Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Review of the administration of justice for the adult offender in the Greater Vancouver area Hawkes, Randi 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A5 H3.pdf [ 4.91MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104813.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104813-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104813-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104813-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104813-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104813-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104813-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104813-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104813.ris

Full Text

A REVIEW OF THE ADM INISTRATION OF JUSTICE FOR THE ADULT OFFENDER IN THE GREATER VANCOUVER AREA The P o l i c e by RANDI HAWKES T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e d e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1966 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. i i A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o e x p l o r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c e f o r c e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e g e n e r a l c o m m u n i t y . A t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e s y s t e m s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. A p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s i s p l a c e d on some a s p e c t s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e F o r c e . The main body of t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d was g a i n e d f r o m e x t e n s i v e u s e o f l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s . Some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t and an i n t e r v i e w w i t h V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e p e r s o n n e l . The s t u d y r e v i e w s t h e l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f p o l i c e p o wer, and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p o l i c e a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n i n t o t h e modern c o m m u n i t y . A t t e n t i o n , a l s o , i s g i v e n t o p o l i c e p e r s o n n e l and t r a i n i n g . F i n a l l y , some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s and t h e c o n c e p t t h a t p o l i c e work s h o u l d be p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d . I n t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d e q u a c y o r i n a d e q u a c y i n a t l e a s t e a r l y p o l i c e f o r c e s was o f t e n d e p e n d e n t upon t h e whim o r a t t i t u d e o f one i n d i v i d u a l . T h e r e seems l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t a modern p o l i c e f o r c e s h o u l d be more t h a n a p r o d u c t o f a h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n . The r o l e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f a modern f o r c e s h o u l d be b a s e d on c o n t i n u i n g e v a l u a t i o n and s t u d y . A p p l i c a t i o n s h o u l d be made o f t h e b e s t t h i n k i n g and k n o w l e d g e a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g , and s o c i a l c o m p l e x i t i e s w h i c h e f f e c t a p o l i c e f o r c e b e c a u s e i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . The w r i t e r hopes t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n -t r i b u t e t o a g e n e r a l r e v i e w o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , and a s s i s t i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f human e n d e a v o u r . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I . The H i s t o r y of P o l i c e Systems Page I n t r o d u c t i o n . Great B r i t a i n . U n i t e d S t a t e s . Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver 1 Chapter I I . L e g a l J u r i s d i c t i o n of P o l i c e Power and  A u t h o r i t y i n the (Ylodern Community I n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s v e r s u s community s e c u r i t y . R ole of p o l i c e : P o l i c e A u t h o r i t y - P o l i c e Power i n the Law of A r r e s t . L e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r power. Ro l e of t h e p r i v a t e c i t i z e n : A u t h o r i t y and power i n the Law of A r r e s t . R i g h t s of the I n d i v i d u a l 26 Chapter 1 1 1 . I n t e g r a t i o n of P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n t o the [Ylodern Community The p o l i c e and p u b l i c s u p p o r t . P o l i c e r o l e i n t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . The p o l i c e r o l e w i t h y o uth. The p o l i c e r o l e i n r e c r e a t i o n 42 Chapter IV. P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and P e r s o n n e l The p o l i c e c h i e f and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Vancouver Board of P o l i c e Commissioners. R e c r u i t m e n t and s e l e c -t i o n . The s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . T r a i n i n g . D i s c i p l i n e . The s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r the Vancouver P o l i c e F orce 60 Chapter V. Summary and some General C o n c l u s i o n s P u b l i c awareness. P o l i c e work - a p r o f e s s i o n 86 F o o t n o t e s 92 A ppendices: A. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Vancouver p o l i c e f o r c e a p p l i c a n t s (Male) 93 B. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Vancouver p o l i c e f o r c e a p p l i c a n t s (Female) 94 C. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Vancouver p o l i c e r e s e r v e f o r c e a p p l i c a n t s 97 D. B i b l i o g r a p h y 98 C h a p t e r I . THE HISTORY DF POLICE SYSTEMS I n t r o d u c t i o n : "From i n f a n c y t o i n t e r m e n t t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by l a w e n f o r c e m e n t . As c h i l d , a d u l t and s e n i o r c i t i z e n , l i f e and p r o p e r t y o f t e n depend upon t h e a b l e o p e r a t i o n o f p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s ; p e a c e f u l e x i s t e n c e depends upon t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f o r d e r ; and t h e c o n -t i n u i t y o f g o v e r n m e n t d e p e n d s upon a c o n s i s t e n t and e q u i t a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e common good."'' T h i s s t a t e m e n t l e a v e s no d o u b t t h a t man must d e a l w i t h c o n t r o l s i f o n l y b e c a u s e he i s a g r e g a r i o u s a n i m a l . How, t h e n , has man i n s o c i e t y c o p e d w i t h t h e m a t t e r o f c o n t r o l s and what d e v i c e s have been e v o l v e d t o s t r u c t u r e t h e s e c o n t r o l s ? The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o s e e k an a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n t h r o u g h t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l on t h i s s u b j e c t t o be f o u n d i n l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s . The e v o l u t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n i n s o c i e t y and t h e e f f e c t o f p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c f o r c e s may be s e e n i n r e -v i e w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and g r o w t h o f t h e p o l i c e s y s t e m s of G r e a t B r i t a i n , U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s e v o l u t i o n w i l l g i v e some p e r s p e c t i v e t o a f u r t h e r c o n -s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i c e f o r c e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e g e n e r a l c o m m u n i t y . An e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l be made of t h e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n p o l i c e power and i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m , and t h e p r e p a r a -t i o n o f p o l i c e f o r c e s f o r t h e i r t a s k s . 2 Great B r i t a i n The o r i g i n of the B r i t i s h P o l i c e l i e s f a r back i n e a r l y t r i b a l h i s t o r y . The b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n of the i n s t i t u -t i o n can be t r a c e d t o customs i n use among the Germanic t r i b e s of c e n t r a l Europe at t h e time of the Roman Empire and the s e were p r o b a b l y adopted from t r i b a l customs i n A s i a which p r e -date the dawn of h i s t o r y . They embodied the i d e a of s e c u r i n g order i n the t r i b a l community by making the people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g the laws, through the medium of f a m i l y and group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , who were a p p o i n t e d by them, and r e p r e s e n t e d them i n the eyes o f the c h i e f and o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s . Together w i t h t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , the people were the p o l i c e , and no other k i n d was n e c e s s a r y . The p h i l o s o p h y of e a r l y j u s t i c e and punishment was p r i m a r i l y r e t a l i a t o r y and o f t e n crude. B r a n d i n g or m u t i l a -t i o n o f o f f e n d e r s was not uncommon. I t was d u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y days of j u s t i c e t h a t the " b l o o d f u e d " developed, which bound the v i c t i m ' s f a m i l y , c l a n or t r i b e to vengeance, and l e d to pr o l o n g e d and bloody w a r f a r e . G r a d u a l l y the payment of com-p e n s a t i o n came to be the p r e f e r r e d and e s t a b l i s h e d method f o r s e t t l i n g i n j u r i e s and t h e use of s e l f - h e l p was f o r b i d d e n . S o c i e t y developed o t h e r ways than the fued f o r h a n d l i n g i n j u r i e s , and s p e c i a l o f f i c i a l s emerged to s e t t l e d i s p u t e s and e n f o r c e the peace of t h e community. In England the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the t r i b a l system between 600 and 1200 A.D. l e f t the peopl e w i t h o u t s t r o n g 3 k i n s h i p u n i t s t o e n f o r c e l a w a n d o r d e r . As a r e s u l t o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e g r o u p i n g s were made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p e a c e o f th e c o m m u n i t y . A t i t h i n g was an a r t i f i c i a l g r o u p i n g o f t e n men w h i c h was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f i t s members. I t a c t e d as a s u r e t y f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e t i t h -i n g , and i n c a s e an i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e t h e t i t h i n g p a i d h i s f i n e o r c o m p e n s a t i o n . A l f r e d t h e G r e a t who made one n a t i o n o f E n g l a n d i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , f o u n d t h e s y s t e m o f g r e a t b e n e f i t i n u n i f y i n g t h e n a t i o n . L a t e r W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e r o r r e f i n e d t h e s y s t e m t o a g r e a t d e g r e e . The s y s t e m , h o w e v e r , had s e r i o u s f l a w s . I t was ap-p l i c a b l e t o eme r g e n c y s i t u a t i o n s , a n d w o r k e d w e l l i n an a g r a -r i a n community where p e o p l e were c o n t e n t t o l i v e i n one p l a c e . When u r b a n s o c i e t y began t o d e v e l o p , and p e o p l e began t o move a b o u t , t h e t i t h i n g s y s t e m was d i f f i c u l t t o keep i n t a c t . I t a l s o h a d a v e r y s e r i o u s d e f e c t i n t h a t i t t e n d e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c o n c e a l m e n t o f c r i m e a n d p e r j u r y i n o r d e r t h a t i n d i v i d u a l members o f a t i t h i n g , or t h e t i t h i n g i t s e l f , m i g h t n o t have t o make r e s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e a c t s o f a t i t h i n g member. Ten t i t h i n g s were c a l l e d a H u n d r e d . The S t a t u t e o f W e s t m i n s t e r o f 1285 s t a t e d t h a t t h e h u n d r e d h a d t o r a i s e t h e hue and c r y and p u r s u e any l a w b r e a k e r s w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s . I f t h e h u n d r e d f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e t h e c r i m i n a l w i t h i n f o r t y d a y s i t had t o pay a f i n e t o t h e v i c t i m of, t h e c r i m e . I n 4 t h i s way k i n g s attempted to make l o c a l u n i t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any crimes committed w i t h i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . P o l i c e p r o t e c -t i o n was r e g a r d e d as a l o c a l and a p r i v a t e m a t t e r . Between 1200 and 1800 a c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e system under the domination of the Crown emerged i n England. The Ki n g p l a c e d i n t h e c o u n t r i e s s e v e r a l o f f i c i a l s who extended the j u d i c i a l power of the King at t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The s h i r e ' s r e eve or Kin g ' s reeve was common i n the e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s . The reeve was a member of the l o c a l landed g e n t r y . The s h i r e ' s r eeve or s h e r i f f watched over the Kin g ' s f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the county and performed v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s f o r the King's c o u r t . He r e c e i v e d w r i t s , summoned j u r i e s , executed j u d i c i a l judgments, and was the p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r a t the county c o u r t . From 1285 to 1829 each p a r i s h had a c o n s t a b l e who a c t e d as a p o l i c e o f f i c i a l . By Edward I's time each hundred was under the command of a c o n s t a b l e . He was i n charge of a county m i l i t i a . With the a i d of the armed c i t i z e n r y he pursued law v i o l a t o r s , c o l l e c t e d t a x e s and s u p e r v i s e d highways. The coroner was o r i g i n a l l y the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Crown i n t h e county to see t h a t the s h e r i f f was l i v i n g up to h i s f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s to the K i n g . The co r o n e r i n time came to be i n t e r e s t e d i n u n l a w f u l deaths s i n c e the Ki n g might have a f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the c a s e . J u s t i c e s of the peace, who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the King's peace i n the c o u n t i e s , emerged 5 d u r i n g t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y . These j u s t i c e s t o o k o v e r many o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c o r o n e r , s h e r i f f , a n d c o n s t a b l e f r o m t h e t h i r t e e n t h t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . They g a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p o l i c e s y s t e m a t t h i s t i m e . The j u s t i c e s were un-s a l a r i e d and w o r k e d f o r f e e s , a s y s t e m w h i c h l e d t o many a b u s e s o f t h e i r p o w e r s . The j u s t i c e s t r i e d c r i m i n a l c a s e s and p e r f o r m e d g e n e r a l p o l i c e d u t i e s . I n 1865 t h e j u s t i c e s w e r e s t r i p p e d o f t h e i r p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s when p a i d p o l i c e m a g i s t r a t e s a p p e a r e d . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1300 t o 1900 t h e r e was no s t r o n g c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i c e f o r c e i n E n g l a n d . C r i m e s were common and t h e r e was no a d e q u a t e way o f m e e t i n g t h e p r o b l e m . D u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h e E n c l o s u r e A c t s and t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n c r e a t e d w i d e s p r e a d p o v e r t y and u n e m p l o y m e n t . P e o p l e moved t o t h e new u r b a n c e n t e r s i n o r d e r t o f i n d work i n t h e f a c t o r i e s . Crowded s l u m c o n d i t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h r a t e s o f c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y , p r o s t i t u t i o n , d r u n k e n n e s s , v a g r a n c y and t h e f t . The S t a t u t e o f L a b o u r e r s o f 1349 o r d e r e d men t o r e m a i n i n t h e i r t o w n s h i p s and on t h e j o b s w h i c h t h e y o c c u p i e d . T h i s was an a t t e m p t t o keep men f r o m m o v i n g f r o m one c o u n t y t o a n o t h e r . The E l i z a -b e t h a n P o o r Laws o f 1598 and 1601 a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e r e l i e f f o r t h e p o o r . W o r k h o u s e s and h o u s e s o f c o r r e c t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e one t o p r o v i d e work f o r t h e u n e m p l o y e d and t h e o t h e r t o p r o v i d e p u n i s h m e n t f o r t h o s e who w o u l d n o t w o r k. However, t h e two were n e v e r c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The 6 S e t t l e m e n t A c t o f 1662 made e a c h p a r i s h r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r t h o s e r e s i d i n g t h e r e , w h i c h meant r e s i d e n c e by b i r t h . Over two h u n d r e d k i n d s o f o f f e n s e s were c o n s i d e r e d c a p i t a l c r i m e s and t h e most common f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t a t t h i s t i m e was c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e v e r i t y and i n -j u s t i c e o f c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t s e v e r a l methods f o r a c q u i t t i n g t h e a c c u s e d were made a p r o m i n e n t p a r t o f c r i m i n a l p r o c e d u r e . Few c r i m i n a l s were a p p r e h e n d e d and c o n v i c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e p o o r p o l i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d . C e r t a i n t y o f p u n i s h m e n t was l a c k i n g , so s e v e r i t y o f p u n i s h m e n t was u s e d i n i t s p l a c e . A weak p o l i c e s y s t e m a t t h i s t i m e i n h i s t o r y l e d t o t h e u s e o f s e v e r e p e n a l m e t h o d s . The s e v e r i t y o f p u n i s h -ment d i d n o t e l i m i n a t e c r i m e . I t i s s a i d t h a t a t t h e same moment t h a t p i c k - p o c k e t s were b e i n g h a n g e d , o t h e r p i c k - p o c k e t s were s t e a l i n g f r o m t h e c r o w d s a t t e n d i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n . Many e m i n e n t c o m m e n t a t o r s were s p e a k i n g w i t h c o n v i c t i o n . Jeremy Bentham u r g e d amendment o f t h e c r i m i n a l c o d e , i m p r o v e -ment o f t h e p o o r l a w s , a b o l i t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s a n i t a r y and p r i s o n r e f o r m and t h e use of p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r s . T h e r e were many a d v o c a t e s of p o l i c e r e f o r m d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n E n g l a n d . P o l i c e work was s t i l l on a l o c a l l e v e l and was a p r i v a t e m a t t e r . R ewards were o f f e r e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e a r r e s t and c o n v i c t i o n o f c r i m i n a l s . I n f o r m e r s were common a t t h i s t i m e and b r i b e r y and c o r r u p t i o n o f p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s was w i d e s p r e a d . I n 1748 H e n r y F i e l d i n g was a p p o i n t e d m a g i s t r a t e f o r M i d d l e s e x and 7 W e s t m i n s t e r . He c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a o f p r e v e n t i n g c r i m e by p o l i c e a c t i o n . I n 1749 he w r o t e "An E n q u i r y i n t o t h e Cause o f t h e L a t e I n c r e a s e i n R o b b e r i e s " and s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o l i c -i n g was a m u n i c i p a l f u n c t i o n and t h a t t h e r e was a need f o r w e l l - p a i d men, t h a t some form o f m o b i l e p a t r o l was n e e d e d t o p r o t e c t t h e h i g h w a y s , t h a t s e p a r a t e " r u n n e r s " were n e e d e d t o move s w i f t l y t o t h e s c e n e o f t h e c r i m e , and t h a t a s e p a r a t e p o l i c e c o u r t s h o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d . T h i s was t h e F i r s t P o l i c e S u r v e y . F i e l d i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h e famous Bow S t r e e t R u n n e r s an e f f i c i e n t g r o u p o f p o l i c e m e n p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c r i m e . I n 1796 D r . P. C o l q u h o u n , M i d d l e s e x M a g i s t r a t e w r o t e "On t h e P o l i c e o f t h e M e t r o p o l i s " and recommended a r e g i s t e r o f o f f e n d e r s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n i m p r o v e m e n t b e t w e e n c i t y and r u r a l m a g i s t r a t e s , and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a c e n t r a l i z e d , t r a i n e d , v i g i l a n t and a c t i v e p o l i c e b ody. W h i l e C o l q u h o u n w a n t e d t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a l j u s t i c e s o f t h e p e a c e , p u b l i c o p i n i o n s t i l l f a v o r e d p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . I n 1829 S i r R o b e r t P e e l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e F o r c e i n London w h i c h was un d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Home O f f i c e and n o t l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s . T h i s was t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i c e f o r c e i n E n g l a n d . A c c o r d i n g t o C h a r l e s R e i t h , P e e l ' s p l a c e i n h i s t o r y as one o f t h e f i v e o u t s t a n d i n g c r e a t o r s o f t h e B r i t i s h P o l i c e 8 i n s t i t u t i o n i s deserved by him f o r o n l y two c o n t r i b u t i o n s . One i s h i s p l a n n i n g and h a n d l i n g of the b i l l by which the London p o l i c e experiment was i n a u g u r a t e d . To the i d e a s of which i t was c o n s t r u c t e d he c o n t r i b u t e d almost n o t h i n g . H i s o t h e r , and much g r e a t e r , c o n t r i b u t i o n was h i s c h o i c e and appointment of the two f i r s t ' j u s t i c e s ' , or c o m m i s s i o n e r s , to whom he gave, and l e f t , the t a s k of p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g i n d e t a i l , and c o n t r o l l i n g , the i n s t i t u t i o n which t h e b i l l e n v i s a g e d . C h a r l e s Rowan and R i c h a r d Mayne were men who were w h o l l y unknown t o the p u b l i c , and almost w h o l l y unknown i n government and p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s , and to s o c i e t y i n London. Through t h e medium o f P e e l , these two completed the work which F i e l d i n g and Colquhoun began. In Great B r i t a i n a l l p o l i c e a g e n c i e s except the M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e of London are l o c a l l y managed and c o n t r o l l e d . Such c o n t r o l s may be v e s t e d i n the governments of t h e c i t i e s , boroughs, or c o u n t i e s , or i n j o i n t p o l i c e committees r e p r e s e n t -i n g two- or more a g e n c i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the n a t i o n a l govern-ment p r o v i d e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f o f the c o s t of m a i n t a i n i n g a l l p o l i c e f o r c e s , and r e q u i r e s i n r e t u r n t h a t c e r t a i n s i m p l e s t a n d a r d s be observ e d i n such m a t t e r s as the number of p o l i c e to be employed, the manner of t h e i r r e c r u i t m e n t and the terms of t h e i r e mployment,their t r a i n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e , and the f r e e i n t e r c h a n g e of c r i m i n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . S u p e r v i s i o n i s e x e r c i s e d through a few n a t i o n a l i n s p e c t o r s of c o n s t a b u l a r y who r e p r e s e n t t h e Home O f f i c e and S c o t t i s h O f f i c e r e s p e c t i v e l y 9 i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r t h e n a t i o n a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d o f l o c a l p o l i c e s h a l l be a l l o w e d i n any p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s y s t e m , w h i c h p r e v a i l s t h r o u g h o u t E n g l a n d , S c o t l a n d and W a l e s , t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t e x e r c i s e s d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e . Upon r e q u e s t o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s f r o m i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s i n S c o t l a n d Y a r d a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o any l o c a l p o l i c e f o r c e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . S i n c e 1829, when t h e d e v i c e o f d u a l c o n t r o l f i r s t went i n t o e f f e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o B r u c e S m i t h , i t s g r e a t a c h i e v e -ments have been t h e g r a d u a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f s m a l l , i n a d e q u a t e p o l i c e a g e n c i e s and t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f modern, l o c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r c e s p a t t e r n e d g e n e r a l l y a f t e r t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e . I n t h e p r o c e s s th-e many c o u n t y s h e r i f f s and p a r i s h c o n s t a b l e s have d i s a p p e a r e d as l a w - e n f o r c i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . I n t h e i r p l a c e s have a p p e a r e d v a r i o u s c i t y and b o r o u g h p o l i c e f o r c e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h w i d e l y r a n g i n g and h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d c o u n t y c o n s t a b u l a r i e s , w h i c h may i n c l u d e b o t h r u r a l and u r b a n a r e a s w i t h i n s e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The p r e s s u r e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t h a v e been a p p l i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o w a r d t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f p o l i c e of s m a l l b o r o u g h s w i t h t h e c o u n t y c o n s t a b u l a r i e s . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h e P o l i c e A c t o f 1946, t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n s have i n c r e a s e d t o a p o i n t where o n l y a few more t h a n a h u n d r e d p o l i c e f o r c e s r e m a i n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f some 490 c o u n t i e s , c i t i e s and b o r o u g h s . Thus t h e r e has been a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f p o l i c e s t r e n g t h w i t h o u t abandonment 10 o f l o c a l a utonomy. M o r e o v e r , t h e e v i l o f o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s -d i c t i o n s , o n c e a s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s p o l i c i n g , has been u u h o l l y e l i m i n a t e d . O t h e r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t i n a i d o f i o c a l l a w e n f o r c e m e n t i n c l u d e t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n c o n d u c t i n g p r o s e c u t i o n s o f m a j o r i m p o r t o r g e n e r a l c o n c e r n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c r i m i n a l i d e n t -i f i c a t i o n c r i m e l a b o r a t o r i e s , r a d i o c o m m u n i c a t i o n , p o l i c e t r a i n i n g , and c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o a l l p o l i c e f o r c e s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . O f f i c i a l l y , t h e v a r i o u s r e g u l a r F o r c e s a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n f i v e g r o u p s . These a r e The M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e o f L o n d o n , The C i t y o f London P o l i c e , The B o r o u g h P o l i c e F o r c e s , The C o u n t y P o l i c e F o r c e s and t h e S c o t t i s h P o l i c e . U n i t e d S t a t e s The U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o has a d u a l p o l i c e s y s t e m i n w h i c h c e n t r a l i z e d and l o c a l c o n t r o l s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h o u t i m p a i r m e n t o f l o c a l autonomy, b u t t h e m ethods t h u s f a r e m p l o y e d h a v e been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e p r e v a i l i n g i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . V i r t u a l l y a l l l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n a d d i t i o n many s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s n o t e x e r c i s i n g f u l l g o v e r n m e n t a l powers m a i n t a i n s e p a r a t e and d i s t r i c t p o l i c e f o r c e s . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e f o r c e i s t h a t o f New Y o r k C i t y . I n c l u d e d i n t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c e p a t t e r n a r e t h e s h e r i f f s and d e p u t y s h e r i f f s o f c o u n t i e s , a h a n d f u l o f c o u n t y p o l i c e f o r c e s .11 t h a t are independent of the s h e r i f f ' s o f f i c e s , the p o l i c e of c i t i e s , and o c c a s i o n a l c o n s t a b l e s i n t o w n s h i p s , m a g i s t e r i a l d i s t r i c t s and county d i s t r i c t s . In a d d i t i o n t h e r e are minor f o r c e s i n v i l l a g e s , boroughs and i n c o r p o r a t e d towns and a number of s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s concerned w i t h p a r k s , parkways, t u n n e l s , docks, b r i d g e s , waterways and aqueducts. S i n c e the t u r n o f the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , s t a t e p o l i c e f o r c e s and s t a t e highway p a t r o l a g e n c i e s a l s o have been e s t a b l i s h e d by each of the S t a t e s . In some j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h i s major development was caused by the u t t e r c o l l a p s e of the a n c i e n t s h e r i f f - c o n s t a b l e system i n r u r a l a reas and i n a l l s t a t e s the emergence of the r u r a l highway t r a f f i c problem r e n d e r e d i t c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e to r e g u l a t e t r a f f i c on the ever e x t e n d i n g system of s t a t e highways through the medium of p a r t - t i m e n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s h e r i f f s and c o n s t a b l e s . Although o f r e c e n t o r i g i n some of these s t a t e p o l i c e e s t a b l i s h -ments are of o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y and worthy of a p l a c e w i t h the w o r l d ' s b e s t . The f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o r e q u i r e s the maintenance of n a t i o n a l p o l i c e a g e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g w h o l l y w i t h i n the sphere of the F e d e r a l Government. W e l l known among these i s the F e d e r a l Bureau of I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of J u s t i c e . T h i s c o r p s of c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a -t o r s p o s s e s s e s g e n e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i v e powers w i t h i n the con-s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t s of f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . But j u s t as the l o c a l and s t a t e governments are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o v e r - l a p p i n g p o l i c e a g e n c i e s , so the F e d e r a l Government m a i n t a i n s numerous 12 s p e c i a l i z e d p a t r o l and i n v e s t i g a t i v e a g e n c i e s i n a d d i t i o n to the P.B.I. Prominent i n the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y are the immigra-t i o n border p a t r o l o p e r a t e d by the Department of J u s t i c e and the customs border p a t r o l , the S e c r e t S e r v i c e , and the n a r c o t i c s and a l c o h o l t a x u n i t s o p e r a t e d by the T r e a s u r y . • While e s p e c i a l -l y charged w i t h the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t s l a r g e s t f u n c t i o n i s concerned wi t h s u p p r e s s i o n of c o u n t e r f e i t i n g . Numerous other f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s f o r p a t r o l or i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o are g r e a t l y l i m i t e d i n t h e range of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . With so many and so v a r i e d i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s f o r law enforcement, i t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few are i n d i v i d u a l l y c a p a b l e of p e r f o r m i n g the f u l l measure of t h e i r a p p o i n t e d t a s k s , and t h a t sheer v a r i e t y and weight of numbers sho u l d r ender i n t e r f o r c e c o - o p e r a t i o n e x c e e d i n g l y u n c e r t a i n . To the e x t e n t t h a t c e n t r a l s e r v i c e s can a i d and support b a s i c -a l l y weak p o l i c e a g e n c i e s , the F.B.I, has gone f a r toward a t t a i n i n g t h a t end. I t o p e r a t e s a n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which i n c l u d e s the l a r g e s t c o l l e c t i o n of c r i m i n -a l f i n g e r p r i n t s i n t h e w o r l d , a w e l l - e q u i p p e d crime l a b o r a t o r y , an e x c e l l e n t n a t i o n a l p o l i c e academy f o r l o c a l and s t a t e p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s , and a n a t i o n - w i d e system of l o c a l crime s t a t i s t i c s . The s e r v i c e s of a l l such s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e to p o l i c e f o r c e s throughout the n a t i o n w i t h o u t charge of any k i n d . The F.B.I, a l s o conducts s h o r t c o u r s e s of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r l o c a l p o l i c e at or near the p o i n t 13 of l o c a l s o u r c e , thus b r i n g i n g the b e n e f i t s of f o r m a l p o l i c e t r a i n i n g t o many s m a l l a g e n c i e s which c o u l d never p r o v i d e such f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Some of the s t a t e governments, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e a d i n g s t a t e p o l i c e f o r c e s , have a l s o proved h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g c e n t r a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r l o c a l p o l i c e , i n o p e r a t i n g s t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n bureaus and i n m a i n t a i n i n g s t a t e wide and i n t e r s t a t e networks of p o l i c e t e l e -type s e r v i c e and i n t e r s t a t e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s of d e s c r i p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g wanted persons and s t o l e n p r o p e r t y . Cana da The P o l i c e F o r c e s of Canada are o r g a n i z e d under t h r e e groups: (1) the F e d e r a l F o r c e , which i s t h e Ro y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e ; (2) P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e F o rces - The P r o v i n c e s of O n t a r i o and Quebec have o r g a n i z e d P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e F o r c e s but a l l o t h e r p r o v i n c e s engage the s e r v i c e s of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e to perform p a r a l l e l f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r b o r d e r s ; and (3) M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e F o r c e s - each urban c e n t r e of r e a s o n a b l e s i z e m a i n t a i n s i t s own p o l i c e f o r c e , or engages the s e r v i c e s of the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e under c o n t r a c t , to a t t e n d to p o l i c e m a t t e r s w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s . The R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e i s a c i v i l f o r c e m a i n t a i n e d by the F e d e r a l Government and was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1873 as the Morth-West Mounted P o l i c e f o r s e r v i c e i n what was then the Nor th-Ulest T e r r i t o r i e s . 14 In 1874 the f o r c e marched westward from the Red R i v e r , e s t a b l i s h i n g p o s t s and s u p p r e s s i n g the n o t o r i o u s whisky t r a d e w i t h the I n d i a n s . The f a i r n e s s and t a c t of t h e p o l i c e won the I n d i a n s ' r e s p e c t and p r e v e n t e d s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s d u r i n g the d i f f i c u l t t r a n s i t i o n from nomadic to r e s e r v a t i o n l i f e . However, when the second R i e l R e b e l l i o n broke out i n 1885, the n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h of the f o r c e was not s u f f i c i e n t to q u e l l i t . Other-w i s e , v i g i l a n c e of the Northwest Mounted P o l i c e enabled the Canadian West to pass through i t s p i o n e e r i n g s t a g e w i t h o u t the l a w l e s s n e s s u s u a l l y i n c i d e n t t o f r o n t i e r l i f e . The sphere of the f o r c e was e n l a r g e d i n 1895 when a detachment was s e n t to the Yukon T e r r i t o r y to p r e s e r v e o r d e r d u r i n g the Gold Rush. In r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s s e r v i c e s , i t was g r a n t e d the use of the p r e f i x " R o y a l " by K i n g Edward VII i n 1904. I t s sphere of o p e r a t i o n s was expanded i n 1918 to i n c l u d e a l l of Canada west of P o r t A r t h u r and F o r t W i l l i a m and i n 1920 i t absorbed the Dominion P o l i c e , i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s was t r a n s f e r r e d from Regina to Ottawa and i t s t i t l e was changed to R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . The Force i s under the c o n t r o l of the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e and i s headed by a Commissioner who h o l d s the rank and s t a t u s of a Deputy M i n i s t e r . O f f i c e r s a r e commissioned by the Crown and a r e s e l e c t e d from the non-commissioned r a n k s . The Force has complete j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the enforcement of the f e d e r -a l s t a t u t e s . By arrangement between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l 15 g o v e r n m e n t s i t e n f o r c e s t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and t h e C r i m i n a l Code i n a l l p r o v i n c e s e x c l u s i v e o f O n t a r i o and Quebec and under s p e c i a l a g r e e m e n t i t p o l i c e s some 120 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t i s t h e s o l e p o l i c e f o r c e i n t h e Yukon and N o r t h w e s t T e r r i -t o r i e s , where i t a l s o p e r f o r m s v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s on. b e h a l f o f c e r t a i n d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t . I t m a i n t a i n s l i a i s o n o f f i c e s i n L o ndon and W a s h i n g t o n and r e p r e s e n t s Canada i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C r i m i n a l P o l i c e O r g a n i z a -t i o n w h i c h has h e a d q u a r t e r s i n P a r i s . F o c a l p o i n t o f t h e F o r c e ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n work i s t h e H e a d q u a r t e r s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n B r a n c h ; i t s s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o p o l i c e f o r c e s t h r o u g h o u t C a n a d a . The F o r c e o p e r a t e s t h e C a n a d i a n P o l i c e C o l l e g e a t w h i c h F o r c e members and s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o t h e r C a n a d i a n and f o r e i g n p o l i c e f o r c e s may s t u d y t h e l a t e s t a d v a n c e s i n t h e f i e l d s o f c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n and d e t e c t i on. The R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Mounted P o l i c e f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r e n d i n g M a r c h 3 1 , 1961, i n d i c a t e s f i v e men g r a d u a t -i n g f r o m U n i v e r s i t i e s . Two men g r a d u a t e d i n s c i e n c e , two i n commerce and one i n l a w . T h e r e a r e 14 men i n f u l l - t i m e a t t e n d -a n c e a t C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s . C o m m i s s i o n e r C. W. H a r v i s o n s t a t e s , "Our u n d e r g r a d u a t e s h a v e , on a l l l e v e l s , d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s and o u r g r a d u a t e s were i n t h e f o r e o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s e s . We have been f a v o u r e d w i t h u n s o l i c i t e d c o m p l e m e n t a r y r e m a r k s f r o m some o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s , on s e v e r a l o f o u r members. T h i s r e f l e c t i o n i s good, 16 i t shadows f a v o u r a b l y on t h e members, t h e f o r c e , and i t s e r v e s t o j u s t i f y t h e e x p e n d i t u r e i n v o l v e d " . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n S e p t e m b e r , 1858 by James D o u g l a s . 1 A t t h a t t i m e D o u g l a s was C h i e f F a c t o r o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company and G o v e r n o r o f t h e C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . When t h e F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h o c c u r e d , D o u g l a s assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g l a w and o r d e r on t h e M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and e s t a b l i s h e d a s m a l l p o l i c e f o r c e a t t h e d i g g i n g s . T h i s f o r c e was n o t an i o r g a n i z e d p o l i c e f o r c e i n t h e modern s e n s e , b u t r a t h e r a m o d i -f i e d f o r m o f t h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m o f p o l i c e o f f i c e s composed o f s t i p e n d i a r y m a g i s t r a t e s and p a i d c o n s t a b l e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n L o n -don i n 1792. I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e g o l d f i e l d s were d i v i d e d i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s e a ch i n c h a r g e o f a g o l d commis-s i o n e r armed w i t h m a g i s t e r i a l p o w e r s . These o f f i c i a l s , who were u n d e r t h e o r d e r s of and d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e G o v e r -no r were r e f e r r e d t o b o t h a s s t i p e n d i a r y m a g i s t r a t e s and as g o l d c o m m i s s i o n e r s . One o f t h e i r main f u n c t i o n s was t o p u t down l a w l e s s n e s s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , e a c h m a g i s -t r a t e was a u t h o r i z e d t o a p p o i n t a s t a f f o f n o t more t h a n s i x c o n s t a b l e s . S i n c e t h e c o n s t a b l e s were a l s o e m p l o y e d as t h e m a g i s t r a t e ' s c l e r k s , r e c o r d e r s , c o l l e c t o r s and p o s t m a s t e r s , t h e y became i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m o f t h e c o l o n y . 17 The suddenness of the f r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h found Douglas w i t h o u t competent men to a p p o i n t to the i m p o r t a n t o f f i c e of s t i p e n d i a r y m a g i s t r a t e . He h e s i t a t e d u n t i l June, then a p p o i n t e d a s t a f f chosen from the g o l d m i n i n g p o p u l a -t i o n . Without e x c e p t i o n the men whom he a p p o i n t e d proved i n c o m p e t e n t . The c o n s t a b l e s a l s o were s e l e c t e d from among the m i n e r s , and w i t h few excepti'ons t h e i r s e r v i c e was u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y . B e f o r e any of the appointments were made, the miners had taken the law i n t o t h e i r own hands. They t r e a t e d the m a g i s t r a t e s and c o n s t a b l e s w i t h n e i t h e r f e a r nor r e s p e c t . At the end of t h e year t h e r e was a breakdown i n law and or d e r i n the g o l d f i e l d s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n a d i s p u t e between two of the m a g i s t r a t e s , g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as the "McGowan War". The q u e s t i o n then a r o s e as t o whether B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d have a l a r g e , c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , s e m i - m i l i t a r y p o l i c e f o r c e o r g a n i z e d a l o n g the l i n e s of the R o y a l I r i s h C o n s t a b u l -a r y . There was a l r e a d y i n the c o l o n y an o f f i c e r of the famous I r i s h F o r c e . T h i s was C h a r t r e s Brew, whom S i r Edward B u l i v e r L y t t o n had s e l e c t e d t o a s s i s t Douglas i n o r g a n i z i n g a p o l i c e f o r c e . Brew, who a r r i v e d i n the c o l o n y i n November, 1 B 5 8 , was a p p a l l e d at the i n a b i l i t y of the p o l i c e to c o n t r o l the mi n e r s . He proposed t h a t a f o r c e of 150 men s h o u l d be r a i s e d i n the c o l o n y , but the expense i n v o l v e d caused Douglas to w i t h h o l d h i s c o n s e n t . A f t e r the McGowan War, Governor Douglas, w i t h Brew's c o n c u r r e n c e , r e q u e s t e d the c o l o n i a l o f f i c e t o send out a f o r c e of about 150 of the I r i s h C o n s t a b u l a r y at the 18 B r i t i s h Go v e r n r n e n t ' s e x p e n s e . T h i s p l a n was d r o p p e d when i t was l e a r n e d t h a t t h e e x p e n s e w o u l d have t o be b o r n e by t h e c o l o n y . Brew t h e n r e q u e s t e d t o t a k e t h e c o n s t a b l e s i n t h e g o l d f i e l d s u nder h i s c h a r g e . However e a r l y i n 1858 t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s i n t h e c o l o n y had been s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d . A l s o a new and c o m p e t e n t s t a f f o f m a g i s t r a t e s had been a p p o i n t -e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y D o u g l a s d i d n o t f e e l t h e n e e d o f a s t r o n g p o l i c e f o r c e . H i s u n c o o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e p e r s u a d e d Brew t o abandon a l l hope o f t a k i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e p o l i c e . He a c c e p t -ed i n s t e a d a p o s i t i o n i n t h e m a g i s t r a c y . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c o l o n i a l c o n s t a b l e r e m a i n e d under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e m a g i s t r a t e . More s u i t a b l e m a g i s t r a t e s and c o n s t a b l e s a p p e a r e d a f t e r 1858. The m a g i s t r a t e s w e re s e l e c t e d f r o m c a n d i d a t e s s e n t o v e r by t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h e y won t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r . T h e i r e f f o r t s were m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g e n e r a l good o r d e r t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a f t e r 1858. The G o v e r n o r s o f t h e C o l o n y a l l o w e d t h e m a g i s t r a t e s t o c h o o s e t h e i r own c o n s t a b l e s . However, i n 1864, u n d e r G o v e r n o r Seymour, t h e c o n s t a b l e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t s f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t were f i x e d by t h e G o v e r n o r - i n -C o u n c i l and a l l a p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e c o n s t a b u l a r y had t o h a v e t h e G o v e r n o r ' s a p p r o v a l . A l t h o u g h i t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e s e m e a s u r e s gave more s t a b i l i t y t o t h e p o l i c e t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e F o r c e was hampered by t h e f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e C o l o n y . T h e r e were t o o few c o n s t a b l e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e r i o u s i n c r e a s e i n c r i m e a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e C a r i b o o 19 g o l d r u s h o r t o d e a l w i t h l a r g e m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s i f t h e y d e f i e d g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o l i c e were m o t i v a t e d by h i g h i d e a l s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e . A f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n t h e m a g i s t r a t e s became s e r v a n t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n Government w h i l e t h e c o n s t a b l e came un d e r t h e j u r i s -d i c t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e . T h i s c h a n g e l e d t o two i m p o r t a n t s t e p s i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e . F i r s t t h e p o l i c e became i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e j u d i c i a r y . S e c o n d , a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was a p p o i n t e d f o r t h e w h o l e f o r c e . However, m o d e r n i z a t i o n was n o t c o m p l e t e d u n t i l 1923 when t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e was r e o r g a n i z e d by t h e P o l i c e a n d P r i s o n s R e g u l a t i o n s A c t . On A u g u s t 15, 1950, t h e t a s k o f p o l i c i n g t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was o f f i c i a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e t o t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Mounted P o l i c e . V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t I n t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g December 3 1 , 1961, a h i s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d 1886-1961 has been c o m p i l e d upon t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e F o r c e ' s 7 5 t h b i r t h d a y . The a u t h o r s t a t e s : " I n t h e d a y s o f t h e o r i g i n a l V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e F o r c e , and f o r a l o n g t i m e a f t e r w a r d , l o n g h o u r s o f d u t y were commonplace. The t a s k o f p o l i c i n g a raw and b o i s t e r o u s f r o n t i e r c o mmunity was a h e a v i l y d emanding one, and i t i s e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d why o n l y s k e t c h y r e c o r d s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e d a y s were p r e s e r v e d . They had l i t t l e t i m e , and l e s s e n e r g y , t o b o t h e r c h r o n i c l i n g t h e i r r o u g h and r e a d y s t o r y a n d , a t t h i s 20 l o n g d i s t a n c e , we may o n l y p i e c e a s t o r y t o g e t h e r i n f r a g m e n t a r y f o r m f r o m f a d i n g h a n d - w r i t t e n e n t r i e s i n t h e b r i t t l e y e l l o w p a g e s o f b o o k s s t o r e d i n t h e basement r e c o r d room a t P o l i c e H e a d q u a r t e r s " . The g e n e r a l e l e m e n t o f l a w l e s s n e s s , a f e a t u r e o f f r o n t i e r l i f e , was augmented by s a i l o r s f r o m t h e w i n d j a m m e r s w h i c h v i s i t e d t h e h a r b o u r and i n 1883 t h e s i t u a t i o n was s u c h t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t a p p o i n t e d 37 y e a r o l d J o n a t h a n M i l l e r , a t e a m s t e r , t o p o l i c e t h e h a r b o u r a r e a . A b o u t t h e same t i m e t h e l o c a l m e r c h a n t s c o m m i s s i o n e d J o h n S t e w a r t " t o p r o w l t h e s t r e e t s a f t e r d a r k , s e e where t h e t r o u b l e b r e w s and do what you c a n t o s t o p i t " . J o n a t h a n M i l l e r l a t e r became V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t P o s t -m a s t e r and J o h n S t e w a r t was l a t e r a p p o i n t e d as V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t C h i e f C o n s t a b l e . The d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g t h e f i r s t man a p p o i n t e d t o t h e M u n i c i p a l F o r c e b e l o n g s t o O n t a r i o - b o r n J a c k s o n T. A b r a y . I n t h e l a t t e r p a r t of 1886 a p o l i c e b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d on P o w e l l S t r e e t and i t s e r v e d u n t i l 1904 when a new b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d on C o r d o v a S t r e e t , j u s t e a s t of West-m i n s t e r Avenue (now M a i n S t r e e t ) . From t h e o r i g i n a l f i v e men i n 1886 g r o w t h was s l o w f o r a t i m e - n i n e men i n 1897 - t w e n t y - s i x by 1901 and s u d d e n a c c e l e r a t i o n s t o 179 by 1911 and 250 i n 1912. By t h i s t i m e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f 500 v o t e r s i n 18B6 had mushroomed t o more t h a n 111,000 c i t i z e n s . In A u g u s t , 1905, t h e f i r s t " P o l i c e R u l e s & R e g u l a t i o n s 21 f o r the Government of the F o r c e " was adopted by the Board of P o l i c e Commissioners. In 1906 a " F i x e d P o i n t " system of p r o t e c t i v e e n f o r c e -ment was i n s t i t u t e d . By t h i s system a c i t i z e n knew t h a t a c o n s t a b l e was always a v a i l a b l e at c e r t a i n key i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n case of need. In July", 1907, t h r e e b i c y c l e s were purchased f o r the use of the P a t r o l S e r geants i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h e i r a r e a s and an a u t o m o b i l e P a t r o l Wagon was put i n t o commission. T h i s d i d away w i t h t h e o l d system of w a l k i n g a r r e s t e d persons through the s t r e e t s . In 1909 a P o l i c e P a t r o l S i g n a l System was i n s t a l l e d w i t h a s w i t c h b o a r d a t H e a d q u a r t e r s . T h i s gave t h e patrolmen q u i c k and easy communication w i t h Headquarters and g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d the h a n d l i n g of c i t i z e n s ' c o m p l a i n t s . A l s o i n t h i s y e a r , the f i r s t mounted patrolman was a s s i g n e d to duty i n S t a n l e y Park. In 1910 a P o l i c e Ambulance was purchased to answer emergency c a l l s i n t h e C i t y and 264 c a l l s were handled by the end of the y e a r . D u r i n g the year the Mounted Squad was i n -c r e a s e d to a s t r e n g t h of one s e r g e a n t and t e n c o n s t a b l e s i n order to p o l i c e the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s . In 1911 a P a t r o l Boat was put i n t o s e r v i c e i n the harbour area and an automo-b i l e was purchased f o r the use of D e t e c t i v e s i n a n s w e r i n g c a l l s . In 1917 the T r a f f i c Pointmen who up t o now had been engaged i n c o n t r o l of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c , were i n s t r u c t e d to 22 i n c l u d e c o n t r o l of p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c as w e l l . To a s s i s t i n the enforcement of t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s a system of "Warning N o t i c e s " was i n s t i t u t e d f o r use i n minor t r a f f i c i n f r a c t i o n s . L a t e r i n the year t h e County J a i l i n Vancouver was c l o s e d and • the " c h a i n - g a n g " which had been used f o r c l e a r i n g of s t r e e t s and l a n e s i n the growing C i t y , was a b o l i s h e d . On J u l y 15, 1918, a c h a r t e r was g r a n t e d by the Trades and Labour Congress to Vancouver C i t y P olicemen's Union, L o c a l 12. In 1919 the Board of P o l i c e Commissioners g r a n t e d members one day of r e s t per week. T h i s was c a n c e l l e d l a t e r i n the y e a r , f o r the d u r a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l s t r i k e . In 1920 the f i r s t S i c k n e s s and A c c i d e n t I nsurance P l a n was a u t h o r i z e d and i n 1921 the much-abused P r o h i b i t i o n Act was r e p e a l e d and the Government L i q u o r C o n t r o l Act came i n t o f or ce. In 1929 an amalgamation of t h e C i t y w i t h the former M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of P o i n t Grey and South Vancouver i n c r e a s e d the p o p u l a t i o n o f the C i t y to 277,680 and the s t r e n g t h of the Force was i n c r e a s e d to 281 a l l r a n k s . In 1930 t h e r e was some d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g the e s t a b -l i s h m e n t of a P o l i c e T r a i n i n g S c h o o l . In view of t h e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e time t h i s q u e s t i o n was l e f t i n abeyance. In 1932, i n an attempt to keep up w i t h t r e n d s and to f a c i l i t a t e the work of the F o r c e , twenty m o b i l e r a d i o r e c e i v e r s were purchased and i n s t a l l e d i n p a t r o l c a r s . A 400 watt t r a n s -m i t t e r was i n s t a l l e d and the t r a n s m i s s i o n of p o l i c e r a d i o c a l l s 23 was begun. L a t e r i n t h i s year the P o l i c e Bureau of S c i e n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d to handle the f i n g e r p r i n t i n g and i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of s u s p e c t s and to use s c i e n t i f i c methods i n the s o l u t i o n of c r i m e s . In 1945 a Women's D i v i s i o n was formed i n the Force to act i n any cases where women and c h i l d r e n may be i n v o l v e d . In 1947 hours of work of p o l i c e members were reduced to 44 hours per week and i n 1948 to 4 hours per week. Youth Guidance D e t a i l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1950 to c o r r e l a t e a r e p o r t e d growing wave of v a n d a l i s m committed by t e e n a g e r s . D u r i n g 1952 the d e c i s i o n was made to group a l l a u x i l -i a r y s e r v i c e s i n two D i v i s i o n s to be known as S e r v i c e s D i v i -s i o n and A c c o u n t i n g and Records D i v i s i o n . The S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n was to be made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r communications, f l e e t , d e t e n t i o n , s t o r e s , b u i l d i n g s e r v i c e s . The A c c o u n t i n g and ! Records D i v i s i o n was to handle a l l c l e r i c a l and a c c o u n t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . In 1956, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e F o r c e , a P o l i c e Academy was formed and a f o r m a l t r a i n i n g scheme was i n s t i t u t e d to g i v e each member of the Force b a s i c p o l i c e t r a i n i n g and l a t e r a more s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . A l s o , , an improved new s t y l e of u n i f o r m was adopted. In 1957 an i n c r e a s e i n the a u t h o r i z e d s t r e n g t h of non-commissioned o f f i c e r s and o f f i c e r s l e d to a g r e a t e r degree of s u p e r v i s i o n on the s t r e e t . D u r i n g 1958 the C e n t e n n i a l year f o r the P r o v i n c e of 24 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a P r o c e d u r e M a n u a l was p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l S u p e r v i s o r s and a p o c k e t - s i z e d C o n s t a b l e ' s M a n u a l t o a l l C o n s t a b l e s and D e t e c t i v e s . T h i s was t h e f i r s t c o m p i l a t i o n o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s s i n c e 1929. A l s o i n 1958 t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new a p p r o a c h t o p o l i c e work was i n i t i a t e d by t h e a c q u i s i - 1 t i o n o f a p a r t i a l l y - t r a i n e d dog t o a s s i s t i n s e a r c h i n g b u i l d i n g s , wooded a r e a s . By t r i a l and e r r o r a s y s t e m o f t r a i n i n g was e v o l v -ed and t h e Dog Squad now c o n s i s t s o f s i x w e l l - t r a i n e d dogs w i t h t h e i r Dog M a s t e r s a n d f o u r p u p p i e s were b e i n g groomed t o f u l -f i l l f u t u r e p o l i c e r o l e s . I n 1961 t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o o k o v e r t h e new q u a r t e r s a t O a k r i d g e S t a t i o n f o r r e a s o n s o f o v e r c r o w d i n g and i n o r d e r t o h a v e t h e p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s c l o s e r t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c e n t r e o f t h e a r e a . On F e b r u a r y 1, 1962, C h i e f C o n s t a b l e G. J . A r c h e r w r o t e h i s l a s t a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t t o t h e B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s . I t s t a t e s i n p a r t : " S i x p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s have been c o m p i l e d and f o r w a r d e d . I t i s s i n c e r e l y hoped t h a t t o a d e g r e e , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t a b u l a t i o n s , embrac-i n g a s t h e y must b o t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t as r e f l e c t e d by t h e men and women who c o m p r i s e our s t r e n g t h as w e l l as t h e f i g u r e s r e l a t e d t o e n f o r c e m e n t , d i s c l o s e s o m e t h i n g o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n w h i c h has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h i s t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e f o r c e i n C a n a d a . " " I t i s t r u l y b e l i e v e d t h a t d u r i n g my y e a r s o f o p p o r t u n i t y h e r e a new and r e f r e s h -i n g c o n c e p t o f p o l i c i n g has been d e v e l o p e d , and i n e f f e c t a new p o l i c e f o r c e c r e a t e d . I am g r a t e f u l f o r h a v i n g been a f f o r d e d t h i s 25 e x c i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , p o s s i b l e o f s u c c e s s o n l y w i t h t h e n e v e r f a i l i n g s u p p o r t of t h e B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s , and c i v i c o f f i c i a l s i n key p o s i t i o n s . " "The p l a n n i n g t o w a r d s my r e p l a c e m e n t by S u p e r i n t e n d e n t R. M. B o o t h o f our F o r c e , w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e d h i s i m m e d i a t e p r o m o t i o n t o t h e e s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e d r a n k o f ' A s s i s t a n t C h i e f f o r t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d o f n i n e months i s b e l i e v e d t o be t h e f i r s t s u c h a p p r o a c h o f i t s k i n d and w i l l , I am c o n f i d e n t , pay s a t i s -f a c t o r y d i v i d e n d s i n t h e f u t u r e o f t h e F o r c e a t t h e hands o f t h e new C h i e f . " "The new s u b - s t a t i o n ( Q a k r i d g e ) f o r t h e a c c o m o d a t i o n o f t h o s e members e m p l o y e d i n S e c t i o n "B" ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f o u r j u r i s -d i c t i o n t o t h e S o u t h ) was o p ened on November 27, 1961. A most welcome a d d i t i o n , t h e f u l l v a l u e of w h i c h w i l l be s e e n when me t r o p o l i c i n g comes t o G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , a s i t must i n due c o u r s e . " "The F o r c e i s , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i n good s h a p e and i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be now a w e l l -t r a i n e d , d i s c i p l i n e d , p r o p e r l y m o t i v a t e d and e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t o f e n f o r c e m e n t a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . The c i t i z e n s o f V a n c o u v e r h a v e r e a s o n t o j o i n me i n p r i d e i n t h e i r p o l i c e f o r c e . " 2 6 C h a p t e r 11. LEGAL JURISDICTION OF POLICE POWER  AND AUTHORITY IN THE MODERN COMMUNITY I n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s v e r s u s Community S e c u r i t y " I n a f r e e s o c i e t y , few d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e t h a t p o l i c e a n d j u d i c i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d o n l y u n d e r t h e most n e c e s s i t o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Such a p r i n c i p l e , h o w e v e r , i s not s e l f e x e c u t i n g . And, n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t u s u a l l y d i s s o l v e s whenever a s e r i o u s a t t e m p t i s made t o d e f i n e t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t t o be l e t a l o n e s h o u l d g i v e way t o t h e s t a t e ' s d u t y t o p r e s e r v e t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e community."'' 0. Ul. W i l s o n , Dean E m e r i t u s , S c h o o l o f C r i m i n o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P o l i c e , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , i n d i s c u s s i n g p o l i c e a r r e s t p r i v i l e g e s i n a f r e e s o c i e t y p o i n t s o u t t h a t o u r s o c i e t y has c r e a t e d a s y s t e m d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y and a p p r e h e n d t h e p e r s o n who commits a c r i m e and t o g i v e him a f a i r t r i a l i n w h i c h t h e t r u t h o f h i s g u i l t o r i n n o c e n c e i s t o be e s t a b -l i s h e d . T h i s s y s t e m i s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t g u i l t y p e r s o n s s h o u l d be a d j u d g e d g u i l t y . The t r i a l c o u r t i s n o t o n l y e t h i c a l l y bound t o a s c e r t a i n t h e g u i l t o f t h e g u i l t y b u t a l s o t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i n n o c e n c e o f t h e i n n o c e n t . He b e l i e v e s t h a t a r r e s t p r o c e d u r e s a r e r e s t r i c t i v e and t h i s may r e s u l t i n a d e c l a r a t i o n by t h e c o u r t t h a t an a r r e s t was i n v a l i d . T h i s judgment c a n e x c l u d e t h e h e a r i n g o f m a t e r i a l and r e l e v a n t f a c t s . W i l s o n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n 27 o f a r r e s t p r i v i l e g e s w o u l d l e s s e n t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t r u t h , and w o u l d a l s o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a p p r e h e n -s i o n o f c r i m i n a l s and l e s s e n t h e p h y s i c a l h a z a r d s * of t h e p o l i c e . The r u l e s t h a t e s t a b l i s h t h e v a l i d i t y o f a r r e s t , a s w e l l a s o t h e r p o l i c e a r r e s t p r i v i l e g e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . The c o u r t s may t h e n r u l e on t h e i r c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o A l a n B a r t h , t h e law t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n F e d e r a l and i n most s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n s , r e q u i r e s t h a t an a r r e s t e d p e r s o n be t a k e n p r o m p t l y b e f o r e a j u d i c i a l o f f i c e r . The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t o a l l o w an i n d e p e n -d e n t and i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r t o j u d g e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e a r r e s t . The a r r e s t i n g o f f i c e r i s a mere e x e c u t o r o f a j u d i c i a l d e c r e e . When he a r r e s t s w i t h a w a r r a n t , t h e w a r r a n t i n s t r u c t s him t o b r i n g t h e a r r e s t e d p e r s o n b e f o r e t h e m a g i s t r a t e who i s s u e d t h e w a r r a n t . Ulhen he a r r e s t s w i t h o u t a w a r r a n t , he must b r i n g t h e a r r e s t e d p e r s o n , w i t h o u t u n n e c e s s a r y d e l a y , b e f o r e t h e n e a r e s t and most a c c e s s i b l e m a g i s t r a t e i n t h e c o u n t y i n w h i c h t h e a r r e s t was made and he must a t t h e same t i m e s u b m i t an i n f o r m a t i o n s t a t i n g t h e c h a r g e a g a i n s t t h e a r r e s t e d p e r s o n . " I t i s b a s i c l a w , " F r a n c i s B i d d l e s a i d some y e a r s ago when he was A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " t h a t no man can be a r r e s t e d w i t h o u t a w a r r a n t u n l e s s r e a s o n a b l e g r o u n d e x i s t s f o r m a k i n g t h e a r r e s t w i t h o u t t h e w a r r a n t . You c a n n o t a r r e s t a man w i t h a w a r r a n t u n l e s s you have r e a s o n a b l e g r o u n d s f o r m a k i n g t h e a r r e s t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e law 28 f i t s l o g i c a l l y - t h a t when you have no w a r r a n t and y e t a r r e s t a man, i t i s up t o you t o b r i n g him i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e t o show you have r e a s o n a b l e g r o u n d s f o r a r r e s t . That i s v e r y a n c i e n t E n g l i s h common l a w . " ^ I t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e m a g i s t r a t e a t t h i s a r r a i g n m e n t -( 1 ) t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r , i n f a c t , t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e ( p r o b a b l e c a u s e ) t o j u s t i f y t h e a r r e s t ; ( 2 ) i f t h e r e was, t o commit t h e a r r e s t e d p e r s o n i n t o t h e c u s t o d y o f j a i l a u t h o r i t i e s p e n d i n g t r i a l , o r a d m i t him t o b a i l , d e p e n d i n g on t h e c h a r a c t e r and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s o f f e n s e ; ( 3 ) t o warn him t h a t what he s a y s may be t a k e n down and u s e d i n e v i d e n c e a t h i s t r i a l ; and ( 4 ) t o a d v i s e him o f h i s r i g h t s - t h e r i g h t t o r e m a i n s i l e n t i f he c h o o s e s and t h e r i g h t t o o b t a i n l e g a l c o u n s e l . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i s g r o u n d e d on t h e r e a l i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n -t h a t z e a l d e p r i v e s t h e p o l i c e o f d e t a c h m e n t and t h a t p r o t e c -t i o n o f a s u s p e c t ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s t h e r e f o r c a n n o t s a f e l y be l e f t t o t h e i r u n c h e c k e d j u d g m e n t . The l a w ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a r r a i g n m e n t w i t h o u t u n n e c e s s a r y d e l a y i s g r o u n d e d upon t h e t h e o r y t h a t , where p o l i c e m e n a r e j u d g e s , i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and d i g n i t y c a n n o t l o n g s u r v i v e . The m a i n t e n a n c e o f c i v i l l i b e r t y d epends upon a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i t means, and what i t c o s t s -upon a g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e r i s k s t h a t i t e n t a i l s . A f r e e s o c i e t y c a n n o t be a r i s k l e s s s o c i e t y . The i d e a t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t o l e t a h u n d r e d g u i l t y p e r s o n s e s c a p e p u n i s h m e n t t h a n t o i m p r i s o n an i n n o c e n t man i s an i d e a w h i c h , i n v o l v e s 29 r e a l r e s t r a i n t s on t h e p o l i c e . I t i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e l a w be v i g o r o u s l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , t h a t c r i m i n a l s be d i s c o v e r e d a n d b r o u g h t t o j u s t i c e . The community h a s a c o m p e l l i n g , l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n e f f e c t i v e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t . But i t has an o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n f r e e d o m , i n w h i c h t h e l a w i s g e n u i n e l y s u p r e m e , g o v e r n i n g t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e s t a t e no l e s s t h a n i t s c i t i z e n s . B o t h unbounded l i b e r t y and i t s r e s t r i c t i o n p l a c e b a s i c human r i g h t s i n j e o p a r d y . Unbounded l i b e r t y j e o p a r d i z e s t h e s e c u r i t y o f l i f e and p r o p e r t y and t h e s e c u r i t y o f o u r f r e e s o c i e t y . I f t h i s were n o t so t h e r e w o u l d be no need t o p l a c e any r e s t r i c t i o n s on l i b e r t y . R e s t r i c t i n g l i b e r t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , j e o p a r d i z e s t h e b a s i c human r i g h t t o f r e e d o m i n movement and c o n d u c t . The p r o b l e m , t h e n , i s t o p r e s c r i b e r e s t r i c t i o n s w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e an a c c e p t a b l e d e g r e e o f s e c u r i t y w i t h o u t u n d u l y i n f r i n g i n g upon i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m . The r e s t r i c t i o n s on l i b e r t y may be a d j u s t e d by i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g p o l i c e a r r e s t p r i v i l e g e s . To keep t h e s c a l e s o f j u s t i c e i n b a l a n c e , t h e a d v a n t a g e s t o s o c i e t y r e s u l t i n g f r o m a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e o f s e c u r i t y i n one pan must h o l d i n e q u i l i b r i u m t h e o t h e r c o n t a i n i n g t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m r e s t r i c t i o n s . T h i s means c o m p r o m i s e ; some l i b e r t y must be s a c r i f i c e d f o r t h e s a k e o f s e c u r i t y . Compromise a c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a f r e e s o c i e t y , t h e s t r e n g t h o f w h i c h i s d e r i v e d f r o m c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e most a c c e p t a b l e f e a t u r e s o f 3D o p p o s i n g v i e w s i n t o a w o r k a b l e s y s t e m . I n c o m p r o m i s e , e a c h s i d e a p p r a i s e s what i t g a i n s i n a d v a n t a g e s a g a i n s t what i t l o s e s i n d i s a d v a n t a g e ; t h e r e i s t h e n a measure o f g i v e and t a k e . The a p p r a i s a l i n a f r e e s o c i e t y i s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by t h e c i t i z e n s w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s e r v i n g as t h e a r b i t r a t o r t o s a y , " T h i s i s t h e way i t w i l l b e " . R o l e o f P o l i c e : P o l i c e A u t h o r i t y - P o l i c e Power i n t h e Law  o f A r r e s t The l e g i s l a t o r s f r a m e and c o n s t r u c t t h e l a w ; a t t o r n e y s s t u d y , i n t e r p r e t a n d p r e s e n t t h e l a w ; and j u d g e s make f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e l a w and i m p o s e s a n c -t i o n s . B u t , t h e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r a p p l i e s t h e l a w i m m e d i a t e l y , g i v e s i t e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and e x e c u t e s t h e l a w i n a d i r e c t p e r s o n a l f a s h i o n ; - h i s r o l e , t h e r e f o r e , i s o f e x t r e m e s e n s i t i v i t y . I n o r d e r t o make t h e l a w e f f e c t i v e i t must be e n f o r c e d . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r u t h l e s s e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e l a w can be t y r a n n i c a l , i t i s a l s o j u s t as t r u e t h a t a p a t h e t i c o r i n -d i f f e r e n t e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e l a w can make t h e l a w s t e r i l e and m e a n i n g l e s s . The b a s i c s e c r e t o f t h e s u c c e s s and e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e B r i t i s h p o l i c e l i e s a l m o s t w h o l l y , i n t h e u n i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e p u b l i c w h i c h t h e p o l i c e h ave c r e a t e d and a r e a t c o n s t a n t p a i n s t o m a i n t a i n . These p o l i c e m e n d e p e n d f o r t h e i r power on t h e good w i l l , a p p r o v a l , r e s p e c t and a f -f e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c whom t h e y s e r v e . P u b l i c a p p r o v a l o f t h e p o l i c e c r e a t e s and m a i n t a i n s p u b l i c c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h 31 t h e p o l i c e . One h e a r s t h e t e r m s , " p o l i c e a u t h o r i t y , " " p o l i c e power," " p o l i c e g o a l s , " a n d , v e r y o f t e n , t h e t e r m s " p o l i c e f u n c t i o n , " " p o l i c e a c t i v i t y , " o r " p o l i c e o p e r a t i o n . " These a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l c o n c e p t s , a l t h o u g h o f t e n u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e -a b l y . A u t h o r s Germann, Day, and G a l l a t t i and i n t h e i r book, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Law E n f o r c e m e n t , s t a t e t h a t by POLICE AUTHORITY i s meant t h e r i g h t o f t h e S t a t e t o a c t r e l a t i v e t o t h e g e n e r a l h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and w e l f a r e . By POLICE POWER i s meant t h e f o r ce w h i c h may be u t i l i z e d by t h e S t a t e t o e n s u r e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i t s l a w s . POLICE GOALS r e f e r t o two m a j o r o b j e c t i v e s : 1. The p r e v e n t i o n o f c r i m e and d i s o r d e r and t h e p r e s e r v a -t i o n o f t h e p e a c e ( f o r community s e c u r i t y ) . 2. The p r o t e c t i o n o f l i f e and p r o p e r t y and i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m ( f o r i n d i v i d u a l s e c u r i t y ) . These g o a l s a r e a c h i e v e d by t h e m a j o r methods o f c r i m e p r e -v e n t i o n , c r i m e r e p r e s s i o n , r e g u l a t i o n o f n o n - c r i m i n a l c o n d u c t , p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s , and p r o t e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m . P o l i c e a b u s e o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h c r i m i n a l i n t e n t r e s u l t -i n g i n s e r i o u s o f f e n s e s must a l w a y s be d e a l t w i t h by c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n and d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n . E s t a b l i s h i n g s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t a b u s e o f a u t h o r i t y by t h e o v e r z e a l o u s p o l i c e m a n i n t h e day t o day p e r f o r m a n c e o f h i s d u t y p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m . S a f e g u a r d s t h a t weaken l a w e n f o r c e m e n t o r f r e e t h e g u i l t y a r e s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . 32 C i v i l s u i t s f o r damages f i l e d a g a i n s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e r have n o t p r o v e d a d e q u a t e l y e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g p o l i c e a b u s e o f a u t h o r i t y . W i l s o n s t a t e s t h a t were t h i s p r o c e d u r e e f f e c t i v e , i t w o u l d e m a s c u l a t e v i g o r o u s p o l i c e a c t i o n and l a w e n f o r c e m e n t w o u l d be weakened a t a t i m e when i t n e eds t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d . N e g a t i n g p o l i c e o v e r z e a l o u s n e s s by f r e e i n g g u i l t y d e f e n d a n t s v i o l a t e s t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e g u i l t y s h o u l d be a d j u d g e d g u i l t y , p u n i s h e s s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n t h e p o l i c e m a n , r e w a r d s t h e g u i l t y and i s a m i s c a r r i a g e of j u s t i c e . The C o m m i t t e e on C r i m i n a l Law & P r o c e d u r e o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Bar p r o p o s e d t h a t " . . . t h e answer m i g h t l i e i n a new k i n d o f c i v i l a c t i o n , a summary t y p e of p r o c e e d i n g , f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l money ju d g m e n t i n f a v o r o f t h e wronged i n d i v i d u a l , w h e t h e r i n n o c e n t or g u i l t y and a g a i n s t t h e p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n whose e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s v i o l a t e d t h a t p e r s o n ' s r i g h t s . A f t e r n o t many o u t l a y s o f p u b l i c f u n d s t h e t a x p a y e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a d s w o u l d i n s i s t upon c u r b i n g u n l a w f u l p o l i c e a c t i o n . " One o f t h e s o u r c e s o f l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a b u s e s , a c c o r d -i n g t o C. Ray J e f f e r y , i s t h e f a c t t h a t 90 p e r c e n t of t h o s e a r r e s t e d and c o n v i c t e d a r e f r o m t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s . They c a n n o t a f f o r d t o h i r e a l a w y e r a n d 90 p e r c e n t o f them p l e a d g u i l t y t o t h e c h a r g e o r t o a r e d u c e d c h a r g e . P r o s e c u t o r s e n c o u r a g e t h i s p r a c t i c e by a c c e p t i n g p l e a s o f g u i l t y t o l e s s e r c h a r g e s . The f a c t t h a t most d e f e n d a n t s 33 a r e louuer c l a s s e n c o u r a g e s i l l e g a l p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e t h e p o l i c e know t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l n o t c o m p l a i n o r i f he c o m p l a i n s he i s n o t i n f l u e n t i a l enough t o be h e a r d . Good p o l i c e m e n a r e n o t i n d i f f e r e n t a b o u t what h a p p e n s t o w r o n g d o e r s t h e y a r r e s t . They may want v e r y much t o s e e them g e t t h e i r j u s t d e s s e r t s . And i t may be t h i s m o t i v a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n any c o r r u p t i o n o r c a r e l e s s n e s s a b o u t t h e l a w , t h a t l e a d s them s o m e t i m e s i n t o t r e s p a s s e s on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . They may be d r i v e n o f t e n by t h e v e r y s o r t o f h o n e s t i n d i g n a -t i o n t h a t m i g h t d r i v e any o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n , on o b s e r v i n g a d e p r a v e d a c t , i n t o t a k i n g t h e l a w i n t o h i s own h a n d s . But however u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s u c h p o l i c e z e a l may b e , t h e c o u r t s must c u r b i t i f we a r e t o l i v e u n d e r a go v e r n m e n t o f l a w s . A p o l i c e m a n ' s work e n t a i l s g r a v e h a z a r d s . I n d e a l i n g w i t h d a n g e r o u s c r i m i n a l s , t h e y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s o f t e n i n s i t u a t i o n s where what t h e y do may make t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l i f e a n d d e a t h to them. I n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s t h e l a w may seem somewhat a b s t r a c t and u n r e a l i s t i c . I t i s more d i f f i c u l t , t o w e i g h t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f p r o b a b l e c a u s e when one c o n f r o n t s a s u s p e c t t h a t when one s i t s on a b e n c h and h a s t i m e t o r e f l e c t upon t h e m a t t e r . P o l i c e m e n must make s p l i t - s e c o n d d e c i s i o n s a b o u t m a t t e r s on w h i c h e m i n e n t j u r i s t s may s u b -s e q u e n t l y a r g u e and d i s a g r e e . And i t i s h a r d l y t o be w o n d e r e d a t i f some t i m e s , a l t o g e t h e r i n n o c e n t l y , t h e y make d e c i s i o n s w h i c h t u r n o u t t o be m i s t a k e n . T h i s i s s i m p l y t o say t h a t t h e y d e s e r v e a r e a s o n a b l e m e asure o f f o r b e a r a n c e and 3 4 f o r g i v e n e s s when t h e y e r r ; i t i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e i r e r r o r s o u g h t t o be c o n d o n e d o r a l l o w e d t o warp t h e c o u r s e o f j u s t i c e o r t o o v e r r i d e t h e r i g h t s o f c i t i z e n s . L e g i s l a t i v e P r o v i s i o n s f o r Power The p o w e r s o f a p e a c e o f f i c e r t o a r r e s t f o r s u s p e c t e d v i o l a t i o n s o r s u s p e c t e d p o t e n t i a l v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e c r i m i n a l l a w a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e C r i m i n a l Code o f C a n a d a , or i n P r o v i n c i a l E n a c t m e n t s c r e a t i n g P r o v i n c i a l o f f e n c e s . The common l a w d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n f e l o n i e s and m i s d e m e a n o u r s has been a b o l i s h e d . C r i m e s a r e d e s i g n a t e d s i m p l y as i n d i c t -a b l e o f f e n c e s and o f f e n c e s . The C r i m i n a l Code empowers b o t h t h e p e a c e o f f i c e r a nd t h e o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n t o a r r e s t w i t h o u t w a r r a n t i n c e r t a i n c i r -c u m s t a n c e s , t h e p o w e r s o f t h e p e a c e o f f i c e r b e i n g w i d e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e c i t i z e n . S e c t i o n 4 3 5 d e a l s w i t h power o f a p e a c e o f f i c e r t o a r r e s t w i t h o u t w a r r a n t and r e a d s a s f o l l o w s : "A p e a c e o f f i c e r may a r r e s t w i t h o u t w a r r a n t a) A p e r s o n who has c o m m i t t e d or who, on r e a s o n a b l e and p r o b a b l e g r o u n d s he b e l i e v e s has c o m m i t t e d or i s a b o u t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e , o r b) A p e r s o n whom he f i n d s c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . " C r i m i n a l o f f e n c e i n s u b s e c t i o n ( b ) means any o f f e n c e p u n i s h -a b l e on i n d i c t m e n t or upon summary c o n v i c t i o n u n d e r t h e C r i m i n a l Code or any D o m i n i o n S t a t u t e b u t does not i n c l u d e a v i o l a t i o n f o r P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e . 35 A c c o r d i n g t o G. A r t h u r M a r t i n , S e c t i o n 4 3 5 , i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , was f i r s t e n a c t e d i n 1955 and was d e r i v e d i n p a r t f r o m t h e f o r m e r S e c t i o n 652 w h i c h r e a d s as f o l l o w s : "Any p e a c e o f f i c e r may, w i t h o u t a w a r r a n t , t a k e i n t o c u s t o d y any p e r s o n whom he f i n d s l y i n g o r l o i t e r i n g i n any h i g h w a y , y a r d o r o t h e r p l a c e d u r i n g t h e n i g h t , a n d whom he has good c a u s e t o s u s p e c t o f h a v i n g c o m m i t t e d o r b e i n g a b o u t t o commit, any i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e , a n d may d e t a i n s u c h p e r s o n u n t i l he c a n be b r o u g h t b e f o r e a j u s t i c e t o be d e a l t w i t h a c c o r d i n g t o l a w . " " ( 2 ) No p e r s o n who has been so a p p r e h e n d e d s h a l l be d e t a i n e d a f t e r noon o f t h e f o l l o w i n g day w i t h o u t b e i n g b r o u g h t b e f o r e a j u s t i c e . " S e c t i o n 435 i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m g i v e s t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r much w i d e r powers t h a n were e n j o y e d by him a t common l a w . The power t o a r r e s t one whom he on r e a s o n a b l e and p r o b -a b l e g r o u n d s b e l i e v e s t o be a b o u t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e o b v i o u s l y e n a b l e s t h e o f f i c e r t o i n t e r v e n e a t a s t a g e p r i o r t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f a n ; a t t e m p t . The a t t e m p t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e i s i t s e l f an i n d i c t a b l e o f -f e n c e a n d an a t t e m p t t o commit an o f f e n c e p u n i s h a b l e on summary c o n v i c t i o n o n l y i s a summary c o n v i c t i o n o f f e n c e . S i n c e by s e c t i o n 435 a p e a c e o f f i c e r has t h e power t o a r r e s t any p e r s o n whom he f i n d s c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e , i t i s c l e a r he c o u l d j u s t i f y a r r e s t i n g a p e r s o n a t t e m p t i n g t o commit any c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e by t h e power t h e r e c o n f e r r e d , and t h e power t o a r r e s t a p e r s o n whom he b e l i e v e s " i s a b o u t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e " w o u l d be u n n e c e s s a r y i f t h i s power were c o n s t r u e d as b e i n g l i m i t e d t o s i t u a t i o n s where an 36 a t t e m p t t o commit one o f f e n c e has a l r e a d y begun. I t f o l l o w s t h a t a p o l i c e o f f i c e r may a r r e s t u n d e r S e c t i o n 435 where he b e l i e v e s t h e p e r s o n a r r e s t e d i s a b o u t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e a l t h o u g h he h a s no b a s i s f o r c h a r g i n g him w i t h t h e com-m i s s i o n o f any o f f e n c e . The p e a c e o f f i c e r i s by v i r t u e o f S e c t i o n 438 ( 2 ) o f t h e Code r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e a r r e s t e d p e r s o n b e f o r e a J u s t i c e o f t h e P e a c e w i t h i n 24 h o u r s , i f one i s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d , and i f a J u s t i c e i s n o t a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d he must b r i n g t h e p r i s o n e r b e f o r e a J u s t i c e as s o o n as p o s s i b l e . I f , d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , as a r e s u l t o f h i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n or as a r e s u l t o f a d m i s s i o n s made by t h e p r i s o n e r , t h e o f f i c e r o b t a i n s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o w a r r a n t t h e l a y i n g o f a c h a r g e , he may do s o ; o t h e r w i s e , t h e p r i s o n e r must be d i s -c h a r g e d upon b e i n g b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e j u s t i c e as r e q u i r e d by S e c t i o n 438 ( 2 ) . M a r t i n c o n t i n u e s t o say t h a t t h e w i d e p o w e r s c o n f e r r e d by S e c t i o n 435 may be j u s t i f i e d as a f orm o f p r e v e n t i v e j u s t i c e , and no d o u b t t h e t a k i n g i n t o c u s t o d y o f a p e r s o n whom t h e p o l i c e b e l i e v e i s a b o u t t o commit a c r i m e has some v a l u e even t h o u g h no c h a r g e i s u l t i m a t e l y l a i d . A c a s e d e c i d e d by t h e O n t a r i o C o u r t o f A p p e a l , makes i t c l e a r , t h o u g h , t h a t i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y h i m s e l f u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n t h e o f f i c e r must h a v e some o b j e c t i v e g r o u n d s f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e p e r s o n a r r e s t e d was a b o u t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e . A p o l i c e o f f i c e r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a c r i m e i s e n t i t l e d t o 37 q u e s t i o n any person t h a t he t h i n k s may be a b l e to throw l i g h t upon t h e s u b j e c t whether or not he s u s p e c t s the person to whom the q u e s t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d . There i s no g e n e r a l r i g h t to d e t a i n a person f o r q u e s t i o n i n g i f u n l e s s t h a t d e t e n t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a u t h o r i z e d by S e c t i o n 435 or some o t h e r s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n . I f the person sought to be q u e s t i o n e d chooses to c o - o p e r a t e , good, but i f he does not the peace o f f i c e r must be p r e p a r e d to make an a r r e s t and j u s t i f y h i s a c t i o n or l e t the person go h i s way. F r e q u e n t l y the p o l i c e say t h a t a s u s p e c t e d p e r s o n v o l u n t a r i l y accompanied them to a p o l i c e s t a t i o n f o r q u e s t i o n i n g a l t h o u g h he was not under a r r e s t and so f r e e to r e f u s e i f he had wanted to do so. Under the vagrancy s e c t i o n of the Code a p o l i c e o f f i c e r has a c e r t a i n l i m i t e d r i g h t to c a l l upon a person to j u s t i f y h i s p r e s e n c e a t a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e . S e c t i o n 164 of the Code i n p a r t d e f i n e s a vagrant as one who, "a) not h a v i n g any v i s i b l e means of s u p p o r t i s found wandering abroad or t r e s p a s s i n g and does not when r e q u i r e d j u s t i f y h i s presence i n the p l a c e where he i s found." A p o l i c e o f f i c e r ' s i m p r e s s i o n of a s u s p e c t ' s e x p l a n a -t i o n of h i s p o s i t i o n i n the above s i t u a t i o n i s s u b j e c t i v e and seems t o suggest almost u n l i m i t e d d i s c r e t i o n i n the p o l i c e . "Vagrancy" seems to be an outmoded r e l i c of f e u d a l c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s which has been g r o s s l y abused by the p o l i c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d people i n our s o c i e t y . Vagrancy i s a s t a t u s o f f e n c e and u s u a l l y 38 i n v o l v e s a person who i s poor, uneducated, i g n o r a n t of h i s l e g a l r i g h t s and w i t h the m o t i v a t i o n and means to improve h i s s i t u a t i o n . An a r r e s t on "vagrancy" grounds may p r o v i d e f o r some people a much needed o p p o r t u n i t y f o r temporary s h e l t e r , food and r e s t , when p e r s o n a l or group r e s o u r c e s a r e e x h a u s t e d . Role of the P r i v a t e C i t i z e n : A u t h o r i t y and Power i n the Law of A r r e s t S e c t i o n 434 of the Code r e l a t e s to the powers of the c i t i z e n and reads as f o l l o w s : "Anyone may a r r e s t w i t h o u t warrant a person whom he f i n d s c o m m i t t i n g an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e . " There are c e r t a i n other s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the power of the c i t i z e n t o a r r e s t i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . S e c t i o n 30 a u t h o r i z e s every person who w i t n e s s e s a breach to d e t a i n any person who commits or i s about to j o i n i n or to renew the breach o f the peace, f o r the purpose of g i v i n g him i n custody to a p o l i c e o f f i c e r . S e c t i o n 436 p r o v i d e s t h a t anyone may a r r e s t w i t h o u t warrant a person who on r e a s o n a b l e and p r o b a b l e grounds he b e l i e v e s has committed a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e and i s e s c a p i n g t h e r e f r o m and i s f r e s h l y pursued by persons who have a l a w f u l a u t h o r i t y to a r r e s t t h a t p e r s o n . S e c t i o n 437 empowers the owner or any person i n l a w f u l p o s s e s s i o n of any p r o p e r t y or any person i n l a w f u l p o s s e s s i o n of p r o p e r t y to a r r e s t w i t h o u t warrant a person whom he f i n d s c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e on or i n r e l a t i o n to t h a t p r o p e r t y . 3 9 A r r e s t - the t a k i n g of a person i n t o custody f o r the purpose of c h a r g i n g him w i t h a crime - i s a most s e n s i t i v e a r e a of p o l i c e a c t i v i t y . U s u a l l y , t h e b u s i n e s s of a r r e s t i s l e f t to the law enforcement o f f i c e r who i s presumed to have the t r a i n i n g and judgment n e c e s s a r y to make a good a r r e s t . Many p i t f a l l s can be encountered by an o f f i c e r when he d e p r i v e s a person of l i b e r t y through the p r o c e s s of a r r e s t . To perform t h i s t a s k p r o p e r l y , not o n l y knowledge of the r u l e s of law i s r e q u i r e d , but of equal i m p o r t a n c e , common sense becomes an a s s e t of immeasurable v a l u e . Whether the a c t i o n of a law enforcement o f f i c e r i n an a r r e s t i s r e a s o n a b l e or un r e a s o n a b l e i s a q u e s t i o n which cannot always be answered r e a d i l y . The word " r e a s o n a b l e " i s an e l a s t i c term of doubt-f u l " v a l u e by way of d e f i n i t i o n . " P r o b a b l e " a l o n g w i t h "good cause" may pose many problems i n law enforcement whenever an a r r e s t i s made " r e a s o n a b l e " or " p r o b a b l e " cause must be con-s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the l e g a l i t y of the a c t i o n t a k e n . R i g h t s of the I n d i v i d u a l An a r r e s t i s made by a c t u a l r e s t r a i n t of the s u b j e c t , or by h i s s u b m i s s i o n t o the custody of the person making the a r r e s t . G e n e r a l l y , the s u b j e c t i s in f o r m e d of the i n t e n t i o n to a r r e s t , the cause of a r r e s t , and the a u t h o r i t y f o r the a r r e s t . As much f o r c e as i s n e c e s s a r y t o make the a r r e s t i s a l l o w a b l e , but o n l y the amount n e c e s s a r y to overcome r e s i s -t a n c e . 40 Any p e r s o n who w i l l f u l l y r e s i s t s a l a w f u l a r r e s t , or i n t e r f e r e s i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l a w f u l a r r e s t i s g u i l t y o f a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . Y e t , g e n e r a l l y any p e r s o n may r e s i s t an u n l a w f u l a r r e s t , and may meet f o r c e w i t h f o r c e . A t common l a w a p e a c e o f f i c e r who a r r e s t e d a p e r s o n e i t h e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t a w a r r a n t i s , s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n s , r e q u i r e d t o i n f o r m t h e p e r s o n a r r e s t e d o f t h e c a u s e o f a r r e s t . I f t h e c i t i z e n i s n o t so i n f o r m e d t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r i s l i a b l e f o r f a l s e i m p r i s o n m e n t . That d u t y i s now s t a t u t o r y i n Ca n a d a . S e c t i o n 29 o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code p r o v i d e s as f o l l o w s : " ( 1 ) I t i s t h e d u t y o f e v e r y o n e who e x e c u t e s a p r o c e s s or w a r r a n t t o have i t w i t h h i m , where i t i s f e a s i b l e t o do s o , and t o p r o d u c e i t when r e q u e s t -ed t o do s o . ( 2 ) I t i s t h e d u t y o f e v e r y o n e who a r r e s t s a p e r s o n , w h e t h e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t w a r r a n t , t o g i v e n o t i c e t o t h a t p e r s o n , where i t i s f e a s i b l e t o do s o , o f ( a ) t h e p r o c e s s o r w a r r a n t under w h i c h he makes t h e a r r e s t , or ( b ) t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e a r r e s t . ( 3 ) F a i l u r e t o comply w i t h s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) o r ( 2 ) d o e s n o t o f i t s e l f d e p r i v e a p e r s o n who e x e c u t e s a p r o c e s s o r w a r r a n t , o r a p e r s o n who makes an a r r e s t , o r t h o s e who a s s i s t them, o f p r o t e c t i o n f r o m c r i m i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t s u b s e c t i o n ( 3 ) p r o v i d e s t h a t f a i l u r e t o c o m p l y w i t h s u b s e c t i o n (1) o r ( 2 ) does n o t o f i t s e l f d e p r i v e t h e p e r s o n m a k i n g t h e a r r e s t o f p r o t e c t i o n f r o m " c r i m i n a l " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The c i v i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p e r s o n m a k i n g t h e a r r e s t r e m a i n s a s i t was a t common l a w . 41 The e v a l u a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l v e r s u s community r i g h t s and t h e r e l a t e d r o l e o f b o t h p o l i c e and c o u r t a r e m a t t e r s u n d e r c o n t i n u o u s r e v i e w . Pope J o h n X X I I I i n Pacem i n T e r r i s s t a t e s t h a t "Human s o c i e t y c a n be n e i t h e r w e l l - o r d e r e d nor p r o s p e r o u s u n l e s s i t has some p e o p l e i n v e s t e d w i t h l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y to p r e s e r v e i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and t o d e v o t e t h e m s e l v e s as f a r as i s n e c e s s a r y t o work and c a r e f o r t h e good o f a l l . " Pope J o h n a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t i f t h e a d v a n t a g e s we e x p e c t a r e t o come f r o m j u r i d i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h e n , " T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t , i n c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g c o n -d i t i o n s , l e g i s l a t o r s n e v e r f o r g e t t h e norms o f m o r a l i t y , or c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s , o r t h e o b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e common g o o d . M o r e o v e r , e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s must c o - o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s o c i e t y w i t h d i s c r e t i o n , w i t h a f u l l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l a w and a f t e r a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and t h e c o u r t s must a d m i n i s t e r j u s t i c e i m p a r t i a l l y and w i t h o u t b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by f a v o r i t i s m or p r e s s u r e . The good o r d e r o f s o c i e t y a l s o demands t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s and i n t e r m e d i a t e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s s h o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d by l a w whenever t h e y have r i g h t s t o be e x e r c i s e d o r o b l i g a t i o n s t o be f u l f i l l e d . T h i s p r o t e c t i o n s h o u l d be g r a n t e d t o c i t i z e n s b o t h i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h e ach o t h e r and i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . " 42 C h a p t e r 111. INTEGRATION OF POLICE ADMINISTRATION  INTO THE MODERN COMMUNITY The P o l i c e and P u b l i c S u p p o r t The a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s and g r o u p s i s a r e s o u r c e s o v i t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f most p o l i c e p r o g r a m s t h a t d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o a r o u s e , p r o m o t e and m a i n t a i n p u b l i c c o n c e r n i n d e p a r t -ment a f f a i r s . The p o l i c e s h o u l d n o t r e s e n t s u c h a t t e n t i o n nor s h o u l d t h e y r e g a r d as h a p p y , a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c t a k e s no i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r work and e v i n c e s no d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r p r o b l e m . I n d i f f e r e n c e s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t r u e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e work o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t , b u t r a t h e r as a w a r n i n g t h a t t h e p u b l i c may, under s l i g h t p r o v o c a t i o n , v i o l e n t l y o b j e c t t o p o l i c e p r o c e d u r e s m e r e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h them. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , the- p u b l i c has an o b l i g a t i o n t o a s s i s t i n t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h v i t a l l y a f f e c t t h e l i v e s o f a l l i n t h e communit y : ( 1 ) t r a f f i c c o n t r o l ( 2 ) e r a d i c a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d c r i m e and (3) t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . W i l s o n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p o l i c e can h e l p g r e a t l y t o p r o m o t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o work i n t h e s e f i e l d s a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , b r i n g a b o u t i n c r e a s i n g l y f r i e n d l y 43 r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c and i t s l a w - e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s . C i t i z e n s and y o u t h c o u n c i l s a f f o r d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p o l i c e and p u b l i c t o c o n f e r on community p r o b l e m s , b u t o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e , t h e s e c o u n c i l s s e r v e as a v e h i c l e f o r d i s p e l l i n g i g n o r a n c e . P o l i c e w i l l be made a w a r e , e s p e c i a l -l y i n m i n o r i t y g r o u p n e i g h b o r h o o d s , t h a t a l l o f t h e members o f t h i s or t h a t m i n o r i t y g r o u p a r e n o t a l l l i k e t h o s e compar-a t i v e l y few who a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e l a w and w i t h whom t h e p o l i c e a r e more f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n t a c t . S y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r -s t a n d i n g and m u t u a l good w i l l must s p r i n g f r o m t h i s k i n d o f s h a r i n g i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s l a w - e n f o r c e m e n t j o b . The p o l i c e a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e a b o v e d e s c r i b e d l e v e l o f p r e v e n t i o n t o o n l y a v e r y s m a l l d e g r e e , i f a t a l l . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y and p o l i c e a r e not p r e p a r e d f o r i t . K a hn, q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r a p u b l i c d e p a r t m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y an a u t h o r i t a t i v e one, c a n or s h o u l d s t a f f l o c a l i m p r o v e m e n t and s e l f h e l p a c t i v i t i e s . P r o b l e m s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n u s u a l l y e n t a i l p r o g r a m s t h a t e x t e n d b e y o n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e . The c o -o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t y o f s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s i s t h e n r e q u i r e d . The s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o s e c u t o r and c o u r t s i s v i t a l t o t h e s u c -c e s s o f most p o l i c e p r o g r a m s . L i k e w i s e a g r e a t number o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h c r i m e p r e -v e n t i o n ; e n g i n e e r i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t r a f f i c c o n t r o l n e c e s s i t a t e t h e c o m b i n e d e f f o r t s o f e n g i n e e r s , 44 p l a n n e r s , n e w s p a p e r s , and o t h e r a g e n c i e s . The c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c and s e m i - p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p o l i c e a l o n e t o a c h i e v e b e c a u s e o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and u n r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r o f n e a r l y a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s . The h e a d s o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s , h o w e v e r , a r e u s u a l l y a m e n a b l e t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of community o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h a g e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r o m o t e c o -o r d i n a t i o n by c l a r i f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P u b l i c s u p p o r t , c o m m u n i t y - w i d e i n t e r e s t , and i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , must be e n l i s t e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment and a p p l i c a t i o n o f a c ommunity p r o g r a m p r o m o t e s i n t e r e s t i n i t s s u c c e s s . The g r e a t e r t h e number who a r e i n t e r e s t e d and a c t i v e l y e ngaged i n t h e s t u d y and s o l u t i o n o f community p r o b l e m s , t h e more s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h be t h e r e s u l t s . An o r g a n i z e d , i n f o r m e d , and a l e r t community w i l l p r o v i d e m o r a l b a c k i n g , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , and some s p e c i a l s k i l l s and w i l l p r o m o t e p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p o l i c e p r o b l e m s and o f t h e a c t i o n s p r o p o s e d f o r t h e i r s o l u t i o n . P o l i c e R o l e i n T r a f f i c C o n t r o l E s s e n t i a l l y , l a w e n f o r c e m e n t i n a d e m o c r a c y i s one o f t h e most humane s e r v i c e s a human b e i n g c a n r e n d e r t o h i s f e l l o w s . I s i t a s i g n o f t h e c y n i c i s m o f o u r t i m e s t h a t l a w e n f o r c e m e n t i s n o t u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d as a humane s e r v i c e e i t h e r by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t h e m s e l v e s o r by t h e p u b l i c ? The t r e n d i n r e c e n t y e a r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n p o l i c e 4 5 t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s , has been to g i v e u/ider r e c o g n i t i o n to the humane n a t u r e of p o l i c e work and a c c o r d i n g l y , to emphasize the dynamics of i n t e r - p e r s o n a l and i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s . A c c o r d -i n g to Germann, Day, and G a l l a t i , t h i s a t t e n t i o n i s not an a p a t h e t i c d e f e r e n c e to the demand of p r e s s u r e groups and merely a p r e s e n t a t i o n of watered-down concepts of democracy i n a c t i o n , but r a t h e r a c o n s c i o u s p o l i c y of the f o r w a r d -l o o k i n g c o u n c i l s of p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who are s e e k i n g to make our p o l i c e o f f i c e r s as competent i n d e a l i n g w i t h people as they are i n working w i t h " t h i n g s " . U n t i l r e c e n t l y i t was not c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t whether or not a p o l i c e o f f i c e r c o u l d get a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e , command t h e i r r e s p e c t and secure t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n . He d i d not have to know what m o t i v a t e d people t o a c t , nor how they were l i k e l y to r e a c t i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . 5 t i l l l e s s need he concern h i m s e l f w i t h how w e l l people i n the community got a l o n g w i t h one another . The p o l i c e must s c r u t i n i z e t h e i r own v i e w p o i n t to be c e r t a i n t h a t i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e one. T h e i r a t t i t u d e w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r concept of the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n - of t h e i r duty to the p u b l i c . They s h o u l d understand t h a t the p r i m a r y p o l i c e purpose i s to p r e v e n t v i o l a t i o n s , not to a r r e s t p e o p l e . They s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e the l i n e of demarca-t i o n between p o l i c e and c o u r t f u n c t i o n s . A p u b l i c t h a t c o - o p e r a t e s w i t h the p o l i c e , t h a t s u p p o r t s them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s , and t h a t observes laws and 46 r e g u l a t i o n s may be s a i d t o have a d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e . C h a r l e s R e i t h s t a t e s t h a t one B r i t i s h p o l i c e p r i n c i p l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t , "To seek and p r e s e r v e p u b l i c f a v o r , not by pa n d e r i n g to p u b l i c o p i n i o n , but by c o n s t a n t l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g a b s o l u t e l y i m p a r t i a l s e r v i c e t o Law, i n complete independence of p o l i c y , and w i t h o u t r e g a r d to the j u s t i c e or i n j u s t i c e of i n d i v i d u a l laws; by ready o f f e r i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e and f r i e n d s h i p to a l l members of the p u b l i c w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e i r w e a l t h or s o c i a l s t a n d i n g ; by ready e x e r c i s e of c o u r t e s y and good humor; and by ready o f f e r i n g of i n d i v i d u a l -j s a c r i f i c e i n p r o t e c t i n g and p r e s e r v i n g l i f e . " In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e , C h a r l e s R e i t h s t a t e s t h a t the p o l i c e have succeeded m a g n i f i c i e n t l y i n t h e i r e x e r c i s e and a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e , and they are not to blame f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to make i t c l e a r l y understood by the p u b l i c . The p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d and respond t o , e a g e r l y and r e w a r d i n g l y , the p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d to them by the p o l i c e i r r e s p e c -t i v e of a l l s o c i a l and c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . Of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o l i c e and laws, t h e r e i s s t i l l d e p l o r a b l e p u b l i c i g n o r a n c e , i n s p i t e of a c e n t u r y and a q u a r t e r of e x p e r i e n c e i n England of p o l i c e v a l u e s and achievement. The s p e c t a c l e of w ealthy m o t o r i s t s v e n t i n g t h e i r wrath a b u s i v e l y on the p o l i c e f o r a c t i o n i n c h e c k i n g a t r a f f i c o f f e n c e i s a common one t h a t can almost i n v a r i a b l y be found t o a r i s e from muddled t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g p o l i c e and l a w s . T h i s mental c o n f u s i o n .is v i s i b l e i n a l l s e c t i o n a l c o m p l a i n t of laws, and p o l i c e a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g them, which are d i s l i k e d on account of t h e i r e f f e c t on s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . In one way or another the p o l i c e a re 4 7 always l i a b l e t o be blamed f o r d i s l i k e d l a w s , and the a f f l u e n t and educated c l a s s e s i n the community are as much at f a u l t i n t h i s r e s p e c t as a r e any o t h e r s . I t i s o f t e n assumed by de m o n s t r a t o r s of every k i n d of o p i n i o n , who have to be even m i l d l y c o n t r o l l e d or r e s t r a i n e d , t h a t the p o l i c e a re opposed to t h e i r t e n e t s . I t i s normal, a f t e r f a c t i o n c o n t e s t s , f o r the p o l i c e to be accused by each s i d e of h a v i n g been p a r t i s a n s of the o t h e r . What s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d i s the s i n c e r i t y w i t h which h o s t i l e views of the p o l i c e a re u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d and h e l d . A c t u a l l y p o l i c e p o p u l a r -i t y i s more m a n i f e s t and deep r o o t e d among the poorer than among the w e a l t h i e r c l a s s e s . Our h i s t o r i a n s and our educa-t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s are to blame by t h e i r n e g l i g e n c e f o r making p o s s i b l e p u b l i c pronouncements such as the f o l l o w i n g one, which was made w i t h u n q u e s t i o n a b l e s i n c e r i t y by a w e l l - e d u c a t e d S o c i a l i s t s peaker: "The p o l i c e a r e the fence which the r i c h have e r e c t e d round themselves to p r o t e c t themselves from the poor." F r e s h h i s t o r i c a l p r e -s e n t a t i o n i s u r g e n t l y needed to d i s p e l i g n o r a n c e r e g a r d i n g community needs of law-enforcement machinery; the v a l u e of our form of i t ; and the a l t e r n a t i v e k i n d s which, by a m i r a c l e we have escaped. W i l s o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n on h a n d l i n g the T r a f f i c v i o l a t o r s t a t e s t h a t u n p l e a s a n t i n c i d e n t s are most s u c c e s s f u l l y handled by s o l i c i t i n g the a s s i s t a n c e of the o f f e n d e r , by p u t t i n g him at h i s ease, and by p e r m i t t i n g him to save f a c e . 48 Most o f f e n d e r s w i t h whom the p o l i c e d e a l a re m o t o r i s t s , and the o f f i c e r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s i n h a n d l i n g them so as to c r e a t e minimum resentment. 1. The o f f i c e r s h o u l d d e c i d e , as he prepareis t o stop the o f f e n d e r , whether the o f f e n c e s h o u l d be handled by warning or by c i t a t i o n . T h i s means t h a t the d e c i s i o n w i l l be based on the observ e d f a c t s of the v i o l a t i o n w i t h o u t r e g a r d to the p e r s o n a l i t y , appearance, or words of the o f f e n d e r . I f an o f f i c e r s e r v e s a c i t a t i o n because of harsh words spoken to him by a m o t o r i s t when he would o t h e r w i s e have g i v e n a warn-i n g , then he i s c i t i n g the man f o r h a v i n g spoken u n k i n d l y , and he s h o u l d know t h e r e i s no law f o r b i d d i n g unkind words. Only when he r e c o g n i z e s the m o t o r i s t as a p e r s i s t e n t v i o l a t o r s h o u l d the o f f i c e r be p e r m i t t e d to s e r v e a c i t a t i o n a f t e r h a v i n g d e c i d e d on a warning. Should the o f f e n d e r ' s words and a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n of the law, the o f f i c e r may a r r e s t and so charge him; the warning, however, s h o u l d s t a n d as the f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the t r a f f i c o f f e n c e , the a r r e s t b e i n g f o r a q u i t e s e p a r a t e v i o l a t i o n . 2. Immediately on s t o p p i n g the o f f e n d e r , the o f f i c e r s h o u l d s t a t e i n an a f f i r m a t i v e way why the stop was made, such as "You were d r i v i n g too f a s t " or "You r a n p a s t the stop s i g n " . Common c o u r t e s y demands t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . 3 . The o f f i c e r s h o u l d s t a t e i m m e d i a t e l y what a c t i o n w i l l be ta k e n , such as " I am going to g i v e you a warning" or " I am going to g i v e you a c i t a t i o n " . Most t r a f f i c o f f e n d e r s w i l l 49 be g i v e n w a r n i n g s , and i n f o r m i n g them a t once r e l i e v e s them o f some t e n s i o n and a s s i s t s i n p u t t i n g them a t e a s e . F o r t h e o f f i c e r t o keep t h e m o t o r i s t i n s u s p e n s e i n o r d e r t o p u n i s h him f o r h i s v i o l a t i o n i s u s u r p i n g t h e j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n . A l s o , a b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e v i o l a t o r who i s a b o u t t o r e c e i v e a c i t a t i o n when t h e i n t e n d e d a c t i o n i s c o m m u n i c a t e d t o him a t o n c e . 4. The o f f i c e r s h o u l d n o t ask q u e s t i o n s up t o t h i s p o i n t ; t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n i n t h e f o r m o f a f f i r m a t i v e s t a t e -m e n t s. Q u e s t i o n s a r e u n n e c e s s a r y and i n v i t e c o n v e r s a t i o n f r o m t h e m o t o r i s t ; c o n v e r s a t i o n u s u a l l y l e a d s t o a r g u m e n t , and p o l i c e m e n n e v e r w i n a r g u m e n t s w i t h c i t i z e n s . The q u e s t i o n , "How f a s t were you g o i n g ? " may l e a d t h e o f f e n d e r t o t h i n k t h a t t h e o f f i c e r does n o t know and i s a t t e m p t i n g t o t r a p him i n t o an a d m i s s i o n . Such q u e s t i o n s i n v i t e t h e c i t i z e n t o l i e ; i f t h e m o t o r i s t s t a t e s t h a t he was w i t h i n t h e l a w f u l s p e e d l i m i t , he has i n e f f e c t c a l l e d t h e o f f i c e r a l i a r . O f f i c e r s s h o u l d a v o i d p l a c i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e even t h e b e s t t r a i n e d a r e n o t a l w a y s a b l e t o a v o i d a f e e l i n g o f r e s e n t m e n t u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The i m -p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e i s t h e n l o s t , t h e c i t i z e n becomes r e s e n t -f u l , and an u n p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p s t h a t w o u l d have been a v o i d e d by a c o r r e c t p r o c e d u r e . 5 . The o f f i c e r s h o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e o f f e n d e r as b r i e f l y a s p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t b e i n g c u r t or d i s c o u r t e o u s , so as t o a v o i d u n n e c e s s a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . The c i t a t i o n o r w a r n i n g s h o u l d be 5 0 f i l l e d o u t when e x a m i n i n g t h e l i c e n s e number, away f r o m t h e d r i v e r , t h u s d i m i n i s h i n g t h e m o t o r i s t ' s o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n -v e r s e . 6. The o f f i c e r s h o u l d be c o u r t e o u s and c i v i l . A s u i t a b l e g r e e t i n g and f a r e w e l l , a c c o m p a n i e d by a s m i l e and i n f o r m a l s a l u t e o r wave o f t h e h a n d , a r e d e s i r a b l e . The o f f i c e r s h o u l d not p e r m i t h i m s e l f t o f e e l t h a t t h e o f f e n d e r i s h i s enemy, and i f t h e m o t o r i s t r e q u e s t s i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r t h e i n c i d e n t h a s been d i s p o s e d o f , t h e o f f i c e r s h o u l d s u p p l y i t i n a f r i e n d l y manner. The P o l i c e R o l e w i t h Y o u t h The p a t r o l m a n s h o u l d o v e r l o o k no o p p o r t u n i t y t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h and t o w i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f c h i l d r e n on h i s b e a t . A c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d h e r e w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d i n h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o a m a t u r e c i t i z e n ; i t has i m p o r t a n t c r i m e - p r e v e n t i o n v a l u e , b e c a u s e i t w i l l e n s u r e a d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e i n t h e c h i l d and w i l l a l s o i n f l u e n c e h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e when he becomes an a d u l t . Good w i l l on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n a l s o r e s u l t s i n t h e good w i l l o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . On t h e f r o n t l i n e , i n work w i t h t h e most a n t i - s o c i a l and v i c i o u s o f young d e l i n q u e n t s , p o l i c e a r e i n t i m a t e l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e o u t r a g e o u s d e t a i l o f s p e c i f i c o f f e n c e s and d e p r e d a t i o n s . Some w i l l t e n d t o w a r d p u n i t i v e p o l i c y as t h e r e s u l t . 51 The p a t r o l m a n on t h e b e a t must know whether h i s p a r t i c -u l a r p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t has a d o p t e d a g e n e r a l " g e t t o u g h " p o l i c y w hich p r e c l u d e s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d m e a s u r e s . He must b a l a n c e a g g r e s s i v e l y worded s p e e c h e s a g a i n s t t h e o f t e n e x p r e s s -ed view t h a t p o l i c e must e v a l u a t e c a s e s , r e f e r to d i r e c t -s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , and c o - o p e r a t e c l o s e l y w i t h s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and c l i n i c s . D e s p i t e some d e b a t e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n , most p o l i c e m e n a r e a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , l i t t l e c h o i c e f o r t h e p o l i c e i n d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r c o r e r o l e w i t h young p e o p l e . That i s d i c t a t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s which a r e t h e i r s a l o n e . T h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w hich depend on community s i z e , s t a f f i n g , and s o c i a l a gency r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e may be s h i f t s i n emphasis which r e f l e c t the d e l i n q u e n c y s i t u a t i o n and community mood. But t h e p o l i c e have a c l e a r t a s k - and t h e y need a j u v e n i l e s e r v i c e i f t h e y a r e to a c c o m p l i s h i t , a c c o r d i n g t o A l f r e d J . Kahn. P o l i c e a s s i g n e d t o work w i t h young p e o p l e s h o u l d do p o l i c e t a s k s w h i l e a v o i d i n g the r o l e s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s , t e a c h e r s , c l e r g y m e n , and r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r s . The q u e s t i o n i s , "What a r e p o l i c e t a s k s ? " What r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e i n -h e r e n t i n t h e p o l i c e a s s i g n m e n t i n work w i t h y o u t h , and how must p o l i c e be e q u i p p e d t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? P o l i c e a r e and s h o u l d , of c o u r s e , r e m a i n p o l i c e , not d o i n g more than i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o them. P o l i c e c e r t a i n l y 5 2 c a n n o t p l a y a l l r o l e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t r o u b l e . T h e r e i s , b a s i c a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e p o l i c e , d e s p i t e some v a r i a t i o n s i n v i e w s a b o u t p o l i c e p r o g r a m s i n r e c r e a t i o n and community o r g a n i z a t i o n , a t one end o f t h e s p e c t r u m , and i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t , a t t h e o t h e r . B a s i c a l l y , t h e p o l i c e a r e c o u n t e d on by t h e community t o p r o t e c t i t a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s . P e o p l e h a v e a r i g h t t o f e e l t h a t t h e i r s t r e e t s a r e s a f e , t h a t t h e y can r e l a x i n t h e i r p a r k s , t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i l l n o t be m i l e s t e d i n t h e p l a y -g r o u n d s and on t h e b i k e p a t h s . A l l p o l i c e m e n a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some d e t e c t i o n and a p p r e h e n s i o n , j u s t as a l l a r e a p a r t o f c a s e f i n d i n g where t h e r e i s no r e a l c r i m e b u t where p e o p l e need h e l p . T hese f u n c t i o n s d e v e l o p n o r m a l l y and n a t u r a l l y i n t h e c o u r s e o f p a t r o l l i n g f o r p r o t e c t i v e and d e t e r r e n t p u r -p o s e s . A l l p o l i c e i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d know, u n d e r s t a n d , and a d o p t t h e c o n t e n t and t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t l a w , w h i c h j u s t i f i e s t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a l l e g e d d e l i n q u e n c y and n e g l e c t . G e n e r a l p o l i c e r e g u l a t i o n s , p r o c e d u r e s , and p r a c t i c e s s h o u l d be i n harmony w i t h o v e r - a l l community d e l i n -q u ency p o l i c y . A l l p o l i c e s h o u l d have n e c e s s a r y o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r i g h t s o f young p e o p l e d u r i n g q u e s t i o n i n g and o t h e r p h a s e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n and community p r a c t i c e i n use o f d e t e n t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . A l l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s u s e d i s c r e t i o n a b o u t a r r e s t i n g and so have some c r i t e r i a f o r s c r e e n i n g . Even i n t h e s y s t e m w h i c h d e f i n e s t h e o f f i c e r ' s r o l e as d e t e c t i o n and d e t e r m e n t he u s e s 53 j u d g m e n t . He g i v e s m i n o r o f f e n d e r s "a s e c o n d c h a n c e " ; he d e c i d e s t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i o n s a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f momentary i m p u l s e s or a c c i d e n t s ; he a g r e e s t o l e t p a r e n t , t e a c h e r , o r c l e r g y m a n e f f e c t r e f o r m . The desk s e r g e a n t or p o l i c e o f f i c e r who r e s p o n d s t o a n e i g h b o r ' s c o m p l a i n t or a p a r e n t ' s p l e a f o r h e l p i s m a k i n g m a j o r d e c i s i o n s as f a r a s a c h i l d ' s f u t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d . B r i e f s c r e e n i n g i s an i n e v i t a b l e f u n c t i o n o f a l l p o l i c e -men and n o t o n l y o f y o u t h s p e c i a l i s t s . E v e r y o f f i c e r on t h e b e a t needs some f u r t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r b r i e f s c r e e n i n g i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n and y o u t h . He must g e t t o u n d e r s t a n d j u v e n i l e c o u r t l a w ; he must know a b o u t t h e p r o t e c t i v e o b l i g a -t i o n s i n n e g l e c t ; he r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t minimum k n o w l e d g e o f l o c a l a g e n c y s e r v i c e s and o f how t o s t e e r p e o p l e t o them; and he s h o u l d h a v e a c o r e o f o r i e n t a t i o n t o m e n t a l h e a l t h . G i v e n t h e s e , he s h o u l d be a b l e t o answer i n q u i r i e s and e x e r -c i s e t h a t d e g r e e o f d i s c r e t i o n w h i c h i s i n e v i t a b l e even i n a d e p a r t m e n t w i t h o u t a j u v e n i l e a i d d i v i s i o n . C h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t s t a t u t e s e n c o u r a g e community i n t e r -v e n t i o n i n many s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n w h i c h a r e n o t t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a d u l t c r i m e s . I n i t s " p r o t e c t i v e " r o l e , t h e s t a t e i s c o n c e r n e d i f a c h i l d i s o u t o f c o n t r o l o f h i s p a r e n t s , r u n s away, eng a g e s i n u n a c c e p t a b l e s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , f r e q u e n t s q u e s t i o n a b l e p l a c e s , t r u a n t s or i s s e v e r e l y n e g l e c t -ed or m i s t r e a t e d . Such c a s e s a r e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y t o t a l s . A c c o r d i n g t o Kahn t h e c o u r t ( a n d t h e 54 p o l i c e as ag e n t s of the c o u r t ) i s p r e p a r e d to a c c e p t and c o n s i d e r p e t i t i o n s a l l e g i n g these " l e s s s e r i o u s " v i o l a t i o n s because i t has a h e l p i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e r o l e . The p o l i c e o f f i c e r who e n t e r s a s i t u a t i o n where he cannot d e c i d e whether to take the case to c o u r t or n o t , s i m p l y i n the l i g h t of a penal code law about the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the o f f e n c e , needs some a d d i t i o n a l b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g whether the c o u r t s h o u l d be c a l l e d upon i n a p r o t e c t i v e r o l e . For example, Jean may come to the o f f i c e r ' s a t t e n t i o n because she i s a minor and i s i n a c o c k t a i l l o u n ge, but a s k i l l e d person might a l s o note t h a t she i s m e n t a l l y i l l and needs h e l p . D e c i s i o n s about such cases r e q u i r e some e x a m i n a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n to s e p a r a t e the a p p a r e n t l y a c c i d e n t a l o f f e n d -er from the d e l i b e r a t e one; the c h i l d i n a normal f a m i l y whic i s a b l e to handle i t s problems from the c h i l d i n the d i s i n t e g r a t e d f a m i l y ; the r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t from the o b v i o u s -l y d i s t u r b e d ; the f a m i l y i n a neighborhood w i t h many p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s from the ho u s e h o l d i n f l u e n c e d by a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s of a c u l t u r a l sub group; the c h i l d w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y s t r e n g t h s and s t a b i l i t y from the one w i t h s i g n s of s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e ; the presence of sound e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s from t h e i r absence. These f a c t o r s do not have to' do w i t h l e g a l e v i d e n c e , w i t h p e n a l code c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - but do p r o v i d e the b a s i s 'for the e x e r c i s e of d i s c r e t i o n i n i n s t a n c e s where a r r e s t s are not mandatory. 55 I f p o l i c e are to be a s s i g n e d t h i s k i n d o f s c r e e n i n g they c l e a r l y need good u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human p e r s o n a l i t y , of e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems, and o f the causes of d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . They must be c a p a b l e o f r a p i d l y r e v i e w i n g i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; they need s u f f i c i e n t o b j e c t i v i t y and m a t u r i t y so t h a t the d e c i s i o n i s based on both community i n t e r e s t s and the c h i l d ' s needs, r a t h e r than the o f f i c e r ' s s e n t i m e n t s or p r e j u d i c e s . Sometimes, i t i s t r u e , p o l i c e departments, have i n t h e i r p a t r o l f o r c e s w o n d e r f u l l y i n t u i t i v e men who can d e c i d e which minor o f f e n c e s and c o m p l a i n t s r e q u i r e more i n t e n s i v e a t t e n t i o n and when a word of a d v i c e or warning or a b i t of humor wi11 do. Case e v a l u a t i o n s based on s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge or p r e p a r a t i o n cannot be expected of every patrolman on the beat, however. I f departments are to undertake case e v a l u a -t i o n s r e g u l a r l y , they r e q u i r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y p r e p a r e d s t a f f s -s p e c i a l i z e d j u v e n i l e p o l i c e . The concept of r e f e r r a l i s c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g new to the p o l i c e . P o l i c e o f f i c e r s have always known where to send an e v i c t e d f a m i l y or a homeless man f o r l o d g i n g . However, o t h e r r e f e r r a l s r e q u i r e more than t h i s . The v a l u e of t h e r e f e r r a l depends on good s e l e c t i o n of the agency, c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c h i l d and h i s needs to the agency, by way of p r e p a r i n g the ground, and adequate work w i t h t h e c h i l d and p a r e n t s so t h a t the r e f e r r a l w i l l be used. Agency r e c o r d s are f u l l of 56 the comment, "Did not c o o p e r a t e , " a f t e r r e f e r r a l s which were p o o r l y p r e p a r e d . The f u l l knowledge of community r e s o u r c e s i n v o l v e d and the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a b i l i t y to work w i t h a l l k i n d s of p e o p l e i n need or i n t r o u b l e have not been t r a d i t i o n -a l equipment of a l l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . The P o l i c e Role i n R e c r e a t i o n In t a l k i n g about the p o l i c e r o l e i n r e c r e a t i o n Kahn b e l i e v e s t h e r e are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d . A r e c e n t n a t i o n a l survey conducted by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a -t i o n of C h i e f s o f P o l i c e showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y agreed t h a t p o l i c e s h o u l d not conduct r e c r e a t i o n programs. There was overwhelming agreement t h a t r e c r e a t i o n or park departments s h o u l d sponsor group r e c r e a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h i s , i t was a l s o found i n t h i s s t u d y , and i n an e a r l i e r one, t h a t the p o l i c e a r e h e a v i l y committed i n r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by the wide spread view t h a t p o l i c e s h o u l d convey the f a c t t h a t they are f r i e n d s of youth by g e t t i n g to know young people and becoming known to them i n the m i d s t of p l e a s u r a b l e a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s noted, f o r example, t h a t t h e P o l i c e A t h l e t i c League p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as a PAL. To t h i s argument i s added the statement t h a t i n t h e i r work w i t h young people they become aware of major r e s o u r c e l a c k s and f e e l prompted to s u p p l y r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s when needed. A l s o , i t i s s a i d , p o l i c e m e n as a group r e p r e s e n t a r e s e r v o i r of a t t r a c t i v e and p h y s i c a l l y f i t 57 men who are cap a b l e of c o n d u c t i n g a t h l e t i c programs. These views have h i s t o r i c a l v a l i d i t y b u t, to most p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s , are not adequate to j u s t i f y c o n t i n u a t i o n of p o l i c e a t h l e t i c programs i n the f u t u r e . The image young people have, and s h o u l d have, of p o l i c e depends on what they do i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l r o l e s i n the neighborhood, on ' t r a f f i c d uty, r e s p o n d i n g to a l a r m s , and i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o m p l a i n t s . Second, the r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d has made major p r o g r e s s i n r e c e n t decades. Many c i t i e s have r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s t o conduct l a r g e programs, and the l e a d e r s h i p of t h e s e programs, s h o u l d be, i n t h e hands of p e r s o n n e l p r e p a r e d f o r the j o b . On the other hand, those p o l i c e who w i s h , because of a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , to s e r v e as v o l u n t e e r s or p a r t time r e c r e a t i o n workers would g e n e r a l l y be welcomed by p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s . The l a t e Bruce Smith, an o u t s t a n d i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the p o l i c e f i e l d , gave t h i s a d v i c e t o one department and i t has g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n : "The crime p r e v e n t i o n t a s k of the p o l i c e department i n g e n e r a l and the J u v e n i l e A i d Bureau i n p a r t i c u l a r i s b i g enough, w i t h o u t u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s c o l l a t e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a s e p a r a t e and a b s o r b i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l program." He added t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t the p o l i c e a t h l e t i c program r e a l l y p r e v e n t e d d e l i n q u e n c y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , "the hard f a c t remains t h a t PAL does not e a s i l y a t t r a c t or h o l d the i n t e r e s t of d e l i n q u e n t s , w h i l e the p r e - d e l i n q u e n c y s t a t u s of many PAL members must always r e s i d e s t r i c t l y i n the realm of o p i n i o n , w i t h no d e m o n s t r a t a b l e bases f o r a s s e r t -ed r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " 2 58 Even p r o p o n e n t s of p o l i c e r e c r e a t i o n e f f o r t s a g r e e t h a t p o l i c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d grow o u t o f b r o a d community p l a n n i n g and s h o u l d e n s u r e p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n e d r e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s . Such q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w o u l d r u l e o u t some c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s and g i v e e m p h a s i s t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f p o l i c e t o r e p o r t r e c r e a t i o n needs t o t h e community and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g f o r needed s e r v i c e s . I f t h e p o l i c e have an i m p o r t a n t p r e v e n t i v e r o l e , i t d e r i v e s f r o m t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y i n ' s i t u a t i o n f i n d i n g ' w h i c h p a r a l l e l s t h e i r c a s e f i n d i n g . T h e i r p a t r o l and i n v e s t i g a t i o n f u n c t i o n s b r i n g them n a t u r a l l y t o community c o n d i t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h , u n c o r r e c t e d , a r e h a z a r d s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f y o u t h . I n t h e a r e a o f t r e a t m e n t , p o l i c e s h o u l d r e n d e r b r i e f c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s , i f a t a l l , o n l y t o c h i l d r e n who need n o t be t a k e n t o c o u r t and who a r e n o t r e f e r r a b l e i m m e d i a t e l y f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r . S i n c e t h e r e w i l l have been no c o u r t a d j u d i c a t i o n , e v e r y t h i n g n e c e s s a r y s h o u l d be done t o c l a r i f y t h e v o l u n t a r y n a t u r e o f t h e s e r v i c e . O b v i o u s l y , o n l y a w e l l q u a l i f i e d j u v e n i l e s t a f f c o u l d o f f e r b r i e f c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s . F o r l a c k o f o t h e r community s e r v i c e s , some p o l i c e u n i t s o f f e r what i s c a l l e d " u n o f f i c i a l p r o b a t i o n " . Such p r o g r a m s , a c c o r d i n g t o Kahn, r a i s e s e r i o u s d o u b t s , s i n c e t h e r e has been no c o u r t a c t i o n to d e t e r m i n e t h a t t h e r e i s a l e g a l b a s i s f o r p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . Y e t young p e o p l e a r e b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o r e p o r t r e g u l a r l y , l i s t e n t o ' l e c t u r e s ' , and f o l l o w c e r t a i n 59 r u l e s . I f s e r v i c e i s o f f e r e d , t h e c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s must know t h a t i t i s v o l u n t a r y , or h i s r i g h t s a r e b e i n g i g n o r e d . " U n o f f i c i a l p r o b a t i o n " i s n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t u s i n a p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t o r a c o u r t . R a t h e r , community a g e n c i e s must r e c o g n i z e , r e s p e c t and c o - o p e r a t e w i t h p o l i c e as community p r o t e c t o r s , as f i r s t - l e v e l c a s e f i n d e r s and c a s e s c r e e n e r s , and as a c c o u n t -a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n f o r young p e o p l e i n t r o u b l e . 6 0 C h a p t e r I V . POLICE ADMINISTRATION AND PERSONNEL The P o l i c e C h i e f and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n "The c l i m a t e i n w h i c h t h e p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r f u n c t i o n s i s s l i g h t l y warmer t h a n t h a t e n j o y e d by o t h e r e x e c u t i v e s . W h i l e t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f a c o r p o r a -t i o n may be r e v e a l e d t o t h e s t o c k h o l d e r s a t a y e a r l y m e e t i n g , t h e c i t i z e n c r i t i c a l l y e x a m i n e s h i s p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t w i t h each e d i t i o n of t h e l o c a l n e wspaper." 1 Law e n f o r c e m e n t t o d a y , i s b i g b u s i n e s s , one w h i c h must be more e f f i c i e n t t h a n a l a r g e i n d u s t r y , f o r l i f e and f r e e d o m , as w e l l as p r o p e r t y , depend upon t h e e f f i c i e n c y and t h e h o n e s t y o f t h e p o l i c e . C o n t r o l l i n g p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r i s t h e method t r a d i t i o n a l -l y u s e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e p o l i c e p u r p o s e s o f p r o t e c t i n g l i f e , l i m b and p r o p e r t y . P u b l i c c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s d e p e n d s l a r g e l y on f a v o r a b l e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c and t h e p o l i c e . The p u b l i c ' s o p i n i o n o f an e n t i r e g o v e r n m e n t a l body i s o f t e n d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n a t u r e o f i t s c o n t a c t s w i t h t h a t g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c e a g e n c y . I f t h e p u b l i c b a s e s i t s o p i n i o n o f p o l i c e , on t h e o u t -come o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p o l i c e , and i f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c o n t a c t be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e o f f i c e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p o l i c y p r e v i o u s l y s e t f o r t h by h i s s u p e r i o r , t h e n i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p o l i c e p u r p o s e depends on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d e c i s i o n s made by t h e p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a -t o r i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c i e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i f f o r no o t h e r , 61 t h e p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r must i n c r e a s e h i s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a b i l i t y . C l e a r - c u t p o l i c i e s t e n d t o f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e p o l i c e a c t i o n . I t h a s been s a i d many t i m e s t h a t i n a d e m o c r a c y , "a c i t y g e t s t h e k i n d o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e t h a t i t d e s e r v e s , " I f t h e p u b l i c i s a p a t h e t i c , i n s e n s i t i v e and i g n o r a n t , t h e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t s e r v i c e s w i l l p r o b a b l y be i n s t r u m e n t s o f power, r a t h e r t h a n i n s t r u m e n t s o f p r o t e c t i o n ; and i n s t r u m e n t s o f s e l f -i s h n e s s r a t h e r t h a n i n s t r u m e n t s o f s e r v i c e . T h i s t h i n k i n g may be m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e i t assumes t h a t t h e p e o p l e know what t h e y want. The p e o p l e i n E n g l a n d d i d n o t know what t h e y w a n t e d i n 1826, d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f s o c i a l c h a o s and up-h e a v a l , e x c e p t r e l i e f f r o m t h e i r t r o u b l e s . I t r e m a i n e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t s e l f t o t a k e i n i t i a t i v e and f o r m u l a t e t h e means and t h e method w h i c h t u r n e d i n s u c h a f i n e p e r f o r m a n c e on t h i s o c c a s i o n . A p p r o v a l o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r m u l a was t h e n e x t s t e p , and i t came q u i c k l y . G i v e n a l l t h e f a c t s by c o u r a g e o u s and r e s p o n s i b l e l e a d e r s t h e p e o p l e c a n be e n t r u s t -ed w i t h t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n . Too o f t e n , e i t h e r t h r o u g h i n c a p a c i t y o r i n d i f f e r e n c e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has f a i l e d t o i n t e r p r e t i t s p r o b l e m s t o t h e p e o p l e , and has f a i l e d t o f o r m u l a t e and p r e s e n t t o them f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l an o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o g r a m e q u a l t o t h e demands o f modern s o c i e t y . The n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i c e j o b p l a c e s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y premium upon a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y and e m p h a s i z e s t h e 6 2 i m p o r t a n c e o f a d e q u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s t e c h n i c a l j o b o f management. The t r u e e x e c u t i v e p o s s e s s e s an i n n a t e i n t e r e s t i n , and a f f e c t i o n f o r p e o p l e . E x e c u t i v e s a r e m o l d e r s o f human s t u f f . They know t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s and c a p a c i t i e s of t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them and e n d e a v o r t o b u i l d them i n t o b e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e . They a l s o know t h a t i n c r e a s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u r e o f t h e i r men i n c r e a s e s t h e q u a l i t y o f d e p a r t m e n t a l p e r f o r m a n c e and t h a t t h i s i n t u r n r e f l e c t s c r e d i t upon t h e head o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o V. A. L e o n a r d , PhD., t h i s t r a i t was among t h o s e t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s -f u l l e a d e r s h i p o f A u g u s t V o l l m e r d u r i n g t h e y e a r s he was C h i e f o f P o l i c e i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . C h i e f V o l l m e r e n c o u r a g e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o r e a c h f o r t h e h i g h e s t r u n g on t h e l a d d e r o f a c h i e v e m e n t i n h i s c h o s e n p r o f e s s i o n . Under h i s e x p e r t s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e B e r k e l e y P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t became t h e n a t i o n ' s o n l y t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r p o l i c e c h i e f s and more t h a n t w e n t y o f h i s o f f i c e r s s u b s e q u e n t l y became p o l i c e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e s i n o t h e r A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . The p o l i c e c h i e f has a d u a l l e a d e r s h i p r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He must p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t , and as t h e head of t h e f o r c e he must r e p r e s e n t i t i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e head o f t h e c i t y ( o r t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e p o l i c e c o m m i s s i o n ) and t h r o u g h him w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and t h e p u b l i c . 63 A c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n c l u d e s the t a s k of management, which f a c i l i t a t e s and makes p o s s i b l e the e f f e c t i v e accomplishment of the other two, i . e . l i n e or f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s ( p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s ) and s e r v i c e s ( a u x i l i a r y f u n c t i o n s ) . The p r i n c i p a l t a s k of the c h i e f i s to see t h a t the r e s o u r c e s of h i s department are so d i r e c t e d t h a t i t s o b j e c t i v e s - p r e s e r v a t i o n of the peace, p r o t e c t i o n of l i f e and p r o p e r t y , and enforcement of the law - are a c h i e v -ed e c o n o m i c a l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . Success depends on the p e r -formance of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s ; some of th e s e s h o u l d remain w i t h i n the o f f i c e of the c h i e f or c l o s e l y t i e d to i t , w h i l e o t h e r s may be f u l l y a s s i g n e d to o p e r a t i n g and s e r v i c e u n i t s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s may be d i v i d e d c o n v e n i e n t l y i n t o 0 ) o p e r a t i o n a l t a s k s t h a t are concerned w i t h the immediate d i r e c t i o n of the r e s o u r c e s of the department toward the ac-complishment of the p r i m a r y p o l i c e o b j e c t i v e s and ( 2 ) manager-i a l d u t i e s of s t a f f i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l and e q u i p p i n g i t to do the j o b . The o p e r a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s a r i s e from the n e c e s s i t y of s e e i n g t h a t each component t a s k i n the a c c o m p l i s h -ment of the p o l i c e purpose i s performed. The f o r c e must be o r g a n i z e d , s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d , o p e r a t i o n s p l a n n e d , procedures o u t l i n e d , p l a n s put i n a c t i o n , and c o n t r o l s e x e r -c i s e d i f the c h i e f i s to see t h a t the job i s done. The pr i m a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s , t h e r e f o r e are p l a n n i n g , d i r e c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g . The c h i e f must o r g a n i z e , d e p u t i z e 6 4 and s u p e r v i s e . A p o l i c e department must have sound management i f i t i s t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . M a n a g e r i a l needs are p r e s e n t i n every o r g a n i z a t i o n - and the u n d e r t a k i n g must be f i n a n c e d , b u i l d i n g s and equipment must be p r o v i d e d and w i s e l y used, and p e r s o n n e l must be r e c r u i t e d and prepar e d f o r t h e i r t a s k s . B u d g e t t a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s have to be o b t a i n e d f o r p r o j e c t e d work programs, and t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r both men and equipment must be p r e s c r i b e d i f s u i t a b l e r e s o u r c e s a r e to be s e c u r e d . The best man has to be s e l e c t e d f o r a p p o i n t -ment and p r o m o t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s ; f a i r but s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e i s e s s e n t i a l ; the u n f i t have to be e l i m i n a t e d ; and r e c r u i t and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g must be p r o v i d e d . O f f i c e r s s h o u l d be r a t e d on t h e b a s i s of performance and a b i l i t y of promotions and assignments are to be made w i s e l y . P r o v i s i o n must a l s o be made f o r the o f f i c e r s ' w e l f a r e . Morale d e s t r o y i n g i n f l u e n c e s have to be d i s c o v e r e d and e l i m i n a t e d , and morale b u i l d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s u p e r i o r and s u b o r d i n a t e o f f i c e r s must be e s t a b l i s h e d . S a t i s -f a c t o r y p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s must a l s o be m a i n t a i n e d i f department o b j e c t i v e s are to be r e a l i z e d . When a p o l i c e f o r c e o p e r a t e s e f f e c t i v e l y as a u n i t , i t i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d . The purpose of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o s i m p l i f y the d i r e c t i o n , c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and c o n t r o l of members of the f o r c e so t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of the department may be gaine d e a s i l y , e f f e c t i v e l y and s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . 65 P o l i c e o b j e c t i v e s a r e a t t a i n e d by p l a n n i n g , d i r e c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g ; the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s u c c e s s -f u l performance of these f u n c t i o n s r e s t s w i t h the c h i e f . J u s t as the e x e r c i s e of a u t h o r i t y i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the c h i e f , but of n e c e s s i t y permeates the e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , so i n s p e c -t i o n and c o n t r o l a r e not performed e x c l u s i v e l y by any one p e r s o n , but are i n p r o c e s s throughout the department. At each l e v e l of a u t h o r i t y , the head must p l a n , d i r e c t , and c o n t r o l -from the c h i e f down each s u c c e s s i v e l e v e l to the o f f i c e r who performs the t a s k . In p r a c t i c e , the c h i e f ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by the amount of time he has a v a i l a b l e , h i s concept of the im-p o r t a n c e of a p a r t i c u l a r t a s k , h i s i n t e r e s t i n i t , h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n the a b i l i t y o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s , and h i s own a b i l i t y to d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y . His r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment, however, must be emphasized. A l t h o u g h p l a n n i n g and i n s p e c t i o n are fundamental to the e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of a p o l i c e department, the program and p r o c e d u r e s which they p r o v i d e would be m e a n i n g l e s s w i t h o u t w e l l - q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l to c a r r y them out. A p o l i c e d e p a r t -ment i s no b e t t e r than the aggregate of i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. Incompetent, u n t r a i n e d , and u n d i s c i p l i n e d policemen i n v a r i a b l y p r o v i d e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e ; they damage the r e p u t a t i o n of t h e i r own department and promote u n f a v o r a b l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n throughout the c o u n t r y . There i s no p l a c e i n a modern, p r o -g r e s s i v e department f o r s t u p i d , i n e p t , uncouth, l a z y , d i s h o n e s t , 66 or i n s o l e n t o f f i c e r s . T h e i r presence on a f o r c e i s e v i d e n c e of the f a i l u r e of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e head to g i v e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to h i s personnel-management duty. The s e l e c t i o n and management of p e r s o n n e l i s the c h i e f ' s most i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k . A h i g h q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e i s dependent upon h i s unwavering i n s i s t e n c e upon the a p p l i c a -t i o n of two p r i n c i p l e s : (1) the best man must i n v a r i a b l y be s e l e c t e d f o r appointment, promotion and assignment; and ( 2 ) doubt i n r e f e r e n c e to appointment, p r o m o t i o n , or s e p a r a t i o n from s e r v i c e must be r e s o l v e d i n f a v o r of the department. W i l s o n s t a t e s t h a t f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the con-sequences of appointment, assignment, promotion and d i s c i p l i n e r e s t s w i t h the c h i e f . His s u c c e s s as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s dependent on h i s c o n t r o l of the members of h i s f o r c e . S u b j e c t to the d i r e c t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e head of the c i t y , he s h o u l d have freedom to s e l e c t f o r appointment and promotion and a s s i g n and remove polic e m e n from s e r v i c e . T h i s makes i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t the p o l i c e c h i e f and the Board o f P o l i c e Commissioners agree on p o l i c y and program i n p e r s o n n e l manage-ment as w e l l as o t h e r p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s . To t h i s end the p o l i c e c h i e f s h o u l d always have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r c o n c e r n i n g (1) m a t t e r s t h a t r e q u i r e p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s u l t a t i o n and a p p r o v a l b e f o r e a c t i o n i s t a k e n , ( 2 ) a c t i o n t h a t may be taken w i t h o u t p r i o r c l e a r a n c e but on which a r e p o r t i s d e s i r e d , and ( 3 ) other m a t t e r s on which no r e p o r t i s d e s i r e d . The e x t e n t to which the p o l i c e commissioners 67 p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e management o f t h e p o l i c e p r o g r a m w i l l d e p e n d on t h e t e r m s u n d e r w h i c h a B o a r d i s e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n members t o d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y , and t h e c o n f i d e n c e t h e y have i n t h e C h i e f C o n s t a b l e . The f o r e g o i n g a r e w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e r o l e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s and t h e C h i e f o f P o l i c e as s e t o u t i n t h e V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r . V a n c o u v e r B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s The V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s as shown i n S e c t i o n 4 5 5 ( 1 ) w h i c h s t a t e s " T h e r e s h a l l be a P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e c i t y a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s . " The C h a r t e r a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e B o a r d i n s . 4 5 5 ( 2 ) w h i c h s t a t e s "The B o a r d s h a l l c o n s i s t o f t h e Mayor as C h a i r m a n and t h r e e o t h e r s t o be a p p o i n t e d by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . " The V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s has c o m p l e t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e p o l i c e f o r c e i n i t s e n t i r e t y . The a u t h o r i t y and r o l e o f t h e C h i e f C o n s t a b l e i s b a s e d on d e l e g a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f r o m t h e <• B o a r d i f i t so w i s h e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r . 1. "458. The members o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e , b e i n g a C h i e f C o n s t a b l e and s u c h o t h e r c o n s t a b l e s as may be n e c e s s a r y , s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d by and h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e B o a r d , and t h e i r r e m u n e r a t i o n s h a l l be f i x e d by t h e B o a r d . " 2. " 4 5 9 . ( 1 ) The B o a r d s h a l l h ave j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e 68 p o l i c e f o r c e and i t s members, over s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s , and over p o l i c e s t a t i o n s and g a o l s , l o c k u p s , and o t h e r p l a c e s of d e t e n t i o n p r o v i d e d by the c i t y , except such as a r e e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant to the J u v e n i l e C o u r t s A c t , and s h a l l a p p o i n t and a s s i g n d u t i e s to such P o l i c e Court P r o s e c u t o r s , g a o l surgeons, and P o l i c e Court C l e r k s , and o t h e r c l e r k s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s , and a s s i s t a n t s , as the Board deems n e c e s s a r y , and t h e i r r e m u n e r a t i o n s h a l l be f i x e d by the Board." 3. "460. The Board may d e l e g a t e to the C h i e f C o n s t a b l e such d i s c i p l i n a r y powers ( i n c l u d i n g the r i g h t to suspend any member of the f o r c e or s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e ) as i n the d i s -c r e t i o n of the Board seem r e a s o n a b l e , and the C h i e f Con-s t a b l e may i n t u r n d e l e g a t e any of such d i s c i p l i n a r y powers as he t h i n k s f i t . " 4. "462. A member of the p o l i c e f o r c e who i s d i s m i s s e d or demoted may appeal t o a Judge i f , w i t h i n t h i r t y days a f t e r the d i s m i s s a l or demotion complained o f , he causes t o be s e r v e d upon a member of the Board a w r i t t e n n o t i c e of h i s i n t e n t i o n t o a p p e a l c o n t a i n i n g a statement of the grounds of h i s a p p e a l . The Judge s h a l l a p p o i n t a p l a c e and time f o r h e a r i n g the a p p e a l , n o t i c e of which s h a l l be g i v e n by the a p p e l l a n t to a member of the Board. The Judge s h a l l d e c i d e the appeal on the e v i d e n c e adduced upon oath b e f o r e him at the p l a c e and time a p p o i n t e d , i n a summary manner, and may a d j o u r n the h e a r i n g from time t o time and d e f e r judgment t h e r e o n at p l e a s u r e . The Judge may c o n f i r m or r e v e r s e the a c t i o n of the Board or make such o t h e r or d e r w i t h r e s p e c t t h e r e t o as s h a l l be j u s t . No c o s t s of the appeal s h a l l be awarded e i t h e r f o r or a g a i n s t the a p p e l l a n t . " 5. "463. The Board may make r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the d i s c i p l i n e , c o n t r o l , e f f i c i e n c y , and government of the members of the p o l i c e f o r c e and oth e r persons under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , and the C h i e f C o n s t a b l e , each member of the p o l i c e f o r c e , and a l l such o t h e r persons s h a l l obey the l a w f u l d i r e c t i o n s and be s u b j e c t to the c o n t r o l , d i s c i p l i n e , and government of the Board." 6. "465. The Board may from time to time a p p o i n t s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s to a s s i s t the p o l i c e f o r c e , upon such terms and f o r such p e r i o d s not exceeding one year as the Board sees f i t . I t may d e l e g a t e to the C h i e f C o n s t a b l e the power to a p p o i n t s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s . " 7. "469. The Board s h a l l have power to summon and examine w i t n e s s e s on oath i n a l l m a t t e r s i n r e s p e c t of which i t has j u r i s d i c t i o n , and s h a l l have the same power to e n f o r c e the a t t e n d a n c e of w i t n e s s e s and to compel them to g i v e 69 e v i d e n c e as i s v e s t e d i n any Court of law i n c i v i l c a s e s . A n o t i c e to a t t e n d b e f o r e the Board s h a l l be s u f f i c i e n t i f s i g n e d by the Chairman of the Board or any one of i t s members, and any such n o t i c e s h a l l have the same e f f e c t as a subpoena." 8. "471. The Board may e f f e c t and c a r r y out a p l a n of i n s u r -ance of members of the p o l i c e f o r c e a g a i n s t s i c k n e s s or a c c i d e n t or deat h , and may c o n t r a c t f o r such p o l i c y of i n s u r a n c e as i n t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n they may see f i t , and p r o v i d e f o r the payment of the premiums, or any p o r t i o n of same, i n r e s p e c t t h e r e o f . " 9. "473.(1) The Board may make r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the d i s p o s a l of p r o p e r t y which has come i n t o p o s s e s s i o n of a member of the p o l i c e f o r c e or o t h e r person under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board i n cases where the owner of the p r o p e r t y has not been a s c e r t a i n e d and no o r d e r of a competent Court has been made w i t h r e s p e c t t h e r e t o . " 10. "473.A. I t s h a l l be the duty of the Board to p r o v i d e f o r the p o l i c i n g of the c i t y and the enforcement not o n l y of the c i t y by-laws, but a l s o the c r i m i n a l law and the g e n e r a l laws of the P r o v i n c e and of g e n e r a l l y main-t a i n i n g w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the c i t y law and o r d e r ; and of a d m i n i s t e r i n g j u s t i c e t h e r e i n , i n c l u d i n g the p r o s e c u -t i o n of o f f e n d e r s t r i a b l e s ummarily, and a l s o of o f f e n d e r s t r i a b l e upon i n d i c t m e n t up to c o m m i t t a l f o r t r i a l . In order t o c a r r y out such duty the c i t y s h a l l p r o v i d e a l o c k u p . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Board of Commissioners and the Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . S e c t i o n 468 of the Vancouver C h a r t e r s t a t e s "The Board s h a l l , on or b e f o r e the f i r s t day of February i n each y e a r , cause to be prepare d and s u b m i t t e d to the C o u n c i l f o r i t s a p p r o v a l a d e t a i l e d e s t i m a t e showing a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s r e q u i r e d t o be made d u r i n g such year i n con-n e c t i o n w i t h the maintenance of the p o l i c e f o r c e and w i t h a l l o t h e r m a t t e r s and t h i n g s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board. The C o u n c i l s h a l l c o n s i d e r the e s t i m a t e s so sub-m i t t e d and s h a l l adopt them i n whole or i n p a r t . Save by r e s o l u t i o n of the C o u n c i l , the Board s h a l l not a u t h o r i z e or make any e x p e n d i t u r e s except such as are p r o v i d e d f o r i n the d e t a i l e d e s t i m a t e s as adopted by the C o u n c i l . " R. H. Tupper, Commissioner, i n h i s r e p o r t dated February. 70 17, 1956 to the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s t a t e d t h a t the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the r o l e of the Board o f P o l i c e Commissioners and the C i t y C o u n c i l i s : 1. The Board of P o l i c e Commission-er s s h o u l d be f r e e to e s t a b l i s h a f i n a n c i a l budget f o r the s o l e purpose of advancing the p o l i c e f o r c e w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a -t i o n of any r e - e l e c t i o n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 2. The C i t y C o u n c i l , r e p r e s e n t i n g the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver, s h a l l determine the amount t h a t w i l l be spent on the p o l i c e department i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r m a t t e r s of c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Mr. Tupper i n h i s r e p o r t was concerned about the p o s i t i o n t h a t the mayor may find h i m s e l f i n from time t o t i m e . Because of t h i s concern Mr. Tupper recommended t h a t a f o u r t h member be added to the Board of P o l i c e Commissioners w i t h a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n . Mr. Tupper s t a t e d t h a t : " i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s change, and perhaps more i m p o r t a n t than i t , the Mayor would no l o n g e r be f a c e d w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of d e t e r m i n i n g any d i f f e r e n c e i n p o l i c y which might a r i s e between two Commissioners. In l o n g term p l a n n i n g by z e a l o u s Commissioners, such d i f f e r e n c e s are l i k e l y to a r i s e , and i n p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s must be r e s o l v e d by the Mayor who may o f t e n have been i n o f f i c e a s h o r t time and w i l l always be burdened w i t h many oth e r c i v i c and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g r e s p o n s -i b i l i t i e s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a man so burdened can g i v e much time to P o l i c e a f f a i r s . He s h o u l d not be r e q u i r e d to assume a l o n e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making those i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s which w i l l a r i s e when h i s two c o n f r e r e s d i f f e r . - I t seems r i g h t t h a t he be g i v e n the c h o i c e to choose between the o p i n i o n of the major-i t y of h i s c o n f r e r e r s and t h a t of any m i n o r i t y of one, r a t h e r than be r e q u i r e d t o determine an i s s u e on which they are ev e n l y d i v i d e d . Yet as an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e I t h i n k h i s w i l l s h o u l d p r e v a i l when any d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n e x i s t s between h i s c o l l e a g u e s . " In making the recommendation f o r a f o u r t h member f o r 7 1 the Board Mr. Tupper a g a i n i n d i c a t e d h i s concern over c l e a r r o l e s by s t a t i n g " I t h i n k i t i s of g r e a t importance to m a i n t a i n an a p p o i n t e d Board w i t h the Mayor as Chairman. The a d d i t i o n t o the Board of another e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e would confuse what i s now a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n the f u n c t i o n s of the P o l i c e Commissioners and the C o u n c i l . The former s h o u l d have no duty but to e s t a b -l i s h and m a i n t a i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the P o l i c e F o r c e . The duty of the l a t t e r i s to determine what funds s h a l l be devoted to t h a t purpose. I t i s to be hoped t h a t no s t e p w i l l be t a k e n which w i l l obscure and con-f u s e these d i f f e r e n t o b l i g a t i o n s . " R e c r u i t m e n t and S e l e c t i o n The s e l e c t i o n of r e c r u i t s must p r o v i d e an o f f i c e r who i s best s u i t e d to the immediate job (which i s almost i n v a r -i a b l y p a t r o l ) and i n a d d i t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e to the r e s e r v o i r of l e a d e r s h i p ( c h o o s i n g the o f f i c e r whose p r e s e n t or poten-t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f i t him f o r s u p e r v i s o r y and command' p o s i t i o n s ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good e x e c u t i v e are e s s e n t i a l f o r the s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of p a t r o l and most o t h e r p o l i c e t a s k s . These q u a l i t i e s a r e , a c c o r d i n g to W i l s o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e ; sound judgment; d e c i s i v e n e s s ; p h y s i c a l and nervous energy; s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r ; and the a b i l i t y t o c o n v i n c e and i n s p i r e and m a i n t a i n c o n f i d e n c e , enthusiasm, and i n t e r e s t -and the p o l i c e o f f i c e r must h i m s e l f be i n s p i r e d by an un-s e l f i s h d e s i r e to s e r v e h i s community. The patrolman works w i t h p e o p l e . He must l i k e p e o p l e and be a b l e to d e a l w i t h them i n a calm and d i g n i f i e d manner; he must be e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , courageous and f i r m , 72 t e m p e r m e n t a l l y equipped f o r p o l i c e work, and f r e e of b i a s or p r e j u d i c e . He s h o u l d have a f o r c e f u l p e r s o n a l i t y ; he s h o u l d be p o i s e d and have w e l l developed powers of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . The t e m p t a t i o n s t h a t c o n f r o n t a policeman and the c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e of the p u b l i c make i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t h i s c h a r a c t e r and r e p u t a t i o n be beyond r e p r o a c h . He must have a h i g h o r d e r of i n t e l l i g e n c e , which ensures h i s a b i l i t y to l e a r n , to o b s e r v e , to r e t a i n , to r e ason r a p i d l y and a c c u r a t e l y , and to, adapt q u i c k l y and s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to new s i t u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y and of utmost importance, he must have a keen sense of l o y a l t y . In a d d i t i o n , the r e c r u i t must be p h y s i c a l l y and o r g a n i c a l -l y sound; he must be young and of s u i t a b l e s i z e ; he must have s t r e n g t h , energy and a g i l i t y ; and h i s speed, endurance and co-o r d i n a t i o n must be adequate to d e a l w i t h law enforcement or r e s c u e o p e r a t i o n s t h a t are p h y s i c a l l y demanding. Persons who possess the above q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are i n wide demand. C o m p e t i t i o n i n the l a b o r market makes i t i m p o r t a n t t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of p o l i c e employment a t t r a c t c a n d i d a t e s w i t h the d e s i r e d q u a l i t i e s ; p r e f e r a b l y i n g r e a t e r numbers than are needed. Consequently the pay; hours of work week; r e l i e f and v a c a t i o n time; p e n s i o n s , i n s u r a n c e , s i c k l e a v e ; and s i c k , death and other b e n e f i t s f o r the o f f i c e r and h i s f a m i l y s h o u l d compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h those a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s . W i l s o n goes on t o say t h a t more i m p o r t a n t than t h e s e m a t e r i a l advantages i n a t t r a c t i n g and h o l d i n g q u a l i f i e d men, i s the t a n g i b l e but n o n e t h e l e s s r e a l s p i r i t or atmosphere of 73 the department which r e f l e c t s the morale and t r u e c h a r a c t e r of the f o r c e . A h i g h ' e s p r i t de c o r p s ' i s based on i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm h e l d by a l l members of the f o r c e . But most impor-t a n t of a l l i n a t t r a c t i n g competent men i s the p r e s t i g e of the department, which i s founded upon p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of s u p e r i o r s e r v i c e . The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment must be brought to the a t t e n t i o n of those persons who p o s s e s s the n e c e s s a r y q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s i n such an a t t r a c t i v e way as to c r e a t e a d e s i r e f o r appointment. T h i s i s done by a d v e r t i s i n g , the amount and c h a r a c t e r of which i s i n f l u e n c e d by the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by the r e c r u i t m e n t program. Departments w i t h h i g h p r e s t i g e , adequate s a l a r i e s , and f a v o r a b l e working c o n d i t i o n s have l i t t l e t r o u b l e r e c r u i t i n g q u a l i f i e d a p p l i c a n t s . The a d v e r t i s i n g campaign s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e n -s i v e , s e l e c t i v e and e f f e c t i v e to a t t r a c t the d e s i r e d number of c a n d i d a t e s who possess s u i t a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and any of the commercial a d v e r t i s i n g p r o c e d u r e s may be u t i l i z e d when n e c e s s a r y . N o t i c e s sent to s c h o o l s , the YiYICA, and l a b o r o f f i c e s , announcements made at c i v i c and c l u b meetings and on the r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n ; and s e l e c t i v e l y p l a c e d p o s t e r s of a t t e n t i o n - d e m a n d i n g d e s i g n are a l l d e v i c e s t h a t may be used. W i l s o n b e l i e v e s news items a r e more p r o d u c t i v e than l e g a l n o t i c e s and p a i d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the p r e s s , but a l l s h o u l d be used. L e c t u r e s and guided t o u r s f o r v a r i o u s p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s and women's c l u b s a r e h e l p f u l . Frank d i s c u s s i o n s 74 w i t h e d i t o r s and r e p o r t e r s r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n n e l p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s , w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n s of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s d e s i r e d and the methods used i n p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t i o n , u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n f a v o r a b l e p u b l i c i t y t h a t s t i m u l a t e s a p p l i c a t i o n s by q u a l i -f i e d p e r s o n s . T h i s k i n d of p u b l i c i t y a l s o l e s s e n s the l i k e l i -hood of u n f a v o r a b l e s t o r i e s , r e s u l t i n g from i g n o r a n c e of purpose and methods, t h a t r i d i c u l e the p r o cedures used. Important advantages a r e g a i n e d by r e c r u i t i n g young men i n t o p o l i c e s e r v i c e . The younger r e c r u i t has more poten-t i a l y e ars of s e r v i c e and w i l l p r o v i d e a l o n g e r p e r i o d of p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n on the i n v e s t m e n t of h i s r e c r u i t m e n t , t r a i n -i n g , and e x p e r i e n c e , p o s t p o n i n g the day when f u r t h e r sums must be expended to s e l e c t and t r a i n someone to r e p l a c e him. Con-s e q u e n t l y , the younger man i s a l i g h t e r burden on both the r e t i r e m e n t system and the o p e r a t i n g budget. He has g r e a t e r p h y s i c a l endurance and d i s e a s e r e s i s t a n c e when p r o p e r l y s e l e c t -ed. He i s more p l a s t i c s i n c e h i s h a b i t s are not r i g i d l y s e t , and he i s more e a s i l y t r a i n e d and more a d a p t a b l e to the con-d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e . The younger man who has not engaged i n other a c t i v i t i e s i s more l i k e l y to have chosen p o l i c e s e r v i c e as h i s c a r e e r and to have prepar e d h i m s e l f by i n t e n s i v e p r e -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . More i m p o r t a n t s t i l l , when a young man p o s s e s s e s the q u a l i t i e s d e s i r e d i n p o l i c e s e r v i c e and i s not a p p o i n t e d at the time he i s a v a i l a b l e , he w i l l n e a r l y always f i n d h i s n i c h e i n some other f i e l d . The d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the i m m a t u r i t y of youth s h o u l d 7 5 be d i s c o u n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n . Time and e x p e r i e n c e q u i c k l y c o r r e c t t h e i m m a t u r i t y o f o t h e r w i s e w e l l q u a l i f i e d men. When w i s e l y s e l e c t e d , t h e young r e c r u i t w i l l n o t be g u i l t y o f s e r i o u s e r r o r s o f j u d g m e n t , and p r o p e r a s s i g n m e n t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f h i s s e r v i c e w i l l g u a r d a g a i n s t h i s o f f e n d i n g t h e more c r i t i c a l c i t i z e n s and w i l l p r o t e c t him f r o m s i t u a t i o n s where h i s y o u t h may be t o h i s d i s a d v a n t a g e . U n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g has become a common-p l a c e i n A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n , and c u r r i c u l a i n l a w e n f o r c e m e n t or p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e o f f e r e d i n more t h a n 100 i n s t i t u -t i o n s a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C o u r s e s i n c l u d e a l l a s p e c t s o f l a w e n f o r c e m e n t , p e n o l o g y , c r i m i n a l i s t i c s , c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n , and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . Some o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s ; o t h e r s r e s t r i c t t h e i r c o u r s e s t o t w o - y e a r o r f o u r -y e a r p r o g r a m s . I n a d d i t i o n t o s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d and r e l e v a n t t r a i n i n g , t h e r e a r e many o t h e r c a p a b l e young men i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s who a r e p o t e n t i a l l y good c a n d i d a t e s b u t who a r e n o t a t t r a c t e d t o a s e r v i c e i n w h i c h low e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e v a i l . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e , i n v i e w o f t h e a b o v e , t o s e t t h e minimum e d u c a t i o n a l e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e a t two y e a r s o f c o l l e g e , w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r l o w e r i n g t h e s t a n d a r d , when c a n d i d a t e s e x c e l i n o t h e r q u a l i t i e s . W h i l e u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g w i l l n o t make a c o m p e t e n t p e r s o n o f one who i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n f e r i o r o r o t h e r w i s e d e f i c i e n t , when a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e e q u a l t h e u n i v e r s i t y -76 t r a i n e d man i s b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e than one who has graduated o n l y from h i g h s c h o o l . He has had more broad e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p e o p l e and new s i t u a t i o n s ; h i s a d a p t a b i l i t y has been t e s t e d ; he has had the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet s t u d e n t s of many d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s , c u l t u r a l backgrounds, and r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , s h o u l d have l o s t much of any p r e v i o u s b i a s , or p r e j u d i c e he may have h e l d . H i s s t u d i e s w i l l have g i v e n him a new p e r s p e c t i v e on the prob-lems and a s p i r a t i o n s common t o a l l men, and he w i l l have l e a r n e d to some degree to w i t h h o l d judgment and to r e s t r a i n h i s a c t i o n s and i m p u l s e s i n f a v o r of calm c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . In s h o r t , he w i l l have s t a r t e d to p r e p a r e f o r the f u t u r e p o s i t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p which i t i s hoped each new r e c r u i t w i l l s t r i v e to a t t a i n . The S e l e c t i o n P r o c e s s W i l s o n s t a t e s t h a t n e i t h e r expense nor e f f o r t s h o u l d be spared i n s e l e c t i n g the best q u a l i f i e d c a n d i d a t e s f o r a p p o i n t -ment. T r a i n i n g a man to be a competent policeman i s e x p e n s i v e and time-consuming. I t r e q u i r e s not j u s t s e v e r a l months of i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g but s e v e r a l y ears of e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e he can be of r e a l v a l u e to the department. The use of s u p e r i o r p r o c e d u r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the best q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d to c o s t i f s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i c e economies are to be e f f e c t e d . I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t p u b l i c employment 77 i s a p r i v i l e g e and n o t a r i g h t . T h e r e f o r , o n c e s t a n d a r d s h a v e been s e t , a s e r i e s o f t e s t s and e x a m i n a t i o n s , d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e u n f i t , s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d by e i t h e r t h e p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e or by t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t i t s e l f . W i l s o n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e v a r i o u s t e s t s and e x a m i n a -t i o n s r e g u i r e t h e s k i l l s o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r , an i n v e s t i g a t o r , a p h y s i c i a n , a n e u r o l o g i s t , an e n d o c r i n o l o g i s t , a p s y c h o l o g i s t and a p s y c h i a t r i s t . A c o m p e t e n t m e d i c a l exam-i n e r , when f u r n i s h e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f c l i n i c a l t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a q u a l i f i e d p s y c h o l o g i s t , and f u l l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e e x a c t i n g n e e d s o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e , may make t h e f i r s t p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n and r e f e r t h o s e whom he f e e l s s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d more c r i t i c a l l y t o e i t h e r a n e u r o l o g i s t , p s y c h i a t r i s t or o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t . The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e c a n d i d a t e i n v o l v e s more t h a n an a p p r a i s a l o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s by an o r a l b o a r d . P e r s o n a l i t y , i s r e g a r d e d as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l makeup o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e i m p a c t o f t h i s r e f l e c t i o n upon o t h e r s . Any p r o c e d u r e d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e i t s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y o r i m m a t u r i t y and any c o n f l i c t s t h a t w o u l d make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e o f f i c e r t o work s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h o t h e r s . As i n t h e c a s e o f c h a r a c t e r , t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e a p p l i c a n t i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s i s u s u a l l y e i t h e r a c c e p t a b l e o r u n a c c e p t a b l e and n o t good or bad i n d e g r e e ; i t i s an i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y t h a t i s n o t s u b j e c t t o a p p r a i s a l i n t e r m s o f e x a c t m e a surement. 7 8 A l t h o u g h t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i n e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i n c o m p e t e n t o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c a n d i d a t e , t e s t s h ave n o t r e a c h e d a s t a g e o f p e r f e c t i o n t h a t p r e c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f u n d e s i r a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s . The f i n a l t e s t must be t r i a l on t h e j o b . The p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d s h o u l d l a s t one y e a r . P e r s o n n e l e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be o n g o i n g . A p p r a i s a l p r o -c e d u r e s s h o u l d be k e p t s i m p l e and o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e s a k e o f r e l i a b i l i t y . The v a l u e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c e m a n t o t h e s e r v i c e must be a p p r a i s e d i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h o s e o f f i c e r s b e s t q u a l i f i e d f o r p r o m o t i o n and t o d e t e c t d e f i c i e n c i e s t h a t may be overcome or a v o i d e d t h r o u g h i m p r o v e m e n t i n s e l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g and o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The a p p r a i s a l must be i n t e r m s o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I g n o r a n c e o f p e r s o n n e l p r a c t i c e and p o l i c i e s damages d e p a r t m e n t m o r a l e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o m o t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be made known t o a l l members o f t h e f o r c e . T r a i n i n g The p u r p o s e o f t r a i n i n g i s t o make s u r e t h e o f f i c e r p e r f o r m s a l l t a s k s w i t h e a s e and i n s u c h a way as t o e n s u r e h i s s a f e t y and t h e s a f e t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by d e v e l o p i n g s u c h s k i l l and d e x t e r i t y t h a t e a c h a c t i s p e r f o r m e d n a t u r a l l y and s e m i - a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h a minimum of c o n s c i o u s p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l e f f o r t . The a c t i s p r e c e d e d by a d e c i s i o n ; t h e r e f o r t r a i n i n g must p r o v i d e 7 9 a background of knowledge a c q u i r e d through e i t h e r a c t u a l or s i m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s a g a i n s t which c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n s may be r e l a t e d f o r judgment. N e a r l y a l l p o l i c e t a s k s i n v o l v e p e o p l e , and the accom-p l i s h m e n t of the p o l i c e purpose n e c e s s i t a t e s a c o n t r o l of people t h a t i s best e f f e c t e d by w i n n i n g t h e i r compliance w i t h laws and o r d i n a n c e s . An i m p o r t a n t t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e i s t h e r e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of people - why they a c t the way they do i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s - and of t e c h n i q u e s t h a t promote a d e s i r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o l i c e and the p u b l i c . T r a i n i n g s h o u l d a l s o emphasize t h a t the p o l i c e must s c r u p u l o u s -l y a v o i d p e t t y g r a f t , c o r r u p t i o n , b r u t a l i t y and p r e j u d i c e . The m u n i c i p a l i t y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g f o r i t s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s not o n l y f o r t h e i r own s a f e t y , but a l s o to p r o t e c t the c i t y a g a i n s t s u i t s f o r damages r e s u l t -i n g from the a c t i o n s of i n a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d o f f i c e r s . I f the concept of community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g i s a c c e p t e d , t h e r e can be no q u e s t i o n of c i t y v e r s u s o f f i c e r t i m e . R e c r u i t t r a i n i n g s h o u l d c o n s i s t of a f u l l - t i m e p o l i c e academy program, and t h i s can be a d m i n i s t e r e d o n l y by the m u n i c i p a l i t y i f the c o n t r o l of the c u r r i c u l u m i s to remain i n the proper' hands. S u f f i c i e n t time must be t a k e n t o p r o v i d e the r e c r u i t w i t h b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s to guide him b e f o r e he i s p l a c e d on h i s own r e s o u r c e s . The amount of time needed f o r the r e c r u i t program i s c o n s i d e r a b l e ; and not to p r o v i d e compensation would be u n f a i r to the r e c r u i t and h i s f a m i l y , 80 would damage morale, and d i m i n i s h the e f f i c i e n c y of the o f f i c e r both a t work and i n t r a i n i n g . R e c r u i t t r a i n i n g i s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r good p a t r o l s e r v i c e and f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . W i l s o n b e l i e v e s t h a t a minimum of t h r e e months of r e c r u i t t r a i n i n g i s j u s t i f i e d , and more time c o u l d be used to advantage. F u l l - t i m e department i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g must o b v i o u s -l y be on c i t y t i m e . S t u d i e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n -i n g , however, s h o u l d be on the o f f i c e r ' s own t i m e . When he has s u c c e s s f u l l y completed department-approved c o u r s e s , he s h o u l d be r e i m b u r s e d f o r a p a r t or a l l of the f e e s . A v a r i e t y of c o u r s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e on s u b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t t o persons engaged i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e , such as E n g l i s h and p u b l i c s p e a k i n g , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , p u b l i c ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n , psychology or s o c i o l o g y . These c o u r s e s might o f f e r members of p o l i c e departments an o p p o r t u n i t y to complete t h e i r undergraduate study and to work f o r h i g h e r degrees. D i s c i p l i n e D i s c i p l i n e i s a f u n c t i o n of command which must be e x e r c i s e d i n o r d e r to develop a f o r c e amenable to d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l a c c o r d i n g to W i l s o n . D i s c i p l i n e i s not a n e g a t i v e f o r c e ; i t i s , i n s t e a d a form of t r a i n i n g and an i m p o r t a n t con-s t r u c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p t o o l f o r e l i m i n a t i n g weaknesses and p r e v e n t i n g t h e i r development. I t i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c h i e f , who d e l e g a t e s to s u b o r d i n a t e commanders the d u t i e s i n 81 c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t . The c h i e f must r e t a i n the r i g h t of f i n a l r e v i e w i n d i s c i p l i n a r y c a s e s . D i s c i p l i n e and punishment s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d . The f o r m e r , p r o p e r l y p r o v i d e d , produces f o r c e s t h a t v o l u n t a r i l y conform to department r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . The b e s t -d i s c i p l i n e d f o r c e s a r e the b e s t t r a i n e d and t h e r e f o r the l e a s t p u n i s h e d . Members of an u n d i s c i p l i n e d f o r c e s u f f e r from a damaged morale and have a l a c k a d a i s i c a l a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r work, t h e i r s u p e r i o r s , t h e i r department and the p u b l i c . The e n t i r e f o r c e and each u n i t i n i t s u f f e r s from a l a c k of d i r e c t i o n or o b j e c t i v e ; i n c o m p l e t e l y t r a i n e d members are i n a t t e n t i v e to duty and g u i l t y of v i o l a t i n g department r e g u l a t i o n s . They d i s r e g a r d the r i g h t s of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and as a group they have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a mob, r a t h e r than an organ-'' i z e d f o r c e . When the head of a f o r c e a v o i d s a p p l y i n g c o r -r e c t i v e a c t i o n except when f o r c e d to do so by an i n d i g n a n t p u b l i c , he l o s e s the c o n f i d e n c e of the p e o p l e , and h i s f o r c e l o s e s the p r e s t i g e so n e c e s s a r y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . D i s c i p l i n e i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s u p e r v i s i n g o f f i c e r s and cannot be expected to develop from the l e v e l of p a t r olmen up through the r a n k s . The w e l f a r e of h i s men, as i n f l u e n c e d by the c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e , i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a -t o r because i t a f f e c t s the morale of the f o r c e and the d e s i r e of i n d i v i d u a l s to e n t e r and remain i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e . I f 82 q u a l i f i e d persons are to be r e c r u i t e d and r e t a i n e d , the con-d i t i o n s of p o l i c e s e r v i c e must be as a t t r a c t i v e as those of o t h e r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e employment. P o l i c e s a l a r i e s , l e n g t h of work week, annual and s i c k l e a v e s , s i c k b e n e f i t s , and p e n s i o n s must compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h those i n a l l e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t compete w i t h the p o l i c e i n r e c r u i t m e n t . The S e l e c t i o n and T r a i n i n g f o r the Vancouver P o l i c e Force The p r e l i m i n a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r c a n d i d a t e s s e e k i n g appointment to the Vancouver P o l i c e Force are as f o l l o w s : 1) Male: C a n d i d a t e s are r e q u i r e d to be Canadian c i t i z e n s or B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , between t h e i r 21st and 31st b i r t h d a y s , not l e s s than 5'9 M i n h e i g h t ( w i t h o u t s h o e s ) ; of at l e a s t complete grade ten e d u c a t i o n , or i t s e q u i v a l e n t ; p h y s i c a l l y f i t ; a b l e to swim and r e s i d e n t w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver area i f a p p o i n t e d . A p p l i c a n t s w i t h c r i m i n a l c o u r t c o n v i c t i o n s are i n -e l i g i b l e f o r appointment. Must have a B.C. D r i v e r ' s L i c e n s e w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l not be a c c e p t e d from anyone c u r r e n t l y s e r v i n g w i t h any F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l or Muni-c i p a l P o l i c e F o r c e . (See Appendix 1A). 2) Female: C a n d i d a t e s are r e q u i r e d to be Canadian c i t i z e n s or B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s ; between 21 and 35 y ears of age; minimum h e i g h t 5'4" w i t h o u t shoes; of at l e a s t grade ten e d u c a t i o n , or i t s e q u i v a l e n t ; p h y s i c a l l y f i t ; a b l e to swim; r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver area i f a p p o i n t e d . Must have B.C. D r i v e r ' s L i c e n s e , w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . A p p l i c a n t s w i t h S3 c r i m i n a l c o u r t c o n v i c t i o n s are i n e l i g i b l e f o r appointment. (See Appendix B). 3) Reserve F o r c e : C a n d i d a t e s are r e q u i r e d to be Canadian c i t i z e n s or B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s ; between n i n e t e e n and f i f t y - f i v e y e a rs of age; minimum h e i g h t 5*9" w i t h o u t shoes; p h y s i c a l l y f i t ; minimum weight 160 l b s ; no r e c o r d of any c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . (See Appendix C) . A l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r the Vancouver P o l i c e Department are screened by the Vancouver C i t y P e r s o n n e l Department where a p p l i c a n t s are i n t e r v i e w e d and r e q u i r e d to complete c e r t a i n w r i t t e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . F u r t h e r s c r e e n i n g i s done by the P o l i c e Department S t a f f C o u n s e l l o r and the P o l i c e P h y s i c i a n . The t r a i n i n g program at the P o l i c e Academy i s a 17 week course u s u a l l y h e l d t w i c e a year w i t h an average c l a s s of 20 s t u d e n t s . There i s a one year p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d b e f o r e permanent s t a f f appointment. An o u t l i n e of the course i s as f o l l o w s : 1. O r i e n t a t i o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the department - d i s c i p l i n a r y code - p e r s o n n e l e x p e c t a t i o n s 2. P a t r o l Procedures - p a t r o l and beat - emergency p r o c e d u r e s - crowd c o n t r o l 3. T r a f f i c 84 motor v e h i c l e a c t s by-laws r e p o r t s v i o l a t o r c o n t a c t s a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n I n v e s t i g a t i o n P r o c e d ures b u r g l a r i es robber r e s f r a u d s and cheques homicides j u v e n i l e s P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g f i r e a r m s f i r s t a i d swimming and l i f e s a v i n g d r i v i n g p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g and s e l f defence squad d r i l l M i s c e l l a n e o u s r e p o r t w r i t i n g communications o b s e r v a t i o n s Community Resources f i l m s and l e c t u r e s by guest speakers from community a g e n c i e s S i x t y hours of C r i m i n a l Law by P o l i c e Academy s t a f f who have a t t e n d e d law l e c t u r e s at U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 85 I t i s s t a t e d t h a t the purpose of r e c r u i t t r a i n i n g i s t o p r o v i d e g e n e r a l i s t s who may l a t e r s p e c i a l i z e . The u p g r a d i n g of p e r s o n n e l from p r o b a t i o n a r y s t a t u s to C o n s t a b l e f i r s t c l a s s i s compulsory. The c o n s t a b l e s a r e e x p e c t e d to study on t h e i r own time and e x a m i n a t i o n s are w r i t t e n a n n u a l l y as a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p r o m o t i o n . When a c o n s t a b l e r e a c h e s f i r s t c l a s s s t a t u s , he i s r e q u i r e d to take a two week r e f r e s h e r course and from t h a t time on, r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s are s c h e d u l e d at a t h r e e year i n t e r v a l . D e t e c t i v e s and s u p e r v i s o r s are r e q u i r e d to take a course at the academy every f o u r years i n procedures and methods. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the department has a youth squad of 10 s t a f f who are chosen because of t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a p t i t u d e . There i s no a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t 15 c o n s t a b l e s and 3 policewomen are v o l u n t a r i l y a t t e n d i n g a g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e on t h e i r own time through A d u l t E d u c a t i o n programs. I t was suggested t h a t these p e o p l e might be channeled i n t o youth work at a l a t e r d a te. 86 Chapter \l.  SUMMARY AND SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS P u b l i c Awareness U n t i l s o c i e t y d e a l s more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e con-d i t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e c r i m e , the p o l i c e f a c e a very l a r g e problem. Only through r e s o u r c e f u l law enforcement can the community m a i n t a i n the degree of order so i m p o r t a n t t o p u b l i c s a f e t y and to the enjoyment of l i b e r t y . The d i s c r e p a n c y between what the people expect the p o l i c e to do and what the p o l i c e are p r i v i l e g e d to do i n p r o t e c t i n g p u b l i c peace and s e c u r i t y r e s u l t s m a i n l y from a l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p o l i c e purpose and o f what,the p o l i c e must do to a c c o m p l i s h i t . Two c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t tend t o p l a c e the p o l i c e i n the r o l e of agents bent on unnecessar-i l y o p p r e s s i n g freedom grow out of p o l i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the enforcement of t r a f f i c and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y laws sometimes v i o l a t e d by the most c o n s c i e n t i o u s c i t i z e n , an enforcement t h a t a l i g n s good c i t i z e n s a g a i n s t the p o l i c e . The o t h e r i s ig n o r a n c e of the f a c t s i n v o l v e d i n the war a g a i n s t crime i n a f r e e s o c i e t y . People are l i a b l e to f e a r and hate what they do not u n d e r s t a n d . The hate i s o f t e n s t i m u l a t e d by t r a f f i c v i o l a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . These m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s c o n t i n u e because the p o l i c e a r e not a v o c a l , s c h o l a r l y group t h a t devotes much time t o p r e s e n t i n g i n a f a v o r a b l e l i g h t the f a c t s t h a t bear on the 87 problem. The p r e s s , the l i t e r a t u r e and even case law a r e sometimes d i r e c t e d at i n c i d e n t s t h a t d i s c r e d i t the p o l i c e . On the other hand some men whose judgment and i n t e g r i t y a re r e s p e c t e d have accompanied the p o l i c e on t h e i r t o u r s of duty i n o r d e r t o l e a r n and r e p o r t the t r u e f a c t s . These men through t h e i r w r i t i n g have h e l p e d to l i b e r a l i z e o u t d a t e d r u l e s and l e g i s l a t i o n . The h e a r t of p o l i c e c o r r u p t i o n i s the v i c e squad of a p o l i c e department. T h i s squad e n f o r c e s laws d e a l i n g w i t h gambling, n a r c o t i c s , p r o s t i t u t i o n , homosexuals and a l c o h o l . P o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n i s sought and found by the o p e r a t o r s of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The p u b l i c demands the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e s e s e r v i c e s , and people are w i l l i n g t o pay f o r them. I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f these v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s were regarde d as p r i v a t e a f f a i r s , and not as c r i m e s then they c o u l d be handled i n o t h e r ways than by c r i m i n a l l a w s . The s a l e of a l c o h o l has been l e g a l i z e d , but t h e r e i s o p p o s i t i o n to l e g a l i z i n g h o m o s e x u a l i t y , p r o s t i t u t i o n and the s a l e of drugs to a d d i c t s . C r i m i n a l law may be a most i n e f f e c t i v e way to d e a l w i t h what are e s s e n t i a l l y s t a n d a r d s of p r i v a t e m o r a l -i t y . P o l i c e Work - A P r o f e s s i o n Most urban p o l i c e departments have a j u v e n i l e d i v i s i o n . The j u v e n i l e o f f i c e r has i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h the o f f e n d e r , and a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of these cases are handled by the B 8 o f f i c e r w i t h o u t r e f e r r a l t o a j u d g e or p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . I t i s f e l t t h a t j u v e n i l e o f f i c e r s s h o u l d h a v e t r a i n i n g i n d e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l . I n o r d e r t o o f f e r s u c h t r a i n i n g t o p o l i c e and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a s e v e r a l y e a r s ago e s t a b l i s h e d t h e D e l i n -quency C o n t r o l I n s t i t u t e . A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y a t Tempe and F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y have s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t e s . Whether o r n o t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s s h o u l d be d o i n g s o c i a l work i s a d e b a t a b l e p o i n t . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h e b e s t s e r v i c e t h e o f f i c e r c a n p r o v i d e i s a d e q u a t e p a t r o l work i n an a r e a w h i c h w i l l d i s c o u r a g e d e l i n q u e n c y . The j u v e n i l e o f f i c e r c a n a l s o make r e f e r r a l s t o e x i s t i n g community a g e n c i e s and so p e r f o r m a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n . S i n c e t h e j u v e n i l e o f f i c e r h a s i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e d e l i n q u e n t he i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n d e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t . T r a i n i n g i n s o c i o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , c r i m i n o l o g y and c o r r e c t i o n s w i l l not h u r t t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r i f he r e c o g n i z e s t h e l i m i t a -t i o n s o f t h e s e r v i c e he i s a b l e t o o f f e r . When one c o n s i d e r s what i s a s k e d and e x p e c t e d o f t h e p o l i c e , one c a n h a r d l y l o o k a t t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n a c c o r d e d them as a n y t h i n g b u t o u t r a g e o u s ; and one must r e c o g n i z e t h e t r a i n i n g t h e y g e t as v e r y i n a d e q u a t e . They a r e c a l l e d upon to d i s c h a r g e d u t i e s o f t h e h i g h e s t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e com-m u n i t y . P o l i c e pay needs t o be l i f t e d n o t o n l y by a c o n -v e n t i o n a l c o s t - o f - l i v i n g i n c r e a s e b u t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t e r m s o f a new c o n c e p t o f t h e j o b and i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . O n l y 89 men o f g e n u i n e l y h i g h c h a r a c t e r and c a p a c i t y s h o u l d be h i r e d as p o l i c e m e n , and t h e y s h o u l d be c o m p e n s a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . B e t t e r pay i s o n l y p a r t o f t h e remedy. P o l i c e work must be p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d . E x a c t i n g s t a n d a r d s of d i s c i p l i n e , a h i g h s e n s e o f d e d i c a t i o n and a new e s p r i t de c o r p s must be d e v e l o p e d . P e r h a p s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s end c o u l d be made by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e more s e r i o u s a s p e c t s o f l a w e n f o r c e m e n t f r o m t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t r a f f i c , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i c k e t s f o r o v e r t i m e p a r k i n g and o t h e r m i n o r j o b s , and t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g a t p o l i c e s t a t i o n s . R o u t i n e d u t i e s o f t h i s s o r t m i g h t be a s s i g n e d t o c i v i l i a n s a t a p p r o p r i a t e pay s c a l e s b e l o w t h o s e o f p o l i c e m e n . F o r t h e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r t h e r e n e e d s t o be a r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s and p u b l i c r e s p e c t w h i c h t h e y must have i f t h e y a r e t o s e r v e as s y m b o l s o f t h e l a w ' s m a j e s t y . The g r e a t e s t e v i d e n c e t h a t l a w e n f o r c e m e n t c a n o f f e r t o t h e c o mmunity as p r o o f t h a t i t has come o f age a s a p r o -f e s s i o n i s an u n w a v e r i n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h , and r e g a r d f o r p e r s o n a l r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s . I t i s v i t a l t o t h e p o l i c e m a n ' s s t a n d i n g i n t h e eye o f t h e p u b l i c , t h e c o u r t s , and a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s u p e r i o r s . The theme t h a t must r u n t h r o u g h e v e r y p o l i c e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i s t h a t t h e r u l e o f l a w i s t h e v e r y h e a r t and s o u l o f p o l i c e a c t i o n . No m a t t e r how c a r e f u l l y young o f f i c e r s a r e t a u g h t and no m a t t e r how s k i l l e d t h e y become a t s u c h t e c h n i q u e s as i n t e r v i e w i n g , p a t r o l , o r p l a s t e r c a s t i n g , t h e y 90 w i l l n o t be r e a l o f f i c e r s u n t i l t h e c o n v i c t i o n has become p a r t o f t h e i r v e r y b e i n g t h a t e v e r y t h i n g t h e y do must be done i n a r e a s o n a b l e and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l manner. I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d n o t be s o i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g good p h o t o g r a p h e r s o r good i n t e r v i e w e r s as t h e y s h o u l d be i n s e n d i n g i n t o t h e community o f f i c e r s t r u l y know-l e d g e a b l e o f t h e i r r o l e i n a f r e e c o u n t r y who a r e i n c i d e n t a l l y good p h o t o g r a p h e r s and good i n t e r v i e w e r s . T r a i n i n g s c h o o l s must make c l e a r t o t h e young o f f i c e r , t h e e x t e n t o f h i s l a w f u l p o w e r s , and p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t t h e l e g a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o h i s p o w e r s . He must have a r e a l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r e s u m p t i o n o f i n n o c e n c e w h i c h s h i e l d s e v e r y a c c u s e d u n t i l a j u r y r e t u r n s a v e r d i c t o f g u i l t y a g a i n s t h i m . I t h a s been s a i d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t d a n g e r s t o l i b e r t y l u r k i n t h e i n s i d i o u s e n c r o a c h -ment by men o f z e a l , w e l l m e a n i n g , b u t w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T r a i n i n g s c h o o l s must s t r e s s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l f a c t t h a t a c r i m i n a l t r i a l i s n o t j u s t a c o n t e s t w h i c h t h e p u b l i c p r o -s e c u t o r t r i e s t o w i n a g a i n s t t h e d e f e n d a n t . I t i s r a t h e r a j u d i c i a l e n q u i r y i n t o t h e t r u t h o f a c h a r g e o f c r i m e t o i n s u r e t h a t j u s t i c e w i l l be done. What does i t p r o f i t a p o l i c e o f f i c e r t o d i s c o v e r and a p p r e h e n d a p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c r i m e i f he does so i n a way so r e p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e r u l e o f l a w t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e i s i n a d m i s s i b l e i n c o u r t and c o n s e q u e n t -l y w o r t h l e s s i n b r i n g i n g him t o j u s t i c e ? I t must be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e s h o r t - c u t o f an i n v o l u n t a r y c o n f e s s i o n becomes a 91 boomerang w h i c h f l i e s b a c k and h i t s n o t o n l y t h e o f f i c e r h i m -s e l f b u t h i s e n t i r e d e p a r t m e n t and t h e community a s a w h o l e . The needs o f our modern s o c i e t y demand n o t o n l y t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , but a l s o h i s r i g h t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e him t o e n j o y h i s f r e e d o m . Thus t h e l a w w h i c h s h o u l d o p e r a t e i n a f r e e and o r d e r l y s o c i e t y must be b a s e d on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f f r e e d o m o f t h e i n d i v i d -u a l s i n t h e s o c i e t y and t h e i r r i g h t t o a f a i r s h a r e o f i t s b e n e f i t s . 9 2 F o o t n o t e s C h a p t e r I . Germann, Day, G a l l a t i . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Law E n f o r c e m e n t , S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , U.S.A., C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1 9 6 2 , p . v i i . C h a p t e r I I . 1 C l a u d e R. S o w l e and o t h e r s , e d . , P o l i c e Power and I n d i v i d u a l  F reedom, C h i c a g o , A l d i n e , 1 9 6 2 , I n t r o d u c t i o n . 2 A l a n B a r t h , The P r i c e o f L i b e r t y , New Y o r k , The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 , p . 1 4 . C h a p t e r I I I . 1 C h a r l e s R e i t h , The B l i n d Eye o f H i s t o r y , L o n d o n , E n g l a n d , F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 6 0 . o B r u c e S m i t h , The New Y o r k P o l i c e S u r v e y (New Y o r k : I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 3 1 , c i t e d i n A l f r e d J . Kahn, P l a n n i n g Community S e r v i c e s f o r  C h i l d r e n i n T r o u b l e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 , p . 2 1 7 . C h a p t e r I V . 1 B r i s t o w and G a b a r d , D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1 9 6 1 , p . 3 . 93 A p p e n d i x A CITY OF VANCOUVER INFORMATION FOR POLICE FORCE APPLICANTS (MALE) F o r the i n f o r m a t i o n and g u i d a n c e o f t h o s e s e e k i n g a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e Vancouve: P o l i c e F o r c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s c o v e r i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , r a t e s o f p a y , e t c . , a r e o u t l i n e d : -1. PRELIMINARY QUALIFICATIONS: C a n d i d a t e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be C a n a d i a n c i t i z e i or B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , between t h e i r 2 1 s t and 3 1 s t b i r t h d a y s , n o t l e s s t h a n 5'9" i n h e i g h t ( w i t h o u t s h o e s ) ; minimum w o i g h t — — t b - s - . , o f a t l e a s t c o m p l e t e g r a d e t e n e d u c a t i o n , or i t s e q u i v a l e n t ; p h y s i c a l l y f i t ; a b l e t o swim and r e s i d e n t w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a i f a p p o i n t e d . A p p l i c a n t s w i t h c r i m i n a l c o u r t c o n v i c t i o n s a r e i n e l i g i b l e f o r a p p o i n t m e n t . Must have a B.C. D r i v e r ' s L i c e n s e w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l n o t be a c c e p t e d f r o m anyone c u r r e n t l y s e r v i n g w i t h any F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l o r M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e F o r i 2. EXAMINATIONS: The f o l l o w i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e g i v e n : ( a ) w r i t t e n t e s t s , ( b ) an i n t e r v i e w by t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t , ( c ) an i n t e r v i e w by t h e P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , ( d ) a m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n by t h e P o l i c e P h y s i c i a n . I n r e g a r d t o t h e l a t t e r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t v i s i o n must be n o r m a l w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f g l a s s e s or c o n t a c t l e n s e s ; a l s o t h a t h e r n i a , v a r i c o s e v e i n s , hammer t o e s , or f l a t f e e t w i l l d i s q u a l i f y . A p p l i c a n t s c a n be e l i m i n a t e d a t any one of t h e s e s t e p s . 3. TRAINIIMG: C a n d i d a t e s who a r e a c c e p t e d a r e r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d t h e P o l i c e T r a i n i n g Academy f o r a p e r i o d o f f o u r months. S a l a r y a t t h e i n i t i a l r a t e o f a P r o b a t i o n e r C o n s t a b l e i s p a i d d u r i n g t h i s t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . On c o m p l e t i o n of t r a i n i n g , s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s a r e t a k e n on t h a s t r e n g t h o f t h e P o l i c e F o r c e as C o n s t a b l e s w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s t a t u s u n t i l t w e l v e months s e r v i c e i s c o m p l e t e d . I t must be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e s e r v i c e s o f any member may be t e r m i n a t e d d u r i n g the p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d w i t h o u t n o t i c e . 4. SALARY RATINGS: P r o b a t i o n e r C o n s t a b l e - 1 s t y e a r B386.00 3 r d C l a s s C o n s t a b l e - 2nd y e a r S420.00 2nd C l a s s C o n s t a b l e - 3 r d y e a r $469.00 1 s t C l a s s C o n s t a b l e - 4 t h y e a r $511.00 S e r v i c e Pay - $3.50 p e r month a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f f i v e y e a r s ' s e r v i c e and an a d d i t i o n a l $2.50 p e r month f o r e a c h c o m p l e t e d f i v e y e a r p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e t h e r e a f t e r . 5. UNI FORMS: U n i f o r m e d members - b o o t s , t i e s , g l o v e s , s h i r t s , p a n t s , t u n i c s , o v e r c o a t s , c a p s , s l i c k e r s , a s n e e d e d . P l a i n c l o t h e s members - r e c e i v e $17.00 p e r month c l o t h i n g a l l o w a n c e , p l u s c a s h a l l o w a n c e t w i c e a y e a r e q u a l t o t h e c o s t o f a p a i r o f p o l i c e b o o t s . 6. WORKING CONDITIONS: 40 hour week ( f i v e 8 h o u r s h i f t s ) . Time o f f a l l o w e d f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t C o u r t d u r i n g o f f - d u t y h o u r s . 7 - VACATIONS: C o n s t a b l e s - 10 days a f t e r 1 y e a r ; a f t e r 5 y e a r s - 15 d a y s ; a f t e r 17 y e a r s - 20 d a y s . 8. STATUTORY HOLIDAYS: 10 a l l o w e d . 9. MEDICAL SERVICES PLAN, ACCUMULATIVE SICK LEAVE PLAN, GROUP L I F E INSURANCE: A l l i n e f f e c t . 10. PENSION: Under t h e B.C. M u n i c i p a l S u p e r a n n u a t i o n A c t , t h e e m p l o y e e and t h e C i t y e a ch c o n t r i b u t e b% o f m o n t h l y s a l a r y t o a p e n s i o n f u n d . These c o n -t r i b u t i o n s p r o d u c e a p e n s i o n ( a t minimum r e t i r e m e n t age o f 55 y e a r s , or maxirm r e t i r e m e n t age o f 60 y e a r s ) o f 1 3/4/u o f a v e r a g e s a l a r y f o r e a c h y e a r o f s e r v i c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e e m p l o y e e p a y s a f u r t h e r 2% and t h e e m p l o y e r a f u r t h e r 2% of S p e c i a l S u p e r a n n u a t i o n w h i c h i s c r e d i t e d t o t h e e m p l o y e e ' s a c c o u n t as a s p e c i a l a n n u i t y added t o t h e r e g u l a r p e n s i o n o u t l i n e d a b o v e . APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT: A p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s may be o b t a i n e d f r o m P o l i c e H e a d q u a r t e r s , 312 M a i n S t r e e t , o r t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t a t C i t y H a l l , b u t must be r e t u r n e d t o t h e STAFF COUNSELLOR, Room 306, 312 M a i n S t r e e t , V a n c o u v e r 4, B.C., f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g . 94 Appendix B CITY OF VANCOUVER INFORMATION FOR POLICE FORCE APPLICANTS (FEMALE) For the i n f o r m a t i o n and guidance of those s e e k i n g appointment to the Vancouver P o l i c e F o r c e , the f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s c o v e r i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d , working c o n d i t i o n s , r a t e s of pay, e t c . , are o u t l i n e d : -1 ' PRELIMINARY QUALIFICATIONS: Ca n d i d a t e s are r e q u i r e d t o be Canadian c i t i z e n s or B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s ; between 21 and 35 years of age; minimum h e i g h t 5'4" w i t h o u t shoes, of a t l e a s t grade ten e d u c a t i o n , or i t s e q u i v a l e n t ; p h y s i c a l l y f i t ; a b l e to swim; r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a i f a p p o i n t e d . Must have B.C. D r i v e r 1 s L i c e n c e , w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . A p p l i c a n t s w i t h c r i m i n a l c o u r t c o n v i c t i o n s are i n e l i g i b l e f o r appointment. 2. EXAMINATIONS: The f o l l o w i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s are g i v e n ; (a) w r i t t e n tests"; (b) an i n t e r v i e w by the P e r s o n n e l Dept.; (c) an i n t e r v i e w by the P o l i c e Dept.; (d) a m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n by the P o l i c e P h y s i c i a n . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t v i s i o n must be normal w i t h o u t t h e a i d of g l a s s e s . A p p l i c a n t s can be e l i m i n a t e d at any one of t h e s e s t e p s . 3. TRAINING: Ca n d i d a t e s who are a c c e p t e d are r e q u i r e d to a t t e n d a P o l i c e T r a i n i n g S chool f o r a p e r i o d of f o u r months. S a l a r y at the i n i t i a l r a t e of a P r o b a t i o n e r C o n s t a b l e i s p a i d d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . On c o m p l e t i o n of t r a i n i n g , s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s are taken on the s t r e n g t h of the Force as C o n s t a b l e s w i t h P r o b a t i o n e r s t a t u s u n t i l 12 months' s e r v i c e i s completed. 4. SALARY RATINGS: P r o b a t i o n e r C o n s t a b l e - 1 s t year $386.00 3rd C l a s s C o n s t a b l e - 2nd year $420.00 2nd C l a s s C o n s t a b l e - 3rd year $469.00 1st C l a s s C o n s t a b l e - 4th year $511.00 S e r v i c e Pay - $3.50 per month a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of f i v e y e a r s s e r v i c e and a d d i t i o n a l $2.50 per month f o r each completed f i v e year p e r i o d of s e r v i c e t h e r e a f t e r . 5. UNI FORMS: Shoes, t i e s , g l o v e s , s h i r t s . S k i r t s , t u n i c s , o v e r c o a t s , caps, s l i c k e r s and capes as needed. 6. WORKING CONDITIONS: 40 hour week ( f i v e 8 hour s h i f t s ) . Time o f f a l l o w e d f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t Court d u r i n g o f f - d u t y h o u r s . 7. VACATIONS: C o n s t a b l e s - 10 days a f t e r 1 y e a r ; a f t e r 5 y e a r s -15 days; a f t e r 17 y e a r s - 20 days. 8. STATUTORY HOLIDAYS: 10 a l l o w e d . 9. MEDICAL SERVICES PLAN, ACCUMULATIVE SICK LEAVE PLAN, GROUP LIFE INSURANCE: A l l i n e f f e c t . 10. PENS ION: Under the B.C. M u n i c i p a l Superannuation A c t , the employee and the C i t y each c o n t r i b u t e 5% of monthly s a l a r y to a p e n s i o n fund. These c o n t r i b u t i o n s produce a p e n s i o n ( a t minimum r e t i r e m e n t age of 55 y e a r s , or maximum r e t i r e m e n t age of 60 y e a r s ) of 1 3/4% of average s a l a r y , f o r each year of s e r v i c e . In a d d i t i o n , the employee pays a f u r t h e r 2%, and the employer a f u r t h e r 2% of S p e c i a l S uperannuation which i s c r e d i t e d to t h e employee's account as a s p e c i a l a n n u i t y added t o the r e g u l a r p e n s i o n o u t l i n e d above. APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT: A p p l i c a t i o n forms may be o b t a i n e d from P o l i c e H e a d q u a r t e r s , 312 Main S t r e e t , or t h e P e r s o n n e l Dept., at C i t y H a l l , but MUST BE RETURNED to t h e S t a f f C o u n s e l l o r , 312 Main S t r e e t , Vancouver 4, B. C , f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g . 95 VANCOUVER CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT  POLICEWOMEN Nature and Scope of Work This i s s p e c i a l i z e d law enforcement and cr i m e p r e v e n t i o n work i n v o l v i n g o f f e n c e s by or a g a i n s t women and c h i l d r e n . The main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s work i s f o r the p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l of c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y i n -v o l v i n g women and c h i l d r e n and the apprehension of v i o l a t o r s . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of a w e l f a r e n a t u r e i n a t t e m p t i n g to e l i m i n a t e causes of f u t u r e d e l i n q u e n c y and oth e r s o c i a l t r o u b l e s . A l t h ough the work i s performed i n accordance w i t h p r e s c r i b e d r e g u l a t i o n s and proced-u r e s , an employee o f t h i s c l a s s must use independent judgment i n d e c i d i n g a s u i t a b l e c o u r s e of a c t i o n i n emergency s i t u a t i o n s . Assignments are giv e n o r a l l y or i n w r i t i n g by a s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r who r e v i e w s r e s u l t s by p e r s o n a l i n s p e c t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n and r e c e i p t of o r a l and w r i t t e n r e p o r t s . ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES OF WORK S y s t e m a t i c a l l y p a t r o l s p u b l i c p l a c e s such as dance h a l l s , t h e a t r e s , p u b l i c l a v a t o r i e s , p a r k s , rooming houses, p l a y g r o u n d s , e t c . , and makes e n q u i r i e s r e s p e c t i n g c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l s or s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . I n v e s t i g a t e s cases i n v o l v i n g d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s , p a r e n t s and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n ; i n t e r v i e w s and c o u n s e l s p a r e n t s and young g i r l s ; i n t e r v i e w s g i r l s s u s p e c t e d of sex p r o m i s c u i t y ; e s c o r t s g i r l s to and from d e t e n t i o n ; and takes s t atements from the persons concerned. S u p e r v i s e s women on suspended sentence and f i r s t o f f e n d e r s . E s c o r t s a l l g i r l s and women i n the hands of the p o l i c e to and from C o u r t s , and i n t r a n s i t from Court to p r i s o n s or oth e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . A s s i s t s d e t e c t i v e s i n q u e s t i o n i n g women and c h i l d r e n . E x e r c i s e s power of a r r e s t as r e q u i r e d . Gives evidence i n Co u r t . P repares w r i t t e n case r e p o r t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and other a c t i v i t i e s . Performs r e l a t e d p o l i c e d u t i e s as r e q u i r e d . R e q u i r e d Knowledges, A b i l i t i e s and S k i l l s A b i l i t y to p r e s e n t i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n w r i t t e n or o r a l r epor t s . A b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n harmonious working r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r employees, o t h e r a g e n c i e s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . A b i l i t y t o r e a c t q u i c k l y i n emergency s i t u a t i o n s and to p h y s i c a l l y subdue v i o l e n t persons w i t h o u t unnedessary i n j u r y to such persons or h e r s e l f . S k i l l i n d r i v i n g a utomotive equipment. I^ust be i n t e l l i g e n t and e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e . Knowledges, A b i l i t i e s and S k i l l s to be A c q u i r e d P r e v i o u s to or A f t e r  J o i n i n g the P o l i c e Force Working knowledge of laws, r e g u l a t i o n s and pr o c e d u r e s a p p l i c a b l e to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a p p r e h e n s i o n of j u v e n i l e and female v i o l a t o r s of the law. Good working knowledge of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o l i c e , c o u r t s , w e l f a r e and other a g e n c i e s engaged i n combating j u v e n i l e and g e n e r a l c r i m e s and mis-demeanor s. Working knowledge of the causes f o r and the method of treatment of s o c i a l m aladjustments. A b i l i t y to conduct i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r p r o s e c u t i o n or c o r r e c t i o n of v i o l a t i o n s . 96 VANCOUVER CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT  POLICEWOMEN January 24, 1962 The primary f u n c t i o n of the Policewomen's S e c t i o n i s i n the p r e -v e n t i v e - p r o t e c t i v e f i e l d of p o l i c e work c o n c e r n i n g women and c h i l d r e n . At t h e same time the Policewoman has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a u t h o r i t y of a l l p o l i c e i n the d e t e c t i o n of c r i m e , the apprehen-s i o n of o f f e n d e r s , and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the p u b l i c peace. Much of the work i s i n the same c a t e g o r y as the male c o u n t e r p a r t , i . e . Court duty, e s c o r t work, p a t r o l when p o s s i b l e , and the t a k i n g of statements and c o m p l a i n t s r e f a m i l y t r o u b l e , m o r a l i t y , aged or s i c k p e r s o n s , e t c . , and such o t h e r c o m p l a i n t s as may be r e f e r r e d to the S e c t i o n . A c l o s e l i a i s o n i s kept w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e w e l f a r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . There i s a very d e f i n i t e p l a c e f o r women i n p o l i c e work because of t h e i r n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t to c a r e f o r , p r o t e c t and h e a l the i l l s of the human being.and i n t h e i r f e m i n i n e o u t l o o k , which, t o g e t h e r w i t h the male o u t l o o k , b r i n g s about a proper p e r s p e c t i v e and b a l a n c e . The Policewoman s h o u l d be of a s e n s i b l e temperament but have a sense of humour. She s h o u l d be d i p l o m a t i c , mature, w e l 1 - d i s c i p l i n e d , and r e s o u r c e f u l . She must have an i n f i n i t e amount of p a t i e n c e , but not e a s i l y shocked or d i s t u r b e d , be a b l e to meet a l l l e v e l s of p e o p l e , and be a b l e t o c o n t r o l her f e e l i n g s and emotions. Her manner must be p l e a s a n t and a g r e e a b l e but f i r m and, when n e c e s s a r y , com-manding w i t h o u t being o v e r b e a r i n g . She s h o u l d be of above average i n t e l l i g e n c e and have hig h moral s t a n d a r d s . As f o r appearance she s h o u l d be of a medium h e i g h t or s m a l l e r and w i t h a somewhat u n a s s e r t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y i n order t h a t she may not be too r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d i n the many s i t u a t i o n s i n which she may be used. P r e v i o u s work e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g i s of importance and women w i t h nurses t r a i n i n g , or those who have had c o u r s e s or p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h abnormal behaviour problems, w i l l be much b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r t h i s work. I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t the a p p l i c a n t be unmarried on r e c r u i t m e n t . In the case of widows or d i v o r c e e s a thorough e n q u i r y s h o u l d be made i n t o t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n and t h e i r e m o t i o n a l o u t l o o k , p a r t i c u l a r l y toward m a r r i a g e , as Policewomen a r e c o n t i n u a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h f a m i l y problems. 97 Appendix C CITY QF VANCOUVER INFORMATION FOR VANCOUVER POLICE RESERVE FORCE APPLICANTS !• PURPOSE - The purpose of the Reserve Force i s to augment the r e g u l a r Force i n d e a l i n g w i t h emergency s i t u a t i o n s and n a t u r a l and man-made d i s a s t e r s . Members of the Reserve Force p r o v i d e t h e i r time on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . 2. PRELIMINARY QUALIFICATIONS - C a n d i d a t e s are r e q u i r e d to be Canadian c i t i z e n s or B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s ; between n i n e t e e n and f i f t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age; minimum h e i g h t 5'9" w i t h o u t shoes; p h y s i c a l l y f i t ; minimum weight 160 l b s . , no r e c o r d of any c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . 3. TRAINING - Members of the Reserve Force are r e q u i r e d to take t r a i n i n g i n F i r s t A i d , s m a l l arms, and f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e . F i e l d e x p e r i e n c e i s gai n e d by go i n g out w i t h a member of the r e g u l a r Force on p a t r o l . C a n d i d a t e s a r e r e q u i r e d to r e p o r t f o r academic t r a i n i n g every 1st and 3rd Wednesday; r e p o r t f o r p i s t o l p r a c t i c e every Tuesday u n t i l they q u a l i f y ; r e p o r t f o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , i . e . , p a t r o l , a c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and crowd c o n t r o l at t h e i r c o n v e n i e n c e . 4. UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT - Members are s u p p l i e d w i t h b o o t s , t i e s , g l o v e s , s h i r t s , p a n t s , t u n i c s , o v e r c o a t s , caps, s l i c k e r s , box key, f l a s h l i g h t and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c a r d s . 5- DUTIES OF RESERVE MEMBERS - On c o m p l e t i o n of t r a i n i n g they a r e a s s i g n e d to such d u t i e s as crowd c o n t r o l , d i r e c t i n g t r a f f i c f o r f o o t b a l l games, hockey games, downtown s a l e days, emergencies and s p e c i a l e v e n t s . 6. • PAID DUTY - When a s s i g n e d to p a i d duty they are p a i d at t h e r a t e of S2.24 per hour. Members w i l l not be a s s i g n e d to p a i d duty u n l e s s they have shown a w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n " P r a c t i c a l T r a i n i n g " . Reserve Force members a r e cove r e d by Workmen's Compensation. R e c o g n i t i o n o f every f i v e y e ars of s e r v i c e by ' s e r v i c e s t a r s ' . J u l y 15, 1964. 98 APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY I . M a n u s c r i p t s o u r c e s A. O f f i c i a l r e p o r t s Vancouver P o l i c e Department Report Annual R e p o r t s , 1955-1962. B. Theses Hatch, F r e d e r i c k John, The B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e , 185B-1871, A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIRE-MENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS, i n the Department of H i s t o r y , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1955. I I . P r i n t e d s o u r c e s A. Government p u b l i c a t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia ( R o y a l Commission) Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e F o r c e , F i n a l Report of the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e F o r c e  I n q u i r y , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. Dominion of Canada, Report of the R o y a l Canadian Mounted  P o l i c e , Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1951-1961. Canada, Roya l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , Law and Order i n  Canadian Democracy, Ottawa, Edmond C l o u t i e r P r i n t e r to the Queen, R e v i s e d E d i t i o n 1952. Great B r i t a i n , Royal Commission on the P o l i c e , F i n a l R e p o r t , London, H17 S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1962, Cnnd. 1728. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, C h a r t e r s , (1953, c h a p t e r 55... 1961, c h a p t e r 76) V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia Government, 1961. B. General works 1. Books 99 B a r t h , A l a n , The P r i c e of L i b e r t y , New York, The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1961. Bristouu and Gabard. D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , U.S.A., C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1961. Browne, Douglas G. The R i s e of S c o t l a n d Yard, London, Tor o n t o , W e l l i n g t o n , Sydney, GeorgeG. Harrop & Co. L t d . , 1956. Coatman, John. P o l i c e , London, New York and Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. D a v i s , F o s t e r , J e f f e r y and D a v i s . S o c i e t y and the Law, New York, The Free P r e s s of Glencoe, 1962. Dunham, H.Warren ed. The C i t y i n Mid-Cen t u r y, Detroit-Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. German, Day, G a l l a t i . I n t r o d u c t i o n to Law Enforcement, S p r i n g -f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , U.S.A., C h a r l e s G. Thomas, 1962. J e f f e r y , G. Ray. "The S o c i o l o g y of the P o l i c e , " S o c i o l o g y of  Crime, ed. Joseph S. Roucek, New York, P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1961. Kahn, A l f r e d J . P l a n n i n g Community S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n i n  T r o u b l e , New York and London, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. Kenney and P u r s u i t . P o l i c e Work w i t h J u v e n i l e s , S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , U.S.A., C h a r l e s G. Thomas, 1959. Korn, R i c h a r d R. and McCorkle, L l o y d W. C r i m i n o l o g y and Penology, New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston I n c . , 1964. Leonard, V. A., P o l i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management, B r o o k l y n , F o u n d a t i o n P r e s s , 1951. Long, H. G. ed. F o r t MacLeod - The S t o r y of the Mounted P o l i c e , P r i n t e d i n Canada by the L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , 1958. Mather, F. C. P u b l i c Order i n the Age of t h e C h a r t i s t s , Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. M o r i a r i t y , C.C.H. P o l i c e Law, 14th Ed., London, B u t t e r w o r t h and Co. Ltd . , 1957. M u e l l e r , Gerhard O.W., ed. Essays i n C r i m i n a l S c i e n c e , South Hackensack, N.J., Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1961. IQO Neuberger, R i c h a r d L. Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , New York, Random House, 1953. P r i n g l e , P a t r i c k . Hue and Cry, Landon, Museum P r e s s L i m i t e d , 1955. R e i t h , C h a r l e s . A New Study of P o l i c e H i s t o r y , E d i n b u r g h , S c o t l a n d , O l i v e r and Boyd, 1956. R e i t h , C h a r l e s . The B l i n d Eye of H i s t o r y , London, England, Faber and Faber, 1952. R e i t h , C h a r l e s . A S h o r t H i s t o r y oF B r i t i s h P o l i c e , London, New York and Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948. R o l p h , C. H. ed. The P o l i c e and the P u b l i c , London, Melbourne and T o r o n t o , The W i n d m i l l P r e s s L t d . , 1962. Smith, Bruce. P o l i c e Systems i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , New York, Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1949. Sowle, Claude R. ad. P o l i c e Powers and I n d i v i d u a l Freedom, Chicago, A l d i n e , 1962. S u t h e r l a n d , Edwin H. and C r e s s e y , Donald R. P r i n c i p l e s of  C r i m i n o l o g y , Chicago, J . B. L i p p i n c o t e Co., 1960. Thomas, John L e w i s . P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , London, P o l i c e Review P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1957. Volmer, August. The P o l i c e and Modern S o c i e t y , B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1936. W i l s o n , 0. W. P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , New York, San F r a n c i s c o , Toronto and London, M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1963. 2. P e r i o d i c a l s B a l d w i n , David M. "Dimensions of the T r a f f i c S a f e t y Problems." Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e . 320:9-14, November 1958. B a r r e t t J r . , E. L. " P o l i c e P r a c t i c e s and the Law-from a r r e s t to r e l e a s e or charge." C a l i f o r n i a Law Review, 50:11, March 1962. 101 B e e l e y , A. L. "Parenthood, the P o l i c e Power and C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " Western P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 12,3:799-807, September 1959. Bethea, J . W. " O r g a n i z i n g f o r S a f e t y , " Annals of the  American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 320:9-14, November 1958. C a l d w e l l , A. B. " P o l i c e e f f e c i e n c y i n Law Enforcement as a f o u n d a t i o n i n American L i f e . " American Bar A s s o c i a t i o n  J o u r n a l , 48:130, February 1962. C a r r , W i l l i a m G. " E d u c a t i o n and the Motor Age." Annals of  the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 320:63-72, November 1958. D a v i e s , Audrey M. " P o l i c e , the Law, and the I n d i v i d u a l . " A n n a l s of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i ence, 291: 143-151, January 1954. Hargrave, B. "The P o l i c e and the P u b l i c . " The S o l i c i t o r  Q u a r t e r l y , 1:159, A p r i l 1962. Hoover, John Edgar. "The B a s i s of Sound Law Enforcement." A n n a l s of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e , 291:39-45, January 1954. Inbau, Fred E. " P u b l i c S a f e t y and I n d i v i d u a l L i b e r t i e s : The P r o s e c u t o r ' s Stand." J o u r n a l of C r i m i n a l Law, C r i m i n o l -ogy and P o l i c e S c i e n c e , 85-89, March 1962. K a d i s h , S. H. " L e g a l Norm and D i s c r e t i o n i n the p o l i c e and s e n t e n c i n g p r o c e s s . " Harvard Law Review, 75:904, March 1962. Kreml, F r a n k l i n M. " P o l i c e , P r o s e c u t o r s and Judges." Annals  of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 320:42-52, November 1958. La Fave, W. R. "Non-Enforcement of the Law." W i s c o n s i n Law  Review, 238-9, January-March 1962. Maloney, A., Q.C., " E f f e c t of C o r r e c t i o n s : R o l e of C o u r t s , Counsel and P o l i c e . " UBC Law Review, 1-1:252-263, 1959-63. 102 lYIisner, G. E. " M o b i l i t y and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c a r e e r system i n p o l i c e p e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " J o u r n a l  of C r i m i n a l Law, C r i m i n o l o g y and P o l i c e S c i e n c e , 54:529, December 1963. P a r k e r , W i l l i a m H. "The P o l i c e C h a l l e n g e i n our Great C i t i e s . " A nnals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l  and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 291:5-13, January 1954. A P o l i c e O f f i c e r , "Higher P o l i c e T r a i n i n g . " C r i m i n a l Law  Review, 393-5, 1963. Sage, Walter IM. "The Northwest Mounted P o l i c e and B r i t i s h Columbia." P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, 18:345-361, 1949. Smith, Bruce, "A P r e f a c e to Law Enforcement." Annals of  the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 291, January 1954. Thorson, Hon. J . T. "The Rule of Law i n a Changing World." UBC Law Review, 1-1:176-183, 1959-63. Newman, Donald J . " P l e a d i n g G u i l t y f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : A Study of B a r g a i n J u s t i c e . " J o u r n a l of C r i m i n a l Law, C r i m i n o l o g y and P o l i c e S c i e n c e , 781-88, 1956. I I I . P e r s o n a l e n q u i r y Evans, S t a f f - S g t . I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , 17 March 1965. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104813/manifest

Comment

Related Items