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Industrial location planning: a means to control atmospheric pollution Buchanan, Donald Maclachlan 1965

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INDUSTRIAL LOCATION PLANNING: A MEANS TO CONTROL ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION by DONALD MACLACHLAN BUCHANAN B.A. (Honours),  University of Alberta,  1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of  COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  196^  V  In the  this  thesis  in partial  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  British  Columbia,  available  for  mission for purposes his  presenting  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and  extensive  without  of  this  thesis  my w r i t t e n  the L i b r a r y  study*  copying  may be g r a n t e d  representatives.  cation  that  of  I  this  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y shall  make i t  f u r t h e r agree thesis  for  that  for  is  understood  that  not  permission*.  Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Columbia,  or  c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  of freely per-  scholarly  by the Head o f my Department  It  of  be  by publi-  allowed  ii ABSTRACT There appears t o be a need f o r communication between community and r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s since  p l a n n e r s and a i r p o l l u t i o n  atmospheric  p o l l u t i o n has become one  the c h i e f problems o f the p r e s e n t day. fessions  have approached  i t s c o n t r o l i n unique  control of  A number o f p r o -  the s t u d y o f a i r p o l l u t i o n and  ways.  The h y p o t h e s i s i s advanced!  t h a t the c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n by a l l l e v e l s o f government i n a c o o p e r a t i v e manner, t a k i n g the a p p l i c a b l e  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , would  c a n t l y reduce p o t e n t i a l atmospheric A i r pollution existed i t was  into  not u n t i l 1273  signifi-  pollution.  from the e a r l i e s t times, but  t h a t l e g a l c o n t r o l was  recognized  as n e c e s s a r y . A f t e r the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n of acute h e a l t h  and a s e r i e s  e p i s o d e s i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y the  v a r i o u s e f f e c t s o f atmospheric covered.  account  The p h y s i c a l  planner  c o n t a m i n a t i o n were d i s has  not s u f f i c i e n t l y  r e c o g n i z e d the problem, and s h o u l d s t r i v e t o make  clean  a i r a g o a l towards which the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d i r e c t e d . I n Canada the B r i t i s h N o r t h America the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r atmospheric  Act  pollution  allocates  control  between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . n e e r i n g c o n t r o l a s p e c t s may  be g i v e n l e g a l f o r c e  e i t h e r government depending  on the p o l l u t a n t  though the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y  Engi-  by  source,  appears much b r o a d e r i n  iii scope. and  T e c h n i c a l abatement methods a r e complex and c o s t l y ,  are p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t  d e t e c t a b l e gases. s o l u t i o n s beyond required.  f o r both t h e o d o u r l e s s and  C o s t s o f r e c o v e r y may l i m i t  95#»  abatement  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o t h e r methods a r e  Performance standards  a r e an attempt t o  e n f o r c e t h e use o f such methods through m u n i c i p a l  zoning  by-laws, though t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o whether t h e y are n e c e s s a r y w i t h good g e n e r a l r e g u l a t i o n o f e m i s s i o n s . The n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l have been c h i e f l y concerned the socio-economic  w i t h i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n from  p o i n t o f view.  c o n t i n u e d t o be concerned  ( o r s t a t e ) governments  L o c a l government has  with p h y s i c a l planning  through  z o n i n g which both p r o t e c t s r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a and guides  i n d u s t r i a l growth.  T h i s power d e r i v e s from the  p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s i n Canada, and n o t from c o u r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the e x t e n t o f community power as i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A i r z o n i n g i s an attempt t o employ meteoro l o g i c a l d a t a i n l a r g e r a r e a s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t urban complexes themselves have a tremendous e f f e c t on c l i m a t e , and t h a t many f a c t o r s have t o be q u a n t i f i e d and a s s e s s e d . D e t a i l e d knowledge o f a r e a m i c r o c l i m a t e s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be most important The illustrate pollution.  i n a i r zoning d e c i s i o n s .  m e t r o p o l i t a n areas o f L o s Angeles the approach advocated Los Angeles  to control  and Edmonton atmospheric  has n o t y e t e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d  iv i t s a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l  admini-  s t r a t i o n s , the county b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e former and 70 d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e l a t t e r .  I n Edmonton  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s have been p a r t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , but i n the f i e l d o f major r e z o n i n g d e c i s i o n s no l i a i s o n An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s  exists.  by means o f a q u a n t i -  f i a b l e method, depending on wind d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e variables, reveals that locating a i r pollutant i n d u s t r i e s i n accordance w i t h m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s c o u l d c a n t l y lower p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s .  signifi-  The h y p o t h e s i s  i s d e f i c i e n t i n t h a t i t does n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e complementary need f o r e n g i n e e r i n g abatement c o n t r o l s . Many o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d ! i n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n planning besides a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , the problem r e a l l y b e i n g t h a t i t i s n o t u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as a f a c t o r . assessed for  The v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the h y p o t h e s i s a r e  i n order t o formulate  p o l i c y recommendations  r e s e a r c h , l e g i s l a t i o n , and c o n t r o l measures. F e d e r a l  government l e a d e r s h i p m a n i f e s t e d  through a Canada A i r  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t i s advocated, w i t h  accompanying  p r o v i n c i a l A c t s making f o r a t o t a l c o o p e r a t i v e The  approach.  g o a l o f c l e a n a i r would, t h e r e f o r e , be g i v e n  on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s .  substance  X  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish  t o thank  Mr. Prank Marlyn,  Executive  D i r e c t o r o f the Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me t o t h e t o p i c and p r o v i d i n g me w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p i t i n t o t h i s t h e s i s . My thanks are a l s o due t o Dr. K e v i n J . Cross who a d v i s e d me during the actual w r i t i n g .  Furthermore  I would  like  t o thank everyone who s u p p l i e d me w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n , a d v i c e and a i d a t t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n , w i t h o u t whom a c o h e r e n t and comprehensive study would not have been p o s s i b l e .  vi TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  II.  PAGE PLANNING AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Introduction  1  The Problem  2  The P r o f e s s i o n a l I n t e r e s t s  6  The P l a n n e r ' s P o i n t o f View  12  Summary  14-  THE REASONS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Introduction  16  History of A i r Pollution Control  16  The E f f e c t s o f A i r P o l l u t i o n  19  Implications  26  f o r Planning  Summary III.  IV.  29  THE METHODS OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Introduction  30  The L e g i s l a t i v e Framework  30  E n g i n e e r i n g Abatement Methods  36  Performance Standards  48  Summary  53  THE LOCATIONAL CONTROL OF INDUSTRY Introduction  55  R o l e o f t h e S e n i o r Governments  55  Role o f L o c a l Governments  60  vii CHAPTER  V.  PAGE L o c a t i o n o f Industry and Source C o n t r o l ..  66  Summary  75  .  AREA SOURCE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Introduction  77  A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n Los Angeles .....  77  A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n Edmonton  82  An I n q u i r y i n t o the E f f e c t s o f A i r 94  Zoning  100  Summary VI.  POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction  102  I n d u s t r i a l Location Factors  102  Assessment  106  o f the Hypothesis  P o l i c y Recommendations Implementation Summary  109 I l l 117  BIBLIOGRAPHY  120  APPENDIX  129  viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II. III.  PAGE Urban C l i m a t e  71  Wind F r e q u e n c i e s a t D e t r o i t  74-  A i r P o l l u t i o n E m i s s i o n L e v e l s a t Los Angeles  IV.  79  A i r P o l l u t i o n Emission Levels at Edmonton  91  L I S T OP I L L U S T R A T I O N S ILLUSTRATION  FOLLOWING PAGE  I.  D i f f e r e n t Lapse Conditions  69  II.  I n q u i r y Zoning Assumptions  96  Case I —  98  III. IV.  Case I I —  Potential Pollution Levels Potential Pollution Levels  .... 99  1 CHAPTER I PLANNING AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL I.  INTRODUCTION  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f communities and r e g i o n s i n s p a t i a l terms r e q u i r e s the w i d e s t  degree o f knowledge  p o s s i b l e on t h e p a r t o f p l a n n e r s . Today t h e r e s h o u l d be agreement t h a t " a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s a v i t a l in  community p l a n n i n g ^ s o M  t h a t i t i s important  factor  t h a t the  p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r p a r t i c u l a r l y be concerned and knowl e d g e a b l e about the s u b j e c t . "There has been t o o l i t t l e communication between a i r p o l l u t i o n e x p e r t s and town planners."  2  John E v e l y n produced Fumifugium i n 1651 documenting t h e f a c t t h a t London had f i r s t  s u f f e r e d from  a t m o s p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n "as e a r l y as  1273".  growth o f p o p u l a t i o n s  i n metropolitan  concentrated  With the  and t h e g r e a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, p a r t i c u l a r l y 1850, a i r p o l l u t i o n has become a m a t t e r o f r e a l  areas after  concern.  Lee S c h r e i b e i s e t . a l . , " A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n Urban P l a n n i n g " . American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , L I ( F e b r u a r y , 1961), p. 174.  2 M. S c r i v e n e r , "The Nuisance t h a t K i l l s " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, X I I I ( S p r i n g , 1963), p. 19. 3 •%T. E v e l y n , Fumifugium (London: N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r C l e a n A i r , 1961), p. 3.  2 I n 196J C i v i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  l i s t e d 113 s t e p s t o  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and o u t l i n e d p l a n n i n g Dr.  A.P. Bernhart s t a t e d  research  needs.  that  P r o p e r p l a n n i n g must now be employed so t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d a i r p o l l u t i o n cannot o c c u r . I n d u s t r i e s , i d e a l l y , s h o u l d be placed, where t h e i r smokes a r e blown o r d r i f t o v e r t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . Communit i e s s h o u l d d e v e l o p an awareness o f a i r p o l l u t i o n ( s i c ) as p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . 4 The  community p l a n n e r has always been aware t o ai  c e r t a i n extent  that i n d u s t r y should  be l o c a t e d i n c e r t a i n  a r e a s so as t o minimize n u i s a n c e , though few a u t h o r i t i e s have s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l w i t h the p l a n n i n g  function.  I t should  be r e c o g n i z e d  that  " i n d u s t r i a l s o u r c e s a r e e x t r e m e l y important b u t a r e o n l y p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l problem."^ II.  THE PROBLEM  A i r p o l l u t i o n may be examined from many p o i n t s o f view.  The adverse e f f e c t s o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n upon  human h e a l t h , a g r i c u l t u r e and p r o p e r t y , been e x t e n s i v e l y documented.  f o r example, have  Chemical a n a l y s i s o f p o l l u -  t a n t s and t h e i r abatement through source c o n t r o l s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h i n the realm o f the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s  'Civic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  also.  XV (September, 1963), p. 51.  'Lee S c h r e i b e i s e t . a l , , op. c i t . , p. 175.  3  C o n t r o l o f source l o c a t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d , another abatement t e c h n i q u e , and i t i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t the community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r may c o n t r i b u t e . The  s o u r c e s o f atmospheric  p o l l u t i o n a r e numerouss  though t h r e e a r e o f prime i m p o r t a n c e — t h e bustion  engine , garbage and. o t h e r  i n d u s t r i a l processes.  i n t e r n a l com-  i n c i n e r a t i o n , and  The d e c l i n e i n t h e use o f c o a l f o r  r e s i d e n t i a l h e a t i n g and r a i l w a y purposes has s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed t h e n a t u r e o f t h e problem. o f i n c i n e r a t i o n and automobile  The t e c h n i c a l  e m i s s i o n s i s now  control  possible  w h i l e c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r i a l e m i s s i o n s i s uneconomic beyond a certain level.  I t i s the i n t e n t i o n  t o e x p l o r e the  c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y as a method o f a i r p o l l u t i o n abatement, T h i s type o f c o n t r o l would be i n t e r governmental  i n n a t u r e so t h a t a l l l e v e l s o f government  would be i n v o l v e d . The H y p o t h e s i s . I n o r d e r t o f o c u s the p o i n t o f view more c l o s e l y i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d here t h a t t h e c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n by a l l l e v e l s o f government i n a c o o p e r a t i v e manner, t a k i n g i n t o account the a p p l i c a b l e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , would s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce tial  atmospheric  pollution.  poten-  I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t i n the;  l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y many o t h e r f a c t o r s may be taken  into  c o n s i d e r a t i o n b o t h from t h e community and i n d u s t r y viewp o i n t s . However, i n t h i s approach  they w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  4 secondary t o the a i r p o l l u t i o n e f f e c t s .  The v a l i d i t y o f  t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s reviewed i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r . The Approach.  The statement o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s has  g i v e n t h e p o i n t o f view t o be pursued i n t h e whole s t u d y . In t h e remainder o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h e v a r i o u s  professions  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e a i r p o l l u t i o n problem a r e d e s c r i b e d .  The unique r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r i n  i n d u s t r i a l source l o c a t i o n i s a l s o  emphasized.  I n Chapter I I the e f f e c t s o f atmospheric c o n t a m i n a t i o n a r e documented as the r a t i o n a l e f o r c o n t r o l .  The  h i s t o r y o f the problem i l l u s t r a t e s t h e changing n a t u r e o f i t s e f f e c t s and abatement. Human h e a l t h , a n i m a l s , p l a n t s , p r o p e r t y and o t h e r a s p e c t s a r e a f f e c t e d , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t . The methods employed  i n t h e c o n t r o l o f atmospheric  p o l l u t i o n a r e o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I . Implementation o f any s o l u t i o n s r e q u i r e s knowledge o f l e g i s l a t i v e dictions.  juris-  Abatement t e c h n i q u e s a r e examined and t h e i r  l i m i t a t i o n s made known i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e l o c a t i o n a l approach.  Performance  standards i n c o r -  porated i n t o zoning r e g u l a t i o n s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the abatement methods, t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s a l s o b e i n g presented. The c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 17.  The ends and means o f government i n such  5 c o n t r o l a r e o u t l i n e d ; w i t h the purpose o f i l l u s t r a t i n g the^ use o f l o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s pheric pollution.  i n t h e abatement o f atmos-  The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l background t o  i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g as a means o f such  control  i s then documented. I n Chapter V two m e t r o p o l i t a n areas a r e examined, t o show t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f source  abatement and l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  L o s Angeles,  C a l i f o r n i a and Edmonton, A l b e r t a a r e t h e two urban complexes of quite d i f f e r e n t  s i z e which a r e documented.  An  i n q u i r y i s then made i n t o the e f f e c t s o f a i r z o n i n g on p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s , a model i n v o l v i n g wind quency and d i s t a n c e t o i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s b e i n g The  fre-  employed.  c o n t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n planning i s  t h e r e f o r e measured. I n Chapter  VI, before analyzing the hypothesis,  other i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s are described i n order t o put atmospheric  pollution control i n perspective.  A f t e r t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s examined c e r t a i n p o l i c y recommendations a r e p r e s e n t e d implementation  and then suggested  are o u t l i n e d .  methods o f  The purpose i s t o use the  p r e v i o u s l y documented m a t e r i a l i n f o r m u l a t i n g p r o p o s a l s for future action.  6  III.  THE  PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS  Many p r o f e s s i o n s atmospheric p o l l u t i o n .  are concerned: w i t h the The  problems^of  e d i t o r s o f the A i r P o l l u t i o n  Handbook s t a t e t h a t " I t i s sometimes hard t o remember t h a t r e m e d i a l a c t i o n on any engineers,  g i v e n problem may  meteorologists,  require  chemists,  plant physiologists, biologists?  6 and  others."  There i s no doubt t h a t the community  r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r must r e l y on the work o f o t h e r s great  extent  in this field,  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y nature.  However, he s h o u l d  problem, the v a r i a b l e s , and  for  solution.  professions w i l l Chemistry.  y s i s o f the a i r and i n the  the  be  The the  be aware o f  p o t e n t i a l techniques  v i e w p o i n t s o f the v a r i o u s  now  a  s i n c e i t i s o f such a complex  the  The  to  and  contributory  described. chemist i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the definition  o f what i s  anal-  contained  ambient o r s u r r o u n d i n g atmosphere. Jacobs says,  for  example, t h a t methods o f a i r a n a l y s i s are fundamental i n the c o n t r o l o f a i r p o l l u t i o n . With the a i d o f . . . o b j e c t i v e a n a l y t i c a l methods, t e s t s ; and: s t u d i e s f o r the d e t e c t i o n , e l i m i n a t i o n , and c o n t r o l o f smoke, gases, fumes, odors and o t h e r p o l l u t a n t s can be made. 7  P.L. M a g i l l e t . a l . , ( e d . ) , A i r P o l l u t i o n Handbook York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1956), p. i x . 7 M.B. Jacobs, The Chemical A n a l y s i s o f A i r P o l l u t a n t s (New York: I n t e r s c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 1. (New  7 The chemist s t u d i e s the c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the atmosphere be they p a r t o f n a t u r a l o r contaminated a i r . He  compares  the s o - c a l l e d n a t u r a l atmospheric c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h t h a t o f t h e p o l l u t e d atmosphere i n o r d e r t o "understand what man  has added".® He i s a l s o concerned w i t h the r e a c t i o n s which take  p l a c e i n the atmosphere between the v a r i o u s c o n s t i t u e n t s . The t h e o r y developed t o e x p l a i n smog f o r m a t i o n o v e r Los Angeles i s an example o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c h e m i s t r y t o the s t u d y o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n .  The r o l e o f the a u t o -  mobile i n the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem was  discovered! i n t h i s  way. Meteorology.  The s c i e n c e o f weather and  climate  i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o t h a t o f p h y s i c s . S i n c e the atmosphere i s the medium i n which the v a r i o u s p o l l u t a n t s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d , the a i r p o l l u t i o n m e t e o r o l o g i s t i s a  fundamental  researcher. M i c r o m e t e o r o l o g y d e a l s w i t h s m a l l a r e a s and w i t h the p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s c r e a t i n g t h e i r unique  character,  m i c r o c l i m a t o l o g y b e i n g concerned w i t h the "average" weat h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s e areas i n a p a r t i c u l a r  epoch.  R.B. Cadle and P.L. M a g i l l , "Chemistry o f Contami n a t e d Atmospheres", A i r P o l l u t i o n Handbook (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1956), p. 3, 2.  8 E s s e n t i a l l y a i r p o l l u t i o n c l i m a t o l o g y i s p a r t o f the o v e r all  s t u d y o f m i c r o c l i m a t o l o g y . The p r e p a r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s  d i f f u s i o n models has been t h e g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e meteorologist.  Munn has d e s c r i b e d i t t h i s way:  The e s s e n t i a l problem f a c i n g t h e a i r p o l l u t i o n m e t e o r o l o g i s t can be put v e r y s i m p l y . Given the e m i s s i o n s t r e n g t h Q from a s t a c k h e i g h t h, c a l c u l a t e the r e s u l t i n g ground l e v e l c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n space and time. 9 An i n t i m a t e knowledge o f t h e m i c r o c l i m a t o l o g y  o f an a r e a  i s an u n d e r l y i n g p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r such a m e t e o r o l o g i c a l study. F a i t h has d e s c r i b e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f meteoro l o g y i n s i m p l e r terms: We cannot do much about the weather, b u t we can understand how i t a f f e c t s t h e a i r p o l l u t i o n problem i f we have a knowledge o f meteorology, which i s t h a t b r a n c h o f p h y s i c s t h a t t r e a t s o f t h e atmosphere a n d i t s phenomena. 10 He l i s t e d t h e c h i e f a r e a s i n which meteorology c o n t r i b u t e s ;  The  1. 2. 3. 4-.  Determination o f allowable emission r a t e s . P l a n n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g a i r p o l l u t i o n surveys:. Stack d e s i g n . Plant-site selection.  3.  Prediction of areal pollution potentials.  importance o f meteorology i n a i r p o l l u t i o n  study  cannot be o v e r s t r e s s e d . -\R.E. Munn, Some B a s i c Concepts o f A i r P o l l u t i o n M e t e o r o l o g y (Toronto! Dept. o f T r a n s p o r t , I960), p. 1.  10 W.L. P a i t h , A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l (New York: John. W i l e y and Sons, 1959J, p. 30.  9 Biology.  Those d i s c i p l i n e s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s t u d y  o f p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s i s p u r s u e d may  a l s o be i n v o l v e d l w i t h  a i r p o l l u t i o n problems. B o t a n i s t s , z o o l o g i s t s , alists, all  agricultur-  n a t u r a l i s t s and o t h e r s a r e i n c l u d e d s i n c e t h e y a r e  concerned w i t h the e f f e c t s of atmospheric contaminants. Here i s an example o f s u c h s t u d y : In the case of c a t t l e , the hazard o b v i o u s l y i s not the r e s u l t of i n h a l i n g the p o l l u t e d ! a i r , but r a t h e r t h e i n g e s t i o n o f f o r a g e w h i c h h a s become c o n t a m i n a t e d w i t h f l u o r i n e from the a i r . 11  The  biologist  i s concerned! w i t h the causes, the  and t o l e r a n c e l e v e l s .  effects,  He d e s i r e s t o d i s c o v e r t h e  stances which are causing the i l l  sub-  e f f e c t s and t o d e t e r m i n e  the l e v e l a t which the substance has d e l e t e r i o u s  ramifi-  cations. Ah example o f t h e t y p e o f s t u d y on w h i c h w o u l d be i n v o l v e d l was The  found at T r a i l ,  l e a d - z i n c s m e l t e r was  British  e n l a r g e d i n 1925  biologists Columbia.  and  subse-  q u e n t l y i t s e f f l u e n t damaged " f a r m a n d f o r e s t l a n d s i n 12 n o r t h e r n Stevens County, Washington". was  the substance causing the  Sulphur dioxide  problem.  • P . H . P h i l l i p s , "The E f f e c t s o f A i r P o l l u t a n t s on F a r m A n i m a l s " , A i r P o l l u t i o n H a n d b o o k (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1956)7~p. 8 , 1. LA  -^M. K a t z , " C i t y P l a n n i n g , I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n " , A i r P o l l u t i o n H a n d b o o k (New Y o r k : H i l l , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 , 35.  Plant McGraw-  10 Medicine. specialist  The m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h e r i s u s u a l l y a  i n p u b l i c h e a l t h i f he i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g  e f f e c t s o f atmospheric  contamination.  One  o f the  the chief  r e a s o n s f o r c o n t r o l i s evidenced by the e f f e c t s o f a i r p o l l u t i o n on human h e a l t h , both o v e r the s h o r t and l o n g term p e r i o d . b r e a t h e s may centration  The m a t e r i a l s i n the atmosphere which  man  e f f e c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes w i t h h i g h conor  long  exposure.  There  are  also  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f smoke and odour t o c o n s i d e r . The d e f i n i t i o n o f s a f e and t o l e r a b l e ambient a i r , from the p u b l i c h e a l t h v i e w p o i n t , i s one o f the prime goals of the  medical  researcher.  Certain  compounds s h o u l d not be disowned but may  extraneous  even a i d i n the u  p r o v i s i o n o f more d e s i r a b l e l i v i n g  conditions;  others  cause a h i g h m o r b i d i t y r a t e . The  importance  o f a i r t o h e a l t h has been put  r a t h e r s u c c i n c t l y by J.R. G o l d s m i t h : The average a d u l t male r e q u i r e s about 3 0 l b . o f a i r each day compared w i t h about 2 3/4 l b . o f f o o d and about 4- 1/2 l b . o f water. Compared, w i t h the other n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e , o b l i g a t o r y continuous consumption i s a unique p r o p e r t y o f a i r . The i n s e n s i b l e , i n t i m a t e i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f a i r which c o u r s e s i n and out from the l u n g s g i v e s t o a i r p o l l u t i o n i t s e s s e n t i a l importance. I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t man can l i v e f o r 5 weeks w i t h o u t  • ^ J . J . P h a i r , "The E p i d e m i o l o g y o f A i r P o l l u t i o n " , A i r P o l l u t i o n Handbook (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 9 5 6 ) , P. 7 , 3 .  f o o d , f o r 5 days without water, but f o r o n l y 5 minutes without a i r . A i r i s e s s e n t i a l t o the senses o f s i g h t , s m e l l and h e a r i n g , and i t s p o l l u t i o n a s s a u l t s the f i r s t two o f t h e s e . 14 The his  p h y s i c i a n has  always concerned h i m s e l f  p a t i e n t ' s environment. The  r e v o l u t i o n was because o f  an u n h e a l t h y  town o f the e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l  p h y s i c a l environment not  i t s l a c k o f sewage  c l e a n l i n e s s , good housing  with  and  facilities,  only  hospitals,  so on but a l s o because o f  the smoky atmosphere which produced major r e s p i r a t o r y infections.  Good h e a l t h has been d e f i n e d as ai s t a t e o f  complete p h y s i c a l , mental, and  s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g and  not  15 merely the absence o f d i s e a s e o r i n f i r m i t y . ^ The  medical  d o c t o r must go beyond mere d i a g n o s i s and treatment  today  and w r e s t l e w i t h the causes themselves i n a p r e v e n t i v e approach. Engineering. t i o n and  The  instrumentation f o r data  abatement i s the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the  V a r i o u s e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i a l t i e s may s a n i t a r y , mechanical,  be  m e t a l l u r g i c a l and  collec-  engineer.  required—chemical, others.  In the i n c r e a s i n g l y t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d world today the e n g i n e e r  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important.  The  know-  "J.R. Goldsmith, " E f f e c t s o f A i r P o l l u t i o n on Humans", A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I ) , A.C. S t e r n , ed. (New York: Academic P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 3 3 6 . XM  1 5  Ibid.  of  12 l e d g e o f process and d e s i g n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  significant  s i n c e , f o r example, the abatement o f a p o l l u t i o n source t o a t o l e r a b l e l e v e l c a n n e a r l y always be accomplished it  may be c o s t l y .  though  The economic l i m i t a t i o n s t o e n g i n e e r i n g  i n n o v a t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d by S i l v e r m a n : We may c o n s i d e r o u r needs i n e n g i n e e r i n g c o n t r o l as d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o s e v e r a l b a s i c a r e a s . The a r e a which i s perhaps t h e most important i s economics. Most o f t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s impinge upon t h i s a r e a and g must t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r c o s t f a c t o r s as paramount. The  c o n t r o l o f a i r p o l l u t i o n r e l i e s h e a v i l y on  e n g i n e e r i n g knowledge drawn from t h e o r y and d a t a a l r e a d y collected.  The s t a f f o f any a i r p o l l u t i o n  a u t h o r i t y i s l a r g e l y composed o f e n g i n e e r i n g  control specialists  who i n t u r n r e l y on r e s e a r c h e r s i n many f i e l d s . IV. The essentially  THE PLANNER'S POINT OP VIEW  community and r e g i o n a l o r p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r i s directed  i n h i s approach  t o t h e proper  a l l o c a t i o n o f space k e e p i n g i n mind t h e s o c i a l  and!  economic o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e community t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s r e s o u r c e s . The p l a n n e r ' s c l i e n t i s u s u a l l y " t h e m u n i c i p a l 17  l e g i s l a t i v e body" '' though o t h e r l e v e l s o f government and S i l v e r m a n , " E n g i n e e r i n g Research and D e v e l opment i n A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l " , Problems and C o n t r o l o f A i r P o l l u t i o n , F.S. M a l l e t t e , e d . (New York: Reinhold, 1 9 5 5 ; , p. 42. 17 ' T . J . Kent, The Urban G e n e r a l P l a n (San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g , 1954;, p. 2. "  13 even the p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f t e n u t i l i z e h i s s e r v i c e s . Lewis Keeble has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t p l a n n i n g both s o c i a l and  economic aims" and  "has  t h a t " i t r e s u l t s i n a* 18  p h y s i c a l environment which conduces t o h e a l t h F r a n c e s H e r r i n g says t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g  [sic]". agency  s h o u l d not be the a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y , but goes on t o s t a t e t h a t The p l a n n e r ' s problem i s one o f l o c a t i n g r e s i dences, i n d u s t r i e s and a g r i c u l t u r e , p a r k s , r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , and freeways so as t o minimize c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g normal a r e a l growth. 19 Katherine  N. G a b b e l l puts the p o i n t o f view quite:;  simply: A' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency would determine a t l e a s t the broad o u t l i n e s f o r l a n d use i n the r e g i o n , w i t h a i r p o l l u t i o n e f f e c t s as one o f i t s c r i t e r i a of judgement. 20 I n the Edmonton area; the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency has done t h i s f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a and  i s now  e s t a b l i s h i n g the  21 p l a n s f o r s e c t o r s beyond.  The  regional  plan  L. Keeble, Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g E s t a t e s Gazette L t d . , 1959), p. 9.  for  the  (London:  ^F.W. H e r r i n g , " E f f e c t s o f A i r P o l l u t i o n on Urban P l a n n i n g and Development", P r o c e e d i n g s , N a t i o n a l Conference on A i r P o l l u t i o n (Washington! U.S. P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 1 9 5 . 1  20  K.N. G a b b e l l , C l e a r i n g the A i r , a R e g i o n a l C h a l l e n g e ( P h i l a d e l p h i a ! P e n j e r d e l , 1963.), p. 14. % d m o n t o n R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Background. I n f o r m a t i o n — F o r t Saskatchewan P a r t ^ P r e l i m i n a r y R e g i o n a l P l a n (Edmonton: The Commission, 1964}, p. 1. 2  Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s a s i m i l a r i n s t r u m e n t , 22 though s t i l l  at the proposal stage.  A' p l a n i s a n a t t e m p t t o a r r i v e a t c e r t a i n one  o f which would  p r e s u m a b l y be p u r e a i r . One  goals— romantic  v i e w was p r o p o s e d i n 1896: My i d e a l c i t y o f L e e d s — a s m o k e l e s s a t m o s p h e r e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s u n when he d i d s h i n e , w o u l d s h i n e w i t h h i s f u l l b r i l l i a n c y , wide s t r e e t s i n t e r r u p t e d by open s p a c e s w i t h g r e e n t u r f , t r e e s , and f l o w e r b e d s , a n d a l i t t l e o r n a m e n t a l r e l i e f t o t h e deadt monotony o f o u r b r i c k w a l l s . 23 I n s h o r t , t h e p l a n n e r must c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e f u t u r e i n spatial  t e r m s . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s he m u s t g a i n k n o w l e d g e  from o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s pollution.  i n c l u d i n g t h o s e f o c u s i n g on a i r  His plans should r e f l e c t both  politically  a c c e p t e d : g o a l s and t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p e r s o n s f o r whom he i s p l a n n i n g , t h e s p a t i a l l a t e d u p o n t h e b a s i s o f maximum V. There  proposals being  formu-  information.  SUMMARY  a p p e a r s t o be a l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n  t h e p l a n n e r and a i r p o l l u t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s , p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n h a s become one  though  atmos-  o f the c h i e f problems  of  L o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Chance; a n d C h a l l e n g e (New W e s t m i n s t e r : The B o a r d , 1963). -M.B. C o h e n , "The A i r o f T o w n s " , S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c e l l a n e o u s C o l l e c t i o n s (Washington: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e , 1896}, p. 3 .  15 the p r e s e n t day.  I t i s hypothesized  here t h a t the p l a n n e r  can c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the r e d u c t i o n o f a i r p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s by l o c a t i n g i n d u s t r y a c c o r d i n g t o a i r pollution  control  c r i t e r i a and by e n l i s t i n g the cooper-  a t i o n o f a l l l e v e l s o f government. meteorologist, b i o l o g i s t , medical  The  chemist,  r e s e a r c h e r , and  engineer  have a l l approached a i r p o l l u t i o n study i n a unique manner.  The p l a n n e r s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h  pure a i r as a g o a l  t o be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n s p a t i a l terms, u t i l i z i n g a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n and documentation c o n t r i b u t e d by specialists.  these  16  CHAPTER I I THE REASONS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL I.  INTRODUCTION  The n e c e s s i t y f o r the r e g u l a t i o n o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n can be e x p l a i n e d by i t s h i s t o r y and the nature of i t s e f f e c t s . The concept o f pure u n p o l l u t e d a i r has long been o f dubious v a l i d i t y . Contamination by f i r e , dust storms and so on has been present "even before our human ancestors became organized i n f i x e d communities" However, i t has been o n l y s i n c e communities of Man have? become i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and urbanized t h a t acute l e v e l s o f a i r contamination have been approached.  The purpose here  i s t o o u t l i n e the reasons f o r c o n t r o l s which have evolved, and t o o u t l i n e the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n terms of the p h y s i c a l planning o f the community and r e g i o n . II.  HISTORY OP AIR POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL  Origins.  Most r e s e a r c h e r s have pointed t o e a r l y  London as the f i r s t example o f the a i r p o l l u t i o n t h r e a t . The f i r s t l e g a l c o n t r o l was passed i n 1273 " r e g u l a t i n g the  use o f c o a l because i t gave o f f a b l a c k , sooty smoke  *L.A. Chambers, " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and E x t e n t of A i r P o l l u t i o n Problems", A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I ) , A.C. S t e r n , ed. (New York: Academic P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 3.  17 considered i n j u r i o u s to health."  p  Again i n 1306 Edward I  prohibited the use of sea coal f o r the same reason, v i o l a t o r s to be condemned and executed.  Despite t h i s  f a c t the "decree seems to have had l i t t l e effect"' ' and the; 4  necessity f o r coal as a manufacturing f u e l p e r s i s t e d  (woodi  and peat being used domestically). By the 1600's the use of coal as a domestic f u e l was made necessary by the increasing price of wood. The;; indictment of London's smoke, Fumifugium, has already been r e f e r r e d to above as the f i r s t published! work on the subject.  John Evelyn was the only serious thinker about  the " e v i l " u n t i l the nineteenth century. He was not merely a n e g a t i v i s t , but also f o r clean a i r , green trees and a* healthy environment. He made concrete proposals f o r source relocation: I propose therefore by an Act of t h i s present parliarment, t h i s i n f e r n a l nuisance be reformed!; enjoyning that a l l those Works be removed f i v e or s i x miles from London below the River Thames. 5  2 K.B. Duke, " A i r P o l l u t i o n : An Increasing Menace to C i t i e s " , Tennessee Planner (October, 1957), p. 56.  3  -'S.M. Rogers, " A i r P o l l u t i o n Control L e g i s l a t i o n " , A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I I ) , A.C. Stern, ed., op. c i t . , p. 429. ^ A i . Marsh, Smoke (London: Paber and Paber, 1947), p. 21. 5  -M. Evelyn, Pumifugium (London: National Society f o r Clean A i r , 1961), p. 30.  18 He a l s o suggested t h a t i t was  a problem  international i n  scope, r e f e r r i n g t o the i n j u r y o f F r e n c h "Vines i n f l o w e r " by "Smoakes d r i v e n from our M a r i t i m e C o a s t s " . Growth o f Problem.  There was  a rapid increase i n  smoke d e n s i t y t h r o u g h the 150 y e a r s a f t e r E v e l y n ' s  expose:  Up t o now the smoke problem had been l o c a l and r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , but the dark age was b e g i n n i n g , and a deeper gloom than had e v e r been dreamed o f by E v e l y n was t o c o v e r the f a c e o f B r i t a i n . With the coming o f the steam engine a r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p ment o c c u r r e d ! i n the means o f t r a n s l a t i n g the energy o f c o a l i n t o power. 7 I n Lewis Mumford's t e r m i n o l o g y the f i r s t mark o f p a l e o t e c h n i c i n d u s t r y was the p o l l u t i o n o f the a i r . However, it  became more t h a n j u s t a c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f the atmosphere  by smoke: C h l o r i n e , ammonia, carbon monoxide, p h o s p h o r i c a c i d , f l u o r i n e , methane, not t o add a l o n g l i s t o f some two hundred c a n c e r - p r o d u c i n g c h e m i c a l s , pervaded the atmosphere and sapped v i t a l i t y ; o f t e n i n s t a g n a n t l e t h a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g the i n c i d e n c e o f b r o n c h i t i s and pneumonia, c a u s i n g widespread d e a t h . Q  The term smog, d e r i v e d from smoke and f o g , was  b e i n g used!  commonly i n Great B r i t a i n b e f o r e World War  "Coketown"  I.  became the symbol o f i n d u s t r y i n g r e y , d i r t y brown and black tones.  I n the l a s t c e n t u r y the n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l  E v e l y n , op. c i t . , p. 30.  7  'Marsh, op. c i t . ,  p. 550.  o  L. Mumford, The C i t y i n H i s t o r y (New H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, 1961), p. 467.  York:  atmospheric e m i s s i o n s has changed, the p o l l u t i o n  problem  becoming more s e v e r e i n the p r o c e s s . The Automobile.  Ah example o f the change t h a t  t a k e n p l a c e i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has been the  has  intro-  Q  d u c t i o n o f i n t e r n a l combustion  engine..  Ingredients of  the automobile exhaust r e a c t w i t h each o t h e r i n s t r o n g s u n l i g h t t o c r e a t e an e y e - i r r i t a t i n g "smog". i s a misnomer s i n c e no f o g i s p r e s e n t . )  The  (The  term  chief  i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h i s mix  are n i t r o g e n d i o x i d e and  o l o f e n i c hydrocarbons.  The former i s c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t  o f a l l combustion  the  operations a f t e r several reactions.  The  n i t r o g e n combines w i t h oxygen t o form n i t r i c o x i d e which i n t u r n combines w i t h oxygen t o form n i t r o g e n d i o x i d e . Hydrocarbons,  on the o t h e r hand, are e m i t t e d as unburned  o r p a r t i a l l y burned g a s o l i n e from the exhaust  process  b e i n g formed  The  w i t h i n the combustion  o f these p o l l u t a n t s and o t h e r s may  engine. ^ 1  effects  be d i v e r s e i n n a t u r e ,  but g i v e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the needs f o r e f f e c t i v e controls. III. W.L.  THE EFFECTS OF AIR  POLLUTION  F a i t h has a p t l y s t a t e d t h a t an " a i r p o l l u t i o n  q ^ S o c i e t y o f Automotive E n g i n e e r s , V e h i c l e E m i s s i o n s (New York: The S o c i e t y , 1964), pp. 1-6. " 10 A i r P o l l u t i o n F o u n d a t i o n , A i r P o l l u t i o n and Smog (San Marino, C a l i f . : The F o u n d a t i o n , I 9 6 0 ) .  20 p r o b l e m a r i s e s when t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n interferes with the well-being one  might c a l l  vegetation  o f people." ^" 1  a s i t u a t i o n problematic  are affected also.  of these  However,  when p r o p e r t y  or  The e f f e c t s o f a t m o s p h e r i c  c o n t a m i n a t i o n o n human h e a l t h , v e g e t a t i o n , property,  substances  animal  life,  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e o u t l i n e d below.  Health  Effects.  The  effects  upon  health  of  a t m o s p h e r i c p o l l u t a n t s have r e a c h e d the extremes o f c h r o n i c illness  and even d e a t h .  F o r some o f t h e b a c t e r i a l a n d v i r a l d i s e a s e s a n d f o r some o f t h e a l l e r g i c c o n d i t i o n s t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e a i r i s a c a r r i e r o f t h e e t e o l o g i c a l agent i s i n c o n trovertible. 12 H o w e v e r , a c t u a l p o l l u t a n t s , t h e i r e f f e c t s when p r e s e n t i n the  a i r and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o d i s e a s e  debated.  I t i s evident  constituents  are s t i l l  being  t h a t any imbalance i n t h e n a t u r a l  o f t h e a i r may l e a d t o i n j u r y o f h e a l t h .  "There i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t d e l e t e r i o u s p h y s i c a l and mental  e f f e c t s r e s u l t from a i r p o l l u t a n t s , t h e i r i n t e r - r e a c t i o n s and d u r a t i o n . "  ^  concentrations,  Small concentrations  of  "^W.L. P a i t h , A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 1. 12 World Health Organization, A i r P o l l u t i o n (Geneva: The O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1 5 9 . •^M.C. W o h l e r s , " A i r P o l l u t a n t s a n d t h e i r E f f e c t s " , (San F r a n c i s c o : S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ) , p. 5. (mimeographed).  some substances may  due  considerable injury.  to t h e i r chemical nature  cause  S i n c e the s o u r c e s a r e widespread  and:  m i s c e l l a n e o u s i n t h e i r n a t u r e t h e r e remains much r e s e a r c h to  be accomplished  i n this  field.  V a r i o u s acute e p i s o d e s have been known t o occur i n t h i s century.  The Meuse V a l l e y i n Belgium  in  1930> the  C i t y o f Donora, P e n n s y l v a n i a i n 194-8, and London i n were the scenes  195  2  o f the worst t r a g e d i e s .  W i t h r e s p e c t t o the acute a i r p o l l u t i o n e p i s o d e s which have assumed.disastrous p r o p o r t i o n s i n terms o f number o f persons who became i l l o r d i e d , ( t h e s e ) t h r e e episodes are w e l l documented and l e a v e l i t t l e s q u e s t i o n as t o the l e t h a l r o l e o f a i r p o l l u t i o n . 14 In  the f i r s t  example weather c o n d i t i o n s were such as t o  keep p o l l u t a n t s w i t h i n the v a l l e y and not a l l o w f o r v e n t ilation,  so t h a t the number o f deaths r e c o r d e d were t e n 15  times the normal l e v e l . '  The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  a l l o w e d f o r the a c c u m u l a t i o n  to t o x i c concentrations of  those p o l l u t a n t s n o r m a l l y d i s c h a r g e d , i n t o the a i r by f a c t o r i e s i n the v a l l e y . M e d i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s examined a n a l y z e d i n d e t a i l the nature o f these In  October  o f 1948  and  contaminants.  i n Pennsylvania, i n a v a l l e y  w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a l s o w i t h an abnormal ^ ^ L . Goldner, " A i r P o l l u t i o n E f f e c t s and P l a n n i n g " , (paper r e a d a t the Department o f Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , January 30, 1963), p. 3.  115  -'World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , op. c i t . ,  p.  164.  22 meteorological situation, p o l l u t i o n developed.  a n o t h e r extreme  There  period of a i r  were s e v e n t e e n d e a t h s  in a  f i v e - d a y p e r i o d , w e l l above t h e " n o r m a l " f i g u r e o f E x t e n s i v e s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t many n o n - f a t a l also occurred. responsible.  E v i d e n t l y no one  single  two.  illnesses  substance  A c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n o f two  was  o r more  compounds s u c h a s s u l p h u r d i o x i d e , i t s o x i d a t i o n p r o d u c t s , a n d o t h e r p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r w e r e t h o u g h t t o be t h e 5,910  The area  cause.  p e o p l e a f f e c t e d amounted t o 4 2 . 7 $ o f t h e D o n o r a  population. 1952  In  s u f f e r e d under  the  Greater  London M e t r o p o l i t a n  a t e m p e r a t u r e i n v e r s i o n and  Area  a stable a i r  mass f o r f o u r d a y s . V a r i o u s r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s became a p p a r e n t and were r e l a t e d t o t h e l a r g e smoke a n d  s u l p h u r d i o x i d e , some f i v e  E v e n t u a l l y t h e s i t u a t i o n l e d t o new at  quantities  times the  normal.  legislation  aimed  c l e a n a i r i n the urban a r e a . London has had  p o l l u t i o n problem c o n t r o l was  long  There  an a i r  f o r a v e r y l o n g t i m e , so t h a t s t r o n g overdue.  Another problem California.  of  a r e a o f n o t e has been L o s  were c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s  Angeles, in  i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a c t u a l p o l l u t a n t s t h e r e a s many t h o u g h t to  be  "transient or non-existent"  a r e now  known t o  J.R. G o l d s m i t h , " E f f e c t s o f A i r P o l l u t i o n o n Humans", A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I ) , A.C. S t e r n , e d . (New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 357.  have d e l e t e r i o u s  effects.  C h r o n i c d i s e a s e may a l s o have  been caused by a i r p o l l u t i o n exposure. Other h e a l t h  problems a r e a l s o found such as the  e f f e c t s o f l o s s o f s u n l i g h t , d u s t i n h a l a t i o n , odours and so on.  As e a r l y as 1905 N i c h o l s o n noted t h a t  17 sunshine was u n h e a l t h y . ' have n o t e d t h a t  decreased  The works o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s  "man i s r e s i s t a n t and r e s i l i e n t ,  readily  i ft  accepting be  able  tofore  stresses  and i n s u l t s . "  I t may be t h a t he may  t o s t a n d much h i g h e r t o l e r a n c e  l e v e l s than h e r e -  imagined. E f f e c t s on Animals. The e f f e c t o f a i r p o l l u t i o n on  animal l i f e  i s allied  Medical research various  t o the d i s c u s s i o n  on human  l a b o r a t o r i e s have u t i l i z e d  experiments, w h i l e the p r e v i o u s l y  t e r s have a l s o markedly a f f e c t e d animal  health.  animals i n  outlined  disas-  life.  G o l d n e r draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t damage t o l i v e s t o c k i s caused n o t o n l y by d i r e c t i n h a l a t i o n o f a i r p o l l u t a n t s , but by f e e d i n g  on exposed p l a n t s . P h i l l i p s  17 W. N i c h o l s o n , Smoke Abatement (London: C h a r l e s G r i f f i n , 1905), p. 14. 18 J . J . P h a i r e t . a l . , "Measuring Human R e a c t i o n s to A i r P o l l u t i o n " , P a r t i c u l a t e E m i s s i o n s ( P h i l a d e l p h i a ; : F r a n k l i n I n s t i t u t e , 1958;, p. 37. r  19  -'Goldner, op. c i t . , p. 15.  24 a l s o r e f e r s t o t h i s "two s t e p p r o c e s s " , all  before  discussing  t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s extraneous  borne s u b s t a n c e s .  air-  Animal f l u o r o s i s has been s t u d i e d most  e x t e n s i v e l y , but r e s e a r c h and  20  has a l s o p r o g r e s s e d on a r s e n i c  l e a d e f f e c t s and t o l e r a n c e s . The  s o - c a l l e d " e t i o l o g i c agent" i s u s u a l l y found  i n t h e f i e l d as t h e cause o f d i s e a s e , the l a b o r a t o r y used t o determine whether t h e agent a f f e c t s man.  being  There  can a l s o be severe economic e f f e c t s on the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry. E f f e c t s on P l a n t s . sulphide  a r e two major p o l l u t a n t s a f f e c t i n g p l a n t  the f i r s t Toxic  S u l p h u r d i o x i d e and hydrogen  r e s u l t i n g from the combustion o f a l l f u e l s .  concentration  a r e g r a d u a l l y absorbed by the p l a n t  u n t i l normal p h o t o s y n t h e t i c and  life,  acute i n j u r y r e s u l t s .  p r o c e s s e s no l o n g e r  function  Commercial f a r m i n g may be  a f f e c t e d such as was t h e case a t T r a i l , B.C. (see page 9 ) . Plants  have  been  used  as " i n d i c a t o r s  of a i r  21 p o l l u t i o n . . . i d e n t i f y i n g the s p e c i f i c p o l l u t a n t . " can  Dust  c o v e r p l a n t s , f o r example, and dyes can cause s p o t t i n g  20 P . H . P h i l l i p s , "The E f f e c t s on A i r P o l l u t a n t s on Farm A n i m a l s " , A i r P o l l u t i o n Handbook (New York: McGrawH i l l , 1956), p . " S 7 T : 21 I n t e r s t a t e S a n i t a t i o n Commission, op. c i t . , p. 71. C U  on blossoms and f o l i a g e .  I n urban a r e a s , gardens may be  affected' s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The be  economic r a m i f i c a t i o n s  substantial.  I n 195&  o f t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e can  "a l o s s o f more t h a n 6 m i l l i o n 22  d o l l a r s i n c r o p damage i n C a l i f o r n i a because o f smog" was e s t i m a t e d t o have o c c u r r e d . Along urban s t r e e t s have been a f f e c t e d by t h e carbon d i o x i d e  trees  content of auto-  mobile exhaust. Other E f f e c t s .  Atmospheric p o l l u t i o n a f f e c t s the  environment i n many ways.  Decreased  visibility for  example may cause c o n g e s t i o n a t a i r p o r t s and i n the a i r , 23 b e s i d e s d e l a y s o f f l i g h t s and i n c r e a s e d  operating  costs*  The  d a r k e n i n g o f the s k y may a f f e c t man  psychologically  and  a l s o h i s p h y s i c a l environment by a l t e r i n g weather  patterns. 24 The  "degeneration o f objects  u s e f u l t o man"  with  such r e s u l t s as i n c r e a s e d : l a u n d r y c o s t s , f r e q u e n c y o f painting, The  cleaning  and d e c o r a t i n g  s h o u l d be mentioned.  f a c a d e s o f b u i l d i n g s may be damaged by t h e e m i s s i o n  22 W.L. E a i t h , op. c i t . , p. 9. 23 -'Interstate S a n i t a t i o n Commission, op. c i t . , p. 74.  %  2  o r l d Health Organization,  op. c i t . , p. 279.  from f u e l o i l which c o n t a i n s 2 to 3$ s u l p h u r .  In  the  Edmonton a r e a the e f f e c t s o f the p h y s i c a l environment  on  the v a l u e and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y were 25 examined r e c e n t l y . was  "bad  The  most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r among s i x ;  odor" w i t h l a c k o f s a f e t y , l a c k o f a m e n i t i e s ,  depressed  appearance, n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n , and  d i r t b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by survey respondents ingly  t o be  one  decrease-  critical. Damage t o p r o p e r t y by p o l l u t a n t s t a k e s  forms.  smoke and  The  c o r r o s i o n o f metals  example o f t h i s a s p e c t .  c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s another  several  by a c i d i c compounds i s  Rubber c r a c k i n g from ozone  such c a s e .  There are a l s o a ?6  v a r i e t y o f secondary The  primary.  i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c e s i s important  i n t h i s regard. retail The  e f f e c t s o c c a s i o n e d ! by the  E v e r y event  from s t u d e n t l e t h a r g y to  t r a d e l o s s e s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f smog may  be  cited.  cost of control i t s e l f i s s i g n i f i c a n t . IV. IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANNING Because a i r p o l l u t i o n s o u r c e s may  be l o c a t e d i n  a p a t i a l terms t h e i r s i t i n g i s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o  -^City o f Edmonton, Urban Renewal Study ( P a r t I I ) (Edmonton: P l a n n i n g Department, 1964;, pp. 2 6 - 2 7 . F a i t h , op.  c i t . , p.  22.  land use planning. by  Even the mobile source  t h e s t r e e t l a y o u t and d e s i g n .  that the planner  may be a f f e c t e d  I t a p p e a r s t o be  crucial  address h i m s e l f t o t h e problem o f atmos-  pheric pollution since clean a i r i s a basic goal of a s o c i e t y w h i c h d e s i r e s optimum p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h . Howard h a s posed t h e q u e s t i o n logical  a s t o how f a r man's  bio-  requirements  c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e laws o f l a n d economics, which create the pressures that r e s u l t i n population d e n s i t i e s and s t r u c t u r a l d e n s i t i e s t h a t r e s i s t our best e f f o r t s . . . . 2 7 The  planner,  policy,  as an i n n o v a t o r  should  i n c o r p o r a t e t h e community-wide  when i n h i s a d v i s o r y The  i n the formation  planner  of public interest  capacity.  has long possessed the t o o l  of zoning  bylaws "which f r e q u e n t l y p r o h i b i t from c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s o r t h e e n t i r e community, i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h . . . a r e  obnox-  28  ious."  While zoning  has been a form o f l o c a t i o n  control applied at the l o c a l l e v e l , been u t i l i z e d  o t h e r forms have  by t h e s e n i o r governments as d e s c r i b e d i n  'J.T. Howard, " B a s i c R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m s o f t h e U r b a n - M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n : P r o b l e m s R e l a t e d t o Planning** , R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , Paper and P r o c e e d i n g s , I I (195b), p . 104. 1  28 (Chicago: p. 11.  Planning Advisory Service, A i r P o l l u t i o n Control American S o c i e t y o f Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1950),  28 C h a p t e r IV.  I t has  been s a i d t h a t  G e n e r a l z o n i n g and! p l a n n i n g c o u l d be u t i l i z e d t o reduce the mobile smog source by d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , encouragement o f r a p i d t r a n s i t , e l i m i n a t i o n o f automobile t r a f f i c congested c i t y c e n t r e s , use o f the f r e e - f l o w type o f roadway o r g freeway, and r e d u c t i o n o f home t o work t r a v e l . ~ 2  One  o v e r a l l goal of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  f o r minimum t r a v e l time f o r a l l t r i p s ; the p o l l u t i o n reinforces that L e s t e r G o l d n e r has  i s to  provide  c o n t r o l of a i r  objective. explained  the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem i n p l a n n i n g  terms:  one o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the p l a n n e r , i n a s s i s t i n g s o c i e t y i n a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l s , i s the assessment o f d i v e r s e p r o p o s a l s f o r a c t i o n , o f t e n put f o r t h i n l i g h t o f some s p e c i a l p o i n t o f view, i n terms o f t h e i r t o t a l impact upon s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g those troublesome s i d e e f f e c t s which are apt to be o v e r l o o k e d by o t h e r s . 30 He  felt  t h a t a i r p o l l u t i o n abatement s h o u l d  the p l a n n i n g  f u n c t i o n s i n c e the  q u a l i t y of l i f e . i n the p r o v i n c e consider planning  be  part  problem a f f e c t s the  T h i s d i d not mean t h a t a l l c o n t r o l o f the p l a n n e r ,  abatement as one  of  but  t h a t he  was  should  o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f  the  process.  9j.R. T a y l o r a t . a l . , " C o n t r o l o f A i r P o l l u t i o n by S i t e S e l e c t i o n and Zoning", World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , A i r P o l l u t i o n (Geneva: The O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1961;, p. 294-. 30  Goldner, op.  c i t . , pp.  1-2.  29 V.  SUMMARY  Though a i r p o l l u t i o n has e x i s t e d ! s i n c e e a r l y times i t was n o t u n t i l 1273 t h a t l e g a l c o n t r o l was as n e c e s s a r y .  The problem grew t o c r i t i c a l  recognized dimensions  w i t h the growth o f i n d u s t r y , w h i l e the i n t e r n a l combustion engine added a f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n  i n this  century.  Atmospheric p o l l u t i o n has a f f e c t e d the h e a l t h o f man t o the extreme o f numerous f a t a l i t i e s i n acute e p i s o d e s s i n c e 1930> cations.  besides  having various  l e s s acute r a m i f i -  Animals and p l a n t s may a l s o be a f f e c t e d  physiologically.  Diverse  r e s u l t s o f atmospheric contam-  i n a t i o n range from t h e d i s t u r b a n c e t o the d e c r e a s e o f p r o p e r t y s u f f i c i e n t l y focused problem and should  values.  of a i r transportation The p l a n n e r has not  h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h i s  increasing  make c l e a n a i r a s o c i e t a l g o a l t o be  a c c e p t e d and e x p r e s s e d by h i s p r o f e s s i o n i n terms o f h i s interest i n spatial  organization.  30 CHAPTER I I I THE METHODS OP A I R POLLUTION CONTROL I. For t h ereasons  INTRODUCTION documented! i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g  chapter i t would appear t h a t atmospheric The  abatement and c o n t r o l o f  p o l l u t i o n i s necessary i nthe public i n t e r e s t .  legislative  background  f o r s u c h c o n t r o l i n Canada i s ;  reviewed below i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l aspects and c o n f l i c t s . source  control u t i l i z i n g  are o u t l i n e d  The t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f e n g i n e e r i n g abatement  subsequently.  standards, which  II.  tech-  examined.  L E G I S L A T I V E FRAMEWORK  Great B r i t a i n ' s compilation  C o u r t s o f Canada proceed  derived, over centuries, time.  performance  l e g a l p r o c e s s i n Canada has i n h e r i t e d ! i t s  f o u n d a t i o n s from The  of  i s a n outcome o f s o u r c e c o n t r o l  nology, i sthen c r i t i c a l l y  The  The c o n c e p t  techniques  o f law.  by r u l e s o f law which  gradually  evolving  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t a t u t e  t o the present  l a w c r e a t i o n was  a l l o c a t e d t o t h e F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Legislatures  by t h e B r i t i s h North America  w h i c h was b a s e d agreed  A c t o f 1867,  on i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l conference  resolutions  t o before passage o f t h e A c t by t h e B r i t i s h  31 Parliament. bilities  The A c t e s s e n t i a l l y d i v i d e d the r e s p o n s i -  o f government between the two l e v e l s , w h i l e a t  the same time p r o v i d i n g a unique j u d i c i a r y i n which the " f e d e r a l i d e a . . . i s completely  absent.""*"  I n a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i s o f g r e a t importance,  s i n c e s o u r c e s may be e i t h e r i n the  federal or provincial j u r i s d i c t i o n . "the Dominion P a r l i a m e n t  I t can be s t a t e d t h a t  and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s each  enjoy, w i t h i n t h e i r own a r e a o f competence,  substantially p  the same supremacy as the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t . " F e d e r a l Government and the P r o v i n c i a l may  control  Both the source  e m i s s i o n s , the l a t t e r b e i n g a b l e t o d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y t o the m u n i c i p a l  level.  F e d e r a l Powers. governing  The a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  has been d e f i n e d not o n l y by the B.N.A. A c t , but  a l s o by j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s .  U n t i l 194-9 the J u d i c i a l  Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l o f the U n i t e d Kingdom the f i n a l a r b i t r a t o r . and  The f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y over  was  trade  commerce was, f o r example, l i m i t e d by t h a t body so  t h a t i t was l e g a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e g u l a t i o n o f  R.M. Dawson, The Government o f Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ; , p. 9 3 . 2 J.A. C o r r y , Democratic Government and P o l i t i c s (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 104.  52 i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l t r a d e , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r hand a e r o n a u t i c s and r a d i o communication became f e d e r a l responsibilities. Criminal  Law.  T h i s a r e a was deemed! a  prerogative  o f Ottawa, and i s l a r g e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e C r i m i n a l Code.  Nuisance i s d e f i n e d ! i n t h e Code so t h a t  air poll-  u t i o n o f a grave n a t u r e may be c o n s i d e r e d a c r i m e . Nuisance i s d e f i n e d safety, health, obstructs  as an a c t which endangers t h e l i v e s ,  p r o p e r t y o r comfort o f t h e p u b l i c ;  the p u b l i c i n t h e e x e r c i s e  o r enjoyment o f any  common r i g h t ; o r which i n c u r s p h y s i c a l i n j u r y ( s h o r t o f violence). In t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a; p u b l i c n u i s a n c e such as a i r p o l l u t i o n "may be t h e c r e a t i o n of s t a t u t e  o r s u b o r d i n a t e l e g i s l a t i o n o r o f t h e common  l a w " A t  common law each p a r t i c u l a r case was judged  on i t s own m e r i t s so t h a t a i r p o l l u t i o n was n o t a n u i sance p e r se.  An i n d i v i d u a l , f o r example, may use h i s  c i v i l r i g h t s i f a p u b l i c n u i s a n c e has caused s p e c i a l and p e c u l i a r damage t o him beyond t h e normal n u i s a n c e t o t h e public at large.  Non c r i m i n a l n u i s a n c e u s u a l l y has been  l e f t f o r the c o u r t s  Torts  to define  i n a common law manner.  ^P.S. James, G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e Laws o f (London: B u t t e r w o r t h and Co., 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 93.  The B r i t i s h Columbia  M u n i c i p a l A c t , f o r example,  was  judged not t o enable a c o u n c i l t o d e f i n e what c o n s t i t u t e s a n u i s a n c e and a c t s p r o h i b i t e d t h e r e u n d e r must be n u i s a n c e s a t law, which i s a matter f o r the c o u r t s t o determine. 4Rogers has s t a t e d t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between c r i m i n a l and n o n - c r i m i n a l n u i s a n c e " i s not c l e a r " . Vancouver anti-smoke  The C i t y o f  bylaw's n u i s a n c e p r o v i s i o n s were  found i n t r a v i r e s as a r e g u l a t i o n o f a n u i s a n c e  harmful  to p u b l i c h e a l t h f o r example.^ R a i l w a y s . I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r a i l w a y s are s u b j e c t t o f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n under the A c t .  L o c a l smoke n u i s a n c e  by-laws do not a p p l y t o r a i l w a y l o c o m o t i v e s even i f the d i s c h a r g e i s by way 7 house.  o f v e n t i l a t i n g d u c t s out o f a round-  P r o v i n c i a l r a i l w a y s , on the o t h e r hand, are  under the l e g i s l a t u r e ' s c o n t r o l .  The Board o f T r a n s p o r t  Commissioners i s the a u t h o r i t y o v e r such matters a t the^ federal  level.  New Westminster "Nuisance 1962", 39 D.L.R. 676 (19637:  P r o h i b i t i o n By-law  -\E.M. Rogers, The Law o f Canadian M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n s ( T o r o n t o ! C a r s w e l l , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 861. 6  v. C a p i l a n o Lumber Co.,  R. v. G.T.R., 3 7 O.L.R. 4-37 (19167: 7  138  R.  96 C.C.C. 14-1  (1950).  (1916), 2 7 C.C.C.  Shipping.  M l s h i p p i n g i s under f e d e r a l c o n t r o l  as d e r i v e d from t h e B.N.A. A c t . and  i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l f e r r i e s a r e w i t h i n Ottawa's  diction. own  Moreover i n t e r n a t i o n a l juris-  The N a t i o n a l Harbours Board a d m i n i s t e r s  their  a i r p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s over s h i p p i n g under t h i s  constitutional provision. P u b l i c land  (federal).  Any f e d e r a l c r e a t u r e on  crown l a n d i n t h e r i g h t o f Canada i s f r e e from  local  r e g u l a t i o n o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n .  however,  Lessees,  are s u b j e c t t o such p r o v i s i o n s s i n c e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n iss then c o n s i d e r e d  t o be p r o v i n c i a l .  P r o v i n c i a l powers.  The c o n t r o l o f a i r p o l l u t i o n  i s l a r g e l y o f p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n save t h e e x c e p t i o n s d e s c r i b e d ! above so t h a t i t i s r e l e v a n t t o o u t l i n e t h e v a r i o u s areas  of provincial  prerogative.  Municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s . t h a t s. 9 2 ( 8 ) delegate  P r i o r t o 1896 i t was h e l d  o f t h e B.N.A. A c t enabled  the provinces t o  a l l powers which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h e l d p r e v i o u s t o  8 1867. those and  A t t h a t time i t was r e s t r i c t e d t o mean t h a t powers possessed; by the p r o v i n c e s  t h a t t h i s c l a u s e merely a l l o w e d  only  c o u l d be c o n f e r r e d  f o r the c r e a t i o n o f  Smith v. London. 2 0 O.L.R. 1 3 3 ( 1 9 0 9 )  35 "a l e g a l body f o r the management o f m u n i c i p a l P r o p e r t y and c i v i l called it  rights.  affairs".  T h i s power has been  "the t r u e r e s i d u a l c l a u s e " o f the B.N.A. A c t s i n c e  i s so a l l encompassing.  E a c h p r o v i n c e may  legislates  s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s a r e a t o the e x t e n t t h a t f e d e r a l do not have p r i o r i t y .  powers  Bankruptcy, f o r example, i s d e a l t  w i t h by the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t .  The use o f p r o p e r t y  would appear t o i n c l u d e the u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e a l for  9  property  the e m i s s i o n o f p o l l u t a n t s i n t o the atmosphere so  t h a t c o n t r o l i s c l e a r l y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l  government's  competence. P o l i c e power.  A l l governments have t h i s power t o  e n f o r c e t h e i r laws: P u b l i c h e a l t h , n u i s a n c e and t r a d e r e g u l a t i o n a l s o f a l l w i t h i n the g e n e r a l scope o f the m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e power which would have i t s o r i g i n i n s. 92 ( 1 5 ) . 10 In the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h i s power t o r e g u l a t e where t h e r e i s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the r i g h t s o f o t h e r s  1 1  i s much w i d e r i n  scope.  I  V  >  ^Canadian E n c y c l o p e d i c D i g e s t 556-7.  p . p  1(  ^Rogers, op. c i t . ,  (Western) , (2nd. ed:.),  p. 285.  H.W. Kennedy and A.O. P o r t e r , " A i r P o l l u t i o n : I t s C o n t r o l and Abatement", 8 V a n d e r b i l t Law Review 861 (19540. 11  The c r i t e r i a used t o judge the v a l i d i t y o f a s t a t u t e r e g u l a t i n g conduct which does not c o n s t i t u t e a common law n u i s a n c e are those a p p l i e d t o ^2 determine the p r o p e r e x e r c i s e of the p o l i c e power. The  p u b l i c welfare  i s the b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g the  legality  of s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n , whereas i n Canada i t would be  the;  duty o f the c o u r t t o l o o k t o P a r t VI o f the B.N.A. A c t . Conclusion.  The  F e d e r a l Government has c o n t r i b u t e d  t o the s o l u t i o n o f the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem by aiming a t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of data gathering information  f o r research  and  purposes.  The  Branch o f the Department o f T r a n s p o r t p o l l u t i o n data with meteorological different  centralizing  this  Meteorological  has  correlated this  measurements f o r  c i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the programme.  Along  w i t h enforcement o f a n t i - p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c r e a t u r e s , the f e d e r a l government has a l s o p r o v i d e d l e a d e r s h i p and r e s e a r c h  capability.  National  standards  c o u l d be a t t a i n e d f o r i n s t a n c e , which then c o u l d enforced  strong  be  a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . III.  The  ENGINEERING ABATEMENT METHODS  l e g i s l a t i v e framework p r o v i d e s  which v a r i o u s methods o f c o n t r o l may  the b a s i s  by  be made compulsory,  S.M. Rogers and S. Edelman, " A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l L e g i s l a t i o n " , A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I I ) , A.C. S t e r n , (New York: Academic P r e s s , 1962;7""p. 4-33.  ed.  37 o r a t l e a s t i t p r o v i d e s the encouragement o f abatement by e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . New t e c h n i q u e s a r e b e i n g developed  continuously  so t h a t o n l y a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s  specialized  d i s c i p l i n e i s o u t l i n e d here.  The f o l l o w i n g breakdown i s ;  by p o l l u t a n t c a t e g o r y , r a t h e r than by method o f c o n t r o l so as t o d e s c r i b e modes o f c o n t r o l i n d i r e c t  terms.  Smoke. T h i s p o l l u t a n t i s m o s t l y nongaseous m a t e r i a l made up l a r g e l y o f carbon p a r t i c l e s though o t h e r l a t e matter  i s u s u a l l y present.  Incomplete  combustion o f  carbonaceous f u e l s has made smoke the h i s t o r i c and  caused  i ts t i l l  particu-  pollutant  t o be p r o b l e m a t i c i n many contemporary  communities. I n s u f f i c i e n t a i r i s an important  f a c t o r i n "smoke"  13 e m i s s i o n and heat l o s s e s " , excess  b u t l o s s may o c c u r w i t h an  o f a i r and f o r o t h e r d i v e r s e r e a s o n s . Too much a i r  c a u s i n g c o o l i n g below the i g n i t i o n p o i n t o r bad s t o k i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e cases i n p o i n t .  Also the f u e l i t s e l f i s  important  o f carbon and v o l a t i l e  s i n c e t h e percentage  m a t e r i a l v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c o a l , f o r example.  Com-  b u s t i b l e t r a s h i s burned i n o r d e r t o d i s p o s e o f i t , but o f t e n combustion i s so poor t h a t a problem o f magnitude results. A\. Marsh, Smoke (London: Faber & Faber, 194-7), p. 179.  Smoke may  o r i g i n a t e from domestic h e a t i n g p l a n t s ,  i n d u s t r i a l power p l a n t s , r e f u s e i n c i n e r a t o r s , open f i r e s , r a i l w a y l o c o m o t i v e s , s h i p s , d i e s e l engines and automobiles each s o u r c e b e i n g q u i t e v a r i e d as t o the amount o f smoke emitted.  The p r o c e s s o f combustion,  hydrogen p l u s oxygen, improve  i n v o l v i n g carbon o r  has t o be understood i n o r d e r t o  the s i t u a t i o n . The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the  smokeless  combustion o f any f u e l a r e : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Proper a i r - f u e l r a t i o . S u f f i c i e n t m i x i n g o f a i r and f u e l . S u f f i c i e n t e m i s s i o n temperature. S u f f i c i e n t space t o permit time f o r p r o p e r b u r n i n g . P r o p e r d i s t a n c e from the g r a t e . 14  In p r a c t i c e these c o n d i t i o n s are not met  a l l the time so  t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f p o l l u t i o n r e s u l t s . terms i t has been s t a t e d  In d i f f e r e n t  that  The "three T * s " o f c o m b u s t i o n — t i m e , temperature, t u r b u l e n c e — g o v e r n the speed and completeness o f the combustion r e a c t i o n . F o r complete combustion, the; oxygen must come i n t o i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h the combustible molecule a t s u f f i c i e n t temperature, and: f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h o f time, i n o r d e r t h a t ther e a c t i o n be completed. 15 In the U n i t e d Kingdom, the s o l u t i o n i s found i n smokeless f u e l s s i n c e open f i r e p l a c e s are found i n most  V . L . Faith, A i r Pollution Control John W i l e y and Son, 1 9 5 9 ; , p. 68. 1 Z  (New  York:  •k^R.J. R u f f , "Nuisance Abatement by Combustion", A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I I ) , A.C. S t e r n , ed. (New York: Academic Press,"T5527T P- 3 5 7 .  homes.  Coke, a n t h r a c i t e , l o w - v o l a t i l e c o a l and v a r i o u s  b r i q u e t t e d f u e l s are termed o t h e r hand, may  smokeless.  F u r n a c e s , on the  be d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e smoke i f care i s  taken from the f i r i n g  t o the f l u e . The  chamber i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  type of  combustion  Wood b u r n i n g r e q u i r e s  a p r i m a r y d r y i n g zone s i n c e the m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s much g r e a t e r than t h a t o f c o a l . The b u r n i n g o f r e f u s e i s o f s p e c i a l s i n c e i t i s so widespread present.  significance  and p r o p e r i n c i n e r a t o r s are not  The wide v a r i a t i o n i n the  moisture  d e n s i t y , p h y s i c a l form, and c a l o r i f i c  content,  v a l u e o f waste  m a t e r i a l s must be accommodated i n the d e s i g n . However, i t can s t i l l  be s a i d t h a t r e d u c t i o n by b u r n i n g i n w e l l -  d e s i g n e d i n c i n e r a t o r s , p r i v a t e and m u n i c i p a l , i s the s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n . Design s t a n d a r d s f o r i n c i n e r a t o r s may  be e n f o r c e d r e a d i l y t o minimize  smoke and  particle  emissions. The measurement o f smoke i s accomplished by  two  c h i e f m e t h o d s — t h e use o f the Ringelmann c h a r t and  the  a u t o m a t i c smoke sampler. o b s e r v a t i o n and comparison  The  w i t h f o u r shades  a white and b l a c k .  Number one  t h r e e 60$,  and f i v e  f o u r 80$  c h a r t r e l i e s on  visual  of grey plus  i s 20^ b l a c k , two  4-0$,  100#.  These measurements are d i r e c t and r e q u i r e no e q u i p ment i n the f i e l d . The r e s u l t s a r e , o f c o u r s e , i n a r b i t r a r y u n i t s and become somewhat d o u b t f u l i f the  40 smoke i s not b l a c k . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s an important method and remains l i k e l y t o remain one because i t s use i s s p e c i f i e d i n most l e g a l codes. 16 The smoke i s s i g h t e d ! as i t emerges from the s t a c k and timed, most r e g u l a t i o n s l i m i t i n g e m i s s i o n beyond number on the Ringelmann  a certain  c h a r t , l o n g e r than a c e r t a i n t i m e .  The amount o f s u n l i g h t w i l l a f f e c t the r e a d i n g markedly and i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t c o l o u r e d smoke cannot be measured. Another most s u i t a b l e method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g smoke c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the open atmosphere  i s based on f i l t r a c -  t i o n o f a known volume o f a i r t h r o u g h a white  filter  paper, e s t i m a t i n g t h e b l a c k n e s s by o p t i c a l means. Coh  The  unit d e f i n e d as the q u a n t i t y o f l i g h t - s c a t t e r i n g s o l i d s c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g an o p t i c a l d e n s i t y o f 0.01 when the smount o f l i g h t t r a n s m i t t e d through the spot o f d u s t . . . i s measured. 17  One  Coh i n d i c a t e s a b r i g h t c l e a r day w h i l e 10 corresponds  to one darkened a p p r e c i a b l y by the presence o f smoke. Dust, fumes and m i s t .  P a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r i s the  c o l l e c t i v e term f o r l i q u i d d r o p l e t s and s o l i d  particles.  C. S t e f f e n s , " V i s i b i l i t y and A i r P o l l u t i o n " , A i r P o l l u t i o n Handbook, P.L. M a g i l l , ed. (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1956;, p. 6, 54. ^W.L. F a i t h , op. c i t . ,  1  p. 88.  4-1 D u r i n g the time p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r i s suspended it  i n the a i r  i s known as an a e r o s o l . The a i r c o n t a i n s suspended  m a t t e r even over the  oceans where s a l t n u c l e i and marine micro-organisms are present.  Over c i t i e s the v a l u e s may  o f the ocean a i r s u s p e n s i o n .  be 4-000 times t h a t  The s i z e o f p a r t i c l e  o f c o u r s e , range from the minute t o the r e l a t i v e l y  can, large.  C h e m i c a l l y the c o m p o s i t i o n o f these p a r t i c l e s i s extremely complex.  A e r o s o l c o n t e n t o f the atmosphere  e r a b l y as a f u n c t i o n o f weather  varies  c o n d i t i o n s and  consid-  industrial-  ization. The a c t u a l d u s t f a l l i s a common measure o f a i r p o l l u t i o n s e v e r i t y measured i n tons per square m i l e per month.  The f i g u r e v a r i e s tremendously w i t h i n an urban 18  a r e a , as was  seen i n an a r e a l s t u d y o f S h e f f i e l d ,  andi  a l s o i t v a r i e s by season. Sampling and a n a l y s i s o f p a r t i c u l a t e s i s a v e r y e x a c t i n g t e c h n i q u e ; a sample from a d u c t , f o r example, must be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and r e p r o d u c i b l e . used i n removing  F i l t e r s may  be  p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r from streams o f gas,  w h i l e o t h e r d e v i c e s may  f o r c e the gas through a system  where i t changes d i r e c t i o n a t a s o l i d s u r f a c e where the; J . Pemberton e t . a l . , "The S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o l l u t i o n i n S h e f f i e l d " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal o f A i r P o l l u t i o n , I I ( 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 175-187.  42 particles  cling.  C e n t r i f u g a l and e l e c t r o s t a t i c p r e c i p -  i t a t i o n methods may a l s o be u t i l i z e d particulate  matter.  Reduction particulate  i n collecting  a t s o u r c e i s the b e s t way o f c o n t r o l l i n g  e m i s s i o n whatever the method.  The s e t t l i n g  chamber i s perhaps the s i m p l e s t type o f d u s t equipment.  collection  The f o o d and m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r i e s use the  chamber as a f i r s t  s t e p i n dust and fume r e c o v e r y .  the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s may be c o l l e c t e d  Only  so t h a t o t h e r methods  prove n e c e s s a r y . The c y c l o n e s e p a r a t o r w i t h m u l t i cones o r filters  through which a i r i s f o r c e d may perform  Wet c o l l e c t o r s , u s i n g a spray chamber o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e the s i z e o f a p a r t i c l e t o f a c i l i t a t e from the gas stream.  the t a s k . techniques  i t s removal,  Another r e d u c t i o n a t source method;  would be the employment o f e l e c t r o s t a t i c  precipitators:  ic " T h i s i s done by p a s s i n g the gas between two e l e c t r o d e s " , " gas i o n s forming n e a r the d i s c h a r g e e l e c t r o d e , moving towards the c o l l e c t i n g , and t r a n s f e r r i n g  t h e i r charge t o  p a r t i c l e s by c o l l i s i o n w i t h them, these a e r o s o l s b e i n g d e p o s i t e d on t h e c o l l e c t i n g e l e c t r o d e .  then  Some  c o l l e c t i o n systems have a l s o been developed r e c e n t l y . Gases. There a r e two main sources o f gaseous  C . F . G o t t s c h l i c h , "Source C o n t r o l by E l e c t r i c a l , Thermal, and S o n i c F o r c e s " , A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I I ) , op. c i t . . p. 314. 7  contaminants:  combustion  c h e m i c a l s . Petroleum  of  fuels  and  handling  of  r e f i n i n g , c h e m i c a l manufacture, ore  s m e l t i n g and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s emit gases of e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n . The  c h i e f gases and  abate-  ment methods f o r each are o u t l i n e d below. S u l p h u r d i o x i d e i s a gas w i t h no c o l o u r y e t i t has a v e r y s u f f o c a t i n g odour such t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d emergency s i t u a t i o n w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n over f i v e per m i l l i o n .  The  t a s t e and  smell occurrence  d e t e c t e d a t much lower l e v e l s . and  can  an parts  be  I r r i t a t i o n o f the nose  t h r o a t i s the main h e a l t h e f f e c t , w h i l e i t can l e a d  t o the more s e r i o u s e p i s o d e s which were o u t l i n e d i n the previous  chapter.  A l l f u e l s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f wood c o n t a i n sulphur dioxide.  One  abatement method would i n v o l v e  the r e d u c t i o n o f t h i s content i n the p a r t i c l e f u e l burned.  Coke i s an example o f such a c o n v e r s i o n  being  (from  coal).  Sampling methods are s i m i l a r t o those f o r a l l  gases,  whereas m o n i t o r i n g the open atmosphere r e q u i r e s  special  instrumentation. Hydrogen s u l p h i d e i s another  a i r p o l l u t a n t being  t o x i c t o the extreme and n a s a l l y d e t e c t a b l e i n concent r a t i o n s as low as 0.1  p.p.m.  I t may  r e a d i l y be burned  t o s u l p h u r d i o x i d e and used f o r the manufacture o f sulphuric acid i f i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  quantity. Industrial  4-4o p e r a t i o n s a r e t h e c h i e f s o u r c e s o f the g a s , " a l t h o u g h v e g e t a b l e matter, v o l c a n o s and n a t u r a l s p r i n g s a r e a l s o 20 among i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s . "  The p r o c e s s i n g and r e f i n i n g  o f crude o i l u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e r e c o v e r y o f hydrogen s u l p h i d e by economic n e c e s s i t y whereas i n o t h e r c h e m i c a l o p e r a t i o n s c o n t r o l may be n e c e s s a r y because pollution.  of a i r  Wet c o l l e c t o r s may be used f o r t r e a t i n g the  gas by means o f a l i q u i d s p r a y which d i s s o l v e s i t . Hydrogen f l u o r i d e i s a n o t h e r t o x i c g a s , though i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y n e v e r found i n the a i r except i n s m a l l concentrations.  F l u o r o s i s o f c a t t l e i s t h e main e f f e c t  caused t h r o u g h i n g e s t i o n o f v e g e t a b l e matter exposed t o dust.  S i n c e the a f f i n i t y o f water and a l k a l i n e  s o l u t i o n f o r both gaseous  water  HF and s o l u b l e f l u o r i d e s i s v e r y  h i g h , any g a s - l i q u i d c o n t a c t apparatus may be used f o r abatement. C h l o r i n e and i t s compounds s h o u l d a l s o be d e s c r i b e d , though i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y q u i t e low. C o r r o s i o n , r e s p i r a t o r y i r r i t a t i o n , and v e g e t a t i o n damage c a n r e s u l t from them.  Chemical m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s a r e the common  s o u r c e s o f c h l o r i n e , which i s manufactured water p u r i f i c a t i o n purposes. F a i t h , op. c i t . ,  itself for  Scrubbers o r spray  p. 150.  towers  may be used t o remove t h e compounds from gas streams i n the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . N i t r o u s o x i d e , n i t r i c o x i d e , and n i t r o g e n d i o x i d e are found i n the atmosphere, the f i r s t n o r m a l l y as a; r e s u l t o f a r e a c t i o n between atomic oxygen (ozone) and n i t r o g e n i n t h e upper atmosphere.  The l a t t e r two a r e a  r e s u l t o f human a c t i v i t i e s and a r e c l a s s e d a s p o l l u t a n t s . The h e a l t h e f f e c t s and n u i s a n c e e f f e c t s o f photochemical smog r e s u l t from these o x i d e s .  Combustion o f f u e l s and  c h e m i c a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s produce F u e l s produce  the gases.  engine exhaust, f o r example, which  butes t o these p o l l u t a n t s .  contri-  Abatement o f n i t r o g e n d i o x i d e  i s accomplished u s i n g a b s o r p t i o n by water i n bubble s p r a y towers  o r the l i k e .  towers,  F o r n i t r i c o x i d e , oxygen o r a i r  must a l s o be added f o r the o x i d a t i o n t o n i t r o g e n d i o x i d e . At low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s these methods a r e n o t u s a b l e and c a t a l y t i c decomposition i s necessary. Carbon monoxide i s another gas which i s h i g h l y p o i s o n o u s , t h e c h i e f s o u r c e b e i n g combustion. i n t e r n a l combustion  engines, very l i t t l e  C0  2  Except f o r i s found i n  the e f f l u e n t o f p r o p e r l y a d j u s t e d , p r o p e r l y o p e r a t e d installations.  A l o n g c i t y s t r e e t s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n can  r i s e t o 90 p.p.m.  The most common abatement method i s  o x i d a t i o n t o carbon d i o x i d e , waste heat b o i l e r s C0  2  utilizing  b e i n g p a r t o f c a t a l y t i c c r a c k i n g u n i t s i n petroleum  46  r e f i n e r i e s , f o r example. c a t a l y t i c techniques.  Small c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e q u i r e  F o r g a s o l i n e engines a n t i k n o c k  f l u i d s f o u l c a t a l y s t s r a p i d l y , so t h a t abatement i s a critical  problem.  Hydrocarbons  are important as p o l l u t a n t s " i n t h e i r  r e a c t i v i t y w i t h n i t r o g e n d i o x i d e i n the presence o f sun21 light  t o form photochemical smog",  harmless  and n o n - t o x i c .  i n themselves  The compounds o f hydrogen  carbon c o v e r a wide v a r i e t y o f forms.  N a t u r a l gas  crude petroleum are the u l t i m a t e s o u r c e s o f the hydrocarbons.  hydrocarbons fall  i n t o two  and and  atmospheric  Any d e v i c e s u t i l i z i n g these m a t e r i a l s o r  t h e i r p r o d u c t s may Spectrometers  being  prove t o be a source o f the compounds.  o r o x i d a t i o n meters may i n the ambient a i r .  be used i n d e t e c t i n g  Methods f o r abatement  c a t e g o r i e s , the f i r s t  b e i n g where the  e m i s s i o n i s prevented o r the hydrocarbon r e c o v e r e d and second where i t i s d e s t r o y e d .  Prevention i n v o l v e s process  d e s i g n w h i l e v a p o r - r e d o v e r y methods a r e a l s o used. d a t i o n i s the second abatement method e i t h e r by  Oxi-  direct  b u r n i n g o r c a t a l y t i c means. Many o t h e r gases a l s o e x i s t which e n t e r the atmosphere, p r a c t i c a l l y every c h e m i c a l compound h a v i n g a gas phase.  Ammonia i s one example.  T a i t h , op. c i t . , p.  165.  L i q u i d scrubbing  i n c i n e r a t i o n o r c a t a l y t i c combustion a r e t h e p r e f e r r e d ; abatement methods.  Radioactive  gases a l s o m e r i t  comment  s i n c e t h e i r i n c i d e n c e w i l l presumably be much g r e a t e r i n future. Odours.  The odour t h r e s h o l d i s t h e " p o i n t a t 22  which t h e odour i s b a r e l y p e r c e i v e d " . i s a subject^of great "the  A i r deodorizatibn  i n t e r e s t today, t h e problem  being  e s t a b l i s h i n g o f s t a n d a r d s which a r e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y 23  justifiable",  ^ and which "do n o t r e q u i r e j u d i c i a l  inter-  p r e t a t i o n , and can e a s i l y be a p p l i e d i n the f i e l d . " The  o n l y measuring d e v i c e  f o r odours i s t h e human  nose, so t h a t t h e r e may be wide d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n not  o n l y as t o how o f f e n s i v e an odour i s b u t a t what  l e v e l i t i s perceived. more complaint  Ah u n f a m i l i a r odour may cause  than a f a m i l i a r one.  An odour may n o t  become o f f e n s i v e u n t i l t h e source i s d i s c o v e r e d .  The  e f f e c t s a r e p r i m a r i l y a t the n u i s a n c e l e v e l but o f t e n odours can l e a d t o extreme nausea. Nitrogen  o r sulphur  compounds a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e  22 M.B. Jacobs, The Chemical A n a l y s e s o f A i r P o l l u t a n t s , (New York: Interscience Publishers, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 3 7 3 . 23 ^W. Summer, Methods o f A i r D e o d o r i z a t i o n (Amsterdam: E l s e v i e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 2 7 2 . 2 4  Ibid.,  p. 2 7 3 .  48  culprits  as f a r as s m e l l i s concerned. Chemicals,  paints,  rendering  plants, o i l refineries,  sources.  Motor v e h i c l e s , i n c l u d i n g d i e s e l powered  and  buses, a l s o rank high.  e f f e c t i v e l y by source  coke works and so on a r e trucks  Abatement i s accomplished  c o n t r o l , most odours b e i n g  a s i m i l a r way t o t h e m e t h o d s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . may b e m a s k e d b y n e u t r a l i z e r s — t h i s  most  gases i n  They a l s o  technique  i s known a s  odour c o u n t e r a c t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n . The w i d e r a n g e o f s o u r c e s  and! p o l l u -  t a n t s s h o w s why a v a r i e t y o f a b a t e m e n t m e t h o d s h a s b e e n necessary.  Morris Katz  has s a i d  that:  Costs o f r e c o v e r y and d i s p o s a l o f waste products r i s e r a p i d l y a t h i g h e r e f f i c i e n c i e s a n d may become p r o h i b i t i v e beyond 95$ r e m o v a l . 25 The  emission  of pollutants w i l l  still  occur  abatement methods good t o 95$ e f f i c i e n c y engineering source  control at source).  e n g i n e e r i n g abatement t e c h n i q u e s IV.  ( i . e . ultimate  The g r e a t  c o n t r o l methodology i l l u s t r a t e s  even w i t h  complexity o f  that other  than  are required.  PERFORMANCE STANDARDS  D e n n i s 0'Harrow has e x p l a i n e d t h e c o n c e p t o f performance standards  i n t h i s way:  M. K a t z , " A i r P o l l u t i o n a s a C a n a d i a n R e g i o n a l P r o b l e m " , R e s o u r c e s f o r T o m o r r o w — S u p p l e m e n t a r y Volume (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 7 , p . 1 1 5 .  4-9 The e x p r e s s i o n "performance s t a n d a r d " i s t a k e n from b u i l d i n g code t e r m i n o l o g y . Modern b u i l d i n g codes are w r i t t e n more i n terms o f what m a t e r i a l s and methods w i l l d o — t h e i r performance under s t a t e d , c o n d i t i o n s — r a t h e r than i n s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f m a t e r i a l s and! b u i l d i n g methods. 26 The of  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t a n d a r d on the o t h e r hand has made use; an a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e f o r such measures as s i d e yards f o c u s w i l l be on performance  and  so on.  The  purpose  i s the c o n t r o l o r r e g u l a t i o n o f a i r c o n t a m i n a t i o n . History.  attempt  The use o f performance  t o i n s u r e s a t i s f a c t o r y l a n d use  s t a n d a r d s whose  s t a n d a r d s as an compatibility  through the employment o f s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a l a t i o n o f e m i s s i o n l e v e l s was  first  f o r the r e g u -  put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n  27 1952.  The  1957  Chicago z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e was  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " a p p l y i n g a f u l l s c a l e o f  the  first  performance  s t a n d a r d s t o i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g f o r a l a r g e urban a r e a . " S i n c e t h a t time they have been u t i l i z e d ) e x t e n s i v e l y i n that country. 26 D;. 0*Harrow, Performance Standards (Columbus N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g Committee, 1958), p. 2. 27 'R.A. Morrow, "Performance Standards as a C o n t r o l D e v i c e f o r I n d u s t r i a l N u i s a n c e s . . . " (unpublished; Master's T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e , I960), p. i i . ® E . E . S c h u l z e , Performance Standards i n Zoning; Ordinances ( P i t t s b u r g h : A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 4-. 2  50 Basis,  C e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f z o n i n g are examined! more  f u l l y i n the next c h a p t e r .  However, performance  standards  are so r e l a t e d t o e n g i n e e r i n g abatement methods t h a t the concept  s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d a t t h i s s t a g e .  The  standards  attempt  t o c l a s s i f y and a s s i g n i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s  to  d i f f e r e n t zones " s o l e l y on the b a s i s o f t h e i r e x t e r n a l 2Q effects."  I n t h e o r y then the c l e a n i n d u s t r i e s would be  a b l e t o l o c a t e w i t h more freedom, whereas the d i r t y would! be r e l e g a t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s .  Noble has 30  "the most p e r m i s s i v e type o f r e g u l a t i o n s " p o s i t i v e not n e g a t i v e i n t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l Substance.  The  f o l l o w i n g contaminants  in a i r pollution control: and noxious g a s e s .  The  c a l l e d them s i n c e they are basis. are  smoke, odour, dust and  important dirt,  other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are noise,  v i b r a t i o n , g l a r e and heat, e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e , d e n s i t y c o n t r o l s , and  aesthetics.  Psychological effects  o f i n d u s t r y might a l s o be mentioned. D e n s i t y o f b l a c k smoke can be measured by Ringelmann c h a r t f a i r l y e a s i l y .  E i t h e r absolute  b i t i o n , Number one d e n s i t y (20$ b l a c k ) o r Number  the prohitwo  29 ^R.B. G a r r a b r a n t , "Performance Standards f o r I n d u s t r i a l Zoning An A p p r a i s a l " , Urban Land, XV (June, 1956), p.3. 50 O.W. Noble, " I n d u s t r i a l Performance Standards: A P r o p o s a l " , Urban Problems and Techniques (No. 1 ) , P.L.Norton, eaTTWest T r e n t o n , N.J.: Chandler D a v i s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 181.  density  (4-0$ b l a c k ) may  be the e f f e c t i v e l i m i t .  general  a i r pollution regulations prohibit  I f the  smoke more  dense t h a n No. 2 t h e n performance s t a n d a r d s presumably must be more s t r i c t  i f t h e y are t o have any r e a l  Odour i s d i f f i c u l t  t o measure  meaning.  i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms  s i n c e i t s d e t e c t i o n i s q u i t e s u b j e c t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r . Some d e s c r i p t i v e attempts a t odour d e f i n i t i o n have been attemp t e d , but the t h r e s h o l d v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y among i n d i v i d uals.  The o n l y r e a l " c o n t r o l " i s a b s o l u t e p r o h i b i t i o n i n  r e s t r i c t e d zones. Dust and d i r t  p r o d u c t i o n can be measured a t the  f l u e and r e s t r i c t e d beyond a c e r t a i n e m i s s i o n .  The  best  s t a n d a r d i s a b s o l u t e containment w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l premises, however, u n l e s s d e c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n s a r e utilized. Noxious gases may to a l l  forms o f l i f e .  be o d o u r l e s s , but are dangerous  Maximum s a f e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  figures  are a v a i l a b l e f o r most gases, but i t would p r o b a b l y be best to r e s t r i c t  the l o c a t i o n o f p o i s o n gas p r o d u c i n g  i n d u s t r i e s to i s o l a t e d  areas.  The o t h e r a r e a s o f performance s t a n d a r d ment are beyond the scope o f a i r p o l l u t i o n  measure-  control.  However, i t does appear t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n d e t e r m i n i n g many o f the measurements,  and t h a t t h e r e i s  31  some need f o r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . ^Noble, loc. c i t .  These would have t o  52 be m o d i f i e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s .  A retro-  a c t i v e c l a u s e g i v i n g r e a s o n a b l e time f o r compliance a l s o been suggested  has  f o r existing industry.  C r i t i c i s m . Under t h i s type o f system  almost  a p p l i c a t i o n i s a c c e p t e d as a m a t t e r of r o u t i n e .  every  It i s  o n l y when the p l a n t i n q u e s t i o n v i o l a t e s s t a n d a r d s subs e q u e n t l y t h a t a c t i o n can be t a k e n . o t h e r hand was  The use l i s t  on the  found l a c k i n g because not enough c o n t r o l  c o u l d be e x e r t e d o v e r changes i n use. S c h u l z e has w r i t t e n t h a t "the more c o n v e n t i o n a l use l i s t  and  ... a p r o p e r l y  32 designed r e g u l a t o r y ordinance"^  might be more s e n s i b l e .  An a r e a breakdown c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d f o r the i f n e c e s s a r y . Performance s t a n d a r d s tend t o be so t h a t they may  be d i f f i c u l t  latter arbitrary  to maintain i f contained  w i t h the z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . F o r a i r p o l l u t i o n measurements a g e n e r a l o v e r a l l r e s t r i c t i o n beyond a  certain  l e v e l o f e m i s s i o n i s urged, and a r e t u r n t o the use approach.  Performance s t a n d a r d s do not possess  because o f t h e i r i n h e r e n t f l e x i b i l i t y , i m p o r t a n t due  list  precision  but they are  t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and are p r o b a b l y no  more a r b i t r a r y than the use  list.  C o n c l u s i o n . The r e g u l a t i o n o f new  pollution  sources  on an a r e a b a s i s , i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the z o n i n g p r o c e s s r e l i e s on r e s e a r c h i n t o the abatement methods d e s c r i b e d Schulze, l o c . c i t .  above.  Administration of  such  regulations requires  d e t a i l e d e n g i n e e r i n g knowledge o f a s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e . I f such s t a n d a r d s are adopted  they are merely  mentary t o the o v e r a l l r e g u l a t i o n s .  supple-  In non-air p o l l u t i o n  m a t t e r s , however, they do have a primary purpose  to  attain. V.  SUMMARY  The B r i t i s h N o r t h America  A c t has d i v i d e d ^ the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . s i b i l i t y f o r most s o u r c e s appears  Though the  respon-  t o be w i t h i n the  l a t t e r ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n the F e d e r a l Government does e x e r t c o n t r o l through the C r i m i n a l Code over c e r t a i n o f n u i s a n c e , and o v e r r a i l w a y s , s h i p p i n g and aspects.  degrees  other  I t i s i n the p r o v i n c i a l realm o f p r o p e r t y and!  c i v i l r i g h t s t h a t most l e g i s l a t i o n has i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l origin.  The F e d e r a l Government does have a r o l e i n a i r  p o l l u t i o n r e s e a r c h i n data: c o l l e c t i o n and i n i t s n a t i o n wide l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t y . The  v a r i o u s e n g i n e e r i n g abatement methods are  complex and c o s t l y f o r the e m i s s i o n c o n t r o l o f v a r i o u s pollutants.  Measuring  methods a l s o have been  developed?  so as t o q u a n t i f y e m i s s i o n l e v e l s and f o r m u l a t e With many contaminants  the s o l u t i o n may  standards.  be r e l e g a t i o n o f  the source t o d e c e n t r a l i z e d ; areas whereas f o r o t h e r s t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n s can be found.  The  gases,  both  o d o u r l e s s and o t h e r w i s e , are perhaps most d i f f i c u l t i s o l a t e and  control.  ment s o l u t i o n s beyond  C o s t s o f r e c o v e r y may  95#»  limit  to  abate-  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o t h e r methods  are r e q u i r e d . Performance s t a n d a r d s  s e t l i m i t s on  pollutant  e m i s s i o n which v a r y f o r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , r a n g i n g  from  a b s o l u t e p r o h i b i t i o n t o the community-wide s t a n d a r d citted i n the a n t i - p o l l u t i o n bylaw.  Whereas smoke and dust  pro-  d u c t i o n can be measured! and l i m i t e d i n a s c i e n t i f i c manner, odour and  t o x i c gases are d i f f i c u l t  so t h a t i n d u s t r i e s p r o d u c i n g them have t o be to c e r t a i n a r e a s .  t o measure restricted  There i s some q u e s t i o n as t o whether  these c o n t r o l s are n e c e s s a r y w i t h good g e n e r a l r e g u l a t i o n o f e m i s s i o n s , and whether the use l i s t arbitrary.  approach i s less,  In n o n - a i r p o l l u t i o n matters  s t a n d a r d s may to be s u i t a b l e  performance  be r e q u i r e d , however, even i f deemed not here.  55 CHAPTER I V THE LOCATIONAL CONTROL OP INDUSTRY I. The studied  INTRODUCTION  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y c a n be  a t d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s , and s i m i l a r l y  so can i t s  l o c a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . Most governments i n t h e w o r l d been concerned w i t h  influencing industrial  have  development  at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f a r e a l growth f o r economic and s o c i a l reasons.  L o c a l governments i n N o r t h America by  t h e m s e l v e s a n d o n a n i n t e r m u n i c i p a l b a s i s , h a v e become concerned with  socio-economic and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f  industrial  expansion.  industrial  l o c a t i o n planning  control w i l l  a l s o be  II. The  Climatology,  to air pollution  described.  ROLE OP THE SENIOR GOVERNMENTS  senior level  federal i nnature, However, t h e r e  allied  t h e b a s i s o f any  o f g o v e r n m e n t may be u n i t a r y o r  the l a t t e r being  t h e case i n Canada.  has been a " s p a t i a l i n c i d e n c e  of national  33  d e v e l o p m e n t " 'in a l l c o u n t r i e s r e g a r d l e s s istrative  structures. In this  of their  admin-  l i m i t e d study the r o l e s o f  J . Priedmann, "Regional Development i n a P o s t I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y " , Journal o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . XXX ( M a y , 1 9 6 4 ) , 8 4 .  56 the s e n i o r governments  i n the U n i t e d  Kingdom and Canada are  described.  The U n i t e d Planning  S t a t e s . In 1943  S t a t e s , the  the N a t i o n a l  United  Resources  Board! wrote t h a t the " l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y  s e n t s i s s u e s o f such c o n t i n u i n g importance t o the  pre-  Nation  2 as a whole"  t h a t a comprehensive  a n a l y s i s was n e c e s s a r y .  They s t a t e d t h a t the F e d e r a l Government had- always had an i n f l u e n c e on i n d u s t r i a l p a t t e r n s r a n g i n g  from i t s p r o -  motion o f minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n t o the; c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l o w - c o s t p u b l i c power i n s t a l l a t i o n s " t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g or decreasing  the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s  locations f o r particular industries."  possible  D u r i n g World! War  s t r a t e g i c f a c t o r s became o f prime importance.  II  However, i n  peacetime l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l , power, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and! c a p i t a l c o s t s c o u l d be made a r e a l l y d i v e r s e t o encourages i n d u s t r i a l development  i n c e r t a i n regions.  Income relar-  t i o n s h i p s were a f f e c t e d by o t h e r means such as duties.  S t a t e s c o u l d both i n f o r m  industrial  o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s u b s i d i z e development.  customs  corporations; They have  been known t o tax; o u t s i d e goods a t h i g h e r r a t e s and encourage  local  thus;  products.  ~-N a t i o n a l Resources P l a n n i n g Board, I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n and N a t i o n a l Resources (Washington: The Board  1943;, p. 1.  ^IbidJ., p. 8.  57 The  d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s ! o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s vary-  markedly i n s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and The  employment o p p o r t u n i t y .  g o a l o f e q u a l i z i n g o p p o r t u n i t y i s f a r r e a c h i n g , but  f o r socio-economic  reasons  the s e n i o r government  level  can u t i l i z e i t s i n f l u e n c e s to encourage i n d u s t r i a l growth i n lower income a r e a s .  These same i n c e n t i v e s ; c o u l d be  employed t o encourage; c o n t r o l o f atmospheric Great B r i t a i n . national control  has  pollution.  In the U n i t e d Kingdom the idea? o f been r e l a t e d : t o the  economic problem i n the depressed  areas".  4.  "human The  drift  p o p u l a t i o n to the s o u t h - e a s t began a f t e r World! War r e s u l t e d i n governmental a c t i o n . p e r s u a s i o n and  The  andi of  I andi  motive power  was  cash i n the i n t e r w a r p e r i o d , a t the  end  o f which the Barlow R o y a l Commission recommended! s t r o n g e r more p o s i t i v e I n 194-5  controls. the D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n d u s t r y A\ct was  passed:  to implement the recommendation o f the Commission t h a t ai " c e n t r a l board...be e s t a b l i s h e d : t o o r g a n i z e r e s e a r c h , a d v i s e upon and r e g u l a t e the l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y " . ^ Board o f Trade as i t was  c a l l e d ! would d e v e l o p  and! The  factories  i n the depressed! a r e a s , and r e g u l a t e e r e c t i o n o f l a r g e G. L o g i e , I n d u s t r y i n Towns (London: George A l l e n and! Unwin L t d . , 195277 P» 20. 5 -'His Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n d u s t r y (London: The O f f i c e , 194-8), p. IOT  58 i n d u s t r i a l plants c o u l d not  (over 5 , 0 0 0 square f e e t ) elsewhere.  It  be sure t h a t the f a c t o r y prevented from b u i l d i n g  i n a congested! a r e a would b u i l d somewhere e l s e .  Local  planning  develop-  law  required  ment p e r m i s s i o n  t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t i o n before  c o u l d be approved.  Logie  has  s a i d that  The f r e e p l a y o f economic f o r c e s has i n the past g e n e r a l l y produced!, i n time, more o r l e s s e f f i c i e n t l o c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h o f t e n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e waste- o f m a t e r i a l and man-power. The economic p l a n n e r s * b e l i e f i s t h a t by t a k i n g thought, the same a d a p t a t i o n t o c i r c u m s t a n c e can be brought about more q u i c k l y , w i t h l e s s waste, and w i t h l e s s damage t o o t h e r noneconomic i n t e r e s t s such as amenity, h e a l t h and happiness. 6 The  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t may  be: l o c a t e d ! because o f p u b l i c  p o l i c y , t h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e ment f o r the; people o f a d e p r e s s e d Canada.  The  economic p o l i c y has  ai better  environ-  area.  F e d e r a l Government's c o n t r o l had  r e g i o n a l e f f e c t s i n Canada w i t h  the r i b b o n - l i k e market focused! on the S t . Lawrence l o w l a n d s .  of  The  c e n t r a l populous  p r i m a r y g o a l has  been  full  employment. The g e n e r a l p o l i c y through which a l l would b e n e f i t must however be supplemented! by a c r e a t i v e approach,-, t o s p e c i f i c l o c a l p o l i c i e s to meet r e g i o n a l needs. Grants t o the M a r i t i m e r e g i o n were c o n s i d e r e d  ^Logie,  op.  c i t . . p.  basic  to  25.  7 'W.F. Lougheed, Secondary M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r y i n the Canadian Economy (Toronto: B a x t e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1961), p. 1 5 3 .  59 C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and payments and  are s t i l l  found  i n today's e q u a l i z a t i o n  tax i n c e n t i v e s . A g e n e r a l l e v e l of p r o s p e r i t y  a c r o s s the c o u n t r y has been a g o a l o f the s e n i o r ments t o the p r e s e n t  govern-  day.  The d i v i s i o n o f powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s government has made c o o p e r a t i o n e s s e n t i a l .  of  Otherwise  s o c i a l c a p i t a l o u t l a y s might have no developmental The  effects.  r o l e o f the p r o v i n c e s i n development has become more  important  w i t h the importance o f highway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  P u b l i c power and! i n d u s t r i a l  motion have a l s o been f u r t h e r e d ! by the p r o v i n c i a l W i t h i n the p r o v i n c e s v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t o encourage expansion Conclusion.  i n certain  pro-  level.  have been u t i l i z e d  areas.  I n North America the techniques.; of  i n d i r e c t encouragement have been employed a t the s e n i o r governmental l e v e l t o f u r t h e r a r e a l growth.  Industrial  growth a t t h i s s c a l e has been o r i e n t e d ! to the s o c i a l andl economic maladies  o f depressed! r e g i o n s . A\ n a t i o n a l board  f o r the l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y may  be d i f f i c u l t  t o achieves  i n a f e d e r a l c o u n t r y but f i n a n c i a l inducements are. p o s s i b l e ; with intergovernmental o f the t h i r d l e v e l ,  cooperation.  With the  cooperation  ( m u n i c i p a l government) presumably  these inducements could! be f u r t h e r usedl f o r p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g purposes; such as a i r p o l l u t i o n  control.  60 III.  ROLE OP LOCAL GOVERNMENTS  P h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g has g e n e r a l l y been l e f t government  i n Canada, w i t h the p r o v i n c e s t a k i n g  s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l o f the process i n varying Although of  to l o c a l admini-  degrees.  t h e g e n e r a l p l a n s h o u l d be the primary  product  l o c a l planning, the actual l e g a l controls are u s u a l l y  separate. The g e n e r a l p l a n i s t h e o f f i c i a l statement o f a m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i v e body which s e t s f o r t h i t s major p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g d e s i r a b l e p h y s i c a l development. 8 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l - d e v e l o p m e n t  policies  and s o c i a l and: economic g o a l s s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d by the:; document. T h i s p l a n should! " p r o v i d e a f i r m b a s i s f o r the: c o n t r o l o f l a n d use p r e s c r i b e d ! i n z o n i n g " . ^  The l e g a l  c o n t r o l o f l o c a t i o n a t t h e l o c a l s c a l e r e s t s on t h e z o n i n g by-law o f a community and n o t on t h e g e n e r a l p l a n i n most jurisdictions.  Many communities, i n f a c t , have no p l a n  s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e i r development The I n d u s t r y .  policies.  I n d u s t r i a l s i t e ; s e l e c t i o n should! be;  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d : from i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  The  former i s concerned! w i t h the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which p r i v a t e  Chandler  T . J . Kent, The Urban G e n e r a l P l a n (San P r a n c i s c o : Publishing~C*o. , 1964J, pT 18.  Q  A.B. G a l l i o n and S. E i s n e r , The Urban P a t t e r n  (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co. I n c . , 1963), p . 184.  61 i n d u s t r y must a n a l y z e b e f o r e g i v e n a r e a , w h i l e the  establishing a plant i n a  l a t t e r involves public policy  and  i n d u s t r i a l land a l l o c a t i o n . The its  p r i v a t e f i r m has  considered  cost p r i m a r i l y i n  l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , though p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d  t o the  s i t e and  p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s have  a c c o u n t . I n s e l e c t i n g the g e n e r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o raw proximity  been  a r e a and  materials, proximity  to l i k e i n d u s t r i e s and  the  water s u p p l y ,  the  community  t o markets,  costs of  i n p u t s have t o be t h o r o u g h l y a n a l y z e d . r e q u i r e s study o f s i z e and  taken i n t o  various  Site selection  shape, topography, u t i l i t i e s ,  f l o o d i n g , drainage, s o i l c o n d i t i o n s ,  cost  o f development, s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l ities,  fire  and  zoning  (and  other  price.  undesirable  n e i g h b o r s or o t h e r  and  protection incompatible  use". ^ 1  The  m u n i c i p a l i t y can do much to a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y  by p r o v i d i n g f o r these d e s i r e s . An s u c c e s s f u l i s the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e for  insurance,  l e g a l aspects) e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s  Z o n i n g i s regarded! as investment  "against land  p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , t a x e s and  i n d u s t r i a l use.  involve preparing  example t h a t has specifically  designed!  Redevelopment programmes c o u l d  sites for industry.  been  also  These are p o s i t i v e  S m a l l B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Methods o f P l a n t S i t e S e l e c t i o n A v a i l a b l e to S m a l l B u s i n e s s Pirms (Washington: The A d m i n s t r a t i o n , 1961), p. 55.  62 p l a n n i n g attempts t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y t o g i v e n s e c t o r s : o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y b e s i d e s b e i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n d u s t r i a l development f o r economic H i s t o r y o f Zoning.  t o promote  reasons.  The common law provided! f o r a.  l i m i t e d ! form o f land- use c o n t r o l based! on t h e p r o t e c t i v e covenant and the n u i s a n c e  concept.  Restrictions of l e g i s -  l a t i v e o r i g i n by the community a t l a r g e on b u i l d i n g may be t r a c e d back t o e a r l y times. zoning ordinance  I n t h e United! S t a t e s the:  came out o f the community's power t o  r e g u l a t e l a n d use f o r t h e h e a l t h and w e l f a r e o f t h e p u b l i c at l a r g e , whereas i n Canada t h e P r o v i n c e always c o u l d l e g i s l a t e i n the f i e l d  of property r i g h t s .  t i o n s o f t h e U.S. C o n s t i t u t i o n made c o u r t of zoning ordinances  The r e s t r i c interpretation  necessary.  In 1926 the U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme Court the V i l l a g e o f E u c l i d had a r i g h t determine i t s own c h a r a c t e r .  found  that  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  I n d u s t r i a l growth had!  extended t o t h e v i l l a g e and u n t i l  t h i s time  i t was assumed  t h a t t h e market s h o u l d d i c t a t e t h e course o f a c t i o n . S i n c e t h a t time t h e Courts o f t h a t c o u n t r y have  upheld  t h i s l o c a l community power t o be i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t except where i t s a p p l i c a t i o n was a r b i t r a r y . The  Canadian system o f law i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  G a l l i o n , op. c i t . ,  p. 168.  from  that described  above.  The r i g h t t o zone i s a  delegated  power o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e expressed i n an A c t o f t h a t body. I t s h o u l d  be p o i n t e d  out t h a t z o n i n g  regu-  l a t e s more than use o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s , as i t a l s o controls building heights,  bulk,  may, o f c o u r s e , i n c l u d e o t h e r  parking  p r o v i s i o n s , and  standards.  It i s inter-  e s t i n g t o note t h a t one a u t h o r s t a t e s t h a t  American 12  p l a n n e r s have had l i t t l e  i n f l u e n c e i n Canada,  B r i t i s h and home based i n n o v a t i o n s  have p r e v a i l e d .  P r i n c i p l e s o f I n d u s t r i a l Zoning. ipalities  andi t h a t  I n many munic-  t h e s o - c a l l e d open-ended by-law r e l e g a t e d most  l a n d uses t o the i n d u s t r i a l zone, t h e one f a m i l y being  t h e most p r o t e c t e d .  However, i n r e c e n t  district  years  this  approach has been u n a c c e p t a b l e .  No l o n g e r i s t h e s i n g l e  family residence  a t a l l c o s t and t h e  other  t o be p r o t e c t e d  land, uses g r a d u a l l y p e r m i t t e d  i n "lower"  zoning  districts. The. N a t i o n a l  I n d u s t r i a l Zoning  Committee ^suggested  c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s o f i n d u s t r i a l zoning are  1  i n 1951.  These  paraphrased! as f o l l o w s :  J.B. M i l n e r , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Z o n i n g E n a b l i n g L e g i s l a t i o n . P t . 2 Z o n i n g P r o c e d u r e s " , P l a n Canada IV (June, 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 7 IB  The  -'National I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g Committee Committee, 1 9 5 1 ) , pp. unnumbered.  (Columbus:  1. Most communities need, a c e r t a i n amount o f  industrial  development to produce a sound economy. 2.  Z o n i n g c o n t r o l s are b a s i c t o o l s i n r e s e r v a t i o n  of  space f o r i n d u s t r y , guidance o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n into a desirable pattern, f a c i l i t i e s and  p r o v i s i o n of r e l a t e d  a r e a s f o r convenience andi a balanced!  economy. 3.  Industry  i s a l e g i t i m a t e land! use  protection against land  e n t i t l e d to  encroachment by  non-industrial  uses.  4-. Through p r o p e r z o n i n g , i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s can be good n e i g h b o u r s . 5. Z o n i n g p r o v i d e s f o r a c o n t i n u i t y o f growth and  the  industrial  l a r g e r a r e a r e q u i r e m e n t s o f modern  plants. 6.  There i s need! f o r r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  industry  based on an a n a l y s i s of modern m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s and construction  the  p r e v a i l i n g p o l i c y of  so as to determine the  plant  desirability  or l a c k of d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a  given  district. 7.  The  i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l of lands bearing  favorable be 8.  r e l a t i o n s h i p to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  a  :  should  recognized.  I n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g and hand i n hand.  highway p l a n n i n g  should  go  65 9.  S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n should layout i n i n d u s t r i a l  10.  Zoning ordinances  be g i v e n to s t r e e t  areas.  should  be  permissive  r a t h e r than  sufficiently  definite  prohibitive. 11.  A good ordinance: should  be  t o convey to a\ l a n d owner a c l e a r concept o f what he 12.  can do w i t h h i s l a n d .  I n d u s t r i a l zoning metropolitan  The  can be most e f f e c t i v e on  a  basis.  r e p o r t thus i g n o r e d  a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l as  p o t e n t i a l goal of i n d u s t r i a l zoning.  a  P r o h i b i t i o n "from 14-  c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s o r the e n t i r e community"  of i n d u s t r i e s  which emit obnoxious smoke, n o i s e , dust  odours could'  be an o b j e c t i v e o f the  and  community's l a n d use  However, i n numbers s i x and  policies.  t e n above t h e r e i s a sugges:*-  t i o n t h a t performance s t a n d a r d s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d by zoning  the  authority. Another p o i n t o f view i s t h a t o f f e r e d ; by  Morris  Katz: The primary o b j e c t i v e o f p l a n n i n g i s t o ensure t h a t the normal growth o f i n d u s t r y and p o p u l a t i o n does not r e s u l t i n r a i s i n g the l e v e l o f p o l l u t i o n t o the p o i n t where i t becomes a< p e r s i s t e n t n u i s a n c e and a p o t e n t i a l hazard to h e a l t h . 15 American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l (Chicago: The S o c i e t y , 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 1 1 . M. Katz, " C i t y P l a n n i n g , I n d u s t r i a l P l a n t L o c a t i o n " , A i r P o l l u t i o n Handbook, P.L. M a g i l l , ed. I ork: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 5 6 ) , p.^, 9 . 15  (New  66 Gordon W h i t n a l l speaks o f t h e "atmospheric and  i t s contamination.  lives  along this  The g r e a t p r o b l e m  sewer  system" ^  i s that  everyone  1  open sewer and pure a i r o r a t l e a s t a i r  a t a c e r t a i n a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d ! may be d i f f i c u l t t o obtain.  C o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e source  of emissions  i n t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e may be p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l to the  problem. Conclusion.  and into  approach  segregates  The t y p i c a l  Zoning  these  b e i n g d r a w n upx>n a n  c a n a l s o "programme" d e v e l o p m e n t  o v e r a t i m e p e r i o d and d i r e c t given areas.  classifies  t h e v a r i o u s uses o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s  particular districts,  a t t a c h e d map.  zoning by-law  c e r t a i n types o f uses  into  The p r o b l e m s o f e x i s t i n g u s e s a n d d i v i d e d !  a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d .  Zoning  t o be more  effec-  t i v e m u s t t r a n s c e n d t h e m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r y a n d be employed as a r e g i o n a l t e c h n i q u e .  I t srole i n a i r  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s d i s c u s s e d below. IV. The  LOCATION OP INDUSTRY AND SOURCE CONTROL b a s i s f o r the point o f view  c o n t r o l may be p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l of atmospheric  that  approach  p o l l u t i o n has a l r e a d y been  locational t o abatement  presented!.  As p o p u l a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h c o n t i n u e i n l a r g e urban areas, the cumulative e f f e c t o f multiple: s o u r c e s o r a n a r e a s o u r c e w i l l r a p i d l y become a n a i r p o l l u t i o n problem. T h i s p r o b l e m e v o l v e s s i n c e no G. W h i t n a l l , " A t t a c k i n g Smog T h r o u g h Z o n i n g " , U r b a n P r o b l e m s a n d T e c h n i q u e s No. 1, P.L. N o r t o n , e d . (West T r e n t o n , N . J . : C h a n d l e r D a v i s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 2 0 5 .  67  s o u r c e c o n t r o l d e v i c e c a n be e c o n o m i c a l l y e n g i n e e r e d with 100$ efficiency. 17 Z o n i n g has been employed t o d i r e c t an a r e a ' s growth i n t h e interests of the welfare of i t s inhabitants. stated that  P r e n k i e l has  "one s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d , w i t h z o n i n g t h e u s e 18  of  t h e atmosphere above t h e l a n d . . . a i r z o n i n g " ,  to  regulate  the  emission.  The o b j e c t i v e w o u l d  i n order  be t o r e d u c e  p o t e n t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o l l u t a n t s by l o c a t i n g  s o u r c e s i n an optimum manner.  Por stationary sources  this 19  " r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d knowledge o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s . " Por the mobile source, reduction i n t r a v e l e m i s s i o n time) would  time  (and thus  mean t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n o f t r i p  dis-  t a n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f n o n - p o l l u t a n t e m i t t i n g modes; of  transportation.  internal  combustion  S i n c e abatement c o n t r o l s f o r t h e e n g i n e have been d e v e l o p e d and t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g a l r e a d y aims a t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n any c a s e i t i s p r o p o s e d source  t o d i s c u s s t h e bases  of stationary  control.  W.O. H o l l a n d e t . a l . , " I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g a s a. Means o f C o n t r o l l i n g A r e a S o u r c e A i r P o l l u t i o n " ( p a p e r r e a d a t 52nd a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c . , P i t t s b u r g h , June, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 1 9 . y  18 F.W. P r e n k i e l , " A t m o s p h e r i c P o l l u t i o n and! Z o n i n g i n Gur Urban Areas", S c i e n t i f i c Monthly LXXXVII ( A p r i l ,  1956),  195.  19 • ' J . J . Shueneman, " A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A d m i n i stration: P l a n n i n g and Z o n i n g " , A i r P o l l u t i o n ( I I ) , o p . c i t . , p . 424-.  ^  68 Fundamentals.  S i n c e t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s t h e medium  of p o l l u t a n t t r a n s m i s s i o n from t h e source t o t h e p o i n t o f r e c e p t i o n , t h e m e t e o r o l o g y o f an a r e a i s v i t a l attempt a t abatement.  t o any  T h e a t m o s p h e r e may b e t h o u g h t o f  as t h e d i f f u s i n g agent c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e non-meteorological  elements o f p h y s i c a l geography.  A i r flow i s  fundamental i n t h i s d i f f u s i o n process: "the g r e a t e r the w i n d s p e e d , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e t u r b u l e n c e a n d t h e more 20 r a p i d and complete The  i s the dispersion of contaminants".  d i r e c t i o n of the a i r flow i s o f importance t o sectors  o f a n a r e a down w i n d  from p o l l u t a n t s o u r c e s .  D i f f u s i o n i s made e f f e c t i v e w i t h t u r b u l e n c e o f b o t h m e c h a n i c a l and t h e r m a l d e r i v a t i o n . local  The f i r s t  i s caused by  t o p o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s w h i l e t h e s e c o n d . i s a: r e s u l t o f  solar radiation affecting vertical  temperature  gradients.  D i s p e r s i o n of contaminants i s the r e s u l t i n e i t h e r  case.  Sutton notes that the daytime temperature g r a d i e n t very near the g r o u n d f r e q u e n t l y amounts t o t h o u s a n d s o f t i m e s the d r y a d i a b a t i c lapse r a t e . 21 T h i s c o n c e p t i s i m p o r t a n t t o human l i f e  since the mixing  which takes place serves t o modify temperature  (Geneva:  extremes,  World: H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , A i r P o l l u t i o n T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 5 0 .  211  G. S u t t o n , M i c r o m e t e o r o l o g y , S c i e n t i f i c C C X I ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 4 ) 7 ~ p . 64.  American  69 permit evaporation  a n d r e m o v e p o i s o n s f r o m t h e a i r . The  l a p s e r a t e r e f e r r e d t o c o n c e r n s t h e " n o r m a l " 0.54- d e g r e e drop i n temperature w i t h each 100 f e e t o f a l t i t u d e . the  lapse rate i s greater than t h i s  are  enhanced,  Illustration of d i f f e r e n t lapse the is  f i g u r e a i r motions  and d i s p e r s i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d ,  l e s s than normal o r reversed  a i r a t ground  but i f i t i s  movement i s i m p e d e d .  I f o l l o w i n g t h i s page shows t h e e f f e c t s c o n d i t i o n s on s t a c k e f f l u e n t s .  level  o r w i t h i n the, l a y e r .  behaviour result  When  c o o l s more r a p i d l y a t s u n s e t t h e r e :  an i n v e r s i o n o f t h e g r a d i e n t , t h i s a i r being  below  When  trapped!  The f i v e m a j o r t y p e s o f p l u m e  f r o m t h e " l i m i t e d number o f c o n f i g u r -  ations of the v e r t i c a l  temperature gradient  that are  22 likely  t o occur i n nature". V e n t i l a t i o n i s t h e normal term employed t o d e s c r i b e  the d i s p e r s i o n process. gravity,  s t r o n g winds  artifically tally  S e l f - c l e a n s i n g i s accomplished by  a n d r a i n . V e n t i l a t i o n c a n n o t be a i d e d  even w i t h t a l l  and v e r t i c a l l y  s t a c k s , as a i r flow  i s t h e r m a l l y produced.  v a l l e y topography can confine and r e a l l y  atmospheric  horizon-  A basin or  contaminants  c r e a t e a most s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n ,  i n which  h o r i z o n t a l a i r f l o w s a r e impeded. Urban C l i m a t e .  Energy  U.S. D e p t . (Washington:  The c i t y h a s m a r k e d l y a f f e c t e d t h e  o f Commerce, M e t e o r o l o g y a n d A t o m i c The D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 5 9 .  WIND-  SUR.  TEMPERATURE  —  STRONG LAPSE CONDITION (LOOPINGI  . SUR.  TEMPERATURE —  WEAK LAPSE CONDITION (CONING)  SUR  TEMPERATURE  —  INVERSION CONDITION (FANNING)  SUR.  TEMPERATURE——  INVERSION BELOW, LAPSE ALOFT (LOFTING)  SUR.-  TEMPERATURE  —  '•.wV  LAPSE BELOW, INVERSION ALOFT (FUMIGATION)  DIFFERENT LAPSE CONDITIONS "SOURCE:: UJ.JS.. DEPT.. OF COMMERCE  c l i m a t e o f the a r e a i n which i t i s l o c a t e d : The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f a i r mass are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d by a town, t o a degree x dependent on the p h y s i c a l t r a i t s o f the s e t t l e m e n t . ^ 2  The  change i n atmospheric  c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h the  addition  o f the v a r i o u s e m i t t e d p r o d u c t s o f i n d u s t r y , domestic fires,  and motor v e h i c l e s has been s i g n i f i c a n t .  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t c i t i e s o r l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s do' indeed produce s i g n i f i c a n t temperature e f f e c t s and c o n s e q u e n t l y have a d i f f e r e n t temperature p r o f i l e than e x i s t s over the s u r r o u n d i n g countryside. 24 The  suspensions  a f f e c t the r a d i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s i n the  a r e a , a b s o r b i n g s u n l i g h t and p r e v e n t i n g c o o l i n g . range i s decreased reduces  Visual  and f o g s i n c r e a s e d which g r e a t l y  the number o f sunshine A i r temperatures  hours.  are n o r m a l l y r a i s e d even w i t h the  a b s o r p t i o n o f s o l a r energy by the p o l l u t e d cities  have  atmosphere.  "On  the average,  an annual temperature  1°C  (1.8°F) h i g h e r than t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . " ^ At 2  s t r e e t l e v e l the d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be much h i g h e r , urban temperatures tures.  of  This  these  u s u a l l y b e i n g measured on h i g h s t r u c -  effect  has been c a l l e d  the  heat  island.  23 <E.N. Lawrence, " M i c r o c l i m a t o l o g y and the Town P l a n n e r " , Weather IX (No. 8, 1 9 5 4 ) , 228. 2 / <  T J . S . Dept. o f Commerce, op. c i t . ,  25 ^H. Landsberg, P h y s i c a l C l i m a t o l o g y Penna.: Gray P r i n t i n g Co., 1 9 6 2 ; , p. 3 2 0 .  p.  32.  (DuBois,  71 Wind v e l o c i t i e s development reduced  o f urban  from  ventilation.  a l s o a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e p h y s i c a l areas.  The w i n d  speed  10$ t o 15$, t h e r e s u l t  being  Cloudiness, precipitation  and  i s usually decreased relative  26 humidity are also affected. convenient  Landsberg  h a s p r o v i d e d . a.  table: TABLE I URBAN CLIMATE  Element  Compared t o R u r a l E n v i r o n s  Contaminants dust p a r t i c l e s sulphur dioxide carbon dioxide c a r b o n monoxide Radiation t o t a l on h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e ultraviolet, winter u l t r a v i o l e t , summer Cloudiness clouds fogs, winter f o g s , summer Precipitation amounts days w i t h l e s s than 0.2 i n . Temperature a n n u a l mean w i n t e r minima R e l a t i v e Humidity a n n u a l mean winter summer Wind Speed a n n u a l mean extreme g u s t s calms Source:  10 5 10 25  times times times times  1 5 t o 20% l e s s less 5% l e s s 5 t o 10% more 100% more 30% more 5 t o 10% more 10% more 1  t o l.5°F more 2 t o 3 0 ° P more 6% l e s s 2% l e s s 8% l e s s 2 0 t o 30% l e s s 10 t o 2 0 % l e s s 5 t o 2 0 % more  Landsberg  Landsberg,  more more more more  op. c i t . , pp. 323-26.  72 It  should  an o r d e r  be r e c o g n i z e d  that the preceeding  table indicates  o f m a g n i t u d e o n l y , a n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r i e d f o r any g i v e n urban Air  Zoning.  a l r e a d y been  area.  The c o n c e p t o f a t m o s p h e r i c z o n i n g h a s  introduced.  The u s e f u l n e s s , o f t h e a i r s h e d c o n c e p t f o r p l a n n i n g to p r e v e n t and c o n t r o l a i r p o l l u t i o n w i l l h i n g e on a b i l i t y t o determine d i l u t i o n c a p a c i t i e s and a i r pollution levels with objectivity. 27 Professional meteorological  assistance w i l l  any  such attempt, and i t should  will  r e q u i r e knowledge n o t o n l y  be needed, f o r  be s t r e s s e d  that  zoning  o f a i r movement b u t o f  microclimate. R.E.  Munn h a s d e s c r i b e d  associated with industrial  t h e complex  problems  l o c a t i o n and t h e f a c t o r s t o 28  c o n s i d e r i n an a i r z o n i n g threshold  decision.  The  allowable  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p o l l u t a n t s and t h e  future population density d i s t r i b u t i o n should If  several tracts of potential industrial  deemed a c c e p t a b l e rail  by other  criteria  s e r v i c e s , topography, s i t e  land  be known. were  such as water  supply,  c o s t and so on t h e  'F.W. H e r r i n g , " E f f e c t s o f A i r P o l l u t i o n o n U r b a n P l a n n i n g and Development", N a t i o n a l Conference on A i r P o l l u t i o n (Washington: P u b l i c Health Service,"196377 p. 1 9 1 . 28 R.E. Munn, "The A p p l i c a t i o n o f An A i r P o l l u t i o n C l i m a t o l o g y t o Town P l a n n i n g " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f A i r P o l l u t i o n , I ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 277.  73 m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r would.then be i n t r o d u c e d .  Several  mechanisms can l e a d t o a i r p o l l u t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t ground l e v e l , but i t i s a i r s t a b i l i t y and wind movement which most d i r e c t l y determine the c a p a b i l i t y o f the atmos29  phere o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n t o d i s p e r s e a i r p o l l u t i o n . Winds may be examined! b o t h a t the s u r f a c e and a l o f t . D a i l y and s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s o c c u r i n f r e q u e n c y ocity.  P o r l a p s e and i n v e r s i o n c o n d i t i o n s ( i n r e a l i t y  day and n i g h t ) f r e q u e n c i e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . study  and v e l -  In a  o f t h e Ottawa a r e a i t was found t h a t the i n v e r s i o n  p e r i o d was from sunset  t o one hour a f t e r s u n r i s e  while  30  the l a p s e p e r i o d o c c u p i e d o f wind which s h o u l d  the balance.-^  The f r e q u e n c i e s  be s t u d i e d a r e those d u r i n g t h e  n i g h t i n v e r s i o n p e r i o d . Munn, i n f a c t , would examine t h e f r e q u e n c i e s i n the t h r e e hour "morning change-over" ^ o r fumigation  p e r i o d . The i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n v e r s i o n may be  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r any s e t o f s t a t i o n s . Munn found t h a t t h e r e was some d i f f e r e n c e between wind f r e q u e n c i e s a t D e t r o i t under s p e c i f i e d m e t e o r o l o g i c a l conditions: 2 9  Ibid.,  p. 2 7 9 .  30  Statement o f J.H. E m s l i e , Department o f T r a n s p o r t ( A i r P o l l u t i o n C l i m a t o l o g i s t ) , Vancouver A i r p o r t , J a n . 8 , 1963. 31  R.E. Munn e t . _ a l . , A P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s o f the I n v e r s i o n C l i m a t o l o g y oI^Sou^Hern O n t a r i o (Toronto: ~ M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 1 .  74 TABLE I I WIND FREQUENCIES AT DETROIT  Wind D i r e c t i o n O v e r a l l Frequency Fumigation Period Frequency Source: The  15 14  N  N 9 10  E E 10 10  S 8 6  E  S 14 13  S W W 15 17 16 17  N W 13 16  C 1 0  Munn. d i f f e r e n c e s were " a t e x a c t l y t h e 95 p e r  significant  32 cent  confidence  populated.area  level."  Forfixed  industrial  d i s t a n c e s from t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e s w o u l d be c h o -  sen i n t h e e a s t e r n quadrant o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Although  area.  Munn e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o s i m p l e ;  r e l a t i o n s h i p between g r o u n d - l e v e l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and d i s t a n c e s downwind f r o m t h e e m i s s i o n s o u r c e a ratio nate  technique  f o r d e c i s i o n making between two a l t e r -  areas:  V E F^ j ^ f " 2  ±  F The  he d i d d e v e l o p  2  1  0  7  2  1  E  2  F  2  .X l 1  v a r i a b l e s are as follows: X^—distance  from s i t e A t o urban area 0  X —Distance  from s i t e B t o urban area 0  2  E-jj—ground l e v e l  c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t 0 when d o w n w i n d  f r o m A\ E  2—ground  level  c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t 0 when d o w n w i n d  from B ^ M u n n , op. c i t . , p. 2 8 3 . 2  F^—frequency of fumigations  w i t h wind d i r e c t i o n  AO  F — f r e q u e n c y of fumigations  w i t h wind:, d i r e c t i o n  BO  2  n  —stability i.e.,  parameter ( r e l a t e d  t o wind  gustiness  0.2 t o 0.4)  " I f t h e r a t i o i s g r e a t e r t h a n one c h o o s e s i t e B; i f l e s s 33 t h a n o n e , c h o o s e A." zoning so the  concept l i e s  The r a n g e o f i n t e r e s t i n distances  i n his a i r  o f more t h a n t w o m i l e s ,  t h a t t h e p u f f o f smoke b r o u g h t down t o g r o u n d l e v e l , looping  p l u m e , i s o f no c o n c e r n .  Conclusion. industries Intense  A i rzoning  i n certain districts  meteorological  reasonable  would allow  study  o f the area  models such as t h a t  t o be t h o r o u g h l y  control. a.  t h e a i r move-  documented.  Simple  c o n t r i b u t e d : b y Munn may a i d , h o w e v e r ,  i n making d e c i s i o n s even w i t h d e t a i l e d logical  under  i s necessary t o provide  b a s i s f o r t h i s form o f zoning,  ment a n d f l o w h a v i n g  or prohibit  microclimato-  information.  V. The  SUMMARY  s e n i o r governments have c h i e f l y been concerned!  w i t h i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n from the socio-economic p o i n t o f view.  The U n i t e d : K i n g d o m w e n t b e y o n d t h e i n d i r e c t  ment r o l e  to that of centralized  Ibid.,  p. 284.  control  induce-  of industrial  76 development. not  I n North  America t h i s degree o f c o n t r o l  be d e s i r e d b u t i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i z e  inducements f o ri n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n  may  indirect  planning.  L o c a l government has c h i e f l y been concerned  with  p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g by zoning which p r o t e c t s t h e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t and t h e r e s i d e n t from each o t h e r y e t g u i d e s growth.  areal  S p a t i a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have g e n e r a l l y  p r e v a i l e d ! i n z o n i n g l a w . The h i s t o r y o f z o n i n g , a s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , was o n e o f c o u r t  interpretation  u n l i k e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Canada where t h e P r o v i n c i a l legislatures Zoning  provided municipal planning enabling Acts.  h a s been d e s c r i b e d ! as a method o f c o n t r o l l i n g  locations  source  of a i r pollution.  Meteorology  provides the basis f o r a i r zoning of  areas, w i t h wind data o f v a r i o u s k i n d s being important i n regards  to a i r pollution control.  The c i t y h a s had: a n  immense e f f e c t o n c l i m a t e , k n o w n a s a h e a t  island.  One?:  u s e f u l m e t h o d f o r a i r z o n i n g was i n t r o d u c e d b y R.E. Munn i n an attempt  to simplify the analysis of i n d u s t r i a l  location related  t o such  control.  D e t a i l e d knowledge  o f a r e a m i c r o c l i m a t e s h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d ! t o be  important  i n a i r z o n i n g d e c i s i o n s a n d t h e m e t h o d w o u l d n o t make such  a background  unnecessary.  77 CHAPTER V AREA SOURCE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL I. The  "cumulative  INTRODUCTION e f f e c t o f the r e s i d u a l e m i s s i o n  from many sources i n an a r e a has been termed 'Area Source'. ""** T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e the e f f o r t s i n two metrop o l i t a n areas i n N o r t h America t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and l a n d use p l a n n i n g  administrations  i n o r d e r more e f f e c t i v e l y t o reduce atmospheric levels.  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a t h e o r e t i c a l  pollution  illustration  o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e s i n the abatement o f a i r p o l l u t i o n .  Thereupon,  considerations  o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d . II. The  AIR POLLUTION CONTROL IN LOS ANGELES M e t r o p o l i t a n Area.  L o s Angeles County doubled  i n p o p u l a t i o n from 1941 t o I960 b e i n g s i x m i l l i o n a t the 2 l a t t e r date. T h i s increment i s expected t o be added t o  W.D. H o l l a n d j e t . a l . , I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g as a Means o f C o n t r o l l i n g A r e a Source A i r P o l l u t i o n ( P i t t s b u r g h : A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959;, p. 1. 2 M. B r e i v o g e l , e t . a l . , A i r P o l l u t i o n — - P o t e n t i a l A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e f o r I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g Cases (Los A n g e l e s : Air P o l l u t i o n Control D i s t r i c t , 1966), p. 2.  r e s u l t i n g im a p o p u l a t i o n o f 10 filling  million  completely-  the b a s i n i n which the urban a r e a i s s i t u a t e d .  There a r e 70  municipal  j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the County w i t h  the power to c o n t r o l l a n d use, ated c i t i e s and The  t o 12  C i t y and  the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d  incorpor-  p o r t i o n o f the  County o f Los Angeles t o g e t h e r  approximately No  r e p r e s e n t i n g 69  County.  account f o r  60 p e r cent o f the l a n d a r e a and! p o p u l a t i o n .  r e g i o n a l o r metropolitan-wide  i n Los Angeles t o c o o r d i n a t e  authority exists  a l l the l o c a l  e f f o r t s through a b i n d i n g p l a n .  planning  I n c o r p o r a t i o n law  has  a c t u a l l y encouraged the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n number o f separate  jurisdictions.  Annexation by c i t i e s has  impeded: by the c r e a t i o n o f new 1954  to 1963.  c i t i e s , 29  period  T h i s urban m u l t i p l i c i t y has meant t h a t  "the p o t e n t i a l f o r . . . a comprehensive and ning a c t i v i t y "  i n the  been  has been l a c k i n g and  extensive  t h a t an  plan-  interagency  c o o p e r a t i v e approach has been e s s e n t i a l . Los A n g e l e s  1  l o c a t i o n i n a topographic  basin  has  s e r i o u s l y augmented the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem. With an i n v e r s i o n a t such an a l t i t u d e as t o be below the rounding  mountain summits, and  o f f - s e a breezes,  surcontam-  ^W.W. Crouch and;. R.N. G i o r d a n o , "The Example o f D a i r y V a l l e y " , The Yearbook o f A g r i c u l t u r e 1963 (Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963), p. 4-91. \.  B r e i v o g e l , e t . a l . , op.  c i t . , p. 4-.  i n a n t s a r e trapped  i n the topographic  basin.  Ventilation  cannot take p l a c e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n thus t h e a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y went so f a r as t o recommend: p r o h i b i t i o n 5 o f new i n d u s t r i a l s o u r c e s i n p a r t s o f the County. A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l . In C a l i f o r n i a a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s a county r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Intercounty a i r  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l d i s t r i c t s have a l s o been created! by l e g i s l a t i o n , the b e s t example b e i n g P o l l u t i o n Control D i s t r i c t .  the San F r a n c i s c o A i r  Standards are being  the s t a t e l e v e l by t h e S t a t e Board o f H e a l t h  set at  f o r both the  County C o n t r o l D i s t r i c t s and the S t a t e Motor V e h i c l e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board. I n L o s Angeles t h e A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l has  District  a p p l i e d an " i n t e n s i v e sourSe c o n t r o l program"  the e a r l y 1950's.  since  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e  average d a i l y e m i s s i o n  l e v e l from d i f f e r e n t l a n d uses i n  t o n s p e r day: AIR  TABLE I I I POLLUTION EMISSIONS IN LOS ANGELES  Category Streets Industrial Commercial Residential Source:  Inorganic bases  Organic bases  Aerosols  4684 1952 58 nil  950 890 111 nil  34 67 5 nil  A.P.CD.,  Hif. H o l l a n d ,  1959.  e t . a l . , op. c i t . , p. 19.  °M. B r e i v o g e l , e t . a l . , o p . c i t . , p. 10.  Total 5668 2909 174 nil  80 The  programme, aimed! a t c o n t r o l o f the motor v e h i c l e , h a d l  not been implemented! by 1959 so t h a t " s t r e e t s " produce l e s s w i t h i n t e n y e a r s , of being  devices  should  now i n the p r o c e s s  i n s t a l l e d ! on a l l new v e h i c l e s .  With  higher  c e n t r a l a r e a d e n s i t i e s i n f u t u r e , and l e s s t r i p m i l e s p e r c a p i t a , the i n c r e a s e than t h e i n d u s t r i a l . ' emissions,  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y may be much l e s s 7  Of the t o t a l s t a t i o n a r y source  93% a r e o f i n d u s t r i a l  Administrative  character.  Integration.  l a n d use c o n t r o l a r e d i f f i c u l t  P o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and  to integrate i n t h i s  multi-  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , b u t t h e C i t y and t h e County b o t h send z o n i n g  cases t o t h e c o n t r o l d i s t r i c t  t h e i r r e v i e w and recommendations. operation  technicians f o r  T h i s two t o t h r e e week  analyzes i n d u s t r i a l zoning  a p p l i c a t i o n s which  c o u l d c r e a t e new a i r contaminant s o u r c e s .  A list  was  p r e p a r e d by C o n t r o l D i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l t o a i d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f problem l a n d uses by the p l a n n i n g o f t h e two j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  F o r s i n g l e sources  staffs  Control  D i s t r i c t recommendations were adopted as c o n d i t i o n s 64-% o f t h e time, w h i l e a f u r t h e r 22% were g e n e r a l l y I n o n l y 14-% o f cases the p l a n n i n g the  accepted.  a u t h o r i t y d i d n o t adopt  recommendations. Recommendations f o r a r e a  difficult  source s i t u a t i o n s are  to formulate:  M. B r e i v o g e l , e t . a l . , op. c i t . , p. 10.  The Los Angeles County e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t z o n i n g cases i n v o l v i n g expansion o r c r e a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s do not r e a d i l y l e n d themselves t o g a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a n a l y s e s and recommendations. The M e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g P l a n concept was  an  Q  attempt  t o use  predictive  techniques.  The  natural  d i l u t i o n c a p a c i t y o f the atmosphere i n d i f f e r e n t community a i r s t a n d a r d s , and a n a l y s i s  of  areas,  p r e s e n t and  f u t u r e s o u r c e s were t o be employed. The whole County  was  a n a l y z e d f o r wind t r a j e c t o r i e s t h r o u g h the use o f computer methods, though d i s p e r s i o n h o r i z o n t a l l y and r e s u l t i n g from g u s t i n e s s and m i x i n g was account.  A r e g u l a t i o n was  vertically  not t a k e n i n t o  proposed, t o d i v i d e the County  i n t o f o u r major a r e a s , r e s t r i c t i n g e x p a n s i o n o f u n d e s i r a b l e p r o c e s s e s i n two " s i n c e i t was  felt  o f them.  t h a t i t was  T h i s was  never  enacted  n e c e s s a r y t o g e t h e r more  substantiating data". ^ 1  In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l case review i t was  felt  t h a t many a i r p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d be  i n c o r p o r a t e d . i n the z o n i n g c l a s s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o f f i c i a l s the use l i s t  approach.  the a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e was  I t was  r e c o g n i z e d however, t h a t  o n l y an i n t e r i m s i t u a t i o n  M. B r e i v o g e l , e t . a l . , op. c i t . , 'Holland, e t . a l . , op. c i t . , ' i b i d . , p.  19.  advocated  p. 2.  p.  26.  since  82 if  a l l municipalities  p a r t i c i p a t e d , i t w o u l d mean 2 , 0 0 0  h o u r s o f m e e t i n g s p e r week i f t e c h n i c i a n s w e r e t o their  arguments."''  1  Conclusion.  Mandatory r e g u l a t i o n i s r e a l l y  n e c e s s i t y f o r complete area source is  to judge from the Los  location  control officials  municipal  planning  there  metropolitan a i r zoning.  The  i n a i r zoning  III.  AIR  Edmonton. palities the  and Since  had  be  i n t o the v a r i a b l e s  research  two the  now  The  has  been  completed,  been  reached.  Dominion Bureau  include five  1961  c e n s u s two  t h a t 34-9,232 o f t h e  of  municipalities,  urban, i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n  been amalgamated t o the  P r o v i n c e , so  to  POLLUTION CONTROL I N EDMONTON  boundaries  three r u r a l  subject  f o r i n d u s t r y has  The; M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . Statistics  that a l l  c a p a c i t y . I t would appear t h a t i n  A n g e l e s where t h e p i o n e e r  a stalemate  he  air  a c t u a l a i r zones would  d e f i n e d by m e t e o r o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h affecting a i r dilution  The  have c o n c l u d e d  authorities should  of  c o n t r o l i f one  Angeles experience.  pollution  Los  present  of  other urban  Greater munici-  C i t y o f Edmonton  by  373,806 p e o p l e i n  12 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a were r e s i d e n t s o f t h e C i t y by  1:L  M.  B r e i v o g e l , e t . a l . , op.  cit.,  p.  1964-.  29.  12  Report  Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, A n n u a l (Edmonton: The C o m m i s s i o n , 1964-), p. 17.  the  83 By 1980 a p o p u l a t i o n o f 660,000 has been f o r e c a s t f o r the 13  Metropolitan Area. ^ B e f o r e the d i s c o v e r y o f o i l n e a r Leduc, 30 m i l e s s o u t h o f Edmonton, i n 1947  the C i t y had been a s e r v i c e  c e n t r e and p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l w i t h a l i m i t e d amount o f 14 industry.  The economy changed d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h i s  i o d and new  p e t r o c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d  south-east Strathcona.  o f the C i t y i n what i s now  per-  the County o f  By 1961 the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area was  selling  $436 m i l l i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l produce a n n u a l l y , ^ r a n k i n g 1  e i g h t h i n Canada.  Three l a r g e o i l r e f i n e r i e s , a l a r g e  p e t r o c h e m i c a l p l a n t , a l a r g e ore r e f i n i n g p l a n t , a s t e e l p l a n t and o t h e r s have been i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e a r e a . The P l a n n i n g Commission.  I t was  on June 26,  1950  t h a t a; p l a n n i n g commission was formed t o c o o r d i n a t e developmental p a t t e r n s i n an a r e a around and the C i t y o f Edmonton.  The body, now  including  known as the R e g i o n a l  13 Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Metrop o l i t a n Edmonton T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study ( I ) (Edmonton: The Commission, 1963), p. 14. P. M a r l y n and H.N. L a s h , "The Edmonton D i s t r i c t : A C i t y Centred M u l t i p l e Resource Region", Resources f o r Tomorrow ( I ) (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961J, p. 459. 15 ^Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , The M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s o f Canada 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964), p. 104. E d m o n t o n D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, Annual (Edmonton: The Commission, 1951), p. 7.  16  Report  84 Planning  Commission, i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the  C o u n c i l s o f the v a r i o u s m u n c i p a l i t i e s and o f f i c i a l s o f p r o v i n c i a l departments. Land use p o l i c i e s f o r the metrop o l i t a n a r e a were c o n s i d e r e d t h a t by May 1951  t o be o f h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y so  a r e p o r t had been prepared  recommending  17 a "Broad Land Use P l a n " .  Though t h i s was a c c e p t e d  as ai  guide i t was not b i n d i n g on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and i t should  be noted t h a t i n d u s t r y was not a l l o c a t e d t o s i m p l y  one zone.  A y e a r l a t e r , however, r e q u i r e m e n t s were more  severe so t h a t any i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t which would emit " n o i s e , odor, fumes, e t c . which can be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the Urban Land Use Zone must be s i t e d . . . i n r e l a t i o n t o p r e v a i l i n g 18 winds"  and be a p r o p e r d i s t a n c e from t h a t zone. Many o f t h e l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s d e s c r i b e d above were  l o c a t e d i n the i n d u s t r i a l zone t o the e a s t o f t h e C i t y . Canadian I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , f o r example, though o r i g i n a l l y purchasing  l a n d i n the urban zone was p r e v a i l e d upon t o  l o c a t e f u r t h e r e a s t i n the i n d u s t r i a l zone.  Inland  Cement Co. c o u l d o n l y l o c a t e t o the north-west because o f abatement c o n t r o l s t h a t were t o be  installed.  I n 1 9 5 5 , moreover, the Commission became t h e 'Edmonton D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, Annual Report (Edmonton: The Commission, 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 3 . 18 Report  Edmonton D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, Annual (Edmonton: The Commission, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 9 .  85 s u b d i v i s i o n a u t h o r i t y i n the a r e a beyond the c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s o f the C i t y so t h a t p a r c e l l a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n c o u l d be u t i l i z e d t o p r e v e n t u n d e s i r a b l e development. changes a l s o o c c u r r e d due t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n recommendations  o f t h e McNally  Other of several  R o y a l Commission which  was  empowered by the P r o v i n c e t o i n v e s t i g a t e m e t r o p o l i t a n matters. The Royal Commission.  The McNally  Commission  was  empowered, i n f a c t , t o study the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c i n g o f s c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n the metrop o l i t a n areas o f Edmonton and C a l g a r y .  D u r i n g 1955  i n q u i r y was made which a r r i v e d a t c e r t a i n  an  recommendations,  many o f which, because o f the f o c u s on problems o f r a p i d growth, p e r t a i n e d t o p l a n n i n g .  Amalgamation  of fringe  suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was the key i s s u e , but the Royal Commission a l s o recommended t h a t the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commissions i n the two a r e a s be g i v e n a u t h o r i t y t o have prepared  and t o adopt d i s t r i c t g e n e r a l p l a n s .  I n 1957  under amendments t o the P l a n n i n g A c t t h i s  a u t h o r i t y was g i v e n t o the two p l a n n i n g commissions o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s . A l l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g comm i s s i o n s by the new  1963  P l a n n i n g A c t possessed! s i m i l a r  "Report o f the R o y a l Commission on t h e Metrop o l i t a n Development o f C a l g a r y and Edmonton (Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 7 . 2 .  86 powers.  The m e t r o p o l i t a n  zoning  p l a n f o r Edmonton was  adopted i n e a r l y 1 9 5 8 , and i s s t i l l  i n f o r c e today, as  amended! and c o n s o l i d a t e d , as t h e P r e l i m i n a r y R e g i o n a l Metropolitan  Plan,  Part.  I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n C o n t r o l . In 1957 o f the 1 2 , 6 5 3 acres  o f l a n d a l l o c a t e d t o i n d u s t r y 5 , 4 8 7 were  being 20  utilized,  and 7,146 remained f o r f u t u r e usage.  I n the  1 9 5 8 p l a n two major p r o v i s i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d  regarding  air pollutant industries: 1.  They c o u l d be f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s o f t h e zone and/or s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s .  2.  Where they were p a r t i c u l a r l y n o x i o u s ,  reclassifi-  c a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d would be Since  permitted.  e v e r y m u n i c i p a l i t y e x e r c i s e s development c o n t r o l t o  implement the p l a n , l o c a l p o l i c i e s would be r e q u i r e d . The main amendment w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t o development a p p l i c a t i o n s  s i n c e 1 9 5 8 concerned recommendations  o f the P r o v i n c i a l  S a n i t a r y Engineer. A l l s i n g l e source a p p l i c a t i o n s suspected  o f being an atmospheric problem a r e r e v i e w e d , but  rezoning  d e c i s i o n s a t the r e g i o n a l o r m u n i c i p a l  level  have  not been r e f e r r e d t o him. E a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y may f u r t h e r d e f i n e  municipal  zoning  d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the Major I n d u s t r i a l Zone o f t h e  Report  Edmonton D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, Annual (Edmonton: The Commission, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 7 .  m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n , based on p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d t o d e v e l o p ment.  The  C i t y o f Edmonton has d i v i d e d the R e g i o n a l  P l a n n i n g Commission's m e t r o p o l i t a n zone i n t o M - l , M-2, M-3  districts.  W i t h i n each o f t h e s e c l a s s e s ,  have been d r a f t e d which c o n t r o l the f o l l o w i n g a b l e f e a t u r e s as t o how  f a r t h e y may  become  and  regulations objection-  "apparent  21 beyond any  building":  1. n o i s e 2.  vibration  3.  smoke, d u s t and o t h e r k i n d s o f p a r t i c u l a t e  4.  odour  5. t o x i c and noxious 6. r a d i a t i o n 7. f i r e  matter  matters  hazards  and e x p l o s i v e hazards  8. h e a t , h u m i d i t y and  glare  F o r the M-l zone t h i s type o f c o n d i t i o n i s not p e r m i t t e d beyond the b u i l d i n g h o u s i n g the p r o c e s s . boundary l i n e o f the s i t e i s t h e l i m i t i n the M-2, the boundary of the z o n i n g d i s t r i c t  f o r the M-3.  r a d i a t i o n h a z a r d s , f o r example, would presumably  The and  In f a c t , be  c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g i n a l l c a s e s , whereas smoke does not r e s p e c t b o u n d a r i e s .  I t i s important to  note however, t h a t the by-law does not have the o r d i n a r y list  o f p e r m i s s i b l e u s e s , t h a t any n o n - i n d u s t r i a l use o f  C i t y o f Edmonton, Z o n i n g By-law (Edmonton: The C i t y o f Edmonton, 1961), s s . 26-28.  88 a commercial n a t u r e  i s c o n d i t i o n a l o n l y , and t h a t o t h e r  uses a r e g e n e r a l l y p r o h i b i t e d . Where t h e r e i s no such z o n i n g by-law, t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y e x e r c i s e s development c o n t r o l .  Every  application  has t o be approved! by the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l b e f o r e d e v e l o p ment can proceed.  The r e g i o n a l p l a n and m u n i c i p a l  passed! by c o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n pursuant  policies  t o t h e development  c o n t r o l by-law a r e t h e c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A i r Pollution Control.  S e c t i o n s 24 and 25 o f t h e  P u b l i c Health Act o f the Province o f A l b e r t a permit the P r o v i n c i a l Board o f H e a l t h t o i n q u i r e i n t o and hear comp l a i n t s i n r e g a r d s t o a i r p o l l u t i o n . B e f o r e t h e source may be e l i m i n a t e d o r a degree o f treatment Court o r d e r i s n e c e s s a r y .  s p e c i f i e d , a*  The Board may make and i s s u e  r e g u l a t i o n s s u b j e c t t o the approval o f the Lieutenant Governor i n C o u n c i l .  The purpose o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s was  as f o l l o w s : the p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e p o l l u t i o n , d e f i l e m e n t o r f o u l i n g o f the atmosphere and the r e g u l a t i o n o f p l a n t s , i n d u s t r i e s and p i p e l i n e s d i s c h a r g i n g pp c h e m i c a l o r o t h e r waste m a t t e r i n t o t h e atmosphere. They were passed by the c a b i n e t on September 15, 1961, a p p l i e d t o new s o u r c e s a t once, and a l l s o u r c e s f i v e y e a r s  later. ^  The P u b l i c H e a l t h A c t ( O f f i c e C o n s o l i d a t i o n ) , (Edmonton! Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 s . 7 ( u ) . 23 • ^ P r o v i n c i a l Board o f H e a l t h , R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e C o n t r o l o f A i r P o l l u t i o n (Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961), s. 7.  2  89 The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s cooperate  i n measurement and i n  r e f e r r a l o f problems t o the S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f H e a l t h , who a d m i n i s t e r the r e g u l a t i o n s . A l b e r t a i s the o n l y P r o v i n c e i n Canada which "has  assumed  24direct responsibility", and  ignoring municipal  boundaries  a p p l y i n g p r o v i n c e wide abatement r u l e s . Pollution Levels.  atmospheric  I n May  o f 1964- a s u r v e y  p o l l u t i o n s o u r c e s was  of  commenced! i n the Edmon-  t o n M e t r o p o l i t a n Area by the S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f P u b l i c H e a l t h . A q u e s t i o n a i r e t e c h n i q u e was  employed i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e d a t a  t o e v a l u a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f 210  s p e c i f i c sources.  q u a l i t y o f the a i r i n the a r e a was except  f o r the presence  and The  considered quite safe  o f hydrocarbons.  smog f o r m a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a was  However, the considered high,  and e x i s t i n g e m i s s i o n q u a n t i t i e s h i g h f o r a c i t y  of  25  Edmonton'SB p o p u l a t i o n s i z e .  ^  F i v e key recommendations r e s u l t e d from the r e p o r t which was  produced:  1. Hydrocarbon e m i s s i o n s be c o n t r o l l e d  through  24M. Katz, " A i r P o l l u t i o n as a Canadian R e g i o n a l Problem", Resources f o r Tomorrow—Supplementary Volume (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961), p. 1 3 5 . 25 J . J . R o l s t o n , A Study o f A i r P o l l u t i o n Sources and t h e i r S i g n i f i c a n c e i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a (Edmonton: Dept. o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , 1964), p. i v .  90  a) r e g u l a t i o n o f garbage and r e f u s e i n c i n e r a t i o n b) r e g u l a t i o n o f p e t r o c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y e m i s s i o n c ) c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s w i t h the automobile 2. The  p r e s e n t a i r m o n i t o r i n g network be  industry  expanded.  3. L o c a l i z e d p o l l u t i o n s o u r c e s s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d o r minimized  by the use o f c o n t r o l equipment o r  careful plant location. 4-. Continued  s u r v e i l l a n c e o f new  industry. 26  5. An i n c r e a s e d use o f source sampling What appears t o be l a c k i n g , however, was thought The  surveys.  a conscious  o f the r o l e o f a r e a source l o c a t i o n a l  control.  t h i r d recommendation r e c o g n i z e s the r o l e o f l o c a t i o n  f o r the n u i s a n c e  industries:  "asphaltic concrete plants,  p l a s t i c p l a n t s , meat p a c k i n g p l a n t s and r e n d e r i n g 27 plants".  There e x i s t s a l s o a need f o r c o n s c i o u s a i r  p o l l u t i o n goals i n metropolitan i n d u s t r i a l land  allo-  cation. The o f the  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s  survey:  2  ^ R o l s t o n , op. c i t . ,  2 7  Ibid.  p. v.  91 TABLE IV AIR  POLLUTION EMISSION LEVELS AT EDMONTON  CategoryTons p e r  year  Tons per  day  % of  131,748 361  Puel  8,778  80,891 222  37.2  total Source:  The  I n d u s t r y I n c i n e r a t i o n Dom.  Auto.  132,930 364-  24-  2.3  22.8  A l b e r t a Dept. o f P u b l i c  37.5  Health  r e s u l t s show t h a t i n d u s t r i a l atmospheric  pollution  w i l l be the major problem once automobile e m i s s i o n s brought under c o n t r o l .  T h i s may,  i n f a c t , occur  l e g i s l a t i o n , s i n c e American manufacturers are  are  without  now  i n s t a l l i n g exhaust c o n t r o l s on a l l c a r s though o n l y required i n C a l i f o r n i a .  Crankcase c o n t r o l d e v i c e s were  i n s t a l l e d i n Canadian p l a n t s , a f t e r s u c h a move i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , so t h a t i t i s probable  t h a t the  exhaust 28  c o n t r o l d e v i c e s w i l l s i m i l a r l y be put i n p l a c e . r e s u l t would be a 90  The  p e r cent r e d u c t i o n i n motor v e h i c l e  emissions. P u b l i c Opinion.  Though newspaper r e f e r e n c e s  to  a i r p o l l u t i o n seem u s u a l l y to be exaggerated i n o r d e r impress r e a d e r s  they do h e l p c r e a t e a p u b l i c o p i n i o n  t h a t c o n t r o l s h o u l d be  R o l s t o n , op.  implemented:  c i t . , pp.  36-7.  to  Governments a t a l l l e v e l s s h o u l d be l e a d i n g the way i n e l i m i n a t i n g the causes o f a i r p o l l u t i o n witlvjg i t s i n c a l c u l a b l e danger t o human l i f e and h e a l t h . y  I t would be q u i t e r i g h t t o say t h a t almost  every  citizen  would support t h i s view, u n l e s s he happened t o be o f f e n d e r . P r o f e s s o r T.Blanch  has asked  an  "Doesn't the  public  r e a l i z e the danger t o t h e i r h e a l t h and t o M e t r o p o l i t a n 30 Edmonton?"-'  He,  l i k e the j o u r n a l i s t , was  attempting  i n f o r m them t h a t t h e y s h o u l d not o n l y do so, but  to  through  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t groups u t i l i z e the law i n a b a t i n g the p o l l u t i o n  nuisance.  Administrative Integration.  In order to achieve  the g o a l o f an a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d o f c l e a n a i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f atmospheric planning, c o n t r o l i s necessary. presented i n e a r l i e r chapters. l i m i t e d i n t e g r a t i o n now  pollution  and  Such i s the c o n t e n t i o n I n the Edmonton a r e a a  e x i s t s , since planning permission  and Department o f H e a l t h a p p r o v a l are n e c e s s a r y  before  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new  munici-  p a l i t y concerned  p o l l u t i o n s o u r c e . The  sends i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  the  development a p p l i c a t i o n t o the S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r , sends back h i s recommendations.  %he editorial. 2  1965.  I n f a c t , any  and  industrial  Edmonton J o u r n a l , November 21, 1964-,  ^°Ibid., "The  he  J o u r n a l f o r D i s s e n t " , January  12,  development a p p r o v a l i s g e n e r a l l y c o n d i t i o n a l t o h i s a p p r o v a l which i s governed by the r e g u l a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d : above.  These r e g u l a t i o n s make h i s p e r m i s s i o n mandatory. The  problem t h a t has not been s u c c e s s f u l l y  inte-  g r a t e d i n v o l v e s the p o t e n t i a l a r e a source which r e s u l t s from major r e z o n i n g d e c i s i o n s . The from these areas i s d i f f i c u l t  forecast of  emissions  and r e a l l y beyond the  competence and j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r .  A  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l type o f a n a l y s i s , s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Munn d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  IV i s n e c e s s a r y .  There has been no  r e a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d i n the Edmonton a r e a for  a l i m i t e d study o f wind movements i n t o the  Saskatchewan R i v e r V a l l e y which c u t s a 200  except  North  f o o t deep  31 t r o u g h a c r o s s the urban complex.-' f o l l o w i n g page 95  Illustration II,  shows the l o c a t i o n o f t h i s  Conclusion.  The Edmonton a r e a appears t o  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y air  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l through  regulation. to  The  river.  for successful  abatement and  intergovernmental  land  use  c o o p e r a t i o n has  have been s u c c e s s f u l i n s o f a r as i t has gone.  r e a l l y l a c k i n g i s the a b i l i t y  possess  proven  What i s  t o comprehend the atmos-  W.Klassen, M i c r o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s i n the N o r t h Saskatchewan*River V a l l e y a t Edmonton (Toronto; M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , 1962), 24 pp.  pheric  pollution ramifications  o f increments t o  a l l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l land. o f p r e v a i l i n g wind and  There has been a  distance  as b e i n g two  the recognition  variables  of  extreme importance however. IV.  AN  INQUIRY INTO THE  I t was  EFFECTS OF  AIR  ZONING  h y p o t h e s i z e d i n C h a p t e r I t h a t by  i n t o account the  applicable  meteorological  taking  factors,  c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n would s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce p o t e n t i a l atmospheric p o l l u t i o n .  In an attempt t o  s t r a t e t h i s statement i n q u a n t i f i e d i n q u i r y was  undertaken.  however, and  has  not  T h i s was  terms, the  illu-  following  a t h e o r e t i c a l approach,  a c t u a l l y been attempted i n  the  Edmonton M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . The two  Concept. I t w i l l be remembered t h a t Munn used  chief variables  namely one  i n h i s method o f  r e l a t e d ! t o wind d i r e c t i o n and  to d i s t a n c e .  He  t h i s study since t o be  The  another related!  the  This  f a c t o r was  ignored i n  p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l of given  calculated.  major assumption was  that  the p o t e n t i a l  t i o n l e v e l o f an a r e a v a r i e s d i r e c t l y as t o the  32  See  2  a l s o i n t r o d u c e d : a s t a b i l i t y parameter i n  order to r e c o n c i l e gustiness.  a r e a s was  decision-making^  page  74.  pollu-  frequency  i  I  95 o f winds from t h a t d i r e c t i o n , and distance  t o the n e a r e s t  s o u r c e s were i g n o r e d being  now  control.  i n d i r e c t l y as to  i n d u s t r i a l zone.  the  Non-industrial  f o r the purpose o f the s t u d y , i t  p o s s i b l e to use  abatement t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e i r  E x o t i c s o u r c e s such as f o r e s t - f i r e s and  o c c u r r e n c e s were a l s o  natural  ignored.  By d i v i d i n g the wind d i r e c t i o n f r e q u e n c y by d i s t a n c e measure a c o e f f i c i e n t o f p o l l u t i o n was f o r any  direction.  The  the  derived:  f r e q u e n c y c o u l d have been  the  percentage o f t o t a l hours o f wind, o r o f a s e l e c t e d o f the 24 hour day.  The  t h r e e hour f u m i g a t i o n  the morning when n i g h t - t i m e  portion  period i n  i n v e r s i o n s change o v e r to  the  normal l a p s e c o n d i t i o n s o r the t o t a l i n v e r s i o n p e r i o d from sunset t o one Since  hour a f t e r s u n r i s e c o u l d have been used.  t h e s e d a t a were not  averages from 1938 c a s e . T h i s may method  be  a v a i l a b l e , the annual g r o s s  t o 1963  i n c l u s i v e were employed i n t h i s  a f a u l t i n the  a n a l y s i s , but not  i n the  itself. The  Edmonton M e t r o p o l i t a n  A r e a was  divided into  d i s t r i c t s f o r the purposes o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Transportation Distances  Study and  i n miles  from each d i s t r i c t industrial  and  73  Edmonton  these s u b d i v i s i o n s were used h e r e .  f r a c t i o n s t h e r e o f were c a l c u l a t e d  i n e i g h t compass d i r e c t i o n s t o  the  zones.  I l l u s t r a t i o n I I f o l l o w i n g t h i s page shows the  i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g assumed f o r s t u d y purposes. was  assumed t o be t o t a l l y i n f i l l e d  no r e s t r i c t i o n s put on atmospheric  The  i n the f i r s t pollution  zoning  case  and!  emissions  except those a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . I n the second  case  two  a i r p o l l u t a n t i n d u s t r i a l zones were c r e a t e d where the o n l y l i m i t was  the P r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n o f e m i s s i o n s .  One o f t h e s e M-4- zones was i n the north-west  i n the n o r t h - e a s t and the o t h e r  p o r t i o n o f the a r e a .  i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g was  The  r e s t o f the  assumed t o be i n the M-3  category  a t l e a s t and no e m i s s i o n s p e r m i t t e d beyond zone b o u n d a r i e s . Another way  o f r e g a r d i n g t h i s zone was  t h a t no new  u t i o n s o u r c e s were p e r m i t t e d which would v i o l a t e regulations.  pheric  M-3  I n o t h e r words a l l zones except the  f o r p o l l u t a n t i n d u s t r y were a r e a s o f r e s t r i c t e d  poll-  two  atmos-  emission. The  Procedure.  I n o r d e r t o measure the  relative  p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s o f the 73 d i s t r i c t s ,  the  e i g h t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f p o l l u t i o n were added t o g e t h e r . T h i s o p e r a t i o n was the two  situations.  performed The  t w i c e i n o r d e r t o compare  appendix l i s t s the wind  direc-  t i o n d a t a used f o r the study, p l u s the r e s u l t s f o r each study  district. The  district  approximate mileage  was  c a l c u l a t e d from  each  i n the e i g h t compass d i r e c t i o n s t o the n e a r e s t  i n d u s t r i a l zone, and t o the a i r p o l l u t a n t i n d u s t r y M-4-  zone.  I f no i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned a r e a e x i s t e d i n t h a t  d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a then the d i s t a n c e was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n f i n i t e . I f t h e r e was  industrially  zoned l a n d w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t o r a t i t s edge the tance was  assumed t o be z e r o m i l e s .  dis-  In c a l c u l a t i n g  the  c o e f f i c i e n t o f p o l l u t i o n however, any d i s t a n c e from z e r o t o one  m i l e was  f r e q u e n c y was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be one m i l e .  The  t o t a l wind  assumed p o t e n t i a l l y to produce p o l l u t i o n i f  an i n d u s t r i a l zone were one m i l e o r l e s s away from the district. What the method meant i n r e a l i t y was g i v e n d i s t r i c t surrounded  that f o r a  i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s by i n d u s t r y ,  and t h i s c o u l d be as f a r as a m i l e away, the p o l l u t i o n l e v e l was  100.  potential  With i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e s i n  any d i r e c t i o n t h i s would d e c r e a s e ;  i f t h e r e were no  i n d u s t r i a l zones i n any g i v e n d i r e c t i o n the  coefficient  o f p o l l u t i o n would be z e r o .  t h a t each  district  r e s u l t was  o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a c o u l d be  r e l a t i v e l y , and the two a l s o be  The  compared  a i r zoning s i t u a t i o n s could  contrasted. The  Results.  The  r e s u l t s f o r the f i r s t  case  shown on i l l u s t r a t i o n I I I f o l l o w i n g t h i s page.  The  south-west p o r t i o n o f the a r e a had  the l o w e s t  p o l l u t i o n l e v e l , which might be expected but i t was  are  potential  subjectively,  i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t some c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s  had  AIR POLLUTION STUDY  ^  DISTRICTS  METROPOLITAN  EDMONTON  .  CASE I-POTENTIAL POLLUTION LEVELS  98 h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l s than ones r i g h t a t the edge o f the  south-  e a s t i n d u s t r i a l zone where the maximum p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e d . S i n c e no  s u b d i v i s i o n s o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l zone  were t a k e n i n t o account, performance standards no use l i s t procedures  the p i c t u r e i s extreme.  However,  as such are not r e a l l y e n f o r c e d ,  i s employed i n the m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g so t h a t i t may  not be f a r from  and  approval  reality.  I l l u s t r a t i o n IV, the second case, shows t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s i s indeed v a l i d , w i t h the assumptions  taken.  I t would appear t h a t by l o c a t i n g a i r p o l l u t a n t i n d u s t r i e s w i t h m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n mind a d r a s t i c l o w e r i n g o f p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d .  Even i f the  p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n were l e f t as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s and a i r p o l l u t a n t i n d u s t r i e s were so l o c a t e d t h i s would true.  Of c o u r s e , r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h i n the o t h e r  zones were i m p l i e d f o r new  new  be  industrial  i n d u s t r y a t l e a s t so t h a t the  h y p o t h e s i s perhaps does not go s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r . The numbers l i s t e d ! i n the Appendix r e p r e s e n t i n g p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s s h o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g too p r e c i s e .  In f a c t , a i r does not t r a v e l as a  s t r a i g h t h o r i z o n t a l f l o w so t h a t the i l l u s t r a t i o n g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d a complex s i t u a t i o n . presented  has  The q u a n t i t i e s  can be compared r e l a t i v e l y , but s h o u l d not be;  taken t o r e p r e s e n t d r a m a t i c even i f one  d i f f e r e n c e s between d i s t r i c t s  has a f i g u r e o f 10.3  and  another 28.4-. What  AIR POLLUTIC 'STUDY  DISTRICT  iETROFO'JTAN  EDMONTON  I-POTENTIAL POLLUTION LEVELS  i s s i g n i f i c a n t i s the g r e a t drop i n most d i s t r i c t s the f i r s t zoning  case t o the second, and  have a use p r e c i s e and  The method d e s c r i b e d ! would perhaps  i n a r e a source  location control.  However, t h e r e i s e v e r y l i k e l i h o o d t h a t  a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e concept  was  I t i s not  one doubts t h a t the m e t e o r o l o g i s t c o u l d accept  as i t s t a n d s .  brought forward  c o u l d be p e r f e c t e d .  i n a r e a source l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . p i c t u r e was  The  f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n purposes  o n l y and does not p u r p o r t t o be a w i d e l y u s a b l e  crude  o f the a i r  concept. Limitations.  it  the v a l i d i t y  from  technique  Y/ith i t however, a  p r e s e n t e d o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  a d e c i s i o n on the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as a whole.  such  Atmos-  p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s depend on o t h e r f a c t o r s such  as  e m i s s i o n q u a n t i t i t e s o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s , so t h a t o n l y a p r e l i m i n a r y p i c t u r e was Conclusion.  illustrated.  I n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g may  be  employed f o r the purpose o f a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . Howe v e r , such p l a n n i n g i s not a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l through  e n g i n e e r i n g abatement t e c h n i q u e s ,  s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such c o n t r o l .  The  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d here has i l l u s t r a t e d would be both p o s s i b l e and  and i t  agency  t h e o r e t i c a l method t h a t such a programme  purposeful.  100 V.  SUMMARY  M e t r o p o l i t a n Los Angeles p o l l u t i o n problem and  has  s u f f e r e d from an a i r  i t s c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y has  v a r i o u s methods f o r abatement. The  counties of  explored  California  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n t h a t t h e y have the r i g h t under law to c r e a t e county-wide  control  d i s t r i c t s . P l a n n i n g c o n t r o l on the o t h e r hand i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c i t y f u n c t i o n and  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n Los Angeles D i s t r i c t has source  a d v i s e d two  County l e v e l was  The  Control  p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s on  c a s e s , but a r e a source  has n o t been s u c c e s s f u l .  County.  locational  70  single  decision-making  Mandatory a i r z o n i n g a t the  c o n s i d e r e d the answer, but was  never  enacted. I n the Edmonton m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as a c o n t r a s t area-wide p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l has e x i s t e d s i n c e 1958 province-wide  a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s i n c e 1961.  and The  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission and P r o v i n c i a l S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r have i n t e g r a t e d t h e i r c o n t r o l o p e r a t i o n s f a r as new  s i n g l e s o u r c e s are concerned.  Area  so  source  l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l has not been implemented, though cons i d e r e d as e a r l y as 1 9 5 2 .  P o l l u t i o n levels indicate that  Edmonton has a problem g r e a t e r than normal f o r a c i t y i t s s i z e , and The  t h a t s t r i c t e r abatement methods are needed. h y p o t h e s i s was  a n a l y z e d by means o f a q u a n t i -  f i a b l e method, depending on wind d i r e c t i o n and variables.  N o n - i n d u s t r i a l s o u r c e s were i g n o r e d i n  s t u d y which i l l u s t r a t e d r e l a t i v e p o t e n t i a l l e v e l s f o r 73 situations. pollutant  d i s t r i c t s of the The  through l o c a t i n g  orological  criteria,  The  potential  enough i n e x p r e s s i n g the  The  results  two  air  r e s t r i c t e d emissions  such i n d u s t r i e s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lowered.  n e e r i n g abatement  pollution  second s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d an M-4  i n d u s t r y zone, and  the  metropolitan area i n  w i t h i n zone b o u n d a r i e s elsewhere. that  distances  to  showed  a c c o r d i n g to mete-  p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s could  h y p o t h e s i s d i d not  go  far  need f o r complementary e n g i -  controls.  be  102 CHAPTER VI POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS I.  INTRODUCTION  I n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f recommendations towards m e t r o p o l i t a n atmospheric related  pollution control  policies  to i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n planning, i t i s f i r s t  necessary to describe other l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s .  Second,  an e v a l u a t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y o f the h y p o t h e s i s and  the  methodology of i t s a n a l y t i c a l i n q u i r y i s r e q u i r e d . Third,  v a r i o u s p o l i c y recommendations a r e p r e s e n t e d t o  show the u t i l i t y  o f the study i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . P i n -  a l l y , a suggested method f o r implementation  of these  proposals i s described. II.  INDUSTRIAL LOCATION FACTORS  I n the a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l use,  the  p l a n n e r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r many o t h e r c r i t e r i a beyond a i r pollution control. Board, for  The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  f o r example, undertook  a s t u d y "to d e s i g n a t e areas  i n d u s t r i a l use w i t h i n the next 15 y e a r s ""^without  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n  any  ramifications.  1  Lower M a i n l a n d Dynamics o f I n d u s t r i a l Land S e t t l e m e n t The Board, 1961), p. 1.  (New  Westminster:  103 Economic and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c t o r s were a n a l y z e d i n  terms o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s  needs.  O v e r a l l L o c a t i o n a l Needs. regard  One  p o i n t o f view i s t o  an i n d u s t r i a l zone as a work a r e a which s h o u l d  so l o c a t e d as t o make i t a c c e s s i b l e Transportation  facilities  and  be  to i t s l a b o u r  force.  mass p u b l i c t r a n s i t  routes  are o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s . U t i l i t y s e r v i c e s may  a l s o be  so r e l e v a n t  as t o make p a r -  t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s more d e s i r a b l e . A s l o p e o f l e s s than f i v e p e r general  cent i s a n o t h e r  l o c a t i o n a l determinant f o r i n d u s t r i a l  ment.  A l s o , a range o f l o c a t i o n s from the  t o the  f r i n g e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  develop-  c e n t r a l core  f o r d i f f e r e n t types  of manufacturing operations.  Space r e q u i r e m e n t s  differ  among the  regarding  loading,  and  range o f f i r m - t y p e s  parking,  s t o r a g e a r e a s , the r e q u i r e m e n t s h a v i n g expanded  because o f the dard.  Outlying  one  s t o r e y p l a n t h a v i n g become the  l o c a t i o n s have n e c e s s a r i l y been f a v o u r e d .  Commuting time from r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s may amount o f t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and require  stan-  limit  the  many i n d u s t r i e s  c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s f o r m a r k e t i n g purposes t o  be  c l o s e to t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . Rezoning F a c t o r s . i n c r e a s i n g and  The  planning  authority,  e x t e n d i n g i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g must  the amount o f such l a n d unused a t the time.  before consider  With a  low  104 vacancy r a t e p r i c e s a r e r a i s e d due t o t h e s h o r t a g e , development i s d i s c o u r a g e d .  and  W i t h the h i g h l a n d v a l u e s  i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g c r e a t e s , long-term  h o l d i n g b e f o r e use  becomes p o s s i b l e . I n 1952, f o r example, one m u n i c i p a l i t y • s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a was undermined by o l d c o a l o p e r a t i o n s r e d u c i n g the unused a r e a from 46% t o 20% o f t h e t o t a l u s a b l e , and t h i s was 2  c o n s i d e r e d by the p l a n n e r s as unde-  sirable.  amount o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g , on the  An excess  o t h e r hand, would encourage premature farm  abandonment  and s p e c u l a t i o n . Other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e fragmentation a c c e s s , and s l o p e . I f the l a n d were s p l i t  into  s i z e l o t s r e z o n i n g f o r i n d u s t r i a l use without d a t i o n would be i m p r a c t i c a l . and u t i l i t i e s .  Access  of land,  residential consoli-  i n c l u d e s road,  rail,  P r o x i m i t y t o a l a r g e water s u p p l y would:  a l s o be important  f o r c e r t a i n i n d u s t r y types.  l i m i t s e r v i c i n g and d r a i n a g e  Slope  may  as w e l l as be e x c e s s i v e f o r  large buildings. One example  o f how  the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s were  c o n s i d e r e d i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e F o r t Saskatchewan P a r t of  the Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n .  i n d u s t r i a l a r e a was  Report  The proposed heavy  c o n s i d e r e d t o have  Edmonton D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, Annual (Edmonton: The Commission, 1955)> p. 1 1 .  105 the advantage o f h a v i n g r a i l a c c e s s , a c c e s s t o R i v e r [ s i c ] water, easy highway a c c e s s , p r o x i m i t y to gas s u p p l y , i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , b e i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n o f l e a s t f r e q u e n t winds. Access from t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i s easy and d i r e c t . J T h i s 1,350 acre i n d u s t r i a l a r e a which i n c l u d e d : one g l a s s , one  o r e r e d u c t i o n and t h r e e c h e m i c a l  p l a n t s had been  d i r e c t e d i n i t s growth by a g e n e r a l p l a n s i n c e 1954. O t h e r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the expansion  o f the l o c a l  p r o p e r t y t a x base through d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n though t h i s s h o u l d n o t a f f e c t l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s u n l e s s t h e munic i p a l i t y ' s land area i s d e f i c i e n t . access  i s an important  I n areas where water  l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r t h e r e may be  p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s between t h i s c r i t i c a l need and h i g h way t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p o l i c i e s . Conclusion.  A i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s o n l y one  c o n s i d e r a t i o n among many which t h e p l a n n i n g agency must c o n s i d e r i n recommending an i n c r e a s e i n the amount o f i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d a t a c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n . o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d be t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n  The  o f a l l the c o n s i d e r -  a t i o n s when making t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n .  Though t h i s  may be q u i t e f a c i l e i n the case o f the s m a l l e r urban a r e a , a t t h e m u l t i - j u r i s d i c t i o n m e t r o p o l i t a n s c a l e where l a r g e p o r t i o n s a r e o n l y p a r t i a l l y developed  o r where employment  -'Edmonton R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Background I n f o r m a t i o n — F o r t Saskatchewan P a r t P r e l i m i n a r y R e g i o n a l " P l a n (Edmonton The Commission,~~19640, p. 10. :  106 concentrations w i l l  overtax transportational  t h e r e may be c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y all  considerations.  Control  facilities  i n achievement o f  of a i r pollution  through  abatement methods s h o u l d be a r e q u i r e m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t in  a r e a s where p o l l u t i o n p o t e n t i a l s  w o u l d be  seriously  augmented i n t h e p r o c e s s . III. The  ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS  hypothesis i s that  the control  of industrial  l o c a t i o n by a l l l e v e l s o f government i n a c o o p e r a t i v e manner, t a k i n g  i n t o account the a p p l i c a b l e  meteorological  f a c t o r s , would s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce p o t e n t i a l pollution.  atmospheric  Each aspect o f t h i s statement i s considered  below. Control objectives  of Industrial Location.  The d i f f e r e n t  and methods o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n  control  have been d e s c r i b e d , t h e emphasis b e i n g on a r e a l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l b y means o f a i r z o n i n g . sidered  source  This i s con-  t o be b o t h p r a c t i c a l a n d p u r p o s e f u l a s a means  to c o n t r o l regional  area source l o c a t i o n a t the metropolitan o r  scale.  B o t h methods o f inducement a n d c o m p u l -  sion are available Government.  to reinforce  this  technique.  Socio-economic objectives  pursued by t h e s e n i o r  governments i n l o c a t i n g  have been industry,  whereas t h e l o c a l governments have tended t o s t r e s s t h e  107 zoning  by-law which c o n t r o l s p h y s i c a l l y t h e l o c a t i o n a l  decision-making o f industry. l e v e l s could u t i l i z e  The s e n i o r governmental  economic inducements t o encourage  desirable physical l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e to population centrations.  They c o u l d a l s o do t h i s d i r e c t l y  t h e i r own l e g a l a u t h o r i t y . exemplified  con-  using  C o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t was  by t h e Department o f P u b l i c H e a l t h ' s i n t e g -  r a t i o n i n t o i n t e r m u n i c i p a l i n d u s t r i a l development d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e Edmonton Meteorological must be a n a l y z e d  area.  F a c t o r s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  which  i n o r d e r t o l o c a t e i n d u s t r y f o r atmos-  p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l purposes a r e o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r . These were d e s c r i b e d  a t l e n g t h , wind d i r e c t i o n  f r e q u e n c y as measured a t c e r t a i n time p e r i o d s most i m p o r t a n t .  being the  T o p o g r a p h i c m o d i f i c a t i o n o f a i r move-  ments was a l s o s t r e s s e d .  The need f o r d e t a i l e d a i r flow  measurements a t t h e m i c r o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  l e v e l was  i l l u s t r a t e d as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making.  I t was concluded t h a t averages o f a g r o s s n a t u r e  do g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l  conditions.  P o t e n t i a l P o l l u t i o n L e v e l s . Ah i n q u i r y was made i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f a i r zoning c e r t a i n assumptions a r e d u c t i o n l e v e l c o u l d be a c h i e v e d .  which showed t h a t w i t h i n potential pollution  However, e n g i n e e r i n g  abatement  108 methods must be employed i n c o n j u n c t i o n location control.  w i t h a r e a source  S i n c e i t i s s i m p l y not  possible  to  d e c e n t r a l i z e a l l i n d u s t r y , r e s t r i c t e d e m i s s i o n zones needed c l o s e to the  central portions  where p l a n t s i t e s are d e s i r e d by  planning and  and  o f urban a r e a s  certain industry  O t h e r Areas o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n .  types.  Transportation  a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l c o u l d be  documented i n a s i m i l a r manner.  investigated  There are  probably  c o n f l i c t s between the s o l u t i o n s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  those i n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g ,  t r a l i z a t i o n of industry, periods  are  planning  i n t h a t decen-  f o r example, would l e a d t o  o f automobile exhaust e m i s s i o n .  longer  With more d a t a ,  f a c t o r c o r r e l a t i o n would have been p o s s i b l e i n the  study  presented i n order to i d e n t i f y l i k e l y causal r e l a t i o n ships.  W i t h more s t a t i s t i c a l knowledge i n f a c t , more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n models c o u l d be s t r u c t e d t o a i d i n the Conclusion.  The  con-  process of l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . hypothesis provided  a needed  f o c u s t o t h i s s u b j e c t which i n f r i n g e s upon so many professional disciplines. c o n t r o l do  Other f a c e t s of a i r p o l l u t i o n  e x i s t which i n t e r e s t the  appears t h a t c o n t r o l o f the  p l a n n e r , but i t  l o c a t i o n of  industrial  p o l l u t i o n s o u r c e s w i l l become even more i m p o r t a n t i n f u t u r e w i t h abatement o f motor v e h i c l e s o u r c e s .  The  h y p o t h e s i s appears t o be a r e a s o n a b l e and p r a c t i c a l  109 point  o f view w i t h which t o approach a i r p o l l u t i o n con-  t r o l and i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n IV.  planning.  POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS  In the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  o f a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and!  i t s importance and r e l e v a n c e t o community and r e g i o n a l planning c e r t a i n issues erations  were p r e s e n t e d .  Policy  consid-  f o r a l l l e v e l s o f government might be suggested  to e s t a b l i s h a high l e v e l o f cooperative c o n t r o l .  In  water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , f o r example, sewage treatment has  been s t r e s s e d  low-interest  w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Government  providing  l o a n s , t h e p r o v i n c e s t h e s t a n d a r d s and  impetus, and t h e l o c a l governments t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h.  and  drive.  G e n e r a l recommendations f o r governmental  p o l i c y a r e d e s c r i b e d below. The  Effects.  The need f o r more r e s e a r c h i n t o the  v a r i o u s e f f e c t s o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c contaminants has been e s t a b l i s h e d . The senior  governments, t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , and p r i v a t e  enter-  p r i s e s h o u l d p r o v i d e more f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l assistance  i n t h i s area.  The F e d e r a l Government i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y urged t o expand i t s Department o f H e a l t h and  W e l f a r e g r a n t programme.  T.V.Berry, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n t h e Lower Mainland Communities o f B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver; G r e a t e r Vancouver Water and Sewage and Drainage D i s t r i c t s , I 9 6 0 ) , pp.8-9.  110 E n g i n e e r i n g Abatement Methods. The need f o r r e s e a r c h i s v e r y important  i n t h i s a r e a a l s o , so t h a t  recommendation may  a similar  be made. F u l l use o f the l e g a l system  i s recommended i n the passage o f a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l regulations.  Large  areas o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  jurisdiction  are needed, and the P r o v i n c e i t s e l f would be most s u i t a b l e . Performance s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g by-laws a l s o depend upon f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o abatement t e c h n i q u e s , and d i s c o v e r y o f new, A i r Zoning.  s i m p l e , and i n e x p e n s i v e methods.  Locational  c o n t r o l based; on meteoro-  l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a t t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n and r e g i o n a l  scale i s  recommended. Study o f a m i c r o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l n a t u r e i s a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e e m i s s i o n zones. are r e q u i r e d .  o f the d e l i m i t a t i o n o f r e s t r i c t e d  Many permanent d a t a c o l l e c t i n g s t a t i o n s Refinement o f p o l l u t i o n p o t e n t i a l models  would be another approach.  Z o n i n g i s based  on p r o v i n c i a l  l e g i s l a t i o n which s h o u l d be t a i l o r e d t o p r o v i d e f o r z o n i n g as a t e c h n i q u e o f a r e a source l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l . Integration.  Abatement c o n t r o l and  planning  c o n t r o l a g e n c i e s are recommended t o i n t e g r a t e operations administratively o f approach.  The  i n order to achieve  The  unity  achievement o f an a c c e p t a b l e and  t i n u i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d o f ambient a i r would be possible.  their  con-  rendered  a c t u a l method o f i n t e g r a t i o n depends on  r e f e r r a l and j o i n t a c t i o n , but i t may  be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ,  Ill area t o area.  The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l a g e n c y s h o u l d  its  t o i n c l u d e a c o n s u l t a t i v e f u n c t i o n on a r e a  activities  source  location  matters.  Land Use P l a n n i n g . g o a l s toward one  enlarge  The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  which i t i s d i r e c t e d .  must have  Clean a i r i s undoubtedly  g o a l w h i c h s h o u l d r e c e i v e more r e c o g n i t i o n i n com-  munity and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g .  The v a r i o u s o t h e r  p r o f e s s i o n s would a l s o possess  t h i s g o a l , a s o n e o f many.  It  i s b a s i c a l l y t h e h e a l t h and w e l f a r e o f p e o p l e  the main concern;  that i s  the future s o c i e t i e s which are t o  inhabit the large metropolitan i n d u s t r i a l should  interested  complexes  c o n t i n u e t o have c l e a n a i r t o b r e a t h e . V.  IMPLEMENTATION  A d d i t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e needed: in  order t o achieve  t h e p o l i c i e s d e s c r i b e d above.  measures a r e n e c e s s a r y control utilizing government.  New  i n both a i r p o l l u t i o n and p l a n n i n g  the resources  o f a l l three l e v e l s of  The p h i l o s o p h y o f c o o p e r a t i v e f e d e r a l i s m i s ;  r e f l e c t e d ; i n the suggestions, as a j o i n t approach i s necessary The  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the a i r p o l l u t i o n Canada A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t .  problem. Federal  Government l e a d e r s h i p i s recommended i n t h e f i e l d b y t h e passage o f a F e d e r a l A c t . S e v e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e prop o s e d A c t s h o u l d be s t a t e d :  112 1. The  Department o f H e a l t h and Welfare would  be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t ,  and  coordination of a l l aspects. 2. Research g r a n t s would be p r o v i d e d t o u n i v e r s i t i e s , p r o v i n c i a l governments, and o t h e r r e s e a r c h the purpose b e i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  agencies,  o f a Canada  A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Code. 3. F e d e r a l funds, d e l e g a t e d powers, and  represent-  a t i v e s would be a s s i g n e d to p r o v i n c i a l l y 5  created  A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Boards. 4. None o f the above would be assigned; w i t h o u t c e r t a i n common requirements  b e i n g met  by  the  Provinces. 5. I f no Boards were c r e a t e d t h e r e would be  pro-  v i s i o n f o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n the f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n such as r a i l w a y s , s h i p p i n g and 6. The  criminal  law.  Canada A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Code ( o r p r e l i m -  i n a r y c o d i f i e d r e g u l a t i o n s ) would be employed  by  each Board u n l e s s s t r i c t e r standards were d e s i r e d . ?. I n c e n t i v e s to i n d u s t r y would be p r o v i d e d i n the manner of s u b s i d i e s on c o n t r o l equipment and  tax  •"This d e l e g a t i o n became p o s s i b l e i n 1952. See W.R. Lederman, The Courts and the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n (Toronto: McCleTTand and Stewart L t d . , 1964), p. 159.  113 i n c e n t i v e s t o l o c a t e i n approved! A i r Zones might a l s o be c r e a t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s t a x A c t s . 8. Measurement  o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l parameters would be  l e f t t o t h e Department o f T r a n s p o r t ,  but p r o v i s i o n  would be made f o r c o n s u l t i n g work t o m e t r o p o l i t a n and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s ,  where s p e c i a l d a t a was  required. 9. A i r p o l l u t a n t l e v e l measurement would be under the d i r e c t i o n o f D.O.T. i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e ,  but authority-  would be under t h i s A c t , and a c t u a l measurement would be a p r o v i n c i a l  responsibility.  The A c t would c r e a t e a new i n t e r e s t i n a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and serve t o p r o v i d e effort  a first  step i n a concerted  t o improve ambient a i r q u a l i t y . The P r o v i n c i a l A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t s .  v i n c i a l a c t i o n i s a l s o necessary s i n c e most s o u r c e s jurisdictions.  Pro-  t o e f f e c t t h e programme  c o u l d o n l y be c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n  their  The f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s a r e proposed f o r  i n c l u s i o n i n the accompanying P r o v i n c i a l A c t : 1. A l l m u n i c i p a l  power t o c o n t r o l a i r p o l l u t i o n would  be revoked except f o r n u i s a n c e trial  zoning  performance  by-laws and i n d u s -  standards.  2. An A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board f o r t h e P r o v i n c e would be c r e a t e d w i t h q u a s i - j u d i c i a l and q u a s i -  114 legislative  functions,  federal representation $. The  and w i t h  provision f o r  upon them.  Canada A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l  adopted as r e g u l a t i o n s  Code w o u l d  be  f o r the Board t o admini-  s t e r , b u t p r o v i s i o n w o u l d be made f o r t h e B o a r d to adopt s t r i c t e r r e g u l a t i o n s  with  the  approval  of the Cabinet. 4-. R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f a i r p o l l u t i o n , i t s measurement, and i t s abatement  c o n t r o l would  a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Board's s t a f f w i t h o r d i n a t i o n at the f e d e r a l  requiring  p o l l u t a n t sources by the  Board before c o n s t r u c t i o n 6.  co-  level.  5 . A p e r m i t s y s t e m w o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a p p r o v a l o f a l l new  be  commencement.  Any e x p a n s i o n o f a s o u r c e o r m a j o r change i n p o l l u t a n t e m i s s i o n c o m p o s i t i o n would r e q u i r e  a  permit from the Board. 7.  Inducement  subsidies  be p r o v i d e d not (Tax  on c o n t r o l equipment  f o r by r e b a t e s on s a l e s  would  t a x e s and  i n c l u d i n g them i n v a l u e o f p r o p e r t y  by  etc.  i n c e n t i v e s m i g h t a l s o be u s e d u n d e r t h e t a x  Acts t o encourage l o c a t i o n i n approved a i r zones.) 8.  Integration with  planning  a u t h o r i t i e s would  c l e a r l y s e t out i n a formal  be  manner r e q u i r i n g  r e f e r r a l by them o f d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s ( o f cases l i s t e d  by t h e B o a r d ) and  consultation  115 b e f o r e i n d u s t r i a l zone change d e c i s i o n s . 9.  The Board would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a i r p o l l u t a n t l e v e l measurement i n accordance w i t h n a t i o n a l standards,  and f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and c r e a t i n g a  network o f d a t a  stations.  The P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g A c t s .  Planning  should  remain an a r e a o f p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n which the p r o v i n c e i t s e l f would p l a y a d i r e c t p a r t . ment s h o u l d c o n t i n u e  L o c a l govern-  t o have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n  matters o f l o c a l concern.  I t s h o u l d a l s o be s t a t e d t h a t  where the e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d these t a s k s i t s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d .  accomplish  The f o l l o w i n g p r o -  p o s a l s are o n l y those which a r e r e l a t e d t o a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , so t h a t a comprehensive P l a n n i n g A c t would r e q u i r e many more f e a t u r e s : 1. P l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e l i n e a t i o n o f major z o n i n g c a t e g o r i e s would be c r e a t e d i n a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n and major urban a r e a s , the a r e a o f j u r i s d i c t i o n depending on p r o v i n c i a l planning  policies.  2. These a g e n c i e s would be r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C a b i n e t and not l o c a l  governments.  3. They would prepare  r e g i o n a l zoning r e g u l a t i o n s f o r  t h e i r a r e a s , which would o n l y be i n f o r c e a f t e r Cabinet  approval.  116 4-. The u s u a l p r o c e d u r e s o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s f o r i n d i v i d u a l and m u n i c i p a l d i s c u s s i o n and w o u l d be  criticism  required.  5. The r e g u l a t i o n s , o n c e a p p r o v e d , w o u l d be  binding  on a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r e q u i r i n g conformance  of  t h e i r more d e t a i l e d b y - l a w s . 6.  A i r z o n i n g w o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e  specified  r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t out by t h e A c t . 7. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s w o u l d s t i l l  issue  p e r m i t s b u t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d  development  to refer  appli-  c a t i o n s t o the p l a n n i n g agency f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and 8.  recommendation.  R e f e r r a l o f development a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B o a r d w o u l d be r e q u i r e d i f t h e p r o p o s e d u s e was  f o u n d t o be o n t h e l i s t  provided!  by the Board. 9.  P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s and d e t a i l e d m e n t s w o u l d be l e f t  to municipal  zoning  require-  authorities  t h o u g h t h e a g e n c y w o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o recommend! on t h e s e m a t t e r s ( s t a n d a r d s w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y t o be s t r i c t e r t h a n B o a r d  have  regulations).  1 0 . C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e B o a r d w o u l d be  required  b e f o r e z o n i n g change d e c i s i o n s were recommended t o t h e C a b i n e t by t h e agency. Conclusions.  The  above d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e  117 proposed method o f implementation  make e x p l i c i t t h e view  t h a t A i r P o l l u t i o n abatement be c o n s i d e r e d so important t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government take t h e l e a d e r s h i p . i n each P r o v i n c e would possess  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  q u a s i - l e g i s l a t i v e powers n e c e s s a r y e m i s s i o n o f atmospheric  be conserved  to regulate the  contaminants.  r e c o g n i z e d as an important  Boards  A i r would be  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e t h a t should!  as i t i s i r r e p l a c e a b l e and fundamental t o  human l i f e . VI.  SUMMARY  There a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l which s h o u l d be;taken i n t o account i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d .  The needs o f  i n d u s t r y and the c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network a r e o f paramount importance.  However,  a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l must be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h these o t h e r f a c t o r s i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d  allocation  d e c i s i o n making and n o t i g n o r e d o r g i v e n l e s s  relative  weight. The  hypothesis provided d i r e c t i o n i n the d i s -  c u s s i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem from t h e community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g v i e w p o i n t . The r o l e o f the t h r e e l e v e l s o f government i n i n f l u e n c i n g and d i r e c t i n g l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s was  presented.  118 M e t e o r o l o g y as the c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a r e a l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l was  source  d e s c r i b e d ! as the n e c e s s a r y  r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n . I t was  concluded  that  pre-  potential  p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced by u t i l i z i n g p l a n n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h abatement methods. General  p o l i c y recommendations were o u t l i n e d .  R e s e a r c h i n t o the e f f e c t s o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d so t h a t s e n i o r government support  i s needed.  Abatement methods not o n l y have t o be d e v i s e d , but  given  the n e c e s s a r y  Air  l e g a l f o r c e i n a l l p a r t s o f Canada.  z o n i n g based on a m e t e o r o l o g i c a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  pro-  gramme i s recommended as d e s i r a b l e i n a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n and major urban a r e a s .  I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the  abatement agency i s n e c e s s a r y Increased  t o the t o t a l  emission  approach.  r e c o g n i t i o n o f atmospheric p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l  o b j e c t i v e s and c l e a n a i r g o a l s by community and r e g i o n a l planners  i s r e q u i r e d , along with cooperation of  other  professionals. The  F e d e r a l Government s h o u l d assume the  leader-  s h i p i n t h i s m a t t e r s i n c e i t i s o f n a t i o n a l importance. A Canada A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act i s recommended t o implement the p o l i c i e s d e s c r i b e d above.  Provincially  c r e a t e d boards t o c o n t r o l a i r p o l l u t i o n and  to  r e s e a r c h would be o r g a n i z e d w i t h f e d e r a l funds, gated  do dele-  powers, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r o v i d e d by the  Act.  119 These boards would work i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n and major urban a r e a p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , d i r e c t l y i b l e t o the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t . still  respons-  L o c a l government  would  c o n t r o l development i n conformance w i t h the  agency's r e g i o n a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a f t e r they had been approved by the C a b i n e t .  A i r z o n i n g would be i n c l u d e d  i n the r e g u l a t i o n s and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board f o r m a l l y r e q u i r e d . 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"The S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A i r P o l l u t i o n i n S h e f f i e l d " . International Journal of A i r P o l l u t i o n , I I (1959),~pp7 1 7 5 - 1 8 ? . P o o l e r , P. "A P r e d i c t i o n Model o f Mean Urban P o l l u t i o n f o r Use w i t h Standard Wind Roses", I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n , IV (1961),  pp. 199-2TT.  R. v. Capilano Lumber Co., 96 C.C.C. 14-1 (1950). R. v. G.T.R., 37 Q.L.R. 4-57 (1916), 27 C.C.C. 138 (1916). Re New Westminster "Nuisance P r o h i b i t i o n By-law 1962, 39 DTL.R. 676 (19637. — — S c h r e i b e i s , L. e t . a l . " A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n Urban P l a n n i n g " , American J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , L I (February, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 174-181. S c r i v e n e r , M. "The Nuisance t h a t K i l l s " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, X I I I ( S p r i n g , 1963), pp. 17-22. Smith v. London, 20 O.L.R. 133 (1909). Sutton, G. "Micrometeorology", S c i e n t i f i c American, CCIX (October, 1964-), pp. 62-7?.  APPENDIX  129  APPENDIX The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s l i s t Edmonton m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data, d e r i v e d p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n f i g u r e s , and the formula employed i n the i n q u i r y i n t o a i r zoning d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter V: I.  Total  HOURS OF WIND  N  N  E  E  S  1938-1963  E  S  S  W  W  N  W  C  Jan. Feb. March April  I9344- 2 0 9 9 1623 1622 1 2 1 3 4-401 17616 2096 1735 1786 1 7 5 9 3870 1 9 5 4 4 2026 1628 1 9 9 5 2895 4 5 1 5 18720 2145 1725 1807 3198 3649  June July Aug. Sept. Oct.  18720 19344 19344 18720  Dec.  19344 1493 1 3 2 0 1440 1556 5192 5280 2640 2 3 2 1 1 5 2  May  Nov.  2 9 5 9 2685 2603 1 3 9 2140 1975 2156 119 1888 1935 2 5 9 2 70 1512 1778 2862 46  19544 2 3 9 7 2 1 7 9 1 9 0 3 3024 2 9 3 2 1430 1932 3 5 0 2  45  18720 1451 1 1 5 2 1465 1679 4 5 9 0 2 7 3 5 2 7 0 5 2873  70  2225 1897 1 7 2 2 2420 2568 1 6 3 1 2825 5 5 9 5 5 7 2 0 5 7 1436 1423 2011 2854 2124 3 1 3 8 4244 57 1859 1439 1 5 2 0 1910 3 3 1 3 2421 3153 3641 82 2083 1090 1184 1848 3797 2 1 5 9 2 7 0 5 3789 6 5 19544- 1 2 9 5 908 1 0 2 5 2 0 0 9 5 2 5 4 2682 2 7 1 5 5408 50  Source:  Department o f Transport, Edmonton M u n i c i p a l Airport  II.  AVERAGE DIRECTIONAL FREQUENCY  Direction Percentage of Hours Source:  1938-1963  N  NE  E  SE  S  SW  W  NW  10  8  9  11  20  12  13  17  Computed from above t a b l e  III. Study D i s t r i c t 1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  13  14 15  16 17  18 19  20 21 22 23  24  25  26 27  28  29 30  31  32  33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 4-3 44 4-5 46  POTENTIAL POLLUTION LEVELS Case I  Case I I  59.2 50.3  6.2  62.0  93.3 45.0 68.7  96.2  96.0 86.0 55.0  52.4  44.4  4-.5 4-.5  6.8  14.7  0 4-.9 3.3  8.9 11.5 18.5  39.0 19.7  9.7 0 0 0  35.7 52.1 100.0 100.0  21.3 27.0  65.3  6.8  100.0 100.0  17.49.0 7.3 17.0 19.3 5.5  15.8  46.3  64.9  84.0 81.5  100.0 37.0  24.1 74.3  70.4 28.7  29.0  29.8 70.5 100.0 100.0 100.0  76.1  78.9 70.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 36.3  5.6  15.8 10.1  5.8  4.9  3.8 5.4  2.1 6.2  0  4.0  1.5 5.45.0  6.3 6.7 5.7  5.8 5.1 5.9 3.9  4.6  131  Study- D i s t r i c t 47 48 49 50 51 52  53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72  73 IV.  Case I  Case I I  10.1 11.3 5.2 78.0 88.9 100.0 53.0  1.1 0 1.9 43.0 0  51.5  28.7 38.5 100.0 80.0 100.0 100.0 69.0 100.0 100.0 34.2 29.3  100.0 20.8 3.0 6.7 8.3 20.6 38.0 100.0  32.0  7.2 0 3.7 19.8 100.0 35.0 18.0 16.2 10.7 6.4 4.7 4.8 3.9 4.2 5.3 1.4 2.7 5.9 6.3 27.0  100.0  POTENTIAL POLLUTION LEVEL CALCULATION  The c a l c u l a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n l e v e l f o r a\ p a r t i c u l a r study d i s t r i c t i s accomplished by the use of the f o l l o w i n g : P.P.L. = f = percentage o f hours o f wind from t h a t compass d i r e c t i o n d = d i s t a n c e i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n t o nearest i n d u s t r i a l zone, t h i s number assumed t o be never l e s s than one  

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