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A comparison of distances travelled to urban night school centers McKinnon, Donald Peter 1966

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A COMPARISON OF DISTANCES TRAVELLED TO URBAN NIGHT SCHOOL CENTERS by DONALD PETER MCKINNON B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master  of Education,(Adult Education) in  the F a c u l t y of EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May, 1966  In  presenting  requirements Columbia, for  granted is  by  and  copying the  Department  gain  thesis  in  partial  advanced  degree  at  the  that  the I  of  thesis  this of  that  shall  my  not  for  Department  be  or  May,  allowed  Columbia  1966.  make  agree  fulfilment  University it  that  scholarly or  by  his  publication  Education  of  shall  further  copying  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  Library  study.  Head  understood  financial  an  agree  reference  extensive  It  I  for  this  without  of  of  of  British  freely  available  permission purposes  the  may  for be  representatives. this  thesis  my w r i t t e n  for  permission  ABSTRACT  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s travelled  study  the distances  t o three urban night school centers i n order t o  determine whether each serves serves  i st o analyse  larger,  separate  overlapping areas.  areas  o r whether  The s a m p l e  population  c o n s i s t e d o f *+86 a d u l t s e n r o l l e d i n t w e n t y - t w o o f f e r e d a s p a r t o f t h e 1962-1963 p r o g r a m . selected  courses  thus the  Some o f t h e s e  w e r e o f f e r e d a t two o f t h e c e n t e r s  t h e r e m a i n d e r w e r e o f f e r e d a t o n l y one c e n t e r .  I t was  p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e c e n t e r s w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r number o f c e n t e r s o f f e r i n g  t h e same s u b j e c t  Distributions of distances travelled and  courses  were i n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d a t a l l t h r e e  c e n t e r s ; some c o u r s e s and  each  t o each group o f courses  matter.  t o each  were p r e p a r e d .  course  The c h i - s q u a r e  t e s t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e was u s e d t o compare t h e v a r i o u s distributions  and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  mean d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d was u s e d t o p r o v i d e comparisons.  Maps w e r e p r e p a r e d  additional  illustrating  the residences  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d a c o r r e l a t i o n was made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d percentage o f sessions attended  and t h e  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t .  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h a l f o f t h e !+86 p a r t i c i p ants and  travelled less two m i l e s  than  2.8 m i l e s .  from the c e n t e r they  More l i v e d b e t w e e n one attended  t h a n i n any  iii other mile i n t e r v a l  from the  center.  Only f i v e  percent  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l l e d more t h a n  n i n e m i l e s and  than  fourteen miles.  one  percent  The  t r a v e l l e d more t h a n  statistical  attended.  I t was  f o u n d t h a t when c o u r s e s  one  c e n t e r o n l y , t h e r e was  the  patterns of distance t r a v e l l e d  Participants  course. travel f o r men  no  seemed t o t r a v e l  Vancouver to a t t e n d ,  adults travelled Technical Night  The past  t o the  three  designed who  attend courses  f u r t h e r to John O l i v e r Night School  than  centers. of  f o r women o n l y  o f f e r e d at a l l three  to K i t s i l a n o  T r a v e l d i s t a n c e d o e s not i n h i b i t o f t h o s e who  d i f f e r e n c e between  w h i c h c e n t e r o f f e r e d the  courses  courses  center  from throughout the c i t y  s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s t h a n men For  the  an  were o f f e r e d a t  statistical  no m a t t e r  Women who' a t t e n d  only.  less  t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was  a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d and  of  centers,  School  Night  the subsequent  designed  and  to  School. attendance  enroll. o p e n i n g o f new  f i f t e e n y e a r s was  reviewed  c e n t e r o p e n e d w i t h i n two center i s u n l i k e l y economically  night school centers during i t was  found that a  new  miles of a large w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  to a t t r a c t  successful.  and  the  sufficient  clientele  to  be  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The author wishes  to express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o  Dr. B. E. Wales, D i r e c t o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r the Vancouver School Board, without whose c o - o p e r a t i o n the data f o r t h i s  study could not have been o b t a i n e d .  The author a l s o wishes  t o thank Dr. C o o l i e Verner,  P r o f e s s o r o f A d u l t Education, without whose guidance and a s s i s t a n c e t h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES  vii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  ix  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION Purpose Hypothesis Review of Literature D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  II  1 v  3 5 12  TEE STUDY  12 Ik 15 20 21 25 26  Setting . Adult Education . . . The Night School Program Population The Selected Centers Procedure Measurement of Distance Comparisons of Courses In the Same Category Comparison of Centers Attendance III  33  RESULTS Comparison of Distances Travelled To the Centers Type One Courses Type Two Courses Type Three Courses Mobility Subject Matter Attendance and Distance Location of Centers  IV  27 28 31  36 . .  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Conclusions Differences Between Centers Area Served Distance and Enrollment Boundaries and P a r t i c i p a t i o n Distance as a Barrier to P a r t i c i p a t i o n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ^6 51 60 63 67 67 71 71 73 73 73 75 75 76 78  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page Enrollment By Centers  19  II  Type One Courses  22  III  Type Two Courses  23  Type Three Courses  23  I  IV V  P a r t i c i p a t i o n at Selected Centers: 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3  VI  Distributions Of the Population By Distance Measured i n Mile Intervals  3^  Average Distances Travelled To the Centers By Category  38  Significance Of the Difference Between Means and Medians For the Centers  38  VII VIII IX  .  Chi-Square Values For Tests Of 39  Independence For the Centers X XI XII  Distributions For the Centers  '-t-l  Chi-Square Tests Of Independence On the Five Step Distributions For the Categories . . Significance Of the Difference Between  ^5  Mean Distances Travelled For the Categories  *+5  .  XIII  Distributions Of Type Three Participants . . .  XIV  Participants From 'Camera' and 'Tax' Courses Who Reside In the-City Of Vancouver Or In Burnaby Significance Of the Difference Between Means For Type Three Courses - Vancouver and Burnaby Only . Mobility Of Type Three Participants Residing In Vancouver and Burnaby Only . . . .  XV XVI  2h  53  59 60 6l  viii Table XVII  XVIII XIX XX  XXI XXII  Page Chi-Square Tests. On the Hypothesis That Mobility Is Independent Of the Center Attended -  62  Mobility Of Type One Participants Residing In Vancouver and Burnaby Only . . .  62  Chi-Square Test On the Medians Of the Courses In Type One  6h  Significances Of the Differences Between the Two Courses In Each Category . .  6*+  Sex and Distance Travelled  66  Perfect Attendance and Distance Travelled  .  68  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration  Page  1  Metropolitan Vancouver  2  Night School Centers In the  11  18  City Of Vancouver 3  Mobility Zones  k-  Percentage Frequency Distributions A l l Participants Cumulative Frequency Graph A l l Participants . . . . Percentage Frequency Distributions For Each Center  5 6 7  .  32  . ..  35 37 h2  Cumulative Frequency Graph For ^3  Each Center 8  Map of Type One Participants at J.O.  h7  9  Map of Type One Participants at K i t s . . .  10  Map of Type One Participants at Tech. . .  k-9  11  Map of Type One Participants  50  12  Map of Type Three Participants at K i t s . .  5^  13  Map of Type Three Participants at J.O.  .  56  1*+  Map of Type Three Participants at Tech. .  57  15  Map of A l l Type Three Participants  58  . .  ...  i-8  L  I  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s one o f the major forms o f e d u c a t i o n i n modern s o c i e t y and has shown a steady  growth  i n the v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d a d u l t s , the number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and  the number o f a d u l t s s e e k i n g t o f u r t h e r t h e i r  b o t h through independent s e l f - s t u d y and through  education  participa-  t i o n i n organized educational a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s growth i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s has been nowhere more e v i d e n t than i n the e x p a n s i o n a d u l t evening  of p u b l i c school  c l a s s e s , w h i c h have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r  by 350$ over the l a s t decade.^-  Although  these  enrollment  activities  tend t o be c e n t e r e d i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s and t h e number o f h i g h s c h o o l s t h a t have been opened f o r n i g h t courses  has g r e a t l y  i n c r e a s e d , t h e r e has been almost no i n f o r m a t i o n based on r e s e a r c h t o guide t h e a d u l t e d u c a t o r when he must d e c i d e where t o open new n i g h t s c h o o l c e n t e r s or where t o l o c a t e courses. L i t t l e has been known about the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s w h i c h  1. A. L. C a r t i e r , " P u b l i c S c h o o l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n o f the F a c u l t y ' o f E d u c a t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: Vancouver, X, ( A p r i l , I96T), p. 29.  could help the night school administrator predict whether participants w i l l come from the immediate neighborhood of a center only, or whether participants are w i l l i n g to travel longer distances within the urban setting i n order to get the courses they want.  This kind of knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l  for maximum e f f i c i e n c y since i f courses attract c l i e n t e l e from the immediate neighborhood of a center only, then i t w i l l be necessary  to offer courses i n the same subject  matter at many centers.  I f , however, participants tend to  t r a v e l longer distances i t may be necessary  to offer  courses  at one center only i n order to serve the entire urban community.  I t i s also possible that travel distances vary from  center to center. In the sense that the patterns of distances travelled to a center delimit the area served by that center, any variations of travel distances between centers would be of concern to administrators i n expanding night school organizations. Previous studies of adult education  participation  indicate a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the distance from the residence of the participant to the center he attends.  However, these studies have tended  to consider distances as one of several factors influencing participation.  As a result they have not examined travel  patterns i n d e t a i l and the general conclusion of association between distance, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s of l i t t l e assistance  3  to the administrator  trying to determine the ecology of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any given  center.  PURPOSE  The purpose of this study i s to investigate the relationship between distance t r a v e l l e d to attend an adult night school course and the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an urban s i t u a t i o n .  HYPOTHESIS  The p r i n c i p a l hypothesis investigated i n this study i s as follows: P a r t i c i p a t i o n and attendance i n adult night  school  classes are not influenced by the distance between the place of residence  of the participant and the adult school i n  which the course i s held. To test this hypothesis a number of sub-hypotheses were formulated and tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y . considered  These are  to be accepted i f there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence. Sub-hypotheses tested include the following: 1.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distance t r a v e l l e d to the three  centers when: (a) courses are offered at one center only; (b) courses are offered at two centers; and (c) courses are offered at three centers. 2.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between the distances t r a v e l l e d and the percentage of attendance.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  The question of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education has been studied i n a variety of ways and the existing research on the question has been reviewed recently. associates have reviewed the research  Brunner and  so as to show the  relationship between general s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education.  This review indicates that certain i d e n t i f i a b l e  socio-economic and ecological factors are associated with participation.  There i s no clear cut evidence  that distance  travelled i s d i r e c t l y related to participation, however, Brunner notes that  "There i s some evidence  that access-  i b i l i t y and proximity to centers for adult education i n creases p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " 3 In his study of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.,  2 . Edmund deS. Brunner et a l . , An Overview o f Adult Education Research T C h i c a g o : Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 9 8 - 1 0 2 . 3 . Ibid., p. 9 7 .  5 Kaplan found that a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s psychological as well as physical, but that " . . .  the percentage of participants  tended to be greater i n those areas more closely situated to the educational a c t i v i t i e s . " " 14  Kaplan further suggests  that socio-economic characteristics may be more important than distance.  Marble^ found that the distance from r e s i -  dence to center was related to participation, but that other characteristics of census tracts were better predictors of future p a r t i c i p a t i o n from those t r a c t s . Lindenberger and Verner evaluated the r e l a t i v e importance of distance and socio-economic status, and concluded that distance travelled was not as important as socio-economic status i n affecting p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n university evening classes. In an exploratory study on distances travelled to r u r a l educational a c t i v i t i e s dealing with a g r i c u l t u r a l production, Dent found that the method of adult education  h.  Abraham Abbott Kaplan, Socio-Economic Circumstances and A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Teachers C o l l e g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a t i o n , No. 8 8 9 . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 19^3)? P. 5 7 .  5.  Duane F. Marble, P r e d i c t i n g Evening C l a s s R e g i s t r a t i o n P o t e n t i a l i n Small Areas of the S e a t t l e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area ( U n i v e r s i t y of Washington B u l l e t i n , March,  1959).  6 . A l i c e Lindenberger and C o o l i e Verner, "A Technique f o r A n a l y z i n g E x t e n s i o n Course P a r t i c i p a n t s , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . X I (Autumn, i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 2 9 - 3 ^ .  6 influenced the distances travelled.?  Farmers seemed to  travel much further to one-day tours than to meetings or workshops.  The distances travelled to a c t i v i t i e s located  i n the four communities studied ranged from five to ten and one-half miles, and Dent concluded  that except for i n d i v i d -  uals a c t i v e l y seeking information that community boundaries acted as b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . the month i n which the a c t i v i t y was  He also concluded  that  held seemed to have no  influence on the distance t r a v e l l e d . o  Melton  has investigated the influence of alternate  course locations on the distances travelled to urban evening classes.  He found some tendency for distances to be greater  when the course was  available at one center only.  The l i t e r a t u r e on commuting to work i s extensive, but unfortunately only peripherally relevant.  Adams and MacKesey  emphasized area-to-area v a r i a t i o n i n commuting distances, indicating that the findings of the present study may  be  7 . William J. Dent, "An Exploratory Study of the Distances Which Farmers Travel to Attend Various Types of Educational A c t i v i t i e s Dealing With A g r i c u l t u r a l Production" (Two H i l l s : A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 7 . 8. James Melton, "The Influence of Alternate Course Locations on Distances Travelled by Participants i n Urban Adult Evening Classes" (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 6 6 ) . 9.  Leonard P. Adams and Thomas W. MacKesey, Commuting Patterns of Industrial Workers ( I t h i c a : Cornell University Press, 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 51•  7 applicable localized of  nature  h i s method  other  and  generally latter  do  census  tracts of  in  that  may  be  longer  that the  the  a  study  time  journey  a  urban  journey  between  10.30  p.m.,  7  and  there  the  8  travelling  night  reason time  and  district  related  the  to  the  and  influence  used  in  d i s t a n c e s are commuting  is  common  distances  distances.  depends  and  The  methods  transportation,  Since  i s no  be  in  women  questionnaires  the  that  use  and  that  men.  i n checking  than  class  show  do  may  but  the  Adams  residential  commuting  takes  p.m.,  as  This  i t appears  evening of  of  of  1  of  the  registrations  Yeates ^  useful  district  i s taken.  start  affects  more  and  than  and  type  stresses  studies  findings,  Distributions  literature  In  be  residential  study.  the  distances. 1 1  class  f a r t o work  the  Lindenberger  also  cautions against  evening Both  as  that  would  and  Garner  travel  i n commuting  and  type  Taaffe,  shows  Marble  his study  predicting  not  Verner  this  of  of  study  factor  of  of  only.  geographical areas.  MacKesey  a  to Vancouver  to  the  hence  the  time  classes  between  suppose  shows  1  upon  school  end  Wingo ^  9.30  that  of  tend  day to  and time  travelling  of  day  distance  10.  E d w a r d J . T a a f f e , B a r r y J . G a r n e r , a n d M a u r i c e H. Yeates, The P e r i p h e r a l J o u r n e y t o Work ( E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p. 1 7 .  11.  Lindenberger  12.  Lowdon Wingo, J r . , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and U r b a n Land (Washington: Resources For the Future Inc.,  p. i-6. l  and  Verner,  cm. c i t .  196l),  8  of one class more than another. The study of the non-participant and the drop-out i s also related to the p a r t i c i p a n t . B o o t h ^ i d e n t i f i e d the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i e s of the non-participant and showed how  these d i f f e r from those of the participant i n  adult education. Verner and Davis  Drop-out research has been reviewed by ll+  which shows that i n one study the mode of  transportation influenced attendance but this study was done so long ago as to be v i r t u a l l y meaningless today.  They do  indicate, however, that the drop-out rate appears to be influenced by certain administratively controllable elements such as time of meeting, length of course, or transportation. A recent study by Lee,^-5 conducted i n a provincial c i t y i n England, contains an examination of the travel patterns of college extension participants i n an urban setting.  Lee found that the proportion of the t o t a l adult  population attending general interest courses did not vary from quarter-mile to quarter-mile up to a distance o f two  1 3 . Alan Booth, "A Demographic Consideration of the NonParticipant," Adult Education. XI (Summer, 1 9 6 1 ) ,  pp. 2 2 3 - 2 2 9 .  1*+. Coolie Verner and George S. Davis, J r . , "Completions and Drop Outs: A Review of Research," Adult Education. XIV (Spring, 196!+), p. 1 6 7 . 15.  Terence Lee, "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education," The B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. XXXVI (February, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 0 1 .  9 and one-half miles from the center. ". . . adult education  He concludes that  f a c i l i t i e s can be sited at least f i v e  miles apart without loss of potential students."-^  Lee  cautions that alternative course locations sited closer than t h i s , because of competition  and necessarily r e s t r i c t e d  choice of a c t i v i t i e s , would tend to f a i l and cites the closing of many postwar centers i n England as evidence of this. Clearly, the influence of distance on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s as yet unsettled.  The existing research tends to  emphasize socio-economic factors as being more i n f l u e n t i a l than distance; only two studies have been found which are concerned solely with the question of distance.  I t would  seem that a detailed analysis of travel patterns might lead to a better understanding between the rates of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the distances that participants t r a v e l . It would seem e s s e n t i a l to understand this r e l a t i o n ship before i t i s possible to rank the various factors influencing p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are used i n this study: Center  16.  - This term i s used to designate  Lee, o_p_. c i t .  the adult night  school i n which the courses studied were located.  The three centers are i d e n t i f i e d by  the name of the high schools i n which they are located. 1.  John Oliver High School - hereinafter abbreviated to  J.O.  2. K i t s i l a n o High School - hereinafter abbreviated to K i t s . 3. Vancouver Technical School - hereinafter abbreviated to Tech. Course  - This term i d e n t i f i e s a particular class i n a center concerned with a s p e c i f i c subject matter.  Participant - The adult who  attends a particular course i n  a center. Ring  •  - The term 'ring' i d e n t i f i e s the geographical area defined by c i r c l e s drawn at one mile intervals from the center.  Type  - This term i s used to designate the various categories i n i\rhich the courses were c l a s s i f i e d i n terms of the number of centers i n which they were offered.  A Type.One course i s  offered i n one center only with a Type Two course indicating that i t was  operated i n two  of the three centers and a Type Three course x^as held i n three centers.  CHAPTER  II  THE STUDY  SETTING  The Greater Vancouver metropolitan area, shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n I, i s the largest urban complex i n western Canada.  This i s situated twenty-five miles north of the  Canada-United States border.  The area surrounds the largest  protected harbor i n Canada and i s bounded on the north by the Coastal Range of high snow-capped mountains with the Fraser River on the south. S t r a i t of Georgia.  To the west of the area l i e s the  The metropolitan area of Vancouver i s  composed of fourteen separate municipalities of which the c i t y of Vancouver i s the largest and most centrally located. 17  The c i t y i t s e l f has a population of 3 8 5 , 0 0 0  and on the  north shore of the harbor l i e North and West Vancouver with a combined population of 7 5 ? 0 0 0 .  These two suburbs are  connected to the central c i t y by two bridges crossing the harbor at the narrows.  South of the central c i t y i s the  municipality of Richmond and beyond i t l i e s the municipality 17.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 6 l Census of Canada, Population and Housing Characteristics by Census Tracts: Vancouver, B u l l e t i n C T - 2 2 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. *+.  13 of Delta.  These tv/o municipalities are p r i n c i p a l l y  a g r i c u l t u r a l but urban sprawl i s tending to occupy former a g r i c u l t u r a l land.  From 1 9 5 6 to 1 9 6 l , the population of  Richmond increased from 2 6 , 0 0 0 to ^ 3 ? 0 0 0 . The eastern edge of the central c i t y i s bordered by the municipality of Burnaby which i s a r e s i d e n t i a l area of some 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 .  Beyond Burnaby l i e a complex of lesser  municipalities that are part of the metropolitan complex. At the western edge of central Vancouver l i e s the University Endowment Lands which contain the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and a small r e s i d e n t i a l area. The metropolitan area of Vancouver has been growing rapidly.  BeWeen 1 9 5 6 and 1 9 6 1 the t o t a l population of the  area increased from 6 6 5 , 0 0 0 to 7 9 0 , 0 0 0 .  Because of the top-  ography of the area and the fact that i t surrounds a major i n l e t , the distances from one part of the area to another are often extensive. approximately  The extreme east to west distance i s  twenty-five miles and from north to south the  necessity of crossing one of the bridges over the i n l e t may make road travel distances as great as t h i r t y - f i v e miles from one point of the area to another. The adult population of the municipal area i s about 5l*+,000.  Of those, ten percent reported one or more years of  university education, thirty-seven percent had between three and five years of high school, twenty-four percent had one or two years of high school, and twenty-nine percent reported  attendance of less than a f u l l year of high school.  ADULT EDUCATION  Adult education i s provided the residents of the metropolitan area by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, by the l o c a l municipal school boards, and by numerous voluntary agencies such as the YMCA and YWCA, the Public L i b r a r i e s , and various other agencies.  The largest and most varied  programs are offered by the Vancouver School Board and the Extension Department of the University. In 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3 the Extension Department had an e n r o l l ment of 5?000 or s l i g h t l y less than one percent of the metropolitan adult population.  Most of these participants  travelled to the university campus at the extreme western -1  edge of the c i t y . -  o  1 0  Many of the courses offered by the  Extension Department are similar i n subject matter to those offered by the night schools. compete for p a r t i c i p a n t s .  1 8 . Melton, oo. c i t .  Thus, the two organizations  15 THE MIGHT SCHOOL PROGRAM  The Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board has a long h i s t o r y . ^ 1  The f i r s t night classes were  offered i n 1 9 0 9 and attracted 9 9 6 participants to four centers.  By 1 9 1 8 courses were offered i n day school academic  subjects, a r t , music, technical subjects, domestic science, commercial subjects and physical culture.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n be-  tween 1 9 1 5 ( 2 , 2 0 0 participants) and 19^2 (2,1 +1 participants) !  The high point occurred i n 1 9 3 7 when  was quite i r r e g u l a r .  ^i+OO adults enrolled and the low i n 1922 when only 1 , 1 2 6 adults p a r t i c i p a t e d . The growth since 1 9 ^ 2 ,  however, has  been steady and i n the 1 9 6 ^ - 1 9 6 5 school year there were over 38,000 participants.  2 0  During the period of this study, the t o t a l parti c i p a t i o n at school board evening  classes was 32,0*+9, or  about s i x percent of the metropolitan adult population.  Of  these participants 6 , 7 0 0 were enrolled i n academic courses for credit, 7 , 3 0 0 were i n vocational courses and 1 7 , 6 5 0 were enrolled i n non-credit, non-vocational  courses.  The f i v e  largest adult centers enrolled 73% of the participants.  1 9 . Bertram Edwards V/ales, "The Development of Adult Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (unpublished Ed.D. thesis, Oregon State College, CorvalliSj 1 9 5 8 ) ,  pp. 1 5 6 - 1 7 9 .  2 0 . Data obtained from records of the Vancouver School Board Adult Education Department.  16 Four of these centers were located i n buildings used as high schools during the day and the f i f t h i s a vocational school. The six remaining  2.  centers, also located i n high schools, en-  rolled' between ^ 5 0 and 1 , 2 0 0 participants each for a t o t a l of only h,h00 adults which i s . l e s s than fourteen percent of the participants.  Clearly the five large centers dominate part-  i c i p a t i o n ; however, two of these centers are somewhat specialized.  The Vancouver Vocational Institute specializes  i n technical subjects and the King Edward center specializes i n credit courses. Table  Enrollments  for each center are i n  I. Ever since the night school program began i n 1 9 0 9  with four centers, the problem of where to locate night school courses has been recurrent.  In the early f i f t i e s  centers were opened on an experimental  basis at  Gladstone,  Byng and Britannia High Schools but a l l these were subse-  2? quently closed for lack of c l i e n t e l e .  Wales  notes that  limited nature of the programs offered and the lack of transportation probably accounts for the lack of s u f f i c i e n t parti c i p a t i o n to maintain the centers. can be seen i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 .  The l o c a t i o n of centers  In 1 9 5 7 the policy of the  2 1 . This includes King Edward which subsequently f u l l time adult center. 2 2 . Wales, op,, c i t . , p. 1 7 8 .  became a  17 School Board was t o develop one large, well located night n  school i n each part of the c i t y . " ^ 3 A night school center was opened i n Churchill Secondary School i n 1 9 5 9 and the enrollment i n the f i r s t s i x years of operation has ranged from 500 to 7 7 0 . (Table I)  This  center i s located about two miles south of John Oliver night school i n an area dominated by expensive residences.  In  i 9 6 0 a second center was opened at Thompson Secondary School. This center i s about one mile south-east of the well established center at John Oliver.  The enrollment for each of  the f i r s t two years was about 500 but has subsequently dwindled u n t i l i n the year 196 +-1965 only 1 7 6 adults attended. 1  Killarney High School was opened for night school courses i n 1 9 6 2 - I 9 6 3 and attracted 6 1 2 participants but p a r t i c i p a t i o n here too seems to be dwindling.  Killarney i s i n the south-  east corner of the city about two miles from both Technical School and John Oliver.  Killarney and Thompson are within  one and one-half miles of each, other.  The most recently  opened center, Templeton Secondary, was opened i n the f a l l of 1 9 6 ^ and i s already experiencing p a r t i c i p a t i o n problems. Templeton i s i n a working class area i n the north-east of the c i t y and i s within about a mile and a half of the Technical School. Whether these last four centers opened since 1 9 5 9 w i l l  2 3 . Wales, o_p_. c i t . , p. 1 7 8 .  19 survive or whether they w i l l share the fate of those opened i n the early f i f t i e s i s as yet undetermined. Because of the variety of the program offered to adults by the Vancouver night schools, many participants are drawn from neighboring municipalities even though most of these also offer adult programs of their own although on a more limited scale.  TABLE  I  ENROLLMENT BY CENTERS School Year Centers Churchill*  59-60  60-61  61-62  62-63  697  60^  769  538  5^3  506  Thompson  612  Killarney  63-6^  6^-65  k-98  523  329  176  586  388 778  Templeton King George**  1081  1150  997  896  798  1518  Point  1301  1029  1165  1170  907  1791  John Oliver  2926  2513  293^  3238  3^30  ^020  Kitsilano  ^65  V726  ^75  k-627  3252  U-0 52  Technical  53^5  5361  5891  6oh$  5868  55^3  King Edward  5762  677U,  7298  7093  11392  117^5  V.V.I.  3712  3333  2622  2706  3^05  *f 2 51  Grey**  * opened i n the f a l l of 1 9 5 9 . ** these centers have been open since before 1 9 5 0 -  20  POPULATION  In order to test the hypothesis, three night school centers were selected which offered a series of courses that were of general i n t e r e s t .  The selection of the courses and  the centers had to be done simultaneously i n order to meet the c r i t e r i a deemed essential f o r the study.  These c r i t e r i a  were as follows: 1.  The courses must be of general interest courses, not vocational or academic as i n only the general courses would the p a r t i c i p a t i o n be completely voluntary.  2.  Each center selected must have courses of the following three types: (a) courses i n a subject offered i n that center and i n no other.  ( i . e . Type One)  (b) courses i n a subject offered i n that center and i n only one other center selected, ( i . e . Type Two) (c) courses i n a subject offered i n a l l three centers selected, ( i . e . Type Three) 3.  The subject matter of the courses must be of general interest with a wide appeal to potential participants and not of a specialized content that would interest only a selected group of participants.  K. The courses must be large enough to provide a d i s persed population. By applying these c r i t e r i a to the selection of the  courses and centers the number of variables influencing distance travelled could be controlled.  The other factors  influencing p a r t i c i p a t i o n as indicated i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e were assumed to be equal. These c r i t e r i a were applied to the course offerings at a l l the Vancouver School Board Night School Centers for the term 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3 and those courses which did not meet the c r i t e r i a were eliminated.  I t was evident that there would  remain s u f f i c i e n t courses for the purposes of the study at only three centers. At each of these three centers a l l the non-credit general interest courses were c l a s s i f i e d as Type One, Type Two,  and Type Three.  A sample of Type One courses was drawn  with the use of a table of random numbers.  Type Two  and  Type Three courses were fex^ i n number and a l l such courses were included i n the study.  The courses are l i s t e d i n  Tables I I , I I I , and IV.  THE SELECTED CENTERS The three night school centers with the largest selection of Type One,  Type Two and Type Three courses that  were neither academic credit, vocational, nor specialized courses were the John Oliver Night School ( i . e . J.O.), K i t s i l a n o Night School ( i . e . K i t s . ) , and the Vancouver Technical Night School ( i . e . Tech.).  TABLE I I TYPE ONE COURSES Enrollment  Center  Dramatic Writing  16  J.O.  Law f o r Women  11  J.O.  P i l o t i n g , Junior  26  J.O.  P i l o t i n g , Advanced  12  J.O.  Cartooning, Beginners  15  Kits.  S a i l i n g f o r Beginners  15  Kits.  Showcard Writing  21  Kits.  Swedish Conversation  13  Kits.  Fly Casting  20  Tech.  Fly Fishing  20  Tech..  Machine Shop Practice  28  Tech.  -35  Tech.  Course  Norwegian Conversation Total Enrollment  232  TABLE I I I TYPE TWO COURSES  Course  Enrollment  Center  Candlemaking  21  J.O.  Candlemaking  23  Kits.  How To Invest Your Money  52  Kits.  How To Invest Your Money  h2  Tech.  Total Enrollment  138  TABLE IV TYPE THREE COURSES  Course  Enrollment  Center  Income Tax Know How  15  J.O.  Your Christmas Camera  lh  J.O.  Income Tax Know How  2h  Kits.  Your Christmas Camera  2k  Kits.  Income Tax Know How  23  Tech.  Your Christmas. Camera  16  Tech.  Total Enrollment  116  2h Of the three centers selected, J.O. night school program.  had the smallest  This center i s located i n the south  central part of the city of Vancouver.  The immediate  neighborhood contains an old established business d i s t r i c t and a working class r e s i d e n t i a l area.  Within a two to three  mile range, however, there are several areas i n which the housing ranges from middle to upper class.  Table V shows the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the number of participants i n courses that could be selected.  TABLE  V  PARTICIPATION AT SELECTED CENTERS: 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 6 3  Center  Total Participants  Suitable* Participants  Participants i n Study  Percent** Selected  J.O.  3238  221^  115  5.2%  Kits.  1+628  3759  187  5.0$  Tech.  60>+9  ^988  iQk  3.7%  *number of participants not enrolled i n either vocational or academic credit courses. **percentage of suitable participants.  The K i t s , center i s i n the western section of the c i t y i n the middle of an approximately  three and one-half  mile radius which includes most of the upper-middle and upper class residences i n the c i t y of Vancouver.  It i s also  25  some two and one-half miles to the more exclusive residenti a l area i n the University Endowment Lands.  This center had  the second largest enrollment among the three selected. The enrollment data f o r this center i s shown i n Table V. The Tech. center which was at one time the p r i n c i p a l day school trade training center f o r Vancouver, i s almost i d e n t i c a l i n plant and function with the other schools i n the c i t y .  secondary  I t i s located In the north-east section  of the c i t y near the Vancouver-Burnaby border.  The immed-  iate neighborhood includes an i n d u s t r i a l area to the south and working class residences to the west and north.  In  general, the higher status r e s i d e n t i a l areas are i n the western half of the city and the working class areas are i n the east.  Tech. i s c l e a r l y i n this l a t t e r area.  As i s  shown i n Table V, Tech. has the largest enrollment of the centers selected. These three centers are situated so as to draw from the entire c i t y since no part of the city i s more than four miles from at least one of the three and not more than one person i n twenty resides more than three miles from one or other of these three centers.  PROCEDURE  When the night school centers and courses had been selected the data used f o r the study were collected from  26 the enrollment forms for each course.  These forms contain  the name and address of each participant.  A map of the area  was used f o r each center and twenty rings at one mile i n t e r vals were drawn i n concentric c i r c l e s about the center.  The  place of residence of each participant was then spotted on the map and the data were then computed for each center and for each course  category.  MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCE  A l l participants within a radius of one mile of a center are estimated to travel 0 . 5 miles, and are said to be i n ring one. Participants l i v i n g outside the one mile ring but inside a c i r c l e of two miles radius from the center are estimated to travel 1 . 5 miles, and are said to be i n ring two. This system i s continued u n t i l ring  nineteen.  A l l participants t r a v e l l i n g more than nineteen miles are considered to be i n ring 2 0 , and are estimated to travel 1 9 . 5 miles. This system underestimates  travel distances because  i t assumes that persons can travel to a night school center i n a straight l i n e .  This underestimation i s probably not  great for those within Burnaby and the c i t y of Vancouver, but i t i s certainly greater for the participants from the outlying municipalities, most of whom must cross one of the two bridges over either Burrard Inlet or one of three bridges  spanning the Fraser River.  The computation of the mean  distance t r a v e l l e d produces an underestimation of distance more than does the median as i t i s strongly influenced by long distance participants whose journey i s probably considerably underestimated. The distributions of the participants  i n each ring  for each center and type of course were tested f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences using the chi-square test at a 0 . 0 5 l e v e l of significance.  In some cases, where the  d i s t r i b u t i o n s were such as to produce an expected frequency of less than f i v e , certain intervals were combined. reduces the number of intervals measuring  This  distance from the  o r i g i n a l twenty to seven.  COMPARISON OF COURSES IN THE SAME CATEGORY  The organization of courses into categories places courses given at the same center and at the same number of centers ( i . e . of the same Type) into the same category. I f this categorization i s v a l i d , one would expect the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distance travelled to courses i n the same category to be r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r .  The i d e a l s t a t i s t i c a l  solution would be to test the distributions of distance travelled to the courses i n each category with the hypothesis that the distance travelled i s independent of the course attended.  I f the hypothesis were accepted the  courses i n the category could be considered homogenious with respect to distance t r a v e l l e d .  The small number of  participants i n many of the courses made this  procedure  impossible. It was possible, however, f o r Type One, to use the chi-square test with the hypothesis that i f the courses i n a category are homogenious, half of the participants i n each course w i l l travel less than the median distance f o r a l l the courses i n the category, and half w i l l travel further than the median.  None of the categories i n Type  Two or Type Three contained more than two courses.  For  this reason i t was decided to use the significance of the difference between means on the courses within these categories.  I t was considered that homogeneity within each  category could be accepted i f the hypothesis were accepted or i f there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean distances t r a v e l l e d .  I t was also considered that homogen-  eity within the categories would indicate the v a l i d i t y of the center-Type  categorization. Homogeneity would also  indicate that the subject matter of the course attended was not a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the distance t r a v e l l e d .  COMPARISON OF CENTERS  A l l Participants The three d i s t r i b u t i o n s each containing a l l the  29  participants from one  center were tested with the chi-square  test of independence on the hypothesis that the distances travelled by participants were independent of the center they attended.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n s were also tested two  time to determine which, i f any, similar.  at a  pairs of distributions were  I f the hypothesis of independence were accepted  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s were considered s i m i l a r . The  significance of the difference between means and  medians for the centers were tested both as a check of chi-square tests and  the  because of their value as added compar-  isons between the centers.  These l a t t e r tests, however, are  probably not as v a l i d as the non-parametric chi-square tests because the data are very p o s i t i v e l y skewed. Type One  Participants  Three d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distance, one  for each center,  were prepared for participants attending courses i n subject matter offered at one  center only.  this study these are the Type One  In the terms used i n d i s t r i b u t i o n s for each of  the three schools. These d i s t r i b u t i o n s were compared using a chi-square test oh the hypothesis that the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distances travelled were independent of the center attended. tests were superior  These  to the tests on the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n the  previous section because they control for Type and because they are not affected by unequal numbers of participants i n the  categories.  30 In order to substantiate  the chi-square tests, the  significance of the difference between the mean  distances  travelled to the centers by participants of Type One courses were also  calculated.  Type Two Participants The  three d i s t r i b u t i o n s for the categories  i n Type  Two (J.O.-2, K i t s . - 2 and Tech.-2) were tested i n the same way as the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n Type One.  However, there are  only four courses i n Type Two and one of these contains women only.  The results of these Type Two tests must thus  remain somewhat tentative. Type Three Participants The  three d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distance  t r a v e l l e d , one  for each center, of courses given i n the same subject matter at a l l three schools was also tested i n the same way as the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n Type One.  These d i s t r i b u t i o n s are of part-  i c u l a r interest because the d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r each center contains one course i n 'Income Tax' and another i n 'Christmas Camera'.  For this reason additional d i s t r i b u t i o n s were  prepared which included  only participants from Burnaby and  the c i t y of Vancouver.  The significance of the differences  between the means of these d i s t r i b u t i o n s of distance t r a v e l l e d was also  tested.  In order to discover  how many participants did not  attend the center closest to their residence even though the closest center offered a course i n the same subject matter  31 as the one they attended,  three maps were prepared.  were drawn joining the three centers. triangle.  Lines  These l i n e s formed a  The perpendicular bisector of each side was drawn  and extended to the point where the bisectors intersected. These bisectors divided Vancouver and Burnaby into three zones with a night school center i n the middle of each zone. Any participant who did not attend the closest school had to cross one of these bisectors. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3)  The residence  of each Type Three participant was placed on one of the three maps - one map f o r each center.  I t was then a simple matter  to count the participants who did not reside i n the same zone as the school they attended.  . Only participants residing i n  Burnaby or the city of Vancouver were included i n this zone analysis as participants residing i n the surrounding  areas  often had to detour considerable distances to cross bridges and thus the zone they l i v e d i n was often rather i r r e l e v a n t .  ATTENDANCE To determine i f a relationship exists between d i s t ance travelled by the participant and the percentage of sessions he attended, a product moment correlation was run between these two variables.  The correlation was checked to  see i f i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero.  One class,  Drama at J.O. was not included i n the correlation because of doubt about the v a l i d i t y of attendance r e c o r d i n g . ^ 2  2h. A population of 697 participants was used for analysing attendance only. This population contained courses categorized as Type Two and Type Three even though the courses were i n different terms.  CHAPTER III  RESULTS  The sample population i n this study consisted of participants attending adult night classes i n three Vancouver School Board centers.  When the sample i s analyzed  as a whole, the mean distance travelled i s 3 • 53 miles, while the median distance travelled i s 2 . 7 8 miles.  This d i f f e r -  ence between the mean and the median results from the d i s t ributions of distances travelled being p o s i t i v e l y skewed so that the r e l a t i v e l y few participants who ances increase the mean.  travel longer d i s t -  Since the mean indicates the  arithmetic average of the distances travelled i t i s not a p a r t i c u l a r l y useful descriptive s t a t i s t i c , however, i t i s very necessary  for the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.  The median i s  a more useful descriptive s t a t i s t i c since i t shows that half the population travels more than 2 . 7 8 miles and half l i v e within that distance of the center which they attend.  This  i s further i l l u s t r a t e d by the finding that 1 5 * 7 $ of the participants travel less than one mile to their center while 10*+, or 2 1 . t r a v e l betiveen one and two miles.  A radius  at three miles from the center includes 53% (Table VI) of the participants with more than three-quarters of them l i v i n g within five miles and over 83% l i v i n g within six miles of the center they attend.  Only 3 . 6 % travel more than ten miles and  3^ l e s s than one percent t r a v e l more than f i f t e e n m i l e s . percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n each r i n g can be seen i n  k.  Illustration  TABLE VI DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE POPULATION BY DISTANCE MEASURED IN MILE INTERVALS  Mile Interval  N  1  76  15.7  15.7  2  10k  21.k  37.1  3  82  16.8  53-9  k  6k  13.2  67.1  5  53  10.9  78.0  6  25  5.2  83.2  7  28  5.8  89.0  8  17  3.5  92.5  9  13  2.7  95-2  10  6  1.2  96.*+  11  5  1.0  97A  13  5  1.0  98.>+  Ik  3  0.6  99.0  15  1  0.2  99.2  16  2  19+  2  o.k  k86  100.0  %  Cumulative %  12  Total  99.6 100.0 100.0  The  ILLUSTRATION 4 PERCENTAGE:  l  2. 3  FREQUENCY  4  5-  6  7  DISTRIBUTIONS-ALL  e  S  MILES  lo  u  IZ 13  PARTICIPANTS  14- /5~ 16  17  18  13  vn  36 As distance from the night school center increases beyond the two mile radius the p a r t i c i p a t i o n tends to decrease i n spite of the fact that each additional mile i n radius from the center increases the area and the potential population.  Beyond a nine mile radius from the center the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v i r t u a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t with only twentyfour participants recorded at distances greater than nine miles.  This i s a smaller number than was recorded i n any  r a d i i up to and including seven miles.  Thus the cumulative  percentage curve rises steeply for the f i r s t seven miles after which the increase tends to slow down and eventually f l a t t e n out. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5)  COMPARISON OF DISTANCES TRAVELLED TO THE CENTERS  The distances travelled to the three centers are not the same.  Participants tend to travel further to J.O. and  Tech. than to K i t s .  The median distance travelled to J.O.  i s 3 . 0 7 miles (Table VII) which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f erent from the median of 3 « ^ miles travelled by participants to Tech.  Table VIII, however, shows that the median distance  of 2 . 0 9 miles travelled to K i t s , i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y different from the median distances travelled to the other two centers. When the mean distances travelled to the three centers are tested for s i g n i f i c a n t differences, the results  /I  ILLUSTRATION CUMULATIVE  FREQUENCY  GRAPH  100  . 5 -ALL + — + — - + •  PARTICIPANTS — + -  is  P: 3  o  I  £  3  4  5" 6  7 8  9 IO //  MILES  12 13 14 IS" /<£> J7 /8 IS 20  ^0  38 TABLE VII AVERAGE DISTANCES TRAVELLED TO THE CENTERS BY CATEGORY.  Means:  J.O.  Kits.  Tech.  Type 1  3.78  3.80  ^  Type 2  3.83  2.9 +  3.55  Type 3  2.6M-  2.15  3-86  Total  3-50  3.03  '-f.06  J.O.  Kits.  Tech.  Type 1  3.5^  2.80  3-62  Type 2  1.83  1.98  3.17  Type 3  2.15  1.60  3.08  Total  3.07  2.09  3.^  Medians:  l  TABLE V I I I SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS AND MEDIANS FOR THE CENTERS J.O. & K i t s .  J.O. & Tech.  K i t s . & Tech.  Between Means  l.hO  1.60  3.35  Between Medians  2.3>+*  .Qh  U n d e r l i n e d values s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 1 l e v e l of confidence. * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 5 l e v e l o f confidence.  3.30  39 are not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those have j u s t been d i s c u s s e d .  t e s t s on the medians which  Table VIII shows that there i s no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean d i s t a n c e s  travelled  to J.O. and K i t s , even though the medians f o r the same two centers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t .  These t e s t s on the  means are the only s t a t i s t i c s which do not confirm the similarity  of the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to J.O. and Tech.  When the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of d i s t a n c e to the three centers are t e s t e d with the chi-square method on the hypot h e s i s that the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d are independent of the center attended, of  the hypothesis  i s r e j e c t e d a t the .01 l e v e l  confidence.  TABLE  IX  CHI-SQUARE VALUES FOR TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE FOR THE CENTERS Centers All J.O.  Tested  Three & Kits.  d.f. ^9.2  12  2^.2  6  K i t s . & Tech. J.O.  & Tech.  6  3.8  6  U n d e r l i n e d values s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e .  ho This t e s t would seem to s u b s t a n t i a t e the c o n t e n t i o n that p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l f u r t h e r to some centers than to others.  When the centers are t e s t e d f o r independence two a t  a time,  the r e s u l t s c o i n c i d e w i t h the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s  on the medians: the d i s t a n c e s that p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l to J.O.  and Tech. are s i m i l a r and the d i s t a n c e s p a r t i c i p a n t s  t r a v e l t o K i t s , are d i f f e r e n t . The  tendency f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r e s i d e c l o s e to the  center they a t t e n d i s more evident a t Kits., than a t the other two  centers.  Each of the three mile i n t e r v a l s c l o s e s t t o  K i t s , contains more than twenty percent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s at K i t s , and thus 68% of the K i t s , p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s i d e w i t h i n three miles o f that center w h i l e , on the other hand, l e s s than h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the other two centers r e s i d e w i t h i n three miles of the c e n t e r . (Table X) distributions,  The graph o f the  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 6 ) , a l s o shows the higher p a r t -  i c i p a t i o n i n the mile i n t e r v a l s c l o s e s t t o K i t s . t i v e frequency  The cumula-  graph, ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 7 ) , has the g r e a t e s t  slope f o r the mile i n t e r v a l s c l o s e s t to K i t s . , but, a f t e r about s i x miles from the center, the curves  f o r a l l three  centers are s i m i l a r with a g e n t l e s l o p e . When the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s of the centers are considered i n t o t a l ,  the most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between  the centers are i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s c l o s e s t to the centers.  A c i r c l e of two miles r a d i u s drawn around each  1+1 TABLE X DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE CENTERS  Numbers Rings  Cumulative  Percent  J.O. K i t s . Tech.  Percent  J.O.  K i t s . Tech.  J.O.  K i t s . Tech.  1  16  1+2  18  13.9  22.!+  9.8  13.9  22.1+  9.8  2  25  1+8  31  21.7  25.7  16.9  35.6  1+8.1  26.7  3  15  38  29  13.0  20.3  15.8  ^8.6  68. L,  1+2.5  h  21  11  32  18.3  5.9  17.1+  66.9  71+.3  59.9  5  17  10  26  lk. 8  5A  lh.l  81.7  79.7  7^.0  6  7  9  9  6.1  1+.8  >+.9  87.8  8i+. 5  78.9  7  5  11  12  if.>+  5.9  6.5  92.2  90.!+  85.!+  8  2  5  10  1.7  2.7  5.^  93.9  93.1  90.8  9  1  5  7  .9  2.7  3.8  9^.8  95.7  91+.6  10  2  3  1  1.7  1.6  .5  96.5  97 M  95.1  11 13  2  lU,  1  15  1  16  2  .5  1.1  187  18!+  100.0 100.0  99.0 99.5  98.9  100.0 100.0  1.7 2  115  98.2  1.6  .5  2  19+ Total  1.7  3  97.8  2.7  5  1.1  100.0  100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0  ;  PERCENTAGE  ILLUSTRATION  FREQUENCY  5  e  e  G  DISTRIBUTIONS  TOR  J2  13 14 IS  B  MILES  /o  //  EACH  J6  J7  CENTER  /3  19  ILLUSTRATION CUMULATIVE  FREQUENCY  T  GRAPH  FOR  EACH  CENTER  too  J.O.  KITS  - - + • - -  T E C H  /  £  3  4  5  6  7  S  3  JO  II  MILES  12  • •. o  13  - - 1 —  • • ' 'O  14  15  -  16  17  18  19  20  -r  center c o n t a i n s about h a l f the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t K i t s . ,  one-  t h i r d at J.O., and only s l i g h t l y more than one-quarter of the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t Tech.  TYPE ONE COURSES When courses  i n a s u b j e c t are o f f e r e d at one l o c a t i o n  only, they are c a t e g o r i z e d as Type One. "wishes to a t t e n d a Type One course  If a participant  he has no choice of center,  however, an a n a l y s i s of the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s such a circumstance  shows that under  there are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e s between the three The chi-square  significant  centers.  t e s t on the three d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the  d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d by Type One p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e s that the hypothesis  of independence must be accepted.  Thus when  p a r t i c i p a n t s have no choice of center i n which to o b t a i n the s u b j e c t matter they d e s i r e , there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s at the three c e n t e r s .  The chi-square i s  shown on Table XI. When the means of the Type One d i s t r i b u t i o n s are compared, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence This supports  between the means of the three c e n t e r s . (Table XII)  the chi-square  t e s t noted above.  i n d i c a t e that p a r t i c i p a n t s of Type One courses s i m i l a r t r a v e l patterns  to each of the c e n t e r s .  Both t e s t s follow  TABLE XI CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE ON THE FIVE STEP DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE CATEGORIES  N  Distributions  d.f.  Tech.-l 232  8  Tech.-2 138  8  10.9  J.O.-3, K i t s . - 3 , Tech.-3  116  8  28.2  Kits.-3,  Tech.-3  87  h  15. 51  Kits.-3,  J.O.-3  77  h  1^.92  J.O.-3,  Tech.-3  68  h  5.52  J.O.-l, K i t s . - l , J.O.-2,  Kits.-2,  U n d e r l i n e d values s i g n i f i c a n t of c o n f i d e n c e .  9.78  a t the .01  level  TABLE XII SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN DISTANCES TRAVELLED FOR THE CATEGORIES Schools Type  1  J.O.-Kits.  .0^+1  Tested  J.O.-Tech.  1.25  2  1.08  .316  3  1.15  2.18*  Kits.-Tech.  1.07 1.22 L i  U n d e r l i n e d value s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. ^ S i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the . 0 5 l e v e l of • confidence.  u-e P a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r t o a t t e n d Type One c o u r s e s throughout the c i t y  of Vancouver, the m u n i c i p a l i t y of  Burnaby, and the areas t h e map  ing  north of Burrard I n l e t  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 8)  scattered  as i n d i c a t e d on  w h i c h shows them t o be w i d e l y  t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a b u t w i t h s l i g h t l y more  from the w e s t e r n s e c t i o n s o f the c i t y .  Kits,  from  p a r t i c i p a n t s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 9)  attend-  The map f o r t h e  shows some c l u s t e r i n g o f  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a b o u t t h a t c e n t e r b u t t h i s was n o t s t a t i s t ically  significant,  i c i p a n t s a t both residences  as shown e a r l i e r .  J.O. a n d K i t s ,  Even though the p a r t -  are widely  spread, the  o f t h e T e c h . p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e v e n more w i d e l y  s c a t t e r e d w i t h the notable  e x c e p t i o n t h a t none a t t e n d  from the immediate v i c i n i t y o f K i t s ,  as shown on  Tech.  Illustration  10. These d a t a attending courses only tend  c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e that the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n subject matter  to travel  relatively  r e g a r d l e s s o f where t h e course  TYPE TWO When a c o u r s e centers center.  the t r a v e l  o f f e r e d a t one  center  long distances to attend i s located.  COURSES  i s o f f e r e d a t any W o  of the three  p a t t e r n s a p p e a r t o be t h e same a t e a c h  The c h i - s q u a r e  t e s t of independence i n d i c a t e s t h a t  t h e r e i s no a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d the  center attended.  T h i s i s t h e same r e s u l t  and  obtained f o r  ILLUSTRATION MAP  OF  TYPF A T  8 ONE J.O.  PA  RT/CIPANTS  ^9  ILLUSTRATION  M  A  P  O  F  T Y P E A  T  IO  O N E T E C H .  P A R T I C I P A N T S  ILLUS  MA  P  OF  ALL  TRA  TYPE  TION  ONE  II  PA  R TJCIPA  NTS  Type One courses  as shown on Table X I .  The t e s t s of the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d a l s o i n d i c a t e that the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s f o r the three centers are s i m i l a r .  The r e s u l t s of these  p a r a l l e l the r e s u l t s f o r Type One courses.  three t e s t s  (Table XII)  Thus, the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s that is  there  no d i f f e r e n c e between the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s to the three  centers f o r e i t h e r Type One or Type 'Two p a r t i c i p a n t s .  This  r e s u l t may be b i a s e d by the f a c t that one of the Type Two courses The  o f f e r e d a t K i t s , was made up almost wholly  of women.  p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of sex on the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d to  evening  classes i s discussed  later.  TYPE THREE COURSES Type Three courses were o f f e r e d i n a l l of the centers studied.  P a r t i c i p a n t s who chose K i t s , t r a v e l l e d  d i s t a n c e s than d i d those chi-square  choosing  J.O. or Tech.  shorter When the  t e s t of independence i s made on the three  dist-  r i b u t i o n s of d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d , an a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d between the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d and the center attended.  In  order to determine i f the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s to any two centers were s i m i l a r ,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the centers were t e s t e d  f o r independence two a t a time. (Table XI)  The r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e that the patterns of d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d again d e v i a t e s from those  to K i t s ,  of J.O. and Tech. as was found i n  52 the t e s t of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s made f o r the t o t a l sample of the three  centers.  When the mean d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to courses o f f e r e d at a l l three centers are t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , the r e s u l t s ,  (Table X I I ) , do not c o i n c i d e with the c h i -  square t e s t s of independence.  Although  the chi-square  test  i n d i c a t e d that the J.O. p a t t e r n of d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d was s i m i l a r to the Tech. p a t t e r n , the t e s t s on the means i n d i c a t e d that the J.O. p a t t e r n i s l i k e  the K i t s , p a t t e r n .  This  anomaly may be caused by the small number of J.O. p a r t i c i p ants t r a v e l l i n g more than f i v e miles s i n c e a higher t i o n of K i t s , and Tech. p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l longer  propordistances  than those a t t e n d i n g J.O. as i n d i c a t e d on Table X I I I . The course  p a r t i c i p a n t s who choose K i t s , when the same  i s o f f e r e d at the other two c e n t e r s , tend to t r a v e l  short d i s t a n c e s .  More than h a l f of them l i v e w i t h i n two  miles and 85% l i v e w i t h i n three miles of the c e n t e r . clustering  This  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s c l e a r l y evident when the  r e s i d e n c e s are p l o t t e d on a map as shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n  12.  P a r t i c i p a n t s from the immediate neighborhood of the center predominate. The the c e n t e r .  p a r t i c i p a n t s a t J.O. a l s o tend to r e s i d e c l o s e toH a l f of the Type Three p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e w i t h i n  2.15 miles of t h i s center, w h i l e Type One courses  h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  at the same center who had no a l t e r n a t e  center i n which t h e i r course was o f f e r e d , l i v e d w i t h i n 3 . 5 ^  53  TABLE XIII DISTRIBUTIONS  OF TYPE THREE PARTICIPANTS  J.O. Ri rig  Kits. Cumul.  %  N  N  %  Tech.  Cumul.  %  N  %  Cumul.  %  1  6  21  21  15  31  31  h  10  10  2  7  2h  h5  15  31  62  9  23  33  3  3  10  55  ii  23  85  6  15  i+8  h  6  21  76  6  15  63  5  5  17  93  i+  10  73  6  1  3  96  2  5  78  7  1  3  99  2  5  83  2  5  88  10  98  100  100  2  3  89  6  95  8 2  9  >+  99  10 11  Totals  29  100  100  1+8  100  100  39  ILLUSTRATION MAP  OF  TYPE A T  IZ  5k  TA/REEPARTICIPANTS HITS.  55 miles of the c e n t e r . participants w i l l the r e s i d e n c e s  Thus, i f there i s no a l t e r n a t i v e , the  t r a v e l a greater distance.  of the J.O.  i s i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 13.  The  map  showing  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Type Three  I l l u s t r a t i o n 1*+  courses  shows the map  of Type  Three p a r t i c i p a t i o n at Tech. By comparing the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the r e s i d e n c e s Type One  p a r t i c i p a n t s , shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 11  Type Three p a r t i c i p a n t s as shown on the map 15,  w i t h those  of  in Illustration  the tendency of Type Three p a r t i c i p a n t s at K i t s , to  c l u s t e r around that center i s evident p a r t i c i p a n t s at the other  two  are even more widely a d j o i n i n g areas  and  s i n c e the Type Three  centers are more widely  s c a t t e r e d ; however, the Type One  and  of  evenly  p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r a l l centers spread  throughout the  city  than the Type Three p a r t i c i p a n t s of a l l  centers. Since  the c i t y of Vancouver and  the m u n i c i p a l i t y of  Burnaby form the geographic core of the m e t r o p o l i t a n and  s i n c e the J.O.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i s t a n c e s  area,  travelled  produced s t a t i s t i c a l i n c o n s i s t a n c i e s because of the l a c k of long d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e r s , Type Three courses Vancouver and  the p a t t e r n s of d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r  c o n t a i n i n g only p a r t i c i p a n t s who  Burnaby were t e s t e d . (Table XIV)  live in  When the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means were t e s t e d , the r e s u l t s show that the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to J.O. Tech. are s i m i l a r and  the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to K i t s ,  deviant from the other two  c e n t e r s . (Table XV)  and are  This tends  ILLUSTRATION MAP  OF  TYPE  PAFT/OPANTS  14TWEE.. A  5?  •• T  T£ZN.  ILLUSTRATION  MAP  OF  ALL  T/P£.  .IS  3  PARTICIPANTS  59 to confirm like  the e a r l i e r c o n t e n t i o n  that the J.O. p a t t e r n i s  the Tech. p a t t e r n except f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l l i n g  longer  distances.  TABLE XIV PARTICIPANTS PROM 'CAMERA' AND 'TAX' COURSES WHO RESIDE IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER OR IN BURNABY  J.O.  Ring  Kits.  Tech.  1  6  15  1+  2  7  16  10  3  h  10  6  6  0  7  5  h  1  2  6  1  1  1  28  ^3  30  Total: N Mean  2A3  1.55  2.37  Median  2.25  iM  2.17  S.D.  l.U-9  i.o8  1-33  60  TABLE  XV  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS FOR TYPE THREE COURSES VANCOUVER AND BURNABY ONLY Tested  CR.  J.O. and Tech.  0.16  K i t s , and J.O.  2.68  Centers  K i t s , and Tech, U n d e r l i n e d values are s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 1 l e v e l of confidence.  MOBILITY In an attempt to see whether p a r t i c i p a n t s attend the night s c h o o l center which i s c l o s e s t to t h e i r r e s i d e n c e , the c i t y of Vancouver and the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby were d i v i d e d i n t o three geographic  zones w i t h a night  school  center c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n each zone. ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3) These zones were c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a way that any p a r t i c i p a n t who r e s i d e d i n the same zone as the center he attended would be a t t e n d i n g the c l o s e s t c e n t e r . attended  P a r t i c i p a n t s who  the c l o s e s t center were termed non-mobile and those  who l i v e d i n one zone and attended were termed mobile; the c l o s e s t  center.  a center i n another  zone  thus, mobile p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not a t t e n d  61 Of the t o t a l number of Type Three p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d i n g courses  o f f e r e d at the three c e n t e r s , s l i g h t l y  more than one-fourth were thus mobile.  d i d not a t t e n d the c l o s e s t center and  The percentage of mobile p a r t i c i p a n t s  v a r i e s from center to c e n t e r .  At J.O. k-3% of the t o t a l  sample of Type Three p a r t i c i p a n t s i n that center were  mobile,  w i t h 37% a t Tech., and only 9% at K i t s .  TABLE XVI MOBILITY OF TYPE THREE PARTICIPANTS RESIDING . IN VANCOUVER AND BURNABY ONLY J.O.  Kits.  Mobile  12  H-  11  27  Non-Mobile  16  39  19  7h  Total:  28  30  101  Percent  Mobile:  ^3%  9%  Tech. T o t a l  27%  37%  When the number o f mobile p a r t i c i p a n t s were t e s t e d a g a i n s t the non-mobile i n the three c e n t e r s , the chi-square test at  showed a d i f f e r e n c e that was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The  significant  (Table XVII)  low percentage of mobile p a r t i c i p a n t s at K i t s ,  f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s the evidence  that Type Three  ants at K i t s , are c l o s e l y bunched around the center attend.  The much higher m o b i l i t y percentages  participthey  f o r the  participants  a t the other two c e n t e r s i n d i c a t e  and Tech. the p a r t i c i p a n t s  are s c a t t e r e d  that at J.O.  more widely through-  out the c i t y .  TABLE  XVII  CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT MOBILITY IS INDEPENDENT OF THE CENTER ATTENDED Type 1  Type 3  3^5  11.9  U n d e r l i n e d value s i g n i f i c:ant at the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e .  Although Type One courses were o f f e r e d a t only one center, the geographic d i s p e r s a l of these p a r t i c i p a n t s was tested  Since 52% of the Type  by using the same procedure.  TABLE XVIII MOBILITY OF TYPE ONE PARTICIPANTS RESIDING IN VANCOUVER AND BURNABY ONLY J.O.  Kits.  Mobile  32  19  38  89  Non-Mobile  20  25  37  82  Total:  52  hh  75  171  62%  1+2%  51%  % Mobile  Tech. T o t a l  52%  63 One p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not t r a v e l t o the n e a r e s t c e n t e r and s i n c e m o b i l i t y was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c e n t e r  attended,  i t was c l e a r t h a t f o r a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s t a n c e was not t h e most i m p o r t a n t  f a c t o r i n determining  t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f course and c e n t e r .  SUBJECT MATTER  The s u b j e c t matter o f t h e course does not seem t o be a f a c t o r w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s d i s t a n c e except i n the case where courses were a t t e n d e d  p r i m a r i l y by \\romen.  When the i n f l u e n c e  of s u b j e c t matter was e x p l o r e d by c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the Type o f course and the c e n t e r a t t e n d e d ,  o n l y the means o f two c o u r s e s ,  'Candlemaking' and 'How t o I n v e s t Your Money' showed a s i g n ificant difference. There were f o u r Type One courses  a t each c e n t e r .  If  c e n t e r and Type determine the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o evening c l a s s e s one would expect the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o each o f the f o u r courses  l o c a t e d i n the same c e n t e r t o be s i m i l a r .  Four Type One courses hypothesis  a t each c e n t e r were t e s t e d u s i n g the  t h a t h a l f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each course would  t r a v e l a s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e than the median f o r the f o u r combined, and h a l f would t r a v e l f u r t h e r .  The c h i - s q u a r e  courses tests  produced no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s hypot h e s i s s h o u l d be accepted  a t a l l t h r e e c e n t e r s . (Table X I X )  TABLE XIX CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE MEDIANS OF THE COURSES IN TYPE ONE 2~X  Center  d.f.  2  J.O.  6 . 1 0  3  Kits.  1 . 9 8  3  Tech.  I.if8  3  Type Two and Type Three courses, o f which there were two a t each center, were t e s t e d f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e d i f f e r e n c e between the means.  The mean d i s t a n c e s  of the  travelled  to the Type Three courses at each center were not s i g n i f i c antly different; Kits,  however, the Type Two courses o f f e r e d a t  had a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means. Thus  TABLE  XX  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE . TWO COURSES IN EACH CATEGORY Center  CR  d.f.  Kits.  - 2  2.23*  73  J.O.  - 3  .12  27  Kits.  - 3  .35  h6  Tech.  - 3  .80  37  * Significantly different l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e .  at the . 0 5  65 the  d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o these two courses were not pre-  determined by the center attended and by the number of centers o f f e r i n g the' same course. that  one o f these K i t s , courses,  I t was subsequently noted 'Candlemaking , was 1  attended p r i m a r i l y by women. In order to determine vrhether the sex of the p a r t i c ipants  influenced  were prepared,  the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d , four  (Table XXI),  courses attended p r i m a r i l y  distributions  one contained p a r t i c i p a n t s  from  by women; another f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n courses attended p r i m a r i l y by men; a t h i r d f o r men a t t e n d i n g courses c o n t a i n i n g a fourth  a mixture of men and women; and  f o r women i n courses c o n t a i n i n g  both men and women.  The  mean d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d were c a l c u l a t e d  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e  mean d i s t a n c e  and t e s t e d f o r  between the means.  The  t r a v e l l e d by men to courses f o r men i s s i g n i f -  i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the mean d i s t a n c e to courses o f f e r e d  f o r women.  t r a v e l l e d by women  None of the other comparisons  are s i g n i f i c a n t . Apparently, under c e r t a i n circumstances the sex o f the  p a r t i c i p a n t i s r e l a t e d to the d i s t a n c e  travelled.  In  g e n e r a l , i t would appear that women a t t e n d i n g c l a s s i n subject  matter o r i e n t e d  than do the p a r t i c i p a n t s  t o women t r a v e l s h o r t e r a t other courses.  This  distances relationship  i s not c l e a r cut and more r e s e a r c h i s needed to c l a r i f y the relationships  between r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  t r a v e l l e d and the sex of the p a r t i c i p a n t .  distance  66  TABLE  XXI  SEX AND DISTANCE  TRAVELLED  Mean Distance  Standard Deviations  80  ^.32  3-78  55  2.7  3.16  Men i n mixed  255  3.8  3.06  Women i n mixed  302  3.5  2.96  Participants  Courses Men  only  Women only  SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS Courses  CR  Men only - Women only Men mixed  - Women mixed  2.70 .86  Men only - Men mixed  1.90  Women only - Women mixed  1.10  U n d e r l i n e d value s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  67 ATTENDANCE AND  DISTANCE  Although attendance i s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to enrollment,  i t seems that once an a d u l t e n r o l l s i n a  course  the d i s t a n c e he must then t r a v e l does not i n f l u e n c e h i s subsequent attendance. and  The  percentage of s e s s i o n s  the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d was  correlated for a l l particip-  ants r e s i d i n g w i t h i n ten miles of the center they The  attended  r e s u l t a n t c o r r e l a t i o n of - . 0 7 5  was  not  attended.  significant.  Although no s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were made, i t would seem that the percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h p e r f e c t attendance does not decrease as d i s t a n c e from the center i n c r e a s e s . XXII)  (Table  Thus there appears to be no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  d i s t a n c e a p a r t i c i p a n t t r a v e l s and  how  many s e s s i o n s  he  attends.  LOCATION OF CENTERS  The  d e c i s i o n to open new  have a reasonable  night school centers  chance of s u r v i v a l i s one  of the r e s p o n s i -  b i l i t i e s of the night school a d m i n i s t r a t o r . J.O.,  K i t s , and  that  The  a n a l y s i s of  Tech. i n d i c a t e s that p a r t i c i p a n t s tend  t r a v e l r e l a t i v e l y long d i s t a n c e s to attend night On t h i s b a s i s i t would seem that a r e l a t i v e l y of centers can adequately  to  school.  small number  serve the c e n t r a l c i t y .  Lee  con-  cluded t h a t the r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n at E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t y  68  TABLE XXII PERFECT ATTENDANCE AND  Ring  Total Students  DISTANCE TRAVELLED  Students w i t h P e r f e c t Attendance  Percent w i t h Perfect Attendance  1  99  h?  h7  2  152  56  37  3  106  39  37  h  88  2h  27  5  80  20  25  6  h6  13  28  7  h6  7  15  8  2h  8  33  9  18  9  50  10  10  2  20  669  22 5  Total  3h%  69 E x t e n s i o n courses d i d not d e c l i n e a p p r e c i a b l y w i t h i n two  and  one-half m i l e s of the center where the courses were l o c a t e d . Since more p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to t r a v e l between one and m i l e s to attend Vancouver night school than from any interval,  i t seems l i k e l y  that p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n  two  other two  m i l e s of the three centers s t u d i e d i s c l o s e to the optimum level. This suggests w i t h i n two  the hypothesis  that new  c e n t e r s opened  m i l e s of an e s t a b l i s h e d center w i l l be  l i k e l y to s u r v i v e .  To examine t h i s hypothesis,  less  the three  c e n t e r s s t u d i e d were p l o t t e d on a map  of the c i t y and a  c i r c l e w i t h a r a d i u s of two miles was  drawn to s c a l e around  each center as shown on I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 .  King George night  s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the three c i r c l e s and i n the s i x years previous i t has had at l e a s t 800 p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Point  Grey night s c h o o l , l i k e King George, has been i n o p e r a t i o n since before 1950.  During  that center has reached below 9 0 0 . than two  Although  the past s i x years enrollment i n  a high of 1800  and  has not dropped  the Point Grey center i s s l i g h t l y  less  m i l e s from K i t s , i t i s adjacent to the south-west  corner of the c i t y which i s not w i t h i n any  of the  circles.  C h u r c h i l l night school seems to have been s h a r i n g t h i s south-west corner of the c i t y w i t h Point Grey f o r the past s i x years and Churchill lies was  has been averaging  500 p a r t i c i p a n t s per year.  j u s t w i t h i n the J.O.  opened i n the south-east  circle.  A night school  corner of the c i t y at K i l l a r n e y  70 i n 1962  but p a r t i c i p a t i o n has subsequently  o r i g i n a l 600  to a present 300  K i l l a r n e y i s not w i t h i n any area remaining  participants.  from an  Although  of the two mile c i r c l e s ,  the  o u t s i d e the c i r c l e s but i n s i d e the c i t y  not be s u f f i c i e n t The  dwindled  to enable  may  i t to s u r v i v e .  c e n t e r s mentioned thus f a r are e i t h e r w e l l e s t a b -  l i s h e d or seem at l e a s t to have some chance of s u r v i v i n g ; however, the other centers which have been opened s i n c e the early f i f t i e s imminent. and  have e i t h e r ceased  or t h e i r c l o s u r e seems  Byng, B r i t t a n i a and Gladstone  subsequently  l i e w i t h i n one  c l o s e d i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s  of the two  mile c i r c l e s .  one and one-half miles of both J.O. i n 1962  and,  had very l i g h t enrollment  Thompson, w i t h i n  and K i l l a r n e y , was  opened of  Templeton, opened i n 196k-,  i n g e n e r a l courses but  courses i n l e a r n i n g to speak E n g l i s h have had enrollment  and a l l three  not s u r p r i s i n g l y , seems to be i n the process  c l o s i n g f o r lack: of p a r t i c i p a n t s . has  c e n t e r s were opened  the  considerable  from the I t a l i a n e t h n i c group i n the immediate  v i c i n i t y of the c e n t e r .  Thus, Templeton may  i n d i c a t e that  there are other f a c t o r s to be considered which are not p r e d i c t a b l e from c o n s i d e r i n g only i t s p r o x i m i t y to the w e l l established centers. The  r e c o r d of the opening  of new  centers i n Vancouver  during the f i f t e e n year p e r i o d subsequent to 1950 i n d i c a t e that a new  center opened w i t h i n two  w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d center has l i t t l e  seems to  miles of a l a r g e  chance of e s t a b l i s h i n g a  l a r g e enough c l i e n t e l e to c o n t r i b u t e a p p r e c i a b l y to the night s c h o o l enrollment  i n the  city.  total  CHAPTER IV  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  SUMMARY The evening  problem o f v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a d u l t s a t  c l a s s e s has been widely  f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g enrollment  studied.  Distance  which i s o f t e n mentioned,  however, the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d to P u b l i c School Centers study  i s one  Adult  has not p r e v i o u s l y been s t u d i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y .  This  compared the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o three l a r g e urban  night school c e n t e r s .  A sample c o n s i s t i n g o f twenty-two  courses was s e l e c t e d from the 1962-1963  evening  class  program o f the Vancouver night school system. The  s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e s between the residence o f  each p a r t i c i p a n t and the center attended arranged  was computed and  i n d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r comparison.  The  r e s u l t s showed that when a l l ^86 p a r t i c i p a n t s  were considered,  50% t r a v e l l e d l e s s than 2.8 m i l e s , 95%  t r a v e l l e d l e s s than 9 m i l e s , and under 1% t r a v e l l e d more than 1*+ m i l e s . and  More p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l l e d from between one  two miles than from any other The  chi-square  interval.  t e s t i n d i c a t e d that when courses were  o f f e r e d a t one center only there was no a s s o c i a t i o n between the center attended  and the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d .  When courses  72  were o f f e r e d  a t two of the three centers the chi-square  again i n d i c a t e d  there was no r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the night  s c h o o l center attended and the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d . these courses,  For  however, some doubt e x i s t s about the v a l i d i t y  of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n because Wo attended  test  predominantly  of the courses i n v o l v e d were  by women.  When courses i n the same s u b j e c t matter were i n a l l three centers there were s i g n i f i c a n t  offered  differences  between the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to the v a r i o u s c e n t e r s . the K i t s i l a n o Night School the p a r t i c i p a n t s bunched around the c e n t e r . icipants  miles and 85% t r a v e l l e d  On the other hand, the d i s t a n c e s  t r a v e l l e d t o the same courses at John O l i v e r and  were c l o s e l y  At t h i s center 50% of the p a r t -  t r a v e l l e d l e s s than 1.6  l e s s than three m i l e s .  At  Night  School  T e c h n i c a l Night School were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  from each o t h e r .  Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  who c o u l d get the same  course a t these two c e n t e r s 50% t r a v e l l e d l e s s than m i l e s a t J.O. and h a l f t r a v e l l e d l e s s than 3»1 Participants  at K i t s . , however, t r a v e l from throughout  available mainly  miles a t Tech.  would seem to t r a v e l from throughout the  c i t y of Vancouver to attend J.O. and Tech.  courses a v a i l a b l e  2.5  The  participants  the c i t y to attend  only at K i t s . , but when the course i s  a t a l l three c e n t e r s , the K i t s , p a r t i c i p a n t s  from the immediate neighborhood of the c e n t e r .  come  73  CONCLUSIONS  DIFFERENCES B E T W E E N CENTERS The  p a t t e r n s of d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to a night  course would seem to depend upon where courses As the number of centers o f f e r i n g i n c r e a s e , the t r a v e l p a t t e r n s tend to c e n t e r . one  when courses  are l o c a t e d .  the same s u b j e c t matter to vary more from  The d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d to courses  center only tend  center  offered i n  to be the same a t a l l c e n t e r s .  are o f f e r e d i n three c e n t e r s , t r a v e l  d i f f e r from center to c e n t e r .  school  However,  patterns  These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are  based upon the a n a l y s i s o f three l a r g e s u c c e s s f u l c e n t e r s . The  t r a v e l p a t t e r n s t o small and newly opened centers may  w e l l d i f f e r from those course  considered  i n t h i s study.  Although  l o c a t i o n s seem to determine t r a v e l p a t t e r n s ,  attended  courses  predominantly by women seem to be an e x c e p t i o n .  Women t r a v e l s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s  to courses  o f f e r e d f o r women.  This might be expected s i n c e the commuting s t u d i e s of Adams, MacKesey and of T a a f f e , Garner and Yeates i n d i c a t e that women t r a v e l s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s to work than do men.  AREA SERVED The  area served  by the r e s i d e n c e s ants  by a night school center i s d e l i n e a t e d  of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s .  tend t o r e s i d e i n widely  Since  s c a t t e r e d areas  these  particip-  o f the  7h municipal  complex the area served by night school  centers  cannot be marked by f i n i t e boundaries shown on a map, however, w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d centers tend to have the highest p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s from w i t h i n a two mile r a d i u s .  New  centers opened w i t h i n two miles of e x i s t i n g w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t e r s have t r o u b l e a t t r a c t i n g and maintaining The all  area served by a g i v e n center i s not the same f o r  courses  g i v e n a t that c e n t e r .  This tendency i s very  strong at some centers and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y others.  s i g n i f i c a n t at  The s i z e of the area served i s probably  by s c h e d u l i n g  courses  the week i n d i f f e r e n t  centers.  Many p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not  p a r t i c i p a n t s t h i s undoubtedly occurred a t t e n d on a convenient  increased  i n a s u b j e c t on d i f f e r e n t n i g h t s of  a t t e n d the c l o s e s t center o f f e r i n g a course  reason  clientele.  and f o r many  so that they  night of the week.  could  There i s every  to suppose that the procedure of l o c a t i n g courses i n  the same s u b j e c t i n d i f f e r e n t  centers and on d i f f e r e n t  n i g h t s of the week helps to i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . question,  This  however, should be s t u d i e d so as to c o n t r o l the  i n f l u e n c e o f the night of the week on d i s t a n c e and p a r t i c i p ation. The  areas  served by night school centers overlap and  are i n t u r n overlapped  by the area served by U n i v e r s i t y  Extension  courses.  Melton found that the area served by  extension  courses which were a l s o o f f e r e d by the p u b l i c  school centers was the same as the area served by courses  75 o f f e r e d only by the E x t e n s i o n Department. pants are a t t r a c t e d to c l a s s e s conducted  Thus, by both  particithe  E x t e n s i o n Department and  the p u b l i c school from  the c e n t r a l urban area.  Since Brunner i n d i c a t e s that  E x t e n s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y have a higher  throughout  socio-economic  s t a t u s than p u b l i c school p a r t i c i p a n t s , the extent to which the two  i n s t i t u t i o n s compete f o r the same c l i e n t e l e i s  difficult  to a s s e s s .  DISTANCE AND The  ENROLLMENT  d i s t a n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s must t r a v e l to o b t a i n  courses i s a v a r i a b l e w i t h i n the c o n t r o l of the night school a d m i n i s t r a t o r who  can reduce the necessary  or hold the courses travel further.  i n few centers and  The  t r a v e l distances  f o r c e p a r t i c i p a n t s to  tendency f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to be w i d e l y  spread would seem to i n d i c a t e that a small number of centers could serve urban areas adequately. here, d i f f e r e n t  centers may  Although  not i n d i c a t e d  a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t kinds of  p a r t i c i p a n t s which would i n t r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s  influ-  encing p a r t i c i p a t i o n than d i s t a n c e alone.  BOUNDARIES AND Dent concluded  PARTICIPATION  that r u r a l m u n i c i p a l boundaries  b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l farming  were  communities,  the l a r g e number of suburban p a r t i c i p a n t s who  t r a v e l to  but  76 night schools i n the c e n t r a l c i t y i n d i c a t e that m u n i c i p a l boundaries  do not act as a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  urban s e t t i n g .  I t may  be that the suburban p a r t i c i p a n t  l o s e s h i s r e l u c t a n c e to t r a v e l to the c e n t r a l c i t y s i n c e he commutes to work: t h e r e . One  might expect  p a r t i c i p a n t s of higher  s t a t u s to a t t e n d centers i n high socio-economic p a r t i c i p a n t s of lower  socio-economic  socio-economic areas  and  s t a t u s to f e e l more  welcome at c e n t e r s i n those areas but these tendencies not evident  are  here.  DISTANCE AS A BARRIER TO PARTICIPATION Since the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s per mile decreases conclude  interval  as d i s t a n c e from each center i n c r e a s e s one t h a t decreasing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s caused  by i n -  c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e ; however, there are good reasons accepting t h i s conclusion. there was  Melton  found  might  f o r not  that at some c e n t e r s  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t a n c e s  t r a v e l l e d to courses o f f e r e d at that center only and also o f f e r e d at a l t e r n a t e centers.  courses  I f participants consid-  ered d i s t a n c e to be the prime f a c t o r they should have chosen the c l o s e s t c e n t e r .  I f d i s t a n c e were a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c -  i p a t i o n Lee would not have found uniform w i t h i n two  and  participation rates  one-half miles of the center he s t u d i e d .  maps i n t h i s study tend to show s c a t t e r e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  I t would  The  77 seem that w i t h i n  the c e n t r a l c i t y d i s t a n c e i s a b a r r i e r to  only a few p a r t i c i p a n t s . The  f a c t that  number of sessions attended by  p a r t i c i p a n t s who t r a v e l as f a r as t e n miles i s not l e s s than the number o f sessions attended by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y  of t h e i r center i n d i c a t e s  residing that f o r  those who e n r o l l , d i s t a n c e i s not subsequently a b a r r i e r .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ad ams, Leonard P., and Thomas VI, MacKesey. Commuting P a t t e r n s of I n d u s t r i a l Workers. I t h i c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955Booth, A l a n . "A Demographic C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the NonP a r t i c i p a n t , " Adult Education, XI (Summer, 1961),  223-229.  Brunner, Edmund deS., et a l . An Overview of A d u l t Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U.S.A., 1955. C a r t i e r , A.L. " P u b l i c School A d u l t Education," Journal of E d u c a t i o n of the F a c u l t y of Education of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Vancouver^ X ( A p r i l . 196 +), L  29-35.  Dent, W i l l i a m J . "An E x p l o r a t o r y Study of the Distances Which Farmers T r a v e l To Attend Various Types of E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s Dealing With A g r i c u l t u r a l Production." Two H i l l s : A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension S e r v i c e , 1965(Unpublished) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . 1961 Census of Canada, P o p u l a t i o n and Housing C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Census T r a c t s : Vancouver, B u l l e t i n C T - 2 2 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963. G a r r e t t , Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n . F i f t h e d i t i o n . New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1958. Kaplan, Abraham Abbott. Socio-Economic Circumstances and Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Teachers C o l l e g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Education, No. 889. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 19^3. Lee,  Terence. "A N u l l R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Ecology and Education," The B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. XXXVI (February, 1 9 6 6 ) , 1 0 0 - 1 0 2 .  Adult  Lindenberger, A l i c e , and C o o l i e Verner. "A Technique f o r A n a l y s i n g E x t e n s i o n Course P a r t i c i p a n t s , " A d u l t Education, XI (Autumn, i 9 6 0 ) , 29-3M-. Marble, Duane. P r e d i c t i n g Evening Class R e g i s t r a t i o n P o t e n t i a l In Small Areas of the S e a t t l e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington B u l l e t i n , 1959.  79 Melton, James. "The I n f l u e n c e of A l t e r n a t e Course L o c a t i o n s On D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d By P a r t i c i p a n t s I n Urban A d u l t Evening C l a s s e s . " Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. Selman, Gordon R. "University Extension 1915-1963," J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n of the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Vancouver. X ( A p r i l , 1964-), 1 7 - 2 5 . Smith, G. M i l t o n . edition. New  1962.  A S i m p l i f i e d Guide To S t a t i s t i c s . T h i r d York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,  T a a f f e , Edward J . , Barry J . Garner, and Maurice H. Yeates. The P e r i p h e r a l Journey To Work. Evanston: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Van Dalen, Deobold B. Understanding E d u c a t i o n a l Research. N e w York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1962. Verner, C o o l i e , and George S. Davis, J r . "Completions and Drop Outs: A Review of Research," Adult E d u c a t i o n , XIV ( S p r i n g , 196M-), 157-175. Wales, Bertram Edwards. "The Development of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n In B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished Ed.D. t h e s i s , Oregon State C o l l e g e , C o r v a l l i s , 1958. Wingo, Lowdon J r . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Urban Land. Resources For the Future Inc., 1 9 6 l .  Washington:  

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