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The Theme of class in James Joyce's Dubliners Clee, David Glyndwr 1965

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THE  THEME OF CLASS IN JAMES JOYCE'S DUBLINERS by David Glyndwr Clee  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of ENGLISH  We accept required  THE  this  t h e s i s as conforming to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1965  In p r e s e n t i n g the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  Columbia,  available for mission  representatives.  cation  of  w i t h o u t my  this  by  the  June k,  Columbia  1965  of  University  of  shall  thesis  Head o f my  FJlglish  fulfilment  make i t  I further agree that  this  permission.  the  Library  It i s understood  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  study.  thesis for financial  written  Department of  the  copying of  granted  in p a r t i a l  advanced degree at  r e f e r e n c e and  be  thesis  I agree that  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may his  this  copying or  shall  not  per-  scholarly  Department o r  that  gain  for  freely  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT  There Joyce's as  a  of  whole  grip  middle  class  Joyce  attitudes  a  a  that  "paralysis", to relate  experience  which  should  series  of  Joyce's  unifying  believed  i n Dubliners  towards  as  examines  as  the s t o r i e s ,  Dubliners  than  thesis  life-denying  attempt  that  rather  This  work.  of a  throughout  t o show  entity  stories.  Dublin's  the  his  letters,  single  short  i s evidence  be  presentation  his city this  that  considered  unconnected  principle  and  and i n  underlying  was  i n the  thesis  paralysis  his Dubliners  studies  to  those  hold  i n  c ommon.  The progression and  public  Dublin's member  stories from  childhood  l i f e .  middle  This class  throughout  parative  i n Dubliners  and  increasing  conformity  class.  By  the time  in  paralysis  that  through  and  i t se f f e c t  on  he  reaches  reflected  to maturity  the nature  i s a  shows  to the standards  a  of  i t s individual  Childhood  adolescence  to form  adolescence  progression reveals  his l i f e .  freedom,  a r e grouped  time  the  of  individual's  and values  maturity  he  com-  of his  is totally  i n the corruption  of the  trapped public  institutions.  The sub-themes "love", the  and  stories  nature which  of the middle  I designate:  class  i s revealed  "religion,"  "culture".  For the purposes  a r e grouped  according  four  "adventure",  of this  to these  by  analysis  thematic  divisions,  but  Joyce's  Chapters Chapter of  1 V,  own to "The  experience,  order IV  is  each Dead"  is  always  examines t  which  treated  taken one  of  embraces  separately.  into  consideration.  these a l l of  sub-themes. these  In  aspects  iv  CONTENTS  page Introduction  1  Chapter  1  Religion  10  Chapter  11  Adventure  20  Chapter  111  Love  33  Chapter  IV  Culture  48  Chapter  V  The  62  Conclus ion Bibliography  Dead  80  INTRODUCTION  It  may  considered a  to  reluctant considered  seen  from  Dubliners a  collection  attempts  be  of  carefully  unconnected  publish  printer  i t he  to  instances  he  would  essential  to  the  several he  compromise  unity  of  his  comments  stories.  forced  Although  not  own  that  organised whole,  short  was  alter  improper.  Joyce's  by  his  passages satisfied on  he  not  During  his  publisher which them  passages  merely  and  a  they in  he  minor  believed  work:  The p o i n t s on w h i c h I h a v e n o t y i e l d e d a r e t h e p o i n t s w h i c h r i v e t the book t o g e t h e r . If I eliminate them what becomes of the c h a p t e r of the moral h i s t o r y of my c o u n t r y ? I f i g h t t o r e t a i n them because I believe that i n composing my c h a p t e r o f m o r a l h i s t o r y i n e x a c t l y t h e way t h a t I have composed i t I have taken the f i r s t s t e p towards the s p i r i t u a l liberation of my c o u n t r y . *  He  also  stressed  the  sequence  of  the  stories:  The o r d e r o f t h e s t o r i e s i s as f o l l o w s . The Sisters. An E n c o u n t e r and a n o t h e r s t o r y [Araby] which are s t o r i e s o f my c h i l d h o o d : The B o a r d i n g H o u s e , A f t e r The R a c e and E v e l i n e . w h i c h a r e s t o r i e s o f a d o l e s c e n c e : The C l a y . C o u n t e r p a r t s and A P a i n f u l C a s e , w h i c h a r e s t o r i e s of mature l i f e : I v y Day i n the Committee Room. A M o t h e r a n d t h e l a s t s t o r y o f t h e b o o k [Grace] which are s t o r i e s of p u b l i c l i f e in Dublin.^  That three  he  took  stories  this  order  written  seriously  after  this  i s shown letter  are  by  (New  fact  that  the  placed according  J a m e s J o y c e , "To G r a n t R i c h a r d s : 20 L e t t e r s o f J a m e s J o y c e , e d . by S t u a r t G i l b e r t The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 62-63. 1  the  May (New  1906", York:  ^ J a m e s J o y c e , q u o t e d i n James J o y c e , by R i c h a r d York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 216.  Ellman  2 to  these  group, Dead"  categories:  "A  Little  where  Cloud"  i n the series  The  nature  i n Joyce's  preceding  their  "Two  Gallants"  i n the  i n the mature  dealing with  of the "moral  letters.  He  life  public  group  and  "The  l i f e .  history"  wrote  adolescence  i s revealed  to Nora  else-  immediately  elopement:  My m i n d r e j e c t s t h e w h o l e p r e s e n t s o c i a l o r d e r a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y - home, t h e r e c o g n i z e d v i r t u e s , c l a s s e s of l i f e , and r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s . How c o u l d I l i k e t h e i d e a o f home? My h o m e w a s s i m p l y a m i d d l e - c l a s s a f f a i r r u i n e d by s p e n d - t h r i f t h a b i t s , w h i c h I have inherited. My m o t h e r w a s s l o w l y k i l l e d , I t h i n k , b y my father's i l l - t r e a t m e n t , b y y e a r s o f t r o u b l e , a n d b y my cynical frankness of conduct. When I l o o k e d on h e r f a c e as she l a y i n h e r c o f f i n - a f a c e grey and wasted with cancer - I understood t h a t I was looking on t h e f a c e o f a v i c t i m a n d I c u r s e d t h e s y s t e m which had made h e r a v i c t i m . 3  Dubliners its  "victims";  island".^ to  i s Joyce's  a  f i r s t  presentation of this  his "general  Concerning  indictment  the nature  "system"  or survey  of this  and  of the  " i n d i c t m e n t " he  wrote  fr iend: I am w r i t i n g a s e r i e s o f e p i c l e t i - t e n - f o r a p a p e r . I have w r i t t e n one. I c a l l the series Dubliners to betray the s o u l of t h a t h e m i p l e g i a or p a r a l y s i s which many c o n s i d e r a c i t y . 5  The  "soul"  is, l i k e  of Dublin,  Joyce's  home,  a s we  may  see through  "a m i d d l e - c l a s s  Ellman,  J o y c e , " L e t t e r to Nora: James J o y c e , p. 1 7 5 .  Richard  ^Joyce, Ellman,  Letters.  Sjoyce, "Letter p. 55.  3  study  of Dubliners.  affair".  Aug 29  1904",  "Letter to Stanislaus Joyce: James J o y c e , pp. 2 1 0 - 2 1 1 . to Constantine  a  P,  i n Richard  1905", i n  Curran:  1904",  3 Dubliners  examines  intellectual  and  city  Dead",  of  the  "The  the  s p i r i t u a l " ,  s e r i o u s n e s s of  Joyce  his  of  which  6  and  cause  the  has  declared  paralysis,  turned  "moral,  Dublin  in another  into  a  letter  intentions:  I t i s n o t my f a u l t t h a t t h e o d o u r o f a s h p i t s and o f f a l h a n g s r o u n d my s t o r i e s . I seriously believe t h a t you w i l l r e t a r d t h e c o u r s e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n in I r e l a n d by p r e v e n t i n g t h e I r i s h p e o p l e f r o m h a v i n g one g o o d l o o k a t t h e m s e l v e s i n my n i c e l y polished looking glass.^  His a  "looking  carefully  l i f e  of  Joyce's with one  a of  glass" selected  that  "middle  attempt  throughout  the  unifying  have  Dubliners.^  but  J.  Morse  Mitchell  been feel  to  which  several that  of  Joyce to  Joyce, 63-64.  "To  Grant  images.  It  insights  into  himself  present  the  they  in  the  studies  Richards:  made  of  Joyce's  concern  23  the  reader is  stories.  misread  Joyce's  reflects  belonged.  middle-class consciousness  factors  stresses  series  Dubl iners  the  random  °William York T i n d a l l , A Reader's York: Noonday P r e s s , 1959), p.4. 7  pp.  I  of  reflect  arranged  class"  view  main  not  and  coherent  There  (New  does  the  unity  intentions.  for Aquinian  Guide  June  of  to  1906",  James  moral  Joyce  Letters.  ^ J . M i t c h e l l M o r s e , The S y m p a t h e t i c A l i e n (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959), pp.103-110. R i c h a r d L e v i n and C h a r l e s S h a t t u c k , " F i r s t F l i g h t t o Ithaca," James J o y c e : Two D e c a d e s o f C r i t i c i s m , e d . by S e o n G i v e n s (New York: Vanguard P r e s s , I n c . , 1948) pp. 47-94. F l o r e n c e L. W a l z l , " P a t t e r n of P a r a l y s i s i n Joyce's Dubliners". C o l l e g e E n g l i s h v o l . X X I I , N o . 4. (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 221-228.  4 concepts to  and  argues,  Catholic  theology.  fantastically Homer's  examines  single  patient  stories  shifts  of  for  time  agree  that  factor more ever, very an  in  the  feel  that  increasing  merely  during  the  of  lives  has  the  much  attitude  of  age,  image  be  the  to  "September  a  and  deal  taken  As  with into  Both  his  of  Yeats's  the  as  of  I  unifying becomes  people. that  to  the  serious.  a  account  a  passing  paralysis  How-  Joyce  result  from  ideals.  class  the  Dublin,  the  more  paralysis  in his  focus  older  for Yeats  mensaw  individual.  i t were  i s , with  the  and as  diseased though  middle-class  towards  some  stories  becomes  that  commitment  Dubl iners  paralysis  increasing  citizens with  of  trace  the  as  that  disease  eccentricity,  period.  i n common  from  the  of  speak,  stories  adherence  same  the  i t must  sees  diagnosis.  to  the  the  shows  personal  a  Joyce's  between  Walzl  to  Dubliners,  as  carefully  of  youth  uses  Shattuck  paralysis  so  patient,  Joyce  Joyce's a  need  throughout  I  city,  from  pronounced  L.  increasing his  and  parallels  Florence  the  dubiously, for  Levin  far-fetched  Odyssey.  paralleling Joyce  rather  and held  his  similar  essential and  Joyce's  volume  city  is  not  attitudes  meanness attitude  Responsibilities:  1913"  What n e e d y o u , b e i n g come t o s e n s e . But fumble i n a g r e a s y t i l l And add t h e h a l f p e n c e t o t h e p e n c e And p r a y e r t o s h i v e r i n g p r a y e r , u n t i l You h a v e d r i e d t h e m a r r o w f r o m t h e b o n e ? F o r men were b o r n t o p r a y and save; Romantic I r e l a n d ' s dead and gone,  5 It's  Pettiness the  about  adherence  -  an  -  " i sdead  same  Joyce's  picture  " I v y Day":  similar  cultural  myopia  against  On  i s ever  present  "For they  "To  Hated  and  Joyce  A  Shade",  their  'The  a  gestures  Parnell  presents  as y e t " .  rebelled  angered  by  and the  morality  o l d tricks  and Y e a t s  Yeats,  wrote  with  so i s  Ireland"  heroic  p o l i t i c a l  are at  of Dublin.  That  "Romantic  heroes  of post-Parnell  play,  i n D u b l i n e r s . and  i n Dubl i n e r s .  poem,  occasions  9  religion.  buried,  Yeats*  Synge's  Those  grave.  of producing  gone", And  i n the  meaningless  capable  Furey.  On  uproar  money  and  dreary  O'Leary  to a  Ireland  Michael  the  with  1  0  against  the  public  poem:  Playboy  of the Western  World",  1907.  Once, when m i d n i g h t smote t h e a i r . E u n u c h s r a n t h r o u g h H e l l and met On e v e r y c r o w d e d s t r e e t t o s t a r e Upon g r e a t Juan r i d i n g b y : Even l i k e these t o r a i l and sweat S t a r i n g upon h i s sinewy t h i g h . H  Several going  years  earlier  populace  9  London:  Joyce  to Dublin  had  i n a  satirized  bitter  the entire  pamphlet,  W. B. Y e a t s , T h e C o l l e c t e d P o e m s o f W. M a c m i l l a n & Co. L t d . ,1 9 5 8 ) , 1.120.  10  W.  B.  Yeats,  Collected  Poems,  p.  123.  J1  W.  B.  Yeats,  Collected  Poems,  p.  124.  The  B.  theatre-  Day  of the  Yeats  6 Rabblement.* The  Countess  but  whereas  provoked  2  by  Cathleen. Joyce's  Yeats  rejected  world  of  an  Both  works  and  against Yeats*  denounced  show  i t f o r what  aristocrats  uproar  he  his  the  Dublin  lifelong  felt  to  be  play  middle  concern  the  more  class,  for i t , interesting  peasants:  I r i s h poets, l e a r n your t r a d e . Sing whatever is well made. S c o r n t h e s o r t now growing up A l l out of shape from toe to top, T h e i r u n r e m e m b e r i n g h e a r t s and heads Base-born products of base beds. S i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y , and then -Hard-riding country gentlemen, The h o l i n e s s o f m o n k s , and after P o r t e r - d r i n k e r s * randy l a u g h t e r ; S i n g t h e l o r d s and ladies gay That were beaten i n t o clay Through seven heroic centuries; C a s t y o u r m i n d o n o t h e r d a y s . . . *3  Although between to  and  critics  Dub 1 i n e r s a n d  define  that  most  i t have  "each squalor  of  the  of  the  Dublin's  been  class  cries  out  priest-ridden,  urban  Harry  comments  noted  Joyce's  relationship their  J.I.M.  against  living  attempts  Stewart  the  pub-besotted,  1ower-middle-class that  a  system  unsatisfactory.  stories  decomposing Levin  have  i t  'subject matter  states  frustration culturally d e p i c t s " . ^ reveals  J a m e s J o y c e , "The Day of the Rabblement", The C r i t i c a l W r i t i n g s o f J a m e s J o y c e , e d . by E. M a s o n a n d R. E l l m a n (New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 68. 1 2  13  W.  B.  Yeats,  Collected  Poems,  p.  400.  ^ J . I . M . S t e w a r t , James J o y c e (London: Publications of t h e B r i t i s h C o u n c i l and t h e N a t i o n a l B o o k L e a g u e by Longmans, G r e e n and Co., 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 11-12.  7 the  decompostion  o f the middle  stresses  Joyce's  attempts  to capture  and  deep  h i s awareness  involvement  i t s spirit  and control  conversation".!6  William  failure  The Race"  of "After  unfami 1 i a r i t y class or  with  class...".^^  of "Dublin  York  Tindall  o f t h elower  upper,  t h e nouveaux  attempts  t o name  this  class  Dubliners  i s n o ts i m p l y  however,  a s I hope  t o show  a  describe and c r i t i c i z e well-defined  middle made  class  riches,  treatment  to the unity  stories.  This  There  of Dublin's  and meaning  i swhat  I propose  upper  and upper i t  a purposeful  group  i sthe  class  of the collection t o examine  i s , attempt  experience of aspiring  no c r i t i c a l  middle  concern",^  class",  class  document,  towards  has been  of the  h i s present  middle  thesis,  That  middle  one "middle  a social  the attitude  of people.  of Dublin.  o f Joyce's  central  group  i nthe lower  produce  i nthis  that t h e  t o "Joyce's  knowledge  " l o w e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s " and one "lower  lower".  middle-class  believes  Expert  he h a d l i t t l e  of h i s writing,  lower  may b e a t t r i b u t e d  the subject.  Kenner  of Dublin, h i s  i n t h elanguage  lower,  two  to  i n t h el i f e  and upper  Four  Hugh  investigation as a  theme  of short  i nd e t a i l  i n this  thesis.  The  (Norfolk  stories  rry Conn.: 16 u g h H  1962),  p . 11. 17w,  i nD u b l i n e r s a r ei n t e r c o n n e c t e d by  the  L e v i n , James J o y c e ; A Critical Introduction New D i r e c t i o n s B o o k s , 1941), p . 207. Kenner,  Dublin's  Y. T i n d a l l ,  Joyce  A Reader's  (Boston:  Guide  Beacon  t o James  Press,  Joyce,  p.  23.  8 author's or  concern  p a r a l y s i s which  the  stories  makes  limitations society. and as  the we  made  and  Its  see  in  the  action  too  on  completed  a  the  individual  the  The  of  him  hemiplegia course  that  is  from  by to  an  not  sense  of the  his be  individual  Race",  to  which  And  part  when  s o c i e t y , but  that  p a r a l y s i s stems  the  "After  of  city".  the  much  respectability  and  subconscious  alternative  Painful of  i t .  labour  politics,  wanting,  for  shabbiness, individual  the  evaded,  surrenders,  to  demands  of  duty,  inescapable  lives  place. deal  not  L i t t l e  part  the  with  yet  of  and  institutions and  of  In  young  sham Dead"  the  which  "After  people  through  ideals. in  erecting  life  of  marriages, 'flvy  their "Two  Gallants"  the  respon-  a  meaningful  treats  in  "A  lives  social  a  children,  Mother" and  reflect  the  the  city,  weighed  society  found  the  "Clay"  unloved  Day",  are  The  betraying  "Counterparts",  religion of  Encounter"  against  enmeshed  mature  unhappy  "An  "Eveline",  Cloud",  loneliness.  "The  background  incapable  culture  citizens.  Sisters",  respectability  display  shallowness  "The  middle-class  worries,  and  "Grace",  to  but  "A  Case"  financial  pointless  of  society  to  takes House"  commitment  of  social  stultifying  s t e r i l i t y  s i b i l i t i e s  "A  Boarding  into  stories; the  Dubliners  "The  the  three  introduce  of  themselves  world  are  the  f i r s t  "Araby",  and  placed  a  soul  personality.  and  shows  that  " E v e l i n e " and  and  The  Race"  demands  by  "the  consider  i t clear  values  directly  own  revealing  many  paralysis is  propriety his  with  found  the of  and  same  i t s  world  as  i t  9 is  displayed  at  The and  in  the f i r s t  three  three.  their  common  chapters, class  stories  each  they  intensive aspects  only  s ituation.  love  of  with  those  towards  arbitrary  each  experience.  study  about  when  deal  more  the  into  triumph  over  other  become  of  primarily  with  of the one  of the  separately. t h e way  the nature also  those  four  Each  demonstrates  treatment  of  t h e theme  than  i s treated  i n  aspects  division  to reveal  Separate  and  culture  through  i n which  this  and  w h i c h cause  themselves  and  these  which  Dead"  other  of Gabriel's  Sisters",  of the sub-themes.  stories  "The  presented  is organized  t h e way  one  are  i n "The  are revealed  the sub-themes  complement  These  thesis  directly  I designate:  i n "Araby"  in question, although  of personality  truth  which  religion  This  through  i s present.  middle-class  the  concerned  i s occasionally  includes which  stories;  party.  i s revealed  culture.  Dubliners display  examines  sub-themes  and  experience.  each  sub-theme  love  annual  class  themes  assumptions  i s developed  chapter  the middle  Encounter",  Class which  Morkan's  subsidiary  i n "An  attitudes  the  four  of  adventure,  adventure a l l  nature  through  religion,  the Misses  I t  in  of  permits  an  limiting  Dubliners  to  the "victims"  evade of  their  10  CHAPTER  I  RELIGION  There dominant: is  about  who  had  those  are three  "The a  boy's  to  unimaginative of  their  He  rebels  and  against life  priest's and  sharply  and  against  sympathy,  way  i s not  the  with  which  t h e boy  of a  paralysed  and  and  accept  by  death.  The  three  stories  priest with un-  adults  are  limitations boy  and of  cannot.  old  Cotter  h i s aunt  boy's  and  desire for  contrasts  of h i s s o c i e t y .  freedom  for a  of aligning  member  natural  his class,  against  as  The the  those  the boy, whose  purpose and  to him.  f u t i l i t y  of  Sisters"  seem  of h i s uncle  of g r e a t e s t  pre-  are contrasted  the precocious  satisfied  limitations  f o r Joyce's  do  is  "The  theirs  they  i n the f i r s t  class,  and  they  concerning  the s t e r i l i t y  middle  instrument  as  the p l a t i t u d e s  i s the time  Dublin's rebel  in a  sisters  with  Childhood  i n the story,  religion  Clay".  His responses  unintelligent,  adventure  and  to the death  the reader  existence  concerning  life  him.  i n which  "Grace"  reaction  the a d u l t s  satisfactory  the  Sisters",  befriended  of  stories  i s an  instincts appropriate  the reader,  the world  which  of  through  surrounds  him.  The involved the more  death  boy's  i n a  aunt  ritualized  according  hones t l y:  visits  to a  the bereaved  act of cliched  sisters  consolation. foiwula  She  of p i e t y ,  and  becomes  reacts he  to  reacts  11  I found i t strange t h a t n e i t h e r I nor t h e day seemed i n a m o u r n i n g mood a n d I f e l t e v e n a n n o y e d a t d i s c o v e r i n g i n m y s e l f a s e n s a t i o n o f f r e e d o m as i f I had b e e n f r e e d f r o m s o m e t h i n g by h i s d e a t h . I w o n d e r e d a t t h i s , f o r , a s my u n c l e h a d s a i d t h e n i g h t b e f o r e , he h a d t a u g h t me a g r e a t deal.(10)*  His  relationship  even  the s i s t e r s ' ,  certain to  respond  wine  silently its  according He  but  the p r i e s t  but  spontaneity  patterns. the  with  which  they  t o pray  the cracker  i n h i s corner  discreetly  reacts  to  curious  of  through  been  more  intense  the s i t u a t i o n  lack.  to established  i s unable not  he  has  He and  beside their their  has  standardized  and  a learned emotional  the c o f f i n ,  t r i v i a l  ha 1 f - q u e s t i o n s  with  not yet  communion,  than  accepts  and  sits  conversation  with  congratulatory  condolences:  'Did he... p e a c e f u l l y ? ' she asked. * 0 , q u i t e p e a c e f u l l y , ma'am,' s a i d E l i z a . 'You couldn't t e l l when t h e b r e a t h went o u t o f him. He h a d a b e a u t i f u l d e a t h , God be p r a i s e d , * 'And everything...?' 'Father O ' R o u r k e was i n w i t h h i m a T u e s d a y and annointed him and prepared him and a l l . ' 'He k n e w then?' 'He w a s q u i t e resigned.' 'He l o o k s q u i t e r e s i g n e d . * s a i d my aunt. ' T h a t ' s j u s t w h a t t h e w o m a n we h a d i n t o w a s h h i m said. S h e s a i d he l o o k e d a s i f he was a s l e e p , he looked t h a t p e a c e f u l and r e s i g n e d . No o n e w o u l d t h i n k h e ' d make s u c h a b e a u t i f u l corpse.' Yes indeed,* s a i d my aunt.(13)  This  James Books  story  i s our  introduction  to  the c o n d i t i o n  *A 11 r e f e r e n c e s t o p a g i n a t i o n i n Dub l i n e r s Joyce, Dubliners (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: L t d . , 1956 ),  of  f011ow Pengu i n  12 religion Father itself, the  in Dublin.  Nowhere  in  i t ,d e s p i t e  O'Rourke,  the  dead  is there  any  s u g g e s t i o n of  Church.  There  i s the  "Ah,  well,  he's  gone  mere  platitude.  The  O'Rourke's  entirely  to  a  priest  and  the  spiritual practical  of  world"(l2);  by  the  but  in  time  in aunt:  this  i s emphasized  assistance  of  death  vitality  offered  vacuum  presence  mystery  spiritual  consolation better  the  by  of  is Father  loss:  O n l y f o r F a t h e r O ' R o u r k e I d o n t know w h a t we'd done at a l l . I t was h i m b r o u g h t us a l l t h e m f l o w e r s and them two c a n d l e s t i c k s o u t o f the c h a p e l , and wrote o u t t h e n o t i c e f o r t h e F r e e m a n ' s G e n e r a l and took c h a r g e o f a l l the p a p e r s f o r the c e m e t e r y and poor James's i n s u r a nee.(13-14) 1  It  is  that  in keeping Father  "Grace" intent  the only  and  Dublin  O'Rourke's Church on  righteousness  In  with  aid  should  the  be  Mrs.  effect  to  Kernan's on  her  of  a  Dublin  i t s commitment  "Grace"  i t s possible  omnipresent  i s p o r t r a y e d as  reassuring of  s  concern  this  with  sort,  and  businessman's bourgeoisie  money in  institution of  the  Mammon.  attitude  husband  are  towards clearly  religion stated:  A f t e r a q u a r t e r of a c e n t r u y of married l i f e , she had v e r y few i l l u s i o n s left. R e l i g i o n f o r h e r was a h a b i t , a n d s h e s u s p e c t e d t h a t a man of her husband's age would not change g r e a t l y b e f o r e death... However, r . C u n n i n g h a m was a c a p a b l e man; and r e l i g i o n was religion. The s c h e m e m i g h t do g o o d a n d , a t l e a s t , i t c o u l d d o no h a r m . Her b e l i e f s w e r e n o t e x t r a v a g a n t . She b e l i e v e d s t e a d i l y i n the S a c r e d Heajrt as t h e most g e n e r a l l y u s e f u l o f a l l C a t h o l i c d e v o t i o n s and approved of the sacraments. H e r f a i t h was b o u n d e d by h e r kitchen, but, i f s h e was put to i t she c o u l d b e l i e v e a l s o i n the b a n s h e e and the H o l y Ghost.(155) m  13  This in  contains  Dubliners  the  essence  from  "The  Sisters"  Kate  i n "The  than  that  to  the  by  pseudo-intellectua1  ignorance  matters  acknowledges order.  I  the  for  them  thing  and  no  the  done  boyos  social that  have  priest's  ignorance,  her  the  husband  however, and  his  of  the  betrays  and  of  the  women  sisters or  friends  in  in Aunt  i s hardly  their  greater their  Jesuits:  too"(161);  i s even  more  temporal:  influence"(161). they  even  you  go  In  approve  Kernan  "They're  well  about,  abysmal  historical.  to  and  educated  M'Coy's want  Jesuit.  keeping with of  an  " i fyou  a  the  a  They're  their  a i r of  own  class  about  order:  'The J e s u i t s c a t e r f o r t h e u p p e r * 0 f c o u r s e , * s a i d Mr. Power. ' Y e s , * s a i d Mr. K e r n a n . 'That's for them.'(161)  Their  assessment  towards for  any  B o a r d i n g House"  mean  flies  pretensions  and  i n "The  spiritual  they  admiration  of  conversation  value  believe  aunt  beliefs  discussions.  friends'  of  the  Mooney Her  displayed  The  boy's  Mrs.  Dead".  of  the  details  is completely  retreat of  entertainment  is equally  i t they than  a  make  why  t e m p o r a l and casual.  i t sound  religious  classes,'  When  more  I  said  have  their  a  a  M'Coy.  feeling  attitude  Kernan  like  Mr.  presses  theatrical  service:  *0, i t ' s j u s t a r e t r e a t , you know,' s a i d Mr. Cunningham. •Father Purdon i s g i v i n g i t . I t ' s for business men, you know.' 'He w o n ' t b e t o o h a r d o n u s , T o m , ' s a i d Mr. Power persuas ively. 'Father Purdon? Father Purdon?' said the invalid.  14 * 0 , y o u m u s t k n o w h i m . Tom,* stoutly. 'Fine, j o l l y fellow.* He's a o u r s e l v e s . ' (162 )  Their  jovial  which,  as  lengths  a i r i s seen  Father  to  Purdon's  be  a  avoid  upsetting  In  their  ecclesiastical  themselves,  through  a  until  their  bickerings  on  confused  acceptance  of  a  platitudinous  Cunningham.  On  matters  knowledge  is  limited  them  solving,  differences  between  morality  the  of  and  to  of  of  of  the  the  poor  own and  history  history  end  and  this  Protestant, and  the  religion  the  confuse  and  with  limited  of  minor  the  general  pompous  theology  does  satisfaction  a  i t s followers.  series  by  like  to a l l  friends  a  explanation  to  goes  memory  always  but  world  approach  become  which  bigoted,  Catholic  popes  debates  Church  their  of  Cunningham,  consciences of  discussions issues  Mr.  demonstrates,  combination  knowledge,  from  the  man  fitting  sermon  to  said  at the  problem  not  their  prevent  least,  the  culture of  and  Papal  I n f all i b i 1 i t y :  'But he's an O r a n g e m a n , C r o f t o n , i s n ' t h e ? ' s a i d Mr. Power. ' C o u r s e he i s , ' s a i d Mr. K e r n a n , 'and a d a m n e d d e c e n t Orangeman t o o . We w e n t i n t o B u t l e r ' s i n Moore S t r e e t - f a i t h , I was g e n u i n e l y m o v e d , t e l l y o u t h e G o d ' s t r u t h - and I remember w e l l h i s v e r y words. Kernan, h e s a i d , we w o r s h i p a t d i f f e r e n t a l t a r s , h e said, but our b e l i e f i s the same. S t r u c k me a s v e r y w e l l put. ' ' T h e r e ' s a good d e a l i n t h a t , ' s a i d Mr. Power. ' T h e r e u s e d a l w a y s be c r o w d s o f P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e c h a p e l w h e r e F a t h e r Tom was p r e a c h i n g , ' ' T h e r e ' s n o t much d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n us,' said Mr. M'Coy. 'We b o t h b e l i e v e i n -* He h e s i t a t e d f o r a m o m e n t . '... i n the Redeemer. Only they don't b e l i e v e i n the  15 Pope a n d i n t h e Mother 'But, of c o u r s e , ' said effectively, 'our r e l i g original faith.' 'not a doubt o f i t , ' sa  o f God.' Mr. C u n n i n g h a m q u i e t l y and i o n i s the r e l i g i o n , the o l d , id  Mr.  Kernan  warmly.(163-164)  Mr. K e r n a n seemed t o be t r o u b l e d i n m i n d . He m a d e a n e f f o r t to r e c a l l t h e P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g y o n s o m e t h o r n y p o i n t s and i n t h e end a d d r e s s e d Mr. Cunningham. ' T e l l me, M a r t i n , ' h e s a i d . 'Weren't some t h e t h e P o p e s - o f c o u r s e , n o r o u r p r e s e n t man, o r h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , b u t some o f t h e o l d P o p e s - n o t e x a c t l y . . . y o u k n o w . . . up t o t h e k n o c k e r ? * T h e r e was a s i l e n c e . Mr. Cunningham said: *0, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e w e r e some bad l o t s . . . B u t t h e astonishing thing is this. Not one o f them, n o t t h e b i g g e s t d r u n k a r d , not the most... out-and-out ruffian, not one o f them e v e r p r e a c h e d ex c a t h e d r a a word o f false doctrine. Now i s n ' t t h a t a n a s t o n i s h i n g thing? 'That i s , ' s a i d Mr. K e r n a n . 'Yes, b e c a u s e when t h e Pope s p e a k s e x c a t h e d r a . ' Mr. F o g a r t y e x p l a i n e d , 'he i s i n f a l l i b l e . * *Yes,* s a i d Mr. C u n n i n g h a m , ( 1 6 6 )  They men  mock  the countrified  i n the story  arguments be  their  On a l l  home".(162) opportunity more  through in and  the night  what  police-  but  they  The  faces,  Mr.  and  Kernan  congregation offers  to repeat  Christ's  of entering  display  moneylenders  the Church  of Dublin,  not s p i r i t u a l ,  the eye of a  the only  cabbage"(158),  of the retreat  businessmen  familiar  chance  your  of the  their  believe  to  sophistication.  i s social,  recognized  and a t t i t u d e s  the ignorance underlying  the notable  reaction  no  of "65, catch  betray urban  manners  the priest  than  a  from  i n his l i f e ,  the temple.  He  as  to feel  about  more a t  men  has  them  having  of  that  drove  he  ample  rich  camel  chooses  with  Kernan's  "gradually,  needle, or t o remind of anger  Mr.  began  warning  heaven  and  i s f i l l e d  the  instead  passing  Christ, usurers an  16 obscure  passage  making  ambitions  which  he i n t e r p r e t s  to justify  t h e money-  of h i s hearers:  For t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h i s world a r e wiser i n t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n than t h e c h i l d r e n o f l i g h t . Wherefore m a k e u n t o y o u r s e l v e s f r i e n d s o u t o f t h e mammon o f i n i q u i t y s o t h a t w h e n y o u d i e t h e y may r e c e i v e y o u into everlasting dwel1ings.(171)  His  text  obvious ended  i s taken sarcasm  this  glaringly  of Christ's  parable  with  the  out of context commentary  and ignores t h e  and t h e f a c t  that  he  warning:  1 3 . No man c a n s e r v e t w o m a s t e r s : f o r e i t h e r he w i l l hate the one, and love the other; o r he w i l l hold to t h e one and d e s p i s e t h e o t h e r . Ye c a n n o t serve God a n d Mammon. 1 4 . A n d t h e P h a r i s e e s .a 1 s o , w h o w e r e c o v e t o u s , heard a l l these things; and they derided him, 15. And he s a i d u n t o them. Ye a r e they w h i c h justify y o u r s e l v e s b e f o r e men; b u t God k n o w e t h your hearts: f o r t h a t w h i c h i s h i g h l y e s t e e m e d among men i s a b o m i n a t i o n i n t h e s i g h t o f God. Luke Chapter 16  In the  the light same  myopia  o f these  materialistic  that  verses  the priest  smugness  i s seen  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  to display and moral  characterize h i s hearers:  Father Purdon developed the text with resonant assurance. I t was o n e o f t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t texts i n a l l t h e S c r i p t u r e s , he s a i d , t o i n t e r p r e t p r o p e r l y . I t was a t e x t w h i c h m i g h t seem t o t h e c a s u a l observer at v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e l o f t y m o r a l i t y e l s e w h e r e preached by J e s u s C h r i s t . B u t , he t o l d h i s h e a r e r s , t h e t e x t had s e e m e d t o h i m s p e c i a l l y a d a p t e d f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h o s e whose l o t i t was t o l e a d t h e l i f e o f t h e w o r l d a n d who y e t w i s h e d to lead that l i f e not i n the manner o f w o r l d l i n g s . I t w a s a t e x t f o r b u s i n e s s men and p r o f e s s i o n a l men. Jesus C h r i s t , with H i s d i v i n e understanding o f every cranny o f human n a t u r e , unders t o o d t h a t a l l men w e r e n o t c a l l e d t o t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e , t h a t by f a r t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y were f o r c e d t o  17 live i n t h e w o r l d , and, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , f o rt h e world: a n d i n t h i s s e n t e n c e He d e s i g n e d to give them a word o f c o u n s e l , s e t t i n g b e f o r e them as e x e m p l a r s in t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e those very worshippers of Mammon w h o w e r e o f a l l m e n t h e l e a s t s o l i c i t o u s i n matters r e l i g i o u s . . . J e s u s C h r i s t was n o t a h a r d taskmaster. He u n d e r s t o o d o u r l i t t l e failings, understood the weakness o f our poor f a l l e n nature, understood the temptations of this 1ife.(171-172)  "God's  grace"  has been  replaced  i n Dublin  by  that  o f t h e money-  lenders.  A Boarding would  similar House"  have  and  then  She  shows  of time  t o have  the short  twelve  no m o r a l  awareness  daughter  and attends  as  a  clear  name  had s a i d , )  She  i s certainly  but  i t i s clay  that  foretells  comment  on  plays  Dubliners  he  heroic  figures  parts.  Little with  this  of the past Chandler, Byron,  who  will  that  and  because  with  both  the Virgin  inherit  of Joyce's  of the V i r g i n kind  her  sure,  she touches  I t i s part  Dublin and  of comparison their  pathetic  f o r example, Farrington  with  Doran  i n "Grace".  with  of middle-class  i n the role  Mr.  with  be  have  chapter  comparison  of death  the future.  may  "she  v e r i t a b l e peace-maker"  o n e o f t h e meek  suggests  we  that  Street".(62)  of her c o m p l i c i t y twelve",  i n "The  out with  at Marlborough  i n this  a  reminder  the matter  the gentlemen  suggest  symbolic  i s demonstrated  casual  ("you a r e a  the s t e r i l i t y  spinster  comparison  as  i s included  and h e r n a t u r e ,  matron  "short  conscience  "Clay"  obtuseness  i n Mrs. Mooney's  lots  catch  moral  i s made  Maria's the Mary.  the earth, i n t h e game ironic  that  an  elderly  throughout between the modern to  Ulysses,  counter-  invite and  Corley  18 and  Lenehan  Like class such  Maria a  nice  Mooney, common which bus  with  the  a l l of the characters maintains person  although  and  lose  her  a  sense  to deal  she  woman".(99) causes  Florentines.  t o become  so  well...  I t is this  the precious  of g e n t i l i t y .  with,  "meant  i n Dublin's  "The  genteel",(98) had  plum  by  matron but  the notions  susceptibility  flustered  lower-middle-  to  was  Ginger  of a  gentility  the gentleman  on t h e  cake:  Maria thought he was a c o 1 o n e 1 - 1 o o k i n g g e n t l e m a n a n d s h e r e f l e c t e d how much m o r e p o l i t e h e w a s t h a n t h e y o u n g men w h o s i m p l y s t a r e d s t r a i g h t b e f o r e them. The g e n t l e m a n b e g a n t o c h a t w i t h h e r a b o u t Hallow Eve and t h e r a i n y w e a t h e r . He s u p p o s e d t h e b a g w a s full o f good t h i n g s f o r t h e l i t t l e ones and s a i d i t was o n l y r i g h t t h a t t h e y o u n g s t e r s should enjoy thems e l v e s w h i l e they were young. Maria agreed w i t h him and f a v o u r e d h i m w i t h d e m u r e nods a n d hems. He w a s v e r y n i c e w i t h h e r , a n d when s h e was g e t t i n g o u t a t the Canal B r i d g e she thanked h i m a n d b o w e d , a n d he bowed t o h e r and r a i s e d h i s h a t and s m i l e d agreeably; a n d w h i l e s h e was g o i n g up a l o n g t h e t e r r a c e , bending h e r t i n y h e a d u n d e r t h e r a i n , s h e t h o u g h how e a s y i t was t o know a g e n t l e m a n e v e n when he h a s a d r o p taken.(100-101)  Maria life.  i s quite  the in  with  I t i s the reader  aspirations those  content  verses  joys  and of  who  sees  the emptiness the song  of marriage.  the light  her hard-working  of Joe's  which  Her  the futility  reflected deal  gentility  drunken  and  with  unrewarding  of her  genteel  i n her omission intense  seems  even  passion more  of and  pathetic  sentimentality:  He w a s v e r y m u c h m o v e d . He s a i d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o , t i m e l i k e t h e l o n g a g o a n d no m u s i c f o r h i m l i k e poor o l d B a l f e , whatever other people might s a y ; and h i s e y e s f i l l e d up s o much w i t h t e a r s t h a t he  19 c o u l d n o t f i n d w h a t he was end he h a d t o a s k h i s w i f e corkscrew was.(104)  In the  aunt  the  uncle  "The  and and  Sisters"  the sisters o l d Cotter  sterility  of  life  combined  with  a  reveals absurd of and  this  concern  intellectual  the Church the primary  i n a  the r i t u a l i z e d and give  in Dublin.  pathetic  looking to tell  our f i r s t  "Clay"  social  f o r keeping  shows  concern  where  and words  up  social  true  and  of  insight  the  into  t h e same  sterility  "Grace"  appearance,  the pragmatic  s p i r i t u a l i t y  i s the a c q u i s i t i o n  of  conversation  pretentiousness.  pretentiousness, society  actions  the pointless us  f o r and i n the him where t h e  of  i s  money.  also  an role irrelevant  20 CHAPTER  I I  ADVENTURE  What  I define  experience,  plays  predominant  i n "An  and  some  read,  part  the desire  i n games  by  f o r more  i n a l l of the s t o r i e s . "Eveline",  I t i s introduced  stimulated  engage  adventure,  Encounter",  "Counterparts".  schoolboys,  as  i n "An  the adventure  o f cowboys  and  "After  vital  I t i s  The  Race"  Encounter".  stories  they  The  have  Indians, battles  and  sieges:  We b a n d e d o u r s e l v e s t o g e t h e r , s o m e b o l d l y , s o m e i n j e s t a n d some a l m o s t i n f e a r : and o f t h e number o f t h e s e l a t t e r , t h e r e l u c t a n t I n d i a n s who w e r e afraid t o s e e m s t u d i o u s o r l a c k i n g i n r o b u s t n e s s , I was o n e . The a d v e n t u r e s r e l a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the Wild W e s t w e r e r e m o t e f r o m my n a t u r e b u t , a t l e a s t , they opened the doors o f escape.(17)  This  offers  Dubliners from  like  who  of action  some  of  with  a  wish  copy  could  Indians", lack  a t boys  understand distinction  on  t h e boy  o f The  i s never  i s a  them  i s a  by  f o r adventure means  of  successfully  f o r i t ,Eveline  imposed  youth  of the desire  Adventure  This  i t sa t t i t u d e s .  surprised  This  reality.  those  extreme  the cause  i t sfailure.  the "reluctant  course his  and  Dublin  because  a t once  and  their  product  escape  achieved  Jimmy  the strength  for  society.  and  Father  Butler  caught  Halfpenny  Marvel  he  horrified:  you, educated,  i t i f your between  were...  themselves  reading  National and  Leo  such  accepts  Dillon "I'm  stuff.  School  the lower  the  Despite  When  like  example,  t o deny  of h i s class  was  in  I  Boys".(18)  orders  i s so  21 fixed  in  Mahoney  the is  boy's  often  answer:  "I  National  School  He  was  is "bored"  mind  that  when  at  school  whipped going Boys  by  to to  the  reply be  pervert's  of  one's  life  was  that  he  would  give  anything  conscious  his  accent  was  The companions  enough  of  class  man  as  he  cliches:  young  whether  stung  that  we  to  were  called "that  one's  be  asks  is almost  indignantly  undoubtedly to  old  he  whipped,  time  is  the  the  happiest days,  again";(22) to  not  it".(24)  schoolboy  distinctions  an  notice  and  but  he  "that  good".(23)  narrator, to  the  however,  shortcomings  i s more of  sensitive  their  than  his  make-believe:  The m i m i c w a r f a r e o f t h e e v e n i n g became a t l a s t as w e a r i s o m e t o me a s t h e r o u t i n e o f s c h o o l i n t h e morning because I wanted r e a l adventures to happen to m y s e l f . But r e a l a d v e n t u r e s , I r e f l e c t e d , do n o t h a p p e n t o p e o p l e who r e m a i n a t home; they must be s o u g h t abroad.(18)  The  idea  that  accounts but  for  the  boy,  "real the  adventure"  respect  happy  in  achieved  organizes  timidity  foreshadows  keep  rendez-vous,  the  takes  a  doomed  great to  sailors confused is  the  the  to  see  had  of  any  of  of  the  he  in  found feel  i t can  Jimmy, the the  He  eagerly  them  green  the  discovers  pervert*s  that  although  but  be  "miching".  pleasure  notion...",(21) when  of  E v e l i n e and and  to  Dubliners  belief  day  disappointment.  accentuated  reality  deal  many  is  "abroad" towards  Europe,  be  immediately  Leo  more  Dillon,  lacks  the  whose  courage  1e s s - s e n s i t i v e outing  the  eyes,  for  hopelessness instead  the  " b o t t l e - g r e e n eyes...  Mahoney  narrator  "examined  the  his  some  dream  unhealthy under  is  foreign  [he] h a d of  to  a  22 t w i t c h i n g forehead",(23 )  He set out  adventure" but found only an old man phantasies, f i r s t  in search of " r e a l whose monotonous [with] nice white  of "nice young g i r l s  hands... [and} b e a u t i f u l s o f t h a i r " ( 2 3 ) and  then of " c h a s t i s i n g "  and "whipping" young boys, are a d e n i a l of the excitement and adventure  that he seeks.  He wishes  to escape  from the  "wearisome r o u t i n e " of school and c h i l d r e n ' s games to a of  "wild  s e n s a t i o n s " but d i s c o v e r s  frightening The  ritualism first  only the morbid  life  and  of the p e r v e r t .  three s t o r i e s  t r a c e the boy's  growing  d i s i l l u s i o n with his s o c i e t y , but he i s not aware of the significance  of his d i s c o v e r i e s  is.  S i s t e r s " he vaguely senses  In "The  paralysis  signifies  in the way  a c o r r u p t i o n that  it  is the reader who  sees the p r i e s t ' s  of  the s t a t e of the whole Church  "An Encounter", where the boy  that the reader  that the p r i e s t ' s  i s more than  physical,  c o n d i t i o n as symbolic  in I r e l a n d .  S i m i l a r l y in  i s once again faced with a  form of c o r r u p t i o n that he does not e n t i r e l y understand, the reader can see the s i g n i f i c a n c e of his i n s t i n c t i v e At  first  he is impressed  by the o l d man.  He pretends to have  read every book he names, and when his f r i e n d : should  reactions.  asks why  not read some of Lord Lytton's works he i s a f r a i d  man  will  think him "as s t u p i d as Ma honey".(23)  man  t a l k s about g i r l s , however, he f e e l s His a t t i t u d e l i b e r a l in a that what he reasonable.  boys the  When the old  uneasy:  on the point struck me as s t r a n g e l y man of his age. In my heart I thought s a i d about boys and sweethearts was But I d i s l i k e d the words in his mouth,  23 and I w o n d e r e d why he s h u d d e r e d o n c e he f e a r e d s o m e t h i n g o r f e l t a s u d d e n  Mahoney  sees  corrupt  nature,  and  talks  the  company  the  field  or  t o me.*  and  a n d he  increases my  heart  as  he r a n  me  aid.  And  i f to bring I had always  despised  a  Joyce  i n the had  t h e boy i s perhaps  an e a r l y  portrait  of the artist.  and  turns  i t had seemed of those  The  always  through  toward  "Eveline"  efforts  "goes  between  them.  he  i s common  culture, to escape  and " A f t e r which  who  f o r adventure  conditions  category  t h e boy were  healthy  involvement  an attempt  social  bond  qualities  i s Dublin  aspiration  a  and  Mahoney  t o Mahoney's  desire  that  itself  he  to the rougher  humbly  death  out that  as  Little  i n "A  o f two young  labelled people  The  "bookworms",  i n f o r games", Faced  with  the  the boy  to the  stories.  as  The Race".  both  however,  as opposed  i n love,  from  childhood",  exuberance.  t o many  of Dublin.  Joyce  admires,  l i t t l e " .  Corley  o f my  pointed  across  I was  i s already  and Duffy.  to  him a  perhaps  but the pervert Chandler  escapes  beat  and u n i m a g i n a t i v e ,  Lenehan,  returns  "stories  corruption  last  as  t h e o l d man  stories,  (23)  the  heart  When  their  three  opposed  the  r a n as  i n the making,  the f i r s t  pervert as  "How  but the boy, sensing  up.  h i s fear  i s rough  category  called  He  f o r i n my  Gallaher  acts  not look  o f Mahoney:  Mahoney  same  does  of whipping  penitent; (26)  t h e o l d man's  or t w i c e as i f chill.(23)  I t i s a Both  I t  i n "Araby",  factor  these  to assert  I ti s imposed  common  stories  "adolescence" their  expresses  and  Cloud".  the limitations  living  by to  f a l l  both  into  and show t h e personal  24 judgement  over  The of  dust  that  of  their  atmosphere  and  of  class.  Eveline's  life  is described  in  terms  decay:  Her head l e a n e d a g a i n s t t h e window c u r t a i n s , and i n h e r n o s t r i l s was the odour of d u s t y c r e t o n n e . She was t i r e d . . . Home.' She l o o k e d a r o u n d t h e room, r e v i e w i n g a l l i t s f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s w h i c h she had d u s t e d o n c e a w e e k f o r s o many y e a r s , w o n d e r i n g w h e r e a l l the d u s t came from,(34-35)  Her  mother  her  drab  Aires  and  present  (good  the  organ  of  singer  antithesis grinder  her  brothers are  is contrasted  a i r ) of  good-natured is  one  the  new  who  takes  of  with  her  with  the  country. her  father  thewords:  see  and  promise  The  to  who  dead  of  sailor the  whole the  the  Italians,  of  Buenos  himself,  Bohemian  dismissed  "damned  the  a  G i r l ,  Italian  coming  over  here".  Her father's liness so  memories  temper and  many  and  coarse  of  her  of  his  violence  towards  present  threats  Dubliners his  f u t i l i t y  childhood  own his  of  are  life  overshadowed  i s dominated  brutality.  unconscious  existence  As  rebellion  takes  the  form  by by  i s the against of  her  his case  miserwith  the  drunken  children:  E v e n now, t h o u g h s h e was over n i n e t e e n , she sometimes f e l t h e r s e l f i n danger of her drunken f a t h e r ' s sullen violence. S h e k n e w i t was t h a t w h i c h had g i v e n her the palpitations. When t h e y w e r e g r o w i n g up he h a d never g o n e f o r h e r , l i k e he u s e d t o go f o r H a r r y a n d Ernest, b e c a u s e s h e was a g i r l : b u t l a t t e r l y he h a d b e g u n t o threaten her.(35)  25 B e s i d e s , t h e i n v a r i a b l e s q u a b b l e f o r money on S a t u r d a y n i g h t s had begun t o w e a r y her u n s p e a k a b l y . She always gave her e n t i r e wages - s e v e n s h i l l i n g s - and Harry a l w a y s s e n t u p w h a t he c o u l d , b u t t h e t r o u b l e w a s to get any money f r o m her f a t h e r . He s a i d s h e u s e d to squander m o n e y , t h a t s h e h a d n o h e a d , t h a t he w a s n ' t g o i n g t o g i v e h e r h i s h a r d - e a r n e d money t o t h r o w about the s t r e e t s , a n d much m o r e , f o r he was usually fairly bad on S a t u r d a y n i g h t . ( 3 6 )  As timidity scure  she  of  the  waits  her  life  -  but  find  i t a  wholly  the  character  sordid  hard  for  nature now  and  of  that  hour her  her  she  of  fear  l i f e :  was  undesirable  her  escape  of  change  " i t was  about  to  the  begin  hard  leave  natural to  work  i t she  ob-  -  a  did  not  life":(36)  H e r f a t h e r was becoming o l d l a t e l y , she n o t i c e d , he would miss her. S o m e t i m e s he c o u l d be v e r y nice. N o t l o n g b e f o r e w h e n s h e had b e e n l a i d up f o r a d a y , he h a d r e a d h e r o u t a g h o s t s t o r y a n d made t o a s t f o r her at the f i r e . A n o t h e r d a y , when t h e i r m o t h e r was a l i v e , t h e y had a l l gone f o r a p i c n i c t o t h e H i l l o f Howth. She r e m e m b e r e d h e r f a t h e r p u t t i n g on h e r mother's b o n n e t t o make t h e c h i l d r e n laugh.(37)  Next to  her  her  This  mind  mother  leads  existence, she  stays  to a in  moves "to a  to  the  two  keep  the  house  realization  horror  she  of  knows  younger  children  together  the that  true she  as  and  long  horror herself  of  her  as  she  her  must  promise could".  mother's  face i f  Ireland.  As s h e m u s e d t h e p i t i f u l v i s i o n o f h e r laid i t s s p e l l on t h e v e r y q u i c k o f h e r l i f e of commonplace s a c r i f i c e s c l o s i n g craziness. She t r e m b l e d as she h e a r d a mother's voice saying constantly with f  'Derevaun Seraun.' She s t o o d up i n a She must escape.'  mother's life being - that in final g a i n her oolish insistence:  Derevaun Seraun.** sudden impulse of t e r r o r . Frank would save her. He  Escape.' would  26 g i v e her l i f e , perhaps l o v e , too. But she wanted to live. Why s h o u l d s h e be u n h a p p y ? She had a right to h a p p i n e s s . Frank would take her i n h i s arms, f o l d her i n h i s arms. He w o u l d s a v e h e r . ( 3 8 )  "She to  wanted lead  cannot right to  her help  to  do.  to  the  her  at  Eveline  her  a  her  but  the  moment  last  and of  Jimmy,  in  her  Her  must  "After  life  of  pathetic  male  counterpart  possibility and  of  entering  him  realm  intense  experience.  foreign  to  bringing to a his  be  own  reassert  part  of  a  incapable  awareness  to  who  him  admit  be to  the  He  enjoys  had and  their  verge  acknowledges  is  of  to  to  playing  with  but  virtues  his  been  sent  the  party  seeing  mere are  the  be  a the  own be  ideas of  society more  and  emotions  his  up-  Cambridge  on  the  of  onlooker.  The  ceases to  yacht  life".(45)  suspension  each  and  such  "recklessness" to  victim  idea.  himself  the  a  rebel  his  was  circle  an  of  much to  "a  "duty"  of  necessary a  her  limitations  of  than  has  energy  the  shows  She  offered  this  more  on  mother's  capable  too  bound  her  is  w i l l ; the  only  once  at  is  is  He  he  themselves  is  vital  Eveline.  what  life",(41)  with  to  i t is  she she  like  dock.  what  of  Race",  of  "He  the  Dublin  "sacrifice"  remain  background,  "reasonable".  l i t t l e  fact,  his  and  companions,  overcoming  a  life  lack  The  sporting  on  Although  "duty"  that  existence  decide  happier  independence. for  an  cannot  paralysed.  sense  adventure  knowledge  of  but  is  her  "terror"  better  class's  assert that  live",  happiness"  envisaging of  to  see  he  He  "took  i s , in  middle-class  described  three as  Europeans  being  in  27 "good be  humour".(40-41)  genuinely  himself,  happy".(41)  too  much  which  had  as  "advanced  an  taught  business in  the  even  his  his  he  father  "had  b i l l s  but [at  years  age".  of  and  Mary  are  about  does And of  forty  the  and  in Dubliners "young  "The and  that  maturity  when  Eveline  from  those  is wealthy  who  watch  their  "channel  he  not  is  at  foreigners. continental happiness  and  of  ease He  is  must  and  Jimmy,  to  alluded  be  sown,  thirty  twenty-six  and  their  Freddy  youth  emphasized,  society  surrender  as  their  laid  Malins  i t s maturity.  the  aspirations,  is  is  The  assume  requires  emphasis  excess,  prolonged  "about  of  and,  home".(41)  painfully  those  to  The  [Jimmy's]  to  views  butcher's  be  respectively.  occur  his  we  see  on  his  separateness  gratefully  oppressed"  poverty".(40)  But  i t is also  stressed  the  world  is basking  from  and his  the  in  of the  Dublin  enjoyment  the aura  fashionable which  motor of  public  in that  young  surrounds  races,  in  class.  "the  friends  comes  is a  ideals  race  his  to  his  generation  and  modify  -  in  the  of  of  prince".(41)  oats  although  i t does  adolescent's  expand  to  instincts"(42)  to  enough  excited  conscious  broughthim  Lenehan  next  life  although  thirty-five the  Jimmy  man"  Dead",  encourage  of  wild  too  "solid  merchant  Cambridge]  not  case  a  proud  is a  in  rich  that  Similarly  Jane  a l l the  as  and  was too  the in  covertly  Adolescence Jimmy  of  early  become  acknowledges  affair.  i s always  inheritor  newspapers  "remonstrative, paid  the  He  "however,  Nationa1 ist"(41)  until  Dublin  father  Jimmy,  but  his  his  recognition  and  28 envy, He  not d i r e c t l y  i s aware  his  of public  happiness  unless  participation This  point  race  when  " i t  was  world  that  he  honour  to return  Doyle  a man i f he  to the The  had  aud i e n c e " (45)  h i s time  really  n o t been  himself  "well  At  so  which  i s a  he  f i t t i n g  agreed)  was  the charming also  -  a  well  worth  companion  has  lack Even  had  tasted  he  a  father.  Segouin: knowing, was...  pianist  - but,  whether case  or  the simply  the wherewithal Mr.  financial  Jimmy, t o o , l o o k e d v e r y w e l l when as he s t o o d i n t h e h a l l , giving a bows o f h i s d r e s s t i e , h i s f a t h e r  musical  tipsily  wealthy  for Villona's  should  living  son f o r such  b r i l l i a n t  knowing".  son, i t i s hinted,  even  I t i s not clear  sympathy  assure  between  his father  of the fabulously  charming  worth  curiously-  witty  to  of "Bohemian"  the party  poor."(41)  implies one  charm  extremism  entertaining  that  second  o f an  approves  very  profane  the lack  (as h i s father  was  h i s own  he  drivers:  i s so b r i l l i a n t l y  circles".(41)  "unfortunately"  to  of the foreign  which  "divided  and  i s at the  the yacht  the p o l i t i c a l  elder  make  first  the careless  h i s youth,  regret  The  i n  onlookers.  significant looks".(42)  enjoys  unfortunately,  a  of humbler  Jimmy  espouses  Villona  and  that  comfortable o f h i s own  o f h i s own p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  motoring  even  the value  occasions. t o one  of the s i t u a t i o n .  t o be  of the value  and  "such  unable  can r e a l i z e  two  obscurely  at Cambridge  The  on  the partyon  and  in  and  enjoyment  the reactions  after  nudges  he " f e l t  himself  he  i s introduced  pleasant  at  h i s personal  opinion  through  i s made  amid  occurs  from  Doyle's  to  reaction  overtones :  he was d r e s s e d , a n d last equation to the may h a v e f e l t even  29 commercially s a t i s f i e d at having secured qualities often unpurchasable.(43 )  In  the confusion surrounding the last  far  more  concerned  with  with  the pleasure which  knew  he  would  glad  of  the r e s t ,  up  regret  "solid value  way  might  have  the dark  necessary  had  instincts  the commercial  that  lost  than  i t . he  would  on  never  the  cover  assumptions  of  commercial  permit  anything which  "He  was  the inheritor  centre  which  to enjoy  has  i n losing  stupor  which  he  Jimmy i s  but at present  i s undoubtedly  instincts  of everything;  contradict  of  Jimmy  instincts";  abandonment  he  of cards  o f money  i n the morning,  glad  his folly".(46)  t h e amount  game  f o r h i s son  the  might  on w h i c h  i n some life  i s  organized.  "Counterparts" "stories  of mature  l i f e " .  represents  the child's  Jimmy  with  the  deal  adult  falls As  search  search  for "real  o f t h e pompous  physically  his inferior  with  i m p u n i t y , and  itself  in a  stared  fixedly  of  rage to his  desire  C r o s b i e and gripped  t h e boy  that  i n "An  at  from  the start through  the polished  skull  gauging  his throat...".(85 )  evening,  he  craves  a  and  Eveline  chafes  mere  under  power  to  i t sf r a g i l i t y .  abuse  expresses  " t h e man  directed A  the  the impossibility more  affairs  spasm o f  His surreptitious  to a  the  Ulsterman  violence:  escape  and  represents  his frustration  which  called  Encounter"  the f i n a n c i a l  f o r escape  Alleyne,  He  Alleyne,  but with  Joyce  Farrington  adventure". Mr.  that  f o r adventure,  h i s confusion and, r e a l i z i n g copy  the group  adolescent aspirations,  domination  him  into  drink of  adds  finishing  satisfying  30 world  of camaraderie  drinking clatter  with of  and good  h i s friends  fellowship:  amid  the glare  "with  the boys,  o f gas and t h e  glasses".(87)  B l a s t i t * He c o u l d n ' t finish i t i n time. He l o n g e d to execrate aloud, t o bring h i s f i s t down on s o m e t h i n g violently. He w a s s o e n r a g e d t h a t h e w r o t e Bernard Bernard i n s t e a d o f Bernard Bodley and had t o begin again on a c l e a n s h e e t . He f e l t s t r o n g e n o u g h t o clean out the whole o f f i c e single-handed. H i s body a c h e d t o do s o m e t h i n g , t o r u s h o u t a n d r e v e l i n violence. A l l the indignities of h i s l i f e enraged  him...(88)  His  desire  his  fist  front  f o rviolence  from  helpless him  descending  o f him";(88)  premeditated  i s impotent:  asked  hardly  of the manikin  on Mr. A l l e y n e  and h i s v i o l e n c e  Mr. A l l e y n e  t o b e 'an u t t e r  t h e head  yet h i s attack  and v e r b a l  son.  upon  "he c o u l d  whether  refrain i n  i s un-  i s reserved Farrington  for  h i s  believed  fool":  and, almost before he was a w a r e o f i t , h i s t o n g u e h a d found a f e l i c i t o u s moment: 'I don'tthink, s i r , ' he s a i d . 'that that's a fair question t o p u t t o me.' T h e r e was a p a u s e i n t h e v e r y b r e a t h i n g of the clerks. E v e r y o n e was a s t o u n d e d (theauthor of the w i t t i c i s m no l e s s t h a n h i s n e i g h b o u r s D . ( 8 9 )  Mr.  Alleyne  demands  which  Farrington  times  i n the course  to  Mr. A l l e y n e .  bar,  and t h i r d l y  These the  drinks  he  to forget  apology  he  First  i s overlooked  i s defeated combined  and the  are forced  of the evening.  Next  humiliations,  bad p o s i t i o n  a humiliating  on h i m  he m u s t  by t h e woman  i n the test  with  of  h i s awareness  he h a s p u t h i m s e l f  "indignities"  into  several apologize i nthe  strength. of h i s  at the office  poverty, and  31 even  h i s inability  consummated  i n h i s savage  Joyce's desire in  to get drunk  attitude  f o r adventure  attack  towards  This  epithet  "wine-dark",  may  be made  f o r Farrington  is  called  believes through  cunning  of  and C a l y p s o ,  witty  answer.  Ulysses found  golden  had never  the f a i t h f u l  Farrington's  middle-class experience  between of  wife  a  Ulysses  less  All  t o save  a  home  feat  Penelope  He i s  of a  hero  and d e f e a t s  Dubliner's  of the Heroic  high  his l i f e ,  as  he  also  Mr. S h e l l y  was  of a  i n the  quick  various  loved  favour  woman.  drink. unconsciously  travels,  although  But whereas  greeted  by  i n the Cyclops-  the copy-clerk's  h i s  beats  h i s son.  The  attempts  t o engage  i n  brought  He  the theatrical  after  when  Farrington,  Ulysses  and stood  and warmly  i s adequately  these  Ulysses.  of strength.  i s o u t a n d he  auspicious  case  impress  becomes  arrive  lost  d e v i c e , and a  h i s f o r the sake  oratory Both  Homeric  succeeded.  cannot  h i s intellect uses  of  of the caps,  Circe  Ulysses'  and  i n the episode  Farrington  the repetition  t o women  goddesses,  cave:  a t by  the stature  Ulysses  used  parallels  the national honour"(93)  attractive  Farrington  o f t h e modern  by t h e O d y s s e a n  modern  where  Athene:  a  as a  fails  Ulysses  of  common  i s given  " t o uphold  himself  however, two  upon  and  a  which i s  son.  the f u t i l i t y  i s hinted  the  strong  on h i s  i s emphasized  "Counterparts".  physically  add t o t h e rage  Ulysses  son, emptiness adventure  out i n the comparison  Age, and F a r r i n g t o n ,  the hero  time.  adventures  take  place  against  the drab  back-  32 ground fails  of  Dublin,  because  despite  his  he  a  pattern  hopes  which  of  minds.  Eveline's  whether  her  her  the  more  the  to  three  the  own  began  and to  and  "mature"  his  in  acceptance  the  type  of  desire  not  seem  are  His  his  from l i f e .  ideals  of  existence.  a  and  awakening  live but  class  according both  she  cannot  decide  her  family,  and  or  to and  to  role  by  heir.  permanent "victims" is  one  acceptance  of  his  job,  adventure  realization  their  loses  chooses  of  become  her  Farrington  his  Eveline  their  choice  father's  hopes  Jimmy  His  a  of  Jimmy  his  with  and  for  make  l i f e . as  part  fail  moral,  Dublin.  search  to  give,  a  escape  cemented  an  boy  are  adventures  of  of  the  which  paralysis  his  can  impossible  herself  Eveline  is  temporarily of  this  see  society  pointlessness  to  Jimmy  accept  citizens  of  and  class-consciousness.  children.  escape  signs  an  their  we  inner  position  to  Dublin  shows  her  for  Encounter"  he  to  overcome  "An  than  instincts"  is  opportunity  In  more  instincts  "duty"  achievement their  does  "solid  consciously  These  for  Eveline  because  inability  a l l f a i l .  independence  consciousness. to  and  and  of  his is  society  of  marriage only  the  Jimmy  of  an  attempt  horrifying  in  condemn  their themselves  33  CHAPTER I I I LOVE  Four "Araby", Case", is  "Two Love  there  happy the  a  G a l l a n t s " , "The appears  Little  photograph  But  he  "was  of a  were  sober  a n d was Sinico  his  gallery  of pleasures  married a  after  an  for love,  only  three  "Araby" boy-narrator introduces  intoxicated  when  Scott  recital  o f The  nowhere or a  was  pretty. wife  her husband  he  was so  when  drunk".(95)  sincerely that  Mrs.  from  anyone  Kearney  state  a nd  was  becoming  Mrs. Kernan,  life  of  coldly.  Farrington's  her single  who  irksome"(153)  i n which  the basic  Lord  themes  The  lovers  pervert  Farewell  uses  the  of Dubli ners.  to a  L y t t o n and  Arab's  Joyce  to Dublin's  attachment  experience. and  Painful  the eyes  itself  his wife  story  the middle-class  read  love:  marriage.  i s the third  i t s own  into  bullied  wife's  "A  but  answered  her f r i e n d s , a  and  d i d not suspect  t h e n a r c i s s i s m common  from  Encounter"  of  coldly  h i m when  he  sexual  relationship  in her".(108)  "had found  to establish  demonstrates divorced  who  by  that  among  weeks  love  in it".(80)  interest  for gossip  House"  the face  woman  only  with  i n Dubliners  they  "had d i s m i s s e d  the bootmaker  subject  married  take  and  bullied  Captain  would  forms  "looked  mean  And  else  Boarding  p r e t t y and  sharp-faced  concerned  healthy  Chandler  something  l i t t l e  was  i n many  [of his wifej  they  found  a  are mainly  suggestion  one.  Certainly  he  stories  the  I t  and  culture i n "An uncle's  to h i s Steed  i s an  34 example  of  Romantic  Dubliners*  literature  acceptance  and  the  of  the  banality  of  incongruity their  own  between existence:  My u n c l e s a i d h e w a s v e r y s o r r y h e h a d f o r g o t t e n . He s a i d he b e l i e v e d i n the o l d saying: ' A l lwork and no p l a y makes J a c k a d u l l boy.* He a s k e d me w h e r e I w a s g o i n g a n d , w h e n I t o l d h i m a s e c o n d t i m e , he a s k e d me did I know The A r a b ' s F a r e w e l l t o h i s S t e e d . When I l e f t t h e k i t c h e n he w a s about to r e c i t e the opening l i n e s o f t h e p i e c e t o my aunt.(31)  The  boy's  "The The wha t  ideas  are  derived  Abbot,  by  Walter  Memoirs  of  Vidocq";(27)  he  has  Scott,  from  the  The  same  Devout  and  his  Romantic  source:  Communicant,  illusions  are  and  patterned  on  read:  I i m a g i n e d t h a t I b o r e my c h a l i c e s a f e l y t h r o u g h a throng of foes. H e r n a m e s p r a n g t o my l i p s a t moments in s t r a n g e p r a y e r s and p r a i s e s w h i c h I m y s e l f d i d n o t understand. My e y e s w e r e o f t e n f u l l of tears ( I could n o t t e l l why) a n d a t t i m e s a f l o o d f r o m my h e a r t s e e m e d to p o u r i t s e l f i n t o my b o s o m . . . A l l my s e n s e s s e e m e d t o d e s i r e t o v e i l t h e m s e l v e s a n d , f e e l i n g t h a t I was about to s l i p f r o m t h e m , I p r e s s e d t h e p a l m s o f my h a n d s t o gether u n t i l they trembled murmuring: "*0 love* 0 l o v e * ' many t i m e s . ( 2 9 )  He  describes  the  terms:  "her  rope  of  her  been  so  affected  sensuality  g i r l ,  dress hair  in  swung  tossed by  terms  of  the  Dublin's  middle-class  that  in his  should  real  for  a  city  depend  on  from  with he  shabby, the  unconsciously, in  she  moved  side  to  an  that  and  body,  he  reality.  realization  It of  and  the  a  has  expresses  his  ideals  Like  b r i l l i a n t is part  the  donation  boy's from  soft  he  chivalric  "image",(28)  constructs  two-shilling  her  erotic  s i d e " ; ( 2 8 ) but  fiction  spiritual  girl  a  as  Romantic  replaces  compensate  although  of  so  and many  illusion Joyce's  romantic such  a  of to  irony dreams  tmundane  35 source  as  the drunken  At the  the bazaar  inanity  England,  commercially,  facts  of life  pro-English  played  i n middle-class  power  much  o f many  bought  the f i e l d  where  on  anguish,  work  i n fact,  i s caused  with  an  acrobat;  and a t the r o o t  puny  rebellion lies  London. is  Miss  Ivors'  preference  against  f o r English  quarrel  ever,  as  i n "The  the arguments  demonstrate,  offers  relationship  to  The  reality  boy  Faced by  as  seen  this  no  i n "Clay"  companies,  objection  solution  Weathers,  success "A  to  culture  Nationalism  an  Chandler's  predominance,  i n " I v y Day" about real  and  and  of L i t t l e  and C o n t i n e n t a l  friends  by A l l e y n e ,  accent"  and  Dubliners. her  i n " I v y Day" and  English  Dead".  and  at Gallaher's  enthusiastically Irish  their  banter.  his jealousy  Nationalism,  a reaction  the "London  or the  commerce  f o r Protestant  t h e woman  English  i s one o f t h e  of Joyce's  Eveline  Ulsterman,  towards  The E n g l i s h ,  i t , and Maria  before  as a c o n t r o l l i n g  of Dublin's  the lives  houses  nervousness  p o l i t i c a l l y  Dublin.  control  i n "Counterparts"  Farrington's  and  over  and b u i l t  Farrington  This  and h e l p l e s s  of the English  culturally  Ulstermen,  Ulsterman  i s abashed  voices.  the awareness  force  An  the boy  of the English  and  exercise  uncle.  i n  Mother",  and  i ti s  Gabriel's  which  causes  in Dubliners. the royal  to the problem  how-  v i s i t of  Ireland's  England.  i s unable with  buying  to challenge  the problem  a gift  he  the s i l l y  of turning  succumbs  English  h i s phantasy  to Dublin*s  into  paralysis.  36 The up  illusion into  the  derided  by  he  In  vanity; The  concerned much  the  according  to  the  rigid  which  letter  of  Lothario". the  Both  ardent  reduction  of  entirely  the of  the  what  presents  a  t i t l e  name  which  refers  to  the  the  a  in  Corley  and  Lenehan  the  choice  action  and  inaction,  the  Sweeney  Dubliners  in  fears  who  vulgar  action,  and  realizing their  Prufrock  those  sensitive, ment  and  choose and  a  action  often  although  Dublin  brutal.  sometimes inhibitions  the  with  illusions  which  seen Those  they  as  a  the  "gay  modern  exploitation.  the  dilemma  are,  in  of  effect,  Throughout  as  coarse,  who  avoid  sensitive, which  the  between  Wasteland.  are  psychological  are  involve-  subject  prevent  attempt  in-  their to  to ever  brighten  lives.  This  story  exploitation. [he's]  of  love  the  callous  they  act  "aspirated  of  and  present  sister.  of  friend  past  is  involved.  Corley  of  knights-errant  and  a  comparison  The  between  in  version  his  the  level  and  Duffy  woman  manner  to  suggest  and  expect  the  driven  ManganV  of  modern  after  "gazing  self-centred, i t  suggests.  existed  love  they of  way:  anguish  "gallants"  humanity  the  with  existence two  gives  creature  is  Lenehan  sexual  a  love  references  passion  as  burned  his  F1 o r e n t i n e s " ( 4 9 ) and  love,  eyes  idea  deny  be  myself  actual  Gallants"  figures  first  the  to  my  fashion  and  "Two  saw  and  with  a  I  boy's  same  relationship  courtly  believed  darkness  anger".(33) not  had  a  bit  also  Corley of  is  presents  sex  flattered  class",(49)  but  as  that  feels  no  a  matter  the  girl  of  class  "thinks  responsibility  about  37 the  fact  even of  that  tell,  "she's  her  servant  his  g i r l ,  appreciation  and  human:  even  he  affirmed.  'Take  he  has  to  money  was  concerned:  as  Lenehan  Corley the  a l l ,  no  bulk,  the  the  in  easy of  of  became  woman  a  of  b i t  for  I  keeping pace,  the  members  with  his  the in  less  fortunate opposite  self-doubt,  are  beyond  He  i s , in  the  be  thirty-one  Dublin in  fashion,  November".(55)  own  or  girl no  to  what  to  qualms  he  trusting  in  less  is  wants  build: his  after  Corley  party.  he  and  class  because,  Sex  of  spend-  His "his  boots  had  conquers a  war  of  socially-  Guilt,  shame,  or  ways  the  even  him.  in a  feels  But  sex.  qualities  Coriley's, although  as  that  game".(50)  second  sound  and  the  personal  the  them".(53)  simple-minded  admits  respectable He  to  it";(50)  mugs  getting  form  slavey,'  his  out  policeman's  solid  her  far  of  "regretfully"  of  of  got  a l l right".(50)  conqueror  the  ever  of  lowest  good  as  girls  not  philosophical  a  with  victory,  does  the  Corley  prostitute.  feelings  and  touch  one  He  considers  " i t ' sa  l i t t l e  is  the  he  a  because  ruined  a  with  that to  slavey,  it.'"(50)  thing  having  endpoint  Lenehan's opposite  to  a  against  acceptable momentary  the  muses  helpless,  a t t r i t i o n  deny  a  her  well-mannered  she  only  is  his  of  for  [him]".(50) is  nothing  kind  "damn  concern  something only  being  was...  attitude  to  t i p  this  admits  this,  contest,  with  my  She  speaks  "'There's  where  "she  he  on  s u c c i n c t l y comments:  even  point  about  a  and  gone  name.  seems  be  ing  bit  real  which  turned  a  no  are  in  waij  more  "young He  many  commendable.  man";(47)  affects a  "he  sporting  would dress  38 and  manner  of  an  He  i s , in  fact,  of  public  and  and be  "a to  down but It  home have  is  a  that so  slavey  shown  reveals  of  coin  himself  him  to  suspected,  a  to  and  be  Corley  be  in  the  kind  the  power  an  be  good  of  a  of  adventure  job"  i t  would  to  s i t  a  "gallant"  that  middle-class pariah,  dreams  "good  dinner  manner  l i f e .  who  pleasant  and  of  voyeur.  wants  how  apparent  Corley's  implies.  ideals  should  in  aspire  relationship with  i t had  seemed.  drude,  unfeeling  callous  victims.  more his  He  a  dress  than  p r o s t i t u t e whose  even  is  and  the  makes  more  his  mere  in  bourgeois.  than to  male  himself  Lenehan  of  Lenehan,  sordid  participant  a  thought  s i t by  affects  evidence  gold  active  action,  "He to  conventionally  more  of  own".  reverse  even  an  respectability.  fire  He  the  The  than  his  warm  ironic  be  both  marital of  desires  had  incapable  to...(55)  Dublin to  adventurer,  The  repulsive  callous  the  To and  final  for  point  The  would gain  twist,  his  he  coarse.  reader  desire  in  that  the  have  dehumanizes  however,  s h r i l l  coin  shows  impotence  abuse:  •Well?* he s a i d . »Did i t c o m e off?' . . . L e n e h a n k e p t up w i t h h i s f r i e n d , breathing uneasily. He w a s b a f f l e d , and a n o t e o f menace pierced through his voice. •Can't y o u t e l l u s ? ' he s a i d . ' D i d you try her?'(58)  The  reader  do  not  is  common  desired  sees  even  doubt  in  end,  "gallants"  them  as  unprincipled  street-walkers;  their  own  gentility.  Such  Dubliners,  and  the  pursuance  with  with  the  Mrs.  callous  implication Mooney,  "The  of  moral  they blindness  of  a  prostitution, links  Madam",  in  "The  the  Boarding  39 House".  "The treatment  Boarding  of a  minor  and  horror  inherent  who  stress  appearance  trap  themselves  refuse "a  with  i s a  the  crudity  veneer  not r e a l i t y , series  woman"  "determined  ruthless  judge  justified  of situation  marry  o f f her daughter  her  Polly  kept  In the course  and  spoke  was  between  of i t s obvious h e r own  people  which  they  daughter,  face",  who  "dealt  meat".((61) of the  through  i t s  i s a  story  thin-  hard-headed,  a n d c h a r a c t e r who  lip-service.  very  the r u n o f t h e young  relationship and  pays  men  of  not c o n t e n t , and  with  She  Joyce's  feels  quite  to her a i d the sentimental morality  she merely  young  class  florid  shows  of  self-deception  butcher's  deals  and p r o p r i e t y .  i n calling  'As  "great  example  cliches  i s a  cleaver  woman".  which  resident  a  of her personality  of gentility  form  of hollow  with  as a  the  of that  M r s . Mooney  problems  She  t o show  i n the lives  to question.  moral  i s the perfect  incident  i n a  b i g imposing  House"  Her prime  i t i s significant  o f h e r as The  lively, men."  consequences,  that  " a l l  i s to the  Madam".(60)  the intention  Quite  her daughter  concern  to  aware  was  of the  to give growing  and one o f t h e b o a r d e r s , "she watched  the pair  and  counsel":  P o l l y k n e w t h a t s h e was b e i n g w a t c h e d , but her m o t h e r ' s p e r s i s t e n t s i l e n c e c o u l d n o t be m i s u n d e r s t o o d . T h e r e h a d b e e n no o p e n c o m p l i c i t y b e t w e e n m o t h e r a n d d a u g h t e r , no o p e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . . ( 6 1 )  40 In  the face  she  o fh e r mother's  i s temporarily  unsuspecting with  being  clerk.  silence  given  Mrs.  Madam" cause  and  i n effect  of acquiring  When  Polly's  hand  that  t oi m p l i c a t e  complicity  upt o her nickname  her daughter  the  a s "The  t ot h e g r e a t e r  a husband.  her attitude  answer  understands  i n her unspoken  lives  prostitutes  M r s . Mooney  intervenes;  a free  Mooney,  her daughter's actions,  Polly  i s equally  feels  t h e moment  towards  Polly  t ob er i g h t  she  i s hypocritical,  and  so:  . . . s h e h a d b e e n frank i n h e r q u e s t i o n s a n d P o l l y h a d b e e n frank i n h e r answers. Both had been somewhat awkward, o f c o u r s e . S h e h a d b e e n m a d e awkward b y h e r n o t w i s h i n g t o r e c e i v e t h e news i n t o o c a v a l i e r a f a s h i o n o r t oseem t o have c o n n i v e d , a n d P o l l y had b e e n m a d e awkward n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e a l l u s i o n s o f t h a t k i n d a l w a y s m a d e h e r aiMkward, b u t a l s o because she d i d n o t w i s h i t t o bet h o u g h t t h a t i n h e r w i s e i n n o c e n c e she had d i v i n e d t h e i n t e n t i o n b e h i n d h e r mother's to 1eranee.(62)  Even  i n a moment  farce  of untruth  acknowledging existence  when are same  a keen  and d i s h o n e s t y .  even  Mooney  judge  t o bes t e r n commendable deadly  reverence  importance they  o fevery  i s acknowledged  o fc h a r a c t e r a n d when bourgeois  effect  They  keep  between  carefully  t othemselves the v u l g a r i t y  and t h e d u p l i c i t y  Mrs. and  o fsuch  word,  t ol e tthings traits  for "social  opinion":  thought and  when  Doran's  action,  businesswoman  to give  credit,  pass".(59-60)  but she uses  as she manipulates  evade  o f their  as a shrewd  who "knew  them a  them  with  These the  middle-class  41 She was s u r e she w o u l d w i n . To b e g i n w i t h s h e had all t h e w e i g h t o f s o c i a l o p i n i o n on h e r s i d e : she was an o u t r a g e d m o t h e r . She had allowed him to l i v e b e n e a t h h e r r o o f , a s s u m i n g t h a t h e was a man o f h o n o u r , and he h a d simply abused her hospitality. He w a s t h i r t y - f o u r or t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s of age, so that youth could n o t be p l e a d e d a s h i s e x c u s e ; neither could i g n o r a n c e b e h i s e x c u s e , s i n c e h e wa.s a man of the w o r l d . He h a d simply taken advantage of P o l l y ' s y o u t h and inexperience: t h a t was evident,(62)  She this the  is  been  part  that  which  at  She  "some  as  not  herself  of  by  the has  she  own  least  with  a  beyond  permits  mothers  her  line  knew  She clear  will  who  reasoning  a  "catch  that  not  get  short  and  justice  patronizing  could  at  regarding  conscience  a l l doubt  herself  of  compunction  played.  Street"  knowing  even  plays  complicity  happen  in  with has  thought  their  daughters  hands".(63)  Polly the  she  has  Marlborough  done.  their  taken  she  satisfaction  towards off  completely  point  twelve the  so  they  with  the  same  from  her  shabby  a  minor  role  with  her  mother  do.  She  is  tendency  to  existence  a  and  the is  shallow,  erect as  in  comedy.  willing  accepts  let  things  narcissistic  intricate  many  to  She  young  daydreams  creature of  escape  Dubliners:  She r e s t e d the nape of her neck a g a i n s t the c o o l iron b e d r a i l and f e l l into a reverie. T h e r e was no longer any p e r t u r b a t i o n v i s i b l e on h e r face. She waited on p a t i e n t l y , a l m o s t c h e e r f u l l y , w i t h o u t a l a r m , her memories g r a d u a l l y g i v i n g p l a c e to hopes and v i s i o n s of the f u t u r e . Her h o p e s and visions w e r e so i n t r i c a t e t h a t she no l o n g e r saw the white p i l l o w s on w h i c h h e r g a z e was f i x e d or remembered t h a t s h e was waiting for anything. At l a s t she heard her mother c a l l i n g . She started to her f e e t and ran to the banisters. 'Polly.' Polly." 'Yes, mamma?' 'Come d o w n , d e a r . Mr. D o r a n wants to speak to you.' Then she remembered what she had been w a i t i n g f o r . (66-67)  42 She  serves  the  emotional  the  superficial  projects The a  a  wry  off of  counterpart  shallowness  on  his sister's  game his  on w i t h  honour:  so  unspoken  he  should  " I fany  Doran  between  people  Mooney, a  to t r y exactly  and  "that  the  that  sort  time  daughter sort  chip  protector  put h i s teeth  y e t a t t h e same mother  viciousness.  of these  tried  well  he  I t i s  cas>t' a s  fellow  while  mother.  Jack  be  he'd bloody  would";(66)  agreement  induce  in their  foul-mouthed  Corley,  his sister  throat:  should  and  as  underlying  latent  the h y p o c r i t i c a l morality  block  demonstrates  emptiness  arrognace,and  are present  the hard-drinking t h e same  moral  and  of the midd1e-classes  coarseness, of both  comment  to her brother and  gentility  their  qualities  that  an  as  down  there  that  of a  of a  i s  Polly  game"  with  her.  Doran that  he  much  a t ease  attempt  will  i s weak. n o t defy  new.  fashion,  experienced  her and  risk  i n the pleasant  anything  bourgeois  Mrs. Mooney  a  years  prospect  of " a l l h i s industry  i s a  Doyle  of "After  when class  their ideas  great  deal The  firm  and  Race".  Both  individual desires of propriety.  are at that  are challenged  Both  suffer  from  i s too  to  and  dare  even  at the  thrown him and stage by  true  has worked f o r  i s horrified  between  thinks  had, i n  B u t he  and d i l i g e n c e  of s i m i l a r i t y  he  oats",(64)  of free-thinking.  thirteen  There  years  she  f o r he  r u t of h i s existence  his wild  f o r t h e same  when  publicity,  In h i s younger  "shown  period  i s right  the  away"(63-64) Jimmy of  life  middle-  commitment to  43 "solid Both  instincts"  have  kept  which  their  a b l e " r e c k l e ss nes s " Doran  also  without  has  in  When  he  her  judges  slightly  inferiors. but  what  "industry within  with  Jimmy  case  f i r s t  tries  to  imagine  a l l the  orders of concern  family  petty  the  to  an  to  to  judge  concensus married  snobbishness  he  "reason-  society.  inability  the  will  of  their  himself  what  friends  diligence".  bounds  middle-class  i s not  and  and  the  capitulate  the  with  His  his  both  common  he  higher  rebellion  and  submitting  opinion.  justify  with  view  feels  of  public  to  Polly  which  their  for  the  class  love  story  and  characteristic  i s concerned  marriage.  Mrs.  virtues  her  business  management  of  however,  them,  justifying  the  the  ideals  of  the  conquest  Mr. be  free  much did  a not  has  a  no  Mr.  the of  publish  the  Mooney class:  comedy  shows  of  moral  basis  other  Despite  this  of  many  girl  she  reputation  the  good  character. than  a l l her a had. affair  middle-  of  shrewdness,  grasp  Her  the  use  end  self-righteously and  uses  acceptability  for  Doran.  i n "A  Painful  conventions them his  with  keen  respectability,  Duffy,  victim  and  means.  of  from  of  social  feel:  The f a m i l y w o u l d l o o k down on h e r . F i r s t of t h e r e was her d i s r e p u t a b l e f a t h e r , and t h e n mother's b o a r d i n g h o u s e was beginning to get c e r t a i n fame. He h a d a n o t i o n h e w a s being He c o u l d i m a g i n e h i s f r i e n d s t a l k i n g o f t h e and l a u g h i n g . ( 6 4 )  This  the  as  of  Doran,  thoughts  Case", his He  because  considers  society, told he  Mrs. would  but  himself he  is  Sinico not  to  as  that  "submit  he  44 himself  to the criticisms  entrusted  i t sm o r a l i t y  o f an  obtuse  to policemen  impresarios",108-109)  and  middle-class  values.  His living  his  for his city:  contempt  possible found  from  the city  a l l the other  pretentious",(105) (105) his  an  modern  and  escorting nothing  The  them  further  to live  he  a  was  " i n an  a  onto  gesture  "social  when  l i f e  to the conventions  which  to to  deny  demonstrates as  f a r as and...  modern  he  and  ironical  moment",  the f i r s t  page  of  of his distaste for  duties"  they  which  arts  citizen  mean,  his relatives  to the cemetery  of  wished  Beans  was  only  are "visiting  h i s way  of Dublin  f o r Bile  i t sfine  i n Chapelizod  his pasting,  of aphorisms  advertising.  acknowledges  "he  suburbs  and  intends  of which  advertisement  collection  he  middle-class  he  consciously  at Christmas [die]  ...  regulate  and  [He the  concedes] civic  life.(106-107)  Yet  he  constantly  self-righteousness of  Mrs. S i n i c o ' s  reasserts  of his class,  the fastidiousness  and  e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s judgement  death;  The whole n a r r a t i v e o f her death r e v o l t e d him and i t r e v o l t e d h i m t o t h i n k t h a t he h a d e v e r s p o k e n t o h e r o f w h a t he h e l d s a c r e d . The t h r e a d b a r e phrases, the inane expressions of sympathy, t h e c a u t i o u s words o f a r e p o r t e r won o v e r t o c o n c e a l t h e d e t a i l s o f a commonplace vulgar death attacked h i s stomach. Not merely had she degraded h e r s e l f ; she had degraded him.(112)  Even an are  h i s involvement  anti-midd1e-class really  workmen,  those  and  with  the Irish  gesture,  gives  of his class.  the ease  with  which  Socialist evidence  His reactions he  Party, that  his attitudes  to the  "discontinues  ostensibly  his  earnest  45 attendances" f i c i a l i t y  when  h i s audience  i n h i s p o l i t i c a l  of  h i s superiority  in  "Ivy  i s diminished,  i d e a l i s m and a  to the workers  show  a  super-  conscious  similar  to the  acceptance  canvassers*  Day":  He h a d f e l t h i m s e l f a u n i q u e f i g u r e a m i d s t a score of s o b e r workmen i n a g a r r e t l i tby an i n e f f i c i e n t oil-lamp. When t h e p a r t y h a d d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s , e a c h u n d e r i t s own l e a d e r a n d i n i t s own g a r r e t , he h a d d i s c o n t i n u e d h i s a t t e n d a n c e s . The w o r k m e n ' s d i s c u s s i o n s , he s a i d , w e r e t o o t i m o r o u s ; the i n t e r e s t they took i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f w a g e s was inordinate. He f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e hard-featured r e a l i s t s and t h a t they r e s e n t e d an e x a c t i t u d e w h i c h was t h e p r o d u c e o f a l e i s u r e n o t w i t h i n t h e i r reach, (108)  He  approaches  h i s intimacy  approaches  every  completely  intellectual  talks  other  aspect  she urged  she  h i s c o n f e s s o r " . (108)  emotionalized emotion, in  t h e same  but  himself  her  eyes  is  he  only  as  long  was  very  almost  as  visions  When  Mrs. Sinico,  passionately much  exalted  of  f u l l :  him...  beginnings  of  s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n not the  f u l f i l l s  threatens lonely  He  this  ideal  t o become  and warm  g i r l ,  that i n  stature".(109)  and p r e s s e d  surprised.  maternal  he " t h o u g h t  friendship  h i s "image"  and  to the  imagines,  t o an a n g e l i c a l their  open  These  to her "image":  When  up h i s hand  into  a  "With  t h e boy i n "Araby"  ascend  of himself.  Duffy  turns  i n relation  i s terrified.  "caught Mr.  that  he w o u l d  happy  vision  way  Duffy  from  her books  "The union  life".(109)  a s he  lends  him to l e t h i s nature  h i s mental  however,  He  listens.  solicitude became  Mrs. Sinico,  of h i s existence,  position.  e n d l e s s l y , she simply  with  real  hearted,  i tto her  Her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  cheek, ofh i s  46 words  disillusioned  soul's to  incurable  end t h a t  and  sums  between  up man  the whole a n d man  sexual  is  impossible  He  overlooks  have  self  ideal  there  her attempt  o f ftheir  relationship  i n the aphorism: because  must  from  man  Duffy  uses  h i s i n t e l l e c t u a 1 ism uses  drink,  a n d woman  of love  t h e one p e r s o n  the "adventureless  must n o t  intercourse".(110)  choice  into  as F a r r i n g t o n  "Love  there  be s e x u a l  and obvious  i n auto-eroticism,  who  between might  tale"(107)  o fh i s  to protect  him-  the pervert  and t h e boy i n "Araby"  constructs  world.  Following momentarily  and spurns  life  dream  t o h e r o f" t h e  and f r i e n d s h i p between  and r e t r e a t s  from r e a l i t y  engages an  because  speaks  breaks  i s impossible  the natural  infused  existence.  He  affair  intercourse,  a n d woman  He  loneliness"(109)  loneliness.  be  man  him".(109)  h i sdiscovery  realizes  h i s own  of Mrs. Sinico's  death  he  responsibility:  He b e g a n t o f e e l i l l a t e a s e . He a s k e d h i m s e l f what e l s e he c o u l d h a v e d o n e . He c o u l d n o t h a v e carried on a c o m e d y o f d e c e p t i o n w i t h h e r ; a n d he c o u l d n o t have l i v e d w i t h her openly. He h a d d o n e w h a t s e e m e d to him best. How w a s h e t o b l a m e ? Now t h a t s h e w a s g o n e h e u n d e r s t o o d how l o n e l y h e r l i f e m u s t h a v e b e e n , s i t t i n g night after night, alone i n t h a t room. His l i f e w o u l d be l o n e l y t o o u n t i l h e , t o o , d i e d , ceased to e x i s t , became a memory - i f a n y o n e r e m e m b e r e d h i m , (113-114)  First  he t r i e s  into  self-pity.  Farrington, for  to rationalize  other  a l l react  In this  he  examples  h i s actions  i s similar  to Chandler  of the "mature"  with-self^pity  and then  to the truth  life about  of  he  escapes  and Dublin;,  themselves  and  47 their  circumstances.  The of  condition  middle-class  lovers. His it  experience  In "Araby"  vision  He  the others  of  situation,  acts  s t i l l  Lenehan  i s motivated  a b i l i t y  to indulge  i l i t y  of both  towards He  knows  lower I  opinion" has  towards at ion  that  has  i s a  and  marry  M r s . S i n i c o when  i t c a n be  form  His  the  from  to defy  a and ' I f "social  madonna"(60)  of feeling  emotionally  only  lacks  sordid.  by  distaste.  " ' I seen*  feels  ster-  attitude  a g i r l  middle-class and  not the  marriage  and  perverse  and  instinct  gain.  into  the strength  i s alive  drab  sexual  b u t has  s o m e t i m e s .says  i s inca'pable  than  as  truth  of his  accentuates  on  love.  i t real  the  for financial  down  five  of  awareness  of resentment  i n Dublin's other  moral  of  "derided"  to discover  the " l i t t l e  she  ideal  has  daughter.  lacks  Duffy  the drabness  t o make  i s trapped  look  who  b u t he  Love  and  will  family  him.  he  instincts  Doran  combination  h i s family  seduced  tries  His impotence  lives.  so w i l l  no  t h e same  known*"(64)  her death. that  that  of t h e mother  middle-class  had've  who  Polly  realizes  the desire  them.  their  connivings  he  i n i t sc r u d e s t  by by  romantic  the honesty  love  further  a  and when  Corley  and r e p r e s e n t s  debased  the  lack  displays  the misadventures  the boy e r e c t s  at least  himself,  i n Dublin  through  i s unrealistic  crumbles.  their  of love  self-pity  any  suggest-  48 CHAPTER  IV  CULTURE  Three with  Dublin's  Day  artist,  what while  Mother"  had  be  pervert  belonged  and  has v i s i o n s  Celtic  school  by  Mother".  the dilemma  read  to the priest,  cultural  Cloud", "Ivy  "A  Little  Cloud"  of the Dublin  the city's  cliches  political  life  Scott  Lord  the yellowed  heritage  "The Bohemian  as a  romances  i n "The B o a r d i n g  Little  Chandler  Romantic  and  recited  of the sloppiest  enjoyed  of himself  read  and h i s u n c l e  Polly  reason  Little  concerned  and  entertainments.  i n "Araby"  and E v e l i n e  this  "A  i n "An E n c o u n t e r "  the melodramatic  with  called  to His Steed".  romance,  a n d "A  " I v yDay" r e v e a l s  t h e boy  Farewell in  might  are directly  culture:  Room"  i t s theatrical  The Lytton,  i n Dubliners  middle-class  i n the Committee  portrays  ?fA  stories  of the melancholy  "The  Arabs  House"  spoke  forms  G i r l " .  tone  of  literary  Inikeeping  admires  poet,  which  Byron  one o f " t h e o f h i s poems."  (71)  Despite place in  these  poetic  aspirations,  nature  of L i t t l e  Chandler's  the f i r s t  paragraph  of the story.  represented  as a  series  however,  consciousness Here  of middle-class  t h e common-  i s reflected  h i s thoughts  platitudes  and  are cliches:  E i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e he h a d s e e n h i s f r i e n d o f f a t t h e North W a l l and wished him God-speed. G a l l a h e r had got on. You c o u l d t e l l t h a t a t once by h i s t r a v e l l e d air, h i s w e l l - c u t tweed s u i t , and f e a r l e s s accent. Few f e l l o w s had t a l e n t s l i k e h i s , and fewer s t i l l  49 s t i l l c o u l d r e m a i n u n s p o i l e d by s u c h success. G a l l a h e r ' s h e a r t was i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e a n d he had deserved to win. I t was something to have a friend like that.(68)  When to  he  imagines  platitudes  and  weary  romantic  him.  He  this to  felt  being  safely picks  i t was  has  into  a  a  throng  among  Chandler "the  Jimmy  Doyle,  "Every  dull  step  he  escape  will  moment the  of  himself allows  as his  but a  own  to  in  as  the  took  the  of  boy  in  foes",(29) squalor  had  "Araby"  he  so  world-  against  ages  As  subject  possession  imagining  that  as  traditional  daydreams.  against  the  successful race  phrases  from  the  His  reverie  actually  Capel  the  bequeathed  the  slightest  and  escapes  "bore'  "weighing  of  fortune,  boy  l i t t l e  moved  [his*]  chalice  Chandler his  soul  not  poet. ahead  becomes  him  writing into  his  to  see  own  his  nearer  He  does  his  but  not  himself  to  he  as  dreams  that  He  a  has looks  toivision  he  at  of  poetry  "invent  would  that  London,  he  produce  and  book  intense  and  city  poetry,  like  foreignness.  poetry.  to  which so  of  life",(71)  of  of  S t r e e t " , ( 7 0 ) and,  brought  insight  notice  shabbiness  superiority  through  leads,  and  of  the  inartistic  poetic  to  which  imagining of  the  is just  struggle  habit  Galaher]  London  this  mind  to  wisdom  inelegance  almost  river,  rebels  his  as  mind  melancholy  i t was  same  his  soul".(71)  [towards  from  gentle  Dublin's  believes  further  poet  himself  fact  market  poet's  l i f e ,  the  a  satisfying  rowdy  way  of  proven  through his  A  burden  as  the  sees  useless  He  feality  through  if  how  him".(69)  from  he  hero:  the  possibility  h i m s e l f as  but  sentences  get".(71) passes  Corless's  50 and  has  his  tendency  to  in  to  pass  turn  back.  to  Like  imagine  by  any  He  shows  so  many  of  the  people  rather  than  to  act  has  poss i b i 1 i t i e s  i t s present  ho  which  interest  social  in  life  the  might  past  of  of  Dublin  enabled  have  his  him  held.  own  city  or  condition:  A horde of grimy c h i l d r e n populated the s t r e e t . They stood or ran i n the roadway, or c r a w l e d like mice upon the t h r e s h h o l d s . L i t t l e Chandler gave t h e m no t h o u g h t . He p i c k e d h i s way deftly through a l l t h a t m i n u t e v e r m i n - l i k e l i f e and under the shadow of the gaunt s p e c t r a l mansions i n which t h e old n o b i l i t y o f D u b l i n had roistered. No m e m o r y o f the past touched him, f o r h i s m i n d was full of a present joy.(69)  In  place  of  an  children  or  the  evaluation had  never  of  awareness fading  the  been  in  of  past  place  either  the  he  a  where  Corless's  has he  but  is he  c o n d i t i o n , of  perfectly to  meet  knew  the  the  middle-class  Gallaher: value  "He  of  the  name".  (69)  His class  reaction  to  fastidiousness,  ing  himself  his  friend  expresses  did which  itself  not  his  for  had  in  terms  displays  "Gallaher's  please  he  friend  him.  not  There  observed  which  accent was  more  of  and  way  of  something  before".(74)  illustrate  his  his  middleexpress-  vulgar  And  his  in envy  class-conscious-  ness:  The a d v e n t u r e of meeting G a l l a h e r a f t e r e i g h t years, of f i n d i n g h i m s e l f w i t h G a l l a h e r in Corless's s u r r o u n d e d by l i g h t s and n o i s e , of l i s t e n i n g to Gallaher's s t o r i e s and of s h a r i n g f o r a b r i e f space G a l l a h e r ' s v a g r a n t and triumphant l i f e , upset the equipoise of h i s s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e . He felt acutely  51 t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n h i s own l i f e a n d h i s f r i e n d ' s and i t seemed t o h i m u n j u s t . G a l l a h e r was h i s inferior i n b i r t h and education.(78)  The  conversation  bitterness  from  and antogonism  insists  that  his  unhappiness.  own  "thousands would to  this  Gallaher  marry,  Gallaher and Jews,  h i m i f he w i s h e d  his friend,  crushing  i s coloured  to Gallaher's  w i l l  o f Germans  marry  point  because  He  tone  with  Chandler  which  by b o a s t i n g  rotten  i t .  Chandler's  arrogance.  but i n a  replies  by  betrays  of the  money"(79)  delivers  a  who  crude  insult  i t i s true.*  ' I d o n ' t f a n c y t y i n g m y s e l f up t o o n e woman, y o u know.* He i m i t a t e d w i t h h i s m o u t h t h e a c t o f t a s t i n g a n d m a d e a wry face. 'Must g e t a b i ts t a l e , I s h o u l d t h i n k , * he said.(79)  When resentment its  "thin  reminded dark of  he  continues tight  Oriental  a He  impulse lapses  book  t o mount.  lips"  and c o l d  eyes,  he  eyes  that  full  photograph  with  "repelled him"  of "rich  how  Chandler's  Jewesses".  they  are of  "Those passion,  r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t h i s l i f e awoke w i t h i n h i m . he n o t e s c a p e f r o m h i s l i t t l e h o u s e ? Was i t te f o r him to t r y to l i v e bravely l i k e Gallaher? he go t o L o n d o n ? T h e r e was t h e f u r n i t u r e s t i l l pa i d for.(81)  to escape into  i s destroyed  yet another  to relieve  himself  by  daydream:  and g e t i t p u b l i s h e d ,  tries  His wife's  stories  thought,  o f t h e baby  1 o n g i ng.'" : ( 8 0 )  A dull Could too l a Could to be  he  i n charge  him of Gallahers  voluptuous  His  i s left  that  his financial " I f he c o u l d  might  by r e a d i n g  be  t h e way  Byron,  concern only  and  write  f o r him".(81)  the arch  anti-  52 bourgeois the he  symbol  of h i s bourgeois  rebels,  "to  and  vindicate  is a  h e r e t i c , but i s prevented  the object himself  the helpless condition  started child,  Chandler  is a  Dublin.  crassness  of are  and  as  i n a  "Ivy to  even  conditions p o l i t i c a l Mother" begins  the  more  with by  and  i s one  and  life  has done  failure.  the individual  has  life  in this  t h e same  nerve-shattering  believes  him to  have  In the  realm  the exponents Those  who  of  action  choose i n -  impotence.  those  which These  Joyce  preceding offers  people  who  with  a  Purdon's  o f a l l who  con-  specific of the  i t , "A  world.  "Grace"  condition  sermon  attend  are  glimpse  inhabit  his spiritual  intended  stories  f o r the t h e a t r i c a l  of Father  Little  His condition i s  t h e same  " I v y Day"  and  to the  He  i n Dublin". than  remorse  Corley.  Gallants",  the diverse  condition  he  of  a l t e r n a t i v e to  of the stories  t h e same  the time  "tears  him t o  the only  Chandler  of total  baby,  moment  reduces  of middle-class  aggressive.  directly  much  spiritual  women,  brie<f  third-rate journalist.  of the society, scene  as  and  man.  state  mould  i n "Two  "public  does  expanded  a  state  Day"  represent  cerned  i s only  cheapened  live  misery  represents  towards  and  f o r what  helpless  condescension.  of love  coarse,  action  who  attitude  b u t he  art,  and  i s o f t h e same  brutalized  Remorse  the  h i s manhood",(78)  of h i s wife  incoherence,  of  of h i s attempt  to assert  return  of the "mature"  Gallaher,  condition  way,  f o r h i s own  defeated  characteristic  talent  The  of stuttering  remorse  For a  of h i s violence,  to h i s eyes".(83) and  the crying  commitments.  i n some  child.  by  to refer  the r e t r e a t .  but i s to "The  53 Dead" and  reverses  then  focusing  "Ivy of  this,  starting  on  Day"  the  takes  place  the  "uncrowned  ironically,  the  presence  Mr.  against  Richard  presence simply height.  his  own  was  burning Catholic  heir,  a  mere  itself  hounded (132)  a  career great  ideals, Church.  his  a  allied  Keon  who  f l i t t l e and  the  voters:  and  I  told be  The  Hynes  Tierney  Fanning,  i t ' l l  is  attacks  the  in  the  is  "travelling  of  poetic the on  his  whose  asked  mentioned  right".(120)  He  me  support who  Father  no  the  into the  others entire  p o l i t i c a l  none  even  of  the  supports  visiting  English  that  friends  tribute  with  worshipped  his  Church  own  not  previous  of  is  apparently  matter"(123)  Burke  [Grimes] I  form  his  Parnell's  seen  a  with  the  -  with  enmity  self-same priests  of  either  climber  to  shabbiness  i n s t i l l i n g  opponent.  i s ,  independence.  Tierney  welcome  in  Father  him,  social  of  death  the  is  from  was  the  Dicky  "fawning  business  "  a l l  with  he  the  story,  For  Ireland's  inciting  of  the  fallen  capable  working-class  Parnell.  support Father  and  condition  He  the  situation  fall  of  Ireland.  measure  as  and  Tricky and  of  canvassers.  but  man  and  job-seeker  of  that  can  achieved  c o n t r o v e r s i a l address  monarch,  has  reader  almost  social  anniversary  throughout  p o l i t i c a l  Irish  the  felt  the  He  integrity  most  emphasized in  general  King"(131)  his  b r i l l i a n t  hated.  the  and  corrupt  his  the  on  Tierney  Parnell  During or  J.  so  as  which  the  individual.  Parnell,  ideal  with  to  of  had h i s "  Parnell  disreputable  a c c o u n t " (124) Tierney's is  used  agent  to  impress  nominators  Burke's  name,  and  I  were, think  54 When O'Connor And  the  group They  Henchy  replied:  "he's  characters  which are  or  those  is  an  in  not of  certain their  O'Connor,  of  Hynes  even  sympathizes  ment,  like  Duffy  the  Irish  House" every weak  who  bought  week.  garrulous  and  and  criticizes  who  dominates  favour like and  of  the  welcome  Crofton  an  at  English  members  of  from  Jack,  apparently the  which  most  the  for  him  the  their  the  in  and  Nationalists.  p o l i t i c a l of  "The  the  movemeetings  Boarding  Dubliners  i t is  who  Henchy,  are  a  alternately  praises  Hynes,  Crofton  and  Parnell,  He  Crofton  are  both  at  and  the  of  p o l i t i c a l the  same  being  a  integrity,  Nationalist time.  in  The  cause portly  pro-English  withdrawn.  middle-class  s o c i a l l y  Committee  they  has  caretaker  the  people  n  excuse  caretaker,  Newpaper  to support  opponent  in  candidate  s o c i a l i s t Reynold's  impecunious  their  the  men  in  Henchy's  monarch  p o l i t i c i a n s . their  meetings  Doran  backbiter  candidate  Dublin's  class  such  has  whose  Despite  and  young  v i s i t ,  Jack,  them  incongruous  into of  of  us".(122)  sentimental  the  Fanning,  enables  least  Conservative  of  an  views  are  one of  working-class  conversation.  royal  Tierney's,  the  are  young  controlled,  Tierney, the  the  was  rest  turned  Old  attended  opinionated  and  and  Party,  easily  Room  has  Lyons,  a l l the  the  political  with  copy  Hynes  like  workers.  had  a  Like  willed  the  and  S o c i a l i s t  why  Committee  gossip,  who  up  necessity  Hynes  of  hard  fellow  old  O'Connor  the  financial  ignorant  Room;  asked  state, as  d i s t i n c t  wins of  the  insignificant  however,  his  from  support.  Committee person  a l l  are  the  working-  Even  Room,  there,  and  looks  old as down  55 on  Colgan  f o r being  when  Jack  refers  "the  other  a  bricklayer.  Hynes  to the opposition  argues  candidate  this  point  carelessly  as  tinker":  'What o t h e r t i n k e r ? ' s a i d Mr. H y n e s . 'Colgan,' s a i d t h e o l d man scornfully. 'It i s because Colgan's a working-man you say t h a t ? What's t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a good h o n e s t brickl a y e r and a p u b l i c a n eh? H a s n ' t t h e w o r k i n g - m a n as good a r i g h t t o be i n t h e c o r p o r a t i o n as a n y o n e e l s e - ay, and a b e t t e r r i g h t than those shoheens that a r e a l w a y s h a t i n hand b e f o r e any f e l l o w w i t h a handle t o h i s name? I s n ' t t h a t so M a t ? ' s a i d Mr. H y n e s , a d d r e s s i n g Mr. O'Connor. 1 t h i n k y o u r ' r e r i g h t , ' s a i d Mr. O'Connor, • O n e m a n i s a p l a i n h o n e s t man w i t h n o h u n k e r s l i d i n g about him. He g o e s i n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e labour classes. This fellow you're working f o r o n l y w a n t s t o g e t some j o b o r o t h e r . * *0f c o u r s e , the w o r k i n g - c l a s s e s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d , ' s a i d the o l d man.(119)  The  upper  layers  Committee  Room  pro-English an  by  attempts was  Parnell  silent  that  he  obviously  that  The he  h i s own  had  considered  considers  represented  supports He  judges  was  a  The  nothing  a  upper-class,  men  according  he  through  f i r s t  and  beneath  "He  sufficient  the second  gentleman;  he  aloofness,  reason,  to say;  to  admits,  gentleman",(130)  h i s companions  himself  i n the  the  Conservatives,  dignity  reasons.  he  who  Party.  "because  f o r two  was  Crofton  formula.  to maintain  itself, was  Mr.  Conservative  aristocratic  "respect"  of s o c i e t y are also  in  reason  him".(128)  He  h i s companions  are  not.  Neither mittee the  Room  Parnell  nor Edward  VII are  yet the discussion centres  duplicity  and  shabbiness  o f a l l who  present  about  them  are  there.  in a nd  the  Com-  reflects  Hynes  and  56 O'Connor  wear  nationalists Yet  they  those a  an and  support  who  will  German  ivy leaf resent  the  finer  justifies  the  uncertain  financial  an  Dublin Irish king  influx will  of  Parnell  on  the  of  support  them,  subject  and  an  on  grounds  Lyon's  is treated  to  just  The  of  of  to  to  please to  and  on  here  rather will  citizens  of  of whether  an  welcome  the  O'Connor  Henchy's  as  mud  coming  by  attempt  one  king  question  attempt  king.  Dublin"  the  address  by  English  of  country.  an  i s halted  i s dead".(129)  "honour  The  are  intelligence  "the king's this  an  i n the  the  welcome  Both  considers  Dublin  the  of  of  Hynes  lacks  it".(129)  "Parnell moral  who  Henchy  into  should  oppresses  man  Parnell.  v i s i t  of  grounds:  by  coming  of  honour  address  money  benefit  a  points  city*s  Nationalist who  the  monarch".(119)  appreciate  mean  the  Tierney,  "drag  i n memory  curt  to  to  quote  retort  object  to  that  Edward  abruptly:  • B u t a f t e r a l l now,* s a i d Mr. L y o n s a r g u m e n t a t i v e l y , ' K i n g Edward's l i f e , you know, i s n o t t h e v e r y . . . * • L e t b y g o n e s by b y g o n e s , ' s a i d Mr. Henchy.(129)  Lyons  insists  gones  where  castigated Edward  pressing  Parnell on  V I I be  Henchy,  on  moral  concerned  grounds  tolerated:  'where's  Their  immense  moral  obtuseness  emptyppmposity  was  O'Connor  gives the  ends  why  one  i f he  of  the  with  ecclesiastical  the argument  by  be  God,*  their the  be  by-  publicly  f a r more  two  conversation  l e t bygones  could  the  name  between  combined  their  -  no  should  "'In the  the analogy  seriousness  as  his point;  notorious  said  Mr.  cases?'".(130) ignorance  and  same  of  discussions  reminding  note  i n "Grace".  the  company  of  57 the  significance*  towards  i t s climax  idealism  and  revealed, set  of  of  the  Hynes  verses  he  the day, as  and  the depths  sentimentalism recites has  an  dreamed ( a l a Of L i b e r t y : To c l u t c h t h a t Sundered him Shame on t h e That smote Betrayed him Of f a w n i n g  of  irony the  which  of  t h e comedy  failure  has  of  to Parnell's  moves  Parnell's  replaced  atrociously unpoetic  composed  He  the  i t are  and  maudlin  memory:  s , 'twas but a dream*) b u t as he s t r o v e idol, treachery f r o m t h e t h i n g he loved.  coward, c a i t i f f hands t h e i r Lord or w i t h a to the rabble-rout p r i e s t s - no f r i e n d s  kiss of h i s .  May e v e r l a s t i n g s h a m e consume T h e m e m o r y o f t h o s e who tried To b e f o u l a n d s m e a r t h e e x a l t e d name O f o n e who s p u r n e d t h e m i n h i s pride.(132)  The  company  intense  play  entranced the  i s moved  by  eulogy  glaringly  of  by  emotion  the aura  of  the  Henchy,  t h e most  a  end  of  that  which  reminiscent  "Clay".  They  the  last  of  Hynes  delivers  comments  anti-Parnell  In  should  pragmatist  Joe's  are  p a t r i o t i s m evoked  self-consciousness.  unwittingly  Crofton,  fashion  sentimental  amateur-theatrica1  i t is fitting  and  at  to "the Chief"(130)  company  group,  i t in a  by  with such come  from  i n the  Conservative:  'Good man, J o e ' * s a i d Mr. O'Connor, t a k i n g o u t h i s c i g a r e t t e papers and pouch t h e b e t t e r t o hide h i s emotion. 'What do y o u t h i n k o f t h a t , C r o f t o n ? ' c r i e d Mr. H e n c h y . •Isn't that fine? What?* Mr. C r o f t o n s a i d t h a t i t was a v e r y f i n e p i e c e o f wr i t i n g . ( 1 3 3 )  "A  Mother"  continues  Joyce's  panoramic  view  of  the  58 "public of  an  who  life  eminently  tries  musical  career.  consoled Turkish  l i f e " her  Delight  so  than  romantic  Mrs. her to  own  and  of and  ment  and  Abu  to  shows  by  who  that  person,  middle-class  through had  her  a  great  those  "offer  She  deal  she r e a l i z e d  would  daughter's  felt  i n Dublin,  eating  until'  "Mrs. Kearney  views  the necessity  her husband  but she never  had  of  that  her a  out of spite",(134)  the concerts She  "would  she  b r i l l i a n t After wear  put her  Society. attitude  settling  she f e e l s  embarrassing The  as a  means  i s not so romantic,  of f i r s t  i t i s when the final  the Kearneys'  Revival"  suitor  desires.  she creates  the Eire  dreams  aspirations  own  away".(134)  Kearney  contract,  that  a  romantic  romantic  overlook  desires  she " p e r c e i v e d "  ideas  of Dublin's  Mrs, Kearney  in secret"(134)  to find  a  the romantic  to a l l "adolescents"  became  marriage  better  her romantic  "her romantic  and  member  In her youth  common  not going  I t treats  respectable  to s a t i s f y  aspirations  was  in Dublin".  threatened scenes  the superficiality  with  of  as  fee  financially t h e members  Irish  the fashionable  realizing  however,  Kathleen's  society stresses  towards  of  culture "Irish  the middle-class  commit-  culture:  K a t h l e e n and her s i s t e r sent I r i s h p i c t u r e p o s t c a r d s to t h e i r f r i e n d s and t h e s e f r i e n d s sent back other Irish picture postcards. On s p e c i a l S u n d a y s , w h e n Mr. Kearney went w i t h h i s f a m i l y t o t h e p r o - c a t h e d r a l , a l i t t l e c r o w d o f p e o p l e w o u l d a s s e m b l e a f t e r mass a t the corner of C a t h e d r a l S t r e e t . They were a l l f r i e n d s of the Kearneys - musical f r i e n d s or N a t i o n a l i s t f r i e n d s , a n d , when t h e y had p l a y e d e v e r y l i t t l e counter of g o s s i p , t h e y shook hands w i t h one a n o t h e r a l lt o g e t h e r , l a u g h i n g a t t h e c r o s s i n g o f s o many h a n d s , a n d s a i d good-bye t o one a n o t h e r in Irish.(135)  59 With her  a  keen  family  social  eye  i n the  irritates  Holohan  i s poor  admitted  night's  f i r s t , be  find for  Revival  Kearney's  was  until  Mrs.  Kearney  i t became  Mrs.  are  being  this  concerts.  organizers,  "the  of  an  had  not  involved  "appreciable"  Hoppy  uncertain  first  organization  night and  were  reserved  for Saturday  even  more that a  the  and  refer  good"  Friday  financial  Holohan and  no  shabbily  jeopardize  is  organized  profit.  "mediocre";(137)  a r t i s tes  learns  w i l l  the  performers  Anticipating  whether  four  the  Kearney  in which  sense  performance  abandoned. out  and  that  talent"(137)  second  to  opinion  n o n c h a l a n t way  Mrs.  attendance  the  public  force.  The  the  to  and  night.  she  which  is  tries  Mr.  Fitzpatrick,  the  than  performance  threat  the  At  organized  fee  to  even that " a l l  her  her  The  was  to  settled the  committee:  Mrs. Kearney's anger began to f l u t t e r i n her cheek and s h e had a l l s h e c o u l d do t o k e e p f r o m asking: 'And who i s the Commetty pray?* B u t s h e knew t h a t i t w o u l d n o t be l a d y l i k e t o do that s o s h e was silent.(139)  On  the  Saturday  night,  however,  her  behaviour  is anything  but  lady 1 ike.  At Madame  the  Glynn  less  gasping  from  an  old  final  "from  London"(141)  voice... stage  performance  and  " a l l the who  looked  wardrobe",(144)  as  "sang i f she  and  Mr.  talent"  is  Killarney had  been  Duggan,  displayed. in a  bodi-  resurrected  the  bass:  ...a s l e n d e r y o u n g man w i t h a s c a t t e r e d b l a c k moustache. He w a s t h e son o f a h a l l p o r t e r i n an o f f i c e i n the c i t y a n d , a s a b o y , he h a d s u n g p r o l o n g e d b a s s n o t e s  60 in the resounding h a l l . F r o m t h i s h u m b l e s t a t e he had r a i s e d h i m s e l f u n t i l he h a d b e c o m e a f i r s t - r a t e artiste. He h a d a p p e a r e d i n grand opera. One n i g h t , when an o p e r a t i c a r t i st e had f a l l e n i l l , he h a d u n d e r t a k e n t h e p a r t o f t h e k i n g i n t h e o p e r a " o f Ma r i t a n a a t t h e Q u e e n ' s Theatre. He s a n g h i s m u s i c w i t h g r e a t f e e l i n g and v o l u m e a n d was w a r m l y w e l c o m e d b y t h e g a l l e r y ; but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , he m a r r e d t h e g o o d i m p r e s s i o n by w i p i n g h i s hose i n h i s g l o v e d hand once or t w i c e out of t h o u g h t lessness. (140)  The "a  critic suave,  rest, of  for  elderly  upon  the  that  a  financial  the  moral  his  finances.  West,  He  half.  When  she  second  part  of  refuse  to  riding  i t is  with  the  submit.  will  the  he  to  consideration,  be  his  balanced  the  the  when  at  representative  Dublin's  shabbiness  means  solving  western  l e t Kathleen  the  flustered  allow  moral  her  of name  fine  she  was  problem  of  bounds  the  of  her  placated.  a l l sense  of  to  of  money  The what  money  pays  play  the  and  reason. on  accompani-  (the i s her  in  her the  remainder,  imposing  anger  of  her  committee  receives  Kearney's  the  play  daughter  backing  Mrs.  remainder  not  be  is  body,  Burke:  respected".(143)  and to  should  magniloquent  which  c o m p l e t e l y beyond  she  in keeping  "His  O'Madden  imposing He  concert unless  with  his  i s Mr.  umbrella".(143)  refuses  is paid  the  balanced  widely  refuses  is promised  Tuesday  the  she  committee,  her  was  performance  Gallicism  upon  Kearney  before  she  and  problems:  ments  leave  who  silk  umbrella  Mrs.  Burke,  man  ostentatious  his  the  evening's  large  Gaelic  his  the  O'Madden  indignation Even  when  following over-  is "ladylike"  goes  by  board :  H e r f a c e was inundated w i t h an a n g r y c o l o u r and as i f she w o u l d a t t a c k someone w i t h her hands. ' I ' m a s k i n g f o r my r i g h t s , ' s h e said.  she  looked  61 •You m i g h t h a v e some s e n s e o f d e c e n c y , ' s a i d Mr.Holohan. ' M i g h t I , i n d e e d ? . . . A n d w h e n I a s k w h e n my d a u g h t e r i s g o i n g t o be p a i d I c a n ' t g e t a c i v i l answer.' She t o s s e d h e r head and a s s u m e d a h a u g h t y voice: •You m u s t s p e a k t o t h e s e c r e t a r y . I t ' s n o t my business. I'm a g r e a t f e l l o w fol-the-diddle-I-do.* M t h o u g h t y o u w e r e a l a d y , * s a i d Mr. H o l o h a n , walking away f r o m h e r a b r u p t l y . A f t e r t h a t M r s . K e a r n e y ' s c o n d u c t was c o n d e m n e d on a l l hands: e v e r y one a p p r o v e d o f w h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e had done.(146 ) Mrs,  Kearney  "The  Boarding House",  between ends  and  ation As the in  them.  in both  sake  Mooney of  a  attempt  feel  Both  concealing  Mrs.  an  would  so  but  will  cases the  vastly there use  there  basic  any  satisfy  to  Mrs,  Mooney  is a great  deal  of  available  i s only  vulgarity  cold-bloodedly  m a r r i a g e , so to  superior  Mrs.  her  own  a of  means  thin  Kearney  veneer  their  prostitutes  similarity gain of  their  c i v i l i z -  personalities. her  barters  frustrated  to  of  daughter her  dreams.  for  daughter  62  CHAPTER  THE  C r i t i c a l contradict in  the  one  various  instance, sketches  of  systematic treatment he  a t  the  another,  a  readings  of  claims  that,  Dubl iners  estrangement  and  approaches  of  the  the  dismisses  Dubliners  fact  nowhere  "The  as  artist  stories "The  own  close  from  not  way, to  tendency  apparent  the  -  enlarge  on  for  tangential  as  Yet  to  than  Levin,  Joyce's  city  hastily,  a  Harry  Ulysses".*8  does  Dead"  the  have  more  Dead".  " i n their  c r o s s - e e c t i o n of of  DEAD  to  came  V  theme does  his  the  the  meagre  this  stressing  -  point,  the  outlook  e nd :  G a b r i e l , who had n o t known o f Michael Furey before, f e e l s a pang of the s o u l ' s i n c u r a b l e l o n e l i n e s s . He can never p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s b u r i e d e x p e r i e n c e , even t h o u g h i t h a s b e c o m e a p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n he h a s known most i n t i m a t e l y ; he s u d d e n l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he and Gretta are strangers. And, a s he t r i e s t o i m a g i n e the dead boy, h e r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s own identity i s no m o r e palpable to others than Michael Furey's i s to him. In the l i g h t of t h i s epiphany, t h e s o l i d w o r l d seems to d i s s o l v e and d w i n d l e , u n t i l n o t h i n g i s l e f t e x c e p t the r e l i c s o f the dead and t h e h o s t s o f t h e dying.(p.36)  William  York  Tindall  interpretation connectedly however,  P.  32.  without  unlike  1  fi  tends  Harry  is hardly to  skip  ever  more  from  tackling  Levin,  to  find  Levin,  James  a  satisfactory,  symbol the  story  certain  Joyce;  to  A  for  symbol  dis-  itself.  optimism  C r i t i c a l  his  in  He the  seems, ending,  Introduction.  63 noting  that  the  latter  ity  and  at  the part  love".  the  end  word  of  of 1  "tender"  the He  9  the  story  also  story  "recurs to  sees  as  a  rhythmically  bring  promise  Gabriel's  positive  throughout  maybe  change  in  of  human-  attitude  achievement:  G a b r i e l f i n d s h i m s e l f g u i l t y not of w i t h h o l d i n g love but of l a c k i n g i t e n t i r e l y . P r i d e or t h a t complacent concentration upon s e l f w h i c h seems a c a u s e o f h i s i n c a p a c i t y f o r l o v i n g y i e l d s to a kind of generous impersonality, a c c o m p a n i e d by p i t y and sympathy, not for himself t h i s time but for others. His self destroyed, h i s i d e n t i t y g o n e , he b e c o m e s o n e with a l l t h e l i v i n g and the dead. This d r a m a t i c e x t i n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y c o u l d be a n o t h e r h o p e f u l sign. No longer Gabriel alone, b u t o n e w i t h e v e r y o n e , h e may be ready to a c c e p t , g i v e , and participate.(p.43 )  This  is  similar  to  Daiches  view  that  "the  theme  of  the  story 2 0  is  the  These the of  assault critics  story. pride  major his from  on  the  disagree,  Tindall  with  love,  presentation  works. the  Daiches  rest  aesthetic  walled  of  however,  sees of of  circle on  of the  Gabriel's real  Joyce's  treatment  with  humanity...  ego what  obsessed  stresses  Dubliners  and  the  egotism".  significance  of  "the  [as]  him"(p.49)  separateness  p.  his  first  throughout of  "The  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to  Dead"  Joycean  theory :  W.  Y.  Tindall,  A  Reader's  Guide  to  James  Joyce.  48.  2 ° D a v i d D a i c h e s , The (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of  of  conflict  "The D e a d " was not p a r t of the o r i g i n a l d r a f t of Dubliners. I t was added l a t e r , a t a t i m e when J o y c e was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y preoccupied with the problem of a e s t h e t i c s . The story i s , indeed, a s y m b o l i c s t a t e m e n t of the a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e t h a t he c a m e t o a c c e p t . G a b r i e l moves f r o m an egocentric t o an i m p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w j u s t  iV  u  N o v e l and the Modern World. Chicago Press, 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 49.  64 as t h e a r t i s t ( a c c o r d i n g to Joyce's e x p l a n a t i o n i n A P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t as a Y o u n g Man) moves from the p e r s o n a l l y r i c a l method to the i m p e r s o n a l d r a m a t i c approach. he i n d i f f e r e n t a c c e p t a n c e o f l i f e as somet h i n g r e v o l v i n g not round t h e a r t i s t ' s ego b u t on i t s independent axis i s for Joyce the ideal aesthetic attitude. Thus "The D e a d " i s , i n some s e n s e , a f a b l e i l l u s t r a t i n g Joyce's view of the nature of the artist's attitude.(pp.81-82) T  Richard  Ellman,  concludes evidence  on to  increasing however,  a>hopeful support  "the  Misses  Morkan's  proper  medium,  named  to  for  released window  no  I of  I  Dead"  in  comes  of  completely  and  flakes  with  Hugh  his  the  last  through  book  interpretation and  becomes  subtly  drawn  Ellman,  the  end  his  what  Gabriel  trump;  towards is of  " i s  but  a  he  having  hotel  the  Joyce,  pp.  Dublin's  Joyce,  p.  story  Gabriel  252-267. 67,  of  notes  in Dubliners  James  definition  ending  Tindall of  the  oriented"(p.62) the  significant. character  the  death...  through  pessimistic.  towards  into  darkness".(p.68)  " i t is  entire  also  Kenner,  blow  watches  Kenner,  emphasizes  ending:  that  the  He  of  the  falling  that  principle  Hugh  carried  of  he  Joyce's  a r t . ^ l had  see".  to  Kenner  "tender"  Richard  the  to  is  his  Dead"  biographical  i t embodies  a i r Gabriel  Judgment  disillusioned  "generous"  that  be  "The  convincing  h i m s e l f and  to  who  accept  of  contention that  hopelessness  death...  repetition word  pale  cannot as  he  angel  blast  claim  fragrant  the  agree  living  but  be  the  the  his  house as  the  note, o f f e r s  confidence  sees  believes  supporting  the  and is and  "The  the  the in  most the  65 end  he  only  faces  by  the  thatof  natural  truth  the  instincts  boy  in  have  not  destroying  world  "The  Dead"  i s , in  the  harshness  lacks  Mooney,  Mrs.  i n the  to  to  show,  and He  Ellman notes  that  this  Gabriel's "the which parted  the  A ing  of  hints rest  "The at  of  attitude  the  the  view  of  his  the  delicate  that  Joyce  suggests  and  gilt  restless  is  Mrs. is  ample  as  I  support  of on  Joyce's  in  the  this. an  actual  reaction  story.  Joyce's  own,  rims  the  of  eyes.  hope  optimistic,  i s based  Gabriel's to  of  itself,  that  of  characterization  There  story  and  bright  tone  portraits  Furey  is akin  to  Stanislaus,  Gabriel's  in  tone  Dubliners while  at  the  other  the  i t s ending  l i f e  difference  i n the  the  soul-  whole  biographical  to  the  "gallants".  of  whose  [And  Even especially  glasses the]  Hair  (176)  middle".  from  the  Michael  similar  and  in  by  The and  h o n e s t y ma t c h e d  stories  dulled  him.  two  appearance  lenses  Dead"  found  an  three  been  scenes  the  was  letter  yet  Barnacle's  physical  in  and  story  i n Nora  screened  f i r s t  interesting  the  polished  be  closing  incident  the  sympathetic,  to  support  himself with  surrounds  fact,  offers  occurrence to  which  Kearney  evidence  about  after  between same  time  preceding dinner  "The  the  speech  Dead"  justifying  and  writand  the  his  stories.  Sometimes t h i n k i n g of I r e l a n d i t s e e m s t o me t h a t I have been u n n e c e s s a r i l y h a r s h . I have r e p r o d u c e d ( i n D u b l i n e r s a t l e a s t ) none o f the a t t r a c t i o n of the c i t y f o r I have never f e l t a t my e a s e i n a n y city since I left i t ,except i n P a r i s , I have not reproduced i t s ingenuous i n s u l a r i t y and i t s hospitality. The latter ' v i r t u e ' so f a r as I c a n see does not e x i s t elsewhere i n Europe, I have not been just to i t s beauty: f o r i t i s more b e a u t i f u l naturally i n my o p i n i o n t h a n w h a t I h a v e s e e n o f England,  66 S w i t z e r l a n d , France, A u s t r i a or I t a l y . And y e t I k n o w how u s e l e s s t h e s e r e f l e c t i o n s a r e , f o r w e r e I to r e w r i t e t h e book as [ G r a n t R i c h a r d s ] s u g g e s t s 'in another sense' ( w h e r e t h e h e l l d o e s he g e t t h e meaningless phrases h e u s e s ) I am s u r e I s h o u l d f i n d a g a i n what you c a l l t h e Holy Ghost s i t t i n g i n t h e i n k - b o t t l e a n d t h e p e r v e r s e d e v i l o f my literary c o n s c i e n c e s i t t i n g o n t h e h u m p o f my p e n . A f t e r a l l Two G a l l a n t s - w i t h t h e S u n d a y c r o w d s a n d t h e h a r p in K i l d a r e S t r e e t and Lenehan - i s an I r i s h landscape, ^3  "The stories notes is  of the f i r s t  [and]its  particular  to the rest  party,  the  revelation we  heightens and  of the nature  learned  the subtleties  towards  himself.  Dubliners  1906",  about  our awareness  who  have  states  and w i t h  scene  class  James J o y c e , quoted i n James  itself  i n common  than  a r e i n touch -  with  "Painful  I t i s also of class.  between  class,  the  towards  and stories  guests  others  a l l of would  For  continues  i n the preceding  they  i nthe  i n t h e book,  middle  embraces  living  "the motifs  i n Dubliners.  of the tensions  t i t l e  more  as the  that  t h e theme  of Gabriel's attitude The  as w e l l  the "Clay"  of Dublin's  this  Ellman  and  i n the centre".(p.62 )  social  them.  o f dead  a l l the stories  by  the other  [ a n d ] " I v y Day  of consciousness  of Dubliners  the longest  have  from  at the beginning  the  what  modes  - " I v yDay" group  linked  Case"...  from  from  i n Dubliners  And Kenner  a r e drawn...  Sisters"  Case"  story  Painful  Room".(p.262)  'The D e a d '  ways  "the interrelationship  [ a n d a l s o ] o f "A  Committee  i n several  but i t i s not separate  i t s theme,  t h e theme  "The  i s different  i n Dubliners  that  last:  of  Dead"  and  Joyce's appreciate  " L e t t e r t o S. J o y c e : September 25, J o y c e by R i c h a r d E l l m a n , p. 2 3 9 .  67 with in  t h e monks  their  Morkans*  annual  and  years  the  same  a l l  who  as  part  dance. Never  i t had  gone  attend  "gossiping  and  be  They  should  Freddy  Malins  must  he  has always  of  gentility  p u p i l s , many on  and  throughout  notes  that  invited,  their  o f whom  the  despite  concern  and  strained.  Misses  Morkans  Miss  Ivors  of a  Browne "very  p u t up w i t h angers  and  introduced  but  their  concern: might  that  i s an  turn  any  of  Mary  old friend  offends fear,)  their  might  uneasiness nature  the guests  embarrasses low D u b l i n  and  sense offend  with  recur  of the ocare  the young  often ladies  accent"(181)  him, although  Gabriel  reality  line".(174)  the festive  awkward  almost  to the better-class  and D a l k e y  of social  doubt  influence".(174)  greater  "belonged  years  by  the are  a  No  also  Malins  h i s mother  i s a  For  real  f o r worlds  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  h i s imitation  Julia  but h i s behaviour  (and t h i s  the story  party  Freddy  see him under  be  and  conceals  always  flat.  the reader  and  fully.  slept  Misses  style".(173)  this  casion,  the  and  the  "was  fussing",(173)  not wish  the Kingstown  Such  Kate  afraid  attended, and,  on  shows  style".  would  pupils  are told,  i t fallen  passed  laughing  Jane's  with  spoke...  i s about  o f f i n splended  dreadfully  screwed.  families  "never  Dead"  we  had  only superficia1ly  were  their  This,  i t , but Joyce  the "splendid  "They  who  o f "The  once  verdict will  happiness  up  greater  affair...  behind  Melloray  coffins".(198)  The  great  o f Mount  a  l i t t l e  and resent-  her e n t h u s i a s t i c  68 propagandism  and  expectedly.  Bartell  a l l of  who the  approach entire  upsets  Mary  D'Arcy  him.  situation  Joyce when  Jane  by  leaving  the  party  un-  is surly  and  uncooperative  reveals  the  basic  Mary  Janes  plays  with  artificiality her  piano  solo:  G a b r i e l c o u l d n o t l i s t e n w h i l e M a r y J a n e s was playing h e r Academy p i e c e , f u l l o f r u n s and d i f f i c u l t passages, to the hushed drawing-room. He l i k e d m u s i c , b u t t h e p i e c e s h e was p l a y i n g h a d no m e l o d y f o r h i m a n d he doubted whether i t had any m e l o d y f o r t h e o t h e r l i s t e n e r s , t h o u g h t h e y had begged Mary Jane t o p l a y something. F o u r y o u n g men, who had come f r o m t h e refreshment-room to s t a n d i n the doorway a t the sound o f t h e p i a n o , had gone away q u i e t l y i n c o u p l e s a f t e r a few m i n u t e s . The o n l y p e r s o n s who seemed t o f o l l o w the music were Mary Jane h e r s e l f , her hands racing a l o n g the k e y b o a r d or l i f t e d from i t at the pauses l i k e those of a priestess i n momentary imprecation, and Aunt K a t e s t a n d i n g a t her e l b o w t o t u r n the pages. (183-184)  Despite  i t s total  lack  of  appreciation  the  audience  applauds  empha t i c a 1 l y :  Great a p p l a u s e g r e e t e d M r y Jane a s , b l u s h i n g and r o l l i n g up h e r m u s i c n e r v o u s l y , s h e e s c a p e d f r o m t h e room. T h e m o s t v i g o r o u s c l a p p i n g c a m e f r o m Hie f o u r y o u n g men i n t h e d o o r w a y who had gone away t o t h e refreshment-room at the b e g i n n i n g of the p i e c e but had come b a c k when t h e p i a n o had stopped:(185) a  Music f i c i a l i t y  of  i s merely their  a  social  appreciation  c o n v e n t i o n , and becomes  obvious  the at  super-  the  supper  table :  'Why d i d they never play the grand o l d operas now,' Mr. B r o w n e a s k e d , ' D i n o r a h . L u c r e z i a B o r g i a ? Because they c o u l d not g e t the v o i c e s to s i n g them: that was why. ' '0, w e l l , * s a i d Mr. B a r t e l l D ' A r c y , ' I p r e s u m e t h e r e a r e as good s i n g e r s t o d a y as t h e r e w e r e t h e n . ' 'Where a r e t h e y ? ' a s k e d Mr. B r o w n e defiantly.  69 * I n L o n d o n , P a r i s , M i l a n , * s a i d Mr. B a r t e l l D'Arcy warmly. * I suppose Caruso, f o r example, i s quite a s g o o d , i f n o t b e t t e r t h a n a n y o f t h e men y o u h a v e mentioned.' 'Maybe s o , ' s a i d Mr. B r o w n e , ' B u t I may t e l l y o u I doubt i ts t r o n g l y . ' ( 1 9 6 - 1 9 7 )  Opinion  runs  tenors,  as  i n their  Protestant, got  against  why  D'Arcy,  a n d on  attempts  t h e monks  to explain  o f Mount  up a t t w o i n t h e m o r n i n g  (198)  the guests  iniscent  display  of the learned  the question of great  Melloray  and s l e p t  their  t o Mr. Browne,  i n their  ignorance  discussions  "never  i n a  a  spoke,  coffins",  fashion  i n " I v yDay" and  rem"Grace":  A u n t K a t e r e p e a t e d t h a t i t was t h e r u l e , t h a t was a l l . Mr. B r o w n e s t i l l seemed n o t t o u n d e r s t a n d . Freddy M a l i n s e x p l a i n e d t o h i m , a s b e s t he c o u l d , t h a t t h e monks w e r e t r y i n g t o make up f o r t h e s i n s committed by a l l t h e s i n n e r s i n : t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . The e x p l a n a t i o n was n o t v e r y c l e a r , f o r Mr. B r o w n e g r i n n e d a n d said: * I l i k e t h a t i d e a v e r y much, b u t w o u l d n ' t a c o m f o r t a b l e s p r i n g bed do them as w e l l as a c o f f i n ? ' 'The c o f f i n , ' s a i d Mary J a n e , ' i st o r e m i n d them o f their last end.'(198)  This of  ignorance  the middle-class  attitude Church  towards  of religious  i n Dubliners  the policy  matters  i s reflected  which  removed  characteristic also  women  i n Kate's  from the  choirs : A u n t K a t e t u r n e d f i e r c e l y on h e r n i e c e and s a i d : * I know a l l a b o u t t h e h o n o u r o f God, Mary Jane, b u t I t h i n k i t ' s n o t a t a l l h o n o u r a b l e f o rt h e P o p e t o t u r n o u t t h e women o f t h e c h o i r s t h a t have s l a v e d t h e r e a l l t h e i r l i v e s and put l i t t l e whippersnappers o f boys over t h e i r heads. I suppose i t i s f o r t h e good o f t h e C h u r c h , i f t h e Pope does i t . But i t ' s n o t j u s t , Mary J a n e , and i t ' s n o t r i g h t , ' (192)  The  choir  edict  had been  had d e p r i v e d  part  of Julia's  her of i t .  social  Here,  as  existence  i n "Grace",  and t h e the  70 Church and  is  the  hood  represented  career  offers  society  of  woman,  (184)  decided  practical as  Mrs.  Kearney  to  manner the  this  in  lives,  the far  the  "A and  Constantine  As come  evidence  "very  was  guests  fore beyond  once his  not  brother of  the  sensible  of  matter.  She  i t was, now  are  again. means  The and  in  the  the  in  Julia  priestof  and  family  have  same  the  l i f e " ,  been  stern  planned "thanks  a fashion  her to  her,  Balbriggan".(184)  Aunts'  decrepit  Aunt  of  recalls,  curate  the  "serious  to  carefully  Gabriel  leaving  a  dignity  appears  in  institution,  attitude  mother,  the  She  senior  spiritual,  pragmatic  moulded  Mother".  a  Constantine  Gabriel's  s t r o n g - w i l l e d woman  children's [that]  social,  religion.  matronly" had  a  Gabriel's  further  towards  as  genteel  Mr.  Browne  dutifully  pretensions assumes rises  a  to  occasion: ' I ' d l i k e n o t h i n g b e t t e r t h i s m i n u t e , ' s a i d Mr. Browne stoutly, 'than a r a t t l i n g f i n e walk i n the country or a f a s t d r i v e w i t h a good s p a n k i n g goer between the shafts. ' 'We used t o have a v e r y good h o r s e and t r a p a t home,* s a i d Aunt J u l i a , sadly. •The n e v e r - t o - b e - f o r g o t t e n J o h n n y , * s a i d M a r y Jane laughing. A u n t K a t e and G a b r i e l l a u g h e d too. 'Why, w h a t was wonderful about Johnny?? asked Mr. Browne. •The l a t e l a m e n t e d P a t r i c k M o r k a n , o u r g r a n d f a t h e r , that is,* explained Gabriel, *commonly known i n h i s later y e a r s a s t h e o l d g e n t l e m a n , was a glue-boiler.' * 0 , now, G a b r i e l , ' s a i d A u n t D a t e , l a u g h i n g , 'he h a d a starch mill.* ' W e l l , g l u e or s t a r c h , ' s a i d G a b r i e l , 'the o l d g e n t l e man had a h o r s e by t h e name o f J o h n n y , And Johnny used to work i n the o l d gentleman's m i l l , walking r o u n d and round i n order to d r i v e the m i l l . That was a l l very well; b u t now comes the t r a g i c part about Johnny. One f i n e day the o l d gentleman thought he'd l i k e to d r i v e out w i t h the q u a l i t y to a military review i n the park.' 'The Lord have pass iona t e l y .  mercy  on  his  soul,*  said  Aunt  Kate  com-  71 'Amen,* s a i d G a b r i e l , 'So t h e o l d g e n t l e m a n , a s s a i d , h a r n e s s e d J o h n n y a n d p u t on h i s v e r y b e s t hat and h i s v e r y b e s t s t o c k c o l l a r and d r o v e o u t grand s t y l e from h i s a n c e s t r a l mansion somewhere Back Lane, I think.* Everyone laughed, even Mrs. M a l i n s , at G a b r i e l ' s and Aunt K a t e said: * 0 , now, G a b r i e l , he d i d n ' t l i v e i n B a c k L a n e , r O n l y t h e m i l l was there.*(204-205)  Both  aunts  Johnny's the  are  touchy  attributes  Back  led  Morkan  Patrick  order  to  deified Even  "drive his  Gavriel  anecdote, of  out  suggestion that  fashionable  the  rather  although  this,  actions,  context  to  anecdote  something  ambition  Eveline's  desire  Kearney's  The Billy's  'Out  for  and  the  of  a  level  escape  ends  with  and  Jimmy  dreams  with  he  and  Johnny  in  trap  family old  to un-  gentleman".  i s .  the  of  the  humour  Johnny", aspir-  throughout every  Patrick  a l l such Doyle's Mr.  of  Morkan's  class  in  have  recital  about  Patrick of  a  stresses  truth  theme  than  his  burlesque  delivered,  nature  objects  lived  to  "the  is representative  romantic  anecdote  his  eally.  exaggerates  Kate  have  manner  pretentiousness that  t i t l e  tragic  other  i s on  similar  i n the and  of  and  might  quality"  "the  Julia  his work-horse  ironically  the  pathetic  King  ambition  In  be  ism.  the  ludicrous  desire  a  harness  with  origins.  ancestors  I t was  the  this  ual  out  accepts  Dubliners  Mrs.  to  their  a l l proportion  their  than  ations.  to  of  Lane,  social  horse's  about  I t a l l in near  Morkan's  aspirations search  Kernan's  plodding  Dubliner's  for  from "life*  intellect-  stolidly  around  statue:  from  the  mansion  of  his  forefathers'  continued  72 Gabriel, 'he d r o v e w i t h J o h n n y . And e v e r y t h i n g w e n t on b e a u t i f u l l y u n t i l J o h n n y came i n s i g h t o f K i n g Billy's statue: a n d w h e t h e r he f e l l in love with t h e h o r s e K i n g B i l l y s i t s on o r w h e t h e r he thought he was b a c k a g a i n i n t h e m i l l , a n y h o w he b e g a n t o walk round the s t a t u e . * G a b r i e l paced i n a c i r c l e round the h a l l in his goloshes...(285)  This  is  part  Dubliners. and  of The  round  in  same  "seemed  centre".(25)  through  Dublin,  pattern. class  The  life  a  From  his  through  and  his  was  recurs  slowly  o r b i t " , ( 2 4 ) and, to  circle walks  Duffy's is  throughout  circling  act  s l o w l y round  and  round  in a  circular  life  after  round  his  roughly  is a  indicative  of  of  this  unexpected and  monotonously the  of i t s pattern  repetitive  aimlessness  the  "generous"  background  of  poverty  He  of  middle-  the of  view  value his  understanding  of  is Gabriel's  is  circumstances  limited,  acceptance  and  social  self-discovery.  contented,  sacrifice more  and  against  series  which  Dublin.  disillusion  and  motif  Lenehan  motif  in  Set of  circle  p e r v e r t ' s 'mind  the  masturbation, new  a  of of  one make  of  "the  him  dead"  realize i t .  h i m s e l f , he Michael  drama  moves,  Furey's  own  experience,  the  nature  of  to  a  l i f e ,  broader, love  and  death.  He upset to the  her  by  arrives  Lily's  in a  the  of  party  bitterness.  patronizing  possibility  reminiscent  at  of the  her  She  though getting  abuse  of  in  the  is  good a  servant  friendly married slavey  humour  but g i r l ,  manner. and in  her "Two  He  is  immediately  and  he  alludes  unexpected Gallants",  speaks to answer,  73 "discomposes"  him:  *0, t h e n , ' s a i d G a b r i e l g a i l y , 'I s u p p o s e w e ' l l be g o i n g to your wedding one of t h e s e days w i t h your young man, eh?' The g i r l g l a n c e d back a t him over her s h o u l d e r and said with g r e a t ( b i t t e r n e s s : 'The men t h a t i s now i s o n l y a l l p a l a v e r and what they eqn g e t out of you.'(175-176 ) Trying him  to d i s p e l  the  gloom which  Lily's  answer  had  cast  over  he  g l a n c e d a t the h e a d i n g s he had made f o r h i s s p e e c h . He was u n d e c i d e d about the l i n e s from R o b e r t B r o w n i n g , f o r he f e a r e d they would be above the heads of h i s h e a r e r s . . . The i n d e l i c a t e c l a c k i n g of the men's h e e l s and the s h u f f l i n g of t h e i r s o l e s r e m i n d e d him t h a t t h e i r g r a d e of c u l t u r e d i f f e r e d from h i s . He would o n l y make h i m s e l f r i d i c u l o u s by q u o t i n g p o e t r y to them which they c o u l d not u n d e r s t a n d . They would t h i n k t h a t he was a i r i n g h i s s u p e r i o r e d u c a t i o n . (176-177)  He  is presented  middle of  class,  from  and  attitude  He deprecate goloshes  reflects  towards  i s upset  and  the  a second  his admiration are  start  his a t t i t u d e  his f e l l o w guests  Duffy's  the  Gretta  as  very  towards the  much a p a r t o f the  cultural  same i n t e l l e c t u a l  working-class  time  lower  when Aunt  f o r the C o n t i n e n t .  Dublin's level  c o n c e i t as  socialists.  Julia She  seems asks  to  what  answers:  'Gutta-percha t h i n g s . We b o t h have a p a i r now. G a b r i e l says e v e r y o n e wears them on the C o n t i n e n t . * '0, on the C o n t i n e n t , * murmured Aunt J u l i a , nodding her head s l o w l y . G a b r i e l k n i t t e d h i s brows and s a i d , as i f he were s l i g h t l y angered...(178)  This  foreshadows  his q u a r r e l with  Miss  I v o r s who  f a r more  74 vehemently  questions  his  commitment  to  the  Continent  and  Br i t a i n :  'I have found o u t t h a t y o u w r i t e f o r The Daily Express. Now a r e n ' t you ashamed o f y o u r s e l f ? ' 'Why should I be a s h a m e d o f m y s e l f ? * a s k e d Gabriel, b l i n k i n g h i s e y e s and t r y i n g to s m i l e . ' W e l l I'm ashamed of you,' said Miss Ivors frankly. 'To say you'd w r i t e f o r a paper l i k e t h a t . I didn't t h i n k you were a West Briton.'(185)  His  embarrassment  is  the  summer  Aran  in  the  increased  when  she  invites  him  to  spend  Isles:  'The fact i s , ' said Gabriel, * I have j u s t a r r a n g e d to go-* •Go w h e r e ? ' a s k e d Miss Ivors. ' W e l l , you know, e v e r y y e a r I go f o r a c y c l i n g tour w i t h some f e l l o w s and so-' 'But w h e r e ? ' asked Miss Ivors. ' W e l l , we u s u a l l y go t o F r a n c e and B e l g i u m or perhaps Germany,' s a i d G a b r i e l awkwardly. 'And why do y o u go t o F r a n c e and B e l g i u m , * said Miss I v o r s , * i n s t e a d o f v i s i t i n g y o u r own land?* 'Well,' said Gabriel, ' i t ' s p a r t l y to keep i n touch w i t h the l a n g u a g e s and p a r t l y for a change.' 'And h a v e n ' t you your own language to keep i n touch with - I r i s h ? * asked Miss Ivors. •Well,* said Gabriel, ' i f i t comes to t h a t , you know, Irish i s n o t my language.' Their neighbours had turned to l i s t e n to the c r o s s examination. G a b r i e l g l a n c e d r i g h t and left nervously and t r i e d t o keep h i s good humour under the o r d e a l , w h i c h was making a b l u s h invade his forehead. 'And h a v e n ' t you your own land to v i s i t , ' continued M i s s I v o r s , ' t h a t you know n o t h i n g o f , y o u r own p e o p l e , a n d y o u r own country?' *0, t o t e l l you t h e t r u t h , ' r e t o r t e d G a b r i e l suddenly, •I'm s i c k o f my own c o u n t r y , s i c k of it.'*( 186-187)  In One  middle-class looks  Gabriel, and  to with  Duffy,  Dublin  England  and  Bartell  looks  to  there  Europe  D'Arcy,  the  are  two and  Jimmy  Continent.  schools the  other  Doyle, Miss  of to  experience. Ireland.  Gallaher,  Ivors,  with  Chandler O'Madden  75 Burke to  and  the Nationalists  Ireland.  Throughout  shabbiness that  Miss  Joyce to  attaches Ivors  Gabriel,  illustrate to  "really  dism".(189) with  even  Furey. is  s t i l l  had  any  I t does  more  the hotel  As  i s the case  of wanting loves.  increases  The  t o him of  Gretta,  with  so  him and  to Galway  knowledge  behind that  he  fact  imply as  a  the his  that  ^  foil  evening tendency  whether  Miss  a l l her  propag-  the question  learns  could,  of Michael  Dubliners his boorishly  t o meet  that  the  himself.  Gabriel  many  and  wonders  own  asked  not  throughout  He  of her  be  with  from  t o go  and  i s used  uncertainty  not occur  validity,  stripped  to her  and  life  She  looks  characteristic  attitudes,  her outlook.  challenged.  At  easily  wife  with  when  " I v y Day",  t h e b e t t e r - F Ga b r i e 1- d o e s  his reactions  petty  and  Dublin's  to both  h i s nervousness  become  Ivors  and  Mother"  the stories  itself  gets  sympathizes  o f "A  Michael  gentility  accuses h i s  t h e boy Furey  whom  she  i s dead  only  his misery:  G a b r i e l f e l t h u m i l i a t e d by t h e f a i l u r e o f h i s i r o n y and by t h e e v o c a t i o n o f t h i s f i g u r e f r o m t h e dead, a boy i n t h e g a s w o r k s . W h i l e he h a d b e e n f u l l of memories of t h e i r s e c r e t l i f e together, full of t e n d e r n e s s and j o y and d e s i r e , she had been comparing him i n her mind w i t h a n o t h e r . A shameful consciousn e s s o f h i s own p e r s o n a s s a i l e d h i m . He s a w h i m s e l f as a l u d i c r o u s f i g u r e , a c t i n g as a p e n n y - b o y f o r h i s aunts, a nervous, well-meaning sentimentalist, orating to v u l g a r i a n s a n d i d e a l i z i n g h i s own c l o w n i s h l u s t s , the p i t i a b l e f a t u o u s f e l l o w he had c a u g h t a g l i m p s e of i n the mirror.(216-217)  Apart have  been  like  the  from  either two  t h e boy i n  too blind  "gallants"  and  the  t o see Mr s .  f i r s t  three  the truth Mooney,  stories  of their  or have  Dubliners condition,  escaped  from  \  76 their and  realization  Duffy.  However,  more  frightening  than  are  "he  the  found  tried  voice  to  when  whole  further  into as  Gabriel  knowledge,  elsewhere  keep  he  self-pity  up  spoke  touching  delicacy  his was  of  in  Farrington,  stumbles  finer  on  to  qualities  of  Dubliners  tone  of  humble  story  like  of  make  cold  and  Chandler  greater  and  character  themselves  f e l t :  i n t e r r o g a t i o n , but  indifferent".(217)  Michael  Furey  is  told  he  his  When displays  feeling:  G a b r i e l h e l d her hand f o r a moment l o n g e r irresolutely, and then, s h y o f i n t r u d i n g on h e r g r i e f , l e t i t f a l l g e n t l y and w a l k e d q u i e t l y t o t h e w i n d o w . . . So s h e had had t h a t romance i n her l i f e ; a man had died for her sake. I t hardly pained him now t o t h i n k how poor a p a r t he, her h u s b a n d , had played i n her l i f e . . . A strange, f r i e n d l y p i t y f o r her e n t e r e d his soul... He t h o u g h t o f how s h e who lay beside him had locked in her h e a r t f o r so many y e a r s t h a t i m a g e o f her l o v e r ' s e y e s w h e n he h a d t o l d h e r t h a t he d i d not wish to l i v e . Generous tears f i l l e d Gabriel's eyes. He h a d n e v e r f e l t t h a t h i m s e l f t o w a r d s any woman, b u t he k n e w t h a t s u c h a f e e l i n g m u s t b e love, (218-220)  Before  Gabriel  called  him  an  "a  very  unexpected  Gabriel coming vague spirit among  knew  When  Gretta  felt  that him,  the  Michael's  Michael  in  her  told  "some  world".(217) of  of  generous  truth  against  anything  wife's  him:  "I  think and  forces  But  only  i t is  he  that  of  she  had  events  reveal  words.  gathering  living-dead  secret  p e r s o n " , ( 2 2 4 ) and  impalpable  Furey  sacrifice  his  he  is  Dublin.  achieves  died  against he  his  him  me",(217)  being in  was  i t s  understands  liberated  new  for  vindictive  when  In a  he  from  his  the place  acknowledgement  level  of  of  sensibility.  77 He  undergoes  the  g i r l  texture bear  1i fe  the  of  the  similar  beach  Portrait  and  in A and  for  mystical own,  experience  prose  comparison,  almost their  on  an  both  rapport both  ,even  to  Stephen's  of  actual  accept  the  the  Artist.  phrases  G a b r i e l and  with  the  in  Stephen  spirit  of  necessity  vision  a  of  of  The  both  scenes  experience world  an  beyond  experiencing  pos i t i v e l y :  To l i v e , to e r r , to f a l l , to triumph, to r e c r e a t e l i f e out of l i f e . A w i l d a n g e l had a p p e a r e d t o him, the angel from the f a i r c o u r t s of l i f e , to throw op@n b e f o r e h i m i n an i n s t a n t o f e c s t a s y t h e gates of a l l t h e ways o f e r r o r and g l o r y . . . H i s s o u l was s w o o n i n g i n t o s o m e new w o r l d , f a n t a s t i c , dim, unc e r t a i n as u n d e r s e a , t r a v e r s e d by c l o u d y shapes and b e i n g s , ^ B e t t e r pass b o l d l y i n t o t h a t o t h e r w o r l d , i n the f u l l g l o r y o f some p a s s i o n , t h a n f a d e and whither d i s m a l l y w i t h a g e . . . He s a w the form of aiyoung man s t a n d i n g under a d r i p p i n g t r e e . Other forms were near. H i s s o u l had a p p r o a c h e d t h a t r e g i o n where d w e l l the v a s t hosts of the dead. He was c o n s c i o u s o f , but c o u l d not apprehend, their w a y w a r d and f l i c k e r i n g e x i s t e n c e . . . His soul swooned...(219-.220)  David Dead"  and  Daiches  Stephen's  notes  the  aesthetic  relationship  theory  in A  between  "The  Portrait:  G a b r i e l moves f r o m an e g o c e n t r i c t o an impersonal p o i n t o f v i e w j u s t as t h e a r t i s t ( a c c o r d i n g to Joyce's e x p l a n a t i o n i n A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man)moves from the p e r s o n a l l y r i c a l method to the impersonal d r a m a t i c approach,^  24 (Aylesbury: J  a  mes Joyce, A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t Penguin, 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 172-173.  25oavid  Daiches,  The  Novel  and  the  as  Modern  a  Young  World,  Man  p.81.  78 Daiches, ness  however,  o f "The Dead"  agree ment  with  that  breadth  this  of  annoy  to a  more  Gabriel's  with the  a l l that banality  west had at  and  the final  way  a11itude".(81)  Stephen which  throughout  or he  Joyce  separate-  I do n o t symbolic  state-  I t i s true,  how-  himself,  transcends  achieves  the confines  a of  answer Miss  paragraphs, impersonal  and  widens  and  At the  Gabriel is  him.  what  Aunt  embarrasses Gabriel's  and  Gretta  and  the  Julia and  reconciliation  she r e a l l y  to include  petty  him.  gives  to understand  often  Freddy  disharmonies  a  At the party  others  angers  A l lt h e  as  as  and  egotism  hesachieves  failed  Furey.  to immediate  contrasted  middle-class  about  of view.  has p r e v i o u s l y  h i s outlook  Joyce's  Ivors  however,  Michael  of  felt  worried  are resolved  and  world  upset  l i f e ,  as  i s continually described  point  o f h i s own  the living  He  ends  achievement  of Dubliners.  i s abundantly  is constantly  world  for Gabriel's  the story  the rest  of i t .  him, and  he  evidence  of the larger  Lily's  limited  t h e end  " a l l  he  of Ireland been  the  i s p r i m a r i l y "a  on w h i c h  disharmony  of him.  Malins  and  significant  at the centre  think  stories,  through  miscrocosm  "nervous"  the other  like  o f harmony  the discord  often  In  most  the note  Dublin,  on  Dublin.  The  a  emphasis  aesthetic  of vision  party,  t o o much  the story  Gabriel,  middle-class  with  from  him that  of [Joyce's]  ever,  is  places  or  accept:  i s , the  h i s thoughts  personal  "the universe"  concerns, and  the dead".  technique  of the progression  of short  stories  79 enables  us  to approach  which  has  which  control  example,  moulded  childhood  than  presenting widening  about our  gives  a  been  of  the tension  the sub-themes  "The  Dubliners.  Dead"  way  within  process forces  Chandler,  for  of growing  i n Dublin  gives  Dead".  of  Chandler Joyce  fourteen we  each  stories  have  learned  stories  the guests,  i n  a  to interpret  What  from  provides  the reader  i n the preceding  and  the  otherwise.  the f i r s t  between  the  sense  which  personality.  and  heightens of the  In i t s i n t e g r a t i o n of i n Gabriel's  of the protagonists' provides  of  the process  possible  o f Dub 1 i n e r s .  several  of  Little  immediate  in this  class  of Gabriel's  echoes  about  Consequently  middle  sense  to maturity  more  of reference  story.  Dublin's  stories,  have  his Dubliners  awareness  which  us  a  i n i t , and  of  t h e b a c k g r o u n d for "The  subtleties a l l  learned  adolescence  would  frame  successive prepare  and  with  In reading  have  through  background himself  we  one  the characters  them.  what  each  the climax  of  and  the  personality earlier  conclusion  to  80  CONCLUSION  Arnold experience of  this  the  as a  century  nineteenth  could of  be a p t l y  the society  unifying own,  often  l i t t l e  mind  stems  directly  to Joyce's  and  imaginary,  and even, from  study  introduced  themselves  regarding  which  complex  mould  i t .  developments  existence  and  "lived  at a  acts  with  i s  middle-class  His later  works a r e  of the basic  themes  death  of  Dublin's  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a r t i s t  to  city.  In  Stephen  Hero  Stephen  is constantly  the  horrifying  point1essness  the  corruption  of the institutions  the  lives  the  emphasis  rateness  (New  their  family,  Dubliners  of the  longer  i n  h i s own  themselves.  of  term  a r e no  exist  who  part  institutions  c u t o f f from  i n i t , e s p e c i a l l y of the l i v i n g  middle-class  art.  and f a m i l y ,  of the workings  the forces  increasingly  from  This  The  Mr. D u f f y ,  h i s body,  middle-class  i n the early  of l i f e .  Dublin.  worlds  like  writers  of  the "disintegration"  way  Church  the people  glances",  f i r s t  from  applied  - politics,  the failure  t o many  bourgeois  distance  Joyce's  common  highly  side  that  century  lovers  doubtful  notes  0  theme  forces, and  friends,  his  Kettle^  A  of h i s fellow  from  shifts  Portrait  citizens.  from  his class s t i l l  of the lives  Stephen's  and  around  ideals  Between  however,  destroy  and A  Portrait  of h i s sepa-  o f his c o m m i t m e n t  h i s attempts  2 ° A m o l d K e t t l e , An I n t r o d u c t i o n York: Harper & Brothers, 1960)  on  h i m a n d on  which  this  reiteration  to the development shows,  moralizing  to  to  to the English  Novel  81 dissociate himself him  i n childhood  fellow is  t o be  members  In himself  Bloom,  class  and a  Chandler,  of l i f e the city more  Eveline,  like  that  Joyce  Joyce  does  this  through  short  stories,  In  Ulysses  more of  he  uses  intimately  more  depict  own  the subconscious  previously processes.  elaboration  mind  bursts  o f those  as  the boy  mind; of a  of  around middle  outlined i n  and Duffy.  and h i s  His point-  the pervading thoughts  and  show  aimlessfeelings,  Ulysses  In  to con-  Dubliners  of the progression our perspective which  have  possible  Finnegans sleeper.  of  of the  formed i t . to  render  the subtleties  Finnegans  o f t h e same  free  i n "Araby",  i n Dubliners.  broadening  the waking  by  to  of the middle-class  the technique  thought  trying  h i s timidity  reveal,  and t h e f o r c e s  was  accepted  of Dublin's  the stream-of-consciousness  than  with  Bloom's  story  obfuscating  concerned  Doyle  betrays  describes  sensibility  h i s characters*  even is  each  product  him with  presentation  sciousness  bourgeois  a  h i s wanderings  intricate  mediocrity  of the introvert  Jimmy  Lenehan's,  i n Dublin. that  the artist  f o r phantasy,  introspection link  ofh i s  i n Dubliners.  and h i s f e v e r i s h  i s totally  His capacity  ness  a  i s s t i l l  portrait  as  into  class.  the complacent  perfect  walking,  be  up  here,  the limitations  paralysis,  however,  less  and  middle  instilled  aspirations  experience  within  Stephen  Dublin's  values  the bourgeois  impossible  show  him.  continual  from  of Dublin's  from  Dubliners.  the middle-class  Meaningful  Ulysses  excitement  Little  and  students.  shown  the  from  Wake  theme. Wake  i s an Ulysses  tries  Earwicker's  to  82 dream  i s , i n fact,  logical of  a l l  labyrinthine  implications  Dublin's  type  a  middle  of bourgeois aspects  behind  class,  presentation  the waking  actions  and Earwicker  Everyman  of h i s city's  whose  of the  of the whole  himself  subconscious  experience.  Shem  phycho-  becomes  mind  envelops  and Shaun, f o r  instance,  complementary  aspects  of h i s  represent  the dichotomy  between  the s e n s i t i v e i n t r o v e r t  and  the coarse  blatantly up  extrovert,  successful  i n Dubliners  subconscious,  the unsuccessful  bourgeois,  -  a  artist  tensions  that  i n the Chandler-Ga1 laher,  and t h e  Joyce s e t  Lenehan-Corley  antithes i s .  Ulysses lighter the *  n  than  later  and  that  works  Dubliners  Finnegans  Wake  i n Dubliners.  i n contrast  indicates  towards  his city.  (before  the writing  a  In a  display  The  letter  sense  boisterous  to the acid  certain  a  change  humour  o f "The D e a d " ) ,  he  comedy  humour more  i n Joyce's  to Stanislaus  of  of  common attitude  written  i n 1906  comments:  S o m e t i m e s t h i n k i n g o f I r e l a n d i t s e e m s t o me that I have been u n n e c e s s a r i l y harsh. I have r e p r o d u c e d (in Dubliners a t l e a s t ) none o f t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e city... i t singenuous i n s u l a r i t y and i t s h o s p i t a l i t y . ( q u o t e d i n E1 lma n, p. 239)  Ulysses treat A  does  not evade  the c i t y  less  the facts  harshly  Portrait  does,  and  roariously  funny  withoutthe  or  "The  Boarding  contempt forgiving  there  House".  f o r h i s city attitude.  gave  than  about  Dubliners.  a r e many  I t would as  For Ulysses  does  which  overtones  seem he  b u t i t does  Stephen  passages  sardonic  way  Dublin,  that  grew  or  a r e up-  o f " I v y Day"  Joyce's  older  display  Hero  a  youthful  to a  more  more  balanced  83 view the  than early  the r e l a t i v e l y  t o many  of the writers  middle-class  optimism  had been  undermined  a  This  own  as  i t became  All  Flesh  Forster 1915), class  less  1903),  a l l show experience  the kind  End  as h i s l a t e r  1910).  Joyce  literary  tradition.  literature  by h e r  The  middle  on m a i n t a i n d n - g  capable  of facing  which  with  a  the facts of  1908),  E.M.  (The Rainbow of  Dubliners  to deal  i t s  of  the failure  Joyce's  of  ( T h e Way  Tale  Lawrence  super-  the writers  Butler  (Old Wives'  i s seen  of  conception  Samuel  does.  i n society.  ideal  a n d D.H.  the  i n i t s inherent  of society  concern  works,  to contemporary  less  Bennett  t h e same  intent  t o an  present.  Arnold  as  and  force  and f i n a n c e .  i t sbelief  clinging  of the century  (Howard's  well  common  was  trade force  vindicated  society,  the present, turn  as  conservative  quo w h i c h  the  centuries  the basis  of world  theme  this  however,  control  liberal  of  century,  iority.  of  and e i g h t e e n t h  part  nineteenth  became  past  of the early  but a  a dynamic,  diminishing  status  phenomenon  middle-  had been  the late  Britain's  of paralysis i n  the conditionof  isolated  In the seventeenth  middle-class  class  with  i s n o t an  century.  By  preoccupation  experience  common  portrait  works.  Joyce's class  one-sided  with  middle-  (1914), issues  i n the mainstream  of English  BIBLIOGRAPHY  J o y c e , James. Tindall,  Chamber M u s i c . E d i t e d by W i l l i a m York New York: Columbia University Press, 1954.  . The C r i t i c a l W r i t i n g s E , M a s o n a n d R. E l l m a n . 1959. .  Exiles.  .  Dubliners.  . Letters New York:  London:  of James J o y c e . New York: The  Cape,  Aylesbury:  . Stephen New York: .  Ulysses.  1952. Penguin,  1962.  o f James J o y c e . E d i t e d by The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1957.  . A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t Aylesbury: Penguin, 1960. H e r o . E d i t e d by New Directions New  York:  The  Edited by Viking Press,  as  a  Young  Stuart  Gilbert.  Man.  Theodore Spencer. Books, 1944. Modern  Library,  1964.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Daiches, The  David. The N o v e l and the Modern World. U n i v e r s i t y of Chaicago Press, 1960.  Ellman, Richard. James J o y c e . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, James  Joyce: Givens.  Kenner, Levin,  Hugh.  Two New  New 1959.  York:  Decades of C r i t i c i s m . York: Vanguard Press,  Dublin's  Joyce.  Harry. James J o y c e ; N o r f o l k , Conn.: New  London: A C r i t i c a l Directions  Magalaner, M a r v i n , and R i c h a r d The W o r k . The Reputation. University Press, 1956.  Chicago:  E d i t e d by Seon Inc., 1948. Chatto  &  Windus,  Introduction. Books, 1941.  M. K a i n . J o y c e : New York: New  The York  Ma n .  Morse, J. M i t c h e l l . The S y m p a t h e t i c Alien: James J o y c e Catholicism. New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Stewart, J.I.M.. James J o y c e . Publications C o u n c i l and t h e N a t i o n a l B o o k L e a g u e by G r e e n and Co., 1960. Tate,  A l l e n , "Three Commentaries: The S e w a n e e R e v i e w v o l . L V 1 1 , The U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S o u t h ,  Tindall, New  1955.  and 1959.  of the British Longmans,  Poe, James and Joyce", n o . 1. S e w a n e e , T e n n e s s e e : 1950.  W i l l i a m York. A Reader's Guide York: Noonday P r e s s , 1959.  to  James  Joyce.  W a l z l , F l o r e n c e L. , " P a t t e r n o f P a r a l y s i s in Joyce's Dubliners A Study of the O r i g i n a l Framework", C o l l e g e E n g l i s h v o l . xxii, n o , 4. C h a m p a i g n , I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h , 1961. Y e a t s , W. B. London:  T h e C o l l e c t e d P o e m s o f W. B. M c M i l l a n & Co. Ltd., 1958.  Yeats.  

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