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The Influence of French impressionism on Canadian painting Crooker, Mervyn John Arthur 1965

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i  THE INFLUENCE OF FRENCH IMPRESSIONISM ON CANADIAN PAINTING by MERVYN JOHN ARTHUR CROOKER B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of FINE ARTS  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming to the  r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1965  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication of this  thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Fine Arts The University of British Columbia. Vancouver 8, Canada Date  April,  1965  ABSTRACT  French Impressionism,  the e a r l i e s t v i t a l and p r o g r e s s i v e modern a r t  movement, was developed i n France between 1870 and 1890. r e c o g n i z e d as r e v o l u t i o n a r y , and the number of i t s s t y l e developed and became known. w o r l d , a t t r a c t e d many s t u d e n t s ,  Paris,  It  followers  was  grew as  then the a r t c e n t e r of  among whom were Canadian  soon  the  artists.  In!1878 W i l l i a m Brymner s a i l e d f o r Europe, to r e t u r n i n 1882,  the  year of the seventh I m p r e s s i o n i s t E x h i b i t i o n and the year t h a t J . M . and H o r a t i o Walker a r r i v e d i n P a r i s . artist,  first  A growing  a l r e a d y an  established  f a c i l i t y i n the use of c o l o r marked the e v o l u t i o n i n the The p a i n t e r s John C o n s t a b l e ,  and Eugene  the s c i e n t i f i c c o l o r t e c h n i c i a n s M.E. C h e v r e u l , James Maxwell,  Ogden Rood, and Robert H e n r i , opened up new f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t . progression  Barnsley  t r a v e l l e d i n Europe i n 1887.  a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Delacroix,  Homer Watson,  the  from l a t e Baroque and e a r l y E n g l i s h  landscapes  The  to the F r e n c h  experiments w i t h c o l o r , c u l m i n a t e d i n I m p r e s s i o n i s t landscapes  filled  w i t h sun and atmosphere. The major I m p r e s s i o n i s t masters concerned themselves w i t h the v i s u a l surfaces  of o b j e c t s .  Pissarro,  Monet, R e n o i r , and  e f f e c t s of l i g h t  Newly i n v e n t e d pigments  r e f l e c t i n g from the  supplied their  w i t h almost u n l i m i t e d c o l o r , which they a p p l i e d e m p i r i c a l l y , f o r the most b r i l l i a n t  palettes searching  effect  The decade from 1880 to 1890 marked the p e r i o d when the Canadian a r t i s t s  Sisley  came i n c o n t a c t w i t h French I m p r e s s i o n i s m .  home to teach and to p a i n t , and became the P r e - I m p r e s s i o n i s t  established They r e t u r n e d painters  in  iii Canada.  Their work exhibited an intermediary style corresponding to that  of the Pre-Impressionist  painters in Europe.  A survey of the growing  Impressionist tendencies in their art led to the f i r s t consistent Impressionist style of Maurice Cullen and Marc Suzor-Cote after 1895. By 1900 the influence of Impressionist color technique had reached a l l art forms.  Impressionism was an historically established style which  had fostered other newer art forms, and many artists in Canada painted "Impressionist" pictures. Impressionism continued to be seen in Canadian painting together with Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Art Nouveau, Cubism, Expressionism, and finally Abstraction.  The term Abstract Impressionism is applied to some  recent paintings to indicate the presence of a  style which freed art from  formulas by introducing individuality, expression, and color, and then became almost a formula i t s e l f .  vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT I  wish to thank P r o f e s s o r B.C. B i n n i n g , Mr. W i l l i a m S. H a r t , and Mr.  Ian McNairn f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , a s s i s t a n c e this  project.  and encouragement  I am i n d e b t e d to the F i n e A r t s L i b r a r i a n s  of B r i t i s h Columbia, Miss Melva Dwyer and s t a f f ; Chicago  throughout  a t the U n i v e r s i t y  t o the A r t I n s t i t u t e  of  f o r the use of t h e i r l i b r a r i e s ; to Mr. Brydon Smith a t the Toronto  A r t G a l l e r y who a i d e d me i n f i n d i n g I m p r e s s i o n i s t works and a l l o w e d me f r e e access  t o the p i c t u r e s , and to M i s s S y b i l l e P a n t a z z i , head L i b r a r i a n  at La Grange.  In M o n t r e a l  the L i b r a r i a n and Mr. W i l l i a m Johnson; i n the  N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , Ottawa, Mr. R.H. Hubbard, M i s s Dorothea C o a t e s , and Miss H a m i l t o n ; and i n Quebec M. Gerard M o r i s s e t ,  a i d e d my r e s e a r c h .  For  p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. R u s s e l l H a r p e r , Mr. A r t h u r L i s m e r , M i s s Grace Brymner, M r s . Robert B. M c M i c h a e l , M r s . Donald McKay, V a r l e y , I am most  grateful.  hundred photographs l a t e d t o the t e x t .  My i l l u s t r a t i o n s  and Dr. F r e d e r i c k  chosen from more than  five  c o l l e c t e d on my r e s e a r c h t r a v e l s a r e i n t i m a t e l y r e -  iv  CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I  1  Introduction The V a r i e d I n f l u e n c e s  i n Canadian A r t  CHAPTER II  5  French Its  Impressionism Development, The Impressionist's  And Impressionism  Theories,  i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s  of America  CHAPTER I I I  34  P r e - I m p r e s s i o n i s m i n Canada Homer Watson H o r a t i o Walker James B a r n s l e y W i l l i a m Brymner CHAPTER IV  53  Canadian I m p r e s s i o n i s t  Painters  Maurice C u l l e n Aurele Suzor-C$te CHAPTER V  77  Other Canadian A r t i s t s And Impressionism  Painting Impressionist  Pictures  i n the Group o f Seven  BIOGRAPHIES The P r e - I m p r e s s i o n i s t s  103 and I m p r e s s i o n i s t s  i n Canada  APPENDIX  114  BIBLIOGRAPHY  154  V  LIST OF FIGURES IN APPENDIX  vii FOREWORD  " A r t does not grow w i d e r , i t fashion;  recapitulates,  f o r good f r u i t s  grow e s p a l i e r  one hoards and then p r o j e c t s " . John Rewald,  Impressionism.  At the t e r c e n t e n a r y c e l e b r a t i o n of the Royal S o c i e t y i n London, July,  1964, S i r  C y r i l Hinshelwood  said,  " T h e r e a r e communities i n time as w e l l as o r i g i n a l minds f i n d t h e i r t r u e a f f i n i t i e s  i n space.  The most  i n c o n t i n u i n g the sequence  of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s and t h e i r f u l f i l m e n t o n l y i n t h e i r  successors".  INTRODUCTION The i n f l u e n c e of F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s m on Canadian a r t r e l a t e s to the o r i g i n a l F r e n c h movement which was dominant i n France from 1870 to 1890. Impressionism, this  as s u c h , was v e r y s h o r t l i v e d , and the profound i n f l u e n c e  s t y l e had on the a r t which f o l l o w e d o f f e r s a c h a l l e n g e to t r a c e the  i n f l u e n c e of I m p r e s s i o n i s m on Canadian a r t . Canadian a r t s t u d e n t s , academic t r a i n i n g .  i n the main c o n s e r v a t i v e , v a l u e d t h e i r  The o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d academic work was  on a t r a i n i n g i n t e c h n i q u e and c r a f t s m a n s h i p  t h a t they r e v e r e d and  was u n d e r s t a n d a b l y t h e i r t a r g e t of e x c e l l e n c e . who became I m p r e s s i o n i s t s began t h e i r a r t this  training dissatisfied  inclinations.  based  In F r a n c e , the  artists  t r a i n i n g i n the academies but  them and they broke away to f o l l o w t h e i r own  Canadians went to the academies i n France a t a time when  the aims of I m p r e s s i o n i s m ,  developed o u t s i d e the academies by an a v a n t -  garde few, were b e i n g f e l t by the academic  students.  Canadians were not o n l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s m , w i t h the E n g l i s h school,  this  but  s c h o o l of C o n s t a b l e and T u r n e r , the Dutch landscape  the F r e n c h B a r b i z o n landscape s c h o o l , the i n f l u e n c e of the  American l u m i n i s t s  and the American I m p r e s s i o n i s t s of P h i l a d e l p h i a . The  i n f l u e n c e of these s c h o o l s was not o n l y to a f f e c t the course of A r t  in  Europe but was to spread to America and i n f l u e n c e Canadian a r t as w e l l . It  is  then not s u r p r i s i n g  individual  t h a t Canadian a r t i s t s  combined w i t h t h e i r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the Canadian scene, elements t h a t may be  t r a c e d to the many s t y l e s t h a t many Canadian a r t i s t s  of p a i n t i n g c u r r e n t a t t h a t t i m e .  It  never f u l l y understood I m p r e s s i o n i s t  and yet we f i n d them u s i n g the s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s  may be painting,  of Impressionism,  mixed  not o n l y w i t h an academic approach but a l s o w i t h o t h e r European t e c h n i q u e s .  -  2 ~~  We find in their work a heightening and a lightening of the palette, a freer technique of applying paint in more obvious painterly ways, outdoor subject matter, and the recording of special light effects.  These  were inheritances from Impressionist painters, but only a few Canadians painted totally Impressionist canvases. To fully understand this inheritance i t is necessary to look back to the many schools leading up to Impressionism in France. In Canada, the wilds of North America were not of interest as subjects to painters since i t was not a "lived-in", cleared, and tamed land as was a l l of Europe.  The untamed rawness of the Canadian landscape was too  intimate a reminder of unremitting t o i l to the early pioneers.  Thus the  love of rusticity here only slowly developed over the years and  culminated  in the Group of Seven. The French Impressionists were not concerned with painting to a formula as were the academicians; in fact quite the opposite.  They were  part of a growing school always seeking innovations, new subjects, and new techniques, which were not taken up by Canadians until they had become historically established. Revolutionary non-academic schools of painting were accepted in Canada only after they were accepted in Europe, and even then were imperfectly emulated. Painters from North America going to Europe would only know of these revolutionaries and their theories by talking to the artists, or by carefully studying their work. Even then, the aspects of Impressionism are so various that i t s complete understanding would be d i f f i c u l t . There never was an Impressionist formula.  None of the Impressionists set down  rules, which i f followed would produce Impressionism. • Each of the Impressionists had a different empirical approach for presenting the new  -  3 -  ideas which the group held in common.  Therefore, "Canadian Impressionism"  coming after French Impressionism exhibited only a few of the traits of the original French movement. Often these traits are superficial, and frequently relate only to the type of subject which the French Impressionists most favored, and often entirely ignore the technical means used to achieve the "effect". In 1886, J.E. Hodgson, R.A., made the following observation in his report on the Colonial and Indian Exhibition held in London, "It has been rather a shock to me to observe evident traces of French influence - not the influence of the great French painters but the rank and f i l e of mediocrity."^  This statement refers to the influence of the French  Impressionists on Canadian and other Colonial painters.  It indicates as  well the current o f f i c i a l disfavor in which the French Impressionists were held, but perhaps most significant, i t is the f i r s t recorded acknowledgment of the appearance of French Impressionism in Canadian art. "By the turn of the century, the discoveries of the Impressionists had been brought back from Europe by students and younger painters, and had begun to seep in from other  sources."  "During the two decades before the f i r s t world war, Maurice Cullen, and Suzor-C&te began to explore the possibilities of the snowscape .... showing that Canada contained inexhaustible stores of subject matter, by applying the Impressionist palette to broad design and by painting from intimate contact with their surroundings."-^ In Canadian art we will often find a French Impressionist  subject  treated with a Barbizon technique, Barbizon subjects treated with Impressionist techniques and academic subjects treated with mixed techniques .  Therefore the object of this Thesis w i l l not be to present an unqualified "Canadian Impressionism" because there never was one. Instead i t w i l l try to find many diverse manifestations of Impressionism and i t s effect on Canadian painting and i t w i l l not hesitate to point out many isolated manifestations of French Impressionism in Canadian art which w i l l not appear Impressionist in the all-over aspect. In the next chapter, I will try to trace the elements leading up to the Impressionist movement in France, and show some of the predominant techniques or practices that have become known as French Impressionism. When this is established i t w i l l become possible to find many of these same elements i n Canadian painting.  CHAPTER One o f the most obvious  II  i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g Canadian p a i n t i n g  was  the growing i n t e r e s t i n Europe o f the non-academic landscape s c h o o l the B a r b i z o n s .  of  The B a r b i z o n s c h o o l of p a i n t e r s had been founded i n 1836  by Theodore Rousseau, of F o n t a i n e b l e a u .  a t the v i l l a g e  Painters  of C h a l l e y on the edge of the  forest  l i k e Diaz de l a Pena, J u l e s Dupre, J e a n  F r a n c o i s M i l l e t , Jean B a p t i s t e C o r o t , C h a r l e s F r a n c o i s Daubigny and Constant  Tryon j o i n e d Theodore Rousseau to get away from s t u d i o  to p a i n t landscapes  out o f d o o r s , and to p a i n t scenes  painting,  l i k e the seventeenth  c e n t u r y Dutch m a s t e r s , Meindert Hobbema and Jacob van R u i s d a e l .  These  p a i n t e r s wished to make a s c i e n t i f i c study of the n a t u r a l e f f e c t s of  sky,  water, weather, meadows and l i g h t .  the  same a n i m a l s ,  They used the same meadow a r e a s ,  oak t r e e s , cows and herdsmen as the Dutch s c h o o l but  they  looked w i t h t h e i r eyes and t r i e d to make a p o r t r a i t of a l a n d s c a p e . o u t - o f - d o o r s was f a i t h f u l l y r e c o r d e d w i t h p u r p l e h i l l s  and a p i n k  The  sky.  Using a chromatic p a l e t t e they t r i e d to reproduce the a c t u a l c o l o r s o f t e n m i x i n g the c o l o r on the canvas. sought l i g h t Plants  effects.  Brush s t r o k e s were e v i d e n t and they  The sky was to reproduce exact m e t e r o l o g i c a l  were to be b o t a n i c a l l y c o r r e c t and the animals  specimens.  exact  They p a i n t e d sky, water and l a n d compositions  These were p a s t o r a l  seen,  scenes and i f  effects.  zoological  w i t h no p e o p l e .  p e o p l e were i n c l u d e d they were the  peasant workers of the s o i l . In  England,  the H a r t f o r d H u n t i n g t o n w a t e r - c o l o r s c h o o l w i t h  artists  Joseph T u r n e r , John Crome, John Cotman and John C o n s t a b l e was working the same manner.  In America as i n no o t h e r c o u n t r y t h e r e . h a d been an  i n h e r e n t l o v e of trompe l ' o e i l illusionism,  in  e f f e c t s , l o v e of d e t a i l e d s u p e r f i n e  suggested by the camera and which appeared throughout - 5 -  North  - 6 American art to be culminated in the work of William Harnett.  In Canada  Homer Watson and Horatio Walker were to follow. The Barbizons were not i l l u s i o n i s t i c even when they painted accurately visual effects observed out-of-doors.  In their work there  is a psychic distance between the actual scene and the a r t i s t i c execution which leaves room for the appreciation of a distinct and painterly technique. Jean Francois Millet, 1814 - 1875, was a French peasant who became a celebrated Barbizon painter and who studied under Mauchell a former pupil of Jacques Louis David. for his peasant subjects.  It was in 1868 that Millet became famous,  "The quiet design of Millet's paintings accents  his scrupulous truth of detail and contributes to the dignity with which he invests even the simplest rural t a s k s . T h e s e peasant subjects were to be copied by Vincent van Gogh, 1880 - 1883.  Millet's subjects, The Sower,  The Digger, and Old Man Grieving are typical. In his painting of The Potato Eaters ,1884, van Gogh used Barbizon color based on the color theory of Delacroix; where the pure complimentary colors were used with grays, made by mixing these same complimentary colors. Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot was educated in the neoclassic tradition. He did not belong to any school but was important in the development of modern art. His work can be divided into three stages.  First his early  work which followed nature and tried to present the actual rural scene. Secondly his middle period when his style changed dramatically and he began to use analogous colors. He told Pissarro to paint in the open a i r . To observe the lightest part of a scene and put that color down on the canvas. Then observe the darkest part and paint that area.  Then use from three  to five values of these colors mixed on the palette ready to compose  -  7 -  abstractly, with these values and gray.5  He liked to paint in an out-  of-focus haze which dissolved the forms as the Impressionists were to do. He used white for highlights.  People could be silhouetted against the  darks but subordinated to the landscape. Impressionists.  This device was used by the  A few spots of yellow, red or pure blue were used for  accent to a single color nuance. He painted what he saw, and used an empirical perspective space relationship. Another Barbizon painter who influenced the Impressionists was Johan-Barthold Jongkind who studied in The Hague and later in Paris. He was influenced by Corot and Bonington who were contemporaries of Eugene Delacroix.  Jongkind's studio pictures were not too successful. His  watercolors, however, done on the spot, caught the "most fleeting of sensations".^  He had that rapidity of execution and sureness of touch  which the Impressionists in turn strove to attain.  He painted nature as  he found i t , as in the gray and pink charm of old Paris streets, factories or Dutch seafaring scenes.  He had an intimate detailed knowledge of his  subject and an acute ability to see.  "I love this fellow Jongkind",  Castagnary wrote, "He is an artist to his finger tips ... with him everything lies in the impression".?  Jongkind tried to be faithful to his  impressions and to represent what he knew of his subject under specific atmospheric conditions. Like Constable and Boudin he made atmospheric effects the real subject of his picture. In France, the Impressionist Camile Pissarro, after the great Exposition of 1855, went to Corot for advice and help.  Corot said, "the  f i r s t two things to study are form and values... color and execution give charm to the work".^  The young students disliked Thomas Couture's pre-  occupation with idealization.  He was at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and  - 8 c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the young group, many of whom were s t u d e n t s The younger a r t i s t s masters  were t i r e d of s t u d i o p a i n t i n g and o f c o p y i n g the great  i n the L o u v r e , as an end i n i t s e l f .  a r t i c l e Notes visions,  from A m e r i c a .  sur l ' a r t ,  Roman v i s i o n s ,  Edmond Duranty p u b l i s h e d an  i n Re*alisme, J u l y 10, 1856, s t a t i n g , medieval v i s i o n s ,  visions  "Greek  o f the s i x t e e n t h ,  s e v e n t e e n t h , e i g h t e e n t h , c e n t u r i e s , w i t h the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r b i d d e n . The man o f a n t i q u i t y p a i n t e d what he saw. In  C r e a t e what you s e e . " ^  1855, the j u r y had r e f u s e d two of C o u r b e t ' s  important  canvasses  so he e x h i b i t e d a t h i s  own expense i n the P a v i l l i o n du Re'alisme,  paintings  one-man show ever to be g i v e n i n P a r i s .  i n the f i r s t  L ' A t e l i e r du P e i n t r e , A l l g g o r i e  His  Re'ele, Determinant une Phase de Sept Annees  de ma V i e A r t i s t i q u e , broke many academic r u l e s . w i t h a r e a l i s t i c panoramic view of l o w - c l a s s and the brush s t r o k e s  fifty  There was a new format  people.  L o c a l c o l o r was used  i n s e p a r a t e areas matched the t e x t u r e o f those a r e a s .  Here was i n d i v i d u a l i s m t h a t was a n t i - a c a d e m i c . The I l l u s t r a t e d  London News, S e p t .  1, 1855, p u b l i s h e d a wood engraving  of the C e n t r a l H a l l o f the P a l a i s  des Beaux-Arts a t the P a r i s W o r l d ' s  Here were e x h i b i t e d f o r the f i r s t  time s i g n i f i c a n t works by l i v i n g  from a l l over Europe. f o r t y other canvasses.  Corot showed o n l y s i x , w h i l e Daubigny,  (who had j u s t  form  advised  g i v e n up Law S c h o o l , to become a p a i n t e r , )  and who v i s i t e d the e x h i b i t i o n w i t h h i s  f a t h e r , to "Draw l i n e s , young man,  many l i n e s ; from memory or from n a t u r e ; i t come a good  J o n g k i n d and  Landscapes were c o n s i d e r e d the lowest  The medals went to the f o l l o w e r s of I n g r e s , and Ingres  young Edgar Degas,  painters  D e l a c r o i x chose to e x h i b i t a T u r k i s h Bather among  M i l l e t were h a r d l y r e p r e s e n t e d . of a r t .  Fair.  is  i n t h i s way t h a t you w i l l be-  artist".^  Eugene Boudin was encouraged by M i l l e t and spent t h r e e y e a r s i n  Paris  - 9 from 1850 - 1853.  The p e r i o d of gray p a i n t i n g i n seascapes  they began to p a i n t i n c o l o r . Jongkind.  soft,  "It  He r e t u r n e d to Le Havre to work w i t h  i s now twenty years s i n c e I  t h a t a l l - p e r v a d i n g charm of l i g h t .  faded, s l i g h t l y  rose-tinted.  n o t h i n g but c o l o r v a l u e s and v e l v e t y ; i t  f i r s t began to seek How f r e s h i t  The o b j e c t s d i s s o l v e .  everywhere.  is;  along  that it  is  There i s  The sea was superb, the sky  soft  l a t e r turned to y e l l o w ; i t became warm and then the  s e t t i n g sun imbued e v e r y t h i n g w i t h b e a u t i f u l nuances o f  bluish-purple...7  L i k e C o n s t a b l e he d i s l i k e d the o l d smoky d i r t y c a n v a s s e s , the eye o f an I m p r e s s i o n i s t .  simple b e a u t i e s of n a t u r e " . - ^ draw, do l a n d s c a p e s .  and saw w i t h  He d i d e v e r y t h i n g w i t h l i g h t n e s s  elegance w i t h exact t o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  paint,  over,  He l o v e d the s e a b r e e z e s , b i g c l o u d s and s i l v e r y beaches  the S e i n e . delicacy,  was  and  He wrote "we must seek out the  He a d v i s e d Monet " S t u d y , The ocean and the sky,  l e a r n to see and  animals,  p e o p l e and  t r e e s - - j u s t as n a t u r e c r e a t e d t h e m — a r e so b e a u t i f u l i n t h e i r own s e t t i n g of l i g h t  and a i r ,  j u s t as they a r e . . . . A l l t h a t i s  painted d i r e c t l y , at a  g i v e n moment, has a f o r c e , power, and v i t a l i t y which can never be d u p l i c a t e d i n the In Pissarro  studio".^  the n o i s y atmosphere of the c a f e s of P a r i s ,  young p a i n t e r s  and Degas d i s c u s s e d t h e i r i d e a s w i t h F a n t i n l a Tour,  Flaubert, pupils  of D e l a c r o i x , Couture and I n g r e s .  In  like  Gustave  the c a f e Taranne,  c r i t i c s and w r i t e r s , B a u d e l a i r e and Duranty, m e d i c a l students  like  Gachet, a l l  "Ingrists"  from d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s ;  and " c o l o r i s t s "  as  "realists",  "fantasists",  they were c a l l e d , met and d i s c u s s e d  Many o f the young a r t i s t s  l e f t Paris  art.^  to p a i n t on t h e i r own. L a t e r  the y e a r , P i s s a r r o was to have a landscape a c c e p t e d a t the S a l o n of P i e r r e Charles Baudelaire, i n his  Dr.  S a l o n of 1859, c h a p t e r " L e P u b l i c  in  1859.  - 10 Moderne et l a p h o t o g r a p h i e " to day a r t d i m i n i s h e s  its  r e a l i t y and the a r t i s t he dreams but what he In  the s p r i n g  Variete's C r i t i q u e s ,  Paris,  self-respect, prostrates  stated,  itself  before e x t e r i o r  becomes more and more i n c l i n e d to p a i n t not what sees." --' 1  of 1874, a group of young p a i n t e r s  in Paris,  the o f f i c i a l s a l o n and o r g a n i z e d an e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e i r own. I m p r e s s i o n i s t s r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the b a s i c predecessors,  s i n c e great a r t i s t s  These  theories  of  For twenty y e a r s ,  Ingres,  who s e t out to i n c o r p o r a t e w i t h t h e i r own  p r i n c i p l e s , new ways which l e d to I m p r e s s i o n i s m .  were the p r e c u r s o r s  of Modern P a i n t i n g .  These men  These were i n d i v i d u a l  artists  and I m p r e s s i o n i s m was due to t h e i r v a r i e d and c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . said,  their  Corot and Courbet had dominated the scene and i t was men l i k e  Monet, R e n o i r and P i s s a r r o older basic  defied  of the p a s t had c o n t r i b u t e d to the  development o f I m p r e s s i o n i s t p r i n c i p l e s . Delacroix,  "From day  "Perfection is  a c o l l e c t i v e work and without  that person,  Boudin  this  one  16 would never have a c h i e v e d the p e r f e c t i o n he d i d " . In  England,  developed.  an important r o o t o f F r e n c h Impressionism had been  John C o n s t a b l e was one of the f i r s t  landscape p a i n t e r s  i n the  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y to p a i n t what he a c t u a l l y observed o u t - o f - d o o r s . colleagues  were s t i l l p a i n t i n g a c c o r d i n g to seventeenth and  c e n t u r y formulas  His  eighteenth  which r e s u l t e d i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y dark, brown and  yellow, sepia-cast  works.  They s a i d  that Constable's  paintings  were not  p a i n t e d a c c o r d i n g to t r a d i t i o n , as t r e e s should be the c o l o r o f an o l d violin.  Constable  defended h i s  v i o l i n i n a t r e e and a s k i n g h i s violin.  It  naturalistic friends  if  green t r e e s by p u t t i n g a  the t r e e r e a l l y d i d match the  d i d n o t , and C o n s t a b l e became the i n v e n t o r of a new way o f  c o l o r r e n d i t i o n which had not been used b e f o r e .  He was  11  -  i n t r i g u e d w i t h the luminous  c e n t u r y masters  e f f e c t s a c h i e v e d by  seventeenth  and by the combination o f g o l d e n - y e l l o w s e p i a tones w i t h  b l u e , complementary c o l o r s .  The baroque t r a d i t i o n which f a v o r e d b l u e and  g o l d combinations w i t h white a l s o a c h i e v e d a l i v e l y , and p o w e r f u l l y r i c h effect.  T h i s l e d C o n s t a b l e to e x p l o r e the e f f e c t s c r e a t e d by the a c t i o n  o f complementary c o l o r s on one another t a k i n g b l u e and y e l l o w as complementary and f o r m u l a t i n g o t h e r complementaries As e a r l y as Leonardo  Da V i n c i ' s remarkable  on t h i s f o u n d a t i o n .  scientifically  correct  o b s e r v a t i o n o f the w o r l d , i t had been d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the shadow o f an o b j e c t was  t i n g e d by a c o l o r complementary to the one of the object,''"'  7  and C o n s t a b l e adopted  t h i s phenomenon i n an attempt  f u l and v i s u a l l y t r u e r p i c t u r e s .  C o n s t a b l e , l i k e C o p l e y b e f o r e him, went  o u t s i d e , observed n a t u r e , and sought  the pure pigment c o l o r most c l o s e l y  e q u i v a l e n t to the a c t u a l c o l o r o f the o b j e c t he was The was  t o p a i n t more c o l o r -  depicting.  t e c h n i q u e he used to a p p l y these newer, b r i g h t e r , pure  a l s o new.  colors  H i s b r u s h s t r o k e s were s m a l l and c a l c u l a t e d i n s i z e to match  the a c t u a l pigmented  brush.  He p r e s e n t e d on canvas  had chosen as c o r r e c t on the b r u s h .  the same v a l u e as he  Thus the s u r f a c e of h i s canvases  be-  came a mass o f s m a l l b r u s h s t r o k e s , each h e l p i n g to d e f i n e the g e n e r a l form o f the o b j e c t and each p r e s e n t i n g a p u r e r c o l o r , n e a r e r to n a t u r e than had been seen b e f o r e .  C o n s t a b l e a l s o used what has become known as  a " d i v i d e d color*" t e c h n i q u e , which was on the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on D e l a c r o i x and  T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f h i s method f o r r e p r o d u c i n g a  b r i g h t n a t u r a l e f f e c t by p l a c i n g b r u s h s t r o k e s of d i s t i n c t side.  c o l o r s s i d e by  A t a d i s t a n c e , these c o l o r s blended p r o d u c i n g a more b r i l l i a n t  than a s i n g l e a r e a o f blended c o l o r .  On  color  green, f o r i n s t a n c e , he would  modify a green by a d d i n g y e l l o w to the green f o r a h i g h l i g h t , b e s i d e t h i s  -  12 -  he would p l a c e an o r d i n a r y pure green f o r a d i f f u s e d l i g h t , b l u e to the green i n the shadow, greens,  then add a  thus p r o d u c i n g an analogous range  from y e l l o w green, through green, to b l u e g r e e n .  This required  a v e r y c a r e f u l e m p i r i c a l study of the v i s u a l e f f e c t s of c o l o r s on the canvas as Constable's all  seen from a d i s t a n c e  juxtaposed  to a c h i e v e a n a t u r a l e f f e c t .  Haywain, a p i c t u r e t y p i c a l of h i s  developed s t y l e and  of these remarkable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , was e x h i b i t e d i n P a r i s  where i t was seen by D e l a c r o i x .  of  showing  i n 1824,  T h i s p i c t u r e was such a r e v e l a t i o n to  him t h a t he s t u d i e d i t v e r y c a r e f u l l y f o r days and then proceeded to r e p a i n t one o f h i s  own p i c t u r e s to c o r r e s p o n d w i t h C o n s t a b l e ' s  and to t r y to a c h i e v e the same e f f e c t s of l i g h t Delacroix modified Constable's records his  and  technique  color.^  c o l o r t h e o r y and i n h i s  journals  own ideas about how he p a i n t e d a p i c t u r e to a c h i e v e the  optimum c o l o r e f f e c t .  His  i d e a was to use t h r e e or f o u r pure l o c a l  as main a c c e n t s i n h i s  picture.  In  colors  the background he would use chromatic  g r e y s , made up of a m i x t u r e of the main pure c o l o r s of the major o b j e c t s i n the p i c t u r e .  The main areas o f pure c o l o r i n the f o r e g r o u n d r e a c t e d  w i t h the r e l a t e d greys of the background to c r e a t e a p l a y of c o l o r back and f o r t h i n the p i c t u r e , and t h i s  gave a more l i v e l y e f f e c t than c o l o r  a g a i n s t an u n r e l a t e d background. D e l a c r o i x journeyed to N o r t h A f r i c a where the more d i r e c t sun and b r i l l i a n t c o l o r s brought  out much s t r o n g e r  complementaries  and r e s u l t e d i n a wider range of complementaries g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r c o l o r f a c i l i t y on h i s Today we f i n d i t h a r d to imagine as p a r t i c u l a r l y b r i g h t ed a c o n t r a s t  in his  i n the shadows,  p a l e t t e and a  part.  the works of C o n s t a b l e or  Delacroix  or r e v o l u t i o n a r y but i n t h e i r own time they p r e s e n t -  to " a c a d e m i c " work as  taught i n the a c a d e m i e s  }  Where  -  13  -  academic work had to look like sculpture for figure compositions. to be historical, or morally allegorical.  It had  It had to show heroes at the  height of their power doing great deeds to elevate the mind and approach the ideals of Greek art.  The brushstrokes were to be blended to present  a uniformly textured surface. personality.  This removed a l l trace of the painter's  The color was applied achromatically with highlights in  white, and shadows in black.  The light part of the picture was not to  occupy more than one third of the picture format.  Convention required  a shading through grey, from light to dark areas, in order that light and dark were never juxtaposed and this avoided silhouette effects. The composition had to be laid out on a Renaissance grid system to make every part rationally controlled.  The composition was usually  symmetrically placed about an axis. Academic art was only concerned with figure representations involving l i f e size figures and landscape was an unimportant part of the picture, as a mere background. Landscape art, therefore, before the Barbizons of France, was only accepted as an art form in English water-colors, and indeed the Barbizons took much from the English water-color school. The Barbizons bridged the gap between the English landscape school and the French Impressionists.  Diaz de la Peffa, the Barbizon painter,  advised Renoir to discard earth colors and black, and to lighten his 19 palette. A brief resume of the tenets held by some of the French Impressionists w i l l set the elements of Impressionism before us. same elements appeared much later in Canadian painting.  These  Impressionism  in France was a non-academic bourgeois art which concentrated on land-  - 14 scapes presented with vibrant f u l l colors and apparent light.  The fore-  most concern, the depiction of visual light on painted canvas, was partly solved by the scientific color researches of the previous half century. Sir Isaac Newton in 1766 had passed a beam of sunlight through a prism and charted the spectral colors on a screen. spaced around to form a circle.  These colors he  He chose seven distinct hues red, orange,  yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet to agree with certain mystical notions about the seven notes of the diatonic scale in music, and the ori seven planets of classical tradition. In 1802 Young did his work on color theory. writing extensively from 1856 Optics.  Hermann Helmholtz was  to 1866 on the subject of Physiological  The Young - Helmholtz theory stated that in optics any color may  be matched visually by adding together various amounts of the three primary colors.  It is interesting to note that the three primary colors  to which this theory referred were red, green and violet.  In 1856, James  Clark Maxwell developed the color wheel, which illustrated the principle that the spectral colors equally spaced on a spinning top or wheel produce white light. As early as 1839"^-'- Chevreul stated that since light was the source of color, i t was necessary to examine the composition of light. prismatic spectrum was made up of six colors.  His  Three simple ones: red,  blue and yellow, and three compound colors produced by mixing the simple ones giving green, violet and orange. Chevreul found that the juxtaposition of two complementary colors heighten their intensity and that every object brightens i f placed against something dark and conversely, an object appears darker placed against something light.  In 1839 his  book on color theory was written, although i t was not published until  - 15 after 1875. His law of simultaneous contrasts especially interested painters. The Impressionists knew of these theories, but they preferred to use a variety of pure colors spread more or less evenly throughout their whole picture, so that by their optical mixture, the eye would form a vibrating, changing, and very b r i l l i a n t impression of light. The Impressionists generally restricted their palette to pure hues of yellow, red and blue.  Photographic reproductions later used these  same three colors as the basis for their color prints. The Impressionists had to follow their own instinctive feeling for light.  In translating the purity and brilliance of their vision they  eliminated earth colors, burnt sienna and black from their palettes. Ingres in showing a blue dress would add white to the blue for a highlight giving a washed out effect^- plain blue for an area in indirect light, and would add black to the blue for the shadows using a monochromatic scale. Fragonard and Delacroix produced new luminosity by using different colors for half tones instead of adding black or white. Impressionists took over an already established formula.  Thus the Edward Duranty,  publisher of Realism wrote "They discovered that light robs tones of colorj that the purity of sunlight reflected from objects reimbues the objects with a luminous unity which blends the seven spectral rays of the prism into one colorless beam which is light.  Intuitive step by  intuitive step they succeeded in dissolving sunlight into individual rays, into i t s elements, and then in reinvesting i t with unity through the harmony of the spectral colors which they applied to their canvasses."  23  This perception led the Impressionists to a shift in emphasis, from the  -  16  -  observation of the elements of light, to capturing the changing appearance  i  of the subject under various light conditions; to the dissolution of form, in the creation of a world which was the reflection of a reflection.  This  approach became more and more limited as i t chose to confine i t s e l f to representing a fleeting instant.  This was coming toward the objective of  the scientific analysis of optical effects, which, when i t was finally achieved, distinguished the highly formulated work of the Neo Impressionists by Seurat, Signac, and Cross. Pierre Baudelaire's critique on the 1846 Salon puts forward the idea that color expresses harmony, melody and counterpoint and that color in art is analogous to melody in music.^ It is easy to exaggerate the influence of scientific formulas.  These  theories may have influenced the Impressionists but painters continued to use their eyes f i r s t , rather than learning any precise formulae.  However,  i t was the growing scientific interest in color that suggested this way of seeing and painting. The roots of Impressionism are found in many places. . Claude Lorraine's luminism, Honore Daumier's common people, John Constable's color, Gustave Courbet's realism, Eugene Delacroix's color, Jean Corot's landscapes, the Barbizon School painting out-of-doors at Fontainebleau, Johan Jongkind and Eugene Boudin at Le Havre, and Charles Daubigny's water, sky and low horizon canvasses. Edouard Manet, one of the precursors of French Impressionism, began a more modern way of painting.  His works echoed the Spanish master-works  by Velasquez and Goya, but they also were indebted to Japanese prints which were coming into vogue in Paris about 1870. and highlights and strengthened his colors.  He eliminated half tones  The effectiveness of his  s i m p l i f i e d images depended upon the s e l e c t i o n o f a few elements. s i m p l i f i e d the image without weakening i t .  His  a way o f p a i n t i n g t h a t looked spontaneous.  This instantaneous  Manet  o b j e c t i v e was to work out e f f e c t was  to appear so e x p e r t t h a t h i s work seemed to be the i m p r o v i s a t i o n o f a moment.  T h i s appearance was v a l u e d and sought a f t e r by the men who were  then b e g i n n i n g  the I m p r e s s i o n i s t way of p a i n t i n g ;  Claude Monet and C a m i l l e  Pissarro. The b o l d f l a t  c o l o r areas of Manet were a g a i n s t the academic  There was l i t t l e middle t o n e .  The l i g h t s  There were s t r o n g v a l u e c o n t r a s t s  and darks were massed  rules.  together.  and l i t t l e i n t e r m e d i a r y s h a d i n g .  s i l h o u e t t e appearance was the r e s u l t and h i s  A  r e s t r i c t e d p a l e t t e was reduced  to t h r e e pure c o l o r s . Manet i n t r o d u c e d p i c t u r e s t h a t were more important than the  subjects  he d e p i c t e d ; where the c o l o r was new and d i f f e r e n t , and where f l a t  areas,  w i t h no shadows were u s e d . The new concept t h a t a work of a r t may f i n d i t s itself,  r a t h e r than i n what i t  says o r i s  reason f o r being  about, was a d e p a r t u r e from  the a n e c d o t a l i d e a t h a t dominated s a l o n p a i n t i n g i n 1863. f i r s t I m p r e s s i o n i s t showing was a t N a d a r ' s Monet's  canvas  e n t i t l e d Impression,  in  studio.  Sunrise,  In  Because of  the p a i n t e r s  1874 the Claude  i n that  ex25  h i b i t i o n were c a l l e d I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , But even the a r t i s t s c a l l e d themselves  by the c r i t i c L. L e r o y , as a j o k e .  r e c o g n i z e d the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  Impressionists.  Claude Monet was an e a r l y I m p r e s s i o n i s t and h i s on those o f J o n g k i n d and B o u d i n . which was Monet's Monet's  of the term and  seascapes  are based  J o n g k i n d and Boudin p a i n t e d a t Le H a v r e ,  home, and emulated Daubigny's water and sky themes.  In  e a r l i e s t work he uses a v e r y reduced p a l e t t e of b l u e and y e l l o w ,  -  18 -  complementary c o l o r s , mixed w i t h w h i t e to form a l i g h t b r i g h t b r u s h s t r o k e changes  tint.  The  from p a r t to p a r t of the p i c t u r e , i n d i c a t i n g d i f f e r e n t  t e x t u r e s c o n t r a r y to the academic r u l e , t h a t b r u s h s t r o k e s be u n i f i e d throughout  the whole p i c t u r e .  Monet wanted the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  o b j e c t to be caught by the b r u s h s t r o k e .  He was concerned w i t h the  e f f e c t s o f s u n l i g h t when o b s e r v i n g r e f l e c t i o n s and r e f r a c t i o n s . p r e c i s e l y these sudden gleams, s u r f a c e s of t h i n g s t h a t I b r e a s t hues of shot s i l k  the m a g i c a l  light  that plays  am t r y i n g to c a p t u r e , l i g h t or the b l u e g l i n t s  M.E. C h e v r e u l ' s simultaneous  "It  is  on the  t h a t has  the d o v e ' s  of flaming punch."  c o n t r a s t t h e o r y had p o s s i b l y  to Monet t h a t the o p t i c a l e f f e c t of showing white l i g h t ,  indicated  c o u l d be  a c h i e v e d by j u x t a p o s i n g complementaries of the same v a l u e to produce luminous e f f e c t s .  It  was as  though l i g h t  o r i g i n a t e d i n the p i c t u r e  it-  self. The immediate e f f e c t o f n a t u r e was taken by the I m p r e s s i o n i s t scape s c h o o l from an a c t u a l v i s u a l s c e n e .  Their outlook r e f l e c t e d a  H e r a c l i t i a n p h i l o s o p h y i n c l u d i n g the element of time i n a w o r l d of t r a n s i t i o n and f l u x . and the sun.  light,  They took the c h a o t i c shapes of n a t u r e  and r e c o r d e d the chance movements of men w i t h no comment on the scene.  fires,  the e a r t h ,  They t r i e d to c a p t u r e b o d i e s r e f l e c t i n g  steam, w a t e r , clouds and g l a s s .  optical  change,  They t r i e d to c a p t u r e b o d i e s p r o d u c i n g l i g h t ,  They t r i e d to c a p t u r e b o d i e s a b s o r b i n g l i g h t ,  m i s t s and atmosphere.  land-  ' a n i n n o c e n t e y e ' , and w i t h  They were the f i r s t p a i n t e r s  to t r a n s c r i b e the  image d i r e c t l y as you saw i t w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g any superimposed  o r d e r ; and p a i n t e d the a c t u a l scene o u t - o f - d o o r s . They chose s u b j e c t s not f o r t h e i r importance as s u b j e c t m a t t e r , as a study to show the l i g h t  effects.  The i n t e r e s t i n showing  light  but  - 19 effects occurred after Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, and Alfred Sisley went to England in 1870 and saw the work of Joseph Turner.  On their  return to France, Mallerme's literary interest in a subtle nuance in the use of words influenced the Impressionists to experiment with nuances in light dark, warm cool, complementary and rainbow pallettes pigments. At the time of the 1855 International Exhibition in Paris, Camille Pissarro arrived in Paris to study art. He was very impressed by the works of Ingres, Delacroix, Courbet, and Corot.  Pissarro always acknow-  ledged his debt to Corot and like Corot he painted a series of country roads.  In 1859 he met Monet at the Academie Suisse.  in 1866, and in Louveciennes in 1869.  He was in Pontoise  In 1870 he spent two years in  London, England with Monet during the Franco-Prussian War.  On his return  from England he settled again in Pontoise, 1872 - 1884, where he was in close communication With Paul Clzanne, Armand Guillaumin and Victor Vignon. It was Pissarro who introduced Cezanne to the Impressionist technique and helped to clear away his former somber manner. In 1902 Gauguin wrote; "If you examine Pissarro"s art in i t s entirety, you find, despite i t s unevenness, not only an intense instinct for art which never contradicts i t s e l f , but also an art which is essentially intuitive in the best tradition.  He copied everyone, you say?  but denied him.  Why not?  Everyone copied him,  He was one of my masters and I do not deny him."^  In his townscapes and country road-type scenes there are often strong perspective lines such as a road merging with a horizon and a composition which recalls Corot's works; but the principal element in his pictures is the light, soft and atmospheric which Pissarfohad mastered. Pissarro joined the Impressionists because of his great regard for Manet's work. He showed at every Impressionist exhibition from 1874 to  - 20 1886.  Theodore Duret, i n h i s  account of the S a l o n of 1870 wrote " I n  a s p e c t of h i s work P i s s a r r o i s to s u i t h i s  composition.  a realist.  one  He would never r e a r r a n g e n a t u r e  F o r him, a landscape on canvas must be an exact  reproduction of a n a t u r a l s c e n e . " ^ 2  A f t e r the F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n War the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s reassembled i n Durand-Ruel moved to New Bond S t .  Paris.  in Paris.  In London, Daubigny had i n -  t r o d u c e d Durand-Ruel to Monet and P i s s a r r o .  These men were s t r e n g t h e n e d  by h i s  support even though they had been i g n o r e d i n London a r t c i r c l e s .  They had been c a p t i v a t e d by the c o u n t r y s i d e and the suburbs and had p a i n t e d the e f f e c t s o f f o g , v i s i t e d museums and saw o i l s  snow and s p r i n g s u n s h i n e .  It  was the landscape p a i n t e r s , the masters  and f l e e t i n g i m p r e s s i o n s , which a f f e c t e d them most; Turner  especially.  The b r i l l i a n c e of h i s pure c o l o r s caught  analyzed h i s  technique.  in his  They  and w a t e r c o l o r s by Turner and C o n s t a b l e which  were a new r e v e l a t i o n to them. of l i g h t  of London  His  t h e i r eye.  snow and i c e scenes impressed them.  "From D e l a c r o i x to Neo I m p r e s s i o n i s m " ,  They Signac,  wrote of T u r n e r : "They were  a s t o n i s h e d a t h i s a b i l i t y to r e c r e a t e the whiteness  of snow,  something  they themselves w i t h t h e i r broad b r u s h s t r o k e s had not been a b l e to a c h i e v e . And they r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s wonderful e f f e c t c o u l d not be a c h i e v e d w i t h a u n i f o r m w h i t e , but o n l y through numerous c l o s e l y a p p l i e d dots  in a  v a r i e t y of c o l o r s w h i c h , seen from a d i s t a n c e , merged to g i v e the d e sired effect.""^ Turner, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s  l a t e r works, p o r t r a y e d n a t u r e i n h e r most  t u r b u l e n t moods w i t h r o l l i n g seas and f l y i n g s p r a y . t r a i n s are l i k e misty abstractions  His battleships  r a t h e r than l i k e s o l i d form.  C o n s t a b l e c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d the s u b j e c t matter of Monet and A l e t t e r from P i s s a r r o  to Dewhurst, Nov.  and  He and Pissarro.  1902 s a y s ; "Monet and I were  - 21 v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c over the London l a n d s c a p e s . w h i l s t I,  Monet worked i n the p a r k s , '  l i v i n g a t Lower Norwood, a t t h a t time a charming suburb,  s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of f o g , snow and s p r i n g t i m e . We a l s o v i s i t e d museums. of C o n s t a b l e , us.  the canvases  We worked from n a t u r e . . .  The w a t e r c o l o r s and p a i n t i n g s  of Turner and  of O l d Crome have c e r t a i n l y had i n f l u e n c e upon  We admired Gainsborough, Lawrence, and R e y n o l d s ; but we were s t r u c k  c h i e f l y by the landscape p a i n t e r s , who shared more i n our aim w i t h r e g a r d 31 to ' p l e i n a i r ' ,  light,  and f u g i t i v e e f f e c t s . "  . . . . " T u r n e r and  C o n s t a b l e w h i l e they taught us something, showed us i n t h e i r works  that  they had no u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a n a l y s i s of shadow, which i n T u r n e r ' s painting is  s i m p l y used as an e f f e c t ,  tone d i v i s i o n i s  a mere absence of l i g h t .  As f a r  as  c o n c e r n e d , Turner proved the v a l u e of t h i s as a method 32  among methods, a l t h o u g h he d i d not a p p l y i t  c o r r e c t l y and n a t u r a l l y . "  Monet s t a t e d i n l a t e r years t h a t T u r n e r ' s a r t had had a l i m i t e d b e a r i n g on h i s  evolution.  Both he and P i s s a r r o ,  through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , had  i n 1870, come c l o s e r to n a t u r e than T u r n e r , whose work was a n t i p a t h e t i c to him because of the exuberant r o m a n t i c i s m of  fancy.  While i n London i n 1870, Monet and P i s s a r r o met James M c N e i l l Whistler.  Whistler's  Old Battersea Bridge,  Japanese wood b l o c k p r i n t f o r i t s i n greys and b l u e green. Gold, reveals h i s  1865, p r o b a b l y based on a  composition, is  Whister's  s u b t i t l e f o r i t Nocturne - B l u e and  interest i n creating decorative e f f e c t s .  t e c h n i c a l r e f i n e m e n t and h i s  In  It  is  his  s u b t l e c o l o r nuances, m a i n l y i n shades o f  grey but w i t h luminous e f f e c t s of y e l l o w and p i n k , f a s c i n a t e d Monet.  a v e r y s u b t l e harmony  t h a t must have  1871 Monet d i d a number of works i n and around  London such as Waterloo B r i d g e and Westminster,  i n the L o r d A s t o r  C o l l e c t i o n , London, which uses a much more d i v i d e d b r u s h s t r o k e  than  -  22  -  Whistler's blended works, but which shows an obvious debt to Whistler in its emulation of Whistler's light effects and general mood. From then on Monet became more and more interested in a light which dissolved form in a highkeyed foggy luminosity. Alfred Sisley, 1839 - 1899, studied at Gleyre's Studio with Monet, Renoir and Bazille.  In his f i r s t work, accepted by the Salon in 1867, he  described himself as a pupil of Corot. centered in the Ile-de-France area.  Sisley painted only landscapes  His delicate feeling for nature is  very suited to the snow scenes which he did so well. After 1885 he was more and more influenced by Monet. He adopted the Impressionist technique and colors, and was surprised at Renoir's light palette and colorful painting. Sisley's The Road Through Marly, Seen from the Road to Sevres is a tree-bordered road disappearing into space, influenced by Corot.  Sisley  always began with the sky, the major depth producing part of his landscapes.  Snow at Louveciennes shows the influence of Monet on Sisley.  The  picture has taken on a flatter brighter scene showing the multiple reflections to be found in the snow. Again the road goes straight back into the picture plane giving a feeling of depth but the world seems buried in a great white silence and only the women and the tree trunk break the overa l l decoration.  Sisley and Pissarro often painted very similar subjects in  and around Louveciennes and Honfleur.  Sisley contributed to four of the  eight Impressionist exhibitions between 1874 and  1886.  One of the greatest colorists of the Impressionist School was Auguste Renoir who began his artistic career at fourteen as a porcelain painter at Limoges.  The precision and delicacy needed in porcelain painting and the  technique of painting on a transparent white ground seems to have influenced  - 23 h i s whole l i f e ' s In  work.  1864 R e n o i r accompanied Monet, S i s l e y and B a z i l l e when they went  to s k e t c h a t C h a i l l y i n the f o r e s t o f F o n t a i n e b l e a u . R e n o i r used a rainbow p a l e t t e a p p l i e d i n t h i n l a y e r s over a pure white r e f l e c t i n g b a s e .  T h i s was a new t e c h n i c a l p r o c e d u r e .  no u n d e r p a i n t i n g to e s t a b l i s h l i g h t ,  dark a r e a s .  shading was n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of d a r k n e s s . was i n b r i g h t pure c o l o r s . a c h i e v e d by t h i s  R e n o i r expresses  For the f i r s t  time  The o n l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n  The j e w e l - l i k e l i v e l i n e s s  technique i s  There was  of the c o l o r he  unique.  the happy b o u r g o i s e a t t i t u d e behind the I m p r e s s i o n i s t  approach to a r t i n h i s  statement, "What I  l i k e is  s k i n , a young g i r l ' s  t h a t i s p i n k and shows t h a t s h e has a good c i r c u l a t i o n .  But what I  skin  like  33 above a l l i s  serenity."  i n the dappled l i g h t  T h i s q u o t a t i o n r e v e a l s how the a r t i s t  delighted  e f f e c t s to be seen i n h i s Nude i n the S u n l i g h t  and  g i v e s us an i d e a about what he was t r y i n g to r e p r e s e n t i n the p i c t u r e . R e n o i r s a i d , " F o r me a p i c t u r e must be l o v a b l e , c h e e r f u l , and p r e t t y , yes p r e t t y . . . . T h e r e a r e enough tiresome t h i n g s i n l i f e 34  a l r e a d y w i t h o u t our  t a k i n g the t r o u b l e to produce m o r e . " When Claude Monet l e f t G l e y r e ' s  s t u d i o i n 1863 he took R e n o i r and  S i s l e y w i t h him to p a i n t i n the f o r e s t of F o n t a i n e b l e a u . were the f i r s t look a t t h i s  to p a i n t s e a - b a t h i n g .  young man who attempts 35  In  Monet and Boudin  1886 Manet s a i d o f Monet:  to do p l a i n a i r ; as i f  "Just  the a n c i e n t s had  ever thought o f such a t h i n g ! " A f t e r 1870 Monet gave up p l a c i n g people i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s s t r i c t e d h i m s e l f to s t u d y i n g problems of l i g h t and c o l o r . the study of ever more s u b t l e e x p r e s s i o n s  and r e -  H i s a r t became  o f v i s u a l phenomena.  The man  who had dreamt of huge f i g u r e c o m p o s i t i o n s , p a i n t e d e a s e l p i c t u r e s .  It  - 24 was only at the end of his l i f e that he again took up works of great size and these are his huge waterlily studies, Les Nympheas, in the Orangerie. From 1872 to 1876 Monet lived near his friend, Gustave Caillebottt^ in Argenteuil on the Petite Genevelieres. freest work.  There he did his freshest and  The light reflected from the rippling water, prompted his  most Impressionistic work. Monet lived on his houseboat and Renoir and Manet were frequent visitors. in his own  These three painted the same sub jects, each  way.  Manet painted an Impressionist study of Monet in his canoe called The Canoer where blue and yellow are present in such an arrangement that they mix optically to give the impression of white light, the most intense, forceful, b r i l l i a n t , white light of the open air, and i t s reflection from the water.  There are large and monumental areas of dark and light without  semi-tint transitions. horizon line.  The most limited palette is used and there is no  A wall of blue sea forms the background, while the simpli-  fied sweeping line of the boat encloses the two figures in a composition reminiscent of a Japanese print. Claude Monet's Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877, is one of a series of railway views shown at the Third Impressionist Exhibition. Altogether he made seven variations on this theme. There were forerunners of this type of theme. Turner had painted Rain, Steam, and Speed in 1844.  Monet and  Pissarro may have seen these works in England in 1870. The railway was a great novelty at that time and was used as a subject by Pissarro and Sisley as well as. by Monet.  These artists often travelled  to the suburbs of Paris by train and naturally were interested in the effects of light filtered through glass and steam and touched by the pink colors of early morning.  Like the clouds and reflections in water this  -  25  -  was a l l a part of that ephemeral universe which they chose to paint. Monet also painted many views of haystacks in a field at Givern^y. These were shown in a l l weather conditions.  He painted a series of  poplars on the banks of the Epte at different times of the day.  In  February, 1892 he went to live above a shop called "Au Caprice" in Rouen from which he could see the facade of the Cathedral.  He reproduced its  various aspects in several pictures, going from one to another according to the time of day and the weather. His technique was changing. His paint became a sort of stippled cement as i f to imitate the grain and carvings of the old stones.  Clemenceau classified the series of facades into four 36  groups, the greys, the whites, the blues, and the rainbow hued. continued the project into 1893.  Monet  He wrote, "I work as hard as I can but  what I have undertaken is enormously difficult...My stay here is drawing near its close.  This does not mean that I am ready to finish my cathedrals.  Alas, the more I go on, the more d i f f i c u l t I find i t to put down what I 37 feel.  It is forced labor, searching, testing, not achieving very much."  By 1894 he finished the series and had a highly successful showing of a l l the paintings at Durand-Ruel s in 1895. 1  The cathedral series was a programmed demonstration of Monet's theory about the painting of light.  He painted the structure in morning light,  f u l l daylight, evening light, on dull days, rainy days and sunny days. But we may say that he never really painted the cathedral at a l l .  The stones  became cotton f l u f f bathed in pink, blue, and lavender irridescence. There is no formal composition and the abstract pattern of color has an unexpected relationship to contemporary art. As early as 1890 Monet wrote to his friend, the c r i t i c Geffroy, about 5  his attempting the subject of water with its reflections and depths.  He  -  26 -  r e t u r n e d to t h i s problem a g a i n and a g a i n .  He turned to h i s  own garden  a t G i v e r n y w i t h i t s water l i l i e s r i s i n g to the s u r f a c e of a pond t h a t r e f l e c t e d t r a i l i n g willows  and cascades o f p u r p l e w i s t a r i a ,  and beds of b r i l l i a n t and e x o t i c f l o w e r s f o r h i s  last  tall  poplars,  works.  "The water l i l y s e r i e s , Les Nympheas, r e p r e s e n t e d the crowning achievement of Monet's this  long c a r e e r .  c u l t i v a t i o n of h i s  own garden, as i t were, r e p r e s e n t s one of the most  p e r s o n a l moments o f Monet's t h a t was d i s t i n c t l y h i s  For these l a s t works o f an o l d man,  a r t , when he brought  t o g e t h e r , on a s u b j e c t  own, the themes and t e c h n i q u e s of a l i f e t i m e of  seeing." In Monet's ion,  l a t e r p a i n t i n g there is  the l a c k of r e c o g n i z a b l e l i m i t s  trees,  a h i g h degree of apparent  and d e f i n i t i o n s , the r e f l e c t i o n s o f  the hazy c l o u d s , a l l p r o c e e d i n g a c r o s s  abstract  abstract-  the canvas  in  seemingly  rhythms.  Roger F r y o b j e c t e d to the l a r g e element of a b s t r a c t i o n and complained t h a t the d i s s o l u t i o n of the formal elements had f o l l o w e d d i r e c t l y from Monet's  o b s e s s i o n w i t h c a t c h i n g the most f u g i t i v e a s p e c t s  of  visual  39 sensation.  Monet's  admirers on the o t h e r hand, p r a i s e d j u s t t h i s  f o r m l e s s p o e t i c vagueness. a s p e c t of t h i n g s , light  "Monet's  c o n c e r n was f o r the immediate v i s u a l  and then he sought the unusual s e n s a t i o n s  of c o l o r and  t h a t f l a s h upon the eye, i r r e s p e c t i v e of o n e ' s h a b i t u a l  of the s u b j e c t .  It  same  knowledge  was the apparent s e n s a t i o n t h a t he put on the canvas.  We know t h a t the i n n e r p e t a l s of a y e l l o w sunflower a r e n o t , i n f a c t , s t r e a k e d w i t h orange, but when Monet looked - he saw t h a t s t r o k e o f l y i n g a l o n g the p e t a l s  and t h a t was what he p a i n t e d .  The Neo  orange  Impressionists,  u s i n g o p t i c a l t h e o r i e s , saw t h a t a s t r o k e of r e d and an a d j a c e n t y e l l o w , would merge i n the r e t i n a o f the v i e w e r ' s eye, p r o d u c i n g an orange more  -  27  -  b r i l l i a n t than could be achieved by the conventional method of mixing pigments.  If you look carefully at paintings from a l l of Monet's work i t  is d i f f i c u l t to find a single example of his using exactly this method. A red placed beside a yellow, or a purple next to a blue, is intended to have the value which Monet put down. What he had discovered was a method for making each individual stroke more b r i l l i a n t in i t s e l f .  Sometimes this was  a sort of descriptive shorthand for bits of sky reflected in water or flecks of poppy in a field of yellow and green grass. Clemenceau observed that Monet mixed his colors on his palette as other artists did. ^Another attribute accredited to Monet as a novel characteristic of his was his insistence upon paint and upon visible brushwork. When viewed close-up his subjects tended to disappear into a skein of b r i l l i a n t brushwork.  This was quite obviously one of the distinguishing  features of Impressionist painting but i t is an enlargement upon that same tendency as seen in Rembrandt or especially Velasquez, except that in Impressionism the brushstrokes remain as brushstrokes when viewed from a 41  distance and do not resolve themselves into a photographic precision." One of the most important aspects of Monet's work, as a leading example of the whole "Impressionist" style, is his conformity to the actual scene and his dependence upon his subject, no matter how far removed his final "impression" seemed. If one compares photographs of his l i l y pond garden with his paintings of i t , one is struck by his close adherence to visual fact.  Monet took his composition from nature and moved himself to  get the view that he wanted, rather than ordering the composition on the canvas.  He was in the habit of working on several paintings at one time,  painting each day on one after another only so long as a given light remained the same. We recall that Renoir did this too for his Moulin de l a  - 28 Galette scene.  Monet did not want a composite picture which incorporated  the light of morning and afternoon as well.  His dependence on the actual  conditions of his subject shows up in his letters complaining in despair about a change in the weather or in the light, or about a river that flooded before he could finish a painting he had begun. He even had to buy the stand of poplars along the Epte River so they would not be cut down before he had completed his famous "poplar series". He depended on 42 the visual scene and upon the visual brushwork. Monet had always been fascinated by water and reflections and his water garden was a perfect subject.  He tended to choose a morning mist  or afternoon shadow when the forms along the banks of his pond seemed to merge with their reflections, creating a kind of flat double image lying close to the picture's surface.  Gradually he discarded clear definitions  of edges of the pond or bank and gradually pushed the horizon line further and further to the top of his canvas until i t disappears and there is no definitive boundary left to worry about.  Then you see only pond surface.  In his water l i l y pond picture Monet captures the impression of the evening light and a i r , the weedy depths below the water, and the glassy reflecting surface of the pond.  "Even in this most 'abstract' manner,  Monet's art is s t i l l fixed upon the external world." Degas said that Monet's art was "that of a skilful but not very 44 profound decorator",  and i t is true that Monet never touched upon the  spiritual, the psychological, or the sociological. impersonal.  His work is much more  Valiry said that i t represented "the advent of pure sensibil-  ity in Painting."^^ Impressionism had a very far reaching influence on a l l art forms. After the last of the group exhibitions in 1886, the impact of outdoor  painting, bright  c o l o r s , an a r t f r e e of commentary, a simple r e p o r t i n g o f  a s c e n e , an a r t f o r a r t ' s  sake type o f e x p r e s s i o n , f r e e d o t h e r a r t  from d u l l c o l o r e d , a n e c d o t a l , n a r r a t i v e  forms  associations.  P a i n t i n g i n terms o f tone, r a t h e r than i n terms of the d e p i c t e d o b j e c t itself,  is  Impressionism.  It  is  the e f f e c t of l i g h t r e f l e c t e d on the r e t i n a  o f the eye from an o b j e c t , r a t h e r than the reproduced form of the o b j e c t s themselves.  Impressionism a l s o  i n c l u d e s a t h e o r y of C o l o r found i n Monet,  he wanted to p a i n t i n terms of pure l i g h t without any p r e v i o u s of the form.  Trees appear not as  greenish c o l o r .  He a p p l i e s h i s  t r e e forms but as b i t s  knowledge  o f b l u i s h and  c o l o r i n dots and dabs, a p p r o x i m a t i n g the  t o n a l i t y and g e n e r a l shape as seen through i n t e r v e n i n g d i s t a n c e w i t h s p e c i f i c k i n d and degree of l i g h t In Germain B a z i n ' s "The f i r s t  its  and atmosphere.  Impressionist Paintings  i n the L o u v r e , we f i n d :  c o n t a c t o f Americans w i t h Impressionism took p l a c e i n 1883 a t  the F o r e i g n E x h i b i t i o n i n Boston,  to which Durand-Ruel had sent p i c t u r e s  by Manet, Monet, S i s l e y and B o u d i n . " ^ "Durand-Ruel had the next  large  e x h i b i t i o n c o n t a i n i n g more than 300 works i n t r o d u c i n g I m p r e s s i o n i s m to New York i n one overwhelming g e s t u r e . 1886, w i t h 23 Degas, 14 M a n e t ' s , 3 Seurat's  The e x h i b i t i o n opened on A p r i l 20,  48 M o n e t ' s ,  42 P i s s a r j o ' s ,  ( i n c l u d e d a t the r e q u e s t of P i s s a r p ) ,  by Boudin, C a s s a t t ,  38 R e n o i r ' s ,  14 S i s l e y ' s ,  and p i c t u r e s  C a i l l e b © M ; t e , F o r a i n , G u i l l e m i n , Berthe M o r i s o t ,  Lewis Brown, R o l l , and s e v e r a l o t h e r s . the N a t i o n a l Academy where i t s  John  On May 25, i t was t r a n s p o r t e d to  success was even g r e a t e r . " ^  7  "At  Chicago,  I m p r e s s i o n i s m p e n e t r a t e d to the h e a r t of the World F a i r of 1 8 9 3 . . . A p r i v a t e exhibition,  e n t i r e l y from American c o l l e c t i o n s , showed e i g h t e e n  I m p r e s s i o n i s t p i c t u r e s o n l y , which had a g r e a t American a r t i s t s  success."  f a c e d w i t h even g r e a t e r o b s t a c l e s  48  than European  - 30 artists have given us a painting tradition of which we may well be proud. They wanted to express a new world, wild and strange by European standards. They welded together their own culture with that of other lands, and used every influence, wherever i t originated, to help them express, as profoundly as they could, l i f e in America. Canadian artists were to do the same but with the added advantage of having easy access to the developments in the United States. Art publications came to Canada from the United States. Artists visited back and forth across the border.  Canadian and American artists worked side by  side in the Academies of France and visited the same cafes and lived in the same quarters. Therefore the influence of Impressionism through American sources is almost as strong as the direct influence from France. James McNeil Whistler, 1834 - 1903, was to satisfy that craving in America for the exotically beautiful and the decorative.  Like Henry James  and T.S. Eliot he was adopted by England when he moved to London.  The  French Impressionists were lovers of the sun, while Whistler, influenced by Velasquez and the Japanese prints, developed his passion for twilight and night.  His Symphony in White, 1862, is however a l i g h t - f i l l e d canvas  where broad areas of color form a white surface; with one area reflecting from the other. An artist who worked in Paris and had a great influence in introducing Modern French Art movements to America was John Singer Sargent, a society painter.  He did not follow Impressionism in his work but he  admired Manet and Monet. He was their publicity agent across the 49 Atlantic. Mary Cassatt, 1844 - 1926, after studying in the Pennsylvania Academy went abroad in 1866 to Madrid, Amsterdam, Antwerp and Paris to  - 31 study the old Masters.  The works of Correggio at Parma were of special  interest to her, but she joined the Impressionists in 1877 and exhibited four times with that group.  She was encouraged in her work by Degas, but  her importance to Americans and Canadians was the fact that she was responsible for advising her friends, the Havemeyers, the Whittemores, Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears and James Stillman to take an interest in French Impressionism and not only bring Impressionist exhibitions to America, but to purchase the work of the Impressionist painters. Benjamin Constant, who taught Mary Cassatt in Paris was the teacher of Theodore Robinson, 1852 - 1896.  Robinson also studied with Carolus-  Duran and Gerome. In 1888 in his late thirties, Robinson discovered Claude Monet at Giverny and was one of the f i r s t Americans to follow the Impressionists and recognize Monet as the most powerful figure of the movement. He championed the cause in an article, "Claude Monet", published in 1892. Library, New York.  His diary from 1892 to 1896 is in the Frick  51  He always used strong contrasts of light and shadow.  His new technique of high keyed, broken color as seen in Willows, 1891, may have been an influence on William Brymner. Like the Canadian artists who worked in Europe and returned to Canada, the Americans found the light in America different.  The white  New England farm houses were not the old stone villages of Normandy and Brittany.  It was only in rural Quebec that peasants in smocks, driving  oxen could be found. Childe Hassam, 1859 - 1935, was trained in Boston as a luminist, and in 1883 he visited Great Britain, Holland, Italy and Spain. In 1886 he v  settled in Montmartre studying with Boulanger and Lefebre. returned to New York.  In 1899 he  He painted Fifth Avenue, 1916 - 1918, then called  - 32 "Avenue of the A l l i e s " , and d e c o r a t e d w i t h the many f l a g s of the American allies, as  i n a s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s  under changing l i g h t s  the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s had done.  Rue S t .  Denis P a r i s ,  In  1878, Monet p a i n t e d N a t i o n a l  and c o l o r c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably to the  development of p a i n t i n g i n A m e r i c a .  His  p i n k s and g r e e n s ,  Paris  1898.  like a Pissarro  Union Square i n S p r i n g ,  i n yellows,  s t r e e t scene P l a c e du T h e a t r e -  5 3  M6wrice C u l l e n and James W i l s o n M o r r i c e d i d s i m i l a r Morrice's  Paris,  He was a p a i n t e r of great v i t a l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y  whose experiments i n l i g h t  Francais,  Holiday,  and Manet i n the same year p a i n t e d Rue M o s n i e r ,  decorated with f l a g s .  is  and c o l o r schemes  scenes i n Canada.  S t r e e t Scene i n W i n t e r , 1901, may have i n f l u e n c e d C u l l e n ' s  Winter S t r e e t Scene, 1906.  Morrice's  South West Wind, 1905, i s  a simple  row of p o p l a r t r e e s w i t h the wind r u f f l i n g t h e i r l e a v e s and t u r n i n g up the s i l v e r u n d e r s i d e s through which glimpses sea can be seen.  o f white b u i l d i n g s  F l o o d e d w i t h c l e a r white noonday l i g h t ,  summer wind, sun and f r e s h n e s s  is  translated into art.  this  and the scene o f  A r t h u r L i s m e r was  to c a p t u r e such a scene i n The Guides Home, 1914. John H. Twatchman, 1853 - 1902, l i k e Theodore R o b i n s o n , began w i t h the warm dark tones of Duvenech, whom he accompanied i n 1876 to Munich, but h i s  years i n France changed h i s  perceive subtleties beyond Hassam.  style.  "The eye of Twatchman c o u l d  i n a bank of snow o r an i c e - b o u n d r i v e r which were  He d e l i g h t e d i n w i n t e r s c e n e s .  His  canvas  Snow-Bound,  1885, shows n o t o n l y a d e l i c a t e r e n d e r i n g o f snow, but g i v e s a p o w e r f u l thrust  to the r o c k s as they stand out a g a i n s t the s w i r l i n g shapes  water and i c e . " ^ rthe Athabaska A  S u z o r - C o t e i n Canada was to p a i n t s i m i l a r  of  scenes  along  River.  J . A l d e n Weir, 1852 - 1919, a p u p i l of G^rome i n h i s  Impressionist  - 33 canvas  V i s i t i n g Neighbors,  same year as Weir. dapples  shows the i n f l u e n c e of R e n o i r who d i e d i n the  There i s  a freshness  the l i t t l e g i r l and her donkey.  p a i n t e d t h a t same f r e s h n e s s c o l o r s as  seen i n h i s  H o r a t i o Walker, a t  u s i n g f l e c k e d brush s t r o k e s  The F i r s t Snow, ( F i g .  A r t G a l l e r y of F r e d e r i c t o n , E r n e s t Lawson,  i n the summer sunshine  times,  and I m p r e s s i o n i s t  106) now i n the Beaverbrook  N.B.*  1873 - 1939,. a Canadian b o r n near H a l i f a x ,  S c o t i a , had l e a r n e d a l l  that  that h i s  t e a c h e r s , Twachtman and Weir,  teach him o f t h e i r I m p r e s s i o n i s t p r o c e d u r e s .  Nova could  He was a t the J u l i a n  Academy i n 1893 and e x h i b i t e d w i t h the Canadian A r t C l u b , T o r o n t o , 1911 1915.  Through h i s  love of the s o l i d i t y of t h i n g s he b u i l t up a form  o f I m p r e s s i o n i s m where the p a i n t was t h i c k and r e v e a l e d the l i g h t f l e c t i n g surfaces  of o l d r i v e r c a b i n s , boat houses  a l o n g the Harlem and the Hudson R i v e r s . ^ 5 River is  His  re-  and w i n t e r snow scenes  Boat House Winter Harlem  very l i k e a Suzor-Cote.  Having reviewed the main elements of P r e - I m p r e s s i o n i s m Impressionism of the major F r e n c h m a s t e r s ,  the next c h a p t e r w i l l  w i t h the work of Canadian P r e - I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , important r o o t to Canadian  Impressionism.  and the  whose p a i n t i n g  deal  formed an  CHAPTER One of Canada's Watson,  1855  - 1936,  III  early Pre-Impressionist  p a i n t e r s was Homer  Ransford  who l i v e d d u r i n g a time when the i n f l u e n c e s  C o n s t a b l e and Turner from England,  of the B a r b i z o n s  of  and I m p r e s s i o n i s m  from France and of the Hudson R i v e r School from A m e r i c a , were a l l  con-  t r i b u t i n g to a r t development i n Canada. Watson began by p r a c t i c i n g drawing a t home, c o p y i n g T r e a t i s e and GustaveDore^ Notman's  Photographic  illustrations  Studio  from D a n t e ' s  Hogarth's  Inferno.  He j o i n e d  i n Toronto where he met s u c c e s s f u l  artists  l i k e John A. F r a s e r , Henry Sandham, L u c i u s J . O ' B r i e n and H e n r i P e r r e . From A r t p e r i o d i c a l s Watson became f a m i l i a r w i t h the work of C o l e and Asher B.  Durand of the Hudson R i v e r S c h o o l .  romantic poet p a i n t e r and i t was o n l y i n the l a s t t h a t he responded to the c o l o r of the  a f e l l o w p a i n t away w i t h o u t anyone wanting  these e a r l y drawings  existence".  years of h i s  a  life  30, 1930,  "Why  can't  to know why and how he  He goes on to say,  i n t o t r y i n g to c o l o r them".  the c l a s s i c a l mastery of l i n e ,  He p a i n t e d as  Impressionists.  He wrote i n a l e t t e r to A r t h u r L i s m e r , Sept.  i n f a c t the why of h i s  Thomas  His  "I  paints  grew from  debt to  drawing,  the p r o d u c t i o n of s e v e r a l hundreds  of  p e n c i l and pen s k e t c h e s , are a l l based on the then academic approach to p a i n t i n g as seen i n the p a i n t i n g s  and p e r i o d i c a l s of t h a t t i m e . "I  never  thought of c o l o r : my l o v e p r e f e r r e d to take the form of s t r u c t u r e and design,  a mood of n a t u r e to be l i v e d on canvas,  the elements. In  Mostly  i n f a c t some s t o r y  of  gray days and stormy w e a t h e r . "  Coming Storm i n the A d i r o n d a c s ,  1879,  (Fig.  1) Watson d e p i c t s  A  the moods of weather and the c h a r a c t e r of l i g h t of changing  lights  on sky and water.  and luminous  These q u a l i t i e s  - 34 -  tonal  quali  and the s u b j e c t  - 35 matter he had seen in the work of George Innes of the Hudson River School, whom he had met in New York, 1876 - 77.  Outlines were dissolved in  atmosphere and color. Homer Watson's early choice of subject was obviously influenced by early photographs, which gave great detail throughout the whole picture. What he chose to represent in his painting was exactly the picture the early camera reproduced. His colors were correspondingly reduced. "In 1839 the Daguerreotypes were shown at the Chamber of Deputies in Paris. In one, representing the Pont Marie, a l l the minutest indentations and divisions of the ground or the building, the goods lying on the wharf, even the small stones under the water at the edge of the stream and the different degrees of transparancy given to the water were a l l shown with the most incredible accuracy".^ This type of depiction became a part of the photographic realist tradition which affected academic art. Ruisdael was an artist Watson admired.  In 1886 Watson painted  The Old M i l l , (Fig. 2) where there is the sharp delineation of his early work.  There in an all-over harmony of a Turner sky, a Barbizon meadow  and a turbulent stream and trees.  It is a typical landscape near  Watson's home. 58 His best known canvas, The Flood Gate,  1900, is the one in which  he admits being influenced by Constable. He portrays the "dignity and beauty of Waterloo County in a manner which parallels John Constable's love of Suffolk county". Watson states, "After I saw the 'Lock' of Constable, I said, fHang i t , I will paint a subject Constable would have delighted to paint, and this is my grandfather's Mill Pond', so the Flood Gate came into being. This is a deliberate attempt to get the spirit of Constable into Canada." He states, however, "I was born  - 36 amid the hardwood t r e e s and noted the beech, oak, and elm, as n a t i v e a jackpine."-^ is  Although the t r e e s mentioned are found i n England,  a profound d i f f e r e n c e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and After his  paintings,  s o j o u r n i n Europe and England i n 1887, where he saw B a r b i z o n  was taught by w h i s t l e r , and was a c l o s e f r i e n d of S i r  time an a l l - o v e r d e s i g n i s  evident.  f i l l e d areas.  He s t a t e s  George  3 ) . Here f o r the  There are s i m i l a r areas  c o l o r i n meadowland, t r e e - t r u n k s and f o l i a g e , light  there  ecology.  C l a u s e n ; he p a i n t s L o g - C u t t i n g i n the Woods, 1894 ( F i g . first  as  and more l i g h t n e s s  of  and  t h a t he l o v e d c o l o r but he f e l t t h a t  color  d i d not make a p i c t u r e . In color,  the Sand P i t , light  1903,  we see T u r n e r ' s v i s i o n a r y impressions, o f  and atmosphere, a t t e m p t e d .  Here was a complete break w i t h 61  t r a d i t i o n and we f i n d i n h i s  l a t e r work The Cabin i n the Lane,  1930,  and Near T w i l i g h t , ^ 1934, a " l o s i n g and f i n d i n g the l i n e i n l i g h t  and  a i r " and an e f f o r t to " f o r m u l a t e a new h i g h l y c o l o r e d i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c landscape t e c h n i q u e " . develop h i s  He wanted more time to p a i n t , more time to  new t h e o r i e s o f p a i n t i n g and c o l o r .  He had g i v e n u n i t y and  o r d e r to Canadian landscape p a i n t i n g and now l i g h t and c o l o r were to be added. The i n f l u e n c e from France on Canadian p a i n t e r s came through d i v e r s e r o u t e s . H o r a t i o Walker was c a l l e d the Canadian M i l l e t , perhaps because 64 h i s t e a c h e r Wyatt Eaton was a p u p i l of M i l l e t . E a r l y i n 1845 Jean F r a n c o i s M i l l e t was v i s i t i n g a t B o u d i n ' s shop i n Le Havre to buy h i s  6S supplies  for painting.  Constant T r o y o n , another customer of  Boudin's,  p a i n t e d landscapes w i t h cows and sheep and H o r a t i o Walker may be c l o s e r to Troyon i n h i s work, than he i s  to M i l l e t .  B o u d i n , says he admires T r o y o n ' s huge canvases  Monet, i n a l e t t e r to of animals  yet  thinks  them a l i t t l e b i t too black in the shadows.  In Paris, 1861, Troyon  asked Boudin to paint the skies for his animal pictures since the demand 67 for his canvases was so great he had difficulty keeping up a supply, and Boudin was famous for his sea and sky compositions. In 1873 Duret wrote to Manet, "Boston has some very beautiful Troyons". By 1879 when the fourth Exposition of the "Artistes Independants" was held in Paris the pictures of Millet and Troyon were popular in America. However, the New York dealers informed Durand-Ruel with regard to the French 69 Impressionist works, "These paintings w i l l never be good for our markets". Horatio Walker visited England and France in 1882.  In Paris the  great Exhibition of the Independants opened on March 1, 1882, and Manet wrote to Berthe Morisot, "I found the whole b r i l l i a n t crowd of Impressionists at work hanging a great many pictures in an enormous room....Duret, who knows what he is talking about, says that this year's exhibition is the best your group ever had....Pissarro has two or three figures of peasant women in landscapes, vastly superior to Millet in the veracity of drafts70 manship and coloration." After eight years of struggle the Impressionists had an exhibition which truly represented their art; Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Gauguin, Caillebotte, Vignon, and Guillaumin a l l were represented. With a l l the controversy in Paris at that time and knowing the keen interest this would arouse in a visitor like Horatio Walker, i t is not surprising that his art appears to be a synthesis of the many forces at work at that time. In 1883 Boston had a Foreign Exhibition of painting where Manet, Monet, Sisley and Boudin were represented.^ It was not until 1886 that Durand-Ruel had his f i r s t success in America with Impressionist painting.  The American exhibit was prepared  - 38 f o r 1887.  Three hundred works were e x h i b i t e d .  Degas', fourteen Manet's, t h i r t y - e i g h t Renoirs, Mary C a s s a t t , In  There were t w e n t y - t h r e e  foytrty-eight Monet's,  three S e u r a t ' s ,  foUrty-two  thirteen Sisley's,  Pissarro s, 1  and Boudin,  C a i l l e b o t t e , G u i l l a u m i n , and Berthe M o r i s o t were r e p r e s e n t e d .  1887 H o r a t i o Walker belonged to the S o c i e t y of American A r t i s t s ,  and w i n n i n g the Bronze Medal i n the P a r i s  E x p o s i t i o n , 1889, he would be  f a m i l i a r w i t h not o n l y the work of Tioyon and M i l l e t but of the  Impression-  i s t s as w e l l . L i k e V i n c e n t van Gogh i t may be t h a t H o r a t i o Walker was i n f l u e n c e d by Millet.  Van Gogh who made sketches  and who made c o p i e s a f t e r M i l l e t ' s Theo, " M i l l e t  is  of the miners i n the Borinage i n 1880 peasant  l a b o r e r s , wrote to h i s b r o t h e r  the one modern p a i n t e r who opens up a h o r i z o n f o r many".  " E a c h a r t i s t has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c set of c o l o r s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e c h 72 nique and some remind me o f sounds.  Millet  is  perhaps a s t a t e l y  organ".  When V i n c e n t van Gogh was i n the h o s p i t a l a t S a i n t Remy, Theo sent him l i t h o g r a p h s  of M i l l e t .  "Now t h a t I am i l l , I  by M i l l e t pose f o r me as a s u b j e c t .  I  l e t the b l a c k and white  i m p r o v i s e c o l o r on i t not you  understand a l t o g e t h e r m y s e l f but s e a r c h i n g f o r memories of t h e i r p i c t u r e s , but from memory... The vague consonants  of c o l o r which are at l e a s t  i n f e e l i n g , t h a t i s my own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . i n my bedroom so I  I  d o n ' t l i k e my own p i c t u r e s  c o p i e d one by D e l a c r o i x and one by M i l l e t .  now made seven c o p i e s of M i l l e t ' s  laborers  right  i n the f i e l d s .  I  I  have  can a s s u r e  you t h a t c o p y i n g i n t e r e s t s me i n t e n s e l y and I  l e a r n a great d e a l by  without l o s i n g  I  I  the power of drawing f i g u r e s .  look f o r i n t h i s work and why i t  want to t e l l  it  you what  seems to me so good to copy.  People  do expect us p a i n t e r s always to make our own compositions and to be n o t h i n g but composers.  In music i t  i s not so, and i f  somebody  plays  - 39 Beethoven he adds to i t h i s especially in singing, thing.  If  own p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o m p o s i t i o n means  some-  t h i s were not so, o n l y composers who p l a y t h e i r own works  would be worth l i s t e n i n g t o .  I  p l a c e the works of D e l a c r o i x or M i l l e t  b e f o r e my eyes as models and then I  i m p r o v i s e o t h e r c o l o r s on top of  t h e i r s but n a t u r a l l y i n doing t h i s I  am not c o m p l e t e l y m y s e l f but t r y to  reproduce memories of t h e i r p i c t u r e s .  But memories, the vague echoes o f  c o l o r which I have i n my mind, w i t h o u t b o t h e r i n g i f my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  t h o r o u g h l y enjoy i t .  it  consoles  l i k e the bow on a  Today I have been t r y i n g to i n t e r p r e t 73  the Sheep S h e a r i n g by M i l l e t  i n colors ranging  from l i l a c to y e l l o w . "  H o r a t i o Walker a l s o does a sheep s h e a r i n g p i c t u r e . H o r a t i o Walker i s not c a l l e d an I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t e r but many i n f l u e n c e s of I m p r e s s i o n i s m are seen i n h i s work. Drinking,  1899,  In an e a r l y work, Oxen  ( F i g . 4) we see the v e r t i c a l for^mat and peasant  laborer  of a M i l l e t and the luminous atmospheric sky e f f e c t of a Turner but the a p p l i c a t i o n of paint is  Pissarro.  In  some p l a c e s  the c o l o r i s heavy and  grayed, but i n o t h e r p l a c e s a l o n g the backs of the oxen, on the s u r f a c e water i n the t r o u g h , and i n the p o o l s of water on the ground, Walker has used the h a t c h i n g of s m a l l brush s t r o k e s orange to g i v e l i g h t  lightful  o f pure b l u e - g r e e n and r e d -  r e f l e c t i o n s and t h a t i n s t a n t a n e o u s 74  f e e l i n g so d e -  i n I m p r e s s i o n i s t work.  By 1904 i n I c e - C u t t e r s ,  (Fig.  7) Walker has caught an  a c t i o n and has s i m p l i f i e d both h i s p a l e t t e and h i s prepares h i s  canvas  soaking  it  is  I h i t on t h i s  teaches me t h i n g s and above a l l  My brushes r u n so q u i c k l y through my f i n g e r s  v i o l i n that I  they a r e e x a c t , t h a t  A l o t of people do not copy, o t h e r s do.  method by chance and f i n d i t me.  In music and  instantaneous  c o m p o s i t i o n . " F i r s t he  i n water and a p p l i e s white l e a d w i t h a  - 40 p a l e t t e k n i f e . . . n o s i z e or g l u e .  The water p r e v e n t s the o i l from e n t e r i n g  i n t o the l i n e n , and the r e s u l t a n t s u r f a c e i s He t e s t s  is.  pure c o l o r s and pure c o l o r s mixed w i t h w h i t e , the fewer p a i n t s  better." -' 7  horse's  the f i n e s t ground t h e r e  the  The b l u e - g r e e n shadows of the i c e , the p u r p l e shadows on the  f a c e and neck complimented by the r e d - o r a n g e of the b l a n k e t a r e  the two c o m p l i m e n t a r i e s he uses i n h i s  canvas.  P u r p l e and b l u e are  found i n the c l o u d s and i n the shadows of the i c e .  Walker's  also  interest  in  the r e f l e c t i o n s and r e f r a c t i o n s of c o l o r on the snow and i n the i c e and / water i s  seen i n the work of Monet, The Break-Up of the I c e New V e t h e u i l ,  1880, and was used l a t e r by Maurice C u l l e n i n I c e H a r v e s t , It  76  is  o n l y i n the o r i g i n a l  of Horses a t the Trough, can be a p p r e c i a t e d .  (Fig.  canvas  t h a t the I m p r e s s i o n i s t  (Fig.  40)  qualities  6) and Evening l i e d ' O r l e a n s 1909, ( F i g .  Here a g a i n the under s u r f a c e i s pure w h i t e .  c o l o r s used a r e chromium ( v i r i d i a n )  The hatched b r u s h s t r o k e ,  p a i n t e r l y q u a l i t y i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the pigment, the b l u e and p u r p l e shadows,  5)  The two  g r e e n , the green of our postage  and paper money;, and cadmium s c a r l e t .  i n many a r e a s ,  1906,  stamps  the  the use of pure c o l o r  the unposed o u t - d o o r  setting,  the simple j o y o f the scene a l l a r e I m p r e s s i o n i s t i n s p i r e d . L i t t l e White P i g s and M o t h e r ,  7 7  1911, may be compared to a  There i s a h e a v i e r f r e e r e r b r u s h s t r o k e than i n a P i s s a r r o ,  Pissarro.  Pissarro's  a d v i c e to the p a i n t e r L o u i s Le B a i l might a p p l y to H o r a t i o Walker, f o r the k i n d of n a t u r e t h a t s u i t s  your temperament.  The m o t i f should be  observed more f o r shape and c o l o r than f o r d r a w i n g . . . P r e c i s e dry and hampers the i m p r e s s i o n . . . i t v a l u e and c o l o r . . . P a i n t  sation immediately."  small brush strokes  Walker's  drawing  the brush s t r o k e w i t h the  the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of t h i n g s ,  thing simultaneously...use 78  is  "Look  is  right  work on e v e r y -  and put down your s e n -  a l l - o v e r f r e e brush s t r o k e i s  reminiscent  - 41 of Lowpath at P o n t o i s e ,  79  1882, by Camile P i s s a r r o which Walker may have  seen i n the Durand-Ruel c o l l e c t i o n of t h a t y e a r . Rewald s t a t e s  t h a t the Barbizons  i n t e r p r e t e d what they saw,  I m p r e s s i o n i s t s l i k e Monet and R e n o i r p a i n t e d pure s e n s a t i o n s .  They both  adopted a comma-like brush s t r o k e , a brush s t r o k e which p e r m i t t e d them to r e c o r d every nuance they o b s e r v e d .  The s u r f a c e s of t h e i r canvases were  thus covered w i t h a v i b r a t i n g t i s s u e o f s m a l l dots and s t r o k e s , none of which by i t s e l f d e f i n e d form, y e t a l l of which h e l p e d to c r e a t e not o n l y the p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s of the chosen m o t i f but moreover the sunny a i r which bathed i t and marked t r e e s , g r a s s , houses or water w i t h the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r of the day. and these s e n s a t i o n s  Nature became the d i r e c t source o f pure  sensations  c o u l d b e s t be r e p r o d u c e d by the t e c h n i q u e of  dots and s t r o k e s w h i c h , i n s t e a d of i n s i s t i n g general impression i n a l l i t s  richness  small  on d e t a i l s , r e t a i n e d the  of c o l o r and  life.  80 Monet p a i n t s  a f i e l d w i t h white Turkeys  f u l a p l a y of dark and l i g h t  i n 1880 t h a t has a d e l i g h t -  i m p r e s s i o n s . Walker a l s o uses t h i s  textured 81  s u r f a c e i n h i s w a t e r - c o l o r s k e t c h and o i l p a i n t i n g of White Turkeys  .  H o r a t i o Walker uses I m p r e s s i o n i s t c o l o r i n a snow scene The F i r s t Snow, ( F i g .  106).  L i k e Claude Monet's  Snow E f f e c t a t V e t h e u i l ^ n the  L o u v r e ^ W a l k e r ' s p i c t u r e has a rough r u r a l atmosphere.  The scene i s  al-  most t r a d i t i o n a l but the b r u s h s t r o k e s make the s u r f a c e v i b r a t e as a u n i t e d whole i n a s o f t muted atmosphere o f f r o s t and snow. 82 Walker, i n h i s  The Sugar Bush,  p a t t e r n of wide brush s t r o k e s skill  of a master.  1922, shows a m a s t e r f u l a l l - o v e r  of pure c o l o r put on w i t h the sure d e f t  Steam r i s e s  from the c a u l d r o n , l i g h t  the t r e e s on the snow, and e v e r y t h i n g i s of l i g h t  and dark.  filters  through  reduced to an a l t e r n a t i n g p a t t e r n  - 42 Maurice C u l l e n by t h i s  time was d o i n g Canadian snow scenes i n the  manner o f the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s and the t r e e s i n W a l k e r ' s s i m i l a r to C u l l e n ' s Winter Near M o n t r e a l , An American c r i t i c s t a t e s exaggerating  the c o n t r a s t s  (Fig.  The Sugar Bush,  are  33).  t h a t Walker o u t - B a r b i z o n e d the B a r b i z o n s  of l i g h t  and shade.  His  synthesis  of  by  Barbizon  83 and I m p r e s s i o n i s m gave h i s work i t s over the Ice B r i d g e , ^ light  appealing beauty.  The R o y a l M a i l  1914, has a r i c h c o l o r and the unusual e f f e c t s of  a £ e a g a i n a m i x t u r e of T u r n e r ' s luminism and the l i g h t  of  the  Impressionists. James M. B a r n s l e y ,  1861 - 1929, i s  among Canadian a r t i s t s .  the o u t s t a n d i n g marine p a i n t e r  J . B a r r y L o r d p l a c e s him between the B a r b i z o n  p a i n t e r , H o r a t i o Walker, and the I m p r e s s i o n i s t Maurice C u l l e n . A c a r e f u l study of h i s  paintings  show, as i n the work of Winslow Homer, many  contradictory tendencies.  "The b o l d d i r e c t n e s s of h i s b r u s h work  that o f the Munich S c h o o l , the simple b r e a d t h of h i s t h a t of the B a r b i z o n p a i n t e r s , and h i s t h a t of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s " . ^  compositions  c l a r i t y of v i s u a l analysis  C l o s e examination of h i s  canvases  equals rivals matches show 8(  juxtaposed areas 1886, i s  of pure c o l o r .  The B a r b i z o n p a i n t i n g R i v e r Bank, F r a n c e  the t r a d i t i o n a l a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e of C o r o t , the c a r e f u l d e t a i l  i n the type of t r e e s ; w h i l e i n Study f o r L a Jete'e du P o l l e t , Dieppe, 1884, ( F i g . 8 ) , we see the l i g h t d i r e c t strokes  r e f l e c t i o n s from the sky on the w a t e r , i n broad  of c o l o r , the b r i g h t b l u e shadow a l o n g the quai and the  orange l o g ends a g a i n s t the heavy b l u e b r u s h s t r o k e s s u g g e s t i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the •This canvas b r i n g s  of the walk,  Impressionists.  to mind the The Harbor of L o r i e n t , 1869,  that  Manet p a r t i c u l a r l y admired and which Berthe M o r i s o t had j u s t p a i n t e d Lorient.  It  r e p r e s e n t s h e r s i s t e r Edma a g a i n s t a view o f the h a r b o r ,  in  - 43 " a work o f e x q u i s i t e f r e s h n e s s and s u b t l e harmonies i n which she had t r i e d what B a z i l l e had attempted i n h i s "plein  in  air".^  Beginning h i s  studies  draw and model f i g u r e s . his  S a l o n p i c t u r e , to reproduce a f i g u r e  under H a l s e y C. I v e s , James B a r n s l e y l e a r n e d to  His  i n t e r e s t i n Landscape may be a t t r i b u t e d to  t e a c h e r Joseph Meeker who p a i n t e d the bayous of the lower  Mississippi.  These landscape scenes B a r n s l e y c o u l d p a i n t near h i s home i n M i s s o u r i , and i n O n t a r i o and M o n t r e a l where he v i s i t e d .  He s k e t c h e d Marine  paintings,  s t u d i e d a Turner w a t e r c o l o r and a Daubigny o i l , but i t was n o t u n t i l 1883 when he was i n P a r i s and l i g h t e r  effects.  way the f i g u r e s  t h a t he would e x p e r i e n c e a change to o u t - d o o r p a i n t i n g In h i s On the S e i n e , C o u r b e v o i e , ( F i g .  a r e caught i n m o t i o n , the s u g g e s t i v e  9)  the c a s u a l  treatment of the t r e e s ,  the angle a l o n g the r i v e r bank, remind one of a Degas. J.  Barry Lord i n his  Introduction  to the J . M . B a r n s l e y c a t a l o g u e ,  1965, s t a t e s  t h a t " T h e r e i s no documentary evidence t h a t B a r n s l e y knew  Eug\ne-Louis  Boudin 1824 - 1 8 9 8 . . . A number of drawings  i n The N a t i o n a l  G a l l e r y Scrapbook demonstrate that the s i m i l a r i t y of h i s marines famous F r e n c h sea p a i n t e r i s more than c o i n c i d e n t a l . the f i r s t  comprehensive Boudin e x h i b i t i o n to P a r i s  to the  Durand-Ruel p r e s e n t e d  i n 1833, and he was  r e p r e s e n t e d i n every S a l o n i n which B a r n s l e y f i g u r e d . O  1964-  Indeed L ' E n t r e e du  Q  P o r t a Dieppe  , 1886, may w e l l have been d i r e c t l y i n s p i r e d by  L'Entree,(Salon  1883)."  We can say t h e r e i s  Boudin's  8 9  a similar  the simple b e a u t i e s of n a t u r e .  lightness  and elegance and a l o v e of  "The S a i n t - S i m e o n  a l i t t l e above H o n f l e u r was famous among a r t i s t s  farm s i t u a t e d on a c l i f f a l o n g the c o a s t . The r u r a l  Inn and the Seine e s t u a r y had been c a l l e d the " B a r b i z o n of Normandy". 90 T r o y o n , C a l s , Daubigny and Corot a l l p a i n t e d t h e r e . "  Diaz,  .- 44 Eugene Boudin was the p a i n t e r of seascapes  at Le Havre t h a t Monet  at  91 first  thought " d i s g u s t i n g " ,  but i t was Boudin who came to Monet and t o l d  him, " S t u d y ,  l e a r n to see and to p a i n t , draw, make l a n d s c a p e s .  and the sky,  the a n i m a l s ,  the p e o p l e , the t r e e s are so b e a u t i f u l , j u s t  n a t u r e made them, w i t h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , t h e i r genuineness, 92 i n the a i r , j u s t as they a r e . " the m a s t e r .  The sea  i n the  light,  Monet admired Boudin and l e a r n e d from  " E v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s p a i n t e d d i r e c t l y on the spot has  a s t r e n g t h , a power, a v i v i d n e s s the s t u d i o . . . r e t a i n o n e ' s  as  first  of touch t h a t one d o e s n ' t i m p r e s s i o n , which i s  always  f i n d again i n  the good o n e . . . i t  is 9 3  not one p a r t which s h o u l d s t r i k e one i n a p i c t u r e but indeed the w h o l e " . At t h i s  time B a r n s l e y was s t u d y i n g and p a i n t i n g near P a r i s .  was a d m i r i n g B o u d i n ' s lished his  skies  and h i s  f i s h i n g boats.  J  Courbet  V i c t o r Hugo had pub-  e p i c and romantic volume of poems, La legende des  Siecles,  which were a t t a c k e d and Hugo's name was coupled w i t h t h a t of D e l a c r o i x as b e i n g " d e v o t e d to the c u l t o f i m a g i n a t i o n and c o l o r , s a c r i f i c i n g e v e r y t h i n g to the  effect."  9 4  What was s a i d o f Monet p o s s i b l y by A s t r u c under the pseudonym P i g a l l e i n L ' A u t o g r a p h e au S a l o n , w i l l a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l to B a r n s l e y ' s  p a i n t i n g of  Le J e t e e du P o l l e t Dieppe, 1884,  The Seine  (Fig.  10). Speaking o f Monet's  9 5  Estuary at Honfleur,  1865, A s t r u c s a y s , "Monet i s  the a u t h o r o f a  seascape  the most o r i g i n a l and s u p p l e , the most s t r o n g l y and h a r m o n i o u s l y p a i n t e d . . . what r i c h n e s s , what s i m p l i c i t y of v i e w . . . t h e t a s t e f o r harmonious of c o l o r i n the p l a y of analogous  s t r i k i n g point of v i e w . . . t h i s  t o n e s , the f e e l i n g f o r v a l u e s , 96  s i n c e r e marine p a i n t e r " .  schemes the  The o b l i q u e  of a Degas, the l i g h t - f i l l e d canvas and the broad c l e a r brush s t r o k e s  angle of  pure c o l o r i n the w a t e r , the b l u e shadows a l o n g the q u a i and the b l u e and s e p i a y e l l o w c o l o r s were used and developed by the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s to make  - 45 their l i g h t - f i l l e d  canvases. 97  Daubigney's  canvas The F e r r y ,  1860, which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more  f u l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Maurice C u l l e n ' s work, may be compared w i t h Barnsley's  F r e n c h Paddle Steamer,  1888,  (Fig.  11).  The same f e r r y , the  same h i g h t i d e , the same smoke e f f e c t s and clouded sky, but Daubigny  has  used a h e a v i e r b r u s h s t r o k e on a more two d i m e n s i o n a l canvas and has  used  some s t r o k e s  of pure c o l o r .  be sketched out o f d o o r s . light  B a r n s l e y has a l i g h t f i l l e d canvas which would The movement of w a t e r , boat and c l o u d s , and the  r e f l e c t i o n s from the w a t e r , w h i l e s t i l l academic, remind one of the  Impressionists. than h i s  T h i s l a t e r work shows a much more f l o w i n g brush  e a r l i e r work, and has  l i g h t e r than t h a t of h i s  that c l e a r f r e s h out-door f e e l i n g that  is  contemporary F r e n c h p a i n t e r s .  In High T i d e a t Dieppe, 1886,  (Fig.  which t h e r e a r e numerous s k e t c h e s . of the h a r b o r .  stroke  The grayed s a i l s  12) we see a f i n i s h e d work  for  B a r n s l e y was a b l e to c a p t u r e the s i g h t s  on the b l a c k and orange h u l l of the boat  a t anchor stand out a g a i n s t the b l u e of the sky and the w a t e r . The s i n g l e simple tones of the f i g u r e s  d e p i c t t y p i c a l genre f i s h e r women.  Reflections  from the p o o l s of water on t h e . q u a i and the smoke from the steam boat suggest the weather c o n d i t i o n s o f the day. and l i g h t see h i s  B a r b i z o n h a r b o r scene.  is a p a r t i c u l a r l y bright  The L a s t Rays, 1887,  s u b t l e h a n d l i n g of many tones o f green.  p a l e t t e was the mark of the e a r l y It  In  It  (Fig.  13) we  His very r e s t r i c t e d  Impressionist.  i s n e c e s s a r y to l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t the development i n the work o f  an a r t i s t  t e a c h e r l i k e W i l l i a m Brymner to a p p r e c i a t e one of the many  i n f l u e n c e s of I m p r e s s i o n i s m on Canadian a r t . W i l l i a m Brymner i s  a f a c i l e p a i n t e r who, i n h i s  to the academic f o r m u l a taught by h i s  e a r l y work , ;  conforms  t e a c h e r s Bouguereau and R o b e r t - F l e u r y  - 46 at the Atelier Julian in Paris where he studied from 1878 to 1885.  He  also shows the influence of other schools of painting and of Impressionism which over the years made i t s impact on his work and which he was able to pass on to his students. "In the same province, painting at the same time, and helping to develop a Canadian school of painting, were William Brymner, Suzor-Cote, James Wilson Morrice, G. Horne Russell, Maurice Cullen and 98 later Clarence Gagnon". The Art Gallery of Toronto Catalogue of October, 1949, "50 Years of Painting in Canada" states: "1900 - 1912 - The New Century opened with the Royal Canadian Academy of Art and the Ontario Society of Artists firmly established in the minds of student and public alike, as the founts of knowledge in Canada. hibiting societies.  Both had organized schools, and both were exMost of the leading painters, especially the more  senior, represented the British tradition, but this tradition had been touched by developments in Holland and France, which also had their exponents here.  Within a short time a few Canadian students returning from  abroad brought with them, whether consciously or not, the direct impact of Impressionism (already thirty years old), introducing this third factor on the scene. Art magazines with their new f a c i l i t i e s for color reproduction began to play their part at the turn of the century, and along with exhibitions have tended to lessen the time lag between originating and receptive centers like Paris and Toronto respectively." Robert Pilot states "I remember that in 1912 he gave me sixty copies 99 of the Studio magazine to study from.  A great boon to me".  A v i s i t with Miss Grace Brymner of Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, a niece of William Brymner, was most rewarding.  Many of Brymner's paintings,  - 47 catalogues,  l e t t e r s , medals and awards a r e i n her p o s s e s s i o n . M i s s Brymner  has f a m i l y p i c t u r e s p a i n t e d by Brymner of her g r a n d f a t h e r , Doug'las Brymner, 1886,  (Fig.  14) her f a t h e r Robert Brymner, 1890,  a c a s t of W i l l i a m Brymner ( F i g .  16)  (Fig.  15) a t age 15, and  from the o r i g i n a l bronze e x h i b i t e d i n  Ottawa 1918, and done by the s c u l p t o r George W. H i l l .  H i l l studied in  P a r i s , was made ARCA i n 1905, RCA i n 1915 and was the S c u l p t o r f o r the D ' A r c y McGee monument, Ottawa, and the South A f r i c a n War M e m o r i a l , Dominion Square, M o n t r e a l , New Westminster,  B.C.,  1908.  The Robert Brymners were bankers  and t h e i r f i n e o l d home i s now the M e l r o s e  P r i v a t e H o s p i t a l o v e r l o o k i n g the F r a s e r R i v e r .  Miss Brymner's  in Park  f a t h e r was  twenty years younger than h i s b r o t h e r W i l l i a m , and one of the f a m i l y paintings  is  at Baie St.  of Robert Brymner, then e l e v e n years o l d , i n the f a m i l y boat P a u l near M o n t r e a l , p a i n t e d i n 1886 ( F i g .  Brymner's Sad Memories,  (Fig.  18) about 1885, i s  17). a genre p i c t u r e of  the f a m i l y housekeeper i n F r a n c e , now i n the c o l l e c t i o n of Miss Grace Brymner.  It  r e p r e s e n t s an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n seventeenth c e n t u r y Dutch  p i c t u r e s where the i n t e r i o r view l i t by a window, shows an i n t e r e s t realistic  space-creating d e t a i l .  Brymner's  in  f a s c i n a t i o n with seventeenth  c e n t u r y work i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the p i c t u r e of h i s b r o t h e r Robert where the name of the a r t i s t ,  the name of the s i t t e r , and the date a r e a l l  w r i t t e n i n L a t i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s around the edges o f the canvas  l i k e an  early Holbein. In  1886 under the a u s p i c e s  of the R o y a l Canadian Academy, an e x -  h i b i t i o n of Canadian p a i n t i n g was sent to the C o l o n i a l and I n d i a n E x h i b i t i o n a t South K e n s i n g t o n , September, 1886,  London.  Brymner's E a r l y Moonrise  ( F i g . 19) was e x h i b i t e d .  T h i s was the f i r s t  in  all-  Canadian e x h i b i t i o n to be sent out of Canada and the e x h i b i t was shown  - 48 i n Ottawa b e f o r e b e i n g sent to London. with t h e i r p r a i s e .  The London c r i t i c s were generous  L o r d Lansdowne was i n t e r e s t e d i n the Canadian e x h i b i t  and asked Mr. J . E . Hodgson,  R.A.  p r o f e s s o r o f p a i n t i n g a t the Royal  Academy to comment. "Hodgson p r e d i c t e d great  things f o r painters  like Bell-Smith,  Paul  P e e l , Homer Watson, Wickson, Brymner, H a r r i s , Fowler and o t h e r s ; but v i e w p o i n t was one of a m i d - V i c t o r i a n E n g l i s h the i n f l u e n c e of the F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , s l i g h t s i g n s i n the E x h i b i t i o n " . a v o i d i n g some p a r t s a l t o g e t h e r . Hodgson s t a t e s ,  "I  c r i t i c and he was  his  against  of which he d e t e c t e d some  A r t i s t s were l e a v i n g out a l l d e t a i l and In  the c l o s i n g remarks of h i s  report,  would l i k e to see Canadian A r t Canadian to the b a c k 100  bone;  a t h i n g developed by n a t u r e i n a s p e c i a l s o i l and c l i m a t e " . However, new i n f l u e n c e s were a t work i n Canadian P a i n t i n g and from  then on a " g r e a t  f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d of Canadian p a i n t i n g " had begun.  W i l l i a m Brymner who was d i r e c t o r of the c l a s s e s  f o r the A r t  A s s o c i a t i o n of M o n t r e a l f o r t h i r t y f i v e y e a r s , was to i n f l u e n c e t h i s development and l i k e the g r e a t F r e n c h t e a c h e r , Gustave Moreau, who, when he found h i m s e l f  i n c o n t a c t w i t h young s t u d e n t s ,  devoted h i m s e l f  task of t e a c h i n g w i t h wisdom and h e a r t f e l t warmth.  to the  He developed the  i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each p u p i l and though c o n s c i o u s l y o l d f a s h i o n e d , urged h i s p u p i l s  to experiment and be modern, to be i n t e r e s t e d  i n c o l o r , to l e a v e the s t u d i o and to p a i n t Brymner i n Champ de Mars W i n t e r , 1892, Impressionist s t y l e with figures w i t h the town i n the background. and dark a r e a s .  out-of-doors.'^''" (Fig.  20)  shows a  fascinating  c r o s s i n g an expanse of i c e and snow There are o v e r l a p p i n g planes of  light  The dark b l u e shadow f o r e g r o u n d , c o n t r a s t s w i t h the  s u n l i t path i n the middle ground.  It  is  l i k e a Monet snow scene a t  - 49 L o u v e c i e n n e s , w i t h f i g u r e s , houses, p o p l a r t r e e s and luminous sky e f f e c t s . The d a t e , 1892, marks  t h i s work an e a r l y Canadian snow s c e n e , i n f l u e n c e d  by the F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  Snow scenes were t y p i c a l l y I m p r e s s i o n i s t  s u b j e c t s because they a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to show s t r i k i n g of l i g h t  contrasts  r e f l e c t e d from the snow.  Brymner\s  landscape E a r l y Moonrise  the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , Ottawa, i s  i n September, 1899, ( F i g .  a l a t e r p i c t u r e of h i s  21)  in  1886 t r a d i t i o n a l  io: B a r b i z o n p a s t o r a l scene.  Compared w i t h C a m i l l e C o r o t ' s  The Gust of Wind,  i n the G. Renand C o l l e c t i o n , P a r i s , we see the same wind-swept the same a l l - o v e r haze o b s c u r i n g d e t a i l . establish his  lightest  t o n e , then h i s  t r e e s , and  Corot had t o l d P i s s a r r o  to  d a r k e s t tone and to grade between  the two w i t h two o r t h r e e r e l a t e d hues.  In  t h i s p i c t u r e Brymner a l s o  uses  a restricted palette. Brymner was i n P a r i s artist  Theodore Robinson,  American I m p r e s s i o n i s m .  from 1875 to 1885 and would no doubt meet the 1852 - 1896, who was a l i n k between F r e n c h and Robinson was b o r n i n Vermont and went to F r a n c e  i n 1876 to study p a i n t i n g . In 1886, a t the age of t h i r t y - f o u r , he met 103 Claude Monet a t G i v e r n y . Robinson then adopted the new t e c h n i q u e of u s i n g h i g h - k e y e d , broken c o l o r to convey the shimmer of l i g h t and the 104 c o o l tones of shadows.  In h i s W i l l o w s ,  1891, we see the i n f o r m a l  flat  p a t t e r n e d c o m p o s i t i o n and c o l o r r e n d e r i n g of I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g . i s more than c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t Brymner p a i n t e d h i s Moonrise,  1886, l i k e R o b i n s o n ' s  International  Willows.  f i r s t picture Early  Brymner had j u s t won the  J u r y of Awards S i l v e r M e d a l , at S t .  de F o r e t , 1889.  It  Louis,  for his  He a g a i n p a i n t s E a r l y Moonrise i n September,  Bord  using  l i g h t e r c o l o r s , more b l u e i n the shadows and a l i g h t e r brush s t r o k e . 1891 Robinson a l s o p a i n t s an I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  In  p i c t u r e Spring at Giverny.  - 50 Mary C a s s a t t who j o i n e d the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s employs sharp drawing and a D e g a s - l i k e Sewing} "^ 1886, she uses  a t Degas'  composition.  invitation  In her Young Woman  the Japanese i n f l u e n c e of a d i a g o n a l  1  background.  Blue and y e l l o w d e p i c t the w h i t e dress as R e n o i r would have done. Brymner's Woman Sewing r e l a t e s  to t h i s  The Woman Sewing, is  1900,  theme. (Fig.  22)  i n the M o n t r e a l Museum o f F i n e A r t s ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an advance i n t e c h n i q u e from Brymner's  a f r e e r brush s t r o k e and to d i v i d e d c o l o r . painted indoors.  This Impressionist  The areas are s i m p l i f i e d .  d e l i c a t e b l u e and y e l l o w c o l o r s .  This  subject  gives  is  l i g h t and movement to the the  shoulders  Complementing the b l u e o f the s k i r t  the orange c o v e r l e t , and the deep shadows  to  The f i l m y c u r t a i n s a r e o f  a r e a w h i l e dappled r e f l e c t i o n s from the window f a l l a c r o s s and the needlework of the woman.  e a r l y work,  is  o f p u r p l e , and p u r p l e p a t t e r n s  on the f l o o r , c o n t r a s t s t r o n g l y w i t h the y e l l o w l i g h t  of the window.  F o l l o w i n g the l e a d of V e l a s q u e z , R e n o i r p a i n t e d two canvases  of women  106 sewing.  Mary C a s s a t t ' s  canvas  The B a t h ,  p a t t e r n but shows a s t r o n g l i n e a r  He had s t u d i e d w i t h C a r o l u s - D u r a n i n P a r i s  Spanish  (Fig.  24)  i n the Spanish  from 1878 to 1886.  l i k e W h i s t l e r b e f o r e him, was a l s o a student o f  from 1874 to 1879. style.  the f i e l d s .  He a l s o urged h i s  students  Carolus-Duran  mate of Sargent  in Paris,  the  to go out and study n a t u r e  A f t e r 1879 Sargent p a i n t e d a number of s p i r i t e d c o p i e s is  style.  John S i n g e r  Duran was a f r i e n d of Manet and an exponent o f  Spanish masters and i t  Later,  floor  quality.  W i l l i a m Brymner p a i n t e d C a r i t a , 1910,  Sargent,  1891, has a s i m i l a r  t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g  in  after  t h a t Brymner, as a  should a l s o p a i n t a Spanish  class  type p i c t u r e .  i n 1910, Brymner p a i n t e d The Vaughan S i s t e r s  (Fig.  23).  Here  the background t e c h n i q u e reminds one of F a n t i n L a t o u r , where an orange  has  - 51 been o v e r p a i n t e d w i t h a b l u e wash. reminiscent of w h i s t l e r .  The pose i s  S a r g e n t ' s The Wyndham S i s t e r y t o g e t h e r i n Monet's  The f l o w e r vase i s  1 0  ^,  similar  1900.  garden a t G i v e r n y .  to the one i n John  Sargent In  a Japanese  touch Singer  and Monet o f t e n p a i n t e d  1889 Sargent  d e p i c t e d Monet  108 painting  in his  during this  garden,  period.  Impressionism.  and i t may be t h a t t h e r e was a mutual i n f l u e n c e  The d e l i c a t e p a l e b l u e and p i n k d r e s s e s  The b l a c k bows i n the orange h a i r ,  a r e v e r y near  the r e n d e r i n g of  the  p i n k blossoms a d j a c e n t to the d e l i c a t e i c e - b l u e of the gown a r e r e m i n i s c e n t 109 110 of Auguste R e n o i r ' s La Loge, 1874, and G l a c k e n ' s Chez Mouquin, 1905. In  1915 Brymner p a i n t e d h i s  R e c l i n i n g Nude ( F i g .  25).  It  was  exhibited  i n the t h i r t y - s e v e n t h Annual E x h i b i t i o n o f the Royal Canadian Academy Montreal.  The c r i t i c s  111 found t h a t "sound c r a f t s m a n s h i p was w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d " .  T h i s e x h i b i t i o n had pure landscapes  as a theme and i n c o n t r a s t  to the  academic work of Brymner we f i n d The Y e l l o w Tree by J.W. B e a t t y ; Early Spring,  by A . Y . J a c k s o n ; S o l i t u d e  M o n t r e a l Harbour  in  (oil),  (pastel),  North R i v e r  by Maurice C u l l e n ; and M e l o d i e s  A. Suzor-Co'te which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  Maples  (pastel) ,  and Golden Glow by  later.  By 1915 the c r i t i c s noted t h a t "The l a s t a f f o r d e d v e r y c o n c l u s i v e evidence of p r o g r e s s  two or t h r e e years  have  i n the e v o l u t i o n o f  Canadian  a r t toward the a t t a i n m e n t o f a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t e r independence and  self  113 confidence".  Robert P i l o t  says o f Brymner, " H i s  M o n t r e a l , was l i n e d w i t h books. student.  In  He was an o m n i f a r i o u s  the summer of 1919 I  Eustache and l i v e d i n the s m a l l t h e r e many years b e f o r e . C u l l e n and the f a c t  s t u d i o on B l e u r y S t r e e t , r e a d e r and a  spent s e v e r a l months p a i n t i n g a t  studio  S e v e r a l years  great St.  t h a t C u l l e n and Brymner had b u i l t l a t e r , due to h i s  friendship  with  t h a t they p a i n t e d t o g e t h e r i n the c o u n t r y s i d e so o f t e n ,  he changed h i s v i s i o n of  the o u t - o f - d o o r s  following Cullen's  'plein  air'  -  painting.  52 -  On his retirement the class presented him with the complete  works of George Borrow.  This gave him great pleasure and he often discuss-  ed the merits and color of "Lavengro", "Romany Rye", and "The Bible in 114 Spain". There is a great development in Brymner's style from the early Barbizon work to his later facile lyric qualities.  Throughout his career  he allowed his students to follow wherever their inclinations led them and his later use of Impressionist techniques led many of his students Mable May, Frederick Hutchison, William Clapp, Randolph Hewton, Prudence Heward, Ozias Leduc, and others, to Impressionism.  CHAPTER  IV  Maurice G a l b r a i t h C u l l e n was born a t S t . In  1870 h i s  f a m i l y moved to M o n t r e a l .  J o h n ' s , Newfoundland i n 1866.  At the age of f o u r t e e n he was  a p p r e n t i c e d to the f i r m o f G a u l t B r o t h e r s  to l e a r n Commerce, but at  some  time between 1884 and 1888 he began n i g h t c l a s s e s w i t h the Abbe Joseph Chalbert's  National  I n s t i t u t e of The F i n e A r t s and S c i e n c e s ,  e s t h e t i c s , and t e c h n i q u e .  A f t e r f o u r years w i t h G a u l t ,  taking  design,  Cullen said,  "No,  115 I  was not b o r n f o r a commercial c a r e e r . "  devoted h i m s e l f Chalbert's  He then l e f t h i s  job and  e n t i r e l y to s c u l p t u r e . I n s t i t u t e was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the Sorbonne i n P a r i s .  had brought back from Europe a r a r e and v e r y complete c o l l e c t i o n o f casts, In  which served to teach h i s p u p i l s  He plaster  from A n t i q u e models.  1886 C u l l e n e n r o l l e d i n the s c h o o l of the s c u l p t o r P h i l i p p e Hebert,  where he s t u d i e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s .  He h e l p e d Hubert carve the s t a t u e s  the r o o f o f S t .  These s t a t u e s were carved i n wood and  James' C a t h e d r a l .  encased i n c o p p e r .  In  the meantime h i s mother d i e d l e a v i n g him p r o p e r t y  v a l u e d a t two thousand d o l l a r s which he s o l d . go to Europe to c o n t i n u e h i s accompanied by h i s  studies  Uncle Dr. Ward.  Gerome f o r a s h o r t w h i l e , a t  The money enabled him to  and he a r r i v e d i n P a r i s There he s t u d i e d a t  about  On f i r s t a r r i v i n g i n P a r i s ,  s  the  of Colarossi  and R i x e n .  C u l l e n met F r i t z  who persuaded him to study p a i n t i n g .  Delaunay and L a t o u c h e . £  1889,  the s t u d i o  the Academy of F i n e A r t s , and a t  A t e l i e r under the d i r e c t i o n o f C o u r t o i s  artist,  on  His  Thalow, a first  Norwegian  instructors  were  i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t around 1870 the  I m p r e s s i o n i s t s s o l d t h e i r work through Latouche who had a s m a l l  shop  at  the c o r n e r of the Rue L a f i t t e . Latouche showed w i t h the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s 118 i n 1874 a t N a d a r ' s and i t was a t t h i s E x h i b i t i o n t h a t L o u i s L e r o y - 53 -  - 54 named the movement I m p r e s s i o n i s m because of Monet's Sunrise.  The p o s s i b i l i t i e s  Impression,  of c o l o r f a s c i n a t e d C u l l e n . F r e n c h a r t was  a c o l o r f u l epoch, so he began p a i n t i n g  full  time l a t e i n 1890.  turned to the Beaux A r t s Academy and r e j o i n e d h i s Gill,  canvas  Canadian  in  He r e -  compatriots  Lamarche, Alphonse J o n g e r s , Ludger L a r o s e , F r a n c h ^ r e , Joseph  St.  C h a r l e s , and D u b i . In  Paris  the work of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s had a marked a p p e a l f o r C u l l e n ,  e s p e c i a l l y the study o f atmospheric e f f e c t s . Emile Delaunay,  the C l a s s i c a l  He took i n s t r u c t i o n from  p a i n t e r , who had won the P r i x de Rome and  who was a member of the I n s t i t u t e .  James W i l s o n M o r r i c e and Maurice  C u l l e n became f r i e n d s , and both saw H a r p i g n i e s  f o r c o r r e c t i o n s each week.  They a l s o v a c a t i o n e d t o g e t h e r on the B r e t o n c o a s t Another a s s o c i a t e  1894.  of C u l l e n was P h i l i p p e R o l l ,  a well-know  pastellist,  who taught C u l l e n the p a s t e l t e c h n i q u e . In  1895 C u l l e n was e l e c t e d an a s s o c i a t e  Fine A r t s .  In  of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y  1896 he became a f u l l member w i t h Fromuth and  Matisse.  Among the e a r l i e s t works o f M a u r i c e C u l l e n i n Canada i s  The M i l l  Stream a t Moret, of S i s l e y ' s  1894,  (Fig.  home, and i s  w h i t e , b l u e , and p i n k ,  26).  of  T h i s p i c t u r e was p a i n t e d i n the v i c i n i t y  done i n S i s l e y ' s  style.  There a r e broken tones of  to be found i n the water and i n the sky.  sky e f f e c t s a r e v e r y r e m i n i s c e n t of C o n s t a b l e ' s  The m i s t y  and T u r n e r ' s e f f e c t s , and  119 i t must be remembered that both S i s l e y and C u l l e n were admirers e a r l i e r English a r t i s t s ' Moret i n Summer,  luminous  (Fig.  27)  and M o r e t , W i n t e r ,  (Fig.  s i m i l a r i t y of c o m p o s i t i o n , h a n d l i n g of l i g h t  g e n e r a l I m p r e s s i o n i s t theme.  the  effects.  when compared w i t h the R e n o i r c a l l e d La S e i n e a Chatou, striking  of  28) (Fig.  of about 1895, 29)shows a  and pigment,  and  Both o f these C u l l e n s were done i n h i s  first  - 55 trip to Europe and the proximity of Sisley s and Pissarro's homes, where 1  these subjects were painted, may suggest some very close connection between the Impressionist masters and the work of Maurice Cullen. However, Cullen's work shows a more conservative regard for natural appearances. The treatment of the foreground foliage in Cullen's work is so close to the same parallel strokes and deft application of colors found in Sisley's and Renoir's works, that the similarity is intriguing.  Sisley's lyrical  interpretation is also found in the work of Pissarro.  His limited palette  with green, yellow, and blue, a l l with much white added, is adopted in Cullen's early work both in France and in Canada. In 1895 Cullen returned to Canada. He was working for the winter of 1895 - 1896 with J.W. Morrice of Beaupre where he painted Logging in Winter Beaupre (Fig. 31). to Venice.  In the summer of 1896 Cullen and Morrice went  They spent the winter of 1896 - 1897 in Algiers, and then  travelled to Giverny, Le Pouldu, and the Breton coast. Cullen's f u l l Impressionist expression is seen in Environs of Paris, 1895, (Fig. 30).  The heavy impasto type of painting with a palette re-  duced to blue, yellow and green has the Impressionist technique.  It is  very close to works done by Pissarro and Sisley, and the addition of black with green, suggests Chevreul as a source for this color scheme. Cezanne and Pissarro were both using black with green in their Impressionist works dating after their stay together at Pontoise in 1877. Chevreul's theories, which were so important in establishing Seurat's scientific application of Impressionist color, had a renewed influence thereafter on continuing Impressionists. Chevreul's book on The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors, although written about 1839 was not widely known until i t s f i r s t f u l l scale publication in 1875.  The "Art Nouveau"  - 56 sinuous curve of the pathway, used as a gracefully decorative feature to lead the eye into the picture depth, was beginning to be noticed in French art at that time. Cullen's f i r s t painting done on his return to Canada Logging in Winter Beaupre, 1896, (Fig. 31) retains i t s Impressionist inspiration and uses black in conjunction with green.  In this canvas Cullen turns his attent-  ion to a Canadian subject while keeping the reduced Impressionist palette he adopted in France of blue and yellow with green, and much white. The snow has blue shadows beneath the trees, and sunlight breaks through the branches to show up in white patches in the snow, or as bright yellow spots on the tree trunks. The effect is a very luminous one where the composition i s composed with three overlapping planes of foreground h i l l , distant h i l l , and back-drop of sky. The effect of light in this canvas is indicative of Cullen's association with Impressionist painters in France.  There is a thorough and completely new departure from previous  Barbizon influences seen in Canada to a newer lighter way of painting. Robert Pilot in his address to the Arts Club of Montreal i n 1937 states that "when Cullen f i r s t showed these snow pictures he was considered a radical, 'Blue Snow forsoothe'. Snow painting then, with 1  Kipling's 'Lady of the Snow', was looked at askance as bad for immigration."  1 2 0  Another remarkable early picture also from the Hamilton Art Gallery collection and dated 1896, carries the Impressionist t i t l e Winter Sunlight Beaupre, (Fig. 32*4) This is a panoramic vista, looking across fields and river to distant h i l l s .  The progression of horizontal planes from the  foreground done in blue shadow, to the bright white snow in the middle plane, to another blue river plane, then to dark banks and purple h i l l s  - 57 i n the d i s t a n c e ;  is  covered by an o v e r c a s t d u l l b l u e s k y .  A small  dated s k e t c h i n o i l on cardboard c a l l e d Winter near M o n t r e a l  (fig.  un33)  v e r y s i m i l a r i n c o l o r , c o m p o s i t i o n and h a n d l i n g to the works Logging Winter Beaupre,  (Fig.  31) and Winter S u n l i g h t Beaupre,  C u l l e n t r a v e l e d from P a r i s Algiers.  to G i v e r n y , M o r e t ,  He had a s t u d i o i n P a r i s  and i n Pont Aven.  32).  He was a f r i e n d of These t h r e e p a i n t e r s  A l b e r t was a F r e n c h p a i n t e r of  S c a n d i n a v i a n b i r t h , whose c a r e e r was cut s h o r t by h i s  e a r l y death.  was a F r e n c h p a i n t e r of American b i r t h who l i v e d a r e t i r e d l i f e Concarneau i n B r i t t a n y , where he p a i n t e d and d i d b r i l l i a n t In  1900 C u l l e n won a bronze medal a t the P a r i s  Exhibition.  In  in  Pont Aven, Venice and  Fromuth i n Concarneau and a c l o s e f r i e n d o f A l b e r t . m u t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d one a n o t h e r .  (Fig.  is  at  pastels.  International  1901 he r e c e i v e d an h o n o r a b l e mention a t the P a r i s  and was e l e c t e d O f f i c e r of the Academy.  In  Fromuth  Salon  1902 he a g a i n went to V e n i c e  and F r a n c e . In a l e t t e r to Edmond M o r r i s , Brymner w r i t e s France:  a M o n t r e a l newspaperman,  William  on the 28th of August, 1902, from G i v e r n y par Vernon, Eure  " M o r r i c e and C u l l e n were both a t Venice and they came w i t h me to  Florence.  M o r r i c e and I  went a l o n e to F l o r e n c e and S i e n a and now I  s e t t l e d here f o r a few weeks and am t r y i n g to do some work.  I  the 30th o f September from L i v e r p o o l " . . . " C u l l e n i s h e r e , so i s this  is  the p l a c e Monet l i v e s  at.  He has a house,  sail  have on  Collins  -  garden, and automobile -  121 They have a l l got a u t o m o b i l e s . " p a i n t e r s was c a r r i e d on overseas  The c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between Canadian as w e l l as a t home.  It  is  also recorded  t h a t on November 17, 1909, Brymner, C u l l e n and Watson a l l went to H a m i l t o n t o g e t h e r to o r g a n i z e an O n t a r i o S o c i e t y of A r t show. "From 1902 to 1908 C u l l e n worked a t Beaupre and Quebec, f o l l o w i n g  the  -  58 -  seasons round - the green s m i l i n g  summer, the wondrous  October t r e e s and the gleaming beauty of the w i n t e r . the seasons,  so too he f o l l o w e d the hours  t r a n s i t o r y e f f e c t of l i g h t , is  gone.  c o l o u r of  the  J u s t as he f o l l o w e d  of the day to r e c o r d the  which b e a u t i f i e s  t h i n g s f o r a moment and then  " A t some time of the d a y , " he used to remark, " t h e  commonest  122 subject is b e a u t i f u l " .  Sometimes  i n the w i n t e r , he p a i n t e d w i t h  M o r r i c e at Beaupre', and he spent the summers w i t h Brymner and Dyonnet at St. In  Eustadje.  There was a v e r y c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between these  1906 M o r r i c e d i d The F e r r y a t Quebec which was shown i n the 1907  Salon,  the year t h a t C u l l e n d i d The O l d F e r r y Boat,  As Robert P i l o t p o i n t s Canada b e f o r e C u l l e n s 1  r e t u r n , a p a r t from K r i e g h o f f " .  a f t e r w i n t e r out of d o o r s .  Sometimes  a i r " . . . " H e b u i l t up from these years on snow, w i t h i t s  41).  Cullen's  canvases  i n the " p l e i n  of s i n c e r e study a knowledge o f  In  the p i c t u r e of W o l f ' s  Cove,  twenty d e c i d e d l y d i f f e r e n t snow tones i n the  p i c t u r e , produced by r e f l e c t e d c o l o r , and by the d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s is  the  i n t r i c a t e laws of complementary c o l o r and of  a t Quebec, t h e r e a r e perhaps  It  "a  on snow, and he worked w i n t e r  finishing his  r e f l e c t e d tone which i s v e r y v e r y good.  the sun.  in  association  l e d h i m , on h i s r e t u r n from Europe to  s e a r c h i n g and p r o l o n g e d study of the l i g h t  light  (Fig.  Paris  o u t , " p r a c t i c a l l y no one d i d snow p i c t u r e s  w i t h modern European p a i n t e r s  its  artists.  scientific in its  analysis  catching  and s p l e n d i d i n the sureness  of  knowledge."123 Winter E v e n i n g , Quebec, 1905,  (Fig.  (Fig.  35) r e p r e s e n t the t y p i c a l b i r d ' s  encompasses are a l l  the near and d i s t a n t  shores  seen w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n l i g h t  34)  and L e v i s  from Quebec, 1906,  eye view of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  It  of a r i v e r where houses and boats effects.  There a r e dark b l u e  shadows i n the f o r e g r o u n d and background p l a n e s , and a s u n f i l l e d m i d d l e  - 59 plane. Newton MacTavish r e c o g n i z e s  in Cullen s Levis  from Quebec ( F i g .  1  the ephemeral e f f e c t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of I m p r e s s i o n i s t works.  35)  "Everyone  who has v i s i t e d Quebec and c r o s s e d the r i v e r to L e v i s remembers the imposing  s p e c t a c l e from t h a t p o i n t even i n summer.  r e n d i t i o n of the same p l a c e i n w i n t e r , i t beautiful,  is  But l o o k a t Mr.  imposing  Cullen s 1  i n summer; now i t  is  and the s m a l l F e r r y boat c r o s s i n g amongst the broken i c e  leaving its  t r a i l of smoke i s  an e x q u i s i t e  sight".  " L ' A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e " newspaper of Quebec, dated J a n u a r y 11, 1957, reads;  " C u l l e n shows us M o n t r e a l , Quebec, and L e v i s  dazzling light  of the snow i n t e r e s t s him v e r y much i f  the c a r e which he takes canvases  is  the  to judge by Most of  r e l e a s e d from the r e d d i s h sky making the p a l e sun glow; the the scene g i v e s a charm to the w i n t e r  proven i n h i s  D u f f e r i n T e r r a c e , covered i n shades  t i t l e d The Cache R i v e r i n March,  a s l e e p under an a l r e a d y d i s s o l v i n g  the a r t i s t  of dusk.  In  depicts nature  snow and g i v e s a magic  to the  where a p a r t of the scene r e f l e c t s i n the water of a r i v e r , banks • in  at  seems, a p r e t e x t to make f e l t the power  C u l l e n draws out these e f f e c t s s e i z i n g upon even the t w i l i g h t ,  canvas  his  show i c e - e n v e l o p e d scenes on the S t . Lawrence, a t L o n g u e u i e l ,  d i f f u s e d l i g h t which i l l u m i n a t e s sky.  one i s  to c a p t u r e the luminous r e f l e c t i o n s .  Beaupre; these scenes a r e , i t which i s  in winter;  as  the half canvas, covered  • ,,125 ice. These e a r l y 1900 - 1910 p i c t u r e s done i n and around Quebec seem to  l o o s e the f r e s h n e s s  and b r i l l i a n c y of h i s  d i r e c t l y a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from F r a n c e . r e t u r n i n g to Canada t h e r e i s  f i r s t works done i n Canada  L i k e Plamondon b e f o r e him, on  a p e r i o d i n h i s work which s t a y s v e r y c l o s e  to the European i n f l u e n c e , and then a gradual  t u r n i n g away from the  - 60 European i n f l u e n c e to a l e s s  advanced, more somber home s t y l e .  The i n f l u e n c e of J.W. M o r r i c e may be s u b s t a n t i a l a t t h i s  time,  since  M o r r i c e r e t a i n e d f o r some time the d u l l p a l e c o l o r s of the Nabis b e f o r e his  r e v o l u t i o n a r y change to emulate M a t i s s e ,  M o r r i c e p e r i o d 1900 - 1910 i s m i s t y atmospheric e f f e c t s . leaden m i s t s of w i n t e r .  1911 - 1912.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y greyed.  This It  early  has heavy  C u l l e n ' s views of Quebec, e x h i b i t the heavy  These may be c o n s i d e r e d as " e f f e c t s " much l i k e  those sought by the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s but the h a n d l i n g of them, l a c k s lightness  the  and b r i l l i a n c e t h a t the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s would have d e p i c t e d .  Winter S t r e e t Scene,  (Fig.  36) and Snowstorm E v e n i n g ,  (Fig.  37)  could  almost be e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y M o r r i c e s . Maurice C u l l e n ' s more somber p a l e t t e may a l s o have been caused by his  c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h E. Dyonnet, and W i l l i a m Brymner.  These com-  p a t r i o t s p a i n t e d i n an accomplished academic way which was more r e l a t e d to the work of W h i s t l e r , S a r g e n t ,  and e a r l y Manet,  than to the I m p r e s s i o n i s t  technique. A l t h o u g h C u l l e n kept P i s s a r r o ' s  p a l e t t e of b l u e , y e l l o w , g r e e n , and  white he does not choose to show the b r i g h t e r a s p e c t s which made the F r e n c h s c h o o l famous. It  Impressionism  1906, ( F i g .  Cullen s  e a r l i e s t "Ice  Walker's  e a r l i e r p i c t u r e The Ice C u t t e r s , 1904,  shadows,  d i s t a n t m i s t e f f e c t s , broad brush s t r o k e s , a panoramic  1  picture".  Packing I c e ,  of  38)  is  may have been i n s p i r e d by H o r a t i o (Fig.  7).  Here b l u e bird's  eye view, and the luminous e f f e c t s i n the sky a l l  suggest an I m p r e s s i o n i s t  influence.  (Fig.  Loads,  1907,  The sky e f f e c t s i n P a c k i n g I c e , (Fig.  to G u i l l a u m i n ' s  39) and Ice H a r v e s t ,  1906,  1914,  ( F i g . 40)  3 8 ) , The L a s t are v e r y r e l a t e d  126 treatment of sky i n Sunset a t I v r y , 1873, and S i s l e y  The F l o o d a t P o r t - M a r l y ,  127  1876.  The luminous  e f f e c t a c h i e v e d by  s  using  - 61 two c o l o r s , one d a r k , and one l i g h t , darks and l i g h t s  and by m o d e l l i n g s m a l l patches  i n an a l l - o v e r p a t t e r n across  the whole sky,  of  a l l with a  greyed down o r whitened appearance, g i v e the m o t t l e d luminescence which appealed to C u l l e n i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , and which i s his  seen i n  sky s t u d i e s between 1902 - 1910. Maurice C u l l e n ' s  The Old F e r r y Boat,  1907,  ( F i g . 41)  is  itself  d e r i v e d from the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h m i d - c e n t u r y p a i n t e r s who were i n t r i g u e d w i t h the new steam-powered water c r a f t .  Turner d i d boats  of steam and the glow of c o a l - f i r e d b o i l e r s v i s i t e d England  to get  i n h i s works.  effects  Daubigny who  i n 1855 would see these e a r l i e r works and i n c o r p o r a t e  the s u b j e c t i n t o h i s  own p i c t u r e  style.  128 In scenes.  The F e r r y ,  1860, Daubigny  shows h i s  i n t e r e s t i n water and boat  He was the f i r s t p a i n t e r to have a " b o t i n " , a f l o a t i n g boat  on which he. s a i l e d up and down the O i s e R i v e r .  Monet c o p i e s  this  studio,  idea  later. Daubigny  places  the h o r i z o n l i n e h a l f way up the p i c t u r e p l a n e and  shows sky and water e f f e c t s and i n c l u d e s  the sun b r e a k i n g through the  sky.  C u l l e n was v e r y fond of showing the sun or the moon i n h i s works as were all  the B a r b i z o n s .  To c a l l C u l l e n ' s O l d F e r r y ,  p i c t u r e i s a f a r s t r e t c h of the i m a g i n a t i o n . of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  I n s t e a d , i t has  It  (Fig. lacks  the b i r d ' s  the s t r a i g h t - o n view of  and i t has a c o m p o s i t i o n i n b l a c k , white and greys Cullen's  4 1 ) , an I m p r e s s i o n i s t  The use o f greys  4 1 ) , he l e a r n e d from h i s  Daubigny  t h a t was a p a r t  t e c h n i q u e and was r e l a t e d to the work of w h i s t l e r ,  and C a r o l u s - D u r a n .  eye view  as seen i n C u l l e n ' s  t e a c h i n g master C a r o l u s - D u r a n .  of  Velasquez,  F e r r y Boat,  (Fig.  Carolus-Duran  was a f r i e n d of Manet and an exponent of t h a t Spanish s t y l e which r e i g n e d 129 i n upper c l a s s P a r i s i a n c i r c l e s . Manet p a i n t e d h i s f i r s t p i c t u r e s i n  - 62 this  s t y l e as  seen i n . h i s  Spanish  Guitarist,  130  1863.  modelled h i s work a f t e r Velasquez and encouraged h i s same.  Among h i s  Carolus-Duran pupils  to do the  p u p i l s were James M c N e i l W h i s t l e r , John S i n g e r  Sargent,  W i l l i a m Brymner, and Maurice C u l l e n . C u l l e n ' s Old Ferry, (Fig. g r e y s , but i n i t he has  41), i s  a ' t o u r - d e - f o r c e ' i n the use of  the l a t e r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n t e r e s t i n f o g ,  and steam e f f e c t s , and the p a s s i o n  f o r the i n d i s t i n c t .  mist,  The depth c r e a t -  i n g d e v i c e s i n h i s p i c t u r e are not r e l a t e d to l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e but a r e those o f the m i s t pervaded a i e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s of Turner and Monet. a snow scene i t Pissarro,  takes  its  and Monet.  i n s p i r a t i o n from the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s  The s u b j e c t i s  perched upon some i c e .  There i s  by which t h i s  achieved.  canvas  is  t h a t of the R e a l i s t s , single  strokes  Sisley,  p e r f e c t l y s t i l l , a d e r e l i c t boat  great  i n t e r e s t i n the t e c h n i c a l means  The s t y l e of the brushwork i s  Courbet and Daubigny,  of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  As  and the i n d i s t i n c t  A l t h o u g h the g e n e r a l  between  divided  coloration  is  as c o r r e c t l y observed as  t h a t of the b e s t B a r b i z o n t r a d i t i o n , t h e r e  is  an extremely s u b t l e p l a y between the b l u e s of sky and water h e i g h t e n e d  w i t h w h i t e , and the golden ochre c o l o r a t i o n of the b o a t , brought  out by  the g o l d of the frame. Cullen's  Summer N i g h t ,  of H a y s t a c k s .  1907,  ( F i g . 42)  is  r e l a t e d to Monet's  series  C u l l e n d i d o n l y one p i c t u r e of the hay c a r t and he makes  i t a more B a r b i z o n work by i n c l u d i n g a c a r t , a d r i v e r , and two oxen. L i k e the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s C u l l e n ' s p i c t u r e s a r e based on the a c t u a l p a i n t e d on the s p o t ,  or done from s t u d i e s  sketched out o f d o o r s .  Summer Night C u l l e n has aimed a t the l i g h t ginning  e f f e c t s of a s e t t i n g  to t i n g e the h o r i z o n w i t h a r e d d i s h glow as  darkening blue.  P u r p l e shadows a r e c a s t  scene,  it  leaves  on d i s t a n t h i l l s  In  his  sun b e -  the sky a  and r e f l e c t  in  - 63 the shining water. color the sky.  In this picture separate brushstrokes are used to  Separate strokes of blue mixed with white give the pastel  Impressionist appearance. Cullen's picture, though obviously influenced by Monet's Impressionism in the background, i s curiously Barbizon i n the foreground.  The subject of  oxen pulling a hay cart, done in sepias and brown, even though applied in separated brushstrokes, is not s t r i c t l y Impressionistic.  Robert Pilot,  in describing Cullen's method of preparing canvases says he covered his canvas with white lead mixed with a l i t t l e raw umber which gave a warm neutral tone foundation.  This warm pale buff can be seen in this picture  beneath the blue sky strokes, and beneath the darker foreground browns. This gives an early Impressionist blue and yellow luminist quality 131 reminiscent of a Boudin or a Jongkind. Like the Impressionists, Cullen does not use a system of linear perspective as earlier landscape artists including Constable and Turner did; rather he uses the misty aerial perspective to suggest great background depth, and disposes his subject empirically on a foreground plane which is one of a series of planes running horizontally across the picture format. The inclusion of the sun is a very Barbizon element which is not 132 133 found in Seurat's Haystack of 1882 or in Monet's Haystack series of 1884 done in Giverny.  It was a feature which Cullen particularly liked,  because i t afforded the opportunity for more light effects. Cullen's diploma picture.  This is  The calm atmosphere and the slow moving Oxen  bring to mind Borleau's verses:  "Quatre boeufs atteles d'un pas 134 tranquille et lent, Promenaient dans Paris un monarque indolent" A part of an address by Arthur Lismer is recorded in the Hamilton  - 64 S p e c t a t o r , Nov.  10, 1956, and i t  C u l l e n ' s work, and i t a l s o studied painting  i n d i c a t e s what other p a i n t e r s saw  suggests i t s  e a s e l on the i c e .  mood w i t h a Canadian s p i r i t .  Cullen's  He combined  The Viewer cannot  to be s t r u c k by the u n d e r l y i n g theme of almost a l l preoccupation with l i g h t ,  the  p e r i o d , but he d i d not become an  He came home and s e t up h i s  the I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  on snow.  "Cullen  i n France a t the end of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t and a t  b e g i n n i n g of the P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t expatriate.  derivative nature.  in  the p i c t u r e s .  fail  Cullen's  and more p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the e f f e c t of  light  i n t e r e s t i n fogs and m i s t s a r e r e m i n i s c e n t a l s o of  the  135 English painter Turner." Cullen's  Ice Harvest,  (Fig. 40),  1914, h i s  v e r y c l o s e l y the e f f e c t s sought i n P a c k i n g I c e , (Fig.  last'Ice' (Fig.  picture,  follows  3 8 ) , and Summer  Night,  42). C o n f i d i n g to h i s  f r i e n d Wm. R. Watson Ghat what he needed to be happy  was "A s t u d i o o f my own, a shack i n the mountains,  a garden f o r an a c r e of  1 o/r  flowers and a heavy s n o w f a l l  every w i n t e r . "  Watson says "He made a  and s p e c i a l study of i c e f o r m a t i o n and i c e c o l o r under v a r i e d l i g h t s conditions.  There i s  the s t e e l b l u e of m i d - w i n t e r i c e , v n ' r i d i a n ,  even golden-amber o f the f l o o d e d i c e a l o n g His  studies  the marge of mountain  i n 1912 and a f t e r , made a t Lac Tremblant, on the  of R i c k s o n Outhet, show the o u t - o f - d o o r s  o f the L a u r e n t i a n s .  of t h i s p e r i o d b e g i n a landscape phase where the w i l d s the same way t h a t the Group of Seven, as Landscape,  (Fig.  43)  (Fig.  43)  an i n t e r e s t i n g m i s t  and  jade and streams."-'-  pictures  are shown i n much  they l a t e r became known, p a i n t e d .  phase which l a s t e d f o r the r e s t of h i s  3  invitation  of about 1915 i n the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , Ottawa,  representative of t h i s Landscape,  His  long  is  life.  shown i n the M o n t r e a l S p r i n g E x h i b i t i o n of 1921, has e f f e c t which may have i n s p i r e d James Edward Hervey  - 65 MacDonald's Mist Fantasy, dated  1922.  During the war, Cullen was asked by the Government of Canada, along with other Canadian artists, to paint war scenes for the Armed Services Records.  In 1918 he was elected to the R.C.A. Two remarkably  Impression-  i s t i c war pictures, Our Guns at Bonn University, (Fig. 44) and Bombing Area Seaford, (Fig. 45), both of 1918, show the blue and yellow reduced palette of the Impressionists.  On his return to Canada after the war,  Cullen continued painting in the Laurentian area. 138 "Cullen not only got to the guts of things as well.  but to the soul of them  He was mentally and physically robust and loved to tramp on snow  shoes through the northern woods for his subjects. He said 'nature is a book with most of the leaves uncut.  1  He gloried in the Laurentians and to  become familiar with mountains built himself a shack at the edge of Lac Tremblant and lived and worked alone for three months of each year.  Here  he painted some of his finest works....He experimented with the light colors of the Impressionists and achieved the creation of an atmosphere without 139 the loss of form."  "He rendered snow on canvas studiously and consist-  ently, until now we regard him as the interpreter par excellence of what is pre-eminently a glorious contribution to the Canadian winter."l^O A March Evening, 1923,  (Fig. 46) is typical of this outdoor period and i t  leads directly to The Valley of the Devil River, 1927, This is a most interesting Cullen to consider. to the panoramic bird's eye view.  (Fig. 47).  In i t , Cullen returns  This picture, done after Canada's  famous Group of Seven landscapes of the wilds, unites the Impressionist palette with a broader treatment of brushstroke in large areas of color bounded by sinuous curved lines.  There are blue snow shadows, and  alternating planes of light and dark.  Aerial perspective is used to give  - 66 the d i s t a n t peak a hazy b l u e , f a r - a w a y ,  appearance, and t h i s  v i v i d l y w i t h the golden tones of the foreground p l a n e . of the r i v e r and the t r e e s c u t t i n g d i a g o n a l l y p i c t u r e makes an a x i s  across  contrasts  The dark  swath  the c e n t e r of  the  about which the curve of the f o r e g r o u n d y e l l o w p l a n e ,  and the curve of the d i s t a n t  r i v e r bank form symmetrical r e v e r s e  The c a r e f u l s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of n a t u r e ,  the b a l a n c i n g  of curve f o r c u r v e , and r i s e o f h i l l s  on the l e f t f r o n t , to r i s e of  i n the r i g h t  d i s t a n c e , and the i n t e r e s t i n s u b t l e nuances  Monet, P i s s a r r o , the c l e a r sharp  and S i s l e y lines,  p l a y i n g down o f l i g h t from  from s i d e to  images.  landscapes.  Yet the f l a t n e s s  is  side, hills  t y p i c a l of  of the p l a n e s ,  the apparent depth i n t o the p i c t u r e , and the effects is  i n d i c a t i v e of a d i f f e r e n t aim i n a r t  Impressionism. T h i s l a s t p i c t u r e may somehow show what the Ottawa C i t i z e n , S e p t .  1957, f e l t was the end product o f "The f i e r c e s t r u g g l e to a p p l y the i n n o v a t i o n s Speaking about h i s more than two c o l o r s scrub the c o l o r s  3,  of the young C u l l e n  of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s to the Canadian  landscape."  1  c o l o r t h e o r y , C u l l e n remarked: " T r y never to mix  together  - add a t h i r d c o l o r f o r tone o n l y .  Do not  t o g e t h e r on the p a l e t t e , r a t h e r weave them t o g e t h e r  so  t h a t a c t u a l l y the c o l o r s are s t i l l pure but by b e i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n to each other,  they give  the f e e l i n g of b e i n g one t o n e .  This  gives greater  variety  142 and b r i l l i a n c e to the completed work." After Cullen's  death i n March, 1934, Marius  Barbeau, Saturday  June 9, 1934, wrote of "The A r t of M a u r i c e C u l l e n " . rendered snow upon canvas  Night,  " F o r years Mr.  Cullen  s t u d i o u s l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . . . a n d he has  c a r r i e d on t h i s work i n s p i t e o f p o p u l a r and o f f i c i a l p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t Mr. C u l l e n whose a r t i s t i c  sense of beauty and as an i n t e r p r e t e r o f  i n h e r most m a j e s t i c moods has  it.  nature  gone on w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g t h a t o t h e r s  have  - 67 been discouraging or tabooing the very thing that he has been at great pains to preserve. Mr. Cullen's pictures are most beautiful when they 143 show the play of light and color upon the snow." Jean Chauvin speaking of the art of Maurice Cullen says; "Beginning at the turn of the century Cullen made the f i r s t break with the European tradition; he was the f i r s t to free our painting from a provincial imitation of older styles abroad. His method was freely to adopt the contemporary Impressionist techniques to our milieu - to our climate, the breadth of our landscape, and the quality of our light...He was the f i r s t to look at Canadian scenery through Canadian eyes, thus opening up a way for the Group of 144 Seven and later  developments."  Marc Aurel de Foy Suzor-Cote was born on April 5, 1869 at Arthabaska, Quebec. "His derivative way of painting like the French, his gift for studio pieces, including Nudes, eventually gave way to a more individual style and a lively interest in his native country.  Soon after 1900 he was  satisfied to remain for four years in Montreal and at Arthabaska.  It is  then that he became a Canadian painter and also a sculptor. His  outlook and accomplishments were influenced by the prevailing  Impressionism of his generation, also by an arbitrary limitation to gentle landscapes patterned after those of France.  Even within Canada he looked  for pasture and cultivated lands, old habitations, and country roads, like those of his native Arthabaska, almost never for the rugged wilderness. The mellow light permeating his pigments was that of Normandy or Ile-de145 France, not the clear and crisp iridescence of Canada." It is a two-hour bus ride from Quebec City to Arthabaska, called the "country of roses" in the Algonquin language, and the home of Canada's great  - 68 Impressionist painter.  No-^one i n the town knows which was the home of  S u z o r - C o t e , but the Curef. p o i n t e d out the grave of Cote  ( F i g . 48)  i n the  churchyard of the Chapel of the Sacred H e a r t , o v e r l o o k i n g the v a l l e y the N i c o l e t R i v e r , pastoral its  countryside, is  bronze plaque  contains  (Fig. 49).  replicas  (Fig.  Nearby, w i t h a view of the  the home of S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r , 51).  The house, which i s  rolling (Fig.  i n c h a r c o a l i n the h a l l s  and up the  staircase.  f a t h e r was a n o t a r y of A r t h a b a s k a .  Chapdelaine.  H i s mother,  came from a c u l t u r e d and m u s i c a l Quebec f a m i l y .  school studies  with  p r e s e r v e d as a museum,.  These sketches were commissioned f o r L o u i s Hemon's n o v e l M a r i a  de Foy S u z o r ,  50)  of S u z o r - c S t e ' s b r o n z e s , an academic p o r t r a i t of Mme.  L a u r i e r , and sketches  Suzor-Cote''s  of  In  Cecile his  S u z o r - C o t e e x c e l l e d i n drawing under B r o t h e r N e p o t i e n , 146  who s a i d , " T h i s one w i l l  s u r e l y be an  artist".  On l e a v i n g the c o l l e g e , Suzor a r t i c l e d w i t h M. Guay, a merchant  at  V i c t o r i a v i l l e , but commerce d i d not i n t e r e s t him as d i d music and a r t . His  f i r s t painting  l e s s o n s were taken i n 1886 from Maxime  Rousseau,  a d e c o r a t o r of churches i n M o n t r e a l where he q u i c k l y l e a r n e d to manager c o l o r s and to do the heads of martyrs and a n g e l s so w e l l t h a t he was five dollars  a day.  He devoted h i m s e l f  d e c o r a t i o n f o r two y e a r s . I n s t i t u t e of F i n e A r t s  to r e l i g i o u s  p a i n t i n g and church  He a l s o s t u d i e d w i t h C h a l b e r t a t the N a t i o n a l  i n Montreal.  At the age of twenty, i n 1889, S u z o r - C o t e d e c i d e d to go to where he s t u d i e d s i n g i n g a t the C o n s e r v a t o r y under Boulanger Masson, making great  paid  Paris,  and Edouard  progress.  He was to have made h i s  debut a t the Opera Comique i n the F a l l  of  1892, but a t h r o a t i n f e c t i o n caused him to g i v e up s i n g i n g and to take up his  second great  talent,  painting.  - 69 A /  /  For f o u r y e a r s S u z o r - C o t e f o l l o w e d Leon Bonnat s course a t E c o l e de Beaux A r t s . "audacious  The works of Bonnat have been d e s c r i b e d as  harmonies of the p a l e t t e " , " p a i n t i n g 147  and " i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y Cote's  the  true p o r t r a i t s " .  f i r s t master are seen i n h i s  w i t h outdated f o r m u l a s .  i n a photographic  These t h r e e t r a i t s  of  Suzor-  own e a r l y p r i z e - w i n n i n g work,  filled  Suzor took a s t u d i o w i t h the s c u l p t o r ,  L a l i b e r t e ' , i n . Montparnasse.  In  way",  Alfred  1894 he r e t u r n e d to Canada f o r two y e a r s .  He was now an e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t  and was awarded a homecoming banquet by  Sir Wilfred Laurier. In  1896 he r e t u r n e d to F r a n c e .  In  1898 he a t t e n d e d the c l a s s e s  of  Benjamin Constant and J u l e s L e f e b v r e a t the C o l a r o s i and J u l i a n Academies. He took d e s i g n from Fernand Cormon. painting.  There he l e a r n e d p o r t r a i t and h i s t o r y  H i s most n o t a b l e p i c t u r e s a t  1899, and E n t r e V o i s i n ,  1900.  that time were P a s t o r a l ,  Entre Voisin is  century i n t e r i o r genre-type p a i n t i n g . p o a c h e r ' s hut near a f l a m i n g f i r e p l a c e .  53),  l i k e a Dutch seventeenth  Four men a r e shown p l o t t i n g i n a In  S u z o r - C o t e had to work f o r over two months Normandy,  (Fig.  order to p a i n t in a small,  this  picture  smokey h o v e l  i n the most unpleasant and unsavory s u r r o u n d i n g s .  in  He would  get  the men to p i l e peat on the f i r e to g i v e a ruddy glow to the i n t e r i o r and cause a heavy atmospheric e f f e c t . colors  delightful  .  The c r i t i c s great  " Y e s , and the d i r t had such  found the p i c t u r e , " v e r y w e l l observed and r e n d e r e d w i t h  talent",  and "Mr.  and " a n e x c e l l e n t p a i n t e r of p e o p l e i s  S u z o r - C o t e shows two v e r y l o v e l y landscapes  Suzor-Cote",  of r a r e  artistic  worth . Recalling his  e a r l y c a r e e r , Cote s a i d "under the b e n e v o l e n t and wise  gaze of the F r e n c h m a s t e r s , Mr. M. J u l e s L e f e b v r e , Benjamin C o n s t a n t ,  and  Leon Bonnat, whose l e s s o n s c o n t e m p l a t i o n of knowledge.  I  I  70 -  e s p e c i a l l y f o l l o w e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n , and the  the m a s t e r p i e c e s  i n the L o u v r e , I  had begun to t h i n k ,  n a t u r e and a l l  slowly  gained a  little  to r e f l e c t , and to be moved b e f o r e  the b e a u t i f u l I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  scenes which are b e f o r e us  in  152 each season,  a t each hour of the  day..."  The p e o p l e o f M o n t r e a l knew of the work of S u z o r - C o t e .  At the A r t  G a l l e r y o f W. S c o t t and Sons, i n Notre Dame S t r e e t , a f t e r 1900 t h e r e was an e x h i b i t of s i x t y - f i v e canvases s a l e of these canvases  done i n o i l and p a s t e l s  i n France.  enabled S u z o r - C o t e to r e t u r n to F r a n c e .  The  His  h i s t o r i c a l works were done around 1906 and i n c l u d e d Death of Montcalm, Frontenac and The A r r i v a l of Jacques C a r t i e r a t  Stadacona.  R e t u r n i n g from the F i e l d s , 1904, was shown i n the based on a M i l l a i s  P o r t Blanc en Bretagne, I m p r e s s i o n i s t canvases.  It  1906, has  the b l u e and golden ochre c o l o r s sky,  f i g u r e s he has  a r e b l u e shadows, brushstrokes  (Fig.  54)  daily is  d e p i c t e d the t r u e  life.  one of S u z o r - C o t e ' s  the h i g h h o r i z o n l i n e , the b i r d ' s to a c h i e v e luminous  first  eye view,  e f f e c t s , and i t  landscape t h a t would have appealed to the  The b l u e s and the y e l l o w s  shows  Impressionists.  a r e mixed w i t h white to get the same v a l u e . There  and the c o l o r i s  a p p l i e d i n d i s c r e e t tones  in  separate  i n the I m p r e s s i o n i s t way.  Suzor-Cote v i s i t e d a l l in Paris.  In h i s  and the i n t e r e s t i n g events of h i s  a land, sea,  and may be  c o m p o s i t i o n by t h a t name, but Cote has reproduced the  atmosphere of a Canadian scene. Habitant,  J(alon  the f e s t i v e g a t h e r i n g s  They met a t the C a f / - a u x - F l e u r s ,  o f the Canadian  and d i s c u s s e d  the r e v i e w of  B e a t r i c e La Palme at the Opera Comique i n M i r e i l l e i n 1905. ed the Trocadero w i t h h i s  colony  Suzor a t t e n d -  f r i e n d L a l i b e r t e ' f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of The  Damnation of F a u s t , where the t i t l e r o l e was sung by the o p e r a t i c  tenor  Rudolphe Plamondon.  71 -  He v i s i t e d the salons  He saw a M o r r i c e canvas and s a i d to h i s  of V i a l l a r d , Stone and N a n t e l .  friend,  "His  p a i n t i n g has  so few  153 colors, states  it  is  so l o v e l y , so d i s c r e e t , so g r a n d ! ! "  Donald W. Buchanan  t h a t Cote d i d not know M o r r i c e but t h a t t h i s  a p p r e c i a t i o n from Suzor-C&te was worth more than a l l praises  of Paris  spontaneous the j o u r n a l i s t i c  to M o r r i c e .  Next was h i s p e r i o d of t r a v e l to E n g l a n d , S c o t l a n d , S p a i n , H o l l a n d , R u s s i a and Germany about 1907. "We see the great works ant."  W r i t i n g to h i s  Italy,  f a m i l y he  i n Rotterdam and the Hague and we seem so  says, ignor-  1 5 4  In London S u z o r - C o t e met Pablo C a s a l s , two of h i s  snow s c e n e s .  the famous c e l l i s t , who bought  "Two l i t t l e m a r v e l s " ,  said Casals,  "which i n -  s p i r e d me to make the t r i p to Canada". In  1907 Cote f i n d s another p e r s o n a l and v i v i d mode of e x p r e s s i o n  the p l a s t i c a r t of s c u l p t u r e . Laurier.  His  f i r s t p o r t r a i t b u s t was o f S i r  In Canada he pursued many s u b j e c t s  t y p i c a l of the p r i m i t i v e l i f e  Wilfred  i n s c u l p t u r e which were  l e a d a t t h a t time i n R u r a l Quebec.  S u z o r - C o t e ' s b r o n z e s , begun about 1907, may have been suggested his  s t u d i o companion, the s c u l p t o r L a l i b e r t e .  from R o d i n .  His  He took much i n s p i r a t i o n  canvases  almost atmospheric e f f e c t i n C o t e ' s  f e e l i n g of a c t i o n as Women ( F i g .  by  s u r f a c e s are l e f t showing the t e x t u r e of the m a t e r i a l and  the marks of the t o o l s as I m p r e s s i o n i s t indistinct,  in  light  falls  across  do.  There i s  also  the  s c u l p t u r e , as w e l l as a  the f a c e t e d s u r f a c e .  5 5 ) , one of the f o r t y or f i f t y bronze f i g u r e s  Caughnawaga  and groups  by Co'te, r e p r e s e n t s I n d i a n women o f the Caughnawaga N a t i o n going  done  to market  i n Montreal. The Caughnawaga men b u i l d the g i a n t  skyscrapers  o f e a s t e r n America as  w e l l as the b r i d g e s , w i t h a sureness  climbing very high without  Both a r t i s t s  shimmering s u r f a c e . material is  Burgers  of C a l a i s ,  The group  The h a n d l i n g of the m a t e r i a l and the t e x t u r e of  evident.  Critics  is  Other important works  of  in a the  of s c u l p t u r e by S u z o r - C $ t e are  M a r i a C h a p d e l a i n e , The T r a p p e r , and The Woodcutter.  1908 the Canadian A r t Club e x h i b i t e d the newest works of  painting.  and  or the h e a v i l y draped f i g u r e  p r e s e n t an a m b i g u i t y and s u g g e s t i v e n e s s  The Woodcutter W a l k i n g , In  f e a r on s t e e l g i r d e r s  and s k i l l not to be matched by o t h e r s .  r e m i n i s c e n t of R o d i n ' s Balzac.  72 -  Canadian  s a i d t h e r e was sound e x e c u t i o n i n every p i c t u r e . There  were t h r e e l a r g e Homer W a t s o n ' s , E r n e s t Lawson showed e i g h t  canvasses  that  156 were " a t h r i l l  of pure s u n l i g h t "  and C u l l e n d i d a p a s t e l c a l l e d  Solitude.  The b r i l l i a n t works of Suzor-Cotfe were s m a l l , Sugar Bush i n Autumn, A Village  S t r e e t , and Quebec W i n t e r , were i n d i v i d u a l v i s i o n s  of c o l o r and mellow charm.  i n the matter  James W. M o r r i c e e x h i b i t e d Market  Place  St.  Malo. S u z o r - C o t e p a i n t e d some of h i s most b e a u t i f u l snow scenes These a r e v e r y remarkable f o r a most  i n Canada.  e a r n e s t and s i n c e r e e f f o r t to conquer  the d i f f i c u l t i e s of p r e s e n t i n g the b r i l l i a n t  sunshine  on snow,  t r e e s and  country-side. Winter Landscape, Suzor's this  1909,  home i n A r t h a b a s k a .  f i n e snow p i c t u r e i s  (Fig.  56)  i s a view of the N i c o l e t R i v e r ,  L i k e Snow a t L o u v e c i e n n e s , ^ - ^ l S T S ,  a i r y and l i g h t .  The banks  immaculate snow shows us t h a t white i s not w h i t e . had p e r m i t t e d the a r t i s t s  to i n v e s t i g a t e  object presents  So-called  Sisley,  of f l u f f y white  J u s t as  snow  scenes  the problems of shadows , the  study of water o f f e r e d an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to observe and r e f l e c t i o n s .  by  near  reverberations  l o c a l c o l o r was a pure c o n v e n t i o n .  to the eye a scheme of c o l o r d e r i v e d from i t s  Every proper c o l o r ,  from i t s  surroundings,  73 -  and from atmospheric  "Impressionism i n j e c t e d i t s  conditions.  p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e i n t o Canadian  through the work of Mqttrice C u l l e n and M.A.  painting  de jt>y S u z o r - C o t e , both of  whom r e c o g n i z e d a n a t u r a l a f f i n i t y between the I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  technique  158 and the v a r i e d l i g h t s  and c o l o r s of the Canadian  The Settlement on the H i l l s i d e , scene.  One of the f a s c i n a t i o n s  execution.  1909,  (Fig.  snowscape." 57)  is  another f i n e  of snow scenes was t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y of  To p a i n t a l a r g e a r e a of canvas white or almost w h i t e , and  yet have enough v a r i a t i o n i n the w h i t e to p r e s e n t l i v e l y c o l o r o f the c o l o r v a l u e s highlights was  snow  of l i g h t  r e f l e c t e d from snow showing many c o l o r e d  and shadows i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to a c c o m p l i s h .  the f i r s t  Although  Courbet  F r e n c h p a i n t e r to do snow scenes, Monet c a r r i e d the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f u r t h e r , f i n d i n g b r i g h t e r blues  i n the shade, p u r p l e s  dark shadows and many d i f f e r e n c e s of y e l l o w to white tones Settlement on the H i l l s i d e ,  in  i n the snow.  (Fig.  both v e r y r e l a t e d to Monet's a l s o assume  renditions  57) and Stream i n W i n t e r , ( F i g . 58) are 159 snow scenes l i k e The Magpie, 1869, and  the heavy c r u s t y s u r f a c e treatment of Monet's  later  Rouen  160 Facade  series  of 1894.  Golden ochre and orange r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d to  p a l e and dark b l u e , as complimentaries and much white i s browns and greys  used. Some n e u t r a l  a r e formed by m i x i n g the c o m p l i m e n t a r i e s .  The works o f Monet w e r e . e a r l i e r than those of S i s l e y  or P i s s a r r o  who  c o n t i n u e d the e a r l y type of I m p r e s s i o n i s m on i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Pissarro's  p a l e t t e and s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of 1901 as seen i n h i s  Saint-Jacques  a t Dieppe,  to the end of h i s A  Suzor-Cote's,  is  very s i m i l a r , t o  life. The Peribonka Church  i n s p i r a t i o n from M o n e t ' s  162  Church o f  that of S u z o r - C o t e from 1906  facade seems borrowed i n 163 164 C a t h e d r a l a t Rouen, or S i s l e y ' s Church a t Moret.  It  is  74 -  t o u c h i n g t h a t S u z o r - C o t e s h o u l d show the q u a i n t l i t t l e v i l l a g e  of P e r i b o n k a i n the I m p r e s s i o n i s t by Monet, P i s s a r r o A  and  s t y l e of the great F r e n c h C a t h e d r a l s done  Sisley.  /  S u z o r - C o t e , as w e l l as W i l l i a m Brymner, d i d l o v e l y nudes. and M e l o d i e s , ^ a r e suggestive Back  167  for his and  two I m p r e s s i o n i s t  of t w i l i g h t .  Seurat's  are very s i m i l a r studies.  cSt^'s  church  165 Etude de Nu,  ones seen i n an e n v e l o p i n g atmosphere  Model i n P r o f i l e , and Model from the  / i n pose and i d e a to the ones chosen by S u z o r - C o t e  Degas' nudes must be the l i n k between academic nudes  later-day Impressionist  nudes.  J e a n C h a u v i n , w r i t i n g i n A t e l i e r s , says t h a t : f o r many female nudes i n o i l s  and p a s t e l s ,  the o n l y nudes shown i n our  s a l o n s which seem r e s e r v e d o n l y f o r l a n d s c a p e s . i n d e e d , these many years?  Few p o r t r a i t s ,  and seascapes  only.  What does one see t h e r e ,  few s t i l l  no h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s , no genre p a i n t i n g s , no nudes, landscapes  "We a r e i n d e b t e d to him,  Is  lifes,  few c o m p o s i t i o n s ,  no i n t e r i o r s or f a m i l i a r it  scenes,  the c o n t a g i o n of the f e v e r  168 i n a l l European s c h o o l s ? " 169 Monet s On the Beach, 1870, shows a l a d y w i t h a p a r a s o l s i t t i n g  f o r landscape t h a t rages  a bench i n a pose which i s  i d e n t i c a l , o n l y r e v e r s e d , to S u z o r - C o t e ' s  on  Youth  170 and S u n l i g h t , Impressionists.  1913.  The l a d y w i t h a p a r a s o l was a f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t of  R e n o i r shows them i n f i e l d s , and Monet d i d another  famous  p a i r c a l l e d , Lady w i t h a P a r a s o l Turned Towards the R i g h t ,  and the same  s u b j e c t Turned Towards the L e f t ,  Impressionist  interest is lady is  both of 1886.  seen i n the m i d d l e c l a s s  on a green g r a s s y h i l l  Suzor'-s  enjoyment of a sunny day.  o v e r l o o k i n g a pond.  Light  The young  is reflected  from the water and the shadows are a l i v e w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s of b l u e s and mauve.  "Youth i n S u n l i g h t " Pissarro.  The s m a l l  Impressionists.  has  75 -  the l i g h t - f i l l e d manner o f Monet and  touches of pure c o l o r are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  Here i s  the  the t y p i c a l I m p r e s s i o n i s t use of Japanese  c o m p o s i t i o n whereby the f i g u r e of the g i r l  is  seen from an unusual  angle, 172  and i s  s i l h o u e t t e d i n a d e c o r a t i v e way a g a i n s t a f l a t  Of a l l  these I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  h i s b e s t known.  "Last  figure studies,  autumn where a t  background."  Youth and S u n l i g h t  is  the E x h i b i t i o n of the Royal Academy  i n M o n t r e a l appeared the v i s i o n "Youth and S u n l i g h t "  by S u z o r - C o t e of a  f r e s h and happy l o o k i n g young g i r l h o l d i n g a white sunshade over h e r head, s e a t e d on a garden bench i n the b l a z i n g mid-day sun.  His  f r i e n d s were  dazzled. The p i c t u r e i s  full  of " L a J o i e de V i v r e " and the s u b t l e s t  effects I TO  of l i g h t  and shade have been caught and a r e h e l d c a p t i v e h e r e f o r e v e r . " 174  Francois T a i l l o n ,  1921, a p o r t r a i t of a s t u r d y  farmer, shows a mixed t e c h n i q u e . r e n d e r i n g of c h a r a c t e r . stroke areas,  French-Canadian  The p o r t r a i t i s a f i n e I m p r e s s i o n i s t  The background,  done i n broad s q u a r e d - o f f  i s more l i k e van Gogh's broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  The methods of I m p r e s s i o n i s m and P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s m  brush  Impressionism.  were o l d and well-known  by t h e n , and the combination of t e c h n i q u e , though m o s t l y I m p r e s s i o n i s t , d e r i v e d from both s o u r c e s . in portraiture.  His  L a l i b e r t e , Hormidas  illustrations  values  the F r e n c h Canadian peasants  Sugar Camp, A r t h a b a s k a ,  i n c l u d i n g the s i l v e r s  when the sap i s on the c a b i n ' s  i n M a r i a C h a p d e l a i n e , 1921, of  on the move. roof,  studies Nepotien  B^rube and Madame C h a p d e l a i n e , g i v e a s e n s i t i v e  e q u i v a l e n t to the s t o r y of Suzor-Cote's  S u z o r - C ^ t e was v e r y adept a t c h a r a c t e r  giving  of the l a s t  1917, shows a wide range  and reds t h a t mark the Maples There are b l u e shadows c a s t  i n the  is  pictorial century. of  spring  on the snow and  a d e c o r a t i v e t r a c e r y e f f e c t found so o f t e n  in  - 76 Sisley's and Monet's snow scenes.  When compared with his earlier canvas,  Primitive Sugar Camp, 1910, i t is seen that Cote" kept very close to an original inspiration working and reworking i t the way the Impressionists did, to give the impression of the instant. Suzor-Cote is the most consistently Impressionist Canadian painter. He is the only painter who stayed with the Impressionist technique long after the artists in France had given up the idiom.  His early work,  dating from 1892 to 1905, the period of his training, i s characteristically reserved and academic.  However, from his return to Canada in 1908, until  his death in 1937, he painted a continuous series of Impressionist pictures.  Suzor-Cote was a French-Canadian peasant who went overseas to  learn an academic way of painting, then on returning to Canada brought with him what appealed to him most.  It was the Impressionist palette  that pleased him, and that was what he chose to use on his return. The studio of Suzor-Cote" as visited by Jean Chauvin in 1927, represented Co\e's varied interests and his double heritage and appreciation of what was old and picturesque in Canada and in France.  There were priceless  French Aubusson rugs, old Brettpn chests, a three hundred year old marquetry and mahogany harpsichord and Indian curios a l l gathered together.  Perhaps no other Canadian painter has blended so rich a heritage  of music, painting and sculpture, with the native and peasant l i f e of Quebec.  CHAPTER V One of the e a r l i e s t major a r t p a t r o n s Horne, 1843 - 1915.  He i s  i n Canada was S i r W i l l i a m Van  d e s c r i b e d i n the M o n t r e a l Museum of F i n e A r t s  Catalogue as "The foremost r a i l r o a d o r g a n i z e r of h i s  day, and a c r e a t o r  o f the C . P . R . . . A g i f t e d amateur p a i n t e r , and an e n l i g h t e n e d c o l l e c t o r and connoisseur."'''^ (Fig.  60)  His  p i c t u r e S t e e l M i l l s a t Sydney, Cape B r e t o n , 1907,  shows a dramatic view of s t e e l - m i l l s  the water a t n i g h t .  in full-blast,  seen a c r o s s  Van Horne made many t r i p s abroad and was always  i n t e r e s t e d i n modern a r t ,  e s p e c i a l l y when i t had some r e l a t i o n to  ways and heavy i n d u s t r y .  It  is  i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Armand G u i l l a u m i n ,  two years o l d e r than Van Horne, began working f o r the Railway Company and p a i n t e d i n h i s lived.  railjust  Paris-Orleans  l e i s u r e hours around P a r i s where he  He showed i n . s i x of the e i g h t I m p r e s s i o n i s t e x h i b i t i o n s and 176  p a i n t e d a v e r y unusual view of Sunset At I v r y ,  about 1873.  shown i n the f i r s t I m p r e s s i o n i s t e x h i b i t i o n at N a d a r ' s  It  was  i n 1874, d e p i c t i n g  a sunset scene, w i t h f a c t o r i e s i n the d i s t a n c e sending up volumes  of  b r i l l i a n t l y c o l o r e d smoke, a l l r e f l e c t e d i n the w i n d i n g r i v e r i n the foreground.  G u i l l a u m i n , who became i n d e p e n d e n t l y wealthy i n 1892 c o u l d  presumably move i n the c i r c l e s f r e q u e n t e d by Van Horne and i t  is  l i k e l y t h a t Van Horne admired t h i s p i c t u r e a t some t i m e , as h i s p a t t e r n e d so c l o s e l y a f t e r i t . and sunset  L i k e Monet, G u i l l a u m i n s t u d i e d  e f f e c t s and was the f i r s t  most own i s  sunrise  to use f a c t o r y chimneys as  subjects.  S i n c e W i l l i a m Brymner taught a t the A r t A s s o c i a t i o n , M o n t r e a l , 1886 u n t i l 1921, and h i s  later paintings,  F e e d i n g C h i c k e n s , 1912, L a t e  A f t e r n o o n , and Sea Foam, 1911, assume a s u p e r f i c i a l l i g h t n e s s , o f s u b j e c t and the i n d i s t i n c t n e s s  from  of Impressionism;  it  t h a t t h r e e of h i s p u p i l s are e s s e n t i a l l y I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  i s not  a choice surprising  These a r e  Mabel May, F r e d e r i c k W. H u t c h i s o n , and W i l l i a m Henry C l a p p .  Mabel May's work i s painters.  c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h that of o t h e r M o n t r e a l  There a r e s u b t l e t i e s  i s more I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  78 -  i n the c o l o r o f the M o n t r e a l s c h o o l which  than the work of the Toronto group.  M i s s May was  a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t s when she was i n P a r i s 1912 to 1913. on Monet's  The R e g a t t a ,  1914,  (Fig.  61)  draws h e a v i l y f o r  works a t A r g e n t e u i l of 1874 and 1875.  from  inspiration  The p i c t u r e i s  very  178 similar  i n c o m p o s i t i o n to Manet's  handling is  l o o s e r and l e s s  Monet of 1874.  The S e i n e a t A r g e n t e u i l ,  however, the  d i s t i n c t , more l i k e the work of R e n o i r and  The b r u s h s t r o k e f o l l o w s  the form of what the a r t i s t  paints-  and does not f o l l o w any p r e a r r a n g e d p a t t e r n . F r e d e r i c k W. H u t c h i s o n , 1871 - 1953 was b o r n i n M o n t r e a l . student i n P a r i s he was a p u p i l of Benjamin C o n s t a n t . America he was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r t between New York S t a t e , October Snow, B a i e S t .  Illinois, Paul,  (Fig.  62)  and c o o l shadow on snow and houses.  R e t u r n i n g to  l i f e of the U n i t e d S t a t e s  and h i s  As a  summer home i n Quebec.  travelling His  shows the i n t e r e s t i n warm l i g h t  "This picture is  a s u b t l e and p o e t i c  arrangement w i t h emphasis p l a c e d on atmospheric envelopment and charm of 179 color".  His  landscapes have a f i n e d i f f u s i o n of l i g h t .  He i s  a true  I m p r e s s i o n i s t w i t h an e x q u i s i t e sense of c o l o r .  The s u n - f i l l e d p i c t u r e  On The Road To Murray Bay,  eye view down a w i n d i n g  roadway i n t o a v a l l e y .  (Fig.  63)  is a bird's  The i r r e g u l a r b r u s h s t r o k e s  of pure pigment a r e  r e m i n i s c e n t of the e a r l y I m p r e s s i o n i s t works by P i s s a r r o , Monet and Renoir.  The c o l o r s are reduced to b l u e , y e l l o w and green w i t h much  white added.  Hutchinson's  work has t h a t l i g h t e r b r i g h t e r c o l o r of R e n o i r  w h i c h , when a p p l i e d to a Canadian s c e n e , makes a most p l e a s i n g p i c t u r e . B l a i r Bruce's very early Impressionistic  works of 1887 were done i n  the neighborhood of Monet's home i n G i v e r n y and take the same s u b j e c t s  -  79 -  chosen by Monet and Sargent when they p a i n t e d t o g e t h e r a t Monet's home i n 1889. 1887,  The pose, v i e w p o i n t and l i g h t (Fig.  Sister,Mme.  64)are a l s o  similar  e f f e c t s i n B r u c e s P l e a s a n t Moment, 1  to Berthe M o r i s o t ' s  P o n t i l l o n Seated on the G r a s s ,  F a m i l y i n T h e i r Garden i n A r g e n t e u i l ,  180  p i c t u r e , The A r t i s t ' s  1873, Manet's  The Monet  181  1874, and R e n o i r ' s Mme. Monet and 182 Her Son i n T h e i r Garden a t A r g e n t e u i l , 1874. In B r u c e ' s G i v e r n y F r a n c e , 1887,  (Fig.  65)  there i s  an emulation of R e n o i r ' s  Path C l i m b i n g Through  183 Long G r a s s ,  1878.  Bruce must have seen these p i c t u r e s or o t h e r s  them, i n F r a n c e , 1881 - 1895.  H i s works a r e not I m p r e s s i o n i s t i n  nique but borrowing from the s u p e r f i c i a l ' p l e i n - a i r '  effects  like tech-  of  Impressionism they show an e a r l y F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t i n f l u e n c e on a Canadian a r t i s t who went abroad to l i v e and p a i n t . W i l l i a m Henry Clapp was born i n M o n t r e a l i n 1879 where h e , t o o , began h i s a r t s t u d i e s under W i l l i a m Brymner.  In  P a r i s he s t u d i e d w i t h  J e a n - P a u l L a u r e n s , L u c i e n Simon, E r n e s t L a u r e n t , Tony R o b e r t - F l e u r y , and with Laparra.  The e f f e c t s of s t r o n g s u n l i g h t  i n t e r e s t e d him and p l a y e d  a l a r g e p a r t i n the landscapes he p a i n t e d i n F r a n c e , S p a i n , and Cuba. He won the J e s s i e Dow p r i z e i n M o n t r e a l i n 1908. Morning i n S p a i n ,  1907,  (Fig.  66)  is  like a Sisley  landscape w h i l e  The Orchard Quebec, 1909, ( F i g . 67) i s r e m i n i s c e n t of P i s s a r r o s Orchard 184 185 of P o n t o i s e , 1877, and h i s P i c k i n g A p p l e s , 1886. The New C h u r c h , 1913, ( F i g . 68) has a more P o i n t i l i s t s t y l e but Lumber Boats, ( F i g . 69)' may be 1  186 compared w i t h Monet's t e c h n i q u e compare.  Beach a t S t . A n d r e s s e ,  1867, so c l o s e l y does the  As a p a i n t e r , Clapp may be c l a s s e d w i t h the  I m p r e s s i o n i s t s a l t h o u g h h i s manner o f p a i n t i n g a l s o o r D i v i s i o n i s m o f the l a t e r ;Neo-Impressionists. Impressionistic  because i t  His  suggests the  Pointillism  c o l o r i s more  does not employ the s c i e n t i f i c a l l y f o r m u l a t e d  - 80 color laws which Seurat followed. "He uses an empirically studied system to paint the objective, determined by his interest in what he termed 'physical vision', the coming in contact of color forces with the retina of the eye."  187  In a letter written in Italy by A.Y. Jackson on Dec. 6, 1912, to Albert Laberge, art editor of "La Presse", Montreal, Jackson finds "The Futurists, Cubists, and Post-Impressionists are working feverishly and already the old Impressionist movement seems like ancient history in Paris.  I suppose Montreal s t i l l laughs at Clapp, the loud empty laugh 188  which speaks the vacant mind.  But they w i l l learn."  From his letter,  one may conclude that Jackson considered Clapp's technique Impressionist. Jackson found that Montreal was not ready to accept an art form that was already "ancient history in Paris". This quotation also points out that as late as 1912, the Impressionist way of painting was considered by some Canadian artists to be a current and acceptable way of painting. Ernest Lawson, 1873 - 1939 was a landscape painter who used the French Impressionist style. 189 to crushed jewels.  Newton MacTavish has compared his palette  Certainly his vibrating brushstrokes and divided  color areas are applied in rich o i l pigment that tends to obliterate form. His early Impressionist technique seen in Snowbound Boats, 1907, (Fig. 70) he learned from his teachers John Twachtman and Alden Weir. He lived most of his l i f e in the United States where in 1908 the MacBeth Galleries exhibited canvases painted by eight of the younger American artists including Lawson. Winter, 1914,  (Fig. 71) and Misty Day,  1918,  (Fig. 72) are also representative of his early atmospheric Impressionism. His later works seen in The Bathers, (Fig. 73) and Sailboats, (Fig. 74)  - 81 b o t h show a much b r i g h t e r and c l e a r e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , more i n f l u e n c e d by  Post-Impressionism. Ida  G. H a m i l t o n ' s  one of P i s s a r r o ' s there i s  Sunlight  and Shadows of 1923,  The Red R o o f s ,  1877, L o u v r e , P a r i s .  a d i s s o c i a t i o n of the elements of houses,  The landscape  is  the same v a l u e .  (Fig.  presented i n a s i n g l e  75)  reminds  In both works  t r e e s , and  fields.  equal v i b r a t i o n of c o l o r s  of  The dappled shadow e f f e c t of the l e a v e s and fence on  the r o a d , and the a l l over b r i g h t virtuoso Impressionist picture. Impressionist master's  d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t , makes t h i s It  work but i s  i s not e x a c t l y l i k e any  a  single  a f a i t h f u l e c l e c t i c copying of  I m p r e s s i o n i s t elements of s t y l e a t a much l a t e r p e r i o d to g i v e almost p e r f e c t I m p r e s s i o n i s t e f f e c t .  "One has  the  an  to b e g i n any o u t l i n e  the Group of Seven by m e n t i o n i n g Lawren H a r r i s " .  of  He i t was who saw an  e x h i b i t i o n of sketches by James Edward Hervey MacDonald and knew the possibilities  of Canadian landscape p a i n t i n g .  With the h e l p of  Dr.  James McCallum he persuaded men l i k e Tom Thomson, A r t h u r L i s m e r , F r e d e r i c k V a r l e y , A l e x a n d e r J a c k s o n , F r a n k l i n C a r m i c h a e l and Franz J o h n s t o n to j o i n a group and develop a s c h o o l of p a i n t i n g which h e l d its  first  e x h i b i t i o n i n 1920.  James MacDonald,  The o l d e s t member of the group was  1873 - 1932, who began working as a d e s i g n e r  i n the  commercial p r i n t i n g and a d v e r t i z i n g f i r m of G r i p and Company i n 1895. He worked s t e a d i l y  t h e r e u n t i l 1904 when he l e f t Canada to study a r t  the C a r l t o n S t u d i o ,  London.  On h i s  r e t u r n home i n 1907 he a g a i n took  up work w i t h G r i p Company as a s e n i o r member. in his first  spare t i m e .  In  at  He p a i n t e d and sketched  1909 he t r a v e l l e d i n t o n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o f o r  time, and i n 1910 went to Georgian Bay.  draw h e a v i l y on I m p r e s s i o n i s t masters  His  the  e a r l y snow p i c t u r e s  for inspiration.  Tracks and T r a f f i c ,  - 82 1912,  (Fig.  76)  is  immediately r e m i n i s c e n t of Monet's  series  of  studies  191 of La Gare S t . L a z a r e . Impressionists. Pissarro,  The r a i l w a y was a great n o v e l t y to the  S i n c e T u r n e r ' s R a i n , Steam and Speed of 1844, Monet,  and S i s l e y  s t u d i e d w i t h great  i n t e r e s t the e f f e c t s of  steam  and smoke changing with the wind, but f i x e d as c l o u d e f f e c t s  and  reflections  distant  on t h e i r canvases.  MacDonald's  picture includes  f a c t o r y chimneys sending up clouds o f smoke, as w e l l as a steamy v a p o r s , Harris'  locomotive's  and the Gas Works near the w a t e r f r o n t of T o r o n t o .  p i c t u r e The Gas Works,  atmospheric q u a l i t i e s  1912,  (Fig.  105)  is  very s i m i l a r  Lawren in  to the MacDonald.  Edge of a Town, ( F i g .  77)  i n the U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b , T o r o n t o ,  has a b l u e shadow e f f e c t on the snow as dusk f a l l s t h e i r way toward home.  behind f i g u r e s  making  The dappled l i g h t  e f f e c t on the ground was a 192  s p e c i a l t y of Renoir as seen i n The Swing,  1876, or La M o u l i n de L a  193 Galette,  1876.  Shadow e f f e c t s on snow p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d MacDonald. Sunshine,  (Fig.  78) p r e s e n t s a broad v i s t a over snow-covered f i e l d s  an Elm c a s t s b l u e shadows a c r o s s foreward s l o p e s High Park,  i n the m i d d l e  It  was c l o s e to the G r i p Company  Toronto r e s i d e n c e and a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y  p r e s e n t e d an u n d i s t u r b e d park a r e a i n which to p a i n t . 79)  ground.  the Luxembourg Gardens of T o r o n t o , was a f a v o r i t e  o f f i c e s , and near h i s  (Fig.  as  the foreground p l a n e and the shaded  of the r o o f s p r e s e n t b l u e patches  s k e t c h i n g ground f o r MacDonald.  Snow,  Winter  done i n High Park,  the f o o t p r i n t s  In Morning A f t e r  crossing  the snow  p r o v i d e the i n c i d e n t a l human touch to the landscape which the Impressionists usually included. The mauves and b l u e s  L a t e r snow scenes n e g l e c t e d t h i s  of l a t e I m p r e s s i o n i s m a r e seen i n E a r l y  touch.  Evening,  - 83 W i n t e r , 1912, This i s  (Fig.  80).  A l a r g e f u z z y sun shows through a snowstorm.  a very i n d i s t i n c t rendering, a searching for a l l  of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , Impressionists  and perhaps i t  falls  the l i g h t  effects  i n t o the e r r o r of the l a t e  i n b e i n g too d i f f u s e d .  MacDonald developed the i n t e r e s t i n shadow and snow e f f e c t s f u r t h e r than the F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t s .  In  The Pine Shadows M o o n l i g h t ,  81) MacDonald i n t r o d u c e s a new concept i n t o h i s p i c t u r e . the t r e e on the snow i s  (Fig.  The shadow o f  the main s u b j e c t , and the canvas becomes a  d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n o f l i g h t and dark It  1912,  areas.  was i n 1912 t h a t MacDonald and H a r r i s v i s i t e d the E x h i b i t i o n of  S c a n d i n a v i a n A r t a t the A l b r i g h t A r t G a l l e r y , B u f f a l o , New York. In  1894 Gusta\fcGeffroy p u b l i s h e d h i s H i s t o r y o f Impressionism,  g i v i n g Impressionism Impressionist  a p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y of a r t .  exhibitions  Sweden w i t h Impressionism Buffalo exhibition.  i n London and Stockholm.  In  thus  1897 t h e r e were  This e a r l y contact of  would r e a c h Canada i n d i r e c t l y through the 1912  From t h i s  l a r g e s c a l e c o n c e p t i o n of shadows  f i n d s another new approach to Impressionism  i n Snowbound, 1915,  MacDonald (Fig.  82)  a c l o s e u p view of branches bent low by the snow w i t h shadows beneath and bright highlights  behind.  At t h i s  time Lawren H a r r i s and  MacDonald  were working c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r and the s i m i l a r i t y between MacDonald's Snow Bound,  (Fig.  82)  and the snow scene of H a r r i s  Robert B. McMichael c o l l e c t i o n i s v e r y s t r i k i n g . e a r l y Tom Thomson canvas Impressionist  features  (Fig.  83)  A similar  remarkable  i n the McMichael C o l l e c t i o n , h a v i n g  i s In A l g o n q u i n Park,  1914 ( F i g .  r e m i n i s c e n t of the work of the American I m p r e s s i o n i s t s  i n the  84).  distinct It  is  Twachtman, Weir  and Lawson. In MacDonald's  F a l l s , Montreal R i v e r ,  1920,  (Fig.  85)  the a p p l i c a t i o n  - 84 of paint in small brushstrokes of pure color appears Impressionist in isolated areas.  In the allover effect the canvases' larger areas of  color, sweeping sinuous lines, and abstract forms reflect the influence of many styles. In his Sketch No. 2 for Tangled Garden, (Fig. 86) we see. an intimate bit of the artist's garden with reserved grayed foliage and yellow flowers against a pale blue sky.  There are irregular brush strokes which remind  one of the Impressionist garden studies but in his final canvas of 194 Tangled Garden,  1916, there is a change to a riot of thick and pasty  Fauve color which shocked the public and the c r i t i c s . Tom Thomson has painted, in the vivid bright colors of Canada, one of our most Impressionist canvases. His Bateaux (Fig. 87) is a more 195 vigorous painting of Claude Monet's Regatta at Argenteuil, 1872. "It was at Argenteuil that the Impressionist technique was really invented.  Trie  light as reflected in the rippling water cast up reflections beneath the arches of the bridge, while the white sails reflected in the river provide 196 a natural example of the separate of strokes and color."  This was  Monet's home and there he did his boldest fresh and free work. Arthur Lismer who painted with Tom Thomson in the north says of him, "Thomson belonged to no group.  He was as timid as a deer.  Every nerve  and fibre seemed to be waiting for the time and place to register some creative impression.  He was almost monastic in his desire for seclusion,  in his seeking out of lonely spots.  He was a creature of depression and  of ecastatic moments. I've been with him in the woods when I've got the definite feeling that he was part of them, that the birds and animals recognized something in him that they had themselves.  That's why I say  that the rest of us were painting pictures; he was expressing moods. He  - 85 was  simply a p a r t o f Tom  nature."  197  Thomson e x e m p l i f i e s one  Canadian p a i n t e r s .  He was  s p i r i t o f Impressionism scene, and  -  of the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e s on the younger  not always an I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t e r , but  l e d him  to the landscape  s u b j e c t , the outdoor  the dependence on the v i s u a l scene f o r a s u b j e c t which he  then p a i n t e d w i t h a f r e e - f l o w i n g e x e c u t i o n , i n s t a n t i n pure c o l o r . lights;  the  the i n t e r e s t  Subjects  c a t c h i n g the f e e l i n g of  l i k e sunset, autumn l a n d s c a p e s ,  i n the c o l o r f u l f a l l  e f f e c t s of n o r t h e r n  the  northern  landscapes;  i n t a n g i b l e themes l i k e a west wind, a shimmering l a k e , a golden  autumn,  and moonlight are I m p r e s s i o n i s t i n s p i r i t .  Fauvism,  A r t Nouveau, and  Expressionism  Post-Impressionism,  a r e other i n f l u e n c e s to be  found  i n his  works. The  sketches  f o r h i s canvases have much more s p o n t e n i e t y and  ness of c o l o r than the f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g . w i t h i t s l y r i c harmonies of b l u e and freedom of the s k e t c h e s . areas  S p r i n g I c e , 1916,  green,  strokes.  a r e not  But  the s w i r l of b r u s h  s t r o k e and  forceful,  urgent,  ( F i g . 89)  the s t r o n g c o l o r i s s w i r l e d and  emotional  the dynamism of the run. i l l u s t r a t e how dynamic brush  F i g u r e s 90 and  the a r t i s t has s t r o k e and  rendering.  smaller  the heavy areas of p a i n t but a new  more  In Edge of the Log Run, p i l e d h i g h as  91,  an  instantaneous  the a r t i s t  from the McMichael  gone beyond Impressionism  to a  1916, depicts  collection  broad  yet r e t a i n s a c o l o r rendering that sparkles,  s c i n t i l a t e s and moves i n water and has  an  the r e f i n e d d e l i c a t e m o d e l l i n g of Impressionism and  with  the  There i s a h i g h h o r i z o n l i n e ,  a l l - o v e r c o o l f e e l i n g of s p r i n g , b l u e shadows and impression.  ( F i g . 88)  perhaps comes c l o s e s t to  Wide c o l o r areas are syncopated  of I m p r e s s i o n i s t brush  fresh-  sky,  i n an I m p r e s s i o n i s t way;  which  a l l the f o r c e of c o l o r and b r u s h work t h a t the g r e a t n o r t h l a n d  inspired.  - 86 F r a n k l i n C a r m i c h a e l , 1890 - 1945, a p u p i l of W i l l i a m Cruikshank have adopted the m i s t y B a r b i z o n s t y l e o f h i s an expert d e s i g n t e a c h e r i n h i s  I n s t e a d he became  own r i g h t and as a water c o l o r i s t he  p a i n t e d d e l i c a t e , b e a u t i f u l l y designed work. is  teacher.  might  Autumn: O r i l l i a ,  (Fig.  92)  an I m p r e s s i o n i s t work o v e r l a i d w i t h a l a c e - l i k e p a t t e r n of t r e e trunks  and branches g i v i n g a designed d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t , Calliographic writing.  H i s Winter Landscape  suggestive  (Fig.  93)  shows the meticulous  care w i t h which he put down each b r u s h s t r o k e i n b u i l d i n g up Impressionist  of Mark Toby's  this  canvas.  The great c o l o r i s t of the group was F r e d e r i c k Horsman V a r l e y , 1881 - . His  P o r t r a i t of J a n e t ,  dress,  (Fig.  94)  is  s t a n d i n g i n the l i g h t - f i l l e d b u t - o f - d o o r s .  f a c e does the f i n e draughtsmanship (Fig.  of a d e l i g h t f u l c h i l d i n her white Only i n the e x p r e s s i v e  of the a r t i s t become e v i d e n t .  Vera,  95) a p o r t r a i t of a young woman done i n the jewel c o l o r s of a R e n o i r  may a l s o have s m a l l areas  of I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g combined w i t h areas  of Fauve c o l o r and the o u t l i n i n g of  Post-Impressionism.  In a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p a i n t e r A r t h u r L i s m e r , i n h i s  Art  A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e i n M o n t r e a l i n the f a l l of 1964, Mr. L i s m e r , when asked about h i s said "That i s  p a i n t i n g The G u i d e ' s Home, A l g o n q u i n ,  d e f i n i t e l y F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s m and I  1914,  (Fig.  never r e p e a t e d i t " .  He f e l t t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of I m p r e s s i o n i s m was not as c o n s c i o u s l y by p a i n t e r s as by the c r i t i c s i n Canada.  96)  felt  The F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t l a n d -  scape s u b j e c t was i n t i m a t e and a p p e a l e d to the more v o l a t i l e F r e n c h . more sober a s s o c i a t e s ,  l a t e r to form the Group of Seven, found t h a t the  I m p r e s s i o n i s t mode of e x p r e s s i o n was not s u i t e d to the w i l d s landscape.  The  of  Canadian  Lismer thought t h a t Canadian p a i n t i n g adopted I m p r e s s i o n i s t  c o l o r , but o n l y used the s m a l l I m p r e s s i o n i s t b r u s h s t r o k e as an a c c e n t and  - 87 contrast to the broader areas used in painting Canadian scenery.  He  pointed out the thorough-going influence Impressionism had in interior decoration, textiles, and in bringing the newly invented scientific colors to the fore. Afternoon Sunlight, 1915 - 1916, (Fig. 97) and Springtime on the Farm, 1916 - 1917, (Fig. 98) are two canvases of the same scene painted in different seasons of the year. Like the Impressionists, Lismer suggests the presence of people but does not show them. the  A ladder stands beside  tree in the fenced-in enclosure. Smoke comes from the chimney and  a wash is on the line. fence.  Two geese are moving along outside the picket  These intimate personal touches are found in Impressionism.  "It seemed to Arthur Lismer as though French Impressionism, by which he was so stirred, was indeed vibration, not simply of the soul but also 198 an actual physical vibration." Alexander Young Jackson states "It was through Cullen and Morrice that we in Montreal f i r s t became aware of the fresh and invigorating 199 movements going on in the art circles of France; ... On Cullen's f i r s t return from France he held an exhibition at the Fraser Institute ... To 200 us he was a hero." "Few people liked the work I brought home from Europe.  The French Impressionist influence in i t was regarded as  extreme modernism'. 201 •  11  An early canvas Canoe Lake, (Fig. 99) i s an Impressionist snow scene.  Two war pictures Churches at Lievin, 1918 (Fig. 100) and A  Screened Road, 1918, (Fig. 101) show Impressionist influences.  In his  202 canvas Road to St. Simon, 1940, he uses the Impressionist color of blue and yellow but the sinuous curves and wide sweeps of color areas 203 belong to Post-Impressionism.  Winter Morning,  is a glorious  - 88 I m p r e s s i o n i s t i n f l u e n c e d canvas of b l u e and o c h r e ; but i n s t e a d of b r u s h strokes  there are s w i r l s  and h i g h e r on the canvas Cullen Bryant's collection It  of p a i n t .  The v a s t a r e a of f o o t h i l l s  i n u n d u l a t i n g curves r e m i n i s c e n t of  poem The P r a i r i e s .  (Fig.  102)  higher  William  J a c k s o n ' s p a i n t i n g from the McMichael  i s another such canvas.  was Lawren H a r r i s ,  J . E . H . MacDonald's  rise  1885 -  , who had the energy and d r i v e to  fulfil  dream of a s c h o o l of p a i n t i n g i n Canada t h a t would  r e a l i z e the w e a l t h of m o t i f s which p r e s e n t e d themselves. " V e r s a t i l i t y has been the keynote of Lawren H a r r i s '  long c a r e e r . . . .  H i s v a r i a t i o n s have always been d i c t a t e d by s u b j e c t matter and an i n n e r spiritual  . 204 compulsion .  H a r r i s had s t u d i e d ' A r t Nouveau' and J u g e n d s t i l i n B e r l i n , and Nouveau' was the s t y l e used by the commercial a r t i s t s 1913.  It  i n Canada b e f o r e  was i n 1913 t h a t Lawren H a r r i s met Thorn Thomson and i t  is  to say j u s t what the exchange of i d e a s was between these two men. Thomson who i n t r o d u c e d H a r r i s  to landscape p a i n t i n g as  t o g e t h e r i n t o A l g o n q u i n Park i n 1914.  'Art  they went  hard It  was  sketching  Thomson's Snow i n O c t o b e r , 1914, 205  (Fig.  103) and March suggest H a r r i s  1  Winter Woods,  1914, but the  canvases  of Lawren H a r r i s have a touch of f o r m a l i t y not found i n the work of Thomson.  From a d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n u s i n g I m p r e s s i o n i s t c o l o r and brush 206  s t r o k e as seen i n Houses, Richmond S t r e e t , T o r o n t o , 1911, the s t y l e  of  H a r r i s became s i m p l e r , the forms more p o w e r f u l and the l i n e s more accentuated.  The brush s t r o k e and c o l o r of I m p r e s s i o n i s m i s  w i t h an Arabesque l i n e , Harris Snow II,  did a series (Fig.  104)  combined  the s i l h o u e t t e e f f e c t and elements o f A r t Nouveau.  of snow p i c t u r e s i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e s , one of which is  a v e r y I m p r e s s i o n i s t scene of a grove of  spruce  t r e e s i n the f o r e g r o u n d laden w i t h snow and bathed i n i r i d e s c e n t b l u e ,  - 89 mauve, purple, pink, white, and yellow shadows, with very dark greens.  In  the sun-filled background bright whites, oranges and yellows complement the foreground colors and set up Impressionist vibrations of color. Thomson had watched the style of Harris develop and change from the more traditional Naturalism through Impressionism toward a more abstract design and his own painting mirrors this progression.  Thus we see Impressionism  not being discarded but being developed. It is d i f f i c u l t to include and assess a l l the Impressionist painters working in Canada after 1900.  When part of the Caillebotte collection of  Impressionist paintings was accepted by the Luxembourg in 1896 and the Moreau-Nelaton collection by the Louvre in 1906.  Canadian artists  studying abroad could see great French Impressionist works.  By 1910  many Canadian artists were painting pictures in the Impressionist style, but the influence of Impressionism carries on into contemporary work. "The Impressionist tradition, and the love of vibrant colors as autonomous factors of emotion, sometimes independent of the form, are s t i l l continued by artists of a refined sensibility and a very sure taste.  Their works dating from after 1945, do not mark a s t y l i s t i c break,  nor even an essential transformation in relation to paintings executed before that date, for these artists had by then reached the age of forty or more, and their aesthetic conceptions and personal techniques had become stabilized.  They b r i l l i a n t l y continue a French tradition of  sensitive and sensual gracefulness, which often seems a normal develop207 ment of Impressionism."  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 1  I Graham C. Mclnnes, A Short H i s t o r y of Canadian A r t , new e d . , T o r o n t o , M a c M i l l a n and Company, 1950, p. 58  2  Ibid.,  p. 47  3  Ibid.,  p. 3  CHAPTER 4  II H e l e n Gardner, A r t Through The Ages, New York, H a r c o u r t , Brace and Company, 1959, p. 657  5  C a m i l l e P i s s a r r o , L e t t e r s To H i s Son L u c i e n , New York, Pantheon Books I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1943, p. 14  6  F r a n c o i s Mathey, The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s ,  New York, F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r ,  1961, p. 232 7  John Rewald, The H i s t o r y of Impressionism,  New York, The Museum of  Modern A r t , 1961, p. 114 8  Ibid.,  p. 17  9  Ibid.,  p. 29  10  Ibid.,  p. 16  11  F r a n c o i s Mathey, The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s ,  New York, F r e d e r i c k A.  Praeger,  1961, p. 217 12  Ibid.,  p. 39  13  Ibid.  14  John Rewald, The H i s t o r y of Impressionism,  New York, The Museum o f  Modern A r t , 1961, p. 28 15  Ibid.,  p. 34  16  Ibid.,  p. 8  17  F r a n g o i s Mathey, The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , -  90 -  New York, F r e d e r i c k A.  Praeger,  - 91 1961, p. 109 18  I b i d . , p. 13  19  I b i d . , p.  20  C . J . Smith, I n t e r m e d i a t e P h y s i c s , London, Edward A r n o l d and  50-51  Company, 1947, p. 495 21  C h a r l e s E. Gauss, The A e s t h e t i c T h e o r i e s of F r e n c h A r t i s t s , B a l t i m o r e , Johns Hopkins P r e s s ,  22  1949, p. 33  Jean Auguste Domenique I n g r e s , Comtesse d ' H a u s s o n v i l l e , The Henry C l a y F r i c k C o l l e c t i o n ; John Canaday,  1845,  Mainstreams  of Modern A r t , New York, H o l t R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1963, 1 1 1 . , p. 70 23  F r a n c o i s Mathey, The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s ,  New York, F r e d e r i c k A.  Praeger,  1961, p. 109 24  P i e r r e C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e , The M i r r o r of A r t , Garden C i t y , New York, Doubleday and Co. I n c . ,  25  1956, p. 49  John Rewald, The H i s t o r y of Impressionism,  New York, The Museum  of Modern A r t , 1961, p. 339, No. 22 26  Pierre Courthion, Paris  In Our Time, New York, S k i r a ,  1957, p. 17  27  M.E. C h e v r e u l , The P r i n c i p l e s of Harmony and C o n t r a s t o f C o l o u r s , London, George B e l l and Sons, 1890, p. 227  28  C a m i l l e P i s s a r r o , L e t t e r s to H i s Son L u c i e n , New York, Pantheon Books I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1943, p. 15  29  F r a n c o i s Mathey, The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s ,  New York, F r e d e r i c k A.  Praeger,  1961, p. 40 30  John Rewald, The H i s t o r y of Impressionism, of Modern A r t , 1961, p. 258  31  I b i d . , p. 258  New York, The Museum  - 92 32  Pissarro, Letters, op. c i t . , p. 355  33  Pierre Renoir, Renoir, London, Thames and Hudson, Chapter 2, p. 59  34  Germain Bazin, Impressionist Paintings In The Louvre, London, Thames and Hudson, 1964, p. 14  35  Rewald, Impressionism, op. c i t . , p. 150  36  John Canaday, Seminars In Art, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Portfolio J, 1964, p. 10  37  Bazin, Impressionist,Paintings, op. c i t . , p. 260  38  James R. Mellow, "A New Look At Claude Monet", The Best In Arts; New York, Horizon Press, 1962, p. 143  39  Ibid., p. 144  40  Ibid., p. 145  41  Ibid., p. 146  42  Ibid., p. 146  43  Ibid., p. 148  44  Ibid., p. 148  45  Ibid., p. 148  46  Bazin, Impressionist Paintings, op. c i t . , p. 65  47  Ibid., p. 66  48  Ibid., p. 67  49  Ibid., p. 65  50  The Art Institute of Chicago Paintings, Catalogue, Amsterdam, J. Brandt and Zn, 1961, p. 68  51  Daniel M. Mendelowitz, A History of American Art, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960, p. 444  52  Hirschl and Adler Galleries, Catalogue, New York, Feb. 18,  53  Mathey, Impressionists, op. c i t . , p. 168  1964  54 Oliver W. Larkin, Art and Life In America, New York, Rinehart and Company, 1949, p. 305 55  R.H. Hubbard, National Gallery of Canada, Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture, Volume 111, Canadian School, Ottawa, 1960, p. 165.  CHAPTER III 56  J. Russell Harper, Homer Watson, R.C.A., 1855 - 1936, Paintings and Drawings, Ottawa, The National Gallery of Canada, Catalogue, 1963  57  Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1964, p. 17  58  Homer Watson, The Flood Gate; Harper Catalogue, op. c i t . , 1963 plate III  59  J. Russell Harper, Homer Watson, R.C.A., 1855 - 1936, Paintings and Drawings, Catalogue, 1963  60  Ibid., plate 48  61  Ibid., plate 53  62 Ibid., plate 56 63  J. Russell Harper, Paintings and Drawings, Catalogue, op. c i t , 1963  64 Alfred H. Robson, Canadian Landscape Painters, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1932, p. 114 65  Rewald, Impressionism, p. 40  66  Ibid.  67  Ibid., p. 61  68  Art Vivant, "Duret To Manet", Aug., 1928, p. 261  69  Rewald, Impressionism, op. c i t . , p. 532  - 94 70  I b i d . , pp. 471 - 472  71  B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t P a i n t e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 65 - 66  72  V i n c e n t van Gogh, Complete L e t t e r s , V o l . 1, Greenwich C o n n e c t i c u t , New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y ,  1959, p. 476  73  I b i d . , V o l . 3, pp. 80 - 83  74  E r i c Brown, " S t u d i o T a l k , T o r o n t o " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l 40, 1910, p.  Studio,  Vol.  243  75  Newlin P r i c e , H o r a t i o Walker, New York, Lewis C a r r i e r , 1928, p. 4  76  Claude Monet, The Break-up of the I c e Near V e t h e u i l ; Rewald, I m p r e s s i o n i s m , op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 443  77  H o r a t i o Walker, L i t t l e White P i g s and Mother; H a r p e r ,  Catalogue,  Ottawa, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 326 78  Rewald, I m p r e s s i o n i s m, op. c i t . , p. 456  79  Camille Pissarro,  Low Path a t P o n t o i s e , Rewald,  I m p r e s s i o n i s m,  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 470 80  Claude Monet, T u r k e y s ; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t P a i n t i n g , 1 1 1 . , p.  81  op.  cit.,  288  H o r a t i o Walker, White T u r k e y s ; P r i c e , Walker, op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 26  82  H o r a t i o Walker, The Sugar Bush; Canadian P a i n t e r s , op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p l a t e  83  Phaidon,  II  Isham and C o r t o i s s o z , H i s t o r y of American P a i n t i n g , New Y o r k , 1927, pp. 495 - 496  84  H o r a t i o Walker, The Royal M a i l Over The I c e B r i d g e ; Jean C h a u v i n , A t e l i e r s , M o n t r e a l , L o u i s C a r r i e r & C i e , 1928, 1 1 1 . , p. 70  85  D a n i e l M. M e n d e l o w i t z , American A r t , New York, H o l t R i n e h a r t and Winston,  1960, p.  255  - 95 86  J . M . B a r n s l e y , R i v e r Bank, F r a n c e ; J . B a r r y L o r d , J . M . B a r n s l e y , 1861 - 1929, R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n , C a t a l o g u e , p l a t e 15  87  Rewald, Impressionism,  op. c i t . , p. 227  88  J . M . B a r n s l e y , L ' E n t r e e du P o r t a Dieppe; L o r d ,  Barnsley  R e t r o s p e c t i v e , C a t a l o g u e , op. c i t . , p. 13 89  L o r d , B a r n s l e y R e t r o s p e c t i v e , C a t a l o g u e , op. c i t .  90  Rewald, Impressionism,  91  I b i d . , p. 37  92  I b i d . , p. 38  93  Ibid.  94  I b i d . , p. 46  95  Claude Monet, The Seine E s t u a r y a t H o n f l e u r ; Rewald,  op. c i t . , p. 110  Impressionism,  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 122 96  Rewald, Impressionism,  97  C h a r l e s Daubigny, 1 1 1 . , p.  op. c i t . , p. 123  The F e r r y ; Rewald, Impressionism,  op.  103  98  W i l l i a m C o l g a t e , Canadian A r t , T o r o n t o , Ryerson P r e s s ,  99  Robert P i l o t , Wm. Brymner, G a l l e r y Ottawa)  100  ( T y p e w r i t t e n Notes  1943, p. 122  sent to the N a t i o n a l  June 22, 1958, S e c t i o n 2  A l b e r t Henry Robson, Canadian Landscape P a i n t e r s , T o r o n t o , The Ryerson P r e s s ,  101  cit.  1932, p. 73  A l f r e d H. B a r r , M a t i s s e ,  New York, The Museum of Modern A r t , 1951,  pp. 15 - 16 102  C a m i l l e C o r o t , The Gust of Wind; Mathey, The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , cit.,  103  1 1 1 . , p.  op.  1  F l o r e n c e L e w i s o n , "Theodore Robinson and Claude Monet", A p o l l o , Sept.  1963, pp. 208 -  211  - 96 104  Theodore Robinson, W i l l o w s ; Mendelowitz, American A r t , op.  cit.  1 1 1 . , p. 443 105  Mary C a s s a t t ,  Young Woman Sewing; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 106  Mary C a s s a t t ,  Painting,  211  The B a t h ; A r t I n s t i t u t e  of C h i c a g o , C a t a l o g u e , 111. ,  p. 369 107  John S.  Sargent,  History, 108  John S.  The Wyndham S i s t e r s ;  Art  P o r t f o l i o 4, op. c i t . , p l a t e 39  Sargent,  Monet P a i n t i n g In H i s Garden; Rewald,  Impressionism, 109  Canaday Seminars In  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p.  153  Auguste R e n o i r , La Loge; F r a n c o i s F o s c a , R e n o i r , London, Thames and Hudson, 1961, 1 1 1 . , p. 40  110  W i l l i a m G l a c k e n s , Chez Mouquin; A r t I n s t i t u t e  of C h i c a g o ,  Catalogue,  • I  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 377 111  International  112  H. Mortimer Lamb, " S t u d i o T a l k , M o n t r e a l " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Vol.  S t u d i o , V o l . 58, 1916, pp. 269 - 274  58, 1916, pp. 63 - 67  113  Ibid.  114  P i l o t , Brymner, Typed Notes, N.G.O., op. c i t . ,  CHAPTER 115  Studio,  (99),  1958  IV Romain Gour, Maurice C u l l e n , un M a i t r e de l ' a r t au Canada, Les E d i t i o n s E o l i e n n e s , p. 5  116  W i l l i a m R. Watson,  "The A r t of Maurice C u l l e n " , Canadian Review  of Music and A r t , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , J a n . , 1943, La Grange Library,  Toronto.  117  Bazin, Impressionist  118  I b i d . , pp. 30&32  Paintings,  op. c i t . , p. 30  119  Rewald, Impressionism,  op. c i t . , p. 72  120  Robert W. P i l o t , Maurice C u l l e n , R.C.A., Typed copy of an address g i v e n to The A r t s Club of M o n t r e a l , 1937, La Grange L i b r a r y , Toronto.  121  " W i l l i a m Brymner" l e t t e r f i l e ,  La Grange L i b r a r y , Toronto  122  Robert W. P i l o t , M a u r i c e C u l l e n , R.C.A., Typed copy of an address g i v e n to The A r t s Club of M o n t r e a l , 1937, L a Grange L i b r a r y , Toronto  123  Ibid.  124-  Newton M a c T a v i s h , The F i n e A r t s i n Canada, T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1925, p. 539  125  " E x p o s i t i o n r e t r o s p e c t i v e des oeuvres de Maurice C u l l e n " , L ' A c t i o n C a t h o l i q u e , Quebec, January 11, 1957  126  Armand G u i l l a u m i n , Sunset At I v r y ; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t  Paintings,  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 137 127  Alfred Sisley,  The F l o o d a t P o r t M a r l y ; Mathey,  Impressionists,  op . c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 73 128  C h a r l e s Daubigny,  The F e r r y ; Rewald, Impressionism,  op. c i t . ,  1 1 1 . , p. 103 129  Denys S u t t o n , "A Bouquet f o r S a r g e n t , " A p o l l o , May,  1964, p. 397  130  Edward Manet, The Spanish G u i t a r i s t ; John Canaday, Mainstreams  of  Modern A r t , New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 1 1 . , p.159 131  Robert P i l o t , M a u r i c e C u l l e n , typed notes of address g i v e n to the A r t s Club of M o n t r e a l i n 1937, La Grange L i b r a r y , T o r o n t o  132  Georges S e u r a t , H a y s t a c k s ;  Rewald, Impressionism,  op. c i t . , 111.,  p. 507 133  Claude Monet, Haystacks 1 1 1 . , p. 517  a t G i v e r n y ; Rewald, I m p r e s s i o n i s m ,  op. c i t .  - 98 134  M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , J u l y , 1929, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Ottawa,  135  La Grange L i b r a r y ,  136  Marius  Toronto  Barbeau, "The A r t of Maurice C u l l e n " , Saturday  June 9,  Library  Night,  1934  137  Ibid.  138  James W i l s o n M o r r i c e l e t t e r , 1911, L a Grange, L i b r a r y , Toronto  139  W i l l i a m R. Watson, and A r t ,  140  "Maurice C u l l e n " , Canadian Review of  Music  1943  Newton MacTavish,  The F i n e A r t s  i n Canada, T o r o n t o ,  Co. o f Canada L t d . , 1917, p. 141  N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Ottawa,  142  P i l o t , Address,  143  National  144  M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , October 5,  145  Marius  op.  Macmillan  537  Library  cit.  G a l l e r y Canada,  Barbeau, P a i n t e r s  Library 1956  of Quebec, T o r o n t o , The Ryerson  Press,  May 8, 1945, p. 4 146  Romain Gour, S u z o r - C o t e , A r t i s t e M u l t i f o r m e Catalogue,  Les E d i t i o n s  (1869 -  E o l i e n n e s , La Grange, L i b r a r y ,  147  Ibid.  148  M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , September 30, 1914  149  C. B a t a i l l e , Le J o u r n a l , P a r i s ,  150  M. D ' A l v a r ,  151  A l b e r t L e f e b v r e , The Review of Two F r a n c e ' s , P a r i s ,  European A r t i s t ,  Gour, Suzor-Cote', op.  1900, Gour, Suzor-Cotr^, op.  Paris,  cit.  152  Romain Gour, S u z o r - C o t e , op.  153  Ibid.  154  Ibid.  1937),  cit.  1900, Gour,  Suzor-c6te 1900,  N.D.  cit.  - 99 155  Ibid.  156  H.C.,  " S t u d i o T a l k , T o r o n t o " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i o , March - June, 1916, pp. 269 - 274  157  Alfred Sisley,  Snow a t L o u v e c i e n n e s ; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 158  Paintings,  188  Dagobert D. Runes, and H a r r y G. S c h r i c k e l , E n c y c l o p e d i a of The A r t s , New York, 1946, p. 136  159  Claude Monet, The Magpie; Mathey, I m p r e s s i o n i s t s ,  op. c i t . , 111.,  p. 57 160  Claude Monet, Rouen C a t h e d r a l ; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s m ,  op. c i t . ,  1 1 1 . , p. 260 161  C a m i l l e P i s s a r r o , Church of S a i n t - J a c q u e s a t Dieppe; B a z i n , Impressionism,  162  op. c i t . , 111. p. 262  S u z o r - C ^ t e , The P e r i b o n k a C h u r c h ; L o u i s Hemon, M a r i a C h a p d e l a i n e , M o n t r e a l , A . T . Chapman, 1921, 1 1 1 . , 3  163  Claude Monet, Rouen C a t h e d r a l ; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t  Paintings,  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 290 164  Alfred Sisley,  Church a t M o r e t ; Rewald, Impressionism,  op. c i t . ,  1 1 1 . , p. 577 165  Suzor.-Cote, Etude de Nu; C h a u v i n , A t e l i e r s , op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 90  166  S u z o r - C o t e , M e l o d i e s ; I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i o , V o l . 58, F e b . , 1916, 1 1 1 . , p. 62  167  Georges S e u r a t , Model i n P r o f i l e ; Impressionist  168  op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. 299  Jean C h a u v i n , A t e l i e r s , M o n t r e a l , L o u i s C a r r i e r and Company, 1928, p.  169  Paintings,  Model From The Back; B a z i n ,  91  Claude Monet, On The Beach; Rewald, I m p r e s s i o n i s m , 1 1 1 . , p. 252  op. c i t . ,  - 100 170  Suzor-Cote, Youth in Sunlight; National Gallery Ottawa, Catalogue, 111., p. 289  171  Claude Monet, Lady With A Parasol Turned Toward The Right, Lady With A Parasol Turned Toward The Left; Bazin, Impressionist Paintings, op. c i t . , 111., p. 289  172  R.H. Hubbard, The Development of Canadian Art, Ottawa, The National Gallery of Canada, N.D., pp. 80 - 81  173  Montreal Gazette, September 30, 1914  174  Suzor-Cofe\ Francois Taillon; Canadian Painters, Phaic|on, 111., p. 8  a  •  CHAPTER V 175  John Steegman, Catalogue of Paintings, Montreal, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1960, p. 42  176  Armand Guillaumin, Sunset at Ivry; Bazin, Impressionist Paintings, op. c i t . , 111., p. 137  177  Bazin, Impressionist Paintings, op. c i t . , p. 136  178  Edouard Manet, The Seine at Argenteuil; Rewald, Impressionism, op. c i t . , 111., p. 347  179  Robson, Canadian Landscape Painters, op. c i t . , p. 109  180  Berthe Morisot, The Artistes Sister, Mme. Pontillon Seated on the Grass; Rewald, Impressionism, op. c i t . , 111., p. 325  181  Edouard Manet, The Monet Family in their Garden in Argenteuil; Rewald, Impressionism, op. c i t . , 111., p. 343  182  Auguste Renoir, Mme. Monet and Her Son i n Their Garden at Argenteuil; Rewald, Impressionism, op. c i t . , 111., p. 343  183  Auguste Renoir, Path Climbing Through Long Grass; Bazin, Impressionist Paintings, op. c i t . , 111., p. 155  - 101 184  \  C a m i l l e P i s s a r r o , O r c h a r d of P o n t o i s e ; Rewald, op. c i t . , 111. , p.  Impressionism,  411  185  I b i d . , p. 529  186  Claude Monet, Beach A t S t . A d r e s s e ; Rewald, I m p r e s s i o n i s m , cit.,  1 1 1 . , p.  154  187  The Examiner, San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , August  188  J a c k s o n l e t t e r f i l e , L a Grange L i b r a r y , Toronto  189  Newton M a c T a v i s h , International  17, 1930.  "Some Canadian P a i n t e r s Of The Snow", S t u d i o , V o l . 66, 1918 - 19, pp. 78 - 82  190  Robson, Canadian Landscape P a i n t e r s , op. c i t . , p. 150  191  Claude Monet, L a Gare S t . L a z a r e ; B a z i n , I m p r e s s i o n i s t op. c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p.  192  Bazin, Impressionist  Paintings,  op. c i t . ,  165  193  I b i d . , p.  194  J . E . H . MacDonald,  163  Catalogue, 195  Paintings,  174  Auguste R e n o i r , The Swing; 1 1 1 . , p.  op.  Tangled Garden; N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Ottawa,  1 1 1 . , p.  193  Claude Monet, R e g a t t a a t A r g e n t e u i l ; B a z i n , Paintings,  o p i c i t . , 1 1 1 . , p. Painting,  Impressionist  131  196  Bazin, Impressionist  op c i t . , p.  130  197  Macleans Magazine, J u l y 1, 1953, p. 30  198  Roger F r y , E x h i b i t i o n of F r e n c h A r t at the G r a f t o n G a l l e r i e s , London, 1909, p. 15  199  A . Y . J a c k s o n , A P a i n t e r ' s C o u n t r y , Canada, C l a r k e , I r w i n , Company, 1963, p. 16  200  I b i d . , p. 17  201  I b i d . , p. 20  and  - 102 202  A . Y . J a c k s o n , Road to S t . op. c i t . ,  203  Simon; J a c k s o n , A P a i n t e r ' s  Country,  (199), 1 1 1 . , p. 32  A . Y . J a c k s o n , Winter Morning; 1 1 1 . , MacLeans Magazine,  F e b . 15  1947 204  Paul Duval,  "From Nature to A b s t r a c t i o n " , Lawren H a r r i s ,  Vancouver, Seymour P r e s s , 205  1963, p.  23  Lawren H a r r i s , W i n t e r Woods; Lawren H a r r i s Catalogue,  1963  Paintings  1910 - 1948  plate 3  206  Ibid., plate 1  207  A r t S i n c e 1945, New York, Washington Square P r e s s ,  1962, p. 16  B I 0 G R A P H I E S  THE PRE-IMPRESSIONISTS and IMPRESSIONISTS IN CANADA  -  103 -  HOMER RANSFORD WATSON 1855 - 1936 Homer watson was c a l l e d The Sage of Doon.  He spent h i s w h i l e  life  p a i n t i n g the O n t a r i o landscape as seen near h i s home a t Doon, a v i l l a g e the v a l l e y of the Grand R i v e r near the c i t y of K i t c h e n e r . j o i n e d Notman's  Photographic Studio i n Toronto.  In  In  in  1874 he  1876 he v i s i t e d New  York C i t y and met George I n n i s who encouraged and g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the Canadian a r t i s t  to p a i n t i n the A d i r o n d a c k s and a l o n g the Hudson R i v e r .  Watson's The P i o n e e r M i l l ,  1889, was e x h i b i t e d a t the Royal Canadian Academy  e x h i b i t i o n i n a u g u r a t e d by the Marquis V i c t o r i a bought one of h i s p a i n t i n g s T o r o n t o , promoted h i s work.  of L o m e and P r i n c e s s L o u i s e .  Queen  and James Spooner, an a r t d e a l e r  in  Oscar W i l d e , v i s i t i n g Toronto i n 1882, c a l l e d  Watson the "Canadian C o n s t a b l e " , and l a t e r i n t r o d u c e d Watson to W h i s t l e r i n London.  His paintings  were e x h i b i t e d i n London a t the C o l o n i a l and  I n d i a n E x h i b i t i o n of 1886 where he won a bronze medal.  Watson v i s i t e d  London, 1887 - 90, and was a great f r i e n d o f S i r George Chausen. London he c o u l d study the works of C o n s t a b l e .  While  in  W h i s t l e r taught Watson  e t c h i n g and from London Watson v i s i t e d P a r i s where he saw the e x h i b i t s  of  Old Masters and B a r b i z o n p a i n t e r s . M o n t r e a l a r t patrons were b u y i n g not o n l y o l d master works Impressionist paintings. World's  In  but  1893 he was awarded the bronze medal a t  the  Columbian E x p o s i t i o n , C h i c a g o , and i n 1896 he s k e t c h e d on the  XLle d ' O r l e a n s w i t h H o r a t i o Walker. H o r a t i o Walker.  In  1901 Watson v i s i t e d England w i t h  S i r W i l l i a m Van Horne, R.B.  Hutchinson were b u y i n g Watson's p a i n t i n g s h i s work.  By 1902 he was a s u c c e s s .  American E x p o s i t i o n i n B u f f a l o . Club f o r f o u r years a f t e r i t s  Angus, James Ross, and A . C .  and promoting e x h i b i t i o n s  of  He had won a g o l d medal a t the Pan  He was a p r e s i d e n t o f the Canadian A r t  f o u n d i n g i n 1907.  Canadian p a i n t i n g was  being recognized.  In  104 -  1911 an e x h i b i t i o n of Canadian p a i n t i n g  received favourable c r i t i c i s m .  In  in Liverpool  1914 Watson became a War a r t i s t  a r e c o r d i n g o f the F i r s t Canadian Contingent  a t V a l c a r t i e r Camp.  From  1918 - 1921 he was p r e s i d e n t of the R o y a l Canadian Academy and J . Harper s t a t e s  i n t o sharp focus  the n o s t a l g i a  blurred pastiches  In  the moods of n a t u r e ,  of the time saw o n l y as  of European p a i n t i n g without any i n d i v i d u a l  He was,  as  i t were, the"man who f i r s t  F r e d S. H a i n e s ,  Canadian Canada".  He v i s i t e d  p r i n c i p a l of the A r t G a l l e r y of T o r o n t o ,  h e l d a r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n o f h i s work i n 1930. 1936 and was g i v e n a posthumous L . L . D . London, O n t a r i o .  dreamy  saw Canada as  1922 Watson began an a c t i v e study of Impressionism.  Western Canada.  the s u r f a c e  o f the O n t a r i o woodland, which P e r r e , J a c o b i ,  M a r t i n and a h o s t of o t h e r Canadians  character.  Russell  i n h i s N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada b r o c h u r e t h a t Watson was  the man who "brought patterns,  and made  He d i e d a t Doon  degree by Western U n i v e r s i t y ,  in  - 105 HORATIO WALKER, 1858 - 1938, was born at Lis towel, Perth County, Ontario in 1858.  His grandmother came from an old French family of Rouen.  At an early age Horatio liked to draw pigs and in 1870 he was taken to Quebec City by his father, Thomas Walker. He was then apprenticed to Notman and Fraser, Photographers, Toronto.  At the age of twenty he  opened a studio of his own in New York City, and from there he visited Rochester, Buffalo and other American cities from 1878 - 1880.  He took  a walking tour from Montreal to Quebec City in 1880 and the next year he sold his f i r s t picture of pigs called The Sty in New York City.  In  1882 he visited the English and French Museums. He spent two years in Spain, Belgium and Holland before settling in St. Petronille on the Isle of Orleans, P.Q. where, for forty-two years, he was to live among the farmers and their families and paint pictures of their daily lives that were bright, lively and colorful.  In 1887 he was a member of the  National Institute of Arts and Letters, and of the Royal Institute, England.  In 1888 he won the Evans Award of the American Water-Color  Society.  His pictures were popular and costly and were shown in  American collections.  As a country gentleman, Walker would paint about  five large canvases a year and do many preliminary drawings.  M.C.J.  Simard, an erudite collector and amateur c r i t i c , paid him visits looking for works of art for the Museum of Quebec. In 1896 he sketched with Homer Watson on his Lie d'Orleans.  In 1901 he visited England with  Homer Watson and visited the studios of Sir George Clausen and J.M. Whistler.  In 1906 he was Gold Medalist at the Pennsylvania Academy  of Fine Arts.  In 1907 he became a member of the Canadian Art Club  founded to give Canadian painters an opportunity to be members and exhibit whether they lived in Canada or abroad, so that a standard of  -  106 -  e x c e l l e n c e c o u l d thus be m a i n t a i n e d .  The o r i g i n a l members of the group were:  Homer Watson, P r e s i d e n t ; C u r t i s W i l l i a m s o n ,  S e c r e t a r y ; A r c h i b a l d Browne,  W.E. A t k i n s o n , H o r a t i o Walker, James W i l s o n M o r r i c e , F r a n k l i n B r o w n e l l and Edmund M o r r i s . In  1925 he was made p r e s i d e n t of the R o y a l Canadian Academy.  As a t o u r i s t of t h a t time one c o u l d stand b e f o r e the s u n l i t windows of the Chateau F r o n t e n a c , w a i t i n g f o r a cab d r i v e r to d r i v e one to the artist's  studio.  One drove p a s t the g i l t r o c o c c o monument of C a r d i n a l  Tachereau " w i t h i t s  chubby cherubs which were as out of p l a c e i n  s e t t i n g as a t o u r i s t " .  that  The c a b l e c a r would take one down to the D u f f e r i n  T e r r a c e b e h i n d the Champlain monument where Champlain bows and d o f f s hat.  One passes on to the q u a i and from t h e r e c r o s s e s  Orleans.  "The c a r r i a g e goes by the l i t t l e v i l l a g e  a l o n g a w a l l of r o c k which f a c e s the s p i l l - w a y and then e n c l o s e s a look i n t o h i s atillier.  to the I s l e  of S t .  his  of  P e t r o n i l l e and  to the Mont Morency F a l l s  the domaine of H o r a t i o Walker.  The master a c c o r d s one  s u i t e i n a s p a c i o u s p a v i l l i o n which he has made h i s  He i s  t a l l and t h i n w i t h a c u r l i n g moustache which g i v e s him  a c a v a l i e r look l i k e a Velasquez.  B r i l l i a n t d r a p e r i e s hang to the r i g h t  o f l a r g e bay windows and the s t u d i o w a l l s have f r e s c o e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the seasons.  There a r e o l d shoes about and bundles of p e n c i l s .  under the r o o f i s  A chimney  d e c o r a t e d w i t h p r e c i o u s Chinese t r i n k e t s .  Samovar and a death mask of Cromwell. and b e a u t i f u l p o t t e r y . c o l o r s and p a s t e l s ,  a  o l d armour  There a r e a dozen e a s e l s w i t h p i c t u r e s , water  not to speak of sketches w i t h o u t number."  l i v e d and s k e t c h e d on the l i e d O r l e a n s 1  York i n the w i n t e r .  Everywhere t h e r e i s  There i s  Walker  i n the summer and moved to New  He was a member of many important s o c i e t i e s  in  America and had been awarded s e v e r a l g o l d medals. " P a i n t i n g the p r i m i t i v e  - 107 peasant l i f e of Quebec he was called "The Canadian Millet".  There may  be a certain analogy but his art springs from a deep and sincere sympathy and understanding of the habitant l i f e about him". He received an L.L.D. (Toronto) 1915 and an Hon. Doctorate Laval (Laval) 1934.  He died at his home on the Isle of Orleans in 1938.  - 108 JAMES MACDONALD BARNSLEY, 1861 - 1929, was the son of a paper m i l l o p e r a t o r near Dundas, O n t a r i o . m i l l a f t e r the death of h i s Barnsley.  H i s mother, Mrs.  Bansley,  o p e r a t e d the  f a t h e r and i n 1871 changed t h e i r name to  Two years l a t e r the f a m i l y moved to S t . L o u i s , where B a r n s l e y  went to the S t . L o u i s School o f F i n e A r t s . Under the d i r e c t i o n of H a l s e y Ives he l e a r n e d to s k e t c h i n the l a k e d i s t r i c t of Upper New York S t a t e .  He was awarded a gold medal on  g r a d u a t i o n and i n 1883 he had a s t u d i o i n  Paris.  He e x h i b i t e d Le Quai S t . Bernard i n the S a l o n which a l s o e x h i b i t e d L u i g i L o i r ' s Le P o i n t du j o u r a A u t e u i l and B o u d i n ' s L ' E n t r e e and La S o r t i e . T h i s same year a l s o saw the f i r s t comprehensive Boudin e x h i b i t i o n a t the Durand-Ruel G a l l e r i e s .  B a r n s l e y sketched and p a i n t e d i n Dieppe  and a l o n g the Seine near P a r i s .  He won a f i r s t c l a s s gold medal a t an  e x h i b i t i o n i n V e r s a i l l e s and e x h i b i t e d w i t h the Royal Canadian Academy. He v i s i t e d V e n i c e , S c o t l a n d and I r e l a n d b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to S t . In  Louis.  1890 he v i s i t e d H o l l a n d and i n 1891 he j o i n e d W i l l i a m Brymner i n  I r e l a n d a t K i l l a r n e y and Cork. In  1892 he was awarded f i r s t p r i z e  landscape a t the M o n t r e a l S p r i n g E x h i b i t i o n . Protestant H o s p i t a l , c h r o n i c a l l y i l l . World's  for  He was admitted to Verdun  The Canadian s e c t i o n of the  Columbian E x p o s i t i o n i n Chicago of 1893 e x h i b i t e d one o i l and  t h r e e water c o l o r s .  In  1920 h i s works were shown a t the Royal  Canadian  Academy E x h i b i t i o n and the l a s t showing of h i s work was i n the M o n t r e a l S p r i n g E x h i b i t i o n of 1921.  - 109 WILLIAM BRYMNER was b o r n a t Greenoch, S c o t l a n d His  parents  came to Canada when he was a c h i l d i n May,  i n Melbourne, an e a s t e r n township of Quebec.  His  Brymner, h e l p e d to found the Dominion A r c h i v e s first  on December 14, 1855.  government a r c h i v i s t a t Ottawa.  1857 and s e t t l e d  f a t h e r , Dr.  Douglas  i n 1872 and became the  W i l l i a m Brymner began h i s  c a r e e r as a s t u d e n t o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the o f f i c e of the c h i e f a r c h i t e c t i n Ottawa. of R.C.  L a t e r he was a r t i c l e d by h i s  Urender i n M o n t r e a l ,  to complete h i s  artistic  government  f a t h e r a t the o f f i c e  studies  in architecture.  He s t u d i e d a t the A t e l i e r J u l i a n , 1878 - 1885, under Tony Robert F l e u r y who, s e e i n g drawings you i n t e n d to do?"  "I  by Brymner a t the Academy a s k e d , "What do  am going to be an a r c h i t e c t " .  you take my a d v i c e y o u ' l l t r y p a i n t i n g . Brymner s t u d i e d p a i n t i n g  in Paris  F l e u r y and a l s o w i t h C a r o l u s - D u r a n . 1885 S a l o n , awards  Bord de F o r e t .  S i l v e r Medal a t S t .  In  There you w i l l  Brymner e x h i b i t e d a p a i n t i n g  i n the  J u r y of  Louis.  the d i r e c t o r s h i p of the c l a s s e s  of the R.C.A. i n 1885, was made a Brymner was asked to a c c e p t  of the A r t A s s o c i a t i o n  T h i s post he h e l d from 1886 u n t i l 1921. grow from l e s s  In  this  of M o n t r e a l i n 1885.  n o t a b l e 35 y e a r s  of  than t e n to over one hundred.  gained d i s t i n c t i o n i n Canadian a r t .  At the Pan  American e x h i b i t i o n of 1901 he was awarded the g o l d medal. In  1907 he spent a summer i n V e n i c e .  Martigues  near M a r s e i l l e s ,  If  under Bouguereau and Tony R o b e r t -  f u l l member i n 1886, and p r e s i d e n t i n 1909.  Many o f h i s p u p i l s  do t h a t .  succeed".  1886 he won the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  He was e l e c t e d as an A s s o c i a t e  t e a c h i n g he saw c l a s s e s  "Don't  In  1908 Brymner stayed  where he wrote a s k e t c h of h i s  c a l l e d t h a t the " e f f e c t s " i n Canada were as b e a u t i f u l as  at  l i f e and r e elsewhere.  While t h e r e , he p a i n t e d a market scene i n water c o l o r , and a  sunset,  - 110 both are vivid impressions set down with confidence.  He painted in water  color on canvas. In 1916 he received the distinguished honor from his Majesty, King George V, "Companion of St. Michael and St. George". On January 24, 1921 Brymner and his wife left Canada to spend two years in France, Spain and Italy.  Sir William Van Home of the C.P.R.  was a patron and encouraged Brymner. He died at Waltasey,Cheshire June 20, 1925. The Montreal Gazette of February 2, 1926, states:  In a memorial exhibit forty-three works  were exhibited, "landscapes with or without figures, marines, quay side scenes with shipping, portraits and s t i l l l i f e " . The Watson Art Galleries in December 1925, records: "He attempted no grand flights.  Saw subjects for his brush in everything around him  and set them down with a convincing sincerity".  - Ill MAURICE GALBRAITH CULLEN was born a t S t . Some time between 1884 and 1888 he began h i s  J o h n ' s , Newfoundland i n 1886 design studies  C. C h a l b e r t , a t the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of the F i n e A r t s Montreal.  Chalbert's  pupils  and S c i e n c e s ,  i n c l u d e d Ludger L a r o s e , Joseph  Joseph C. F r a n c h e r e and A. de Foy S u z o r - C ^ t e . p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the Sorbonne i n P a r i s .  In  w i t h Abbe Jose  Saint-Charles,  The I n s t i t u t e was  roughly  i t C h a l b e r t had accumulated a  r a r e and complete c o l l e c t i o n o f p l a s t e r c a s t s which served to teach the pupils  from a n t i q u e models.  In  1886 - 1889 C u l l e n e n r o l l e d i n the s c h o o l of the s c u l p t o r  H e b e r t , where he s t u d i e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s . statues  on the r o o f of S t .  1889 w i t h h i s  He h e l p e d Hebert carve the  James' C a t h e d r a l .  U n c l e Dr. Ward.  Philippe  He s a i l e d f o r P a r i s  about  He s t u d i e d s c u l p t u r e w i t h H a l l a n d Gerome  a t the Beaux A r t s Academy, and a t the C o l a r o s s i A t e l i e r w i t h C o u r t o i s Rixen.  About 1890 he r e t u r n e d to the Beaux A r t s Academy.  The work of  I m p r e s s i o n i s t s made a profound i n f l u e n c e on C u l l e n , and the study atmospheric e f f e c t s soon took him to B r i t t a n y between 1890 - 1895, paint  i n the open a i r w i t h James W i l s o n M o r r i c e .  the  of to  C u l l e n r e t u r n e d to  Canada i n 1895, coming back by way of E l K a u t u r n , B i s k r a , S p a i n , I t a l y , Le Pouldu, and G i v e r n y .  and  Alcantara,  He showed i n the Salons of  Paris  1900 and 1901. Between 1902 and 1908 C u l l e n t r a v e l l e d between P a r i s These t r i p s Brittany.  and M o n t r e a l .  i n c l u d e d B e a u p r £ , Quebec, M o n t r e a l , I t a l y and F r a n c e , and When i n Canada he p a i n t e d w i t h Brymner, M o r r i c e and Dyonnet.  From 1911 to the end o f h i s  life,  C u l l e n p a i n t e d i n the w i l d s  the L a u r e n t i a n s , a t Lac Tremblant, and a l o n g the Cache R i v e r . war,  of  During  i n 1918, the Canadian Government commissioned him to go overseas  a war a r t i s t ,  and on h i s  Laurentian area u n t i l h i s  the as  r e t u r n home i n 1919 he a g a i n made h i s home i n the death on March 28,  1934.  A  112 -  •  MARC AUREL de FOY SUZOR-COTE was b o r n i n 1869 a t A r t h a b a s k a .  In  s c h o o l he e x c e l l e d i n the drawing c l a s s of B r o t h e r N e p o t i e n .  At  the  age of e i g h t e e n he a r r i v e d a t the A t e l i e r of Maxime Rousseau,  a church  decorator. In  1889 Suzor h e l p e d Rousseau to d e c o r a t e the w a l l s of the  church and the c h a p e l of the l o c a l c o l l e g e . around A r t h a b a s k a , with Chalbert at  at St.  He a l s o d e c o r a t e d churches  H y a c i n t h e and a t S t .  the N a t i o n a l  s c h o o l mates were Joseph S t .  Parish  Jacques.  He s t u d i e d  I n s t i t u t e of F i n e A r t s a t M o n t r e a l . C h a r l e s and F r a n c h e r e .  In  His  1889 he sent  some drawings to M o n t r e a l where they were e x h i b i t e d . On a r r i v i n g i n P a r i s of M u s i c , Masson.  i n 1890, Suzor e n r o l l e d a t the  Conservatory  where he undertook an opera course under Boulanger  He s t u d i e d music f o r two years u n t i l a t h r o a t o p e r a t i o n f o r c e d  him out o f music and i n t o p a i n t i n g . years a t the S c h o o l of F i n e A r t s . W i l s o n M o r r i c e , were a l l  studying  Le'on Bonnat was h i s  teacher f o r  to F o n t a i n e b l e a u , Ramboulette, F o r the f i r s t  together i n P a r i s .  I v r y , and S e n l i s ,  The s c u l p t o r ,  home to A r t h a b a s k a stayed u n t i l 1900. Lefebre's A  painting.  Suzor  Normandy and  travelled  Brittany.  time i n 1894 he d e c i d e d to t r y f o r the o f f i c i a l  He submitted a Normandy I n t e r i o r , f o r two y e a r s . In  four  Suzor-Cote', Maurice C u l l e n and James  A l f r e d L a l i b e r t e took a s t u d i o w i t h Suzor i n Montparnasse.  y  and Edouard  which was a c c e p t e d .  In  Salon.  1894 he came  He r e t u r n e d to France i n 1896 and  1898 he a t t e n d e d Benjamin Constant and J u l e s  c l a s s e s a t the Academy l e a r n i n g p o r t r a i t u r e and h i s t o r i c a l The Death of Archimedes won Suzor the grand p r i z e and he won  the s i l v e r medal a t the C a l a r o s i Academy. He showed a P a s t o u r e l l e  i n the 1898 S a l o n ,  between 1899 and 1900 i n Germany.  In  and he spent two years  1901, Suzor won the Bronze Medal  - 113 a t the P a r i s  International  E x p o s i t i o n f o r E n t r e V o i s i n and i n 1901 showed  a t the P a r i s  S a l o n to win an h o n o r a b l e mention, and to be made an o f f i c e r  of the Academy o f the French Government.  In  1906 he d i d a  large  h i s t o r i c a l p i c t u r e The Landing of Jacques C a r t i e r a t Quebec. One of h i s  f i r s t bronzes dates about 1907, The T r a p p e r .  He and the  o t h e r Canadian s t u d e n t s met a t the C a f e - A u x - F l e u r s . In  1907 he s t a r t e d a p e r i o d of t r a v e l , v i s i t i n g E n g l a n d ,  R u s s i a , Germany, S p a i n , I t a l y and H o l l a n d .  In  Scotland,  1908, he r e t u r n e d to Canada  and s e t up as a " P i e d a T e r r e " , a s t u d i o i n M o n t r e a l on V i c t o r i a S t r e e t near S t .  C a t h e r i n e ' s , where he was to spend the w i n t e r s u n t i l 1917.  the summers Nicolet  Suzor-cSte  In  p a i n t e d i n the Arthabaska r e g i o n and a l o n g the  River.  From S u z o r ' s  sketches of the Quebec p e a s a n t r y he made b r o n z e s .  1910 Edmund Dyonnet, R.C.A. of M o n t r e a l , as s e c r e t a r y o f the R.C.A.  In took  an e x h i b i t i o n of Canadian p a i n t i n g to the C r y s t a l P a l a c e i n London f o r the F e s t i v a l of Empire, which i n c l u d e d S u z o r - C o t e ' s  P r i m i t i v e Sugar Camp.  The e x h i b i t i o n was c a n c e l l e d because of the death of Edward VII but was shown i n L i v e r p o o l b e f o r e Dyonnet's In  i n 1910,  r e t u r n to Canada.  1912 Suzor j o i n e d the Royal Canadian Academy.  was d o i n g some of h i s b e s t I m p r e s s i o n i s t work. p r i z e i n 1929, the y e a r he s u f f e r e d a s t r o k e .  By 1917 Suzor-C&te  He won the J e s s i e Dow For the next ten years he  l i v e d i n r e t i r e m e n t a t Daytona Beach, F l o r i d a , where he d i e d i n 1939.  APPENDIX  PICTURES BY HORATIO WALKER FIG. 4 OXEN DRINKING OIL ON CANVAS 47 1/2" X 35 1/2" 1899 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  FIG. 5 EVENING ILE D'ORLEANS OIL ON CANVAS 28" X 36" 1909 TORONTO ART GALLERY  FIG. 6 HORSES AT THE TROUGH OIL ON CANVAS 50" X 40" N.D. MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY HOMER RANSFORD WATSON FIG. 1 A COMING STORM IN THE ADIRONDACKS OIL ON CANVAS 34" X 47" 1879 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  FIG. 2 THE OLD MILL OIL ON CANVAS 38 1/4" X 58" 1886 TORONTO ART GALLERY  FIG. 3 LOG CUTTING IN THE WOODS OIL ON CANVAS 18" X 24" 1894 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY HORATIO WALKER FIG. 7 THE ICE CUTTERS OIL ON CANVAS 21" X 38" 1904 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  THE ICE CUTTERS DETAIL  I  THE ICE CUTTERS  PICTURES BY JAMES MACDONALD BARNSLEY FIG. 8 STUDY FOR LA JETEE DU POLLET DIEPPE OIL ON CANVAS 14 3/4'X 21 5/8" 1884 MRS. W.C. MUNDERLOK MONTREAL  FIG. 9 ON THE SEINE COURBEVOIE OIL ON CANVAS 18 3/4" X 32 1/2" PARIS 1883 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 10 LA JETEE DU POLLET DIEPPE OIL ON CANVAS 43" X 68 1/2" 1885 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURES BY JAMES MACDONALD BARNSLEY LA JETEE DU POLLET DIEPPE DETAIL  F I G . 11 FRENCH PADDLE STEAMER OIL ON CANVAS 18 1/8" X 30" 1888 DR. & MRS. D. RAFF WESTMOUNT  F I G . 12 HIGH TIDE AT DIEPPE OIL ON CANVAS 42 1/2" X 58 3/8" 1886 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY JAMES MACDONALD BARNSLEY HIGH TIDE AT DIEPPE DETAIL  F I G . 13 THE LAST RAYS OIL ON CANVAS 55" X 75 3/4" 1887 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY WILLIAM BRYMNER  9*  F I G . 14 DOUGLAS BRYMNER OIL ON CANVAS 1886 MISS GRACE BRYMNER TORONTO  •  F I G . 15 ROBERT BRYMNER AGE 15 OIL ON CANVAS 1890 MISS GRACE BRYMNER TORONTO  F I G . 16 WILLIAM BRYMNER BY: GEORGE W. HILL PLASTER CAST OF ORIGINAL BRONZE IN NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA 19" HIGH 1918  PICTURES BY WILLIAM BRYMNER FIG. 17 BAIE S T . PAUL OIL ON CANVAS 1886 MISS GRACE BRYMNER TORONTO  F I G . 18 SAD MEMORIES OIL ON CANVAS ABOUT 1885 MISS GRACE BRYMNER TORONTO  F I G . 19 EARLY MOONRISE IN SEPTEMBER OIL ON CANVAS 1886 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY WILLIAM BRYMNER F I G . 20 CHAMP DE MARS WINTER OIL ON CANVAS 29 1/2" X 40" 1892 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  F I G . 21 EARLY MOONRISE IN SEPTEMBER OIL ON CANVAS 28 1/2" X 39 1/2' 1899 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 22 WOMAN SEWING OIL ON CANVAS 25 1/2" X 16" ABOUT 1900 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY WILLIAM BRYMNER FIG. 23 THE VAUGHAN SISTERS OIL ON CANVAS 40" X 50 1/2" 1910 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  F I G . 24 CARITA OIL ON CANVAS 32 1/2" X 23 3/4" 1910 TORONTO ART GALLERY  F I G . 25 RECLINING FIGURE OIL ON CANVAS 18 1/2" X 34 1/2" 1915 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY MAURICE CULLEN FIG. 26 THE MILL STREAM OIL ON CANVAS FRANCE 1894 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  F I G . 27 MORET IN SUMMER OIL ON CANVAS FRANCE, 1896 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  FIG. 28 MORET IN WINTER OIL ON CANVAS FRANCE, 1895 TORONTO ART GALLERY  PICTURE BY AUGUSTE RENOIR F I G . 29 LA SEINE A CHATOU OIL ON CANVAS ABOUT 1878 TORONTO ART GALLERY %  PICTURES BY MAURICE CULLEN  PICTURES BY MAURICE CULLEN F I G . 32 , WINTER SUNLIGHT BEAUPRE OIL ON CANVAS 1896 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  A  F I G . 34 WINTER EVENING QUEBEC OIL ON CANVAS 29 1/2" X 39 1/4" 1905 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURES BY MAURICE CULLEN F I G . 35 LEVIS FROM QUEBEC OIL ON CANVAS 1906 TORONTO ART GALLERY  F I G . 36 WINTER STREET SCENE OIL ON CANVAS ABOUT 1912 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  F I G . 37 SNOW STORM EVENING OIL ON CANVAS 18" X 15" 1914 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PAINTINGS BY MAURICE CULLEN F I G . 38 PACKING ICE OIL ON CANVAS 29 1/2" X 39 1/2" 1906 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 39 THE LAST LOADS OIL ON CANVAS 1906 TORONTO ART GALLERY  F I G . 40 ICE HARVEST OIL ON CANVAS 1914 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY MAURICE CULLEN  FIG. 41 THE OLD FERRY BOAT, LOUIS BASIN, QUEBEC OIL ON CANVAS 23 3/4" X 28 3/4" 1907 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 42 SUMMER NIGHT OIL ON CANVAS ABOUT 1907 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURES BY MAURICE CULLEN F I G . 44 OUR GUNS AT BONN UNIVERSITY OIL ON CANVAS 56" X 70" 1918 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 45 BOMBING AREA SEAFORD OIL ON CANVAS 34" X 44" 1918 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 46 A MARCH EVENING OIL ON CANVAS 30" X 45" 1923 NATIONAL GALLERY CANADA  PICTURE BY MAURICE CULLEN F I G . 47 VALLEY OF THE DEVIL RIVER OIL ON CANVAS 30" X 40" 1927 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  FIG. 48 GRAVESTONE OF SUZOR-c6TE AND THE CHURCH AT ARTHABASKA  F I G . 49 OVERLOOKING THE VALLEY OF THE NICOLET  F I G . 50 HOME OF SIR WILFRED LAURIER, ARTHABASKA  F I G . 51 BRONZE PLAQUE AT THE LAURIER HOUSE  A  /  PICTURES BY MARC AUREL DE FOY SUZOR-COTE F I G . 52 AUTUMN LANDSCAPE EVENING, PARIS OIL ON CANVAS 24" X 32" 1900 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 53 LANDSCAPE MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY MARC SUZOR-COTE F I G . 54 PORT BLANC EN BRETAGNE OIL ON CANVAS 1906 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 55 CAUGHNAWAGA WOMEN BRONZE 17 1/2" X 22" 1909 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 56 WINTER LANDSCAPE OIL ON CANVAS 28 1/4" X 37 1/4" 1909 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  A  PICTURES BY MARC SUZOR-COTE  '  FIG. 57 THE SETTLEMENT ON THE HILLSIDE OIL ON CANVAS 23" X 28 3/4" 1909 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  FIG. 59 ARTHABASKA RIVER OIL ON A PANEL N.D. NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURE BY SIR WILLIAM VAN HORNE FIG.60 STEEL-MILLS AT SYDNEY, CAPE BRETON OIL ON CANVAS 37 1/2" X 48 1/4" 1907 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURE BY MABEL MAY  PICTURE BY FREDERICK W. HUTCHISON F I G . 62 OCTOBER SNOW BAIE ST. PAUL  PICTURE BY FREDERICK W. HUTCHISON  PICTURES BY BIAIR BRUCE F I G . 64 PLEASANT MOMENT OIL ON CANVAS 1887 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  F I G . 65 GIVERNY FRANCE OIL ON CANVAS 1887 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  PICTURES BY WILLIAM HENRY CLAPP F I G . 66 MORNING IN SPAIN OIL ON CANVAS 29" X 36 1/2" 1907 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 67 IN THE ORCHARD QUEBEC OIL ON CANVAS 1909 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  F I G . 68 THE NEW CHURCH OIL ON CANVAS 1913 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURE BY WILLIAM HENRY CLAPP F I G . 69 LUMBER BOATS OIL ON CANVAS  HAMILTON ART GALLERY  PICTURES BY ERNEST LAWSON F I G . 70 SNOW-BOUND BOATS OIL ON CANVAS 24 3/4" X 29 3/4" 1907 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 71 WINTER OIL ON CANVAS 24 3/4" X 29 3/4' 1914 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURES BY ERNEST IAWSON  PICTURE BY IDA G. HAMILTON F I G . 75 SUNLIGHT AND SHADOWS OIL ON CANVAS  1923 HAMILTON ART GALLERY  PICTURES BY JAMES EDWARD HERVEY MACDONALD  F I G . 76 TRACKS AND TRAFFIC OIL ON CANVAS  1912 TORONTO ART GALLERY  F I G . 77 EDGE OF A TOWN OIL ON CANVAS  UNIVERSITY WOMEN'S CLUB TORONTO  FIG. 78 WINTER SUNSHINE OIL ON CANVAS  HAMILTON ART GALLERY  FIG. 79 MORNING AFTER SNOW HIGH PARK OIL ON CANVAS 1912-1914 TORONTO ART GALLERY  F I G . 80 EARLY EVENING WINTER OIL ON CANVAS 1912 TORONTO ART GALLERY  PICTURES BY J . E . H . MACDONALD F I G . 81 IN THE PINE SHADOWS MOONLIGHT OIL ON CANVAS 31 1/2" X 27 1/4" 1912 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 82 SNOW-BOUND OIL ON CANVAS 19 1/2" X 29 1/2" 1915 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURE BY LAWREN HARRIS F I G . 83 SNOW SCENE OIL ON CANVAS 1915-1916 R.B. McMICHAEL  PICTURE BY TOM THOMSON F I G . 84 IN ALGONQUIN PARK OIL ON CANVAS 1914 R.B. McMICHAEL  PICTURES BY J . E . H . MACDONALD F I G . 85 FALLS MONTREAL RIVER OIL ON CANVAS 1920 TORONTO ART GALLERY  PICTURE BY J . E . H . MACDONALD F I G . 86 TANGLED GARDEN SKETCH NO. 2 OIL ON PANEL 1916 TORONTO ART GALLERY  PICTURES BY TOM THOMSON  PICTURES BY TOM THOMSON F I G . 89 EDGE OF THE LOG RUN OIL ON PANEL 1916 R.B. McMICHAEL  F I G . 90 NORTHERN LAKE OIL ON PANEL ABOUT 1916 R.B. McMICHAEL  F I G . 91 NORTHERN SKY OIL ON PANEL ABOUT 1916 R.B. McMICHAEL  PICTURES BY FRANKLIN CARMICHAEL F I G . 92 SILVERY TANGLE OIL ON CANVAS 40" X 47" BEAVERBROOK ART GALLERY  F I G . 93 WINTER LANDSCAPE OIL ON CANVAS 35" X 27" MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  DETAILS  PICTURES BY FREDERICK HORSMA.N VARLEY  PICTURES BY ARTHUR LISMER F I G . 96 THE GUIDE'S HOME OIL ON CANVAS 39 1/2" X 44 1/2" 1914 NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  F I G . 97 AFTERNOON SUNLIGHT OIL ON CANVAS 28"'X 36" 1915-1916 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  F I G . 98 SPRINGTIME ON THE FARM OIL ON CANVAS 26" X 32" 1916-1917 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURES BY ALEXANDER YOUNG JACKSON F I G . 99 CANOE LAKE OIL ON CANVAS  HAMILTON ART GALLERY  F I G . 100 CHURCHES AT LIEVIN OIL ON CANVAS 1918 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  F I G . 101 A SCREENED ROAD OIL ON CANVAS 1918 MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS  PICTURE BY A . Y . JACKSON F I G . 102 OLD BARNS QUEBEC OIL ON CANVAS 44" X 34" ABOUT 1940 R.B. McMICHAEL  PICTURE BY TOM THOMSON F I G . 103 SNOW IN OCTOBER OIL ON CANVAS 32 1/4" X 34 1/4" NATIONAL GALLERY OTTAWA  PICTURE BY LAWREN HARRIS F I G . 104 SNOW II OIL ON CANVAS  PICTURE BY LAWREN HARRIS  F I G . 105 THE GAS WORKS OIL ON CANVAS 1912 TORONTO ART GALLERY  PICTURE BY HORATIO WALKER  F I G . 106 THE FIRST SNOW OIL ON CANVAS  BEAVERBROOK ART GALLERY FREDERICTON N.B.  -  154 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS Barbeau,  Marius.  Barr, A l f r e d H..  Baudelaire,  Pierre Charles.  PAINTERS OF QUEBEC. T o r o n t o , Ryerson P r e s s ,  1945.  MATISSE. New Y o r k , The Museum of Modern A r t , THE MIRROR OF ART. New Y o r k , Doubleday and C o . ,  1951.  1956.  B a z i n , Germain.  IMPRESSIONIST PAINTINGS IN THE LOUVRE. London, Thames and Hudson, 1964.  Canaday,  John.  SEMINARS IN ART. P o r t f o l i o J . , New Y o r k , M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1964.  Chauvin,  Jean.  ATELIERS. 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