r i g h t without l o s s of c i v i l l i b e r t i e s or s e l f - r e s p e c t . At the same time through education and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , persons able t o do so must have an opportunity t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r means t o the general w e l f a r e . " 3 4 A s i m i l a r approach i s taken t o questions such as Old Age Pensions, Widow's Pensions, Workman's Compensation e t c . The party e v i d e n t l y f e e l s t h a t these s e r v i c e s must be provided without l o s s of d i g n i t y or s e l f respect and as a r i g h t .  These allowances  should, according t o r e s o l u t i o n s , ensure a minimum standard of living, however t h i s l a t t e r comment i s not defined. I t would appear from r e s o l u t i o n s records, that the rank and f i l e of the party are s t i l l l a r g e l y concerned w i t h r e s t r u c t u r i n g the  economy and that s o c i a l s e c u r i t y measures w h i l e seen as im-  portant by c e r t a i n l e a d e r s h i p l e v e l s of the party are not a matter of urgent concern t o t h e rank and f i l e a t l e a s t as e v i d enced by the few r e s o l u t i o n s a t party conventions. Automation During the period 1953-1963 there were no r e s o l u t i o n s d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h automation however the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the 1965 p o l i c y statement i s e n t i t l e d "The New Dimension i n Government." This statement attaches a great deal of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the problems of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and automation.  The main contention  3 P o l i cy Statement, Convention Proceedings, 1 9 6 5 . 4  64 i s that t h i s "modern i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n " i s c r e a t i n g a s i t u a t i o n where "the i n d i v i d u a l i s no longer able to meet the demands such r a p i d change makes upon him without adequate d i r e c t i o n , r e t r a i n i n g and adjustment."35 There i s a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n that the  NDP  favors the implementation of a guaranteed annual income although the p o l i c y statement does not elaborate on t h i s matter. "We must r e s t o r e a d i g n i t y to labour and provide through r a t i o n a l planning, a guaranteed income to a l l which w i l l ensure a standard of l i v i n g comensurate with/the productive capacity of the province."3° C h i l d Welfare (1  resolution)  A r e s o l u t i o n e n t i t l e d " C h i l d Care"37 1965  convention and passed.  w a  s  introduced to the  This r e s o l u t i o n deals  specifically  with Foster Day-Care Homes, Day Care Centres, Nurseries Kindergartens.  and  The main purpose of the r e s o l u t i o n i s to support  the p r o v i s i o n of these s e r v i c e s at reasonable cost under government auspices. The issues of p r o t e c t i o n , f o s t e r home s e r v i c e s , adoption and f a m i l y services are not dealt with e i t h e r by r e s o l u t i o n s or recent p o l i c y statements a r i s i n g out of convention proceedings. Conclusion There are a few r e s o l u t i o n s supporting l e s s p u n i t i v e measures i n c o r r e c t i o n s s e r v i c e s and a paragraph i n the 1965  P o l i c y Statement, Convention Proceedings, 'Resolution  60,  p o l i c y statement  1965  1965  P o l i c y Statement, Convention Proceedings,  1965.  65  supporting l a r g e r and b e t t e r t r a i n e d s o c i a l welfare s t a f f f o r government s o c i a l service agencies.  Rank and f i l e r e s o l u t i o n s The 1965  i n these s p e c i f i c areas however are few. may  proceedings  i n d i c a t e a trend to greater c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s p e c i f i c s o c i a l  welfare i s s u e s since there tend to be a few more r e s o l u t i o n s on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and these r e s o l u t i o n s tend to be more thorough.* The rank and f i l e are c l e a r l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n economic r e o r g a n i z a t i o n than s o c i a l s e c u r i t y measures as a method of d e a l i n g w i t h poverty and unemployment.  Some party l e a d e r s , as  w i l l be shown i n Chapter Four had quite extensive views on speci f i c s o c i a l welfare matters. Chapter I has shown t h a t the CCF - NDP has moved from a t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s t basis to a welfare s t a t e b a s i s . NDP  The  present  places l e s s emphasis on s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the economy and more  emphasis on s o c i a l s e c u r i t y programs such as Unemployment Insurance and Old Age  Security.  While the emphasis on welfare state measures i s true f o r the party as a whole i t i s not g e n e r a l l y t r u e f o r the B.C.  s e c t i o n of  the rank and f i l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the matter of p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . There are three major reasons f o r t h i s . According to Chapter I the B.C.  wing of the CCF - NDP  has  always been more l e f t wing than i t s equivalent organizations i n other provinces.  I t i s therefore not s u r p r i s i n g that the  B.C.  movement i s slower than the f e d e r a l and other p r o v i n c i a l organizat i o n s i n adopting welfare state measures. on automation (see page 64)  The recent statement  i n d i c a t e s that the present NDP  is  s e r i o u s l y endorsing a major welfare state p o l i c y by g i v i n g support  *see Appendix I  66 t o t h e i d e a o f a guaranteed a n n u a l income. A second major r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k of emphasis on w e l f a r e s t a t e measures by the B . C . s e c t i o n o f the NDP i s t h e f a c t  that  many o f the measures a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be f e d e r a l a r e a s o f j u r i s diction.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f Unemployment I n s u r a n c e ,  O l d Age S e c u r i t y and M e d i c a r e .  Consequently,  c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r number o f w e l f a r e  the B . C . NDP has a  state oriented resolutions  when d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s a t t h e i r p a r t y  conventions.  T h i r d l y , the r a n k and f i l e seem t o l e a v e much o f the ific  spec-  p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g w e l f a r e measures t o t h e i r  l e a d e r s h i p (see C h a p t e r F o u r ) .  The R e g i n a M a n i f e s t o saw t h e i m -  mediate a l l e v i a t i o n o f s o c i a l problems t h r o u g h s p e c i f i c  measures  such as p u b l i c works and Unemployment I n s u r a n c e a s i n t e r i m measures o n l y .  P a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s such as J . S . Woodsworth i n  the f e d e r a l sphere and E . E . Winch i n B . C . spent a g r e a t d e a l o f effort  i n b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e f o r m s .  While E . E .  Winch d i d c o n t r i b u t e much t o s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e f o r m as a l e g i s l a t i v e member, he was always a t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s t and a t c o n v e n t i o n s m a i n t a i n e d a c o n c e r n t h a t the CCF r e t a i n i t s  party social-  i s t o r i e n t a t i o n (see C h a p t e r O n e ) . To summarize, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the rank and f i l e have moved from a t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s t b a s i s t o an economic r e f o r m basis.  There i s no l o n g e r a s t r i c t adherance t o t h e concept  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new o r d e r .  of  There r e -  mains however, t h e concept t h a t p u b l i c ownership o f t h e means o f production are necessary  i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f the economy.  Econ-  omic p l a n n i n g c o n t i n u e s t o p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n NDP p o l i c i e s . S p e c i f i c w e l f a r e measures a l s o p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n NDP p o l i c i e s , however t h e o r i g i n a t i o n o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s i s a t  the  67  leadership l e v e l i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s .  The rank and f i l e tend  to view s o c i a l s e c u r i t y (Unemployment Insurance, Old Age S e c u r i t y etc.) as f e d e r a l areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n . L e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s remain responsible to the rank and f i l e and i t can therefore be assumed that rank and f i l e members support the a c t i v i t i e s of l e g i s l a t i v e members i n s p e c i f i c areas of s o c i a l welfare.  CHAPTER I I I THE QUESTIONNAIRE INTRODUCTION Purpo se: The purpose and aim of the present chapter i s t o construct with the help of a questionnaire (see Appendix J ) , the general trends of a sample o f the New Democratic Party members (herewith to be c a l l e d NDP). As w e l l , where there i s s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y , to o u t l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the party as a whole. consistency o f welfare views held by party members? are considered by them t o be most relevant?  What i s the What i s s u e s  Where should the  greatest concentration of s e r v i c e s be placed i n the welfare f i e l d ? Should the community become more i n v o l v e d i n the d e t e c t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n o f s o c i a l problems?  I s i t p r i m a r i l y a governmental,  community, o r i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o u t l i n e areas o f need? A l l these are important areas of concern and should be examined to determine the NDP welfare p o l i c y . The NDP has throughout i t s h i s t o r y , undergone a great deal of change.  I t has moved through various stages of development begin-  ning w i t h an emphasis on t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s m t o a present toward the w e l f a r e - s t a t e i d e a l .  focus  The stages of e v o l u t i o n have been  described i n d e t a i l i n Chapter I . How can we account f o r the v a r i e t y of opinions h e l d by i n d i i  v i d u a l members about the purpose and focus of t h i s party?  The  69 change can be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the l a r g e numbers of younger and/or more l a b o u r - o r i e n t e d people j o i n i n g the party i n the 1950*3 and 1960 s b r i n g i n g w i t h them a new focus. T  Their i d e a l s  and background were not steeped i n Marxian s o c i a l i s m . Whereas some of the o l d e r members w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by such a change, many w i l l s t i l l adhere to the t h e o r e t i c a l philosophy found i n the old CCF p a r t y , at the time of i t s founding convention i n 1933• These changes i n a t t i t u d e were examined i n greater d e t a i l i n Chapter I I under NDP  policies.  Because any party i s i n f l u e n c e d by i t s l e a d e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n c e r t a i n areas of l e g i s l a t i o n where some form of expert knowledge or s k i l l i s necessary, the f o u r t h chapter examines opinions h e l d by these leaders about i s s u e s i n the welfare f i e l d i n depth.  In  the present chapter trends i n f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and opinions, of a sample population about key areas i n welfare today, w i l l be examined. In Chapter I the changes i n p a r t y philosophy were o u t l i n e d as a frame of reference f o r the r e s t of the t h e s i s .  Because  changes i n philosophy i n f l u e n c e changes i n a t t i t u d e s i t could be an important b a s i s of comparison between a l l l e v e l s of party membership.  However, because there was no question which l i m i t e d  the respondents to a d e f i n i t e type of philosophy, i t i s impossible to do more than make some general comments where they appear t o be appropriate.  Instead, the f o l l o w i n g areas w i l l be examined:  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the four v a r i a b l e s (age, education, year j o i n i n g and p o s i t i o n i n the p a r t y ) ; the general trends i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l questions; and any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found w i t h i n questions d e a l i n g w i t h general areas of welfare by s t a t i s t i c s ; to determine whether there was consistency i n opinions h e l d between the rank  7G and f i l e members, and those i n h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the party. The o v e r a l l purpose of the questionnaire then, was t o provide information i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: 1)  some s t a t i s t i c a l background i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e s -  pondents i n c l u d i n g age, occupation, education, year j o i n i n g the p a r t y , and past p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , (questions 1, 2, 3 and /*)• 2)  answers t o c e r t a i n basic p h i l o s o p h i c a l questions,  (questions 5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 18). 3)  general trends of t h i n k i n g , and a t t i t u d e s towards wel-  f a r e , ( a l l questions a f t e r number 5 ) . 4)  questions of a s p e c i f i c nature about welfare l e g i s l a t i v e  areas and r e l a t e d areas, (questions 6, 13 t o 2 9 ) . 5)  consistency of responses w i t h i n the v a r i o u s h i e r a r c h i c a l  party l e v e l s , (MLA's, executive c o u n c i l , club s e c r e t a r i e s , and rank and f i l e ) , ( a l l questions a f t e r number 4 ) . 6)  consistency of r e p l i e s of the respondents, w i t h inform-  a t i o n of a s i m i l a r nature gathered from l e a d i n g welfare spokesmen of the p a r t y , and from i n f l u e n t i a l party communications media, ( a l l questions a f t e r number 4 ) . 7)  the existence or non-existence of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  of a t t i t u d e s and opinions between respondents a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ; age, occupation, education, and year of j o i n i n g the p a r t y , ( a l l questions). 8)  the general awareness of the respondents t o e x i s t i n g and  f u t u r e problems i n the f i e l d of welfare and r e l a t e d f i e l d s , ( a l l questions a f t e r number 6 ) .  71 Material: The questionnaire method of e l i c i t i n g information about the NDP's s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y was used to supplement information gathered from i n d i v i d u a l party leaders and experts, and that found i n books, r e s o l u t i o n s , speeches, and newspapers.  I t s aim was t o  provide an e f f i c i e n t method of c o l l e c t i n g data from as l a r g e a population as p o s s i b l e . The covering l e t t e r stated t h a t there were no r i g h t or wrong answers t o questions, and that the annonymity of the respondents was guaranteed.  This was done p r i m a r i l y to promote the r e t u r n of  questionnaires which could be more i n d i c a t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l respondents t r u e f e e l i n g s and opinions, r a t h e r than a tendency to f o l l o w the o f f i c i a l party p o s i t i o n . On December 23, 1965, the questionnaire was sent t o 189 members of the p r o v i n c i a l NDP of B r i t i s h Columbia. included:  These members  the t o t a l number of p r o v i n c i a l members of the l e g i s l a -  t i v e assembly (14), the t o t a l executive c o u n c i l of the party the t o t a l number of l o c a l club s e c r e t a r i e s (55),  (30),  and a random  sample of rank and f i l e members (90). The random sample populat i o n was an a r b i t r a r y choice based on the e f f i c i e n c y with which we f e l t we could deal with the m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d .  Every 30th  rank and f i l e member i n the a l p h a b e t i c a l sequence" was chosen. The questionnaire was accompanied by a covering i n s t r u c t i o n l e t t e r from the t h e s i s group members, as w e l l as a covering l e t t e r from the NDP headquarters which asked f o r the members' f u l l coopera t i o n i n r e t u r n i n g the questionnaire. The questionnaire i t s e l f was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t areas. These were: 1)  questions of a s t a t i s t i c a l  nature.  72 2)  questions of a basic p h i l o s o p h i c and  semi-philosophic  nature. 3)  questions r e l a t i n g t o s p e c i f i c areas of w e l f a r e .  4)  an open-ended question a l l o w i n g f o r f u r t h e r comments.  There were t h i r t y - o n e questions i n a l l ; of which t h i r t y were of the m u l t i p l e choice, yes - no v a r i e t y , and one as o u t l i n e d i n number 4 above. Of the 189 questionnaires that were mailed, 104 (55%) r e p l i e s were received.  Two  of these r e p l i e s stated t h a t they were unable  to complete the questionnaire.  The t o t a l number of returned ques-  t i o n n a i r e s was then, 102 or 54% of the t o t a l sent out.  Two  student  members below the f i r s t (20-29) age d i s t r i b u t i o n were excluded from the sample. E l i m i n a t i n g those questionnaires that were l o s t i n the m a i l (the questionnaires were sent out during the Christmas mail rush), or not f i l l e d out f o r other p h y s i c a l reasons ( s i c k n e s s , e t c . ) , we can say that the percentage of answers received (55%) was low.  rather  The f a c t that we d i d not receive responses from 45% of our  m a i l i n g l i s t ( i n c l u d i n g 5 MLA's), might be a t t r i b u t e d t o apathy on the part of the sample population. could be:  Other p o s s i b l e explanations  a f e e l i n g of ignorance of the sample about the whole  questionnaire, negative f e e l i n g s about questionnaires i n general, a change i n party a f f i l i a t i o n , e t c .  Despite the f a c t that the  r a t e of r e t u r n was not as large as might be expected, i t i s f e l t t h a t c e r t a i n trends can s t i l l be observed.  73 GENERAL TRENDS OF THE SAMPLE A: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents In a d d i t i o n to the basic f a c t that a l l respondents were members of the NDP of B.C., lowing headings: 4)  1)  age;  year of membership;  i n the party.  t h i s sample was examined under the f o l 5)  2)  education;  3)  occupational s t a t u s ;  past party a f f i l i a t i o n ; and 6) p o s i t i o n  These areas w i l l now be examined i n d e t a i l , using  t a b l e s where relevant t o i n d i c a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s and trends. Age  Distribution:  Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n By  20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59  4 24 26 30  60 and over  16  Total Table 2  Age  100  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Rank and F i l e and Other Members Rank & F i l e , O t h e r s  20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59  0 10 15 12  4 14 11 18  2.  60 and over Total  46  Z  Total  54  The age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d i c a t e s a concentration i n the middle years and o l d e r .  This trend towards an o l d e r than the average  population could be because more experience and knowledge i s necessary to a t t a i n p o s i t i o n s i n the party h i e r a r c h y .  This might not  have been so i f the sample were e x c l u s i v e l y rank and f i l e .  How-  ever, i n t h i s sample i t i s evident that over 50$ of the h i e r a r c h i c a l  74  p o s i t i o n s i n the party are occupied by r e l a t i v e l y younger persons ( i . e . under 5 0 y e a r s ) .  I t i s p o s s i b l e to say then, that r e l a t i v e l y  young persons have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n securing these •'leadership' positions. Education D i s t r i b u t i o n : Table 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n by Education Grade 7 or l e s s  3  8  10  8  9 10 11 12  8 8 23 4  13 U n i v e r s i t y year 1  0  2 3 5 6 7  Mean - grade 1 2 . 4  9 5 6 3 7  not answered Total  100  The average education of the sample (the mean) i s grade 1 2 . 4 . This i n d i c a t e s a l e v e l of education much higher than the B.C. average o f approximately grade 8*.  Since education g e n e r a l l y  e f f e c t s knowledgeability, t h i s sample may have r e l a t i v e l y more understanding o f the questions, as w e l l as more s o p h i s t i c a t i o n than average i n f i l l i n g i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Occupational Status and D i s t r i b u t i o n : Because of the great v a r i e t y and s p e c i f i c i t y of the responses received i n regard t o occupation, the sample was a r b i t r a r i l y grouped i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 1 ) p r o f e s s i o n a l s and •According t o 1 9 6 1 Census.  1  75 semi-professionals (as determined f o r t h i s sample by u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n a s p e c i f i c area, e.g. teaching, p r o f e s s o r s , lawyers, etc.),  2) managerial,  3) p r i v a t e ownership,  5) blue c o l l a r ( s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d ) ,  4) white c o l l a r ,  6) non-employed ( r e t i r e d ,  housewives). Table 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n by Occupation p r o f e s s i o n a l s and semiprofessionals managerial p r i v a t e ownership white c o l l a r blue c o l l a r non-employed not answered Total  23 10 13  14  16 100  The d i s t r i b u t i o n by occupation i n d i c a t e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l and semi-professional persons.  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of the party w i t h the "working c l a s s " was not borne out by numbers of members r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of labour w i t h i n the sample.  That  i s , nineteen blue c o l l a r members would seem t o a r e l a t i v e l y low number i n the sample, c o n s i d e r i n g the NDP s p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n T  t a t i o n towards the "working c l a s s " .  This i s e s p e c i a l l y important  when we consider t h a t t h e NDP i s the " p o l i t i c a l arm" of the labour movement. A t a b l e was constructed t o determine what p o s i t i o n s i n the party were h e l d by which occupations.  76  Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n by P o s i t i o n and Occupation i n the NDP MLA Exec.Council Rank and Club Sees. File Semi-professional 4 4 9 6 and p r o f e s s i o n a l 1 1 managerial 4 4 p r i v a t e ownership 1 3 9 0 white c o l l a r 7 1 1 5 blue c o l l a r 1 2 11 5 non-employed 2 8 1 5 not answered _1 0 _1 __1 Totals  9  46  17  Total  23 10 13 14 19 16  _ i  100  28  The t a b l e shows t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the blue c o l l a r members ( l l / l 9 ) i n t h i s sample are rank and f i l e members. Again, although the NDP i s a "working c l a s s " party the blue c o l l a r workers  appar-  e n t l y are p l a y i n g a small r o l e i n l e a d e r s h i p . There i s represent a t i o n of a l l occupations a t a l l l e v e l s of the party h i e r a r c h y , however, we can see that 46% of the sample i s s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and managerial, which seems a r a t h e r l a r g e number when we consider the party's working c l a s s o r i e n t a t i o n . The questionnaire a l s o showed that t h i r t e e n of the respondents were self-employed. Year o f J o i n i n g the CCF-NDP D i s t r i b u t i o n : Table 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n by Year of J o i n i n g CCF-NDP 1933^38  27  1939-45  14  1946-49 1950-59 1960-64  4 21 32 2  not answered Total  100  The years were grouped according t o the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s : 1933-38  Depression years  77 1939-45  War years  1946-49  Post war years  1950-59  Pre NDP  1960-64  Post NDP  These groups of years were judged t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n showed that p r o p o r t i o n -  a t e l y more persons joined the party i n the years immediately f o l lowing the founding of the CCF i n 1933, and the founding of the NDP i n I960.  Aside from these years of mass membership, the p a r t y  seems t o have acquired members at a steady r a t e .  From t h i s sample,  one can see the number of new members has increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y during the l a s t few years. Positional Distribution: Table 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n by P o s i t i o n i n the Party Questionnaires sent MLA Executive C o u n c i l Member Club Secretary Total  Replies  14  28 90 _j>2  9 17 46 _2J|  189  100  Percent 60$ 51$ 48$  The questionnaire was sent t o the t o t a l populations of MLA s, T  executive c o u n c i l members and club s e c r e t a r i e s .  However, a ran-  dom sample of 90 (or one i n every e i g h t y members) were chosen from the rank and f i l e membership.  T h i s mixture of t o t a l popula-  t i o n s and a random sample i s rather unique, and so i s not (nor meant t o be) a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e random sample o f the e n t i r e NDP. In c o n s i d e r i n g the consistency of responses t o the questionn a i r e i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s sub-section holds the most s i g n i f i c a n c e  78 f o r t h i s chapter when compared t o the other t h e s i s chapters.  One  of the major concerns of the questionnaire was t o determine comp a r a t i v e l y i f d i f f e r e n c e s i n welfare p o l i c y , a t t i t u d e s , and opinions e x i s t e d between the rank and f i l e membership, and the party l e a d e r s h i p .  T h i s would i n d i c a t e whether the welfare p o l i c y  o u t l i n e d by the l e a d e r s h i p has the support of the party as a whole, and would give some idea of the s t a b i l i t y of t h i s p o l i c y over time and changes i n l e a d e r s h i p . The r e p l i e s received from the club s e c r e t a r i e s t o t a l l e d 28 out of 57 or 4#%, and o f the four l e v e l s , had the l e a s t response. The fereat number o f p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s , e l i m i n a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of making a cause-and-effect n i f i c a n c e of a l e s s than 50% response.  statement about the s i g Although the response from  MLA's was the best (64%), i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s should have been much higher considering t h e i r d i r e c t involvement i n welfare matters, and the greater e f f o r t made i n attempting t o have questi o n n a i r e s returned from them. B: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of I d e o l o g i c a l Questions This s e c t i o n i s concerned with questions 5 t o 11 i n c l u s i v e , which were included i n an attempt to a s c e r t a i n from what p h i l o s o p h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l base, respondents were making d e c i s i o n s with reference t o l a t e r questions.  An attempt was a l s o  made t o determine a t which stage the respondents were i n the party's e v o l u t i o n (Marxist, social-democrat,  etc.).  I n t h i s s e c t i o n what i s proposed i s , t o give an explanation of why questions were i n c l u d e d , t o o u t l i n e the pertinent r e s u l t s and f i n a l l y , t o evaluate i f p o s s i b l e , c e r t a i n general trends. Since members of the NDP favor s o c i a l change, a question was  79 asked to see how t h i s change should be implemented.  T h i r t y per  cent (30/100) o f the sample t e s t e d f e l t that r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes should occur, w h i l e 66$ (66/100) and 4$ (4/l®°) r e s p e c t i v e l y , thought major and minor changes were necessary i n the e x i s t i n g system.  This would c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e a great deal o f d i s s a t i s -  f a c t i o n with e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y , remembering, of course, that the NDP i s an o p p o s i t i o n party.  Of the respondents n e a r l y 1/3 favour  what could be termed "extreme" ( r e v o l u t i o n a r y ) changes. One p o s s i b l e explanation could be that they seem to adhere t o a Marxian philosophy, and i n terms of the NDP e v o l u t i o n are a t a Marxian stage o f development. In order to compare welfare and non-welfare  p r i o r i t i e s i t was  necessary t o include a question whereby the respondents were given a d e f i n i t e choice between these two areas.  I n i t s broadest sense  a l l l e g i s l a t i o n could be said to be w e l f a r e , however i n t h i s study i t w i l l only i n d i c a t e those i s s u e s having to do d i r e c t l y w i t h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o people.  Thus we have d i v i d e d t h i s question i n t o  two areas — welfare and non-welfare, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 8 . Table 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of "Most Urgent" P r i o r i t i e s i n Welfare and Non-welfare Areas * Welfare education c h i l d welfare mental h e a l t h j u v e n i l e delinquency s o c i a l assistance adult c o r r e c t i o n s  Total  74 53 47 45 3  £  26  Non-Welfare i n d u s t r i a l development labour l e g i s l a t i o n co-operatives northern development hydro development highway c o n s t r u c t i o n park c o n s t r u c t i o n  Total  50 47 21 15 13 5 4  * each t o t a l can be considered out o f 100 — w i t h 9 questionnaires w i t h no answers.  80  The general t r e n d i s toward a "welfare" o r i e n t a t i o n , a l though those areas which economically ( i n d u s t r i a l development and labour l e g i s l a t i o n ) are most r e l e v a n t to a welfare system, are a l s o considered by many as urgent.  L e g i s l a t i o n i n the economic  sphere i s , of course, of- prime importance to a s o c i a l i s t philosophy. I t should a l s o be noted that considerable emphasis was placed on the importance of education. Two i n B.C.,  questions were asked w i t h reference t o welfare s e r v i c e s i n order to examine the respondents'  opinions i n regard  to r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of welfare s e r v i c e s . As would be expected from a s o c i a l i s t p a r t y , the sample popul a t i o n were almost unanimous i n s t a t i n g that the government was not t a k i n g enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (84%)  f o r such s e r v i c e s , and t h a t  the s e r v i c e should be provided by government (76%).  I t i s of note  that only one respondent f e l t s e r v i c e s should be provided primari l y by p r i v a t e agencies, and t h a t 23% stated that there should be shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between governmental and p r i v a t e agencies f o r such s e r v i c e s . In t h i s s e c t i o n a question was a l s o included (number 9 ) which has been deleted because of p r i n t i n g e r r o r s and ambiguity.  This  question d e a l t w i t h governmental support f o r p r i v a t e agencies. Question number ten was asked i n an e f f o r t to l e a r n whether t h i s population saw s o c i a l problems as being the r e s u l t of f a u l t s i n the i n d i v i d u a l , i n s o c i e t y , or both. As should be expected from a s o c i a l i s t p a r t y , only 4% of t h i s sample f e l t t h a t such problems were due to i n d i v i d u a l inadequacies.  But there were a l s o a l a r g e number who f e l t (53%)  such f a i l i n g s could be a t t r i b u t e d to both the i n d i v i d u a l and society.  This seems t o i n d i c a t e movement i n the NDP from an  that  81  e s s e n t i a l l y " c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y philosophy", t o a greater emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f i n a l question of t h i s s e c t i o n was included t o determine i f s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of the sample t e s t e d do, or do not support, premise a basic s o c i a l i s t i c and i d e o l o g i c a l ^ i . e . that every i n d i v i d u a l has the b a s i c r i g h t t o support.  I t was found t h a t only 4$ of the  sample did not favour basic support i f there were no other means of support —  e i t h e r resources or jobs.  Some q u a l i f i e d t h i s area  i n the l a s t s e c t i o n w i t h answers l i k e "a s o c i a l i s t government would not be faced with such a problem, as means of support would be a u t o m a t i c a l l y provided." Summary of I d e o l o g i c a l S e c t i o n Although i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o assess the whole p o p u l a t i o n s f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s from t h i s small sample there was general support f o r the basic i d e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i s m .  I t was  found that a l l respondents held opinions i n t h i s area as extremely few "no o p i n i o n " answers were given. I t would appear f o r the sample t e s t e d that the general f e e l i n g i s that major changes are necessary to a l l o w welfare i n i t s widest, t o become a p r i o r i t y , and that government has the respons i b i l i t y t o b r i n g t h i s about. C:  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Questions d e a l i n g with S p e c i f i c areas of Welfare L e g i s l a t i o n To determine what the population f e l t were p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n  the welfare f i e l d , t h i s s e c t i o n was constructed t o a s c e r t a i n two thingsJ  a) opinions about s p e c i f i c welfare areas —  social assist-  ance, unemployment, c h i l d welfare, j u v e n i l e delinquency,  adult  c o r r e c t i o n s , Indian a f f a i r s , income s u b s i d i z a t i o n , and housing;  82  and b) p r i o r i t i e s . The major reason f o r dealing with the s p e c i f i c categories i s t o provide a b a s i s of comparison between the upper l e v e l s of the party ( p r o v i n c i a l leader, and welfare e x p e r t ) , and the r e s t of the membership.  Although i t w i l l be impossible t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y com-  pare t h i s i n d e t a i l as t h i s i s only a small sample of the t o t a l population, general trends can be noted, e s p e c i a l l y since most questions deal w i t h d e f i n i t e opinions and a t t i t u d e s toward welfare i s s u e s , and  policies.  Each of these sub-sections w i l l now be examined i n d e t a i l . Social Assistance: Three questions with reference to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e were asked to l e a r n , f i r s t l y , a t t i t u d e s toward e l i g i b i l i t y requirements for  such b e n e f i t s ; secondly, f e e l i n g s toward those who  presently  r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and t h i r d l y , opinions about items these r a t e s should be able to cover.  I t was found t h a t t h i s  sample had mixed f e e l i n g s about work requirements f o r b e n e f i t s ; 37% f e l t that people should not work f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , while 59% thought that they should. ments t o the e f f e c t t h a t , e.g.  There were many q u a l i f y i n g s t a t e ! ,  I t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s not the r e a l  i s s u e , cannot a government prevent s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e by p r o v i d i n g meaningful work," "every person should have access to employment as a r i g h t , " and "community has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to provide usef u l employment."  However, despite these statements, such a high  percentage seems i n c o n s i s t e n t with p o l i c y statements of NDP  welfare  spoke smen. Of the respondents 83% r e p l i e d that reduction of r a t e s would not lower the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e population.  T h i s would seem t o  83  imply f o r t h i s sample, that i t i s not the i n d i v i d u a l but the community who i s a t f a u l t , and could be shown as q u a l i f y i n g the f i r s t question that i t i s the community's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o provide work, and thereby help the i n d i v i d u a l maintain a decent standard of l i v i n g . In assessing the l i m i t s of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , 10$ f e l t t h a t the r a t e s should be required t o provide f o r the minimum n e c e s s i t i e s of l i v i n g (food, c l o t h i n g , and u t i l i t i e s ) ; 59$ favoured a higher more marginal income (which included one or two " e x t r a s "  —  camp fees f o r c h i l d r e n and v a c a t i o n s ) ; and 55$ f e l t that r a t e s should cover everything necessary t o provide an average  standard  of l i v i n g . This population tended towards p r o v i d i n g more than the basic l e v e l o f l i v i n g but, d i d not f e e l that i t was the community's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to f u l l y , f i n a n c i a l l y , "equalize" social a s s i s t ance r e c i p i e n t s w i t h the general population.  This could be  l i n k e d w i t h the idea that p r o v i s i o n of work i s more a community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than a p r o v i s i o n of d i r e c t s e r v i c e s i n k i n d .  A  p o s s i b l e explanation, why more expressed the opinion t h a t s e r v i c e s should be above a basic standard, i s because the standard of l i v i n g has r i s e n , and items once considered as luxury, are now seen as necessary and b a s i c .  Therefore, there s t i l l seems t o be  t r e n d toward t r e a t i n g people on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as second c l a s s c i t i z e n s , but w i t h a large percentage ( 2 5 $ ) i n favour of a very liberal attitude.  This could i n t u r n be a t t r i b u t e d to the new  focus on a welfare state i d e a l . Unemployment: The four questions aimed at the problem of unemployment were  34  intended to determine: now;  awareness of unemployment as a problem  as an i n c r e a s i n g problem (due t o automation);  and p o s s i b l e  solutions f o r i t . The sample population manifests considerable awareness of t h i s area as a problem as 83% i n d i c a t e d that unemployment w i l l increase.  This was e q u a l l y due to a l a c k of jobs and  skills  (41% jobs and 45% s k i l l s ) , with only 2% seeing t h i s as an absence of the d e s i r e to work.  To overcome t h i s problem 70% saw r e -  t r a i n i n g as a s o l u t i o n , whereas 25% stated that a guaranteed i n come would be necessary.  There was considerable b e l i e f that unem-  ployment can be solved by a change to a NDP government, but then s i g n i f i c a n t l y 18% said t h a t such a p r o v i n c i a l government could not solve unemployment.  A number of the 13% f e l t t h i s would be pos-  s i b l e i f the NDP formed a f e d e r a l government. Unemployment, then, was recognized as a major problem caused by a community d y s f u n c t i o n , but t h a t i t s t i l l could be a l l e v i a t e d by a change i n p o l i t i c a l focus and philosophy, and r e - t r a i n i n g .  How-  ever, a s i g n i f i c a n t number (19 - 22%) i n d i c a t e d that there i s no s o l u t i o n to unemployment, and other means should be found i n order to cope w i t h i t . Child  Welfare: The primary focus i n t h i s area was aimed a t assessing t h i s  sample's r e a c t i o n t o :  causes of c h i l d neglect; i . e . whether t h i s  neglect was due to an i n d i v i d u a l or community f a i l i n g ; and to a p o s s i b l e means of d e t e c t i n g and r e s o l v i n g i t . ( i ) Causes:  85 Table 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Major Causes of C h i l d Neglect Parental i n d i f f e r e n c e parent's moral l a x i t y emotional disturbance mental i l l n e s s poverty unemployment physical i l l n e s s  53 * 33 43 31 30 25 7  * a l l numbers are out of the t o t a l of  100.  As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 9,  the sample population has emphasized  p a r e n t a l i n d i f f e r e n c e as a major cause of c h i l d n e g l e c t , w i t h emotional disturbance the second. (33$)  A r e l a t i v e l y high percentage  of the respondents f e l t that moral l a x i t y was a cause.  This  seems i n c o n s i s t e n t with the previous focus on the community respons i b i l i t y , excluding i n d i v i d u a l f a i l i n g s , i n both the areas of unemployment and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  However, the question i t s e l f  ambiguous i n t h a t p a r e n t a l i n d i f f e r e n c e and moral l a x i t y may  was  be  seen as r e s u l t s of the other f i v e v a r i a b l e s (poverty, unemployment, illnesses, etc.). ( i i ) Detection and Resolution The sample was 76$ i n favour of employing a s o c i a l worker on school s t a f f s , 12$ disagreed w i t h t h i s suggestion, w h i l e 12$ "no opinion."  had  This suggests perhaps greater emphasis on preven-  t i o n i n d e a l i n g with neglect. Juvenile  Delinquency:  Under t h i s s e c t i o n questions dealt e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h proposed s o l u t i o n s and methods of d e a l i n g with young offenders. u l a r we were attempting to detect p u n i t i v e , versus a t t i t u d e s as a means of s o l v i n g the problem.  In p a r t i c -  non-punitive,  86 Table 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Most E f f e c t i v e Method of Resolving J u v e n i l e Delinquency 71 * 50 29 19 11 6 5  family counselling psychiatric services probation f i n e s f o r parents reform schools fines for juveniles f o s t e r homes * a l l numbers out of the t o t a l  100.  The trend f o r r e h a b i l i t o r y s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than more p u n i t i v e a c t i o n s (as i n d i c a t e d by Table 10)  i s quite obvious.  I t should be  noted, though, that f i n e s f o r parents had s i g n i f i c a n t support  as  a more p u n i t i v e method of handling t h i s problem. The two questions r e l a t i n g to open and closed courts f o r delinquents, and t r a n s f e r of offenders to a d u l t c o u r t , showed 68$ favouring closed court, and 55$ against t r a n s f e r s — open court, 28$ t r a n s f e r s to a d u l t court.  24$  favoured  Although there i s a  general trend favouring the non-punitive method of d e a l i n g with delinquents, there appears to be s i g n i f i c a n t support f o r more d r a s t i c means of a c t i o n .  But, again, the terms are somewhat  vague, and i n d i v i d u a l values must be taken i n t o account (those f a v o u r i n g open court might see t h i s as non-punitive). Therefore i n general, although there i s an emphasis on l e s s p u n i t i v e measures f o r coping w i t h the problem, there s t i l l seems t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t number who favour a more r i g i d treatment  of  delinquents i n court. Adult C o r r e c t i o n s : In t h i s s e c t i o n a question was asked about community focused treatment  ( r e h a b i l i t o r y ) versus the custody ( i s o l a t i o n ) of offenders,  87 A second question attempted t o determine whether there was any s i g n i f i c a n t preference f o r departmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  These  questions a l s o made i t p o s s i b l e t o determine any v a r i a b i l i t y between the upper (welfare spokesmen) and other l e v e l s o f party membership. Of the persons t e s t e d there was an overwhelming majority i n favour of greater use of probation and parole s e r v i c e s (82%), w i t h 6% opposed and 12% w i t h "no o p i n i o n " .  However, only 37% i n d i c a t e d  that j a i l s should be constructed i n the community; 29% outside; and 29% had "no o p i n i o n " (5% made no response).  Support f o r j a i l  c o n s t r u c t i o n outside communities could be the r e s u l t o f the gene r a l t r e n d toward greater use o f probation, therefore l e a v i n g only the hard-core offenders i n the ( i s o l a t e d ) i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The l a r g e number of "no opinion" answers suggests a reluctance t o commit oneself t o a s p e c i f i c o p i n i o n , which could be due t o a l a c k of knowledge i n t h i s f i e l d . I n the sample 68% chose probation and parole t o be administered by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare; 18% picked the Attorney General's department; and 3% stated t h a t i t doesn't matter.  Again  t h i s could i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the view of the respondents t h i s problem could be b e t t e r solved through a s o c i a l , r a t h e r than lawenforcing agency. The trend of the sample membership seemed t o favour s o c i a l , rather than p u n i t i v e means o f handling offenders, by v i r t u e o f the greater emphasis placed on probation (a community s e r v i c e ) , and choice o f a s o c i a l agency t o be i n c o n t r o l .  With reference t o  j a i l s , the l a c k o f a c l e a r l y defined choice could be a t t r i b u t e d to a carry-over from the t r a d i t i o n a l coping techniques, as w e l l as an incomplete d e f i n i t i o n of what were considered t o be c r i m i n a l  88 o f f e n d e r s , ( e . g . h a b i t u a l and f i r s t o f f e n d e r s ) . Indian A f f a i r s : A s i n g l e q u e s t i o n was  g i v e n i n t h i s area i n an e f f o r t t o  de-  t e r m i n e p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n a f f a i r s , and t o t r y t o a s s e s s i f t h i s sample was aware o f e x i s t i n g problems i n t h i s area. 84%  o f the r e s p o n d e n t s saw the n e c e s s i t y f o r the B.C.  Depart-  ment o f W e l f a r e t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n A f f a i r s , w h i l e o n l y &fo opposed t h i s ( w i t h many q u a l i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t s was under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ) .  that t h i s  T h i s d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e s an  awareness o f a need f o r more e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r I n d i a n s , ( T a b l e 11 shows where I n d i a n A f f a i r s was fare  placed i n a l i s t of wel-  priorities).  Income S u b s i d i z a t i o n : A q u e s t i o n was o f m a r g i n a l incomes.  asked t o o b t a i n o p i n i o n s about s u b s i d i z a t i o n I t was  s u b s i d i z a t i o n and o n l y 12%  found t h a t 83%  were opposed.  gave a I e s n  n  answer t o  Opposition to t h i s pro-  p o s a l c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s k i n d o f p o l i c y was  a form o f d i r e c t a i d t o p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y .  t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e r e was  I n s p i t e of  s t i l l overwhelming support f o r t h e sup-  p l e m e n t a t i o n o f m a r g i n a l incomes, i n d i c a t i n g p a r t y movement from t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s m t o the w e l f a r e - s t a t e p h i l o s o p h y . P u b l i c Housing : A q u e s t i o n was  asked on p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o determine i f more  emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h i s a r e a t h a n i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g given  it. I n comparison t o o t h e r q u e s t i o n s t h i s p r o p o s a l r e c e i v e d t h e  Sogreatest support.  89$ favoured increased p r o v i n c i a l funds f o r  p u b l i c housing and only 5$ were against i t .  Of course, t h i s i d e a  f i t s w e l l i n t o the b a s i c philosophy of a s o c i a l i s t party.  The  enormous support could a l s o have roots i n the secondary gains i n herent i n p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , i . e . a boost t o the economy and to employment. Welfare  Priorities:  This question (number 30) was asked i n an attempt to discover what p r i o r i t i e s the respondents saw w i t h i n the welfare f i e l d . Table 11. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Welfare c h i l d welfare homes f o r e l d e r l y Indian a f f a i r s j u v e n i l e delinquency public assistance adult c o r r e c t i o n s  Priorities 6 7* 49 34 31 18 15  * t o t a l i s out o f 100. Greatest emphasis has been on c h i l d w e l f a r e , which seemingly i n d i c a t e s a preventative view of s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  T h i s could be  p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t that "the c h i l d i n d i f f i c u l t y " generates a great deal of sympathy from the p u b l i c . The next three areas r e c e i v i n g p r i o r i t y have been subjected to considerable p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n through mass media i n recent months. T h i s could be a p o s s i b l e explanation f o r the reason why concern i s placed here, as the general population has had an opportunity to be b e t t e r acquainted w i t h the f a c t s , f i g u r e s , and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . P u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and adult c o r r e c t i o n s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y stigmatized areas of welfare, and t h i s may i n part account f o r t h e i r low r a t i n g .  As w e l l , as i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the f e e l i n g was that  90 a change t o a more s o c i a l i s t i c problems i n these  government c o u l d s o l v e the main  fields.  Summary of Areas of S p e c i f i c Welfare In an overview  Legislation:  of t h i s whole s e c t i o n , i t i s apparent  that t h i s  sample m a n i f e s t s an o r i e n t a t i o n to w e l f a r e , with more r e h a b i l i t a t i v e r a t h e r than p u n i t i v e means of s o l v i n g s o c i a l problems. Again, except  i n s p e c i f i c areas where l a c k of knowledge could  be a t t r i b u t e d t o not s t a t i n g o p i n i o n s , t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y "no  o p i n i o n " answers.  more informed  few  T h i s might i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s  on these matters.  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , of  course,  d e a l t w i t h areas where g e n e r a l l y s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s are h e l d by the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Because the NDP  i s an o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y , and uses w e l f a r e  a b a s i s of comparison between i t s p h i l o s o p h y and present  as  policy,  t h i s could a l s o have b e a r i n g on the w e l f a r e f o c u s of t h i s group. D:  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Open-ended  Question  In order t o a l l o w the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample an o p p o r t u n i t y to q u a l i f y statements,  comment f u r t h e r on w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s , and p o i n t  out i n c o n s i s t a n c i e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an open-ended q u e s t i o n was  i n c l u d e d a t the end of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Although  not a l l persons  chose to comment, t h e r e were areas  which were mentioned and those o c c u r r i n g most o f t e n w i l l be summarized  below.  G e n e r a l l y they f e l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : i n making s p e c i f i c c h o i c e s about causes o f , and  "difficulties  solutions to,  s o c i a l problems; p r e v e n t i o n should be the f o c u s o f w e l f a r e a change i n the economic system i n order t o r e s o l v e many o f w e l f a r e concerns;  the importance o f education, f u l l  services; today's  employment  and  91  r e t r a i n i n g i n s o l v i n g welfare inadequacies; concern t h a t more people be i n v o l v e d i n considering p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the focused problems; the primacy of cooperation over competition as a basic philosophy; the need f o r s p l i t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the v a r i o u s governmental l e v e l s t o f a c i l i t a t e i n implementing programs; the need f o r more h i g h l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers; the need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i n the welfare f i e l d ; the need f o r more research; the need f o r a b e t t e r informed p u b l i c ; the need f o r a documented statement of the NDP*s welfare platform; a b e l i e f t h a t welfare i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of c a p i t a l i s m " , e t c . Due t o the great v a r i e t y and d i v e r s i t y of comments i t i s imp o s s i b l e to evaluate each one separately, but a s i g n i f i c a n t concern f o r welfare matters i s c l e a r l y shown throughout the v a r i e t y of responses t o the general question.  STATISTICAL FINDINGS A: Purpose:  In order t o determine i f the sample s e l e c t e d was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l population of NDP members, a form of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was used t o l e a r n i f any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the four v a r i a b l e s of age, education, year j o i n e d party and p o s i t i o n i n party, and the general areas of welfare covered i n the r e s t of the questionnaire. T h i s approach was intended t o a l l o w a comparison of answers  given by rank and f i l e party members, and MLA's, executive c o u n c i l members, club S e c r e t a r i e s , i . e . between the lowest and most popul o u s h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l of the party, and a l l of the other "higher" levels.  T h i s would make p o s s i b l e an examination  of the consistency  of responses r e c e i v e d , and thus determine i f the welfare spokesmen  92 of the p a r t y h o l d the same views as the o t h e r members.  A l s o , be-  cause other v a r i a b l e s (age, e d u c a t i o n , year j o i n e d p a r t y ) c o u l d i n f l u e n c e responses, these too were subjected t o the same k i n d o f analysis. To f a c i l i t a t e the e f f i c i e n c y o f a n a l y s i s , nine q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g with the g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f w e l f a r e were chosen from remainder  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f o r comparison w i t h the above-  named v a r i a b l e s . t i e s (#6);  These i n c l u d e d :  unemployment and the NDP j u v e n i l e delinquency  (#26); B:  w e l f a r e and non-welfare  priori-  governmental and o t h e r means of p r o v i d i n g w e l f a r e s e r -  v i c e s (#8); e l i g i b i l i t y  offenders  the  (#22);  requirements  f o r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e (#11);  economic programs (#18); treatment  (#20);  of  community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r i m i n a l  Indian A f f a i r s  and w e l f a r e p r i o r i t i e s  (#25);  s u b s i d i z a t i o n of incomes  (#30).  Method:  2 The was  p r i n c i p a l s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l used was  done t o determine  c h i square  (X ).  whether the d i f f e r e n c e s between the  and t h e o r e t i c a l f r e q u e n c i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . were used f o r the purpose of t h i s study.  Two  observed  by two t a b l e s  If significance i s  found, then g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the may  be made from our sample p o p u l a t i o n .  (with one  This  A c h i square o f  NDP  3.34  degree o f freedom) and above, s i g n i f i e s t h a t such a  r e s u l t c o u l d occur by chance l e s s than % a c h i square of 6.64  o f the time.  Similarly  (with one degree o f freedom) and above,  indi-  c a t e s t h a t the r e s u l t s could occur by chance l e s s than 1% o f the time. C:  Materials: To s i m p l i f y s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s each of the f o u r v a r i a b l e s ,  93 and the q u e s t i o n s on the g e n e r a l a r e a s o f w e l f a r e , was s p l i t two  into  distinct categories. The  f o l l o w i n g framework w i l l o u t l i n e how and why t h e v a r i a b l e s  and t h e r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groupings. (a) V a r i a b l e s (i)  F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h i s t h e s i s ,  the v a r i a b l e —  p o s i t i o n i n the party —  i s h e l d to be most im-  p o r t a n t , because t h e o v e r - a l l o b j e c t i v e i s t o determine c o n s i s t e n c y of  trends w i t h i n the party hierarchy.  The o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were  examined and compared t o a s c e r t a i n i f f u r t h e r reasons e x i s t e d f o r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t r e n d s i n the p a r t y . The  sample was d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t i s the rank  and f i l e membership were compared t o the more h i e r a r c h i c a l p a r t y There were 46 rank and f i l e respondents  positions.  and 54  respond-  ents from " h i g h e r " p o s i t i o n s . ( i i ) Because d i f f e r e n c e s i n age o f t e n i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e f o r t h i s sample.  An a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n o f ages was made comparing t h e  r e l a t i v e l y o l d e r membership with the r e l a t i v e l y younger membership.  The d i v i s i o n was a t t h e 50 year o l d l e v e l , and 54  were found t o be under 50 y e a r s , and 46 persons ( i i i ) Education,  persons  over 50 y e a r s .  s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  persons  w i t h h i g h education and those w i t h p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , i s o f t e n an important  factor influencing choices.  Therefore, a div-  i s i o n was made between u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and p u b l i c s c h o o l education  (grade 12 o r l e s s ) .  40 persons had some form o f u n i v e r -  s i t y education and 60 had a p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . (iv)  I t was f e l t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s y e a r o f j o i n i n g t h e  94 NDP was important, i n r e l a t i o n t o responses, because o f p o s s i b l e changes i n p a r t y e v o l u t i o n a r y p h i l o s o p h y through the y e a r s . d e c i s i o n was made t o d i v i d e the membership i n t o those a f t e r 1950  and those j o i n i n g before 1950.  A  joining  T h i s roughly d i v i d e s  respondents i n t o those j o i n i n g d u r i n g the CCF f o u n d i n g y e a r , the d e p r e s s i o n , the war and the post war p e r i o d , from those  joining  d u r i n g a time o f r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y and the f o u n d i n g o f the NDP. Once a g a i n t h i s tended t o d i v i d e the members i n t o o l d e r and younger F i f t y - t h r e e persons j o i n e d a f t e r 1949  age groups.  j o i n e d the p a r t y before  and f o r t y - s e v e n  1950.  (b) Questions c o n c e r n i n g g e n e r a l areas of w e l f a r e (i)  The q u e s t i o n on g e n e r a l areas of p r o v i n c i a l  l e g i s l a t i v e powers (#6) areas and non-welfare  and p r i o r i t i e s was grouped  areas.  To determine  governmental  into welfare  i f a significant  dif-  f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between those persons o r i e n t e d towards w e l f a r e , and non-welfare  f i e l d s , i t was necessary t o examine each category  separately.  T h e r e f o r e , the average  o f a l l those who f e l t  that  w e l f a r e areas were most urgent was compared t o those who f e l t i t was urgent o r not u r g e n t . w e l f a r e group. urgent was 47,  The average  that  T h i s was a l s o done f o r the nons t a t i n g w e l f a r e a r e a s were most  and the average  o f those s a y i n g t h a t w e l f a r e areas  were o n l y urgent and l e a s t urgent was 53.  In the non-welfare  c a t e g o r y , the d i v i s i o n was 22 s t a t i n g these had a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y , as compared t o 73 who f e l t t h a t non-welfare was o n l y urgent o r not u r g e n t . (ii)  To determine the extent o f government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  v e r s u s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o t h e r s i n w e l f a r e , q u e s t i o n number 3 was examined by comparing, those choosing government as h a v i n g  95 primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t o a l l o t h e r s .  Seventy-seven  chose government agencies and twenty-three  persons  persons chose one  of  the o t h e r answers. (iii)  To  see i f the sample p o p u l a t i o n f e l t  a b a s i c r i g h t t o support  (#11)  by the s t a t e , the answer "Yes"  compared t o a l l o t h e r answers, t h e a f f i r m a t i v e and (iv)  The  accomplished  was  f l i n e t y - f o u r persons answered i n  s i x answered something e l s e .  f e a s i b i l i t y of the s o l u t i o n t o unemployment b e i n g  through NDP  programs (#18)  a "Yes" answer w i t h other answers. s a i d "Yes" and twenty-three (v)  i n d i v i d u a l s had  examined by comparing  Seventy-seven  sample members  answered something e l s e .  Again, q u e s t i o n 20 was  s p l i t i n t o two  c o v e r i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y versus treatment " f o s t e r homes" was  was  deleted).  d i s t i n c t categories  t e c h n i q u e s (the category  In the category " d i s c i p l i n a r y t e c h -  niques", f i n e s f o r p a r e n t s , f i n e s f o r j u v e n i l e s and reform s c h o o l s , were i n c l u d e d .  An average  2) f o r such t e c h n i q u e s was  of those p l a c i n g h i g h p r i o r i t y compared t o the average  a lower p r i o r i t y ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 and 7 ) i n t h i s a r e a . l a r l y done t o the category "treatment  ( l and  o f those  giving  T h i s was  simi-  t e c h n i q u e s " which i n c l u d e d  p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e s , p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s , and c o u n s e l l i n g to families.  The average  niques was  50 as compared to 5 0 .  (vi)  of those p l a c i n g p r i o r i t y on treatment  To f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s f o r the treatment  a l o f f e n d e r s by the community the q u e s t i o n (#22) t o i s o l a t i o n of o f f e n d e r s . others.  An answer "Yes" was  tech-  of c r i m i n -  compared p r o b a t i o n compared t o a l l  There were 79 "Yes" answers and 21 a l l o t h e r s .  (vii)  In an e f f o r t t o see i f t h e r e was  any  significant  find-  i n g s c o n c e r n i n g p r o v i n c i a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n A f f a i r s the answer "yes" was  compared t o a l l o t h e r s .  The  split  96 was  84 'yes" answers and 16 (viii)  a l l others.  To determine whether t h i s p o p u l a t i o n was  concerned  w i t h government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g s u b s i d i e s t o incomes (#26) The  the answer "Yes" was  c h o i c e s were 67  and  again compared t o a l l o t h e r s .  33 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In q u e s t i o n number 30  (ix)  each o f the w e l f a r e  categories  was  examined s e p a r a t e l y , i . e . a l l those p l a c i n g a h i g h  for  c h i l d w e l f a r e were compared to a l l those who  category was  examined s i m i l a r l y i n t u r n .  The  vs 51;  j u v e n i l e delinquency  18 vs 82; a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s 15 vs 85; D:  Each  f i n d i n g s were:  31 vs 69;  homes f o r the public assistance  and I n d i a n A f f a i r s 34 vs  66.  Results (i)  P a r t y p o s i t i o n compared t o g e n e r a l w e l f a r e  In o n l y t h r e e areas was  any  In q u e s t i o n 25  areas:  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found when  comparing rank and f i l e t o o t h e r p o s i t i o n s i n the  party.  ( I n d i a n A f f a i r s government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) a 4.77)  s i g n i f i c a n c e of (x = 2  p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t these and  priority  d i d not.  c h i l d w e l f a r e h i g h p r i o r i t y 67 vs low p r i o r i t y 33; e l d e r l y 49  marginal  was  found.  T h i s means l e s s than  %  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e of rank  f i l e members and p a r t y o f f i c i a l s c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from  chance v a r i a t i o n s , due t o sampling.  The  rank and f i l e  members  p l a c e d more emphasis on governmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s In q u e s t i o n 30  (welfare p r i o r i t i e s ) two  a s s i s t a n c e and a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s — a s s i s t a n c e (x = 2  4«38)  categories —  showed v a r i a t i o n .  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  calculated.  area. public  In p u b l i c  T h i s means t h a t  the rank and f i l e p l a c e d more importance on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e i n w e l f a r e when compared to the r e s t o f the p o p u l a t i o n . c o r r e c t i o n s (x = 2  5.05)  significance —  In a d u l t  the rank and f i l e gave t h i s  97 a r e a more s i g n i f i c a n c e as w e l l . I t i s v e r y important  t o note, e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of the  e s s e n t i a l r e l e v a n c e of t h i s s e c t i o n , t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d few s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n the p a r t y s t r u c t u r e .  Except  incon-  f o r the t h r e e a r e a s  mentioned, t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n s h e l d between the g e n e r a l membership and those h o l d i n g p a r t y p o s i t i o n s . The  g e n e r a l t r e n d s t o the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were o u t l i n e d p r e -  v i o u s l y i n S e c t i o n B o f t h i s chapter under, q u e s t i o n s  concerning  g e n e r a l areas of w e l f a r e . ( i i ) Other v a r i a b l e s compared t o g e n e r a l w e l f a r e a r e a s : (a)  Age:  As t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n compar-  i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e , t o the areas o u t l i n e d , i t can be s a i d t h a t  age  has no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g c o n s i s t e n c y o f answers by the rank and (b)  file,  i n comparison to other members.  Education:  The  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of members has  sig-  n i f i c a n c e i n answering q u e s t i o n s i n f o u r a r e a s . I n q u e s t i o n number 8 (government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w e l f a r e ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more ( x  2 =  5«46)  n o n - u n i v e r s i t y persons f e l t t h a t  governmental agencies should assume the most r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  as  compared t o o t h e r means. I n q u e s t i o n 20  (treatment  240.0)  n i f i c a n t l y more (x = p r i o r i t y on treatment  t e c h n i q u e s f o r delinquency) s i g -  n o n - u n i v e r s i t y persons  t e c h n i q u e s r a t h e r than a lower p r i o r i t y ,  compared t o those h a v i n g u n i v e r s i t y In q u e s t i o n 30  placed a higher as  education.  (homes f o r e l d e r l y ) , a s i g n i f i c a n t number of  n o n - u n i v e r s i t y (x = 5.9)  p l a c e d a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on p r o v i d i n g  s e r v i c e s f o r the e l d e r l y , than those t h a t p l a c e d a lower on t h i s a r e a when compared t o the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n .  priority And  l a s t l y , i n t h i s same q u e s t i o n , i n d e a l i n g w i t h a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s ,  98 the non-university population placed higher priority for adult corrections than the university population (significance x = 8.15). Education, then, plays an important role in influencing answers to questions in the above areas, and is therefore more of an influence in differences of opinion than position in the party in question #8, # 2 0 (treatment techniques), and question # 3 0 (homes for the elderly), and of equal importance in determining significance of differences in adult corrections. (c) Year of .joining the NDP: Once again no significant differences were found in any of the areas studied, which therefore implies that i t is not an influence in determining the varieties of opinion. That is, i t does not influence the responses of the rank and file as compared to others. E:  Conclusions For the population tested only two variables played a sig-  nificant role in influencing responses for the areas examined. These were found in differences in position in the party and differences of education.  Therefore, except in the areas outlined  previously there is very l i t t l e significant difference in the responses to the questions, i.e. with the exception of seven areas, the general population of the NDP seems consistent in their opinions about and approaches to welfare as determined by this sample.  CONCLUSION I.  It was certainly demonstrated by the results of the question-  naire that a great deal of consistency existed within the party on  99 q u e s t i o n s about and r e l a t e d t o , w e l f a r e .  Although d i f f e r e n c e s  o f o p i n i o n were h e l d on many q u e s t i o n s , these d i f f e r e n c e s were not concentrated  i n any s p e c i f i c groups.  That i s , v a r i a t i o n s o f  views were spread throughout the whole p a r t y and t h e r e were no sub-groups t h a t d i s s e n t e d because o f age, education, p a r t y , o r p o s i t i o n i n the p a r t y .  year  I n t h i s sample t h e r e f o r e , the  rank and f i l e h o l d c o n s i s t e n t views w i t h a l l o t h e r p a r t y The  joining  sample showed t h a t i n questions  concerned with  levels. welfare  needs and p r i o r i t i e s , t h e r e was a t r e n d towards f a v o u r i n g the p r e v e n t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f w e l f a r e , r a t h e r than d e a l i n g with  prob-  lems a f t e r they had o c c u r r e d . In determining  ways o f r e s o l v i n g s o c i a l problems the sample  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were t h e r e s u l t o f some k i n d o f community d y s f u n c t i o n , r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l d y s f u n c t i o n , and t h a t  these  problems c a l l e d f o r a "community s o l u t i o n " . Although the sample p o p u l a t i o n o b v i o u s l y d i d not have exp e r t s i n many o f the areas the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l t w i t h , the r e l a t i v e l y few numbers o f "no o p i n i o n " answers would seem t o i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e o f some knowledge and c e r t a i n l y concern w i t h the areas o u t l i n e d . T h i s concern and c o n s i s t e n c y i s evident when we from the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t o n l y seven areas  consider manifested  d i f f e r e n c e s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , and they were i n methods o f a p p l y i n g w e l f a r e , r a t h e r than suggesting a non-welfare f o c u s . The  questionnaire therefore c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d a welfare  orientation.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e s t r o n g support.at  l e v e l s f o r the p o l i c i e s s t a t e d by the w e l f a r e NDP —  e s p e c i a l l y Mr. B a r r e t t .  a l l party  spokesmen o f the  I t i s , o f course, not p o s s i b l e t o  determine whether t h i s " w e l f a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n " i s p r i m a r i l y the  100  r e s u l t o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s formed from b e i n g NDP members, o r from o t h e r  sources.  S i n c e t h e NDP s u p p o r t s e x p a n s i o n o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s w h i c h i s t h e essence o f t h e w e l f a r e - s t a t e , t h e p a r t y ' s movement from t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l i s m ( c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y , p u b l i c ownership o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n , planned economy, e t c . ) , t o a w e l f a r e - s t a t e p h i l o s o p h y becomes e v i d e n t .  CHAPTER IV LEADERSHIP AND SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY (a) Purpose The purpose o f t h i s phase o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o determine the v i e w s h e l d by l e a d e r s o f t h e NDP on S o c i a l W e l f a r e P o l i c y . The a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y would be r e l a t e d t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach o f t h e l e a d e r s and t h e r e f o r e we a t t e m p t e d t o determine what t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach was f o r each l e a d e r .  We sought t o determine d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r -  i t i e s i n p h i l o s o p h y and program among t h e l e a d e r s . Three i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s were d e s i g n e d f o r s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h r e e members o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e NDP (See Appendix K ) . The i n t e r v i e w s were w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n each o f t h e following positions: 1. P r o v i n c i a l Leader o f t h e NDP. 2 . S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour, who i s a l s o on t h e P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e o f t h e NDP, and 3. W e l f a r e Spokesman f o r t h e NDP i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a tive  Assembly.  The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s were a l l d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t  answers  t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s on t h e p e r s o n ' s view o f s o c i a l i s m and s o c i a l w e l f a r e and t o more s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s on p o l i c y .  The  schedule p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e W e l f a r e Spokesman  102 was t h e most comprehensive.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the g e n e r a l , p h i l o -  s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e were open-ended q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o determine t h e W e l f a r e Spokesman's p o s i t i o n on t h e v a r i o u s major areas of s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y .  As W e l f a r e Spokesman and p o t e n -  t i a l M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e s h o u l d t h e NDP his  form a government,  p h i l o s o p h y and t h e p o l i c i e s he proposed were deemed o f p r i m a r y  importance. W h i l e concerned w i t h t h e same p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e s c h e d u l e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l L e a d e r , was comprehensive  i n m a t t e r s o f s p e c i f i c programming.  less  The purpose  of  t h i s s c h e d u l e was t o determine whether o r not t h e p h i l o s o p h y and t h e g e n e r a l program e n v i s a g e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Leader were comp a t i b l e w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y and program o f t h e W e l f a r e Spokesman. Q u e s t i o n s on program were e s s e n t i a l l y t o e l i c i t  priorities.  A g a i n t h e s c h e d u l e d e s i g n e d f o r the i n t e r v i e w w i t h the Secr e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour  who  was a l s o a member o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e o f t h e NDP was s i g n e d t o answer p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s .  de-  In a d d i t i o n , questions  were i n c l u d e d t o determine whether Labour had a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y t h a t i t was a d v o c a t i n g w i t h i n the  NDP.  (b) M a t e r i a l Mr. D a v i d B a r r e t ^ t h e W e l f a r e Spokesman, was i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e r e s e a r c h group on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s .  The l a s t two  interviews  form t h e b a s i s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f the W e l f a r e Spokesman's p h i l o sophy and program.  Both t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s were l e n g t h y , t h e  l a s t i n g li hours and the second 2 h o u r s .  Mr. B a r r e t t was  and s i n c e r e i n t h e i n t e r v i e w and answered a l l q u e s t i o n s .  first  open He  g i v e n a t r a n s c r i p t o f the i n t e r v i e w a t h i s r e q u e s t so t h a t he  was  103  c o u l d make such c o r r e c t i o n s as he deemed n e c e s s a r y .  As he d i d not  r e t u r n the t r a n s c r i p t i t can o n l y be assumed t h a t he c o n s i d e r s h i s views adequately r e p r e s e n t e d i n the i n t e r v i e w . The i n t e r v i e w with Mr. E.P. O'Neal, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f L abour l a s t e d a designed h a l f hour.  one-  A l o n g e r i n t e r v i e w would have added depth, however the  answers o b t a i n e d were q u i t e u s e f u l . The i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. R.M.  Strachan, P r o v i n c i a l Leader,  scheduled f o r a l e n g t h o f one hour.  Despite p r i o r  was  arrangements  however, on the date o f the i n t e r v i e w Mr. Strachan was not expecti n g the t h e s i s group and c o u l d g i v e the group o n l y o n e - h a l f hour. The r e s u l t was  t h a t many q u e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e area o f  Mr. Strachan's p h i l o s o p h y were not adequately answered.  To make  up f o r t h i s d e f i c i e n c y three p i e c e s o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l were consulted. 1.  These were: Mr. Strachan's speech t o the T h i r d Annual Convention o f the NDP  2.  on November 16,  1963,  1  Mr. Strachan's speech t o the F o u r t h Annual Convention of the NDP  3.  of B r i t i s h Columbia  o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  on May  22, 1 9 6 5 ,  2  p r e s s r e l e a s e from Mr. Strachan's o f f i c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s speech i n the Throne Speech Debate,  1966.  dated February  2,  3  These appear t o have been v a l i d sources f o r the purpose t o be  •••R.M. S t r a c h a n , "Report o f the P r o v i n c i a l Leader," PROCEEDINGS New Democratic P a r t y o f B.C. T h i r d Annual Convention. NDP, Vancouver, B.C. R.M. Strachan, "Report o f the P r o v i n c i a l Leader," PROCEEDINGS New Democratic P a r t y o f B.C. F o u r t h Annual Convention. NDP, Vancouver, B.C. 2  3  ^Press r e l e a s e from Mr. Strachan's o f f i c e with r e s p e c t t o h i s speech i n the Tyrone Speech Debate, dated February 2, 1966.  104 served.  In each o f these speeches Mr. Strachan d e a l t w i t h  a s p e c t s of the p h i l o s o p h y and program of the P a r t y . A l l i n t e r v i e w s were recorded to ensure a c c u r a c y .  The  t i o n s which are being used i n t h i s chapter are taken from  quotathe  v e r b a t i m t r a n s c r i p t s o f the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the three NDP l e a d e r s . * Due  t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d from  each  l e a d e r , the scheme f o r a n a l y s i s i s n e c e s s a r i l y q u i t e g e n e r a l , t o allow f u l l e s t  p o s s i b l e use of the m a t e r i a l .  a n a l y z e d t o determine (1)  areas:  socialism,  the respondent's (2)  Each i n t e r v i e w i s  views i n the f o l l o w i n g  s o c i a l w e l f a r e and the w e l f a r e  (3)  economic and f i n a n c i a l programs, (4)  and  (5)  s p e c i f i c welfare services.  state,  comprehensive programs,  Throughout the a n a l y s i s , the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of p h i l o s o p h y and program of the l e a d e r w i l l be r e l a t e d t o the i d e o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter One. s e c t i o n on g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s completes  this  A n a l y s i s of the I n t e r v i e w w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Mr. 1956.  A  chapter. Leader  Strachan has been the P r o v i n c i a l Leader  of the NDP  During t h i s time he has a l s o been the Leader o f the  since Opposi-  t i o n i n the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Respondent's view of S o c i a l i s m T h i s a n a l y s i s begins with an examination Mr.  Strachan sees f o r democratic  socialism.  t i o n i s from h i s speech t o the 1963  Annual  o f the g e n e r a l The  following  goals quota-  Convention:  V e r b a t i m T r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s by the T h e s i s Group w i t h Mr. David B a r r e t t , Welfare Spokesman, i n t e r v i e w e d twice d u r i n g January, 1966, w i t h Mr. R.M. Strachan, P r o v i n c i a l Leader i n t e r viewed February 16, 1966, and w i t h Mr. E.P. O'Neal S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r o f the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of Labour, i n t e r v i e w e d March 31,  1966.  105 "Our i d e a s a r e sparked by the urgency o f human needs and t h e l i m i t l e s s urge t o human betterment, by the broad v i s i o n o f a b e t t e r s o c i e t y . . . o u r s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y seems t o l a c k m o t i v a t i o n . " 5 An e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s i s found i n Mr. Strachan's speech t o the 1965 Annual  Convention:  " I t has always been the o b j e c t i v e o f democratic s o c i a l i s m t o b u i l d a r a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , but we can not c a l l today's s o c i e t y r a t i o n a l because...our people a r e i n s e c u r e and f e a r - r i d d e n . . . . We must remove these f e a r s , but t h i s can o n l y be done i f we b u i l d a s o c i e t y w i t h a sense o f purpose and with t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t whatever i s necessary, must be done." 0  These q u o t a t i o n s r e f l e c t Mr. Strachan*s concern w i t h the needs o f a l l men.  He c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t the g o a l o f democratic  socialism  i s t o b u i l d a r a t i o n a l s o c i e t y f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t o f human needs. H i s r e f e r e n c e t o a r a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , a s o c i e t y w i t h a sense o f purpose, a worthwhile m o t i v a t i o n , a l l appear t o p o r t r a y s o c i e t y as an i n t e g r a t e d , growing organism i t s members.  d e d i c a t e d t o the needs o f a l l  T h i s would appear t o be a common f e a t u r e o f a l l  s o c i a l i s t theory. By i m p l i c a t i o n the q u o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t needs a r e not being met by present s o c i e t y .  As p o i n t e d out i n the f i r s t  these shortcomings o f s o c i e t y were a t t r i b u t e d by e a r l y t o the i n h e r e n t f a u l t s o f the c a p i t a l i s t r e t a i n s t h e view o f the e a r l y s o c i a l i s t .  system.  chapter,  socialists  Mr. Strachan  T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  a q u o t a t i o n from the i n t e r v i e w : " I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t our present s o c i e t y under the guidance o f the s o - c a l l e d f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e governments  Strachan, Proceedings. T h i r d Annual Convention, p. 5. Strachan, Proceedings. F o u r t h Annual Convention, p. 4.  106 and under the p r e s s u r e s o f the s o - c a l l e d f r e e e n t e r p r i s e economy, has produced a work l i f e which to most of the people g i v e s no p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . d u l l , r e p e t i t i v e , soul-destroying jobs..." T h i s p o i n t of view i s a l s o found i n Mr. Strachan's speech t o the 1965 Annual Convention: "We have s a i d b e f o r e and we say a g a i n t h a t we cannot simply leave t h i n g s t o the market.... P r i v a t e i n d u s t r y has seldom been c a l l e d upon t o r e c o g n i z e the s o c i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n i t s development and as democratic s o c i a l i s t s we know t h a t a l l through h i s t o r y the working people have been the f i r s t to s u f f e r from change and the l a s t t o b e n e f i t from it." "But I want t o remind you t h a t i t i s not b i g busi n e s s t h a t pays f o r these (welfare b e n e f i t s ) . The workers themselves have had t o pay f o r them and are s t i l l doing so." "Your MLA's were a b l e t o r e t u r n to an a t t a c k on the b a s i c wrongs o f our present s o c i e t y . " ' Mr. S t r a c h a n i n the above q u o t a t i o n d e f i n i t e l y appears t o see s o c i a l i l l s as b e i n g caused by the economic  system.  His r e f -  erence t o f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and b i g b u s i n e s s on one hand and t h e workers on the o t h e r i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the c l a s s consciousness and the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t t h a t i n s p i r e d e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s wanted t o a b o l i s h the c a p i t a l i s t  who  system.  I f Mr. S t r a c h a n does see the i l l s  of society i n similar  terms t o the e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s , does he propose the same remedy? Reference t o h i s speech t o the 1963  Annual Convention which  fol-  lowed h i s P a r t y ' s unexpected d e f e a t at the p o l l s p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s question: "There may  be a few i n the NDP who  believe there i s  ^ S t r a c h a n , Proceedings, F o u r t h Annual Convention, pp. 4 - 5.  107 a simple reason f o r our f a i l u r e . . . . U s u a l l y they, say we should r e t u r n to t h e i r concept of s o c i a l i s m .... They have t h e i r mind f i r m l y rooted i n the past when the democratic s o c i a l i s t movement was content to o u t l i n e i t s i d e a s i n broad, sweeping, g e n e r a l i t i e s . . . . But t h i s p a r t y g a i n s n o t h i n g from groups w i t h i n i t who set themselves apart from the P a r t y as a whole, groups who c o n s i d e r themselves the r e c i p i e n t s of a l l r e v e l a t i o n , who s e l f - r i g h t e o u s l y assume t h a t they are the guard of the Ark of the Covenant.... You can o n l y d e f i n e the meaning of s o c i a l i s m by e n u n c i a t i n g p o i n t by p o i n t , the steps t h a t we, as a government would take t o c o r r e c t the short-comings of our present s o c i e t y and meet the new c h a l l e n g e s of an ever changing world...I appeal to you not to l e t the disappointment of today d r i v e ^ us back t o the inadequate g e n e r a l i t i e s of y e s t e r d a y . " 8  T h i s q u o t a t i o n suggests t h a t the P a r t y has moved from the former i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n of doing away w i t h the system.  Mr. Strachan i s an advocate of the new  inadequate g e n e r a l i t i e s of y e s t e r d a y " presumably on n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and r e p l a c i n g the c a p i t a l i s t  capitalist  position. was  "The  the emphasis  system.  His ref-  erence t o " c o r r e c t i n g the shortcomings of our present s o c i e t y " i s much m i l d e r than the M a r x i s t view o f c a p i t a l i s m .  Mr.  Strachan's  p o i n t by p o i n t steps t o c o r r e c t shortcomings of the present soci e t y i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the g r a d u a l i s t  approach  of the F a b i a n s , who  advocates  were probably the most i n f l u e n t i a l  of the B r i t i s h w e l f a r e s t a t e . The g r a d u a l i s t approach  i s a g a i n r e f l e c t e d by Mr.  Strachan's  views on such q u e s t i o n s as n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , p r i v a t e and  public  s e c t o r s of the economy and p l a c i n g the means of p r o d u c t i o n i n the hands of l a b o r .  T h i s becomes e v i d e n t i n a statement by  Mr.  Strachan a t the 1 9 6 3 Convention: "We have s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s room i n our s o c i e t y f o r public enterprise, co-operative enterprise, and f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . " 9 Strachan, Proceedings, T h i r d Annual Convention,  p. 5.  Strachan, Proceedings, 1963 Annual Convention, p. 4.  108  Mr. S t r a c h a n s p e l l s out what he means by p u b l i c ownership i n the  r e c e n t Throne Speech Debate: "We would t a k e immediate s t e p s t o p l a c e under p u b l i c ownership f o r t h e b e n e f i t and p r o t e c t i o n of t h e p u b l i c a l l r e m a i n i n g p r i v a t e power comp a n i e s , n a t u r a l gas p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s m i s s i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n systems, o i l p i p e l i n e s , and the B.C. Telephone communication system. These are p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a d i f f e r e n t emphasis from t h a t o f e a r l y  s o c i a l i s t s on t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  National-  i z a t i o n was t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e , where rewards o f l a b o u r would be put e q u i t a b l y i n t h e hands o f p r o d u c e r s .  There i s  no s u g g e s t i o n h e r e o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n t o p r e v e n t " e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the  workers."  The p h i l o s o p h y here appears t o be t h a t because  t h e s e s e r v i c e s a f f e c t a l l o r most members o f s o c i e t y t h e y s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be a c c o u n t a b l e t o and owned by t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d government.  The p h i l o s o p h y seems geared t o p u t t i n g checks on some  a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t economic system. T h i s new approach t o n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g quotations; " I i n s i s t t h a t i n o r d e r t o meet t h e needs o f t h e f u t u r e much g r e a t e r government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l development w i l l be r e q u i r e d . . . p r i v a t e endeavor can't o r won't do t h e j o b . . . governments might a s w e l l p r e p a r e now t o embark on f u l l s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l development under government s p o n s o r s h i p . " 1 1 An e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s v i e w i s found i n Mr. S t r a c h a n ' s speech t o the  1963 C o n v e n t i o n :  p r e s s r e l e a s e , Op. c i t . . p. 1. l l l b i d . , p. 3-  109 "Our economic development proposals are a r e a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o l d phrase, "production f o r use not f o r p r o f i t . " " . . . i n enunciating our p o l i c i e s , we have a choice of t a k i n g over the B.C. Telephone or b u i l d i n g a 250 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t e e l i n d u s t r y i n our province through an economic development c o r p o r a t i o n , then as a government we would have to give p r i o r i t y t o the new developments." "We t a l k about economic development. Our opponents t a l k about economic development. The words are the same, but the Idea, the Import, the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the words are d i f f e r e n t . To our opponents economic development i s . . . b y the p r o f i t motive.... Our ideas are sparked by the urgency of human needs and the l i m i t l e s s urge t o human betterment, by the broad v i s i o n of a b e t t e r society."-*2  Mr. Strachan emphasizes that the government has an important r o l e i n expanding the economy.  Government needs t o f i l l i n where  p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e can't or won't meet the s o c i a l needs. The r e l a t i o n of economic measures t o the s o c i a l ends of s o c i a l i s m i s suggested by Mr. Strachan's answer t o t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l question during the i n t e r v i e w : "The Proceedings of the 1965 Convention of your Party has t h i s statement of p r i n c i p l e s : "The NDP i s pledged t o b r i n g about i n Canada a soci e t y i n which the m a t e r i a l and the c u l t u r a l needs of humanity w i l l be f u l f i l l e d i n order t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be able t o l i v e a s a t i s f y i n g and meaningful l i f e . " Could you elaborate b r i e f l y on t h a t ? " Mr. Strachan r e p l i e d : "In my o p i n i o n there are three steps i n the development of a country. F i r s t of $11 you develop your economy t o provide the wherewith a l t o b u i l d a s o c i e t y , and then w i t h the soci e t y operating you proceed t o b u i l d a c i v i l i s a t i o n . . . . I t ' s our o p i n i o n that the present Strachan, Proceedings, 1963 Annual Convention, p. 3.  110 o p e r a t i o n o f our s o c i e t y w i l l b u i l d a c i v i l i z a t i o n where the i n d i v i d u a l does have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o get s a t i s f a c t i o n out o f h i s life. A.nd i t i s our o b j e c t i v e to use t h e i n c r e a s i n g wealth t h a t automation has now made possible to allow t h i s personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , to a l l o w t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e i n d i v i d u a l so t h a t we can b u i l d a c i v i l i z a t i o n . " T h i s r e p l y emphasizes t h e c o n n e c t i o n between economic wealth and t h e achievement o f s o c i a l i s m —  "civilization."  T h i s i s con-  s i s t e n t w i t h Mr. Strachan's p h i l o s o p h y o f encouraging the growth of  the economy.. I n c o n t r a s t w i t h e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s i n Canada who  saw p r o g r e s s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n as dependent on a changed economic system w i t h i t s accompanying changed s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Mr. Strachan appears t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n i s dependent on some l e v e l o f economic growth. its  promise  The advent  o f automation and  o f u n l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n , seems t o have strengthened  Mr. Strachan*s v i e w p o i n t . Respondent's view o f S o c i a l Welfare Mr. Strachan was asked f o r h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e . He r e p l i e d : "...I would say t h e word s o c i a l w e l f a r e would mean the b e n e f i t t o t h e community. I don't l i m i t i t t o j u s t t h e payment o f money from a s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o an i n d i v i d u a l , because he happens t o be i n d i r e need. T h i s must encompass the whole f i e l d o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s as f a r as I'm concerned w i t h s p e c i a l h e l p t o those who a r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n i n g themselves as p a r t o f an o v e r a l l s o c i e t y . " T h i s i s an important for  s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y .  statement w i t h two d i s t i n c t  implications  The f i r s t i s that s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s  concerned w i t h the " b e n e f i t t o the community."  Elsewhere Mr.  S t r a c h a n r e f e r s t o the d u a l g o a l s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e b e i n g t o save tax  d o l l a r s and t o save human l i v e s .  T h i s concern w i t h t h e  Ill welfare of the t o t a l community would suggest that s o c i a l welfare programs of u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t e d to an increase i n q u a l i t y of the t o t a l s o c i e t y , such as day centers and educational f a c i l i t i e s would be  encouraged.  In view of the above, what can be said of Mr. Strachan's a t t i t u d e to the welfare state?  G.D.H. Cole defined the welfare  state as a s o c i e t y i n which an assured minimum standard of l i v i n g rt  becomes the possession of every c i t i z e n . " " ^  As Bruce has pointed  out i t i s the c o n s o l i d a t i o n and extension of an elaborate v a r i e t y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s "most of them created t o serve p a r t i c u l a r needs."I  4  Needs are considered a l e g i t i m a t e demand f o r s e r v i c e  by the S t a t e . As s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s are d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y t o human consumption needs-^ a v a r i e t y of programs develop to meet i n d i v i d u a l needs. In both aspects of Mr. Strachan's view of s o c i a l w e l f a r e , welfare state proposals are suggested.  To determine what import-  ance Mr. Strachan attaches to s o c i a l welfare he was  asked:  "In your philosophy as a party and i n the goals of your party what p o s i t i o n does s o c i a l welfare have — what i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t o t a l program?" Mr. Strachan r e p l i e d : "Well i n the e a r l y stages of the implementa t i o n of our program because of the f a i l u r e  ^ H e r b e r t L. Marx, "Some D e f i n i t i o n s , " The Welfare S t a t e , ed. Herbert L. Marx, Wilson, New York, 1950, p. 9. M a u r i c e Bruce. The Coming of the Welfare S t a t e . B a t s f o r d , London, 1 9 o l . p. 259. 14  ^H.L. Wilensky, C.N. Lebeaux. I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l Welfare. R u s s e l l Sage, New York, 1958, p. 145.  112 of our present economy and our present soci e t y i t would probably occupy a major p l a c e i n our program. As our p o l i c i e s became e f f e c t i v e , as I would expect them t o become e f f e c t i v e through o u r — r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the economy so t h a t t h e r e would be more jobs a v a i l a b l e f o r a b l e - b o d i e d people — I would expect i t to become of l e s s e r importance, as we s o l v e the s o c i a l w e l f a r e problem. rt  Mr.  Strachan d e f i n i t e l y views h i s economic programs as  s o l v i n g the " s o c i a l w e l f a r e problem."  He made r e f e r e n c e t o  i n answering o t h e r q u e s t i o n s as w e l l .  In t h i s sense h i s views  conform t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of those who system.  However Mr.  this  would r e v o l u t i o n i z e the  Strachan b e l i e v e s t h i s i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the  context o f the present economic system.  R e o r g a n i z i n g the economy  to make more jobs a v a i l a b l e f o r the unemployed i s a w e l f a r e s t a t e proposal. first  T h i s r e c a l l s the statement  chapter:  who  o f Marx, quoted i n t h e  c r i t i c i z e d the reformer t h i s way:  "Only  the p o i n t of view o f b e i n g the most s u f f e r i n g does the i a t exist f o r them."  10  T h i s emphasizes one  f e r e n c e between w e l f a r e s t a t e p r o p o s a l s and  from  proletar-  of the p o i n t s o f d i f earlier  socialist  thinking. The  q u o t a t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e s that s o c i a l w e l f a r e would o n l y  be o f l e s s e r importance as economic programs succeeded. The  e a r l i e r q u o t a t i o n of Mr.  Strachan's  statement  regarding  " e n u n c i a t i n g p o i n t by p o i n t the steps we...would take to c o r r e c t the shortcomings," solutions.  would seem t o l e a d i n e v i t a b l y to w e l f a r e s t a t e  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by Mr.  speech when he  Strachan l a t e r i n t h a t  states:  K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , M a n i f e s t o o f the Communist P a r t y , e d i t e d and annotated by F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , 1SBB, W i l l i a m Reeves, London, p. 28.  1 1 3  "Our program would bring an Hours of Work Act, and a Minimum Wage Act...and a Workmen's Compensation Act that would provide compensation for a l l injured workmen. This i s how we take the old phrase, "an end to exploitation of man by man" and translate i t into r e a l i t y . " 1 7 There can be no questioning that the above statement i l l u s trates welfare state reasoning.  A s p e c i f i c problem i s taken and  solutions are proposed f o r that problem.  I t would also seem  l i k e l y that much of what Mr. Strachan refers to as the reorgani z a t i o n of the economy are also welfare state proposals. Respondent's view of economic and f i n a n c i a l programs. Mr. Strachan was asked: "What problems do you believe w i l l be solved through your programs?" He r e p l i e d : "The problem of thousands and thousands of p h y s i c a l l y capable men and women being on soci a l welfare because there are no jobs a v a i l able...as you reorganize the economy by government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the development of industry, your educational p o l i c i e s are geared to see that people are being trained f o r the jobs that are being created and you are eliminating the need f o r s o c i a l welfare payments.... I f there i s a d i f f i c u l t y finding a place i n productive society f o r a l l of them because of automation then you have to start changing labour laws to cut down the work week, the work day, or the work year." Again, t h i s answer leaves l i t t l e doubt as to what Mr. Strachan considers the main cause of s o c i a l i l l s .  His emphasis  on unemployment i s consistent with a welfare state approach.  Strachan, Proceedings, Third Annual Convention, p. 3  It  114 r e c a l l s Chapter One  where i t was  p o i n t e d out t h a t s o c i a l w e l f a r e  came t o have a predominance i n CCF to  cope with unemployment and The bulk of Mr.  p o l i c y d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n  poverty.  Strachan's program i s r e l a t e d t o unemploy-  ment and he sees t h i s being accentuated by automation by t h i s  as i n d i c a t e d  statement: "Every person i n our s o c i e t y has t o answer the q u e s t i o n : What i s going t o happen t o the man who...is automated out o f a job and onto the s o c i a l w e l f a r e rolls?"l°  Other areas of Mr. include:  Strachan's program aimed at unemployment  r e t r a i n i n g and f i n a n c i a l compensation t o handle  e f f e c t s o f automation,  s h a r i n g of s c a r c e r jobs through  work weeks, l o n g v a c a t i o n s w i t h pay,  the  shorter  schemes o f e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e  19 w i t h pay,  better social security.  7  T a x a t i o n p o l i c y and h i g h e r wages appear t o be r e l a t e d t o m a i n t a i n i n g or i n c r e a s i n g the share o f l a b o u r . advocates  decreased p r i c e s .  Mr. Strachan a l s o  T h i s i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y would p r e -  sumably a l l o w an i n c r e a s e i n the r e t u r n t o l a b o u r . Respondent's View of Comprehensive Programs During the i n t e r v i e w Mr. Strachan, as p a r t of h i s r e p l y to the q u e s t i o n :  "What are the problems t h a t you f e e l w i l l be solved  through your programs?" r e p l i e d : " . . . I t must be p a r t o f any f u t u r e s o c i e t y t o t r y t o compensate these people f o r what we've done t o them as human b e i n g s . " He  suggested how  t h i s might be done i n the f o l l o w i n g statement:  Strachan, Proceedings, T h i r d Annual Convention,  p.  4.  115 "The greater increases in revenue that such a modernized taxation system will produce should in part be reinvested in communal facilities connected with the expected increase in leisure, such as adult and continued education f a c i l i ties, opportunities for sport, travel and other pursuits, and for participation in arts and culture in a l l their forms. «19 Mr. Strachan's concern with total community as pointed out in discussing his concept of social welfare is again underlined. Mr. Strachan's reference to education echoes an area that has concerned socialists in their attempt to create a better society and a more egalitarian one.  In the I960 election campaign with  Mr. Strachan as leader, the CCF campaigned on extension of service in the field of education, a program which included preschool training as part of the public school system, free education for the retarded and handicapped, support for a l l branches of adult  20 education and subsidization of night school. In his speech to the 1965 Convention, Mr. Strachan again spoke of the needs in the field of education, mental health, acute  21 hospital care and comprehensive medical care. Respondent's View of Specific Welfare Services Mr. Strachan was asked: "What general goals would you see social welfare accomplishing? I believe you said this in a general sense in the welfare of the community but could you be more specific?"  "press release from Mr. Strachan's office with respect to his speech in the Throne Speech Debate, February 2, 1966, p. 5. R.M. Strachan, "C.C.F.", Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, B.C. August 19, I960, p. 3. 20  Strachan, Proceedings, Fourth Annual Convention, p. 6.  x  116 Mr.  Strachan  answered:  " I have read reports...where attempts were being made t o break t h i s p a t t e r n of hard-core s o c i a l w e l f a r e f a m i l i e s by massive s o c i a l w e l f a r e treatment, where the s o c i a l worker was g i v e n a small caseload two or t h r e e f a m i l i e s . . . t h i s I t h i n k must be one of our i n i t i a l g o a l s — i s to f i n d t h i s money which w i l l do two t h i n g s — one, i t w i l l save tax d o l l a r s and two, save human l i v e s . T h i s i s the g o a l of any s o c i a l w e l f a r e program as f a r as we are concerned — to accomplish t h i s d u a l f u n c t i o n . " I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Mr. core f a m i l y .  Strachan  s i n g l e d out the  hard-  Concern with r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n Mr.  Strachan's approach t o the hard-core  family.  It i s in line  with  the growing b e h a v i o r a l science approach t o problems which was noted i n CCF  also  p o l i c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area o f c o r r e c t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n the treatment  of juvenile  delinquency.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s again r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s statement  concerned  w i t h the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n s : " I made a t o u r o f O a k a l l a . . . I couldn't b e l i e v e i t you see t h a t t h i s was going on and i t was obvious t h a t t h e r e was no c o r r e c t i o n t h e r e o f any kind...an e x t e n s i o n of p r o b a t i o n can h e l p solve the problem. ...The young people are not coming out o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s (Brannan Lake I n d u s t r i a l School and Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n ) w i t h any change of a t t i t u d e except f o r the worse." The  f a c t t h a t Mr.  f a m i l y and  Strachan  chose t o c i t e o n l y the  hard-core  c o r r e c t i o n s as areas of concern f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s  h i s concern w i t h the more s e r i o u s symptoms of s o c i e t a l S e r v i c e s a t t h i s p o i n t would have t o be Because of t h i s apparent to explore f u r t h e r Mr. i n g l y he was  asked:  failure.  rehabilitative.  emphasis on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , we  Strachan's  a t t i t u d e to p r e v e n t i o n .  wished  Accord-  117  "What i s your opinion on prevention i n s o c i a l welfare — prevention of such situations as people being on s o c i a l welfare, or delinquency? Mr. Strachan r e p l i e d : "...I gave quite a b i t of my t a l k to education and i t was my opinion that our present school system provides f o r the academically bright student and i s now making provision f o r the l e s s capable students. But i n the center where most of our students are...I f e l t i t was f a i l ing to l e t them f i t into today's society." Mr. Strachan reveals a concern with education and  fitting  the person f o r the s o c i a l world, a concern Mr. Barrett shares. (see analysis of interview with Welfare Spokesman)  However Mr.  Strachan did not demonstrate i n t h i s answer an awareness of how s p e c i f i c s o c i a l welfare services could be preventative.  Mr.  Strachan seems primarily concerned with equality of opportunity for a r e l a t i v e l y large segment of the population. We were also concerned with determining Mr.  Strachan's  opinion of private versus public provision of welfare services. He was asked: "...do you f e e l that the services the (private agencies) are providing should be provided by a government agency?" Mr. Strachan r e p l i e d : "Here I would have to depend on advice from someone l i k e Dave Barrett. I f they are doing the job, especially i n the early stages of the development of our program — i t couldn't be done any other way than we would — I think any government has to be pragmatic about these things and i f t h i s i s the way that i s doing the best possible job then use them. I couldn't t e l l you myself whether i t ' s doing the best possible job."  118 Mr. Strachan sees the n e c e s s i t y o f p r i v a t e agencies a t l e a s t f o r a w h i l e i f an NDP  government was  formed.  He  i s undecided  about the f u t u r e r o l e of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s .  Exactly  what Mr. S t r a c h a n means by " d o i n g the best p o s s i b l e j o b " cannot  be  assessed from the r e p l y , but i t i s a p e r t i n e n t p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r . It  seems unusual t h a t Mr. Strachan d i d not c h a r a c t e r i z e  private  agencies as " c h a r i t y , " or w e l f a r e needs as a r i g h t f u l demand on the S t a t e .  In any case, i t seems t h a t p r i v a t e v e r s u s p u b l i c agen-  c i e s i s an area Mr.  S t r a c h a n i s unsure  about.  ******* Mr. S t r a c h a n appears t o put primary emphasis on s o l v i n g problems through economic development.  These programs are  social  geared  p a r t i c u l a r l y t o s o l v i n g the problems presented by unemployment and social welfare.  While Mr.  Strachan sees economic measures as  r e d u c i n g the need f o r s o c i a l  s e r v i c e s as d i d the e a r l y  he a l s o supports w e l f a r e s t a t e measures.  He  socialist,  supports comprehen-  s i v e w e l f a r e measures, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of a u n i v e r s a l nature such as e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . about  specific  He i s concerned  s e r v i c e s and emphasized expansion o f s e r v i c e s t o  the "hard-core" f a m i l y and i n the f i e l d o f p r o b a t i o n . t o s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s appears t o s t r e s s  His  approach  rehabilitation.  A n a l y s i s of the I n t e r v i e w with the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of Labour, and Member of the P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e o f the N.D.P. The B r i t i s h Columbia  F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour i s composed of the  m a j o r i t y of the unions i n the p r o v i n c e w i t h some n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s . The F e d e r a t i o n performs an important r o l e i n e x p r e s s i n g the aims o f Labour.  L i k e i t s parent body, The Canadian Labour Congress,  the  119 Federation NDP.  supports t h e NDP and has p o l i c y d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the  While the F e d e r a t i o n  does not c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y t o t h e  NDP, many o f i t s member unions are a f f i l i a t e s o f the NDP and cont r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y and o t h e r w i s e .  (See Chapter Two).  In l i g h t e f a l l o f the above, Labour's views on s o c i a l welf a r e p o l i c y were considered  important.  Mr. E.P. O'Neal i s p a r t  o f the NDP l e a d e r s h i p , s i t t i n g on both the P r o v i n c i a l and the National Executives. the F e d e r a t i o n  He a l s o f i l l s t h e h i g h e s t  s t a f f p o s i t i o n of  o f Labour, b e i n g i t s S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r .  f r e q u e n t l y quoted i n the news media on labour and w e l f a r e  He i s issues.  Respondent's View o f S o c i a l i s m Mr. O'Neal was asked: " I s there a type o f s o c i a l i s t  s t a t e you would f a v o r ? "  He r e p l i e d : " I would f a v o r s o c i a l i s m as i t i s c a r r i e d on i n the S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s and i s c a r r i e d on i n Britain." To the f u r t h e r  question:  "What do you see as the main elements o f s o c i a l i s m i n those c o u n t r i e s ? " he r e p l i e d : "The main elements I see o f a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e i s t h a t the means o f p r o d u c t i o n and the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the country, the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the country a r e used t o give i t s c i t i z e n s the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e standard o f l i v i n g i n those c o u n t r i e s , t o give them the k i n d o f education t h a t we f e e l everyone i s e n t i t l e d t o , t o g i v e them the kind o f comprehensive medical h e a l t h care t h a t people a r e e n t i t l e d t o . " The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s r e p l y i s t h a t t h e ends o f s o c i a l i s m  120  a r e viewed i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g a maximum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and comprehensive w e l f a r e measures. resolving class differences  There i s not a s u g g e s t i o n  or of a u n i f i e d purposeful  of  society.  R a t h e r t h e approach seems r e m a r k a b l y comparable w i t h t h e demands a u n i o n l e a d e r would make i n b a r g a i n i n g f o r an agreement w i t h an employer. To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e whether M r . O ' N e a l was s y m p a t h e t i c t o a fundamental change of t h e economic system, he was a s k e d : "From what you s a i d , I i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t you would f a v o r a s t a t e where p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y and g o v e r n ment o p e r a t e s i d e by s i d e ? " Mr. O'Neal r e p l i e d : "Yes. The k i n d o f system t h a t has worked v e r y w e l l i n t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s — where people have a c h o i c e . " T h i s p a r t i c u l a r v i e w f a v o r i n g a mixed economy r e f l e c t s  the  changing p h i l o s o p h y w i t h r e g a r d t o s o c i a l i s m a s was p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r s One and Two, s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e W i n n i p e g Declaration. I n v i e w o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h , M r . O ' N e a l ' s o p i n i o n on n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n was s o u g h t .  He was a s k e d :  "Does the B . C . F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour f a v o r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of industry?"  the  Mr. O'Neal r e p l i e d : "We f a v o r the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h have a m o n o p o l y . " F o r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n he was a s k e d : "Why would you n a t i o n a l i z e m o n o p o l i e s , what t h e advantage?"  is  121 Mr.  O'Neal r e p l i e d : "I t h i n k the argument f o r n a t i o n a l i z i n g monop o l i e s i s t h a t at present they are under no c o n t r o l whatsoever and t h e consumer d e r i v e s very l i t t l e b e n e f i t from monopolies whereas i f t h e r e was government c o n t r o l or i f they were operated by the government t h e r e would be a g r e a t e r tendency I t h i n k t o g i v e the consumer, and t o g i v e the c i t i z e n a share of the b e n e f i t s which monopolies o b v i o u s l y enjoy." There i s i n t h i s statement  no suggestion of h a l t i n g  a t i o n of workers or c r e a t i n g a more c i v i l i z e d work l i f e ,  exploitthe  argument the e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s would put f o r t h i n f a v o r o f n a t i o n a l ization. is  The monopolies are not p a r t of the market system and i t  suspected a p p a r e n t l y by Mr. O'Neal t h a t they are making p r o f i t s  t h a t a l l of s o c i e t y should get a share o f . in  the economy i s not to provide a new  The  role of socialism  system f o r the t o t a l  soc-  i e t y but to c o n t r o l the present system to a l l e v i a t e i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s . Respondent's View of S o c i a l Mr. O'Neal was He  asked:  Welfare "Do  you f a v o r a w e l f a r e  state?"  replied: "Again when you t a l k about Welfare S t a t e , sometimes these are c l i c h e s which have been developed by people who are opposed to any k i n d of w e l f a r e . I favor a state that discharges i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o a l l i t s c i t i z e n s i n c l u d i n g those l e s s fortunate c i t i z e n s . I t h i n k t h a t we have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e f i r s t e q u a l i t y o f opport u n i t y f o r a l l c i t i z e n s of the S t a t e . By t h a t I mean t h a t f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s should not be allowed to stand i n the way of young people who have a b i l i t y , t o get the k i n d o f education they want. F i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s should not d e p r i v e people o f the k i n d o f m e d i c a l and mental care t h a t they need. F i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s should not stand i n the way of people b e i n g allowed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the country... I t h i n k t h a t any p r o g r e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must be concerned w i t h c r e a t i n g e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l the citizens..."  122  Quite c l e a r l y , Mr.  O'Neal supports the w e l f a r e s t a t e .  He  conceives of i t as a s t a t e d e d i c a t e d to i n s u r i n g e q u a l i t y of opportunity. barriers.  The main b a r r i e r t o t h i s i n h i s mind i s f i n a n c i a l  H i s r e f e r e n c e to d i s c h a r g i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a l l  c i t i z e n s i n c l u d i n g the " l e s s f o r t u n a t e , " i n d i c a t e s support f o r w e l f a r e s t a t e measures t h a t are d i r e c t e d to s o l v i n g p a r t i c u l a r problems.  There i s no suggestion of c l a s s c o n f l i c t or changing  the t o t a l economic system. and Mr.  Here Mr.  O'Neal agrees with Mr.  B a r r e t t and w i t h the g e n e r a l t r e n d of CCF  toward w e l f a r e programs as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter  - NDP  policy  One.  Respondent's View o f Economic and F i n a n c i a l Programs Mr.  O'Neal was  asked:  "Do you see e q u a l i t y o f f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t y as t e n d i n g t o e l i m i n a t e most problems?" He  replied: " I t h i n k t h a t the e q u a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n and economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s would e l i m i n a t e a great d e a l of the s o c i a l problems we have..."  F u r t h e r t o t h i s r e p l y he was  asked:  " I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic dep r i v a t i o n and l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y , and psychol o g i c a l handicaps?" Mr.  Strachan  O'Neal r e p l i e d : " I t h i n k unquestionably, as I p o i n t e d out, t h a t the root cause of many of these problems l i e s i n economic and f i n a n c i a l handicaps which these people experience, because t h i s i n t u r n d e p r i v e s them of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , d e p r i v e s them of s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s which other people have."  123 As could have been expected from e a r l i e r statements by  Mr.  O'Neal, i n h i s o p i n i o n economic disadvantage p l a y s a major r o l e i n the cause o f s o c i a l problems.  I f economic i n e q u a l i t y i s a  major cause of s o c i a l problems, what does Mr. program to d e a l w i t h t h i s ? O'Neal supports welfare a t i o n of some i n d u s t r y .  O'Neal advocate  I t has a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d t h a t  O'Neal was  The  s p e c i f i c proposals of an economic o r  asked:  "In the area of automation, do you agree w i t h Robert Theobald's view t h a t unemployment w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become a s e r i o u s problem and a guaranteed annual income w i l l have t o be i n s t i t u t e d r a t h e r than r e t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n ? " He r e p l i e d : " I agree i n p a r t w i t h Theobald. I t h i n k t h a t Theobald's views are a l i t t l e f a r - f e t c h e d a t t h i s t i m e . I t h i n k itJs p o s s i b l e t h a t some of the t h i n g s he's saying w i l l happen but they won't happen i n the p e r i o d of time he's s a y i n g they w i l l happen. I base my reason f o r t h i s on the f a c t t h a t we must f i r s t recognize t h a t w h i l e wages are c o s t s t o employers and corpo r a t i o n s , t h a t they are income and p u r c h a s i n g power to workers and t h a t there has t o be a k i n d o f a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d i n which you phase put, and i n e v i t a b l y i t w i l l happen, workers from i n d u s t r y , and as you phase them out t h e r e i s going to be as I see i t a wide range o f f r i n g e b e n e f i t s . . . l e a d i n g t o . . . a guaranteed incomes p o l i c y . I don't t h i n k these t h i n g s w i l l happen as q u i c k l y as Theob a l d suggests they w i l l . " T h i s statement suggests s t r o n g l y t h a t a guaranteed annual income i s not needed at t h i s time. c e r t a i n l y Mr.  Mr.  s t a t e measures along with the n a t i o n a l i z -  f i n a n c i a l nature concern us h e r e . Mr.  as  I f t h i s i s not  suggested,  O'Neal i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s not the method o f  choice f o r a c h i e v i n g e q u a l i t y at t h i s time.  124 Another important aspect of t h i s q u o t a t i o m i s Mr. r e a c t i o n t o Theobald's his  concept  O'Neal's  views as " f a r - f e t c h e d a t t h i s time,"  of a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d .  and  The t o t a l i m p r e s s i o n  g i v e s i s t h a t of Mr. O'Neal's acceptance  this  of l a b o u r and management  meeting t o g e t h e r and through the medium of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the s o c i a l p o l i c y w i l l be worked out. Mr. O'Neal's p o s i t i o n to another q u e s t i o n .  on guaranteed  He agreed t h a t the government should  ment wages and t o t h i s was  further  supple  asked:  "Would t h i s not be s u b s i d i z i n g He  annual income i s r e l a t e d  industry?"  replied: "Well t h i s has a l r e a d y been done on a l a r g e s c a l e I . . . I don't see a n y t h i n g more s i n f u l i n s u b s i d i z i n g the employee than i n s u b s i d i z i n g the i n d u s t r y . "  Mr. O'Neal was  asked  further:  "Hasn't the viewpoint of the l a b o u r movement been that the wages should be h i g h enough to prevent t h i s ? " He  replied: " T h i s i s t r u e . But i f you are d e a l i n g w i t h an i n d u s t r y and a g a i n t h i s goes back t o what I s a i d about a t r a n s i t i o n a l period...where because o f the change i n technology and because of the i n n o v a t i o n s which were i n t r o d u c e d i n other i n d u s t r i e s these people were going through a phase i n which t h e i r wage would be lower because of the f i e r c e c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h i s a r e a . Now u n t i l such time as you can c o r r e c t t h i s I see n o t h i n g wrong w i t h the government supplementing the wages of these employees." Again on t h i s q u e s t i o n , Mr.  O'Neal i l l u s t r a t e s the r o l e  the government as making up f o r the d e f i c i e n c i e s  of  of the present  125  economic system. e l i c i t Mr.  Unfortunately  t h i s question  and  reply did  not  O'Neal's views on supplementing income as a normal  course o f events i n s o c i e t y . However h i s views on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e were e x p l o r e d . O'Neal was  asked: "Do you b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e are h i g h enough?  He  Mr.  rates  replied:  6  He was  "No...I t h i n k t h a t what they should cover i s an accepted decent minimum standard of l i v i n g . I don't t h i n k t h a t somebody on s o c i a l a s s i s t ance should be able t o d r i v e a C a d i l l a c or t h a t they should have a yacht. But I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y a b a s i c minimum standard of l i v i n g t h a t they must cover...."  asked whether t h i s would i n c l u d e such t h i n g s as the  a t i o n of an o r d i n a r y  car or a t e l e v i s i o n .  Mr.  O'Neal  oper-  replied:  "Yes. These t h i n g s have now become p a r t o f our way o f l i f e , p a r t o f our standard of l i v ing. To deprive people of these s o c i a l ameni t i e s i s going too f a r . " From t h i s statement i t i s apparent t h a t Mr. that s o c i a l assistance  should  s e l f as p a r t of s o c i e t y .  enable the person to m a i n t a i n him-  There i s not an i n d i c a t i o n  ness, or judgment of p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e from Mr.  O'Neal b e l i e v e s  of p u n i t i v e -  f a u l t i n being i n r e c e i p t of  O'Neal's p o s i t i o n .  H i s a t t i t u d e here i s  compatible w i t h an expansion of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  programs.  Respondent's View of Comprehensive Programs Mr.  O'Neal was  social  asked:  "Are t h e r e any l e g i s l a t i v e changes t h a t the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of Labour i s p r e s s i n g f o r p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t you would want to see i n i t i a t e d ? "  126 Mr.  O'Neal r e p l i e d : " . . . L e t me g i v e you an example: we've pressed f o r a l o n g time f o r the Canada Pension P l a n . Now... i t ' s not as good a p l a n as we would l i k e . . . i t . . . i s on the books and can be improved upon...comprehens i v e medical care i s something we have fought harder f o r than any other group with the e x c e p t i o n I would say o f the New Democratic Party and the CCF. b e f o r e i t . We have campaigned, and a r e now campaigning f o r e q u a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i ties. We t h i n k t h a t the present p a t t e r n of automobile insurance i s a f a r c e . . . . We're campaigning f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f e x - p a r t i e i n j u n c t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . Now I c o u l d go on and t e l l you about the campaigns we've conducted f o r ambul a n c e s e r v i c e , f o r proper f i n a n c i n g f o r h o s p i t a l s .... We're campaigning f o r an e l e c t i o n every f o u r years.. The  sal  programs Mr. O'Neal supports a r e broad  coverage —  pensions,  programs o f u n i v e r  f r e e e d u c a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s , auto  i n s u r a n c e , h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s and ambulance s e r v i c e s . Mr.  O'Neal's mention o f the e l i m i n a t i o n o f e x - p a r t i e i n j u n c -  t i o n s emphasizes an area o f concern t o the B r i t i s h F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour.  I n a submission  dated January 6, 1966,  the F e d e r a t i o n made 12  Columbia  t o the P r o v i n c i a l  Cabinet,  recommendations  concerned w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f l a b o u r i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p r o t e c t i n g the r i g h t s o f workers i n matters r e l a t e d to  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  Examples o f t h e recommendations a r e :  r i g h t t o s t r i k e d u r i n g the l i f e  o f an agreement when c o n d i t i o n s o f  employment d r a s t i c a l l y change, and l e g i s l a t i o n t o f o r b i d the use  22 of  strike  breakers.  In a d d i t i o n the submission islative  c o n t a i n s recommendations f o r l e g -  changes i n minimum standards  f o r the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s  ^Memorandum In Support o f Proposed L e g i s l a t i o n , submitted to t h e P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet by the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour, January 6, 1966, pp. 2 - 3«  127 of working conditions:  Hours o f work, minimum wages, bonding o f  employers, p e n a l t i e s a g a i n s t employers f o r i n f r a c t i o n s o f l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n , s t a t u t o r y h o l i d a y s , and Workmens  1  Compensation  23  services. Respondent's V i e w o f S p e c i f i c S e r v i c e s I n v i e w o f Mr. O'Neal's c o n c e r n w i t h comprehensive programs t h a t would a l l e v i a t e major causes o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , the q u e s t i o n o f h i s a t t i t u d e t o p e o p l e who s t i l l need a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l be examined h e r e .  Mr. O'Neal was a s k e d :  "Do you b e l i e v e o u r s o c i e t y needs more s o c i a l workers?" He r e p l i e d : "Yes — by a l l means, and b e t t e r p a i d s o c i a l workers." If ing  comprehensive programs were seen by Mr. O'Neal a s answer-  t h e major i l l s o f s o c i e t y , one would expect he might t h i n k  fewer s o c i a l w o r k e r s would be r e q u i r e d .  He o b v i o u s l y does not  t h i n k f e w e r s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e needed.  Again t h i s i s consistent  w i t h a w e l f a r e s t a t e a p p r o a c h , which i s aimed a t s e r v i n g p a r t i c u lar  needs, and s o l v i n g p a r t i c u l a r problems i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f  society. Mr. O'Neal's a t t i t u d e t o t h o s e i n r e c e i p t o f w e l f a r e  services  complements h i s b e l i e f t h a t more s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e needed. was a s k e d :  2 3  I b i d . , pp. 4 - 6 .  He  128 "In the f i e l d o f a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s , do you have any p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g the h a n d l i n g of o f f e n d e r s or a d u l t c r i m i n a l s or i s t h i s an area t h a t concerns the labour movement?" Mr.  O'Neal r e p l i e d : "Yes, i t does... I t h i n k t h a t the whole approach to people who o f f e n d a g a i n s t what we c o n s i d e r the mores and morals of our s o c i e t y i s based on vengeance i f you would than any k i n d o f an i n t e l l i g e n t approach t o r e h a b i l i t a t i n g them and making them u s e f u l c i t i z e n s and t r y i n g t o c o r r e c t t h e i r ways." Mr.  O'Neal i l l u s t r a t e s the same n o n - p u n i t i v e  a t t i t u d e here  as he d i d on the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned q u e s t i o n concerning assistance rates.  He  sees the present approach as p u n i t i v e and  sees r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as the proper approach. was  Further to t h i s  he  asked: "Do  Mr.  social  you  see some d i f f e r e n t approach to these  people?"  O'Neal r e p l i e d : " I t h i n k the^whole p r o b a t i o n a r y s e r v i c e has got to be e x p a n d e d . . . r e l a t i v e l y innocent people... not s e r i o u s o f f e n d e r s . . . a r e c o n f i n e d w i t h hardened c r i m i n a l s . . . t h e y should be segregated w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s h e l p i n g . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y teenagers...you can't r e a l l y c l a s s i f y them as c r i m i n a l s . . . t h e y are j u s t w i l d kids...perhaps i f they were taken i n hand...and got a r e a l good s t e r n l e c t u r e and were watched f o r awhile r a t h e r than p u t t i n g them i n t o j a i l . . . t h i s would be a b e t t e r approach." I n h i s r e p l y , Mr.  O'Neal demonstrates a sympathy with  g r e s s i v e measures o f h a n d l i n g o f f e n d e r s — treatment  pro-  increased probation  oriented correctional f a c i l i t i e s .  Many would  probably  c o n s i d e r h i s conception of the r o l e of the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r the problems of d e l i n q u e n t youth as naive and  an  and  and  over-simplification.  129 However he d i d f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t p r o b a t i o n should be expanded. Mr.  O'Neal a l s o f e l t t h a t Mr.  B a r r e t t ' s p l a n f o r a week-end p r i s o n  (see a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r v i e w with Welfare able merit." Strachan  In the f i e l d  of c o r r e c t i o n s , Mr.  i s i n g e n e r a l agreement with Mr.  The views of Mr. trast  Spokesman) "had  t o those o f Mr.  view with Mr.  Barrett)  O'Neal, l i k e  Mr.  B a r r e t t ' s proposals.  O'Neal on c h i l d w e l f a r e were i n marked conBarrett, Mr.  (see subsequent a n a l y s i s of  O'Neal was  inter-  asked:  "Do you have any p a r t i c u l a r concerns with welfare?" He  consider-  child  replied: " . . . I t hasn't been one of the a r e a s i n which we have given a great d e a l of thought and time t o . . . " T h i s answer r e v e a l s a v e r y l a r g e area of s e r v i c e to which the  B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour does not g i v e too much consideration. s i b l e answer:  The  answer to a subsequent q u e s t i o n suggests a pos-  Mr.  O'Neal was  asked:  "What p r i o r i t y would you a t t a c h t o the t r a d i t i o n a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t h a t we t a l k e d b r i e f l y about — such as c h i l d w e l f a r e , c o r r e c t i o n s — where we d i s c u s s e d week-end p r i s o n s , and the I n d i a n problems as you saw them — and the g e n e r a l g o a l s of l a b o u r — of the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour?" Mr.  O'Neal r e p l i e d : " I t h i n k these p r i o r i t i e s change from time t o time depending upon the f e r v o r or the c o n v i c t i o n of the v a r i o u s groups who t r y to promote or advocate a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e . . . a n d then t h i s becomes a p r i o r i t y . . . " T h i s suggests  the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour  may  130 be i n f l u e n c e d t o speak out on s p e c i f i c w e l f a r e r a i s e d by v a r i o u s pressure and  groups, but the  measures when  comprehensive measures  labour l e g i s l a t i o n appear t o be the f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n . Mr.  O'Neal d i d have d e f i n i t e views on the  question  v e r s u s p r i v a t e p r o v i s i o n o f these s e r v i c e s however.  of public  He was  asked:  "Do you t h i n k t h a t w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s should be provided by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s such as the C h i l d rens' A i d S o c i e t y or the John Howard S o c i e t y or by government agencies? Mr.  O'Neal r e p l i e d : " . . . I t h i n k that once we suggest t h a t a s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s which r e q u i r e s h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e then the s t a t e must take i t upon i t s e l f to f i n d the ways and means of g i v i n g t h i s s e r v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e without r e l y i n g on c h a r i t y t o do i t . Those of us who are b e t t e r o f f have an o b l i g a t i o n and a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s but through t a x a t i o n or whatever i t i s t o provide f o r those who are l e s s f o r t u n a t e . " A g a i n i n t h i s area Mr.  the welfare  O'Neal i s advocating  an e x t e n s i o n  s t a t e when he i s saying t h a t needs are a  demand on the  s t a t e , not c h a r i t y .  rightful  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area,  O'Neal has a more d e f i n i t e view than does Mr.  Strachan and  c l o s e r t o the o r i g i n a l s o c i a l i s t t h i n k i n g on the  subject.  r e s o l u t i o n passed at the F i f t h Annual Convention of the Columbia F e d e r a t i o n  of  Mr. is A  British  of Labour c a l l e d f o r e l i m i n a t i o n o f the Annual  Appeal f o r funds from the working p o p u l a t i o n  and  increased  assump-  t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by government. ^ 2  ^Annual Memorandum i n Support of Proposed L e g i s l a t i o n , subm i t t e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o h of Labour to the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t , January 5, 196l, p. A-10.  131 I t i s apparent i n t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t Mr.  O'Neal supports  w e l f a r e s t a t e measures. Mr.  O'Neal's approach p l a c e s  designed to make a modified  capitalist  d e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the  a stimulus  are  system work b e t t e r or to  d e f i c i e n c i e s of the present  In t h i s sense i n t e r v e n t i o n by the as a c o n t r o l where the  emphasis on measures t h a t  system.  government i n i n d u s t r y i s viewed  c o n t r o l s o f the market do not apply and  as  t o economic development.  Comprehensive w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and  government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r a s s i s t i n g those with i n d i v i d u a l problems are accepted by  Mr.  O'Neal. The  Federation  of Labour p l a c e s  i n d i v i d u a l s although Mr. services i n t h i s area. statement of how A n a l y s i s of the Mr.  l e s s emphasis on s e r v i c e s t o  O'Neal r e c o g n i z e s He  a need f o r expansion of  does not however, o f f e r a programatic  t h i s i s t o be f o l l o w e d  up.  I n t e r v i e w w i t h the Welfare Spokesman  B a r r e t t was  first  e l e c t e d to the L e g i s l a t u r e i n i960.  He  i s a s o c i a l worker having completed h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of S t . L o u i s . Supervisor  Among the p o s i t i o n s he has  held  are  of Personnelaand S o c i a l T r a i n i n g at the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  I n s t i t u t i o n , and  A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the John Howard  S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  He  i s presently  Executive-Director  o f the Jewish Community Center i n Vancouver.  Mr.  spokesman on w e l f a r e i s s u e s and  quoted by the news  media. NDP  He has  been designated as the Welfare Spokesman of  i n the L e g i s l a t u r e by Mr.  Ptespondent' s View of Mr.  i s frequently  Barrett i s a  B a r r e t t was  Socialism asked:  Strachan.  the  132 "In the Proceedings o f t h e 1 9 6 5 Convention o f your P a r t y , t h e r e i s i n c l u d e d t h i s statement o f principles: "The NDP i s pledged t o b r i n g about i n Canada a s o c i e t y i n which t h e m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l needs o f humanity w i l l be f u l f i l l e d i n o r d e r t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a b l e t o l i v e a s a t i s f y i n g and meaningful l i f e . " Would you e l a b o r a t e on that statement?" Mr. B a r r e t t  replied:  "The purpose of t h i s statement i s t h a t as a p a r t y we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y iihat permits every i n d i v i d u a l t o develop t o h i s maximum p o t e n t i a l . At the present stage o f o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n our soci e t y , economic b a r r i e r s , s o c i a l s t a t u s b a r r i e r s and o t h e r a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s l i m i t people from p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n s o c i e t y . . . what i t does mean i s the o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y through i t s democ r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d government w i l l c r e a t e an atmosphere t h a t w i l l permit people as i n d i v i d u a l s and/or groups t o develop t h e i r s o c i a l beings as w e l l as meeting t h e i r p h y s i c a l needs. In  t h i s r e p l y Mr. B a r r e t t r e f l e c t s a p h i l o s o p h y s i m i l a r t o  most s o c i a l i s t s .  He i s concerned about  c r e a t i n g a s o c i e t y where  every i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be p e r m i t t e d t o develop t o h i s maximum potential.  The b a r r i e r s he sees have always been seen by soc-  i a l i s t s and these a r e economic and s o c i a l  barriers.  But t h e r e a r e s u b t l e and important d i f f e r e n c e s .  These  dif-  f e r e n c e s can be t r a c e d t o the e v o l u t i o n of t h e s o c i a l democratic movement i n Canada.  He does not speak i n terms o f c l a s s  or  system o r the s o c i a l i s t  of the c a p i t a l i s t  r e p r e s e n t s the new mood of the NDP.  system.  struggle  Mr. B a r r e t t  The word " b a r r i e r s , " as w i t h  Mr. O'Neal, i s a concept t h a t i s more e a s i l y a p p l i e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and has t h e r i n g of something t h a t can be hwrcdled, accounted for,  o r surmounted, i n a sense t h a t concepts l i k e c l a s s c o n f l i c t o r  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the worker do n o t . A l s o t h e r e i s the emphasis on t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  S o c i a l i s m has  133 always been d e d i c a t e d t o meeting the needs o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s however there has f r e q u e n t l y  been an emphasis on the u n i t y o f men  i n s o c i e t y , and the purposiveness o f s o c i e t y as r e f e r r e d t o by Mr.  Strachan p r e v i o u s l y .  Mr. B a r r e t t  does r e f e r t o s o c i a l beings  but the impression conveyed i s t h a t the s t a t e p r o v i d e s r e s o u r c e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o develop as he  pleases.  F u r t h e r l i g h t i s cast on t h i s view i f r e f e r e n c e statement Mr. B a r r e t t made on democratic  i s made t o a  socialism.  " I t h i n k the e a s i e s t way t o say i t i s t o take the simplest p h i l o s o p h y o f a l l o f organized soci e t y t h a t b e i n g t o conserve f o r every s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h a t organized s t a t e and conc e n t r a t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l the s t a t e ' s r e s o u r c e s towards meeting the needs o f i t s popul a t i o n . . . a k i n d o f c r e a t i v e s o c i e t y should be b u i l t t o provide a b a s i s f o r other s o c i e t i e s t o do what they want a f t e r they succeed e x i s t i n g o n e s . . . s o c i a l i s m i s the end r e s u l t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l group work. I t s democracy i n p r o c e s s . I t means expanding the very essence o f group dynamics beyond j u s t the t h e r a p e u t i c s t r u c t u r e . . . b u t group dynamics o f democratic p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f people coming t o g e t h e r f r e e l y . . . t h i s i s my concept o f democratic s o c i a l i s m — the dynamics o f group work a p p l i e d t o the t o t a l s o c i e t y . " T h i s view o f s o c i a l i s m a c c e n t u a t e s p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y and political participation.  I t i s a l s o suggested t h a t t h i s s i t u a -  t i o n i s brought about by some method of s t i m u l a t i o n when Mr. B a r r e t t r e f e r s t o group work. Mr.  T h i s appears t o be a r e f l e c t i o n o f  B a r r e t t ' s t r a i n i n g as a s o c i a l worker. How does Mr. B a r r e t t  see t h i s s t a t e as b e i n g achieved?  The  f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was asked t o determine what importance Mr. B a r r e t t a t t a c h e d t o economic measures: "How does t h i s ( s o c i a l w e l f a r e ) r e l a t e t o econ omic programs, o r programs such as highways?"  134 He r e p l i e d : " W e l l , economic programs, i n terms o f p h y s i c a l development o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia would be f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l goal o f c r e a t i n g a more e c o n o m i c a l l y sound B.C. — a more e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o d u c t i v e s t a t e t h a t a l l the people l i v i n g w i t h i n the Province c o u l d b e n e f i t from..." T h i s r e p l y appears t o support economic development not as r e d i s t r i b u t i o n but as growth o f the economy.  Programs are seen  as c r e a t i n g more f o r everyone and thereby r e s o l v i n g s o c i a l i n justices. The f o l l o w i n g  q u e s t i o n and answer i s more t o the p o i n t .  Mr. B a r r e t was asked: "How would you go about c r e a t i n g t h i s atmosphere o f maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? " He r e p l i e d : " . . . t h i s i s a t e a c h i n g process and what i t r e a l l y c a l l s f o r i s a complete re-examination of our e d u c a t i o n a l process...we create respons i b i l i t y i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n the f r e e s o c i e t y to be p a r t i c i p a t i n g — t o be a d i s s e n t e r i f necessary — but t o be a p a r t i c i p a n t towards a t o t a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . . . " We see here then that the instrument of s o c i a l i s m i s e d u c a t i o n , as w e l l as i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the economic system. Respondent's View o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e : Mr. B a r r e t t was asked: "Do you p e r s o n a l l y  favor a welfare  state?"  Mr. B a r r e t t r e p l i e d : " I t h i n k t h a t the term w e l f a r e s t a t e has been  135 used i n a negative sense by those people who h o l d the l i n e o f the s t a t u s quo...I am opposed to t h e type o f b u r e a u c r a t i c w e l f a r e s t a t e we have now. We are l i v i n g i n a w e l f a r e s t a t e now t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y negative and geared towards meeting needs on a p a c i f y i n g basis...My frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r a w e l f a r e s t a t e would be one which i s concerned about the i n d i v i d u a l and next t o the i n d i v i d u a l , the group as a whole.... The k i n d of w e l f a r e s t a t e I would agree t o i s t h a t s t a t e where a l l avenues o f e d u c a t i o n , o f medical care, and economic s e c u r i t y are guaranteed a t a minimum.. There a r e three a s p e c t s o f t h i s statement The f i r s t  deserving a t t e n t i o n .  o f these i s t h a t the wJelfare S t a t e can be geared t o  meeting needs on a p a c i f y i n g b a s i s o r i t can be geared t o the needs of  the i n d i v i d u a l .  T h i s p a r a l l e l s the r e s i d u a l and the i n s t i t u 25  t i o n a l conception o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  I n the r e s i d u a l  conception w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e only temporary measures and should encourage by p u n i t i v e means, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l i a n c e on h i s own r e s o u r c e s and those o f h i s f a m i l y .  I n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  conception  s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e an i n h e r e n t p a r t of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , u r b a n i z e d l i f e and the use o f them as normal. view t h a t Mr, B a r r e t t supports i n h i s concept The for  latter  o f the w e l f a r e §tate.  second aspect i s t h e order o f concern Mr. B a r r e t t g i v e s  h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e —  second.  It i s this  t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i r s t , t h e group  I t suggests a focus on the i n d i v i d u a l who may be h a v i n g  d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g r a t h e r than on the mental h e a l t h o f the s o c i e t y as a whole.  T h i s would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e r v i c e s d i r e c t e d  m a r i l y t o human consumption needs as i n d i c a t e d The Welfare  t h i r d important  earlier.  aspect i s that Mr. B a r r e t t d e f i n e s the  S t a t e i n terms o f minimum standards. Wilensky  pri-  and Lebeaux, Op. C i t . , p. 139.  Despite t h i s  definition,  136 Mr.  B a r r e t t ' s p r e v i o u s emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l needs would l e a d  t o t h i n k t h a t the M e l f a r e Jstate i s concerned w i t h more than  one  mini-  mum  standards.  During t h i s Chapter, i t w i l l bedome apparent t h a t  Mr.  B a r r e t t does support programs of a s p e c i f i c nature, c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l needs. The  quotation  of course r e v e a l s a move from s o l v i n g  problems with a b a s i c change of the the  s o c i e t y and Mr.  society's  s o c i a l system to acceptance of  l e s s e n i n g i t s shortcomings through w e l f a r e measures.  B a r r e t t ' s view of s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d  the f o l l o w i n g examples which i l l u s t r a t e a constant emphasis of B a r r e t t during the i n t e r v i e w :  Mr.  B a r r e t t was  asked:  " I n the area of the p r o t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , are t h e r e any shortcomings i n t h i s area o f l e g i s l a t i o n o f programming t h a t you see and i f so what changes would you recommend?" He  replied: " . . . E s s e n t i a l l y , the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y t h a t i s m i s s i n g from e x i s t i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n . . . i s an a t t i t u d e of p r e v e n t i o n . "  Mr.  B a r r e t t was  a l s o asked d u r i n g the  interview:  "What do you see as the main need i n the area of adult corrections?" He  replied: "The p o l i c y of our p a r t y throughout a l l s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s based on p r e v e n t i o n . We are anxious to create s e r v i c e s which aim t o wards p r e v e n t i n g p e r s o n a l breakdown i n behavi o r and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " These two  r e p l i e s are t y p i c a l of the many r e f e r e n c e s  Mr.  by Mr.  137 B a r r e t t made w i t h regards t o the purpose o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e b e i n g t o prevent s o c i a l breakdown. represents a f u l l  In a sense Mr.  Barrett s 1  c i r c l e i n s o c i a l i s t thought.  b e l i e v e d t h a t a fundamental change i n the prevent s o c i a l breakdown.  Gradually  Early  capitalist  emphasis socialists  system would  however, as p o i n t e d  out  ChapterrOne, mass w e l f a r e programs became p a r t  of CCF  were seen as p r e v e n t i n g s o c i a l i l l s .  r i s i n g t i d e of  s o c i a l sciences, more.  T h i s was  s o c i a l i s m emphasized the  of S o c i a l Welfare and  during  the  Mrs.  by the name of the  Haggen, NDP  i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  CCF  member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Strachan a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h i s r o l e n  B a r r e t t , however, emphasizes p r e v e n t i o n .  proper p r e v e n t a t i v e  institu-  s a i d the g o a l s were r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  "Rehabilitation i s a last  the  Department  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the Saskatchewan  s o c i a l w e l f a r e when she Mr.  obviously,  and  r e h a b i l i t a t i v e approach  r e f l e c t e d i n the CCF's concern w i t h penal  t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y , and  government.  With the  policy  in  service that  of  t t  In f a c t he  said:  should be necessary i f  s e r v i c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d .  11  Mr.  Barrett's  emphasis on p r e v e n t i o n i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s  consistent  w i t h h i s concept of education i n s o c i a l i s m . Respondent's View of Economic and Mr.  F i n a n c i a l Programs  B a r r e t t i n speaking of p r o t e c t i o n  services  said:  "...the community i s not geared to p r o v i d e a b a s i c minimum standard of l i v i n g , so t h a t wives are not f o r c e d t o go out to work and abandon t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o the s t r e e t s . . . . We would i n s i s t t h a t a minimum income be made a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r through supplements of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , or d i r e c t f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o f a m i l y s u b s i d i z a t i o n . . . w e b e l i e v e t h a t the community must accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s u b s i d i z e families..." Mr.  Barrett  seems to be  on the b r i n k of o u t r i g h t  support o f a  138 guaranteed  annual  income here.  The  r e a s o n i n g i n d i c a t e d above w i t h  the example of a working mother r e f l e c t s the r e a s o n i n g behind welf a r e s t a t e measures.  Here i t i s t o prevent  another  B a r r e t t supported  s i t u a t i o n Mr.  unmarried  s o c i a l problems.  In  f i n a n c i a l assistance to  mothers i n order t h a t they could have the o p p o r t u n i t y o f  keeping t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Both i d e a s , c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y and  v e n t i n g s o c i a l breakdown, are represented i n Mr.  pre-  B a r r e t t ' s views  of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . In the area of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e these q u o t a t i o n s are a t i v e of Mr.  B a r r e t t ' s a t t i t u d e s and  indic-  policy:  "The P a r t y has never been opposed t o wages i f necessary..."  supplementing  "The P a r t y ' s p o l i c y i s t o e l i m i n a t e as much as p o s s i b l e a l l means t e s t s . . . " "...No man should be f o r c e d to work f o r h i s w e l f a r e . . . i f t h e r e i s work t o be done t h a t man should be employed at the...union r a t e . . . " "Vouchers are  degrading."  "...while a man i s an unemployed employable...we must m o b i l i z e a l l the r e s o u r c e s of the community t o get him employed...his f a m i l y should be g i v e n a minimum subsidy." " . . . a l l the r e s o u r c e s of the community w i l l be m o b i l i z e d t o a s s i s t . . . o n e of these r e s o u r c e s i s money." These q u o t a t i o n s serve to i n d i c a t e t h a t Mr.  Barrett believes  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e should be g i v e n a c c o r d i n g to need and i n a judgmental way.  They r e p r e s e n t a p o s i t i v e , n o n - p u n i t i v e  to s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s .  One  would expect w i t h  non-  approach this  a t t i t u d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s s i s t a n c e would be i n f a c t by the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t was also stated:  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t .  However, Mr. B a r r e t t  139 " i n some i n s t a n c e s s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e can be granted on a l o a n basis...which we do not expect b a c k . . . t h i s approach...is a method o f e l i m i n a t i n g the self-judgement and s e l f d e g r a d a t i o n t h a t comes about i n our s o c i e t y around r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e . . . " T h i s p a r t i c u l a r program does not seem to be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h needs being a r i g h t f u l demand on the S t a t e .  Rather i t seems t o  r e f l e c t Mr. B a r r e t t ' s emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s i n a s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by negative a t t i t u d e s t o a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p ients.  The  program i s designed t o accommodate these  attitudes  r a t h e r than change them. D i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s i n v o l v e d i n two grams.  o t h e r pro-  In speaking of adoption and f o s t e r home r e s o u r c e s ,  Mr.  B a r r e t t 'said: " I t would be at the Department's i n i t i a t i v e t o approach t h i s man and h i s f a m i l y and say t o him t h a t we would l i k e to p l a c e two more c h i l d r e n w i t h him...we would s u b s i d i z e the f a m i l y t o the p o i n t t h a t e i t h e r the man would completely stop working and spend 21+ hours a day as a p r o f e s s i o n a l f a t h e r , o r e l s e he could continue t o work and we would supplement t h e i r income...but t o r e l y on the k i n d of g e n t l e r e c r u i t m e n t p l a n s t h a t we have now, i s absurd I We must a g g r e s i v e l y seek out those homes t h a t we want t o buy and purchase t h a t s e r v i c e from f a m i l i e s . . . " " I b e l i e v e i n the theory t h a t i f you found a home t h a t a good adoption can be made, t h a t adoption should take p l a c e , but a f i n a n c i a l subsidy should continue i f necessary..." T h i s i s a g a i n i n d i c a t i v e of Mr.  Barrett's b e l i e f that  " f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s " should not stand i n the way  of a l l o w i n g  "every i n d i v i d u a l t o develop t o h i s maximum p o t e n t i a l . "  There i s  a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the shortage o f homes can be overcome i f the i n t e r e s t e d f a m i l i e s had  sufficient  Mr. B a r r e t t ' s statement  resources.  " t o buy and purchase  that service"  140 suggests something more than simply e n a b l i n g f a m i l i e s t o r a i s e f o s t e r or adopted  children.  He  states:  "...every e f f o r t should be made to meet t h a t c h i l d ' s n e e d s . . . r e g a r d l e s s o f the r e s o u r c e s of the f a m i l y . . . " "We say l e t ' s r a i s e the r e t u r n s t o f a m i l i e s who are p r o d u c t i v e . . . " Mr. ing  B a r r e t t sees f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as a reward t o  and f o s t e r i n g parents f o r v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s .  adopt-  Moreover he  believes that: " . . . i f i t ' s e s s e n t i a l f o r the maintenance o f the economic development of the country, then i t i s f a r more e s s e n t i a l t h a t we s u b s i d i z e f a m i l i e s through some k i n d of investment i n t h a t f a m i l y and I t h i n k t h i s i s how we should d e f i n e s o c i a l w e l f a r e payments. They are s o c i a l investments" Mr. B a r r e t t ' s analagous  comparison o f s o c i a l h e a l t h and economic  development l e a d s him to the concept  of s o c i a l investment.  type o f r e a s o n i n g l e a d s Mr. B a r r e t t t o urge f o r f l e x i b i l i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as w e l l as w i t h  This i n the  financial  a s s i s t a n c e t o f a m i l i e s f o s t e r i n g or a d o p t i n g . Respondent's View of Comprehensive Programs In  d i s c u s s i n g w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s , Mr.  about k i n d e r g a r t e n s .  He  B a r r e t t was  asked  replied:  " K i n d e r g a r t e n s are most welcome, and beyond t h i s i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t day-care f a c i l i t i e s should be made a v a i l a b l e through the Department of E d u c a t i o n , not through t h e Department o f W e l f a r e . . . k i n d e r g a r t e n s should be a r i g h t . . . . " P u b l i c k i n d e r g a r t e n s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the emphasis o f the w e l f a r e s t a t e on expanding e d u c a t i o n a l system.  e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y through  With r e s p e c t t o day care c e n t e r s i t i s  the  141 i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Mr.  B a r r e t t would make them a v a i l a b l e through  the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . reasons.  T h i s may  On the other hand i t may  be f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  be due  welfare  p o l i c y g e n e r a l l y , Mr.  u a l and  i n v o l v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n the  sense he may  be  seeing  to the f a c t t h a t i n h i s  Barrett concentrates  s o c i a l welfare  on the  larger society.  individIn  this  as d e a l i n g mainly w i t h  the  i l l s of a s o c i e t y but t h a t those measures designed f o r the general  expansion o f b a s i c r i g h t s are not viewed i n t h i s  Mr.  light.  B a r r e t t a l s o supported a p r o v i n c i a l program f o r slum  clearance  and  low-cost housing.  With regards to t h i s he  stated:  "We propose t h a t such F e d e r a l amendments would be made so t h a t f a m i l y allowance c o u l d be forwarded t o a f a m i l y i n a lump sum t h a t could be used as a down payment on a home...low-cost housing f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s should be granted on the b a s i s of low-cost housing f o r everyone...the choice of where one wants to l i v e and what type of accommodation should be l e f t t o the i n d i v i d u a l . " Here he i s concerned w i t h minimum standards i n the f i e l d o f housing.  H i s concern w i t h the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s a g a i n  reflected. With regards to automation, Mr.  B a r r e t t was  asked:  " I s your P a r t y p o l i c y geared i n any way educating people t o use l e i s u r e time? Mr.  to r e -  Barrett replied: "...by p r o v i d i n g as many r e c r e a t i o n a l o u t l e t s as p o s s i b l e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n . . . " T h i s was  e s s e n t i a l l y the extent  f o r d e a l i n g w i t h automation.  He  o f Mr.  Barrett's  proposals  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the P a r t y  " d o i n g a great d e a l o f t h i n k i n g i n t h i s a r e a . "  was  I t would appear  142 t h a t t h e r e i s not agreement w i t h i n the Party on t h e approach t o t h i s problem. Respondent's Views o f S p e c i f i c S e r v i c e s : The type o f s e r v i c e Mr. B a r r e t t envisages i s an important aspect o f h i s s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y .  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n  e l i c i t e d a u s e f u l answer i n t h i s r e s p e c t : "In regards t o O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e , B l i n d Person's Allowance, D i s a b l e d Person's Allowance and Supplemental Allowance, what i s your view t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f these under one program?" Mr. B a r r e t t r e p l i e d : "They should a l l be under one program and the best b a s i s i s : r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e person's need o r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n the S o c i a l Welfare Department should be a g e n e r i c a l l y operated resource which has a minimum standard f o r a l l human b e i n g s . . . . Each one o f the agencies d e a l w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p a r t o f t h e person's body o f psyche.... You don't d e a l w i t h people on t h i s basis." T h i s q u o t a t i o n i s b e i n g used here t o h i g h l i g h t Mr. B a r r e t t ' s emphasis on g e n e r i c s e r v i c e .  This i s a r e f l e c t i o n of his  w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  concern  One o f t h e charac-  t e r i s t i c s o f the w e l f a r e s t a t e i s t h e v a r i e t y o f programs t h a t develop t o d e a l with s p e c i f i c problems.  But Mr. B a r r e t t ' s view o f  s e r v i n g the t o t a l person l e a d s him t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t one agency should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g i v i n g a l l s o c i a l w e l f a r e Mr.  B a r r e t t enlarged on the " l o c a l " base f o r w e l f a r e  t i o n s when asked: Barrett  "What do you mean by l o c a l , e x a c t l y ? "  replied: "The k i n d o f s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s t h a t I see, i s a g e n e r i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e c e n t e r i n  services. operaMr.  143 every s i n g l e community...when I t a l k about l o c a l s e r v i c e I am t a l k i n g about t h i s k i n d of s o c i a l welfare o f f i c e where...the whole gamut of s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e . . . t h e w o r k e r . . . i s a v a i l a b l e to provide t h i s kind o f immediate referral." T h i s emphasis on the community as a base f o r g i v i n g s e r v i c e i s found throughout Mr. Consideration  B a r r e t t ' s program  of Mr.  g i v e s i n s i g h t i n t o why  proposals.  B a r r e t t ' s ppinxon pn Indian  Affairs  he b e l i e v e s i n the community base.  He  stated: "We f e e l t h a t the F e d e r a l government i s not capable of determining s o c i a l needs o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group.... They should r e c o g n i z e t h a t those needs are t h e r e but should provide i n i t i a t i v e or the a b i l i t y o f i n i t i a t i v e to be developed at the l o c a l l e v e l t o meet t h e i r needs.... I t h i n k t h a t the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s would be a b o l i s h e d as i t i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d but w i t h i n the Department of S o c i a l Welfare we would have s k i l l e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s whose p a r t i c u l a r r o l e would be one o f c r e a t i n g an atmosphere o f s e l f - h e l p and self-development w i t h i n the Indian community. .." While g r a n t i n g t h a t Mr.  B a r r e t t i s r e f e r r i n g t o a group with  s p e c i a l problems, h i s emphasis on s t i m u l a t i n g community involvement i s important.  He has a l s o p o i n t e d  out t h a t community s e r v i c e  c e n t e r s would o f f e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n Mr.  services.  This  recalls  B a r r e t t ' s concern with p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s  conception  of democratic s o c i a l i s m .  Mr.  B a r r e t t w i t h h i s concern  f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , sees the community as a s o c i a l w i t h i n which the i n d i v i d u a l can express h i m s e l f , and  organization through which  h i s needs w i l l be f u r t h e r r e a l i z e d . T h i s aspect f o r Mr.  of i n d i v i d u a l involvement i s not the only  B a r r e t t ' s concern w i t h the  speaking of t r a i n i n g schools, he  community.  said:  reason  F o r example, i n  144 " I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g a problem, does not Speaking of a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s he  cure  it..."  stated:  "any c o r r e c t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s we b u i l d would be i n the e x i s t i n g communities where they are needed." I t i s i n t h i s area of c o r r e c t i o n s t h a t Mr. most s t r o n g l y the value  of a community f o c u s .  Barrett points In  out  criticising  i n s t i t u t i o n s he emphasized the breakdown i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s which cause more d i f f i c u l t y f o r the o f f e n d e r ,  and a l s o f o r h i s f a m i l y  i n s o c i a l adjustment, as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t the does not have t o face the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t has T h i s i s an important aspect h i s view t h a t problems are Expansion of Mr.  of Mr.  community  f o r the  itself  problem.  B a r r e t t ' s p o l i c y which i n d i c a t e s  s o c i a l l y based.  Services  B a r r e t t ' s emphasis on community based programs i n v o l v e s  an expansion of the was  expressed i n the  Mr.  B a r r e t t was  services presently offered.  T h i s i s how  interview:  asked:  "In regard to j u v e n i l e delinquency — do you b e l i e v e t h a t the present p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e i n the Province i s adequate?" He r e p l i e d : "The present p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e i s t o t a l l y i n adequate... I e n v i s i o n a t o t a l p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e a t a minimum of 600 s t a f f people w i t h i n 3 y e a r s a f t e r we form a government... We would b r i n g i n a P r o v i n c i a l J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s Act which would supplement the e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n and a l t e r i t towards the needs of the c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than t r e a t i n g t h e i r behavior as criminal offenses." No  case should  be heard without a complete  it  145 s o c i a l h i s t o r y . . . i d e a l l y i t would i n c l u d e . . . a complete p s y c h o l o g i c a l work-up.... I t could be done i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ; but i n the r u r a l a r e a s i t would be f a r more d i f f i c u l t . ' 1  " J u v e n i l e court workers." In the f i e l d  of a d u l t  c o r r e c t i o n s Mr.  If.. .what do you area?" He  judges should be t r a i n e d  B a r r e t t was  social  asked:  see as the main need i n t h i s  replied: "...we are anxious to create s e r v i c e s which aim towards p r e v e n t i n g p e r s o n a l breakdown i n behavi o r and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . w e have i n i t i a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l i n g f o r a f a r more f l e x i b l e approach t o the treatment o f the c o n v i c t e d o f f e n d e r . I've i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n f o r weekend p r i s o n s .  In the f i e l d  of c h i l d welfare,  "...what would you tion services?" Mr.  Mr.  B a r r e t t was  asked:  say i s the purpose of  protec-  Barrett replied: " . . . t o prevent the need f o r secondary p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n and at i t s v e r y best the f o s t e r home program admits a b a s i c f a i l u r e i n the S t a t e not p r o v i d i n g adequate f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . .... We would immediately move s o c i a l workers i n t o every e x i s t i n g elementary school s t r u c t u r e . . . "  In the f i e l d  of mental h e a l t h Mr.  B a r r e t t was  asked:  "Would t h e r e be any b a s i c change you would make i n the o r i e n t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s ? He  replied: "The  o r i e n t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s would be  focused  146 towards p r e v e n t i o n . L e g i s l a t i o n would be i n t r o d u c e d — o u t p a t i e n t s e r v i c e s f o r the a g g r e s s i v e r e a c h i n g out i n the community by mental h e a l t h , c o o r d i n a t i n g mental h e a l t h programs w i t h the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare, r e a c h i n g out, seeking people who need a s s i s t ance f o r emotional problems. These q u o t a t i o n s are t y p i c a l of Mr. B a r r e t t ' s program als.  E s s e n t i a l l y they i n v o l v e a great expansion  s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s . expansion  of the h e l p i n g  His proposals f o r  of the p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e and f o r week-end p r i s o n s  appear the most ambitious. prevention — for  propos-  The  o r i e n t a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i s towards  r e a c h i n g out t o people unable or u n w i l l i n g t o ask  s e r v i c e s , e a r l y treatment, and an emphasis on the f a m i l y i n  i t s social  setting.  The t h e s i s group was  a l s o concerned  w i t h determining what  changes Mr. B a r r e t t would make i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f w e l f a r e services.  A c c o r d i n g l y he was  asked:  " I t i s understood t h a t your p a r t y advocates r e v i s i o n of the S o c i a l Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Department. Would you please o u t l i n e what changes you are recommending?" To t h i s and  subsequent q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  B a r r e t t answered: "...we would delegate f a r more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y t o r e g i o n a l administrator...we would e s t a b l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r Department of L i a son and Cooperation whose r o l e would be t o c r e a t e l i a s o n and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . We would ask p r i v a t e agencies t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of doing c r e a t i v e and experimental works.... We would no l o n g e r provide any money t o any p r i v a t e agency whose primary purpose was c a r r y i n g on a f u n c t i o n t h a t the Department of S o c i a l Welfare i s e i t h e r prov i d i n g i n other areas of the Province or should be providing...we would immediately i n c r e a s e s a l a r i e s o f s o c i a l workers...we would s l o w l y  Mr.  147 phase out s p e c i a l i z e d c a s e l o a d s . . . c a s e l o a d s would be l i m i t e d . . . p o l i c y o f s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e f o r the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r . . . i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g would d i m i n i s h as we r e l i e d more heavi l y on p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . . . . We would have no h e s i t a t i o n i n h i r i n g p u b l i c w e l f a r e administ r a t o r s . . . a l l c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d to the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and that w i l l i n c l u d e s e r v i c e s to j u v e n i l e s . . . a u x i l l i a r y s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d from the Department of Health...are a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n the s o c i a l welfare f i e l d . . . " One  of the major a s p e c t s of Mr.  B a r r e t t ' s proposed p l a n i s a  change i n r o l e s of the p r i v a t e and  public agencies.  Many p r i v a t e  a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g such l a r g e agencies as both C h i l d r e n ' s  Aid  S o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver would l o s e t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n and would be taken over by the S o c i a l Welfare Department. views are c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h those of Mr.  O'Neal.  Mr.  this  Barrett's  They r e f l e c t  the  b e l i e f t h a t a s o c i e t y should serve a l l human needs as a matter o f r i g h t rather than c h a r i t y . The  r o l e designated f o r p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i s t h a t of  mentation and  innovation.  By  experi-  i m p l i c a t i o n t h i s suggests t h a t  State would assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y once a need f o r a s e r v i c e proven.  While Mr.  the was  B a r r e t t envisages g r a n t s t o p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s  t h a t are f r e e of r e s t r i c t i o n s to enable them t o engage i n programs, t h i s f a c t and  the p r o p o s a l of a Department of L i a s o n  C o o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t Mr.  Barrett  h a v i n g a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n seeking out W i t h i n the p u b l i c  creative  sphere, Mr.  sees the new  government  needs and  and  as  services.  B a r r e t t advocates c e n t r a l i z a -  t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s under one  department.  s t a t e s the b a s i s f o r t h i s view i n t h i s statement: " . . . s o c i a l problems...such as c r i m i n a l behavior, drug a d d i c t i o n and a l c o h o l i s m , r e v e a l a s o c i a l inadequacy and as such a l l s e r v i c e s should be under the S o c i a l Welfare Department."  He  148 As with the e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s , problems are seen as h a v i n g a common base i n s o c i a l inadequacy.  However, Mr.  B a r r e t t would cope w i t h  t h i s inadequacy by r e f o r m i n g the present w e l f a r e system  through  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of these s e r v i c e s , which he c o n s i d e r s would permit a g e n e r i c , p r e v e n t i v e approach. The  reason f o r f u r t h e r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s not s t a t e d by Mr.  Barrett.  However i n view o f  h i s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned emphasis on p r e v e n t i o n and the community f o c u s of s e r v i c e s , he perhaps b e l i e v e s t h i s would make the ment more r e s p o n s i v e to the needs of the  Depart-  community.  I n a d d i t i o n to changes i n the s t r u c t u r e and r o l e of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Mr. nel policy.  He advocates  B a r r e t t i s concerned  with  person-  such measures as s m a l l e r caseloads  and  r e t a i n i n g t r a i n e d workers i n l i n e p o s i t i o n s which are aimed a t improving  the q u a l i t y of s o c i a l work performance.  the i n t e r v i e w Mr.  B a r r e t t s t a t e s t h a t t o meet the needs f o r s o c i a l  workers, the c r e a t i o n o f t h r e e new be encouraged.  Elsewhere i n  s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work would  H i s personnel p o l i c y i s no doubt a r e f l e c t i o n of  h i s s o c i a l work education and  experience.  Conclusions P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , Mr. agree t h a t the s o c i a l i s t  Strachan, Mr.  O'Neal and Mr. B a r r e t t  s o c i e t y i s one t h a t i s concerned  meeting the needs of a l l i t s members.  with  In g e n e r a l they appear t o  agree with the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l of e q u a l i t y , freedom and f e l l o w ship.  They do not support a r e v o l u t i o n a r y change of the present  economic system as a means o f a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r s o c i e t y , but i n r e f o r m i n g the present  system.  D e s p i t e these s i m i l a r i t i e s t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach.  Mr.  Strachan,  still  sees man's c o n d i t i o n i n  149 terms of f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e , b i g b u s i n e s s , the working c l a s s , and nature of the work l i f e .  He emphasizes the government's r o l e i n  economic development as a means of a l l e v i a t i n g Mr.  injustices.  B a r r e t t , t h i n k s of s o c i a l i s m more i n terms of the  v i d u a l as a p a r t i c i p a t i n g , concerned  member of s o c i e t y .  t h i s s i t u a t i o n as being achieved l a r g e l y , but not an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .  the  He  indi-  He  solely,  sees  through  supports reform i n the e d u c a t i o n a l  system to make more r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s .  E d u c a t i o n i s used  b r o a d l y here t o r e f e r not o n l y to the s c h o o l system, but a l s o t o a c t i v i t i e s of a Department of S o c i a l Welfare, and  s c h o o l s of s o c i a l work, i n education.  l i n k e d to the whole concept Mr. concerned  of s o c i a l workers,  In f a c t , e d u c a t i o n i s  of p r e v e n t i o n .  O'Neal views s o c i a l i s m i n w e l f a r e s t a t e terms.  He i s  w i t h e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y and w e l f a r e s t a t e measures  are emphasized. In terms of s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y , Mr.  Strachan  sees economic  development as a major t o o l i n a l l e v i a t i n g s o c i a l problems, the c h i e f of which i s unemployment and l a c k of p u r c h a s i n g power. the same time he advocates  comprehensive w e l f a r e programs.  programs are aimed a t the w e l f a r e o f the shole s o c i e t y .  At These  Individ-  u a l s e r v i c e s are " s p e c i a l " and a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n approach i s  em-  phasized f o r more s e r i o u s s o c i a l problems. Mr.  B a r r e t t a l s o supports comprehensive programs, p a r t i c u -  l a r l y those f i n a n c i a l programs p e r m i t t i n g e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . But, the bulk of h i s program i s geared towards r e f o r m i n g the present w e l f a r e system i n the d i r e c t i o n of meeting the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l .  I t i s an approach which sees w e l f a r e as  institu-  t i o n a l i z e d and aimed a t h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t t o  society.  T h i s r o l e i s expressed  through  g e n e r i c , community focused programs  150  whose primary purpose i s t o prevent s o c i a l breakdown, r a t h e r than rehabilitation.  The  program i n v o l v e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n  the number i n the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l work. Mr. He  O'Neal p r i m a r i l y supports comprehensive w e l f a r e  i s a l s o concerned about l e g a l changes a f f e c t i n g Labour's  bargaining p o s i t i o n .  While Mr.  O'Neal i s sympathetic t o the expan-  s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s , these are not He  programs.  i s opposed t o p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s and The  s p e l l e d out  clearly.  sees them as being c h a r i t y .  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be made i s t h a t a l l the  interviewed  l e a d e r s have moved s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of a  welfare  s t a t e approach as a s o l u t i o n t o the problems c o n f r o n t i n g uals i n society.  individ-  151  CHAPTER V GENERAL CONCLUSIONS The  f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s was t o determine t h e present  w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s o f the NDP.  I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , we t r a c e d  the e v o l u t i o n o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f the CCF - NDP. concluded  We have  t h a t the p a r t y has moved from a t h e o r e t i c a l  socialist  o r i e n t a t i o n , i . e . p u b l i c ownership of t h e means of p r o d u c t i o n and a planned  economy i n a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y t o a w e l f a r e s t a t e  orientation.  T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i m p l i e s a r e f o r m a t i o n o f the  e x i s t i n g system w i t h emphasis on s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , a planned  economy, and e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l s e c u r i t y measures.  We have concluded  from an a n a l y s i s o f l i t e r a t u r e ,  resolu-  t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s , and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a t t h e rank and f i l e d u r i n g the proceedings  o f t h e i r conventions a r e l a r g e l y  concerned  with economic i s s u e s ( s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g ) . The  l e a d e r s h i p , on the other hand, has supported  comprehensive s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs as w e l l as  broad  emphasizing  economic programs. Although  the rank and f i l e  do not i n d i c a t e concern  s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s s u e s a t t h e i r annual specific  with  conventions, they d i d g i v e  s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s s u e s as h i g h a p r i o r i t y as l e a d e r s h i p  l e v e l s o f membership, i n t h e i r responses Although  t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  the rank and f i l e f a i l t o present r e s o l u t i o n s on  s p e c i f i c w e l f a r e i s s u e s , there i s a h i g h degree o f agreement between v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p a r t y membership on these i s s u e s ,  152 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the rank and f i l e  r e l y on the l e a d e r s h i p and  " e x p e r t s " f o r p o l i c y on s p e c i f i c w e l f a r e i s s u e s . The  spokesman on s o c i a l w e l f a r e f o r t h e NDP i s David B a r r e t t .  H i s major premises a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  D i r e c t concern w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l .  Mr. B a r r e t t empha-  s i z e s e q u a l i z a t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t y which, he f e e l s , w i l l development of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s maximum p o t e n t i a l .  a l l o w the  Although Mr.  B a r r e t t i s i n agreement with o t h e r p a r t y l e a d e r s on the need f o r comprehensive changes t o t h e s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e , he a l s o proposes the concurrent development o f d i r e c t individual.  These i n c l u d e t h e expansion  s e r v i c e s t o the  o f such t h i n g s a s educa-  t i o n , mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s o f a l l t y p e s etc.  T h i s does not imply t h a t o t h e r p a r t y members a r e not con-  cerned w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l .  Many of them emphasize broad  social  and economic changes as being p r i m a r i l y necessary f o r t h e development o f maximum i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l .  These changes  i n c l u d e , economic p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n , medicare e t c . 2. living  Every c i t i z e n has t h e r i g h t t o minimum standards o f i n c l u d i n g such t h i n g s as income, e d u c a t i o n , and h e a l t h  services. 3.  A l l i n d i v i d u a l s should be i n v o l v e d i n the r e s o l u t i o n o f  s o c i a l problems. for  However t h e p a r t y i t s e l f depends on Mr. B a r r e t t  leadership i n s o c i a l welfare.  g r e a t e r involvement lation of specific  T h i s i n d i c a t e s a need f o r a  o f the p a r t y membership i t s e l f i n t h e formus o c i a l welfare  policies.  4.  An emphasis on t h e p r e v e n t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  5.  The need f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  Govern-  ment should have t h e primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g these services.  153 6.  S e r v i c e s should be p r o v i d e d on t h e b a s i s o f needs r a t h e r  than means t e s t s . In summary, many o f Mr. B a r r e t t ' s s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s (g.g. expansion  a f p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e through use o f r e t r a i n e d per-  sonnel) have not been subjected t o r e s e a r c h . be sponsored  T h i s r e s e a r c h could  by the NDP o r under the a u s p i c e s o f t h e t r a d e  movement as i s done i n the U.K.  Secondly,  union  many o f Mr. B a r r e t t ' s  p r o p o s a l s have not been submitted t o p a r t y conventions.  Therefore,  most i n d i v i d u a l p a r t y members have not been i n v o l v e d i n t h e formul a t i o n of s p e c i f i c s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y .  And t h i r d l y , t h e r e i s  no comprehensive s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y statement convention)  a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c .  (endorsed  by the  154  Appendix A. MANIFESTO OF THE LEAGUE FOR SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION The League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s an a s s o c i a t i o n o f men and women who are working f o r the establishment i n Canada o f a s o c i a l order i n which the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i o n p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e r v i c e w i l l be the common good r a t h e r than profit. The present c a p i t a l i s t i c system has shown i t s e l f u n j u s t and inhuman, e c o n o m i c a l l y w a s t e f u l , and a s t a n d i n g t h r e a t t o peace and democratic government. Over the whole world i t has l e d t o a s t r u g g l e f o r raw m a t e r i a l s and markets and t o a consequent i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n i n armaments which were among the main causes of the l a s t war, and which c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n t o b r i n g on new wars. I n the advanced i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s i t has l e d t o the conc e n t r a t i o n o f wealth i n t o the hands o f a s m a l l i r r e s p o n s i b l e m i n o r i t y o f bankers and i n d u s t r i a l i s t s whose economic power cons t a n t l y t h r e a t e n s t o n u l l i f y our p o l i t i c a l democracy. The r e s u l t i n Canada i s a s o c i e t y i n which the i n t e r e s t s of farmers and wage and s a l a r i e d workers - the great m a j o r i t y o f our p o p u l a t i o n - are h a b i t u a l l y s a c r i f i c e d to those o f t h i s s m a l l m i n o r i t y . D e s p i t e our abundant n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s the mass o f the people have not been f r e e d from poverty and i n s e c u r i t y . Unregul a t e d c o m p e t i t i v e p r o d u c t i o n condemns them t o a l t e r n a t e p e r i o d s o f f e v e r i s h p r o s p e r i t y , i n which the main b e n e f i t s go t o p r o f i t e e r s , and o f c a t a s t r o p h i c d e p r e s s i o n , i n which the common man's normal s t a t e of i n s e c u r i t y and h a r d s h i p i s accentuated. We are convinced t h a t these e v i l s are i n h e r e n t i n any system i n which p r i v a t e p r o f i t i s the main stimulus t o economic e f f o r t . We t h e r e f o r e look to the establishment i n Canada of a new s o c i a l o r d e r which w i l l s u b s t i t u t e a planned and s o c i a l i z e d economy f o r the e x i s t i n g c h a o t i c i n d i v i d u a l i s m and which, by a c h i e v i n g an approximate economic e q u a l i t y along a l l men i n p l a c e of the present g l a r i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s , w i l l e l i m i n a t e the domination o f one c l a s s by another. As e s s e n t i a l f i r s t order we advocate.  steps towards the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s  new  1.  P u b l i c ownership and o p e r a t i o n o f the p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s connected with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication and e l e c t r i c power, and o f such other i n d u s t r i e s as are a l r e a d y approaching c o n d i t i o n s o f m o n o p o l i s t i c o o n t r o l .  2.  N a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of Banks and other f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h a view t o the r e g u l a t i o n o f a l l c r e d i t and investment o p e r a t i o n s .  155 3.  The f u r t h e r development of a g r i c u l t u r a l c o - o p e r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n and merchandising of a g r i c u l t u r a l products.  4.  S o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n to secure to the worker adequate income and l e i s u r e , freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n , insurance a g a i n s t i l l n e s s , a c c i d e n t , o l d age and unemployment, and an e f f e c t i v e v o i c e i n the management of h i s i n d u s t r y .  5.  P u b l i c l y organized services.  6.  A t a x a t i o n p o l i c y emphasizing s t e e p l y graduated income and i n h e r i t a n c e t a x e s .  7.  The  8.  The v e s t i n g i n Canada of the power to amend and i n t e r p r e t the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n so as to give the f e d e r a l government power to c o n t r o l the n a t i o n a l economic development.  9.  A f o r e i g n p o l i c y designed to secure i n t e r n a t i o n a l coo p e r a t i o n i n r e g u l a t i n g t r a d e , i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c e , and t o promote disarmament and world peace.  h e a l t h , h o s p i t a l , and  c r e a t i o n of a N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g  medical  Commission.  156 Appendix B PROVISIONAL PROGRAM QF THE CCF DRAWN UP AT THE CALGARY CONFERENCE IN 1932 The Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n o f Canada i s a F e d e r a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose purpose i s t h e establishment i n Canada o f a Co-operative Commonwealth i n which the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and exchange, w i l l be the s u p p l y i n g o f human needs i n s t e a d o f the making o f p r o f i t s . PROVISIONAL PROGRAM OF THE FEDERATION 1.  The establishment o f a planned system of s o c i a l economy f o r the p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and exchange o f a l l goods and services.  2.  S o c i a l i z a t i o n o f the banking, c r e d i t and f i n a n c i a l system o f the country, t o g e t h e r with the s o c i a l ownership, development, o p e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f u t i l i t i e s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  3.  S e c u r i t y o f tenure f o r the farmer on h i s u s e - l e a s e l a n d and f o r the worker i n h i s own home. ( " U s e - l a n d " — l a n d used f o r p r o d u c t i v e purposes; by i m p l i c a t i o n no such guarantee i s g i v e n t o the l a n d s p e c u l a t o r . )  4.  The r e t e n t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f a l l e x i s t i n g s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s , with adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t crop f a i l u r e , i l l n e s s , a c c i d e n t , o l d age and unemployment d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e .  5.  Equal economic and s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t y without sex, n a t i o n a l i t y o r r e l i g i o n .  6.  Encouragement o f a l l c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s which a r e steps to t h e attainment o f t h e Co-operative Commonwealth.  7.  Socialization of a l l health services.  8.  F e d e r a l Government should accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r unemployment and tender s u i t a b l e work o r adequate maintenance.  d i s t i n c t i o n of  157 APPENDIX C Fourteen p o i n t s of the Regina M a n i f e s t o , program o f the Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , adopted at F i r s t N a t i o n a l Convention h e l d at Regina, Saskatchewan, J u l y , 1933* 1.  P l a n n i n g : The establishment of a planned, s o c i a l i z e d economic order, i n order t o make p o s s i b l e the most e f f i c i e n t development o f the n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and the most e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the n a t i o n a l income.  2.  S o c i a l i z a t i o n of Finance: S o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l f i n a n c i a l machinery — banking, currency, c r e d i t , and i n s u r a n c e , t o make p o s s i b l e the e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f currency, c r e d i t and p r i c e s , and t h e s u p p l y i n g of new p r o d u c t i v e equipment f o r s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e purposes.  3.  S o c i a l Ownership: S o c i a l i z a t i o n (Dominion, P r o v i n c i a l , or M u n i c i p a l ) o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communications, e l e c t r i c power and a l l other i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s e s s e n t i a l t o s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , and t h e i r o p e r a t i o n under the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of the P l a n n i n g Commission by competent managements f r e e d from day to day p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e .  4.  A g r i c u l t u r e : S e c u r i t y of tenure f o r the farmer upon h i s farm on c o n d i t i o n s to be l a i d down by i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s ; i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t unavoidable crop f a i l u r e ; removal o f the t a r i f f burden from the o p e r a t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r e ; encouragement o f producers' and consumers' c o - o p e r a t i v e s ; the r e s t o r a t i o n and maintenance of an e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i c e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l products and those o f o t h e r commodit i e s and s e r v i c e s ; and improving the e f f i c i e n c y of export trade i n farm p r o d u c t s .  5.  E x t e r n a l Trade: The r e g u l a t i o n i n accordance w i t h N a t i o n a l p l a n of e x t e r n a l t r a d e through import and boards.  6.  Co-operative I n s t i t u t i o n s : The encouragement by the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y of both producers' and consumers' c o - o p e r a t i v e institutions.  7.  Labour Code: A N a t i o n a l Labour Code t o secure f o r the worker maximum income and l e i s u r e , insurance c o v e r i n g i l l n e s s , a c c i d e n t , o l d age, and unemployment, freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the management of h i s i n d u s t r y or p r o f e s s i o n .  8.  S o c i a l i z e d Health S e r v i c e s : P u b l i c l y organized h e a l t h , h o s p i t a l and medical s e r v i c e s .  the export  153 9.  B.N.A. A c t : The amendment of the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , without i n f r i n g i n g upon r a c i a l or r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y r i g h t s or upon l e g i t i m a t e p r o v i n c i a l claims to autonomy, so as t o give the Dominion Government adequate powers to d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h urgent economic problems which are e s s e n t i a l l y n a t i o n a l i n scope; the a b o l i t i o n of the Canadian Senate.  10.  E x t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s : A F o r e i g n P o l i c y designed t o o b t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic c o - o p e r a t i o n and to promote disarmament and world peace.  11.  T a x a t i o n and P u b l i c Finance: A new t a x a t i o n p o l i c y designed not o n l y to r a i s e p u b l i c revenues but a l s o to l e s s e n the g l a r i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s of income and to p r o v i d e funds f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y ; the cess a t i o n of the debt c r e a t i n g system of P u b l i c Finance.  12.  Freedom: Freedom of speech and assembly f o r a l l ; r e p e a l o f S e c t i o n 93 of the C r i m i n a l Code; amendment o f the Immig r a t i o n Act t o prevent the present inhuman p o l i c y of dep o r t a t i o n ; equal treatment before the law of a l l r e s i d e n t s o f Canada i r r e s p e c t i v e of r a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y o r r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s .  13.  S o c i a l I n j u s t i c e : The establishment of a commission composed of p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , s o c i a l l y - m i n d e d j u r i s t s and s o c i a l workers, t o d e a l with a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g t o crime and punishment and the g e n e r a l admini s t r a t i o n of law, i n order to humanize the law and t o b r i n g i t i n t o harmony with the needs of the people.  14.  An Emergency Program: The assumption by the Dominion Government of d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the present c r i t i c a l unemployment s i t u a t i o n and f o r t e n d e r i n g s u i t a b l e work or adequate maintenance; the adoption o f measures t o r e l i e v e the extremity of the c r i s i s such as a programme of p u b l i c spending on housing, and other e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t w i l l i n c r e a s e the r e a l wealth o f Canada, t o be f i n a n c e d by the i s s u e o f c r e d i t based on the n a t i o n a l wealth.  159 APPENDIX D CCF  (B.C.) PROVINCIAL PLATFORM.  1933  The CCF i s a F e d e r a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose purpose i s the establishment i n Canada o f a Co-operative Commonwealth, i n which the p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i n g P r o d u c t i o n , D i s t r i b u t i o n and Exchange w i l l be the s u p p l y i n g of human needs and not the making of p r o f i t s . 1. PLANNING. The development of a s o c i a l i z e d economic p l a n , i n order t o r e g u l a t e the p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of the P r o v i n c e ; and t o secure maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n d i s t r i b u t i o n and exchange. 2. FINANCE. Co-operation with the o t h e r P r o v i n c e s t o o b t a i n a complete S o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l the f i n a n c i a l machinery of the country — Banking, Currency, C r e d i t and Insurance, — and, i f compelled by a s i t u a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l emergency, t o develop p u r e l y P r o v i n c i a l C r e d i t , based on P r o v i n c i a l Resources. 3 . SOCIAL OWNERSHIP. The adoption by the P r o v i n c e of the F e d e r a l CCF P l a n f o r S o c i a l i z a t i o n of N a t u r a l Resources, P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and other i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s e s s e n t i a l to the economic p l a n . 4 . AGRICULTURE, (a) S e c u r i t y of tenure f o r the farmer on h i s usel a n d . A s s i s t a n c e to farmers i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n and establishment of o r d e r l y marketing by and through producers' and consumers' c o - o p e r a t i v e s , and such other a s s i s t a n c e t o a l l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s as w i l l enable them to o b t a i n an adequate r e t u r n f o r the products of t h e i r l a b o r . (b) APPLICATION TO AGRICULTURAL PLANE: 1. (a) The connotations o f t h i s plank e x h i b i t two t h e s e s which evolve from f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r s are s u b j e c t t o and depend upon Nature and i t s laws. (b) That A g r i c u l t u r e may be brought i n t o l i n e with a l l o t h e r b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s and t h a t hours of labour and p e r i o d s of l e i s u r e may be s i m i l a r l y determined. (c) That the s i z e of the farms, the s o i l a d a p t a b i l i t y , and the l o c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to markets may be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y determined and guided i n accordance w i t h the f i n d i n g s . In development of these i t i s e s s e n t i a l (a) That the s o i l survey of the Province be s p e e d i l y completed on an adequate b a s i s , and w i t h a more comprehensive purpose. (b) That the e f f o r t s of e x p e r t s employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government be c o - o r d i n a t e d and immediately a d j u s t e d t o the s p e c i f i c problem o f the Growers. (c) That s o l u t i o n reached by Growers and e x p e r t s be r e s o l v e d by s u i t a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n i f considered necessary f o r the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e to be a p p l i e d t o s p e c i f i c I n d u s t r i e s such as F r u i t and Small F r u i t I n d u s t i r e s ; C e r e a l R a i s i n g ; Ranching; Nursery Farming and Truck Farming. As I n t e r i m measures the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s are recommended t o secure the tenure of the farmer upon h i s use l a n d :  160 1. T a x a t i o n o f l a n d i n use t o be r e p l a c e d by t a x a t i o n on Nett Income. 2. E x t e n s i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l C r e d i t t o the Farmers f o r working c a p i t a l and t o r e p l a c e Mortgage o b l i g a t i o n s and the l i k e . 3. Adequate insurance developed by the Province a g a i n s t a l l p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and crop r i s k s . 4. S o c i a l ownership of i r r i g a t i o n , d r a i n i n g s , and dyking systems. 5. LABOUR CODE. I n t r o d u c t i o n and enforcement o f a Labour Code t o secure f o r the worker maximum income and l e i s u r e , unemployment i n surance and e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the management o f h i s i n d u s t r y or p r o f e s s i o n . 6. SECURITY FOR HOME OWNERS. D e c l a r a t i o n o f a moratorium t o be administered by a debt adjustment Board on p r i n c i p a l and i n t e r e s t on mortgages and agreements o f s a l e i n r e s p e c t t o p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and homes. Amendment o f the B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act and any P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t h e r e t o t o provide a u t h o r i t y f o r M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s and Commissioners t o w i t h h o l d from Tax S a l e the homes o f people who have l o s t t h e i r means o f l i v e l i h o o d . 7. TAXATION. A l l forms o f t a x a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r Income, Corpora t i o n and I n h e r i t a n c e Taxes t o be l e v i e d d e f i n i t e l y on the b a s i s o f a b i l i t y t o pay. 8. MAINTENANCE. Immediate r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a l l persons throughout the P r o v i n c e , and the p r o v i s i o n o f c i v i l i z e d maintenance f o r a l l persons a f f e c t e d by unemployment o r l o s s o f income. The i n s e c u r i t y o f present l i f e i n s u r a n c e , pensions and superannuation schemes n e c e s s i t a t e s adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r the aged and i n f i r m as a Social obligation. 9.  EMPLOYMENT AND PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT. (a) Immediate o p e r a t i o n o f a scheme o f P u b l i c Works, such as the b u i l d i n g o f roads, s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , e t c . , the development o f Housing Scheme; the e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e ; t h e development o f i r r i g a t i o n system and other S o c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . (b) Development o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems throughout the based upon an expert survey (c)  Province^  Extension of Social Services.  (d) S c i e n t i f i c development o f the N a t u r a l Resources o f the P r o v i n c e ; propagation and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the F o r e s t s and F i s h e r i e s . 10. HEALTH.  S o c i a l i s a t i o n o f a l l Health S e r v i c e s .  11. EDUCATION. (a) Establishment o f a thoroughly democratic p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l system f r e e t o a l l , adapted t o i n d i v i d u a l needs and designed t o prepare our young people f o r a f u l l and complete p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a co-opea?ative o r d e r .  161  (b) C r e a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l Schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n order t o care f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of our unemployed youth, pending such time as they can be d r a f t e d i n t o the i n d u s t r i a l schemes. 1 2 . R e v i s i o n o f a l l P r o v i n c i a l l e g a l enactments i n order to b r i n g them i n t o conformity w i t h CCF p o l i c i e s .  162 APPENDIX E 1937  P r o v i n c i a l Program. CCF  (B.C.  p u b l i s h e d by the P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e , CCF  Section)  (B.C. S e c t i o n , Vancouver,B.C  1. PLANNING: The immediate establishment of a P l a n n i n g Board c o n s i s t i n g of economists, s t a t i s t i c i a n s and engineers, which, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments, w i l l prepare plans f o r the new p r o v i n c i a l economy f o r submission to the Cabinet, t o which body the Board w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e . Inauguration of C o n s u l t a t i v e C o u n c i l s , whose members w i l l be e l e c t e d from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such C o u n c i l s , to a d v i s e the P l a n n i n g Board and t o accept, where f e a s i b l e , some measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r implementing s t a t u t e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r i n d u s t r y or p r o f e s s i o n . 2. SOCIAL CONTROL: Establishment of & commissions t o c o n t r o l p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h a view t o e a r l y p u b l i c ownership; government monopoly of brewing and d i s t i l l i n g , and o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of petroleum products; a c q u i s i t i o n of v a l u e - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s i t i s deemed a d v i s a b l e t o operate; s t r i c t e r s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e ; no f u r t h e r a l i e n a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t o p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s ; p r o g r e s s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n of s t a t e l o g g i n g and r e - a f f o r e s t a t i o n . P r o g r e s s i v e a d o p t i o n of S t a t e Insurance. Appointment of a Highway Commission t o c a r r y out a comprehensive road program. 3. FINANCE: C o n s o l i d a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l government debt by c o n v e r s i o n t o nonmaturing, f i x e d - i n t e r e s t b e a r i n g bonds, c a l l a b l e a t o p t i o n of the Government a f t e r a l i m i t e d term of y e a r s . Government support t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o reduce t h e i r debt l o a d s . C a r e f u l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t a x burden t o give g r e a t e r r e l i e f t o those i n the lower income b r a c k e t s ; h i g h e r income and i n h e r i t a n c e t a x e s i n the upper b r a c k e t s . Tax i n c r e a s e s on m o n o p o l i s t i c b u s i n e s s , s p e c u l a t i v e l a n d h o l d i n g s and a l i e n a t e d n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Taxation of c o r p o r a t i o n s u r p l u s e s . 4. LABOUR: P r o t e c t i o n of workers i n the r i g h t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , s t r i k i n g , and p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g ; outlawing o f company unions; opening of a l l company towns; enactment and s t r i c t enforcement of Wage, Hours, and C o n d i t i o n s of Work l e g i s l a t i o n to provide h i g h e r l i v i n g standards f o r workers; unemployed workers, pending u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r s e r v i c e s , to be f u r n i s h e d reasonable maintenance and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a i n i n g by a p l a n c a l l i n g f o r f u l l e r c o - o p e r a t i o n between f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to youth l a b o u r problems. 5. AGRICULTURE: Appointment of a Government A g r i c u l t u r a l Comm i s s i o n with s u b s i d i a r y committees on marketing and planned product i o n , which committees w i l l have both producer and consumer r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A measure of c o n t r o l to be e x e r c i z e d over imports and exp o r t s . A c t i v e support of farmer o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c o - o p e r a t i v e buying, p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; insurance a g a i n s t crop f a i l u r e ; i n s t i t u t i o n of a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y l e a d i n g to p r e v e n t i o n of f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s ; s e c u r i t y on e q u i t a b l e terms a g a i n s t s e i z u r e f o r debt o f land i n e f f e c t i v e use, i n c l u d i n g b u i l d i n g s , and equipment; examina t i o n of the whole a g r i c u l t u r a l debt s t r u c t u r e w i t h a view t o a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n ; p l a n s to be prepared f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e settlement of those i n d i s t r e s s e d areas; establishment of an  163  experimental collective farm; rural electrification where conditions warrant. Early provision for an outlet to the Pacific Coast for Peace River products. 6. EDUCATION: Education to be related more closely to the vocational and cultural needs of the child and of the community; abolition of fees in the secondary schools; maintenance of a democratically elected School Board system; reduction in the number of school districts; aid to small urban and rural centres by the provision of increased educational and cultural facilities. Institution of a well-organized program of adult education; provision of free text books and essential equipment. 7. SOCIAL SERVICES: Establishment of all-inclusive Health Insurance, contribution to be based onaa sliding scale in accordance with income received; a l l indigents to receive full benefits under this scheme. Extension of public clinic, hospitalization, diagnostic facilities and nursing services; more attention to be given to preventive measures. Increased pensions for the aged and blind and extended allowances under the Mothers' Pensions Act; upward revision of allowances under the Workmen's Compensation Act. 8. HOME PROTECTION AND HOUSING: Revision of laws dealing with foreclosures and evictions with a view to safeguarding citizens rights to home tenure; assistance to be given to Municipalities in slum clearance undertakings; home building by concerted action between Government, Municipalities, Building Societies and Housing Co-operatives. 9. CO-OPERATIVES: Active support of a l l genuine co-operative societies. 10. HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES: Abolition of tolls on Provincially controlled bridges, highways and ferries. 11. CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS LIBERTIES: Maintenance and extension of civil and religious freedom and vigorous opposition to a l l encroachments upon such rights and liberties.  164 APPENDIX F  1956 Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n The aim o f the Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n i s the establishment i n Canada by democratic means o f a c o - o p e r a t i v e commonwealth i n which t h e s u p p l y i n g o f human needs and enrichment o f human l i f e s h a l l be the primary purpose o f our s o c i e t y . P r i v a t e p r o f i t and corporate power must be subordinated t o s o c i a l p l a n n i n g designed t o achieve e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y and the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e l i v i n g standards f o r a l l Canadians. T h i s i s , and always has been, the aim o f the CCF. The Regina M a n i f e s t o , proclaimed by t h e founders o f the movement i n 1933, has had a profound i n f l u e n c e on Canada's s o c i a l system. Many o f t h e improvements i t recommended have been wrung out o f u n w i l l i n g governments by the growing s t r e n g t h o f our movement and the growing p o l i t i c a l m a t u r i t y o f the Canadian people. Canada i s a b e t t e r p l a c e than i t was a g e n e r a t i o n ago, not l e a s t because o f t h e cry f o r j u s t i c e sounded i n t h e Regina Manifesto and the devoted e f f o r t s of CCF members and supporters s i n c e t h a t time. CANADA STILL RIDDEN BY INEQUALITIES In s p i t e o f great economic expansion, l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f our people do not b e n e f i t adequately from t h e i n c r e a s e d wealth produced. G r e a t e r wealth and economic power continue t o be concentrated i n the hands o f a r e l a t i v e l y few p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s . The gap between those a t the bottom and those a t the t o p o f t h e economic s c a l e has widened. Thousands s t i l l l i v e i n want and i n s e c u r i t y . Slums and i n a d equate housing condemn many Canadian f a m i l i e s t o a c h e e r l e s s l i f e . O l d er c i t i z e n s e x i s t on pensions f a r t o o low f o r h e a l t h and d i g n i t y . Many t o o young t o q u a l i f y f o r pensions a r e r e j e c t e d by i n d u s t r y as too o l d f o r employment, and f a c e the f u t u r e without hope. Many i n s e r i o u s i l l - h e a l t h cannot a f f o r d t h e h o s p i t a l and medical care they need. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have been s t a r v e d f o r funds and, even i n days o f p r o s p e r i t y , o n l y a small p r o p o r t i o n of young men and women who could b e n e f i t from t e c h n i c a l and h i g h e r education can afford i t . In s h o r t , Canada i s s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g l a r i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s o f wealth and o p p o r t u n i t y and by the domination o f one group over another. The growing c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o r p o r a t e wealth has r e s u l t e d i n a v i r t u a l economic d i c t a t o r s h i p by a p r i v i l e g e d few. This t h r e a t e n s our p o l i t i c a l democracy which w i l l a t t a i n i t s f u l l meani n g only when our people have a v o i c e i n t h e management o f t h e i r economic a f f a i r s and e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the means by which they live. THE  FOLLY OF WASTED RESOURCES Furthermore, even d u r i n g a time o f high employment, Canada's p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y i s not f u l l y u t i l i z e d . I t s use i s governed by the d i c t a t e s o f p r i v a t e economic power and by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f private p r o f i t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e scramble f o r p r o f i t has wasted and d e s p o i l e d our r i c h resources o f s o i l , water, f o r e s t and m i n e r a l s . T h i s l a c k o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g r e s u l t s i n a waste o f our human as w e l l as our n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Our human r e s o u r c e s a r e wasted through s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s which stunt human growth,  165 through unemployment and through education.  our f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e adequate  THE  CHALLENGE OF NEW HORIZONS The CCF b e l i e v e s t h a t Canada needs a program f o r the wise development and c o n s e r v a t i o n of i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Our i n d u s t r y can and should be so operated as t o enable our people t o use f u l l y t h e i r t a l e n t s and s k i l l s . Such an economy w i l l y i e l d t h e maximum o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l development and t h e maximum o f goods and s e r v i c e s f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f human needs at home and abroad. Unprecedented s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances have brought us t o the t h r e s h o l d o f a second i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e n r i c h i n g the standard of l i f e i n Canada and e l s e where a r e g r e a t e r than ever. However, u n l e s s c a r e f u l study i s g i v e n to the many problems which w i l l a r i s e and u n l e s s t h e r e i s i n t e l l i gent p l a n n i n g t o meet them, the e v i l s o f the past w i l l be m u l t i p l i e d i n the f u t u r e . The t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes w i l l produce even g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f wealth and power and w i l l cause widespread d i s t r e s s through unemployment and the displacement o f p o p u l a t i o n s . The c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g Canadians today i s whether f u t u r e development w i l l continue t o perpetuate the i n e q u a l i t i e s o f the past or whether i t w i l l be based on p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e . CAPITALISM BASICALLY IMMORAL Economic expansion accompanied by widespread s u f f e r i n g and i n j u s t i c e i s not d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l p r o g r e s s . A s o c i e t y motivated by the d r i v e f o r p r i v a t e g a i n and s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e i s b a s i c a l l y immoral. The CCF r e a f f i r m s i t s b e l i e f t h a t our s o c i e t y must have a moral purpose and must b u i l d a new r e l a t i o n s h i p among men—a r e l a t i o n s h i p based on mutual r e s p e c t and on e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . I n such a s o c i e t y everyone w i l l have a sense o f worth and b e l o n g i n g , and w i l l be enabled t o develop h i s c a p a c i t i e s t o the f u l l . SOCIAL PLANNING FOR A JUST SOCIETY Such a s o c i e t y cannot be b u i l t without t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Investment o f a v a i l a b l e funds must be c h a n n e l l e d i n t o s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e p r o j e c t s ; f i n a n c i a l and c r e d i t r e s o u r c e s must be used t o h e l p m a i n t a i n f u l l employment and t o c o n t r o l i n f l a t i o n and d e f l a t i o n . I n t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e commonwealth there w i l l be an important r o l e f o r p u b l i c , p r i v a t e and c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e working t o gether i n the people's i n t e r e s t . The CCF has always r e c o g n i z e d p u b l i c ownership as the most e f f e c t i v e means o f b r e a k i n g the s t r a n g l e h o l d o f p r i v a t e monopolies on the l i f e o f t h e n a t i o n and o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g necessary f o r economic s e c u r i t y and advance. The CCF w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , extend p u b l i c ownership wherever i t i s necessary f o r t h e achievement o f these o b j e c t i v e s . At the same time, the CCF a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t i n many f i e l d s t h e r e w i l l be need f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e which can make a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e development o f our economy. The c o - o p e r a t i v e commonwealth w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , provide a p p r o p r i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r i v a t e business as w e l l as publicly-owned i n d u s t r y . The CCF w i l l p r o t e c t and make more widespread the ownership of f a m i l y farms by those who t i l l them, o f homes by those who l i v e i n them, and o f a l l p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s necessary f o r t h e w e l l -  166 b e i n g o f the Canadian p e o p l e . In many f i e l d s t h e b e s t means o f e n s u r i n g j u s t i c e t o p r o d u c e r s and consumers i s the c o - o p e r a t i v e form o f ownership. In such f i e l d s , e v e r y a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be g i v e n t o f o r m c o - o p e r a t i v e s and c r e d i t u n i o n s and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h o s e a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . BUILDING A LIVING DEMOCRACY The CCF welcomes the growth o f l a b o u r u n i o n s , farm and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e . Through them, and t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the promotion o f a r t and c u l t u r e , t h e f a b r i c o f a l i v i n g democr a c y i s b e i n g c r e a t e d i n Canada. These o r g a n i z a t i o n s must have the f u l l e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r growth and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b u i l d i n g our n a t i o n ' s f u t u r e . In the p r e s e n t w o r l d s t r u g g l e f o r men's minds and l o y a l t i e s , d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n s have a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a n ever t o erase every o b s t a c l e t o freedom and e v e r y v e s t i g e o f r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s o r p o l i t i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . L e g i s l a t i o n alone cannot do t h i s , but e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y s a f e g u a r d f o r b a s i c r i g h t s and a sound f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e CCF proposes the enactment o f a B i l l o f R i g h t s g u a r a n t e e i n g freedom o f speech and o f e x p r e s s i o n , the r i g h t o f lawf u l assembly, a s s o c i a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n , e q u a l t r e a t m e n t b e f o r e the law, freedom t o w o r s h i p a c c o r d i n g t o one's own c o n s c i e n c e and t h e enjoyment o f a l l r i g h t s w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n o f r a c e , sex, r e l i g i o n o r language. • BASIS FOR PEACE The s o l u t i o n o f t h e problems f a c i n g Canada depends, i n l a r g e p a r t , on removing t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l dangers w h i c h t h r e a t e n t h e f u t u r e o f a l l mankind. T h e r e f o r e no t a s k i s more u r g e n t t h a n t h a t of b u i l d i n g peace and of f o r g i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s which w i l l b a n i s h from the e a r t h t h e o p p r e s s i v e f e a r o f n u c l e a r d e s t r u c t i o n . O n l y i f t h e r e i s a determined w i l l t o peace and i f every p a r t o f the w o r l d i s f r e e from t h e f e a r o f a g g r e s s i o n and d o m i n a t i o n , can p r o g r e s s be made toward a l a s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t o f o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r ences. Throughout the y e a r s t h e CCF has m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r e has been too much r e l i a n c e on defence e x p e n d i t u r e s t o meet the t h r e a t o f communist e x p a n s i o n . One o f t h e urgent needs f o r b u i l d i n g a peacef u l w o r l d and f o r e x t e n d i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e and power o f democracy i s generous support o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to under-developed c o u n t r i e s on a v a s t s c a l e . The hungry, oppressed and u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d o f t h e w o r l d must know democracy not as a smug s l o g a n but as a dynamic way o f l i f e which sees the w o r l d as one whole, and which r e c o g n i z e s t h e r i g h t o f every n a t i o n t o independence and o f every people t o t h e h i g h e s t a v a i l a b l e standard of l i v i n g . SUPPORT OF UN The CCF r e a f f i r m s f u l l support f o r the U n i t e d N a t i o n s and i t s development i n t o an e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l coo p e r a t i o n and government. The w o r l d must a c h i e v e a l a r g e measure o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l disarmament w i t h o u t d e l a y and e v o l v e a system o f e f f e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l and i n s p e c t i o n t o enable the p r o h i b i t i o n o f n u c l e a r weapons. The CCF b e l i e v e s i n f u l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h a l o n e can b r i n g l a s t i n g peace. The p r a c t i c e s o f i m p e r i a l i s m whether o f  167 the o l d s t y l e o r the new t o t a l i t a r i a n CCF s t r i v e s f o r a world s o c i e t y based freedom, on the r i g h t t o independence e q u a l i t y among n a t i o n s and on genuine  brand, must disappear. The on the r u l e o f law and on o f a l l peoples, on g r e a t e r u n i v e r s a l brotherhood.  CONFIDENCE IN CANADA The CCF has confidence i n Canada and i t s people who have come from many l a n d s i n search o f freedom, s e c u r i t y and o p p o r t u n i t y . I t i s proud o f our country's o r i g i n s i n the B r i t i s h and French t r a d i t i o n s which have produced our present p a r l i a m e n t a r y and j u d i c i a l systems. The CCF b e l i e v e s i n Canada's f e d e r a l system. P r o p e r l y a p p l i e d i n a s p i r i t o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y , i t can safeguard our n a t i o n a l w e l l being and a t the same time p r o t e c t the t r a d i t i o n s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s o f the p r o v i n c e s . W i t h i n the framework o f the f e d e r a l system the CCF w i l l e q u a l i z e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e c i t i z e n s o f every p r o v i n c e i n Canada. True n a t i o n a l u n i t y w i l l be achieved o n l y when every person from the A t l a n t i c t o the P a c i f i c i s a b l e t o enjoy an adequate standard o f l i v i n g . SOCIALISM ON THE MARCH In l e s s than a g e n e r a t i o n s i n c e the CCF was formed, democratic s o c i a l i s m has achieved a p l a c e i n the world which i t s founders could h a r d l y have envisaged. Many l a b o u r and s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s have a d m i n i s t e r e d o r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the governments o f t h e i r c o u n t r i e s . As one o f these democratic s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s , t h e CCF r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the great i s s u e o f our time i s whether mankind s h a l l move toward t o t a l i t a r i a n o p p r e s s i o n or toward a wider democracy w i t h i n n a t i o n s and among n a t i o n s . The CCF w i l l not r e s t content u n t i l every person i n t h i s land and i n a l l o t h e r l a n d s i s a b l e t o enjoy e q u a l i t y and freedom, a sense o f human d i g n i t y , and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e a r i c h and meaningful l i f e as a c i t i z e n o f a f r e e and p e a c e f u l world. This i s the Co-operative Commonwealth which the CCF i n v i t e s t h e people o f Canada t o b u i l d w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n and p r i d e .  168 APPENDIX G R e s o l u t i o n Passed  a t the Canadian  Labour Congress Convention  Held a t Winnipeg  A p r i l 21-25, 1958 T h i s Convention b e l i e v e s t h a t the i m p e r a t i v e need o f the Canadian p o l i t i c a l scene today i s the c r e a t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e based on the needs o f workers, farmers and s i m i l a r groups, f i n a n c e d and c o n t r o l l e d by the people and t h e i r organizations. During the past q u a r t e r century the CCF has made a tremendous c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the w e l f a r e o f t h e Canadian people, both i n and out of Parliament, The organized Labour movement f u l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n and knows t h a t , with i t s l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s , t h e CCF continues t o b a t t l e f o r the i d e a s o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e , s e c u r i t y and freedom, which are a l s o the g o a l s o f t h i s Congress The time has come f o r a fundamental re-alignment o f p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n Canada. There i s the need f o r a b r o a d l y based people's p o l i t i c a l movement, which embraces the CCF, the l a b o u r movement, farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l people and o t h e r l i b e r a l l y - m i n d e d persons i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s i c s o c i a l reform and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n through our p a r l i a m e n t a r y system o f government. Such a b r o a d l y based p o l i t i c a l instrument should p r o v i d e t h a t Labour and o t h e r peoples' o r g a n i z a t i o n s may, t o g e t h e r with the CCF, p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n the establishment of such a movement, i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y and program, as w e l l a s i n i t s f i n a n c i n g and choice of candidates f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e . The experience o f Labour and s o c i a l democratic p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s elsewhere should be s t u d i e d f o r whatever t h e i r h i s t o r y and s t r u c t u r e might c o n t r i b u t e , w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t any e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l instrument i n Canada must be Canadian i n c h a r a c t e r and structure. In p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n and i n i t i a t i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new p o l i t i c a l movement, Labour emphasizes t h a t not o n l y i s t h e r e no wish t o dominate such a developmert , but t h e r e i s the f u l l e s t d e s i r e f o r the broadest p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s arid groups g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n b a s i c democratic s o c i a l reform and the democratic p l a n n i n g necessary t o such reform. T h i s Convention, t h e r e f o r e , i n s t r u c t s the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l to give urgent and immediate a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s matter by i n i t i a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s with the CCF, i n t e r e s t e d farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s and other like-minded i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, t o formulate a c o n s t i t u t i o n and a program f o r such a p o l i t i c a l instrument o f the Canadian people; and t o r e p o r t on such a p l a n , d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n and program t o t h e next Convention o f t h i s Congress f o r a c t i o n . Pending t h i s development, t h i s Convention r e a f f i r m s the p r i n c i p l e s e t out i n the p o l i t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n o f the Founding Conv e n t i o n o f t h i s Congress as f o l l o w s :  169 " ( T h i s Convention) urges a l l a f f i l i a t e d unions, f e d e r a t i o n s and c o u n c i l s ( a l to take the utmost i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , (b) to continue such forms of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n or education as they may have c a r r i e d on i n the past, and (c) t o undertake such f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s as may i n the f u t u r e appear to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a c h i e v i n g the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of the Congress; "And t h a t the P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n Department, give a l l possible assistance to i n d i v i d u a l a f f i l i a t e s , federation, and l a b o u r c o u n c i l s i n c a r r y i n g out programs o f p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n or a c t i o n . "  170 APPENDIX H R e s o l u t i o n Passed a t the CCF N a t i o n a l Convention Held at Montreal July  23-25, 1958  T h i s N a t i o n a l Convention of the CCF r e a f f i r m s i t s b e l i e f t h a t the f u t u r e w e l f a r e o f Canada and i t s people l i e s i n the f u r t h e r development and e a r l y v i c t o r y of a b r o a d l y based people's p o l i t i c a l movement. As democratic s o c i a l i s t s , we b e l i e v e t h a t such a movement must continue t o be d e d i c a t e d t o the p r i n c i p l e s o f democratic s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and to the widest forms o f s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and i n d i v i d u a l liberty. I t must remain s t e a d f a s t i n i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to i n t r o duce, where a p p r o p r i a t e , p u b l i c c o n t r o l and p u b l i c ownership i n p l a c e o f the present m o n o p o l i s t i c domination o f our economy, and indeed, our whole s o c i e t y , by l a r g e p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n . Such a movement must d e d i c a t e i t s e l f t o the t a s k o f democrati c a l l y r e b u i l d i n g our s o c i e t y so that c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l replace greed, c o n s t r u c t i v e development w i l l r e p l a c e e x p l o i t a t i o n of man by man and u n i t y o f farmer and worker, east and west, French-speaking and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , w i l l r e p l a c e d i s u n i t y and d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r i v e d conflict. I t s aims must be to b u i l d our s o c i e t y on moral foundat i o n s o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e and human d i g n i t y . F o r these reasons t h i s Convention welcomes t h e r e s o l u t i o n adopted by the Canadian Labour Congress a t i t s Convention i n Winnipeg i n A p r i l o f t h i s year, l o o k i n g t o the b u i l d i n g o f such a p o l i t i c a l movement t o g e t h e r w i t h the CCF and farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , groups and i n d i v i d u a l s ready t o j o i n i n common o b j e c t i v e s . At i t s merger convention i n 1956, the Canadian Labour Congress adopted a p o l i t i c a l program which the CCF Convention, h e l d some months l a t e r , was able wholeheartedly t o endorse, t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g once a g a i n the i d e n t i t y of the CCF program w i t h the s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s of l a b o u r i n the same way as CCF p o l i c i e s have always been i d e n t i c a l with those o f farmers as w e l l as o t h e r groups i n our s o c i e t y . Indeed, s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , the CCF has always appealed t o o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r and to organized a g r i c u l t u r e t o j o i n i n b u i l d i n g a people's p o l i t i c a l movement, s t r o n g and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l s e c t i o n s of the Canadian people. The CLC r e s o l u t i o n i s thus a landmark i n our c o u n t r y ' s h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t s a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o g r e s s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n than ever b e f o r e . T h i s Convention, t h e r e f o r e , a u t h o r i z e s the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l and N a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e to e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the Canadian Labour Congress, the.Canadian and C a t h o l i c C o n f e d e r a t i o n of Labour, i n t e r e s t e d farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o t h e r l i k e - m i n d e d groups and i n d i v i d u a l s l o o k i n g toward the achievement o f the o b j e c t i v e s set out and t o present the r e s u l t s of such d i s c u s s i o n s to the next r e g u l a r or ro a s p e c i a l convention of the CCF f o r a c t i o n . F u r t h e r the Convent i o n a u t h o r i z e s the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l and E x e c u t i v e t o i n i t i a t e and conduct the f u l l e s t d i s c u s s i o n s on t h i s matter w i t h i n the p a r t y , and i n s t r u c t s t h a t any d r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r such proposed broader p o l i t i c a l p a r t y be submitted t o the CCF members, through t h e i r c l u b s and associations;*: f o r study and recommendation, b e f o r e being subm i t t e d t o the Convention and t h a t any o t h e r p r o p o s i t i o n s concerning the above, which are t o be put before such Convention, s h a l l be c i r c u l a t e d t o CCF c l u b s and a s s o c i a t i o n s a t l e a s t two months p r i o r t o the Convention.  171 APPENDIX I POLICY STATEMENT (1965) PREAMBLE The New Democratic Party believes that s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l progress i n Canada can only be assured by the a p p l i c a t i o n of democratic s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s to government and administrat i o n of public a f f a i r s . The New Democratic Party holds a firm b e l i e f that the dignity and freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l must be jealously guarded and maintained. The New Democratic Party i s proud to be associated withtthe democratic s o c i a l i s t parties of the world i n t h e i r struggle f o r peace, international co-operation and the a b o l i t i o n of poverty. THE NEW  DIMENSION IN GOVERNMENT  1. Present prosperity i s no guarantee of future security when the speed and d i v e r s i t y of technological change confound t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of thought. 2. The i n d i v i d u a l i s no longer able to meet the demands such rapid change makes upon him without adequate d i r e c t i o n , r e - t r a i n i n g and adjustment. 3. The test of good government i n t h i s modern era i s the measure of i t s determination to study, investigate and a s s i s t people to f i n d t h e i r r i g h t f u l places i n the new age. Without such leadership many w i l l f i n d themselves a l i e n s i n our modern society. Such leadership demands knowledge and immediate action. 4. A New Democratic Government w i l l establish a special P r o v i n c i a l Bureau on Automation and Technology that w i l l , through i t s research s t a f f , and i n co-operation with a l l other government departments, provide the government and private individuals with information, forecasts and advice i n the area of technological change. 5. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the challenge of automation i s r e a l and, i f ignored, can lead only to s o c i a l d i s l o cation and chaos. 6. It i s the urgent duty of society/governments to boldly face the challenge of t h i s modern i n d u s t r i a l revolution. Our c a p a b i l i t i e s i n the f i e l d of applied science must be used to avoid the s o c i a l waste, the nightmare of mass unemployment, and the fear of tomorrow. "We must restore a dignity to labour and provide through r a t i o n a l planning, a guaranteed income to a l l which w i l l ensure a standard of l i v i n g commensurate with the productive capacity of the province." 7. Applied i n t e l l i g e n c e has brought us to the threshold of an age of undreamed of affluence and technical perfection. I t has also  172 brought us t o t h e b r i n k o f s o c i a l chaos. Whether we advance o r r e t r e a t w i l l be determined by the z e a l w i t h which we pursue t h e new knowledge we need t o c r o s s t h a t t h r e s h o l d . The New Democratic P a r t y pledges progress through l e a d e r s h i p , and l e a d e r s h i p through knowledge. SOCIALIZATION OF PUBLIC UTILITIES A New Democratic government would take immediate steps toward p l a c i n g under p u b l i c ownership, f o r the b e n e f i t and p r o t e c t i o n o f the p u b l i c , a l l remaining p r i v a t e power companies, n a t u r a l gas p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s m i s s i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n systems, o i l p i p e l i n e s , and t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone communication systems. P u b l i c and c o - o p e r a t i v e ownership i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and marketing o f g a s o l i n e and motor l u b r i c a n t s would be e s t a b l i s h e d i n order t o assure t h a t a s c a l e o f j u s t p r i c e s i s p r o v i d e d throughout the p r o v i n c e f o r petroleum p r o d u c t s . INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A New Democratic P a r t y government would immediately e s t a b l i s h an Economic Development C o r p o r a t i o n t o a s s i s t i n the development of primary i n d u s t r y and-to encourage the growth and development o f secondary i n d u s t r y . T h i s Crown c o r p o r a t i o n would, i n harmony w i t h the recommenda t i o n s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Economid P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l , make loans t o , or i n v e s t i n , e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s t o enable them to expand and t o b r i n g new i n d u s t r y t o the p r o v i n c e . I t would sponsor and encourage r e s e a r c h i n the development o f new uses f o r e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and products and i n the d i s c o v e r y o f new products and r e s o u r c e s . I t would be the aim o f a New Democratic P a r t y government t o modify and c o n t r o l the o p e r a t i o n s o f l a r g e corporate o r g a n i z a t i o n s and, where necessary, develop new i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c , j o i n t p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , and c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o balance the market and t o ensure both p r o d u c t i v i t y and q u a l i t y a t t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e l e v e l s c o n s i s t e n t with f a i r p r i c e s . Such developments would be made w i t h i n the framework p r o v i d e d by the Economic P l a n n i n g Board, which would, i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with l a b o u r , b u s i n e s s and consumer groups, s e t g o a l s and o u t l i n e the needs and p r o s p e c t s o f the p r o v i n c i a l economy. We w i l l e s t a b l i s h a banking agency i n B.C. i n which the people of the p r o v i n c e , through t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l government, w i l l h o l d a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s banking agency w i l l p l a y an important r o l e i n development o f our p r o v i n c e . The aims o f the Economic Development C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Economic P l a n n i n g Board w i l l be t o ensure t h a t t h e economy o f t h e p r o v i n c e develops r a p i d l y and f u l l y i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t with t h e best i n t e r e s t s o f the people of the p r o v i n c e . Both the C o r p o r a t i o n and the Board would be based on representation f o r the major economic groups and would be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the e l e c t e d  173 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the people o f 3 r i t i s h Columbia. W i t h r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g and democracy, c o n t i n u i n g p r o s p e r i t y can be ensured. SOCIAL WELFARE AMD  REHABILITATION  The New Democratic £arty r e c o g n i z e s t h a t s o c i e t y must make an adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r p e r s o n s u n a b l e t o care f o r t h e m s e l v e s by r e a s o n o f unemployment, l o s s of t h e b r e a d w i n n e r , p h y s i c a l and o t h e r d i s a b i l i t i e s . A l l must have t h i s as a r i g h t w i t h o u t l o s s o f c i v i l l i b e r t i e s or s e l f - r e s p e c t . At the same t i m e , t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , p e r s o n s a b l e t o do so must have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r means t o t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . To t h i s end, we b e l i e v e t h a t unemployed employable p e r s o n s who are now on w e l f a r e should r e c e i v e out-of-work a l l o w a n c e s when t h e i r Unemployment I n s u r a n c e i s exhausted under the Department o f Trade and I n d u s t r y . T h i s Department would be charged w i t h j o b t r a i n i n g , placement, and w i t h i n i t i a t i o n , s p e c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n , f o r e s t r y and r e s o u r c e development work so t h a t such persons may f i n d s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g employment t o the g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e . There w i l l a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d a Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n under i t s own m i n i s t e r w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h o s e o t h e r t h a n unemployed employables who are unable t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The s t r e s s must be on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , because we b e l i e v e t h a t t h o s e who, but f o r p e r s o n a l d i s a b i l i t i e s would be r e g u l a r l y employed, can, and s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o make a s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y w i t h i n t h e i r means. To t h i s end, t h e r e must be programs of e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s so t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n s may l e a d s a t i s f y i n g and r e w a r d i n g l i v e s . These f a c i l i t i e s should i n c l u d e , w i t h i n a b r o a d e r framework o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g w i t h a t t r a c t i v e l i v i n g accommod a t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l and workshop a r e a s , y o u t h h o s t e l s and camps t o r e p l a c e , i n p a r t , p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , workshop and i n d u s t r i e s where handicapped p e r s o n s may e x e r c i s e t h e i r own s k i l l s and a b i l i ties i n useful projects. The Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s s h o u l d become a b r a n c h o f the Department of W e l f a r e i n o r d e r t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on c r e a t i n g a f l e x i b l e programme t o p r e v e n t d e l i n q u e n c y and c r i m e . The D e p a r t ment's purpose would be t o t r e a t j u v e n i l e and a d u l t o f f e n d e r s on a s p e c i a l treatment-plan b a s i s . There must be an u p g r a d i n g i n the numbers and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the S o c i a l Workers employed, and a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . and  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s would be r e l i e v e d o f a l l s o c i a l w e l f a r e administration.  costs  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l Committee on A u t o m a t i o n and Technology, the Departments of Labour, Trade and I n d u s t r y and E d u c a t i o n , s t u d i e s w i l l be made of the f u t u r e of w e l f a r e and employment i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y automated age.  174 C h i l d Care 60. BE IT RESOLVED t h a t (a) an NDP government would est a b l i s h a C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau under the Department of Welf a r e , which would c o - o r d i n a t e i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the Department of E d u c a t i o n i n order t o develop and s u s t a i n a program of F o s t e r Day-Care Homes, Day-Care Centres, H a l f day (morning and afternoon) N u r s e r i e s , K i n d e r g a r t e n s or P l a y S c h o o l s , with b e f o r e - a n d - a f t e r - s c h o o l programs f o r school age c h i l d r e n , and b a b y - s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s . (b) The C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r superv i s i o n and l i c e n s i n g of c h i l d care agencies or programs f o r school-age c h i l d r e n , and b a b y - s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s . (c) The C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau and the Department of E d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h t e a c h i n g programs to educate c h i l d - c a r e personn e l i n c h i l d psychology, human growth and development, and c h i l d - p a r e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order t o ensure t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l r e c e i v e understanding care and e d u c a t i o n . (d) The c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s be c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas and t h a t the f e e s be w i t h i n a p r i c e which p a r e n t s can a f f o r d . (e) S u f f i c i e n t funds be a v a i l a b l e t o the C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau so t h a t i t may a d m i n i s t e r g r a n t s t o low income f a m i l i e s thus a l l o w i n g the mother t o remain at home i f she wishes. Social  Welfare  57. WHEREAS the cost of l i v i n g has gone up sky-high, those r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e have an e x t r a hard to e x i s t on $6o per month, BE IT RESOLVED t h a t the NDP  and time  support a p o l i c y o f :  (a) R a i s i n g the allowance g i v e n t o those on s o c i a l a s s i s t ance immediately t o an i n t e r i m l e v e l (pending r a i s i n g i t t o a more r e a l i s t i c l e v e l a f t e r f u r t h e r study of the problem) comparable w i t h t h a t given Old Age P e n s i o n e r s . (b) G i v i n g the employable unemployed work at union r a t e s , u n t i l such time as work can be found f o r them i n i n d u s t r y , and r e - t r a i n i n g them; and t h a t such t r a i n e e s be g i v e n , while r e - t r a i n i n g , an allowance comparable to t h a t gitfen an Old Age Pensioner.  175 NDP THESIS GROUP  1.  Age:  QUESTIONNAIRE  20 -  29  4  30  -  39  24  40  - 49  26  50 -  59  (SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK)  30  60 & over 16 2.  Education  Completed:  P u b l i c School  (Grade)  University 3.  Occupational  Status:  V o c a t i o n a l School  a) Occupation b) S e l f employed:  4.  Yes  No  When d i d you become a member of t h e CCF o r NDP?  (year)  b) Were you a member o f any other p a r t y p r i o r t o j o i n i n g t h e NDP o r CCF? c) I f yes, please  Yes  specify  No \  d) What p o s i t i o n do you p r e s e n t l y h o l d i n the p a r t y : MLA Executive  Council  Member Club S e c r e t a r y 5.  a) Do you f e e l t h a t t h e Canadian S o c i e t y i s d e a l i n g adequately problems i t f a c e s :  6.  Yes  100  No  No o p i n i o n  I f "no" what i s necessary: changes t o s o c i e t y  3J.  i i ) Major changes t o e x i s t i n g system  _>  i ) Revolutionary  i i i ) Minor changes t o e x i s t i n g system  l±  with the  176  7.  I f the NDP formed a government i n B.C., what p r i o r i t i e s would you give the following areas? Please use the number 1 to indicate those areas are MOST URGENT; the number 2 f o r URGENT and the number 3 f o r LEAST URGENT. Number a l l items: Child Welfare 1=54 2=28 3=11 0=7  Highways Construction 1=5 others-95  Park Construction 1=»4 others=96  Labor L e g i s l a t i o n l 4 7 g  Juvenile Delinquency 1"45 others 55 Co-operatives  others=53  1=21 others=79  s  Hydro Development 1-13 others 87  I n d u s t r i a l Development 1=50 others=5C  Social Assistance 1*35 others=65  Northern Development 1=15  Adult Corrections 1*26 others-74  Education 1=74 others=26  g  Mental Health Services 1=47  others=85  others=53  In providing welfare services i n B.C. i s the P r o v i n c i a l Government taking  5.  i ) too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i i ) not enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  _t 9  i i i ) s u f f i c i e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y despite some short-comings. 2  iv) No Answer 8.  Social Welfare Services can best be provided primarily through: i ) private agencies  i v ) no answer  i n society  41 4.  i i ) Inadequacies of the i n d i v i d u a l i i i ) Both  i v ) No Answer  2  _  no  4.  no opinion  2  Do you think that a person should be required to work f o r t h i s social assistance benefit i f he i s p h y s i c a l l y able? yes  13.  5J  Do you believe that every i n d i v i d u a l has a basic right to support by the state i f he has not other means of support? yes  12.  _  Are most s o c i a l problems the r e s u l t of: i ) Economic and s o c i a l inadequacies  11.  76  i i ) government agencies  2JS  i i i ) both ID.  1  59  no  _Z  n  0  opinion  4  Do you believe that i f s o c i a l assistance rates were lowered the number of people remaining on S o c i a l Assistance would be reduced? yes  15.  no  no opinion  2  177  14.  Check t h e f o l l o w i n g items you f e e l s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s should be s u f f i c i e n t to allow: a) food  b) c l o t h i n g  c) housing, f u e l , l i g h t , (water  d) r a d i o  e) r e f r i g e r a t o r  f ) t e l e v i s i o n set  h) l i q u o r  i ) camp fees,music  g) o p e r a t i n g  15.  j ) club fees f o r c h i l d r e n  k) club fees f o r adults  l ) p r o p e r t y taxes  m) v a c a t i o n s  8J>  No  10  No o p i n i o n  2  The major cause o f unemployment i s best d e s c r i b e d by: (check 1 item a) l a c k o f d e s i r e o f many unemployed t o work b) l a c k o f jobs  y.  c) l a c k o f s k i l l s  45  d) no o p i n i o n 17.  lessons_  Do you b e l i e v e unemployment w i l l grow l a r g e r w i t h i n c r e a s i n g automation? Yes  16.  car  only)  2  1  I f automation c r e a t e s i n c r e a s i n g unemployment should t h e government: (check the one you f e e l i s most important) i ) r e t a i n people f o r new jobs  7_0  i i ) assume many w i l l be permanently unemployed and supply a guaranteed annual income 25 i i i ) no o p i n i o n  5_  18.  Do you b e l i e v e t h a t unemployment can be s o l v e d by an NDP Government's economic programs: yes 82 no 1& no o p i n i o n  19.  Schools should have a s o c i a l worker on s t a f f : agree  20.  7_6  disagree  12  no o p i n i o n  12  Rate the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s as methods of d e a l i n g with J u v e n i l e D e l i n quency. Use the numbers 1 t o 7. Number 1 s i g n i f i e s the most e f f e c t i v e method, number 7 the l e a s t e f f e c t i v e : i ) f i n e s f o r parents iii)  1&2=19 o t h e r s 8  placement o f d e l i n q u e n t s  i i ) f i n e s f o r .juveniles 1&2-6 others=94 i n t r a i n i n g (reform) schools 1&2=11 others=89 a  178 i v ) placement o f delinquents i n f o s t e r homes  1&2=5  others 95 g  v) p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e s 1&2-29 others=71 vi) psychiatric  services  1&2=50  v i i ) counselling to families  others=50  1&2=71  others=29  21. Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g items do you c o n s i d e r t o be causes o f p a r e n t s n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . (Check one column only f o r each i t e m ) : Major Cause  Cause  Minor Cause  a) p a r e n t a l i n d i f f e r e n c e  53  47  b) parents moral l a x i t y  33  77  c)  3°  70  d) unemployment  25  75  e) emotional  43  57  31  69  poverty  disturbance  f ) mental i l l n e s s g) p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s 22. Should more c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s be handled r a t h e r than J a i l s : Yes  _2  93  7  no  i n the community on p r o b a t i o n  6  12  no o p i n i o n  23. Do you b e l i e v e t h a t the p a r o l e and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s should be administered by: i ) the department o f S o c i a l Welfare  68  i i ) the department o f the A t t o r n e y General iii)  18  doesn't matter  3  i v ) no o p i n i o n 24. Should  11  j a i l s be c o n s t r i c t e d :  i ) w i t h i n the community ii) iii)  37  o u t s i d e communities  2°.  no o p i n i o n  2_  (no response = 5) 25.  Should  the B.C. department o f S o c i a l Welfare  f o r Indian A f f a i r s ?  Yes  84  no  8  take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y no o p i n i o n  8  179 16.  Should s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g f a m i l i e s on marginal incomes be given a s s i s t a n c e by the government f o r such t h i n g s as school books, p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ? Yes  27.  i2  no  Should t r i a l s concerning i ) open court  2U  no o p i n i o n  68  i i ) c l o s e d court  Yes  5  J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s be h e l d i n :  28. Should a J u v e n i l e delinquent circumstances?  12  i i i ) no o p i n i o n  8  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a d u l t court under any  28  no  55  no o p i n i o n  17  '  29. Do you t h i n k t h e p r o v i n c i a l government should p r o v i d e funds f o r i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c housing?  Yes  89  no  5  no o p i n i o n _6  30. Rate i n order of importance, u s i n g the numbers 1 t o 6. l l b e i n g t h e most important area dnd 6 the l e a s t important: c h i l d welfare  1&2-67  others=33  Homes f o r E l d e r l y and G e r i a t r i c Centres Juvenile delinquents Public assistance Indians  1&2=34  1&2=31  1&2=18  1&2=49  others=51  others=69  others=82  a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s 1&2=15  others-85  others=66  31. T h i s space i s provided f o r : f u r t h e r comments on t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y o f t h e NDP, any comments r e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p e r t i n e n t comments on s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s :  180 APPENDIX K I n t e r v i e w Schedule 1.  f o rProvincial  Leader,  R.M.  Strachan  The proceedings o f the 1963 Convention o f your p a r t y i n c l u d e s i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n s t h i s statement o f p r i n c i p l e s : "The New Democratic P a r t y i s pledged t o b r i n g about i n Canada a s o c i e t y i n which the m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l needs o f humanity w i l l be f u l f i l l e d , i n order t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a b l e t o l i v e a s a t i s f y i n g and meaningful l i f e . " Would you e l a b o r a t e on t h i s ?  2.  a) What i s your d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l  welfare?  b) How does t h i s compare with the NDP s o c i a l w e l f a r e policy? c) What a r e t h e g e n e r a l g o a l s s o c i a l w e l f a r e accomplish?  should  d) What p r i o r i t y does your p a r t y a t t a c h t o s o c i a l w e l f a r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o other goals? e) Do you f a v o r a Welfare  State?  f ) I s t h e r e a d i s t i n c t i o n between a S o c i a l i s t S t a t e and a Welfare State? 3.  What areas o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e do you c o n s i d e r most  urgent?  What changes do you a n t i c i p a t e i f t h e NDP formed a government? ( I f Mr. Strachan wants t o comment i n d e t a i l on some p a r t i c u l a r area the q u e s t i o n s t h a t were d i r e c t e d t o Mr. B a r r e t t on t h a t area should be asked) 4.  What changes would your p o l i c y areas:  e n t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g  (a  c h i l d welfare  (b  s e r v i c e s t o the aged  (c  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and c a t e g o r i c a l programs  (d  juvenile  (e  adult corrections  (f  mental h e a l t h  (g  housing,  delinquency  slum c l e a r a n c e  131  (h)  automation  (i)  m i n o r i t y groups  (j)  other  5.  Would the f a c t t h a t Canada i s a F e d e r a l s t a t e l i m i t i n any way the implementation of your p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l w e l f a r e program?  6.  How does the f a c t you are i n the O p p o s i t i o n a f f e c t s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a t f o r m today?  7.  How  8.  Do you see any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes as f a r as s o c i a l w e l f a r e i s concerned i f the NDP formed a government?  9.  Have you a spokesman on s o c i a l w e l f a r e  your  would you f i n a n c e t h i s program?  policy?  What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of the spokesman i n terms of s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y compared to o t h e r P a r t y members? 10.  How do you f e e l personnel changes over the years your s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y ?  affect  182 B.  I n t e r v i e w Schedule f o r E.P. O'Neal, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour, a l s o member o f the Provi n c i a l E x e c u t i v e o f the NDP. 1.  What are the primary i s s u e s f a c i n g Labour?  2.  Do you view the NDP as a p o l i t i c a l v o i c e f o r the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour?  3.  Do you f a v o r a s o c i a l i s t  4.  How do you d e f i n e  5.  Do you f a v o r a Welfare  6.  How do you d e f i n e Welfare  7.  Do you make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a Welfare State and a S o c i a l i s t State?  8.  What i s your p o s i t i o n on the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y ?  9.  I f answer i s "yes — be compensated?  10.  Do you support any l e g i s l a t i v e changes? (automation, guaranteed annual income, r e t r a i n i n g , l a b o r l e g i s l a t i o n )  11.  Do you b e l i e v e t h a t f i n a n c i a l and economic measures would solve the i l l s o f s o c i e t y ?  12.  In terms o f t r a d i t i o n a l welfare s e r v i c e s such as c h i l d w e l f a r e , adoption, e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s , p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , mental h e a l t h — do these areas concern the Labour movement?  13.  What p r i o r i t y o r importance do they have i n Labour's  14.  What do you b e l i e v e t o be the purpose o f w e l f a r e  15.  Do you agree with Robert Theobald t h a t unemployment due t o automation w i l l e v e n t u a l l y reach major p r o p o r t i o n s and t h a t a guaranteed annual income w i l l have t o be i n s t i t u t e d ?  16.  Should the government supplement wages under any circumstances?  17-  Would t h i s be considered  18.  Are s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s high enough?  19.  Should s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s have t o work f o r t h e i r assistance?  20.  In the f i e l d o f a d u l t o f f e n d e r o f the law do you have any o p i n i o n s i n regard t o h a n d l i n g o f f e n d e r s ?  state?  socialism? State? State?  n a t i o n a l i z e " ask:  Should these f i r m s  goals?  services?  subsidizing industry?  183  21.  Do you have any concerns with c h i l d w e l f a r e  22.  Do you b e l i e v e s o c i e t y needs more s o c i a l workers?  23.  Should welfare s e r v i c e s be provided by p r i v a t e agencies such as the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and t h e John Howard S o c i e t y o r by a government agency?  24.  Do you h o l d a p o s i t i o n i n t h e NDP?  25.  Are t h e r e channels o f communication between t h e B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour and the NDP?  26.  Does t h e B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of Labour c o n t r i b u t e to the NDP?  services?  financially  184 C.  I n t e r v i e w Schedule I.  f o r the Welfare  Philosophy and General A.  Spokesman, David B a r r e t t  Policy  The Proceedings of the 1963 Convention of your P a r t y i n c l u d e s i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n s a statement o f p r i n c i p l e s : "The New Democratic P a r t y i s pledged t o b r i n g about i n Canada a s o c i e t y i n which the m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l needs of humanity w i l l be f u l f i l l e d , i n order t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a b l e to l i v e a s a t i s f y i n g and meaningful l i f e . " Would you e l a b o r a t e on t h i s ?  II.  B.  What i s your d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l  welfare?  C.  How does t h i s compare w i t h the NDP policy?  social  D.  What p r i o r i t y does your p a r t y a t t a c h t o s o c i a l w e l f a r e w i t h r e s p e c t to o t h e r goals?  E.  Do you f a v o r the Welfare S t a t e ? of the Welfare State?  F.  I s t h e r e a d i s t i n c t i o n between a S o c i a l i s t S t a t e and Welfare State?  welfare  What i s your d e f i n i t i o n a  Program Ask t h i s q u e s t i o n f o r each of the areas of s e r v i c e t h a t follow: Are t h e r e any shortcomings i n (area of s e r v i c e as below) and i f so what changes does the NDP propose? I f i n h i s answer the Welfare Spokesman does not d e a l w i t h the s p e c i f i c p o i n t s as. l i s t e d under the area of s e r v i c e , ask s p e c i f i c questions. A.  P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n 1. Purpose of p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . 2. Opinion o f proposed changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n by the Government. 3. Shortage of f o s t e r homes, p r o p o s a l s . 4. Standards of f o s t e r homes. 5. A d v e r t i s i n g and r e c r u i t i n g f o r f o s t e r homes. 6. E v a l u a t i o n of the J o i n t E f f o r t f o r F o s t e r i n g . 7 . New types o f s e r v i c e s — group homes, i n s t i t u t i o n s , preventative services. 8. F i n a n c i a l compensation f o r c a r i n g f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  185 B.  Adoption and S e r v i c e s t o Unmarried Parents 1. 2. 3. 4.  C.  P r o p o s a l s f o r overcoming shortage o f adoption homes, e s p e c i a l l y f o r Indian, teen-age, handicapped and Catholic children. View p o i n t on b i r t h c o n t r o l , a b o r t i o n , f a m i l y p l a n n i n g . What r o l e should r e l i g i o n have i n adoption? Should the Government assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e g a l c o s t s i n adoption?  Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s 1. K i n d e r g a r t e n s . Public or private r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? 2. Day-care. P u b l i c o r p r i v a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? 3. Nursing homes and g e r i a t r i c c e n t e r s . P u b l i c o r priva-te? 4. Use o f boarding home as s u b s t i t u t e t o i n s t i t u t i o n s .  D.  Maintenance o f Wives and C h i l d r e n 1.  E.  7. 8;  H.  Is s o c i a l assistance a basic right? Work f o r r e l i e f . Supplementing wages. Needs v e r s u s means t e s t s . Use o f vouchers W i l l an i n c r e a s e i n S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e r a t e s r e s u l t i n a decrease i n i n i t i a t i v e ? Exemptions — a r e they s a t i s f a c t o r y , o r t o o low? Would you e x p l a i n ho.w you would use s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as a "therapeutic t o o l ? "  C a t e g o r i c a l Allowances 1.  G.  deserting  S o c i a l Assistance 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  F.  How f a r should the Government go i n p r o s e c u t i n g spouses?  Should they be i n c o r p o r a t e d under one program?  T r a i n i n g Schools 1.  Future o f W i l l i n g d o n School School.  2.  New i n s t i t u t i o n s —  Juvenile 1. 2. 3. 4.  type,  and Brannan Lake I n d u s t r i a l  size, clientele,  staff.  Delinquents  Expansion o f p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Should c o u r t s be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e c i f y i n g treatment plans? I f not, who should? Would t h i s i n c l u d e a c l i n i c a l assessment? Whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t h i s ? Would r a i s i n g o r lowering the school l e a v i n g age have any e f f e c t ? Should court cases be h e l d i n camera?  186  I.  J.  K.  L.  5.  Should  j u v e n i l e s ever be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a d u l t court?  6.  What should the j u v e n i l e age  7.  What q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should judges and m a g i s t r a t e s of Family Courts have?  limits  be?  Adult Corrections 1.  Should c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s be i n s i d e or o u t s i d e the community?  2.  Should separate i n s t i t u t i o n s be b u i l t f o r d i f f e r e n t categories of offences?  3.  What k i n d of t r a i n i n g should i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f have?  4.  Types o f i n s t i t u t i o n s — half-way houses, open and semi-open i n s t i t u t i o n s , day and week-end p a r o l e , work and f o r e s t r y camps, b o r s t a l s and c o t t a g e s .  5.  Future of present  6.  Role o f p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e .  7.  Habitual criminal  8.  Role of community.  9.  How  Mental  institutions.  proceedings.  w i l l you get p u b l i c  support?  Health  1.  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n community or o u t s i d e .  2.  E x t e n s i o n of s e r v i c e s — o u t - p a t i e n t s e r v i c e s , homes, group homes, c l i n i c s .  3.  Should p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s be covered by a medical care plan?  boarding  Housing 1.  Slum c l e a r a n c e .  2.  W i l l home owner g r a n t s be r e t a i n e d ?  3.  Low-cost  housing.  Automation 1.  Are s h o r t e r work hours, r e - e d u c a t i o n and adequate s o l u t i o n s ?  2.  Can we  3.  Do you agree or d i s a g r e e w i t h Robert Theobald's and h i s recommendations?  re-educate people to use l e i s u r e  retraining time? theory  187  M.  Rehabilitation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  N.  Mental D e f e c t i v e s 1. 2. 3.  0.  P.  Q.  1.  At one o f the Annual Meetings, a r e s o l u t i o n was made t h a t t h e I n d i a n A c t should be a b o l i s h e d •— what i s your opinion? Why? I n d i a n s ' views?  2.  What should the government r o l e be with regards t o the Sons o f Freedom?  3.  What would be the f u n c t i o n o f a p r o v i n c i a l Department o f Indian A f f a i r s . ( I f proposed by respondent)  Addictions 1.  Should any change i n the law be made towards a d d i c t s ? M e d i c a l o r l e g a l problem?  2.  Would an NDP government sponsor any s p e c i a l i z e d institutions?  S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n Expansion o f number o f s c h o o l s . L i c e n s i n g s o c i a l workers.  Legal A i d 1.  S.  Future o f Woodland's S c h o o l . Use o f boarding homes. What r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would the government take f o r t h e education of retarded i n d i v i d u a l s ?  M i n o r i t y Groups  1. 2. R.  S h e l t e r e d workshops Are s e r v i c e s over-lapping? Physical restoration centers. Should present r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s be expanded t o include Social rehabilitation? How would an NDP government make use o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Development Act?  What s i g n i f i c a n c e does l e g a l a i d have t o you as your P a r t y ' s Welfare Spokesman?  Admini s t r a t i o n Instead o f i n t r o d u c t o r y q u e s t i o n ask: " I t i s understood t h a t your p a r t y advocates r e v i s i o n o f the S o c i a l Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Department. Would you p l e a s e o u t l i n e t h e proposed changes?"  188  1.  Structure  o f Department:  a) c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . b) S o c i a l s e r v i c e c e n t e r s — number and o r g a n i z a t i o n . c) Should c o r r e c t i o n s s e r v i c e s be under the Department of S o c i a l Welfare i n s t e a d o f the Department o f the Attorney-General? 2.  Standards f o r s t a f f and s e r v i c e s : a) b) c) d)  III.  case-load size public welfare administrators in-service training type of caseload  3.  Role o f p r i v a t e  Agencies.  4.  What s o r t o f c h a l l e n g e d i d you have i n mind f o r the School o f S o c i a l Work?  General Questions A.  How would a NDP government f i n a n c e  a l l these programs?  B.  What p r i o r i t i e s do you see w i t h i n  E.  What d i f f i c u l t i e s do you a n t i c i p a t e i n p u t t i n g these programs i n t o e f f e c t should the NDP form a government?  •F.  Does t h e f a c t t h a t Canada i s a F e d e r a l s t a t e l i m i t t h e implementation of a P r o v i n c i a l NDP s o c i a l w e l f a r e program i n any way?  your program?  189 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bruce, Maurice. The Coming of the Welfare S t a t e , B a t s f o r d , London, 1 9 6 l . C o r r y , J.A. and Hodgetts, J.E. Democratic Government and U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , Toronto, 1958.  Politics,  Dixon, W i l f r e d and Massey, Frank. Introduction to S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s , MacGraw-Hill, New York, 1951. Duwerger, Maurice. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : T h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n s and A c t i v i t y i n the Modern S t a t e , Methuen and Co., London, 1954. E b e n s t e i n , W i l l i a m . Today's Isms, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1958. Hagood, Margaret. York, 1947. Hobman, D.L.  S t a t i s t i c s f o r S o c i o l o g i s t s , Henry H o l t ,  The Welfare S t a t e . John Murray,  Knowles, S t a n l e y .  The New  New  London, 1953.  P a r t y . M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1961.  L i p s e t , Seymour M. A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m : The CCF i n Saskatchewan. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y and Los Angeles,  1950.  Marx, Herbert L., e d i t o r , The Welfare S t a t e . W i l s o n , New  York,  1950.  Marx, K a r l and E n g e l s , F r e d e r i c k , The Communist M a n i f e s t o . London,  1848.  Research Committee o f the League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g f o r Canada, Thomas Nelson and Sons, Toronto, 1935. Steeves, Dorothy G. The Compassionate Rebel, c o p y r i g h t I 9 6 0 , Boag Foundation, Vancouver, B.C., Evergreen P r e s s , Vancouver, B.C. Thomas, Norman,  S o c i a l i s m Re-examined. McLeod, Toronto, 1963.  Titmuss, R i c h a r d M.  1958.  Essays on 'The Welfare S t a t e ' . Unwin, London,  Wilensky, H a r o l d L. and Lebeaux, C h a r l e s N. Industrial Society and S o c i a l W e l f a r e . R u s s e l Sage, New York, 1958. CCF PUBLICATIONS Bryden, Ken. What i s the CCF?. p u b l i s h e d by the CCF O f f i c e , Ottawa, O n t a r i o , no date. CCF and NDP  Convention Minutes.  1953 - 1965.  National  190 NDP C o n s t i t u t i o n .  1965.  The  Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n (Farmer, Labour, S o c i a l i s t ) . P r o v i s i o n a l Program o f the F e d e r a t i o n adopted by C a l g a r y Conference, 1932.  CCF  (B.C.) 1933 P r o v i n c i a l P l a t f o r m . P u b l i s h e d by the P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e o f CCF (B.C.) i n The Commonwealth, v o l 1, no. 21, October 4, 1933, pp. 1 - 2.  CCF  (B.C.) 1937 P r o v i n c i a l Program. P u b l i s h e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e , Vancouver, B.C., 1937.  CCF  Program f o r B.C., 1945. P u b l i s h e d by the CCF (B.C. - Yukon S e c t i o n ) , Vancouver, B.C., 1945.  Hamilton,.John W. F i g u r e i t Out f o r Y o u r s e l f Gladstone Responsible E n t e r p r i s e , Toronto, O n t a r i o , no date. T  Murray  Humanity F i r s t , CCF N a t i o n a l O f f i c e , Ottawa, O n t a r i o , no date. Meet the CCF.  CCF - B.C. S e c t i o n , Vancouver, B.C. no date.  M a c l n n i s , Grace. Album Souvenir du 25e A n n i v e r s a i r e de l a CCF, N a t i o n a l CCF, Ottawa, O n t a r i o , 1957. Regina M a n i f e s t o : Programme o f t h e CCF. Adopted a t F i r s t N a t i o n a l Convention h e l d a t Regina, Sask., J u l y 19 - 21, p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l CCF, Ottawa, O n t a r i o , 1933. Steeves, Dorothy G. B u i l d e r s and Rebels, Committee f o r t h e NDP, 1964. T h e y ' l l Ask You....  1948.  Towards the Dawn.  4TT  1933,  p u b l i s h e d by t h e B.C.  CCF N a t i o n a l O f f i c e , Ottawa, O n t a r i o , May, N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f the CCF, Ottawa, O n t a r i o ,  Understanding t h e CCF. CCF (B.C. - Yukon S e c t i o n ) , 1953. l e t s i s s u e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Committee: 1. Grace M a c l n n i s , "How the CCF Began." 2. Mrs. J e s s i e Mendels, "The CCF Today." 3. Dr. J.M. Thomas, "The Regina M a n i f e s t o . " 4. A l e x Macdonald, " S o c i a l i s m . " 5. Frank Snowsell, " S o c i a l i s m and Democracy." 6. Frank McKenzie, "Know the CCF Program."  6 book-  What i s I t ; Who i s I t ; What w i l l I t do? p u b l i s h e d by the CCF (Sask. S e c t i o n ) , 1945. 1956  Winnipeg D e c l a r a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ( P a r t i S o c i a l Democratigue d~Canada)  191 UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS C l a r k , Douglas P. Some A s p e c t s o f t h e Development o f t h e CCF i n B r i t i s h Columbia, essay s u b m i t t e d f o r undergraduate c r e d i t i n t h e Department o f H i s t o r y , U.B.C, O c t o b e r , 1945. Engelmann, F r e d e r i c k C. The CCF o f Canada: A Study o f Membership P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P a r t y P o l i c y - M a k i n g , t h e s i s submitted f o r the Degree o f D o c t o r o f P h i l o s o p h y , t o t h e F a c u l t y o f Graduate S t u d i e s o f Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1954. Grantham, R o n a l d . Some A s p e c t s o f t h e S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1898 - 1933, a t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e M a s t e r o r A r t s degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1942. Hougham, George M. M i n o r P a r t i e s i n Canadian N a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s 1867 - 1940, t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1954S a n f o r d , Thomas M i c h a e l . The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e Degree o f D o c t o r o f P h i l osophy i n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1961. ARTICLES Fox, P a u l . " O r i g i n s o f t h e CCF and NDP", P o l i t i c s : Canada. ed. P a u l Fox, M c G r a w - H i l l Co. o f Canada L t d . , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 1962, pp. 297 - 302. Fox, P a u l . " P o l i t i c s and P a r t i e s i n Canada," P o l i t i c s : Canada, ed. P a u l Fox, M c G r a w - H i l l Co. o f Canada L t d . , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 1962, pp. 281 - 286. L e w i s , D a v i d . "A S o c i a l i s t Takes S t o c k , " P o l i t i c s : Canada, ed. P a u l Fox, M c G r a w - H i l l Co. o f Canada L t d . , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 1962, pp. 293 - 297. Young, W a l t e r D. "The New Democratic P a r t y : B r i t i s h Columbia's Labour P a r t y , " Papers on t h e 1962 E l e c t i o n , ed. John M e i s e l , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1964, pp. 181 - 200. NEWSPAPER ITEMS "CCF 1932 - 1937". Comment, 25th A n n i v e r s a r y E d i t i o n , p u b l i s h e d by t h e CCF N a t i o n a l O f f i c e , Ottawa, O n t a r i o , v o l . 1, no. 4. "CCF", Vancouver  Sun, 19 August, I960, p. 3.  "CCF C o n s t i t u t i o n (B.C. S e c t i o n ) , p u b l i s h e d by t h e B.C. CCF i n The Commonwealth. J u l y 29, 1933-  192 M a c l n n i s , Grace. "Area Conferences an O u t s t a n d i n g Success," CCF News, v o l . 23, no. 1, 28 January, 1959, p. 5. M a c l n n i s , Grace. "CCF - CLC Winnipeg Seminar a Success," CCF News, f o r B.C. and the Yukon, v o l . 32, no. 9, 23 Sept., 1959, p. 5. "Organized Labour t o Support CCF i n B.C." no. 8, 5 J u l y , 1953, p. 1.  The Commonwealth, v o l . 1,  " P l a t f o r m o f the S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada". No. 854, 1 November, 1921, p. 8. "Reform f o r Farmers." p. 5.  Western  Western C l a r i o n . No. 886,  Clarion.  1 March,  1923,  " S o v i e t R u s s i a from the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada V i e w p o i n t . " Western C l a r i o n . No. 830, 1 December, 1922, p. 6. "The S t o r y of the C.C.F.," 23 June, 1933, PP. 1 -  The Commonwealth, v o l . 1, 2.  no.  7,  OTHERS A New  P a r t y f o r Canada. - Study Paper on C o n s t i t u t i o n , p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l Committee o f the New P a r t y , Ottawa, January,  I960.  A New  P a r t y f o r Canada. - Study Paper on Programme, p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l Committee of the New P a r t y , Ottawa, January,  I960.  A New  P o l i t i c a l P a r t y f o r Canada. P u b l i s h e d by C.L.C. - C C F . J o i n t N a t i o n a l Committee, Ottawa, November, 1953. ( b o o k l e t )  Annual Memorandum i n Support o f Proposed L e g i s l a t i o n . t o the P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet by the B r i t i s h Columbia o f Labour, January 5, 1961. CCF.  - C.L.C J o i n t Meeting i n Winnipeg, Manitoba, d i s t r i b u t e d at the meeting, August, 1959.  Submitted Federation  papers  Economic Development. P r e s s r e l e a s e of R.M. Strachan's speech i n the Throne Speech Debate, V i c t o r i a , B.C., February, 1966. Memorandum i n Support o f Proposed L e g i s l a t i o n . Submitted t o the P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet by the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour, January 6, 1966. H i s t o r y of the C C F . Boag Foundation paper, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The Welfare S t a t e .  P u b l i s h e d by the Labour P a r t y , London.  193 U n d e r h i l l , F.H. Canadian P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , p u b l i s h e d by t h e Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l Booklet No. 8, Ottawa, 1957. Winch, Harold E . The P o l i t i c s o f a D e r e l i c t , p u b l i s h e d by t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada; Foundation Member o f t h e CCF, Vancouver, B.C., 1934 (maiden speech of H a r o l d Winch). INTERVIEWS David B a r r e t t , Welfare Spokesman o f the NDP - January,  1966.  R.M. Strachan, P r o v i n c i a l Leader o f t h e NDP - February 16, 1966. E.P.  O'Neal, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f t h e B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour, and member of the P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e o f t h e NDP o f B.C., March 3 1 , 1966.  E r n e s t H a l l , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e NDP o f B.C., March 2 3 , 1966.  

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