UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Milton's view of human destiny Anonby, John August 1965

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MILTON'S VIEW OF HUMAN DESTINY by JOHN  ANONBY  B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR .THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of ENGLISH  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1965.  In p r e s e n t i n g the  this  thesis  Columbia,  I agree that  the Library  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . mission  f o r extensive  representatives„  cation  of this  thesis  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  thesis  i t freely per-  for scholarly  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by  I t i s understood for financial  that  gain  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a (Xus^/i*^  s h a l l make  I f u r t h e r agree that  copying o f t h i s  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  Date  fulfilment of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  British  his  in partial  / O  Columbia  / $ £  S«  copying o r p u b l i -  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  i i  ABSTRACT  The  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o prove t h a t  M i l t o n was keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n the'prbce'ss-" of t l i n e and made use of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s t o demonstrate i n h i s poetry  and prose h i s b e l i e f t h a t God's omnipotent  c o n t r o l l e d human d e s t i n y .  While M i l t o n ' s  will  formalized  attempts a t history-portrayal were c o n f i n e d t o h i s B r i e f H i s t o r y o f Moscovia and H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , h i s f a s c i n a t i o n f o r h i s t o r y was a l s o expressed i n h i s p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l t r e a t i s e s as w e l l as i n the great epic poems  that he wrote d u r i n g the f i n a l p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e . Milton's  view of human d e s t i n y c l o s e l y resembled  the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n concept o f h i s t o r y as formulated by S t . Augustine i n The C i t y of God. ial,  The  provident-  u n i v e r s a l i s t i c epochal and t e l e o l o g i c a l aspects o f the  C h r i s t i a n view of h i s t o r y were a l l present concept o f the d e s t i n y o f man.  i n Milton's  M i l t o n , However, d i d not  merely reproduce these t r a d i t i o n a l ideas; he transformed them t o f i t h i s conception operating  of God's w i l l  dynamically  i n the a f f a i r s of man.  T h i s t h e s i s attempts t o show t h a t M i l t o n d i d not reproduce h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l f o r i t s own sake.  His prime  concern was " t o i n s t r u c t and b e n e f i t " the reader. theme which M i l t o n wished to convey was Firstly, nothing  two-fold.  he demonstrated that God's w i l l was  Secondly, M i l t o n s t r e s s e d the i d e a  while God's w i l l was an i n d i s p u t a b l e a b s o l u t e , of man was o p e r a t i v e  f o r e , a d i r e c t connection and  sovereign;  t r a n s p i r e d i n h i s t o r y apart from t h e c o n t r o l l i n g  w i l l o f God.  will  The  human moral b e h a v i o r .  i n history.  that,  the f r e e  There was,therer  between the p r o c e s s of h i s t o r y Man's c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on  earth was t o conform v o l u n t a r i l y to God's r e v e a l e d  will.  M i l t o n thus p r o f u s e l y i l l u s t r a t e d from b i b l i c a l and s e c u l a r h i s t o r y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and n a t i o n s who d i s obeyed the w i l l of God l a p s e d domestic, and s p i r i t u a l  inevitably into p o l i t i c a l ,  bondage.  As f a r as M i l t o n was  concerned, there was no l i b e r t y apart from submission t o the w i l l o f God. In t h i s t h e s i s an attempt has been made to apply the term "Baroque" t o M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a y a l of human d e s t i n y . In s p i t e of h i s a n t i p a t h y  towards Roman C a t h o l i c  instit-  u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s , M i l t o n demonstrated i n h i s poetry the  sense o f c e r t a i n t y and a f f i r m a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d  the Baroque p a i n t i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e of I t a l y a f t e r the Counter-Reformation. and  By means o f panorama, s p e c t a c l e ,  dynamism—techniques which have been considered by  many c r i t i c s as p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent i n Baroque  art—  iid  M i l t o n p o r t r a y e d h i s concept of the dominating,  unifying,  and benevolent w i l l of God d y n a m i c a l l y c o n t r o l l i n g d i r e c t i n g human d e s t i n y .  and  Preface  In t h i s t h e s i s , M i l t o n ' s View of Human Destiny, I have attempted  to show that M i l t o n was v i t a l l y  inter-  ested i n h i s t o r i c a l processes and that he employed b i b l i c a l and s e c u l a r h i s t o r y t o demonstrate will  t h a t the  of God c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d human d e s t i n y .  This  t h e s i s i s not intended to be an essay i n h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , however. pronounced  While  I have i n d i c a t e d t h a t M i l t o n had some  o p i n i o n s on the subject of h i s t o r y - w r i t i n g and  t h a t he a l s o attempted  t o be s c h o l a r l y and a c c u r a t e i n  h i s B r i e f H i s t o r y of Moscovia and H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , I have not t r i e d t o prove that M i l t o n was a s e r i o u s  historian.  Apart from some b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s to t h e works of a few seventeenth-century h i s t o r i a n s , t h i s t h e s i s does not r e l a t e M i l t o n ' s views on h i s t o r y to those expressed i n t h e w r i t i n g s of h i s contemporaries. thesis permitted i t ,  Had the scope o f t h i s  such a study might  have proven  illum-  i n a t i n g and rewarding, f o r t h e seventeenth century i n England was r i c h i n h i s t o r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s . H i s t o r y of the World,  Raleigh's  f o r example, has been d e s c r i b e d by  Fussner as "the archetype of a l l the m o r a l i z i n g of the seventeenth century" because  histories  of i t s emphasis on the  rewards and punishments meted out t o i n d i v i d u a l s and n a t i o n s by God.  U r i a n Oakes i n The S o v e r i g n  E f f i c a c y of  D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e e x p r e s s e d an extreme P u r i t a n a t t i t u d e towards h i s t o r y : God can stop t h e Sun i n i t s c o u r s e . . . He can g i v e check t o t h e F i r e , t h a t i t s h a l l n o t burn... He i n t e r r u p t s t h e c o u r s e o f / " " n a t u r a l order_7 when He p l e a s e s .... W h i l e w r i t e r s such as Oakes were p l a c i n g s t r e s s on God's d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n human a f f a i r s , o t h e r s were i n g f o r n a t u r a l causes i n h i s t o r y .  search-  The i n f l u e n c e of  I t a l i a n humanist h i s t o r i a n s such as M a c h i a v e l l i , who simply ignored  t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as i r r e l e v a n t t o  h i s t o r y , began t o make i t s e l f f e l t i n England.  Francis  Bacon d i s t i n g u i s h e d between s a c r e d and c i v i l h i s t o r y i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e the l a t t e r with greater objectivity.  scientific  John Seldon, i n H i s H i s t o r y o f T i t h e s t r e a t e d  a c r u c i a l s o c i a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l problem w i t h o u t r e f e r ence t o d i v i n e l y - o r d a i n e d laws; he was concerned o n l y h i s t o r i c a l evidenced  As t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y  with  unfolded,  t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g tendency among h i s t o r i a n s t o l o o k f o r immediate causes r a t h e r than u l t i m a t e ones r e l a t i n g to p r o v i d e n c e . To have connected t h e s e i n t e r e s t i n g developments i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h i s t o r i c a l thought t o M i l t o n ' s views o f  human d e s t i n y would have been a f a s c i n a t i n g p r o j e c t , b u t i t would have a l t e r e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t h e s i s .  I have  attempted i n s t e a d t o i s o l a t e M i l t o n ' s b a s i c i d e a s on t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind, and t o show t h a t t h e s e i d e a s were i n t h e mainstream o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n thought as formulated  by S t . A u g u s t i n e i n The C i t y o f God. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f A u g u s t i n e ' s work cannot be over-emphasized, for  i t s systematic  treatment of the d o c t r i n e of d i v i n e  p r o v i d e n c e d i d n o t o n l y dominate t h e middle ages but a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e views o f h i s t o r y h e l d by t h e e a r l y P r o t e s t a n t reformers i n England.  on t h e C o n t i n e n t  I n t h e second c h a p t e r  and by t h e P u r i t a n s  o f t h e t h e s i s I have  endeavoured t o show t h a t M i l t o n made use o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i d e a o f h i s t o r y t o p o r t r a y God's w i l l o p e r a t i n g i n human a f f a i r s .  The t h i r d c h a p t e r  dynamically i s closely  r e l a t e d t o t h e second i n t h a t i t d e a l s w i t h M i l t o n ' s convictions concerning  the n e c e s s i t y of conforming t o the  w i l l o f God. The  l a s t chapter,  " M i l t o n ' s Baroque Manner of  P o r t r a y i n g Human D e s t i n y " may a t f i r s t appear t o be unrelated t o the preceding  chapters because t h e terms  employed i n i t a r e t a k e n from a r t s such as p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t u r e .  I t i s , however, i n c r e a s i n g l y  common f o r c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s a c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e  a r t s to be proposed.  Sypher, whose work has been acknow-  ledged i n my f i n a l chapter, i s a p o p u l a r i z e r o f t h i s approach t o the a r t s .  M i l t o n i s so massive and many-  sided t h a t complementary views of h i s ideas may be achieved from widely separated viewpoints; theless f a l l  these  i n t o harmony i n the comprehensive view.  Furthermore, as my approach t o M i l t o n i s l i t e r a r y as i d e o l o g i c a l i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e f i n a l  two books of P a r a d i s e Lost,which  as w e l l  chapter  should r e t u r n e m p h a t i c a l l y t o the matter of form. last  never-  The  portray Milton's  view o f human d e s t i n y i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y a r t i s t i c manner, have t h e r e f o r e been emphasized i n the c o n c l u d i n g of t h e t h e s i s .  chapter  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I  II  III  IV  Page •  Introduction: Historical Materials i n M i l t o n ' s Works  1  M i l t o n a n d t h e C h r i s t i a n V i e w o f Man's Destiny  27  Man's D e s t i n y V i e w e d i n Terms o f L i b e r t y a n d Bondage  5$  M i l t o n ' s B a r o q u e Manner o f P o r t r a y i n g Human D e s t i n y  93  Bibliography  11$  CHAPTER I  Introduction:  Milton's  H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l i n M i l t o n ' s Works  r e p u t a t i o n as a great poet has  been s e r i o u s l y challenged  s i n c e Paradise  g r e a t e s t p o e t i c achievement, was i n 1667.  While a few  nineteenth-century  published  his  i n London  c r i t i c s have agreed w i t h  E l i o t ' s remark that M i l t o n ' s and  Lost,  rarely-  i n f l u e n c e on  poets was  eighteenth  "unwholesome"!  because i n f e r i o r poets were unable to s u c c e s s f u l l y h i s elaborate  T.S.  imitate  p o e t i c s t y l e , many eminent  E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s have h i g h l y p r a i s e d M i l t o n as a poet and have regarded h i s i n f l u e n c e as w h o l l y s a l u t a r y . Joseph Addison, a f t e r contending t h a t Paradise was  g r e a t e r than even The  u n i t y , scope and t h e r e was  I l i a d or The  Lost  Aeneid i n  greatness of a c t i o n , concluded t h a t  "an unquestionable magnificence i n every  T.S. E l i o t , " M i l t o n , " 1947, c i t e d i n James Thorpe, M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J., Rinehart, 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 314, 332.  p a r t of P a r a d i s e L o s t " .  Though Samuel Johnson  d i s l i k e d M i l t o n ' s minor works,  e s p e c i a l l y the sonnets  and L y c i d a s , he conceded t h a t Paradise L o s t was i n design and performance one o f the " g r e a t e s t of the human mind."3 that M i l t o n was great a r t i s t whom we  productions  In 1883 Matthew Arnold  wrote  "by h i s d i c t i o n and rhythm the one  of the h i g h e s t rank i n the g r e a t  style  have."^" These comments on M i l t o n ' s work are r e p r e s e n t -  a t i v e of the v a s t amount of c r i t i c i s m which has appeared over the past three hundred y e a r s . they l a y emphasis upon M i l t o n ' s p o e t i c and subordinate  Inevitably,  craftsmanship  h i s accomplishments as a p o l i t i c a l  pamphleteer and h i s t o r i a n .  While i t can h a r d l y be  d i s p u t e d t h a t M i l t o n ' s f i n e s t major achievements are P a r a d i s e L o s t , P a r a d i s e Regained, and Samson A g o n i s t e s , it  should n e v e r t h e l e s s be remembered t h a t M i l t o n  devoted twenty years o f h i s l i f e to the w r i t i n g o f A d d i s o n and S t e e l e , The S p e c t a t o r , V o l . 4, (Edinburgh, B e l l and Bradfute, 1816)., No. 2 6 7 , p. 66. 2  ^Samuel Johnson, " M i l t o n , " The L i v e s of the E n g l i s h Poets, 1779, c i t e d i n Thorpe, M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m , p. 71. Matthew A r n o l d , " M i l t o n , " 1883, M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m , p. 374.  c i t e d i n Thorpe,  3 p r o s e a n d t h a t many o f t h e b a s i c his  ideas  informed  p r o s e w e r e t o f i n d t h e i r way i n t o t h e g r e a t  that  he w r o t e d u r i n g  Milton's  the last period  tapestry  poems  of h i s l i f e .  i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t o r y o f man a n d i n  h i s t o r i c a l processes i s a continuing  and  which  of h i sworks.  lengthy  History  thread  i n the  His B r i e f History of Moscovia  of B r i t a i n are only  formalized  :  d i s p l a y s of an i n t e r e s t which appeared throughout h i s political  and s o c i a l t r e a t i s e s , f o r M i l t o n  regarded  h i s t o r y a s a s t o r e h o u s e o f examples and p r e c e d e n t s w h i c h he c o u l d Milton's in  employ t o r e i n f o r c e h i s arguments.  f a s c i n a t i o n f o r h i s t o r y was a l s o  Paradise  demonstrated  L o s t , f o r t h e theme o f h i s g r e a t  poem f o c u s s e s on t h e f a l l  epic  o f man, w h i c h was f o r  M i l t o n t h e c r i s i s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e human The  l a s t two b o o k s o f P a r a d i s e  view of t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind. dynamically  portrays  transgression concludes with  Lost  summarize  condition. Milton's  Here M i l t o n  t h e t r a g i c e f f e c t s o f Adam's  t h r o u g h o u t t h e course o f t i m e and a glimpse of the d i s t a n t  future:  New H e a v ' n s , new E a r t h , Ages o f E n d l e s s d a t e Founded i n r i g h t e o u s n e s s and peace and l o v e , To b r i n g f o r t h f r u i t s J o y a n d E t e r n a l B l i s s . (PL,XII, 543-50) References t o P a r a d i s e L o s t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t o M e r r i t t Hughes, e d . , J o h n M i l t o n : C o m p l e t e Poems a n d Ma.jor P r o s e (New Y o r k , O d y s s e y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) .  4 M i l t o n ' s i n t e r e s t i n the h i s t o r y of humanity i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n a l e t t e r he addressed f o r e i g n e r , Henry de Brass, who i n 1657.  was  visiting  to a young i n London  A f t e r acknowledging t h a t t h e r e were problems  connected with the w r i t i n g of h i s t o r y which he c o u l d not s o l v e , M i l t o n expresses i n emphatic terms what he c o n s i d e r e d to be of paramount importance.  The  h i s t o r i a n must possess mental endowments equal to those of the great men to l i k e .  One  whose deeds he r e c o r d s .  L i k e answers  cannot adequately evaluate great endow-  ments i n others without being g r e a t l y endowed h i m s e l f . An h i s t o r i a n should be a c t i v e l y engaged i n p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s ; o b j e c t i v e detachment i s not  sufficient.  He who would w r i t e of worthy deeds w o r t h i l y must w r i t e with mental endowments and experience of a f f a i r s not l e s s than were i n the doer of the same, so as to be a b l e with equal mind to comprehend and measure even the g r e a t e s t of them . ...^ M i l t o n ' s i m p r a c t i c a l views on the  qualifications  o f an h i s t o r i a n were supplemented by somewhat l e s s s t r i n g e n t comments on s t y l e .  He  expressed t o de  Brass  5 M i l t o n , L e t t e r to Henry de Brass, c i t e d i n f u l l i n David Masson, The L i f e of John M i l t o n (London, Macmillan, 1880), V o l . V, 363-5.  5 his admiration  f o r Sallust,  t h e L a t i n h i s t o r i a n who h a d  d e m o n s t r a t e d i n h i s w o r k s an a b i l i t y great d e a l i n few words." not  M i l t o n d e c l a r e d t h a t he was  concerned about ornateness  clarity, style  " t o throw o f f a  and p u r i t y o f d i c t i o n .  of style but with brevity, Milton's concern f o r  extended t o such m a t t e r s as p r o p o r t i o n and  decorum.  M a j o r e v e n t s a n d n o b l e d e e d s s h o u l d be  t r e a t e d a t great l e n g t h and i n l o f t y significant  language; l e s s  e v e n t s demanded o n l y p e r f u n c t o r y  treatment.  The h i s t o r i a n ' s t a s k was t o "make h i s e x p r e s s i o n p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e f a c t s ' ' ^ w h i c h he  recorded.  M i l t o n i n h i s s h o r t l e t t e r t o de B r a s s  a l s o made  a c o g e n t s t a t e m e n t on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e g r i t y on the part of the h i s t o r i a n .  No h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r h a d a  r i g h t t o f o l l o w " h i s own f a n c y "proper duty"  was t o r e c o r d t h e t r u t h — n o t h i n g  would s u f f i c e . "Queen T r u t h "  and c o n j e c t u r e . "  Milton's i d e a l i s t i c  assumption  c o u l d n o t evade t h e honest  b l i n d e d him t o t h e f a c t  His else that  historian  t h a t complete o b j e c t i v i t y i n  s e l e c t i n g a n d a r r a n g i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s was a n unattainable  ideal.  6 M i l t o n , L e t t e r t o H e n r y de B r a s s , M a s s o n , p. 3 6 4 .  6  In h i s d e l i n e a t i o n of h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l t e c h nique M i l t o n interrupt  s t a t e d t h a t the  "the  thread  o r c r i t i c i s m s on office  of the  of  h i s t o r i a n must  e v e n t s " by  the t r a n s a c t i o n s  Political  t h a t t h e h i s t o r i a n and  the  h i s performance.  i s replete with digressions  Milton's a gap  His  and  that there ing  had  o n l y t o be  obtrusion  Britain  maxims" w h i c h ignorant  to  a compilation,  i n which there  sentiments of the  deal  of h i s t o r i c a l  throughout M i l t o n ' s pamphlets. The The  professwas  matter  In works such  E a s y Way  more  author."  as  Second D e f e n s e of t h e P e o p l e Ready and  and  suggest  n e v e r b e e n "a h i s t o r y w r i t t e n ,  There i s a great  E n g l a n d , and  works,  to unscrupulous  M a s s o n went so f a r a s  of the personal  Areopagitica,  contended  own  H i s t o r y of  "frequent  sold their liberty  tyrannical kings.  the  between h i s  e x p r e s s h i s p u r i t a n i c a l contempt f o r the had  "invade  political controversialist  h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was  m a s s e s who  maxims,  M i l t o n thus  have d i f f e r e n t r o l e s t o p e r f o r m .  t h e o r i e s and  "frequent  " l e s t he  Writer."''''  not  of  M i l t o n appeals  to  n  M i l t o n , L e t t e r t o H e n r y de ^ M a s s o n , The  Brass,  M a s s o n , p.  L i f e of John M i l t o n , V o l . V I ,  p.  364. 646.  7  h i s t o r y so f r e q u e n t l y t h a t he as a p o l i t i c a l  writer  "invades the o f f i c e " of the h i s t o r i a n .  His f a i l u r e  d i s t i n g u i s h between h i s t o r y - w r i t i n g and  political  controversy  i s nowhere more apparent than i n  Second Defense.  T h i s t r e a t i s e was  a defense of the P u r i t a n s , who  had  The  written i n 1654 been branded  of C h a r l e s  had I.  M i l t o n i n h i s t r a c t a t e combined h i s defense of Puritans  (whom he  the  commended f o r d e l i v e r i n g the Common-  wealth from t y r a n n y , and an  as  as  " E n g l i s h p a r r i c i d e s " by an anonymous w r i t e r who regarded w i t h h o r r o r the execution  to  eloquent p e r s o n a l  r e l i g i o n from degradation) with  defense of h i s own  conduct  and  p h y s i c a l appearance. M i l t o n defended h i m s e l f  i n a unique manner a g a i n s t  the a t t a c k s of the Dutch s c h o l a r , Salmasius, who  had made  s p o r t of M i l t o n ' s b l i n d n e s s .  the  S c r i p t u r e s and  to numerous h i s t o r i c a l works f o r examples  of " d i s t i n g u i s h e d and had  M i l t o n appealed to  v i r t u o u s persons i n h i s t o r y " 9  endured p h y s i c a l b l i n d n e s s .  t r e a t i s e , he  Further  integrated h i s personal  v i n d i c a t i o n of the P u r i t a n cause by  who  on i n the  defense i n t o h i s s t a t i n g t h a t he  had  9  M i l t o n , The Second Defense of the E n g l i s h People i n M e r r i t t Hughes, ed., John M i l t o n : •Complete Poems and Major Prose (New York, 'Odyssey Press, 1 9 5 7 " ) , pp. 8 2 4 - 5 . Furt h e r r e f e r e n c e s to M i l t o n ' s prose t r e a t i s e s and pamphlets w i l l be from Hughes' e d i t i o n u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d .  s a c r i f i c e d h i s s i g h t i n the i n t e r e s t s of The  conclusion  that Milton  of The  liberty.  Second Defense  indicates  regarded h i s t r e a t i s e as something more  than a p o l i t i c a l pamphlet or personal defense. a species  of composition w i t h the  c e l e b r a t i n g the great  It  was  " e p i c " purpose of  e x p l o i t performed by  the  Puritans  i n c a s t i n g o f f the yoke of monarchical tyranny: I ... have erected a monument t h a t w i l l not r e a d i l y be destroyed to the r e a l i t y of those s i n g u l a r and mighty achievements which were above a l l p r a i s e . Unlike Easy Way  The  Second Defense, M i l t o n ' s  Ready  and  t o E s t a b l i s h a Free Commonwealth does not  purport to be  a work i n h i s t o r y .  Nevertheless, i n many  ways t h i s p o l i t i c a l t r e a t i s e can be s e q u e l to the  regarded as a  e a r l i e r work f o r i n i t M i l t o n proposed a  system of government which he hoped would keep England from r e l a p s i n g i n t o " r e g a l bondage."  Milton  i n the  f i r s t h a l f of the pamphlet c a r e f u l l y O u t l i n e d the vantages of having a " p e r p e t u a l and  ad-  senate, e s p e c i a l l y chosen  e n t r u s t e d by the people," p r o t e c t e d  by the  "well-  a f f e c t e d , e i t h e r i n a s t a n d i n g army or i n a s e t t l e d  "^Milton,  The  Second Defense, i n Hughes, p. S 3 8 .  9 militia."^""'"  Suddenly,  i n the middle of h i s essay,  M i l t o n h a l t e d the t r a i n of h i s i m p r a c t i c a l l o g i c f o r the purpose  of demonstrating t h a t h i s t o r y bore  testimony  to t h e v a l u e of having senators chosen f o r l i f e . i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n r e f e r r e d t o the Jewish  Milton  Sanhedrin,  the Athenian Areopagus, and the Roman Senate.  In h i s  f i n a l paragraphs M i l t o n developed h i s arguments by c i t i n g f u r t h e r h i s t o r i c a l precedents t h a t seemed to support h i s case. The P r o t e s t a n t Reformation, from which P u r i t a n ism had i t s source, had brought about an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y i n 12 England.  E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and s o c i a l d i s p u t e s between  Roman C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s — a n d between c o n f l i c t i n g P r o t e s t a n t groups—promoted i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a l l a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l materials, i n c l u d i n g the Scriptures and t r a d i t i o n . and c i v i l  Milton's treatises  a f f a i r s demonstrate  on e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  that he was a c u t e l y aware  of the impact of h i s t o r i c a l " p r o o f " on seventeenthcentury r e a d e r s .  Cognizant of t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  r e l i a n c e on medieval t r a d i t i o n 1 1  and p r a c t i c e s , M i l t o n as  M i l t o n , The Ready and Easy Way, i n Hughes, p. 889.  1 F . Smith Fussner, The H i s t o r i c a l R e v o l u t i o n : E n g l i s h H i s t o r y W r i t i n g and Thought 1580-1640 (London, Routledge and Kegan P a u l ) , 1962, p. 18. ~~ 2  10 a P u r i t a n went much f u r t h e r t h a n t h e A n g l i c a n s i n stressing the superiority of the Scriptures to tradition.  I n The R e a s o n o f C h u r c h  A g a i n s t P r e l a t y M i l t o n vehemently  Government U r g e d  declared h i s opinion  in the matter: T r a d i t i o n t h e y s a y h a t h t a u g h t them t h a t , f o r the p r e v e n t i o n o f growing schism, t h e bishop was h e a v e d a b o v e t h e p r e s b y t e r . And must t r a d i t i o n t h e n e v e r t h u s t o t h e w o r l d ' s end be t h e p e r p e t u a l c a n k e r w o r m t o e a t o u t God's commandments?^ M i l t o n d i d n o t , however, r e f r a i n from making u s e o f t r a d i t i o n when he f o u n d i t r e l e v a n t t o h i s p u r p o s e . F o r i n s t a n c e , a f t e r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e S c r i p t u r e s nowhere mention and  p r e l a c y , he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t C l e m e n t o f Rome  o t h e r e a r l y F a t h e r s had n o t i n t h e i r works  e p i s c o p a c y even though it.  c o n d i t i o n s might  advocated  have w a r r a n t e d  M i l t o n as a staunch P r o t e s t a n t regarded t h e  S c r i p t u r e s a l o n e a s u l t i m a t e l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e , b u t he did not h e s i t a t e t o appeal t o t r a d i t i o n — e s p e c i a l l y that of the early P a t r i s t i c period—when  i t appeared t o  support h i s arguments. M i l t o n ' s use o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s t o sustain  ' M i l t o n , The R e a s o n o f C h u r c h P r e l a t y , Hughes, p. b55«  Government Urged A g a i n s t  11 his point  o f view i n c i v i l  i s s u e s i s n o w h e r e more  apparent i n h i s s h o r t e r prose works than i n Areopagitica.  His appeal t o the authority of h i s t o r y  as r e c o r d e d i n t h e S c r i p t u r e s and G r e e k a n d L a t i n t e x t s is  so e l o q u e n t t h a t i t c o n c e a l s  formal out  h i s weak l o g i c .  arguments i n t h e t r e a t i s e ,  The  are r e i n f o r c e d through-  t h e p a m p h l e t b y b o r r o w i n g s f r o m w o r k s w h i c h he  regards as r e p o s i t o r i e s o f f i x e d t r u t h . Milton's  awareness o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l  sequence i s  i n d i c a t e d by h i s arrangement o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i n Areopagitica.  He b e g i n s b y a r g u i n g  that the Athenian  Greeks d i d n o t censor w r i t i n g s u n l e s s manifestly  blasphemous, a t h e i s t i c a l ,  Romans—at l e a s t those of the nobler  they were or l i b e l l o u s . sort—likewise  r e f r a i n e d from r e s o r t i n g t o censorship, Christian  and even t h e  emperors d i d n o t p r o h i b i t books u n t i l  c o u n c i l s h a d e x a m i n e d them w i t h greatly heretical.  Milton's  care  hatred  The  general  and had found o f Roman  them  Catholicism  e m e r g e s a s he d e m o n s t r a t e s f r o m h i s t o r y t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l R e n a i s s a n c e popes such a s M a r t i n V and Leo X appeared t h a t censorship entrails  began " t o r a k e t h r o u g h t h e '  o f many an o l d good a u t h o r w i t h  a violation  w o r s e t h a n a n y c o u l d be o f f e r e d t o h i s tomb."14 -^Milton, Areopagitica,  Hughes, p. 724.  Milton  12  then turns t o b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y , which he regards  as the  most a u t h o r i t a t i v e of a l l h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , and d e c l a r e s i n an i r o n i c tone t h a t he w i l l not " i n s i s t upon the examples of Moses, David,  and Paul, who were  i n a l l the l e a r n i n g of the Egyptians, Greeks, which could not probably  skilful  Chaldeans, and  be without  reading  15  t h e i r books o f a l l s o r t s . " response by the Parliament  A n t i c i p a t i n g a favourable of England t o h i s w r i t t e n  speech, M i l t o n by means of a v i t a l p o e t i c image e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y compares the E n g l i s h people to the Old Testament hero,  Samson:  Methinks I see i n my mind a noble and p u i s s a n t n a t i o n r o u s i n g h e r s e l f l i k e a s t r o n g man a f t e r s l e e p , and shaking her i n v i n c i b l e l o c k s . . . . x 6 H i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s i n M i l t o n ' s work were not confined t o h i s p o l i t i c a l , pamphlets.  s o c i a l , and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  His i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y motivated  w r i t e two works of h i s t o r y i n prose,  him t o  namely A B r i e f  H i s t o r y of Moscovia and The H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n . former work, a c c o r d i n g t o the testimony  1 5  l 6  M i l t o n , p. 7 2 6 . M i l t o n , p. 7 4 5 .  The  of the one who  1  published  i t i n 1682,  had  3  been " w r i t by the Authour's  own  hand, before  he l o s t h i s sight."-''''' As  was  almost t o t a l l y b l i n d by 1652,  Milton  i t i s probable t h a t 18  he produced the Moscovia around 1649-50.  The  History  of B r i t a i n , a much l a r g e r and more comprehensive work, was  published  by James A l l e s t r y i n 1670.  to have been a gap  between the time t h a t M i l t o n com-  p l e t e d the work and Masson and  other  the date of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , f o r  s c h o l a r s agree t h a t M i l t o n as e a r l y  as I648 had w r i t t e n f o u r out of the were to comprise The  H i s t o r y of  s i x books that  Britain.  I t has been argued, somewhat that Milton's  own  S.B.  Parks, f o r i n s t a n c e , p o i n t s  t i t l e to h i s work does not  the word ''history" and it  uncpnvineingly,  H i s t o r y of Moscovia i s not a work of  h i s t o r y at a l l . that M i l t o n ' s  There appears  i s a geographical  t h a t the P r e f a c e  exercise.19  The  out  include  suggests t h a t  f a c t remains,  l^Frank A. Patterson, General E d i t o r , The Works of John M i l t o n (New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932), V o l . 10, p. 329. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Works. 1  SP,  ^G.B. Parks, "The Occasion of M i l t o n ' s V o l . 40, 1943, P- 399.  Moscovia,"  1 9 p r k ' s a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n as a r e p l y to J.A.Bryant, who had p o s t u l a t e d that M i l t o n may have been i n f l u e n c e d by S i r F r a n c i s Bacon's d e f i n i t i o n of "cosmographical" history. Bacon i n The Advancement of -Learning20 had a  14  h o w e v e r , t h a t most o f t h e  History of Moscovia  w i t h h i s t o r y r a t h e r than geography. that a geographical  Milton  deals  sensed  s u r v e y o f an a r e a r e l a t i v e l y  known t o m o s t E n g l i s h m e n w o u l d be  a useful introd-  u c t i o n to the  h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h made up  t h i r d s of the  work.  Even the  which c o n s t i t u t e the however, c o n t a i n  f o c u s s e s on  The  the  final  chapter deals  by t h e E n g l i s h and English  defined  chapters  s e c t i o n of the on  the  fourth.chapter d u k e s and  Tartary,  with the  book,  early is in  the  emperors o f Muscovy, influence  S a m o e d i a , and  discovery  t o u c h e s upon the  t r a d e r s and  successive  two-  expansion of i t s p o l i t i c a l  i n t o such remote a r e a s as The  short  historical material  form of a c h r o n i c l e of the and  three  "geographical"  e x p l o r a t i o n of Russia.  un-  of  reception  ambassadors at the  hands  Siberia.  Russia of  various  of  emperors.  " t h e h i s t o r y o f c o s m o g r a p h y " as b e i n g compounded o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , i n r e s p e c t of the regions themselves; h i s t o r y c i v i l , i n r e s p e c t o f t h e h a b i t a t i o n s , r e g i m e n t s , and m a n n e r s of the people.  20  S i r F r a n c i s Bacon, Advancement o f L e a r n i n g , i n Bacon: W o r k s , V I , pp. 1 9 7 - 8 , c i t e d i n J.A. B r y a n t , J r . , " M i l t o n and t h e A r t o f H i s t o r y , " P£, V o l . 2 9 , 1 9 5 0 , p. 27. M i l t o n ' s s u r v e y o f t h e h a b i t s o f t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e seem t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e k i n d of h i s t o r y w h i c h Bacon d e f i n e d .  15  Although the H i s t o r y of Moscovia i s not a or  i m p r e s s i v e work, i t d e m o n s t r a t e s M i l t o n ' s  to  be  attempts  s c h o l a r l y and a c c u r a t e i n h i s h a n d l i n g o f  historical material. his  large  history a l i s t  M i l t o n i n c l u d e d a t t h e end  of  o f e i g h t e e n s o u r c e s upon w h i c h  had d r a w n , and a comment t o t h e e f f e c t  he  that h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n had been t a k e n f r o m t h e w r i t i n g s o f  "Eyeon  witnesses, In  or immediate  the margins  Relaters from  of the t e x t  such as w e r e . "  i t s e l f Milton  periodically  i n s e r t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s o u r c e s he h a d His  accurate reproduction of d e t a i l  has been d e m o n s t r a t e d s c r u t i n i z e d the work. first  by  consulted.  i n the Moscovia  s c h o l a r s who  have  carefully  There i s , f o r example,  i n the  c h a p t e r a p a r a g r a p h i n w h i c h M i l t o n makes u s e  t h i r t e e n numbers c o n c e r n i n g l a t i t u d e s ,  distances,  of  and  o t h e r forms o f measurement, a l l o f w h i c h have been 22  proven  correct. Far  f r o m b e i n g "a p r e c i s " w h i c h " c o u l d h a v e b e e n  done i n a week b y a c o m p i l e r who  knew what he  wanted,"  as P a r k s s u g g e s t s , ^ t h e H i s t o r y of M o s c o v i a r e f l e c t s M i l t o n , A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f M o s c o v i a , W o r k s , V o l . 10, p. 3#2. 2  2 1  R o b e r t R. C a w l e y , M i l t o n ' s L i t e r a r y C r a f t s m a n s h i p ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J., P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941),p.21. 2 2  2 3  Vol.  G . B . P a r k s , "The O c c a s i o n o f M i l t o n ' s M o s c o v i a , " 4 0 , 1943, P. 3 9 9 .  SP,  16  M i l t o n ' s p e r s o n a l views and a t t i t u d e s ; i t i s not merely a c o m p i l a t i o n but a s y n t h e s i s of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s u n i f i e d by M i l t o n ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . p r a i s e s Russian husbands and  For example, he  women f o r t h e i r obedience to  their  r e c o r d s with p l e a s u r e t h a t " i t i s a Rule  among them, t h a t i f the wife be not beaten once a week, she t h i n k s h e r s e l f not belov'd,  and  i s the worse.  M i l t o n ' s a t t i t u d e towards d i v o r c e can be detected i n h i s remark t h a t the husband has the " l i b e r t y " t o d i v o r c e h i s wife "upon u t t e r d i s l i k e . "  The work a l s o exposes  Milton's intense n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g . the E n g l i s h f o r b e i n g the f i r s t the dangerous "northern the f a c t t h a t King  to d i s c o v e r R u s s i a  Ocean" route.  by  Milton exults i n  James of England had acted as a  mediator between the Russians and expresses  He a r d e n t l y e x t o l s  the Poles.  He  also  some of h i s a t t i t u d e s on r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s .  His resentment towards " f o r c e r s of conscience"  can  be  detected i n h i s p r a i s e of the Samoeds, i n whose l a n d man  £~is_7 f o r c ' d to R e l i g i o n . " An indignant comment  on the b e h a v i o r  of the Russian  p r i e s t h o o d echoes h i s  outburst i n "Lycidas": 2.L  M i l t o n , Moscovia, i n Works, V o l . 10,  p. 3 4 0 .  "no  17 They o b s e r v e 4 L e n t s , h a v e S e r v i c e i n t h e i r C h u r c h e s d a i l y , f r o m t w o h o u r s b e f o r e dawn t o E v e n i n g ; y e t f o r Whoredom, Drunkenness a n d E x t o r t i o n none w o r s e t h a n t h e C l e r g y . M i l t o n expressed  i n the History of Moscovia h i s  i d e a s on t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e p l a y e d the  stage  of h i s t o r y .  b y i n d i v i d u a l s on  T h e r e was n o d o u b t i n M i l t o n ' s  m i n d t h a t a man who p o s s e s s e d i n t e g r i t y courage could completely  and moral  a l t e r the t r e n d of events.  For  example, i n h i s account o f t h e l e n g t h y feud between t h e Russians Russian  and t h e P o l e s , M i l t o n t e l l s butcher  whose i n d i g n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e c o r r u p -  t i o n of t h e n o b i l i t y roused  h i sfellow citizens to  f o l l o w h i m i n armed u p r i s i n g . recorded  o f a humble  i n Book X I o f P a r a d i s e  A similar incident i s L o s t , where M i l t o n  p o r t r a y s Noah a s a n u p r i g h t i n d i v i d u a l whom God u s e d to perpetuate Milton's  t h e human r a c e .  Adam t h u s e x c l a i m s : on  behalf:  F a r l e s s I now l a m e n t f o r one w h o l e W o r l d Of w i c k e d S o n s d e s t r o y ' d , t h a n I r e j o i c e F o r one Man f o u n d so p e r f e c t a n d so j u s t , T h a t God v o u t s a f e s t o r a i s e ' a n o t h e r W o r l d From h i m .... ( P L , X I , 874-878);';. M i l t o n ' s most e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t  of h i s t o r i c a l  M i l t o n , M o s c o v i a , i n W o r k s , V o l . 10, p . 340.  18 materials  i n p r o s e i s t o be f o u n d i n h i s H i s t o r y o f  Britain.  An a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  comment i n The R e a s o n o f  Church Government s u g g e s t s t h a t M i l t o n had l o n g interested i n the subject  o f England's  been  "noble  a c h i e v e m e n t s " and h a d e v e n c o n t e m p l a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g a n e p i c i n w h i c h t h e h e r o w o u l d be a k i n g or k n i g h t  from the pre-conquest era.  Milton's  ambition  t o w r i t e a n e p i c was n o t f u l f i l l e d u n t i l many y e a r s afterwards his  i n h i s creation of Paradise  Lost,  whereas  i n t e r e s t i n t h e e a r l y achievements of t h e B r i t i s h  people expressed i t s e l f  i n the prose History of B r i t a i n .  H i s n a t i o n a l p r i d e c a n be d e t e c t e d  i n the s u b t i t l e ,  w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e work i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h England; i t a l s o appears i n t h e opening pages o f t h e t e x t , w h e r e he e x p r e s s e s t h e w i s h t h a t t h e w o r k redound " t o t h e good o f t h e B r i t i s h The  than thematic,  i s basically chronological  rather  f o r i t commences w i t h t h e " f i r s t  i t i o n a l beginnings" order  Nation.  a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n The  History of Britain  in  will  of B r i t a i n  i n t h e d i m p a s t and t r e a t s  o f time t h e major periods  down t o t h e Norman C o n q u e s t .  trad-  of B r i t i s h h i s t o r y  There i s a t r a c e of wish-  26 Milton,  History of Britain,  W o r k s , V o l . 1 0 , p. 3.  19 ful  t h i n k i n g on M i l t o n ' s p a r t a s he o p e n s t h e f i r s t  book.  He s u g g e s t s t h a t  " w i t h much r e a s o n " w e may  " t h a t t h e I s l a n d of B r i t a i n had h e r d w e l l e r s , .{.pa.|£e 3) b e f o r e confesses,  infer  her affairs"  t h e d e l u g e a t t h e t i m e o f Noah.  He  however, t h a t t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n p r i o r  t o t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Romans i s s h r o u d e d i n u n c e r t a i n t y . The  s e c o n d book d e a l s w i t h t h e Roman o c c u p a t i o n  B r i t a i n f r o m 53 B.C.  t o 410 A.D., when t h e E m p e r o r  H o n o r i u s w i t h d r e w t h e Roman l e g i o n s f r o m Milton's in  admiration  h i s comment t h a t  of  f o rclassical  Britain.  c u l t u r e i s evident  " o f t h e Romans we h a v e c a u s e n o t t o  s a y much w o r s e , t h e n t h a t t h e y b e a t e u s i n t o some civilitie."^^ the  arrival  The t h i r d ,  f o u r t h , and f i f t h  of t h e Angles, Jutes,  books t r e a t  and Saxons, and t h e  subsequent f l o u r i s h i n g o f Anglo-Saxon c u l t u r e out  England.  of scathing  through-  I n t h e s i x t h book M i l t o n r e l a t e s i n a t o n e i r o n y t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e Danes o v e r t h e  British:  The Danes ... l i k e w i l d B e a s t s o r r a t h e r S e a M o n s t e r s t o t h i r W a t e r - s t a b l e s , a c c o m p l i s h i n g by C h r i s t m a s t h e C i r c u i t o f t h i r w h o l e y e a r s good Deeds ....2g  Milton, >  •  Milton,  H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , Works, V o l . 1 0 , p. 5 1 . H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , p. 263.  20  The  work e n d s w i t h an a c c o u n t  W i l l i a m o f Normandy, "an King of England  in  of the crowning  of  o u t - l a n d i s h Conqueror,"  as  1066.  M i l t o n ' s frequent references to the sources H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n  he  had  e m p l o y e d i n The  indicate that  was  c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f a c t t h a t some o f h i s a u t h o r i t i e s  were more r e l i a b l e t h a n o t h e r s i n s p i t e o f h i s t o draw from  " t h e a n t i e n t e s t and  best  he  efforts  Authours."  Throughout t h i s work, as i n t h e M o s c o v i a ,  Milton cited  the  admitted  specific  he had  sources  in his first  he had  employed.  He  c h a p t e r r e l i e d h e a v i l y on  Geoffrey  o f Monmouth, e v e n t h o u g h he must h a v e known t h a t had  been a t t a c k e d as an i m p o s t e r o n l y a few  after his death. ^ 2  Geoffrey's legend  o r i g i n o f t h e B r i t i s h r a c e had on t h e l i t e r a t u r e M i l t o n was had he  d i d not The  of the  chivalry in  t h e r e f o r e h e s i t a n t t o r e p u d i a t e an  "receav'd  approbation from  Geoffrey  decades Trojan  made a p r o f o u n d  o f romance and  that  impact England?^ idea that  so m a n y , " 3 1 e v e n t h o u g h  embrace i t w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n . e n d e a v o u r M i l t o n made " t o r e p r e s e n t t h e  truth  ^ H a r r y E. B a r n e s , A H i s t o r y o f H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g (New Y o r k , D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p. 71. 2  30 J  Barnes,  p.  71.  31-Milton, H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n ,  pp.  6,  31.  21 naked" and  to separate i t "from F a b l e s  and  impertin-  32 ences"  i s nowhere more evident  than i n h i s  of the p o p u l a r legends about King A r t h u r . remembered t h a t Milton, had  at one  an epic on King A r t h u r , h i s i n the  handling  When i t i s  time planned to w r i t e  r e p u d i a t i o n of the  legends  i n t e r e s t s of s c h o l a r s h i p appears admirable.  the t h i r d book of the H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n M i l t o n t h a t Arthur's  existence  had  f i r s t appeared i n the work of the  to Arthur  "trivial"  years a f t e r the  had  writer,  i n the strange " B r i t i s h " book of  of Monmouth 600  states  been doubted with good  reason by s c h o l a r s because r e f e r e n c e s  Nennius, and  In  Geoffrey  supposed time of  Arthur.34 The  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  pronounced b i a s . p r a c t i c e s and  M i l t o n ' s b i t t e r a t t i t u d e towards the  customs of the Roman C a t h o l i c church i s  exposed i n h i s u n c h a r i t a b l e  and  u n s c h o l a r l y remarks on  the l e a d i n g h i s t o r i a n of the Anglo-Saxon p e r i o d ,  the  Venerable Bede.  ack-  3 2  Milton,  Even though M i l t o n i s f o r c e d to  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , p.  -^Hughes, John M i l t o n , p. 669, 3 Z f  180.  footnote  M i l t o n , H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , pp.  127-8.  166.  22  nowledge h i s r e l i a n c e on Bede's E c c l e s i a s t i c a l  History  of England, he a t t a c k s Bede f o r h i s "many legends of V i s i o n s and M i r a c l e s " and who  had  orders.  f o r h i s accounts of  kings  r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e i r kingdoms to take up monastic While i t cannot be denied that Bede accepted  the i d e a adhered to by most of the C h r i s t i a n s of h i s age  that doctrines  could f r e q u e n t l y be t e s t e d as  t r u e or f a l s e by the presence of m i r a c l e s , less  he  being  neverthe-  i n c l u d e d as much evidence as p o s s i b l e f o r the  miraculous events which he saw deliberately  ignores t h i s .  f i t to r e l a t e .  Milton  With even l e s s j u s t i f i c a t i o n  he terms the l a s t p a r t of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y a 35 "Calendar r a t h e r than a H i s t o r y . " appears t r i v i a l  when h i s own  Milton's  history,  criticism  especially  the  f i f t h book, i s compared to Bede's work, f o r the  last  p a r t of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y has  personal  intimate  touches t h a t are n o t i c e a b l y absent i n the p o r t i o n s of The are very  few  possess the conversion  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n .  passages i n The stylistic  annalistic  Furthermore,  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n  that  beauty of Bede's account of  of King Edwin or the s t o r y of Caedmon.  M i l t o n , H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , p.  179.  there  the  23 M i l t o n wrote h i s H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n w i t h s p e c i f i c purpose o f i n s t r u c t i n g and reader.  the  b e n e f i t i n g the  Viewing h i s t o r y i n terms of l i b e r t y and  bondage,  M i l t o n throughout the e n t i r e work " i n t e r r u p t e d the smooth course of H i s t o r y " by passing those who  lacked  frequent  judgements on  "the wisdom, the v i r t u e , the labour,  to  36 use  and m a i n t a i n t r u e l i b e r t i e . "  s i o n was  suppres-  the punishment meted out by "the hand of  Heaven" a g a i n s t n a t i o n s t h a t had own  Political  v i c e s and  followed by  lusts;  spiritual  become s l a v e s of t h e i r  bondage was  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  inevitably  enslavement.  " D i g r e s s i o n " which he appended to The  In  the  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n ,  M i l t o n reproached the people of England f o r f a i l i n g  to  e s t a b l i s h a " j u s t and w e l l amended common-wealth" when they had  the  opportunity  to do so.  case on the p a r a l l e l s he detected wealth p e r i o d and  Milton rested his between the Common-  the time of the f i f t h - c e n t u r y B r i t i s h  King, V o r t i g e r n , whose "haughty i g n o r a n c e " and to v i c e had  r e s u l t e d i n the  B r i t o n s by the Anglo-Saxon Milton's poetry 3 6  complete subjugation  of  the  invaders.  i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y i s evident  as w e l l as i n h i s prose.  Milton,  proneness  in his  His choice of the  H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , pp.  3,  104.  epic  24 genre f o r h i s g r e a t e s t  achievement, Paradise  m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o d e p i c t on  t h e grandest p o s s i b l e  agreed w i t h Dr. Johnson  scale.  Lost,  was  history, i n poetic  form,  M i l t o n would have  that  H i s t o r y must s u p p l y t h e /~epic_7 w r i t e r w i t h t h e r u d i m e n t s o f n a r r a t i o n , w h i c h he must i m p r o v e a n d e x a l t b y a n o b l e r a r t , must a n i m a t e by d r a m a t i c k e n e r g y , a n d d i v e r s i f y by r e t r o s p e c t i o n a n d a n t i c i p a t i o n . „ J  It  c a n , o f c o u r s e , be a r g u e d t h a t t h e e p i c p o e t ' s u s e  of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s  d i f f e r s appreciably  from the  m e t h o d s o f t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r . Hobbes, f o r e x a m p l e , stated that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of epic  t o h i s t o r y was 3  analogous t o t h e c o n n e c t i o n between f a n c y and judgement. In the case o f Paradise  Lost,  must be made, f o r M i l t o n ' s  h o w e v e r , some m o d i f i c a t i o n  v i e w s o f h i s t o r y were  derived  l a r g e l y from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  S c r i p t u r e s , w h i c h he r e g a r d e d a s a u t h o r i t a t i v e a n d  therefore  absolutely  of Paradise  true.  Milton i n the earlier  books  L o s t made u s e o f m y t h , l e g e n d , a n d t r a d i t i o n ,  as w e l l a s b i b l i c a l n a r r a t i v e a n d a l l e g o r y , b u t i n B o o k s Dr. Samuel J o h n s o n , " M i l t o n , " L i v e s o f t h e P o e t s , 1779, c i t e d i n T h o r p e , M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m , p . 71. 3^J.B. B r o a d b e n t , Some G r a v e r S u b j e c t and W i n d u s , I960), p . 277.  (London, C h a t t o  25  XI and XII, where h i s views of h i s t o r y are more c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d , he r e l i e s almost  completely  on S c r i p t u r e .  In  these l a s t two books M i l t o n p o r t r a y s the h i s t o r y o f mankind from Eden to the f i n a l  judgement.  Adam's v i s i o n of the h i s t o r y o f t h e human race i s 39  based  on e p i c precedent.  The s e r i e s of p i c t u r e - s c e n e s  or t a b l e a u x which M i c h a e l d i s p l a y s t o Adam resemble t h e p i c t u r e s t h a t Hephaistos wrought on A c h i l l e s '  shield:  A l s o he wrought t h e r e i n a herd of kine w i t h u p r i g h t horns, and the k i n e were f a s h i o n e d of g o l d and t i n , and with lowing they h u r r i e d from t h e byre to p a s t u r e beside a murmuring river (The I l i a d , XVIII, 5 7 3 - 5 7 6 ) . 4U M i l t o n ' s p a s t o r a l scene d e p i c t i n g the a n t e d i l u v i a n period of h i s t o r y i s s t r i k i n g l y  similar:  He l o o k ' d and saw a spacious P l a i n , whereon Were t e n t s of v a r i o u s hue; by some were herds Of C a t t l e g r a z i n g (PL, XI, 5 5 6 - 5 5 8 ) I t i s a l s o probable t h a t he had i n mind Aeneas' v i s i o n of t h e g l o r i o u s d e s t i n y o f Rome i n the s i x t h book of V i r g i l ' s Aeneid, and B r i t o m a r t ' s glimpse  i n the "charmed  l o o k i n g g l a s s " o f t h e course o f B r i t i s h h i s t o r y down t o  ^ H u g h e s , John M i l t o n , p. 4 4 1 , f o o t n o t e 3 5 7 . ^ A . Lang, W. Leaf, and E. Myers, t r a n s . , The I l i a d o f Homer (London, Macmillan, 1 9 6 l ) , p. 3 4 5 ' .  26 the time of E l i z a b e t h , as r e l a t e d by Spenser i n the book of The  F a e r i e Queene.  Milton's sharply  p o r t r a y a l of h i s t o r y , however,  i n s c a l e and  scope from these e a r l i e r  d e l i n e a t i o n s of h i s t o r y . the f o r t u n e s the  destiny  of any  one  His epic i s not nation,  differs epic  concerned w i t h  however g r e a t ,  but  with  of "the whole i n c l u d e d Race" whose a c t i o n s  are u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the God.  third  " E t e r n a l purpose" of  History for Milton  i s thus a m a g n i f i c e n t pageant  which d i s p l a y s "supernal  Grace contending w i t h j_ the_J  s i n f u l n e s s of Men."  XI,  (PL,  359-60)  27  CHAPTER I I  M i l t o n a n d t h e C h r i s t i a n V i e w o f Man's D e s t i n y -  M i l t o n ' s v i e w o f man's d e s t i n y c l o s e l y the C h r i s t i a n concept Augustine fifth has  o f h i s t o r y f o r m u l a t e d by S t .  i n The C i t y o f God i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e  century.  R.G. C o l l i n g w o o d  termed t h e C h r i s t i a n approach  providential, universalistic, has  on t i m e .  t o h i s t o r y as  a n d epochal.*'"  However, M i l t o n n e v e r  i s particularly noticeable i n h i s  h a n d l i n g of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s , which  are manipulated  c o n f o r m t o h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e u n i f y i n g w i l l  Milton, l i k e Augustine, conflict  o f God.  saw t h e p r o c e s s o f t i m e a s a  b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s o f good a n d e v i l ,  b u t he  "'"R.G. C o l l i n g w o o d , The I d e a o f H i s t o r y ( O x f o r d , P r e s s , 1946), p p . 49-50": E . H . C a r r , What i s H i s t o r y ? ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , P e n g u i n , 1964), p. 110. 2  made  o f t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w i t h o u t t r a n s f o r m i n g them new e n d s ; t h i s  to  E.H. C a r r  T h e s e f o u r t e r m s c a n be a p p l i e d t o  M i l t o n ' s p o e t r y and prose.  to  i n The I d e a o f H i s t o r y  s t r e s s e d the t e l e o l o g i c a l aspect of C h r i s t i a n 2  views  use  resembled  Clarendon  Middlesex,  28 narrowed wills, will  i t down t o a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n g o o d a n d e v i l  the l a t t e r  o f God.  s i g n i f y i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e omnipotent  The p r o v i d e n t i a l v i e w o f man's d e s t i n y was,  therefore, p a r t i c u l a r l y appealing to Milton. purpose  i n w r i t i n g Paradise Lost  His  (apart from h i s d e s i r e  t o be " d e a r t o God a n d f a m o u s t o a l l a g e s " ) was t o "assert E t e r n a l Providence/And t o men."  j u s t i f y t h e ways o f God  F o r M i l t o n t h e essence  God's " E t e r n a l p u r p o s e  o f h i s t o r y was w h a t  hath decreed."  The u n i v e r s a l i s m  o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i d e a s on h i s t o r i c a l  processes  was a c c e p t a b l e t o M i l t o n i n s o f a r a s i t e x p r e s s e d t h e a l l - e m b r a c i n g p l a n s o f God f o r m a n k i n d . stressed the importance plans;  Milton,  of i n d i v i d u a l obedience  e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l was d i r e c t l y b e n e a t h  task-Master's eye." Milton's view of time,  however, t o God's  the "great like  A u g u s t i n e ' s , was e p o c h a l , b u t i n an e n t i r e l y  different  way.  symmetrical  M i l t o n d i d not adopt  Augustine's neat,  p a t t e r n s i n h i s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e d e s t i n y o f mankind i n Books X I and X I I o f P a r a d i s e L o s t .  Stressing the f a l l  o f man a n d t h e r e d e m p t i v e w o r k o f C h r i s t , M i l t o n  regarded  h i s t o r y a s a dynamic, y e t s y n c o p a t e d , p r o c e s s by w h i c h God's w i l l was w o r k e d o u t t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s a n d nations.  M i l t o n ' s v i e w o f t i m e was a l s o  teleological,  f o r he saw  h i s t o r y proceeding  of time was w i l l of  towards a g o a l ; the  i n f u s e d with the energy and  process  dynamism of  the  God. The  C h r i s t i a n view of man's d e s t i n y was  from the Old and c l e a r l y i n The  New  Testaments.  C i t y of God/,  derived  Augustine had  stated  t h a t h i s concepts of  h i s t o r i c a l development were based on the S c r i p t u r e s , which a l l C h r i s t i a n s of h i s age "divine authority."3  The  acknowledged as  h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s of  having the  "pagans" on the other hand, were considered u n r e l i a b l e , s i n c e they had not been g i v e n to mankind by means of divine revelation. has analyzed  One  e a r l y twentieth-century  scholar  the impact of C h r i s t i a n ideas on h i s t o r y :  There i s no more momentous r e v o l u t i o n i n the h i s t o r y of thought than t h i s , i n which the achievements of t h i n k e r s and workers, of a r t i s t s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , poets, and statesmen, were g i v e n up f o r the r e v e l a t i o n of prophets and a gospel of w o r l d l y r e n u n c i a t i o n .... The sacred S c r i p t u r e s of the Jews had r e p l a c e d the l i t e r a t u r e of a n t i q u i t y . A r e v o l u t i o n was  S t . Augustine, The City, of God, t r a n s . M. Dods, i n B a s i c W r i t i n g s of St. Augustine, ed. Whitney J . Oates (New York, Random House, 1948), V o l . I I , XI, 1, 143Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o Augustine's work w i l l be from this edition.  30  t a k i n g place i n the h i s t o r y of H i s t o r y .... The a u t h o r i t y of a r e v e a l e d r e l i g i o n sanctioned but one scheme of h i s t o r y through the vast and i n t r i c a t e e v o l u t i o n of the antique w o r l d . ^ Milton's  p o s i t i o n regarding  S c r i p t u r e to s e c u l a r h i s t o r i e s was  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of more complex than  t h a t o f the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r i a n s . Renaissance s c h o l a r and works of the  humanist M i l t o n  As a l a t e admired  c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r i a n s , poets, and  the philosophers.  In h i s Of E d u c a t i o n M i l t o n made i t c l e a r t h a t a thorough knowledge of the required  of one  into things." his  "choice who  h i s t o r i e s " of a n t i q u i t y  wished to g a i n a " u n i v e r s a l i n s i g h t  As a P u r i t a n , however, M i l t o n  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The  C h r i s t i a n Doctrine  Holy S c r i p t u r e s a l o n e . " 5  adhered "to the  C h r i s t i a n t r u t h , which embraced sacred as d o c t r i n e , was  The  he  sum  of  h i s t o r y as  well  to be found i n the pages of h o l y  Christ."  of the world and  stated i n  that  the S c r i p t u r e s were " t h a t Divine R e v e l a t i o n a l l ages by  was  0  d i s c l o s e d to  In h i s accounts of the  the f a l l  of man  i n Paradise  writ;  creation Lost,  ^J.T. S h o t w e l l , I n t r o d u c t i o n to the H i s t o r y of (New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 2 2 ) , pp.  Milton  History 284-86.  ^ M i l t o n , The C h r i s t i a n Doctrine, i n Hughes, p. 9 0 2 . Further c i t a t i o n s to The C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e w i l l a l s o to Hughes' abridged e d i t i o n . %ilton,  The  Christian Doctrine,  p.  903.  be  31 appealed t o the Holy S p i r i t  (who i s p o e t i c a l l y addressed  as "Heav'nly Muse," "Urania," and " C e l e s t i a l Patroness") to "govern" h i s n a r r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s which he accepts without  question as a u t h e n t i c . M i l t o n ' s e f f o r t s t o suppress h i s admiration f o r  c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y (which were f r e q u e n t l y i n s e p a r a b l e ) i n d i c a t e an u n d e r l y i n g t e n s i o n between h i s humanism and h i s p u r i t a n i s m .  In the poem, "On The  Morning of C h r i s t ' s N a t i v i t y , " M i l t o n s a d l y  repudiates  the gods of Greece and Rome: The  O r a c l e s are dumb ....  With flow'r-inwov'n t r e s s e s t o r n The Nymphs i n t w i l i g h t shade of tangled t h i c k e t s mourn. (11. 173, 187-3) In the account of t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the f a l l e n i n h e l l i n the f i r s t  angels  book of P a r a d i s e Lost M i l t o n des-  c r i b e s a t some l e n g t h Homer's s t o r y of M u l c i b e r ' s "sheer  o'er the C r y s t a l Battlements."  fall  Suddenly remember-  i n g t h a t the s t o r y i s not from the B i b l e , M i l t o n breaks the c o n t i n u i t y o f h i s b e a u t i f u l poetry t o i n s e r t harsh  these  lines: ... thus they r e l a t e , E r r i n g ; f o r he with t h i s r e b e l l i o u s r o u t F e l l l o n g b e f o r e ; nor aught a v a i l ' d him now. (PL, I, 746-8) •  32  In P a r a d i s e Regained M i l t o n argues, somewhat u n c o n v i n c i n g l y , that Hebrew h i s t o r y and law were so "strew'd with Hymns" t h a t they aroused the admiration  o f the Greeks. (PR, IV,  334-8)  M i l t o n ' s r e p u d i a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e appears throughout h i s works o n l y i n p l a c e s where he f e e l s o b l i g a t e d to choose between t h e r e v e a l e d t r u t h o f S c r i p t u r e and human l e a r n i n g and wisdom.  He  was too much of a humanist to t r e a t s e c u l a r l e a r n i n g lightly.  U n l i k e some o f the e a r l y P a t r i s t i c w r i t e r s such  as T e r t u l l i a n , who had exclaimed  " I t i s impossible*,  f o r e c e r t a i n , " M i l t o n was anxious t o give reason He d i d not r e v e l i n the miraculous.  there-  i t s due.  His i r r i t a t i o n at  the " b l i n d , a s t o n i s h ' d " monks who were "more fond o f m i r a c l e s than apprehensive of t r u t h " ? i n t h e i r treatment of e a r l y B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , i n d i c a t e s h i s c a s t o f mind.  He •  had absorbed the Renaissance i d e a of the primacy o f reason^  t o a much g r e a t e r degree than some other  teenth-century  men of l e t t e r s .  seven-  U n l i k e S i r Thomas Browne,  f o r example, M i l t o n d i d not love to l o s e h i m s e l f i n a  ^ M i l t o n , H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , pp. 9 2 , 1 0 2 . ^Garr, What i s H i s t o r y ? , p. 1 1 0 .  33 mystery. Nevertheless,  as a P u r i t a n M i l t o n  believed  i m p l i c i t l y t h a t the S c r i p t u r e s were the only r e p o s i t o r i e s of f i x e d t r u t h and  that God  enabled i n d i v i d u a l s to  understand them "under the guidance of the Holy S p i r i t . " ^ Because he was  c e r t a i n t h a t God  had  revealed  his will  and p l a n f o r mankind through the Holy S c r i p t u r e s  alone,  M i l t o n f e l t t h a t s e c u l a r l e a r n i n g and wisdom were u l t i m a t e l y unnecessary, r e g a r d l e s s  o f t h e i r appeal to  the human mind: ... he who r e c e i v e s L i g h t from above, from the f o u n t a i n of l i g h t No other d o c t r i n e needs, though granted t r u e ; But these are f a l s e , or l i t t l e e l s e but dreams. (PR, IV, 288-91) The  highest  form of reason was,  found i n the  "schools  of the p h i l o s o p h e r s "  i n the r e c o g n i t i o n and which had  t h e r e f o r e , not to  been r e v e a l e d  but  be  simply  acceptance of the w i l l of  God  to humanity i n the S c r i p t u r e s .  M i l t o n ' s views on the d e s t i n y of mankind were, i n t h e i r b a s i c o u t l i n e s , p a r a l l e l to those o f Augustine who, o  M i l t o n , The  St.  r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on the S c r i p t u r e s ,  C h r i s t i a n Doctrine,  p.  903.  had  34  g i v e n expression t o the C h r i s t i a n philosophy of h i s t o r y i n The C i t y of God. In t h i s C h r i s t i a n c l a s s i c had  demonstrated t h a t the process  regarded evil.  Augustine  o f h i s t o r y was t o be  as a s t r u g g l e between the f o r c e s o f good and  The " C i t y o f God" i n c l u d e d a l l those  "predestined  to r e i g n e t e r n a l l y with God," whereas the " C i t y of Satan" was comprised of those who had been f o r e o r d a i n e d "to s u f f e r e t e r n a l punishment w i t h t h e devil.""""^ H i s t o r y f o r Augustine time;  was not c o n f i n e d to the course o f  i t was i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d t o e t e r n i t y , f o r the  community of e l e c t b e l i e v e r s was a c i t y surpassing g l o r i o u s , whether we view i t as i t s t i l l l i v e s by f a i t h i n t h i s f l e e t i n g course o f time, and sojourns as a s t r a n g e r i n the midst of t h e ungodly, or as i t s h a l l dwell i n t h e f i x e d s t a b i l i t y of i t s e t e r n a l seat. In h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of man's d e s t i n y i n The C i t y of God,Augustine a l l u d e d to a passage from t h e new Testament f a m i l i a r t o the C h r i s t i a n s of h i s day when he commented t h a t t h e r e were only two k i n d s o f human s o c i e t y " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e language o f the S c r i p t u r e s " : The one c o n s i s t s o f those who wish to l i v e a f t e r the f l e s h , t h e other of those who wish t o l i v e a f t e r the S p i r i t . ^ 1 0  Augustine,  -^Augustine,  The C i t y o f God, XV, 1 , 2 7 5 . The C i t y o f God, I , Preface, p. 3 .  35  The  passage i n P a u l ' s e p i s t l e to the  A u g u s t i n e made r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e d p e r p e t u a l c o n f l i c t between the and  the  this he  "children  idea to h i s  saw  as  good and  of  the  Milton  Christian  the  conflicting wills  of  The of w i l l The  can  stress  Christian  attributes  of  God.  paused to  e n c e and  unity  w i l l . T h e s e  God.  emphasizing  discussed  other  somewhat more f u l l y then proceeded to  the  God's attributes, the  omnipot-  treat  at  gracious-  j u s t i c e , a l l of w h i c h were  e m p h a s i z e d i n M i l t o n ' s v i e w s on  A u g u s t i n e , The  of  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h God's  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were h o l i n e s s , and  concept  second c h a p t e r  survey of  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he  ness, f a i t h f u l n e s s ,  1 2  accentuated  p l a c e d upon the  a rapid  He  of  history.  i m m u t a b i l i t y and  discuss  of  great l e n g t h the  in  which  forces  c o n f l i c t by  i n w h i c h he  After  applied  process of time,  detected i n the  Doctrine,  immensity, e t e r n i t y , Milton  ideas of  a  promise"  Augustine  between the  which M i l t o n  e a s i l y be  of  throughout h i s works  these early role  "children  c o n c e p t s of the  which  t h a t t h e r e was  bondwoman."  a constant struggle evil.  G a l a t i a n s to  C i t y of  God,  history.  XIV,  1,  ^Roj D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , M a n n e r i s m and U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 65.  God's  holiness  239. Baroque  (Toronto,  36  and p u r i t y d i d not permit Him to t o l e r a t e r e b e l l i o n i n heaven; Satan and h i s h o s t s were t h e r e f o r e t h r u s t out from God's presence  into h e l l .  f a i t h f u l n e s s were manifested  God's graciousness and  i n h i s k i n d l y treatment o f  Adam and Eve, who repented  of t h e i r " w i l l f u l crime" o f  disobedience t o h i s w i l l .  A l l o f God's ways were t o men." (SA, 2 9 3 - 5 )  " j u s t . . . . and j u s t i f i a b l e  Since God's w i l l was unquestionably as M i l t o n was concerned, were e v i l .  good as f a r  a l l forms of o p p o s i t i o n t o i t  The c a r d i n a l s i n of Satan and h i s hosts was  t h e i r w i l f u l o p p o s i t i o n t o God, who alone complete a u t h o r i t y .  possessed  The "hot h e l l " t h a t always burned i n  Satan c o u l d never be e x t i n g u i s h e d as long as h i s "unconquerable w i l l " s e t i t s e l f a g a i n s t t h e Almighty. There was n o t h i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y  e v i l about t h e f r u i t  that Adam and Eve ate i n t h e garden of Eden; i t was not the apple t h a t corrupted our f i r s t  parents but t h e i r  d e l i b e r a t e a c t of d i s o b e y i n g the commandment o f God t h a t brought them to r u i n .  In t h e l a s t  two books of  P a r a d i s e L o s t , where numerous examples of human ness and e r r o r are recorded,  sinful-  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  t h a t , apart from a few i s o l a t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o tyranny, l u x u r y and s e n s u a l i t y , there i s very l i t t l e t h a t one's moral i n d i g n a t i o n . 1 4  arouses  The b a s i c s i n of mankind, as  "^Roy D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , Mannerism and Baroque, p. 7 9 .  37 s e e n by M i l t o n i n t h e l e n g t h y s u r v e y o f human d e s t i n y a t the  end o f h i s e p i c , was  the  will  of  t h e i r f a i l u r e t o conform t o  God.  T h e r e was  a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between M i l t o n ' s  v i e w s on h i s t o r y and h i s c o n c e p t s o f good and e v i l , f o r M i l t o n saw h i s t o r y a s a d r a m a w h i c h p o r t r a y e d God's w i l l , t r i u m p h i n g over a l l forms o f o p p o s i t i o n . r e b e l l i o n i n h e a v e n , w h i c h was event of h i s t o r y , God's c r e a t i o n o f  the f i r s t  o r p r e - h i s t o r y , was  Satan's cataclysmic  the occasion f o r  mankind:  B u t l e s t h i s h e a r t e x a l t h i m i n t h e harm A l r e a d y done, t o have d i s p e o p l ' d heav'n, My damage f o n d l y deem'd, I c a n r e p a i r T h a t d e t r i m e n t , i f s u c h i t be t o l o s e S e l f - l o s t , a n d i n a moment w i l l c r e a t e A n o t h e r W o r l d , o u t o f one man a R a c e Of men i n n u m e r a b l e .... (PL, V I I , 150-156) The f a l l  o f man  i n E d e n , w h i c h a t f i r s t a p p e a r e d t o be  an  u n q u a l i f i e d t r i u m p h f o r S a t a n , was  c o u n t e r a c t e d by God's  r e d u c t i o n o f S a t a n t o "a m o n s t r o u s  s e r p e n t " and by  Son's r e q u e s t of the F a t h e r t h a t mankind Throughout interfering  Books X I and X I I M i l t o n  be  redeemed.  showed God  i n human a f f a i r s by o v e r c o m i n g  the  actively  evil  with  good: ... I am s e n t To show t h e e what s h a l l come i n f u t u r e d a y s To t h e e and t o t h y O f f s p r i n g ; good w i t h b a d Expect t o hear, s u p e r n a l Grace contending W i t h s i n f u l n e s s o f Men (PL, X I , 356-360)  38  C h r i s t i a n v i e w s on t h e p r o c e s s o f t i m e w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r e m p h a s i s on t h e o p e r a t i o n s divine providence, accurate  while  Collingwood  of  i s not entirely  i n h i s remark t h a t t h e p r o v i d e n t i a l i d e a o f  h i s t o r y was " t o t a l l y a b s e n t f r o m Greco-Roman h i s t o r i o g raphy"-^ i ti s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t C h r i s t i a n s took f a r more s e r i o u s l y t h a n t h e G r e e k s o r Romans t h e c o n c e p t t h a t a l l human a f f a i r s w e r e u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d a n d d i r e c t e d by t h e hand o f heaven.  Virgil poetically  r e i t e r a t e s t h r o u g h o u t The A e n e i d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e Gods were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e f u t u r e o f Rome, b u t t h e reader gets the impression  t h a t V i r g i l does n o t t a k e t o o  s e r i o u s l y t h e l o v e - q u a r r e l s o f Jove and Juno w h i c h o s t e n s i b l y c o n t r o l t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e l e a d i n g human characters ever,  i n the epic.  The C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r i a n , how-  h a d a p r o f o u n d r e v e r e n c e f o r one God, whom he  believed ruled omnipotently but benevolently a f f a i r s o f men.  Augustine dogmatically  i n the  affirmed  that  human k i n g d o m s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y d i v i n e providence. A n d i f a n y one a t t r i b u t e s t h e i r e x i s t e n c e t o f a t e , b e c a u s e he c a l l s t h e w i l l o r t h e power o f God i t s e l f b y t h e name o f f a t e , l e t h i m keep h i s o p i n i o n , b u t c o r r e c t h i s language. 5 1  ^Collingwood, l 6  The I d e a o f H i s t o r y , p p . 4 9 - 5 2 .  A u g u s t i n e , The C i t y o f God, V, 1, 5 4 .  39 M i l t o n ' s emphasis on the w i l l of God throughout h i s poetry and prose i n d i c a t e d t h a t he, l i k e  Augustine  and C a l v i n , c o u l d not t h i n k o f human d e s t i n y as having u l t i m a t e meaning a p a r t from d i v i n e Augustine  providence.^  had s t a t e d t h a t human governments were estab-  l i s h e d by d i v i n e providence, and C a l v i n had d o g m a t i c a l l y p o s t u l a t e d t h a t God's w i l l was "the cause of a l l t h i n g s " and t h a t " h i s providence / was_7 the d e t e r m i n a t i v e 18 p r i n c i p l e f o r a l l human plans and works."  Both o f  these i n f l u e n t i a l C h r i s t i a n t h i n k e r s had e x p l i c i t l y r u l e d out c l a s s i c a l concepts r e l a t i n g to t h e r o l e o f f o r t u n e and f a i t h i n human a f f a i r s .  Augustine  attacked  those who assumed e i t h e r t h a t events d i d "not proceed from some i n t e l l i g i b l e order "or that they took p l a c e independently of t h e w i l l o f God and man, by the n e c e s s i t y of a c e r t a i n o r d e r . " " ^  Calvin  similarly  devaluated f o r t u n e by s t a t i n g t h a t "God's providence e x e r c i s e s a u t h o r i t y over f o r t u n e i n d i r e c t i n g i t s end."20 l ^ F . Smith Fussner, The H i s t o r i c a l R e v o l u t i o n , p. 11. -^John C a l v i n , I n s t i t u t e s of the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n , ! , XVIII, 2, i n W i l l i a m F. Keesecher, A C a l v i n Treasury (New York, Harper, 1961), p. 105. 1 9  2 0  Augustine, Calvin,  The C i t y o f God, V, 1, 54.  I n s t i t u t e s , I , XVI, 9, i n Keesecher,  p. 104.  40  Generally speaking,  a l l C h r i s t i a n views of h i s t o r y agree  on t h i s p o i n t . M i l t o n a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h Augustine i n h i s views on p r o v i d e n c e .  and C a l v i n  I n The C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e  he argued t h a t f a t e c o u l d be " n o t h i n g b u t a d i v i n e decree emanating from some a l m i g h t y power." -'2  That t h i s power  was f o r M i l t o n none o t h e r than God i s e v i d e n t i n t h e speech o f t h e F a t h e r t o t h e Son j u s t p r i o r t o h i s creation of the world: ... N e c e s s i t y and Chance Approach n o t mee, and what I w i l l i s F a t e . (PL,  This idea i s repeated,  VII,  173-4)  though i n a l e s s d i r e c t manner,  i n C h r i s t ' s repudiation of t h e vain philosophies of the Greek S t o i c s i n P a r a d i s e Regained: ... they ... t o t h e m s e l v e s A l l g l o r y a r r o g a t e , t o God g i v e none, R a t h e r accuse him under u s u a l names, F o r t u n e and F a t e , as one r e g a r d l e s s q u i t e Of M o r t a l Things (PR, I V , 3 1 4 - 1 8 ) Human d e s t i n y was t h u s i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d t o t h e o l o g y i n M i l t o n ' s mind.  Everything that transpired i n h i s t o r y  ' M i l t o n , The C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e , p. 9 0 5 .  41 was u l t i m a t e l y m o t i v a t e d a n d d i r e c t e d by God.  Milton  was n o t an i s o l a t e d t h i n k e r i n h i s v i e w s on p r o v i d e n t i a l history,  f o r m o s t o f t h e men o f l e a r n i n g i n s e v e n t e e n t h -  century England, Puritan o r otherwise, believed dominating p r o v i d e n c e .  2 2  ina  Nevertheless, throughout t h e  c e n t u r y t h e r e had been an i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o separate h i s t o r y from d i v i n i t y  and t o a p p l y h i s t o r i c a l  s c h o l a r s h i p t o secondary causes -^ r a t h e r t h a n t o u l t i m a t e 2  causes r e l a t i n g t o t h e w i l l  o f God.  This tendency i s  n o t a p p a r e n t i n M i l t o n ' s w o r k , h o w e v e r , f o r M i l t o n saw all of  historical  events i n terms o f t h e u n i f y i n g  God's c o n t r o l l i n g  principle  will.  E v e n t h o u g h M i l t o n v i e w e d man's d e s t i n y a s t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i d e n c e o f God, he was a l s o adamant i n h i s b e l i e f i n t h e f r e e d o m In  this  Calvin.  o f t h e human  will.  r e s p e c t he was much c l o s e r t o A u g u s t i n e t h a n t o A u g u s t i n e had a s s e r t e d  that  our w i l l s themselves a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h a t o r d e r o f c a u s e s o f human a c t i o n s ; He who foreknew a l l the causes of t h i n g s would c e r t a i n l y among t h o s e c a u s e s n o t h a v e b e e n ignorant of our w i l l s . 2 ^ 22 F u s s n e r , The H i s t o r i c a l R e v o l u t i o n , p . 25. 23 F u s s n e r , p. 25. 24Augustine, The C i t y o f God, V, 9, 66.  42 Augustine had thus i m p l i e d t h a t God's foreknowledge l o g i c a l l y preceded h i s a c t s o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n .  Calvin  i n v e r t e d t h e process by a f f i r m i n g t h a t God once e s t a b l i s h e d by h i s e t e r n a l and unchangeable plan those whom he long before determined once f o r a l l t o r e c e i v e i n t o s a l v a t i o n , and those whom, on the o t h e r hand, he would devote to d e s t r u c t i o n . ^ Although t h e P u r i t a n s  as a group adhered t o C a l v i n ' s  i d e a s on p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , M i l t o n e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d them i n favour  o f the A u g u s t i n i a n  and Arminian  doctrine  2(5 of f r e e w i l l .  In The C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e  M i l t o n con-  tended t h a t i t was absurd t o separate t h e " w i l l of t h e D e i t y from h i s e t e r n a l counsel  and foreknowledge;" the  whole canon o f S c r i p t u r e showed "that God decreed  nothing  a b s o l u t e l y , which he l e f t i n the power of f r e e agents."^7 Continuing be  h i s argument, M i l t o n  suggested t h a t i t would  "unworthy of God" t o a l l o w man nominally  l i b e r t y of which he was i n f a c t d e p r i v e d . 25  t o enjoy a The most  C a l v i n , I n s t i t u t e s , I I I , XXI, 7, i n Keesecher, p.102.  D o n M. Wolfe, " E l i z a b e t h a n Warnings and P a r a l l e l s , " i n Complete Prose Works o f John M i l t o n (New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953), V o l . I,p.l9. 2 6  27 M i l t o n , The C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e ,  p. 911.  43  interesting feature will  o f M i l t o n ' s d e f e n s e o f human f r e e  i s t h a t i t i n no way  of the  sovereignty  of  detracts from h i s  appreciation  God:  ... t h e w i l l o f God i s n o t l e s s t h e u n i v e r s a l f i r s t c a u s e b e c a u s e He has h i m s e l f d e c r e e d t h a t some t h i n g s s h o u l d be l e f t t o o u r own free w i l l . ^ g M i l t o n was  t h u s one  step  ahead of the  p r i m e c o n c e r n was  to protect  acknowledged t h a t  God  will  i f He  third  chose.  had  This  book o f P a r a d i s e  Calvinists,  God's s o v e r e i g n t y ,  t h e r i g h t t o g i v e man  i d e a was  will,  be  n o t by n e c e s s i t y .  to detect t o God  men  that iniquity  i f the  for  he  free  also expressed i n  the  L o s t , where M i l t o n makes i t c l e a r  t h a t God's " h i g h D e c r e e U n c h a n g e a b l e " had t h a t a n g e l s and  whose  f r e e t o s e r v e God M i l t o n was  ordained by  their  perceptive  c o u l d l o g i c a l l y be  concept of f r e e w i l l were not  own  enough  traced  back  upheld.  ... t h e y t h e m s e l v e s d e c r e e d T h i r own r e v o l t , h o t I : i f I f o r e k n e w , F o r e k n o w l e d g e had no i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r f a u l t W h i c h had no l e s s p r o v ' d c e r t a i n u n f o r e k n o w n . (PL, I I I , 116-119) Another important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the C h r i s t i a n  M i l t o n , The  Christian Doctrine,  pp.  913-14.  44  view of man's d e s t i n y and  Roman h i s t o r i a n s had  attention the  was  on  i t s universalism. 9  almost i n v a r i a b l y f o c u s s e d t h e i r  some s p e c i f i c country or c i t y , u s u a l l y  intention  of p e r p e t u a t i n g the  r a c e or community concerned. the  fame of the  creation  and  Jew,  f a l l of man,  and  the  which s c h o l a r s  The  fascination  were i n c l u d e d  them attempt to w r i t e u n i v e r s a l as 2 2 1  A.D.,  C i t y of God  almost two  of  "neither free."  f o r world  a c q u i r e d as a r e s u l t of the  a l l men  on  redemption  B a r b a r i a n , S c y t h i a n , bond nor  (Colossians 3-H)  idea t h a t  particular  i n such s u b j e c t s  mankind as a whole, f o r i n C h r i s t there was Greek nor  with  Christian historians,  other hand, were v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d  as the  Greek  2  history  Christian  i n God's plans made histories.  centuries  As  early  before Augustine's  appeared, a C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r named Sextus  J u l i u s A f r i c a n u s produced a five-volume work e n t i t l e d Chronographia, i n which the as t h a t  of the  Jews and  ive consideration.  The  history  e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s was first  The  given  well  intens-  great church h i s t o r i a n ,  Eusebius, wrote a s i m i l a r work, The 3 0 3 A.D.  of the pagans as  Chronicle,  about  C h r i s t i a n view of h i s t o r y , with i t s  emphasis upon u n i v e r s a l i t y , gained such wide acceptance 29  R.G.  Collingwood, The  Idea of H i s t o r y ,  p.  49.  45  by the e i g h t h century t h a t most European h i s t o r i a n s began t o i m i t a t e Bede's p r a c t i c e o f d a t i n g a l l events by the s i n g l e u n i v e r s a l chronology  based upoh the  supposed date of the b i r t h o f C h r i s t . 3 0 The  u n i v e r s a l i s m o f C h r i s t i a n views on h i s t o r y  was a l s o a s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of M i l t o n ' s conception of human d e s t i n y .  H i s view o f h i s t o r y embraced the past,  p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , and a l l persons, and d e v i l s as w e l l as mankind.  including  angels  In the t h i r d book of  Paradise L o s t , M i l t o n d e p i c t e d God "beholding from h i s prospect h i g h " t h e t o t a l i t y of time and space.  God  summed up t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f men and angels by r e l a t i n g to t h e Son t h a t man, who would f a l l hands of t h e "adversary," permit  "deceiv'd" a t t h e  should f i n d grace i n order t o  "Mercy and J u s t i c e both" t o shine b r i g h t l y  Heav'n and E a r t h . " The  "through  (PL, I I I , 1 3 3 - 4 )  immense scope of time suggested  by this;scene  was g i v e n f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n i n l a t e r p o r t i o n s o f P a r a d i s e Lost.  M i l t o n ' s lengthy p o r t r a y a l of Raphael's v i s i t  to Adam and Eve p r o v i d e d him with t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l a t e the g r e a t events which had t r a n s p i r e d b e f o r e the 30  Collingwood,  The Idea o f H i s t o r y , p. 5 1 -  4 6  c r e a t i o n of man.  Even though M i l t o n appeared t o be  s l i g h t l y embarrassed by t h e problem o f r e l a t i n g time t o e t e r n i t y , he i n s i s t e d t h a t events p r i o r t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e p r o c e s s o f h i s t o r y : As y e t t h i s World was n o t , and Chaos w i l d Reign'd where t h e s e Heav'ns now r o l l , where •Earth now r e s t s Upon h e r Centre p o i s ' d , when on a day (For Time, t h r o u g h i n E t e r n i t y , a p p l i e d To m o t i o n , measures a l l t h i n g s d u r a b l e By p r e s e n t , p a s t , and f u t u r e ) on such day As Heav'n's g r e a t Year b r i n g s f o r t h .... (PL,  This introductory  V,  577-S3)  speech by Raphael was f o l l o w e d  d e t a i l e d n a r r a t i o n o f t h e war i n heaven and,  by a  i n the  f o l l o w i n g book, by a g r e a t l y expanded account o f t h e Genesis s t o r y o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d and mankind. Having p o r t r a y e d t h e g r e a t e v e n t s p r i o r t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f man, M i l t o n t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n towards t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y of t h e human r a c e between Eden and t h e f i n a l judgement.  The d i v i n e messenger a p p o i n t e d by God  t o o u t l i n e t h e f u t u r e t o Adam was t h e s t e r n , m i l i t a n t angel, Michael,  who was q u i t e u n l i k e t h e a f f a b l e G a b r i e l ,  who had r e c o u n t e d t h e p a s t t o Adam and Eve w h i l e t a k i n g o f t h e i r f e t e champetre.  par-  Books e l e v e n and t w e l v e  47 of Paradise L o s t , i n which M i l t o n complete h i s t o r y  intended to depict  o f Adam's o f f s p r i n g ,  p o i n t o f v i e w t o be  appear from  the  one  l i t t l e more t h a n a p r e c i s  of  w i t h an  story  31 biblical history, the  Hebrews.  h i s t o r y was  In t h i s r e s p e c t M i l t o n s f  s i m i l a r to that  world h i s t o r i a n s . the  significance  o f God, the  emphasis upon t h e  of the  Christians of  f o r i t was  the  early  line  traditionally  stressed  great  o f Abraham t h a t  e a r t h w e r e t o be  of  Christian  Hebrew p e o p l e i n t h e  from the  n a t i o n s of the  had  delineation  of  plan  a l l of  blessed:  Not o n l y t o t h e Sons o f Abraham's L o i n s S a l v a t i o n s h a l l be P r e a c h t , b u t t o t h e Sons Of A b r a h a m ' s F a i t h w h e r e v e r t h r o u g h t h e w o r l d ; So i n h i s s e e d a l l N a t i o n s s h a l l be b l e s t . (PL, X I I , 447-50) Milton's involved divided  "the  the  namely the and  whole i n c l u d e d  m a n k i n d i n t o two  " C i t y o f God" divided  v i e w o f human s o c i e t y ,  and  the  scorn".(PL,III,  "the  Augustine's,  Augustine  camps, w h i c h he  " C i t y of  participants "Elect,"  Race."  like  Satan."  termed  the  Milton,  of h i s t o r y  into three  r e s t , " and  "They who  184-185, 199K  had  however, groups,  neglect  E a c h segment  * M a r j o r i e H o p e N i c o l s o n , John M i l t o n P r e s s , 1963), p. 307.  (New  rep-  Y o r k , Noonday  48 resented The  a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e towards the w i l l  e l e c t were t h o s e  whose d e v o t i o n t o God  of  God.  marked  t h e m a s w o r t h y r e c i p i e n t s o f God's s p e c i a l f a v o u r . r e s t " were p e o p l e  who,  "prayer, repentance,  through and  o b e d i e n c e due,"  "safe a r r i v e " at the gates was  comprised of people  a prolonged  of heaven.  who  defiant  process  The  third  o f God;  group scorn-  their  a t t i t u d e p l a c e d them beyond t h e r e a c h Of t h e  of  would e v e n t u a l l y  e i t h e r n e g l e c t e d or  f u l l y r e f u s e d t o conform to the w i l l  "The  o f mercy.  t h r e e s e g m e n t s o f human s o c i e t y ,  only  "the  e l e c t above the r e s t " were o f t h e s l i g h t e s t i n t e r e s t Milton.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e l e c t were r a r e l y t r e a t e d  group i n M i l t o n ' s work, but as i n d i v i d u a l s . o f h i s t o r y a t t h e end focussed  on  o f P a r a d i s e L o s t was  i n d i v i d u a l s who  lost a l l fear  "eminent i n w i s e d e p o r t , "  so e n r a g e d t h e  o f God.  Man  when Enoch,  multitudes  by h i s w o r d s " o f R i g h t and Wrong" t h a t  been snatched  away by d i v i n e  f o u n d so p e r f e c t and  God  while the  XI,  626,  876)  intervention. so j u s t " was  r e s t of the w o r l d The  he  he  Noah,  not the  preserved  "swam a t l a r g e . "  s a l v a t i o n of mankind,  a  sharply  w o u l d h a v e b e e n " s e i z ' d w i t h v i o l e n t h a n d s " had  "one  as  outline  r e m a i n e d l o y a l t o God  the r e s t o f t h e w o r l d had  around him  His  to  by  (PL,  prophesied  t h r o u g h o u t P a r a d i s e L o s t , w a s t o d e p e n d u p o n t h e one  great  49  Man who w o u l d " R e s t o r e u s , a n d r e g a i n t h e b l i s s f u l t h a t Adam  Seat"  lost.  Closely associated with C h r i s t i a n p r o v i d e n t i a l and  universalistic  the  c o u r s e o f t i m e c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o p e r i o d s o r  epochs.  i d e a s o f h i s t o r y was t h e c o n c e p t  that  C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r i a n s c o n t e n d e d t h a t God d i d n o t  m a n i p u l a t e human a f f a i r s He h a d p r e o r d a i n e d human d e s t i n y .  i n an h a p h a z a r d f a s h i o n , b u t t h a t  and p r e a r r a n g e d t h e e n t i r e course o f  The t a s k  o f t h e h i s t o r i a n was t o d i s -  c o v e r a n d e x p o u n d God's g r e a t p l a n  i n history.  The  i d e a t h a t h i s t o r y c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o p e r i o d s o r stages  d i d not originate with the early Christian  h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r s , however. Hesiod,  The G r e e k  mythologist,  h a d e x p r e s s e d t h e c o n c e p t t h a t human h i s t o r y h a d  undergone f i v e  stages,  namely t h e golden,  h e r o e s , and i r o n a g e s . 3  2  silver,  The Roman p o e t , O v i d ,  bronze,  touched  u p o n t h i s i d e a o f h i s t o r y i n The M e t a m o r p h o s e s , a work i n w h i c h he p o r t r a y e d  h i s t o r y as having  commenced w i t h  a G o l d e n Age t h a t d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o t h e B r o n z e a n d I r o n Ages a f t e r t h e f a l l  of Saturn.  absorbed the c l a s s i c a l  The P a t r i s t i c h i s t o r i a n s  i d e a o f a g o l d e n age and subsequent  3 H a r r y Elmer Barnes, A H i s t o r y of H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g (New Y o r k , D o v e r , 1 9 6 3 / _ " ~ f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 3 7 _ 7 , p . 1 5 . 2  50 d e c l i n e i n t o t h e i r dogma o f t h e " F a l l . " A u g u s t i n e saw t h e f a l l  33  o f Adam i n E d e n a s t h e  b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s i x a g e s o f man u p o n t h e e a r t h . F i n d i n g a n a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e Hebrew a c c o u n t o f c r e a t i o n , w h i c h was d e p i c t e d i n t h e Book o f G e n e s i s a s h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e i n s i x c o n s e c u t i v e days, and t h e " p e r i o d s " o f h i s t o r y w h i c h he d e t e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e O l d a n d New Testaments,  Augustine proceeded t o o r g a n i z e t h e e n t i r e  h i s t o r y o f mankind i n t o s i x epochs. was  The f i r s t  Hday"  t h e p e r i o d f r o m Adam t o t h e d e l u g e , a n d t h e s e c o n d  d a y f r o m t h e d e l u g e t o Abraham.  T h e s e e r a s w e r e com-  p r i s e d o f t e n g e n e r a t i o n s each.  The t h i r d ,  f o u r t h , and  f i f t h d a y s c o v e r e d t h e t i m e f r o m Abraham t o t h e nativity of Christ.  T h e s e t h r e e p e r i o d s were s e e n i n  r e l a t i o n t o K i n g David and t h e B a b y l o n i a n e x i l e o f t h e Jews. A u g u s t i n e c o n s i d e r e d t h e Church  age t o be t h e  s i x t h day, and a f f i r m e d t h a t i t would  conclude w i t h the  second advent o f C h r i s t .  Projecting h i s sight f a r into  t h e f u t u r e , A u g u s t i n e saw t h e s e v e n t h d a y , o r S a b b a t h , a s t h e g r e a t p e r i o d o f r e s t f o r God a n d h i s e l e c t ,  which  w o u l d merge i n t o t h e L o r d ' s Day, t h e e i g h t h a n d e t e r n a l 33  B a r n e s , A H i s t o r y o f H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g , p p . 15-16.  51 day.  34  Augustine's systematic d e l i n e a t i o n of the e n t i r e  course of time f a s c i n a t e d h i s t o r i a n s and poets throughout the medieval and Renaissance p e r i o d s .  Edmund  Spenser, with a s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n of Augustine's eschatology, l i k e w i s e a n t i c i p a t e d the sabbath r e s t was  which  to b r i n g the h i s t o r i c a l process t o i t s t e r m i n a t i o n : For a l l t h a t moveth, doth i n Change d e l i g h t : But t h e n c e - f o r t h a l l s h a l l r e s t e t e r n a l l y With Him t h a t i s the God of Sabbath h i g h t : 0 that g r e a t Sabbath God, graunt me t h a t Sabaoths sight. (Fa, V I I , v i i i , 2 ) 3 5  M i l t o n ' s treatment of man's d e s t i n y was i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from Augustine's.  The Church  neat d i v i s i o n of h i s t o r y i n t o epochs  strikfather's  comprised of a  s p e c i f i c number o f g e n e r a t i o n s found no p l a c e i n M i l t o n ' s great e p i c , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the b a s i c matter employed by each w r i t e r was  similar.  Augustine  had d i v i d e d the h i s t o r y of mankind i n t o seven but f o r M i l t o n h i s t o r y was  subject  epochs,  a dynamic process marked by  c a t a c l y s m i c events such as the f a l l of man  and the i n -  c a r n a t i o n of C h r i s t .  3 4  A u g u s t i n e , The C i t y o f God,  XXII, 3 0 , 6 6 3 .  -^Edmund Spenser, The F a e r i e Que en e, i n The P o e t i c a l Works of Spepser, eds. J.C. Smith and E. De S e l i n c o u r t (London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959).  52  The theme of the f a l l  o f man, which was d e a l t  w i t h so i n t e n s i v e l y i n P a r a d i s e Lost,had a t t r a c t e d g r e a t poets b e f o r e M i l t o n ' s day.  The eminent medieval poet,  Dante, had viewed t h e f a l l as a l a p s e from goodness and  peace: The Supreme Good, who h i m s e l f alone doth p l e a s e , Made man good, and f o r goodness, and t h i s c l i m e Gave him f o r pledge of the e t e r n a l peace, By h i s d e f a u l t he sojourned here small time .... ( P u r g a t o r i o , XXVIII, 9 1 - 9 4 )  Spenser, i n "An Hymn o f Heavenly Love," focussed h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h e d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f man's f o r g e t f u l ness o f God's  goodness:  But man f o r g e t f u l l o f h i s makers grace, No l e s s then Angels, whom he d i d ensew, F e l l from the hope o f promist heavenly p l a c e , Into the mouth of death, t o s i n n e r s dew, And a l l h i s o f f - s p r i n g i n t o thraldome threw. (11.  120-4)  3  M i l t o n , i n t h e opening l i n e s o f P a r a d i s e L o s t , f a l l as an a c t of d i s o b e d i e n c e , with grim  saw t h e  consequences:  Of Man's F i r s t Disobedience, and t h e F r u i t Of t h a t Forbidden Tree, whose mortal t a s t e Brought Death i n t o the World, and a l l our woe, With l o s s of Eden (PL, 1, 1-4)  ^^Dante, The D i v i n e Comedy,in Laurence Binyon, Trans. The P o r t a b l e Dante (New York, V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 3 3 5 -^Spenser, i n Smith and S e l i n c o u r t , p. 5 9 4 .  53  Yet  i n t e g r a l l y united with h i sview o f the f a l l  was t h e  idea of restoration: .. . t i l l one g r e a t e r Man u s , and r e g a i n t h e b l i s s f u l Seat. (PL, I , 4 - 5 )  Restore  The  two g r e a t e s t  fall  events o f h i s t o r y f o r M i l t o n were t h e  o f man t h r o u g h Adam a n d t h e r e s t o r a t i o n  through C h r i s t . disobedience  The f i r s t  to the w i l l  o f man  event had been t h e r e s u l t o f  o f God, w h e r e a s t h e s e c o n d was  b r o u g h t a b o u t b y one man's f i r m o b e d i e n c e f u l l y M  (PR,  I , 4) The  l a s t two books o f P a r a d i s e  comprise a survey  L o s t , which  3  however, t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e  organize  There a r e ,  b o o k s numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o  head."  While M i l t o n d i dnot,  like  Augustine,  h i s t o r y i n t o w e l l - d e f i n e d epochs, h i s o u t l i n e  o f human d e s t i n y i s n o t w i t h o u t  pattern, f o r everything  r e l a t e d i n some way t o t h e f a l l  restoration  in  deal  "woman's S e e d " who w o u l d one d a y " b r u i s e t h e  serpent's  is  together  o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e human r a c e ,  l a r g e l y w i t h t h e consequences of t h e f a l l . ^  the  tried."  o f mankind by C h r i s t .  or t o the promised I n Book X I M i c h a e l  •^F.T. P r i n c e , "On t h e L a s t Two B o o k s o f P a r a d i s e E s s a y s and S t u d i e s , V o l . X I , 1 9 5 8 , p. 3 9 .  Lost,"  54 shows Adam a s e r i e s of tableaux  d e p i c t i n g v a r i o u s human  a c t i v i t i e s which had become despicable as a r e s u l t o f man's tendency to r e b e l a g a i n s t God's p e r f e c t w i l l . A p a s t o r a l scene i s deformed i n t o a murder-scene; n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n between the sexes degenerates i n t o l u s t ; v a l o u r and h e r o i c v i r t u e d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o manslaughter.  There i s a p a r a l l e l between the eleventh  book of P a r a d i s e Lost and Augustine's f i r s t  day or  epoch, s i n c e both d e a l with the p e r i o d from Adam to t h e deluge. ever,  T h i s s i m i l a r i t y does not extend very f a r , how-  f o r M i l t o n ' s account o c c a s i o n a l l y touches upon  matters r e l a t e d t o the very d i s t a n t f u t u r e . In t h e t w e l f t h book o f Paradise L o s t , as i n the e l e v e n t h , M i l t o n views man's d e s t i n y both i n terms o f the f a l l and of t h e promised r e s t o r a t i o n of man, but h i s emphasis s h i f t s d e c i d e d l y towards t h e l a t t e r  aspect.  M i l t o n sees the p e r i o d between the deluge and the I n c a r n a t i o n as one i n which men are s e l e c t e d (or e l e c t e d ) by God t o f u l f i l  h i s w i l l on earth.J4 brakafit i s thus c a l l e d  from h i s i d o l - w o r s h i p by t h e Euphrates R i v e r t o serve the t r u e God i n the l a n d where h i s descendant t h e "great d e l i v e r e r " w i l l be born. God  Moses and Aaron are "sent  from  t o c l a i m / H i s people from enthralment" and t o o r d a i n  55  laws and r i t e s which w i l l show how s h a l l achieve/Mankind's 233-5)  "that d e s t i n ' d Seed  deliverance."  (PL,XII,  C r e a t i n g an i l l u s i o n of completeness  170-1,  in his  survey of h i s t o r y , M i l t o n n e v e r t h e l e s s accentuates the r o l e s of Joshua and King David b e f o r e he i n t r o d u c e s the long-awaited Messiah, whose "Obedience God" annuls the doom of  to the Law  of  man.  The C h r i s t i a n concept of time, as f o r m u l a t e d by Augustine and p o p u l a r i z e d i n the work of numerous medieval h i s t o r i a n s such as I s i d o r e of S e v i l l e and the Venerable Bede of Northumbria,  d i f f e r e d from the  c l a s s i c a l views i t r e p l a c e d i n i t s p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t the historical  p r o c e s s was moving towards a g o a l .  Such  c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r i a n s as Thucydides and L u c r e t i u s had manifested v e r y l i t t l e  concern f o r the past or the  f u t u r e ; they had been p r e o c c u p i e d l a r g e l y w i t h the events of t h e i r own  age.  A p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n can be  made i n the case of V i r g i l who,  s e e i n g h i s t o r y i n terms  of Rome's d e s t i n y , "prophesied" through Artchises that  39 Caesar Augustus would " b r i n g back the age of g o l d . " (The Aeneid, VI, 7 9 4 ) 39  A l l C h r i s t i a n s , however, would  V i r g i l , The Aeneid, t r a n s . C. Day Lewis (New York, Doubleday Anchor, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 5 3 . F u r t h e r c i t a t i o n s to The Aeneid w i l l be to t h i s e d i t i o n .  ...  56 have a g r e e d w i t h A u g u s t i n e t h a t  "The e n d o f t h e C i t y  o f God ... i s ... t h e e t e r n a l h a p p i n e s s o f t h e s a i n t s " ^ i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f God. Milton's was  v i e w o f man's d e s t i n y ,  also teleological,  towards a g o a l .  This  selves  g o a l f o r M i l t o n was t h e r e s t o r had been d i s r u p t e d  Satan and h i s h o s t s ,  i n opposition  Augustine's,  f o r he saw h i s t o r y p r o c e e d i n g  ation of the unity that i n t u r n , b y man.  like  by Satan, and  by p l a c i n g  them-  t o w a r d s t h e w i l l o f God f o r  r e f u s i n g t o c o n f e s s t h e Son as L o r d , had " b r o k e n u n i o n " with  God.  God's " s o l e  S i m i l a r l y , mankind by t h e i r d i s o b e d i e n c e t o command" s e v e r e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l  relationship with both the f i n a l  God.  blissful  The e n d o f h i s t o r y w a s . t h e r e f o r e ,  overthrow and u t t e r d i s c o m f i t u r e  of  S a t a n ' s f o r c e s , a n d t h e c o m p l e t e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f man w i t h God. Milton's  d o u b l e v i s i o n o f t h e f u t u r e i s so d y n -  amically portrayed considered  i n Paradise  apocalyptic^  Lost  t h a t i t c a n be  as w e l l as t e l e o l o g i c a l .  H i s t o r y was h e a d e d . t o w a r d s a c l i m a c t i c c o n c l u s i o n  4 0  Augustine,  The C i t y o f God, X X I I ,  which  1, 609.  ^"""Roy D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , M a n n e r i s m a n d B a r o q u e , p . 99.  57  would demonstrate the f i n a l triumph o f God's u n i f y i n g will.  "The l i v i n g ,  and f o r t h w i t h the c i t e d dead/Of a l l  past Ages" were t o be summoned " t o the g e n e r a l Doom." (PL, I I I , 326-8)  A l l the f o r c e s of e v i l p e r s o n i f i e d by  "bad men and a n g e l s " would be consigned t o " e t e r n a l s i l e n c e " behind the gates o f h e l l which were t o "be f o r e v e r shut."  The company of the Ptedeemed would then  enter heaven, where they would enjoy "peace a s s u r ' d / And r e c o n c i l e m e n t . "  F i n a l l y , a l l judgement past,  "with  Joy and Love t r i u m p h i n g , " the Son h i m s e l f would t u r n over h i s " r e g a l S c e p t r e " t o God the Father, who was t o be " A l l i n A l l . " (PL, I I I , 338-41) thus f i n a l l y  encompassed  When God had  a l l t h i n g s by the u n i f y i n g  power o f h i s w i l l , time would be no more.  58  Chapter I I I  Man's D e s t i n y  V i e w e d i n Terms o f L i b e r t y and  Bondage  M i l t o n , l i k e a number o f h i s t o r i a n s b o t h and  a f t e r him,  h i s t o r i a n was  f e l t t h a t one  of the  t o commend p r a i s e w o r t h y  censure e v i l deeds.  T a c i t u s had  duty of the r e c o r d e r  of h i s t o r i c a l  orate  first  e v e r y w o r t h y a c t i o n and  tasks  actions  of  and  the  e v e n t s t o commem-  "to hold the  reprobation deeds."-'-  e a r l y B r i t i s h h i s t o r i a n , G i l d a s , whose w o r k  S i c o i d i o e t C o n q u e s t u B r i t a n n i a e . was  frequently  by M i l t o n i n The  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n . ,  stated that  s u b j e c t was  d e s t r u c t i o n o f good and  "the  the to  h e l d t h a t i t was  o f p o s t e r i t y as a t e r r o r t o e v i l w o r d s and The  before  the  De cited his  growth  of  p  evil  i n the  land."  I n The  work p a r t i c u l a r l y a d m i r e d by its  s t r e s s on t h e  Walter Raleigh  H i s t o r y of the World, the  P u r i t a n s because  r o l e of providence i n h i s t o r y ,  3  a of Sir  noted  ^ C i t e d i n B a r n e s , A H i s t o r y o f H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g , p.  35.  o  G i l d a s , De E x c i d i o e t C o n q u e s t u B r i t a n n i a e , t r a n s . J.A. G i l e s , i n S i x o l d E n g l i s h C h r o n i c l e s ( L o n d o n , G e o r g e B e l l , 1891), p. 295. 3Charles H. F i r t h , " S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h ' s H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r l d , " i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e B r i t i s h Academy, 19171918, V o l . 8, 441.  59  how k i n g s a n d k i n g d o m s h a v e f l o u r i s h e d ; and f o r w h a t v i r t u e a n d p i e t y God made p r o s p e r o u s , and f o r what v i c e and d e f o r m i t y he made w r e t c h e d , b o t h t h e one a n d t h e o t h e r . The  4  i d e a t h a t God c o n t r o l l e d h i s t o r y b y r e w a r d i n g  the r i g h t e o u s  and p u n i s h i n g  t h e w i c k e d was a s  acceptable  to t h e R o y a l i s t s as t o P u r i t a n s such as M i l t o n , f o r t h e well-known d i a r i s t John E v e l y n  recorded  the R e s t o r a t i o n that the "carcases"  shortly after  of t h e a r c h - r e b e l s ,  C r o m w e l l , Bradshaw and I r e t o n were i g n o m i n i o u s l y exposed by hanging, t h a n k s t o t h e "stupendous and i n s c r u t a b l e j u d g m e n t s o f God."^ Moral purpose i s p a r t i c u l a r l y treatment of h i s t o r y . prose or verse own  sake.  There a r e very  evident  i n Milton's  few t r a c e s i n h i s  of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l e x i s t i n g f o r i t s  I n t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h s o f The H i s t o r y o f  B r i t a i n t , h i s m o s t f o r m a l h i s t o r i c a l work, M i l t o n e x pressed  h i s i n t e n t i o n " t o r e l a t e w e l l and o r d e r l y t h i n g s  worth the noting, them t h a t read."'''  s o a s may b e s t  i n s t r u c t and b e n e f i t  Even t h e B r i e f H i s t o r y o f M o s c o v i a  5  C i t e d i n C o f f i n and W i t h e r s p o o n , e d s . , S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y P r o s e a n d P o e t r y , p. 5 2 5 . Roy  D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , Mannerism and Baroque, p. 9 8 .  ^Milton, History of Britain,  p . 3.  60 i s r e p l e t e with M i l t o n ' s p e r s o n a l comments on the moral and r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s of the Russians.  Historical  m a t e r i a l s i n P a r a d i s e L o s t are s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d . h i s account  of the f a l l of the angels and the  In  creation  of the world Raphael i n t e r m i t t e n t l y warns Adam t o obey God  and to guard a g a i n s t p a s s i o n .  The  course of human  d e s t i n y i n Books XI and X I I i s r e l a t e d by M i c h a e l f o r the express purpose of t e a c h i n g Adam moral values and safeguards: ... know I am sent To show thee what s h a l l come i n f u t u r e days To thee and to thy O f f s p r i n g ; good w i t h bad Expect t o hear ... thereby to l e a r n True p a t i e n c e , and to temper joy w i t h f e a r And pious sorrow, e q u a l l y i n u r ' d By moderation e i t h e r s t a t e to bear. (PL, XI, 356-63) The moral theme which pervaded i n Addison's makes men  words, "that obedience  M i l t o n ' s work  to the w i l l of  was God  happy, and t h a t disobedience makes them  miserable."  T h i s theme M i l t o n developed  l i b e r t y and bondage.  i n terms of  L i b e r t y f o r M i l t o n was  to be  found only i n absolute c o n f o r m i t y to God's w i l l ; bondag was  the i n e v i t a b l e outcome of the s l i g h t e s t d e v i a t i o n  °Addison and S t e e l e , The S p e c t a t o r , V o l . 4 (Edinburgh B e l l and B r a d f u t e , 1816), Nol 369, p. 226. Addison's remark was a p e r c e p t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , but i t should b remembered t h a t M i l t o n d i d not regard the r e l a t i o n s h i p between providence and human w i l l as simple. Many of  61 from of  it.  The course of events was, t h e r e f o r e made up  "supernal Grace contending w i t h s i n f u l n e s s of Men."  (PL, XI, 350-60). will  M i l t o n ' s emphasis on t h e omnipotent  of God i n h i s treatment  of t h e C h r i s t i a n view o f  man's d e s t i n y was counterbalanced by an equal  stress  upon t h e responses o f n a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s t o the will  o f God.  God's w i l l was an i n d i s p u t a b l e a b s o l u t e ,  but the f r e e w i l l o f man was o p e r a t i v e i n h i s t o r y . There was, t h e r e f o r e , a d i r e c t connection between the events o f h i s t o r y and human moral behavior.  In t h e  s u c c i n c t words o f Saurat, man's d e s t i n y was f o r M i l t o n "but a t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o events of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l drama enacted i n man's f r e e  soul."^  M i l t o n ' s conception of l i b e r t y was based on t h e P a u l i n e d o c t r i n e t h a t C h r i s t had redeemed man from t h e yoke of t h e Mosaic  law.  I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of l i b e r t y i n  The C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e he quoted  G a l a t i a n s 5:1,  Stand f a s t t h e r e f o r e i n t h e l i b e r t y wherewith C h r i s t hath made us f r e e ; and be not entangled again w i t h t h e yoke of bondage.  M i l t o n ' s contemporaries h e l d a view o f providence which did not a l l o w f o r the e f f i c a c y of f r e e w i l l . Others, on the other hand, c o n s i d e r e d penitence and grace more e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e than M i l t o n d i d . ^Denis Saurat, M i l t o n , Man and Thinker  (London, Dent and  62  Paul's  admonition was  worked i n t o M i l t o n ' s  d e f i n i t i o n of C h r i s t i a n l i b e r t y  comprehensive  as  t h a t whereby we are l o o s e d as i t were by enfranchisement, through C h r i s t our d e l i v e r e r , from the bondage of s i n , and consequently from the r u l e of the law and of man; to the i n t e n t t h a t being made sons i n s t e a d of servants, and p e r f e c t men i n s t e a d of c h i l d r e n , we may serve God i n love through the guidance of the S p i r i t of truth. 10  L i b e r t y had no meaning f o r M i l t o n apart from s e r v i c e and  devotion  to God.  voluntary  L i k e Donne, he c o u l d have  exclaimed Take me to You, imprison me, f o r I Except You e n t h r a l l me, never s h a l l be f r e e . ^ Intimately l i b e r t y was  connected with M i l t o n ' s  h i s b e l i e f that the e x c e r c i s e of one's f r e e  w i l l a g a i n s t the w i l l of God T h i s idea was  " ^ M i l t o n , The  No.  l e d i n e v i t a b l y to bondage.  a l s o b i b l i c a l i n i t s o r i g i n s , f o r Old  Sons, 1 9 4 6 / f i r s t  11  concept of  p u b l i s h e d 1 9 2 $ _ 7 , p.  C h r i s t i a n Doctrine,  162.  i n Hughes, p.  1012.  C i t e d i n C o f f i n and Witherspoon, p. 3 4 . (Holy Sonnet If}  63  Testament  h i s t o r y p r o f u s e l y i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the  c h i l d r e n of I s r a e l were overcome by t h e i r enemies whenever they " f o r g a t the Lord t h e i r God."  (Judges  C h r i s t had drawn a t t e n t i o n to the s p i r i t u a l of those who  3:7)  enslavement  i n d u l g e d i n wickedness i n h i s statement,  "Whosoever committeth s i n i s the servant of sin." (John 8:34)  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l and  external  s e r v i t u d e was d e a l t with by Augustine, who maintained t h a t "the prime cause of s l a v e r y i s s i n , which man  brings  under the dominion o f h i s f e l l o w - - t h a t which  does  12  not happen save by the judgment  of God."  ployed these t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s i n order t o  Milton  em-  emphasize  t h a t d i s o b e d i e n c e to God's w i l l i n e x o r a b l y produced both s p i r i t u a l and p o l i t i c a l enslavement. a m p l i f i e d i n h i s prose and v e r s e .  T h i s concept was  The f i r s t  climactic  event i n M i l t o n ' s broad scope of h i s t o r y i n P a r a d i s e Lost i s a convenient example.  Satan, who  p r i d e d h i m s e l f on  h i s "unconquerable W i l l " was brought to shame by A b d i e l , the v a l i a n t cherub who  p o i n t e d out to him t h a t he was t o  himself "enthralled."  He had become ("0 worst  Augustine, The C i t y of God,  XIX, 1 5 ,  491.  imprison-  64 ment." ) the dungeon of h i m s e l f , 1  and had made i n h i s  own mind a h e l l from which he could not escape. f o l l o w e r s , who, i n the words of B e l i a l , "Hard l i b e r t y before exchanged t h e i r  preferred  t h e yoke of s e r v i l e  joyful  Pomp" merely  s e r v i c e t o God f o r a degrading  s e r v i t u d e to t h e r e b e l who had brought them i n t o ruin.  His  total  At t h e beginning of Book X I I M i l t o n o u t l i n e d the  r i s e and f a l l  of nations  of l i b e r t y and bondage.  throughout h i s t o r y i n terms The archangel,  Michael,  aroused Adam's i n d i g n a t i o n by a prophecy of a reprehensible  having  particularly  a c t o f tyranny, paused to e x p l a i n t o Adam  the c l o s e connection  between s p i r i t u a l and p o l i t i c a l  enslavement: ... sometimes Nations w i l l d e c l i n e so low From V i r t u e , which i s reason, t h a t no wrong But J u s t i c e , and some f a t a l curse annext Deprives them o f t h i r outward l i b e r t y , T h i r inward l o s t . (PL, XII, 97-101) Milton elaborated  on h i s views of p o l i t i c a l  freedom and bondage i n The H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n .  One of  h i s main purposes i n w r i t i n g the work was t o demonstrate t h a t "the g a i n i n g or l o s i n g of l i b e r t i e i s the g r e a t e s t change t o b e t t e r or to worse t h a t may b e f a l l a n a t i o n under c i v i l  13Milton,  government.  Milton placed  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n ,  p. 317.  such great  65  s t r e s s on t h e c a l a m i t i e s w h i c h b e s e t t h e B r i t o n s  because  of t h e i r d e p a r t u r e from t h e p a t h s o f v i r t u e t h a t t h e work c a n a l m o s t be r e g a r d e d a s a s p i r i t u a l ,  a s w e l l as a  political,  F o r example,  h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h  peoples.  he r e c o r d e d t h a t when t h e Romans l e f t E n g l a n d i n t h e early part of the f i f t h  century, the Britons' lack of  " t h e wisdom, t h e v i r t u e , t h e l a b o u r , t o u s e a n d m a i n t a i n true l i b e r t i e "  c a u s e d t h e m t o " s h r i n k more w r e t c h e d l y  u n d e r t h e b u r d e n o f t h i r own l i b e r t i e , a f o r e n yoke. couched life,  H i s a c c o u n t o f t h e Norman C o n q u e s t  i n s i m i l a r terms.  Because  the people of England " f i t t e d  servitude  than b e f o r e under  of t h e i r  was  dissolute  themselves f o r  ... t o an o u t - l a n d i s h C o n q u e r o r . " ( p - S l s ) . _Hds  i n t e n t i o n a l d i d a c t i c i s m i s c l e a r l y evident i n the moral a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h w h i c h he t e r m i n a t e d h i s h i s t o r y o f t h e early B r i t i s h  period:  These were t h e causes o f M i s e r y t o o u r a n c e s t o r s , s o t h i s age s h o u l d " f e a r f r o m l i k e V i c e s w i t h o u t amendment t h e R e v o l u t i o n of l i k e C a l a m i t i e s . " ^ ^ It  i s p r o b a b l y an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f M i l t o n ' s  "^History of B r i t a i n ,  p. 1 0 4 .  •^Milton, History of Britain ,  p. 3 1 6 .  views  66 to suggest t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s t o r y repeated i t self,  but i t cannot be disputed  t h a t M i l t o n took f o r  granted the concept that moral decay was i n v a r i a b l y followed  by p o l i t i c a l  decline.  H i s b e l i e f t h a t God  punished n a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s who spurned h i s w i l l wag, of course, balanced by t h e i d e a t h a t  righteousness  was f r e q u e n t l y rewarded by p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y a s cendancy.  In s p i t e of h i s d i s l i k e f o r t h e Venerable  Bede, M i l t o n accepted without r e s e r v a t i o n t h e AngloSaxon h i s t o r i a n ' s assumption t h a t the few m i l i t a r y successes o f t h e B r i t i s h were d i r e c t l y t r a c e a b l e t o resurgences of p i e t y i n the n a t i o n . The  personal  concern M i l t o n had f o r p o l i t i c a l and  c i v i l freedom caused him t o a l i g n h i m s e l f w i t h the P u r i t a n a n t i - r o y a l i s t cause headed by O l i v e r Cromwell. In The Tenure of Kings and M a g i s t r a t e s to h i s t o r y i n h i s c o n t e n t i o n  Milton  appealed  t h a t i t had been l a w f u l  "through a l l ages" f o r t h e people of a n a t i o n t o depose and put to death a t y r a n t or a wicked k i n g .  Milton  commenced h i s argument by p o s t u l a t i n g t h a t a l l men, having been c r e a t e d and  therefore  i n the image of God, were "born f r e e "  "born t o command.""^  As a r e s u l t o f Adam's  M i l t o n , Tenure o f Kings and Magistrates, p. 754.  i n Hughes,  67 t r a n s g r e s s i o n , however, mankind began to be a t v a r i a n c e with each other.  In order t o have mutual p r o t e c t i o n ,  they agreed t o i n v e s t a u t h o r i t y i n one whose wisdom and  i n t e g r i t y p l a c e d him n a t u r a l l y above the r e s t .  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f r e g a l a u t h o r i t y was thus based on "entrusted  power."-'-''  7  About eleven years  afterwards,  dangerously c l o s e t o the R e s t o r a t i o n , M i l t o n i n The Ready and Easy Way abolition  defended the Commonwealth f o r i t s  of the " r e g a l bondage" t h a t had proved so 18  "unnecessary, burdensome, and dangerous." M i l t o n supported h i s a n t i - m o n a r c h i c a l  views by  r e f e r r i n g t o h i s t o r i c a l precedents i n the S c r i p t u r e s and  secular h i s t o r i e s .  He pointed  out t h a t God had  s t r o n g l y disapproved of the I s r a e l i t e s when they demanded a king, f o r t h e i r request  i n v o l v e d the r e p l a c i n g of t h e i r  t h e o c r a t i c government by a monarchy.  M i l t o n thus used  •^Tenure of Kings and M a g i s t r a t e s , p. 754. There are i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l s between M i l t o n ' s views and those of Hobbes on i n n a t e human r i g h t s . In Leviathan (publ i s h e d i n 1651, two years a f t e r M i l t o n ' s pamphlet), Hobbes argues t h a t " a l l men, e q u a l l y , are by n a t u r e f r e e , " and t h a t i n the i n t e r e s t s of s e l f - d e f e n s e men have the r i g h t to disobey the monarch. Thomas Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n , ed. A.R. W a l l e r (Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1904), pp. 152-3. 'Milton, The Ready and Easy Way,  i n Hughes, p. 881.  68 S c r i p t u r e to defend h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e e a r t h l y monarchs t o God h i m s e l f .  of l o y a l t y from  In h i s appeals t o  s e c u l a r h i s t o r y he r e f e r r e d to the e a r l y B r i t i s h h i s t o r i a n , G i l d a s , who had recorded  t h a t kings were  e l e c t e d and deposed i n the e a r l y post-Roman p e r i o d by the people, who were merely ^ e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r rights.  original  The i n s t i t u t i o n of monarchy was of pragmatic  value only as l o n g as i t f u l f i l l e d  i t s task o f pres-  e r v i n g l i b e r t y and t h e common weal. Milton's  a n t i - r o y a l i s t b i a s was r e f l e c t e d i n  much of h i s h i s t o r i c a l work.  The H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n  i s replete with Milton's personal  comments on the  behavior o f k i n g s who e i t h e r behaved t y r a n i c a l l y * or were the means of b r i n g i n g t h e i r s u b j e c t s  i n t o s p i r i t u a l and  p o l i t i c a l bondage because of t h e i r f o l l y and v i c e . V o r t i g e r n , the "proud u n f o r t u n a t e T y r a n t " whose i n v i t a t i o n o f t h e Anglo-Saxons t o England proved  disastrous  f o r t h e n a t i v e B r i t o n s , was s i n g l e d out by M i l t o n f o r s p e c i a l reprobation.  T h i s "covetous, l u s t f u l ' ,  luxurious"  king,"prone to a l l v i c e " and " c a r e l e s s o f t h e common 19 danger"  f i n a l l y became a pawn i n t h e hands o f t h e  Saxon king, Hengist, who gave t h e s i n f u l B r i t o n s the c r u e l treatment they deserved.  1  In t h e l a s t two books of P a r a d i s e % i l t o n , H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , p. 1 1 3 .  Lost  Milton  69 almost completely ignored the r o l e s of e a r t h l y kings i n the h i s t o r y of the world, but the few remarks on monarchs whose names he saw f i t to i n s e r t c l e a r l y exposed h i s bias. who  Nimrod was  p o r t r a y e d as a s e l f - a p p o i n t e d t y r a n t  made use of h i s s e r v i l e s u b j e c t s to b u i l d a tower  from e a r t h to heaven i n order to "get themselves name."  His p r o j e c t f a i l e d completely when God  the language  o f the b u i l d e r s , who  a  confused  were thereby d i s p e r s e d ,  much to the amusement of the heavenly hosts. example of a t y r a n n i c a l monarch was  Another  the " l a w l e s s "  Pharaoh, whose o p p o s i t i o n towards the c h i l d r e n of God f i n a l l y brought him to an ignominious Sea.  King David, however, was  M i l t o n , f o r he was of  death i n the  f a v o u r a b l y d e s c r i b e d by  appointed by God t o be the p r o g e n i t o r  the King of Kings, whose r e i g n would be  C h r i s t , who  Red  eternal.  alone had r e s t o r e d freedom to mankind,  was  the "true and r i g h t f u l and only to be expected King." *2  1  The concern which M i l t o n showed f o r p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y was  complemented by h i s h i g h regard f o r domestic  and' r e l i g i o u s freedom.  In h i s Second Defense of the  E n g l i s h People, a work i n which he o u t l i n e d the t h r e e s p e c i e s o f l i b e r t y as " r e l i g i o u s , domestic,  and  civil,"  20 M i l t o n , The Ready and Easy Way,  i n Hughes, p.  891.  70 .Milton went on to c a t e g o r i z e domestic l i b e r t y  under  three headings, namely "the c o n d i t i o n s of the conjugal t i e , the e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n , and the f r e e 21 p u b l i c a t i o n o f the thoughts."  These t h r e e branches  of domestic l i b e r t y had been t r e a t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n The D o c t r i n e and D i s c i p l i n e of Divorce, Of Education, and A r e o p a g i t i c a . M i l t o n ' s independent a t t i t u d e towards marriage and d i v o r c e emerged i n the opening paragraphs of The D o c t r i n e and D i s c i p l i n e of D i v o r c e , f o r he immediately launched an a t t a c k a g a i n s t the r e s t r i c t i n g  influences  of custom, t h a t "mere f a c e " w h k h a l o n g w i t h e r r o r  "would  persecute and chase away a l l t r u t h and s o l i d wisdom out of human l i f e . "  2 2  Having thus disposed of custom,  M i l t o n proceeded to show t h a t C h r i s t d i d not abrogate the Mosaic law which had p e r m i t t e d d i v o r c e on grounds b e s i d e s a d u l t e r y .  M i l t o n ' s purpose i n w r i t i n g  the t r a c t a t e was t o p r o t e c t both men "unworthy  certain  and women from the  bondage" of "an i l l marriage."  He even went  so f a r as to suggest t h a t mental i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y ^ ^ M i l t o n , The Second Defense, i n Hughes, p.  was  831.  22 M i l t o n , The D o c t r i n e and D i s c i p l i n e of Divorce, i n Hughes, p. 697.  71 a more v a l i d reason f o r d i v o r c e than " n a t u r a l  frigidity."  In otHer works M i l t o n demonstrated an e q u a l l y ardent concern f o r conjugal s h i f t e d so as t o favour  l i b e r t y , but h i s focus had  the r i g h t s o f the men.  Domestic  freedom could be maintained only by t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of men over women.  Adam, by "being  overcome by female  charm" and thereby r e s i g n i n g h i s manhood, t r a n s gressed  a g a i n s t the w i l l of God and brought mankind  i n t o bondage.  M i l t o n i n h i s survey of t h e course of time  at the end o f Paradise men  Lost p o r t r a y e d  the tendency o f  t o be ensnared by the w i l e s o f "beauteous" women  "empty o f a l l good wherein c o n s i s t s Woman's domestic honor and c h i e f p r a i s e . " (PL, X I , 616-17) "effeminate  slackness"  Men by  would  ... y i e l d up a l l t h i r v i r t u e , a l l t h i r fame Ignobly, t o the t r a i n s and t o the smiles Of these f a i r A t h e i s t s (PL, XI, 623-5) M i l t o n a l s o expressed h i s views on the r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p between men and women i n The H i s t o r y of Britain.  He recorded, f o r example, t h a t i n the pre-Roman  era i n B r i t a i n a c e r t a i n Queen M a r t i a enforced laws.  excellent  The idea of any woman g i v i n g laws t o men was so  objectionable  t o M i l t o n t h a t he could not r e f r a i n from  72  r e m a r k i n g t h a t t h e queen's conduct c o u l d o n l y because o f h e r "son's m i n o r i t y . " not  be j u s t i f i e d  Even t h i s  c o m p l e t e l y a p p e a s e M i l t o n , so he d i v u l g e d  to h i s readers:  a  did secret  t h e l a w s were n o t r e a l l y h e r s b u t h e r 23  counsellors,  " f o r laws a r e Masculin  B o a d i c e a , who i s u s u a l l y  praised  Births."  Queen  i n modern h i s t o r y -  t e x t s as a B r i t i s h h e r o i n e because o f h e r c r a f t y methods of o p p o s i t i o n  t o w a r d s t h e Roman i n v a d e r s ,  i n a very poor l i g h t  i nMilton's  was p l a c e d  History of B r i t a i n .  E x a s p e r a t e d a t t h e i d e a o f a woman b e i n g t h e commanderin-chief of the British m i l i t a r y forces, Milton no  spared  p a i n s i n h i s comments o n t h e d e f e a t o f h e r "mad  Crew" a n d h e r i g n o m i n i o u s d e a t h . women who d e p r i v e d  i n his recast  o f Bede's  of E g f r i d , a Northumbrian  Bede h a d r e l a t e d i n t h e f o u r t h book o f h i s History that  contempt f o r  t h e i r husbands o f t h e i r r i g h t f u l  p r i v i l e g e s was d i s p l a y e d account o f t h e wife  Milton's  King.  Ecclesiastical  t h e body o f Queen E t h e l r i d a " s u f f e r e d no  c o r r u p t i o n " a f t e r b e i n g i n t h e grave f o r s i x t e e n  years,  because she had remained a v i r g i n u n t i l t h e day o f h e r death i n a monastery.^4 2 3  Milton,  Milton, i n his recounting o f  The H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n ,  p. 2 6 .  2A.  J.A. G i l e s , e d . , B e d e ' s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d (London, B e l l , 1 9 0 2 ) , pp. 1 9 4 - 5 .  73 the i n c i d e n t , recorded t h a t the queen, "having undertaken Wedlock ... p e r s i s t e d twelve y e a r s i n t h e o b s t i n a t r e f u s a l of h i s bed, t h i n k i n g to l i v e t h e p u r e r life." 5  M i l t o n thus regarded the s i t u a t i o n as a form  2  of " a d v e r s i t y " endured by the u n f o r t u n a t e k i n g . examples such as these M i l t o n and  With  suggested t h a t domestic  s o c i a l freedom were t h r e a t e n e d when women i n any  way usurped a u t h o r i t y over men. The  second branch o f l i b e r t y , a c c o r d i n g  to Milton's  o u t l i n e i n The Second Defense o f the E n g l i s h People, was r e l a t e d t o education. Milton's  There was a d i r e c t l i n k between  concept of l i b e r t y and h i s views on  education,  f o r he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e purpose of e d u c a t i o n was t o d i r e c t men i n t o the paths of " v i r t u e , t h e only source o f ... i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y . " was f o r M i l t o n d i r e c t l y obedience to God.  genuine  V i r t u e , however,  connected with devotion and  The end o f l e a r n i n g was  to r e p a i r the r u i n s of our f i r s t p a r e n t s by r e g a i n i n g to know God a r i g h t , and out o f t h a t knowledge to l o v e him, to i m i t a t e him, to be l i k e him, as we may t h e nearest by p o s s e s s i n g our s o u l s of t r u e v i r t u e . 2 7 2  ^ T h e H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , p. 26.  26  M i  l t o n , The Second Defense, i n Hughes, p. 831. ^Milton,  On Education, i n Hughes, p. 6 3 I .  7 4  Milton's  ideas  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n know-  l e d g e and v i r t u e were i n c o r p o r a t e d historiography "Divine things  i n Paradise  i n t o h i s v i e w s on  L o s t . Raphael, addressed as  H i s t o r i a n " b y Adam, o u t l i n e d t h e o r i g i n s o f s o l e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f w a r n i n g Adam  departing  from v i r t u e by d i s o b e y i n g  When Adam's i n t e l l e c t u a l  against  t h e command o f God.  c u r i o s i t y motivated him t o ask  questions  c o n c e r n i n g c e l e s t i a l motions (a t o p i c  unrelated  t o t h e h i s t o r y Raphael had been n a r r a t i n g i n  order him  quite  t o i n s t r u c t Adam), t h e a n g e l p r o c e e d e d t o e n l i g h t e n  as t o t h e dangers o f u n c o n t r o l l e d  speculation:  ... a p t t h e M i n d o r F a n c y i s t o r o v e U n c h e c k ' t , and o f h e r r o v i n g i s no end. (PL, V I I I , 188-9) S i m i l a r l y , Michael's was  given  lengthy  p r e v i e w o f men's  t o Adam w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c  destiny  i n t e n t i o n o f admon-  i s h i n g him t o add v i r t u e t o n e c e s s a r y knowledge.  Adam's  response t o Michael's  that  he h a d l e a r n e d  survey of h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e d  his lesson  well:  G r e a t l y i n s t r u c t e d , I s h a l l hence d e p a r t , G r e a t l y i n p e a c e o f t h o u g h t , a n d h a v e my f i l l Of K n o w l e d g e , what t h i s V e s s e l c a n c o n t a i n ; B e y o n d w h i c h was my f o l l y t o a s p i r e . H e n c e f o r t h I l e a r n , t h a t t o obey i s b e s t , And l o v e w i t h f e a r t h e o n l y God (PL, X I I , 5 5 7 -  75 Milton also believed strongly that the right k i n d of knowledge should ical tic  end i n a c t i o n .  His puritan-  d e s i r e t o be " d e a r t o God" was l i n k e d t o h i s h u m a n i s ambition  aspiration  t o be "famous t o a l l a g e s . "  c o u l d be r e a l i z e d a p a r t f r o m d e d i c a t e d  v i c e t o mankind.  An e d u c a t i o n  generous u n l e s s i t f i t t e d skilfully,  Neither ser-  c o u l d n o t be c a l l e d  "a man t o p e r f o r m  justly,  and magnanimously a l l t h e o f f i c e s ,  both  29  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c , o f peace and war." istic  7  This  ideal-  c o n c e p t o f e d u c a t i o n was c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o  Milton's ideas of l i b e r t y  a n d b o n d a g e , f o r he  felt  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e r i g h t k i n d o f knowledge " a t some t i m e  or other  save an army."  King  could  Alfred,  whose e x p l o i t s w e r e d e p i c t e d i n The H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , seemed t o be a d e p i c t i o n o f M i l t o n ' s i d e a l o f a " u n i v e r s a l " man, f o r h e " t h i r s t e d  after a l l liberal  k n o w l e d g e , " was " e x e m p l a r y i n d e v o t i o n , " a n d d i r e c t e d the  "many g l o r i o u s l a b o u r s o f h i s l i f e "  and  w a r , so t h a t " j u s t i c e  both  t o peace  seem'd i n h i s d a i e s n o t t o  f l o u r i s h o n l y , b u t t o tryumph."30 ^ J o h n S. D i c k o f f , M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1946, p. 1 1 . 2  29 f 0  Education,  i n Hughes, p. 6 3 3 .  -^History of B r i t a i n ,  pp. 2 2 0 - 2 2 3 .  (New Y o r k ,  76 M i l t o n ' s p r a i s e of v i r t u o u s a c t i o n was counterbalanced by h i s harsh censure of "ignoble peaceful  sloth."  ease and  Domestic as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l l i b e r t y could be maintained only by astute and d i l i g e n t men who were e n t i r e l y devoted t o the w i l l o f God.  M i l t o n expressed through Samson h i s contempt f o r  those who were u n w i l l i n g to pay the moral p r i c e of Freedom: But what more o f t i n Nations grown c o r r u p t , And by t h i r v i c e s brought t o s e r v i t u d e , Than t o l o v e Bondage more than L i b e r t y , Bondage with ease than strenuous l i b e r t y . (SA, 268-71) M i l t o n a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n The H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n the connection The  which he saw between i d l e n e s s and bondage.  tendency o f t h e B r i t i s h t o adopt i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y  the Roman manner o f l i f e  aroused M i l t o n ' s  disdain:  Then were the Roman f a s h i o n s i m i t a t e d , ... a f t e r a w h i l e the i n c i t e m e n t s a l s o and m a t e r i a l s of V i c e , and voluptuous l i f e , proud B u i l d i n g s , Baths, and t h e elegance o f Banqueting; which the f o o l i s h e r s o r t c a l l ' d c i v i l t i e , but was indeed a s e c r e t A r t t o prepare them f o r b o n d a g e . ^ He s i m i l a r l y a t t r i b u t e d the frequent  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , pp. 7 3 - 4 .  v i c t o r i e s o f the  77 Danes i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y to the moral l e t h a r g y o f t h e Saxons, who were "brok'n w i t h l u x u r i e and s l o t h " and t h e r e f o r e " f i t t e d by t h i r own v i c e s f o r no c o n d i t i o n but servile•" One form of v i r t u e s t r e s s e d by M i l t o n i n h i s outl i n e of human d e s t i n y at the end of P a r a d i s e Lost was temperance.  M i c h a e l announced  t o Adam that one o f h i s  main purposes i n p r e d i c t i n g what would t r a n s p i r e i n the f u t u r e was t o demonstrate the v a l u e of moderation, f o r approximately eighty l i n e s o f Book XI a r e devoted t o t h e dangers of intemperance.  Adam was f o r c e d to behold t h e  Lazar-house o f the world, f u l l  of d i s e a s e - r a c k e d people  s u f f e r i n g from intemperance, which would b r i n g g r e a t e r numbers t o t h e grave than t h e combined ravages of f i r e , f l o o d , and famine.33  With almost c r u e l  insistence  M i c h a e l p o i n t e d out to Adam, who was weeping at the g h a s t l y sight_,that the d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s of intemperance had begun t o plague mankind the moment t h a t he and Eve had y i e l d e d t o "ungovern'd  a p p e t i t e " by p a r t a k i n g of t h e  32  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , p. 198.  3 3 Q e o r g e C. T a y l o r and M e r r i t t Hughes have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s t r i k i n g resemblances between M i l t o n ' s l i s t o f d i s e a s e s and t h a t o f the French poet, Du Bartas, i n La Sepmain ou C r e a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d i n complete form i n 1608~7 M i l t o n ' s l i s t , however, i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r .  78 forbidden f r u i t .  M i c h a e l t h e n p a r t i a l l y c o n s o l e d Adam  by showing him t h a t many d i s e a s e s c o u l d be a v o i d e d by "the r u l e o f n o t t o o much ... due nourishment, n o t g l u t t o n o u s d e l i g h t . " (PL, X I , 531-3).  A t t h e end o f  h i s p o r t r a y a l o f h i s t o r y M i c h a e l once a g a i n s  reminded  Adam t o i n c l u d e temperance i n h i s l i s t o f v i r t u e s . M i l t o n ' s a t t a c k s on t h e v i c e o f intemperance were o c c a s i o n a l l y v e i l e d i n heavy-handed humour.  I n Comus  he showed t h a t weary t r a v e l l e r s , who t h r o u g h "fond i n t e m p e r a t e t h i r s t " p a r t o o k of t h e "drought of Phoebus," were changed i n t o b r u t i s h a n i m a l s such as w o l v e s , f r o g s , or g o a t s .  With s c a t h i n g i r o n y M i l t o n then added:  And t h e y , so p e r f e c t i s t h e i r m i s e r y , Not once p e r c e i v e t h e i r f o u l d i s f i g u r e m e n t , But b o a s t themselves more comely t h a n b e f o r e .... (Comus, 73-5) S i m i l a r i n v e c t i v e s a g a i n s t intemperance found t h e i r way into Milton's histories.  I n The H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , f o r  i n s t a n c e , he d i g r e s s e d t o comment on t h e "matchless d r i n k e r , " Bonosus, a Roman emperor who "hang'd h i m s e l f , and gave o c c a s i o n o f a ready j e s t made on' him f o r h i s much d r i n k i n g : 'Heer hangs a t a n k a r d , n o t a man.'" ^ 3  ^ H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , p. 8$.  79  Having  p e r m i t t e d t h e r e a d e r t o j o i n him  the h i l a r i o u s  i n beholding  sight, M i l t o n returned to h i s chronol-  o g i c a l o u t l i n e of B r i t i s h  history.  M i l t o n ' s b e l i e f t h a t s l o t h f u l n e s s and ance were i n v a r i a b l y p u n i s h e d i n w a r d bondage was  w i t h outward as w e l l  s u p p l e m e n t e d by a  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t v i r t u e was  unassailable.  The  I n Comus the  e l d e r b r o t h e r condes-  cendingly informs h i s timorous brother that t h e i r by p o s s e s s i n g c h a s t i t y , When t h e s e c o n d t h a t " v i r t u e may  as  corresponding  t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l M i l t o n i c maxims r e l a t i n g t o i m p r e g n a b i l i t y of v i r t u e .  intemper-  " i s c l a d i n complete  sister,  steel."  a g a i n b e g i n s t o w a v e r , he i s r e a s s u r e d be a s s a i l ' d b u t n e v e r h u r t . "  The  Lady  h e r s e l f , u p o n b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d by Comus, c h a l l e n g e s  her  antagonist w i t h these words: F o o l , do n o t b o a s t , Thou c a n s t n o t t o u c h t h e f r e e d o m o f my m i n d . (Comus, 6 6 3 - 4 ) V i r t u e , which was  f o r M i l t o n was  personal devotion to  the h i g h e s t form of heroism.  safeguard of  I t was  a l s o the  God, only  liberty:  U n l e s s t h a t l i b e r t y which i s of such a k i n d as a r m s c a n n e i t h e r p r o c u r e n o r t a k e away, w h i c h  so alone i s the f r u i t of piety, o f j u s t i c e , of t e m p e r a n c e , a n d u n a d u l t e r a t e d v i r t u e , ... t h e r e w i l l n o t l o n g be w a n t i n g one who w i l l s n a t c h f r o m y o u b y t r e a c h e r y what y o u h a v e a c q u i r e d by arms. These i d e a s were i l l u s t r a t e d  i n Paradise  Lost.  R a p h a e l , i n h i s r e c o u n t i n g o f t h e war i n h e a v e n , s i n g l e d out the seraph,  A b d i e l , t o i l l u s t r a t e t o Adam  t h e meaning o f t r u e v a l o u r .  This  r e m a i n e d l o y a l t o God i n t h e m i d s t  "fervent Angel,"  who  o f "innumerable  f a l s e , " was a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e armed h o s t s o f S a t a n without  r a i s i n g h i s sword.  He was commended  directly  by God a f t e r he h a d r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e enemy camp: S e r v a n t o f God, w e l l done, w e l l t h o u h a s t f o u g h t The b e t t e r f i g h t , who s i n g l e h a s t m a i n t a i n ' d A g a i n s t r e v o l t e d m u l t i t u d e s t h e Cause Of T r u t h , i n w o r d m i g h t i e r t h a n t h e y i n Arms; And f o r t h e t e s t i m o n y o f T r u t h h a s t b o r n e U n i v e r s a l reproach, f a r worse t o bear Than v i o l e n c e ( P L , V I , 29-35) "Far worse t o bear than v i o l e n c e " i s a phrase which g i v e s us a c l u e t o M i l t o n ' s great r e l u c t a n c e t o admit t h a t h i s t o r y was f u l l who w e r e m a r t y r e d  The  o f examples o f t h e knowing few  f o r t h e i r f a i t h by t h e e r r i n g  S e c o n d D e f e n s e , i n Hughes, p . 835.  thousands  81  b e c a u s e God f o r some i n e x p l i c a b l e r e a s o n h a d n o t s e e n fit just win  t o come t o t h e i r r e s c u e .  F o r M i l t o n , i t was only-  " t h a t he who i n d e b a t e o f T r u t h h a t h won s h o u l d i n Arms."  into effect,  I n A b d i e l ' s c a s e t h i s p r i n c i p l e was p u t f o r A b d i e l w i t h a "noble  r e c o i l t e n huge p a c e s b a c k w a r d s .  s t r o k e " made  Satan  When, h o w e v e r ,  h u n d r e d s were m a s s a c r e d i n P i e m o n t i n h i s own d a y , M i l t o n was f o r c e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e g r i m r e a l i t i e s nected w i t h martyrdom.  The news so e n r a g e d  con-  Milton's  r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n t h a t h e , i n some o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l p o e t r y he e v e r p e n n e d , c r i e d o u t t o God t o avenge t h e b l o o d y  deed:  A v e n g e , 0 L o r d , t h y - s l a u g h t e r ' d S a i n t s , whose bones L i e s c a t t e r ' d on t h e A l p i n e m o u n t a i n s c o l d , Ev'n them who k e p t t h y t r u t h s o p u r e o f o l d When a l l o u r F a t h e r s w o r s h i p ' t S t o c k s and S t o n e s , F o r g e t n o t : i n t h y book r e c o r d t h e i r g r o a n s Who w e r e t h y S h e e p .... ( S o n n e t X V I I I , "On t h e L a t e M a s s a c r e i n P i e m o n t , " 1-6) Having  e x p r e s s e d h i m s e l f i n t h i s manner, M i l t o n went  on t o c o n q u e r h i s a n g e r by v o l u n t a r i l y s u b m i t t i n g t o providence  and by s t a n d i n g upon p a t i e n c e i n s t e a d o f  vengeance: ... T h e i r m a r t y r ' d b l o o d and a s h e s sow O'er a l l t h ' I t a l i a n f i e l d s w h e r e s t i l l d o t h sway The t r i p l e T y r a n t : t h a t f r o m t h e s e may g r o w A hundredfold ( 1 1 . 10-13)  82  Milton's b e l i e f  i n the u n a s s a i l a b i l i t y of v i r t u e  p e r s i s t e d , however, and appeared i n P a r a d i s e the b e g i n n i n g of Book IX he p o s t u l a t e d  Lost. Near  that C h r i s t i a n  f o r t i t u d e was f a r s u p e r i o r t o the " f a b l ' d K n i g h t s " and " b a t t l e s f e i g n e d " of epic warfare.  He a l s o s t a t e d h i s  i n t e n t i o n t o p r a i s e "heroic martyrdom." two  books o f Paradise  The l a s t  Lost, however, show t h a t while  M i l t o n c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r e s s e d C h r i s t i a n f o r t i t u d e , he evaded the i s s u e of " h e r o i c martyrdom" as much as possible.  Most of the e a r l i er t a b l e a u x of Book XI  which M i c h a e l s e t before devotion  t o God p r o t e c t e d  t h e i r enemies.  i n d i v i d u a l s whos  them from the onslaughts o f  Abel was murdered, but Enoch, Noah, and  others were preserved vention  Adam d e p i c t e d  by means of the d i r e c t i n t e r -  of God i n t h e world.  Michael's portrayal of t h  Church p e r i o d o f h i s t o r y a l s o demonstrated tendency t o evade the f a c t  of martyrdom.  Milton's While some  would be done to death f o r t h e i r f a i t h i n C h r i s t , b e l i e v e r s would be " o f t supported so as s h a l l arrange T h i r proudest p e r s e c u t o r s "  and would go on t o win great  numbers f o r C h r i s t u n t i l ... at l e n g t h T h i r M i n i s t r y peform'd, and race w e l l run, T h i r d o c t r i n e and t h i r story w r i t t e n l e f t , They d i e (PL, XII, 405-7)  33  The t h i r d liberty,  " m a t e r i a l question" r e l a t i n g to domestic  a s o u t l i n e d b y M i l t o n i n The S e c o n d  dealt with "the free p u b l i c a t i o n " of ideas. made r e f e r e n c e he d e f e n d e d  Milton  here  t o h i s A r e o p a g i t i c a , a t r e a t i s e i n which  t h e r i g h t o f a n i n d i v i d u a l t o be f r e e  censoring magistrates. ested  Defense,  W h i l e M i l t o n was v i t a l l y  i n the l i b e r t y of unlicensed p r i n t i n g ,  from inter-  h i s primary  c o n c e r n was t o p r o v e t h a t God h a d e n t r u s t e d man " w i t h t h e gift  o f r e a s o n t o be h i s own c h o o s e r . " ^ Milton accepted the Elizabethan e t h i c a l  system  b a s e d on P l a t o n i c a n d C h r i s t i a n i d e a s o f r e a s o n a n d passion. ? 3  This widely-held  man's s o u l a s a t r i p l e p r i s e d of t h e w i l l  ethical  scheme r e g a r d e d  h i e r a r c h y i n which reason  a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) was t h e h i g h e s t  f a c u l t y , w h i l e t h e s e n s e s were t h e l o w e s t . mediary memory.  (com-  The i n t e r -  f a c u l t y was made u p o f common s e n s e , f a n c y , a n d M i l t o n s u m m a r i z e d t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n Adam's  w o r d s t o E v e , who h a d j u s t r e l a t e d h e r d i s t r e s s i n g dream:  - ^ A r e o p a g i t i c a , i n Hughes, p. 7 2 7 . ^E.M. T i l l y a r d , The E l i z a b e t h a n W o r l d P i c t u r e (New Y o r k , Random House, 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 7 5 . 3  84  But know t h a t i n t h e S o u l Are many l e s s e r F a c u l t i e s t h a t serve Reason as c h i e f ; among t h e s e Fancy n e x t Her o f f i c e h o l d s ; o f a l l e x t e r n a l t h i n g s , Which t h e f i v e w a t c h f u l Senses r e p r e s e n t , She forms I m a g i n a t i o n s , Aery shapes, Which Reason j o i n i n g o r d i s j o i n i n g , frames (PL,  V,  100-6)  M i l t o n went a l o n g w i t h t h e commonplace i d e a t h a t d i s o r d e r and confused  b e h a v i o r would i n e v i t a b l y emerge i f reason  were dethroned by p a s s i o n  (the u n c o n t r o l l e d o p e r a t i o n  o f t h e lower f a c u l t i e s ) .  This i s c l e a r l y  illustrated  i n M i l t o n ' s account of t h e e f f e c t s of t h e f a l l .  "High  p a s s i o n s , " anger, h a t e , and o t h e r s o r d i d emotions d i s r u p t e d t h e s e r e n i t y which Adam and Eve had once  enjoyed,  For u n d e r s t a n d i n g r u l ' d n o t , and t h e W i l l Heard n o t h e r l o r e , both i n s u b j e c t i o n now To s e n s u a l A p p e t i t e , who from beneath U s u r p i n g o v e r sovran Reason c l a i m e d S u p e r i o r sway (PL, IX, 1 1 2 7 - 3 1 ) M i l t o n , however, was n o t c o n t e n t t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o h i s works these t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s o f r e a s o n and p a s s i o n w i t h o u t some s h i f t s i n emphasis.  Throughout  h i s works he made i t e v i d e n t t h a t f o r him  reason—the  o n l y safeguard o f l i b e r t y — w a s e s s e n t i a l l y  conformity  to t h e w i l l o f God, whereas p a s s i o n was r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t it.  Milton i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s idea i n his poetic portrayal  85  of h i s t o r y .  The great  i n s u r r e c t i o n i n heaven was brought  about by those who r e f u s e d  "Right  reason f o r t h i r Law."  T h e i r f a i l u r e t o submit to God's w i l l  automatically  plunged them i n t o the bondage o f t h e i r own p a s s i o n s and insatiable lusts.  S i m i l a r l y , man, who had been endowed  "with S a n c t i t y of Reason" (which M i l t o n i n A r e o p a g i t i c a c a l l s the image of God) i n o r d e r God he  Supreme" ( P L , V I I , 5 1 4 - 1 5 ) ,  "to adore and worship l o s t h i s freedom when  disobeyed t h e command of God.  Michael  thus showed  Adam t h a t throughout t h e course of time mankind would c o n t i n u a l l y l a p s e i n t o e x t e r n a l as w e l l as i n t e r n a l s e r v i t u d e because " t r u e l i b e r t y , " which always dwelt with " r i g h t Reason," was l o s t a t t h e time of h i s " o r i g i n a l lapse."  F o r M i l t o n , " r i g h t Reason" was un-  q u a l i f i e d submission t o God's w i l l . manifestation  of "vain reasoning"  I t was but a  even to q u e s t i o n t h e  purposes of God, whose ways were " j u s t to men."  ... and j u s t i f i a b l e  (SA, 2 9 3 - 4 ) : ,  M i l t o n a l s o s t r e s s e d the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p he detected he  between reason and choice.  contended t h a t "reason i s but c h o o s i n g . "  p r i z e d above a l l t h i n g s and  In A r e o p a g i t i c a M i l t o n , who  "the l i b e r t y to know, t o u t t e r ,  t o argue f r e e l y a c c o r d i n g  to conscience,"  " p r a i s e a f u g i t i v e and c l o i s t e r e d v i r t u e . " 3 8  could not Domestic and  86 and  civil liberty  c o u l d not be preserved a p a r t from  the p r e r o g a t i v e of i n d i v i d u a l s to e x e r c i s e t h e i r by means of the " g i f t of reason" w i t h which God endowed them. clearly:  wills had  Woodhouse sums up M i l t o n ' s p o s i t i o n  " I t was  impossible f o r M i l t o n to  conceive  of beings i n the f u l l p o s s e s s i o n of f r e e w i l l u n l e s s  this  presented the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r i a l a t any moment." ^ 3  Reason and  c h o i c e were l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n M i l t o n ' s  treatment of the f a l l of man.  In A r e o p a g i t i c a he  ex-  pressed extreme i r r i t a t i o n a t the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t  God  c o u l d r i g h t f u l l y be blamed f o r a l l o w i n g Adam to t r a n s gress; i t was cerned.  Had  u t t e r nonsense as f a r as M i l t o n was not God  given man  w i t h the g i f t of reason? enforced obedience?  Who  con-  freedom of choice along ever set a premium on  M i l t o n touched on the same questions  i n the t h i r d book of Paradise L o s t .  God,  s u r v e y i n g the  past, p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , announced to the Son t h a t  man  would be e n t i r e l y  like  to blame f o r h i s f a l l , because he,  the a n g e l s , had been amply s u p p l i e d w i t h the powers of reason and  choice:  ^ A e r o p a g i t i c a , i n Hughes, pp. 728-746. -^A.S.P. Woodhouse, Sedgewick Memorial L e c t u r e M i l t o n the Poet (Toronto, Dent, 1955), p. 25.  on  87  Not f r e e , w h a t p r o o f c o u l d t h e y h a v e g i v ' n s i n c e r e Of t r u e a l l e g i a n c e ... w h a t p r a i s e c o u l d t h e y receive? What p l e a s u r e I f r o m s u c h o b e d i e n c e p a i d , When W i l l a n d R e a s o n ( R e a s o n a l s o i s c h o i c e ) U s e l e s s and v a i n , o f f r e e d o m b o t h d e s p o i l ' d .... (PL, I I I , 1 0 4 - 9 ) For  M i l t o n r e a s o n and c h o i c e were i n s e p a r a b l e , f o r man's  rational  faculties  c o u l d o n l y be e x e r c i s e d i n  appointed task of informing the The  third  i n h i s Second  will.  species of l i b e r t y which M i l t o n  D e f e n s e was  religious  broad sense of t h e term r e l i g i o u s political  and d o m e s t i c f r e e d o m ,  a s p e c t s o f human l i f e ramifications.  "Who  light  sense, r e l i g i o u s  liberty  I n The  In the  embraced  f o r Milton regardeda l l spiritual  hath not l i b e r t y  to  soul according t o the best  hath planted i n him?"^^  In i t s narrower  l i b e r t y meant f o r P u r i t a n t h i n k e r s  as M i l t o n freedom from the j u r i s d i c t i o n bishops.  listed  c a n e n j o y , " he a s k e d , " a n y t h i n g i n  and t o s a v e h i s own  w h i c h God  freedom.  as h a v i n g profound  t h i s w o r l d w i t h c o n t e n t m e n t who s e r v e God  their  such  of popes o r  R e a s o n o f C h u r c h Government  Milton  expressed h i s approval of the p r e s b y t e r i a n form of "ministerial  o r d e r " w i d e l y a d o p t e d by P u r i t a n g r o u p s i n  ^°Milton, The  R e a d y and E a s y Way,  i n Hughes, p.  895.  88 the seventeenth  century.  T h i s simple-form  of  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l government, which p r o v i d e d o f f i c e s only for  p r e s b y t e r s and deacons, d i d away with such e p i s c o p a l  f u n c t i o n a r i e s as b i s h o p s , archbishops, and popes.  Milton,  along with most P u r i t a n s , r e p u d i a t e d m y s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the communion s e r v i c e and e l a b o r a t e church ceremonies.^  He a l s o s t r e s s e d the r i g h t of the  i n d i v i d u a l to i n t e r p r e t the S c r i p t u r e s f o r h i m s e l f under the guidance of  of the Holy S p i r i t .  In h i s T r e a t i s e  C i v i l Power M i l t o n e m p h a t i c a l l y summed up the b a s i c  P u r i t a n p o s i t i o n on matters of a u t h o r i t y : I t cannot be denied, b e i n g the main f o u n d a t i o n of our p r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o n , t h a t we ... have no other d i v i n e r u l e or a u t h o r i t y from without us ... but the h o l y S c r i p t u r e , arid no other w i t h i n us but the i l l u m i n a t i o n of the Holy S p i r i t . . . . ^ In  one  sense,  a l l of God's c h i l d r e n were k i n g s  p r i e s t s b e f o r e God. tended,  and  "The t i t l e of c l e r g y , " M i l t o n con-  " S t . Peter gave to a l l God's p e o p l e , t i l l Pope  Higinus and the succeeding p r e l a t e s took i t from them."^  ^ M a u r i c e Ashley, England i n the Seventeenth Century (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin Books, 1961), p. 29. i  2 T r e a t i s e of C i v i l Power, i n Hughes, pp. 840-1.  ^" The Reason of Church Government, i n Hughes, p. 3  678.  3  89 M i l t o n ' s a n t i - p r e l a t i c a l b i a s and h i s c o r r e s ponding a p p r e c i a t i o n of the freedom belonging righteous i n f l u e n c e d h i s h i s t o r y - w r i t i n g .  The  to  History  o f B r i t a i n i s f u l l o f vehement o u t b u r s t s a g a i n s t v i c i o u s n e s s and  corruptness  Example should have guided l o f t y conception those who  the  the  of the c l e r g y , "whose others."  Milton's  of the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  had been c a l l e d by God  t o m i n i s t e r accounted  f o r h i s v i o l e n t i n v e c t i v e s a g a i n s t the "great C l e r c s " who  were Unlearned, Unapprehensive, yet impudent; s u t t l e Prowlers, P a s t o r s i n Name, but indeed Wolves .... not c a l l ' d , but s e i s i n g on the M i n i s t r y as a Trade, not as a S p i r i t u a l Charge ... u s u r p i n g the C h a i r of P e t e r , but through the b l i n d n e s s of t h i r own w o r l d l y l u s t s , they stumble upon the Seat of Judas .... 44  Michael,  i n h i s prophecy of the Church Age,  drew a t t e n -  t i o n to the p e r i o d of h i s t o r y i n which "grievous Wolves," posing as t e a c h e r s , would t u r n " a l l the sacred of Heav'n To t h i r own  mysteries  v i l e advantages." (PL,XII,  M i l t o n ' s p u r i t a n i c a l a v e r s i o n to r i t e s ceremonies, which he regarded freedom of t r u e worship, was  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , pp.  and  as encumbrances t o a l s o expressed  134-5.  508-10)  the  i n h i s preview  90 of h i s t o r y .  Michael  f o r e t o l d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of  mankind would r e p l a c e t r u t h and f a i t h w i t h R i t e s and s p e c i o u s  forms."  The p u r e s t  "outward  form o f  r e l i g i o n f o r M i l t o n was t h e a d o r a t i o n  o f God w i t h o u t  such media a s l i t u r g i e s and p r i e s t s .  He d e p i c t e d i n  Book I V o f P a r a d i s e worship.  Lost his version of archetypal  Adam a n d E v e , b e f o r e  retiring to their  flower-  s t r e w n bower, " u n d e r o p n S k y a d o r ' d The God t h a t T  made b o t h S k y , A i r , E a r t h a n d Heav'n ... o t h e r Observing  none."  ( P L , I V , 721-2; 736-7)  f o r m o f w o r s h i p was t h e d i r e c t individual  Rites  The h i g h e s t  communion o f t h e  s o u l ' w i t h God.  Since  the liberty  of conscience  other things  ... d e a r e s t  a n d most p r e c i o u s " 4 5 t o M i l t o n ,  he r e g a r d e d  any attempt t o curb  was " a b o v e a l l  i t with indignation.  He t h e r e f o r e t o o k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i n h i s o u t l i n e o f history  t o a t t a c k t h e m e d i e v a l Roman C a t h o l i c  f o r p e r s e c u t i n g those in truth.  who w o r s h i p p e d God i n s p i r i t a n d  M i l t o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b e d a t t h e  presumptuous behavior  of ecclesiastical  officials  e n f o r c i n g " s p i r i t u a l l a w s b y c a r n a l power." as a f o r m 45  The  church  for  He saw t h i s  o f o p p o s i t i o n t o God, who h a d g i v e n  Ready a n d E a s y Way, i n Hughes, p. 895.  t o every  91 i n d i v i d u a l the freedom to a p p r o p r i a t e s a l v a t i o n f o r himself: What w i l l they then But f o r c e the S p i r i t of Grace i t s e l f , and b i n d H i s . c o n s o r t L i b e r t y ; what, but u n b u i l d His l i v i n g Temples, b u i l t by F a i t h t o stand, T h i r own F a i t h not anothers? (PL, X I I , 524-8) In s p i t e of h i s c o n v i c t i o n that C h r i s t i a n l i b e r t y r e l e a s e d the i n d i v i d u a l "from the r u l e of the law and man,"  he d i d not  countenance antinomianism i n any  L i k e the Apostle P a u l , who  attacked those who  the moral law along with the ceremonial s t r o n g l y expressed  of  form.  repudiated  law,^° M i l t o n  h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of the idea t h a t a  C h r i s t i a n c o u l d continue  i n s i n i f he wished, because  of the abundant supply of grace a v a i l a b l e t o him.47 M i l t o n c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between s p i r i t u a l freedom and l i c e n s e i n h i s sonnet, "On  the Same":  License they mean when they c r y l i b e r t y ; For who l o v e s t h a t , must f i r s t be wise and good. (Sonnet XII, 11-12) S p i r i t u a l l i b e r t y removed the i n d i v i d u a l from the law men  only i n order t h a t he might serve God.  4&A.S.P. Woodhouse, " M i l t o n , P u r i t a n i s m , UTQ, IV (1934-5), 4&5. 47Romans. 6:1,2, " S h a l l we may abound? God f o r b i d . "  continue  I t was  the  and L i b e r t y , "  i n s i n , t h a t grace  of  92 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as w e l l as the p r i v i l e g e of each C h r i s t i a n to f u l f i l  God's w i l l i n h i s own  life.  For  Milton,  freedom belonged only to good men;  the r e s t d i d not  freedom but l i c e n s e .  i n the words of  Woodhouse, "the  special prerogative  as f a r as M i l t o n and cerned.  L i b e r t y was,  Milton  the Puritans  incorporated  human d e s t i n y .  of the  love  regenerate"^  i n general were con-  these ideas i n t o h i s view of  I n d i v i d u a l s and n a t i o n s  that f a i l e d to  t a i n the s p i r i t u a l freedom a l l o t t e d to them by i n e v i t a b l y lapsed i n t o every kind of bondage.  ma  God In  The  H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n M i l t o n summarized h i s numerous accounts of the r i s e and  f a l l of peoples by means of a  profound moral a p p l i c a t i o n : For s t o r i e s £~i.&. h i s t o r i e s _ 7 teach us t h a t l i b e r t i e sought out of season i n a c o r r u p t and degenerate age ... brought f u r t h e r s l a v e r i e . For l i b e r t i e hath a sharp and double edge f i t t o n e l i e to be handl'd by j u s t and vertuous men, t o bad and d i s s o l u t e i t becomes a m i s c h i e f unw i e l d i e i n t h i r own hands. 49 Only by being " d e l i v e r e d from the bondage of  corruption"  could men  c h i l d r e n of  God."  p.  enjoy "the g l o r i o u s l i b e r t y of the  (Romans  8:21)  ^ C i t e d i n Roy 149. LQ  D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , Mannerism and  ^ H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , p.  324-  Baroque,  93  CHAPTER IV  M i l t o n ' s Baroque Manner of P o r t r a y i n g Human D e s t i n y  In recent y e a r s t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g tendency among s c h o l a r s t o c l a s s i f y many seventeenthcentury European works of a r t as Baroque.  The word  "Baroque" seems to have o r i g i n a t e d as a j e w e l l e r ' s or academician's term shape.!  f o r something of strange or i r r e g u l a r  I t was l a t e r used t o d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s kinds of  a r t which were f e l t t o be extravagant and b i z a r r e .  2  Throughout most o f the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s the term "Baroque" was  employed to designate a  c e r t a i n s t y l e of p a i n t i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e i n a d i s paraging way,  but i n the 1880's i n Germany the word l o s t  i t s u n f a v o u r a b l e connotations and became an o b j e c t i v e term to d e s c r i b e the dominant s t y l e of seventeenthcentury I t a l i a n a r t .  3  A few decades l a t e r , the term  "Baroque" began to be a p p l i e d to l i t e r a t u r e .  "^Roy D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , Mannerism and Baroque, p. 57. A r n o l d Hauser, The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of A r t (New York, Vintage, 1951), V o l . I I , 1732  N i c o l a u s Pevsner, An O u t l i n e of European A r c h i t e c t u r e (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, 1961 / f i r s t publ i s h e d 1943_7, p. 175. 3  94 The c h i e f p o p u l a r i z e r  of t h e term i n t h e e a r l y  p a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h century was t h e German s c h o l a r , W o l f f l i n , who i n h i s P r i n c i p l e s of A r t H i s t o r y  outlined  what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Baroque s t y l e i n p a i n t i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Even  though c r i t i c s today f i n d i t u s e f u l to regard as "Mannerist" many works o f a r t which W o l f f l i n termed as Baroque,  h i s " f i v e p a i r s of concepts"^ r e l a t i n g t o  the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between Renaissance and Baroque s t y l e are s t i l l  illuminating.  Baroque works he des-  c r i b e d a s " p a i n t e r l y " because they tended "to look l i m i t l e s s " i n s t e a d of " c o n f i n e d "  l i k e Renaissance works.  Secondly, the Baroque demonstrated a development plane  to recession,  and had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as  depth and s p a t i a l i l l u s i o n . depicted  from  T h i r d l y , Baroque a r t  "open" r a t h e r than " c l o s e d " form, and appeared  l e s s r i g i d t o W o l f f l i n than Renaissance a r t . fourth point,  In h i s  " m u l t i p l i c i t y t o u n i t y , " W o l f f l i n contended  t h a t a Baroque work of a r t d i d not possess the harmony of f r e e p a r t s  common to Renaissance a r t , but was com-  "^Heinrich W o l f f l i n , P r i n c i p l e s of A r t H i s t o r y , t r a n s . M.D. H o t t i n g e r (New York, Dover, 1929 / f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1915.7, PP- 14-16.  95  p r i s e d of "a union o f p a r t s i n a s i n g l e theme ... by the s u b o r d i n a t i o n , t o one unconditioned of a l l other elements."  dominant,  F i n a l l y , Baroque a r t , while  l a c k i n g the a b s o l u t e c l a r i t y of s u b j e c t which a c t e r i z e d Renaissance productions,  permitted  charfreer  expression o f l i g h t and c o l o u r f o r d i v e r s i f i e d  effects.  H i s t o r i c a l l y the Baroque s t y l e — e s p e c i a l l y Roman Baroque—was c l o s e l y connected with the a u t h o r i t a r i a n f o r m u l a t i o n s o f the C o u n c i l o f Trent  (which had con-  vened i n t e r m i t t e n t l y between 1 5 4 5 and 1 5 6 3 i n t h e T y r o l ) , and with the r i s i n g i n t e r e s t o f a number of 'popes and cardinals i n religious art.  The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f  the C o u n c i l had been t o draw P r o t e s t a n t Europe back i n t o the Roman C a t h o l i c f o l d , but f a i l i n g i n t h i s , the C o u n c i l ended up r e a f f i r m i n g Roman C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e s , i n c l u d i n g the dogma that church t r a d i t i o n ranked with the B i b l e as an a u t h o r i t y i n matters of f a i t h and morals.^  The Church began to demand t h a t a r t i s t s ob-  t a i n the advice of t h e o l o g i a n s i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g and sculpture.  In c e r t a i n cases, a r t i s t s were even r e s t r i c t e d  5 Pevsner, An O u t l i n e o f European A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 1 7 5 . ^ M e r r i t t Hughes, P. 7 2 3 , footnote 6 0 .  96 to using prescribed colours, d e p i c t i o n o f t h e Holy V i r g i n .  especially i n their Ecclesiastical  controls  i n the realm of a r t were, however, f r e q u e n t l y in practice.  modified  Church d i g n i t a r i e s , many of whom were  humanistically  i n c l i n e d , began to see the need to make  the forms and ceremonies of the Church more a t t r a c t i v e t o the common man.  A r t i s t s were t h e r e f o r e  encouraged  to d e p i c t the power and g l o r y of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church by means of s p e c t a c l e .  Magnificent  edifices  such as B e r n i n i ' s P i a z z a San P i e t r o and t h e facade o f the Church o f Sant 'Agnese i n Agone transformed Rome. In t h e f i e l d  of s c u l p t u r e dynamic c r e a t i o n s  exemplified  by B e r n i n i ' s statues o f S t . Teresa and Longinus appeared.  One eminent I t a l i a n c r i t i c has d e s c r i b e d  B e r n i n i ' s p o r t r a y a l i n marble of one o f S t . Teresa's mystical states of rapture devotional, s p i r i t  o f the Roman C a t h o l i c c o u n t r i e s i n the 7  seventeenth century." art  gradually  as "an epitome of the  The.influence  spread i n t o northern  of Roman Baroque  Europe.  Baroque  c o l o u r , grandeur, and energy began to permeate the a r t of P r o t e s t a n t England.  lands  such as the Low C o u n t r i e s and  Rubens and Rembrandt triumphed, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  ?Mario Praz, The Flaming Heart (New York, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958), p. 205.  97 i n Baroque l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g and p o r t r a i t u r e .  The  s p l e n d o u r a n d dynamism o f t h e B a r o q u e a l s o f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n M i l t o n ' s r i c h p o e t r y and p r o s e . Initially,  i t might  appear  strange t o a casual  r e a d e r o f M i l t o n ' s works t h a t t h e p o e t r y o f an a r d e n t Puritan  s u c h a s M i l t o n c a n b e r e l a t e d i n a n y way t o t h e  Baroque i m p u l s e s stemming f r o m t h e C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n , s e e i n g t h a t M i l t o n ' s a n t i p a t h y towards  Roman C a t h o l i c  i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d p r a c t i c e s was r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h h i s writings.  The a n s w e r c a n b e f o u n d i n M i l t o n ' s  d e v o t i o n t o God.  M i l t o n had seen t h e s p l e n d o u r s o f  p a p a l Rome a n d h a d u n d o u b t e d l y  been i m p r e s s e d , b u t as a  P u r i t a n he r e g a r d e d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l pomp w i t h g l o r y belonged  t o God a l o n e .  o n s t r a t e d t h e same d e g r e e  God,  distrust;  M i l t o n a s a p o e t dem-  of loyalty  t o God t h a t  Reformation a r t i s t s m a n i f e s t e d towards Rome.  ardent  t h e Church o f  R e g a r d i n g h i m s e l f as a k i n d o f p o e t - p r i e s t Milton  Counter-  before  sought  t o i n b r e e d and c h e r i s h i n a g r e a t p e o p l e t h e s e e d s o f v i r t u e ... a n d t o s e t t h e a f f e c t i o n s i n r i g h t t i m e , t o c e l e b r a t e i n g l o r i o u s and l o f t y hymns t h e t h r o n e a n d e q u i p a g e o f God's almightiness.g  M i l t o n , The R e a s o n o f C h u r c h G o v e r n m e n t , i n H u g h e s , p. 6 6 9 .  98 The  e f f e c t s of d e c i s i o n , f u l f i l l m e n t ,  and c e r -  9  t a i n t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e Baroque a r t were  expressed  i n M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a y a l of man's d e s t i n y i n Paradise  Lost.  Employing m a t e r i a l s which could be termed commonplaces because they were so f a m i l i a r t o  seventeenth-century  readers, M i l t o n reshaped the s u b j e c t o f the f a l l and  i t s consequences to conform t o h i s magnificent  conception men.  of man  of God's c o n t r o l l i n g w i l l i n t h e a f f a i r s of  H i s o r i g i n a l i t y l a y i n h i s dynamic manner of  p r e s e n t i n g a f a m i l i a r theme.  The dynamism o f M i l t o n ' s  e p i c has been a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by Wedgewood: The wonderful forward march of P a r a d i s e Lost, the concealed i n t e r p l a y of n a t u r a l s t r e s s , metre, and meaning ... g i v e t o t h e poem a v a r i e t y l i k e t h a t of the waters of some huge s w i f t r i v e r . ^  M i l t o n employed Baroque techniques amic p o r t r a y a l o f human d e s t i n y .  i n h i s panor-  By h i s use of Baroque  v i s t a s , l i n e a r and c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n s , and cumulative d e v i c e s , M i l t o n i n Paradise L o s t conveyed h i s b e l i e f t h a t h i s t o r y e x i s t e d only f o r t h e purpose of d i s p l a y i n g t h e  Wylie Sypher, Four Stages of Renaissance S t y l e (New York, Doubleday Anchor, 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 1 8 5 . C . V . Wedgewood, Seventeenth-Century E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1 1 4 . 10  99 o p e r a t i o n s o f God's a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g w i l l . ent  Baroque  totality of  A magnific-  v i s t a d e p i c t i n g God's c o n t r o l o v e r t h e  o f t i m e and  the t h i r d book.  space a p p e a r s n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g (Time and  space a r e h e r e viewed  t o g e t h e r , as i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n M i l t o n ' s p o e t r y , f o r s p a c e makes room f o r a c t i o n ) . ^  M i l t o n shows  God  b e n d i n g "down h i s e y e " f r o m h i s h i g h t h r o n e i n t h e p u r e Empyrean t o v i e w a t one at  g l a n c e h e a v e n , e a r t h , and  hell;  t h e same i n s t a n t He " f r o m h i s p r o s p e c t h i g h " b e h o l d s  the  p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e ,  and d e c l a r e s t h a t e v e r y -  t h i n g t h a t t r a n s p i r e s s h a l l conform t o h i s " h i g h Decree."  ( P L , 111,  58,  77-8);  There are  close  s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e sense of i n f i n i t y  conveyed  by  M i l t o n ' s v i s t a and t h e s p a c i o u s i n t e r i o r o f S t . P e t e r ' s i n Rome, f o r t h e y b o t h p o s s e s s t h e " s p a t i a l of  the Baroque.  I n t h e w o r d s o f S y p h e r , one  "engulfed i n i n f i n i t e l y St.  illusion" feels  extended spaciousness" i n s i d e  P e t e r ' s , w h e r e a s i n f a c t he i s " s h u t i n by m a s s i v e  and d e n s e Roman w a l l s , a r c h e s , and v a u l t s . vista  n ±  Milton's  i s s i m i l a r , f o r while the reader i s given a glimpse i  "'" Roy D a n i e l I s , 1  M i l t o n , Mannerism  and B a r o q u e , p.  98.  12 W y l i e S y p h e r , F o u r S t a g e s o f R e n a i s s a n c e S t y l e , p.  214.  100 into  infinite  s t r e t c h e s o f t i m e a n d s p a c e , he i s made t o  understand that i n f i n i t y  i t s e l f i s framed by t h e w i l l  o f God. W o l f f l i n ' s t e r m " o p e n f o r m " c a n be u s e d t o d e s cribe Milton's v i s t a into history Lost.  Adam i s t a k e n b y M i c h a e l t o t h e t o p o f t h e  highest h i l l of  i n Book X I o f P a r a d i s e  Earth"  i n P a r a d i s e , " f r o m whose t o p t h e H e m i s p h e r e  (PL,XI,378-9) c o u l d be seen i n one c o u p  d'oeil.  1 3  Time a n d s p a c e a r e a g a i n i n t e g r a l l y u n i t e d , f o r Adam's v i s i o n encompasses e a r t h l y kingdoms which a r e s e p a r a t e d from each o t h e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y as w e l l as g e o g r a p h i c ally.  M i l t o n i n d i c a t e s i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n w h i c h he makes  between t h e h i l l "the the  o f P a r a d i s e and t h e h i l l  upon w h i c h  T e m p t e r " s e t s C h r i s t t h a t Adam i s a b l e t o v i e w a l l kingdoms o f t h e e a r t h .  A close look a t the l i s t  of  names r e c o r d e d b y M i l t o n r e v e a l s t h a t he was i n t e r e s t e d primarily  i n c l a s s i c a l and b i b l i c a l  lands.  A f t e r out-  l i n i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e e m p i r e s o f t h e e a r t h down t o the  t i m e o f Rome's a s c e n d a n c y ,  M i l t o n begins t o lose  i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e s t of t h e n a t i o n s o f the w o r l d . F o l l o w i n g M i c h a e l ' s s k e t c h y r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e New W o r l d , Adam i s g i v e n " E u p h r a s y a n d R u e " s o t h a t he c a n b e h o l d  B . A . W r i g h t . M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t (New Y o r k , and N o b l e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 1 8 . 1 3  Barnes  101 "nobler s i g h t s . "  These s i g h t s are events  mainly to the h i s t o r y of the Hebrews, who predominant  relating play a  r o l e i n God's program f o r mankind.  Milton's  hazy treatment of areas of the world which do not p a r t i c u l a r l y amplify h i s theme has p a r a l l e l s t o such Baroque p a i n t i n g s as "Adam and Eve" by Rubens by Jan Breughel)..  (assisted  In t h i s work, the a t t e n t i o n of the  beholder tends to be drawn away immediately from the ambiguous "open" borders of the p a i n t i n g towards the f i g u r e s of Adam and Eve, who  are i n the act of par-  t a k i n g of the f o r b i d d e n f r u i t . M i l t o n ' s treatment of the p r o c e s s of time i s comprised of c y c l i c a l and l i n e a r p a t t e r n s .  As one  reads  through The H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n he begins to d e t e c t a k i n d of c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n i n the constant r i s e and f a l l of peoples.  M i l t o n d e p i c t s t h i s p r o c e s s , as we have seen  i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, i n terms of l i b e r t y and bondage. These c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n s might  seem a t f i r s t to be  taking  us away from the l i n e a r , "smooth course of h i s t o r y " which M i l t o n a t the o u t s e t of The H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n promised  1 / 4  "not  ... to d e l a y or i n t e r r u p t . " - ^  M i l t o n , The H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , p. 3.  Further  102  reading  i n the work, however, makes i t c l e a r t h a t  c y c l e s are l i k e l i n k s i n a c h a i n ,  the  or b e t t e r s t i l l ,  like  s w i r l s i n an extended s p i r a l , f o r the moral advancement and  d e c l i n e of n a t i o n s  can be seen as f i t t i n g i n t o a  c h r o n o l o g i c a l , hence l i n e a r , p a t t e r n based upon God's permissive The  will. l a s t two  books of P a r a d i s e  s i m i l a r double p a t t e r n .  Lost f o l l o w a  Book XI i s comprised l a r g e l y  of a s e r i e s o f t a b l e a u x each of which i n i t i a l l y  appears  t o be  depicts  self-contained.  The  f i r s t t a b l e a u , which  C a i n ' s murder of h i s b r o t h e r ,  Abel,  seems t o have l i t t l e  connection with the f o l l o w i n g tableaux,  which d e a l ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h the w i l e s of e v i l women and development o f w a r f a r e .  the  As f u r t h e r t a b l e a u x appear i t  b e g i n s t o be apparent t h a t M i l t o n i s d e m o n s t r a t i n g o n l y the r e c u r r e n c e of moral l a p s e s but  i s a l s o showing t h a t God  men  t o f u r t h e r h i s own  the w r a t h of men  i n d i f f e r e n t forms,  employs t h e e v i l w i l l s  u l t i m a t e purposes.  X I I a l s o shows t h e c o n s t a n t s p i r i t u a l p r o g r e s s This r e c u r r i n g cycle  Psalm  76:10  Book and  revolves  around a s t r a i g h t l i n e , w h i c h i s f o r M i l t o n t h e  1 5  of  He uses even  t o b r i n g p r a i s e t o h i s name.^5  d e c l i n e of p e o p l e s .  not  dynamic  103  a x i s o f t h e ever u n f o l d i n g w i l l  o f God.  terms, M i l t o n ' s view o f h i s t o r y  i s l i k e the i n t e r i o r  of  a B a r o q u e dome, i n w h i c h  I n Baroque  " t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e on t h e  l o w e r s u r f a c e o f t h e dome s u d d e n l y b r e a k s o'p'ei'Tv i n t o a; of  light  and space.""^  The p r o c e s s o f t i m e i s made u p  of  t h e " e n c l o s u r e s " o f man's r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h God b r e a k s  through t o a s s e r t h i s sovereign w i l l . In h i s panoramic  p o r t r a y a l o f human d e s t i n y  M i l t o n made u s e o f c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t s t o e n h a n c e t h e g l o r y o f God. last  T h e s e t e c h n i q u e s were e m p l o y e d i n t h e  two b o o k s o f P a r a d i s e L o s t a n d i n P a r a d i s e R e g a i n e d .  Like the a r t i s t s Italy,  of t h e Counter-Reformation p e r i o d i n  M i l t o n was a w a r e o f t h e p o w e r o f s p e c t a c l e .  the  b e g i n n i n g o f Book X I he l i s t s  the  names o f many g r e a t k i n g s a n d t h e i r  cumulative e f f e c t i s overwhelming,  w i t h Baroque  At  profusion  empires.  The  f o r the reader i s not  p e r m i t t e d t o p a u s e u n t i l he h a s come t o t h e end o f t h e list.  Employing  c o n n e c t i v e s such as "and,"  " o r , " and  "thence t o , " M i l t o n does n o t c o n c l u d e w i t h a p e r i o d u n t i l he h a s i n s e r t e d a l m o s t f i f t y segment o f t h e p a s s a g e  will  p r o p e r nouns.  s e r v e a s an  A  example:  W y l i e Sypher, Four Stages o f Renaissance S t y l e ,  p.213.  104  ... f r o m t h e d e s t i n ' d W a l l s Of C a m b a l u , s e a t o f C a t h a i a n C a n , And S a m a r c h a n d b y Oxus, T e m i r ' s T h r o n e , To P a q u i n o f S i n a e a n K i n g s , and t h e n c e To A g r a a n d L a h o r o f g r e a t M o g u l Down t o t h e g o l d e n C h e r s o n e s e (PL, X I , 387-92) In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n M i l t o n i n P a r a d i s e Regained has Satan d i s p l a y before  C h r i s t the great nations  and c i t i e s o f  h i s t o r y , w i t h t h e names o f many o f t h e i r w a r r i o r s , k i n g s , and  emperors.  Milton's underlying motive i n portraying  t h e s e p a n o r a m a s i s t o m a g n i f y God, who  "bringeth  p r i n c e s t o n o t h i n g " and " m a k e t h t h e j u d g e s o f t h e e a r t h as v a n i t y . ? ' ( I s a i a h 4 0 : 2 3 ) t h a t C h r i s t ' s "Regal (PL, X I I , 3 2 3 - 4 )  Michael  Throne f o r ever  thus t e l l s shall  Adam  endure."  In Paradise Regained C h r i s t  elicits  f r o m t h e T e m p t e r h i m s e l f an a c k n o w l e d g m e n t t h a t t h e kingdoms of t h i s w o r l d  a r e but t r a n s i t o r y .  One o f t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e H i g h Baroque, a c c o r d i n g  t o a modern d e f i n i t i o n ,  i s "movement ..  c a l c u l a t e d t o overwhelm t h e s p e c t a t o r by a d i r e c t emotional and  appeal."^?  I n P a r a d i s e L o s t B a r o q u e movement  vigour a r e d e p i c t e d i n terms of powerful w i l l s i n  conflict.  History f o r M i l t o n i s not only a  demonstration  P e t e r and L i n d a M u r r a y , A D i c t i o n a r y o f A r t a n d A r t i s t s ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x , P e n g u i n , 1959), p. 16.  105  God's g l o r y but a l s o of h i s omnipotence,  which i s con-  t i n u a l l y manifesting i t s e l f i n decisive acts. mencing  .Com-  i n medias r e s M i l t o n plunges i n t o h i s g r e a t  epic by p a i n t i n g i n powerful p o e t r y a scene which has a p t l y been compared to M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s L a s t  Judgement ^ 1  because of i t s energy and dynamism: Him the Almighty Power Hurl'd headlong f l a m i n g from the' E t h e r e a l Sky With hideous r u i n and combustion down To bottomless p e r d i t i o n .... (PL, I, 4 4 - 4 7 ) Baroque v i g o u r i s a l s o expressed i n the a c t i o n s of the f a l l e n h o s t s i n h e l l . "tempestuous  A f t e r emerging from the  f i r e " i n t o which they have been  thrown,  Satan's h o s t s decide on a course of a c t i o n which repr e s e n t s t h e i r c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to defy the power of God.. With a sense of great urgency they proceed to e r e c t "a F a b r i c k huge ... B u i l t l i k e a temple where P i l a s t e r s round/ Were s e t , and D o r i c p i l l a r s o v e r l a i d / With Golden A r c h i t r a v e . "  (PL, I, 7 1 0 - 1 5 )  Pandemonium, which 19  Sypher terms "a Baroque p a l a c e i n h e l l "  i s the symbolic  18 Wylie Sypher, Four Stages of Renaissance S t y l e , pp. 2 0 5 , 2 0 9 . Sypher contends that while M i c h e l a n g e l o i s Mannerist i n most of h i s works, "The L a s t Judgement" expresses the power of the Baroque. S y p h e r , Four Stages of Renaissance S t y l e , p. 2 1 1 . Sypher p o i n t s out the i r o n i c connection between M i l t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of Pandemonium and h i s contempt f o r the splendours of p r e l a c y . 1 9  106 representation for  mankind.  of t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n  t o w a r d s God's  One p u r p o s e o f " t h e g r e a t  plans  consult" of  S a t a n a n d h i s h o s t s i n Pandemonium i s " t o i n t e r r u p t " the  " j o y " o f God b y s e d u c i n g man t o j o i n t h e i r  and  t h e r e b y " o u t o f good s t i l l  (PL,  I , 165)  "Party,"  t o f i n d means o f e v i l . "  There i s a d i r e c t connection  between  this  p l a n o f a c t i o n a n d t h e c o u r s e o f human d e s t i n y a s M i l t o n views i t , f o r h i s t o r y i s the arena i n which the f o r c e s of e v i l  continue  t o s t r i v e f o r c o n t r o l over mankind.  Good w i l l  triumphs over e v i l ,  however.  N e a r t h e end o f  Michael's  p o r t r a y a l o f h i s t o r y Adam e x c l a i m s  rapturously,  0 g o o d n e s s i n f i n i t e , g o o d n e s s immense I T h a t a l l t h i s good o f e v i l s h a l l p r o d u c e , And e v i l t u r n t o good .... ( P L , X I I , 4 6 9 - 7 1 ) Adam h a s l e a r n e d  that e f f o r t s exerted  o f God w e r e t o p r o v e u t t e r l y The  against  the w i l l  futile.  B a r o q u e " s e n s e o f p o w e r f u l movement o v e r -  c o m i n g t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f w e i g h t y m a t e r i a l s " ^ c a n be 2  felt  throughout the l a s t  two b o o k s o f P a r a d i s e  Adam's v i s i o n o f t h e f u t u r e o p e n s w i t h a g r e a t of power, r e p r e s e n t e d Empire."  Roy  display  b y many a " S e a t o f M i g h t i e s t  I n t h i s passage, which has c l o s e  t o t h e power t e m p t a t i o n 20  Lost.  that  similarities  c o m p r i s e s so much o f  D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , M a n n e r i s m and B a r o q u e , pp.98-99.  107 P a r a d i s e Regained, Adam i s given t o understand e a r t h l y might i s but of s h o r t d u r a t i o n and s c r i b e d by the w i l l of God.  that  i s circum-  Resistance to God's w i l l ,  as  i l l u s t r a t e d by the t a b l e a u x which f o l l o w , i s i n v a r i a b l y vanquished by d i v i n e power. glimpse  Book XI terminates with a  of the t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of Noah's r e b e l l i o u s  contemporaries  by means of a c a t a c l y s m i c  deluge.  S i m i l a r l y , i n Book XII great a n t a g o n i s t s t o God,such as Nimrod and Pharaoh, are reduced oblivion.  The  to i n s i g n i f i c a n c e or  l a s t v e s t i g e s of i n s u r r e c t i o n a g a i n s t the  omnipotent w i l l of God  VJI'B 4isoi|pe.arforever  when the  d i s s o l v e s "Satan with h i s p e r v e r t e d world" " c o n f l a g r a n t mass." (PL, X I I ,  Father  in a  5 4 6 - 8 )  Another major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Baroque a c c o r d i n g to W o l f f l i n ' s P r i n c i p l e s of A r t H i s t o r y i s unity.  W o l f f l i n c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between Ren-  a i s s a n c e u n i t y , which he sees as a harmony of f r e e p a r t s , and Baroque u n i t y , i n which he detects a s u b o r d i n a t i o n of a l l elements t o one  c e n t r a l theme.  Even a c u r s o r y  p e r u s a l of M i l t o n ' s great epic makes i t i n d i s p u t a b l y evident t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n Paradise L o s t can be r e l a t e d to the u n i f y i n g w i l l of God. i s beneath the s c r u t i n i z i n g  directly  The whole u n i v e r s e  eye of the C r e a t o r .  Even  Chaos, which i s somewhat o b l i q u e l y s i t u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n  to  108 the v e r t i c a l a x i s which descends f r o m the throne i s s u b j e c t t o God's c o n t r o l ,  of  God,  f o r He u s e s t h e raw m a t e r i a l  o f Chaos t o c r e a t e t h e w o r l d .  F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l of  the  personages i n the u n i v e r s e are u l t i m a t e l y c o n f i n e d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h God While the a n g e l s  are arranged  p r i s e d o f " C h e r u b and And  s e t s upon t h e i r  activities.  i n a n e a t h i e r a r c h y com-  Seraph, Potentates  V i r t u e s , winged S p i r i t s , "  and  Thrones/  (PL, V I I , 198-9)  they  not r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e i r immediate s u p e r i o r s but a n s w e r a b l e t o God  alone.  mended d i r e c t l y by  God  by  are  are  A b d i e l , f o r e x a m p l e , i s com-  f o r h i s l o y a l t y , and  and M i c h a e l a r e a p p o i n t e d  by God  himself to  Raphael portray,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e p a s t and t h e f u t u r e t o Adam and  Eve.  E v e n t h e Son  1  "attends  the w i l l  of h i s g r e a t  Father; '  (PL, I I I , 2 7 0 - 1 ) M i l t o n ' s l e a n i n g t o w a r d s A r i a n i s m i s t h e l o g i c a l outcome o f h i s o v e r w h e l m i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e u n i t y of God  the Father.  r e l i e f w h i c h M i l t o n makes u s e and hell  The  heavy-handed comic  of i n h i s L i m b o o f  Fools  i n h i s d e p i c t i o n of d e v i l s e x p l o r i n g t h e p e r i p h e r y i s an i n d i r e c t m e t h o d o f i l l u s t r a t i n g  I s asm ess and  the  a b s u r d i t y of a c t i v i t i e s conducted  d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o God's w i l l ; m e r e l y get l o s t  of  meaningwithout  the e n t e r p r i s i n g d e v i l s  i n "wandering mazes."  Milton's preview  o f man's d e s t i n y i n t h e two  final  109 b o o k s o f P a r a d i s e L o s t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e same d e g r e e o f u n i t y that characterizes the r e s t of the epic. being  "an u n t r a n s m u t e d lump o f f u t u r i t y " ^ 2  F a r from  a s C.S. L e w i s  w o u l d h a v e u s b e l i e v e , M i l t o n ' s o u t l i n e o f human h i s t o r y is  i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e theme o f t h e e p i c a s a  whole, which i s t h e f a l l  o f man.  The w a r i n h e a v e n a n d  the c r e a t i o n of t h e w o r l d and mankind, s u b j e c t s t h a t t a k e u p most o f t h e e a r l y b o o k s o f t h e e p i c , s e t t h e s t a g e f o r man's f a l l .  The r e c o u n t i n g o f t h e s e  events by R a p h a e l i s d e s i g n e d  great  t o warn Adam a n d E v e , b y  means o f e x a m p l e , o f t h e d a n g e r o f d i s o b e y i n g God's The  will.  h i s t o r y o f m a n k i n d i n t h e l a s t two b o o k s shows  the long-range  e f f e c t s o f man's d i s o b e d i e n c e  recorded i n  Book I X . The  last  two b o o k s t o g e t h e r f o r m a u n i f i e d  in  s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t they are constructed  ly  from each o t h e r .  different-  Book X I i s l a i d o u t i n a s e r i e s o f  t a b l e a u x , w h e r e a s Book X I I i s i n n a r r a t i v e f o r m , having observed fail.  Addison  history  Michael  t h a t Adam's m o r t a l s i g h t h a d b e g u n t o criticized Milton for h i sshift  n i q u e from v i s i o n t o n a r r a t i o n by remarking  i n tech-  t h a t i t was  "as i f a n h i s t o r y - p a i n t e r s h o u l d p u t i n c o l o u r s  one-half  21 C.S. L e w i s , A P r e f a c e t o P a r a d i s e L o s t ^London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 0 / f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1942_7), p. 129.  110 of h i s subject,  and w r i t e down the remaining p a r t of i t . "  Addison's i n e p t c r i t i c i s m his f a i l u r e to detect  i n t h i s instance  stemmed from  the s u b t l e , though p e r v a s i v e ,  unity  which M i l t o n employed i n h i s view of man's d e s t i n y . His was a fused,  organic,  Baroque u n i t y that r e l a t e d  every part to t h e whole.  In t h e i n i m i t a b l e words of  Dryden i n h i s summation o f the seventeenth M i l t o n ' s h i s t o r y i n Paradise  century,  Lost can be d e s c r i b e d as 23  being  " a l l of a piece throughout."  J  R e c a p i t u l a t i o n was one of the methods by which M i l t o n achieved  the u n i t y he d e s i r e d .  F o r instance,  M i c h a e l throughout h i s p o r t r a y a l o f human d e s t i n y pauses to remind Adam t h a t mankind's p r e d i l e c t i o n towards e v i l stems from h i s i n i t i a l  a c t of d i s o b e d i e n c e i n Eden.  When Adam expresses h i s c h a g r i n a t the scenes o f v i o l e n c e which a r e d i s p l a y e d before freedom from m o l e s t a t i o n  him, he i s informed that  was l o s t t o mankind when he  disobeyed the w i l l of God by y i e l d i n g t o p a s s i o n  i n Eden:  Therefore since hee permits Within h i m s e l f unworthy Powers t o r e i g n Over f r e e Reason, God i n Judgment j u s t Subjects him from without t o v i o l e n t L o r d s . (PL, XII, 9 0 - 3 ) 22 Spectator,  No. 369, V o l . V, p. 2 2 1 .  23  " u i t e d i n C o f f i n and Witherspoon, Seventeenth-Century Prose and Poetry, p. 268. (from The 5ecular Mas^na]  22  Ill The  problem of p a i n and s u f f e r i n g i s s i m i l a r l y t r a c e d  back to the f a l l .  When Adam enquires of Michael why  man, who s t i l l r e t a i n e d "Divine s i m i l i t u d e i n p a r t " should not be exempted from d e f o r m i t i e s a r i s i n g out o f illness,  he i s c u r t l y reminded t h a t h i s "ungovern'd  a p p e t i t e " i n Paradise unleashed these m i s e r i e s upon t h e human race.  With f l a s h b a c k s such as these  Michael  demonstrates t o Adam t h a t the dark s i d e of human h i s t o r y is  t o be accounted f o r by h i s d e f i a n c e of God's w i l l a t  the time of t h e f a l l . M i l t o n a l s o employed techniques  o f foreshadowing  and p r o p h e t i c a n t i c i p a t i o n ^ " i n order t o achieve u n i t y . 2  He was not concerned only with p o r t r a y i n g the grim consequences of t h e f a l l preoccupied to n u l l i f y  on human h i s t o r y , but was a l s o  with the p l a n of s a l v a t i o n provided by God the d e t r i m e n t a l  e f f e c t s of the f a l l .  In h i s  r a p i d r e c o u n t i n g of the major events i n the l i f e of Abraham, Michael makes the f i r s t  of many r e f e r e n c e s to  Abraham's Seed, by whom a l l t h e n a t i o n s of the earth are to  be b l e s s e d .  At t h i s moment he i n d i c a t e s to Adam t h a t  more i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  the Redeemer w i l l be f o r t h -  coming :  2  ^ltoy D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , Mannerism and Baroque, p. 98.  112  ... by t h a t Seed Is meant thy great d e l i v e r e r , who s h a l l b r u i s e The Serpent's head; whereof to thee anon P l a i n l i e r s h a l l be r e v e a l ' d . (PL, XII, 148-51) Foreshadowing i s combined with r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n Michael's  d e p i c t i o n of the S a v i o r ' s death on the c r o s s :  ... t h i s God-like act Annuls thy doom, the death thou s h o u l d s t have di'd  (PL,  XII,  P r e f i g u r a t i o n i s a v a r i e t y of p r o p h e t i c a t i o n present  anticip-  i n M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a y a l of man's d e s t i n y .  M i l t o n ' s treatment of such o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s as-  428-9)  Old Testament  Moses and Joshua i n d i c a t e d that he had  d u a l purpose i n mind.  F i r s t l y , he  s i n g l e d out these  f o r s p e c i a l mention because of t h e i r exemplary to the w i l l of God.  a men  devotion  Secondly, these i n d i v i d u a l s were  d e p i c t e d as p r e f i g u r a t i o n s of C h r i s t .  Milton  regarded  Moses, i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a mediator between Jehovah  and  the I s r a e l i t e s , as a type of the t r u e mediator between God  and  man: ... to God i s no access Without Mediator, whose high O f f i c e now Moses i n f i g u r e bears, t o i n t r o d u c e One g r e a t e r , of whose day he s h a l l f o r e t e l l , And a l l the Prophets i n t h i r Age the time Of great Messiah s h a l l s i n g . (PL, XII, 2 3 9 - 4 4 )  In h i s c a p a c i t y as law-giver,  however, Moses was  not  113 p e r m i t t e d t o l e a d I s r a e l i n t o Canaan.  That task was  appointed f o r Joshua, a m i l i t a r y f i g u r e who was a type of the conquering  Christ:  ... Joshua whom t h e G e n t i l e s Jesus c a l l , His Name and O f f i c e b e a r i n g , who s h a l l q u e l l The a d v e r s a r y Serpent, and b r i n g back Through the world's w i l d e r n e s s l o n g wander'd man Safe t o e t e r n a l P a r a d i s e of r e s t . ( P L , X I I , 3 1 0 - 4 4 ) By means o f h i s techniques o f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and f o r e shadowing M i l t o n f o r c e s t h e reader t o move r a p i d l y back and f o r t h on t h e u n i f i e d a x i s of h i s t o r y .  J  M i l t o n ' s p o e t i c p o r t r a y a l of h i s t o r y i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , though u n i f i e d ,  i s n o t s t a t i c but dynamic.  Throughout t h e l a s t two books t h e r e i s a powerful movement  I t i s i l l u m i n a t i n g to c o n t r a s t M i l t o n ' s treatment of h i s t o r y i n P a r a d i s e Lost with Spenser's c h r o n i c l e of B r i t i s h h i s t o r y i n the second book of The F a e r i e Queene. In h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l o u t l i n e o f the h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n from the time o f Brutus to G l o r i a n a Spenser i l l u s t r a t e s p r e c i s e l y the harmony o f f r e e p a r t s which W o l f f l i n termed Renaissance u n i t y . Most o f the seventy-seven stanzas a r e comprised of independent h i s t o r i c a l episodes which a r e u n i f i e d o n l y by means o f c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on Spenser's part. He employs numerous l i n k i n g e x p r e s s i o n s such as "so," "but," "then" and " a f t e r a l l t h e s e " to keep h i s chronology t o g e t h e r . Stanza 34 i s ' t y p i c a l : His sonne R i v a l l o h i s dead roome d i d supply, In whose sad time bloud did from heaven r a i n e : Next great Gurgurstus, then f a i r e C a e c i l y In constant peace t h e i r Kingdomes d i d c o n t a i n e , A f t e r whom Lago, and Kinmarke d i d r a i n e , And Gorbogud, t i l l f a r r e i n yeares he grew: Then h i s ambitious sonnes unto them twaine Arraught the r u l e , and from t h e i r f a t h e r drew, Stout F e r r e x and s t e r n e Porrex him i n p r i s o n threw. ( F 0 , , I I , X, 3 4 )  114 towards r e i n t e g r a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n .  L i k e the Baroque  a r t of I t a l y which expressed the confidence  and optimism  of the r e i n t e g r a t e d Roman C a t h o l i c Church a f t e r the convening of the C o u n c i l of Trent, of human d e s t i n y i s an expression  Milton's  depiction  of h i s f a i t h  i n the  overwhelming goodness, wisdom, and power of God. an expansion of t h e second p a r t of the t w o - f o l d announced a t the b e g i n n i n g o f Paradise M i l t o n declared and  It is  theme  Lost, i n which  t h a t he would not d e a l only with "woe"  " l o s s of Eden" but a l s o with the " g r e a t e r Man" who  was t o r e s t o r e mankind and " r e g a i n t h e b l i s s f u l  Seat"  t h a t man had f o r f e i t e d a t the time of the f a l l . t h e r e f o r e proclaims  t o Adam t h a t the long-awaited  would r e u n i t e mankind with God.  Michael Savior  The d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e s  In s p i t e of Spenser's obvious e f f o r t s t o u n i f y h i s h i s t o r y by c a r e f u l l y r e c o r d i n g the names of almost every monarch who occupied t h e B r i t i s h Throne i n t h e p e r i o d concerned, h i s h i s t o r y i s no more u n i f i e d than t h a t of M i l t o n , who does not even attempt to r e f e r to many of the major f i g u r e s of h i s t o r y . There are gaps i n M i l t o n ' s o u t l i n e of h i s t o r y — n o s p e c i f i c f i g u r e s from the medieval p e r i o d a r e mentioned, f o r i n s t a n c e - - b u t the r e a d e r i s h a r d l y conscious of these, f o r M i l t o n ' s h i s t o r y i s organically and t h e m a t i c a l l y u n i f i e d . H i s t o r y f o r M i l t o n i s a u n i t y because nothing t r a n s p i r e s that i s not u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e w i l l of God.  115  of  Satan were t o be c r u s h e d , and the redeemed would  "waft/~ed_7 t o e t e r n a l l i f e . "  be  (PL, X I I , 435)  M i l t o n ' s remark i n h i s B r i e f H i s t o r y of M o s c o v i a t h a t "good e v e n t s • o f t i m e s a r i s e from e v i l o c c a s i o n s " can be a p p l i e d t o h i s v i e w of man's d e s t i n y i n P a r a d i s e L o s t . He was  so c o n f i d e n t t h a t God would f i n a l l y  resolve  the d i s t u r b a n c e s caused by the f a l l t h a t he regarded the f a l l i t s e l f as a f o r t u n a t e o c c u r r e n c e ; ? 2  i t had p r o v i d e d  the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r God t o m a n i f e s t h i s power and throughout h i s t o r y . to  Even though the w o r l d would  good m a l i g n a n t , t o bad men b e n i g n "  glory "go  the day was  when t h e r e would be " r e s p i r a t i o n t o the j u s t and  on,  coming  ven-  geance t o the w i c k e d . " (PL, X I I , 5 3 7 - 4 0 ) M i l t o n thus assumed t h a t t h e g l o r i o u s end of h i s t o r y — n a m e l y the u l t i m a t e triumph o f God's w i l l  and  the e t e r n a l b l i s s of t h e r e d e e m e d — w o u l d somehow c a n c e l out the p a i n and sorrow endured by s a i n t s history.  throughout  S i n c e M i l t o n ' s concern extended o n l y t o t h o s e  t h a t would be saved, the f a t e o f the w i c k e d and r e p r o b a t e was h a r d l y touched upon.  M i l t o n , l i k e most of the  C h r i s t i a n s o f h i s age, a c c e p t e d the d o c t r i n e of e t e r n a l 26  M i l t o n , A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Moscovia, p.  364.  27 A r t h u r 0 . L o v e j o y , " M i l t o n and the Paradox of the F o r t u n a t e F a l l , " i n L o v e j o y , Essays i n t h e H i s t o r y of Ideas (New York, Putnam's Sons, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 277.  116 punishment f o r the l o s t , but he c a r e f u l l y avoided making any in  s p e c i f i c references  to human i n d i v i d u a l s s u f f e r i n g  h e l l f o r i t would have marred h i s g l o r i o u s p i c t u r e of  the grand f i n a l e of h i s t o r y .  For M i l t o n i t was  suf-  f i c i e n t t h a t "Heav'nly l o v e [_ should_7 outdo H e l l i s h hate." (PL,  111,298) Adam thus speaks f o r M i l t o n when he  exclaims ... f u l l of doubt « S 5 F I stand, Whether I should repent me now of s i n By mee done and occasion'd, or r e j o i c e Much more, t h a t much more good t h e r e o f s h a l l s p r i n g , To God more g l o r y , more good w i l l to Men From God, and 'over wrath grace s h a l l abound .... (PL, XII, 473-8) As M i l t o n ' s  p o e t i c view of h i s t o r y i n  Paradise  Lost drew t o a c l o s e i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f u s e . S p e c i f i c i s s u e s such as the whereabouts of the abode of the redeemed i n e t e r n i t y were, hardly touched on.  It  mattered l i t t l e to M i l t o n whether the s a i n t s would be • "in  Heav'n or E a r t h , f o r then the E a r t h / S h a l l a l l be  Paradise,  f a r happier place/Than t h i s of Eden."  (PL, X I I , 463-5) present  Milton's  prime concern was  h i s t o r y i n a l o g i c a l , systematic  s e l e c t from b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y and  not  manner, but  prophecy m a t e r i a l s  could be used to demonstrate the omnipotence and of God, 28  Roy  to  f o r whose sake h i s t o r y i t s e l f  existed. ^  D a n i e l l s , M i l t o n , Mannerism and  2  to which  glory The  Baroque, p.  99.  117 "unquenchable yearning f o r i n f i n i t y " ^ which c h a r a c t e r 2  i z e d B a r o q u e a r t was e x p r e s s e d  i n Milton's portrayal of  t h e end o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s .  Milton's view of  man's d e s t i n y e x p a n d e d i n t o a v i s i o n o f glory.  illimitable  Beyond t h e c o n f i n e s o f human h i s t o r y l a y  " e t e r n i t y , whose e n d n o eye /^~could_7 r e a c h , " when t h e r e w o u l d be "New Heav'ns, new E a r t h , Ages o f e n d l e s s  date/  F o u n d e d i n r i g h t e o u s n e s s and p e a c e a n d l o v e . " ( P L , X I I ,  449-51)  A r n o l d H a u s e r , The S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f A r t , p . 182.  118  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  Primary Sources  Addison and S t e e l e . The S p e c t a t o r . V o l . 4. Edinburgh, B e l l and B r a d f u t e , 1816. Augustine, The C i t y of God, t r a n s . M. Dods, i n B a s i c W r i t i n g s o f S t . Augustine, V o l . 2, ed. Whitney J . Oates. New York, Random House, 1948. Binyon, Laurence, t r a n s . The P o r t a b l e Dante. York, V i k i n g Press, 1947.  New  C o f f i n , Robert P. C o f f i n and Witherspoon, Alexander, eds. Seventeenth-Century Poetry and Prose. New York, Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1957. G i l e s , J.A., ed. Bede's E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y of England. London, George B e l l , 1903. __. Bell,  S i x Old E n g l i s h C h r o n i c l e s . London, George 1891.  Hughes, M e r r i t t , ed. John M i l t o n : Complete Poems and Ma.jor Prose. New York, Odyssey P r e s s , 1957. Keesecher, F.  A C a l v i n T r e a s u r y . New  York, Harper,  1961.  Lang, A., L e a f , W., and Myers, E., eds. The I l i a d of Homer. London, Macmillan, 1961. P a t t e r s o n , Frank A., ed. The Works o f John M i l t o n , 18 v o l s . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1932. R a l e i g h , S i r Walter. The H i s t o r y of the World. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1829.  V o l . 2.  Smith, J.C. and De S e l i n c o u r t , E., eds. The P o e t i c a l Works of Spenser. London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. Virgil.  The Aeneid, t r a n s . C. Day Lewis. Doubleday Anchor, 1956.  New  York,  119 Wolfe, Don M., ed. V o l . 1. New  Complete Prose Works o f John M i l t o n . Haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953.  Waller, A.R., ed. Thomas Hobbes' L e v i a t h a n . U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1904.  II.  Secondary  Cambridge,  Sources.  Ashley, Maurice. England i n the Seventeenth Century. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, 1961. Barnes, Harry E. A H i s t o r y of H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g . York, Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963.  New  Broadbent, J.B. Some Graver S u b j e c t . London, Chatto and Windus, I960. Bryant, J.A., J r . " M i l t o n and the A r t of H i s t o r y , " P£, V o l . 29, 1950, 15-30. C a r r , E.H. What i s H i s t o r y ? Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, 1964. Cawley, Robert R. M i l t o n ' s L i t e r a r y Craftsmanship. P r i n c e t o n , N.J., P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. Collingwood, R.G. The Idea of H i s t o r y . Clarendon Press, 1946.  Oxford,  D a n i e l l e , Roy. M i l t o n , Mannerism and Baroque. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. D i e k o f f , John S. M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1946. Firth,  New  Toronto, York,  C h a r l e s H. " S i r Walter R a l e i g h ' s H i s t o r y of the World," i n Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy, 1917-1918, V o l . 8, 427-446.  Fussner, F. Smith. The H i s t o r i c a l R e v o l u t i o n : E n g l i s h H i s t o r y W r i t i n g and Thought 1580-1640^ London, Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1962.  120  Hauser, A r n o l d . The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of A r t . New York, Vintage, 1951.  Vol. 2.  Lewis, C.S. A Preface t o P a r a d i s e L o s t . London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, I 9 6 0 / f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 2 J 7 . Lovejoy, A r t h u r 0 . Essays i n the H i s t o r y of New.York, Putnams Sons, I 9 6 0 . Masson, David. The L i f e of John M i l t o n . Macmillan, 1859-94.  Ideas.  7 v o l s . London,  Murray, Peter and L i n d a . A D i c t i o n a r y of Art and A r t i s t s . Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, N i c o l s o n , M a r j o r i e Hope. Press, 1 9 6 3 . Parks,  John M i l t o n . New  1959.  York, Noonday  G.B. "The Occasion of M i l t o n ' s Moscovia," Vol. 4 0 , 1 9 4 3 , 399-404. . " M i l t o n ' s Moscovia not H i s t o r y , " Vol. 31, 1952, 218-21.  SP,  PQ,  Pevsner, N i c o l a u s . An O u t l i n e of European A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, 1 9 6 1 / f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1943_7Praz, Mario. The Flaming Heart. New Anchor, 1 9 5 8 .  York, Doubleday  P r i n c e , F.T. "On the Last Two Books of Paradise L o s t , " i n Essays and S t u d i e s , V o l . XI, 1958, 3 8 - 5 2 . Saurat,  Denis. Milton,, Man and T h i n k e r . London, Dent and Sons, 1946 / f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1925_7.  S h o t w e l l , J.T. I n t r o d u c t i o n to the H i s t o r y of H i s t o r y , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1922. Sypher, W y l i e . Four Stages of Renaissance S t y l e . York, Doubleday Anchor, 1955. Thorpe, James. M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m . Rinehart, 1 9 5 0 .  Princeton,  T i l l y a r d , E.M. The E l i z a b e t h a n World P i c t u r e . Random House, 1 9 4 3 .  New  N.J., New  York,  121 Wedgewood, C.V. Seventeenth-Century E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961. W o l f f l i n , H e i n r i c h . P r i n c i p l e s of A r t H i s t o r y , t r a n s . M.D. H o t t i n g e r . New York, Dover, 1929 /_ f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1915_7. Woodhouse, A.S.P. Sedgewick Memorial L e c t u r e the Poet. Toronto, Dent, 1955. . " M i l t o n , Puritanism, UTQ, V o l . 4, 1934-5, 483-513. Wright, B.A. M i l t o n ' s Paradise and Noble, 1962.  Lost.  on M i l t o n  and L i b e r t y , " New York, Barnes  

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