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Observations on William Gilpin's criticism of literature and the visual arts Retzleff, Garry Victor 1966

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OBSERVATIONS ON WILLIAM GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF LITERATURE AND THE VISUAL ARTS by GARRY VICTOR RETZLEFF B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1966 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. 1 furt h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed •without my written permission. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Department of ABSTRACT This t h e s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y concerned w i t h a n a l y z i n g W i l l i a m G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m and r e l a t i n g i t t o the c r i t i c a l ideas of h i s age. G i l p i n was a man of t a s t e who l i v e d during a s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y of c r i t i c i s m . His c r i t i c i s m i s rooted i n the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n and centered around c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . But many of h i s id e a s , v a l u e s , and t a s t e s are r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n emphasis from, or d i r e c t l y opposite t o , those of c l a s s i c a l theory. G i l p i n , i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of l i t e r a t u r e , subscribes t o the t h e o r i e s that l i t e r a t u r e i m i t a t e s nature, that i t i m i t a t e s the i d e a l r a t h e r than the a c t u a l , and that i t must appeal to the reason. He s t r e s s e s the o b j e c t i v e aspects of l i t e r a t u r e and a s s e r t s the importance of such c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s as decorum, u n i t y , s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y . But h i s i n t e r e s t i n the s e n s a t i o n a l aspects of l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m , h i s non-humanistic concern w i t h landscape poetry, h i s i n t e r e s t i n i n t u i t i o n a l i s m , h i s defence of sublime o b s c u r i t y , h i s oc c a s i o n a l d e l i g h t i n emotions f o r t h e i r own sake, a l l r e v e a l a t u r n i n g away from c l a s s i c a l values. G i l p i n makes l i t t l e e f f o r t t o r e c o n c i l e the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . In h i s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g G i l p i n i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u -enced by the c l a s s i c i s m of contemporary B r i t i s h p a i n t i n g . i i i Again he advocates the i m i t a t i o n of i d e a l r e a l i t y . He b e l i e v e s t h a t the image i s a l l important i n p a i n t i n g and tha t i t must be a g e n e r a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i d e a l c e n t r a l form of an o b j e c t . He a l s o b e l i e v e s that p a i n t i n g must appeal t o the reason, and he u s u a l l y t r e a t s the perceptive imagination as an e s s e n t i a l l y r a t i o n a l f a c u l t y . O c c a s i o n a l l y he acknowledges p a i n t i n g ' s a b i l i t y t o cause emotional t r a n s p o r t . Of the p a i n t e r G i l p i n r e q u i r e s knowledge of objects and of the r u l e s of a r t . The p a i n t e r ' s knowledge and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l a r e, how-ever, u s e f u l only i f they are d i r e c t e d by genius. G i l p i n judges p a i n t i n g s by the p r i n c i p l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the Roman s c h o o l — d e s i g n (decorum), composition, harmony, s i m p l i c i t y , exactness—and discusses these p r i n c i p l e s i n an e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l manner. But he uses them t o p r a i s e the Venetians, the Baroque masters, and landscape p a i n t i n g s . His c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g has many inherent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s but i s super-f i c i a l l y f a i r l y coherent. Sculpture i s t r e a t e d only b r i e f l y by G i l p i n . He be-l i e v e s i n i d e a l i z a t i o n and p r a i s e s s i m p l i c i t y , grace, propor-t i o n . But he opposes the r i g i d n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s of h i s day by p r a i s i n g animation and even recommending strong a c t i o n and emotion i n sc u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s and groups. G i l p i n has high p r a i s e f o r the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r B u r l i n g t o n - P a l l a d i a n i s m . And h i s c r i t e r i a of a r c h i t e c t u r a l judgement—symmetry, propor-t i o n , s i m p l i c i t y — a r e e s s e n t i a l l y those of the c l a s s i c a l i v t r a d i t i o n . He i s concerned w i t h formal r a t h e r than a s s o c i a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a l u e s , and he i s i n s i s t e n t that a r c h i t e c t u r e be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y and not only v i s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . He defends the G o t h i c , e s p e c i a l l y l a t e Gothic, by attempting to prove i t s conformity t o c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . The defence i s not very s u c c e s s f u l , but h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the Gothic i s obviously s i n c e r e . He discusses i n terms of picturesque or a s s o c i a t i v e values only such minor a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms as cottages and r u i n s . G i l p i n defends and evaluates the n a t u r a l garden i n terms of e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . The garden i s nature methodized, and the method i s s e l e c t i o n and arrangement according t o the r u l e s of a r t . But G i l p i n ' s acceptance of i r r e g u l a r i t y , h i s concern f o r purely v i s u a l v a l u e s , and h i s p r a i s e of w i l d nature are i n c o n f l i c t with h i s basic c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o the garden. G i l p i n , i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of the f i n e a r t s , attempts to r e c o n c i l e v a r i o u s c o n f l i c t i n g c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and p r i n c i p l e s . He i s not always s u c c e s s f u l , but h i s attempt i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example of l a t e - e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e c l e c t i c c r i t i c i s m . PREFACE This t h e s i s was o r i g i n a l l y intended t o be a consider-a t i o n of the Reverend W i l l i a m G i l p i n ' s i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r a l scenery and h i s search f o r the picturesque. I soon d i s -covered that t h i s aspect of G i l p i n ' s work had already r e c e i v e d a f a r more thorough study than I would be able to g i v e i t . 1 But C P . B a r b i e r ' s comment that G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t -2 ing had r e c e i v e d but scant a t t e n t i o n suggested t h a t Professor Templeman and he had not s a i d q u i t e everything that was t o be s a i d about the "Master of the P i c t u r e s q u e . " And I q u i c k l y became convinced that there was s t i l l a great deal t o be s a i d about G i l p i n ' s work. His c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g had indeed r e c e i v e d but scant a t t e n t i o n . His c r i t i c i s m of l i t e r a t u r e , of s c u l p t u r e , of a r c h i t e c t u r e , and of landscape gardening had r e c e i v e d almost none. This study i s an attempt p a r t i a l l y to remedy the s i t u a t i o n . G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c a l comments on the a r t s are numerous Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London: Putnam's, 1 9 2 7); W i l l i a m Darby Temple-man, The L i f e and Work of W i l l i a m G i l p i n . . . (Urbana: Univ. I l l i n o i s Press, 1939); Walter John Hippie J r . , The B e a u t i f u l , the Sublime, and the Picturesque i n Eighteenth-Century B r i t i s h  A e s t h e t i c Theory (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s Univ. Press, 1 9 5 7 ) ; C a r l Paul B a r b i e r , W i l l i a m G i l p i n . . . (Oxford: Claren-don P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) • 2Page 4 9 . 3 This t i t l e was conferred by Professor Templeman. v v i and occur both i n h i s published t o u r s and i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l essays, though the l a t t e r are more e x c l u s i v e l y concerned w i t h picturesque beauty. From these comments I have attempted t o i n f e r G i l p i n ' s premises, canons, and c r i t e r i a , f i r s t as they are r e l a t e d t o the a r t form under d i s c u s s i o n and then t o a r t i n g e n e r a l . I have a l s o attempted t o r e l a t e h i s c r i t i c i s m to the c r i t i c a l ideas of h i s age. My d e c i s i o n not t o discuss h i s a t t i t u d e t o music or the dance i s easy t o j u s t i f y : G i l p i n r a r e l y mentions e i t h e r of these a r t forms, apparently having l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n or knowledge of them. On the other hand, he often discusses the l a y i n g out of grounds and accepts the eighteenth century's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of gardening as a f i n e a r t . I thought i t t h e r e f o r e only reasonable t o consider h i s ev a l u a t i o n of gardens as part of h i s c r i t i c i s m of the v i s u a l a r t s . G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g i s the only area t h a t posed a major problem of s e l e c t i o n . I r a t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y r e j e c t e d those of h i s comments which are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the sketching of landscape and those s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the judging of p r i n t s . These comments are oft e n t e c h n i c a l , and, even when not, seem t o me t o be of s p e c i f i c r a t h e r than of general importance. My a n a l y s i s of h i s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t -ing i s based on h i s general pronouncements on the a r t of p a i n t -i n g , h i s d i r e c t i v e s and suggestions t o the p a i n t e r , h i s s t a t e d c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i a , and h i s c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t ions of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c p a i n t i n g s . v i i This t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y an a n a l y s i s of c r i t i c a l prem-i s e s , a t t i t u d e s , and c r i t e r i a . The terms of reference are e s s e n t i a l l y those e s t a b l i s h e d by W.J. Bate and A.O. Lovejoy. The problem of " c l a s s i c i s m " and "romanticism," nebulous and muddled enough as i t i s , would be ho p e l e s s l y so but f o r t h e i r s t u d i e s on the subject.^ 1 - I am a l s o much indebted t o Dr. Ian Ross, i n whose seminar I and other graduate students argued about, and learned about, some of the co m p l e x i t i e s of eighteenth-century c r i t i c a l thought. My s p e c i a l thanks are due t o Pro f e s s o r C. Tracy, who has made s e v e r a l h e l p f u l suggestions apropos of t h i s t h e s i s , and t o Professor S.E. Read, who has supervised and guided me i n the pr e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s . ^Walter Jackson Bate, ed., C r i t i c i s m : the Major Texts (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1952); W.J. Bate, From C l a s s i c t o  Romantic: Premises of Taste i n Eighteenth Century England (New York: Harper, 1961); Arthur 0. Lovejoy, Essays i n the  H i s t o r y of Ideas (New York: Putnam's, i960). TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. GILPIN AND THE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BACKGROUND . . 1 I I . GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF LITERATURE 11 I I I . GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF PAINTING 38 IV. GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF SCULPTURE 79 V. GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF ARCHITECTURE 85 VI. GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF GARDENING 122 V I I . CONCLUSION 146 SOURCES CONSULTED 148 CHAPTER I GILPIN AND THE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BACKGROUND The eighteenth century was the great age of E n g l i s h c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t was the age of t a s t e , when i t was r e q u i s i t e f o r the gentleman t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n , and knowledgeable about, the f i n e arts."'' Lord B u r l i n g t o n and Horace Walpole were preeminent, but not e x c e p t i o n a l , men of t h e i r time. For i f ever there was one, t h e i r s was the golden age of connoisseurship. Of course, there had always been i n England a f a i r amount of i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e , but the eighteenth century saw an unprecedented f l o w e r i n g of i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and landscape gardening. And the end of the century saw the establishment of an a p p r e c i a t i o n , not always so i n t e l l i g e n t , of the beauties of w i l d nature. That the eighteenth-century i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s was more than s u p e r f i c i a l " f a s h i o n " i s proven by l i t e r a r y evidence. The eighteenth-century man wanted t o understand the nature of a r t and t o know the c r i t e r i a of a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e . As R.S. Crane has pointed out, " i n the p e r i o d from Dryden t o the end of the eighteenth century . . . the c r i t i c i s m of poetry, "'"John Steegman, The Rule of Taste: From George I t o  George IV (London: Macmillan, l93o~7, p. 28. 2 painting, and the other f i n e arts became, f o r the f i r s t time i n English l i t e r a t u r e , an important branch of learning, con-sidered worthy of c u l t i v a t i o n . . . by some of the most 2 distinguished minds of the time." And most of these minds were concerned with teaching what Johnson says Dryden taught 3 u s — " t o determine upon p r i n c i p l e s the merit of composition." The connoisseur was especially interested i n these lessons. He wanted to know the pr i n c i p l e s by which he could correctly judge the work of a r t . An important early result of the new interest i n c r i t i c i s m was the r e i t e r a t i o n and c o d i f i c a t i o n of the academic rules evolved ( i n many ways and from many sources) i n s i x -teenth-century I t a l y and seventeenth-century France.^ Crane l i s t s as one of the major types of neo-classical c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g that which i s mainly concerned with reducing "to some kind of method the rules or precepts peculiar either to one of the various arts considered as a whole or to some one of 5 i t s branches or genres. . . ." And i n some to the writings of t h i s type, the rules are considered not as guides but as precepts of universal r a t i o n a l law, part of an i n f a l l i b l e 2 "English Neoclassical C r i t i c i s m : An Outline Sketch," C r i t i c s and C r i t i c i s m , Ancient and Modern, ed. R.S. Crane (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1952), p. 372. 3 ^Samuel Johnson, "Dryden," Lives of the English Poets, ed. George B. H i l l (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905), I , 410. ^Walter Jackson Bate, From Classic to Romantic: Premises of Taste i n Eighteenth-Century England (New York: Harper, l ^ o " l ) , p. 27. 5Page 372. 3 system of order.^ The c r i t i c could t h e r e f o r e judge c o r r e c t l y i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the extent he knew and a p p l i e d the r u l e s . This r i g i d , r u l e - r i d d e n form of n e o - c l a s s i c i s m was never very strong i n England. None of the major E n g l i s h c r i t i c s sub-s c r i b e d t o i t . But i t d i d have i t s E n g l i s h supporters; Bate mentions Charles Gildon's work as an example of E n g l i s h r u l e -7 mongering. And, i n g e n e r a l , the connoisseur u t i l i z e d the r u l e s more and longer than d i d the a r t i s t or the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r i t i c . As Steegman has noted, the r u l e s may not have been v a l i d , but they were easy t o f o l l o w ; the connoisseur who r e l i e d on them might not recognize the b e a u t i f u l , but he would always recognize the c o r r e c t . ^ But the most important c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n England during the eighteenth century i s s k e p t i c a l of the a u t h o r i t y of hard-and-fast r u l e s . Bate says t h a t the major c r i t i c a l work of the century has "a breadth of outlook that i s i n some ways reminiscent of the l a r g e openness and s i n c e r e grasp of e s s e n t i a l s that c h a r a c t e r i z e d the s t a r t of the c l a s s i c a l o t r a d i t i o n i n ancient Greece." C e r t a i n l y the great c r i t i c s , Pope, Johnson and Reynolds, a l l attempt t o i s o l a t e e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s from a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d canons. And there i s Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 32. 7 I b i d . , p. 35. Page x n . o C r i t i c i s m : The Major Texts (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1952), p. 11. 4 i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m a concen t r a t i o n on the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e s of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . They accept the theory t h a t a r t i m i t a t e s general nature, or "nature methodiz'd"; they b e l i e v e t h a t man's reason i s h i s means of a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n ; they are concerned w i t h such i d e a l s as u n i t y , order, and decorum. And they a l l a s s e r t t h a t great a r t goes beyond what can be explained by a c o d i f i e d system of c r i t i c a l laws. But the eighteenth-century r e t u r n t o the bas i c c l a s s -i c a l concepts and i d e a l s i s , as Bate p o i n t s out, i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h "the most complete s i n g l e t r a n s i t i o n i n the h i s t o r y of c r i t i c i s m . . . . " ^ For the attempt of the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d minds of the day t o determine the p r i n c i p l e s of a r t i s t i c judgement l e d not only t o the l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c l a s s -i c a l t h e o r i e s , but f i n a l l y t o the undermining of the e n t i r e c l a s s i c a l c r i t i c a l system. R.S. Crane i s of course q u i t e r i g h t i n h i s statement that the changes i n E n g l i s h c r i t i c a l theory from Dryden t o the death of Johnson, and the c o n f l i c t s of d o c t r i n e and t a s t e t h a t separate various c r i t i c s , can be seen as s h i f t s of 11 emphasis r a t h e r than r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n theory. And c e r t a i n l y the t r a n s i t i o n from " c l a s s i c i s m " t o "romanticism" was slow, s u b t l e and complex. There are i n the works of most eighteenth-century c r i t i c s foreshadowings of the romantic a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e . Pope's p r a i s e of a "grace beyond the 1 0 I b i d . , p. 269. i : LPage 374. 5 reach of a r t " , Addison's interest i n the imagination and his consequent c r i t i c a l subjectivism, Reynolds' b e l i e f that there are a r t i s t i c values which the reason cannot comprehend, a l l these are ideas which the romantics l a t e r develop. Other c r i t i c s have even more s i g n i f i c a n t l y "romantic" tendencies. The E a r l of Shaftesbury, f o r instance, writes that man i s endowed with an innate moral sense which dir e c t s i t s e l f t o -ward the good. This, says Bate, was interpreted to mean that "man reacts to what i s good, including beauty, through 12 f e e l i n g . " Hogarth, according to Christopher Hussey, " i n h i s denial of beauty to symmetry, s i m p l i c i t y and distinctness 13 . . . foreshadows the coming revolt from classicism." J And Burke proves that art affects the passions through the senses. As Hussey says: . . . i t was Burke who sponsored passion and emotion as the products of aesthetic perception. I t was t h i s sub-s t i t u t i o n of emotion f o r reason, and of passion f o r decorum that made possible the great poetry and v i l e architecture of the nineteenth century. He loosened emotion from the corsets of the i n t e l l e c t . He made a l l emotion i n s t i n c t i v e , eliminating mental processes a l l together. Emotive q u a l i t i e s were confined to objects. These, perceived by one or other of the f i v e senses, instantaneously affected one of the two passions, through the imagination.14 1 2 C r i t i c i s m : The Major Texts, p. 269. 13 The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London; Putnam's, 1927), p. 55. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 57. A c c o r d i n g l y Burke r u l e s out a l l c r i t e r i a which are dependent on i n t e l l e c t u a l examination. And so i t goes. Throughout the century c r i t i c s d i s c u s s , and o f t e n accept, n o n - c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i e s of a r t and c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i a . But they u s u a l l y manage t o r e t a i n at the same time a great many of the premises t h e o r i e s , and c r i t e r i a of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The changes are s u b t l e and complex, yet i t i s impos-s i b l e t o deny Bate's contention t h a t there was between the beginning and the end of the eighteenth century a major change 15 i n c r i t i c a l theory and a r t i s t i c t a s t e . He defines the change as "a t u r n i n g away, i n whatever d i r e c t i o n , from the c l a s s i c a l standard of i d e a l nature, and of the accompanying c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the f u l l e x e r c i s e of e t h i c a l reason may grasp 16 the o b j e c t i v e i d e a l . " And he e x p l a i n s t h a t the emergent romanticism s u b s t i t u t e s f o r these premises the b e l i e f s t h a t such t r u t h as can be known i s t o be found p r i m a r i l y i n or through the p a r t i c u l a r , and tha t t h i s t r u t h i s t o be r e a l i z e d , a p p r e c i -ated, and declared i n a r t by the response t o tha t p a r t i c u -l a r of some f a c u l t y or ca p a c i t y i n man which i s imaginative and o f t e n emotional r a t h e r than " r a t i o n a l , " and which there f o r e i n c l i n e s t o be somewhat i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and s u b j e c t i v e i n i t s workings.17 C e r t a i n l y there i s by the end of the eighteenth century an i n -creased i n t e r e s t i n e x t e r n a l nature as i t i s r a t h e r than as " ^ C r i t i c i s m : The Ma,-)or Texts, p. 269. C l a s s i c i s m t o Romanticism, p. 94. 1 7 I b i d . 7 i t should be. There i s an increased f a i t h i n genius, the \ ;> emotions, and the imagination. And there i s an increased love of i r r e g u l a r i t y , v a r i e t y , and s u r p r i s e . But there i s a l s o a c o n t i n u i n g devotion t o the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The connoisseur, who was u s u a l l y n e i t h e r an aesthe-t i c i a n nor a thorough c r i t i c , had many problems w i t h which to cope i n the l a t t e r part of the eighteenth century. He needed the s e c u r i t y of p r i n c i p l e s and r u l e s ; he was aware t h a t h i s was an age of changing c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and c r i t e r i a , as w e l l as of changing t a s t e . How was the man of t a s t e t o be c e r t a i n t h a t h i s t a s t e was " c o r r e c t " ? There were various p o s s i b i l i t i e s : one was c o n s e r v a t i v e l y t o f o l l o w the neo-c l a s s i c a l r u l e s ; another was t o t r y t o judge by general p r i n -c i p l e s ; a t h i r d was t o b r i n g the new t a s t e i n t o accord with the o l d r u l e s ; another was t o subscribe t o the new t a s t e and e s t a b l i s h a new set of r u l e s ; and yet another was t o say " I do not profess t o understand these matters but I know what 1& pleases me." The usual s o l u t i o n t o the connoisseur's prob-lem was a compromise which u t i l i z e d s e v e r a l of these answers. The connoisseur's problem was the Reverend W i l l i a m G i l p i n ' s . For i n s p i t e of h i s importance as the f i r s t t o explore the a e s t h e t i c problems of the p i c t u r e s q u e , G i l p i n was e s s e n t i a l l y a man of t a s t e r a t h e r than an a e s t h e t i c i a n . 1, , Even H i p p i e , though he analyzes G i l p i n ' s a e s t h e t i c theory, admits t h a t i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s " G i l p i n i s l e a s t 18 Quoted from Steegman, p. v. 8 19 impressive," G i l p i n was p e r p e t u a l l y a man of t a s t e , but he was an a e s t h e t i c i a n only by chance. Born of good f a m i l y i n 1724, W i l l i a m G i l p i n grew up i n an atmosphere of a r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l concern. For the G i l p i n s of Cumberland were more than ord i n a r y country gentry: they were a f a m i l y noted f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e i n the law, the church, and the m i l i t a r y ; and they were a f a m i l y w i t h a t r a d i t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n the f i n e a r t s . G i l p i n i n h i s career as teacher, s c h o l a r , s o c i a l worker, and churchman c a r r i e d on the f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n of s e r v i c e . In h i s avocation as connoisseur he c a r r i e d on the t r a d i t i o n of t a s t e . But h i s r o l e as man of t a s t e was hedged w i t h more d i f f i c u l t i e s than h i s f a t h e r ' s had been. G i l p i n ' s i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s began e a r l y (there i s a 20 r e c o r d of h i s having done sketches at the age of s i x ) and continued u n t i l the end of h i s l i f e . To h i s i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s he added an unusually s e n s i t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n of the beauties of w i l d nature, e s p e c i a l l y of the mountains and lakes of h i s n a t i v e Cumberland. In order t o e x e r c i s e h i s a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n s G i l p i n d i d a considerable amount of t r a v e l l i n g during the years 1768-1776. While on h i s t r a v e l s he v i s i t e d n a t u r a l "beauty spots"; he a l s o v i s i t e d c a t h e d r a l s , c a s t l e s 19 'Walter John H i p p i e , J r . , The B e a u t i f u l , the Sublime, and the Picturesque i n Eighteenth-Century B r i t i s h A e s t h e t i c  Theory (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s Univ. Press, 1957), p. 193* 20 See C a r l Paul B a r b i e r , W i l l i a m G i l p i n . . . (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), p. 16. 9 and great houses, looked at c o l l e c t i o n s of p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , saw. the "improvements" and newly-created landscape gardens of the n o b i l i t y and gentry. Therefore, when h i s t o u r s were p u b l i s h e d , the books contained not only d i s c u s s i o n s of the picturesque and d e s c r i p t i o n s of n a t u r a l scenery, but a l s o s p e c i f i c comments on, and g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f , a r c h i -t e c t u r e , p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and landscape gardening. They a l s o contained d i s c u s s i o n s of l i t e r a t u r e ; these were u s u a l l y i n s p i r e d by scenes of nature or a d i s c u s s i o n of one of the other a r t s . In h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s G i l p i n a l s o considered v a r i o u s of the a r t s . G i l p i n ' s i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s was g r e a t , h i s a p p r e c i a -t i o n c a t h o l i c , and h i s t a s t e sound ( i . e . , i t agrees w i t h my t a s t e ) . His i n t e r e s t and perception do not mark him a man of h i s age, f o r there are i n t e r e s t e d and perceptive people i n every p e r i o d . What marks him as an eighteenth-century man of t a s t e i s h i s awareness t h a t h i s i s an age of change, and h i s i n t e n s e d e s i r e t o r e c o n c i l e the divergent aspects of h i s t a s t e t o some s o r t of f i x e d standard of judgement. Whenever pos-s i b l e he j u s t i f i e d h i s t a s t e by an appeal t o the academic r u l e s . G e n e r a l l y he r e l i e d on the broad p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s -i c a l c r i t i c i s m t o defend h i s t a s t e and judgement. Occasion-a l l y he created completely new r u l e s . But he d i d b e l i e v e t h a t 21 " i n a r t s , we judge by the r u l e s of a r t . " And i t i s f a s c i n a t -_ W i l l i a m G i l p i n , "Essay I . Bn Picturesque Beauty," Fi v e Essays, on Picturesque Subjects; w i t h a Poem on Landscape  P a i n t i n g (London, 1808), p. 34. 10 i n g t o watch him t r y t o i n t e g r a t e the c l a s s i c a l and romantic aspects of h i s c r i t i c i s m i n t o one coherent system w i t h a c l e a r l y formulated set of p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s a mistake t o c l a s s G i l p i n too simply as a "pre-romantic". There i s a good de a l of the romantic i n h i s make-up. But G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c s have g e n e r a l l y , I t h i n k , p a i d too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the s o l i d l y c l a s s i c a l aspect of h i s c r i t i c i s m . L i k e a l l of h i s g e n e r a t i o n , he i s s t r o n g l y devoted t o the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . His t a s t e i s i n many respects c o n s e r v a t i v e ; h i s c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s are o f t e n c l a s s i c a l ; h i s a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i z i n g i s , i n s p i t e of i t s messiness, b u i l t around p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts that are e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l . I do not want t o minimize the romantic aspects of h i s c r i t i c i s m , but I do want t o point out t h a t i n h i s attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the o b s t i n a t e o i l s and waters of c l a s s i c i s m and romanticism, G i l p i n i s more w i l l i n g t o decrease the p r o p o r t i o n of romanticism than t o r i s k dangerously reducing the amount of c l a s s i c i s m . CHAPTER I I GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF LITERATURE G i l p i n ' s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , though o f t e n d e l i v e r e d en passant, cannot be passed over. G i l p i n f a i l s t o d i s c u s s the problems of c r i t i c i s m of l i t e r a t u r e as he discusses the problems of c r i t i c i s m of the other f i n e a r t s . This omission i n d i c a t e s not l e s s i n t e r e s t but g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y . He knows th a t h i s p r i n c i p l e s of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m are sound: t o d i s -cuss them i s unnecessary; t o use them i s s u f f i c i e n t . I t i s important to remember t h a t G i l p i n ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r , as w e l l as h i s a v o c a t i o n a l one, was l a r g e l y l i t e r a r y . Having been t r a i n e d i n the c l a s s i c a l languages and l i t e r a t u r e s , G i l p i n taught these t o h i s p u p i l s ; r e q u i r i n g money t o repay a c o l l e g e debt, he wrote the f i r s t of h i s s e v e r a l biographies; g a i n i n g from h i s c l e r i c a l occupation a knowledge of theology and s c r i p t u r e , he published s e v e r a l sermons and a modernized v e r s i o n of the B i b l e . These achievements were not b e l l e -l e t t r i s t i c , but they were l i t e r a r y a l l the same. G i l p i n thus was immediately knowledgeable about l i t e r a r y matters, and h i s knowledge was both t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l . He i s , t h e r e -f o r e , q u i t e sure of h i m s e l f when d i s c u s s i n g p r i n c i p l e s and c r i t e r i a of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . And though h i s c r i t i c i s m of l i t e r a t u r e i s no l e s s confused than th a t of any other a r t , G i l p i n i s l e s s concerned w i t h e x p l a i n i n g away the i n c o n s i s -11 12 t e n c i e s . His are a l l v a l i d p r i n c i p l e s ; t h a t they do not form a coherent system he e i t h e r does not know or does not care. The s t r e n g t h of the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a r y c l a s s i c i s m i n England, plus the thoroughness of h i s e a r l y t r a i n i n g , caused G i l p i n t o r e t a i n throughout h i s l i f e a devotion t o the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of a r t and t o many c l a s s i c a l values. He has e s p e c i a l admiration f o r V i r g i l and Pope. And the c l a s s i -c a l t r a d i t i o n a f f e c t s even h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of picturesque poetry, sublime poetry, and f o l k l i t e r a t u r e . I m p l i c i t i n n e a r l y a l l G i l p i n ' s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s the theory that a r t i s an i m i t a t i o n of nature. E x p l i c i t i s the t h e s i s , c e n t r a l t o c l a s s i c i s m , that poetry i m i t a t e s what M.H. Abrams c a l l s i d e a l r e a l i t y — " . . . not the a c t u a l , t i but : s e l e c t e d matter, q u a l i t i e s , tendencies, or forms, which are w i t h i n or behind the a c t u a l — v e r i d i c a l elements i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the universe which are of higher worth than gross and unselected r e a l i t y i t s e l f . 1 G i l p i n s t a t e s i n Fi v e Essays h i s r e j e c t i o n of the a c t u a l as the object of a r t i s t i c i m i t a t i o n . "Where i s the s t o r y i n r e a l l i f e , " he ask^, "on which the poet can form e i t h e r an 2 e p i c , or a drama, unless heightened by h i s imagination?" ^The M i r r o r and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the C r i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n (New York: Norton, 1958), p. 35. 2 "On Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Fiv e Essays, on  Picturesque Subjects . . . (London, 1808), p. 128n. 13 and i n another place he substantiates h i s claim f o r heightened im i t a t i o n by quoting Du Bos and A r i s t o t l e , who defend poetry as more philosophical and universal than history. The poet does not imitate " r e a l nature": "The poet's a r t , " says the abbe Du Bos, "consists i n making a good representation of things that might have happened, and i n embellishing i t with proper images." Du Bos speaks a f t e r A r i s t o t l e , whose p r i n c i p l e i t i s , that the poet i s not required to r e l a t e what has r e a l l y  happened, but what probably might happen. . . .3 G i l p i n believes that the r e a l object of i m i t a t i o n i s pure nature—nature at her most b e a u t i f u l , or, better s t i l l , an i d e a l archetype sythesized from parts found separately i n nature: Some a r t i s t s , when they give t h e i r imagination play, l e t i t loose among uncommon scenes—such as perhaps never existed: whereas the nearer they approach the simple stan-dard of nature, i n i t s most beautiful forms, the more admirable t h e i r f i c t i o n s w i l l appear. I t i s thus i n w r i t -ing romances. The correct taste cannot bear those un-natural s i t u a t i o n s , i n which heroes and heroines are often placed: whereas a story n a t u r a l l y , and of course a f f e c t -ingly t o l d . . . , tho known to be a f i c t i o n , i s considered a t r a n s c r i p t from nature. . . . The marvellous disgusts the sober imagination; which i s g r a t i f i e d only with the pure characters of nature. Beauty best i s taught By those, the favoured few, whom heaven has lent The power to seize, s e l e c t , and reunite Her l o v e l i e s t features, and of them to form. One archetype compleat, of sovereign grace. Though the object of a r t i s t i c i m i t a t i o n i s the imaginary 3 J"Essay I I . On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," Five Essays, p. 163. ^""Essay I I . On Picturesque Travel," Five Essays, p. 52. 14 rather than the actual, the c l a s s i c i s t ' s object of imitation i s always external. The im i t a t i o n i s of something outside the a r t i s t ' s own mind. And, as Bate says, ". . . the cl a s s -i c a l attitude has always meant a comparative lack of i n t e r e s t , therefore, i n the a r t i s t himself . . . especially i n his own 5 subjective f e e l i n g s . " Proof that t h i s i s G i l p i n ' s attitude i s h i s b e l i e f that descriptive w r i t i n g must be objective. External r e a l i t y i s of primary importance. The accurate description must convey everything; there i s no value i n enthusiastic raptures: The account I have here given of the f o r e s t - v i s t a i s the sober re s u l t of frequent examination. A tr a n s c r i p t of the f i r s t feelings would have been a rhapsody; which no description should indulge. The describer imagines that h i s own feelings . . . can be conveyed by warm ex-pressions. Whereas nothing but the scene i t s e l f can con vey h i s fe e l i n g s . Loose ideas . . . i s a l l that verbal description pretends to convey; and t h i s i s not done by high colouring; but,to be aimed at by p l a i n appropriate, i n t e l l i g i b l e terms. 0 This sounds rather l i k e T.S. E l i o t , and i s obviously the c l a s s i c i s t r e j e c t i n g the presentation of the feelings of the a r t i s t i n favour of the delineation of the object of experience. On another occasion G i l p i n defends high colouring but makes his objective attitude even clearer." ^Walter Jackson Bate, C r i t i c i s m : the Major Texts (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1952), p. 3. ^Remarks on Forest Scenery and Other Woodland Views . . . , 3rd ed. (London, 1808), II,~59-W. 15 By high c o l o u r i n g i s not meant a s t r i n g of rapturous  e p i t h e t s " (which i s the f e e b l e s t mode of d e s c r i p t i o n ) but an attempt t o analyze the views of n a t u r e — t o open t h e i r s e v e r a l p a r t s i n order t o shew the e f f e c t of the w h o l e — to mark t h e i r t i n t s , and v a r i e d l i g h t s — a n d t o express a l l t h i s d e t a i l i n terms as a p p r o p r i a t e , and yet as v i v i d , as pos s i b l e . 7 Further proof of G i l p i n ' s devotion t o the theory of i m i t a t i o n i s h i s acceptance of the epic as the gr e a t e s t genre. This a d u l a t i o n of the epic r e v e a l s a primary concern w i t h t h i n g s "out t h e r e " as the obj e c t s of a r t i s t i c a t t e n t i o n . The epic " i m i t a t e s " e x t e r n a l characters and events; i t con-t r a s t s t o the s u b j e c t i v e l y r i c , which c o n s i s t s of the thoughts and f e e l i n g s of the poet. The romantics considered the l y r i c the grandest production of l i t e r a t u r e because the l y r i c i s o e s s e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t i v e . But the v i s i o n of poetry as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful f e e l i n g s " i s not G i l p i n ' s . His reverence f o r the epic a l s o proves G i l p i n ' s con-cern f o r the i d e a l . N e o - c l a s s i c i s t s g e n e r a l l y regarded the epic as the noblest k i n d of poetry. According t o Bate, t h i s o p i n i o n was founded on the t h e s i s that the a c t i o n s and characters of the he r o i c poem present "that i d e a l p e r f e c t i o n 7 'Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty« . . . on Several P a r t s of England; P a r t i c u l a r l y the Mountains and Lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Northern Tour] (London, lTBo"), I , x i x . d I b i d . , I I , 12n. See Abrams, pp. 84-88. 16 of which, i n a degree v a r y i n g according t o h i s own c h a r a c t e r , [a man] as a p a r t i c u l a r i s only a f a u l t y image. ""^ Wimsatt and Brooks c i t e as proof of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e a l i m i t a t i o n and epic Sidney's statement t h a t the epic "doth not only reach and move t o t r u t h , but teacheth and moveth t o the most high and e x c e l l e n t t r u t h . " 1 1 G i l p i n echoes t h i s s t a t e -ment. "Nothing e x a l t s the mind so much, as t o see the great 12 a c t i o n s of our f e l l o w creatures brought before the eye." And, as I pointed out e a r l i e r , G i l p i n b e l i e v e s t h a t the m a t e r i a l of l i t e r a t u r e i s not mere a c t u a l i t y but heightened r e a l i t y . But the r e a l i t y of an epic i s so elevated that the genre i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y demanding: " . . . tho the l i t e r a r y w orld abounds w i t h admirable productions i n the lower walks 13 of poetry, an epic i s the wonder of an age." Various of G i l p i n ' s r u l e s of l i t e r a r y a r t stem from h i s b e l i e f t h a t a r t i s t o present i n pure form what i s most e s s e n t i a l i n nature. The primary of these r u l e s i s decorum. A l l t h a t offends decency or f i t n e s s i s t o be e x c l u d e d . ^ Walter Jackson Bate, From C l a s s i c t o Romantic: Premises of Taste i n Eighteenth Century England (New York: Harper, 19^1), p. 10. ^ W i l l i a m K. Wimsatt, J r . and Cleanth Brooks, L i t e r a r y  C r i t i c i s m : a Short H i s t o r y (New York: Knopf, 1957), p. 196. 1 2 N o r t h e r n Tour, I I , 12n. 1 3 I b i d . "^J.W.H. A t k i n s , E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : 17th and  18th Centuries (London: Methuen, 1951), p. 12. 17 P r o p r i e t y i s f o r G i l p i n an important c r i t e r i o n of l i t e r a r y e x c e l l e n c e . That he sees the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the theory of i d e a l i m i t a t i o n and the r u l e of decorum i s evident from h i s statement that i n the n a t u r a l scene, "Whether i t be sublime, or b e a u t i f u l , there i s g e n e r a l l y something mixed wit h i t of a nature u n s u i t a b l e t o i t . " ^ And the u n s u i t a b l e must never be allowed. For i n s t a n c e , G i l p i n c r i t i c i z e s T a c i t u s f o r f a i l i n g t o observe the r u l e t h a t : "A Roman should speak l i k e a Roman; and a barbarian l i k e a b a r b a r i a n . " " ^ T a c i t u s allows a barbarian c h i e f t o speak w i t h elegance, p e r s p i c a c i t y , and coherence of argument. This impropriety would not have occurred i f he had fo l l o w e d the "admirable 17 r u l e s w i t h regard t o p r o p r i e t y of ch a r a c t e r " formulated by Horace: S i d i s c e n t i s erunt f o r t u n i s d i c t a Romani t o l l u n t e q u i t a s , peditesque cachinum. I f the language of a dramatic character v a r i e s from h i s s i t u a t i o n i n l i f e the a b s u r d i t y w i l l be re c e i v e d w i t h contempt.19 15 "On Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Fiv e Essays, p. 128n. 16 Observations t R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, . . . on Several P a r t s of Great B r i t a i n ; P a r t i c u l a r l y the High-Lands of" Scotland r a b b r e v i a t i o n : S c o t t i s h Tour] (London, 1789) , I , 105. 1 7 I b i d . , I , 106. l S I b i d . 1 9 I b i d . , I I , x i v . 18 G i l p i n even accuses Homer and V i r g i l of impropriety i n g i v i n g t h e i r heroes u n s u i t a b l e weapons: The e a r l i e s t impropriety of t h i s k i n d we f i n d i n Homer, who adorned the s h i e l d of h i s hero w i t h the r i c h e s t s c u l p -t u r e ; and i n t h i s he was f o l l o w e d by another great poet. I should a l l o w a l i t t l e s c u l p t u r e on the m a i l and helmet: but the s h i e l d , which was t o defend them,—which was t o o f f e r i t s e l f t o every brunt, and of course t o be o f t e n defaced, had c e r t a i n l y nothing t o do w i t h ornament.20 G i l p i n ' s i n s i s t e n c e on s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y i s another l o g i c a l r e s u l t of b e l i e f i n i d e a l i m i t a t i o n . The concern f o r u n i t y i s r e a l l y a concern f o r harmonious order, f o r an i n t e -grated i d e a l s y n t h e s i s of the f a c t s of a c t u a l i t y . I f a l l the parts are harmoniously subordinated t o , but c o n t r i b u t i n g t o -ward, a u n i f i e d whole, the r e s u l t i s an " i m i t a t i o n " of the 21 fundamental order and decorum of the u n i v e r s a l . Thus 'Tis not the l i p , or eye, we beauty c a l l , 2 ? But the j o i n t f o r c e and f u l l r e s u l t of a l l . G i l p i n i n s i s t s that i t i s a great e r r o r "to be more a t t e n t i v e 23 t o the f i n i s h i n g of p a r t s , than t o the production of a whole." 20 Observations on the Coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [abbrevia-t i o n : Southern" Tour] (London, 1804), p. 22. 21 Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 19. 22 Alexander Pope, "An Essay on C r i t i c i s m , " 11. 245-246. P a s t o r a l Poetry and "An Essay on C r i t i c i s m , " ed. E. Audra and Aubrey W i l l i a m s (London: Methuen, 1961), pp. 267-268. 2 3 F o r e s t Scenery, I , 260. 19 In another instance he s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s t h e s i s by c i t i n g V i r g i l : . . . those t h i n g s which produce a whole, are of course the p r i n c i p a l foundation of beauty. So thought a great master of composition. With him no man was e n t i t l e d t o the name of a r t i s t , who could not produce a whole. How-ever e x q u i s i t e l y he might f i n i s h , he would s t i l l be d e f e c t i v e . I n f e l i x o p e r i s summa, quia ponere totum 9, Nesceiet. 4 4 And G i l p i n even subscribes t o the dramatic u n i t i e s , 2 ^ as r u l e s c o n t r i b u t o r y t o the f i n a l end of a u n i f i e d and coherent work of a r t . G i l p i n a l s o i n s i s t s on s i m p l i c i t y i n l i t e r a r y composi-t i o n . This c r i t e r i o n was, according t o Lovejoy, the sacred 26 catchword of the eighteenth-century c l a s s i c i s t . I t too r e f l e c t s a b e l i e f i n the order of the u n i v e r s a l . And s i m p l i c -i t y has t o share w i t h u n i t y G i l p i n ' s p r a i s e of the p r i n c i p a l foundation of beauty. G i l p i n a s s e r t s t h a t there are var i o u s kinds of s i m p l i c i t y : ". . . the s i m p l i c i t y of the f a m i l i a r l e t t e r d i f f e r s from the s i m p l i c i t y of h i s t o r y ; and the sim-p l i c i t y of a poem, from the s i m p l i c i t y of both. . . . " But, " S i m p l i c i t y , no doubt, i s the foundation of beauty i n every 2 / fAn Essay on P r i n t s , 5th ed. (London, 1802), p. 14. 2 5 Essay on P r i n t s , p. 2; F i v e Essays , p. 106. 26 Arthur 0. Lovejoy, "The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l and the Return t o Nature," Essays i n the H i s t o r y of Ideas (New York: Putnam's, I960), p. 143. 20 27 s pecies of composition. . . ." The c l a s s i c i s t ' s i n s i s t e n c e on u n i t y and s i m p l i c i t y i n d i c a t e s not only h i s b e l i e f i n the e s s e n t i a l order and harmony of the universe; i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s h i s b e l i e f t h a t a r t ' s f u n c t i o n i s t o a f f o r d knowledge of the e s s e n t i a l nature of r e a l i t y . And t h i s knowledge i s knowable only by man's reason. The reason i s the f a c u l t y which d i s t i n g u i s h e s man from the lower c r e a t i o n ; i t i s i d e n t i c a l i n a l l men, and i t i s the f a c u l t y which allows i n s i g h t i n t o u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . 28 To t h i s reason the a r t i s t must appeal. Therefore, t r u t h must be presented i n terras of c l e a r and d i s t i n c t ideas. The n e o - c l a s s i c i s t ' s d i s l i k e of m u l t i p l i c i t y and complexity i s thus based on h i s confidence i n reason. The r e l i a n c e on reason a l s o r e s u l t s i n an emphasis on c l a r i t y . I f a r t ' s f u n c t i o n i s t o a f f o r d knowledge, then 29 the work of a r t must communicate l u c i d l y and immediately. The concern of R e s t o r a t i o n and eighteenth-century c r i t i c s w i t h c l a r i t y of expression i s well-known. And Bate c i t e s as proof of t h i s preoccupation the couplet s t a t i n g t h a t : . . . Phoebus touch'd the Poet's trembling Eag With one supreme Commandment, Be thou C l e a r . 27 Northern Tour, I , x v i i i . 28 Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 22. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 8. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 38. 21 This commandment G i l p i n r e i t e r a t e s . "A w r i t e r should t r e a t 31 h i s subject c l e a r l y , though he w r i t e upon o b s c u r i t y . " G i l p i n , i n f a c t , advocates a l i t e r a r y s t y l e so c l e a r t h a t the s t y l e i s t o t a l l y subsumed i n t o meaning. " I f indeed, e i t h e r i n l i t e r a r y or i n picturesque composition you endeavour to draw the reader, or the sp e c t a t o r from the subject t o the 32 mode of executing i t , your a f f e c t a t i o n d i s g u s t s . " You must be e q u a l l y c a r e f u l , however, not t o execute i n a s l o v e n l y manner. Language, l i k e l i g h t , i s a medium; and the t r u e p h i l o s o p h i c s t i l e , l i k e the l i g h t from a north window, e x h i b i t s objects c l e a r l y , and d i s t i n c t l y , without s o l i c i t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o i t s e l f . In subjects of amusement indeed, language may g i l d somewhat more, and colour the dies of fancy. . . .[But] the s t i l e of some w r i t e r s resembles a b r i g h t l i g h t placed be-tween the eye, and the t h i n g t o be looked a t . The l i g h t shews i t s e l f ; and hides the object.33 The matter i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t ; the manner i s only the means. The author must not be obscure; t h e r e f o r e , the c r i t i c must not be an o b s c u r a n t i s t . G i l p i n shares Dr. Johnson's f a i t h i n common sense. He has no patience w i t h f a r - f e t c h e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Commenting on V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the herd of deer Aeneas sees i n A f r i c a , G i l p i n p r a i s e s the e f f e c -t i v e v i s u a l imagery of the c l e a r l y d e t a i l e d scene. V i r g i l 31 Essay on P r i n t s , p. 9. 32 "Essay I . On Picturesque Beauty," F i v e Essays, p. 18, 3 3 I b i d . , p. I3n. 22 . . . introduces the herd, j u s t as a p a i n t e r would have done. From the l a r g e r group he detaches a subordinate one: Tres l i t o r e cervos P r o s p i c i t e r r a n t e s ; hos t o t a armenta sequinter Atergo, I need not conceal, t h a t some commentators have found i n these three stags t h a t the herd f o l l o w e d , the poet's i n c l i n a t i o n t o a r i s t o c r a c y ; and others have supposed, he meant a compliment t o the t r i u m v i r a t e . I t i s the com-mentator's business t o f i n d out a rec o n d i t e meaning: common sense i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h what i s most obvious.34 I t i s q u i t e c l e a r that G i l p i n b e l i e v e s the most obvious meaning i s the most important one. The work of a r t must communicate r e a d i l y t o a l l men. V i r g i l , i f he i s any good, may be expected t o abound w i t h what Dr. Johnson r e q u i r e s — " i m a g e s which f i n d a m i r r o r i n every mind, and w i t h sentiments t o which every 35 bosom r e t u r n s an echo." For, as Johnson says, . . b y the common sense of readers uncorrupted by a l l the refinements of s u b t i l t y and'the dogmatism of l e a r n i n g must f i n a l l y be decided a l l c l a i m t o p o e t i c a l honours." The rec o n d i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n v a l i d because i t i s extraneous t o the f u n c t i o n of poetry and i r r e l e v a n t t o the e v a l u a t i o n of p o e t i c m e r i t . His c r i t i c a l comments on V i r g i l ' s imagery r e v e a l not only G i l p i n ' s b e l i e f i n c l a r i t y and common sense, but a l s o h i s a t t i t u d e toward l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m . This parson i s 3 / fMorthern Tour, I I , 266. 3 5Samuel Johnson, " L i f e of Gray," L i v e s of the E n g l i s h Poets, ed. George B. H i l l (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1905), I I I , 441. 3 6 I b i d . 23 " i n search of the picturesque" wherever i t may be found. And he can often f i n d i t i n l i t e r a t u r e , especially i n the works of V i r g i l , Thomson, Dyer, and Gray, but also i n the writings of Homer, Pindar, Milton, and Pope. By f a r the greatest part of G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m i s related i n some way to the concept of picturesque poetry. And i t i s i n t h i s area of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m that h i s p r i n c i p l e s become most entangled. In some respects, G i l p i n ' s interest i n p i c t o r i a l c l a r i t y and composition of imagery i s t y p i c a l l y n e o -classical. Jean H. Hagstrum has devoted an entire book to the tracing of the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m from c l a s s i c a l antiq-u i t y to the eighteenth century, and proving i t s strong effect 37 on neo-classical poetry and c r i t i c i s m . This study i s proof that G i l p i n ' s concern with the picturable image i s not only a 38 r e s u l t of h i s interest i n the picturesque (in Hussey's sense)f but also of his oneness with a venerable c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . F i r s t , i t must be noted that the interest i n the c l e a r l y delineated p i c t o r i a l image i s a c o r o l l a r y to the con-cept of art as the im i t a t i o n of external r e a l i t y . As Hagstrum has shown, neo-classical l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m has i t s roots i n the ancient and Renaissance concept of art as a mirror 3 7The S i s t e r Arts: The Tradition of L i t e r a r y P i c t o r i a l -ism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958). 38 Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London: Putnam's, 1927), p. 4. 24 (rather than a lamp) and the ancient c r i t i c a l concept of 39 enargeia or l i f e l i k e vividness. 7 P i c t o r i a l and graphic arrangement of d e t a i l are obviously means by which l i t e r a r y art can hold a mirror up to nature. G i l p i n i s aware of t h i s function of p i c t o r i a l imageryI Mr. Gray has given us a very picturesque view . . . i n describing the march of Edward I . ; As down the steep of Snowdon's shaggy side He wound with toilsome march his long array. Stout Glouster stood aghast i n speechless trance: To arms.' cri e d Mortimer; and couched hi s quivering lance. Through the passage i n the mountains we see the troops wind-ing round at a great distance. Among those nearer the eye, we d i s t i n g u i s h the horse and foot; and on the foreground, the action and expression of the p r i n c i p a l commanders.40 V i r g i l has given us the idea with great strength of expres-sion. Spumea circum Saxa fremunt; laterique i l l i s a r e f u n d i t u i alga. The pencil could not give the idea so precise. The pencil gives only form and colour: V i r g i l ' s description gives motion.41 Gilpi n ' s awareness of t h i s i m i t a t i v e value of imagery i s not unique. There was i n his day a great deal of iconic poetry (that i s — p o e t r y i n which the presentation of d e t a i l s i s guided by an imagined p i c t u r e ) , and a great deal of c r i t i c i s m which concerned i t s e l f with the p i c t o r i a l analysis of l i t e r a r y 3 9Page 129. ^"On Landscape Painting," Five Essays, pp. 137-138n. ^ S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 45. 25 composition. His awareness i s shared w i t h Dryden and Pope. The c r i t i c a l b e l i e f i n p i c t o r i a l poetry was a l s o sup-ported by the n e o - c l a s s i c a l b e l i e f i n the e s s e n t i a l s i s t e r h o o d of the a r t s . The Abbe Batteaux proves t h i s s i s t e r h o o d by reducing the f i n e a r t s t o one p r i n c i p l e : "'La Nature, c'est-a-d i r e t o u t ce qui e s t , ou que nous concevons aisement comrae p o s s i b l e , v o i l a l e prototype ou l e modele des A r t s . * " He uses t h i s t h e s i s t o prove the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of poetry and p a i n t i n g and t o j u s t i f y (indeed t o demand) p i c t o r i a l poetry. A l l poetry must be "'une image a r t i f i c i e l l e , un t a b l e a u , dont l e v r a i & unique merite c o n s i s t e dans l e bon cho i x , l a d i s -p o s i t i o n , l a ressemblance: ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s . ' " 4 4 As a r e s u l t of such a b e l i e f there was i n the eighteenth century, as Hagstrum says, "a determination of poet and c r i t i c a l i k e t o act upon the Horatian phrase ut p i c t u r a poesis as though i t were a command."4^ The d e l i b e r a t e a n a l o g i z i n g between the a r t s we have already seen G i l p i n d i s p l a y . On another occasion he i n d i c a t e s even more c l e a r l y h i s b e l i e f i n the e s s e n t i a l "sameness" of some aspects of poetry and p l a s t i c a r t . He r e f e r s t o the p a t r i a r c h a l head w i t h the furrowed forehead, prominent cheekbone, and austere brow of Homer's J u p i t e r , 4 2Hagstrum, pp. 173-242. 4 3Quoted Hagstrum, p. 134. 4 4 I b i d . , pp. 134-135. 4 5 P a g e 131. 26 "which he had probably seen f i n e l y represented i n some st a t u e . . . ,"^° And G i l p i n goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t poets must f r e q u e n t l y copy s c u l p t o r s . " I t i s much more probable th a t the poet copied forms from the s c u l p t o r , who must be supposed t o understand them b e t t e r , from having s t u d i e d them more; than t h a t the s c u l p t o r should copy them from the poet." He seems i n t h i s instance t o see no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the type of i m i t a t i o n s u i t a b l e t o the poet and th a t s u i t a b l e t o the p l a s t i c a r t i s t . He i s c l e a r l y i n the t r a d i -t i o n of W i l l i a m Whitehead, who ass e r t e d t h a t "the ' p e n c i l ' I d was the proper t e s t of any 'piece of poetry' whatever." And of Joseph Warton, who b e l i e v e d t h a t Dryden's song f o r St. C e c e l i a ' s day would form an admirable drawing f o r the w a l l of a drawing room. The poet and p a i n t e r both create i m i t a -t i o n s of the i d e a l c e n t r a l forms of e x t e r n a l nature. T h e i r m a t e r i a l s are d i f f e r e n t , but the f i n a l i m i t a t i o n s are essen-t i a l l y the same. This c l o s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a r t s G i l p i n makes even more e x p l i c i t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of a B i b l i c a l image: i f\ "On Picturesque Beauty," F i v e Essays, pp. 10-11. 4 7 I b i d . , p. lOn. ^Hagstrum, p. 131. w i b i d . 27 We have a s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e of a morning sun . . . i n the short account given us of Lot's escape from Sodom. We are t o l d , The sun was r i s e n upon the e a r t h , when Lot en-t e r e d i n t o Zoar. D e s c r i p t i v e poetry and p a i n t i n g must both have the objects of sense before them. Neither of them deals i n abstracted" ideas. . . . I b e l i e v e every picturesque object i s capable of s h i n i n g as a p o e t i c a l one. The passage before us i s both p o e t i c a l and picturesque. A r e l a t i o n of the p l a i n f a c t would have been neither.50 But t h i s passage, t y p i c a l of G i l p i n ' s comments on poetry, has i n i t some f i f t h - c o l u m n workers against the n e o - c l a s s i c a l premises and, t h e r e f o r e , c r i t e r i a . These are the i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t , i n G i l p i n ' s o p i n i o n , a r t appeals to the senses r a t h e r than t o the reason. D e s c r i p t i v e poetry deals w i t h objects of sense, not w i t h a b s t r a c t ideas. The a t t i t u d e here i s that which Hussey describes as pre-romantic: The reason wants t o know, not t o experience sensations. The romantic movement was an awakening of s e n s a t i o n , and, among other s e n s a t i o n s , t h a t of s i g h t r e q u i r e d e x e r c i s i n g . Thus the picturesque interregnum between c l a s s i c and romantic a r t was necessary i n order t o enable the imagina-t i o n to form the h a b i t of seeing through the eyes.51 G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s t u r n i n g away from the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the e x e r c i s e of reason i n order t o grasp t r u t h i s the primary duty of the viewer or the reader of the work of a r t . A l s o , t h i s passage, l i k e most of G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m , has a non-humanist o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t i s i n sharp contrast t o Observations on the Western P a r t s of England, Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Western T o u r ] t 2nd ed. (London, 1808), p. 270. 51 The Picturesque, p. 4. 2a c l a s s i c a l concepts of l i t e r a t u r e . G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e seems t o be part of what Wimsatt and Brooks c a l l the "general movement of human nature (toward landscape) which was i n progress throughout the 18th century, a s u b s t i t u t i o n of landscape f o r the o l d e r e t h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of values as the o b j e c t i v e 52 counterpart of human emotions."' G i l p i n i s , g e n e r a l l y , con-cerned w i t h l i t e r a t u r e which i m i t a t e s landscape p a i n t i n g r a t h e r than t h a t which i m i t a t e s h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . There are excep-t i o n s , some of which I have di s c u s s e d , but the m a j o r i t y of h i s picturesque images are images p a r a l l e l i n g the p a i n t i n g s of Claude or S a l v a t o r Rosa. F i t t i n g l y enough, t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of h i s comments about the "landscape poets". He p r a i s e s Thomson f o r h i s picturesque d e l i n e a t i o n of the b e a u t i f u l view from E n v i l l e : I cannot describe t h i s d i stance b e t t e r , than i n the words of Thomson, who . . . seems t o have c o l l e c t e d a l l the i n -g r e d i e n t s of t h i s landscape from some h i l l i n the neighbourhood. Mean time you ga i n the h e i g h t , from whose f a i r brow The b u r s t i n g prospect spreads immense around: And snatch'd o'er h i l l and d a l e , and wood and lawn, And verdant f i e l d , and darkening heath between, And v i l l a g e imbosomed s o f t i n t r e e s , And s p i r y towns by dusky columns mark'd „ Of r i s i n g smoak, your eye excursive roams. He c r i t i c i z e s Dyer because " h i s distances . . . are a l l con-52 L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , p. 2 6 6 . ^ S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 1&6. 29 f u s i o n , and indeed not easy t o separate from h i s foregrounds." And i n many other respect Dyer does not compose "so good a landscape as might have been e x p e c t e d . " ^ But G i l p i n a l s o makes many remarks about V i r g i l ' s landscapes. " I t i s remark-a b l e , " he says i n the Northern Tour, "that we f i n d scarce any d i s p o s i t i o n of ground t h a t belongs t o mountain scenery, of 5 5 which V i r g i l has not taken n o t i c e . " And i t i s h i s p i c t u r -esque landscapes t h a t c h i e f l y please G i l p i n . There i s a s i m i l a r c oncentration on the landscape p i c t o r i a l i s m i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of M i l t o n , Pope and Gray. I do not mean t o suggest th a t G i l p i n b e l i e v e s the landscapes the most important p a r t s of these poets' works, but only t h a t he i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r -ested i n landscape p i c t o r i a l i s m and considers l i t e r a r y l a n d -scapes worthy of s e r i o u s and extensive a n a l y s i s . His a t t i t u d e i s i n contrast t o that d i s p l a y e d i n such t y p i c a l n e o - c l a s s i c a l statements as these of Du Bos and Johnson: "The f i n e s t l a n d -s k i p , were i t even T i t i a n ' s or Caraccio's does not a f f e c t s . . . ." and "A blade of grass i s always a blade of gra s s . . . . 5 6 Men and women are my subjects of enquiry. . . ." The s t r i c t c l a s s i c i s t was only i n t e r e s t e d i n moral knowledge, and 5 4 Observations on the Riv e r Wye, and Se v e r a l P a r t s of  South Wales, R e l a t i v e ~ C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Wye Tour] (London, 1782), pp. 60 and 59* 5 5 I I , 79. ^Quoted Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, pp. 2-3. 30 57 t h i s i s t o be gained from human a c t i o n . G i l p i n i s i n t e r -ested i n landscapes, even i f they have no proven relevance t o the human c o n d i t i o n . A c t u a l l y , G i l p i n ' s unconcern w i t h the f u n c t i o n 'of \ the poet as teacher i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i o n of romantic o r i e n t a t i o n . For the c l a s s i c i s t l i t e r a t u r e must amuse and i n s t r u c t ; a r t must develop man's ca p a c i t y t o react v i t a l l y eg and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y t o the t r u t h good w r i t i n g must be founded on moral l e a r n i n g . 7 These concepts, based on the b e l i e f t h a t man's reason i s capable of comprehending the i d e a l t h a t comprises both the t r u e and the b e a u t i f u l , l e d by the eighteenth century t o the frequent emphasis, i n poetry and c r i t i c i s m , on purely d i d a c t i c v a l u e s . ^ Pope's use of the verse essay and Johnson's demand f o r p o e t i c j u s t i c e are i n d i c a t i o n s of the i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a t u r e ' s i n s t r u c t i v e func-t i o n . But G i l p i n seems not at a l l concerned w i t h l i t e r a t u r e ' s power t o please by i n s t r u c t i n g . He i s i n t e r e s t e d only i n i t s power t o please by r a i s i n g pleasurable sensations. His a t t i t u d e i s , no doubt, p a r t i a l l y the r e s u l t of the new em-p i r i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n c r i t i c i s m . B r i t i s h e m p i r i c a l philosophy, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of Hobbes, Locke and 57 ' Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 3. 58 J Bate, C r i t i c i s m : The Major Texts, p. 7. 59 Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 7. 6 0 I b i d . , p. 6. Hume, had proven th a t a l l knowledge comes from sense e x p e r i -ence. A question that consequently arose was whether we could know any r e a l i t y except our f e e l i n g s . One of the r e s u l t s of the negative answer was an increased c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n t o the p l e a s u r a b l e sensations s t i m u l a t e d by works of a r t . And G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e suggests that what Wimsatt and Brooks say about the l a s t h a l f of the eighteenth century i s t r u e , t h a t . . . both f e e l i n g and the act of v a l u i n g were t h e o r e t i c -a l l y detached from a c e r t a i n something—an A r i s t o t e l i a n s t r u c t u r e of i d e a s , a subs t a n t i v e b e l i e f about God, man, and the u n i v e r s e — a n d were l e f t e i t h e r f l o a t i n g f r e e of reference or were attached t o another area of experience provided or newly emphasized i n another v i s i o n of r e a l i t y — t h e new v i s i o n of the e m p i r i c a l and the sensational.6 1 Such an a t t i t u d e , where the greatest a r t i s t i c values are ple a s u r a b l e s e n s a t i o n s , i s romantic i n th a t i t i s a t u r n i n g away from the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the f u l l e x e r c i s e of reason can grasp the o b j e c t i v e i d e a l t h a t i s the t r u e m a t e r i a l of a r t . 6 2 C o r r e l a t e d t o t h i s t u r n i n g away from the reason i s the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the imagination—some s o r t of f a c u l t y of spontaneous s u p r a r a t i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n — a s the f a c u l t y capable of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y a e s t h e t i c response. G i l p i n f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r s t o the perceptive imagination, but l i k e most of h i s contemporaries he i s not q u i t e sure what i t i s . 6 lPage 253. 62 Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 94. 32 Often G i l p i n seems t o conceive of the imagination as an image-making c a p a c i t y . This i s a concept t h a t i s essen-t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l and q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from Wordsworth's view of i t as an i n t u i t i t i o n a l c r e a t i v e f a c u l t y . G i l p i n says of the advantages of the poet over the p a i n t e r : [The poet] knows h i s advantage. He speaks t o the imagina-t i o n ; and i f he d e a l only i n general i d e a s , . . . every reader w i l l form the phantom according t o h i s own conception. But the p a i n t e r , who speaks t o the eye, has a more d i f f i c u l t work. He cannot de a l i n general terms: he i s o b l i g e d t o p a r t i c u l a r i z e . . . .63 But even here the imagination i s d e p i c t i n g ghosts, phenomena which men r a r e l y encounter; so c l e a r l y the imagination i s not, as Wimsatt and Brooks say i t was i n e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m , "cen-t e r e d i n sober l i t e r a l i s m of sense impressions and the s u r v i v a l of these i n the memory."^4 I t i s e v i d e n t l y an i n t u i t i o n a l f a c u l t y of conception, not a process of r a t i o n a l deduction. The a n t i - r a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s imagination i s c l e a r l y revealed by G i l p i n ' s r e l a t i n g i t t o the sublime. The sublime i s one of G i l p i n ' s great l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t s : i t appeals t o the imagination; i t takes the imagination by f o r c e . And G i l p i n ' s sublime i s decidedly n o n - r a t i o n a l . One of G i l p i n ' s most i n t e r e s t i n g statements draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between the grand and the sublime. This d i s t i n c -t i o n , which gives the l a u r e l s t o the sublime, i s q u i t e out of 6 3Wye Tour, p. 9$. 6 4Page 3^5. 33 keeping w i t h n e o - c l a s s i c a l c r i t e r i a : . . . when the mind can so f a r master an image, as t o r e -duce i t w i t h i n a d i s t i n c t o u t l i n e ; i t may remain grand but ceases t o be sublime, i f I may venture t o suggest a distinction.°5 This d i s t i n c t i o n i s i m p l i c i t i n a l l G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of the sublime. And i t i s completely at variance w i t h the a t t i t u d e of such a n e o - c l a s s i c c r i t i c as Isaac Hawkins Browne, who be-l i e v e s the t r u e sublime e x i s t s only when the harmonious order of an object i s apparent and when the o b j e c t , though grand, i s comprehensible t o the v i e w e r . 0 0 I f these c o n d i t i o n s are not present the sublime r e v e r t s t o the c h a o t i c . The judgement must be s a t i s f i e d even by the sublime. G i l p i n t o t a l l y r e j e c t s judgement as a response t o the sublime. I f an image, however grand, i s open t o f u l l compre-hension, " i t then comes w i t h i n the cognizance of judgement, an a u s t e r e , and c o l d f a c u l t y ; whose a n a l y t i c process c a r r y i n g l i g h t i n t o every p a r t , leaves no dark recesses f o r the t e r r o r of t h i n g s without a name." ' The sublime succeeds by appeal-ing t o the imagination: I f the a r t i f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of every subject seems r a t h e r t o r e q u i r e a balance of shade, i n sublime subjects i t i s s t i l l more r e q u i r e d . A l l w r i t e r s on sublime subjects ^ S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 63-64. °°Samuel H. Monk, The Sublime: a Study of C r i t i c a l  Theories i n XVIII-Century England (New York: Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n "of America, 1935), p. 66. °7Scottish Tour, I I , 64. 34 deal i n shadows, and obscurity. The grandeur of Jehovah i s commonly represented by the Hebrew writers behind a cloud. The imagination makes up deficiencies by grander ideas, than i t i s possible f o r the pencil to produce. Many images owe much of t h e i r sublimity to t h e i r i n d i s -tinctness; and frequently what we c a l l sublime i s the effect of that f?ear and fermentation which ensues i n the imagination from i t s i n e f f e c t u a l e f f o r t s to conceive some dark, obscure idea beyond i t s grasp. Bring the same with-i n the compass of i t ' s comprehension, and i t may continue great; but i t w i l l cease to be sublime.°o These comments on the sublime and the imagination re-veal G i l p i n ' s reliance on what Bate c a l l s "the premise of 69 f e e l i n g . " Gilpin's sublime i s a "suggestive" thing. I t s function i s not to disclose the formal quality of an object, but to "awaken an inference or f e e l i n g of the undetermined 70 and undeclared."' I t thus attempts to appeal to the feelings of the beholder as the vehicles of aesthetic response. G i l p i n at one point states his interest i n the f e e l i n g of sublimity; when the sensitive man i s confronted by the sublime, "the mind s t a r t l e d into attention, summons a l l her powers, d i l a t e s her capacity, and from a baffled e f f o r t to comprehend what exceeds the l i m i t s of her embrace, shrinks back on herself with a kind 71 of w i l d astonishment, and severe del i g h t . " The sensation of the excitement of the imagination i s seen as a v a l i d aesthetic Forest Scenery, I , 262-263. ^ C l a s s i c to Romantic, pp. 129-159. 7 0 I b i d . , p. 156. 7 1 S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 6 3 . response. And G i l p i n ' s statement t h a t you must handle the sublime image w i t h care*-"Bring the same w i t h i n the compass 72 of i t ' s comprehension and . . . i t w i l l cease t o be s u b l i m e . " i . seems t o foreshadow Kant's making the sublime a purely sub-j e c t i v e concept, "not a q u a l i t y r e s i d i n g i n the o b j e c t , but 73 a s t a t e of mind awakened by an o b j e c t . " A l s o , G i l p i n ' s i n t e r e s t i n sublime poetry which deal w i t h stormy n i g h t s , ghosts, graveyards, and images of desola-t i o n may i n d i c a t e a b e l i e f i n poetry's a b i l i t y t o awaken agreeable sensations. I t c e r t a i n l y suggests that he f i n d s most sensations agreeable. And h i s c r i t i c a l comments on Ossian a l l suggest a d e l i g h t i n the emotions, both f e a r f u l and tender, e x c i t e d by such "sublime" poetry. The unquestioning f a i t h and d e l i g h t i n Ossian i n d i c a t e G i l p i n ' s acceptance of "the second of the two main t h i n g s which E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m made of the Longinian s u b l i m e — a 75 philosophy of untrammeled great 'genius.»"'y G i l p i n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s h i s preference f o r "the works of a great l i t e r a r y genius, which contain g r e a t e r b e a u t i e s , though perhaps blended w i t h g r e a t e r d e f e c t s , than the laboured work of a l e s s e x a l t e d , tho more c o r r e c t w r i t e r . " ' In t h i s statement there i s nothing 7 2 F o r e s t Scenery, I , 263. 7 3Monk, p. 8. 7^See Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, pp. 129-131. 75 Wimsatt and Brooks, L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , p. 2#9. 7°Forestry Scenery, I I , 229. 36 t h a t Dryden would have denied, but G i l p i n a p p l i e s the p r i n -c i p l e t o p a r t i c u l a r s much more l i b e r a l l y than does Dryden. And G i l p i n never suggests th a t Chaucer, Spenser and Shake-speare, whom he p r a i s e s , would b e n e f i t from "improving" or that they would have been b e t t e r had they l i v e d i n a more cor-r e c t age. He l i k e s them as they a r e , imperfections and a l l . G i l p i n does, i n f a c t , o c c a s i o n a l l y r e v e a l a c e r t a i n amount of c r i t i c a l p r i m i t i v i s m . I t i s evident i n h i s comments on Ossian and Burns. Recognizing Burns !s a b i l i t i e s , he s t r e s s e s the " c h i l d of nature" and the " S e n s i b i l i t y " aspects of h i s work. G i l p i n seems t o b e l i e v e t h a t Burns i s at an advantage because he i s s t r a i g h t from the plow. But t h i s p r i m i t i v i s m , l i k e the other romantic elements i n G i l p i n ' s work, i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h c l a s s i c a l thought. Burns may be s t r a i g h t from the plow, but the r e a l b a s i s of h i s greatness 77 i s t h a t h i s images are "caught from nature". The i m i t a t i o n of nature i s s t i l l the b a s i c c r i t e r i o n ; the poet i s secondary t o the mimetic poem. Indeed the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a r y c l a s s i c i s m has marked G i l p i n f o r i t s own. G i l p i n does accept (sometimes unknowingly) romantic premises and romantic c r i t e r i a . But when he knows the two sets of c r i t e r i a are i n c o n f l i c t , he t r i e s t o j u s t i f y the romantic by the. c l a s s i c a l . The picturesque i s presented S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 215. 37 as an a i d t o the poet i n h i s i m i t a t i o n of nature; the imagina-t i o n i s proven important as an image-making c a p a c i t y ; the p r i m i t i v e i s p r a i s e d as drawing images from nature. The man of t a s t e i s defending h i s t a s t e as best he can w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l weapons of a e s t h e t i c b a t t l e . CHAPTER I I I GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF PAINTING G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o the a r t of p a i n t i n g i s undoubtedly s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t h i s mature c r i t i c a l work i s coeval w i t h what E l l i s Waterhouse c a l l s the C l a s s i c a l Age of B r i t i s h painting." 1" This p e r i o d , i n i t i a t e d i n part by the patronage of George I I I , saw the foundation of the Royal Academy, the g r u i t i o n of the Grand S t y l e of Reynolds, the appearance of Wilson's I t a l i a n a t e landscapes and West's h e r o i c h i s t o r i c a l compositions. The age's theory of, and t a s t e i n , p a i n t i n g owe a great d e a l t o the work of the I t a l i a n Renaissance. Waterhouse s t a t e s : Reynolds, and Richard Wilson at the same time, went t o I t a l y w i t h a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of i n q u i r i n g ambition [than the e a r l i e r t r a v e l l e r s ' ] . The l i g h t of the Mediterranean world and i t s r i c h v i s u a l t r a d i t i o n broke over them, and they were incomparably enriched. Something of the same ki n d had happened i n the f i e l d of a r c h i t e c t u r e t h i r t y years e a r l i e r t o Lord B u r l i n g t o n . We may f a i r l y say that the p l a n t of B r i t i s h p a i n t i n g , which had long been s l o w l y maturing, suddenly ripened i n t o f l o w e r about 1750 under the warmth of the I t a l i a n s u n . 2 The r e s u l t was the imp o r t a t i o n of Renaissance standards and an almost u n i v e r s a l acceptance of the values that grand p e r i o d P a i n t i n g i n B r i t a i n 1530-1790 (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 19WT. 2 I b i d . , p. 164. 38 39 believed i n . These are evident i n the enormously important Discourses of Reynolds, which Waterhouse c a l l s "the theoret-i c a l background against which the painting of the c l a s s i c a l age must be considered. . . . n > And c e r t a i n l y G i l p i n i s profoundly aware of the canons which the Discourses establish and the a r t i s t i c values they laud. Primary to G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of painting, as to h i s c r i t i c i s m of l i t e r a t u r e , i s the p r i n c i p l e that art i s an i m i t a t i o n of nature. Of course, as anyone who has read Profes-sor Lovejoy knows, the p r i n c i p l e of " i m i t a t i n g " or "following" nature could mean almost anything. It was the maxim of neo-classicism and of nearly a l l forms of revolt against that creed. 4 As i t applied to theories of painting, however, the p r i n c i p l e of imitation of nature had one f a i r l y clear i m p l i -cation. Painting was conceived of as a mimetic rather than an abstract a r t . As Robert R. Wark has commented, i t was required to have a "direct and immediately preceivable point 5 of contact with the world around us"; i t s central element was the image. G i l p i n c e r t a i n l y accepts t h i s concept. He i s interested i n composition, harmony, l i g h t and shade, colour, and other abstract elements, but he believes the raison d'^tre 3 I b i d . , p. 158. 4Arthur 0. Lovejoy, "'Nature' as Aesthetic Norm," Essays i n the History of Ideas (New York: Putnam's, I960), pp. o9 - 7 0 \ ^"Introduction," Discourses on Art by Joshua Reynolds, ed. Robert R. Wark (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1959), p. x v i i i . 40 of a p a i n t i n g i s i t s resemblance t o the e x t e r n a l world. As he says on one occasion, ". . . a p i c t u r e i s not an object  i t s e l f but only the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an object."° The statement i s obviously an exaggeration, but i t does show that G i l p i n b e l i e v e s p a i n t i n g t o be almost e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n f u n c t i o n . I t i s important t o note, immediately, t h a t G i l p i n i s not only concerned w i t h p a i n t i n g t h a t d e p i c t s n a t u r a l scenery. Scenery tends t o monopolize h i s a t t e n t i o n because the repre-s e n t a t i o n of n a t u r a l scenes i s h i s own hobby. But he i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t that represents s t i l l l i f e , or animals, or that represents the appearance of men, the manners of men, or the passions of men. "A p a i n t e r 1 s nature i s whatever he 7 i m i t a t e s . . . ." Van Huysum's flower pieces are copies of nature; Snyder's "The Wolf and Dogs" i s bad because every-o t h i n g i s s t r a i n e d and un n a t u r a l , Vandyck's E a r l of Denbeigh Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, . . . on Several P a r t s of England; P a r t i c u l a r l y the Mountains  and Lak"e"s~of Cumberland and Westmoreland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Northern Tour] (London, 1736), I I , 16. 7 '"Essay I . On Picturesque Beauty," F i v e Essays, on  Picturesque Subjects; w i t h a Poem on Landscape P a i n t i n g (London, 1808), p. 27-"Observations, on Se v e r a l P a r t s of the Counties of Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex . . . ," Observations on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex. Also on  Sev e r a l Parts of North Wales. . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Eastern  Tour] (London, 1809), p. 54. Q Observations on the Coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and  Kent, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty. . . . [ a b b r e v i -ation:""Southern Tour] (London, 1804), p. 118. 41 "looks up w i t h a countenance so f u l l of nature, and c h a r a c t e r , t h a t you are amazed the power of colours can express l i f e so s t r o n g l y . " 1 0 G i l p i n o b j e c t s t o Sarah Young i n "The Rake's Progress" because her f i d e l i t y t o the man who has discarded her i s " r a t h e r unnatural."" 1" 1 But he p r a i s e s Annibal Caracci's "Dead C h r i s t " : This i s an admirable p i c t u r e . The dead f i g u r e i s l y i n g on the l a p of the V i r g i n , who i s f a i n t i n g over i t . Both these f i g u r e s are h a p p i l y conceived, e s p e c i a l l y the dead one; the anatomy of which we p a r t i c u l a r l y admired; i t s p a l l i d hue a l s o , and the s t i f f n e s s of the limbs. Over the dead body i s k n e e l i n g another female f i g u r e , the a t t i t u d e , and expres-s i o n of which are among the best passages i n the p i c t u r e . The drapery i s but i n d i f f e r e n t . Near t h i s f i g u r e i s another i n strong agony, d i v i d e d between an a t t e n t i o n t o the dead body and the V i r g i n . . . . The whole i s a scene of nature and expression.12 Moreover, G i l p i n b e l i e v e s t h a t the p a i n t e r , l i k e the poet, must i m i t a t e the e m p i r i c a l i d e a l . The p a i n t e r ' s aim must be a j u s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of general nature. One aspect of t h i s theory i s that the a r t i s t should choose as h i s subject matter only those t h i n g s which are normal, u s u a l , o r d i n a r y . G i l p i n f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e s t h i s canon, and makes i t most e x p l i c i t i n F i v e Essays: Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, . . . on Several P a r t s of G r e a ~ B r i t a m ; P a r t i c u l a r l y the High-Lands of Scotland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : S c o t t i s h Tour] (London, I759)7TT7 11An Essay on P r i n t s , 5th ed. (London, 1802), p. 162. 1 2 S o u t h e r n Tour, pp. 119-120. 42 The c u r i o u s , and f a n t a s t i c forms of nature are by no means the f a v o u r i t e objects of the l o v e r of landscape. . . . The lusus naturae i s the n a t u r a l i s t ' s p r o vince, not the p a i n t e r ' s . The s p i r y p innacles of the mountain, and the c a s t l e - l i k e arrangement of the rock, g i v e no p a r t i c u l a r pleasure t o the picturesque eye. I t i s fond of the s i m p l i c i t y of nature; and sees most beauty i n her most usu a l forms. The Giant's causeway i n I r e l a n d may s t r i k e i t as a n o v e l t y ; but the l a k e of K i l l a r n y a t t r a c t s i t ' s attention. 1 3 Beauty i s found i n those t h i n g s which are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of nature, not i n any abberation from i t . G i l p i n , l i k e Horace and B u f f i e r , b e l i e v e s i n the beauty and t r u t h of the general order of the u n i v e r s e . 1 4 But even those t h i n g s which are s u i t a b l e f o r a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n are not t o be copied w i t h photographic r e a l i s m . G i l p i n says: "Yet s t i l l i n copying the s e v e r a l o b j e c t s , and passages of nature, we should not copy wi t h t h a t p a i n f u l exactness, w i t h which Q u i n t i n M a t s i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , painted a f a c e . This i s a s o r t of p l a g i a r i s m below the d i g n i t y of 15 p a i n t i n g . " By copying nature G i l p i n means capturing that c e n t r a l form which i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s i m p e r f e c t l y or incom-p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d . I suggested i n the preceding chapter t h a t G i l p i n b e l i e v e s poetry i m i t a t e s an e m p i r i c a l i d e a l . He be-l i e v e s t h i s a l s o of p a i n t i n g , and e x p l a i n s the b e l i e f i n much gre a t e r d e t a i l . The c e n t r a l form, g e n e r a l i z e d from many 13 -"'Essay I I . On Picturesque T r a v e l , " Five Essays, p. 43 1 4 S e e Walter Jackson Bate, C r i t i c i s m : the Major Texts (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1952), p. 4. 15 ^"Essay I I . On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," Five Essays, p. I 6 3 . 43 p a r t i c u l a r s , G i l p i n equates w i t h both t r u t h and beauty. The equation i s one w i t h a t r a d i t i o n going back t o A r i s t o t l e (or the p l a t o n i z i n g c r i t i c s of A r i s t o t l e ) . G i l p i n s t a t e s t h a t the c e n t r a l form i s the e s s e n t i a l t r u t h of an o b j e c t : "He who has seen only one oak-tree, has no compleat idea of an oak i n gen e r a l : but he who has examined thousands of oak-trees . . . obtains a f u l l and compleat idea of i t . " l D I t i s t h i s f u l l and complete id e a t h a t i s t o be conveyed by p a i n t i n g : "These d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e s the p a i n t e r s e i z e s ; and the more f a i t h f u l l y he t r a n s f u s e s them 17 i n t o h i s work, the more e x c e l l e n t w i l l be h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " ' The p a i n t i n g which does f i x t h i s c e n t r a l form "may even be 18 c a l l e d more n a t u r a l than nature i t s e l f . . . . " These s t a t e -ments are a l l i m p l i c i t l y based on the concept of nature as an immanent f o r c e , o r , as Hussey describes i t , a f o r c e "always s t r i v i n g t o produce p e r f e c t i o n of form, but always d e f l e c t e d from p e r f e c t i o n by e v i l 'accidents' u n t i l enabled t o do so by 19 man's d i v i n e l y ordered r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s . " The purpose of a r t , then, i s "to r e a l i z e the i d e a l beauty which we only 20 glimpse i n nature as she a c t u a l l y i s . " As G i l p i n e x p l a i n s : l o " 0 n Picturesque T r a v e l , " Five Essays, p. 51. 17 '"On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," Fi v e Essays, pp. 160-161. " ^ I b i d . , p. 161. 19 'Christopher Hussey, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n C a p a b i l i t y  Brown by Dorothy Stroud (London: Country L i f e , 1950), p. 15. 20 R.L. B r e t t , The T h i r d E a r l of Shaftesbury: a Study i n Eighteenth-Century L i t e r a r y Theory~TLondon: Hutchinson's U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1951), p. 2T5JI 44 There are few forms, e i t h e r i n animate, or inanimate nature, which are completely p e r f e c t . We seldom see a man, or a horse, without some personal blemish: and as seldom a moun-t a i n , or t r e e , i n i t s most b e a u t i f u l form. The p a i n t e r of f i c t i t i o u s scenes t h e r e f o r e not only takes h i s forms from the most compleat i n d i v i d u a l s , but from the most b e a u t i f u l p a r t s of each i n d i v i d u a l ; as the s c u l p t o r gave a purer f i g u r e by s e l e c t i n g b e a u t i f u l p a r t s , than he could have done by t a k i n g h i s model from the most b e a u t i f u l s i n g l e form.21 He here seems t o be a f i r m b e l i e v e r that the models and forms f o r a r t i s t i c i m i t a t i o n are not the objects of e x t e r n a l nature but forms s e l e c t e d and a b s t r a c t e d from the objects of sense-22 p e r c e p t i o n . The "nature" of a r t i s t i c i m i t a t i o n i s a com-p o s i t e i d e a l , synthesized from parts found s e p a r a t e l y i n nature. The world around us i s a brazen world; the a r t i s t ' s i s a golden one, f o r i t i s , according t o G i l p i n : One archetype compleat, of sovereign grace. Here nature sees her f a i r e s t forms more f a i r ; Owns them as h e r s , yet owns h e r s e l f excelled--^ By what h e r s e l f produced ^ G i l p i n a l s o i n s i s t s that the a r t i s t ignore minute d e t a i l s and concentrate on reproducing the prominent and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elements of form. This dictum i s not i n con-f l i c t w i t h the theory of the s y n t h e t i c i d e a l ; i t merely suggests 21 "On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," Fi v e Essays, p. 161. 22 See M.H. Abrams, The M i r r o r and the Lamp: Romantic  Theory and the C r i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n (New York: Norton, 1958), p. 36. 23 •"'On Picturesque T r a v e l , " Five Essays, p. 53. 45 th a t the "archetype," though p e r f e c t , i s not a d e t a i l e d but a g e n e r a l i z e d form. G i l p i n s t a t e s that the a r t i s t who does depict minute d e t a i l " i n s t e a d of g a i n i n g the character of an exact c o p i e r of nature by a n i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of such t r i f l e s . . . would be esteemed p u e r i l e and pedantic." 2^" He e x p l a i n s t h a t "at a l i t t l e d istance you can e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h the oak from the beech. I t i s t h i s general form, not any p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l , which the a r t i s t i s i n s t r u c t e d t o get by 25 heart . The same holds w i t h regard t o other p a r t s of nature." G i l p i n quotes Dr. Johnson i n support of t h i s contention: —The f o l l o w i n g remark I found i n a work of Dr. Johnsons's; which I t r a n s c r i b e , not only because i t i s j u d i c i o u s , and may be introduced here i n p l a c e , but because i t a f f o r d s a new argument t o shew the resemblance between poetry and p a i n t i n g . Johnson was a c r i t i c of the former; but I never heard, that he was a judge of the l a t t e r . His o p i n i o n t h e r e f o r e i n a point of t h i s k i n d was unbiased.—"The b u s i -ness of the poet, says he, i s , t o examine—not the i n d i v i d -u a l , but the s p e c i e s - - t o remark general p r o p e r t i e s , and l a r g e appearances; he does not number the s t r e a k s of the t u l i p , or describe the d i f f e r e n t shades, i n the verdure of the f o r e s t . He i s t o e x h i b i t , i n h i s p o r t r a i t s of nature, such prominent, and s t r i k i n g f a c t s as r e c a l l the o r i g i n a l to every mind; and must neglect the minuter d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s , which one may have remarked, and another have neglected, f o r those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are a l i k e obvious t o v i g i l -ance and carelessness."26 As I have presented i t thus f a r , G i l p i n ' s i s a coherent, ^Remarks on Forest Scenery and Other Woodland Views . . . , 3rd ed. (London, 1808), I , 231. 25 "On Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," F i v e Essays, p. 123n. 2 6 F o r e s t Scenery. I , 232-233. 46 c l a s s i c a l theory of p a i n t i n g . P a i n t i n g i s mimetic; i t s beauty and t r u t h are the r e s u l t of a j u s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of general nature; nature i s the g e n e r a l i z e d and i d e a l i z e d form, ab-s t r a c t e d from, but s u p e r i o r t o , a c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l forms. But the coherence i s r a t h e r the r e s u l t of my s e l e c t i v i t y of quotation than G i l p i n ' s s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of theory. Although the theory o u t l i n e d above does seem to be the r e a l b a s i s of h i s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g , G i l p i n nowhere s t a t e s the system i n an organized manner and nowhere i n v e s t i g a t e s the v a l i d i t y of i t s p r i n c i p l e s . Moreover, he o f t e n makes statements which seem completely incompatible w i t h t h i s c l a s s i c a l theory. One c o n t r a d i c t o r y p r i n c i p l e i s that the p a i n t i n g ' s r o l e i s merely t o e x c i t e i n the imagination the idea of the scenes i t represents. This d o c t r i n e may seem t o be an exten-s i o n of Dr. Johnson's statement that an image must r e c a l l the o r i g i n a l t o every mind, but i t has d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s . As P r o f e s s o r Lovejoy has pointed out, Dr. Johnson i s concerned 27 t h a t the work of a r t have u n i v e r s a l appeal; G i l p i n occasion-a l l y s t a t e s t h a t i t s only appeal i s i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l the o r i g i n a l . The p a i n t e r must present only the prominent and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c aspects of form, says G i l p i n , because "the p i c t u r e i s not so much the u l t i m a t e end, as the medium, through which the r a v i s h i n g scenes of nature are e x c i t e d i n 27 "The P a r a l l e l of Deism and C l a s s i c i s m , " Essays i n the  H i s t o r y of Ideas, p. 91• 4 7 28 the i m a g i n a t i o n . " He a p p l i e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e t o history-p a i n t i n g , p o r t r a i t u r e , and landscape p a i n t i n g , coming f i n a l l y to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a r t , e s p e c i a l l y the landscape p a i n t e r ' s a r t , i s only a poor i m i t a t i o n of the r e a l t h i n g . As ". . . the utmost the landscape p a i n t e r can do, i s t o e x c i t e the ideas of those d e l i g h t f u l scenes which he r e p r e s e n t s , i t f o l -lows, t h a t those scenes themselves must have a much gre a t e r 29 e f f e c t on the imagination. . . ." He says i n one of h i s essays: "The more r e f i n e d our t a s t e grows from the study of nature, the more i n s i p i d are the works of a r t . Few of i t ' s e f f o r t s please. The idea of the great o r i g i n a l i s so s t r o n g , 30 t h a t the copy must be pure, i f i t do not d i s g u s t . " I t a l -most sounds as i f ordinary nature i s p r e f e r a b l e t o the "arche-type compleat, of sovereign grace" and "nature's f a i r e s t forms 31 more f a i r . " Undoubtedly t h i s confusion of p r i n c i p l e s i s p a r t i a l l y due t o the c o n f l i c t between G i l p i n ' s romantic t a s t e and c l a s s -i c a l t r a i n i n g , between the love of w i l d nature and the theo-r e t i c a l need t o c o r r e c t i t , improve i t , r a i s e i t t o the human Observations on the Western Parts of England, Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Western Tour], 2nd ed. (London, 1808), p. 176. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 177. 30 "On Picturesque T r a v e l , " Five Essays, p. 57. 3 1 I b i d . , p. 53-4# mind. But the confusion i s a l s o due t o G i l p i n ' s r e l i a n c e on 32 both the mimetic and pragmatic t h e o r i e s of a r t , and h i s f a i l u r e t o c l a r i f y t h e i r provenance and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p . o b j e c t i v e i m i t a t i o n of nature; but he f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e s the concept t h a t a r t i s t o be evaluated i n terms of i t s e f f e c t on the viewer. He says, f o r i n s t a n c e : . . . when i t f i n d s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c touches of nature, the imagination immediately takes f i r e ; and glows w i t h a thousand b e a u t i f u l i d e a s , suggested only by the canvas. When the canvas i s t h e r e f o r e so a r t i f i c i a l l y wrought as t o suggest these ideas i n the strongest manner, the p i c t u r e i s then most perfect.33 This passage i n d i c a t e s the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of the mimetic and pragmatic t h e o r i e s . And i t thus e x p l a i n s , i f only by i m p l i c a t i o n ^ t h e grounds f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the s t a t e -ments th a t a r t forms the p e r f e c t archetype and t h a t a r t ' s only purpose i s to r e c a l l the o r i g i n a l , which i s o f t e n more pl e a s i n g than the copy. The key term i s "imagination". l i k e the image-making ca p a c i t y t h a t G i l p i n ' s poet appeals t o . I t i s n e i t h e r a p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r o d u c t i v e nor an i r r a t i o n -a l c r e a t i v e f a c u l t y . I t i s a s u p r a - r a t i o n a l , a b s t r a c t i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g , i d e a l i z i n g f a c u l t y . That the imagination creates images i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s quotation from the Northern Tour: E s s e n t i a l l y , G i l p i n t h i n k s of a r t as mimetic, an The imagination that the p a i n t e r here rouses i s much Lamp, pp. 8-21. As d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by Abrams i n The M i r r o r and the 33 Northern Tour, I I , 13. 49 — B u t a l l t h i s , a l l t h a t words can express, or even the p e n c i l d e s c r i b e , are gross i n s i p i d s u b s t i t u t e s of the l i v i n g scene. We may be pleased w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n , and the p i c t u r e : but the s o u l can f e e l n e i t h e r , unless the f o r c e of our own imagination a i d the poet's, or the p a i n t e r ' s a r t ; e x a l t the i d e a , and p i c t u r e t h i n g s unseen. In a footnote G i l p i n t r i e s t o r e c o n c i l e t h i s statement w i t h the theory of i d e a l i m i t a t i o n : This i s not at a l l i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what I s a i d i n the 119th page. . . . The nearer we approach the character of nature i n every mode of i m i t a t i o n , no doubt the b e t t e r : yet s t i l l there are many i r r e g u l a r i t i e s and de f o r m i t i e s i n the n a t u r a l scene, which we may wish t o c o r r e c t — t h a t i s , t o c o r r e c t , by improving one part of nature by another.35 But the concepts remain tangled. T h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i s explained a few pages f u r t h e r on: . . . a p i c t u r e i s not an object i t s e l f ; but only the re p r e s e n t a t i o n of an obj e c t . We may e a s i l y t h e r e f o r e conceive, t h a t i t may f a l l below i t ' s archetype; and a l s o below the imagination of the s p e c t a t o r , whose fancy may be more picturesque, than the hand of the a r t i s t , who composed the picture.3° This statement e x p l a i n s a good d e a l . Art i s p r i m a r i l y mimetic, and i t does attempt t o represent an archetype, a s y n t h e t i c i d e a l . But the i d e a l can never be p e r f e c t l y r e a l i z e d i n a r t ; i t e x i s t s i n the mind. The a r t i s t must do h i s best t o r a i s e 34 I b i d pp. 10-11. 35 I b i d p. l l n . 36 I b i d P. 17. 50 the i d e a of t h i s p e r f e c t form i n the mind of the observer. Therefore, G i l p i n says, "when the canvas i s . . . so a r t i -f i c i a l l y wrought, as t o suggest these scenes i n the strongest 37 manner, the p i c t u r e i s then most p e r f e c t . " A l s o , the r e a l scene may more e f f e c t i v e l y e x c i t e the imagination t o form the i d e a l than does the work of a r t . The imagination "has the 38 power of c r e a t i n g something more i t s e l f . " J I do not suggest th a t t h i s theory e x p l a i n s away a l l the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ; but the seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y statements, i f reconsidered w i t h t h i s theory i n mind, do make much more sense. I t i s , however, noteable that the coherence r e l i e s on a s u b j e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c , where the value of a work i s dependent on i t s e f f e c t on the mind of the observer. But I must t e m p o r a r i l y suspend d i s c u s s i o n of the imagination and consider some other of G i l p i n ' s ideas about p a i n t i n g ' s r e l a t i o n t o i t s audience. Prominent among these i s the theory t h a t p a i n t i n g must address i t s e l f t o a n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l audience. The f a c t t h a t he quotes Dr. Johnson's dictum about not numbering the s t r e a k s of the t u l i p s suggests h i s acceptance of the p r i n c i p l e of a e s t h e t i c u n i f o r m i t a r i a n i s m . This p r i n c i p l e , t h a t the aim of the a r t i s t i s t o express t h a t beauty which w i l l be comprehended and appreciated by everybody, 39 i s c a l l e d by Lovejoy "pure n e o - c l a s s i c d o c t r i n e . " ^ I t i s an 3 7 I b i d . , p. 13. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 16. 39 •""Deism and C l a s s i c i s m , " Essays, p. 9 2 . 51 extension of the concern f o r general t r u t h , t h a t which i s fundamental and constant. G i l p i n i n d i c a t e s h i s acceptance of t h i s theory i n ways other than merely quoting Dr. Johnson. For i n s t a n c e , he argues against the p a i n t e r ' s copying nature's uncommon appearances. An overcast day produces colours of deep blue and r i c h purple even i n near o b j e c t s ; the e f f e c t i s very b e a u t i f u l . But: . . . I should be cautious i n a d v i s i n g the p a i n t e r t o i n t r o -duce i t w i t h that f u l l s t r e n g t h , i n which he may sometimes observe i t . The appearance of blue and purple t r e e s , un-l e s s i n a very remote d i s t a n c e , offends: and tho the a r t i s t may have a u t h o r i t y from nature f o r h i s p r a c t i c e ; yet the s p e c t a t o r , who i s not used t o such e f f e c t s , may be d i s -pleased. 40 For though the p a i n t e r should avoid such images as are t r i t e and v u l g a r , " . . . yet he should s e i z e only those, which are easy and i n t e l l i g i b l e . " 4 1 But purpose of the work of a r t i n being i n t e l l i g i b l e 1 2 I s Please a l l men, not t o i n s t r u c t them. G i l p i n ' s a t t i -tude t o p a i n t i n g , l i k e h i s a t t i t u d e t o l i t e r a t u r e , i s i n f l u -enced by empiricism. Thus he i s concerned w i t h the p l e a s i n g sensations aroused by the p a i n t i n g . He b e l i e v e s t h a t even h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g , which has the power t o e x a l t the mind, i s p r i m a r i l y a p l e a s i n g genre because the e x a l t a t i o n of the mind 4°Forest Scenery, I , 247. 4 1 I b i d . 4 2 I b i d . , p. 275. 52 i s a p l e a s i n g s e n s a t i o n . 4 3 But p a i n t i n g can be "improving" because a love of a r t has a "tendency t o m e l i o r a t e the h e a r t . " 4 4 G i l p i n here seems t o accept a Shaftesburian equation of the Good, the True, and the B e a u t i f u l . He quotes Gregory's Comparative View: "An i n t i m a t e acquaintance w i t h the works of a r t and genius i n t h e i r most b e a u t i f u l and amiable forms, (says an agree-able w r i t e r , ) harmonizes and sweetens the temper, opens and extends the im a g i n a t i o n , and disposes t o the most p l e a s i n g view of mankind and Providence. . . ."45 Obviously G i l p i n i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t s of a r t on the f e e l i n g s . His a t t i t u d e i s obviously r e l a t e d t o what Bate c a l l s "the great wave of conscious s e n t i m e n t a l i t y t h a t moved through the eighteenth c e n t u r y . " 4 0 F i n a l l y , an aspect of G i l p i n ' s s u b j e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c of p a i n t i n g t h a t must be noted i s h i s b e l i e f i n the value of emotional t r a n s p o r t . I do not want t o over-emphasize t h i s b e l i e f . G enerally G i l p i n ' s comments suggest that the p a i n t i n g appeals t o the e s s e n t i a l l y " r a t i o n a l " part of man's make-up. He suggests that a p a i n t i n g be judged "by i t s approach t o nature, or i t s conformity t o the r u l e s of a r t . " 4 7 He a s s e r t s that "picturesque pleasure a r i s e s from two s o u r c e s — f r o m the beauty, and combination of the obj e c t s represented; and from ^ N o r t h e r n Tour, I I , 12n. 4 4Western Tour, p. 320. 4 5 I b i d . 4°Criticism: the Major Texts, p. 269. 4 7 E a s t e r n Tour, pp. 67-68. 53 i d the exactness of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " ^ And though he f r e q u e n t l y says t h a t the t r u e value of a p i c t u r e l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o rouse the imagination, the perceptive imagination i s u s u a l l y conceived of as a s o r t of speeded up process of r a t i o c i n a t i o n : 7 But o c c a s i o n a l l y he g i v e s high p r a i s e t o the p a i n t i n g which causes emotional t r a n s p o r t . Sometimes, he says, an object . . . s t r i k e s us beyond the power of thought—when the vox  faucibus haeret; every mental operation i s suspended. In t h i s pause of i n t e l l e c t ; t h i s d e l i q u i m of the s o u l , an e n t h u s i a s t i c sensation of pleasure overspreads i t , previous t o any examination by the r u l e s of a r t . . . . Here and there a c a p i t a l p i c t u r e w i l l r a i s e these emotions. . . . n I n general however," he l a t e r says, "the works of a r t a f f e c t 51 us c o o l l y ; and a l l o w the eye t o c r i t i c i z e at l e i s u r e . " y And he seems t o t h i n k t h a t emotional t r a n s p o r t i s a r e a c t i o n more appropriate t o the works of God (nature) than t o the works of man ( a r t ) . This d i s c u s s i o n of t r a n s p o r t brings us t o the one aspect of G i l p i n ' s " p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m " that remains t o be considered: the nature and r o l e of the a r t i s t and the c r e a t i v e process. I s G i l p i n ' s a r t i s t a v i c t i m of the f u r o r  poeticus or i s he a r a t i o n a l , workmanlike "maker"? In s p i t e of h i s o c c a s i o n a l statements to the c o n t r a r y , G i l p i n b e l i e v e s ^ F o r e s t Scenery, I , 275. ^ S e e Northern Tour, I I , 17. 50 ' "On Picturesque T r a v e l , " F i v e Essays, pp. 49-50. 5 1 I b i d . , p. 50. 54 almost as s t r o n g l y as Reynolds th a t the c r e a t i v e act i s de-l i b e r a t e and conscious, operating according t o a r a t i o n a l 52 and d i s c o v e r a b l e p a t t e r n . Knowledge i s the a r t i s t ' s f i r s t r e q u i s i t e . In order t o create a r t i f i c i a l scenes, whether of h i s t o r y , s t i l l - l i f e , or landscape, the p a i n t e r must have "the c o r r e c t knowledge of 53 o b j e c t s " and a thorough knowledge of the r u l e s of a r t . The c o r r e c t knowledge of objects must be h i s f i r s t concern. Be-f o r e the a r t i s t can hope t o produce a good composition, he 5L must be " w e l l versed i n copying the parts of nature." Great a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d ; f o r i n s t a n c e , ". . . the science of anatomy, even as i t regards p a i n t i n g , i s wi t h d i f f i c u l t y a t -t a i n e d ; and few who have s t u d i e d i t a l l t h e i r l i v e s , have 55 a t t a i n e d p e r f e c t i o n . " And knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l t o gre a t -ness; the most p e r f e c t p a i n t i n g s are g e n e r a l l y done ". . . b y l i t t l e l abour, and great knowledge. I t i s knowledge only which i n s p i r e s that f r e e , and f e a r l e s s , and determined p e n c i l , so expressive i n a s k i l l f u l hand." Knowledge of the r u l e s i s e q u a l l y important. G i l p i n so s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s i n them th a t he w r i t e s an extremely long 52 See Wark, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " The Discourses of Reynolds, p. x x i . 53 "On Picturesque T r a v e l , " F i v e Essays, p. 52. ^ 4 " 0 n Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Five Essays, p. 93. 55 ^ E s s a y I I I , "On the Art of Sketching Landscape," F i v e Essays, pp. 89-90. 5°Northern Tour, I I , 13-14. 55 and i n c r e d i b l y d u l l poem i n which he s e t s f o r t h a l l the r u l e s of a r t e s s e n t i a l f o r the landscape p a i n t e r t o observe. I expect t h a t the p a i n t e r ' s g r a t i t u d e was l e s s than overwhelming. These r u l e s , i n v o l v i n g such standard n e o - c l a s s i c precepts as s i m p l i c i t y , u n i t y of s u b j e c t , balance of p a r t s , and harmony, I w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r because they are a l s o G i l p i n ' s c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g a p a i n t i n g . But that knowledge of them i s as important, i n G i l p i n ' s eyes, f o r the p a i n t e r as f o r the con-noisseur proves t h a t G i l p i n does not b e l i e v e i n the " i n s p i r e d 57 i d i o t " as p a i n t e r . The a r t i s t must have a thorough know-ledge of the p r i n c i p l e s of h i s c r a f t . One of the ways t o knowledge t h a t G i l p i n recommends i s study of the great masters. "In every part of p a i n t i n g , except execution, an a r t i s t may be a s s i s t e d by the labours of 58 those, who have gone before him." The antique or c l a s s i c a l models are e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . They teach s i m p l i c i t y , com-p o s i t i o n , and e l e v a t i o n . G i l p i n c r i t i c i z e s Rembrandt f o r having scorned the study of antique models; th a t scorn i s the 5 9 reason f o r h i s tendency t o awkwardness and meanness. G i l p i n a l s o recommends the study of Raphael and Michaelangelo: a knowledge of t h e i r work i s the foundation of a "most accurate 57 y The phrase i s Kenneth C l a r k ' s . See Landscape i n t o  Art (London: John Murray, 1949)• 58 Observations on the R i v e r Wye, and Several P a r t s of  South Wales, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Wye Tour] (London, 1782), p. 2l~. 59 J Essay on P r i n t s , pp. 59-60. 56 60 t a s t e " . But he does not r e s t r i c t the student t o these great masters: Thou who wouldst b o l d l y s e i z e Superior e x c e l l e n c e , observe, w i t h care, The s t y l e of every a r t i s t ; 6 l However, G i l p i n warns against s l a v i s h i m i t a t i o n : " . . . yet d i s d a i n / To mimic even the b e s t . " The t r u e a r t i s t w i l l not be a mere c o p y i s t ; he w i l l l e a r n from others only i n order t o improve h i s own c r e a t i v e powers. And he w i l l not study the masters t o the e x c l u s i o n of nature. G i l p i n a l s o i n s i s t s t hat the one t h i n g the a r t i s t can-not l e a r n from m o d e l s — a b i l i t y i n e x e c u t i o n — i s extremely important. By t h i s he does not mean only that j u s t as the w r i t e r must be able t o formulate a c o r r e c t sentence so must the p a i n t e r be able t o capture a l i k e n e s s . G i l p i n wants the p a i n t e r t o have ease of execution. "A c e r t a i n heaviness always f o l l o w s , when the a r t i s t i s not sure of h i s s t r o k e , and cannot execute h i s idea w i t h p r e c i s i o n . The reverse i s the case, when he i s c e r t a i n of i t , and g i v e s i t boldly."°3 This ease can only be acquired by long and c a r e f u l p r a c t i c e . But knowledge and s k i l l are only p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r the °^Ibid., p. 48. o l " 0 n Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Five Essays, p. 117. 6 2 I b i d . fit. Essay on P r i n t s , p. 21. 57 r e a l act of c r e a t i o n — " t h e j u d i c i o u s s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of the p a r t s of nature," the c r e a t i o n of a p e r f e c t whole, the j u s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of general nature. This c r e a t i v e a c t , though presented as a f u n c t i o n of the i m a g i n a t i o n , i s c l e a r l y a r a t i o n a l process w i t h c l e a r l y comprehensible p a t t e r n s . I t i s based on knowledge and oper-ates as s e l e c t i o n and arrangement. G i l p i n s t a t e s t h a t there are two ways i n which the c r e a t i v e process can work. The a r t i s t can copy d i r e c t l y from nature, improving as he goes, c o r r e c t i n g f a u l t s i n i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l s , using h i s knowledge and s k i l l t o create a w e l l composed whole, wh i l e s t i l l r e t a i n -ing the character of the subject. However: There i s s t i l l another amusement a r i s i n g from the cor-r e c t knowledge of o b j e c t s ; and t h a t i s the power of c r e a t -i n g , and representing scenes of fancy; which i s s t i l l more a work of c r e a t i o n than copying from nature. The imagina-t i o n becomes a camera obscura, only w i t h t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , that the camera obscura represents objects as they r e a l l y are: while the i m a g i n a t i o n , impressed w i t h the most b e a u t i -f u l scenes, and chastened by the r u l e s of a r t , forms i t ' s p i c t u r e s , not only from the most admirable parts of nature; but i n the best t a s t e . 65 The h i s t o r y p a i n t e r i s f o r c e d t o use h i s imagination: . . . the h i s t o r y p a i n t e r . . . i n a l l s u b j e c t s , taken from remote times, i s n e c e s s a r i l y o b l i g e d t o h i s imagination, formed as i t ought t o be, upon nature. I f he g i v e such a "On Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Fiv e Essays, p. 128n. "On Picturesque T r a v e l , " F i v e Essays, p. 52. 5a character t o the hero he e x h i b i t s , as does not belye the t r u t h of the s t o r y , as agrees w i t h the times he rep r e s e n t s , and w i t h the r u l e s of h i s a r t , h i s h i s t o r y piece i s ad-mired, though widely d i f f e r e n t , i n many circumstances, from the r e a l fact.°6 And the landscape p a i n t e r i s wise i f he uses h i s : . . . he who works from i m a g i n a t i o n — t h a t i s , he who c u l l s from nature the most b e a u t i f u l p a r t s of her p r o d u c t i o n s — a distance here; and there a foreground—combines them a r t i -f i c i a l l y , and removing every t h i n g o f f e n s i v e , admits only such parts as are congruous and b e a u t i f u l ; w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , make a much b e t t e r landscape than he who takes a l l as i t comes. . . .67 From these statements i t i s obvious t h a t the c r e a t i v e imagina-t i o n , l i k e the perceptive imagination, i s r e a l l y a f a c u l t y of r e c o l l e c t i o n , improvement, and combination. The imagination ' seems t o be only the f a c u l t y of reason working at a r a p i d r a t e and by means c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the process of deduction. However, G i l p i n , l i k e almost a l l eighteenth-century c r i t i c s , i s aware that a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i n v o l v e s something t h a t i s impossible t o e x p l a i n i n purely r a t i o n a l terms. He b e l i e v e s i n the power of genius: But i f t r u e genius f i r e thee, i f thy heart Glow, p a l p i t a t e w i t h t r a n s p o r t . . . Haste, snatch thy p e n c i l , bounteous Nature y i e l d s To thee her choicest s t o r e s ; and the g l a d Muse S i t s by a s s i s t a n t , aiming but t o fan The promethean flame, conscious her r u l e s £g Can only guide, not g i v e , the warmth d i v i n e . "On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," F i v e Essays, p. 162. °7Northern Tour, I , x x v i - x x v i i . °^"0n Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Fi v e Essays, p. 6a. 59 Here G i l p i n i s obviously r e f e r r i n g t o an i r r a t i o n a l f o r c e . But h i s comments about genius are few indeed. I t i s not a f o r c e w i t h which he f e e l s at ease; one suspects t h a t he t h i n k s i t not q u i t e "respectable". Even when he i s t a l k i n g about the most elevated species of p a i n t i n g , G i l p i n i s l o a t h t o mention the need f o r genius: H i s t o r y - p a i n t i n g i s c e r t a i n l y the most elevated s p e c i e s Nothing e x a l t s the human mind so much, as t o see the great a c t i o n s of our f e l l o w creatures brought before the eye. But t h i s pleasure we seldom f i n d i n p a i n t i n g . So much i s r e -q u i r e d of the h i s t o r y p a i n t e r , so i n t i m a t e a knowledge both of nature and a r t , t h a t we r a r e l y see a h i s t o r y p i e c e , even from the best masters, t h a t i s able t o r a i s e raptures.69 An " e n t h u s i a s t i c " response may be roused i n the s p e c t a t o r , but what the p a i n t e r r e q u i r e s i s a knowledge of nature and a r t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, by the way, t h a t G i l p i n does subscribe t o the standard n e o - c l a s s i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of the genres. The d i f f e r e n t types of p a i n t i n g are "placed" i n a r i g i d h i e r a r c h i c a l order. G i l p i n places them thus ( i n descend-ing order of precedence): h i s t o r y , p o r t r a i t , landscape (and seascape), animal l i f e ( i n c l u d i n g s p o r t i n g p i c t u r e s ) , and 70 s t i l l l i f e . I do not know q u i t e where he places the "low-l i f e " p i c t u r e , the conversation p i e c e , or various other types, but he q u i t e c l e a r l y does accept the theory of the h i e r a r c h y of genres. 69 ^Northern Tour, I I , 12n. 70 See, f o r example, Eastern Tour, p. 3$. 60 But i t i s time t o t u r n from G i l p i n ' s " p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m " t o h i s p r a c t i c a l and s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m . His a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i z i n g , a f t e r a l l , i s only an attempt t o j u s t i f y h i s a p p l i e d c r i t e r i a of judgement. I t i s the e v a l u a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r p a i n t i n g s that i s h i s basic i n t e r e s t . He wishes t o know and t o teach a sound system of c r i t i c a l values and c r i t e r i a . As 1 suggested i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , G i l p i n ' s r e a l concerns are those of the connoisseur. And though h i s a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i z i n g has been the despair of h i s commentators, h i s s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m has e l i c i t e d t h e i r p r a i s e . G i l p i n was, I t h i n k , aware of h i s r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y as a connoisseur. When Mason had the bad t a s t e t o suggest t h a t G i l p i n ' s comments on p a i n t i n g " w i l l b r i n g upon you much, 71 & I f e a r some well-deserved C r i t i c i s m from Real Connoisseurs,"' G i l p i n defended h i m s e l f w i t h v i g o u r : — B u t now giv e me leave t o t e l l you, t h a t I d i f f e r very much from you i n t h i n k i n g my_ judgement cursory, w i t h regard t o  p i c t u r e s . To t e l l you the r e a l t r u t h , I have as good an opi n i o n of i t , as the judgement of any person I know: but then, (as your Scotchman premised, t h a t he l i k e d h i s grapes sour, before he a s s e r t e d , that he had eaten them i n the highest p e r f e c t i o n i n Scotland;) I must t e l l you, that I form my judgement very d i f f e r e n t l y from the judgement of the g e n e r a l i t y of people. I ho l d cheap, masters; & hands; & f i r s t manners; & second manners; & t h i s mode of c o l o u r -i n g ; & t h a t . I judge merely by my own ideas of composition, e f f e c t , harmony, ch a r a c t e r , & expression. — I a s s e r t , more-over, my own competency i n judging even from a s l i g h t view: f o r i t i s one of my r u l e s , t h a t i f a p i c t u r e does not s t r i k e the eye at once, i t i s defective.72 71 A personal l e t t e r from W i l l i a m Mason t o W i l l i a m G i l p i n , 8 June 1784; c i t e d from C a r l Paul B a r b i e r ' s W i l l i a m  G i l p i n . . . (Oxford: Clarendon Pr e s s , 1963), p. 73. 72 A personal l e t t e r from G i l p i n t o Mason, 25 June 1784; c i t e d B a r b i e r , p. 74. 61 S i m i l a r l y , when he i s d i s c u s s i n g Lord Orford's p i c t u r e s , he pr i d e s h i m s e l f that h i s eva l u a t i o n s are not based on p r e j u -d i c e s but on the p i c t u r e s ' approach t o nature and conformity 73 t o the r u l e s of art.'-' And i n many respects h i s i s a t r u e statement of h i s method of e v a l u a t i o n . But the c r i t e r i a t h a t he so o b j e c t i v e l y a p p l i e s prove, more than any other aspect of h i s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t i n g , that he i s the h e i r of the I t a l i a n Renaissance and E n g l i s h n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . The f i r s t t h i n g s t h a t G i l p i n considers when c r i t i c i z -i n g a p a i n t i n g are those which r e l a t e t o the production of a whole. "The production of a whole i s the great e f f e c t t h a t should be aimed at i n a p i c t u r e . " For i n the p a i n t i n g , as i n the poem, " . . . those t h i n g s , which produce a whole, are 75 of course the p r i n c i p a l foundation of beauty." These statements are i n the t r a d i t i o n of Raphael and Leonardo. As Prof e s s o r A r t z e x p l a i n s , a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the a r t of the High Renaissance i s tha t " d e t a i l s are submitted t o one c e n t r a l i d e a , " and "the beauty . . . l i e s not i n the d e t a i l s but i n the d o v e t a i l i n g of a l l the elements; each d e t a i l i s de-77 signed w i t h i t s e f f e c t on the whole kept c l e a r l y i n view." 7 3 E a s t e r n Tour, pp. 67-68. Essay on P r i n t s , p. 14. 7 5 I b i d . , p. 15. Fred e r i c k B. A r t z , From the Renaissance t o Romanti-cism: Trends i n S t y l e i n A r t , L i t e r a t u r e , and Music, 1300-1830. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962), p. 117. 7 7 I b i d . , p. 72. 62 G i l p i n ' s c r i t e r i a r e l a t e to t h i s t r a d i t i o n , which prized a r t i s -t i c order above a l l and which demanded from the a r t i s t that i n t e l l e c t u a l s u periority that could control the elements of experience and fuse them into a perfect t o t a l i t y . Design i s one of the f i r s t factors that G i l p i n evalu-ates when considering a painting. By t h i s term he means unity  of subject. The p r i n c i p l e i s r e a l l y one of decorum: a l l that i s unsuitable or irrelevant to the central idea must be re-moved. The a r t i s t must pay "his f i r s t attention to design, or the bringing together of such parts, as are suited to h i s subject; not mixing t r i v i a l objects with grand scenes; but 78 preserving the character of h i s subject, whatever i t may be." And as aspects of good design G i l p i n l i s t s , among others, a proper time, proper characters, and proper appendages: 7 9 With regard to proper time, the painter i s assisted by good old dramatic rules; which inform him that one point of time only should be taken—the most af f e c t i n g i n the action; and that no other part of the story should i n t e r -fere with i t . 8 0 With regard to characters, the painter must su i t them to h i s piece. . . ."T 78 "On Landscape Painting, a Poem," Five Essays, p. 93 79 ^Essay on P r i n t s , p. 2, ^°Ibid., pp. 2-3. ^ I b i d . , p. 3. 63 The l a s t t h i n g i n c l u d e d i n design i s the use of proper  appendages. By appendages are meant animals, landscape, b u i l d i n g s , and i n g e n e r a l , whatever i s introduced i n t o the piece by way of ornament. Everything of t h i s k i n d should correspond w i t h the s u b j e c t , and rank i n proper subordi-n a t i o n t o i t . 82 A p a r t i c u l a r example of a well-designed p i c t u r e i s S a l v a t o r ' s "Democritus": The laughing philosopher i s brought at leng t h t o s e r i o u s contemplation. . . . Notwithstanding the merriment he had always indulged about human a f f a i r s , the p a i n t e r supposes him at l a s t brought t o s e r i o u s contemplation. The moral i s good ? and the t a l e w e l l t o l d . The v a r i e t y of objects about him which are subject t o the decay of time; the contemplative f i g u r e of the philosopher; the dark and gloomy t i n t which p r e v a i l s over the p i c t u r e , i n short the whole solemnity of the scene, and every part of i t , con-t r i b u t e t o s t r i k e t h a t awe, which the p a i n t e r intended. 83 But the p r i n c i p l e i s , f o r G i l p i n , as a p p l i c a b l e t o landscape as t o h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g : A landscape may be r u r a l , or s u b l i m e — i n h a b i t e d , or desolate — c u l t i v a t e d , or w i l d . I t s c h a r a c t e r , of whatever k i n d , should be observed throughout. Circumstances, which s u i t one s p e c i e s , c o n t r a d i c t another. Now i n nature we r a r e l y see t h i s a t t e n t i o n . Seldom does she produce a scene p e r f e c t i n character.8 4 I t i s c l e a r from these statements t h a t what G i l p i n i s recom-mending i n p a i n t i n g i s adherence t o the p r i n c i p l e of decorum. The aim of the p a i n t e r must bd a f a i t h f u l adherence t o t r u t h , 8 2 I b i d . , p. 4. ^ S o u t h e r n Tour, pp. 122-123. 84 "On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," F i v e Essays, p. I 6 4 . 64 yet a deepening, c l a r i f y i n g and p u r i f y i n g of the e s s e n t i a l 85 nature of what i s being represented. Equal i n importance t o good design i s good composition. By composition (or d i s p o s i t i o n — G i l p i n uses the two terms interchangeably) he means the manner i n which the v a r i o u s p a r t s are arranged and combined. Composition he d i s t i n g u i s h e s from design as being a purely o b j e c t i v e v i s u a l matter, based on the e f f e c t of the p a i n t i n g on the eye r a t h e r than on the mind. The q u a l i t i e s he demands of composition are c l a r i t y ("confusion i n the f i g u r e s must be expressed without confusion i n the p i c t u r e . " ) , p l e a s i n g form ("The t r i a n g u l a r form MICHAEL ANGELO thought the most b e a u t i f u l . And indeed there 87 i s a l i g h t n e s s i n i t , which no other form can r e c e i v e . " ) , and u n i t y (the parts must combine so as t o "appear as one 8$ o b j e c t " ) . The l a s t i s the most important p r i n c i p l e , and the one G i l p i n a p p l i e s most o f t e n i n h i s s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m . He says of West's "The R e s u r r e c t i o n of Lazarus" f o r i n s t a n c e : "The composition d i d not please me. The whole i s d i v i d e d f o r -89 mally i n t o three p a r t s , w i t h too l i t t l e connection among them." 85 'See Walter Jackson Bate, From C l a s s i c t o Romantic: Premises of Taste i n Eighteenth Century England "(New York: Harper, 19o"l) , pp. 14-18. Essay on P r i n t s , p. 9. a ? I b i d . S 8 I b i d . , p. 6. 89 ^Western Tour, p. 49. 65 And the d e s i r e f o r compositional u n i t y i s the b a s i s of h i s famous comment tha t two c a t t l e w i l l always be unpleasing, but 90 three w i l l form a group. He says i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n of h i s demand f o r compositional u n i t y t h a t "the eye on a complex view must be able t o comprehend the p i c t u r e as one o b j e c t , 91 or i t cannot be s a t i s f i e d . " But the statement i s c l e a r l y f a l s e . The eye can be pleased w i t h mere v i b r a n t c o l o u r ; i t i s the i n t e l l e c t t h a t demands comprehensible order and su b o r d i n a t i o n . That G i l p i n i s not r e a l l y a s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i s a l s o proven by h i s devotion t o harmony. He says: "An attachment t o c o l o u r , as such, seems t o me, an i n d i c a t i o n of f a l s e t a s t e . 92 Hence a r i s e the numerous a b s u r d i t i e s of gaudy d e c o r a t i o n . " 7 True t a s t e "considers the beauty of a l l c o l o u r i n g , as r e s u l t -ing not from the colours themselves, but almost e n t i r e l y from 93 t h e i r harmony w i t h other colours i n t h e i r neighbourhood." ^ Harmony he discusses as e s s e n t i a l l y a u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e : The e f f e c t of every p i c t u r e , i n a great measure, depends on one p r i n c i p a l and master t i n t ; which, l i k e the key-tone i n music, p r e v a i l s over the whole piece. Of t h i s r u l i n g t i n t , whatever i t i s , every object i n the p i c t u r e should i n a degree p a r t i c i p a t e . This theory i s founded on p r i n c i p l e s of t r u t h ; and produces a f i n e e f f e c t from harmony, i n which i t u n i t e s every object.94 90 Northern Tour, I I , x i i . 91 ^ Essay on P r i n t s , p. 6. 9 2 F o r e s t Scenery, I , 1 0 0 . 9 3 I b i d . , pp. 8 9 - 9 0 . 9L. 7 M"Essay on P r i n t s , pp. 1 1 - 1 2 . 66 Leonardo would have endorsed such a statement; D e l a c r o i x would have damned i t as d e s t r u c t i v e of the beauty of pure colours and dramatic c o n t r a s t . G i l p i n a l s o attaches great importance t o the proper handling of l i g h t and shade. Again the reason i s u n i t y : "Nothing however tends so much t o produce a whole as a proper 95 d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i g h t , and shade. . . ." He r e q u i r e s that l i g h t and shade be w e l l balanced, and t h a t l i g h t f a l l i n l a r g e masses. The hoped-for r e s u l t i s a f e e l i n g of repose and a u n i f i c a t i o n of d i v e r s e elements. But G i l p i n i s not always so s t r i c t l y c l a s s i c a l i n h i s handling of these c r i t e r i a ; he f r e q u e n t l y suggests t h a t l i g h t be used i n a dramatic, Baroque manner: But the great d e f i c i e n c y of t h i s picture[Rubens's "Daniel i n the L i o n s ' Den"] i s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i g h t . No design could p o s s i b l y be adapted t o r e c e i v e a b e t t e r e f f e c t of i t . As the l i g h t enters through a con-f i n e d channel at the top, i t n a t u r a l l y forms a mass i n one part of the cave, which might g r a d u a l l y fade away. This i s the very idea of e f f e c t . The shape of the mass w i l l be formed by the objects t h a t r e c e i v e i t ; and i f bad, they must be a s s i s t e d by the a r t i s t ' s judgement. Of a l l t h i s Rubens was aware; but he has not taken the f u l l advantage which the circumstances of h i s design allowed: a grand l i g h t f a l l s b e a u t i f u l l y upon h i s p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e , but i t does not graduate s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t o the d i s t a n t p a r ts of the cave. The l i o n s partake of i t too much. Whereas, had i t been more s p a r i n g l y thrown upon them; and only i n some prominent p a r t s , the e f f e c t would have been b e t t e r ; and the grandeur, and h o r r o r of the scene, more s t r i k i n g . T e r r i b l e heads standing out of the canvas, t h e i r bodies i n o b s c u r i t y , would have been noble imagery; and,-l e f t the imagination room to fancy unpictured h o r r o r s . Forest Scenery, I , 261. 'Scottish Tour, I I , 62-63. 67 But n o t i c e t h a t even here he i s concerned w i t h balance and s i m p l i c i t y of l i g h t , however dramatic the l i g h t may be. S i m p l i c i t y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a l l the above p r i n -c i p l e s , but G i l p i n f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e s i t as a c r i t e r i o n i n i t s own r i g h t : For even V a r i e t y i t s e l f may p a l l , I f t o the eye, when pausing w i t h d e l i g h t On one f a i r o b j e c t , i t present a mass Of many, which d i s t u r b that eye's repose. A l l h a i l S i m p l i c i t y J To thy chaste s h r i n e , Beyond a l l other, l e t the a r t i s t bow.97 He g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e s s i m p l i c i t y w i t h the antique and Renais-sance s t y l e s . " A f t e r a l l , however, they, whose t a s t e i s formed on the s i m p l i c i t y of the antique, t h i n k Guido's a i r , i n 98 g e n e r a l somewhat t h e a t r i c a l , " And G i l p i n p r a i s e s the "noble s i m p l i c i t y of the Roman s c h o o l . " " C l a s s i c a l s i m p l i c i t y he sees as one of the great v i r t u e s of Poussin. "The great beauty of t h i s p i c t u r e f/Bcipio's Continence"] c o n s i s t s i n the chasteness, and c l a s s i c a l p u r i t y of i t s s t y l e . We admire the elegance, and s i m p l i c i t y of the whole." 1 0° Of G i l p i n ' s c r i t e r i a t hat are concerned w i t h the pa r t s r a t h e r than w i t h the whole, drawing i s e s p e c i a l l y important. By t h i s term he means "the exactness of o u t l i n e . " 1 0 1 And he 97 ""On Landscape P a i n t i n g , a Poem," Fiv e Essays t p. 105. 9 8 I b i d . , p. 140n. 99 Essay on P r i n t s , p. 47. 1 0 0 E s s t e r n Tour, pp. 63-64. 1 0 1 E s s a y on P r i n t s , p. 15. 68 i s always ready t o p r a i s e the j u s t d e l i n e a t i o n of the human 102 f i g u r e or of the forms of nature. This concern i s perhaps a r e f l e c t i o n of the n e o - c l a s s i c concern w i t h form r a t h e r than expression. Without good drawing the objects of representa-t i o n are i m p e r f e c t l y i m i t a t e d and the p a i n t i n g ceases t o be a j u s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of nature. For G i l p i n , the p a i n t i n g i s f a u l t y i f the forms, however expressive and suggestive, do 103 not o b j e c t i v e l y m i r r o r the forms of nature. ' And he p r a i s e s the work of the Roman school f o r i t s "chaste, c o r r e c t o u t l i n e ' . ' 1 0 4 G i l p i n does not ignore expression, however: he i n one place c a l l s i t the " l i f e and s o u l of p a i n t i n g . " 1 0 ' ' But by expressiveness he does not mean, as Sypher says the romantics do, the q u a l i t y whereby the p a i n t i n g becomes a "' h i e r o g l y p h ' f o r a mood, f e e l i n g , or 'dream».»10° He uses the word "expres-s i o n " i n i t s Augustan sense: I t i m p l i e s a j u s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of passi o n , and charac t e r : of passion, by e x h i b i t i n g every emotion of the mind, as outwardly discovered by any p e c u l i a r i t y of gesture; or the extension, and c o n t r a c t i o n of the f e a t u r e s : of cha r a c t e r , by r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n t manners of men, as a r i s i n g from t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r tempers, or professions.107 This echoes Jonathan Richardson's statement: 102 See f o r example Eastern Tour, p. 62. 103 J E s s a y on P r i n t s , p. 15. 1 0 4 I b i d . , p. 47. 1 0 5 I b i d . , p. 16. Wylie Sypher, Rococo t o Cubism i n Art and L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Random House, I960J, p.~8TI 1 0 7 E s s a y on P r i n t s , p. 16. 69 . . . a good p o r t r a i t [ i s one] from whence we conceive a b e t t e r o p i n i o n of the beauty, good sense, breeding and other good q u a l i t i e s of a person than from seeing them-s e l v e s , and yet without being able t o say i n what p a r t i c -u l a r i t i s u n l i k e ; f o r nature must be ever i n view.108 G i l p i n ' s "expression," though l e s s concerned than Richardson's w i t h i d e a l beauty, i s s t i l l c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the theory of i d e a l i m i t a t i o n . G i l p i n wants the a r t i s t t o heighten nature, to c l a r i f y the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of the o b j e c t , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g the l i k e n e s s . He p r a i s e s Holbein's p o r t r a i t of More because "the judge i s marked w i t h the character of a dry, 109 f a c e t i o u s s e n s i b l e o l d man." And he says, i n d i s c u s s i n g Hogarth: Of h i s expression, i n which the f o r c e of h i s genius l a y , we cannot speak i n terms too high. In every mode of i t , he was t r u l y e x c e l l e n t . The passions he thoroughly understood; and a l l the e f f e c t s which they produce i n every part of the human frame: he had the happy a r t a l s o of con-veying h i s i d e a s , w i t h the same p r e c i s i o n , w i t h which he conceived them. . . . — B u t the species of expression, i n which t h i s master perhaps most e x c e l l s , i s that happy a r t of catching those p e c u l i a r i t i e s of a i r , and gesture, which the r i d i c u l o u s part of every p r o f e s s i o n c o n t r a c t ; and which, f o r that reason, become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the whole. His c o u n s e l l o r s , h i s undertakers, h i s lawyers, h i s u s u r e r s , are conspicuous at s i g h t . H O G i l p i n i s a l s o concerned t h a t the parts of a p a i n t i n g have "grace". This c r i t e r i o n a p p l i e s only t o f i g u r e s , and by grace i s meant such an arrangement of the p a r t s of the f i g u r e 108 C i t e d Waterhouse, P a i n t i n g i n B r i t a i n , p. 49. 1 0 9Wye Tour, p. 3. 1 1 0 E s s a y on P r i n t s , pp. 123-124. 70 as forms i t i n t o an agreeable a t t i t u d e . The sources of grace are c o n t r a s t and ease. G i l p i n g i v e s as an example Raphael's S t . Paul i n "The S a c r i f i c e of L y s t r a " . 1 1 1 F i n a l l y , G i l p i n considers execution. Here h i s r e q u i r e -ments are s p i r i t and freedom. His opinions about execution I 112 have already discussed. They can be taken, p a r t i a l l y at l e a s t , as proof of h i s acceptance of Reynolds!^ theory t h a t good a r t i s t i c work i s the r e s u l t of sound knowledge and thorough t r a i n i n g . But although these p r i n c i p l e s that G i l p i n uses t o judge a p a i n t i n g a r e , as we have seen, pronouncedly c l a s s i c a l i n o r i e n t a t i o n , they are f r e q u e n t l y used t o p r a i s e p a i n t i n g s not g e n e r a l l y considered c l a s s i c a l . This paradox i s perhaps the most d i s t i n c t i v e t h i n g about G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of p a i n t -i n g . I t proves not only that h i s t a s t e i s d i f f e r e n t from what h i s c r i t e r i a would suggest, but that he does t r y t o judge o b j e c t i v e l y and ignore schools and names. Many of h i s c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s are those of the High Renaissance and are j u s t i f i e d by appeals t o the a u t h o r i t y of the Roman school. I t i s t h e r e f o r e remarkable t h a t G i l p i n p r a i s e s so few p a i n t i n g s of the grand c l a s s i c a l school of Raphael. He has, moreover, some d e f i n i t e c r i t i c i s m s of the school i n g e n e r a l : n. . . the masters of the Roman school were more studious of those e s s e n t i a l s of p a i n t i n g w i t h regard t o m i b i d . , p. 17. 1 1 2 S e e page 56. 71 the p a r t s ; and the Flemish masters, of those, which regard the whole. The former drew b e t t e r f i g u r e s ; the l a t t e r made b e t t e r 113 p i c t u r e s . " J And Raphael h i m s e l f , t o whom the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s accorded almost u n i v e r s a l a d u l a t i o n 1 1 4 was not exempt from G i l p i n ' s unfavourable c r i t i c i s m . He says of the "Holy Family": I f i t be examined by the r u l e s of p a i n t i n g , i t i s c e r t a i n l y d e f i c i e n t . The manner i s hard, without freedom; and the co l o u r i n g bleak, without sweetness. Neither i s there any harmony i n the whole. . . . Nor i s the d e f i c i e n c y i n c o l o u r i n g , compensated by any harmony i n the l i g h t and shade. H p G i l p i n a l s o , of course, f r e q u e n t l y p r a i s e s the Roman school and Raphael. But he c e r t a i n l y does not ho l d them i n as high an esteem as Reynolds does. The Venetian s c h o o l , w i t h i t s tendency t o the r i c h and s e n s a t i o n a l , G i l p i n o c c a s i o n a l l y p r a i s e s . His approval i s s t a t e d i n terms of c l a s s i c a l c r i t e r i a . He p r a i s e s T i t i a n ' s "The Cornaro Family" f o r i t s chaste s i m p l i c i t y , c a l l i n g i t the f i r s t f a m i l y p i c t u r e i n England. 1 1^* And he commends the Veronese a l t a r - p i e c e at B u r l e i g h f o r i t s c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t y , 117 but condemns i t s f a u l t y composition. Though the Venetian 113 Essay on P r i n t s , pp. 47-48. 1 1 4 S e e Jean H. Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s : the T r a d i t i o n . of L i t e r a r y P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h Poetry from Dryden t o  Gray (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), p. 163. 1 1Northern Tour, I I , 235-236. l l 6 I b i d . , I , 32. 1 1 7 S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 8. 72 school i s not h i s f a v o u r i t e , G i l p i n never says that i t i s i n f e r i o r t o the Roman. This f a i l u r e t o s t a t e a n e o - c l a s s i c popular o p i n i o n i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t . But f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t , and s u r p r i s i n g , than h i s p r a i s e of c e r t a i n Venetian works i s G i l p i n ' s great enthusiasm f o r the Baroque p a i n t i n g s of the seventeenth-century masters. This aspect of h i s t a s t e i s f u r t h e r supporting evidence f o r Wylie Sypher's c l a i m t h a t the picturesque phase through which a l l the a r t s of England passed was a "Baroque a f t e r p i e c e " . G i l p i n , the founder of the picturesque s c h o o l , i s a devotee of the r e a l Baroque. The p a i n t e r s that he e s p e c i a l l y admires are Guido Reni, the C a r r a c c i , S a l v a t o r Rosa, and Rubens. These are a l l a r t i s t s who reacted against the calm, harmony, and pr o p o r t i o n of the High Renaissance. Their d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t s are r e s t l e s s n e s s , complexity, t h e a t r i c a l i t y , and 119 emotionalism. And though G i l p i n t r i e s t o appreciate them on the b a s i s of t h e i r c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t i e s , h i s obvious p r e f e r -ence of them t o Raphael proves that he i s not so devoted t o the Roman v i r t u e s as he would have us b e l i e v e . I have already quoted h i s comments on Annibal C a r r a c c i ' s "Dead C h r i s t " and Ruben^;S "Daniel i n the L i o n s ' Den". His love of the emotional and t h e a t r i c a l i s extremely evident i n these d i s c u s s i o n s . I t 118 "Baroque A f t e r p i e c e : the Pic t u r e s q u e , " Gazette des  Beaux-Arts, XXVII (1945), 39-58. 119 ' I b i d . , 39-41; see a l s o James Lees-Milne, Baroque i n I t a l y (London: B a t s f o r d , 1959); H. Gerson and E.H. Ter Kule, Art and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Belgium 1600-1800 (Harmonds-worth: Penguin Books, I960). 73 i s a l s o evident i n h i s comments on Rubens's "Mary Magdalen Washing the Feet of C h r i s t " : This p i c t u r e i s one of the noblest monuments t o the genius of Rubens, that i s t o be seen i n England. . . .—The point of time seems t o be taken, j u s t a f t e r C h r i s t had s a i d , Thy  s i n s be f o r g i v e n thee. An a i r of disgust runs through the whole t a b l e . The expression i n Simon's face i s admirable. With whatever view he i n v i t e d h i s d i v i n e guest, i t i s very evident he was disappointed. . . . Our Saviour's face has great sweetness, grace, and d i g n i t y . . . . The Magdalen i s the worst f i g u r e i n the p i c t u r e . . . . but her passion i s w e l l expressed. A p e n i t e n t i a l sorrow, beyond the sense of anything but i t s own unworthyness, has taken possession of her. Her eyes are f i n e l y coloured w i t h high swoln g r i e f . Among deceptions, we seldom see a b e t t e r , than the watery hue of th a t t e a r which i s nearest the eye.120 And G i l p i n p r a i s e s S a l v a t o r ' s " B e l l i s a r i u s " , an extremely t h e a t r i c a l p a i n t i n g : I t i s a very noble p i c t u r e . . . . The unfortunate c h i e f stands r e s t i n g against a w a l l . . . . A b l i n d f i g u r e , s q u a l i d , tho dressed i n r i c h a r m o u r — d i s c o v e r i n g great d i g n i t y of chara c t e r ; both i n h i s own appearance, and from the d i s t a n t respect shown him by the s p e c t a t o r s — leads the memory e a s i l y t o r e c o l l e c t B e l l i s a r i u s . . . . On one occasion he c r i t i c i z e s Guido f o r not being dramatic 122 enough. Considering the melodramatic character of Guido's work, t h i s seems ha r d l y a f a i r comment. But i t proves G i l p i n ' s i n t e r e s t i n Baroque q u a l i t i e s . His f r e q u e n t l y p e j o r a t i v e use of the word "formal", and h i s use of the term " s p i r i t " f o r 120. Eastern Tour, pp. 46-47. 121 I b i d pp. 34-35. • > 122 I b i d p. 55. 74 high p r a i s e , a l s o i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n non-Roman q u a l i t i e s . G i l p i n ' s preference f o r the Baroque i n s p i t e of h i s c l a s s i c a l c r i t e r i a i s an example of h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n recon-c i l i n g h i s t a s t e and h i s t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of the c l a s s -i c a l t r a d i t i o n . And i t puts him amongst those who Sypher sees as c a r r y i n g the t o r c h from the Baroque which l i t the f i r e s of Romanticism. There are obvious a f f i n i t i e s between the Baroque and the Romantic, e s p e c i a l l y the tendencies t o p r i z e v a r i e t y and emotionalism. C e r t a i n l y Romanticism has more a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the Baroque than w i t h the N e o - c l a s s i c a l . I cannot accept Sypher's statement t h a t : The Augustan " p r o p r i e t y " and " j u s t n e s s " that set i n during the XVII Century and evidenced themselves d i v e r s e l y i n the formal garden, the B u r l i n g t o n r e v i v a l of P a l l a d i a n a r c h i -t e c t u r e , the c h i l l y scheme of " r u l e s " , the balanced couplet of Pope's m e t r i c a l essays, the monumental order of Dr. Johnson's standards, and S i r Joshua Reynolds' professed devotion t o r e g u l a r i t y , appear t o be a wide but r a t h e r hasty academic excursion from a Baroque t r a d i t i o n main-t a i n e d from the XVII Century t o the XVIII i n sundry forms . . . ; t h i s t r a d i t i o n , w i t h "romantic" d e v i a t i o n s , was t r a n s m i t t e d t o the XIX Century i n the stormy egoism of Byron, the heavy r h e t o r i c of Keats, the s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d "picturesque" of Ruskin, the e x p l o s i v e e c c e n t r i c i t i e s of C a r l y l e , and the grotesquerie of Browning.123 But c l e a r l y G i l p i n ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the Baroque does show an a p p r e c i a t i o n (perhaps unconscious) of values which were not p r i z e d i n the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d of B r i t i s h p a i n t i n g , and which were t o be c a p i t a l i z e d on by the romantics. Pages 45-46. 75 Another aspect of G i l p i n ' s "pre-romanticism" i s h i s t a s t e f o r pure landscape p a i n t i n g . L i k e h i s t a s t e f o r l a n d -scape poetry, t h i s i s a d e v i a t i o n from the humanistic o r i e n t a -t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . Bate a s s e r t s : The absence or the d e p r e c i a t i o n of landscape i n Greek and Roman a r t i s no h i s t o r i c a l a c c i d e n t : whether the c l a s s i c a l a r t i s t sought t o po r t r a y p h y s i c a l or moral beauty, h i s a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d t o i t s existence and i t s i d e a l p o t e n t i a l i t y i n the human being. S i m i l a r l y , t o M i c h e l -angelo and Raphael, and t o the enormous group of a r t i s t s which p i v o t s about them, the landscape was merely of complementary i n t e r e s t . 1 2 4 The development of landscape i n t o an independent and acceptable genre of p a i n t i n g i s an extremely complex matter, impossible to d i s c u s s here. I t i s r e l a t e d t o the r i s e of empiricism and the consequent i n t e r e s t i n the m a t e r i a l , s e n s a t i o n a l aspects of r e a l i t y , the whole world of sense experience. I t i s r e l a t e d to Shaftesbury's deism, which saw the world as uncorrupted by the f a l l of man. But whatever the causes of i t s development were, landscape p a i n t i n g developed, as Kenneth Clark says, " i n s p i t e of c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s and the unanimous o p p o s i t i o n - 125 of the t h e o r i s t s . . . . " ' And i t became the d i s t i n c t i v e genre of the E n g l i s h romantic s c h o o l . G i l p i n , l i k e many of h i s contemporaries, - j.s d e l i g h t e d by landscape p a i n t i n g . And he judges i t by c l a s s i c a l c r i t e r i a . Therefore, he p a r t i c u l a r l y a ppreciates the work of Claude, ^"Classic t o Romantic, p. 2. 125 Landscape i n t o A r t , p. x v i i i . 76 Poussin, and S a l v a t o r Rosa; these p a i n t e r s combined the l a n d -scape genre w i t h the f o r m a l , c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t i e s of balance, harmony and repose. He c o n t r a s t s them favourably w i t h the Dutch l a n d s c a p i s t s because "the beauty of t h e i r extensive scenes depended more on composition, and general e f f e c t than -| nC on the exact resemblance of p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s . " But even they are not exempt from h i s c r i t i c i s m by p r i n c i p l e s . A p a i n t i n g by Claude, f o r i n s t a n c e , "describes a p l e a s i n g coun-t r y : but, f o r want of good composition, a l l i t s beauteous t i n t s , and hues of nature, can scarce b r i n g the eye t o i t w i t h 127 p l e a s u r e . " However, h i s demands f o r c l a s s i c a l compositional q u a l i t i e s i n landscape p a i n t i n g s do not cancel the f a c t t h a t t h i s genre, about which G i l p i n i s so concerned, i s outside of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . Then t o o , as Hussey has shown, G i l p i n ' s preferences i n subject matter f o r landscape p a i n t i n g are s i g n i f i c a n t l y pre-romantic. G i l p i n s t a t e s t h a t roughness and ruggedness are 128 the q u a l i t i e s t h a t make obj e c t s p l e a s i n g i n p a i n t i n g . As examples of picturesque objects he l i s t s "the bark of a t r e e 129 . . . the rude summit and craggy s i d e s of a mountain." He admires p a i n t i n g s which depict such o b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y the work of S a l v a t o r . The d e l i g h t i n the q u a l i t i e s of roughness 1 2 6 F o r e s t Scenery, I , 225. 1 2 7 E a s t e r n Tour, p. 65. 12$ "On Picturesque Beauty," F i v e Essays, p. 6. X 2 9 I b i d . , p. 7. 77 and ruggedness i s a d e l i g h t i n i r r e g u l a r i t y , and i s t h e r e f o r e n o n - c l a s s i c a l . But the r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these q u a l i t i e s i s t h a t they are purely sensuous. An i n t e r e s t i n them i n d i -cates not a d e l i g h t i n b e a u t i f u l form, but i n q u a l i t i e s purely v i s u a l and e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r p a i n t i n g as a v i s u a l a r t . G i l p i n s t a t e s i n an essay: We i n q u i r e not i n t o the general sources of beauty, e i t h e r i n nature, or i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . This would l e a d us i n t o a n i c e , and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c u s s i o n , i n which i t i s not our purpose to engage. The question simply i s , What i s t h a t  q u a l i t y i n o b j e c t s , which p a r t i c u l a r l y marks them as  picturesque?l30 And h i s answer i s that roughness i s more " p a i n t e r l y " than any other q u a l i t y . I t i s the most v i s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . C h r i s t o -pher Hussey e x p l a i n s the h i s t o r i c a l importance of t h i s a t t i t u d e : When p a i n t e r s , then, ceased t o look at nature, i n Reynolds's phrase "with the eyes of a poet," they looked ,at her, as he s a i d of Gainsborough, w i t h the eyes of a p a i n t e r . They looked f o r q u a l i t i e s i n objects that were asking t o be painted; t h a t were, i n f a c t , picturesque. The c h i e f q u a l i t i e s they s e l e c t e d were the crumbling and decayed. These they found i n the objects now known as picturesque: sandy l a n e s , dock l e a v e s , gnarled t r e e s , h o v e l s , donkeys, and r u i n s . T h e i r brushes were a t t r a c t e d t o the rendering of these q u a l i t i e s , because they were w e l l s u i t e d t o p a i n t . No moral f e e l i n g entered i n t o the business. . . . But there was a great d e a l of sensuous f e e l i n g f o r texture.131 This i n t e r e s t i n the v i s u a l he says i s : 1 3°Ibid., p. 4. 131 The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London: Putnam's, 1927), pp. 245-24^ 78 . . . the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage between i n t e l l e c t u a l , c l a s s i c a r t t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speaking, s t i m u l a t e s the mind, and the imaginative a r t of the nineteenth century t h a t i n t e r e s t e d i t s e l f r a t h e r w i t h emotion or sentiment. C l a s s i c a r t makes you t h i n k , imaginative a r t makes you f e e l . But picturesque-, a r t merely makes you see. I t records without contemplating. The landscape a r t th a t G i l p i n admires and the q u a l i t y of rough-ness t h a t he appreciates are " t r a n s i t i o n a l " i n t h i s way. But o c c a s i o n a l l y G i l p i n r e v e a l s a more romantic a t t i -tude t o landscape p a i n t i n g , seeing i t as s t i m u l a t i n g emotion and sentiment. "There i s s t i l l a higher character i n l a n d -scape, than what a r i e s e from the u n i f o r m i t y of o b j e c t s — a n d that i s the power of f u r n i s h i n g images analogous t o the va r i o u s 13§ f e e l i n g s , and sensations of the mind." ' 9 This statement takes him beyond picturesque a t t i t u d e s t o the s u b j e c t i v i s m and emotional i n t e n s i t y of the romantic r e a c t i o n t o nature. But such statements are r a r e . G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of landscape p a i n t i n g , as of other genres, i s e s s e n t i a l l y " t r a n s i -t i o n a l " In nature. His c r i t i c i s m i s s t r o n g l y rooted i n the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . His a e s t h e t i c premises, h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , h i s p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i a , and h i s t a s t e , a l l contain elements which foreshadow the coming a r t i s t i c and c r i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . But G i l p i n i s a progressive c o n s e r v a t i v e , not a r e v o l u t i o n a r y . 1 3 2 I b i d . , p. 245. 133 ""On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," Fi v e Essays, pp. 164-165. CHAPTER IV GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF SCULPTURE G i l p i n has a high regard f o r the a r t of s c u l p t u r e : "A f i n e statue I have oft e n thought one of the g r e a t e s t e f f o r t s of human a r t . " 1 But he makes r e l a t i v e l y few c r i t i c a l comments on t h i s a r t form. The reason i s simply that on h i s t o u r s he saw few pieces of s c u l p t u r e , whereas he saw thousands of p a i n t i n g s and hundreds of a r c h i t e c t u r a l works. However, the comments tha t he does make are i n t e r e s t i n g because they of t e n c l a r i f y and extend t h e o r i e s and a t t i t u d e s expressed l e s s f u l l y i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of l i t e r a t u r e and p a i n t i n g . G i l p i n ' s theory of i d e a l i m i t a t i o n i s expounded wi t h admirable d i r e c t n e s s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of s c u l p t u r e . The s c u l p t o r , he says, chooses f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n the most b e a u t i -f u l aspects of a c t u a l i t y . And, l i k e the p a i n t e r , the s c u l p t o r "not only takes h i s forms from the most compleat i n d i v i d u a l s , but from the most b e a u t i f u l p a r t s of each i n d i v i d u a l ; " he thereby creates "a purer f i g u r e than he could have done by 2 t a k i n g h i s model from the most b e a u t i f u l s i n g l e form." This "Observations, on Several P a r t s of the Counties of Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex . . .," Observations on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex. Also on"  Several P a r t s of North Wales . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Eastern  Tour] (London, 1809), p. 11. 2 "Essay I I . On the P r i n c i p l e s on Which the Author's Sketches Are Composed," Fi v e Essays on Picturesque Subjects; With a Poem on Landscape P a i n t i n g (London, 1808), p. l o l . 79 so i s a c l e a r statement of the c l a s s i c and n e o - c l a s s i c theory of 3 the a r t i s t i c composite i d e a l . P r o f e s s o r Abrams, d i s c u s s i n g t h i s theory's place i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c s , says: Proponents of t h i s . . . d o c t r i n e of the composite i d e a l r e f e r w i t h a unanimity which makes i n d i f f e r e n c e t o boredom the s i n e qua non of r e s e a r c h , t o the o l d s t o r y of the p a i n t e r Zeuxis who ( i n P l i n y ' s v e r s i o n ) , when he d e s i r e d t o represent Juno, 'had the young maidens of the place s t r i p p e d f o r examination, and s e l e c t e d f i v e of them, i n order t o adapt i n h i s p i c t u r e the most commendable po i n t s i n the form of each.' While ' h i s t o r y represents what has r e a l l y happened i n nature,' says the w r i t e r of an essay sometimes a t t r i b u t e d t o O l i v e r Goldsmith, the s c u l p t o r or s t a t u a r y composed the va r i o u s propor-t i o n s i n nature from a great number of d i f f e r e n t sub-j e c t s , every i n d i v i d u a l of which he found imperfect or d e f e c t i v e i n some one p a r t i c u l a r , though b e a u t i f u l i n a l l the r e s t ; and from these observations, corrober-ated by t a s t e and judgement, he formed an i d e a l pattern, according t o which h i s idea was modelled, and produced i n execution. Everybody knows the s t o r y of Zeuxis, the famous p a i n t e r of Heraclea. . .4 G i l p i n does not r e f e r t o "the famous p a i n t e r of Heraclea," but he t e l l s the same s t o r y , s u b s t i t u t i n g Rysbrack and Hercules f o r Zeuxis and Juno: Rysbrach . . . executed t h i s s t atue as a proof of h i s s k i l l . He composed i t from the s e l e c t e d limbs of s i x or seven of the heroes of Broughton's amphitheatre; a scene of d i v e r -s i o n , at th a t time, i n high repute. The brawny arms were •"^ M.H. Abrams, The M i r r o r and the Lamp: Romantic Theory  and the C r i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n (New York: Norton, 1958), pp. 35-42. I b i d . , p. 37. 81 taken from t h a t c h i e f h i m s e l f , and the chest from the coach-man, a champion w e l l known i n h i s day by that a p p e l a t i o n ; and the legs from E l l i s the p a i n t e r , who took more d e l i g h t ^ i n Broughton's amphitheatre, than i n h i s own p a i n t i n g room. To be f a i r , however, I am q u i t e sure that G i l p i n l i k e s the "Hercules" because i t i s a f i n e work of a r t r a t h e r than because i t i l l u s t r a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r theory of mimesis. This theory of i d e a l i m i t a t i o n i s purely n e o - c l a s s i c a l . And o f t e n the c r i t e r i a G i l p i n uses i n a p p r a i s i n g a work of sc u l p t u r e are those of the academic t r a d i t i o n . He admires s i m p l i c i t y , grace, and p r o p o r t i o n . 0 These are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the "Medici Venus", the "Apollo Belvedere", and M i c h e l -angelo's "David", as w e l l as of Canova's "Aphrodite". But G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e t o s c u l p t u r e i s not tha t of the s t r i c t n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s . The n e o - c l a s s i c a l school of s c u l p t u r e , of which Canova was the headmaster, attempted t o r e t u r n t o the pure s t y l e of ancient c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e . Professor A r t z s t a t e s : "The aims set were repose of body, i m p a s s i v i t y of 7 countenance, and s i m p l i c i t y of composition."' The works of t h i s school d i s p l a y b e a u t i f u l l y i d e a l i z e d form and absolute 5 Observations on the Western Parts of England, Rela- t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Western Tour], 2nd ed. (London, 1808), pp. 121-122. See f o r i n s t a n c e : Western Tour, p. 20; Observations  on the Coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and* Kent, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Southern Tour] "(London, 1804), p. 126. 7 F r e d e r i c k B. A r t z , From the Renaissance t o Romanticism: Trends i n S t y l e i n A r t , L i t e r a t u r e , and Music, 130TJ-1S30 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962), p. 234. 82 s t a b i l i t y . In a way, they achieve the formal p e r f e c t i o n f o r which c l a s s i c i s m was always s t r i v i n g . G i l p i n , however, sees repose and p a s s i v i t y , so d e l i b e r a t e l y achieved by the neo-c l a s s i c i s t s , as l i m i t a t i o n s r a t h e r than e x c e l l e n c i e s . He d e s i r e s some movement and expression i n s c u l p t u r e and j u s t i -f i e s h i s d e s i r e by r e f e r r i n g t o c l a s s i c a l examples. He argues very s t r o n g l y f o r the beauty of: . . . some easy a c t i o n , or expression, i n o p p o s i t i o n t o none at a l l ; as i n the Venus, the B e l v i d i r e A p o l l o , the l i s t e n i n g s l a v e , or the Farnesian Hercules, r e s t i n g from one of h i s labours. A l l these g e n t l e modes of a c t i o n or expression are c e r t a i n l y much more b e a u t i f u l than the u n i n t e r e s t i n g vacancy of a consul standing erect i n h i s robes.° In t h i s defence of movement and expression G i l p i n i s merely a t t a c k i n g the values of a very r i g i d and narrow s o r t of c l a s s i c i s m by appealing t o the broader and more l i b e r a l c l a s s i -c a l t r a d i t i o n . But he f r e q u e n t l y goes beyond t h i s p o s i t i o n and indulges i n what W.J. Bate c a l l s arguing n e o - c l a s s i c i s m o out of existence on c l a s s i c a l grounds. G i l p i n says, f o r example: I t i s t r u e , we are b e t t e r pleased w i t h the us u a l repre-s e n t a t i o n s of the human form i n a quiescent s t a t e , than i n an a g i t a t e d one; but t h i s i s merely t o our seldom seeing i t n a t u r a l l y represented i n strong a c t i o n . . . . But when the anatomy i s p e r f e c t l y j u s t , the human form w i l l always Western Tour, p. 21. Walter Jackson Bate, C r i t i c i s m : The Major Texts (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1952), p. 11. 83 be more picturesque i n a c t i o n , than at r e s t . The great d i f f i c u l t y of r e p r e s e n t i n g strong muscular motion, seems to have st r u c k the ancient masters of s c u l p t u r e : f o r i t i s c e r t a i n l y much harder t o model from a f i g u r e i n s t r o n g , momentary a c t i o n , which must, as i t were, be shot f l y i n g ; than from one s i t t i n g , or standing, which the a r t i s t may copy at l e i s u r e . Amidst the v a r i e t y of statues t r a n s -m i t t e d from t h e i r hands, we have only t h r e e , or f o u r i n very s p i r i t e d a c t i o n . Yet when we see an e f f e c t of t h i s k i n d w e l l executed, our admiration i s g r e a t l y increased.-.Q Who does not admire the Laocoon more than the Antinouos? He does not seem t o t h i n k i t p o s s i b l e t h a t the ancients pre-f e r r e d the body i n i t s quiescent s t a t e . The body i s , t o him, most b e a u t i f u l when " i t i s a g i t a t e d by p a s s i o n , and i t ' s 11 muscles swoln by e x e r t i o n . . . . " This defence of a g i t a t i o n , p a s s i o n , strong a c t i o n , and the p r a i s e of the Laocoon, con-t o r t e d and w r i t h i n g as i t i s , r e v e a l an a t t i t u d e almost d i a -m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o that of Canova. G i l p i n probably would have appreciated the work of a romantic s c u l p t o r l i k e Rude, whose work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by great animation and strong movement. Moreover, G i l p i n o c c a s i o n a l l y s t r e s s e s emotion i n s c u l p t u r e . He p r a i s e s the t h e a t r i c a l work of R o u b i l l a c , a s c u l p t o r t h a t Sypher c l a s s e s a post-baroque/pre-romantic. "The good bishop Hough's monument, by R u b i l l i a c [ s i c ] , i s a masterly work. The f i g u r e of the bishop, c l a s p i n g h i s hands, "Essay I . On Picturesque Beauty," F i v e Essays, pp. 12-13. i : L I b i d . , p. 12. 84 and l o o k i n g up, i n a strong act of f a i t h , deserves any p r a i s e . 12 I have no ide a of more i n s c u l p t u r e . " The s c u l p t u r e has obv i o u s l y captured the t r u t h of the human h e a r t , a l b e i t m elodramatically. I t i s apropos of t h i s monument tha t G i l p i n makes h i s most d i s t i n c t i v e l y romantic comment about s c u l p t u r e . He says: An animated form, however f a i r , i s a meagre work of a r t ; compared w i t h a f i g u r e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d l i k e t h i s . The l i n e s of an elegant human body are h i g h l y b e a u t i f u l ; but s t i l l they a f f e c t the eye only: when character and ex-pr e s s i o n are added, they a f f e c t the soul.^3 G i l p i n i s here e l e v a t i n g the emotional response t o the p o s i t i o n of f i r s t importance, choosing the heart r a t h e r than the head as the v e h i c l e of a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n . 12 "Observations on Se v e r a l P a r t s of North Wales . . .," Observations on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex. Also on Se v e r a l P a r t s of North Wales . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : North Wales Tour] (London, 1809). PP. 202-203. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 203. CHAPTER V GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF ARCHITECTURE G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of a r c h i t e c t u r e i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from h i s c r i t i c i s m of the three image-making a r t s . I t i s l e s s concerned wi t h t h e o r e t i c a l matters l i k e i d e a l i s m , imagination, and genius. G i l p i n concentrates on d i s c u s s i n g c r i t e r i a of excellence and passing judgement on p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e s and s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s . Therefore, i n attempting t o e s t a b l i s h where and how G i l p i n i s c l a s s i c or romantic, I have had t o judge s o l e l y on the ba s i s of h i s c r i t e r i a , t a s t e , and t h e i r a e s t h e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . My judgement i s , however, th a t h i s c r i t i c i s m of a r c h i t e c t u r e has the same b a s i c a l l y c l a s s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n as h i s other c r i t i c i s m . A l s o , i t i s s i m i l a r l y f u l l of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which he i s anxious t o r e c o n c i l e . G i l p i n has an i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e . He g r e a t l y admires, f o r in s t a n c e , the work of the C a r o l i n g i a n c l a s s i c i s t s , as i s proven by h i s statement th a t i n the r e i g n of Charles I a r c h i t e c t u r e was "at a hight never exceeded," 1 by h i s frequent references 2 t o the "great Inigo Jones," and by h i s acceptance of the 3 garden f r o n t at W i l t o n as e x c e p t i o n a l l y f i n e a r c h i t e c t u r e . ^Observations on the Western Parts of England, Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Western Tour], 2nd. (London, 1808), p. 325. 2 I b i d . , p. 50. 3 I b i d . , p. 97. 85 86 G i l p i n ' s t a s t e i s , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i n complete accord w i t h t h a t of the most academic and c l a s s i c a l E n g l i s h s c h o o l — t h e B u r l i n g t o n - P a l l a d i a n . In 1717 Colen Campbell, a t y p i c a l P a l l a d i a n , 4 asserted t h a t the good judge would f i n d i n Inigo Jones " a l l the r e g u l a r i t y of the former [ P a l l a d i o ] , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of Beauty and Majesty. . . . "^ He a l s o commented that the garden f r o n t of Wil t o n House i s "one of the noblest a r c h i t e c t u r e s yet produced." 0 Inigo Jones, of course, was the f i r s t E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t t o work i n a purely c l a s s i c a l s t y l e . And Wil t o n House i s one of the great triumphs of the 7 c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l . I t s absolute symmetry, austere s i m p l i c i t y , and v i t a l e q u i l i b r i u m ( r e s u l t i n g from the t e n s i o n of h o r i z o n -t a l and v e r t i c a l f o r c e s ) make i t one of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l masterpieces of England. G i l p i n a l s o admires Augustan c l a s s i c i s m : he has the highest regard f o r the B u r l i n g t o n P a l l a d i a n s . He comments favourably on almost a l l the examples of t h e i r work he en-counters, even on what Summerson c a l l s " t e p i d a b s t r a c t i o n s ] 8 9 from P a l l a d i o and Jones" (Stourhead f o r example). He pr a i s e s 4Doreen Yarwood, The A r c h i t e c t u r e of England (London: B a t s f o r d , 1963), p. 282. 5 ' V i t r u v i u s B r i t a n n i c u s , or the B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t . . . (3 v o l s . ; [London, 1717-1725]), I , 2. °Ibid., I I , 5. 7 John Summerson, " W i l t o n , " Great Houses of Europe, ed. Sac h e v e r e l l S i t w e l l (London: Putnam's, 1961), pp. 140-142. John Summerson, A r c h i t e c t u r e i n B r i t a i n 1530 t o 1830 (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1953), p. 201. Q 7Western Tour, p. 118. 87 K e d d l e s t o n , 1 0 Mereworth, 1 1 Wentworth House, 1 2 and F o o t s - C r a y . 1 3 He p o s i t i v e l y raves about Lord T i l n e y ' s house at Wanstead: . . . perhaps of a l l the great houses i n England, [ t h i s ] answers best t o the u n i t e d purposes of grandeur and con-t r i v a n c e . . . . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say, whether we are b e t t e r pleased w i t h the grandeur and elegance without, or w i t h the s i m p l i c i t y and contrivance within.14 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t G i l p i n does not of t e n go out of h i s way t o defend the P a l l a d i a n s t y l e . He simply s t a t e s that i t i s e x c e l l e n t , admires examples, and mentions s p e c i f i c b e a uties. He apparently expects u n i v e r s a l concurrence i n the admiration of a r c h i t e c t u r e so obviously " c o r r e c t " and b e a u t i f u l . But h i s few general comments about i t , and the d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s he employs i n i t s p r a i s e , are supporting proof of h i s c l a s s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . In h i s essay "On Picturesque Beauty" he mentions as an example of the (unpicturesque) b e a u t i f u l a piece of P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , drawing s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, . . . on Several Parts of England; P a r t i c u l a r l y the Mountains  and Lak"es~~of Cumberland and Westmoreland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : North-ern Tour] (London, 1786), I I , 238-239. ^ O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [abbrevia-t i o n : Southern" Tour] (London, 1804). P. 131. 1 2 N o r t h e r n Tour, I I , 208. 1 3 S o u t h e r n Tour, p. 119. "^"Observations, on Several Pa r t s of the Counties of Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex . . . ," Observations on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex. Also on Several  Par t s of North Wales; R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Eastern Tour] (London, 1809), pp. 2-3. 88 "the p r o p o r t i o n of i t ' s p a r t s — t h e p r o p r i e t y of i t ' s ornaments 15 — a n d the symmetry of the whole. . . . " He co n s t a n t l y uses these and s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a i n order t o p r a i s e the "Grecian" s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e . 1 ^ 1 Keddleston has s i m p l i c i t y and good 17 p r o p o r t i o n s . The saloon at Houghton i s "simple, and 18 elegant." The Grecian s t y l e i s e x c e l l e n t f o r p r i v a t e d w e l l -19 ings because of the p r o p r i e t y of i t s proportions and ornaments. Grecian a r c h i t e c t u r e has u t i l i t y , symmetry, p r o p o r t i o n , and e l e g a n c e . 2 0 The c r i t e r i a of judgement are obviously those of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The term "elegant" i s perhaps too vague to be i n d i c a t i v e of a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e . But i t does c a r r y connotations of p o l i s h and refinement, q u a l i t i e s p r i z e d by the P a l l a d i a n s . The other c r i t e r i a — s y m m e t r y , p r o p o r t i o n , s i m p l i c -i t y , and u t i l i t y — a r e the ones G i l p i n l i s t s as the r u l e s 21 "necessary t o confine a r c h i t e c t u r e . " I t i s these he r e f e r s 15 '"Essay I . On Picturesque Beauty," Five Essays, on  Picturesque Subjects; With a Poem on Landscape P a i n t i n g (London, 1808), p. 7. "^By t h i s term G i l p i n does not mean Greek R e v i v a l but merely " c l a s s i c a l " a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Jones-Burlington type. He uses the term "Roman" interchangeably w i t h i t . 1 7 N o r t h e r n Tour, I I , 238-239. 18 Eastern Tour, p. 1+2. 19 7Western Tour, p. 127. 20 Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . , on Several P a r t s of Great B r i t a i n ; P a r t i c u l a r l y the  High-Lands of Scotland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : S c o t t i s h Tour] (London, 1789), I , 5. 21 Western Tour, p. 63. 89 t o i n h i s statement: "We c r i t i c i z e a b u i l d i n g by the r u l e s of 22 a r c h i t e c t u r e . . . . " And these are the r u l e s t r a d i t i o n a l and c e n t r a l t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c l a s s i c i s m . G i l p i n ' s p r a i s e of symmetry i n a r c h i t e c t u r e c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h Walpole's d e l i g h t i n "Sharawadgi, or Chinese want 23 of symmetry i n b u i l d i n g s , " w i t h P r i c e ' s attempt t o suggest an a l t e r n a t i v e r a t i o n a l e t o symmetry, and w i t h Knight's p r a i s e of b u i l d i n g s which possess "the beauty of v a r i o u s t i n t s 2 5 and forms h a p p i l y blended without r u l e or symmetry." J These l a t t e r statements r e v e a l what Miss Addison c a l l s a pre-26 romantic r e a c t i o n against c l a s s i c a l canons. G i l p i n ' s acceptance of symmetry as necessary t o a r c h i t e c t u r e i n d i c a t e s h i s f a i t h i n the canons. V i t r u v i u s i n v a r i a b l y designed sym-m e t r i c a l e l e v a t i o n s ; P a l l a d i o i n s i s t e d on symmetry even i n room arrangement; and the E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n s so d e s i r e d abso-l u t e symmetry that they f r e q u e n t l y used sham windows to main-27 t a i n the balance of voids i n the facade. Moreover, symmetry 22 Remarks on Forest Scenery, and Other W odland Vi ws,R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . 3rd ed. (London, 1808), I I , 262. 23 Quoted from Summerson, A r c h i t e c t u r e i n B r i t i a n , p. 243-Uvedale P r i c e , "On Picturesque Beauty," S i r Uvedale  P r i c e on the Picturesque . . ., ed. Thomas Dick Lauder (Edin-burgh and London, 1842), p. 368. 25 Richard Payne Knight, A n a l y t i c a l I n q u i r y i n t o the  P r i n c i p l e s of Taste (London, 1805), p. 128. 26 Agnes Eleanor Addison, Romanticism, and, the^/Gothic  R e v i v a l (New York: Smith, 1938), p. 3-27 See B. Sprague A l l e n , Tides i n E n g l i s h Taste . . . (New York: Pageant Books, 1958), I , 67. 90 i s e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l because of i t s a e s t h e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . As Dagobert Frey p o i n t s out i n h i s a r t i c l e "On the problem of Symmetry i n A r t , " symmetry s i g n i f i e s " . . . r e s t and b i n d i n g , 28 . . . order and law, . . . formal r i g i d i t y and c o n s t r a i n t . " Thus the b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y of symmetry i m p l i e s the be-l i e f t h a t a r t works according t o f i x e d laws, p r i n c i p l e s , and forms, a b e l i e f that i s c e n t r a l t o the c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c . A l s o , G i l p i n ' s d e f i n i t i o n of symmetry shows tha t he means by the term more than mere b i l a t e r a l equation (though he does mean tha t as w e l l ) . The d e f i n i t i o n , "the general 29 p u r i t y and sameness of the s t y l e , " 7 i s vague i n the extreme, but i t i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o such d e f i n i t i o n s as : ". . . something w e l l proportioned, w a l l balanced, . . . t h a t s o r t of 30 concordance of parts by which they i n t e g r a t e i n t o a whole." As Professor Lovejoy has pointed out, t h i s l a r g e r concept of symmetry was prevalent i n the eighteenth century and r e l a t e d t o the d e s i r e f o r order, harmony, and decorum: "The demand f o r symmetry i n a r c h i t e c t u r e thus expressed the same fundamental p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory as the i n s i s t e n c e upon the u n i t i e s i n 31 drama and the d i s a p p r o v a l of the mixture of genres." 28 Quoted from Herman Weyl, Symmetry (Pr i n c e t o n : Prince-ton Univ. Press, 1952), p. 16. 29 , Western Tour, p. 63. 30 -^Weyl, p. 1. 3 1 A r t h u r 0. Lovejoy, "The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l and the Return t o Nature," Essays i n the H i s t o r y of Ideas (New York: Putnam's, I960), p. 146. 91 G i l p i n ' s r u l e of j u s t p r o p o r t i o n i s a r e i t e r a t i o n of a r u l e of the c l a s s i c i s t s . Rudolph Wittkower, i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l  P r i n c i p l e s of the Age of Humanism, s t a t e s t h a t the concept of j u s t p r o p o r t i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y c e n t r a l t o the c l a s s i c a l system of a r c h i t e c t u r e . The c o n v i c t i o n that " . . . a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a science and t h a t each part of the b u i l d i n g has t o be i n t e -grated i n t o one and the same system of mathematical r a t i o s , 32 may be c a l l e d the basic axion of Renaissance a r c h i t e c t s . " ' I t i s a l s o the basic axion of the E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n s , who be-came obsessed w i t h problems of p r o p o r t i o n . They i n v o l v e d themselves i n a l l s o r t s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l gymnastics (such as g i v i n g rooms absurdly high c e i l i n g s ) i n order to preserve i d e a l p r o p o r t i o n s . Robert M o r r i s even compiled a handbook l i s t i n g the proper proportions f o r a l l the pa r t s of a b u i l d i n g 33 —windows, doors, f i r e p l a c e s , w a i n s c o t i n g , m i r r o r s . G i l p i n shares t h i s i n t e r e s t , i f not the obsession. But again i t i s not merely G i l p i n ' s using a r u l e of P a l l a d i o or M o r r i s that marks h i s c l a s s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . His concern w i t h the j u s t p r o p o r t i o n of masses, of i n t e r i o r space, and of parts i n 31 r e l a t i o n t o the whole, proves that he views a r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i t s three dimensional q u a l i t i e s and considers i t as an a r t w i t h i t s own a b s t r a c t a e s t h e t i c 3 2 ( L o n d o n : T i r a n t i , 1962), p. 101. 3 3 " L e c t u r e s on A r c h i t e c t u r e (London, 1734)• See h i s comments on Lord Petre's house. Eastern  Tour, pp. 91-92. 92 p r i n c i p l e s . This attitude i s i n marked contrast to those of l a t e r t h e o r i s t s , who developed purely picturesque and/or roman-t i c attitudes to architecture. Knight declared that proportion "depends e n t i r e l y upon association of ideas, and not at a l l 3 5 upon either abstract reason or organic sensation." In t h i s s p i r i t he and others began to view architecture e n t i r e l y i n terms of i t s s u p e r f i c i a l scenic ef f e c t . As Hussey says, the building was to "compose picturesquely into masses suggested by the buildings i n the backgrounds of I t a l i a n p i c t u r e s . " 3 0 The desired q u a l i t i e s became "the contrast of l i g h t and shade, 37 variety of forms and richness of texture." An even more r a d i c a l r e j e c t i o n of formal considerations i s evident i n Wyatt's work (at F o n t h i l l ) and Ruskin's c r i t i c i s m (of " C h r i s t i a n " architecture). There the demand i s , according to Talbot Hamlin fo r "expressive" architecture, which "aim[s] d e f i n i t e l y at 38 expressing s p e c i f i c emotions. . . ." Certainly G i l p i n , with h i s concern f o r just proportions i n a l l the parts, i s f a r removed from such an at t i t u d e . He i s i n agreement with the d l a s s i c i s t s , who saw the clear and r a t i o n a l handling of formal elements as the essence of the archtlfect's a r t . 3 5 Inquiry, p.169. ^ Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London: Putnam's, 1927), p. 218. 37 ^'Christopher Hussey, English Country Houses: Mid  Georgian, 1760-1800 (London: Country L i f e , 1956), p. 23. 38 Architecture Through the Ages, rev. ed. (New York: Putnam's, 1953), p. 581 93 G i l p i n does, however, r e j e c t the extreme aspects of the c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i e s of p r o p o r t i o n , those t h a t r e l a t e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o p o r t i o n t o the Phythagorean-Platonic concept of absolute harmonics. There was a strong c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n which the r u l e s of p r o p o r t i o n were considered God-ordained 39 laws of mathematical r a t i o s . 7 V i t r u v i u s and P a l l a d i o both b e l i e v e d that c e r t a i n dimensions and r a t i o s were somehow bound up w i t h cosmic order, and t h e r e f o r e necessary f o r good a r c h i t e c t u r e . Inigo Jones founded h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d e l i b e r a -t i o n s on a metaphysical b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of numbers. Robert M o r r i s ' s a r b i t r a r y system of proportions was based on the newly discovered (by M o r r i s , n a t u r a l l y ) s e c r e t s of propor-t i o n h e l d by the a n c i e n t s . G i l p i n , however, says: We are f e t t e r e d a l s o too much by orders, and proportions. The ancients themselves pa i d no such c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o them. Our modern code was c o l l e c t e d by average c a l c u l a t i o n s from t h e i r works; by Sansovino p a r t i c u l a r l y , and P a l l a d i o . But i f these modern l e g i s l a t o r s of the a r t had been o b l i g e d t o produce precedents; they could not have found any two b u i l d -ings among the r u i n s of ancient Rome, which were e x a c t l y of the same pr o p o r t i o n s . I would not, by any means, wish t o shake o f f the whole-some r e s t r a i n t of those laws of a r t . . . . yet . . . the , Q mind r e c o i l s w i t h d i s d a i n at the idea of an e x c l u s i v e system. He r e j e c t s the idea of absolute laws of p r o p o r t i o n , but he recognizes the value of P a l l a d i o ' s r u l e s . 39 •* Wittkower discusses t h i s t r a d i t i o n at l e n g t h . G i l p i n r e f e r s t o i t d i s p a r a g i n g l y i n "On Picturesque Beauty," F i v e  Essays, pp. 32-33. 4°Northern Tour, I , 26-27-94 G i l p i n a l s o recognizes the importance of s i m p l i c i t y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . Lovejoy sees " s i m p l i c i t y " as part of the sacred a e s t h e t i c of the eighteenth-century c l a s s i c i s t : "To want s i m p l i c i t y was t o f a i l i n 'conformity t o nature, » w^" C e r t a i n l y the term i s co n s t a n t l y used i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l c r i t i -cism of a r c h i t e c t u r e . And W.J. Bate l i s t s s i m p l i c i t y as one of the d i s t i n c t i v e l y c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , c o n t r a s t i n g i t t o "the romantic c h e r i s h i n g of the s u r p r i s e i n v a r i e t y . " G i l p i n ' s statement that s i m p l i c i t y i s a r u l e necessary t o confine a r c h i t e c t u r e opposes Reynolds' r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a t e -ment: " V a r i e t y and i n t r i c a c y i s a beauty and excellence i n every other of the A r t s which address the imagination; and why not i n A r c h i t e c t u r e ? " 4 4 I t was t h i s l a t t e r concept which i n s p i r e d P r i c e , Knight, and a host of other designers of "picturesque" a r c h i t e c t u r e ; t h e i r mode i n v o l v e s the conscious use of i r r e g u l a r i t y " — p r o d u c e d by breaking the s k y l i n e , v a r i e -g a t i n g the windows, and c o n t r a s t i n g b a s t i o n - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s and shady recesses; v a r i e g a t i o n of colour and t e x t u r e i n sur-f a c e . . . . " 4^ G i l p i n , though he l i k e s picturesque v a r i e t y 4 1"The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l , " Essays, p. 143. From C l a s s i c t o Romantic: Premises of Taste i n Eighteenth Century England (New York: Harpers, 1961), p. 8. 4 3 W e s t e r n Tour, p. 63. 4 4 J o s h u a Reynolds, "Discourse X I I I , " Discourses on A r t , ed. Robert R. Wark (San Marino: Huntington L i b r a r y , 195977 P»243 4^Hussey, The Picturesque, p. 218. 95 and i r r e g u l a r i t y i n landscape, does not consider these q u a l -i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e . The remaining of G i l p i n ' s r u l e s — u t i l i t y — i s not so c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i v e of a e s t h e t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . As Geoffrey Scott has pointed out, b u i l d i n g s are n e a r l y always constructed f o r the purpose of s a t i s f y i n g some e x t e r n a l need. Function and u t i l i t y must be considered by every a r c h i t e c t , as t h e o r i s t s of a l l schools have acknowledged. The concern f o r u t i l i t y may be i n d i c a t i v e of a c l a s s i c a l regard f o r r a t i o n a l l y handled space (rather than "expressive" or "suggestive" q u a l i t i e s ) . But i t should be noted that Richard Payne Knight p r a i s e s con-venience as v i g o r o u s l y as S i r Henry Wotton p r a i s e s commodity. 4 7 I t should a l s o be noted that the P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t , w i t h h i s use of concealed chimneys (at Mereworth, where the f i r e p l a c e s smoke) and windowless p r i v a t e chambers (at the Duke of Argyle's house), of t e n disregarded u t i l i t y as completely as d i d Wyatt at F o n t h i l l . So i t seems to me t h a t G i l p i n ' s r u l e of u t i l i t y i n d i c a t e s not a e s t h e t i c bias but common sense. However, the general tendency of G i l p i n ' s r u l e s i s t o the c l a s s i c a l . And many of h i s u n c o d i f i e d pronouncements on a r c h i t e c t u r e are s i m i l a r l y o r i e n t e d . G i l p i n does not, f o r i n s t a n c e , approve of the "mixed" s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e . In t h i s he i s opposed by Knight, who * The A r c h i t e c t u r e of Humanism, 2nd ed. (London: Constablem 1924), p. 3. 4 7 S e e S c o t t , p. 1; Hussey, The P i c t u r e s q u e , pp. 211-212. 96 derides the pedantic i n s i s t e n c e on p u r i t y of s t y l e ; b u i l d i n g s which mix Gothic and Grecian elements Knight says are conven-t a i n l y mixtures of a l l sorcts, some of them s u c c e s s f u l , were erected during the f i r s t t h i r d of the nineteenth century. The proponents and p r a c t i t i o n e r s of mixed a r c h i t e c t u r e were not i n t e r e s t e d i n pure s t y l e ; they were not r e a l l y concerned w i t h " s t y l e " at a l l . Their i n t e r e s t was i n the v i s u a l e f f e c t of masses and m o t i f s , and i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s roused by c e r t a i n d e c o r a t i v e elements (by a " b a r o n i a l " drawing room, f o r i n -stance). Thus the mixed s t y l e r e f l e c t s the breakdown of c l a s s i c i s m . I t appeals t o s e n s a t i o n a l and emotional responses; i t i s i n r e v o l t against c l a s s i c a l conventions and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e . G i l p i n ' s r e j e c t i o n of mixed a r c h i t e c t u r e and h i s i n s i s t e n c e on pure s t y l e i s t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t . He c r i t i -c i z e s the combination of t u r r e t e d and modern s t y l e s at Lord Breadalbin's seat; he objects t o the confusion of ancient 50 and modern forms at Inverary C a s t l e . And he objects p a r t i c -u l a r l y t o the modernizing of ancient s t r u c t u r e s . Knight i s extremely fond of "the f o r t r e s s e s of our ancestors transformed i n t o I t a l i a n i z e d v i l l a s and decked w i t h p o r t i c o s , balustrades 51 and t e r r a c e s of Inigo Jones and P a l l a d i o . " But G i l p i n views i e n t , p i c t u r e s q u e , and s u i t e d t o E n g l i s h landscape. 48 Cer-43 I n q u i r y , p. 157. 49 S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 157. 50 I b i d . , I , 185. I n q u i r y , p. 158. 51 97 such transformations w i t h v i o l e n t d i s a p p r o v a l : A mixture of o l d b u i l d i n g s and new reminds us of the bar-barous c r u e l t y on record of u n i t i n g l i v i n g bodies t o dead. . . . Only here the i n j u r y i s g r e a t e r . The b a r b a r i a n , of whom t h i s f a c t i s r e l a t e d , only i n j u r e d the l i v i n g , but c 2 the modern barbarian i n j u r e s both the l i v i n g and the dead. Knight sees the mixture as v i s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e ; G i l p i n sees i t as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , as " u n i t i n g modes of a r c h i -53 t e c t u r e , which are i n themselves d i s t i n c t . . . ." ' S i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s t y l e are the b a s i s of G i l p i n * s d i s l i k e of the Tudor, a type of a r c h i t e c t u r e favoured 54 by P r i c e and beloved by Robinson. ^ G i l p i n uses the words 55 "heavy" and "awkward" t o describe K n o l e ; " he says apropos of Nonesuch: ". . . our ancestors . . . conceived beauty t o r e s i d e c h i e f l y i n the expensive c o n c e i t s and extravagancies of a r t ; 56 i n which t h i s palace p a r t i c u l a r l y abounded." In comments on Longleat he c l a r i f i e s h i s a t t i t u d e : "The s t y l e , however, of Longleat has more a cast of the G o t h i c , than t h a t of Somerset-House, which makes a nearer approach t o Grecian a r c h i t e c t u r e . Neither possesses enough of i t s r e s p e c t i v e s t y l e , t o be b e a u t i -57 f u l i n i t s k i n d . " Again G i l p i n uses the i n t e l l e c t u a l con-52 Southern Tour, p. 51. ^Western Tour, p. 100. 54 '^See Hussey, The Pi c t u r e s q u e , p. 226. ^ S o u t h e r n Tour, p. 134-56 y Western Tour, p. 2. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 125. 98 cept of pure s t y l e as an Important c r i t e r i o n of e x c e l l e n c e . Besides being concerned w i t h p u r i t y of s t y l e , G i l p i n i s i n s i s t e n t on u n i t y of a r c h i t e c t u r a l form, on the n a t u r a l and harmonious adaptation of the p a r t s t o the whole. In comments on W i l t o n House he says: The apartments of a noble house should not s u f f e r t h e i r ornaments to obtrude foremost upon the eye. Each apart-ment should preserve i t s own d i g n i t y ; t o which the orna-mental part should be subordinate. In every work of a r t , and indeed i n nature a l s o , i t i s a breach of the most express picturesque canon, i f the p a r t s engage the eye more than the whole.58 W.J. Bate has explained how t h i s t h e s i s i s part of the c l a s s i -c a l attempt t o i m i t a t e or d u p l i c a t e i n a r t the ordered nature 59 of r e a l i t y . And c e r t a i n l y one of the major concerns of the P a l l a d i a n s was the harmonious adaptation of the p a r t s to the whole. The p o r t i c o , f o r i n s t a n c e , was always kept p r o p o r t i o n a l i n s i z e and splendor t o the r e s t of the complex. They thought i t should a s s e r t the c e n t r a l a x i s but not overwhelm the l a r g e r composition. G i l p i n i n h i s dogmatic i n s i s t e n c e on harmonious sub o r d i n a t i o n shows complete acceptance of yet another P a l l a d -i a n standard. I do not, however, wish t o convey the impression t h a t G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e toward a r c h i t e c t u r e i s t h a t of a r i g i d P a l l a d i a n t h e o r i s t . G i l p i n ' s t a s t e i s a c t u a l l y f a i r l y l i b e r a l 5 8 I b i d . , p. 107. 59 C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 8. 99 and c a t h o l i c . He does have several points of agreement with the proponents of picturesque architecture. And many of hi s theories and evaluations do r e f l e c t the post-Palladian breakdown of r i g i d c l a s s i c a l aesthetics. G i l p i n , l i k e Price and Adam, i s f a i r l y appreciative of the English baroque. He admires Wren's architecture. Kings House at Winchester, he says, had i t been completed, "would have been perhaps one of the grandest palaces i n 60 Europe." And he gives high praise to St. Paul's cathedral. Wren, with h i s freer handling of the c l a s s i c motifs, h i s re j e c t i o n of the geometric academic system, and hi s general tendency to freedom i n composition, was an architect that the 6 l Palladians v i o l e n t l y rejected. They were t r y i n g to combat his influence and lead architecture back into the path of rectitude. And they thought Vanbrugh's work was appalling. But Vanbrugh also receives G i l p i n ' s approval. Blenheim he says has been too severely c r i t i c i z e d : Vanbrugh's attempt . . . seems to have been an ef f o r t of genius: and i f we can keep the imagination apart from the f i v e orders, we must allow that he has created a magnifi-cent whole; which i s invested with an a i r of grandeur, seldom seen i n a more regular s t y l e of building. I t ' s very defects, except "a few that are too glaring to be overlooked, give i t an appearance of something beyond common. . . . °2 fi,Cl Western Tour, p. 51. fill Summerson, Architecture i n B r i t a i n , pp. 197-198. °^Northern Tour, pp. 27-2$. 100 But, he admits, i f "the eye i s at l e i s u r e t o contemplate p a r t s , [ i t ] . . . meets w i t h frequent occasion of d i s g u s t . " G i l p i n d i s p l a y s n e i t h e r the contempt of the P a l l a d i a n s nor the enthusiasm of l a t e r c r i t i c s . He does not p a r t i c u l a r l y admire the broken l i n e s , the m u l t i p l i e d p r o j e c t i o n s and v a r i e d planes. These were the q u a l i t i e s p r a i s e d by those who developed the canons of picturesque a r c h i t e c t u r e . G i l p i n i s f r e e of P a l l a d i a n r i g i d i t y , but he has no new c r i t e r i a by which t o defend Vanbrugh from academic c r i t i c i s m . G i l p i n i s , however, i n t e r e s t e d i n the "picturesque" r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b u i l d i n g and the surrounding n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n which the B u r l i n g t o n school tended to ignore. He does view Blenheim i n r e l a t i o n to i t s s e t t i n g . 0 ^ He a l s o recognizes Adam's success i n c o r r e l a t i n g a b u i l d i n g to i t s s e t t i n g : Hopton-house i s the next great object we meet. The f i r s t view of i t from the road, at a d i s t a n c e , over the bay of Forth i s very picturesque. . . . The h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s of the house, and the d i v e r g i n g l i n e s of the h i l l , accord a g r e e a b l y . 0 0 °3Ibid., I , 58. ^ S e e A l l e n , Tides i n E n g l i s h Taste, p. 60. 65 '"Observations on Several Parts of North Wales, Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . ," Observations on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex. Also on Several P a r t s of North Wales; R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : North Wales Tour] (London, 1809), p. 206. °°Scottish Tour, I , 68. 101 He o b j e c t s t o white houses because white accords i l l w i t h the 67 colours of nature. As Hussey comments, t h i s concern f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n of house t o s e t t i n g was the aspect of the picturesque a t t i t u d e t o a r c h i t e c t u r e which had the most f a r -reaching i n f l u e n c e . I t r e s u l t e d i n the precept that the s i t e should suggest and l a r g e l y c o n t r o l the design of a b u i l d i n g , a precept s t i l l r e v e r e d . 0 ^ G i l p i n i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n modes of a r c h i -t e c t u r e which were i n themselves considered picturesque. He i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t r i g u e d by the simplest form of p i c t u r -esque a r c h i t e c t u r e — t h e r u s t i c . In Remarks on Forest Scenery he describes an i d y l l i c scene: [The glen] abounds w i t h frequent openings. The eye i s car-r i e d down, from the higher grounds, t o a sweep of the r i v e r — o r t o a l i t t l e gushing cascade . . . — o r perhaps t o a cottage, w i t h i t s scanty area of lawn f a l l i n g t o the r i v e r , on one s i d e ; and s h e l t e r e d by a clump of oaks on the other; w h i l e the smoke, wreathing behind the t r e e s , disperses,and l o s e s i t s e l f , as i t gains the summit of the glen.69 This d e s c r i p t i o n brings t o mind a scene by Morland, the master of picturesque cottage p a i n t i n g . But here the cottage i s s t i l l r e a l l y an element i n landscape. However, on at l e a s t one occasion the cottage i n s p i r e s i n G i l p i n a t r u e Morlandesque 'Observations on the R i v e r Wye, and Several P a r t s of  South Wales, R e l a t i v e C h e i f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Wye Tour] (London, 1782), p. 54. 68 The P i c t u r e s q u e , p. 217. 6 9 I , 206-207. 102 a t t i t u d e (what Wylie Sypher c a l l s "the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p i c t u r -70 esque"), a sentimental i d e a l i z a t i o n of the lower c l a s s e s : In the middle of the vale stands a l o n e l y cottage, s h e l t e r e d w i t h a few t r e e s , and adorned w i t h i t T s l i t t l e orchard and other appendages. Here r e s i d e s the h i n d , who manages, and overlooks the c a t t l e , which i n numerous herds, graze t h i s f e r t i l e v a l e : and i f peace, and quietness i n h a b i t not the humble mansion, i t does not harmonize w i t h the scene, t o which i t belongs.71 G i l p i n a l s o d i s p l a y s an i n t e r e s t i n tha t p e c u l i a r eighteenth-century a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m — t h e sham r u i n . But un-l i k e most of h i s contemporaries, he i s not sentimental i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o new-made r u i n s ; he judges them according t o a r a t i o n a l and austere a e s t h e t i c . He i s not concerned w i t h h i s t o r i c a l n o s t a l g i a , w i t h gloomth, or even merely w i t h v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s ; he i n s i s t s that i m i t a t i o n r u i n s meet c e r t a i n i n t e l -l e c t u a l requirements. They must be constructed w i t h v e r i s i m i l -i t u d e ; they must be s i t u a t e d where a c a s t l e or abbey might 72 o r i g i n a l l y have been b u i l t ; and they must be w e l l b u i l t . Of shoddy and i l l o g i c a l r u i n s he i s completely contemptuous. He says of Kingsgate: I t c o n s i s t s of a complete set of r u i n s , which compose the house and o f f i c e s . The brew house i s a f o r t — t h e s t a b l e a monastary—the pigeon house a watchtower—and the po r t e r ' s lodge a c a s t l e . ^Rococo t o Cubism i n Art and L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Random House, 19607, pp. 91^109. 7 1 S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 11-12. 7 2 I b i d . , I I , 170. 103 Among a l l the crude conceptions of depraved t a s t e , we scarce ever met w i t h anything more absurd than t h i s c o l -l e c t i o n of hetrogeneous r u i n s . Nothing can equal the cap r i c e of brii\3iwg such a motley confusion of abbies, f o r t s , and c a s t l e s together, except the p a l t r y s t y l e i n which they are executed.73 G i l p i n i s moderately i n t e r e s t e d i n Gothic r e v i v a l (non-ruined) a r c h i t e c t u r e . He t h i n k s Strawberry H i l l worthy of n o t i c e , 7 4 and admits t h a t the c a s t l e s t y l e can be i m p r e s s i v e . 7 ^ But h i s comments are c e r t a i n l y not e n t h u s i a s t i c . He notes the s t y l i s t i c flaws of Walpole's house, c r i t i c i z e s the con-f u s i o n of modern and Gothic form at Inverary, and t h i n k s that Enmore obtains no p a r t i c u l a r beauty from i t s c a s t l e form. A c t u a l l y , he i s not convinced t h a t the c a s t e l l a t e d s t y l e i s reasonable: there i s "something whimsical i n the idea of a man's enc l o s i n g h i m s e l f , i n the r e i g n of George the Second, i n a f o r t r e s s t h a t would have s u i t e d the times of King Stephen.'^ 7 G i l p i n d e f i n i t e l y p r e f e r s the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e f o r domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e : "On the whole, the Grecian a r c h i t e c t u r e seems much b e t t e r adapted t o a p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g house, than the Gothic. I t has a b e t t e r assortment . . . of proper ornaments 78 and proportions f o r a l l i t s purposes." 7 3 S o u t h e r n Tour, pp. 97-98. 74c ' S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 194. 76 7 5 I b i d . , I , 184. I b i d . , I I , 194; I b i d . , I , 184; Western Tour, p. 160. 78" 77 ' Western Tour, p. 158. I b i d . , pp. 126-127. 104 But G i l p i n has no such r e s e r v a t i o n s about e c c l e s i a A & c a l Gothic. There were, of course, no Gothic r e v i v a l churches i n G i l p i n ' s day, so h i s comments are a l l about genuine medieval e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . And he undertakes a s e r i o u s , d e t a i l e d defence of i t . Moreover, the "Master of the P i c t u r -esque" does not di s c u s s Gothic churches e x c l u s i v e l y i n terms of t h e i r value as elements i n landscape, and he does not d i s -cuss the picturesqueness of t h e i r e x t e r i o r forms. Nor does he t r e a t the Gothic as a f i e l d f o r pedantry. G i l p i n , l i k e Gray and Walpole, appreciates and c r i t i c i z e s Gothic churches as a r c h i t e c t u r e , as b u i l d i n g s w i t h genuine a e s t h e t i c importance. But t h i s i s why he gets i n t o t r o u b l e ; he f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to c o r r e l a t e h i s e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l ideas of a r c h i t e c t u r a l values w i t h h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of Gothic b u i l d i n g s . G i l p i n presents h i s defence of the Gothic most ex-p l i c i t l y i n the Western Tour: The Greek and Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e , no doubt, possess great beauty: but why should we suppose them t o possess a l l beauty? . . . Rules, we a l l o w , must confine every a r t ; but what r u l e s are necessary t o confine a r c h i t e c t u r e , except those of u t i l i t y , symmetry, p r o p o r t i o n and s i m p l i c i t y ? . . . I know not i n which of these regards the Gothic does not equal the Roman.79 The extent t o which these r u l e s r e f l e c t the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i -t i o n has already been discussed. G i l p i n i s f o l l o w i n g i n the f o o t s t e p s of Addison (who pointed out the s i m i l a r i t i e s between 7 9 I b i d . , p. 63. 105 the b a l l a d and the "h e r o i c k " poem of Homer and V i r g i l ) and Hurd (who i n s i s t e d t h a t Chinese plays f o l l o w e d A r i s t o t l e ' s $0 p r e c e p t s ) ; he i s , i n p a r t , attempting t o defend the non-c l a s s i c a l by means of the c l a s s i c a l canons. G i l p i n ' s statements a l s o r e v e a l an e s s e n t i a l l y non-c l a s s i c a l a t t i t u d e toward a e s t h e t i c standards. Bodo Cichy p o i n t s out t h a t u n t i l the l a s t h a l f of the eighteenth century, "whatever had been the p r e v a i l i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s of the time had been accepted without 81 question as a b s o l u t e — a s the only t r u e form of expression." Such a f a i t h was the r e s u l t of e v a l u a t i n g a r t i n r e l a t i o n t o 82 an absolute s t a n d a r d — t h e u n i v e r s a l i d e a l . But the eighteenth-century philosophers were demolishing the idea t h a t beauty i s an o b j e c t i v e q u a l i t y . Moreover, the a r c h e o l o g i c a l research of the l a t t e r part of the century, e s p e c i a l l y the work of Winkle-mann, developed a new consciousness of time and h i s t o r y and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f l u x , as w e l l as a knowledge of b e a u t i f u l b u i l d -go ings of a l l periods a l l over the world. J Summerson says that the r e s u l t of a l l t h i s was the weakening of the concept of an absolute standard of t a s t e , and the establishment of a new See A l l e n , Tides i n E n g l i s h Taste, I I , 24. $1 The Great Ages of A r c h i t e c t u r e : From Ancient Greece  t o the Present Day, t r a n s . Susan McMorran (New York: Putnam's, 196477 P. 365. 82 See Bate, C l a s s i c t o Romantic, p. 22. $3 ^Hamlin, A r c h i t e c t u r e Through the Ages, p. 473. 106 c o n c e p t — " t h e p l u r a l i t y of v a l i d s t y l e s . " ^ G i l p i n ' s s t a t e -ment th a t the Gothic has a v a l i d i t y equal t o that of the Roman proves h i s acceptance of the new concept. A c t u a l l y , G i l p i n ' s b e l i e f i n the v a l i d i t y of many s t y l e s i s q u a l i f i e d . His attempt t o r e l a t e Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e t o c l a s s i c a l r u l e s shows th a t he cannot r e a l l y accept the Gothic i n terms of i t s own a e s t h e t i c . S t i l l , he does accept i t . The Gothic equals the Roman i n u t i l i t y , says G i l p i n . Again I w i l l draw a t t e n t i o n t o Geoffrey S c o t t ' s statement that 85 a l l a r c h i t e c t u r e i s somehow concerned w i t h u t i l i t y . But the Gothic i s perhaps (of a l l the Western s t y l e s of a r c h i t e c t u r e ) the l e a s t concerned w i t h u t i l i t y ; the Gothic c a t h e d r a l i s not a man-oriented b u i l d i n g . I t s s i z e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s i n no way r e l a t e d t o the number of people i t was intended t o serve. Wilhelm Worringer says, ". . . Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e might be described as an endless mania f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n ; f o r i t has no d i r e c t o b j e c t , no p a r t i c u l a r aim: i t i s merely subservient t o 86 the a r t i s t i c w i l l t o expression." Renaissance churches, i n cont r a s t t o Go t h i c , are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n s i z e and design t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n human s o c i e t y . Those who derided the Gothic recognized the c o n t r a s t . Evelyn's famous att a c k on the "con-g e s t i o n s of heavy, dark, melancholy, and monkish p i l e s " uses __ A r c h i t e c t u r e i n B r i t a i n , p. 283. 85 The A r c h i t e c t u r e of Humanism, p. 3. 86 Form i n Go t h i c , a u t h o r i z e d t r a n s l a t i o n , ed. S i r Her-bert Read "(London: T i r a n t i , 1957), p. 107. 107 87 the s t r i c t u r e t h a t they are e q u a l l y without use as beauty. Bishop Berkeley c r i t i c i z e s the Gothic as"f ©r the most part being founded n e i t h e r i n nature, nor reason, n e i t h e r n e c e s s i t y 88 nor use." So when G i l p i n a s s e r t s the u t i l i t y of the Gothic he i s arguing against the statements of many previous c r i t i c s . More important, he i s denying the t r u e nature of the Gothic, which i s not a u s e f u l b u i l d i n g but, as Otto von Simson says, "an image, more p r e c i s e l y , . . . the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of super-8Q n a t u r a l r e a l i t y . " G i l p i n encounters s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h h i s s t a t e -ment th a t the Gothic equals the Roman i n symmetry. I t d e f i -n i t e l y does not. B i l a t e r a l symmetry may have been an aim of the Gothic c a t h e d r a l b u i l d e r s , but i t was r a r e l y achieved. S e v e r a l E n g l i s h churches even have an a e s t h e t i c a l l y purpose-f u l abberation from symmetry, a bent east end. And though purposeful assymmetry i s r a r e , the Gothic b u i l d e r was c e r t a i n l y not obsessed by the d e s i r e f o r symmetry th a t c o n t r o l l e d the Renaissance a r c h i t e c t s . He d i d not object t o b u i l d i n g the second tower i n a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e from the f i r s t i f s t y l e had changed during the hundred years between c o n s t r u c t i o n dates. Nor d i d he object t o adding s i d e porches, as at Wells and 87 'Quoted i n Love j o y , "The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l , " Essays, p. 138. g 8 I b i d . , p. 142. 89 7The Gothic C a t h e d r a l , 2nd ed. (New York: Pantheon Books, -I96277 P' x v i i . 108 L i n c o l n , and chapter houses, as at most abbey churches. And he was q u i t e w i l l i n g t o dispose the s t a i n e d g l a s s i n an un-balanced manner so t h a t those colours l i k e l y t o fade could remain i n r e l a t i v e l y shaded places. Moreover, these v a r i a t i o n s and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s do not s p o i l a Gothic church as they would a church by Hawksmoor. A.E. Richardson, the eminently d i s t i n -guished a r c h i t e c t , comments that "the Gothic p r i n c i p l e of poised e q u i l i b r i u m admitted a m a l l e a b i l i t y denied t o c l a s s i c a r t . There was scope f o r rhythm i g n o r i n g absolute symmetry, 90 r e c o g n i t i o n of i r r e g u l a r i t y and d e l i c a t e s i l h o u e t t e . " C r i t i c s preceding G i l p i n had a l s o noted the d i f f e r e n c e between the a b s t r a c t l y c o n t r o l l e d equivalence of mass, r e c e s s , and l i n e t hat c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , and the "malle-a b i l i t y " of the Gothic. They had on t h i s b a s i s damned the 91 Gothic. G i l p i n attempts t o ignore the d i f f e r e n c e and thus rescue the Gothic from condemnation. But the r a t h e r obvious d i f f e r e n c e between the theory and the f a c t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y noted even by him. He says of S a l i s b u r y that though i t i s i n a ruder s t y l e than most c a t h e d r a l s , ". . . i t possesses one beauty which few of them possess, that of absolute symmetry i n a l l i t s p a r t s . " 9 2 9°With Hector 0. C o r i a t o , The Art of A r c h i t e c t u r e , 3rd ed. (London: E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s P ress, 1952), p. 63. 91 See Lovejoy, "The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l , " Essays, pp. 145-146. 92 Western Tour, p. 54. 109 The comment about S a l i s b u r y c l e a r l y i n v o l v e s the ord i n a r y meaning of "symmetry". But G i l p i n a l s o u t i l i z e s the l a r g e r meaning of the word i n h i s defense of Gothic. The Gothic equals the Roman, he says, i n "the general p u r i t y and 93 sameness of the s t y l e . " This statement i s a l s o untrue; the Gothic i l l s a t i s f i e s the c l a s s i c a l demand f o r p u r i t y of s t y l e . I t s s t r u c t u r e s are almost i n v a r i a b l y mixtures of var i o u s s t y l e s — E a r l y , Decorated, P e r p e n d i c u l a r , and oft e n Norman as w e l l . G i l p i n i s q u i t e aware of t h i s f a c t and i s s u i t a b l y d i s t r e s s e d by i t . He mentions the confusion of s t y l e s at Canterbury and W e l l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , and on one occasion e x p l i c i t l y disparages "that mixed s t y l e , of which many cathedrals are composed." Such e x c e p t i o n a l l y pure churches as E l y and Exeter d e l i g h t him. Of the l a t t e r he says: I t was f o u r hundred years i n the b u i l d i n g . . . . Yet notwith-standing t h i s lapse of time, i n which the f a s h i o n of a r c h i -t e c t u r e underwent so much change; and notwithstanding the d i f f e r e n t a r c h i t e c t s employed . . . , i t i s s i n g u l a r t h a t each succeeding bishop hath so a t t e n t i v e l y pursued the plan of h i s predecessor, that the whole together s t r i k e s the eye as a uniform building.95 I t i s indeed s i n g u l a r , so much so tha t one wonders how G i l p i n , knowing t h i s , could a s s e r t that the Gothic equals the Roman i n p u r i t y of s t y l e . 9 3 I b i d . , p. 63. 9 4 E a s t e r n Tour, p. l£. 95 ^Western Tour, p. 253. 110 With h i s t h i r d r u l e G i l p i n i s somewhat more success-f u l , though there i s s t i l l a dichotomy between r u l e and f a c t . The Gothic equals the Roman i n p r o p o r t i o n , he says. Otto von Simson, i n h i s thorough study, d i s c o v e r s t h a t the Gothic b u i l d e r s d i d r e l y on harmonic proportions as the bases of the designs, the knowledge of Pythagorean harmonics f l o w i n g 96 through the middle ages unchecked. But t h e i r use of propor-t i o n a l harmonics was r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the post-A l b e r t i a r c h i t e c t s . In medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e the harmonic module d i d determine the s i z e s and r a t i o s of elements, but, as Paul F r a n k l e x p l a i n s , only because the module used as a 97 s p e c i a l s o r t of " y a r d s t i c k " , a p r a c t i c a l u n i t of measurement. In the Gothic the p r o p o r t i o n a l system was not something to be grasped by the viewer as part of the a e s t h e t i c experience. On the other hand, p r o p o r t i o n perception was intended t o be part of the a e s t h e t i c d e l i g h t of the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e : "The appeal of . . . Renaissance design was t o the t r a i n e d eye th a t could perceive the formal l o g i c and p r o p o r t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the 98 design." The Gothic s p i r i t i s simply not concerned w i t h t h i s s o r t of a e s t h e t i c pleasune; i t i s concerned w i t h c r e a t i n g 9 6 y The Gothic Cathedral. 97 The Gothic: L i t e r a r y Soureds and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  Through Eight C e n t u r i e s , t r a n s . P r i s c i l l a S i t z ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Univ. Press, 1962), p. 93. 98 7 Bruce A l l s o p p , A General H i s t o r y of A r c h i t e c t u r e (London: Putnam's, 1955), p. 141. I l l a space suggestive of i n f i n i t y , an overpowering upward and/or a l t a r w a r d movement, a s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y which attempts to over-come i t s p h y s i c a l m a t e r i a l i n order t o create an i n d e f i n a b l e 99 mystic experience. Simson a s s e r t s that the Gothic's "founder", the abbe Sugar, wished "to b a t t l e down tha t very sense of detachment which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of purely a e s t h e t i c o b s e r v a t i o n , and t o l e a d v i s i t o r s t o the new sanctuary on t o the r e l i g i o u s experience t h a t a r t had revealed t o Sugar him-s e l f . " 1 0 0 I t i s q u i t e obvious that applying the P a l l a d i a n r u l e of j u s t p r o p o r t i o n t o the Gothic i s going counter t o i t s r e a l a e s t h e t i c values. And G i l p i n does seem to r e a l i z e t h i s . His s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n s of p r o p o r t i o n are always d i r e c t e d t o the s m a l l e r and subsiduary Gothic b u i l d i n g s , t o the chapels and chapter h o u s e s . 1 0 1 E a r l i e r c r i t i c s had attacked the bad 102 proportions of the cathedrals themselves. G i l p i n does not comment favourably or unfavourably upon t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s ; perhaps he r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s " r u l e " i s i r r e l e v a n t t o the a e s t h e t i c values of a Gothic masterpiece. G i l p i n ' s f o u r t h r u l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e i s s i m p l i c i t y . And though he makes c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , he does a s s e r t t h a t the Gothic equals the Roman i n s i m p l i c i t y . Here l e i s 99 Cichy, The Great Ages of A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 250. 1 0 0 S i m s o n , The Gothic C a t h e d r a l , p. x i x . 1 0 1 S e e Eastern Tour, p. 19; Southern Tour, p. 9; Western Tour, p. 349. 102 See Lovejoy, p. 133. 112 c o n t r a d i c t i n g the eighteenth century's most con s i s t e n t and v i o l e n t a n t i - G o t h i c statement, that i t wanted r a t i o n a l sim-103 p l i c i t y and p l a i n n e s s . ' The j u s t i c e of t h e i r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s confirmed by, among ot h e r s , S i r Bannister F l e t c h e r ; he l i s t s ornate d e c o r a t i o n , the e l a b o r a t i o n of i n t e r i o r members, and extreme decorative p r o f u s i o n on the west f r o n t as character-i s t i c s of E n g l i s h G o t h i c , e s p e c i a l l y of i t s l a t e r phases. G i l p i n does acknowledge that " i f i n any i t be thought t o f a i l , 105 xt i s i n the ornamental p a r t . " However, he defines sim-p l i c i t y as "the modesty and p r o p r i e t y of ornaments" and i n s i s t s t h a t i n the Gothic . . . there i s g e n e r a l l y such p r o p r i e t y of ornament; th a t i s , each ornamental member a r i s e s so n a t u r a l l y from the  b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , and i s so much a piece w i t h i t " (which i s a l l we wish i n ornament,) th a t i n the best specimens of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e , the eye i s nowhere offended, or c a l l e d aside by the contention of p a r t s . . . .106 This i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of the e a r l i e r phases of G o t h i c , where ornament i s subordinated t o the p a t t e r n produced by the s t r u c -t u r a l members, and even the statues " s p r i n g from and form part 107 of the s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the b u i l d i n g . " ' But i n the 1 0 3 I b i d . , pp. 143-145. 1 0^A H i s t o r y of A r c h i t e c t u r e on the Comparative Method, rev. B.A. Cordingley, 17th ed. (New York: S c r i b n e r s , 196T71 p. 664. 105 Western Tour, p. 63. 1 0 ^ I b i d . , pp. 63-64. 1 0 7 F l e t c h e r , p. 664. 113 Decorated pe r i o d there i s a pronounced e l a b o r a t i o n of decora-t i o n , and i n the Perpendicular an e x c e p t i o n a l love of m u l t i -p l i c i t y and complexity. Here we encounter a f u r t h e r weakness i n G i l p i n ' s de-fense of the Gothic. Medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e f o l l o w e d the spon-taneous tendency of the a r t s t o progress from c l a r i t y , s e v e r i t y 108 and s i m p l i c i t y toward c o m p l i c a t i o n , r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y . My g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the Gothic have been l a r g e l y p e r t i n e n t t o the high Gothic. And G i l p i n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l defense would have been f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l had i t been d i r e c t e d toward the Norman or E a r l y s t y l e s . The Norman r e t a i n s some c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y s i m p l i c i t y , c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n of space, and comprehensible pr o p o r t i o n s . The E a r l y Gothic i s l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , but s t i l l depends f o r e f f e c t on r e s t r a i n e d d e c o r a t i o n , simple spaces, and p l e a s i n g (though heightened and lengthened) pr o p o r t i o n s . Rochester and S a l i s b u r y are proof of these q u a l i t i e s . But G i l p i n c l a s s e s the pre-conquest, Norman, and E a r l y Gothic together as "Saxon" and c a l l s i t a heavy, awkward s t y l e . He says of K i r k s t a l l : " . . . the Saxon 109 heaviness p r e v a i l s . " He dismisses the whole of Chichester as "an o r d i n a r y , heavy, Saxon p i l e . " 1 1 0 He does admire S a l i s b u r y and know that i t i s not Saxon, but he says i t i s 1 0 S C i c h y , p. 367. 1 0 9 S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 31. HO, rn -1 r-Wye Tour, p. 15. 114 111 "of the rudest Go t h i c . " The s t y l e s of medieval a r c h i t e c -t u r e which have the most r e l a t i o n t o h i s superimposed c l a s s i -c a l r u l e s are those which he dismisses as decidedly i n f e r i o r . H is highest p r a i s e i s reserved f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Decorated and Perpendicular p h a s e s — t h e nave at Winchester, " 1 X 1 2 the chapel at R o s l i n , the c l o i s t e r s at Gloucester. He i s , i n other words, most a p p r e c i a t i v e of those s t r u c t u r e s which d i s p l a y s t r u c t u r a l complexity, v e r t i c a l l y attenuated propor-t i o n s , and decorative e l a b o r a t i o n . I do not mean t o c r i t i c i z e G i l p i n f o r l i k i n g the l a t e r r a t h e r than the e a r l y Gothic. I wish merely t o point out t h a t h i s t a s t e has outrun h i s c r i t i c i s m . He admires the G o t h i c , so he attempts t o defend i t by c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ; he uses c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s because they are the only ones he knows. But the defense i s weak, and the weakness i s underscored by h i s defending the phase of the Gothic which the r u l e s l e a s t s u i t but which he l i k e s best. Moreover, when he f o r g e t s about t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n and j u s t w r i t e s " a p p r e c i a t i o n s " , he r e v e a l s a d e l i g h t i n many q u a l i t i e s other than u t i l i t y , sym-metry, p r o p o r t i o n , and s i m p l i c i t y . He l i k e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , l i g h t n e s s and d e l i c a c y : he p r a i s e s the l i g h t n e s s of the c l o i s t e r s at S a l i s b u r y and Gl o u c e s t e r , and the l i g h t and a i r y p i l l a r s at W o r c e s t e r . 1 1 3 He d e l i g h t s i n r i c h n e s s . When d i s -cussing the west f r o n t at Exeter and the Mary chapel at 1 1 1 W e s t e r n Tour, p. 56. Western Tour, p. 46; S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 65; Wye. Tour, p. 5. 1 1 3 W e s t e r n Tour, p. 62; Wye Tour, p. 5; North Wales  Tour, p. 20Z: ' ' - 1  115 C a n t e r b u r y , 1 1 4 G i l p i n f o r g e t s about s i m p l i c i t y and enjoys the r i c h n e s s , v a r i e t y and e l a b o r a t i o n of ornament. And i s d i s -cussing the arrangement of screens at S a l i s b u r y , he ignores the concept of pr o p o r t i o n and suggests c r e a t i n g a "sublime" p e r s p e c t i v e view making some s o r t of approach towards i n -115 f i n i t y . Consistency i s not h i s strong p o i n t . G i l p i n achieves g r e a t e r consistency i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of medieval m i l i t a r y and domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e . But t h i s i s because he does not even attempt t o d i s c u s s i t i n terms of a r c h i t e c t u r a l values. Or at l e a s t , he discusses i t i n terms of picturesque (two-dimensional, v i s u a l ) a r c h i t e c t u r a l values r a t h e r than three-dimensional, formal values. In the area of picturesque c r i t e r i a he i s not hampered by c l a s s i c a l canons. Dumbarton c a s t l e G i l p i n describes as i r r e g u l a r , rugged, broken 116 i n t o planes, and t h e r e f o r e "very p i c t u r e s q u e . " Edinburgh c a s t l e "tho, i n i t s whole: immensity, i t i s too l a r g e an object f o r a p i c t u r e . . . ; yet many of i t s craggy corners w i t h t h e i r watch towers and other appendages, are very p i c t u r e s q u e . ^ 1 7 G i l p i n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of "the o l d b a r o n i a l c a s t l e " concentrates e x c l u s i v e l y on picturesque values: l l i fWestern Tour, p. 26*3; Southern Tour, p. 105. 1 1 5WesJtern Tour, pp. 59-60. ^ S c o t t i s h Tour. I I , 44. 1 1 7 I b i d . , I , 63. 116 I f one tower was square and low, the other, perhaps, would be round and l o f t y . The c u r t a i n too was i r r e g u l a r , f o l -lowing the d e c l e v i t y or p r o j e c t i o n of the h i l l on which i t stood. I t was adorned a l s o w i t h watch-towers, here and t h e r e , at unequal d i s t a n c e s . Nor were the windows more r e g u l a r , e i t h e r i n form or s i t u a t i o n , than the i n t e r n a l p a r t s of the c a s t l e , which they enlightened. Some j u t t i n g corner of a detached h i l l was a l s o probably f o r t i f i e d w i t h a p r o j e c t i n g tower. A l a r g e b u t t r e s s or two perhaps prop-ped the w a l l , i n some p a r t , where the a t t a c k of the enemy had made i t weak: while the keep, r i s i n g above the c a s t l e , formed g e n e r a l l y a grand apex t o the whole. Amidst a l l t h i s mass of i r r e g u l a r i t y , the l i n e s would be broken, the l i g h t often b e a u t i f u l l y r e c e i v e d , and various p o i n t s of view presented, some of which would be exceedingly picturesque. H° And he often considers c a s t l e s merely as elements i n a land-scape. For i n s t a n c e , Dunglas c a s t l e "appears t o stand upon a p e n i n s u l a , which runs i n t o the Clyde, and, being adorned w i t h 119 a background of mountains, makes a good p i c t u r e . " 7 In a l l of these comments he d i s p l a y s a pre-romantic a t t i t u d e : a d e l i g h t i n i r r e g u l a r i t y , an i n t e r e s t i n landscape, and a con-cern f o r purely v i s u a l r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l a e s t h e t i c values. But G i l p i n never i n d i c a t e s , i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of Gothic churches and c a s t l e s , an acceptance of the c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i o n 120 th a t Geoffrey Scott c a l l s the "romantic f a l l a c y " . S c o t t ' s t h e s i s i s that romanticism tends t o deny t h a t : "A combination p l a s t i c forms has a sensuous value apart from anything we may 1 1 8 W e s t e r n Tour, pp. 159-160. 1 1 Q S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 55-120 The A r c h i t e c t u r e of Humanism, p. 37 et seq. 117 121 know about them." The romantics, he says, i n s i s t t h a t p l a s t i c a r t s should be l i k e poetry and "b r i n g the mind w i t h i n the charmed c i r c l e s of imaginative i d e a s . . . . Thus, f o r example, the Gothic b u i l d i n g . . . came t o "suggest" the i d e a l i z e d G o t h — ' f i r m i n h i s f a i t h and noble i n h i s a s p i r a t i o n s ' 122 . . . ." This a t t i t u d e s h i f t s the emphasis from form as a 123 primary element t o form as a "means of s i g n i f i c a n c e . " This i n v o l v e s a d e n i a l of the basic nature of a r c h i t e c t u r e , which i s formal r a t h e r than suggestive. G i l p i n does o c c a s i o n a l l y i n d i c a t e the importance of ideas a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n b u i l d -i n g s . The c a s t l e at Loch Leven " . . . was important i n i t s e l f and s t i l l more so by an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Mary Queen of Scots. But he does not admire medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e because i t arouses " r e c o l l e c t i o n s which c a r r y us back t o the time when r e l i g i o n 125 was a l l splend'our and s o c i e t y a l l c h i v a l r y " ; ' he admires i t because i t has sensuous va l u e , even i f the value i s p i c t u r -esqueness. However, G i l p i n does a l l o w the "romantic f a l l a c y " t o i n f l u e n c e h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of r u i n s . Several c r i t i c s have noted t h a t the eighteenth century g e n e r a l l y used r u i n s e i t h e r 121 I b i d . , p. 54-1 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 52-53. 1 2 3 I b i d . , p. 60. 1 2 4 S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 92. 1 2 5 S c o t t , p. 54. t o create a mood ( e s p e c i a l l y pleasant melancholy) or t o sug-gest ideas (the l o s t age of c h i v a l r y ; the pathos of decay). Such i s , i n p a r t , G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e . The landscape at Beau-l i e u Abbey i s " p i c t u r e s q u e l y marked by the r u i n s of time." The tower of a ruine d Welsh f o r t r e s s i n s p i r e s the comment: "A 127 l o n e l y tower i s i t s e l f an emblem of s o l i t u d e . " And the ruined c a s t l e , the remains of an abbey "are the r i c h e s t l e g a c i e s 12$ of a r t . They are consecrated by time. . . ." And then too, as Eleanor Addison has w e l l demonstrated, the d e l i g h t i n r u i n s i s i t s e l f a romantic a t t i t u d e : Nothing i s more d i s p l e a s i n g t o a c l a s s i c i s t than a r u i n , f o r he enjoys a completed whole. On the other hand, nothing i s more p l e a s i n g to the romantic temperament, which l i k e s the u n f i n i s h e d , the incomplete. . . .129 G i l p i n ' s a t t i t u d e i s evident i n such statements as: "We . . . wish f o r that degree of d i l a p i d a t i o n , which g i v e s conjecture 130 room t o wander and imagination some l i t t l e scope." He i s obviously i n t e r e s t e d not only i n the value of the form, but i n the imaginative impact of the undetermined and undefined. But by f a r the gr e a t e s t part of G i l p i n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of r u i n s i s concerned w i t h t h e i r determinate sensuous value. As 1 2 6 F o r e s t Scenery, I I , 140. 1 2 7 N o r t h Wales Tour, p. 159. 12$ "On Picturesque Beauty," Five Essays, p. 46. 129 Romanticism and the Gothic R e v i v a l , p. 145. 1 3°Scottish Tour, I , 30. 119 Templeman says, h i s d i s c u s s i o n "moves round the f a c t not t h a t 131 they are r u i n s but that they please the eye." His i s p r i m a r i l y a " t r a n s i t i o n a l " a t t i t u d e , concerned n e i t h e r w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l nor w i t h emotional q u a l i t i e s but w i t h v i s u a l ones. The picturesque adwantages, which a c a s t l e or any eminent b u i l d i n g , r e c e i v e s from a s t a t e of r u i n are c h i e f l y these. I t gains i r r e g u l a r i t y i n i t s general form. . . . Secondly, a p i l e gains from a s t a t e of r u i n an i r -r e g u l a r i t y i n i t s p a r t s . . . . L a s t l y , a p i l e i n a s t a t e of r u i n r e c e i v e s the r i c h e s t decorations from the v a r i o u s c o l o u r s , which i t acquires from time.132 He i s a l s o concerned that the r u i n s u n i t e w i t h t h e i r s e t t i n g so as t o form a composed landscape. But the most b e a u t i f u l scenery we saw at Brecknor, i s about the abbey. We had a view of i t . . . from a l i t t l e bridge i n the neighbourhood. There we saw a sweet l i m p i d stream, g l i s t e n i n g over a bed of pebbles; and forming two or three cascades, as i t h u r r i e d t o the bridge. I t issued from a wood, wit h which i t s banks were b e a u t i f u l l y hung. Amidst the gloom rose the venerable remains of the abbey, t i n g e d w i t h a b r i g h t t a y , which discovered a p r o f u s i o n of r i c h Gothic workmanship; and contrasted the grey stone, of which the r u i n s are composed, wi t h the f e a t h e r i n g f o l i a g e , that f l o a t e d around them: . . . a l l these beauteous parts were formed i n t o a whole.133 In h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of both c a s t l e s and r u i n s then, G i l p i n ' s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l i s the picturesque. He i s i n t e r e s t e d * W i l l i a m Darby Templeman, The L i f e and Work of W i l l i a m  G i l p i n . . . (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1939), p.120. 1 3 2 N o r t h Wales Tour, pp. 121-122. 1 3 3Wye Tour, p. 52. 120 i n i r r e g u l a r i t y , concerned w i t h grouped masses, and i n s i s t e n t on viewing a r c h i t e c t u r e as part of a composed landscape. There are no i n t e l l e c t u a l c r i t e r i a , no c l a s s i c a l formal requirements, and few romantic c r i t e r i a . But i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t G i l p i n can apply picturesque c r i t e r i a f r e e l y only when he i s d i s c u s s -in g b u i l d i n g s which are not r e a l l y " a r c h i t e c t u r e " . The Gothic c a s t l e , as opposed t o the church, was b u i l t f o r a u t i l i t a r i a n f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than from an a e s t h e t i c i m p u l s e . 1 3 4 This f a c t o r 135 G i l p i n h i m s e l f noted. ' J And r u i n s can not be r e a l l y con-s i d e r e d as a r c h i t e c t u r e s i n c e t h e i r o r i g i n a l a r t i s t i c values have been l o s t . G i l p i n i s not able t o do what P r i c e and Knight l a t e r d o — s y s t e m a t i c a l l y apply picturesque values t o a r c h i t e c t u r e proper. A r c h i t e c t u r e i s , as Hussey comments, the most r a t i o n a l 137 and p h y s i c a l of the a r t s . > f A l s o , experimental poetry i s attempted w i t h ease; experimental a r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h great d i f f i c u l t y : a f a i l u r e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a major d i s a s t e r . So a r c h i t e c t u r e was the l a s t of the a r t s t o be a f f e c t e d by e i t h e r the picturesque or the r o m a n t i c . 1 3 ^ This t a r d i n e s s of a r c h i -t e c t u r e ' s i s perhaps r e f l e c t e d i n the strong conservative and 1 3 4 A l l s o p p , A General H i s t o r y of A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 193* 1 3 ^ S o u t h e r n Tour, pp. 86-88. 1 3°Paul Zucker, " R u i n s — a n A e s t h e t i c Hybrid," The  Jou r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s and Art C r i t i c i s m , XX (1961), 119. 1 3 7 T h e Picturesque, p. 5» 1 3 8 I b i d . 121 c l a s s i c a l bias of G i l p i n ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . C e r t a i n l y the B u r l i n g t o n - P a l l a d i a n i s the s t y l e w i t h which G i l p i n f e e l s most at ease and the s t y l e whose c r i t e r i a dominate h i s t h i n k -i n g . But h i s confused a p p r e c i a t i o n of the Gothic and h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of n o n - c l a s s i c a l c r i t e r i a t o minor a r c h i t e c t u r a l genres do i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s t a s t e i s more l i b e r a l than h i s t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t i c i s m would i n d i c a t e . As a man of t a s t e he refuses t o be bound too se v e r e l y by the c o n s i s t e n c i e s that would bind an a e s t h e t i c i a n . CHAPTER ¥1 GILPIN'S CRITICISM OF GARDENING In h i s d i s c u s s i o n s of the a r t of gardening G i l p i n g ives f u r t h e r proof that he i s " i n v o l v e d i n perpetual compromise." 1 His b a s i c c r i t i c a l technique i s again the defence of the non-c l a s s i c a l w i t h the weapons of n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . The " n a t u r a l garden" was, as n e a r l y a l l i t s biographers have s a i d , a r e -a c t i o n against the i m p o s i t i o n on the garden of c l a s s i c a l s t a n d a r d s — " f o r m a l and r e g u l a r design, symmetry, s i m p l i c i t y 2 and the r e s t . . . ." I t was, i n f a c t , based on the a e s t h e t i c 3 p r i n c i p l e of i r r e g u l a r i t y , a p r i n c i p l e d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o c l a s s i c a l precept. And t h i s i s the garden th a t G i l p i n defends, though not on the basis of i t s p l e a s i n g i r r e g u l a r i t y . He proves that the new t a s t e i n the l a y i n g out of grounds i s completely i n accord w i t h n e o - c l a s s i c a l a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s . And he does t h i s so w e l l that he almost convinces me that the n a t u r a l garden i s an e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l a r t form. There can be no doubt about G i l p i n ' s complete approval of the n a t u r a l garden. "About the beginning of t h i s present "'"Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London: Putnam's, 1927), p. 114. 2 Arthur 0. Lovejoy, "The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l and the Return t o Nature," Essays i n the H i s t o r y of Ideas (New York: Putnam's, I960), p. 164. See a l s o Lovejoy, "The Chinese O r i g i n of Romanticism," Essays, pp. 99-102. 3 Lovejoy, "The F i r s t Gothic R e v i v a l , " Essays, p. 155. 122 123 century appeared f i r s t the present t a s t e i n improving gardens and pleasure grounds. . . . " 4 This present t a s t e i s not only c o r r e c t but e x c l u s i v e l y so; of the time before i t s a r r i v a l G i l p i n says: "Taste, however, then was not. . . ."^ The o l d a r c h i t e c t u r a l gardens, "with r e g u l a r cascades, spouting foun-t a i n s , f l i g h t s of t e r r a c e s , and other achievements," 0 he c h a r a c t e r i z e s as "formal and i l l c o n t r i v e d , " graced w i t h 7 "every s o r t of expensive deformity." The new gardens are "simple, easy, and n a t u r a l , " and "a species of landscape, which no country, but England, can d i s p l a y i n such perfection.'^ The p e r f e c t i o n that the E n g l i s h have achieved i s the r e s u l t of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w nature: "In England alone the model of nature i s a d o p t e d . " 1 0 Conformity t o nature was,, Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, . . . on Several P a r t s of Great B r i t a i n ; P a r t i c u l a r l y the  High-Lands of Scotland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : S c o t t i s h Tour] (London, 1789), I I , 142. 5 "Observations, on Several P a r t s of the Counties of Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex . . . ," Observations, on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and Essex. Also on  Several Parts of North Wales; R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Eastern Tour] (London, 1809), p. 41. Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, . . . on Several P a r t s of England; P a r t i c u l a r l y the Mountains and Lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : North-ern Tour] "(London, 1786), It~1T. 7 I b i d . , I , 44; see a l s o S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 81-85. Northern Tour, I , 9. °Northern Tour, I , 9. I b i d . 124 as I i n d i c a t e d i n the chapter on p a i n t i n g , both a primary-p r i n c i p l e of n e o - c l a s s i c i s m and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e v o l t against n e o - c l a s s i c a l s t a n d a r d s . 1 1 Pevsner suggests t h a t the p r i n c i p l e was used by the advocates of the n a t u r a l garden as the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h o r t i c u l t u r a l romanticism: "But i n gardening the very term i m i t a t i o n of nature was bound t o create q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . To be n a t u r a l i n a gar-12 den e v i d e n t l y was t o re - c r e a t e nature untouched by man." This theory was probably not he l d by any landscape gardener; i t i s c e r t a i n l y not G i l p i n ' s theory. G i l p i n assigns to the precept " f o l l o w nature" the same e s s e n t i a l l y n e o - c l a s s i c s i g -n i f i c a n c e that Pope assigns i t i n An Essay of C r i t i c i s m . G i l p i n d e f i n i t e l y does not b e l i e v e what l a t e r theor-i s t s were t o suggest, that the n a t u r a l garden can be a matter 13 of chance or picturesque n e g l e c t . Nature may be the model, but nature l e f t t o h e r s e l f produces confusion, or at l e a s t produces something other than a garden. No, the garden may be "simple, easy and n a t u r a l , " but must not be w i l d and un-c o n t r o l l e d . T a l k i n g of W i l l i a m Ashburnam's seat, G i l p i n hopes 11 See Arthur 0 . Lovejoy, "'Nature' as A e s t h e t i c Norm," Essays t p. 6 9 . 12 Nikolaus Pevsner, "The Genesis of the Picturesque," The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, XCVI (1944), 146. 13 See H.F. C l a r k , The E n g l i s h Landscape Garden (London: P l e i a d e s Books, 194$), p. "217 125 t h a t the grounds w i l l be w e l l l a i d out. For though the grounds are as yet neglected, they are "capable of great im-provement"; they are indeed "capable of r e c e i v i n g a l l the beauties of n a t u r e . " 1 4 This sounds r a t h e r senseless. What have they now but " a l l the beauties of nature" (such as they a r e ) ; what w i l l they r e c e i v e from improvement but a l l the beauties of garden a r t ? Obviously G i l p i n b e l i e v e s t h a t the w e l l l a i d out garden i s ". . . Nature s t i l l , but Nature  methodiz'd." 1^ G i l p i n a l s o e x p l a i n s how the gardener should methodize. The method i s t o "to improve nature by h e r s e l f ; t o c o l l e c t ideas of the most b e a u t i f u l scenery, and t o adapt them to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , p reserving at the same time the n a t u r a l l 6 character of each scene." This statement, l i k e Pope's, i n -d i c a t e s a b e l i e f that "nature i n i t s ' n a t u r a l ' s t a t e can be 17 a e s t h e t i c a l l y improved." And G i l p i n emphasizes that t h i s i s h i s b e l i e f by quoting w i t h approval: " T i s t h i n e [the gar-18 dener's] alone/ To mend, not change her f e a t u r e s . " The mended i s more pe r f e c t than the w i l d : Observations on the Coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [abbrevia-t i o n : Southern" Tour] (London, 1804), P~ 58. "^Alexander Pope, "An Essay on C r i t i c i s m , " 1. 89, P a s t o r a l Poetry and "An Essay on C r i t i c i s m , " ed. E. Audra and Aubrey W i l l i a m s "[London: Methuen, 1961), p. 249. l 6 S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 142. 17 Paul I l i e , "Picturesque Beauty i n Spain and England: A e s t h e t i c Rapports Between Jovellanos and G i l p i n , " J o u r n a l of  A e s t h e t i c s and Art C r i t i c i s m , XIX (1960-61), 171. -^Northern Tour, I , 57. 126 As the park i s a scene e i t h e r planted by a r t , o r , i f n a t u r a l l y woody, a r t i f i c i a l l y improved, we expect a beauty, and contrast i n i t s clumps which we do not look f o r i n the w i l d scenes of nature. We fexpect t o see i t ' s lawns, and t h e i r appendages, contrasted w i t h each other, i n shape, s i z e , and d i s p o s i t i o n ; from which a v a r i e t y of a r t i f i c i a l , yet n a t u r a l scenes w i l l a r i s e . We expect that when t r e e s are l e f t standing as i n d i v i d u a l s , they should be the most b e a u t i f u l of t h e i r k i n d , elegant and w e l l balanced. We expect that a l l o f f e n s i v e trumpery, and a l l the rough l u x u r i a n c e of undergrowth, should be removed; unless where i t i s necessary t o t h i c k e n , or connect a scene; or hide some s t a r i n g boundary.19 This passage c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t G i l p i n b e l i e v e s the aim of gardening i s t o p e r f e c t nature, "to r e a l i z e the i d e a l beauty 20 which we only glimpse i n nature as she a c t u a l l y i s . " The gardener i s , according t o G i l p i n ' s theory, t r y i n g to create t h a t same i d e a l nature t h a t the p a i n t e r i s t r y i n g to capture i n mimetic a r t . The gardener's nature i s thus that fundamental n e o - c l a s s i c nature, what Christopher Hussey c a l l s "the C h r i s t i a n humanist concept of nature derived from A r i s t o t l e , of an immanent f o r c e always s t r i v i n g t o produce p e r f e c t i o n of form, but always d e f l e c t e d from p e r f e c t i o n by e v i l 'accidents' u n t i l enabled t o do so by man's d i v i n e l y 21 ordered r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s . " G i l p i n does not a c t u a l l y s t a t e t h a t the garden must be c o n t r o l l e d by man's r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s , 19 Remarks on Forest Scenery, and Other Woodland Views, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . , 3rd ed. (London, 1808), I , 192-193. 20 R.L. B r e t t , The T h i r d E a r l of Shaftesbury: A Study i n Eighteenth-Century L i t e r a r y Theory (London: Hutchinson's U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1951), p. 20TI 21 Christopher Hussey, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " C a p a b i l i t y Brown, Dorothy Stroud (London: Country L i f e , 1950), p. 15. 127 but the p r i n c i p l e i s inherent i n h i s theory of methodizing. The method i n v o l v e s s e l e c t i o n , d e c i s i o n as t o what are nature's most b e a u t i f u l forms; and composition, arrangement of these forms i n the most b e a u t i f u l manner. And the b a s i s of s e l e c -t i o n and composition i s an i d e a l . This i d e a l i s more empiric-a l l y conceived and much c l o s e r t o unimproved nature than was the i d e a l of Le Notre; G i l p i n does not b e l i e v e t h a t s t r a i g h t l i n e s , c i r c u l a r seas, and geometrical t r e e s embody the perfec-22 t i o n t o which nature i s c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v i n g . But although i t i s not based on mathematics, h i s i s s t i l l a r a t i o n a l l y conceived i d e a l * i t i s nature brought i n t o conformity w i t h the r u l e s of a r t . One of the f i r s t d u t i e s of G i l p i n ' s improver i s t o remove deformity. Even a scene of such s u p e r i o r n a t u r a l beauty as Keswick needs some d e f o r m i t i e s removed: But notwithstanding the beauties of nature; i t may happen that some d e f o r m i t i e s , even i n her operations may e x i s t . We o f t e n observe the craggy p o i n t s and summits of mountains not w e l l formed; and the mountain i t s e l f not e x a c t l y shaped. With these t h i n g s however we must r e s t s a t i s f i e d . — Y e t sometimes, i n s m a l l e r matters, a n a t u r a l deformity may be done away. An awkward knole, on the foreground may offend; which a r t may remove or at l e a s t correct.23 And he continues i n t h i s v e i n . The suggestions are very r e -s t r a i n e d and modest, and G i l p i n f e e l s o b l i g e d t o say t h a t Derek C l i f f o r d , A H i s t o r y of Garden Design (New York: Praeger, 1963), p. 12$. 2 3 S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 163-164. i 2 a nature does not o f t e n produce deformity. But the concern f o r removing deformity i m p l i e s a c l e a r conception of form. The mountain and the foreground have deviated from some i d e a l form i n the a r t i s t ' s mind. The q u a l i t i e s of i d e a l form i n i n d i v i d u a l o bjects of nature G i l p i n i n d i c a t e s i n s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n s . In Forest Scenery he says of t r e e s : "The same r u l e s which e s t a b l i s h elegance i n other s u b j e c t s , e s t a b l i s h i t i n these. There must be the same harmony of p a r t s ; the same sweeping l i n e ; the pi same c o n t r a s t ; the same ease and freedom." Later i n the same book he gives r u l e s f o r judging clumps, and s p e c i f i e s 25 such c r i t e r i a as balance, c o n t r a s t , and p r o p o r t i o n . ' And i n the Northern Tour he discourses on the c r i t e r i a by which lakes 26 are t o be judged. I t i s evident from these d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t G i l p i n i s being s o p h i s t i c a l when he says, "In a r t s , we judge by the r u l e s of a r t . In nature, we have no c r i t e r i o n but the forms of nature . . . i n judging of a t r e e , or a mountain; we judge by the most b e a u t i f u l forms of each, which nature hath 27 given us." The d e c i s i o n as t o which are the most b e a u t i f u l forms i s made on the b a s i s of the r u l e s of a r t . The most b e a u t i f u l are those which are n a t u r a l l y i n accord w i t h the r u l e s . 2 4 i , 3. 2 5 I , 179-187. 2 o I , 93-101. 2 7 F o r e s t Scenery, I I , 262. 129 But the gardener, a f t e r he has c o l l e c t e d h i s i d e a s , must "adapt them t o d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , preserving at the 28 same time the n a t u r a l character of each scene." This dictum i s c l e a r l y an echo of the c l a s s i c a l d o c t r i n e of decorum i n a r t . Decorum--what Bate describes as "the simultaneous 'preservation 29 and ennobling of the type'" —was a r u l e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a p p l i e d t o the d e p i c t i o n of human character or form, but i t seems t o have been appropriated by the t h e o r e t i c i a n s of the landscape 30 school of gardening. G i l p i n i n s i s t s t h a t the character of 31 a scene not be a l t e r e d but be c l a r i f i e d and i n t e n s i f i e d . He p r a i s e s p a r t i c u l a r l y at Leasowes Shenstone's success i n 32 coherently c h a r a c t e r i z i n g h i s scenes. And when making sug-gestions f o r the improving of Fountains Abbey and i t s sur-roundings, he f i r s t decides on the r u l i n g character of the scene: " . . . the idea which such a scene n a t u r a l l y suggests, i s t h a t of r e t i r e m e n t — t h e h a b i t a t i o n of c h e e r f u l s o l i t u d e . " And he a s s e r t s : " S o l i t u d e t h e r e f o r e being the r e i g n i n g i d e a 33 of the scene, every accompaniment should tend t o impress i t . " ^ S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 142. 29 Walter Jackson Bate, From C l a s s i c t o Romantic: Premises of Taste i n Eighteenth-Century England (New York: Harpers, 1961), p. 14• 30 See Ralph Dutton, The E n g l i s h Garden (London: B a t s f o r d , 1937), p. 84. 3Northern Tour, I , $7. 3 2 I b i d . , I , 54. 3 3 I b i d . , I I , 179. 130 This sounds very much l i k e Dryden i n s i s t i n g that "when a poet has given the d i g n i t y of a kin g t o one of h i s persons, i n a l l h i s a c t i o n s and speeches t h a t person must discover majesty, magnanimity, and je a l o u s y of power, because these are s u i t a b l e t o the general manners of a k i n g . " The concern f o r a coherently c h a r a c t e r i z e d scene r e -ve a l s t h a t G i l p i n i s not s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h a t which i s v i s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e , or wi t h t h a t which i s capable of arousing pleasant sensations; he i s only s a t i s f i e d w i t h what i s a r a t i o n a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e part of ordered r e a l i t y . That t h i s i s so i s a l s o proven by h i s i n s i s t e n c e on p r o p r i e t y , a r u l e subordinate and c o n t r i b u t o r y t o the r u l e of decorum. G i l p i n o bjects t o temples 3 5 i n the park but r e q u i r e s them i n pleasure grounds;^' he t h i n k s a s h a t t e r e d spruce picturesque but does not a l l o w i t on the lawn; he p r a i s e s the bridge and o b e l i s k at Blenheim but 3 7 i n s i s t s t h a t anywhere e l s e they would be o s t e n t a t i o u s . The ba s i s of a l l these pronouncements i s h i s c o n v i c t i o n of the importance of p r o p r i e t y i n garden arrangement and ornamenta-t i o n . As he says i n the S c o t t i s h Tour: Thus an elegant path round the environs of a house, where you would n a t u r a l l y expect the decorating hand of a r t , i s p l e a s i n g : p r o p r i e t y g i v e s i t beauty. But i n a w i l d rocky 3 4 " P r e f a c e , " T r o i l u s and C r e s s i d a , quoted from Bate, p. 15. 3 ^ F o r e s t Scenery, I , 207. 3°Ibid., p. 92. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 193. 131 scene, where you expect no human d w e l l i n g ; nor anything but the naked p r i n t of nature's f o o t , a l l appearance of a r t i f i c i a l ornament offends.38 Here i s indeed a non-sensational a e s t h e t i c : p r o p r i e t y creates beauty. G i l p i n a l s o i n s i s t s on v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , or p r o b a b i l i t y , i n the l a y i n g out and ornamenting of grounds. The park road should wind, . . . but l e t i t not take any deviation,-which i s not w e l l accounted f o r . To have the convenience of winding along a v a l l e y , or passing a commodious bridg e , or avoiding a piece of water, any t r a v e l l e r would n a t u r a l l y wish t o deviate a l i t t l e ; and obs t a c l e s of t h i s k i n d , i f necessary, must be interposed. Mr. Brown was ofte n happy i n c r e a t i n g these a r t i f i c i a l o bstructions.39 S i m i l a r l y , a triumphal arch on the summit of a h i l l i s "gro-t e s q u e l y " placed because i t i s not l o c a t e d where a procession would have g o n e . 4 0 And G i l p i n warns the gardener that i n the p l a c i n g of an ornamental bridge . . . you must f o l l o w the ide a of p r o b a b i l i t y (which i s nature as f a r as i t goes) and throw the bridge over some p a r t , where i t appears r e a l l y t o be wanted. Your path must l e a d over i t ; or at l e a s t be d i r e c t e d t o some s a f e r place i n i t ' s neighbourhood, that the danger of the bridge may appear p l a i n l y t o be the cause of i t ' s d e s e r t i o n . 4 1 3$ > S c o t t i s h Tour, I , 121. 3 9 F o r e s t Scenery, I , 194. ^ O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Western P a r t s of England, Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty. . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Western Tour], 2nd ed. (London, 1808), pp. 100-101. 4 1 S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 171-172. 132 Again G i l p i n i s concerned about the r a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n of the observer. G i l p i n a l s o i n s i s t s that the garden meet c e r t a i n com-p o s i t i o n a l requirements. The gardener must take care t h a t a l l h i s handiwork i s i n accord w i t h the compositional r u l e s ; he must a l s o g i v e compositional guidance t o nature h e r s e l f , f o r "Nature i s always great i n design but unequal i n composi-t i o n . " G i l p i n ' s e s s e n t i a l concern here i s th a t the garden produce a u n i f i e d whole. The gardener i s " i m i t a t i n g nature" i n her own medium. But a c t u a l nature i s , according t o G i l p i n , o f t e n c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y f a u l t y : " . . . seldom i s she so c o r r e c t i n composition as t o produce an harmonious whole." The gardener must improve her so as t o produce an harmonious whole; he thereby i m i t a t e s the e s s e n t i a l order of r e a l i t y . G i l p i n o b v i o u s l y considers gardening an a r t of i d e a l i m i t a t i o n . Gmlpin c o n s t a n t l y discusses the garden as a s i n g l e , u n i f i e d composition. He cannot accept the "gardenesque" garden, a place w i t h s e v e r a l s p e c i a l i z e d g a r d e n s — I t a l i a n , Japanese, r u s t i c , f l o w e r , h e r b — e a c h elbowing the other and 1 2 Observations on the Riv e r Wye, and Several Pa r t s of South Wales, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : Wye Tour] (London, 1782), p. 18. He means that i n nature's scenes there i s u n i t y of s u b j e c t , a cl o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the elements; but the elements are not arranged so as t o produce a u n i f i e d whole. 4 3 I b i d . 133 each handled as a separate e n t i t y . 4 4 Of Hagley, one of the most celebrated gardens of h i s day, G i l p i n says, "The plan of Hagley, ( i f there be any) i s so confused that i t i s impossible to describe i t . There i s no coherency of parts. . . ." What would he have said of Ashridge, with i t s seventeen inde-pendent gardens? Any i n d i v i d u a l element, no matter how b e a u t i f u l , i s banished i f i t d i s t r a c t s attention from the composition as a whole. Shrubs, flowers, a r t i f i c i a l ornaments, are allowed by G i l p i n only i f they are properly subordinated. Too many buildings " d i s t r a c t the eye, and become separate spots i n -i ft stead of parts of a whole." And " . . . flowering shrubs may have t h e i r elegance and beauty: but i n [park] scenes l i k e t h i s , they are only splendid patches, which injure the grandeur and s i m p l i c i t y of the whole." It i s inte r e s t i n g to note, by the way, that the garden must not only be an orderly whole, but i t s organization pattern must be apparent. "A work of art (be i t what i t may, house, picture, book, or garden,) however bea u t i f u l i n i t ' s under-parts, loses h a l f i t ' s value, i f the general scope of i t i s This type of garden design began with Repton and dominated the nineteenth century. Butchart's gardens are a f i n e example of the gardenesque manner of the laying out of grounds. ^Northern Tour, I, 57. 4 6Western Tour, p. 157. 4 7Wye Tour, p. 42. 134 i d not obvious t o conception." On t h i s b a s i s G i l p i n c r i t i c i z e s Leasowes; he d i d not immediately comprehend i t s general scope: "We should have been c a r r i e d f i r s t i n t o the higher p a r t s ; where we might have had a view of the whole at once. We should then have seen t h a t i t i s , what i s properly c a l l e d , an LQ adorned farm. . . ."^' Thus the garden's r a t i o n a l order i s only part of the matter; the viewer's a e s t h e t i c response i s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y dependent upon h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l comprehen-s i o n of the order d i s p l a y e d . A l l t h i s sounds r a t h e r l i k e Le Notre's great p r i n c i p l e " — t h a t the whole extent of the enor-mous garden should be y i s i b l e at a gasp; a c c o r d i n g l y whatever v a r i e t y there might be w i t h i n the parts the pa r t s themselves 50 were t o be subordinated t o the whole." G i l p i n uses the term "harmony" i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of gardens. By harmony he seems t o mean a combination of u n i t y and p r o p r i e t y , w i t h perhaps a few other i n g r e d i e n t s . The p r i n c i p a l denotation of the term i s agreement of p a r t s : " I t i s among the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s which should guide every improver, t h a t a l l contiguous objects should s u i t each other, and l i k e -wise the s i t u a t i o n i n which they are placed."'* 1 On the grounds of harmony he excludes many "picturesque" objects from the garden. ^ N o r t h e r n Tour, I , 57. 4 9 I b i d . , p. 52. 5°Clifford, Garden Design, p. 73. 51 Southern Tour, p. 45. 135 Whether these maladies i n t r e e s ever produce beauty i n adorned nature, I much doubt. Kent was hardy enough t o plant a withered t r e e , but the e r r o r was too g l a r i n g f o r i m i t a t i o n . Objects i n every mode of composition should harmonize. . . .52 Again he has no doubts about the s u i t a b i l i t y of applying the r u l e s of a r t t o the garden. The garden i s a work of a r t , despite i t s n a t u r a l medium. G i l p i n ' s comments on gardening r e a f f i r m h i s devotion t o the p r i n c i p l e of s i m p l i c i t y . S i m p l i c i t y , i n the garden as elsewhere, i s "conformity t o nature." But f o r G i l p i n s i m p l i c -i t y i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h formal and r e g u l a r design: As a contrast t o parks thus l a i d out i n the s i m p l i c i t y of nature, l e t us j u s t throw our eyes over a park l a i d out wit h the f o r m a l i t y of a r t . The comparison w i l l not i n j u r e the p r i n c i p l e s we e s t a b l i s h e d . "From Vauvrey r e c r o s s i n g the Seine, we come t o Muids. This chateau stands on a r i s i n g ground on the north side of i t ; and commands a f i n e prospect, having two long avenues of t r e e s , running down t o the r i v e r . A d j o i n i n g t o the house are pleasant gardens, and a paddock planted w i t h timber t r e e s i n the form of a star."53 S i m p l i c i t y i s , i n t h i s passage, opposed not t o complexity but t o f o r m a l i t y . And i n another passage he i n d i c a t e s t h a t s i m p l i c i t y i s the r e s u l t of s k i l l f u l a r t i s t r y : The house [Trentham] stands low; at the bottom of a woody h i l l , on the banks of the Trent, and tho there i s nothing very p e c u l i a r l y s t r i k i n g i n the s i t u a t i o n ; yet i t c o n s i s t s Forest Scenery, I , 10. CO ' ^ I b i d . , pp. 197-198. G i l p i n acknowledges the quota-t i o n as being from D u c a i r e l ' s Norman A n t i q u i t i e s , p. 42. 136 of considerable v a r i e t y i n point of ground, wood, and water. Of a l l t h i s Mr. Brown, who was c a l l e d i n t o improve i t , has made masterly use; and has adapted w i t h great judgement h i s improvements to the ground. The contrivance i s more v a r i e d , than the works of t h i s a r t i s t commonly are; and the r e s u l t i s , a scene of great s i m p l i c i t y and beauty.54 In t h i s instance v a r i e t y i s the source of s i m p l i c i t y . Such a theory would make no sense t o a c l a s s i c i s t . C l e a r l y G i l p i n means by s i m p l i c i t y not freedom from i n t r i c a c y or complexity of composition (Vauvrey has t h i s ) but an apparently a r t l e s s i n f o r m a l i t y . The terminology i s c l a s s i c a l , but the meaning has been changed t o defend the n a t u r a l garden r a t h e r than the formal garden. G i l p i n ' s handling of the r u l e of s i m p l i c i t y i s i n d i c a -t i v e of h i s ambiguous c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o the garden. The garden he advocates i s undoubtedly nature methodized, improved, brought i n t o conformity w i t h the r u l e s of a r t . As such i t i s a r a t i o n a l l y conceived i d e a l , the product of e s s e n t i a l l y neo-c l a s s i c a l concepts of nature, t r u t h , and beauty. But the r u l e s t o which the garden must conform, while a l s o e s s e n t i a l l y n e o - c l a s s i c a l , are presented by G i l p i n i n such a way as to al l o w the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t l y n o n - c l a s s i c a l elements. For i n s t a n c e , G i l p i n says that the gardener must s e l e c t the most b e a u t i f u l i n d i v i d u a l objects as the elements of h i s composition. The objects are s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r conformity t o such r u l e s of a r t as p r o p o r t i o n , balance, harmony ^ S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 182. 137 of p a r t s . But the r u l e s t o which they must conform do not in c l u d e r e g u l a r i t y . And thus the r e v o l u t i o n a r y element i s introduced: the objects G i l p i n s e l e c t s are i n v a r i a b l y i r r e g u l a r . He objects t o the " s p r u c e - f i r " as an ornamental t r e e because ". . . i t i s r a t h e r disagreeable t o see a r e p e t i -t i o n of these feathery s t r a t a , b e a u t i f u l as they are, i n 55 r e g u l a r order, from the bottom of a t r e e t o the top." The same c r i t e r i o n a p p l i e s t o the clump: "No r e g u l a r form i s p l e a s i n g . A group on the side of a h i l l , or i n any s i t u a t i o n , where the eye can more e a s i l y i n v e s t i g a t e i t s shape, must be 56 circumscribed by an i r r e g u l a r l i n e . . . ." And s i m i l a r remarks are made i n r e l a t i o n t o lawns, l a k e s , and cascades. G i l p i n i s applying the r u l e s of a r t t o forms that are other 57 than " i n some s o r t r e g u l a r . " He i s r e j e c t i n g Wren's t h e s i s that "Geometrical Figures are n a t u r a l l y more b e a u t i f u l than any other i r r e g u l a r ; i n t h i s a l l consent, as to a Law of N a t u r e . " 5 g A l s o , the c l a s s i c i s m inherent i n G i l p i n ' s applying to gardening the p r i n c i p l e of decorum i s often q u a l i f i e d by the nature of the r u l i n g i d e a he wishes t o c l a r i f y . He suggests ^ F o r e s t Scenery, I , 92. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 186. 57 W i l l i a m Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus. Quoted by Lovejoy, "The Chinese O r i g i n of Romanticism," Essays, p. 111. 58 ? Christopher Wren. Quoted by Lovejoy, "The Chinese O r i g i n of Romanticism," Essays, p. 99. 138 that the ideas of w i l d n e s s , n e g l e c t , and d e s o l a t i o n be dominant i n improved " w i l d park scenes" and i n the improvements around 59 r u i n s . 7 Though t h i s i s a l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e of decorum, the r u l i n g ideas are ones which no t r u e c l a s s i c i s t would wish t o c u l t i v a t e . They are opposed t o the c l a s s i c a l 60 enjoyment of c l a r i t y , completeness, and refinement. S i m i l a r l y , G i l p i n uses the r u l e of p r o p r i e t y f o r sub-v e r s i v e ends. He makes i t an argument against the r e g u l a r i t y of the formal garden: "A house i s an a r t i f i c i a l o b j e c t : and the scenery around i t , must, i n some degree, partake of a r t , P r o p r i e t y r e q u i r e s i t . . . . But i f i t partakes of a r t , as a l l i e d t o the mansion; i t should a l s o partake of nature, as a l l i e d t o the c o u n t r y . " o l And he goes on from here t o defend the i r r e g u l a r garden as the only one proper f o r a country house. He concludes by saying that few gardens are as w i l d and i r r e g u l a r as the r u l e of p r o p r i e t y demands. But G i l p i n cannot escape the f a c t t h a t even i n the n a t u r a l garden the improver must give compositional guidance to nature. This theory i m p l i e s , as I suggested e a r l i e r , that man i s capable of a e s t h e t i c a l l y improving w i l d nature. How-ever, G i l p i n manages to j u s t i f y man's improving nature, w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g a romantic reverence f o r the unimproved: 5 9 S e e S c o t t i s h Tour,I, 24; Northern Tour, I I , 179. °°See Agnes Eleanor Addison, Romanticism and the Gothic R e v i v a l (New York: Smith, 1938), p. 145. 6 l Northern Tour, I , x i x . 139 The case i s , the immensity of Nature i s beyond human com-prehension. She works on a vast s c a l e ; and, no doubt, harmoniously, i f her schemes could be comprehended. The a r t i s t i n the mean time, i s confined t o a f|p_an.62 Therefore, ". . . as we can view only detached p a r t s , we must not wonder, i f we seldom see i n any of them our confined ideas of a whole." So man's a b i l i t y t o a e s t h e t i c a l l y improve nature i s the r e s u l t of nature's e s s e n t i a l s u p e r i o r i t y . G i l p i n i s indeed having h i s cake and eating i t too. G i l p i n seems determined t o t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i f y what-ever q u a l i t i e s he l i k e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t he r e f r a i n s from j u s t i f y i n g picturesqueness i n garden scenes. He does not r e q u i r e i n the garden the roughness and sudden v a r i a t i o n that he t h i n k s d i s t i n c t i v e of picturesqueness. In the Northern Tour he e x p l a i n s that ". . .we cannot w e l l admit the embellished scene among objects purely picturesque. I t i s too t r i m , and neat f o r the p e n c i l . . . . " ^ But he does not condemn i t because of t h i s : " I t has beauties p e c u l i a r t o i t -S6l^f*« • • • ^ But G i l p i n does, q u i t e understandably, a l l o w h i s i n t e r -6 2Wye Tour, p. 18. "Observations on Several Pa r t s of North Wales; Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . ," Observations on . . . Cambridge, N o r f o l k , S u f f o l k , and EssexT~Also on Several P a r t s of North Wales; R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty . . . [ a b b r e v i a t i o n : North Wales Tour] Tlondon, 1809), p. 175. 64 T \T, xv. 65 I b i d . , p. x v i . 140 est i n the picturesque t o i n f l u e n c e somewhat h i s theory of garden design. Many of h i s p r a c t i c a l suggestions f o r the l a y i n g out of grounds are r e l a t e d t o p r i n c i p l e s of picturesque beauty. And some of these ideas l a t e r became key elements i n the systems of the "picturesque garden" t h e o r i s t s . and i n the p r a c t i c e of early-nineteenth-century gardeners. For i n s t a n c e , G i l p i n t h i n k s that the w e l l - l a i d - o u t garden, though not picturesque, should be formed on the same general p r i n c i p l e s as the painted landscape: In the embellished pleasure-ground . . . , tho a l l i s neat, and e l e g a n t — f a r too neat and elegant f o r the use of the p e n c i l — y e t , i f i t be w e l l l a i d out, i t e x h i b i t s the l i n e s , and p r i n c i p l e s of landscape; and i s worth the study of the picturesque t r a v e l l e r . 6 6 This b e l i e f f o l l o w s q u i t e l o g i c a l l y from G i l p i n ' s r e q u i r i n g that the r u l e s of a r t be considered i n the l a y i n g out of grounds. I t a n t i c i p a t e s the theory of S i r Uvedale P r i c e that . . . gardening i s not t o i m i t a t e p a r t i c u l a r p i c t u r e s , or even t o reproduce the same k i n d of scenes as are found i n p i c t u r e s ; r a t h e r , the o r i g i n a l compositions formed by im-provers from the elements of scenery are t o be guided by the general p r i n c i p l e s of painting.°7 G i l p i n seems t o be, i n f a c t , tending toward P r i c e ' s theory 66 "Essay I I . On Picturesque T r a v e l , " F i v e Essays, on  Picturesque Subjects; With a Poem on Landscape P a i n t i n g (London, 1808), p. 4$. 'Walter John H i p p i e , The B e a u t i f u l , the Sublime, and  the Picturesque i n Eighteenth-Century B r i t i s h A e s t h e t i c Theory (Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s Univ. Press, 1957), p. 215. 141 that these p r i n c i p l e s are e n t i r e l y independent of painting and are "the general p r i n c i p l e s on which the ef f e c t of a l l v i s i b l e 68 objects must depend, and to which i t must be re f e r r e d . " G i l p i n also seems to anticipate Price's intense concern fo r "insensible t r a n s i t i o n " as a p r i n c i p l e of v i s u a l effect and "the justest and most comprehensive p r i n c i p l e of the beautiful 69 i n landscape." 7 G i l p i n frequently mentions, f o r instance, the value of shrubbery and undergrowth i n connecting trees to the 70 grass. But G i l p i n does not share Price's violent objection to the Kent-Brown arrangement of neat clumps on a shaven lawn. On one occasion he defends the arrangement, asserting that ". . . i n the a r t i f i c i a l lawn we commonly require neatness; 71 so that the rude connections of nature are excluded."' He i n s i s t s that the i r r e g u l a r shape of the clump and the ground-l e v e l branches of some shrubbery give adequate connection. The p r i n c i p l e of insensible t r a n s i t i o n G i l p i n sees as applicable to the laying out of the grounds as a whole. The grounds should "be considered as a connecting thread between the r e g u l a r i t y of the house, and the freedom of the natural 68 Uvedale Price, "On the Picturesque," S i r Uvedale  Price on the Picturesque . . . by Thomas Dick Lauder (Edin-burgh and London, 1$42), p. 64. 69 Price, "On A r t i f i c i a l Water," SAr Uvedale Price on  the Picturesque," p. 29$. 70 See f o r instance Forest Scenery, I, 192 and I I , 73. 7 1 F o r e s t Scenery, I I , 126. 142 scene. it 72 Therefore, "as the garden . . approaches nearer the house than the park, i t takes of course a higher p o l i s h . " " I f the scene be l a r g e i t throws o f f a r t by degrees, the more i t recedes from the mansion, and approaches the country." This p r i n c i p l e of t r a n s i t i o n i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o , and i m p l i c i t l y a c r i t i c i s m o f , Brown's methods. ( P r i c e l a t e r made the condemnation e x p l i c i t . ) Brown handled the e n t i r e estate as a neat and t i d y , a l b e i t g r a c e f u l l y i r r e g u l a r , park. He d i s t r i b u t e d clumps, b e l t s , and l a k e s on an otherwise c l o s e -shaven t e r r a i n ; the house was, as C l i f f o r d says, simply placed i n the middle of t h i s park " l i k e a tea-box put down on the 75 middle of a sheet of green b a i z e . " G i l p i n ' s theory places a f a r g r e a t e r emphasis on the beauties of w i l d nature, and i t i m p l i e s a b e l i e f t h a t man and h i s gardens are somewhat of i n t r u d e r s i n the n a t u r a l landscape. Man must r e l a t e h i s im-provements t o the beauties of the n a t u r a l countryside. The theory i n d i c a t e s , I t h i n k , a weakening i n man's b e l i e f i n h i s s u p e r i o r i t y over nature and i n h i s a b i l i t y t o improve i t . In any case, G i l p i n ' s concern f o r r e l a t i n g the garden t o the countryside i s an i n t e r e s t i n g l y e a r l y statement of a p r i n c i p l e which has had enormous i n f l u e n c e on the p r a c t i c e of gardening 72 Northern Tour, I , x i v . 73 Forest Scenery, I , 196. 74 Northern Tour, I , xv. 75 Garden Design, p. 174. 143 i n both the nineteenth and our own century. G i l p i n i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n picturesque views from the house and from the paths and r i d i n g s of the park. In some instances G i l p i n even suggests that the r e a l purpose of the garden i s merely t o "add a p l e a s i n g foreground to the d i s t a n c e , " t o "break those d i s t a n t views i n t o p a r t s — t o form those parts i n t o the most b e a u t i f u l scenes, and t o e x h i b i t 77 them w i t h woody foregrounds t o the best advantage." And though he i s not of t e n t h i s extreme, he i s constant i n h i s b e l i e f that "A great house stands most nobly on an elevated 78 k n o l l , from whence i t may overlook the d i s t a n t country." G i l p i n i s i n s i s t e n t on a good view from the house because he genuinely f e e l s that n a t u r a l scenery i s p r e f e r a b l e t o the best l a i d out gardens. In f a c t , the only danger of having a spec-t a c u l a r view from the house would seem t o be t h a t "The grand n a t u r a l scenes w i l l always appear so s u p e r i o r t o the embel-l i s h e d a r t i f i c i a l one . . . t h a t one i s apt t o look contemp-79 tu o u s l y on the l a t t e r . " In view of the f a c t t h a t G i l p i n ' s theory of garden design i s based c h i e f l y on h i s acceptance of garden as "improved" nature, t h i s preference f o r w i l d nature seems i l l o g i c a l . And indeed there i s a c e r t a i n amount of Northern Tour, I , x i v . 7 7 F o r e s t Scenery, I I , 184-185. 7 S I b i d . , I , 190. 79 Northern Tour, I , x i i i . 144 i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t cannot be explained away. But G i l p i n does manage p a r t i a l l y t o r e c o n c i l e h i s two seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y a t t i t u d e s . He admits that the garden scene i s the more c o r r e c t ; but he e x p l a i n s that the n a t u r a l scene i s i n a grander s t y l e , i s , as i t were, of a s u p e r i o r genre. The w i l d scene i s l i k e "the works of a great l i t e r a r y genius, which c o n t a i n g r e a t e r b e a u t i e s , tho perhaps blended w i t h g r e a t e r d e f e c t s , than the laboured work of a l e s s e x a l t e d , 80 tho more c o r r e c t w r i t e r . " He says: "In w i l d scenes of nature we have grander e x h i b i t i o n s , but g r e a t e r d e f o r m i t i e s , 81 than are g e n e r a l l y met w i t h i n the p o l i s h e d works of a r t . " He does not deny that man can a e s t h e t i c a l l y improve nature, or that the garden i s more p e r f e c t than the mountain v a l l e y . I t i s simply that the grandeur of the l a t t e r may make the p e r f e c t i o n of the former seem i n s i g n i f i c a n t . However, G i l p i n i s not averse t o c o r r e c t i n g and improving even a sublime scene, i f such improvement i s p o s s i b l e . He devotes s e v e r a l pages t o 82 suggestions f o r the "improvement" of Keswick. Grand though i t i s , and t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r a b l e t o a p e r f e c t bowling green, Keswick s t i l l has c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r improvement. Thus G i l p i n manages t o maintain h i s "perpetual corn-go promise" p t o the awkward end. Having defended the n a t u r a l Forest Scenery, I I , 229. 8 1 I b i d . , I , 193. 8 2 S c o t t i s h Tour, I I , 161-171. ^Hussey, The P i c t u r e s q u e , p. 114. 145 garden by means of the r u l e s of a r t , he then a s s e r t s the s u p e r i o r i t y of w i l d nature over a r t , only t o e n l i s t the a i d of a r t i n making w i l d nature even more s u p e r i o r . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n s of improving we see, perhaps more c l e a r l y than anywhere e l s e , the j u s t i c e of Hussey's "comical v i s i o n of the k i n d l y parson, f i r s t abasing h i m s e l f before nature as the source of a l l beauty and emotion; then g e t t i n g up and g i v i n g 84 her a l e s s o n i n deportment." g 4 I b i d . CHAPTER V I I CONCLUSION G i l p i n ' s c h i e f importance i s undoubtedly as popular-i z e r of the picturesque way of l o o k i n g at landscape. I t was he who f i r s t taught the fas h i o n a b l e world t o look at scenery as i f i t were an i n f i n i t e s e r i e s of more or l e s s well-composed landscape p a i n t i n g s . And, as Christopher Hussey has shown, t h i s mode of v i s i o n dominated f o r s e v e r a l decades the E n g l i s h -man's r e a c t i o n t o n a t u r e . 1 Also of importance i s G i l p i n ' s r o l e as a d v e r t i s i n g agent f o r the "romantic" scenery of the lake d i s t r i c t and the highlands of Scotland. On these aspects of h i s a c t i v i t y G i l p i n ' s biographers and c r i t i c s have concen-t r a t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m of the f i n e a r t s i s l e s s important than h i s c r i t i c i s m of nature i n th a t i t i s l e s s o r i g i n a l and was l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l . But i t i s none the l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t r e v e a l s some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s t hat were encountered by the man of t a s t e i n the l a s t three decades of the eighteenth century, a time of changing premises, changing a t t i t u d e s t o the a r t s , and changing t a s t e . G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c i s m i s rooted i n the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n and centered around c l a s s i c a l ^The Picturesque: Studies i n a Point of View (London: Putnam's, 1927), pp. 1-2. 146 147 p r i n c i p l e s . But many of h i s i d e a s , v a l u e s , and t a s t e s are d i f f e r e n t i n emphasis from, or d i r e c t l y opposed t o , those of c l a s s i c a l theory. He attempts t o r e c o n c i l e the c o n f l i c t i n g elements i n h i s c r i t i c i s m and form a coherent c r i t i c a l system. He i s not always s u c c e s s f u l , but h i s attempt i s an i n t e r e s t -ing chapter (or at l e a s t a paragraph) i n the h i s t o r y of c r i t i c i s m . G i l p i n ' s c r i t i c a l e c l e c t i c i s m i s i n d i c a t i v e of the ex-tent t o which " c l a s s i c a l " and "romantic" a t t i t u d e s were i n t e r -woven i n the c r i t i c i a l thought of the l a t e r eighteenth century. I t r e v e a l s the f l e x i b i l i t y and breadth of outlook that charac-t e r i z e d the eighteenth century's c r i t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . His c r i t i c i s m s t r e s s e s the f a c t that i n many respects romanticism i t s e l f grew out of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . I t a l s o r e v e a l s that sometimes a r t i s t i c t a s t e out-ran the a e s t h e t i c and c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s used t o j u s t i f y t h a t t a s t e . SOURCES CONSULTED Primary Sources A. G i l p i n Texts i n Order of F i r s t P u b l i c a t i o n G i l p i n , W i l l i a m . An Essay on P r i n t s . 5th ed. London, 1802. . Observations on the R i v e r Wye, and Several P a r t s of South Wales, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty; Made i n the Summer of the Year 1770. London, 1782. . Observations. R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, Made i n the Year 1772, on Several P a r t s of England; P a r t i c u l a r l y the Mountain's and Lakes of Cumberland and  Westmoreland. 2 v o l s . London, 1786. . Observations, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty, Made i n the Year 1776, on' Several P a r t s of Great  B r i t a i n ; P a r t i c u l a r l y the High-Lands of Scotland. 2 v o l s . London, 1789. . Remarks on Forest Scenery, and Other Woodland Views, R e l a t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty. I l l u s t r a t e d by the Scenes of New Forest i n Hampshire. 3rd ed. 2 v o l s . London, 1808. . Observations on the Western P a r t s of England, Rela-t i v e C h i e f l y t o Picturesque Beauty. To Which Are Added, a Few Remarks on the Beauties of the I s l e of Wight. 2nd ed. London, IMS. . 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