UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Concepts of the term word in the Encyclopedie Bartlett, Barrie Everdell 1965-12-31

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CONCEPTS OF THE TERM WORD I N THE ENCYCLOPEDIE by:: Barrie Everdell  Bartlett  B.A., O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ,  1954  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n t h e Department of Romance S t u d i e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE,UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  1965  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference  and  study.  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may  be granted by the Head of my Department or by  his representatives.  It i s understood that; copying or publi-  cation of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada  ABSTRACT T h a t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was  a p e r i o d of  changing  ideas  i s a p r o p o s i t i o n a s t r u e when a p p l i e d t o q u e s t i o n s o f  language  a s i t i s when a p p l i e d t o o t h e r f i e l d s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  endeavour.  Grammatical s t u d i e s were s t i l l  closely related to  a s t h e y had  been f o r some c e n t u r i e s .  seventeenth  c e n t u r y had r e s u l t e d i n t h e s t r i c t l y  t i o n of grammatical  r a t i o n a l i s m of  t h e o r i e s whose a i m was  means o f t e a c h i n g t h e list  The  philosophy,  l o g i c a l exposi-  t o produce a  ' a r t de b i e n p a r l e r ' .  the  With  this  normative rationa-  a p p r o a c h a r o s e t h e t h e o r y o f a g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e and i t s  attempts  t o reduce the grammatical  l o g i c a l terms.  Although  a t t e a c h i n g the  ' a r t de  f a c t s of a l l languages t o  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y aimed r a t h e r bien penser',  the idea of a  rationally-  b a s e d g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e p e r s i s t e d a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r most grammatical  d e s c r i p t i o n , and  a c t u a l l y reached  o f development i n t h e s i e c l e des  point  E m p i r i c i s m and  the  s e n s a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y of C o n d i l l a c were slow t o a f f e c t  the  techniques  of grammatical  lumieres.  i t s highest  e n q u i r y and  description.  A f t e r o u t l i n i n g these trends i n grammatical our  study  marians'  c o n t i n u e s by concepts  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and The  examining  description,  the eighteenth-century  gram-  of t h e word, a t t e m p t i n g t o r e l a t e them t o scientific  s h i f t from r a t i o n a l i s m to  E n c y c l o p e d i e , i n w h i c h may  be f o u n d  the grammatical  o f D u m a r s a i s and B e a u z e e , i s shown t o c o n t a i n two approaches t o t h i s smallest meaningful  empiricism. doctrines  distinct  s u b j e c t , b o t h o f w h i c h t r e a t t h e word a s u n i t o f l a n g u a g e and  the  the  as t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t  of grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n . word as e s s e n t i a l l y a l o g i c a l  W h e r e a s D u m a r s a i s l o o k e d upon t h e e l e m e n t d e p e n d e n t on  semantic  a n d r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , B e a u z e e i s shown t o h a v e b a s e d h i s c o n c e p t on e m p i r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s , and t o h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e word as a s i g n  (exhibiting  " t h e dichotomy o f e x p r e s s i o n and  whose m e a n i n g i s b o t h s e m a n t i c and f u n c t i o n a l . at the t u r n o f t h i s  content)  L i k e de S a u s s u r e  c e n t u r y , B e a u z e e p o s i t e d p a r a d i g m a t i c and  s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s d e p e n d e n t on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e l a t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e word a s a p a s s i v e e l e m e n t o f t h e l e x i c o n and as a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t o f l a n g u a g e .  In the  p r o c e s s o f h i s development of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Beauzee a l s o came v e r y n e a r t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e modern  concept o f t h e  morpheme. The t h e o r i e s o f D u m a r s a i s and B e a u z e e a r e compared a n d c o n t r a s t e d and t h e c o n c l u s i o n drawn t h a t B e a u z e e ' s e m p i r i c a l approach r e s u l t e d  i n h i s b e i n g f a r more modern i n h i s c o n c e p t  o f t h e word and i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e n e r a l l a n g u a g e problems than Dumarsais.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1  The background to language studies i n eighteenthcentury France . . . .  p.  1  Chapter 2  The word as an element of logic  p. 13  Chapter 3  The word as a sign  p. 31  Chapter 4  The word as an element of meaning . . . . . .  p. 44  Chapter 5  The word as a functional element of language . p. 56  Chapter 6  Les idees p a r t i e l i e s •  p. 71  Chapter 7  Conclusion  p. 78  Source material  p. 86  L i s t of works consulted  p. 88  Chapter THE  BACKGROUND TO  1 LANGUAGE STUDIES  I N EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE Throughout  t h e a g e s men  have d i s c u s s e d language and  b e e n f a s c i n a t e d by t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h , u p o n even e x a m i n a t i o n , i t b e s e t s t h e i n q u i r i n g mind. c e n t u r i e s , t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h men  have  cursory  I n t h e course, o f t h e  have asked c o n c e r n i n g language  have ranged f r o m t h e n a i v e l y s i m p l e t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y P r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e now examined  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t o t a l l y  a l o n g w i t h t h o s e w h i c h were p a r t i a l l y  i t was n o t u n t i l t h e r e l a t i v e l y a s an autonomous f i e l d of  l i n g u i s t i c e n q u i r y was  i n s o l u b l e were answerable,  recent appearance  of s c i e n t i f i c endeavour l i m i t e d t o w h a t we  complex.  of  linguistics  that the  may  call  and  scope  the  'knowable.' S i n c e l a n g u a g e i s a n e v e r - p r e s e n t s o c i a l phenomenon, i t i s t o be, e x p e c t e d t h a t many o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t o w h i c h i t g i v e s rise  s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a s k e d t i m e and t i m e a g a i n s i n c e man  devoted h i s a t t e n t i o n t o i t s problems.  first  I t i s f u r t h e r t o be  expected t h a t t h e d i v e r s e answers t o t h e s e p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n s h a v e o f t e n c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h o u g h t and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l produced them.  In short, l i n g u i s t i c  period  enquiry, l i k e  s c i e n t i f i c or moral e n q u i r y , t e n d s t o m i r r o r t h e c l i m a t e o f an No a g e  scientific that  historical, intellectual  age. points t o the t r u t h of t h i s  s t a t e m e n t more  t h a n does t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n F r a n c e .  clearly  L a n g u a g e was  v i t a l i s s u e i n t h i s c e n t u r y o f v i t a l i s s u e s , and a r g u m e n t s the  s u b j e c t r a n g e d f r o m t h e most p r o f o u n d t o t h e t r i v i a l  a on and  - 2 -  quibbling.  The e i g h t e e n t h  questions dealing with uage t o t h e e x a c t ers,  chemists,  - a l l had t h e i r  century attempted t o f i n d answers t o  e v e r y t h i n g from t h e very o r i g i n o f l a n g -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p a r t s o f speech.  Philosoph-  p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s ' l i n g u i s t i c * opinions.  The o u t s t a n d i n g  writers  p f t h e p e r i o d who d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e i n some d e g r e e t o t h e massive l i t e r a t u r e on t h e problems o f language a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n . A l a r g e number o f q u e s t i o n s  o f a very  discussed throughout t h e century.  Thus, t h e  of language, r e f l e c t i n g 'conventional*  general nature  problem o f t h e o r i g i n  t h e a n c i e n t argument o f ' n a t u r a l '  language, demonstrated t h e century's  Theories  versus  changing  a t t i t u d e s t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f revealed r e l i g i o n versus religion.  were  natural  o f c a t a s t r o p h i c c h a n g e g a v e way t o e m p i r i c -  a l l y - fbunded t h e o r i e s o f slow e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e . f o r example, claimed  1  Beauzee,  t h a t l a n g u a g e was a G o d - g i v e n g i f t , ^  while  C o n d i l i a c a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was m a n ' s < g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d a n s w e r to  necessity.  Reason, a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n n a t e i d e a s , were  p o s i t e d b y some ( D e s m a f a i s , | D u m a r s a i s , R e s t a u t ) i t i o n of t h i s slow evolution, while others de B r o s s e s ) saw man's s e n s a t i o n s played by reason.  the  Diderot,  a s i t s s o l e b a s i s , w i t h no p a r t  speech utterance,  claim of the i n t e r j e c t i o n .  language d i v e r s i t y  (Condi11ac,  W h i l e some w r i t e r s u p h e l d  b a s i c f a c t o r i n man's f i r s t  as t h e founda-  onomatopoeia as a others  supported  The a t t e m p t e d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f  brought t h e s t o r y o f B a b e l i n t o d i s p u t e , and  w h i l e t h e B i b l i c a l account had i t s champions, t h e r e were  again  t h o s e who w o u l d a c c e p t o n l y t h e p r o c e s s o f s l o w The  change.  q u e s t i o n o f t h e ' n a t u r a l o r d e r ' o f language  d i s c u s s i o n b y many o f t h e c e n t u r y ' s t h i n k e r s . t h a t l o g i c was t h e b a s i s o f w o r d - o r d e r  provoked  T h o s e who c l a i m e d  found themselves  opposed  by t h e e m p i r i c a l s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f C o n d i l l a c a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s . Many w r i t e r s w e r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e p o s s i b l e d e c a y o f l a n g u a g e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f F r e n c h , and t h e i r  attempts t o f i x the structurally.^  c o n c e r n gave r i s e t o  language s e m a n t i c a l l y , g r a m m a t i c a l l y and  As a concomitant t o t h e s e a t t e m p t s t h e r e a r o s e  a c o n s e r v a t i v e p u r i s m i n language, q u i t e opposed ting tury  t o the innova-  s p i r i t which, had pervaded t h e p u r i s m o f t h e p r e c e d i n g cen4  ( a s r e p r e s e n t e d f o r example,  proliferated,  by V a u g e l a s ) . j D i c t i o n a r i e s  lending importance t o the discussion o f the  p r o b l e m s o f d e f i n i t i o n , 5 w h i l e t h e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g body o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge  gave u r g e n c y t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s y on t h e  necessary dangers o f neologism. T r a v e l and e x p l o r a t i o n w e r e t w o f a c t o r s w h i c h t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n knowledge up o f t h e O r i e n t  concerning language.  contributed The o p e n i n g  l e dto the recognition that the diversity of  l a n g u a g e s was e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n h a d b e e n s u s p e c t e d i n t h e preceding centuries.  T h i s new a w a r e n e s s  o f t h e i r immense  d i v e r s i t y o f f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e l e d t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n a n d comparison o f languages.  However, such c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s can  n o t be l i k e n e d t o t h o s e w h i c h a r e s o t y p i c a l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g century.  As might be e x p e c t e d , t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y based i t s  - 4 c o m p a r i s o n s on w h a t t h e modern l i n g u i s t w o u l d c a l l criteria.  (  Concurrently  comparison there  'metaphysical  1  w i t h t h e s e a t t e m p t s a t e v a l u a t i o n and  e x i s t e d a d i d a c t i c s p i r i t w h i c h p e r v a d e d most  of the d i s c u s s i o n s about language.  The d i v e r s i t y o f l a n g u a g e s  provoked an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e problems o f communication. L a r g e n u m b e r s o f grammar t e x t s w e r e p u b l i s h e d o f f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s was w i d e l y the  century's  greatest  c l o s e l y connected w i t h  discussed.  and t h e  In fact,  teaching some o f  e x p o n e n t s o f l i n g u i s t i c argument were education,  and d e v o t e d much o f t h e i r  t i m e t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s and methods o f language-teach i n g  The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f a u n i v e r s a l l a n g u a g e  was a l s o d i s c u s s e d , The g e n e r a l  e v e n t u a l l y t o be r e j e c t e d b y t h e  questions  a s we h a v e s a i d , common t o  ideologues.  w h i c h we h a v e h e r e e n u m e r a t e d w e r e , the century  as a whole.  T h o s e who  contributed t o their discussion varied greatly i n t h e i r ground and i n t e r e s t s .  Their  claim t o consideration  back-  frequently  r e s t e d o n no b e t t e r g r o u n d s t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e r e l a n g u a g e u s e r s and t h a t t h e i r a r g u m e n t s were t h e r e f o r e  o f more  or  and o f t e n  l e s s equal v a l i d i t y .  However, t h r o u g h s u c h d i v e r s e  i r r e l e v e n t discussion there and  ran a stable core o f l i n g u i s t i c  grammatical a u t h o r i t y protected  fact  by t h e grammairiens-philoso-  phes. By t h e b e g i n n i n g  of the eighteenth  century,  grammar a n d  the  g r a m m a t i c a l t r e a t i s e were f i r m l y e n s c o n c e d a s t h e b a s i s o f  ail  serious  language-study.  We n e e d l o o k no f u r t h e r t h a n t h e  t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e w o r k s o f V a u g e l a s a n d R o y a l t o f i n d t h e i r immediate of  source.  t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w e r e , a s we  enced  The  grammatical  Porttheories  s h a l l see, h e a v i l y  by t h o s e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r y .  influ-  H o w e v e r , t h e r e was  d i s t i n c t l y p e r c e i v a b l e t r e n d i n grammatical developments, the Encyclopldie both r e f l e c t e d within i t s evolution.  The  i t s c o u r s e and formed  E n c y c l o p e d i e ' s hundreds o f  a  and  a point articles  on grammar, p u b l i s h e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w e n t y y e a r s , n o t o n l y e m b r a c e d t o p i c a l a r g u m e n t s , b u t g a v e new of  preceding centuries.  consideration to  those  I t s e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e arguments marked  t h e z e n i t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r t r e n d s t a r t e d y e a r s e a r l i e r and i n d i c a t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f new  also  i n t e l l e c t u a l trends i n grammatical  thought. The  grammatical t h e o r i e s of the  grammairiens-philosophes  stemmed d i r e c t l y f r o m t h o s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e G r a m m a i r e de P o r t - R o y a l .  T h i s work  had  i t s e l f b e e n a t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i t r e f l e c t e d the impact of C a r t e s i a n p r i n c i p l e s . Descartes' century the approach The  grammarian's purpose  was  t o grammar h a d b e e n n o r m a t i v e .  d i d a c t i c ; i t was  p r e s c r i b e t h e ' a r t de b i e n p a r l e r * , and t h e 'bon  usage'  of the court.  normative i n t h e i r approach to  Throughout  he  A r n a u l d and  his function to  chose  a s h i s norm  L a n c e l o t w e r e no  t o grammar, and t h e y made no  o v e r t h r o w t h e d i c t a t e s o f 'bon u s a g e ' .  less  attempt  However, i n f l u e n c e d  a s t h e y were b y C a r t e s i a n t h o u g h t , t h e y s e t o u t t o show t h a t  the  - 6 a u t h o r i t y o f 'bon u s a g e ' solidly  i n reason i t s e l f .  was r e l i a b l e b e c a u s e Sahlin aptly  i t was b a s e d  summed up t h e d i f f e r e n c e  b e t w e e n t h e a t t i t u d e s t o grammar b e f o r e a n d a f t e r 1660 when she wrote: L a g r a m m a i r e a v a n t 1660 p e u t e"tre r e s u m e e e n " d i t e s t — n e d i t e s pas'.", e t c e s r e g i e s v i s a i e n t a l a c o r r e c t i o n e t l a p u r e t l du s t y l e e t a b l i e s d ' a p r e s l e g o u t p e r s o n n e l de l ' a u t e u r ou d ' a p r e s u n c e r t a i n m i l i e u s o c i a l . Ce n ' e t a i t done p a s une g r a m m a i r e d e s c r i p t i v e d!sinteVess6e. C e l l e d e s g r a m m a i r i e n s p h i l o s o p h e s l ' e s t encore moins, mais s a maniere d ' e t r e d i d a c t i q u e , l o r s q u ' e l l e s ' o c c u p e de r e g i e s p r a t i q u e s , e s t plutot: " d i t e s t — e t v o i c i pourquoi", sinon: " v o i c i ce qu'exige l a r a i s o n — d o n e , d i t e s t " 7 R e a s o n h a d become t h e b a s i s o n w h i c h a l l g r a m m a t i c a l s t u d y was f o u n d e d , a n d i t was t h i s f a c t t h a t g a v e r i s e t o t h e g r a m m a i r e generale.  A s a l l men r e a s o n t h e same way, a n d a s r e a s o n i s t h e  f o u n d a t i o n o n w h i c h l a n g u a g e r i s e s , a l l l a n g u a g e s must h a v e some common u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s , Beauzee,  p r i n c i p l e s which, according t o  " s o n t d'une v e r i t e i m m u a b l e e t d'un u s a g e u n i v e r s e l . " 8  W i t h t h e enthronement  o f r e a s o n and t h e r i s e  o f t h e grammaire  g e n e r a l e , q u e s t i o n s o f grammar came f a c e t o f a c e w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f l o g i c i n t h e same way a s t h e y h a d d o n e i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y of t h e A n c i e n t s and o f the m e d i e v a l s p e c u l a t i v e ans.^  grammari-  Both t h e n o r m a t i v e r u l e s o f t h e grammarian and t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e grammatical f a c t s o f language had t h e r e f o r e to  submit t o t h e laws o f r e a s o n .  The v i e w o f u n i v e r s a l grammar  was t o a f f e c t g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and  i n t h e works o f t h e g r a m m a i r l e n s - p h i l o s o p h e s o f t h e e a r l y  and m i d - c e n t u r y , and t o i n f l u e n c e a s w e l l t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e  ideologues towards t h e century's c l o s e . appearance  However, between t h e  o f the: Gramma i r e d e P o r t - R o y a l a n d t h a t o f t h e  E n c y c l o p e d i e , two f o r e i g n p h i l o s o p h e r s were t o propose  additional  t h e o r i e s which a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e t r e n d s o f eighteenth-century l i n g u i s t i c thought. L o c k e ' s a s s e r t i o n o f t h e p r i m a c y o f s e n s a t i o n i n man's a t t a i n m e n t o f knowledge  influenced not only the course of a l l  p h i l o s o p h i c a l enquiry but that o f l i n g u i s t i c enquiry as w e l l . Whereas language up t o t h i s time h a d been r e g a r d e d m e r e l y a s a means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h o u g h t , i t was s e e n d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h century as p l a y i n g an e s s e n t i a l r o l e The  i n epistemological theory.  S c h o l a s t i c s and t h e n e o - A r i s t o t e l i a n s may w e l l h a v e a s k e d  themselves whether  language i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f r e a l i t y o r  whether r e a l i t y i s t h e e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n o f t h e mind's i d e a . e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y would a s k n o t o n l y whether  The  language i s p r i o r  t o t h o u g h t o r v i c e - v e r s a , but a l s o whether t h o u g h t o r even s e n s a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t language.  Thus, C o n d i l l a c ' s  s e n s a t i o n a l i s m reduced thought and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t , language, t o the decomposition o f sensation.  He a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t t h e  m i n d p l a y s no a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , a n d t h a t L o c k e ' s t h e o r y o f r e f l e c t i o n was u n n e c e s s a r y .  Condillac's  f o l l o w e r s were d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n , a n d , a t t h e c e n t u r y ' s c l o s e , we t h e r e f o r e f i n d a s k i n g whether  indeed i t i s p o s s i b l e , without language  logical Cabanis  which  p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e f o u r n o n - c o g n i t i v e " o p e r a t i o n s de l ' a m e " , t o  - 8 have s e n s a t i o n  at a l l .  Reason and  l o g i c may  govern the form  o f l a n g u a g e , b u t t h e p r i m e mover o f s p e e c h i s The  second f o r e i g n e r t o i n f l u e n c e F r e n c h  t h o u g h t was  Leibniz.  Despite  h i s own  i n f l u e n c e on l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y t i o n to l o g i c a l theory.  sensation. linguistic  w o r k on l a n g u a g e , h i s  comes r a t h e r f r o m h i s c o n t r i b u -  Port-Royal's  a p p e a l t o r e a s o n , and  consequently to l o g i c , as a c r i t e r i o n of grammatical  correctness,  had b r o u g h t t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n t o t h e f o r e * The A r i s t o t e l i a n p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f R o y a l ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t was affirmation  (or negation);  Port-  e s s e n t i a l l y one o f q u a l i t a t i v e  t h a t i s t o say, t h e speaker  ( o r d e n i e d ) t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was w i t h i n the i d e a of the p r e d i c a t e .  affirmed  included  Leibniz introduced  the  theory  o f i d e n t i t y t o the l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , whereby t h e s u b j e c t i s s e e n t o e x i s t w i t h i n t h e i d e a o f t h e p r e d i c a t e and t h e  predicate  i s included w i t h i n the idea o f the subject, r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of i d e n t i t y .  This theory,  a s we  s h a l l s e e , was  have a major e f f e c t upon t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the most o u t s t a n d i n g Despite  grammarien-philosophe,  to  century's  Dumarsais.  the v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s which arose t o modify i t ,  the grammaire g e n e r a l e dominated a l l g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r i e s throughout the century.  We  h a v e o b s e r v e d t h a t i t stemmed f r o m  a r a t i o n a l i s t approach t o language a n a l y s i s .  I t s appeal  was  w i d e - s p r e a d , no d o u b t b e c a u s e o f i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n , but a l s o because  t h e p e d a g o g u e s saw i n i t a d e v i c e  for  teaching  all  languages.  grammar w o u l d ,  Teaching a p u p i l the p r i n c i p l e s of general i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , l a y t h e groundwork f o r t h e  l e a r n i n g o f languages i n g e n e r a l .  Mastery of a f o r e i g n  language  w o u l d t h e n r e q u i r e o n l y t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s means o f achieving the syntactical differences of construction.  Such a  t h e o r y o f u n i v e r s a l grammar f o u n d o b v i o u s s u p p o r t i n t h e a m b i t i o n s o f t h o s e who h o p e d t o d e v e l o p a s i m p l e , l o g i c a l , language.  universal  L a t e r , however, w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e y e a r s and t h e  r i s e o f t h e m e c h a n i s t i c t h e o r y of language  (stemming  from t h e  a n a l y s i s o f t h e sense p e r c e p t i o n s ) , t h e t h e o r y o f u n i v e r s a l grammar f o u n d a n a d d i t i o n a l amd v e r y d i f f e r e n t  support.  Reason,  and t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f r e a s o n , i n w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e h a d b e e n r o o t e d , was a c c o r d e d a more  minor  r o l e ; i t was h e n c e f o r t h t o t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e s e n s e s  that  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a g r a m m a i r e gen e r a le owed i t s e x i s t e n c e . T h i s t r e n d away f r o m r a t i o n a l i s m and t o w a r d e m p i r i c i s m h a d q u i t e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o n t h e s t u d y o f grammar.  Under t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f r a t i o n a l i s m , t h e main t o o l s o f g r a m m a t i c a l had been r e a s o n and l o g i c .  The d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h o u g h t  b e l i e v e d t o d i c t a t e the necessary form o f language. purpose  o f l a n g u a g e was t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t .  The  analysis was principal  S i n c e words  r e f l e c t t h o u g h t , t h e q u e s t i o n o f m e a n i n g became a l l - i m p o r t a n t a n d t h e o r i e s o f grammar a n d o f t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y w o r d s were i n f l u e n c e d by s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  For t h e s e n s a t i o n a l i s t s ,  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p u r p o s e o f l a n g u a g e was t o c o m m u n i c a t e  - 10 thought. An  -  Language t h e r e f o r e formed  p a r t o f a system of knowledge.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l o g i c stnd m e a n i n g c o u l d , f o r t h e  r a t i o n a l i s t s , f o r m o n l y one The  element  anti-  of the analysis of  language.  m a i n c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e on q u e s t i o n s o f  l a n g u a g e w e r e D u m a r s a i s and B e a u z e V . ^ i The h u n d r e d s o f  articles  d e a l i n g w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f language  from  1  rationalism to empiricism.  The  reflect this drift  grammaire g e n e r a l e based  on  l o g i c and r e a s o n r e a c h e d i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h t h e work o f D u m a r s a i s .  Upon t h e l a t t e r s d e a t h , B e a u z e e  t o o k t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a r t i c l e s on grammar, a n d , t h e r e i s no  under-  1  i m m e d i a t e l y and  s t a r t i n g l y apparent  although  change i n t h e  t h e o r i e s p r o p o u n d e d , we s h a l l s e e t h a t w i t h B e a u z £ e s w o r k , f  new  i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s c r e p t i n t o m o d i f y t h e u s e o f l o g i c a s a t o o l of grammatical  analysis.  Whatever the b a s i s f o r grammatical a n a l y s i s , e i g h t e e n t h century t h e o r i e s had  a t l e a s t one  major  p o i n t i n common.  The  s m a l l e s t u n i t o f r e f e r e n t i a l meaning t o form p a r t of t h e s e a n a l y s e s was  the word.  cate thought. of  t h e w o r d , we  W o r d s c o m b i n e d t o r e f l e c t o r t o communi-  Furthermore, d e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n t  definitions  s h a l l see t h a t a l l t h e grammarians o f t h e c e n t u r y  had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  i n d i v o r c i n g t h e i d e a o f "word" from  idea o f " w r i t t e n word".  D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , we  see t h a t t h e E n c y c l o p l d i e concepts o f t h e word.  One  c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t two  o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s w i l l be  i m p l i c i t i n the form of grammatical i s most e x p l i c i t l y  and  fairly  fully  stated.  the  shall involved  seen t o  be  d e s c r i p t i o n , while the other  - 11 1  2  Theories o f slow evolutionary change based on empirical observation were also being posited t o explain the physical changes i n the earth's surface. Nicolas Beauzee, Encyclopedie raisonnee ou dictionnaire des arts et des metiers (1751 - 1765) a r t i c l e "Langue", IX, 253 A l l page references to a r t i c l e s w i l l r e f e r to the f i r s t edition of the Encyclopedie. The o r i g i n a l punctuation i s maintained.  3  4  5  6 7  Diderot, a r t i c l e "Encyclopedie", V, 637 In reference to the aims of the Encyclopedie Diderot wrote: Mais l a connaiss^nce de l a langue est l e fondement de toutes ces grandes esperances; e l l e s resteront ineertaines, s i l a langue n'est f i x l e et transmise a l a posterite dans toute sa perfection; et cet objet est l e premier de ceux dont i l convenait a des Encyclopedistes de s'occuper profondement. Ferdinand Brunot, Histoire de l a langue francaise des origines a 1900, VI, 2, p! B7I "Enfin et surtout,:le purisme de Vaugelas e t a i t un purisme rajeunisseur qui f a i s a i t volontiers l e s a c r i f i c e de l a langue en t r a i n de v i e i l l i r , tandis que le purisme que nous appellerons v o l t a i r i e n . est un purisme e s sent i e Heme nt conservateur, tourne" vers les monuments du passe'." D'Alerabert, a r t i c l e "Dictionnaire", IV, 959 " . . . comme l e s d e f i n i t i o n s consistent a expliquer un mot par un ou plusieurs autres, i l resulte necessairement de-la q u ' i l est des mots qu'on ne doit jamais d e f i n i r , puisqu' autrement toutes l e s definitions ne formeraient plus qu'une espece de cercle v i c i e u x , dans lequel un mot serait explique' par un autre mot q u ' i l aurait servi a expliquer lui-meme." Dumarsais, Beauzee and Condillac were a l l teachers or tutors at some time i n t h e i r l i v e s . Gunvor Sahlin, Cesar Chesneau du Marsais et son r o l e dans 1'evolution de l a grammaire genirale. (ParTs. 1928) p. kk Beauzee, a r t i c l e "Grammaire", VII, 841  9  R. H. Robins, Ancient and mediaeval grammatical theory i n Europe (London, 1951) G. L. B u r s i l l - H a l l , "Mediaeval grammatical theories.'"' CJL/RCL. IX, I (1963), p p . 40 - 54  - 12 -  Cesar Chesneau du Marsais was born i n Marseille i n 1 6 7 6 . He was brought up i n the Oratoire de M a r s e i l l e . In 1704 he moved to Paris where he was married and became an advocate His marriage was not successful and he l e f t h i s wife. His profession d i d not bring the rewards that he had hoped f o r so he abandoned i t . He was private tutor successively to the sons of the president de Maisons, of Law and of the Marquis de Beauffrement. WEen t h i s employment ended he found It necessary to run a private school i n order to l i v e . He became associated with the authors of the Encyclopedie and undertook to provide the a r t i c l e s on grammar. Before h i s death i n 1756 he had completed one hundred and f i f t y a r t i c l e s His main works on language were: Exposition d'une methode raisonnee pour apprendre l a langue l a t i n e (17221 T r a i t e des tropes (1730) Logique (1769)  1  Nicolas Beauzee was born i n Verdun i n 1717. He was a student of mathematics before becoming interested i n language. In 1756 he took over the task of completing the grammatical a r t i c l e s f o r the Encyclopedie. His Grammaire generale ou exposition raisonnee du langage pour s e r v i r a. 1*^tude""de toutes langues was p u b T i s h e d i n 1767 and resulted i n h i s appointment to the chair of grammar at the Ecole Royale M i l i t a i r e . In 1772 he was elected to the Academie francaise as the successor to Duclos. He died i n 1739,  2  Chapter THE WORD AS AN We  ELEMENT OF  LOGIC  have s a i d t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f a grammaire g e n e r a l e  d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e g r a m m a t i c a l works o f P o r t - R o y a l and t h a t i t reached i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t of development Dumarsais.  w i t h t h e work o f  I n t h e course o f t h i s development  the  didactic  p u r p o s e s w h i c h u n d e r l a y t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s showed a change o f emphasis.  slight  Whereas t h e s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y grammarians  s o u g h t t o t e a c h t h e a r t de b i e n p a r l e r , t h e i r  colleagues of the  f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y a i m e d more a t e x p o u n d i n g t h e a r t de b i e n penser.  The g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e was  l o o k e d upon as a t e a c h i n g  t o o l , a n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s v i e w i t s i n f l u e n c e was grammatical descriptions of s p e c i f i c  languages.  t r e a t e d n o t so much a s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n of  exteriorizing  thought.  I t was  felt  Language  on was  b u t a s a means  t h e r e f o r e thought  and  the  l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h i t i n v o l v e s t h a t formed t h e b a s i s o f all  grammatical  analysis.  P o r t - R o y a l had  b a s e d i t s r u l e s o f grammar on t h e  o f t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , and t h i s  analysis  i n t u r n had l e d t o a  f u s i o n o f l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l t e r m s .  I t was  con-  Dumarsais  who  showed t h a t t h e r e i s a c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made b e t w e e n the  l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n .  i n f a c t was theory.  This  one o f h i s m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o g r a m m a t i c a l  To D u m a r s a i s , t h o u g h t , t h a t r a w . m a t e r i a l w h i c h must  be  d e c o m p o s e d and a n a l y s e d , e x i s t s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y i n t h e m i n d ; t h a t i s t o s a y , i t i s i n no way  "linear."  He w r o t e :  "Nous  savons  par  14  s e n t i m e n t i n t e r i e u r , que  chaque a c t e  p a r t i c u l i e r de  f a c u l t e " de  p e n s e r , ou  n o u s en un  i n s t a n t , s a n s d i v i s i o n , e t p a r une  i n t e r i e u r e de  chaque p e n s l e s i n g u l i e r e , e s t e x c i t e e  nous-memes.  The  stand  with  syntax.  The  a s s e m b l a g e de  c o n c o u r s des  consideration  I n our it will first  on t h e  d i f f e r e n s rapports  p a r t i c u l i e r e de  logical  then r e f l e c t e d i n a  the  construction  l o g i c a l f a c t s by means o f is  therefore:  q u ' i l s ont  le  entr'eux [ i . e . the  j u g e m e n t ou  quelque  1 e s p r i t , q u i r e g a r d e un  objet  T  l o g i c a l proposition] •  attempt t o i s o l a t e Dumarsais' t h e o r y of the be  necessary to f u r t h e r analyze h i s ideas  i s the  e t a t r e e l de  T h e s e he  proposition  part of the  c l a s s i f i e s i n t o two  1 * o b j e t d o n t on  That i t i s a  n  Ges propositions  juge.  soleil,"  w 3  As  an  w h i c h i s an  word, about  main groups.  d i r e c t e which r e f l e c t s a  person t h i n k i n g .  t e r r e t o u r n e a u t o u r du  judgment.  p a r t s of the  grammatical proposition  logical propositions. first  proposition.  mots [ i . e . a c o n s t r u c t i o n ] , q u i , par  comme t e l " ^ [ i . e . t h e  "La  logical  This i n turn i s simply  s y n t a c t i c a r r a n g e m e n t ] , e n o n c e n t un  un  elements of the  each o t h e r are  o f words w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e  o r d e r and  The  process  to t h e i r l o g i c a l order w i t h i n that  grammatical proposition. made up  simple a f f e c t i o n  i t i s this  l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which the  proposition  "un  a n a l y s i s , and  r i s e , i n h i s view, to the  p r o p o s i t i o n and  en  E v e r y s u c h t h o u g h t must u n d e r g o a  rtl  p r o c e s s o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n and which gives  la  judgment marquent  e x a m p l e he  gives:  affirmative  judgment i s s i g n a l l e d i n t h e  grammatical  - 15 p r o p o s i t i o n b y t h e u s e o f t h a t e l e m e n t o f s y n t a x known a s t h e i n d i c a t i v e mood. oblique not  The s e c o n d g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n  w h i c h i s n o t a judgment, b u t an e n u n c i a t i o n .  I t does  r e f l e c t t h e 6tat r ^ e l b u t r a t h e r t h e s t a t e o r c o n d i t i o n  sought a f t e r .  This  i s seen i n t h e i m p e r a t i v e  what a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y  c a l l e d the subordinate  and i n c e r t a i n o f clauses.  Thus,  s o y e z s a g e a n d a f i n que v o u s s o y e z sage a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h e proposition oblique.  P r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e s e t w o g r o u p s may com-  b i n e t o g i v e what D u m a r s a i s c a l l s t h e p e V i o d e .  (Dumarsais, and  l a t e r C o n d i 1 1 a c , made a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f subordinate  l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s , b u t t h e two  main groups o u t l i n e d above We h a v e assemblage  are sufficient  f o r our purposes.)  s e e n t h a t t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s "un  de mots", t h a t  i s , a c o n s t r u c t i o n , whose e l e m e n t s ,  w o r d s , r e f l e c t t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h must e x i s t w i t h i n one  o f t h e above l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n ' s  means  o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s depend on t h e p a r t i c u l a r grammatical devices  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l language.  Thus,  accepi  l i t t e r a s t u a s , t u a s l i t t e r a s a c c e p i , and l i t t e r a s t u a s  accepi  t  r e f l e c t a s i n g l e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e same s y n t a c t i c a l relationships.  The r e s u l t i n g d i v e r s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  stem f r o m  Latin's use o f i n f l e c t i o n s t o  achieve s y n t a c t i c a l combination.  (Beauz^e p o i n t e d  out that t h e  same t h i n g i s o f c o u r s e n o t t r u e  «L ai r e c u t e s l e t t r e s . a n d  t h a t a l t h o u g h he was u n d o u b t e d l y  o  f  f  a w a r e o f t h e f a c t , D u m a r s a i s n o w h e r e s t a t e d t h a t f o r some  - 16 languages  -  construction i s i t s e l f a syntactical reality.)  constructions  vary  from language to language, depending  s y n t a c t i c a l means f a v o r e d .  D u m a r s a i s was  e n t i a t i n g b e t w e e n what we now  on  here o f course  langues t r a n s p o s i t i v e s (terms  the  differ-  know a s t h e a n a l y t i c a l a n d  e t i c l a n g u a g e s , w h i c h w e r e known t o t h e E n c y c l o p ^ d i s t e s l a n g u e s analogues and  Such  synthas  introduced  by G i r a r d ) . 4  Dumarsais  went on t o c l a i m t h a t , even as t h o u g h t i s  dependent on l o g i c f o r i t s e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n as a l o g i c a l  pro-  p o s i t i o n , so must t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n be b a s e d  on r e a s o n .  Of a l l t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  g i v e f o r m t o t h o u g h t , t h e r e must be one t o be  t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y .  This  which  can  which reason d i c t a t e s  c o n s t r u c t i o n must  overide  t h e mere s y n t a c t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e s w i t h w h i c h a l a n g u a g e may t o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n i t s p a r t s , and  choose  i t must be  e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o s y n t h e t i c and a n a l y t i c l a n g u a g e s . This i s Dumarsais' naturelie). in  Because  application.  construction necessaire  (simple.  i t i s b a s e d o n r e a s o n i t must be  I t s essence  m e r e l y a n o t h e r ( a n d more  i s word o r d e r ;  artificial)  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which reason d i c t a t e s .  work i n f l e c t i o n i s  means o f a c h i e v i n g The  word o r d e r  construction necessaire  n e c e s s i t a t e s the appearance  subject  e t r e avant d'operer),  first  ( i l faut  universal  the  of the of the  the verb next  (1»operation), f o l l o w e d by t h e complement ( i l f a u t e x i s t e r a v a n t de p o u v o i r  e t r e l o b j e t de 1  Paction  d'un  autre).  Adjectives  - 17  -  w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w nouns ( i l f a u t e x i s t e r avant qualifie).  Thus, although L a t i n uses i n f l e c t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the accepi  should  be  construction  accepi  Constructions are f i g u r a t i v e . are  which are not  of tuas  A language as i t i s spoken construction.  construction and  the  i m p l i c i t i n the  very  Dumarsais t h e r e f o r e  true  act of thought.  basis  of be  such a n a l y s i s i s are  In h i s grammatical analysis  required a l l grammatical r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h must e x i s t  i n the  reduced to the full,  simple,  necessary natural,  construction.  What t h e n  i s the  w o r d i s n e c e s s a r i l y an t i c a l proposition.  s t a t u s of the word?  For Dumarsais  the  element which forms p a r t of the  gramma-  Furthermore, as r e f l e c t i o n s o f the  logical  p r o p o s i t i o n words are s e n t and  O n l y by  use  usuelle,  l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  w h a t e v e r f o r m o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , t o be  necessary  necessaire.  a n a l y s i s of a l l languages should  construction necessaire.  possible to reach the  only  figuree.  H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h o u g h t decomposed by r e a s o n i s t h e  it  hyperbaton  a construction  which i s a combination of the n e c e s s a i r e  b a s e d on t h e  sense  w i t h i n a s p e e c h - c o m m u n i t y makes This i s the  the  dictates.5  They have l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y  e a c h t h e r e must be  l i n g u i s t i c utterance,  litteras  n a t u r a l i n the above  p l e o n a s m , s y l l e p s i s , and  figurees.  because underlying  necessaire  l i t t e r a s t u a s , f o r r e a s o n so  Ellipsis,  constructions  of a t h i r d  d'etre  also l o g i c a l elements designed t o  c h a r a c t e r i z e the various terms of the  logical  repre-  - 18 proposition.  Dumarsais  -  himself clearly stated his  o f t h e w o r d a s a l o g i c a l e l e m e n t when he  understanding  wrote:  . . . a i n s i n o u s d i v i s i o n s , n o u s a n a l y s o n s , comme p a r i n s t i n c t , n o t r e p e n s l e ; n o u s en rassemblons toutes l e s p a r t i e s selon l ' o r d r e de l e u r s r a p p o r t s ; n o u s l i o n s ces p a r t i e s a des s i g n e s , ce s o n t l e s mots d o n t n o u s n o u s s e r v o n s e n s u i t e p o u r en a f f e c t e r l e s s e n s de c e u x a q u i n o u s v o u l o n s communiquer n o t r e p e n s e e : a i n s i l e s mots s o n t en meme t e m p s , e t 1'instrument et l e s i g n e de l a d i v i s i o n de l a p e n s l e . 6 We  s e e t h e r e f o r e t h a t he  ment t o be  used i n  t h e a n a l y s i s and  (that a c t i o n instantanee) but  h i m s e l f d e f i n e s t h e w o r d a s an  and  decomposition  as a s i g n , not  of t h e  thought thought,  o f t h e e l e m e n t s w h i c h c o m b i n e t o make t h e t h o u g h t .  a s we  have a l r e a d y  shown, t h e t h o u g h t  p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e w o r d must be a l o g i c a l Words a s mere non-functioning  i s essentially a  t h a n the word p e n s l e . reason led to the  proposition,  so was  speaker. and  word.  of thought  were occuring  signes are of f a r l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e  I n the  same way  as the appeal  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the  i t l o g i c and  consider t h i s h i g h l y complicated may  no  I n h i s d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n above:^  to  logic  various types  r e a s o n t h a t formed the  of h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of words i n t o p a r t s  that i t  s i g n s and  Dumarsais.  consequence u n t i l they  as a c t i v e l y r e f l e c t i n g a p r o c e s s  the words instruments  extent  existing within a  l o g i c a l function to these  w i t h i n t h e mind of t h e  logical  element.  s i g n s or i n s t r u m e n t s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between them o f any considered  Since,  s y s t e m o f s i g n s were o f no i n t e r e s t t o  T h e r e c o u l d be no  and  of  instru-  o f speech.  of  basis We  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n only to  help to f u r t h e r elucidate h i s theory  will the of  the  - 19  -  Words f o r D u m a r s a i s , as f o r a l l f o l l o w e r s o f c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o two sented de  un o b j e t de  1*esprit.  The  d i v i d e d i n t o two  main c a t e g o r i e s .  l a pensee o r t h e y first  of these  sub-groups.  Port-Royal,  They e i t h e r r e p r e -  r e f l e c t e d un  p o i n t de  c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be  vue  further  T h e s e w e r e t h e e*tres r e e l s  and  t h e e'tres m e t a p h y s i q u e s . The  ftres rlels  the e x t e r i o r world  consisted of those  of t h i n g s .  words t h a t r e f l e c t e d  Words s u c h a s c h i e n , a r b r e  homme f o r e x a m p l e , s t e m d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e of the e x t e r n a l world. g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and process  individual's cognition  S u c h c o g n i t i o n d e p e n d s on a p r o c e s s  g e n e r a l i z e s h i s sense  Although i n doing t h i s Dumarsais f o l l o w s the  same p r o c e s s  c l a i m t o t h e o r i z e on t h i s q u e s t i o n .  was  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l importance.  attempted t o of a given The  show t h e p r o c e s s  by which the  child,  Rather  The  word  he  institutionalized  speech-community a r e apprehended by the  child.  names o f t h e e t r e s r e e l s , t h o s e m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s  r e a l i t y w h i c h i m p i n g e on t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s the  used  language,  D u m a r s a i s made no o f no  the  experiences.  C o n d i l l a c i n h i s t h e o r i e s on t h e o r i g i n o f  f o r him  of  D u m a r s a i s made a c a r e f u l e x p o s i t i o n o f  by w h i c h a c h i l d  l a t e r by  and  are f i r s t  a c c e p t e d as  p r o p e r names.  applied to a c e r t a i n four-footed animal, c h i l d a s a p r b p e r name i n d i v i d u a l animal.  sensations Thus,  specific  course of time however,  the  and M e d o r a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h i s  of  chien,  i s a c c e p t e d by  a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o one  I n the  h e a r s t h e names a n i m a l  and  of  the and child  object  signs  - 20 w h i c h he h a s l e a r n e d  to c a l l chien.  object  names.  now h a s t h r e e  This  s p e c i f i c and i n d i v i d u a l  Experience teaches the c h i l d  c h i e n may o n l y b e a p p l i e d t o a c e r t a i n t y p e o f a n i m a l ; not  be a p p l i e d t o c h e v a l o r o i s e a u .  s p e c i f i c c h i e n . and a n i m a l , to  chien,  cheval  or oiseau.  that  i t may  M e d o r i s t h e name o f a  he d i s c o v e r s ,  i sequally  The c h i l d t h e r e f o r e  experience and r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e  applicable  generalizes h i s  t y p e s o f name:  nom  7  p r o p r e , nom d* e s p e c e a n d nom d e g e n r e . ' The  p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n does n o t  child further discovers in relation in  that although  t o chien, cheval.  oiseau  end h e r e .  The  a n i m a l i s a nom de g e n r e e t c . , i t i s a nom d * e s p e c e  r e l a t i o n t o e t r e , " q u i e s t l e genre supreme".  I t i s the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t between t h e e t r e s reels that allows the child to arrive genre and espece. and w i t h t h i s the  understanding the c h i l d  a b i l i t y t o reason both deductively The  a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f develops  and i n d u c t i v e l y .  e t r e s m l t a p h y s i q u e s form t h e second sub-group o f t h e  o b j e t s de l a pen s e e .  Thus b e a u t l , amour a n d b l a n c h e u r do n o t  exist i n t h e external world  of r e a l i t y , but rather within the  mind o f man.  l e a r n s t o t h i n k o f t h e m i n t h e same  But t h e c h i l d  way a s h e t h i n k s o f t h e e t r e s r l e l s : L * u s a g e o u n o u s sommes t o u s l e s j o u r s d e d o n n e r d e s noms a u x o b j e t s d e s i d l e s q u i nous r e p r l s e n t e n t d e s e t r e s r l e l s , nous a p o r t l s a e n donner a u s s i p a r i m i t a t i o n aux o b j e t s metap h y s i q u e s d e s ide'es a b s t r a i t e s d o n t n o u s a v o n s c o n n a i s s a n c e : a i n s i n o u s e n p a r l o n s comme n o u s f a i s o n s des o b j e t s r e e l s ; en s o r t e que l ' o r d r e m e t a p h y s i q u e a a u s s i s e s noms d * e s p e c e s e t s e s noms d ' i n d i v i d u s . . . . 9  - 21 The  p r o c e s s i s t h e r e f o r e one w h i c h i s b a s e d o n a n a l o g y , b u t i t  i s now a p r o c e s s o f a b s t r a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n  generalization.  Names a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e g i v e n "a 1 * o c c a s i o n d e q u e l q u e 10  affection interieure.  . ."  F o r example,  blancheur does not  e x i s t w i t h i n t h e o b j e c t t o which i t i s a p p l i e d , n o r does i t i n a n y way e x i s t  outside the speaker.  S i m i l a r l y , bonheur  i s an  a f f e c t i o n i n t e r i e u r e t o w h i c h a name i s g i v e n a s t h o u g h i t e x i s t e d a s an e t r e r e e l .  Such words t h e r e f o r e a b s t r a c t  quali-  t i e s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e i t h e r from t h e world of r e a l i t y o r from t h e sense experience o f t h e speaker. The  second major c a t e g o r y , t h o s e words w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e  p o i n t s d e v u e d e 1* e s p r i t a r e n e c e s s a r i l y e t r e s s i n c e t h e y can n o t e x i s t  metaphysiques,  i n the world of r e a l i t y .  T h i s v u e de  1»esprit i s f o u n d i n t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h p e r t a i n b e t w e e n t h e terms of t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n .  Thus, p r e p o s i t i o n s and  c o n j u n c t i o n s e x i s t w i t h the s o l e purpose o f r e f l e c t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s which t h e speaker wishes t o set up between t h e terms o f which he i s speaking. Such t h e whole  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f words had a n i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on o f Dumarsais'  grammatical a n a l y s i s .  I t neatly set  a s i d e t h e p r o b l e m o f f u n c t i o n words ( s u c h a s p r e p o s i t i o n s and c o n j u n c t i o n s ) a n d a t t h e same t i m e p r o v i d e d t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e of syntax.  S i n c e number, g e n d e r , mood and t e n s e r e f l e c t a  vue de 1 ' e s p r i t , t h e y f i n d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c a l devices o f the i n d i v i d u a l language.  F o r Dumarsais  - 22 t h e n , morphology and  -  ( o r more a c c u r a t e l y t h e f l e c t i o n a l  devices)  syntax a r e a l s o elements o f l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n r a t h e r  grammatical f u n c t i o n .  W o r d s , we  m u s t r e p e a t , and  s y n t a x , are not elements v i i i c h produce even n e c e s s a r y t o thought.  There  by e x t e n s i o n ,  o r which  They a r e n e c e s s a r y o n l y a s  instruments o f the a n a l y s i s o f thought l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n of that  thought  than  are the  and as t h e s i g n s o f t h e  thought.  i s abundant f u r t h e r evidence t h a t Dumarsais looked  upon t h e word p r i m a r i l y a s a l o g i c a l e l e m e n t .  Both the  logical  a n d t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n a r e made u p o f s u b j e c t and attribute. parts f a l l s ,  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h must e x i s t  a c c o r d i n g to Dumarsais,  between t h e s e  i n t o one o f two  r a p p o r t d * i d e n t i t e a n d r a p p o r t de d e t e r m i n a t i o n . of  t h e s e t e r m s and  what t h e y  The  introduction  stood f o r represented a  a d v a n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e g r a m m a i r e g i n er a l e days of P o r t - R o y a l .  types:  major from  S e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y grammarians had  the had  great d i f f i c u l t y  i n r e c o n c i l i n g t h e agreement of a d j e c t i v e  noun i n F r e n c h .  They r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e g r a m m a t i c a l  but had had  difficulty  fact,  i n j u s t i f y i n g i t as a l o g i c a l f a c t .  do so t h e y h a d p o s i t e d t h e r u l e o f  and  To  concordance.  According t o t h i s grammatical r u l e the l o g i c a l reason f o r t h e agreement o f t e r r e a n d r o n d e est  r o n d e " was  i n the proposition " l a terre  t h a t t h e i d e a o f t e r r e was,  following  p r i n c i p l e s , i n c l u d e d i n the i d e a o f roundness. first  chapter that  L e i b n i z had  We  Aristotelian  saw  i n our  subsequently introduced the  - 23 concept o f i d e n t i t y  t o replace that of q u a l i t y .  I t was t h i s  new  approach t h a t Dumarsais used t o e x p l a i n t h e f a c t s l o g i c a l l y and f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . common i d e n t i t y  F o r h i m , e a r t h and roundness had a  b e c a u s e n o t o n l y was t h e i d e a o f e a r t h  included  i n t h a t o f r o u n d n e s s , b u t t h e i d e a o f r o u n d n e s s was i n c l u d e d i n that of earth. between  Thus, t h e o l d e r i d e a o f g r a m m a t i c a l concordance  t h i n g s w h i c h a r e l o g i c a l l y d i s p a r a t e was r e p l a c e d b y t h e  i d e a o f l o g i c a l u n i t y b a s e d o n common i d e n t i t y . b a s i s f o r Dumarsais*  classification  (This i s the  of substantives  and a d j e c t i v e s  a s s p e c i e s o f t h e g e n u s noun.) I n t h e same w a y , D u m a r s a i s d i d away w i t h t h e o l d e r of regime.  He a t t a c k e d  a b s t r a c t and t h a t  t h e t e r m on t h e grounds t h a t i t i s  such a b s t r a c t t e r m s a r e o n l y  q u i n'amusent que 1 * i m a g i n a t i o n . " w i t h w h i c h he r e p l a c e d the l o g i c a l  1 1  "des metaphores  The r a p p o r t s  de  determination  i t a r e those r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  f u n c t i o n o f t h e word.  l o g i c a l l y a s a nom g e n e r i q u e . function i srestricted  idea  The w o r d l u m e n  restrict  functions  When s o l i s i s a d d e d t o i t , i t s  t o t h a t o f a nom s p e c i f i q u e .  may be s a i d o f t h e F r e n c h i n l a l u m i e r e d u so l e i 1 .  The same The w o r d s  d u s o l e i l d e t e r m i n e t h a t l a l u m i e r e f u n c t i o n s a s a nom s p e c i f i q u e ( i t s f u n c t i o n as l o g i c a l and grammatical subject o r object be d e t e r m i n e d b y o t h e r f a c t o r s ) a n d d u i t s e l f therefore r e s t r i c t s These  d e t e r m i n e s and  soleil.  relationships of identity  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e  will  i n Dumarsais*  and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  classification  played  of the parts of  - 24 speech.  E v e n B e a u z e e made u s e o f t h e m i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e  p a r t s o f speech i n h i s a r t i c l e s i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e , a l t h o u g h , a s we h o p e t o d e m o n s t r a t e l a t e r , h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r d d i f f e r e d radically. show how  A b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l p a r t s o f speech  t h e s e l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a were  will  applied.  The n o u n , w h i c h , as we h a v e s e e n , i s a n e t r e r e e l o r an e t r e metaphysique, w i l l , according t o i t s s y n t a c t i c w i t h i n the construction, r e f l e c t  function  i t s use as a subject  or  object.  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r u s e w i l l r e f l e c t a l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e on t h e of the speaker.  part  However, l o g i c a l p o i n t s o f v i e w a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d  s o l e l y t o the l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of t h e s p e c i f i c word w i t h i n the proposition. the  For example,  t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e L a t i n noun w i t h i n  p r o p o s i t i o n i s shown b y means o f t h e i n f l e c t i o n , b u t i t s  gender  and number, w h i c h  c e r t a i n l y h a v e no l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n  l o g i c a l elements o f the p r o p o s i t i o n , a r e f a c t o r s which  as  reflect  r a t h e r the l o g i c a l point o f view of the speaker. From t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t number a n d  gender a r e  deter-  mining f a c t o r s which give  s p e c i f i c yet p a r t i a l information  part  o f view from which t h e  of the o v e r a l l point  noun i s s e e n . L a t i n noun puer  We  may  therefore  (or i t s l a c k of i t ) t e l l s  n o m i n a t i v e o r v o c a t i v e , and position i s restricted. is  say that  functioning  the i n f l e c t i o n of the us t h a t  i t s case i s  that i t s function w i t h i n the pro-  I n a d d i t i o n , h o w e v e r , we know t h a t i t  s i n g u l a r and m a s c u l i n e , a n d t h e s e two  information  as  about t h e u s e r s p o i n t f  characteristics reflect  o f view.  The n o u n i s t h e r e -  - 25 f o r e determine noun t h u s : des  b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e , and  " L e s noms s o n t d e s m o t s q u i p r e s e n t e n t  e t r e s de'termine's The  adjectifs  Beauzee c o u l d d e f i n e  par  l ' i d l e p r e c i s e de  leur  a 1*esprit  nature."^  a d j e c t i v e on t h e o t h e r h a n d i s i n d e t e r m i n e . physiques,  mltaphysiques,  such  as  such as £e,  r o n d and  l e and  p i e u x , and t h e  p l u s i e u r s , are  because t h e y f a i l t o r e f l e c t a s p e c i f i c they are r e l a t e d to a noun. does n o t i n any  way  The adjectifs  indetermines  point of view  until  M o r e o v e r , t h e i r a d d i t i o n t o a noun  restrict their  r a t h e r t h a t of the noun.  the  In the  own  l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n , but  same way,  verbs, with  their  number, t e n s e and mood, r e f l e c t v i e w p o i n t s w h i c h p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s not  on t h e m s e l v e s  but  on t h e i r  subjects.  T h i s same l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may  be a p p l i e d t o  w o r d s whose b a s i c f u n c t i o n i s t o r e f l e c t a vue r a t h e r t h a n an o b j e t de  l a pensee.  i s not o n l y i n d e t e r m i n e , but The  The  de 1 * e s p r i t  p r e p o s i t i o n by  i t lacks a l lreferential  the r e l a t i o n  o f t h e p h r a s e t o an  meaning.  antecedent  again leads o n l y to the f u r t h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the  to  itself  a d d i t i o n o f i t s complement l e a d s t o the r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h a t  c o m p l e m e n t , and  and  those  t h e complement. clarify this  B e a u z e e makes u s e  point.  I f , he  the phrases d e s i r s de  i s 1/2,  of a mathematical  analogy  c l a i m s , 3 i s to 6 as 5 i s t o  8 i s t o 16, 25 i s t o 50, e t c . , t h e n t i o n s h i p present  antecedent  the exponent o f t h e  rela-  when t h e t e r m s a r e a b s t r a c t e d .  l a m a i n de D i e u , l a c o l e r e de  ce p r i n c e and  10,  Likewise, les  l'ame show a p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i r  terms  - 26 when t h o s e t e r m s a r e a b s t r a c t e d .  The  exponent o f t h a t  relation-  s h i p i s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n de; t h e l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e t i o n i s t o represent that r e l a t i o n s h i p . l o g i c a l b a s i s B e a u z l e was as:  therefore  Working  from  able to define  "des m o t s q u i d e s i g n e n t d e s r a p p o r t s g e n e r a u x  t i o n de t o u t t e r m e a n t e c e d e n t L e t u s now  et  preposi-  this  prepositions avec  abstrac-  consequent."13  attempt t o summarize t h i s r a t h e r  concept o f t h e word as a l o g i c a l e l e m e n t .  We  elusive  have seen  that  t h e t h e o r y o f a g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e owed i t s e x i s t e n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h o u g h t and t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h o u g h t w e r e deemed t o the b a s i s of a l l language.  T h o u g h t was  to the l o g i c a l proposition.  decomposed t o g i v e  T h i s i n t u r n was  a s a g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n whose e l e m e n t s elements were f u r t h e r d i c t a t e d by r e a s o n . thought  as an a c t i o n i n s t a n t a n e e .  be  form  given utterance  and  combination of  Dumarsais regarded  I t s d e c o m p o s i t i o n depended  on t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f w o r d s , and t h e s e same w o r d s ,  reflecting  t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h t h e y had f o u n d t o e x i s t i n t h e t h o u g h t , composed t h e l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n , a n d a t t h e same t i m e , a s l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s , were t h e s y m b o l s  which  formed  the  phonic m a t e r i a l of which the grammatical p r o p o s i t i o n  basic  was  constructed. The  grammatical  f a c t s o f a l l languages  l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y accounted reason. its  could  be more o r  f o r by t h i s a p p e a l t o l o g i c  H a v i n g d e t e r m i n e d t h e means by w h i c h a l a n g u a g e  s y n t a c t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n , i t was  a simple matter to  and achieved  prescribe  -  t h e grammatical r u l e s which r u l e s w e r e d i c t a t e d by  27  -  t h e language  logic.  must a p p l y , f o r s u c h  T h i s o f c o u r s e was  the reason  a l l a t t e m p t s a t g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s were n o r m a t i v e . f a c t s of everyday  speech  appeared  Where t h e  t o contravene the d i c t a t e s  r e a s o n , such f a c t s were f o r c e d t o s u b m i t .  The  why  of  grammarian s i m p l y  p o s i t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of an u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a i r e . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s was years.  f e l t f o r many  I f i t reached t h e h e i g h t o f i t s development w i t h  i t s influence f a r outlived h i s time.  We  have seen t h a t  Dumarsais, Beauzee  appeals t o l o g i c i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n s of the p a r t s of speech, C o n d i l l a c and  a l l s u c c e e d i n g g r a m m a r i a n s o f t h e c e n t u r y a t some  point i n t h e i r grammatical t h e o r y used  l o g i c a l formulas  either  a s a n i n s t r u m e n t o f , , o r as a s u p p o r t f o r , t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r of  and  type  analysis. As we  s h a l l see i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s , Dumarsais  d i f f e r e d f r o m h i s s u c c e s s o r s , and e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e  sensa-  t i o n a l i s t s , i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t w o r d s p l a y e d no p a r t i n t h e formulation of thought.  For him t h e thought  i n s t r u m e n t s of i t s a n a l y s i s and d e f i n i t i o n s b e s t sum  was;  exteriorization.  w o r d s were t h e The  following  u p h i s v i e w s o n t h e word a s an e l e m e n t  of  language: Le d i s c o u r s e s t u n a s s e m b l a g e de p r o p o s i t i o n s , d e n o n c i a t i o n s e t de p l r i o d e s , q u i t o u t e s d o i v e n t s e r a p p o r t e r a un b u t principal. La p r o p o s i t i o n e s t un a s s e m b l a g e de m o t s , q u i , p a r l e c o n c o u r s d e s d i f f e Y e n s r a p p o r t s qu* i l s o n t e n t r e u x , e n o n c e n t u n jugement o u q u e l q u e c o n s i d e r a t i o n p a r t i c u l i e r e de 1 * e s p r i t , q u i r e g a r d e u n o b j e t comme t e l . 1  f  - 28 L e s m o t s , d o n t 1 * a s s e m b l a g e f o r m e u n s e n s , s o n t done ou s i g n e d*un j u g e m e n t , ou 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n d'un s i m p l e r e g a r d l * e s p r i t q u i c o n s i d e r e un o b j e t a v e c t e l l e ou t e l l e m o d i f i c a t i o n : ce q u ' i l f a u t b i e n d i s t i n g u e r . 14 The  le de  d i a g r a m o n t h e f o l l o w i n g page w i l l h e l p t o show t h e r e s u l t  o f our f i n d i n g s t o t h i s  point.  - 29 -  The w o r d a s a n e l e m e n t  of l o g i c  Logical  gar9on  (e*tre a v a n t d* o p l r e r )  Proposit  manger (operation)  Grammatical les  garcons  Logical  mangent  pain (6tre avant d ' e t r e 1»objet e t a v a n t d*§tre qualifie)  Proposition dii bon  bon  pain  proposition  Words a r e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f thought. Reason d i c t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e decomposed thought. Grammatical  proposition  Words a r e t h e s i g n s o f t h e a n a l y s e d t h o u g h t . Reason dictates the application o f the s y n t a c t i c a l rules of F r e n c h a n d t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e main e l e m e n t s o f the l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n .  - 30 1 2 3 4  5  Dumarsais, a r t i c l e "Construction", IV, 73 I b i d . , p. 81 loc. c i t . Gabriel Girard, (1677 - 1748) author of Justesse de l a langue francaise, (1718), Les v r a i s principes de l a Tangue francai se, \1747), L* orthogra phe francai se sans 6quivogue dans seiTprincipes natureIs, (17lol  The application of these l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a i s discussed by Dumarsais i n h i s a r t i c l e "Construction". They were by no means new, f o r they had been used to lay the so-called natural order of the sentence i n the Grammaire raisonnee. 6 : Dumarsais, op. c i t . p. 74 7 These terms were used throughout the century i n a l l the discussions about the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of parts of speech. 8 Dumarsais, a r t i c l e " A r t i c l e " , I , 728 9 loc. c i t . 10 Dumarsais, a r t i c l e "Abstraction", I, 44 11 I b i d . , p. 47 12 Beauzle, a r t i c l e "Mot", X, 755 13 Ibid., p. 758 14 Dumarsais, a r t i c l e "Construction", IV, 81  Chapter  3  THE WORD AS A SIGN The  E n c y c l b p e d i s t e s * most i m p o r t a n t  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e concept a r t i c l e s by Beauzee. the examination  contribution tothe  o f t h e w o r d may b e f o u n d  H i s conclusions i n fact form a basis f o r  o f a l l grammatical  cussed by Dumarsais.  questions not already  F o r Beauzee, study o f t h e word  t h r e e separate elements which he l i s t s a s : 1* e t y m o l o g i e substance  and l a v a l e u r .  o f t h e word.  as "Son", " A c c e n t " ,  1  entailed  B y l e m a t e r i e l he meant t h e p h o n i c  "Syllabe", "Lettre", etc.  articles  Etymology d e a l t  and f o r m a t i o n o f words, b u t w i t h r o o t s ,  euphony, onomatopoeia, e t c . a s w e l l .  Despite the great  variety  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a n d t h e many a r t i c l e s t o w h i c h i t  gave r i s e i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c , t h e r e i s l i t t l e present a t t e n t i o n . had  dis-  l e materiel,  He r e f e r s t h e r e a d e r t o s u c h  not o n l y w i t h t h e o r i g i n  of t h i s l a s t  i n the  Although,  a s we s h a l l s e e s h o r t l y , B e a u z e e  certain phonetic t h e o r i e s ,  a phonological theory.  to claim our  h e a t no t i m e r e a l l y  The t h i r d  approached  element, t h e question o f v a l u e ,  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r on. The  v e r y f a c t t h a t Beauzee r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e t h r e e  distinct  e l e m e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e word p o i n t s , howe v e r , t o an i m p o r t a n t  departure  from preceding t h e o r i e s .  Unlike  D u m a r s a i s , he was n o t c o n t e n t t o r e g a r d t h e w o r d a s a n i n e r t , monolithic entity,  a mere t o o l t o be u s e d i n t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n  of thought.  f r o m d e f i n i n g t h e w o r d , i n what we s h a l l s e e  Apart  a s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y new way, Beauze'e a d d s t h e f o l l o w i n g  important  - 32 qualification: manifestation  "Les  m o t s s o n t comme l e s i n s t r u m e n s de l a  de n o s p e n s l e s . "  a c t i v e elements o f thought H e r e we c a n e a s i l y  3  W o r d s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  as  and o f e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n .  sense r a t i o n a l i s t  philosophy  i n t h e process  of undergoing the influence of sensationalism. Grammarians t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h  century  h e s i t a t i o n i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e word i s a s i g n . in  i t s e l f nothing  The i d e a was  new, f o r i n t h e Grammaire r a i s o n n e e  R o y a l words had a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d a s : e t a r t i c u l e s d o n t l e s hommes o n t f a i t l e u r s pensees."  h a d no  "des sons  des signes  de P o r t distincts  pour  signifier  We h a v e n o t e d t h a t D u m a r s a i s a l s o l o o k e d  upon  t h e w o r d a s a s i g n , a n d what we h a v e s a i d o f h i m was a l s o  true  o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s a n d o f many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . did  n o t e x i s t a s p a r t o f words, and the words a s s i g n s  Thoughts merely  r e f l e c t t h e decomposed t h o u g h t a n d a r e n o t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e existence of the thought. Beauzee d e f i n e d t h e word i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : mot  ". . . u n  e s t u n e t o t a l i t e de s o n s , d e v e n u e p a r u s a g e , p o u r c e u x q u i  l'entendent,  l e s i g n e d'une ide'e t o t a l e . "  4  I ti s this  which w i l l form the  b a s i s o f most o f o u r r e m a i n i n g  and  i nthis  we w i l l e x a m i n e h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m  and  s e e how i t d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t o f D u m a r s a i s .  chapter  h o w e v e r , we s h o u l d  note that there  definition  discussion,  Before  "signe" d o i n g so  i s one s i g n i f i c a n t a n d  i m m e d i a t e l y apparent element i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n which t h e way i n w h i c h h i s a p p r o a c h d i f f e r s .  characterizes  I t i s , o f course, t h e  - 33 absence of the word Although r e a s o n and  "pensee".  Beauzee c o u l d not deny t h e  l o g i c i n the  f a c t o r s had  f o r m u l a t i o n and use  r e p l a c e d by an i n t e r e s t  thought,  of language,  a more m i n o r r o l e i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e  I n t e r e s t i n t h e word as a p a s s i v e was  p a r t p l a y e d by  these  word.  symbol of the mind's t h o u g h t  i n the  semiotic values which  are  i n h e r e n t i n t h e word as a s i g n f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n a system o f signs.  For B e a u z l e words are not  c o n t a i n m e a n i n g , and b o t h s e m a n t i c and  the  symbols of meaning;  t h i s m e a n i n g ( w h i c h we  f u n c t i o n a l ) i s important  not  o v e r t r e f e r e n c e to a s p e c i f i c t h o u g h t , but i n which i t achieves  t h i s reference.  As  shall  see  the other  a l s o f o r the  an i n d i v i d u a l u n i t  t o him.  i n any  Nevertheless,  specific  "Signe".^  o f i t was  taken  from the  way  the  d i d Beauzee d e f i n e  connaissances  sums up h i s v i e w s .  "Le  the  s t a t e what t h e t e r m meant  d e f i n i t i o n t o be  T h i s a r t i c l e was  article,  now  language.  e d i t e d by D i d e r o t , but  humaines.  i s not  une  The  much  sur  following definition,  C o n d i l l a c ' s , but i t a c c u r a t e l y  s i g n e , " we  est destine a representer  7  are t o l d ,  chose.  of  found i n the  t a k e n word f o r word from C o n d i l l a c ' s E s s a i  l ' o r i g i n e des  state,  i t soon becomes a p p a r e n t f r o m h i s use  t h e t e r m t h a t he a c c e p t s article  lexicon^ of  p o i n t i n the Encyclopedie  s i g n , n o r d i d he  manner  characteristic relationships with a l l  signs which c o n s t i t u t e the  A t no  later i s  only for i t s  w i t h i n a system, the word, even i n a n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g e n t e r s i n t o s p e c i f i c and  they  " e s t t o u t ce  qui  Le s i g n e e n f e r m e d e u x  - 34 i d e e s , l ' u n e d e l a c h o s e q u i r e p r e s e n t e , 1' a u t r e d e l a c h o s e r e p r e s e n t e e ; e t s a n a t u r e c o n s i s t e a e x c i t e r l a seconde  par l a  premiere."^ According t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n therefore, the sign i s a l i n g u i s t i c e n t i t y w h i c h i s made up o f t w o d i s t i n c t  elements,  n a m e l y 1' i d l e d e l a c h o s e q u i r e p r e s e n t e a n d 1 * i d e e de l a c h o s e representee.  The t w o - s i d e d n e s s o f t h e s i g n a s e n v i s a g e d b y  C o n d i l l a c b e a r s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h a t p o s i t e d b y de S a u s s u r e i n h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m s s i g n i f i a n t and s i g n i f i e . d e f i n i t i o n , moreover,  Condillac's  i s n o t s o s i m p l e a s i t may f i r s t  appear.  I n r e f e r e n c e t o one o f t h e common f a l l a c i e s a b o u t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s i g n , de S a u s s u r e w r o t e :  "The l i n g u i s t i c  sign  unites,  n o t a t h i n g a n d a name, b u t a c o n c e p t a n d a s o u n d - i m a g e . " 9 E n c y c l o p e d i c ' s d e f i n i t i o n d o e s n o t make t h i s m i s t a k e . Condillac  The  For  each e l e m e n t o f t h e s i g n i s a n i d e e , a n d t h e i d e e i s  s o m e t h i n g w h i c h owes i t s e x i s t e n c e n o t t o t h o u g h t b u t t o s e n s a t i o n . I t f o l l o w s from t h i s that t h e i d e e o f t h e s e n s o r i l y  perceived  chose q u i r e p r e s e n t e ( i . e . t h e sound-image produced b y t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l ) i s comparable  t o t h e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p r i n t " o f de  Saussure* s s i g n i f i a n t .  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e ide^e d e l a c h o s e  r e p r e s e n t e e i s a l s o a s e n s o r i l y p e r c e i v e d concept  (produced i n  most i n s t a n c e s b y s e n s e s o t h e r t h a n h e a r i n g ) a n d i s l i k e w i s e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h de S a u s s u r e ' s  signifie.  Unfortunately, as i t stands, t h e l a s t part o f the d e f i n i t i o n i n t r o d u c e s a c e r t a i n a m b i g u i t y , caused by t h e use  o f t h e word n a t u r e * its  35 -  The " n a t u r e "  of the sign i snot t o excite  c o n c e p t w i t h i n i t s e l f b y means o f i t s s o u n d - i m a g e .  w o u l d mean t h a t t h e c o n c e p t was i t s e l f The  This  a sign within a sign.  s t a t e m e n t c a n o n l y make s e n s e i n r e f e r e n c e  o f t h e s i g n a s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  to the function  I t s f u n c t i o n i s (by  means o f i t s t o t a l i t y o f c o n c e p t a n d s o u n d - i m a g e ) t o g i v e t o a c o n c e p t i n t h e mind o f a  rise  listener.  That C o n d i l l a c u n d e r s t o o d t h e s i g n i n i t s t o t a l i t y t o be a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n t i t y i s borne o u t by h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e types  o f s i g n s w h i c h he r e c o g n i z e d .  The f i r s t  of these  was  p r e - l i n g u i s t i c and formed part o f h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theory as w e l l as o f h i s theory  o f t h e o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n  o f language.  T h i s was t h e s i g n e a c c i d e n t e l , made up o f " l e s o b j e t s que quelques c i r c o n s t a n c e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s ont l i l s unes de n o s i d e e s , e n s o r t e  avec quelques-  q u ' i l s sont propres V l e s  reveiHer."  T h a t i s t o s a y , a n o b j e c t o n c e p e r c e i v e d may, a t a l a t e r be p e r c e i v e d  again.  reminiscence,  The p e r c e i v e r knows, t h r o u g h t h e agency o f  t h a t he h a s a l r e a d y undergone t h e sensory  e n c e w h i c h i t c a u s e s , a n d he i d e n t i f i e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e the  object.  experience  time,  experiwith  T h u s , a man who h a s b e e n a t t a c k e d b y a l i o n may t h e s e n s a t i o n o f f e a r on seeing another l i o n .  t h e n i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p r i n t , n o t , a s i n de S a u s s u r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n , o f t h e sound-image, b u t o f any o f t h e sensory experiences linguistic.  of perception.  As such t h e s i g n remains p r e -  This  1 0  - 36 C o n d i l l a c ' s second t y p e  consisted of t h e signes naturels.  T h e s e a r e t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n s — l e s c r i s que l a n a t u r e a  etablis  M  pour l e s sentiments  de j o i e , de c r a i n t e , de d o u l e u r ,  etc."  1 1  Such c r i e s a r e , i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , evoked by a p a r t i c u l a r feeling.  As s u c h , t h e y a r e n o t s i g n s .  I t i s o n l y when t h e m i n d  succeeds i n l i n k i n g the c r y t o t h e presence f e e l i n g t h a t i t becomes a s i g n .  H o w e v e r , man i s s t i l l  c o m m u n i c a t e b y means o f t h i s s i g n . f e e l i n g s o r he u n d e r s t a n d s  reached  unable t o  I t i s e v o k e d b y h i s own  i t when i t i s u s e d b y someone s e e n t o  be e x p e r i e n c i n g t h o s e f e e l i n g s . unless the feeling exist.  of the particular  B u t i t c o n v e y s no m e a n i n g  I n t h e c o u r s e o f t i m e t h e moment i s  when s u c h a s i g n c a n b e u s e d t o c o n v e y t h e i d e a o f a  f e e l i n g n o t p r e s e n t , a n d when t h i s h a p p e n s i t becomes a s i g n e d*institution. The  s i g n e n a t u r e l was t h e r e f o r e r e g a r d e d  a s a proper  sign  when i t c o n t a i n e d b o t h a r e p r e s e n t a n t a n d a r e p r e s e n t e d The moment t h a t t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y accepted  the two-sidedness  grammairiens-philosophes  o f t h e s i g n t h e y were f o r c e d t o  c o n s i d e r t h e problem o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t w i t h i n this d i c h o t o m y . they asked  themselves  L i k e so many o f t h e i r  successors  w h e t h e r t h e r e was a n y c o n n e c t i o n ,  other  t h a n a n a r b i t r a r y o n e , b e t w e e n sound a n d m e a n i n g . As f a r a s t h e s i g n e n a t u r e l was c o n c e r n e d , w i l l i n g to accept  B e a u z e e was  the opinion that the relationship  s o u n d a n d m e a n i n g was n o t e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y .  between  For him t h e  - 37 -  i n t e r j e c t i o n f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e l a n g a g e du c o e u r ( a s o p p o s e d t o the  l a n g a g e de 1* e s p r i t )  a n d , a s d i d most g r a m m a r i a n s o f t h e  t i m e , he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n h a d a u n i v e r s a l i t y o f meaning that  could not exist i n other types  with this topic nature  he w r i t e s a s f o l l o w s :  nous d i c t e  ,f  o f words.  . . . l e s sons que l a  dans l e s g r a n d s e t p r e m i e r s  ame, s o n t l e s memes p o u r t o u t e s l e s l a n g u e s ; I g a r d ne sont The  In dealing  mouvemens de n o t r e nos usages a cet  pas a r b i t r a i r e s , parce q u ' i l s sont n a t u r e l s . "  phonic material of t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n  1 3  i s , therefore, i n the  f i r s t instance natural.  When t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n becomes  tionalized  t h a t i t evokes t h e i d e a o f a p a r t i c u l a r ,  t o t h e extent  institu-  i t s p h o n i c m a t e r i a l i s endowed w i t h r e f e r e n t i a l m e a n i n g , a n d t h i s phonic m a t e r i a l can n o t be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h a t t o which i t r e f e r s . able to disagree with Buffier and  ahil The  problem.  ahil  signs forming  language, however, i n t e r j e c t i o n s  des  n a t u r e l s de s e n s i b i l i t l The T  nous-mSmes c h o i s i s ,  ouft  this  part o f t h e system o f as o f l i t t l e  Beauzee a f f i r m s , "ne sont ;  de l ' a r t de p a r l e r ,  point  mais des s i g n e s  a n t e Y i e u r s a t o u t ce q u i e s t a r b i t r a i r e . ^  t h i r d a n d most i m p o r t a n t  signe d i n s t i t u t i o n .  because i t r a i s e d  were r e g a r d e d  "Les i n t e r j e c t i o n s , "  instrumens a r b i t r a i r e s  that  1 4  signe n a t u r e l i so f interest  importance.  B e a u z e e was t h e r e f o r e  when t h e l a t t e r c l a i m e d  are synonomous.  As l i n g u i s t i c  as an a r b i t r a r y  o f C o n d i l l a c ' s s i g n s was t h e  These s i g n s a r e t h o s e  "que n o u s a v o n s  e t q u i n ' o n t qu'un r a p p o r t  arbitraire  - 38 a v e c n o s idees."l°  T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e r e i s no n a t u r a l bond  b e t w e e n t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l c h o s e n t o compose t h e r e p r e s e n t a n t and  the semantic reference of the represent!.  Although  had  no h e s i t a t i o n i n a c c e p t i n g t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h e v a s t  m a j o r i t y o f t h e s i g n e s d i n s t i t u t i o n , he was f a c e d , T  l i n g u i s t s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h problem o f onomatopoeia.  Beauzee  l i k e the  centuries, with the  He c o u l d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c h o i c e  o f p h o n i c m a t e r i a l was a l w a y s c o m p l e t e l y He b e l i e v e d t h a t o n o m a t o p o e i a  arbitrary.  (like the interjection) i s  a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon o f l a n g u a g e , a n d t h a t i n t h e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e sounds o f nature and  man s e e s a bond b e t w e e n s o u n d a n d m e a n i n g ,  t h a t h i s c h o i c e o f p h o n i c m a t e r i a l i s t h e r e f o r e , on o c c a s i o n ,  motivated  b y t h e meaning he wishes t o convey.  which goes i n t o t h e f o r m a t i o n has,  Thus, t h e m a t e r i a l  o f the representant  of the sign  n o t o n l y r e f e r e n t i a l m e a n i n g , b u t what m i g h t b e c a l l e d a n  inherent  " n a t u r a l " m e a n i n g b e c a u s e o f t h i s b o n d w i t h what i t  imitates. Theories  o f onomatopoeia (and o f t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n )  an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y * s 17 o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n  of languages.  i d e a s on t h e  I f c e r t a i n sounds o f  emotive o r i m i t a t i v e q u a l i t y have u n i v e r s a l r e f e r e n c e s u c h s o u n d s a r e good e v i d e n c e , support it  form  o r meaning,  i n t h e eyes o f t h e grammarian, t o  t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e r e was b u t one o r i g i n a l l a n g u a g e ( b e  God-given o r t h e product  o f human i n v e n t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ) .  T o g e t h e r w i t h many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a n d l i k e most o f  - 39  -  h i s s u c c e s s o r s , Beauzee r e a l i z e d t h a t the o e i a and  t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n and  a r e made more c o m p l e x by t h e the  phenomenon.  e x i s t e n c e o f two  Thus, such s i m p l e  l i n k between t h e i r phonic  meaning.  But  he  o e i a where t h i s  accepted  m a t e r i a l and  as having  their  fait  an  denotational  r e c o g n i z e d a f a r more s u b t l e f o r m o f o n o m a t o p connection  i s less  obvious.  "limitation  q u i s e r t de  symbolism  g u i d e a 1'onomatopee  se  e n c o r e r e m a r q u e r d'une a u t r e m a n i e r e d a n s l a g e n e r a t i o n  p l u s i e u r s m o t s ; c e s t en p r o p o r t i o n n a n t ,  pour a i n s i d i r e ,  e l e m e n s d u mot  l ' o n veut  f  In this  a l a nature  de  s t a t e m e n t B e a u z e e was  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e and material.  He  limit  1 ' i d e e que  some o f w h i c h we  and  L e i b n i z , and  1 9  g i v e s r i s e t o t h e Danish combination  sound  they  from  consider.  flow freely.  any o b s t r u c t i o n  It i s this fact  word aa meaning r i v e r * .  To h i m  which  the  s t - seemed t o a p p e a r i n a l a r g e number o f w o r d s  whose r e f e r e n c e stare, stips, estime,  1  g a v e many e x a m p l e s o f  Vowels, Beauzee t e l l s u s , a r e formed w i t h o u t in the buccal c a v i t y ;  les  i n fact saying that mentalist  the a r b i t r a r y choice o f  w i l l now  de  exprimer." ^  s u b s t a n t i a t e d h i s v i e w s by d r a w i n g w i d e l y  t h e w o r k s o f de B r o s s e s it,  of  coucou,  Beauzee i n t r o d u c e s h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s sound as f o l l o w s :  content  d i s t i n c t forms  i m i t a t i v e forms as  g l o u g l o u , b e l e r e t c . were u n q u e s t i o n a b l y obvious  q u e s t i o n o f onomatop-  juste.  embraced t h e  idea of  stagnum, s t e l l a , and He  stability.  French  Thus,  stable, etat  e x p l a i n e d t h i s phenomenon b y  Latin (estat).  claiming that  - 40 the  sibilant  [s] i s " a r r e t ! s u b i t e m e n t p a r l a n o u v e l l e  t i o n , c e q u i p e i n t en e f f e t  la fixite\"  articula-  2 0  S i m i l a r l y , i n a p a s s a g e q u o t e d b y Beauze'e, we f i n d d e B r o s s e s a s k i n g why t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s c - o c c u r s words a p p l y i n g t o e x c a v a t i o n s scutum, s c u l p e r e , sculpture? the  sound  of the  so f r e q u e n t l y i n  and t h i n g s h o l l o w ,  s c u t a r i and t h e  as i n the  French s c a r i f i e r ,  scabreux,  B e a u z e e s u p p l i e s a n a n s w e r by s t a t i n g t h a t [k] o c c u r s  a t t h e back o f the t h r o a t , the  [s] i s made t o p e n e t r a t e  conveying the idea  articulation  As a f i n a l  example o f t h i s  m e n t a l i s t a t t i t u d e we may q u o t e o n e s h o r t s e n t e n c e :  de  ce q u i a g i t s u r  nubes, nuage, e t c . " century  reasoning  les lettres,  l eliquide:  since  d e e p l y i n t o the mouth, t h u s  of hollowness.  p l u s l i q u i d e de t o u t e s  Latin  "N, l a  est l a l e t t r e c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e  . . . n a v i s , navigum, . . •  The e x a m p l e i s t y p i c a l o f e i g h t e e n t h -  on t h i s question,  a n d Beauze'e sums u p :  T o u t e s c e s r e m a r q u e s , e t m i l l e a u t r e s que l ' o n p o u r r a i t f a i r e e t j u s t i f i e r p a r des e x e m p l e s s a n s n o m b r e , n o u s m o n t r e n t b i e n que l a n a t u r e a g i t p r i m i t i v e m e n t s u r l e l a n g a g e h u m a i n , i n d l p e n d a m m e n t de t o u t c e q u e l a r e f l e x i o n , l a c o n v e n t i o n ou l e c a p r i c e y p e u v e n t e n s u i t e a j o u t e r ; e t n o u s p o u v o n s e ' t a b l i r comme u n p r i n c i p e , q u ' i l y a d e c e r t a i n s mouvemens d e s o r g a n e s a p p r o p i e s a designer une c e r t a i n e c l a s s e de c h o s e s de meme e s p e c e o u d e meme q u a l i t e . 22 The temporaries and  e x a m p l e s g i v e n a b o v e show t h a t Beauze'e a n d h i s c o n t e n d e d i n t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l s t u d i e s t o e q u a t e sound  l e t t e r , a f a c t w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y s e t them on t h e wrong  Despite  the naSvete o f h i s approach i n e x p l a i n i n g the  o f sound and meaning and d e s p i t e  course.  relation  t h e f a c t t h a t i n h i s summary  - 41 Beauzee  i s p o s i t i n g a universal phonological  w h i c h i s based on i n s u f f i c i e n t and  inaccurate  element o f language data,  the  arguments  he u s e s a r e n o t w i t h o u t a t l e a s t one r e d e e m i n g f e a t u r e . the merit  that  c o n s i s t i n g of a We  l i e s i n h i s new  a p p r o a c h t o t h e word  This i s  as a  sign  dichotomy.  h a v e s e e n t h a t b o t h D u m a r s a i s and B e a u z e e  term " s i g n " as part  used t h e  of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e word, but t h e  d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e meaning o f t h e t e r m c h a r a c t e r i z e s the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r approach t o problems g e n e r a l l y .  language  Whereas f o r D u m a r s a i s r e a s o n a n d t h o u g h t  were the f o u n d a t i o n s o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e word the  l o g i c a l t o o l by which i t could  l a n g u a g e was  be a c h i e v e d , f o r B e a u z e e  more o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  phenomenon a n d t h e word  a p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t o f t h e phenomenon.  Reason  and l o g i c  play  i m p o r t a n t r S l e s i n h i s g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n as w e l l , but t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f l a n g u a g e r a t h e r t h a n i t s means.  His  a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i s o l a t e d word a s a s i g n composed o f two p s y c h o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s h a d , a s we  s h a l l see,  far-reaching  e f f e c t s on h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f words i n l a n g u a g e .  1 2  Beauzee, a r t i c l e  42 -  "Mot", X, 7 5 2  C h a r l e s d e B r o s s e s , i n h i s T r a i t e de l a f o r m a t i o n d e s l a n g u e s . ( P a r i s , 1 7 6 5 ) gave r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e a r t i c u l a t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n s o f sound p r o d u c t i o n . H. J . H u n t , " L o g i c a n d l i n g u i s t i c s , " M o d e r n L a n g u a g e R e v i e w , X X X I I I ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 2 3 3 , p o i n t s o u t t h a t D i d e r o t came r e m a r k a b l y close t o formulating a phonological theory very l i k e the modern t h e o r y o f economy b u t t h a t t h e g r e a t e n c y c l o p e d i s t e a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e n o t v e r y p r e c i s e m a t t e r o f e u p h o n y . I n t h e a r t i c l e " E n c y c l o p e d i e " , V, p . 6 3 9 Diderot wrote: L * e n c h a i n e m e n t d e s s o n s d'une l a n g u e n ' e s t p a s a u s s i a r b i t r a i r e qu'on s e 1 * i m a g i n e ; j * e n d i s a u t a n t d e l e u r s combinaisons. S ' i l y en a q u i ne p o u r r a i e n t s e succeder sans une grande f a t i g u e pour l ' o r g a n e , ou i l s ne se r e n c o n t r e n t p o i n t , o u i l s ne d u r e n t pas. I l s sont c h a s s i s de l a langue p a r l ' e u p h o n i e , c e t t e l o i p u i s s a n t e q u i a g i t c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t e t u n i v e r s e l l e m e n t sans egard p o u r l e t y m o l o g i e e t s e s d£fenseurs, e t q u i t e n d s a n s i n t e r m i s s i o n a amener d e s e t r e s q u i o n t l e s memes o r g a n e s , l e meme i d i o m e , l e s memes mouvemens p r e s c r i t s , a - p e u - p r e s a l a meme p r o n o n c i a t i o n . f  3 4 5  6 7  8 9  10 11  "Mot", X , 7 5 3 Ibid., 762 The t e r m l e x i c o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e i n t h i s c o n t e x t b e c a u s e , a s we s h a l l s e e , Beauze'e r e a l i z e d t h a t a l l s i g n s w e r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y words. Article  " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 e d i t e d by D i d e r o t  E t i e n n e B o n n o t d e C o n d i 1 1 a c , E s s a i s u r 1* o r i g i n e d e s c o n n a i s s a n c e s h u m a i n e s i n O e u v r e s p h i l o so p h i q u e s , e d . G e o r g e s Le R o y ( P a r i s , 1 9 4 7 ) , 1 9 " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 Ferdinand de Saussure, Course i n g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , e d s . C h a r l e s B a l l y a n d A l b e r t S e c h e h a y e , t r a n s . Wade B a s k i n (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 6 0 " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 loc. c i t .  -  12  13  43 -  F r o m t h i s p o i n t o n I s h a l l use r e p r l s e n t a n t t o mean 1* i d e e de l a chose q u i r e p r l s e n t e and r e p r e s e n t s t o mean l'Tde^e d"e Ta cEose r e p r e s e n t e e . ~  Beauzee/, a r t i c l e " L a n g u e " , I X , 253 "Mot", 2, 753 15  16 17 18  " L a n g u e " , I X , 257 " S i g n e " , XV, 1 8 8 P . K u e h n e r , T h e o r i e s on t h e o r i g i n and f o r m a t i o n o f language i n eighteenth-centuryTrance ( P h i l a d e l p h i a . 1 9 4 4 ) B e a u z e e , a r t i c l e "Onomatope'e", X I , 48"4  19 20  loc. c i t . "Onomatopee", X I , 485  21 22  loc. c i t . loc. c i t .  C h a p t e r 2^ THE WORD AS AN ELEMENT OF MEANING We h a v e s e e n t h a t  B e a u z e e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word  i n t r o d u c e d a new c o n c e p t o f t h e s i g n , a n d t h a t founded on s e n s a t i o n a l i s t r a t h e r  t h i s c o n c e p t was  than r a t i o n a l i s t philosophy.  The i s o l a t e d word e x i s t s a s a s i g n w h i c h , f o r Beauze'e, i s necessarily the  composed o f two p a r t s .  further  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f form and meaning.  seen t h a t , w i t h  the possible  onomatopoeia, Beauzee b e l i e v e d  completely a r b i t r a r y . sign  exceptions of i n t e r j e c t i o n s  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be  does not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n .  the  whole system o f signs  language.  i f meaning e x i s t s i n t h e s i g n ,  o f t h i s meaning depends on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h a t signs  planes.  sign obtains part  sign  w h i c h make u p t h e c o m p l e t e s y s t e m .  more, t h e meaning i n h e r e n t i n t h e s i g n distinct  with Further-  e x i s t s on two q u i t e  o f i t s meaning f r o m i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e signs  of t h e language.  Meaning i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o r e f e r e n c e however. sign has f u n c t i o n a l meaning, and again part  Each i n d i v i d u a l  o f t h i s meaning on  f u n c t i o n a l p l a n e depends on t h e f u n c t i o n a l  relationships  e x i s t i n g between t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n and a l l t h e o t h e r language.  part  Thus, t h e r e f e r e n t i a l meaning o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  r e f e r e n t i a l meaning o f a l l the o t h e r  of  But  I t i s b u t one e l e m e n t o f  which constitute  Beauzee r e a l i z e d t h a t  a l l t h e other  We h a v e  So much t h e n f o r t h e i s o l a t e d s i g n .  the  the  give r i s e t o  d i c h o t o m y o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d c o n t e n t a n d i n d o i n g so i n v i t e  consideration  and  T h e s e two p a r t s  Beauze'e t r e a t e d  signs  t h e q u e s t i o n o f m e a n i n g , o r what  - 45 he  called  the signification  points o f view.  to t a l e ,  1  from each o f t h e s e two  For him, t h e r e f o r e , t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e  consists o f the signification objective  (i.e. referential  meaning) and t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l l e  ( i . e . f u n c t i o n a l meaning).  This  chapter w i l l deal.with The  the former.  s i g n i f i c a t i o n objective o f the non-functioning  depends on s e m a n t i c c r i t e r i a .  sign  The s i g n i n t h e t o t a l i t y o f i t s  parts has r e f e r e n t i a l meaning.  But t h i s r e f e r e n t i a l  meaning  i t s e l f c o n s i s t s o f two e l e m e n t s w h i c h B e a u z e e c a l l e d  the idee  p r i n c i p a l e and t h e i d l e a c c e s s o i r e .  i n form a r e  capable o f having an idee  Words d i f f e r i n g  p r i n c i p a l e i n common.  B e a u z e e w r o t e t h a t amour a n d a m i t i e Vesprit  "presentent egalement a  l i d e e d e ce s e n t i m e n t de 1'ame q u i p o r t e f  se r e u n i r ; c ' e s t des  F o r example,  l ' i d e e p r i n c i p a l e de l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n  deux mots."  objective  However, s i n c e t h e words a r e o b v i o u s l y n o t  synonymous, t h e i r  d i f f e r e n c e s must be a c c o u n t e d f o r .  a c h i e v e d b y means o f t h e i d e e s  accessoires.  amour," B e a u z e e w r o t e , " a j o u t e  a cette idee  accessoire  l e s hommes a  This i s  " . . . M a i s l e nom principale, l'idee  de l i n c l i n a t i o n d*un s e x e p o u r l a u t r e ; e t l e nom 1  amitie' y ajoute  f  l'idee accessoire  d u n j u s t e fonderaent, sans f  3  distinction  de s e x e . "  Irrespective o f t h e i r formal  likeness  ( i . e . they a r e b o t h nouns) and i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y of the semantic content o f t h e i r words d i f f e r from each other accessoires.  idees  p r i n c i p a l e s , t h e two  because o f t h e i r  differing  ide'es  -  4 6  -  Remembering t h a t Beauze'e i s h e r e d e a l i n g w i t h two n o n f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n s i n t h e a m o r p h o u s mass w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e l e x i c o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e , we s e e t h a t he was p r o p o s i n g a s y s t e m o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h b e a r s comparison w i t h de S a u s s u r e ' s of paradigmatic is  r e l a t i o n s ( a t l e a s t as f a r a s s e m a n t i c  concerned).^  A s w i t h de S a u s s u r e , s i g n s  idea  content  f o r Beauze'e  enter  i n t o o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i t i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t between s i g n s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s i g n . substantiate this  We may e x t e n d Beauze'e's own e x a m p l e t o  comparison.  T h u s , amour a s a s i g n w i t h i n t h e  body o f t h e l e x i c o n i s i n n e g a t i v e  relationship with signs  chat,  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s expressed  haine,  beaut I .  The n e g a t i v e  t h r o u g h t h e i d l e p r i n c i p a l e o f each o f t h e s i g n s . h a n d , amour h a s no n e g a t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  t h e i r i d l e s p r i n c i p a l e s a r e concerned.  The  On t h e o t h e r  amitie as f a r as  A s we h a v e s e e n ,  d i f f e r e n c e s l i e i n t h e i r i d l e s accessoires; these c o n s t i t u t e not a negative  like  their  differences  opposition, but a r e l a t i v e  opposition.  f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m s u m m a r i z e s t h e m a t e r i a l we h a v e  p r e s e n t e d so f a r , a n d w i l l s i m p l i f y e x p l a n a t i o n t i e s which faced  of t h e d i f f i c u l -  Beauzee i n h i s use o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a t o d e f i n e  a l l t y p e s o f words. Signification objective (idle principale - i d l e accessoire) Criteria: s e m a n t i c and e s s e n t i a l l y d e n o t a t i o n a l meaning chat, haine, beauty idee J id^e princip. access.  amitie' idee I idee p r i n c i p . access.  ;  negatrre  opposition idle princip.  relative idle access.  opposition  - 47 Having posited these  r e l a t i o n s between t h e n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g  signs  o f t h e l e x i c o n , Beauzee could t h e n c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e t h a t , a s far  as the s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e o f two words i s concerned,  synonyms c a n n o t e x i s t .  Thus he w r o t e :  "Quand o n ne c o n s i d e r e  d a n s l e s m o t s d e l a meme e s p e c e , q u i d e s i g n e n t p r i n c i p a l e , que c e t t e s e u l e i d l e mais i l s cessent  u n e meme i d e e  p r i n c i p a l e , i l s sont  synonymes;  d e l*§tre q u a n d o n f a i t a t t e n t i o n a u x ide'es  a c c e s s o i r e s q u i l e s d i f f e r e n c i e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , homonyms w i l l differ i n their For  idees  principales.  such semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r  as p a r t o f t h e concept o f t h e word, they  should  b e t w e e n a n y two e l e m e n t s o f t h e l e x i c o n . this  systemic  fact.  and a mit i e , Obviously  however,  B e a u z e e was a w a r e o f  Furthermore, he recognized  o f r e l a t i o n s was i n many i n s t a n c e s d i f f i c u l t example, although  exist,  validity  that this  to justify.  system For  i t c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f amour  c o u l d i t account f o r t h a t o f aime a n d aimons?  i t could n o t , f o r t h e semantic content  o f the i d l e  p r i n c i p a l e and t h e i d l e a c c e s s o i r e o f each word i s i d e n t i c a l with that o f the other.  T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e o f form i s p u r e l y  f u n c t i o n a l , b u t t h e d i f f e r i n g forms i m p l y In order t o describe these  differing  meaning.  d i f f e r e n c e s i t would have been n e c e s -  sary f o r Beauzle t o p o s i t a meaningful u n i t smaller than the w o r d - - t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e morpheme. he i n f a c t these  came v e r y  near t o doing  We s h a l l s e e l a t e r  that  s o , but a s he d i d n o t use  i d e a s a s p a r t o f h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r d we w i l l n o t  - 48 i n t r o d u c e them a t t h i s The  following  illustrate  time.  examples, a l l o f w h i c h a r e Beauzee* s own,  6  f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h h a d t o be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h  the system.  The w o r d s a v a n t  exists as a single sign w i t h i n the  l e x i c o n , a n d y e t i t f u n c t i o n s a s an a d j e c t i v e a n d a n o u n . d i f f e r e n c e s o f f u n c t i o n a r e e a s i l y accounted f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , but they semantically.  f o r by a p p l y i n g  must a l s o be a c c o u n t e d f o r  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , f e u i s a s i n g l e  s i n g l e f u n c t i o n i n t h e phrases  sign with a  l e f e u b r u l e a n d l e f e u de  1 * i m a g i n a t i o n , but i t s meaning d i f f e r s .  As t e r m s o f a  systemic  o p p o s i t i o n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s must a l s o b e s u s c e p t i b l e t o description.  Such  I n order not t o mix t h e c r i t e r i a  introducing function—and with i t ,  syntagmatic  semantic  o f h i s system by realtions—Beauzee  was f o r c e d t o f i n d o t h e r means o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e body o f t h e n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g l e x i c o n .  He  d i d so b y a p p e a l i n g t o t h e v a l u e o f t h e w o r d . The  idea o f value i s merely  an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c  o p p o s i t i o n s w h i c h we h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n . meant s y s t e m i c and r e l a t i o n a l v a l u e .  Thus, v a l u e f o r Beauzee  H i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term  b e t r a y s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r a t i o n a l i s t gramnar o f D u m a r s a i s . As D u m a r s a i s ' c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d s u c c e s s o r , B e a u z e e c o u l d n o t escape t h e constant  a p p e a l t o l o g i c b o t h a s an i n s t r u m e n t o f  a n a l y s i s and a s a t o o l f o r d e f i n i t i o n . as f o l l o w s :  T h u s he d e f i n e d  value  " L a v a l e u r d e s mots c o n s i s t e d a n s l a t o t a l i t e d e s  i d l e s que 1'usage a a t t a c h l e s a c h a q u e m o t .  Les d i f f e r e n t e s  - 49 e s p e c e s d ' i d e e s que  l e s mots peuvent r a s s e m b l e r dans l e u r  s i g n i f i c a t i o n , donnent b i e n la valeur  des  -  mots t r o i s  a l a L e x i c o l o g i e de  distinguer  dans  sens d i f f e r e n s ; l e s e n s f u n d a m e n t a l ,  l e sens s p e c i f i q u e , et l e sens a c c i d e n t e l . The the  s e n s f o n d a m e n t a l r e f e r s t o t h e b a s i c manner i n w h i c h  word i s b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d .  understood context.  i n i t s o r i g i n a l meaning, but I n l e f e u de  sens f i g u r e r a t h e r contextual feu  can  therefore  T  As a  and  can  connotational  f u n c t i o n as two  e x a m p l e , l e s a v a n t and same w o r d  Each example r e p r e s e n t s  of the  not  purely  the  reference. d i f f e r e n t parts  of  speech  (as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s ) .  a d i f f e r e n t point  de vue  vue  de  1* e s p r i t ,  in their  T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s of meaning and  o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a t t i t u d e o f t h e  S u c h c r i t e r i a r e m i n d one  The  propre  l'homme s a v a n t r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t  s y n t a c t i c a l combinations.  same p o i n t de  word  i s e s t a b l i s h e d between  c o n s i s t of a d i f f e r e n c e between d e n o t a t i o n  t i o n , but  for  l e x i c o n the  these differences find t h e i r f i n a l expression  different do  s i n g l e item  a g a i n not  sens s p e c i f i q u e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s meaning.  meanings o f the  and  is  because of i t s  have a sens f o n d a m e n t a l which i s e i t h e r  word's d e n o t a t i o n a l  depends on t h e  brule, feu  1 i m a g i n a t i o n , feu i s understood i n a  a semantic o p p o s i t i o n  A word t h a t  not  t h a n i n a sens p r o p r e , but  reasons.  o r f i g u r e , and  For  Thus, i n l e feu  de  o f Dumarsais* use  of  l o g i c and  connotaspeaker. the  1'esprit.  sens a c c i d e n t e l i s perhaps b e s t e x p l a i n e d  i n Beauzee* s  -  own w o r d s :  Le  rt  50  -  s e n s a c c i d e n t e l , " he w r i t e s , " e s t c e l u i q u i  r e s u l t e de l a d i f f e r e n c e d e s r e l a t i o n s d e s mots a l o r d r e de T  l enonciation. f  C e s d i v e r s e s r e l a t i o n s s o n t communement i n d i q u e e s  par des formes d i f f e r e n t e s , t e l l e s q u ' i l p l a i t a r b i t r a i r e s d e s l a n g u e s de l e s f i x e r ;  aux usages  de-la l e s genres, l e s cas,  l e s nombres, l e s p e r s o n n e s , l e s terns, l e s modes." c a r e f u l not to accept t h i s as a statement dependent on f o r m .  We must be  0  of functional  criteria  Beauze'e was s t i l l a t t e m p t i n g t o e l i c i t  s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h a t t h e same t i m e h e was the foundations f o r h i s l a t e r f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n . the example g i v e n above, because  Thus, i n  aime d i f f e r s s e m a n t i c a l l y from  i t reflects a different  laying  aimons  p o i n t de v u e de 1* e s p r i t i n  r e f e r e n c e t o number. The  sens f o n d a m e n t a l , sens s p e c i f i q u e and sens  combine t o f o r m what Beauzee c a l l e d  the a c c e p t i o n  formeHe—that  i s , t h e s p e c i f i c semantic content which t h e speaker t o t h e word.  Such a c c e p t i o n f o r m e l l e e s t a b l i s h e s  accidentel  attributes  relationships  which a r e dependent on t h e s p e a k e r ' s c h o i c e o f v a r i o u s elements o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t , and t h e r e f o r e , a t t h e same t i m e , b r i d g e s t h e gap b e t w e e n s e m a n t i c a n d f u n c t i o n a l m e a n i n g . the following types o f oppositions: a ) Sens f o n d a m e n t a l ( p r o p r e / f i g u r l ) D e n o t a t i o n opposed t o c o n n o t a t i o n : feu denotation  <r~  >  connotation  I t results i n  - 51 b) Sens s p e c i f i q u e I d e n t i c a l forms which d i f f e r i n semantic content one p o i n t o f v i e w i s o p p o s e d t o a n o t h e r p o i n t o f  because view:  savant idle access.  idle princip. V i e w A. (adj.)  V i e w B, (noun)  c) S e n s a c c i d e n t e l D i f f e r i n g forms which v a r y i n semantic c o n t e n t because one p o i n t o f v i e w i s o p p o s e d t o a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w :  aime idle princip.  idle access.  idle princip.  idle access.  aimons By a d d i n g t h i s  View A •(Singularity)  f /View B —(Plurality)  c o n c e p t o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e word (what  may j u s t i f i a b l y c a l l t h e s e m a n t i c o v e r t o n e s ) t o t h e m a i n  we  semantic  oppositions within the s i g n i f i c a t i o n objective of the individual (and s t i l l succeeded  non-functioning) items o f the l e x i c o n ,  Beauzee  i n s e t t i n g up a system o f p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s  b a s e d p u r e l y on t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e s i g n .  A s a means  o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n t h e s y s t e m was t o some e x t e n t s u p e r fluous.  T h e g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s c o u l d be more e a s i l y  accounted  f o r b y a p p e a l i n g t o f u n c t i o n and s y n t a c t i c c o n t e x t t h a n t o such  - 52 -  imprecise  criteria  as the points  de vue de 1 ' e s p r i t *  Gn t h e  o t h e r hand, a s a f a c t o r i n d e f i n i n g t h e concept o f t h e word, t h e system r e p r e s e n t s the  a great  advance on Dumarsais' methods.  Despite  f a c t t h a t B e a u z e e u s e s t h e same s e m a n t i c c r i t e r i a a s d i d  Dumarsais, t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d a s o p p o s i t i o n a l terms used to  c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e word a s p a r t  of a linguistic  system.  The  c o m p l e t e n e s s o f t h e s y s t e m a l s o a s s u r e d B e a u z e e o f more t h a n one  means o f a p p r o a c h i n g g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n .  f a c t , r a r e l y employed t h e f u l l  That he, i n  panoply o f o p p o s i t i o n s  a th i s  d i s p o s a l t o a t t a i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n no way r e d u c e s t h e s y s t e m ' s inherent  worth.  We h a v e s e e n t h a t B e a u z e e u n d e r s t o o d t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e o f t h e s i g n t o c o n s i s t o f two p a r t s , namely t h e signification objective and  ( w h i c h we h a v e d i s c u s s e d  t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme H e  next).  At t h i s point  w o r d we may b r i e f l y The  i n this  chapter)  ( w h i c h w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n t h e  i n our study o f Beauzee's concept o f t h e  summarize h i s v i e w s a s f o l l o w s :  w o r d i s a s i g n ; i t c o n s i s t s o f two e l e m e n t s — t h e  representant and the r e p r e s e n t ! — w h i c h e s t a b l i s h t h e dichotomy of expression value;  and c o n t e n t .  e a c h s i g n a s an i t e m o f t h e l e x i c o n must s t a n d i n  certain r e l a t i o n s h i p s with The  The c o n t e n t o f t h e s i g n h a s s y s t e m i c  a l l the other items o f the l e x i c o n .  s i g n i f i c a t i o n objective states these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , using  semantic content  (idee p r i n c i p a l e , idee  of semantic overtones (denotation,  accessoire)  connotation,  plus  a  choice  part o f speech,  - 53 number, g e n d e r , mood, e t c . , ) a s t h e t e r m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Within the l i m i t s of t h i s  p a r t o f h i s o v e r a l l system Beauzee  examined t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e word's c o n t e n t  r a t h e r than i t s  form. Always bearing represents  i n mind t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e  b u t one h a l f o f t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t a l e o f t h e w o r d ,  we may, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m , s c h e m a t i z e t h e s y s t e m o f o p p o s i t i o n s which Beauzee succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g on p u r e l y semantic  criteria.  The s y s t e m o f o p p o s i t i o n s e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n s i g n s a s i n d i v i d u a l semantic items of t h e l e x i c o n signification objective savant aime amour t t t haine 4/ vi/ amitie" feu savant aimons  feu  a  b  c  idle principale  a b"  accessoire  amour  amour  d  e  haine  amitie  denotation - connotation adjective - noun singular - plural  a, b and c r e p r e s e n t d e  idle  (sens (sens (sens  propre/sens f i g u r e )  specifique)  accidentel)  t h e a c c e p t i o n forme l i e  negative oppositions of the idees p r i n c i p a l e s r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e id£es a c c e s s o i r e s  d and e r e p r e s e n t t h e b a s i c s e m a n t i c  oppositions  - 54 1  2 3  4  Beauzee, a r t i c l e  " S e n s " , XV, 16  Beauze'e, a r t i c l e  "Mot", X,  761  loc. c i t . de S a u s s u r e , p. I l l  5 6 7  B e a u z e e , o p . c i t . p. 761 Beauze'e, a r t i c l e  " S e n s " , XV, p p . 16 - 17  B e a u z e e , a r t i c l e " G r a m m a i r e " , V I I , 843 The w h o l e q u e s t i o n o f s e n s , a c c e p t i o n a n d s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d b y Beauze'e's u s e o f d i f f e r e n t t e r m s t o r e f e r t o one i d e a . F o r e x a m p l e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t he a t t i m e s u s e s the terms sens p r i n c i p a l , i d e e fondamentale and s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o ndame n t a l e t o r e f e r t o t h e s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d i d e a e m b o d i e d i n t h e term idee p r i n c i p a l e . The p a r t p l a y e d i n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e word b y t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f s e n s i s h e r e b a s e d on t h e a r t i c l e "Mot", f o r i t i s o n l y h e r e t h a t he makes u s e o f t h e c a t e g o r y o f s e n s a c c i d e n t e l . Beauz£e d e a l t i n d e t a i 1 w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of sens and a c c e p t i o n i n t h e a r t i c l e "Sens". However, t h e views expressed t h e r e i n a r e Dumarsais' r a t h e r t h a n Beauze'e's f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e a r t i c l e i s t a k e n from Dumarsais' T r a i t e des t r o p e s . Of the f o u r t y p e s o f a c c e p t i o n w h i c h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e B e a u z e e makes u s e o f b u t o n e . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t he c h o s e t o i g n o r e t h e other t h r e e because, f i r s t , t h e y i n t r o d u c e extremes o f l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a rtiich a r e o f m o r e u s e i n a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f language than i n i t s grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n , and, s e c o n d l y , b e c a u s e t h e y make u s e o f p h o n e t i c s u b s t a n c e w h i c h p l a y s b u t a m i n o r r 6 l e i n Beauze'e's c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r d . The f o u r t y p e s o f a c c e p t i o n t o be f o u n d i n t h e a r t i c l e " S e n s " a r e : a c c e p t i o n f o r m e l l e ( b a s e d on s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t ) , a c c e p t i o n m a t e r i e l T e (based on p h o n e t i c and s y l l a b i c c e n t e n t ) . a c c e p t i o n s p e c i f i q u e and a c c e p t i o n u n i v e r s e l l e ( b o t h b a s e d on l o g i c a l criteria). Beauze'e r e s t r i c t e d h i s u s e o f s e n s t o t h r e e t y p e s . I n t h i s a r t i c l e h o w e v e r , he l i s t s no f e w e r t h a n t w e n t y - t w o . That he c h o s e t o i g n o r e t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s e i s j u s t i f i a b l e o n the grounds t h a t t h e y added n o t h i n g t o a s t r i c t l y g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f language. D e s p i t e t h e i m p r e c i s e names g i v e n b y D u m a r s a i s t o t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s e n s , i t can e a s i l y be s e e n t h a t t h e y r a n g e o v e r a w i d e f i e l d of* a p p l i c a t i o n a n d i n c l u d e semantic content, f u n c t i o n a l content, l o g i c a l content, emotive p o w e r , s t y l i s t i c u s e , e t c . T h e y a r e named a s f o l l o w s : s e n s p r o p r e , f i g u r e , determine", i n d e t e r m i n e , a c t i f , p a s s i f , a b s o l u ,  - 55 -  8  r e l a t i f , c o l l e c t i f , d i s t r i b u t i f , compose", d i v i s e , l i t t e r a l , s p i r i t u e l , l i t t e r a l rigoureux, l i t t e Y a l figure, allegorique, moral, anagogique, adapt!, louche, equivoque. Ibid.,  p.  844  Chapter THE WORD AS  £  A FUNCTIONAL ELEMENT OF  IANGUAGE  The o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e semantic c o n t e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i g n s l e a d to t h e c o r p u s known t o B e a u z e e a s v o c a b u l a r y .  by  language  V o c a b u l a r y i s "meaning-  f u l " t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t the s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e  individual  s i g n r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t y w h i c h c a n be e x p r e s s e d o n l y i n terms of the whole  system.  The  s y s t e m i s t h e r e f o r e made up  o f p a r t s , and t h e p a r t s have meaning o n l y because t h e y a whole.  As we h a v e s e e n , h o w e v e r , m e a n i n g i n l a n g u a g e must go  b e y o n d t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e mere d i f f e r e n c e s o f content.  constitute  semantic  Words f u n c t i o n , and i t i s by f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t t h e y  f u l f i l t h e i r r & l e as  signs i n a system o f communication.  s o - c a l l e d p a r a d i g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e bound t o  The  exist  between the elements of a s y s t e m i c corpus r e f l e c t o n l y p a r t o f t h e i r r o l e ; t h e c o n c e p t of the word i s i n c o m p l e t e i f t h a t  concept  f a i l s t o i n c l u d e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o n t h e word's a b i l i t y t o e n t e r into  syntagmatic r e l a t i o n s . The  statement of t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s i n the form of r u l e s  g o v e r n i n g the s y n t a c t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f words r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t r a d i t i o n a l  grammar r i g h t f r o m t h e d a y s o f t h e  grammarians o f A l e x a n d r i a .  B e a u z e e was t h e r e f o r e  n o t h i n g new  "Un v o c a b u l a i r e e s t v e r i t a b l e m e n t l a  when he w r o t e :  s u i t e ou l ' a m a s d e s mots d o n t  stating  se s e r t u n p e u p l e , p o u r  l e s c h o s e s e t p o u r s e communiquer s e s p e h s l e s . que d e s m o t s p o u r c o n s t i t u e r u n e  signifier  M a i s ne  faut-il  langue; et pour l a s a v o i r ,  - 57 s u f f i t - i l d'en evoked  avoir appris  no n o v e l a n s w e r .  l e vo c a b u l a i r e ? "  His question  S e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s c o u l d b e o n l y one  the t o o l s of grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n . o f c o m b i n a t i o n must f o r m t h e o t h e r . i d e a s may  1  F o r m u l a t i o n o f the  rules  Any o r i g i n a l i t y w h i c h  the word.  To d e s c r i b e t h e f u n c t i o n o f a word was  d e s c r i b e a f a c t of language. c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r d was Dumarsais o f the word. doit tirer  merely to  to describe a l i n g u i s t i c  truth.  had h i m s e l f a p p e a l e d t o f u n c t i o n i n h i s study  "C'est du  s e r v i c e d e s mots d a n s l a p h r a s e  l e u r denomination."*  to determine  (that i s , t o r e s t r i c t ) the semantic content  h a v e t h e same i m p l i c a t i o n .  particular circumstances. sight to  " L e s m o t s , " he w r o t e , " s o n t comme  l e s i n s t r u m e n s d e l a m a n i f e s t a t i o n de n o s p e n s l e s :  s e r v i c e s ne  qu'on  But h i s use o f f u n c t i o n i s  f o l l o w i n g statement by Beauzee appears at f i r s t  ne p e u v e n t  of  To make f u n c t i o n a p a r t o f t h e  o f a p a r t i c u l a r word a p p e a r i n g under The  such  h a v e c o n t a i n e d i s t o be f o u n d r a t h e r i n B e a u z e e ' s  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the i d e a s t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the concept  strictly  of  des  instrumens  S t r e b i e n c d n n u s que p a r l e u r s s e r v i c e s ; e t l e s se d e v i n e n t p a s , on l e s £prouve; on l e s v o i t ,  les observe."  3  on  I n f a c t , Beauzee appears to have been s p e a k i n g  i n f a r more g e n e r a l t e r m s .  I f , a s we h a v e o b s e r v e d ,  function  c o u l d e s t a b l i s h t h e "meaning" o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n de, i t c o u l d a l s o be u s e d t o f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r d a s an abstract  l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon.  B e a u z e e was  And  t h i s i s the idea  which  p r o p o s i n g when he s p o k e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n  formelle  - 58 o f t h e word. B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e way t h i s s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r me l i e  i n which  Beauzee i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the word, i t  i s perhaps n e c e s s a r y t o examine c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of h i s a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n . s e e n o f h i s t h e o r i e s we may  fairly  From what we  c o n c l u d e t h a t Beauzee r e p r e -  s e n t e d a s w i n g away f r o m t h e r a t i o n a l i s t q u e s t i o n s , at l e a s t t o o f l o g i c and  have a l r e a d y  approach t o  some s m a l l d e g r e e .  language  D e s p i t e h i s wide  r e a s o n , h i s t h e o r i e s appear t o r e f l e c t the  e n c e o f C o n d i l l a c , whose s e n s a t i o n a l i s t d o c t r i n e  use  influ-  so p r o f o u n d l y  a f f e c t e d the grammatical w r i t i n g s of the l a t e r i d e o l o g u e s . R e a s o n and  l o g i c , however, were the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f the  g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e vfaose i n f l u e n c e was s t u d i e s throughout the c e n t u r y , and,  felt  in  "linguistic"  i n t h e c a s e of p e d a g o g i c a l  grammar, f o r a much l o n g e r p e r i o d . We  have seen t h e r e f o r e t h a t Beauzee d i d n o t s u d d e n l y  away w i t h s e m a n t i c o r l o g i c a l  c r i t e r i a a s a means o f  at a u s e f u l normative d e s c r i p t i o n of language. Dumarsais,  l a n g u a g e was  t h o u g h t i t s e l f was  arriving  For him, as f o r  the e x t e r i o r i z a t i o n of thought,  dependent on c e r t a i n e x i g e n c i e s o f  and  logic.  Thoughts w e r e made m a n i f e s t i n w o r d s , a n d w o r d s r e f l e c t e d u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s of the l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n .  Beauzee,  than Dumarsais,  logical  c o u l d a p p e a l t o an u n d e r l y i n g  do  t o e x p l a i n an e l l i p t i c a l f o r m o f e x p r e s s i o n , and  no  the less  structure  i n the preceding  c h a p t e r we saw t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h he p l a c e d on  semantic  - 59 criteria.  The  parts  of the  l o g i c a l functions; this f i c a t i o n of  part  f a c t n e c e s s a r i l y leads to the  a l l the  o t h e r grammarians of the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o p a r t s of  of grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n .  both the manifestation i s to say,  The  conditions  f o r m s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f idee t o t a l e i s the  h a v e s e e n , o f two  o b j e c t i v e w h i c h we  also the  syntactic facts).  a b s t r a c t i o n of the terms of the  p o i n t de  vue  That i s to  the  p a r t s , namely the  say,  believed that the  property  f u n c t i o n of  conventional  c o n n e c t i o n between the  arbitrary) f a l l  the  word.  It consists,  signification  m u s t now  consider.  s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme l i e  i n t o two  The  idee  or the  idee  principale i s "le  q u i c a r a c t e r i s e l ' e s p e c e du  i t i s the  the  the  signification  e x a m i n e d , and  idee accessoire.  designates the basic  It is  p a r t s which Beauzee a g a i n c a l l e d the  specifique  and  combine i n  crux of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n .  L i k e the s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , the  p r i n c i p a l e and  (that  abstracted  Beauzee's d e f i n i t i o n of the  have a l r e a d y  c o n s i s t s o f two  is  syntagmatic r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  f o r m e l i e whose f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we  itself  necessary  speech  which govern t h e i r a b i l i t y t o (the  Hence,  s i g n i f i c a t i o n forme l i e  of these f u n c t i o n i n g p a r t s of  syntagmatic arrangement  The  classi-  eighteenth  speech formed a  t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l f a c t s ) and  generalized  a s we  p r o p o s i t i o n have s p e c i f i c  the words t h a t f u l f i l t h o s e l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s .  f o r Beauze'e and century,  logical  mot."  4  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i n d i v i d u a l word.  s i g n s of  language (those  p h o n i c m a t e r i a l and  main f u n c t i o n i n g  the  Beauzee i n which  meaning i s  categories.  The  word  - 60 i s either declinable the  or i n d e c l i n a b l e . ^  a n a l y s i s o f t h o u g h t , and  depends on  the  -  the  form given  s p e c i f i c s y n t a x o f the  t h e b r o a d e s t and  most g e n e r a l  I t s f u n c t i o n depends to the  or not.  For  purposes of  illustration, Latin  t h i s i s t h e i r formal  amare h a v e a  ( s i g n a l l e d by  the  noun d e c l e n s i o n  n  on  That the  son  as  Beauzee s e t s  e t q u i ne  set  wrote,  peut nous r i e n  n  w h i c h he  facts.  h e r e so  c l e a r l y s t a t e s were  rather than paradigmatically  F i r s t , i n ad  amorem, ad  u n i t s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , a d v e r b s and i n negative opposition  conjunctions  As  functioning  therefore  stand  t o n o u n s , p r o n o u n s , a d j e c t i v e s and  groups form the  f i r s t and  major s p l i t  is  i s indeclinable  o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e c l i n a b i l i t y o f amorem.  T h e s e two  up  contraire. ^  oppositions  by two  of  this distinguishes i t s  1  seen to e x i s t s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y borne out  formelle.  property  " L i n d e c l i n a b i l i t e , " he  r  par  such i t  p a r a d i g m a t i c p l a n e so d o e s he  n e s t qu'une p r o p r i e t e n e g a t i v e , que  as  objective  formal  I n t h e same way  the  syntagmatic oppositions.  indiquer  but t h e  b e l o n g s o n l y t o amor and  a system of oppositions  of  s p e c i f i c q u a l i t y of  common s i g n i f i c a t i o n  f u n c t i o n f r o m t h a t o f amare.  declinable  examples.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and  common s t e m am-),  two  so many  i d l e principale of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a t i o n  Thus, amor and  up  word i s  Beauzee, l i k e  A l l L a t i n n o u n s , he s t a t e s , h a v e the  c o n s t i t u t e s the  Thus  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of words i n t o  h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , made us e o f  declension;  function  p a r t i c u l a r language.  main f u n c t i o n i n g g r o u p s d e p e n d s on w h e t h e r t h e  on  in  the  verbs.  - 61 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f u n c t i o n .  -  Obviously,  ables i s concerned i t i s d i f f i c u l t  as  f a r as  the  to keep s e m a n t i c m e a n i n g  f u n c t i o n a l meaning a p a r t ,  f o r as Beauzee s a i d , t h e i r  ability  1*immutabilite  i s "une  p r e u v e de  on y e n v i s a g e l ' i d l e o b j e c t i v e de however t h e  r e l a t i o n s are  accessoire of  Nor  but  there  claim that  i s no  semantic  accidentels"  sphere of acception  idees  However, t h e i d e e a c c e s s o i r e  (and h e r e we  formelle).  to reflect  Stated i n other  d i f f e r i n semantic content  are r e - e n t e r i n g  from love the  and  functional criteria  As we  have a l r e a d y  t o amorem.  On  are  the other  basically  sentence which  t h e i r semantic  p r o d u c e d by t h e s e  overtones. syntagmatic  p a r a l l e l to the semantic  observed, ad  not  the  (object); i t is their  r e s t of the  d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and o p p o s i t i o n s which are  the  Thus , amor d i f f e r s f r o m amonem  t e r m s , l o v e " ( s u b j e c t ) can  syntagmatic combination with  of  "divers  i n i t s idee a c c e s s o i r e which s p e c i f i e s i t s f u n c t i o n i n  The  in  s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r m e l l e f o r t h e y both have  t h e L a t i n noun i s e x p r e s s e d i n i t s a b i l i t y  sentence.  the  opposition  i s there o p p o s i t i o n between the  d e c l i n a b i l i t y of t h e noun.  p o i n t s de v u e  the  the  amorem must e x i s t a s i n d e p e n d e n t s i g n s  p r i n c i p a l e s of t h e i r the  idee  It is  7  syntagmatic.  corpus of vocabulary,  between them.  1*aspect sous l e q u e l  forme l i e t h a t f u l l y b e a r s o u t  B o t h amor and the  de  and  indeclin-  leur signification."*  second f a c t , namely the  signification  indeclin-  stands i n negative  oppositions.  opposition  h a n d , t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f amor t o amorem  - 62 i s r e l a t i v e rather than negative.  The f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s may  t h e r e f o r e be s t a t e d as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g diagram:  ad  amorem idee p r i n . declinabilite  idle prin. indeclinabilitl  This opposition also exists semantically i n the signification objective  amor  amorem  idee access. subject  idee access, object  T h i s o p p o s i t i o n does not e x i s t s e m a n t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , b u t i t does e x i s t s e m a n t i c a l l y i n the sens a c c i a e n t e l o f t h e acception f o r m e l l e  The  i d l e to t a l e forms t h e c o r e o f Beauzee* s d e f i n i t i o n o f  t h e word, a n d i t s p a r t s m a i n t a i n content  already  seen t o e x i s t  t h e dichotomy o f e x p r e s s i o n and  i n the Encyclopedic* s d e f i n i t i o n  of the sign as a two-sided e n t i t y .  I f , when d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s o f s i g n s , B e a u z e e saw t h e r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the  content  expression  o f t h e s i g n a s e x i s t i n g i n s u b s t a n c e , h e saw t h e o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s as e x i s t i n g i n form.  c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s added up t o h i s concept o f t h e word.  (See d i a g r a m on f o l l o w i n g page)  The  - 63 -  Word  (Signe  conventionnel)  2 Signification (idee t o t a l e )  Signification objective (content)  Acception formelie  idle principale Semantic content i.e.  i d e e pr: . n e i p a l e i n t o p a r t s o f speech on f o r m a l c r i t e r i a : morphology  amour  idee accessoire Semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s i.e.  Signifi cation formelie (expression)  idee a c c e s s o i r e Function within the s e n t e n c e b a s e d on formal c r i t e r i a : syntax  amour/amitie  The a b o v e l e a d t h r o u g h n e g a t i v e and r e l a t i v e oppositions of a paradigmatic nature e x i s t i n g i n substance t o l e x i s  The a b o v e l e a d t h r o u g h n e g a t i v e and r e l a t i v e oppositions of a syntagmatic nature e x i s t i n g i n form t o the f u n c t i o n i n g word  1  The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n " , l i d e e de c e q u i r e p r e s e n t e " a n d " l ' i d e e de c e q u i e s t r e p r e s e n t e " i s a r b i t r a r y !  2  A c c e p t i o n f o r m e l i e b r i d g e s c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n and r e p r e s e n t s t h e c h o i c e s made f r o m a l l t h e p o s s i b l e s e m a n t i c a n d f u n c t i o n a l combinations w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n  - 64  -  Between the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a c o n c e p t o f t h e a b s t r a c t word and t h e attempt t o d e s c r i b e a s p e c i f i c , f u n c t i o n i n g word t h e r e may  exist great differences.  complementary  sets of c r i t e r i a  The  e x i s t e n c e o f two  distinct  but  i n t h e c o n c e p t means t h a t i n t h e  a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f a l a n g u a g e , one given preference over the other.  T h i s was  Beauzee's grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n .  s e t may  be  certainly true  of  I f h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e word  f a i l e d t o provide him w i t h a p o l y s y s t e m i c approach t o the a n a l y s i s of language  ( s i n c e he h a d no p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y ) i t  d i d a t l e a s t p r e s e n t him w i t h a two-edged t o o l f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a c t s o f language.  H i s p a r a d i g m a t i c and  s y n t a g m a t i c r e l a t i o n s were based upon t h e complementary  elements  o f s e m a n t i c a n d f u n c t i o n a l m e a n i n g , b u t i n p r a c t i c e Beauze'e c h o s e t o b a s e h i s d e s c r i p t i o n on s e m a n t i c and rather than f u n c t i o n a l T h a t he  logical  criteria  criteria.  s h o u l d h a v e done s o p r o v e s no  surprise.  We  have  a l r e a d y seen t h a t the r a t i o n a l i s t  approach t o grammatical des-  c r i p t i o n was  L o g i c and r e a s o n were i n h e r e n t  almost t r a d i t i o n a l .  i n the philosophy of the century. must remember t h a t  In addition to t h i s  i t was t h e w r i t t e n w o r d w h i c h f o r m e d  fact,  one  the basis  o f l i n g u i s t i c s t u d y , and t h a t t h e w r i t t e n word i s more s u s c e p t i b l e t o a n a l y s i s i n t o l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a n a r e t h e more e l l i p t i c a l forms o f t h e spoken  word.  o f u n d e r t a k i n g g r a m m a t i c a l s t u d y was  Furthermore, the  purpose  s p e c i f i c a l l y to provide  - 65 a t o o l t o t e a c h t h e p r o c e s s e s o f c o r r e c t , and t h e r e f o r e thought.  logical,  When f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a w e r e a p p l i e d , i t was t o t h e  w r i t t e n forms o f t h e language.  T h a t t h i s was s o i s r e a d i l y  a p p a r e n t i n Beauze'e* s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m o f g r o u p s o f w r i t t e n words f u l f i l l i n g a s i n g l e  function.  An e x a m p l e o f t h i s t e n d e n c y  i s seen i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f  compound c o n j u n c t i o n s . B e a u z e e c r i t i c i z e d t h o s e g r a m m a r i a n s who d e a l t w i t h such groups a s though wrote:  t h e y were s i n g l e v r w o r d s , and  **. . . o n n e d o i t p a s r e g a r d e r comme une c o n j o n c t i o n ,  mime e n y a j o u t a n t l ' e p i t h e t e d e composee, u n e p h r a s e q u i r e n ferme  plusieurs mots."  9  I n s u c h e x p r e s s i o n s a s \ c o n d i t i o n que  a n d p a r c o n s e q u e n t . he c l a i m e d t h a t i t was t h e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h w o r d t h a t must b e c o n s i d e r e d , " . . . e t c h a c u n d e c e u x q u i e n t r e n t dans l'une de c e s p h r a s e s que l ' o n t r a i t e d o i t e t r e r a p p o r t e a sa c l a s s e . " ^ 1  attacked Girard f o r having w r i t t e n  de c o n j o n c t i o n s ,  I n t h e same a r t i c l e he s u c h e x p r e s s i o n s a s de p l u s  and d * a i l l e u r s as one w o r d , " . . . c e q u i e s t c o n t r a i r e a 1*usage de n o t r e o r t h o g r a p h e , e t consequemment a u x v e r i t a b l e s idees des choses."  1 1  Beauzee t h e r e f o r e tended t o r e s t r i c t h i s  a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r m a l c r i t e r i a t o t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e w r i t t e n forms• F u r t h e r p r o o f of? t h i s a r t i c l e on t h e preposition.  a t t i t u d e i s t o be found i n h i s Most grammarians o f t h e t i m e l o o k e d  u p o n \ 1* e g a r d d e a n d v i s A - v i s d e a s compound p r e p o s i t i o n s . B u t , Beauzee o b j e c t e d :  "C'est confondre l e s i d ^ e s l e s p l u s  -  66  -  c l a i r e s e t l e s p l u s f o n d a m e n t a l e s , que p o u r d e s s o r t e s de m o t s ; e t s i 1*on  de p r e n d r e d e s  phrases  ne v e u t a v a n c e r que  des  p r i n c i p e s q u i s e p u i s s e n t j u s t i f i e r , on ne d o i t r e c o n n a X t r e des p r e p o s i t i o n s s i m p l e s . "  que  H i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s made t h e i r  d e c i s i o n on common o r t h o g r a p h i c a l p r a c t i c e and t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e by o t h e r grammarians,  b u t B e a u z e e was  here  willing  t o o v e r i d e usage: C ' e s t que 1'usage n'a v e r i t a b l e m e n t a u t o r i t e que s u r l e l a n g a g e n a t i o n a l , e t que c ' e s t a l a r a i s o n e c l a i r e ' e de d i r i g e r l e langage d i d a c t i q u e : des que l ' o n remarque qu'un terme t e c h n i q u e p r e s e n t e une i d e e f a u s s e ou o b s c u r e , on p e u t e t on d o i t 1 * a b a n d o n n e r e t en s u b s t i t u e r un a u t r e p l u s c o n v e n a b l e . D ' a i l l e u r s i l n ' e s t p a s i c i q u e s t i o n de nommer t o u t s i m p l e m e n t , m a i s de d e c i d e r l a n a t u r e d'un mot; ce q u i e s t a f f a i r e non d u s a g e , m a i s de r a i s o n n e m e n t . 13 f  We  s e e t h a t B e a u z e e ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r d was  s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n i t s grasp of the I t i s a c o n c e p t , moreover, outlook.  which  a s w e l l a s s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t , and sign leads to the p o s s i b i l i t y  complexities o f the seems t o r e f l e c t  Beauzee r e c o g n i z e s t h a t  subject.  a modern  " m e a n i n g " must i n c l u d e that  function  the two-sidedness of the  of our r e c o g n i z i n g t h e  o f c e r t a i n v a l e n c e s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a system e x a m p l e s we h a v e a l r e a d y c i t e d ,  quite  presence  of signs.  The  show, h o w e v e r , t h a t when i t  came t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l f a c t s , B e a u z e e was  not  as  r i g o r o u s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s c r i t e r i a a s he h a d b e e n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g them.  He a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o be t o o e a s i l y  e n c e d by s u c h e x t e r n a l a n d  i r r e v e l a n t f a c t o r s as orthography,  and he c h o s e t o a p p l y o n l y some o f h i s c r i t e r i a of the  rest.  influ-  t o the  exclusion  - 67 The treatment  -  effect of this l i m i t a t i o n of c r i t e r i a o f a 1*egard de.  i s seen i n h i s  T r e a t i n g these as f o u r  distinct  w o r d s ( b e c a u s e o f t h e way  i n which they are w r i t t e n ) ,  may  following reasoning.  w e l l have a p p l i e d the  As  Beauzee  non-function-  i n g e l e m e n t s o f l a n g u a g e e a c h o f t h e s e w o r d s s t a n d s , as a i n c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s with a l l the other t h r e e . p r e p o s i t i o n s a and p r e p o s i t i o n s and  de s t a n d  Thus,  sign,  the  i n r e l a t i v e opposition to a l l other  t o each o t h e r .  They a r e  i n negative opposition  t o a l l o t h e r elements o f t h e l e x i c o n  ( i n c l u d i n g 1' and  both  They a r e i n f a c t s e m a n t i c a l l y  s e m a n t i c a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y .  devoid o f r e f e r e n c e , but  egard)  represent l o g i c a l elements of  the  language because o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n o f r e l a t i n g an a n t e c e d e n t a c o n s e q u e n t whose s e m a n t i c fashion, the a r t i c l e 1*esprit  1*  content they determine.  In  r e f l e c t s a c e r t a i n p o i n t de vue  ( s i n g u l a r i t y ) about egard  and  at the  same t i m e  and  similar de logically  r e s t r i c t s i t s semantic  c o n t e n t t o s o m e t h i n g s p e c i f i c and  dual.  enters i n t o negative opposition with a l l  As a s i g n e g a r d  o t h e r w o r d s , a s f a r as s e m a n t i c  content  i s concerned,  indivi-  and  into  n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n of a l l o t h e r p a r t s o f  speech.  Beauzee's c o n c l u s i o n s are t h e r e f o r e s y s t e m i c a l l y c o r r e c t when he  claims t h a t egard  c e d e n t o f de  i s t h e consequent o f \  for this i s the  relationships—both  semantic  and  the  ante-  l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n of a l l the and  functional.  The  above  syntagmatic  f a c t s a r e more e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d b y  appealing to l o g i c a l r a t h e r  than to f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  However, h i s i n s i s t e n c e  on  - 68 r e g a r d i n g j | 1* e g a r d de a s f o u r s i g n s l e d t o a f i n a l tency.  inconsis-  He f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c a n d f u n c t i o n a l  m e a n i n g o f a l I g a r d de i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f t h e s e m a n t i c f  and f u n c t i o n a l meaning o f i t s p a r t s . i t s e l f a complete,  T h u s , ]a 1 * e g a r d de i s  f u n c t i o n i n g s i g n which can e n t e r i n t o a  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n (both p a r a d i g m a t i c and syntagmatic) w i t h , f o r example, t h e phrase a c e t egard.  I f  Beauzee had a c c e p t e d t h e o p i n i o n o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and had t r e a t e d \ Vegard  d e a s a compound p r e p o s i t i o n , a n d i f he h a d  g i v e n f u n c t i o n a s g r e a t a r o l e a s l o g i c , he w o u l d  have a r r i v e d  a t a p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e views t h a t he defended i n h i s concept o f t h e word.  I n s o d o i n g , he w o u l d  have a c h i e v e d a  d e s c r i p t i v e grammar b a s e d o n l i n g u i s t i c f a c t s r a t h e r t h a n a p r e s c r i p t i v e grammar b a s e d o n l o g i c a l  facts.  - 69 1 2  Beauzee, a r t i c l e Dumarsais,  "Langue", I X ,  article  249  " C o n j o n c t i o n " , I I I , 872  3 Beauzee, a r t i c l e  "Mot", X,  753  4 5 6 7 8  9 10 11 12 13  I b i d . , p.  761  I b i d . , p.  753  loc. c i t . I b i d . , p.  757  I b i d . , p.  761  I b i d . , p.  759  loc. c i t . loc. c i t . Beauze'e, a r t i c l e  "Preposition", XIII,  302  loc. c i t . One can n o t h e l p b u t f e e l t h a t i t i s B e a u z e e t h e e d u c a t o r who i s s p e a k i n g h e r e r a t h e r t h a n B e a u z e e t h e g r a m m a r i a n . H i s t e n y e a r s as a t e a c h e r a t t h e E c o l e R o y a l e M i l l t a i r e must h a v e i n f l u e n c e d h i s a p p r o a c h t o grammar. H e r e we s e e h i s i n t e r e s t i n grammar a s a t o o l f o r i n s t r u c t i n g i n t h e a r t de b i e n p e n s e r . The d i c t a t e s o f u s a g e a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s a s i m p o r t a n t t o B e a u z e e as t h e y were t o h i s c o n t e m p o r aries. I n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m he was not w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t the a u t h o r i t y o f the system o f w r i t i n g , b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n shows h i s r e a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e question of usage: T o u t e s t u s a g e dans l e s l a n g u e s ; l e m a t e r i e l e t l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n des m o t s , l ' a n a l o g i e e t l ' a n a m o l i e d e s t e r m i n a i s o n s , l a s e r v i t u d e ou l a l i b e r t e ' d e s c o n s t r u c t i o n s , l e p u r i s m e ou l e b a r b a r i s m e d e s e n s e m b l e s . C ' e s t une v e r i t e s e n t i e g a r t o u s c e u x ^ q u i o n t par16 de 1*usage; m a i s une v e " r i t e m a l p r e s e n t e e , quand on a d i t que 1*usage e t a i t l e t y r a n des l a n g u e s . L ' i d e e de t y r a n n i e e m p o r t e c h e z n o u s c e l l e d'une u s u r p a t i o n i n j u s t e e t d'un g o u v e r n e m e n t d e r a i s o n n a b l e ; e t c e p e n d a n t r i e n de p l u s j u s t e que l e m p i r e de 1'usage s u r q u e l q u e i d i o m e que ce s o i t , p u i s q u e l u i s e u l peut donner a l a communication f  - 70 d e s p e n s e e s , q u i e s t 1 o b j e t de l a p a r o l e , 1 * u n i v e r s a l i t e n e c e s s a i r e ; r i e n de p l u s r a i s o n n a b l e que d ' o b e i r a s e s d e c i s i o n s , p u i s q u e s a n s c e l a on ne s e r a i t p a s e n t e n d u , ce q u i e s t l e p l u s c o n t r a i r e a l a d e s t i n a t i o n de l a parole. ( A r t i c l e " L a n g u e " , I X , p. 249) I t i s p e r h a p s a p i t y t h a t he d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e i d e a s w h i c h he h e r e a d v o c a t e s . Had he done s o , he w o u l d h a v e b a s e d h i s l a n g u a g e a n a l y s i s p u r e l y on t h e s p o k e n w o r d . !  Chapter  6  LES I D E E S P A R T I E L I E S We elements  have examined i n t h e l a s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s t h e v a r i o u s o f Beauzee's d e f i n i t i o n  definition  in itself  of t h e word.  i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e ; n o t u n t i l we  e x a m i n e d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s e e l e m e n t s appreciate the f u l l i d e a s and  Of c o u r s e , t h e have  i s i t possible to  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s o v e r a l l concept.  attitudes implicit i n his definition  The  are weighed  and  d i s c u s s e d by B e a u z e e h i m s e l f i n a l a r g e number o f a r t i c l e s ,  and  we h a v e a t t e m p t e d  In  t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e s e i d e a s and  the course of t h i s  attitudes.  e x a m i n a t i o n we h a v e f o u n d one a r t i c l e w h i c h  deserves s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .  T h i s i s t h e a r t i c l e "Mot", i n w h i c h  Beauzee defends h i s t o t a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the word and a t t a c k s the r e l a t e d d e f i n i t i o n  of Port-Royal.  I n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c h i e v i n g t h e s e two introduces t h r e e i d e a s which  are perhaps  purposes,  Beauzee  only peripheral to  our  d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s concept o f the word, but which, n e v e r t h e l e s s , shed l i g h t on h i s a t t i t u d e t o language  and demonstrate  depth of h i s understanding o f l i n g u i s t i c problems.  The  the first  o f t h e s e i d e a s e x p r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between language e p i s t e m o l o g y , and we  s h a l l see t h a t i t i s an  idea which  and  links  Beauzee t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s r a t h e r t h a n t o t h a t of h i s s u c c e s s o r s . to  language  On  t h e o t h e r h a n d , Beauze'e's a t t i t u d e  a s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  was  f a r more modern t h a n  t h a t o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , and i t i s t h i s a t t i t u d e w h i c h t u t e s t h e second  idea.  The  t h i r d i d e a i s one  that  consti-  suggests  - 72 t h a t , a l t h o u g h he was  c o n t e n t t o u s e t h e word i t s e l f a s t h e  s m a l l e s t u n i t i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f l a n g u a g e , he was n e v e r t h e l e s s aware o f t h e h e u r i s t i c v a l u e o f p o s i t i n g a y e t s m a l l e r n a m e l y t h e morpheme. a p p a r e n t a s we  unit,  T h e s e t h r e e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l become  f o l l o w the course of Beauzee*s  defence o f h i s  definition. The  d e f i n i t i v e f o r m o f h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e word s t a t e s ,  we h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n , t h a t  " l e mot  e s t u n e t o t a l i t e de  devenue p a r usage, p o u r ceux q u i 1*entendent, idee t o t a l e . "  1  l e s i g n e d'une  r a t h e r than a c o m b i n a t i o n o f  t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t t h e t o t a l i t y may  f o r m o f one  sound.  Furthermore, the word son i s i t s e l f a  t h e sons a r t i c u l e s  (vowels).  sounds  consist of a minimal  b a s e d on t h e a b s t r a c t i o n o f i t s d i c h o t o m o u s t e r m s . are  sons,  Beauzee m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l o f t h e  word i s a t o t a l i t y o f sounds for  as  ( c o n s o n a n t s ) and t h e sons  A l t h o u g h t h i s dichotomy i s of l a t e n t  These  concept terms  inarticules phonological  i n t e r e s t , Beauzee d i s m i s s e s i t f r o m h i s concept o f t h e word, saying:  " s o n s i m p l e , s o n a r t i c u l e ' , s o n a i g u , s o n g r a v e , son  b r e f , son a l o n g ! , t o u t y e s t a d m i s s i b l e . " In  2  o r d e r f o r t h e s i g n t o become an a c t i v e e l e m e n t  of  l a n g u a g e , i t must be a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e s y s t e m o f l a n g u a g e .  It  i s o n l y b y t h e common a s s e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e s p e e c h community t h a t t h e s i g n i s a l l o t t e d s e m a n t i c and  functional.  i t s specific  meaning—both  S i n c e t h e r e i s , i n most i n s t a n c e s ,  n a t u r a l b o n d b e t w e e n t h e p h o n i c m a t e r i a l and  no  the semantic content,  - 73  -  t h e word i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t a s w e l l a s a s y s t e m i c f a c t .  In  t h i s way B e a u z e e j u s t i f i e s and s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s u s e o f t h e p h r a s e "devenu par u s a g e " i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n . L i k e D u m a r s a i s , B e a u z e e saw w o r d s a s a means o f a n a l y z i n g thought.  He s t r e s s e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t w o r d s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  means o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h o u g h t .  a  For Dumarsais t h e e x t e r i o r i z a -  t i o n of a l o g i c a l proposition i n the form o f a grammatical p r o p o s i t i o n t e n d e d t o be a n end i n i t s e l f .  I n o t h e r words,  s p e e c h t e n d e d t o be t h e end o f l a n g u a g e — a n d a n e n d i n no d e p e n d e n t on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c i r c u i t  way  'speaker-hearer'.  F o r Beauzee on t h e o t h e r hand, speech i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e w o r d i s t o c o m m u n i c a t e , and c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e p e n d s o n a l i s t e n e r , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y o n a l i s t e n e r who  understands.  T h u s B e a u z e e c a n make t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n :  " . . . ce q u i  s e p a s s e d a n s 1 ' e s p r i t d'un homme, n'a a u c u n b e s o i n  d'etre  r e p r e s e n t e p a r des s i g n e s e x t l r i e u r s " [ a n d w i t h t h i s Dumarsais w o u l d h a v e a g r e e d ] , • q u ' a u t a n t q u ' o n v e u t l e communiquer a u d e h o r s . " Thus, as f a r as t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l v a l u e o f t h e word i s concerned B e a u z e e was i n c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t w i t h D u m a r s a i s .  ( I t might  a p p e a r t h a t Beauze'e was p o s i t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s i g n e s i n t e V i e u r s a s o p p o s e d t o s i g n e s e x t e r i e u r s , b u t i t d o e s n o t seem t h a t he h a d a d v a n c e d so f a r i n s e n s a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y  that  he w o u l d have c l a i m e d t h a t s i g n s o f any s o r t were e s s e n t i a l t o thought.)  However, t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n "pour eeux q u i l ' e n t e n d e n t "  i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n , d i s t i n c t l y makes t h e word a means o f  3  74  -  communication r a t h e r than a simple decomposition o f We  h a v e a l r e a d y e x a m i n e d i n d e t a i l what B e a u z e e meant t h e t e r m h a r d l y needs f u r t h e r  I n h i s defence of i t s use, some i m p o r t a n c e .  a t o t a l i t y made up and  h o w e v e r , Beauze'e i n t r o d u c e d As we  functional oppositions.  I t i s the idea o f t h i s  concept o f the word as an and  unshakeable c o n t e n t i o n ,  Beauzee c o u l d w r i t e :  que  a r t i c u l a t i o n , ne  s o u v e n t une  m a i s l e s o b j e t s de partielles.  . .  communication.  independent  despite  "on  ne  qui n ' a i t sa s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o n t que  T h i s s t a t e m e n t comes v e r y In doing  something t h a t i s i m p l i c i t  simple a ni  propre: des  idees  so  i t states  i n a l l our d i s c u s s i o n  idee p r i n c i p a l e or idee accessoire an  pas  near t o d e f i n i n g  functional oppositions:  f u n c t i o n a l ) i s , by i t s e l f ,  this  peut  T  c e t t e s i g n i f i c a t i o n ne  t h e v a r i o u s s e m a n t i c and  totality  d'une i d e e , p u i s q u i l n*y  t h e modern c o n c e p t o f t h e morpheme. explicitly  Now,  semantic  s e u l e s y l l a b e , ou meme une  soit l e signe  inflexion n i terminaison  another  have seen, the i d l e t o t a l e i s  unit of both vocabulary  disconvenir  (be i t s e m a n t i c  idee p a r t i e l l e , "  or  . . . et l e 1  changement r e e l p o u r l a t o t a l i t e . ^ w  Beauzee p o i n t s out  s o , d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f t h e same w o r d c o u l d  i d e n t i c a l i n meaning.  of  namely, t h a t  m o i n d r e changement q u i a r r i v e d a n s l ' u n e ou d a n s l a u t r e e s t  were t h i s not  by  justification.  of a s e l e c t i o n of various possible  t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the  any  and  thought.  an i d l e t o t a l e and  idea of  t o o l f o r the analysis  that be  un  - 75 T h i s argument i s g i v e n  prominence i n Beauzee*s c r i t i c i s m  o f P o r t - R o y a l ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e word. had  stated that  words were:  d o n t l e s hommes o n t f a i t  The Grammaire  raisonnle  "des sons d i s t i n c t s e t a r t i c u l e s  des signes  pour s i g n i f i e r  Apart from c r i t i c i z i n g the obvious tautology,  leurs  pensles."  Beauze'e w r o t e :  M a i s i l manque b e a u c o u p a l e x a c t i t u d e de c e t t e d e f i n i t i o n . Chaque s y l l a b e e s t u n s o n d i s t i n c t e t s o u v e n t a r t i c u l e , q u i q u e l q u e f o i s s i g n i f i e q u e l q u e chose de nos pensees: dans amaveramus, l a s y l l a b e am e s t l a s i g n e de 1 ' a t t r i b u t s o u s l e q u e l e x i s t e l e s u j e t ; a v i n d i q u e que l e terns e s t p r e t e r i t ; e r marque q u e c ' e s t un p r T t e r i t d e f i n i ; am f i n a l d e s i g n e q u ' i l e s t a n t e r i e u r ; u s marque q u ' i l e s t de l a p r e m i e r e p e r s o n n e du p l u r i e l ; y a - t - i l c i n q m o t s d a n s amaveramus? 6 1  A g a i n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e morpheme i s a l l b u t g r a s p e d , a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r example he chose c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t Beauzee aware o f t h e p r o b l e m o f d e l i m i t i n g t h e p r e c i s e meaning.  T h u s , he r e c o g n i z e d  residence  t h a t t h e i n i t i a l am-  I n t h e same way t h a t  of  differs  ( b e c a u s e o f i t s s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t ) f r o m t h e f i n a l am meaning i s f u n c t i o n a l ) .  was  i tis  (whose impossible  t o deny t h a t a r o o t - w o r d h a s f u n c t i o n a l m e a n i n g a s w e l l a s s e m a n t i c m e a n i n g , so B e a u z e e h e r e r e c o g n i z e s t i o n may  contain  that the inflec-  s e m a n t i c meaning a s w e l l as f u n c t i o n a l meaning.  To a d m i t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s t o a d m i t t h a t a r o o t t i o n may a fully entering We  ( l i k e t h e word i t s e l f ) functioning  o r an  inflec-  c o n s t i t u t e an idee t o t a l e , i . e .  sign with a l l the inherent  i n t o o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (again  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of l i k e the word).  s e e t h a t Beauze'e was t h u s a l s o v e r y c l o s e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g  l e x i s as opposed t o v o c a b u l a r y .  B u t he r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a  of  - 76 e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s u n i t as an element it the  of language  simply  because  e x i s t e d a s an i d l e p a r t i e l i e a n d i t s f r a g m e n t a r y m e a n i n g very a n t i t h e s i s o f the i d e e t o t a l e of t h e word. The  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , namely t h e  epistemological  importance o f the word, the exact l o c a t i o n o f  semantic c o n t e n t and f u n c t i o n a l meaning i n t h e word, and, l a n g u a g e a s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , conclusion the  was  produced perhaps o n l y  of importance t o Beauzle's t h e o r i e s .  c l a i m t h a t was  finally, one  I t supported  so b a s i c t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r d ,  n a m e l y , t h a t t h e l i m i t s t o t h e w o r d a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i d e e t o t a l e o f t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t and t h e f u n c t i o n a l meaning.  His  f a i l u r e t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r t h e i d e a t h a t l a n g u a g e d e p e n d s on s p e e c h - c i r c u i t , an i d e a w h i c h might have l e d h i m t o p o s i t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n , i n no way the  invalidates  importance o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n as a s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t i o n of  h i s i n s i g h t i n t o the problems  of  language.  a  - 77 1  2  Beauze'e, a r t i c l e loc.  cit.  loc.  cit.  loc.  cit.  loc.  cit.  loc.  cit.  3  k 5  6  "Mot", X, 762  Chapter  2  CONCLUSION In  o u r o p e n i n g c h a p t e r we s t a t e d t h a t t h e g r a m m a t i c a l  t h e o r i e s t o be f o u n d i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i c r e p r e s e n t e d b o t h t h e c u l m i n a t i o n of a g r a m m a t i c a l t r e n d which began i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r y a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new  t r e n d w h i c h was  t o develop  w i t h i n the l a t t e r part of the eighteenth century.  The  s i o n s w h i c h we d r a w f r o m o u r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t w o c o n c e p t s o f t h e w o r d t h a t we  distinct  f i n d developed i n the Encyclopedic  support t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Dumarsais' the  conclu-  work marked t h e z e n i t h  g r a m m a i r e g e n e r a l e w i t h i t s b a s i s i n l o g i c , and t h a t  i d e a s i n d i c a t e d t h e b i r t h o f a new  t r e n d towards  l a n g u a g e a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon.  men  Beauzee,'  treating  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e  c o n c l u s i o n s we w i l l a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e s p e c t i v e t i o n s o f t h e s e two  of  t o t h e development  contribu-  of the s c i e n c e o f  linguistics. In  e x a m i n i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n c e p t s o f t h e word  we  found i t necessary t o concentrate our a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the  case o f Dumarsais,  on t h e f o r m o f g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s  But h e r e an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n the  must b e made:  the concept  word does not o b v i o u s l y form a b a s i s f o r or d e t e r m i n e  type o f grammatical a n a l y s i s employed.  used.  the  Thus, a l t h o u g h Beauzee's  concept o f the word i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f D u m a r s a i s , can n o t i n f e r  that h i s a n a l y s i s of the grammatical f a c t s  language d i f f e r s one  proportionately.  i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t — a s we  of  we  of  ( I n f a c t , i t does i n a t  least  s h a l l see-but on t h e whole i t i s  - 79 comparable w i t h t h a t of  Dumarsais.)  Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e two a r r i v e d a t b y d i f f e r e n t means.  concepts has n e c e s s a r i l y been  Dumarsais  (at l e a s t i n h i s  a r t i c l e s i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i e ) d i d n o t f o r m a l l y examine h i s concept o f t h e w o r d and t h e d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h he g a v e i s o n l y t o u n d e r s t o o d as p a r t o f h i s whole system o f g r a m m a t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i o n . concept.  be  analysis  I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o s y n t h e s i z e h i s  Beauzee,  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , n o t o n l y d e f i n e d t h e w o r d ,  b u t a n a l y z e d , d i s c u s s e d and  evaluated the parts of h i s d e f i n i -  t i o n i n a l a r g e number o f a r t i c l e s .  To  some e x t e n t t h e s e  a r t i c l e s c o v e r e d t h e d e t a i l s o f h i s method o f g r a m m a t i c a l c r i p t i o n b u t an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s method w o u l d an e n t i r e l y  separate study.  We  des-  form the b a s i s  have t h e r e f o r e a r r i v e d  of  at  B e a u z e e ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e word t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f h i s v e r y c o m p l e t e d e f i n i t i o n and t h r o u g h a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e w h i c h p r e s e n t h i s own we  a r e now  a n a l y s i s of i t .  The  articles  conclusions which  a b l e t o draw a r e based e n t i r e l y on t h e c o n c e p t s o f  t h e w o r d and n o t on t h e m e t h o d s o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o u r two  grammarians.  The d i s t i n c t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i f o u r  c l u s i o n s a r e n o t t o be Dumarsais'  con-  misunderstood.  method o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n depended  the f a c t s of l o g i c .  S i n c e language e x t e r i o r i z e d t h o u g h t  i n t h e f o r m o f a l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e n a s a p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e w o r d was I t i s because  of  on  first  grammatical  a t o o l f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of t h o u g h t .  of t h i s that h i s grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n  depends  - 80 t o such a l a r g e extent  on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f genera and s p e c i e s . u p o n l a n g u a g e a s a s y s t e m , i t was  I f Dumarsais  logic.  Whereas Dumarsais a p p e a l e d t o t h e  logical  o f genera and s p e c i e s , Beauzee a p p e a l e d t o form  (declinable-indeclinable). guistic  to  method o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n d i f f e r e d i n  one b a s i c a s p e c t . classification  looked  as a system subordinate  t h e most u n i v e r s a l o f s y s t e m s — t h e s y s t e m o f Beauzee's  o f words i n t o t h e  His interest therefore  f a c t s r a t h e r than i n l o g i c a l f a c t s .  No  lay i n  lin-  l o n g e r was  the  w o r d a mere t o o l , b u t an e l e m e n t o f a phenomenon e x i s t i n g  apart  from, yet r e l a t e d t o , thought. Both Dumarsais The  and B e a u z e e l o o k e d  upon t h e word as a s i g n .  t e r m , however, i s i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y  by e a c h .  For  D u m a r s a i s t h e s i g n i s a mere s y m b o l r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o u g h t therefore this  s o m e t h i n g t o be u s e d t o l a y b a r e t h a t t h o u g h t .  extent  To  i t i s the sign o f a t h i n g r a t h e r than o f a concept.  Its function i s logical the  and  i n t h a t i t i s b o t h t h e means o f  achieving  l o g i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e s y m b o l t h a t t a k e s o n t h e gramma-  t i c a l forms Beauzee,  e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e grammar o f t h e l a n g u a g e .  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s i g n i s a t w o - s i d e d e n t i t y whose  existence  a s a f u n c t i o n i n g u n i t o f l a n g u a g e d e p e n d s on t h e  psychologically perceived inherent  For  t o t a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are  i n i t as p a r t of a system.  of i t s expression Dumarsais..  and content  I t i s i n the systemic  that his sign differs  value  from that  of  - 81 These d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t t h e changing p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e century.  The s i g n a s a l o g i c a l e l e m e n t i s a means t o t h e  r a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t , and i f i t i s used  correctly  (that i s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t i o n a l l y based r u l e s o f grammatical c o m b i n a t i o n ) , i t w i l l h e l p t h e u s e r t o a c h i e v e t h e a r t de b i e n penser.  F o r Beauzee t h e s i g n i s founded  sensationalism.  i n e m p i r i c i s m and  I t svalue i s e m p i r i c a l t o the extent that the  meaning which t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n c o n t a i n s r e s u l t s from t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s which  e x i s t b e t w e e n i t and t h e  system o f s i g n s a s a whole. B o t h grammarians a g r e e d on t h e o r i g i n s o f t h o u g h t — t h a t i s to say, they both r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t e x i s t s instantaneously i n t h e m i n d w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o s i g n s and r e s u l t s f r o m t h e a b s t r a c t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e sense e x p e r i e n c e s .  They  differ,  however, a s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f language and t h o u g h t . Dumarsais  t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s t h e end t o w h i c h  language a s p i r e s . is,  For  T h a t w o r d s a c t a s a means o f  communication  i f not f o r t u i t o u s , at l e a s t of l i t t l e importance.  In  c o n t r a s t , we h a v e s e e n t h a t Beauze'e i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e s i g n i s not  complete u n t i l  i t has been u n d e r s t o o d by a  listener.  Meaning i s another concept which t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d ferently.  They b o t h r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e m a n t i c  of the sign.  F o r Dumarsais,  d ' e t r e o f the s i g n because  content  semantic content i s t h e r a i s o n  i t i s easily  a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  dif-  submitted t o l o g i c a l  I n t h e same way, f u n c t i o n , f o r  - 82 h i m , meant l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n — a  f u n c t i o n w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s and  r e s t r i c t s the semantic content o f o t h e r words. meaning  For  Beauzee  was more o f a l i n g u i s t i c f a c t , and i t was o n l y i n t h e  c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t and g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n t h e meaning  o f t h e s i g n c o u l d be  that  apprehended.  Finally, i t i s their different philosophical attitude to t h e word a s a s i g n t h a t e s p e c i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i r approach t o language.  Dumarsais, t h e r a t i o n a l i s t , brought the  t h e o r y o f a l o g i c a l l y - f o u n d e d grammaire Beauzee, tionalist  different  g e n e r a l e t o i t s peak.  s h o w i n g c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s o f C o n d i l l a c and o f s e n s a t h e o r y , s i g n a l l e d t h e s t a r t o f a t r e n d w h i c h was  to  l o o k upon l a n g u a g e a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l — a n d p e r h a p s even t o a very small extent, as a  social—fact.  Such a c o n c l u s i o n d o e s n o t d e n y t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e chose from i n t h e g o a l s which Dumarsais a l l t h e grammarians  and B e a u z e e  of the century) set themselves.  i n t e r e s t e d i n l a n g u a g e a s a means t o t h e a r t de b i e n  to  (and i n d e e d B o t h were penser.  To a l e s s e r d e g r e e , b o t h w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o d u c i n g a  philo-  sophy o f l a n g u a g e aimed a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e methods o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge  and t h e m e t h o d s o f i t s u s e .  But i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e  c e n t u r y t h e r e a p p e a r s t o have b e e n a change i n t h e a p p r o a c h t o language and a g r e a t e r awareness The  of the c o m p l e x i t i e s  involved.  e a r l i e r , n a r r o w a p p r o a c h , c o n f i n e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l  o f l a n g u a g e - s t u d y t o p h i l o s o p h y , appears t o have l a t e r a p p r e c i a b l y i n o r d e r to admit t h e s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h that  linking  broadened language  - 83 s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as a s u b j e c t a p a r t from t h e n i c e t i e s o f Beauzle's The  concept  o f t h e word h i n t s a t t h i s  ally  change o f a p p r o a c h .  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e grammaire g e n e r a l e  beyond t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  logic.  extended  well  I t s e f f e c t , h o w e v e r , was e s p e c i -  e v i d e n t i n t h e many e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  i n w h i c h i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t g r a m m a t i c a l  pedagogical  works  s t u d y b a s e d upon  logical  p r o p o s i t i o n s was o f i n h e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e t o t h e  child.  D u m a r s a i s ' i n f l u e n c e was t h e r e f o r e f e l t  death.  B e a u z e e t o o , was h i g h l y e s t e e m e d d u r i n g h i s own c e n t u r y ,  long after h i s  and h i s i d e a s p e r h a p s h a d some s m a l l e f f e c t on n i n e t e e n t h century grammatical the ideologues  texts.  But w i t h t h e g r a m m a t i c a l  theories of  i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y , Beauze'e's  s p e c u l a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e l y overshadowed b y t h e r i s i n g in  comparative  into different  linguistics.  The s t u d y o f l a n g u a g e was d i v e r t e d  channels w h i c h were t o l e a d i t , f i n a l l y ,  p r i n c i p l e s o f modern  interest  to the  linguistics.  S a h l i n , i n h e r study o f Dumarsais, s t a t e s t h a t a f t e r him, t h e g r a m m a i r e gen e r a l e was t o d e g e n e r a t e "au p o i n t de n ' e t r e g u e r e a u t r e c h o s e q u e de v a g u e s s p e c u l a t i o n s m e t a p h y s i q u e s s u r les  o p e r a t i o n s de 1 ' e s p r i t , e t s o n o b j e t s e r a d ' a n a l y s e r  par  l e moyen d u l a n g a g e ,  f a i t s du l a n g a g e . " Beauzee.  1  plutot  que d ' a n a l y s e r  This degeneration,  et d'expliquer l e s  she c l a i m s , s t a r t e d  with  The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y h a s made u s e o f t h e t e r m  " m e t a p h y s i q u e " t o c o v e r what t h e modern l i n g u i s t tional  l a pensee  grammarian would both  or the t r a d i -  c a l l t h e eighteenth-century's  many  - 84 s i n s i n i t s study o f language.  We  would p r e f e r t o say t h a t ,  as  f a r as Beauzee i s c o n c e r n e d , h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s i g n a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n as a l o g i c a l  concept  and a s a n e l e m e n t o f s y s t e m i c and r e l a t i o n a l v a l u e r a t h e r a s an i n e r t  element  o f l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , puts him c l o s e r t o  t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y thought than Dumarsais. must c o n c l u d e t h a t ,  W i t h Kukenheim,  compared w i t h h i s e m i n e n t  c  and we m i g h t a d d ,  "beaucoup p l u s  we  p r e d e c e s s o r and  c o - c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e E n c y c l o p l d i e , Beauze'e was graramarien",  than  "bien  plus  linguiste."  - 85 S a h l i n , op. c i t . ,  p. 4  Kukenheim, op. c i t . ,  p. 35  -86  -  SOURCE MATERIAL The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f the E n c y c l o p e d i c o u d i c t i o n n a i r e raisonne" des a r t s e t des m e t i e r s (1751  - 1765)  Beauze'e, N i c o l a s  " G e n e r i q u e " , V I I , 574 " G e n r e " , V I I , 5^9 "Grammai r e ", V I I , "Homonyme", V I I , 841 " I d e n t i t e " , V I I I , 495 " I n t e r j e c t i o n " , V I I I , 827 " I n v e r s i o n " , V I I I , 852 " L a n g u e " , I X , 249 " M e t h o d e " , X, 446 "Mot", X, 752 "Nom", X I , 195 "Onomatope'e" X I , 484 " P h r a s e " , X I I , 528 " P r e p o s i t i o n " , X I I I , 301 " P r i m i t i f " , X I I I , 369 " P r o p o s i t i o n " , X I I I , 471 "Regime", X I V . 5 " S e n s " , XV, 16 " S u b s t a n t i f " , X V , 587 "Synonyme", XV, 757 " S y n t a x e " , X V , 762 " U s a g e " , X V I I , 516  D'Alembert, Jean  " D i c t i o n n a i r e " , I V , 958 "Discours preliminaire",  Diderot, Denis  " E n c y c l o p l d i e " , V , 634 " S i g n e " , X V , 188  Dumarsais, Cesar  Chesneau " A b s t r a c t i o n " , I , 45 " A c c i d e n t " , I , 69 " A d j e c t i f " , I , 133 " A d v e r b e " , I , 147 " A d v e r b i a l " , I , 149 " A n a l o g u e " , I , 400 " A r t i c l e " , I , 722 " C a s " , I I , 734 " C o n c o r d a n c e " , I I I , 821 " C o n j o n c t i o n " , I I I , 872 " C o n s t r u c t i o n " , I V , 901  "Declinable", I V , 694  I  - 87  -  " D e c l i n a i s o n " , I V , 694 " D e t e r m i n a t i o n " I V , 901 " E p i t h e t e " , V, 820 "Figure", VI, 766  - 88  -  L I S T OF WORKS CONSULTED A c t o n , H. B. "The P h i l o s o p h y o f L a n g u a g e i n R e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e B r i t i s h Academy, XLV ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 199-219. Brunot,  F. Histoire P a r i s , 1932.  de l a l a n g u e  f r a n c a i s e , V I , t o m e s 1 and *  2  B u r s i l l - H a l l , G. L. "Mediaeval Grammatical T h e o r i e s , " Canadian J o u r n a l of L i n g u i s t i c s . IX: 1 ( 1 9 6 3 ) 40-45,: :  C a s s i r e r , E. The P h i l o s o p h y o f S y m b o l i c F o r m s , t r a n s . Manheim, v o l . I , New H a v e n , 1 9 5 3 .  Ralph  C o n d i l l a c , E t i e n n e Bonnot de. Oeuvres p h i l o s o p h i q u e s , ed. G e o r g e s Le Roy, v o l . I , P a r i s , 1947. F r a n c o i s , A. " P r e c u r s e u r s f r a n c a i s de l a g r a m m a i r e Melanges B a l l v ( G e n e v a 1939), 3 7 0 - 7 7 .  affective,"  H a r n o i s , G. Les t h e o r i e s du Paris7~T928~T  a 1821,  f  H u n t , H.  langage  en F r a n c e  1660  ^  J. " L o g i c and L i n g u i s t i c s , " M o d e r n Language R e v i e w . X X X I I I (193$), 215-33.  K u e h n e r , P. T h e o r i e s on t h e o r i g i n a n d f o r m a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e . P h i l a d e l p h i a . 1944. K u k e n h e i m , L. E s q u i s s e h i s t o r i q u e de l a l i n g u i s t i q u e L e i d e n , 1962.  francaise. \  L e i b n i z , G. W. Nouveaux e s s a i s s u r 1*entendement humain. t r a n s . A. G. L a n g l e y , C h i c a g o , 1916. M a y n i a l , E. " L e s g r a m m a i r i e n s p h i l o s o p h e s de X V I I I Revue b l e u e . XIX, (March, 1903), 317-320. R o b i n s , R. H. A n c i e n t and M e d i a e v a l G r a m m a t i c a l Londo n , 1 9 5 1 . S a h l i n , G.  C e s a r C h e s n e a u du M a r s a i s . P a r i s ,  S a u s s u r e , F e r d i n a n d de. Wade B a s k i n , New  6  siecle,"  Theory i n Europe.  1928.  Course i n g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , York, 1959.  R o s e t t i , A. Le Mot ( S o c i e t e r o u m a i n e de memoires 3 ) , Copenhagen, 1947•  trans.  linguistique, serie  I,  

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