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The conflict between pedestrians and vehicles : a challenge to the revitalization of the central business… Si Thoo, Chin 1966

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THE CONFLICT BETWEEN PEDESTRIANS AND VEHICLES: A CHALLENGE TO THE REVITALIZATION OF THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT by SI THOO, CHIN LL.B., NATIONAL CHENGCHI UNIVERSITY TAIWAN, CHINA, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x -t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n -c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Community and Regional Planning T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e A p r i l , 1966.  V ABSTRACT For the past few decades, an i n c r e a s i n g problem f o r the urban community has been the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of r e t a i l t r a d e . That d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n tends to occur when s a l e s i n the c e n t r a l area d e c l i n e w i t h time. Conversely, s a l e s i n the suburban areas have r a p i d l y increased i n greater p r o p o r t i o n . This t r e n d of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of r e t a i l f u n c t i o n s i s evidenced by the l a r g e number of new suburban shopping centers that have been r e c e n t l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The d e c l i n e of the C e n t r a l Area i n r e l a t i v e importance i s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t o r of i n c r e a s -i n g t r a f f i c congestion, which has been created by the extensive use of the p r i v a t e automobile. I t jeopardises the w e l l - b e i n g of many i n h a b i t a n t s . I t lowers the e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n and q u a l i t y of many of the C e n t r a l Area a c t i v i t i e s . The Increase i n the number of v e h i c l e s i s so great t h a t unless something i s done the c o n d i t i o n s are bound t o become extremely s e r i o u s w i t h i n a comparatively short p e r i o d of time. The environment f o r walking, which p l a y s an i n d i s p e n s -a b l e p a r t f o r shopping purposes, has now become one of the main problems which most C e n t r a l Areas must now attempt to s o l v e . In accommodating v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c i n the C e n t r a l i i Area, there must be areas of good environment where people can l i v e , work, shop, look about, and move around on foo t i n reasonable freedom from v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c hazards and nuisances. The automobile i s not a n a t u r a l means of l o c o -motion f o r shopping; the patron of business i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p e d e s t r i a n , not a m o t o r i s t . The d i s t a s t e f u l q u a l i t y of commercial areas would disappear i f the patron were r e a d i l y converted from a d r i v e r t o a p e d e s t r i a n . E f f i c i e n t p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the shopping areas appears t o be a fundamental p r i n c i p l e i n r e v i t a l i z i n g the C e n t r a l Area. The movement of trade t o o u t l y i n g areas r a i s e s the question: what w i l l happen to the C e n t r a l Area of the urban community? The answer t o t h i s i s dependent t o a l a r g e extent on the a b i l i t y of the community t o create a "true heart of the c i t y " . This c a l l s f o r a p o s i t i v e program f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area by adopting the p r i n c i p l e s of the planning and development of "Environmental Areas", thereby minimizing the c o n f l i c t between p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . In c a r r y i n g out t h i s a c t i v i t y , the people who have an i n t e r e s t i n the C e n t r a l Area must recognize and accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s w i l l have t o e n l i s t the s e r v i c e s of many s p e c i a l i s t s , and, most Important of a l l , must co-operate w i t h the m u n icipal government t o do t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y . i i i The planning and development of "Environmental Areas" can r e v i t a l i z e the congested urban core because i t minimizes the t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t between pedestrians and v e h i c l e s , e l i m i n a t e s the hazards and nuisances created by the automobiles, enhances the v i s u a l appearance of shopping areas, r a t i o n a l i z e s land uses f o r v a r i o u s urban a c t i v i t i e s , promotes the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and pleasantness of community l i f e , provides b e t t e r shopping and working c o n d i t i o n s and strengthens the tax revenue base of the C e n t r a l Area. A l l these w i l l become r e a l i s t i c i f the C e n t r a l Area renewal program i s pr o p e r l y planned and dynamic a c t i o n i s taken t o pursue i t . I t i s concluded t h a t i f the C e n t r a l Area i s t o l i v e and meet the challenge of the suburban shopping c e n t e r s , i t must be made more a c c e s s i b l e , more i n t e r e s t i n g , more f u n c t i o n a l , and above a l l more amenable t o walking. The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area i n a vigorous and l i v e l y way may do more than anything e l s e to make i t the most e x c i t i n g and prosperous center of the c i t y , w i t h i n c a l c u l a b l e r e s u l t s f o r the we l l - b e i n g of the urban community. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 11 LIBRARY USE PERMISSION FORM v TABLE OF CONTENTS v i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x i i i INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I . THE CENTRAL AREA AS A FOCUS OF ACTIVITIES .... 4 T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts of the C e n t r a l Area ... 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the C e n t r a l Area 8 F u n c t i o n a l E x p l a n a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area . 10 L o c a t i o n a l Advantages of the C e n t r a l Area. 10 M i n i m i z a t i o n of Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Costs ... 10 Cohesion of Functions 11 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l Area Businesses. 11 F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l Area Businesses •• 12 L o c a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l Area Businesses 13 Determinants of Land Uses i n the C e n t r a l Area • 15 C e n t r a l Area Function i n the Urban Area. 15 Convenience • 16 Land P o l i c i e s - both P u b l i c and P r i v a t e . 16 Community Power S t r u c t u r e 16 P h y s i c a l Environment 16 P o t e n t i a l Problems of the C e n t r a l Area ... 17 Reduced A c c e s s i b i l i t y 17 Reduced A v a i l a b i l i t y 18 Reduced Interdependence • 18 Reduced Employment 19 Summary 19 v i I I . THE CENTRAL AREA IN DILEMMA 21 P e d e s t r i a n s Vs. Automobiles 23 S t r e e t s : T h e i r Functions and Purposes 24 The Decline of P e d e s t r i a n Rights 24 F r u s t r a t i o n i n the Use of V e h i c l e s 25 The Problem of P a r k i n g 26 Congested T r a f f i c 29 F a i l u r e of P u b l i c - t r a n s i t S e r v i c e 31 The Problem of Through T r a f f i c 31 The Future Growth of T r a f f i c 34 A H e l l of a L i f e Vs. A Center of Community L i f e • 36 D e t e r i o r a t i o n of Environment 37 Towards Humanization 40 R e t a i l C e n t r a l i z a t i o n Vs. P o p u l a t i o n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 43 P o p u l a t i o n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n And Growth i n Ou t l y i n g Areas 44 P o p u l a t i o n Movement t o Suburbs 45 Automobile Ownership Enabling P o p u l a t i o n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 46 The Growth of Suburban Markets 48 R e l a t i v e Imp&rtance of the C e n t r a l Area Decline •• 49 D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of R e t a i l Trade 50 R e t a i l R e v o l u t i o n ' P a i n l e s s * 52 C e n t r a l Area Vs. Suburban Shopping • 56 R e l a t i v e A t t r a c t i o n of C e n t r a l Area and Suburban Shopping Centers • 56 Comparative Importance of Advantages and Disadvantages of C e n t r a l Area and Suburban Shopping 59 Summary 61 I I I . THE NEED FOR REVITALIZATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA 63 R i s i n g C<?st of Suburban L i v i n g 64 The Cost of Government 64 The Cost of Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n 66 Demand f o r C l o s e - i n L i v i n g 67 Old-age People 68 High Income People 69 The B a s i c Advantage of C i t y L i v i n g 70 Economic S p e c i a l i z a t i o n 71 C u l t u r a l S p e c i a l i z a t i o n 72 P o l i t i c a l Forces Favourable t o R e v i t a l i z a t i o n 73 Owners of C e n t r a l Area P r o p e r t i e s Fearing D e p r e c i a t i o n of Investment 7^ Government P o l i c y t o Ma i n t a i n the Health of the C e n t r a l Area 76 Summary 77 v l i IV. DYNAMIC PLANNING FOR THE CENTRAL AREA 78 Separation of Pede s t r i a n s and Automobiles 81 V e h i c u l a r T r a f f i c 84 Use of Bypasses f o r Siphoning Off Through T r a f f i c 86 Use of Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n As a Means of R e l i e v i n g P a r k i n g and T r a f f i c Congestion 86 Improvement of Pa r k i n g F a c i l i t i e s 88 E f f i c i e n t Road Systems 90 P e d e s t r i a n T r a f f i c 93 Designing f o r the Pedestrians F i v e C r i t e r i a 95 C o n t i n u i t y 95 Safety 95 Comfort 96 Conveniences 96 D e l i g h t 97 Plann i n g the P e d e s t r i a n Network 97 The P a r a l l e l G r i d 97 The D i s p l a c e d G r i d 98 Grade Separation 99 Combined Methods 102 The P l a n n i n g and Development of Environ-mental Areas 103 Reasons f o r People Making Walking T r i p s 104 Terminal T r i p s 106 Use T r i p s 106 Pleasure T r i p s 106 The Parade 107 Business T r i p s 107 Shopping T r i p s 107 Lunch T r i p s 107 Sig h t s e e i n g and other T r i p s 107 Miscellaneous T r i p s 108 Planning f o r the P e d e s t r i a n 108 Maximum P e d e s t r i a n A c t i v i t y 110 Exuberant D i v e r s i t y and Maximum I n t e n s i t y 112 Routes and Breaks 113 The Boulevard and V i s t a 114 The Sidewalk 115 The S t r e e t 115 The M a l l s 117 The Urban Spaces 118 C l e a r i n g Away Obsolete S t r u c t u r e s i n the C e n t r a l Area 119 Maintenance and Development of C u l t u r a l F a c i l i t i e s 120 Cr e a t i o n of Centers of Community L i f e 122 Cr e a t i o n of New S t y l e of C i t y L i f e 124 v i i i Venice and Appleton As Examples 125 A C l a s s i c a l Example: Venice 125 A R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Example: Appleton, Wisconsin • 128 Summary •• 132 V. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA RENEWAL PROGRAM 135 P o l i c y 136 L e g i s l a t i o n 139 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 140 Financing •• • 142 C i t i z e n Education and P a r t i c i p a t i o n 144 Summary 146 V I . GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 148 FOOTNOTES 155 BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 i x LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. C h r i s t a l l e r ' s T h e o r e t i c a l D i s t i J b u t i o n of Centers 6 2. A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Land Uses i n the CBD 13 3. Use of S e a t t l e T r a n s i t System, 1929-1951 32 4 . Vacancy L e v e l s of Hastings and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s 51 5. Number of R e t a i l Stores i n S e a t t l e and i n S e l e c t e d D i s t r i c t s , 1939 and 1948 53 6. R e t a i l Sales i n S e a t t l e and In Selected D i s t r i c t s , 1939 and 19^8 55 7. Percentages of Samples I n d i c a t i n g Super-i o r i t y of Downtown or Suburban Shopping Centers w i t h regard t o twenty-three Shopping S a t i s f a c t i o n Factors - Columbus, Houston, S e a t t l e 58 8. Ranking of c e r t a i n Advantages of C e n t r a l Area Shopping by Columbus, Houston, and S e a t t l e Respondents 60 9. Ranking of c e r t a i n Disadvantages of C e n t r a l Area Shopping by Columbus, Houston, and S e a t t l e Respondents 60 10. Ranking of c e r t a i n Advantages of Suburban Shopping Centers by Columbus, Houston, and S e a t t l e Respondents 60 11. Ranking of c e r t a i n Disadvantages of Sub-urban Shopping Centers by Columbus, Houston, and S e a t t l e Respondents 60 12. Comparative Requirements of Pedestrians and V e h i c u l a r T r a f f i c 80 x LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. C h r i s t a l l e r ' s T h e o r e t i c a l Shapes of T r i b u t a r y Areas 6 2. Representation of the S t r u c t u r e of Urban Land Values 9 3. The L o c a t i o n of the CBD of Vancouver C i t y .. 22 4. The C e n t r a l Area of Vancouver C i t y 22 5. Road Signs 28 6. A Cartoon 28 7. T r a f f i c Congestion i n the Thoroughfares of C e n t r a l London 30 8. Annual Revenue Rides per c a p i t a , S e a t t l e T r a n s i t System 32 9. The I n h e r i t e d Road System 33 10. London. A l l Roads l e a d i n g to the C e n t r a l Area 33 11. Future Growth of Numbers of V e h i c l e s 35 12. The Problem of V e h i c u l a r Noises 39 13. The Problem of V e h i c u l a r Noises ............ 39 14. C o n f l i c t between Ped e s t r i a n s and V e h i c l e s .. 39 15. F o r t h Worth, by V i c t o r Gruen 42 16. A Cartoon, showing the Problems of O r i e n t a t i o n of B u i l d i n g s 46 17. S e a t t l e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area • 49 18. Number of R e t a i l Stores i n C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t as a percentage of S e a t t l e t o t a l 5^ x i 19. R e t a i l Sales i n C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t as a percentage of S e a t t l e t o t a l 5§ 20. The P r i n c i p l e of Badburn Planning 83 21. The Radburn P r i n c i p l e i n P r a c t i c e , A Layout from S h e f f i e l d 83 22. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Routed around the Periphery of the "Environmental Areas" of the C e n t r a l Area 91 23. The C e l l u l a r Concept 9k 24. The P r i n c i p l e of the Hierarchy of D i s t r i b u t o r s 9^ 25. The P a r a l l e l G r i d 100 26. The D i s p l a c e d G r i d 100 27. Perm Center, P h i l a d e l p h i a 101 28. Venice. The D i s t r l b u t o r y System and the P e d e s t r i a n Ways • 126 29. C e n t r a l Area of Appleton, Wisconsin, 1953 131 30. A B a s i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Scheme f o r Appleton, Wisconsin 131 x l i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author i s most g r a t e f u l t o the f o l l o w i n g persons f o r t h e i r u s e f u l guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l , and f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s , suggestions, and en-couragement f o r the completion of t h i s t h e s i s : H. P e t e r Oberlander, B. Arch. ( M c G i l l ) , M.C.P. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Harvard), M.fi.A.I.C, A.H.I.B.A., A.M.T.P.I.; P r o f e s s o r of Planning and D i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional Planning; and Chairman, Vancouver Town Planning Commission. Kevin J . Cross, B. Arch. ( M c G i l l ) , M.S. (Columbia), Ph.D. ( C o r n e l l ) , M.T.P.I.C., A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Pla n n i n g . Miss Melva Dwyer, M.A. ( B r i t i s h Columbia), B.L.S., A.T.C.M. (Toronto), Head, Fine A r t s D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y . x i i i INTRODUCTION The C e n t r a l Area, known as the "heart", "core", "hub" or "downtown" of the c i t y , has i t s focus i n the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t . C u r r e n t l y , some more or l e s s opposing f o r c e s are a t work i n f l u e n c i n g the developmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the C e n t r a l Area. The congestion of t r a f f i c i s a s e r i o u s problem. The c o n f l i c t of movement between man and v e h i c l e i s a con-tinuous t h r e a t t o the s a f e t y of the p e d e s t r i a n and i s the cause of f r u s t r a t i n g delay and congestion of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . The opera t i o n of these f o r c e s jeopardises the w e l l - b e i n g of many people and r e s u l t s i n a lowering of the q u a l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y of the C e n t r a l Area of the urban community. Expansion of the market base, r e s u l t i n g from over-a l l p o p u l a t i o n growth, u s u a l l y produces increased demand f o r s p e c i a l i s e d o u t l e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r comparison shopping f a c i -l i t i e s . These commercial o u t l e t s can u s u a l l y serve the t o t a l urban r e g i o n most e f f e c t i v e l y from a C e n t r a l Area l o c a t i o n -provided the environment of the C e n t r a l Area i s a healthy one. Because the C e n t r a l Area has been the focus of high-est l a n d v a l u e s , of i n t r a c i t y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and other s e r v i c e s , and because the C e n t r a l Area has been the dominant area i n terms of property and sa l e s t a x revenues, 2 and because the C e n t r a l Area has always been the v i s u a l symbol of the c i t y w i t h i t s important p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and p u b l i c squares, students of urban planning are being con-f r o n t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y w i t h a b a s i c question: What i s the  f u t u r e of the C e n t r a l Area i n our urban communities? The purpose of t h i s study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e and analyse the nature of C e n t r a l Area problems; and t o assess the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v i t a l i z i n g the C e n t r a l Area by adopting the p r i n c i p l e s of the planning and development of ''Environmental Areas" thereby minimizing the c o n f l i c t between p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . 1 "Environmental Area" means th a t the area has a good environment f o r urban l i v i n g . I t conveys the idea of a p l a c e , or even a s t r e e t , which i s f r e e from the dangers and nuisances of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . I t conveys a l s o the idea of a place t h a t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g . C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the q u a l i t y of the environment i s freedom of p e d e s t r i a n movement which should be enabled t o take place w i t h reasonable comfort, s a f e t y and convenience. The main l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e , p r e c l u d i n g any i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t was decided t o l i m i t the scope of the study t o the pedestrian/auto-mobile problems and those p r i m a r i l y p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d or v e h i c u l a r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the C e n t r a l Area. I t i s a l s o due t o the l i m i t e d amount of time and labour a v a i l a b l e t h a t the study i s l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to l i b r a r y 3 r e s e a r c h . Many l a r g e c i t i e s i n North America have pioneered i n p u b l i c renewal, p r i v a t e r e b u i l d i n g and s o p h i s t i c a t e d research s t u d i e s . The observations and conclusions gathered from t h e i r research and experience are used i n the t h e s i s . Observations p r e v i o u s l y made by the author i n v i s u a l surveys of the C e n t r a l Areas of Vancouver and a few other c i t i e s are very h e l p f u l i n a n a l y s i n g and d e s c r i b i n g the complex problems of the C e n t r a l Area. I t i s a b a s i c assumption that the congested C e n t r a l Area can be r e v i t a l i z e d by r e c o n c i l i n g i t s A c c e s s i b i l i t y and Environment. Much of the d i s t a s t e f u l q u a l i t y of the C e n t r a l Area would disappear i f the patron were r e a d i l y converted from a d r i v e r t o a p e d e s t r i a n . L i v i n g , working, and shopping c o n d i t i o n s could be made pleasant and secure from i n v a s i o n by v e h i c l e s . I t i s suggested that the whole c i t y would g a i n economically through a stronger c e n t r a l tax base. The hypothesis of t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t : "The planning and development of •Environmental Areas' i s an e f f e c t i v e method of r e v i t a l i z i n g the congested C e n t r a l Area by minimizing the c o n f l i c t between P e d e s t r i a n and V e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . " CHAPTER I THE CENTRAL AREA AS A FOCUS OF ACTIVITIES C i t i e s e x i s t because of the presumed advantages of the p r o x i m i t y of man t o goods and s e r v i c e s . C i t i e s are crea t e d by man i n order to c a r r y on c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and s a t i s f y c e r t a i n needs which cannot be performed or s a t i s f i e d without such p r o x i m i t y . The C e n t r a l Area i s the heart of the c i t y . I t f u n c t i o n s as a compact yet d i v e r s i f i e d area s e r v i n g as a primary centre f o r a l l kinds of urban a c t i v i t i e s which are the major focus f o r the l i f e of the e n t i r e c i t y and i t s r e g i o n . In t h i s area are concentrated aspects of most of the tr e n d s , problems, and f u n c t i o n a l changes which are o c c u r r i n g i n the c i t y today. Problems of expansion and decay, of new demands and s o c i a l upheaval, are a l l c l e a r l y evident i n i t . The s e t t i n g f o r the C e n t r a l Area a c t i v i t i e s , embodied i n b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s of a l l k i n d s , i s unique f o r every c i t y . Each c i t y has i t s own geographical s i t u a t i o n , and i t s own " n a t u r a l h i s t o r y " through which i t s present development has been reached. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s p h y s i c a l s e t -t i n g have evolved to t h e i r present form through a long sequence of events, during which the accommodations and f a c i l i t i e s have been modified and developed at i n t e r v a l s , a l l i n response t o changing needs of the major a c t i v i t i e s of each p e r i o d . 1 5 In no case can a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d C e n t r a l Area represent a l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n of present needs as i t might have been planned on the primeval s i t e . In no case have the e f f e c t s of much e a r l i e r arrangements d i e d out e n t i r e l y . For even though none of the e a r l i e s t s t r u c t u r e s remains, and even though the C e n t r a l Area has s h i f t e d from i t s o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n , the very l a y -out of s t r e e t s and open places and boundary l i n e s of ownership remains as a mould c o n s t r a i n i n g subsequent p a t t e r n s . Meanwhile, the networks of p u b l i c s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s exert compelling f o r c e s 2 f o r continuance. 1 . T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts of the C e n t r a l Area Walter C h r i s t a l l e r i n 1 9 3 5 provided the most popular t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the study of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of settlements.3 The essence of the theory i s t h a t a c e r t a i n amount of productive l a n d supports an urban center. The center e x i s t s because e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s must be performed f o r the surrounding l a n d . S e r v i c e s performed p u r e l y f o r a surrounding area are termed " c e n t r a l " f u n c t i o n s by C h r i s t a l l e r , and the s e t t l e -ments performing them are I d e n t i f i e d as " c e n t r a l " p l a c e s . I d e a l l y , each c e n t r a l place should have a c i r c u l a r t r i b u t a r y a r e a , and the c i t y should be i n the center. However, i f three or more tangent c i r c l e s are i n s c r i b e d i n an a r e a , unserved spaces are found t o e x i s t ; the best t h e o r e t i c a l shapes are hexagons, the c l o s e s t geometrical f i g u r e s t o c i r c l e s which w i l l completely f i l l an area ( F i g . l . p . 6 ) . In accordance w i t h t h i s hexagonal theory, C h r i s t a l l e r recognized t y p i c a l - s i z e settlements, and measured t h e i r average p o p u l a t i o n , t h e i r d i stance a p a r t , and the s i z e and pop u l a t i o n of t h e i r t r i b u t a r y areas (See Table 1. p.6).*' F i g . l . — C h r i s t a l l e ^ s T h e o r e t i c a l Shapes of T r i b u t a r y Areas. C i r c l e s leave unserved spaces, hexagons do not. Small hexagons are s e r v i c e areas f o r smaller p l a c e s , l a r g e hexagons (dotted l i n e s ) represent s e r v i c e areas f o r next higher-rank c e n t r a l p l a c e s . Sources Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn (ed.), Read-ings i n Urban Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Pr e s s , 1963, P. 204 TABLE 1 CHRISTALLER'S THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CENTERS - TOWNS TJUBDTAKY AXXAS CcnsAxPucE Distance Apart (Km.) Population size (Sq. Km.) Population MaAet hamlet (Mtublort) 7 800 45 2,700 12 1,500 135 8,100 County seat (Kreistait) 21 3,500 400 24,000 District city (Bairkssiadl) 36 9,000 1,200 75,000 Small state capital (Gaustadf) 62 27,000 3,600 225,000 Provincial head city (Provinzhauptsladl) 108 90,000 10,800 675,000 Regional capital city (Londeskauptsladl) 186 300,000 32,400 2,025,000 Source: Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn (ed), Read' Ings In Urban Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1963, p. 204 7 B r i a n J.L. Berry and A l l e n Pred summarised Walter C h r i s -t a l l e r ' s ideas of C e n t r a l Place as f o l l o w s , g i v i n g some c l e a r i n s i g h t s i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of the C e n t r a l Area of a c i t y : 1. The b a s i c f u n c t i o n of a c i t y i s t o be a c e n t r a l place p r o v i d i n g goods and s e r v i c e s f o r a sur-rounding t r i b u t a r y a rea. The term ' c e n t r a l p l a c e ' i s used because to perform such a f u n c t i o n e f f i -c i e n t l y , a c i t y l o c a t e s a t the center of minimum aggregate t r a v e l of i t s t r i b u t a r y area i . e . c e n t r a l t o the maximum p r o f i t area i t can command. 2. The c e n t r a l i t y of a c i t y i s a summary measure of the degree to which i t i s such a s e r v i c e center; the g r e a t e r the c e n t r a l i t y of a p l a c e , the higher i s i t s 'order*. 3. Higher order places o f f e r more goods, have more establishments and business types, l a r g e r popu-l a t i o n s , t r i b u t a r y areas and t r i b u t a r y p o p u l a t i o n s , do g r e a t e r volumes of business, and are more widely spaced than lower order p l a c e s . 4. Low order places provide only low order goods t o low t r i b u t a r y areas. These low order goods are g e n e r a l l y n e c e s s i t i e s r e q u i r i n g frequent purchasing w i t h l i t t l e consumer t r a v e l . Moreover, low order goods are provided by establishments w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low c o n d i t i o n s of e n t r y . Conversely, high order places provide not only low order goods, but a l s o high order goods s o l d by high order establishments w i t h g r e a t e r c o n d i t i o n s of e n t r y . These high order goods are g e n e r a l l y "shopping goods" f o r which the consumer i s w i l l i n g t o t r a v e l longer d i s t a n c e s , although l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . The higher the order of goods provided, the fewer are the establishments p r o v i d i n g them, the gr e a t e r the c o n d i t i o n s of entry and trade areas of the establishments, and the fewer and more widely spaced are the towns i n which the establishments are l o c a t e d . U b i q u i t y of types of business increases as t h e i r order d i m i n i s h e s . Be-cause high order places o f f e r more shopping oppor-t u n i t i e s , t h e i r trade areas f o r low order goods are l i k e l y t o be l a r g e r than those of low order p l a c e s , s i n c e consumers have the opportunity t o combine purposes on a s i n g l e t r i p , and t h i s a c t s l i k e a p r i c e - r e d u c t i o n . 8 5. More specifically, central places f a l l into a hierarchy comprising discreet groups of centers. Centers of each higher order group perform a l l the functions of lower order centers plus a group of central functions that differentiates them from and sets them above the lower order. A con-sequence is a 'nesting* pattern of lower order trade areas within the trade area of higher order centers, plus a hierarchy of routes joining the centers. 6 2. Characteristics of the Central Area In the Central Area of any city are to be found i t s greatest concentration and mixture of different kinds of build-ings and commerce, and i t s major source of tax revenue. It i s in this area that the web of linkages has been longest i n the pro-cess of development, and has become most intricate.? The Central Area represents the focus of lntracity transportation by various modes: sidewalk, private car, bus, streetcar, subway and elevated railway. Because established lntracity transportation lines con-verge on i t , i t i s the point of most convenient access from a l l parts of the city, and the point of highest land values (Pig.2,p.9). In the Central Area, at the point of maximum accessibility, only pedestrian or mass-transportation movement can concentrate the large numbers of customers necessary to support department stores, variety stores, and clothing shops, which are characteristic of the area. Its point of attachment i s the elevator, which permits three-dimensional access among offices, whose most Important locatlonal factor i s accessibility to other offices rather than to the city as a whole.® Most of a l l , i t i s characterized by a 9 F i g . 2.- Representation of the S t r u c t u r e of Urban Land Values. Source: Duane S. Knos, D i s t r i b u t i o n of Land Values i n Topeka. Kansas. Lawrence: Center f o r Research i n Business. The U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas, May, 1962. 10 c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s not g e n e r a l l y found elsewhere, e s p e c i a l l y those c e n t r a l o f f i c e s and banks, r e t a i l s t o r e s , t h e a t r e s , and the l i k e which serve the e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . These c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s , as a group, can f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y only i n the C e n t r a l Area. Other s o r t s of a c t i v i t i e s found i n the center might b e n e f i t by being removed to o u t l y i n g l o c a t i o n s . The process of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s t a k i n g place c o n t i n u o u s l y , but so i s the process of c e n t r a -l i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t s of these conjugate processes are seen i n the development of o u t l y i n g suburban centers and i n the changes which are continuously t a k i n g place i n the C e n t r a l 9 Area. 3. F u n c t i o n a l E x p l a n a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area L o c a t i o n a l Advantages of the C e n t r a l Area Robert Murray Haig gives two b a s i c reasons why c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s are advantageous t o v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s : 1) M i n i m i z a t i o n of Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Costs. There i s a p o s i t i v e d i s u t i l i t y of d i s t a n c e . The cost of overcoming space has become one of the b a s i c costs i n a l l human a c t i v i t y . People and b u i l d i n g s crowd the urban landscape i n search of convenience of contact and communication. I f everybody and everything were at the same place at the same time, there would be no costs of overcoming space; the e f f i c i e n c y of the l o c a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of urban a c t i v i t i e s would be a t a maximum. For almost a l l types of a c t i v i t i e s , the C e n t r a l Area 11 i s the place most convenient t o the greatest number of employees. For many types, i t i s the point of lowest cost i n the process of production and consumption. For con c e n t r a t i o n of people and things are the r e s u l t of e f f o r t s t o minimize the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 2) Cohesion of Functions. Each d i f f e r e n t k i n d of business has i t s own p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n , and r e l a t e d com-b i n a t i o n s of them tend t o congregate i n more or l e s s d i s t i n c t c e n t e r s . The consequent mixture a t any one l o c a t i o n w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as much by the v a r i e t y of un r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s as by the kind-of-business combinations t h a t provide a l a b e l 11 f o r the area. Sometimes a s i n g l e l a n d use dominates whole groups of a c t i v i t i e s , as the grouping of law o f f i c e s around the courts or the banking and brokerage f i r m s around the stock exchange. In t h i s case, the dominant land use i s r e l a t i v e l y permanent, but when i t does move, whole groups of r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s move w i t h i t . Thus, the C e n t r a l Area, however de-l i m i t e d , i s a galaxy of c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , c l u s t e r s of a c t i v i t i e s which appear t o have a l o c a t i o n a l a f f i n i t y one f o r the other. I t o f f e r s a unique convenience of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a v a i l -a b i l i t y . A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s the ease of movement from some point of o r i g i n t o the d e s t i n a t i o n area. A v a i l a b i l i t y i s the number and k i n d of s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the d e s t i n a t i o n area. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l Area Businesses. C e n t r a l Area businesses can be c l a s s i f i e d e i t h e r on the b a s i s of t h e i r f u n c t i o n or on the b a s i s of t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . 12 1) F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l Area Businesses. Murphy, Vance and E p s t e i n found e a r l y i n t h e i r s t u d i e s that not a l l the land uses found i n the CBD were e q u a l l y a p propriate f o r t h i s area. There i s a considerable d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s respect between a church, engulfed by CBD development, and a department s t o r e , which depends upon the advantages that a CBD l o c a t i o n has t o o f f e r . T h e i r common o p i n i o n i s that the r e a l l y e s s e n t i a l c e n t r a l business f u n c t i o n s are the r e t a i l i n g of goods and s e r v i c e s f o r a p r o f i t , and the performing of v a r i o u s o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s . Stores of a l l s o r t s t h a t r e t a i l merchandise, shops t h a t o f f e r s e r v i c e s , and the whole m i s c e l l a n y of o f f i c e s so o f t e n found near the center of a c i t y - a l l appear t o represent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c e n t r a l business uses. S i m i l a r s t o r e s and shops and o f f i c e s occur elsewhere i n the c i t y , but t h e i r area of maximum co n c e n t r a t i o n i s the CBD, where they are o r i e n t e d around the peak l a n d value i n t e r s e c t i o n and where they serve the c i t y as a whole r a t h e r than any one s e c t i o n or any one group of people. Various other types of land use, although found i n the CBD, are not considered as re p r e s e n t i n g r e a l c e n t r a l business uses. Whole-s a l i n g i s one of these. I t i s not a c e n t r a l business f u n c t i o n s i n c e i t i s l o c a l i z e d more by the presence of r a i l r o a d s or other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n media then by the p u l l of c e n t r a l i t y . Even more o b v i o u s l y , f a c t o r i e s and non-commercial type of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , though represented i n the CBD, are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elements. Absence of the normal p r o f i t motive excludes a l s o m u n i c i p a l and other governmental b u i l d i n g s and parks, churches and other r e l i g i o u s establishments and l a n d , p u b l i c and other 1 3 n o n - p r o f i t making schools, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l establishments 12 and s e v e r a l other types of space occupance. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land uses i n the CBD as formulated by Murphy, Vance and Ep s t e i n i n t h e i r s t u d i e s i n c l u d e s three major groups as shown i n Table 2 . TABLE 2 A CLASSIFICATION OF LAND USES IN THE CBD ] A CLASSIFICATION OF L A N D U S E S IN T H E C B D j The order in which the items appear on each list is not intended as indicative of their importance but ' merely represents the order in which they were j tabulated in the office. No attempt has been made \ to include all minor forms of land use. (From I tabulations based on the authors' field notes.) 1 A. Present and apparently typical: Restaurants Women's clothing Men's clothing Furniture Hardware and appliances Department stores "5 and 10" stores Drug stores Jewelry and gifts Amusement establishments Banks Insurance and real estate Personal service (barbers, beauticians, etc.) Clothing service : General offices I Commercial parking | Hotels and other transient lodging B. Rare enough to be absent or essentially so from one or I more of the CBDs: t Supermarkets Automobile sales Service stations Accessory, tire, and battery sales Newspaper publishing Headquarters offices Railroad station Bus station Residences i Industrial i Wholesale C. Occupying substantial space in all CBDs but not typi-I cally central business land use: Public land and buildings i Organizational and charitable institutions i Vacant building or lot space Source: Raymond E. Murphy, J.E. Vance J r . , and Bart J . E p s t e i n , C e n t r a l Business D i s -t r i c t S t u d i e s , C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y , Worcester, Mass., U.S.A., 1 9 5 5 , P. 334 2) L o c a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l Area Businesses. The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the f u n c t i o n of the la n d uses. This of course has i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . For f u r t h e r under-14 stan d i n g , i t i s meaningful t o look at Richard U. R a t c l i f f ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of businesses found i n the C e n t r a l Area which are d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r groups on the b a s i s of the geographical l o c a t i o n of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . They are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : 1. No l o c a l c l i e n t s . These are the businesses where contacts are l a r g e l y outside the com-munity and where the community contacts are a small share of the t o t a l . An example i s a mail-order house w i t h a r e g i o n a l or a n a t i o n a l market, i n c l u d i n g the community where the home o f f i c e i s l o c a t e d . In t h i s case, c e n t r a l l t y i s of no great importance from the standpoint of customers but may be important from the stand-poin t of employee convenience. 2. Community-wide c l i e n t e l e . The prime example i s the downtown department s t o r e which serves the e n t i r e community and the h i n t e r l a n d f o r miles about. Convenience to both c l i e n t and employee i s an important aspect of a c e n t r a l area s i t u a t i o n . 3. C e n t r a l neighborhood c l i e n t e l e . The c e n t r a l area i s i n a s i t u a t i o n most convenient t o householders who l i v e on the periphery i n the c e n t r a l slums, i n the Gold Coast apartment h o t e l s , and i n the adjacent modest homes of c l e r k s and workingmen. T h e i r focus i s toward the center f o r many s e r v i c e s and commodities which i n o u t l y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas are t y p i -c a l l y provided i n neighborhood and r e g i o n a l shopping ce n t e r s . Grocery s t o r e s , drugstores, barbershops, and dry cleaners s i t u a t e d on the f r i n g e of the c e n t r a l area e x i s t p r i m a r i l y to serve the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s which border the commercial core. 4. Centra l - a r e a c l i e n t e l e . This group of businesses might be termed ' p a r a s i t i c * except f o r the f a c t t h a t they are e s s e n t i a l to the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the urban organism. In a sense they feed o f f the center, but i n another sense they serve the center. Examples are the e a t i n g establishments which n o u r i s h the daytime p o p u l a t i o n of the center, both customer and employee. Another type i s the business s e r v i c e , the accountant or a d v e r t i s i n g 15 f i r m which f i n d s i t s c l i e n t s among the businesses l o c a t e d i n the c e n t r a l commercial area. Both examples show how a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e i n l i g h t of the nature of the contacts i n v o l v e d . 13 The emphasis of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been on the space r e l a t i o n s h i p s between business and c l i e n t and between business and employee. However, the importance of a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n terms of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l of course vary from business t o business. Determinants of Land Uses i n the C e n t r a l Area Land use should be regarded as a dynamic response to s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . I t changes to meet new ways and c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e . Changes i n the p h y s i c a l makeup of the c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i t s C e n t r a l Area, come about i n response t o changes i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and arrangements of urban a c t i v i t i e s — a l w a y s changing, always r e q u i r i n g accommodation. The key r o l e i s played by the a c t i v i t i e s which l i e behind changing demands f o r space or l o c a t i o n . For i n these i s the source of the v i t a -l i t y of the C e n t r a l Area or the e n t i r e c i t y . - When a c t i v i t i e s are s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l e d the p h y s i c a l environment begins t o d e t e r i o -r a t e . As d i f f e r e n t kinds of a c t i v i t y change i n r e l a t i v e impor-tance, the p h y s i c a l environment a d j u s t s to a new balance. Five "determinants" can be i s o l a t e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g the p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e s on the character and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l a n d uses i n the C e n t r a l Area. These are as f o l l o w s : ^ 1 ) C e n t r a l Area f u n c t i o n i n the urban area. The opera-t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l economic and s o c i a l 16 s t r u c t u r e w i l l determine i t s land use p a t t e r n and impact on other use areas. The a b i l i t y to compete w i t h other c e n t r a l areas i n the r e g i o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e the f u t u r e of the C e n t r a l Area. 2) Convenience. This i n c l u d e s a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a v a i l -a b i l i t y . I t i s a primary r a i s o n d'etre of economic a c t i v i t y i n the C e n t r a l Area. I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t a l l land uses. 3) Land p o l i c i e s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . These can r e s t r i c t the use of land f o r v a r i o u s reasons. Zoning, t a x a t i o n , c a p i t a l improvements, and p r i v a t e r a c i a l p o l i c i e s are obvious kinds of l a n d p o l i c i e s . 4) Community power s t r u c t u r e . This makes important d e c i s i o n s about a l l aspects of the C e n t r a l Area. This deter-minant i n p a r t i c u l a r w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t i n a f f e c t i n g plans and programs a r i s i n g out of the research. 5) P h y s i c a l environment. This i m p l i e s the environ-mental q u a l i t i e s i n a l l senses: v i s u a l , a u r a l , o r a l and n a s a l . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s determinant w i l l shape the f u t u r e C e n t r a l Area. A l l these determinants a f f e c t one another, as w e l l as the land use elements i n the C e n t r a l Area. A l s o the elements of the C e n t r a l Area have a c o r o l l a r y i n f l u e n c e on determin-a n t s , as e x i s t i n g land use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must c o n d i t i o n the f u t u r e . 17 P o t e n t i a l Problems of the C e n t r a l Area Space i n the C e n t r a l Area i s used i n t e n s i v e l y by con-t i n u a l l y changing groups of a c t i v i t i e s , some q u i t e s t a b l e , some s h i f t i n g r a t h e r f r e e l y i n t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and l o c a t i o n s . Even groups of f i r m s t h a t remain anchored to one place may f i n d t h a t t h e i r surroundings change as some of t h e i r neighbours go elsewhere and other a c t i v i t i e s move i n . Many a commercial area that once was f l o u r i s h i n g and high i n p r e s t i g e i s now b l i g h t e d and decaying. At the same time there are o l d neighbourhoods t h a t have been kept up and that replaced the o l d . In f a c t , a l l the C e n t r a l Area a c t i v i t i e s are subject t o c e r t a i n pressures and l i m i t a t i o n s . Among these are: increase or d e c l i n e i n production due t o competition, t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments, s c a r c i t y of appropriate accommodations, and r e a l l o c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s among v a r i o u s land uses. Bic h a r d U. R a t c l i f f i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s f o r the C e n t r a l Area suggests four ways i n which the C e n t r a l Area might l o s e i n advantage i n business done and thus i n property v a l u e s . They are as f o l l o w s 1) Reduced a c c e s s i b i l i t y . This i m p l i e s t r a f f i c con-g e s t i o n and l a c k of parki n g . The usual view i s the personal o n e — t h a t i t i s now more troublesome to go downtown than i t used t o be. But, i n g e n e r a l , the C e n t r a l Area i s p o t e n t i a l l y more a c c e s s i b l e than ever, and more people are e n t e r i n g i t than ever before. The inconvenience may be greater but the people 18 s t i l l go ''downtown". The unanswered question i s whether the t r a f f i c and parking problem w i l l become so s e r i o u s , i n s p i t e of countermeasures, that there w i l l be a ba s i c f u n c t i o n a l change a t the center. 2) Reduced a v a i l a b i l i t y . So f a r the C e n t r a l Area has been moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of greater not l e s s e r a v a i l a b i l i t y . The v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s has been i n c r e a s i n g , and the range of choices o f f e r e d to the shopper i n brand, s t y l e , q u a l i t y , and p r i c e has not diminished. Ever i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n business f u n c t i o n s tends t o create more, not l e s s , interdepen-dence and thus more not fewer symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p s where space-convenience i s important. Here the danger to the C e n t r a l Area l i e s i n l o s i n g more f u n c t i o n s than are gained, or i n l o s i n g a c t i v i t i e s of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s t r e n g t h and extent of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s . The removal of a s i n g l e a c t i v i t y may create repercussions i n many other a c t i v i t i e s w i t h which i t has had d i r e c t contact; i n t u r n , the c e s s a t i o n of d i r e c t contacts w i l l have secon-dary e f f e c t s on e n t e r p r i s e s and a c t i v i t i e s which have had r e l a t i o n s h i p s M t h the a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d . Let the center l o s e too many f u n c t i o n s and the web of mutually advan-tageous space r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l weaken and the d e c l i n e w i l l g a i n a s e l f - i n d u c e d momentum which may be s e r i o u s l y d e s t r u c t i v e . 3) Reduced interdependence. The changes i n merchan-d i s i n g which decrease the number of o u t l e t s i n r e l a t i o n to the v a r i e t y of the goods tend to reduce the cohesion of the shop-ping d i s t r i c t . I f the C e n t r a l Area contained only a group of 19 u n r e l a t e d e n t e r p r i s e s each going i t s separate way and s e r v i n g a separate group of i n d i v i d u a l s , the seeds of d e s t r u c t i o n would f i n d f e r t i l e s o i l . To the extent that intercompany con-t a c t i s important and frequent, the convenience of the com-pact downtown arrangement w i l l be a perpetuating f a c t o r . 4) Reduced employment. In most c i t i e s , the C e n t r a l Area i s the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e p o i n t of employment c o n c e n t r a t i o n . This has made the center a dominant f o r c e i n determining popu-l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n . I f primary employers move to p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s or i f new l o c a l o f f - c e n t e r connections of employ-ment develop, the u l t i m a t e e f f e c t w i l l be to modify the o r i e n -t a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , and t o s l o w l y a l t e r the s t r u c t u r e of s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . The daytime p o p u l a t i o n of the center w i l l be decreased and thus a l s o the p o t e n t i a l of con-venient customers f o r downtown establishments. Summary The C e n t r a l Area has the g r e a t e s t advantage i n l o c a t i o n because i t i s at the focus of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and has the most convenient l i n k a g e among the c e n t r a l l a n d uses. In other terms, the C e n t r a l Area o f f e r s a unique convenience b u i l t of two component q u a l i t i e s which are termed a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y . A c c e s s i -b i l i t y i s the ease of movement from some point of o r i g i n t o the d e s t i n a t i o n area. A v a i l a b i l i t y i s the number and k i n d of s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the d e s t i n a t i o n area. These are f u n c t i o n a l 20 e s s e n t i a l s t o the C e n t r a l Area. To reduce the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and to break up and disperse the r e l a t e d c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of i n t e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s would add g r e a t l y to the time, money and human energy costs of doing the c i t y ' s work. CHAPTER I I THE CENTRAL AREA IN DILEMMA The dramatic growth of suburban shopping centers has engendered a widespread f e a r of r e t a i l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Merchants of the C e n t r a l Area, property owners, and p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s view w i t h t r e p i d a t i o n and dismay the development of a t t r a c t i v e o u t l y i n g shopping c e n t e r s , complete w i t h parking f a c i l i t i e s , g i v i n g every promise of d r a i n i n g the C e n t r a l Area of i t s l i f e b l o o d of t r a d e . Recently, the C e n t r a l Areas of many c i t i e s have been threatened by the o u t l y i n g shopping ce n t e r s , and may have already l o s t the b a t t l e . The "For Rent" signs are going up i n what was once the o l d "100 percent" block. The aged and the s i n g l e person are now the main rent-payers, and the o l d neighborhood's new look i s sad. This i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d , f o r example, by the C i t y of Vancouver's o l d C e n t r a l Area. I t was o r i g i n a l l y l o c a t e d a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Cordova and C a r r a l l S t r e e t s , and by 1891 had s h i f t e d t o Cambie S t r e e t . The i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n which opened up the suburban areas, had the e f f e c t of s h i f t i n g the main bus-in e s s area west along Hastings S t r e e t , and south on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , where i t has remained t o t h i s day (See Fig.3&4,p.22). 1 The o l d Vancouver C e n t r a l Area now c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of deter-i o r a t e d , l o w - i n t e n s i t y commercial uses, such as "flophouses" and d i l a p i d a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . Business depression had s e r i o u s l y d e f l a t e d the property v a l u e s , so t h a t property owners r a i s e d t h e i r v o i c e s i n p r o t e s t and pointed t o the apparent d e c l i n e of the area as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r tax r e d u c t i o n . F i g . 3 . — The L o c a t i o n of the CBD of Vancouver C i t y . F i g . 4 . — T h e C e n t r a l Area of Vancouver C i t y . Source: L a r r y Smith & Company, An Economic A n a l y s i s For  CBD Redevelopment, Vancouver. B.C.; Phase 1 — P r e l i m i n a r y  Report, The C i t y P lanning Department, Vancouver, B.C., J u l y 17, 1963. 23 The o r i g i n s of the present danger f a c i n g the C e n t r a l Areas of many c i t i e s are p o p u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a f f i c con-g e s t i o n and the parking problem, which jeopardise the v i t a l elements of A c c e s s i b i l i t y and Environment i n the C e n t r a l Area. As a r e s u l t , suburban shopping centers are developing r a p i d l y i n the o u t l y i n g areas. 1. Pedestrians Vs. Automobiles I t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g that the growth i n auto-mobile use has l i m i t e d the freedom of the p e d e s t r i a n . I t s sheer s i z e , weight and speed have forced him o f f the p u b l i c ways. What i s even more d i s t u r b i n g , however, i s the unquestioning acceptance of v e h i c u l a r p r i o r i t y by most highway and t r a f f i c engineers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , who have a l l but ignored the needs of those on f o o t . Much has been s a i d about the convenience of d r i v i n g , whereas the convenience of walking has been l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t e d . Walking i s not only o f t e n the most d i r e c t means at hand f o r reaching a d e s t i n a t i o n , but f o r many the only means when p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s not a v a i l a b l e . I t plays an indispensable p a r t i n pursuing shopping a c t i v i t i e s . The automobile i s not a n a t u r a l means of locomotion f o r shopping; the patron of business i s essen-t i a l l y a p e d e s t r i a n , not a m o t o r i s t . In other words, there i s a r e l a t i o n between p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c and r e t a i l business. The f u t u r e of the C e n t r a l Area l i e s i n enabling the p e d e s t r i a n movement t o take place i n reasonable comfort and s a f e t y . 24 S t r e e t s : T h e i r Functions and Purposes S t r e e t s serve many purposes. For v e h i c l e s , they provide: 1) space on which to move; 2) access t o curbside l o a d i n g and un-l o a d i n g of both goods and people as c l o s e t o t h e i r d e s i r e d d e s t i n a -t i o n s as possible;, and 3) curbside space f o r parking or access to o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g . For p e d e s t r i a n s , they serve as means of access, as p u b l i c spaces f o r play and l e i s u r e and, more fundamentally, as means of o r i e n t a t i o n . 2 Kevin Lynch, i n h i s book "Image of a C i t y , " d i s c u s s e s the great importance of the s t r e e t as a means of o r g a n i z -i n g one's experiences i n a c i t y : "Paths w i t h c l e a r and well-known o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s had stronger i d e n t i t i e s , helped t i e the c i t y together, and gave the observer a sense of h i s bearings when-ever he crossed them." 3 The Decline of P e d e s t r i a n Rights The r i g h t of the p e d e s t r i a n t o use p u b l i c ways has been p r o t e c t e d throughout recorded h i s t o r y u n t i l the development of the modern highway. The e a r l i e s t paths were used s o l e l y by p e d e s t r i a n s . I n the middle ages the t r a v e l l e r ' s r i g h t to the p u b l i c highway was not only guarded but even encouraged by the establishment of inns and m i l e houses. A law e s t a b l i s h e d by the German Crown provided minimum road dimensions which, i n some cases, had t o provide en-ough room f o r a peasant woman to walk beside her c a r t without d i r -t y i n g her c l o a k . " T r a v e l l e r s were o f t e n compelled to use highways, not only f o r t h e i r own s a f e t y , but so that the k i n g might r e c e i v e t o l l s through l o c a l c o l l e c t o r s . The r i g h t of pedestrians was a l s o f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h common law, which f o r b i d s the c l o s i n g 25 of any pathway i n use f o r more than twenty years, whether on p r i v a t e k or p u b l i c l a n d . In recent years, however, the automobile has taken away r i g h t s the p e d e s t r i a n may never again enjoy. In some c i t i e s , s i d e -walks have been r u t h l e s s l y cut down t o s l i v e r s , and c l u t t e r e d with new v a r i e t i e s of s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e dedicated t o the automobile. Benches have been removed. Great gaping spaces f o r parking have r e p l a c e d s m a l l shops, so that C e n t r a l Areas now look l i k e an o l d man's mouth w i t h h i s dentures out.-' Hundreds of thousands of miles of rights-of-way are purchased, and highways, constructed a t pub-l i c expense, deny access to i n d i v i d u a l s on f o o t . Added to these developments are the many road widenings and sidewalk narrowings undertaken i n recent years to increase v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c c a p a c i t y . A l l of these measures have had one g o a l : t o accommodate more veh-i c l e s , both moving and s t o r e d , u s u a l l y at the expense of the p e d e s t r i a n . F r u s t r a t i o n i n the Use of V e h i c l e s Much of the growth of many c i t i e s occurred d u r i n g the h a l f century of the motor v e h i c l e , but l i t t l e was done t o a d j u s t c i t y development to the a b i l i t i e s and needs of t h i s modern means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The same s t r e e t s and the same k i n d of s t r e e t s t h a t saw the b i r t h of the automobile c a r r y today's sleek passenger cars roomy buses, and powerful t r u c k s . In many cases, the methods of a d m i n i s t e r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g t r a f f i c are e q u a l l y a n t i q u a t e d . Sheer s i z e of the t r a f f i c problem i s s u f f i c i e n t t o f r i g h t e n or discourage many a c i t i z e n . Fear of a c c i d e n t s has motivated f a m i l i e s 26 w i t h c h i l d r e n t o head f o r the suburbs, and they won't come back u n t i l t h e i r c h i l d r e n are grown. One reason f o r delay i n t a c k l i n g t r a f f i c problems i s f e a r of c o s t . That o f t e n comes from inadequate knowledge of the problem's scope and cha r a c t e r . F i n a l l y , many c i t i e s f a i l t o give proper r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y t o the t r a f f i c -o perations arm of t h e i r government. Whatever the reasons, the f a c t remains t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y every c i t y s u f f e r s heavy l o s s through t r a f f i c congestion, i r r i -t a t i o n , delay and t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s . Much of the l o s s i s need-l e s s and could be avoided a t cost s f a r l e s s than the b e n e f i t s . That can be s a i d w i t h c e r t a i n t y because modern t r a f f i c manage-ment and oper a t i o n techniques have proved i t . Today the t r a f f i c problem i s complicated. I t i s not one problem but s e v e r a l i n t e r - r e l a t e d problems. The major d i v e r s i o n s are t r a f f i c congestion and delay, t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s , and pa r k i n g . S o l v i n g each of these b r i n g s t o l i g h t other problems, i n c l u d i n g t r a f f i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l , engineering and c o n s t r u c t i o n of p h y s i c a l improvements, t r u c k and mass t r a n s i t o p e r a t i o n s , t r a f f i c ordinances, education and enforcement. C l e a r l y , the urban t r a f f i c problem has grown too l a r g e , too i n t r i c a t e , and too important t o be t r u s t e d to r u l e of thumb treatment and t o management which l a c k s know-how and a u t h o r i t y . 1) The Problem of Pa r k i n g . The parking problem i s insep-a r a b l e from the t r a f f i c problem. So long as people t r a v e l to the C e n t r a l Area by p r i v a t e automobile, t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s are as important as s t r e e t s . The absence of parking f a c i l i t i e s or the 27 d i f f i c u l t y In parking i s a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t , comparable to the delays of t r a f f i c congestion or bus f a r e . G e n e r a l l y , parking f a c i l i t i e s are poorest where they are most needed - i n the h i g h l y concentrated C e n t r a l Area, The l o a d i n g and unloading of goods a t business and commercial premises, which i s e s s e n t i a l t o the continued l i f e of the p l a c e , i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h by r e g u l a t i o n s made i n favour of moving t r a f f i c . The freedom w i t h which one could stop outside a shop to go i n f o r some simple purchase i s now a t h i n g of the past. I t i s s c a r c e l y an exaggeration to say that f i n d i n g a l e g a l parking space has now become a major a n x i e t y attendant upon every urban journey by motor v e h i c l e , and the areas so a f f e c t e d spread y e a r l y w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g number and 6 use of motor v e h i c l e s . As a r e s u l t of the parking problem, C e n t r a l Area business i s d e c l i n i n g i n importance r e l a t i v e t o areas of the community where more par k i n g space i s a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r f r e e or a t a lower cost t o the automobile d r i v e r . A comparative study of shopping h a b i t s based on i n t e r -views w i t h 4,688 women i n areas around Boston i n 195^ showed t h a t the most o f t e n mentioned reason f o r doing l e s s shopping i n the C e n t r a l Area was •"transportation''. Combine the f a c t that only 5% of the women shop i n the C e n t r a l Area of Boston by car w i t h the f a c t that 46$ of suburban car owners i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e to do more C e n t r a l Area shopping i f only there were adequate parking space, and the need f o r doing something to 7 r e v i t a l i z e the C e n t r a l Area of Boston i s s t a r k l y evident.' 28 P i g . 5»- Road Signs The want of parking space c o n s t i t u t e s the mot o r i s t ' s nightmare. The c r i s i s has become so acute that business i s l e a v i n g c i t i e s ; s t o r e s , movies, and markets are appearing i n the open country. F i g . 6- A Cartoon Source: Jose L u i s Sert,-Can Our C i t i e s Survive? The Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, U.S.A., 19^7, p. 175 29 2 ) Congested T r a f f i c . For personal and f a m i l y use, f o r the movement of people i n mass, and f o r use i n business, commerce, and i n d u s t r y , the motor v e h i c l e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e . But the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g use of v e h i c l e s has l e d to a great many f r u s t r a t i o n s . These f r u s t r a t i o n s i n the use of v e h i c l e s are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i r r i t a t i o n s of t r a f f i c jams, the waste of f u e l , the waste of time, and the v a s t and e s s e n t i a l l y unproductive e f f o r t by p o l i c e and others engaged i n many c a p a c i t i e s i n r e g u l a t i n g t r a f f i c . As a r e s u l t , an impulse toward d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s created f o r a l l f u n c t i o n s except those making e f f e c t i v e use of the c o s t l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (See F i g . ? , p . 3 0 ) » A motor v e h i c l e , even i n i t s heaviest and clumsiest form, i s capable of moving a t 60 m.p.h., yet the average speed of t r a f f i c i n the l a r g e c i t i e s i s about 11 m.p.h. I t i s a d i f f i c u l t matter to q u a n t i f y the economic l o s s e s due t o t r a f f i c congestion. The journeys i n v o l v e d are very complex. There are people delayed i n buses, f o r example, some of whom may be going about important business where time r e a l l y i s ''money", but others may be merely out f o r a day's window shopping. There are delays to commercial v e h i c l e s of many k i n d s . Commuters are he l d up i n t h e i r own c a r s , where the only r e a l hardship may be the d e p r i v a t i o n of an e x t r a h a l f hour i n bed i n the morning. On the other hand there are business people to whom the use of a car i s a very great conven-o lence and where delays are expensive as w e l l as irksome. The cos t s f o r t r a f f i c congestion have been s t u d i e d by the Road Research Laboratory, and the f i g u r e f o r 1958 f o r urban areas i n England was 30 put at £ 140 m i l l i o n s . According to a study by the C i t i z e n s T r a f f i c Safety Board, Inc., t r a f f i c congestion costs New York 10 C i t y businessmen over $100 m i l l i o n a year. In b r i e f , t r a f f i c congestion i s expensive. An enormous amount of time and money i s wasted. The economic e f f i c i e n c y of the community i s s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d . r i g . 7- T r a f f i c Congestion i n the Thoroughfares of C e n t r a l London. Source: J.H. Forshaw & P a t r i c k Abercrombie, County of London P l a n . MacMillan & Co. L t d . , London, 19^3, f a c i n g p. 8. 31 3) F a i l u r e of P u b l i c - t r a n s i t S e r v i c e . The C e n t r a l Area i s the hub of the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of the c i t y . For those who do not a r r i v e i n the C e n t r a l Area by p r i v a t e c a r , there i s dependence on the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. However, p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems i n many c i t i e s have been f a c i n g problems. T h e i r revenue i s d e c l i n i n g because of the drop i n the number of passengers. The number of t r a n s i t r i d e r s i n S e a t t l e , f o r example, has f a l l e n sharply since 1945, i n s p i t e of the p o p u l a t i o n increase enjoyed by the area (See Table 3 & F i g . 8 , p . 3 2 ) . This d e c l i n i n g t r e n d i n the use of mass-transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s t y p i c a l of a l l l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n centers s i n c e World War I I . This together w i t h the r i s i n g c o s t s , compels them to ask f o r f a r e increases a t a time when many observers are of the o p i n i o n that f a r e s are already too h i g h , i f the use of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system f o r shopping i s t o be encouraged. When p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a r e s are i n c r e a s e d , the C e n t r a l Area u s u a l l y s u f f e r s . k) The Problems of Through T r a f f i c . In every c i t y , l a r g e and s m a l l , there i s always a c e r t a i n amount of t r a f f i c , on a l l approach roads, which passes s t r a i g h t across the c i t y without stop-ping to conduct any business. This i s the phenomenon of "through t r a f f i c " . The presence of through t r a f f i c i n c i t i e s i s explained by the nature of the road system i n h e r i t e d from the pre-motor age ( F i g . 9 & 1 0 , p . 3 3 ) . This c o n s i s t e d e s s e n t i a l l y of d i r e c t l i n k s from the centre of one c i t y to the centre of another, w i t h a c l o s e mesh of l o c a l roads w i t h i n each c i t y g i v i n g d i r e c t access to the b u i l d i n g s , and a much broader mesh over the countryside t o serve 32 TABLE 3 USE OF SEATTLE TRANSIT SYSTEM 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 5 1 Year Population City of Seattle Revenue Passengers Annual Revenue Rides per Capita % of 1939 . No. 1920 319,324 67,599,475 129.5 187 1035 307,773 48,005,656 92.1 131 1930 308,056 52,190,854 100.0 142 1010 368,302 56,843,685 108.9 154 10-11 381,290 68,417,206 131.1 179 1042 390,5S6 95,528,358 183.0 244 1043 395,308 115,855,374 222.0 293 1944 406,764 128,961,305 247.1 317 1945 412,554 131,167,111 251.3 318 1946 444,502 117,130,059 225.6 265 1947 454,160 106,807,225 204.6 236 1948 458,240 99,824,055 . 191.3 217 1919 460,589 92,997,874 178.2 202 1950 462,440 83,802,774 160.6 181 1951 468,000- 77,755,449 149.0 161« Source: W.C. Gilman & Company, "General Report on S e a t t l e T r a n s i t System," Records of S e a t t l e  T r a n s i t System, Table 5 ; c i t e d by Louis C. Wagner, "Economic R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Parking to Business i n S e a t t l e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area," i n Highway Research Board S p e c i a l Report No.10, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1 9 5 3 , Table 39 p.85 Mint imn •tit if n rm IMO IMI nu mi m) m< im IM> ma m. mo itn Fig.8 Annual Revenue Rides per c a p i t a , S e a t t l e T r a n s i t System. Source: S p e c i a l Tabulation prepared from O r i g i n - D e s t i n a t i o n T r a f f i c Survey Data, S e a t t l e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, 19^ +7; c i t e d by Louis C. Wagner, o p . c i t . , F i g . 18, p.85 Fig. 9 The Inherited Road System. Direct links from town centre to town centre forcing a l l long-distance t r a f f i c to pass through the middle of towns. Source: Colin Buchanan, Traffic in Towns. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1 9 6 3 , P-3^ Fig.10 London. A l l Roads leading to the central area. Source: E.J. Carter and Erno Goldfinger, The County of  London Plan, Penguin Books, 19^5, P»33 3 ^ the small settlements, farms, and f i e l d s . The d i r e c t l i n k s served the town-to-town journeys admirably, but they are most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the long-distance journeys, because a l l v e h i c l e s are f o r c e d through the urban centers whether they want to go t h a t way or not. This causes nuisance and danger, and accentuates the s e v e r i t y of t r a f f i c congestion i n the C e n t r a l 11 Area. The Future Growth of T r a f f i c The r a p i d growth and current magnitudes of automotive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are w e l l known. With r e g i s t r a t i o n s and t r a v e l a t an a l l - t i m e h i g h , and c o n t i n u i n g to grow a t unprecedented r a t e s , t r a f f i c congestion threatens the f a t e of the long and w e l l estab-l i s h e d C e n t r a l Areas of many c i t i e s . To some businessmen, growing t r a f f i c i s accepted as a spur to business; others are becoming concerned; and some have taken p r o t e c t i v e measures a g a i n s t uncon-t r o l l e d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g competition of o u t l y i n g areas, changes i n shopping h a b i t s , and changes i n b a s i c concepts of merchandising. There are so many advantages i n a f a i r l y s m a l l , independent, self-powered and h i g h l y manoeuvrable means of g e t t i n g about a t ground l e v e l , f o r both people and goods, t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y people w i l l ever wish t o abandon the use of t h e i r c a r s . The data a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c - t r a n s i t patronage, as shown i n Table 3 p.3 2 , appear to i n d i c a t e an overwhelming preference f o r the p r i v a t e automobile as an a l t e r n a t i v e means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r C o l i n Buchanan f o r e c a s t i n h i s book " T r a f f i c i n Towns" th a t the f u t u r e of the motor v e h i c l e i s assured. By the p r o j e c t i o n of past trends and consider-35 a t i o n of the recent experience of the United S t a t e s , he made a for e c a s t i n 1 9 6 3 that the number of v e h i c l e s i n England w i l l double w i t h i n ten years, and w i l l t r e b l e i n a l i t t l e over twenty 12 years, as shown i n Fig. 1 1 •o a a JZ o a. .60 .55 .50 .45 .40 .35 .30 .25 .20 .15 .10 .05 sal uratio n (all vehic es) 40M 40M / » ** All vet sal uratic n (ca s & n /c.s) 34M / t27M 34M saturation (ca s onl I). 30M i t lotor c 1/ i 1 23M • / * 30M Cars 18M / f / / * t '19M // f  1// Bi 1 / 12M -7 / / 1 / >-4r r only: 1910 1920 1930 1 940 1950 1 950 1970 1 980 1 990 2000. 2010 Fig. 1 1 Future Growth of Numbers of V e h i c l e s . These curves i n d i c a t e the probable t r e n d assuming no d r a s t i c r e s t r i c t I o n a r y measures are a p p l i e d , and a l l o w i n g f o r the f u t u r e growth of the population. Source: C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1 9 6 3 , p.27 I t i s obvious that the motor v e h i c l e appears to have a long-term f u t u r e i n i t s usage. There i s a l s o a very l a r g e p o t e n t i a l demand f o r i t s s e r v i c e s . But unless something i s done, the c o n f l i c t between pedestrians and motor v e h i c l e s i n the C e n t r a l Areas as they are arranged a t present i s bound to get p r o g r e s s i v e l y worse. 36 2. A H e l l of a L i f e Vs. A Center of Community L i f e Business i s being pushed away from the C e n t r a l Area. The t r o u b l e i s tha t the t y p i c a l C e n t r a l Area was b u i l t before the automobile. The development of the automobile has gone unchecked. There has been very l i t t l e , i f any, planning during the past few decades i n many c i t i e s . There has been l i t t l e or no attempt made by most shopping areas t o keep up wit h the r a p i d increases i n p o p u l a t i o n and v e h i c l e s , c o n s t r u c t i n g the new and b e t t e r t r a v e l and shopping f a c i l i t i e s they needed. As a con-sequence, the C e n t r a l Area i s overcongested, and the c i t y i s s u f f e r i n g from "heart d i s e a s e " . Shopping today i n the C e n t r a l Area i s a d i s t a s t e f u l , arduous chore f o r the customer, from the time he backs the car out of the garage u n t i l he r e t u r n s to h i s house. In between, he has s u f f e r e d from t r a f f i c Jams, p a r k i n g woes, shopping crowds, and other sundry u n p l e a s a n t r i e s . Hence, he makes fewer shopping t r i p s t o the C e n t r a l Areas - Just as few he p o s s i b l y can - and these t r i p s are of s h o r t e r and s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n . The s i t u a t i o n has created a shopping a t t i t u d e among many customers of "Get there. Get i t . 13 And get out." J , Another bad aspect of the C e n t r a l Areas i s t h a t the sub-urban workers pour i n t o them a t 9 a.m. and are disgorged a t 5 p.m. The C e n t r a l Area i s where they spend t h e i r working hours to pay f o r the suburban place where they spend t h e i r s l e e p i n g hours. The customers converge a l l a t once f o r the " s p e c i a l s a l e " 37 and lumber out as f a s t as t h e i r aching f e e t can reach t h e i r a c c e l e r a t o r s . The parking meter i s f i x e d f o r h a l f an hour. The lunch counter i s designed f o r f a s t turnover and o f t e n coat hanging or reading a paper i s d e l i b e r a t e l y made imp o s s i b l e . Speed and turnover have become the C e n t r a l Area's o b j e c t i v e . This i s 14 understandable i n a bargain-counter c i v i l i z a t i o n . Consequently, the C e n t r a l Area has s u f f e r e d a l o s s of considerable business. The l o s s w i l l continue t o mount j u s t as long as the s t a t u s quo remains. The f a c t t h a t the "push f o r c e " keeping the customers away from the C e n t r a l Area has been ga t h e r i n g considerable momentum f o r the l a s t few decades should be warning to a l l concerned t h a t the c i t i e s w i l l have to underwrite v a s t sums f o r b u i l d i n g , p a r k i n g , and road con-s t r u c t i o n i f they want t o go on l i v i n g . The C e n t r a l Area must be planned or improved to r e c o n c i l e the Important f a c t o r s of A c c e s s i b i l i t y and Environment, and thereby to make the l i v i n g , shopping and working c o n d i t i o n s i n the area more secure and pleas a n t . I n other words, i t should be b u i l t t o the conven-ience and s a t i s f a c t i o n of those who l i v e , shop and work i n i t , and to the great s u r p r i s e of str a n g e r s . D e t e r i o r a t i o n of Environment While the automobile has brought convenience and pleasure to many and permitted a g r e a t e r range of t r a v e l , i t has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d i s s o l u t i o n of urban a c t i v i t i e s 38 i n the C e n t r a l Area. The r o a r of t r u c k s , cars and buses i s heard f o r blocks around, to the accompaniment of m i l l i o n s of cubic f e e t of exhaust fumes sprayed a t the pedestrian's f e e t , i n t e r f e r i n g i n no small degree w i t h e f f i c i e n c y i n o f f i c e s and other business premises (See Pig.12 & 13»P«39)» Pedestrians are delayed, harrassed and threatened a t the c r o s s i n g s . Even the sidewalk i s not safe f o r walking (See Fig.14,p.3 9 ) . Along w i t h the hazardous and unpleasant shopping atmosphere created by the congested t r a f f i c , the u n c o n t r o l l e d C e n t r a l Area i s i n e v i t a b l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g . The a r c h i t e c t u r e of the a r e a , which formerly gave order t o and d e f i n e d the edges of the s t r e e t , has been o b l i t e r a t e d by v a s t , desolate parking l o t s . The whole area i s n o i s y , crowded, obnoxious and dangerous. I t l a c k s f r e s h a i r , b e a u t i f u l v e g e t a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Beauty, charm and l i v e l i n e s s have giv e n way to barren monotony. People are compelled to meet today i n the most unfavourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r performing a c t i v i t i e s . The net r e s u l t of these hazards and nuisances i s that customers r e b e l r e f u s i n g to hurdle the obstacles of v i s i t i n g the C e n t r a l Areas except f o r the most urgent purchases. For t h e i r day-to-day n e c e s s i t i e s , these custom-ers p a t r o n i z e the l o c a l or "corner"' s t o r e s . For major item in their offices Fig. 1 2 —The Problem of V e h i c u l a r Fig. 1 3 —The Problem of V e h i c u l a r Noises. Noises. Source: E.J. C a r t e r and Erno G o l d f i n g e r , The County  of London P l a n . Penguin Books, 1 9 ^ 5 , P»7 THE PROBLEM OF THE CROSSINGS. Traffic lights, policemen, pedestrian crossings, struggle hopelessly to disen-tangle traffic at crossings. F i g . I k — C o n f l i c t between Pedestrians & V e h i c l e s . Source; E. J . Carter and Erno G o l d f i n g e r , The County of London P l a n . Penguin Books, 1 9 ^ 5 , P .^9 40 purchases they w i l l drive large distances to shop in more comfortable and attractive surroundings. But most serious and detrimental of' a l l to busi-ness and businessmen i s the fact that many of these customers adopt a "do-without-it" attitude. In short, they do not buy at a l l i f they can possible avoid i t . Think of what the growth and spread of such a trend might mean to business and merchants! ^ -5 Towards Humanizatlon Just at the time when the Central Areas are push-ing customers away, the "pulling force" is building up in the form of well-planned, intergrated shopping centers on the edges of the c i t i e s . Many of these modern suburban shopping centers have already been constructed, hundreds more are in the works or on the architect's drafting boards. And as each new shopping center opens i t s doors, more customers are pulled away from the Central Areas. What i s the big attraction of the suburban shop-ping center? How does the shopping center threaten the business of the Central Area merchants? Can't the Cen-t r a l Area merchants, with years of competitive experience behind them, meet the challenge and threat of the suburban shopping center competition? In answering these questions, i t is worth considering the shopping center constructed eleven miles south of Minneapolis, 41 Minn., U.S.A., by the Dayton Company. Here i s what the Company wrote to i t s customers and prospects during the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the shopping centers Suppose some January morning a few years from now, you make a l i s t of the t h i n g s you have to do t h a t day: (1) Have J u n i o r ' s h a i r cut, (2) Get y o u r s e l f a shampoo and wave, (3) Have new l i f t s put on your black pumps, (4) Buy s i s t e r a sweater and s h i r t , (5) Buy the f a m i l y g r o c e r i e s , (6) Look at m a t e r i a l f o r l i v i n g room d r a p e r i e s , (7) P i c k up your s u i t at the c l e a n e r s , (8) Take the small r a d i o to be r e p a i r e d , (9) An appointment w i t h the d e n t i s t . Sounds l i k e a b i g day, doesn't i t ? And to top i t o f f , i t i s below zero, and there's snow i n the a i r . Do you c a l l i t a l l o f f and s i t home by the f i r e ? Far from i t , you and J u n i o r d r i v e a few blocks to the Southdale Center. You park on the lower l e v e l , a short way f o r the entrance, walk i n , and you are enjoying June i n January. Real green grass - t r e e s - flowers - and 70 degree temperature - i n January. Weather records show tha t i n Minnesota there are only 126 ' i d e a l weather shopping days'. But Southdale Center every day w i l l be a p e r f e c t shopping day. S p e c i a l heating, l i g h t i n g , and a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g w i l l keep the weather always • f a i r and m i l d ' . You take out your l i s t and begin the rounds. When you have f i n i s h e d your errands on the ground l e v e l , you take the e s c a l a t o r up to the second f l o o r shops. Running to the r a i l of the balcony which surrounds the square, J u n i o r p o i n t s e x c i t e d l y down at the t r e e s and flowers below. Then he sees the cars parked r i g h t outside the second f l o o r windows. You have to promise to park on the upper l e v e l next time. Even w i t h time out f o r lunch, you are a l l through by the middle of the afternoon. On your way home you d r i v e past the park and playground area. They are s k a t i n g and s l i d i n g there now, but some Summer i t w i l l be a wonderful place f o r f a m i l y p i c n i c s , and f o r the c h i l d r e n to p l a y . You don't have to worry about t h e i r running i n t o the s t r e e t . 42 Southdale Center W 1 H make l i v i n g more convenient and pleasant f o r you.l° I t i s obvious that t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the shopping atmosphere and l i f e i n the Southdale Center answers the questions asked above. I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s the st r e n g t h of the " p u l l i n g f o r c e " t o draw customers and sa l e s out of the Ce n t r a l Areas. I t i s a con-t r a s t of hazardous C e n t r a l Area shopping to the enjoyable suburban shopping which c o n s i s t s of the f a c t o r s of ease, pleasantness, con-venience, s a f e t y , comfort and beauty ( F i g . 1 5 ) . Southdale Center, which i s one of the many s u c c e s s f u l suburban shopping c e n t e r s , represents an e f f o r t not only to b u i l d a s u c c e s s f u l center, but a l s o to r e t u r n to the human scale and a s s e r t i o n of the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l over the tyranny of mechanized t o o l s - motor v e h i c l e s . F i g . 1 5 - Forth Worth, by V i c t o r Gruen. Source: F r e d e r i c k Gibberd, Town Design, F r e d e r i c k A. Praeger, New York, 1 9 5 9 , F i g . 5 6 , p. 60. 4-3 3. R e t a i l C e n t r a l i z a t i o n Vs. P o p u l a t i o n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n The complex a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have always been conducted a t the f o c a l p o i n t of c i t i e s represent not only the p o r t i o n of r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n which comparison of merchandise was the important f a c t o r , but many others which by t h e i r very nature can be conducted more e f f i c i e n t l y i n a c e n t r a l area - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the business of the community as a whole: banking and a d v e r t i s i n g ; the s e r v i c e of p r o f e s s i o n a l people such as lawyers, accountants and a r c h i t e c t s ; government o f f i c e s , post o f f i c e s , c o u r t s , e t c . The wide complex of a c t i v i t y i s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the C e n t r a l Area as w e l l as the convenience of b r i n g i n g together i n one l o c a t i o n those p a r t i c u l a r types of merchandising i n which the a v a i l a b i l i t y of an adequate comparison or o f f e r i n g of merchandise i s more important than the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . C e n t r a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than d i f f u s i o n i s the n a t u r a l product. This i n d i c a t e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e t a i l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Food and other types of merchandise i n which comparison of values i s not the important f a c t o r are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y brought c l o s e to the place of resid e n c e . The movement of a c t i v i t i e s from the C e n t r a l Area r e s u l t i n g from f r i c t i o n s through t r a f f i c congestion creates a net l o s s t o the community i n terms of p r o d u c t i v i t y . The move takes place when the o u t l y i n g l o c a t i o n i s more favourable than the o r i g i n a l c e n t r a l s i t e . I f more i n t e n s i v e land uses replace l e s s i n t e n s i v e uses and f o r c e them out of the C e n t r a l Area, there i s a normal 44 and c o n t i n u i n g process of urban dynamics which enhances e f f i c i e n c y . The po i n t i s tha t the costs of congestion cannot be evaded by f o r c e d and unnatural readjustments i n the l o c a t i o n of c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s . New costs are created through the d i s -turbance of the e q u i l i b r i u m of space r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g a l l c e n t r a l uses. That i s the reason why a r t i f i c i a l l y induced de-c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s which can best e x p l o i t f o c a l s i t e s holds the danger of l o s s i n t o t a l e f f i c i e n c y and product-i v i t y t o the community as a whole. On the other hand, urban growth i s almost u n i v e r s a l and covers not only a growth i n p o p u l a t i o n , but i n p h y s i c a l extent as w e l l . New housing areas only develop i n places where i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them t o be placed. Urban growth, t h e r e f o r e , takes place a t the periphery of the c i t y where vacant l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e . This i n d i c a t e s t h a t the growth i n suburban areas i s u s u a l l y much gre a t e r than the growth w i t h i n the c i t i e s themselves. The inv e n t o r y of undeveloped land w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s has th e r e f o r e been i n s u f f i c i e n t t o take care of the growing p o p u l a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , the base of urban economic a c t i v i t y broadens, and thereby encourages the growth of modern and a t t r a c t i v e suburban shopping centers which w i l l sound the d e a t h - k n e l l of the C e n t r a l Area unless d r a s t i c and expensive measures are taken to cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Growth i n O u t l y i n g Areas The r i s e of suburban shopping centers and the movement of people to the o u t s k i r t s are m a n i f e s t a t i o n of changes i n the ^5 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c i t i e s . When urban l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s become unfavourable, and when the expansion of p o p u l a t i o n exceeds the ab s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t y of these c i t i e s , urban d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . The s h i f t and expansion of population i s sometimes pre-ceded, accompanied, or fol l o w e d by expansions i n economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . And these, i n t u r n s p i l l over i n t o the o u t l y i n g areas as e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f e r no o p p o r t u n i t i e s , or considerably l e s s a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Thus, the broadening base of urban economic a c t i v i t y and of p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t s i n the s h i f t s i n l o c a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n area economic a c t i v i t i e s and thus i n the changing importance of the C e n t r a l Area i n the e n t i r e r e g i o n . 1) P o p u l a t i o n Movement to Suburbs. Man i s a v i c t i m of urban chaos. His h e a l t h , h i s s e c u r i t y , and h i s happiness are menaced i n c i t i e s i n i m i c a l to an o r d e r l y e x i s t e n c e . Throughout the whole d a i l y c y c l e , h i s l i f e i s i n some way a f f e c t e d by the c i t y ' s i l l s , and he i s aware that something i s wrong. "Cooped up i n the c i t y " i s the c i t y d w e l l e r ' s stock phrase f o r the p l i g h t of not being able t o leave town. And when he can, he f l e e s to the country, abandoning h i s ever-crowding neighborhoods f o r "a qu i e t home" i n remote suburbs, undeterred by hours of uncomfortable t r a v e l back and f o r t h . I t i s an escape, running away from the ugly f a c t s of urban l i f e t o the c o o l green p l o t s of suburbia. The c o n d i t i o n s around the C e n t r a l Areas are worse s t i l l . The d w e l l i n g s found there are g e n e r a l l y those of o l d e r date, l a c k i n g 46 i n space, pure a i r , sun, l i g h t , p r i v a c y and community s e r v i c e s ( F i g . 16). F i n a l l y , lower r e n t s a t t r a c t poor f a m i l i e s to these b u i l d i n g s , r e p l a c i n g w e a l t h i e r r e n t e r s who have l e f t them t o l i v e 17 i n new suburban d i s t r i c t s . F i g . 16- A Cartoon, showing the problems of o r i e n t a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s . Source: Jose L u i s S e r t , Can Our C i t i e s Survive? The Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., 1947, p. 49 2) Automobile Ownership Enabling P o p u l a t i o n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Transportation made p o s s i b l e , f i r s t of a l l , the founding of the c i t y . E v o l v i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n technologies permitted the c i t y t o expand i t s boundaries. In t h i s connection, the s h i f t from mass to p r i v a t e 47 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the movement of people, and to the motor tr u c k i n the movement of goods, has served t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e the s p a t i a l arrangements of the c i t y , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n u n i t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s an important s p a t i a l o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e w i t h i n and between c i t i e s . I t makes p o s s i b l e the i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o systematic patterns of where people l i v e , w i t h where they want to 18 work or to c a r r y on a c t i v i t i e s . The development of mass-transit f a c i l i t i e s , which l i n k the o u t l y i n g s e c t i o n s w i t h the C e n t r a l Areas of the c i t i e s , pro-v i d e s a b a s i s f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d i s p e r s i o n away from the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n s . However, i t should be recognized that ownership of an automobile i s one of the most important enabling f a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n of a f a m i l y to l i v e i n an area t h a t i s l e s s - d e n s e l y s e t t l e d than the c e n t r a l p a r t s of many l a r g e c i t i e s . W i l l i a m J . Watkins i n h i s research study " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Downtown Automobile-Parking Conditions and R e t a i l - B u s i n e s s D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " a s s e r t s t h i s p o i n t of viexf by f i n d i n g that the automobile has exerted a very s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and residence l o c a t i o n h a b i t s of people l i v i n g w i t h i n and near the c i t y of D e t r o i t . He goes on to say t h a t p u b l i c - t r a n s i t s e r v i c e has not obtained s u f f i c i e n t patronage a t r a t e s high enough to cover the costs of extending a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e to many suburban areas. Thus, the inherent convenience of the p r i v a t e automobile i n terms of f l e x i b l e s cheduling, r o u t i n g , and the guarantee of a seat f o r the owner takes on the character of a n e c e s s i t y f o r 19 f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n remoter areas of the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . 48 3) The Growth of Suburban Markets. The expanded pop-u l a t i o n base, through p o p u l a t i o n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and growth i n the o u t l y i n g areas, has broadened the base of urban economic a c t i v i t y t o the p o i n t where a d d i t i o n a l p r o f i t o p p o r t u n i t i e s warrant the C e n t r a l Area department stores to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r suburban branches. The p e r i p h e r a l growth of r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s i s then s a i d t o be r e l a t e d w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n increase and s p a t i a l expansion of urban economic a c t i v i t y . Consequently, i t appears t h a t the chang-in g p a t t e r n of shopping due to the increased m o b i l i t y of the auto shopper has been more i n f l u e n t i a l i n recent r e t a i l trends than 20 parking and t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , a l l the disadvantages of overcrowding and t r a f f i c c onfusion, a l l the discomforts of n o i s e , dust, and noxious fumes, a l l the hazards to h e a l t h and s a f e t y , and most of a l l the c o n f l i c t between pedestrians and v e h i c l e s , have l e d t o the r a p i d growth and expansion of suburban markets. An important develop-ment, f o r example, has been the c r e a t i o n of the Northgate Shop-ping Center i n S e a t t l e . Northgate Shopping Center, which i s the outcome of i n c r e a s i n g congestion i n the C e n t r a l Area and r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s i n o u t l y i n g areas of S e a t t l e , i s one of the l a r g e s t planned shopping centers i n o p e r a t i o n . The development of Northgate and the expansion of other suburban shopping areas have r a i s e d questions about the r e l a t i v e f u t u r e of the C e n t r a l 21 Area i n S e a t t l e ( F i g . 17, p.49). 49 F i g . 1? S e a t t l e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. Source: Lo u i s C. Wagner, "Economic R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Parking to Business i n S e a t t l e , "Highway Research  Board S p e c i a l Report No.10. N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1 9 5 3 . P a r t 2 , F i g . 1 , p.54 R e l a t i v e Importance of the C e n t r a l Area Decline As c i t i e s grow, the C e n t r a l Area accounts f o r a decreas-i n g p r o p o r t i o n of commercial a c t i v i t y . This phenomenon has long c h a r a c t e r i z e d urban growth p a t t e r n s . 50 It may be expected that the Central Area w i l l continue to grow in productivity and that business volume and property values w i l l continue to rise as the total population increases. However, i t s relative importance as compared with suburban cen-ters has declined. The suburban areas and fringe areas surround-ing the Central Area are securing the greatest percentage of new business. Now r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s appearing in outlying areas are resulting from the growth of the metropolitan area. Although the Central Area remains very important, i t seems unlikely that i t wi l l recapture the degree of dominance i t once enjoyed in the past. 1) Decentralization of Retail Trade. One alternative to efforts to bring customers to the location of a Central Area r e t a i l firm i s to move the location of the store to a point closer to the customers. Something similar to, but less than t h i s , i s the retention of the original store for the sales volume which i t w i l l continue to obtain and the establishment of branches of the parent organization that w i l l be more closely located to prospective customers. As the ever-growing urban population became more mobile and migrated outward, travel time and distance to the Central Area seemed objectionable for many of their shopping t r i p s . It is far simpler to shop at new outlying shopping centers closer to the residential neighborhoods. The Central Area's share of the metro-politan market, therefore, i s ebbing and the flow i s toward the suburban centers. 51 During the past ten years, f o r example, the C e n t r a l Area of Vancouver, B.C., has not r e c e i v e d a propor t i o n a t e share of r e t a i l growth. Two of the three department'stores (Eaton's, Hudson's Bay and Woodward's) l o c a t e d i n the C e n t r a l Area have opened suburban branches, but none have expanded t h e i r C e n t r a l Area f a c i l i t i e s . Other non-department s t o r e comparison shopping space w i t h i n the C e n t r a l Area has a l s o d e c l i n e d as a percentage of m e t r o p o l i t a n area space i n t h i s p e r i o d . Recent vacancies i n the C e n t r a l Area suggest a f u r t h e r weakening of the r e t a i l s i t u a t i o n i n the C e n t r a l Area (See Table 4 ) . 2 2 TABLE 4 VACANCY LEVELS HASTINGS AND GRANVILLE STREETS •'•  1 .]' • ,  1 '• ! '";/ f '• .'< '••:' '':'.:v'.'j::; '•' • ' .''^ :'i> !; • •V> ,.; • • ••:^y';>;.: ;^Hastings Granvl I le ;•/•/'• • i^^'-M^h \] Street -7 ••'/:.:•[' Street ••• •• ' . '."il/'V ;'i ; -}:SKlr •. •;••'&] •-1> Total Shop Space (Sq. Ft,) WUviv* 224,550 - ^ / j 236,000 j ; ^ Vacant Area (Sq. Ft.) :..\/J •^••^(•••.i 3*1,320 •,?r'^;.:.jl0,756 \>,>'ji • ' • -'-r v-.ii'J :'K;'-::Y;,s f.'! *;U^* 4 ,v>. 7 ' Percent Vacant •• ,^ 15.3% ;:V i«.5% Total Number of Shops v - ; 69 : '•-.•77 •.'•',, .Number of Vacant Shops ; ; ' 10 6 ••'•., 1: Percent Vacant , • 14.5% 7.8% * G e n e r a l l y , a 5 $ vacancy r a t e i n the C e n t r a l Area i s considered t o be normal. Source: L a r r y Smith & Company, An Economic A n a l y s i s For  Ce n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t Redevelopment, Van-couver, B.C., Phase One: P r e l i m i n a r y Report., The C i t y Planning Department, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 1 9 6 3 , p.11 As i n n e a r l y a l l other l a r g e North American c i t i e s , a major f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g the Vancouver C e n t r a l Area problems appears to be the f a c t , w i t h the r a p i d growth of the c i t y , the movement 52 of population and various commercial enterprises into outlying areas, and the use of the automobile for personal shopping, i t has become impossible for the Central Area to compete with the suburbs in providing four essentials of transportation as follows: 1. Accessibility to the Central Area from outlying areas via limited access routes, or rapid, transit f a c i l i t i e s . 2. Automobile parking at locations convenient to a l l parts of the Central Area. 3. Reduced congestion and ease of travel between various zones of the Central Area. 4. Convenient opportunities for pedestrian movement between points of interest, or retail-commercial f a c i l i t i e s . 2 3 Consequently, the Vancouver Central Area i s declining in strength as compared with the total growth occurring in the metro-politan area. The development of suburban comparison shopping f a c i l i t i e s , for example, has made heavy inroads in a function that formerly was concentrated in the Central Area. Large sections of the Central area are in what may unreservedly be described as secondary or lower intensity use. New development within the Central Area has occurred in a primarily westerly direction, largely outside of the Central Area. The result w i l l l i k e l y be to disperse the major Central Area land uses, thus weakening the over-all 24 position of the Central Area rather than strengthening i t . 2) Retail Revolution 'Painless*. In many cases, "decen-tralization" i s couched in terms of the declining position of the Central Area within i t s own metropolitan area. While the proportion of r e t a i l trade done in the Central Area declines, the Central Area may s t i l l continue to increase in i t s sales volume, though 53 perhaps at a slower rate. During the period betx^een 1939 and 1948, the population of Seattle increased about 25 Per cent, but the number of r e t a i l stores in i t s Central Area declined. As indicated in Table 5, the Central Area of Seattle accounted for 26.6 percent of a l l the r e t a i l stores in the city in 1939, but for only 23 percent in 1948. When the ten census categories are considered, the percentage of r e t a i l stores in the Central Area declined in every classification except gasoline stations and the all-other retail- stores category 25 (See Fig. 18, p.54). TABLE 5 NUMBER OF RETAIL STORES IN SEATTLE AND IN SELECTED DISTRICTS 1939 and 1948 Seattle ' Central Business •\ District* Central Business Dist. as a % of City Univ. Dist.a .-Univ. Dist. as a -% of City 1939 1948 1 1939 1948 1939 . 1948 •• . 1939 • 1948 , 1939 1948 Totnl :'. . 6,563. ^,754 1,746 • 1,326 26.6 . 23.0 213 201 3.2 . 3.5 ; Food group : . I'.'/itinR and drinking places 2,055 1,391 271 • , 148 13.2 10.6 ' 50 • 26 , 2.4 1.9 1,330 1,337 493 412 , 37.1 . 30.8 • 35 : 37 2.6 : 2.8 Gen. mcrch. group, general stores 117 150 21 . 24 17.9 . 16.0 : /• 4' . ' 7 3.4 4.7. , Apparel group '470 434 321 250' 68.2 ' 57.6 . 32 . 39 6.8 \ 9.0 Furniture, furnishings, appliances group.. 222 298 87 59 " 39.2 . 19.8 , 12 19 .5.4 ' ,6:4 Automotive group 134 191 6 • • 4 . 4.5 2.1- , 9 7 6.7 3.7 (insoline service stations 670 . 662 30 30.. * 4.5 4.5 12 , 15 1.8. 2.3 Lumber, building, and hardware grojjp... Drug and proprietary stores 213 235 23 21. r 10.8 , 8.9 ; , .-.4;. 6 1.9 •2:6 249 . 221 ., 57 " 40 " 22.9 .18.1 • 7 2.4 3.2 -All other retail stores 1,103 835 ". 437 338 39.6 40.5 . 49 38 4.4 . 4.6 • Based upon Bpecial tabulations received from the Bureau of the Census. \' " , • j NOTE: Central Business District includes Census Tracts M - l , M-2, and O-l. University District includes Census Tract D-6;, "i Source: Louis C. Wagner, "Economic Relationships of Parking to Business in Seattle, "Highway Research Board  Special Report No.10, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1953, Part 2, Table 6, p.61 54 F i g . 18—Number of R e t a i l Stores i n C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t as a percentage of S e a t t l e t o t a l . Source: Louis C. Wagner, "Economic R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Parking to Business i n S e a t t l e , " Highway  Research Board S p e c i a l Report No.10. N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1953, P a r t 2, Fig . 5,p . 6 l The r e l a t i v e importance of the C e n t r a l Area i n r e t a i l i n g as r e f l e c t e d by s a l e s f i g u r e s r a t h e r than by the number of stores i s perhaps of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 6,p.55, the s a l e s volume i n the C e n t r a l Area of S e a t t l e Increased from $82,679,000 to $213,785,000 between 1939 and 1948. However, the percentage of r e t a i l i n g done i n the C e n t r a l Area i n the same pe r i o d of time d e c l i n e d from 39.6 percent to 34.8 percent. A l l the major census cat e g o r i e s d e c l i n e d i n the percentage of s a l e s volume, except the general merchandise and g a s o l i n e s t a t i o n s category which had a n e g l i g i b l e increase i n s a l e s volume (See Fig.19,p.55)• I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , apparent t h a t the r e l a t i v e im-portance of the C e n t r a l Area has d e c l i n e d i n s p i t e of i t s i n -26 crease i n the s a l e s volume. This s o r t of r e v o l u t i o n i n r e t a i l i n g can be described as " p a i n l e s s " . While the C e n t r a l Area as a whole d e c l i n e d i n 55 relative importance as compared with the suburban shopping centers, many retailers in the Central Area may s t i l l enjoy gains in sales. They may not have observed the urgency of requiring painful economic adjustments in the Central Area. TABLE 6 RETAIL SALES IN SEATTLE AND IN SELECTED DISTRICTS 1939 And 1948 Total • Food group , Eating ana drinking places • Gen. mcrch. groups, general stores. ; Apparel group , I Furn., furnishings, appliances group. .. 1 Automotive grpup . Gasoline service stations Lumber, building and hardware group , Drugs and proprietary stores • All other retail stores • Census of Business: 1039, Retail Trade—Washington, Table 15, pp. 8-9. Census of Business: 1948, Retail Trade—Washington, . Bulletin No. l-R-48, Table 103, p. 46.08. . I' b Based upon special tabulations received from the Bureau of the Census. , : ' Figures estimated, actual figures withheld by Census to avoid disclosure. Estimated by taking average sales per store ipbthef I. downtown census tracts. j , * Variety store sales estimated. ; NOTE: Central Business District includes Census Tracts M-l, M-2, and 0-1. University District includes Census Tract D-8. Source: Louis C. Wagner, "Economic Relationships of Parking to Business in Seattle," Highway Research Board Special  Report No.10. National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1953» Part 2, Table 7, p.62 mo tour T.M. 7 Fig.19—Retail Sales in Central Business District as a percentage of Seattle total Source: Wagner, op.cit.. Fig.6, p.62 Seattle* (11,000) 1939 208,537 41,043 18,105 42,728 17,257 . 8,860 "28,003 13,108 7,450 7,341 24,665 1948 613,665 118,170 62,207 134,472 46,502 31,187 00,215 28,008 25,881 18,684 70,441 Central Business District'' (11.000) 1939 F82,679 7,693 9,530 26,377 15,034 5,785 621 065 1,058 3,409 12,317 I9W 213,785 13,017 23,594' 84,063'' 39,622 10,063" 860" 2,040 3,673* 7,680 29,264' Cent But. District u i % olClty 1939 39.6 18.7 52.6 61.7 87.1 65.3 1.8 7.8 14.2 46.4 60.0 1948 34.8 11.0 45.2 62.5 85.2 32.3 1.0 7.9 13.8 41.3 41,6 University District" (11,000) 1939 6,335 1,632 776 449 660 487 688 367 145 328 1,117 1948 • 22,652 3,992 1,899 1,357 3,063 2,328 3,657 879 669 1,012 3,898 ' tjnl». Dirt, as 1 % of au 1939 I9U 3.0 3.7 4.3 1.0 3.2 6.6 2.0 2.9 1.9 4 . 4 4 . 6 3 . 7 3 . 4 3 . 6 1.0 8 . 6 7 . 6 4 . 1 3 . 4 2 . 3 5 6 6 . 6 56 4. C e n t r a l A r e a V s . Suburban Shopp ing The g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n subu rban s hopp i n g c e n t e r s a r ound n e a r l y a l l ma jo r A m e r i c a n c i t i e s has g i v e n t h e consumer a c h o i c e a s t o where he can buy goods and s e r v i c e s , and has s t i r r e d c o n -s i d e r a b l e a p p r e h e n s i o n i n t h e minds o f a l l whose f o r t u n e s and w e l l - b e i n g depend on t he i n t e g r i t y o f t he C e n t r a l A r e a . W i t h so many i n v o l v e d who have so much a t s t a k e , t h e p r e s s u r e t o do some-t h i n g abou t t h e s i t u a t i o n mounts s t e a d i l y , bu t what t o do depends on a c o r r e c t a p p r a i s a l o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r ob l em and i t s c a u s e s . The consumer h i m s e l f i s t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r o f t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e C e n t r a l A r e a and t h e suburban s hopp i ng c e n t e r s , and he t h e r e f o r e h o l d s t h e s e c r e t o f t h e i r f a t e . I t i s t h e cu s tomer who we i gh s t h e advan tage s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f s h o p p i n g a r e a s i n te rms o f what he can g e t f o r what he has t o pay i n c o s t , t i m e , and ene r g y , and i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h h i s eyes t h a t such p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s a s p a r k i n g , t r a f f i c , and c r o w d i n g become m e a n i n g f u l m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Thus t h e c u s t o m e r ' s market b e h a v i o u r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a compromise a d a p t a t i o n t o a t t r a c t i n g and r e p e l l i n g f o r c e s e v a l u a t e d 27 w i t h i n t h e f ramework o f h i s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . R e l a t i v e A t t r a c t i o n o f C e n t r a l A r e a and Suburban Shopp ing C e n t e r s I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l A r e a and subu rban s hopp i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n , C.T. J o n a s s e n c o n d u c t e d a n e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on consumer a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s i n Columbus, 28 Hous ton and S e a t t l e . T h i s i s a subsequent s t u d y t o t e s t t h e 57 f i n d i n g s of h i s e a r l i e r study conducted i n Columbus, Ohio. A d i r e c t comparison was made of the C e n t r a l Area and sub-urban shopping centers i n terms of such shopping f a c t o r s as s e r v i c e , character of goods, and p r i c e s , and i n terms of c o n d i t i o n s which the shopper would encounter when he went shopping. These f a c t o r s and t h e i r weights were determined through systematic i n t e r v i e w s and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of data so gathered. In Table 7,p.58, are l i s t e d the s e v e r a l shopping s a t i s f a c t i o n f a c t o r s and the per-centages of respondents i n the three c i t i e s which i n d i c a t e d C e n t r a l Area or suburban shopping center s u p e r i o r i t y f o r each f a c t o r . In t h i s summary t a b l e , the items are ordered so that those on which the C e n t r a l Area has the most decided advantage are a t the top and those w i t h regard t o which the suburban shopping centers have the advantage are a t the bottom. This order was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n percentage between those choosing C e n t r a l Area, those choosing suburban shopping centers and order-i n g on the Columbus sample. Thus, as one proceeds from top to bottom, there i s a gradual change i n the shopping s a t i s f a c t i o n spectrum from s i t u a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s that are found most favourable i n the C e n t r a l Area to those where respondents f e l t t h at suburban shopping centers have a decided advantage. Examination of t h i s Table (Table 7,p.58) shows the C e n t r a l Area has d e f i n i t e advantages over the suburban centers. The suburban shopping centers have the advantage i n only seven out of twenty-three items. To these suburban center advantages should be added an ei g h t h advantage, " e a s i e r p a r k i n g " , w i t h 58 TABLE ? PERCENTAGES OF SAMPLES, INDICATING SUPERIORITY OF DOWNTOWN OR SUBURBAN SHOPPING CENTERS WITH REGARD TO TWENTY-THREE SHOPPING SATISFACTION FACTORS—COLUMBUS, HOUSTON, SEATTLE - Columbus Houston Seattle Shopping Satisfaction' Factors DT* SSC' DT SSC DT SSC DT Advantages 4 0 90 0 Greater variety of styles and mei M 3 ] 3 87 S t 3 Greater tariety and range of pnco 5 0 H4 8 J 6 and quality 81 1 1 7 83 1 More bargain sales 63 5 2 7 70 8 6 7 6.S 4 1 5 Beat place to meet friends from other parts of the city for a shopping trip 16 0 66 4 together M 9 11 5 85 1 12 4 Better places to eat lunch 81 3 7 9 49 0 26 7 68 3 8 6 Better place to establish a credit 29 3 4 8 rating 38 S 4 8 $0 1 8 4 More convenient to publio transpor* 6 S tatton 32 5 14 2 44 4 17 8 61 3 Better delnery service 37 2 3 4 44 3 8 0 37 3 3 2 Cheaper prices 48 6 ; 9 51 5 8 6 49 0 3 S Goods more attractsely displaced 44 1 16 3 67 9 6 5 31 6 4 S Better place to combine different kinds of shopping und other thing* 71 6 18 $ one may want to do 38 3 29 7 72 3 20 « Easier to return and exchange good* 29 3 12 3 bought 39 S 13 3 31 0 37 7 Easier to establish a charge account 30 1 S 2 33 3 7 3 27 2 3 3 More dependable guarantees of goods 31 2 10 0 32 8 14 4 27 5 4 3 Better finality of goods It's the better place for a little outing 27 3 IS 0 42 0 7 7 49 0 3 8 35 6 away from home 33 S 33 2 30 2 2S 5 42 4 8SC Advantages 15 3 15 5 The right people shop here 10 3 21 3 2 1 7 3 Cost of transportation less 15 7 59 3 4 0 72 4 10 0 52 1 Keep open more convenient hours 16 3 62 5 9 1 51 6 S 3 4< 9 Less walking required 18 3 69 9 13 6 72 4 14 0 67 8 Easier to take children shopping 2 5 47 6 1 6 60 9 2 1 (7 4 Less tiring 9 3 75 0 9 0 75 4 9 3 70 * Takes less time to get there 12 3 "9 9 6 7S 3 25 3 65 I | *DT - Downtown, SSC - Suburban Shopping Center N O T I Percentages for each city do not eipial 100 percent unce t»o other choices 'undecided (UN), and no concern (NO uere involved thin D l + i SSC + UN + NC - 100 percent for the complete breakdown see Appendix 1 Tables E-l, E-2. and E-3 Source: C.T. Jonassen, "Shopper A t t i t u d e s , " i n High- way Research Board S p e c i a l Report 11-A N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., 1955, Table 20, p.15 30 regard t o which the suburban centers have an obvious advantage. Thus, i t w i l l be seen that when people go shopping f o r "shopping goods", the C e n t r a l Area i s p r e f e r r e d t o suburban shopping cent-ers w i t h regard t o the g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of shopping s a t i s f a c t i o n f a c t o r s on t h i s l i s t i n a l l three c i t i e s . I t would seem tha t those" aspects of shopping s i t u a t i o n s where the suburban shopping centers have the advantages are concerned 59 w i t h respect t o a l l f a c t o r s concerning v a r i e t y of goods, p r i c e s and s t y l e s , q u a l i t y of goods, and s e r v i c e . Thus, the suburban center a t t r a c t s persons because of what can be a v o i d e d — "incon-veniences " of the C e n t r a l A r e a — w h i l e the C e n t r a l Area a t t r a c t s consumers because of what they f e e l they can get t h e r e , the widest range of goods a t the lowest p r i c e . 31 Comparative Importance of Advantages and Disadvantages of C e n t r a l  Area and Suburban Shopping C.T. Jonassen made a comparison of the C e n t r a l Area w i t h surban centers i n terms of f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h shopping s a t i s f a c t i o n . - ^ 2 According t o h i s f i n d i n g s , the most important advantage of C e n t r a l Area shopping was a l a r g e r s e l e c t i o n of goods. Next i n importance was that people could do s e v e r a l errands a t one time, and t h i r d that p r i c e s were cheaper (See Table 8,p.60). The g r e a t e r p u l l of the C e n t r a l Area apparently d e r i v e s from these advantages, which f o r the m a j o r i t y must outweigh the disadvantages of t h a t area. Of the disadvantages, the most important was d i f f i -c u l t p arking; next i n importance was the crowded c o n d i t i o n s found t h e r e , and the t h i r d was t r a f f i c congestion (See Table 9,p.60). For the suburban shopping c e n t e r , the most important advantage was tha t i t was nearer home, the next most important was easy p a r k i n g , and the t h i r d i n importance was tha t suburban s t o r e s kept more convenient hours (See Table 10, p.60). The number one disadvantage of the suburban shopping centers was t h e i r l a c k of a l a r g e s e l e c t i o n of goods, the second t h a t not a l l kinds of b u s i -ness were represented t h e r e , and the t h i r d i n importance was that p r i c e s were too high (See Table 11, p.60). 60 TABLE 8 TABLE 9 BANKING OF CERTAIN ADVANTAGES OF RANKING OF CERTAIN DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRAL AREA SHOPPING BY COLUMBUS CENTRAL AREA SHOPPING BY COLUMBUS HOUSTON AND SEATTLE RESPONDENTS HOUSTON AND SEATTLE RESPONDENTS Advantage Larger selection of goods Can do several errands at one time. Cheaper prices Convenient public transportation.. Slores closer together Enjoyable place to shop Ilelter delivery service Close to home Composite Ranking Columbus Houston Seattle 1 2 3 5 4 6 . 7 8 Disadvantage Difficult parking Too crowded Congested traffic '. Too far to go Takes too long to shop Poor public transportation Unfriendly service Cost of transportation too high Composite Ranking Columbus Houston Seattle 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 5 4 5 6 5 4 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 7 3 TABLE 10 TABLE 11 RANKING OF CERTAIN ADVANTAGES OF RANKING OF CERTAIN DISADVANTAGES OF SUBURBAN SHOPPING CENTERS BY COLUMBUS, HOUSTON AND SEATTLE RESPONDENTS SUBURBAN SHOPPING CENTERS BY COLUMBUS HOUSTON AND SEATTLE RESPONDENTS Advantage Closer to home Parking easy More convenient hours Less crowded Do not have to dress up Friendly and courteous clerks Less noise and confusion Clean and modern stores Composite Ranking Columbus Houston Seattle 1 1 1 2 4 2 3 5 5 4 3 4 5 2 3 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 S Disadvantage Lack of large selection Not all kinds of business repre sented Prices too high Poor public transportation Poor delivery service Too far to go llard to get credit Bus fare too high Composite Ranking Columbus Houston Seattle Sources C.T. Jonassen, "Shopper A t t i t u d e s , " i n Highway Research Board S p e c i a l Report 11-A, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1 9 5 5 , P.19 61 B r i e f l y , the mushrooming of suburban shopping centers around large ci t i e s i s a sign to many that the integrity and s t a b i l i t y of the Central Area are in dire jeopardy. However, according to Jonassen's findings as mentioned above, the Central Area s t i l l possesses certain very definite advantages. The Central Area may retain these advantages because i t has a greater number of actual and potential customers than are available elsewhere. Summary The origins of the present danger which i s presumed to face the Central Area are popularly associated with t r a f f i c congestion. Pedestrians have d i f f i c u l t y making their way through the maze of streets to the shops and offices they patronize, mass transportation vehicles struggle through t r a f f i c jams, and auto-mobiles crawl through the streets. It is not too much to say that urban a c t i v i t i e s in the Central Area have become a plague; and the acquisition of goods and services a nuisance instead of a pleasure. Designed to serve people, the automobile has instead been terrorizing the pedestrians, engulfing the Central Areas so that the confusions of foot and vehicular t r a f f i c form a gigantic urban jigsaw puzzle. The result of this t r a f f i c stalemate in the Central Area is a nourishing of the growth of suburban shopping centers in the outlying locations. There i s a basic strength in the Central Area; this strength l i e s in i t s unmatched variety or av a i l a b i l i t y of goods and services. Various means of maximizing i t s accessibility are 62 basic. Availability and accessibility jointly consist of the important factor of "convenience" which the shoppers consider the greatest advantage of shopping in the Central Area. Think what might happen i f somehow Central Area shopping could be made more pleasant and convenient, i f the trend could be reversed so that Central Area shopping would become an enjoyable experience rather than an intermittent chore which i s performed after needs have accumulated to the point where a Central Area t r i p becomes necessary. It is apparent that unless the Central Area ac t i v i t i e s can escape the worst of the t r a f f i c congestion, and the conflicts between the Pedestrians and Vehicles be minimized, the basic advantages of the Central Area w i l l be n u l l i f i e d . The fact is that the health of the Central Area i s at stake. To acquiesce in such a situation i s to promote a static rather than a dynamic economy. So this is a matter of importance not merely to the merchants but to the entire com-munity, and i t calls for an organic solution—to revitalize the congested Central Area by the planning and development of "Environmental Areas", thereby minimizing the conflict between pedestrian and vehicular t r a f f i c . CHAPTER III THE NEED FOR REVITALIZATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA The t r a f f i c problem in the Central Area involves many uncertainties. One thing i s sure however—the t r a f f i c problem i s not getting any easier to solve. In spite of the fact that the Central Area is declining in relative importance, more and more people are li v i n g in the cit i e s and their metropolitan areas; and t r a f f i c i s increasing more than proportionately. When city l i f e was f u l l of tribulation, few people lived i n urban centers. In 1 7 9 0 , the f i r s t American census showed that 95% of the people lived on farms or in hamlets. As educational, cultural, social and vocational f a c i l i t i e s improved, the steady d r i f t of population to c i t i e s began. From 1 8 0 0 to 1 9 0 0 , the population of New York City increased from 7 9 , 2 1 6 to 3 , 4 3 7 , 2 0 2 , that of San Francisco jumped from zero to 342,782 and that of Chicago from zero to 1 , 6 9 8 , 5 7 5 . 1 In 1966, 6 7 $ of the nation's population is jammed into 9% of i t s acreage. In a l l , 130 million people inhabit the 224 U.S. communities that are o f f i c i a l l y classified as metropolitan. By A.D.2000, 80$ of a l l Americans—more than today's entire population— 2 wi l l be city dwellers. Viewed dispassionately, the things that are wrong with c i t i e s may cause one to wonder why so many people prefer to l i v e in them. But smoke.and smog, dirt and noise, crowded transit etc., are annoyances that f a l l short of nullifying the 64 conveniences and attractions of city l i v i n g . However, people do not want to endure these nuisances and conflicts any longer than necessary. The daily newspapers and programs of civic and service groups point out the constant effort directed to 3 making city l i f e safer and more comfortable. The Central Area i s the heart of the c i t y . It i s the city's hub on which people converge for business, trade, shopping, etc. A city's l i f e depends upon whether i t s heart continues to function effectively. The c i t i e s with dynamic Central Areas are the cities which are thriving. Those with-out them are doomed to slow oblivion. It i s therefore logical that as the city and i t s metropolitan area grows in size, i t needs a healthy pulsating Central Area to perform the indisp-ensable a c t i v i t i e s for i t s people. 1. Rising Cost of Suburban Living A great many important choices are influenced by cost factors, including both time and money costs. The rising cost of l i ving in the suburbs relative to li v i n g in c i t i e s w i l l increasingly influence more and more people to want to live close to the Central Area. The Cost of Government The f i r s t cost of l i v i n g in the suburbs i s the excessive cost of government. Local taxes in suburban areas 65 have been l e a p i n g upwards, as the governments of those areas s t r u g g l e to provide the s e r v i c e s demanded by t h e i r c i t i z e n s on a revenue base c o n s i s t i n g almost s o l e l y of r e a l estate taxes on s i n g l e - f a m i l y residences. Furthermore, the upward tre n d of l o c a l government spending has no v i s i b l e c e i l i n g except f o r the u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the c i t i z e n r y to foo t the b i l l . In many suburban communities, there i s al r e a d y a grow-i n g r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t i n c r e a s i n g taxes; v o t e r s are even begin-n i n g t o defeat bond is s u e s dedicated s o l e l y to schools. In s e v e r a l suburbs of Chicago, school bond issues have been turned down repeatedly; and i n one, a p a r t i c u l a r l y shrewd school board reacted to such a defeat by c u t t i n g out a l l high-school h, e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g a t h l e t i c s . I t i s apparent t h a t the home-owning c i t i z e n s i n the suburban areas are reaching the end of t h e i r t o l e r a n c e f o r paying f o r f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s — e v e n though i n many cases the need f o r these s e r v i c e s i s very r e a l . Not every suburb can have a c l u s t e r of indus-t r i e s l o c a t e d o f f i n one corner to bear the tax harden; but without such a s s i s t a n c e , many suburbs are f i n d i n g that the burden i s too heavy f o r them t o continue to provide adequate s e r v i c e s . To a great extent, t h i s dilemma r e s u l t s from the f a c t that government s e r v i c e s are much more expensive per c a p i t a i n low-density areas where everything i s spread out, than they are i n the high-density areas of the c i t y . " ' 66 The Cost of Transportation A second important cost that i s becoming increas-ingly burdensome to suburban residents i s the cost of trans-portation. Dr. Benjamin Chinitz pointed out that the share of consumer expenditures devoted to transportation rose from 8% to 13% in the period from 19^6 to 1957, and that almost a l l of this increase has gone to pay for the opera-tion of automobiles. This means that consumers now spend more on transportation than they do on housing or any other item except food. Furthermore, the time-cost of transportation in the suburbs has increased even more significantly. Women spend hours every day ferrying their children around because low-density areas cannot support adequate public transportation. The image of the suburban mother as a taxi-driver has become notorious. The average person in the Chicago metropolitan area spends 1.5 hours per day travelling, and the average commuter to Manhatten from the outer ring of suburbs around New York City spends 1.5 hours just going one way to or from work, or a total of three hours per day commuting. Further-more, as the suburban sprawl spreads out into areas located farther from the Central Areas, this problem wil l become steadily worse.^ Another cost related to transportation w i l l be the extremely high cost of building the highways necessary to support future travel in low-density residential areas and into the Central Area. As Frederic Gutheim pointed out, one 67 study i n Washington, D.C., i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i f enough high-ways were b u i l t so that everyone could go anywhere he wanted at any time without excessive congestion, one main route i n t o Washington would have to be 36 lanes wide by 198O to accommodate a l l the rush-hour t r a f f i c . I f the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s p e r s i o n places a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more r e l i a n c e on cars f o r g e t t i n g to work i n s t e a d of l e s s , i t i s c l e a r l y t o cost a l o t of money and absorb a l o t of land to b u i l d enough 7 roads to a v o i d choking o f f movement by congestion. In s h o r t , more and more people are beginning to r e a l i z e the r e l a t i v e l y high cost of suburban l i v i n g as op-posed to l i v i n g i n c i t i e s . Of course, most home-selection choices are s t i l l dominated by images of the advantages of suburban l i v i n g , such as open space, more t r e e s , p r i v a t e yards, barbecues, p i c t u r e windows, and so on. There i s no doubt th a t suburbs do o f f e r c e n t a i n advantages over c i t y l i f e as i t i s l i v e d a t present. But perhaps c i t y l i f e can be refashioned so that i t combines many of these advantages wi t h the lower c o s t s of l i v i n g i n high-density settlements. I f such a new l i f e - s t y l e can be created, the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h cost of suburban l i v i n g w i l l cause many people to r e -d i r e c t t h e i r demand f o r l i v i n g - s p a c e towards the c i t i e s . 2. Demand f o r C l o s e - i n L i v i n g C e r t a i n types of urban a c t i v i t i e s have been moving out of the c i t i e s f o r many decades. The people, i n most 68 cases, began moving out even e a r l i e r . G e n e r a l l y , i t i s the w e l l - o f f who move f i r s t and f a r t h e s t i n search of space and f r e s h a i r and p r i v a c y . Since World War I I , the u b i q u i t y of automobile ownership has g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d an exodus emphasized by postwar suburban housing developments r i n g -i n g n e a r l y every m e t r o p o l i t a n area. However, man i s a s o c i a l animal. He d e s i r e s p r i v a c y , but he d e s i r e s opportunity and companionship more. As te c h -n o l o g i c a l process enables more and more people t o earn t h e i r l i v i n g w i t h i n s m a l l e r and smaller areas, t h e i r r e a c t i o n i s to move c l o s e r t o t h e i r f e l l o w men and to the goods and s e r v i c e s which are a v a i l a b l e i n f u l l v a r i e t y only to a l a r g e , compact market. In ge n e r a l , i t i s the urban areas t h a t can best provide these. This gives the reason why c i t i e s grow r a p i d l y , and why so many people p r e f e r t o l i v e i n them. I f not because of the negative e f f e c t of t r a f f i c congestions and other hazards and the out-of-date urban s e t t i n g , which f o r c e many people and urban a c t i v i t i e s to move t o the suburban areas, i t i s almost c e r t a i n to say tha t urban areas near and around the C e n t r a l Area should be the i d e a l place i n which t o l i v e . Old-age People Two groups of people have a l r e a d y begun t h i s r e -d i r e c t i o n of l i v i n g . The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of people whose c h i l d r e n have grown up and begun f a m i l i e s of t h e i r own. 69 Many ol d e r people are d i s c o v e r i n g that suburban l i v i n g i s designed p r i m a r i l y t o b e n e f i t c h i l d r e n through more space, b e t t e r schools and c u l t u r a l l y homogeneous groupings of people, r a t h e r than a d u l t s . Once a l l the c h i l d r e n have l e f t the household, the high costs of government and movement i n suburbs have few commensurately high r e t u r n s . Consequently, as the number of o l d e r persons becomes l a r g e r and l a r g e r , the 8 demand f o r c l o s e - i n l i v i n g w i l l increase s h a r p l y . High Income People A second group becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the suburbs c o n s i s t s of high-income f a m i l i e s . As middle-income suburban growth has expanded outward, high-income f a m i l i e s have had to move f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r from t h e i r -places of work i n the C e n t r a l Area i n order to maintain t h e i r accustomed e x c l u s i v e n e s s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s development means th a t the w e a l t h i e s t members of s o c i e t y experience the greatest inconvenience going t o work. The recent mushrooming of c l o s e -i n l u x u r y apartments i n l a r g e r c i t i e s proves that many of these f a m i l i e s are r e v e r s i n g t h e i r former f l i g h t from the c e n t r a l c i t y and are "jumping back" to homes near t h e i r C e n t r a l Area jobs. This i n d i c a t e s that c l o s e - i n l i v i n g w i l l have some advantages over suburban l i v i n g , i f the environment of the c i t i e s f o r urban a c t i v i t i e s such as l i v i n g , working, shopping, l e a r n i n g , r e c r e a t i o n and moving are s a t i s f a c t o r i l y improved. 70 3. The Basic Advantage of City Living The city i s a compact geographical area in which varying numbers of people liv e and work in order to get the benefits of improved economic and social standard of l i v i n g through large scale economic, social, p o l i t i c a l , and cultural institutions and functions. Many may argue that these can be performed elsewhere than in the c i t y . This may be true, but to do so would mean a lowering of economic l i v i n g standards by losing that spatial organization and combination peculiar only to the c i t y . For better or for worse, the city i s , along with the metropolitan area, the key geographical element in modern economic, soc i a l , cultural and p o l i t i c a l structures, at least in the more advanced countries. It makes possible the more intensive u t i l i z a t i o n of geographical space having unique characteristics, by permitting vertical as well as horizontal building, and by creating a base for integrating many a c t i v i t i e s . As c i v i l i z a t i o n developed, the number of a c t i v i t i e s conducted in the cities increased rather than decreased. Specialized services have grown extensively and by their very nature have been located primarily in the heart of the city -the Central Area. This is not to say that the Central Area i s the most important or the most convenient site for a l l types of business. However, the Central Area location i s 71 important f o r many types of business and i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number of customers. B r i e f l y , one the the greatest advantages of the c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e i r C e n t r a l Areas, i s the p r o v i s i o n of h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d goods and s e r v i c e s . Economic S p e c i a l i z a t i o n For each type of good or s e r v i c e there must be a minimum number of people i n the market area to pa t r o n i z e the good or s e r v i c e and thus make i t p r o f i t a b l e . A v i l l a g e of small p o p u l a t i o n can provide i t s i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h only the most b a s i c goods and s e r v i c e s , whereas a c i t y of l a r g e popu-l a t i o n w i l l provide a f u l l range of goods and s e r v i c e s . As s o c i e t y has become more complex, technology has m u l t i p l i e d the items of consumption, and s p e c i a l i z e d business f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s have continued to c r y s t a l l i z e i n 9 i n c r e a s i n g number. There are th e r e f o r e a number of uncommon s p e c i a l i z e d needs and i n t e r e s t s that must be met i n the l a r g e c i t i e s . But these s p e c i a l i z e d needs and i n t e r e s t s , r e s u l t i n g from the heterogeneity of urban c u l t u r e and i t s multigroup s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , are so s c a t t e r e d i n time and space that a very l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n i s needed to support the r e t a i l i n s t i t u t i o n s which supply them. The suburban shopping c e n t e r s , because of t h e i r more l i m i t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y , cannot support as l a r g e a s e l e c t i o n of goods as the C e n t r a l Area and t h e r e f o r e must concentrate on what the average or the 72 g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of persons want r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t l y . The C e n t r a l Area, which alone has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been able t o support the s p e c i a l t y shops which depend on infrequent purchases, has t h e r e f o r e become the place where a g r e a t e r number of people have a b e t t e r chance of meeting t h e i r needs whatever they a r e . And i n some i n s t a n c e s , i t i s the only 10 place where they can get what they need. C u l t u r a l S p e c i a l i z a t i o n One of the key advantages of c i t y l i v i n g i s the c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n which the l a r g e c i t i e s can s u s t a i n . Adam Smith s t a t e d t h a t the degree of economic s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n any group i s dependent upon the number of i t s members who l i v e w i t h i n convenient t r a v e l l i n g time of each other or of some c e n t r a l gathering p l a c e . In the suburbs, w i t h f a m i l i e s s c a t t e r e d a t three per a c r e , each person l i v e s w i t h -i n convenient t r a v e l time of a much sma l l e r group than i s the case i n the c i t y . Therefore i f he has any s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s , such as a d e s i r e to play chamber music, l i s t e n i n g to symphonies, or some other e x o t i c occupation t h a t " t h i n k i n g men" seem to c a r r y out i n t h e i r spare time, he i s much l e s s l i k e l y t o f i n d someone el s e w i t h s i m i l a r i n c l i n a t i o n w i t h i n range i n the suburbs than he i s i n a c i t y . For t h i s reason, c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the suburbs tend to d r i f t toward a mediocre conformity to the lowest common denominator i n the neighborhood r a t h e r than toward intense s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and 11 non-conformity. 73 The b a s i c reason f o r c u l t u r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the c i t y i s to o f f e r everyone the opportunity to make contact w i t h c u l t u r a l achievements, and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s of one k i n d or another. More contact w i l l r e s u l t i n c u l t u r a l impressions which can e a s i l y be accomplished i n concentrated circumstances. Cultures could not be born without f e r t i l i z i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n , inasmuch as c u l t u r e s are not the achievement of i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , but the r e s u l t of c o l l e c t i v e and concentrated endeavors. Hence, the concentrated urban community i s a c u l t u r a l n e c e s s i t y . Undoubtedly, an extremely congested c i t y i s apt to occasion an unfortunate balance. I t produces both p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l slums. To create c o n s t r u c t i v e c u l t u r e s u r e l y n e c e s s i t a t e s a healthy environment. That i s why the congested C e n t r a l Area should be r e v i t a l i z e d by the planning and develop-ment of "Environmental Areas". 4. P o l i t i c a l Forces Favourable to R e v i t a l i z a t i o n As c e r t a i n f o r c e s , as discussed above, are c r e a t i n g a demand f o r b e t t e r c i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e , there i s another group of f a c t o r s which w i l l not r e a l l y c o n s t i t u t e a demand f o r l i v i n g i n c i t i e s per se, but w i l l create a demand f o r the municipal governments to stop the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area. These f a c t o r s w i l l cause p o l i t i c a l pressure t o be exerted upon c i t y o f f i c i a l s to improve the C e n t r a l Area c o n d i t i o n s . 74 To prevent the situation of the Central Area from ever deteriorating, the Central Area retailers and property owners have already exerted a considerable amount of pressure upon the municipal governments in order to have the Central Area modernised, thus making them more competitive with out-lying shopping centers. Although this pressure has not always helped sustain the Central Area sales, i t has resulted i n a great deal of municipal action, especially the building of parking f a c i l i t i e s and the creation of extensive plans for Central Area renovation. In addition, the consideration of improving and strengthening the city tax base has also prompted the muni-cipal governments to carry out the policy of checking the spread of blight and to make in-city l i v i n g more attractive to the workers and customers they need. Owners of Central Area Properties Fearing Depreciation of  Investment Throughout history, business has developed along heavy routes of travel - through caravans of trade along the cross roads of commerce. Traffic and trade have made the c i t i e s . Foci of travel have become focal points of r e t a i l business. Some businesses are now almost entirely dependent on automobile customers; others are largely dependent on various types of mass transit; many others are anxious to increase 75 the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e i r business. In many c i t i e s , organized merchant groups, property owners and developers are t a k i n g an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t r a f f i c and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n matters. They are b r i n g i n g t r a f f i c pro-f e s s i o n a l s i n t o the planning and operation a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r own business. Whether the c i t y has adopted a p o l i c y of developing t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n the c i t i e s , whether the needs are l e f t e n t i r e l y to p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e or a j o i n t e f f o r t , merchants and property owners are i n c r e a s i n g l y and a c t i v e l y a s s i s t i n g i n improving the t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l parking f a c i l i t i e s , and thus i n maintaining the growth of t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d e . This t r e n d i s encouraging, even though some groups have become so i n v o l v e d i n questions of p o l i c y and a re l u c t a n c e t o face needs as a community problem that l i t t l e of a l a s t i n g and 12 e f f e c t i v e character i s being accomplished. There are other encouraging developments. Eroperty owners and business leaders are l e s s obdurate and no longer as i n s i s t e n t on a s t a t u s quo c o n d i t i o n i n t r a f f i c . The f e a r of change i s disappearing. As a r e s u l t , urban t r a f f i c i s being improved by more one-way s t r e e t s , by curb parking bans, by improved e f f i c i e n t t r a n s i t o p e rations, and by other t r a f f i c changes which i n the past have been c o n s i s t e n t l y opposed and 76 blocked. The changes u s u a l l y help business, and they should be planned w i t h t h i s as one important o b j e c t i v e . When t h i s i s done, there i s r a r e l y an adverse e f f e c t on business i n t e r e s t s Government P o l i c y to Maintain the Health of the C e n t r a l Area Probably the greatest problem f a c i n g most c i t i e s i s the o v e r a l l c o n t r o l of t h e i r growth. I t i s safe t o say that the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Areas and t h e i r surrounding areas i s proceeding i n a l a r g e way i n most c i t i e s . This has s e r i o u s economic e f f e c t s upon the c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y upon the m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e . From the municipal p o i n t of view, the f a c t of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s a very c o s t l y t h i n g . I t breeds b l i g h t i n s i d e and outside the c i t y . I t i n h i b i t s new i n v e s t -ments, and makes u t i l i t y improvement and municipal budgeting v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I t tends to i n f l a t e the value of l a n d , and henc taxes. The case against the urban d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e very s e r i o u s . Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have adopted p o l i c i e s of main-t a i n i n g the h e a l t h of t h e i r urban environments, e s p e c i a l l y the C e n t r a l Areas and t h e i r surrounding areas. They prepare the s o - c a l l e d comprehensive community plans on a m e t r o p o l i t a n -wide b a s i s more now than ever before to d i r e c t the growth of t h e i r c i t i e s , t r y i n g to r a t i o n a l i z e the tax base and f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r c i t i e s . 77 Summary The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area as the "heart" of the c i t y w i l l b e n e f i t every person i n the community. By strengthening the economy and a t t r a c t -iveness of the C e n t r a l Area, l o c a l commerce w i l l a t t a i n continued economic p r o s p e r i t y ; property owners w i l l see t h e i r investments grow i n value; the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l r e c e i v e correspondingly g r e a t e r tax revenues; and the i n d i -v i d u a l tax payer w i l l b e n e f i t because the C e n t r a l Area w i l l c a r r y a g r e a t e r share of the tax l o a d . In a d d i t i o n , i t should be s t a t e d that there are some s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l b e n e f i t s , which due to the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e are not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t e n s i v e l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n . CHAPTER IV DYNAMIC PLANNING FOR THE CENTRAL AREA I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , accompanied by ri g o r o u s separa-t i o n of d w e l l i n g and working p l a c e s , by the growth of towns, and by a continuous increase i n s t r e e t t r a f f i c , produced the monotonous, c h a n n e l - l i k e s t r e e t s t h a t we know today. Now, the ever-growing demands of motor t r a f f i c are l e a d i n g to a com-p l e t e d i s s o l u t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l values and character of the s t r e e t s and squares, which were the main scenes of c i v i c l i f e i n i t s s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and economic expres-si o n s throughout h i s t o r y . They have now become subordinate t o t e c h n i c a l , and economic demands. Once r e s t f u l squares have become t r a f f i c j u n c t i o n s , once harmonious s t r e e t s have sunk to the l e v e l of mere t r a f f i c ribbons, crowded w i t h signs and s i g n a l s . Thus the s t r e e t of today has l o s t i t s c. aim to being an important sphere i n the m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l 1 l i f e of the c i t y d w e l l e r . With the development of mechanized t r a f f i c and wit h the increase i n number, s i z e and speed of v e h i c l e s f o r both passengers and f r e i g h t , v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c has p r a c t i c a l l y monopolized the s t r e e t area and dislod g e d the pedestrians more and more. These c o n d i t i o n s , which more or l e s s apply t o the s t r e e t s of every c i t y , are e q u a l l y i n t o l e r a b l e t o 79 m o t o r i s t s and pedestrians as w e l l as t o those who l i v e and work th e r e . The d r i v e r cannot use h i s car to best advan-tage on overcrowded s t r e e t s . Not only i s h i s a t t e n t i o n c o n s t a n t l y claimed by moving v e h i c l e s of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and speeds, and by c r o s s i n g p e d e s t r i a n s , but the confusion i s increased by g l a r i n g advertisements and t r a f f i c signs on a l l s i d e s . The p e d e s t r i a n , i n t u r n , f e e l s overpowered by mechanized t r a f f i c . He i s c o n t i n u a l l y annoyed by passing v e h i c l e s , with t h e i r n o i s e , dust and b l i n d i n g l i g h t s . He i s made tense and nervous by the ever present t r a f f i c ha-zards. The r e s i d e n t s of such s t r e e t s , and those who work th e r e , s u f f e r a decrease i n t h e i r working e f f i c i e n c y due to n o i s e , g l a r i n g h e a d l i g h t s , and other d i s t u r b a n c e s . In the immediate v i c i n i t y of n o i s y , t r a f f i c - f i l l e d s t r e e t s , n e i t h e r concentrated working during daytime, nor r e s t f u l sleep a t n i g h t i s p o s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t of these general developments, s t r e e t s can no longer serve men and v e h i c l e s simultaneously, as each r e q u i r e s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t con-2 d i t i o n s (see Table 12, p.80). I t i s e s s e n t i a l to break away from the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of the s t r e e t , to d e l i v e r the pe d e s t r i a n from the t u r m o i l of mechanized t r a f f i c , and t o f i n d a separate space f o r h i s movements and a c t i v i t i e s and f o r c i v i c l i f e i n gener a l . The b a s i c purpose i s to enable men to pursue t h e i r tasks i n pleasant surroundings w i t h a minimum expenditure of time and energy, and thus t o r e v i t a l i z e and maintain the TABLE 12 COMPARATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC Vehicular traffic Pedestrian traffic . Nature of move- T h e movement is strict- T h e pedestrian—as any inent and, char- ly regulated; it requires l i v i n g being—docs not acterof road lay- straight roads, a l lowing readi ly . submit to rc-oiiL. for uninterrupted, f lu id slrictions of his move-d r i v i n g , incnts; he therefore re-q u i r e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g surroundings. Conclusion* ; T y i n g l l i c sidewalk to j the roadway means sac- \ r i f i c i n g the r e q u i r e -ments of the pedestrian to those of the vehicle. *. Speed. T h e speed of vehicles Man's n o r m a l w a l k i n g T y i n g the sidewalk to ' varies a n d tends to In- speed is constant a n d the roadway represents crease. unchangeable; it does a hazard to the pedes-not exceed about ii/. t r ian which affects his m.p.h. p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l well-being, part icular ly w i t h the increase i n the number a n d speed of vehicles. 3. Gradient of T h e vehicle can c l i m b M a n prefers steps to T y i n g the sidewalk to roads. steep gradients o n u n - steep gradients. the roadway puts the broken surfaces. pedestrian at a disad-vantage. . Scope of d a i l y movements and elTect of sur-r o u n d i n g i . I n a medium-sized town trips are comparatively short, vehicle users are suf f ic ient ly s h e l t e r e d from the rigors of the cl imate, their physical conditions remain u n -affected. I n the same town, the pedestrian spends com-paratively more time on the road; he requires a s u i t a b l e " m i c r o - c l i -mate," quiet, pure air , shade, 'restful l ight ing , , safety. T y i n g the sidewalk to the roadway is detr i -mental t o the pedes-trian's health. T h e heat a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e roadway radiates back at h i m ; the dust, glare, a n d e x h a u s t gases as wel l as the noise and confusion irritate h i m . 5.Traffic P l a n n i n g ; T h e increase i n n u m - I n a town of constant T y i n g the sidewalk to Profiles and In^ ber, size and speed of ve- size, the pedestrian's re- the roadway is disturb-tersections. h ides necessitates con- q u i r e m e n t s f o r foot- i n g d u r i n g repair work, nant changes and adap- paths (as to w i d t h a n d when pedestrian traffic 1 tions of road profiles type of surfacing) re- is hindered by the re-a n d complex arrange- m a i n unchanged. p a i r work and the lat-ments at intersections. tcr, i n turn, is hindered by the pedestrian. T h e pedestrian is constantly irritated by traffic signs and signals designed to ( regulate the vehicular traffic. : Alexander K l e i n , " S o l v i n g the T r a f f i c Problem," i n T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , The Eno Foundation For Highway T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , V o l . I l l , No.3, J u l y 19^9, p.216 81 3 h e a l t h of the C e n t r a l Area - the heart of the c i t y . In r e v i t a l i z i n g the C e n t r a l Area, the m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l needs of the people should be s a t i s f i e d . I n other words, the component p a r t s of the C e n t r a l Area should a s s e r t the human needs and the human s c a l e of v a l u e s . I t i s a l s o important to note that the cure f o r obsolescence of the C e n t r a l Area i s not p e r i o d i c remodeling of i n t e r i o r s and store f r o n t s , a few s t r e e t widenings, and other makeshift devices. The cure 5 i s Dynamic Planning f o r the C e n t r a l Area. B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s f o r planning and r e v i t a l i z i n g the C e n t r a l Area, t h e r e f o r e , may be theses The C e n t r a l Area must be planned f o r the b e n e f i t of human beings and not f o r that of machines. The humanizing of the C e n t r a l Area may r e q u i r e complete s e p a r a t i o n between p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a -f f i c . The heart of human a c t i v i t i e s must be s h i f t e d from the t r a f f i c congested s t r e e t , as i t i s a t present, t o healthy and secure surroundings, i n which men cannot only s u r v i v e but i n which they may enjoy t h e i r l i v e s . 1. Separation of Pedestrians and Automobiles As seen from Table 12, p.80, Pedestrians and Vehi -c l e s have e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l requirements. In most instances the conbination of the two forms of movement on one right-of-way has been d e t r i m e n t a l t o both users. A f t e r a l l , the v e h i c l e i s twenty times heavier and many more times f a s t e r than the p e d e s t r i a n . I t r e q u i r e s much more pavement 82 width and parking space besides. I t i s a constant menace a t every c r o s s i n g and even on the sidewalk, where o f f - s t r e e t p a r k ing and l o a d i n g i s provided. Prom the d r i v e r ' s view, pedestrians are a nuisance and a cause f o r unnecessary delay, and v i c e v e r s a . The c o n f l i c t between them i s obvious. The tempoand p h y s i c a l environment of the two are t o t a l l y incom-p a t i b l e . There are many prototypes t h a t have separate p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n , among them parks, c o l l e g e campuses, h o s p i t a l s , and housing p r o j e c t s . In the ol d e r medieval c i t i e s , narrow a l l e y s and s t r e e t s have been reserved f o r p e d e s t r i a n s only. I n c l a s s i c a l Home, there are records of measures f o r keeping v e h i c l e s c l e a r of the c i t y a t c e r t a i n p e r i o d s . P r i e n e , w i t h i t s s t e p s , must c l e a r l y have solved i t s problem agreeably f o r the p e d e s t r i a n . At Hadburn, New Jers e y , i n the U.S.A., Clarence S t e i n and Henry Wright i n 1928 made domestic-planning h i s t o r y by separating pedestrians and c a r s . The main p r i n c i p l e s of the Hadburn Layout are: 1. the c r e a t i o n of an environmental area f r e e from through t r a f f i c , and 2. the c r e a t i o n of a system of p e d e s t r i a n f o o t -paths e n t i r e l y separate from v e h i c u l a r r o u t e s , and l i n k i n g together places generating pedes-t r i a n t r a f f i c . The o r i g i n a l Hadburn id e a i s shown i n Fig.20,p.83, and an ex-ample of a layout from S h e f f i e l d i n Fig.21,p.83. The p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t i s tha t a house has access on one s i d e to a s e r v i c e road or cul-de-sac, and on the other to the independent 83 footpath system. This i s i n co n t r a s t t o the conventional arrangement whereby pedestrians and v e h i c l e s approach on 7 the same road. Distributor roads Access roads Housing «^ ':;f-.yi Areas of pedestrian freedom mm] |M Main pedestrian routes Fig.20 The P r i n c i p l e of Bad-burn Planning F i g . 21 The Badbura P r i n c i p l e I n P r a c t i c e . A layout from S h e f f i e l d . Sources C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, Her M a j e s t y ^ S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1963, p.47 Since the time of the Badbura Layout, much E n g l i s h planning i n the new towns and elsewhere has been d i r e c t e d towards t h i s end. The words "pedestrian p r e c i n c t " became much i n use, and meant what they intendeds s a f e t y from the danger and dlsagreeableness of the s t r e e t s . The L l j n b a a n i n the 8k Centrum of Rotterdam i s one of the best-known contemporary examples, but of course there i s no equal i n h i s t o r y t o the canals of Venice, and i n a s c a r c e l y l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y way, to those of Holland. A l l of these f o l l o w the p r i n c i p l e of complete segregation of p e d e s t r i a n from v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . VEHICULAR TRAFFIC T r a f f i c i s concentrated i n the c i t i e s because ac-t i v i t i e s are concentrated t h e r e . The densely concentrated C e n t r a l Areas of c i t i e s n a t u r a l l y generate the g r e a t e s t amount of movement. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case w i t h motor t r a f f i c . The i n h e r i t e d layout of the s t r e e t s i n s i d e most c i t i e s i s not s u i t a b l e f o r the movement of motor v e h i c l e s . Many of the s t r e e t s are too narrow f o r the number of v e h i c l e s which use them. The r e s u l t of growing numbers of v e h i c l e s endeavouring t o f o r c e t h e i r way through t h i s narrow, i n t r i c a t e s t r e e t system has been i n c r e a s i n g congestion and i n e f f i c i e n c y . Everywhere there are complaints of congestion, delays, and 8 d i f f i c u l t i e s of p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g and unloading goods. Yet, l i k e i t or not, the motor v e h i c l e can no longer be banished from modern l i f e . I t i s now the f a s t e s t means f o r movement. Having v i r t u a l l y put the commuter r a i l r o a d s out of business, i t i s now one of the few ways of moving around the c i t y , g e t t i n g from c i t y to suburb, and from one c i t y to another. I t i s here t o stay - at l e a s t u n t i l the 9 f a m i l y aeroplane replaces i t . 85 It appears that the future of the motor vehicle is assured. The cities should therefore he examined in a con-structive way to see how vehicular t r a f f i c can be accommodated. It i s particularly necessary to redesign the physical arrange-ment of streets and buildings within the Central Area in order to cope better with the use of vehicles. This problem of design is to contrive the efficient distribution, or good accessibil i t y , of large numbers of vehicles to the Central Area, and to do i t in such a way that a satisfactory standard of environment is achieved. Quite obviously, this i s a most d i f f i c u l t task. A basic d i f f i c u l t y i s that the txfo components of the problem— accessibility and environment—tend to be in co n f l i c t . A good environment, in the special sense of freedom from the dangers and nuisances of motor t r a f f i c , could be easily secured by reducing the t r a f f i c in the streets to appropriate levels. In some places this might not cause any real hardship to vehicle users. But as an overall policy for a c i t y , i t would seriously interfere with the functioning of the area. On the other hand, the accessibility problem would certainly not be solved by sacrificing environment—it has been largely sac-r i f i c e d already, yet accessibility s t i l l is often poor. After a l l , the main purpose of the design problem is to rationalize 10 the arrangement of buildings and the street layout. 86 1) Use of By-passes for Siphoning Off Through T r a f f i c . Through t r a f f i c is an important element in the t r a f f i c congest-ion in the Central Area, as explained in Chapter I I . It should be removed from the Central Area on the grounds of the nuisance and danger which i t adds to the serious crowded condition with-in the Central Area. By-passes in this case would give much-needed r e l i e f , though not necessary permanent re l i e f in view of the way in which local t r a f f i c is i t s e l f l i k e l y to increase 11 in the future. The rapid increase in the volume of vehicles i n the Seattle Metropolitan Area since 1946 has intensified t r a f f i c congestion in i t s Central Area. This is partially related to the geography of the metropolitan region. The majority of residents live north of the Central Area while the greatest percentage of industry l i e s south of the Central Area. As indicated in Fig. 17,p.49, Seattle has an hourglass shape, tending to funnel heavy north and south through t r a f f i c through the Central Area. To relieve the t r a f f i c congestion caused by the large percentage of through t r a f f i c in the Cent-r a l Area, the City built two by-passes around the Central Area so as to siphon off the unnecessary through t r a f f i c . With-out these by-passes, most of the heavy north and south traf-12 f i e must pass through the Central Area. 2) Use of Mass Transportation As a Means of Reliev-ing Parking and Traffic Congestion. In spite of the trend toward and the desire of individuals for personalized trans-portation, i t is recognized that a high percentage of these 87 e n t e r i n g the C e n t r a l Area of most c i t i e s must be t r a n s -ported by t r a n s i t . Greater use of mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would reduce t r a f f i c congestion and the pressure on e x i s t i n g park-i n g f a c i l i t i e s . However, the expansion of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n could not by i t s e l f provide a complete answer to t r a f f i c congestion by preventing the steady r i s e of car-commuting. I t has t o be recognized that a person may f i n d a car very a t t r a c t i v e to use f o r the d a i l y journey to work. He can go anywhere he Bees, and does not have to depend on time-t a b l e s . He can s i t i n comfort, not stand i n a crush. He can l i s t e n to the r a d i o , or t a l k t o a companion. These advantages of car-commuting outweigh the f a c t s that i t may cost more and i t may end i n a tedious search f o r a place t o park. 1-^ Apparently, some means must be found not only to maintain but t o r e h a b i l i t a t e the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and enhance i t s r e l a t i v e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to the cus-tomers and employees, i n comparison w i t h the present day convenience of p r i v a t e automobile t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . This con-venience must be measured not only i n c o s t , expressed i n d o l l a r s and time, but must be considered i n l i g h t of the f a c t that the automobile i s l i k e l y t o t r a n s p o r t the i n d i v i d -u a l from h i s own garage to a p a r k i n g l o t c l o s e r to h i s place of business or d e s i r e d shopping l o c a t i o n than the present form of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t would t h e r e f o r e 88 be necessary t o provide a great many more bus and subway r o u t e s , w i t h t r a n s i t v e h i c l e s running at very frequent i n t e r -v a l s , a t reasonable f a r e s and w i t h enough v e h i c l e s to guarantee a seat t o every passenger. There should a l s o be a much more determined attempt t o provide f o r what may be c a l l e d the "semi-commuter," the man whose needs f o r t r a n s i t s e r v i c e t o the C e n t r a l Area would be met i f he could d r i v e h i s car to a sub-urban s t a t i o n or bus-stop, and be sure of f i n d i n g p a r king space t h e r e . M u l t i - s t o r e y garages a t such p o i n t s must be made 14 a v a i l a b l e at very low p r i c e s , or even f r e e . Nevertheless, t h i s c o uld hardly be done on a paying b a s i s . To provide d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s i n most c i t i e s , p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s and business i n t e r e s t s must co-operate w i t h t r a n s i t companies. The problem must be approached as a community problem r e q u i r i n g many j o i n t and co-operative a c t i o n s i f needed s e r v i c e s are t o be obtained. 3) Improvement of P a r k i n g F a c i l i t i e s . The r e q u i r e -ment f o r parking i s a matter of importance both to the auto-mobile owner and to the merchant or p r o f e s s i o n a l man i n the C e n t r a l Area. This means tha t i f the C e n t r a l Area i s to continue to be at l e a s t as a t t r a c t i v e a place t o shop and work as suburban shopping centers people must be able t o d r i v e to t h e i r C e n t r a l Area d e s t i n a t i o n and park c l o s e t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n w i t h r e l a t i v e ease. I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o provide enough t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s such as m u l t i - s t o r e y o f f - s t r e e t 8 9 p a r k i n g garages i n or around the C e n t r a l Area. For some yea r s , merchants i n many c i t i e s have taken an a c t i v e part i n t r a f f i c and parking. The problem i s not new t o them. In some cases they have stepped i n w i t h r e a l a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the development of o f f -s t r e e t p a r k i n g . Some merchants have developed t h e i r own l o t s and garages t o provide a t t r a c t i v e parking f o r customers and thus maintain the growth of t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d e . The three major department st o r e s i n Vancouver (Eaton's, Hudson's Bay, Woodward's), f o r example, have constructed m u l t i - l e v e l garages adjacent t o t h e i r own s t o r e s . Frequently t h i s has been done because of s i m i l a r a c t i o n by competitors. P o l i c i e s of l a r g e and well-known nation-wide department s t o r e s , as w e l l as the l a r g e r chain food stores and other l o c a l r e t a i l groups, seem w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . They j u s t don't b u i l d s tores without parking p r o v i s i o n s , though they are not always able to supply as much as i s needed. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of business groups i n parking pro-grams of Oakland, Allentown, New Canaan, Baltimore and many other c i t i e s , where e f f e c t i v e steps have been taken, i s widely known. They are s i g n i f i c a n t because they are i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the a t t i t u d e t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r park-i n g i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s because the businesses are the backbone of the community, and pay heavy t a x e s . ^ Nevertheless the p r o v i s i o n of such p r i v a t e parking f a c i l i t i e s cannot take care of the f u l l needs of the commu-n i t y . Business groups are more or l e s s t a k i n g care of 9 0 themselves, not the whole community. As such, the major responsibility of providing terminal f a c i l i t i e s for park-ing private automobiles should rest in the municipal govern-ments, which are not insensitive to the tax revenues obtain-able from the Central Areas. With the recognition of parking as a key merchand-ising factor, the problem of parking should be carefully planned so that the motorist does not have to contend with the curb parking of conventional developments. The auto-mobile t r a f f i c should be brought to the perimeter of the shop-ping area and stopped there so that a pleasant area for the pedestrian could be maintained. Off-street parking i s inte-grated into the Central Area to enhance compactness and to reduce walking distances to an absolute minimum. Most major t r a f f i c generators are connected directly to parking f a c i -l i t i e s by elevated pedestrian ramps. Automobile parking occupies upper levels of the storage structure, while the ground level i s reserved for r e t a i l stores, pedestrian-ways and enclosed public lounges, and service areas for maintenance and delivery penetrate the Central Area to pro-vide access free from conflict to a l l commercial establish-ments. Thus f i r e protection equipment is able to reach any single building without obstruction. Public transportation i s ordinarily routed around the periphery to designated transfer points, but may penetrate the core for special occasions (See F i g .2 2 , p .9 1 ) . " ^ 4) Efficient Road Systems. The problem of designing 91 F i g . 2 2 — T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Routed a round t h e P e r i p h e r y o f t he " E n v i r o n m e n t a l A r e a s " o f t h e C e n t r a l A r e a . S o u r c e : C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1963, P.1^3 e f f i c i e n t r o a d s y s t ems , e s s e n t i a l l y , i s a m a t t e r o f r a t i o n a l -i z i n g the a r rangement o f b u i l d i n g s and a c c e s s ways. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e d e s i g n o f b u i l d i n g s and a c c e s s ways i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e good a c c e s s i -b i l i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t . The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e a s w i t h i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a , s e r v e d by a s y s tem o f d i s t r i b u t o r y ne two rk s f o r t h e p r i m a r y d i s t r i b -u t i o n of t r a f f i c . There i s some movement w i t h i n t h e e n v i r o n -m e n t a l a r e a s , bu t i t i s s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d so t h a t t h e 92 environment does not s u f f e r . I f f o r some reason movement tends to b u i l d up beyond the a b i l i t y of the environment to accept i t , then something i s q u i c k l y done t o c u r t a i l or d i v e r t i t . . The one t h i n g t h a t i s never allowed t o happen i s f o r an environmental area t o be opened to through t r a f f i c . This i s the only p r i n c i p l e on which to contemplate the accommodation of motor t r a f f i c i n the C e n t r a l Areas of c i t i e s . I f t h i s concept i s pursued, i t w i l l r e s u l t i n the whole C e n t r a l Area t a k i n g on a c e l l u l a r s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g of environmental areas set w i t h i n an i n t e r l a c i n g network of d i s t r i b u t o r y roads (See Fig.23, p.94). The concept of the p r e c i n c t s and neighbourhoods of the County of London P l a n r e f l e c t t h i s same appraoch. But i n the face of the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number of v e h i c l e s , t h i s concept acquires a new urgency. 1'' The s e r i e s of environmental areas created w i t h i n the C e n t r a l Area would be t i e d together by the i n t e r l a c i n g network of d i s t r i b u t o r y roads on to which a l l longer move-ments would be channelized without choice. In p r i n c i p l e i t would be l i k e a g i g a n t i c b u i l d i n g w i t h c o r r i d o r s s e r v i n g a multitude of rooms. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i s -t r i b u t o r y networks and the environmental areas would there-f o r e be e s s e n t i a l l y one of s e r v i c e : the f u n c t i o n of the network would be t o serve the environmental areas and not 18 v i c e v e r s a . The f u n c t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t o r y network i s to channelize the longer movements from l o c a l i t y to l o c a l i t y . 93 The l i n k s of the network should t h e r e f o r e be designed f o r s w i f t , e f f i c i e n t movement. This means th a t they cannot a l s o be used f o r g i v i n g d i r e c t access t o b u i l d i n g s , or even t o minor roads s e r v i n g the b u i l d i n g s , because the conse-quent frequent j u n c t i o n s would be dangerous and make the road i n e f f i c i e n t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary t o introduce the idea of a "h i e r a r c h y " of d i s t r i b u t o r s , whereby import-ant d i s t r i b u t o r s feed down through d i s t r i b u t o r s of l e s s e r c a p a c i t y t o the minor roads which give access to the b u i l d -ings (See Fig.24,p.94). B a s i c a l l y , however, there are only two kinds of r o a d — d i s t r i b u t o r s designed f o r movement, and 19 access roads t o serve the b u i l d i n g s . The b a s i s of t h i s concept i s to achieve compactness and maximum a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the C e n t r a l Area, to improve i t s f u n c t i o n i n g and s e r v i c i n g while c r e a t i n g an a t t r a c t i v e environment. A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s made quick and d i r e c t by a reduct-i o n both i n the number of i n t e r s e c t i o n s and i n the c o n f l i c t w i t h p e d e s t r i a n s . A sep a r a t i o n of p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c i s e s t a b l i s h e d by r o u t i n g a l l v e h i c l e s around the periph e r y , p e n e t r a t i n g only at v a r i o u s p o i n t s f o r purposes of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , d e l i v e r y and pa r k i n g . P e d e s t r i a n T r a f f i c C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the q u a l i t y of the environ-ment i s freedom of pe d e s t r i a n movement. The simple a c t of 94 Fig.23—The C e l l u l a r Concept. Fig.24—The P r i n c i p l e of the H i e r -archy of D i s t r i b u t o r s . Access roads are not shown. Source: C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y ' s O f f i c e , London, 1963,pp.42-44 walking plays an indispensable part i n the t r a n s p o r t system of any c i t y . Despite the present trends toward the p r o v i s i o n of d r i v e - i n f a c i l i t i e s and however adequate the parking f a c i -l i t i e s or access routes may be, most d r i v e r s i n the C e n t r a l Area are bound a t some stage to leave t h e i r automobiles and become pede s t r i a n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e common sense that pedes-t r i a n movement should be enabled to occur w i t h reasonable comfort and s a f e t y . The p e d e s t r i a n must have some of the peaceful and pleasant c o n d i t i o n s r e s t o r e d to the main shopping 95 and business center of the city which prevailed there before the advent of the automobile. The human scale must be re-introduced in the Central Area. 1) Designing for the Pedestrian: Five C r i t e r i a . In designing a pedestrian circulation system, five essential c r i t e r i a must be observed: continuity, safety, comfort, con-20 venience and delight. 1. Continuity. The one overriding principle that must be followed i s the maintenance of the basic t r a f f i c network in a continuous unbroken pattern. This is as true for pedestrians as for automobiles. It would be shortsighted to carve up an area in the Central Area with barrier high-ways, leaving no way to walk under or over, and thus isolate places from one another. Even were i t possible to show that there would not li k e l y be a need for such communication be-cause of disparate uses, i t does not follow that those uses w i l l always be the same. A l l too often the importance of con-tinuity and f l e x i b i l i t y in the existing network of walkways has not been properly understood. As a result, pedestrians suffer the inconvenience of long detours in order to reach destinations previously accessible by more direct connect-ions. The network must not only be complete, but clear and comprehensible to the person on foot. Whether curved or straight, a walkway must lead toward the destination without large breaks in i t s continuity. 2. Safety. One of the greatest impediments to walking in the Central Area i s the lack of adequate, 96 unobstructed walkways and safe, short c r o s s i n g s over roadways. Sometimes t r a f f i c l i g h t s are i n s t a l l e d only a f t e r someone i s k i l l e d or badly i n j u r e d and c i t i z e n s are aroused. As f a r as the idea of "environmental area" i s concerned, the c r i t e r i o n of s a f e t y should be r i g o r o u s l y f o l l o w e d . A l l the component p a r t s of the C e n t r a l Area should be a c c e s s i b l e along p e d e s t r i a n walks e n t i r e l y separated from a l l automobile a c t i v i t y . 3. Comfort. A pathway must be comfortable to walk upon. The road surface should be smooth, dry and l e v e l . I t must be wide enough to handle not only the expected i n t e n s i t y of p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c , but to accommodate bypassing couples, c h i l d r e n at p l a y , t r e e s and innumerable p r e d i c t a b l e human uses. Steep i n c l i n e s are to be avoided unless steps are introduced. P r o t e c t i o n from hot sun, c o l d winds and r a i n i s d e s i r a b l e . F i n a l l y , s e p a r a t i o n from t o x i c and obnoxious fumes and unpleasant and loud noise i s e s s e n t i a l f o r both h e a l t h and s a n i t y . 4. Convenience. Walking i s p r e f e r r e d t o r i d i n g when i t i s more convenient, that i s , when d e s t i n a t i o n s are more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e on f o o t . The a t t r a c t i o n s and gen-e r a t o r s of p e d e s t r i a n flow should be l i n k e d with the net-work i n view of the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and distance l i m i t a t i o n s . Backtracking and wasted frontage, such as l o n g , blank f a c t o r y w a l l s , l a r g e parking l o t s , garages, long highway c r o s s i n g s , and extensive curb park-i n g , should a l l be avoided i n planning walkways. 97 5. D e l i g h t . When walkways can be f r e e d from v e h i c u l a r thoroughfares, they can adjust to the s m a l l -s c a l e t w i s t s and t u r n s , together w i t h c o l o u r f u l shop f r o n t s , d i s p l a y s , an outdoor e x h i b i t , a s u n l i t garden along a shady path, a small park, a b i t of song or music or b i r d c a l l . D e l i g h t r e s u l t s from a t o t a l sensual exp-e r i e n c e , f a r r i c h e r and more vafried than i s p o s s i b l e i n a moving v e h i c l e whose speed, n o i s e , and i s o l a t i o n mask out a l l but the most ge n e r a l , l a r g e impressions. 2) Planning the P e d e s t r i a n Network. The p e d e s t r i a n network should be complete and i n t a c t . I t s component p a r t s should not be i s o l a t e d from each other by highways and other major developments. Nor need the p e d e s t r i a n network. I t should complement i t . P edestrians should be kept com-p l e t e l y f r e e of moving v e h i c l e s , e s p e c i a l l y t r u c k s . The only contact r e q u i r e d by pedestrians w i t h v e h i c l e s i s f o r the purpose of boarding or l o a d i n g goods on them. A l l means of s e p a r a t i o n between p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c can be broken down i n t o three types: p a r a l l e l g r i d , d i s p l a c e d g r i d , and grade s e p a r a t i o n . The f i r s t i s most common and appropriate f o r low t r a f f i c i n t e n s i t y areas of medium to high t r a f f i c i n t e n s i t y ; and the t h i r d i s most appropriate 21 i n areas of very high t r a f f i c i n t e n s i t y . 1. T h e . P a r a l l e l G r i d . The o r d i n a r y sidewalk i s the most common example of the p a r a l l e l g r i d (See Fig.25,P.100). I t has grown out of thousands of years of common use of s t r e e t s 98 by v e h i c l e s and pe d e s t r i a n s . I t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : (a) Low volume of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c ; (b) N e c e s s i t y f o r frequent interchange a t curb between v e h i c l e s and pedestrians; (c) Adequate pavement width to i n s u l a t e pedes-t r i a n s from excessive noise and exhaust fumes. One good example, because of the power of i t s design and the generous width of i t s sidewalk (around s i x t y f e e t ) , i s the Champs Elysees i n P a r i s . However, the p a r a l l e l g r i d i s as i n e f f i c i e n t f o r the pedestrians as f o r the d r i v e r . The former has d i r e c t access only to one corner. Four cro s s i n g s are r e q u i r e d f o r maximum u t i l i z a t i o n , and those which are most intense are u s u a l l y the widest. Therefore, from an o b j e c t i v e view, the e x i s t i n g p a r a l l e l g r i d i s not the most s a t i s f a c t o r y method of moving e i t h e r pedestrians or v e h i c l e s . 2. The Displaced G r i d (See Fig.26,p.100). I f a l l e x i s t i n g sidewalks were removed from s t r e e t s and res t r u n g through the centers of the b l o c k s , the r e s u l t would be two overl a p p i n g c i r c u l a t i o n systems f o r v e h i c l e s and pe d e s t r i a n s , i n t e r s e c t i n g a t mid-block. The same p a t t e r n would r e s u l t , but at twice the s c a l e , i f every other s t r e e t i n each d i r e c t i o n were c l o s e d to v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . The r e s u l t i n g c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n would be f a r more e f f i c i e n t f o r both walkers and d r i v e r s . Obvious advantages to the pe d e s t r i a n i n c l u d e : (a) D i r e c t access to both s i d e s of the walkways; (b) Enclosed space at i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; 99 (c) S a f e r , c o n t r o l l e d c r o s s i n g s at mid-block where pedestrians need look only one way without being harrassed by t u r n i n g move-ments; (d) Complete freedom from n o i s e , odors, and v i s u a l o b s t r u c t i o n by cars and t r u c k s . Obvious v e h i c u l a r advantages i n c l u d e : (a) D i r e c t access to parking and s e r v i c i n g a t re a r of b u i l d i n g s ; (b) Less congestion at i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; (c) E a s i l y v i s i b l e , c o n t r o l l e d p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s . There a r e , however, attendant disadvantages, such as the n e c e s s i t y f o r double frontage and the l a c k of immed-i a t e a v a i l a b i l i t y of buses and t a x i s . 3. Grade Separation. This i s f e a s i b l e i n areas undergoing r e b u i l d i n g . For decades i t has been the accepted method of moving pedestrians past r a i l r o a d s and highways. Leonardo da V i n c i envisaged a t w o - l e v e l road system, one f o r gentlemen and one f o r tradesmen; but i t was not u n t i l the nineteenth century t h a t major attempts were made to design the movement of t r a f f i c on two or more l e v e l s . This idea was p r i m a r i l y s t i m u l a t e d by the coming of the r a i l -ways. Probably i t was the Inner C i r c l e r a i l w a y completed i n I 8 6 3 , e n t e r i n g London to reach the main l i n e s t a t i o n s , t h a t was the great h i s t o r i c landmark i n the unobtrusive and e f f i c i e n t system of s h i f t i n g the po p u l a t i o n . Man had been able t o move over or under r a i l w a y s or heavy a r t e r i a l s . In the United States and some other c o u n t r i e s , grade separa-t i o n I s being used i n the renewal of t h e i r C e n t r a l Areas of 100 Fig.25—The Parallel Grid. Fig.26—The Displaced Grid. Source:Barry Benepe, "Pedestrian in the City," in Traffic Quarterly, The Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control, January 1965,Vol.XlX, No. 1,pp.32-33 101 many c i t i e s . In New York C i t y , where, under the p r o v i s i o n s of a new zoning ordinance, a r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g may r e s t on a fourteen-foot high podium c o n s i s t i n g of a parking garage covering the e n t i r e l o t , , t h e prospects of sidewalk users a t ground l e v e l look p r e t t y dim. P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s Perm Center and Stockholm's c e n t r a l development u t i l i z e d an u p p e r - l e v e l bridge connecting roof t e r r a c e s (See Fig.2? ) . This might be the f u t u r e answer to t r a f f i c s e p a r a t i o n i n h i g h - t r a f f i c - d e n s i t y areas such as C e n t r a l Manhattan. How-ever, p l a c i n g pedestrians on a r a i s e d deck has one major d i s advantage. I t separates pedestrians from the n a t u r a l grade where r i v e r s , l akes and f o r e s t s , and parklands occur. S i x t y to e i g h t y - f o o t trees do not grow on garage roofs. ^ 3 C o l i n Buchanan i n h i s " T r a f f i c i n Towns" and C a r l B. Troedsson i n h i s "The C i t y , the Automobile, and Man" hold t h i s p o i n t of view of grade se p a r a t i o n of pedestrians from v e h i c l e s . They s t r o n g l y f e e l that t h i s might be the only way to separate p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c i n the congested C e n t r a l Areas. Fig.27—Perm Center, P h i l a d e l p h i a . Source: C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns. Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1963, p.46 102 4. Combined Methods. A t o t a l approach to pathway-design w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e a l l three methods discussed above: p a r a l l e l g r i d , d i s p l a c e d g r i d , and grade s e p a r a t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o take i n t o account the s e v e r a l l i n k a g e s between v e h i c l e , p e d e s t r i a n and land uses. F i n a l l y , i t w l l l a c c o u n t f o r a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s t r e e t uses. Thus the e n t i r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network of the C e n t r a l Area may be r a t i o n a l i z e d to produce good t r a f f i c r e s u l t s . Pedes-t r i a n s make p o s i t i v e contact w i t h the road system a t p o i n t s of interchange, such as bus stops and parking garages. Every where e l s e walking i s f r e e and unobstructed, c r o s s i n g heavy a r t e r i a l s over or under, and l i g h t a r t e r i a l s a t grade or a t pro t e c t e d c r o s s i n g s . The r e s u l t i s not only a more conven-i e n t and usable network, but a p a t t e r n which i s more con-ducive to a r i c h and v a r i e d b u i l d i n g p a t t e r n , and which al l o w s g r e a t e r manipulation of the spaces between b u i l d i n g s . However, any planning of the t r a f f i c network must conform w i t h the general s t r e e t development plans f o r the whole C e n t r a l Area which a l l o t s p r i o r i t i e s according t o a c a r e f u l l y thought-out t r a f f i c p o l i c y . Such a p l a n w i l l not only manifest the three means of separating pedestrians and v e h i c l e s described above, but w i l l take cognizance of the f i v e c r i t e r i a of s u c c e s s f u l pathway systems. 103 2. The Planning and Development of Environmental Areas The Central Areas are uniquely dependent upon the pedestrians to satisfy their various business requirements. By taking part in vehicular t r a f f i c , one does not "meet" people. On the contrary, there is no more effective way to isolate oneself from one's fellow men than by withdrawing in a fast-moving vehicle. Motor vehicles do not buy goods or services. Only the pedestrians are the potential shop-pers. Not only does the pedestrian meet people; he also encounters ideas and i s able to act upon them spontaneously. 25 A Cleveland study J has indicated that as many as a third of a l l Central Area purchases are a result of "impulse shopping" by passers-by. It is therefore essential to create more opportunities for pedestrians to make sudden and f r e -quent alterations in direction, to hesitate, stop and then proceed in an unlimited choiee of avenues within the Environ-mental Areas in the Central Areas. One of the f i r s t requisites of the planning and development of Environmental Areas i s the separation of pedestrians and automobiles that has been discussed in detail in the previous section. Motorised means to trans-portation must reach different points of the perimeters of these areas and find the necessary parking f a c i l i t i e s right there, but the land inside these perimeters should be only for pedestrian use, and screened from the noise 104 and fumes of the motors. Trees, plants, water, sun and shade, and a l l the natural elements friendly to man should be found in the Environmental Areas. These elements of nature should harmonise with the buildings and their arch-itectural shapes, sculptural values, and colour. Landscaping must play a very important role. The whole setting should be so arranged as to please man and stimulate the best in 27 human nature. ' In these Environmental Areas, the pedestrians should be protected from extreme heat or cold. There should be open areas for public gatherings, and as public squares and prom-enades. However, the Environmental Areas should be not only beautiful, safe, convenient and comfortable, but also should encourage people to make frequent trips to the Central Areas. They w i l l draw more people from the fringes of the trade area and from competing trade areas. They should be care-f u l l y planned to maintain compactness and balance, thereby achieving maximum accessibility, drawing shoppers to every part of the Central Area. The general trend should be towards the revival of the public squares or "plazas" and the creation of pedestrian Central Areas. In short, a l l measures should be taken to make the Central Area shopping more pleasant and attractive. Reasons for People Making Walking Trips Walking is more frequently undertaken than driving in the Central Area. It accounts for many medium-distance 105 movements, the f i n a l distribution from bus stops and car parks, and a vast amount of casual coming and going. It i s also an integral part of many other matters, such as looking in shop windows, admiring the scene, or talking to people. It does not seem to be far from the truth that freedom with which a person can walk about and look around is a very useful guide to the c i v i l i z e d quality of an urban area.2^ Walking can also be engaged in for pure pleasure of exercise, and the intimate experience with surroundings, sights, smells and sounds. Alfred Kazin in his book "Walker in the City" described his experience as a boy on the streets of Brooklyn as follows: I would take the longest routes home from the subway, get off a station ahead of our own, only for the unexpectedness of walking through Betsy Head Park and hearing the gravel crunch under my feet as I went beyond the vegetable gardens, smelling the sweaty sweet dampness from the pool in summer and the dust on the leaves as I passed under the Ailanthus ....Any wall, any stoop, any curving metal on a billboard sign made a place against which to knock a ba l l ; any bottom rung of a f i r e escape ladder a goal in basketball; any sewer cover a base; any crack in the pavement a net for the sharp tennis we played.3° Walking brings the pedestrians into close contact with each other and affords the pleasure of mingling in crowds while retaining the privacy of anonymity. It i s dur-ing the Central Area shopping trips that pedestrians often come into casual contact with acquaintances and friends. Walking is the true medium of the market place.31 i t is therefore significant that pedestrians can safely and 106 p l e a s a n t l y shop, s t r o l l , r e s t and meet f r i e n d s i n the C e n t r a l Areas. In a n a l y s i n g the reasons f o r people making walking t r i p s i n the C e n t r a l Area, Robert L. Morris and S. B. Zisman c l a s s i f i e d the walking t r i p s under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 3 2 1) Terminal T r i p s . The most numerous of a l l walk-i n g t r i p s i n the C e n t r a l Area to and from the t e r m i n a l s such as bus stop, parking l o t , e t c . For maximum use of such f a c i -l i t i e s as commuter bus s t a t i o n s and p e r i p h e r a l parking l o t s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to f a c i l i t a t e movement from them to the C e n t r a l Area d e s t i n a t i o n . 2) Use T r i p s . The second l a r g e s t category of pedes-t r i a n t r i p s connects s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s such as an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h a r e s t a u r a n t , r e t a i l s t o r e , or stockbroker. These t r i p s are the important determinants i n the e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area. I t thus becomes e s s e n t i a l to be able to measure and p r e d i c t movements between and among the v a r i o u s C e n t r a l Area f u n c t i o n s , i f they are to be arranged to provide f o r maximum i n t e r p l a y . 3) Pleasure T r i p s . Walking can be a means of t a k i n g e x e r c i s e or r e l e a s i n g t e n s i o n . The pleasure walk can be a casual s t r o l l to enjoy the f r e s h a i r and absorb the v i s u a l o f f e r i n g s en route, as t y p i f i e d by many thousands of P a r i s i a n s and t o u r i s t s on the Champs Ely s e e s , or simply a s l i g h t detour i n the walk back to the o f f i c e from lunch that i n v o l v e s passing through a pleasant square or c i t y park. 4) The Parade. The parade i s an o c c a s i o n a l part i n the l i f e of every community. Adjustments i n the s t r e e t plans 107 and facade treatments can assure a route enhancing the pomp and circumstance of formal marches. Washington, D.C., for example, recognizes the role of Pennsylvania Avenue as the inaugural route of presidents. 5) Business Trips. Business trips can "be loosely defined as any t r i p to the Central Area not involved in the direct personal expenditure of money as in a shopping t r i p . These tend to be somewhat longer than other types of t r i p s . As a rough rule of thumb, i t can be figured that each employee in the Central Area generates two business trips per day, and that these trips w i l l be distributed according to employment concentrations in the area. 6) Shopping Trips. Shopping tri p patterns can be conveniently broken down into three categories: the primary-purpose shopper; the employee shopper; and the person who comes to the Central Area for other purposes, such as bank-ing, medical service, etc., and incidentally shops. While the wide range and variety of small specialty shops is one of the Central Area's fortes, the principal attraction for primary-purpose shoppers is the department store. 7) Lunch Trips. These make up a substantial amount of the noon-hour peak. Most of the Central Area employees leave the buiHing to go to lunch. The pedestrian lunch habits and the length of trips w i l l vary according to ava i l a b i l i t y of cafeterias in the building, income of employees, and proximity of restaurants. 8) Sightseeing and Other Trips. Sightseeing is important in many c i t i e s . The Central Area often includes 108 h i s t o r i c landmarks and p l a c e s . New a r c h i t e c t u r e as w e l l as o l d may be an o b j e c t i v e to v i s i t and look a t . Great v a r i e t y of v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s g e n e r a l l y can make the C e n t r a l Area a place of f a n t a s t i c joy. R o c k e f e l l e r P l a z a i n New York C i t y , f o r example, i s a place f o r s i g h t s e e i n g , as w e l l as f o r business and shopping t r i p s . There i s at present a concern f o r the pedestrian-way f o r walking t o u r s , to l i n k s i g h t s e e i n g w i t h other t r i p s . 9) Miscellaneous T r i p s . There i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t walking t r i p s w i l l be on the increase i n many l a r g e c i t i e s as extensive urban renewal progress get under way. Obviously, the combinations and complications of walking t r i p s are almost u n l i m i t e d . Meetings are f r e q u e n t l y com-bined w i t h lunch. The t r i p to or from the parking l o t i s of t e n i n t e r r u p t e d t o purchase a newspaper or a pack of c i g a r e t t e s . Abrupt r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and changes of course may a l t e r a t r i p ' s purpose before the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n i s achieved. P l a n n i n g f o r the P e d e s t r i a n Urban s t r e e t s are part or a l l of the open space surrounding and u s u a l l y p e n e t r a t i n g i n t o b u i l t - u p areas. Often they are the r o o f l e s s rooms and passages of the c i t y ; and the b u i l d i n g s are i t s w a l l s , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n a medie-v a l p i a z z a . They may s w e l l i n t o broad formal carpets l e a d i n g t o a f o c a l p o i n t , such as Washington's Pennsylvania Avenue, 109 London's P a l l M a l l , or the Champs Elysees i n P a r i s . They are an i n e x t r i c a b l e and complementary part of urban a r c h i -t e c t u r e . Any in n o v a t i o n i n t h e i r shape, s i z e , or d i r e c t i o n 33 must be understood f o r i t s formal i m p l i c a t i o n . Many r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , having l i t t l e importance as t h r o u g h - a r t e r i e s , achieve a d i s t i n c t q u a l i t y due to the domestic s c a l e of t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e , t r e e s , a t t r a c t i v e paving, wrought-iron r a i l i n g s , p l a n t boxes, and a l l the d a i l y spontaneous c o n t r i b u t i o n s by r e s i d e n t s who care f o r t h e i r s t r e e t . By no means l e a s t among the f a c t o r s c o n t r i -b u t i n g t o such appearance are p r i v a c y , s e c u r i t y and quietness 34 r e s u l t i n g from the low l e v e l of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . Shopping s t r e e t s i n the Ce n t r a l Area, t h e r e f o r e , must be plea s a n t , s a f e , and u s e f u l p e d e s t r i a n r o u t e s , which emphasise the numberous charming and unique areas and walks enjoyed by people f o r c e n t u r i e s . They must be created f o r the e x c l u s i v e use of the ped e s t r i a n s , where they can l e i -s u r e l y s t r o l l a l l over the p l a c e , from one side of the s t r e e t t o the other, and watch any d i s p l a y t h a t catches t h e i r fancy. They must be f r e e from the nervous t e n s i o n of auto t r a f f i c . They must be able t o gather and move about i n complete s a f e t y , f r e e d from the narrow, crowded s i d e -walk of the-jpresent C e n t r a l Area, onto which they have been pushed by the v e h i c l e s , f r e e d from the constant a f f r o n t of having t o shsep, look, and l i s t e n i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s to s a t i s -f y the v e h i c l e s . Again, the pe d e s t r i a n s t r e e t s w i l l contain] 110 such humanizing touches as trees, flowers, fountains, benches for the weary in sun and shade. This quality of leisurely harmonized human-scale shopping environment w i l l create a respective mood in prospective shoppers. To bring about a l l these desired conditions w i l l require somewhat more than just a complete separation of pedestrian and automobile 35 in the Central Area of the c i t y . Besides, planning for the pedestrian requires tho-rough study of the chain reactions that may ensure. The opening up of large gaps may deaden pedestrian movement. While a large parking lot on a main shopping street may be conceived as a convenience, i t s side effects - reducing pedestrian attractions, introducing conflicts where auto-mobiles cross the sidewalk - may weaken or even destroy the v i t a l i t y of pedestrian use of the street. i) Maximum Pedestrian Activity. One basic func-tion of the Central Area is that of maximizing "face to face" contacts. Central Area is the market of ideas as much as of goods and services. The functions of exchange and competition in the city require contact. The most refined technological "extracorporeal extensions" do not replace the immediacy of direct sight, touch, and smell. The a l l important element therein is man and the human scale. I l l U n like the d r i v e r of the automobile, the man on foot w i l l not a v o i d a crowded s t r e e t . A high degree of a c t i v i t y , , i s e s s e n t i a l to the success of a pedestrian-way. This a c t i v i t y can take many forms. Any k i n d of e x o t i c - l o o k i n g t h i n g s can create as much i n t e r e s t f o r the passer-by as a new c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t . Any k i n d of a c t i v i t y leads a v i t a l i t y t h a t makes the s t r e e t s of the C e n t r a l Area unique. The heart of the c i t y , then, i s f o r man on f o o t , although he must be able to reach i t q u i c k l y , e f f i c i e n t l y , and p l e a s a n t l y by mechanical means. The problems of the C e n t r a l Area design must be solved f i r s t at the s c a l e of the pedes-t r i a n . Jane Jacobs has noted four requirements f o r maxi-mizing p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y i n the C e n t r a l Area: more than one primary f u n c t i o n ; short blocks; b u i l d i n g s of v a r y i n g 36 age; and dense concentrations of people. The most s i g n i -f i c a n t of these requirements i s f o r short blocks; the other three are r e a d i l y found i n n e a r l y a l l the C e n t r a l Areas, although not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d e s i r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s . There are many other proposals that have been advanced to maximize p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y . In g e n e r a l , they may be considered i n three problem areas: the f i r s t problem i s that of the s e p a r a t i o n of pedestrians and v e h i c l e s . Pro-posals f o r m a l l s , overpasses and underpasses, tu n n e l s , and other separate access f o r v e h i c u l a r s e r v i c i n g have been made to t h i s end. The second problem concerns the s i z e , 112 treatment and use of sidewalk arcades have been proposed, as w e l l as the u t i l i z a t i o n of wider sidewalks f o r k i o s k s , d i s p l a y s , and f r e e - s t a n d i n g shops. There are a l s o proposals f o r c r e a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n the f l o o r of the C e n t r a l Area i n paving and i n sidewalk " f u r n i t u r e " of s i g n s , p o s t s , l i g h t -i n g , and r e c e p t a c l e s . The t h i r d problem i s that of d i s t a n c e , s c a l e and character of b u i l d i n g and spaces. I t i n c l u d e s questions of the p o s s i b l e deadening e f f e c t s of blank f r o n -tages on p e d e s t r i a n s t r e e t s , p e d e s t r i a n l i n k a g e s of both sid e s of a s t r e e t , and i n t i m a t e l i n k a g e with maximum v a r i e t y of uses and types of b u i l d i n g . There are proposals f o r easy and quick crossovers, arcades w i t h i n blocks to l i n k two s t r e e t s and shorten long b l o c k s , sidewalk a c t i v i t i e s to compensate f o r blank frontages, and the b u i l d i n g of a c t i v e frontages to 37 f i l l the gaps of vacant areas. There are a l s o proposals to permit l o c a t i o n of the major shopping t r a f f i c generators so as to generate maximum r a t e s of p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c and shopping i n t e r e s t ; f o r example, by reducing the distances between department st o r e s and a l l o w i n g concentrated s p e c i a l t y store development on pedes-t r i a n ways between the major s t o r e s . The f a c t that most s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l s t o r e s and some s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s t h r i v e 38 on a high volume of ped e s t r i a n t r a f f i c i s w e l l known. 2) Exhuberant D i v e r s i t y and Maximum I n t e n s i t y . The prime f u n c t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area i s as a center of exchange 113 of ideas as well as goods and services. It is immediately-apparent that a complete range of urban acti v i t i e s need to find their outlet here, acti v i t i e s that are divergent in time as well as in space. In other words, at the heart of the city should be the most of the best of a l l kinds of a c t i v i t i e s . Intensity and diversity of land use or activity is the key to a v i t a l Central Area. If a large section of the Central Area is nothing but office buildings, i t w i l l be dull and may deaden pedes-trian use in the area. The concentration of uses of one kind can never produce a creative and interesting environ-ment. Cities like New York, Paris and Hongkong thrives because of their pulsating Central Areas, which are f u l l of people, diversity, and excitement. Hongkong, for example, violates every rule in the planner's book. It i s tiny, land poor, jammed with squatters and refugees, costly to live i n . It has no greenbelt into which to escape. It i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t places to get into and no architect would c a l l i t beautiful. But i t is a chain of one hundred China-towns forming a big Central Area, with exhuberant diversity and maximum intensity. Buzzing with people and excitement, 39 i t thrives. 3() Routes and Breaks. Since walking is the primary mode of movement within the Central Area, the principal task of theplanner concerning transportation in this area 114 i s t o make l i f e more pleasant f o r the p e d e s t r i a n . The open-ing of small spaces to permit a view of the o b j e c t i v e con-s t r u c t i v e l y shortens the t r i p f o r the v i s i t o r to the Cen-t r a l Area. The use of p e d e s t r i a n havens where there are l a r g e numbers of people walking r e l a t i v e l y long d i s t a n c es i s another a i d . Such havens can take the form of p u b l i c squares or small oases i n t e r s p e r s e d along heavy p e d e s t r i a n routes. On t r i p s of more than a block or two, the p e d e s t r i a n i s frequently o f f e r e d a choice of r o u t e s . In t h i s choice he may be governed by f a c t o r s of time, f a m i l i a r i t y , o b j e c t i v e s , convenience, s a f e t y , and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . Pleasant p e d e s t r i a n routes w i l l a t t r a c t even people who must go out of t h e i r way t o use them. Savings i n time and energy compete wi t h the more pleasant atomosphere of the sidewalk. C a r e f u l planni&g w i l l determine the predominant" 40 p e d e s t r i a n r o u t e s . 4) The Boulevard and V i s t a . The l o n g , p e d e s t r i a n -o r i e n t e d boulevard r e q u i r e s a dominant a t t r a c t i o n at each end f o r i d e n t i t y and r e c o g n i t i o n , with a t t r a c t i o n s along the way t o encourage movement and provide i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r r u p t i o n s . I t can make good use of dominant s t r u c t u r e s a t each end. S o - c a l l e d " v i s t a s t r e e t s " are i d e a l f o r such a purpose. I t may be best not t o u t i l i z e these as major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s . V e h i c l e s should be routed other ways. The avenues with b u i l t - i n v i s t a s are p r e f e r a b l e f o r the 115 pedestrians, who can take in the view more easily and be 41 attracted toward i t than the drivers. 5) The Sidewalk. Properly planned, a sidewalk w i l l not only attract walkers, but can provide the interruptions to long, straight streets, x\rhich Jane Jacobs finds necessary 42 for "visual order". Few people, aside from those seeking exercise, w i l l walk just because there is a tree-lined street with wide sidewalks available. Attractions are the most important of a l l ; and, of course, can take many forms. The sidewalk cafes that form the links between Cleopatra's Needle in the Place de l a Concorde and the Arch of Triumph at the Place de L'Etoile are justifiably famous. Few ci t i e s can offer such 43 appeal. The Champs Elysees occasionally provides walkers with a scant four feet between a sidewalk cafe and the automobile parking area. Such restrictions could hardly be considered undesirable. On the contrary, they contribute to the constant change and variation - within a consistent 44 pattern - that help make this street so famous. 6 ) The Street. The internal circulation of the Central Area depends on streets for both pedestrian and vehicular movement. Even the most extreme proposals for the segregation of vehicles and pedestrians must take into account route and place for service vehicles, taxis, f i r e protection, 116 and other public services, either on the same surface or on different levels. There are three particular aspects of the Central Area Streets that are of direct concern in planning for pedestrians: v The f i r s t is that of parking as an element of the street system. It i s the landing point for the pedestrian from which he can pursue his varied objectives in the Central Area - work, shopping, v i s i t i n g . Generally the two kinds of parking, one typically for the Central Area worker or long-term parker, the other for the shopper or short-term parker, suggest two major kinds of parking terminals: in the one case large f a c i l i t i e s conveniently related to major t r a f f i c arteries; in the other easy-to-locate smaller f a c i l -i t i e s related to the shopping areas of the Central Area. The second major concern i s that of linking the terminal f a c i l i t i e s with the shopping areas so as to provide advantages of easier movement within the Central Area. A number of proposals have been advanced for jitney-like vehicles, of small size and capacity, of frequent availability and of convenient design such as vehicles having wide doors for shoppers with packages and low boarding platforms for old people. The jitney-like vehicles may be best to move people around the Environmental area boundaries within the Central Area only. 11? The third major concern i s the matter of street crossings. The Washington Central Area study proposes a middle-of-the-block arcade that would permit pedestrians to move from one side of the block to the other internally within an active use area, and would also add to the busyness of the block by providing intermediate breaks. Mid-block pedestrian street crossings have been suggested where long blocks and wide streets are problems, and where additional means must be found to meet the problems of the very wide streets in providing for better pedestrian association of one side of the street with the other. 7) The Malls. Recognizing the need to reinstate the service functions of the street, there are many plans to give the street back to the pedestrian. Almost a l l the recent plans for Central Area improvement include pedestrian ways, usually shopping malls, which are created simply by closing existing streets to t r a f f i c . Amenity is increased by a unifying facade treatment for the bordering stores, sidewalk cafes, tree planting, variegated paving, landscape devices, and street furniture. The walkway plan for Phila-delphia is an outstanding example, which creates a sequence of spaces and connectors. Here the major pedestrian walks are projected at three levels - below ground, at grade, and elevated - which can increase the spatial dimensions of the 46 c i t y . Spark Street in the Central Area of Ottawa i s 118 another good example of a pedestrian mall, which i s created by closing a l l entrances of the existing street to vehicular t r a f f i c . It is so harmonious and humanized that no other street in Ottawa can be more prosperous, interesting and impressive. 8) The Urban Spaces. Within the fabric of streets, squares and plazas should serve several functions. They can provide a visual focus and point of emphasis and, most important, they can f u l f i l their ancient role as a meeting place at the heart of the c i t y . A good urban space i s a 47 functioning urban space. In the contemporary American scene, Rockefeller Plaza in New York City is a prime example of a functioning urban space. In the complex of Rockefeler Center, the Plaza resulted from economics, bylaws, and the need to communicate between buildings. The dynamic pedestrians passing through i t are reinforced by the outdoor activity with i t - the skating rink and restaurant - and by i t s pedestrian connection with F i f t h Avenue through the formal garden. In terms of civic intent i t is no more than the space serving commercial purposes, but i t has become through i t s design and use the most important civic space in central Manhattan - making a real contribution to the l i f e of the Central Area and to the 48 metropolis as a whole. A major civic space needs to have s t a b i l i t y , dignity, and nobility - which by no means excludes the possibility of 119 liveliness and play, as witness the Piazza San Marco. The historic urban spaces which are most admired do not contain street furniture or planting boxes as incidental decoration, and frequently not even trees. let people are very happy to s i t there, i f not at the sidewalk cafe, whose chairs are temporary, on the flight of steps, fountain rim, or balustrade. 49 Most important, i t needs to have a unique visual character. To serve effectively, squares, plazas or small parks require regular spacing along routes of heavy pedestrian flow, which must be easily accessible to pedestrians without unduly interfering with vehicles. The spacing of these urban spaces depends upon local requirements. A good location would be midway between two large department stores that are neither too close nor too far apart for maximum ut i l i z a t i o n of the havens."^0 Clearing Away Obsolete Structures in the Central Area The long-range goals of the planning and development of Environmental Areas should be to establish the Central Area as the true "heart of the c i t y " , the center of c i v i c , commercial, cultural and entertainment acti v i t i e s for the entire metropolitan area. Thus a healthy and vigorous economic structure may be established which w i l l protect existing i n -vestments, attract new capital and commerce into the area, and contribute towards establishing a firm dependable municipal tax base. Further, the Central Area should be established as 1 2 0 an environment to which the entire community can look with pride and satisfaction as a symbol of i t s s p i r i t and prosperity. The city must therefore take steps to improve i t s Central Area or face heart disease. This implies that the city should f i r s t of a l l clear away the obsolete structures in the Central Area to make way for sound development. This i s , of course, a part of the complicated problem of urban renewal that i s beyond the scope of this study. The alternative is not a happy one for blight is contagious. As blight spreads, the good neighbourhoods w i l l eventually feel the effects of unchecked deterioration. The Central Area cannot be prosperous i f certain parts of i t are sick. Finally, a l l the residents must share the blame for lack of civic pride and the bad reputation that goes with i t . When the Central Area acquires a generally poor reputation, i t hurts real estate values and reduces the competitive position for new investment. In short, the growth of a dynamic Central Area needs a healthy urban environment. Maintenance and Development of Cultural F a c i l i t i e s A culture achieves i t s highest level in the community and expresses i t s e l f most intensely in the meeting places in the heart of the c i t y . The function of the urban core is to increase intensity. Its form must have this strength of 5 1 purpose. 121 Emotionally, people li k e old European c i t i e s , which are f u l l of cultural f a c i l i t i e s of the past; but they also want the advantages of contemporary technology and therefore are forced to recognize the dictates of economics. However, the essential needs and aspirations of man have not changed since he f i r s t began to l i v e in communities. Consequently, good urban environment with cultural sense and esthetic beauty continues to satisfy human l i f e , even under changed conditions. It i s therefore not surprising that most people like to enjoy themselves by v i s i t i n g European c i t i e s such as Rome, Athens, Vienna and Paris, where they can feel culturally and esthetically satisfied. Only in these c i t i e s can they understand the value or greatness of culture and c i v i l i z a t i o n . Cultural f a c i l i t i e s are so important to l i v i n g environment that they become an asset of urban l i f e . They must be maintained, improved, and even created with great intensity to enhance the attractiveness of the Environmental Areas in the Central Area i f people are to be attracted back to i t . Therefore municipal governments and private groups who support such f a c i l i t i e s should be encouraged in every possible way to prevent them from becoming either physically or spiritually obsolete. 122 C r e a t i o n of Centers of Community L i f e People have always r e q u i r e d a center to exchange glances, boasts, confidences or p r o t e s t s . Trade u s u a l l y f o l l o w s where people convene and, where trade has f o l l o w e d , more people a r r i v e . The place f i r s t chosen may be the square, the r e l i g i o u s center, or the town h a l l . The t r a d i n g post, the crossroads, or the bazaar are the em-bryos which u l t i m a t e l y burgeon i n t o the c i t y ' s C e n t r a l Area. Today, the C e n t r a l Area breaks up and becomes nothing but a place t o work i n and to endure. I t i s a place that people have to go f o r n e c e s s i t i e s but want to leave as soon as p o s s i b l e . As l i f e has been l e a v i n g the C e n t r a l Area, business d e c l i n e s to the o u t l y i n g areas. To put an end to t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n process, the trend must be reversed. New centers of i n t e r e s t i n g community l i f e must be created i n the C e n t r a l Area. There should be more tea rooms, sidewalk c a f e s , r e t r e a t s both i n s i d e and outside the department s t o r e s , more use of pleasant r o o f s , t e l e v i s i o n corners and benches. There must be more clubs that p r o l e t a r i a n s can j o i n as a f a m i l y , where each member can f i n d something to i n t e r e s t him. Nearby l i b r a -r i e s and a r t g a l l e r i e s should have more comfortable seats. There should be music rooms and more i n t e r e s t s f o r the c h i l d r e n . There should be t h e a t r e s , concerts, community c l u b s , bowling a l l e y s , p u b l i c squares, e t c . These centers 123 w i l l act as catalysts so that around them the l i f e of 54 the community w i l l develop. In these new community centers, the most diverse human ac t i v i t i e s would find their proper place. People could gather there and see and enjoy the best the community would offer them in terms of amusements, shows and cultural information. They could go there to see and to be seen, to meet friends and sweethearts, to make new acquaintances, to discuss pol i t i c s and sports, to t e l l of their l i v e s , loves and adventures, or to comment on those of others...-55 Such meeting places exist in big c i t i e s : Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly Circus and Hyde Park, the cafes on the Paris boulevards, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele in Milan, the Canebiere in Marseilles, the Piazza Colona in Rome, Times Square in New York City, the Ramblas in Barcelona, the Avenida de Mayo in Buenos Aires, a l l the "plazas de Armas" in Latin-American c i t i e s , etc., are examples of these well-known meeting places. They are maintained alive by the people. They are proof that the urge to get together 56 exists in every community, large and small. Brie f l y , i f the Central Area i s to live and compete with the suburban shopping centers, i t must be planned as a place—the Environmental Area—where people would appre-ciate and enjoy going. The v i s i t o r should be saying "Let's go to the Central Area," not "Let's go shopping in the Central Area," for he should be thinking of the Central 12k Area as supplying him with a s e r i e s of a l t e r n a t i v e s , not j u s t a shopping t o u r . Only i f t h i s i s done w i l l the Cen-t r a l Area be a boon to the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e of the community and a f i n a n c i a l success to i t s tenants and 57 i n v e s t o r s . C r e a t i o n of New S t y l e of C i t y L i f e The most important r o l e of the C e n t r a l Area i s t o enable people to meet one another to exchange needs, to ca r r y on c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and s a t i s f y c e r t a i n needs. The Ce n t r a l Area must th e r e f o r e be a t t r a c t i v e to a l l types of people i n the regi o n i t serves. Whatever the cause, the Ce n t r a l Area should give both an impression of freedom of movement and a l s o a re l e a s e from l o n e l i n e s s or boredom; an atmosphere of general r e l a x a t i o n , of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a spontaneous and i m p a r t i a l performance, a touch of the warmth of human kindness, a p o s s i b i l i t y of new encounters and, at C D the same time, a recovery of c i v i c consciousness. I t i s i n t h i s meeting place that the human sca l e and values may be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the p u b l i c domain. I t i s here that a t t e n t i o n must be paid to the p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and a l s o the sentimental needs of human nature, the places and b u i l d i n g s must be created that are equipped 5 9 w i t h everything necessary and s u f f i c i e n t f o r these needs. Therefore the planning and development of Environmental Areas i n the Ce n t r a l Area must not be confined to c o n s t r u c t i o n 125 of high-rise steel and glass skyscrapers; instead a wide variety of new l i f e - s t y l e s appealing to different aesthetic and cultural tastes must be invented and promoted there. In essence, people w i l l be attracted back to the Central Area in large numbers only i f they feel that they w i l l be enjoying or gaining more in the Central Area than in the suburban shopping centers. Hence, a whole s e r i e s of new styles of city l i f e in the Central Area must be fashioned to compete with the presently-dominant style of l i f e in the well-planned suburban shopping centers. 3. Venice and Appleton As Examples There are quite a few urban centers being developed in various parts of the world, but the following two examples are specially selected to illustrate some of the points made previously. A Classical Example: Venice^0 Venice is a city of about 140,000 people on a group of islands in the Laguna Veneta (See Fig.28,p.126). It proves in fact to be an extraordinarily interesting example of a dis-tributory network and environmental area system. The city is connected by a causeway carrying both road and r a i l to the mainland at Mestre where there is a 126 Fig. 2 8—Venice. The D i s t r i b u t o r y System and the P e d e s t r i a n Ways. Source: C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns. Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, I963, p.179 s i z e a b l e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d h i n t e r l a n d , where many r e s i d e n t s of Venice f i n d employment. S u p p l i e s , v i s i t o r s and commuters a r r i v e at and leave the c i t y by road and r a i l . Both road and r a i l are s t r i c t l y confined t o terminals at the n o r t h -western f r i n g e of the i s l a n d s . A l l the d i s t r i b u t i o n to and from these t e r m i n a l s and a l l the busy l i f e of the c i t y are c a r r i e d on without wheeled motor v e h i c l e s . A great deal of 12? the movement and t r a n s p o r t i s c o n t r i v e d by motor boats on the canals. The d i s t r i b u t o r y network c o n s i s t s of canals i n s t e a d of roads. The primary d i s t r i b u t o r i s the Grand Canal--a major highway, two miles long and v a r y i n g i n width from 120 to 230 f e e t . Water bus s e r v i c e s operate on the Grand Canal. The ample width and the low volume and speed of t r a f f i c make i t p o s s i b l e to mix the t r a f f i c func-t i o n s , and the d i s t r i b u t o r i s used f o r both movement and f o r d i r e c t access to some premises. The Grand Canal gives access t o a f u r t h e r twenty-eight miles of waterways which can be described as d i s t r i c t d i s t r i b u t o r s (usable by water buses), d i v i d i n g the c i t y i n t o some fourteen areas, and a more tortuous network of narrow l o c a l d i s t r i b u t o r s . Thus there i s a c l e a r system and hi e r a r c h y of d i s -t r i b u t o r s f o r v e h i c u l a r (motor boat) t r a f f i c . In a d d i t i o n there i s an e n t i r e l y separate and extremely complex, con-t i n u o u s l y l i n k e d , system of p e d e s t r i a n ways and a l l e y s w i t h a t o t a l l e n g t h of about 90 m i l e s . These are punctuated a t i n t e r v a l s by a p i a z z a around which each s e c t i o n of the c i t y c l u s t e r s . The piazzas are the c h i e f places of l o c a l assembly, worship, market, and shopping. On t h i s pathway network a s p l e n d i d urban p e d e s t r i a n environment i s created. C o n t i n u i t y of the network i s achieved by an immense number of "pedestrian o v e r p a s s e s " — b r i d g e s over the canals. The communication system i n Venice provides almost complete s a f e t y f o r ped e s t r i a n s . There i s no major nuisance 128 from noise, and no visual intrusion of vehicles in the pedestrian environment. Even on the distributors them-selves, the boats, unlike wheeled motor vehicles, seem to enhance rather than depreciate the scene. As to access-i b i l i t y , most of the piazzas (shopping centers) are served by water bus routes within walking distances. There are, certainly, some d i f f i c u l t i e s in the area such as servicing the buildings, furniture removals, burials, f i r e services, refuse removal, and postal deliveries. Nevertheless, the place undoubtedly functions, and reasonably well at that, without the strains and tensions set up by wheeled motor vehicles operating in conventional streets. The important lesson of Venice i s not only that a large city can manage without wheeled motor vehicles, but also that an interdependent system of vehicular and pedestrian ways can be contrived with complete physical separation between the two; so complete that they do not even seem to belong to the same order, and that i t works. A Rehabilitation Example: Appleton. Wisconsin^"*" In considering the rehabilitation of the Central Areas, i t is d i f f i c u l t to establish a program which would apply generally. The problems of any city are vastly d i f f e r -ent from those of any other, and in each case different courses of action wi l l have to be followed. However, here is a simple but specific example of how one existing Central 129 Area can be r e h a b i l i t a t e d , which may show the way f o r other communities. I t i s a plan of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n worked out by V i c t o r Gruen # Company f o r a group of C e n t r a l Area merchants of Appleton i n Wisconsin, U.S.A. The population of the e n t i r e trade area of Appleton was about 94,000; the pop u l a t i o n of the c i t y i t s e l f about 34,000. Though t h i s was a c i t y of comparatively small s i z e , i t had most of the t y p i c a l problems under which the C e n t r a l Areas s u f f e r e d . (For a p i c t u r e of Appleton before r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n , see Fig.29,P.131> To determine the nature and extent of Appleton's problem, a very d e t a i l e d survey of po p u l a t i o n , r e t a i l f a c i -l i t i e s , p a r k i ng spaces and b u i l d i n g s i n the e x i s t i n g trade area was conducted i n 1953* Various p r o j e c t i o n s f o r popu-l a t i o n , parking f a c i l i t i e s and e t c . , were a l s o made f o r t h i s purpose. I t was found t h a t by i960, the whole C e n t r a l Area shopping p a t t e r n would have to be adjusted. The r e t a i l space would have to be doubled i n s i z e ; 3,200 parking spaces would have to be added; a readjustment of the t r a f f i c p a t t e r n was necessary; and steps would have to be taken to c o n t r o l obsolescence. The f o l l o w i n g design p r i n c i p l e s were then formulated to meet these needs: 1. Provide a one-way perimeter t r a f f i c a r t e r y around the business d i s t r i c t . 2. Clear a l l non-conforming (such as r e s i d e n t i a l ) and obsolete b u i l d i n g s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h i s perimeter. 130 3. Create a s e r i e s of superblocks w i t h i n the perimeter by c l o s i n g a l l but two or three l o c a l s t r e e t s . 4. Use c l e a r e d land to provide o f f - s t r e e t p arking f a c i l i t i e s and f r i n g e parking f o r a l l day v i s i t s . 5. Create a landscaped p e d e s t r i a n m a l l from c e r t a i n c l o s e d s t r e e t s to provide a p l e a -sant and safe atmosphere f o r shoppers. 6. Provide space w i t h i n the perimeter f o r expansion. Based on these p r i n c i p l e s , a b a s i c scheme f o r Appleton was developed (See Fig.30,p. l31). There were three superblocks (two w i t h expansion p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) and there were parking f a c i l i t i e s placed behind the store b u i l d i n g s i n areas which had been c l e a r e d of non-conforming uses. Within the superblocks there were areas f o r pedestrians o n l y . In order to provide the number of parking s t a l l s that would be needed, some of the parking areas were designed as double-deck. The a l t e r n a t i v e s to t h i s p l a n were to have poten-t i a l business absorbed by (a) new i s o l a t e d neighbourhood sto r e s i n the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l areas, (b) suburban shopping f a c i l i t i e s , or (c) a major shopping center. I f a major shopping center were b u i l t near the c i t y , i t would a t t r a c t people not only from the c i t y i t s e l f but a l s o from the surrounding towns, thus d r a i n i n g the whole trade area and making the C e n t r a l Area sooner or l a t e r a ghost town. 131 Fig.29—Central Area of Appleton, Wisconsin, 1953 Fig.30—A Basic Rehabilitation Scheme for Appleton, Wisconsin. Source: Victor Gruen, "Dynamic Planning for Retail Areas," in Harvard Business Review. 1954, Vol.32,No.6,pp.59-61 132 Summary In the planned C e n t r a l Area, mechanized t r a f f i c should be s t r i c t l y separated from the ped e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . ) The system of footpaths w i l l provide s a f e t y f o r p e d e s t r i a n s . I t gains s p e c i a l importance and i n f l u e n c e s the whole com-p o s i t i o n . I t extends to r e c r e a t i o n areas, p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , commercial ce n t e r s , t r a f f i c t e r m i n a l s , thereby making i t p o s s i b l e t o reach by f o o t a l l these places of d a i l y use, without c r o s s i n g v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . Everyday l i f e proceeds i n a pleasant and enjoyable atmosphere, removed from the 6 2 motor v e h i c l e , i t s n o i s e , t u r m o i l and dangers. The p e d e s t r i a n can enjoy the peace and q u i e t , con-ce n t r a t e on h i s thoughts or conversation while walking, or contemplate the beauty of h i s surroundings and nature. These p s y c h o l o g i c a l advantages go hand i n hand wi t h improved h y g i e n i c c o n d i t i o n s : purer a i r , l e s s dust and exhaust 6 3 gases, l e s s heat r a d i a t i o n from paved roads. V e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c w i l l a l s o b e n e f i t from t h i s s e p a r a t i o n . The automobile s t r e e t s w i l l provide appropriate and e x c l u s i v e f a c i l i t i e s f o r the d r i v e r . The road, f r e e d from p e d e s t r i a n s , can provide f o r f l u i d and continuous t r a f f i c f o r a l l types, without over-taxing the d r i v e r ' s nerves by over-tense a t t e n t i o n or sudden i r r i t a t i o n s . 133 P a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s should be l o c a t e d surrounding the Environmental Areas. No houses w i l l be b u i l t along the main t r a f f i c roads. This w i l l be a g a i n from the a r c h i t e c t ' s viewpoint, as a e s t h e t i c a l l y the s t a t i c l i m i -t a t i o n s of b u i l d i n g s are d i f f i c u l t t o b r i n g i n t o harmony 64 w i t h the dynamics of t r a f f i c . A t t r a c t i v e shops, cafes and other c o n t i n u a t i o n s of s t r e e t surface a c t i v i t y are provided along the footpaths. These help t o r e i n s t a t e the human sc a l e and give man a c r e a t i v e environment; and encourage the m u l t i p l i c i t y of a c t i v i t i e s proper to the C e n t r a l Area. As the two separate s t r e e t systems delegate r i g h t s of-way f o r pedestrians and mo t o r i s t s a l i k e , the present c h a o t i c and hazardous c o n d i t i o n s w i l l end. Man and machine can f u l f i l l t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n d i f f e r e n t surroundings: the r o l e of the machine i s to t r a n s p o r t i t s occupant i n the dynamic-scale surroundings with the l e a s t waste of time and energy, whereas the r o l e of pedestrians i s to go about h i s v a r i o u s endeavours i n the s t a t i c - s c a l e surroundings 65 f r e e d from constant i n t e r r u p t i o n s and f r i c t i o n s . Gone i s the sn a i l - p a c e t r a f f i c , the inadequate p a r k i n g , the nervous and unpleasant shopping the controversy of park-i n g space versus b u i l d i n g space. The pe d e s t r i a n i s most welcome. The automobile i s welcome as w e l l r o u t i n g along the Environmental Area boundaries i n the C e n t r a l Area. The convenience to the motorist i s p a r a l l e l e d by h i s pleasure as he turns i n t o a p e d e s t r i a n . C e n t r a l Area 134 workers, shoppers, or v i s i t o r s , a f t e r d r i v i n g t h e i r cars i n t o the parking spaces under the superblocks surrounding the Environmental Areas, go l e i s u r e l y from st o r e t o s t o r e , from d i s p l a y t o d i s p l a y ; or they j u s t s t r o l l along enjoying the t r e e s and p l a n t s , the b u i l d i n g s , the col o u r and move-ment of the crowd. They can r e s t on benches i n the s h e l -t e r e d plazas between the b u i l d i n g s , i n the shopping s t r e e t , 66 and on the roof deck. In s h o r t , the mi n i m i z a t i o n of c o n f l i c t between the pedestrians and the v e h i c l e s by the sepa r a t i o n of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s w i l l open the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to enhance the q u a l i t y of both A c c e s s i b i l i t y and Environment i n the C e n t r a l Area. This w i l l once again a l l o w the C e n t r a l Area of the c i t y to resume i t s r i g h t f u l r o l e i n the urban area. CHAPTER V IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CENTRAL AREA RENEWAL PROGRAM The ail i n g Central Areas of citi e s s t i l l have the edge on the suburban shopping centers i f owners of proper-t i e s , merchants and municipal governments act in time to improve the present unfavourable situations. A "Central Area Renewal Program" is needed to spur action; and a good study i s needed of features which draw people together for appropriate action. The revival program should be an integrated series of actions which together maintain the physical, economic and social health of the Central Area as well as the whole c i t y . It involves the three important elements of redevelop-ment, rehabilitation and conservation which combine together to become a renewal process. The revival program is certainly a local program, locally conceived, planned and executed. But what are the steps to be taken to implement the revival program? Obviously, the i n i t i a t i v e has to come from somewhere. It might come from the Central Area businessmen's association such as Chamber of Commerce; or i t might come from municipal o f f i c i a l s . In any event, i t w i l l undoubtedly be desirable far a l l persons interested to organize into a Central Area Revival Commission, 136 or whatever the t i t l e f o r that o r g a n i z a t i o n might be. Within t h i s commission there w i l l be committees f o r l e g a l work, f o r c i v i c s t u d i e s , f o r economic a n a l y s i s , f o r p l a n -1 n i n g , and so on. This commission may need to employ the s e r v i c e s of a consultant f i r m q u a l i f i e d to do the o v e r - a l l planning and to co-ordinate the work of s p e c i a l i s t s i n a l l the neces-sary f i e l d s — l a n d p l a n n i n g , economics, c i v i l engineering, and t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r i n g — a s w e l l as to assume the a r c h i -2 t e c t u r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A f t e r the completion of a d e t a i l e d survey of e x i s t -i n g c o n d i t i o n s to determine present and f u t u r e buying poten-t i a l , property e v a l u a t i o n , t r a f f i c volume, parking f a c i l i t i e s e t c . , a master pl a n f o r the r e v i v a l program must be drawn up. This master pl a n should r e s u l t i n the clearance of obsolete s t r u c t u r e s , remodeling o f , u n s i g h t l y b u i l d i n g s , removal of a l l non-conforming s t r u c t u r e s , c r e a t i o n of a new t r a f f i c p a t t e r n , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of m a l l s , arcades, walk-ways, urban spaces, small parks, sidewalk c a f e s , e t c . ^ A l l of t h i s may look w e l l i n theory. In p r a c t i c a l sense, i t i s f a r more complex and c a l l s f o r deeper consider-a t i o n of other important f a c t o r s . 1. P o l i c y I t i s one t h i n g to prepare a r e v i v a l program, an-other to get something done as a r e s u l t of i t . A l l community 137 interests should be represented and their leaders should make certain that survey reports are used and the planning program is implemented, not shelved. It must be kept in mind that local problems d i f f e r , with limited justification for widely applied general findings. Blind imitation of the past or other ci t i e s might be quite unsuitable. So big is the problem of revitalizing the Central Area that every one who has an interest must accept his proper share of responsibility and become a participant. Before this can be started, i t i s necessary to make i t clear who the interested parties are. F i r s t , there is the municipality that w i l l face reduced tax income i f the Central Area business does not prosper. Second, there are the newspapers, and other media such as radio and television that depend on advertising revenue from those stores which expect to draw customers from the entire metropolitan area. Third, there are the operators of the public transportation system. Shoppers who use the transportation system are especially attractive customers since much of their riding i s at off-peak hours. Fourth, there is the interest of the property owner, and this i s particularly true i f the rentals are related to sales volume. F i f t h , the many service businesses, such as banks, investment brokers, insurance companies, light and pox\rer companies, etc., whose welfare is closely tied in with the success of retailers in the area, are v i t a l l y 138 concerned. And, of course, there is the retailer whose stake in this problem is obvious. A l l these groups have an interest in the problem. They must be recognized and must co-operate with each other for the benefit of the Central Area as well as the city as a whole. What has to be initiated by this group is not mere patchwork; i t is renex\ral. This work calls for the services of those who are competent to face many specialized problems; the transportation engineer when roads, parking and public transportation are involved; the market analyst to estimate the market potential; the architect and designer to adapt the physical environment of the store to the needs of the customer. These are examples that could be extended to con-siderable lengths. Behind this talent, of course, there must be aggressive action by a l l merchants in the area in selling both Central Area and their own services.^ However, a municipal government sponsored revival program is most desirable, though revival program may take place without governmental assistance in some c i t i e s . The reason l i e s in the magnitude of the problem and requirement to use federal financial assistance. In analysing the projects for renewal of the Central Area, the private investor developer or Central Area merchant group can only be expected to undertake those projects that w i l l offer a reasonable p r o f i t . Their motives cannot be solely city betterment or social concern. Furthermore, they can only deal with a given site in a smaller scale. They cannot solve the greater 139 neighbourhood problem which is not conducive to private investment. As a result, there is l i t t l e opportunity for successful renewal in the Central Area on a completely private piecemeal basis. This is why there is a need for co-operative effort between the private enterprise and the municipal government. Government can provide the power of eminent domain so that an entire area can be purchased, improved and resold under an overall plan. Government can provide the necessary public improvements such as new streets, parking areas, u t i l i t i e s , small parks, etc. Therefore, a revival program in the Central Area would become more rea l -i s t i c and feasible on a broader scale than would ever be 6 possible through private enterprise alone. 2. Legislation The effectuation of the Central Area revival pro-gram hinges upon the successful operation of the so-called Central Area Revival Commission. It i s important to note that the procedures for acquiring the land, clearing i t and constructing whatever is decided to be the appropriate development, should work smoothly, causing the least i n -convenience to everyone concerned. The main help of the municipal government, which has the eminent domain of power, should be to assemble property where the oxmers refuse to get together, rebuild the streets and store loca-tions and provide the needed amenities. The Commission, 140 when carrying out the revival program, must also have some necessary legal powers. This implies that the various levels of governments must enact a l l necessary enabling laws prior to the Central Area revival a c t i v i t i e s . Con-firmation of responsibility would cl a r i f y the situation for the Commission, the municipal government and others involved, and help ensure co-ordinated execution of a pro-gram. Besides, the local authorities in many cases need additional legislative authorization to enable them to organize planning techniques effectively and to administer planning controls. Planning i s a public purpose—particularly when replanning of streets and public f a c i l i t i e s is part of the improvement. The revitalization of the Central Area that threatens the decline of a whole city should be upheld by the courts as a public service. 3. Administration The Central Area Revival Commission made up of representatives of municipal government, community leaders and private enterprises should be formed at the outset to i n i t i a t e , co-ordinate, and implement the planning. The plan-ning staff can be organized in several stages according to priority of need. The organization for the Central Area revival pro-gram w i l l depend primarily on the city's existing governmental 141 structure. However, the chief executive of the c i t y , either Mayor or City Manager, should be selected to head up the Central Area Revival Commission. This is a natural and logical extension of his normal responsibilities and wil l permit centralized direction. If he cannot reasonably devote more than supervisory time, a post of Program Co-ordinator should be established under the Mayor or City Manager and responsible to him. Although the major responsibility of the revival program l i e s primarily in the executive director of the Central Area Revival Commission, the same general qualities that are required for an executive director should also be present in the program co-ordinator. His duties w i l l include keeping the detailed cost record; data collection and research; co-ordinating the participation of the various city depart-ments; liaison between the City Council, planning board and consultant, and the Central Area Revival Commission; preparing the agenda for meetings; and public relations. His role i s , however, distinctly different than that of the executive director of the Central Area Revival Commission. He has no role to play as the executive director in the survey and planning or execution of the revival program. It should be made clear that the program co-ordinator is not the deci-sion maker in the revival program. Rather1 his role i s one of administration. His working relationship with other city departments is as a representative of the Mayor's or City 7 Manager's Office.' 142 S p e c i f i c d u t i e s and s e r v i c e s should be assigned to the v a r i o u s c i t y departments. In t h i s way, the c i t y en-gineer provides base maps, c o n s u l t a t i o n on p u b l i c improve-ments, and rough cost estimates. The b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r a s s i s t s i n determining areas s u i t a b l e f o r development. The finance o f f i c e r prepares the data on e x i s t i n g c i t y finances and a c t s as c h i e f a d v i s o r on i n t e g r a t i n g the fu t u r e r e v i v a l program wi t h the p r o j e c t e d c i t y f i n a n c e s . The zoning and planning o f f i c e r s guide the program i n t h e i r f i e l d s . A planning s t a f f or consultant evaluates the master pla n and proposed p r o j e c t s f o r the r e v i v a l program.^ .The amount of work to be accomplished by the c i t y s t a f f w i l l vary depending on the s i z e of the c i t y and the q u a l i t y of i t s personnel. What cannot be done by the c i t y s t a f f must be contracted out to a planning c o n s u l t a n t . In the c i t y w i t h a l a r g e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , the consultant w i l l give p r i m a r i l y p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t i o n to the program and a s s i s t i n the a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data. He p l a y s an important r o l e i n the planning d e c i s i o n making process. In a small c i t y without p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , the consultant x v i l l have to play a much l a r g e r r o l e . ^ 4. Financing The C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program should be a very sound f i n a n c i a l venture f o r the c i t y . But i t takes great c a p i t a l to finance i t . The c i t y must, t h e r e f o r e , have the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y . 143 Most of the c i t i e s are f i n a n c i a l l y h e l p l e s s to do anything, on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , that would be gen-u i n e l y e f f e c t i v e to cope with the c o n d i t i o n s and f o r c e s r e s p o n s i b l e . D i r e c t f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l or s t a t e a i d i s extremely s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s respect. I t s b a s i c ob-j e c t i v e i s t o enable the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to provide adequate s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . In other words, the higher l e v e l governments' r o l e i s p r i m a r i l y one of f i n -a n c i n g — o f f a c i l i t a t i n g the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l through f i n a n c i a l a i d . The high cost of purchasing and c l e a r i n g the land p r e s e n t l y occupied by obsolete s t r u c t u r e s i n and around the C e n t r a l Area u s u a l l y makes i t u n p r o f i t a b l e f o r p r i v a t e entre preneurs to produce d e s i r a b l e developments i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . The main help of the municipal government, a s s i s t e d by higher l e v e l governments w i l l have to condemn these s t r u c t u r e s and c l e a r them f o r r e s a l e or long-term leases to p r i v a t e developers. A l l parking f a c i l i t i e s and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s should be financed by revenue bonds whose income i s deriv e d from parking fees and increased s a l e s , or shared by the munici-p a l i t y and by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e co-ordinated through the Chamber of Commerce. I t should be emphasized that the cost of such improvements i s reasonable i n the l i g h t of the 144 b e n e f i t s t h a t w i l l be achieved. An adequate amount of c a p i t a l f o r the e n t i r e p r o j e c t should a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e from l o c a l l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The c i t y can pay f o r the cost of the p r o j e c t by f l o a t i n g bonds at reasonable i n t e r e s t , and can e i t h e r borrow on i t s own c r e d i t . P a r t of the taxes a c c r u i n g from the new improve-ment could be pledged to r e t i r e the bonds. Many present owners could be induced to take bonds i n exchange f o r t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . The use of p u b l i c funds f o r the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l can be j u s t i f i e d at l e a s t by the f o l l o w i n g b e n e f i t s : 1. I t w i l l increase the tax base of the muni-c i p a l government through improvement of the C e n t r a l Area c o n d i t i o n . 2 . I t w i l l tend to reduce the costs of most government s e r v i c e s by i n t e n s i f y i n g the usage. 3. I t w i l l r a i s e the b u i l d i n g standards of the c i t y by e l i m i n a t i n g the obsolete s t r u c t u r e s . 4. I t w i l l i ncrease the s e c u r i t y , h e a l t h , and beauty of c i t y l i f e by humanizing the area. U l t i m a t e l y , i t should be intended t h a t the e n t i r e p r o j e c t be p a i d f o r through increased usage and s a l e s of the C e n t r a l Area. 5. C i t i z e n Education and P a r t i c i p a t i o n The r o l e of the c i t i z e n s i n the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program should never be neglected. I t i s a good t h i n g to have i t . 145 Merchants' o r g a n i z a t i o n s , business a s s o c i a t i o n s , and i n d i v i d u a l s can c o n t r i b u t e a needed impulse to the e f f o r t of r e v i t a l i z i n g the C e n t r a l Area. By b r i n g i n g pro-per groups together f o r d i s c u s s i o n and conferences, d i s -agreements and d i f f e r e n c e s can be r e s o l v e d , even though some compromise r e s u l t s . To i n i t i a t e a comprehensive Cen-t r a l Area r e v i v a l program, most c i t i e s need an a l e r t , determined business group to f a t h e r the movement and sus-t a i n the necessary d r i v e and determination. I t i s only when merchants and p u b l i c groups are w i l l i n g to co-operate w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o implement the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program smoothly. Ignored o p p o s i t i o n w i l l k i l l the program. Although the municipal government's r o l e i s i n d i s -pensable i n the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program, i t would be b e t t e r f o r the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s t o take the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program as t h e i r own e f f o r t . Otherwise, the muni-c i p a l government i t s e l f has to i n i t i a t e the movement; but t h i s w i l l be somewhat more d i f f i c u l t than the former approach. The movies, the loudspeakers, r a d i o s , l o c a l news-papers, t e l e v i s i o n screens, p u b l i c a t i o n s of annual r e p o r t s and c e r t a i n s p e c i a l s t u d i e s , and a l l other new means of communication should be f u l l y u t i l i z e d to work towards the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program. This 146 p o p u l a r i z a t i o n would have immeasurable consequences i f i t were put to the s e r v i c e of popular e d u c a t i o n . 1 0 Therefore, a l l community groups w i l l be kept informed, have an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r ideas, and can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n . There should a l s o be an o r g a n i z a t i o n of c i t i z e n s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l the v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s and clubs i n the c i t y , f o r the purpose of promoting wider general understanding of the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l p l a n and to develop p u b l i c support f o r the proposals of the p l a n . 1 1 In s h o r t , p u b l i c understanding and support i s paramount i n the implementation of the C e n t r a l Area r e -v i v a l program. No matter how e x c e l l e n t the planning laws, no matter how p e r f e c t the p l a n , no matter how able the planning s t a f f and c o n s u l t a n t s , no matter how e n t h u s i a s t i c the municipal o f f i c i a l s , i f the people as a whole do not understand and support the program and demand that t h e i r C e n t r a l Area be r e v i t a l i z e d i n accordance w i t h the p l a n , the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l program cannot succeed as i t s h o u l d . 1 2 Summary The a b i l i t y of the l o c a l community to meet the c r i t i c a l renewal problem i n the Ce n t r a l Area i s l a r g e l y c o n d i t i o n e d by i t s higher l e v e l s of governments. The t o o l s the l o c a l i t i e s can u t i l i z e , the money they can spend and the powers they e x e r c i s e , are to a great extent Ik? determined by a wide assortment of s t a t u t o r y and adminis-t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s . There i s no doubt that i f the l o c a l -i t i e s are to f u n c t i o n w e l l , the higher l e v e l s of governments must provide the proper framework and means and adequate f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r them to do so. The extent of the C e n t r a l Area r e v i v a l problem i s so great t h a t p r i v a t e c a p i t a l must be brought i n as much as p o s s i b l e , because p u b l i c f i n a n c i n g cannot handle the whole program. Both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e endeavour must there-f o r e be encompassed by the o r g a n i z a t i o n and methods used to c a r r y out the program. Furthermore, the r e v i v a l of a C e n t r a l Area i s too l a r g e a job f o r the p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s alone. I t i s the c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c i t i z e n s and community leaders t o devote considerable time and e f f o r t to t h i s task. I t w i l l be no b e t t e r , no stronger than the w i l l of the community. Only by i n t e l l i g e n t understanding and wise l e a d e r s h i p can the C e n t r a l Area be r e v i t a l i z e d as the true heart of the c i t y . CHAPTER VI GENERAL CONCLUSIONS Today, Central Areas are vehicles for certain func-tions working through a number of institutions which possess a l l the characteristics of a l i f e l e s s organization catering for economic needs but none of a life-centered organism grown out and taking care of social, cultural and physical aspira-tions and values. How to maintain Central Area intensity and diversity of land use - with the inevitable generation of great t r a f f i c - while providing an attractive, convenient, and safe pedestrian use, i s one of the great challenges to the city planner. No easy technique or formula is available. Perhaps the best immediate answer l i e s in the approach of understanding what the Central Area needs to be. This appro-ach must begin with the pedestrian, for he i s the prime Central Area user. In fact, the general prosperity of the Central Area i s heavily dependant upon the shopper; and the shopper is primarily a pedestrian. He may arrive at the Central Area in an automobile, but he must do his shopping on foot. The very word 'pedestrian* has become an ugly appel-lative for being slow, d u l l , commonplace, and unimaginative. However, there does not seem to be much advantage in arguing for or against the automobile, for the pedestrian also owns 149 and operates c a r s . The automobile i s here to stay; numbers may increase very r a p i d l y f o r a long p e r i o d ahead. One reason C e n t r a l Area i s f a i l i n g i s that i t i s too congested w i t h motor v e h i c l e s that endanger the s e c u r i t y of pedestrians and d e t e r i o r a t e the shopping environment. In some c i t i e s , improvement of mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n might be the answer. But the r e a l s o l u t i o n , i n the long run, i s to make the C e n t r a l Areas more pe d e s t r i a n o r i e n t e d and enjoyable. I t would be good t o have a C e n t r a l Area p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c engineer as w e l l as automobile t r a f f i c engineer i n the c i t y h a l l . There i s a need to t h i n k of people f i r s t . There i s l i t t l e evidence that congestion of t r a f f i c stops people from owning cars and t r y i n g to use them. That i s perhaps the f a c t of greatest relevance. I t seems that the r i s i n g t i d e of cars w i l l not be stemmed u n t i l i t has almost put a stop to the t r a f f i c . The severe problem w i l l t h e r e f o r e e x i s t i n t r a f f i c congestion. Consequently, there i s heavy economic waste and t r a g i c waste of human l i f e through t r a f f i c congestion. The combination of the suburbanization of many fami-l i e s coupled w i t h marked increases i n p r i v a t e automobile t r a f f i c and r i s i n g incomes l e d to a s e r i e s of c o r o l l a r y r e -s u l t s , f i r s t , t r a f f i c congestion became very acute i n the Ce n t r a l Area. Second, p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e i t h e r stagnated under r i s i n g o perating costs or s u f f e r e d absolute d e c l i n e s i n patronage (passenger-miles). T h i r d , o u t l y i n g shopping 150 centers with adequate parking space sprang up close to suburban housing concentrations, reducing the volume of trade, relatively even i f not absolutely, in the Central Area. Fourth, the decline in importance of the Central Area brought new pressures on city tax revenues. F i f t h , the lower income families that could not arrange to move to outlying locations remained in the older and depreciated housing in and around the Central Area, forcing higher densities of housing use and deteriorating the environment of the Central Area. Sixth, the dispersion of population enhanced the flight of many Central Area acti v i t i e s to the new outlying popula-tion centers, thus placing added burdens on the freeway system in order to make the new locations of these a c t i v i -ties more accessible. These consequences may or may not be desirable, but they are, at least at present, inadvertent. There is an obvious and urgent need for r e v i t a l i z -ing the existing Central Areas. It is in this f i e l d at pre-sent that there is a real challenge to local governments, business, re t a i l e r s , the city planners. It will take plan-ning and action by municipal governments, civic and cultural groups, merchants, businessmen of a l l types. It wi l l take c o l -lective action to face and solve such problems as clearance of obsolete structures, rehabilitation, creation of green areas, creation of parking areas, improvement of both pedes-trian and vehicular t r a f f i c , and the enrichment of the social, cultural, and civic l i f e in the Central Areas. 151 The p e d e s t r i a n - v e h i c l e c o n f l i c t needs a s p e c i a l con-s i d e r a t i o n f o r the C e n t r a l Area. The problem l i e s not only i n the dominance of v e h i c l e s over pedestrians but i n the l a r g e r questions of how to b r i n g great numbers of people to areas of heavy co n c e n t r a t i o n , and whether the p r i v a t e v e h i c l e can be used e x c l u s i v e l y or predominantly f o r t h i s purpose. The current resurgence of concern f o r mass t r a n s i t i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s healthy i n t h i s respect. The axiom that good planning c a l l s f o r the p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of pedestrians from v e h i c l e s needs r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . There are q u i t e a few C e n t r a l Area developments i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the world, such as Charles Center i n Baltimore, Perm Center i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , Stevenage New Town i n England, Stockholm i n Sweden, Venice i n I t a l y , e t c . They have proved i n f a c t that a c i t y , l a r g e or s m a l l , can manage without wheeled motor v e h i c l e s i n i t s C e n t r a l Area; and that an interdependent system of v e h i c u l a r and p e d e s t r i a n ways can be c o n t r i v e d w i t h complete p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n between the two, and that i t works e f f e c t i v e l y . They have a l s o proved that a s p l e n d i d p e d e s t r i a n environmental area system can be created when the formidable or d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s of v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c are avoided. I t i s a very e f f e c t i v e method to o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c e s s i b i l i t y and good environment i n the C e n t r a l Area by the planning and development of Environmental Areas and thereby to minimize the c o n f l i c t between p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r ( t r a f f i c . 152 Therefore the o r i g i n a l hypothesis of t h i s study i s v a l i d and r e a l i s t i c . However, t h i s hypothesis has been l i m i t e d to the evident p h y s i c a l aspects of the C e n t r a l Area, and must be con-s i d e r e d as a beginning to a f u r t h e r and wider i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s suggested that the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s be explored i n a comprehensive a t t i t u d e study: (1) s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g preference f o r C e n t r a l Area or suburban areas; (2) r e a c t i o n to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n versus automobile to get t o the C e n t r a l Area; (3) methods of i n t e n s i f y i n g and d i v e r s i f y -in g the C e n t r a l Area a c t i v i t i e s ; (4) ways and means of human-i z i n g the C e n t r a l Area; (5) i n t e r a c t i o n s between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and urban economic growth; (6) methods of improving mass-t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems; (7) techniques f o r i n c r e a s i n g c a p a c i t y of rights-of-ways i n the concentrated C e n t r a l Area; (8) tech-niques f o r economizing the amount of space r e q u i r e d f o r movement i n congested areas. In a d d i t i o n t o these, the f u t u r e r o l e of the new suburban shopping centers, whose importance has i n c r e a s e d , should a l s o be examined. The o u t l y i n g shopping centers are themselves becoming d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , w i t h the c h i e f ones developing i n t o a new type of urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n , r e l a t e d c l o s e l y to the main center i t s e l f . The coming p a t t e r n of u r b a n i z a t i o n appears to be one dominated by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s , not the general suburban sprawl that was formerly p r e d i c t e d . The freedom to l o c a t e at w i l l i s s t i l l s t r o n g l y governed by e f f i c i e n c i e s due to 153 n u c l e a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s . The suburban shopping center, i f i t i s to supplant the C e n t r a l Area, must approach that area's v a r i e t y and s e l e c t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s . This i s a most d i f f i c u l t task because of i t s p e r i p h e r a l p o s i t i o n . The development of suburban areas i s l o g i c a l and healthy i n c i t i e s of i n c r e a s i n g population; but such a development of suburban areas need not and should not be a t the expense of the C e n t r a l Area; t h i s development should not be a case of the t a i l wagging the dog. The preserv-a t i o n of the C e n t r a l Area i s very d e s i r a b l e i n terms of i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y or convenience i n the arrangement of la n d uses which i s the source of the cohesion of c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s . I t i s t r a d i t i o n a l as w e l l as p r a c t i c a l to concentrate many of the a c t i v i t i e s of a c i t y i n the C e n t r a l Area. And from t h i s center come tax incomes paying f o r amenities and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s t h a t othe r e s i d e n t i a l and other s e c t i o n s of the c i t y would otherwise not be able to a f f o r d . However, the f u t u r e shape of urban p a t t e r n s w i l l continue to be dominated by cent e r s , most of a l l by the C e n t r a l Area i t s e l f . Some of the lessons l e a r n e d i n the planning of suburban shopping centers can undoubtedly be a p p l i e d i n the C e n t r a l Areas. The planning goal i s not only to make the Ce n t r a l Area more e f f i c i e n t , but to make i t l i v a b l e as w e l l . F i n a l l y , i t must be concluded that i t i s not a good p u b l i c p o l i c y t o continue the present p r a c t i c e of t r y i n g to make roads safe and expeditious f o r m o t o r i s t s at the expense 154 of added hazards to the pedestrian, particularly when a proper design w i l l provide for the safe and expeditious pro-gress of both. Life in the Central Area i s lived largely on foot. Walking i s the most elementary means of experiencing space. Its pleasures and usefulness should not be sacrificed through ignorance and omission. In fact, i f a way can be found to produce a city layout that will solve the problems caused by the new means of transportation a b r i l l i a n t future is in store for the Central Area that wi l l not only hold i t s own but expand. The challenge can be met only by boldly developing an entirely new Central Area pattern or by remodel-ing the existing one. This step should be taken with f u l l confidence that i t s i n i t i a l cost w i l l be many times repaid in increased productivity of the Central Area as well as the whole urban structure. Property owners w i l l enjoy increased trade; the city w i l l benefit from stabilized and increased property tax revenue, surrounding property w i l l be up-graded in value as the result of the new v i t a l i t y brought to the Central Area. In non-financial terms, people w i l l be afforded vastly improved accessibility to the area, more convenient and adequate park-ing, greater safety and a beautiful environment in which they can take just pride. Again, the planning principle in this connection, of course, should be based on the planning and development of "Environmental Areas" and thereby to minimize the conflict between Pedestrian and Vehicular t r a f f i c , as suggested by the hypothesis of this study. 155 FOOTNOTES I n t r o d u c t i o n The main idea of "Environmental Area" i s adapted from the Report by C o l i n D. Buchanan, T r a f f i c I n Towns. Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, U.K., 1963. Chapter I •'-John R a n n e l l s , The Core of the C i t y . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 195b, p.53 2 I b l d . ^Walter C h r i s t a l l e r , Die Z e n t r a l e n Orte i n Suddent- sohland (Jena, 1935); a l s o a paper (no t i t l e ) I n Comptes  rendus du Congres I n t e r n a t i o n a l e de geographle Amsterdam (193 8 ) , Vol.II,pp.123-37 , c i t e d i n Edward Ullman, "A The'ory of L o c a t i o n f o r C i t i e s , " The American J o u r n a l of Soc i o l o g y . Vol.46 (May,1941),pp.853-864 ^Edward Ullman, "A Theory of L o c a t i o n f o r C i t i e s , " i n Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn (ed.), Readings I n  Urban Geography. The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1959, PP.202-209 5Ibld..p.204 ^See B r i a n J.L.Berry and A l l e n Pred, C e n t r a l P l a c e  S t u d i e s . Regional Science Research I n s t i t u t e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1961 1 5 6 7 Ran n e l l s , opxlt.,p . 5 1 Chaunoy D. H a r r i s and Edward L. Ullman, "The Nature of C i t i e s , " i n Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn (ed.), Read- ings i n Urban Geography. The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , C h i -cago, 1963, pp.277-286 Ra n n e l l s , op.cit..pp.51-52 x u S e e Richard U. R a t c l i f f , "The Dynamics of E f f i c i e n c y i n the L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Urban A c t i v i t i e s , " i n Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn (ed.), Readings i n Urban Geography. The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1963, pp.299-324 • ^ R a n n e l l s , op.cit..p.55 12 Raymond E. Murphy, J.E. Vance, J r . , and Bart J . E p s t e i n , C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t Studies . Cla r k Univer-s i t y , Worcester, Mass., U.S.A., 1955, P.203 1 3 R a t c l l f f , O P.cit..pp.299-324 Ra n n e l l s , o p . c i t . . pp.1-2 •^Department of C i t y Planning and Landscape Arch-i t e c t u r e , The C e n t r a l Area. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , I l l i n o i s , 1961, pp. 13^1?? l 6 R a t c l i f f , o p . c i t . . pp.299-324 157 Chapter I I 1The T e c h n i c a l Planning Board, Downtown Vancouver 1955-1976, C i t y of Vancouver, 1956, p.20 2 Barry Benepe, "Pedestrian i n the C i t y , " T r a f f i c  Q u a r t e r l y ; Vol.XIX, N o . l , (January 1965), The Eno Foundation f o r Highway T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , p.30 3 -ICevin Lynch, The Image of the C i t y . The Technology Press & Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, I960,p.54 4 Benepe, op.cit.,pp.29-30 ^Charles Abrams, "Downtown Decay and R e v i v a l , " J o u r n a l  of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. Vol.XXVII, N o . l , Feb-ruary 1961,p.6. 6 C o l i n Buchanan e t . a l . , T r a f f i c I n Towns. Her Majesty 1 J S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, U.K., 1963,p.;14 7 V i c t o r Gruen, "Dynamic Planning f o r R e t a i l Areas," "Harvard Business Review.Vol.32. No.6, 195^>P.54 g Buchanan, o p . c i t . . pp.14-16 9 D. S. Reynolds and S. G. Wardrop, "Economic Losses due to T r a f f i c Congestion", T r a f f i c Engineering and C o n t r o l , November i960; c i t e d by C o l i n Buchanan i n T r a f f i c i n Towns. Her M a j e s t y 1 s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, U.K.,1963,p.14 1 0 G r u e n , op.cit..p.5 4 11 Buchanan, op.cit..p.34 1 2Ibld..pp.26-27 1-Victor Gruen, "Planned Shopping Centers", Dun's  Review. Dun & Bradstreet Inc., (May 1953)»P»1 158 14 Abrams, op.cit.pp.6 - 7 "^Gruen, o p . c i t . pp.37-84 l 6 I b i d . , PP.37-84 17 Jose L u i s S e r t , Can Our C i t i e s Survive?.The Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass.,U.S.A., 1947,p.4. 18 David A. Revzan, "Trends i n Economic A c t i v i t y and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n San F r a n c i s c o Bay Area," Highway Research  Board S p e c i a l Report No.11-A. N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1955»P»248 19 W i l l i a m J . Watkins, " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Downtown Automobile-Parking Conditions and R e t a i l - B u s i n e s s D e c e n t r a l -i z a t i o n , " Highway Research Board S p e c i a l Report N o . l l - A . N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington,D.C., 1955, p.101 2 0 J . T . 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N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, P u b l i c a t i o n 273a, Washington, D.C., 1955, P.15 31lbid.. p. 15 32ibid.. pp. 1-71 160 Chapter I I I l " C i t i e s : Hope f o r the Heart," I n Time (The Weekly News magazine, Canada E d i t i o n ) , March 4, 1966, p.20 2lbid., p.19 3pyke Johnson, " F a c t u a l Studies Needed i n S o l v i n g Urban T r a f f i c Problems," i n T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y . January 1950, P.78 ^Anthony Downs, "The Future S t r u c t u r e of American C i t i e s , " i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Design C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1961, p.150 ^ I b l d . 6 I b i d . . ppl50-151 7Ibid. 8 I b i d . 9 R i c h a r d U. B a t c l l f f , "The Dynamics of E f f i c i e n c y i n the L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Urban A c t i v i t i e s , " i n Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn, Readings i n Urban Geography. The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1963, p.313 1°C.T. Jonassen, "Shopper A t t i t u d e s , " i n Highway  Research Board S p e c i a l Report No. 11-A. N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Academy of Sciences, P u b l i c a t i o n 273a, Washington, D.C., 1955, P. 37 ^Downs, o p . c i t . . p. 152 1 2 W i l b u r S. Smith, "Business Aids T r a f f i c Problems," c j C o n t r o l , No, 13. i n T r a f f i  Q u a r t e r l y . The Eno Foundation For Highway T r a f f i c >. 8, 1954, p.17 I b i d . 161 Chapter IV 1Alexander K l e i n , " S o l v i n g the T r a f f i c Problem,• i n T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y . The Eno Foundation f o r Highway T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , V o l . I l l , No. 3, J u l y 1949, PP. 214-215 2 I b i d . 3 I b l d . . p. 217 ^Jose L u i s S e r t , Can Our C i t i e s Survive? 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