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The administration of justice in the greater Vancouver area : the female offender Sien, Mabel Aileen 1966

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THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN THE  GREATER VANCOUVER AREA The Female Offender by AILEEN SIEN Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Soc i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of So c i a l Work 1966 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia p., ''. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . , I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e rfj?**'/, /?, , - i i -TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. The Process Confronting the  Female Offender Purpose of the t h e s i s . D i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining v a l i d s t a t i s t i c s . Crimes i n which women are most frequently involved. Offence punishable on summary conviction. . B a i l . Description of the C i t y Gaol. An i n d i c t a b l e offence. Breach of Municipal by-law. Types of sentences. Conditions of Probation. Pre-sentence reports. Those f o r whom probation i s recommended. Number of juveniles transferred to adult court. Methods of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . An example of intensive work done with a probationer 1 Chapter 2. Oakalla Prison Farm Condition of the inmates upon admission to Oakalla. P r i v i l e g e s and Limits. D e f i n i t i o n of a group and a team. P r i n c i p l e s of the group system. Daily routine. Work done by volunteer groups. Twin Maples Farm. The Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit. Volunteer assistance to The Woodlands School . . . 13 Chapter 3. Kingston Prison for Women Procedure upon.admission. The number of inmates. Punishment i s i n the form of loss of p r i v i l e g e s . Description of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The number of s t a f f members. Work and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . E f f e c t s of removal from the l o c a l community. Some of the basic assumptions of the o f f i c i a l s at Kingston Prison f o r Women 38 Chapter 4. Parole The purpose of parole. The p o l i c y of the National Parole Board. When an inmate i s e l i g i b l e for parole. The number of inmates receiving parole. Length of parole. Factors considered i n granting parole. Gradual release. Conditions of parole. The parole agreement. Supervision of parolees. The number of female offenders on parole i n the Vancouver area. The e f f e c t of no i i i -Page d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e sentences f o r women. Examples of women on parole under the super-v i s i o n of the John Howard Society 46 Chapter 5» Conclusions and Recommendations . . . 62 Appendix: (a) Bibliography 8 l (b) The Booking Sheet 83 (c) Application for B a i l 84 (d) Indictable and Summary Offences 85 (e) Summons 91 (f) Persons who make arrests 92 (g) B a i l 93 (h) A Summary Conviction Court . . . . 94 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Adult persons (over 18) charged with the following offences during the f i s c a l year A p r i l 1, 1963 to March 31, 1964 . . 95 Table 2. Female offenders (over 18) charged with the following offences during the f i s c a l year A p r i l 1, 1963 to March 31, 1964 l i s t e d i n order of frequency 99 Table 3. Offences for which prisoners were committed to Oakalla during the f i s c a l year 1963-64 100 (a) Crimes against the person 100 (b) Crimes against property 101 (c) Crimes against public order and peace 102 (d) Crimes against public morals and decency 103 Table 4. Offences for which female offenders were committed to Oakalla during the f i s c a l year 1963-64 l i s t e d i n order of frequency 104 i v -ABSTRACT There has been a great deal of concern regarding the extent of criminal behaviour and the ef f e c t of criminal behaviour on the criminal and on society generally. There i s the general assumption that there are many differences between the female offender and the male offender. At the same time the law and the administration of j u s t i c e are said to apply equally to both sexes. The dilemma Is p a r t i a l l y resolved by an in d i v i d u a l approach pursued by the personnel of the various i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d — t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , the magistrates or judges, the prosecutor, the probation o f f i c e r , the prison matrons, the parole supervisor and a l l the people who come i n contact with the woman from the time of arr e s t u n t i l the time of release. Many problems remain unsolved. The account of the process confronting the female offender i s presented as objecti v e l y as possible based on information obtained mainly from interviews with representatives from the various i n s t i t u t i o n s with whom the offender comes i n contact; and, also from t h e i r records, from annual reports, brochures, Municipal by-laws, Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Statutes and the Criminal Code of Canada. I t i s an o f f i c i a l aecount as compared to an u n o f f i c i a l account obtained from interviews with the women who are charged with various criminal offences. S t a t i s t i c s , while approximate f i g u r e s , provide an estimate of the number of women charged with criminal offences and the types of crime i n which they are frequently involved. The offences are by law indictable or summary offences, or can be ei t h e r . Arrests can be made by c e r t a i n persons under s p e c i f i e d conditions. B a i l may be granted or refused. The person who has been arrested may be locked i n the C i t y Gaol. There are various sentences permitted by law to be administered by the courts. The female offender may receive a suspended sentence. She may be placed on probation. She may be sent to prison at Oakalla or Kingston Penitentiary. Parole may be granted or refused. She obtains a criminal record. A combined individual-group approach to t r e a t -ment might be more b e n e f i c i a l and have more l a s t i n g r e s u l t s than a pri m a r i l y Individual approach or pri m a r i l y - V -a group approach. Successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may depend more on a well-informed public than on a sympathetic public made up of people who are w i l l i n g to "take a chance" on h i r i n g her or renting a room to her. An integrated team applying the problem-solving approach might r e s u l t i n a lower r e c i d i v i s t rate i f any or a l l of the members of the team were made available to the offender when she f i r s t becomes arrested and i s charged with a criminal offence. The distance must be lessened between the c u l t u r a l expectations of the in d i v i d u a l and the ind i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to meet those expectations i n s o c i a l l y acceptable ways. - v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the many people who gave so generously of t h e i r time and assistance so that I might be able to write t h i s t h e s i s . I wish to p a r t i c u l a r l y thank the following people: Inspector Hewett, Corporal Mortimer and Miss Senft i n the Women's D i v i s i o n of the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department; to Mr. Holland i n the S t a t i s t i c s Department; Detective Sergeant Farley and Mr. Hawker of the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Squad, Mr. A l l e n and Mr. P e t t i t i n the Court Clerk's o f f i c e ; and Miss Peterson and Mrs. Donald who are nurses at the Cit y Gaol; a l l of whora\are from the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department. Thanks also to Sergeant Caldbick of the Narcotics Department of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e ; Mr. Davidson, Mr. Byman and Miss MacFarlane from the P r o v i n c i a l Probation O f f i c e ; to Miss Maybee and Miss Stevenson at Oakalla and Miss Macneill at Kingston Prison f o r Women. I also wish to thank Mr. Stevenson and Mrs. McClymont from the National Parole Board; Mr. Stade from the P r o v i n c i a l Parole Board; and Mr. Davis and Mrs. Harkely from the John Howard Society. My thanks also to Miss Furaess and Mr. Dixon, School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and to Miss Pumphrey, Director of the S o c i a l Service Department at the Vancouver General Hospital for her assistance, understanding and encouragement throughout the year. THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN THE GREATER VANCOUVER AREA The Female Offender CHAPTER 1 The Process Confronting the Female Offender The purpose of the thesis i s to outline and discuss what happens to a woman who has been charged with an offence. To t h i s end, various points must be considered: 1. Offences f o r which women are most generally charged. 2. Types of t r i a l used i n judging and sentencing women. 3 . Description of gaols and pen i t e n t i a r i e s and t h e i r programmes. 4. Types of treatment and t h e i r intent (short and long term). 5. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and after-eare. 6. Recommendations. D i f f i c u l t y i s noted i n obtaining s t a t i s t i c s since the f i s c a l year f o r the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department coincides with the calendar year while the f i s c a l year f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s from A p r i l 1st t© March 31st . Tables prepared f o r t h i s thesis and contained i n the appendix cover the year of A p r i l 1s t , 19&3» *° March 31st , 1964. S t a t i s t i c s show that women are most often charged and sentenced to prison f o r alcoholism, drug addiction and p r o s t i t u t i o n . These offences which are shown i n Table 4 are l i s t e d i n order of frequency, with t r a f f i c offences omitted. Different charges can be l a i d f o r the same crime and, where a number of charges are possible, the police o f f i c e r l i s t s them a l l , thus further confusing v a l i d s t a t i s t i c s . The accused i s t r i e d f o r the offence f o r which there i s considered to be s u f f i c i e n t evidence, and sentences imposed can vary from court to court, or from case to case, w i t h i n the l i m i t s prescribed by law. The tables show that the t o t a l number of female offenders over eighteen charged during the year was just i n excess of three thousand as compared to twenty-four thousand men. The S t a t i s t i c Department of the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Office show that one thousand, s i x hundred and twenty-two of the one thousand, eight hundred and four charges on women made under the P r o v i n c i a l Statutes were under the Government Liquor Act. A further table shows that the largest number of female offenders committed to Oakalla were sent there f o r breaches of t h i s Act. The next highest number of charges against women shown i n Poli c e records i s four hundred and eighty charges f o r offences contained In Municipal By-laws but, since none of these women were committed to Oakalla, i t i s assumed that the charges were either dismissed or fines were imposed i n place of a prison sentence. - 3 -The second largest number of women committed to Oakalla during the year i n question were for breaches of the Narcotic and Drug Act (Narcotic Control Act) and seventy-six female offenders received prison terms f o r these offences. Of these, forty-eight were sentenced to Oakalla and twenty-eight to Kingston Penitentiary In Ontario. The t h i r d largest group were sixty-nine women committed f o r p r o s t i t u t i o n and sentenced to Oakalla Prison. A comparison of Table 2 and Table 4 w i l l show that many more women were charged than were sent to prison. These tables also l i s t the reasons f o r the charges. In •noting sexual crimes, two hundred and ten were charged with p r o s t i t u t i o n , and t h i s i s the only sexual offence with which they were charged during the year i n question. There i s no note, f o r example, of incest or lesbianism. In comparison, f i f t y men were charged with rape, other sexual offences ( l a r g e l y homosexual) and p r o s t i t u t i o n . In general i t seems that men are accused l a r g e l y f o r crimes of violence while most of the female crimes seem to be self-destructive i n nature. A woman i s under arrest from the time the police o f f i c e r says to her "come with me." I f she Is charged with causing a distrubance, t h i s i s an offence punishable on a summary conviction and she i s taken to the P o l i c e - 4 -Station where she i s booked.* Once the booking sheet i s completed, i f the woman i s sober, she i s permitted to request b a i l and fo r t h i s purpose a Justiee of Peace i s on duty at the Poli c e Station at a l l times. I f she i s known to have a home, a 30b, or a family i n Vancouver, the Justice of Peace may permit her to enter into her own recognizance—for instance, she may agree to pay a cert a i n s p e c i f i e d amount of money i f she does not appear fo r t r i a l and she w i l l then be released on b a i l . I f she posts b a i l and does not appear f o r t r i a l , she may lose a l l or part of her cash deposit, registered bonds or property. I f the accused woman appears to be mentally i l l , the J u s t i c e of Peace may refuse b a l l pending an examination by a medical doctor or p s y c h i a t r i s t . The appendix pages include further information regarding b a i l . The C i t y Gaol i s situated on the fourth f l o o r of the C i t y P o l i c e Station, and includes four drunk tanks, s i x feet by eight f e e t , each with a l i g h t , a u r i n a l and nothing else5 s i x s l i g h t l y larger maximum security c e l l s with double bunks, a basin, u r i n a l and l i g h t and a dormitory with s i x double bunks, a ta b l e , bench and an area separated by a low p a r t i t i o n where there are three •Information contained i n the booking sheet as w e l l as the criminal charge of causing a disturbance are included i n the appendix. - 5 -u r i n a l s and three basins. There are also two completely bare c e l l s with heated f l o o r s referred to as the "Mental Blocks" where a woman i s stripped and locked inside i f there i s any i n d i c a t i o n she might attempt to commit suicide. The j a i l area contains two ho s p i t a l wards, a f i r s t a i d room, a minor emergency ward with equipment and drugs and a nurse i s on duty at a l l times. There Is an interviewing room where prisoners can see t h e i r lawyer, probation o f f i c e r or a detective and there Is also a v i s i t o r ' s room but t h i s Is seldom used because of the short stay i n the C i t y Gaol. A public health nurse has an o f f i c e on the f l o o r . A l l prostitutes are checked f o r venereal disease at the e a r l i e s t opportunity. Some offences can be t r i e d e i t h e r as an indictable or a summary offence as shown by examples contained In the appendix. A summary offence Is t r i e d i n a Summary Conviction Court. The accused who i s charged with an indict a b l e offence may elect how she wishes to be t r i e d . She can be t r i e d by a magistrate without a jury, a judge without a jury or a judge and a jury. I f a woman i s arrested and charged with possession of narcotics, she i s immediately searched. Her booking sheet i s completed and she i s held i n j a i l pending an analysis of the drugs. She i s then finger-printed and photographed and she may apply f o r b a i l . - 6 -Although the magistrate can make an exception, women charged with possession of narcotics usually may not post t h e i r own b a i l . I f someone else posts b a i l on t h e i r behalf, an a f f i d a v i t of j u s t i f i c a t i o n must be sworn,before a Justice of the Peace. In t h i s country, no person may become a professional bondsman and any attempt to become such a bondsman i s i l l e g a l . Such an action could r e s u l t i n a charge of making a false statement. When a woman accused of an offence under the Narcotic Control Act appears before the J u s t i c e of the Peace, she may request b a i l or she may request a remand on bond or she may request an adjournment of the t r i a l so that she may obtain the services of a lawyer or she may elect to proceed immediately with the case. Since possession of narcotics i s an indictable offence, the accused i s permitted to elect how she wishes to be t r i e d , that i s , by a magistrate without a jury, a judge without a jury or a judge and a jury. While she i s detained i n C i t y Gaol, she w i l l be locked i n one of the maximum security c e l l s . I f the woman i s found g u i l t y of the charge under the Narcotics Control Act, she may be given a suspended sentence or bound over on her own recognizance under cer t a i n conditions, such as that she cannot associate with known drug addicts or be seen In c e r t a i n areas of the c i t y . She may, on the other hand, be sentenced to prison f o r a term less than two years at Oakalla Prison Farm or for a - 7 -term of two years or more at Kingston Penitentiary i n Ontario. I f she i s taken to prison she i s again f i n g e r -printed to be sure that the woman sentenced i n Court i s the same person who i s now entering the prison to serve the sentence. From the above i t may be seen that a woman accused of drug addiction i s treated d i f f e r e n t l y to a woman accused of alcoholism or p r o s t i t u t i o n or any other offence. Those who vi o l a t e a Municipal By-law, f or example, are f i r s t warned but not arrested. A minimum of personal information i s obtained and a special day i s set aside f o r the t r i a l , namely, Wednesday afternoon when most small stores are generally closed. The sentence i s a f i n e or imprisonment. A person accused of "causing a disturbance" may be warned or may be immediately arrested. She i s booked and c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l information i s obtained. She may be able to make arrangements f o r b a i l or she may be locked i n j a i l . I f she owns cash or property, or knows someone i n the c i t y who has cash or property that they are w i l l i n g to post as b a i l on her behalf, she may be freed on b a i l , but f o r many offenders b a i l i s not a p o s s i b i l i t y . Possession of narcotics i s obviously considered a much more serious type of offence and the treatment of the offender i s i n contrast to the treatment of offenders . 8 -f o r the other offences mentioned. The possessor of narcotics i s searched, much more i d e n t i f i c a t i o n Is taken and recorded and copies are mailed to a central agency with connections throughout the world—the Federal Bureau of Investigation i n the United States, Scotland Yard i n B r i t a i n , etc. B a i l i s much more d i f f i c u l t to obtain. The offender i s locked i n a maximum security c e l l . I f she i s found g u i l t y , she may be sentenced to prison f o r many years. Laws determine what acti o n w i l l be taken by police o f f i c e r s , magistrates, or anyone involved with the accused, but there are many alternatives within the law. I l l u s t r a -tions of laws governing some of the offences are quoted i n the appendix. The examples are taken from "The Criminal Code of Canada" and "The Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Statutes." One of the sentences an offender may receive i s a suspended sentence under conditions of probation. The offender i s placed on the caseload of a probation o f f i c e r to whom she must report promptly and r e g u l a r l y at le a s t once a month or more often i f required. She must n o t i f y her probation o f f i c e r promptly of any change of address or occupation and must appear before the convicting magistrate at any time when requested to do so by her probation o f f i c e r . F a i l u r e to carry out the probationary orders may r e s u l t i n being sentenced for the offense. During the f i s c a l year under consideration namely, A p r i l 1s t , 1963 to March 31st , 1964, twenty-two women were given suspended sentences and placed on bond and on probation. The bond varied from $50.00 to $2,000.00 and the probationary period was eith e r one or two years. Examples of conditions of probation included: a) a woman charged with possession of li q u o r i n a public place, bonded f o r $200.00 and placed on probation f o r two years, b) a woman charged with causing bodily harm bonded for $500.00 and ordered to pay $200.00 by way of compensa-t i o n within one year to the injured party, c) a juvenile transferred to Adult Court and charged with t h e f t under $50.00 was placed on probation f o r one year without bond. Probation o f f i c e r s are also responsible for pre-sentence reports but these are not always c a l l e d f o r by the Court, nor Is probation always recommended by the probation o f f i c e r who completes a pre-sentence report. Mr. L l t s k y has outlined the need for pre-sentence reports i n h i s thesis.'*' Probation i s recommended by the probation o f f i c e r f or those who are l i k e l y to benefit from probation supervision and the determining factors are not the offence fo r which the offender has been charged nor whether t h i s i s a f i r s t offence. xHerman L i t s k y , The Administration of Justice i n the  Three Higher Criminal Courts of Vancouver. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, 19&5? pp. 41-43. - 1© As a r u l e , juvenile offenders are seen i n Family or Juvenile Court and, during the year under study, only two female juvenile offenders were transferred to Adult Court as compared to s i x t y juvenile male offenders according to P r o v i n c i a l Probation records. Both these g i r l s were transferred to Adult Court at t h e i r own request. Casework, group work and family interviewing are methods used by the probation o f f i c e r s i n t h e i r work with individuals placed on probation by the Court. There were seven probation o f f i c e r s , s i x men and one woman, employed during the 1963-1964 f i s c a l year; two had Master of S o c i a l Work degrees, four had Bachelor of Soc i a l Work degrees, and one had a S o c i a l Work Diploma f or tra i n i n g as a probation o f f i c e r i n England. Most of the female probationers were supervised by the female probation o f f i c e r . One g i r l , who w i l l be c a l l e d Kim f o r the purpose of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , age seventeen, was a juvenile trans-ferred to adult court. She was charged and found g u i l t y of keeping a bawdy house, given a suspended sentence and placed on probation f o r two years. The probation o f f i c e r f i r s t assisted her i n locating a suitable place to l i v e . Kim has l e f t school i n Grade V I I . During the year with help and encouragement from the probation o f f i c e r , she completed Grade V I I I . - 11 -Kim became a member of a group of probationers who met with the probation o f f i c e r once a week fo r an hour to an hour and a h a l f . I t was an a c t i v e , verbal group. The young women, most of whom were i n t h e i r l a t e teens and early twenties, were a l l p r o s t i t u t e s . They discussed t h e i r problems frankly and openly and began to discover workable solutions to some of t h e i r problems. They began to take an interest In each other and to see that each member of the group was present at every meeting so that they could adhere to the conditions of t h e i r probation. The proba-tioners soon decided that the men with whom they were l i v i n g should also attend the meetings so they brought them along. The probation o f f i c e r thinks that the group sessions resulted i n , or at least contributed t o , e f f o r t s which the i n d i v i d u a l members made to r e h a b i l i t a t e them-selves. Kim completed Grade V I I I and got a job. Her boy-fr i e n d contacted The Narcotics Foundation and together they decided to f i n d a job and a place to l i v e i n a drug-free community. They received assistance and support from the entire group. They made t h e i r own decisions and the probation o f f i c e r and the entire group aided and supported them when they were ready to do something. The probation o f f i c e r also got to know Kim's family very w e l l during the period of probation and d i d whatever she could to strengthen family relationships through support, knowledge and better understanding. - 12 -Part of Kim's "story" appeared i n an a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Times. As a r e s u l t of the a r t i c l e , jobs were offered to probationers by people i n the community and donations were received f o r t h e i r further education. CHAPTER 2 Oakalla Prison Farm Admass \9*\ The 1963 annual report of the Director of Corrections states that a l l new Inmates, on admission, are placed i n the o r i e n t a t i o n area u n t i l t h e i r health i s s a t i s f a c t o r y and i t i s f e l t by the medical and c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s t a f f that they are ready f o r a l i v i n g unit and placement i n one of the vocation or work teams. Every e f f o r t i s made to segregate f i r s t offenders from previous offenders and drug addicts from non-users. 1 The 1964 annual report of the Director of Corrections states that the alco h o l i c s are admitted on the verge of delirium tremens, frequently complicated by inj u r y or disease. A number of admissions are i n various stages of pregnancy and i n need of medical care. A high percentage of the pregnant women are subject to frequent emotional upset and border on the near-psychotic. Many of them are recent discharges from the P r o v i n c i a l Mental B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the year  ended March 31. 1963. p. T37. 14 -Hos p i t a l , The Main Building "Custody i s your f i r s t consideration and regard-less of your p a r t i c u l a r job, you must know and practice the fundamentals of sound security." The above statement which i s included i n i n s t r u c -tions to a l l matrons sets the tone for l i f e i n the main i n s t i t u t i o n . The inmates are f u l l y aware that, most of the time, the s t a f f i s i n charge. Control i s with the s t a f f p a r t l y because of a gradual breakdown to the previously impassable b a r r i e r between inmates and s t a f f . The Matron i n Charge of the Women*s Unit a t t r i b u t e s t h i s change to the group approach which i s the method used throughout the entire women's section. S t r i c t l y adhered to r u l e s , regulations and routines govern most of t h e i r l i f e i n prison. The following i s a formal notice to inmates of p r i v i l e g e s and l i m i t s which w i l l be s t r i c t l y enforced during t h e i r stay i n prison. 1. The f i r s t duty of the inmate Is s t r i e t obedience. 2. Conversation i s a p r i v i l e g e . Y e l l i n g , screaming, or swearing w i l l be considered poor behaviour. 3. Each inmate w i l l r i s e when c a l l e d . She w i l l wash, comb her h a i r , and generally make herself presentable B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the year  ended March 31. 1964. p. AA22. - 15 -f o r b r e a k f a s t . She w i l l proeeed t o the d i n i n g room immediately a f t e r the b e l l has rung. NOTE dress r e g u l a t i o n s , 4. A f t e r b r e a k f a s t she w i l l r e t u r n t o her room and f i n i s h c l e a n i n g i t . 5. A l l rooms must be i n order by 8:a.m., when the b e l l f o r team work i s rung. NOTE room r e g u l a t i o n s . 6. Each inmate w i l l go t o her appointed team. Everyone must s t a y w i t h t h e i r own team. She w i l l perform such d u t i e s as her Team Matron sees f i t t o a s s i g n her. 7 . Inmates w i l l approach a l l Matrons and O f f i c e r s i n a r e s p e c t f u l manner, and speak i n a r e s p e c t f u l tone of v o i c e . 8. No inmate s h a l l be In possession of any contraband. Any a r t i c l e s judged t o be not necessary or not permissable may be c o n f i s c a t e d . 4 9. No inmate s h a l l mark or s c r a t c h the w a l l s , deface or a l t e r c l o t h i n g or any gaol a r t i c l e or m a t e r i a l . She must not tamper w i t h l i g h t s , or remove g l a s s from windows. 10. Each inmate i s e n t i t l e d t o earn a c e r t a i n number of days of r e m i s s i o n . This time w i l l be granted o n l y i f her conduct i s exemplary and she does not v i o l a t e any l a w f u l orders of the Warden or the Gaol S t a f f . - 16 -11* Inmates s h a l l be allowed to see and consult with t h e i r Legal Advisors or t h e i r Clergymen. Otherwise, each inmate i s e n t i t l e d to one twenty minute v i s i t each month under the supervision of a s t a f f member, but only when the v i s i t i s approved by the Warden or the Head Matron. 12. A l l inmates w i l l respect each others' personal property. 13. No money or property can be transferred from one inmate to another. 14. Each Inmate i s allowed to write one l e t t e r per week. This w i l l be forwarded only i f i t meets with the approval of the Head Matron. NOTE l e t t e r w r i t i n g regulation. 15. Smoking i s a p r i v i l e g e which can be withdrawn i f i t i s abused. 16. No inmate s h a l l throw cigarette butts or any garbage on the f l o o r . Nothing i s to be thrown out of windows. I f an inmate pe r s i s t s i n such habi t s , she w i l l be judged not suitable f o r a group. 17. I l l e g a l communication with the Men's Building i s a serious offence. 18. There w i l l be no hoarding of food i n the rooms. 19. No inmate i s allowed to leave her Team or Group and wander around the building without the super-v i s i o n of her Matron. - 17 -20. DAILY SCHEDULE (Approximate times) 7J0O Rising B e l l 7:15 Breakfast B e l l 8:00 Go to Teams 11:3© Teamwork finished for the morning 12:30 Return to Teams 2:3© Return to your own rooms, cottages, or huts 5 O 0 Group 6 lockup (Bedtime) 8:30 Lockup for a l l other groups (bedtime) 9:30 Radios off 10:00 Lights out 21. CONTRABAND a. Liquor or drugs. b. Drug paraphernalia c. I l l e g a l letters d. Gum e. Personal clothing other than regulation garments, or personal clothing allowed. f. Tools g. Any ar t i c l e which may be used for escape purposes h. Any ar t i c l e which i s judged unsuitable by the staff i . Currency - 18 -2 2 . Group Matrons w i l l i n s t r u c t each inmate In the use of the Li b r a r y , Radio, and Sports equipment. 2 3 . Any member of the s t a f f has the authority to d i r e c t the course of the conversation i n any Department i f she fe e l s that what i s being said i s detrimental to the welfare of any inmate. 24. No defacing of walls with n a i l s , thumb tacks, scotch tape, etc. 25. No ear p i e r c i n g . No tatooing anywhere. 2 6 . G i r l s are not permitted to s i t on the f l o o r . 2 7 . G i r l s must not lounge or put t h e i r feet on the furniture i n work areas, dayrooms, etc. Complaints and requests w i l l be given c a r e f u l considera-t i o n . There i s no point i n making unreasonable demands or indulging i n unreasonable behaviour. Letter Writing Regulations 1. Each inmate under sentence i s e n t i t l e d to write one l e t t e r each week. This l e t t e r i s w r i t t e n on Sunday, and must be turned i n on that day. 2 . Each inmate awaiting t r i a l , appealing, or awaiting transfer to Kingston, may have two l e t t e r s each week. 3 . NO ONE may correspond with another inmate i n t h i s or any other prison UNLESS they can prove they are related or l e g a l l y married. (A l i s t of approved correspondents w i l l be made up by the Deputy Warden, the Padre, and the Matron i n Charge.) 19 -4. When w r i t i n g observe the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s : a. One sheet of paper f o r each l e t t e r . b. Do not w r i t e t o more than one correspondent I n one l e t t e r . c. No one may add a note to any other inmate's l e t t e r . d. No one may use her own l e t t e r t o w r i t e f o r any other inmate. e. L e t t e r s may not mention any other inmate's name, case, or sentence. f . No personal names of S t a f f members are t o be used. 5. YOU MAY NOT RECEIVE LETTERS WHICH a. Are ob v i o u s l y k i t e - l i n e connections who are not known t o you before you entered O a k a l l a . b. Which may cause g r i e f , worry, or concern t o any other inmate. c. Which may promote f i g h t s . d. Which are concerned w i t h d r u g - t r a f f i c k i n g . e. Which c o n t a i n f o u l or immoral language. f . Which are not on the approved l i s t , or from any other p r i s o n . General Rules C l o t h i n g i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and cannot be a l t e r e d . Each inmate i s permitted a c e r t a i n number of s p e c i f i e d a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g . Doors are kept lo c k e d a t a l l times - 20 -A matron must unlock the door to l e t an inmate i n , or out, of most rooms. Contact with anyone outside the women's section i s minimal and c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d . The inmates i n the main building are under constant su r v e i l l a n c e . Close supervision Is as necessary f o r safety as f o r securi t y . I t i s the s t a f f ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to protect inmates from h o s t i l e , agressive attacks from other inmates. Every woman becomes a member of a group and a team. A group i s defined i n Oakalla records as a number of people who are assigned to l i v e together In a section of rooms or a hut, or what i s generally refer r e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e as the " l i v i n g group." A team i s defined as a number of Inmates who are assigned to work or study i n the d i f f e r e n t departments. Records at Oakalla Prison Farm state that every g i r l i s placed i n one of the ten groups f o r custodial and treatment purposes. A matron i s i n charge of each group. With regard to custody, the s t a f f In the Women's Unit at Oakalla state that generally one matron can more adequately supervise a small group than can two matrons supervise a large one. From the treatment viewpoint, the group system has been adopted because of several underlying p r i n c i p l e s of group therapy. The inmate population i s made up of people who have had d i f f i c u l t y i n getting along i n 21 -society, at least to the extent that they have broken the law. Many of the inmates have personal d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjusting to authority, i n getting along with others, i n understanding the meaning of p r i v i l e g e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and i n respecting the ri g h t s of others. The s t a f f at Oakalla consider the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s named are found i n the mature person. Normally a person develops and matures within the family group. I f an i n d i v i d u a l comes from a broken or disturbed family group, that person may never f u l l y mature. I t i s believed that some of the personality development that takes place within the family may also occur within other groups. With t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n mind, the group system was evolved. Either by counselling, encouragement, or pressure, the group members learn to get along with each other, i f only at a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . In regard to the a c t i v i t i e s and programme, i t i s the p o l i c y of the i n s t i t u t i o n that the groups take part as a whole. Thus, a group must reach some sort of agreement among themselves, i f only to refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e . In p r a c t i c e , the s t a f f at Oakalla Prison Farm f i n d that the group's a b i l i t y to co-operate among themselves and to reach decisions on a group basis has greatly improved since the introduction of the group system. Certain i n d i v i d u a l s who have d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting to group situations reeeive assistance from t h e i r matron. - 22 -One of the characteristics that develops from the group formation is a feeling of belonging. According to records at Oakalla, individuals become proud of their group, and of being a member, and they resent their group having a bad name, etc. It i s believed that this sense of belonging, even though i t may begin i n an institutional setting, is very important in the fostering of personality development. A woman who refuses to join a group i s disobeying orders and w i l l be locked in her room and may be punished for disobedience depending on the circumstances. When a woman receives bad news the matron decides whether or not she should join i n the group a c t i v i t i e s . P a l l y RonUne --The day begins for the inmates at 7*00 a.m. After breakfast the inmates clean their rooms. The work i s supervised and the rooms are later inspected to see that everything is i n order. Inmates who are sick remain i n their room. The others join the team to which they have been assigned. Some of the women work i n the laundry, others work in power sewing, the beauty parlour or in maintenance. Others attend classes, academic or vocational. Training i s part of the work programme wherever possible. Some women attend academic classes or take subjects by correspondence. During the morning there i s - 23 -a f i f t e e n minute break f o r tea. At noon the inmates return to t h e i r rooms and go from there as a group for dinner. During the noon hour they may go i n t o the exercise yard or day room provided everyone i n the group wants to do so and they go as a group. After dinner the morning procedure i s repeated u n t i l mid-afternoon. Dress i s more casual f o r the afternoon programme but remains regulated to what would be considered appropriate i n the community generally. Grooming and dress are a group project recognizing the f a c t that h a i r s t y l i n g and fashions absorb most women's in t e r e s t and time fo r part of every day. Bach group has a turn preparing and serving the evening meal. A l l groups p a r t i c i p a t e i n d a i l y counselling sessions. Group counselling i s based p r i m a r i l y on the book "What W i l l Be Your L i f e ? " by Dr. Norman Fenton. 1 The emphasis i s placed as much as possible on the group i t s e l f f inding i t s own solutions to problems. The sessions give the women an opportunity to discuss t h e i r problems and as a r e s u l t to understand themselves a l i t t l e b etter. Young women respond w e l l to counselling sessions. The 1962-63 annual report states that the longer the record and the more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d the inmate, the xNorman Fenton, What W i l l Be Your L i f e ? New York, The American Correctional Association, 1963« - 24 more reluctant she i s to probe into her own behaviour. The groups are involved i n sports such as baseball or basketball. According to the 1962-63 annual report of , the Director of Corrections a dance and modern a r t series was introduced by a s t a f f member during that year which the s t a f f members consider was well accepted by most of the groups. 2 Each group also has a kitchen night. During 1962-63 a sp e c i a l e f f o r t was made to involve the Women's Unit with the Community. Selected groups of volunteer students from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia were given a number of inmates to v i s i t weekly and to take out once a month. They v i s i t e d the University, I n d u s t r i a l Plants and various e x h i b i t s . These v i s i t s and tours opened up new areas of experience to the inmates. F a c i l i t i e s i n the community such as the Young Womens C h r i s t i a n Association, South Burnaby swimming pools, bowling a l l e y s and church r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were made ava i l a b l e to the Unit. In ad d i t i o n , various business, professional and church groups v i s i t e d the prison and offered t h e i r volunteer s e r v i c e s . 3 1Annual Repprt of the yDirector of CprreeUon f o r the year ended March 31, 1963. p. T38. p Loc. c i t . ^Annual Report of the^Director of Correction f o r the year ended March 31. 1963. p. T38. The 1963-64 annual report of the Director of Correction states that the volunteers, Individual and group, are the Unit's greatest asset i n developing s o c i a l t r a i n i n g programmes. In p a r t i c u l a r the report refers to Alcoholics Anonymous, The Legion of Mary, and the Elizabeth Fry Society. With the a i d of volunteers i n the community a fashion show was presented at the Women's Unit. Models from the community assisted the inmate group i n putting on a f i r s t - c l a s s fashion show. Students i n Education and Sociology from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia v i s i t e d r e g u l a r l y and planned t h e i r own programmes with the inmates. The s t a f f have noticed a marked change i n the reaction of the inmates to v i s i t s from others i n the community. The Inmates prepare for the v i s i t s , serve tea and t a l k q u i e t l y and informally with the v i s i t o r s while they are there. In previous years they would remain i n one area t a l i n g to each other and not t a l k to the v i s i t o r s . 1 The afternoon programme continues into the evening. During the evening tea i s served. The matron pours tea and channels the conversation. This i s intended to be a more formal event. The remainder of the evening i s casual. The women have t h e i r bath according to a schedule which has been drawn up previously. They are Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the year  ended March 31. 1964. p. AA24. - 26 -locked i n t h e i r rooms at 8:30. At 9:30 the radio i s turned o f f . At 10:00 p.m. l i g h t s are turned out. Twin Maples Farm The women selected f o r the farm are those who can use t h i s type of t r a i n i n g and experience i n t h e i r own homes and communities. They are mainly, but not exc l u s i v e l y , of Canadian Indian R a c i a l o r i g i n . Many of them are i l l i t e r a t e . About ninety per cent of the inmates have had less than Grade IV education. Their ages range from the late teens to the s i x t i e s . They are usually sentenced under the Government Liquor Act. Their sentences range from one week to s i x months. The average stay i s two months.1 The farm consists of about two hundred and seventy-five acres. The dormitory which the inmates b u i l t themselves accommodates twenty-four women. At present they are using the kitchen and l i v i n g room i n the old farm b u i l d i n g , but i t i s a very old bui l d i n g and they w i l l soon require a new kitchen and l i v i n g room. The annual report of the Director of Correction for the year ending March 31, 1963, states that the women at Twin Maples do t h e i r own laundry, baking, canning, pasteurize the milk from t h e i r dairy c a t t l e and make "^Loc. c i t . - 2? -butter for t h e i r own use. 1 The matron i n charge of the Women's Unit at Oakalla says that at the present time they also grow hay, r a i s e chickens and are s t a r t i n g t h e i r own herd of beef c a t t l e . The women make clothing f o r themselves and fo r t h e i r children and learn q u i l t i n g . The farm provides f o r learning experiences i n jobs that are generally done on a farm. The 1963-64 annual report of the Director of Correction states that i n addition to the p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n homemaking, some formal education i s part of the afternoon programme. Due to the length of time the women are there and to t h e i r previous lack of formal education, t h e i r educational programme i s on a very elementary, p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . They f i r s t attempt to teach them to read. Motivation varies with previous education and with age. Those who have had some education are eager to learn , while those who are completely i l l i t e r a t e and those who have completed about Grade VI are not interested. Most of the women who are i l l i t e r a t e are older and embarrassed i n front of the younger women.2 Group counselling i s required f o r a l l women at Twin Maples Farm. The 1963-64 Annual Report indicates •^Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the  year ended March 31. 1963. p. T38. 2Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the  year ending March 31. 1964. pp. AA24-AA25. 28 -that many of the Indian women are extremely shy and s e l f -conscious and allow others to take advantage of t h e i r lack of self-esteem. At f i r s t they do not understand what group counselling i s a l l about and they cannot see why others should suddenly be interested In what they think about things. Although the process i s t o t a l l y strange to them at f i r s t the s t a f f members say that the inmates gradually become more secure as they become involved and benefit from the experience. As more posit i v e relationships develop between s t a f f and inmates, the s t a f f members are able to help the women i n matters which are important to the women as w e l l as to the s t a f f . The women are helped i n many ways by inmates and s t a f f working and t a l k i n g together. They are encouraged when t h e i r suggestions can be put into practice and when s t a f f members are interested i n doing so. 1 The 1963-64 Annual Report also comments on v i s i t s to Twin Maples Farm from volunteers i n the community. A group of church ladies attend monthly meetings. The Indian women were at f i r s t very shy with the v i s i t o r s but gradually relaxed as they got to know each other better. The women were encouraged to attend church i n the community and those who did attend wore xAnnual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the  year ended March 31. 1964. P P . AA25-26. - 29 -c i v i l i a n clothes to church. The group from Alcoholics Anonymous brings Indian people with them. As a r e s u l t of t h e i r v i s i t s some of the inmates r e a l i z e that they w i l l be accepted and assisted by that organization i f they so d e s i r e . 1 Narcotic Drue Treatment Unit The annual report of the Director of Correction fo r the f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1963, states that In the Men's Unit at Oakalla Prison Farm ten per cent of the 10,838 men admitted were drug-users, while at the Women's Unit 43.5 per cent of the 1,160 women admitted were drug-users. As a r e s u l t of the Stevenson report of 1956, two Narcotic Drug Research Units, known as the Male and Female Research Units, were established at Oakalla i n an attempt to f i n d a more e f f e c t i v e means of coping with the problems of addiction i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . The same Annual Report describes the Women's Research Unit as a log building located next to the main building of the Women's Unit. The most successful number of inmates to accommodate there i s ten. A l l meals are prepared and served i n the Pan-Abode and some of the women work there throughout the day. Other women take academic Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the year ended March 31. 1964. p. AA26. - 30 -o r v o c a t i o n a l courses i n the main u n i t . An attempt i s made t o segregate the Research group from the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the 1962-63 a n n u a l r e p o r t of the D i r e c t o r of C o r r e c t i o n s the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of drug a d d i c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t r e a t m e n t : 1. Drug a d d i c t s a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s by m a n i p u l a t i o n . 2. They have b u i l t up massive defences i . e . p r o j e c t i o n , d e n i a l , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . 3. Drug a d d i c t s can s o l v e , or a t l e a s t minimize t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s by t a k i n g a f i x or a p i l l . 4. F r i e n d s and acquaintances share t h e i r v i e w s . 5. There i s l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n t o seek t r e a t m e n t . The same r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h u n i t must meet the f o l l o w i n g requirements s 1. Group c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s are compulsory f o r a l l . The group meets d a i l y , Monday t o S a t u r d a y , from 2:30 - 4:00 p . m . I n a d d i t i o n t o the more p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s o f the group approach the Research U n i t d e c i d e d the group approach would a l s o minimize the p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a n i p u l a t i o n of s t a f f members. 2. M e d i c a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r p u r e l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l reasons o n l y . The women have completed the t r e a t -ment f o r drug w i t h d r a w a l be fore they come t o the Research U n i t . New a r r i v a l s soon l e a r n from the - 31 -other group members that there are no exceptions to t h i s r u l e so t h e i r demands upon s t a f f i n t h i s regard cease. However, s t a f f remain a v a i l a b l e to them f o r discussion and support. 3. Those i n the Research Unit cannot spend money which they receive from outside sources. This requirement i s i n a d d i t i o n to the regulation that applies to everyone i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , namely, that unless a couple Is l e g a l l y married, no l e t t e r - w r i t i n g or v i s i t i n g i s allowed between the Men's and Women's Units. This regulation cuts down on the addicts' obligations to old associates on the outside. The annual report goes on to say that In addition to good-conduct pay the women i n the Research Unit carry on a baking school group project. They do a l l t h e i r own ordering of supplies, budgeting, planning and cooking, and must do a good enough job to s a t i s f y the s t a f f members who are t h e i r customers. The p r o f i t s are shared equally among the group members. Treatment i n the Research Unit, according to the same annual report, i s as follows: 1. Group work i s the method of treatment. 2. The Research Unit f i r s t attempted to break down the t r a d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r between inmates and s t a f f by making the women responsible f o r t h e i r own behaviour - 32 -so that they would see rule enforcement as a necessary part of group l i v i n g . a. P u l l group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning and scheduling of group a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l duties f o r the week was encouraged. b. The inmates kept a record of group discussions and decisions reached. c. Proceedings within the group, which includes both inmates and s t a f f , are kept c o n f i d e n t i a l to the Research Unit. 3. The s t a f f then encouraged the women to become t h e i r own agents of con t r o l . a. They were responsible f o r getting themselves up i n the morning. b. They kept a d a i l y check on the cleanliness of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l sleeping cubicles. c. Although good-conduct ratings would be made i n accordance with how we l l they were able to measure up to i n s t i t u t i o n a l standards i n these respects, they had to do t h e i r own prodding, pushing and p o l i c i n g . 4. The group was then asked to assign the various good-conduct pay ra t i n g s . One woman could earn eighty cents a day, two women could earn f i f t y cents a day, and the remainder could earn t h i r t y cents a day. - 33 -5. The group members were then asked to draw up t h e i r own set of rules and expectations f o r the Research Unit which would ensure minimum protection and comfort f o r the group members. The following r e s u l t s were noted i n the annual report: 1. As a r e s u l t of two years of experimenting, analyzing, and developing, the group counselling sessions became tremendously meaningful and f r u i t f u l . 2 . The addicts became more confident i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to cope with s t r e s s f u l situations without r e l y i n g upon medication. 3. When they could not spend money or receive parcels from t h e i r old boy f r i e n d s , they usually discontinued a l l contact with them. 4 . As a r e s u l t of the baking school project many learned to budget money f o r the f i r s t time and were proud of t h e i r a b i l i t y to assume some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r themselves i n a s o c i a l l y approved manner. 5. The women had to experience rule enforcement as i t affected them d i r e c t l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y before they could accept i t as a v a l i d o r i e n t a t i o n to l i f e i n general. For instance, i f they ate what - 34 -they baked f o r s a l e , or l o s t customers for s e l l i n g i n f e r i o r produce, they were out of pocket money. 6. Each new innovation met with v i o l e n t objections. Their reaction was to be expected as each new innovation d i r e c t l y attacked one or more of the defences mentioned previously. When resentment or h o s t i l i t y began to be directed toward other inmates rather than s t a f f members they began to discuss t h e i r feelings and the implications of those f e e l i n g s . 7. At f i r s t the pay-ratings were e s s e n t i a l l y a popu-l a r i t y contest, with the best l i k e d or most useful member being paid the most. Also only those inmates whose deviations had been noted by the s t a f f members were penalized for t h e i r poor behaviour. A f t e r a series of group discussions around t h e i r reasons f o r making a l l o c a t i o n s the way they d i d one member accused the other group members of being u n f a i r . In that session there was a s l i g h t break through the f a i r l y w e l l established pattern of inmates automatically protecting one another from the outside. 8 . The rules drawn up by the group members did not d i f f e r i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way from those which had previously been drawn up by the s t a f f . However, they are now more acceptable to the inmates. - 35 -9. The Research Unit s t a f f say that more could be accomplished i n the way of treatment i f there were greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by men i n the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the women so that they could work through some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r relationships with men.1 The Blue Ladies The Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1964, describes i n some d e t a i l the project which involves the research group i n volunteer assistance to The Woodlands School. The Blue Ladies, as they are known by the patients, go to Ward 1, Cedar Cottage every Thursday afternoon from 1:30 -3:00 p.m. Many of the c h i l d r e n , who suffer from physical d i s a b i l i t i e s i n addition to mental retardation, are wheel-chair or bed patients so that they cannot be involved i n the normal sports and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the School. During the summer months, a f t e r a v i s i t with each of the patients, The Blue Ladies take a selected number of patients to the swimming pool where they a s s i s t the Woodlands s t a f f i n removing dressing gowns, l i f t i n g the patients from t h e i r wheelchairs on to the pool deck and securing them i n l i f e - j a c k e t s or inner tubes. Each group Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the  year ended March 31. 1963. PP. T39-T43. - 36 -member takes charge of one or two patients i n the water. At the end of an hour the patients are placed back on the pool deck and The Blue Ladies have the ent i r e pool to them-selves f o r a few minutes. They then a s s i s t i n dressing the patients, l i f t i n g them back into t h e i r wheelchairs and returning them to the ward. The Woodlands School i s unable to involve the children from that ward i n swimming without the a i d of The Blue Ladies. During the winter months, The Blue Ladies a s s i s t i n such matters as wr i t i n g l e t t e r s to the patient's family. Speech problems make t h i s task d i f f i c u l t and require a great deal of time and patience on the part of The Blue Ladies. The Blue Ladies a l s o give manicures, set h a i r , apply make-up and do many things which are b e n e f i c i a l to the patients. The annual report says that the re l a t i o n s h i p between the patients and The Blue Ladies i s warm and affectionate. I t i s understandable that the group returns to the Pan Abode emotionally depleted and ph y s i c a l l y exhausted. However, they see the value of t h e i r v i s i t s and with time overcome the i n i t i a l shock of the physical appearance of some of the patients and the knowledge that the prognosis i s poor. The s t a f f at Oakalla say that t h i s project does much to enhance the feelings of self-worth i n the individuals as w e l l as demonstrate t h e i r worth as a group. - 3 7 -A short follow-up study of the twenty-two drug addicts who were released from the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit between A p r i l 1 , 1 9 6 2 and March 3 1 , 1 9 6 4 showed that f i f t y per cent abstained from drugs a f t e r t h e i r r e l e a s e . 1 •''Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the year  ended March 31. 1964t PP. AA26-AA28. C H A P T E R 3 Kingston Prison for Women information regarding Kingston Prison for Women was obtained i n correspondence received from the Super-intendent i n charge of that prison. Upon admission to the Kingston Prison f o r Women the inmate i s Interviewed by the Superintendent f o r the prison and then by the s o c i a l worker f o r the department. The prisoner then has a bath and i s issued c l o t h i n g . She i s then assigned to a c e l l or room. I f she i s a f i r s t offender, she i s assigned to the new wing of the prison where doors are never locked. Interviews with the Chaplain, the representative from Elizabeth Fry Society and the teachers are then arranged. The number of inmates varied from one hundred and three to one hundred and t h i r t y during the past f i v e years. In February, 1964, twenty-five per cent of the population of one hundred and fourteen were f i r s t offenders who were charged and found g u i l t y of such offences as manslaughter, attempted murder, abortion, fraud, forgery, etc. T h i r t y -f i v e per cent were young, aggressive "juvenile delinquent types" consisting mainly of young women from the Maritime provinces and mostly Indian women from the mid-west. The remainder of the population were r e c i d i v i s t s who had been - 39 -charged and found g u i l t y of such offences as forgery, armed robbery and offences of violence usually committed while drunk* There has been no s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n o v e r - a l l population. At the time the above information was obtained from Kingston Prison f o r Women there was a s l i g h t decrease i n the per cent of addicts i n the prison. Punishments are i n the form of loss of p r i v i l e g e s , either statutory remission or earned remission. An Act Respecting P e n i t e n t i a r i e s assented to on the 13th of J u l y , 1961 reads as follows: '•Section 22. (1) Every person who i s sentenced or committed to penitentiary f o r a f i x e d term s h a l l , upon being received into a penitentiary, be credited with statutory remission amounting to one-quarter of the period f o r which he has been sentenced or committed as time off subject to good conduct. (2) Every inmate who, upon the coming into force of t h i s Act, i s serving a sentence f o r a f i x e d term s h a l l be credited with statutory remission amounting to one-quarter of the period remaining to be served under h i s sentence, without prejudice to any statutory remission standing to h i s c r e d i t immediately p r i o r to the coming into force of t h i s Act. (3) Every inmate who, having been credited with remission pursuant to subsection (1) or ( 2 ) , i s convicted i n d i s c i p l i n a r y court of any d i s c i p l i n a r y - 40 -offence i s l i a b l e to f o r f e i t , i n whole or i n part, the statutory remission that remains to his c r e d i t , but no such f o r f e i t u r e of more than t h i r t y days s h a l l be v a l i d without the concurrence of the Commissioner, nor more than ninety days without the concurrence of the Mi n i s t e r . (4) Every inmate who i s convicted by a criminal court of the offence of escape or attempt to escape forthwith f o r f e i t s three-quarters of the statutory remission standing to his c r e d i t at the time that offence was committed. 23. The Commissioner may, where he i s s a t i s f i e d that i t i s i n the interest of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of an inmate, remit any f o r f e i t u r e of statutory remission but s h a l l not remit more than ninety days of the f o r f e i t e d statutory remission without the approval of the Mi n i s t e r . 24. Every inmate may, i n accordance with the regulations, be credited with three days' remission of his sentence i n respect of each calendar month during which he has applied himself industriously to his work, and any remission so earned i s not subject to f o r e i t u r e f o r any reason. , , x In other words, statutory remission l o s t f or a s p e c i f i c offence can be restored while earned remission cannot be f o r f e i t e d . Reward i s considered an equally Ottawa. Statutes of Canada, c. 53> amended J u l y , 196l, pp. 362-303. - 41 -important part of d i s c i p l i n e as loss of p r i v i l e g e s . Segregation i s r a r e l y used as punishment. Kingston Prison f o r Women i s a maximum security i n s t i t u t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n i s surrounded by a twenty-f i v e foot stone w a l l . The old building has barred c e l l s and barred b a r r i e r s . The new building i s l i k e a college residence. There i s quite free and unsupervised movement within the i n s t i t u t i o n . Since supervision i s r e l a t i v e l y casual inmates can become involved i n behaviour for which the consequences w i l l be unfavourable. Many inmates who are used to conventional prisons f i n d t h i s a t t i t u d e confusing and many inmates do not l i k e i t at f i r s t . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n committee, consisting of a l l senior s t a f f , meets once a week and decides the programme that Inmates w i l l follow. I f inmates express t h e i r desires regarding programme they are usually followed. Sometimes inmates are requested to appear to discuss t h e i r programmes. Individual therapy i s considered to be more successful i n Kingston Prison f o r Women ttoah group counselling. The Prison has a f u l l - t i m e s o c i a l worker, psychologist, s o c i o l o g i s t and two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s s i s t a n t s . A p s y c h i a t r i s t i s at the prison f o r consulta-t i o n one day each week. He sees inmates who have been referred to him. - 42 Kingston Prison for Women provide several ehoiees of work and le i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . V a r i a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary i n the penitentiary because of the lengthy sentences served. The s t a f f at Kingston Prison f o r Women consider too, that too much regimenta-t i o n i s undesirable. School i s a f u l l time a c t i v i t y and engages about one-quarter of the population. Another eight take part-time courses. Inmates take courses from Grade I to University, or f u l l - t i m e business t r a i n i n g . There i s also a home economics cottage which operates continuously and occupies s i x inmates at a time for ten weeks. A l l inmates work a seven and one-half hour day. Those who are not i n school work i n the s h i r t factory, laundry, h o s p i t a l , kitchen or i n cleaning and maintenance. A l l of the inmates are paid twenty-five, t h i r t y - f i v e , f o r t y - f i v e or f i f t y - f i v e cents per day. In addition they can earn money through hobbycraft, k n i t t i n g or sewing. With earnings they can buy things from approved shops. The inmates also make dresses, slacks, pyjamas, sheets, pil l o w cases, drapes f o r themselves. They do the laundry f o r themselves as w e l l as fo r other i n s t i t u t i o n s . The prison i s equipped with heavy modern machines. The clothes are hand-ironed. The s t a f f at Kingston Prison f o r Women r e l y extensively on outside groups f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . - 43 -E l i z a b e t h Fry Society, Queen's University Women and the Legion of Mary members provide concerts and plan parties for the inmates. A l l inmates receive one month's pre-release and go either to f u l l time jobs i n a block place-ment i n ho s p i t a l s , restaurants, cleaning plants or o f f i c e s . Others are provided with day work i n homes of members of Elizabeth Fry Society or the University Women's Club where they do painting, gardening, cooking or cleaning. Those for whom jobs cannot be obtained go out f o r meals or s o c i a l events usually with members of the Elizabeth Fry Society. E f f e c t of Removal from the Community The Superintendent at the Kingston Prison f o r Women thinks that p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r drug addicts removal from l o c a l communities i s a pos i t i v e f a c t o r . Few, i f any addicts have fa m i l i e s or friends who can give any support to them. In f a c t , t h e i r f a m i l i e s are i n many cases the reason f o r addiction and t h e i r friends are fellow addicts. The addicts who appear to be cured are those who do not return to t h e i r l o c a l community such as Vancouver but s t a r t l i f e i n a d i f f e r e n t drug free community. The present a l t e r n a t i v e to removal from the community i s imprisonment i n p r o v i n c i a l gaols. The e f f e c t of others coming and going, often the same people serving - 44 -short sentences, while the federal offender has to remain i n prison f o r at lea s t sixteen months would be most damaging, she thinks. She also thinks that one cannot have as posit i v e a programme i n an i n s t i t u t i o n where most people serve short sentences. Accidental offenders such as those charged with manslaughter sometimes do not want v i s i t s while they are i n prison, p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In some instances the i n s t i t u t i o n arranges f o r v i s i t s i n the s o c i a l worker's home so that the chi l d r e n w i l l not i d e n t i f y t h e i r mothers with the physical aspects of prison. Some Basic Assumptions of the St a f f at the Kingston  Prison f o r Women (a) Over-organizing time leads to lack of i n i t i a t i v e when the inmates are released from prison e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the length of sentence. (b) Neither the s t a f f nor the inmates wear uniforms. Inmates wear dresses of various s t y l e s and colours which they choose themselves. (c) Offenders cannot be changed unless they accept, and are accepted, by the community. They encourage a l l possible contact with "square" society. I f the woman who has been i n gaol a dozen times or more does not get to know how the community thinks and acts while she i s i n prison, she w i l l be - 45 -f e a r f u l and r e j e c t i n g of "squares" when she i s released. Some people do not want to change. Treatment can-not be imposed upon them. However, they l e t the inmates know that when they are ready for treatment or assistance from the s t a f f they w i l l be there to help them. Criminals are not mentally i l l i n most eases. They are emotionally inadequate and d i f f e r e n t methods of treatment must be used. One should not be deluded by " l a b e l s . " Each inmate i s an i n d i v i d u a l , with an i n d i v i d u a l problem which can be solved by an i n d i v i d u a l approach. CHAPTER 4 Parole Parole i s a means by which an inmate, other than a ju v e n i l e , i n any i n s t i t u t i o n i n Canada who gives d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n of hi s i n t e n t i o n to reform, can be released from prison so that he can serve the balance of hi s sentence at large i n society . . . . The dual purpose of parole i s the reformation and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the inmate, and the protection of society. I t i s a means of a s s i s t i n g him to become a use f u l , law-abiding c i t i z e n while at the same time ensuring that he does not misbehave or return to crime.1 Parole i s granted or refused by the National Parole Board whose authority i s set out i n the Parole Act, proclaimed i n force on February 15, 1959» The function of the Board i s to select those inmates who show they sincerely intend to reform, and to a s s i s t them i n doing so by granting parole. The p o l i c y of the Parole Board i s , as f a r as possible, to: (a) encourage inmates to become law-abiding c i t i z e n s and to a s s i s t them to do so by granting parole; (b) treat the offender rather than the offence; (c) deal with the offenders as i n d i v i d u a l s , not as members of a group; XT. George Street. Canada's Parole System, printed i n Kingston Penitentiary, 1961, p. 2. - 47 -(d) Judge each case o b j e c t i v e l y , according to i t s merits and circumstances; (e) be f l e x i b l e and avoid the use of r i g i d or a r b i t r a r y rules of p r a c t i c e ; (f) be p r a c t i c a l , r e a l i s t i c and business l i k e i n dealing with offenders; (g) avoid any suggestion that parole means pampering inmates or that i t ivolves the use of leniency or clemency; (h) consider each case from the point of view that what the inmate i s apt to do i n the future i s more s i g n i f i c a n t than what he has done i n the past; (1) provide adequate supervision to ensure protection of the public and assistance f o r parolees; and (j) emphasize correction and reformation as the purposes of punishment, rather than vengeance or r e t r i b u t i o n . The case of every inmate serving a sentence of two years or more i s reviewed automatically s i x months a f t e r admission, when a date i s set f o r reviewing h i s case i n accordance with the regulations. I f parole i s not granted when the case i s then reviewed, i t w i l l be reviewed every two years thereafter, or i t may be marked fo r an e a r l i e r review i f t h i s seems to be warranted. Street, Canada's Parole System, p. 3. 48 -The Parole Regulations state that an inmate serving a sentence of two years or more i n a federal penitentiary s h a l l serve one year before parole can be granted; those serving a sentence of three years and over s h a l l serve one-third of t h e i r sentence, or four y e a r s — which ever i s the lesser period—before being e l i g i b l e f o r parole. An inmate s h a l l serve ten years of a l i f e sentence ( i f i t i s a commuted death sentence) and seven years i n the case of an ordinary l i f e sentence, before being considered f o r parole. Inmates serving a sentence of under two years In a p r o v i n c i a l reformatory or county gaol, may be considered f o r parole a f t e r serving one-third of t h e i r sentence. Parole i s granted to about one-third of the applicants. When parole i s granted, an inmate i s on parole f o r the unexpired balance of h i s sentence less any time he has earned up to then. She i s deemed to be serving her sentence, but does not earn any more time o f f for good behaviour while on parole. Under the new Penitentiary Act, the time on parole i s the expired balance of her sentence, plus any statutory remission time she may have earned, so that time on parole w i l l be longer. x Street, Canada's Parole System ? p. 5« - 49 -The following are some of the factors taken into consideration before the Parole Board arrives at i t s decision: (a) The nature and gravity of the offence; (b) Past behaviour—good or bad; (c) Total personality of the inamate—whether she can be trusted i n society; (d) The p o s s i b i l i t y that on release the parolee would or would not return to crime and the possible ef f e c t on society i f she did so; (e) The e f f o r t s made by the inmate during her incarceration to improve herself through better ha b i t s , education and vocational t r a i n i n g and how well they demonstrate her desire to become a good c i t i z e n ; (f) Whether there i s anyone i n the community who would help the inmate on parole. (In t h i s matter, family and background information are most important); (g) The inmates plans and whether they w i l l a i d i n her ultimate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; (h) What employment the inmate has arranged, or may be able to arrange. Steady employment must be maintained i f at a l l possible as one of the most important factors i n her r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; ( i ) How w e l l the inmate understands her problem. Whether she i s completely aware of what got her - 5 0 -into trouble i n i t i a l l y and how she can overcome her defect. Also, how w e l l she understands her own strengths and weaknesses. 1 Before an inmate i s o f f i c i a l l y released on parole, she i s sometimes given a gradual re-introduction to society, to help overcome the shock and problems of changing from prison custody to l i f e outside. This procedure, known as Gradual Release, i s designed to a s s i s t p a r t i c u l a r l y the long-term prisoners i n t h e i r progressive adjustment to community l i f e . The inmates are taken out f o r a few hours and sometimes f o r the whole day or overnight, during a short period just p r i o r to f i n a l release on parole or at the expiration of sentence. They are usually escorted at f i r s t , and l a t e r may be out alone. They sometimes work outside the prison during the day and return at night. They recognize that a person i n prison f o r a long time i s thoroughly unfamiliar with the outside world, and such an ordinary thing as making a telephone c a l l , or buying a cup of coffee, may be a nerve wracking experience. Gradual release i s to help the prisoner to overcome these problems and to regain poise and self-confidence. The conditions of parole, according to the same brochure, are that the parolee must obey the law, x S t r e e t , Canada's Parole System, p. 10. - 51 -support his dependents, f u l f i l l h is l e g a l and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , be s t e a d i l y employed, and she cannot leave the area or her job without permission. The conditions may be varied i n some cases and i n others removed completely, a f t e r an appropriate length of time, i f the parolee i s doing exceptionally well."'* I f parole i s granted the parolee signs a parole agreement which reads as follows: " I c l e a r l y understand that I am s t i l l serving the sentence imposed but I am being granted parole to permit me to resume my a c t i v i t i e s as a c i t i z e n at large i n the community, under supervision. Therefore, i n consideration of parole being granted to me, I solemnly agree: 1. To remain, u n t i l the expiry of my sentence, under the authority of the National Parole Service Representative i n 2 . To forthwith proceed d i r e c t l y to and, immediately upon a r r i v a l and at least once a month thereafter,.to report f a i t h f u l l y to 3 . To accept the supervision and assistance of my supervisor 4 . To remain i n the immediate area of or as designated by the Regional Representative Street, Canada's Parole System T p. 13 ~ 52 -and, i f I have good cause to leave t h i s area, to obtain permission beforehand through my supervisor. 5. To endeavour to maintain steady employment and to report at once to the Regional Representative through my supervisor, any change or termination of employment or any other change of circumstances such as accident or i l l n e s s . 6. To secure advance approval from the Regional Representative, through my supervisor, i f at any time I wish to: (a) purchase a motor vehicle; (b) incur debts by borrowing money or instalment buying; (c) assume ad d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as marrying; (d) own or carry fire-arms or other weapons. 7. To abide by a l l i nstructions which may be given by my supervisor or by the Regional Representative through my supervisor, and esp e c i a l l y with regard to employment, companions, hours, i n t o x i c a n t s , operation of motor vehicl e s , medical or psychiatric a t t e n t i o n , family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , court obligations. 8. To abide by these special conditions: - 5 3 -9 . To forthwith communicate with the Regional Representative, through my supervisor, i f I am arrested or questioned by peace o f f i c e r s regarding any offence. 10. To obey the law and f u l f i l l a l l my l e g a l and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I have read, or have had read to me, and f u l l y understand and accept the conditions, regulations and r e s t r i c t i o n s governing my release on parole. I w i l l abide by and conform to them s t r i c t l y . I also understand that i f I v i o l a t e them i n any manner, I may be recommitted."'' Parole Supervision Supervision i s an important part of parole. According to "A Guide f o r Parole Supervisors" there are three basic ingredients i n parole supervision: (a) Service Service i s primarily concerned i n e f f e c t i n g changes i n the environment. The parolee should be kept away from pressures and influences which might cause her to get into trouble, and be i n an environ-ment and form associations which are b e n e f i c i a l to her. Service involves the Supervisor's thorough T. George Street, Handbook on Parole. Ottawa, National Parole Board, 19^3, pp. 2 1 - 2 2 . - 54 -knowledge, s k i l f u l use and h e l p f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of community resources and s p e c i a l services to a s s i s t the parolee and her family. (b) Treatment Treatment i s assistance to the i n d i v i d u a l i n handling her personal problems. It means making the parolee understand h e r s e l f better and learning to appreciate the advantages of a law-abiding l i f e and helping her to acquire some self-respect and sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t requires knowledge and s k i l l i n human and emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s to discover underlying s o c i a l and emotional problems to guide her i n resolving these problems to the best of her a b i l i t y and to help her obtain s p e c i a l i z e d professional help as indicated f o r problems with which the supervisor i s not required to deal. Volunteer supervisors are not expected to concern themselves with the treatment approach to any great extent, although as a h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s established with a parolee she w i l l l i k e l y Involve the supervisor i n her personal problems. (c) Surveillance Surveillance i s necessary to protect the parolee from h e r s e l f and to protect the public from her. I t i s the supervisory method used to keep informed of the parolee's whereabouts, a c t i v i t i e s and conduct. - 55 -I t inolves the s k i l f u l use of authority and responsi-b i l i t y f or the control of the parolee's behaviour, i n such a manner as not to Impede the service and treatment functions. The kind of approach which the supervisor displays i n contacts with the parolee has a great deal to do with the parolee's success or f a i l u r e on parole. The best supervisors are free from bias and prejuduce not only of races and creeds, but also of types of crimes. A sincere display of f a i t h i n the parolee's a b i l i t y to make good and a natural and common sense approach to her problem w i l l go a long way toward her r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . A parolee's knowing that someone trusts her and has f a i t h i n her, i s a very e f f e c t i v e kind of therapy.^ While exact s t a t i s t i c s are not avail a b l e i t i s estimated that approximately t h i r t y to t h i r t y - f i v e female offenders are granted parole i n the Vancouver area i n a year as compared to two hundred and f o r t y to two hundred and f i f t y men. There are no d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e sentences f o r women. This s p e c i a l sentencing developed out of a recognition of the value of Borstal Homes i n Corrections and i t applied s p e c i f i c a l l y to those young men, usually f i r s t offenders, who were to serve t h e i r sentences at the T.G. Street, A Guide f o r Parole Supervisors. Ottawa, National Parole Board, 1963, pp. 2-3. - 56 -New Haven Borstal Home. The provision f o r d e f i n i t e -i n d e f i n i t e sentences was l a t e r expanded to include the Young Offenders' Unit at Oakalla and the Haney Correc-t i o n a l School. Under t h i s type of sentencing, the young male offender may be granted parole f o r the i n d e f i n i t e part of the sentence. The word Indefinite i s somewhat deceiving since the length of time i s usually stated. For instance, the sentence may be nine months d e f i n i t e and twelve months i n d e f i n i t e . A P r o v i n c i a l Parole Board was established by the Attorney General f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n J u l y , 1949, to assess applicants f o r parole and to provide f o r t h e i r supervision while on parole. No such provision has been made for women. Some supervision of female parolees i s done by men or women employed by the National Parole Board from t h e i r Vancouver regional o f f i c e . However, most of the supervision i s provided by the John Howard Society and the Salvation Array. The following examples of women on parole have been provided by the John Howard Society. A young woman, whom we s h a l l c a l l Jane, was a member of a large part-Indian family. There was no early h i s t o r y of being involved i n criminal behaviour. In her late teens she came to Vancouver but could not f i n d a job so she went to Toronto. There she became acquainted with the addicts and prostitutes i n the community. She was bright and - 57 -a t t r a c t i v e and was soon established i n her own apartment and drove her own car. P r o s t i t u t i o n provided well f o r her, much better than a job could have provided i f she had been able to get a job. Limited education (Grade VII) and r a c i a l discrimination made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r her to f i n d employment which would provide more than a minimum standard of l i v i n g . When she was twenty-two years old she was sentenced to four years i n Kingston Penitentiary for t r a f f i c k i n g i n drugs. Jane applied f o r parole and i t was granted on the understanding that she would return to Vancouver. The John Howard Society was n o t i f i e d and asked to provide supervision. The supervisor became acquainted with Jane's s i s t e r and her s i s t e r ' s husband. They were very anxious to have her back and paid the fare f o r her to return. They met her on her a r r i v a l i n Vancouver and a l l three reported d i r e c t l y to her supervisor at the John Howard Society. Jane could not f i n d a job. She found i t almost Impossible to face new s i t u a t i o n s . Family relationships disintegrated. She soon l e f t her s i s t e r ' s home and went to l i v e with an older man who had befriended her when she was i n Vancouver p r i o r to going to Toronto. He was a boot-legger l i v i n g on Union Street. Although there were rumors that she accommodated some of her friend's customers, these rumors of her return to p r o s t i t u t i o n were never substantiated. - 58 -Her f r i e n d made every e f f o r t to a s s i s t her and worked with the parole supervisor i n encouraging her i n her attempts to r e h a b i l i t a t e h e r s e l f . With the assistance of her supervisor Jane obtained a number of jobs. The f i r s t time she d i d not show up f o r work. The next job she kept f o r one week. She remained at the t h i r d job f o r two months. During that time, again with the a i d of her supervisor, she found a housekeeping room i n the west end. Then, she l e f t both her room and her job and was missing f o r four days. I t was learned that a f t e r a quarrel with her f r i e n d she had gone on a four-day drunk. Parole was suspended and she was taken to Oakalla. She had been out of prison f o r three and one-h a l f months. During that time she had not used narcotics or become Involved i n the drug addict community here. Her supervisor saw her every day while she was i n Oakalla and helped her to present her case to the National Parole Board. The Board agreed to have the parole suspension l i f t e d so that she could again be released from prison on parole. During the time she was i n Oakalla her supervisor helped her to f i n d another job and another place to l i v e . From that date u n t i l parole terminated she saw her supervisor frequently, every day when she was unemployed. She worked at odd jobs and continued to be assisted f i n a n c i a l l y by her f r i e n d . Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , - 59 -p a r t i c u l a r l y with her mother and two of her s i s t e r s , were improving and they began to v i s i t each other and renew t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n each other's welfare. A f t e r parole terminated she discontinued her contacts with her parole supervisor. The parole o f f i c e r said she seemed to need parole as an excuse f o r seeing him. She remained o f f drugs for over a year while under super-v i s i o n . Shortly a f t e r parole terminated she was charged with possession of narcotics and sentenced to Kingston Penitentiary where i t i s expected that she w i l l serve her f u l l term. Another young woman, also a drug addict, serving a term i n Kingston Penitentiary, was granted parole and supervised by a member of the John Howard Society. We s h a l l r e f e r to her as Mary. While i n Kingston Prison Mary completed six grades i n a very short time. She was more involved with s t a f f and less involved with other drug addicts. Elizabeth Fry Society were very a c t i v e and arranged f o r her to f l y home. Her mother and her parole supervisor met her at the a i r p o r t and when she ar r i v e d home she was given a warm and sincere welcome by her step-father and her s t e p - s i s t e r s . She did not respond with the same warmth. Nor did she appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y glad to be home. A room had been redecorated and prepared f o r her. Arrangements were made f o r an interview at the - 60 -National Employment O f f i c e . She was very unsure of h e r s e l f . She had never worked a day i n her l i f e and was a f r a i d of her i n a b i l i t y to compete and she was a f r a i d of being laughed a t . Drugs and former associates were always on her mind. She soon renewed her old acquaintances and within a month she. was arrested and charged with p r o s t i t u -t i o n . She was given a suspended sentence at the request of the John Howard Society. She went home from the t r i a l , got changed, informed her mother that she was going to the Ex h i b i t i o n , and disappeared. Two men were charged with possession of narcotics at the same time that the young women, whom we s h a l l c a l l S a l l y , was charged with the same offence. One man was sentenced to four years i n the penitentiary and the other man to three years i n the penitentiary. S a l l y was sentenced to two years less a day i n Oakalla. She i s reported to have been a drug-user for the past f i f t e e n years. She was f i r s t granted day parole with a view to f u l l parole. During the s i x weeks she was on day parole she was able to fi n d a suitable place to l i v e with the help of her parole supervisor and to f i n d a job as a t y p i s t . When f u l l parole was granted the John Howard Society requested that she be permitted to report to the pol i c e i n Burnaby rather than i n Vancouver i n order to prevent contact with her former associates at lea s t on those occasions. Because she was - 61 -s t e a d i l y employed she was asked to report once a week and to phone her parole supervisor two or three times during the week as w e l l . Everything went very well at f i r s t . There was no close association with the old crowd. She received a better job i n the same o f f i c e and a ra i s e i n salary. Then, she began drinking, moved i n with some of her old f r i e n d s , missed work and subsequently l o s t her job. Her supervisor helped her to prepare her presentation f o r the Parole Board and she was permitted to remain on parole. At present she i s l i v i n g with a man who i s also a former drug addict. She has not taken drugs f o r s i x months. Her supervisor says that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h i s young woman. Many strengths have been developed. However, her parole o f f i c e r considers that her chances of remaining o f f drugs have been reduced because of her close association with a man who i s al s o a former addict. CHAPTER 5 Conclusions and Recommendations The extent of criminal behaviour i n our society cannot be determined by a v a i l a b l e records. Even where records are kept accurate, meaningful s t a t i s t i c s are d i f f i c u l t to obtain. Many reasons, among them being the difference i n f i s c a l years i n the various l e v e l s of government, the purpose f o r which available s t a t i s t i c s are o r i g i n a l l y compiled by the various departments and the large numbers of offences contained i n a number of groupings, such as the P r o v i n c i a l Statutes. P o l i c e records are kept on I.B.M. cards and a great deal of s t a t i s t i c a l information i s available on these cards. The information i s coded. Some s t a t i s t i c s are taken from the I.B.M. cards f o r monthly reports to be sent to Ottawa. Much more information remains on.the cards which i s unused and because of coding, unusable f o r most people. The f i r s t recommendation then, i s that a research worker be employed s p e c i f i c a l l y and e n t i r e l y f o r the purpose of research. Such s t a t i s t i c a l studies would provide more accurate information from which to proceed to treatment of those charged with criminal offences. The information would s t i l l not be completely accurate because of several - 63 -a d d i t i o n a l complications. For instance, d i f f e r e n t charges can be l a i d f o r the same sequence of acts. Definitions should be c l a r i f i e d and used throughout the system. For instance, does "having stolen goods" mean the same as "receiving stolen goods." Categories of crime should be broken down into s p e c i f i c charges which are defined i n a <• s p e c i f i c way and i n the same way by everyone. But while more sophisticated research i n the settings mentioned would contribute a great deal toward providing a knowledge base from which to determine administrative p o l i c i e s , i t would s t i l l not give a clear picture of the extent of criminal behaviour i n our society. Surveys of the entire population using sampling techniques, might show that everyone i s at one time or another involved i n action which c l e a r l y constitutes criminal behaviour. Not only does t h i s apply to such things as d r i v i n g through a stop-sign but also to as s a u l t s , theft or threatening behaviour. The e f f e c t of the treatment of criminal behaviour on the criminal i s c e r t a i n l y related to the attitudes toward cr i m i n a l behaviour on the part of society generally. There i s no evidence to indicate what the attitudes are. The assumptions of these attitudes may be wrong. Such knowledge regarding attitudes would no doubt be r e f l e c t e d not only i n the treatment the offender receives at time of arrest and while she remains incarcerated, or on probation or parole, but also the - 64 -r e a l i s t i c opportunities she has f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Criminal behaviour, l i k e a l l behaviour, tends to become habi t u a l . Responses to stimulai become conditioned and generalized. Patterns of behaviour develop. Treatment then should be geared towards introducing new ways of responding. The e f f e c t of criminal behaviour i s not always detrimental to the offender, nor to society e i t h e r fo r that matter. Some prostitutes have a substantial income, can maintain a high standard of l i v i n g and these things have enhanced t h e i r s e l f image. They have a selected c l i e n t e l l e . No one gets hurt. However, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n prison, the e f f e c t of criminal behaviour has obviously been detrimental or degrading. I t may be the e f f e c t of prison rather than, or as w e l l as, the e f f e c t of the criminal behaviour that has resulted i n the degradation. The extent to which prison l i f e has been a deterrent to criminal behaviour i n others has not been determined. It often does not change the habit pattern of the offender as i s r e a d i l y shown by the frequency of prisoners returning to a l i f e of crime. The e f f e c t of criminal behaviour on society as a whole Is usually r e f e r r e d to i n terms of what i t costs society i n number of d o l l a r s . Under our present system the treatment of the offender i s a l s o very expensive. The cost of crime i n terms of hours of work l o s t , s k i l l s l o s t while i n prison and i n terms of human cost have also - 65 -been described at great length. Many of the s k i l l s and talents used i n crime would be b e n e f i c i a l to society i f the knowledge and motivation i n the individ u a l s could be directed toward that end. It w i l l not happen i f the end r e s u l t cannot be viewed by the i n d i v i d u a l as being b e n e f i c i a l to her. Also, many crimes are not viewed by the offender as being harmful to society. Forgery i s an excellent example. The company has m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s surplus every year or they lose f a r more on a poor invest-ment, they reason. The research worker should also assess the attitudes of the offenders to s p e c i f i c crimes. The aut h o r i t i e s i n the Vancouver area report a hierarchy of crimes i n the criminal system s i m i l a r to those reported elsewhere. White and Harrison report as a r e s u l t of t h e i r study that the narcotic addicts tended to be c r i t i c a l and rather superior i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward a l c o h o l i c s . T r a f f i c offences have been omitted from t h i s study f o r many reasons. T r a f f i c matters are dealt with i n another building with separate s t a t i s t i c s , procedures and courts. But t r a f f i c v i o l a t i o n s are very much a part of criminal behaviour. T. White and R. Harrison, "Group Counseling i n the Women's Section of a County J a i l , " Explorations i n the Use of Group Counseling i n the County Correctional Program, Palo A l t o , P a c i f i c Books, 1962, p. 76. - 66 -A comparison of the charges and sentences f o r the male offender and the female offender for one f i s c a l year shows a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s and dif f e r e n c e s . Many more men i n the Vancouver area were charged with criminal offences during the f i s c a l year ending March 31st, 1964, than women. Fewer women than men received prison sentences. The majority of both men and women i n the Vancouver area were charged with offences contained i n the P r o v i n c i a l Statutes, i n p a r t i c u l a r the Government Liquor Act. Infractions of Municipal By-laws was next highest f o r both men and women. More men than women were charged with offences of a h o s t i l e , aggressive or threatening nature. More women were charged with sexual offences. More men were charged with t h e f t , breaking and entering and possession of stolen goods than women. Tappan states that women represent less than f i v e per cent of the prison population i n the United States. He continues: In 1957 only one of the separate i n s t i t u t i o n s contained more than 500 female offenders, and t h i s was a combined population of the women's reformatory and prison i n New York. Sixteen others, including the Federal f a c i l i t y , held populations between 1G0 and 500, while the remainder had fewer than 1 0 0 . Among the states where women were held i n men's i n s t i t u t i o n s they numbered fewer than 50 . On the average most of the imprisoned female offenders were not serious criminals. Sex delinquents constituted a large part of the t o t a l . Nearly one-fourth had been convicted of larceny, including s h o p l i f t i n g . Roughly 5 P®r cent of them had been committed - 67 -i n each category f o r homicide, b u r g l a r y , robbery, and drug law v i o l a t i o n s . P a r t l y because they commit fewer and l e s s s e r i o u s crimes than men, women are l e s s f r e q u e n t l y sent to p r i s o n or reformatory and are committed f o r sh o r t e r terms. 1 In another study completed i n the United States Payak s t a t e s t h a t : Women are seldom i n v o l v e d i n organized crimes or crimes t h a t r e q u i r e knowledge of c r i m i n a l technique.2 In the s t a t i s t i c s obtained f o r t h i s t h e s i s i t was found t h a t female offenders i n Vancouver f o r the one f i s c a l year were most o f t e n charged and sentenced t o p r i s o n f o r a l c o h o l i s m , drug a d d i c t i o n and p r o s t i t u t i o n . Payak s t a t e s : There i s only one o f f e n s e , p r o s t i t u t i o n , which can be c a l l e d a s p e c i f i c female crime. Here a g a i n , i t i s the woman who i s accountable by law and p o l i c e a c t i o n f o r an offence which more a p p r o p r i a t e l y might be viewed as a unique s o c i a l problem.3 In summary, there were a number of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the number of men and women charged w i t h committing a c r i m i n a l offence and the types of crime i n which they are most f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d , although more comprehensive s t a t i s t i c s might show t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t o be l e s s than a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s f o r the one f i s c a l year i n d i c a t e . X P . Tappan, Crime. J u s t i c e and C o r r e c t i o n . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., i960, pp. 652-653. 2 B e r t h a J . Payak, "Understanding the Female Offender,' F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . December, 1963, p. 8. 3Loc. c i t . - 68 -A difference i n att i t u d e was also observed i n police o f f i c e r s , prison personnel, probation o f f i c e r s and parole o f f i c e r s , depending upon the sex of the o f f i c i a l . There appeared to be the general assumption among some of the men that the female offenders are "more to be p i t i e d than blamed" and t h i s general assumption appeared to be applied more frequently to the female offender than to the male offender. Women o f f i c i a l s who were interviewed did not appear to share t h i s view at lea s t to the same extent. There were also observed differences i n attitude i n p o l i c e and prison and parole o f f i c e r s . Obviously, the treatment the offender receives w i l l depend to a large extent on the basic attitudes of those i n authority over them. I t would be in t e r e s t i n g and useful to know i f the differences observed were i n d i v i d u a l differences or i f they were based on sex, t r a i n i n g , experience, p o s i t i o n held, or some other f a c t o r , and research along these l i n e s Is Indicated. In the a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Understanding the Female Offender" written by Bertha J . Payak, the author suggests that the male probation or parole o f f i c e r w i l l be better able to re-educate the female offender i n the rewards of s o c i a l l y acceptable behaviour i f he w i l l consider the basic components of female psychology. Our culture i s male-dominated, she writes and delinquency and c r i m i n a l i t y - 69 -are male-dominated i n t h e i r magnitude or extent. In the same a r t i c l e Payak refers to a text on female offenders written by Dr. Pollak i n which Dr. Pollak concluded that the crimes of female offenders are grossly unreported and that the female offenders are very, very conniving. He coined the phrase "masked c r i m i n a l i t y " to i d e n t i f y women offenders. Payak agrees that many offenses, such as homo-sexuality and exhibitionism, w i l l go unnoticed i f committed by womenj that male victims are i n c l i n e d to protect the female offenders, many times because i t means protection f o r themselves al s o ; and that l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s are i n c l i n e d to be more lenient with women because of t h e i r masculine c h i v a l r y . However, she also states that women are the more law-abiding sex by a l l s t a t i s t i c a l analyses.* One of the dilemmas i n the administration of j u s t i c e i s to approximate equality before the !Daw,, while at the same time considering not only the charge but in d i v i d u a l differences and s p e c i f i c circumstances pertain-ing to the p a r t i c u l a r offender. The task would be less d i f f i c u l t i f there was a stronger knowledge base. I t stands to reason that a medical doctor can make more accurate decisions regarding the treatment of an in d i v i d u a l who has suffered a cerebral vascular accident Payak, "Understanding the Female Offender," pp. 7-12. - 70 -because of what i s known by the medical profession generally concerning cerebral vascular accidents. Every doctor does not treat h i s patient i n exactly the same way but the degree or amount of v a r i a t i o n i s determined by knowledge which has become f a i r l y well substantiated, at least c l i n i c a l l y . With more knowledge, differences i n treatment, sentencing for instance, might be lessened or q u a l i f i e d on a more s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s . At present, the treatment the female offender receives varies considerably depending upon the charge that i s l a i d , the offender's a b i l i t y to post b a i l and her attitude toward law and law enforcement personnel who decide whether she should be placed on probation or sent to prison. Some studies have been made i n an attempt to e s t a b l i s h a t h e o r e t i c a l base. T i t t l e and T i t t l e describe schemes which have been presented by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s such as Sykes, Messinger, Cloward and Merton. x These schemes attempt to explain various aspects of penal i n s t i t u t i o n s i n terms of general s o c i o l o g i c a l theory, rather than i n terms of the s o c i a l problems approach. T i t t l e and T i t t l e say that with some o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , these theories can be summarized i n the following propositions: AGharles R. T i t t l e and Drollene P. T i t t l e , " S o c i a l Organization of Prisoners: An Emperical Test," S o c i a l  Forces. V o l . 43, No. 2, December, 1964, pp. 216-221. - 71 -" 1 . A p r i s o n code i s a normative m a n i f e s t a t i o n of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l system, the major theme of which i s inmate group s o l i d a r i t y . 2 . The inmate s o c i a l system emerges t o counter-a c t the d e p r i v a t i o n s of p r i s o n l i f e . 3. A major d e p r i v i n g element of p r i s o n l i f e i s a l i e n a t i o n , or i s o l a t i o n , from s o c i e t y , both p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h i c a l l y . 4. Lack of access t o the l e g i t i m a t e means f o r a t t a i n i n g the goals of s o c i e t y gives a r a t i o n a l e f o r acceptance of a n t i - r e h a b i l i t a t i v e values of the inmate s o c i a l group." From the above p r o p o s i t i o n s the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were formulated: " 1 . S u b s c r i p t i o n t o the p r i s o n code i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e n g t h of time spent i n the h o s p i t a l . 2 . D i f f i c u l t y of p r i s o n l i f e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n the h o s p i t a l w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b s c r i p t i o n t o p r i s o n code. 3. S u b s c r i p t i o n t o the p r i s o n code w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h degree of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . 4. Meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n therapy i s n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h degree of a l i e n a t i o n from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . 5. D i s p a r i t y betwen a s p i r a t i o n s and expectations f o r accomplishment i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b s c r i p t i o n t o the p r i s o n code." The conclusions they reached as a r e s u l t of t h e i r one s t u d y are as f o l l o w s : While not compelling, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study do support the major tenets of the t h e o r i e s presented by Sykes, Messinger, and Cloward. The p r i s o n code does appear t o be a t l e a s t i n p a r t an i n s t i t u t i o n a l 72 -product expressive of the norms of a prisoner s o c i a l organization, which serves to help inmates overcome the deprivation of prison l i v i n g . Evidence also confirms that i n d i v i d u a l t i e s to the outside community, as well as i n d i v i d u a l expectations of possible legitimate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a f f e c t the s o l i d a r i t y of that prison s o c i a l organization. In addition, the lack of a clea r a s s o c i a t i o n between one element of deprivation and subscription to the prison code i s merely a device f o r s u r v i v a l , and has l i t t l e e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. Studies s i m i l a r to the one above which would emperically test many hypotheses would greatly a i d i n treatment plans. Comments from o f f i c i a l s at Oakalla would point to a need f o r a completely equipped and we l l - s t a f f e d emergency h o s p i t a l unit at the Vancouver C i t y Gaol. I t i s there that treatment of the alcoh o l i c s and the drug addicts should commence under the d i r e c t i o n of a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d medical p r a c t i t i o n e r . The policewomen at the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Office say that i t i s often necessary to arrest drunken women f o r t h e i r own protection and that, i f they did not l i t e r a l l y l i f t women off the s t r e e t , there would be many more deaths on Skid Row. Many of the women are also p h y s i c a l l y or mentally 111, many have been Injured p h y s i c a l l y and many are suffering from malnutrition. There should be some other provision made by society f o r these women which would make arrest by the police f o r t h e i r own protection unnecessary. In the meantime, adequate medical care should at lea s t be provided. At present they a r r i v e at Oakalla i n p i t i f u l condition. - 73 -A group work approach i s applied almost exclusively i n the treatment of deviant behaviour at the Women's Unit of Oakalla Prison Farm. The group work i s based on Dr. Norman Fenton's book "What W i l l Be Your L i f e ? " 1 In another book e n t i t l e d "An Introduction to Group Counseling i n Correctional Service," Dr. Fenton describes i n some d e t a i l 2 the various aspects of group counseling i n a prison. In s t i l l another book by Dr. Fenton e n t i t l e d "Explorations i n the Use of Group Counseling i n the County Correctional Program," the author describes various group meetings some of which were taped f o r use i n in-service t r a i n i n g by the C a l i f o r n i a Probation and Parole Association.3 In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d : "Approaching the I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Female Delinquent Through Group Therapy," Norman G. Tolman states: Many w i l l agree that group therapy appears to be useful i n working with the delinquent (just as i t i s sometimes indicated with other types of maladaptive behavior): however, few w i l l assert that one p a r t i c u l a r kind of group therapy should be uniformly applied i n a l l cases to a c e r t a i n type of population or to c e r t a i n types of problems. It i s e s s e n t i a l Gorman Fenton, What W i l l Be Your L i f e ? New York, The American Correctional Association, I963. p Norman Fenton, An Introduction to Group Counseling i n Correctional Service. Washington, The American Correctional Association, 1965. 3Norman Fenton, Explorations i n the Use of Group Counsel-ing i n the County Correctional Program. C a l i f o r n i a , P a c i f i c Books, 1962. - 74 -that the treatment process take into account such factors as the circumstances under which treatment i s to be conducted, the degree of disturbance of the members and the treatment goals to be attempted. Tolman says, as was suggested previously, that "most therapists continue to function on the basis of b e l i e f that the methods they are employing are h e l p f u l . I d e a l l y they would be able to communicate c e r t a i n hypotheses to those behavioral s c i e n t i s t s operating i n research-defined i n s t i t u t i o n s , where these hypotheses could be experimentally tested."^ Some i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y research into s o c i a l problems has been done but unfortunately i t appears that the vast majority of what l i t t l e research has been done i n t h i s area has been carr i e d out by one d i s c i p l i n e with' a sim i l a r study being c a r r i e d out l a t e r on by another d i s c i p l i n e to refute what the f i r s t one "discovered." The S o c i a l group worker's focus, according to Peirce, w i l l be on helping the i n d i v i d u a l use the posit i v e and healthy aspects of h i s personality structure to improve h i s s o c i a l functioning . 3 Peirce continues: The primary helping forces generated by the use of the s o c i a l group work method are: Gorman G. Tolman, "Approaching the I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Female Delinquent Through Group Therapy," Federal Probation. June, 1961, p. 34. 2 I b i d . . p. 40. ^F.J. Peirce, " S o c i a l Group Work i n a Women's Prison," Federal Probation. December, 1963, P« 37* - 75 -(1) The conscious d i s c i p l i n e d use of the r e l a t i o n -ship the worker has with group members. (2) The helping p o t e n t i a l available i n the r e l a t i o n -ships the members have with each other. These may provide valuable i n d i v i d u a l support, help with measuring and defining s o c i a l r e a l i t y , and other growth-producing s t i m u l i . (3) The help that eomes from the "group as a whole.1 Peirce states that the focus on the meaning of the group as a separate and d i s t i n c t e n t i t y i s probably the feature that most distinguishes s o c i a l group work from other helping processes used with groups. He says that the s o c i a l group worker purposefully focuses on developing group i d e n t i t y , group bond, group " e s p r i t de corps," and group standards and controls. Peirce believes that as group members develop a sense of the group as something more than a c o l l e c t i o n of individuals i n t e r -acting they are able to use t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the group as a force f o r modifying t h e i r own behavior and a t t i t u d e s . His rationale i s that often an i n d i v i d u a l i s able to r i s k change or growth because "the group i s behind me."2 Peirce also points out that any program of group services must be based on the s o l i d foundation of a w e l l Loc. c i t . 2 Loc. c i t . - 76 -structured program of i n d i v i d u a l services, and both case-workers and group workers must work with and within agency 2 structure. A group can prepare an i n d i v i d u a l f o r case-work services and i n d i v i d u a l interviews can prepare the in d i v i d u a l f o r therapy within a group. Both have proven to be useful therapeutic t o o l s . The probation o f f i c e r s are academically q u a l i f i e d and appear to have manageable caseloads. How-ever, the number of women placed on probation by the Vancouver Courts appears to be low i n comparison with the number of female offenders sentenced to a term i n prison. Pre-sentence reports completed by the probation o f f i c e r s frequently do not recommend probation. For probation to be successful a number of resources must be ava i l a b l e such as l i v i n g accommodation and job opportunities. According to Marguerite Marsh the recognition of treatment types and treatment l i m i t s represents h a l f the b a t t l e i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of human p e r s o n a l i t i e s . In her study of prostitutes i n New York C i t y , Marsh recognizes four treatment types of p r o s t i t u t e s : The f i r s t i s composed of those who are "young" i n the business, a factor not necessarily r e l a t e d to chronological age, and who have not established habit patterns or personal connections that are hard to break. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n may we l l follow x P e l r c e , " S o c i a l Group Work i n a Women's Prison," p. 3 8 . 2IMd.> p. 3 9 . - 77 -r e f e r r a l t o a p r i v a t e s o c i a l agency i f i t i s equipped to a s c e r t a i n the character of the pressures which r e s u l t e d i n p r o s t i t u t i o n and ready and able t o meet the needs both f i n a n c i a l and emotional which are r e v e a l e d . The second group, u s u a l l y w i t h a long h i s t o r y of sexual delinquency, i s composed of those who are d i s i l l u s i o n e d as t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n s they once thought were t o be found i n the bus i n e s s , or who never r e a l l y wanted t o engage i n i t . Included here are the women who p r o s t i t u t e themselves t o o b t a i n money t o buy drugs, where p r o s t i t u t i o n i s a secondary e f f e c t of the drug h a b i t . This group obviously needs more help of a l l types - medical and s o c i a l - and over a longer p e r i o d than those i n the f i r s t category. I n both, the d e s i r e on the part of the i n d i v i d u a l t o change her way of l i v i n g i s the sin e qua non f o r e f f e c t i v e case work. The complex of emotional problems of most of these women means, however, th a t the c l i e n t i s not l i k e l y t o show i n i t i a t i v e i n the case work r e l a t i o n s h i p , a f a c t o r which needs t o be faced and d e a l t w i t h both by the agency and case worker. A t h i r d group i s composed of women who engage i n p r o s t i t u t i o n f o r no other reason than t o o b t a i n a none-too-secure l i v e l i h o o d . P r o v i s i o n f o r comparable f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y w i t h the added s a t i s f a c t i o n which comes from l i v i n g i n a s o c i a l l y acceptable f a s h i o n , can serve the need of t h i s group. While i t cannot be st a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y , i t i s probable that many Negro r e c i d i v i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n the e a r l y y e a r s , are i n t h i s c l a s s . The f o u r t h group i s composed of those not l i k e l y t o respond v o l u n t a r i l y t o any s o c i a l p l a n . I t incl u d e s the women f o r whom p r o s t i t u t i o n has no moral or s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , but i s simply a more s u c c e s s f u l way of making money by which t o o b t a i n l u x u r i e s as w e l l as n e c e s s i t i e s . There are a l s o women whose connections w i t h r a c k e t s and rack e t e e r s have greater s t r e n g t h and are more s a t i s f y i n g t o them than any pl a n t h a t a s o c i a l agency can o f f e r . For some the s a t i s f a c t i o n may come from the element of danger and excitement t h a t such connections possess. The mentally d e f e c t i v e and the ps y c h o t i c o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n or i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z a t i o n i f the community i s t o be p r o t e c t e d , and - 78 -t h e y , a l s o f a l l i n t h i s f o u r t h group. I n a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n women, because of p s y c h i c a l l y t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s , are s u s p i c i o u s of the good w i l l of o t h e r s and r e j e c t any and a l l o f f e r s o f h e l p . l The p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e used i n treatment i n the p r i s o n , p e n i t e n t i a r y and i n p a r o l e have s t r o n g l y r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s . I s the p e n i t e n t i a r y s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d m a i n l y as a means t o make a p r i s o n e r p e n i t e n t ? New developments i n the t reatment of p r i s o n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n some f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s suggest a swing away from r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y t o another a p p r o a c h . F o r example, i n Japan male o f fenders may be r e h a b i l i t a t e d on a p r i s o n t r a i n i n g s h i p t h a t teaches the men t o be s a i l o r s , as r e p o r t e d by John F o r n a t a r o i n November, 1965. He s t a t e s t h a t the s h i p p r a c t i c a l l y pays i t s o p e r a t i n g c o s t s w i t h s q u i d the p r i s o n e r s c a t c h . He r e p o r t s a l s o t h a t o ther p r i s o n e r s work i n s h i p y a r d s a l o n g s i d e o t h e r w o r k e r s . I n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s he s t a t e s t h e r e i s no compuls ion of the o f fender who i s on p r o b a t i o n t o r e p o r t r e g u l a r l y t o a penal o f f i c e r . I n I r a n and Indones ia c o u n c i l s o f e l d e r s handle many minor o f f e n c e s . The judgment o f r e s p e c t e d c i t i z e n s i n r e g a r d t o minor cr ime i s more r e a d i l y accepted by the people than t h a t of an impersonal c o u r t . I t a l s o A M a r g u e r I t e M a r s h , "Sex D e l i n q u e n c y , " C r i m i n o l o g y : A  Book of R e a d i n g s . New Y o r k , Henry H o l t and Company, I n c . , 1953, P P . 290-293. - 79 -avoids the stigma of a courtroom sentence on a young p e r s o n . R e s e a r c h into more e f f e c t i v e methods of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g offenders i s urgently needed, coupled with research into the present methods used i n t h i s country, i t s successes and i t s f a i l u r e s . Extended probation and parole services were recommended by the Research Department of the Community Chest and Councils f o r the Greater Vancouver area. With respect to penal i n s t i t u t i o n s Tappan states: I t i s the pr e v a i l i n g view of c o r r e c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s that separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r women preferably f a c i l i t i e s of an open or medium-security type constructed on a cottage plan should be more generally developed . . . . S u f f i c i e n t space should be made availa b l e f o r the f a c i l i t i e s required i n a varied program of t r a i n i n g and production and f o r a farming operation. The American Correctional Association Manual has emphasized that the vocational t r a i n i n g opportunities i n a women's i n s t i t u t i o n should include not only such a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to maintenance, as housework of a l l s o r t s , including the preparation and service of food, but "power sewing and other i n d u s t r i a l operations commercial and family type laundry work, animal husbandry and other farm work requiring technical knowledge and s k i l l , c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l work, p r a c t i c a l nursing and ho s p i t a l attendants duties, c h i l d care, beauty culture, and the work of dental hygienists and X-ray technicians." The planning and design of the co r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n must" take into account t h i s d i v e r s i t y of a c t i v i t i e s . Experi-mental programs i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , housing, and treatment can be developed i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . .2 "Professor Goes To Sea On Prison," The Vancouver Sun ? Vancouver, November 12, 19&5* 2P. Tappan, Crime. Justice and Correction. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., i960, p. 654. - 80 -In summary, the thesis attempts to describe what happens to a woman who has been charged with a criminal offense. The attempts toward treatment or rehabilitation in the Vancouver area have been described with examples given. There are some excerpts from reports from other areas, mainly the United States. The material points to a need for closer co-operation between practice and research, between the various disciplines involved, between individual work and group work, between treatment and administrative policies, and so forth, so that the knowledge which is available can be shared, debated and tested and a more reliable knowledge base formed. BIBLIOGRAPHY S p e c i f i c References B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attnorney-General, Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the  Year Ended March 31. 1963,". V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , March 1964. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Director of Correction f o r the  Year Ended March 31. 1964T V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , February 1965• Fenton, N. An Introduction to Group Counseling In  Correctional Service. Washington, The American Correctional Association, 1965* Fenton, N. Explorations i n the Use of Group Counseling  i n the County Correctional Program. Palo A l t o , P a c i f i c Books, 1962. Fenton, N. What W i l l Be Your L i f e ? New York, The American Correctional Association, I963. Laundy, D. "Professor Goes to Sea on Prison." The  Vancouver Sun. 12 November 1965. L i t s k y , H. "Justice i n Vancouver Criminal Courts." The  Administration of J u s t i c e i n the Greater Vancouver Area, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Marsh, M. "Sex Delinquency." Criminology: A Book of  Readings. New York, Henry Holt, 1953* Martin, J.C. Martin's Criminal Code. Toronto, Canada Law Book Company Limited, 1962. Payak, B.J. "Understanding the Female Offender." Federal  Probation, December 1963. Peirce, F.J. " S o c i a l Group Work i n a Women's Prison." Federal Probation, December 1963* - 82 -Street, T.G. A Guide For Parole Supervisors. Ottawa, National Parole Board, 1963. Street, T.G. Canada 1s Parole System. Printed i n Kingston Penitentiary, 1961. Street, T.G. Handbook on Parole. Ottawa, National Parole Board, 1963. Tappan, P. Crime. J u s t i c e and Correction. New York, McGraw-Hill, I960. The Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, Government  Liquor Act, v o l . I I , ch. 166. i960. The Statutes of Canada, Narcotic Control Act, v o l . 1, ch. 35. 1960-61. The Statutes of Canada, An Act Respecting P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , ch. 53, July 1961. T i t t l e , CR. and T i t t l e , D.P. "S o c i a l Organization of Prisoners: An Emperical Test." S o c i a l Forces, v o l . 43, no. 2, December 1964. Tolman, N.G. "Approaching the I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Female Delinquent Through Group Therapy." Federal Probation, June 1961. General References Bonner, H. Group Dynamics - P r i n c i p l e s and Applications. New York, Ronald Press, 1959* Cutcher, A.C. Group Methods In a Treatment Home For G i r l s . Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958. Konopka, G. Group Work i n the I n s t i t u t i o n . New York, Whiteside and William Morrow, 1954. Montpellier, A.L. Group Work i n an I n s t i t u t i o n For Young  Offenders. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, i960. Spicer, J.L. Recreation i n the Authoritarian Setting. Master, of S o c i a l Work Thesis, 1945. - 83 -APPENDIX B The Booking Sheet The booking sheet contains the following information. Name Address Place of Arrest Offence Charged Previous Arrests Birthdate Rac i a l Origin Height Bald Hair Occupation Industry Employed by Relig i o n Education Other property Held by Searched by Booked by Warrant No. Age Weight Complexion Eyes Ma r i t a l Status A l i a s Drivers Licence No. Arrested bys Disp o s i t i o n Place of B i r t h Scars Tattoos Marks, e t c. Amputations Deformities Glasses Teeth Alcohol Date a r r i v e d i n Canada Next of k i n Address Cash when booked E f f e c t s The back of the form i s e n t i t l e d D i s p o s i t i o n . - 84 -APPENDIX C Application for B a i l Those who post b a i l on behalf of the accused must sign a form which reads as follows: " I , of in the said City of Vancouver, Province of Br i t i s h Columbia, make oath and say: 1. I am the surety (one of the sureties) i n the Recognizance hereto annexed. 2 . I am not b a i l or surety for the above named accused or any other person except as follows: 3 . I am possessed of real and personal property to the value of dollars over and above what i s sufficient to pay my just debts. 4. I am seized of real estate in which may be described as follows: 5. I have not accepted or agreed to accept indemnity in whole or i n part in connection herewith. 6. I have neither asked for, nor accepted, nor agreed to accept, any fee of any kind whatsoever for enter-ing into the said recognizance." The above affidavit of justification i s sworn before a Justice of the Peace for the Province of British Columbia. The form quoted is Form 46MLH which i s available at the Court Clerk's Office, Vancouver City Police Department. - 8 5 -APPENDIX D Indictable and Summary Offences Offences contained i n the Narcotic Control Act are indic t a b l e offences. Part I of the Narcotic Control Act reads as follows: "Part I. 3 . (1) Except as authorized by t h i s Act or the regulations, no person s h a l l have a narcotic i n h i s possession. (2) Every person who v i o l a t e s subsection (1) i s g u i l t y of an indictable offence and i s l i a b l e to imprisonment f o r seven years. 4. (1) No person s h a l l t r a f f i c i n a narcotic or any substance represented or held out by him to be a na r c o t i c . (2) No person s h a l l have i n his possession any narcotic f o r the purpose of t r a f f i c k i n g . ( 3 ) Every person who vi o l a t e s subsection (1) or (2) i s g u i l t y of an ind i c t a b l e offence and i s l i a b l e to imprisonment f o r l i f e . 1 P r o s t i t u t i o n , or Vagrancy C, i s punishable on summary conviction. Section 164, subsection (1) (c) xThe Statutes of Canada, Narcotic Control Act, v o l . 1, ch. 3 5 , 1960-61. - 86 -of the C r i m i n a l Code of Canada reads as f o l l o w s : "(1) Every one commits vagrancy who (c) being a common p r o s t i t u t e or n i g h t walker i s found i n a p u b l i c place and does n o t , when r e q u i r e d , give a good account of h e r s e l f (2) Every one who commits vagrancy i s g u i l t y of an offence punishable on summary conviction.'*-Theft over $50.00 i s an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e . The C r i m i n a l Code of Canada s t a t e s : "280. Except where otherwise p r e s c r i b e d by law, every one who commits t h e f t i s g u i l t y of an i n d i c t a b l e offence and i s l i a b l e (a) t o imprisonment f o r ten years, where the property s t o l e n i s a testamentary instrument or where the value of what i s s t o l e n exceeds f i f t y d o l l a r s , or (b) t o imprisonment f o r two years, where the value of what i s s t o l e n does not exceed f i f t y d o l l a r s . Fraud v a r i e s w i t h every offence as o u t l i n e d i n the C r i m i n a l Code. For i n s t a n c e : X J.C. M a r t i n , Martin's C r i m i n a l Code. Canada Law Book Company L i m i t e d , 1962, p. 147. 2 I b i d . , p. 277. - 87 -"340. (1) Every one who, with intent to defraud, (a) destroys, mutilates, a l t e r s , f a l s i f i e s , or makes f a l s e entry i n , or (b) omits a material p a r t i c u l a r from, or a l t e r s a material p a r t i c u l a r i n , a book, paper, w r i t i n g , valuable security or document i s g u i l t y of an indictable offence and i s l i a b l e to imprison-ment f o r f i v e years. (2) Every one who, with intent to defraud h i s cr e d i t o r s , i s privy to the commission of an offence under subsection (1) i s g u i l t y of an indict a b l e offence and i s l i a b l e to imprisonment fo r f i v e years. 341. Every one who, with intent to deceive, f a l s i f i e s an employment record by any means, including the punching of a time clock, i s g u i l t y of an offence punishable on summary conviction. 342. Every one who, being entrusted with the r e c e i p t , custody or management of any part of the public revenues, knowingly furnishes a f a l s e statement or return of (a) any sum of money c o l l e c t e d by him or entrusted to his care, or (b) any balance of money i n h i s hands or under his cont r o l , i s g u i l t y of an indictable offence and - 88 -i s l i a b l e to imprisonment f o r f i v e years. An offender charged with common assault can also be t r i e d f o r an offence which can be considered either an indic t a b l e or a summary offence. The Criminal Code reads as follows: "231. (1) Every one who commits a common assault i s g u i l t y of (a) an ind i c t a b l e offence and i s l i a b l e to imprisonment f o r two years, or (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction. (2) Every one who unlawfully causes bodily harm to any person or commits an assault that causes bodily harm to any person i s g u i l t y of an indictable offence and i s l i a b l e to imprison-ment f o r two years." Causing a disturbance i s punishable on summary conviction: "160. Every one who (a) not being i n a dwelling house causes a disturbance i n or near a public place, (1) by f i g h t i n g , screaming, shouting, swearing, singing or using i n s u l t i n g or obscene xMartin. Martin's Criminal Code, p. 331. 2 I b i d . T p. 248. - 89 -language ( i i ) by being drunk, or ( i i i ) by impeding or molesting other persons; openly exposes or exhibits an indecent e x h i b i t i o n i n a public place; Lo i t e r s i n a public place and i n any way obstructs persons who are there; or disturbs the peace and quiet of the occupants of a dwelling house by discharging firearms or by other d i s o r d e r l y conduct i n a public place, i s g u i l t y of an offence punishable on summary c o n v i c t i o n . " 1 T r a f f i c offences have been omitted. Section 103 of the Government Liquor Act reads as follows: "103. (1) Every person g u i l t y of an offence against t h i s Act f o r which no penalty has been s p e c i f i c a l l y provided i s l i a b l e , on summary conviction, (a) f o r a f i r s t offence to a penalty of not less than f i f t y d o l l a r s and not more than two hundred d o l l a r s , and, i n default of immediate payment, to imprisonment f o r not less than (b) (c) (d) •Martin. Martin's Criminal Code, p. 143 - 90 -t h i r t y days and not more than two months, with or without hard labour; (b) f o r a second offence to imprisonment f o r not less than two months and not more than four months, with or without hard labour, or to a penalty of not less than two hundred d o l l a r s and not more than one thousand d o l l a r s , and, i n default of immediate pay-ment, to imprisonment f o r not more than four months, with or without hard labour, and (c) for a t h i r d or subsequent offence to imprison-ment f o r not less than three months and not more than s i x months, with or without hard labour, without the option of a fine."" 1" ^The Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, Government  Liquor Act, v o l . I I , ch. 166, i960, pp. 1665-66. - 91 -APPENDIX E A Summons Frequently a summons i s issued as outlined In the Criminal Code. "441. (1) a summons s h a l l (a) be directed to the accused, (b) set out b r i e f l y the offence i n respect of which the accused i s charged, and (c) require the accused to appear at a time and place to be stated therein. (2) A summons may be i n Form 6. (3) A summons s h a l l be served by a peace o f f i c e r who s h a l l d e l i v e r i t personally to the person to whom i t i s directed, or, i f that person cannot conveniently be found, s h a l l leave i t for him at h i s l a s t or usual place of abode with some inmate thereof who appears to be at leas t sixteen years of age. (4) Repealed. I96O-6I, c . 4 3 , s . 1 5 . (5) Repealed. 1960-61, c . 4 3 , s . 1 5 . (6) Service of a summons may be proved by the or a l evidence, given under oath, of the peaee o f f i c e r who served i t or by h i s a f f i d a v i t made before a j u s t i c e . 1 , 1 •Martin, op., cit.« p. 403. - 92-. APPENDIX F Persons Who Make A r r e s t s A r r e s t s are sometimes made by persons other than the p o l i c e . Sections 436 and 437 of the C r i m i n a l Code provide examples: "436. Any one may a r r e s t without warrant a person who, on reasonable and probable grounds, he b e l i e v e s (a) has committed a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e , and (b) i s ( i ) escaping from, and ( i i ) f r e s h l y pursued by, persons who have l a w f u l a u t h o r i t y t o a r r e s t t h a t person. 437. Any one who i s (a) the owner or a person i n l a w f u l possession of pro p e r t y , or (b) a person a u t h o r i z e d by the owner or by a person i n l a w f u l possession of p r o p e r t y , may a r r e s t without warrant a person whom he f i n d s commiting a c r i m i n a l offence on or i n r e l a t i o n t o th a t property." •Martin, Martin's C r i m i n a l Code, pp. 400-401. - 93 -i APPENDIX G B a i l B a i l i s provided f o r In Section 4-51 of the Criminal Code. "451. A j u s t i c e acting under t h i s Part may (a) order that an accused, at any time before he has been committed f o r t r i a l , be admitted to b a i l ( i ) upon the accused entering into a recognizance i n Form 28 before him or any other j u s t i c e , with s u f f i c i e n t sureties i n such amount as he or that j u s t i c e d i r e c t s , ( i i ) upon the accused entering into a recognizance i n Form 28 before him or any other j u s t i c e and depositing an amount that he or that j u s t i c e d i r e c t s , or ( i i i ) upon the accused entering i n t o his own recognizance i n Form 28 before him or any other j u s t i c e i n such amount as he or that j u s t i c e d i r e c t s without any deposit. 1 1 x ^ r t i n , Martin's Criminal Code, p. 4 0 9 . - 94 -APPENDIX H A Summary Conviction Coart A summary conviction court i s described i n the Criminal Code as follows: "692. In t h i s Part, ( 1 ) (g) 'summary conviction court' means a person who has j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n where the subject matter of the proceedings i s alleged to have arisen and who ( i ) i s given j u r i s d i c t i o n "over the proceedings by the enactment under which the proceed-ings are taken, ( i i ) i s a j u s t i c e or magistrate, where the enactment under which the proceedings are taken does not expressly give j u r i s d i c t i o n to any person or class of persons, or ( i i i ) i s a magistrate, where the enactment under which the proceedings are taken gives j u r i s d i c t i o n i n respect thereof to two or more justices."' 1' •Martin, Martin's Criminal Code, pp. 653-654 - 95 -Table 1. Adult Persons (Over 18) Charged with the  Following Offences During the F i s c a l Year  A p r i l 1, 1963 to March 31. 19o47~~ Offence To t a l Male Female 01. C a p i t a l Murder 3 — 02. Non-Capital Murder 2 — 03. Attempted Murder 2 1 04. Manslaughter — — 05. Rape * 7 — 06. Other Sexual Offences 50 — 07. Wounding 22 3 08. Assaults (not indecent) 819 34 09. Robbery- 101 11 10. Breaking and Entering 204 7 11. Theft - Motor Vehicle 54 1 12. Theft - Over $50.00 162 29 13. Theft - $50.00 and Under 625 184 14. Have Stolen Goods 104 8 15. Frauds 343 50 16. P r o s t i t u t i o n 3 210 17. Gaming and Betting 71 12 18. Offensive Weapons 90 8 19. •Other Criminal Code (except T r a f f i c ) 1,441 142 20. •Federal Statutes (except T r a f f i c and Opium and Narcotic Drug Act) 438 24 21. •P r o v i n c i a l Statutes (except T r a f f i c ) 15,309 1,804 22. •Municipal By-laws 4,158 480 •See Explanation Source: Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Records - Dominion Bureau S t a t i s t i c s J u d i c i a l Section, Form "C" - Crime S t a t i s t i c s . - 96 -•Explanation: 19. Other Criminal Code (except T r a f f i c ) includes: Abandoning a C h i l d ; Abduction; Abortion, Arson, Bigamy; Breach of Recognizance; Bribery; Carnal Knowledge; Causing a Disturbance; Concealing B i r t h ; Conspiracy; Criminal Negligence; Cruelty to Animals; Currency or Coins; Contempt of Court; Cheating at Play; Damage to Property Under $50.00; Escape custody - accessory a f t e r f a c t ; Escape lawful custody; Explosives i n Poessession; Threatening Message; Extortion; False Message; F a i l i n g to Appear f o r T r i a l ; F i r e Alarm - False; Fortune T e l l i n g ; Fraudulently Obtain Meal; Forci b l e Entry; House-breaking Instruments - Possession; I l l e g a l Entry; Impersonating Peace or Public O f f i c e r ; Incest; Indecency - Gross; Indecent Act; Infanticide; L i b e l ; Mischief (damage over $50.00); Molesting; Non-support; Obstruct J u s t i c e ; Obscene L i t e r a t u r e , Pictures, etc.; Phone C a l l - Threat of Obscene l e t t e r s ; Obstructing Peace or Public O f f i c e r ; Personation; Perjury; Seduction; Sexual Immorality; Skipping B a i l ; Suicide Attempts; Take Motor Vehicle without owner's consent; Threatening (bomb threat); Trespassing by Night; Unlawful Assembly; Unlawfully Being i n Dwelling house; Unsatisfactory Probation; Vagrancy A - no apparent means of support; - 97 -Vagrancy B - begging5 Vagrancy D - l i v i n g by gaming or crime; Vagrancy E - sexual offender - l o i t e r near school. 20. Federal Statutes (except T r a f f i c and Opium and Narcotic Drug Act) includes: Customs Act; Employment Agencies Act; Excise Act; Export - Import Act; Explosives Act; F i s h e r i e s Act; Food Drug Act; Immigration Act; Income Tax Act; Indian Act; Juvenile Delinquency Act; Lord's Day Act; M i l i t i a Act; National Harbours Board Act; Opium and Narcotic Drug Act; Conspiracy to t r a f f i c i n Narcotics; Possession of Narcotics; Possession Narcotics f o r Purpose T r a f f i c k i n g ; T r a f f i c k i n g i n Drugs; Post Office Act; Railway Act; Shipping Act; Small Vessels Regulation; Unemployment Insurance Act; Weights and Measures Act; Other Federal Statutes. 21. P r o v i n c i a l Statutes (except T r a f f i c ) includes: Animals Act; Annual Holidays Act; Children of Unmarried Parents Act; Deserted Wives Maintenance Act; Elections Act; Employment Agencies Act; Engineering Profession Act; F i r e Marshal's Act; Game and Fishe r i e s Act; Gas Act; Highway Act; Hours of Work Act; Labour Relations Act; Medical, Dental, Pharmacy Act; Mental Hospitals Act; Minimum Wage Act; Motor Carr i e r Act; Motor Vehicle Regulations; Public Health Act; Publie Works Act; - 98 -School Laws Act; Government Liquor Act - state of i n t o x i c a t i o n i n a public place; keeping liquor f o r sale; s e l l i n g or serving to minor; consuming i n public place; having l i q u o r i n restaurant; seizure of l i q u o r ; S o c i a l Security and Mother's Allowance Act; S e c u r i t i e s Act; Semi-Payment of Wages Act; S o c i a l Assistance Act; Wives and Children's Maintenance Act; (There are many T r a f f i c offences included i n P r o v i n c i a l Statutes which are not included i n t h i s report.) 2 2 . Municipal By-laws includes: A i r P o l l u t i o n Control; B a i l i f f ; Banners across Streets; B l a s t i n g ; F a i l u r e to pay Cab Fare; Curfew; Ea r l y Closing; Discharging Firearms; Use or Sale of F i r e -works; Licences; Lodging House; Maintenance of Real Properties; -Meat and F i s h ; Motor Vehicle Inspection Night Patrols; Noise; O i l Burner Inspection; O i l Tanks; Gas Tanks; Overhead Wires; Parades; Parks; Plumbing; Pound; R a c i a l Discrimination; Slot Machines; Snow Clearing; Short Weight; Signs; Sign-boards; Sprinkling lawns; Transport of Explosives; Vending Machines; Streets - material deposited on; Scavenging and garbage; Swimming Pools; T r a i l e r Courts; Water Works; Weights and Measures; Zoning and Development. - 99 -Table 2. Female Offenders (Over 18) Charged with the  Following Offences During the F i s c a l Year  A p r i l 1. 1963 to March 31. 1964. List"ed~in  Order of Frequency. Offence To t a l 01. (21) P r o v i n c i a l Statutes (except T r a f f i c ) 1,804 02. (22) Municipal By-laws 480 03. (16) P r o s t i t u t i o n 210 04. (13) Theft - $50.00 and Under 184 05. (19) Other Criminal Code (except T r a f f i c ) 142 06. (15) Frauds 50 07. (08) Assaults (not indecent) 34 08. (12) Theft - Over $50.00 29 09. (20) Federal Statutes (except T r a f f i c and Opium and Narcotic Drug Act) 24 10. (17) Gaming and Betting 12 11. (09) Robbery 11 12. (18) Offensive Weapons 8 13. (14) Have Stolen Goods 8 14. (10) Breaking and Entering 7 15. (07) Wounding 3 16. (03) Attempted Murder 1 17- (11) Theft - Motor Vehicle 1 3,008 Source: Table 1 on page 95 of t h i s t h e s i s . - 100 -Table 3» Offences for which Prisoners were Committed to Oakalla During the F i s c a l Year 1963-64. (a) Crimes Against the Person Committed Male Female Total 13 1 14 1 4 5 213 6 219 214 — 214 3 — 3 31 9 40 7 — 7 13 — 13 18 4 22 8 — 8 Rape and assault with 35 — 35 13 — 13 — 1 1 569 25 594 Continued - 101 -Table 3(b) continued Crimes Against Property Committed Male Female Total 7 4 11 729 13 742 136 12 148 136 12 148 140 5 145 308 20 328 49 3 52 Possessing house-breaking 18 1 19 9 4 13 Taking auto without owner's 21 — 21 300 12 312 48 — 48 Mischief (damage property) . . . . 51 1 52 484 5 489 784 23 807 6 37 43 3,226 152 3,378 Continued - 1 0 2 -Table 3(c) Continued Crimes Against Public Order and Peace Committed Male Female Total Breaches of Government Liquor Act 7,362 833 8,195 1 1 2 Breaches of Narcotic and 154 83 237 Breaches of by-laws (not including Government 96 4 100 Breaches of Motor-vehicle 4 4 9 13 462 Possessing offensive 70 6 76 9 16 25 5 — 5 F a i l i n g to stop at scene 20 — 20 738 21 759 65 10 75 S e l l i n g or giving l i q u o r to Indians (not including Government Liquor Act; . . . . 5 5 3 — 3 493 7 500 231 19 250 9,701 1,013 10,714 Continued - 103 -Table 3(d) Continued Crimes Against Public Morals and Decency Committed Male Female Total 8 _ _ 8 36 — 36 12 — 12 23 — 23 5 — 5 Keeper of a bawdy house . . . . — 1 1 51 1 52 4 2 6 — 69 69 7 — 7 mm mm — — 146 73 219 620 29 649 14,262 1,292 15,554-Source: Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Annual Report of the Director  of Correction f o r the f i s c a l year A p r i l 1. 1963  to March 31, 1964. p. AA57. - 104 -Table 4. Offences f o r which Female Offenders Were  Committed to Oakalla During the F i s c a l  Year 1963-64 L i s t e d i n Order of Frequency. Offence 01. Breaches of Government Liquor Act 02. Breaches of Narcotic and Drug Act 03. P r o s t i t u t i o n 04. Theft by conversion 05. Theft under $50.00 06. Impaired Driving 07. False Pretences 08. Causing a Disturbance 09. Breach of Recognizance 10. Breaking and Entering 11. Breaches of Motor-vehicle Act 12. Robbery 13. Forgery 14. Receiving stolen goods 15. Obstructing an O f f i c e r 16. Bodily harm 17. Vagrancy 18. Assault, common 19. Possessing Offensive Weapon 20. Fraud 21. Theft over $50.00 22. Abortion 23. Murder and Attempt 24. Arson 25. Uttering 26. Breaches of by-laws (not Including Government Liquor Act) 27. Conspiracy 28. Perjury 29. Abduction 30. Child Neglect 31. Possessing house-breaking instruments 32. Mischief (damage property) 33. Juvenile delinquency 34. Keeper of a bawdy house 35. Breaches of Excise Act 36. Other offenders Source: Table 3 on pages 100 - 103 of t h i s t h e s i s . 

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