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The effectiveness of a metropolitan agency in improving the local municipal planning process : an evaluation… Wakelin, Charles Harold 1966

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A METROPOLITAN AGENCY IN IMPROVING THE LOCAL MUNICIPAL PLANNING PROCESS: AN EVALUATION OF THE CASE IN METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER by CHARLES HAROLD WAKELIN B. Arch., University of New Zealand, 1952 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Di v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . , I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1966 ABSTRACT i This thesis i s aimed at solving two common pro-blems i n l o c a l municipal planning agencies i n metro-p o l i t a n areas: f i r s t , the problem of proceeding with making long-range plans i n the face of current, d a i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and second, the problem of making rea-l i s t i c plans i n the context of the forces and pressures of metropolitan l i f e . The hypothesis i s formulated that advance planning services can be supplied more e f f i c i e n t l y to m u n i c i palities i n a metropolitan area by a common agency than by municipal planning agencies. It i s assumed that the common planning agency i s a department of a federated type of metropolitan govern-ment, and that i t i s required to produce a metropolitan general plan f o r o f f i c i a l adoption. In t h i s investigation, which i s intended to provide material f o r use i n Canadian metropolitan areas with populations of 400,000 and over, two basic research techniques are used: a review of l i t e -rature and a case study examination. A framework i s deve-loped f o r t e s t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y , i n a wide sense of the word, of advance planning agencies. In the review of l i t e r a t u r e , the concept of d i v i -sion of labour as a basic component of bureaucratic orga-n i z a t i o n , i s described, and then a survey i s made of s i t u -i i -ations i n which planning i s carried out by a depart-ment of a metropolitan government, using the o f f i c i a l plan technique. The instances are the metropolitan areas of Toronto, Winnipeg and Dade County, F l o r i d a . I t i s ob-served that d i f f i c u l t i e s can arise when there i s a ques-t i o n of l o c a l communities surrendering some of the right s to control development within t h e i r boundaries. A l t e r -native means of carrying out metropolitan planning are described, as well, p r i n c i p a l l y with reference to the United States. The area selected f o r the case study i s the metro-poli t a n area of Vancouver i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A question-naire i s developed to test the capacity of l o c a l planning agencies to make soundly-based plans, which interlock with the plans of neighbouring communities, and which harmonize with the goals and values of t h e i r own communities. The questionnaire i s applied to a sample of l o c a l planning agencies, and, f o r comparison, the agency responsible f o r planning, the Lower Mainland Region, of which the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, constitutes a part. A second question-naire i s used to discover the attitudes of selected mayors and reeves towards metropolitan government and metropolitan planning i n the Area. It i s concluded from the case study that a metro-politan planning agency can carry out basic analyses better i i i than l o c a l agencies can, and that a metropolitan gene-r a l plan would reduce points of f r i c t i o n between muni-c i p a l i t i e s r e l a t i n g to land use. It i s also noted that the reeves and mayors are f a r fro-m unanimous about the advantages of metropolitan government and metropolitan planning. Proposals are made f o r improving long-range planning of l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , through the e s t a b l i s h -ment of a system of metropolitan planning i n the Vancou-ver metropolitan region. It i s concluded that, while i n general, i t i s advantageous f o r a metropolitan area to have some form of planning agency at the metropolitan l e v e l , i t i s im-p r a c t i c a l to assign a l l advance planning to such an agency, since long range planning i s required at the micro-scale as well as at the macro-scale. It i s there-fore apparent that while the administrative system pro-posed i n the hypothesis can a s s i s t the production of meaningful l o c a l plans i n the metropolitan context, i t can only p a r t i a l l y reduce the pressure of work on l o c a l planning agencies. I t i s noted that there i s widespread reluctance to assign decisive planning powers to metro-poli t a n governments. An a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis i s evolved for further t e s t i n g . It i s suggested that investigation be carried out i v i nto the influence of geography on attitudes toward metropolitan co-operation; and i t i s recommended that consideration be givencto using the u n i v e r s i t i e s to con-duct basic metropolitan studies. The influence of senior government decisions on metropolitan development i s noted, and a recommendation i s advanced to f a c i l i t a t e more compre-hensive urban and metropolitan planning. V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER I . BASIC DIFFICULTIES OF LOCAL PLANNING IN METROPOLITAN AREAS 1 The Purpose of t h i s Study 1 The Hypothesis 4 De f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 Assumptions 11 Limitations and Scope 12 Method 12 I I . THE LITERATURE RELATING TO PLANNING IN METROPOLITAN AREAS 2 1 D i v i s i o n of Labour i n Local Planning Agencies 21 Advance Planning by Metropolitan Government through O f f i c i a l Plan Technique 21+ Other Solutions to the Problem of Local Planning i n Metropolitan Areas 40 Summary and Conclusions 47 I I I . PLANNING IN THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: A CASE STUDY 50 The Vancouver Metropolitan Area: Description and Local Government 50 Method used i n the Case Study 60 v i PAGE The Survey of Selected.Planning Agencies 60 Analysis of the Results of the Survey of Selected Planning Agencies 68 The P o l i t i c a l Attitude Survey 91 Analysis of the Results of the Po l i t i c a l Attitude Survey 92 The Hypothesis in the Light of the Case Study 95 Improving the Planning of Local Muni-cip a l i t i e s in the Vancouver Metro-politan Area 97 General Applicability of Conclusions from Case Study 103 IV. FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...105 The Validity of the Hypothesis 106 Assessment 109 General Recommendations 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 APPENDICES 123 v i i LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE I. Framework for Testing the E f f i c i e n c y of an Advance Planning Agency 20 I I . Characteristics of Communities Selected f o r Survey of Planning Agencies, Vancouver Metropolitan Area, B. C 67 I I I . Results of Survey of Selected Planning Agencies, Vancouver Metropolitan Area, B.0 69 IV. Draft O f f i c i a l Regional Plan, Lower Mainland Planning Area, B.C., De-velopment Area C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .... 73 V. Effieiency^Ratings of Selected Planning Agencies, Vancouver Metro-politan Area, B.C 89 MAP 1 . The Lower Mainland Region of B r i t i s h Columbia 52 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my appreciation to Dr. H.P. Oberlander, Director, Dr. K. J . Cross, Assistant Professor, of the Di v i s i o n of Community and Regional Plan-ning, and Mr. R.W. C o l l i e r , Supervisor, Urban A f f a i r s , Department of University Extension, f o r t h e i r suggestions and advice throughout the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . My thanks must also be expressed to Dr. H. A. C. Cairns, Assistant Professor, Department of P o l i t i c a l Science, Mrs. E. F. Stewart of the Divis i o n of Community and Re-gional Planning, and to Miss M. J . Dwyer, L i b r a r i a n , of the Fine Arts D i v i s i o n , University Library, and her s t a f f , f o r t h e i r assistance. Acknowledgements are due as well to the following who co-operated w i l l i n g l y i n answering survey questions: Mr. M. M. Frazer, Reeve of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver; Mr. W. G. Rathie, Mayor of the City of Vancouver; Mr. S. Gif f o r d , Mayor of the City of New Westminster; Mr. R. J . Harvey, Reeve of the D i s t r i c t of Surrey; Mr. R. Hope, Mayor of the City of Port Coquitlam; Mr. M. Chesworth, Municipal Planner, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver; Mr. B. Wiesman, Assistant Director of Planning, City of Vancou-ver; Mr. J.B. Chaster, City Planner, City of New West-minster; Mr. L. B. Kleyn, Planner, D i s t r i c t of Surrey; ' i x and Mr. V. J . Parker, Executive Director of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. I must also express my thanks f o r assistance from the following: Alderman R. A. Williams, City of Vancou-ver; Mr. B. Elwood, Director of Research, Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board; Mr. N. Pearson, Planner, Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board; and Mr. L. E. Armstrong, Administrative Planner, D i s t r i c t of Burnaby. F i n a l l y , I must acknowledge my wife's patient and l o y a l support throughout the production of the th e s i s . C H A P T E R I B A S I C D I F F I C U L T I E S O F L O C A L P L A N N I N G I N M E T R O P O L I T A N A R E A S I . T H E P U R P O S E O F T H I S S T U D Y T h e u n f o r t u n a t e q u e s t i o n w h i c h I a m f i n a l l y , a n d s o m e w h a t r e l u c t a n t l y , e x p r e s s i n g i n p u b l i c i s " W h a t h a s t h i s m a s s o f l a b o u r a c h i e v e d ? " I n s h o r t , " W h e r e a r e t h e p l a n s ? " I k n o w t h a t m a n y t h o u s a n d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i -c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o c e s s e d i n r e s p o n s e t o e v e r y c o n c e i -v a b l e h u m a n m o t i v a t i o n ; I k n o w t h a t m a n y t h o u s a n d s o f z o n i n g b y - l a w a m e n d m e n t s , e a c h u r g e n t l y a n d i m m e d i a t e l y n e c e s s i t a t e d b y t h e c o n t i n u o u s p r e s s u r e s o f a d y n a m i c e x p a n d i n g e c o n o m y h a v e p a s s e d i n t o t h e p r o l i f e r a t i n g l i m b o o f m u n i c i p a l l a w . B u t c a n t h i s m a s s i v e a c h i e v e -m e n t r e a l l y p a s s f o r p l a n n i n g ? I s i t e n o u g h , i n a s e n s e o t h e r t h a n b u l k , t o j u s t i f y t h e p l a n n e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l e x i s t e n c e s ? M y o w n c o n v i c t i o n i s t h a t i t i s n o t . T h e c o m p l a i n t i s f r e q u e n t l y v o i c e d i n m u n i c i p a l p l a n -n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s t h a t d a i l y s k i r m i s h e s a n d c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h a n y p r o g r a m o f l o n g 2 r a n g e p l a n n i n g . Y e t i n m o s t c a s e s t h e s e d e p a r t m e n t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g l o n g r a n g e p l a n s a n d e n s u r i n g t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . S o m e y e a r s a g o , t h e m a n a g e r o f a s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t y d e f i n e d t h e " s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p l a n n i n g " i n s u c h a n X P . J. S m i t h , " W h e r e A r e T h e P l a n s ? " P l a n , V o l . 2 , N o . 1 , 1 9 6 1 , p . 3 8 . p I n t h i s t h e s i s , u n l e s s m e n t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y o t h e r -w i s e , p l a n n i n g m e a n s " u r b a n p l a n n i n g " a s d e f i n e d o n p . 7. 2 area i n these words: (a) Preparation of a town plan, progressively or as a - whole by an authority and as a mandate; (b) Implementation of the approved plans by by-laws and regulations under statutory authority; (c) Continuous study and r e v i s i o n of the plans i n the l i g h t of changing physical, economic and s o c i a l influences; and (d) Provision f o r the planning o f f i c e to be included i n the administrative organization of the municipality, serving and being served by every other department, providing a clearing house f o r the public and the o f f i c i a l s , both elected and appointed, i n a l l plan-ning matters, and constantly promoting the highest material and c u l t u r a l values the local economy can provide.3 This municipal manager's f i r s t standing requirement fo r planning was the preparation of a town plan, then i t s implementation by by-laws or other means. In his f i n a l stand-ing requirement, that i s , the provision f o r the planning de-partment to be included i n the municipal administrative orga-nization, the seeds of some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s plaguing long range planning can perhaps be seen. Long range or advance planning i n a municipality l o -cated i n a metropolitan area i s also made more d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t that the municipality forms an i n t e g r a l part of the metropolitan community. •'W.N. McDonald, "Why We Hired a Planner," Community  Planning Review, Vol. IV, 1954, p. IS. 3 At the metropolitan l e v e l , the resource and structure dimensions of urban space merge, simply because we can-not e a s i l y disentangle them. The metropolitan region i s a s p e c i a l s o c i a l , economic, and s p a t i a l entity.4 In addition to being subjected to regional s o c i a l and economic pressures, and perhaps, to s p e c i f i c decisions made by senior governments, a municipality i n a metropolitan area must recognize at a l l times that i t s l i v e l i h o o d depends on the fortunes of the entire metropolitan community. Further-more, i t s residents may be employed, or seek recreation, i n adjoining m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; or i t may form a corridor through which residents pass while t r a v e l l i n g from one neighbouring municipality to another. There may be disputes about boun-daries between one municipality and another, or there may be competition between municipalities f o r developments with great tax-paying p o t e n t i a l . Economies of scale frequently indicate the d e s i r a b i l i t y of providing certain basic services as part of an area-wide system, yet lack of unity among the members of the metropolitan family may prevent the supply of services i n the most e f f i c i e n t manner. In the absence of any formal metropolitan government, advance planning at the l o c a l municipal l e v e l i s hindered, f i r s t , by the pressures of d a i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and, second, by the lack of organisation to understand or control even some of the pressures from outside. The objectives of ^Lowdon Wingo, J r . , "Urban Space i n a Policy Perspec-tive;;" i n C i t i e s and Space, Lowdon Wingo, J r . , editor ( B a l t i -more: .Resources f o r the Future, Inc. 1963), p. 9. 4 t h i s thesis are to discover how these two drawbacks may be minimized. I I . THE HYPOTHESIS Many municipal planning departments have approached the problem of keeping advance planning operations' separate from current planning operations by establishing an advance planning sub-unit. Apart from merely freeing the people involved i n advance planning work from troublesome d i s t r a c -tions t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n increases the opportunities f o r r a t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n as a prelude to decision-making. As Dahl and Lindblom have pointed out, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n enables a person to focus attention on ce r t a i n categories of re-p e t i t i v e events, and since i t decreases the number of v a r i -ables at the focus of attention, i t increases his capacity 5 f o r r a t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n about these p a r t i c u l a r categories. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n indeed appears to be a basic, almost i n s t i n c t i v e human t o o l f o r performing d i f f i c u l t tasks. In what has been described as a c l a s s i c essay, Gulick f i t s the concept of the d i v i s i o n of labour into the theory of orga-n i z a t i o n as follows: Every large-scale or complicated enterprise requires many men to carry i t forward. Wherever many men are thus working together the best r e s u l t s are secured when there i s a d i v i s i o n of work among these men. The theory of ^Robert A. Dahl and Charles E. Lindblom, P o l i t i c s  Economics and Welfare (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 19o3 p. 63. 5 organization, therefore, has to do with the structure of co-ordination imposed upon the work-division units of an enterprise. Hence i t i s not possible to determine how an a c t i v i t y i s to be organized without, at the same time, considering how the work i n question i s to be divided. Work d i v i s i o n i s the foundation of organization; indeed, the reason f o r organization. 0 I t may be argued that advance planning i s not an enterprise that requires many men to carry i t out. Yet the f a c t that d i v i s i o n of labour occurs i n many planning depart-ments seems to indicate that Gulick's observations may have some v a l i d i t y . The phrase, "structure of co-ordination," introduces an important concept which i s examined i n d e t a i l l a t e r . Further d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the application of the p r i n -c i p l e of d i v i s i o n of labour are also mentioned by the same author, when he propounds three l i m i t a t i o n s to the concept. The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n , he states, arises from the volume of work: nothing i s gained by a subdivision of work which re-quires less than the f u l l time of one man. Technology and custom at a given place e s t a b l i s h the second l i m i t a t i o n . As an example, Gulick observes, "In some areas nothing would be gained by separating undertaking from the custody and cleaning of churches, because by custom the sexton i s the 7 undertaker..." Luther Gulick, "Notes on the Theory of Organization," i n L. Gulick and L. Urwick, editors, Papers on the Science  of Administration, 1947, p. 3. 7 Ibid., p. 4. 6 The l a s t l i m i t a t i o n i s more s i g n i f i c a n t to the sub-je c t of planning administration i n metropolitan areas: The t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n i s that the subdivision of work must not pass beyond physical d i v i s i o n into organic d i v i s i o n . It might seem fa r more e f f i c i e n t to have the front half of the cow i n the pasture grazing and the rear h a l f i n the barn being milked a l l of the time, but t h i s organic d i v i s i o n would fail...° The question of whether or not the process of planning a metropolitan area should be considered as an organic whole i s something which w i l l be returned to l a t e r (in Chapter IV). At present however, i t i s convenient to ignore i t and the other d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n the concept of d i v i s i o n of labour, and carry forward the idea of separation of func-t i o n as a component of the hypothesis. In the f i r s t section of t h i s chapter, a l l u s i o n was made to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the municipality and i t s s e t t i n g , the metropolitan community, a " s o c i a l , economic, and s p a t i a l e n t i t y . " In considering the planning of t h i s metropolitan e n t i t y , i t i s h e l p f u l to consider what i s meant by planning. Friedraann describes planning i n general i n these words: ...Primarily a way of thinking about s o c i a l and econo-mic problems, planning i s oriented primarily towards the future, i s deeply concerned with the r e l a t i o n of goals to c o l l e c t i v e decisions, and s t r i v e s f o r comprehensive-ness i n policy and program. Wherever these modes of Ibid., p. 5. 7 thought are applied, there i s a presumption that plan-ning i s being done.9 If the metropolitan region can be considered as a community, and as an enti t y , and i f i t i s l o g i c a l to make plans f o r i t , then i t appears v i t a l to carry out t h i s plan-ning from a l e v e l at which the en t i t y can be understood. This leads to the conclusion that planning f o r a metropolitan region could be greatly f a c i l i t a t e d i f i t could be carried out by some central agency. I f t h i s idea i s combined with the concept of separating advance planning personnel from current planning personnel i n municipal planning departments, the following hypothesis may be derived: Advance planning services can be supplied more e f f i c i e n t l y to municipalities i n a metropolitan area by a common agency  tnan by municipal planning agencies. This forms the hypothesis of the thes i s . I I I . DEFINITION OF TERMS It i s necessary, at t h i s stage of the discussion, to define some s p e c i f i c terms which occur frequently i n the body of the th e s i s . Urban Planning Chapin's d e f i n i t i o n of " c i t y planning" i s used, with 7John Friedmann, "Regional Planning as a F i e l d of Study," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 29: 168-175, August 1963, p. 169. a the word "urban" being substituted f o r the word " c i t y " i n order to avoid any sense of being r e s t r i c t e d to the con-fi n e s of a single administrative or p o l i t i c a l u n i t . The revised d e f i n i t i o n reads: (Urban) planning may be regarded as a means f o r sys-tematically a n t i c i p a t i n g and achieving adjustment i n the physical environment of (an urban area) consistent with s o c i a l and economic trends and sound p r i n c i p l e s of c i v i c design. It involves a continuing process of deriving, organizing, and presenting a broad and compre-hensive program fo r urban development and renewal. I t i s designed to f u l f i l l o c a l objectives of s o c i a l , eco-nomic, and physical well-being, considering both imme-diate needs and those of the foreseeable future. I t examines the economic basis f o r an urban centre e x i s t i n g i n the f i r s t place; i t investigates i t s c u l t u r a l , p o l i -t i c a l , economic and physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s both as an independent e n t i t y and as a component of a whole clus-ter of urban centres i n a given region; and i t attempts to design a physical environment which brings these elements into the soundest and most harmonious plan f o r the development and renewal of the urban area as a whole.*Q General Plan A "general plan" comprises text and map, or maps, which include a statement s e t t i n g for t h major p o l i c i e s con-cerning desirable physical development of an urban area and c l a r i f y i n g the relationships between physical develop-ment p o l i c i e s and s o c i a l and economic goals, together with a single u n i f i e d general physical design f o r the community. In p a r t i c u l a r , the plan must contain the following elements: See F. Stuart Chapin^ J r . , Urban Land Use Planning, Second E d i t i o n (Urbana, I l l i n o i s : University of I l l i n o i s Press, I 9 6 5 ) , p. v i . (Words changed from the o r i g i n a l are shown i n brackets). 9 a) A statement of the goals, the basic policies of the plan, and the major physical design elements; b) General location, character and extent of r e s i -dential, commercial and industrial areas; c) General location, character and extent of the systems of public and private f a c i l i t i e s of a community-service nature, such as public parks and private hospitals, which require relatively large amounts of land or significant concentra-tions of ac t i v i t i e s that have not been covered in (b), supra; and d) The major circulation system.^ Unofficial General Plan An "unofficial general plan" i s a general plan which has not been adopted by the municipal council for the area in question. Established General Plan An "established general plan" i s a general plan which has been adopted in toto and established by by-law by the municipal council for the area in question. O f f i c i a l General Plan An " o f f i c i a l general plan" i s an established general plan which has been approved by the provincial government; after this approval has been given the municipal council may not enact any provision or undertake any works contrary to the o f f i c i a l general plan. adapted from T. J. Kent, Jr., The Urban General Plan (San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company, 1964), pp.18, 19, 156, 157, and 171. 10 Municipality In t h i s thesis a "municipality" means a town, c i t y , or other urban area having powers of l o c a l self-government. Metropolitan Area "Metropolitan area" means any Census metropolitan area, as defined i n the 1961 Census of Canada, which i n -cludes more than one municipality. Advance Planning "Advance planning" has been taken to include the pre-paration of the general plan and a l l components of i t , the research necessary to prepare or support the general plan and to keep i t up to date, and the preparation of statements on planning policy worked out with other municipal depart-12 ments, governmental u n i t s , and c i v i c groups. Current Planning "Current planning" a c t i v i t i e s are those which are directed toward carrying out the general plan, including both reviewing proposals which a f f e c t the general plan, and 13 i n i t i a t i n g proposals to carry out the plan. J 1 2See footnote 1 3 . 13 •'The d e f i n i t i o n s of "advance planning" and "current planning" are adapted from those given i n American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Planning Advisory Service, P r i n c i p l e s  of Organization f o r Planning Agencies. Information Report No. 146, May 1961, pp. 4 and 5 . 11 IV. ASSUMPTIONS Referring to the hypothesis on p. 7, i t is obvious that i f a metropolitan agency acting in the role of a private planning consultant on a contract basis attempted to persuade a municipality to follow some course of action which appeared to be more to the advantage of the whole metropolitan area than to the advantage of the municipality, the municipality could dismiss the agency, and carry out advance planning on i t s own account. It also follows that i f the metropolitan area is to be treated as an entity, then the common agency should be required by some means to prepare a general plan for the metropolitan area. It is therefore assumed that: 1. The advance planning agency i s a department of a federated type of metropolitan government which has been established for the metropolitan area in question; ^ ^"The basic element of federated forms of metro-politan government i s the division of functions between a newly established metropolitan government agency and the existing local governments." George S. Blair, American  Local Government (New York: Harper and Row, 1964), p. 581. 12 2. The operating costs of the agency are collected out of taxes raised by the metropolitan government from the metropolitan area; 3. The agency i s required by law to prepare a general plan f o r the metropolitan area, to be adopted i n toto and to be established through a by-law passed by the metropolitan government; 4. After the plan i s established, a l l general plans and planning control ordinances i n a l l of the municipa-l i t i e s i n the area w i l l be amended to conform to the plan, and no work w i l l be permitted to be under-taken or by-law to be passed by any of the municipal councils or by the metropolitan government which i s contrary to the plan. 1'' V. LIMITATIONS AND SCOPE The in v e s t i g a t i o n i s intended to provide information for use i n Canadian metropolitan areas of a population of 400,000 or more, that i s areas which exceed that population today, or which might exceed i t i n the future. Information has therefore been drawn from Canadian sources as f a r as possible, with sources from outside being u t i l i z e d only when necessary to provide greater breadth to the discussion. VI. METHOD In t h i s section the method of substantiating the ^I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the major function of "advance planning" i s to prepare general plans, while "current planning" i s directed toward carrying out the general plan including i n i t i a t i n g proposals to carry out the plan. In the general plan for the metropolitan area, the general l o c a t i o n , character and extent of each major element would be established, and standards would be set up to guide detailed development. For example, i n a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood, the general plan would establish permitted de n s i t i e s , the approximate t o t a l area of parks, etc. The working out of these d e t a i l s would constitute " i n i t a t i n g proposals to carry out the plan" i . e . "current planning." 13 h y p o t h e s i s , a s q u a l i f i e d b y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s i s d e s c r i b e d . B e f o r e t h i s c a n b e a t t e m p t e d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a f r a m e w o r k f o r j u d g i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f a n a d v a n c e p l a n -n i n g s e r v i c e . T h e f a c t t h a t p l a n n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a s e r v i c e m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d s i n c e t h e m e t h o d i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e v a l u a t i n g a s e r v i c e . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t s e v e n m e a n i n g s o f t h e w o r d " e f f i c i e n c y " o f w h i c h t w o a r e i n g e n e r a l u s e . T h e s e a r e : " e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n a s m e a s u r e d b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f a c t u a l a n d p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s , " ^ a n d , " t h e e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n o f a b u s i n e s s , o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f a b u s i n e s s t a s k w i t h a m i n i -1 7 mum o f w a s t e a n d e f f o r t . " S o m e w h a t r e l a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d i s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f " m e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y " : " t h e r a t i o o f t h e e n e r g y o r w o r k t h a t i s o b t a i n e d f r o m a m a c h i n e , a IB s t o r a g e b a t t e r y e t c . , t o t h e e n e r g y p u t i n . " B u t i n t h e a r e a o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e e n d t o w h i c h t h e a c t i v i t y i s d i -r e c t e d , a n d t h e p r o b l e m c a u s e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t m a n y s e r -v i c e s c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d b y s i m p l e m e a n s . A . W , J o h n s o n W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y o f  t h e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e U n a b r i d g e d , ( S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s a c h u -s e t t s - : : G . & C . M e r r i a m C o . , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 819. 1 7 I b i d . i a i b i d . 14 considers that in measuring the efficiency of a govern-ment service, and the*. Efficiency of a private business, i t is necessary to consider the service under the headings of "policy efficiency," "administrative efficiency," and "service efficiency." In a discussion on the subject he poses the example of a firm wishing to manufacture a new product. "Administrative efficiency" he describes as "a matter of good organization, of effective management prac-19 tices, of stream-lined procedures, and the l i k e . " 7 "Policy efficiency" i s however described in these words: But notice that i f the wrong policy decisions had been made in the f i r s t place - i f the plant were poorly located or the market were insufficient - not a l l the administrative efficiency in the world would compen-sate for these errors in decision-making. There i s , in short,.another kind of efficiency which is of a higher order than "administrative efficiency" and that i s "policy efficiency" - the making of the right policy decisions. '"20 His concept of "service efficiency" i s concerned mainly with the level of service to the public. In dis-cussing private business again he points out that i f a firm " f a i l s to provide what the public wants or f a i l s to respond to shifts in consumer tastes, an economic penalty 21 sooner or later must be paid." In connection with govern-mental a c t i v i t i e s , Johnson collects under the heading of yk. W. Johnson, "Efficiency in Government and Busi-ness," Canadian Public Administration. Vol. VI, No. 3, Sep-tember 1963, p. 246. 20 Ibid p. 247 P. 249 21 Ibid 15 "service efficiency," the factors of service to the public, responsiveness to public opinion, and preservation of par-22 liamentary control. In this thesis, Johnson's conception of efficiency is accepted, and i t i s assumed that in the f i e l d of public administration, the efficiency of any program or policy means the quality of being characterized by effective a c t i -vity in the senses that:- thetgeneral motivation of the program or policy i s soundly-based in the f i r s t place; the program or policy i s being or can be carried out in minimum time and at minimum cost; the program or policy i s directed toward serving the public, i s responsive to public opinion, and i s subject to democratic control. When the efficiency of a planning operation has to be examined, i t i s f i r s t necessary to consider the nature of planning. In their article entitled "A Choice Theory of 23 Planning," Davidoff and Reiner advance a behavioural con-cept of planning which they describe as a process consisting of three fundamental stages, at each of which the planner must exercise choice. These are:-1. Value formulation, 2. Means identification, and Ibid. 2 3 P a u l .Davidoff and T. A. Reiner, "A Choice Theory of Planning," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 28: 103 - 115, May 1962. 16 3. Effectuation. 2^ In relation to the f i r s t stage the authors state: Values are inescapable elements of any rational decisions-making process or of any exercise of choice. Since choice permeates the whole planning sequence, a clear notion of ends pursued l i e s at the heart of the planner's task, and the definition of these ends must be given primacy in the planning process. 25 A number of methods are advanced by Davidoff and Reiner to assist identification of values and value groupings, which are, in their opinion, superior to reliance on in t u i -tion. These are: ...market analyses, public opinion polls, anthropo-logical surveys, public hearings, interviews with i n -formed leaders, press-content analyses, and studies of current and past laws, of administrative behaviour, and of budgets. 2 0 In their discussion of the second stage of the pro-cess, the authors pose the problem of proceeding "by non-arbitrary steps, from a general objective to a specific 27 program": The process of means identification commences once an attempt i s made to identify an instrument to a stated end. It terminates when a l l the alternative means have been appraised in terms of their costs and benefits (as calculated by c r i t e r i a referring to a l l relevant goals) and in certain cases, where the power is delegated, a particular implementing means is chosen to be the de-sired alternative to achieve the stated purpose,2$ 2 4 I b i d . , p. 106. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 111. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 111. 2 7 I b i d . 2 8 I b i d . f pp. 111-112. 17 In the last level of the planning process, called "effectuation," the previously-selected means are guided towards achievement of the planning goals. In this stage, the planner may collect information concerning the clients' reactions to the program, which may lead to re-evaluation 29 of the original goals. The systematic comparison of alternatives i s there-fore an integral part of the process of planning. Such a comparison requires the thorough examination of a l l aspects of the problem which i s being considered. This i s particu-l a r l y important in connection with policy efficiency, where i t i s necessary to make the wisest possible choice of means to secure the desired ends. Webster's short description of the purposes and scope of urban planning also implies comparison between alterna-tives, and the necessityfbr a comprehensive, or systems, approach: The purpose of planning is to provide the information and expert advice necessary to insure that priority w i l l be given to projects in order of their, importance and that a l l governmental functions w i l l be carried on in the best possible relationship with one another.30 Administrative efficiency requires that time and money spent in advance planning should not be wasted and that a l l components of the plan should f i t together. If the planning i s truly efficient in this sense, a l l policies, by-laws or 7Ibid., p. 113. 30 Donald H. Webster, Urban Planning and Municipal Pub-l i c Policy (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958"J, p. 5. 16 works to be enacted by the city or muncipality w i l l be in accordance with the recommendations of the advance planning agency. This can be achieved by the council requiring the preparation of a general plan and then adopting i t by muni-cipal resolution. Administrative efficiency also requires the elimination of duplication and non-productive work, so that costs can be kept to a reasonable level. In the context of service efficiency i t i s necessary to consider the questions of service to the public, respon-siveness to public opinion and preservation of democratic control. With regard to the advance planning agency's ser-vice to the public, i t i s clear that the degree of efficiency achieved in this regard depends on the exact terms of refer-ence for the agency. In the terms of the discussion conducted on page 16, responsiveness to public opinion involves identi-fication of the values of the community for which plans are 31 being made. Although this subject i s classified here under service efficiency i t i s also related to policy efficiency in that the identified values of the community have to be carefully ranked. In evaluating the efficiency of an advance planning service, the question of democratic control i s not of great importance, because such a service would be of a staff advi-See F. Stuart Chapin, Jr., "Foundations of Urban Planning," in Urban Life and Form, Werner Z. Hirsch, editor (New York: Holt, ghinehart and Winston, Inc., 1963), p. 226. 19 -sory type, c a r r i e d out as a preliminary basis f o r decision-making. Hence i n t e s t i n g t h i s type of service, the c r i t e r i o n of democratic control has been omitted. An o f f i c i a l general plan which i s i n current form provides some evidence that there has been an attempt to pro-vide a planning service which i s e f f i c i e n t i n a l l three sen-ses. The f a c t that i t contains r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , public f a c i l i t i e s , transportation, and other sections indicates that some comparison of alter n a t i v e s has been made. The fac t that i t i s o f f i c i a l guarantees some de-gree of administrative e f f i c i e n c y , and the in c l u s i o n of a statement of goals implies some degree of service e f f i c i e n c y . A framework can now be established f o r tes t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of an advance planning agency. This framework, referred to elsewhere i n t h i s thesis as the Test Framework i s shown i n Table I, page 20. The methods used to t e s t the hypothesis are f i r s t to carry out a review of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to metropo-l i t a n area planning, and second to examine the Vancouver Metropolitan Area as a case study, using the Test Frame-work as a reference. 20 TABLE I FRAMEWORK FOR TESTING THE EFFICIENCY OF AN ADVANCE PLANNING AGENCY Aspect of Efficiency-Policy e f f i c i e n c y Administrative e f f i c i e n c y Service e f f i c i e n c y Standard Planning decisions are made aft e r systematic comparison of a l t e r n a t i v e s , and thorough examination of a l l aspects of problem. By-laws, p o l i c i e s , and public works of governmental unit conform to recommendations of advance planning agency. A l l planning operations are well co-ordinated, one with ano-ther, and the agency i t s e l f practises economy of e f f o r t . Agency f u l f i l s purpose f o r which i t was established. Agency i s cognizant of com-munity's goals and prefe-rences. 2 1 CHAPTER II THE LITERATURE RELATING TO PLANNING IN METROPOLITAN AREAS This chapter i s intended to f u l f i l three purposes, namely: 1 ) to examine the question of d i v i s i o n of labour i n l o c a l planning agencies; 2 ) to discover and evaluate examples of advance plan-ning by metropolitan governments using the " o f f i -c i a l general plan" technique; 3) to discover, describe and evaluate other solutions to the problem of l o c a l planning i n metropolitan areas. I. DIVISION OF LABOUR IN LOCAL PLANNING AGENCIES In Chapter I, the use of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as a basic human t o o l f o r performing d i f f i c u l t tasks was noted, and reference was also made to the f a c t that many municipal planning agencies have established advance planning sub-u n i t s . ^ In t h e i r report, " P r i n c i p l e s of Organization f o r Planning Agencies," the American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s point out that as s t a f f increases and operations of the agency become more complex, i t becomes necessary to This was discovered to be the case i n two of the four l o c a l planning agencies surveyed i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. See page 8 ^ . 22 2 practise division of labour. They state that i t i s widely agreed that once i t has been decided to establish sub-units, that the division should be based on major operational function. The report recommends four major groups or sub-units: Advance Planning, Current Planning, 3 Land Use Controls, and Administration. The duties assigned to Advance Planning come under the broad category of preparing general plans, carrying out the research necessary to prepare such plans and to keep them up-to-date, and preparing statements of planning p o l i -cy with other municipal departments, governmental units, and civic groups.^ Current Planning acti v i t i e s are broadly those which are concerned with carrying out the general plan, both reviewing proposals which affect the general plan, and i n i t i a t i n g proposals to carry out the plan. This sub-unit i s also responsible for dealing with emergency situations, or what are termed i n the report Mbrushfire n 5 operations. In the Society's opinion such operations are American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Planning Advisory Service, Principles of Organization for Planning  Agencies. Information Report No. 146, May 1961, p. 2. 3 I b i d . , P. 4. 4Ibid., PP . 4 5 I b i d . , P. 5. 23 a l l too frequently assigned to the Advance"-Planning sub-u n i t . ^ The Land Use Controls sub-unit i s responsible f o r the administration of the regulatory devices, such as the subdivision and zoning by-laws. To the Administration sub-u n i t i s assigned the care of personnel administration, bud-7 getting, and r e l a t e d functions. I t might be asked whether there are any disadvantages i n adopting a d i v i s i o n of labour i n l o c a l planning agencies. Some of the dangers of t h i s course, and the means of redu-cing them are described i n the following: Over against the advantages gained by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n must be placed the problems created by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The" most serious problem i s that the d i v i s i o n of work greatly complicates the task of coordinating the work of the i n d i v i d u a l members of the group. When a single workman i s responsible f o r a complete piece of work most of the coordinating that i s needed can be done ri g h t inside his own head. When the workman becomes one of twenty contributors to a completed piece of work, formal devices, must be set up to make certa i n that the contribution of each of these workmen f i t s with those of the others to make a coherent f i n i s h e d job. Like-wise, when the operative employee i s r e l i e v e d of the task of making more important decisions that a f f e c t his work, procedures must be set up to make certa i n that the This aspect of the Los Angeles City Planning Depart-ment's method of operation was c r i t i c i z e d some years ago i n a consultant firm's review of the Department's work. The review observed: " I f there i s a general c r i t i c i s m , i t i s that the master-planning work i t s e l f i s geared too much to the meeting of immediate, l o c a l i z e d problems - not so much i n terms of the problems themselves, which c e r t a i n l y demand atten-t i o n , but, i n balance, too l i t t l e to the study of the over-a l l long range s i t u a t i o n . " Adams, Howard and Greely, Report to the Board of City Planning Commissioners. City of Los  Angeles, on tn"e Los Angeles City Planning Department (Cambri-dge, Massachusetts, November, 195b) p. 64. 7 American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , o p . c i t . , pp. 4-6. 24 person who does make these decisions communicates them to the person who i s supposed to carry them out. Un-less the scheme of organization can solve these pro-blems of coordination, i t cannot cash i n on the gains which i t has sought too. obtain through s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . 8 I I . ADVANCE PLANNING BY METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT THROUGH OFFICIAL PLAN TECHNIQUE This section i s concerned with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e scription and evaluation of examples of metropolitan areas i n which: a) a federated type of metropolitan govern-ment has been established; b) advance planning i s assigned to a department of t h i s government; and c) the advance plan-ning department i s required to prepare a metropolitan general plan f o r o f f i c i a l adoption. The problem of providing e f f i c i e n t physical planning has always formed part of the standard set of metropolitan problems. Gulick has provided a catalogue of American metro-po l i t a n i l l s , many of which reveal a physical aspect, and including: slums; congestion; obsolete buildings and f a c t o r i e s ; juvenile and other crime; rackets; crowded schools; reduced standards of educational quality; deterio-r a t i n g transportationwith r i s i n g costs; increasing water and a i r p o l l u t i o n ; t r a f f i c congestion and accidents; chronic unemployment; reduced i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; segregation and handicaps fo r minority groups; ugly and i n s u l t i n g "developments"; smlly and extravagant mass "consumerism"; the needless International City Managers' Association, The  Technique of Municipal Administration, Second Pr i n t i n g , Third E d i t i o n (Chicago: International City Managers' Asso c i a t i o n , 1951), p. 51. 25 destruction of natural values; and the deterioration of cultural standards and resources.9 A great number of problems involve the provision of service systems, which can be divided into two types: centra-lized service systems such as transportation and sewerage systems, and decentralized systems such as schools, and f i r e protection.^ The provision of these systems and the securing of the most efficient disposition of land uses in metropoli-tan areas, are usually hindered by the multiplicity of local governments. The federated form of metropolitan government is one of several methods which can be u t i l i z e d to solve this problem. It appears to combine the advantages of centra-li z a t i o n and local autonomy. Writing in 1964, Blair reported only three examples of federal metropolitan governments in North America: Toronto, Winnipeg, and Dade County, F l o r i d a . ^ A l l three governments are required by law to adopt a general plan. 7Luther H. Gulick, The Metropolitan Problem and Ameri-can Ideas. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962J, p. 10. ^Centralized systems are those to which a generalized "tree" forms a f a i r l y close analogy, incorporating a strongly defined trunk and connected branches. Decentralized systems are characterized by small relatively independent units, See Harvey S. Perloff and Lowdon Wingo, Jr., "Planning and Deve-lopment in Metropolitan Areas," Journal of the American Insti-tute of Planners, 28: 67-90, May 1962, pp. SlTand 83. ^George S. Blair. American Local Government (New York: Harper and Row, 1964J, pp. 58" 1-2. 26 TorSnto A federated type of metropolitan government was i n s t i -tuted by an Act of the Ontario Legislature f o r the Toronto Metropolitan Area by the establishment of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto i n 1953. A twenty-four, or twenty-f i v e , member council was provided f o r , with twelve members from the Qity of Toronto, one member from each of the twelve 12 suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and a chairman. Responsibility fo r the provision of urban services was divided between the Metropolitan Council and the l o c a l councils. Rose has des-cribed the d i s t r i b u t i o n of functions as of January 1, 1954 as follows: Functions of the Metropolitan Council Water Supply. Construction and maintenance of pump-ing stations, treatment plants, trunk mains, and reser-v o i r s f o r wholesale d i s t r i b u t i o n of water to the 13 mun i c i p a l i t i e s . Sewage Disposal. Construction and maintenance of trunk sewer mains and sewage treatment plants to provide a metropolitan sewage disposal system which would accept sewage on a wholesale basis from the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Roads. Designation of highways as metropolitan rodds and the establishment of an a r t e r i a l system of highways. (Financing i s s p l i t evenly with the province.) Transportation. The former Toronto Transporation Albert Rose, "Metropolitan Toronto and the Metropoli-tan P l i g h t : A Critique of Metropolitan Government i n Toronto," Planning 1965 (Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1965), p. 5. The council would consist of twenty-four mem-bers i f the chairman were appointed from i t s own membership, and twenty-five i f appointed from outside i t s own membership. 27 Commission became the Toronto Transit Commission, res-ponsible f o r public transportation throughout the metro-poli t a n area. Education. The Metropolitan School Board i s respon-s i b l e f o r co-ordination of educational f a c i l i t i e s i n the metropolitan area and pays a grant to each of the 11 l o c a l school boards which continue to ex i s t f o r every primary, secondary, and vocational school p u p i l . Health and Welfare. The metropolitan council i s res-ponsible f o r the provision of homes for the aged, mainte-nance of wards of Children*s Aid S o c i e t i e s , post-sana-torium care f o r tuberculosis patients, and the hospita-l i z a t i o n of indigent patients. J u s t i c e . The metropolitan corporation must provide and maintain a court house and j a i l . Housing. The metropolitan corporation has a l l of the powers of a municipality i n the f i e l d s of housing and redevelopment. Planning. A Metropolitan Planning Board was created with authority extending beyond the metropolitan area to encompass a l l adjoining townships. I t was to prepare an o f f i c i a l plan f o r t h i s entire metropolitan planning area. Parks. The metropolitan corporation has the power to e s t a b l i s h metropolitan parks. Finance and Taxation. The metropolitan council i s responsible f o r the uniform assessment of a l l lands and buildings i n a l l 13 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . On the basis of the t o t a l assessment, the requirements of the metropolitan government are lev i e d against each area municipality as a uniform m i l l rate. The l o c a l government w i l l then c o l l e c t the metropolitan tax require-ment and i t s own requirements from i t s own taxpayers. A l l debenture financing i s undertaken by the metro-poli t a n corporation f o r i t s e l f and on behalf of any l o c a l government i n the area. Also, the corporation has assumed the school debenture debts of each municipality and has acquired a l l assets of the l o c a l municipalities required fo r metropolitan services.13 Ibid., pp. 6-7. Functions of Local Municipal Councils 28 Water Supply. Local d i s t r i b u t i o n systems and r e t a i l sale of water to consumers. Sewage Disposal. Local sewage c o l l e c t i o n . Garbage C o l l e c t i o n . Left e n t i r e l y to the area muni-c i p a l i t i e s . Roads. Construction and maintenance of l o c a l streets and sidewalks. P o l i c e . Left e n t i r e l y to the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . F i r e . Left e n t i r e l y to the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Education. The l o c a l Board of Education continues and must finance the cost of a standard of education above the l e v e l of metropolitan grants i f i t desires to go beyond the basic standard. Health and Welfare Services. Public health i n the municipal or health u n i t , unemployment r e l i e f , maintenance of non-wards, s o c i a l work services. Housing. The l o c a l councils continue to possess a l l powers with respect to housing and redevelopment. Planning. Local planning boards may be created or continued and are expected to plan i n conformity with the over&all metropolitan plan. Parks and Recreation. Creation and maintenance of l o c a l parks. Finance and Taxation. On the basis of the uniform assessment the l o c a l council w i l l c o l l e c t the revenue required to provide l o c a l services. 14 On January 1, 1957, the Metropolitan Council became responsible f o r police services, l i c e n s i n g of trades and busi-15 nesses, c i v i l defence and a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . y U I b i d . , pp. 7-8. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 8. 29 As described above, the actual body which i s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of metropolitan planning i s the Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board. The duty of t h i s twenty-four-member Board i s to prepare an o f f i c i a l plan for i t s planning area, and to recommend i t to the Council f o r adopt-ion. Following adoption by the Council, the plan i s to be submitted to the Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s f o r the Pro-16 vince, f o r his approval. When approval has been given, no public work i s to be undertaken and no by-law i s to be passed 17 i n the area which does not conform to the o f f i c i a l plan. A d r a f t o f f i c i a l plan was completed i n 1959, and re-vised i n 1964 and 1965. The basic goal of the 1959 plan was "to guide the anticipated development i n a way which w i l l provide the best environment f o r economic productivity and 18 for favourable l i v i n g conditions." The plan document i n c l u -des sections on geographical and h i s t o r i c a l background, gene-r a l concept, planning d i s t r i c t s , population, employment, housing, land use, transportation, water supply, waste d i s -posal, stormwater control, schools, parks, public open spaces, 19 f i n a n c i a l resources, and administration. A system of neigh-^H. Carl Goldenberg, Report of the Royal Commission om Metropolitan Toronto (Toronto, 1965), pp. 33-34. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 70. •^Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board, The O f f i c i a l  Plan of the Toronto Metropolitan Planning Area, 1959, Draft TToronto7~T959), p. 53. 19 Ibid., pp. iv-v . 30 bourhoods, or " d i s t r i c t s , " was established to provide a framework f o r det a i l e d l o c a l planning. A plan was to be developed f o r each d i s t r i c t " i n close co-operation with the 20 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s concerned.? In the 1965 version of the draft O f f i c i a l Plan of the Metropolitan Toronto Planning Area, the area remains divided into planning d i s t r i c t s f o r which maximum average gross r e s i -d e n t i a l densities have been set. A schedule of permitted uses has been set up as follows: Residential (Urban), Resi-d e n t i a l (Rural), Major Commercial, Major Commercial (Indefi-nite Location), I n d u s t r i a l , Major I n s t i t u t i o n a l , Public Open Space, Private Open Space, Transportation and U t i l i t i e s , and A g r i c u l t u r a l . Map III of the Plan shows major transportation f a c i l i t i e s , subdivided into rapid t r a n s i t , expressways, major 21 a r t e r i a l roads, minor a r t e r i a l roads, and commuter r a i l l i n e s . The Plan has yet to be adopted o f f i c i a l l y . The Commis-sioner of Planning f o r the Metropolitan Planning Board (Mr Comay) has given four reasons f o r t h i s : 1) lack of conviction on the part of the Board and i t s s t a f f that highest p r i o r i t y should be given to f i n a l -i z i n g the P l a n ; 2 2 2 Q I b i d . . p. 13. 2 1 M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning Board, O f f i c i a l Plan of the Metropolitan Toronto Planning Area (Toronto, Decem-ber7~X965). 22 E l i Comay, "Metropolitan Toronto and the Metropoli-tan P l i g h t : How Metropolitan Government Works," Planning 1965 (Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1965), p. 25. 31 2) the reluctance of some Planning Board members to commit themselves to a plan which might r e s t r i c t l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e ; 2 3 3) concern over the d i f f i c u l t i e s entailed i n amending the Plan;24 4) "the f a c t that most of the basic p o l i c i e s governing area development have been adopted by the Metropoli-tan Council or the l o c a l Councils i n one form or another." 25 Since the Plan i s not o f f i c i a l , the requirement that l o c a l plans conform i s not enforceable. Hence procedural 26 arrangements whereby the Planning Board advises p r o v i n c i a l agencies and l o c a l municipalities on planning matters have, been established. There appears to be some d i v i s i o n of opinion on the seriousness of the Plan's not having achieved o f f i c i a l status. The Commissioner of Planning, as has been noticed above, con-siders most of the Elan's basic p o l i c i e s have been adopted i n any case. This i s r e i t e r a t e d by Silox , who adds the following point: ...The very existence of such a comprehensive and well-reasoned document, which might at any time be given mandatory authority, na t u r a l l y influences the area plan-ning s t a f f s i n t h e i r work, and the Metropolitan Planning '"'Ibid., p. 27. 2 4 I b i d . ^Comay, c i t e d i n Goldenberg, op^i c i t . . p. 71. ^Goldenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 71. 32 Board staff in their examination of subdivision plans, and in the advice they tender to the Council on i t s overall Capital Works Programme. The latter group also follows the O f f i c i a l Plan in the work i t does on behalf of. the nineteen municipalities without a plan-ning staff of their own.27 While acknowledgingthat the process of planning has been substantially synchronized with the planned expansion 28 of municipal services, Professor Rose considers the fact that local boards retain exclusive jurisdiction in the 2Q matter of zoning to be'bf crucial significance." 7 He has noted that, (up to 1965), "the metropolitan government had only nominal control over the rapid growth of the three lar-ge townships, Etobic6k§, North York and Scarborough, whose total combined population was 105,000 in 1948, 259,000 in 1953, and 672,000 in 1963."3° Professor Smallwood has compiled a serious criticism of the metropolitan authority's attitude to planning: While i t might be argued that the existence of a draft master plan makes any such formal action unneces-sary, this i s a debatable contention at best. A plan is not only designed to serve as a guideline for future growth, but also as an o f f i c i a l policy commitment on the part of i t s sponsoring agency. Through the adoption of a formal O f f i c i a l Plan, Toronto's Council (i.e. the Metropolitan Council) would actually be forcing itsrelf 7Peter Silox, "The Metropolitan Council and Toronto's Metropolitan Problem" (unpublished thesis, Master of Arts, University of Toronto, 1962), p. 82. 28 Rose, op_. c i t . , p. 12. 2 9 I b i d . . p. 15. 30 Ibid. Rose gives the 1963 population of the metro-politan area as 1,653,000. 33 to hammer out i t s future development p o l i c i e s and pri o -r i t i e s f o r the entire Metropolitan area. In the pro-cess i t would be formulating a comprehensive guideline that could help to provide a sense of central cohesion to the entire Metro operation. This i s precisely the task which the new Winnipeg Metropolitan Corporation has viewed as constituting i t s primary o b l i g a t i o n . Yet while the Winnipeg Corporation i s attempting to work out iitslong-range planning projections as i t s f i r s t order of business, the Toronto Council has permitted ten years to pass without bothering to adopt a formal plan. The Council's record here has been f a r from decisive.31 Other d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Toronto are caused by the fa c t that not a l l the agencies responsible f o r services and dev-elopments within the metropolitan area are under the control of the metropolitan authority. As an example of t h i s , the Metropolitan Corporation and the pr o v i n c i a l Department of Highways share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the components of the metro-32 p o l i t a n expressway network. In evaluation, i t seems reasonably clear that i f the assessments of Rose and Smallwood are correct, assigning advance planning to a metropolitan agency i s not enough to ensure an advance planning service which i s e f f i c i e n t i n t n e p o l i c y sense. The systematic comparison of alternatives was not carr i e d out because the Metropolitan Council did not 31 Frank Smallwood, Metro Toronto: a Decade Later (To-ronto: Bureau of Municipal Research, 19637, p. 36. Further d i f f i c u l t i e s might also be caused by the fact that advance planning i s carried out for the Council by a quasi-autonomous board. Writing i n 1959, Grumm noted that "the metropolitan leadership seems to view i t (the Board) as an advisory group and nothing more." See John G. Grumm, Metropolitan Area Govern-ment: The Toronto Experience (Lawrence, Kansas: University oTTansas, 1959), p. 31. 3 2 •> Goldenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 48. The Report recommended co-ordination of expressway construction. 34 force i t s e l f to "hammer out i t s future development p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s . " Turning to administrative e f f i c i e n c y , i t has been observed that because the Plan remains u n o f f i c i a l , co-ordi-nation of planning has had to be achieved by procedural a r r a -ngements with other agencies. Although the per capita cost of the t o t a l planning service has not been high, i t appears that i t could have been reduced i f co-ordination had been effected automatically through the Plan's being made o f f i c i c a l . In respect of service e f f i c i e n c y , i t appears that the problem of taking cognizance of community goals and preferen-ces c o n f l i c t s with the agency's f u l f i l l i n g i t s intended pur-pose. I f the Metropolitan Planning Commissioner's views are correct, some Board members have been reluctant to press f o r adoption of the plan because i t would i n t e r f e r e with l o c a l autonomy. Winnipeg The Metropolitan Corporation of Greater Winnipeg came into existence i n I960 through an Act of the Manitoba Legis-33 lature. J In what might be described as a modified federal type of system, the metropolitan area i s divided into ten d i v i s i o n s e a c h of which "must include parts of at least 33 S. George Rich, "Planning i n Metropolitan Winnipeg," Community Planning Review (Vol, XII, No. 2), p. 22. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 23. 35 35 two separate units of l o c a l government." J J The electors of each d i v i s i o n e l e c t one Metropolitan c o u n c i l l o r f o r the d i v i s i o n , the chairman being selected from the membership of the council, or from the ranks of former chairmen. The Metropolitan Corporation has d i r e c t authority-over the following functions: assessment; wholesale water supply; sewage disposal and control of r i v e r p o l l u t i o n , (the municipalities r e t a i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r sewage c o l l e c -tion) ; public transportation; major st r e e t s , bridges, and subways, including t r a f f i c planning and control; major parks; floodway control; c i v i l defence; mosquito abatement; plan-ning, including administration of zoning, building, and re-37 lated by-laws. The Development Plan f o r the Winnipeg Metropolitan Area i s s t i l l i n draft form. It has been described i n these words by W. T. Haxby, of the Metropolitan Corporation s t a f f : The Plan i s very broad i n i t s concept and lays down the broad outlines of planning policy f o r the Metropolitan area. I t contains outlines of the Metropolitan Transport-ation System and other c a p i t a l works fo r which we are responsible. As long as l o c a l m u n i c ipalities plan within these bounds they are at perfect l i b e r t y to make th e i r own decisions r e l a t i v e to l o c a l improvements. 36 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 T h e Municipal Act. R.S.M., I960, c.40,ss. 11 (1) and 10 (7TT~ 3 7 R i e h , OJD. c i t . , pp. 22-23. -^From a l e t t e r to the writer by W. T. Haxby, Senior Research Planner, The Metropolitan Corporation of Greater Winnipeg, January 6, 1966. 36 Although insufficient time has elapsed to make a thorough assessment of advance planning i n the Winnpeg area, a preliminary evaluation can be attempted. In respect of policy efficiency, one of the chief reasons behind establi-shing the metropolitan authority was to f a c i l i t a t e production of a comprehensive plan for the area. In introducing The Metropolitan Winnipeg B i l l into the Manitoba Legislature in I960, the Premier of the Province, The Honourable Duff Roblin, stated: I can say that the principle on which this B i l l rests consists of two rather simple thoughts: f i r s t of a l l we should develop a central planning authority for this metropolitan area that would be charged with the res-ponsibility of providing a unified development plan for this large urban area; and secondly, that we should also provide for the central control of certain essential services to the public within this same urban area.39 The Corporation's planning operations also appear to be relatively efficient, i n the sense of administrative efficiency. relating to the conformity of local by-laws.? policies, and works to metropolitan plans. This i s achieved as follows: when The Metropolitan Winnipeg Act came into force, the Metro-politan Corporation assumed "sole and f u l l responsibility for, and authority and jurisdiction over, the planning and deve-lopment of the metropolitan area and additional zone..."^"* With regard to the cost of the planning service under metro-39 Debates and Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. February ly, 19bU. cjTed~""b"y Rich, op. c i t . , p. 22, 4°The Municipal Act. R.S.M., I960, s.78. 37 po l i t a n government, comparisons are d i f f i c u l t , because at least part of the planning services f o r l o c a l municipali-t i e s was previously carried out by the former Metropolitan Planning Commission.4^" In the sense of service e f f i c i e n c y i t appears pos-s i b l e that the goals and preferences,of the community could be given i n s u f f i c i e n t attention, since there i s no provi-sion f o r any kind of planning commission. 4 2 Nevertheless i n th e i r Report and Recommendations of 1964} the Review Com-mission made no major c r i t i c i s m of the planning operations. 3 I t may be concluded therefore that serious complaints had not been received. It i s however too early yet to say whether or not the Planning D i v i s i o n has f u l f i l l e d the purpose f o r which i t was intended. Dade County In a c t u a l i t y , the Dade County (metropolitan Miami and environs) government combines features of a federated form of metropolitan government with those of an urban county. 4 4 A home rul e charter approved by the voters on May 21, 1958, red i s t r i b u t e d functions between the county and i t s twenty-six m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 4 ^ A Board of Commissioners, representing 4 1 R i ch, op_. c i t . , p. 21. 4 2 I b i d . , p. 27. I o ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Corporation of Greater Winnipeg, Review Commission, Report and Recommendations. Winnipeg, February 1964. 4 4 B l a i r , op_. c i t . , p. 582. 4 5 I b i d . 36 d i s t r i c t s and c i t i e s , was established as the l e g i s l a t i v e i m 47 and governing body of the county. 4^ As of 1963, the ember-ship of the Board comprised t h i r t e e n Commissioners. Functions assigned to the metropolitan government include: mass t r a n s i t ; t r a f f i c engineering; major streets and highways; planning; water and sewer systems; port f a c i -l i t i e s ; major parks and public beaches; hospitals; welfare services; penal functions; assessment and c o l l e c t i o n of 49 A.8 taxes; flood control and water conservation. Provision i s made f o r the transfer of addit i o n a l functions. The charter provides f o r a considerable amount of 50 l o c a l autonomy. C i t i e s are responsible f o r the l o c a l aspects of the funttions l i s t e d above, as well as for the provision 51 of p o l i c e , f i r e , zoning, and other services. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s may also r a i s e standards of services, including zoning, above 52 those established by the Board of Commissioners. 4 6 I b i d . 4 7 I b i d . 4 a i b i d . , p. 583. 49 Ibid., 5°Ibid.. p. 563. 5 1 I b i d . 52 I b i d . 39 Separate departments were established to administer zoning and building on the one hand and planning on the 53 other. However, attempts on the part of the metropolitan government to eliminate the zoning powers of the c i t i e s , ex-cept their authority to adopt standards higher than those 5L set by the county, were unsuccessful. Similarly, d i f f i -culties were encountered in attempts to secure county-wide 55 compliance with the South Florida Building Code. y By early 1962, the position was reached in which the county controlled the zoning of unincorporated areas, with each city be ing res-56 ponsible for i t s own municipal zoning. The county controlled building and subdivision regulations for incorporated and un-incorporated areas.^ 7 The metropolitan government is required to adopt a eg comprehensive plan, and by November I960 reference was made to a preliminary land use plan for the whole county. The plan was designed "to advance community health and safety, 53 ^Edward Sofen, The Miami Metropolitan Experiment (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963), p. 122. 5 4 I b i d . . p. 123. 5 5 I b i d . 5 6 I b i d . , pp. 123-4. 5 7 I b i d . 58 United States Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on In-tergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Operations, National Survey of Metropolitan Planning. 88th Congress, 1st Session (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963), P. 61. y 7Sofen, op_. c i t . , p. 142. 40 the citizens* tastes and comforts, government efficiency and 60 economy, and the economic prosperity of the entire area." It i s not possible in this brief review, to evaluate f u l l y the efficiency of advance planning in Dade County, in relation to the Test Framework. A tentative conclusion can be drawn, however, in relation to service efficiency - in particular, the aspect of cognizance of the community's goals and preferences. The distinct impression i s given that the local communities, i f indeed their preferences are represen-ted by local politicians, were prepared to allow advance plan-ning to be carried out by the county government, but were extremely reluctant to relinquish the means of implementing planning. III. OTHER SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF LOCAL PLANNING IN METROPOLITAN AREAS It was stated in Chapter I, that the investigation carried out in this study i s intended to provide material for use in Canadian metropolitan areas of a population of 400,000 or more. There were five such areas in 1961: the metropolitan areas of Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Ottawa. Of these, Toronto and Winnipeg have already been described; and Vancouver i s the subject of the case study, dealt with in Chapter III. Ibid., pp. 142-3 41 The Montreal Metropolitan Corporation, established i n 1959, has l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s i n comparison with the metropolitan corporations of Toronto and Winnipeg. These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are: to prepare a master plan of roads and highways; to make grants to hospitals, homes for the aged, convalescent homes and si m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s ; to regulate t r a f f i c and provide parking spaces; to provide and maintain the underground u t i l i t i e s pertaining to a 21-mile expressway; to develop a system of rapid t r a n s i t ; and to control the opening, and cl o s i n g hours of commercial establishments. 0^" Ottawa constitutes an i n t e r e s t i n g case of metropolitan planning. Since i t i s the national c a p i t a l , powers are avai-lable to e s t a b l i s h a general plan f o r the area, which are not available to other Canadian metropolitan areas. These powers were used, and the general plan f o r Ottawa i s being implemented. However since t h i s metropolitan area consti-tutes a s p e c i a l case, i t i s not discussed i n any further d e t a i l i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t has been noted that i n Winnipeg, the power of l o c a l m u n i c i palities to control development was taken away even before the metropolitan general plan was adopted. In Toronto, however, adoption by the municipalities of a metropolitan general plan, means surrendering some of t h e i r independence. F. G. Gardiner, "Developments and Trends i n Metro-p o l i t a n Area Problems," C i t i e s and the S i x t i e s , George S. Mooney, editor (Montreal: The Canadian Federation of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , I960). 42 In Dade County, the attempt to make the metropolitan agency responsible f o r control of development ran into d i f f i c u l t i e s , and was i n f a c t t o t a l l y unsuccessful i n the f i e l d of zoning. Indeed despite t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e features, federated metropo-l i t a n governments have been extremely d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h i n the United States. The Dade County government has been subjected to numerous attacks, and ufederation plans have been defeated at the p o l l s i n St. Louis, Boston, Oakland, Atlanta, and P i t t s b u r g h . 6 2 Other methods of t a c k l i n g governmental problems i n metropolitan areas are described b r i e f l y below: Inter - . i u r i s d i c t i o n a l agreements are formal or informal agreements between two or more governmental units to solve mutual problems. Annexation means adding new t e r r i t o r y to an established governmental u n i t . 6 4 Special d i s t r i c t s are d i s t r i c t s set up f o r a s p e c i f i c  purpose or set of purposes; f o r example, s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s may be established f o r the administration of the functions of 6 2R ichard M i t c h e l l , Trends i n Urbanization and Metro-p o l i t a n Government (Berkeley: The Ins t i t u t e of Transportation and T r a f f i c Engineering, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1963), p. 7. ^ B l a i r , op_. c i t . , p. 586. 6 4 I b i d . , p. 569. 43 education, f i r e protection, s o i l conservation, drainage, 65 water supply, or f o r sewage disposal. Functional transfer means r e - a l l o c a t i o n of a service (or services) by t r a n s f e r r i n g i t (or them) from the county to the municipalities or from the municipalities to the «. 66 county. Direct action by higher l e v e l s involves t r a n s f e r r i n g functions from a lower l e v e l to the p r o v i n c i a l (or state) 67 l e v e l , or to the federal l e v e l . ' City - county consolidation involves p a r t i a l or complete merger of the area and government of a county with 68 that of the c i t y or c i t i e s within i t . City - county separation implies detachment of a c i t y from the remainder of the county, with the new c i t y govern-ment performing both municipal and county functions within 69 i t s t e r r i t o r y . Multi-purpose metropolitan d i s t r i c t s . In t h i s method, the attempt i s made to broaden the functions of a s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t to f a c i l i t a t e provision of a number of services, 6 5 I b i d . , p. 50. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 572-3. 6 7 I b i d . , p. 573-4. 6 8 I b i d . , p. 574-6. 6 9 I b i d . , p. 576. 44 such as regional planning, water supply, transportation 70 and the l i k e . Metropolitan county plan. In this scheme, applicable when the metropolitan area i s contained within a single county, the county government i s strengthened and given 71 powers to provide urban-type services. '^he f e a s i b i l i t y of any one of these plans depends on the governmental structure, and the distribution of power in the area in question. The multi-purpose metropolitan dis-t r i c t scheme, which appears to have been f i r s t tried out in 72 Boston,' and was recently recommended for use in the ten 73 metropolitan areas of California, seems to be echoed in the recent amendments to the British Columbia Municipal Act, O f which established regional d i s t r i c t s . None of the solu-tions appear to be easy, especially those which involve changes in jurisdidction, functions, or governmental structure. This has led to two developments in the United States; f i r s t , investigations into the p o l i t i c a l power structure of metro-politan areas, and second, a considerable number of attempts at intergovernmental co-operation and advisory planning. The studies of the power structure have led to the view of urban politics as being characterized by the existence 7°I id., p. 577-8.^ I b i d . , p. 57879. 7 2 I b i d . , p. 578. 7 3 I b i d . 7/)rAn Act to Amend the Municipal Act, R.S.B.C. ,1965,c.28. v45 of "many diverse power centres, of clusters of d i f f e r e n t decision-makers divided according to d i f f e r e n t public pro-grams , of highly decentralized and highly v o l a t i l e patterns of inl.uence." 7^ "The urban ship of s t a t e " 7 o i s depicted 77 "as breaking up into flotsam and jetsam'.' Banfield and Wilson carry t h i s further, and declare that master planning i n the c l a s s i c sense i s impossible i n many American c i t i e s , since i n t h e i r siiew, most of the impor-tant decisions r e l a t i n g to urban development are made as the 78 r e s u l t s of bargaining and compromise. The o f f i c i a l answers to the problems of planning metro-p o l i t a n areas, apart from attempts to i n s t i t u t e some form of metropolitan government, d i r e c t l y appear to take the form of inter-governmental co-operation, and advisory metropolitan planning. In the United States again, considerable impetus has of course been provided by the transportation studies, i n s t i t u t e d by the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, i n 1955. Beginning with the Penn-Jersey Transportation Study i n 1959, the idea developed that a transportation net-work could be designed to help mold the community i n a pur-posive way. This concept has been incorporated into the 75 Robert C. Wood, "Urban Regions: The Challenges and Achievements i n Public Administration," Planning 1^62 (Chi-srican 'i b i d . 7 7 gEdward C. Banfield and James Q. Wilson, City P o l i t i c s (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press and M.I.T. Press, 1963), p. 202. L962 hi-cago : Ameri Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1962), p. 8. 76, 7 7 I b i d . 46 Puget Sound Regional Transportation Study, the Southeastern Wisconsin Study, the Boston Regional Transportation Plan-79 ning Project, and the Twin C i t i e s Joint Program. 7 By 1964, 150 out of the 216 Standard Metropolitan S t a t i s t i c a l Areas i n the United States had some form of metro-80 p o l i t a n planning under way. Federal government po l i c y ap-peared to be to foster regional planning by f i n a n c i a l i n -centives. (For example the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 required that by July 1, 1965, f e d e r a l l y a ssisted highway projects i n urban areas be based on a comprehensive trans-portation planning process, "with due consideration to t h e i r 81 probable e f f e c t on the future development of those areas^"--Another important source of f i n a n c i a l assistance i s the 701 82 urban planning assistance program.) In some instances metro-p o l i t a n planning agencies have authority to review or comment on l o c a l governments' plans, codes, or c a p i t a l improvement 83 programs, and on l o c a l , state or f e d e r a l l y supported projects. Robert M i t c h e l l set out functions and aims of an ad-visory metropolitan planning agency, which he considered fea-s i b l e "within the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y of a wide dispersion of 79 United States Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on Inter-governmental Relations of the Committee on Government Opera-ti o n s , 1964 National Survey of Metropolitan Planning. 89th Congress, 1st Session (Washington: Government Pr i n t i n g Office;,! 1965), Foreword. 8 0 | b i d . 8 1 I b i d . ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l City Managers' Association, The Muni-c i p a l Year Book (Chicago: The International City Managers' Association7~l964), p. 279. ^ N a t i o n a l Survey of Metropolitan Planning, I963, pp.6-7 47 decision making responsibility at various governmental 84 levels in most metropolitan areas (in the United States)." Beginning with the statement that "no regional planning agency w i l l ever be able to dictate to any of the o f f i c i a l w"5 agencies that are particiapting in i t , " he continues: The objectives of regional planning therefore include the provision of an adequate basis of information and understanding, the provision of expert assistance in the interpretation of information and the solution of local problems, the provision of a forum for discussion, and a channel to negotiate agreements, effect joint action, and represent a regional position vis a vis selected State and Federal programs on the one hand or local pro-posals on the other.8 0 Mitchell develops recommendations relating to functions of 87 such an agency from these objectives, and provides that the agency should carry out other activities for the support of i t s planning and that of other regional agencies. These include: a data, mapping and computation centre for the re-gion; special studies for municipalities; and liaison with senior government agencies. 8^ IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The major facts relating to the study of local planning in metropolitan areas which have been reviewed in this chapter may be summarized in the following: 84Robert B. Mitchell, "Regional Planning in the Area Transportation Study," American Institute of Planners: Pro-ceedings of the 1963 Annual Conference (Washington: The Institute, 1964), p. 1 3 3 . g 5 i b i d . , p. 126. 36lbid.. p. 127. s^Ibid. g 8 I b i d . , pp. 131-2. 48" 1. There i s some support for the concept of the d i v i -sion of labour in local planning agencies. 2. The view i s widely held that overall planning (of the type defined as "urban planning") i s desirable for metropolitan areas. 3. A wide range of methods are suggested i n the l i t e r a -ture to achieve collective solutions to metropolitan problems. 4. Metropolitan general plans may be implemented by o f f i -c i a l plan technique, or the metropolitan planning agency may have power of review,°" or the agency may be merely advisory. 5. It is d i f f i c u l t to secure o f f i c i a l adoption of a metropolitan general plan i f local autonomy i s very strong. 6. Metropolitan planning can be stimulated by incentives from senior governments. The review of literature enables a preliminary eval-uation of the hypothesis to be attempted, the section deal-ing with Toronto being the most valuable in this regard. Since i t is impossible to estimate how the Toronto area would have developed without a plan, precise evaluation of the efficiency of the metropolitan planning system i s not feasible. Nevertheless, i t can be concluded that a serious weakness in the type of metropolitan organization envisaged by the hypo-thesis and the assumptions can occur with respect to service efficiency, (since i t involves the local community's losing some of the right to select i t s own goals). The Toronto case shows that this d i f f i c u l t y at the service efficiency level can lead to d i f f i c u l t i e s at the administrative efficiency See page 4o. 49 l e v e l , i n t h a t o f f i c i a l a d o p t i o n o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n g e n e -r a l p l a n m a y b e h a m p e r e d . D e s p i t e t h e s e s d i f f i c u l t i e s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f p o l i c y e f f i c i e n c y m a y b e a c h i e v e d w i t h a n u n o f f i c i a l p l a n , a s S i l c o x a n d R o s e d e s c r i b e , a l t h o u g h i t m a y f a l l s h o r t o f S m a l l w o o d ' s i d e a l o f t h e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g b o d y ' s " h a m m e r i n g o u t i t s f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i -c i e s a n d p r i o r i t i e s . " CHAPTER I I I 50 PLANNING IN THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: A CASE STUDY The f i r s t objective of t h i s chapter i s to discover whether evidence may be found i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area to j u s t i f y the hypothesis that assigning the advance planning function to a common agency, so established and with duties and powers as described i n the four assumptions given on pages 11 and 12, would r e s u l t i n improved " p o l i c y , " "administrative," and "service" e f f i c i e n c y f o r l o c a l munici-p a l i t i e s . I f the evidence i s found to support the hypothesis, the second objective i s to formulate recommendations designed to implement a framework for planning such as that outlined above, i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. I f the evidence i s found not to support the hypothesis but i n f a c t reveals d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the ex i s t i n g framework f o r planning, then a subsequent objective i s to investigate alternative frame-works f o r planning, and to recommend the framework consi-dered most usefu l f o r implementation i n the Vancouver Metro-pol i t a n Area. I. THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA: DESCRIPTION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT The Lower Mainland Region, measuring ninety miles east to west and twenty miles north to south, occurs at the 51 south-west corner of mainland British Columbia, (See Map 1, page 52). Bounded on three sides by mountains, and on the fourth by the United States border, the Region contains the lower reaches of the Fraser River and i t s adjoining f e r t i l e lands. The Vancouver Metropolitan Area, served by two harbours, Burrard Inlet, and the t i d a l portion of the Fraser River, occupies the western third of the Lower Main-land Region."1' The Metropolitan Area i s comparatively young, the dates of incorporation of the core c i t i e s of New West-minster and Vancouver being 1860 and 1886 respectively. In 1961, the Vancouver Metropolitan Area had a popu-lation of 790,165, representing 48.5% of the population of 3 the Province. Some of the reasons for the importance of the Area are expressed in the following: ...Like many of the other great cities of the world Vancouver was born and developed at the point of trans-portation interchange - at what is more cryptically re-ferred to as the "transportation break." This i s the place where a break in transportation occurs along the lines of communication between the sources of products and their f i n a l markets, where the lines of communication from farflung areas come together and where raw materials can be assembled most conveniently. At this point, change of ownership, with i t s attendant brokerage, f i n -ancing, warehousing and distributing functions can be consummated with greatest f a c i l i t y . Here, also, i s the natural focus for many public administrative functions, including customs clearing, inspection, appraisal, and others. Dennis Michael Churchill, Local Government and Admi-nistration in the Lower Mainland Metropolitan Community, Volume  One: A Report to the Metropolitan Joint Committeet (Vancouver, 1^., 1959), P. 2. o ^Margaret A. Ormsby, British Columbia: a History (The Macmillans in Canada, 1958), pp. 176 and 29o~. 3 ^Vancouver, B.C., City Planning Department, Vancouver's  Changing Population, June 1964, Table 1. '</, '''ill'"/, 1 V s I "I m I SSL ss* , COfcMT-VANCOUVER I BURNABY !;C0QUnWLAM . PITT rf MEADOWS (V1APLE RIDGE RICHMOND DELTA SURREY WHITE R O C K ' "BrT ^ B O U N D A R Y B A Y : K1*44+;-m*-.4**-. 11 Iii I I M O LANGLEY PLANGLEY ( a T Y N SCALE OF MILES lo I * • 6 ft IP A P R I L . , 1966 S O U R C E : L O W E R M A I N -L A N D R E G I O N A L P L A N -N I N G B O A R D BOUNDARY OP VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA MUNICIPAL OR INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN THE LOWER MAINLAND REGION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 41 J O 53 The original birth and subsequent development of Vancouver has been stimulated by i t s strategic location at the cross roads of coast-wise and world wise ship-ping, at the principal western terminal point for both transcontinental Canadian railways, and at the southern terminus for the B.C. government-owned Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The convergence of these media of transportation made Vancouver an ideal location for the distribution and transshipment of goods and supplies. As such, i t was early destined to be Western Canada's largest distribution centre not only for the Orient and other Pacific trade, but for t r a f f i c through the Panama Canal as well. Pacific wheat and other products originating east of the Rockies were (and s t i l l are) exported through the port, as well as lumber and a wide range of other British Columbia products. As a natural nodal centre for the large B.C. hinterland, the area has been able to draw on the rich forest, agricultural, fisheries and mineral resources of the whole Province.4 The Metropolitan Area contains seventeen governmental divisions which as measured in the 1961 Census, had populat-i as shown in the following l i s t : 5 Burnaby, d i s t r i c t municipality 100,157 Coquitlam, d i s t r i c t municipality 29,053 Delta, d i s t r i c t municipality 14,597 Fraser M i l l s , d i s t r i c t municipality 165 North Vancouver, city 23,656 North Vancouver, d i s t r i c t municipality 38,971 New Westminster, city 33,654 Port Coquitlam, city 8,111 Port Moody, city 4,789 4Gerald Hodge and Ira M. Robinson, Jobs People and  Transportation t A Report to the Metropolitan Joint Oommi-ttee (Vancouver, B.C., 196^0), pp. 14-15« ^For an explanation of the difference between "dis-t r i c t municipality" and "city?,' see page55, footnote 11. Gene-r a l l y in this thesis however a "city" i s classified as a "municipality"; see the definition of "municipality" on p. 10. 54 Richmond, d i s t r i c t municipality 43,323 Surrey, d i s t r i c t municipality 70,838 Vancouver, city 384,522 West Vancouver, d i s t r i c t municipality 25,454 White Rock, city 6,453 Indian Reserves 1,130 University Endowment Area 3,272 Unorganized 2,0206 In 1961, the City of Vancouver had 48.6 per cent of the population of the Metropolitan Area, in contrast to i t s 1951 share of 61.4 per cent. It was observed in 1954 that the relatively densely settled areas, although sufficient to form a metropolitan community, could "more properly be described as two sub-metropolitan communities which are beginning to merge into 7 one true metropolitan community."' Over the years, a number of metropolitan and inter-municipal governments have been evolved for the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. These are now described briefly, (the date of establishment being given with the title): Greater Vancouver Water Distr i c t , 1925. The function of this body i s "to construct waterworks and general water-°From Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1961 Census of Canada, Bulletin 1.1-6 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962), Table 10. 7Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, The Greater  Vancouver Metropolitan Community, (New Westminster, B.C., 1954), p. 15. 1 \ 55 works systems throughout the d i s t r i c t and to supply and d i s t r i b u t e water i n bulk to municipalities within the d i s -ci t r i c t , and to any purchaser outside." The administrative board consists of representatives from the municipalities of the metropolitan area (excepting North Vancouver c i t y ) . 9 Greater Vancouver Metropolitan Health Committee. 1936 and 1944. This Committee's function i s to f a c i l i t a t e co-ordination of health services. I t has been described as a 'loosely drawn association of s i x municipalities and s i x school d i s t r i c t s . " " ^ North Shore Union Board of Health. 1948. This unit was formed by the three North Shore m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , North Vancouver ( c i t y ) , North Vancouver ( d i s t r i c t municipality) and West Vancouver ( d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y ) ^ and the two North Shore school d i s t r i c t s . . I t i s responsible f o r carrying out the provisions of the P r o v i n c i a l Health Act, 12 and f o r performing other health functions. Simon Fraser Union Board of Health, 1950. This unit was formed by f i v e municipalities (Port Moody, Port Coquit-lam, Coquitlam, New Westminster and Fraser M i l l s ) and the g Dennis Michael C h u r c h i l l , Local Government and Admi-n i s t r a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland Metropolitan Community. Volume Two: A Report to the Metropolitan Joint Committee (Vancouver, B.C., 19597, p. 100. 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . , p. 101. ^ O r i g i n a l l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the word " c i t y " was reserved for urban areas and " d i s t r i c t municipality" f o r urban areas of a r u r a l character. There are no counties i n the Pro-vince. C h u r c h i l l , op_. c i t . , (Volume One), pp. 7, 94, and 84. 1 2 C h u r c h i l l , op_. c i t . , (Volume Two), p. 102. 56 two associated school d i s t r i c t s ; i t s functions are similar to the North Shore Union Board of Health.-*-3 Greater Vancouver Sewer and Drainage District, 1914  and 1956. The District's function is "to provide for the construction and maintenance of a l l trunk and intercepting sewers in the district,""* - 4 and additional functions."^ Its membership comprise, representatives from Vancouver, Burnaby, West Vancouver, CoquitLam, and Port Moody.^"° Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, 1949. The duty of this body is to prepare "regional plans applicable 17 to the planning area"; i t may also undertake planning work for a member municipality on a consultant basis. The areali extent of the Lower Mainland Region has been indicated on page 50. The Board consists of twenty-eight members, who are representatives from the councils of the Lower Mainland municipalities. At the time of writing , the Regional Plan was in draft form, (see pages 77- 9 and 100 . Technical Committee for the Metropolitan Highway Plan-ning, 1951. The tasks of this Committee were as follows: 1 3 I b i d . . pp. 102-3. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 103. 1 5 I b i d . 1 6 I b i d . 1 7The Municipal Act. R.S.B.C. i960, c£55. 721 (1). 57 "Studying and reporting upon the question of highway access into and within the Burrard Peninsula, and particularly: 1. the necessity for additional highway access; 2. the type and location of such access, including connections to local street systems; 2. approximate construction cost estimates; 18 and 4. probable time of construction." The Committee con-sisted of technical representatives from Vancouver, New Westminster, Burnaby, Surrey, Delta, Richmond, Lower Main-land Regional Planning Board, B.C. Electric Company Trans-portation Division, and the Provincial Department of High-ways.'*"9 The Committee which recommended in 1958-9 the Cons-20 truction of a network of freeways, is now inactive. C i v i l Defence Control Committee, 1951. This body i s a "co-ordinating committee" for c i v i l defence purposes, with representatives from the councils of eleven municipalities: Burnaby, Coquitlam, Eraser M i l l s , New Westminster, North Vancouver (city), North Vancouver (district municipality), Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Richmond, Vancouver, and West Vancouver. In addition to the above agencies there are several special purpose agencies, appointed in part, or wholly by 1# Churchill op_. c i t . , (Volume Two), p. 105. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 106. 20 , Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Plan-ning, A Study oh Highway Planning, Part 2^ Freeways iitfith  Rapid Transit,TVancouver, B.C.. 1958-9). 58 senior governments, with r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the metropolitan area. The P r o v i n c i a l Government appears to have been con-sidering e s t a b l i s h i n g metropolitan government i n Vancouver i n the year 1957, i n which a new Municipal Act was brought 21 down: The Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s directed the Coun-c i l s of eleven municipalities (actually the same municipali-t i e s as are represented on the C i v i l Defence Control Commifc-tee, supra), to set up a study committee. The study commit-tee (known as the Metropolitan Joint C o m m j t t e e ) recommended that a single metropolitan board be given, subject to some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , j u r i s d i c t i o n over the following: "1 . Supply of water wholesale to the mun i c i p a l i t i e s ; 2. the provision of trunk sewer and sewerage (sic) treatment f a c i l i t i e s ; 3. public health and a i r p o l l u t i o n ; 4. land use planning f o r the o v e r a l l metropolitan area; 5. parks - other than l o c a l 23 or community parks." ^ The recommendations of the Committee were not imple-mented however, and i n 1965 the sections of the Municipal Act f a c i l i t a t i n g metropolitan government were repeated, and amendments introduced to enable the establishment of Regional  D i s t r i c t s . These have been described as pieces "of i n t e r -21 C h u r c h i l l , op;, c i t . , (Volume One), p. 107. 22 Ibid., p. 35. ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Joint Committee, F i n a l Report (Van-couver, B.C., I960), p.35. 59 municipal machinery which can handle requirements bigger than i n d i v i d u a l municipalities can properly handle." They are intended for use i n unincorporated as well as i n incorporated areas, and permit the provision of any i n t e r -25 municipal service, or set of services on a j o i n t basis. A Regional D i s t r i c t becomes operative when l e t t e r s patent have been issued by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council. Provision i s made for the establishment of a Board of Direc-tors, drawn from member muni c i p a l i t i e s , and from any unin-corporated areas. The Regional Board can appoint s t a f f , and has borrowing powers. Twenty-three contiguous Regional D i s t r i c t s have been proposed f o r the Province, four of which 26 are operative. In his inaugural address for the year 1966, the Mayor of Vancouver, Mr. W. G. Rathie, made reference to some of p n the pressing problems facing his c i t y . These included improving the f a c i l i t i e s of the Port of Vancouver, impro-28 ving' the transportation network including the construction of a new harbour bridge, urban renewal i n the cen t r a l 2 4B,C. Di v i s i o n , Community Planning Associationo<?f Canada, "B.C.'s New Regional D i s t r i c t s , " Community Planning i n B.C. Pamphlet. (Vol. VI, No. 1, February, 1966), p. 3. 25 ^See also page 44. B.C. D i v i s i o n , Community Planning Association of Canada, op. c i t . . p. 3. 27 "City's Greatness i s at Stake," The Vancouver  Suh, January 5, 1966, p. 12. 2%[one of the recommendations made i n 1958-9 by the Technical Committee f o r Metropolitan Highway Planning have been implemented to date. 60 business d i s t r i c t and other areas, securing better h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s , and obtaining more revenue to provide e s s e n t i a l municipal services, ^he background having been sketched i n , i t i s now possible to describe the case study. I I . METHOD USED IN THE CASE STUDY Two questionnaires were evolved f o r use i n the case study. The purpose f o r which the f i r s t questionnaire, c a l l e d the Survey of Selected Planning Agencies, was designed was to t e s t the "p o l i c y , " "administrative," and "service" e f f i -ciencies of selected planning agencies. The purpose of the second questionnaire, c a l l e d the P o l i t i c a l Attitude Survey, was to discover the f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing a common planning agency of the type v i s u a l i z e d i n the hypothesis and 29 the assumptions, i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. The f i r s t questionnaire was addressed to the directors of plan-ning of the selected agencies, and the second questionnaire was addressed to the mayors or reeves of the municipalities i n v o l v e d . 3 0 I I I . THE SURVEY OF SELECTED PLANNING AGENCIES In order to describe how the questionnaire schedule See pages 7, 11, and 12. 30 J With the exception of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, only municipal planning departments were surveyed for the Survey of Selected Planning Agencies. After the planning department had been surveyed i n a municipality, the reeve or mayor was then questioned as part of the P o l i -t i c a l Attitude Survey. 61 was formulated, i t i s necessary to consider further the three aspects of efficiency, as set out in the Test Frame-work given on page 2 0 . The f u l l questionnaire as used in the interviews i s included in Appendix A. The aspect of policy efficiency was discussed in Chapter I in terms of "means identification," where i t was argued that i t i s necessary to examine a l l aspects of a planning problem in order to achieve efficiency in the policy sense. Knowledge of the problem i s a pre-requisite for this examination to take place. Chapin has described the types of information and method® of collecting them 31 which are useful for land use planning analyses. These are now described briefly: The Urban Economy. Chapin considers that the amount Oof land development that occurs i s conditioned by the urban 32 economy. Two major approaches to analysis are suggested: a regionally-oriented approach, (incorporating input-output 3 3 analyses), and an urban-centred approach (of which eco-nomic base analysis i s given as the sole example). Employment Studies, ^hapin considers that a fore-cast of employment would provide information which would be useful in estimating space requirements for community f a c i -3 l F . Stuart Chapin, Jr., Urban Land Use Planning, pp. 1 0 3 - 3 4 5 . 3 2 I b i d . , p. 107. 3 3 I b i d . . pp. 109-127. 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 137-149. 62 - l i t i e s and residential d i s t r i c t s , and also for estimating land needs for commercial and industrial areas. 3 y Two groups of methods are described: analytical methods30 and 37 short-cut methods. Population Studies. Under this heading are included population size, composition, and distribution, both present and future. 3^ ^he population forecast is considered to be "perhaps the single most important population study for plan-ning purposes." Chapin gives several methods for estimating current population: the"migration and natural increase me-thod," 4 0 the "censal ratio methods, "4"*" and "methods based on symptomatic data."^ Methods for estimating fmgure popula-tion comprise the "cohort-survival" method,43 the "migration and natural increase" method,44 "estimates based on fore-casts for larger areas,"4'' "estimates based on employment forecasts," 4 0 and "mathematical and graphical methods." 4 7 3 5 I b i d . , P. 158. 3 6 I b i d . , P. 162 3 7 I b i d . , P. 169. 3 8 I b i d . , P. 181. 3 9 I b i d . , P. 196. 4 0 I b i d . , P. 184. 4 1 I b i d . , P. 189. 4 2 I b i d . , P. 190. 4 3 I b i d . , P. 203. 4 4 I b i d . , P. 205. 4 5 I b i d . , P. 208. 4 6 I b i d . , P. 210. 47 Ibid., P. 211. 63 The section on population studies i s rounded out with a id discussion of characteristics and spatial distribution. Urban Activity Systems. Chapin observes that the future pattern of land development must be designed to f i t as closely as possible to the activity systems of the people liv i n g in the urban area. Methods of identifying patters of interaction for firms, institutions,^ 0 households and indi-51 viduals are described. Urban Land Studies. Nine fundamental background s 52 studies are recommended and described. These are: "1. Compilation of data on physiographic features, mapping the urban setting; 2. the land use survey; 3. the vacant land survey; 4. hydrological and flood potential study; 5. cost-revenue studies,of land use; 7. land value studies; 8. studies of aesthetic features *x>f the urban area; 9. studies of 53 public attitudes and preferences regarding land use." Transportation and Land Use. In this section the discussion of activity systems is extended into studies of 4 a I b i d . , PP. 214-220. 49ibid., pp. 231-39. 5 0 I b i d . , PP. 239-41. 5 1 I b i d . , PP. 241-53. 5 2 I b i d . , PP. 254-338. 5 3 I b i d . , P. 254. 64 the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between transportation and land use planning. Chapin l i s t s four major methods of study: 1. the t r a f f i c volume survey;^.the o r i g i n and destination s u r v e y ; ^ 3. study of a miscellaneous group of variables such as density of r e s i d e n t i a l development, density of employment, t r a n s i t usage habits and extent of car ownership;^ 6 4. an inventory of the routes and f a c i l i t i e s available to accom-57 modate movements. In the construction of the survey questionnaire, the f u l l text of which i s included i n Appendix A (pages 123-5 ), the recommendation given supra, r e l a t i n g to "tooling-up studies" f o r land use planning analyses, were converted i n -to the form of questions which were designed to t e s t the p o l i c y e f f i c i e n c y of the planning agency concerned. The underlying intention was to t e s t as o b j e c t i v e l y as possible the agency's capacity to make soundly-based plans i n the metropolitan context. In order to keep the questionnaire reasonably b r i e f , questions r e l a t i n g to employment studies, and aesthetic features (number eight i n the urban land eg studies) were omitted. The subject of studying public a t t i -59 tudes and preferences regarding land use 7 was incorporated 5 4 I b i d . , p. 342. 55lbid. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 343. 5 7 I b i d . 5 8 s e e p. 63. 59lbid. 65 i n the s e r v i c e e f f i c i e n c y s e c t i o n of the questionnaire, according to the requirements of the Test Framework. For convenience, the subject of whether or not the agency has prepared a general plan was also considered i n the policy e f f i c i e n c y section, although t h i s subject relates to the other two aspects of e f f i c i e n c y as wel l . Two standards are prescribed i n the Test Framework r e l a t i n g to administrative e f f i c i e n c y . These are: that the by-laws, p o l i c i e s , and public works of the municipality should conform to the recommendations of the advance planning agency; and that a l l planning operations should be well co-ordinated one with another, with the agency i t s e l f p r a c t i s i n g economy of e f f o r t . A number of questions were formulated under t h i s heading to test whether these c r i t e r i a are being met. Service E f f i c i e n c y Referring to the Test Framework again (page 20), i t can be seen that i n evaluating an agency f o r service e f f i -ciency i t i s necessary to discover whether the agency i s f u l f i l l i n g the purposes for which i t was established, and also to see whether i t i s cognizant of the community's goals and preferences. Questions were therefore formulated along these l i n e s . Selection of Sample fo r Survey of Planning Agencies There are eight municipal planning agencies i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. Ideally, a l l eight would have 66 been surveyed; but due to li m i t a t i o n s of time a f i f t y per cent sample was selected. In t h i s way a survey " i n depth" could be attempted. The Ci t y of Vancouver, as the largest single community i n the Metropolitan Area, could not, of course, be omitted. A set of c r i t e r i a was established f o r selecting the other three communities on a representative basis. The considerations leading to the establishment of these c r i t e r i a were the location, and the maturity of the community.6^ The communities selected f o r investigation on t h i s basis were the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, the City of New Westminster, and the D i s t r i c t of Surrey. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these commu-n i t i e s which had a bearing on t h e i r being selected f o r the survey are shown i n Table II.(page 67). I t w i l l be observed that the communities are also representative > of the universe i n that two are c i t i e s , and two are d i s t r i c t municipalities 6" 1' The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B.C. was also surveyed, both i n i t s capacity as the body given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of preparing a plan f o r the Lower Mainland region^ and as a body undertaking community planning on a contract basis f o r member mun i c i p a l i t i e s . With respect to the l a t t e r type of operation the Board's r e l a t i o n s h i p with C i t y of Port Coquitlam was chosen. The Regional Planning 60 Derived by comparing i t s 1965 population t o t a l with the estimated population t o t a l f o r the years 2000 to 2010 given i n Vancouver, B.C., City Planning Department, Vancouver's  Changing Population, June, 1964, Table 6. 6 ^ F o r an explanation of the difference between c i t i e s , and d i s t r i c t municipalities see page 55. 67 TABLE II CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITIES SELECTED FOR SURVEY OF PLANNING AGENCIES, VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA, B.C. 1965 population Community Location population as percentage of population, estimated popula-1965 tion for years 2000 - 2010° District of North Vancouver City of Vancouver City of New Westminster District of Surrey North Shore Burrard Peninsula Burrard Peninsula South of Fraser River 47,000 390,000 37,000 79,000 55% 85% 80% 14% The 1965 estimates of population are as given by the planning departments of the four communities. Derived by comparing the 1965 population totals with the estimated totals for the years 2000 to 2010 given in Vancouver, B.C., City Planning Department, Vancouver1s  Changing Population. June 1964, Table 6. 6a Board has been supplying community planning services under contract to this city since I960, and to neighbouring com-munities, the District of Coquitlam and the City of Port Moody since 1962. Method of Conducting the Survey of Selected Planning Agencies The survey was carried out by personal interview. The respondents were: Mr. Martin Chesworth, Municipal Planner, District of North Vancouver; Mr. Brahm Wiesman, Assistant Director of Planning, City of Vancouver; Mr. J.B. Chaster, City Planner, City of New Westminster; Mr. L.B. Kleyn, Planner, District of Surrey, and Mr. V.J. Parker, Executive Director of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. A summary of the results of the survey i s given in Table III, pages $9-72. IV. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE SURVEY OF SELECTED PLANNING AGENCIES. The results of the survey are commented upon under the headings of "policy efficiency," "administrative e f f i -ciency," and "service efficiency," and f i n a l l y an assess-ment i s provided. For convenience, in the rest of this chapter, the f u l l names of the municipal planning departments are abbreviated to the following: the North Vancouver Depart-ment, the Vancouver Department, the New Westminster Depart-ment, and the Surrey Department. When reference i s being made to the Regional Planning Board in i t s capacity as a regional planning agency, i t i s called the Board. When i t TABLE III RESULTS OF SURVEY OF SELECTED PLANNING AGENCIES VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA, B.C. Question 3 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t Vancouver New West-minster Surrey Board Consul-t a n t Board0 1. Economic study p a r t i a l yes no no no yes 2. Economic study published no no no no no yes 3. Popn. estimate sympto- symptoma- use symptoma- from Re- mathemati-Method matic data t i c data L.M.R.P.B. t i c data gional c a l etc. studies 4. Popn. estimates published no yes no yes yes yes 5. Behaviour patterns p a r t i a l p a r t i a l no p a r t i a l no p a r t i a l 6. Maps: Topography yes no yes yes yes yes land use yes no p a r t i a l yes yes yes age of bldgs. yes outdated yes p a r t i a l yes yes s t r u c t u r a l quality no outdated p a r t i a l p a r t i a l no p a r t i a l land values no p a r t i a l yes yes yes p a r t i a l environmental quality no no yes no no p a r t i a l a. A l l questions on t h i s page relate to policy e f f i c i e n c y . See Appendix A, pages 123-5 f o r text of questions. b. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, as consultant to Port Coquitlam. c. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, as regional planning agency. TABLE III (continued) Question** North Vancouver D i s t r i c t Vancouver New West-minster Surrey Board Consul-tant Board 7. Cost-revenue studies p a r t i a l p a r t i a l no no from Regi-onal studies p a r t i a l 8. Traffic-volume counts yes yes yes yes, yes yes 9. Date l a s t 0-D survey 1955 1955 1955 none 1955 (p-ar^ial) 10. General plan yes no no yes yes yes 11 Date plan commenced 1957-8 1955 1965 1962 I960 1952 12. Date l a t e s t r e v i s i o n 1965 under re-v i s i o n 3/66 13. Plan status u n o f f i c i a l — u n o f f i c i a l u n o f f i c i a l u n o f f i c i a l 14. Components plan yes yes yes (one ) yes no yes 15. Cap.improvement programs yes yes no no p a r t i a l — A l l questions on thi s page relate to policy e f f i c i e n c y . o TABLE III (continued) Question North Vancouver District Vancouver New West-minster Surrey Board Consul-tant Board 16. f Acceptance of proposals 17. Method of co-ordination informal informal formal informal arrange-ment Board plans neighbour N.A. as well 18. Advance plan-ning sub-unit yes yes no no yes yes ( a l l technical staff)g 19. Advance sub-unit used for current work yes yes partly no 20. Consultants employed yes yes no yes no no 21. Prof, staff, No. tech. staff, no. cl e r i c , staff, no 2 6 . 1.5 20 11 18 3 2 1 2 4 1 1 (pt.-time) 6 as reqd. 4 as reqd. 3 22. Salaries $870-895 $627-1696 $627-1004 $703-1074 N.A. $637-1042 e A l l questions relate-' to administrative efficiency, ^Questionj 16 did not e l i c i t answers which could be evaluated. ^"Technical staff" included technicians and draftsmen. TABLE III (continued) Question North Vancouver District Vancouver New West minster Surrey Board Consul-tant Board 23. agency expendi-ture 1965 $64,000 not $380,000 available $62,000 $3,400 $86,000^ 24, population '65 47,000 390,000 37,000 79,000 9,500 1,034,000 25. per capita cost*' $1.36 $0.97 — $0.78 $0.36 $0.05 26. date agency established 1955 1951 1965 1958 1960k 1949-50 27. terms of ref. no yes no no yes yes 28. method goals decided see comments on page/. .8 6 29. studies of preferences no no no no no yes 30. prof.staff residing in area 0 10 0 1 0 6 Questions 23 to 25 relate to administrative efficiency; questions 26 to 30 relate to service efficiency. x0nly $52,000 derived from municipal grants. Agency expenditure divided by population. Date appointed consultant to Port Coquitlam. 73 i s being referred to i n i t s capacity as a consultant to Port Coquitlam i t i s c a l l e d the Board Consultant. When a question of the questionnaire i s being commented upon, i t s number i s given i n brackets. Pol i c y E f f i c i e n c y (Question 1). Except f o r the North Vancouver Depart-ment which has produced interpretations of some of the Board's i n d u s t r i a l studies i n the past, only the Vancouver Department and the Board have car r i e d out economic analyses of any depth. Using Chapin's terminology, the Vancouver Department's study dealing with commercial land outside the Central Business D i s t r i c t uses descriptive techniques mainly. The Board's study, dealing with industry i n the Lower Mainland contains a simple input-output table, and 63 some approximation analyses f o r deriving forecasts. J The Board's study was published, i n contrast to the Vancouver study which remains unpublished. I f Chapin's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of urban economic analyses i s accepted, the Board carried i t s study to a more sophistxateid stage. ^ ^Vancouver, B.C., City Planning Department, "Commercial Land Use Outside the C.B.D., City of Vancouver, "Technical Report, November, 1962 (mimeographed)•(Unpublished). 63Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Manufacturing  Industry i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia^ (New Westminster, B.C., 1960~n ^Chapin sums up h i s views on economic analyses i n these wordds ... While general descriptive studies s t i l l seem to predominate i n planning agency investigations of the eco-nomy, the next most common form of analysis i s the economic base study. Both of these approaches serve a purpose i n 74 (Question 3). Population studies have been carried out by a l l agencies, with the exception of the New West-minster Department, which i s using the Board's estimates. The tendency i s for local agencies to use symptomatic data, such as estimates of school enrolments, from which trends were derived. The Board has developed forecasts for the Region partly based on forecasts for larger areas, such as those made for Western Canada and partly based on mathemati-cal projections. The Board also produces forecasts for each municipality in the Lower Mainland Region. (Question 5). Results of the question relating to behaviour patterns, or activity systems, show that with the exception of New Westminster a l l municipal agencies have access to surveys of patronizing habits of residents in relation to specific r e t a i l areas. Such surveys are con-ducted more often by private consultants than by the plan-ning agencies themselves. The Board has carried out a par-t i a l behaviour pattern survey in i t s studies of manufac-turing industries, where patterns of trade between manu-facturing firms within the Lower Mainland and between Lower Mainland firms and firms outside the region were described; sketching out a general view of the urban economy. As the planning program advances to a more detailed stage, insights provided by the more detailed analyses of input-output or regional accounts approach may be very important. In the f i n a l analysis the apprach followed w i l l be determined by the use to which the study is to be put and such considerations as budget for the study, the stage of the technical program and so on. Chapin, p_p_. c i t . , p. 149. 6 5 I b i d . , pp. 410-11. ^°Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Manufacturing  Industry in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia,pp.58-63* 75 (Question 6). There i s evidence that most of the l o c a l agencies have earried out the basic urban land studies. There are two unusual features, however. The Vancouver Department has less of the basic maps i n up-to-date form than any of the other agencies, and the Board has a r e l a -t i v e l y large number of the basic maps i n up-to-date form i n comparison with the other agencies. (Question 7). 'A'he only published cost-revenue studies are those carried out on a sample basis by the 67 Board f o r "sprawl" areas. Other agencies had ca r r i e d out some work i n t h i s f i e l d , including Vancouver. (Question 8) . A l l agencies have access to t r a f f i c volume counts f o r t h e i r planning areas. The l a s t compre-hensive o r i g i n and destination survey, (Question 9) cove-r i n g part of the metropolitan area, was carried out i n 1955, as part of the transportation study conducted by the Techh n i c a l Committee fo r Metropolitan Highway Planning mentioned on page 5'7. (Question 10). The only agencies which did not claim to have general plans were the Vancouver Department, and the New Westminster Department. Of the general plans, none has the status of "established" or " o f f i c i a l , " although both 'Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Economic  Aspects of Urban Sprawl (New Westminster, B.C., 1956). 76 the Surrey Department and the Board are seeking to have t h e i r plans raised to o f f i c i a l status. The North Vancouver Department's plan, contained i n one volume, includes a l l the component parts of a general plan mentioned i n the d e f i -6$ n i t i o n of general plan given on p. 8. Although the status of t h i s plan i s " u n o f f i c i a l , " the council has approved the text of the plan, and a new zoning by-law has recently been enacted which i s based on the plan. The Sureey Department's plan although complete i n a l l technical d e t a i l s , had not yet been published. The Vancouver Department has only some components of a general plan, (relating to road transport, parks, apartment buildings, and central business d i s t r i c t ) . There seems to be no clear, formal explanation f o r the Vancouver Department's not having produced a general plan. One reason \ -x i advanced by the Assistant Director of Plan-ning was that there was too much emphasis on producing a detailed "comprehensive development plan" i n the Department's early years. The fac t that the New Westminster Department has only been established f o r eleven months appears to be s u f f i c i e n t reason for i t s not having yet produced a general plan. The Board Consultant produced a general plan f o r Port Coquitlam i n I960, incorporating recommendations f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and commercial land use, public park areas, and major roads. Although t h i s plan The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Planning and Property Department, "Plan ' 6 4 , " (North Van-6 o u v e r , B.C., I 9 6 5 ) , (mimeographed). 77 remains u n o f f i c i a l i n status, the Port Coquitlam zoning by-law i s based on i t and i t has guided the Board Consultant i n i t s work f o r that c i t y since the plan was produced. The Board's plan f o r the Region was commenced i n 1952, and was produced i n preliminary form i n 1963. The pre-liminary version shows the Region developed as "a v a l l e y of separate c i t i e s surrounded by productive countryside and 69 linked by a regional freeway network." At the time of wri t i n g , although the Regional Plan i s r e a l l y i n the form of an u n o f f i c i a l plan steps are being taken to r a i s e i t to o f f i -c i a l status, (see p. 100 ). i t includes two maps, the Long Range Plan Map, and the Current Stage Plan Map, with suppor-t i n g text. The Long Range Plan Map does not extend to any greater d e t a i l than to show the region divided into f i v e major Deve-70 lopment Areas' - Urban, Rural, I n d u s t r i a l , Park, and Reserve - and e x i s t i n g expressways. The Current Stage Plan Map i s concerned with the development of the Region i n the immediate future. The Development Area C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are subdivided as shown i n Table IV, page 78. Development P o l i c i e s are established f o r the Deve-lopment Areas, concerning such matters as size of r e s i d e n t i a l ~7Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Chance and  Challenge (New Westminster, B.C., 1963), p. 7. 70 The Development Areas resemble the zoning d i s t r i c t s of a zoning plan. 78 TABLE IV DRAFT OFFICIAL REGIONAL PLAN, LOWER MAINLAND PLANNING AREA, B.C., DEVELOPMENT AREA CLASSIFICATION General C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S p e c i f i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Urban Rural Established Urban Developing Urban Acreage Rural Upland Rural Lowland Rural I n d u s t r i a l Developing I n d u s t r i a l Potential I n d u s t r i a l Park Established Park Potential Park Reserve Limited Use Reserve I n s t i t u t i o n a l Reserve Undetermined Reserve Adapted from the table given on page 6, Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, O f f i c i a l Regional Plan f o r the  Lower Mainland Planning Area, (New Westminster, B.C., 190*57. 79 71 l o t i n r e l a t i o n to the standard of services provided; The Regional Plan f o r the Lower Mainland Planning Area d i f f e r s from the Plan of the Metropolitan Toronto Plan-ning Area i n that i t does not show major commercial, major i n s t i t u t i o n a l , transportation and u t i l i t i e s , nor private open space d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from public open space. ^he Toron-to Plan also divides major transportation f a c i l i t i e s into expressways, major a r t e r i a l roads, rapid t r a n s i t , and com-72 muter r a i l l i n e s , ' which the Lower Mainland plan does not. In i t s present form the Regional Plan for the Lower Main-land Planning Area i s not a general plan as defined on page 8 since i t does not give the location of commercial areas, nor s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l regarding the location, character, and extent of the systems of public and private f a c i l i t i e s of a community service nature. Administrative E f f i c i e n c y (Question 16). The question r e l a t i n g to acceptance of plans or planning studies did not produce answers which could be e a s i l y evaluated. Part of the problem with the question ilay.iri the vagueness of the wording. The text of the question was, "Were the l a s t two planning studies or plans submitted by the agency to the council accepted ?" 71 ' Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, O f f i c i a l  Regional Plan f o r the Lower Mainland Planning Area"! (New Westminster, B.u., 1965J. "^Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board, O f f i c i a l Plan  of the Metropolitan Toronto Planning Area, (Toronto, Decem-ber, 1965). 80 This subject alone could have formed the subject of ano-ther t h e s i s . Furthermore, the impression was gained that a s k i l f u l planning d i r e c t o r would adjust the contents of any plan or study so that i t would not be rejected, i f he had received preliminary warning that there was any danger of r e j e c t i o n taking place. The answers to the question ranged from a high degree of acceptance i n the smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , to a lower degree of acceptance i n the case of the Vancouver Department. In the l a t t e r case, there was apparently a ten-dency f o r the City Council to make decisions on s p e c i f i c projects, independent of the Planning Department's advice, although the Department was more successful with larger issues. In the case of Port Coquitlam, i t was reported that confidence i n the Board Consultant's work took about three years to reach a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l . In the l a s t two years, however, a high degree of acceptance has been reached. As i s described on pagelOO, the Board i s now i n the process of discovering whether or not i t s Regional Plan f o r the Lower Mainland Planning Area w i l l achieve ultimate acceptance. (For the d i s t i n c t i o n between the terms "Board Consultant" and "Board" see page 72). (Question 17). The problem of co-ordinating i t s planning with that of the adjoining municipalities did not aris e f o r the Board, since i t was i n e f f e c t planning at a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . The Board Consultant was able to co-ordi-8 1 -nate i t s planning f o r Port Coquitlam with the planning of the adjoining municipalities because i t also acted as a consultant to the closest neighbour, the D i s t r i c t of Coquitlam, and i n i t s other r o l e as the regional planning agency, as the body responsible f o r the o v e r a l l planning of the four abutting m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Coquitlam, Port Co^ quitlam, P i t t Meadows, and Surrey. Apart from t h e i r a l l being included i n the regional planning area and subject to co-ordination by the Board with i t s hitherto limited powers, there are no formal arrangements by which the other (surveyed) municipaliagencies co-ordinate the planning of t h e i r areas with that of surrounding areas. Two cases of lack of co-operation were i n f a c t reported. The f i r s t case involves the D i s t r i c t s of North Van-couver and West Vancouver. With two exceptions the boundary between these two D i s t r i c t s i s formed by the Capilano River. In one of these exceptions a triangular piece of the Dis-t r i c t of North Vancouver protrudes into West Vancouver. A developer applied i n 1965 to have t h i s 11 acre portion and 73 a contiguous 1 acre ^ portion i n West Vancouver rezoned to permit the construction of 943 suites i n eight buildings ranging from ten to sixteen storeys i n height. The re-zoning was opposed by the D i s t r i c t of West Vancouver, on the grounds that i t would be incompatible with the surrounding low den-s i t y development i n that portion of West Vancouver. It Acreages are approximate. 82 appears at present as though the District of North Vancou-ver intends to proceed with the re-zoning over the obje-7L ctions of West Vancouver. In the second instance, a co-operative arrangement existed between the Councils of Surrey and Delta, in order to have Scott Road, which forms a common boundary to the two, designated as a limited access highway by the British Columbia Department of Highways. At a joint meeting o£ the two Councils, held in 1962, i t was agreed to re s t r i c t com-mercial and industrial zoning to a designated length of 75 Scott Road, on each side of this Road. However a planning study carried out for Delta by a planning consultant in 1963 made recommendations for zoning along Scott Road which did not conform to the terms of the agreement made in the pre-vious year. Although i t has subsequently become evident that the Delta Council does not wish to follow these recom-mendations, the co-operative arrangements which existed pre-77 viously have been allowed to lapse. ^The information regarding this incident was obtained on March 31, 1966 through telephone conversations with the Planner and the Municipal Clerk of the District of Nort£ Vancouver. See also Appendix B, (p.126). 75 Corporation of the District of Surrey, B.C., Plan-ning Division, "Scott Road," (Cloverdale, B.C., July 1962), pp. 3-4 (mimeographed). Dieter Naumann, Development, in Delta (West Van-couver, B.C. December, 1963), P. 72. 7?From a telephone conversation held with Mr. T.S. Dennison, Planning Officer, Corporation of Delta, on April 4, 1966. 83 (Question 18). Two of the local agencies had ad-vance planning sub-units, and a l l the respondents in these agencies f e l t i t was desirable to keep this function clear 78 from day-to-day operations. However a l l these advance plan-79 ning subunits were used for current planning as well. In the case of the Board acting as the regional planning agency, a l l operations by professional and technical staff can be classified as advance planning. The Board Consultant also tends to operate only as an advance planning agency since i t s practice i s to leave the implementation of i t s plans to the client municipality. Nevertheless, as a consultant, day-to-day advice on such items as zoning i s given by the Board Con-sultant to client municipalities. The allocation of pro-fessional staff to Port Coquitlam at present i s one planner, part-time. (Question 20). The answers to the question on the use of consultants showed that with the exceptions of the New Westminster Department, which was barely established, 80 and of the Board, planning consultants are used in a l l 78 The Surrey Department had previously an advance planning section, but had lost these staff members recently in a dispute about salaries. (Information gained by personal interview with the Planner, District of Surrey, March 22,1966). 79 In conversation with the writer, on December 29, 1965, Mr. Wiesman, Assistant Director of Planning, City of Vancouver, estimated that in the Vancouver Department only f i f t y per cent of the advance planning sub-unitls time is actually spent in advance planning. 80 Consultants were not employed by the Board in pre-paring i t s regional plan,or-in i t s work as a consultant to Port Coquitlam. 84 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Work mentioned as being done by consul-tants included economic studies, apartment zoning studies, urban renewal studies, and studies connected with transport-a t i o n . Consultants were mentioned as being used f o r eco-nomic studies more than f o r the other studies. (Question 21). The sample was too small to!reveal any r e a l trends i n connection with the composition of s t a f f . S u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t appeared that the agencies with the l a r g -est number of people i n t h e i r planning areas, (the Board, and the Vancouver Department), had r a t i o s of professional s t a f f 81 to technical s t a f f of the order of 1.5 to 2.0,to 1. New Westminster formed an exception, perhaps i n d i c a t i n g that newly formed agencies tend to have a more highly q u a l i f i e d s t a f f . Although the Planner f o r Surrey stated he was not a member of a professional planning organization, he was classed as a professional s t a f f member i n Table I I I , page 71. (Question 22). Salary scales are r e l a t i v e l y uniform i n a l l the agencies surveyed, although there i s a great d i s -p a r i t y between the top of the scale for the Director of Plan-ning f o r the City of Vancouver, ($1,696 per month), and the top of the scale f o r the Executive Director of the Regional Planning Board, ($1,042 per month). For explanation of terms, re f e r to the text of Q u e s t i o n a l , p. 124. 85 (Question 24). Comparison between the per capita costs of the Vancouver Department and North Vancouver Department showed that costs did not necessarily rise with the scale of operations, The low figure for the Board Con-sultant was partly due to the fact that i t did not include a l l the costs of planning administration. Service Efficiency. (Question 27). Apart from the Regional Planning Board, the only agency which had any formal terms of refe-rence was the Vancouver Department. In the City of Van-couver, the responsibility for planning rests with the Technical Planning Board, comprising the eleven senior department heads, (including the Superintendent of the Board of School Trustees and the Superintendent of the Board of Park Commissioners both of whom are from outside the ranks of the City s t a f f ) . The chairman of the Board 82 is the Director of Planning, whose Department carries out 83 most of the Board's technical and c l e r i c a l work. As set out in By-law No. 3497 of the City of Vancouver, the pre-paration of a development plan for the physical development of the City i s the first-mentioned of the Board's specific duties? 4 82 The Director of Planning's Department i s the City Planning Department, which in this section has been called the Vancouver Department. 83 G. Sutton Brown, "Planning Administration, "Com-munity Planning Review. Volume IV (1954), pp. 26-27. 84 See Appendix C, p. 12 7. 86 (Question 28). the question about how planning goals were decided, revealed that i n the smaller agencies goals tended to be established by the planning d i r e c t o r himself without any formal mechanism f o r te s t i n g them. The Vancouver Department however c i r c u l a t e s i t s plans and re-ports to a number of organizations f o r comment. The Board has been a number of years i n evolving i t s Regional Plan. Public hearings were held on p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the studies which led up to the Regional Plan, and reports were published summarizing the reactions of the public. (Question 29). 'A'he only agency which had ca r r i e d out a study into expectations and preferences of residents was 85 the Board; t h i s being published i n a report i n 1963. The enquiry investigated the attitudes of residents of sprawl areas to the apparent d e f i c i e n c i e s i n municipal f a c i l i t i e s , and attempted to discover the reasons why these people moved to sprawl areas at a l l . (Question 30). ^he question regarding where profes-sional s t a f f l i v e d was inserted to f i n d out i f , where a high proportion of an agency's professional s t a f f l i v e d i n i t s planning area, formal studies of expectations and pre-ferences of residents of the area would prove to be unneces-Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, The Urban  Frontier (New Westminster, B.C; I963). 87 sary, because of the professional s t a f f ' s i d e n t i f y i n g them-selves with the community. No c o r r e l a t i o n could be esta-blished. However analysis of the answers to t h i s question fo r the Vancouver Department, and the Surrey Department, showed that one of every two professional s t a f f members l i v e s outside the planning area. One of the professional s t a f f of the North Vancouver Department l i v e s i n the adjoining City of North Vancouver. The New Westminster Department had not been established long enough for any professional s t a f f members to move into the area. None of the Regional Planning Board's professional s t a f f members l i v e d i n Port Coquitlam. Evaluation Examination of the responses to the questionnaire indicates that answers which could be evaluated were obtained r e l a t i n g to some of the questions only. These were the ques-tions numbered 1, 6, 7, 10, 17, and 29, the f u l l text of which i s given on pages A r a t i n g scale was prepared to evaluate the e f f i c i e n c y of the agencies i n r e l a t i o n to these questions i n classes of "poor," " f a i r , " "good," and "excellent." The responses i n d i -cated that the Vancouver Department, the Board Consultant, the Board, and the Departments of North Vancouver, New West-minster, and Surrey considered as a group,^could -each be considered a® four categories unique i n themselves. The evaluation was carried out as o b j e c t i v e l y as possible. For example i n r e l a t i o n to Question 1, (economic study),the aa Board i s rated as "good"because i t had produced and p u b l i -shed a r e l a t i v e l y sophisticated study of an important part of the economy of the Lower Mainland Region. The Vancouver Department was rated as " f a i r " because i t had produced only a general view of an important part of i t s planning area's 86 economy. The "other" Departments had on the average pro-duced no study, nor had the Board Consultant; these were 87 therefore rated as "poor." Question 6, (maps) could be rated much more e a s i l y . The ratings are shown i n Table VI, page 89. 88 From t h i s table, i t appears that i n regard to these questions, the Board i s the most e f f i c i e n t i n a l l three aspects, with the Board Consultant next, and with Vancouver and "other" Departments grouped together i n a t h i r d cate-gory. In two other questions (question 3, r e l a t i n g to methods of estimating population, and question 28, methods of s§leeting7goals) comparison was not possible because tech-niques used by the agencies varied with the scale of the agency's operations. 86 See pj . 73 . g 7The North Vancouver Department had produced a des-c r i p t i v e study based on the Board's i n d u s t r i a l studies. This however did not rai s e the average f o r a l l the "other Depart-ments" high enough to l i f t them out of the class of "poor". °The r a t i n g could be open to question i n that i t does not take into account the great length of time occupied by the Board i n producing i t s regional plan. However i t s pre-liminary Regional $lan was produced i n 1963. (eleven years i n preparation!. The Vancouver Department s t i l l has no general plan although work was commenced eleven years ago. TABLE V 89 EFFICIENCY RATINGS OF SELECTED PLANNING AGENCIES, VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA, B.C. Questions Other Depart-ments Vancouver Board Depart-ment Consultant Board Policy . Efficiency 0 1 l.^Economic poor study 6. Maps good 7. Cost-reve-^nue studies poor 10. General plan good f a i r f a i r good poor poor good f a i r good good good f a i r good Administrative  Efficiency 17. Methods of co-ordination poor poor 19. Advance plan-ning sub-unit used for current work, poor poor good excellent good excellent Service  Efficiency 29. Studies of preferences. poor poor f a i r f a i r aSee Table I, p. 20 for explanation of meaning of terms: "policy" "administrative" and "service" efficiency. ^The numbers refer to those of the questions in the questionnaire, (see Appendix A, pages 123-5 )for f u l l text of questions). 90 Assessment I f the evaluation i s combined with the commentary on the questions which i s contained i n pages 73 to 87, the following assessment can be made. A common planning agency which i s operating at the regional l e v e l i s better able than l o c a l agencies, to carry out analyses i n depth r e l a t i n g to such questions as the re-gional economy, behaviour patterns, and expectations and preferences of residents of the region. A common planning agency i s better able than the usual l o c a l planning agency to carry out cost-revenue studies. A common planning agency can supply supporting r e-search services to l o c a l agencies. For example, the Board produces forecasts of population f o r municipalities i n i t s region, which are es p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r newly-established agencies. Local planning agencies employ consultants f o r eco-nomic studies and other s p e c i a l i z e d tasks. The core of knowledge about the Metropolitan Area could be expanded i f a common planning agency replaced the consultants f o r some of these studies and tasks. There i s evidence of lack of co-ordination i n the plan ning of border areas at least of adjoining m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . This lack of co-ordination i s not evident i n Port Coquitlam where the Board Consultant provides an advance planning ser-vice f o r the closest neighbouring municipality as we l l . 91 E f f i c i e n c y i n the administrative sense could be increased i n l o c a l planning departments i f the advance planning function could be kept separate from current plan-89 ning. V. THE POLITICAL ATTITUDE SURVEY Questions f o r t h i s survey were evolved around the concept of Regional " D i s t r i c t s . 9 0 The f i r s t of the question-naire's f i v e questions merely asked the resident's reactions to establishing a Regional D i s t r i c t f o r the Vancouver Metro-po l i t a n Area and assigning to i t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of making plans f o r the Area. In the remaining questions more and more powers were assigned to the hypothetical Regional D i s t r i c t , u n t i l i n the l a s t question, reactions were sought to the proposal to amalgamate the whole Metropolitan Area into one municipality. The respondents to the survey were: Reeve M.M. Frazer, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver; Mayor Stuart G i f f o r d , C i t y of New Westminster; Reeve R.J. Harvey, D i s t r i c t of Surrey; and Mayor R. Hope, City of Port Coquitlam. With the exception of Mr. Rathie, who was surveyed by l e t t e r , and Mr. Hope, who was surveyed by telephone, the survey was conducted by per-sonal interview. Although due to l i m i t a t i o n s of time the g 9See footnote 79, page 83. 9 0See pages 58 - 9 , f o r a discussion of Regional D i s t r i c t s 92 Chairman of the Regional Planning Board was not interviewed, the Executive Director's opinions about the future of the Board were obtained. The f u l l text of the questions i s i n -cluded i n Appendix D, pages 128-9. VI. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE POLITICAL ATTITUDE SURVEY Although Reeve Frazer, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, considers that i t would be "reasonable and f e a s i b l e " to set 91 up a Regional D i s t r i c t , giving i t planning r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , he f e e l s that parochial attitudes i n some quarters might cause resistance to t h i s proposal. Mr. Frazer favours a s s i -gning the further r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the Regional D i s t r i c t suggested i n the second question, (see page 128), but does not agree with designating police as a metropolitan function, since he f e e l s that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police can provide a service at less cost than that which would be en-countered using a metropolitan police f o r c e . He considers that on o f f i c i a l metropolitan plan would be fea s i b l e i f taxes col l e c t e d from land and improvements were shared out over the whole metropolitan area. Mr. Frazer f e e l s that amalgamation would be f e a s i b l e eventually. 01 In these interviews with two reeves and with one Mayor, i t was explained that the Regional D i s t r i c t was contemplated as planning to a greater degree of d e t a i l than the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board had attempted i n i t s draft O f f i c i a l Plan. 93 An excerpt from the l e t t e r from Mayor Hathie, C%ty of Vancouver, i s reproduced, i n Appendix E, pp. 1 3 0 - 1 . Mr. Rathie states that "metropolitan government as such i s not acceptable i n the Vancouver Area," but i s more favourably disposed towards annexation. He f e e l s that i t i s very d i f -f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l l y to delegate powers from the municipal l e v e l to the metropolitan l e v e l . Unlike Reeve Frazer, Mr. Rathie considers that i t w i l l be necessary ultimately to have a metropolitan police force. The Mayor's answer to the question about an o f f i c i a l metropolitan plan seems to indicate that he f e e l s that the plan w i l l be i n f l e x i b l e . Mayor G i f f o r d , City of New Westminster, favours the Regional D i s t r i c t as defined i n the second question, except fo r the i n c l u s i o n of the power to borrow, since New West-minster i s currently i n a good f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n . He stres-sed throughout the interview that he i s concerned with the costs of supplying services, and that he could not support metropolitan government unless i t saved money f o r the tax-payers of New Westminster. Mr. G i f f o r d i s opposed to amalga-mation, and to pooling of tax revenues. He also points out that New Westminster's economy i s to a great extent centred on the Fraser River, ( r e f e r r i n g to New Westminster's port function). Reeve Harvey, D i s t r i c t of Surrey, considers that Surrey i s an area which i s lar g e l y r u r a l i n character. He pointed out i n the interview that Surrey has always considered 94 New Westminster to be the nearest "downtown," and that the new regional centre under construction at Guildford i n Surrey w i l l make the D i s t r i c t even more independent of Van-couver. Mr. Harvey indicates that Surrey i s dependent on the metropolitan community only f o r water supply, (through the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t ) . Mayor Hope, City of Port Coquitlam, expresses concern that costs of supplying municipal services to Port Coquitlam w i l l r i s e i f i t becomes part of a Regional D i s t r i c t with a considerable range of powers. He points out f o r example that t h i s c i t y i s presently able to pay much lower wage scales to i t s employees, than i n the c i t y of Vancouver thus 92 ( keeping costs to a low l e v e l . The Executive Director of the Regional Planning Board reports that conversations with the Miniister of Municipal A f f a i r s (for the Province) i n d i -cates that i f , for example, two Regional D i s t r i c t s were esta-blished i n the Lower Mainland, the Board could possibly 93 remain as the planning agency f o r both D i s t r i c t s . v  Assessment The impression was obtained that i f federated metro-po l i t a n government on the Toronto model were to be e s t a b l i -shed i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, i t would have to be Telephone conversation with Mr. Hope, Mayor of Port Coquitlam, March 31, 1966. 93 '^Telephone conversation with Mr. Parker, Executive Director, March 25, 1066. 95 imposed, since none of the mayors and reeves surveyed were unreservedly i n i t s favour. A l l were cautious about a re-l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d o f f i c i a l metropolitan general plan, some considering that i t would be necessary f o r tax revenues to OA be shared before i t could be successfully implemented. A l l respondents pointed out that a number of "regional d i s -t r i c t s , " the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t and Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, f o r example, existed a l -ready in.the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. The Reeve of Surrey and the Mayor of Port Coquitlam did not consider t h e i r areas as part of the metropolitan community, and the Mayor of New Westminster seemed to be undecided on t h i s point. VII. THE HYPOTHESIS IN THE LIGHT OF THE CASE STUDY. Examination of the r e s u l t s of the Survey of Selected Planning Agencies and of the P o l i t i c a l Attitude^Survey enables an assessment of the hypothesis to be made. A common metropolitan planning agency would be better able to carry out analyses i n depth r e l a t i n g to such ques-tions as the urban economy, population, and behaviour patterns w^Although i t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g subject, the question of sharing taxes i n a metropolitan area l i e s out-side the hypothesis of t h i s thesis and i s not considered further. 96 than are municipal agencies. Since these analyses can pro-vide greater knowledge about an urban area, decisions can be made on the basis of more information, leading to greater policy e f f i c i e n c y . Administrative e f f i c i e n c y i n the supply of advance planning services to l o c a l m unicipalities could be increased i f work presently assigned to consultants by l o c a l agencies were assigned to a common agency instead, because t h i s would help b u i l d up a store of knowledge r e l a t i n g to the metropolitan area. I f a metropolitan general plan were ado-pted o f f i c i a l l y , disputes between municipalities r e l a t i n g to land use could be minimized. D i f f i c u l t i e s could ari s e i n r e l a t i o n to the efficiency, i n the service sense, with which advance planning services can be supplied to l o c a l m unicipalities under the arrangement described i n the hypothesis and assumptions. The question revolves around cognizance of each l o c a l community's goals and preferences. I f the views of the surveyed reeves and mayors represent those of communities' residents, at least h a l f of the communities are r e l a t i v e l y conscious of having i d e n t i t i e s d i s t i n c t from that of the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. (See the responses of the fteeve of Surrey, on pages 93-94, the Mayor of Port Coquitlam, on page 94 and, with reference to his remarks on his c i t y ' s port-function, the Mayor of New Westminster, on page 93. On the other harid, the example of the Regional Planning Board suggests that a 97 common planning agency would analyse preferences of l o c a l c i t i z e n s more obj e c t i v e l y than municipal agencies attempt to do. VIII. IMPROVING THE PLANNING OF LOCAL MUNICIPALITIES IN THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA The purpose of t h i s section i s to formulate recom-mendations f o r improving the supply and qu a l i t y of advance planning services to l o c a l municipalities i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area. However i n looking f o r the means of accomplishing t h i s task, some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be made. F i r s t of a l l , although metropolitan and regional problems have been mentioned, the research method used here has ten-ded to concentrate on l o c a l issues, s k i r t i n g the wider issues. The question of transportation e s p e c i a l l y has been inadequately treated. Second, canvassing only mayors and reeves i s not adequate to obtain an idea of the f e a s i b i l i t y of a c o l l e c t i v e solution to metropolitan problems. None of these poeple was i n a position to take an o v e r a l l view. Third, the research method did not prove that the present l e v e l of l o c a l planning service i s inadequate, but only that i t could be more e f f i c i e n t i n some respects. The l e v e l of planning service demanded by a community appears to vary according to i t s location and, presumably, associated s o c i a l 98 95 and c u l t u r a l patterns. The means available to improve advance planning services i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area depend to a great extent upon whether or not the draft Regional Plan fo r the Lower Mainland Planning Area i s formally adopted. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s stemming from these alternatives are re-viewed i n the following paragraphs. Means of Improving Advance Planning Services i f Regional  Plan i s Adopted. If the Regional Plan i s adopted, and no metropolitan planning framework i s established, the extent and l o c a t i o n of major land uses at least w i l l have been f i x e d , providing a firm background f o r regional transportation studies. Inter-municipal c o n f l i c t s over zoning could s t i l l occur however. The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board would continue to provide research i n depth f o r l o c a l planning agencies. With an adopted Regional Plan, however, a Regional D i s t r i c t could s t i l l be established with purely metropolitan 9 5 7 ' I f the l e v e l of service demanded i s r e f l e c t e d by the amount a community i s prepared to pay, the North American region i n which c i t i e s demanded the highest l e v e l of service was the P a c i f i c region of the United States, with Canada next. The ranking according to l e v e l of service demanded i s as follows, ("regions" r e f e r to areas i n the United States) : P a c i f i c region, Canada, Mountain region, New England re-gion, South A t l a n t i c region, East North Central region, West North Central region, Middle A t l a n t i c region. West South Central region, East South Central region. American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Planning Advisory Service, Expen-diture , S t a f f , and Salaries of Local Planning Agencies, re-port No March l o ^ t p . ^ T T S E l e T : 99 functions. These might be the f i v e functions proposed i n I960 by the Metropolitan Joint Committee (wholesale supply of water, trunk sewer and sewage treatment f a c i l i t i e s , public health and a i r p o l l u t i o n , metropolitan land use plan-\ 96 ning, and metropolitan parks). A land use and transporta-t i o n plan f o r the metropolitan area (a general plan, accor-ding to the d e f i n i t i o n on page 8), could be taken to the d e t a i l of the 1965 version of the draft O f f i c i a l Plan of 97 the Metropolitan Toronto Planning Area. ' The metropolitan general plan could be taken to the 98 l e v e l of an e s t a b l i s h e d 7 general plan, or of an o f f i c i a l general plan. Means of Improving Advance Planning Services i f Regional  Plan i s not Adopted. I f the Regional Plan i s not adopted, and no metropo-l i t a n planning framework i s established, some improvement can s t i l l take place. The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board could continue to press f o r adoption of the Regional Plan, so that i t would carry some authority through the f a c t that i t might be adopted at any time, ^his has been the case apparently with the dra f t O f f i c i a l Plan f o r the Metropolitan 99 Toronto Planning Area. 96 7 See page 58. 9?See pages 29 and 30. 9%ee pages 8 and 9. 9 9 S e e the quotation from Si l c o x , on page 31. 100 A Regional District could s t i l l be established with the same functions as proposed in pages 98-99, and a metropolitan general plan prepared. The metropolitan general plan could be taken to the level of an established general p l a n , or of an o f f i c i a l general plan. Returning to the Regional Plan, by March 17, 1966, the plan maps and the plan text"*"00 had been formally approved by the members of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. However, the Plan s t i l l requires approval from two-thirds of the member municipalities before i t can be forwarded to the provincial government for f i n a l approval. By March 17 out of the twenty-eight municipalities, six had approved the Plan outright with three being rated as po s s i b i l i t i e s , and four had given conditional approval with seven being rated as p o s s i b i l i t i e s , giving a possible total of twenty approvals In making the recommendations, therefore, i t has been as-sumed that the Plan w i l l actually become an O f f i c i a l Regional Plan. Recommendations It i s recommended that a Regional District be esta-blished for the metropolitan region with advance planning as the Regional District's function. 1 0 0See page 77. 1 Q 1The Municipal Act, R.S.B.C. I960,c.255, s.723 (2) 102 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Minutes of Executive Committee Meeting, New Westminster, B.C., March 17, 1966. 101 The reasons for this recommendation are: f i r s t , that i f the boundaries of the Regional District are established so as to f a c i l i t a t e i t s planning in the physical sense, i t is ,ilikely that i t would be suitable for the assumption of other functions; and second that there are indications that 103 a distinct metropolitan community is emerging. An example of this i s provided by the fact that the Reeve of Surrey doubted that his District belonged to the metropolitan re-gion. As long ago as 1954, the Regional Planning Board concluded that a "true metropolitan community... was... taking shape in the G r eater Vancouver Area." 1 0 4 Finally, the Re-gional District legislation provides a convenient frame-work for planning. It is also recommended that the Regional District prepare and adopt an o f f i c i a l general plan incorporating the following elements: a) A statement of the goals, the basic policies of the plan, and the major physical design elements; b) General location, character and extent of r e s i -dential, commercial and industrial areas; c) General location, character and extent of the systems of public and private f a c i l i t i e s of a community-service nature, such as public p-arks aftd:private hospitals which require relatively large amounts of land or significant concentra-tions of act i v i t i e s that have not been covered in (b), supra; and 103 Hodge and Robinson, op_. c i t . , p.x. 1 0 4See page 54 d) the major c i r c u l a t i o n system. 102 I f followed, t h i s course would eliminate c o n f l i c t s r e l a t i n g to land use i n border areas of component municipa-l i t i e s . I t would r e s u l t i n objectives and p r i o r i t i e s being hammered out f o r the Regional D i s t r i c t as a whole, and a forging of a sense of common purpose and destiny. Implementation of Recommendations I t i s recommended that the P r o v i n c i a l Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s set up a steering committee, with a staff, to determine the boundaries of the Regional D i s t r i c t , and also to determine i n a preliminary manner what functions other than planning i t might ultimately assume. 1 0^ It i s recommended that following the study by the steering Committee f o r the Regional D i s t r i c t i t s findings be published, and i f the reactions are favourable that a Re-gional D i s t r i c t be established with advance planning as the f i r s t function. ^In the past, conceptions of what constituted the metropolitan community have changed. In -^ he Greater Van-couver Metropolitan Community,1954. the D i s t r i c t s of Delta and Surrey which were included i n the 1961 Census as part of t h i s Metropolitan Area, were not considered to be part of the community. C r i t e r i a f o r whether or not they belonged to the metropolitan community might be applied to the future v a l l e y c i t i e s shown i n the draft regional plan. The reader i s r eferred to the map on pages 6 and 7 of the Lower Main-land Regional Planning Board's 1963 publication, Chance and Challenge. In t h i s way boundaries of the Regional D i s t r i c t could be established to coincide with those of the long range metropolitan community. In the l i g h t of the past changes i n what constituted the metropolitan community, the present census metropolitan area boundary may not prove ultimately to be a v a l i d planning region. 103 It i s recommended that the planning s t a f f of the proposed Regional D i s t r i c t produce metropolitan studies, followed by public hearings i n the manner of the Regional Planning Board. These studies could be prepared more rap i d l y than the Board was previously able to i n i t s back-ground studies to the Regional Plan, i f adequate planning s t a f f were made available to the Regional D i s t r i c t . The emphasis at t h i s stage should be on building patterns of co-operation between l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and other govern-mental agencies involved i n the development of the metropoli-tan region. The metropolitan studies should then be i n t e -grated to enable the production of an u n o f f i c i a l metropo-l i t a n general plan. When a considerable amount of agreement has been reached the u n o f f i c i a l metropolitan general plan should be raised to o f f i c i a l status. IX. GENERAL APPLICABILITY OF CONCLUSIONS FROM CASE STUDY. One of the lessons to be learned from t h i s study i s that the Vancouver region has a special character. Geography appears to have played a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n t h i s . Unlike Toronto, with i t s crescent form r a d i a t i n g from a centre, and Winnipeg also with a recognizable and stable centre, the Vancouver region i s expanding away from i t s major commercial centre. In a sense, the more i t expands the less a community 104 w i l l i t become. The fact that a l l except one of the mayors and reeves questioned i n t h i s study were extremely cautious about the f e a s i b i l i t y of metropolitan government i n the Vancouver region, may be s i g n i f i c a n t . However, the proposed Regional Plan may change t h i s . At the time of writing, i t appears possible that the required number of approvals w i l l be obtained to make i t an o f f i c i a l document. I f t h i s occurs, a s i g n i f i c a n t act of co-operation w i l l have taken place among the municipalities of the metropolitan region. The recommendations made f o r the metropolitan region have been based to a considerable degree upon the appacently successful experience of the Regional Planning Board. Despite the s p e c i a l nature of the Vancouver region, the author considers that the conclusions r e s u l t i n g from the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of planning agencies selected f o r study i n t h i s chapter w i l l have some general a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n other metro poli t a n areas. CHAPTER IV 105 FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study was based on the hypothesis that a common metropolitan planning agency could carry out advance planning f o r l o c a l m u n i c ipalities i n a metropolitan area more e f f i c i e n t l y than could t h e i r own planning departments. B r i e f l y , i t was assumed that the common planning agency would be a department of a metropolitan government esta-blished f o r the area, which was required to produce a metro-po l i t a n general plan for ultimate o f f i c i a l adoption. Once adopted, t h i s general plan would be binding on the metro-p o l i t a n government and on the municipal governments of the area. Chapter II was devoted to a review of l i t e r a t u r e , p r i n c i p a l l y concerning metropolitan planning, and with s p e c i a l reference to experience i n Toronto, Winnipeg, and Dade County, F l o r i d a . Other approaches to metropolitan planning were also described and an evaluation of the hypo-thesis was made. In Chapter I I I , the Vancouver Metropolitan Area of B r i t i s h Columbia was examined as a case study. Question-naires were evolved to examine the e f f i c i e n c y of the exis-t i n g framework f o r advance planning, and also to test out the p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing a system of metropolitan planning of the type envisaged by the hypo-106 - t h e s i s . An evaluation of the hypothesis was made and recommendations to improve the system of planning i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area were advanced, I. THE VALIDITY/OF THE HYPOTHESIS When the evaluation of the hypothesis ca r r i e d out i n r e l a t i o n to the review of l i t e r a t u r e of Chapter II i s com-bined with the evaluation conducted i n Chapter I I I , a com-posite view i s obtained. This i s now described under the three f a m i l i a r headings of e f f i c i e n c y , which f o r convenience are grouped i n reverse order. Service E f f i c i e n c y It may be concluded from both Chapters II and I I I , that the leaders of l o c a l communities do not very often consider that a metropolitan planning agency w i l l be f u l l y cognizant of the goals and preferences of t h e i r communities. This fear i s often great enough to prevent the communities from giving t h e i r consent to such a plan, ( i f the communi-t i e s a c t u a l l y possess such power), which may i n f a c t prevent i t s o f f i c i a l adoption. On the other hand, a metropolitan planning agency may attempt to analyse l o c a l goals and pre-ferences more objectively than independent municipal agencies. Administrative E f f i c i e n c y It can be seen i n both Chapters I I and I I I , that be-cause i t i s often d i f f i c u l t , partly f o r the reason explained 107 i n the preceding paragraph, to have a metropolitan general plan adopted o f f i c i a l l y , that the system proposed i n the hypothesis with i t s assumptions does not automatically pro-duce a high degree of administrative e f f i c i e n c y . In Toronto, procedural drrangements have been necessary to co-ordinate l o c a l planning with metropolitan planning?" No clear trends could be distinguished r e l a t i n g to the costs of advance plan-ning using a metropolitan agency, as against carrying out this function by l o c a l municipal agencies only. However savings could r e s u l t from the fac t that some of the work normally assigned to consultants by l o c a l agencies could be carried out by the common planning agency instead. This could a s s i s t i n building up a store of knowledge about the metropolitan area, leading to further administrative and poli c y e f f i c i e n c y . Policy E f f i c i e n c y In Chapter I I , i t was concluded, that with the type of organization provided f o r by the hypothesis and the assump-tions, l o c a l decisions involving current planning and plan-ning administration tend to be made i n r e l a t i o n to the metro-po l i t a n plan, even though i t may not have been adopted o f f i -c i a l l y , as i s indicated i n the quotation from S i l o x , on page 31. This of course assumes that a metropolitan general plan w i l l be prepared. There would appear to be a f a i r chance 1. See pages 30-31. 103 that this would be achieved. In a 1963 survey of metro-politan planning in the United States, i t was found that 44 out of 126 agencies had completed general comprehensive plan studies, ^he average age of 125 of the 126 agencies 2 was 9.1 years. In the cases of the Toronto and Winnipeg metropolitan areas, draft plans were completed within at 3 least six years. However, there i s an implication in Smallwood!s statement quoted on p. 32, that the policies and principles of an unofficial plan w i l l not have been tested out as exhaustively by the governing body as in the case of an o f f i c i a l plan. Such a plan, therefore, may be lacking in consideration of a l l possible alternatives. It would appear that the hypothesis has been substan-tiated in terms of policy efficiency, that is plans are made for local areas which are more soundly-based, when there i s a planning agency charged with the responsibility of preparing a metropolitan plan for o f f i c i a l adoption. The hypothesis has not been substantiated in terms of administrative efficiency, nor service efficiency, a l -though in neither respect has i t been clearly proved that the system envisaged in the hypothesis and the assumptions would be inefficient. o United States Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on Inter-governmental Relations of the Committee on Govern-ment Operations, National Survey of Metropolitan Planning, 88th Congress, 1st Session-] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963), pp. 14-& 4. 3See pp. 29 and 35. 109 I I . ASSESSMENT It has become apparent that the basic weakness i n r e l a t i o n to the system proposed i n the hypothesis and the assumptions l i e s i n respect of service e f f i c i e n c y . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the question of democratic control was omit-ted from the discussion of service e f f i c i e n c y because i t was assumed that the advance planning service would be of a s t a f f advisory type ca r r i e d out as a prelude to decision-making. 4 The question of democratic control i n f a c t defied omission, and occurred i n the reviews of the l i t e r a t u r e , and i n the case study. The fundamental problem i s that of establishing the l e v e l at which decisions regarding land use w i l l be made. In Winnipeg, i t was established from the time the metropolitan government was institutediJthat a l l decisions regarding land use should be made at the metropolitan l e v e l . In i t s Report and Recommendations, the Greater Winnipeg In-vestigating Commission, which played an important part i n establishing a metropolitan system of government i n that area stated: I t i s to be regretted that the word "democracy" has been greatly abused i n North America, i n the mistaken b e l i e f that t h i s means preserving, at a l l costs, a l l the " r i g h t s " and "freedoms" of the i n d i v i d u a l , a l -though by so doing the community as a whole might suffer.5 ^see pages i g a n d i 9 < ^Greater Winnipeg Investigating Commission, Report  and Recommendations. Volume I, (Winnipeg: Queen's Printer, 110 In Toronto, the r e l i n q u i s h i n g of part of the power of l o c a l control, to be achieved v o l u n t a r i l y , has not taken place. I t appears that many l o c a l municipalities would be unwilling to surrender these powers i n Vancouver as wellj The method used i n the attempt to substantiate the hypothesis suffered from concentrating so heavily on l o c a l planning that the basic metropolitan issues could only be considered i n sketchy fashion. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of e f f i -ciency under three headings was convenient, although some of the aspects of the planning process, (for example the method of deciding the goals of planning), could have been considered under more than one heading. A better method might well have been to have evaluated agencies i n r e l a t i o n to each step of the behavioural planning process, (value formulation, means i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and effectuation), using the three concepts of e f f i c i e n c y i n a more f l e x i b l e manner than was employed i n t h i s study. Since the assumptions i n e f f e c t formed a set, complete i n themselves, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how they might have been varied. I f the set had been omitted, the discussion would have been only about voluntary or advisory metropolitan planning. A more comprehensive study than t h i s one might have devoted more attention to describing the types of information and methods of c o l l e c t i n g them, which are u s e f u l f o r land-use planning analyses. In Chapter I I I , Chapin's book, Urban  Land Use Planning (Second Edition) was used as an authori-I l l -tative reference, because i t appeared to have a good repu-tation and was well-known to the author. Howard's review of this work, while generally favourable, was however c r i t i c a l of Part II, in fact the Part u t i l i z e d in Chapter III.^ In any other study using the same methodology, more time could well be devoted to drawing up a standard of "best practice" for planning agencies. This study has demonstrated some of the differences between two types of planning agencies, As the work proceeded however d i f f i c u l t i e s of scale arose. It became d i f f i c u l t to decide to which degree of detail metropolitan planning should be taken. In retrospect, i t i s f a i r l y clear that, for example, in a residential neighbourhood forming part of the metropolitan pattern described in footnote 15, on page 12, a considerable amount of detailed, advance, (or long range) planning would be required. Indeed i t can be seen now that the operation of planning a metropolitan area can-not really be considered as an organic whole in the sense referred to on page 6. This fact, partly brought about by the demands of local autonomy and partly caused by the ne-cessity to know local areas intimately, stone by stone , as i t were*before they can be planned, means that elemen-tary specialization, referred to in Chapter® I and II, cannot be directly u t i l i z e d in a planning system for a John T. Howard, Reviewer, "Urban Land Use Planning (Second Edition), by F. Stuart Chapin, Jr.," Journal of  the American Institute of Planners T 31: 269-271, August, 1965. 112 metropolitan area. Winnipeg now appears to be an exception, perhaps small enough and centralized enough f o r centralized planning. With these thoughts i n mind, a new hypothesis can be ev&lved: A municipal planning agency can supply planning services more e f f i c i e n t l y to a municipality i n a metropolitan area with the assistance of a common metropolitan planning agency, than without such assistance. It was observed on page 103 that geography appears to have played a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n the development of the Vancouver region's s p e c i a l character. While one urban area may expand evenly around i t s t r a d i t i o n a l centre, another such as Vancouver may be forced by geography to expand i n only one d i r e c t i o n . Do residents of a metropolitan area of l i n e a r form consider themselves to be less of a metro-po l i t a n community than do residents of an area of c i r c u l a r or semi-circular form? The question suggests an i n t e r e s t i n g l i n e f o r further study. IV. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS In t h i s section, i t w i l l not be recommended that action to solve metropolitan problems be held i n abeyance u n t i l more general studies are made. O r i g i n a l ; or even limi t e d attempts should be encouraged. Reviewing metro-poli t a n government i n Toronto i n 1965 the Royal Commission stated: 113 The creation of Metro i n 1953 was a bold experiment which has been j u s t i f i e d by more than a decade of operations 7 The Regional D i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Colum-bia may also permit bold experiments to be made. It i s recommended that while these experiments are being made that the p o s s i b i l i t y of using u n i v e r s i t i e s to r carry out basic studies i n s p e c i f i c metropolitan areas be explored. As a metropolitan planning agency achieves more and more success, as might happen fo r example when i t s plan fo r the metropolitan area becomes o f f i c i a l l y adopted, i t may f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t to conduct basic studies such as attitude surveys and economic analyses. Meyerson has pointed out i n an a r t i c l e on research i n c i t y planning that the most common research task passed on to an analyst i n a c i t y planning agency i s that concerned with inventory; f o r example, the task of discovering whether the amount of com-mercial land i n the community has increased at rate comparable to that of consumer expenditures., i n t h i s the-s i s , i t i s the author 1s contention that a metropolitan planning agency may f i n d i t s e l f j u s t as hard-pressed as a c i t y planning agency. Meyerson goes on to say that deci-sions i n action situations often have to be made hurriedly and that a researcher i n a hard-pressed agency may have to 'H. Carl Goldenberg, Report of the Royal Commission  on Metropolitan Toronto (Toronto, 15o"5), p. 199. Martin Meyerson, "Research and City Planning," Journal of the American Inst i t u t e of Planners, 20: 201-205, F a l l 1954, p. 203. 114 make recommendations "on the basis of his generalized 9 knowledge and rules of thumb." The President's Committee on Academic Goals, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, reinforce some of Meyerson's contentions when they state: . . . i n the s o c i a l sciences...public and private support for research i s too often dependent on r e l a t i n g applied research to a s p e c i f i c problem, or i t imposes certain methodological procedures to which problems i n the s o c i a l sciences are not amenable.10 The l a s t sentence has pointed out some of the c r i -t e r i a to be observed i n using u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r operational research work. <i:he committee, emphasizing the importance of research i n any graduate program, stress that research i n a un i v e r s i t y must be car r i e d out i n a creative atmos-p h e r e 1 1 In discussing the role of the u n i v e r s i t y i n plan-ning research, consideration must be directed therefore to research of an uncommitted, independent and creative type. A celebrated agency which i s carrying out such re-search i s the Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, at the University of North Carolina. At the Centre, research i s carri e d out into two related l i n e s of development: "the im p l i -12 cations of selected public p o l i c i e s on urban growth"; and the attitudes and behaviour of urban residents i n r e l a t i o n 9lbid., p. 204. 1 0 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, President's Commit-tee on Academic Goals, Guideposts to Innovation, Vancouver, B.C., 1964, p. 54. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 3. 1 2 n Q u r r e n t Emphases and Work i n Progress," The Centre f o r Urban and Regional Studies, I n s t i t u t e ibf Research i n So c i a l Science, University of North Carolina, at Chapel 115 13 to t h e i r l i v i n g environment." J In t h i s country, univer-s i t y research could focus on these and other f i e l d s r e l a -t i n g to the se t t i n g of Canada. In Chapter I, i t was pointed out that l o c a l munici-p a l i t i e s may be subjected to the eff e c t s of decisions made by senior governments. In Chapter I I , reference was made to the American practice of stimulating regional planning by subsidy from the federal government, '1'he complex r e l a -tionship between metropolitan planning and a c t i v i t i e s of senior governments has only been touched upon b r i e f l y i n t h i s t h e s i s . Professor Oberlander has pointed out that Canada has moved from being the r u r a l society i t was i n 1867, at the time of Canada's confederation, to the predominantly urban one i t i s now i n 1966. Perhaps the best way to con-clude t h i s study would be to r e i t e r a t e h i s proposal that the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l background should be reorganized to f a c i l i t a t e more comprehensive urban and metropolitan plan-ning, so that urban Canada can step forward confidently into the Nation's next one hundred years.**"4 H i l l , N.C., February 18, 1966, page i . 1 3 I b i d . , """4Peter Oberlander, "Urban Planning and Federalism," American In s t i t u t e of Planners: Proceedings of the 1964  Annual Conference (Washington: The In s t i t u t e , 1965), pp. 63-69. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 A, BOOKS Banfield, Edward C., and James Q. Wilson, City P o l i t i c s . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press and M. I. T. Press, 1963. B l a i r , George S. American Local Government. New York: Harper and Row, 1964. Chapin, F. Stuart, J r . , Urban Land Use Planning. Second e d i t i o n . Urbana, I l l i n o i s : University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1965. Chapin, F. Stuart, J r . , and S h i r t l y F. Weiss, editors. Urban Growth Dynamics. New York and London: John Wiley and Jons, i n c . , 1962. Dahl, Robert A., and Charles E. Lindblom, P o l i t i c s , Economics  and Welfare. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1963. Goode, William J., and Hatt, Paul K. Methods i n S o c i a l Research. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952. Grumm, John G. Metropolitan Area Government: The foronto Experience"" Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 1959. Gulick, Luther H. The Metropolitan Problem and American Ideas. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 19o1"7 International C i t y Managers'^Association. The Municipal Year Book. Chicago: -^ he International City Managers 1 Association, 1964. . The Technique of Municipal Administration. Third e d i t i o n . Chicago: International Ci t y Mana-gers' Association, 1951. Kent, T.J., J r . The Urban General Plan. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company, 1964. Meyerson, Martin, and Edward C. Banfield. P o l i t i c s . Plan-ning and the Public Interest. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free Press, 1955. 117 M i t c h e l l , Richard. Trends i n Urbanization and Metropolitan  Government. BerkeJy: The Institute of Transportation and T r a f f i c Engineering, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1963. Ormsby, Margaret A. B r i t i s h Columbia: A History. The Macmillans i n Canada, 195S. Simon, Herbert A., Donald W. Smithburg, and Vic t o r A. Thomp-son. Public Administration. New York: A. Knopf Inc., 1950. Smallwood, Frank. Metro Toronto: a Decade Later, Toronto: Bureau of Municipal Research, 1963. Sofen, Edward. The Miami Metropolitan Experiment. Bl&oming-ton: Indiana University Press, 1963. Webster, Donald H. Urban Planning and Municipal Public  Policy. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English  Hanguage Unabridged. S p r i n g f i e l d , Massachusetts: G & C. Merriam Co ?, 1961. B. ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Chapin, F. Stuart, J r . "Foundations of Urban Planning," Urban L i f e and Form, Werner Z. Hirsh, editor. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, Inc., 1963. pp. 217-245. Comay, Eli."Metropolitan Toronto and the Metropolitan Plight: How Metropolitan Government Works," Planning 19.62. Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1965. Gardiner, F. G. "Developments and Trends i n Metropolitan Area Problems," C i t i e s and the S i x t i e s , George S. Mooney, editor. Montreal: ±'he Canadian Federation of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , I960. Gulick, Luthe??. "Notes on the Theory of Organisation," Papers on the Science of Administration, L. Gulick and L. Urwick, editors. Second e d i t i o n . New York : I n s t i -tute of Public Administration. 1947. pp. 1-45. M i t c h e l l , Robert B. "Regional Planning i n the Area Trans-portation Study," American Inst i t u t e of Planners: Proceedings of the 1963 Annual Conference. Washington: American Inst i t u t e of Planners. 1964. Pp.123-33. 118 Oberlander, Peter. "Urban Planning and Federalism." Ameri-can Institute of Planners: Proceedings of the 1964  Annual Conference^ Washington: American Institute of Planners, 1965. Pp. 63-9. Rose,Albert. "Metropolitan Toronto and the Metropolitan Plight: A Critique of Metropolitan Governraenttin Toronto," Planning 1965. Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1§65. Pp. 5-22. Wheaton, William L.C. "Integration at the Urban Level: P o l i t i c a l Influence and the Decision Process," ^he  Integration of P o l i t i c a l Communities, Philip E. Jacob and James V. Toscano, editors. Philadelphia and New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1964. Pp. 120-142. Wingo, Lowdon, Jr., "Urban Space in a Policy Perspective," Cities and Space, Lowdon Wingo Jr., editor. B a l t i -more*. Resources for the Future, Inc., 1963. Wood, Robert C. "Urban Regions: The Challenges and Achieve-ments in Public Administration," Planning 1962. Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1962. Pp. 5-11. C. ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS Brown, G. Sutton. "Planning Administration," Community  Planning Review, Vol. IV (1954), pp. 24-30. Davidoff ? Paul, and T.A. Reiner. "A Choice Theory of Plan-ning," Journal of the American Institute of Planners. 28: 103-115, May, l96"2. Friedmann, John. "Regional Planning as a Field of Study," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 29: 168-175, August, 1963. Johnson, A.W. "Efficiency in Government and Business," Canadian Public Administration, Vol. VI, No. 3 (Sep-tember 1963), pp. 245-260. Howard, John T., Reviewer. "Urban Land Use Planning (Second Edition), by F. Stuart Chapin, Jr., Journal of the  American Institute of Planners, 31: 269-71, A"ugust, Meyerson, Martin. "Research and City Planning," Journal of  the American Institute of Planners. 20: 201-205, P a l l , 1954. 119 McDonald, W.N. "Why We Hired a Planner," Community Planning  Review, Vol. IV (1954), pp. 17-18. P e r l o f f , Harvey S., and Lowdon Wingo, J r . "Planning and Development i n Metropolitan Areas," Journal of the  American Inst i t u t e of Planners, 28: 67-90, May,"T9"62. Rich, George 3. "Planning i n Metropolitan Winnipeg," Com-munity Planning Review, Vol. XII, No. 2, pp. 21-27. Smith, P.J. "Where Are the Plans?" Plan, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1961), pp. 38-41. Vandermeulen, A l i c e John. "Guideposts f o r Measuring the E f f i c i e n c y of Governmental Expenditures." Public  Administration Review, 10 (Winter, 1950;, pp. 7-12. D. PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENTS, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Planning Advisory Service. Expenditure, S t a f f , and Salaries of Local  Planning Agencies. Information Report No. 196. Chicago: American Society of Blanning O f f i c i a l s , March, 1965. P r i n c i p l e s of Organization f o r Planning Agencies. Information Report No. 146. Chicago: American S o c i e t y of Planning O f f i c i a l s , May, 1961. C h u r c h i l l , Dennis Michael. Local Government and Adminis-t r a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland Metropolitan Community, Volume One: A Report to the Metropolitan Joint Commit- tee. Vancouver, B.C., 1959, Local Government and Administration i n the Lower Mainland Metropolitan Community, Vol'ume Two: A Report to the Metropolitan Joint Committee» Van-couver, B.C., 1959. Community Planning Association of Canada, B.C. Di v i s i o n . "B.C.'s New Regional D i s t r i c t s , " Community Planning i n B.C. Pamphlet. Vol. VI, No. 1 (February, 1966). The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Planning and Property Department, "Plan '64," North Vancouver, B.C., 1965. (Mimeographed). 120 Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1961 Census of Canada, Bulletin 1.1-6. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962. Goldenberg, H. Carl. Report of the 'Royal Commission on Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto, 1 9 6 5 . Greater Winnipeg Investigating Commission. Report and Recommendations, Volume I. Winnipeg: Queen's Printer 1959. Hodge, Gerald, and Ira M. Robinson. Jobs, People and Trans-portation, A Report to the Metropolitan Joint Com-mittee. Vancouver, B.C., I960. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. Chance and Challeng New Westminster, B.C., 1 9 6 3 . . Economic Aspects of Urban Sprawl. New West-minster, B.C., 1956. . The Greater Vancouver Metropolitan Community. New Westminster, B.C., 1 9 5 4 . . Manufacturing Industry in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, itfew Westminster, B . C . , I960. . O f f i c i a l Regional Plan for the Lower Mainland Planning Area. New Westminster, B.C., 1 9 6 5 . . The Urban Frontier. New Westminster, B.C., 1963 Metropolitan Corporation of Greater Winnipeg, Review Com-mission. Report and Recommendations. Winnipeg, February, 1964. Metropolitan Joint Committee. Final Report. Vancouver, B.C I960. " Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board. The O f f i c i a l Plan of  the Metropolitan Toronto Planning Area, 1959. Draft. Toronto, 1959. . O f f i c i a l Plan of the Metropolitan Toronto Plan-ning Area. Toronto,~T965. Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning. A Study on Highway Planning, Part 2, Freeways With  Rapid Transit. Vancouver, B.^., 1958-9. United States Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on Inter-governmental Relations of the Committee on Government Operations, National Survey of Metropolitan Planning. 88th Congress, 1st Session. ""Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963. 121 United States Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on Inter-governmental Relations of the Committe ofi Government Operations. 1964 National Survey of Metropolitan  Planning. 89th Congress, 1st Session. Washington: Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965. Vancouver, B.C., City Planning Department. Vancouver's Changing Population. Vancouver, B.B., June, 19&4. E. STATUTES AND BY-LAWS An Act to Amend the Municipal A c t , R.S.B.C., 1965, c 28. The Municipal Act, R.S.B.C. I960, c. 255. The Municipal Act. R.S.M., I960, c. 40. Vancouver, B.C., City of. By-Law No. 3497. F. MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS Adams, Howard and Greeley, Report to the Board of City Plan-ning; Commissioners, City of Los Angeles, on the Los  Angeles City Planning department. Cambridge, Mass-achusetts, November, 1956. Naumann, Dieter. Development i n Delta. West Vancouver, B.C., December, I 9 0 3 . Stanford Research Inst i t u t e and Wilbur Smith and Associates. Review of Transportation Plans, Metropolitan Van-couver ,~B*.C^ " Menlo Park and San Francisco, C a l i -f o r n i a , September, 1964. G. NEWSPAPERS "City's Greatness i s at Stake," The Vancouver Sun, January 5, 1966, p.12. " D i s t r i c t Approves Big Suite Complex," $he Vancouver Sun March 9, 1966, p. 18. 122 H. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Corporation of the District of Surrey, B.C., Planning Divi-sion. "Scott Road." Cloverdale, B.C., July 1962. (Mimeographed). "Current Emphases and Work in Progress." ^he Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Institute for Research in Social Science., University of North Carolina at Chapel H i l l , N.C. February 18, 1966. (Mimeographed). Haxby, W.T. Senior Research Planner, The Metropolitan Cor-poration of Greater Winnipeg. Letter to the writer, January 6, 1966. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. Minutes of Executive Committee Meeting, New Westminster, B.C., March 17, 1966. Rathie, W.G., Mayor of Vancouver, B.C. Letter to the writer, March 28, 1966. Silcox, Peter. "The Metropolitan Council and Toronto's Metro-politan Problem," unpublished thesis, Master of Arts, University of Toronto, 1962. Vancouver, BrC., City Planning Department. "Commercial Land Use Outside the C.B.D., City of Vancouver." Techni-cal Report, November, 1962. (Mimeographed). (Unpubli-shed) . 1 APPENDICES 123 APPENDIX A FULL TEXT OF QUESTIONS USED IN THE SURVEY OF SELECTED PLANNING AGENCIES, VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN1.AREA. Questions Relating to Policy E f f i c i e n c y 1 1. Has the agency conducted or does i t u t i l i z e an economic base or s i m i l a r study to analyze the economy of the planning area? 2. Is the study i n published form? 3. What methods are used to estimate population of planning area; 4. Are population estimates i n published form? 5. Describe steps agency has taken to determine behaviour patterns of the following which have a meaning i n planning f o r land use: a) i n d i v i d u a l s ; b) f a m i l i e s ; c) i n s t i t u t i o n s ; d) firms. 6. In the following l i s t , check maps agency has available and give date of l a s t r e v i s i o n : a) map of topggraphy and natural features; b) land use; c) age of buildings; d) s t r u c t u r a l q u a l i t y of buildings; e) map showing land values; f) environmental q u a l i t y . iThe questions were a c t u a l l y put to the respondents i n a d i f f e r e n t order than that given here. The rearrange-ment has been made f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes. The wording i s however i d e n t i c a l to that used i n the interviews. 124 7. Has the agency undertaken any cost-revenue studies? 8. Does the agency take or have access to annual t r a f f i c volume counts on a r t e r i a l highways i n i t s area? 9. Give the date of l a s t o r i g i n and destination survey ca r r i e d out i n the area. 10. Has the agency prepared a general plan f o r i t s planning area? 11. When was the general plan commenced? 12. Date of l a t e s t r e v i s i o n to the general plan. 2 3 13. Status of general plan, ( u n o f f i c i a l , established, o f f i c i a l , 4 or other). 14. Has the agency produced components of a general plan? 1$. Does agency parti c i p a t e i n drawing up c a p i t a l improvement programs? Questions Relating to Administrative E f f i c i e n c y . 16. Were the l a s t two planning studies or plans sub-mitted by the agency to the council accepted? 17. What steps does your agency take to see that i t s advance planning i s co-ordinated with that of adjoining municipalities? 18. Has the agency established an advance planning sub-unit? 19. Is the advance planning sub-unit used f o r current planning as well? 20. Are consultants employed i n your planning area? 21. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s t a f f of agency: 2 See d e f i n i t i o n , p. 9 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . 125 a) number of professional s t a f f members (degree i n planning and/or member of professional planning organization); b) number of technical s t a f f members (including draftsmen" ): c) number of c l e r i c a l s t a f f members. 2 2 . Salary range for professionals, lowest dtep of the most junior p o s i t i o n to highest step of the most senior p o s i t i o n . 23. Total expenditures of the planning agency f o r the year 1965. 2 4 . Pppulation of the planning area f o r the year 1965. 2 5 . Per capita cost of a l l planning services pro-vided by agency f o r 1965. Questions Relating to Service E f f i c i e n c y 2 6 . When was planning agency established? 27. Were clear terms of reference prescribed f o r the agency? (Give source). 2 8 . What steps are taken to decide upon planning goals? (e.g. by submission of goals state-ments to planning commission or to coun c i l ) . 2 9 . Has agency undertaken any studies into expecta-tions and preferences of residents as to make-up and q u a l i t i e s the planning area should possess? 3 0 . Number of agency's professional planning s t a f f r e siding i n planning area. 126 APPENDIX B ITEM IN THE VANCOUVER SUN, MARCH 9 , 1966, RELATING TO LACK OF CO-ORDINATION IN PLANNING BETWEEN THE DISTRICTS OF NORTH VANCOUVER AND WEST VANCOUVER. J g****The V A N C O U V E R SUN: Wed., Mar. 9, 196(j r o v e s OFFERED BRIDGE The bridge was proposed sev-i /eral weeks ago by Woodcroft (developers as the answer to charges by West Vancouver {council and residents that the jComplex would cause serious .traffic congestion in their area. } Site of the complex is a 21-acre estate that lies within, iNorth Vanouver district, but Jsurrounded otherwise by West Vancouver municipal terrain J West Vancouver Reeve Alex ' Sun Staff Reporter I*0™1 h 1 e a d e d a delectation to a N O R T H V A N C O U V E R - D . s t r . c t of North V a n j ^ 6 ™ VaucSer"of* couver has decided to give the green light to a $15 c, ais the complex will cause million high-rise apartment complex that has been'traffic jams in the already busy s i n g l y protested by West Vancouver municipal offi-iTaylor Way-Keith Road area cials and residents. R e e v c M u r d o F r a z e r J ° i n e d , . . _ . . . . , , Councillors Don Wilson, Roy District council voted 5 to 1 «,ui,„„ „„„ »„j,„„„ xiJ. e x But Okay Hinges on Developers Building Bridge Over Capilano Tuesday in favor of a zoning iWhittle, Ron Andrews and Mar-h.,i.«. „i,„„„„ f i , n f „„„„„ *u; S^ret Campbell in approving bylaw change that paves the ?_ r e a dines of the bvlaw way for construction of t h e . I I I V ^ L a L liXt massive complex-on the w e s t amendment Tuesday night. , bank of the Capiland'Riyer. SINGLE 'NO* VOTE But council coupled its okay Coun Barrie Clark cast the with a proviso that developers only vote against the zoning of the proposed Woodcroft change that council will adopt Estates must go through with later this Month if the complex their promise to build a bridge agreement includes a guarantee 'across the Capilano as the main' the bridge will be built in the traffic access to the ultimately initial phase of the apartment [planned 811-suite complex. A A P P E N D I X C D U T I E S O F T H E T E C H N I C A L P L A N N I N G B O A R D , C I T Y O F V A N C O U V E R , B . C . , A S S E T O U T I N S E C T I O N 3 O F B Y - L A W N o . 3497 O F T H E C I T Y O F V A N C O U V E R . The duties of the Board shall be: To act as a co-ordinating Board and to consider and report upon tech-nical or administrative matters bearing on the development of the City of Vancouver and without restricting the generality of the fore-going, to carry out any or all of the following functions: (a) Prepare and submit to Council a development plan for the future physical development of the said City which shall include a pro-gramme of works and may include any other scheme for imple-menting such development plan; (b) Act in an advisory capacity to Council in matters appertaining to planning; (c) Act in an advisory capacity to Council in regard to any applica-tions to change the zoning of any particular area and prepare and submit to Council any resultant amendments to the Zoning By-law; (d) Recommend to Council such revisions or amendments of the Zon-ing By-law as may from time to time be considered necessary; (e) Compile data and carry out surveys and investigations; (f) Prepare for submission to Council outline planning proposals for the whole or any part of the City including specific projects; (g) During the period of preparation of the overall development plan and a Zoning By-law, prepare supplementary schemes or plans for submission to Council; (h) Prepare at the request of Council or other administrative bodies or the Board of School Trustees reports and schemes supplement-ary to the overall development plan and in particular with a view to integrating the plans of the last mentioned bodies with the development plan. Provided that in any case where the prepara-tion of such a report or the execution of the scheme involves major expenditure by the City the approval of Council shall be obtained before undertaking the preparation of such reports or schemes; (i) Do all such acts, matters, or things as may be necessary or inci-dental to the carrying out of such functions. 128 APPENDIX D FULL TEXT OF INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT AND QUESTIONS USED IN THE POLITICAL ATTITUDE SURVEY, VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA, B.C. Introductory Statement, Read Out at Beginning of Interview. The Vancouver Metropolitan Area, which includes West Vancouver, North Vancouver City and D i s t r i c t , Univer-s i t y Endowment Area, Indian Reserves, Vancouver, Burnaby, Port Moody, New Westminster, Fraser M i l l s , Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, Richmond, Delta, Surrey, White Rock, and unorganized t e r r i t o r y , has been c l a s s i f i e d by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s as a group of urban communities which are i n close economic, geographic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The task of guiding urban development i n such areas has grown beyond the a b i l i t i e s of municipal planning agencies, and there seems to be a need to plan on a metropolitan basis. The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board's proposed re-gional Plan does not give any d e t a i l about the metropolitan area. The Questions a) Do you think i t would be feasi b l e to set up a Regional D i s t r i c t f or the Vancouver Metropolitan Area and give it-planning powers? b) Planning i s most e f f e c t i v e i f i t i s carried out by an agency with powers to carry out important public works. What do you think of the f e a s i b i l i t y of setting up a Regional D i s t r i c t i n the Vancouver Metropolitan Area with the following powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : metropolitan planning, metropolitan transportation f a c i l i t i e s , metropolitan parks, bulk water supply, bulk sewage disposal, and borrowing powers. c) What i f health and welfare, police and po l l u t i o n control were added to the above? 129 d) Is the idea of drawing up a metropolitan transporta-t i o n and land use plan, to be adopted as binding by the c i t i e s and municipalities of the Vancouver Metro-po l i t a n Area f e a s i b l e i n your opinion^ (With such a plan, neither the Regional D i s t r i c t , nor member c i t i e s or municipalities would be permitted to tfeke any action contrary to the plan, but no commitment to undertake projects would be implied). e) Do you think amalgamation of the whole Metropolitan Area into one municipality i s feasible? 130 APPENDIX E EXCERPT FROM A LETTER TO THE AUTHOR FROM MR. W. G. RATHIE, MAYOR OF VANCOUVER, B.C., DATED MAftCH 28, 1966. ...from the p o l i t i c a l side i t i s most d i f f i c u l t to delegate powers of a municipal area to a so-called Metropolitan section.... I think I should make i t clear that Metropolitan Government as such i s not acceptable in the Vancouver area, whereas annexation proceedings as in either Alberta or Ontario would certainly receive a very close look. Your second query with regard to powers to carry out important public works on a regional d i s t r i c t basis is of course partly in effect today; as examples The Greater Vancouver Water and Sewerage District Boards have been in existence for many years. Transportation is basically on a metropolitan basis and of course we are most hopeful that this w i l l stay with the B.C. Hydro. In any event, a Joint Committee of Mayors and Reeves in the Lower Mainland area are f u l l y aware that i t cannot be operated on any other basis, even i f we had to take i t over. Metropolitan planning i s at present being done by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board but the acceptance of their present proposals by the various municipal governments i s certainly a question. I am quite certain that municipalities are not prepared to allocate the question of capital operating to either a regional d i s t r i c t or to a metropolitan government, and to be r e a l i s t i c a regional d i s t r i c t has at least some facets in common with metropolitan government. The question of Health and Welfare i s well covered at the present time by the Metropolitan Health Commit-tee. A shortcoming in this i s that a large enough area i s not really covered. The problems of metropolitan police mainly rise 131 from the existence of the R. C. M. P. in certain areas. Ultimately from a question of proper crime control and proper police training i t w i l l be neces-sary to have metropolitan police training and en-forcement. Pollution control is quite acceptable to the Inter-municipal Committee of Mayors and Reeves in the area and I feel sure their various Councils would support this. The fourth question deals with metropolitan trans-portation and land use. The matter of transportation in the total concept i s of course very d i f f i c u l t , parti-cularly in view of the Provincial Government's attitude toward so-called freeways (even as modified by the Pre-mier's statement of last week). Rapid transit, as stated by the Stanford Research Reports, 5 i s not as yet feasible but w i l l unquestionably be a requirement, in the next ten to fifteen years. In these circumstances i t would be most d i f f i c u l t to persuade municipal govern-ments to be bound by a so-called plan. In answer to your f i f t h query, the question of amal-gamation i s not possible at this time on a whole area basis but certainly, in areas such as the North Shore, the main peninsula of Vancouver, Burnaby, etc. such a proposal would receive my very strong support. Here again, the p o l i t i c a l problems are not easy to solve but i t could well be that from the acceptance of theories a regional d i s t r i c t could lead eventually into amalga-mation. ?See Stanford Research Institute and Wilbur Smith and Associates. Review of Transportation Plans, Metro-politan Vancouver, B.£. Menlo Park and San Francisco, California, September, 19o~4. 

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