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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Concepts of the term word in the Encyclopedie 1965

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CONCEPTS OF THE TERM WORD IN THE ENCYCLOPEDIE by:: B a r r i e E v e r d e l l B a r t l e t t B.A., O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1954 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Department o f Romance S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE,UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per- mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that; copying or publi- cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT That t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a p e r i o d of c h a n g i n g i d e a s i s a p r o p o s i t i o n as t r u e when a p p l i e d t o q u e s t i o n s o f language as i t i s when a p p l i e d t o o t h e r f i e l d s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavour. Grammatical s t u d i e s were s t i l l c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o p h i l o s o p h y , as t h e y had been f o r some c e n t u r i e s . The r a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y had r e s u l t e d i n t h e s t r i c t l y l o g i c a l e x p o s i - t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s whose aim was t o produce a n o r m a t i v e means o f t e a c h i n g t h e ' a r t de b i e n p a r l e r ' . W i t h t h i s r a t i o n a - l i s t approach a r o s e t h e t h e o r y o f a grammaire g e n e r a l e and i t s a t t e m p t s t o reduce t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s o f a l l languages t o l o g i c a l terms. A l t h o u g h t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y aimed r a t h e r a t t e a c h i n g the ' a r t de b i e n p e n s e r ' , t h e i d e a o f a r a t i o n a l l y - based grammaire g e n e r a l e p e r s i s t e d as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r most g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and a c t u a l l y r e a c h e d i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t o f development i n t h e s i e c l e des l u m i e r e s . E m p i r i c i s m and the s e n s a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y of C o n d i l l a c were s l o w t o a f f e c t the t e c h n i q u e s o f g r a m m a t i c a l e n q u i r y and d e s c r i p t i o n . A f t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e s e t r e n d s i n g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , o ur s t u d y c o n t i n u e s by examining t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y gram- ma r i a n s ' c o n c e p t s of t h e word, a t t e m p t i n g t o r e l a t e them t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c s h i f t f r o m r a t i o n a l i s m t o e m p i r i c i s m . The E n c y c l o p e d i e , i n w h i c h may be found t h e g r a m m a t i c a l d o c t r i n e s o f Dumarsais and Beauzee, i s shown t o c o n t a i n two d i s t i n c t approaches t o t h i s s u b j e c t , b o t h o f which t r e a t t h e word as t h e s m a l l e s t m e a n i n g f u l u n i t o f language and as t h e b a s i c element o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Whereas Dumarsais l o o k e d upon t h e word as e s s e n t i a l l y a l o g i c a l element dependent on semantic and r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , Beauzee i s shown t o have based h i s concept on e m p i r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s , and t o have c o n s i d e r e d t h e word as a s i g n ( e x h i b i t i n g " t h e dichotomy o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t ) whose meaning i s b o t h semantic and f u n c t i o n a l . L i k e de Saussure a t the t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y , Beauzee p o s i t e d p a r a d i g m a t i c and s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s dependent on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e l a t i v e and n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e word a s a p a s s i v e element o f t h e l e x i c o n and as a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t o f language. I n t h e p r o c e s s o f h i s development of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Beauzee a l s o came v e r y n e a r t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e modern concept o f t h e morpheme. The t h e o r i e s o f Dumarsais and Beauzee a r e compared and c o n t r a s t e d and t h e c o n c l u s i o n drawn t h a t Beauzee's e m p i r i c a l approach r e s u l t e d i n h i s b e i n g f a r more modern i n h i s concept o f t h e word and i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e n e r a l language problems t h a n Dumarsais. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 The background to language studies i n eighteenth- century France . . . . p. 1 Chapter 2 The word as an element of logic p. 13 Chapter 3 The word as a sign p. 31 Chapter 4 The word as an element of meaning . . . . . . p. 44 Chapter 5 The word as a functional element of language . p. 56 Chapter 6 Les idees partielies • p. 71 Chapter 7 Conclusion p. 78 Source material p. 86 List of works consulted p. 88 C h a p t e r 1 THE BACKGROUND TO LANGUAGE STUDIES IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE Throughout t h e ages men have d i s c u s s e d language and have been f a s c i n a t e d by t h e problems w i t h w h i c h , upon even c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n , i t b e s e t s the i n q u i r i n g mind. I n t h e course, o f t h e c e n t u r i e s , t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h men have asked c o n c e r n i n g language have ranged f r o m t h e n a i v e l y s i m p l e t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y complex. Problems w h i c h a r e now c o n s i d e r e d to be t o t a l l y i n s o l u b l e were examined a l o n g w i t h t h o s e w h i c h were p a r t i a l l y a n s w e r a b l e , and i t was n o t u n t i l t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t appearance o f l i n g u i s t i c s as an autonomous f i e l d of s c i e n t i f i c endeavour t h a t t h e scope o f l i n g u i s t i c e n q u i r y was l i m i t e d t o what we may c a l l t h e 'knowable.' S i n c e language i s an e v e r - p r e s e n t s o c i a l phenomenon, i t i s t o be, e x p e c t e d t h a t many o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t o which i t g i v e s r i s e s h o u l d have been asked t i m e and time a g a i n s i n c e man f i r s t d e v o t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o i t s problems. I t i s f u r t h e r t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e d i v e r s e answers t o t h e s e p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n s have o f t e n c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c t hought and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d t h a t produced them. I n s h o r t , l i n g u i s t i c e n q u i r y , l i k e h i s t o r i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c or m o r a l e n q u i r y , t e n d s t o m i r r o r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e o f an age. No age p o i n t s t o t h e t r u t h o f t h i s s t a tement more c l e a r l y t h a n does t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n F r a n c e . Language was a v i t a l i s s u e i n t h i s c e n t u r y o f v i t a l i s s u e s , and arguments on t h e s u b j e c t r a n g e d from t h e most pro f o u n d t o t h e t r i v i a l and - 2 - q u i b b l i n g . The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d answers t o q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h e v e r y t h i n g from t h e v e r y o r i g i n o f l a n g - uage t o t h e e x a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p a r t s o f speech. P h i l o s o p h - e r s , c h e m i s t s , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s - - a l l had t h e i r ' l i n g u i s t i c * o p i n i o n s . The o u t s t a n d i n g w r i t e r s p f t h e p e r i o d who d i d not c o n t r i b u t e i n some degree t o t h e massive l i t e r a t u r e on t h e problems o f language a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n . A l a r g e number o f q u e s t i o n s o f a v e r y g e n e r a l n a t u r e were d i s c u s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r y . Thus, t h e problem o f t h e o r i g i n o f l a n g u a g e , r e f l e c t i n g t he a n c i e n t argument o f ' n a t u r a l ' v e r s u s ' c o n v e n t i o n a l * language, demonstrated t h e c e n t u r y ' s c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f r e v e a l e d r e l i g i o n v e r s u s n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n . T h e o r i e s o f c a t a s t r o p h i c change gave way t o e m p i r i c - a l l y - fbunded t h e o r i e s o f s l o w e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e . 1 Beauzee, f o r example, c l a i m e d t h a t language was a God-given g i f t , ^ w h i l e C o n d i l i a c a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was man's<gradually de v e l o p e d answer t o n e c e s s i t y . Reason, and t h e presence o f i n n a t e i d e a s , were p o s i t e d b y some (Desmafais,|Dumarsais, R e s t a u t ) as t h e f o u n d a - i t i o n o f t h i s s l o w e v o l u t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s (Condi11ac, D i d e r o t , de B r o s s e s ) saw man's s e n s a t i o n s as i t s s o l e b a s i s , w i t h no p a r t p l a y e d by r e a s o n . W h i l e some w r i t e r s u p h e l d onomatopoeia as a b a s i c f a c t o r i n man's f i r s t s p e e c h u t t e r a n c e , o t h e r s s u p p o r t e d t h e c l a i m o f t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n . The at t e m p t e d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f language d i v e r s i t y brought t h e s t o r y o f B a b e l i n t o d i s p u t e , and w h i l e t h e B i b l i c a l account had i t s champions, t h e r e were a g a i n t h o s e who would a c c e p t o n l y t h e p r o c e s s o f s l o w change. The q u e s t i o n o f t h e ' n a t u r a l o r d e r ' o f language provoked d i s c u s s i o n by many o f t h e c e n t u r y ' s t h i n k e r s . Those who c l a i m e d t h a t l o g i c was t h e b a s i s o f word-order found t h e m s e l v e s opposed by t h e e m p i r i c a l s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f C o n d i l l a c and h i s f o l l o w e r s . Many w r i t e r s were concerned about the p o s s i b l e decay o f l a n g u a g e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f F r e n c h , and t h e i r c o ncern gave r i s e t o a t t e m p t s t o f i x t h e language s e m a n t i c a l l y , g r a m m a t i c a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y . ^ As a concomitant t o t h e s e a t t e m p t s t h e r e a r o s e a c o n s e r v a t i v e p u r i s m i n language, q u i t e opposed t o t h e i n n o v a - t i n g s p i r i t which, had pervaded the p u r i s m o f t h e p r e c e d i n g cen- t u r y 4 (as r e p r e s e n t e d f o r example, by V a u g e l a s ) . j D i c t i o n a r i e s p r o l i f e r a t e d , l e n d i n g i m p o r t a n c e t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e problems o f d e f i n i t i o n , 5 w h i l e t h e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g body o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge gave urgency t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s y on t h e n e c e s s a r y dangers o f n e o l o g i s m . T r a v e l and e x p l o r a t i o n were two f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n knowledge c o n c e r n i n g language. The op e n i n g up o f t h e O r i e n t l e d t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e d i v e r s i t y o f languages was even g r e a t e r t h a n had been s u s p e c t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r i e s . T h i s new awareness o f t h e i r immense d i v e r s i t y o f f o r m and s t r u c t u r e l e d t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n and com- p a r i s o n o f l a n g u a g e s . However, such comparative s t u d i e s can no t be l i k e n e d t o t h o s e which a r e so t y p i c a l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y . As might be e x p e c t e d , t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y based i t s - 4 - comparisons on what t h e modern l i n g u i s t would c a l l ' m e t a p h y s i c a l 1 c r i t e r i a . ( C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e s e a t t e m p t s a t e v a l u a t i o n and comparison t h e r e e x i s t e d a d i d a c t i c s p i r i t w h i c h pervaded most o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s about language. The d i v e r s i t y o f languages provoked an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e problems o f communication. Large numbers o f grammar t e x t s were p u b l i s h e d and t h e t e a c h i n g o f f o r e i g n languages was w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d . I n f a c t , some o f t h e c e n t u r y ' s g r e a t e s t exponents o f l i n g u i s t i c argument were c l o s e l y connected w i t h e d u c a t i o n , and devoted much o f t h e i r t i m e t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p l e s and methods o f la n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f a u n i v e r s a l language was a l s o d i s c u s s e d , e v e n t u a l l y t o be r e j e c t e d by t h e i d e o l o g u e s . The g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h we have h e r e enumerated were, as we have s a i d , common t o t h e c e n t u r y as a whole. Those who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t h e i r back- ground and i n t e r e s t s . T h e i r c l a i m t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y r e s t e d on no b e t t e r grounds t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were language u s e r s and t h a t t h e i r arguments were t h e r e f o r e o f more o r l e s s e q u a l v a l i d i t y . However, t h r o u g h such d i v e r s e and o f t e n i r r e l e v e n t d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e r a n a s t a b l e c o r e o f l i n g u i s t i c f a c t and g r a m m a t i c a l a u t h o r i t y p r o t e c t e d by t h e g r a m m a i r i e n s - p h i l o s o - phes. By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , grammar and t h e g r a m m a t i c a l t r e a t i s e were f i r m l y ensconced as t h e b a s i s o f a i l s e r i o u s l a n g u a g e - s t u d y . We need l o o k no f u r t h e r t h a n t h e t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the works o f V a u g e l a s and P o r t - R o y a l t o f i n d t h e i r immediate s o u r c e . The g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y were, as we s h a l l s e e , h e a v i l y i n f l u - enced by t h o s e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r y . However, t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t l y p e r c e i v a b l e t r e n d i n g r a m m a t i c a l developments, and t h e E n c y c l o p l d i e b o t h r e f l e c t e d i t s c o u r s e and formed a p o i n t w i t h i n i t s e v o l u t i o n . The E n c y c l o p e d i e ' s hundreds o f a r t i c l e s on grammar, p u b l i s h e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w e n t y y e a r s , not o n l y embraced t o p i c a l arguments, but gave new c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h o s e o f p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r i e s . I t s e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e arguments marked t h e z e n i t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r t r e n d s t a r t e d y e a r s e a r l i e r and a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f new i n t e l l e c t u a l t r e n d s i n g r a m m a t i c a l t h o u g h t . The g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f t h e g r a m m a i r i e n s - p h i l o s o p h e s stemmed d i r e c t l y from t h o s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f r om t h e Grammaire de P o r t - R o y a l . T h i s work had i t s e l f been a t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i t r e f l e c t e d the impact o f C a r t e s i a n p r i n c i p l e s . Throughout D e s c a r t e s ' c e n t u r y t h e approach t o grammar had been n o r m a t i v e . The grammarian's purpose was d i d a c t i c ; i t was h i s f u n c t i o n t o p r e s c r i b e t h e ' a r t de b i e n p a r l e r * , and he chose as h i s norm t h e 'bon usage' o f t h e c o u r t . A r n a u l d and L a n c e l o t were no l e s s n o r m a t i v e i n t h e i r approach t o grammar, and t h e y made no attempt t o o v e r t h r o w t h e d i c t a t e s o f 'bon usage'. However, i n f l u e n c e d as t h e y were by C a r t e s i a n t h o u g h t , t h e y s e t out t o show t h a t t h e - 6 - a u t h o r i t y o f 'bon usage' was r e l i a b l e because i t was based s o l i d l y i n r e a s o n i t s e l f . S a h l i n a p t l y summed up t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a t t i t u d e s t o grammar b e f o r e and a f t e r 1660 when she w r o t e : La grammaire a v a n t 1660 peut e"tre resumee en " d i t e s t — n e d i t e s pas'.", e t c e s r e g i e s v i s a i e n t a l a c o r r e c t i o n e t l a p u r e t l du s t y l e e t a b l i e s d'apres l e gout p e r s o n n e l de l ' a u t e u r ou d'apres un c e r t a i n m i l i e u s o c i a l . Ce n ' e t a i t done pas une grammaire d e s c r i p t i v e d!sinteVess6e. C e l l e des grammairiens p h i l o s o p h e s l ' e s t encore moins, mais sa maniere d ' e t r e d i d a c t i q u e , l o r s q u ' e l l e s'occupe de r e g i e s p r a t i q u e s , e s t p l u t o t : " d i t e s t — e t v o i c i p o u r q u o i " , s i n o n : " v o i c i ce qu'exi g e l a r a i s o n — d o n e , d i t e s t " 7 Reason had become t h e b a s i s on which a l l g r a m m a t i c a l s t u d y was f o u n d e d , and i t was t h i s f a c t t h a t gave r i s e t o t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e . As a l l men r e a s o n t h e same way, and as r e a s o n i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n on which language r i s e s , a l l languages must have some common u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s , p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o Beauzee, " s o n t d'une v e r i t e immuable et d'un usage u n i v e r s e l . " 8 W i t h t h e enthronement o f r e a s o n and t h e r i s e o f t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e , q u e s t i o n s o f grammar came f a c e t o f a c e w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f l o g i c i n t h e same way as t h e y had done i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y of the A n c i e n t s and o f the m e d i e v a l s p e c u l a t i v e grammari- a n s . ^ B o t h t h e n o r m a t i v e r u l e s o f t h e grammarian and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s o f language had t h e r e f o r e t o submit t o t h e l a w s o f r e a s o n . The vi e w o f u n i v e r s a l grammar was t o a f f e c t g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t h e works o f t h e g r a m m a i r l e n s - p h i l o s o p h e s o f t h e e a r l y and m i d - c e n t u r y , and t o i n f l u e n c e as w e l l t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e i d e o l o g u e s towards t h e c e n t u r y ' s c l o s e . However, between t h e appearance o f the: Gramma i r e de P o r t - R o y a l and t h a t o f t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e , two f o r e i g n p h i l o s o p h e r s were t o propose a d d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s w h i c h a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e t r e n d s o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i n g u i s t i c t h o u g h t . Locke's a s s e r t i o n o f t h e p r i m a c y o f s e n s a t i o n i n man's a t t a i n m e n t o f knowledge i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y t h e c o u r s e o f a l l p h i l o s o p h i c a l e n q u i r y b u t t h a t o f l i n g u i s t i c e n q u i r y as w e l l . Whereas language up t o t h i s t i me had been r e g a r d e d m e r e l y as a means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h o u g h t , i t was seen d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s p l a y i n g an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . The S c h o l a s t i c s and t h e n e o - A r i s t o t e l i a n s may w e l l have asked t h e m s e l v e s whether language i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f r e a l i t y o r whether r e a l i t y i s t h e e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n o f t h e mind's i d e a . The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y would ask not o n l y whether language i s p r i o r t o t h o u g h t o r v i c e - v e r s a , but a l s o whether t h o u g h t o r even s e n s a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t language. Thus, C o n d i l l a c ' s s e n s a t i o n a l i s m r e d u c e d thought and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t , language, t o t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f s e n s a t i o n . He at t e m p t e d t o show t h a t t h e mind p l a y s no a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of t h o u g h t , and t h a t Locke's t h e o r y o f r e f l e c t i o n was u n n e c e s s a r y . C o n d i l l a c ' s f o l l o w e r s were d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , and, a t t h e c e n t u r y ' s c l o s e , we t h e r e f o r e f i n d Cabanis a s k i n g whether i n d e e d i t i s p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t language which p r o c e e d s from t h e f o u r n o n - c o g n i t i v e " o p e r a t i o n s de l'ame", t o - 8 - have s e n s a t i o n a t a l l . Reason and l o g i c may govern t h e form o f l a n g u a g e , but t h e prime mover of speech i s s e n s a t i o n . The second f o r e i g n e r t o i n f l u e n c e F r e n c h l i n g u i s t i c t h o u g h t was L e i b n i z . D e s p i t e h i s own work on language, h i s i n f l u e n c e on l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y comes r a t h e r f r om h i s c o n t r i b u - t i o n t o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . P o r t - R o y a l ' s a p p e a l t o r e a s o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t o l o g i c , a s a c r i t e r i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o r r e c t n e s s , had b r o u g h t t h e concept o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n t o t h e f o r e * The A r i s t o t e l i a n p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h formed t h e b a s i s o f P o r t - R o y a l ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t was e s s e n t i a l l y one o f q u a l i t a t i v e a f f i r m a t i o n ( o r n e g a t i o n ) ; t h a t i s t o say, t h e speaker a f f i r m e d ( o r d e n i e d ) t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e i d e a o f the p r e d i c a t e . L e i b n i z i n t r o d u c e d t h e t h e o r y o f i d e n t i t y t o the l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , whereby t h e s u b j e c t i s seen t o e x i s t w i t h i n t h e i d e a o f t h e p r e d i c a t e and t h e p r e d i c a t e i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e i d e a o f t h e s u b j e c t , r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of i d e n t i t y . T h i s t h e o r y , a s we s h a l l see, was t o have a major e f f e c t upon t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the c e n t u r y ' s most o u t s t a n d i n g g r a m m a r i e n - p h i l o s o p h e , Dumarsais. D e s p i t e t h e v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h a r o s e t o m o d i f y i t , t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e dominated a l l g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r y . We have o b s e r v e d t h a t i t stemmed from a r a t i o n a l i s t approach t o language a n a l y s i s . I t s a p p e a l was w i d e - s p r e a d , no doubt because o f i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n , but a l s o because t h e pedagogues saw i n i t a d e v i c e f o r t e a c h i n g a l l l a n g u a g e s . T e a c h i n g a p u p i l t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f g e n e r a l grammar would, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , l a y t h e groundwork f o r t h e l e a r n i n g o f languages i n g e n e r a l . M a s t e r y o f a f o r e i g n language would t h e n r e q u i r e o n l y t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e s y n t a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . Such a t h e o r y o f u n i v e r s a l grammar found o b v i o u s support i n t h e a m b i t i o n s o f t h o s e who hoped t o d e v e l o p a s i m p l e , l o g i c a l , u n i v e r s a l l anguage. L a t e r , however, w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e y e a r s and t h e r i s e o f t h e m e c h a n i s t i c t h e o r y of language (stemming f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e sense p e r c e p t i o n s ) , t h e t h e o r y o f u n i v e r s a l grammar found an a d d i t i o n a l amd v e r y d i f f e r e n t s u p p o r t . Reason, and t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f r e a s o n , i n wh i c h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e had been r o o t e d , was a c c o r d e d a more minor r o l e ; i t was h e n c e f o r t h t o t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e sen s e s t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a grammaire gen era le owed i t s e x i s t e n c e . T h i s t r e n d away f r o m r a t i o n a l i s m and toward e m p i r i c i s m had q u i t e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s on t h e s t u d y o f grammar. Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r a t i o n a l i s m , t h e main t o o l s o f g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s had been r e a s o n and l o g i c . The d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f thought was b e l i e v e d t o d i c t a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y form o f language. The p r i n c i p a l p urpose o f language was the a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t . S i n c e words r e f l e c t t h o u g h t , t h e q u e s t i o n o f meaning became a l l - i m p o r t a n t and t h e o r i e s of grammar and o f t h e p a r t p l a y e d by words were i n f l u e n c e d by s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . For t h e s e n s a t i o n a l i s t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e purpose o f language was t o communicate - 10 - t h o u g h t . Language t h e r e f o r e formed p a r t o f a system o f knowledge. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l o g i c stnd meaning c o u l d , f o r t h e a n t i - r a t i o n a l i s t s , form o n l y one element o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f l a n g u a g e . The main c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e on q u e s t i o n s o f language were Dumarsais and B e auzeV. 1^ i The hundreds o f a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f language r e f l e c t t h i s d r i f t from r a t i o n a l i s m t o e m p i r i c i s m . The grammaire g e n e r a l e based on l o g i c and r e a s o n r e a c h e d i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t o f development w i t h t h e work o f Dum a r s a i s . Upon t h e l a t t e r 1 s d e a t h , Beauzee under- t o o k t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the a r t i c l e s on grammar, and, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no i m m e d i a t e l y and s t a r t i n g l y a p p a r e n t change i n t h e t h e o r i e s propounded, we s h a l l see t h a t w i t h Beauz£e fs work, new i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s c r e p t i n t o m o d i f y t h e use o f l o g i c as a t o o l o f g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Whatever th e b a s i s f o r g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s , e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h e o r i e s had a t l e a s t one major p o i n t i n common. The s m a l l e s t u n i t o f r e f e r e n t i a l meaning t o form p a r t o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s was the word. Words combined t o r e f l e c t o r t o communi- c a t e t h o u g h t . F u r t h e r m o r e , d e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e word, we s h a l l see t h a t a l l t h e grammarians o f t h e c e n t u r y had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n d i v o r c i n g t h e i d e a o f "word" from t h e i d e a o f " w r i t t e n word". D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , we s h a l l see t h a t t h e E n c y c l o p l d i e c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t two f a i r l y i n v o l v e d c o n c e p t s o f t h e word. One o f t h e s e concepts w i l l be seen t o be i m p l i c i t i n t h e f o r m o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s most e x p l i c i t l y and f u l l y s t a t e d . - 11 - 1 Theories of slow evolutionary change based on empirical observation were also being posited to explain the physical changes in the earth's surface. 2 Nicolas Beauzee, Encyclopedie raisonnee ou dictionnaire des arts et des metiers (1751 - 1765) arti c l e "Langue", IX, 253 A l l page references to artic l e s w i l l refer to the f i r s t edition of the Encyclopedie. The original punctuation i s maintained. 3 Diderot, a r t i c l e "Encyclopedie", V, 637 In reference to the aims of the Encyclopedie Diderot wrote: Mais l a connaiss^nce de la langue est le fondement de toutes ces grandes esperances; elles resteront ineertaines, s i la langue n'est f i x l e et transmise a la posterite dans toute sa perfection; et cet objet est le premier de ceux dont i l convenait a des Encyclopedistes de s'occuper profondement. 4 Ferdinand Brunot, Histoire de la langue francaise des origines a 1900, VI, 2, p! B7I "Enfin et surtout,:le purisme de Vaugelas etait un purisme rajeunisseur qui faisait volontiers le sacrifice de la langue en train de v i e i l l i r , tandis que le purisme que nous appellerons voltairien. est un purisme e s sent ie Heme nt conservateur, tourne" vers les monuments du passe'." 5 D'Alerabert, a r t i c l e "Dictionnaire", IV, 959 " . . . comme les definitions consistent a expliquer un mot par un ou plusieurs autres, i l resulte necessairement de-la qu'il est des mots qu'on ne doit jamais definir, puisqu' autrement toutes les definitions ne formeraient plus qu'une espece de cercle vicieux, dans lequel un mot serait explique' par un autre mot qu'il aurait servi a expliquer lui-meme." 6 Dumarsais, Beauzee and Condillac were a l l teachers or tutors at some time i n their l i v e s . 7 Gunvor Sahlin, Cesar Chesneau du Marsais et son role dans 1'evolution de la grammaire genirale. (ParTs. 1928) p. kk Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Grammaire", VII, 841 9 R. H. Robins, Ancient and mediaeval grammatical theory in Europe (London, 1951) G. L. Bur s i l l - H a l l , "Mediaeval grammatical theories.'"' CJL/RCL. IX, I (1963), pp . 40 - 54 - 12 - Cesar Chesneau du Marsais was born in Marseille in 1 6 7 6 . He was brought up in the Oratoire de Marseille. In 1704 he moved to Paris where he was married and became an advocate His marriage was not successful and he l e f t his wife. His profession did not bring the rewards that he had hoped for so he abandoned i t . He was private tutor successively to the sons of the president de Maisons, of Law and of the Marquis de Beauffrement. WEen this employment ended he found It necessary to run a private school in order to l i v e . He became associated with the authors of the Encyclopedie and undertook to provide the articles on grammar. Before his death in 1756 he had completed one hundred and f i f t y articles His main works on language were: Exposition d'une methode raisonnee pour apprendre la langue latine (17221 Traite des tropes (1730) Logique (1769) Nicolas Beauzee was born in Verdun in 1717. He was a student of mathematics before becoming interested in language. In 1756 he took over the task of completing the grammatical articles for the Encyclopedie. His Grammaire generale ou 1 exposition raisonnee du langage pour servir a. 1*^tude""de toutes langues was pubTished in 1767 and resulted in his appointment to the chair of grammar at the Ecole Royale Mi l i t a i r e . In 1772 he was elected to the Academie francaise as the successor to Duclos. He died in 1739, C h a p t e r 2 THE WORD AS AN ELEMENT OF LOGIC We have s a i d t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f a grammaire g e n e r a l e d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e g r a m m a t i c a l works o f P o r t - R o y a l and t h a t i t r e a c h e d i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t o f development w i t h t h e work o f Dumarsais. I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s development t h e d i d a c t i c purposes w h i c h u n d e r l a y t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s showed a s l i g h t change o f emphasis. Whereas t h e s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y grammarians sought t o t e a c h t h e a r t de b i e n p a r l e r , t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y aimed more a t expounding t h e a r t de b i e n p e n s e r . The grammaire g e n e r a l e was l o o k e d upon as a t e a c h i n g t o o l , and a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s v i e w i t s i n f l u e n c e was f e l t on g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e s . Language was t r e a t e d n o t so much as a means o f communication b u t a s a means o f e x t e r i o r i z i n g t h o u g h t . I t was t h e r e f o r e thought and t h e l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h i t i n v o l v e s t h a t formed t h e b a s i s o f a l l g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s . P o r t - R o y a l had based i t s r u l e s o f grammar on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , and t h i s i n t u r n had l e d t o a con- f u s i o n o f l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l t e r m s . I t was Dumarsais who showed t h a t t h e r e i s a c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made between the l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . T h i s i n f a c t was one o f h i s major c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y . To Dumarsais, t h o u g h t , t h a t r a w . m a t e r i a l w h i c h must be decomposed and a n a l y s e d , e x i s t s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y i n t h e mind; t h a t i s t o s a y , i t i s i n no way " l i n e a r . " He w r o t e : "Nous savons - 14 - p a r s e n t i m e n t i n t e r i e u r , que chaque a c t e p a r t i c u l i e r de l a f a c u l t e " de p e n s e r , ou chaque p e n s l e s i n g u l i e r e , e s t e x c i t e e en nous en un i n s t a n t , sans d i v i s i o n , e t p a r une s i m p l e a f f e c t i o n i n t e r i e u r e de nous-memes. r t l E v e r y such t h o u g h t must undergo a p r o c e s s o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n and a n a l y s i s , and i t i s t h i s p r o c e s s w h i c h g i v e s r i s e , i n h i s v i e w , t o t h e elements o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t o t h e i r l o g i c a l o r d e r w i t h i n t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n . The l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h th e p a r t s o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s t a n d w i t h each o t h e r a r e t h e n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n i s s i m p l y a c o n s t r u c t i o n made up o f words w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e l o g i c a l f a c t s by means o f o r d e r and s y n t a x . The g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e : "un assemblage de mots [ i . e . a c o n s t r u c t i o n ] , q u i , par l e c o n c ours des d i f f e r e n s r a p p o r t s q u ' i l s ont e n t r ' e u x [ i . e . t h e s y n t a c t i c a r r a n g e m e n t ] , enoncent un jugement ou quelque c o n s i d e r a t i o n p a r t i c u l i e r e de 1 T e s p r i t , q u i r e g a r d e un o b j e t comme t e l " ^ [ i . e . t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n ] • I n our attempt t o i s o l a t e Dumarsais' t h e o r y o f t h e word, i t w i l l f i r s t be n e c e s s a r y t o f u r t h e r a n a l y z e h i s i d e a s about l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . These he c l a s s i f i e s i n t o two main g r o u p s . The f i r s t i s t h e p r o p o s i t i o n d i r e c t e w h i c h r e f l e c t s a judgment on t h e p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n t h i n k i n g . nGes p r o p o s i t i o n s marquent un e t a t r e e l de 1 * o b j e t dont on j u g e . w 3 As an example he g i v e s : "La t e r r e t o u r n e a u t o u r du s o l e i l , " w h i c h i s an a f f i r m a t i v e judgment. That i t i s a judgment i s s i g n a l l e d i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l - 15 - p r o p o s i t i o n by t h e use o f t h a t element o f s y n t a x known a s t h e i n d i c a t i v e mood. The second group c o n s i s t s o f the p r o p o s i t i o n o b l i q u e w h i c h i s not a judgment, but an e n u n c i a t i o n . I t does not r e f l e c t t h e 6tat r ^ e l b u t r a t h e r t h e s t a t e o r c o n d i t i o n sought a f t e r . T h i s i s seen i n t h e i m p e r a t i v e and i n c e r t a i n o f what a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s . Thus, soyez sage and a f i n que vous soyez sage a r e examples o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n o b l i q u e . P r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e s e two groups may com- b i n e t o g i v e what Dumarsais c a l l s t h e peViode. (Dumarsais, and l a t e r C o n d i 1 1 a c , made a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f s u b o r d i n a t e l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s , but t h e two main groups o u t l i n e d above a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r our purposes.) We have seen t h a t t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s "un assemblage de mots", t h a t i s , a c o n s t r u c t i o n , whose e l e m e n t s , words, r e f l e c t t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s which must e x i s t w i t h i n one o f t h e above l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n ' s means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s depend on t h e p a r t i c u l a r g r a m m a t i c a l d e v i c e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l language. Thus, a c c e p i l i t t e r a s t u a s , t u a s l i t t e r a s a c c e p i , and l i t t e r a s t u a s a c c e p i t r e f l e c t a s i n g l e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e same s y n t a c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e s u l t i n g d i v e r s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s stem from L a t i n ' s use o f i n f l e c t i o n s t o a c h i e v e s y n t a c t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n . (Beauz^e p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e same t h i n g i s o f course not t r u e o f «Lfai r e c u t e s l e t t r e s . and t h a t a l t h o u g h he was u n d o u b t e d l y aware o f t h e f a c t , Dumarsais nowhere s t a t e d t h a t f o r some - 16 - languages c o n s t r u c t i o n i s i t s e l f a s y n t a c t i c a l r e a l i t y . ) Such c o n s t r u c t i o n s v a r y f r o m language t o language, depending on t h e s y n t a c t i c a l means f a v o r e d . Dumarsais was here o f course d i f f e r - e n t i a t i n g between what we now know as t h e a n a l y t i c a l and s y n t h - e t i c l a n g u a g e s , which were known t o t h e E n c y c l o p ^ d i s t e s as l a n g u e s a n a l o g u e s and l a n g u e s t r a n s p o s i t i v e s (terms i n t r o d u c e d by G i r a r d 4 ) . Dumarsais went on t o c l a i m t h a t , even as thought i s dependent on l o g i c f o r i t s e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n as a l o g i c a l p r o - p o s i t i o n , so must t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n be based on r e a s o n . Of a l l t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n s which can g i v e f orm t o t h o u g h t , t h e r e must be one which r e a s o n d i c t a t e s t o be t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n must o v e r i d e t h e mere s y n t a c t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e s w i t h w h i c h a language may choose t o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i t s p a r t s , and i t must be e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o s y n t h e t i c and a n a l y t i c languages. T h i s i s Dumarsais' c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e ( s i m p l e . n a t u r e l i e ) . Because i t i s based on r e a s o n i t must be u n i v e r s a l i n a p p l i c a t i o n . I t s essence i s word o r d e r ; work i n f l e c t i o n i s m e r e l y a n o t h e r (and more a r t i f i c i a l ) means of a c h i e v i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s which r e a s o n d i c t a t e s . The word o r d e r o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e appearance o f t h e s u b j e c t f i r s t ( i l f a u t e t r e avant d ' o p e r e r ) , t h e v e r b next (1»operation), f o l l o w e d by t h e complement ( i l f a u t e x i s t e r avant de p o u v o i r e t r e l 1 o b j e t de P a c t i o n d'un a u t r e ) . A d j e c t i v e s - 17 - w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w nouns ( i l f a u t e x i s t e r avant d ' e t r e q u a l i f i e ) . Thus, a l t h o u g h L a t i n uses i n f l e c t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e o f t u a s l i t t e r a s a c c e p i s h o u l d be a c c e p i l i t t e r a s t u a s , f o r r e a s o n so d i c t a t e s . 5 C o n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h are not n a t u r a l i n t h e above sense a r e f i g u r a t i v e . E l l i p s i s , pleonasm, s y l l e p s i s , and h y p e r b a t o n a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s f i g u r e e s . They have l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y o n l y because u n d e r l y i n g each t h e r e must be a c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e . A language as i t i s spoken w i t h i n a speech-community makes use o f a t h i r d c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n u s u e l l e , w hich i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e n e c e s s a i r e and t h e f i g u r e e . However, s i n c e t h o u g h t decomposed by r e a s o n i s t h e b a s i s o f l i n g u i s t i c u t t e r a n c e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f a l l languages s h o u l d be based on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e . Only by such a n a l y s i s i s i t p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h e t r u e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e i m p l i c i t i n the v e r y a c t o f t h o u g h t . I n h i s g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s Dumarsais t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d a l l g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n whatever form of c o n s t r u c t i o n , t o be reduced t o t h e n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s which must e x i s t i n t h e f u l l , s i m p l e , n a t u r a l , n e c e s s a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . What t h e n i s t h e s t a t u s o f t h e word? For Dumarsais t h e word i s n e c e s s a r i l y an element which forms p a r t o f t h e gramma- t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , as r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n words a r e a l s o l o g i c a l elements d e s i g n e d t o r e p r e - s e n t and c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e v a r i o u s t e r m s o f t h e l o g i c a l - 18 - p r o p o s i t i o n . Dumarsais h i m s e l f c l e a r l y s t a t e d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e word as a l o g i c a l element when he w r o t e : . . . a i n s i nous d i v i s i o n s , nous a n a l y s o n s , comme par i n s t i n c t , n o t r e p e n s l e ; nous en rassemblons t o u t e s l e s p a r t i e s s e l o n l ' o r d r e de l e u r s r a p p o r t s ; nous l i o n s ces p a r t i e s a des s i g n e s , ce sont l e s mots dont nous nous s e r v o n s e n s u i t e pour en a f f e c t e r l e s sens de ceux a q u i nous v o u l o n s communiquer n o t r e pensee: a i n s i l e s mots sont en meme temps, et 1 'instrument et l e s i g n e de l a d i v i s i o n de l a p e n s l e . 6 We see t h e r e f o r e t h a t he h i m s e l f d e f i n e s the word as an i n s t r u - ment t o be used i n t h e a n a l y s i s and d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f thought ( t h a t a c t i o n i n s t a n t a n e e ) and a s a s i g n , n o t of t h e t h o u g h t , but o f t h e elements which combine t o make t h e t h o u g h t . S i n c e , as we have a l r e a d y shown, the thought i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e word must be a l o g i c a l e lement. Words as mere s i g n s or i n s t r u m e n t s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g system o f s i g n s were o f no i n t e r e s t t o Dumarsais. There c o u l d be no l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n t o t h e s e s i g n s and no r e l a t i o n s h i p between them o f any consequence u n t i l t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d as a c t i v e l y r e f l e c t i n g a p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t o c c u r i n g w i t h i n t h e mind of t h e s p e aker. I n h i s d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n above:^ t h e words i n s t r u m e n t s and s i g n e s a r e o f f a r l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n t h e word p e n s l e . I n t h e same way as t h e a p p e a l t o l o g i c and r e a s o n l e d t o t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o p o s i t i o n , so was i t l o g i c and r e a s o n t h a t formed t h e b a s i s o f h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f words i n t o p a r t s o f speech. We w i l l c o n s i d e r t h i s h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t may h e l p t o f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e h i s t h e o r y o f t h e word. - 19 - Words f o r Dumarsais, as f o r a l l f o l l o w e r s o f P o r t - R o y a l , c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s . They e i t h e r r e p r e - sented un o b j e t de l a pensee o r t h e y r e f l e c t e d un p o i n t de vue de 1 * e s p r i t . The f i r s t o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two sub-groups. These were t h e e*tres r e e l s and t h e e'tres m etaphysiques. The f t r e s r l e l s c o n s i s t e d o f t h o s e words t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e e x t e r i o r w o r l d o f t h i n g s . Words such as c h i e n , a r b r e and homme f o r example, stem d i r e c t l y from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . Such c o g n i t i o n depends on a p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and Dumarsais made a c a r e f u l e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h a c h i l d g e n e r a l i z e s h i s sense e x p e r i e n c e s . A l t h o u g h i n d o i n g t h i s Dumarsais f o l l o w s t h e same p r o c e s s used l a t e r by C o n d i l l a c i n h i s t h e o r i e s on t h e o r i g i n o f language, Dumarsais made no c l a i m t o t h e o r i z e on t h i s q u e s t i o n . The word was f o r him o f no e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . R a t h e r he attempted t o show t h e p r o c e s s by which t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s i g n s o f a g i v e n speech-community a r e apprehended by t h e c h i l d . The names o f t h e e t r e s r e e l s , t h o s e m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s o f r e a l i t y w hich impinge on t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s e n s a t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d , are f i r s t a c c e p t e d as proper names. Thus, c h i e n , a p p l i e d t o a c e r t a i n f o u r - f o o t e d a n i m a l , i s a c c e p t e d by t h e c h i l d as a p r b p e r name a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o one s p e c i f i c and i n d i v i d u a l a n i m a l . I n the course of t i m e however, t h e c h i l d h e a r s t h e names a n i m a l and Medor a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h i s o b j e c t - 20 - w h i c h he has l e a r n e d t o c a l l c h i e n . T h i s s p e c i f i c and i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t now has t h r e e names. E x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e s t h e c h i l d t h a t c h i e n may o n l y be a p p l i e d t o a c e r t a i n t y p e o f a n i m a l ; i t may not be a p p l i e d t o c h e v a l o r o i s e a u . Medor i s t h e name o f a s p e c i f i c c h i e n . and a n i m a l , he d i s c o v e r s , i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o c h i e n , c h e v a l o r o i s e a u . The c h i l d t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l i z e s h i s e x p e r i e n c e and r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f name: nom 7 p r o p r e , nom d* espece and nom de genre.' The p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n does not end he r e . The c h i l d f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r s t h a t a l t h o u g h a n i m a l i s a nom de genre i n r e l a t i o n t o c h i e n , c h e v a l . o i s e a u e t c . , i t i s a nom d*espece i n r e l a t i o n t o e t r e , " q u i e s t l e genre supreme". I t i s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t between t h e e t r e s r e e l s t h a t a l l o w s t h e c h i l d t o a r r i v e a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f genre and espece. and w i t h t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p s t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a s o n b o t h d e d u c t i v e l y and i n d u c t i v e l y . The e t r e s m l t a p h y s i q u e s form t h e second sub-group o f t h e o b j e t s de l a pen see. Thus b e a u t l , amour and b l a n c h e u r do not e x i s t i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d o f r e a l i t y , b u t r a t h e r w i t h i n t h e mind o f man. But t h e c h i l d l e a r n s t o t h i n k o f them i n t h e same way as he t h i n k s o f t h e e t r e s r l e l s : L*usage ou nous sommes t o u s l e s j o u r s de donner des noms aux o b j e t s des i d l e s q u i nous r e p r l s e n t e n t des e t r e s r l e l s , nous a p o r t l s a en donner a u s s i par i m i t a t i o n aux o b j e t s meta- p h y s i q u e s des ide'es a b s t r a i t e s dont nous avons c o n n a i s s a n c e : a i n s i nous en p a r l o n s comme nous f a i s o n s des o b j e t s r e e l s ; en s o r t e que l ' o r d r e metaphysique a a u s s i ses noms d*especes e t ses noms d ' i n d i v i d u s . . . . 9 - 21 - The p r o c e s s i s t h e r e f o r e one w h i c h i s based on a n a l o g y , but i t i s now a p r o c e s s of a b s t r a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Names and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e g i v e n "a 1 * o c c a s i o n de quelque 1 0 a f f e c t i o n i n t e r i e u r e . . ." For example, b l a n c h e u r does not e x i s t w i t h i n t h e o b j e c t t o which i t i s a p p l i e d , n or does i t i n any way e x i s t o u t s i d e t h e s p e a k e r . S i m i l a r l y , bonheur i s an a f f e c t i o n i n t e r i e u r e t o which a name i s g i v e n as tho u g h i t e x i s t e d a s an e t r e r e e l . Such words t h e r e f o r e a b s t r a c t q u a l i - t i e s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e i t h e r from t h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y o r from t h e se n s e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e speaker. The second major c a t e g o r y , t h o s e words w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e p o i n t s de vue de 1* e s p r i t a r e n e c e s s a r i l y e t r e s m e t a p h y s i q u e s , s i n c e t h e y can not e x i s t i n t h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y . T h i s vue de 1»esprit i s found i n t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h p e r t a i n between t h e terms of t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . Thus, p r e p o s i t i o n s and c o n j u n c t i o n s e x i s t w i t h the s o l e purpose o f r e f l e c t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h the speaker w i s h e s t o set up between t h e terms o f which he i s s p e a k i n g . Such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f words had an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on t h e whole o f Dumarsais' g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t n e a t l y s e t a s i d e t h e problem o f f u n c t i o n words (such a s p r e p o s i t i o n s and c o n j u n c t i o n s ) and a t t h e same time p r o v i d e d t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f s y n t a x . S i n c e number, gender, mood and t e n s e r e f l e c t a vue de 1 ' e s p r i t , t h e y f i n d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c a l d e v i c e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l l a n g u a g e . F o r Dumarsais - 22 - t h e n , morphology ( o r more a c c u r a t e l y t h e f l e c t i o n a l d e v i c e s ) and s y n t a x a r e a l s o elements o f l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n . Words, we must r e p e a t , and by e x t e n s i o n , s y n t a x , a r e not elements v i i i c h produce thought o r w h i c h a r e even n e c e s s a r y t o t h o u g h t . They a r e n e c e s s a r y o n l y a s t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f thought and as t h e s i g n s o f t h e l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f t h a t t h o u g h t . There i s abundant f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t Dumarsais l o o k e d upon t h e word p r i m a r i l y a s a l o g i c a l e lement. B o t h t h e l o g i c a l and t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n a r e made up o f s u b j e c t and a t t r i b u t e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h must e x i s t between t h e s e p a r t s f a l l s , a c c o r d i n g t o Dumarsais, i n t o one o f two t y p e s : r a p p o r t d * i d e n t i t e and r a p p o r t de d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e terms and what t h e y stood f o r r e p r e s e n t e d a major advance i n t h e development o f t h e grammaire g i n er a l e from t h e days o f P o r t - R o y a l . S e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y grammarians had had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o n c i l i n g t h e agreement of a d j e c t i v e and noun i n F r e n c h . They r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t , but had had d i f f i c u l t y i n j u s t i f y i n g i t as a l o g i c a l f a c t . To do so t h e y had p o s i t e d the r u l e of concordance. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e t h e l o g i c a l r e a s o n f o r t h e agreement o f t e r r e and ronde i n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n " l a t e r r e e s t r o n d e " was t h a t t h e i d e a o f t e r r e was, f o l l o w i n g A r i s t o t e l i a n p r i n c i p l e s , i n c l u d e d i n t h e i d e a o f roundness. We saw i n our f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t L e i b n i z had s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d t h e - 23 - concept o f i d e n t i t y t o r e p l a c e t h a t of q u a l i t y . I t was t h i s new approach t h a t Dumarsais used t o e x p l a i n t h e f a c t s l o g i c a l l y and f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . For him, e a r t h and roundness had a common i d e n t i t y because not o n l y was t h e i d e a o f e a r t h i n c l u d e d i n t h a t o f r o u n d n e s s , but t h e i d e a o f roundness was i n c l u d e d i n t h a t o f e a r t h . Thus, t h e o l d e r i d e a o f g r a m m a t i c a l concordance between t h i n g s w h i c h a r e l o g i c a l l y d i s p a r a t e was r e p l a c e d by t h e i d e a o f l o g i c a l u n i t y based on common i d e n t i t y . ( T h i s i s t h e b a s i s f o r Dumarsais* c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i v e s and a d j e c t i v e s as s p e c i e s o f t h e genus noun.) I n t h e same way, Dumarsais d i d away w i t h t h e o l d e r i d e a o f r e g i m e . He a t t a c k e d t h e t e r m on t h e grounds t h a t i t i s a b s t r a c t and t h a t such a b s t r a c t t e r m s a r e o n l y "des metaphores q u i n'amusent que 1 * i m a g i n a t i o n . " 1 1 The r a p p o r t s de d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i c h he r e p l a c e d i t a r e t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich r e s t r i c t t h e l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e word. The word lumen f u n c t i o n s l o g i c a l l y as a nom g e n e r i q u e . When s o l i s i s added t o i t , i t s f u n c t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d to t h a t o f a nom s p e c i f i q u e . The same may be s a i d of t h e F r e n c h i n l a l u m i e r e du so l e i 1 . The words du s o l e i l d e t e r m i n e t h a t l a l u m i e r e f u n c t i o n s as a nom s p e c i f i q u e ( i t s f u n c t i o n as l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s ) and du i t s e l f d e t e r m i n e s and t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t s s o l e i l . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i d e n t i t y and d e t e r m i n a t i o n p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n Dumarsais* c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the p a r t s o f - 24 - speech. Even Beauzee made use o f them i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p a r t s o f speech i n h i s a r t i c l e s i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e , a l t h o u g h , a s we hope t o d e m o n s t r a t e l a t e r , h i s concept o f t h e word d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y . A b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l p a r t s o f speech w i l l show how t h e s e l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d . The noun, w h i c h , as we have s e e n , i s an e t r e r e e l o r an e t r e metaphysique, w i l l , a c c o r d i n g t o i t s s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e f l e c t i t s use a s a s u b j e c t or o b j e c t . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r use w i l l r e f l e c t a l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f t h e s p e a k e r . However, l o g i c a l p o i n t s o f v i e w a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d s o l e l y t o t h e l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of t h e s p e c i f i c word w i t h i n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . For example, t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e L a t i n noun w i t h i n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n i s shown by means o f t h e i n f l e c t i o n , but i t s gender and number, which c e r t a i n l y have no l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n as l o g i c a l elements o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , a r e f a c t o r s which r e f l e c t r a t h e r t h e l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w o f the s p e a k e r . From t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t number and gender a r e d e t e r - m i n i n g f a c t o r s which g i v e s p e c i f i c y e t p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l p o i n t o f v i e w from which t h e f u n c t i o n i n g noun i s seen. We may t h e r e f o r e say t h a t t h e i n f l e c t i o n o f t h e L a t i n noun puer ( o r i t s l a c k of i t ) t e l l s us t h a t i t s case i s n o m i n a t i v e o r v o c a t i v e , and t h a t i t s f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o - p o s i t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , however, we know t h a t i t i s s i n g u l a r and m a s c u l i n e , and t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e u s e r f s p o i n t o f v i e w . The noun i s t h e r e - - 25 - f o r e d e t e r m i n e by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , and Beauzee c o u l d d e f i n e t h e noun t h u s : "Les noms sont des mots q u i p r e s e n t e n t a 1 * e s p r i t des e t r e s de'termine's par l ' i d l e p r e c i s e de l e u r n a t u r e . " ^ The a d j e c t i v e on t h e o t h e r hand i s i n d e t e r m i n e . The a d j e c t i f s p h y s i q u e s , such as rond and p i e u x , and t h e a d j e c t i f s m l t a p h y s i q u e s , such as £e, l e and p l u s i e u r s , a r e i n d e t e r m i n e s because t h e y f a i l t o r e f l e c t a s p e c i f i c p o i n t o f v i e w u n t i l t h e y a r e r e l a t e d to a noun. Moreover, t h e i r a d d i t i o n t o a noun does n o t i n any way r e s t r i c t t h e i r own l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n , but r a t h e r t h a t of t h e noun. I n t h e same way, v e r b s , w i t h t h e i r number, t e n s e and mood, r e f l e c t v i e w p o i n t s which p l a c e r e s t r i c - t i o n s not on t h e m s e l v e s but on t h e i r s u b j e c t s . T h i s same l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be a p p l i e d t o t h o s e words whose b a s i c f u n c t i o n i s t o r e f l e c t a vue de 1 * e s p r i t r a t h e r t h a n an o b j e t de l a pensee. The p r e p o s i t i o n by i t s e l f i s n o t o n l y i n d e t e r m i n e , but i t l a c k s a l l r e f e r e n t i a l meaning. The a d d i t i o n o f i t s complement l e a d s t o the r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h a t complement, and the r e l a t i o n o f t h e phrase t o an a n t e c e d e n t a g a i n l e a d s o n l y t o t h e f u r t h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e antecedent and t h e complement. Beauzee makes use o f a m a t h e m a t i c a l a n a l o g y t o c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t . I f , he c l a i m s , 3 i s t o 6 a s 5 i s t o 10, 8 i s t o 16, 25 i s t o 50, e t c . , then the exponent o f t h e r e l a - t i o n s h i p p r e s e n t i s 1/2, when t h e t e r m s a r e a b s t r a c t e d . L i k e w i s e , t h e phrases l a main de D i e u , l a c o l e r e de ce p r i n c e and l e s d e s i r s de l'ame show a p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i r terms - 26 - when t h o s e terms a r e a b s t r a c t e d . The exponent o f t h a t r e l a t i o n - s h i p i s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n de; t h e l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r e p o s i - t i o n i s t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Working from t h i s l o g i c a l b a s i s B e a u z l e was t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o d e f i n e p r e p o s i t i o n s a s : "des mots q u i d e s i g n e n t des r a p p o r t s generaux avec a b s t r a c - t i o n de t o u t terme a n t e c e d e n t e t consequent."13 Let u s now attempt t o summarize t h i s r a t h e r e l u s i v e concept o f t h e word as a l o g i c a l element. We have seen t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f a grammaire g e n e r a l e owed i t s e x i s t e n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t thought and t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f thought were deemed t o be t h e b a s i s o f a l l l a n g u a g e . Thought was decomposed t o g i v e form t o t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n was g i v e n u t t e r a n c e as a g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n whose elements and c o m b i n a t i o n o f elements were f u r t h e r d i c t a t e d by r e a s o n . Dumarsais r e g a r d e d thought as an a c t i o n i n s t a n t a n e e . I t s d e c o m p o s i t i o n depended on t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f words, and t h e s e same words, r e f l e c t i n g t he l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h t h e y had found t o e x i s t i n t h e t h o u g h t , composed t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , and a t t h e same t i m e , as l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s , were the symbols which formed t h e b a s i c p h o n i c m a t e r i a l o f which t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d . The g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s o f a l l languages c o u l d be more o r l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h i s a p p e a l t o l o g i c and r e a s o n . H a v i n g determined the means by w h i c h a language a c h i e v e d i t s s y n t a c t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n , i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o p r e s c r i b e - 27 - t h e g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s which t h e language must a p p l y , f o r such r u l e s were d i c t a t e d by l o g i c . T h i s o f course was t h e r e a s o n why a l l a t t e m p t s a t g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s were n o r m a t i v e . Where the f a c t s o f everyday speech appeared t o c o n t r a v e n e t h e d i c t a t e s o f r e a s o n , such f a c t s were f o r c e d t o s u b m i t . The grammarian s i m p l y p o s i t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s was f e l t f o r many y e a r s . I f i t r e a c h e d t h e h e i g h t o f i t s development w i t h Dumarsais, i t s i n f l u e n c e f a r o u t l i v e d h i s t i m e . We have seen t h a t Beauzee a p p e a l s t o l o g i c i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e p a r t s o f speech, and C o n d i l l a c and a l l s u c c e e d i n g grammarians of t h e c e n t u r y a t some p o i n t i n t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y used l o g i c a l f o r m u l a s e i t h e r as an i n s t r u m e n t o f , , or as a s u p p o r t f o r , t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f a n a l y s i s . As we s h a l l see i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s , Dumarsais d i f f e r e d f r om h i s s u c c e s s o r s , and e s p e c i a l l y f r om t h e s e n s a - t i o n a l i s t s , i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t words p l a y e d no p a r t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h o u g h t . For him t h e thought was; words were t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f i t s a n a l y s i s and e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s b e s t sum up h i s v i e w s on t h e word as an element o f language: Le d i s c o u r s e s t un assemblage de p r o p o s i t i o n s , d 1 e n o n c i a t i o n s e t de p l r i o d e s , q u i t o u t e s d o i v e n t se r a p p o r t e r a un but p r i n c i p a l . La p r o p o s i t i o n e s t un assemblage de mots, q u i , par l e concours des d i f f e Y e n s r a p p o r t s qu* i l s o n t e n t r f e u x , enoncent un jugement ou quelque c o n s i d e r a t i o n p a r t i c u l i e r e de 1 * e s p r i t , q u i r e g a r d e un o b j e t comme t e l . - 28 - Les mots, dont 1*assemblage forme un s e n s , sont done ou l e s i g n e d*un jugement, ou 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n d'un s i m p l e r e g a r d de l * e s p r i t q u i c o n s i d e r e un o b j e t a v e c t e l l e ou t e l l e m o d i f i c a t i o n : ce q u ' i l f a u t b i e n d i s t i n g u e r . 14 The diagram on t h e f o l l o w i n g page w i l l h e l p t o show t h e r e s u l t o f our f i n d i n g s t o t h i s p o i n t . - 29 - The word as an element of l o g i c L o g i c a l P r o p o s i t gar9on (e*tre avant d* o p l r e r ) manger ( o p e r a t i o n ) p a i n ( 6 t r e avant d ' e t r e 1»objet et avant d*§tre q u a l i f i e ) bon Gramm a t i c a l P r o p o s i t i o n l e s g a r c o n s mangent dii bon p a i n L o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n Words a r e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t . Reason d i c t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h e elements o f t h e decomposed t h o u g h t . Grammatical p r o p o s i t i o n Words a r e t h e s i g n s o f t h e a n a l y s e d t h o u g h t . Reason d i c t a t e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s y n t a c t i c a l r u l e s o f F r e n c h and the r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e main elements o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . - 30 - 1 Dumarsais, ar t i c l e "Construction", IV, 73 2 Ibid., p. 81 3 loc. c i t . 4 Gabriel Girard, (1677 - 1748) author of Justesse de la langue francaise, (1718), Les vrais principes de la Tangue francai se, \1747), L* orthogra phe francai se sans 6quivogue dans seiTprincipes natureIs, (17lol 5 The application of these logical criteria i s discussed by Dumarsais in his a r t i c l e "Construction". They were by no means new, for they had been used to lay the so-called natural order of the sentence in the Grammaire raisonnee. 6 : Dumarsais, op. c i t . p. 74 7 These terms were used throughout the century in a l l the discussions about the classification of parts of speech. 8 Dumarsais, a r t i c l e "Article", I, 728 9 loc. c i t . 10 Dumarsais, art i c l e "Abstraction", I, 44 11 14 13 12 Ibid., p. 47 Beauzle, article "Mot", X, 755 Ibid., p. 758 Dumarsais, article "Construction", IV, 81 Chapter 3 THE WORD AS A SIGN The E n c y c l b p e d i s t e s * most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e concept o f t h e word may be found i n t h e a r t i c l e s by Beauzee. H i s c o n c l u s i o n s i n f a c t f o r m a b a s i s f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l g r a m m a t i c a l q u e s t i o n s not a l r e a d y d i s - c u ssed by Dumarsais. For Beauzee, study of t h e word e n t a i l e d t h r e e s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t s w h i c h he l i s t s a s : l e m a t e r i e l , 1* e t y m o l o g i e and l a v a l e u r . 1 By l e m a t e r i e l he meant t h e p h o n i c s u b s t a n c e o f t h e word. He r e f e r s t h e r e a d e r t o such a r t i c l e s as "Son", " A c c e n t " , " S y l l a b e " , " L e t t r e " , e t c . Etymology d e a l t not o n l y w i t h t h e o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n o f words, but w i t h r o o t s , euphony, onomatopoeia, e t c . as w e l l . D e s p i t e the g r e a t v a r i e t y o f t h i s l a s t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and t h e many a r t i c l e s t o which i t gave r i s e i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o c l a i m our p r e s e n t a t t e n t i o n . A l t h o u g h , as we s h a l l see s h o r t l y , Beauzee had c e r t a i n p h o n e t i c t h e o r i e s , he a t no time r e a l l y approached a p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . The t h i r d element, t h e q u e s t i o n o f v a l u e , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r on. The v e r y f a c t t h a t Beauzee r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e t h r e e d i s t i n c t elements i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e word p o i n t s , how- e v e r , t o an i m p o r t a n t d e p a r t u r e from p r e c e d i n g t h e o r i e s . U n l i k e D umarsais, he was not c o n t e n t t o r e g a r d the word as an i n e r t , m o n o l i t h i c e n t i t y , a mere t o o l t o be used i n the d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h o u g h t . A p a r t f rom d e f i n i n g t h e word, i n what we s h a l l see as a s i g n i f i c a n t l y new way, Beauze'e adds t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p o r t a n t - 32 - q u a l i f i c a t i o n : "Les mots sont comme l e s i n s t r u m e n s de l a m a n i f e s t a t i o n de nos p e n s l e s . " 3 Words a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s a c t i v e e l e m e n t s o f thought and o f e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n . Here we can e a s i l y sense r a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f u n d e r g o i n g the i n f l u e n c e of s e n s a t i o n a l i s m . Grammarians t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y had no h e s i t a t i o n i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e word i s a s i g n . The i d e a was i n i t s e l f n o t h i n g new, f o r i n t h e Grammaire r a i s o n n e e de P o r t - R o y a l words had a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d a s : "des sons d i s t i n c t s e t a r t i c u l e s dont l e s hommes ont f a i t des s i g n e s pour s i g n i f i e r l e u r s p e n s e e s . " We have noted t h a t Dumarsais a l s o l o o k e d upon t h e word as a s i g n , and what we have s a i d o f him was a l s o t r u e o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s and o f many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Thoughts d i d n o t e x i s t as p a r t o f words, and the words a s s i g n s m e r e l y r e f l e c t t h e decomposed thought and a r e not e s s e n t i a l t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e t h o u g h t . Beauzee d e f i n e d t h e word i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : ". . . un mot e s t une t o t a l i t e de s o n s , devenue par usage, pour ceux q u i l ' e n t e n d e n t , l e s i g n e d'une ide'e t o t a l e . " 4 I t i s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n w h ich w i l l f o r m t h e b a s i s o f most o f our r e m a i n i n g d i s c u s s i o n , and i n t h i s c h a p t e r we w i l l examine h i s use o f t h e t e r m " s i g n e " and see how i t d i f f e r s from t h a t o f Dumarsais. B e f o r e d o i n g so however, we s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h e r e i s one s i g n i f i c a n t and i m m e d i a t e l y a pparent element i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e way i n whi c h h i s approach d i f f e r s . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e - 33 - absence of t h e word "pensee". A l t h o u g h Beauzee c o u l d not deny t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t h o u g h t , r e a s o n and l o g i c i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and u s e o f l a n g u a g e , t h e s e f a c t o r s had a more minor r o l e i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word. I n t e r e s t i n t h e word a s a p a s s i v e symbol o f t h e mind's t h o u g h t was r e p l a c e d by an i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e m i o t i c v a l u e s w h i c h a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e word as a s i g n f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n a system o f s i g n s . F o r B e a u z l e words a r e not t h e symbols o f meaning; t h e y c o n t a i n meaning, and t h i s meaning (which we s h a l l see l a t e r i s b o t h s e m a n t i c and f u n c t i o n a l ) i s i m p o r t a n t not o n l y f o r i t s o v e r t r e f e r e n c e t o a s p e c i f i c t h o u g h t , but a l s o f o r t h e manner i n w h i c h i t a c h i e v e s t h i s r e f e r e n c e . As an i n d i v i d u a l u n i t w i t h i n a system, t h e word, even i n a n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g s t a t e , now e n t e r s i n t o s p e c i f i c and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r s i g n s which c o n s t i t u t e t h e l e x i c o n ^ o f l anguage. At no p o i n t i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e d i d Beauzee d e f i n e t h e s i g n , nor d i d he i n any s p e c i f i c way s t a t e what t h e t e rm meant t o him. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t soon becomes apparent f r o m h i s use o f t h e t e r m t h a t he a c c e p t s t h e d e f i n i t i o n t o be found i n t h e a r t i c l e " S i g n e " . ^ T h i s a r t i c l e was e d i t e d by D i d e r o t , but much o f i t was t a k e n word f o r word from C o n d i l l a c ' s E s s a i s u r l ' o r i g i n e des c o n n a i s s a n c e s h umaines . 7 The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n , t a k e n from t h e a r t i c l e , i s not C o n d i l l a c ' s , but i t a c c u r a t e l y sums up h i s v i e w s . "Le s i g n e , " we a r e t o l d , " e s t t o u t ce q u i e s t d e s t i n e a r e p r e s e n t e r une chose. Le s i g n e enferme deux - 34 - i d e e s , l'une de l a chose q u i r e p r e s e n t e , 1' a u t r e de l a chose r e p r e s e n t e e ; et s a n a t u r e c o n s i s t e a e x c i t e r l a seconde par l a p r e m i e r e . " ^ A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t h e r e f o r e , t h e s i g n i s a l i n g u i s t i c e n t i t y w hich i s made up o f two d i s t i n c t e lements, namely 1' i d l e de l a chose q u i r e p r e s e n t e and 1*idee de l a chose r e p r e s e n t e e . The t w o - s i d e d n e s s o f t h e s i g n as e n v i s a g e d by C o n d i l l a c b e a r s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h a t p o s i t e d by de Saussure i n h i s use of t h e terms s i g n i f i a n t and s i g n i f i e . C o n d i l l a c ' s d e f i n i t i o n , moreover, i s not so s i m p l e a s i t may f i r s t a p p e a r . I n r e f e r e n c e t o one o f t h e common f a l l a c i e s about t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s i g n , de Saussure w r o t e : "The l i n g u i s t i c s i g n u n i t e s , n o t a t h i n g and a name, b u t a concept and a sound-image."9 The E n c y c l o p e d i c ' s d e f i n i t i o n does n ot make t h i s m i s t a k e . F o r C o n d i l l a c each element o f t h e s i g n i s an i d e e , and t h e i d e e i s something which owes i t s e x i s t e n c e n o t t o tho u g h t b u t t o s e n s a t i o n . I t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t t h e i d e e o f t h e s e n s o r i l y p e r c e i v e d chose q u i r e p r e s e n t e ( i . e . t he sound-image produced by t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l ) i s comparable t o the " p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p r i n t " o f de Saussure* s s i g n i f i a n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the ide^e de l a chose r e p r e s e n t e e i s a l s o a s e n s o r i l y p e r c e i v e d concept (produced i n most i n s t a n c e s by senses o t h e r t h a n h e a r i n g ) and i s l i k e w i s e comparable w i t h de Saussure's s i g n i f i e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as i t s t a n d s , t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n i n t r o d u c e s a c e r t a i n a m b i g u i t y , caused by t h e use - 35 - o f t h e word n a t u r e * The " n a t u r e " o f t h e s i g n i s n o t t o e x c i t e i t s concept w i t h i n i t s e l f by means o f i t s sound-image. T h i s would mean t h a t t h e con c e p t was i t s e l f a s i g n w i t h i n a s i g n . The s t a t e m e n t can o n l y make sense i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f the s i g n a s a means o f communication. I t s f u n c t i o n i s (by means o f i t s t o t a l i t y o f concept and sound-image) t o g i v e r i s e t o a concept i n t h e mind o f a l i s t e n e r . That C o n d i l l a c u n d e r s t o o d t h e s i g n i n i t s t o t a l i t y t o be a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n t i t y i s borne o ut by h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f s i g n s w h i c h he r e c o g n i z e d . The f i r s t of t h e s e was p r e - l i n g u i s t i c and formed p a r t o f h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l t h e o r y as w e l l as o f h i s t h e o r y o f t h e o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n o f lan g u a g e . T h i s was t h e s i g n e a c c i d e n t e l , made up o f " l e s o b j e t s que quelques c i r c o n s t a n c e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s ont l i l s avec q u e l q u e s - unes de nos i d e e s , e n s o r t e q u ' i l s s o n t p r o p r e s V l e s r e v e i H e r . " 1 0 That i s t o s a y , an o b j e c t once p e r c e i v e d may, a t a l a t e r t i m e , be p e r c e i v e d a g a i n . The p e r c e i v e r knows, t h r o u g h t h e agency o f r e m i n i s c e n c e , t h a t he has a l r e a d y undergone t h e se n s o r y e x p e r i - ence w h i c h i t c a u s e s , and he i d e n t i f i e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t . Thus, a man who has been a t t a c k e d by a l i o n may e x p e r i e n c e t h e s e n s a t i o n of f e a r on s e e i n g a n o t h e r l i o n . T h i s t h e n i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p r i n t , n o t , a s i n de S a u s s u r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n , o f t h e sound-image, b u t o f any o f t h e s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s of p e r c e p t i o n . As such t h e s i g n r e m a i n s p r e - l i n g u i s t i c . - 36 - C o n d i l l a c ' s second t y p e c o n s i s t e d o f t h e s i g n e s n a t u r e l s . These a r e t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n s — M l e s c r i s que l a n a t u r e a e t a b l i s pour l e s s e n t i m e n t s de j o i e , de c r a i n t e , de d o u l e u r , e t c . " 1 1 Such c r i e s a r e , i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , evoked by a p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g . As s u c h , t h e y a r e not s i g n s . I t i s o n l y when t h e mind succeeds i n l i n k i n g t h e c r y t o t h e presence o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g t h a t i t becomes a s i g n . However, man i s s t i l l unable t o communicate by means o f t h i s s i g n . I t i s evoked by h i s own f e e l i n g s o r he u n d e r s t a n d s i t when i t i s used by someone seen t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g t h o s e f e e l i n g s . But i t conveys no meaning u n l e s s t h e f e e l i n g e x i s t . I n t h e cour s e of t i m e t h e moment i s r e a c h e d when such a s i g n can be used t o convey t h e i d e a o f a f e e l i n g n o t p r e s e n t , and when t h i s happens i t becomes a s i g n e d * i n s t i t u t i o n . The s i g n e n a t u r e l was t h e r e f o r e r e g a r d e d a s a prop e r s i g n when i t c o n t a i n e d b o t h a r e p r e s e n t a n t and a r e p r e s e n t e d The moment t h a t t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y g r a m m a i r i e n s - p h i l o s o p h e s a c c e p t e d t h e t w o - s i d e d n e s s o f t h e s i g n t h e y were f o r c e d t o c o n s i d e r the problem o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e x p r e s s i o n and co n t e n t w i t h i n this dichotomy. L i k e so many o f t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s t h e y asked t h e m s e l v e s whether t h e r e was any c o n n e c t i o n , o t h e r t h a n an a r b i t r a r y one, between sound and meaning. As f a r as t h e s i g n e n a t u r e l was concerned, Beauzee was w i l l i n g t o ac c e p t t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sound and meaning was not e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y . For him t h e - 37 - i n t e r j e c t i o n formed p a r t o f t h e langage du coeur (as opposed t o t h e langage de 1* e s p r i t ) and, a s d i d most grammarians o f t h e t i m e , he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n had a u n i v e r s a l i t y o f meaning t h a t c o u l d n o t e x i s t i n o t h e r t y p e s o f words. I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s t o p i c he w r i t e s as f o l l o w s : , f. . . l e s sons que l a n a t u r e nous d i c t e dans l e s grands e t p r e m i e r s mouvemens de n o t r e ame, sont l e s memes pour t o u t e s l e s l a n g u e s ; nos usages a cet I g a r d ne sont pas a r b i t r a i r e s , p a r c e q u ' i l s s o n t n a t u r e l s . " 1 3 The p h o n i c m a t e r i a l o f t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e n a t u r a l . When t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n becomes i n s t i t u - t i o n a l i z e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t evokes the i d e a o f a p a r t i c u l a r , i t s p h o n i c m a t e r i a l i s endowed w i t h r e f e r e n t i a l meaning, and t h i s p h o n i c m a t e r i a l can not be c o n s i d e r e d a s an a r b i t r a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h a t t o which i t r e f e r s . Beauzee was t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o d i s a g r e e w i t h B u f f i e r when t h e l a t t e r c l a i m e d t h a t o u f t and a h i l a h i l a r e synonomous. 1 4 The s i g n e n a t u r e l i s o f i n t e r e s t because i t r a i s e d t h i s problem. As l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s f o r m i n g p a r t o f the system o f language, however, i n t e r j e c t i o n s were r e g a r d e d a s o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e . "Les i n t e r j e c t i o n s , " Beauzee a f f i r m s , ;"ne sont p o i n t des i n s t r u m e n s a r b i t r a i r e s de l ' a r t de p a r l e r , mais des s i g n e s n a t u r e l s de s e n s i b i l i t l a n t e Y i e u r s a t o u t ce q u i e s t a r b i t r a i r e . ^ The t h i r d and most important o f C o n d i l l a c ' s s i g n s was t h e s i g n e d T i n s t i t u t i o n . These s i g n s a r e t h o s e "que nous avons nous-mSmes c h o i s i s , e t q u i n'ont qu'un r a p p o r t a r b i t r a i r e - 38 - avec nos idees."l° That i s t o s a y , t h e r e i s no n a t u r a l bond between the p h o n i c m a t e r i a l chosen t o compose t h e r e p r e s e n t a n t and the s e m a n t i c r e f e r e n c e o f t h e r e p r e s e n t ! . A l t h o u g h Beauzee had no h e s i t a t i o n i n a c c e p t i n g t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s i g n e s d T i n s t i t u t i o n , he was f a c e d , l i k e t h e l i n g u i s t s o f the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , w i t h t h e problem o f onomatopoeia. He c o u l d not b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f p h o n i c m a t e r i a l was a l w a y s c o m p l e t e l y a r b i t r a r y . He b e l i e v e d t h a t onomatopoeia ( l i k e t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n ) i s a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon o f l a n g u a g e , and t h a t i n t h e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e sounds o f n a t u r e man sees a bond between sound and meaning, and t h a t h i s c h o i c e o f p h o n i c m a t e r i a l i s t h e r e f o r e , on o c c a s i o n , m o t i v a t e d by t h e meaning he w i s h e s t o convey. Thus, t h e m a t e r i a l w h i c h goes i n t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the r e p r e s e n t a n t o f t h e s i g n has, not o n l y r e f e r e n t i a l meaning, but what might be c a l l e d an i n h e r e n t " n a t u r a l " meaning because of t h i s bond w i t h what i t i m i t a t e s . T h e o r i e s o f onomatopoeia (and o f t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n ) form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y * s i d e a s on t h e 17 o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s . I f c e r t a i n sounds o f emotive o r i m i t a t i v e q u a l i t y have u n i v e r s a l r e f e r e n c e o r meaning, such sounds a r e good e v i d e n c e , i n t h e eyes o f t h e grammarian, t o support the c l a i m t h a t t h e r e was but one o r i g i n a l language (be i t God-given o r t h e pr o d u c t o f human i n v e n t i o n and development). Together w i t h many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and l i k e most o f - 39 - h i s s u c c e s s o r s , Beauzee r e a l i z e d t h a t the q u e s t i o n o f onomatop- o e i a and t h e problems o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t a r e made more complex by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two d i s t i n c t forms o f t h e phenomenon. Thus, such s i m p l e i m i t a t i v e forms as coucou, g l o u g l o u , b e l e r e t c . were u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a c c e p t e d as h a v i n g an o b v i o u s l i n k between t h e i r p h o n i c m a t e r i a l and t h e i r d e n o t a t i o n a l meaning. But he r e c o g n i z e d a f a r more s u b t l e form o f onomatop- o e i a where t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s l e s s o b v i o u s . Beauzee i n t r o d u c e s h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s sound symbolism as f o l l o w s : " l i m i t a t i o n q u i s e r t de guide a 1'onomatopee se f a i t encore remarquer d'une a u t r e maniere dans l a g e n e r a t i o n de p l u s i e u r s mots; c f e s t en p r o p o r t i o n n a n t , pour a i n s i d i r e , l e s elemens du mot a l a n a t u r e de 1'idee que l ' o n veut e x p r i m e r . " 1 ^ I n t h i s statement Beauzee was i n f a c t s a y i n g t h a t m e n t a l i s t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e and l i m i t the a r b i t r a r y c h o i c e o f sound m a t e r i a l . He s u b s t a n t i a t e d h i s v i e w s by drawing w i d e l y from the works of de B r o s s e s and L e i b n i z , and gave many examples of i t , some o f w h i c h we w i l l now c o n s i d e r . V o w els, Beauzee t e l l s u s , a r e formed w i t h o u t any o b s t r u c t i o n i n t h e b u c c a l c a v i t y ; 1 9 they f l o w f r e e l y . I t i s t h i s f a c t w h i c h g i v e s r i s e t o t h e Danish word aa meaning r i v e r * . To him t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s t - seemed t o appear i n a l a r g e number o f words whose r e f e r e n c e embraced t h e i d e a o f s t a b i l i t y . Thus, L a t i n s t a r e , s t i p s , stagnum, s t e l l a , and F r e n c h s t a b l e , e t a t ( e s t a t ) . e s t i m e , j u s t e . He e x p l a i n e d t h i s phenomenon by c l a i m i n g t h a t - 40 - th e s i b i l a n t [s] i s " a r r e t ! subitement p a r l a n o u v e l l e a r t i c u l a - t i o n , ce q u i p e i n t en e f f e t l a f i x i t e \ " 2 0 S i m i l a r l y , i n a passage quoted by Beauze'e, we f i n d de B r o s s e s a s k i n g why t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s c - o c c u r s so f r e q u e n t l y i n words a p p l y i n g t o e x c a v a t i o n s and t h i n g s h o l l o w , as i n t h e L a t i n scutum, s c u l p e r e , s c u t a r i and t h e French s c a r i f i e r , s c a b r e u x , s c u l p t u r e ? Beauzee s u p p l i e s an answer by s t a t i n g t h a t s i n c e t h e sound [k] o c c u r s a t t h e back o f th e t h r o a t , the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the [s] i s made t o p e n e t r a t e d e e p l y i n t o t h e mouth, t h u s c o n v e y i n g t h e i d e a of h o l l o w n e s s . As a f i n a l example o f t h i s m e n t a l i s t a t t i t u d e we may quote one s h o r t s e n t e n c e : "N, l a p l u s l i q u i d e de t o u t e s l e s l e t t r e s , e s t l a l e t t r e c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e de ce q u i a g i t s u r l e l i q u i d e : . . . n a v i s , navigum, . . • nubes, nuage, e t c . " The example i s t y p i c a l of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a s o n i n g on t h i s q u e s t i o n , and Beauze'e sums up: Toutes c e s remarques, e t m i l l e a u t r e s que l ' o n p o u r r a i t f a i r e e t j u s t i f i e r par des exemples sans nombre, nous montrent b i e n que l a n a t u r e a g i t p r i m i t i v e m e n t s u r l e langage humain, indlpendamment de t o u t ce que l a r e f l e x i o n , l a c o n v e n t i o n ou l e c a p r i c e y peuvent e n s u i t e a j o u t e r ; e t nous pouvons e ' t a b l i r comme un p r i n c i p e , q u ' i l y a de c e r t a i n s mouvemens des organes a p p r o p i e s a designer une c e r t a i n e c l a s s e de choses de meme espece ou de meme q u a l i t e . 22 The examples g i v e n above show t h a t Beauze'e and h i s con- t e m p o r a r i e s t e n d e d i n t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l s t u d i e s t o equate sound and l e t t e r , a f a c t w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y s e t them on t h e wrong c o u r s e . D e s p i t e the naSvete o f h i s approach i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n o f sound and meaning and d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i n h i s summary - 41 - Beauzee i s p o s i t i n g a u n i v e r s a l p h o n o l o g i c a l element o f language w h i c h i s based on i n s u f f i c i e n t and i n a c c u r a t e d a t a , t h e arguments he u s e s a r e not w i t h o u t at l e a s t one redeeming f e a t u r e . T h i s i s t h e m e r i t t h a t l i e s i n h i s new approach t o t h e word as a s i g n c o n s i s t i n g o f a dichotomy. We have seen t h a t b o t h Dumarsais and Beauzee used t h e t e r m " s i g n " as p a r t of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e word, but t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e meaning o f t h e t e r m c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r approach t o language problems g e n e r a l l y . Whereas f o r Dumarsais r e a s o n and thought were the f o u n d a t i o n s o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e word t h e l o g i c a l t o o l by which i t c o u l d be a c h i e v e d , f o r Beauzee language was more o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon and t h e word a p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t o f t h e phenomenon. Reason and l o g i c p l a y i m p o r t a n t r S l e s i n h i s g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n as w e l l , but t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f language r a t h e r t h a n i t s means. H i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i s o l a t e d word a s a s i g n composed o f two p s y c h o l o g i c a l elements had, as we s h a l l see, f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f words i n l a n g u a g e . - 4 2 - 1 Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Mot", X, 7 5 2 2 C h a r l e s de B r o s s e s , i n h i s T r a i t e de l a f o r m a t i o n des l a n g u e s . ( P a r i s , 1 7 6 5 ) gave r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e a r t i c u l a t o r y d e s c r i p - t i o n s o f sound p r o d u c t i o n . H. J . Hunt, " L o g i c and l i n g u i s t i c s , " Modern Language Review, X X X I I I ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 2 3 3 , p o i n t s out t h a t D i d e r o t came r e m a r k a b l y c l o s e t o f o r m u l a t i n g a p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y v e r y l i k e t h e modern t h e o r y o f economy b u t t h a t the g r e a t e n c y c l o p e d i s t e a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e not v e r y p r e c i s e m a t t e r o f euphony. I n t h e a r t i c l e " E n c y c l o p e d i e " , V, p. 6 3 9 D i d e r o t w r o t e : L*enchainement des sons d'une l a n g u e n ' e s t pas a u s s i a r b i t r a i r e qu'on se 1 * i m a g i n e ; j * e n d i s a u t a n t de l e u r s c o m b i n a i s o n s . S ' i l y en a q u i ne p o u r r a i e n t se su c c e d e r sans une grande f a t i g u e pour l ' o r g a n e , ou i l s ne se r e n c o n t r e n t p o i n t , ou i l s ne du r e n t pas. I l s sont c h a s s i s de l a langue p a r l ' e u p h o n i e , c e t t e l o i p u i s s a n t e q u i a g i t c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t e t u n i v e r s e l l e m e n t sans e g a r d pour l f e t y m o l o g i e et ses d£fenseurs, e t q u i t e n d sans i n t e r m i s s i o n a amener des e t r e s q u i o n t l e s memes or g a n e s , l e meme i d i o m e , l e s memes mouvemens p r e s c r i t s , a-peu-pres a l a meme p r o n o n c i a t i o n . 3 "Mot", X, 753 4 I b i d . , 7 6 2 5 The t e r m l e x i c o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e i n t h i s c o n t e x t because, as we s h a l l see, Beauze'e r e a l i z e d t h a t a l l s i g n s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y words. 6 A r t i c l e " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 e d i t e d by D i d e r o t 7 E t i e n n e Bonnot de Condi 1 1 a c , E s s a i s u r 1* o r i g i n e des co n n a i s s a n c e s humaines i n Oeuvres p h i l o so phique s, ed. Georges Le Roy ( P a r i s , 1 9 4 7 ) , 19 8 " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 9 F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e , Course i n g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , eds. C h a r l e s B a l l y and A l b e r t Sechehaye, t r a n s . Wade B a s k i n (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 60 10 " S i g n e " , XV, 188 11 l o c . c i t . - 43 - 12 From t h i s point on I s h a l l use reprlsentant t o mean 1* idee de l a chose qui reprlsente and represents t o mean l'Tde^e d"e Ta cEose representee. 13 ~ Beauzee/, a r t i c l e "Langue", I X , 253 "Mot", 2, 753 15 "Langue", I X , 257 16 " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 17 P . Kuehner, T h e o r i e s on the o r i g i n and formation of language i n eighteenth-centuryTrance ( P h i l a d e l p h i a . 1 9 4 4 ) 18 Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Onomatope'e", X I , 48"4 19 l o c . c i t . 20 "Onomatopee", X I , 485 21 loc. c i t . 22 l o c . c i t . C h a p t e r 2̂ THE WORD AS AN ELEMENT OF MEANING We have seen t h a t Beauzee's d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word i n t r o d u c e d a new concept o f t h e s i g n , and t h a t t h i s concept was founded on s e n s a t i o n a l i s t r a t h e r t h a n r a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y . The i s o l a t e d word e x i s t s a s a s i g n w h i c h , f o r Beauze'e, i s n e c e s s a r i l y composed o f two p a r t s . These two p a r t s g i v e r i s e t o t h e dichotomy o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t and i n d o i n g so i n v i t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f form and meaning. We have f u r t h e r seen t h a t , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n s o f i n t e r j e c t i o n s and onomatopoeia, Beauzee b e l i e v e d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be c o m p l e t e l y a r b i t r a r y . So much then f o r t h e i s o l a t e d s i g n . But t h e s i g n does not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n . I t i s but one element o f t h e whole system o f s i g n s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e language. Beauzee r e a l i z e d t h a t i f meaning e x i s t s i n t h e s i g n , p a r t o f t h i s meaning depends on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h a t s i g n w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r s i g n s which make up t h e complete system. F u r t h e r - more, t h e meaning i n h e r e n t i n t h e s i g n e x i s t s on two q u i t e d i s t i n c t p l a n e s . Thus, t h e r e f e r e n t i a l meaning o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n o b t a i n s p a r t o f i t s meaning f r o m i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e r e f e r e n t i a l meaning o f a l l the o t h e r s i g n s of t h e language. Meaning i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o r e f e r e n c e however. Each i n d i v i d u a l s i g n has f u n c t i o n a l meaning, and a g a i n p a r t o f t h i s meaning on th e f u n c t i o n a l p l a n e depends on t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n and a l l t h e o t h e r s i g n s o f language. Beauze'e t r e a t e d t h e q u e s t i o n of meaning, o r what - 45 - he c a l l e d t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e , 1 from each o f t h e s e two p o i n t s o f v i e w . For him, t h e r e f o r e , t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e c o n s i s t s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e ( i . e . r e f e r e n t i a l meaning) and the s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l l e ( i . e . f u n c t i o n a l meaning). T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l . w i t h t h e f o r m e r . The s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n depends on semantic c r i t e r i a . The s i g n i n t h e t o t a l i t y o f i t s p a r t s has r e f e r e n t i a l meaning. But t h i s r e f e r e n t i a l meaning i t s e l f c o n s i s t s o f two elements which Beauzee c a l l e d t h e i d e e p r i n c i p a l e and t h e i d l e a c c e s s o i r e . Words d i f f e r i n g i n form a re ca p a b l e o f h a v i n g an i d e e p r i n c i p a l e i n common. For example, Beauzee wrote t h a t amour and a m i t i e " p r e s e n t e n t egalement a Vesprit l f i d e e de ce s e n t i m e n t de 1'ame q u i p o r t e l e s hommes a se r e u n i r ; c ' e s t l ' i d e e p r i n c i p a l e de l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e des deux mots." However, s i n c e t h e words a r e o b v i o u s l y n o t synonymous, t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s must be ac c o u n t e d f o r . T h i s i s a c h i e v e d by means o f t h e i d e e s a c c e s s o i r e s . " . . . M a i s l e nom amour," Beauzee w r o t e , " a j o u t e a c e t t e i d e e p r i n c i p a l e , l ' i d e e a c c e s s o i r e de l 1 i n c l i n a t i o n d*un sexe pour l f a u t r e ; et l e nom am i t i e ' y a j o u t e l ' i d e e a c c e s s o i r e d f u n j u s t e fonderaent, sans 3 d i s t i n c t i o n de s e x e . " I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r f o r m a l l i k e n e s s ( i . e . they a r e b o t h nouns) and i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e sem a n t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e i r i d e e s p r i n c i p a l e s , t h e two words d i f f e r f r om each o t h e r because o f t h e i r d i f f e r i n g ide'es a c c e s s o i r e s . - 4 6 - Remembering t h a t Beauze'e i s h e r e d e a l i n g w i t h two non- f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n s i n the amorphous mass w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e l e x i c o n o f t h e language, we see t h a t he was p r o p o s i n g a s y s t e m o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h b e a r s comparison w i t h de S a u s s u r e ' s i d e a o f p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s ( a t l e a s t as f a r a s s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t i s c o n c e r n e d ) . ^ As w i t h de Sa u s s u r e , s i g n s f o r Beauze'e e n t e r i n t o o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i t i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t between s i g n s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i g n . We may extend Beauze'e's own example t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c o mparison. Thus, amour as a s i g n w i t h i n t h e body o f t h e l e x i c o n i s i n n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i g n s l i k e c h a t , h a i n e , beaut I . The n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e i d l e p r i n c i p a l e o f each o f t h e s i g n s . On t h e o t h e r hand, amour has no n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a m i t i e as f a r a s t h e i r i d l e s p r i n c i p a l e s a r e c o n c e r n e d . As we have seen, t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s l i e i n t h e i r i d l e s a c c e s s o i r e s ; t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c o n s t i t u t e not a n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n , but a r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m summarizes t h e m a t e r i a l we have p r e s e n t e d so f a r , and w i l l s i m p l i f y e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e d i f f i c u l - t i e s w h i c h f a c e d Beauzee i n h i s use o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a t o d e f i n e a l l t y p e s o f words. S i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e ( i d l e p r i n c i p a l e - i d l e a c c e s s o i r e ) C r i t e r i a : s e m a n t i c and e s s e n t i a l l y d e n o t a t i o n a l meaning c h a t , h a i n e , beauty ; i d e e J i d ^ e p r i n c i p . a c c e s s . i d e e I i d e e p r i n c i p . a c c e s s . a m i t i e ' n e g a t r r e o p p o s i t i o n i d l e p r i n c i p . i d l e a c c e s s . r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n - 47 - H a v i n g p o s i t e d t h e s e r e l a t i o n s between the n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n s o f t h e l e x i c o n , Beauzee c o u l d t h e n c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e t h a t , a s f a r as the s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e o f two words i s concerned, synonyms can n o t e x i s t . Thus he wr o t e : "Quand on ne c o n s i d e r e dans l e s mots de l a meme espec e , q u i d e s i g n e n t une meme i d e e p r i n c i p a l e , que c e t t e s e u l e i d l e p r i n c i p a l e , i l s s o n t synonymes; mais i l s c e s s e n t de l*§tre quand on f a i t a t t e n t i o n aux ide'es a c c e s s o i r e s q u i l e s d i f f e r e n c i e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , homonyms w i l l d i f f e r i n t h e i r i d e e s p r i n c i p a l e s . F o r such s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r v a l i d i t y as p a r t o f the concept o f t h e word, t h e y s h o u l d e x i s t , however, between any two elements o f t h e l e x i c o n . Beauzee was aware o f t h i s s y s t e m i c f a c t . F u r t h e r m o r e , he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s system o f r e l a t i o n s was i n many i n s t a n c e s d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y . F o r example, a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d account f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f amour and a mi t i e , c o u l d i t account f o r t h a t o f aime and aimons? O b v i o u s l y i t c o u l d n o t , f o r t h e semantic c o n t e n t o f the i d l e p r i n c i p a l e and t h e i d l e a c c e s s o i r e o f each word i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t o f t h e o t h e r . T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e o f form i s p u r e l y f u n c t i o n a l , but t h e d i f f e r i n g forms i m p l y d i f f e r i n g meaning. I n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i t would have been n e c e s - s a r y f o r B e a u z l e t o p o s i t a m e a n i n g f u l u n i t s m a l l e r t h a n t h e w o r d - - t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e morpheme. We s h a l l see l a t e r t h a t he i n f a c t came v e r y near t o d o i n g s o , b u t a s he d i d not use t h e s e i d e a s a s p a r t o f h i s concept o f t h e word we w i l l not - 48 - i n t r o d u c e them a t t h i s t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g examples, a l l o f w h i c h a r e Beauzee* s own, 6 i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s w hich had t o be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e s y s t e m . The word s a v a n t e x i s t s a s a s i n g l e s i g n w i t h i n t h e l e x i c o n , and y e t i t f u n c t i o n s as an a d j e c t i v e and a noun. Such d i f f e r e n c e s o f f u n c t i o n a r e e a s i l y a c c o u n t e d f o r by a p p l y i n g f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , b u t t h e y must a l s o be acc o u n t e d f o r s e m a n t i c a l l y . On t h e o t h e r hand, f e u i s a s i n g l e s i g n w i t h a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n i n t h e p h r a s e s l e f e u b r u l e and l e f e u de 1 * i m a g i n a t i o n , but i t s meaning d i f f e r s . As terms o f a s y s t e m i c o p p o s i t i o n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s must a l s o be s u s c e p t i b l e t o s e m a n t i c d e s c r i p t i o n . I n o r d e r not t o mix t h e c r i t e r i a o f h i s system by i n t r o d u c i n g f u n c t i o n — a n d w i t h i t , s y n t a g m a t i c r e a l t i o n s — B e a u z e e was f o r c e d t o f i n d o t h e r means of m a i n t a i n i n g the p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the body o f t h e n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g l e x i c o n . He d i d so by a p p e a l i n g t o t h e v a l u e o f the word. The i d e a o f v a l u e i s m e r e l y an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c o p p o s i t i o n s which we have a l r e a d y seen. Thus, v a l u e f o r Beauzee meant s y s t e m i c and r e l a t i o n a l v a l u e . H i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term b e t r a y s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r a t i o n a l i s t gramnar o f Dumarsa i s . As Dumarsais' contemporary and s u c c e s s o r , Beauzee c o u l d n o t escape t h e c o n s t a n t a p p e a l t o l o g i c b o t h as an i n s t r u m e n t o f a n a l y s i s and a s a t o o l f o r d e f i n i t i o n . Thus he d e f i n e d v a l u e as f o l l o w s : "La v a l e u r des mots c o n s i s t e dans l a t o t a l i t e des i d l e s que 1'usage a a t t a c h l e s a chaque mot. Les d i f f e r e n t e s - 49 - especes d ' i d e e s que l e s mots peuvent r a s s e m b l e r dans l e u r s i g n i f i c a t i o n , donnent b i e n a l a L e x i c o l o g i e de d i s t i n g u e r dans l a v a l e u r des mots t r o i s sens d i f f e r e n s ; l e sens f u n d a m e n t a l , l e sens s p e c i f i q u e , e t l e sens a c c i d e n t e l . The sens f o n d a m e n t a l r e f e r s t o t h e b a s i c manner i n w h i c h t h e word i s b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d . Thus, i n l e f e u b r u l e , f e u i s u n d e r s t o o d i n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning, b u t not because o f i t s c o n t e x t . I n l e f e u de 1 T i m a g i n a t i o n , f e u i s u n d e r s t o o d i n a sens f i g u r e r a t h e r than i n a sens p r o p r e , but a g a i n not f o r c o n t e x t u a l reasons. As a s i n g l e i t e m o f t h e l e x i c o n t h e word f e u can t h e r e f o r e have a sens f o n d a m e n t a l which i s e i t h e r p r o p r e o r f i g u r e , and a semantic o p p o s i t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e word's d e n o t a t i o n a l and c o n n o t a t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e . A word t h a t can f u n c t i o n as two d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f speech depends on t h e sens s p e c i f i q u e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s meaning. Fo r example, l e savant and l'homme savant r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t meanings o f t h e same word (as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s ) . Each example r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t de vue de 1* e s p r i t , and t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s f i n d t h e i r f i n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n s . T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s o f meaning do not c o n s i s t o f a d i f f e r e n c e between d e n o t a t i o n and connota- t i o n , but p u r e l y o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a t t i t u d e o f t h e s p e a ker. Such c r i t e r i a r e m i n d one o f Dumarsais* use o f l o g i c and t h e same p o i n t de vue de 1 ' e s p r i t . The sens a c c i d e n t e l i s perhaps b e s t e x p l a i n e d i n Beauzee* s - 50 - own words: rtLe sens a c c i d e n t e l , " he w r i t e s , " e s t c e l u i q u i r e s u l t e de l a d i f f e r e n c e des r e l a t i o n s des mots a l T o r d r e de l f e n o n c i a t i o n . Ces d i v e r s e s r e l a t i o n s s o n t communement i n d i q u e e s par des formes d i f f e r e n t e s , t e l l e s q u ' i l p l a i t aux usages a r b i t r a i r e s des l a n g u e s de l e s f i x e r ; d e - l a l e s g e n r e s , l e s c a s , l e s nombres, l e s p e r s o n n e s , l e s terns, l e s modes." 0 We must be c a r e f u l n o t to a c c e p t t h i s as a statement o f f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a dependent on form. Beauze'e was s t i l l a t t e m p t i n g t o e l i c i t s e m a n tic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h a t t h e same time he was l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r h i s l a t e r f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Thus, i n t h e example g i v e n above, aime d i f f e r s s e m a n t i c a l l y f rom aimons because i t r e f l e c t s a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t de vue de 1* e s p r i t i n r e f e r e n c e t o number. The sens f o n d a m e n t a l , sens s p e c i f i q u e and sens a c c i d e n t e l combine t o f o r m what Beauzee c a l l e d the a c c e p t i o n f o r m e H e — t h a t i s , t h e s p e c i f i c s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t which t h e speaker a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e word. Such a c c e p t i o n f o r m e l l e e s t a b l i s h e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w hich a r e dependent on the s p e a k e r ' s c h o i c e o f v a r i o u s elements o f semantic c o n t e n t , and t h e r e f o r e , a t t h e same t i m e , b r i d g e s t h e gap between semantic and f u n c t i o n a l meaning. I t r e s u l t s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f o p p o s i t i o n s : a) Sens f o n d a m e n t a l ( p r o p r e / f i g u r l ) D e n o t a t i o n opposed t o c o n n o t a t i o n : f e u d e not- a t i o n <r~ > connot- a t i o n - 51 - b) Sens s p e c i f i q u e I d e n t i c a l f o r m s w h i c h d i f f e r i n s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t b e c a u s e one p o i n t of v i e w i s opposed t o a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w : savant i d l e p r i n c i p . i d l e a c c e s s . View A. ( a d j . ) V i ew B, (noun) c) Sens a c c i d e n t e l D i f f e r i n g forms w h i c h v a r y i n semantic c o n t e n t because one p o i n t o f v i e w i s opposed t o a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w : aime i d l e p r i n c i p . i d l e a c c e s s . V i ew A • ( S i n g u l a r i t y ) i d l e i d l e f / V i e w B p r i n c i p . a c c e s s . aimons — ( P l u r a l i t y ) By a d d i n g t h i s concept o f the v a l u e o f t h e word (what we may j u s t i f i a b l y c a l l t h e s e m a n t i c o v e r t o n e s ) t o t h e main semantic o p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l (and s t i l l n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g ) i t e m s o f t h e l e x i c o n , Beauzee succeeded i n s e t t i n g up a system o f p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s based p u r e l y on t h e semantic c o n t e n t o f t h e s i g n . As a means o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n t h e system was t o some e x t e n t s u p e r - f l u o u s . The g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s c o u l d be more e a s i l y a c counted f o r by a p p e a l i n g t o f u n c t i o n and s y n t a c t i c c o n t e x t t h a n t o such - 52 - i m p r e c i s e c r i t e r i a as t h e p o i n t s de vue de 1 ' e s p r i t * Gn t h e o t h e r hand, a s a f a c t o r i n d e f i n i n g t h e concept o f t h e word, t h e system r e p r e s e n t s a g r e a t advance on Dumarsais' methods. D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t Beauzee u s e s t h e same semantic c r i t e r i a as d i d Dumarsais, t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d a s o p p o s i t i o n a l terms used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e word as p a r t o f a l i n g u i s t i c system. The completeness o f t h e system a l s o a s s u r e d Beauzee o f more t h a n one means of a p p r o a c h i n g g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . That he, i n f a c t , r a r e l y employed t h e f u l l panoply o f o p p o s i t i o n s a t h i s d i s p o s a l t o a t t a i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n no way reduces t h e system's i n h e r e n t w o r t h . We have seen t h a t Beauzee u n d e r s t o o d t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e o f t h e s i g n t o c o n s i s t o f two p a r t s , namely t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e (which we have d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) and t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme H e (which w i l l be examined i n t h e n e x t ) . At t h i s p o i n t i n our s t u d y o f Beauzee's concept o f t h e word we may b r i e f l y summarize h i s views as f o l l o w s : The word i s a s i g n ; i t c o n s i s t s o f two e l e m e n t s — t h e r e p r e s e n t a n t and t h e r e p r e s e n t ! — w h i c h e s t a b l i s h t h e dichotomy o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t . The c o n t e n t o f t h e s i g n has s y s t e m i c v a l u e ; each s i g n as an i t e m o f t h e l e x i c o n must s t a n d i n c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r i t e m s o f t h e l e x i c o n . The s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s t a t e s t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , u s i n g s e m antic c o n t e n t ( i d e e p r i n c i p a l e , i d e e a c c e s s o i r e ) p l u s a c h o i c e o f s e m a n t i c o v e r t o n e s ( d e n o t a t i o n , c o n n o t a t i o n , p a r t o f speech, - 53 - number, gender, mood, e t c . , ) as t h e te r m s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h i s p a r t o f h i s o v e r a l l system Beauzee examined t h e su b s t a n c e o f t h e word's c o n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n i t s form. Always b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t s but one h a l f o f t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e o f t h e word, we may, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m , schematize t h e system o f o p p o s i t i o n s which Beauzee succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g on p u r e l y s e m antic c r i t e r i a . The system o f o p p o s i t i o n s e x i s t i n g between s i g n s as i n d i v i d u a l semantic i t e m s o f t h e l e x i c o n s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e f e u s avant aime t t t amour a b c h a i n e 4/ - vi/ - amitie" f e u s avant aimons a b" a, d e i d l e p r i n c i p a l e amour d h a i n e i d l e a c c e s s o i r e amour e a m i t i e d e n o t a t i o n - c o n n o t a t i o n (sens p r o p r e / s e n s f i g u r e ) a d j e c t i v e - noun (sens specifique) s i n g u l a r - p l u r a l (sens a c c i d e n t e l ) b and c r e p r e s e n t t h e a c c e p t i o n forme l i e n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e i d e e s p r i n c i p a l e s r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e id£es a c c e s s o i r e s d and e r e p r e s e n t t h e b a s i c s e m a n t i c o p p o s i t i o n s - 54 - 1 Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Sens", XV, 16 2 Beauze'e, a r t i c l e "Mot", X, 761 3 l o c . c i t . 4 de S a u s s u r e , p. I l l 5 Beauzee, op. c i t . p. 761 6 Beauze'e, a r t i c l e "Sens", XV, pp. 16 - 17 7 Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Grammaire", V I I , 843 The whole q u e s t i o n o f s e n s , a c c e p t i o n and s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d by Beauze'e's use of d i f f e r e n t terms t o r e f e r t o one i d e a . F o r example, i t appears t h a t he a t t i m e s u s e s t h e terms sens p r i n c i p a l , i d e e fondamentale and s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o ndame n t a l e t o r e f e r t o t h e s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d i d e a embodied i n t h e t e r m i d e e p r i n c i p a l e . The p a r t p l a y e d i n t h e concept o f t h e word by t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f sens i s here based on t h e a r t i c l e "Mot", f o r i t i s o n l y h e r e t h a t he makes use o f t h e c a t e g o r y o f sens a c c i d e n t e l . Beauz£e d e a l t i n d e t a i 1 w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of sens and a c c e p t i o n i n t h e a r t i c l e "Sens". However, t h e views e x p r e s s e d t h e r e i n a r e Dumarsais' r a t h e r t h a n Beauze'e's f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e a r t i c l e i s t a k e n from Dumarsais' T r a i t e des t r o p e s . Of the f o u r t y p e s o f a c c e p t i o n w h i c h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e Beauzee makes use o f but one. I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t he chose t o i g n o r e t h e o t h e r t h r e e because, f i r s t , t h e y i n t r o d u c e extremes o f l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a rtiich a r e o f more use i n a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f language t h a n i n i t s g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and, s e c o n d l y , because they make use of p h o n e t i c s u b s t a n c e w h i c h p l a y s but a minor r6le i n Beauze'e's concept o f t h e word. The f o u r t y p e s o f a c c e p t i o n t o be found i n t h e a r t i c l e "Sens" a r e : a c c e p t i o n f o r m e l l e (based on semantic c o n t e n t ) , a c c e p t i o n m a t e r i e l T e (based on p h o n e t i c and s y l l a b i c c e n t e n t ) . a c c e p t i o n s p e c i f i q u e and a c c e p t i o n u n i v e r s e l l e ( b o t h based on l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a ) . Beauze'e r e s t r i c t e d h i s use o f sens t o t h r e e t y p e s . I n t h i s a r t i c l e however, he l i s t s no fewer t h a n twenty-two. That he chose to i g n o r e t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s e i s j u s t i f i a b l e on the grounds t h a t t h e y added n o t h i n g to a s t r i c t l y g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f language. D e s p i t e the i m p r e c i s e names g i v e n by Dumarsais t o t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f sens, i t can e a s i l y be seen t h a t t h e y range o v e r a wide f i e l d of* a p p l i c a t i o n a n d i n c l u d e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t , f u n c t i o n a l c o n t e n t , l o g i c a l c o n t e n t , emotive power, s t y l i s t i c u s e , e t c . They a r e named as f o l l o w s : sens p r o p r e , f i g u r e , determine", i n d e t e r m i n e , a c t i f , p a s s i f , a b s o l u , - 55 - r e l a t i f , c o l l e c t i f , d i s t r i b u t i f , compose", d i v i s e , l i t t e r a l , s p i r i t u e l , l i t t e r a l r i g o u r e u x , l i t t e Y a l f i g u r e , a l l e g o r i q u e , m o r a l , anagogique, a d a p t ! , l o u c h e , equivoque. 8 I b i d . , p. 844 Chapter £ THE WORD AS A FUNCTIONAL ELEMENT OF IANGUAGE The o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i g n s l e a d to t h e language corpus known t o Beauzee a s v o c a b u l a r y . V o c a b u l a r y i s "meaning- f u l " t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t the semantic c o n t e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t y which can be e x p r e s s e d o n l y i n t e rms o f t h e whole system. The system i s t h e r e f o r e made up o f p a r t s , and the p a r t s have meaning o n l y because t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a whole. As we have s e e n , however, meaning i n language must go beyond t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s of t h e mere d i f f e r e n c e s o f semantic c o n t e n t . Words f u n c t i o n , and i t i s by f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t t h e y f u l f i l t h e i r r & l e as s i g n s i n a system o f communication. The s o - c a l l e d p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w hich a r e bound to e x i s t between the e l e m e n t s of a s y s t e m i c corpus r e f l e c t o n l y p a r t o f t h e i r r o l e ; t h e c o n c e p t of the word i s i n c o m p l e t e i f t h a t concept f a i l s t o i n c l u d e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o n t h e word's a b i l i t y t o e n t e r i n t o s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s . The statement o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e f o r m o f r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e s y n t a c t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f words r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t r a d i t i o n a l grammar r i g h t from t h e days o f t h e grammarians o f A l e x a n d r i a . Beauzee was t h e r e f o r e s t a t i n g n o t h i n g new when he w r o t e : "Un v o c a b u l a i r e e s t v e r i t a b l e m e n t l a s u i t e ou l'amas des mots dont se s e r t un p e u p l e , pour s i g n i f i e r l e s c hoses e t pour se communiquer ses p e h s l e s . M a i s ne f a u t - i l que des mots pour c o n s t i t u e r une l a n g u e ; e t pour l a s a v o i r , - 57 - s u f f i t - i l d'en a v o i r a p p r i s l e vo c a b u l a i r e ? " 1 H i s q u e s t i o n evoked no n o v e l answer. Semantic a n a l y s i s c o u l d be o n l y one o f t h e t o o l s o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . F o r m u l a t i o n o f the r u l e s o f c o m b i n a t i o n must f o r m t h e o t h e r . Any o r i g i n a l i t y w hich such i d e a s may have c o n t a i n e d i s to be found r a t h e r i n Beauzee's a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a s t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f the concept o f t h e word. To d e s c r i b e the f u n c t i o n o f a word was m e r e l y t o d e s c r i b e a f a c t of l a n g u a g e . To make f u n c t i o n a p a r t o f t h e concept of t h e word was t o d e s c r i b e a l i n g u i s t i c t r u t h . Dumarsais had h i m s e l f a p p e a l e d t o f u n c t i o n i n h i s s t u d y o f the word. "C'est du s e r v i c e des mots dans l a phrase qu'on d o i t t i r e r l e u r d e n o m i n a t i o n . " * But h i s use o f f u n c t i o n i s s t r i c t l y t o determine ( t h a t i s , t o r e s t r i c t ) the s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r word a p p e a r i n g under p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g statement b y Beauzee appears at f i r s t s i g h t t o have t h e same i m p l i c a t i o n . "Les mots," he w r o t e , "sont comme l e s i n s t r u m e n s de l a m a n i f e s t a t i o n de nos p e n s l e s : des i n s t r u m e n s ne peuvent S t r e b i e n cdnnus que p a r l e u r s s e r v i c e s ; e t l e s s e r v i c e s ne se d e v i n e n t pas, on l e s £prouve; on l e s v o i t , on l e s o b s e r v e . " 3 I n f a c t , Beauzee appears to have been s p e a k i n g i n f a r more g e n e r a l t e r m s . I f , as we have o b s e r v e d , f u n c t i o n c o u l d e s t a b l i s h t h e "meaning" o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n de, i t c o u l d a l s o be u s e d to form t h e b a s i s of t h e concept of t h e word as an a b s t r a c t l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon. And t h i s i s t h e i d e a w h i c h Beauzee was p r o p o s i n g when he spoke o f t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l l e - 58 - o f t h e word. B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e way i n w h i c h Beauzee i n c o r p o r a t e d t h i s s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r me l i e i n t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word, i t i s perhaps n e c e s s a r y t o examine c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of h i s a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . From what we have a l r e a d y seen o f h i s t h e o r i e s we may f a i r l y c o n c l u d e t h a t Beauzee r e p r e - s e n t e d a swing away f r o m the r a t i o n a l i s t a pproach t o language q u e s t i o n s , at l e a s t t o some s m a l l degree. D e s p i t e h i s wide use of l o g i c and r e a s o n , h i s t h e o r i e s appear t o r e f l e c t the i n f l u - ence o f C o n d i l l a c , whose s e n s a t i o n a l i s t d o c t r i n e so p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d t h e grammatical w r i t i n g s of t h e l a t e r i d e o l o g u e s . Reason and l o g i c , however, were the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f the grammaire genera l e vfaose i n f l u e n c e was f e l t i n " l i n g u i s t i c " s t u d i e s t h r o u g h o u t the c e n t u r y , and, i n t h e case of p e d a g o g i c a l grammar, f o r a much l o n g e r p e r i o d . We have seen t h e r e f o r e t h a t Beauzee d i d n o t s u d d e n l y do away w i t h s e m a n t i c or l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a as a means of a r r i v i n g a t a u s e f u l n o r m a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . For him, as f o r D u m a r s a i s , language was the e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n of t h o u g h t , and thought i t s e l f was dependent on c e r t a i n e x i g e n c i e s o f l o g i c . Thoughts were made m a n i f e s t i n words, and words r e f l e c t e d t h e u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . Beauzee, no l e s s t h a n Dumarsais, c o u l d a p p e a l t o an u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e t o e x p l a i n an e l l i p t i c a l f o r m o f e x p r e s s i o n , and i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r we saw the g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e which he p l a c e d on semantic - 59 - c r i t e r i a . The p a r t s o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n have s p e c i f i c l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s ; t h i s f a c t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d s t o t h e c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n o f the words t h a t f u l f i l t h o s e l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s . Hence, f o r Beauze'e and a l l t h e o t h e r grammarians of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o p a r t s of speech formed a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme l i e i s b o t h t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n i n g p a r t s o f speech ( t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l f a c t s ) and a l s o t h e a b s t r a c t e d and g e n e r a l i z e d c o n d i t i o n s which govern t h e i r a b i l i t y t o combine i n s y n t a g m a t i c arrangement ( t h e s y n t a c t i c f a c t s ) . I t i s t h e a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e t e r m s o f t h e s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s which form such an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f Beauzee's d e f i n i t i o n of t h e word. The i d e e t o t a l e i s t h e c r u x o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . I t c o n s i s t s , as we have s e e n , o f two p a r t s , namely the s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e which we have a l r e a d y examined, and t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l i e whose f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we must now c o n s i d e r . L i k e t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme l i e i t s e l f c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s which Beauzee a g a i n c a l l e d t h e i d e e p r i n c i p a l e and t h e i d e e a c c e s s o i r e . The i d e e p r i n c i p a l e i s " l e p o i n t de vue s p e c i f i q u e q u i c a r a c t e r i s e l ' e s p e c e du mot." 4 That i s to s a y , i t i s t h e p r o p e r t y o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which d e s i g n a t e s t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l word. Beauzee b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l s i g n s of language ( t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l and t h e meaning i s a r b i t r a r y ) f a l l i n t o two main f u n c t i o n i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The word - 60 - i s e i t h e r d e c l i n a b l e or i n d e c l i n a b l e . ^ I t s f u n c t i o n depends on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t , and t h e form giv e n t o t h e f u n c t i o n depends on t h e s p e c i f i c s y n t a x of the p a r t i c u l a r l anguage. Thus the b r o a d e s t and most g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f words i n t o two main f u n c t i o n i n g g r o u p s depends on whether the word i s d e c l i n a b l e o r n o t . F o r purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n , Beauzee, l i k e so many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , made us e of L a t i n examples. A l l L a t i n nouns, he s t a t e s , have the s p e c i f i c q u a l i t y o f d e c l e n s i o n ; t h i s i s t h e i r f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and as such i t c o n s t i t u t e s the i d l e p r i n c i p a l e o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l l e . Thus, amor and amare have a common s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e ( s i g n a l l e d by the common stem am-), but t h e f o r m a l p r o p e r t y o f noun d e c l e n s i o n b e l o n g s o n l y t o amor and t h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t s f u n c t i o n f r o m t h a t o f amare. I n t h e same way as Beauzee s e t s up a system o f o p p o s i t i o n s on the p a r a d i g m a t i c p l a n e so does he s e t up s y n t a g m a t i c o p p o s i t i o n s . " L 1 i n d e c l i n a b i l i t e , " he w r o t e , n n r e s t qu'une p r o p r i e t e n e g a t i v e , e t q u i ne peut nous r i e n i n d i q u e r que par son c o n t r a i r e . n ^ That t h e o p p o s i t i o n s which he here so c l e a r l y s t a t e s were seen to e x i s t s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y i s borne out by two f a c t s . F i r s t , i n ad amorem, ad i s i n d e c l i n a b l e o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e c l i n a b i l i t y o f amorem. As f u n c t i o n i n g u n i t s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , a d v e r b s and c o n j u n c t i o n s t h e r e f o r e s t a n d i n n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o nouns, pronouns, a d j e c t i v e s and v e r b s . These two groups form t h e f i r s t and major s p l i t i n t h e - 61 - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , a s f a r as the i n d e c l i n - a b l e s i s c o n cerned i t i s d i f f i c u l t to keep semantic meaning and f u n c t i o n a l meaning a p a r t , f o r as Beauzee s a i d , t h e i r i n d e c l i n - a b i l i t y i s "une preuve de 1 * i m m u t a b i l i t e de 1*aspect sous l e q u e l on y e n v i s a g e l ' i d l e o b j e c t i v e de l e u r s i g n i f i c a t i o n . " * 7 I t i s however t h e second f a c t , namely t h e i d e e a c c e s s o i r e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme l i e t h a t f u l l y b e a r s out t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s a r e s y n t a g m a t i c . B oth amor and amorem must e x i s t as i n d e p e n d e n t s i g n s i n t h e corpus o f v o c a b u l a r y , b u t t h e r e i s no s e m a n t i c o p p o s i t i o n between them. Nor i s t h e r e o p p o s i t i o n between t h e i d e e s p r i n c i p a l e s o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l l e f o r t h e y both have t h e d e c l i n a b i l i t y of t h e noun. However, t h e i d e e a c c e s s o i r e o f t h e L a t i n noun i s e x p r e s s e d i n i t s a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t " d i v e r s p o i n t s de vue a c c i d e n t e l s " (and h e r e we a r e r e - e n t e r i n g t h e sphere o f a c c e p t i o n f o r m e l l e ) . Thus , amor d i f f e r s from amonem i n i t s i d e e a c c e s s o i r e which s p e c i f i e s i t s f u n c t i o n i n t h e s entence. S t a t e d i n o t h e r t e r m s , l o v e " ( s u b j e c t ) can not b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r i n s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t f r o m l o v e ( o b j e c t ) ; i t i s t h e i r s y n t a g m a t i c c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the r e s t o f the sentence w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and t h e i r s e m a n t i c o v e r t o n e s . The o p p o s i t i o n s which a r e produced by t h e s e s y n t a g m a t i c and f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a a r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e s e m a n t i c o p p o s i t i o n s . As we have a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d , a d s t a n d s i n n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o amorem. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f amor t o amorem - 62 - i s r e l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n n e g a t i v e . The f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s may t h e r e f o r e be s t a t e d as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g diagram: ad i d l e p r i n . i n d e c l i n a b i l i t l amorem i d e e p r i n . d e c l i n a b i l i t e T h i s o p p o s i t i o n a l s o e x i s t s s e m a n t i c a l l y i n t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e amor i d e e a c c e s s . s u b j e c t T h i s o p p o s i t i o n does n o t e x i s t s e m a n t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , but i t does e x i s t s e m a n t i c a l l y i n t h e sens a c c i a e n t e l o f t h e a c c e p t i o n f o r m e l l e The i d l e to t a l e forms the c o r e o f Beauzee* s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word, and i t s p a r t s m a i n t a i n t h e dichotomy o f e x p r e s s i o n and co n t e n t a l r e a d y seen t o e x i s t i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c * s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i g n as a t w o - s i d e d e n t i t y . I f , when d e a l i n g w i t h t h e se m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s o f s i g n s , Beauzee saw the r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the c o n t e n t o f t h e s i g n as e x i s t i n g i n s u b s t a n c e , he saw t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s as e x i s t i n g i n form. The co m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s added up t o h i s concept o f t h e word. (See diagram on f o l l o w i n g page) amorem i d e e a c c e s s , o b j e c t - 63 - Word ( S i g n e c o n v e n t i o n n e l ) 2 S i g n i f i c a t i o n ( i d e e t o t a l e ) S i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e ( c o n t e n t ) A c c e p t i o n f o r m e l i e i d l e p r i n c i p a l e Semantic c o n t e n t i . e . amour i d e e a c c e s s o i r e Semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s i . e . a mour/amitie S i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l i e ( e x p r e s s i o n ) i d e e pr: . n e i p a l e i n t o p a r t s o f speech on f o r m a l c r i t e r i a : morphology i d e e a c c e s s o i r e F u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e sente n c e based on f o r m a l c r i t e r i a : s y n t a x The above l e a d t h r o u g h n e g a t i v e and r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s o f a p a r a - d i g m a t i c n a t u r e e x i s t i n g i n s u b s t a n c e t o l e x i s The above l e a d t h r o u g h n e g a t i v e and r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s o f a s y n t - a g m a t i c n a t u r e e x i s t - i n g i n f o r m t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g word 1 The c o n n e c t i o n between " , l ! i d e e de ce q u i r e p r e s e n t e " and " l ' i d e e de ce q u i e s t r e p r e s e n t e " i s a r b i t r a r y 2 A c c e p t i o n forme l i e b r i d g e s c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n and r e p r e - s e n t s t h e c h o i c e s made from a l l t h e p o s s i b l e semantic and f u n c t i o n a l c o m b i n a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n - 64 - Between the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a concept o f t h e a b s t r a c t word and t h e attempt t o d e s c r i b e a s p e c i f i c , f u n c t i o n i n g word t h e r e may e x i s t g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s . The e x i s t e n c e of two d i s t i n c t but complementary s e t s o f c r i t e r i a i n the concept means t h a t i n t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f a language, one s e t may be g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e o v e r t h e o t h e r . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y t r u e o f Beauzee's g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . I f h i s concept o f t h e word f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e h i m w i t h a p o l y s y s t e m i c approach t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f language ( s i n c e he had no p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y ) i t d i d a t l e a s t p r e s e n t him w i t h a two-edged t o o l f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f a c t s o f language. H i s p a r a d i g m a t i c and s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s were based upon th e complementary elements o f s e m a n t i c and f u n c t i o n a l meaning, but i n p r a c t i c e Beauze'e chose t o base h i s d e s c r i p t i o n on semantic and l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . That he s h o u l d have done so p r o v e s no s u r p r i s e . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t t h e r a t i o n a l i s t approach t o g r a m m a t i c a l des- c r i p t i o n was almost t r a d i t i o n a l . L o g i c and r e a s o n were i n h e r e n t i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e c e n t u r y . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s f a c t , one must remember t h a t i t was t h e w r i t t e n word w h i c h formed t h e b a s i s o f l i n g u i s t i c s t u d y , and t h a t t h e w r i t t e n word i s more suscep- t i b l e t o a n a l y s i s i n t o l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s than a r e t h e more e l l i p t i c a l forms o f t h e spoken word. F u r t h e r m o r e , the purpose o f u n d e r t a k i n g g r a m m a t i c a l study was s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p r o v i d e - 65 - a t o o l t o t e a c h t h e p r o c e s s e s o f c o r r e c t , and t h e r e f o r e l o g i c a l , t h o u g h t . When f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d , i t was t o t h e w r i t t e n forms o f t h e language. That t h i s was so i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t i n Beauze'e* s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e problem o f groups o f w r i t t e n words f u l f i l l i n g a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n . An example o f t h i s tendency i s seen i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f compound c o n j u n c t i o n s . Beauzee c r i t i c i z e d t h o s e grammarians who d e a l t w i t h such groups a s though t h e y were sing l e v r w o r d s , and wro t e : **. . . on ne d o i t pas r e g a r d e r comme une c o n j o n c t i o n , mime en y a j o u t a n t l ' e p i t h e t e de composee, une phrase q u i r e n - ferme p l u s i e u r s m o t s . " 9 I n such e x p r e s s i o n s as \ c o n d i t i o n que and par consequent. he c l a i m e d t h a t i t was t h e f u n c t i o n o f each word t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d , " . . . e t chacun de ceux q u i e n t r e n t dans l'une de c e s p h r a s e s que l ' o n t r a i t e de c o n j o n c t i o n s , d o i t e t r e r a p p o r t e a sa c l a s s e . " 1 ^ I n t h e same a r t i c l e he a t t a c k e d G i r a r d f o r h a v i n g w r i t t e n such e x p r e s s i o n s as de p l u s and d * a i l l e u r s as one word, " . . . ce q u i e s t c o n t r a i r e a 1*usage de n o t r e o r t h o g r a p h e , et consequemment aux v e r i t a b l e s i d e e s des c h o s e s . " 1 1 Beauzee t h e r e f o r e tended t o r e s t r i c t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r m a l c r i t e r i a t o t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e w r i t t e n forms• F u r t h e r p r o o f of? t h i s a t t i t u d e i s t o be found i n h i s a r t i c l e o n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n . Most grammarians o f t h e t i m e l o o k e d upon \ 1* egard de and v i s A - v i s de as compound p r e p o s i t i o n s . B u t , Beauzee o b j e c t e d : " C ' e s t confondre l e s i d ^ e s l e s p l u s - 6 6 - c l a i r e s e t l e s p l u s f o n d a m e n t a l e s , que de p r e n d r e des p h r a s e s pour des s o r t e s de mots; e t s i 1*on ne veut a v a n c e r que des p r i n c i p e s q u i se p u i s s e n t j u s t i f i e r , on ne d o i t r e c o n n a X t r e que des p r e p o s i t i o n s s i m p l e s . " H i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s made t h e i r d e c i s i o n on common o r t h o g r a p h i c a l p r a c t i c e and t h e g e n e r a l acceptance by o t h e r grammarians, but Beauzee was here w i l l i n g t o o v e r i d e usage: C'est que 1'usage n'a v e r i t a b l e m e n t a u t o r i t e que sur l e langage n a t i o n a l , e t que c ' e s t a l a r a i s o n e c l a i r e ' e de d i r i g e r l e langage d i d a c t i q u e : des que l ' o n remarque qu'un terme t e c h n i q u e p r e s e n t e une i d e e f a u s s e ou o b s c u r e , on peut e t on d o i t 1*abandonner et en s u b s t i t u e r un a u t r e p l u s c o n v e n a b l e. D ' a i l l e u r s i l n ' e s t pas i c i q u e s t i o n de nommer t o u t simplement, mais de d e c i d e r l a n a t u r e d'un mot; ce q u i e s t a f f a i r e non d f u s a g e , mais de r a i s o n n e m e n t . 13 We see t h a t Beauzee's concept o f t h e word was q u i t e s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n i t s grasp o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e s u b j e c t . I t i s a c o n c e p t , moreover, which seems t o r e f l e c t a modern o u t l o o k . Beauzee r e c o g n i z e s t h a t "meaning" must i n c l u d e f u n c t i o n as w e l l a s s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t , and t h a t t h e t w o - s i d e d n e s s o f t h e s i g n l e a d s t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f our r e c o g n i z i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n v a l e n c e s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a system o f s i g n s . The examples we have a l r e a d y c i t e d , show, however, t h a t when i t came t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s , Beauzee was not a s r i g o r o u s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s c r i t e r i a as he had been i n e s t a b l i s h i n g them. He a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o be t o o e a s i l y i n f l u - enced by such e x t e r n a l and i r r e v e l a n t f a c t o r s a s o r t h o g r a p h y , and he chose t o a p p l y o n l y some o f h i s c r i t e r i a t o the e x c l u s i o n o f the r e s t . - 67 - The e f f e c t o f t h i s l i m i t a t i o n o f c r i t e r i a i s seen i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f a 1*egard de. T r e a t i n g t h e s e a s f o u r d i s t i n c t words (because o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y are w r i t t e n ) , Beauzee may w e l l have a p p l i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n i n g . As n o n - f u n c t i o n - i n g e l e m e n t s o f language each of t h e s e words s t a n d s , as a s i g n , i n c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r t h r e e . Thus, t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s a and de s t a n d i n r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l o t h e r p r e p o s i t i o n s and t o each o t h e r . They a r e i n n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l o t h e r elements o f t h e l e x i c o n ( i n c l u d i n g 1' and egard) b o t h s e m a n t i c a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y . They a r e i n f a c t s e m a n t i c a l l y d e v o i d o f r e f e r e n c e , b u t r e p r e s e n t l o g i c a l e l ements o f t h e language because o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n o f r e l a t i n g an a n t e c e d e n t and a consequent whose se m a n t i c c o n t e n t t h e y d e t e r m i n e . I n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , t h e a r t i c l e 1* r e f l e c t s a c e r t a i n p o i n t de vue de 1 * e s p r i t ( s i n g u l a r i t y ) about egard and a t t h e same t i m e l o g i c a l l y r e s t r i c t s i t s s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t t o something s p e c i f i c and i n d i v i - d u a l . As a s i g n e g a r d e n t e r s i n t o n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n w i t h a l l o t h e r words, as f a r as s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t i s c o n c e r n e d , and i n t o n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n of a l l o t h e r p a r t s o f s p e e c h . Beauzee's c o n c l u s i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e s y s t e m i c a l l y c o r r e c t when he c l a i m s t h a t egard i s t h e consequent o f \ and t h e a n t e - cedent o f de f o r t h i s i s t h e l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f a l l t h e above r e l a t i o n s h i p s — b o t h semantic and f u n c t i o n a l . The s y n t a g m a t i c f a c t s a r e more e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d by a p p e a l i n g t o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n t o f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, h i s i n s i s t e n c e on - 68 - r e g a r d i n g j | 1* egard de as f o u r s i g n s l e d t o a f i n a l i n c o n s i s - t e n c y . He f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c and f u n c t i o n a l meaning o f a l f I g a r d de i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f t h e se m a n t i c and f u n c t i o n a l meaning o f i t s p a r t s . Thus, ]a 1*egard de i s i t s e l f a complete, f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n w h i c h can e n t e r i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n ( b o t h p a r a d i g m a t i c and s y n t a g m a t i c ) w i t h , f o r example, t h e phrase a c e t egar d . I f Beauzee had a c c e p t e d t h e o p i n i o n o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and had t r e a t e d \ Vegard de as a compound p r e p o s i t i o n , and i f he had g i v e n f u n c t i o n as g r e a t a r o l e a s l o g i c , he w o u l d have a r r i v e d a t a p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e v i e w s t h a t he defended i n h i s concept o f t h e word. I n so d o i n g , he would have a c h i e v e d a d e s c r i p t i v e grammar based on l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s r a t h e r t h a n a p r e s c r i p t i v e grammar based on l o g i c a l f a c t s . - 69 - 1 Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Langue", I X , 249 2 Dumarsais, a r t i c l e " C o n j o n c t i o n " , I I I , 872 3 Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Mot", X, 753 4 I b i d . , p. 761 5 I b i d . , p. 753 6 l o c . c i t . 7 I b i d . , p. 757 8 I b i d . , p. 761 9 I b i d . , p. 759 10 l o c . c i t . 11 l o c . c i t . 12 Beauze'e, a r t i c l e " P r e p o s i t i o n " , X I I I , 302 13 l o c . c i t . One can not h e l p but f e e l t h a t i t i s Beauzee t h e e d u c a t o r who i s s p e a k i n g h e r e r a t h e r t h a n Beauzee t h e grammarian. H i s t e n y e a r s as a t e a c h e r a t t h e E c o l e R o y a l e M i l l t a i r e must have i n f l u e n c e d h i s approach t o grammar. Here we see h i s i n t e r e s t i n grammar a s a t o o l f o r i n s t r u c t i n g i n t h e a r t de b i e n p e n s e r . The d i c t a t e s o f usage a r e n e v e r t h e - l e s s as i m p o r t a n t t o Beauzee as t h e y were t o h i s contempor- a r i e s . I n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem he was not w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t y o f the system o f w r i t i n g , but t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n shows h i s r e a l approach t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f usage: Tout e s t usage dans l e s l a n g u e s ; l e m a t e r i e l e t l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n des mots, l ' a n a l o g i e e t l ' a n a m o l i e des t e r m i n a i s o n s , l a s e r v i t u d e ou l a l i b e r t e ' des c o n s t r u c t i o n s , l e purisme ou l e b a r b a r i s m e des ensembles. C'est une v e r i t e s e n t i e gar t o u s c e u x ^ q u i ont par16 de 1*usage; mais une v e " r i t e mal p r e s e n t e e , quand on a d i t que 1*usage e t a i t l e t y r a n des l a n g u e s . L ' i d e e de t y r a n n i e emporte chez nous c e l l e d'une u s u r p a t i o n i n j u s t e e t d'un gouvernement d e r a i s o n n a b l e ; e t cependant r i e n de p l u s j u s t e que l f e m p i r e de 1'usage s u r quelque i d i o m e que ce s o i t , p u i s q u e l u i s e u l peut donner a l a communication - 70 - des pensees, q u i e s t 1 ! o b j e t de l a p a r o l e , 1 * u n i v e r s a l i t e n e c e s s a i r e ; r i e n de p l u s r a i s o n n a b l e que d ' o b e i r a ses d e c i s i o n s , p u i s q u e sans c e l a on ne s e r a i t pas entendu, ce q u i e s t l e p l u s c o n t r a i r e a l a d e s t i n a t i o n de l a p a r o l e . ( A r t i c l e "Langue", I X , p. 249) I t i s perhaps a p i t y t h a t he d i d not f o l l o w t h e i d e a s which he here a d v o c a t e s . Had he done s o , he would have based h i s language a n a l y s i s p u r e l y on t h e spoken word. C h a p t e r 6 LES IDEES PARTIELIES We have examined i n t h e l a s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s t h e v a r i o u s elements o f Beauzee's d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word. Of c o u r s e , t h e d e f i n i t i o n i n i t s e l f i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e ; not u n t i l we have examined h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s e elements i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s o v e r a l l c o n c e p t . The i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s i m p l i c i t i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n a r e weighed and d i s c u s s e d by Beauzee h i m s e l f i n a l a r g e number o f a r t i c l e s , and we have a t t e m p t e d t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e s e i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n we have found one a r t i c l e w hich d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . T h i s i s t h e a r t i c l e "Mot", i n which Beauzee defends h i s t o t a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the word and a t t a c k s t h e r e l a t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f P o r t - R o y a l . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c h i e v i n g t h e s e two p u r p o s e s , Beauzee i n t r o d u c e s t h r e e i d e a s w h i c h are perhaps o n l y p e r i p h e r a l t o our d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s concept o f t h e word, but w h i c h , n e v e r t h e l e s s , shed l i g h t on h i s a t t i t u d e t o language and demonstrate t h e d e p t h o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i n g u i s t i c p r oblems. The f i r s t o f t h e s e i d e a s e x p r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and e p i s t e m o l o g y , and we s h a l l see t h a t i t i s an i d e a w h i c h l i n k s Beauzee t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s r a t h e r t h a n t o t h a t of h i s s u c c e s s o r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, Beauze'e's a t t i t u d e t o language as a means o f communication was f a r more modern t h a n t h a t o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , and i t i s t h i s a t t i t u d e w h i c h c o n s t i - t u t e s t h e second i d e a . The t h i r d i d e a i s one t h a t s u g g e s t s - 72 - t h a t , a l t h o u g h he was c o n t e n t t o use t h e word i t s e l f as t h e s m a l l e s t u n i t i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f language, he was n e v e r t h e l e s s aware o f t h e h e u r i s t i c v a l u e o f p o s i t i n g a y e t s m a l l e r u n i t , namely t h e morpheme. These t h r e e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l become app a r e n t as we f o l l o w t h e c o u r s e of Beauzee*s defence o f h i s d e f i n i t i o n . The d e f i n i t i v e f o r m o f h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e word s t a t e s , as we have a l r e a d y seen, t h a t " l e mot e s t une t o t a l i t e de sons, devenue p a r usage, pour ceux q u i 1*entendent, l e s i g n e d'une i d e e t o t a l e . " 1 Beauzee m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l o f t h e word i s a t o t a l i t y o f sounds r a t h e r than a c o m b i n a t i o n o f sounds f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t t h e t o t a l i t y may c o n s i s t o f a m i n i m a l form o f one sound. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e word son i s i t s e l f a concept based on t h e a b s t r a c t i o n of i t s dichotomous t e r m s . These terms ar e t h e sons a r t i c u l e s ( c o n s o n a n t s ) and t h e sons i n a r t i c u l e s ( v o w e l s ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s d i c h o t o m y i s of l a t e n t p h o n o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t , Beauzee d i s m i s s e s i t from h i s concept o f t h e word, s a y i n g : "son s i m p l e , son a r t i c u l e ' , son a i g u , son g r a v e , son b r e f , son a l o n g ! , t o u t y e s t a d m i s s i b l e . " 2 I n o r d e r f o r the s i g n t o become an a c t i v e element o f language, i t must be a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e system o f language. I t i s o n l y by t h e common a s s e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e speech- community t h a t the s i g n i s a l l o t t e d i t s s p e c i f i c m e a n i n g — b o t h semantic and f u n c t i o n a l . S i n c e t h e r e i s , i n most i n s t a n c e s , no n a t u r a l bond between t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l and t h e semantic c o n t e n t , - 73 - t h e word i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t a s w e l l as a s y s t e m i c f a c t . I n t h i s way Beauzee j u s t i f i e s and s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s use o f t h e phrase "devenu par u s a g e " i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n . L i k e D umarsais, Beauzee saw words a s a means o f a n a l y z i n g t h o u g h t . He s t r e s s e s , however, t h a t words a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a means of communicating t h o u g h t . For Dumarsais t h e e x t e r i o r i z a - t i o n o f a l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n t e n d e d t o be an end i n i t s e l f . I n o t h e r words, speech tended t o be t h e end o f l a n g u a g e — a n d an end i n no way dependent on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c i r c u i t ' s p e a k e r - h e a r e r ' . F o r Beauzee on the o t h e r hand, speech i s communication; t h e purpose o f t h e word i s t o communicate, and communication depends on a l i s t e n e r , and s p e c i f i c a l l y on a l i s t e n e r who u n d e r s t a n d s . Thus Beauzee can make t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n : " . . . ce q u i se passe dans 1 ' e s p r i t d'un homme, n'a aucun b e s o i n d ' e t r e r e p r e s e n t e p a r des s i g n e s e x t l r i e u r s " [ and w i t h t h i s Dumarsais would have a g r e e d ] , •qu'autant qu'on veut l e communiquer au dehors." 3 Thus, as f a r as t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l v a l u e o f t h e word i s concerned Beauzee was i n complete agreement w i t h Dumarsais. ( I t might appear t h a t Beauze'e was p o s i t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s i g n e s i n t e V i e u r s as opposed to s i g n e s e x t e r i e u r s , but i t does not seem t h a t he had advanced so f a r i n s e n s a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y t h a t he would have c l a i m e d t h a t s i g n s of any s o r t were e s s e n t i a l t o t h o u g h t . ) However, t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n "pour eeux q u i l ' e n t e n d e n t " i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n , d i s t i n c t l y makes the word a means of 74 - communication r a t h e r than a s i m p l e t o o l f o r t h e a n a l y s i s and d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h o u g h t . We have a l r e a d y examined i n d e t a i l what Beauzee meant by an i d l e t o t a l e and t h e t e r m h a r d l y needs f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I n h i s defence o f i t s u s e , however, Beauze'e i n t r o d u c e d a n o t h e r i d e a o f some i m p o r t a n c e . As we have seen, th e i d l e t o t a l e i s a t o t a l i t y made up o f a s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e semantic and f u n c t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n s . I t i s t h e i d e a o f t h i s t o t a l i t y t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the concept o f t h e word a s an independent u n i t o f b o t h v o c a b u l a r y and communication. Now, d e s p i t e t h i s unshakeable c o n t e n t i o n , Beauzee c o u l d w r i t e : "on ne peut pas d i s c o n v e n i r que souvent une s e u l e s y l l a b e , ou meme une s i m p l e a r t i c u l a t i o n , ne s o i t l e s i g n e d'une i d e e , p u i s q u T i l n*y a n i i n f l e x i o n n i t e r m i n a i s o n q u i n ' a i t s a s i g n i f i c a t i o n p r o p r e : mais l e s o b j e t s de c e t t e s i g n i f i c a t i o n ne sont que des i d e e s p a r t i e l l e s . . . T h i s s t a t e m e n t comes v e r y near t o d e f i n i n g t h e modern concept o f the morpheme. I n d o i n g so i t s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y something t h a t i s i m p l i c i t i n a l l our d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s e m a n t i c and f u n c t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n s : namely, t h a t any i d e e p r i n c i p a l e o r i d e e a c c e s s o i r e (be i t s e m a n t i c o r f u n c t i o n a l ) i s , by i t s e l f , an i d e e p a r t i e l l e , " . . . e t l e moindre changement q u i a r r i v e dans l'une ou dans l 1 a u t r e e s t un changement r e e l pour l a t o t a l i t e . w ^ Beauzee p o i n t s out t h a t were t h i s not s o , d i f f e r e n t forms o f t h e same word c o u l d be i d e n t i c a l i n meaning. - 75 - T h i s argument i s g i v e n prominence i n Beauzee*s c r i t i c i s m o f P o r t - R o y a l ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f the word. The Grammaire r a i s o n n l e had s t a t e d t h a t words were: "des sons d i s t i n c t s e t a r t i c u l e s dont l e s hommes ont f a i t des s i g n e s pour s i g n i f i e r l e u r s pensles." A p a r t f rom c r i t i c i z i n g t h e o b v i o u s t a u t o l o g y , Beauze'e wr o t e : M a i s i l manque beaucoup a l 1 e x a c t i t u d e de c e t t e d e f i n i t i o n . Chaque s y l l a b e e s t un son d i s t i n c t e t souvent a r t i c u l e , q u i q u e l q u e f o i s s i g n i f i e quelque chose de nos pensees: dans amaveramus, l a s y l l a b e am e s t l a s i g n e de 1 ' a t t r i b u t sous l e q u e l e x i s t e l e s u j e t ; av i n d i q u e que l e terns e s t p r e t e r i t ; e r marque que c ' e s t un p r T t e r i t d e f i n i ; am f i n a l d e s i g n e q u ' i l e s t a n t e r i e u r ; us marque q u ' i l e s t de l a prem i e r e personne du p l u r i e l ; y a - t - i l c i n q mots dans amaveramus? 6 A g a i n t h e concept o f t h e morpheme i s a l l but g r a s p e d , and t h e p a r t i c u l a r example he chose c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t Beauzee was aware o f t h e problem o f d e l i m i t i n g t h e p r e c i s e r e s i d e n c e o f meaning. Thus, he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l am- d i f f e r s (because o f i t s semantic c o n t e n t ) from t h e f i n a l am (whose meaning i s f u n c t i o n a l ) . I n t h e same way t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o deny t h a t a r o o t - w o r d has f u n c t i o n a l meaning as w e l l as se m a n t i c meaning, so Beauzee h e r e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e i n f l e c - t i o n may c o n t a i n s e m a n t i c meaning a s w e l l as f u n c t i o n a l meaning. To admit t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s t o admit t h a t a r o o t o r an i n f l e c - t i o n may ( l i k e t h e word i t s e l f ) c o n s t i t u t e an i d e e t o t a l e , i . e . a f u l l y f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n w i t h a l l t h e i n h e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e n t e r i n g i n t o o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( a g a i n l i k e t h e w o r d ) . We see t h a t Beauze'e was t h u s a l s o v e r y c l o s e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g l e x i s as opposed t o v o c a b u l a r y . But he r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f - 76 - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s u n i t as an element of language s i m p l y because i t e x i s t e d as an i d l e p a r t i e l i e and i t s f r a g m e n t a r y meaning was t h e v e r y a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e i d e e t o t a l e o f t h e word. The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , namely t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e word, t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f semantic c o n t e n t and f u n c t i o n a l meaning i n t h e word, and, f i n a l l y , language a s a means o f communication, produced perhaps o n l y one c o n c l u s i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e t o B e a u z l e ' s t h e o r i e s . I t s u p p o r t e d t h e c l a i m t h a t was so b a s i c t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e word, namely, t h a t t h e l i m i t s t o t h e word a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i d e e t o t a l e o f t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t and t h e f u n c t i o n a l meaning. H i s f a i l u r e t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r t h e i d e a t h a t language depends on a s p e e c h - c i r c u i t , an i d e a w h i c h might have l e d him t o p o s i t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n t e x t of s i t u a t i o n , i n no way i n v a l i d a t e s t h e importance o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n as a s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e problems o f l a n g u a g e . - 77 - 1 Beauze'e, a r t i c l e "Mot", X, 762 2 l o c . c i t . 3 l o c . c i t . k l o c . c i t . 5 l o c . c i t . 6 l o c . c i t . Chapter 2 CONCLUSION I n o u r o p e n i n g c h a p t e r we s t a t e d t h a t the g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s t o be found i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c r e p r e s e n t e d b o t h t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a g r a m m a t i c a l t r e n d which began i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r y and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new t r e n d w h i c h was t o d e v e l o p w i t h i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The c o n c l u - s i o n s w h i c h we draw f r o m our e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e two d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t s o f t h e word t h a t we f i n d d e v e l o p e d i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Dumarsais' work marked t h e z e n i t h o f t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e w i t h i t s b a s i s i n l o g i c , and t h a t Beauzee,' i d e a s i n d i c a t e d t h e b i r t h o f a new t r e n d t o w a r d s t r e a t i n g language as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s we w i l l a ttempt t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r i b u - t i o n s o f t h e s e two men t o t h e development of t h e s c i e n c e o f l i n g u i s t i c s . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n c e p t s o f t h e word we found i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n c e n t r a t e our a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case o f Dumarsais, on t h e form o f g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s used. But here an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n must be made: the concept o f t h e word does not o b v i o u s l y form a b a s i s f o r or d e t e r m i n e t h e t y p e o f g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s employed. Thus, a l t h o u g h Beauzee's concept o f the word i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f Dumarsais, we can not i n f e r t h a t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s o f language d i f f e r s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . ( I n f a c t , i t does i n a t l e a s t one i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t — a s we s h a l l s ee-but on t h e whole i t i s - 79 - comparable w i t h t h a t of Dumarsais.) Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e two c o n c e p t s has n e c e s s a r i l y been a r r i v e d a t by d i f f e r e n t means. Dumarsais ( a t l e a s t i n h i s a r t i c l e s i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e ) d i d n o t f o r m a l l y examine h i s concept o f the word and the d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h he gave i s o n l y t o be u n d e r s t o o d as p a r t o f h i s whole system o f g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n . I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o s y n t h e s i z e h i s c o n c e p t . Beauzee, on t h e o t h e r hand, not o n l y d e f i n e d t h e word, but a n a l y z e d , d i s c u s s e d and e v a l u a t e d t h e p a r t s o f h i s d e f i n i - t i o n i n a l a r g e number o f a r t i c l e s . To some e x t e n t t h e s e a r t i c l e s c o v e r e d t h e d e t a i l s of h i s method o f g r a m m a t i c a l des- c r i p t i o n but an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s method would form t h e b a s i s o f an e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e s t u d y . We have t h e r e f o r e a r r i v e d a t Beauzee's concept o f t h e word t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f h i s v e r y complete d e f i n i t i o n and t h r o u g h a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e a r t i c l e s which p r e s e n t h i s own a n a l y s i s o f i t . The c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h we are now a b l e t o draw a r e based e n t i r e l y on t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e word and not on t h e methods o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f our two grammarians. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i f our con- c l u s i o n s a r e not t o be m i s u n d e r s t o o d . Dumarsais' method o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n depended on t h e f a c t s of l o g i c . S i n c e language e x t e r i o r i z e d t h o u g h t f i r s t i n t h e f o r m of a l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e n as a g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e word was a t o o l f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of t h o u g h t . I t i s because o f t h i s t h a t h i s g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n depends - 80 - t o such a l a r g e e x t e n t on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f words i n t o t h e l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f genera and s p e c i e s . I f Dumarsais l o o k e d upon language a s a system, i t was a s a system s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e most u n i v e r s a l o f s y s t e m s — t h e system o f l o g i c . Beauzee's method o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n d i f f e r e d i n one b a s i c a s p e c t . Whereas Dumarsais a p p e a l e d t o t h e l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f genera and s p e c i e s , Beauzee a p p e a l e d t o form ( d e c l i n a b l e - i n d e c l i n a b l e ) . H i s i n t e r e s t t h e r e f o r e l a y i n l i n - g u i s t i c f a c t s r a t h e r than i n l o g i c a l f a c t s . No l o n g e r was t h e word a mere t o o l , b u t an element o f a phenomenon e x i s t i n g a p a r t f r o m , yet r e l a t e d t o , t h o u g h t . B o t h Dumarsais and Beauzee l o o k e d upon t h e word as a s i g n . The t e r m , however, i s i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by each. For Dumarsais t h e s i g n i s a mere symbol r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o u g h t and t h e r e f o r e something t o be used t o l a y bare t h a t t h o u g h t . To t h i s e x t e n t i t i s t h e s i g n o f a t h i n g r a t h e r t h a n o f a c o n c e p t . I t s f u n c t i o n i s l o g i c a l i n t h a t i t i s b o t h t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e symbol t h a t t a k e s on t h e gramma- t i c a l forms e s t a b l i s h e d by the grammar of t h e language. F o r Beauzee, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e s i g n i s a t w o - s i d e d e n t i t y whose e x i s t e n c e as a f u n c t i o n i n g u n i t of language depends on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d t o t a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e i n h e r e n t i n i t a s p a r t o f a system. I t i s i n t h e s y s t e m i c v a l u e o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t t h a t h i s s i g n d i f f e r s from t h a t o f Dumarsais.. - 81 - These d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t the changing p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e c e n t u r y . The s i g n a s a l o g i c a l element i s a means t o t h e r a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t , and i f i t i s used c o r r e c t l y ( t h a t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t i o n a l l y based r u l e s o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n ) , i t w i l l h e l p t h e u s e r t o a c h i e v e the a r t de b i e n p e n s e r . F o r Beauzee the s i g n i s founded i n e m p i r i c i s m and s e n s a t i o n a l i s m . I t s v a l u e i s e m p i r i c a l t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e meaning wh i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n c o n t a i n s r e s u l t s from t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t between i t and t h e system o f s i g n s a s a whole. Both grammarians a g r e e d on t h e o r i g i n s o f t h o u g h t — t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e y b o t h r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t e x i s t s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y i n the mind w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o s i g n s and r e s u l t s f r om t h e a b s t r a c - t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e sense e x p e r i e n c e s . They d i f f e r , however, as t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f language and t h o u g h t . F o r Dumarsais t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s t h e end t o which language a s p i r e s . That words a c t as a means o f communication i s , i f n o t f o r t u i t o u s , a t l e a s t o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e . I n c o n t r a s t , we have seen t h a t Beauze'e i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e s i g n i s no t complete u n t i l i t has been u n d e r s t o o d by a l i s t e n e r . Meaning i s another concept w h i c h t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d d i f - f e r e n t l y . They b o t h r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e semantic c o n t e n t o f t h e s i g n . F o r Dumarsais, semantic content i s t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f the s i g n because i t i s e a s i l y s u b m i t t e d t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n t h e same way, f u n c t i o n , f o r - 82 - him, meant l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n — a f u n c t i o n which d e t e r m i n e s and r e s t r i c t s t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f o t h e r words. F o r Beauzee meaning was more o f a l i n g u i s t i c f a c t , and i t was o n l y i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t and g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n t h a t t h e meaning o f t h e s i g n c o u l d be apprehended. F i n a l l y , i t i s t h e i r d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e t o t h e word a s a s i g n t h a t e s p e c i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a p proach t o language. Dumarsais, t h e r a t i o n a l i s t , brought t h e t h e o r y o f a l o g i c a l l y - f o u n d e d grammaire g e n e r a l e t o i t s peak. Beauzee, showing c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s of C o n d i l l a c and o f s e n s a - t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y , s i g n a l l e d t h e s t a r t o f a t r e n d w h i c h was t o l o o k upon language a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l — a n d perhaps even t o a v e r y s m a l l e x t e n t , a s a s o c i a l — f a c t . Such a c o n c l u s i o n does n o t deny t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o chose from i n t h e g o a l s which Dumarsais and Beauzee (and i n d e e d a l l t h e grammarians o f t h e c e n t u r y ) s e t t h e m s e l v e s . Both were i n t e r e s t e d i n language a s a means t o t h e a r t de b i e n p e n s e r . To a l e s s e r d e g r e e , b o t h were i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o d u c i n g a p h i l o - sophy o f language aimed a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e methods o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge and the methods o f i t s u s e . But i n t h e c o u r s e o f the c e n t u r y t h e r e appears t o have been a change i n t h e approach t o language and a g r e a t e r awareness o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d . The e a r l i e r , n a r r o w approach, c o n f i n e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l l i n k i n g o f l a n g u a g e - s t u d y t o p h i l o s o p h y , appears t o have l a t e r broadened a p p r e c i a b l y i n o r d e r t o admit t h e s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h t h a t language - 83 - s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as a s u b j e c t a p a r t from t h e n i c e t i e s o f l o g i c . B e a u z l e ' s concept o f t h e word h i n t s a t t h i s change o f a p p r o a c h . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e extended w e l l beyond the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t s e f f e c t , however, was e s p e c i - a l l y e v i d e n t i n t h e many e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p e d a g o g i c a l works i n w h i c h i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t g r a m m a t i c a l study based upon l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s was o f i n h e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e t o t h e c h i l d . Dumarsais' i n f l u e n c e was t h e r e f o r e f e l t l o n g a f t e r h i s d e a t h . Beauzee t o o , was h i g h l y esteemed d u r i n g h i s own c e n t u r y , and h i s i d e a s perhaps had some s m a l l e f f e c t on n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y g r a m m a t i c a l t e x t s . But w i t h t h e g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s o f th e i d e o l o g u e s i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y , Beauze'e's s p e c u l a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e l y overshadowed by t h e r i s i n g i n t e r e s t i n c o mparative l i n g u i s t i c s . The study o f language was d i v e r t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t c h a n n e l s w h i c h were t o l e a d i t , f i n a l l y , t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f modern l i n g u i s t i c s . S a h l i n , i n h e r stu d y o f Dumarsais, s t a t e s t h a t a f t e r him, t h e grammaire gen e r a l e was t o deg e n e r a t e "au p o i n t de n ' e t r e guere a u t r e chose que de vagues s p e c u l a t i o n s m etaphysiques s u r l e s o p e r a t i o n s de 1 ' e s p r i t , e t son o b j e t s e r a d ' a n a l y s e r l a pensee par l e moyen du l a n g a g e , p l u t o t que d ' a n a l y s e r e t d ' e x p l i q u e r l e s f a i t s du l a n g a g e . " 1 T h i s d e g e n e r a t i o n , she c l a i m s , s t a r t e d w i t h Beauzee. The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has made u s e of t h e te r m "metaphysique" t o c o v e r what t h e modern l i n g u i s t o r t h e t r a d i - t i o n a l grammarian would both c a l l t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y ' s many - 84 - s i n s i n i t s s t u d y o f language. We would p r e f e r t o say t h a t , as f a r as Beauzee i s c o n c e r n e d , h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e importance o f t h e s i g n a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n as a l o g i c a l concept and a s an element o f s y s t e m i c and r e l a t i o n a l v a l u e r a t h e r t h a n as an i n e r t element o f l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , p u t s him c l o s e r t o t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y t h o u g h t t h a n Dumarsais. W i t h Kukenheim, we must c o n c l u d e t h a t , compared w i t h h i s eminent p r e d e c e s s o r and c o - c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e E n c y c l o p l d i e , Beauze'e was " b i e n p l u s g raramarien", c and we might add, "beaucoup p l u s l i n g u i s t e . " - 85 - S a h l i n , op. c i t . , p. 4 Kukenheim, op. c i t . , p. 35 -86 - SOURCE MATERIAL The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s a r e t o be found i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c ou d i c t i o n n a i r e raisonne" des a r t s e t des m e t i e r s ( 1 7 5 1 - 1 7 6 5 ) Beauze'e, N i c o l a s " G e n e r i q u e " , V I I , 574 "Genre", V I I , 5̂ 9 "Grammai r e ", V I I , "Homonyme", V I I , 841 " I d e n t i t e " , V I I I , 495 " I n t e r j e c t i o n " , V I I I , 827 " I n v e r s i o n " , V I I I , 852 "Langue", I X , 249 "Methode", X, 446 "Mot", X, 752 "Nom", X I , 195 "Onomatope'e" X I , 484 " P h r a s e " , X I I , 528 " P r e p o s i t i o n " , X I I I , 301 " P r i m i t i f " , X I I I , 369 " P r o p o s i t i o n " , X I I I , 471 "Regime", XIV. 5 "Sens", XV, 16 " S u b s t a n t i f " , XV, 587 "Synonyme", XV, 757 " S y n t a x e " , XV, 762 "Usage", X V I I , 516 D'Alembert, J e a n D i d e r o t , D e n i s Dumarsais, Cesar Chesneau " D i c t i o n n a i r e " , I V , 958 " D i s c o u r s p r e l i m i n a i r e " , I " E n c y c l o p l d i e " , V, 634 " S i g n e " , XV, 188 " A b s t r a c t i o n " , I , 45 " A c c i d e n t " , I , 69 " A d j e c t i f " , I , 133 "Adverbe", I , 147 " A d v e r b i a l " , I , 149 "Analogue", I , 400 " A r t i c l e " , I , 722 "Cas", I I , 734 "Concordance", I I I , 821 " C o n j o n c t i o n " , I I I , 872 " C o n s t r u c t i o n " , I V , 901 "Declinable", I V , 694 - 87 - " D e c l i n a i s o n " , I V , 694 " D e t e r m i n a t i o n " I V , 901 " E p i t h e t e " , V, 820 " F i g u r e " , V I , 766 - 88 - LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED A c t o n , H. B. "The P h i l o s o p h y o f Language i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the B r i t i s h Academy, XLV ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 199-219. B r u n o t , F. H i s t o i r e de l a langue f r a n c a i s e , V I , tomes 1 and 2 P a r i s , 1932. * B u r s i l l - H a l l , G. L. " M e d i a e v a l G r a m m a t i c a l T h e o r i e s , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f L i n g u i s t i c s . I X : 1 (1963) 40-45,: : C a s s i r e r , E. The P h i l o s o p h y o f S y m b o l i c Forms, t r a n s . R a l p h Manheim, v o l . I , New Haven, 1953. C o n d i l l a c , E t i e n n e Bonnot de. Oeuvres p h i l o s o p h i q u e s , ed. Georges Le Roy, v o l . I , P a r i s , 1947. F r a n c o i s , A. " P r e c u r s e u r s f r a n c a i s de l a grammaire a f f e c t i v e , " Melanges B a l l v f (Geneva 1939), 370-77. H a r n o i s , G. Les t h e o r i e s du langage en France 1660 a 1821, ^ Paris7~T928~T Hunt, H. J . " L o g i c and L i n g u i s t i c s , " Modern Language Review. X X X I I I (193$), 215-33. Kuehner, P. T h e o r i e s on t h e o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n o f language i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e . P h i l a d e l p h i a . 1944. Kukenheim, L. E s q u i s s e h i s t o r i q u e de l a l i n g u i s t i q u e f r a n c a i s e . L e i d e n , 1962. \ L e i b n i z , G. W. Nouveaux e s s a i s s u r 1*entendement humain. t r a n s . A. G. L a n g l e y , C h i c a g o , 1916. M a y n i a l , E. "Les grammairiens p h i l o s o p h e s de X V I I I 6 s i e c l e , " Revue b l e u e . X I X , (March, 1903), 317-320. R o b i n s , R. H. A n c i e n t and M e d i a e v a l Grammatical Theory i n Europe. Londo n, 1951. S a h l i n , G. C e s a r Chesneau du M a r s a i s . P a r i s , 1928. S a u s s u r e , F e r d i n a n d de. Course i n g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , t r a n s . Wade B a s k i n , New Y o r k , 1959. R o s e t t i , A. Le Mot ( S o c i e t e roumaine de l i n g u i s t i q u e , s e r i e I , memoires 3 ) , Copenhagen, 1947•

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