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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Descriptive sample survey of selected social characteristics of public assistance clients and their perceptions… Vickars, John Beverly 1966

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A DESCRIPTIVE SAMPLE\SURVEY OF SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS/OF PUBLIC' ASSISTANCE CLIENTS AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF URBAN RENEWAL PLANS IN THE SCHEME I I I AREA, VANCOUVER, AND OF THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF THE CITY SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, VANCOUVER by JOHN BEVERLY VICKARS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of SOCIAL WORK We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 19,66 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. ABSTRACT OF THESIS This i n q u i r y has three aims. F i r s t l y , the study attempted to d e l i n e a t e s e l e c t e d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a sample of the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s served by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Depart-ment, Vancouver. Secondly, the preferences of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n were sought concerning the a f f e c t of urban renewal plans i n the Scheme I I I area.. Thirdly,, the thesis^ attempted to describe, the c l i e n t population's image of the G i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. A h y p o t h e t i c a l construct concerning the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s was cast i n the form of f i v e , hypotheses. The depth i n t e r v i e w was u t i l i z e d as' the major t o o l i n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n s concerning a l l three aims.. Hypotheses were constructed concerning the second and t h i r d aims. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the c l i e n t groups' s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do i n c l u d e a m i n o r i t y of a l i e n a t e d and low morale a t t i t u d e s . An absolute- l e v e l of d e p r i v a t i o n as a s o c i a l f a c t o r , was l a r g e l y absent. The h y p o t h e t i c a l construct, was rejected.. The study i n d i c a t e s that the m a j o r i t y of the study popula-t i o n p r e f e r s p r i v a t e housing to p u b l i c housing; but f e e l s that government should o f f e r both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ' h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s to' c l i e n t s dispossessed by urban renewal p l a n s . . The image of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i s described as e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p o s i t i v e w i t h two r e s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , , the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s are inadequate. Secondly,, the agency s t a f f has i n s u f f i c i e n t time to adequately discharge t h e i r d u t i e s . i i i The study's main c o n c l u s i o n i s that f u r t h e r research i s r e q u i r e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e or reject, the impressions gained' from t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y sample survey. A wider range of i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s must be more c l o s e l y defined and examined. This study's r e s t r i c t e d range and depth d i d not permit more than t e n t a t i v e conclusions to be drawn concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE, I. PROBLEM FORMULATION AND HYPOTHESES 1 The S o c i a l Work Problem 1 S o c i a l p o l i c y . 1 Agency s o c i a l work problems. 1 Groups concerned w i t h the problem. . . . 2 Problem f o r research . . . . . 3 Objective one ' 3 O b j e c t i v e two ^ Objective three ^ Objective four 5 Ways i n which the study may c o n t r i b u t e to understanding of the s o c i a l work problem 5 Study's D e s c r i p t i v e Hypotheses 6 S e c t i o n one 6 S e c t i o n two 7 S e c t i o n three 8 Assumptions. . . . . . . . 8 Preparatory A c t i v i t y 9 Survey of previous research and s e l e c t i o n of sources . 9 P u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . . . 9 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 10 Urban renewal 11 V CHAPTER PAGE O u t l i n e of inventory methods, and r e s u l t s 11 I I . METHODOLOGY lk L e v e l of Research Design P l a n of data a n a l y s i s 15 R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y 16 Sampling Procedures. . . . . . . . 18 Sample 18 Methods of Gathering Data 20 Sources of data 20 Standardized t e s t s 21 O u t l i n e of qu e s t i o n n a i r e s 22 C l i e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e 22 S t a f f q u e s t i o n n a i r e 25 I I I . FINDINGS 26 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1. ( a ) . 26 Conceptual statement 26 O p e r a t i o n a l statement 27 Commentary 28 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1. ( b ) . 29 Conceptual statement . . . . . 29 O p e r a t i o n a l statement 29 Commentary 30 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1. (c) 31 Conceptual statement . . 31 v i CHAPTER PAGE Operati o n a l statement 31 Commentary 33 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1. (d) . 34 Conceptual statement 34 O p e r a t i o n a l statement 35 Commentary. 36 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 2. . 36 Conceptual statement. . . . . . . 36 O p e r a t i o n a l statement 37 Commentary. 37 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 3 38 Conceptual s t a t e m e n t . . . . . . . . 38 O p e r a t i o n a l statement . . 38 Commentary 39 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 4 40 Conceptual statement 40 Commentary on r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g t o Hypotheses 2. and 3 40 Re s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 5» . . . . . . . . . . . 4 l Conceptual statement 4 l O p e r a t i o n a l statement 4 l Commentary 42 Re s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypotheses 6 . . and 7- 44 Conceptual statement 44 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Operati o n a l statement kk Commentary kk R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 8 . . . . V? Conceptual statement ^5 O p e r a t i o n a l statement ^5 Commentary k6 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 9 k6 Conceptual statement kG O p e r a t i o n a l statement k7 Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 10 47 Conceptual statement k7 O p e r a t i o n a l statement k7 Commentary . . . k8 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 11 k9 Conceptual statement 9^ Operat i o n a l statement . . . . . . k9 Commentary 50 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 12 50 Conceptual statement. . . . . . . . . . . 50 O p e r a t i o n a l statement . . . . . . . . 51 Commentary 53 R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypotheses 13- and lk 5k Conceptual statement 5^ v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Commentary 55 IV. CONCLUSION , 56 Summation of Findings Pertinent to the Three Configurations of Related Hypotheses Groupings . . . . 56 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , hypotheses 1. to 5 56 Attitudes and preferences towards urban renewal, hypotheses 6. to 11. 58 Attitudes and observations towards the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, hypothesis 12. 59 Relationship of Conclusions to Groups Concerned with the Problem 6l The C i t y S o c i a l Service Department 6 l The P r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare 62 The C i t y of Vancouver. 63 The Federal Government 63 B r i t i s h Columbia Ass o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers . . . . . 64 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of S o c i a l Work 64 A Proposal 65 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the proposed research 66 Research model of l e v e l of design 67 READING REFERENCES . 69 APPENDIX 72 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1. (a) . . . . 27 I I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1. (b) 29 I I I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis l . - ( c ) 32 IV/. R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 1.. (d) 33 V. R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 2 37 VI. R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 3 . 38 V I I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 5« kl V I I I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypotheses 6. and 7- • • kk IX. R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 8.- ............. kG X. R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 9 kl X I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 10. . . . k8 X I I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 11 50 X I I I . R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypothesis 12 52 XIV. Caseload S t a t i s t i c s 7k LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Graph of C o r r e l a t i o n Between Morale and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scales 77 2 . Graph of C o r r e l a t i o n Between Morale and A l i e n a t i o n S c a l e s . 78 3 . Graph of C o r r e l a t i o n Between A l i e n a t i o n and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e s . 79 4 . Map of Scheme I I I Area . . . 88 PREFACE Acknowledgements Through the good o f f i c e s of the agency D i r e c t o r , Mr. T.. T. H i l l , and the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , Mr. F-. McDaniels, the f u l l resources of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department,: City, of Vancouver, were made a v a i l a b l e to the research project.: Arrangements' f o r space,-equipment and s t a f f , a v a i l a b i l i t y were made f o r the researcher without s t i n t . A l l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n were open to the researcher's s c r u t i n y upon request. The whole s t a f f , p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l e r i c a l , , d i s p l a y e d a concern about and i n t e r e s t i n goals and methods of the p r o j e c t . The s t a f f not only co-operated f u l l y and w i l l i n g l y , but o f f e r e d many u s e f u l suggestions which were subsequently incorporated' i n the study.. In a s i m i l a r s p i r i t , - Miss B. W. Sni d e r , Research Consultant, Department of S o c i a l Welfare., V i c t o r i a , - B. C , made the resources of her o f f i c e a v a i l a b l e . Valuable i n f o r m a t i o n concerning out-of-province and American p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programmes and standards of p r a c t i c e were provided. In a d d i t i o n , Miss Snider c o n t r i b u t e d her. advice and a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r a l l e l study w i t h a s i m i l a r focus p r e s e n t l y being conducted by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare i n Nanaimo,.B. C. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study are not yet> a v a i l a b l e . • Mrs. E. Keays and Mr. E. Sopp of the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, Committee on P u b l i c Welfare P r a c t i c e , have been e x p l o r i n g standards of p r a c t i c e both w i t h the C i t y of x i i Vancouver and the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia.. Generously, t h e i r methodology and t e n t a t i v e conclusions were o f f e r e d to : the researcher. The resources of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l under whose auspices the study was, conducted, made p o s s i b l e the study's completion, under Miss B. Ayres d i r e c t i o n . Mr. L. I . B e l l ' s s i n g u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n has been of e s s e n t i a l importance. The researcher's s u p e r v i s o r of s t u d i e s , Dr. J . Crane, a s s i s t e d the. study well.beyond the c a l l of academic duty. CHAPTER I PROBLEM FORMULATION AND HYPOTHESES I . THE SOCIAL WORK PROBLEM S o c i a l P o l i c y As urban renewal plans proceed i n Vancouver,, the p r o v i s i o n of appropriate s e r v i c e s f o r d i s p l a c e d groups must, be considered. In the past p h y s i c a l . p l a n n i n g has proceeded without a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n from complementary s o c i a l p l a n ning. Sound s o c i a l p l a n -ning w i l l be dependent on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the needs of the r e s i d e n t s and the development of an-appropriate range of s e r v i c e s , t a i l o r e d to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of c l i e n t groups. A. second study c o n s i d e r a t i o n l i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of, adequate and appropriate s e r v i c e s to agency c l i e n t s r e l a t i n g to present r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I f caseload management and s t a f f needs are to be soundly p r o j e c t e d , planning w i l l be dependent on a measurement of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of present services, and p o l i c i e s . Agency. S o c i a l Work Problems The. s a l i e n t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n remain unknown to the agency except as. the agency.is able to ge n e r a l i z e from other s t u d i e s of other c i t i e s . The experience of s t a f f members embraces a wealth.of "rule-of-thumb" knowledge which has not been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a w r i t t e n form,, but which might provide a b a s i s f o r a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h e i r c l i e n t group. 2 Secondly,, an inventory of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n to be a f f e c t e d by urban renewal plans was l a c k i n g . , The p r o v i s i o n of a s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s group was necessary to determine the l i m i t s of t h e i r numbers and a c a t e g o r i c a l , d e s c r i p t i o n of the types of c l i e n t s who w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by t h i s p l a n n i n g . Groups Concerned w i t h the Problem The G i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a r r i e s the present r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and w i l l c a r r y f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s . An a p p r e c i a t i o n of the l e v e l of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e r v i c e and of f a c t o r s appropriate, to p l a n n i n g f o r c l i e n t s i n an urban renewal area should a s s i s t t h e i r - d e c i s i o n s . This agency s t a f f executes present p o l i c y and,- should appreciate r e c e i v i n g i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Due to pressure of heavy caseloads and the r e s u l t a n t l a c k of time, perhaps a p r o f i l e of t h e i r c l i e n t group would provide a n e u t r a l and needed a d d i t i o n to t h e i r knowledge of cli e n t . p r o b l e m s and p e r c e p t i o n s . The B r i t i s h Columbia" A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers shares a general concern w i t h a l l the study o b j e c t i v e s as t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n takes w i t h i n i t s purview a l l aspects of. p u b l i c welfare a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l ifepartment of S o c i a l Welfare i s p r e s e n t l y engaged i n a study of c l i e n t s ' perceptions of t h e i r agency's programmes. In a sense, t h i s t h e s i s p r o j e c t . r u n s p a r a l l e l although the study i s set i n an urban area and should complement t h e i r p r o j e c t although the study design d i f f e r s . The s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 of t h i s c l i e n t group should, provide a u s e f u l b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l , study when the p r o v i n c i a l study i s r e p o r t e d . The C i t y of Vancouver i s engaged i n developing a comprehen-s i v e programme of urban renewal. This study i s supported by the C i t y of Vancouver by funds made a v a i l a b l e under the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t . The f e d e r a l government has broadened i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n urban renewal. The i n c l u s i o n of monies f o r s o c i a l p lanning i s a major objective.- Presumably, the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l welcome i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l p a r t s of Canada of which t h i s study w i l l c o n s t i t u t e an e a r l y example. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work i s concerned on three l e v e l s . F i r s t l y , t h i s study and one other i s being conducted under the : general umbrella of urban renewal planning as i t affect.s, d e f i n a b l e c l i e n t groups, both s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and o l d age.. Secondly,, through the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , the f i r s t s o c i a l , work research placement has been e f f e c t e d . T h i r d l y , the increment of p e r t i n e n t • i n f o r m a t i o n concerning s o c i a l agency c l i e n t e l e i s welcomed to i t s development of a s u i t a b l e core of knowledge. Problem f o r Research Ob j e c t i v e one. P r i m a r i l y t h i s study aims to i d e n t i f y the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n concerning s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s stems from American s t u d i e s . S o c i a l work has tended to g e n e r a l i z e from these s t u d i e s when planning i n l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , i s t h i s k i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i c a b l e ? Perhaps l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l , should i n d i c a t e to planners that each c i t y has. s i g n i f i c a n t l y unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f so, the i m p l i c a t i o n f o l l o w s , that before planning can proceed i n any area,, an i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t must be made to a s c e r t a i n the unique c o n f i g u r a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s c l i e n t groups. There may be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e not only between n a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s but a l s o between eastern and western c i t i e s , o l d e r and newer c i t i e s and between c i t i e s which grew i n a d i f f e r e n t way. For t h i s reason,: t h i s o b j e c t i v e was chosen. Objective two. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the degree of knowledge and approval of urban renewal plans by the i n h a b i t a n t s of the t a r g e t areas stands i n equal importance. This study attempts to plumb t h e . c l i e n t population's a t t i t u d e s towards urban renewal plans,, and to d e l i n e a t e t h e i r preferences f o r a l t e r n a t i v e courses, of a c t i o n . U n t i l now, urban renewal planning has r e s t e d l a r g e l y on a p h y s i c a l planning b a s i s , c o n d i t i o n e d w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l process by organized pressure groups. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the community which i n c l u d e s the: p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s has remained i n a r t i c u l a t e and unorganized, as w e l l as ignorant of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t i s important to consider these r e s i d e n t s as w e l l as the " s u b - s t a n d a r d " 7 b u i l d i n g s they i n h a b i t . . Objective t h r e e . A t h i r d o b j e c t i v e l i e s i n the i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of the c l i e n t s ' perceptions of the agency s e r v i c e s and s t a f f . T his o b j e c t i v e was s e l e c t e d because p o l i c y - a n d s e r v i c e s are 5 standard over the whole urban area. No mechanism f o r feed-back from r e c i p i e n t s r e l a t i n g to s e r v i c e a c c e p t a b i l i t y or e f f e c t i v e n e s s e x i s t s i n a broad or organized form. The agency image as perceived by c l i e n t s i s s i m i l a r l y unknown. These perceptions should be taken under advisement when f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y , and a s c e r t a i n i n g agency e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The study w i l l attempt a broad statement. Objective f o u r . F o u r t h l y , the study aims to i d e n t i f y the agency's perceptions of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e r v i c e . I f taken i n concert w i t h the c l i e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , an unbiased a p p r e c i a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e n e s s may be based on data obtained from two primary sources. I f both views are c o i n c i d e n t a l , s t r o n g support may be adduced to the conclusions as an e f f e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of r e a l i t y . Ways In Which the Study May Contribute to Understanding of the S o c i a l  Work Problem The ways may be summarized i n a t r i p a r t i t e mode. F i r s t l y , b a s i c knowledge i s important at any time. Whether t h i s study unearths new s o c i a l f a c t s or d u p l i c a t e s other studies,- the knowledge w i l l be important e i t h e r of i t s e l f or as a standard of comparison. I n s o f a r as the conclusions may provide a guide to the measurement of agency e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as viewed by the agency c l i e n t e l e , an acceptable c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l have been made. T h i r d l y , as a p r o v i s i o n of a guide to the study population's expressed needs and f e e l i n g s concerning urban renewal p l a n s , agency e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Vancouver's s o c i a l p lanning may proceed i n b e t t e r f a i t h and knowledge. 6 I I . STUDY'S DESCRIPTIVE HYPOTHESES Following the s e c t i o n a l design of the,questionnaire, the hypotheses have been grouped i n three configurations. Section One includes the f i v e hypotheses which r e l a t e to the study population's s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Section Two encompasses the s i x hypotheses which r e l a t e to,the study population's perceptions of urban renewal plans and t h e i r preferences for planning which a f f e c t s them. Section Three includes the f i n a l three hypotheses which r e l a t e to the c l i e n t s ' and the; agency's perceptions of agency e f f e c t i v e n e s s . These hypotheses are-by s e c t i o n as follows:, Section One 1. A view of man and soci e t y , unique to those l i v i n g on a low-income exists.. This view i s derived from four l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s unique i n t h e i r configuration to t h i s low-income study population. (a) The f i r s t l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of a. comparatively simple experience world. (b) The second l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of s o c i a l and economic helplessness. (c) The t h i r d l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of absolute and r e l a t i v e deprivation. (d) The fourth l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of 1 i n s e c u r i t y . 2. A. f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the la r g e r s o c i e t y i s associated with these l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s of power-lessness,. an i n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l s e l f and environment. , 3 . A\ f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s of mean-i n g l e s s n e s s , a l i e n c o n d i t i o n s which are u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . k. A f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r . s o c i e t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , out-of-touch w i t h the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . 5. The l i f e - g o a l s of t h i s low-income study group p a r a l l e l those of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y but are more r e a l i s t i c a l l y modest. S e c t i o n Two 6. I f urban renewal plans for c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the study p o p u l a t i o n expects to be o f f e r e d adequate s u b s i d i z e d housing u n i t s w i t h i n t h e i r present r e s i d e n t i a l areas. 7 « I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the study p o p u l a t i o n expects that the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l o f f e r adequate s u b s i d i z e d housing u n i t s i n other r e s i d e n t i a l areas. 8. I f urban renewal plans for c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the'study p o p u l a t i o n expects that the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l o f f e r an assured index of p r i v a t e a l t e r n a t i v e housing e i t h e r i n t h e i r present r e s i d e n t i a l area or i n other r e s i d e n t i a l areas. 9. I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group i n p r i v a t e or p u b l i c housing i n t h e i r present or a l t e r n a -t i v e area, the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l arrange automatic grants to cover the cost of moving household e f f e c t s . 8 10. I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the agency s t a f f would expect that the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l o f f e r t h e i r c l i e n t s the range of a l t e r n a t i v e s s t a t e d i n Hypotheses 7 . , 8 . and 9« 11. I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the agency s t a f f would expect to o f f e r a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e through a s p e c i a l u n i t to be l o c a t e d i n the study area and to be s t a f f e d by q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers, not to be drawn from t h e i r present establishment, f o r problems s p e c i f i c a l l y a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n . S e c t i o n Three 12. The study p o p u l a t i o n f e e l s that the agency s t a f f , s e r v i c e s and p o l i c i e s adequately meet t h e i r present needs and w i l l meet s p e c i a l needs a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n . 1 3 . The agency f e e l s that t h e i r s t a f f s e r v i c e s and p o l i c i e s adequately meet t h e i r c l i e n t s present needs and w i l l meet t h e i r c l i e n t s s p e c i a l needs a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n . . lk. The op e r a t i v e standards of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the agency adequately conform to the standards expressed i n the repo r t of the Standards Committee, 1 9 6 l . Assumptions Three main assumptions have been made. F i r s t l y , c l i e n t s l a c k comprehensive s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The schedule has been shaped w i t h t h i s i n mind. Secondly, the G i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department 9 operates w i t h i n the l i m i t s of t h e i r resources, but l a c k the c a p a c i t i e s to f u l f i l t h e i r present r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and do not under present s t a f f l i m i t a t i o n s have the f a c i l i t i e s to f u l f i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g from urban renewal. T h i s b i a s i s in c o r p o r a t e d i n the schedule as the weight of the questions o f f e r a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h i n these l i m i t a t i o n s . T h i r d l y , the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n has the c a p a c i t y to f r e e l y express f e e l i n g s towards present welfare p o l i c i e s and procedures and to analyze and suggest ways i n which f u t u r e s o c i a l s e r v i c e planning should be channelled. I I I . PREPARATORY ACTIVITY Survey o.f Previous Research and S e l e c t i o n of Sources Tiie a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e concerning urban renewal problems, p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s , was c u l l e d w i t h s p e c i f i c reference to the study hypotheses i n mind. Under' the f o l l o w i n g three headings i s a l i s t and a short d i s c u s s i o n of those sources which appeared to bear the most relevance to the study o b j e c t i v e s . P u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Canadian Welfare Council's p u b l i c a t i o n Standards i n P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (7 -) o u t l i n e s the general p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r g i r d i n g e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g a d e f i n i t i o n , b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r a p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programme, development and use of standards, the need f o r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , and standards f o r p o l i c i e s and procedures. 10 The F e d e r a l L e g i s l a t i v e O b j ectives (8 -) cover the same ground and provided a u s e f u l standard of comparison. D o v e t a i l i n g w i t h these two statements of good p r a c t i c e i s the memoranda Standards of P r a c t i c e r e s u l t a n t from a meeting between the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of S o c i a l Welfare and the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. This memoranda bears s p e c i f i c relevance as i t has been o f f i c i a l l y accepted by the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the P r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare as a guide to standards of p r a c t i c e . The o r i g i n a l document was dated 1961 and r e v i s e d i n 1965 by the P r o v i n c i a l Standards of P r a c t i c e Committee. This document r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to o r g a n i z a t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n , philosophy and p r a c t i c e . In broad i n t e n t and i n s p e c i f i c recommen-da t i o n s , the Canadian Welfare Council's o u t l i n e i s f o l l o w e d . The agency q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i r e c t l y modelled i n i t s f i n a l three s e c t i o n s on the p o i n t s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s pamphlet. S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p l e t h o r a of published data e x i s t s p e r t i n e n t to t h i s subject of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s . This study w i l l mention only o n e — i t s contemporary nature, focus and hypotheses bear a p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l relevance. A summary of the common f a c t o r s i n contemporary research on the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of low-income f a m i l i e s i s contained i n the a r t i c l e "Low-Income Outlook on L i f e " (11 - ) . The conceptual framework i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s study's hypotheses. 11 Urban renewal. The most r e l e v a n t sources f e l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t l y , a report by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , M u n i c i p a l R e l o c a t i o n of Displaced Residents (9 -) o f f e r s a comprehensive survey of urban renewal p r a c t i c e and of government m u l t i - f a c e t e d r o l e s and p o l i c i e s i n the United S t a t e s . In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to the reference to low-income f a m i l i e s such a source obviates the n e c e s s i t y f o r an extensive b i b l i o g r a p h y as i t s scope i s both contemporarily comprehensive, a n a l y t i c a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d , and i n c l u d e s a l l r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . P u b l i c Housing and Welfare S e r v i c e s (6 -) and Dr. L. C. Marsh's re p o r t (10 -) on Vancouver combine w i t h L. I . B e l l ' s M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.. An Overview f o r S o c i a l Planners (5 -) to provide both n a t i o n a l l y , Canadian and l o c a l , p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on urban renewal pl a n n i n g and l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . O u t l i n e of Inventory Methods and R e s u l t s An extensive p r e l i m i n a r y survey of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department was conducted to e s t a b l i s h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of (1) r e l e -vant i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n case f i l e s ; (2) r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n the caseworkers' s t a t i s t i c a l card boxes; (j) p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e grant forms; (4) general i n f o r m a t i o n from agency s t a f f ; (5) space,' equipment and personnel to permit the completion of a more p r e c i s e and subsequent inventory by a research a s s i s t a n t ; and (6) agency a t t i t u d e s towards the research p r o j e c t . 12 The f i l i n g system and the s e l e c t i v e nature of the case f i l e data and r e c o r d i n g e l i m i n a t e d f i l e s as a useable source of i n f o r m a t i o n due to l i m i t s of time. The s o c i a l workers' s t a t i s t i c a l cards provided the data from which the p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e was drawn w i t h the exception of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department Unit s e r v i n g the s i n g l e unemployed male c l i e n t . Eor t h i s category i t was necessary to e x t r a c t the i n f o r m a t i o n from the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e grant forms from the whole c i t y . As these men are served from a s i n g l e o f f i c e , the agency does not employ the caseload as a u n i t of d i v i s i o n of work. Where p o s s i b l e , the cases were counted by caseload and by category employing the designations of the G i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department code (See Appendix p. 73) . The r e s u l t s were recorded on a t a b l e (See Appendix p. 7^0. The c a t e g o r i e s employed by the agency are appropriate to the methods to be employed i n drawing a sample f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The f i v e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a t e g o r i e s and the f o u r o l d age and p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y pension c a t e g o r i e s stand as a u s e f u l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the agency c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . The category which i n c l u d e d the s i n g l e employable male c l i e n t presented a problem. There are no s t a t i s t i c a l cards and the data obtained from other sources was u n i v e r s a l l y considered by agency s t a f f to be u n r e l i a b l e w i t h s p e c i a l reference to residence.. I n November, 1965i the s t a f f had been t r y i n g to l o c a t e some of these c l i e n t s to o f f e r them employment under the m u n i c i p a l Winter Works Programme. A high percentage of the addresses were found to be i n c o r r e c t . 13 Therefore, the i n f o r m a t i o n was drawn from the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e grant forms dated 27.10.65 which accounted f o r 2200 of the monthly grant t o t a l of 3300. The p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e grants are i s s u e d f o r October on the 27th. To enumerate the remainder would have r e q u i r e d checking through the t o t a l agency i s s u e r e c o r d s . To expedite the enumeration process, every t e n t h form was checked. The number of c l i e n t s i n the study area was a s c e r t a i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the count t o t a l by t e n to approximate the t o t a l count on t h i s i s s u e date. This t o t a l was then m u l t i p l i e d by 3 over 2 to approximate the t o t a l number i n the study area during the month of October. The t o t a l of s i n g l e employable male c l i e n t s has only l i m i t e d r e l i a b i l i t y . The s t a f f considered the t o t a l of 725 to be a l i t t l e h i g h , 10%, but e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t . As the study design d i d not i n c l u d e i n t e r v i e w i n g c l i e n t s from t h i s category, a subsequent p r e c i s e i n v e n t o r y allowed t h i s f i g u r e to stand w i t h an appropriate n o t a t i o n . A c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t w i t h extensive experience i n marketing research was r e t a i n e d to compile a l i s t of c l i e n t s by caseload and by category. • This l i s t p rovides accurate data on the study p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d i n g ( l ) name; (2) address; (3) a s s i s t a n c e category; (4) date of f i r s t agency contact; (5) agency f i l e number; and (6) e m p l o y a b i l i t y s t a t u s . A r e s t r i c t e d random sample f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was drawn from t h i s exhaustive l i s t . The completed s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s contained i n Appendix p. 74. CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY I . LEVEL OF RESEARCH DESIGN The model research design chosen f o r the study f a l l s i n t o the sample survey category i n terms of method. However, the study's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be considered t o combine aspects of the fo r m u l a t i v e - e x p l o r a t o r y and the d i a g n o s t i c - d e s c r i p t i v e models. This study aims t o not only d e r i v e hypotheses f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g , but al s o to assess c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the study p o p u l a t i o n . An opportun-i t y to des c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s was provided i f the f i n d i n g s proved i n t e r e s t i n g . The study r e t a i n e d a general s e n s i t i v i t y to v a r i a b l e s during c o n s t r u c t i o n , and assumed.a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s (11 - ) . The hypotheses were made e x p l i c i t and were formulated on concrete l e v e l s . Chapter I I I , " F i n d i n g s " , d i s c u s s e s the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s i n d e t a i l . The sample s i z e and rep r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s became an academic q u e s t i o n . The study p o p u l a t i o n under the terms of the Urban Renewal Scheme I I I was l i m i t e d . P a r a l l e l s t u d i e s conducted under the auspices of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l and the School of S o c i a l Work, M. S. W. t h e s i s programme, e l i m i n a t e d the aged and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s w i t h i n the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t i n the area. As s t a t e d i n Chapter I , S e c t i o n I I I , agency records and an 15 e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y unstable s i n g l e unemployed male c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , rendered the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the sample even more r e s t r i c t e d . The enmity of the impersonal f o r c e s of n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n d u r ing the c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d reduced the sample s i z e t o t h i r t y - e i g h t . Despite the s m a l l N, random s e l e c t i o n employing a short t a b l e of random numbers was maintained throughout the s e l e c t i o n process. C o n t r o l of extraneous v a r i a b l e s was not attempted except as v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of data was concerned. The research design contained both f l e x i b l e and r i g i d components. In the main, the focus was r e g u l a t e d by the hypotheses. Yet, the schedule i n c o r p o r a t e d s u f f i c i e n t opportunity i n the form of open questions t o al l o w the focus to s h i f t w i t h i n s i g h t s . I n Appendix p. 75 - 76 responses to the open questions which l e n t themselves to s i g n i f i c a n t c o d i f i c a t i o n are presented i n summary form. These f i n d i n g s are reporte d i n Chapter I I I as they modify or i l l u m i n a t e the items concerning each hypothesis. P l a n of Data A n a l y s i s Each hypothesis r e l a t e d to the appropriate items i n the schedule. P r o v i s i o n f o r a n a l y s i s by frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses according to the range allowed each item was i n i t i a l l y made. B i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s and m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was r e t a i n e d as an o p t i o n concerning the three major s c a l e s about which normative data was a v a i l a b l e . T h i s o p t i o n was not e x e r c i s e d as p r e l i m i n a r y b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p which l e n t 16-i t s e l f t o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s (See Appendix pp. 77, 78, 79). The non-exercise of t h i s o p t i o n i s discussed i n Chapter IV. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y of the hard data as f o r example m a r i t a l s t a t u s , income, r e s i d e n c e , f a m i l y composition and socio-economic s t a t u s , was not an i s s u e as agency records and i n t e r v i e w e r observa-t i o n s combined to s i g n i f i c a n t l y e l i m i n a t e t h i s source of e r r o r from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the study population's s u b j e c t i v e data remains more open. The schedule provided a number of check qu e s t i o n s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t a high i n t e r n a l c onsistency i n s u b j e c t i v e responses. In S e c t i o n I I I of the schedule a l l questions concerning agency perceptions had a t r a p s e c t i o n . The consistency was again h i g h . The most p e r t i n e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n concerning v a l i d i t y might be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the "halo" e f f e c t . The study p o p u l a t i o n doubtless contained a tendency not to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between welfare agencies i n c l u d i n g the G i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . For t h i s reason, the study was conducted under the auspices of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of S o c i a l Work. However, to minimize a c o n t i n u i n g "halo" e f f e c t which i n c l u d e s the U n i v e r s i t y , s e v e r a l p r o v i s i o n s were made. P r i m a r i l y , these p r o v i s i o n s r e s t squarely upon the i n t e r v i e w e r s . The f i v e i n t e r v i e w e r s share common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E i r s t l y , they were M. S. W. students and had been aware of the study's 17 aims, o b j e c t i v e s and methods s i n c e i n c e p t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , they were s e n s i t i v e to t h i s skewing f a c t o r . I n s t r u c t i o n s to the i n t e r v i e w e r s emphasized t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to assess t h i s f a c t o r most c a r e f u l l y . The schedule i t s e l f i n c o r p o r a t e d p r o v i s i o n f o r w r i t t e n r e p o r t i n g on t h i s f a c t o r . Only three r e p o r t s were r e c e i v e d . I n each case, the i n t e r v i e w e r f e l t that t h i s b i a s had been r e s o l v e d . Secondly, a l l i n t e r v i e w e r s share at l e a s t four years experience i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e . This experience under the researcher's guidance i s f e l t to minimize the c l i e n t s ' a b i l i t y to mask tru e f e e l i n g s without d e t e c t i o n . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the q u a l i t y of the i n t e r v i e w e r s , the nature of the response r e p o r t i n g and the i n t e r v i e w s t r u c t u r e served to minimize evasion. The i n t e r v i e w e r c a r r i e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to rec o r d and to grade interviewee response. Ample time and s t r u c t u r e d opportunity i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s schedule permitted and d i r e c t e d probing, as i n d i c a t e d and r e q u i r e d by circumstance. With reference to the three major s c a l e s , concerning c l i e n t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a t t i t u d e s , the p r e - t e s t phase revealed a u s e f u l i n s i g h t . The o r i g i n a l schedule i n c o r p o r a t e d the S r o l e Anomie Scale (See Appendix p. 80). The p r e - t e s t group r e j e c t e d t h i s s c a l e on the grounds that i t s p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d responses which were too extreme, and that no "normal" person would choose. The researcher assumed t h i s response to mean that the interviewees were acc e p t i n g a higher degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an honest completion of the schedule than had been expected. A c c o r d i n g l y , the s c a l e was e l i d e d . 18 Associated w i t h t h i s l a s t o b s ervation were the i n t e r v i e w e r s ' v e r b a l comments to the researcher (See Appendix 8l - 86). A l l c l i e n t s took an a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t e d r o l e i n the completion of the schedule. As o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r to the c l i e n t s (See Appendix p. 87), they assumed that t h i s was a n e u t r a l o pportunity to express t h e i r r e a l f e e l i n g s . Although t h i s f e e l i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to measure, the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t i s that a l l i n t e r v i e w e r s perceived t h i s response. In support of t h i s p o i n t i s the nature of the schedule i t s e l f . I t i s long and r e q u i r e s p e r s i s t e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n and judgment on the part of the c l i e n t s . Without a c t i v e co-operation, completion w i t h i n l e s s than two hours becomes i m p o s s i b l e . Yet experience w i t h the study p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d an average time completion of an hour and a h a l f . I I . SAMPLING PROCEDURES Sample The sample was drawn from the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department caseload w i t h i n the Scheme I I I area (See Appendix p. 88) and r e l o c a t i o n area bounded by area south of East Hastings between hOO -1000 b l o c k s , which.abuts Scheme I I I boundaries. Ten caseloads were p a i n s t a k i n g l y c u l l e d f o r c l i e n t s l i v i n g w i t h i n the i r r e g u l a r boundaries. A s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e was drawn (See Appendix p. 7*0. A f t e r s i n g l e c l i e n t s and o l d age, b l i n d , d i s a b l e d c a t e g o r i e s and c h i l d r e n i n the home of a r e l a t i v e were e l i m i n a t e d , a sample popula-t i o n of 132 remained. Erom t h i s sample f i v e p r e - t e s t c l i e n t s were 19 drawn by random s e l e c t i o n w i t h f i f t e e n a l t e r n a t e s . Twelve of the a l t e r n a t e s were r e q u i r e d to complete the p r e - t e s t . Of the 115 remainder, a l l were exhausted. T h i r t y - e i g h t interviewees c o n s t i t u t e the sample. As the three main s c a l e s remained unchanged a f t e r the p r e - t e s t phase, the f i n d i n g s concerning these three s c a l e s are p o s i t e d on a sample s i z e of 43. The i n t e n t i o n of the researcher was to increase the sm a l l sample s i z e i n other q u e s t i o n s . However, rewording of questions made t h i s o b j e c t i v e u n f e a s i b l e . •The a t t r i t i o n r a t e from the o r i g i n a l sample was almost 70%. The sample l o s s has been c l o s e l y c a t e g o r i z e d . From the date the o r i g i n a l sample was drawn i n November, 1965» t o the end of the c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d i n l a t e March, 1966, 18 cases were c l o s e d . F i v e of the 18 were t r a n s f e r r e d from s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a t e g o r i e s to o l d age. The remainder e i t h e r ceased to draw s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or moved from the m e t r o p o l i t a n area. Seventeen of the sample l i v e d i n the McLean Park P u b l i c Housing P r o j e c t and were e l i m i n a t e d because t h i s schedule embraced as one of i t s aims, a t t i t u d e s of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s towards p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s . A study concerning s o c i a l a s s i s -tance c l i e n t s l i v i n g i n t h i s p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t i s being conducted. Fourteen c l i e n t s moved out of the Scheme I I I area, but remained on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Two pr o s p e c t i v e interviewees are reported to be no longer on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and two were c a t e g o r i z e d as l i v i n g at no such address. E i g h t more were of Chinese e x t r a c t i o n and were e l i m i n a t e d because of t r a n s l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s concerning b i l i n g u a l i n t e r v i e w e r s of a s i m i l a r standard to the f i v e r e t a i n e d . 20 The most, important category i n c l u d e d those c l i e n t s whom the in t e r v i e w e r s were unable to conta c t . A l l the i n t e r v i e w e r s are t r a i n e d to t r a c k down mobile c l i e n t s . For t h i s study they expended extensive e f f o r t s to tr a c e any l e a d s . In 2J cases, they were unable to l o c a t e the c l i e n t s . Undoubtedly, t h i s f a c t o r may be p a r t i a l l y e xplained by the t r a n s i e n t nature of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s area -as i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the s i n g l e male employable c l i e n t . T his f a c t h i g h l i g h t s the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the agency when d e a l i n g w i t h the most s t a b l e part of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , the f a m i l i e s . Only f i v e o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l s were rep o r t e d . T h e i r reasons f o r r e f u s a l were u n c l a s s i f i a b l e as they were unable to adequately a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r reasons although animosity towards students reared i t s head once. I n another case, the antipathy towards the welfare system seemed to be the cause. Thus, the sample was drawn e n t i r e l y from three c a t e g o r i e s ; two-parent f a m i l i e s , one-parent f a m i l i e s , and couples without c h i l d r e n i n the f o l l o w i n g numbers r e s p e c t i v e l y : 8, 26, 3, e x c l u s i v e of the f i v e p r e - t e s t interviewees who were a l l one-parent f a m i l i e s . Random s e l e c t i o n was employed throughout u n t i l the t o t a l study p o p u l a t i o n was exhausted. I I I . METHODS OF GATHERING DATA Sources of Data Agency records were used during the p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n of the sample. The i n t e r v i e w served as the major t o o l of data 21 c o l l e c t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n depth by h i g h l y s k i l l e d i n t e r v i e w e r s . The v a l i d i t y of the data r e s t s u n e q u i v o c a l l y on t h e i r s k i l l s . A supplementary i n t e r v i e w schedule to be administered to the s t a f f of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department was constructed and administered by the researcher. Unfortunately,.due to pressure of time, the r e s u l t s of t h i s schedule w i l l not be t a b u l a t e d u n t i l a f t e r the main study i s completed. These r e s u l t s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n a supplementary study at a l a t e r date through the School of S o c i a l Work. Standardized Tests Three standard t e s t s were employed: Scale of General Adjustment, Morale, Minnesota Survey of Opinions (4 - 160); A Measure of A l i e n a t i o n (13 - 675) ; L e i s u r e P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Enjoyment Scale (3 - 2 1 3 ) . The degree of v a l i d a t i o n d i f f e r s w i t h i n each s c a l e i n terms of time lapse s i n c e a p p l i c a t i o n , breadth of the c o n t r o l groups and the number of a p p l i c a t i o n s . The s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e presents the most d i f f i c u l -t i e s . The l a s t r e p o r t was dated 1929 and the researcher has been unable to l o c a t e more contemporary normative data. This problem i s discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the " F i n d i n g s " chapter. However, the 47 items o f f e r a broad range of formal and i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s and an acceptable s c o r i n g design (See Appendix pp. 94 - 96 ) . 22 The measure of a l i e n a t i o n o f f e r s the best normative data of the most recent v i n t a g e . C o n t r o l groups were both l a r g e and heterogeneous (13 - 675). The r e a l advantage of t h i s s c a l e , apart from i t s i n t r i n s i c v i r t u e s , l i e s i n the nature of the q u e s t i o n order and design, as i t r e l a t e s to s c o r i n g . The researcher attempted to g i v e the most acceptable answers to the q u e s t i o n s , but was unable to fathom t h e i r i n t e n t . C l i e n t s would be t o t a l l y unable to give the " r i g h t " answer. Th i s s c a l e supports the v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y . The morale s c a l e o f f e r s a s i m i l a r s t r e n g t h as i t i s d i f f i c u l t again to give the " r i g h t " , answer. These two s c a l e s i n concert -strengthen the schedule c o n s i d e r a b l y . The morale s c a l e was supported by the most normative data of the most v a r i e d nature i n c l u d i n g c a t e g o r i e s comparable to the study p o p u l a t i o n and separable from other s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s on socio-economic s c a l e i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e dependency (1 - 3^ ) (4 - 3k2-3kk; 3*f6, 3^ +7). The only drawback to t h i s s c a l e l i e s i n the lapse of time s i n c e the l a s t reported normative data. O u t l i n e of Questionnaires C l i e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e (See Appendix pp. 9^  - 112) i s d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s w i t h three separate f o c i . S e c t i o n I p e r t a i n s to the c l i e n t s ' s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i n c l u d e s the three standard s c a l e s . The major part of t h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s i n t e r v i e w e r s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s , and t h e i r a p p r a i s a l of the p h y s i c a l surroundings of the i n t e r v i e w e e s , i n c l u d i n g evidence of a 23 l e v e l of d e p r i v a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y concerning adequacy of f u r n i t u r e , space and a p p l i a n c e s . The i n t e r v i e w e r s were r e q u i r e d to judge evidence of s o c i a l s t i m u l i i n r e l a t i o n to evidence of books, newspapers, magazines, c h i l d r e n s ' paraphenalia and i n r e l a t i o n to adequacy of the p h y s i c a l p l a n t f o r s o c i a l purposes i n c l u d i n g entertainment p o t e n t i a l . As the i n t e r v i e w e r s were not f r e e to c l o s e l y and comprehensively survey the homes, these observations c a r r y l i m i t a t i o n s and might b e t t e r be described as impressions. A s e r i e s of questions concerning the interviewees a s p i r a t i o n s i n our s o c i e t y as they r e l a t e to common " s o c i a l norms" as home ownership, higher education f o r c h i l d r e n , residence i n a "good" d i s t r i c t and a "steady" job. Each of these questions r e q u i r e d the c l i e n t to s t a t e h i s o p i n i o n of the r e a l i s m of these a s p i r a t i o n s . Open questions were appended to c o r r a l s i n g l e i n s i g h t s or organized bodies of o p i n i o n . Further questions were d i r e c t e d towards grade completed i n s c h o o l , l e v e l of t r a i n i n g achieved, l e v e l of t r a i n i n g d e s i r e d and p o t e n t i a l earning power. A f u r t h e r probe was launched to s p e c i f i c a l l y e l u c i d a t e f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y i n the form of questions concerning t h e i r l e v e l of confidence r e l a t i n g to t h e i r a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the accepted secure standards of our s o c i e t y , i n terms of union employ-ment, b a r g a i n i n g power, a b i l i t y to provide f o r f a m i l y i n present circumstances i n both b a s i c terms and r e l a t i v e terms of a f f l u e n c e . This l a t t e r point was expressed i n terms of h o l i d a y s and f a m i l y automobiles. 24 S e c t i o n I I maintained a s i n g l e focus d i r e c t e d towards the interviewees r e l a t i o n s to urban renewal. The i n q u i r y was then s p l i t . F i r s t l y , a s e r i e s of questions were d i r e c t e d towards the establishment of the c l i e n t s degree of involvement and commitment to t h e i r present circumstances. These questions asked whether they would be upset, or whether they would need a s s i s t a n c e of a c o u n s e l l i n g nature. A second s e r i e s of questions o f f e r e d concrete a l t e r n a t i v e s i n urban renewal p l a n n i n g . P u b l i c housing, an assured index of a v a i l a b l e and appropriate p r i v a t e housing, and a p r o j e c t o f f i c e f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g both t r a d i t i o n a l agency s e r v i c e and s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t i n g to urban renewal i n c l u d i n g moving g r a n t s , counsel-l i n g and r e n t a l overages were p r o f f e r e d . S e c t i o n I I I was d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n of agency p o l i c y , personnel and s e r v i c e l e v e l . A number of s u b s i d i a r y questions were i n c l u d e d , l e s s f o r the purpose of supporting the primary aim, but r a t h e r more f o r the purpose of gathering i n s i g h t s . The questions concerning p o l i c y demanded the c l i e n t s ' judgment concerning adequacy of the grants, a v a i l a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s such as medical coverage, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and overages, and adequacy of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . Personnel c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were approached through i n q u i r i e s concerning the c l i e n t s ' f e e l i n g s towards agency s t a f f and t h e i r perceptions of the s o c i a l workers' f e e l i n g s towards them. A d d i t i o n -a l l y , the c l i e n t s ' perceptions of the l e v e l of two-way communication between s t a f f and c l i e n t s were e x p l i c i t l y measured. The agency l e v e l of service was approached through questions both of the c l i e n t s ' f e e l i n g s towards s p e c i f i c agency services such as home v i s i t i n g , and through objective questions concerning the frequency of t h i s s e r v i c e . S t a f f questionnaire (See Appendix pp. 89 - 93 )• As r e s u l t s of t h i s questionnaire w i l l not be a v a i l a b l e for i n c l u s i o n i n the t h e s i s , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s schedule i s offered. Three sections comprise t h i s questionnaire as w e l l . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p a r a l l e l s those questions i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the c l i e n t schedule. Primary focus was placed on.level of communication, judgment of adequacy of service and objective data concerning frequency of v i s i t s . The second section requested r e p l i e s to p a r a l l e l questions i n the c l i e n t survey concerning the same concrete a l t e r n a t i v e s for c l i e n t s a f f e c t e d by urban renewal plans. The f i n a l section was concerned with standards i n public assistance administration as applied to the C i t y S o c i a l Service Department. S p e c i f i c questions were dire c t e d towards as c e r t a i n i n g the s t a f f ' s knowledge of l e g i s l a t i o n and resources i n the community, the s t a f f ' s opinion of the agency s t a f f development programme, the s t a f f ' s perception of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of q u a l i f i e d s t a f f to discharge present and future r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and a statement concerning t h e i r appreciation of agency p o l i c i e s i n c l u d i n g adequacy of p o l i c y manual, of procedures, and of s t a t i s t i c s as a basis f o r good planning and r e p o r t i n g . CHAPTER I I I FINDINGS The f i n d i n g s w i l l be presented as they r e l a t e to the fourteen hypotheses. A general format w i l l be employed. Each s e c t i o n w i l l open w i t h the conceptual h y p o t h e t i c a l framework. This s e c t i o n w i l l be f o l l o w e d w i t h an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the hypothesis. A commentary concerning the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data, i n c l u d i n g a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n of the r e s u l t s to normative data where t h i s i s a p p l i c a b l e . The only exception to t h i s format r e l a t e s to Hypothesis No. 1. The d i s c u s s i o n of these f i n d i n g s as they r e l a t e to the over-view hypothesis w i l l be reserved u n t i l the f o u r t h chapter. The four sub-sections w i l l be t r e a t e d i n the manner i n d i c a t e d above. No s y n t h e s i s w i l l be attempted i n t h i s chapter. A l l percentages are out of 100 whether drawn from an N of 3 8 or kj>. I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1. (a) Conceptual Statement A view of man and s o c i e t y , unique to those l i v i n g on a low-income e x i s t s . This view i s d e r i v e d from four l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s unique i n t h e i r c o n f i g u r a t i o n to t h i s low-income study p o p u l a t i o n . The f i r s t l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of a comparatively simple experience world. 2 7 O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This statement i s t r i p a r t i t e . The l e i s u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e provides the m a j o r i t y of the evidence. The use of t h i s s c a l e i s debatable. The s c a l e does not exhaust the p o s s i b l e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and important v a r i a b l e s may have been overlooked. However, the study assumes that the range of items on the c h e c k l i s t covers most s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and i s a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of the range of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Two of the questions are i n support. F i r s t , the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s observations concerning means f o r p r i v a t e f a m i l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Second, the interviewee's response to the q u e s t i o n , do a l l f a m i l y members enjoy annual v a c a t i o n s away from home. The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table I , by percentage groups. TABLE I RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1 . (a) Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Equal to Less Than Norm Mean Norm Mean 1 ( s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a - 1 - 3 9 . 3 % (b) 9 0 . 1 % (a) Responses  Yes No No response 1 8 ) ( p r i v a t e car) k 7-9%Tb) 80.k% (a) 5 - 3 % 2 (vacations) 4 2 8 . 0 % (b) 7 0 . 9 % (a) . 0 % (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis 28 Commentary The support of the hypothesis c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s not only a minimal l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n but a l s o a l a c k of means to engage i n one a c t i v i t y , v a c a t i o n s , commonly accepted to be the " r i g h t " of every North American. S i m i l a r l y , the automobile has ceased to be a lu x u r y as we l i v e i n a s o c i e t y on wheels. Much of our s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s based on an assumption of m o b i l i t y . The mean score of the c l i e n t group i s 9 6 . 6 . The mean score of the norm group i s 132. Only 9«3$ of the c l i e n t group a t t a i n s norm group mean (3 - 2 1 3 ) . However, t h i s score comparison may be deceptive f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , the norm data was reported f o r 1929. This lapse of time may i n c l u d e a number of i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , one of which may be that there are fewer a c t i v i t i e s i n which p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be engaged i n without c o s t . Our c l i e n t group, by d e f i n i t i o n , has no surp l u s income. Secondly, a crude d i v i s i o n of the k7 items shows 11 items which r e q u i r e l i t t l e or no money. The c l i e n t group a t t a i n e d high scores on these items. Twenty-one of the k7 items r e l a t e to a c t i v i t i e s which cost an app r e c i a b l e amount of money. The c l i e n t group p r e d i c t a b l y scored low. One cannot conclude that the c l i e n t s ' l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t e s to l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n or s o c i a l c a p a c i t y . One may only note that l a c k of money i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . On the evidence adduced i n t h i s study a l t e r n a t i v e c onclusions remain p o s s i b l e . 29 I I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1. (b) Conceptual Statement A view of man and soc i e t y , unique to those l i v i n g on a low-income e x i s t s . This view i s derived from four l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s unique i n t h e i r configuration to t h i s low-income study population. The second l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of s o c i a l and economic helplessness. Operational Statement This statement has seven supporting questions and observa-tions ( l ) each month are you able to provide adequate food, s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g and entertainment f o r yourself and family; (2) do you have a s k i l l or trade; (3) i f yes, how much could you earn i f you were working at your trade; (4) what grade did you complete i n school; (5) i f you wanted to get more t r a i n i n g , would you know how to go about i t ; (6) i f you were working i n a non-union job, would you have much of a say about your wages or working conditions; and (7) do you have much chance of getting a union job. The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table I I , by percentage groups. TABLE II RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1. (b) Schedule  Question No. 3 (adequate 1 ( s k i l l or basics) trade) Schedule  Page No. if 6 Yes 31,5% (b) 34.1% (b) Responses No 68.4% (a) 65.7% (a) No response .0% .0% 30 Schedule  Question No. l a (earnings) 2 (grade a t t a i n e d ) 4 (knowledge of r e t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) 9 (non-union job l i m i t a t i o n s ) 10 (chances of union job) TABLE I I (Cont.) Schedule Page No. 7 7 -$220 per month +S4oo per month No response 15-9% (a) 15-9% (b) 68.2% -Grade 10 ' +Grade 9 No response 74.0%. (a) 16.0% (b) 10.0% Yes Responses No No response 21.0% (b) 50.0% (a) 29.0% 13.1% (b) 60.5% (a) 26.4% 18.4% (b) 57.9% (a) 23-7% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary S i x of the seven questions show c l e a r l y a strong support. Question No. 2 of the Schedule d e r i v e s from a c o d i f i c a t i o n of open question s . At a 6:1 r a t i o the c l i e n t group a t t a i n e d a Grade 9 or l e s s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . Grade 10 i s the minimal standard f o r admission to t r a i n i n g programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Grade 12 i s the minimum standard f o r the more t e c h n i c a l trades as e l e c t r o n i c s , telecommunications or d r a f t i n g . T h i s r e s u l t was perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t as the door to the labour market i s r a t h e r f i r m l y shut. 31 Question No. l a i s h i g h l i g h t e d by the percentage of no responses. General i n d i c a t i o n s of the meaning of these responses could be considered i n support of the hypothesis. As many of these c l i e n t s have never worked and as many have never earned a "good s a l a r y " , the no response percentage leaves the researcher f r u s t r a t e d . I I I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1 . (c) Conceptual Statement A view of man and s o c i e t y , unique to those l i v i n g on a low-income e x i s t s . T h i s view i s derived from four l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s unique i n t h e i r c o n f i g u r a t i o n to t h i s low-income study p o p u l a t i o n . The t h i r d l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of absolute and r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n . O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This statement has fourteen supporting questions and observations ( l ) i s there evidence of newspaper; (2) i s there evidence of adequate pla y space; i s there evidence of adequate entertainment space, c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s ; (3) i s there evidence of means f o r p r i v a t e f a m i l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; (4) each month are you able to provide adequate food, s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g and entertainment f o r y o u r s e l f and f a m i l y ; (5) do a l l your c h i l d r e n have good boots and r a i n c o a t s ; (6) does each c h i l d have own bed; (7) i s there adequate f u r n i t u r e at the e s s e n t i a l l e v e l ; (8) i s there adequate f u r n i t u r e at the comfort l e v e l ; (9) i s there adequate space at the e s s e n t i a l l e v e l ; (10) i s there adequate space at the comfort l e v e l ; ( l l ) are there adequate appliances at the e s s e n t i a l l e v e l ; (12) are there adequate appliances 32 at the comfort l e v e l ; (13) do you have a s k i l l or trade; and ( l 4 ) what grade d i d you complete i n s c h o o l . The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table I I I , by percentage groups. TABLE I I I RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1. (c) Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 1 2) (evidence of newspapers) 4 68. 4% (b) 28.9% (a) 2.; 5% 1 6) 7) (adequate pl a y and entertainment space) 4 56.5% (a) 35.0% (b) 8.1 ?% 1 8) ( p r i v a t e car) 4 7.9% (b) 80.4% (a) 10.' T/o 3 (adequate b a s i c s ) 4 31.6% (b) 68.4% (a) .( y/o 4 (boots and r a i n c o a t s ) 4 57.9% (b) 26.3% (a) 15. i 3% 5 ( c h i l d per bed) 4 62.4% (b) 26.3% (a) i i . : 3% 6 4 F u r n i t u r e Absolute D e p r i v a t i o n 81.5% (b) 15.8% (a) 2.' 1% R e l a t i v e D e p r i v a t i o n 26.3% Spac e (b) 70.9% (a) 2.1 3% Absolute D e p r i v a t i o n 73.6% (b) 23.6% (a) 2.) B% R e l a t i v e D e p r i v a t i o n 60.5% (a) 36.8% (b) 2.' 7% 33 TABLE I I I (Cont.) Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response Appliances Absolute D e p r i v a t i o n 8l;5% (b) 15.8% (a) 2.7% R e l a t i v e D e p r i v a t i o n 73.6% (a) 21.0% (b) 5-4% 1 ( s k i l l or trade) 6 3.4.1% (b) 65-7% (a) .0% Response to Open Question -Grade 10 +Grade 9 No response 2 (grade a t t a i n e d ) 6 80.4% (a) 15.8% (b) 3.8% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary The v a l i d i t y of the f o l l o w i n g comments are tempered by the l i m i t a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y discussed concerning the r e s t r i c t i o n on the i n t e r v i e w e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r obs e r v a t i o n . Absolute d e p r i v a t i o n r e f e r s to l a c k at e s s e n t i a l l e v e l s . The e s s e n t i a l l e v e l was defined as ( l ) adequate f u r n i t u r e , which meant " s u f f i c i e n t " and working beds, t a b l e s , c h a i r s , bureaus and lamps; (2) adequate space, which meant a l i v i n g room, k i t c h e n , storage space, bedroom f o r parents and no more than three c h i l d r e n per bedroom; and (3) adequate a p p l i a n c e s , which meant stove, f r i d g e , TV, r a d i o , h e a t i n g u n i t and washing machine. S i m i l a r l y , comfort l e v e l meant a l l e s s e n t i a l s such as you would expect i n a middle c l a s s home and at the same l e v e l of working order. The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t l i e s i n the r e j e c t i o n of the t h e s i s at the absolute l e v e l of d e p r i v a t i o n i n terms of f u r n i t u r e , space and app l i a n c e s . An average of b e t t e r than 70% of the c l i e n t group has a t t a i n e d the e s s e n t i a l l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y a l s o , i s the f a c t that an average of b e t t e r than 30% of the c l i e n t group has a t t a i n e d a comfort l e v e l . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h these f i n d i n g s are the r e s u l t s from the questions concerning c h i l d r e n s 1 c l o t h e s and beds. B e t t e r than 60% of the c l i e n t group maintain an adequate standard. The q u e s t i o n concerning newspapers and magazines i n d i c a t e s that mass media i n t h i s form and i n TV i s an i n t e g r a l part of the s o c i a l s t i m u l i a v a i l a b l e to these c l i e n t s . This s t a t e i s i n co n t r a s t w i t h many homes of t h i s socio-economic l e v e l which e n t i r e l y l a c k evidence of the p r i n t e d word i n any form. Such s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n i m p l i e s l a c k of s o c i a l opportunity of the most bas i c k i n d . Vancouver's poor i s even more i n v i s i b l e than Harrington's c o n f i g u r a t i o n (2 - ) . The l e v e l of the B r i t i s h Columbia income maintenance net i n c l u d i n g - s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s , medical s e r v i c e s and f a m i l y allowances, apparently permit t h i s c l i e n t group to e x i s t not only above the e s s e n t i a l d e p r i v a t i o n l e v e l but a l s o w i t h i n the comfort l e v e l i n s e l e c t i v e areas. IV. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1. (d) Conceptual Statement A view of man and s o c i e t y , unique to those l i v i n g on a low-income e x i s t s . This view i s der i v e d from four l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s unique 3 5 i n t h e i r configuration to t h i s low-income study population. The fourth l i f e - c o n d i t i o n i s that of i n s e c u r i t y . Operational Statement This statement has s i x supporting questions and observations ( l ) each month are you able to provide adequate food, s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g and entertainment for yourself and family; (2) do you have a s k i l l or trade; ( 3 ) what grade did you complete i n school; (4) would you l i k e a steady job with a future. I f yes, what do you think your chances are; ( 5 ) i f you were working i n a non-union job, would you have much of a say about your wages or working conditions; and (6) do you have much chance of ge t t i n g a union job. The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table IV,, by percentage groups. TABLE IV RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1. (d) Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 3 (adequate basics) 4 3 1 . 5 % (b) 68.4% (a) .0% 1 ( s k i l l or trade) 6 3.4.1% (b) 6 5 - 7 % (a) -0% Response to Open Question -Grade 10 +Grade 9 No response 2 (grade attained) 6 74.0% (a) 14.0% (b) 12.0% Responses  Poor Good No response 6a (chances of a steady job) 7 84.7% (a) 1 5 . 8 % (b) .0% 36 TABLE IV (Cont.) Schedule  Question No. Schedule  Page No. Yes Responses No No Response 9 ( l i m i t a t i o n s of non-union jobs) 7 13.1% (b) 60.5% (a) 26.4% 10 (chances of union job) 7 18.4% (b) 57.9% (a) 23.7% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary The support of t h i s hypothesis c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a l e v e l of i n s e c u r i t y as a l l answers stand above 57-9%. The q u e s t i o n concerning education and the standards f o r judging remain unchanged from Hypothesis 1. ( b ) . f i v e choice response, probable, p o s s i b l e , l i k e l y , u n l i k e l y and n i l . The l a t t e r four choices were grouped together as r e p r e s e n t i n g a degree of i n s e c u r i t y . The u n l i k e l y and n i l c a t e g o r i e s embraced 90% of the responses w i t h a l i g h t shading i n t o l i k e l y and p o s s i b l e . Conceptual Statement A. f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s of power-l e s s n e s s , an i n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l s e l f and environment. Question No. 6a of the Schedule o f f e r e d the interviewees a V. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 2. 37 Operational Statement This hypothesis i s supported s o l e l y by the morale s c a l e . The r e s u l t s are expressed i n Table V., by percentage groups. TABLE V RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 2. Schedule Page No. Support Non-support No response 10-11 48.9% 51.1% .0% Commentary The lower scores i n d i c a t e higher morale. The mean score of the c l i e n t group i n raw numbers was 59.6. C o n t r o l group scores range from 50 to 66. Comparable c o n t r o l groups by socio-economic s t a t u s , education and o c c u p a t i o n a l groupings, range i n the lower s i x t i e s ( l - 4-2). The upper f i f t i e s would i n c l u d e most normal working c l a s s f a m i l i e s ( 1 - 4 8 ) . For purposes of a n a l y s i s i n the I. B. M. machine, the raw scores were converted i n t o f i v e groupings ( l ) -40; (2) 40 - 49; (3) 50 - 59; (4) 60 - 69; and (5) 70+. The f i r s t three c a t e g o r i e s i n t o t a l were considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis. The l a s t two were considered to be i n support. The m a j o r i t y of these c l i e n t s f a l l w e l l w i t h i n the normal range w i t h a s m a l l group of f i v e f a l l i n g below 50. A. s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the sample f a l l s w i t h i n normal boundaries and i s not d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from working c l a s s norms. Although t h i s was a u s e f u l s c a l e , y i e l d i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , the short form of the Minnesota Survey of Opinion (4 - 22) which i n c l u d e s s c a l e s concerning i n f e r i o r i t y , law, economic conservatism, f a m i l y and education, would have o f f e r e d a broader p r o f i l e and would have been no more d i f f i c u l t to a d m i n i s t e r . VI. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 3. Conceptual Statement A f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s a s s o c i a t e d with these l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s of meaninglessness, a l i e n c o n d i t i o n s which are u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This hypothesis i s supported s o l e l y by the a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e . The r e s u l t s are expressed i n Table VI, by percentage groups. TABLE VI RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 3-Schedule Page No. Support Non-support No response 8-9 4 l . l % 58.2% .0% Commentary The higher score i n d i c a t e s a l e s s e r degree of a l i e n a t i o n . The mean raw score of the c l i e n t group i s 27.3- The mean raw score of the normative c o n t r o l group i s 28.58 (13 - 675). For purposes of 39 a n a l y s i s , the raw scores were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups ( l ) -2k; (2) 2k - 26; (3) 27 - 29; (k) 30 - 32; and (5) 32+. The f i n a l three c a t e g o r i e s were considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis. The f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s were considered to be i n support. There was no d i f f e r e n t i a l normative data a v a i l a b l e from t h i s recent s c a l e . However,.the c o n t r o l group was l a r g e and was drawn through a wide s t r a t a of s o c i e t y (13 - 675)' There was one s c o r i n g problem. The q u e s t i o n , "are you i n t e r e s t e d i n having c h i l d r e n (or would you be at the r i g h t age)" (13 - 675)) proved to be too d i f f i c u l t to administer to the c l i e n t group. The question was not i n c l u d e d a f t e r the p r e - t e s t phase. The raw scores were de r i v e d from a dichotomised response judgment. One poin t was scored f o r a l i e n a t i o n and two p o i n t s f o r u n a l i e n a t i o n . To make the c l i e n t group scores comparable, one poi n t was added to each t o t a l score. Thus, any skewing l i e s i n favour of a l i e n a t i o n . I f one considers the r e s u l t s , the m a j o r i t y of the c l i e n t group would probably have scored two.. The range of p o s s i b l e scores i s from 17 - 3k. Those c l i e n t group scores i n the second category are c l o s e r to the un a l i e n a t e d norm than to the a l i e n a t e d mean. Seventeen represents the score a t t a i n e d by the a l i e n a t e d c o n t r o l group. Although the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a strong l a c k of a l i e n a t i o n , i f t h i s f a c t o r i s added, the non-support column i s stronger than the f i g u r e s suggest. The m a j o r i t y of the c l i e n t s are not a l i e n a t e d by t h i s standard. V I I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS k. Conceptual Statement A f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y ' i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and i s expressed i n f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , out-of-touch w i t h the l a r g e r society.. Commentary on R e s u l t s R e l a t i n g to Hypotheses 2.. and 3« The a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e represents only the c l i e n t s ' p erceptions of t h e i r f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n . The s o c i a l p a r t i c i - p a ^ t i o n s c a l e may only represent t h e i r s t a t e of i s o l a t i o n and does not r e f l e c t t h e i r f e e l i n g s . The s c a l e s taken i n concert stand opposed. The study p o p u l a t i o n does not perceive i t s e l f as being a l i e n a t e d but does act i n an i s o l a t e d s o c i a l system e x c l u s i v e of p o s s i b l e extended f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The a s s o c i a t i o n of these two v a r i a b l e s i s unclear.-. The r e s u l t s imply that f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n are not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s t a t e e i t h e r of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n or of s o c i a l involvement.' The problem of examining f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n might b e t t e r be accom-p l i s h e d i n another context u t i l i z i n g an appropriate instrument which measures both f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , and an o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a state- of a l i e n a t i o n . I f these two v a r i a b l e are then added, i t would be p o s s i b l e to describe a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s t a t e of a l i e n a t i o n and of. i s o l a t i o n , and f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n and of i s o l a t i o n . 41 VII I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 5. Conceptual Statement The l i f e - g o a l s of t h i s low-income study group p a r a l l e l those of the larger society but are more "realistically"-modest. Operational Statement Uhis statement has eight supporting questions Cl) i f you had a choice, would you l i k e to l i v e i n Bunbar or Point Grey; (2) i f yes, what do you think your chances are; (3) would you l i k e to l i v e i n a home that you own; (4) i f yes, what do. you think your chances are; (5) would you l i k e your children to go to college, or further t h e i r t r a i n i n g after high school (plus Grade 12); C6) i f yes, what do you think your chances are; (7) would you l i k e a steady job with a future; and 08) i f yes,' what do you think your chances are.- The res u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table. VII, by percentage groups. TABLE VII RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 5. Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 7 ( l i v e i n different area) 5 28.9% (a) 50.0% (b) 21.1% Unlikely L i k e l y No response 7a (chances to l i v e i n different area) 5 29.9% (a) .0% (b) 70.1% TABLE VII (Cont.) 42 Schedule Schedule  Question No. Page No. 8 ( l i k e own home) 5 8a (chance of owning home) 5 (+Grade 12 t r a i n i n g f o r children) 5a (Chance f o r +Grade 12 t r a i n i n g f o r children) 6 ( l i k e steady job) 6a (chances of steady job) 7 Responses  Yes No 80.4% (a) 7.9% (b) Unl i k e l y L i k e l y 73.6% (a) 13-1% (b) Yes 86.7% (a) Unl i k e l y Yes No .0% (b) L i k e l y 82.1% (a) 13-1% (b) No 78.9% (a) 18.4% (b) Un l i k e l y L i k e l y 79-1% (a) 5-3% (b) (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of hypothesis No response U . 7 % No response 13-3% No response 13.3% No response 4.8% No response 4.7% No response 15-4% hypotheses the Commentary Seven of the eight questions returned a support response. Question No. 7a, page 5 and Question No. 5» page 6, attained 100% response, i f the no response category i s noted. Question No. 7, page 5 of the Schedule, may be interpreted f u r t h e r . An open question was appended (See Appendix pp. 75 - 76). Twenty-four of the 29 responses were c o d i f i e d . Eighteen p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e i n t h e i r present area. Only s i x wished to move t o a b e t t e r neighbourhood. The i m p l i c a t i o n of the r e p l i e s tends towards the view that most of these c l i e n t s are s o c i a l l y committed to t h e i r present area and i t s attendant s o c i e t y . Question No. 10, page 13 of the Schedule, produced an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t . T h i s c l i e n t group r e t a i n s the North American b i a s against p u b l i c housing and p r e f e r s to r e t a i n , i f p o s s i b l e , independence i n housing. Questions No. 7a and 8a, page 3 of the Schedule, o f f e r e d a th r e e - p o i n t range ( l ) l i k e l y ; (2) u n l i k e l y ; and (3) n i l . The f i r s t p o i n t was considered to be i n non-support. The l a s t two p o i n t s were considered to be i n support. Question No. 5a, page 6, and Question No. 6a, page 7 of the Schedule, o f f e r e d a f i v e - p o i n t range ( l ) probable; (2) p o s s i b l e ; (3) l i k e l y ; (k) u n l i k e l y ; and (5) n i l . The f i r s t p o i n t was considered t o be i n non-support, and the l a s t f o u r were considered t o be i n support, as a l l these choices were " r e a l i s t i c " . The response was concentrated i n the f i n a l two choices and shaded s t e a d i l y i n t o p o s s i b l e and l i k e l y . With the exception of the c l i e n t groups choice of t h e i r present s o c i e t y , ; a l l responses combine to i n d i c a t e support. kk IX. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESES 6. AND 7• Conceptual Statement I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the study p o p u l a t i o n expects to be o f f e r e d adequate s u b s i d i z e d housing u n i t s w i t h i n t h e i r present r e s i d e n t i a l area. I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the study p o p u l a t i o n expects that the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l o f f e r adequate s u b s i d i z e d housing u n i t s i n other r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Opera t i o n a l Statement These hypotheses are supported by a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n ( l ) i f you do have to move, do you f e e l t h a t the c i t y should o f f e r you a new apartment i n a p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t l i k e McLean Park. The r e s u l t s are expressed i n Table V I I I by percentage groups. TABLE V I I I RESULTS RELATING TO.HYPOTHESES 6. AND 7. Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 10 ( p u b l i c housing) 13 39.0% (a) 50.0% (b) 11.0% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary The researcher erred during the item c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r t a i n -i n g to these hypotheses. The q u e s t i o n to the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n 45 should have taken note of the geographical d i v i s i o n accommodated by the two hypotheses. This s i n g l e q u e s t i o n does provide a c o l l e c t i v e answer to a t o t a l request f o r attitudes- p e r t a i n i n g to p u b l i c housing either' i n Scheme I I I o r . o u t s i d e t h i s area. This response embodies a m a j o r i t y acceptance of North American s o c i e t a l norms which aver the s u p e r i o r i t y and the s o c i a l acceptance of p r i v a t e ownership of housing. X. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 8. Conceptual Statement I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the study p o p u l a t i o n expects that the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l o f f e r an assured index of p r i v a t e a l t e r n a t i v e housing e i t h e r i n t h e i r present r e s i d e n t i a l area or i n other r e s i d e n t i a l areas. O p e r a t i o n a l Statement T h i s statement has a s i n g l e s upporting q u e s t i o n ( l ) i f no to Question No.- 10, page 13 of the Schedule, do you f e e l that the c i t y should o f f e r a l i s t of a v a i l a b l e p r i v a t e housing which you could be c e r t a i n of being able to rent i f on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The r e s u l t s are expressed i n Table IX, by percentage groups.. kG TABLE IX RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 8. Schedule  Question No. Schedule  Page No. Yes Responses No No response 11 ( p r i v a t e housing) 13 70.0% (a) 26.6% (b) 3.4%' (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary Please note that 30 responses were recorded to t h i s " i f no" q u e s t i o n . Twenty-one were i n favour; eight were opposed; one d i d not know. A c c o r d i n g l y , the percentages above were c a l c u l a t e d on an N s i z e of 30. c o r r e l a t e almost p r e c i s e l y w i t h the percentage preference against p u b l i c housing as reported i n S e c t i o n IX. Non-support f o r p u b l i c housing was 30.0%. Support f o r p r i v a t e housing was 33»2%. X I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 9. Conceptual Statement I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group i n p r i v a t e or p u b l i c housing i n t h e i r present or a l t e r n a -t i v e area, a renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l arrange automatic grants to cover the cost of moving household e f f e c t s . The c l i e n t groups preferences are s e l f - e v i d e n t and 47 O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This statement has a s i n g l e s upporting q u e s t i o n ( l ) do you f e e l that the c i t y should pay f o r the cost of moving. The r e s u l t s are expressed i n Table X, by percentage groups. TABLE X RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 9. Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No!. Yes No No response 12 (moving c o s t s ) 13 62.4%: (a) 31.5% (b) 16.1% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) . - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary The c l i e n t ; groups preference i s s e l f - e v i d e n t as two-thirds support government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h i s form. X I I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 10. Conceptual Statement I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the agency s t a f f would expect that the renewal a u t h o r i t y w i l l o f f e r t h e i r c l i e n t s the range of a l t e r n a t i v e s s t a t e d i n Hypotheses 7«1 8. and 9. O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This statement has f i v e supporting questions ( l ) i f the c i t y t e a r s down t h i s b u i l d i n g , would you expect to.be helped to f i n d 48 a new home (or apartment); (2) do you f e e l that the c i t y ought to help you f i n d a new home (or apartment); (3) do you f e e l that the c i t y should pay f o r the cost of moving; (4) i f no to Question No. 10, page 13 of the Schedule, do you f e e l that the c i t y should o f f e r a l i s t of a v a i l a b l e p r i v a t e housing which you could be c e r t a i n of being able to rent i f on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; and (5) i f you have to move,1 do you f e e l that the c i t y should o f f e r you a new apartment, i n a p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t l i k e McLean Park. The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table X I , by percentage groups. TABLE XL RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 10. Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 8 (.expects c i t y to f i n d new home) 13 47.] 5% (a) 52.9% (b) .CP/o 9 ( c i t y ought to +% (a) (b) f i n d new home) 13 6 8 J 31.5% .0% 12 (cost of moving) 13 6 2 J +% (a) 31.5% (b) 6.1%' 11 ( p r i v a t e housing) 13 1% (a) 21.0% •(b) 23.8% 10 ( p u b l i c housing) 13 39.( y/o (.a) 50.0% (b) 11.0% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary A m i n o r i t y of the c l i e n t group does not expect to be a s s i s t e d by the G i t y of Vancouver to f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation. I t the same time a m a j o r i t y t h i n k s that they should be a s s i s t e d . I f c l i e n t group preferences concerning p r i v a t e housing versus p u b l i c housing are considered, p r i v a t e housing i s s e l e c t e d by a wide margin. Both questions i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n of c i t y involvement i n e i t h e r case. I f one adds the preferences, more than 90% f e e l that one of the two suggested s e r v i c e s should be o f f e r e d . The c l i e n t group preference i n the l a s t four questions i s c l e a r l y i n support./ X I I I . RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 1 1 . Conceptual Statement I f urban renewal plans f o r c e i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n would expect a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e to be o f f e r e d through a s p e c i a l u n i t to be l o c a t e d i n the study area and to be drawn from t h e i r present establishment, f o r problems s p e c i f i c a l l y a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n . O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This statement has two supporting questions ( l ) i f yes to Question 1 3 , page 13 of the Schedule, do you t h i n k that you should be o f f e r e d a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e t o help w i t h these problems; and (2) have you any i d e a what agency would best provide i t ( i f no, which of the f o l l o w i n g seems b e s t ) . The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table X I I , by percentage groups. 50 TABLE X I I RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 11. Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 13a (should c i t y o f f e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e ) 13 50.0% (a) 15-8% (b) 34.2% 13ai (CSSD best agency) 13 28.9% (a) 26.3% (b) 44.8% (a) - those responses considered to be i n support of the hypothesis (b) - those responses considered to be i n non-support of the hypothesis Commentary The response to Question No. 1 3 a i , page 13 of the Schedule, was de r i v e d from the f o l l o w i n g range of choices ( l ) the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department; (2) Clergy; and (3) the Family S e r v i c e Agency. The non-support f i g u r e of 26.3% i s a t o t a l of the l a s t two choices o f f e r e d . Thus, b e t t e r than 57% favoured a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e from among these agencies. M a j o r i t y support i n both questions i s i n d i c a t e d f o r the hypothesis. XIV. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 12. Conceptual Statement The study p o p u l a t i o n f e e l s that the agency s t a f f , s e r v i c e s and p o l i c i e s adequately meet t h e i r present needs and w i l l meet s p e c i a l needs a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n . 51 O p e r a t i o n a l Statement This statement has nineteen supporting questions ( l ) are your s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e grants l a r g e enough to meet your ba s i c expenses (food, c l o t h e s , s h e l t e r and entertainment); (2) do you f e e l that you r e c e i v e a l l the s e r v i c e s f o r which you are e l i g i b l e ; (5) do you f e e l that the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i s there to help you; (k) do you f e e l that your s o c i a l worker cares whether you are helped; (5) when you are t a l k i n g to your s o c i a l worker, do you understand what he/she i s saying; (6) can you see your worker whenever you need t o ; (7) would you l i k e to be v i s i t e d at home; (8) i f you have a medical card, do you f e e l that you r e c e i v e a l l the medical a t t e n t i o n you need; (9) do you f e e l that your s o c i a l worker i s there to help you; (10) do you l i k e your s o c i a l worker; ( l l ) when you are t a l k i n g to your s o c i a l worker, do you t h i n k that he/she i s l i s t e n i n g to what you say; (12) do you f e e l that your s o c i a l worker has enough time to spend w i t h you; (13) can you telephone your s o c i a l worker whenever you need t o ; (lk) do you f e e l that the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department cares whether you are helped; (15) do you t h i n k t h a t your s o c i a l worker l i k e s you; (l6) when you are t a l k i n g to your s o c i a l worker, do you t h i n k that he/she understands what you are saying; (17) do you t h i n k that your s o c i a l worker knows enough to help you p r o p e r l y ; (18) i f yes to Question No. 13, page 13 of the Schedule, do you t h i n k that you should be o f f e r e d a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e to help w i t h these problems; and (19) have you any i d e a what agency would best provide i t ( i f no, which of the f o l l o w i n g seems 52 b e s t ) . The r e s u l t s are expressed i n order, i n Table X I I I , by-percentage groups. TABLE X I I I RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESIS 12. Schedule Schedule Responses Question No. Page No. Yes No No response 1 ( i s a s s i s t a n c e enough) 14 15.8% (a) 81.5% (b) 2.7% ( r e c e i v e a l l s e r v i c e s ) 14 65.7% (a) 18.4% (b) 15.9% (CSSD h e l p f u l ) 14 73.6% (a) 13.1% (b) 12.3% ( s o c i a l worker cares) 14 65.7% (a) 15.8% (b) 18.5% (understands s o c i a l worker) 15 80.7% (a) 7-9% (b) 11.4% (can see worker o f t e n enough) 15 68.4% (a) 28.9% (b) 2.7% ( l i k e s home v i s i t s ) 15 77.5% (a) 18.4% (b) 4.1% (r e c e i v e s adequate medical a t t e n t i o n ) 15 75.1% (a) 7.9% (b) 14.0% ( f e e l s worker i s there to help) 16 92.0% (a) 2.6% (b) 5.4% (does c l i e n t l i k e worker) 16 84.0% (a) 2.6% (b) 13.4% (does worker l i s t e n to c l i e n t ) 16 81.5% (a) 15.7% (b) 2.8% (does worker have enough time) 16 47.3% (a) 52.6% (b) .0% (can telephone worker when needed) 16 86.7% (a) 13.1% (b) .0% 53 TABLE X I I I (Cont.) Schedule  Question No, 22 (does CSSD care whether c l i e n t helped) 23 (does s o c i a l worker l i k e c l i e n t ) 24 (does s o c i a l worker understand c l i e n t ) 25 (does s o c i a l worker know enough) Schedule  Page No. 17 17 17 17 Yes 60.1% (a) 60.5% (a) 62.4% (a) 73.6% (a) Responses No 15.8% (b) 2.7% (b) 26.3% (b) 10.5% (b) No response 14.1% 31.5% 7.9% . 15-9% R e l o c a t i o n 13a (should c i t y o f f e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e ) 13 13ai (CSSD.best agency 13 (a) - as i n preceding t a b l e s ; (b) Commentary 50.0% (a) 28.9% (a) 15.8% (b) 26.3% (b) 34.2%. 44.8% as i n preceding t a b l e s In a t t i t u d e questions Nos. 6, 15, 16 and 23, a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e was added as f o l l o w s ( l ) a l l ; (2) most; (3) some; (4) few; and (5) none, i n the past tense, i n q u i r i n g f o r the same answer. The f i r s t three c a t e g o r i e s were considered to be i n support of the v a l i d i t y of the same q u e s t i o n asked i n the present tense. I n the same order, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, p o s i t i v e responses by percen-tages were: 84.0%,' 8l.0%, 97.4%, 96.6%. This very high c o r r e l a t i o n supports the p o s i t i v e response recorded i n these q u e s t i o n s . In a t t i t u d e questions Nos. 7,' 17 and 24, a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e was o f f e r e d ( l ) always; (2) most of the time; (3) u s u a l l y ; (4) seldom; 54 and (5) never. The f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s were considered to be p o s i t i v e and i n support. The percentages are recorded i n the preceding t a b l e . The two questions concerning r e l o c a t i o n have been d e a l t w i t h i n S e c t i o n X I I I and may be considered a m a j o r i t y support f o r the l a s t s e c t i o n of t h i s hypothesis. With the exception of Questions No. 1 and 18, the seventeen remaining questions r e t u r n a support averaging, over 70%. The two questions i n non-support, r e f e r to the adequacy of the amount of the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e grant, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s o c i a l workers to spend s u f f i c i e n t time w i t h the c l i e n t group. Question No. 1 i s i n non-support by a r a t i o of 6:1. This point-of-view i s commonly accepted by a l l . Question No. 18 i s i n non-support by a c l o s e margin. T h i s response may be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean that the m a j o r i t y of c l i e n t s f e e l t h a t , under present c o n d i t i o n s , they see t h e i r s o c i a l workers o f t e n enough to s u i t them. C l e a r l y , the hypothesis i s overwhelmingly supported. XV. RESULTS RELATING TO HYPOTHESES 13. AND l4. Conceptual Statement The agency f e e l s that t h e i r s t a f f s e r v i c e s and p o l i c i e s adequately meet t h e i r c l i e n t s present needs and w i l l meet t h e i r c l i e n t s s p e c i a l needs a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n . The operative standards of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the agency adequately conform to the standards expressed i n the report of the Standards Committee, 1 9 6 l . Commentary Due to pressure of time, the schedule r e l a t i n g to agency s t a f f was not administered. A c c o r d i n g l y , the data was not a v a i l a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study. In subsequent c o n s u l t a t i o n , i t was decided to t r e a t t h i s q u e s tion as another study. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION I. SUMMATION OF FINDINGS PERTINENT TO THE THREE CONFIGURATIONS OF RELATED HYPOTHESES GROUPINGS S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Hypotheses 1. to 5« The f i r s t h ypothesis, i n four p a r t s , o f f e r s an a s s o c i a t i o n of l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s which purport to c h a r a c t e r i z e the low-income f a m i l y . A s t a t e of l i f e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , of s o c i a l and economic he l p l e s s n e s s and of f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y and s t a t e of i n s e c u r i t y , r e c e i v e d strong support. The t h i r d l i f e - c o n d i t i o n of absolute and r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n was r e j e c t e d on the absolute l e v e l , and s i g n i f i c a n t l y q u a l i f i e d on the r e l a t i v e l e v e l . These f i n d i n g s are tempered by the l i m i t a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y a l l u d e d to concerning the i n t e r v i e w e r s ' opportunity f o r obse r v a t i o n . Thus, the c o n f i g u r a t i o n may be considered to be r e j e c t e d on the grounds, that one of the a s s o c i a t e d v a r i a b l e s , perhaps the most important and v i s i b l e v a r i a b l e , does not h o l d . As an a s s o c i a t e d mental a t t i t u d e to these four l i f e -c o n d i t i o n s , f e e l i n g s of powerlessness i s a l s o r e j e c t e d by t h i s c l i e n t group. The study p o p u l a t i o n shares a normal response. As an a s s o c i a t e d mental a t t i t u d e to these four l i f e -c o n d i t i o n s , f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n stands i n the r e j e c t e d category by a wide margin. The study p o p u l a t i o n shares e q u a l l y i n t h i s s o c i e t a l 57 norm. A dilemma p e r s i s t s . The c l i e n t group does not f e e l powerless but does f e e l h e l p l e s s . The r e s u l t s concerning f e e l i n g s of power-lessness may i n d i c a t e a defensive adaptation. One may a l s o consider the r e s u l t s as a r e a l i s t i c and healthy p e r c e p t i o n that t h e i r h e l p l e s s n e s s i s l i m i t e d to the world of work and m a t e r i a l a c q u i s i t i o n . By t h e i r s o c i a l standards they f e e l competent to l i v e w i t h the same freedom as t h e i r more a f f l u e n t f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . F e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , . i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n , were s i m i l a r l y r e j e c t e d . With the exception of t h e i r preference f o r t h e i r present geographical r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , the l i f e goals of the c l i e n t group p a r a l l e l those of our s o c i e t y most s t r o n g l y . The support of t h i s hypothesis i s a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n the same way the r e j e c t i o n of the hypotheses concerning f e e l i n g s of powerlessness and a l i e n a t i o n may be considered p o s i t i v e as a s o c i a l dynamic. Not only i s a caus a l r e l a t i o n s h i p not i n t i m a t e d between the l i f e - c o n d i t i o n s and an a s s o c i a t i o n of r e l a t e d f e e l i n g s ; the a s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f cannot be made. Th i s absence of c o r r e l a t i o n bears s i g n i f i c a n c e i f we c o n t r a s t t h i s r e a l i t y w i t h the stereotype of a p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t . I f we co n t r a s t t h i s w i t h the r e a l i t y which pr o g r e s s i v e t h e o r i s t s have a s c r i b e d to low-income groups as s t a t e d i n these hypotheses, one concludes that t h i s c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y . Perhaps they are unique. E f f o r t s should be made to a s c e r t a i n whether t h i s i s so. I f t h i s i s not so, our perceptions of 58 p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s must be thoroughly overhauled, and should be based on r e l e v a n t , s p e c i f i c and contemporary s o c i a l data. A t t i t u d e s and Preferences Towards Urban Renewal, Hypotheses 6. to 11. The study population's preferences may be s t a t e d simply. The c l i e n t group f e e l s that the c i t y has an o b l i g a t i o n to o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of a l t e r n a t i v e housing i f they are to be dispossessed. A m a j o r i t y would p r e f e r to l i v e under the f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system i n p r i v a t e housing. P r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s from the study of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s i n the McLean Park housing p r o j e c t , i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e approval. Perhaps t h i s study popula-t i o n ' s f e e l i n g s are based on erroneous impressions, and b e t t e r p u b l i c i t y f o r such p r o j e c t s might a l t e r t h i s p e r c e p t i o n . A strong m i n o r i t y favours p u b l i c housing. One f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n may be McLean Park. The researcher f e e l s that t h i s p r o j e c t has advantages denied to the other p r o j e c t s i n the Vancouver area i n terms of l o c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l p l a n t . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the c l i e n t group f e e l s that grants should be made to cover t h e i r moving c o s t s . As the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department already o f f e r s t h i s s e r v i c e to those who need i t , a widening of t h i s s e r v i c e to i n c l u d e a l l c l i e n t s could be e a s i l y accomplished. Agreement was a l s o reached on the establishment of an agency o f f i c e to be l o c a t e d i n the urban renewal area to o f f e r the s e r v i c e s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r problems a r i s i n g from r e l o c a t i o n i n emotional terms. . 59 Perhaps there i s a wider i m p l i c a t i o n here. In an area of a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p u b l i c dependence, a d e c e n t r a l i z e d s e r v i c e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the community may be the r e a l preference of the c l i e n t group. This concept i n terms of agency o r g a n i z a t i o n may support the t h e s i s c u r r e n t l y being discussed i n Vancouver concerning the s u p e r i o r i t y of the l o c a l area approach. This approach concludes l o c a l area c o u n c i l s and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d w i t h agency c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the same boundaries. A t t i t u d e s and Observations Towards the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, Hypothesis 12. A s i n g l e impression dominates the f i n d i n g s — a n e x t r a o r d i n -a r i l y p o s i t i v e image of the agency. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the c l i e n t s f e e l that e x c e l l e n t communication i s maintained between themselves and agency personnel. They f e e l t hat the agency as an i n s t i t u t i o n i s c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t and operates to t h i s end. • Agency s t a f f i s perceived as ope r a t i n g p o s i t i v e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h two l i m i t a t i o n s . This p e r c e p t i o n i s q u a l i f i e d by the p o s s i b l e "halo" e f f e c t discussed i n Chapter I I . F i r s t l y , the c l i e n t s r e cognize, c l e a r l y and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , that caseloads are too h i g h , s o c i a l workers have too much to do, and are not s u f f i c i e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . Secondly, they recognize the l i m i t a t i o n of the amount of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e grants as a p o l i c y r e s t r i c t i o n . 60 I f t h i s general impression i s taken f o r examination i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the normal morale, and a l i e n a t i o n standards, a s l i g h t l y "outre" thought should be expressed. The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, by general agreement, i s o f f e r i n g a minimum income maintenance s e r v i c e . Perhaps t h i s l e v e l of s e r v i c e i s the most appropriate one f o r t h i s c l i e n t group. They may not r e q u i r e exten-s i v e s e r v i c e r e l a t i n g to personal inadequacies. T h e i r needs f o r t h i s type of s e r v i c e f a l l i n t o the normal category. I f t h i s s i t u a t i o n does e x i s t , then these s e r v i c e s should be o f f e r e d on a u n i v e r s a l b a s i s divorced from p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programmes. The type of s e r v i c e s which they do need are those o p e r a t i n g to open the door f o r equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s . To s t a t e the point i n another way, Titmuss' (12 -) conception of s o c i a l j u s t i c e , expressed i n terms of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d i n g f o r equal opportunity according to need, may be the best framework i n which to continue our c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I n concrete terms, greater e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a t t a i n minimum entrance requirements f o r trade t r a i n i n g , which i t s e l f should be expanded, should be o f f e r e d . P u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n the form of daycare centres are e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t to a study popula-t i o n which i s more than three-quarters composed of one-parent f a m i l i e s . This k i n d of s e r v i c e should be o f f e r e d on a u n i v e r s a l b a s i s divorced from p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Environmental manipulation would be the words chosen by the caseworker, and r i g h t l y so. I s the p e r s p e c t i v e c o r r e c t ? The focus should not be on i n d i v i d u a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n through p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to the poor. 61 The emphasis should r e s t on broad p r o v i s i o n s t a i l o r e d to meet the needs of a l l , i n c l u d i n g the low-income group. I I . RELATIONSHIP OF CONCLUSIONS TO GROUPS CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEM The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department The i m p l i c a t i o n s to t h i s agency are t h r e e - f o l d . F i r s t l y , measures should be taken to strengthen t h e i r present major f u n c t i o n of income maintenance. Secondly, the t o t a l c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e s groups w i t h widely d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs, which need to be d e a l t w i t h on a d i f f e r e n t i a l b a s i s . T h i r d l y , planning f o r the agency's f u t u r e should i n c l u d e d e c i s i o n s as to t h e i r most e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s prompted by the c l i e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of agency l i m i t a t i o n s i n terms of p o l i c y concerning s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t s , and s t a f f d e f i c i e n c i e s . As the p o l i c y l i m i t a t i o n stems from ground r u l e s l a i d down i n V i c t o r i a , the study can suggest only that pressure be maintained to increase the l e v e l of a s s i s t a n c e to permit a more e f f e c t i v e and wider s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by c l i e n t groups. S t a f f d e f i c i e n c i e s are the outstanding problem. On the assumption that the agency must be a c u t e l y aware of t h e i r need f o r more q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , t h i s study recommends t h a t , w i t h the c l i e n t groups strong support, the major v e h i c l e f o r the improvement of t h e i r present programme would be an immediate and s i z a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s t a f f . The second c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been recognized by the formation of s p e c i a l u n i t s and s p e c i a l caseloads w i t h i n the o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the agency. This o r g a n i z a t i o n a l focus should be extended r e a l i s t i c a l l y . The emphasis should be placed l e s s on the development of casework s e r v i c e s and more on e f f e c t i v e methods of coping w i t h mass demand f o r income maintenance s e r v i c e s . The t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n grows n a t u r a l l y out of the second. The nature of the agency's f u t u r e should be planned w i t h the thought i n mind, that the most e f f i c i e n t way of s e r v i n g the c l i e n t groups p r e s e n t l y dependent on the agency, may be to d i v i d e the s e r v i c e and • form a second agency. A model, i n p r i n c i p l e , may be the d i v i s i o n of the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e and the Unemployment Insurance Commission. As i n t h i s model, the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s conceived on a u n i v e r s a l b a s i s and i s divorced from the income maintenance f u n c t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l Department ,of S o c i a l Welfare The same comments w i t h reference to f u t u r e planning of agency f u n c t i o n apply w i t h two major d i f f e r e n c e s . The p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a r r i e s r u r a l and urban r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A more f l e x i b e and l o c a l l y r e l e v a n t s e r i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements would be necessary i f an e f f i c i e n t d i v i s i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i v e and income maintenance f u n c t i o n s were to be separated. As t h i s depart-ment c a r r i e s f a m i l y s e r v i c e s and c h i l d welfare r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , perhaps s e p a r a t i o n could be founded on the strong c o u n s e l l i n g 6 3 component which i s i m p l i c i t i n these l a t t e r two programmes. Income maintenance f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n could and should be separated from the casework component. The r e s u l t s of the Department's Nanaimo study of c l i e n t s ' perceptions of agency, i n d i c a t e i n p r e l i m i n a r y form general agreement. Both agencies have earned a very p o s i t i v e c l i e n t image. The C i t y of Vancouver The c l i e n t s ' preferences concerning urban renewal should be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when planning t h i s renewal p r o j e c t and o t h e r s . The c l i e n t groups are f u l l y capable of expressing t h e i r preferences and of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n f o r m u l a t i n g adequate r e l o c a t i o n procedures and s e r v i c e s . The C i t y should be c o n g r a t u l a t e d f o r a v a i l i n g themselves of the opportunity made a v a i l a b l e under a f e d e r a l grant to i n i t i a t e s o c i a l s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban renewal. This study would recommend that t h i s p r a c t i c e be continued and expanded i n c l o s e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h p h y s i c a l planners during the i n i t i a l p l anning stages of s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s . The F e d e r a l Government Through the auspices of the f e d e r a l government, s o c i a l s t u d i e s are now p o s s i b l e . A h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e a s s o c i a t e d f u n c t i o n f o r the f e d e r a l government to assume would be to serve as a c l e a r i n g house f o r the r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s . An a n a l y t i c r o l e on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l would be best assumed by a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body w i t h access to a l l study r e s u l t s which would y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning 64 common f a c t o r s and r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Planners at a l l l e v e l s would b e n e f i t from such a s e r v i c e . • B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers This p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n should f i n d a l l the' c o n c l u -s i o n s of general i n t e r e s t , : w i t h s p e c i a l reference to the need f o r more q u a l i f i e d s t a f f . This concern has been i n the f o r e f r o n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s f o r many yea r s . The r o l e , of the s o c i a l worker under a d i v i d e d system of income maintenance p r o v i s i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e s i s tendered f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as t h i s q u e s t i o n a l s o has. played a p a r t i h t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of S o c i a l Work As a t h e s i s project, f o c u s , t h i s study has yielded- a r e s e r v o i r of i n f o r m a t i o n . For the next few years t h i s problem w i l l o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r other p r o j e c t s . . Perhaps the School could serve as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body to acquire i n f o r m a t i o n i n a more systematic f a s h i o n , thereby i n c r e a s i n g the value of the f i n d i n g s . As a research placement.,' the Community Chest and C o u n c i l i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h municipal urban renewal p l a n n i n g , o f f e r s an u n r i v a l l e d vantage point, f o r the student. Although the conclusions of t h i s study r a i s e more questions than they answer, the researcher f e e l s that the study does i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n s i n which f u r t h e r research might be p r o f i t a b l y undertaken. The study has r e j e c t e d the t h e o r e t i c a l - construct which was. adopted 65 from a s y n t h e s i s of current research i n the United S t a t e s . Well i t may be,1 that l o c a l i t y relevance of theory must be determined by l o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Without such t e s t i n g , theory w i l l remain unsupported concerning the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t groups. As the School develops i t s core of knowledge, s t u d i e s such as t h i s have the p o t e n t i a l to support t h i s process i n a major way. I I I . A PROPOSAL Throughout the t e x t , - t h e r e has been the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n that i n s u f f i c i e n t s o c i a l data e x i s t s upon which a d e s c r i p t i o n of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e dependents can be b u i l t . The c o n c l u s i o n s support the thought that the i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned.from other s t u d i e s i s not a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . By extra--p o l a t i o n one might say that t h e o r e t i c a l data may not be a p p l i c a b l e i n a general-^sense to m e t r o p o l i t a n c l i e n t groups. The need f o r f u r t h e r research i s c l e a r . To t h i s end, a proposal i s suggested. The three major s c a l e s show no c o r r e l a t i o n (See Appendix pp. 77 - 7 9 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s would appear, to be very complex and beyond the power of t h i s study to s t a t e anything other than i t s l a c k of s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n to i l l u m i n a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these s e l f - e v i d e n t l y important v a r i a b l e s i n terms of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Extensive examination of the responses to the three s c a l e s f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h any p r o f i l e of even a s m a l l group which i n d i c a t e d a h i g h , middle or low c o r r e l a t i o n . This l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n may i n d i c a t e that the s c a l e s were measuring 66 q u i t e d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , and the study d i d at- l e a s t avoid the e r r o r of measuring the same v a r i a b l e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Future s t u d i e s should develop appropriate i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n to examine the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s . This researcher was unable to f i n d an appropriate instrument.i The study suggests that a major e f f o r t should be d i r e c t e d towards t h i s development. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Proposed Research S e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s - should be adhered to i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the design. F i r s t l y , normative data of a l o c a l nature may only be gathered i f the design aims to measure a t t i t u d e s through a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a . The study should aim not at a d e s c r i p t i o n of the poor, but r a t h e r at a d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s , i f any,, between a l l components of the s o c i e t y . . I n concrete terms,' t h i s might mean that f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n i n a Vancouver s e t t i n g should be measured through a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l groupings i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e c l i e n t s , working c l a s s , blue c o l l a r and white, middle c l a s s and upper c l a s s samples. Secondly, - the study should aim to measure s o c i a l f a c t s w i t h i n the s o c i a l ecology of the deprived groups. S o c i a l work must enter i n t o i n t i m a t e p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h a s s o c i a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s c u r r e n t l y d i s p l a y i n g the same focus. I n concrete terms, s t u d i e s conducted under the auspices of the School of S o c i a l Work should r e l a t e i n a comprehensive study to the work of urban s o c i o l o g i s t s - and the urban and human geographers. Otherwise, our data w i l l remain out of context. The ecology of the welfare system may only be put i n 67 p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h i n the ecology of the l a r g e r s o c i a l , system. S o c i a l work expends a considerable p o r t i o n of i t s resources t r a n s l a t i n g s o c i a l science theory i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l terms f o r s o c i a l work pro-f e s s i o n a l s . The opportunity e x i s t s at the f i e l d study l e v e l to shortcut t h i s d e f i c i e n c y by b u i l d i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l requirements i n t o comprehensive s t u d i e s . T h i r d l y , , as t h i s study i n d i c a t e s , the Canadian s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s , which i n c l u d e the p o t e n t i a l f o r u n i v e r s a l medical care,- a minimum income l e v e l and comprehensive ed u c a t i o n a l opportun-i t i e s i n the next decade, may w i e l d a determinate i n f l u e n c e on the formation of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of groups such as the study p o p u l a t i o n . The proposed design should make p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t r o l groups i n other provinces and s t a t e s whose s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s are e i t h e r p a r a l l e l or d i f f e r e n t . This v a r i a b l e may be defi n e d . The t e s t i n g of the hypothesis that s o c i a l service- p r o v i s i o n s p l a y a major r o l e i n determining s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s would be worth w h i l e . Research Model of L e v e l of Design The proposal, suggests a study combining fe a t u r e s of the d i a g n o s t i c - d e s c r i p t i v e and experimental models. The study should aim to assess c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of study p o p u l a t i o n s , d e r i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s , and to t e s t hypotheses concerning c a u s a l i t y . ; To d i s t i n g u i s h the caus a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s of c l i e n t groups i s of c r i t i c a l importance to the development of e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l p o l i c y . . 68 S e l f - e v i d e n t l y , . a l l important v a r i a b l e s w i l l not be known i n such a broad framework.- But a high degree of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n must be accomplished. To o p e r a t i o n a l i z e concepts concerning s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s now possible.- The main d i f f i c u l t y w i l l l i e i n . o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g concepts r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s i n t h i s context that the e a r l i e r comments concerning the development of appropriate instruments must be taken. Hypotheses must be formulated at a l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l r e g u l a r i t y . Because of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , : a rigourous c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and sample s i z e must be observed. The v a r i a b l e s are by d e f i n i t i o n u n c o n t r o l l e d and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . The p r o b a b i l i t y of i s o l a t i n g dependent v a r i a b l e s must be c a r e f u l l y considered. The study does not presume to o u t l i n e i n d e t a i l such a wide ranging p r o p o s a l , but does suggest that t h i s focus should remain i n the f o r e f r o n t of agencies and researchers who have the d i s c r e t i o n to set study p r i o r i t i e s . Doubtless, the problem must be approached i n sm a l l steps by degree w i t h i n reference to the preceding c o n t r o l . The study recommends such an aim, as t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l theory. READING REFERENCES READING REFERENCES A. BOOKS 1) Chapin,• S t u a r t F. Experimental Designs i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Research„ New York: Harper & Bro t h e r s , 1955' 2) Ha r r i n g t o n , M i c h a e l . The Other America. London: Penquin, 1963= 3) M i l l e r , Delbert C. Handbook of Research Design and S o c i a l Measurement. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1964. 4) Rundquist, Edward A., and Raymond E. S l e t t o . P e r s o n a l i t y i n the Depression. Minneapolis: The U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , 1936. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 5) B e l l , L. I . M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, An Overview f o r S o c i a l Planners. Vancouver: Research Department, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, 1965« 6) Brown, James S., David Kogawa and Raymond E. P e t e r s . P u b l i c Housing and Welfare S e r v i c e s , A. Comparative Review of Developments i n Canada, United States and B r i t a i n , 1947 - 1963« Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. 1964^ 7) Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , P u b l i c Welfare D i v i s i o n . Standards i n P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Ottawa:, The Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l N o v e m b e r , 1959. 8) Committee on P u b l i c Welfare P o l i c y . F e d e r a l L e g i s l a t i v e O b j e c t i v e s . Chicago: American P u b l i c Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , 1965^ 9) Management Information S e r v i c e . M u n i c i p a l R e l o c a t i o n and Disp l a c e d Residents. Chicago: I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , January, 1965. 10) Marsh, Leonard C. R e b u i l d i n g A Neighbourhood. Research P u b l i c a t i o n s No. 1. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950. 71 C. PERIODICALS 11) I r e l a n , L o l a M. and Arthur Besner. "Low-Income Outlook on L i f e , " Welfare i n Review. Washington, D. C.: U. S... Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , September, 1965• 12) Titmuss, R. H. "The Welfare .State: Images and R e a l i t i e s , " S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, V o l . XXXVII, No. 1, March, 1963. D. ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS 13) N e t t l e r , G. "A. Measure of A l i e n a t i o n , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l  Review. New York: The American S o c i o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . X X I I , No. 6,. December, 1957. APPENDIX 73 KEY TO CITY SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT'S CODE FOR ASSISTANCE CATEGORIES 11 - S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e — S i n g l e person 12 - S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e — C o u p l e 13 - S o c i a l Assistance—One-parent lk - S o c i a l Assistance—Two-parent . 15 - S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e — C h i l d r e n 20 - - B l i n d Person Allowance 30 - Disabled Person Allowance kO - Old Age As s i s t a n c e 50 - Old Age S e c u r i t y Bonus 74 TABLE XIV CASELOAD STATISTICS STATISTICS FOR SCHEME I I I AREA AND RELOCATION AREA BOUNDED BY AREA SOUTH OF EAST HASTINGS BETWEEN 400 - 1000 BLOCKS, WHICH ABUTS SCHEME I I I BOUNDARIES CODE # FOR CSSD EXPLANATION OF TOTAL AREA CASELOAD CATEGORIES CATEGORIES BY CATEGORIES  11 SAS 715* 12 SAC 28 13 SA IP 93 lk SA 2P 13 15 SA CR 3 20 BPA k 30 DPA 30 TOTAL CASELOAD 40 OAA 193 CSSD 50 OAS 466 1541 * S i n g l e Men Unit f i g u r e 75 RESPONSES TO OPEN QUESTION NO. 7a. PAGE 5 1 Doesn't care f o r area. 2 Too r i c h y , not used to i t . 3 Has no c a r , has to walk everywhere, would be d i f f i c u l t t h e r e . k No response. 5 Not h i s home. P r e f e r s East End. 6 Pre d j u d i c e i n that area (she i s a negress). 7 Not her c l a s s of people. 8 Not f a m i l i a r w i t h the c i t y . 9 Would not get used to i t , f e e l s at home here. 10 Rents are higher. 11 Can't a f f o r d i t . 12 No response. 13 No response. lk No response. 15 Would l i k e to stay i n present d i s t r i c t i f c o u l d . 16 Don't know d i s t r i c t s , so unsure. 17 Always thought P o i n t Grey i s a n i c e d i s t r i c t . 18 P r e f e r t h i s area. 19 No response. 20 The neighbours would be a b e t t e r type of person. 21 No response. 22 I l i k e t h i s d i s t r i c t — f r i e n d s convenient. 23 I don't have a choice. 2k A i r i s b a d — d i e s e l , n o i s e . 76 25 U n i v e r s i t y students have already rented most of the places i n that area. 26 Too f a r out from downtown. 27 Want to stay i n t h i s neighbourhood—people n i c e , near to my daughter. 28 I don't r e a l l y have enough money to move to b e t t e r area. 29 Too f a r a w a y — l i k e to be c l o s e to c i t y . I would f e e l uncomfortable amongst posh homes. 30 This would be too f a r from downtown and beaches. 31 Have always l i v e d i n t h i s area, c l o s e to downtown. 32 Doesn't l i k e d i s t r i c t — " t e e n a g e r s up there don't t h i n k before they do anything", too f a r from town. 33 Peoples are not too f r i e n d l y . J>k Mrs. F a r r y appears to be comfortable l i v i n g i n a low-income area. 35 "Give me a winning I r i s h Sweepstake t i c k e t " . 36 There i s not enough opportunity to f i n d enough work to l i v e t h e r e . 37 Because "I'm a poor woman—rich people l i v e t h e r e " . 38 Too high mucky to l i v e t h e r e . Summary 1) 5—no response 2) 1 8 — p r e f e r present area f o r s e v e r a l reasons 3) 4—would l i k e t o , can't a f f o r d i t 4) 2—would l i k e to because of " b e t t e r " neighbourhood 5) r e s t u n c l a s s i f i a b l e 7 7 FIGURE 1. GRAPH OF CORRELATION BETWEEN MORALE AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALES RESULT—NO CORRELATION MORALE SCALE raw score numbers raw score numbers To To 3 6 ?o So Jo TO 90 To 735 775 Tqo 735 75 SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALE 78 FIGURE 2.. GRAPH OF CORRELATION BETWEEN MORALE AND' ALIENATION SCALES RESULT—NO CORRELATION 9° •70 60 j-0 ¥0 3 0 20 \ I0\ MORALE SCALE 0 • • 0 . J « c 0 1 » » raw score 0 t » numbers *. •* » > raw score numbers 75 5To as jo 5<r 7*om 10 ALIENATION SCALE 79 FIGURE 3 . GRAPH OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ALIENATION AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALES RESULT—NO CORRELATION ALIENATION SCALE raw score numbers raw score numbers /O o.o 3 0 to SO 6o ro SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALE SO 90 too //O /4.0 /$0 80 SROLE ANOMIE SCALE lo There's l i t t l e use w r i t i n g to p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s because o f t e n they aren't r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems of the average man. 2. Nowadays a person has to l i v e p r e t t y much f o r today and l e t tomorrow take care of i t s e l f . 3 ° In s p i t e of what some people say, the l o t of the average man i s g e t t i n g worse, not b e t t e r . k. I t ' s h a r d l y f a i r to b r i n g c h i l d r e n i n t o the world w i t h the way thi n g s look f o r the f u t u r e . 3 . These days a person doesn't r e a l l y know whom he can count on. 81 INSTRUCTIONS FOR INTERVIEWERS Purposes and Objectives of Study The purposes of t h i s study are t r i p a r t i t e . F i r s t l y , the study aims to accept or r e j e c t the p r o p o s i t i o n that low-income f a m i l i e s are i d e n t i f i a b l e by a unique c o n f i g u r a t i o n of l i f e c o n d i t i o n s which l e a d to a d e f i n a b l e and unique c o n f i g u r a t i o n of dominant s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . S e c o n d l y , the study aims t o a s c e r t a i n the study population's a t t i t u d e s toward, knowledge of and wishes i n regard to urban renewal plans which w i l l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t them. T h i r d l y , the study w i l l attempt to measure the study population's perceptions of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department's s t a f f , p o l i c i e s and s e r v i c e s . The schedule i s s i m i l a r l y d i v i d e d i n t o three corresponding s e c t i o n s . This schedule w i l l be supplemented by a second schedule to be administered to the s t a f f of the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department w i t h reference to the second and t h i r d aims. The o b j e c t i v e s are d u a l . F i r s t l y , the study hopes to d e l i n e a t e some of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the study p o p u l a t i o n f o r the purpose of adding to our general knowledge base and of p r o v i d i n g a more r e a l i s t i c background against which present C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department s e r v i c e s may be more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d . Secondly, an a p p r a i s a l of s p e c i a l problems a r i s i n g f o r the study p o p u l a t i o n and the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department from urban renewal schemes, may a s s i s t the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y f o r meeting t h i s unprecedented s i t u a t i o n . An a p p r a i s a l of the l e v e l of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of present C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department s e r v i c e s may a s s i s t the c i t y and the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i n planning f o r the present and f u t u r e programme needs. Sponsorship of Study This study i s supplementary to a l a r g e r study being conducted by the Community Chest and Council,; Research Department f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. The funds are being provided by a f e d e r a l government grant to the C i t y of Vancouver under urban renewal l e g i s -l a t i o n f o r the purpose of i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l p lanning co-ordinated w i t h p h y s i c a l planning. T h i s i s the f i r s t such grant i n Canada. The Study P o p u l a t i o n An inventory of the t o t a l C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department caseload w i t h i n the study area has been compiled by a s s i s t a n c e c a t e g o r i e s . The study p o p u l a t i o n has been drawn from the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a t e g o r i e s e x c l u s i v e of s i n g l e men and women and c h i l d r e n i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . By random s e l e c t i o n , a sample N of f i f t y p l u s t e n f o r replacement purposes w i l l be drawn. This sample represents a p p r o x i -mately 35% of the t o t a l caseload i n these c a t e g o r i e s . 83 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Schedule  Interviewers F i v e i n t e r v i e w e r s have been r e c r u i t e d from the M. S_. W. students who share a common background of p u b l i c welfare experience of at l e a s t two years d u r a t i o n or a s s o c i a t e d experience. Format The schedule w i l l be administered i n two separate one hour i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n the p e r i o d 14th - 29th of January, 1966, w i t h at l e a s t one day between i n t e r v i e w s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the schedule w i l l comprise the content of the f i r s t hour. The second and t h i r d s e c t i o n s w i l l comprise the content of the second hour. Each i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l p r e t e s t a schedule during the week of January 1 0 t h . A conference of i n t e r v i e w e r s w i l l be h e l d on January 17th to amend the instrument as r e q u i r e d . I f the schedule emerges r e l a t i v e l y unchanged, the p r e t e s t schedule w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the sample. Interviewer T r a i n i n g A conference w i l l be arranged w i t h a l l i n t e r v i e w e r s and the s u p e r v i s i n g student before and a f t e r the p r e t e s t i n g phase f o r the purpose of s t a n d a r d i z i n g the i n t e r v i e w e r s ' perceptions of the schedule's q u e s t i o n sequence, qu e s t i o n wording and meaning and of amending any obvious anomalies. Further conferences w i l l be arranged during the data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d as r e q u i r e d . 84 Method of Making I n i t i a l Contact w i t h the Respondents 1. A l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the purposes, sponsorship, method of respondent s e l e c t i o n and the c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous respondent p r o t e c t i o n , w i l l be sent to each respondent on January 11, 1966. 2. The i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l make an i n d i v i d u a l contact by telephone ••.'•prior to each of the two subsequent i n t e r v i e w s to confirm the respondent's w i l l i n g n e s s to a s s i s t and to arrange appointments. Expected Problems 1. Probably the most d i f f i c u l t problem w i l l center around the techniques to be employed i n the s t i m u l a t i o n of respondent response. Some of the questions have been taken from recognized instruments and may not be modified although these instruments are not e n t i r e l y appropriate f o r t h i s study p o p u l a t i o n . Consider-able n o n - d i r e c t i v e but supportive probing may be r e q u i r e d to e l i c i t a ppropriate answers. These techniques w i l l be discussed and evaluated before and a f t e r the p r e t e s t stage. Perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t questions could be rehearsed. 2. The i n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l and the v e r b a l i z a t i o n a b i l i t y of the respondents w i l l be l i m i t e d and many questions w i l l r e q u i r e restatement and/or a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to enable the respondent to respond meaningfully. This problem w i l l be discussed before and a f t e r the pretest-phase and during the data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d i n conference as i s r e q u i r e d . 3,. The questions unique to the schedule are open to m o d i f i c a t i o n and the author w i l l a p p r e ciate your c l o s e scrutiny,, your comments and 85 recommendations before and a f t e r the p r e t e s t phase. The number of open questions are l i m i t e d i n number and are l i m i t e d i n focus and range. Your c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d e s p e c i a l l y to an a p p r a i s a l of d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n t h i s type of q u e s t i o n . Interviewer A t t i t u d e s - The i n t e r v i e w e r must not at any time e x h i b i t h i s own f e e l i n g s about the content of the questions and h i s p ersonal choice as to appropriate answers. I f the respondent wishes to know your f e e l i n g s and i d e a s , please f e e l f r e e to d i s c u s s them at the c o n c l u s i o n of the second hour of the i n t e r v i e w . • Otherwise, the i n t e r v i e w e r should maintain a warm, concerned, a p p r e c i a t i v e , n o n - d i r e c t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the i n t e r v i e w process. As two questions (Nos. 8a.- and 9a.) r e q u i r e observations of home co n d i t i o n s by the i n t e r v i e w e r , please make a thorough s c r u t i n y of the p h y s i c a l environment of the respondent without d i r e c t l y asking f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . As many of the questions i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n r e q u i r e d e l i c a t e answers to p o s s i b l y t h r e a t e n i n g questions to the respondent, the rapport which the i n t e r v i e w e r i s able to e s t a b l i s h w i l l determine the freedom w i t h which the respondent w i l l reply..; The schedule openly,, r e s t s upon the t r a i n i n g , experience and s e n s i t i v i t y of the i n t e r v i e w e r s ' c a p a c i t y to make sound judgments upon the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the respondents. The study has been designed to place t h i s major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon the i n t e r v i e w e r . For t h i s reason,- frequent c o n s u l t a t i o n of a l l i n t e r v i e w e r s may be r e q u i r e d to standardize the c r i t e r i a f o r judgment. Thank you and Good Luck J . B. V i c k a r s S u p e r v i s i n g Student COPY OF INTRODUCTORY LETTER TO CLIENTS 87 Dear The School of S o c i a l Work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s stu d y i n g the s o c i a l allowance programme i n Vancouver. We hope to be able to make suggestions that w i l l improve the s e r v i c e which you are now r e c e i v i n g . To understand the r e a l s i t u a t i o n we s h a l l need your help as no one e l s e r e a l l y knows. Your i d e n t i t y w i l l never researcher who w i l l i n t e r v i e w you. c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l be the b a s i s be known to anyone but the Your i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l remain of the recommendations. A researcher w i l l come to arrange an appointment w i t h i n one or two days a f t e r you r e c e i v e t h i s l e t t e r . We w i l l be most g r a t e f u l f o r the help which you w i l l be able to g i v e . Yours t r u l y , John Crane, Ph.D., As s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r . 8 8 FIGURE 4. MAP OF SCHEME I I I AREA 89 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE SCHEDULE FOR CSSD STAFF I . PERCEPTIONS- OF LEVEL OF AGENCY SERVICES 1. Is the amount of the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e grant adequate: to meet your c l i e n t s ' b a s i c needs? 2. - Do you f e e l that most of your c l i e n t s r e c e i v e most of the b e n e f i t s and s e r v i c e s to which they are e l i g i b l e ? 3 . Would a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e of a v a i l a b l e agency s e r v i c e s , to be made r o u t i n e l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l c l i e n t s , a s s i s t the c l i e n t s to b e t t e r u t i l i z e agency service?-3 a . Would a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e of a v a i l a b l e agency s e r v i c e s , to be made r o u t i n e l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l c l i e n t s , a s s i s t the s t a f f to b e t t e r serve t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ? 4. When you are i n t e r v i e w i n g your c l i e n t s do you f e e l that you understand what they are saying? 4 a . Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : When your s t a f f i n t e r v i e w s your c l i e n t e l e , ' do you f e e l that they understand what the c l i e n t s are saying?• 5. Do you f e e l that e l i g i b i l i t y requirements' impinge on the c l i e n t s ' " r i g h t s " to be a s s i s t e d f i n a n c i a l l y ? 6. Do you f e e l that e l i g i b i l i t y requirements become an o b s t a c l e to e s t a b l i s h i n g a casework r e l a t i o n s h i p , ' often? 7. Are you a v a i l a b l e by telephone,-. o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w , or home v i s i t , as- f r e q u e n t l y as you f e e l you should be?' 7a.- Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : Is your s t a f f a v a i l a b l e by telephone, o f f i c e interview,, or home v i s i t , as f r e q u e n t l y as you f e e l they should be? 8. ' I s i t important to v i s i t your c l i e n t s at home? 9 . Do you f e e l t h a t you should v i s i t your c l i e n t s more often? 9 a . Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : Do you f e e l that your s t a f f should v i s i t t h e i r c l i e n t s more often? 90 10. .Do you f e e l competent to d e a l w i t h present CSSD r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o c l i e n t s i n terms of knowledge and s k i l l ( s o c i a l work or non-s o c i a l work)? 10a.. Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : Do you f e e l that your s t a f f i s competent to d e a l w i t h present r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to c l i e n t s i n terms of knowledge and s k i l l ( s o c i a l work or non s o c i a l work)? I I . URBAN RENEWAL AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE CLIENTS IN THE SCHEME I I I AREA 11. Do you know of the urban renewal plans f o r the Scheme I ' l l area? 12. Do you f e e l that these plans w i l l pose s p e c i a l - a l t e r n a t i v e problems f o r your c l i e n t s , i n f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e housing? 13. Do you f e e l that these plans w i l l pose s p e c i a l f a m i l y problems of an emotional nature f o r your c l i e n t s ? lk. I f yes to 12. and/or 13. do you f e e l that the CSSD could help w i t h these problems by p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s ? ' ika. I f yes,' do you f e e l that a s p e c i a l o f f i c e i n the area should be e s t a b l i s h e d i f e x t r a s t a f f and f i n a n c i a l support were to-become a v a i l a b l e ? 15»' Do you f e e l that s p e c i a l moving grants be made a v a i l a b l e to c l i e n t s dispossessed of t h e i r homes? 16. •' Do you f e e l that Vancouver should o f f e r those c l i e n t s who are f o r c e d to move, a l t e r n a t i v e housing i n the form of p u b l i c housing?. 17. Do you f e e l that Vancouver should o f f e r those c l i e n t s who' are forced to move,'alternative housing i n the form of a l i s t of a v a i l a b l e p r i v a t e housing which the c l i e n t s could be c e r t a i n of being able to rent at an appropriate r a t e ? 91 I I I . STANDARDS IN PUBLIC ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION Basic Considerations f o r a P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Programme: • 18. : Do you f e e l that CSSD grants s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e on only o b j e c t i v e evidence of e l i g i b i l i t y (on f i n a n c i a l ' n e e d ) ? 19. I f no, do you f e e l that CSSD grants s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e without reference to race, r e s i d e n c e , c i t i z e n s h i p , etc.? 20. ' Does the amount of the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e enable the c l i e n t to l i v e i n a s t y l e which permits him to r e t a i n h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t ? 21. I s the amount of the s o c i a l , a s s i s t a n c e grant s u f f i c i e n t to maintain the c l i e n t s ' normal l e v e l of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? 22. Do you f e e l that the need f o r s o c i a l , a s s i s t a n c e does not i n , i t s e l f denote personal inadequacy?' 23« I s c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y maintained unless c l e a r e d w i t h the c l i e n t f i r s t ? 2k. I s the r i g h t of appeal, against a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s provided f o r ? 25. Is t h i s r i g h t u t i l i z e d ? 26.. Should the c l i e n t s be expected to take the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y ? ' 27. Are c o u n s e l l i n g and other s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d when needed to help strengthen the r e c i p i e n t s ' c a p a c i t y f o r self-dependence? Knowledge of L e g i s l a t i o n and Resources i n the Community:• 28. ' Do you f e e l that you thoroughly understand l e g i s l a t i o n covering p u b l i c assistance?-28a.' Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : Does your s t a f f thoroughly understand l e g i s l a t i o n covering p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e ? 29. ' Are you aware of community resources a v a i l a b l e to help your c l i e n t s f o r whom i t seems to be a p p r o p r i a t e , e.g.: other, agencies? 30. Do you u t i l i z e them f o r economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e.g. N., E. S..?.. 31. Do you u t i l i z e them f o r p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e.g. G. F. Strong, other s u i t a b l e medical f a c i l i t i e s ? 32. Do you u t i l i z e them f o r s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e.g. p s y c h i a t r i c or l e i s u r e time agency r e f e r r a l ? -33« Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Staff:.. Is your s t a f f aware of community resources a v a i l a b l e to help t h e i r c l i e n t s f o r whom i t seems to be appropriate,' e.g.: other agencies? 34. Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f :.. Does your s t a f f u t i l i z e them f o r economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , ' e.g.. N. E. S.? 35* Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : Does your s t a f f u t i l i z e them f o r p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e.g.. G. F. Strong,, other s u i t a b l e medical f a c i l i t i e s ? 36. - Supervisory and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f : Does your s t a f f u t i l i z e them f o r s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e.g. p s y c h i a t r i c or l e i s u r e time agency r e f e r r a l ? S t a f f Development: 37. ' I s the o r i e n t a t i o n programme f o r new workers adequate? 38. I s s u p e r v i s i o n adequate? 39« Do s t a f f meetings provide an adequate forum f o r problem s h a r i n g and case d i s c u s s i o n ? kO.' Are i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses, conferences, l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r formal academic t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you? kl. Are i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses, conferences, l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r formal academic t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to the s t a f f as a whole? Q u a l i f i e d Staff:.. k2.. I s the s t a f f q u a l i f i e d to provide a l l the appropriate casework s e r v i c e s f o r which the agency i s p r e s e n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e ? k3. I s the s t a f f q u a l i f i e d to provide a l l the s p e c i a l i z e d l i n e -workers' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e.g. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects, r e f e r r a l , court work? 93 44. I s there s u f f i c i e n t s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f to c a r r y out f u n c t i o n s such as a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , research and s u p e r v i s i o n ? 4-5. Is there s u f f i c i e n t s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f to maintain a d i f f e r e n t i a l caseload assignment? P o l i c i e s : I n your o p i n i o n : 46. I s the p o l i c y manual adequate' as a guide f o r s t a f f ? 47. - Is the p o l i c y manual an adequate guide f o r c l i e n t s ? -48. I s the p o l i c y manual reviewed r e g u l a r l y ? -4-9. Are CSSD procedures as simple and f l e x i b l e as i s p o s s i b l e w i t h the proper management of p u b l i c funds? 50. Are adequate s t a t i s t i c s kept f o r good agency r e p o r t i n g ? 51 . Are adequate s t a t i s t i c s kept f o r good agency planning? 52.. Are adequate s t a t i s t i c s kept f o r good i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ? IN TE R VI EIV SCHEDULE 94 Name o f I n t e r v i e w e r : Name and A d d r e s s o f F a m i l y : I n t e r v i e w No CS§D C a t e g o r y : Income p e r Annum: Sex o f IIead o f H o u s e h o l d E t h n i c O r i g i n : No. o f C h i l d r e n a t Home S i n g l e P a r e n t : ALL QUESTIONS RELATE TO THE HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD SECTION I : LEVELS OF SOCIAL PARTICIPATION (COMPARATIVE L I F E S I M P L I F I C A T I O N ) 1. How O f t e n do you do These T h i n g s : 1) N e v e r 2) R a r e l y 3) O c c a s i o n a l l y 4) F a i r l y O f t e n 5) F r e q u e n t l y On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : .• 1) Amateur d r a m a t i c s 1 2 3 4 5 2) Amusement p a r k s and h a l l s 1 2 3 4 5 5) A r t work ( i n d i v i d u a l ) 1 2 3 4 5 4) A t t e n d i n g l a r g e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s ( b a l l s , b e n e f i t b r i d g e , b i n g o , c h u r c h b a z a a r s , w h i s t d r i v e s , b a n q u e t s , e t c . ) 1 2 3 4 5 5) A t t e n d i n g s m a l l s o c i a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t s ( d i n n e r p a r t i e s , e t c . ) 1 2 3 4 5 6) Book r e a d i n g f o r p l e a s u r e 1 2 3 4 5 7) C o n v e n t i o n s 1 2 3 4 5 8) C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h f a m i l y 1 2 3 4 5 9) C a r d p l a y i n g 1 2 3 4 5 10) C h u r c h and r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s 1 2 3 4 5 On l e f t - h a n d Q u e s t i o n had 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 52 3 3 34 35 s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s t o be r e p h r a s e d : D a n c i n g D a t e s E n t e r t a i n i n g a t home F a i r s , e x h i b i t i o n s , e t c . I n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w i t h f r i e n d s I n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s , e.g. " b u l l s e s s i o n s " I n d o o r team r e c r e a t i o n o r s p o r t s -b a s k e t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . I n d o o r i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n o r s p o r t s -b o w l i n g , gym., p o o l , b i l l i a r d s , h a n d b a l 1 , e t c . K n i t t i n g , s e w i n g , c r o c h e t i n g , e t c . L e c t u r e s ( n o t c l a s s ) L i s t e n i n g t o r a d i o o r TV L i t e r a r y w r i t i n g - p o e t r y , e s s a y s , s t o r i e s , e t c . M a g a z i n e r e a d i n g ( f o r p l e a s u r e ) M o v i e s N e w s p a p e r r e a d i n g Odd j o b s a t home O r g a n i z a t i o n s o r c l u b m e e t i n g s as a member O r g a n i z a t i o n s o r c l u b m e e t i n g s as a l e a d e r (as f o r y o u n g e r g r o u p s ) O u t d o o r team s p o r t s - h o c k e y , b a s e b a l l , e t c O u t d o o r i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s - g o l f , r i d i n g , s k a t i n g , h i k i n g , t e n n i s , e t c . P i c n i cs P l a y i n g m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s or s i n g i n g S h o p p i n g S i t t i n g and t h i n k i n g S p e c t a t o r o f s p o r t s 95 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 5 4 5 1 2 5 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 5 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 96 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : 36) Symphony o r c o n c e r t s 1 2 3 4 5 37) T e l e p h o n e v i s i t i n g 1 2 3 4 5 38) T h e a t e r a t t e n d a n c e 1 2 3 4 5 59) T r a v e l l i n g o r t o u r i n g 1 2 3 4 5 4 0) U s i n g p u b l i c l i b r a r y 1 2 3 4 5 41) V i s i t i n g museums, a r t g a l l e r i e s , e t c . 1 2 3 4 5 42) V o l u n t e e r work - s o c i a l s e r v i c e , e t c . 1 2 3 4 5 4 3) W r i t i n g p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s 1 2 3 4 5 44) S p e c i a l h o b b i e s - s t a m p s , p h o t o g r a p h y , shop work, g a r d e n i n g , and o t h e r s n o t i n c l u d e d above 1 2 3 4 5 45) F i s h i n g o r h u n t i n g 1 2 3 4 5 46) Camping 1 2 3 4 5 47) D e v e l o p i n g and p r i n t i n g p i c t u r e s 1 2 3 4 5 97 LEVEL OF DEPRIVATION: Don't Yes No Know 1. I n t e r v i e w e r ' s O b s e r v a t i o n s : I s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f : 1) Books 2) N e w s p a p e r s 3) M a g a z i n e s 4) A d e q u a t e c h i l d r e n ' s t o y s and games 5) A d e q u a t e c h i l d r e n ' s l e i s u r e p a r a p h e r n a l i a .  6) A d e q u a t e p l a y s p a c e ^ 7) A d e q u a t e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s p a c e ( c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s ) 8] Means f o r p r i v a t e f a m i l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2. Do a l l f a m i l y members e n j o y a n n u a l v a c a t i o n s away f r o m home? 3. E ach month a r e you a b l e t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e f o o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g and e n t e r -t a i n m e n t f o r y o u r s e l f and f a m i l y ? 4. Do a l l y o u r c h i l d r e n have good b o o t s and r a i n c o a t s ? 5. Do a l l y o u r c h i l d r e n have t h e i r own b e d s ? 6. I n t e r v i e w e r ' s O b s e r v a t i o n s : I s t h e r e a d e q u a t e : 1) F u r n i t u r e E s s e n t i a l l e v e l C o m f o r t l e v e l _ „ E s s e n t i a l l e v e l 2> S P a c e C o m f o r t l e v e l 3) A p p l i a n c e s ( s t o v e , f r i d g e , r a d i o , TV, h e a t i n g u n i t , w a s h i n g m a c h i n e ) E s s e n t i a l l e v e l C o m f o r t l e v e l 5 98 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s Don't q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : Yes No Know 7. I f y o u had a c h o i c e , w o u l d you l i k e t o l i v e i n Dunbar o r P o i n t G r e y ? 7a. I f y e s , what do you t h i n k y o u r c h a n c e s a r e ? L i k e l y U n l i k e l y N i l I f y e s o r no, why? 8. Would you l i k e t o l i v e i n a home t h a t y o u own? 8a. I f y e s , what do y o u t h i n k y o u r c h a n c e s a r c ? L i k e l y U n l i k e l y N i l I f yes o r n o , why? 99 WORLD OF WORK: On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : Yes No Don 1 1 Know Do y o u have a s k i l l o r t r a d e ? l a . I f y e s , how much c o u l d you e a r n i f you were w o r k i n g a t y o u r t r a d e ? 2. What g r a d e d i d you c o m p l e t e i n s c h o o l ? 3 . Would y o u l i k e t o g e t more t r a i n i n g ? 4. I f you w a n t e d t o g e t more t r a i n i n g , w o u l d you know how t o go a b o u t i t ? Where ? How? What? 4a. I f no, why? 5. Would you l i k e y o u r c h i l d r e n t o go t o c o l l e g e , o r f u r t h e r t h e i r t r a i n i n g a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l ( p l u s Grade 1 2 )? 5a. I f y e s , what do y o u t h i n k y o u r c h a n c e s a r e ? P r o b a b l e P o s s i b l e L i k e l y U n l i k e l y N i l What w o u l d y o u a c c e p t as an a l t e r n a t i v e ? 100 7 -Don * t Yes No Know 60 Would you l i k e a s t e a d y j o b w i t h a f u t u r e ? 6a. I f y e s , what do y o u t h i n k y o u r ch an ce s a r e ? P r o b a b l e P o s s i b l e L i k e l y U n l i k e l y N i l S o l i c i t e d Comments (Why ?) : On l e f t - h a n a s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : 7. I f you had t h o o p p o r t u n i t y t o get more t r a i n i n g , w o u l d y o u t a k e i t ? 7a. I f no, why? What was y o u r l a s t j o b ? When? I f you wore w o r k i n g i n a n o n - u n i o n j o b , w o u l d ' y o u have much o f a s a y abo u t y o u r wages o r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ? 10. Do you have much cha n c e o f g e t t i n g a u n i o n j o b ? 101 DESCRIPTION OF DEGREE OF ALIENATION: On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : 1. Do you v o t e i n n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s ? (Or w o u l d you i f o f v o t i n g a ge?) 2. Do y o u e n j o y TV? 3. What do you t h i n k of t h e new model A m e r i c a n a u t o m o b i l e s ? Yes No Don 1 1 Know 4. Do you r e a d " R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t " ? R e s t a t e n i e n t : I f no, do you r e a d " L i f e " m a g a z i n e ? 5. Do you know when t h e l a s t f e d e r a l ( c i t y ) e l e c t i o n s were h e l d ? 6. Do y o u t h i n k c h i l d r e n a r e g e n e r a l l y a n u i s a n c e t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ? 7. Do y o u l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s ? 8. Do n a t i o n a l s p e c t a t o r - s p o r t s ( f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l ) i n t e r e s t you? R e s t a t e m e n t : Do y o u , o r w o u l d you l i k e t o , w a t c h n a t i o n a l s p e c t a t o r -s p o r t s ( f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l ) ? 9. Do you t h i n k most m a r r i e d p e o p l e l e a d t r a p p e d ( f r u s t r a t e d ) l i v e s ? R e s t a t e m e n t : Do you t h i n k m a r r i a g e i s a t r a p f o r most p e o p l e ? 10. Do you t h i n k y o u c o u l d j u s t as e a s i l y l i v e i n a n o t h e r s o c i e t y - p a s t o r p r e s e n t ( S o v i e t R u s s i a now o r Canada i n y o u r g r a n d p a r e n t s ' t i m e ) ? 102 - 9 -On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n h a d t o be r e p h r a s e d : 11. Do y o u t h i n k most p o l i t i c i a n s a r e s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p u b l i c ' s w e l f a r e , o r a r e t h e y more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e m s e l v e s ? P u b l i c w e l f a r e T h e m s e l v e s 12. Do you t h i n k r e l i g i o n i s m o s t l y myth o r m o s t l y t r u t h ? M o s t l y myth M o s t l y t r u t h 13. " L i f e , as most men l i v e i t , i s m e a n i n g l e s s " ( d o e s n ' t make s e n s e . ) Do y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e ? A g r e e D i s a g r e e 14. F o r y o u r s e l f , a s s u m i n g y o u c o u l d c a r r y out y o u r d e c i s i o n o r do t h i n g s o v e r a g a i n , do you t h i n k a s i n g l e l i f e o r m a r r i e d l i f e w o u l d be more s a t i s f a c t o r y ? S i n g l e l i f e M a r r i e d l i f e 15. Do y o u b e l i e v e human l i f e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f a d i v i n e p u r p o s e , o r i s i t o n l y t h e r e s u l t o f c h a n c e and e v o l u t i o n ? D i v i n e p u r p o s e Chance and e v o l u t i o n 16. "Most p e o p l e l i v e l i v e s o f q u i e t d e s p e r a t i o n " ( u n h a p p i n e s s . ) Do y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e ? A g r e e D i s a g r e e - 10 - 103 FEELINGS OF POWERLESSNESS : F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g 22 q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number as d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e k e y b e l o w : 1) S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 2) D i s a g r e e 3) U n d e c i d e d 4) A g r e e 5) S t r o n g l y a g r e e On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : 1. The f u t u r e i s t o o u n c e r t a i n f o r a p e r s o n t o p l a n on m a r r y i n g 1 2 3 4 5 2. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t h i n k c l e a r l y t h e s e days 1 2 3 4 5 3. The f u t u r e l o o k s v e r y b l a c k 1 2 3 4 5 4. L i f e i s j u s t one w o r r y a f t e r a n o t h e r 1 2 3 4 5 5. Most p e o p l e can be t r u s t e d 1 2 3 4 5 6. Times a r e g e t t i n g b e t t e r 1 2 3 4 5 7. I t does n o t t a k e l o n g t o get o v e r f e e l i n g gloomy 1 2 3 4 5 8 . The day i s n o t l o n g enough t o do one's work w e l l and have any t i m e f o r f u n 1 2 3 4 5 9. No one c a r e s much what happens t o you 1 2 3 4 5 10. Any man w i t h a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o work h a r d has a good c h a n c e o f b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l 1 2 3 4 5 11. I t i s g r e a t t o be l i v i n g i n t h e s e e x c i t i n g t i m e s 1 2 3 4 5 12. These days one i s i n c l i n e d t o g i v e up hope o f a m o u n t i n g t o s o m e t h i n g 1 2 3 4 5 13. T h e r e i s l i t t l e c h a n c e f o r advancement i n i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s u n l e s s a man has u n f a i r p u l l 1 2 3 4 5 14. The yo u n g man o f t o d a y can e x p e c t much o f t h e f u t u r e 1 2 3 4 5 15. T h i s g e n e r a t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r see s u c h h a r d t i m e s a g a i n 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 4 11 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : 16. R e a l f r i e n d s a r e as e a s y t o f i n d as e v e r 1 2 3 4 5 17. L i f e i s j u s t a s e r i e s o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s 1 2 3 4 5 18. One s e l d o m w o r r i e s so much as t o become v e r y m i s e r a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 19. ' A man does n o t have t o p r e t e n d he i s s m a r t e r t h a n he r e a l l y i s t o " g e t b y . " 1 2 3 4 5 20. S u c c e s s i s more d e p e n d e n t on l u c k t h a n on r e a l a b i l i t y 1 2 3 4 5 21. A p e r s o n can p l a n h i s f u t u r e so t h a t e v e r y t h i n g w i l l come out a l l r i g h t i n t h e l o n g r u n 1 2 3 4 5 22. T h e r e i s r e a l l y no p o i n t i n l i v i n g 1 2 3 4 5 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o -be r e p h r a s e d : Yes 1. Do you know t h a t t h e c i t y I n t e n d s t o c o m p l e t e l y ( o r p a r t i a l l y as i s a p p r o p r i a t e ) r e b u i l d y o u r n e i g h b o r -hood? I n t e r v i e w ' s n o t e : I f no, p l e a s e b r i e f l y o u t l i n e u r b a n r e n e w a l p l a n s f o r t h e a r e a . 2. Do you t h i n k t h a t t h e s e r e n e w a l p l a n s w i l l be good f o r y o u r n e i g h b o r h o o d ? 2a. I f y e s o r n o , why? 3. I f t h i s r e b u i l d i n g scheme f o r c e s you t o move, w o u l d y o u be u p s e t ? 3a. I f yes o r n o , why? 4. I f t h e s e p l a n s f o r c e you t o move, w o u l d you be a b l e t o t h i n k o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n as a c h a n c e t o get a b e t t e r p l a c e ? 5. How many t i m e s have you moved i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s ? 5a. I f moved, d i d y o u move w i t h i n t h i s a r e a o r d i d you move f r o m a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e c i t y ? 6. Would you mind t e l l i n g how much y o u r p r e s e n t r e n t i s ? 1 5 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : ^ o n • t Yes No Know 7. A r e y o u r e n t i n g a f u r n i s h e d s u i t e ? 7a. I f no, i s a l l t h e f u r n i t u r e y o u r s ? 7b. I f y e s , i f y o u K o v e d i n t o a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w o u l d you e x p e c t a f u r n i s h e d s u i t e ? 8. I f t h e c i t y t e a r s down t h i s b u i l d i n g , w o u l d you e x p e c t t o be h e l p e d t o f i n d a new home ( o r a p a r t m e n t ) ? 9. Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e c i t y ought t o h e l p you f i n d a new home ( o r a p a r t m e n t ) ? 10. I f you do have t o move, do you f e e l t h a t t h e c i t y s h o u l d o f f e r you a new a p a r t -ment i n a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t l i k e McLean P a r k ? (SHOW PICTURE) (EXPLORE ATTITUDE TO PUBLIC HOUSING) 11. IF no, do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e c i t y s h o u l d o f f e r a l i s t o f a v a i l a b l e p r i v a t e h o u s i n g w h i c h yo u c o u l d be c e r t a i n o f b e i n g a b l e t o r e n t i f on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ? 12. Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e c i t y s h o u l d pay f o r t h e c o s t o f m o v i n g ? 13. Do you t h i n k t h a t u n e x p e c t e d p r o b l e m s m i g h t c r o p up i f you have t o move? ( e . g . c h a n g i n g s c h o o l s m i g h t u p s e t t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e y m i g h t a c t up) 13a. I f y e s , do you t h i n k t h a t you s h o u l d be o f f e r e d a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e t o h e l p w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s ? 1 3 a i Have you any i d e a what agency w o u l d b e s t p r o v i d e i t ? I f y e s , w h i c h one ? I f n o , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g seems b e s t ? 1 ) CSSD 2) C l e r g y 3) F a m i l y S e r v i c e 1 0 7 SECTION I I I : CLIENT'S PERCEPTIONS OF CSSD PERSONNEL AND POLICY: On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s Don' q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : Yes No Know 1. A r c y o u r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t s l a r g e enough t o meet y o u r b a s i c e x p e n s e s ( f o o d , c l o t h e s , s h e l t e r and e n t e r -t a i n m e n t ) ? 2. Do y o u f e e l t h a t you r e c e i v e a l l t h e s e r v i c e s f o r w h i c h you a r e e l i g i b l e ? 2a. I f no, what o t h e r s e r v i c e s have you a s k e d f o r w i t h o u t s u c c e s s ? 2b. I f y e s o r n o , t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l -a b l e : m e d i c a l c a r d , r e n t a l o v e r a g e , m e d i c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , c o u n s e l l i n g , o t h e r s . Now, how do you f e e l ? 3. Have you t a l k e d o f s e r v i c e s , b e s i d e s y o u r s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e g r a n t , w i t h y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r ? 3a. I f no, do you t h i n k t h a t h e / s h e s h o u l d have ? 4. Does t h e CSSD g i v e you a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e o f t h e s e r v i c e s f o r w h i c h yo u may be e l i g i b l e ? 4 a . I f n o , do you t h i n k t h a t t h e CSSD s h o u l d ? 4b.. Would s u c h an o u t l i n e h e l p ? 5. Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e CSSD i s t h e r e t o h e l p you? 6. Do you f e e l t h a t y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r ( p r e s e n t and p a s t ) c a r e s w h e t h e r you a r e h e l p e d ? P r e s e n t : P a s t : A l l Most Some Few None 15 108 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s Don't q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : Yes No Know 7. When y o u a r e t a l k i n g t o y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r ( p r e s e n t ) , do y o u u n d e r s t a n d what h e / s h e i s s a y i n g ? A l w a y s Most o f t h e t i m e U s u a l l y S e l d o m N e v e r S. Do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u s h o u l d be h e l p e d w i t h money w i t h o u t a n s w e r i n g a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t you a r e a s k e d ? 8a. I f y e s , d i d your s o c i a l w o r k e r e x p l a i n why a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s were n e c e s s a r y ? 8b. I f no, do you f e e l t h a t i t w o u l d have h e l p e d i f h e / s h e had e x p l a i n e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e q u e s t i o n s ? 9. Can you see y o u r w o r k e r w h e n e v e r y o u need t o ? 9a. I f n o , do y o u know why? Reas on: 10. Would you l i k e t o be v i s i t e d a t home? 10a. I f y e s , w o u l d you l i k e t o be v i s i t e d more o f t e n ? 1 0 a i I f y e s , why? 10b. I f n o , why? 11. I f you have a m e d i c a l c a r d , do you f e e l t h a t you r e c e i v e a l l t h e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n you need? 109 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s Don't q u e s t i o n h a d t o be r e p h r a s e d : Yes No Know 12. I f you have a m e d i c a l c a r d , do y o u go t o t h e d e n t i s t ? 12a. I f y e s , how o f t e n i n t h e l a s t y e a r ? 13. Do you f e e l t h a t l o o k i n g a f t e r y o u r c h i l d r e n ' s t e e ' i i s i m p o r t a n t ? 14. Are d o c t o r s ' a t t i t u d e s t h e same as d e n t i s t s ' ? 14a. I f n o , Do t h e y t r e a t you b e t t e r ? A r e t h e r e f e w e r f o r m s t o be f i l l e d o u t f o r t h e d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e t h a n t h e CSSD? 15. Do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r ( p r e s e n t and p a s t ) i s t h e r e t o h e l p you? P r e s e n t P a s t A l 1 Most Some Few None 16. Do y o u l i k e y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r ( p r e s e n t and p a s t ) ? P r e s e n t Pas t : A l 1 Most Some Few None 17. When y o u a r e t a l k i n g t o y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r , do y o u t h i n k t h a t h e / s h e i s l i s t e n i n g t o what y o u s a y ? A l w a y s U s u a l l y Most o f t h e t i m e S e l d o m N e v e r 18. Do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r has enough t i m e t o s p e n d w i t h you? 18a. I f no, do you f e e l t h a t y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r w o u l d be a b l e t o h e l p y o u more i f h e / s h e had more t i m e ? 19. Can you t e l e p h o n e y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r w h e n e v e r you need t o ? 19a. I f no, do y o u know why? R e a s o n : 17 On l e f t - h a n d s i d e , c h e c k no. o f q u e s t i o n h a d t o be r e p h r a s e d : . 1 I T K 20. Do y o u have a m e d i c a l c a r d ? 20a. I f no, do you know why n o t ? 20b. I f n o , do y o u t h i n k t h a t you s h o u l d have one? 21. A r e y o u u n e a s y a b o u t g o i n g t o t h e d e n t i s t ? I f y e s , why? 21a. He makes y o u f e e l l i k e h e ' s d o i n g yo u a f a v o r ? 21b. He d o e s n ' t want t o h e l p and t e l l s y o u s o ? 21c, 21d. 21e , 22 . 23. 24 25 25a, He d o e s n ' t have t i m e ? I t ' s t o o much t r o u b l e t o get t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r m ? I t ' s t o o f a r t o t h e d e n t i s t ' s o f f i c e ? Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e CSSD c a r e s w h e t h e r you a r e h e l p e d ? Do y o u t h i n k t h a t y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r ( p r e s e n t and p a s t ) l i k e s y o u ? P r e s e n t : P a s t : A l l M ost Some Few When you a r e t a l k i n g t o y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r , do you t h i n k t h a t h e / s h e u n d e r s t a n d s what you a r e s a y i n g ? A l w a y s U s u a l l y Most o f t h e t i m e S e l d o m • N e v e r Do you t h i n k t h a t y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r knows enough t o h e l p you p r o p e r l y ? I f n o , do y o u t h i n k t h a t h e / s h e c o u l d h e l p more i f h e / s h e knew more? Yes No 110-" 1 Know None 25b. I f n o , can y o u s u g g e s t what t h e y l a c k ? I l l - 18 -On l e f t - h a n d ' s i d e , c h e c k no. o f t i m e s Don't q u e s t i o n had t o be r e p h r a s e d : Yes No Know 26. Does y o u r s o c i a l w o r k e r v i s i t you at home? Weekly M o n t h l y B i - m o n t h l y Q u a r t e r l y S e m i - a n n u a l l y A n n u a l l y L o n g e r N e v e r 27. Do you r e c e i v e a r e n t a l o v e r a g e ? 27a. I f y es , i s i t enough? 2 7 a i I f no, how much more do you need? <t: 2 7b . I f no , do y o u need an o v e r a g e ? 2 7 b i I f y es , do you f e e l t h a t y o u a r e e n t i t l e d t o enough money t o pay t h e r e n t ? 28. Do you r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m t h e CSSD f o r p e r s o n a l a n d / o r f a m i l y p r o b l e m s ? 28a. I f y e s , do you f i n d t h i s h e l p f u l ? 28b. I f y e s , do you f i n d i t t o be enough? 28c. I f no, w o u l d you l i k e t o have c o u n s e l l i n g a v a l l a b l e ? 28d. I f yes o r no, do you f e e l t h a t t h e CSSD s h o u l d o f f e r t h i s s e r v i c e ? INTERVIEWER 1S COMMENTS 

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