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Vocational training of disabled persons in British Columbia : a study of factors influencing the suc[c]ess… Catt, Frederick Ozmer 1966

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VOCATIONAL TRAINING OP DISABLED PERSONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA A Study of Factors I n f l u e n c i n g the Sucess of Fe d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programmes by FREDERICK OZMER CATT Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1966 The "University of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. i i ABSTRACT This study i s a diagnostic descriptive study i n the area of vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I t reviews the oper-ation of a p a r t i c u l a r vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme according to defined c r i t e r i a of successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a basis f o r recommendations regarding the refinement and expansion of services i n the f i e l d of vocational r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n . The study sample was selected from the closed cases, fo r I96J4, of persons who had taken vocational t r a i n i n g as arranged by the P r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i r t y - s i x case records were reviewed and analysed. In addition, l e t t e r s were sent to twenty i n d i v -iduals out of the group whose addresses were known. Gf these, eight were l a t e r interviewed. The intent of the interviews was to gain f i r s t hand information about the obstacles to successful vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , based on the experiences of those who had a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In addition, a number of persons i n the community experienced i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work, were interviewed and contributed valuable information and insights, which were u t i l i z e d i n the study. The c r i t e r i a f o r successful vocational r e h a b i l i t a -tion used i n the study were developed from the p r i n c i p l e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n the e a r l i e r c a r t of the study, and included the following components: (1) f u l l assessment ( 2 ) freedom of choice within reasonable, l i m i t s allowed to the disabled person regarding courses taken ( 3 ) provision of a l l the necessary aids and f a c i l i t i e s , including s u f f i c i e n t income to trainees, according to i n d i v i d u a l circumstances ( i i ) provision of continuous counselling services through a designated person known to the trainee (£) assistance i n job placement i n the l i n e of work for which person has trained (6) follow-up services to ensure success i n holding the job for a period of at least a year. In the sample group, whose average age was about t h i r t y , the length of the preceding period of d i s a b i l i t y , type of d i s a b i l i t y , and lack of previous employment record were not obstacles to successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Out of t h i r t y - s i x trainees, twenty-six completed t r a i n i n g . In the cases of the ten who did not, the reasons f o r f a i l u r e . t o do so included i l l n e s s , marital and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y , and anxiety over courses, but the reasons were not? known i n a l l instances. Twenty-five of the t h i r t y - s i x obtained, jobs. Nine d i d not, and i n two instances there was i n s u f f i c i e n t informa-t i o n . In twenty-one cases, the jobs were i n the l i n e of work for which the person had trained. However, when these cases were reviewed by the researcher one year l a t e r , only nine were s t i l l working i n the l i n e of work for which they had been trained. Of the remainder, twelve had either l o s t their jobs a f t e r short periods due to recurring i l l n e s s , employer d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , low wages, or i n a b i l i t y of the employee to adjust to the job. In the remaining nine instances, i n -formation was i n s u f f i c i e n t to determine the reason. There-fore, according to the c r i t e r i a used i n the study, only one t h i r d the t o t a l group was known to have been successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Interviews with former trainees and other sources of data revealed that common sources of d i f f i c u l t y encountered were: anxiety over courses; economic hardship from low sub-sistence t r a i n i n g allowances; administrative delays i n receiv-ing allowances; lack of clear knowledge about whether coun-s e l l i n g services were available and how to obtain them; d i f f i c u l t y i n finding jobs i n the l i n e f o r which they had trained; and lack of work adjustment. In the cases of women trainees, a common problem was the lack.of adequate c h i l d care services, that the mother could a f f o r d . An important finding of the study was that success-f u l job placement i s a major problem facing disabled persons. There was clear i n d i c a t i o n that success i n vocational r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n was dependent l a r g e l y on client-centered approach, adequate assessment followed by f l e x i b l e and regular contact between the trainee and the person responsible f o r providing r e h a b i l i t a t i v e services. The p r i n c i p l e recommendations were (1) the pro-v i s i o n of direct continuous counselling services to a l l trainees, preferably through one counsellor (2) extension of counselling services to include placement services, with special emphasis on a period of follow-up for at l e a s t s i x months to one year (3) the granting of a t r a i n i n g allowance, to be termed a "vocational t r a i n i n g allowance," s u f f i c i e n t to meet the trainees i n d i v i d u a l needs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to be paid from the date of commencement of t r a i n i n g Pro-visions for adequate medical coverage throughout the r e h a b i l -i t a t i v e period (5>) Provisions f o r improved c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s f o r children of women trainees (6) improved integration of services by agencies serving the trainees (7) expansion of sheltered workshop f a c i l i t i e s , as there was evidence t h i s would have been a more suitable resource for some of the trainees (8) s p e c i f i c steps to make Federal-Provincial Training Programmes more widely known (9) extension of t r a i n -ing programmes i n cooperation with industry (10) r e v i s i o n o f current apprenticeship practices (11) provision for con-tinuous i n t e r p r e t i v e programme to employers. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish t o express my si n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mrs. Mary Tadych, of the School of S o c i a l Work f o r her guidance and encouragement i n the completion o f t h i s study. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to Mr. Clarence E. Bradbury, D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and other members of the p r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t a f f f o r t h e i r a c t i v e support and co-operation. I n a d d i t i o n , I am indebted to s t a f f personnel from many other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and agencies f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l ideas and suggestions. TABLES IN THE TEXT Table No. 1. 2. 3 . h. 5. 6. Date of Referral and Commencement of Training; Termination of Train-i n g ; Age of Trainee at Termination of Training Whether Complete or Incomplete; Date When F i r s t Job Obtained; Training Programme Used and Success of Rehabilitation Sources of Agency Referral Previous P r i n c i p a l Occupations Primary D i s a b i l i t y of Trainees Time Elapsing Between Onset of D i s a b i l i t y and Referral f o r Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n Services. Training Courses Taken Chapter I I I p.2-3 Chapter I I I p. 6 Chapter I I I p. 15 Chapter I I I p. 17 Chapter I I I p. 20 Chapter I I I p. 23 7. Source and Amount of Fi n a n c i a l Support of Trainees at Time of Application f o r Vocational Training; Amount of Subsistence Allowance Approved, and Monthly Income from F i r s t Job Obtained Chapter I I I p. 27 8. Agency Effecting Job Placement Chapter I I I p. 36 9 Reasons Given By Trainees For Termination of Training Chapter I I I P. 39 y i d INTRODUCTION PART 6 This study i s part of a planned series on r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n i n Canada. In the f i r s t part of the study, the l e g i s l a t i v e base fo r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services i n Canada was examined, at both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , and the esse n t i a l components of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a philosophy and a process were reviewed. The series aims at the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of obstacles - l e g i s l a t i v e , p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and administrative - to the implementation of comprehensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services f o r Canadians, as t h i s i s the pre-liminary step i n devising methods of dealing with them. This section of the study focuses on vocational aspects of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. In i t a review i s made of how a p a r t i c u l a r vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme in a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y i s a c t u a l l y operating. The pro-gramme chosen i s the Federal-Provincial Programme 6, for the technical vocational t r a i n i n g of disabled persons, and the l o c a l i t y i s B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s only as we review the actual operating of our r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services that we can evaluate, with any surety^ how far they are r e f l e c t i n g the philosophy of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and how far the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process can t r u l y be said to be successful. v i i i The d e f i n i t i o n used as the c r i t e r i o n of successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the 'review of the programme was developed from the p r i n c i p l e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n Part 1 of the s e r i e s . Using these p r i n c i p l e s as a guide, the d e f i n i t i o n of successful vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n which w i l l be used i n the study i s : -To be successful, vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must include the following components: f i r s t , as f u l l an assess-ment of the capacities of the disabled person as i s necessary; secondly, freedom of choice, within reasonable l a t i t u d e s , to the disabled person, regarding choice of t r a i n i n g ; t h i r d l y , h i s enrollment i n the course of h i s choice; fourthly, pro-v i s i o n to him of a l l the necessary aids and f a c i l i t i e s , including s u f f i c i e n t income^ to him and h i s dependents accord-ing to t h e i r needs during the t r a i n i n g period; f i f t h l y , the provision of continuous counselling services throughout the entire r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process, preferably through one desig-nated person, known to the disabled person; s i x t h l y , a s s i s -tance i n placement i n the l i n e of work f o r which he was trained, and l a s t l y , follow-up services^ to ensure successful holding of 1 the job obtained, for a period of at l e a s t a year. 1. This introduction was written by Mrs. Mary Tadych, Director of the Thesis Project, to give the rationale and background of the study, as part of a planned s e r i e s . ix TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Acknowledgements Tables Introduction Page i i v v i vii). Chapter I The Challenge Employment Problems of Disabled Persons. The Need f o r Vocational"Rehabilitation Services. Rationale f o r the Study. Infor-mation Necessary f o r Adequate Vocational Assessment. The Role of the Counselor. Chapter I I The Study Sample The D i v i s i o n of Reha b i l i t a t i o n . E l i g i b i l i t y f o r Vocational Training Services. Character-i s t i c s of the Sample. Research Method. Definitions of Successful Vocational Rehab-i l i t a t i o n . Chapter I I I Analysis and Interpretation Assessment of Success i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Trainees. Sources of Referral. Sex r a t i o , Ages, M a r i t a l status, Number of dependent?, Educational background and previous occupa-tions of trainees. D i s a b i l i t i e s of Applicants. Assessment and Training. Income before and during t r a i n i n g . Length of Training. Problems of job placement, drop-outs and t r a i n i n g a l -lowances. Chapter IV Interviews with Former Trainees Insights obtained. Eight Case Summaries. L i v i n g Accommodations as a Factor i n Success-f u l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Chapter V Conclusions and Recommendations Specific Problems i n Job Placement. Importance of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . Recommendations. APPENDICES Appendix A Letter to former trainees B Re h a b i l i t a t i o n Referral Form C Medical assessment f o r purpose of Physical and Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n D Application f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance . for t r a i n i n g E Canadian Vocational Training Training on the job i n industry F Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Disabled Persons Agreement University Training - Schedule 3 G Termination of Training Report H Re h a b i l i t a t i o n Report CHAPTER I THE CHALLENGE I n t e g r a t i o n of the Handicapped i n t o Employment Within the past ten years both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments have taken more p o s i t i v e steps i n a i d i n g handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s to r e t u r n to g a i n f u l em-ployment. I n an i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d labour market there seems to be greater r e c o g n i t i o n that a p h y s i c a l or mental handicap may s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t a person 1s c a p a c i t y to o b t a i n employment because job s k i l l requirements are much grea t e r . Development o f the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programmes f o r d i s a b l e d persons i s an i n d i c a t i o n that we have accepted the challenge of p r o v i d i n g necessary s e r v i c e s to a s s i s t v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . These programmes are so new that there has been l i t t l e time to determine how e f f e c t i v e l y they are s e r v i n g the people f o r whom they have been designed but i t i s important that some e v a l u a t i o n should be made. Toward t h i s end ; i t i s a d v i s a b l e to consider the programmes from the stand-point of the k i n d of s o c i e t y i n which we are l i v i n g . The Changing World of Employment The present i n t e r e s t i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s quite strong. This i n t e r e s t has a r i s e n from the adjustments n e c e s s i t a t e d by the economic changes that are t a i l i n g place not onl y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but a l l over the world. Edwin F. S h e l l e y , w r i t i n g i n the S o c i a l Welfare Forum i n 1963 had t h i s to say, "Within twenty years there w i l l be no human beings other than s u p e r v i s o r y and maintenance personnel engaged i n the a c t u a l manufacture of 1 the n e c e s s i t i e s of American L i f e . " Such d r a s t i c changes i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y brought about by automation w i l l ap-p l y to Canada as w e l l as the United S t a t e s . Furthermore, these changes w i l l have f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s . While auto-mation w i l l provide more abundance than we have known pre-v i o u s l y , i t w i l l a l s o have a tremendous impact on the i n -d u s t r i a l workers whose productive a b i l i t i e s become obsolete, g i v i n g r i s e to considerable hardship and u n c e r t a i n t y . I f such workers are t o a v o i d permanent unemployment f o r which most of them are quite unprepared, massive pro-grammes of s k i l l development and r e - t r a i n i n g are necessary. One of the major problems f o r i n d u s t r y and government to co n s i d e r i s the types of r e - t r a i n i n g that w i l l be r e q u i r e d , and t o f u r t h e r develop and r e f i n e e x i s t i n g programmes to meet the need. In a d e s c r i p t i o n of the employment r a m i f i c a t i o n s of automation, A. Tourain and A s s o c i a t e s had t h i s to say, "Rather than r e q u i r i n g an i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l , the work seems to c a l l f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d , mental r a t h e r than manual, nervous r a t h e r than muscular, and l o g -S h e l l e y , Edwin F. "Automation and the Welfare of S o c i e t y " The S o c i a l Welfare Forum (Cleveland: O f f i c i a l Proceedings N a t i o n a l Conference on S o c i a l Welfare, 1963) P. (h 1 i c a l rather than craftsmanlike." In other words, the emphasis w i l l be on a different combination of capacities and a b i l i t i e s . Intelligence, alertness and deftness become more important than physical strengthy:I experience, and craftsmanship. Furthermore, there seems to be a definite trend toward certain types of employment as indicated by Harold Goldstein, Assistant Commissioner for Manpower and Employ-ment Statistics, United States Bureau of Statistics, who writes that "most rapid growth i s expected among the pro-fessional, c l e r i c a l , and service occupations; slowest 2 growth among the semi-skilled and unskilled occupations." The transition i n the labour force from the blue-collar workers to the white-collar workers i s already taking place. Coupled with these changes, i s the prediction of the Organi-zation for European Economic Co-operation that "the frontiers of knowledge and technology w i l l move so rapidly that much of an individual 1s formal training as a youth w i l l soon be-3 come obsolete or inadequate." From the foregoing, i t i s apparent that in modern society, individuals must find their place in the midst of rapid change rather than relative sta-b i l i t y . 'Tourain, A. and Associates "Worker's Attitudes to Technical Change", Industrial Relations Aspects,of Manpower Policy (Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Develop-ment, 1965) p. ^5 'Goldstein, Harold "Education and Worklife in Changing Economy1  The School Guidance Worker (November 1965) P. *+0 'Office for Scientific and Technical Personnel. "Forecasting: Manpower needs for the age of science (Paris: Organization for European Economic Co-operation, I960) - h -One way of a s c e r t a i n i n g the extent to which handicapped people are being i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the work f o r c e i s to study a p p l i c a t i o n s to s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programmes. Such a study should r e v e a l that problems of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g that apply to the handi-capped might a l s o be r e l e v a n t f o r non-handicapped i n d i v i -d u a l s. This study proposes to focus on some of these problems. The Heed An estimate of the extent of d i s a b i l i t y i s i n -cluded i n the r e p o r t of the Royal Commission on Health Services i n which i t was pointed out that i n 1 9 6 1 over 5 6 5 , 0 0 0 of the t o t a l p o p ulation of Canada s u f f e r e d from severe or t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y and t h i s f i g u r e d i d not i n c l u d e 1 persons who were mentally i l l or mentally r e t a r d e d . D i s -a b i l i t y a f f e c t s work performance, and u s u a l l y a d v e r s e l y . Therefore, l a r g e numbers of people re q u i r e t r a i n i n g f o r l e s s demanding work regardle s s of what i n d u s t r i a l changes are t a k i n g p l a c e . However, when an i n d i v i d u a l has to contend w i t h both h i s d i s a b i l i t y and the impact of automation a t the same time, the problem of h i s v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n becomes more d i f f i c u l t . Even so, present employment r e q u i r e -ments may be working to the advantage of the d i s a b l e d person, where e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and emotional s t a b i l i t y are more important a t t r i b u t e s than p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h . Royal Commission on Health S e r v i c e s , 1 9 6 U - . V o l . 1 Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 6 1 + p ^ 6 - 5 -I t f o l l o w s that i n s p i t e of competition f o r t a k i n g vo-c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses being greater than at any time p r e v i o u s l y , i t a l s o i s true that a greater number of d i s -abled persons w i l l be able to a v a i l themselves of t r a i n i n g simply because many have above-average i n t e l l e c t u a l endow-ment and the necessary emotional s t a b i l i t y . The f a c t that such a s u b s t a n t i a l percentage of the population s u f f e r s from d i s a b i l i t y and t h a t so f a r , r e l a t i v e l y few people have a-v a i l e d themselves of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t much greater use must be made of the knowledge and resources that are a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . An i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l r e q u i r e an expansion of s e r v i c e s . I t i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l be o f some use i n plans f o r such an expansion. Assumptions of the Study I n order to develop the broadest p o s s i b l e perspec-t i v e i n the planning of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i t i s necessary to e s t a b l i s h some of the important assumptions about r e h a b i l i t a t i o n which h e l p to c l a r i f y i t s goals. 1. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n may be seen as a philosophy. Dr. Howard A. Rusk, former member of the C o u n c i l of c h i e f c o n s u l t a n t s to the c h i e f Medical D i r e c t o r i n the United States has s t a t e d , "The p r a c t i c e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r the p h y s i c i a n begins with the b e l i e f i n the b a s i c philosophy t h a t the doctor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y does not end when the accute i l l n e s s i s ended or surgery i s completed; i t ends only when the I n d i v i d u a l i s r e t r a i n e d to l i v e and work 1 w i t h what i s l e f t . " Other d i s c i p l i n e s i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n need to apply a s i m i l a r philosophy. 2 . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n may a l s o be seen as a process. Viewing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h i s way has been elaborated by John J . Horwitz, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r at the State Univer-s i t y of New York at B u f f a l o when he s a i d that r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n i s "a process whereby a handicapped i n d i v i d u a l achieves an enlargement of p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s , s o c i a l competence and personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s . Concerted s e r v i c e s designed to com-prehend a complexity of needs are commonly r e q u i r e d i f such 2 a person i s to achieve the f u l l - l i f e . " 3 . The range o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c a p a c i t i e s among d i s a b l e d persons i s the same as f o r non-disabled persons. The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s o n l y i n the f a c t that i n c e r t a i n func-t i o n s the d i s a b l e d person may be s e v e r l y r e s t r i c t e d . The h a b i t of sigh t e d persons addressing questions to a b l i n d person 1s companions r a t h e r than to the b l i n d person h i m s e l f i s an example of common f a i l u r e to f u l l y comprehend t h i s p o i n t . In these i n s t a n c e s , the b l i n d person i s t r e a t e d as though he was deaf as w e l l as b l i n d . There must be r e c o g n i t i o n that f a i l u r e i n vo-c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be due to a l a c k of motivation 1Rusk, Howard A.: Dynamic Therapeutic i n Chronic Disease. Postgrad Medicine, 5278, 19^9. % o r w i t z , John J . : Education f o r S o c i a l Workers i n the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the Handicapped. (New York; C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Work Education, 1959) i n the i n d i v i d u a l but a l s o can be due to i n s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o the programmes the philosophy and pro-cess of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . R ationale f o r the Study This p a r t i c u l a r study i s a part of a s e r i e s r e -viewing the v a r i o u s aspects of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g pro-grammes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as they a f f e c t people w i t h handicaps, both p h y s i c a l and mental. I t was chosen f o r a number of reasons. F i r s t , i f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s to be s u c c e s s f u l , involvement by a v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n s i s necessary. Doctors, s o c i a l workers, teachers, nurses, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , v o c a t i o n a l counselors, and placement o f f i c e r s have a v a r i e t y of r o l e s to p l a y i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. For best r e s u l t s , t h e i r a b i l i t i e s must be f u l l y u t i l i z e d and w e l l co-ordinat and t h i s i s never easy. I t i s o n l y as we examine e x i s t i n g programmes th a t we can gain the knowledge necessary to im-prove c o - o r d i n a t i o n and t o f i l l gaps. Secondly, there i s considerable p u b l i c knoxtfledge about and acceptance of r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes but v e r y l i t t l e knowledge about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Few Canadian studies have been done i n t h i s f i e l d . T h i r d l y , s o c i a l work has an important part to p l a y i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e i s one of the most important s o c i a l work p r i n -c i p l e s i n v o l v e d . - 8 -The Process of V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n By the time an a p p l i c a n t i s considered ready to enter a t r a i n i n g programme the medical aspects of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process have been quite w e l l s t u d i e d . Therefore, the d i s a b l e d person enters a new phase of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process where the emphasis i s on v o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Strong m o t i v a t i o n i n the c l i e n t i s a pre-r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c c e s s f u l v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . One of the r o l e s of the counselor i s to assess t h i s m o t i v a t i o n . The counselor must a l s o be able to assess the c l i e n t 1 s capa-c i t y . This a b i l i t y to assess i s extremely important and i s b a s i c to good c o u n s e l l i n g . The counselor must not mis-take enthusiasm f o r motivation because he knows that the road to s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s long and hard and th a t i t i s only the person w i t h i n n e r d r i v e , determination and perseverance who w i l l u l t i m a t e l y achieve success. Nor must the counselor confuse strong i n t e r e s t w i t h c a p a c i t y . Many people have a strong i n t e r e s t and d e s i r e f o r some p a r t i c u l a r accomplishment but t h i s does not mean that they have the a-b i l i t y to achieve t h e i r goals. There must a l s o be some con-s i d e r a t i o n given to the v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The counselor should know and be able to c l e a r l y o u t l i n e the s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the c l i e n t and the agency p o l i c i e s r e l e v a n t to these s e r v i c e s . The counselor should i n a d d i -t i o n have a good perception of the p o t e n t i a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , i n order - 9 -that he can a s s i s t the c l i e n t to set a r e a l i s t i c v o c a t i o n a l goal. I n other words, mo t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y must be geared to a v o c a t i o n a l goal that o f f e r s the greatest op-p o r t u n i t i e s to the c l i e n t . Furthermore, a l l three com-ponents, m o t i v a t i o n , c a p a c i t y and opportunity must be present before v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can r e a l i s t i c a l l y be undertaken. The Focus The focus i n t h i s study w i l l be on f i v e main as-pects of the v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process, namely: the assessment; counseling s e r v i c e s ; t r a i n i n g a i d s and f a c i l i t i e s ; f i n a n c i a l arrangements; and job placement. These p a r t i c u l a r aspects are s p e c i f i e d because each i s important to the s u c c e s s f u l completion of t r a i n i n g . I f s e r v i c e s are d e f i c i e n t i n any one of these areas, the r e s u l t may be f a i l u r e even though the s e r v i c e s are adequate i n a l l other r e s p e c t s . Assessment i s important because i t i s the b a s i s on which a l l t r a i n i n g i s planned. Furthermore, a f u l l as-sessment of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g makes i t much e a s i e r to a s s i s t him i f and when problems a r i s e during t r a i n i n g . A l s o without adequate assessment, people w i l l be .approved f o r t r a i n i n g who are not s u i t a b l e candidates, while others who are, may - 1 0 -be deprived of the opportunity. As f a r as counseling s e r v i c e s are concerned, i t seems d e s i r a b l e t h a t very e a r l y i n the process one person should be delegated to act as counselor f o r the t r a i n e e t o adjust the programme to the person, i n l i n e w i t h the concept that a l l people w i t h d i s a b i l i t i e s have quite d i f -f e r e n t needs. I t i s necessary to keep i n mind that d i s -a b i l i t y i n v o l v e s considerable trauma. Therefore, one person,expertly:; t r a i n e d not on l y i n the p o l i c i e s and procedures of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , but a l s o i n an under-standing of r e a c t i o n s to p h y s i c a l and emotional s t r e s s should be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The Counseling Approach I n many agencies, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the United S t a t e s , v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s a l l o c a t e d a major r o l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. V o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g has been des c r i b e d as a "process i n which the counselor t h i n k s and works i n a face to face r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a d i s a b l e d person i n order to help him understand both h i s problems and h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and to c a r r y through a program of adjustment and self-improve-ment to the end that he w i l l make the best obtainable vo-1 c a t i o n a l , p e r s o n a l , and s o c i a l adjustment." Using t h i s approach, the s e r v i c e i s provided p r i m a r i l y by one person, U. S. Department of He a l t h , Education and Welfare V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process. John F. McGowan (ed) U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, p. 3 8 - l i -the v o c a t i o n a l counselor, whose main a c t i v i t y w i l l be i n c o u n s e l i n g , but who a l s o may provide casework and job placement s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n , he w i l l be r e q u i r e d to act as a c o - o r d i n a t o r i n the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s from other d i s c i p l i n e s . This approach has s e v e r a l advantages; f i r s t , the c l i e n t i s assured of s e r v i c e u n t i l he a t t a i n s h i s v o c a t i o n a l goal or becomes convinced that he must s e t t l e f o r a l e s s demanding go a l . Secondly, there i s greater l i k e l i h o o d that q u a l i t y s e r v i c e w i l l be provided by a counselor t r a i n e d i n a l l aspects of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n r a t h e r than by s t a f f from agencies who may not have the time, the i n t e r e s t or the knowledge to render t h i s type of s e r v i c e . T h i r d l y , and perhaps most impor-t a n t , the c l i e n t i s more l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l -i t a t e d when he knows there i s one person w i t h whom he can discuss h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , r a t h e r than being l e f t w i t h a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from agency and i n d i v i d u a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s about whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s . This approach places a great deal of onus upon the counselor to be thoroughly f a m i l i a r with a l l aspects o f each r e h a b i l i t a t i o n case. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n poses s p e c i a l problems i n s o c i a l p o l i c y because of i t s complexity. The great number of d i s c i p l i n e s and agencies that may be i n v o l v e d i n v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a l l s f o r a high degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n and - 12 -co-operation. The q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e i s a l s o an impor-tant f a c t o r , as the problems f o r the d i s a b l e d population are greater both i n number and i n t e n s i t y than f o r persons who are not d i s a b l e d . Therefore, agencies engaged i n r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n must attempt to provide high q u a l i t y s e r v i c e and at the same time develop e f f e c t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s and groups engaged i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Considering the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n meeting these stan-dards, too l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n i s given to the accomplishments of those who provide such s e r v i c e s . Not every person wants or i s able to a s s i m i l a t e advanced education, but many people can make use of the opportunity f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . Therefore, i n the f u t u r e we are l i k e l y to see extensive development i n the f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g and r e - t r a i n i n g of people f o r employment. This s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s both to d i s a b l e d persons as w e l l as to those who are i n good h e a l t h . Sheltered Workshops There are a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who are unable to o b t a i n commercial employment but who nevertheless have s k i l l s or a p t i t u d e s that could be used e x t e n s i v e l y under appropriate c o n d i t i o n s . Some s h e l t e r e d types of employment may be s u i t a b l e f o r such persons as a number of t r a i n e e s i n s h e l t e r e d workshops do e v e n t u a l l y move i n t o jobs i n the r e g u l a r employment market. - 13 -Information Necessary f o r Adequate  V o c a t i o n a l Assessment I t i s o n l y a f t e r reviewing i n f o r m a t i o n about the h e a l t h of the c l i e n t , h i s e d u c a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y , h i s employment background, h i s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and h i s s o c i a l adjustment that the counselor i s i n a p o s i t i o n to know the v o c a t i o n a l areas that may be s u i t a b l e f o r him. Medical Information I t i s of v i t a l importance to know the nature and the extent of the d i s a b i l i t y s u f f e r e d by the a p p l i -cant; the general h e a l t h of the i n d i v i d u a l ; the degree to which medical s e r v i c e s may remove or minimize the d i s -a b i l i t y . The counselor might suggest f u r t h e r medical e v a l u a t i o n before embarking on a programme of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g e s p e c i a l l y when the d i s a b i l i t y i s of long-standing. He must be able t o help the c l i e n t accept a v o c a t i o n a l goal t h a t i s appropriate f o r h i s medical c o n d i t i o n and prepare the c l i e n t f o r p e r i o d i c medical examinations. I n t h i s r e -gard, he should know the date of onset of the d i s a b i l i t y and i t s symptoms. At the same time he must be c a r e f u l at a l l times to leave matters of medical advice s t r i c t l y w i t h the c l i e n t ' s p h y s i c i a n , and to maintain the ph y s i c i a n ' s co-operation. Furthermore, the c l i e n t must be prepared to undergo p e r i o d i c medical examinations. Under some circum-stances, p s y c h i a t r i c treatment or examination by s p e c i a l i s t s may be r e q u i r e d . - Ih -P s y c h o l o g i c a l Information Observations about the c l i e n t ' s behaviour, past and present must be made, but formal p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g i s not always necessary. B a s i c a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g should help the d i s a b l e d person gain a b e t t e r understanding of h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s . Such t e s t i n g i s i n -d i c a t e d when: 1. Long term or expensive t r a i n i n g i s contemplated. 2. The degree of mental r e t a r d a t i o n has to be determined. 3 . A c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the c l i e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s , a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , and p e r s o n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d . h. An i n d i v i d u a l i s known or suspected of having c e r t a i n d i s a b i l i t i e s that r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d e v a l u a t i o n of h i s c a p a c i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s , s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y . " I t i s much e a s i e r t o spend a few d o l l a r s on ade-quate e v a l u a t i o n than i t i s to waste a great d e a l of time 1 and money as the r e s u l t of an u n r e a l i s t i c v o c a t i o n a l p l a n . " B a s i c a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g should h e l p the d i s a b l e d persons gain b e t t e r understanding of h i s p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s . When there has been a long record of s u c c e s s f u l employment p r i o r to d i s a b i l i t y , the c l i e n t u s u a l l y has t h i s understanding which obviates t e s t i n g . One important advantage of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g i s that i t "should h e l p the counselor i d e n t i f y those c l i e n t s who w i l l r e q u i r e ex-2 t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g services.'* U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , Education and Welfare. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process, op. c i t . p. 6 6 2 i b i d . p. 6 7 - 15 -The b e t t e r the counselor knows and understands h i s c l i e n t s , the more e f f e c t i v e l y he w i l l be able t o concentrate h i s r e -h a b i l i t a t i v e e f f o r t s . The TOWER System As v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be such a long process i t i s important that v o c a t i o n a l goals should be r e a l i s t i c . Much inf o r m a t i o n can be obtained from psycho-l o g i c a l t e s t i n g , but a work e v a l u a t i o n performance i s more c o n c l u s i v e . The I n s t i t u t e f o r the C r i p p l e d and Disabled 1 has developed a t e s t c a l l e d the TOWER System meaning Te s t i n g , O r i e n t a t i o n and Work E v a l u a t i o n i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r assessing v o c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l . I t i n v o l v e s over a hundred i n d i v i d u a l work tasks i n t h i r t e e n s p e c i f i c areas: c l e r i c a l , d r a f t i n g , drawing, e l e c t r o n i c s assembly, jew e l r y manufacturing, leathergoods, l e t t e r i n g , m a i l c l e r k , o p t i c a l mechanics, r e c e p t i o n i s t , sewing machine o p e r a t i n g , workshop assembly and welding. The advantage of the use of the TOWER System i s that I t provides an accurate estimate of the c l i e n t ' s v o c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l or l a c k of i t . I n t h i s way, d i s a b l e d persons are guided to d e c i s i o n s about v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g t h a t should avoid f r u s t r a t i o n s and disappointment. S o c i a l Information I t i s important to r e s t r i c t the s o c i a l h i s t o r y t o The TOWER System. (New York; I n s t i t u t e f o r the C r i p p l e d and Disabled.) - 16 -data pertinent to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plans. Identifying i n -formation should include the c l i e n t ' s name, address, date of b i r t h and marital status. Background information should b r i e f l y cover e a r l i e r l i f e experiences, p a r t i c u l a r l y home loca t i o n , f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as well as school adjust-ment and achievement. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i s a record of the c l i e n t ' s employment h i s t o r y and e s p e c i a l l y h i s job sa t i s f a c t i o n s . The counselor must also obtain a clear p i c -ture of the c l i e n t ' s present s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n and how h i s d i s a b i l i t y has affected himself and those who are close to him. F i n a l l y there must be an assessment of the c l i e n t ' s personality t r a i t s because the success of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plan w i l l depend l a r g e l y on the personality strength of the person undertaking the t r a i n i n g . Vocational Information An employment h i s t o r y should be obtained giving the names and addresses of employers, the length of time employed, the duties performed, income, and job s a t i s f a c -tions. I t i s also necessary to know the c l i e n t ' s work habits, s k i l l s , objectives and motivations. Aptitude and in t e r e s t tests are useful aids i n helping the c l i e n t to choose a r e a l i s t i c vocational goal. The goal must be based on employment opportunities and therefore the counselor must have knowledge of the general employment picture with-i n the area i n which the trainee prefers to l i v e . In addi-t i o n , the goal must be related to the medical, psychological and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . - 17 -The Role of the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Counselor The r o l e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n counselor i s s u f f i c i e n t l y -important i n the whole v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process t h a t an o u t l i n e of h i s d e s i r a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should be described. Some of the more important are as f o l l o w s : A b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t and apply agency p o l i c y , laws and r e g u l a t i o n s . Understanding of human growth and development. A b i l i t y to use accepted methods and techniques of case study. A b i l i t y to maintain a good c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . Understanding of the e f f e c t s of disease or i n j u r y on b o d i l y . f u n c t i o n s , behaviour and p e r s o n a l i t y . An understanding of mental and emotional c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g adjustment. A b i l i t y to recognize the evidences of mental and p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . Use of medical i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o u n s e l l i n g and planning. A b i l i t y to analyze occupations, interms of s k i l l s , p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s needed, environmental c o n d i -t i o n s , and r e l a t e such f a c t o r s t o the c l i e n t , h i s c a p a c i t i e s and h i s needs. An understanding of community resources and how they may be made a v a i l a b l e to c l i e n t s . A b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t , s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and medical data i n terms of c l i e n t need. A b i l i t y to c o l l e c t and use oc c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from a wide v a r i e t y of sources. A b i l i t y to present to prospective employers the case f o r h i r i n g d i s a b l e d workers. - 18 -Capa c i t y f o r working w i t h agency members and incr e a s e d competence as a team member. Ca p a c i t y f o r working w i t h h i s own and other d i s c i p l i n e s . 1 A b i l i t y to develop v o c a t i o n a l d i a g n o s t i c s k i l l s . Combined with these a b i l i t i e s , the counselor must possess good judgment, i n i t i a t i v e , c r e a t i v i t y , s e n s i t i v i t y , r esourcefulness and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t degree. The V o c a t i o n a l Plan There must be f a c i l i t i e s i n the community to make use of v o c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l . Otherwise, assessment w i l l have reduced value. One of the main tasks of the counselor i s t o i n t e r p r e t to the c l i e n t h i s employment p o t e n t i a l , c o n s i d e r i n g the medical, s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l data that the c l i e n t has provided. The wider the scope of t r a i n i n g , the greater w i l l be the l i k e l i h o o d of success. Disabled persons do not l i k e to have t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l choices r e s t r i c t e d any more than anyone e l s e does. I n t h i s r espect, the most important aspect of the c o u n s e l l i n g i s to make sure that the c l i e n t has as c l e a r an understanding as p o s s i b l e of the s p e c i f i c advantages and obstacles to t a k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r course of t r a i n i n g . J o i n t L i a i s o n Committee of the C o u n c i l of State D i r e c t o r s of V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Counselor Educators, Studies i n Counselor T r a i n i n g . No. 1, 1963 - 19 -Regarding vocational planning^there are various conclusions that the applicant and the counselor may reach. There should be f u l l discussion by the applicant and the counselor on the subject and c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the counselor i f he senses that the applicant i s disappointed that he cannot pursue a vocational goal since there i s so much emphasis on work achievement i n our modern society. Alternately, i t may be agreed that the applicant i s not yet able to compete on the open labour market but that he does have s u f f i c i e n t motivation and capacity to function adequately i n a sheltered workshop. F i n a l l y , the decision could be that the applicant can r e a l i s t i c a l l y embark on a vocational t r a i n i n g programme. In t h i s l a t t e r instance, the counselor should explain as c l e a r l y as possible, the process of vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . He should explain f u l l y the extent of the services as well as the l i m i t a t i o n s of service i n order that the applicant may make the most appropriate use of h i s opportunity f o r vocational t r a i n i n g . It i s quite possible that the c l i e n t w i l l choose a course which the counselor thinks i s too d i f f i c u l t . Such a situation c a l l s f o r thorough discussion but i n the f i n a l analysis, i t should be the c l i e n t who makes the f i n a l de-c i s i o n . Those who can meet the s t i f f e s t challenges and who can master the most d i f f i c u l t courses are the ones who are most l i k e l y to be successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d and the - 20 -most s a t i s f i e d . At the same time, counselors must always he a l e r t t o detect when t r a i n e e s are beyond t h e i r depth and to h e l p them adopt a more r e a l i s t i c g oal, before they become overwhelmed by f r u s t r a t i o n and discouragement. A s s i s t i n g i n v o c a t i o n a l planning demands much s k i l l , as does every other aspect of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e counseling and r e q u i r e s per-sonnel w i t h unusual a b i l i t i e s . Even though the a p p l i c a n t may appear to have the c a p a c i t y f o r s u c c e s s f u l v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , he should not be compelled to use the s e r v i c e s that are a v a i l a b l e t o him. He may be convinced t h a t he can e v e n t u a l l y obtain em-ployment without t r a i n i n g and there should be no o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d to t h i s d e c i s i o n . Moreover, the d i s a b l e d person might decide that v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s to arduous and that he can achieve s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n l i f e other than through em-ployment. Again t h i s d e c i s i o n should be respected by the counselor. As long as the c l i e n t has had an opportunity to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a l t e r n a t e choices the counselor has f u l f i l l e d h i s r o l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s r e a l l y "making a person aware of h i s p o t e n t i a l and then p r o v i d i n g him w i t h the means of 1 a t t a i n i n g t h a t p o t e n t i a l . " This p a r t i c u l a r study w i l l d e a l w i t h the v o c a t i o n a l aspects "Allen, S . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n : A Community Challenge. (New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1958) p. 1 - 2 - 21 -of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but i t i s recognized that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may have a goal that i s not v o c a t i o n a l . I t w i l l review the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to a group of c l i e n t s i n a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n agency i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the use the c l i e n t s made of them. CHAPTER I I THE STUDY SAMPLE The choice of a study sample i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a wide one. The complexity of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process can best be i l l u s t r a t e d through a cl o s e look at the t r a i n e e s who were i n v o l v e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r programme. A l s o , a review of a p a r t i c u l a r programme should throw l i g h t on how our r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are a c t u a l l y o p e r a t i n g . For the s p e c i f i c purpose of t h i s study, i t seemed best to use the case records of the o f f i c e s of the P r o v i n -c i a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , D i v i s i o n o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. An attempt w i l l be made to o u t l i n e the s e r v i c e s provided by t h i s agency and i t s place i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n This D i v i s i o n was set up i n 195*+ as an adjunct to the Health Branch of the P r o v i n c i a l Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o l l o w i n g the passage of f e d e r a l government l e g i s -l a t i o n favourable to d i s a b l e d persons. Through the Co-ordin-a t i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Agreement, f e d e r a l expense was shared e q u a l l y w i t h the provinces to h i r e a P r o v i n c i a l Co-ordinator. H i s task i s to provide c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s regarding rehab-i l i t a t i o n to i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups throughout the - 2 -the province and a l s o to co-ordinate r e h a b i l i t a t i v e ac-t i v i t i e s on b e h a l f of d i s a b l e d persons. I n a d d i t i o n , h i s approval i s necessary f o r the payment of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s provided by the government of B r i t i s h Columbia. The D i v i s i o n i s d i r e c t e d by the ..'Assistant Pro-v i n c i a l H ealth O f f i c e r to whom the P r o v i n c i a l Co-ordinator i s r e s p o n s i b l e . They work c l o s e l y together to provide a co-ordinated programme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l Co-ordinator i s known as the D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l Rehab-i l i t a t i o n . The D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , which i s admini-stered by the Bureau of S p e c i a l Prevent l^ve.:- and Treatment s e r v i c e s of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s not the o n l y resource f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of d i s a b l e d persons and many are i n f a c t , given d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e by the p r o v i n c i a l de-partment of s o c i a l welfare as w e l l as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and p r i v a t e agencies. This study deals w i t h o n l y a part of the t o t a l programme of the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r e d by the D i v i s i o n . D isabled people may be r e f e r r e d f o r r e s t o r a t i v e and treatment s e r v i c e s , p r o s t h e t i c s , job placement or other r e -h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s , but t h i s study deals o n l y w i t h those a p p l i c a n t s deemed able to b e n e f i t from the v o c a t i o n a l rehab-i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d through the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n . R e f e r r a l s to the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n R e f e r r a l s f o r s e r v i c e come from i n d i v i d u a l s and - 3 -groups i n a l l areas of the province, by l e t t e r , by telephone or by personal contact. Outside of the Lower Mainland, the population of B r i t i s h Columbia i s s c a t t e r e d over a la r g e area. Therefore, the p o l i c y of the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n D i v i s i o n has been to make extensive use of l o c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n committees. These committees a s s i s t c l i e n t s i n a l l phases of the r e h a b i l -i t a t i v e process. Since I960, an i n c r e a s i n g number of r e f e r r a l s have been received from l o c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n committees which have been set up by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n a number of h e a l t h u n i t areas throughout the province, outside the Lower Mainland area. I d e a l l y , each committee c o n s i s t s of the H e a l t h Unit D i r e c t o r , the D i s t r i c t Supervisor of Welfare, and the s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s o f f i c e r or l o c a l manager of the N a t i o n a l Em-ployment S e r v i c e . The committees may a l s o be supplemented by i n t e r e s t e d community members. As a r e s u l t of t h e i r screening, they s e l e c t cases f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . This approach has not been used by the D i v i s i o n o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the Vancouver area, although there are plans f o r expansion of s e r -v i c e s i n North Vancouver and Burnaby. There are about e i g h t y agencies i n the Lower Mainland area i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y or i n -d i r e c t l y i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n whose e f f o r t s must be co-ordinated. Pending f u r t h e r developments, a number of agencies i n the metropolitan area r e f e r d i r e c t l y to the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n D i v i s i o n , a f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y screening process of t h e i r own. At the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l , cases are s e l e c t e d at a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n conference, attended by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the s u p e r v i s o r of the O u t - P a t i e n t 1 s Department, a medical s o c i a l worker, and i f p o s s i b l e , the p a t i e n t ' s doctor. One of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s that an employment l i a s d n o f f i c e r o f the S p e c i a l Placements D i v i s i o n of the N a t i o n a l Employment Services has h i s o f f i c e i n the Health Services B u i l d i n g where the D i v i s i o n i s l o c a t e d . This a r -rangement helps to avoid delays i n v o c a t i o n a l assessment and job placement. I t i s an example of good c o - o r d i n a t i o n at the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . E l i g i b i l i t y F a c tors Upon r e c e i p t of the r e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s f i r s t necessary to e s t a b l i s h whether s e r v i c e should be pro-vided by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s are i n v o l v e d i n making such a determination. F i r s t , i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d that the r e f e r r a n t s u f f e r s from a medical d i s a b i l i t y . D i s a b i l i t y has been defined by Kenneth Hamilton as "a c o n d i t i o n of impairment p h y s i c a l or mental, having an o b j e c t i v e aspect that can u s u a l l y be described by a p h y s i c i a n . " However not a l l d i s a b i l i t i e s w i l l prevent an i n d i v i d u a l from engaging i n g a i n f u l employment. This c a p a c i t y w i l l depend on the d i s a b i l i t y and the s e v e r i t y of the d i s a b i l i t y . I t I s o n l y when the d i s a b i l i t y i s judged to be a handicap that v o c a t i o n a l 1 Hamilton, K. W. Counseling the Handicapped i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n (New York, Ronald Press, 1950) p. 17 - 5 -r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s attempted, c o n s i d e r i n g a handicap as r. "the b a r r i e r s which the handicapped person must surmount i n order to obta i n the f u l l e s t p h y s i c a l , mental, s o c i a l , v o c a t i o n a l and economic usefulness of which he i s capable." In other words the i n d i v i d u a l must have a d i s a b i l i t y the p r e s e n t l y i n t e r f e r e s with h i s e m p l o y a b i l i t y before he can be accepted f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . On the other hand, i f the handicap i s so severe that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s un-l i k e l y to l e a d to a v o c a t i o n a l g o a l , or i f appropriate voca-t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s e r v i c e s are not a v a i l a b l e , the i n d i v i d u a l may be refused the s e r v i c e by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Obviously i t i s necessary to make some very f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the degree of the i n d i v i d u a l 1 s d i s a b i l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , a c a r e f u l medical prognosis i s r e q u i r e d . The necessary s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n must be assembled and i n t e r p r e t e d before a f i n a l d e c i s i o n on acceptance of a case f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be made. The c r i t e r i a and the weighing of the va r i o u s f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i s a complex process which i s outside the scope of t h i s study. Indeed,a separate study could be made of t h i s aspect of the programme. The purpose i s to screen out those a p p l i c a n t s u n l i k e l y to b e n e f i t from v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . This study does not dea l w i t h those a p p l i c a n t s who were r e j e c t e d by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n as not s u i t a b l e f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . There were o n l y seventy-three such cases f o r the year 196*+, 1 i b i d . p. 17 but as the requests f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s have r e -c e n t l y been greater than the f a c i l i t i e s to meet the demand, the proportion of r e j e c t e d a p p l i c a n t s i s i n c r e a s i n g . The type of s e r v i c e s required f o r persons too handicapped to b e n e f i t from v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but not d i s a b l e d to the extent of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the Disabled Persons Allowance, warrants s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and study. V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Services For those c l i e n t s considered e l i g i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a t r a i n i n g plan may be im-plemented. The t r a i n i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y provided i n one of the p r o v i n c i a l v o c a t i o n a l schools, but may a l s o be provided i n p r i v a t e schools, u n i v e r s i t i e s or p r i v a t e agencies. The d i s a b l e d person i s expected to assume some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n o b t a i n i n g the necessary acceptance from the t r a i n i n g resource being used. The D i v i s i o n of Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y on a c o n s u l t a t i v e b a s i s and wherever p o s s i b l e , the r e f e r r i n g agency, ( t h a t i s the agency o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r i n g the a p p l i c a n t to the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) maintains contact with the t r a i n e e u n t i l the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process i s complete. When i t i s r e q u i r e d , the D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n makes arrangements f o r a subsistence allowance to the t r a i n e e during t r a i n i n g , a book allowance, payment of t r a i n i n g f e e s , t o o l s , t r a i n i n g a i d s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l l o w -ance. He may a l s o give approval f o r a d d i t i o n a l expenses such as p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , v o c a t i o n a l assessment, i f i n h i s o p i n i o n , these expenses w i l l a i d the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. The f e d e r a l government a c t s as an enabling body f o r the pro-v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s and i t i s l e f t to the provinces to work out the s p e c i f i c means of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e from c a s e - f i n d i n g , assessment, and s e l e c t i o n of cases through t r a i n i n g to job placement and follow-up. C r i t e r i a f o r Sample S e l e c t i o n The purpose of t h i s study i s to survey a sample * of a p p l i c a n t s f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s to the p r o v i n c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n D i v i s i o n , who were r e f e r r e d by the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n D i v i s i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g under the Dominion P r o v i n c i a l programme, f o r whom v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was u l t i m a t e l y arranged under programme 5 or programme 6. Programme 5 i s "a programme sponsored by the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g or r e - t r a i n i n g of unemployed persons to improve employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and 1 increase trade or occupational competence." Programme 6 i s "a programme sponsored by the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments f o r the t e c h n i c a l v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g r e - t r a i n i n g or v o c a t i o n a l assessment of any d i s a b l e d person who because of a c o n t i n u i n g d i s a b i l i t y r e q u i r e s t r a i n i n g to 2 f i t him f o r employment i n a s u i t a b l e occupation." Before recommending v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g the D i r e c t o r • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education. The Technical and V o c a t i o n a l Branch Manual f o r Programmes 5 and 6, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a p. V 2 i b i d . p. V - 8 -o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n must be s a t i s f i e d that the r e f e r r e d person has a d i s a b i l i t y of such s e v e r i t y that i t c o n s t i t u t e s a handicap to employment which can be remedied most a p p r o p r i a t e l y by t r a i n i n g i n a new occupation. Pro-gramme 5 and 6 are both used i n the v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of d i s a b l e d persons. I t was found b e t t e r t o choose not those who a p p l i e d f o r s e r v i c e s during a c e r t a i n p e r i o d but those who were accepted f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , whose cases were closed during a c e r t a i n p e r i o d , namely during 196*+, whether or not they completed t r a i n i n g . The choice of c l o s i n g date r a t h e r than r e f e r r a l date as the b a s i s f o r sample s e l e c t i o n was made because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n studying r e f e r r a l s f o r a s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d . V o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of d i s a b l e d persons may be a long process, extending over a few months or s e v e r a l years. Therefore, such a study would have to a l l o w f o r an extremely long time span. On the other hand, the study of cl o s e d cases, over a one-year p e r i o d was p o s s i b l e and more p r a c t i c a l . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Sample From the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n records i t was learned that there were 75 c l o s e d cases during 196k. Of these t h i r t y people got jobs without r e - t r a i n i n g . Thirty-two com-pl e t e d t r a i n i n g , of whom t h i r t y got jobs. Seven d i d not complete the t r a i n i n g which was approved f o r them. S i x persons who were approved f o r t r a i n i n g decided not t o proceed w i t h t r a i n i n g . Not a l l the a p p l i c a n t s f o r s e r v i c e were success-f u l l y placed i n jobs but cases were c l o s e d where i t was de-cided by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h a t maximum a s s i s -tance had been rendered i n employment preparation and that no f u r t h e r s e r v i c e could be o f f e r e d . Because of the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l i e n t e l e across the province and the shortage of personnel i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , much of the c l i e n t communication was by t e l e -phone and m a i l and very o f t e n i n f o r m a t i o n was re c e i v e d from a c o l l a t e r a l source. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ^ d i r e c t contact w i t h the c l i e n t was d i f f i c u l t and sometimes impossible t o maintain. This l i m i t a t i o n should be taken i n t o account i n assessing the date, recorded i n the f i l e s . In a d d i t i o n , r e -p o r t i n g back to the D i v i s i o n was sometimes not done. For in s t a n c e , r e p o r t s of student progress at the v o c a t i o n a l schools were not always forwarded. Many agencies d i d not seem to recognize the importance of keeping an up-to-date assessment of a t r a i n e e ' s adjustment t o the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme. Therefore, there w i l l be some d i s c r e -pancies between the s t a t i s t i c s of the D i v i s i o n and those of t h i s study, because study m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from c l i e n t i n t e r v i e w s and other sources not neces-s a r i l y known to the D i v i s i o n . A s c r u t i n y of the c l o s e d cases f o r 1 9 6 * + revealed that there were t h i r t y - s i x cases f o r which arrangements f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g had been made. These t h i r t y - s i x cases c o n s t i t u t e the sample f o r t h i s study. I t was s e l e c t e d f o r two reasons. - 10 -F i r s t , the sample was small enough to permit a review of the cases i n d e t a i l , during the time that was a v a i l a b l e . Secondly, i t was intended to a l l o w a s u f f i c i e n t time p e r i o d , of at l e a s t one year from the date of c l o s i n g cases, to determine whether v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a c t u a l l y d i d lead to the type of employment f o r which the a p p l i c a n t was t r a i n e d . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Sample Admittedly, t h i r t y - s i x i n d i v i d u a l s represented an extremely small sample of the d i s a b l e d p o p u l a t i o n , which of course, runs i n t o thousands. Furthermore, as was pointed 1 out i n the Minnesota study, i t i s dangerous to g e n e r a l i z e . Nevertheless, the group chosen does represent a cross s e c t i o n of r e f e r r a l s from a l l over the province and the persons i n -terviewed have r a i s e d some questions about o b s t a c l e s to the s u c c e s s f u l completion of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g that merit f u r t h e r study and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Rationale f o r Interviews w i t h Trainees Often programmes are set up on the b a s i s of admini-s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of how the person served i s being a f f e c t e d . For purposes of t h i s study the personal contacts w i t h former t r a i n e e s f u l f i l l e d two purposes. F i r s t , a more d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of how the c l i e n t experienced v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was provided. Secondly, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota. Minnesota Studies i n V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , No. 3 . A Follow-up Study o f Placement Success. B u l l e t i n 2 3 , 1 9 5 8 Minneapolis - 11 -s p e c i f i c problems r e l a t i v e to the t r a i n i n g were s p e l l e d out as a guide to f u t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n and expansion of s e r v i c e s . E i g h t case h i s t o r i e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s study. In i n t e r v i e w i n g c l i e n t s , every e f f o r t was made to report t h e i r views i n such a way as t o r e f l e c t an accurate account of t h e i r assessment of the t r a i n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i r opinions about the counseling s e r v i c e s , the t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , the f i n a n -c i a l arrangements, and job placement s e r v i c e s were s o l i c i t e d . At the same time, the interviewees were i n v i t e d to d i s c u s s any other aspects of the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme t h a t they wished. At the c o n c l u s i o n of each summary, the c l i e n t ' s suggestions have been i n d i c a t e d , and w i l l be recorded l a t e r i n t h i s study. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s would r e v e a l t r a i n e e ' s f e e l i n g s about the programme, such as whether the c l i e n t had s u f f i c i e n t choice of t r a i n i n g , adequate income while t r a i n i n g , appropriate guidance and emotional support while t r a i n i n g , and enough h e l p i n f i n d i n g employment when t r a i n i n g was completed. Research Method The data f o r t h i s study was obtained from the r e -cords of the P r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , supple-mented by i n f o r m a t i o n from personal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e i g h t persons from the sample who were reached by d i r e c t m a i l . - 1 2 -No attempt was made to reach s i x t e e n of the persons i n -volved i n the study who l i v e d outside the lower mainland area, as time and geography d i d not permit c o n t a c t i n g these people. Twelve bad moved to unknown addresses. Through c o l l a t e r a l i n t e r v i e w s with persons i n agencies where follow-up s e r v i c e s were provided, i t was p o s s i b l e to determine the employment h i s t o r y of s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s f o l l o w i n g completion of t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g courses. Where the statement of the c l i e n t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n found i n the records, the statement o f the c l i e n t was recorded as f a c t u a l . A d d i t i o n a l Sources of Data A d d i t i o n a l data and i n f o r m a t i o n that a s s i s t e d i n the meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data was obtained from a number of i n d i v i d u a l s and agencies i n the community. During personal i n t e r v i e w s , many gave t h e i r suggestions f o r changes and new developments i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Included i n t h i s group are Dr. C.L. Hunt, D i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; Mr. Clarence E. Bradbury, D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r the D i v i s i o n ; Miss Rose Magnusson, Sec r e t a r y f o r the D i v i s i o n ; Mr. Donald H i c k s , Personnel Manager, M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby; Mr. Terry Lesh, V o c a t i o n a l Counselor, G.F. Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre; Mr. Andrew Bowers, D i r e c t o r , P o l i o and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Founda-t i o n ; Mr. L. F. Haggman, Supervisor, S p e c i a l Placements D i v i -s i o n , N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s ; Mr. Edmund A l l e n , Pro-- 13 -v i n c i a l Co-ordinator of Programme 5; Mr. Ed. L. Goughlin, A d m i n i s t r a t o r , Burnaby S o c i a l Welfare Department; Mr. Ed-ward Murphy, A d m i n i s t r a t o r , North Vancouver S o c i a l Welfare Department; Mrs. Rhona Lucas, Executive S e c r e t a r y , D i v i s i o n f o r Guidance of the Handicapped; Mr. Stan Stronge, Employ-ment O f f i c e r , Canadian P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n ; Mr. W. J . McBride, Regional Supervisor, S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s ; and Miss A l i c e E l a r t , Co-ordinator o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Riverview H o s p i t a l . Some S p e c i a l Considerations i n S u c c e s s f u l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Even though the t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i -t i e s may be of good q u a l i t y , there must be s u f f i c i e n t a v a i l -a b i l i t y of resources i n order that a p p l i c a n t s should avoid discouragement through long w a i t i n g periods. There should a l s o be a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s , such as the i n c l u s i o n of ramps and low l i g h t switches f o r persons u s i n g wheel-chairs. In a d d i t i o n , the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n may need to provide some p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g a i d s . For example, i f t r a i n i n g of deaf persons takes place i n v o c a t i o n a l schools, l e a r n i n g would be enhanced by a person who could i n t e r p r e t lessons i n sign language while the b l i n d person would b e n e f i t by having someone read t o him as a supplement to formal teaching. I n other words, adjustments i n t r a i n i n g should be made to handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s to the greatest extent p o s s i b l e . Furthermore, i n t e g r a t i o n of d i s -abled persons i n t o e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s to be - Ih -p r e f e r r e d over t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i a l schools, as s h e l t e r e d environments may not develop s u f f i c i e n t independence i n t r a i n e e s who u l t i m a t e l y must compete with the non-disabled. Type of Study This study i s of the d i a g n o s t i c - d e s c r i p t i v e type. A number of d i f f e r e n t aspects of the study sample w i l l be analyzed and t a b u l a t e d . Through a n a l y s i s some impressions of how the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process i s operating w i l l be ob-t a i n e d . However, i t i s important t o bear i n mind that r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a unique and dynamic process w i t h many v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . Therefore, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study should only serve t o p i n - p o i n t areas f o r a much broader and more d e t a i l e d study of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. D e f i n i t i o n s Used i n t h i s Study Technical and "Vocational T r a i n i n g Any form of i n s t r u c t i o n , the purpose o f which i s to prepare a person f o r g a i n f u l employment i n any primary or secondary i n d u s t r y , or i n any s e r v i c e occupation, or to increase h i s s k i l l or p r o f i c i e n c y t h e r e i n , and without r e -s t r i c t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the f o r e g o i n g , i n c l u d e s i n s t r u c -t i o n s f o r that purpose i n r e l a t i o n to any of the f o l l o w i n g i n d u s t r i e s or occupations: a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g , mining, commerce, c o n s t r u c t i o n , manufacturing, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n or communications, or g e n e r a l l y any primary or secondary i n -d u s t r y or s e r v i c e occupation r e q u i r i n g an understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s of s e r v i c e or technology and a p p l i c a t i o n - 15 -thereof except where such i n s t r u c t i o n i s designed f o r 1 u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t . Another d e f i n i t i o n appearing -in the l i t e r a t u r e which gives a more dynamic d e s c r i p t i o n i s that " v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s an organized part of the process of developing manpower i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l and economic requirements as determined from time to time by p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n -s t i t u t i o n s , " as described by D a r r e l l M i l l s . The f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n describes the purpose of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g while the second d e f i n i t i o n emphasizes the process. D e f i n i t i o n s of S u c c e ssful V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n There are s e v e r a l ways i n which s u c c e s s f u l voca-t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been de f i n e d ; as agencies vary i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as to what c o n s t i t u t e s success, a l t e r n a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s are o u t l i n e d . D e f i n i t i o n 1. P a t t i s o n has d e scribed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as "the rendering of a person d i s a b l e d f i t to engage i n a remuner-2 a t i v e occupation." On t h i s b a s i s , a person who success-f u l l y completes a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g course could be con-sid e r e d r e h a b i l i t a t e d , i n that he has a cquired the p o t e n t i a l to o b t a i n employment although he may not a c t u a l l y become ©•ployed. "'"British Columbia, Department of Education, i b i d . p. 11 p P a t t i s o n , Harry A. The Handicapped and T h e i r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n op. c i t . p. 8¥+ - 16 -D e f i n i t i o n 2. The D i v i s i o n of Rehabilitation has considered "vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as those processes of assessment, physical restoration, counseling, vocational t r a i n i n g and employment placement services which enable a disabled person to overcome or compensate f o r a handicap and become capable 1 of pursuing regularly, a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g a i n f u l occupation." I t i s the practice of the D i v i s i o n and many other agencies to consider vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n to be successful when t r a i n -ing leads to employment. The vocational t r a i n i n g i t s e l f would not necessarily have to be completed or lead to employment i n l i n e with the t r a i n i n g and i n d i v i d u a l s might obtain employment at any time following the commencement of t r a i n i n g , according to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . However, i n defining a disabled person, the Manual f o r Vocational Rehabilitation adds that "The benefits of t h i s Act (Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Disabled Persons Act) can be ex-tended to any i n d i v i d u a l who i s incapable of pursuing r e g u l a r l y an occupation which meets h i s basic economic needs because there has been a lessening i n value and deterioration of h i s physical 2 or mental capacity." I f on the basis of assessment, i t i s con-sidered that such individuals with services of restoration t r a i n -ing or placement, could within the terms of the Agreement, be restored to s u b s t a n t i a l l y g a i n f u l employment, then these services may be supplied. B r i t i s h Columbia, Manual f o r Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, D i v i s i o n of Reh a b i l i t a t i o n , Health Branch, Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance, Vancouver, Jan. 1965 P. 1 2 i b i d . p. 7 (a) _ 17 -This statement seems to imply that the d i s a b l e d person i s unable to continue i n h i s present employment and tha t r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s are needed to a s s i s t the i n -d i v i d u a l i n t o a new occupation. Of course v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g i s not always r e q u i r e d to accomplish t h i s end. Never-t h e l e s s , when v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s undertaken which demands so much of both the d i s a b l e d person and those who serve him, i t i s reasonable t o assume that the v o c a t i o n a l goal w i l l be employment i n a new occupation. Therefore s u c c e s s f u l rehab-i l i t a t i o n can be defined i n another way. D e f i n i t i o n 3 . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n many agencies i s considered suc-c e s s f u l o n l y when a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n e e obtains employment i n the occupation f o r which he was t r a i n e d . One f i n a l aspect of t h i s question needs to be con-s i d e r e d . Even though the t r a i n e e may f i n d employment which he has sought, he might not l i k e the work and may r e s i g n . A l t e r n a t e l y , h i s employer might not l i k e h i s work and may ask him to r e s i g n . I t would be d i f f i c u l t i n e i t h e r of these instances to consider r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as s u c c e s s f u l . D e f i n i t i o n h. One f u r t h e r s t i p u l a t i o n which w i l l be an i n t e g r a l part of the d e f i n i t i o n of " s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " f o r purposes of t h i s study, i s th a t employment i n the occupation f o r which the person was t r a i n e d should continue f o r at l e a s t a year from the date employment i n the new occupation was - 18 -obtained. For purposes of t h i s study, i t i s considered that one year i s a s u f f i c i e n t period of time to est a b l i s h that the employed person has adjusted to h i s new job and that his employer i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s performance. The d e f i n i t i o n of successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n used In t h i s study encompasses the following components: following suitable assessment and reasonable choice by the applicant, a course of t r a i n i n g i s chosen, which together with a l l the necessary r e h a b i l i t a t i o n aids suitable to the applicant's i n d i v i d u a l circumstances, leads to employment i n the l i n e of work f o r which he was trained with subsequent holding of the job obtained f o r a period of at least one year. 1. This d e f i n i t i o n has been developed f o r us i n t h i s study from the p r i n c i p l e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n Part 1. See the Introduction to t h i s study, p. v> CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Assessment of Success i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n For the study sample, twenty-six out o f the t h i r t y -s i x t r a i n e e s completed t h e i r course of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . This i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from the Termination of T r a i n -i n g Reports submitted to the Department of Education. On the b a s i s of d e f i n i t i o n 1 f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the per-centage of s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n e e s was 72.$ because t h i s number completed t r a i n i n g . Table No. 1 a l s o shows that twenty-five persons ob-ta i n e d jobs, nine d i d not, and i n two i n s t a n c e s the i n f o r m a t i o n was incomplete. This data was obtained both from the Termina-t i o n of T r a i n i n g Reports and r e p o r t s from the employment l i a s o n o f f i c e r and the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s . These r e p o r t s r e v e a l the type o f employment obtained, as w e l l as the date on which employment was obtained. By d e f i n i t i o n 2, that i s o b t a i n -i n g work of any k i n d f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g , 73.5% o f the t r a i n e e s were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Of the twenty-five jobs obtained, twenty-one of them were i n the occupation f o r which the c l i e n t was t r a i n e d , eleven were not able to o b t a i n employment, and i n f o u r i n s t a n c e s , i n -s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . On the b a s i s of d e f i n i -t i o n 3, that employment was obtained i n the l i n e of work f o r which the a p p l i c a n t t r a i n e d , 65.6^ of the t r a i n e e s were success-^•Although i n case No. 23 a job was obtained f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t course of t r a i n i n g , t h i s job terminated and the c l i e n t was l a t e r u nsuccessful i n the second course of t r a i n i n g . Subsequent em-ployment e f f o r t s were un s u c c e s s f u l . Therefore, t h i s person i s in c l u d e d among the nine who d i d not get jobs. TABLE NO. 1 The date (month and year) when trainees of the study sample were referred to the Division of Rehabilitation, the date when vocational training commenced, the date when the training was terminated, completed or incomplete, the date the trainee obtained his f i r s t job, the age of the trainee at termination of training, the federal - provincial training programme used and the success of rehabilitation based on definition ij. i n Chapter I I . Case No. Referral Date Date Training Commenced Date Training Ended Complete or Incomplete Date First Job Obtained Age of Trainee Programme Used Successful Rehabili-tation 1 11.63 11.63 1.6k C 1.6k 39 5 No 2 10.63 1.6k C None Obtained 39 6 Unknown 3 8.61 (1) 11.61 (2) 6.65 (1) 2.62 (2) 8.6^  (2)1 None Obtained 25 (1) 6 (2) 5 No h 9.62* 10.62 1.63 c 2.63 21 . .6 No \> 2 .6k* 2. Oil 3.6k u 6.6k k9 5 Unknown 6 11.63 1.6k 3.6U I .None Obtained 39 6 No 7 8.63 9.63 5.6k I Unknown 3k 6 No 8 11.61 8.62 5.63 c 7.63 kk 6 Unknown 9 9.62 (1) 12.62 (2) .9.61* (1) 2 .63 (2) 2.65" (1) 1 (2) 1 None Obtained 26 6 No Id 3.63 - -10.63 , 5.6k .. C 5.6k 20 6 No 11 10.63 8.63** 6.6k G None Obtained UO 6 Unknown 12 a.63 9.63 a.6k C 8.6k 23 6 Yes 13 2.60 1.62 9.62 c Unknown 22 6 No I4 8.63 2.6k 6.6k I 6.6k kO 6 No 15 5.6k 2 . 6 3 * * 6.63 (J 8.614 51 5 lea 16 i . 6 i 10.63 l.bh 0 8.6U 23 6 No 17 12.63 3.6U 7.6U I None Obtained 25 6 No 18 10.60 12.61 11.62 c 5.6k k2 6 Unknown 19 7.62 7.63 11.63 I 12.63 31 6 No TABLE NO. 1 (cont'd.) Case No. R e f e r r a l Date Date T r a i n i n g Commenced Date Complete T r a i n i n g or Ended Incomplete Date F i r s t Job Obtained Age of Programme Trainee Used S u c c e s s f u l R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n 20 9 . 6 3 3 . 6 4 11.61+ C 11.61+ 2 0 6 Yea 21 11.62 3 .64 4 . 6 4 c U.61+ 29 6 Yes 2 2 2 . 6 3 3 . 6 3 1 0 .63 0 10 .63 19 6 Yes 23 4 . 6 3 (1) 7 . 6 3 ( 2 ) 7 .65 (1) 3.6k ( 2 ) 9 . 6 ? G I 5 . 6 4 None 3 4 (1) 6 ( 2 ) 5 No 2k 1 0 .63 . - 1 0 .63 - 5.61+ C 6 .64 hi ,. 6 No 25 6 . 6 & 6 . 6 S 10.61+ C 10 .64 2 2 6 Yes 2 6 6.61 (1) 7.61 ( 2 ) 9 . 6 2 (1) 10.61 ( 2 ) U .63 C G 11.61 1.64 4 3 6 Yes 2 7 12.60 3 . 6 1 8.61 I None Obtained 19 5 No 28 1 0 . 6 2 * 1 2 .62 6 . 6 3 U 8.63 21 6 No 29 5.61 1 . 6 1 + 8 . 6 1 + C b.bk 25 6 Unknown 2° 4 . 6 3 5.63 6.63 I None Obtained 24 6 No 3 i 1 0 .63 1 0 .63 11 .63 C 11 .63 4 9 6 No 32 5.63 «.63 4 . 6 4 G 4 . 6 4 25 6 Yes 33 1 . 63 9 . 6 3 2 . 6 4 G 2 .64 23 6 Unknown 3*4 1.61+ ( 1 ) 3 .61 i ( 2 ) 4 . 6 4 (1) 4 . 6 4 ( 2 ) 8.61+ G G 8.64 29 6 6 Unknown 35 8.61 (1) 8.62 ( 2 ) 2 . 6 3 (1) 1 . 63 ( 2 ) 12.63 C C 12.63 24 6 6 Unknown 12.62 (1) 2 .63 ( 2 ) 1.64 U ) 8 . 6 3 ( 2 ) 6.64 G G 6.64 21 6 6 Yes «• A a t h e r e was no w r i t t e n r e f e r r a l the date t h a t the case was accepted by the D i v i s i o n o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n was taken as the r e f e r r a l date. •a* T r a i n i n g commenced b e f o r e a p p r o v a l o f D i r e c t o r o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n was o b t a i n e d . •»** F o l l o w i n g o r i g i n a l r e f e r r a l t h i s case was l a t e r c l o s e d f o r a l o n g p e r i o d before being r e a c t i v a t e d . f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d . However, twelve of the twenty-one persons who were employed i n a new occupation, were employed f o r l e s s than a year. In f a c t , many l o s t t h e i r jobs or re-signed within a month or two from the time employment was secured. I l l n e s s , employer d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , lack of job s a t i s -f a c t i o n f o r the employee, low income, and opportunity to go into business were some of the factors accounting f o r the rather large number who l e f t t h e i r employment i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time. There were only nine persons who continued to work i n t h e i r new occupation f o r a period of over a year. Eighteen did not do so, and i n nine cases there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r -mation. Therefore, using d e f i n i t i o n h of successful r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n , the one developed f o r t h i s study - namely, that the trainee obtained work i n the l i n e f o r which he was trained and held the job f o r a year, then only 33.3$ are known to have been successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Although vocational t r a i n i n g has other values to the disabled person than providing employment i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of endeavour, such as new pot e n t i a l that may be u t i l i z e d l a t e r , employment f o r a very short period i s of l i m i t e d value both to the disabled person and to the community. Alter n a t e l y , securing employment i n a f i e l d f o r which a disabled person has not been trained seems l i k e a - 5 -waste of t r a i n i n g . Such r e s u l t s could be obtained more a p p r o p r i a t e l y by improved job placement s e r v i c e s or by greater p r o t e c t i o n of employer s e n i o r i t y r i g h t s and other measures f o r job s e c u r i t y . On the other hand, job place-ment that extends f o r a p e r i o d of over a year suggests job s t a b i l i t y and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Therefore, d e f i n i t i o n h has been taken as the index of s u c c e s s f u l v o c a t i o n a l rehab-i l i t a t i o n and w i l l be used throughout the remainder of t h i s study. The cases that were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d have been shown i n Table No. 1. Sources of R e f e r r a l Requesting  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n T r a i n i n g In a n a l y z i n g any programme i t . i s always important to note the sources of r e f e r r a l requesting i t s use. This study reviews o n l y those requests f o r rehab-i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g under Programme 5 and 6, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 2. Although there were s i x t e e n sources of r e f e r r a l , the t o t a l number of cases during 196*+ was s m a l l , which sug-gests that the v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme was not wi d e l y known or accepted. The f a c t that there were o n l y two s e l f r e f e r r a l s supports t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , there are a number of p o s s i b l e sources of r e f e r r a l s that are not encountered at a l l . For i n s t a n c e , there were no r e f e r r a l s from schools, although there are dozens of c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g the school system each year who are handicapped. (The one Department of Education r e f e r r a l was a much o l d e r person). - 6 -TABLE NO. 2 Sources of r e f e r r a l to the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of persons i n sample who took vocational t r a i n i n g . No. No. of Source of Referral Referrals 1 National Employment Service 7 19.U 2 Mental Health Services 7 19. U 3 D i v i s i o n of Tuberculosis Control k 11.1 k S o c i a l Service D e p t . -Vancouver General Hospital a 11.1 5 Polio and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Foundation 2 5.5 6 Epilepsy Centre 1 2 .8 7 Local R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Committee 1 2 .8 8 Canadian A r t h r i t i s & Rheumatism Society 1 2 .8 9 Vancouver Social Service D e p t . 1 2 .8 10 P r o v i n c i a l Dept. of Education 1 ' 2 .8 11 G.F.Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre 1 2 .8 12 Jericho H i l l School f o r the D Qaf 1 2 .8 13 Canadian National I n s t i t u t e for the B l i n d 1 2 .8 Ik Registry of Handicapped Children and Adults 1 2 .8 15 Youth Counselling Service 1 2 .8 16 Self 2 5.5 Totals 36 100.00 There was one r e f e r r a l from the School f o r the Deaf and the B l i n d . There were no r e f e r r a l s from the Pension Board of persons who were refused a d i s a b l e d persons allowance on medical grounds. Of the l a r g e number of people r e j e c t e d f o r d i s a b l e d persons allowance, there i s no evidence that any of these are among the t h i r t y - s i x cases i n the sample. I t i s the assumption of the Pension Board that i f they were d e c l i n e d f o r t h i s reason, they are capable of employment. Therefore, many of t h i s group could have been candidates f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Under the f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l t r a i n i n g programmes reviewed i n t h i s study, i t i s I n t e r e s t i n g to note the number of a p p l i c a n t s accepted f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i i o h s e r v i c e s by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r the years 1960-h i n c l u s i v e was f o u r hundred and ninety-one. For the same time p e r i o d , the number of cases accepted f o r Disabled Persons Allowance was over one thousand. In other words, there were many more a p p l i c a t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h t o t a l and permanent d i s a b i l i t y than there were f o r job placement or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . In simpler terms, more people made e f f o r t s to confirm com-pl e t e p h y s i c a l and economic dependency than to a l l e v i a t e dependency. As there are fewer persons who are t o t a l l y and permanently d i s a b l e d than there are p a r t i a l l y d i s a b l e d , the p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s i s enormous, and the percentage f o r t h i s k i n d of s e r v i c e should be f a r greater than those a p p l y i n g f o r Disabled Persons Allowance. - 8 -There were no r e f e r r a l s from the s o c i a l welfare departments of Burnaby, New Westminster, Surrey, North Vancouver and West Vancouver, i n spite of the fact that there are substantial numbers of handicapped c l i e n t s on the case loads of a l l these agencies. There were no re-f e r r a l s from private physicians and p s y c h i a t r i s t s . I t would appear that the p r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of Rehab i l i t a t i o n i s not a well-known or u t i l i z e d community resource. Geographical Factors i n Sources of Referral Nine of the r e f e r r a l s came from r u r a l areas or towns of l e s s than 2 5 0 0 population. The remainder were from urban areas. The proportion of r e f e r r a l s from r u r a l areas was roughly proportionate to the t o t a l r u r a l popula-t i o n of the province, assuming that B r i t i s h Columbia has a percentage urban population of approximately 70.7. In some respects, the r u r a l applicant f o r service i s at a disadvantage i n that medical services f o r c e r t a i n kinds of d i s a b i l i t y simply are not available i n r u r a l com-munities. It often means that severely disabled patients must come to the lower mainland area f o r diagnostic restor-ation and treatment services. For quite a length of time they may be required to l i v e c l o s e r i n a large c i t y , away from family and friends which i s not conducive to successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . On the other hand, disabled persons pro-bably have greater acceptance i n the r u r a l communities where they are known, than i n the i n d i f f e r e n t or re j e c t i n g atmos-•'•Laskin, Richard. S o c i a l Problems, A Canadian P r o f i l e (Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1964) p. 370 - 9 -phere of l a r g e urban areas. In the sample, four out of the nine persons suc-c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d were r e f e r r e d from r u r a l areas. Of the eighteen who were not r e h a b i l i t a t e d , three of the r e f e r r a l s were r u r a l and f i f t e e n were urban. Therefore, persons r e f e r r e d from r u r a l areas had a much higher r a t e than those r e f e r r e d from urban areas. A quick review of the four s u c c e s s f u l r u r a l l y r e f e r r e d cases showed that they had a l l taken t h e i r t r a i n -i n g i n areas other than t h e i r place of residence at the time of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g . There was evidence of considerable motivation to move to an area ^tfhere appropriate t r a i n i n g could be taken. They a l s o demonstrated a d a p t a b i l i t y i n that they a l l obtained employment away from t h e i r o r i g i n a l homes and l a t e r made adequate adjustments to t h e i r new jobs and new surroundings. No doubt other f a c t o r s are i n v o l v e d . Sex R a t i o i n Sample Group Of the nine persons " s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d " , f i v e were female and f o u r were males. In the n o n - r e h a b i l i -t a t e d group, there were eleven males and seven females. Therefore, f o r the group as a whole, females were more r e a d i -l y employed. However, t h i s f a c t may be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e more of female a d a p t a b i l i t y to the type of t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d them than to a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n on the part of employers to h i r e females i n preference to males. In any case, the sex r a t i o d i f f e r e n c e i n success of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r males and females - 10 -does not seem to be significant. Ages of Trainees At the completion or termination of the training, the average age of a l l trainees was slightly over 30 years. See Table No. 1. age The average/of the nine trainees who were knowito have been successfully rehabilitated was 28.1 years which i s slightly below the average of 29.9 years of the non-rehab-i l i t a t e d persons who completed training. Furthermore, seven of the nine were below age thirty. The respective ages at completion of training were 23, 51, 20, 29, 19, 22, *+3, 25 and .21. The average age of twenty-eight years of the rehab-i l i t a t e d group might be thought to reflect the modern employ-ment trend to give preference to hiring persons under the age of thirty. However, i t i s significant that the average age of the non-rehabilitated group who completed training was also below the age of thirty. The respective ages were 3 9 , 21 , 20, 22, 23, 25, 3^, *+5, 21 and h9. Therefore, a l l these individuals had many years of useful employment potential. In relation to the sample group, i t does not appear that age was really an obstacle in their rehabilitation, so there ob-viously must be many other factors mitigating against the employment of these handicapped persons. In the interests of disabled persons these factors need to be determined and assessed so that rehabilitative programmes should not f a i l because of the d i f f i c u l t y of job placements. - 1 1 -Marital Status of Trainees There were twenty-one single persons in the sample group, nine who were married with dependents, and six who were separated, divorced or widowed. Of the nine trainees successful in their re-habilitation, seven of them were single and two were married. Of the eighteen individuals who were not re-habilitated, nine were single, five were separated, divorced or widowed, and four were married. Therefore, the single trainees in the sample group experienced some-what greater rehabilitative success than the married train-ees. One possible explanation is that single persons might be under less economic stress during the training period. Of particular interest is the fact that of the six trainees who i^ ere divorced, separated or widowed, five were definitely not rehabilitated. For the sixth there is incomplete information, although it is known that the trainee did re-marry about the time the training course ended. In any case, i t does appear that adequate resolution of feelings about the loss of a marital partner needs to take place before vocational training is undertaken. Number of Dependents of Trainees In the 13 families where there were dependent chil-dren, the average number of dependents was 2.8. The largest family in the sample consisted of a - 12 -husband, wife and f i v e c h i l d r e n . In three cases there was a husband, wife and three c h i l d r e n . However, of the eleven f a m i l i e s i n which there was at l e a s t one c h i l d , o n l y one t r a i n e e was s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , e i g h t were not r e h a b i l i t a t e d and on two there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t Information. A man or woman w i t h dependent c h i l d r e n who contem-p l a t e s r e - t r a i n i n g i s u s u a l l y s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n bet-terment of earning a b i l i t y . Therefore, there must be some p a r t i c u l a r reasons why t h i s p a r t i c u l a r segment of the group had such poor r e h a b i l i t a t i v e success. For the woman wit h dependent c h i l d r e n i t seems p a r t i c u l a r l y important that sound plans f o r the day-care of the c h i l d r e n should be made both during and a f t e r t h e i r mothers' t r a i n i n g . I n the absence of s u f f i c i e n t day-care centres f o r c h i l d r e n , i t i s necessary to ins u r e that p r i v a t e day-care, that adequately meets the needs of c h i l d r e n i s provided. There should a l s o be s u f f i c i e n t a l -lowance paid t o the t r a i n e e to ob t a i n adequate c h i l d care ser-v i c e . I d e a l l y , f o r one parent f a m i l i e s there should be an i n -come subsidy paid a f t e r employment i s obtained i n order to maintain the same standard of care t o the c h i l d r e n . I n the absence of such a subsidy or i n cases where the t r a i n e e i s u n l i k e l y to be earning s u f f i c i e n t income to a f f o r d competent c h i l d s u p e r v i s i o n , t r a i n i n g i s c o n t r a - i n d i c a t e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the f a t h e r i n the f a m i l y provides f o r h i s wife and c h i l d r e n . Therefore, as was pointed out i n the Oklahoma study, "having a member of the f a m i l y so d i s a b l e d he i s dependent on the others, i s s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t i v e to - 13 -1 the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . " I t may be d i s r u p t i v e i n many ways. Deep f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n , inadequacy and hopelessness may develop i n the f a t h e r ; signs of b i t t e r n e s s and resent-ment may be d i s p l a y e d by the mother who has to work o v e r l y hard c a r i n g f o r her husband and c h i l d r e n ; and a t t i t u d e s of d i s r e s p e c t and shame may be expressed by the c h i l d r e n . None of these f e e l i n g s , however minimal, are conducive to sound f a m i l y l i f e . Therefore, every e f f o r t should be made to count-e r a c t f a m i l y pathology due to d i s a b i l i t y . Much greater a t -t e n t i o n should be given to the s p e c i a l needs i n r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r handicapped men w i t h f a m i l i e s . E d u c a t i o n a l Background of the Trainees The average e d u c a t i o n a l attainment of the t h i r t y - s i x t r a i n e e s was s l i g h t l y over Grade 10 . The ed u c a t i o n a l back-ground f o r the s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s was Grade 11, 8 , 12, 3, 10, 10, B.A., 10 and 12 r e s p e c t i v e l y or s l i g h t l y over Grade 10. This e d u c a t i o n a l achievement c o r r e -sponds with the group as a whole. Therefore, f o r the sample, e d u c a t i o n a l attainment had no appreciable e f f e c t on o b t a i n i n g employment. However, i t should be noted that w i t h two excep-t i o n s , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d when the t r a i n e e had completed Grade 10 or b e t t e r . Furthermore, the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the Grade 3 education had been s e r i o u s l y deprived of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g and subsequently proved that h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y \^as f a r beyond the Grade 3 l e v e l . What t h i s case d i d Oklahoma, State L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Study of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s , 1959-60. p . l . -11+ -e s t a b l i s h was that a c a r e f u l assessment rather than a statement of scholastic achievement should be the basis f o r vocational planning. Previous Occupations of Trainees Table No. 3 shows the previous occupations of the trainees. Over t h i r t y per cent of the t o t a l group under study had no previous work experience. Therefore, the undertaking to a s s i s t t h i s group to be self-supporting i s more properly c a l l e d h a b i l i t a t i o n rather than rehab-i l i t a t i o n . Of the thirteen people who had no previous work experience, f i v e were r e h a b i l i t a t e d , seven were not, and f o r one case there was i n s u f f i c i e n t information. This employment record i s a c t u a l l y better than for the group sample as a whole, which suggests that h a b i l i t a t i o n may sometimes be easier than r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In any case, i t does show that having no employment record i s not a b a r r i e r i n the way of vocational t r a i n i n g and successful job place-ment . The previous p r i n c i p a l occupations f o r the group as a whole show quite c l e a r l y the d i f f i c u l t i e s that can be anticipated i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . For instance, only four of the t h i r t y - s i x cases under study had occupations that re-quired advanced re-educational t r a i n i n g - the teacher, the nurse and two counselors. The others were not employed at a l l , or were, fo r the most part, marginally employed. - 15 -TABLE NO. 3 Previous p r i n c i p a l occupations o f persons i n sample undertaking vocational t r a i n i n g . Previous P r i n c i p a l Occupation Ao. of Cases % None 13 36.1 Waitress 2 5.5 Labourer 2 5.5 Plasterer 2 5.5 Counsellor 2 5.5 Laundry worker 2 5.5 Teacher 1 2.8 Office Manager 1 2.8 Letter c a r r i e r 1 2.8 Truck swamper 1 2.8 O f f i c e clerk 1 2.8 Nurse 1 2.8 Bookkeeper 1 2.8 Sale sman 1 2.8 Messenger 1 2.8 Carpenter 1 2.8 Bus boy 1 2.8 Warehou seman 1 2.8 Janitor 1 2.8 Totals 36 100.0 - 16 -Men and women who are m a r g i n a l l y employed while they are i n reasonably good h e a l t h pose a r e a l problem i n r e h a b i l i -t a t i v e planning when they are handicapped. D i s a b i l i t i e s of A p p l i c a n t s Table No. k- i n d i c a t e s the primary d i s a b i l i t y as recorded i n the f i l e s of the p r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of Rehab-i l i t a t i o n . There were many cases of m u l t i p l e d i s a b i l i t y and i n a number of instances i t was d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h which was primary and which was secondary. For purposes of t h i s study, when two d i s a b i l i t i e s were mentioned, both d i s a b i l i t i e s have been recorded, with the f i r s t mentioned considered to be the primary d i s a b i l i t y . In nine cases, a second d i s a b i l i t y was described. In f o u r cases, p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y was mentioned as a secondary d i s a b i l i t y , speech defect was recorded i n three cases, p u l -monary t u b e r c u l o s i s i n one case, and an a o r t i c v a l v u l a r heart on the other. S p a s t i c paraplegia was the primary d i s a b i l i t y i n the person w i t h the pulmonary t u b e r c u l o s i s as the secondary d i s a b i l i t y , and diabetes was the primary d i s a b i l i t y f o r the person with the a o r t i c v a l v u l a r heart c o n d i t i o n . There was a wide range of d i s a b l i n g c o n d i t i o n s en-countered i n the t h i r t y - s i x cases under study. I t should be noted that mental i l l n e s s was s p e c i f i e d as the primary d i s -a b i l i t y i n almost twenty per cent of the cases. In a d d i t i o n , i t was mentioned as a secondary d i s a b i l i t y i n over ten per cent of the cases. The pace of modern l i v i n g tends to heighten - 17 -TABLE NO. h Primary d i s a b i l i t y o f persons i n sample undertaking v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Primary D i s a b i l i t y No. o f Cases * Mental i l l n e s s 7 19 . a Pulmonary t u b e r c u l o s i s 3 8.2 Blindness and d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n 3 8.2 Rheumatoid a r t h r i t i s 3 8.2 E p i l e p s y 2 5.6 M u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s 2 5.6 Spastic p a r a p l e g i a 2 5.6 P o l i o m y e l i t i s 2 5.6 Heart c o n d i t i o n 2 5.6 Leg amputation 1 2.8 Ileostomy 1 2.8 Diabetes 1 2.8 P s o r i a s i s 1 2.8 Cerebral p a l s y 1 2.8 B i l a t e r a l h e r n i a 1 2.8 L e f t hemiplegia 1 2.8 L e f t w r i s t i n j u r y 1 2.8 Deafness 1 2.8 Herniated d i s c 1 2.8 T o t a l s 36 100.0 - 18 -emotional tensions rather than to rel i e v e them and there-fore, the incidence of mental i l l n e s s w i l l probably not decrease substantially. In f a c t , i t i s more l i k e l y to i n -be crease. In any case, i t would/incumbent upon those involved i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n to have a thorough knowledge of mental i l l n e s s and i t s ramifications i n order that persons with severe emotional problems may receive maximum benefits from r e h a b i l i t a t i v e services. Of course, wide knowledge of the effects of d i s a b i l i t y i s v i t a l l y important i n r e h a b i l i -tation planning f o r a l l types of handicapping conditions. Length of D i s a b i l i t y The date when the d i s a b i l i t y was noticed i s not always easy to establish unless the onset was sudden. Even then, the date given by the c l i e n t may be inaccurate as he may not be able to remember i n cases where the onset was several years ago. Nevertheless, the information taken from the f i l e f o r the purposes i s considered to be approximate. (A tabulation i s shown i n Table No. 5".of the length of time elapsing from the date of onset of the d i s a b i l i t y and the date of r e f e r r a l for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ) . An attempt was made to relate length of d i s a b i l i t y to success or f a i l u r e i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Of the nine persons who were known to have been successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d , six had a serious handicapping condition f o r ten or more years ( i n f a c t , three were congeni-t a l ) , one was f o r about f i v e years, one had the condition f o r - 19 -l e s s than a year, and one was of unknown d u r a t i o n . Fur-thermore, while ten persons who were handicapped f o r l e s s than ten years were known to have not been s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , o n l y seven w i t h handicaps f o r over ten years were u n s u c c e s s f u l . Comparatively speaking, the persons w i t h d i s a b i l i -t i e s of long d u r a t i o n were much more s u c c e s s f u l than those persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s of r e l a t i v e l y short d u r a t i o n . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s that when the d i s a b i l i t y i s of long d u r a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l has adjusted to i t to the best of h i s a b i l i t y . Furthermore, the i n d i v i d u a l making the neces-sary adjustments over a long period of time has a much b e t t e r understanding of h i m s e l f , h i s c a p a c i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s than the r e c e n t l y d i s a b l e d person. This f i n d i n g suggests that perhaps more a t t e n t i o n should be paid to the timing of r e f e r r a l of newly d i s a b l e d people f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g from the view-point of t h e i r readiness to engage themselves i n i t . This i s not to imply t h a t a p p l i c a n t s w i t h long stand-i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be more ready to engage themselves i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Some of them may s t i l l be f i g h t i n g some acceptance of t h e i r d i s a b i l i t y and may be un-ready or unable to engage themselves i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g because of t h i s . A l s o , from such a small sample i t would be inappro-p r i a t e to i n f e r that persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s of long standing - 20 -TABLE NO. 5" Tim© e l a p s i n g between onset of d i s a b i l i t y and r e f e r r a l f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Time E l a p s i n g No. o f Cases % 0 - 1 years I i i 38.9 1 - 5 years h 11.1 5 -15 years 7 19.4 15 or more years 10. 27.8 Unknown 1 2.8 To t a l s 36 100.0 - 21 -n e c e s s a r i l y are more l i k e l y to be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i -t a t e d than persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s of short d u r a t i o n . One of the key f a c t o r s i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h a t the r e -c e n t l y d i s a b l e d person needs an adjustment pe r i o d to r e -solve c o n f l i c t s about h i s d i s a b i l i t y before undertaking v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . I t i s q u i t e i n l i k e l y that he w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n u n t i l these c o n f l i c t s are r e s o l v e d . As Robert Savard has pointed out, " I t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept the consequences of a d i s a b i l i t y 1 i f one has not accepted the f a c t of being d i s a b l e d . " Assessment and Waiting P e r i o d As the average len g t h of time from date of r e f e r r a l to the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and the commencement of t r a i n i n g was only about f o u r months, (See Table No. 1) prompt s e r v i c e was o b v i o u s l y o f f e r e d as there was always a delay from the time v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was approved u n t i l the t r a i n i n g course a c t u a l l y commenced. However, as a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r ser -v i c e increase i n number i t w i l l become more d i f f i c u l t to es-t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s and more c a r e f u l assessment of cases w i l l be necessary. For the cases under study, there seemed to be no problems created by prolonged assessment and gaining ad-mission to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g resources. However, there was at l e a s t one i n d i c a t i o n of t r a i n i n g f a i l u r e when i n s u f f i c i e n t s o c i a l assessment by theragencies i n v o l v e d would appear to have been a f a c t o r . Savard, Robert J . Casework and Resistance to V o c a t i o n a l  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . S o c i a l Casework, Dec. 1955 - 22 -For example, i n Case No. 1 7 , the agency providing the family background information did not es t a b l i s h c l e a r l y the marital status of the trainee, the income that she re-ceived, or the arrangements to be made f o r her children while she was t r a i n i n g . As the vocational t r a i n i n g pro-gramme i n thi s case was hot complete,further time spent i n assessment would probably have ruled the case out altogether. Type of Training Taken A description of the va r i e t y of t r a i n i n g courses u t i l i z e d i s outlined i n Table No. 6. Over h a l f the trainees took some type of business t r a i n i n g course, the most popular one being general commer-c i a l course. In spite of the frequency of enrolment, the group as a whole fared very poorly i n t h e i r endeavours to benefit from general commercial courses. Of the fourteen entering t h i s course, eleven were unsuccessful and f o r three cases, there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t information. Success did re-sult f o r thr-.eepersons taking t r a i n i n g i n switchboard opera-ti o n and f i l i n g , f o r one person taking bookkeeping, f o r one un i v e r s i t y student, a dental o f f i c e assistant, an e l e c t r i c i a n , a Hoffman press operator, and a course i n time-keeping and f i r s t - a i d . when the tr a i n i n g was i n a f i e l d where the employ-ment demand was high, the success of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was much enhanced. One of the trainees l o s t two jobs, but because of her specialized training she was able to locate a t h i r d which proved to be permanent. Overall i t looks as though business - 2 3 -TABLE NO. 6 Types of t r a i n i n g courses taken by trainees Training Courses Taken No. of Cases Commercial Iii 3 8 . 9 Bookkeeping 3 8 . 3 Switchboard and f i l i n g 3 8 . 3 University post graduate studies 2 5.5 Chef t r a i n i n g 2 5.5 Timekeeping and f i r s t a i d 2 5.5 E l e c t r i c a l appliance repair 1 2 . 8 Building maintenance 1 2 . 8 E l e c t r i c a l 1 2 . 8 Power sewing 1 2 . 8 Auto body rep a i r 1 2 . 8 Hoffman press operator 1 2 . 8 Beauty culture 1 2 . 8 Dental o f f i c e assistant 1 2 . 8 Auto mechanic 1 2 . 8 Welding 1 2 . 8 Totals 3 6 100.0 - 2h -courses need to be o f f e r e d i n a s e t t i n g where c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n can be provided. Furthermore, f o r male ap-p l i c a n t s t h i s type of t r a i n i n g may not be s u i t a b l e , which n e c e s s i t a t e s development of other types of t r a i n i n g l e a d i n g to l i g h t work. P r i n c i p a l Source of Income at Commencement  of T r a i n i n g Information regarding the source of income at the time of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was secured from a copy of the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r subsistence allowance. In some i n s t a n c e s , there were two sources of income i n which event the l a r g e r amount i s described as the p r i n c i p a l source of income. From Table No. 7 the t o t a l s are as f o l l o w s : S o c i a l Allowance 1 3 Parents 9 None 6 Spouse's earnings h Unemployment Insurance 3 D i s a b l e d Persons Allow. 1 Of the nine persons who were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i -t a t e d , three were supported by t h e i r parents, one had no i n -come, three were i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l allowance. I n another case, the t r a i n e e ' s wife provided the main source of income, and f o r one case the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n d e f i n i t e . However, they were apparently s e c u r e l y based f i n a n c i a l l y . In the three cases where there was f i n a n c i a l support from the parents, the f a t h e r ' s income was s u f f i c i e n t that there was no abnormal - 2$ -f i n a n c i a l hardship to the t r a i n e e . I t should he noted that i n the nine cases of the t o t a l group i n which t r a i n -ees were supported by parents, t h a t the t r a i n e e s were r e a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r s o c i a l allowance. This i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n of reluctance by many f a m i l i e s to have any f a m i l y member ap-p l y f o r s o c i a l allowance. There were only s l i g h t l y more, t h i r t e e n , who were a c t u a l l y i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l allowance. Of the three s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n e e s on s o c i a l allowance, one l i v e d w i t h an aunt, one l i v e d i n a government supervised boarding home and one was accommodated by a good f r i e n d . The wife of one s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n e e earned $300.00 monthly which had been s u f f i c i e n t to c a r r y the f a m i l y u n t i l t r a i n -i n g commenced. The other t r a i n e e had no income but d i d have some savings to t i d e him over u n t i l he found employment. At the present time, the d i s a b l e d persons who are i n the best p o s i t i o n to take t r a i n i n g are those i n r e c e i p t of unemployment Insurance b e n e f i t s . However, the complica-t i o n o f t e n i s that f o l l o w i n g d i s a b i l i t y , the c l i e n t e i t h e r cannot e s t a b l i s h a c l a i m because of the d i s a b i l i t y or the unemployment insurance b e n e f i t s are exhausted before the i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t s t r a i n i n g . An even greater b a r r i e r i s t h a t the handicapped t r a i n e e may be required to apply f o r s o c i a l allowance e i t h e r at the beginning of t r a i n i n g . o r during i t . The maximum subsistence allowance i s $117.00 which must be supplemented by s o c i a l allowance. I n some cases the t o t a l allowance i n c l u d i n g supplement may be l e s s than the - 26 -unemployment insurance b e n e f i t which gives r i s e to f i n a n -c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a l s o . One p a r t i c u l a r l y anomalous source of income was the Disabled Persons Allowance paid t o one t r a i n e e . Presumably t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was t o t a l l y and perman-a e n t l y d i s a b l e d and unemployable. Therefore, i t i s / c o n t r a -d i c t i o n to pay such a pension while the pensioner i s r e - t r a i n -i n g f o r employment. I t i s c e r t a i n l y p r e f e r a b l e that t r a i n e e s should r e c e i v e an allowance that i s s i m i l a r l y designated f o r a l l persons who take v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Furthermore, i t i s an indictment of our r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s that so much im-portance i s attached to a d i s a b i l i t y pension. A more p o s i t i v e approach would be f o r cheques to be i s s u e d to t r a i n e e s on the date t r a i n i n g commenced. A l l s o c i a l allowance c l i e n t s are paid i n advance on the f i r s t day of each month and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n e e s should enjoy s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The use of s o c i a l allowances and d i s a b i l i t y pension allowances during t r a i n i n g should a l s o be avoided. However, a p r e - c o n d i t i o n to t h i s step i s the i n s t i t u t i o n of u n i v e r s a l medical insurance coverage so that t r a i n e e s would not need to be i n r e c e i p t of t h i s type of allowance to have a medical i n -surance card. Many people p r e f e r not to be i n v o l v e d w i t h s o c i a l welfare departments and t h e i r wishes should be recog-n i z e d . Allowances r e f e r r e d to as v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a l l o w -ances would be an accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the monies paid and at the same time would add p r e s t i g e to the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programme. There seems to be l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t hat v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s an extremely important a c t i v i t y i n modem s o c i e t y . Since there are such hig h expectations - 27 -TABLE NO. 7 Source and amount of f i n a n c i a l support of trainees at time of app l i c a t i o n for vocational t r a i n i n g , amount of subsistence allowance approved, and monthly income from the f i r s t job obtained. Case No. Source of Fi n a n c i a l Amount Support (per month) Approved Subsistence Allowance Monthly Income from F i r s t Job 1 None $ 0 P Unknown 2 S o c i a l A n o w a i a G e 66 69 No .lob 3 S o c i a l Allowance 45 U8 No job k Parents Unknown 15 Unknown 5 S o c i a l Allowance 179 69 299 6 S o c i a l Allowance 66 69 No .iob 7 Unemployment Insurance 157.80 94 No job 8 S o c i a l Allowance 66 69 180 9 Social Allowance (1) 66 (2) 75 (1) (2) 69 85 No job 10 Disabled Persons - Allowance 65 None 195 11 None 0 75 No job 12 Parents Unknown 30 459 13 Parent Unknown 75 No job lli Unemployment Insurance 90.30 117 Unknown None 0 117 300 lb Parent Unknown 15 172 None 0 None No job 18 Spouse Earnings 220 .48 200 19 S o c i a l Allowance & 12+3 plus Unemployment Insurance 24.80 69 450 20 Parent Unknown None 165 21 Social Allowance 10 plus board inbuip. earn 216 22 Social Allowance 66 None 200 23 S o c i a l Allowance (1) 66 (2) 75 (1) (2) 69 75 No job Unemployment Insurance 129 None 275 S o c i a l Allowance 66 69 165 26 Spouse Earnings 300 52 650 27 Unknown Unknown 52 No job 28 Parent Unknown 25 156 29 Parent Unknown 69 Unknown 30 S o c i a l Allowance 66 69 No job 31 Spouse . Earnings 200 106 Unknown 32 Unknown Unknown 69 Unknown Parent Unknown 48 ; 215 34 S o c i a l Allowance 66 69 390 35 S o c i a l Allowance 147 91 210 36 Parent Unknown 75 200 - 2 8 -f o r i t s r e s u l t s , the t r a i n i n g should be f i n a n c e d with an allowance that i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y designated and administered. Amounts of Income During T r a i n i n g S u f f i c i e n t income during t r a i n i n g i s not o n l y im-portant, but i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary. There are a great many pressures i n v o l v e d i n r e - t r a i n i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r d i s a b l e d persons. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a person who has been out of school f o r some time to adjust to studying, to school surroundings, to the competition of younger, keener students, and to teachers who may be teaching too q u i c k l y f o r them. However, f o r the handicapped person there must be added the s t r e s s of a d j u s t i n g to reduced f u n c t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s which can be a r e a l problem when the school f a c i l i t i e s and c u r r i c u -lum are geared to meet the needs of non-disabled persons. To add an economic squeeze i s s t i l l another pressure and i s not o n l y unnecessary but may be permanently d e s t r u c t i v e to morale and m o t i v a t i o n i f the t r a i n e e i s forced to drop out of t r a i n -i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons. From Table No. 7 i t can be^ : seen that the subsistence allowances f o r s i n g l e persons are very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l allowance r a t e s . The s o c i a l allowance r a t e s from I960 to 196k i n B r i t i s h Columbia were w e l l below that r e q u i r e d f o r a minimum standard of l i v i n g . Considering that t r a i n e e s do not r e c e i v e a c l o t h i n g allowance yet must buy c l o t h e s t o ap-pear presentable i n c l a s s , i n most cases they would be worse o f f f i n a n c i a l l y than the s i n g l e s o c i a l allowance c l i e n t s . - 29 -This s i t u a t i o n might apply to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample, as a l l t h i r t y - s i x a p p l i c a n t s were unemployed at the time of a p p l i -c a t i o n f o r subsistence allowance, and f i f t e e n of them dec l a r e d no personal income whatsoever. Such a s i t u a t i o n reduces i n -c e n t i v e to complete t r a i n i n g and i n f a c t , encourages dependency. The s o l u t i o n of course, i s to r a i s e the subsistence allowances to meet b a s i c needs. The argument against i n c r e a s i n g allowances i s that t r a i n i n g costs are a l r e a d y enormous and need to be kept down as much as p o s s i b l e . Furthermore, higher t r a i n i n g allowances w i l l induce even l a r g e r numbers of people to apply f o r voca-t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t a x i n g the a l r e a d y overcrowded t r a i n i n g f a c i l -i t i e s . In answer to the f i r s t argument, i t should be s t a t e d that i n c o n s i d e r i n g c o s t s , i t i s necessary to consider the cost of f a i l u r e , both i n terms of d o l l a r values and human va l u e s . ,age Some of the group whose average/was then 30 years, were so d i s -couraged and had such f e e l i n g s of uselessness t h a t they may remain dependent f o r the r e s t of t h e i r l i v e s . There i s no guarantee t h a t higher allowances would have meant success i n a greater number of cases, but i t i s a reasonable assumption. I f the community, as represented by the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , has chosen to r e - t r a i n an i n -d i v i d u a l , then i t seems reasonable t h a t t h i s same i n d i v i d u a l should r e c e i v e the best s e r v i c e the community has to o f f e r , i n c l u d i n g the assurance of an adequate l i v i n g allowance while t r a i n i n g . Looking at i t i n economic terms, the cost of f a i l -ure to the community w i l l be at l e a s t $75.00 per month f o r as - 30 -long as dependency continues. I t w i l l be observed from Table No. 7 that those who were r e h a b i l i t a t e d earned many times what they received by way of subsistence allowances. As wage earners, they became tax-payers, but more important they regained t h e i r f e e l i n g s of pride and usefulness which cannot be measured i n d o l l a r s and cents. R e l a t i v e to the argument that i n c r e a s e d allowances w i l l a t t r a c t more prospective t r a i n e e s , some of whom are more i n t e r e s t e d i n the money than the t r a i n i n g , there i s no proof the meagre allowances r e s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n to the more d e d i -cated persevering type of i n d i v i d u a l . I n any case, a s t r u g g l e f o r economic s u r v i v a l should not be part of the t r a i n i n g . Cer-t a l n l y , an increase i n the number of a p p l i c a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from p u b l i c knowledge that allowances were hi g h e r would create a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i n the s e l e c t i o n of a p p l i c a n t s . How-ever, by c a r e f u l assessment of need and c a p a c i t y to b e n e f i t from t r a i n i n g , i t should be p o s s i b l e to achieve a higher suc-cess rate than would be the case when there were fewer a p p l i -c a t i o n s from which to choose. At the same time, the o v e r - a l l o b j e c t i v e should be to provide r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s to a l l d i s a b l e d persons w i t h the appropriate needs, motivations and c a p a c i t i e s . Length of T r a i n i n g The t o t a l average l e n g t h of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was 6.5 months f o r completed and uncompleted courses. See Table No. 1. The average length of t r a i n i n g time f o r the seven - 31 -persons who were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d was 8.3 months which i s somewhat more than the average f o r the group as a whole, which was s i x and a h a l f months. The f a c t that o n l y two-thirds of the sample was not s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n that short courses do not u s u a l l y s u f f i c e to r e - t r a i n a person f o r permanent employment i n a new occupation. The t r a i n i n g p e r i o d f o r the seven success-f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d was 11, >+, 8, 12, 7, 10, 8 and 11 months r e s p e c t i v e l y . In other words, i n o n l y two instances was there a s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n e e who took t r a i n i n g f o r l e s s than s i x and a h a l f months. P r o v i s i o n under programme 6 f o r r e - t r a i n i n g of d i s a b l e d persons f o r a period of up to two years w i t h an e xtension p o s s i b l e , I s therefore worthy of wider use. The handicapped person i s faced with the problem not o n l y of l e a r n i n g to perform new tasks as w e l l as h i s non-dis-abled c o l l e a g u e s , but i n most instances h i s performance must be s u p e r i o r . For the d i s a b l e d person, j u s t r e c e n t l y a d j u s t i n g to reduced c a p a c i t i e s , t h i s i s very d i f f i c u l t indeed. I t ap-pears that there are no s h o r t - c u t s to s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Reduced r e - t r a i n i n g periods merely for c e d i s a b l e d persons back i n t o employment no longer s u i t e d to them or i n t o economic and perhaps p h y s i c a l dependency. F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l T r a i n i n g Programmes Used I n t h i r t y cases, Programme 6 was used e x c l u s i v e l y . Two persons were sponsored under Programme 6 on one occasion and l a t e r took t r a i n i n g under Programme 5« Four people took - 3 2 -t r a i n i n g under Programme 5 o n l y . Two t r a i n e e s took some t r a i n i n g under both programmes. However, of the s i x who took t h e i r t r a i n i n g under Programme 5» four were d e f i n i t e l y not r e h a b i l i t a t e d , one was, and f o r one case there was i n s u f -f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to determine whether he was r e h a b i l i t a t e d or not. See Table No. 1. For Programme 6 , e i g h t persons were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , fourteen were not and f o r e i g h t cases there was i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . Nevertheless, the success r a t e f o r the two programmes i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , with Pro-gramme 6 y i e l d i n g superior r e s u l t s . The p a r t i c u l a r advantage of Programme 6 i s that a c a r e f u l medical, s o c i a l and v o c a t i o n -a l assessment must be made before t r a i n i n g i s approved and such assessment c e r t a i n l y appears to be necessary where the d i s a b i l i t y i s severe enough to c o n s t i t u t e a handicap to em-ployment. This c a r e f u l assessment i m p l i e s that there would be c l o s e r contact with the t r a i n e e occasioned by p e r i o d i c r e -assessment which i s so necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . For example, i t i s necessary t o avoid the development which took place w i t h two cases, i n which the f i r s t t r a i n i n g took place under Programme 6 and l a t e r t r a i n i n g under Programme 5. Although a person may not complete a course of t r a i n -ing, there i s nothing to prevent the person from re-applying f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g at a l a t e r date. E v i d e n t l y two d i s a b l e d persons d i d t h i s . Having taken t h e i r f i r s t t r a i n i n g under Programme 6 ^ i t would have been much more appropriate f o r the N a t i o n a l Employment Service to have r e f e r r e d them back to the - 33 -D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , as i n both cases c a r e f u l as-sessment was again r e q u i r e d . Time E l a p s i n g Between Completion of T r a i n i n g  and Obtaining Employment The p e r i o d of time e l a p s i n g from the date t r a i n i n g ended u n t i l the f i r s t job was obtained i s shown i n Table No. 1 . E i g h t y - e i g h t per cent of the t r a i n e e s found employ-ment w i t h i n three months of t e r m i n a t i o n of the t r a i n i n g , r e -presenting twenty-two out of the twenty-five persons who found employment. Not a l l of these people found jobs i n the f i e l d f o r which they were t r a i n e d . In f a c t , i n many cases the t r a i n -i n g a c t s merely as a stimulus f o r self-improvement. Employers are more fa v o u r a b l y disposed to h i r e persons who are t r y i n g to improve t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s than to h i r e unemployed men and women who are l a c k i n g i n confidence and enthusiasm. I n any case, i t does appear that unless a t r a i n e e ob-t a i n s employment w i t h i n three months of the date of te r m i n a t i o n of t r a i n i n g , that the l i k e l i h o o d that he w i l l o btain employment at a l l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced. The exception concerned three men who took over s i x months to ob t a i n jobs. I t i s perhaps i n -d i c a t i v e of the age f a c t o r i n h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s t h a t these men were a l l over f o r t y years o l d upon completion of t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Their r e s p e c t i v e ages were 5 1 , k-2 and V 3 . They a l l had e x c e l l e n t employment records d a t i n g over many years, but the competition i n the modern labour market seems so strong t h a t they re-entered i t only w i t h the greatest d i f f i c u l t y . This perhaps i n d i c a t e s the need f o r more job placement s e r v i c e s and greater r e c o g n i t i o n _ 3 i f -that middle-aged people w i t h good work h i s t o r i e s s t i l l have l e f t a great deal of p o t e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n . Two of the three men were outstanding r e h a b i l i t a t i v e successes and f o r the t h i r d man, there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r -mation to form an opinion about the r e s u l t s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Job Placement o f Trainees I n s e v e r a l instances the informat i o n about job place-ment was obtained from the f i l e s . As the t r a i n e e f r e q u e n t l y was not i n contact w i t h the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a f t e r t r a i n i n g was complete, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to be c e r t a i n j u s t how jobs were l o c a t e d i n the case of self-placements. Some of these placements were probably f a c i l i t a t e d through the voca-t i o n a l schools. However, i n the absence of more c o n c l u s i v e evidence, i n f o r m a t i o n i s taken from the f i l e except where c o n t r a - i n d i c a t e d through personal i n t e r v i e w s . In eleven cases there i s no record of a job having been obtained. For the other t w e n t y - f i v e , the inf o r m a t i o n on job placement ap-pears i n Table No. 8 . V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g had a pronounced e f f e c t on em-p l o y a b i l i t y . Presumably v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was o n l y approved because the handicapped person was unable to engage i n h i s former occupation and needed to be r e - t r a i n e d f o r a new occu-p a t i o n . However, some i n d i v i d u a l s took jobs before t r a i n i n g was completed. Most of the t r a i n e e s were able to l o c a t e em-ployment through t h e i r own e f f o r t s . However, there i s no c o n f i r m a t i o n that the persons - 35 -who found t h e i r own employment were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i -t a t e d . S i x d e f i n i t e l y were not, and f o r three cases there was i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . E i t h e r they were i n s u f f i c i e n t l y t r a i n e d or s u i t e d f o r jobs they obtained. Of the e i g h t persons placed by the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , one was s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , three were not, and i n f o u r cases there was i n -s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . Of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the f a c t that of the seven cases o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d to the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n by the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , s i x were d e f i n i t e l y not r e h a b i l i t a t e d . I t i s assumed that these cases were r e f e r r e d on the b a s i s of a need f o r assessment and p o s s i b l e t r a i n i n g , and that because they were r e f e r r e d by the N a t i o n a l Employment Service t h a t they might have some employment p o t e n t i a l . The f a c t that o n l y two out of the seven persons were l a t e r placed by the N a t i o n a l Employment Service suggests that there i s a greater need f o r co-ordinated e f f o r t s i n job placement. On the other hand, a l l four persons placed by the P o l i o and Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n Foundation were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d . I t appears that d i s a b l e d persons need the c a r e f u l assessment, c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n and s e l e c t i v e job placement that can be provided by agencies such as t h i s . I n a d d i t i o n , the t r a i n i n g at the P o l i o and R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n Foundation i s c l i e n t - c e n t r e d r a t h e r than programme-centred. In other words, the emphasis i s on a d j u s t i n g the t r a i n i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than the i n d i v i d u a l to the t r a i n i n g . For example, i f the t r a i n e e has not made s u f f i c i e n t - 36 -TABLE NO. 8 Agency e f f e c t i n g job placement of trainees No. of Source of Employment Gases % Se l f 9 36.0 National Employment Service 8 32.0 Polio & R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Foundation 3 12.0 P r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of Re h a b i l i t a t i o n 2 8.0 Canadian Paraplegic A a s o c i a t i o n 1 4.0 Goodwill Enterprises 1 4.0 Employee's Union 1 4.0 Totals 2$ 100.0 • - 37 -progress i n a four month period the t r a i n i n g may be ex-tended u n t i l such time as the t r a i n e e has developed suf-f i c i e n t confidence and s k i l l t o be ready f o r employment. Such adaptations are u s u a l l y not p o s s i b l e i n the v o c a t i o n a l schools. Comparison of Amount of Income A f t e r Obtaining  Employment and"While i n T r a i n i n g Incomes i n c l u d i n g subsistence allowance and income from f i r s t job obtained are shown i n Table No. 7 and Table No. 3. For the nineteen cases on which there was a report of earnings from the f i r s t job, the average monthly amount was $ 2 l f 2 . 0 0 per month. This amount i s c o n s i d e r a b l y above the amount of subsistence allowance and i n most cases would r e s u l t i n a d e c i d e d l y improved standard of l i v i n g . In a d d i -t i o n , to being able to meet h i s b a s i c needs more adequately, the personal income gives the newly employed i n d i v i d u a l a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g of pride and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . H i s r o l e i n l i f e i s changed completely which I l l u s t r a t e s how i m p e l l i n g i t i s to improve and expand r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s i n order that the highest p o s s i b l e percentage of our d i s a b l e d population may have the o p p o r t u n i t y to enjoy "a new l i f e " . - 38 -Dropouts Among Trainees Not Completing  the Courses Of the t h i r t y - s i x persons i n the sample group who took v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , twenty-six completed the courses of t r a i n i n g that had been arranged. For the remainder, who numbered ten, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to be pre-c i s e about the reasons that t r a i n i n g was incomplete, as there was o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i l e s or more than one reason was given f o r f a i l u r e to complete. Therefore, an attempt was made t o evaluate the main reason, at the same time r e c o g n i z i n g that the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s u s e f u l more as an i n d i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l e causes i n general, than as an accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the causes of t r a i n i n g i n t e r r u p t i o n f o r the p a r t i c u l a r sample under study. From the i n f o r m a t i o n at hand, the reasons f o r incompleted t r a i n -i n g i s o u t l i n e d i n Table No. 9. Although i l l n e s s i s unavoidable, i t should be pos-s i b l e to keep the number of persons t e r m i n a t i n g t r a i n i n g f o r t h i s reason to a minimum. Many people a p p l y i n g f o r t r a i n i n g may r e a l l y be needing help i n accepting the f a c t they are d i s a b l e d or that t h e i r h e a l t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g . An attempt by them to undertake t r a i n i n g may merely be an e f f o r t to a v o i d f a c i n g r e a l i t y . I n such cases, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i a g -n o s i s and prognosis of the d i s a b i l i t y i s the appropriate s e r v i c e r a t h e r than r e - t r a i n i n g . R e - t r a i n i n g , c o n t r a r y to medical a d v i c e , i s almost c e r t a i n to r e s u l t i n f r u s t r a t i o n and discouragement to the t r a i n e e . - 39 -TABLE NO. 9 Reasons given by trainees for termination of t r a i n i n g No. of Reasons Given Cases % I l l n e s s a Uo Training course too d i f f i c u l t 2 20 Lost interest i n t r a i n i n g cour se 1 10 Pound employment 1 10 Fi n a n c i a l Problems 1 10 Resolution of M a r i t a l Problems 1 10 Totals 10 100 - IfO -Policies in Administration to Allowances  To Trainees The sharing of responsibility for rehabilitation between the federal and provincial governments has impeded the programme as far as subsistence allowances i s concerned. The federal government has proposed a schedule for amounts of subsistence to be paid to trainees. The usual subsistence rates are 152 .00 for a single person l i v i n g at home, or 175 .00 away from home. For married persons livin g with their families, the rate i s $91.00 a month. Away from home, the rate i s $117.00 a month. For Programme 6, the pro-vinces are permitted to pay above these rates but generally the recommended rates are followed closely. The main objec-tion to the schedule i s that i t i s unrealistic as far as married persons are concerned. A subsistence alloiifonce of $91.00 monthly represents nothing more than a portion of married person's financial obligations. It i s up to the pro-vinces to calculate and administer the total monthly allowance. However, the effect has been that to the inadequate amount proposed by the federal government, the province adds a fur-ther inadequate amount. The total amount is closely related to the social allowance rate and often coincides with i t . In fact, in many cases the allowance was administered whole or in part by a social welfare department. Administration of subsistence allowances for rehabili-tation by social welfare departments is undesirable. Far too - hi -often the policies of local welfare departments may be restrictive and punitive. Although vocational trainees may have training expenses which other social allowance clients do not have, the local administrator has the op-tion to refuse to exempt these expenses and sometimes does. When this happens the trainee i s i n a worse financial posi-tion than social allowance clients who are not taking train-ing. In effect, the rehabilitation programme becomes con-trolled by social welfare administrators who may not have the flexible attitudes necessary to f a c i l i t a t e training. The proposed schedule i s out of date also, i n regard to the responsibility of parents to contribute toward adult children. The amount of subsistence allowance i s calculated on the basis of the father's earnings and the number of other dependents in the family. In many instances, there may be no subsistence allowance at a l l , or the amount may be small. Yet i t does seem important that a l l persons over the age of eighteen should have income of their own. Until they are rehabilitated they must remain financially dependent on others but at least they should have some money of their oxm, and there is no reason why i t should not be at least the minimum amount of social allowance which they could obtain by simply applying at the local social welfare department. Again the argument i s that increasing subsistence allowances i s too costly. At the same time, there i s l i t t l e reluctance on the part of the fathers with high incomes to receive family allowances or of older people with large sav-ings to receive old age pensions. Yet there i s s t i l l hesitancy - 1 + 2 -about paying a disabled person a small allowance to take some re-training, while there would be no problem at a l l in arranging a life-time pension i f he were totally dis-abled. It seems that our present society i s not yet w i l l -ing to whole-heartedly invest in rehabilitation. This lack of complete committment to rehabilitation i s evident in two ways. The f i r s t i s that the subsistence allowance i s not paid in advance. Regular attendance or valid reason for absence must be verified for the trainee to receive the f u l l allowance. Otherwise, there are deduc-tions. The trainee must also make satisfactory progress in training. Both requirements are reasonable. However, i t i s not reasonable that a trainee should have to wait for the f i r s t subsistence cheque. Prom the records, delays of up to six w e e k s have been noted. Consequently, considerable anxiety occurs at the early crucial part of the training, resulting in drop-outs by persons who really have the neces-sary capacities but insufficient resources. Of course, social welfare departments may sometimes aid such persons but they should not be obliged to do so when another government de-partment i s already arranging for the allowance. CHAPTER IV Insights Obtained from Interviews  with Trainees Successful vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may appear simple to achieve. To many i t looks as though i t i s merely a matter of arranging a period of t r a i n i n g i n a new l i n e of employment. In actual f a c t , i t i s a much more complicated process fraught with a great v a r i e t y of obstacles and d i f f i -c u l t i e s . These can best be related by the trainees themselves. I t was only possible to arrange eight face-to-face interviews which i s too small a sample to form broad conclusions. Never-theless, since only one of the eight interviewees was success-f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d according to the c r i t e r i a used i n the study, the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e impediments to the other seven should be recorded. Case No. 1 A middle-aged man with a Grade 12 education and a good employment record extending over a period of several years. He said that he had only one d i r e c t v i s i t with the Division of Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n and could not r e c a l l the name of the person he had seen. He had some d i f f i c u l t y with h i s v i s i o n and gave t h i s rea-son f o r withdrawing from the t r a i n i n g programme. He did not discuss h i s d i f f i c u l t y with anyone before leaving because of h i s t i m i d i t y . In h i s opinion the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n was poor. He states that the subsistence allowance was s u f f i c i e n t although he did p e r i o d i c a l l y receive a few d o l l a r s subsidy from a r e l a t i v e . He has had a l i m i t e d amount of employment during the past two years which he has obtained through h i s own e f f o r t s . He suffers from a mental health problem i n addition to the physi-c a l handicap. - 2 -This case i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . I f t h i s man had had a counselor known to him to whom he could turn, h i s medical problems may have been cor-rected. Also, some trainees may need very i n d i v i d u a l i z e d help i n i n s t r u c t i o n i n the vocational school. Case No. 2 A young man with no previous work experience who had successfully upgraded h i s education to Grade 10 at a vocational school. He l a t e r applied to take a trade course. He did not r e c a l l ever having met anyone from the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a -t i o n . He said that he was dismissed from the course "because of lack of t o o l experience, that i s "I didn't know how to handle to o l s " , but he did speak well of the i n s t r u c t o r . An e a r l i e r psychological report indicated that he had mechanical a b i l i t y so that the course seemed to be within h i s capacity. However,this p a r t i c u l a r course started about two months ahead of schedule which created problems f o r t h i s trainee. This case shows the importance of appropriate timing f o r t r a i n i n g and adequate preparation f o r i t . This trainee wrote to the D i v i s i o n : "We a l l f e l t that the school should have waited u n t i l a l l tools and text-books were received u n t i l the course started." (Written communication p r i o r to interview). This decision regarding h i s dismissal showed some strong f e e l -ings about what he regarded as poor timing by the vocational school. Case No. 3 A middle-aged family man with a long record of r e l i -able service to one firm. He r e f e r r e d himself f o r r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n as deteriorating health r e s t r i c t e d h i s employment a c t i v i -t i e s to l i g h t work. He s u c c e s s f u l l y completed a commercial t r a i n i n g course, but said that he found i t extremely hard to concentrate and compete against students who were several years younger. - 3 -Upon completion of t r a i n i n g he said that he was refused employment because of h i s lack of experience or the wage offered was below what he could accept. A f t e r extensive searching, he found a suitable job which he held f o r s i x months. In spite of h i s own personal employment success^this man was of the opinion that the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n should be more involved i n job placement and follow-up services. This case reveals the necessity f o r adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of services. He expected much more i n the way of job placement services than the D i v i s i o n was able to provide. Case No. *fr A young single man with a Grade 12 education and no previous work experience. He had one or two contacts with the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and chose a commercial course. He f e l t that the i n s t r u c t i o n was good and he seemed to have no d i f f i c u l t y i n completing t r a i n i n g . The f i n a n c i a l arrangements were quite s a t i s f a c t o r y to him. Upon completion of t r a i n i n g , he decided that he preferred not to work i n an o f f i c e . Soon a f t e r he found part-time employment which he has continued f o r over two years. He was w e l l s a t i s f i e d with the way the course was ar-ranged. Case No. 5 A young single man with a Grade 12 education who took a chef t r a i n i n g course. He d i d not r e c a l l having met anyone from the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The f i n a n c i a l and trans-portation arrangements were quite s a t i s f a c t o r y as f a r as he was concerned. He stated that the i n s t r u c t i o n was good. However, because of h i s slowness he has been unable to hold employment and has had seven jobs during the past year, most of them of short duration. - k -The trainee would have liked more practical testing of his performance and an extension of the course to improve his speed in order that he could compete more effectively on the labour market. This case demonstrates the need for f l e x i -b i l i t y in training. Some trainees need to stay longer than the stated duration of the course to improve speed, and they should be able to do this. Case No. 6 A young man with a Grade H education. Through the Division of Rehabilitation, he was able to arrange precisely the course he wanted to take. The instruction was satisfactory i n his opinion and there were no financial problems. He suc-cessfully completed his training course and has been employed in his f ield of training ever since, apparently doing quite well. 1) He would have liked to have had a short course of instruction in mathematics before taking his course of training. 2) He also felt that after a few months of training there should be more specialized instructions as he was taught too much that he could not use. This case also illustrates the need for f lexibi l i ty in training, but also highlights the fact that vocational train-ing can be enhanced by up-grading and short preparatory academic courses. Case No. 7 A young family man advised by his physician that he should seek lighter employment. He spoke highly of the counselor who arranged for training through the Division of Rehabilitation. He considered the instructor::. to be well qualified in his f i e l d . mm ^ ma However, i t was necessary to terminate t r a i n i n g a f t e r four months f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons. He immediately found work and stayed with t h i s em-ployer u n t i l a s t r i k e threatened. About t h i s time, h i s former employer offered him his old job back, which he accepted. He has had a keen desire to apprentice as a painter. Evidently he has contacted over f i f t y shops but has been unable to make arrangements f o r an apprenticeship. The trainee found that the tr a i n i n g allowance was quite inadequate to meet the day-to-day expenses of h i s family and f e l t strongly that t r a i n i n g allowances would need to be d r a s t i c a l l y increased for a man with a family. He also f e l t strongly that more apprenticeship opportunities would need to be available f o r married men taking t r a i n i n g courses to avoid f r u s t r a t i o n f o r the trainees and wasteful expense by government departments. This case reveals the importance of adequate t r a i n i n g allowances and also a need to insure that there w i l l be suitable job opportunities f o r successful trainees. Case No. 8 The trainee was a married man with f i v e children and a Grade 1 3 education. He preferred an accounting course to the tr a i n i n g he a c t u a l l y took. He had to go out of town f o r his course but did not remain u n t i l i t was completed. He consider-ed the Instruction to be good but he apparently had d i f f i c u l t y keeping up with the rate of i n s t r u c t i o n . Although he reca l l e d that i t was hard to manage f i n -a n c i a l l y during the t r a i n i n g , finances were only part of the reason for terminating the course. He said that i n checking job opportunities, he learned that he would not be able to earn s u f f i c i e n t money to support h i s family. In any case, he did not think that there was a wide enough range of jobs from which to choose. He decided that i t was necessary to return to h i s former occupation at which he has continued to work f o r almost two years. - 6 -This man stated that he f e l t he had been inappro-p r i a t e l y counseled i n that the t r a i n i n g led to jobs i n which the wage scales were i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a man with a large family. This case points up the necessity f o r c a r e f u l vocational assessment. I f t h i s man had obtained more knowledge of wage scales p r i o r to t r a i n i n g he probably would have decided against t r a i n i n g , or would have chosen an occupation where the wage scale was higher. L i v i n g Accomodations as a Factor i n Successful Re h a b i l i t a t i o n Although the D i v i s i o n of Rehabilitation i s not d i r e c t l y responsible f o r providing suitable l i v i n g accomodations to handi-capped c l i e n t s , the home environment plays a very important part i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of any i n d i v i d u a l . Unfortunately i n Canada, residence regulations i n s o c i a l welfare practice, where there i s f i n a n c i a l need, may mitigate against sound r e h a b i l i t a t i o n prac-t i c e s . For instance, i n d i v i d u a l s with severe d i s a b i l i t i e s or ce r t a i n types of d i s a b i l i t i e s may have to come to the Vancouver area f o r treatment or they may have to come because of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r vocational i n t e r e s t s . However, they may f i n d that l o c a l s o c i a l welfare au-t h o r i t i e s do not have an interest i n t h e i r re-establishment i n the Vancouver area. In f a c t , some trainees have f e l t that they were being subtly encouraged to move back as soon as possible to t h e i r former place of residence. Therefore, the f e e l i n g of acceptance and belonging which I s so basic to vocational rehab-- 7 -i l i t a t i o n i s lacking, and i s replaced by one of loneliness and despair. There i s also the need f o r i n t e r e s t and guidance to be shown, as vocational trainees need much support and en-couragement. In addition, there must be suitable provision f o r studying and adequate f a c i l i t i e s i n the home to accomodate the person's d i s a b i l i t i e s . P o tential f o r C l i e n t Involvment The high degree of co-operation and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study shown by former trainees was noteworthy In that most of those contacted did not benefit d i r e c t l y from the vocational t r a i n i n g that they had received. Only eight persons could be contacted by telephone following receipt of the l e t t e r (attached i n the appendix). However, a l l eight persons agreed to be i n -terviewed and there were no broken appointments. In other words, every person who could be reached was w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Various conclusions can be deduced from t h i s evidence of co-operation and i n t e r e s t . F i r s t , the follow-up i s an im-portant phase of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as some of the trainees who d i d not benefit f u l l y from t h e i r f i r s t vocational t r a i n i n g experience could probably now benefit from re-planning. Secondly, the v a r i -ety of suggestions offered by the trainees was an i n d i c a t i o n that the people who a c t u a l l y received the service could make a great contribution In future planning i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and that more extensive use could be made of follow-up studies. Thirdly, the readiness of these eight persons to communicate f r e e l y , even - 8 -though there had been no contact with the D i v i s i o n of Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r over a year, was an i n d i c a t i o n that d i r e c t c l i e n t contact on a one-to-one basis can be a very important part of vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Specific Problems of Handicapped  i n Job Placement The problems of job placement cannot be under-estimated. I t may appear that the disabled trainee who has successfully completed t r a i n i n g has just one handicap. In actual fact he has three, of which the medical condition may be the least hindrance to employment. The second handicap i s that the trainee must attempt to work i n an employment f i e l d i n which he has had no experience. This lack of experience often leads to immediate employer refusal to accept job ap-p l i c a t i o n s . Thirdly, there i s the handicap of negative em-ployer attitudes towards disabled persons. The l a t t e r i s a source of confusion and f r u s t r a t i o n to disabled job applicants. Many employers express a concern f o r handicapped per-sons, and consequently an outright refusal may be d i f f i c u l t . I n i t i a l l y the employer might be quite encouraging and the ap-pli c a n t may a c t u a l l y be an t i c i p a t i n g employment only to learn that h i s application has been refused on some other grounds than h i s d i s a b i l i t y although often i t i s the d i s a b i l i t y that i s the basic reason. This employment obstacle was experienced by one of the successful trainees of t h i s study who described the extent of the problem i n a written communication to the D i v i s i o n of Reh a b i l i t a t i o n . He informed h i s friends that " a f t e r t h e i r - 2 -education was accomplished the more d i f f i c u l t part of the b a t t l e was ahead of them ... getting the opportunity to show 1 an employer that they could do a job." Mr. L. F. Haggman, supervisor of the Special Place-ments d i v i s i o n of the National Employment Service i n Vancouver i s of the opinion that "one of the main obstacles to successful job placement i s the lack of q u a l i f i e d personnel to serve people 2 with an employment problem." Even with enough personnel, there are many job impediments to handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s over which such personnel would have no c o n t r o l . Necessity f o r Continuous Interpretation  to Employers Employers are interested i n productivity and i t i s therefore necessary to e s t a b l i s h that handicapped employees can work as e f f i c i e n t l y as t h e i r non-handicapped colleagues. The Co-ordinating Council on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Regina, Saskat-chewan conducted a study i n Regina and reached t h i s conclusion -"The fact that employees rated only one i n every twenty-five handicapped employees as being unsatisfactory seems to indicate that the handicapped perform about as s a t i s f a c t o r y proportion-3 a t e l y as the labour force taken as a whole." I t i s necessary to do a great deal of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to employers and to c i t e further research to substantiate the hypothesis that disabled persons can carry out t h e i r duties as w e l l as non-disabled persons. T — • •'•Written c l i e n t communication 2 L.F. Haggman, i n a personal interview •^Co-ordinating Council on Rehabilitation (Saskatchewan) Guide  to Employment of Disabled Persons (Regina, 1961) p. 29 - 3 -D i s a b i l i t y as an "Asset" i n Certain Jobs One of the aspects of job placement that i s often over-looked i s that a d i s a b i l i t y does not always need to be a handicap i n work performance. Under c e r t a i n conditions the d i s a b i l i t y may a c t u a l l y be an asset as f a r as employment i s concerned. For instance, the B e l l Telephone Company hir e d four deaf stenographers to complete s p e c i f i c assignments. The reaction was "the employers f e e l that the lack of hearing helps these employees to develop t h e i r concentration and enables them to give i n d i v i d u a l attention to the job at hand, undisturbed by 1 outside noises and d i s t r a c t i o n s . " However, employers generally tend to think of d i s a b i l i t y i n negative terms. Importance of Employer Willingness to Make  Work Modifications One of the main considerations i n h i r i n g disabled persons i s that possible employment must be approached from the standpoint of what the handicapped person can do rather than from the standpoint of what he cannot do. The applicant's l i m i t a t i o n s are usually well-known both to him and the employer. Less obvious are the capacities and a b i l i t i e s which the a p p l i -cant can u t i l i z e . Nevertheless, i t i s s t i l l true that i n a number of instances, the applicant cannot use h i s capacities unless the employer i s w i l l i n g to make some modifications to the usual work pattern, or supply a d d i t i o n a l devices. In other words, World Congress on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n - Labour Gazette J u l y - December, 1963. p. 597 - 1 + -considerable willingness on the part of employers i s r e-quired i f disabled persons are to have increasing opportun-i t i e s f o r employment. Hanman has said that there are at l e a s t four ways to place workers: 1) Match the worker with the job 2) Change the worker to f i t the job 3) Change the job to f i t the worker 1 h") Change both worker and job The t h i r d method i s perhaps not used s u f f i c i e n t l y enough. By modifying work areas^disabled job applicants can often be accommodated. Sometimes only minor a l t e r a t i o n s must be made. The i n s t i l l a t i o n of red signal l i g h t s f o r deaf persons and the provision of ramps f o r employees using wheel-chairs are examples of the types of equipment that must sometimes be added, but which employers may be reluctant to provide. Importance of Employee "Prejudice"  Against the Handicapped While i t can be understood that employers may object to h i r i n g disabled persons on the assumption that they are less productive than non-disabled persons, i t i s important to note that employee prejudice i s a factor i n job placement. As em-ployees r a r e l y are concerned with p r o f i t s and the working ef-f i c i e n c y of new employees, t h e i r objections to h i r i n g disabled people are not economic. The objections seem to be related to a basic unwillingness i n most people to accept another human being who appears l e s s than whole,or abnormal i n some way, Hanman, Bert, Physical Capacities and Job Placement (Stockholm, Nordisk rotogravyr, 19615 For a l l these reasons, job placement f o r disabled persons may prove d i f f i c u l t and f r u s t r a t i n g . The handicapped i n d i v i d u a l must be able to do more than convince a prospective employer that he can do the job f o r which he has applied. In many cases he must be able to prove that he can do i t better, because i n a competitive labour market there are usually more non-disabled applicants who get preference i f employment po-t e n t i a l i s equal. To o f f s e t the a d d i t i o n a l handicaps that the disabled worker faces, i t i s advisable that q u a l i f i e d special placement employment offe r s should make prospective employers aware that disabled persons can perform as e f f i c i e n t l y as the non-disabled and help them consider making the necessary modifications. Two major points i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to employers should be that there are at least two advantages to h i r i n g employees with serious d i s a b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t i s that they are less apt to leave a job once they have mastered i t . On the other hand, t h e i r non-disabled colleagues are prone to move on to other positions simply because they need not be greatly concerned about locating other employment once they have acquired the s k i l l s to create a demand f o r t h e i r services. Disabled persons, being more aware of t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s are l e s s i n c l i n e d to move from job to job. This should not be taken to imply that handicapped people should be kept i n dead-end jobs as a convenience to the employer, and i s i n no way meant to contravene basic r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n philosophy about the r i g h t s of a handicapped person to advancement when he has proven h i s merits. Rather i t i s a - 6 -recognition of a commonly encountered s i t u a t i o n i n employ-ment practices. Employee Benefit Schemes as B a r r i e r s  to the Employment of the Handicapped There are other ways i n which handicapped people may be prevented from obtaining employment unless some thought i s given to means of overcoming problems. In modern i n d u s t r i e s , employee or "fri n g e " benefits are a very important aspect of the terms of employment. These benefits may include l i f e i n -surance, sickness and accident insurance, a pension plan, medi-c a l and h o s p i t a l insurance, a guaranteed annual wage and a v a r i e t y of other security measures that have been added as trade union influence has become stronger and as the c i t i z e n r y has become more security-conscious. However, employers are reluctant to h i r e new employees where the r i s k of claims i s high because more claims r e s u l t i n increased premiums. Nevertheless, some firms meet t h i s problem by having the handicapped employee sign a waiver of sick pay and death benefits i f i l l n e s s or death should r e s u l t from the d i s -abling condition. In t h i s way, insurance companies are protected from excessive claims, but at the same time, disabled persons are afforded opportunities to work which they might not otherwise have. Importance of Job Sa t i s f a c t i o n Successful job placement i s the ultimate goal of voca-t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . As such, i t may be considered as the most important aspect of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. As the - 7 -vocational t r a i n i n g i s merely a means towards an end and i s of r e l a t i v e l y short duration, i t i s not necessary that the t r a i n i n g should be s a t i s f y i n g to the trainee although s a t i s -f a c t i o n does enhance the process. On the other hand, there should be job s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r the successfully placed trainee. Yet, as has been pointed out i n a study done i n Minnesota, "About o n e - f i f t h of the handicapped persons interviewed eld not l i k e t h e i r jobs. The most frequently mentioned reason f o r eit h e r l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g a job was the type of work involved. The findings suggest the need f o r giving attention to such mat-ters as counselor p a r t i c i p a t i o n and job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n placement 1 of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped." As a r e s u l t of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n securing employment, many handicapped people seem to f e e l obliged to accept jobs that do not i n t e r e s t them simply because there i s so l i t t l e choice. In addition, job applicants with handicaps are often l e f t with the f e e l i n g that they are i n some way i n f e r i o r which Induces them to accept positions below t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . Of the eight persons interviewed, only two of the f i v e who were employed stated that they had achieved job s a t i s f a c t i o n . In one instance, the trainee secured employment i n l i n e with h i s t r a i n i n g and has remained i n the same trade since the completion of t r a i n i n g . In the other, the trainee decided that he would not seek a job i n the occupation f o r which he was trained but has obtained other employment with which he has apparently been quite s a t i s f i e d . University of Minnesota, I n d u s t r i a l Relations Centre, Minneapolis 1958. i b i d p. 1. - 8 -Three trainees who were employed at the time they were interviewed were not working i n occupations for which they were trained. In f a c t , they had a l l returned to t h e i r former occupations. Nevertheless, each expressed d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n with h i s present job and they described t h e i r appre-hension about the future. Each gave a d i f f e r e n t reason f o r t h i s apprehension. One man was worried that he would not be able to meet the physical requirements of the job, another found h i s job too monotonous, and a t h i r d was keen to take further t r a i n i n g as he f e l t that eventually automation would render h i s job obsolete. Five interviews i s an extremely l i m i t e d number of interviews but the fa c t that t h r e e - f i f t h s of those interviewed were d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r jobs lends support to the findings of the Minnesota study. Importance of Suitable Work Adjustments There i s frequent reference i n the l i t e r a t u r e to the f a c t that the in d i v i d u a l ' s personal adjustments are of utmost importance. Dr. Yale Brozen, i n discussing automation, has mentioned that of f i v e hundred and seventy-six employees hi r e d i n one firm, two hundred and thirty-two were f i r e d f o r absentee-1 ism, theft and f i g h t i n g . Therefore, i t frequently happens that employees lose t h e i r jobs f o r reasons quite apart from t h e i r s k i l l and t r a i n i n g . Work adjustment i s probably more d i f f i c u l t f o r handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s than f o r the non-handicapped. For "TJrozen, Yale Dr. "Automation and Jobs" School Guidance  Worker. June, 1965* - 9 -the sample under study^all the trainees were unemployed at the time application was made f o r vocational t r a i n i n g . There-fore , l a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n work adjustment could be anticipated, and did i n f a c t , occur i n a few cases. One of the former t r a i n -ees contacted said that he had held at le a s t seven d i f f e r e n t jobs since h i s t r a i n i n g ended but was unemployed at the time he was interviewed. E f f e c t s of Current Apprenticeship Practices Although vocational trainees may perform quite s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y i n t h e i r courses of t r a i n i n g there are sometimes hidden obstacles to the use of the t r a i n i n g . The apprentice-ship system i n B r i t i s h Columbia may be one such obstacle. For many occupations, an apprenticeship period i s necessary. Upon successful completion of vocational t r a i n i n g , i t may be neces-sary f o r the trainee to locate an employer f o r whom his appren-t i c e s h i p may be served. The apprenticeship, or the period f o r which the apprentice has contracted with the employer to learn a trade, varies i n length but i s usually f o r three or four years. Furthermore, the apprentice's income i s i n i t i a l l y low and although there are periodic increases throughout the appren-ti c e s h i p period the income remains f a r below the national average. Therefore, i t i s v i r t u a l l y Impossible f o r a family man to enter a trade where an apprenticeship period i s required. Even f o r the young men who do apprentice, only a small proportion com-plete t h e i r t r a i n i n g . For instance, " i n 196^- of the 3 , 7 6 9 i n apprentice t r a i n i n g , only ^65 a c t u a l l y completed t h e i r t r a i n i n g . " J— : — • Staley, E.T. How Good Are Our Apprenticeship Programs? Press Release from B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Labour, Vancouver August 1 8 , 1 9 6 5 . - 10 -Since such a small number of men were a c t u a l l y i n t r a i n i n g the lowwages and long apprenticeship periods seemed to be having a markedly discouraging ef f e c t on choice of occupation among young people. Present apprenticeship methods are very much out of date i n B r i t i s h Columbia and j o i n t meetings of trade unions, government o f f i c i a l s and employers are urgently needed i n order to i n s t i t u t e changes that w i l l improve the apprentice-ship system. I t i s important that greater recognition and c r e d i t be given to the t r a i n i n g provided by the vocational schools. Also, the apprenticeship period needs to be reduced by permitting the apprentices to progress more r a p i d l y once they are able to demonstrate t h e i r mastery of the various as-pects of the trade for which they are t r a i n i n g . Also, the i n -come l e v e l s must be i n l i n e with amounts paid f o r s k i l l s i n other occupations. S k i l l e d tradesmen are s t i l l sorely needed but they w i l l not be secured i f they are discouraged by an ob-solete apprenticeship system. Furthermore, some r e s t r a i n t needs to be shown i n spending money on vocational t r a i n i n g i n trades f o r men who w i l l u ltimately be unable to make use of t h i s t r a i n i n g , not because they are lacking i n i n t e r e s t or a b i l i t y i n the trade, but rather because they are impeded by present apprenticeship practices. Recommendations Although the Federal government strongly influences i n many ways the manner i n which r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services w i l l - 11 -be provided to the disabled c i t i z e n s of Canada, the provinces i n many ways can uniquely pattern t h e i r services i n order to most adequately meet the needs of t h e i r handicapped population. Furthermore, there i s s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y i n the agreements between the federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments that the recom-mendations a r i s i n g out of t h i s study could be implemented. I t should also be recognized that the quality and quantity of ser-vice that the D i v i s i o n of Rehabilitation can provide i s depen-dent very l a r g e l y on the i n t e r e s t , support and concern f o r an adequate programme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by the members of the pro-v i n c i a l government. The recommendations growing out of the findings are:-1. Provision of a Direct Continuous  Counseling Service At the present time, there i s , i n the D i v i s i o n of Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n , a concerted e f f o r t to develop the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n committee approach i n meeting the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e needs of c i t i -zens i n communities outside the lower mainland. In a province so vast, much of the populace could not be served i n any other way. This approach places the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n on a community l e v e l . Success w i l l be most ce r t a i n where the committee members understand and are interested i n the re-h a b i l i t a t i v e process. However, i n larger urban areas a d i f f e r e n t approach i s appropriate. When people do not know one another intimate-l y and there are many agencies whose e f f o r t s must be co-ordin-ated on the c l i e n t ' s behalf, i t i s important that there be one counselor to whom the c l i e n t can go f o r d i r e c t assistance. - 12 -This i s the accepted pattern i n some countries. 2. Extension of Counseling Services The approach just mentioned would involve a great increase i n the numbers of s t a f f but the q u a l i t y of the s t a f f would also be an important consideration. There are few areas of counseling or consultation where more s k i l l and knowledge i s required. The desirable q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r vocational counselors have been mentioned e a r l i e r . Such people are sorely needed but hard to f i n d . In order to a t t r a c t counselors of the required c a l i b r e , i t w i l l be necessary to pay top s a l a r i e s . Instead of consulta-t i v e services to communities, d i r e c t service to the c l i e n t could be developed by the Division to meet the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e needs of the disabled i n c i t y areas. Such service should guar-antee close contact with the disabled person from the time of application u n t i l successful job placement has been achieved allowing f o r a s i x month to one year period of follow-up. The argument against t h i s proposal of course, Is that i t i s too expensive, but i t must be agreed that comprehensive services are c o s t l y . However, when i t i s considered that i f a person becomes disabled at age 30 and remains f i n a n c i a l l y dependent to age 65, at today's minimum allowance rates of $75.00 monthly he would receive $31,500 i n benefits during that period. I t i s doubtful that vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would cost anywhere near that amount. In any case, disabled persons are e n t i t l e d to the service as an investment i n human betterment. - 13 -3 . Specific Steps to Make Federal-Provincial  Training Programmes More Widely Used Rehabilitation i s a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d and voca-t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s an even more recent development. There are thousands of disabled persons i n B r i t i s h Columbia who have not as yet applied f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e services - some because they do not know that the services e x i s t and others because they have not as yet decided that they wish to a v a i l themselves of the services. Some s t a f f members of the P r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n of Rehabilitation could be assigned to increase public knowledge and agency knowledge of these programmes and discover and re-move perceived obstacles to t h e i r more extensive use. As they do so, there w i l l be a great need for i n -creased numbers of s t a f f to meet the service demands. Some . indications of the challenge that l i e s ahead revealed by the fac t that over a five-year period, 1960-196^- i n c l u s i v e , 1351 persons who considered themselves to be t o t a l l y and permanent-l y disabled, were granted a disabled persons allowance. During 1 the same period, 7 8 8 were declined on medical grounds. A substantial proportion of these people should be finding t h e i r way into the Federal-Provincial t r a i n i n g pro-grammes of the province. ^ Department of National Health and Welfare. Report on the  Administration of Allowances f o r Disabled Persons i n Canada  Under the Provisions of the Disabled Persons Act Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1965 - Ik -h. Improved Integration of Services i I t i s desirable that a l l agencies who are working i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n should be w e l l informed on the p o l i c i e s and services of each agency i n t h i s f i e l d . In t h i s way, c l i e n t s may be referred to the agency most l i k e l y to provide the appropriate service. In the absence of one counselor per c l i e n t from beginning to end of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process, agencies should develop improved methods of conferring and reaching agreement on current r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c l i e n t . 5. Establishment and Extension of Follow-up  Services A f t e r Job Placement As the vocational t r a i n i n g programme has been i n effect for several years now^it i s important to determine i t s impact on the persons who have made use of i t . There-fore i t i s highly important that contact be maintained with trainees f o r some time a f t e r job placement, to assess whether there are extraordinary d i f f i c u l t i e s i n work adjustment f o r disabled persons,and i f so, how the programme could be modi-f i e d to a l l e v i a t e employment d i f f i c u l t i e s to the greatest extent possible. Follow-up and research sometimes produce some quite remarkable discoveries. For instance, Mary E. Switzer, w r i t i n g i n Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the United States about research with cerebral-palsied i n d i v i d u a l s , points out that " a very substantial number of persons who previously had no prospects of performing useful work can now be systematically brought - 15 -l back i n t o the labour f o r c e . " The B r i t i s h Columbia programmes seem weakest i n the areas of f o l l o w - u p ^ x c e p t t h a t done by p r i v a t e agencies such as the Canadian P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n . 6. Extension o f T r a i n i n g Programmes i n  Co-operation w i t h I n d u s t r y Since job placement i s such a d i f f i c u l t aspect of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t much greater use should be made of the f e d e r a l programmes s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to f a c i l i t a t e placement of d i s a b l e d persons i n i n -d u s t r y by making i t f i n a n c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r employers to t r a i n new personnel. I n the "on the job" t r a i n i n g , as i t i s c a l l e d , there i s a government subsidy paid f o r the employee's wages up u n t i l h i s period of t r a i n i n g has been completed. This f e a t u r e of government and i n d u s t r i a l co-operation i n r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . As the e f f e c t s of automation become more pronounced,there w i l l be an ever i n c r e a s i n g need f o r c l o s e co-operation between Industry and a l l l e v e l s of government i n order that the manpower needs of Canada may be developed meet e f f i c i e n t l y . These programmes a l s o e l i m i n a t e the f r u s t r a t i n g and sometimes f r u i t l e s s e f f o r t s of d i s a b l e d persons i n seeking employment. Furthermore, i n t r a i n i n g "on the j o b " , there i s l e s s r i s k of f a i l u r e , as the employee i s o r i e n t e d t o the job from the outset of the programme. With t r a i n i n g i n v o c a t i o n a l "Sswitzer, Mary E. V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the United  S t a t e s . Reprint from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e , March, 195&. - 16 -schools or other t r a i n i n g media, there i s a c e r t a i n amount of theory which may have i n s u f f i c i e n t p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n to the job obtained. S t i l l another advantage i s that the trainee i s able to adjust to h i s working environment at the same time that he i s taking h i s t r a i n i n g . For some handicap-ped employees^adjusting to the work surroundings can be as d i f f i c u l t as the tra i n i n g i t s e l f . Therefore, considerable stress may be obviated when the two hurdles are overcome at the same time. For these reasons, "on the job" t r a i n i n g i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y useful means of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and warrants much wider use and study by government o f f i c i a l s searching f o r the mcBfc suitable plans f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 7. Consideration of L e g i s l a t i o n to Help Suitable Applicants Set Up Small Businesses In a society i n which such emphasis i s placed on in d i v i d u a l enterprise, i t i s rather surprising that there i s so l i t t l e encouragement and f i n a n c i a l support offered to d i s -abled persons who may wish to enter private business. Succes-s f u l job placement i s a major problem f o r a l l vocational trainees, and the s k i l l s learned during t r a i n i n g are sometimes wasted when employment i s not obtained i n the f i e l d f o r which the c l i e n t was trained. Therefore, i t seems advisable that i n t e r e s t free government loans should be provided to persons with sound plans fo r business ventures. Successful businesses require hard-working, conscientious people with good judgment, and many c l i e n t s approved f o r vocational t r a i n i n g have these q u a l i t i e s . Therefore, i t i s - .17 -desirable that persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s should be given opportunities to operate t h e i r own businesses. The argument against such a recommendation i s that the same opportunities f o r business investment should apply to the non-disabled as w e l l as the disabled. However, i f the economic and vocational resources of the country are to be most e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d , i t must be recognized that non-disabled persons can often be placed i n jobs which would not be open to i n d i v i d u a l s with handicaps. Therefore, federal business loans to the disabled would i n f a c t , s a t i s f y the need to integrate a higher percentage of the population into productive a c t i v i t y , bearing i n mind the remarks of Harold Goldstein that "The affluent society i s a service-oriented 1 society." 8 . Apprenticeships An apprenticeship programme needs to be developed which i s related to present employment demands and future trends. Since industry, labour unions and p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments are a l l involved i n setting apprenticeship standards, i t i s important that t h e i r representatives should meet to develop an apprenticeship programme, that would more ef f e c -t i v e l y develop the labour requirements of the province. 9 . Extension of Sheltered Workshop Programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia Sheltered workshops may have a v a r i e t y of functions such as:- case f i n d i n g ; supportive services; a setting jfor "''Goldstein, Harold. Education and Worklife i n a Changing Economy. School Guidance Worker. November, 1965 - 18 -vocational diagnosis and evaluation; vocational t r a i n i n g and adjustment; development of work tolerance; employment, job placement or therapeutic a c t i v i t i e s . The functional emphasis w i l l vary from one workshop to another,but each i s important. I t i s conceivable that some of the people rated as "not rehab-i l i t a t e d " i n t h i s sample would have been successfully placed i n employment on the regular labour market or could have found a useful vocational role as a permanent employee i n such a workshop. Sheltered workshops have an extremely valuable r o l e to play i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In a sheltered workshop, the t r a i n -ee gets i n d i v i d u a l i z e d attention every day on the job, and i s prepared to go into regular industry i f possible. The Goodwill Industries furnish an excellent example - of the ef f e c t i v e use that handicapped persons can make of work-shop f a c i l i t i e s . By c o l l e c t i n g used a r t i c l e s donated by members of the community, a great number of people are provided with employment i n a shoe repair shop, sewing room, cabinet shop, e l e c t r i c shop, wheel goods shop, hat shop and used book depart-ment. P r i n t i n g shops, dry cleaning establishments and cafeter-i a s are examples of other business enterprises that can be operated successfully. In any case, there i s a wide v a r i a t i o n , and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s are unlimited. 10. Passing of Le g i s l a t i o n to Ensure the Quota  Plan of Employment of the Handicapped Introduction of such l e g i s l a t i o n on behalf of d i s -abled persons i s thought to be unpopular i n North America. Those opposed to t h i s type of l e g i s l a t i o n argue that i t tends - 19 -to stigmatize handicapped persons i n that they have to be c l a s s i f i e d as handicapped or non-handicapped when they apply f o r employment. Others claim that the l e g i s l a t i o n i s i n e f -fective, i n that industries can defeat i t s intent by simply searching harder for evidence of d i s a b i l i t y among i t s s t a f f members. By furnishing medical evidence that the required percentage of the work force i s disabled, no further handi-capped persons are accepted f o r employment. Those who favour l e g i s l a t i o n on behalf of disabled persons point out that the most eff e c t i v e way to f i g h t d i s -crimination i n employment i s to l e g i s l a t e against i t . In B r i t a i n and some Scandinavian countries, there i s l e g i s l a t i o n requiring that industries must h i r e a designated percentage of disabled persons. Those with t h i s view emphasizethat d i s -abled persons have as much r i g h t to jobs as the non-disabled, and that i f employers w i l l not support these rights v o l u n t a r i -l y , laws must be passed to provide t h i s protection. In B r i t i s h Columbia,there seems to be an area i n which l e g i s l a t i o n i s necessary and that i s with regard to persons who lose t h e i r jobs through d i s a b i l i t y but who cannot establish a claim with the Workmen's Compensation Board. I f the Board finds that the accident or i l l n e s s i s not due to the conditions of employment, the claimant not only f a i l s to receive f i n a n c i a l compensation but frequently loses h i s job as w e l l . There i s usually no l e g a l requirement f o r an employer to provide a l t e r -native employment f o r a disabled person although age or the severity of the d i s a b i l i t y may p r a c t i c a l l y eliminate such a - 20 -person from competitive employment. The l e g i s l a t i v e objec-t i v e should be to establish that i f a person becomes handi-capped and i s not covered by the Workmen1s Compensation Board, his employer should be responsible f o r providing alternative employment on condition that the employee was a permanent s t a f f member at the onset of d i s a b i l i t y , and that i f alterna-t i v e employment cannot be provided, that the disabled person should receive a pension s i m i l a r i n amount and on the same terms that would have applied i f a Workmen's Compensation claim had been approved. In f a c t , there needs to be some study made of the a d v i s a b i l i t y of abolishing Workmen's Compen-sation Allowances to be replaced by an extension and adaptation of the present allowances f o r Disabled Persons. 11. Training Allowances Since the success or f a i l u r e of a vocational t r a i n i n g programme can depend on the f i n a n c i a l arrangements made f o r t r a i n i n g , i t i s important that t r a i n i n g allowances should be adequate and administered i n such a way as to reduce as much as possible the p o s s i b i l i t y that f i n a n c i a l problems w i l l a r i s e . The following basic premises are recommended: 1. The allowance should be s u f f i c i e n t i n amount to meet basic needs adequately. On t h i s basis, there would be some var i a t i o n i n amounts paid to in d i v i d u a l s or to families of s i m i l a r s i z e s , but i t should help to avoid f i n a n c i a l pro-blems i n cases where there was extraordinary need. 2. The allowance should be paid i n one sum from the o f f i c e of the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In the records, ' - 2 1 -there were indications that involvement by the l o c a l s o c i a l welfare departments sometimes adversely affected the rehab-i l i t a t i v e process. There were several reasons f o r t h i s re-s u l t . Often there was a lack of an appropriate r e f e r r a l from the c l i e n t ' s place of residence to the area where he would take the t r a i n i n g . Consequently, many persons commenced t r a i n -ing with no cle a r idea as to what t r a i n i n g expenses would be exempted from the supplementary allowances they were to receive from the s o c i a l welfare departments. Furthermore, s o c i a l wel-fare departments were not cl e a r as to when the f i r s t subsistence allowance would be paid. 3. The allowance should be paid at regular i n t e r v a l s commencing with the date t r a i n i n g begins. From the f i l e s , there were recorded contacts from trainees i n which they reported con-cern that t h e i r subsistence allowances had not yet been received although they had been on a t r a i n i n g course f o r over a month. Expenses f o r the trainee continue from theudate h i s t r a i n i n g commences and f i n a n c i a l assistance i s required immediately. Continued assistance should quite d e f i n i t e l y be based on regular attendance and s a t i s f a c t o r y progress i n t r a i n i n g . However, the basic assumption should be that he w i l l complete h i s t r a i n i n g and f i n a n c i a l assistance should be i n i t i a t e d on t h i s assumption. h. The allowance should be termed a vocational t r a i n -ing allowance. The person taking vocational t r a i n i n g can no longer be considered a disabled person within the d e f i n i t i o n of the Allowances f o r Disabled Persons, and should not receive such a pension while t r a i n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , trainees should not be c l a s s i f i e d as s o c i a l allowance recipients any more than u n i v e r s i t y students i n receipt of t r a i n i n g grants are so c l a s s i f i e d . The fact that s o c i a l welfare departments are used to supplement and sometimes adminster subsistence a l -lowances i n no way negates the fact that such administration of allowances i s inappropriate. Therefore, a l l vocational trainees i n f i n a n c i a l need, should be issued an allowance described as a vocational t r a i n i n g allowance. 12. Medical Coverage f o r Trainees The lack of universal comprehensive medical services has posed problems i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In f a c t , i t i s one of the main reasons that Disabled Persons Allowance and s o c i a l assistance allowances have been used to meet f i n a n c i a l need i n vocational t r a i n i n g programmes. Medical services are ex-pensive, and disabled persons usually have a much higher than average share of such expenses. Therefore, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important that disabled i n d i v i d u a l s should have complete medi-c a l insurance coverage at a l l times. In the past some insur-ance plans have excluded the very coverage that the handicapped i n d i v i d u a l needs the most. Therefore, i t i s highly desirable that the p r o v i n c i a l government of B r i t i s h Columbia should broaden and extend medi-c a l insurance i n co-operation with the federal government as an aid to programmes of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and also as a preventa-t i v e measure i n reducing the c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s of disease and d i s a b i l i t y . - 23 -13. Improved Child-Care F a c i l i t i e s  f o r Children There seems to he f a i r l y general agreement that women with large families should devote t h e i r time and ener-gies to caring f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and that they should not undertake vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Generally speaking, such opinions are sound from a c h i l d welfare standpoint; However, what has been over-looked i s that there are some situations i n which vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the disabled mother may be i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the family providing there are adequate child-care f a c i l i t i e s i n the community to render some p r a c t i c a l i t y to her plans. For instance, a woman aged thirty-seven with s i x c h i l d r e n , ranging from age two to seventeen i s approaching the age where she would be i n e l i g i b l e f o r vocational t r a i n i n g , but also she i s approaching the age where her s o c i a l assistance w i l l be reduced i f her children leave home. In many cases, i t i s f a r wiser for the mother to complete a vocational t r a i n i n g course at t h i s point and attempt to earn an income than to ignore the consequences of waiting too long to r e - t r a i n . There are f a r too many cases of women i n t h e i r early f i f t i e s who are alone and destitute simply be-cause they have not had adequate opportunities to become s e l f -supporting. Extensive development of play-school f a c i l i t i e s and expanded t r a i n i n g f o r home-making services are urgently needed to assist those women who wish to take vocational t r a i n -ing, where a thorough assessment favours such a plan. - 2k- -I k . Transportation and Moving Expenses There i s presently provision i n the federal-provin-c i a l agreements for transportation expenses. Whenever.; pos-s i b l e the l o c a l bus transportation services are used but t a x i services are provided i f there i s a special need and have been frequently used. For severly disabled persons i t would be pro-bably more s a t i s f a c t o r y and economical to provide transportation services to the vocational schools or other settings by means of p r o v i n c i a l government vehicles, as i s done by the day hos-p i t a l of the Burnaby Mental Health C l i n i c . In consideration of the disruptive effects of having a man taking h i s t r a i n i n g i n a l o c a l i t y apart from his family, i t i s also desirable to more frequently re-locate a family near the t r a i n i n g school or t r a i n i n g s e t t i n g . I f a man i s appropri-a t e l y trained he should have as much opportunity f o r employment i n h i s t r a i n i n g area as he would have had i n h i s former commun-i t y . Such arrangements avoid having married men with good po-t e n t i a l dropping out of t r a i n i n g because they cannot adjust to l i v i n g apart from t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Need f o r More Vocational Schools Well-motivated trainees and good counselors alone cannot guarantee a successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. The vocational t r a i n i n g offered i s an equally important f a c t o r . There has been a great increase i n the construction of voca-t i o n a l schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the past few years, but - 25 -as was pointed out by E. T. Staley, President of the B.C. Federation of Labour, " B r i t i s h Columbia lags behind Ontario and the p r a i r i e provinces i n the per capita expenditures f o r 1 vocational and technical schools." Furthermore, "Only ap-proximately 5>000 student places are available i n vocational schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia including the B.C. I n s t i t u t e of 2 Technology." This figure represents quite a small percentage of the number of young people who could benefit from vocational t r a i n i n g . In 196^, the t o t a l labour force averaged about 630,000 persons, out of which only 22,300 were enrolled i n 3 t r a i n i n g school courses. Considering that t h i s number of trainees represents such a small percentage of the labour force and that there i s a shortage of s k i l l e d labour, there i s an enormous need f o r i n -creasing the numbers of vocational schools as w e l l as the per-sonnel to s t a f f them. Federal money i s available to a s s i s t i n t h e i r construction and t r a i n i n g grants are available to a s s i s t i n the s t a f f i n g , but the need i s increasing quickly. Therefore, as these resources f o r vocational t r a i n i n g should be developed'ex-tensively as possible. Staley, E.T. How Good Are Our Apprenticeship Programs? op. c i t . p. 2. :0'Neal, E.P. Vocational Training and Retraining Today Presentation to the Fabian Forum, Sidney, B.C. Jan. 22, 1966 Staley, E.T. op. c i t . p. 2. - 26 -Need f o r Other Vocational Training Resources It must again be emphasized that the sample f o r t h i s study was small and that i t would be Inappropriate to draw firm conclusions regarding the success rates i n various vocational t r a i n i n g settings. Of the four persons referred to the P o l i o m y e l i t i s and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Foundation, a l l four were successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Of the two persons who took post-graduation t r a i n i n g at the university l e v e l , one met with suc-cess i n vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In other words, f i v e out of the six referred persons benefitted from vocational t r a i n i n g ar-ranged elsewhere than i n a vocational or t e c h n i c a l school. On the other hand, of the remaining t h i r t y trainees who undertook t r a i n i n g In vocational or private schools, only four achieved vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i v e success, which represents l e s s than fourteen per cent of the group. As vocational and private schools are not always as e f f e c t i v e as other t r a i n i n g resources i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , other types of f a c i l i t i e s need to be extended and u t i l i z e d . Need fo r L e g i s l a t i v e Changes A serious weakness on the Canadian r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scene i s that the federal government does not share the expense of meeting c a p i t a l costs f o r developing workshop and assessment f a c i l i t i e s . Considering the high cost of land, construction and equipment, t h i s provision i s a b a r r i e r to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of great proportions. Although communities and the p r o v i n c i a l government recognize quite c l e a r l y the need f o r added services, - 27 -the costs may v i r t u a l l y s t i f l e development. In addition, there are a number of factors i n t e n s i f y i n g the problem i n -cluding the increasing population, increasing demand fo r and development of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e services, increasing land and b u i l d i n g costs, increasing need for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services r e s u l t i n g from automation, and increasing medical capacity to a i d the disabled. I t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to keep abreast of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e requirements without more favourable l e g i s -l a t i o n , t o provinces. Therefore, i t i s v i t a l l y necessary to approve greater f i n a n c i a l support for new f a c i l i t i e s by amending the federal l e g i s l a t i o n as soon as possible. Research: The most recent Federal-Provincial programme esta-blished under the Technical and Vocational Training Act Is Programme 10, Manpower Requirements and Training Research. As yet, t h i s programme has not been developed extensively but i t i s of v i t a l importance. B r i t i s h Columbia i s a province whose economy i s based on primary industries such as lumbering, f i s h i n g , mining and a g r i c u l t u r e . There i s much seasonal employ-ment which poses serious problems i n the e f f e c t i v e use of man-power and hence i n the types of t r a i n i n g that are most appro-priate f o r economic expansion i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Much research i s necessary f o r sound planning i n vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . - 28 -Research i s also needed i n the types of t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s that w i l l most e f f e c t i v e l y meet the needs of disabled persons. Although integration of disabled persons into the t r a i n i n g programmes for the non-disabled i s desirable, i t i s also necessary to consider that disabled persons i n most instances have specialized needs, and may therefore require specialized services to help them achieve t h e i r vocational goals. A number of persons who apply to the D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e services are able to obtain employment without vocational t r a i n i n g . The permanency of the employment they obtain i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the need f o r voca-t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and warrants close examination. For the sample reviewed i n t h i s study successful job placement f o r disabled persons was d i f f i c u l t to achieve. I t would c e r t a i n l y be ad-vantageous to everyone interested i n vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , those providing the service, as well as those receiving i t , to obtain much broader knowledge of the obstacles to successful job placement. Vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d of service i n B r i t i s h Columbia and for t h i s reason Programme 10 provides the province, on a cost-sharing basis with the federal government, an excellent opportunity to study the most eff e c t i v e means of developing i t s human resources. "The s k i l l 1 and education requirements of the economy are r i s i n g " and by Goldstein, Harold. Education and Worklife i n a Changing Economy, School Guidance Worker. November 1965. means of further development of services, the disabled c i t i z e n of B r i t i s h Columbia must be enabled to take a more active part i n a rapi d l y changing society. BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l a n , W. Scott. Rehabilitation; A Community Challenge. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 195b'. Bodlok, Stanley. " D i s a b i l i t y Allowance." Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. G., 1957. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education. The Technical  and Vocational Branch Manual for Programmes 5 and 6. Queen's Printer, V i c t o r i a , B. C. B r i t i s h Columbia, Health Branch, Department of Health Ser-vice and Hospital Insurance, D i v i s i o n of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Manual for Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B. G., January, 1965. Brozen, Yale. "Automation and Jobs," The School Guidance  Worker. June, 1965. Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare. Report  on the Administration of Allowances for Disabled Persons  i n Canada under the Provisions of the Disabled Persons  Act. Queen's Pr i n t e r . Ottawa. 1964. -Canada. Royal Commission on Health Services. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1964, Volume No. 1. Canada. Summary of Employment Conditions. P a c i f i c Region, A p r i l 1965. National Employment Service, Department of Labour, Ottawa, 1965. Canada. "World Congress on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . " Labour Gazette, July 31, 1964. Vol. LXIII No. 7, Department of Labour, Ottawa. : i Choy, Ivy, etc. "Rehabilitation i n Canada." Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., 1965. Clark, Duncan. "Vocational Training and Its Role i n the Re h a b i l i t a t i v e Process." Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1951+. Co-ordinating Council on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Guide to Employment  of Disabled Persons. Regina, Sask., 1961. '. " Goldstein, Harold. "Education and Worklife i n a Changing Economy," The School Guidance Worker. November, 1965. Hamilton, Kenneth W. Counseling the Handicapped i n the  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Process. Ronald Press. Hew York. I960. Hanmor, B e r t . P h y s i c a l C a p a c i t i e s and Job Placement. Nordisk Rotogravyr, Stockholm, 1951. " Howitz, John J . Education f o r S o c i a l Workers i n the R e h a b i l -i t a t i o n of the" ^ Handicapped. Council on S o c i a l Work Education, New York, 1959. I n s t i t u t e f o r the C r i p p l e d and D i s a b l e d . The Tower System. New York. L a s k i n , R i c h a r d . S o c i a l Problems: A Canadian P r o f i l e . McG-raw H i l l , Toronto, 1964. M i n i f i e , James M. "Automation and the Age of L e i s u r e . " The M o n t r e a l e r . . A p r i l . 1965. Minnesota Studies i n V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . A Follow-up  Study o f Placement Success. B u l l e t i n 23, I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Center, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, Minneapolis, August, 1958. O f f i c e f o r S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l Personnel. F o r e c a s t i n g ; Manpower Needs f o r the Age of Science. Or g a n i z a t i o n f o r European Economic Co-operation, P a r i s , I960. Oklahoma State L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . Study of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s . Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma, I960. O'Neal, E. P. V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and R e t r a i n i n g Today. B. C. Federation of Labour, Vancouver, B. C., January, P a t t i s o n , Harry A. The Handicapped and Their R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Charles C. Thomas, S p r i n g f i e l d , 1957. Rusk, Howard A. "Dynamic Therapeutic i n Chronic Disease." Postgrad Medicine. 5278, 1949. Savard, Robert J . "Casework and Resistance t o V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . " S o c i a l Casework. December, 1958. S c o t t , Gordon N. S e a t t l e Goodwill I n d u s t r i e s . S e a t t l e , Washington. S h e l l e y , Edwin F. "Automation and the Welfare of S o c i e t y . " The S o c i a l Welfare Forum 1963. O f f i c i a l Proceedings N a t i o n a l Conference-on S o c i a l Welfare, Cleveland. 1966. _ Sima, V a l e r i e A. The Development o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i - t a t i o n i n Canada. O f f i c e o f the N a t i o n a l C o - o r d i n a t o r of C i v i l i a n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Ottawa, 1961. Soper, E . Donald, and C r i t e s , John 0 . A p p r a i s i n g V o c a t i o n a l  F i t n e s s . Harper and Row, New York, 1962. S t a l e y , E . T. How Good Are Our A p p r e n t i c e s h i p Programs? B.'C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour, Vancouver, B. C., August 18, 1965. S w i t z e r , Mary E . V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e . ' " Thompson, N e l l i e . The Role o f the Workshop i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . A Report o f the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on the Role o f the Workshop i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Bedford, Penn., 195>8. Touraine, A. & A s s o c i a t e s . I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A spects  o f Manpower.Policy: Workers 1 A t t i t u d e s to T e c h n i c a l Change. O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development, P a r i s , 1965. U. S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare: O f f i c e o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Thomson, Bruce and B a r r e t t , A l b e r t ( e d s . ) * Casework Performance i n V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . U. S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare: V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . McGowan, John F. ( e d . ) . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o c e s s . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e r v i c e Series.No. 555, November, I960. U n i t e d S t a t e s , S t u d i e s i n Counselor T r a i n i n g . J o i n t L i a s o n Committee o f the C o u n c i l o f State D i r e c t o r s o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n s e l l o r Educators, No. 1, 1963. APPENDIX A W i S T T i N T H A V E N U E V A N C O U V E R », B . C . T E L E P H O N E : T R l N I T V 4 ' 2 3 3 l IN R E P L Y R E F E R T O F I L E N O , . r Mr. c/o Suite #5. L_ VANCOUVER, B. C. DIVISION OF DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES AND HOSPITAL INSURANCE ^ ^ ^ B I L I TAT I 0 N HEALTH BRANCH BUREAU OF SPECIAL PREVENTIVE AND TREATMENT SERVICES n JanuaW B. C. JAM 25 1S66 _J Dear We are writing to you as a person who undertook t r a i n i n g under one of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes available i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. People who have trained under the programmes are i n a good position to know how these services are operating and what t h e i r strengths and weaknesses are. The views and experiences of people who have used these services are being sought as part of the information needed f o r a study which i s being sponsored by the School of S o c i a l Work a t the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. This study i s one of a series reviewing the operation of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Our department i s co-operating with t h i s study because of our interest i n maintaining a high standard of s e r v i c e . Mr. 0 . Catt who w i l l be pa r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study as part of the requirements f o r obtaining his Master's Degree i n So c i a l Work, w i l l be interviewing a l l persons who have undertaken tr a i n i n g and would be w i l l i n g to make comments about i t s various aspects. Any information that you might give to him w i l l remain s t r i c t l y confidential and written material compiled from interviews w i l l not be u t i l i z e d i n such a way that your name or s i t u a t i o n could be i d e n t i f i e d . • • • 2 -2-I f for any reason you do not wish to be interviewed please l e t us know. Otherwise you may expect to hear from Mr. Catt early i n 1966. He w i l l arrange to meet you at your convenience. Your co-operation i n th i s study i s not obligatory but would be much appreciated. Yours t r u l y , / C. ^. Bradbury Director of Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n D i v i s i o n of Rehabi l i t a t i o n C2B/jh DIVISION OF REHABILITATION Department of Health Services and H o s p i t a l Insurance P.H". 78 R E H A B I L I T A T I O N R E F E R R A L . F O R M LOCAL REHABILITATION COMMITTEE NAME Loca t i o n SOCIAL INSURANCE NUMBER SEX: M ADDRESS BIRTHDATE MARITAL STATUS: S M W D SEP DEPENDENTS: WIFE NUMBER OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN What i s the nature of d i s a b i l i t y and handicap? ( I n d i c a t e p h y s i c a l , mental, s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s such as ambulation, s e l f - c a r e , v i s i o n , hearing, etc.) NAME AND ADDRESS OF FAMILY PHYSICIAN Date Last Seen YEARS PRESENT EDUCATIONAL STANDING:(Circle)GRADE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ATTENDED Other T r a i n i n g ( V o c a t i o n a l , A p p r e n t i c e s h i p , Training-on-the-Job, U n i v e r s i t y , etc.) Where Kind Taken Dates Does i n d i v i d u a l read and w r i t e English? Speak English 1! HISTORY OF EMPLOYMENT: ( I n d i c a t e employment i n l a s t f i v e years or three longest periods) Companies Dates S p e c i f i c Nature of Work Does person maintain continuous r e g i s t r a t i o n w i t h N.E.S.? Yes No Not Known _ Is there a N.E.S. o f f i c e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ? Yes No Not Known Is person p h y s i c a l l y able to contact o f f i c e ? Yes No Is t h i s case known to: ( I f yes, give i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number where a p p l i c a b l e ) Workmen's Compensation Board Unemployment Insurance Commission Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s N a t i o n a l Employment Service Disabled Persons Allowance H.S.I. No. Indian A f f a i r s S o c i a l Welfare Department H.S.I. No. P u b l i c Health Department Other ( S p e c i f y ) Agency/ies from which c l i e n t r e c e i v e s income and amount IMPRESSION OF APPLICANT: (Appearance, a t t i t u d e , i n t e l l i g e n c e , etc.) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Plan? (Any s p e c i f i c suggestions) Date of R e f e r r a l Reffered By _ Agency (SEE REVERSE SIDE) IF OTHER INFORMATION IS KNOWN WHICH IS OF SIGNIFICANCE IN THE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION- OF THIS PERSON, PLEASE INDICATE-BELOW:' " "• , . '.' T' DIVISION OF REHABILITATION Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance P,H,80 MEDICAL ASSESSMENT FOR PURPOSE OF PHYSICAL AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION NAME ADDRESS DATE OF BIRTH OCCUPATION HEIGHT WEIGHT MARITAL STATUS PATIENT'S COMPLAINT: HISTORY OF PRESENT DISABILITY: OTHER PERTINENT HISTORY - (Alcoholism, Emotional Disturbance, etc.) PRESENT PHYSICAL CONDITION - (inclu d i n g blood pressure) PRESENT DISABILITY - (Describe) RESIDUAL ABILITIES: PROGNOSES - (Physical, Psychological) PRESENT TREATMENT: HOW LONG IS TREATMENT LIKELY TO LAST? WHAT FURTHER TREATMENT OR ADVICE WOULD BE DESIRABLE ( i f any?) Date of Examination S ignature Fee for Examination $7.50 Please attach three copies of account. Address (Use reverse side i f other information i s known which i s of si g n i f i c a n c e i n the Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of this person.) S E C T I O N F P H Y S I C A L S T A T U S P h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d : Y e s 1 | N o \ . | -If Y E S s t a t e nature of d i s a b i l i t y . .'. F o r P R O G R A M M E 6 C A S E S p l e a s e a t t a c h s u m m a r y o f m e d i c a l r e p o r t w i t h s i g n a t u r e o f p h y s i c i a n . I N T E R V I E W E R ' S C O M M E N T S ( D e s i g n a t e d Off icer) D a t e R e f e r r i n g A g e n c y T O B E F I L L E D I N B Y I N T E R V I E W I N G O F F I C E R O F N . E . S . R E Q U E S T E D I N a m e of S c h o o l S c h o o l • A d d r e s s R e q u e s t e d T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m m e L e n g t h of T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m m e weeks S t a r t i n g D a t e d a y month nths year T O B E F I L L E D I N B Y E D U C A T I O N O F F I C I A L A P P R O V E D C o m m e n t s : Y e s | | N o | | C o n f i r m e d S t a r t i n g D a t e d a y month w e e k s m o n t h s year P R O G R A M M E X H W PL, PL, < 1) T U I T I O N F E E S <t> 2) T O O L A L L O W A N C E $ 3) B O O K S - S U P P L I E S A L L O W A N C E $ 4) E X A M I N A T I O N A L L O W A N C E ' $ 5) S U B S I S T E N C E A L L O W A N C E $ ( p a i d o n l y w h i l e i n training) N O T E : T h e T e c h n i c a l & V o c a t i o n a l B r a n c h o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n m u s t b e n o t i f i e d a t l e a s t 2 w e e k s i n a d v a n c e o f w h e n U . I . C . B e n e f i t s e x p i r e . 6) T R A V E L A L L O W A N C E - H o m e to S c h o o l : N o Q O n e w a y f J J R e t u r n Q B u s Q T r a i n P l a n e Q $ R e m a r k s : 7) D A I L Y T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A L L O W . ( P R O G R A M M E 6 T R A I N E E S O N L Y ) N o Q Y e s Q B y b u s \~~~~] B y t a x i Q ' " N a m e of c o m p a n y p r o v i d i n g t a x i (per month $ • (per s c h o o l - d a y ) O t h e r (Specify) . N o Q Y e s Q . N o \Z2 Y e s • • N o • . N o • Y e s • Y e s • . N o Q Y e s Q $ $ $ $ $ C O M M E N C I N G (day) (month) (year) or when U . I . C . B e n e f i t s e x p i r e , the f o l l o w i n g amount may b e p a i d for a p e r i o d not to e x c e e d t e r m i n a t i o n date of t r a i n i n g programme. $ A m o u n t to be p a i d t r a i n e e by C h i l d Welfare B r a n c h (Ward) $ A m o u n t to be p a i d t r a i n e e by S o c i a l Welfare B r a n c h $ A m o u n t to be c l a i m e d by C . W . or S . W . B . from T e c h n i c a l B r . , D e p t . of E d u c a t i o n ( P E R M O N T H ) ( P E R M O N T H ) N o | | O n e way | j R e t u r n | | B u s T r a i n Q P l a n e | | (amount) | 1 F a r e to be p a i d by t r a i n e e , who w i l l s u b m i t r e c e i p t s to (yes) T e c h n i c a l B r a n c h , Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . for r e i m b u r s e m e n t , • 1 | C h e q u e i n amount of fare to be forwarded to t r a i n e e p r i o r (yes) to t r a i n e e l e a v i n g home for s c h o o l . • • $ • $ (No) ( B u s ) (per month) ( T a x i ) (per s c h o o l - d a y ) N o t e : — T a x i c o m p a n y t o r e c e i v e a l e t t e r a u t h o r i z i n g i t t o p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t a s e t f i g u r e a n d to b i l l m o n t h l y t h e T e c h n i c a l B r a n c h , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B . C . ^ • • (No) ( Y e s ) D i r e c t o r of T e c h n i c a l & V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n or D e s i g n a t e d O f f i c e r D a t e : C O U R S E R E Q U E S T E D D A T E O F A P P L I C A T I O N P R O G R A M M E P R O V I N C E O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A APPLICATION FOR FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR TRAINING J o i n t l y F i n a n c e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t ( D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n ) a n d t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ( D e p t . o f L a b o u r ) S E C T I O N A _ , D D , . . T i , , . T h i s O R I G I N A L a n d T H R E E t y p e w r i t t e n c o p i e s t o b o f o r w a r d e d t o P e a s e P R I N T t h r o u g h o u t - _ . _ . „ „ „ ' , , . . _ r C O - O R D I N A T O R o f P R O G R A M M E 5. P E R S O N A L D A T A Mr. 1) N A M E M r s B I R T H D A T E M i s s (Surname) ( C h r i s t i a n Name(s) 2) P E R M A N E N T H O M E A D D R E S S P H O N E (Number) (Street) (City) 3) P R E S E N T A D D R E S S 4) M A R I T A L S T A T U S : Single Q . M a r r i e d W i d o w e d Q S e p a r a t e d D i v o r c e d • 5) N U M B E R A N D R E L A T I O N S H I P O F D E P E N D E N T S ( S T A T E A G E S ) E D U C A T I O N A N D T R A I N I N G ( I N C L U D I N G A P P R E N T I C E S H I P ) < o _] CL Q_ < >-CQ O LU LU CO Q c o c o JZ 1) H I G H E S T L E V E L O F F O R M A L E D U C A T I O N C O M P L E T E D Y E A R L O C A T I O N P R E V I O U S 2) V O C A T I O N A L ( C O U R S E ) Y E A R . T R A I N I N G • L E N G T H T R A I N I N G C E N T R E (Name) ( C i t y ) C o m p l e t e d — Y e s Q N o 3) G O V E R N M E N T F I N A N C E D - Y e s Q N o Q 4) T E S T I N G R E P O R T A T T A C H E D - Y e s j^j N o \ ~ \ E M P L O Y M E N T S U M M A R Y F R O M ( D A T E ) T O ( D A T E ) T Y P E O F E M P L O Y M E N T W E E K L Y W A G E c n c c r r 2) N . E . S . R E G I S T E R E D O C C U P A T I O N S 3) A P P L I C A T I O N I N L I V E F I L E S I N C E .(date) c F I N A N C I A L S T A T U S P e r s o n a l e a r n i n g s for one y e a r to date of a p p l i c a t i o n $ P e r s o n a l s a v i n g s to date of a p p l i c a t i o n U . I . C . C L A I M S T A T U S : W e e k l y A m o u n t C l a i m N u m b e r R a t e $ A u t h o r i z e d $ A m o u n t r e m a i n i n g a s of (date) $ S O C I A L A S S I S T A N C E : A m o u n t per month $ T o t a l amount for l a s t y e a r $ O T H E R I N C O M E : A m o u n t per month $ T o t a l amount for l a s t year $ 3 C. 3 I d e c l a r e t h a t t h e f o r e g o i n g i s a t r u e s t a t e m e n t o f m y f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s . S i g n a t u r e of A p p l i c a n t D a t e A P P L I C A N T R E C E I V I N G F I N A N C I A L S U P P O R T F R O M A P A R E N T , G U A R D I A N , H U S B A N D , W I F E o r o t h e r S O U R C E t o C O M P L E T E T H E F O L L O W I N G : a) O c c u p a t i o n of s u p p o r t e r R e l a t i o n s h i p of s u p p o r t e r b) M o n t h l y i n c o m e of supporter (approx.) $ A n n u a l i n c o m e of s u p p o r t e r (approx) $ c) N u m b e r of d e p e n d e n t s of s u p p o r t e r i n c l u d i n g a p p l i c a n t (state ages) d) A s s i s t a n c e o b t a i n a b l e from s u p p o r t e r d u r i n g t r a i n i n g p e r i o d e) W i l l the a p p l i c a n t be l i v i n g w i t h s u p p o r t e r d u r i n g t r a i n i n g p e r i o d ? Y e s j | N o | | C o m m e n t s : ) Office Number Discontinued Completed ... PROVINCE OF TRAINING ON THE JOB IN INDUSTRY HAS BEEN AGREED ON AS FOLLOWS: Name Age ................... Home Address , * Nature of Handicap * Name and Address of Employer Occupation to be learned .Length of training weeks months Initial rate of pay sfter training Training to start 1 9 . Period (hourly) Tot?l (weekly) ^yment to Employ-er's Share Allowance by C.V.T. Period (hourly) total (weekly) Payment to Trainee Employ-er's Share Allowance by C.V.T. Lst;..j wks 2nd.... wks 3rd ... wks 4th....wks 5th....wks 6th... .wks • Employer *rainer agrees to instruct Trainee in occupation shown above and ( 1 ) To pay premiums for Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment benefits. (2) To forward attendance and progress reports to .*.... (3) To visits at reasonable hours by accredited representatives of C.V.T. C.V.T. agrees to supply ( 1 ) Allowance as set forth above for ................ weeks (2) Part-time Technical Instruction in for ................months (3) Correspondence Course in Trainee is on probation for ....... weeks and wi l l be withdrawn i f trainee or instruction is unsatisfactory. Signed this ............ day of ............. 1 9 . . . • for Employer for C.V.T. CANADIAN VOCATIONAL TRAINING ~ TRAINING OF HANDICAPPED PERSONS T-R-2 Trainee APPENDIX F VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION O F DISABLED PERSONS AGREEMENT UNIVERSITY TRAINING - S C H E D U L E 3 CANAOA REQUEST FOR APPROVAL OIPARTMtNT O F tAIOUR No.. T O : National Co-ordinator, Civilian Rehabilitation Branch, Department of Labour, Ottawa 4. The Province of hereby requests the Federal Government to share the costs of university training for the disabled person indicated hereunder and as approved by the Training Selection Committee. Name of Person: ., Age: Address: Functional Loss: -Academic Standing: University: _ Faculty and Course: Duration of Course: Occupational Goal: .'. Estimated Cost Per. Yean Tuition Fees: „ .... Transportation and Living Expenses: -Other Expenses (specify): , T O T A L SIGNED ..... ... Director of Vocational Training Provincial Co-ordlnetor D A T E (For Vae of Federal Department ot Labour) Recommended for Approval: Approved: Civilian Rehabilitation Branch Minister of Labour Date „ „ Date Province Advised................... CR 1-7 APPENDIX G T E R M I N A T I O N O F T R A I N I N G R E P O R T N A M E P R O G R A M M E I I ( S U R N A M E ) ( C H R I S T I A N N A M E S ) 1 1 C O U R S E C O U R S E C O M P L E T E D Y E S Q N O Q D I S C O N T I N U E D | | D A T E L E F T S C H O O l N U M B E R O F M O N T H S A T T E N D E D IF C O U R S E C O M P L E T E D IS P E R S O N E M P L O Y E D A T T H I S T I M E ? Y E s Q N o Q N O T K N O W N | | IF C O U R S E D I S C O N T I N U E D G I V E R E A S O N ( P R I N C I P A L ) ( D A T E ) D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O U R C I V I L I A N R E H A B I L I T A T I O N R E H A B I L I T A T I O N R E P O R T C A N A D A Reporting Agency P L E A S E DO N O T W R I T E IN T H E B L O C K S Case No Province N o . C a s e N o . Name A d d r e s s 1. Source of Referral Location: Urban ( ) Rural ( ) ' l Marital Status. Sex Date of, Birth. ( S i n g l e , m a r r i e d , w i d o w e d , s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d ) d a y m o n t h Number of Dependents ( I n c l u d e S p o u B e ) 2. DISABILITY: Cause (Diagnosis). Functional Loss ... Date of Onset ( S p e c i f y i f a c c i d e n t , d i s e a s e or c o n g e n i t a l ) 3. EDUCATIONAL STANDING: Number of years . at'school Previous Vocational Training .*.:'.' Grade completed or matriculation or university years (Specify c o u r s e , t y p e o f s c h o o l , T . O . J . , e t c . ) 4. PRINCIPAL PREVIOUS OCCUPATION (if any). 5 . MAIN SOURCE OF INCOME AT ACCEPTANCE (Year previous to acceptance) Monthly Earnings (if any) $ "• ; *' • ' ' ' • OR •• .•• •  . '.. - -. > •• • -i -•  .. Source of Support Amount Monthly $ ( S p e c i f y i f r e l a t i v e s , p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , W . C . B . , p e n s i o n , or o t h e r s o u r c e ) " ; ; If on public assistance, state number of months ( ) 6. DISPOSAL OF CASE: Accepted ( ) Rejected ( ) If accepted please complete remaining sections (If r e j e c t e d , note r e a s o n ) 7. SERVICES PROVIDED: Counselling ( ) Psychological ( ) Occ. Therapy ( ) Medical . „ (. ) .,. Surgical ( ) Psychiatric ( ) Physiotherapy ( ) Speech Therapy ( ) Other ( ) Prosthetic. Training ... ( S p e c i f y i f l i m b , b r a c e , c h a i r , c r u t c h , e t c . ) ( S p e c i f y c o u r s e , t y p e o f s c h o o l ; " T . O . J . e t c . ) Tools or Equipment (for Employment) $ . ( S p e c i f y t y p e a n d c o s t ) * ' Referral to N.E.S. Yes ( ) No ( ) Placement by whom..... (Specify if N . K . 8 . , Rehab, office. Voluntary Agency, self, other) 8. STATUS AT CLOSURE Regular Employment ( ,) Self Employment ( ) Sheltered Employment ( ) Homebound Employment ( ) Housewife or Home maker ( ) Self Care ( ) Present Occupation Monthly Earnings $ ' If Vocational Rehabilitation or Self Care not feasible g i v e reason , Date of Acceptance day m o n t h Date of Closure.. t l *Tj U H d a y m o n t h y e a r GUIDE TO THE UNIFORM USE OF REHABILITATION REPORT FORMS CASE NO. (a) Enter over the line (Province No.) the provincial identification number as listed hereunder. 0- Newfoundland 3-New Brunswick 6-Manitoba 9-British Columbia 1- Prince Edward Island 4-Quebec 7-Saskatchewan 2- Nova Scotia 5-Ontario 8-Alberta (b) Enter the Case number over the line (Case No.) 1. Source of Referral: Indicate the name of the agency, organization or person which referred'the easel If self-referral, indicate as such. . . . . . . . Location: The location whether U R B A N or R U R A L can be checked off in the appropriate bracket. Sex: Indicate: M A L E or F E M A L E Date: Be sure to enter day, month, year of birth. Marital Status: Enter as S I N G L E , M A R R I E D , WIDOWED, S E P A R A T E D or D I V O R C E D . Number of Dependents: To include.all dependent persons, such as spouse, children, parents or relatives. If the case is that of a disabled wife supported by-her husband and the children are also supported by the husband NO dependents should be listed. Care should be exercised to exclude as dependents, children and relatives who are earning the cost of their maintenance. 2. DISABILITY ^ y C a u s e (Diagnosis): Enter here briefly the cause' of disability (congenital; accident, disease) Followed by: — the congenital.abnormality.or.deformity; . . ' — — the type of accident and-resulting injury or disability; — the name of the disease or condition (diagnosis) Functional Loss: Indicate briefly the loss of functions and limitations resulting. , '\ . * , Date of Onset: — If congenital indicate when functions became seriously impaired. — If accident, give date of accident. . . . — If disability is the result of disease give the approximate date .when'it became evident that serious impairment would result. 3. EDUCATIONAL STANDING; ~ - " -Number of Years at School: (Indicate the number of years of attendance at school. (Include*years at college o r ^ • • ' university.) • ;^ . . . . . . . Grade Completed: Indicate'the academic standing either by the grade completed," matriculation (junior or senior), or university year completed. (Faculty and Course) ; . j J Previous Vocational. Training: Provide the name and type of-the school and thename of the course. In the case of T.-O.-J. indicate the occupation. v / . . ' v \ • • . - • 4. PRINCIPAL PREVIOUS OCCUPATION: Indicate chief previous work experience if any. 5. MAIN SOURCE OF INCOME AT ACCEPTANCE: Iri'tfiis section we are concerned with the individual's income or support status when referred for rehabilitation. It should, therefore, indicate the chief source and the "" amount' o f ' f i n a n c i a l suppor t 'o r i n c o m e ' a V a c c e p t a n c e . Y.'r' .7^>;',\';r'.'...'•*• •"«' '" * "* 6.. DISPOSAL' OF CASE: (Check'off where applicable); ,If;rejected briefly state'reason.1'-' -s •' J - ; . i " ; ' 7. SERVICES PROVIDED: (Check off where applicable) 1 '_• ; ', .»•:'' .s.' .3* v> -m:,yt Counselling: Check when there has been a service relationship through which an individual has been helped in appraising himself, determining feasible goals and achieving them. . . , , ., , • ' .~! ! ; r , 03 . i . c i r Prosthetic: Specify type of prosthesis supplied * '" *" ~~ . . . - . — Training: Name the course and where given (School, T.-O.-J . , apprenticeship, etc.) • • • ' G. A : i " T o o f s or Equipment: Enter here the type and cost of tools or equipment provided to permit employment;''' •' " J , r. 8. STATUS^'At:*CLO'SURE:'(Cn'eckoff''ii«ere a p p l i c a b l e ) " ' : ' ' ' levy: 'c--: -'.alZ Present Occupation:' Indicate actual title and nature of o c c u p a t i o n ; < • -' - • - ' Vocational Rehabilitation Not Feasible: ' S t a t e ' r e a s o n l ) { * " ' " , .~'s"iD " . "'A X.' ......... •' ":"'.?'pr,'*,."! >- .V: 

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