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The influence of alternate course locations on distances travelled by participants in urban adult evening… Melton, James Edward 1966

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THE INFLUENCE OF ALTERNATE COURSE LOCATIONS ON DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY PARTICIPANTS IN URBAN ADULT EVENING CLASSES by JAMES EDWARD MELTON B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 ^ 9 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Education (Adult Education) i n the Faculty of EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1966 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e May. 1966. ABSTRACT The central problem i n this study i s to determine whether or not the distance t r a v e l l e d to attend an educational a c t i v i t y i s influenced by the number of places i n which a given course i s available within the same community. The distances t r a v e l l e d by non-credit evening class participants of two adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s , the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department and the Vancouver School Board Night Schools, were studied by means of the analytic survey method. The participants i n most of the non-credit courses offered on the campus by the Extension Department i n one term were included i n the study. A much smaller sample population of courses was selected from the three major night school centers operated by the Vancouver School Board. The participants of both i n s t i t u t i o n s were grouped into two categories, Unique or Common. Unique participants were those who could obtain the course they attended at that one lo c a t i o n only. Common participants were those who could have chosen alternative course locations. The distances t r a v e l l e d from place of residence to course l o c a t i o n by Unique and Common Extension participants were compared as were the distances t r a v e l l e d by Unique and Common night school participants. The chi-square test of independence was used i n the comparisons of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of Unique and Common participants while the significance of the differences between the mean distances t r a v e l l e d and between the median distances t r a v e l l e d was determined by the use of c r i t i c a l ratios.. The .01 l e v e l of confidence was the c r i t e r i o n used to determine the significance of differences. Distances t r a v e l l e d by Extension participants were found not to be influenced by alternative course locations i n the same community when these alternatives were public school night school centers. Participants came from the whole of metropolitan Vancouver and distance did not seem to be a b a r r i e r within this area. Alternative course l o c a t i o n i n comparable centers i n the community was found to influence the t r a v e l patterns of public school night school participants. Courses available at a single l o c a t i o n attracted participants from the whole community whereas courses offered at three locations tended to a t t r a c t participants more from the neighborhood of the center. Although there was some part-i c i p a t i o n from the greater metropolitan area, the night schools tended more to serve the c i t y alone than did the Extension Department. These findings suggest that the usefulness or necessity of additional Extension course locations i n the metropolitan area i s questionable. However, an increase i n the number of public school evening course locations would seem l i k e l y to y i e l d increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n providing care was taken to avoid the competition which may resu l t when new locations are placed too close to existing ones. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The completion of this study required the co-operation and assistance of many people. The writer wishes to thank Dr. J. K. Friesen, Director of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, and Dr. B. E. Wales, Director of Adult Education for the Vancouver School Board, who kindly granted access to the f i l e s of their departments. Mrs. MaryFrank Macfarlane and Mrs. W. Hutchings were most helpful i n a s s i s t i n g the writer to obtain the data he required from the i r departments. To Dr. Coolie Verner, who gave most generously of his time and wisdom over a period of four years, the writer would l i k e to express his warmest appreciation. 0 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose *+ Hypothesis *+ Review of the Literature 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 10 II THE STUDY 12 Plan of the Study 12 The Setting of the Study 1*+ Adult Education Programs 16 Selection of Courses 20 Determination of Distance 25 Methods of Analysis 26 III DISTANCE AND PARTICIPATION 27 Unique Courses 28 Common Courses 3^ Comparisons *+0 Discussion of Results 58 ' IV CONCLUSIONS 60 Summary 60 Conclusions 62 BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Educational Attainment Of the Adult Population Of Metropolitan Vancouver . . 15 II Extension and Vancouver School Board Unique Courses 22 III Extension and Vancouver School Board Common Courses 23 IV P a r t i c i p a t i o n At the Four Centers Studied: 1962-1963 2h V Common and Unique Participants At the Four Centers 2h VI Distances Travelled By V.S.B. Unique Participants 28 VII Significance Of the Difference Between Mean Distances Travelled By V.S.B. Unique Participants 29 VIII Chi-Square Test Of Independence On Distributions Of Unique"Participants At the V.S.B. Centers 29 IX Distances Travelled By V.S.B. Common Participants 3*+ X Significance Of the Difference Between Mean Distance Travelled By" V.S.B. Common Participants 35 XI ChiSquare Tests Of Independence On the Distributions Of Common Participants At the V.S.B. Centers 36 XII Average Distances Travelled By Common and Unique Participants In the Two Populations hO XIII Distributions Of U.B.C. Extension Common and Unique Participants H - 3 i x Table Page XIV Chi-Square Tests Of Independence On the Distributions Of Common and Unique Participants In the Two Populations . . . . kh XV Distributions Of V.S.B. Unique Participants ^9 XVI Distributions Of V.S.B. Common Participants 50 XVII Average Distances Travelled By Common and Unique Participants At the Three V.S.B. Centers 51 XVIII Chi-Square Tests Of Independence On the Distributions Of Distance Travelled By V.S.B. Unique and Common Participants . . 52 XIX Vancouver School Board Sample Population . . 53 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 1 Vancouver and V i c i n i t y 13 2 Map of Unique Participants at J.O 30 3 Map of Unique Participants at Kits 31 h Map of Unique Participants at Tech 3 2 5 Map of Common Participants at J.O 37 6 Map of Common Participants at Kits 38 7 Map of Common Participants at Tech 39 8 Percentage Frequency Distributions - U.B.C. Extension Common and Unique Participants . . hi 9 Cumulative Frequency Graph - U.B.C. Extension Common and Unique Participants . . h2 10 Percentage Frequency Distributions - U.B.C. Extension and V.S.B. Participants *+5 11 Cumulative Frequency Graph For U.B.C. Extension and the Combined V.S.B. Center Participants h6 12 Percentage Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n - V.S.B. Common and Unique Participants h7 13 Cumulative Frequency Graph - V.S.B. Common and Unique Participants h8 ih Map of Participants At K i t s i l a n o Night School . . . . . 5h 15 Map of Participants At Technical Night School 56 16 Map of Participants At John Oliver Night School 57 CR4PTER I INTRODUCTION With the increasing expansion of adult education i n terms of the variety of educational opportunities made available to adults, the involvement of i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies, and the increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n of adults i n organized educational a c t i v i t i e s , there are increased administrative problems confronting adult educators i n established educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . The chief i n s t i t -utions systematically providing education for adults i n an urban setting are u n i v e r s i t i e s and public school systems. Both of these i n s t i t u t i o n s have long standing educational traditions which influence administrative decisions a f f e c t i n g adult education. The subject matter content of a program, the time of day, day of the week, or the loc a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y can a f f e c t an adult's decision to p a r t i c i -pate. These factors are a l l administratively controllable so that the decisions of the administrator can often pre-determine the number of adults who p a r t i c i p a t e . One problem requiring a decision that i s an admin-i s t r a t i v e l y controllable factor i s that r e l a t i n g to whether to of f e r a course i n a p a r t i c u l a r subject at one or more locations i n a large urban se t t i n g . I f distance i s not a deterrent to attendance and participants w i l l come from a l l over the c i t y to attend a course of their choice i t would seem that multiple course l o c a t i o n would r e s u l t i n useless competition. I f , on the other hand, distance i s a deterrent to p a r t i c i p a t i o n , offering the same courses at more than one loc a t i o n would decrease the t r a v e l l i n g distance of those who wished to par t i c i p a t e and might res u l t i n increased part-i c i p a t i o n . It was thought that some l i g h t might be thrown on this problem by comparing the distances t r a v e l l e d from place of residence by participants i n courses which could be obtained at one center only with the distances t r a v e l l e d by participants i n courses which were obtainable concurrently at some other l o c a t i o n . I f there was no difference between the distances t r a v e l l e d by participants i n courses obtainable at one center only, referred to i n this study as Unique courses, and the distances t r a v e l l e d by participants i n courses obtainable concurrently at some other location, referred to i n this study as Common courses, i t would indicate that m u l t i p l i c i t y of course l o c a t i o n had no eff e c t on the dist4 ances that participants were w i l l i n g to tr a v e l to evening courses. This could be interpreted i n two ways: 1 . I f there was no difference i n the distance t r a v e l l e d by Unique and Common course participants and the d i s t -ances t r a v e l l e d were r e l a t i v e l y short i t would seem to indicate that evening class centers tended to serve t h e i r immediate areas only and that t h e i r participants would 3 either attend a nearby center-or not par t i c i p a t e at a l l ; with the implication that an increase i n the number of centers o f f e r i n g the same subject matter would tend to bring about a useful increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 . I f there was no difference i n the distance t r a v e l l e d by Unique and Common course participants and the d i s t -ances t r a v e l l e d were r e l a t i v e l y long i t would seem to indicate that distance was not an important factor i n pa r t i c i p a t i o n since participants seemed w i l l i n g to tr a v e l f a i r l y extensive distances to that course whether or not i t was available at a nearer l o c a t i o n . The implication here would be that duplication of course l o c a t i o n would be useless. On the other hand, s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the trav e l patterns of the two groups might be of two kinds: 1. I f Common course participants who have a choice of loc a t i o n were to tr a v e l further than those who do not, i t would cast doubt on the v a l i d i t y of the analysis or suggest that variables other than distance were more important i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2. A more l i k e l y a l ternative i s that participants who have only one choice of course l o c a t i o n w i l l travel further than those who have al t e r n a t i v e s . This event-u a l i t y would suggest that the number of centers which offer the same subject matter w i l l influence the distance If that participants seem w i l l i n g to t r a v e l . I f distance t r a v e l l e d influences p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the implication here would be that the establishment of more course locations would be a useful move. PURPOSE The purpose of this study i s twofold: to investigate whether or not the distance t r a v e l l e d by participants to attend an educational a c t i v i t y i s influenced by the number of places i n which a given course i s available within the same community; and to provide descriptive data about the tra v e l patterns of participants i n non-credit, non-vocational evening courses. HYPOTHESIS The p r i n c i p a l hypothesis for this study i s : There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .01 l e v e l of confidence i n the distance t r a v e l l e d from th e i r place of  residence by adult participants i n night courses located i n  one center and courses offered i n more than one center, regardless of whether the course i s conducted by the uni-versity, or by. the public school system. 5 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Investigators of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s have long f e l t there was s u f f i c i e n t evidence to indicate that a c c e s s i b i l i t y and proximity to centers had 1 2 some bearing on p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; ' however, the determin-ation of the degree of rela t i o n s h i p has proved to be very d i f f i c u l t . Previous researchers- 3' have expressed d i s s a t -i s f a c t i o n with th e i r own measures for determining this r elationship and have cautioned against considering t h e i r results to be other than tentative. They have indicated some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s as follows: A good measure of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to devise. Geographic distance, though ea s i l y determined and usually used as a measure of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , i s l i k e l y i n -adequate. The effects of public and private transportation f a c i l i t i e s are l i k e l y to be a factor, as i s t r a v e l l i n g time 1. Abraham Abbott Kaplan, Socio-Economic Circumstances and Adult Participation. (Teachers College Contributions to Education, No. 889. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 19^3), p. 115. 2 . Edmund deS. Brunner et a l . , An Overview of Adult Education Research TChicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959), p. 97 . 3 . Kaplan, op c i t . . pp. 53~5]+. h. Duane F. Marble, Predicting Evening Class Registration  Potential i n Small Areas of the Seattle Metro- p o l i t a n Area (University of Washington B u l l e t i n , March" 1959). 6 which can vary considerably for areas of equal l i n e a r distance from educational centers. In addition to purely physical determiners, Kaplan^ notes that what he c a l l s psychological a c c e s s i b i l i t y must be considered because he found that many low socio-economic groups such as Negroes and recent foreign immigrants, although often residing r e l a t i v e l y close to educational f a c i l i t i e s , did not f e e l that they would be welcome. The e f f e c t of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s so i n t e r r e l a t e d with effects of socio-economic status that i t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e the factor of a c c e s s i b i l i t y . It i s not uncommon to find, for example, that areas which are equidistant from educational centers but of di f f e r e n t socio-7 8 economic status vary greatly i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ' Attempts have been made to control this influence of socio-economic factors on the relationship of distance to 9 p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Kaplan examined four areas of varying socio economic status and varying distances from adult education 5. Kaplan, op_. c i t . , p. 59. 6. Kaplan, O J D . .cit., p. 5 , + « 7. Kaplan, o_p_. c i t . , p. 55« 8. A l i c e Lindenberger and Coolie Verner, "A Technique for Analysing Extension Course Participants," Adult  Education. XI (Autumn, I960), pp. 29-3>+. 9. Kaplan, o_p_. .cit., pp. 56-58. f a c i l i t i e s i n S p r i n g f i e l d and compared i n d i v i d u a l cases i n each area with educational attainment and automobile owner-ship held constant as a rough check of socio-economic status He found ". . . between areas, considering comparable groups . . . the percentage of p a r t i c i p a t i o n tended to be greater i n those areas more closely situated to the educational a c t i v i t i e s . " 1 0 However, inconclusive chi-square tests and his own doubts about the adequacy of his c r i t e r i a for socio-economic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e d him to conclude that although evidence for the relationship between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and part i c i p a t i o n had been established, his results were not con-clusive and should be considered tentative. Marble, 1 1 using census tract data, attempted to i s o l a t e the e f f e c t s of distance tr a v e l l e d from socio-economic factors by using p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n techniques i n which distance t r a v e l l e d and p a r t i c i p a t i o n could be compared with other variables held constant s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The results were interesting i n that although the simple c o r r e l a t i o n between distance and p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been f a i r l y high, (r= -.5+2), with the effects of other variables p a r t i a l e d out, the relationship a l l but disappeared, ( p a r t i a l r= -..09) 10. Kaplan, op_. cit,., p. 57. 11. Marble, o_p_. c i t . , p. 15. 8 It appears, therefore, that previous investigators have been unable to esta b l i s h a simple relationship between distance t r a v e l l e d and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s although some degree of relationship i s always found. Apparently few researchers have investigated the factors which influence distance t r a v e l l e d per se. It i s possible that the same factors which have been found to 12 influence p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as educational l e v e l , also a f f e c t the distance which students are w i l l i n g to travel to evening courses. I f this i s the case, the results of investigations of the discrete e f f e c t of distance on part-i c i p a t i o n are l i k e l y to be inconclusive and confusing. Dent,^ studying the travel patterns of farmers who attended adult education a c t i v i t i e s i n the r u r a l setting of Two H i l l s , Alberta; examined the influence on distance t r a v e l l e d of three f a c t o r s : the time of year the course was offered; the educational method used; and the center attended. He found that distances t r a v e l l e d to educational a c t i v i t i e s did not seem to be influenced by any of the f a l l and winter months i n which educational a c t i v i t i e s were offered. He found, however, that farmers would travel appreciably further to attend f i e l d - demonstration 12. Kaplan, on. c i t . , p. 116. 13. William J. Dent, "An Exploratory Study of the Distances Which Farmers Travel to Attend Various Types of Educational A c t i v i t i e s Dealing With A g r i c u l t u r a l Production" (Two H i l l s : A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service, 1965), p. 7. 9 a c t i v i t i e s than they would to lecture - question and answer a c t i v i t i e s and concluded that method of i n s t r u c t i o n was an influence on distance t r a v e l l e d . In addition, Dent found that community boundaries acted as a ba r r i e r to a l l but the most highly motivated participants. -i L, A recent study by Lee, conducted i n a prov i n c i a l c i t y i n England, contains an examination of the tr a v e l patterns of college extension participants i n an urban setting. Lee found that the proportion of the t o t a l adult population attending general inte r e s t courses did not vary from quarter-mile to quarter-mile up to a distance of two and one-half miles from the center. He concludes that ". . . adult education f a c i l i t i e s can be sited at least f i v e miles apart without loss of potential students ."3-5 Lee cautions that alternative course locations s i t e d closer than t h i s , because of competition and necessarily r e s t r i c t e d choice of a c t i v i t i e s , would tend to f a i l and ci t e s the closing of many postwar centers i n England as evidence of t h i s . In a study made concurrently with this one, McKinnon investigated one of the factors which influence distance t r a v e l l e d when he examined the influence of the center lh. Terence Lee, "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education," The B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. XXXVI (February, 1966), p. 101. 15. Ibid. 10 attended on the distances t r a v e l l e d by participants of public school evening classes i n Vancouver."1"^ He found that under certain circumstances, the center i s an influence i n that some centers had a tendency to draw participants from the immediate neighborhood but that the participants at most of the centers he studied were widely dispersed. He con-cluded that within an urban setting, distance was not a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . McKinnon found, i n addition, that public school adult evening centers tended to serve most e f f e c t i v e l y the area within two miles of the center. Newly established centers did not f l o u r i s h within a two mile radius of a well established center, he found. His con-clusion was that the establishment of centers within four miles of each other was not warranted. DEFINITION OF TERMS For purposes of s i m p l i c i t y , the following terms w i l l be used i n this study: Center - The place or location i n which a course i s offered. Course - A general term used to i d e n t i f y an adult education class on a s p e c i f i c subject matter which meets for several successive sessions - usually ten to twenty 16. Donald McKinnon, "A Comparison of Distances Travelled To Urban Night School Centers" (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966) . 11 weeks duration. A l l courses used i n this study are non-credit courses. Unique Course - A course offered i n only one center; i n the case of a university course this would be held on the university campus while night school courses conducted by the school board might be held i n one of three selected centers but i n no other. Common Course - A course offered i n more than one center. In the case of university courses these were offered on campus and i n school board centers, while school board courses were offered i n more than one center. CHAPTER II THE STUDY PLAN OF THE STUDY In order to test the relationship between distance t r a v e l l e d and pa r t i c i p a t i o n , two di f f e r e n t populations representing two i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs i n adult education were selected for analysis. The f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l pop-ulation consisted of adult evening classes conducted by the university. These classes were held at a lo c a t i o n which would generally involve extensive t r a v e l . Two types of courses were compared: courses available only at the univer-s i t y , designated as university Unique courses; and courses available at the university for which there were comparable courses available at night school centers operated by the school system, designated as Common courses. The second population consisted of courses offered by the public school system i n three major night school centers i n the c i t y . In this population, Unique courses were those offered at only one center i n the c i t y while Common courses were available at more than one center. Comparing the distance travelled to Unique and Common courses i n the two populations would provide a measure of the influence of distance with the i n s t i t u t i o n being held I PORT LAM IL L USTRATIO/v / VANCOUVER AND VICINITY LO In-constant, thus permitting a comparison of the distance t r a v e l l e d to two d i f f e r e n t major adult education programs. THE SETTING OF THE STUDY The adult education f a c i l i t i e s considered i n this study are a l l located i n metropolitan Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver i s the t h i r d largest c i t y i n Canada and the largest urban area i n Western Canada. I t i s located i n the south-western corner of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, twenty-five miles north of the Canada - United States border. Occupying the southern shore of Burrard Inlet, the largest harbor i n Canada, the c i t y proper has become Western Canada's major port and d i s t r i b u t i o n center. Vancouver i s situated on a peninsula extending into the Strait' of Georgia to the west with Burrard Inlet to the north and the Fraser River forming the southern boundary. Extensive suburban developments extend beyond the c i t y i t s e l f on three sides to form the metropolitan area of Greater Vancouver. To the north, across Burrard Inlet and connected to the c i t y of Vancouver by two bridges l i e the municipal-i t i e s of North and West Vancouver and the small c i t y of North Vancouver. To the east l i e the extensive municipal-i t i e s of Burnaby and Coquitlam. To the south-east i s the smaller c i t y of New Westminster and across the Fraser River l i e s the rapidly developing municipality of Surrey. To the 15 south across the Fraser River and connected to Vancouver by freeway, bridge and tunnel, l i e the municipalities of Richmond and Delta. In 1961 the c i t y proper had a population of 3 8 5 , 0 0 0 . 1 The surrounding suburban areas added an almost equal number to form a t o t a l metropolitan population of 790,000. Of these, 51^000 are adults over the age of nineteen years. Of concern to the adult educator i s the fact that over half of these adults have had a formal education of two years or less of high school. TABLE I EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER Educational Attainment Percentage One or more years of university . . . . 10% Three to fi v e years of high school. . . 37% One to two years of high school . . . . 2h% Elementary school only 29% 17. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1961 Census of Canada. Population and Housing Characteristics by Census  Tracts: Vancouver, B u l l e t i n CT-22 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963), p. k. ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS 16 The two major sources of formal adult education evening classes available i n Greater Vancouver are the Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board. University Extension In the f a l l of 1962, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia was the sole university on the B r i t i s h Columbia mainland. The university i s located on the t i p of Point Grey peninsula on the extreme western edge of the c i t y of Vancouver about six and a half miles from the c i t y center. The history and function of the U.B.C. Extension 1 R Department has been reviewed recently by Selman. Although adult education a c t i v i t y began shortly after World War I, the Extension Department of U.B.C. was not formally organized u n t i l 1936. Dedicating i t s e l f to the existing needs and interests of the community rather than the trad-i t i o n a l course-giving function of the university, the Extension Department has grown both i n enrollment and types of a c t i v i t i e s } ^ e s p e c i a l l y during the decade preceeding this 18. Gordon R. Selman, "University Extension 1915-1963," Journal of Education of the Faculty of Education  of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia: Vancouver, X, ( A p r i l , 196H-), pp. 17-25. 19. Selman, op,, c i t . , pp. 19-20. study. In 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3 the Extension Department was engaged in a variety of programs some of which extended i t s work to many other areas of the province. It was, in addition, con-ducting an extensive program of evening courses on the university campus which i t no doubt expected to serve, in addition to the city of Vancouver i t s e l f , the extensive suburban developments to the north, east and south of the city proper. Selman states that the Extension Department has tended to i n i t i a t e programs and then abandon them as other agencies have become available to undertake the work2^ but i t was noted that many of the Extension courses in 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3 had similar course content to those offered concurrently by the Vancouver School Board Night Schools. It is possible, 21 as Kaplan has noted, that this may have caused some com-petition for clientele. In 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3 , the term covered by this study, the Extension Department had an enrollment in evening classes of around 9 , 6 0 0 or about 2% of the metropolitan adult pop-ulation, of which H-,861 were enrolled in non-credit, non-vocationally oriented courses. 2 2 The Adult Education 20. Selman, o_p_. c i t . , p. 2 3 . 21. Kaplan, op,, c i t . , pp. 13O - I 3 I . 22. Data obtained from the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia. Department of the Vancouver School Board was conducting classes for 32,OV? participants or about 6% of the metro-poli t a n adult population, of which 17,650 were enrolled i n non-credit, non-vocational c l a s s e s . ^ Vancouver School Board The history of the Vancouver School Board Adult Education Department u n t i l 1957 has been reviewed by Wales, and recent development has been noted by McKinnon 25 i n a study done concurrently xvith this one. y From a beginning i n 1909 with less than a thousand participants i n four centers, the night school program had grown i n 1962-1963 to an enrollment of over 30,000 i n twenty-eight centers The suburban school boards' night school programs were i n t h e i r infancy at that time so that some degree of p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the Vancouver c i t y program was to be expected from outside of the c i t y proper. The twenty-eight night school centers included ten secondary schools, eight community centers, an art school, a vocational school, and eight other miscellaneous centers. The design of the study required that the centers selected 2 3 . Data obtained from the Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board. 2k. Bertram Edwards Wales, "The Development of Adult Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (unpublished Ed.D. thesis, Oregon State College, C o r v a l l i s , 1958), pp. 156-179. 25. McKinnon, op_. c i t . 19 have numerous c o u r s e s t h a t were n e i t h e r v o c a t i o n a l nor c r e d i t c o u r s e s . T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e s u l t e d i n the e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l but the t h r e e secondary s c h o o l s w i t h the most e x t e n -s i v e n i g h t s c h o o l programs. These were John O l i v e r , K i t s i l a n o and T e c h n i c a l Secondary S c h o o l s . Of the t h r e e c e n t e r s s t u d i e d , John O l i v e r , or J.O., had the s m a l l e s t n i g h t s c h o o l program. T h i s c e n t e r i s l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h c e n t r a l p a r t o f Vancouver w i t h an immediate neighborhood c o n t a i n i n g an o l d e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and a w o r k i n g c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . However, w i t h i n a two to t h r e e m i l e r a d i u s t h e r e are s e v e r a l o t h e r a r e a s o f h o u s i n g r a n g i n g from midd l e c l a s s t o e x c l u s i v e . K i t s i l a n o Secondary S c h o o l , or K i t s . , i s i n the w e s t e r n s e c t i o n of the c i t y w i t h i n t h r e e and a h a l f m i l e s o f most o f the upper midd l e and upper c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s i n the c i t y o f Vancouver. I t i s a l s o w i t h i n two and a h a l f m i l e s of the e x c l u s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Endowment Lands, and i s s l i g h t l y c l o s e r than the o t h e r two n i g h t s c h o o l c e n t e r s to the r e l a t i v e l y o p u l e n t m u n i c i p a l i t y o f West Vancouver. T e c h n i c a l Secondary S c h o o l , or Tech., once the t r a d e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r Vancouver, i s now almost i d e n t i c a l i n f u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r secondary s c h o o l s i n the c i t y . The s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the c i t y , near the Vancouver - Burnaby boundary i n an immediate 2 0 neighborhood which consists of i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , storage and manufacturing establishments to the south of the school, and mainly working class r e s i d e n t i a l areas to the west and north. In general, the better r e s i d e n t i a l areas are i n the western half of the c i t y and the working class residences are i n the east. Tech. i s c l e a r l y i n the l a t t e r area. These three centers are i n a good position to service the entire c i t y since probably less than 5% of the entire c i t y of Vancouver i s more than three miles, and no part of the c i t y i s more than four miles from one of the three centers. SELECTION OF COURSES Testing the hypothesis that m u l t i p l i c i t y of course l o c a t i o n w i l l have no eff e c t on distance t r a v e l l e d required the selection of courses at each center which were offered at that center only and courses which were offered concurr-ently at one or more additional centers. The brochures and catalogues issued by the Extension Department and by the Vancouver School Board for the f a l l of 1 9 6 2 were used to select the courses. With the exception of those which were not a p p l i c a b l e , 2 ^ a l l of the courses offered 2 6 . Extension Department courses excluded from the study were credit courses, courses offered at off-campus sit e s only, courses offered both at U.B.C. and also at off-campus s i t e s , courses for children, courses can-c e l l e d a f t e r three sessions, and highly specialized courses arranged for special groups. on the campus by the Extension Department during this term were included i n the study. The t i t l e s and descriptions of these sixty-two courses were compared with course t i t l e s i n the School Board brochure. Extension courses deemed equiv-alent on the basis of information i n the two brochures were c l a s s i f i e d as Common Courses. Those remaining were c l a s s -i f i e d as Unique Courses. Next, the non-credit, non-vocational courses offered at the three V.S.B. centers were examined. Those courses offered only at one of the three centers and at no other Vancouver Night School center were c l a s s i f i e d as Unique Courses. Those courses offered at a l l three centers but at no other Vancouver Night School center were c l a s s i f i e d as Common Courses. Common Courses were scarce and a l l of them are included i n the study while Unique Courses were r e l a t i v e l y p l e n t i f u l , necessitating the drawing of a sample of courses by the use of a table of random numbers. It proved impossible to select courses i n such a manner as to control for night of the week because of the School Board's policy of offering common courses on di f f e r e n t nights of the week. This uncontrolled variable may well influence the resu l t s to some unknown degree, since participants may be w i l l i n g to travel farther than usual to attend a course given on a more convenient night. The courses selected are shown i n Table I I . TABLE II 22 EXTENSION AND VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD UNIQUE COURSES Courses Enrollment Center 1. Dramatic Writing 16 J.O.* 2. Law for Women 11 J.O. 3 . P i l o t i n g , Junior 26 J.O. k. P i l o t i n g , Advanced 12 J.O. 5. Cartooning, Beginners 15 K i t s . * 6. S a i l i n g for Beginners 15 K i t s . 7. Showcard Writing 21 K i t s . 8. Swedish Conversation 13 K i t s . 9 . Fly Casting 20 Tech.* 10. Fly Fishing 20 Tech. 11. Machine Shop Practice 28 Tech. 12. Norwegian Conversation 35 Tech. 13. Archaeology i n Greece 3° U.B.C* Ik. A r c h i t . & Contemp. Living 20 " 15. Building or Buying Your Home 67 " l o . Ceramics, Intro, to Chem. of 33 " 17. Crime and Punishment 23 " 18. Education, New Frontiers i n Ik " 19. Exporting, Introduction to 27 " 2 0 . Film Production 12 " 21 . French Continuation 25 " 2 2 . Greeks, the Curious 82 " 2 3 . Harmony & Ear Training 22 " 2k. Indian Art, North American 10 " 25 . Internat. A f f a i r s , Current 96 " 26. International Relations 12 " 27. Invest. Rates, What You Shd. Know 33 " 2 8 . I t a l i a n Continuation 18 " 2 9 . Journalism Workshop 26 " 3 0 . Languages of the World 12 ." 3 1 . Literature Appreciation 19 " 3 2 . Microscopy, Pract. Electron 13 " 33- Novelists & Playwr. European 53 " 3k. Twentieth Cent. Am. Novel 16 " 3 5 . Ornithology 20 " 3 6 . Pottery, Intermediate 2k " 37. Pruning 18 " 3 8 . Psychology, Social 15 " 3 9 . Recorder Flute, Advanced 7 " 4-0. Recorder Flute, Beginners k2 " kl. Speech Training 27 " k2. Stat. Methods for Industry 19 " H-3. Theatre Production 10 " Total Enrollment 1071 J.O. - John Oliver Secondary School K i t s . - K i t s i l a n o Secondary School Tech. - Technical Secondary School U.B.C. - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia TABLE III 23 EXTENSION AND VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD COMMON COURSES Courses Center Enrollment Other Centers 1. Income Tax Know How K i t s . J.O. ' Tech. 24-15 23 2. Your Christmas Camera K i t s . J.O. Tech. 2h 14-16 3- Drama Writing Workshop U.B.C. 13 K i t s . * h. Drawing Workshop " 11 V.S.A.* 5. English - Second Language II " 30 ) 7 centers 6. English - Second Language III " 29 7. Figure Drawing " 23 V.S.A. 8. French Conversation, Beginners " 29 2 centers 9 . French Conversation, 1st year " 67 K i t s . 10. Fund, of Arc h i t . Drafting " k5 Tech. * 11. German Conversation, 1 st year " 3!+ K i t s . 12. Home Furn. Color & Design " 28 7 centers 13. Home Management Today " 13 4- centers 14-. I t a l i a n for Beginners " 27 K i t s . 15. Japanese for Beginners " 21 K i t s . 16. Law, Introduction to " Money, How to Invest Your 11 32 K i t s . 17. 95 3 centers 18. Norwegian for Beginners " 13 Tech. 19. Painting, Interm. & Advanced " 27 3 centers 2 0 . Pottery, Advanced " 22 V.S.A. 21. Pottery, Introductory " 27 4- centers 2 2 . Prose Writing " 25 K i t s . Public Speaking " 30 18 8 centers Reading, E f f i c i e n t " K i t s . 25. Relations, Human " 87 K i t s . 26. Russian for Beginners " 18 K i t s . 27. Russian Continuation " 11 K i t s . 28. Sculpture " 24- V.S.A. 2 9 . Spanish Continuation " 24- K i t s . 3 0 . Spanish for Travellers " 30 3 centers 31. Travel i n Europe & Middle East " Total Enrollment 59 1030 Pt. Grey* * V.S.A. - Vancouver School of Art K i t s . - K i t s i l a n o Secondary School Tech. - Technical Secondary School Pt. Grey - Point Grey Secondary School 24-The size and nature of the sample population used i n this study can be seen from Tables IV and V. The much smaller r e l a t i v e sample from the V.S.B. centers x^ as a re s u l t of the very few Common courses offered at these centers. TABLE IV PARTICIPATION AT THE FOUR CENTERS STUDIED: I962-I963 Center Total Enrollment Evening Classes Enrollment i n Non-Credit Courses Percentage of Total Enrollment Number Studied Percentage of Non-Credit Enrollment J.O. 3238 2214- 68 M 9H- h.2% K i t s . >+628 3759 81.2% 112 3.0% Tech. 604-9 4988 82.5% 14-2 2.8% U.B.C. 7900 - 4-861 62.7% 1753 36.0% TABLE V COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS AT THE FOUR CENTERS Center Total Common Percentage of Total Unique Percentage of Total J.O. 94- 29 31% 65 69% K i t s . 112 h8 h-3% 64- 57% Tech. 14-2 39 27% 103 73% U.B.C. 1753 52% 839 h8% TOTAL 2101 1030 h9% 1071 51% DETERMINATION OP DISTANCE 25 Straight l i n e distance between place of residence and course l o c a t i o n was used i n this study. A major d i s -advantage of this method should be kept i n mind when consid-ering the r e s u l t s ; namely, the tendency to underestimate t r a v e l distances since few can travel to their evening class center i n a straight l i n e . This underestimation i s probably not great for those l i v i n g within the c i t y of Vancouver and adjacent municipalities such as Burnaby since these p a r t i c -ipants can reach the center by r e l a t i v e l y d i r e c t routes. The underestimation i s bound to be greater, however, for the participants from more distant municipalities, most of whom must cross at one of seven bridges over either Burrard Inlet or the Fraser River. On a map of metropolitan Vancouver, the mile i n t e r -val from his night school center to each participants place of residence was determined. Using each mile i n t e r v a l as a step i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n , twenty step frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s xirere prepared for both Common and Unique participants at each of the three Vancouver School Board centers. The Common and Unique d i s t r i b u t i o n s for the Extension participants were extended to twenty-seven miles because the lo c a t i o n of the University at the extreme x^estern edge of the area necessit-ated that participants t r a v e l longer distances i n order to attend. 26 METHODS OF ANALYSIS In order to determine whether there was any difference i n distance t r a v e l l e d by participants i n courses located i n one center and those i n courses located at more than one, the significance of the difference i n the mean distance t r a v e l l e d by Common and Unique participants at each center was computed. In addition, a chi-square test of independence was made on the Common and Unique d i s t r i b u t i o n s at each of the four centers. A test was made of the significance of the difference between the median distance t r a v e l l e d by Common and Unique Extension participants but this was not done for the Vancouver School Board centers because of the small number of participants at each center. The data from the three V.S.B. centers were grouped to obtain combined means, medians, and chi-squares for Common and Unique participants i n this population. CHAPTER III DISTANCE AND PARTICIPATION This study was l i m i t e d to the information available on the class l i s t s which, i n the case of U.B.C. Extension, consisted solely of names and addresses. The V.S.B. class registers contained, i n addition, the night of the week of the course and the number of sessions attended by each i n d i v i d u a l . From the addresses of the participants i t was possible to plot their places of residence and measure the distances to the centers they attended. From frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distance t r a v e l l e d i t i s possible to determine the mean and median as measures of the average distance t r a v e l l e d . By testing for s t a t i s t -i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s using the chi-square test, i t i s possible to determine i f the differences were s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 1 l e v e l . Since a l l of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n this study show a considerable degree of positive skewness and since the c h i -square test i s more discriminating over the entire range of the d i s t r i b u t i o n , this w i l l be considered the major technique for determining differences, with the differences between the means and medians considered as supporting evidence only. 28 UNIQUE COURSES The t r a v e l patterns of Unique course participants at the three V.S.B. centers were found to be very similar with no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the means and d i s t r i b u t -ions at each center. With the exception of two participants at Tech. who came from over twenty miles, the distance t r a v e l l e d by a l l of the Unique V.S.B. population did not exceed f i f t e e n miles. TABLE VI DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY V.S.B. UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS Center Range i n Miles Mean Distance S.D. Median Distance J.O. 0 - 1 3 3.78 2.4-6 3 . 5 ^ K i t s . 0 - 1 5 3 .80 3-OH- 2.80 Tech. 0 - 20+ H-.3H- 3.35 3.62 Of the three centers, the mean distance t r a v e l l e d to J.O. was the shortest and Tech. the longest. However, these differences were not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. The difference between the medians of the three centers could not be tested because of the small numbers i n the sample, however, i t would appear that they are e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r with no difference being much more tha three-quarters of a mile. TABLE VII SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY V.S.B. UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS J.O.-Kits. J.O.-Tech. Kits.-Tech. C r i t i c a l Ratios .0*4-1 1.25 1.07 Chi-square tests of independence revealed no sign-i f i c a n t difference between the general t r a v e l patterns of V.S.B. Unique participants from center to center 2' 7 and a vis u a l inspection of the maps upon which residences were plotted tended to confirm that Unique participants at a l l three centers were widely and s i m i l a r l y dispersed through-out the c i t y . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s 2,3,4-) TABLE VIII CHI-SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE ON DISTRIBUTIONS OF UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS AT THE V.S.B. CENTERS Distributions N d.f. ZX2 J.O., K i t s . , Tech. 232 8 9.78 27. McKinnon, op_. c i t . ILLUSTRATION 2 3 0 MAP OF UNIQUE PAR T/CIRA NTS AT J.O. ILLUSTRATION 3 3 i MAP OF UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS A T KITS. ILLUSTRATION 4 3 2 MAP OF UNIQUE PART/C/PANTS . AT TECH. 33 As might be expected, U.B.C. Extension served a much greater area. The range of U.B.C. Unique participants was noticeably longer, some coming from as far as Abbotsford, a distance of f o r t y - s i x miles from Vancouver. The mean d i s t -ance t r a v e l l e d of 6.28 miles and the median of 5.4-0 miles were also longer than the V.S.B. sample population. A range of s i x miles from the University includes most of the west-ern half of the c i t y , and the dox^ntown 'West End'. The plo t t i n g map shows a r e l a t i v e l y heavy p a r t i c i p a t i o n from this area, a moderate sprinkling of participants from the Worth Shore across Burrard Inlet and r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t part-i c i p a t i o n from the eastern half of Vancouver and from the rest of the metropolitan area. A c i r c l e drawn at a radius of seven miles from the University includes and roughly marks the boundaries of almost a l l of the middle and high socio-economic areas i n Vancouver proper and those of West Vancouver. At this point p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a l l s o ff immediately and sharply as can be seen i n I l l u s t r a t i o n s 8 and 9 . This i s i n l i n e with the findings reported by Brunner 2 8 that university extension tends to serve those of above average socio-economic status. In Vancouver the higher socio-economic areas tend also to be those closer to the University and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to 2 8 . Brunner, op c i t . , p. 9 3 . 3^ discover which of these two factors has a greater influence on p a r t i c i p a t i o n although the sharp f a l l i n g o ff at the boundary of the higher socio-economic area indicates that socio-economic factors may have a greater influence than distance as suggested by Lindenberger and Verner. 2^ COMMON COURSES The t r a v e l patterns of the Common course participants at the three V.S.B. centers did not exhibit the high degree of s i m i l a r i t y that was found among the Unique participants, and s i g n i f i c a n t differences from center to center occurred i n both the means and the d i s t r i b u t i o n . TABLE IX DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY V.S.B. COMMON PARTICIPANTS Range Mean Median Center i n Miles Distance S.D. Distance J.O. 0 - 7 2 . 6 * f I . 6 7 2.50 K i t s . 0 - 9 2.15 2.03 1.60 Tech. 0 - 11 3.86 2.91 3.08 Distances t r a v e l l e d by Common participants at the three V.S.B. centers did not exceed eleven miles, with Tech. 29. Lindenberger and Verner, op, c i t . 35 showing the greatest distance t r a v e l l e d . Of the three centers, the mean distance t r a v e l l e d to K i t s , was the shortest and Tech. the longest. The differences between these means are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l i n the case of Tech. and K i t s , and at the .05 l e v e l i n the case of Tech. and J.O. implying some degree of association between the distance t r a v e l l e d and the center attended.^° TABLE X SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY V.S.B. COMMON PARTICIPANTS J.O.-Kits. J.O.-Tech. Kits-Tech. C r i t i c a l Ratios 1.15 2.18* 1*1 * S i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Underlined value s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. Again, i t was not possible to test the median d i s t -ances for s i g n i f i c a n t differences due to the small numbers i n the sample but they would seem to follow the same trend as the means. Chi-square tests of independence on the d i s t r i b u t i o n s 3 0 . McKinnon, op., c i t . 36 of Common participants at the three V.S.B. centers also indicate s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t travel patterns among the centers, although testing of the centers i n pairs reveals that K i t s , i s the only deviant one with the tr a v e l patterns to J.O. and Tech. being s i m i l a r . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s 5, 6, and 7) TABLE XI CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE ON THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMMON PARTICIPANTS AT THE V.S.B. CENTERS Distributions N d.f. ^ X 2 J.O., K i t s . , Tech. • 116 8 28.2 K i t s . - Tech. 87 15. yl K i t s . - J.O. 77 h 1H-.92 J.O. - Tech. 68 h 5-52 Underlined values of confidence. s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l The t r a v e l patterns of the U.B.C. Common participants were almost i d e n t i c a l to the Unique participants with the same range and very s l i g h t differences i n means and medians. (Table XII) On the map the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Common p a r t i c i p -ants i s a l l but indistinguishable from that of the Uniques, the one difference being a somewhat heavier p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the c i t y of New Westminster which i s about sixteen miles from the University. ILLUSTRATION 5 37 MAR OF COMMON PARTICIPANTS AT u.a iLLusrmr/ON G ^ MAP OF COMMO/V P/IPT/CJPAAJTS AT /T/73\ ILLUSTRATION 7 39 MAP OF COMMON PARTICIPANTS AT T£CH. COMPARISONS In general, comparisons of the tra v e l patterns of Common and Unique participants show that the two sample populations behave d i f f e r e n t l y . In the Vancouver School Board population there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n a l l s t a t i s t i c a l tests betx\reen Common and Unique participants although this difference i s not consistent from center to center. In the U.B.C. Extension population, the travel patterns of Common and Unique participants were very s i m i l a r , ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s 8 and 9 and Table XIV), with none of the s t a t i s t i c a l tests y i e l d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two types of part i c i p a n t s . TABLE XII AVERAGE DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS IN THE TWO POPULATIONS Means: Mean Unique Mean Common Difference C.R. V.S.B. ^.03 2.8h 1.19 3.92 U.B.C. 6.28 6.29 .01 .0^7 Medians: Median Unique Median Common Difference C.R. V.S.B. 3 A 6 2.10 1.36 U.B.C. 5.^0 5-50 .10 • 37 Underlined values s i g n i f i c a n t at the l e v e l of confidence. .01 ILLUSTRATION 3 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY DJSTRIBUTIONS-UB.C FX TENS/ON COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS. O I Z 3 4 5 G 7 8 9 10 II IZ 13 14 15 IG 17 IS 19 ZO Zl ZZ Z3 £4 Z5 £(> MILES ILLUSTRATION 9 CUMULATIVE: FREQUENCY . GRAPH U.B.C. EXTENSION COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS. O I Z 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to Jl 12 /3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2/ 22 23 Z4ZS 26 27+~ ro MILES ^3 T A B L E X I I I DISTRIBUTIONS OF U.B.C. EXTENSION COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS Mile Unique % Cumulative % Common Cumulative % 1 ft 6.5 6 .5 60 6.6 6.6 2 hh 5-3 11.8 38 4-.2 1 0 . 8 3 52 6.2 18.0 h5 5.0 15.8 h 78 9.3 27.3 101 l l . l 2 6 .9 5 1 2 6 15.1 h2.h 102 11.2 3 8 .1 6 166 1 9 . 9 62.3 223 24-. 5 6 2 . 6 7 95 11.3 73-6 113 12.If 7 5 -0 8 32 3.8 77 M 37 4-.1 7 9 .1 9 33 3-9 8 1 . 3 39 ^•3 83.4-10 4-2 5.0 86.3 hh h. 8 8 8 .2 11 26 3.1 8 9 . 4- 24- 2.6 90.8 12 27 3 ' 2 92.6 15 1.7 9 2 . 5 1 2 l.U- 94-.0 l l 1.2 9 3 - 7 14- 10 1.2 95.2 5 .6 9^.3 15 8 .9 9 6 . 1 4- .4- 9H-.7 16 h .5 96.6 14- 1.5 9 6 .2 17 6 .7 97.3 9 .9 9 7 .1 18 5 .6 97.9 2 .2 97.3 19 3 .3 98.2 3 .3 9 7 .6 20 >+ .If 98.O 21 98.4-3 • 3 9 8 .3 22 2 .2 1 .1 98 A 23 2 .2 9 8 . 6 2h 2? 1 .1 98.7 26 3 • 3 98.7 if .4- 9 9 . 1 27 2 .2 98.9 1 .1 9 9 .2 27+ 9 1.1 1 0 0 . 0 9 .8 1 0 0 . 0 Total 839 1 0 0 . 0 914- 1 0 0 . 0 TABLE x i y ; CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE ON THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS IN THE TWO POPULATIONS d.f 2 X 2 V.S.B. 6 2 1 . U.B.C. 1 6 2 2 . 2 2 Underlinec the . 0 1 I value l e v e l s i g n i f i c a n t at of confidence. In the case of the U.B.C. Extension participants there seems l i t t l e doubt that the distances t r a v e l l e d are r e l a t i v e l y long and remarkably unaffected by alternative course locations which are, for most of the participants, nearer to t h e i r places of residence. The participants i n Vancouver School Board Night School classes, on the other hand, although t r a v e l l i n g considerably shorter distances than Extension participants, ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 0 and 1 1 ) , do go s i g n i f i c a n t l y further to courses obtainable at one center only than they do to courses that are offered at more than one center. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 2 and 1 3 , Tables XV and XVI). The variations among the'V.S.B. centers, however, were s u f f i c i e n t to cause concern about the v a l i d i t y of this finding and a closer look at the travel patterns of Common and unique participants at each center was required. ILLUSTRATION 10 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY O/STE/SUT/ONS-US.C. SKTSA/S/OA/ AA/O IC$&. EART/C/PANTS 30 U. B. C EX TENSION •• o o. V.S.B. CENTERS - + f > i^L i T ^ H i r ^ < 1 1 • r / £ 3 4 S G 7 3 9 10 II IZ 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 £0 MILES -F vn ILLUSTRATION AI CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY GRAPH FOR U B C PXTElVSION AND THE COMBINED VS.B. CENTER PARTICIPANTS io o 1 ~ k I 3 U.B.C. EXTENSION • • o-USB. CENTERS —+--o 4 5 G 7 8 9 10 ll IE 13 14 IS IG 17 Id 19 EO £ MILES ILLUSTRATION IE PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION -V.S.B. COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS. x • » X e UNIQUE • COMMON K •J « « 1 1—_i i . / ' I E 3 4 S G 7 8 S IO I! IE 13 14- IS (& 17 18 19 EO MILES I0O SO 80 70 Ua So 30 ZO IO ILLUSTRATION /3 CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY GRAPH -V.SB. COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS — . ' ' J i i i J _x_ UNIQUE — -.COMMON — -x — • • 1 — — i — • — ' 1 1 1 i i i • , i / 2 3 4 S G 7 8 9 fo 11 12: 13 14 15~ /& 17 /8 /Q Zo oo MILE'S -r TABLE XV DISTRIBUTIONS OF V.S.B. UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS Mile J.O. K i t s . Tech. Total Cumulative % 1 7 11 8 26 11.2 11.2 2 9 11 13 33 Ik. 2 25. If 3 9 12 18 39 16.8 4-2.2 k lk 5 20 39 16.8 59.0 5 11 6 16 33 lk. 2 73.0 6 6 If 6 16 6.9 80.1 7 k 6 6 16 6.9 87.0 8 2 3 6 11 M-.8 91.8 9 1 2 if 7 3-0 9k. 8 10 2 1 3 1.3 96.1 11 1 1 .k 9 6 . 5 12 13 2 1 3 1.3 97.8 lk 2 2 .9 98.7 15 1 1 .U- 99.1 16 20+ 2 2 .9 100.0 Total 65 6k 103 232 100.0 50 TABLE XVI DISTRIBUTIONS OF V.S.B. COMMON PARTICIPANTS M i l e J.O. K i t s . T e c h . T o t a l C u m u l a t i v e % 1 6 15 4- 25 21.6 21.6 2 7 15 9 31 26.7 '+8.3 3 3 11 6 20 17.2 65.5 h 6 6 12 10. If 75.9 5 5 2 k 11 9 . 5 85.4-6 1 2 3 2.6 88.0 7 1 3 2 6 5.2 93.2 8 2 2 1.7 9 l K 9 9 2 2 1.7 96.6 10 11 If If 100.0 T o t a l 29 4-8 39 116 100.0 Of the three centers, K i t s . , while d i f f e r i n g l i t t l e from the other centers i n the t r a v e l patterns of i t s Unique p a r t i c i p a n t s , was found to have considerably shorter average distances t r a v e l l e d by i t s Common course p a r t i c i p a n t s than the other centers. Common p a r t i c i p a n t s at K i t s , were c l u s t e r e d more c l o s e l y about the school (.80% of the p a r t i c -i p a n t s l i v e d w i t h i n 3 miles) i n comparison to those at the other centers where Common p a r t i c i p a n t s were more d i f f u s e d throughout the community. TABLE XVII AVERAGE DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY COMMON AND UNIQUE PARTICIPANTS AT THE THREE V.S.B. CENTERS Means: Mean Mean Center Unique Common Diffe r e n c e C R . K i t s . 3.80 2.15 1 . 6 5 3.kh J.O. 3.78 2.6k- 1.14- 2.62 Tech. 4-.3H- 3.86 .4-8 .81+ Medians: Median Median Center Unique Common K i t s . 3.5k 1.60 J.O. 2.80 2.50 Tech. 3.62 3.08 Underlined values s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. 52 The deviance of K i t s , from the other two centers with regard to the tra v e l patterns of Common participants has been noted e a r l i e r i n this study. It i s also the only V.S.B. center to show a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the travel patterns of Common and Unique participants. TABLE XVIII CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE ON THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY V.S.B. UNIQUE AND COMMON PARTICIPANTS o Distributions d.f. 5 1 ' K i t s . h 13 .81 J.O. if 5.77 Tech. h 3 .10 Underlined value s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. That the K i t s , data may well have exaggerated the differences between the t o t a l V.S.B. Common and Unique tra v e l patterns becomes evident from Table XIX where K i t s , accounts for a far greater percentage of the V.S.B. Common participants than either of the other centers. This weakness i n sampling casts some doubt upon the finding that s i g n i f i c a n t differences exist between the trav e l patterns of the t o t a l V.S.B. Common and Unique part i c i p a n t s . TABLE XIX VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD SAMPLE POPULATION 53 Center N Total V.S.B. % Total V.S.B. N Unique % Total Unique N Common % Total Common K i t s . 112 32.2% 27.6% 1*8 hi M J.O. 27.0% 65 28.0% 29 25.0% Tech. 1*4-2 H-0.8% 103 hh.h% 39 33.6% T o t a l : 3H-8 100.0% 232 100.0% . 116 100.0% At K i t s . , then, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between Common and Unique participants both as to travel patterns and mean distances t r a v e l l e d . A glance at the map upon which participant residences are plotted reveals that most of the Common participants l i v e i n the immediate area of the school. The Unique courses on the other hand seem to service the entire c i t y . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1*+) At Tech. i t i s a d i f f e r e n t story altogether. When the trave l patterns of Common and Unique participants are compared, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n their d i s t -ributions or means. It was f i r s t thought that Tech.'s s i t e at the eastern edge of the c i t y might have made i t the nearest of the Common course centers to a large number of people coming from Burnaby and other eastern suburban areas and thus reduced the differences between Common and Unique , ILLUSTRATION /4 MAP OF PARTICIPANTS AT KITSILANO NIGHT SCHOOL 9+ 55 partici p a n t s ' journeys. However, i n fact, few of the Tech. Common participants came from the east. Both the Common and Unique participants at Tech. were dispersed f a i r l y evenly throughout eastern and central Vancouver. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 15) At J.O. the issue i s not so clear cut as at the other centers. Distributions of distance t r a v e l l e d were not sign-i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t but the mean for Unique participants was s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer. I t was noted from the map,however, that J.O. seemed to attrac t a few quite long distance Unique participants which might explain the difference i n the means. Nearer the center, the travel patterns of Unique and Common participants appeared more s i m i l a r . I t seems l i k e l y that at J.O. there i s l i t t l e difference between the distances tr a v e l l e d by Unique and Common participants. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 16) Although i r r e g u l a r i t i e s occur from center to center which makes the generalization suspect, the t o t a l V.S.B. population did shoi^ s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the trav e l patterns of Common and Unique participants. Further-more, McKinnon,3 1 using the same V.S.B. population, found that Common participants had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater tendency to t r a v e l to the nearest center than the Unique participants. This appears to be the case at a l l of the V.S.B. centers and would tend to support the finding of ove r a l l difference between the travel patterns of V.S.B. Common and Unique 31. McKinnon, pjo. c i t . 56 ILLUSTRATION IE MAP OR PARTICIPANTS AT TECHNICAL NIGHT SCHOOL 57 ILLUSTRATION 16 MAP OF PARTICIPANTS A T JOHN OLIVER NIGHT SCHOOL 58 p a r t i c i p a n t s . In contrast are the results for the U.B.C. Extension participants whose Common and Unique travel patterns show no discernable differences. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS There i s no reason to suppose that the U.B.C. Extension Unique participants d i f f e r e d from the Common part-icipants i n any way other than i n the fact that the Common participants did have a choice of similar courses at V.S.B. centers. The lack of difference between the distances t r a v e l l e d may be the resul t of Common participants not making this choice or not seeing there to be a choice at a l l since the only alternative to U.B.C. was the public school night school center, a d i f f e r e n t type of i n s t i t u t i o n . The judgement of the equivalence of course material was made by this writer and there i s no reason to suppose that the participants made the same decision. Course information was not disseminated i n the same way nor at the same time by the U.B.C. Extension or the V.S.B.32 a n d i t seems unlikely that many Extension participants x^ould have made a di r e c t com-parison of the two brochures. 32. Newspaper advertisements were used by the V.S.B, while Extension brochures were mailed to individuals or sent to various other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the community such as l i b r a r i e s , school, etc. The use of Extension data to gauge the effect on distance t r a v e l l e d of alternative course location i s debatable since the analysis depends on the participant having a r e a l choice a v a i l a b l e . With the V.S.B. Common participants the opportunity for choice i s greater. Alternative centers are comparable. A l l of the course offerings of the three centers appeared on the same page of the newspaper advertisement and each course had the same t i t l e and contained the same descript-ive material and except for d i f f e r i n g nights of the week, offered a complete opportunity for choice by the participant. Thus i t would appear that the results of the analysis of V.S.B. participants would be more v a l i d i n determining the effect of course location on distance t r a v e l l e d . These results indicate s i g n i f i c a n t difference o v e r a l l between the distances t r a v e l l e d by Common and Unique participants with variations from center to center with l i t t l e difference shown by the participants at Tech. and J.O. and s i g n i f i c a n t differences at K i t s . CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS SUMMARY Most previous studies have investigated the r e l a t i o n -ship of distances t r a v e l l e d to attend evening classes as a factor i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and concluded tentatively that some degree of relationship e x i s t s . Only a few studies have concerned themselves with the factors which influence d i s t -ance tr a v e l l e d i t s e l f . As these influences are charted, the relationship of distance t r a v e l l e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n evening programs may become more evident. This study sought to discover whether or not the distance t r a v e l l e d to attend an educational a c t i v i t y i s influenced by the number of places i n which a given course i s available within the same community. Two populations were selected for study. One population consisted of 1753 participants i n sixty-two non-credit courses offered by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department during the 1962-1963 term. The second population was drawn from eighteen non-credit courses having 3^8 participants which were selected from the 1962-I963 evening class program at three major Vancouver School Board night schools. Each population was divided into two groups, those who could 61 obtain the course they wished at one location only, call e d Unique participants, and those who had a choice of a l t e r -native locations, c a l l e d Common participants. The distances tr a v e l l e d by both to evening classes were determined and arranged i n frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s . These frequency d i s t -ributions and the mean and median distances travelled by Unique and Common participants were then compared and tested for s i g n i f i c a n t differences. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the distances t r a v e l l e d by the two types of participants i n University Extension classes. This basic s i m i l a r i t y was evident both from the results of the s t a t i s t -i c a l tests and di s t r i b u t i o n s of the residences of the part-icipants when these were plotted on a map. Public school evening class centers were the only alternatives available to Extension course participants. The existence of these alternatives did not appear to influence the travel patterns of Extension participants. This may have resulted from the participants not being aware of the choice available or because the prime factor i n f l u -encing choice was the i n s t i t u t i o n and not the subject matter of the course. The Vancouver School Board participants had a greater opportunity for choice among comparable i n s t i t u t i o n s . Here a s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between the travel patterns of a l l of the Unique and Common participants i n this population. A tendency for Unique participants to 62 t r a v e l longer distances than Common participants was found at a l l centers although a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erence was found only at one center - the Ki t s i l a n o Second-ary School. This i s supported by the vi s u a l evidence on the plo t t i n g maps where the greater dispersal of Unique students from the centers i s conspicuous. Although three-quarters of the U.B.C. Extension participants were drawn from the western half of Vancouver c i t y and from the municipality of West Vancouver, there was moderate p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the eastern half of Vancouver and the municipality of Burnaby with some p a r t i c i p a t i o n from most of the remaining municipalities i n the Vancouver metro-politan area. This extensive area served by the U.B.C. Extension Department d i f f e r s from that of the V.S.B. centers where the participants attending John Oliver, Technical, and the Unique participants at K i t s i l a n o came from the c i t y proper and the western portions of Burnaby but only i n very small numbers from the rest of the greater Vancouver metro-p o l i t a n area. The Common participants at K i t s i l a n o , on the other hand, came from the immediate area of that center almost exclusively. CONCLUSIONS It seems clear that the distances t r a v e l l e d by participants i n University Extension courses are not influenced by alternative course locations i n the same 63 community when those alternatives are public school night school centers. It i s also evident that extension part-icipants are w i l l i n g to t r a v e l from a l l parts of the greater Vancouver metropolitan area. Such journeys often involve quite long distances so that distances within the metro-politan area do not seem to be a barrier for many participants. Although alternative Extension locations were not studied, since there were none, this study suggests that the usefulness or necessity of additional extension course locations i n the metropolitan area i s questionable. The establishment of such additional extension locations would be no guarantee of increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n and might, as Kaplan found, merely lead to competition for the same c l i e n t e l e . In contrast, public adult night schools tend more to serve the c i t y i t s e l f and participants t r a v e l shorter d i s t -ances than do those enrolled i n University Extension classes. Alternative course locations do a f f e c t the travel patterns of night school participants. Courses available at a single l o c a t i o n w i l l a t t r a c t participants from the whole community xvhereas courses offered at three locations tend to attract participants from the immediate neighborhood of the center. This general tendency i s not necessarily manifested by the participants at any one center, however, and further study would be necessary before l o c a l decisions are made on this basis. Since the number of centers which offe r the same subject matter w i l l influence the distance that night school participants w i l l t r a v e l , increasing the number of course locations would probably re s u l t i n increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n but only up to a point. Lee found that the rate of p a r t i c -ipation i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s did not f a l l o ff up to two and one-half miles from the center while McKinnon concludes that the optimum range of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n night school a c t i v i t i e s i s two miles and that the introduction of new centers within that distance of an existing center results i n unnecessary competition. BIBLIOGRAPHY Booth, Alan. "A Demographic Consideration of the Non-Participant," Adult Education. XI(Summer. 1961) 223-229. Brunner, Edmund deS., et a l . An Overview of Adult Education  Research. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1955. Dent, William J. "An Exploratory Study of the Distances Which Farmers Travel To Attend Various Types of Educational A c t i v i t i e s Dealing With A g r i c u l t u r a l Production." Two H i l l s : A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service, 1965. (Unpublished) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . 1 9 6 l Census of Canada. Population and Housing Characteristics by Census Tracts: Vancouver. B u l l e t i n CT-22. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963. Garrett, Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. F i f t h e d i t i o n . New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1958. Kaplan, Abraham Abbott. Socio-Economic Circumstances and Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Teachers College Contributions to Education, No. 889. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 19+3• Lee, Terence. "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education," The B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. XXXVI (February, 1966), 100-102. Lindenberger, A l i c e , and Coolie Verner. "A Technique for Analysing Extension Course Participants," Adult  Education. XI (Autumn, i 9 6 0 ) , 29-3+. McKinnon, Donald. "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centers." Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. Marble, Duane. Predicting Evening Class Registration Potential  In Small Areas of the Seattle Metropolitan Area. Seattle: University of Washington B u l l e t i n , 1959. Selman, Gordon R. "University Extension 1915-1963," Journal of.Education of the Faculty of Education of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia: Vancouver, X ( A p r i l , 1964-), 17-2 5 66 Smith, G. Milton. A Simplified Guide To S t a t i s t i c s . Third e d i t i o n . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1962. Van Dalen, Deobold B. Understanding Educational Research. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1962. Verner, Coolie, and George S. Davis, J r . "Completions and Drop Outs: A Review of Research," Adult Education, XIV (Spring, 196*0, 157-175. Wales, Bertram Edwards. "The Development of Adult Education In B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished Ed.D. thesis, Oregon State College, C o r v a l l i s , 1958. 

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