Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some factors in the professional socialization of trainee teachers Williams, Colin John Anthony 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A8 W55.pdf [ 3.47MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104733.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104733-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104733-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104733-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104733-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104733-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104733-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104733-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104733.ris

Full Text

SOME FACTORS IN THE PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION OF TRAINEE TEACHERS by COLIN JOHN ANTHONY WILLIAMS B.Sc, University of London, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r ex-t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n -c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August, 1966 ABSTRACT' There has been much discussion in the sociological literature as to the relative importance of different influences that impinge upon recruits undergoing professional socialization. Merton et. a l . (19£7)> see faculties of professional graining,institutions as being very influential, whereas Quarantelli et. a l . (1964), see this group as relatively less so, and instead, see recruits taking 'different paths1 through professional school and being subject to a variety of influences. Few writers however, deal with the problem of why some groups in the training situation are important to different trainees and others are not. It is the aim of this thesis to find out what conceptions of their future roles recruits bring with them to'the training situation, why they find different groups in this situation important to them, and what i * r. ' . changes these i n i t i a l conceptions undergo. Students being prepared for teaching careers were selected as the research case. It was assumed that recruits entering training would be fairly indiscriminate, holding diffuse, idealistic conceptions of their future roles. Such occupational role conceptions (or occupational self concepts, as we called them), i t was further assumed, determined which groups would become important to them (their reference groups). It was further hypothesised that exposure to the realities of their occupation, (in this case, teaching practice) would cause a change in recruits 1 occupational self conceptions, and thus, their choice of reference groups. Thus recruits completing their course will have more specific and realistic occupational self concepts, be more discriminating, i i chose different reference groups, and evaluate their practice experiences differently, than those just beginning their training course. A sample of 112 trainee teachers at the University of British Columbia Faculty of Education were selected, of whom $7 were in their f i r s t year and 55 in their final year of training. The time factor prevented a longitudinal study from being conducted, thus beginning and completing teachers were compared, and from this, inferences made about possible processes of change. Data were gathered by a questionnaire designed to -a) , determine which reference groups were influential to trainees. b) . find students' evaluations and perceptions of their experiences during training. c) . discover what occupational self concepts trainees held by the use of an attitude scale. The results obtained showed, that contrary to our predictions, beginning trainees did not have a more diffuse conception of their occupational role than completing trainees. A possible explanation for this was put forward in terms of differential familiarity with the statements of educational philosophy that made up the attitude scale. Neither, i t was found, were completing teachers less idealistic than beginners, nor did they positively evaluate teaching practice to a much greater degree than the latter. The failure of these predictions were explained by differential interaction patterns which acted as 'insulating' factors against the experiences of teaching"practice. The two predictions that were supported were that beginning trainees would be less discriminating than completing trainees, and that occupational self concepts were an important determinant of what reference group a trainee chose. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES L . . . iv SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION 1 A MODEL FOR THE PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION OF TRAINEE TEACHERS . 17 HYPOTHESES 22 THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY 2$ Criteria for Measuring Major Variables 26 RESULTS . ' t 30 Summary of Results '36 DISCUSSION - 38 SUMMARY $k FOOTNOTES £6 BIBLIOGRAPHY $9 APPENDIX I 61 APPENDIX II ". . . 65 APPENDIX III 67 APPENDIX IV 70 XV LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Comparison of Faculty and Practice Teachers by Stage of Training 31. II Perception of Education Faculty by Stage of Training . . 31 III Reference Group Chosen by Occupational Self Concept . . 32 IV Reference Group Chosen by Occupational Self Concept and Stage of Training 33 V Groups Perceived as Similar by Occupational Self Concept . 33 VI Occupational Self Concept by Stage of Training . . . . 34 VII Features of the Course Considered as the Most Important Source of Future Help by B Teachers .- 35 VIII Things Considered Most Important about Their'Training Course by C* Teachers 36 IX Certainty of Decision on Intended Teaching Style (B Teachers), . , 40 X Time of Decision on Intended Teaching Style (C Teachers) . 40 XI Certainty of'Decision on Intended Teaching Style by Occupational Self Concept (B Teachers) Ul XII Time of Decision on Intended Teaching Style by Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) I 4 I XIII Amount of Change in Ideas on Teaching Style Among C Teachers k2 XIV Amount of Change Reported by Occupational Self Concept Among C Teachers ,ir 42 XIVA Combination of Tables XIV Time 2 43 XV, Amount of Change by Occupational Self Concept Theoretical Initial Position (Time I) 43 XVI Causes of Change in Ideas on How to Teach by Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) hh i 1 V LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Table Page XVII Things Considered Most Important About the Training Course by Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) h$ XVIII Sources of Influence by Occupational Self Concept (B and C Teachers) U6 XIX Perception of Faculty by Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) U7 XX Interaction Profiles of Trainee Teachers (B and C Teachers) 1*8 XXI Interaction Profiles by Occupational Self Concept (B and C Teachers) h9 SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION Studies of professional socialization often picture the process in fairly similar ways; new recruits enter the professional school with vague, unformed, often idealistic conceptions of their future occupational roles. Transformation of the recruits into .professionals holding appropriate values and self conceptions is then achieved by faculty members serving as significant role models or reference groups for the new recruits. Other studies, after assuming such a monolithic socialization process does occur, concentrate on how adequately this process prepares the individual for actual performance in his social role.-^ , In a recent article by Quarantelli et. a l . (196IO2 the assumptions underlying the above approach are pointed out by the authors: r 1. The recruits are seen as not collectively visualizing themselves in the same way as they are visualized by the persons training them. 2. These recruits do not hold already the appropriate set of professional values and attitudes. 3. That the faculties of professional schools are directly and primarily influential in changing the perception of recruits in these matters. These assumptions predispose investigators to use such concepts as 'significant others' or 'reference groups' to explain any change in values or perceptions among recruits. Such concepts are often considered as explanatory in themselves, and the above processes are assumed to be working, without any investigation as to whether or not this is so. Sherif (1953)3 n a s s a ^ °^ re^eTeilce groups, that the concept "is becoming a magic term to explain anything and everything concerning 2 group "relations". Hyman (i960)^ comments, "invoking the concept when our methods do not establish that a reference group is operative, and determining some outcome is not magic". More recently, Couch and Murray (196U)^ say of reference groups, "They have been most frequently employed in a general or global fashion to interpret observed behaviour or changes in attitudes; few attempts have been made to translate the concepts into empirical measures of human relationships?. What would happen i f we were to operate on different assumptions . from the ones outlined above? We would need perhaps different explanatory concepts, or more probably, a more refined usage of existing ones. Evidence that the above assumptions are not true exists. Quarantelli in the article mentioned, tested these assumptions and concluded "Freshmen (dental) students did not need to be socialized to new norms and standards of a non technical sort. Sophomores (the same students a year later) generally maintained their predental school values and beliefs, but when they changed ^  they manifested non-faculty perspectives. Thus, at best, faculty members were not significant others being unimportant either for attitudes and perceptions held or changed".^ , This evidence suggests that a different set of assumptions concerning professional education might be put forward. For instance, i t might be .more realistic to assume: " 1. Recruits enter professional school with different perspectives, some similar to the faculty, some widely different. 2. That during the course of training, some students will maintain their original perspectives, others might' change, but this does not have to be in the direction of faculty perspectives. 3. This would imply the existence of different influences that impinge on the students before and during their training, of which faculty influence is one but by no means the most important. Quarantelli suggests as an alternate approach, viewing students "as moving in and through differentiated subsystems rather than being socialized to a common core of professional values and beliefs. -Instead of viewing the socialization process as an across the board, either-or ' •> a. type of phenomenon simultaneously affecting a l l students, the process might be analyzed in more differentiated terms and seen as involving the concurrent existence of multiple but different paths through professional school".^ This points to certain essential considerations in any study of professional socialization. 1. Whether or not to work with existing concepts and refine them, or search,for new ones. I would prefer to do the former and ' establish a more specific delineation of the processes involving the concepts of reference groups and significant others. 2. To then determine which reference groups a student has at his disposal. The range of choice is not difficult to show as i t is determined by the nature of the occupational role and the context in which training occurs. 3. Finally to determine which reference group a student refers to and why. This latter consideration will constitute a main part of the project. It is also the area which seems least developed and most confusing in the field of reference group 'theory'. Shibutani (195$)Q says that the problem is that of selecting the perspective for defining the situation which people chose, "In Mead's terminology, which generalized others' role is to be taken?".' Jahoda (1959)Q in referring to a number of experimental investigations of conformity which use the concept, says, "In general these findings raise the question as to the conditions under which different reference groups become factors in determining opinions. As far as I know, this central question of reference group theory has not yet been tackled in research. As a rule the concept is used as i f the individual had only one group with whom he shared norms, namely the one built into the research design." Zetterberg (1957)£Q says, "It becomes an important question - to spell out in specific hypotheses the factors which determine a person's reference group. This is a task in which social theory so far has not been successful". , ."' This therefore will be the research strategy: a) To work with existing concepts of reference groups. (It has been noted in the literature' that the concept of reference group has'been defined and used in different ways; e.g. Shibutani (1955) and Kelly (1952)^). I shall use the term to mean "the group whose norms of evaluation are used when an actor formulates his self concept" Zetterberg (1957)12» b) To delineate possible reference groups that the individual has at his disposal. c) To suggest the conditions under which one reference group rather than another is chosen. If we assume that the f i r s t two points above can be easily dealt with, what hypotheses can we suggest concerning the criteria of choice in the third area? The literature on this point is not at a l l clear, and very undeveloped, but i t is important to consider what clues i t might give us in attacking the problem. Cartwright (1951)]j says, "in-attempts to change attitudes, values, or behaviour, the more relevant they are to the basis of attraction to the group, the greater will be the influence the group can exert on them". Festinger (19$k)i^ notes that "Anything which increases the importance of the group as a general reference or comparison will increase the pressure towards uniformity. Thus a variable like strength of  attraction to the group, since i t determines to some extent how important the group is in the l i f e of the person, will increase the pressure towards uniformity when there are discrepancies of opinion". Shibutani (1955)i£ says that which people are chosen, and which of those chosen have greater significance, vary with the person's attraction and sentiments and summing up small group research arrives at the hypothesis, »a person tends to comply with the norms of the group he finds more attractive'• Here therefore, we have the variable of attraction as determining choice. These studies are important as they point to a person's motivation and commitment, in other words, what they bring to the situation. What is lacking however is why some groups are more attractive than others. As has been suggested this can be answered in terms of a person's goals j others however have answered this in other ways: Turner (1956)^ says, "in the literature, the desire to be accepted is depicted as the mechanism that leads to the adoption of values and perspectives of the reference group". But again we have to ask why is a person attracted to membership of one group rather than another? Jackson (1959)-, 7 asks, that _ given a person is attracted to membership, what are the sources of attraction for different types of persons and groups? He answers this in saying that attraction to membership is directly related to magnitude of a person's social worth, (i.e.^how is he objectively valued by others). Again this does not answerwhy social worth from one group is valued more than that from another. A similar, study by Couch and Murray (196U)1g related choice of significant others to evaluation received. They found no relationship occurred, except among those groups existing under conditions of low surveillance and diffuse role prescriptions. A final lead that can be mentioned is that by Merton (1957J^ o who asked "What is the status of theory and fact about the conditions and processes making for the choice of some rather than other membership groups as normative and comparative frames of reference?" He quotes Turner (1955)20 w n o inquired into the distinctive reference groups selected as frames of reference for differing kinds of values, and found that distinct groups were chosen. Merton comments, "Consideration of different reference groups for different norms and values is rising to the level of studied sociological attention". Here again our attention is drawn towards what a person brings with him to the situation, in this case reference groups are chosen to bolster values an individual already holds. Where then are we left in attempting to discover the criteria on which different reference groups are selected?' I would suggest on the basis of the literature, that two things have to be taken into consideration. These are similar to what Kelman (1961)21 calls the antecedents of identification. Identification has been said to be the mechanism underlying socialization, i t has however not been further specified. It is hoped that the following will make the concept somewhat clearer. The considerations therefore to be taken into account in explaining identification with one reference group rather than another are: 1) A person's motivational system which will explain why some groups are , more attractive than' others and hence more influential. This takes account of what a person brings to the situation in terms of his goals, values and ambitions. For purposes of explaining professional socialization, I suggest what will be important here is the i n i t i a l  professional or occupational self concept of the trainee, i.e. the type of professional he feels he wants to be, or how he intends ini t i a l l y to play his role. 2) The power and sanctions different socializing agents have at their command. These would take .the form of: (a) direct sanctions in terms of removal from the institution or through withholding symbolic rewards (marks, references, etc.) that would affect the individual in terms of his progress through the formal system. The trainee would thus have to balance the rewards and costs of playing the role his way in the face of alternative definitions of others who are significant in terms of the institutional structure. I would suggest that the costs are not• too great as few trainees will try out their role boundaries to such an extent that raw power of the above sort is brought to bear on them. What usually happens is the following? although the institution might define for him whom he must take into account, i t does not necessarily follow that the trainee will pay more than l i p service to this. Rather he makes a 8 situational adjustment and puts his own ideas aside momentarily until more propitious times. (Of course this does not apply to a l l trainees, many of whom, probably the majority, are quite happy to follow the dictates of the institution)./ Of those however whose commitment is very strong, such situational adjustments may be less than satisfactory. For these people there will be less of a discrepancy between verbal attitudes and overt acts, and somehow they will have to balance out both personal and institutional pressures. No doubt there will be many techniques for doing this. It seems unlikely that there will be direct confrontations (the individuals will more likely 'leave the field* when pressures are that great) but rather the employment of certain 'avoidance techniques' i.e. not putting oneself in situations where conflict is likely to ensue e.g. interacting with'selected people, (one's significant others or those people notr,perceived as 'threats'). In this way there will be no abandoning of commitment but rather the protecting of those attitudes and preconceptions that are highly valued and strongly held. (b) A more indirect source of power, and one that,we shall especially be concerned with, as i t bears upon choice of reference groups, is the , power an individual or group has through occupying or playing roles in a way that the trainee considers attractive and desires for himself. As Kelman says, "in identification the agent's power is based on his attractiveness". In consideration, 1) we have suggested that the source of this attraction lies in the trainees ini t i a l professional self conception i.e. what he brings to the situation is the type of professional he wants to be or thinks he will become. Thus he seeks out individuals and groups that compare to this and these become his reference groups as significant others who give social support to his self conceptions. These groups and individuals therefore have the power in that they influence the trainee by withholding or dispensing rewards in terms of favourable evaluation. Indeed, Kelman22 defines as identification the process1'when "an individual adopts the behaviour from another person or group because this behaviour is associated with a satisfying self-defining relationship to this person or group". Identification therefore is associated with gaining or maintaining a satisfying self-defining relationship, that is 'a role relationship that forms part of the person's self image.' Accepting influence through identification, then, is a way of establishing or maintaining the desired relationship to the other, and the self-definition that is anchored in this relationship. Underlying this identification we have suggested are (1) Individuals' self-definitions in terms of their values and ambitions, (2) Selection of reference groups in terms of these definitions in order to gain social support for them and because of their attractiveness in the person's scheme of ambitions. We are now in a position to illustrate more specifically the process of professional socialization: a) Individuals beginning professional training will have certain notions (however crude) of the type of professional they want to be. In terms of the training institution therefore we have two types of persons: i . Those whose in i t i a l self-conceptions are similar to those of the training staff. i i . Those whose i n i t i a l self-conceptions are different from those of 10 the training staff. b) These notions will determine what others they will find significant, .or what reference groups they will seek out to give these notions social support. Thus broadly, trainees will either use as reference groups: i . Certain members of the faculty or the faculty as a whole, i i . Individuals or groups outside the training situation. c) These reference groups have power in that: 1) they support an individual's professional self-conception, and as long as he values this, they reward him in terms of maintaining this identity, and 2) they can change a person's attitudes and preconceptions by the penalties they have at their disposal. Once an individual is drawn to a group (whether he becomes a member of that group or not) and that group is supportive, then that group has power to change attitudes and preconceptions by virtue of the place i t has in that individual's social world e.g. a reference group can be chosen because i t supports cognitions or values A, B and C. The group, however is likely to also subscribe to cognitions and values D, E and F, hence the individual is likely to take these on also (for reasons of ostracism, value congruency etc.). We have also mentioned a more direct case of change through sanctions. This is where an institution can define which groups must be attended to (so' that these become significant) and these groups use institutional power and support to change individuals' values. What must be considered next is how far these self-conceptions that an•individual enters with are maintained or changed throughout the course ' 11 of his training, and what the processes of stability and change are likely to entail. There exists quite a body of evidence which suggests that recruits to professions have an idealized notion of their future roles. Speaking of medical students, Hughes (195>E>)23 s a ^ s °^ ^ e me<^^ca-1- ro^ 6* t h e medical aspirant's conceptions of a l l these things are somewhat simpler than the reality, that they may be distorted and stereotyped as among lay people. Medical education becomes, then, the learning of the more complicated reality on a l l these,fronts". Quarantelli in his study of dental students found this i n i t i a l conception of the work to be similar; freshmen were less discriminating and selective than the faculty in the area of nontechnical values and also held a greater variety of values and beliefs about their occupations. This he says is in line with what Hughes states, "that professional education generally involves the replacement* of gross and stereotyped self-images by more subtle, complex, and sophisticated perceptions of the professional role. Freshmen strongly emphasized the more idealistic and rare kinds of activities."g^ This study is concerned with a sample of trainee teachers in a training situation. The training institution is a system of social relationships which shape the neophyte's role conceptions and his attitudes and values concerning himself, colleagues and clients. Charters (1963)25 says that research conducted from the framework of role learning on the teacher induction process is small, and our knowledge mainly comes from studies of other professions. 12 As he says, "When teacher training is conceived as a period of role leaning, i t is similar to the socialization of the young child with the same social mechanisms, identification, internalization of expectations, reformulation of self concepts etc.," Socialization occurs through inter-action with significant others and since the pattern of the interaction of students are different, the variation results in different kinds of teachers emerging from the same institution." Teacher training institutions he says, "have not yet been studied from this perspective." Some approaches have been made however and these must be considered. -An early study by Waggenschein (l9$0)2O suggests that views of the occupation held by training institutions and practising teachers are very different and that beginning teachers experience a 'reality shock' when preconceived ideas f a i l to compare with actuality. Rabinowitz (1960)27 asked how attitudes shaped in the training institutions fared in the classroom and on the basis of a study concluded, "In three years teachers became less concerned with pupil freedom and more concerned with establishing a stable orderly classroom, in which academic standards received a prominent position". This he suggests is due to the eroding of favourable attitudes built up in college and the realistic adaptation to the1'demands of, classroom l i f e . Biddle et. a l . (1962)28 studied ideas held about the role of teachers among trainee teachers, non-education students and actual teachers. He found that education students wanted teachers to allow more pupil freedom than did the other two groups. "This finding (he says) of distortion of norms and expectations held by education students in favour of pupil freedom is the most surprising one in the whole study." Education students, he said were more idealistic 13 ' in approving more pupil freedom but he continues, "the processes of teacher education will gradually shift the norms and expectations held by education students toward a more realistic outlook". Such idealism he attributes to either, a) idealistic faculty members, b) idealistic pictures students hold of the job which determined their career choice, or c) use of idealism as a protective device during the time he is unable to experience the rewards of professional participation. Berlin (1958)20 says that many teachers' "hold themselves to expectations that are unrealistic, expectations that can be a source of , dissatisfaction and constraint in the classroom". The cause of these expectations he says lies in their professional preparation." The student teacher's ideas of how a good teacher should behave and feel reflect his instructors ideas... (and) schools of education pay l i t t l e attention to difficulties, strains and burdens of classroom teaching. Professors emphasize the elements of good discipline in the classroom but, professors rarely, i f ever talk about the feelings of the teacher who is confronted with problems of discipline." In terms of the theoretical position adopted, what can be said about the effects of exposure to the realities of the role? "Reality" shows that a trainee's i n i t i a l occupational self-image, that i s , the way he intends to play his future role, will not allow for adequate performance in that role. .Thus what he wants to be, and what in fact i t is realistically possible to be (in situations where the role is to be performed), may be completely different from eacli other. > The trainee is shown that clinging to the i n i t i a l self-concept can only bring him conflict, thus pressures Ik to reformulate his self-concept in terms that will not allow its'survival in the actual situation in which i t is performed, are great. With a change in self-perception goes a change in the reference group that gave i t support. The change will,be toward a reference group that now supports the reformulated self-concept; as Kelman says "A response adopted through identification will be abandoned i f i t is no longer perceived as a path towards the'maintainence or establishment of a satisfying self-defining relationship." Confrontation with reality does not always change an'individual's self concept however, or the way he has decided to play his role. A , person may rationalize away such reality as being atypical, or claim that this is not the 'really real'. Again his commitment to his original ideas may be so great that despite the promise of future conflict, he s t i l l clings closely to his ideas. Thus we do not claim a monolithic movement from ideal to real perceptions of occupational roles in the socialization process. Self-concepts are related to values, that is, a person wants to become what he does because he believes this is the correct way in which to play a role. If an occupational self-concept is how a person sees himself in an occupational role, and a role is the cluster of prescriptive expectations, then this self-concept will be related to occupational values. Education has a philosophy which considers what a teacher ought or ought not to do. This philosophy permeates the occupational values and sets a range and limits to the teaching role that are often more specific than many other occupational roles. Thus we can see the teaching role in terms of various educational philosophies and values. For the purpose of this 1 5 study, two bodies of educational values will be seen broadly to exist today, so that two opposite role types of teachers are presented to trainees. It is in choosing one or the other type and its associated values that the trainee formulates his i n i t i a l occupational self-concept. These attitudes have been termed "progressive" and "traditional? by Kerlinger ( 1 9 5 8 a n d will be taken to constitute the ingredients of i n i t i a l occupational self-concepts. Thus recruits who hold i n i t i a l idealized self-concepts will be more likely to hold 'progressive' educational values and recruits who hold more realistic i n i t i a l self concepts will be more likely to hold 'traditional' educational values; As i t has been suggested, people seek out reference groups in terms of the self-concepts they hold, each type of recruit will seek out reference groups that support either set of educational values or, are perceived as supporting these. What groups are these likely to be? It will be assumed that progressive educational values will be held by those whose concern is intellectual, that i s , primarily the faculties of educational training institutions. Such people will be concerned with more abstract and philosophical issues about education than with the practical nature of the occupation. Thus these groups will be used as reference groups by trainees with ideal self-concepts. Also let us note, ~ trainees,often have idealized notions about some,of their own school teachers and might possibly use these as points of .reference. Traditional educational values are more action-oriented and serve more directly as guides to behaviour in the actual situation than do the former values. Thus trainees with i n i t i a l realistic self concepts will seek as reference groups those who espouse these beliefs. Such groups are likely to be 16 teachers who are actually teaching or teacher trainees who are in the later stages of their training. (Note: I am interested in what values and self-conceptions trainees bring to the situation, not how they came to hold these values and concepts). 17 A MODEL FOR THE PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION OF TRAINEE TEACHERS More specifically then, using Quarantelli's reformulation of the process of professional,socialization, certain assumptions have been made which allow us to put forward a picture of the. process that is more complex than is usually considered to be the case. It seems reasonable to suppose that trainees beginning professional training are more likely to have a diffuse conception of their future occupational role. That i s , as a group, they will hold a heterogeneity of occupational role definitions. They are also likely to hold unique or stereotyped views about their "future occupation, for example, being unaware of differences that exist between different groups within the occupation, using their lay assumptions to.characterize various groups, and generally being unsophisticated about how in*fact the profession functions. They also,hold certain idealistic notions about their future roles which arises mainly from: a). Recruitment policies of professions which tend to glamorize certain of their functions and to give less emphasis to the mundane elements that also characterize them, b). The fact that for the trainee, the choice of occupation comprises one of the most important decisions he has made so far during his l i f e . A person's occupation is one of the most.important criteria of what social status he will be assigned and thus an integral part of his social identity. Thus there are pressures to justify the choice of one's profession which again is accomplished by emphasizing the idealistic elements of the job to the detriment of those features of i t which are less glamorous. Therefore, 18 although the range or variety of ideas a trainee has about his future role will be quite wide, the composition of these ideas will be predominantly idealistic. It should be noted that what is being suggested is that the majority of trainees beginning professional training share these characteristics, not a l l of them. Bearing in mind Quarantelli's findings, we should expect a proportion to hold specific ideas concerning their future roles, to be more sophisticated about certain aspects of their occupation, and to be more realistic than idealistic in their conceptions of the occupational role. No matter what the range or type of conception a trainee holds, i t is further assumed that a l l entrants to a profession do bring with them some ideas about the way they think they are, going to play their future roles. These ideas have been called "initial occupational self-concepts". Although these may be vague and often erroneous, a l l trainees for any occupation will bring to the training situation such self-concepts. It was further proposed that these ini t i a l occupational self-concepts were an important determinant of the reference group a trainee chose. Also these self-conceptions could be usefully seen as falling along an idealistic/realistic dimension so that trainees with idealistic occupational self-concepts would choose 'idealistic 1 reference groups, or those groups which share or were perceived as sharing similar conceptions of the occupational role. The same thing, i.e. their choice of reference groups, of course would operate for trainees with realistic occupational self-conceptions. 19 Beginning trainees being more idealistically orientated would hold predominantly idealistic occupational self-concepts and choose predominantly idealistic reference groups. Reasons were given (pages lk and l£) for assuming that the faculty would be the most important idealistic reference group chosen. It was noted that not a l l beginning trainees would be idealistically orientated', thus this would allow us to take into consideration Quarantelli's second point that faculty are not as important a factor in professional socialization as has previously been assumed. If i n i t i a l occupational self-ooncepts determine reference groups chosen, and among beginning trainees, a proportion hold already realistic conceptions of their future roles, then they will choose reference groups other than faculty. The process of professional socialization was envisaged as comprising a change in occupational self-concepts. Pressures for this would occur whenever a trainee had the opportunity of trying out his future role in a realistic situation. One important source of such pressure was in training programs that allowed actual experience of playing ihe role. Such an exposure is exposure to the realities of the occupation, or at least to some of them. For trainees holding idealistic occupational self-concepts, this experience would tend to show that such a self-concept is not viable in the real l i f e situation, that as well as rewards, the occupation has certain definite costs. What occurs therefore is a reformulation of a trainee's i n i t i a l occupational self-concept to take account of this additional knowledge. He becomes less diffuse about what roles or role styles are possible, becomes more sophisticated as he 'learns the ropes' and finds out how the 20 occupation actually functions, and finally loses a great deal of his idealism as a l l these realities are taken into consideration. The process can be summed up> by saying that what occurs is an idealistic occupational self-concept being replaced by a realistic one. Furthermore, as occupational self-concepts determine reference groups chosen, a change in such self-concepts involves a change in reference groups. As the change is conceived primarily as being from idealistic self-concepts to realistic-ones, then there is a change in reference groups chosen away from those which are idealistic or perceived to be so, to those which are, or are perceived to be realistically orientated. Thus faculty becomes less important as a point of reference. This again is consistent with Quarantelli's assertion that faculty is less important than has often been assumed. In the case of the group of .beginning trainees who already hold realistic self-conceptions and' who i t is assumed chose realistic reference groups already, we can expect that the training experience makes for the maintenance or strengthening of these conceptions. Thus there will be a greater range of occupational self-concepts among beginning trainees (i.e. as a group they will hold more diffuse conceptions) and proportionally more of this group will hold idealistic conceptions of their roles, than among trainees completing their professional training who will, as a group, have less of a range or variety of conceptions (i.e. they will be more specific about their roles) and be proportionally more realistically orientated. Likewise, beginning trainees will choose predominantly idealistic reference groups in comparison with completing trainees who will predominantly choose realistic 21 reference groups. Also, completing teachers will discriminate more about groups within their profession than will beginning trainees. Such a picture of change is also consistent with Quarantelli's idea of "different paths" through professional school to expect a number of trainees not to have changed. It is not suggested that completing trainees will be a homogeneous group, only that in comparison with beginning trainees, they will proportionally hold more realistic self concepts than idealistic ones. 22 HYPOTHESES It is the aim of this thesis to see whether the model presented is correct and secondly, whether the assumptions adopted concerning the socialization process adequately explains the facts in a specific situation, the training of teachers. On the basis of the above discussion therefore, certain hypotheses will be put forward and tested. Firstly, concerning the effect of socialization experiences on the specificity of role conceptions we can propose. Hypothesis A Among trainee teachers, those just beginning their training course will have more diffuse concepts of the teacher's role than' trainees completing their training course. That is, in the range of ideas of what a teacher should or should not do, in their ideas of what a teacher's expectations and obligations are, trainees beginning their course, as a group, will be characterized by a heterogeneity of role definitions as compared to those completing their training course. Hypothesis B Among trainee teachers, those just beginning their training course will be less discriminating about certain features of their occupation than will those trainees completing their course. That i s , in two selected features, a) the perception of differences between two important groups met in their training experience and b) the attribution of certain views to the faculty, trainees just beginning their" course will hold different views to those completing their course, such 23 that the former will be less aware of the different points of view held by relevant reference groups in the educational sphere. No assumption is being made that one group's perceptions will be more 'correct' than the other, the emphasis is on characteristic differences rather than veracity. Hypothesis C Among trainee teachers, the i n i t i a l occupational self conceptions held 1 will determine choice of reference groups. This means that those with idealistic occupational self concepts will more often seek as reference groups those who share, or are perceived as sharing, the same conceptions concerning their future roles, and likewise for those who hold realistic occupational self conceptions. Such occupational self concepts undergo transformation due to the opportunity of playing and testing out such role conceptions in realistic situations. Such situations are represented by the practice teaching part of the training program which is fairly continuous throughout. Thus we can predict a change in self conceptions. This would be a change in the distribution of self conceptions along the idealistic-realistic continuum among different groups at different stages of the training program' so that we might expect-Hypothesis D Among trainee teachers, those who are completing their training course will tend to hold predominantly realistic occupational self concepts, whilst those beginning their training course will tend to hold predominantly idealistic occupational self concepts. An important place has been given to the experience of practice teaching in the life, of the trainee teacher. If this is true, then we may 2k propose -Hypothesis E Among trainee teachers, those completing their training course will consider the practice teaching program as a more important part of the course than will those just beginning their course. Throughout the study, the following conventions will be used. Trainees just beginning their training course will be designated as B teachers. Trainees completing their training course will be designated as C teachers. 25 THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY As i t was not possible to conduct a longitudinal study, use was made of the following assumptions: Those completing their training were assumed to have been similar in the conception and specificity of the teaching role that they f i r s t held, with those now beginning training. Also that those beginning training would come to have conceptions similar to those now completing training. Such an assumption seems reasonable -in that, as far as could be ascertained a) admission procedures remained fairly similar b) the same type of person presented themselves for training, and c) the training program remained essentially.the same. Thus the sample consisted of two groups drawn from trainees currently enrolled in the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia, those in their first year of education training (B teachers) and those completing their training after five years (C teachers). This gave a sample of 112. Of those in their f i r s t year, a sample of 57 was obtained of which 5l were females and 6 male, the median age of this group being 19. Of those in their final year, a. sample of 55 was obtained of whom Ul were male and lk were female j the median age of this group being 2k years.* It must be noted however, that the use of the term 'sample' here is not the same as the conventional use of the term in social research i.e. In the examination of the data no great differences on the major variables were found when, broken down by sex. Hence no tables are included in which there is classification by this factor. 26 i t was not a systematic random,sample such that every case had a known and equal probability of being-selected. This unfortunately was impossible to do due to administrative difficulties, hence though the term 'sample' is used for convenience in this study, i t means a group of subjects chosen by means that were haphazard when compared to conventional sampling techniques. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire designed in four parts (Appendix 1). The first part elicited relevant background material from subjects such as age and sex; the second part attempted to measure the first major variable, the reference group or groups a person used; the third section attempted tp discover the subject's perceptions of different groups and also his perceptions of how far his ideas on education had changed; the final section of the questionnaire attempted to measure the subject's occupational self-concept by means of a series of attitude statements with which he was asked to agree or disagree. Questionnaires were similar for both groups in a l l respects except for section three, this for B teachers being anticipatory and for C teachers retrospective (Appendix 2). Criteria for Measuring Major Variables 1. Reference Groups; It was assumed that there were five main groups who would act as points of reference for trainee teachers; other education students, education faculty, teachers met during teaching practice, their own school teachers, and professional teachers known. Of the last four, i t was assumed that education faculty and their own teachers would tend to exert a more idealistic influence on trainees, whilst teachers met in ' 27 * p r a c t i c e and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s w o u l d t e n d t o e x e r t a p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . I t m i g h t seem i n c o n s i s t e n t t o p l a c e 'own t e a c h e r s ' and ' t e a c h e r s met i n p r a c t i c e ' i n o p p o s i t e c a t e g o r i e s . However , t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t 'own t e a c h e r s ' w o u l d e x e r t a n i d e a l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e r e s t e d o n the f a c t t h a t many s t u d i e s show t h a t a p e r s o n ' s own s c h o o l t e a c h e r o f t e n p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n m o t i v a t i n g them t o e n t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n . Hence i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e would s t r e s s t h e i d e a l i s t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e j o b r a t h e r t h a n the r e a l i s t i c . A s s i g n i n g r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s ; A . Use was made o f r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s 7j 8, 9, 13 and lU i n a s s i g n i n g r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . F i r s t o f a l l , i t was n o t e d w h i c h g r o u p s were m e n t i o n e d i n the extreme p o s i t i v e p o s i t i o n s on q u e s t i o n s 7 a n d 9, and r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s were t a k e n a s t h a t g r o u p o r g r o u p s m e n t i o n e d a s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s t o t h e s u b j e c t a n d a l s o t h o s e t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d t o be v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l . B . I n t h e case o f two groups b e i n g marked down i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , r e c o u r s e was t a k e n t o e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n 8 w h i c h a s k e d a s u b j e c t t o r a n k d i f f e r e n t groups i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s a s examples t o h i m . T h i s g e n e r a l l y a s c e r t a i n e d w h i c h o f t h e two g r o u p s m e n t i o n e d i n q u e s t i o n s 7 o r 9 was t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t . C . Where the two d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s were m e n t i o n e d i n q u e s t i o n 7 a n d 9, t h e same p r o c e d u r e was u s e d w i t h , r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n 8 t o p r o v i d e t h e c h o s e n g r o u p . D. When ( r a r e l y ) d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s were m e n t i o n e d i n a n s w e r s t o e a c h o f q u e s t i o n s 7,8 and 9, t h e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s 13 a n d lU w h i c h 28 asked who a subject saw as holding similar and dissimilar views on education to him, were used to determine reference groups. It might be argued that evaluation, usefulness of examples, and influence are different things, and that using them to determine a person's reference group is erroneous. However there, was a great deal of consistency in subjects' answers to these questions, resulting in only 19 oases out of 112 having answers so contradictory that i t was impossible to assign a reference group or groups to them by this procedure. A measure of this consistency is to compare the answers of each one of the above questions with a l l the others. An idea of the consistency that is obtained therefore can be seen (Appendix 2. Occupational Self Concept: To measure how a trainee perceives his role, an attitude scale was established (Appendix 3) along a continuum of idealism to realism. The items on the scale were taken from a study by iKerlinger^ (1956)^ 2 w n o used them as items on a Q sort. Not a i l items were chosen, only 10 from a list' of 80. Those chosen were those which seemed to the writer to * discriminate best between idealism and realism. Kerlinger's aim was to study the consistency with which people held attitudes toward education and he took 'progressive' (idealistic) and 'traditional' (realistic) statements from a whole range of educational writings. He was able to prove that such clusters of attitudes existed but he does not mention which statements he found to discriminate best. Subjects were offered five responses to each of the ten questions, from strongly agree to strongly disagree, those answers denoting idealistic attitudes scoring high whilst those denoting realistic attitudes 29 ' scored low. This gave a minimum score of 1 and a maximum score of 5 for each question which resulted in a scale from 10 to £0 with a mid-point of 30. Thus subjects scoring 30 and over were taken as having an idealistic occupational self-concept, and those scoring under 30 a realistic occupational self-concept. A measure of the heterogeneity of occupational self-concepts was taken to be the standard deviation of the scores of both groups of teachers on the attitude scale. Thus the more specific the concept, the smaller the standard deviation. 30 RESULTS Hypothesis A Expected result: Among trainee teachers, those just beginning their training course (B teachers) will have a more diffuse conception of the teacher's role than those trainees completing their training course (C teachers). Actual result: The standard deviations of each groups' score on the attitude scale were compared with the following results: B teachers had a standard deviation of 3.99 C teachers had a standard deviation of k.7h Thus the hypothesis failed to be supported. Hypothesis B Expected result: Among trainee teachers, those just beginning their training course (B teachers) will be less discriminating about certain features of their occupation than will those trainees completing their courses (C teachers). Actual results: Question 12 asked how far trainees thought that the faculty and the teachers whom they met on practice teaching shared the same views on education. The results are summarized below, Table I. Perception No. % As Sharing Similar Views' 39 69.6 As Differing Quite Significantly 17 30.3 As Completely Different 0 0.0 n = 110 x 2 = 16.69 31 Table I Comparison of Faculty and Practice Teachers by Stage of Training B Teachers C Teachers No. % 17 31.h 3h 62.9 3 5.5 p < .001 B teachers ,see predominantly no difference between the views held by ' faculty and practice teachers whilst C-teachers see a great deal of difference between them. Question 11.asked how realistic or,idealistic they thought the faculty were. Table II summarizes the results obtained. Table II Perception of Education Faculty by Stage of Training Perception of Faculty as: , B Teachers C Teachers Too Idealistic^ Sufficiently Realistic^ n =.112 „ ' x 2 =''1.73 P < .20 *(Categories 1 and 2 in question 11 have been combined into the category 'Too idealistic' in the table, and categories 3 and k in the question into 'Sufficiently realistic' in the table). B teachers on the whole see faculty as being sufficiently realistic. C teachers however are less generous in their views and tend more to see the faculty as being too"idealistic than do C teachers. No. % * No. % 22 38.5 27 U9.0 35 61. k 28 50.9 32 Hence, i n two important features of t h e i r occupation, the comparison of two important groups within t h i s occupation, and the a t t r i b u t i o n of c e r t a i n views to f a c u l t y , B teachers do seem to share d i f f e r e n t views than C teachers. I t i s important to note here however, that i n i n f e r r i n g from these r e s u l t s that B teachers are l e s s d iscriminating than C teachers, we are assuming th a t p r a c t i c e teachers a r e - i n f a c t r e a l i s t i c and f a c u l t y i n f a c t i d e a l i s t i c . Thus a greater proportion of B teachers seeing f a c u l t y as ' s u f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i s t i c ' &han C teachers, only means our inference i s true i f the above assumption i s l i k e w i s e . Hypothesis C Expected Result: Among trainee teachers, the occupation self-concepts that are held determines which reference groups are chosen. Actual Results: Results are summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s and show the hypothesis t o be w e l l supported. Table I I I Reference Group Chosen by Occupational Self-Concept Occupational S e l f Concept Type of Reference Group Chosen I d e a l i s t i c R e a l i s t i c I d e a l i s t i c 31 16 R e a l i s t i c 10 36 2 n = 93 (19 u n c l a s s i f i a b l e subjects) x = 17.2 p < .001 When broken down by stage of t r a i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s again shown. 33 Table IV Reference Group Chosen by Occupational Self-Concept and Stage of Training Occupational Self Concept Idealistic Realistic n = 93 Type of Reference Group Chosen Idealistic Realistic B Teachers C Teachers B Teachers C Teachers 15 8 16 2 9 19 7 17 And again, further evidence is forthcoming when answers to question 13 are analyzed. Here trainees were asked with what groups they felt they shared similar ideas on education. Table V Groups Perceived as Similar by Occupational Self-Concept B Teachers Groups Perceived as Similar Other Students Faculty Practice Teachers Own Teachers Other Teachers n 57 C Teachers Groups Perceived as Similar Other Students Faculty Practice Teachers Own Teachers Other Teachers No Answer n = 55 Idealistic 32.1$ 28.5 25.0 7.1 7.1 Idealistic 21.8$ ii0.6 12.5 6.2 9.3 9.3 Realistic 3k M 6.8 34.4 13.7 10.3 Realistic 43.4$ 0.0 30.U 4.3 13.0 8.6 3U-In the case of the realists among B and C teachers, the group they see themselves most similar to (apart from other students in the case of C teachers) are practice teachers, as we might expect (assuming practice teachers to be realistic influences). In the case of idealists among both B and C teachers, for C teachers the relation between self concept and reference group is quite marked (over k-0% see themselves as similar in their views to faculty who we assumed to be the most idealistic influence). However, for idealists among B teachers, the distinction is less clear, with equal numbers of this group (almost) stating that they see themselves as most similar to both practice teachers and faculty (after, their peers). Hypothesis D , 1 Expected result; v Among trainee teachers, those who are completing their training course (C teachers) will tend to hold predominantly-reaLlistic occupational self concepts whilst those just beginning their training course (B teachers) will tend to hold predominantly idealistic occupational self concepts. Actual results; -? -The results are summed up in the following table and show that the hypothesis is not supported. Table VI Occupational Self Concept by Stage of Training Occupational Self-Concept -.Stage of Training Idealistic Realistic B Teachers 28 (h9.1%) 29 ($0.9%) C Teachers 32 ($Q.2%) 23 (Ul.8£) n = 112 35 $0.9% of B teachers were idealistically orientated compared with 58.2$ among C teachers whilst U9.1$ of B teachers were realistically orientated compared to Ul.8$ among C teachers. In a l l cases therefore, results went in the opposite direction to the prediction. Hypothesis E Expected result; Among trainee teachers, those completing their training course (C teachers) will consider the practice teaching program as a more important part of the course than will those just beginning their course (B teachers). Actual results; The following tables show the above hypothesis is only slightly supported. Table VII Features of the Course Considered as the most Important Source  of Future Help by B Teachers Item Number Percent Methods Courses 20 35.1 Academic Courses 6 10.5 Interview' with Faculty Members 1 1.7 Practice,Teaching 30 52.6 Other 0 0.0 n = 57 36 -! f Table VIII Things Considered most Important about Their Training  Course by C Teachers Item Number Percent Methods Courses k 7.2 Academic Courses 11 20.0 Interviews with Faculty Members 0 0.0 Seminars 2 3.6 Practice Teaching Program 38 69.0 n = 55 Thus 69.056 of C teachers see the practice teaching program as most important as compared with %2.6% of B teachers. Summary of Results The data just presented offer support for two of the five hypotheses tested, viz.: -Hypothesis B, that B teachers will be less discriminating about certain features of their occupation than will C teachers, and Hypothesis C, that occupational self concepts held are an important determinant of which reference groups are chosen by trainees. With respect to the latter,'however,- i t should be noted that when using respondents perceptions of the similarity of their views to others as an index of significant reference groups, we found that idealists among the B teachers tended to see their views as similar to those of several groups, including those we assumed to be 'realistic' in orientation. 37 H y p o t h e s i s E , t h a t C t e a c h e r s w i l l e v a l u a t e p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g more h i g h l y t h a n B t e a c h e r s , r e c e i v e d v e r y s l i g h t s u p p o r t . T h e r e m a i n i n g two h y p o t h e s e s were n o t s u p p o r t e d b y o u r d a t a , v i * . : H y p o t h e s i s A , t h a t B t e a c h e r s would have a more d i f f u s e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e t h a n C t e a c h e r s , a n d H y p o t h e s i s D , t h a t C t e a c h e r s w o u l d h o l d p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f c o n c e p t s whereas B t e a c h e r s w o u l d be p r e d o m i n a n t l y i d e a l i s t i c . 38 DISCUSSION C e r t a i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y and i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s were f o u n d among o u r d a t a . F o r i n s t a n c e , B t e a c h e r s d i d not have a more d i f f u s e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e t h a n C t e a c h e r s ; a l s o C t e a c h e r s d i d n o t have p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f c o n c e p t i o n s . These f i n d i n g s a n d o t h e r s w i l l f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . Why s h o u l d B t e a c h e r s h o l d l e s s o f a v a r i e t y o f i d e a s a b o u t t h e i r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s t h a n C t e a c h e r s ? T h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween b o t h g r o u p s was n o t v e r y g r e a t , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n e x p e c t e d f a i l e d t o a p p e a r . One p o s s i b l e r e a s o n c o u l d be t h e f o l l o w i n g . The s c a l e i t e m s were made up f r o m s t a t e m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h were assumed t o be common. However , w h i l e t h e y m i g h t be w e l l known t o C t e a c h e r s , t h e y may be r e l a t i v e l y unknown t o B t e a c h e r s who had y e t t o have much e x p o s u r e t o s u c h p h i l o s o p h y . B t e a c h e r s t h e r e f o r e c o u l d have a more homogenous image o f the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o know a b o u t c o m p e t i n g i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s whereas C t e a c h e r s a r e more h e t e r o g e n e o u s because once t h e y know a b o u t t h e m , t h e y choose one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r . T h u s t h e y m i g h t emphas i ze where t h e y w i s h e d t o be p l a c e d b y knowledge o f what t h e s c a l e m e a s u r e d w h i c h t h u s d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r c h o i c e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . P e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t i o n t h a t f a i l e d t o be s u p p o r t e d b y t h e d a t a was t h a t o f h y p o t h e s i s E w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t B t e a c h e r s , w o u l d be more i d e a l i s t i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d t h a n C t e a c h e r s a n d v i c e v e r s a . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o u l d have been p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g . I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e c a t a l y s t o f change was the o p p o r t u n i t y o f p l a y i n g 39 o n e ' s f u t u r e r o l e I n a r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n . T h u s i f a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f B t e a c h e r s had h a d p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e , t h e n t h i s would a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i d e a l i s t i c t h a n C t e a c h e r s o r a t l e a s t , n o t a s i d e a l i s t i c a s was p r e d i c t e d . A n a l y s i s o f q u e s t i o n s U and 5 however showed t h a t f o r t h e sample a s a w h o l e , v e r y few s u b j e c t s h a d h a d e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g b e f o r e t h e y began t h e i r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . T h u s s u c h e x p e r i e n c e c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a c a u s e o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . A s e c o n d p o i n t c o n c e r n s t h e c e r t a i n t y o f d e c i s i o n o r commitment t o t h e way one i n t e n d s t o t e a c h . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t f e w e r B t e a c h e r s would be d e c i d e d o n t h e way t h e y i n t e n d e d to p l a y t h e i r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s t h a n w o u l d C t e a c h e r s who had r e a c h e d the e n d o f t h e i r c o u r s e a n d who s h o r t l y would be p r a c t i s i n g t e a c h e r s . C e r t a i n t y o f d e c i s i o n may be a n i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n e x p l a i n i n g the f a i l u r e o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n u n d e r h y p o t h e s i s D . I t m i g h t be f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e p r e d i c t e d change i s o c c u r r i n g b u t h a s y e t t o have come t o f r u i t i o n i . e . t h e r e i s a " t r a n s i t i o n a l " s t a g e be tween r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s e l f c o n c e p t s ( t h a t w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s among C t e a c h e r s ) . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n we w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t i d e a l i s t s among C t e a c h e r s w o u l d make up a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e who a r e u n d e c i d e d among t h i s g r o u p . T a b l e s IX and X show t h a t B t e a c h e r s a r e , a s p r e d i c t e d , more u n d e c i d e d a b o u t how t h e y i n t e n d t o t e a c h t h a n C t e a c h e r s . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g however t o f i n d s u c h a l a r g e number o f C t e a c h e r s s t i l l u n d e c i d e d . T h i s g i v e s us t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t t h e " t r a n s i t i o n a l " h y p o t h e s i s a b o v e . ko T a b l e IX C e r t a i n t y o f D e c i s i o n on I n t e n d e d T e a c h i n g S t y l e ( B T e a c h e r s ) D e c i s i o n Number Q u i t e D e f i n i t e F a i r l y C e r t a i n Not l e t D e c i d e d D o n ' t Know n * 57 8 12 33 k P e r c e n t U*.0 21.0 57.8 7.0 T a b l e X Time o f D e c i s i o n o n I n t e n d e d T e a c h i n g S t y l e ( C T e a c h e r s ) Time o f D e c i s i o n Number P e r c e n t B e f o r e 5th T e a r D u r i n g 5th T e a r U n d e c i d e d n - 55 17 22 16 31 ko 29 G r o u p e d 35.0$ 64.8$ H o w e v e r , b r e a k i n g t h e d a t a down, we see f r o m T a b l e s X I a n d X I I t h a t i t i s the r e a l i s t s among b o t h g r o u p s who a r e s l i g h t l y more u n d e c i d e d . F o r C t e a c h e r s i t a p p e a r s t h a t r e a l i s t s t a k e l o n g e r t o make up t h e i r m i n d s . However t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between i d e a l i s t s and r e a l i s t s i n t h i s g r o u p a r e v e r y s m a l l . Thus t h e r e i s no s u p p o r t f o r t h e " t r a n s i t i o n a l " h y p o t h e s i s . i l l Table XI Certainty of Decision on Intended Teaching Style by Occupational Self Concept (B Teachers) Certainty of Decision* Occupational Self Concept Fairly Certain Not Yet Decided Idealist 11 (39.2%) 17 (60.8$) Realist 9 (31.0$) 20 (69.0$) n - 57 The categories 'I am quite definite? and 'I am fairly certain 1 in question 15B have been combined into 'Fairly Certain1 in the table. Like-wise the categories 'I have not yet decided but have some definite ideas' and 'I don't know' in the question, have been combined into 'Not Yet Decided' in the table. Table XII Time of Decision on Intended Teaching Style by  Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) Time of Decision Occupational Self Concept Before 5th Year During 5th Year Undecided Idealist 13 (U0.6$) 13 (k0.6$) 6 (18.7$) Realist 8 (3U.7$) 8 (3lw7$) 7 (30.U$) n - 55 When we come to consider the extent of change reported by C teachers, not only do we find that a l l of this group has changed their ideas on how to teach since beginning the coarse, (Table XIII), but i t is the realists in this group who state they have changed the most (Table XIV), 78.2$ as against 65.5$. 42 T a b l e X I I I Amount o f Change i n I d e a s on T e a c h i n g S t y l e Among C T e a c h e r s Amount Number P e r c e n t A G r e a t D e a l 16 29.0 Q u i t e A L o t 23 4l.8 Somewhat 16 29.0 N o t A t A l l 0 0.0 n = 55 T a b l e X I V Amount o f Change R e p o r t e d b y O c c u p a t i o n a l S e l f C o n c e p t among C T e a c h e r s O c c u p a t i o n a l S e l f C o n c e p t Amount o f Change I d e a l i s t R e a l i s t A G r e a t D e a l 11(34-3$) 5(21.7$) Q u i t e A L o t 10 (31.2$) 13 (56.5$) Somewhat 11 (34-3$) 5 (21.7$) Not A t A l l 0 0 n - 55 U n f o r t u n a t e l y a s e r i o u s o m i s s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e f a i l u r e t o a s k t h o s e who were a s k e d a b o u t c h a n g e , what i t was t h a t t h e y h a d i n f a c t changed f r o m . T h i s makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n away t h e n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s o f h y p o t h e s i s D a s r e p o r t e d change f o r i n s t a n c e m i g h t be a l o n g a d i f f e r e n t c o n t i n u u m t h a n i d e a l i s m / r e a l i s m . A s e x t e n t o f change t e l l s u s l i t t l e w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o s p e c i f y 'change f r o m w h a t ' , i t becomes U3 necessary to try and work out what the original situation among C teachers was assuming that statements of change do in fact refer to idealistic and realistic conceptions of occupational roles. Combining the above table so that we get the numbers in each group who have changed a l i t t l e and changed a lot, we get the following: Table XIV A Combination of Table XIV - (Time 2) Occupational Self Concept Amount of Change Idealist Realist Changed A Lot 21 (65.6$) 18 (78.2$) Changed A Little 11 (34.3$) 5 (21.8$) n - 55 This is the picture at the present. To get an idea of the original situation, let us assume that those who now state they have changed a lot were in the opposite categories in the original situation (e.g. present realists were idealists before change), whilst those who now state they have changed a l i t t l e have stayed where they were. This gives us a rough picture of the original situation; thus before any change had occurred, the situation would approximate Table XV below. Table XV Amount of Change by Occupational Self Concept: Theoretical Initial Position (Time 1) Occupational Self Concept Amount of Change Idealist Realist Changed A Lot 18 (62.0$) 21 (80.7$) Changed A Little 11 (38.0$) 5 (19.3$) n - 55 k k From t h e t a b l e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s n o t o n l y t h e r e a l i s t s who have changed m o r e , but i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p i c t u r e , t h e change i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r o m r e a l i s m t o i d e a l i s m a n d n o t v i c e v e r s a a s p r e d i c t e d . A l s o a s i t i s t h e i n i t i a l r e a l i s t s who have changed more we assume t h e y have changed i n a n i d e a l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n . I f t h e m a j o r i t y o f C t e a c h e r s have c h a n g e d t h e i r i d e a s o n how t o t e a c h , i t m i g h t be f r u i t f u l t o see what t h e s e changes a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o . We w o u l d f o r i n s t a n c e , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o u r h y p o t h e s i s , e x p e c t a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r e a l i s t s t o a t t r i b u t e change t o t h e e f f e c t o f t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e t h a n would i d e a l i s t s . From T a b l e X V I , h o w e v e r , e v e n t h o u g h t h i s i s s e e n a s t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o have c a u s e d c h a n g e , t h e r e seems l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f r e a l i s t s a n d i d e a l i s t s who s t a t e t h i s . N o r i s t h e r e a n y d i f f e r e n c e o f no te i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e b y r e a l i s t s a n d i d e a l i s t s among C t e a c h e r s ( T a b l e X V I I ) . T a b l e X V I C a u s e s o f Change i n Ideas o n How t o Teach b y O c c u p a t i o n a l  S e l f C o n c e p t (C T e a c h e r s ) Cause o f Change I d e a l i s t s R e a l i s t s C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h F a c u l t y 2 6.2$ 0 0.0$ D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h O t h e r S t u d e n t s 2 6.2 2 8.6 L e c t u r e s a n d S e m i n a r s 5 15.6 2 8.6 O b s e r v a t i o n o f P r a c t i c e T e a c h e r s 2 6.2 1 h.3 C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h P r a c t i c e T e a c h e r s 2 6.2 3 13.0 Own E x p e r i e n c e s o f T e a c h i n g 19 59.3 15 65.2 n - 55 45 Table XVII Things Considered most Import ant about the Training Coarse by Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) Occupational Self Concept Item Idealists Realists Methods Courses 2 6.2$ 2 8.6$ Academic Courses 7 21.8 4 17.3 Interviews with Faculty 0 0.0 0 0.0 Seminars 2 6.2 0 0.0 Practice Teaching Program 21 65.6 17 73.9 n = 55 Thus, i f experiences during teaching practice change the majority of C teacher's ideas no matter what self-concepts they hold, and since we are assuming that the influence of such practice teaching would be toward more realistic definitions of the teacher's role, we s t i l l are left with explaining why such a proportion of C teachers show a change toward more idealistic conceptions. Sofar, our model has assumed that influences on self-concepts would come from the effects of teaching practice, and that counter influences would be insignificant. However, when we look directly at groups who trainees state will (or we can assume, have) influenced them, (Question 9), we see some interesting facts, (Table XVIII). First of a l l , the amount of influence admitted by B teachers is greater than that for C teachers. Secondly, approximately similar proportions of idealists and realists among both B and C teachers he Table XVIII Sources of Influence by Occupational Self Concept (B Teachers) Influence Group Idealists Realists Very Influ. Of Some Influ. Of No Influ. Very Influ. Of Some Influ. Of No Influ, Other Students 1.1% U6.W 3.W kl.3% 55.1$ Faculty 60.7 32.1 7.1 Wu8 51.7 3.k Practice Teachers U2.8 57.1 0.0 U8.2 37.9 10.3 Own Teachers 28.5 U6.lt 25.0 13.7 62.0 20.6 Teachers Known 28.5 39.2 32.1 17.2 56.8 20.6 n - 57 (C Teachers) Other Students 3.1$ 53.1$ U3.7* 0.0$ 60.8$ 39.1$ Faculty H3.1 U6.8 9.3 21.7 69.5 8.6 Practice Teachers 3U.3 56.2 9.3 39.1 60.8 0.0 Own Teachers 15.6 56.2 28.1 8.6 69.5 21.7 Teachers Known 18.7 53.1 28.1 17.2 U3-3 39.1 n « 55 attribute influence to practice teachers. This is consistent for B teachers, as in their f i r s t year of education they take mainly academic courses outside the Department of Education. Their education training consists of one period of practice teaching per week and one large seminar from the education faculty. Hence their contact with education faculty is limited, and significant interaction more likely to be with i*7 teachers met on practice, (this is supported in Table IX). It is similarly consistent for C teachers who, i t will be remembered, stated practice teaching as most important to them on their views of teaching. Thirdly, we can note, an overall greater admission of influence by idealists than by realists, and fourthly, the most salient point for the following argument, a higher proportion of idealists among both B and C teachers attribute influence to the faculty than do realists. Hence faculty s t i l l remain influential for idealists among C teachers, and we can assume that teaching practice and its hypothesized effects are nullified by faculty influence which, as i t were, insulates the idealists from 'reality shock'. Some support for this i s presented in the following table which further analyzes responses to question 11. Table XIX Perception of Faculty by Occupational Self Concept (C Teachers) Occupational Faculty Seen as too Faculty Seen as Self Concept Idealistic Sufficiently Realistic Number Percent Number Percent Idealistic Ik k3.7 18 56.2 Realistic 13 56.5 10 k3,k n * 55 Idealists tend to attribute positive views to faculty, ( i them as sufficiently realistic) more than do realists (who tend to see them as too idealistic). The differences are small but suggestive. To continue this argument, we will introduce another set of tables from responses to question 6, which attempted to delineate interaction patterns among trainee teachers. 48 Looking at these patterns, there seems to be l i t t l e difference between the amount and recipient of both B and C teacher's interaction. Table XX Interaction Profiles of Trainee Teachers  B Teachers Group Amount of Interaction A Great Deal Sometimes Never Other Students 29.8$ 63.2$ 7.0$ Faculty- 1.7 59.7 38.5 Practice Teachers 15.9 78.8 5.2 Own Teachers 7.0 50.9 42.0 Teachers Known 3.4 68.3 28.0 n = 57 C Teachers Other Students 34.5$ 63.5$ 1.8$ Faculty- 7.2 70.9 21.8 Practice Teachers 9.0 89.0 1.8 Own Teachers 1.8 50.8 47.2 Teachers Known 7.2 74.4 18.1 n = 55 When however, the interaction pattern of idealists and realists are analyzed, there does appear to be a significant difference between these groups among C teachers which does not appear so markedly among B teachers. (Tables XXI below). k9 Table XXI Interaction Profiles by Occupational Self Concept B Teachers Group Occupational Self Concept Idealistic Realistic Interaction Interaction Great Deal Sometimes Never Great Deal Sometines Never Other Students 32.1$ 57.1$ 10.7$ 27.5$ 68.9$ 3.U$ Faculty 3.5 67.8 28.5 0.0 51.7 U8.2 Practice Teachers 10.7 85.7 3.5 20.6 72.Ii 6.8 Own Teachers 3.5 50.0 U6.U 10.3 U8.2 10-.3 Teachers Known 3.5 67.8 28.5 3.U 68.9 2U.1 n - 57 C Teachers Other Students lt5.U$ 23.6$ 30.9$ 29.0$ 12.7$ 58.1$ Faculty 10.9 Hl.8 1*7.2 1.8 3U.5 63.6 Practice Teachers 38.1 29.0 32.7 21.8 20.0 58.1 Own Teachers 9.0 3U.5 56.3 1.8 30.9 67.2 Teachers Known 20.0 36.3 U3.6 5.U 30.9 63.6 n - 55 Realists among C teachers have considerably less interaction with each group than do idealists. Thus, those who maintain realistic occupational self concepts or come to hold them, have significantly less 5o interaction with other people engaged in education than do those who maintain their idealism or who come to hold idealistic occupational self concepts. We can summarize sofar therefore, and say, that among C teachers, those remaining realists or changing to realism, and those staying idealist or changing to idealism, are similar in that a large proportion of them attribute change in self-concepts to practice teaching experiences. But, realists differ from idealists in that, a) faculty influence them less, and b) their overall interaction is less (with faculty especially). Thus both subgroups among C teachers give greatest attention to teaching practice as a catalyst of change but differ in the attribution of influences to different groups and in their interaction patterns. The same evidently is true for B teachers but the differences are not so great. How therefore can such differences between both subgroups of C teachers be used to explain away the failure of our prediction under hypothesis D? What is the effect of this interaction? Why should i t be an important factor in the teaching situation? One theory that seems to explain the situation quite adequately is that of Festinger 0-9$7)^y Festinger's, Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, states, "that an individual strives for consistency within himself e.g. opinions and attitudes tend to exist in clusters that are internally consistent. Should inconsistency (or dissonance) occur, the ensuing psychological discomfort will motivate attempts to reduce such dissonance. Such dissonance occurs 51 when one's cognitions or beliefs about oneself are met with realities of actual situations. There are many ways of reducing dissonance, in general they are, a) changing one or more of the cognitive elements involved in dissonant relations5 b) decreasing the importance of the elements involved in the dissonant relations, and c) by adding new cognitive elements that are consonant with already existing cognitions." It is this last mode of reduction that is important for our discussion. Brehm and Cohen (1°62)^ talk about what they call the "Boomerang Effect," and say dissonance theory states the following — "First of a l l , let us suppose that dissonance has been aroused in regard to some cognition A, without specification of what that cognition might be. We know that the dissonance could be reduced by a change in that cognition so that i t no longer followed from that element or cluster of elements, and we also know that cognition A will have some resistance to that change. Suppose then, that A's resistance is great because the actual events to which i t corresponds cannot be changed and because its meaning is ambiguous. When such conditions exist, the reduction or elimination of dissonance will certainly depend on other modes of reduction, such as change in the elements with which A is dissonant or the addition of consonant elements. It is the latter mode, the addition of consonant elements, that is of interest here, for i t is through the addition of elements that we may have a negative effect. When cognitions A and B are dissonant with each other and are highly resistant to change, a remaining mode of dissonance reduction is through the addition of elements consonant either with A or with B. In 52 t h i s way , the p r o p o r t i o n o f r e l e v a n t c o g n i t i o n s w h i c h a r e d i s s o n a n t i s r e d u c e d . T h e c o n d i t i o n s we have s p e c i f i e d p r o v i d e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n . T h a t i s , whenever a p e r s o n i s e x p o s e d t o c o g n i t i o n s d i s s o n a n t w i t h ones a l r e a d y h e l d , a n d t h e s e v a r i o u s c o g n i t i o n s a r e h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o c h a n g e , t h e n the i n d i v i d u a l m y r e s o r t t o b o l s t e r i n g t h e c o g n i t i o n h e f i r s t h e l d . I f t h e i n i t i a l l y h e l d c o g n i t i o n were a p e r s u a s i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n d i s c r e p a n t w i t h h i s a t t i t u d e , t h e n h i s b o l s t e r -i n g o f t h e i n i t i a l a t t i t u d e w o u l d be t e r m e d 'boomerang ' a t t i t u d e c h a n g e . " T h e y c o n t i n u e , "We have s e e n b y now t h a t t h e t y p i c a l mode l f o r e f f e c t i n g a t t i t u d e change has b e e n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c o m m u n i c a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , a r g u m e n t s , a p p e a l s a n d so o n , d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e change i n t h e r e c i p i e n t i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n . W h i l e t h i s p a r a d i g m m i g h t be u n d e r s t o o d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s , one p o s s i b l e way i s i n t e r m s o f d i s s o n a n c e t h e o r y . . . . t h e d i s s o n a n c e t h e o r y a p p r o a c h s u g g e s t s a s e t o f f a c t o r s w h i c h c a n p r o d u c e n o t o n l y t h e i n t e n d e d s h i f t i n i n f l u e n c e , b u t a l s o j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e , t h a t i s a boomerang change i n a t t i t u d e . " ^ Thus i t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n a n d n a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e a s o u r c e o f c o n s o n a n t e l e m e n t s f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l i n a d i s s o n a n t s i t u a t i o n . I n t erms o f s e l f c o n c e p t s , Backman e t . a l . (1963)^ 5 s a y a n i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e s c o n g r u e n c y , "When S p e r c e i v e s h i s b e h a v i o u r and t h a t o f 0 a s i m p l y i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f s e l f , c o n g r u e n t w i t h r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t . " . j y S h o u l d f a c t o r s i n a s i t u a t i o n t h r e a t e n t h i s c o n g r u e n c y , t h e n he a t t e m p t s t o a c t i v e l y s t r u c t u r e h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s so a s t o a c h i e v e a n d m a i n t a i n c o n g r u e n c y . T h e y s a y he w i l l do t h i s 53 in the following way, "He selectively interacts with other persons, preferring those who treat him in a manner congruent with his self concept, and avoiding those who do not. Similarly, he selectively evaluates others, depending upon their attitudes towards him.... Thus he maximizes the effect of congruent actions and minimizes the effect of incongruent actions on his self concept."^Q T n e hypothesis they bring forward to test, states, "The greater the number of significant other persons who are perceived to define an aspect of an individual's self concept congruently, the more resistant to change is that aspect of self." When tested the hypothesis was supported. Thus in terms of the situation we are investigating, we may see teaching practice as presenting a set of dissonant cognitions that cannot be changed. Thus to reduce dissonance, a trainee must seek other modes of reduction. He cannot change the elements in the situation, or decrease their importance, but he can add consonant elements. One such way of doing this is to seek out others whose definitions of the situation or interpretations of experience provide additional elements consonant with the perspective he already holds. Such selective interaction therefore, we suggest, is an important mitigating factor in the effects of teaching practice on a trainee. SUMMARY It is clear that the results of this thesis provide a picture somewhat at variance with the model assumed. Trainee teachers enter their training period with a range of occupational self concepts not very much different from those completing their training. They differ however in their perceptions of two aspects of the training situation, B teachers seeing relatively less difference between the two major groups of socializers in the training situation than C teachers, and also attributing a different set of characteristics to faculty than do C teachers. In any year, a trainee's occupational self-concept determines his choice of reference groups. It is also significant in who is influential to him. B teachers admit to greater influence than C teachers, although both groups have similar proportions attributing their greatest influence to practice teachers. The most important difference lies in the idealists among both B and C teachers who attribute more influence to the faculty than do realists. The practice teaching program is evaluated slightly higher among C teachers than B teachers and i t is this experience that is stated to have been the major course of changes in attitude in the former group no matter what self concept is held. A l l C teachers have changed, yet the direction of change is opposite to what was predicted. Over time, teachers seem to maintain or increase their idealism. This is the major source of variance with the adopted model. 55 Why should this be so? Analyzing the data on C teachers i t was found that, a) of nearly a third who stated they were undecided on how they intended to teach, the largest proportion were realists. If change was predominantly from idealism to realism we might expect that it would be the idealists who were less decided, i.e., in a 'transitional' stage, b) As to who changed the most, again i t was the realists who were found to have done so. From what i t was that they changed was difficult to work out, but some rough estimate was calculated which suggested the predominant direction of change was from realism to idealism. As stated before, i t was experiences during teaching practice that caused the change. This was what was predicted but the nature of the change differed. It was postulated that counterbalancing influences existed in the training situation that worked to cause this. No attempt was made to discover what a trainee's actual experiences were during teaching practice however. One striking finding was a difference in interaction patterns between idealists and realists among C teachers. Realists had less interaction in general with the groups mentioned than did idealists. Hence this fact, along with the data on influence was used to support our explanation for the failure of our prediction about change. The importance of interaction was brought out by relating it to Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance which put more succinctly our reasoning about insulating factors in the training situation. 56 FOOTNOTES 1. Cf. Robert K. Merton, George Reader and Patricia M. Kendall, The  Student Physician, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press 1957, and Ida H. Simpson, Patterns of Socialization into Professions;  The Case of Student Nurses, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, New lork, I960. 2. Enrico L. Quarantelli, Margaret Helfrich and Daniel Yutsy, "Faculty and Student Perception in a Professional School", Sociology and  Social Research, 49.1., October 1964, pp. 32-45. 3. Mustafer Sherif, "The Concept of Reference Groups in Human Relations", in M. Sherif and M. 0. Wilson (eds.), Group Relations at the Crossroads, New York, Harpers, 1953, pp. 203-31. 4. Herbert Hyman, "Reflections on Reference Groups", Public Opinion  Quarterly, 24.3. Fall, I960, pp. 383-96. 5. Carl J. Couch and J. S. Murray, "Significant Others and Evaluations", Sociometry, 27.4. December 1964, pp. 502-09. 6. Quarantelli et. a l . , o£. c i t . , p. 4l. 7. Ibid., p. 43. 8. Tamotsu Shibutani, "Reference Groups as Perspectives", American  Journal of Sociology, 60 (May 1955) pp. 562-69. 9. Marie Jahoda, "Conformity and Independence: A Psychological Analysis", Human Relations, 12.2., May 1959, pp. 99-120. 10. Hans L. Zetterburg, "Compliant Actions", Acta Sociologica, Volume 2, 1957, pp. 179-201. 11. Harold H. Kelly, "Two Functions of Reference Groups", in Guy E. Swanson, Theodore M. Newcomb and Eugene L. Hartley (eds.) Readings in Social Psychology, New York, Holt, 1952, pp. 410-14. Shibutani, op. c i t . 12. Zetterburg, op_. ci t . , p. 188. 13. Dorwin Cartwright, "Achieving Change in People", Psychological  Review, 4.4. November 1951, pp. 381-92. 14. Leon Festinger, "Informal Social Communication", Psychological  Review, 57. 1950, pp. 271-82. 15. Shibutani, op_. ci t . , p. 568. 57 16. Ralph Turner, "Role Taking, Role Standpoint and Reference Group Behaviour", American Journal of Sociology, 65., January 1956, pp. 316-28. 17. Jay M. Jackson, "Reference Group Processes in a Formal Organization", Sociometry, 22.it., December 1959, pp. 307-27. 18. Couch and Murray, op_. c i t . 19. Robert K. Merton, "Continuities in the Theory of Reference Groups and Social Structure", Social Theory and Social Structure, Glencoe, 111., Free Press, 1957, pp. 281-386. 20. Ralph Turner, "The Reference Groups of Future-orientated Men", Social Forces, 34.2. December 1955, pp. 130-36. 21. Herbert C. Kelman, "Three Processes of Social Influences", in E. P. Hollander and Raymond G. Hunt (eds.), Current Perspectives  in Social Psychology, New York: Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 1+54-62. 22. H. C. Kelman, o£. cit., p. 456. 23. Everett C. Hughes, "The Making of a Physician", in Men and their  Work, Glencoe, 111., Free Press, 1955, Chapter 9, pp. 116-30. 24. E. Quarantelli et. a l . , 0£. cit., p. 35. 25. W. W. Charters, "The Social Background of Teaching", in N. L. Gage (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching, Chicago, Rand McNally, 1963, pp. 715-813. 26. Miriam Waggenschein, "Reality Shock: A Study of Beginning Elementary School Teachers", Unpublished masters dissertation, University of Chicago, 1950. 27. I. Rabinowitz, "Teaching Experience and Teachers* Attitudes", Elementary School Journal, 60. March I960, pp. 313-19. 28. Bruce J. Biddle, J. Paschal Twyman and Earl F. Rankin, Jr., "The Role of the Teacher and Occupational Choice", School Review, 70.2. Summer 1962, pp. 191-206. 29. I. N. Berlin, "Teachers' Self Expectations: How Realistic are They?", School Review, LX7I, 2., Summer 1958, pp. 134-44. 30. H. C. Kelman, op_. c i t . , p. 462. 31. F. N. Kerlinger, "Progressivism and Traditionalism: Basic Educational Attitudes", School Review, LXVI, 1., Spring 1958, pp. 80-92. 58 32. F. N. Kerlinger, "The Attitude Structure of the Individual: A Q Study of the Educational Attitudes of Professors and Laymen", Genetic Psychology Monographs, 53, 1956, pp. 283-329. 33. Leon Festinger, "A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance", Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957. 3lt. J. W. Brebm and A. R. Cohen, Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance, New York: J. Wiley and Sons Inc., 1962, pp. 55-56. 35. Ibid., p. 55. 36. C. W. Backman, P. F. Secord and J. R. Pierce, "Resistance to Change in the Self Concept as a Function of Consensus among Significant Others", Sociometry, 26., March 1963, pp. 102-11. 37. Ibid., pp. 103-10U. 38. Ibid., p. 10U. 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY C. W. Backman, P. F. Secord, and J. R. Pierce, "Resistance to Change in the Self Concept as a Function of Consensus among Significant Others", Sociometry 26, March 1963, pp. 102-11. I. N. Berlin, "Teachers' Self Expectations: How Realistic are They?" School Review LXVI,2. Summer 1958, pp. 134-Wu Bruce J. Biddle, J. Paschal Twyman, and Earl F. Rankin, "The Role of the Teacher and Occupational Choice", School Review LZX,2. Summer 1962, pp. 191-206. J. W. Brehm and A. R. Cohen, "Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance", Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1957. Dorwin Cartwright, "Achieving Change in People", Human Relations U.U. November 1951, pp. 381-92. W. W. Charters, "The Social Background of Teaching", in Nathan L. Gage (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching, Chicago: Rand McNally 1963, pp. 718-813. Carl J. Couch and J. S. Murray, "Significant Others and Evaluations", Sociometry 27.U. December 1964, pp. 502-9. Leon Festinger, "Informal Social Communication", Psychological Review 57. 1950, pp. 271-82. Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1957. Everett C. Hughes, Men and Their Work, Glencoe, 111.: Free Press, 1955. Herbert Hyman, "Reflections on Reference Groups", Public Opinion Quarterly 2U,3. Fall I960, pp. 383-96. Jay M. Jackson, "Reference Group Processes in a Formal Organization", Sociometry 22.U. December 1959, pp. 307-27. Marie Jahoda, "Conformity and Independence: A Psychological Analysis", Human Relations 12.2. May 1959, pp. 99-120. Harold H. Kelly, "Two Functions of Reference Groups", in G. E. Swanson, T. M. Newcomb, and E. L. Hartley (eds.), Readings in Social  Psychology, New York: Holt 1952, pp. UlO-Ulli. 60 Herbert C. Kelman, "Three Processes of Social Influence", in E. P. Hollander and Raymond G. Hunt (eds.)» Current Perspectives in Social  Psychology, New York: Oxford Univ. Press" 1963, pp. U54-462. F. N. Kerlinger, "The Attitude Structure of the Individual: A Q Study of the Educational Attitudes of Professors and Laymen", Genetic  Psychology Monographs 53. 1956, pp. 283-329. F. N. Kerlinger, "Progressivism and Traditionalism: Basic Educational Attitudes", School Review LXVI.I. Spring 1958, pp. 80-92. Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure, Glencoe 111.: Free Press, 1957. Robert K. Merton, George Reader, and Patricia M. Kendall, The Student  Physician, Cambridge Mass: Harvard Univ. Press, 1957. I. Rabinowitz, "Teaching Experience and Teachers Attitudes", Elementary  School Journal 60. March I960, pp. 313-19. Enrico L. Quarantelli, Margaret Helfich, and Daniel Yutsky, "Faculty and Students Perceptions in a Professional School", Sociology and  Social Research 49.1. October 1964, pp. 32-45. Mustafer L. Sherif and M. 0. Wilson (eds.), Group Relations at the Cross-roads, New York: Harpers, 1953. Tamotsu Shibutani, "Reference Groups as Perspectives", American Journal  of Sociology 60, May 1955, pp. 562-69. Ida H. Simpson, "Patterns of Socialization into Professions: The Case of Student Nurses", Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, I960. Ralph Turner, "The Reference Groups of Future Orientated Men", Social  Forces 34.2. December 1955, pp. 130-36. Ralph Turner, "Role Taking, Role Standpoint, and Reference Group Behavior", American Journal of Sociology 65. January 1956, pp. 316-28. Miriam Waggenschein, "Reality Shock* A Study of Beginning Elementary School Teachers", Unpublished Masters Dissertation, Univ. of Chicago, 1950. Hans L. Zetterburg, "Compliant Actions", Acta Sociologica 2. 1957, pp. 179-201. 61 APPENDIX I THE QUESTIONNAIRE, ANSWERED BY B AND C TEACHERS We would be obliged i f you would complete this questionnaire concerning certain views you have about teaching. Your answers will be kept completely confidentialj we are not interested in individual answers, but in analyzing the aggregate of answers we obtain. Do not therefore put your names on. May we thank you in advance for your cooperation. 1. What is your age next birthday? 2. Are you male or female? M F 3. For what type of school are you training? Elementary Secondary Other (specify) h. Did you have any experience of teaching before beginning your teacher training course? Yes No J>. If you did have any such experience, for how long did you teach and in what type of school? Yrs Mths Type 6. How often, with the following people, do you or have you discussed what i t is like to be a teacher? A great deal Frequently Sometimes Never Other Education Students Education Faculty Teachers you met on Practice One of your own School teachers Teachers you know Others (specify) 62 The next four questions are designed to find out actually how you intend  to teach and who you consider important as examples and influences. We do not want to know how you think you ought to teach or who you think you ought to take into consideration, but your own views on these questions. 7. How important to you are the following in their evaluation of you as a future teacher? (Check for each one.) Very Quite Of Some Of No Important Important Importance Importance Other Education Students Education Faculty Teachers you met on Practice One of your own School Teachers Teachers you know Others (specify) 8. Rank numerically (1,2,3 etc.) those of the following whose opinions, advice or example you think will be the most useful to you when you begin teaching Other education students Education Faculty Teachers you met on practice One of your own school teachers Teachers you know Others (specify) 9. How much influence to you think the following will have on the way you will teach in the classroom? (Check for each one.) 63 Very Of Some Of l i t t l e Influential Influence or no Influence Other Education Students Education Faculty Teachers you met on practice Your own schoolteachers Teachers you know Others (specify) 1 0 . State briefly why some people are more influential to you in their opinions and examples of how to teach than others. 11. It is sometimes said, that on the whole, education faculty members have l i t t l e appreciation of the problems teachers actually face, that their approach is too academic and unconcerned with the day to day problems a teacher meets in the classroom. With which one of the following statements do you agree with the most? 1. I think education faculty are too detached from reality. 2. I think they have some but not enough understanding of problems teachers face. 3. I think they have sufficient understanding. U. I think they have an entirely realistic outlook. 12. How far do you think the teachers you have come into contact with during teaching practice share views on teaching with education faculty members? They share fairly similar views They differ quite significantly They are completely different 61* With whose views on education and teaching do your own views most closely resemble? Other education students Education faculty Teachers you met on practice Your own school teachers Teachers you know Others (specify) With whose views on education and teaching do your own views most differ? Other education students Education faculty Teachers you met on practice Your own school teachers Teachers you know Others (specify) 65 APPENDIX II QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY B TEACHERS ONLY l5B. HOW far have you made up your mind the way that you eventually intend to teach? I am quite definite I am fairly certain I have not quite decided but have some definite ideas I don't know yet 16B. What three of the following aspects of your course do you think will help you the most in becoming a teacher? (Rank 1,2,3 in order  of importance.) 1. Methods courses 2. Academic courses 3. Practice teaching program k. Interviews with faculty members 5. Discussions with other education Students 6. Reading in the library 7 . Others (specify) QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY C TEACHERS ONLY 15. At what time would you say you had definitely made up your mind on the way in which you intended to teach? (Check one)I Before beginning the courses During your 1st year of training n n 2nd " " " II II ^rd n rt n it n j|th " " " n II ^th " " " I have s t i l l to yet make up my mind 66 16. How far have your ideas on how to teach changed since you began your training course? A great deal Quite a lot Somewhat Not at a l l 17. If you have changed your ideas at a l l , what would you say was the most important thing to have caused this? Conversations with faculty members Discussions with other education students Lectures and seminars Observation of teaching during practice Conversations with teachers during practice Tour own experience of teaching during Practice Other (specify) 18. Rank (1,2,3) in order of importance the three things you considered most useful about your training course. Methods courses Academic courses Practice teaching program Interviews with faculty members Seminars Reading in the library 67 APPENDIX III THE ATTITUDE QUESTIONS USED TO MEASURE OCCUPATIONAL SELF CONCEPTS QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY B AND C TEACHERS With regard to how you intend to teach, how far would you agree or disagree with the following statements? Again what we want to know is how you yourself intend to teach, your true attitudes and feelings, not how you think teachers ought to teach or how you think you ought to answer. A. Children need and should have more supervision and discipline than they usually get. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree B. Knowledge and subject matter themselves are not so important as learning to solve problems. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree C. Teachers should not have to be concerned with pupils getting along with each other; they have enough to do teaching their own subjects. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree 68 D. Children should be taught that a l l problems should be subjected to criticism and objective scrutiny, including religious, economic, moral and social problems. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree E. One of the big difficulties with modern schools is that discipline is often sacrificed to the interests of children. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree F. The goals of education should be dictated by the child's interests and needs, as well as the larger demands of society. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree G. Good teachers maintain a certain distance between themselves and their pupile. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree. 6? H. Children should be allowed more freedom than they usually get in the execution of learning activities. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree I. The best teachers are those who set as their primary goals the building of good feelings and relationships in the classroom. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree J. Children should be taught a problem solving approach and this approach should pervade a l l subject matter and teaching. Strongly agree Agree Don't know Disagree Strongly disagree 70 APPENDIX IV Table I Comparison of groups chosen as very important in their evaluation (question 7) with groups stated as being very influential (question 9). Question 7 Question 9 Practice Own Teachers Other Students Faculty Teachers Teachers Known Other Students 2 1 Faculty 1 lil k 7 h Practice Teachers 2 8 hk $ 9 Own Teachers 1 1 1 2 1 Teachers Known 1 1 - - 9 n (number of responses) « IkS Table II Comparison of groups chosen as very important in their evaluation (question 7) with groups chosen as useful as examples (question 8). Question 7 Question 8 Practice Own Teachers Other Students Faculty Teachers Teachers Known Other Students 2 2 - 1 Faculty - 35 1 3 1 Practice Teachers - 3 38 4 6 Own Teachers - 1 - 3 1 Teachers Known - 1 - 1 6 n » 109 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104733/manifest

Comment

Related Items