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An investigation of the relationship between qualitative and quantitative standards and the students… Wagner, Elsie Barbara Louise 1965

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AN INVESTIGATION OP T H E RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Q U A L I T A T I V E AND Q U A N T I T A T I V E STANDARDS AND T H E STUDENTS KNOWLEDGE OP T H E U S E OF BOOKS AND L I B R A R I E S b y E L S I E BARBARA. L O U I S E WAGNER B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS F O R T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e F a c u l t y o f EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA D e c e m b e r , 1965 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y * I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t , c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n s D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e c/J J&zje^^cJ&-4S / 9 ^ S ^ : : : , _£ _ TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED.. 1 The Problem 6 Statement of the problem 6 Importance of the study 6 Definition of Terms Used 7 Qualified librarians 7 Qualitative standards 7 Quantitative standards 8 Knowledge of the use of books and libraries 8 Limitations 9 Organization of the Remainder of the Thesis 9 References 10 U. REVIEW OF THE LCTEIRATURE 12 Literature on Recent School Library Surveys 12 Literature on Student Knowledge of the Use of Books and Libraries 14 References 17 HI. GROUPS AND MATERIALS USED 18 Groups 18 Interview Questionnaire 18 Student Test 20 Method of Correlation 23 i i CHAPTER PAGE References 24 IV. IMIERvTEW QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS 25 Part Aj Librarians 25 Part B, Library Instruction and Use -.. 27 Part G, Library Unit 29 Part D* Collection 29 Total Results 32 V. STUDENT TEST RESULTS 3 H Part I, Definition of Terms 3^ Part I I J Interpretation of Information on Catalog Cards 3^ Part HI., Choice of Subject Headings in the Card Catalog ~% Part IV", Arrangement of Headings in the Card Catalog .- 36 Part Vj Literature Reference Books 36 Part VI, Sources of Biographical Information 36 Part VH, Choice of Indexes 36 Part VUI, Interpretation of Information in Periodical Indexes 36 Part IK, Abbreviations 39 Total'Test Results ; 39 VI. RESULTS OF CORRELATION STUDIES 4l i l l CHAPTER PAGE v H . SUMMARY AND (XMILUSIONS 45 P u r p o s e 45 P r o c e d u r e 46 C o n c l u s i o n s 47 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s 48 F u r t h e r S t u d y 48 B X H Z C G R A P R Y 51 APPENDIX A . I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 55 APPENDIX B . D i r e c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g A l i b r a r y O r i e n t a t i o n T e s t f o r C o l l e g e F r e s h m e n 60 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Questionnaire Scores and Ranks for Nine Senior Secondary School Libraries, Part A, Librarians 26 H. Questionnaire Scores and Ranks for Nine Senior Secondary School Libraries, Part B, Library Instruction and Use 28 HI. .Questionnaire Scores and Ranks for Nine Senior , Secondary School Libraries, Part C, Library Unit .... 30 IV. Questionnaire Scores and Ranks for Nine Senior Secondary School Libraries* Part D, Collection 31 V. Questionnaire Total Scores and Ranks for Nine Senior Secondary School Libraries 33 Via. Sub-Test, Parts I, H and HI, Results for Nine Senior Secondary Schools on A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen 35 VTb. Sub-Test, Parts IV, V and VI, Results for Nine Senior Secondary Schools on A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen 37 VTc. Sub-Test, Parts VH, VUI and IX, Results for Nine Senior Secondary Schools on A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen 38 V TABLE PAGE Vld. Total Test Results for Nixie Senior Secondary-Schools on A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen 40 VH. Rank Correlation of Part A Questionnaire and Total Test Means 4 l VHI. Rank Correlation of Part B Questionnaire and Total Test Means 42 IX. Rank Correlation of Part C Questionnaire and Total Test Means 43 X. Rank Correlation of Part D Questionnaire and Total Test Means '. 43 XI. Rank Correlation of Questionnaire Total Score Ranks and Total Test Mean Score Ranks 44 ABSTRACT Library literature and educational writings appraising school libraries Inply that If qualitative and quantitative standards of,, school Htoraries were suffficlentiy high* the students would be proficient in the knowledge, of the use, of books and libraries. No L * evidence* howeverp i s presented to support this assumption. The lack of empirical evidence prorated* the present study as an attempt to discover If a positive correlation does exist between qualitative and quantitative standards of school libraries and the students* knowledge of the use of hooks and libraries. The instinjment used to ascertain the qualitative and quanti-tative standards of nine senior secondary schools in three British Columbia school districts was a' closed-question interview questionnaire consisting of four major divisions. The results of the questionnaire were tabulated as numerical scores and placed in rank order for each of the four major divisions and for the total. Two hundred seventy-eight students in nine senior secondary schools were tested under standard procedures using the test A Library  Orientation Test for College Freshmen. Intact groups of English 40 or English 91 students were tested in each of the nine schools. Test score results were tabulated for each part of the nine sub-tests for the test as a whole. Means of the results far each of the nine parts of the test were tabulated by school and placed in rank order* Correlations between mean score ranks and Interview questionnaire score ranks were computed for each of the nine sub-tests and, the total test,. In this study i t was found that generally a low positive rank correlation exists, The correlation did' not depart significantly from zero. It Is„suggested that, further studies be conducted, to isolate and to control variables which" may have a bearing on the relationship between qualitative and quantitative standards of school- libraries and the students' knowledge of the use of hooks and libraries. CHAPTER I STATEMENT CP THE PROBLEM AND DEFTNTTTON OF TERMS USED The school library is a twentieth century public school innova-tion. It i s s t i l l in a process of development. Progress has been made from the earliest collections of miscellaneous books which happened to be available, housed wherever possible, to the more complex materials centres in specially designed library units. So much has been written about the library as the "heart of the school" that the phrase has be-come a truism to which educators often refer, while in actual practice the educational potential of the school library i s not fully realized. School administrators would do well to consider Bryan, former presi-dent of the American Library Association, when he states: "Libraries are an essential frame of reference for the educational process."1 With the implementation of new programmes of studies and with new curricular developments, the library becomes an even more essential tool in the students' pursuit of knowledge. The proposed resource courses in British Columbia stress problem solving by the individual student through the use of resource materials—many of which must be made available in a modern school library. In order to use the school library effectively, students must acquire a working knowledge of the use of books and libraries whereby they are able to use efficiently, in addition to their text books, the vast array of collatoral and supplementary materials. Logasa, thirty-three years ago, emphasized the importance of the students' knowledge 2 o f t h e u s e o f h o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s when she p o i n t e d o u t t h a t : One o f t h e d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e l i b r a r y i s t h a t o f t r a i n i n g p u p i l s t o u s e b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . S u c h k n o w l e d g e h a s become p r a c t i c a l l y i n -d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s , s i n c e p r a c t i c a l l y n o s c h o o l c o u r s e i s o f f e r e d w h i c h d o e s n o t r e q u i r e t h e u s e o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s f o r i t s e l u c i d a -t i o n o r a m p l i f i c a t i o n . 2 M o r e r e c e n t l y , B a r l i n g e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r b o o k a n d l i b r a r y s k i l l s when h e s t a t e d t h a t : " S t u d e n t s n e e d more s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c -t i o n I n t h e u s e o f t h e l i b r a r y i f t h e y a r e t o u s e m a t e r i a l s e f f e c t i v e l y i n i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y . T h e p r e s e n t d a y e m p h a s i s o n i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y a n d t h e u p - g r a d i n g o f c o u r s e c o n t e n t makes new demands u p o n t h e s t u -d e n t . No l o n g e r i s t h e t e x t b o o k t h e s o l e r e s o u r c e o r d e p o s i t o r y f o r a n y g i v e n f i e l d o f k n o w l e d g e . D a r l i n g 1 s s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e know-l e d g e o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s c o n s e q u e n t l y h a s a d i r e c t b e a r -i n g u p o n t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y . T h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r e a c h s t u d e n t t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s u c h a s : a d e q u a t e r e a d i n g a n d s t u d y s p a c e , b o o k a n d n o n - b o o k m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o a l l a r e a s o f s t u d y , a n d t h e t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l t o a c q u a i n t t h e s t u d e n t w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y k n o w l e d g e o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b -r a r i e s f o r I n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l s o r e c o g n i z e s a n e e d f o r l i b r a r y i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s . S e v e r a l D e p a r t m e n t a l b u l l e t i n s g i v e d i r e c t i v e s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . T h e L i b r a r y M a n u a l f o r t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s a y s : " T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l i b r a r y s k i l l s w h i c h e v e r y c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n . . . t o b e u s e d a s t o o l s i n b r o a d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . " l 3 The Administrative Bulletin for Secondary Schools, 1961, states that: Arrangements should also be made that pupils in grades EC to XTLT under-take work in the library...."5 In order that students may acquire a knowledge of the use of books and libraries, materials for such learning are required. In library evaluation two standards are employed: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative standards are suggested by the Department of Education when i t recommends that: "...the school library should provide those volumes necessary to supplement the textbook sources of reference material for a l l courses taught in the s c h o o l . T h e American Library Association extends these standards beyond a mere book collec-tion to the organization of comprehensive library resources and pro-grammes; thus, "...the school library program, embracing teaching guidance and advisory services, forms a unique and vital part of quality education. "7 Qualitative standards are then interpreted as those as-pects of the library which have a bearing upon the excellence of the educational function in providing opportunities for the student to pur-sue his studies beyond the text book level in an environment conducive to the pursuit of knowledge. Quantitative standards, on the other hand, generally iirply the number of volumes accessioned in the library and the physical aspects of the library unit such as: reading space, provision for individual or group study, accessibility of library materials and the quantity of available materials, book and non-book. 4 The Canadian Library Association Enquiry Committee found the quantitative standards as outlined in the Library Manual for Public  Schools of British Columbia, 1955* inadequate for the required needs of the programmes of instruction.^ On page 5 of the Library Manual the recommendations for secondary schools of five hundred to one thousand students are as follows: 1. five thousand or more books 2. twenty or more magazines 3. one teacher-librarian or a full-time librarian 4. expenditures of sixty cents to one dollar per student annually for books 5. a reading-room seating at least ten per cent of the enrollment 6. a conference room and a workroom. 9 The recommendations make no mention of such non-book materials as news-papers or audio-visual equipment. In contrast, the niinimum standards advocated by the American Library Association, i960, for the same number of students are: 1. six to ten thousand books, or ten books per student 2. one hundred twenty general magazines 3. three to six newspapers 4. extensive collection of pamphlets 5. annual expenditures of four to six dollars per student 6. additional funds for reference materials 7. additional funds for audio-visual materials' 8. one full-time and one part-time school librarian and one clerk for each six hundred students. 1 0 The above standards resulted from an investigation into existing condi-tions in an attempt to set nnnimum standards for school libraries. The British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association, an affiliate of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation, presented a brief to the [Department of Education for the improvement of school library services. 5 The brief pointed out the need for qualitative and quantitative standards in British Columbia school libraries and the need for systematic instruction in the use of books and lib r a r i e s . 1 1 In April, 1964, the Departanent of Education Adrnlnistrative Circular outlined, i n the broadest terms, the purposes and aims of the school library and of its place in the school. 1 2 In no way was this circular definitive, nor did i t attempt to describe the actual qualitative and quantitative standards needed for efficient library operation. The qualitative and quantitative standards for school libraries may be summarized by the American Library Association's statement that: These essential elements...for a dynamic library program are inter-locking and interdependent...and [that] a l l the standards have been based primarily on what the school library program must have to give very good ser-vice to teachers and students, to provide the printed and audio-visual resources necessary for effective teaching and learning and to function as an educational force within the school. Library literature i s replete with suggestions and opinions about qualitative and quantitative standards and the need for students to have a working knowledge of the use of books and libraries. No studies, however, have been made to determine i f a relationship exists between these factors. Studies made have considered either one or the other (qualitative, quantitative standards or the need for students to have a knowledge of the use of books and libraries) with no attempt to determine i f a relationship exists between them. I. THE PROBLEM 6 Statement of the problem. It i s the purpose of this study (1) to ascertain the qualitative and quantitative standards of school libraries by means of an interview questionnaire with school librarians; (2) to test the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries by means of the test: "A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen"; and (3) to determine i f a positive relationship exists between these two parts of the study. Importance of the study. Much has been written about the import-ance of the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries, the qualitative standards, including the training of the librarians, and the quantitative standards of school libraries. It has become a universal belief that a school library with high qualitative and quantitative standards w i l l produce students proficient in the use of books and libraries. No research study was found to substantiate the foregoing assumption. While most research studies of British Columbia school libraries have been historical, 14,15,16 t h e icfo Royal Commission on Education assessed school libraries through questionnaires to District superin-tendents of schools, principals of British Columbia schools and univer-sity students. In addition, the Commission was presented with a number of briefs advocating changes to bring school libraries into focus as an educational f o r c e . I n i t s summary the Commission stated that school libraries were adequate for the present. A general recommendation i s 7 made by the Commission: "...when library periods are provided they be more systematically devoted to instruction on the use of source materials."-^ No recommendations were made regarding specifications for school library standards. Surveys have been limited to the assessment of existing condi-tions In school libraries as they pertain to the quantitative standards with no attempt made to ascertain the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. ^  20 t h i s g-j^y ^  attempt i s made to deter-mine i f a positive relationship does exist between the qualitative and quantitative standards and the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. H. IM^XETIONS OF TERMS USED Throughout this study the following terms will be used. Qualified librarians. Two types of qualified librarians are en-gaged in school library work. The term "school librarian" i s used to designate an individual holding a Bachelor of Library Science degree together with a teaching certificate while a "teacher-librarian" refers to a person who has a Bachelor of Education degree with a library major. Qualitative standards. Throughout this study the term "quali-tative standards" has been applied to the qualifications of the librarian, to the excellence of the library's holdings of book and non-book materials, as judged by the high correlation to the school curricula, and to the facilities provided for student use of the library and its 8 r e s o u r c e s ; s u c h a s t h o s e s u g g e s t e d b y t h e A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . Q u a n t i t a t i v e s t a n d a r d s . T h e t e r m " q u a n t i t a t i v e s t a n d a r d s " i s u s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e l i b r a r y u n i t — t h e maximum r e a d i n g - r o o m s p a c e , p r o v i s i o n f o r g r o u p c o n f e r e n c e o r s e m i n a r r o o m s , b o o k a l l o t m e n t p e r s t u d e n t , money a p p r o p r i a t i o n p e r s t u d e n t f o r b o o k s , p r o v i s i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d c l e r i c a l h e l p , a n d t h e h o u r s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y . K n o w l e d g e o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . T h e knowledge o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t i n t h e t e s t : A L i b r a r y O r i e n t a t i o n T e s t f o r C o l l e g e F r e s h m e n , 1955 e d i t i o n . W h i l e t h e t e s t was d e s i g n e d f o r s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g c o l l e g e , t h e t e s t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e t w e l v e o n t h e a c a d e m i c programme. T h e t e s t i s composed o f n i n e p a r t s w i t h e i g h t y i t e m s . I n t h e M e n t a l  M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r - B o o k , A f f l e r b a c h o b s e r v e s : " T h i s e i g h t y i t e m t e s t p r o v i d e s a n e x c e l l e n t two-way l o o k , b a c k w a r d s a s a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l l i b r a r y p r o g r a m a n d f o r w a r d t o w a r d s a b r o a d e n i n g a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e c o l l e g e l i b r a r y p r o g r a m t o meet s t u d e n t n e e d s . " I n t h e same r e v i e w o f t h e t e s t , W r i g h t s t o n e s t a t e s t h a t : " [ t h e ] v a r i o u s t e s t e x e r c i s e s h a v e f a c e v a l i d i t y a s m e a s u r e s o f i m p o r t a n t k n o w l e d g e t h a t a c o l l e g e f r e s h m a n s h o u l d a c q u i r e i n l e a r n i n g how t o u s e t h e r e s o u r c e s o f a l i b r a r y " b u t t h a t t h e " . . . m a n u a l c o n t a i n s n o d a t a o n r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y a n d n o n o r m s ; h e n c e t h e t e s t c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d s t a n d a r d i z e d . " 2 1 A l t h o u g h t h e t e s t was d e s i g n e d f o r c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n , I t c a n , a s A f f l e r b a c h s t a t e s , s e r v e b a c k w a r d s a s " a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l l i b r a r y programme", 9 particularly with grade twelve students on an academic programme who probably will continue with post-high school education. HI. IIMZDATIONS This study was limited to three British Columbia school dis-tricts. Selection of school districts was made on the basis of the similarity between the types of comnunity. A l l three are large munici-pal areas. Two of the districts are primarily upper middle class with a slightly higher socio-economic rating than the average British Columbia community. The other district i s more varied and could more readily be compared with any urban area representative of a l l socio-economic levels. In each of the nine senior secondary schools the librarian was interviewed. In each school the test was administered to an intact group of grade twelve students on the academic programme. IV. OKJANIZATION OP THE REMAINDER OF THE THESIS The remainder of the thesis will present a summarization of selected literature related to the present study, a description of the materials used and the groups tested, the results of the interview questionnaire and the library test, a summary of the findings and conclusions reached. REFERENCES 1 Bryan, James E. "Students, Libraries, and the Educational Process." American Library Association Bulletin, vol. 56 (September 1962), p. 707: 2 Logasa, Hannah. The High School Library; Its Function in  Education. New York, Appleton, 192b, p. 171. 3 Darling, Richard L. "Tomorrow's School and Today's School Librarian." Pacific Northwest Library Association Quarterly, vol. 8 (April 1964), p. 187. 4 British Columbia. Department of Education. Division of Qarriculum. Library Manual for the Public Schools of British  Columbia. Victoria, 1955, P. 4. 5 British Columbia. Department of Education. A(toinistrative  Bulletin for Secondary Schools, 1961. Victoria, 1961, p. 18. 6 British Columbia. Department of Education. Division of Curriculum. Library Manual for the Public Schools of British  Columbia. Victoria, 1955, unnumbered, in preface. 7 American Library Association. Standards for School Library  Programs. Chicago, American Library Association, 190O, p. 4. 8 Canada. Canadian Library Association. The Present State of Library Service in Canada: a Program of Enquiry for 19b0/bl. Ottawa, 1962, pp. 336-207. — 9 British Columbia. Department of Education. Division of Curriculum, op. cit., p. 5. 10 American Library Association, op. cit . , pp. 24-25. 11 British Columbia. Teacher-Librarians' Association. A Brief to Support Recommendations of the Executive Committee ofHfae  British Columbia Teachers' Federation for the Improvement of School  Library Services to StuderrEs^ 1953, passim. 12 British Columbia. Department of Education. Administrative  Circular. Victoria, April, 1954, passim. 13 American Library Association, op. cit., p. 23. 11 14 Ellison, Shirley Elizabeth. Library Service to Children in the Rural Areas of British Columbia. Seattle, University of Washing-ton, 1952, (Unpublished Thesis: M. L. University of Washington), passim. 15 English, Moira Latimer. A Study of Library Service to  Sparsely Populated Areas with Special Reference to Northern British  Columbia. Seattle, University of Washington, 1953, (Thesis: M. L. University of Washington, microfilm), passim. 16 Holmes, Marjorie C. Library Service in British Columbia; a  Brief History^of i t s Development Victoria, Public Library Commission of British Columbia, 1959, passim. 17 Rothstein, Samuel. "Cur Day in Court: British Columbia Library Association Before the Royal Commission on Education." British  Columbia Library Quarterly, vol. 22 (April 1959)* PP. 25-29. 18 British Columbia. Royal Commission on Education. Report of the Royal Commission on Education. Victoria, Queen1 s Printer, i960, __353-19 Darling, Richard L. et al. Pacific Northwest Library As- sociation Development Project Reports. Seattle, University of Washington Press, i960. (Elementary and Secondary School Libraries of  the Pacific Northwest, ed. Morton Kroii, vol. 2) , pp. 213-215. 20 Egoff, Sheila A. and Gibson, Barbara. School Library Service  in the School District of New• Westanlnster; a Study of Book: Collections  and School Library Service". Vancouver, I963, mimeographed, passim. 21 Buros, Oscar Krisen. Mental Measurements Yearbook, Fifth  Edition. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 5:693. 22 British Columbia. Department of Finance. British Columbia  Financial and Economic Review. Victoria, July, 1963* P. 54. CHAPTER n REVIEW OF THE LTIERfflURE Much has been written about school libraries; however, only-two areas will be considered as relevant to the problem under dis-cussion. I. IZCERATURE ON RECENT SCHOOL LIBRARY SURVEYS Since i960, when the American Library Association published the Standards for School Libraries, numerous surveys, mainly in the United States, have been conducted to assess the qualitative and the quantitative standards of school libraries. Darling's Survey of School  Library Standards i s an analysis of regional and state standards for school libraries to show recent changes, premising developments, and the relationships of these standards to national standards. The survey includes the official statements of school library standards by region-al state organizations and the state departments of education. Tables showing the developments i n each state have been drawn up and analysed to provide a comparative study of existing conditions. 1 The American Library Association of School Librarians initiated the School Library Development Project to encourage and to assist state and local groups in implementing the i960 American Library Association standards for school libraries. Provision was made for leadership training of representatives from the f i f t y states. Grant funds were 13 allocated for twenty-one special projects in school library development. Subjective assessment was made, based on the following concepts: The worth of a school library must be measured by the services i t provides for students and teachers. The good school library makes four unique and essential contributions to education: 1. It.is the center for'the learning materials required to support the instructional program and meet the needs of students. 2. It offers a planned, continuous program of instruction in library and study skills, equipping pupils for independent use of learning resources. 3. It serves as a classroom laboratory for reference and research work, and i t s staff works closely with other teachers in a team approach to instruction. 4. It offers individual guidance to students in using materials—in reading, listening and viewing—to meet their personal, social, educational, and vocational needs.2 Unfortunately, the results are difficult to assess because of their subjectivity. Evidence of qualitative and quantitative growth was shown to be most marked in the twenty-one special projects school libraries. Two schools, one with untrained library personnel and one with trained library personnel were studied by Harney to note the effect of trained library personnel on the achievement of standards in school library service. The thesis, while stating a positive relationship between trained personnel and achievement of standards in school libraries, i s not explicit in stating just what standards were being evaluated and how the effect was measured. Much of the thesis i s a review of the duties of the personnel and the organization and ad-ministration of the library budget. 5 , 14 A recent survey of British Columbia school libraries has been conducted. Egoff from the University of British Columbia School of Librarianship and Gibson from the University of British Columbia Library were invited by the New Westminster School District to conduct a study of the book collections and school library services in that district. The survey i s comprehensive in the analysis of existing conditions and offers suggestions for a realistic and systematic fulfillment of quali-tative and quantitative standards.^ While each of the foregoing surveys stressed the importance of qualitative and quantitative standards for school libraries and the need for library instruction at a l l levels of the school system, no study was made to assess the knowledge of the use of books and libraries acquired by the students. U. LITERATURE ON STUDENT KNOWLEDGE OP THE USE OP BOOKS AND LIBRARTES Studies pertaining to the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries are meagre. Literature related to this concept i s primarily concerned with teaching methods. Since students acquire a working knowledge of the use of books and libraries either by instruc-tion or by t r i a l and error, written material in the field i s either descriptive or prescriptive methodology. WlUdns, writing i n the National Association of Secondary School Principal Bulletin, introduces his article on school libraries with: Students, regardless of personal goals and future fields should be taught the basic skills needed to use any library intelligently. Those going on to college wi l l have a head start on those who are not familiar with the library. 5 He presents the usual generalization that knowledge of the use of books and libraries i s "a good thing" but he does not support his premise with empirical data. Berner, through a series of organized lessons on books and libraries presents a systematic and orderly progression from the simplest library s k i l l , that of finding a book, to the complex use of periodical indices. By using these lessons and by providing the students with an understanding of basic library procedures, she feels that the student will be better, equipped to meet his educational needs. This concept i s outlined in the forward of her book: It has been truly said that the next best thing to knowledge about any area of human learning i s knowing where to obtain that knowledge. And the one who has learned to use the library confidently and effectively has been given the key to knowledge unlimited. 0 The lessons have been developed and used. Unfortunately, no results have been published regarding their effectiveness i n producing students with a knowledge of the use of books and libraries. In Training Laymen In the Use of the Library, Bonn reviews the literature on library Instruction from 1876 to 1958. His conclusions are stated in the general sumnary: 16 The assumption seems to he, simply, that training in library use will make any use of a library that much more efficient, effective, rewarding, and satisfying; and i t is this assumption which moti-vates and stimulates a l l efforts at instruction in the use of libraries^ More, than that, at present, cannot be justified.' Bonn's summarization suggests that the knowledge of the use of books and libraries i s transferable from one library to another. Hence, a l l students should acquire an understanding of books and libraries. REFERENCES 1 Barling, Richard L. Survey of School Library Standards. Washington, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1964, passim. 2 Kennon, Mary Frances and Doyle, Leila Ann. Planning School  Library Development; a Report on the School Library Development  Project, February l , I9tol-July 31, 1902. Chicago, American Library Association, 1902, pp. '( and 10. 3 Horney, Peggy Campbell. Study of the Effect of Trained Library  Personnel on the Achievement of Standards of School Library Service. University of North Carolina, 1964, (Unpublished Thesis:' M. S. In L. S. University of North Carolina), passim. 4 Egoff, Sheila A. and Gibson, Barbara. School Library Service  in the School District of New Westminster; a Study of Book: Collections  and School Library Serviced Vancouver, 1953, mimeographed, passim. 5.WiIk±ns, John B. "Library Instructiort<!urriculum Must." National Association of Secondary School Principal Bulletin, vol. 43, (November, 1959J* P. 130. 6 Bsmer, KLsa. Integrating Library Instruction with Classroom  Teaching at Plainview Junior High School. Chicago, American Library Association, 195&* Foreward i i i . 7 Bonn, George S. Training Laymen in the Use of the Library. Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswich, N. J., i960. (The State  of the Library Art, ed. Ralph R. Shaw, vol. 2, part I), p. 3. CHAPTER H I GROUPS AND MATERIALS USED I. GROUPS Ten senior secondary schools were contacted through the superintendents of schools for each of the three districts included in the study. Through the principal of each of the schools arrange-ments were made by telephone to interview the librarians. Tentative arrangements for administration of the test were made at the same time. Pinal details were completed during an interview with the principals and the librarians to arrange for an intact group of English 40 students to take the test. In four instances, for various reasons, English 40 students were unable to take the test, so English 91 students were used in these cases. One school was deleted from the study after insufficient test results were received. U . INTERVIEW' QUESTIONNAIRE The device used to ascertain the qualitative and quantitative standards of school libraries was a closed-question interview question-naire. Questionnaires used in other surveys were either quite general or open-ended in format.1 In the instrument prepared for this study questions were related to the Anerican Library Association standards and the proposed standards for school libraries in British Columbia which are as yet in draft form.2 In an attempt to group the major 19 categories into an organized form for tabulation, the questionnaire was arranged i n four sections; namely: A. Librarians; B. Library Instruc-tion and Use; C. Library Unit; D. Collection. Space was provided at the end of the questionnaire for the Interviewer's comments. While the items on the questionnaire are in no way exhaustive they represent the most pertinent points raised in the literature. Part A. Librarians, consists of eleven major questions dealing with certification and conditions of work. Part B. Library Instruction and Use, contains nine questions relating to the student use and administra-tion.of .the library. Part C. Library Unit, has seven questions dealing -with the. physical aspects of the library in relation to the school population. The final section, Part D. Collection, consists of sixteen sub-sections relating mainly to the reference collection of the library. Although the time element was one consideration for abbreviating this section to a selective representation of primarily ready-reference books, i t was not the only one. The specific titles asked for are, in practice, most commonly used as reference books by the students. The books asked for were also related to the ones listed on the test, A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen. Non-book materials such as periodicals, newspapers, films and film strips and recordings were included in this part of the questionnaire, as was the money appropria-tion for book and non-book materials. Numerical values were assigned to items which could be rated. Weighting was arbitrarily assigned in keeping with the philosophy of the American Library Association standards of i960 and the draft form 20 of school library standards of the British Columbia Department of Education. A total score was obtained for each of the four parts and one for the entire questionnaire. A copy of the interview questionnaire is i n Appendix A. IH. STUDENT TEST The student test: A Library Orientation Test for College  Freshmen was administered to intact groups ranging from twenty-five to forty subjects of English 40 or English 91 classes i n each of the nine schools. A procedure was devised whereby the test was administered as closely as possible under standardized testing conditions. Appendix B contains the procedures devised for acministering the test. Administrators were asked not to reveal to the students that they were part of a survey but to answer any questions relating to the purpose of the test by telling the students that selected groups had been asked to complete the test so an assessment could be made of the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen was devised by Ethel Feagley and a three member committee for the Teachers College, Columbia University. The test has a total of eighty items divided into nine parts. Part I, Definition of Terms consists of nine multiple choice questions to determine the understanding of book and library terminol-ogy. The eleven questions in Part U, Interpretation of Information on  a Catalog Card are based upon a catalog card model with numerical iden-tlfication for the information included on a descriptive main entry-card. The student i s asked to identify six of the areas and to mark five of the questions either true or false as they relate to the in-formation presented on the sample card. Nine multiple choice questions in Part IU, Choice of Subject Headings in the Card Catalog ask the student to select the appropriate subject heading used i n a card catalogue. Part IV, Arrangement of Headings in the Card Catalog l i s t s seven rules for alphabetization used in f i l i n g catalogue- cards. The student is asked to arrange five groups of subject headings into the correct alphabetical order within each group. Eight literature reference books are listed in Part V, Literature Reference Books. The student i s asked to select the appropriate reference for six items. Seven items, in which the student i s asked to select the one reference which would provide the fullest biographical information, are found in Part VI, Sources of Biographical Information. This section i s so heavily American oriented that many of the students would likely be unfamiliar with the books since many of them are not part of the usual reference section of Canadian school libraries. In the nine questions of Part VH, Choice of Indexes, students must select one index from the seven listed. Since the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature is the only index found in most school libraries, in the abridged form, i t i s probably the only one familiar to the students. Sample index entries are given in Part VHI, Interpretation of Information in  Periodical Indexes, to determine the extent of the students' under-standing of periodical index entries: seven items are identified by a 22 numerical symbol and the student i s asked to interpret the information provided hy these symbols. Five true or false statements are asked about the index entries. Finally, in the last part, Part IX, Abbrevia- tions , students are asked to identify twelve commonly used abbrevia-tions. The test was devised for the following purposes: 1. to discover to what extent and in what areas college freshmen need instruction in using the resources of the college library; 2. to enable college freshmen to recognize their deficiencies In the use of the library; 3. to provide data that can be used as a basis for a program of library instruction fitted to the needs of the particular student group.5 The Manual of Directions further states that the present test i s the result of three revisions and a number of experiments with various groups to determine the most applicable questions for testing the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. In this study, the test has been used with grade twelve academic students as an appraisal of the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. As the completed tests were received they were marked by persons experienced in psychometric testing but not involved in this study. Tabulations were made of (l) total test scores, and (2) scores for each of the nine sub-tests. A l l items were checked again by the writer. For each of the nine schools used in the investigation the means for the nine sub-tests and for the test as whole were obtained by computer ii analysis. 23 Method of correlation. Spearman's coefficient of rank correla-tion, rho, for tied ranks, using the formula: /£> \ — -^SjdLf^ v and averaging tied ranks was used to determine the rank correlation for: 1. Correlation between Part A Interview Ranks and Test Mean Ranks, 2. Correlation between Part B Interview Ranks and Test Mean Ranks, 3. Correlation between Part C Interview Ranks and Test Mean Ranks, 4. Correlation between Part D Interview Ranks and Test Mean Ranks, 5. Correlation between Total Interview Score Ranks and Test Mean Score Ranks. The critical value of rho for the Spearman rank correlation coefficient for nine cases at the five per cent significant level (one-tailed test) taken from Table G, Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education i s .600.5 Although only nine cases were used in this study, the obtained correlation coefficients were tested for signifi-cance at the five per cent level using the formula: -£ * ^>J REFERENCES 1 Henne, Prances, et al. A Plarning Guide for the High School  Library Program. Chicago, American Library Association, 1951, passim. 2 Levirs, Franklin P. Assistant Superintendent (Instruction) of Education. Department of Education. Victoria, British Columbia. In a report to the Teacher-Librarian1 s Association at the Easter Convention, April, 1965* Vancouver, B. C. Mr. Levirs summarized the proposed standards for British Columbia school libraries. These standards are s t i l l in draft form. He informed the group that the final results of a two-year study would be circulated to the schools of the province as soon as possible. 3 Manual of Directions for A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen. n.d., passim. 4 Anderson, H. E. Sandia Corporation. Alburquerque, New Mexico. l620 General Program Library. Distat (Distribution of Statistics), passim. 5 Ferguson, George A.- Statistical • Analysis in Psychology and  Education. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1959* p. 31b. The Table of criti c a l values of rho, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient was adapted from E. G. Olds, Distributions of sums of squares of rank differences for small numbers of individuals, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 9* 135-148, 1938. CHAPTER IV INTERVIEW" QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS Approximately two hours were spent with each of the librarians. This provided an opportunity to see each library in operation, to complete the questionnaire and to discuss i t with the librarian. Answers were recorded during the interview. Results were tabulated after each interview session. The interview questionnaire provides a means for measuring qualitative and quantitative aspects of each school library. A copy of the interview questionnaire i s included in Appendix A. Nine senior secondary school libraries were used in the analysis of the data. An analysis of the interview questionnaire, Part A, Librarians is presented i n Table I, page 26. Of the nine librarians interviewed, one has less than the minimum qualifications of a Bachelor of Education degree with a library major, two hold basic qualifications of a Bachelor of Education (secondary) degree with a library major and six hold advanced certification of further qualifications beyond the basic teacher-librarian certificate. A l l but two librarians have had teach-ing experience of two or more years. All nine have been librarians in schools and in their present positions for two or more years. In four cases the librarians spend full-time on library procedures. Three librarians register home-room classes; two of these register the home-TABLE I QUESTIONNAIRE SCORES AND RANKS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES, PART A, LIBRARIANS. CD o U H 0 < ° ~* P-i CQ CD •H 3^ pq o 0 IP CO 'P- . 0 . • - p 73 CO • O • <t_i V o l o 0 -P IP CO p q S o 0 — - p 8 & CO 3 d 0 § H ro co co 0 4H • •H 0 d t a 5 0 -H ft-p — ra CQ cQ TO 8 0 p 0 § •H -P ca 8 H O CQ •H o •H T5 •H 3 & O CQ •H -H CQ CQ 0 £• Pn CQ •H CQ ^ 2 CO s A 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 B 3 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 * 2 14 D 0 0 0 0 0 12 E 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 F 0 0 0 15 G 0 0 0 0 0 12 H 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 12 3 0 0 0 0 0 14 *This school provides library service to students and Night School classes from 4:00 P.M. to 9:00 P.M. daily. A qualified teacher-librarian i s in charge of the evening sessions and works In co-operation with the day-time librarian. Refer to Interview Questionnaire, Appendix A, for explanation of table entries. 27 room i n the library. In two cases the librarians are asked to act as substitute teachers occasionally. Some clerical and professional assistance i s given in one case where centralized technical processing was started part way through the school year, 1964-1955. Libraries A, B, C, D, E will be provided with centralized cataloguing and book processing services starting May, 1965. Libraries G» H and I have no provision, other than student help, for clerical assistance. The situation in Library C i s unique. An experiment was started i n the f a l l of 1964 to open the school library in the evenings for student and adult class use. The experiment proved successful so the practice has been continued. Data and rank orders for Part B, Library Instruction and Use are presented in Table H . Two significant facts are apparent: (l) that grade twelve students receive no systematic instruction i n books and libraries, and (2) that they are never tested, in any way, on their knowledge of the use of books and libraries. It would appear that instruction in the use of books and libraries i s incidental be-cause: (l) i n two cases grade twelve students are scheduled to the library but receive no definite instruction, (2) in two cases grade twelve students are scheduled to the library only occasionally and (3) i n no cases are grade twelve students scheduled for definite instruction in the use of books and libraries. Although no organized programme exists: (l) i n seven cases teachers and librarians en-deavour to plan for student needs by correlating instruction using library materials, (2) in eight cases teachers and librarians plan 28 TABLE H QUESTICNNAIRE SCORES AND RANKS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES, PART B, LIBRARY INSTRUCTION AND USE Libraries " - -(a) Library hours (b) Library closed during the day (c) Scheduling to the library of grade twelve classes (d) Grade twelve teachers and librarians plan lessons using library materials (e) Grade twelve students work independently in the library (f) Provision for instruc-tion in the use of books and libraries (g) Teachers and librarians correlate instruction using library materials ; (h) Grade twelve students tested on their knowledge of the use of books and . libraries (i).Book selection by. . teachers and librarians U i I | : RANK A 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 6 7.5 ,B 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 1 9 3 C * 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 0 2 10 2 D 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 6 7.5" E 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 5 9 P 1 1 1 1, 1 0 l " ~ 0 2 8 " 4 . 5 G 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 2 8 4 . 5 H 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 7 ' 6 -1 : i . 2 2 2 0 2 0 . . 2 , 12 . 1 . *This library provides library service to students and Night School classes from 4:00 P.M. to 9:00 P.M. daily. Refer to Questionnaire, Appendix A, for explanation of table entries. 29 class assignments using library materials, and (3) in eight cases grade twelve students work in independent groups in the library. In each case the library is accessible to students during the regular school day with the exception of Library C, where evening hours are provided. In Table ZEE, Part C, Library Unit, the total enrollment for 1964-1965 i s given in the f i r s t column. Seating accommodation in two libraries was less than five per cent of the total enrollment, while in seven libraries provision was made to accommodate approximately ten per cent of the enrollment. In two cases the library i s used as a home-room and i n two cases as a subject-matter classroom. Data regarding Part D, the Collection i s given in Table IV. Libraries B, C, F, G, and H have been in operation for more than five years. This i s apparent in the size of their over-all book stock. The remaining libraries have been in operation from three to five years and are s t i l l in the process of building up their basic col-lections. General reference books are well represented in each of the schools. Periodical indices, on the other hand, are not used in one school and only one library subscribes to both the Canadian Index and the Abridged Readers' Guide. Non-book materials such as pictures, maps, periodicals, newspapers, vertical f i l e items (pamphlets), films and film-strips and recordings are the least adequately represented. In every case the money appropriation was below the minimum of four dollars per student enrolled. In three cases an additional grant was given to the library for non-book materials. TABLE H I QUESTIONNAIRE SCORES AND RANKS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES, PART C, LIBRARY UNIT Libraries 1 r H 1 m W r H (b) Seating capacity; 0-less than 5$ of en-rollment, 1-5$; 2-10$ (c) Library used as a home room (d) Library used as a study hall -^e) Library used as a subject matter class room (f) Card catalogue - -- (g)--Conference rooms: Seating capacity for ten-or more -students -- 1 1 | A 750 2 2 2 0 1 0 0 7! 4 . 5 B 850 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 7 4 . 5 C 950 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 t 6 7 " D 650 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 7> ' 4 . 5 E 760 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 4 9 F 909 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 71 4 . 5 " G 1200 1 2 2 i 1 1 i 9" 1 H 1340 0 ' 2 1 2 1 1 1 i " 81 2 -1 1200 1 b 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 5: ' 8""r Refer to Questionnaire, Appendix A, for explanation of table entries. 31 TABLE TV QUESTIONNAIRE SCORES AND RANKS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES PART D, COLLECTION Libraries (a) Total book stock: 0|-less than 5 per student; 1 b s b OJ • *\ b rH (b) Encyclopedias: i general ii special (c) Unabridged dictionaries (d) Special Dictionaries (e d i t i 1 •rt ) A ffe: ble •s 0 •rt £ -P CQ •H • r t -tla* rent s: q g 8 Jrt •rt iv special, geology etc. g (f) 1964 Yearbooks CQ CD 60 (h) Vertical file " (i) Picture file (j) Map file (k) Periodicals (titles) (l) Newspapers (m) Money appropriation (n) Additional monies (0) Films and film strips J[ CQ il 8 ce P. TOTAL -----A 3000 , 0 ,4 1 2 7 6 5 0 •1 5 1 1 0 0 0 , 1 0 1 0 0 '35 6 B 5614 2 4 1 3 9 5 ' 4 ' 1 2 4 2 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 43 4.5 C 5333 2 3 1 1 10 3 2 2 1 5 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 , 0 '34 7 D 2509 0 3 1 1 6 2 1 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 22 9 E "3540 0 2 1 2 6 3 1 3 3 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 29 8 F 5320 2 ,2 4 2 8 11 ' 7 2 ,4 l 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 50 3 " G 10000 2 6 2 2 10 10 5 6 2 5 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 55 1 H 5500 0 4 2 3 20 ' 4 5 2 1 5 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 51 2 i 4300 " 0 3 0 4 15 9 3 2 0 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43 4 . 5 Numbers given for books are for different titles in each category. Refer to Questionnaire, Appendix A, for explanation of table entries. Total questionnaire scores and ranks are presented in Table V. Since library G i s the longest established (over twenty years), i t has had time to build up i t s collection and library facilities (see Tables I H and IV), which have influenced the total result to place this library i n the top position. Libraries D and E, the most recently established libraries (three and four years respectively), tied for last place. Library E ranks eight, nine, nine and eight respectively in a l l four sections of the interview questionnaire. Weak points for library D are Part B, Library Instruction and Use—rank 7.5 and Part D, Collection—rank 9. TABLE V QUESTIONNAIRE TOTAL SCORES AND RANKS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARIES Libraries Total Score Total Rank A 56 7 B 74 4.5 C 64 6 D 47 8.5 E 47 8.5 F 8o 2 G 84 1 H 78 I 74 4.5 CHAPTER V STUDENT TEST RESULTS The test, A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen, was administered to two hundred seventy-eight grade twelve academic programme students. The results of' the test are presented in Table VI. The range, mean and ranks for each of the nine parts of the test and for the total test are presented for the nine libraries. Ranks are based on the mean scores. Table Via shows the subjects tested and the results of Parts I, II, and H I of the test. Table VIb shows results for Parts IV, V, and VI, while Table Vic shows the results for Parts VII, VIII and IX, and Table VId shows the results for the total test. Part I, Definition of Terms consists of nine questions. Pupil scores range from two to nine with a mean of 6.91 while the individual schools show means ranging from 6.37 to 7.88. Part H, Interpretation of Information on Catalog Cards, consists of eleven items. Pupil scores range from three to eleven with a mean of 7.87. Individual schools show means ranging from 7.13 to 8.80. Part HI, Choice of Subject Headings in the Card Catalog, con-sists of nine items. Pupil scores range from three to nine with a mean of 7.29. Individual schools show means ranging from 6.78 to 8.44. 35 TABLE Via SUB-TEST, PARTS I, H AND HE, RESULTS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS ON A LIBRARY ORIENTATION TEST FOR COLLEGE FRESHMEN Part I, Definition of Terms. 9 items Part H , Interpretation of Information on Catalog Cards. 11 items CO CO <M CD CD O W 'd c8 ^ ^ «j -H CO S CD 3 wo gco Range Mean Rank Range Mean Rank Part HE, Choice of Subject Headings in Card Catalog. 9 items Range Mean Rank A 91 26 5-9 6796 6 3-11 8.23 3 4-9 7.12 5 B" 40 40 2-9 6.99 5 4-11 7.80 5 5-9 7.50 3 C 40 30 3-8 6.56 8 3-11 7.33 8 ~5-9 7.07 6" D 40 32 ' 3-9 6.37 9 4-11 7.53 7 > 9 6.78 9 E" 91 " 26 5-9 7.12 2 3-10 7.57 6 4-9 7.00 7.5 " F 91 '25 "5-9 7.88 1 6-11 8.80 1 7-9 8.44 1 G "40 30 3-9 "7.03 3 4-H 7.13 9 5-9" 7.34 4 H " "40 29 4^9 6.90 7 5-H 8.10 4 3-9 7.00 7.5 I "91" 32 6-9 7/00 ~ •4 6-11 8.66 "~2 4-9 7.56 "2" Total: 278 2-9 6.91 7.87" 3-9" ' 7 . 2 9 ' . - - - -Ranks are related to the means. Al l decimals have been rounded off to the second place. 35 In Part IV, Arrangement of Headings in the Card Catalog, consisting of five items and involving alphabetization, the pupil scores range from zero to five with a mean of 2.93. Individual schools show means ranging from 2.32 to 3.80. In Part V, Literature Reference Books, six items comprise the sub-test. Pupil scores range from zero to six with a mean of 3.46. Individual schools show means ranging from 2 . 8 l to 4 .52. Part VI consists of seven items related to sources of biograph-ical information. Pupil scores range from zero to seven with a mean of 3.08. Schools show means ranging from 2.73 to 3.92. Part VH, Choice of Indexes, consists of nine items. Pupil scores range from zero to eight with a mean of 3.56. Schools show means ranging from 2.68 to 5.00. In Part VHI, Interpretation of Information in Periodical Indexes, twelve items, pupil scores range from zero to twelve with a mean of 8.56 with individual schools having means ranging from 7.84 to 9.52. 37 TABLE VIb SUB-TEST, PARTS IV, V AND VI, RESULTS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY-SCHOOLS ON A LIBRARY ORIENTATION TEST FOR COLLEGE FRE1SHMEN Part IV, Arrangement of Headings In Card Catalog. 5 items Part V, " Literature Refer-ence Books. 6 items *8 -P 0) _ 0) • d J£ EH a r l tO b a s ^ ta •p o §•§ S3 CO Range Mean Rank Range Mean Rank Part VI, Sources of Biographical Information. 7 items Range Mean Rank A 91 26 2-5 3.12 2 1-6 3.54 4 . 5 0-6 3 . 3 l " 2.5 B 40 40 0-5 2.80 7.5 0-6 3.35" 6 0-7 3.05 5 " C 40 50 0-5 2.80 7.5 1-6 3.20 7 1-6" 2.87" 6 D "40 32 0-5 3.00 4 1-5 2.81 9 0-5 2.81 7 E 91 ' 26" 0-4 2.93 "6 1-6 3.54 4 . 5 0-5 2.73 9 F " 91 25 " 2-5 3.80 1 1-6 4.52 1 0-6 " 3.92 1 G 40 30 0-5 2.32 ~9 0-6 3.05 "8 0-6 2.79 8 " H 40 29 1-4 3.03 3 1-6 3.62 3 1-5 3.31 2.5 I 91 32 "0-5 ' 2.97 5 1-6 3.84 2 1-6 '" 3.16 Total:' "278 0-5 2.93 - - - 0-6 3.46 - - " 0-7 3.08 -Ranks are related to the means. Al l decimals have been rounded off to the second place. 38 TABLE Vic SUB-TEST, PARTS VH, VIII AND IX, RESULTS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS ON A LIBRARY ORIENTATION TEST FOR COTTHTrE FRESHMEN Part VJL1, Part V1LU Part DC, •8 -P Choice of Indexes. Interpretation of Abbreviations. CQ CD O CO 9 items Information in 12 items CQ Periodical Indexes. rari •H 00 rH CO fs 12 items fab cd W O II Range Mean Rank Range Mean Rank Range Mean Rank A 91 26 2-8 4.15 2 5-12 8.65 4 1-9 5.43 4" B 40 40 0-8 4.07 3 0-12 8.40 6 ' 0-11 5.29 5 " C 40 30 0-7 ' 2.87 8 0-12 7.87 8 0-8' 4.33 9 . D 40 32 1-6 3.22 6 5-11 8.30 7 1-8 4.94 ~8 E" 91 " 26 1-7 3.81 4 1-12 8.50 5 2-9 5.12' "6 F 91 25' 0-8 5.00 1" 8-12" 9.52 1 4-11 7.48 1 G "40 30 1-5 2.68 9 1-12 7.84 9 l - l l 4.95 7" H 40 "29" 0-7 3.52" 5 6-12 9.14 3 0-9 5.45 3 I "91" 32 0-7 3.12' "7 7-11 9.25 2 2-10 "5 :.9l 2 " Total:" "278" " 0-8 " 3 . 5 6 " 0-12 8.5"6 - O-ll" 5.38 Ranks are related to the means. All decimals have been rounded off to the second place. 39 The final sub-test, Part IX, Abbreviations, twelve items, shows extremely low results despite the fact that the abbreviations are those commonly used in English and in general reference works and also because the test is un-timed. Pupil scores range from zero to eleven with a mean of 5.33* while individual schools have means ranging from 4.33 to 7.48. Results of the total test are presented in Table VId. The range for two hundred seventy-eight subjects i s from twelve to seventy-two with a mean of 49.08. Libraries A, B, P, H, and I exceed the mean for the total number of subjects tested. TABLE VId TOTAL TEST RESULTS FOR NINE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS ON A LIBRARY ORIENTATION TEST FOR COLLEGE FRESHMEN •8 Total Test CQ CD Slish iss Test riber of ejects 80 items H o g CO Range Mean Rank A 91 26 35-68" 50.50 " 3 B 4-0 40 31-69 49.37 " 5 ' C 40 50 " 28-58 44.63 9 D 40 32 33-60 45.97 7 ' E 91 26 31-64 48.31' 6 F 91 " 25 32-72 59.32 1 G~ 40 '30 12-63 45.03 8 H 40 29 40-67 50.03 4 I 91 ' 32 37-62 51.47 '2 ~ Total: '278 12-72 49.08 -Ranks are related to the means. All decimals have been rounded off to the second place. CHAPTER VI RESULTS OP CORRELATION STUDIES Correlation coefficients were computed. For Tables VH to XI inclusive, at the .05 level of significance for one-tailed test. The crit i c a l value of rho for nine cases i s .600. Rank correlation for Part A, Interview Questionnaire and the test mean ranks for each school i s presented i n Table VH. A low positive correlation of .23 Is shown to exist but >it i s not signifi-cantly different from zero. TABLE V H RANK CORRELATION OP PART A, QUESTIONNAIRE AND TOTAL TEST MEANS Part A, , Total Libraries Questionnaire Test Means A 9 3 B 4 5 C 2.5 9 D 6 7 E 8 6 P 1 1 G 6 8 H. . . . . 6 „ . .. 4 - _ i 1 2.5 2 An even lower positive correlation wa3 found to exist between Part B, Library Instruction and Use and the test mean ranks, 42 Table VHI. The correlation of .07 i s not significantly different from zero. TABLE VHI RANK CORRELATION OF PART B, QUESTIONNAIRE AND TOTAL TEST MEANS , Ranks: Part B, Total Libraries Questionnaire Test Means A 7.5 3 B 5 C 2 9 D 7.5 7 E 9 6 F 4 . 5 1 G 4 . 5 8 H 6 .. . I 1 2 A low negative correlation, shown in Table I X , was found between the library unit and the test mean ranks. The number of paired ranks may have affected the final result. The negative correlation of - . 0 3 i s not significantly different from zero. 43 TABLE IX RANK CORRELATION CF PART C, QUESTIONNAIRE AND TOTAL TEST MEANS Ranks: Part C, Total. Libraries Questionnaire Test Means A 4.5 3 B ' 4.5 5 C 7 9 D 4.5 7 E 9 6 P 4.5 1 G 1 8 H 2 4 I 8 2 The highest positive correlation in this study, . 3 0 , although £ not significantly different from zero, exists between the collection, Part D and the test mean ranks as presented in Table X. TABLE X RANK CCRREMPION OP PART D, QUESTIONNAIRE AND TOTAL TEST MEANS RanTcsi , , . , Part D, . Total Libraries Questionnaire Test Means A 6 3 B 4.5 5 C 7 9 D 9 7 E 8 6 F 3 1 G 1 8 . E L - . 2 4 _ . I 4.5 2 • ' T o t a l i n t e r v i e w r a n k s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e t e s t mean r a n k s w i t h a r e s u l t i n g l ow p o s i t i v e r a n k c o r r e l a t i o n o f .24, a s shown i n T a b l e X T . T A B L E X I RANK CORRELATION OP 0J3ESTI0NNAIRE T O T A L SCORE RANKS AND T O T A L T E S T MEAN SCORE RANKS . flanks; _ _ _ T o t a l S c o r e . . . T o t a l . L i b r a r i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T e s t Means A 7 3 B 4.5 5 C 6 9 D 8.5 7 E 8.5 6 P 2 1 G 1 8 - H 3 4 . _. I 4.5 2 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t l i b r a r y P a t t a i n e d a f i r s t r a n k o n b o t h P a r t A o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e t o t a l t e s t mean. L i b r a r y G , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , r a n k s e i g h t h p l a c e o n t h e t o t a l t e s t a n d v a r i e s o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f r o m : P a r t A — s i x ; P a r t B — f o u r a n d a h a l f ; P a r t C — o n e ; P a r t D — o n e ; a n d i n t h e o v e r a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s o n e . CHAPTER V H SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I PURPOSE For this study,three purposes provided the framework. One was to ascertain the qualitative and quantitative standards of nine senior secondary school libraries by means of an interview questionnaire with school librarians. Since the literature indicated that no model had been designed and validated as an instrument to measure these stand-ards, a questionnaire was built, incorporating the criteria employed by the American Library Association Standards of i960 and the proposed standards for school libraries i n British Columbia, draft form, 1965. Weightings were arbitrarily assigned to the responses i n the light of the foregoing standards. The second was to test the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries by means of the test: A Library Orientation Test  for College Freshmen. The third was to determine i f a positive relationship existed between the qualitative and quantitative standards of senior secondary school libraries and the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. H PROCEDURE 46 A n i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f n i n e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s i n t h r e e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r m a j o r d i v i s i o n s . P a r t A was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s o f t h e l i b r a r i a n s . P a r t B was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s g i v e n i n t h e s e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . P a r t C was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f e a c h o f t h e s e l i b r a r i e s , a n d P a r t D was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n g e , q u a n t i t y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f e a c h l i b r a r y ' s b o o k a n d n o n - b o o k c o l l e c t i o n . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h e a c h o f t h e n i n e l i b r a r i a n s . T h e s c o r e s w e r e t a b u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r s e c t i o n s a n d f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s a w h o l e . Rank o r d e r s w e r e o b t a i n e d s e p a -r a t e l y f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r s u b - s e c t i o n s a n d f o r t h e t o t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T o a g r o u p o f g r a d e t w e l v e s t u d e n t s o n a c a d e m i c programme A L i b r a r y O r i e n t a t i o n T e s t f o r C o l l e g e F r e s h m e n was a d m i n i s t e r e d u n d e r s t a n d a r d t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n e a c h o f t h e n i n e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . T h e t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e s u b - t e s t s w i t h a t o t a l s c o r e o f e i g h t y . T e s t r e s u l t s w e r e t a b u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e s u b - t e s t s a n d f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e s c h o o l s . Rank o r d e r s w e r e o b t a i n e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e s u b - t e s t s a n d f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . 47 Rank order correlation coefficients were computed separately for the four parts of the questionnaire and for the total test means; and also for the total test mean ranks and the total questionnaire score ranks. I H CK^ CLUSIONS Qualitative and quantitative standards. There was found to exist an appreciable range of differences i n the qualitative and quantitative standards of the libraries examined in this study. Student test results. The range of twelve to seventy-two points on the eighty item test, A Library Orientation Test for Col- lege Freshmen with a mean of 49.08 for two hundred seventy-eight subjects from grade twelve students on an academic programme in nine senior secondary schools Is indicative of a wide range of the stu-dents' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. Rank correlation. In this study the lowest relationship was found to exist between the library unit ,and the total test mean ranks ( - . 0 3 ) , while the highest relationship, (+.30), was between the collec-tion and the students' knowledge of the use of books and libraries. The relationship between the total questionnaire ranks and the total test mean ranks, in this study, was found to be low but positive (+.24). The rank correlations, as found in this study, were not significantly different from zero. I V DISCUSSION OP RESULTS HQ T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e l i b r a r i e s , a s a w h o l e , h a v e t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l a n d a i 1 b a s i c a l l y a d e q u a t e r e f e r e n c e c o l l e c t i o n , n o p r o v i s i o n i s made t o i n -s t r u c t g r a d e t w e l v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . T h e t e s t r e s u l t s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' l a c k o f k n o w -l e d g e I n t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . T h e u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e b o o k s l i s t e d i n P a r t V T , S o u r c e s o f B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n a n d P a r t V H , C h o i c e o f I n d e x e s , c o u l d b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n b i a s o f t h e t e s t ; w h i l e P a r t I X , A b b r e v i a t i o n s , shows a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , b y t h e s t u d e n t s t e s t e d , o f a b b r e v i a t i o n s commonly u s e d i n E n g l i s h a n d r e -f e r e n c e b o o k s . T h e s l i g h t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .24, a s f o u n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i m i t s o f t h i s s t u d y , b e t w e e n q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e s t a n d a r d s a n d t h e s t u d e n t s ' , k n o w l e d g e o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o . T h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t r e f l e c t s t h e n e e d f o r c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h a n d s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s d i r e c t a c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s a n d l i b r a r i a n s . V FURTHER STUDY F u t u r e s t u d i e s i n t h i s f i e l d s h o u l d e l a b o r a t e o n t h e m e t h o d s , t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o u l d b e e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e a l a r g e r s a m p l i n g i n a g r e a t e r number o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d b e 49 i m p r o v e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f more i t e m s t o i n c l u d e v a r i a b l e s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n P a r t A , L i b r a r i a n s , q u e s t i o n s c o u l d b e a d d e d r e l a t e d t o t h e l i b r a r i a n ' s p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f l i b r a r y s k i l l s . F o r e x a m p l e , h a s t h e l i b r a r i a n d e v e l o p e d a n d u s e d a s y s t e m f o r t h e f o r m a l t e a c h i n g o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . A s t u d y c o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n t o a s c e r t a i n t h e d e g r e e o f e f -f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s t u d e n t — l i b r a r i a n . r e l a t i o n s h i p . P a r t B , L i b r a r y I n s t r u c t i o n a n d U s e , o f t h e p r e s e n t q u e s -t i o n n a i r e c o u l d b e e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s o n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s u p e r v i s o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a n d t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s l i b r a r y 3 n -' s t r u c t i o n a n d u s e . P a r t D , C o l l e c t i o n , m i g h t b e e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e b o o k s r e l a t e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t a r e a t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l . A f u r t h e r s t u d y m i g h t i n v o l v e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d -i z a t i o n o f a t e s t o n t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s f o r C a n a d i a n s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d b e made u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n a r e a s where f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s a l r e a d y b e i n g g i v e n . A v a l u a b l e s t u d y m i g h t r e s u l t f r o m a n e x p e r i m e n t i n v o l v i n g c o n t r o l l e d g r o u p s w i t h m e t h o d s a n d / o r m a t e r i a l s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a n o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a n m e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i b r a r y t e c h n i q u e s . 50 T h e f o r e g o i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h e n e e d f o r i n c r e a s e d i n -v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' k n o w l e d g e o f t h e u s e o f b o o k s a n d l i b r a r i e s . BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY American Library Association. American Association of School Librarians. Standards for School Library Programs. Chicago, American Library Association, i960. Anderson, H. E. Sandia Corporation, Alburquerque, New Mexico. 1620 General Program Library, Distat (Distribution of Statistics), n. d. Berner, Elsa. Integrating-Library Instruction with Classroom Teaching at Plainview Junior High School. Chicago, American Library Association, 1958. Bonn, George S. Training Laymen i n the Use of the Library. Rutgers— The State University, New Brunswick:, N. J., 1900. (The State  of the Library Art, ed. Ralph R. Shaw, vol. 2, part 1.) British Columbia. Department of Education. Division of Curriculum. Administrative Bulletin for Secondary Schools, 1961. Victoria, Queen's Printer, 1961. British Columbia. Department of Education. Division of Curriculum. Administrative Circular, April, 1964. Victoria, Queen's Printer, 1964. British Columbia. Department of Education. Division of Curriculum. Library Manual for the Public Schools of British Columbia. Victoria, Queen's Printer, 1955. British-Columbia.,. Department of Finance. British Columbia Financial  and Economic Review. Victoria, Queen's Printer, July, 1963. British-Columbia.-.- Royal Commission on Education. Report of the Royal Commission on Education. Victoria, Queen's Printer, i960. British .Columbia. .Teacher-Librarians' Association.. A. Brief to Support Recommendations .of the Executive .Conmittee .of the  British Columbia Teachers' Federation for the improvement  of School Library Services to Students. 1963. Bryan, James E. "Students, Libraries and the Educational Process." American Library Association Bulletin, vol. 56 (September 1962), pp. 707-15. 53 Euros, Oscar Krisen. Mental Measurements Yearbook, Fifth Edition. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1950. Canada. Canadian..Library Association. The Present State of Library Service in Canada; A Program of Enquiry for 1960/01. Ottawa, 1962. (Part IA, and Part UAf. Barling, Richard L. "IQrpressions of B. C. School Libraries." British Columbia Library Quarterly, vol. 21 (January 1958), PP. 39-43. Darling, Richard L. et al. Pacific Northwest Library Association Development Project Reports., Seattle,. University of wasMngton Press, i960. (Elementary and Secondary School Libraries of the  Pacific Northwest, ed. Morton Kroll, vol. 2). Darling, Richard L. Survey of School Library Standards. Washington, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1964. Darling, Richard L._ "Tomorrow's School and Today's School Librarian." Pacific Northwest Library Association Quarterly, vol. 8 (April 1964), pp. 183-88. Egoff, Sheila A. and Gibson, Barbara. School Library Service in the  School District .of New Westminster: a Study of Book Collections  and School Library Serviced Vancouver, 1963. Mimeographed. Ellison,, Shirley E. Library Service to CMldren In the Rural Areas of  British Columbia^ Seattle, University of Washington, 1952. (Thesis M. L. University of Washington. Photocopy of the original typescript.) English, Moira L. A Study of Library Service to Sparsely Populated  Areas with Special Reference to Northern British Columbia. Seattle, University of Washington, 195j5. (Thesis M. L. Univer-sity of Washington. Microfilm.) Feagley, Ethel^M. et al. Manual of Directions for: A Library Orientation Test for College Freshmen. New-York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1955. Henne, Frances, et al. A Planning Guide for the High School Library  Program. Chicago, American library Association, 1951. Holmes, Marjorie C. Library Service in British Columbia; a Brief  History of Its Development^ Victoria, Public Library Commission of British Columbia, 1959. 54 Harney, Peggy Campbell. Study of the Effect of Trained Library Personnel on the Achievement of Standards of School Library  Service. University of North Carolina, I9b4. (Thesis M. S. in. L. S. University of North Carolina) inter-library loan. Kennson, Mary Prances and Doyle, Leila Ann. Planning School Library Development; a Report on the School library Development Project, Pebruary 1, ISJbl—July 51, 1962. Chicago, Anerican library Association, 1962. Lannlng, Walter. "Standards for School Libraries in British Columbia." British Columbia library Quarterly, vol. 21 (January 195aj, pp. lb-21. Logasa, Hannah. The High School library: its Function in Education. New York, Appleton, iya». Rossoff, Martin. The library in High School Teaching. New York, H. W. Wilson, 1961. Rothsteln, Samuel. "Our Day in Court: British Columbia library Association Before the Royal Commission on Education." British Columbia library Quarterly, vol. 22 (April 1959), pp. 25-29. Trinkner, Charles L. ed. .•Better libraries Make Better Schools;  Contributions to Library literature H- 4. Hamden, Shoe String Press, 1962. Wilkins,_John B. "library Instruction = Curriculum_Must." National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, vol. 43 (November 1959). pp. I;50-32. APPENDIX A Interview Questionnaire re: Qualitative and Quantitative Standards of Senior Secondary School Libraries in Three British Columbia School Districts. District Library A. Librarians: 1 2 3 a) Teaching certificate held: P.O., P.B., P.A., Other b) Bachelor of Library Science Degree and Teaching Certificate. yes-2, no-0 c) Bachelor of Library Science Degree without Teaching Certificate. yes-1 , no-0 1 0 1 d) Teaching degree and library major, yes, no. e) Other training: (qualify) f) Years of experience: i) as a teacher ( l for 2 years or i i ) as a school librarian more in each case) i i i ) in present position g) $ of time spent in the library, (l between 50-75$) (2 when in over 75$) 2 1 0 h) Do you act as a substitute teacher? never, sometimes, regularly. 2 1 0 i) Do you register a home-room class? never, sometimes, regularly. 0 1 2 j) Do you have clerical help? never, sometimes, regularly. 0 1 2 k) Do you have professional assistance? never, sometimes, regularly. B. Library Instruction and Use: a) Library hours from to . (School hours - Ij more - 2) b) Is the library closed during the day? Specify: (noon only-1 ; other-0) c) Are grade twelve classes regularly scheduled to the library? never-O, sometimes-l, regularly - 2 . 57 d) Do grade twelve teachers consult with the librarian when planning class assignments involving the use of library materials? 2 0 1 yes, no, sometimes e) Do grade twelve student groups work independently on class assignments involving library materials, i n the library, during the school day? never-0, sometimes-1, regularly - 2 . f) Is there an organized system of instruction In books 1 0 and library for grade twelve students? yes, no g) Do both teachers and librarian prepare correlated instruction to meet the library needs of the grade twelve students? never-0, sometimes-l, regularly-2 h) Are grade twelve students tested on their knowledge of library skills? never-0, sometimes-1, regularly-2 i) Are books and other library materials selected by the librarian in consultation with the subject matter teachers? yes-2 , no-0, sometimes-1 C. Library Unit: a) Total school enrollment (no score) b) Library seating arrangements for (1 for %, 2 for up to 1C$, 0 for less than \f/0 of enrollment) 0 2 1 c) Is the library used as a home-room? yes, no, sometimes 2 1 0 d) Is the library used as a study hall? never, sometimes, always 0 1 e) Is the library used as a subject-matter classroom? yes, no f) Is there a card catalogue with author, t i t l e and subject cards filed in one alphabet? yes - 1 , no-0 1 0 g) Does the library have conference room(s)? yes, no No. of rooms Seating for no. of students 1 for each room; 1 for every 10 students. 58 D. Collection: a) Total library book stock, including hard-cover and paperback books: (0 for less than 5 per student; 1 for 5 per studentTj 2 for 6-10f per student) b) Number of different titles, encyclopedias from i960 on: i) general (4) i i ) special (1+) c) Number of different titles, unabridged dictionaries (3) d) Does the library have the following special dictionaries: science , mathematics , mythology , biography , literature , foreign language (French, Spanish, Latin, German), geographical , music , others: (1 for each area as checked) e) Number of different titles, atlases: i) general (l+)> i i ) historical (1+)J i i i ) economic (1+0* special f) Yearbooks, 1964: World Almanac , Whitaker's Almanack , Canada Yearbook , Statesman13 Year-book , Information Please . ( l for each one checked) 1 0 g) Indices: Abridged Readers' Guide: yes, no 1 0 Canadian Index: yes, no Others: ( l for each listed) 1 0 h) vertical f i l e : yes, no 1 0 i) Picture f i l e : yes, no 1 0 j) Map f i l e (National Geographic maps, etc.): yes, no k) Number of different periodicals: ( l for 30-49; 2 for 50 and over) l) Number of different newspapers: daily , weekly ( l for 1-3 dally papers; 1 for 1 weekly) 59 m) Money appropriation per pupil for books: $ ( l for $4-$6) 1 0 n) Additional money appropriation for non-book materials: yes, no 1 0 o) Does the library handle film and film strip materials? yes, no p) Does the library handle recordings for music, drama, 1 0 speech, literature, foreign languages? yes, no Interviewer's Comments: APPENDIX DIJ?BOTIONS FOR AIMINL3TEPJ1IG: A LIBRARY ORIENTATION TEST FOR COLLEGE FRESHMEN. 1. Distribute answer sheets. 2. Tell students to place circled code for the school (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I) in the space after NAME. Students names are not required. 3. In the Course and Section space have students write M i f male, F i f female. 4. Instruct students to WKLTE ALL ANSWERS ON THE ANSWER  SHEETS. Do NOT write in the test booklets. 5. Distribute test booklets. 6. Instruct students to read the directions carefully; to do a l l questions they are able to do and then to return to the more difficult ones. 7. This i s NOT a timed test. Usual testing time i s between 45" and 60 minutes depending upon the Individual student. 8. Students turn in test booklets and answer sheets as they finish the test. 9. Bundle test booklets and answer sheets and return in the stamped, self-addressed package. 

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