UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Musqueam Indian Reserve : a case study for community development purposes Kargbo, Marian Judith Tanner 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A5 K3.pdf [ 8.48MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104700.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104700-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104700-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104700-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104700-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104700-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104700-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104700-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104700.ris

Full Text

4 MUSQUEAM INDIAN RESERVE A Case Study f o r Community Development Purposes. by MARIAN JUDITH TANNER KARGBO T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1965 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y , I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t , c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n * D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8 5 C a n a d a i v -ABSTRACT T h i s year, the School of S o c i a l Work of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n i t i a t e d a f i e l d w o r k placement f o r a second year community o r g a n i z a t i o n student with the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. The community d i r e c t l y concerned with the placement was the Musqueam Indian Reserve. T h i s placement made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the w r i t e r to made a study of t h i s community. The community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r i s very o f t e n f a c e d with the problem of conducting community s t u d i e s with no simple model which he can use. T h i s has l e d to a v a r i e t y of approaches, f o r example, s t u d i e s whose focus has been on the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the community such as i t s ecology, i t s power s t r u c t u r e , i t s demography, the i n t e r a c t i o n of the l o c a l people, and i t s behaviour p a t t e r n and b e l i e f systems. The weakness i n the use of any one of these approaches ex-c l u s i v e of the o t h e r s i s t h a t o n l y one aspect of the com-munity i s s t u d i e d , and t h i s i s o f t e n done as i f the community s t u d i e d e x i s t e d independently of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y of which i t i s a p a r t . Furthermore, the r e s u l t s gained from most of these type of s t u d i e s cannot be a p p l i e d p r o f i t a b l y as a guide i n s t u d y i n g a d i f f e r e n t community. T h i s has been an a n a l y t i c study, and the approach used has been based on a model suggested by Warren i n h i s book The Community i n America. H i s d e f i n i t i o n of the com-munity as " t h a t combination of s o c i a l u n i t s and systems which perform the major s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s of l o c a l i t y - r e l e v a n c e " i s used i n t h i s study, and the focus of a n a l y s i s i s the type of s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of the people and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the l o c a l community and i n the extra-community. T h i s approach was chosen because i t i s assumed that i t can be used i n s t u d y i n g any type of community, r e g a r d l e s s of i t s geographic l o c a t i o n and s i z e . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the Musqueam community has problems, and t h a t t h i s method of s o c i a l systems a n a l y s i s can be used to i n d i c a t e where the weaknesses l i e i n the community's h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n . The m a t e r i a l on Musqueam's s o c i a l systems which was gathered by the w r i t e r was o r g a n i z e d under the f i v e major f u n c t i o n s of l o c a l i t y - r e l e v a n c e . T h i s m a t e r i a l was assembled from v a r i o u s sources: i n t e r v i e w s with l e a d e r s and r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have con-n e c t i o n s with Musqueam, a socio-economic survey of the l o c a l community's a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , attendance at meetings and conferences on Canadian Indians, and examining r e l e v a n t r e c o r d s and documents of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Only Musqueam's s o c i a l systems which the w r i t e r f e l t have endured through time were s e l e c t e d and d e s c r i b e d . These - v -were then an a l y s e d by making use of the four dimensions i n which communities d i f f e r i n s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . The com-munication process which, a c c o r d i n g to Warren, i s one of the s i x master processes i n which a l l s o c i a l systems are con-s t a n t l y i n v o l v e d , was a l s o used f o r a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y s i s by the fou r dimensions has shown that Musqueam has a very weak h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n . A n a l y s i s of the communication process has shown that l a c k of adequate com-munication between s o c i a l systems i n the community has con-t r i b u t e d to misunderstanding and ignorance between s o c i a l systems i n both the intracommunity and i n the extracommunity, thereby r e s u l t i n g i n a weak h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n . The r e s u l t s of the use of both a n a l y t i c concepts has i n d i c a t e d that the weakness i n Musqueam's h o r i z o n t a l p a t t e r n i s due mainly to the i n f l u e n c e of the extracommunity which i s i n d i r e c t con-t r o l of most of the intracommunity's s o c i a l systems. T h i s weakness a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the process of community development which aims at s t r e n g t h e n i n g a community's h o r i -z o n t a l p a t t e r n . T h i s study has been a n a l y t i c a l , however, i t has opened some avenues whereby i t c o u l d be c o n t i n u e d e i t h e r with f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s or with a d i a g n o s t i c or c l i n i c a l e n q u i r y . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made to Mr. Boys, B r i t i s h Columbia Commissioner f o r Indian A f f a i r s , without whose per-m i s s i o n t h i s study c o u l d not have been c a r r i e d out, and to Mr. W. M. N i c h o l l s of the School of S o c i a l Work, who was both f i e l d work f a c u l t y c o n s u l t a n t and t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r of the study, f o r h i s constant h e l p and encouragement, which made p o s s i b l e the use of the systems a n a l y s i s method f o r the study. In the f i e l d work, the a s s i s t a n c e rendered by Miss S h i r l e y A r n o l d , R e g i o n a l S o c i a l Work Consultant of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, who was s u p e r v i s o r of the f i e l d work p l a c e -ment, and who a l s o r e a d through the main t e x t and suggested some a l t e r a t i o n s , was v a l u a b l e . Mr. Letcher, Superintendent of the F r a s e r Agency a l s o o f f e r e d much h e l p . Thanks are due to Mr. W i l l a r d Sparrow and members of the Musqueam Band f o r t h e i r f r i e n d l y c o - o p e r a t i o n . The h e l p rendered by members of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t e r v i e w e d i s a l s o appre-c i a t e d . - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I. I n t r o d u c t i o n Method, Purpose and scope of study. H i s t o r i c background of Musqueam 1 Chapter I I . Product i o n - P i s t r i b u t ion-Consumpt i o n Pre-European days. E f f e c t s on Economy by European s e t t l e m e n t . Employment. Indian A f f a i r s Branch V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and Placement Programme. Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Indian S p e c i a l Funds. Summary 12 Chapter I I I . S o c i a l i z a t i o n The f a m i l y . Pre-European days. Present f a m i l y system. The R e l i g i o u s system. The School. R e s i -d e n t i a l Schools. Day Schools. I n t e g r a t e d Schools. Primary Schools. Secondary Schools. School Attend-ance. P a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Summary 30 Chapter IV. S o c i a l C o n t r o l Informal s o c i a l c o n t r o l . Formal s o c i a l c o n t r o l . I n dian A f f a i r s Branch. The Indian Superintendent. The F r a s e r Agency. The Band C o u n c i l . Land Tenure and Housing. F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Laws. Summary .... 52 Chapter V. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n The R e l i g i o u s system. Homemakers' Club. The s p i r i t dances. The Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club. The Y.M.C.A. Fun Club. The Vancouver F r i e n d s h i p Centre. The School. Summary 71 Chapter VI. Mutual Support Band R e l i e f . S o c i a l Allowance. S o c i a l Insurance. Workmen's Compensation. H e a l t h S e r v i c e s . Indian and Northern H e a l t h S e r v i c e s . M e t r o p o l i t a n P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e s . C h i l d Welfare S e r v i c e s . Summary 91 Chapter V I I . A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l Systems P r o d u c t i o n - D i s t r i b u t i o n - C o n s u m p t i o n . S o c i a l i z a t i o n . S o c i a l C o n t r o l . S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Mutual Support. Communication p r o c e s s . C o n c l u s i o n 115 B i b l i o g r a p h y 147 Appendix A .150 - i i i -TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) T a b l e s Page T a b l e 1. Formal s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n of Musqueam ad u l t p o p u l a t i o n 15 Ta b l e 2. Male labour f o r c e 16 Tabl e 3. Employment s t a t u s f o r a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n 17 Tabl e 4. Y e a r l y wage and income f o r 1964 17 Ta b l e 5. Number of Musqueam C h i l d r e n i n School 41 Table 6. Number of days i n which twenty students were absent from s c h o o l i n the 1963-1964 s c h o o l year 43 Table 7. Number of s c h o o l dropouts on Reserve as of February, 1965 48 (b) Charts F i g . 1. S o c i a l systems i n v o l v e d i n performance of f i v e f u n c t i o n s of l o c a l i t y - r e l e v a n c e 9a F i g . 2. Average f a m i l y wage and s a l a r y income i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 18a F i g . 3. Systematic r e l a t i o n s h i p of sub-systems to major systems 115a-b F i g . 4. H o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n s of systems ... 115c F i g . 5. P r o d u c t i o n - d i s t r i b u t i o n - c o n s u m p t i o n 118a F i g . 6. S o c i a l i z a t i o n 120a F i g . 7. S o c i a l c o n t r o l 123a F i g . 8. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 127a F i g . 9. Mutual Support 131a MUSQUEAM INDIAN RESERVE A Case Study f o r Community Development Purposes CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose and Scope of Study There are 2,200 Indian Reserves i n Canada, of which 1,625 are l o c a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 They vary g r e a t l y i n s i z e and p o p u l a t i o n ; t h e i r economies d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y and c u l t u r a l backgrounds of t r i b a l groupings a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to major d i f f e r e n c e s to be found i n the v a r i o u s r e s e r v e s . The case study of Musqueam Reserve has been under-taken to d e s c r i b e and analyse important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of one of the Indian Reserves to be found i n Canada. The Mus-queam Reserve i s s i t u a t e d at the mouth of the R i v e r F r a s e r , south-west, and adjacent to the c i t y of Vancouver i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A p a r t i c u l a r method has been s e l e c t e d with the hope t h a t i t might have a p p l i c a t i o n to s t u d i e s which might be conducted i n other Indian communities. Throughout Canada, v a r i o u s programs and p r o j e c t s have Deen i n i t i a t e d r e c e n t l y . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , these have been r e l a t e d to p r o p o s a l s f o r community development a c t i v i t i e s s i m i l a r i n nature to ones o p e r a t i n g i n many developing c o u n t r i e s i n other p a r t s of the world. I t i s not the purpose of t h i s study t o d i s c u s s com--•-Tom H a z l i t t , "The T r o u b l e d People: Trapped i n a White Man's R e v o l u t i o n , " The P r o v i n c e . 23rd January, 1965. - 2 -munity development programs or p r o j e c t s , 2 2 nor indeed to suggest how t h i s study might be used f o r community develop-ment purposes. However, before any program can be under-taken f o r any p a r t i c u l a r Reserve, i t i s reasonable to as-sume th a t adequate i n f o r m a t i o n about the community i s necessary. I f programs are to be c o o r d i n a t e d from one com-munity to another, i t c o u l d be of some c o n s i d e r a b l e import-ance to s e l e c t a u s a b l e model or frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r community s t u d i e s which would a l l o w f o r meaningful compari-sons to be made. One such model f o r community study o u t l i n e d i n Roland Warren's book The Community i n America has been employed i n t h i s study. Because the w r i t e r was a s s i g n e d as a community o r g a n i z a t i o n student to a f i e l d placement i n Musqueam, i n -for m a t i o n about t h i s community was a v a i l a b l e . A b a s i c q u e s t i o n t o which t h i s study has been, addressed was: What i n s i g h t s about-the nature of t h i s community can be o b t a i n e d by the use of Warren's model f o r community study? More broa d l y , does the method of t h i s case study have p a r t i c u l a r u t i l i t y f o r community development purposes? Method The type of s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of the people 2The study, Community development i n Canada, a Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s w r i t t e n i n 1965 by Antony J . L l o y d , p r e s e n t s v a r i o u s approaches of community develop-ment c o n c u r r e n t l y to be found i n Canada. - 3 -and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community w i l l be the focus of a n a l y s i s . T h e r e f o r e , f o r the purpose of t h i s study, a com-munity w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as " t h a t combination of s o c i a l u n i t s and systems which perform the major s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s h a v i n g l o c a l i t y r e l e v a n c e . " ^ Other a l t e r n a t i v e approaches c o u l d have been used. For i n s t a n c e , a community c o u l d be an a l y s e d by f o c u s i n g on i t s e c o l o g i c a l process, or i t s demo-gra p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or on i t s behaviour p a t t e r n s and b e l i e f system, or on the community's power s t r u c t u r e . Some of these approaches, f o r example, the a n a l y s i s of the growth of the community's power s t r u c t u r e , has made a great impact on community theory, r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e . 4 However, f o r the purpose of t h i s study, the s o c i a l system a n a l y s i s approach i s much more comprehensive and adequate than any of the above approaches. An a n a l y s i s with a focus on the e c o l o g i c a l p rocess of a community would be inadequate, because t h i s type of a n a l y s i s can be r e l a t e d o n l y to a p a r t i c u l a r time and p l a c e , d i s r e g a r d i n g the change sequence and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of g e n e r a l i z i n g from i n d i v i -d u a l community s t u d i e s . ^ A demographic a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s an approach which l e a d s t o the s c i e n t i f i c t ask of making ge n e r a l statements about a whole c l a s s of phenomena,^ but t h i s approach has 3 R o l a n d L. Warren, The Community i n America, Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1963, p. 9. 4 I b i d . , pp. 40-46. 5 I b i d . , pp. 28-29. 6 l b i d . , p. 30. - 4 -tended t o i s o l a t e the community as i f i t were not f u n c t i o n -a l l y dependent on the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i n which i t e x i s t s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l approach to the study of the com-munity i n which the behaviour p a t t e r n s and the b e l i e f systems form the focus of a n a l y s i s , g i v e s a community a look of uniqueness and separateness. I t g i v e s a community a person-a l i t y , and does not p r o v i d e a model of a n a l y s i s which can be used f o r s t u d y i n g other communities." 7 When a community i s a n a l y s e d by s t u d y i n g the i n t e r -a c t i o n of the l o c a l people, an a c t i o n becomes the u n i t of a n a l y s i s , and the community i s seen as a s e r i e s of i n t e r -r e l a t e d a c t i o n s . Although the f i e l d of community development i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t i o n models which a r i s e i n the process of planned change, the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s theory of the community as i n t e r a c t i o n s have not yet been f u l l y explored.** The community's power s t r u c t u r e i s dynamic a c c o r d -i n g to the t a s k to be accomplished, and a c c o r d i n g to the dynamic f o r c e s w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t groups i n the community. Ther e f o r e , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s approach of community a n a l y s i s . For the purposes of s t u d y i n g the community as a f u n c t i o n a l l y dependent pa r t which i s m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d to the r e s t of s o c i e t y , the s o c i a l system a n a l y s i s has been used i n t h i s study. In u s i n g t h i s approach, the community has been seen as a s o c i a l system with sub-systems (organ-o i d . , p. 36. 8 l b i d . , pp. 38-39. - 5 -i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s which pro-mote "people's necessary activities."® In h i s book, Warren developed a model f o r s o c i a l system a n a l y s i s . He a p p l i e d the concept of s o c i a l system onl y t o s t r u c t u r e s of i n t e r a c t i o n s which endure through time and can be r e c o g n i z e d as e n t i t i e s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . Warren c o n s i d e r e d the f o l l o w i n g f i v e major f u n c t i o n s which have meaning of l o c a l i t y r e l e v a n c e . 1. P r o d u c t i o n - d i s t r i b u t i o n - c o n s u m p t i o n : T h i s f u n c t i o n has t o do with " l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process of producing, d i s t r i b u t i n g and consuming those goods and s e r v i c e s which are a pa r t of d a i l y l i v i n g and access to which i s d e s i r a b l e i n the immediate l o c a l i t y . " 1 0 2. S o c i a l i z a t i o n : T h i s f u n c t i o n " i n v o l v e s a process by which s o c i e t y or one of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s o c i a l u n i t s t r a n s m i t s p r e v a i l i n g knowledge, s o c i a l values, and behaviour p a t t e r n s t o i t s i n d i v i d u a l members." 1 1 I f t h i s process i s s u c c e s s f u l , the i n d i v i d u a l takes on h i s c u l t u r a l way of l i v i n g r a t h e r than another c u l t u r e ' s . 3. S o c i a l C o n t r o l : T h i s i s the process through which a group i n f l u e n c e s the behaviour of i t s members toward conformity with i t s norms. T h i s f u n c t i o n i s 9 l b i d . , pp. 7-10. 1 1 l b Id.-, p. 10. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 10. - 6 -performed by s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l u n i t s on the community l e v e l ; f o r example, the government, the f a m i l y and the s c h o o l are u n i t s which e x e r c i s e s o c i a l 12 c o n t r o l over i n d i v i d u a l community members. 4. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n : T h i s f u n c t i o n i n v o l v e s the p r o v i s i o n of l o c a l access to s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community. R e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s are import-13 ant s o c i a l u n i t s i n performing t h i s f u n c t i o n . 5. Mutual Support: The community's f u n c t i o n here i s to p r o v i d e mutual support to i t s s e v e r a l u n i t systems. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s mutual support has been performed l o c a l l y , under primary-group a u s p i c e s ; but s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n , along with s o c i a l changes has l e d to a gradual change i n a u s p i c e s f o r many of these mutual support f u n c t i o n s to secondary-group a u s p i c e s . 1 ^ Warren a l s o has given f o u r dimensions of the ways i n which communities d i f f e r from each other i n s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n : 1. Autonomy: The amount of a community's autonomy depends on the extent to which i t i s dependent on or independent of extracommunity u n i t s i n the per-formance of i t s f i v e functions,; 2. The extent to which the s e r v i c e areas of l o c a l 1 2 I b i d . , p. 11. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 11. 14 I b i d . , p. 11. u n i t s c o i n c i d e or f a i l to c o i n c i d e ^ 3. The extent of p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with a common l o c a l i t y ; 4. Theeesetent to which the community's h o r i z o n t a l p a t -t e r n i s s t r o n g or weak. In a d d i t i o n , Warren has c o n s i d e r e d the community "problem". He has s t a t e d that because no s o c i a l system i s s t a t i c or " p e r f e c t , " each system w i l l produce c e r t a i n pro-blems, some of which become problems of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y of which the community i s a p a r t . Likewise, some l o c a l pro-blems such as th a t of unemployment, are a pa r t of the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g which communities share by b e i n g a p a r t of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Warren then has given t h r e e f a c t o r s as b a r r i e r s to the " e f f i c i e n t mustering of f o r c e s " f o r community a c t i o n . These were: (1) Many problems f a c e d by communities are beyond any r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s of r e s o l u t i o n at the community l e v e l without the h e l p of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y which l i k e w i s e shares the problem; (2) the l o s s of community autonomy over s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o c a t e d w i t h i n i t and c l o s e l y intermeshed with the community's welfare; (3) l a c k of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 16 with the community due to apathy, or a l i e n a t i o n or anomie. Thus i n p r e s e n t i n g the s o c i a l system a n a l y s i s model, Warren has r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n d i f f e r -.ences which are to be expected, and that c e r t a i n problems 15Ibid., p. 13. 1 6 I b i d . , pp. 16-19 - 8 -may hind e r a community from m o b i l i z i n g i t s e l f f o r a c t i o n . H i s model has r e l e v a n c e to the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r , and indeed to the student o f the community. There has been a " c r y i n g need i n community theory, f o r p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as t h e o r e t i c a l reasons, f o r a r e l a t i v e l y simple model of the community which can permit meaningful 17 a n a l y s i s and t e s t a b l e r e s e a r c h hypotheses." Very o f t e n , the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r has been f a c e d with the process of a n a l y s i n g communities f o r the purposes of a s s e s s i n g problems, p l a n n i n g f o r a c t i o n , implementing plans, and e v a l u a t i n g programs. I f the com-munity i s to be c o n s i d e r e d and t r e a t e d as a c l i e n t , t h e r e i s need to know i t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g at the i n i t i a l and throughout the process of pro b l e m - s o l v i n g . B e s i d e s i n c r e a s -i n g t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of the community, the s o c i a l system a n a l y s i s may prove u s e f u l i n a s s i s t i n g students of the community to develop a more sy s t e m a t i c method of ana-l y s i s . In s t u d y i n g the Musqueam community, Warren's model has been used. A l l the a c t i v i t i e s of the community's sub-systems have been arranged under the f i v e major f u n c t i o n s of l o c a l i t y - r e l e v a n c e , p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . There are c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n u s i n g the s o c i a l system a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d y i n g a community. Both the commun-i t y and other s o c i a l systems have sub-systems, but the 1 7 i b i d . , p. i x . - 9 -community's sub-systems are not " r a t i o n a l l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y r e l a t e d t o each other i n a c e n t r a l i z e d f a s h i o n " as other s o c i a l systems, such as a formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . Furthermore, the concept of system a n a l y s i s has developed mainly around the s m a l l group. I t i s a concept which i s i n i t s i n i t i a l phase f o r use i n community s t u d i e s . T h e r e f o r e , when i t i s a p p l i e d to the community, i t must take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n not o n l y the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among sub-systems which make up the community s o c i a l system, but the more d i r e c t , r a t i o n a l and a s c e r t a i n a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the v a r i o u s sub-systems f u n c t i o n i n g on the l o c a l l e v e l , to s o c i a l systems of the l a r g e r o u t s i d e community. ° The f o l l o w i n g page shows i d e n t i f i a b l e s o c i a l systems of the Musqueam community t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to the f i v e major f u n c t i o n s . V a r i o u s techniques were used f o r g a t h e r i n g inform-a t i o n f o r the a n a l y s i s of the community. These were: i n t e r -v i ewing key people i n the community and members of i n s t i -t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s working with the community, examining p e r t i n e n t r e c o r d s of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, u s i n g r e s u l t s 19 of a socio-economic survey conducted by the w r i t e r , ^ a n d 1 8 l b i d . , p. 50 1 9 T h i s was an a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n survey conducted by the w r i t e r from October to December, 1964. Questions which were on I.B.M. cards, covered the type of s c h o o l attended, the h i g h e s t grade completed, r e l i g i o u s denomination, p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e , s p e c i a l v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g taken, i f any, - 9a -F i g u r e 1 I. Product i o n - D i s t r i b u t ion-Consumpt i o n : 1. Employment 2. Indian A f f a i r s Branch V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and Placement Programme 3. Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Indian S p e c i a l Funds I I . S o c i a l i z a t i o n : 1. The Family 2. The School R e s i d e n t i a l I n t e g r a t e d 3. R e l i g i o u s I I I . S o c i a l C o n t r o l : 1. Indian A f f a i r s Branch 2. Band C o u n c i l 3. Land Tenure and Housing 4. F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Law IV. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1. The Church 2. Homemakers' Club 3. Vancouver F r i e n d s h i p Centre 4. S p i r i t Dances 5. Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n Fun Club 6. Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n Youth Club 7. The School V. Mutual Support: 1. H e a l t h S e r v i c e s a. Indian and Northern H e a l t h S e r v i c e s C l i n i c b. The M e t r o p o l i t a n P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e s 2. Welfare S e r v i c e s a. S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e b. C h i l d Welfare Programme c. S o c i a l Insurance d. Workmen's Compensation S o c i a l Systems Involved i n Performance of F i v e F u n c t i o n s of L o c a l i t y - R e l e v a n c e - 10 -a t t e n d i n g l o c a l meetings and conferences on n a t i v e Indians. The Musqueam Indian Reserve has been i n c l u d e d i n a few of the many s t u d i e s on the n a t i v e Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, which have been conducted by the U n i v e r s i t y of 20 B r i t i s h Columbia students and p r o f e s s o r s . However, s e c t -i o n s on Musqueam have been very s h o r t , and there has never been a complete coherent socio-economic a n a l y s i s of that community. H i s t o r i c a l Background of Musqueam The present day Indians of the Musqueam Band are descendants of the Coast S a l i s h people of the P a c i f i c North-west who, b e f o r e the European i n v a s i o n , i n h a b i t e d v i l l a g e s from Puget Sound i n Washington State, U.S.A., to Bute I n l e t i n B r i t i s h Columbia as f a r nor t h as Campbell R i v e r . I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the o r i g i n a l home of the Coast S a l i s h , c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e the a r r i v a l of the European i n North America, was i n i n l a n d areas, and that although they seem to be of a d i f f e r e n t s t o c k from the North, they have a common o r i g i n with the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h group. o c c u p a t i o n (primary and secondary), and annual income. The survey covered only a d u l t Band members on the Reserve dur-i n g t h a t p e r i o d . 2 0 H . B. Hawthorn, C. S. Belshow, and S. M. Jamieson, The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y of T o m t o and U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1960; C y r i l K. Toren, Indian Housing and Welfare, Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia:1957; F. W. Thompson, The  Employment Problems and Economic Status of the B r i t i s h  Columbia Indians. Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1951. Toren, op. c i t . , p. 9. - 11 -There are fou r main d i v i s i o n s of the Coast S a l i s h : the Comox group, the Cowichan group, the Sanetch and the Squamish. Musqueam i s of the Squamish g r o u p . 2 2 T h i s group-i n g i s based on geographic and l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s . However, r i g i d l i n g u i s t i c l i n e s cannot be drawn because of i n t e r -marriage and pej3t0.dtw3 movements of whole v i l l a g e s - occurences which were not i n f r e q u e n t up t i l l very r e c e n t t i m e s . 2 3 Other a s p e c t s of the past have been d i s c u s s e d under the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s i n t h i s study. The present day geographic area of the Musqueam Band was a l l o c a t e d to the Indians i n 1871, and was f i r s t 24 surveyed i n 1881. I t was f u r t h e r surveyed i n 1897. B e s i d e s owning the Musqueam Reserve, the Band a l s o owned l a n d near New Westminster by P a t u l l a B r i d g e , which i t s o l d . I t s t i l l owns some l a n d on Sea I s l a n d . Some areas, such as the l a n d on which the Shaughnessy Golf Club and the Poi n t Grey Golf Course are s i t u a t e d a re l e a s e d by the Band. The l a n d on which the Chinese gardens are s i t u a t e d i n Musqueam, and the f i f t y - f o u r a c r e s of l a n d on the Sea I s l a n d Reserve are a l s o l e a s e d l a n d s . 2 2 W i l s o n Duff, The Impact of the White Man, V o l . I of The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, P r o v i n c i a l Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , Memoir No. 5, 1964, p. 25. 2 3 B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our N a t i v e Peoples, S e r i e s 1, V o l . 2, Coast S a l i s h , prepared by P r o v i n -c i a l A r c h i v e s , f o r Department of Education, The Government of the B r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1952, p. 17. 2 4 C a n a d a , Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, H i s t o r i c Documents on A l l o c a t i o n of Bands i n B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER II PRODUCTION-DISTRIBUTION-CONSUMPTION The f i r s t major f u n c t i o n of the community i s to pr o v i d e the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and systems which f a c i l i t a t e p r o d u c t i v e e f f o r t and to pr o v i d e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption of what i s p r o v i d e d . * Pre-European Days The economic base of the Coast S a l i s h , a n c e s t o r s of the Musqueam Indians, was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what i t i s today. Economic p r o d u c t i o n was c a r r i e d on p r i n c i p a l l y by ad hoc working or hu n t i n g p a r t i e s . The food mainly c o n s i s t e d of sea pr o d u c t s . Salmon was the c h i e f food, supplemented by other f i s h , such as the h a l i b u t , cod, sturgeon, eulachon or c a n d l e - f i s h and clams. However, the d i f f e r e n t geographic l o c a t i o n s of v a r i o u s t r i b e s made f o r a c e r t a i n degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n f i s h i n g , with the f r e s h water fishermen up the r i v e r , and the s a l t water people down the r i v e r . Whales were hunted by h i g h rank Indians among the S a l i s h people, but as t h e r e were few whales seen, no system-a t i c method of c a t c h i n g them was attempted. However, th e r e were s e a l and p o r p o i s e i n l a r g e numbers and t h e i r c a t c h was h i g h l y p r i z e d . The d i e t was supplemented by the water fowl, the deer, e l k and mountain goat. From the mountain lWarren, op. c i t . , p. 168. - 13 -goat wool, b l a n k e t s were woven by the women.2 The women and c h i l d r e n gathered v e g e t a b l e s which c o n s i s t e d of " e d i b l e r o o t s , b e r r i e s , green l e a v e s and seaweeds." 3 Bread was made from the acorn and from the inner bark of c e r t a i n t r e e s , such as the maple and a l d e r . T h i s was done by a process of s c r a p i n g the inner bark and l a y i n g i t i n c r i s s - c r o s s f a s h i o n 4 u n t i l a t h i c k cake i s formed. The cake was then d r i e d i n the sun. E f f e c t s on Economy by European Settlements Soon a f t e r the settlement of the European i n the 1770's, the economic p r o d u c t i o n p a t t e r n of the S a l i s h people began to be a f f e c t e d . G r a d u a l l y , the socio-economic aspect of t h e i r s o c i e t y began to change, with the Indian becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent upon the white man f o r h i s means of e x i s t e n c e . In the process of i d e n t i f y i n g with the new c u l t -ure, t h e r e was n e i t h e r independence nor e q u a l i t y f o r the Indians i n the new s o c i e t y brought by the white man. Although the Indian c u l t u r e was not destroyed, t h e r e was no compro-mise made between the two c u l t u r e s . T h i s has c r e a t e d s o c i a l and economic problems of a s e r i o u s nature t o the Indians: I t has l e d t o a lower st a n d a r d of l i v i n g , to a waste of the p r o d u c t i v e power of the Indian, to h i s i n a b i l i t y t o compete on equal terms i n the labour market, to a gen e r a l lower s t a n d a r d of h e a l t h and edu c a t i o n . 2Toren, op. c i t . , p. 11. 3 B r i t f s h Columbia H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our Na t i v e Peoples, S e r i e s 1, V o l . 2, op. c i t . , p. 22. 4 I b i d . , p. 23. 5 T o r e n , op. c i t . , p. 15. - 14 -Employment A f t e r the " g r e a t change" i n h i s economic p a t t e r n , t h e Indian had to make use of the white man's method of p r o d u c t i o n - d i s t r i b u t i o n - c o n s u m p t i o n . Thus, to a l a r g e ex-t e n t , ad hoc working or h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p a r t i e s were d i s p l a c e d by i n d i v i d u a l c o m p e t i t i o n i n the labour market. Although f i s h i n g i s s t i l l done today, i t i s done on i n d i v i -d u a l b a s i s or on the b a s i s of e x c l u s i v e l y s e l e c t e d groups, r a t h e r than on i n f o r m a l p a r t i e s . Because of h i s s t a t u s i n the non-Indian community, the Indian has l a c k e d the e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l oppor-t u n i t i e s to prepare him f o r f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the eco-nomic l i f e of Canada. Apart from f i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g , l o n g -s h o r i n g and lumbering, many Indians do not seem equipped to work i n modern i n d u s t r y and f a c t o r i e s . T h i s low s t a n d a r d of e d u c a t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e 1, which g i v e s the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the e i g h t y - f o u r a d u l t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n Musqueam d u r i n g the &wr.a1tero' s socio-economic survey p e r i o d . The younger g e n e r a t i o n experience the g r e a t -e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g employment. The young Indian l e a v e s s c h o o l by the time or b e f o r e he reaches grade e i g h t . He has no t r a i n i n g or s k i l l t h a t would enable him to com-pete s u c c e s s f u l l y with the average white Canadian f o r a job. Employers, e s p e c i a l l y i n w h i t e - c o l l a r e d jobs, look f o r a c e r t a i n degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n which the Indian l a c k s . - 15 -Table 1. Formal School E d u c a t i o n of  Musqueam A d u l t P o p u l a t i o n . (December, 1964) Highest grade T o t a l Number of Number of completed number males females No s c h o o l i n g 9 4 5 II 3 none 3 I I I 6 3 3 IV 5 3 2 V 3 1 2 VI 9 6 3 VII 10 6 4 V I I I 19 17 2 IX none none none X 6 1 5 XI 8 2 6 XII 5 2 3 V o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l 1 1 none 1st y r . u n i v e r s i t y none none none T o t a l 84 46 38 Source: W r i t e r ' s socio-economic survey and r e c o r d -i n g s , October - December, 1964. The problem of employment f o r Indians i s even more complex i n a community l i k e Musqueam. Here, the Indian i s l i v i n g i n a community where t h e r e are no i n d u s t r i e s , and yet o u t s i d e h i s immediate surroundings i s a very l a r g e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d community to which he does not belong. At the same time, the only work on steady b a s i s which he can get i s from t h i s l a r g e r community. Most of the male labour f o r c e c l a i m to be fishermen, but t h i s i s a se a s o n a l occup-a t i o n , which u s u a l l y l a s t s t hree t o f o u r months. Table 2 - 16 -shows the types of o c c u p a t i o n i n the community. To be a s u c c e s s f u l commercial fisherman these days, one has to make use of modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l equipment which i s expensive. Thus, sometimes an Indian f i s h e s the whole summer, only to f i n d out t h a t he uses about h a l f of h i s earnings to pay f o r h i r e d f i s h i n g equipment. Table 2: Male Labour Force. (December, 1964) Type of o c c u p a t i o n (males only) T o t a l number F i s h i n g 13 Lumbering 6 Labouring 5 Longshoring 4 F i s h packing and canning . . . . . . . . . 3 Carpentry 2 D r i v i n g 1 Welding 1 P a i n t i n g . . . . . . . . 1 Tug-boat o p e r a t i n g 1 Ship mechanic h e l p e r 1 C a r v i n g 1 Watchman 1 T o t a l 40 Source: From w r i t e r ' s socio-economic survey. T a b l e 3 shows the male labour p o p u l a t i o n . I t i n d i -c a t e s t h a t of t h i s f o r c e , t h e r e are only about a quarter who have f u l l - t i m e employment. T a b l e 4 f u r t h e r shows the d i s t r i -b u t i o n of y e a r l y earnings made by the number of a d u l t s who have had some type of employment d u r i n g the year, 1964. The - 17 -amount i n each case shows approximately what was earned. In the case of fishermen, b i l l s f o r nets and boats are p a i d f o r out of the amount shown. Ta b l e 3: Employment Status f o r A d u l t P o p u l a t i o n . (December, 1964) Employment Status T o t a l of a d u l t s Number of males Number of females F u l l time 15 12 3 Seasonal and pa r t - t i m e 26 25 1 Unemployed 43 9 34* T o t a l 84 46 38 Source: From w r i t e r ' s socio-economic survey. • T h i s number i n c l u d e s housewives and s i n g l e unemployed women. Table 4: Y e a r l y Wage and Income  f o r Employed Males. (December, 1964) Y e a r l y wage and income Number of males Under $ 500 5 $ 500 999 1 1,000 - 1,999 2,999 2 2,000 - 4 3,000 - 3,999 6 4,000 - 4,999 6 5,000 - 5,999 8 6,000 - 6,999 0 7,000 and over 1 .,, T o t a l - 18 -Source f o r T a b l e 4: From w r i t e r ' s socio-economic survey. • T h i s number does not i n c l u d e t h r e e men who are on o l d age s e c u r i t y p l a n . By c o n t r a s t , surrounding the Reserve i s the h i g h e s t f a m i l y wage and income area of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. T h i s area i s p a r t of the h i g h e s t twenty census t r a c t s where f a m i l y wage and income vary from $9,300 to $6,500. The low-es t twenty census t r a c t s where the f a m i l y wage and income vary from a low of $3,000 to $4,900. See F i g u r e 2. The s t a t i s t i c s i n F i g u r e 2 do not i n c l u d e investment income and hence they g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t a t e the a c t u a l l e v e l of income w i t h i n the more a f f l u e n t areas. In the midst of the a f f l u e n t area of the h i g h e s t f a m i l y wage and income i s the Musqueam area with only ndne out of the f o r t y - t h r e e male wage and income earners making,an amount l a r g e r than the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's lowest twenty census t r a c t s a r e a . T h i s c o n t r a s t between two adjacent communities w i l l r e c u r as s e v e r a l of the s o c i a l systems of the community are d i s c u s s e d . Indian A f f a i r s Branch V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g  and Placement Program T h i s program which i s operated by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s a sub-system i n the economic system of the Indian communities. The program was i n i t i a t e d i n 1957 p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of t h r e e fundamental f a c t o r s which came i n t o p l a y a f t e r the second World War: "(1) the marked develop-Figure 2 Average-Family Wage and S a l a r y Income 1 2 0 census t r a c t s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver H i g h e s t f a m i l y wago and s a l a r y income - $ 9 , 3 0 0 - average o f $ 6 , 5 0 0 f o r top twenty COnaUfl t r a c t s Lowest f a m i l y wage and s a l a r y income v a r y from a low of 5 3 , 0 0 0 up t o & 5 , 0 0 0 f o r lowest twenty t r a c t s Source: Commuity Ghost and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver, ( 1 9 6 1 Ccn?;u;i T r a c t s ) . - 19 -ment of h e a l t h programs f o r Indians, which c o n t r i b u t e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y to an upsurge i n the p o p u l a t i o n of Indian Re-ser v e s ; (2) the great s t r i d e s t h a t have been made i n rec e n t years to improve the e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d of Indians; and (3) the d e p l e t i o n of the economy of some Indians i n many areas from a l i f e d i r e c t l y dependent on u t i l i z a t i o n of the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n t o wage employment."^ I t was then i n e v i t a b l e that Indians would have t o earn a l i v e l i h o o d w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l economy of the country. In 1957, a placement o f f i c e r was appointed to each of the Re g i o n a l O f f i c e s i n Toronto, Winnipeg, Edmonton and Vancouver. At present, t h e r e i s a s e n i o r Placement O f f i c e r who assumes d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the program at the Branch's headquarters i n Ottawa. There are a l s o Placement O f f i c e r s i n the remaining R e g i o n a l O f f i c e s , and a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s have a l s o been appointed at a d i s t r i c t l e v e l i n s e v e r a l Regions. The i n i t i a l focus of the program was the s e l e c t i o n and establishment of " s u i t a b l e young I n d i a n s " i n the c e n t r e s where the R e g i o n a l Placement s p e c i a l i s t s were l o c a t e d . The o b j e c t i v e s of the program were: (1) to e x p l o i t " t o the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e extent, employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Indians i n both urban and r u r a l areas, and i n wider range of occu-p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s ; " (2) to a s s i s t Indians now f u l l y 6Canada, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, F i e l d Manual, Ottawa: 1961, Chapter XI I . - 20 -dependent on w i l d crop and w i l d l i f e h a r v e s t i n g to adapt to wage employment as a way of l i f e ; (3) t o h e l p s e l e c t Indians with the necessary background of t r a i n i n g and experience to become e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e g u l a r employment o u t s i d e the r e s e r -ves, and to become a d j u s t e d t o l i f e i n non-Indian communities. There are two types of programs: 1. Permanent Placement. T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y concerned with the establishment of s u i t a b l e Indian candidates i n r e g u l a r or c o n t i n u i n g employment o f f the r e s e r v e s . The Placement O f f i c e r becomes a l i a i s o n with the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , the D i v i s i o n of the Immigration Branch, Labour Unions, and a l l other employment agencies, i n order to develop s u i t a b l e job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the Indi a n . Through the h e l p of e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and welfa r e agencies i n Indian and non-Indian communities, the candidate i s ex-pected t o r e c e i v e the necessary o r i e n t a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n i n making the t r a n s i t i o n from the r e -serve to the non-Indian community. The s e l e c t i o n of can d i d a t e s i s by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch Placement S p e c i a l i s t . The c r i t e r i a used i n t h i s s e l e c t i o n i n -clude the ca n d i d a t e ' s d e s i r e t o leave the r e s e r v e , h i s e d u c a t i o n a l achievement, h i s apparent i n t e r e s t i n r e g u l a r employment and h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r y as w e l l as the "absence of i n s t a b i l i t y i n the f a m i l y 7 i b i d . , Chapter X I I . background." 2. T r a i n i n g on-the-.job. T h i s a p p l i e s to the Permanent Placement aspect of the program o n l y . Through t h i s approach, Indians who are seeking entry i n t o t r a d e s or occupations, but have not reached the academic l e v e l r e q u i r e d by employers, may get prepared f o r entry i n t o r e g u l a r employment. A c o n t r a c t i s s i g n e d between the Placement O f f i c e r and the employers, each part y paying about 50 % of the t r a i n e e ' s payment f o r up to s i x months.** We s h a l l now b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the p r a c t i b i l i t y of t h i s system i n the F r a s e r Indian Agency under which the Musqueam community comes. Compared to p r e v i o u s years, t h e r e has been much improvement i n the number of p r i v a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s employing Indians i n the Vancouver area. The N a t i o n a l Employ-ment S e r v i c e has been h e l p f u l i n i n f o r m i n g the Placement O f f i c e r of jobs Indians may be a b l e to perform. However, th e r e i s s t i l l room f o r improvement. Some Indians who are p l a c e d i n jobs make good employees and s t a y i n the jobs 9 s t e a d i l y . However, th e r e are some problems encountered by Indians i n making use of t h i s s e r v i c e . The main problem i s the l a c k of the r e q u i r e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r e i t h e r job p l a c e -ment or f o r e l i g i b i l i t y as c andidates f o r the program. Some 8 I b i d . , Chapter X I I . Writer's Recording, 16th November, 1964. A l l i n t e r -views c a r r i e d by w r i t e r were recorded f o r f i e l d placement purposes and w i l l sometimes be r e f e r r e d to i n f o o t n o t e s as " W r i t e r ' s Recording." - 22 -Indians, j u s t as non-Indians, are not p a t i e n t enough to go through the long process an a p p l i c a n t would have t o undergo f o r a program such as t h i s . Those who have t h i s p a t i e n c e sometimes l a c k the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o u t l i n e d above. Those Indians who have gone to v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and have o b t a i n e d t r a i n i n g f o r c e r t a i n v o c a t i o n s u s u a l l y get job placements, and they u s u a l l y stay on the job. Another f a c t o r making employment d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n r e s u l t s from the Indian's f a m i l y p a t t e r n . On the whole, th e r e i s such a c l o s e f a m i l y bond that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to o f f e r an Indian a job beyond commuting d i s t a n c e . I t i s a l s o very d i f f i c u l t f o r him to ad j u s t to the l a r g e o u t s i d e non-Indian community. 1 0 Very o f t e n the Indian would r a t h e r s t a y home unemployed than be sepa r a t e d from h i s f a m i l y on account of employment. T h i s poses a s p e c i a l problem f o r Indian r e s e r v e s l o c a t e d by l a r g e c i t i e s . T h i s type of r e s e r v e has no i n d u s t r y and, t h e r e f o r e , the i n h a b i t a n t s have to seek jobs o f f the r e s e r v e . U s u a l l y , jobs a v a i l a b l e are to be found away from the c i t i e s . Thus, the Indian has been caught b e t -ween l e a v i n g h i s home f o r employment or s t a y i n g at home un-employed. Some Indian men have t r i e d to l i v e away from home at the p l a c e of work, going home only f o r weekends, but t h i s method has not always worked. Very o f t e n , the worker s t a y s at h i s work j u s t l o n g enough to get the f i r s t e arnings, and 1 0 I n t e r v i e w with R e g i o n a l Placement O f f i c e r , 16th November, 1964. - 23 -he r e t u r n s home f o r good. Sometimes under t h i s Placement Program, the Indian A f f a i r s Branch has had to move a whole f a m i l y to the f a t h e r ' s p l a c e of work, but t h i s method i s not always p r a c t i c a b l e . 1 1 Musqueam i s a good example of the problems of employ-ment f o r people l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s s i t u a t e d c l o s e to l a r g e c i t i e s . At t h i s p o i n t , we s h a l l look at another sub-system of the community's economic system. Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia S p e c i a l Funds The l a r g e s t source of c a p i t a l p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e to Indians f o r investment purposes i s found i n the Band Funds system. Band funds vary i n amount from agency to agency, and w i t h i n the agency are a l s o v a r i a t i o n s among bands. Band funds have been a c q u i r e d mainly from revenue-producing r e s o u r c e s t h a t have a commercial v a l u e . Some of these are s a l e s of land, g r a v e l and timber. These earnings are put i n t o a c a p i t a l account. However, only very s m a l l expenditures c o u l d be c l a s -s i f i e d as d i r e c t revenue or employment-producing i n v e s t -ments, such as i r r i g a t i o n and loans t o i n d i v i d u a l I n dians. Revenues are drawn from " r e p l e n i s h a b l e sources that do not i n v o l v e any permanent d e p l e t i o n of a s s e t s . " 1 2 The l a r g e s t source of revenue i s i n t e r e s t p a i d on band funds which are 1 1 I b i d i . 1 2Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, op. c i t . , pp. 201-202. - 24 -e n t r u s t e d to the keeping of the f e d e r a l government, next i s on r e n t a l s from hand-owned lands, and l a s t of a l l , i n t e r e s t on band loans to i n d i v i d u a l s , amounting to only very s m a l l amounts. Among items of expenditure from the i n t e r e s t are: r e l i e f , housing, r e p a i r and replacement of l i g h t i n g systems, water systems, fences, roads and b r i d g e s , and g e n e r a l l y un-c l a s s i f i e d band p r o p e r t y . Expenditures f o r revenue-producing purposes are on a much s m a l l e r s c a l e : f o r dyking and i r r i -g a t i o n , f o r purchase of seed, f o r payment of g r a z i n g f e e s , f o r purchase of land, f o r machinery purchases and r e p a i r s , and f o r r e p a i r s to a band-owned s a w m i l l . 1 3 Most of what i s d i s c u s s e d above i s t r u e of the Mus-queam Band. Musqueam gets most of i t s Band funds from f o u r l a n d l e a s e s : on the Shaughnessy Golf Club, the P o i n t Grey G o l f Course, the f i f t y - f i v e a c r e s of l a n d on the Sea I s l a n d Reserve, and the Musqueam Reserve l a n d which i s now b e i n g o c c u p i e d and c u l t i v a t e d by Chinese farmers. The t o t a l Band funds are, as of 31st December, 1964, $47,760.00, with an i n t e r e s t of $27,759.38 which forms the main source of r e v e -nue f o r the community. 1 4 As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s study, among items of expenditure from the i n t e r e s t are r e l i e f , housing, and 1 3Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, l o c . c i t . 1 4Canada, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Report of Treasury on Band Funds, 1964 F i s c a l Year. - 25 -community p r o j e c t s , such as b u i l d i n g roads and f i l l i n g up and l e v e l l i n g patches of uneven l a n d i n the community. The B r i t i s h Columbia S p e c i a l Funds. These funds which amount to $100,000 a year, are e q u i v a l e n t to a n n u i t i e s p a i d a n n u a l l y to Indians i n accordance with t r e a t i e s s i g n e d with the Canadian government. Except f o r two s m a l l Bands i n Nor-15 t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Indians i n t h i s p r o v i n c e d i d not s i g n any formal t r e a t i e s with the Canadian government, as d i d Indians i n the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian S p e c i a l Funds were i n t r o d u c e d by the f e d e r a l government. Some years a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of these funds, a th r e e man A d v i s o r y Committee was nominated t o a d v i s e the Indi a n A f f a i r s Branch as to how the Bands concerned would want t o spend the money. Sometimes s e v e r a l Bands i n one geo-gr a p h i c area combine t h e i r shares and gi v e i t to one Band t o c a r r y out a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t . T h i s i s done f o r each c o n t r i b u t -i n g member Band u n t i l each has had i t s t u r n . T h i s year, the Adv i s o r y Committee has r e q u e s t e d " t h a t the funds be appor-t i o n e d on a per c a p i t a b a s i s and be r e m i t t e d to each agency to be d i s t r i b u t e d by the Superintendents with some guidance from the Band C o u n c i l s . " 1 6 ^5Duff, op. c i t . , p. 70. T r e a t y number e i g h t with Beavers and Slaves Bands of the present F o r t S t . John Agency was made i n 1899. I t covered what i s now Northern A l b e r t a and p a r t of the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s , and a l s o i n c l u d e d the n o r t h - e a s t e r n corner of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 6Canada, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, - 26 -Apparently, such an arrangement has not always been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l , i n that sometimes a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the funds has remained unspent. I f t h i s remains unused at 31st March, which i s the end of the f i s c a l year, the balance i s r e t u r n e d to the t r e a s u r y i n Ottawa. The purpose of these funds, as s t a t e d by the Indian Affairs Branch i s " f o r promotion and development of economic, s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r non-treaty Indians of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 1 7 B e s i d e s these s p e c i a l funds, some Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia who have a c q u i r e d s u r p l u s revenue moneys from the s a l e of timber or l e a s e of r e s e r v e lands h o l d annual d i s t r i -b u t i o n s of funds. Some wealthy bands d i s t r i b u t e funds twice a year. I t does not matter how many times a band d i s t r i b u t e s funds - the amount i s always based on per c a p i t a b a s i s . Mus-queam d i s t r i b u t e s funds once a year. Some parents, e s p e c i a l l y those with very l a r g e f a m i l i e s always look forward to t h i s annual d i s t r i b u t i o n , when they can c o l l e c t money f o r each c h i l d i n the f a m i l y . For the unemployed and under-employed, the amount p a i d i s of great importance. The Musqueam community has no s t o r e s or bank on the Reserve. A l l shopping and banking t r a n s a c t i o n s take p l a c e o u t s i d e the community. These s e r v i c e s are i n the high income Indian A f f a i r s Branch, The B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Commis-s i o n e r ' s Newletter to a l l C h i e f s and C o u n c i l l o r s , V o l . 4, No. 2, 1st December, 1964. 1 7 I b i d . - 27 -group area shown i n F i g u r e 2. Summary There are t h r e e main s o c i a l systems which perform Musqueam's major f u n c t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n - d i s t r i b u t i o n - c o n -sumption. These are: (1) Employment, (2) Indian A f f a i r s Branch V o c a t i o n a l Training and Placement Program, and (3) The Band Funds and the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian S p e c i a l Funds. Employment. T h i s s o c i a l system depends on the out-s i d e community f o r performing i t s f u n c t i o n . There are no i n d u s t r i e s i n Musqueam, and the community p r o j e c t s which are u s u a l l y s e t up f o r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s are unable to p r o v i d e f u l l employment f o r the community's male labour f o r c e . The main type of program on these p r o j e c t s i s b u i l d -i n g one home per year f o r a young couple i n the community. Since about t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the male labour f o r c e i s e i t h e r unemployed or underemployed, t h i s type of a program i s un-ab l e t o cope with unemployment w i t h i n the community. Some-times work i s a v a i l a b l e i n the form of c l e a n i n g the commun-i t y ' s cemetery, but t h i s i s u s u a l l y one man's job, and i t i s not f u l l time. I t i s e q u i v a l e n t to winter works programs i n the extra-community. Thus, much as i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the I n dian with h i s poor e d u c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g background to compete s u c c e s s f u l l y with non-Indians i n the employment market, the Musqueam Indian s t i l l has to depend on the extra-community f o r the f u n c t i o n of t h i s s o c i a l system. - 28 -The Indian A f f a i r s V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and P l a c e - ment Program. T h i s s o c i a l system i s intended to a s s i s t young Indians i n g e t t i n g t r a i n e d i n a s k i l l and i n g e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e g u l a r employment o u t s i d e the r e s e r v e s and become a d j u s t e d to non-Indian communities. I t i s a system under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The F r a s e r Agency, under which Musqueam comes does not have a d i s t r i c t Placement O f f i c e r . The work of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r i n the Agency i s c a r r i e d by the R e g i o n a l Placement O f f i c e r i n Vancouver. There are one a d u l t and two teenagers from Musqueam who are t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g d u r i n g the 1964-65 aca-demic year. The Musqueam community i s unable to make f u l l use of t h i s system because of the l a c k of the e d u c a t i o n a l background r e q u i r e d t o enter a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l . F u r t h e r -more, the f a m i l y bond i n the community i s such t h a t the Indian would r a t h e r stay at home unemployed or underemployed than be s e p a r a t e d from h i s f a m i l y on account of employment. At the same time, the method of moving the whole f a m i l y t o the f a t h e r ' s p l a c e of work i s not always p r a c t i c a b l e . Thus i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, the Indian has to e i t h e r get a job w i t h i n commuting d i s t a n c e or s t a y home unemployed or underemployed. The Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Indian S p e c i a l  Funds. These funds are used c h i e f l y f o r d e v e l o p i n g the Reserve. The y e a r l y budget f o r the Band i s based on the revenue - 29 -accounts. I f the Band makes e x t r a money through l e a s e s , and votes f o r a d i s t r i b u t i o n , then t h e r e w i l l be an annual d i s t r i -b u t i o n of s u r p l u s funds on a per c a p i t a b a s i s . The B r i t i s h Columbia S p e c i a l Funds, on the other hand, cannot be d i s t r i -b u t e d on per c a p i t a b a s i s . Funds must be used f o r a commun-i t y p r o j e c t . The Band has a say i n the use of these funds. The Band C o u n c i l with the h e l p of the Superintendent prepares the y e a r l y budget. The C o u n c i l can a l s o pass r e s o l u t i o n s f o r spending Band funds on some emergency programs or pro-j e c t s . However, the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s e n t r u s t e d with the keeping of these funds, and the Superintendent can veto the spending of funds on programs o u t s i d e the o r i g i n a l budget. There i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s type of p a r t n e r s h i p between the Branch and the Band i n the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s system. CHAPTER I I I SOCIALIZATION As was mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s chap-t e r , the f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s the process by which i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n and a c q u i r e the knowledge, v a l u e s and behaviour p a t t e r n s of t h e i r s o c i e t y , and l e a r n to perform the v a r i o u s s o c i a l r o l e s which t h e i r s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s f o r . 1 T h i s process i s not e x c l u s i v e t o c h i l d h o o d and adolescence; but r a t h e r , i t i s a c o n t i n u i n g process through which the i n d i v i d u a l maintains r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e c i p r o c i t y with o t h e r s w i t h i n the framework of many s o c i a l r o l e s which pat-t e r n s o c i a l behaviour.2 Three main systems i n the Musqueam community w i l l be s t u d i e d under the f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l i z a t i o n : (1) The Family System, (2) The School System, and (3) The R e l i g i o u s System. The Family Most s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s agree that the p a t t e r n s of f a m i l y l i f e i n f l u e n c e , more or l e s s d i r e c t l y , a l l other a s p e c t s of c u l t u r e . The c h i l d gets many of h i s goals, h i s 1 S e e page 5. 2warren, l o c . c i t . - 31 -fundamental h a b i t s of thought and a c t i o n , and much of the l e a r n i n g he uses i n growing up and i n l a t e r l i f e w i t h i n the f a m i l y . 3 However, the f a m i l y system's p a t t e r n i s dynamic, changing a c c o r d i n g to other changes which occur i n the com-munity. The Musqueam f a m i l y system p a t t e r n has experie n c e d change s i n c e the a r r i v a l of the European i n the 1770's. Pre-European Days. B e f o r e the a r r i v a l o f the Euro-pean, the s o c i a l u n i t of the S a l i s h people was the p a t r i -l i n e a r f a m i l y . Groups of thr e e or four f a m i l i e s , a l l b e l o n g i n g to the same k i n s h i p group, i n h a b i t e d one house andformed a household, which i n t u r n , belonged to one of the v a r i o u s c l a n s , every member of which was supposedly descended from a common ancestor, no matter how m y t h i c a l or remote. 4 Thus, the extended f a m i l y p a t t e r n was the only one known d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . B l o o d t i e s were important and a l l members of a f a m i l y shared p o s s e s s i o n s i n a communal way. The f a m i l y system was t h e r e f o r e very important i n the S a l i s h s o c i e t y . Each i n d i v i d u a l understood h i s s o c i a l r o l e s , and the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s which accompanied them. H i s rank was c l e a r l y d e f i n e d w i t h i n the s o c i e t y ' s c l a s s s t r u c t u r e and he knew h i s p l a c e w i t h i n i t . He had a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s -f a c t i o n t h at he belonged t o h i s c u l t u r e and t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n c r e a t e d s e c u r i t y w i t h i n him.*' 3Howthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, op. c i t . , p. 274. 4 B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our Na t i v e Peoples, S e r i e s 1, V o l . 2, op. c i t . , p. 40. 5 T o r e n , op. c i t . , p. 14. - 32 -The S a l i s h Indians were "a w e l l - r e g u l a t e d , peace-l o v i n g v i r t u o u s people, whose e x i s t e n c e was f a r from squalid or m i s e r a b l e . " The aged were always sure of kindness and c o n s i d e r a t i o n at the hands of t h e i r k i n d r e d - " f a m i l y a f f e c t -i o n b e i n g a s t r o n g t r a i t among these t r i b e s . " 6 Of the l i f e of these Indians, H i l l - T o u t f u r t h e r w r i t e s : The l i f e then of the Western Indian, as i t was l i v e d i n the e a r l i e r days, was not that of a v i c i o u s and degraded savage. He had advanced many ste p s beyond th a t when we f i r s t came i n contact with him, and h i s l i f e , though simple and rude, was on the whole w e l l -o r dered and happy, and i f h i s wants and a s p i r a t i o n s were few, so a l s o were h i s car e s and w o r r i e s . 7 Present Family System. W r i t i n g on the present f a m i l y l i f e of the B r i t i s h Columbia Indians, Hawthorn says: Today, the Indian c u l t u r e of the Pr o v i n c e a l l possess the c o n j u g a l f a m i l y as an important, perhaps the major u n i t of t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . There are a number of v a r i a n t s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p , but many of them f a l l w i t h i n the Western f a m i l y p a t t e r n . Some of the o l d va l u e s and arrangements have continued, but an impres-s i v e number of new r u l e s and a t t i t u d e s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the Indian c u l t u r e s . 8 The above o b s e r v a t i o n a p p l i e s t o the Musqueam com-munity. Each of the t h i r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s socio-economic survey has the c o n j u g a l f a m i l y p a t t e r n . Except f o r f a m i l y guests i n the homes, t h i s p a t t e r n i s pre -v a l e n t . The husband and f a t h e r i s wage earner f o r the f a m i l y , ^ C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , N a t i v e Races o f the B r i t i s h  Empire: B r i t i s h North America, London, A r c h i b a l d and Co. L t d . , 1907, p. 47. ^ H i l l - T o u t , l o c . c i t . 8Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, op. c i t . , p. 43. - 33 -and i n most cases r e s i d e n c e i s at the husband's p l a c e of abode. As f a r as many f a m i l i e s l i v i n g under one r o o f i s concerned, the extended f a m i l y type no longer e x i s t s . How-ever, t h e r e i s much v i s i t i n g back and f o r t h by members of the extended f a m i l y . Non-Indians and non-Band members assume Indian s t a t u s when they l e g a l l y marry an Indian man b e l o n g i n g to the Band and r e s i d i n g on the r e s e r v e . ^ There are at present on the jReserve, two white men and one Chinese man who are ma r r i e d to I ndian women. These women have l o s t t h e i r I ndian s t a t u s through marriage t o non-Indians. These f a m i l i e s can l i v e on the Reserve on l y as long as the Band permits. The Band can charge them r e n t a l f e e s f o r l i v i n g i n Band houses. However, a person who i s not a Band member but has Indian s t a t u s can be vot e d i n t o the Band L i s t , by the Band. A Band L i s t i s the o f f i c i a l l i s t of names of a Band kept by the Band Coun-c i l which i s the Band's l o c a l government. As i n d i c a t e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n on the f u n c t i o n of " p r o d u c t i o n - d i s t r i b u t i o n - c o n s u m p t i o n , " the Musqueam commun-i t y i s i n an area adjacent to Vancouver's h i g h e s t wage and income l e v e l group. Both communities share s e v e r a l s e r v i c e s such as s c h o o l s , s t o r e s and banks. The Musqueam youth more than the o l d e r group, are i n contact with the neighbouring community and observe the a f f l u e n c e under which the imme-d i a t e extra-community l i v e s . There, may?.3? develop the a s p i -'^Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, op. c i t . , p. 439. - 34 -r a t i o n t o a c q u i r e these l u x u r i e s , but once the Indian r e t u r n s to the Reserve, he sees the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ever a t t a i n i n g a l e v e l wherein he would be ab l e to secure the advantages observable t o him. Many of these young people complain that t h e i r parents are a p a t h e t i c toward change and improvement. They are con-cerned t h a t the c i t y ' s p ress and r a d i o s t a t i o n s always choose a poor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Musqueam homes f o r p u b l i c i t y . Some say t h a t the Reserve i s not worse than what one f i n d s i n non-Indian communities. Very o f t e n , the same people l a t e r on i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n expressed r e g r e t f o r b e i n g unable to l i v e o f f Musqueam. Furthermore, many young couples now choose t o have t h e i r homes b u i l t on the e a s t e r n end of Crown S t r e e t , toward Vancouver c i t y . T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be i n t e r -p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of a d e s i r e to leav e the Reserve. B e s i d e s b e i n g u n c e r t a i n as to how the o u t s i d e com-munity w i l l accept him, the Indian has not wanted t o l o s e some of h i s p r i v i l e g e s as an Indian on the Reserve. I f he l e f t the r e s e r v e , he would have t o pay taxes and to undergo expenses such as paying d o c t o r ' s b i l l s . 1 0 However, i t i s t r u e t h a t : The Indian today - and e s p e c i a l l y the young edu-c a t e d Indian - i s not s a t i s f i e d with h i s c o n d i t i o n and wants t o change, but he i s at a l o s s as to how t h i s can be accomplished and he i s not c e r t a i n of the way of l i f e t h a t he would l i k e to l i v e . There are many proposed s o l u t i o n s , many accusa-t i o n s and counter a c c u s a t i o n s but the only area where ^ I n t e r v i e w s with s e v e r a l young couples i n Musqueam. - 35 -th e r e i s agreement on both s i d e s i s t h a t a l l are d i s -s a t i s f i e d with the present e x i s t e n c e . 1 1 To l i v e the normal Canadian l i f e , t h e r e s h o u l d be some changes i n the Reserve l i f e as i t i s today. At present, the Reserve i s used by many Indians to escape from the r e a l l i f e o u t s i d e the Reserve. I t i s probably t r u e , when some of the Indians say t h a t i t i s the only p l a c e whereothey f e e l at home and at ease. At the same time, there i s the c o n f l i c t of wanting to l i v e out, and at the same time wanting to s t a y at "home." 1 2 The R e l i g i o u s System Of the 234 i n h a b i t a n t s of Musqueam at the time of t h i s survey, 222 are Roman C a t h o l i c by denomination. The r e s t are adherents of the U n i t e d Church, the Shakers and of the A n g l i c a n Church denominations. Since the m a j o r i t y of the f a m i l i e s are Roman C a t h o l i c , f o r the most p a r t , the study of t h i s system w i l l be c o n f i n e d to t h a t Church. Furthermore, the o n l y Church b u i l d i n g i n the community at present i s t h a t of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. The f i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n Musqueam was b u i l t i n 1902. The f i n a n c i n g and a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g were a Band p r o j e c t . R e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s were con-ducted once a month by v i s i t i n g O b l a t e p r i e s t s . However, 1 1James M u l v i h i l l , "Fear of Change Hinders P r o g r e s s , " Indian Record, V o l . 27, No. 10, November, 1964. 1 2 I n t e r v i e w s with Musqueam Reserve r e s i d e n t s . - 36 -about seven or e i g h t years ago, t h i s order of p r i e s t s r e l i n -quished management of that Church to the J e s u i t Order, i n o rder to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r weekly s e r v i c e s to be conducted i n the Musqueam Church. Since that time, the Church has been under the P r i e s t who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the diocese i n the 13 Camosun S t r e e t area north of Musqueam. Two years ago, the church b u i l d i n g was destroyed by f i r e , but a new one i s b e i n g b u i l t and i s almost complete. The new b u i l d i n g i s s i t u a t e d on Crown S t r e e t , i n the area most popular f o r b u i l d i n g homes i n the community. I t i s i n the s e c t i o n of Crown S t r e e t which i s toward Vancouver c i t y on Marine D r i v e . The b u i l d i n g has been f i n a n c e d by Band funds. The c o n s t r u c t i o n i s being done by Musqueam Indians, while the a l t a r f u r n i s h i n g s w i l l be the only a r t i c l e s or h e l p to be p r o v i d e d by the mother Church. The Band has i n s u r e d the whole b u i l d i n g a g a i n s t f i r e . One i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r about t h i s Church i s t h a t i t i s going to be used by non-Gatholic Band members f o r s p e c i a l ceremonies such as weddings and f u n e r a l s e r v i c e s . The Bishop, under whose diocese the area comes, has consented to t h i s arrangement s i n c e money f o r the b u i l d -i n g of the Church was p r o v i d e d by the Band as a whole. B e f o r e each Sunday s e r v i c e i s conducted f o r a d u l t s , the S i s t e r s of S t . Ann's Order teach the youth catechism. T h i s i s the same order of nuns which operates the Immaculate Conception Elementary School. Attendance f o r both a d u l t s and 1 3 w r i t e r * s Recording, 18th January, 1965. - 37 -c h i l d r e n i s poor. Some a d u l t s are r e p o r t e d t o go to church on l y on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s such as weddings and f u n e r a l s e r -v i c e s . The average y e a r l y catechism attendance i s about f i f t e e n . I t i s s a i d , c h i l d r e n a t t e n d only i f no other s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , such as a p i c n i c , i s going on that Sunday. There are no other on-going Church a c t i v i t i e s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s at prese n t . In the summer, the Church sponsors a boat r a c e f o r the members of the community. There i s usu-a l l y very good p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s event. About two years ago, the Church s t a r t e d a C a t h o l i c Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the Musqueam youth. However, i t had to be d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r a short p e r i o d . A c c o r d i n g to inform-a t i o n , the reason f o r i t s s h o r t e x i s t e n c e was that h a l f o f the time d u r i n g i t s l i f e , e x e c u t i v e members went i n t o meet-in g s i n a drunken s t a t e . The o b j e c t i v e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n was to develop l e a d e r s h i p among the Musqueam youth; but members seemed more i n t e r e s t e d i n h o l d i n g dances than i n any-t h i n g e l s e . 1 4 The U n i t e d Church has a r e g u l a r program f o r the youth. Every Sunday, the Church sends a van to the community-to c o l l e c t as many c h i l d r e n as are w i l l i n g and to d r i v e them to Sunday s c h o o l i n the c i t y . I t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t a good number of c h i l d r e n always t u r n up f o r t h i s " t r e a t " . Many of these are C a t h o l i c by denomination, but, i n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , they l i k e the d r i v e . 1 4 W r i t e r ' s Recording, 18th January, 1965. - 38 -The School T h i s i s one of the major s o c i a l systems of the com-munity which perform the s o c i a l i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n . Here, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r o l e network i s i n c r e a s e d , and he meets and works with other people o u t s i d e h i s immediate f a m i l y c i r c l e . As socio-economic changes occur i n the community, the s c h o o l becomes s i n g l e d out s p e c i f i c a l l y as a s o c i a l i z i n g agent, r a t h e r than merely "as a means of i n c u l c a t i n g c e r t a i n r e l a -t i v e l y e x t e r n a l knowledges and s k i l l s . " ^ The B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867 p l a c e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Indian A f f a i r s with the F e d e r a l Government. T h i s meant t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l aspect was a l s o c a r r i e d out under the same agency. There are thr e e types o f s c h o o l s f o r Indians: (1) R e s i d e n t i a l Schools, (2) Day Schools, and (3) I n t e g r a t e d Schools. R e s i d e n t i a l Schools. These s c h o o l s are intended p r i m a r i l y to pr o v i d e care, maintenance and e d u c a t i o n a l op-p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n who, because of circumstances, can not a t t e n d day or i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s . The s e l e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n f o r these s c h o o l s i s on p r i o r i t y b a s i s : (1) For c h i l d r e n whose home circumstances are so unfavourable that they must be removed, (2) f o r p u p i l s f o r whom the r e are no s u i t a b l e s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s a c c e s s i b l e to t h e i r home, (3) f o r p u p i l s who have no other means of r e c e i v i n g a higher 'Warren, op. c i t . , p. 174. - 39 -education. 1® At the end of each academic year, each p r i n c i p a l of a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s asked to meet with h i s s c h o o l i n -sp e c t o r to review the n e c e s s i t y of r e t a i n i n g each p u p i l i n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l f o r another year. Arrangements are then made f o r the dis c h a r g e of p u p i l s whose attendance at the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s no longer e s s e n t i a l . 1 7 Day Schools. These s c h o o l s are operated on r e s e r v e s . They are mostly denominational and are operated on r e s e r v e s where home c o n d i t i o n s are f a v o u r a b l e and s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s are s u f f i c i e n t . ° I n t e g r a t e d Schools. "Of great and growing importance i n r e c e n t years has been the development of ' j o i n t ' or ' i n t e -g r a t e d ' s c h o o l s . " In t h i s type of s c h o o l , Indian Affairs Branch e n t e r s i n t o agreements with l o c a l s c h o o l boards i n order t h a t Indian c h i l d r e n may enter r e g u l a r P r o v i n c i a l S chools. The Branch pays t u i t i o n c o s t s f o r the number of Indian c h i l d r e n accepted by the s c h o o l s . In the case of new j o i n t s c h o o l s , the Branch pays f o r pa r t of the c a p i t a l c o s t s . 1 ^ N e g o t i a t i o n with s c h o o l boards i s c a r r i e d by the ^Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Immigration, Winni-peg, Manitoba, The People of Indian A n c e s t r y i n Manitoba; A S o c i a l and Economic Study, V o l . 1, D i r e c t e d by Jean H. Lagasse, Winnipeg, Manitoba, February, 1959, p. 113. 1 7 L a gasse, l o c . c i t . 1 8 L a gasse, l o c . c i t . 19Duff, op. c i t . , p. 73. - 40 -Agency Superintendent and R e g i o n a l School Superintendent. The primary f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s are the f e d e -r a l government's p o l i c y on education, p a r e n t a l wishes, the r e l i g i o n of the group or groups of c h i l d r e n concerned, the p o l i c y of the s c h o o l board, the socio-economic development of the Band, s c h o o l accommodation on the Reserve, s c h o o l accommodation p r o v i d e d by the s c h o o l board, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the c h i l d r e n , c o n d i t i o n s of roads on the Reserve and the p o l i c i e s of the p r o v i n c i a l departments of e d u c a t i o n on i n t e -g r a t e d p r o g r a m s . 2 0 With the above i n f o r m a t i o n , the School Board T r u s t -ees can then i n d i c a t e acceptance i n p r i n c i p l e of the propo-s a l s of the Branch o f f i c i a l s and the number of c h i l d r e n t h a t they w i l l accept, the t u i t i o n f e e s r e q u i r e d , t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n arrangements, and i f a j o i n t s c h o o l i s i n v o l v e d , the proposed b u i l d i n g program and e s t i m a t e d c o s t s t o the B r a n c h . 2 The c h o i c e of s c h o o l f o r an Indian c h i l d i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p a r e n t s . I f , i n the o p i n i o n of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, home c o n d i t i o n s are thought to be so unfavourable as to c a l l f o r the " p r o t e c t i o n " of the c h i l d , then a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s c o n s i d e r e d . In s h o r t , the r e s i -d e n t i a l s c h o o l s are used as f o s t e r homes. For the most p a r t , day s c h o o l s are used where s c h o o l boards of the p u b l i c and 20Canada, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, F i e l d Manual, Ottawa, 1951. 2 1Canada, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, F i e l d Manual, l o c . c i t . - 41 -p r i v a t e s c h o o l s cannot take i n t o t h e i r s c h o o l s a l l Indian c h i l d r e n who under home c o n d i t i o n s are e l i g i b l e f o r p r i v a t e or p u b l i c s c h o o l s o u t s i d e the Reserve. In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c r e a s i n g l y , the Branch i s making use of i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s wherever p o s s i b l e . In 1962, the Branch maintained seventy day s c h o o l s on the Reserves i n the p r o v i n c e and e l e v e n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . During t h a t academic year, 3,792 c h i l d r e n attended Indian day s c h o o l s and 2,169 attended r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . The number of c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i s growing too. In 1962-1963 s c h o o l year, i t was 5,108. 2 2 T a b l e 5: Number of Musqueam C h i l d r e n  i n School. (1964-1965 School Year) Type of School Number of C h i l d r e n * P u b l i c primary 38 P u b l i c secondary 8 P a r o c h i a l n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l 7 R e s i d e n t i a l primary and secondary 10 Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e 2 Burnaby T e c h n i c a l 1 T o t a l 66 Source: W r i t e r ' s r e c o r d i n g s January and February, 1965. *These numbers do not i n c l u d e non-Musqueam Band c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g i n Musqueam and a t t e n d i n g the same s c h o o l s as Band members. 2 2 D u f f , l o c . c i t . - 42 -Musqueam has no day s c h o o l sub-system l o c a t e d on the r e s e r v e . A l l the c h i l d r e n a t t e n d r e s i d e n t i a l , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . Table 5 shows the break-down of the number of c h i l d r e n i n each s c h o o l sub-system. Primary Schools. The Musqueam c h i l d r e n a t t e n d two primary s c h o o l s i n the c i t y , the Immaculate Conception School, which i s operated by the Roman C a t h o l i c Order of the S i s t e r s of St. Ann, and the Southlands P u b l i c Elementary School. As t a b l e 5 shows, th e r e are seven c h i l d r e n i n the Immaculate Conception and t h i r t y - e i g h t i n Southlands. These s c h o o l s come under the i n t e g r a t e d type of s c h o o l . The Indian A f f a i r s Branch n e g o t i a t e s with the s c h o o l boards and pays t u i t i o n f o r the number of Indian c h i l d r e n i n each of the s c h o o l s . In the Immaculate Conception, the fee f o r Indian students i s $25.00 a month per student. T h i s amount covers t u i t i o n and s c h o o l supples as w e l l as a sum of $55.00 per month f o r a s c h o o l bus f o r the c h i l d r e n . In Southlands, t u i t i o n i s $150.00 a year f o r each c h i l d . 2 3 Secondary Schools. A l l Musqueam secondary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d the Po i n t Grey Secondary School. For the 1964-1965 academic year, there were e i g h t students i n t h i s s c h o o l . Here, as i n primary s c h o o l s , the Branch n e g o t i a t e s with the s c h o o l board f o r c h i l d r e n to be accepted i n t o the s c h o o l . I t a l s o pays the book r e n t a l f e e s of $7.50 f o r each student.24 23Writer's Recordings, 18th and 22nd January, 1965. 2 4 I b i d . , 22nd January, 1965. Table 6: Number of Days i n Which Twenty  Students Were Absent from School i n the 1963-1964 School Year. Number of days absent Student's grade out o f 192 s c h o o l days f o r 1963-1964 77-1/2 21 14-1/2 49 17-1/2 32- 1/2 34 19-1/2 8 36-1/2 38-1/2 54 56 35 46 55 57 33- 1/2 18 51-1/2 T o t a l number of days absent: 754-1/2 T o t a l number of stu d e n t s : 20 Averai ye number of days absent: 37.7 Source: T a b u l a t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w s with s c h o o l s t a f f members. W r i t e r ' s r e c o r d i n g s , January and February, 1965. School Attendance. Canadian Indians, l i k e non-Indian Canadians r e c e i v e the monthly f a m i l y allowance f o r c h i l d r e n e ighteen years o l d and under, who are a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . I r r e g u l a r i t y of s c h o o l attendance may cause the 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 - 44 -allowance to be suspended or w i t h h e l d from the mother. How-ever, i n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , t h i s does not seem to be much of an i n c e n t i v e f o r some Indian parents i n Musqueam. During the 1964-1965 f i r s t s c h o o l term, t h r e e f a m i l i e s had t h e i r allowance suspended f o r at l e a s t one month f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i r r e g u l a r s c h o o l attendance. In a l l the t h r e e c i t y s c h o o l s attended by the c h i l d r e n , the Musqueam c h i l d r e n ' s attendance has been very i r r e g u l a r . Table 6 showsd a sample of the number of days i n which twenty students were absent from s c h o o l i n the 1963-1964 academic year. I t should be noted the number of days r e c o r d e d i n the above t a b l e does not i n c l u d e the number of days i n which the student went to s c h o o l l a t e . I t i s r e p o r t e d , there i s a h i g h e r r a t e of the l a t t e r i n c i d e n c e , than the former. I r r e g u l a r i t y i n s c h o o l attendance i s no doubt one of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the problem of s c h o o l drop-outs. Students who a t t e n d i r r e g u -l a r l y miss so much s c h o o l work t h a t they are unable to cope with students who have been a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s r e g u l a r l y . These i r r e g u l a r a t t e n d e r s sometimes get so d i s c o u r a g e d with s c h o o l f a i l u r e t h a t they drop out of s c h o o l . For the year 1964-1965 up to February, t h e r e were ten Musqueam Indian s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who dropped out of s c h o o l i n Vancouver. H a l f of these drop-outs completed only grade seven. There i s a l s o a h i g h r a t e of students r e p e a t i n g s c h o o l grades. Out of t h i r t y - f i v e students r a n g i n g from grade two t o ten, t h i r t e e n r epeated grades. Of these r e p e a t -e r s , one r e p e a t e d three grades, f i v e r e p e a t e d two each, and - 45 -seven re p e a t e d a grade each. Grades one and seven were rep e a t e d by the h i g h e s t number of s t u d e n t s . Students with a high r a t e of absence a l s o r a t e d h i g h i n the number of grades repeated. A c c o r d i n g to t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , homework i s very p o o r l y done by these s t u d e n t s . During the 1963-1964 s c h o o l year, t h e r e was a study time arranged i n the community h a l l on the Reserve. However, t h i s does not e x i s t any l o n g e r . Parents r e p o r t t h a t d u r i n g the time when the study evening was i n o p e r a t i o n , t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s work i n s c h o o l improved g r e a t l y . For most students on the Reserve, home c o n d i t i o n s are not conducive to s t u d y i n g , as t h e r e are very o f t e n a l a r g e number of s i b l i n g s at home. Among the many reasons given f o r the break-up of the o r g a n i z e d study was t h a t t h e r e was not a s u f f i c i e n t number of parents i n t e r e s t e d i n s e r v i n g as v o l u n -t e e r s t o s u p e r v i s e the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the evenings when they met i n the h a l l f o r s t u d y i n g . The c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l a c t i v i -t i e s i s below average. A c c o r d i n g to t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , they tend to move j u s t w i t h i n t h e i r group and do not mix with other c h i l d r e n . They do not take p a r t i n the o r g a n i z a -t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of s c h o o l c l u b s , but when the s c h o o l arranges a "mixer dance", these c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y . The s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e between the Musqueam c h i l d r e n and the m a j o r i t y of non-Indian c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l must be c o n s i d e r e d , i n order to a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y some of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups of c h i l d r e n . The non-- 46 -Indian c h i l d comes from the h i g h e s t income l e v e l group i n Vancouver. H i s parents can o f t e n a f f o r d t o supply him with good c l o t h e s and other c h i l d h o o d a m e n i t i e s . On the other hand, coming from a l a r g e f a m i l y and l i v i n g i n an area which i s one of the lowest income group areas i n Vancouver, at best, the Indian c h i l d has to do with the minimum c l o t h e s requirement and, on the average, with inadequate and p o o r l y f i t t e d c l o t h e s . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n that t h i s f a c t o r i n i t s e l f i s a b l e to i n s t i l l a sense of inadequacy i n the c h i l d . A sense of l a c k o f s e l f - e s t e e m develops and becomes more acute as he gets to grade seven, and as he e n t e r s the secondary s c h o o l . T h i s i s more prominent with the g i r l than with the boy, and i s probably one of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the high r a t e of drop-out i n the seventh grade. P a r e n t a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Only one parent i n Musqueam belongs to a s c h o o l Parent-Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . She was the p r e s i d e n t f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e years. For the 1963-1964 and 1964-1965 s c h o o l years, no parent from Musqueam v i s i t e d the P o i n t Grey Secondary School d u r i n g "open-house" oc c a s i o n s , and only a very few v i s i t e d Southlands. The only parent who v i s i t e d the Immaculate Conception School was a non-Musqueam Band member l i v i n g i n Musqueam. Teachers have s a i d t h a t the parents seldom c a l l the s c h o o l or v i s i t i t to d i s c u s s a c h i l d ' s problem. Sometimes a s c h o o l would c a l l a parent and make an appointment to see him i n s c h o o l i n order to d i s c u s s a c e r t a i n problem about h i s c h i l d , but many times, the parent would not make the - 47 -appointment. The w r i t e r observed that many parents use t h e i r c h i l d r e n as b a b y - s i t t e r s d u r i n g s c h o o l hours. A c c o r d i n g t o i n t e r v i e w s with s c h o o l personnel, when a c h i l d r e t u r n s to s c h o o l a f t e r a few days of absence, most parents do not remember to send a note t o s c h o o l e x p l a i n i n g the absence. However, i t i s r e p o r t e d by teach e r s that t h i s happens to non-Indians too, except that i t i s at a much sm a l l e r r a t e when compared to Indian parents. Apparently, the m a j o r i t y of Musqueam parents do not h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n to become i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l r e g u l a r l y . On the whole, the o l d e r the parents, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r them to a p p r e c i a t e the value of a formal education, as do white parents l i v i n g i n the same s o c i e t y . Some Indian c h i l d r e n become s i x t e e n years of age by the time they complete grade e i g h t . Although the age requirement f o r f a m i l y allowance has been changed from s i x t e e n to eighteen, i f a c h i l d i s s t i l l i n s c h o o l , many parents are not aware of t h i s change. I f a c h i l d decides to drop out of s c h o o l at s i x t e e n , these parents f e e l they have nothing to l o s e i n the form of f a m i l y allowance as the c h i l d i s no longer e n t i t l e d to any. Thus the parent who has been viewing the allowance as an i n c e n t i v e f o r sending h i s c h i l d to s c h o o l may simply o v e r l o o k the f a c t t h a t h i s c h i l d has dropped out of s c h o o l . The Band C o u n c i l c o u l d use i t s l o c a l a u t h o r i t y to urge parents to send t h e i r c h i l d r e n back to s c h o o l as soon as they show s i g n s of dropping from s c h o o l , but t h i s i s not done. The C o u n c i l b e l i e v e s i t i s a d r a i n on the Band funds - 48 -t r y i n g to send back to s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who drop out of i t , and whose f a t h e r s are u s u a l l y "a l i a b i l i t y " i n the community by b e i n g unemployed f o r years.25 j n the w r i t e r ' s view, the C o u n c i l i s choosing s h o r t term goals at the expense of long term g o a l s . These c h i l d r e n c o u l d end up i n the Band's " R e l i e f R o l l " , i f they are not prepared f o r f u t u r e employment. Be s i d e s , expense f o r Indian c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l f e e s and s u p p l i e s i s p a i d f o r by the Branch. The Band may on l y h e l p with c l o t h i n g i n s p e c i a l cases. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the number of sc h o o l drop-outs l i v i n g on the Reserve as of February, 1965: Table 7: Number of School Dropouts on Reserve  as of February, 1965. Age Highest grade completed Year dropped out 16 VI 1963-1964 16 VI 1963-1964 16 VII 1962-1963 16 VII 1963-1964 16 VII 1964-1965 17 VII 1963-1964 17 VII 1963-1964 17 V I I I 1964-1965 17 IX 1962-1963 Source: 1. W r i t e r ' s i n t e r v i e w s with School P r i n c i p a l s , 2. W r i t e r ' s i n t e r v i e w s with students, 3. Indian A f f a i r s Branch Records, February, 1965. The above t a b l e shows that the l a r g e s t number of s c h o o l drop-outs occurs a f t e r grade seven. F i v e out of the 2 5 I n t e r v i e w s with a Band C o u n c i l member. - 49 -nine students dropped out a f t e r completing t h a t grade. Grade s i x ranks second with two students and grades e i g h t and nine each with one. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , grade seven a l s o ranks h i g h i n the r a t e of students r e p e a t i n g grades. T h i s i s a l s o the grade when a c h i l d can enter a j u n i o r secondary or h i g h s c h o o l , and the age when a c h i l d u s u a l l y becomes more conscious of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of h i s s o c i e t y . Some of the s c h o o l dropouts i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d t h a t they dropped out because of l a c k of s u i t a b l e c l o t h e s f o r s c h o o l . D e s p i t e the case of s c h o o l dropouts i n the community, the r e has been one o u t s t a n d i n g student i n Musqueam. T h i s student won the o n l y 1964 s c h o l a r s h i p awarded by the Branch i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e g i o n . The s c h o l a r s h i p amounted to $250.00. The student completed Grade XII at the end of the 1963-1964 academic year, and i s now t a k i n g a course i n Survey Technology at the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology i n B u r n a b y . 2 6 Since the m a j o r i t y of Musqueam s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d the above " i n t e g r a t e d " s c h o o l s i n the c i t y , s p e c i f i c d i s c u s -s i o n of the s c h o o l s o c i a l system has been l i m i t e d to these s c h o o l s . Summary Three main s o c i a l systems are i n v o l v e d i n the per-2 ® T h e Indian News, December, 1964. - 50 -forming of the f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n Musqueam: (1) The Family, (2) The School, and (3) The R e l i g i o u s System. The Family. The extended f a m i l y p a t t e r n s t i l l p er-s i s t s i n Musqueam, but t h i s system i s not as s t r o n g as i t was i n pre-European days. At present, the m a j o r i t y of house-h o l d s have only one f a m i l y each. However, th e r e are s o c i a l f a c t i o n s based on the extended f a m i l y p a t t e r n . The f a m i l y does not have as s t r o n g a c o n t r o l over the young people's a c t i o n s as i t d i d i n pre-European days. T h i s i s because of the i n f l u e n c e on the younger g e n e r a t i o n of non-Indian c u l t u r e o u t s i d e Musqueam. The o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n on the Reserve seeks to have the young conform to l o c a l norms, and at the same time, the non-Indian c u l t u r e expects the Indian to conform to i t s own norms, thus c r e a t i n g c o n f l i c t f o r the young Indians, who are i n a s t a t e of ambivalence i n t h e i r attempt to conform to both c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The R e l i g i o u s System. The b u i l d i n g and o p e r a t i o n of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n Musqueam have been shared between the l o c a l community and the extra-community. The b u i l d i n g has been f i n a n c e d and i n s u r e d a g a i n s t f i r e by the Band, while the a l t a r i s t o be f u r n i s h e d by the Mother Church from o u t s i d e Musqueam. The p r i e s t and nuns who conduct the Church s e r v i c e s and catechism are l i k e w i s e from o u t s i d e . The community has become i n v o l v e d i n b u i l d i n g the Church, and s i n c e i t i s f i n a n -ced out- of Band funds, i t can be used by n o n - C a t h o l i c denomi-n a t i o n s f o r s p e c i a l ceremonies, such as matrimonial and f u n e r a l - 51 -s e r v i c e s . Although Church s e r v i c e attendance f o r both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n i s below average, there i s good p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the annual boat r a c e sponsored by the Church. The School System. The two sub-systems o p e r a t i n g under t h i s s o c i a l system are the r e s i d e n t i a l and i n t e g r a t e d types. The former i s used f o r c h i l d r e n who, a c c o r d i n g to the Branch, are l i v i n g i n homes which are not conducive to study-i n g . More i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s are now b e i n g used f o r Musqueam c h i l d r e n . The parents have an o p p o r t u n i t y to choose the type of s c h o o l they want t h e i r c h i l d r e n to attend, and the Branch has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of n e g o t i a t i n g with s c h o o l boards f o r a c e r t a i n number of Musqueam c h i l d r e n to be admitted i n t o the s c h o o l s . The c i t y s c h o o l s attended by the c h i l d r e n are i n the h i g h e s t income and wage l e v e l area i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. T h i s i s probably a f a c t o r i n making the Indian c h i l d r e n become more aware of the c o n t r a s t between the st a n d a r d of l i v i n g which e x i s t s i n t h e i r own l o c a l i t y and t h a t i n the extra-com-munity. School attendance f o r c h i l d r e n from Musqueam i s below average, and t h e r e i s a h i g h r a t e of r e p e a t i n g grades among these c h i l d r e n . Except f o r s c h o o l dances, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a a c t i v i t i e s i s a l s o below average. Parents show very l i t t l e or no i n t e r e s t i n what goes on i n the s c h o o l which t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d . Only one parent belongs to a s c h o o l Parent-Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . CHAPTER IV SOCIAL CONTROL T h i s f u n c t i o n , which i s "the process a c c o r d i n g to which a group i n f l u e n c e s the behaviour of i t s members toward conform-i t y with group norms," has both i n f o r m a l and formal a s p e c t s . The i n f o r m a l aspects i n c l u d e the pressure of p u b l i c o p i n i o n and the i n f l u e n c e of blame and p r a i s e . These a l o n g with custom and l o c a l norms operate d i r e c t l y on the decision-making of i n -d i v i d u a l s as f a m i l y or neighbourhood members. The formal con-t r o l s operate through the l a w . l Informal S o c i a l C o n t r o l . Hawthorn's study of the Indian i n B r i t i s h Columbia makes a s p e c i a l note on the changes that have o c c u r r e d i n the Indian's i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l system: As the Indian f a m i l y has a l t e r e d towards a s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t i n g the v a l u e s and c o n d i t i o n s of White S o c i e t y , so too i t s o p e r a t i o n as an instrument of s o c i a l c o n t r o l has changed towards that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of White S o c i e t y .... Each i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the f a m i l y as he or she grows up, i s impressed by c o n t a c t s , not merely with f a t h e r , mother, and l i k e - f e e l i n g k i n s f o l k , but a l s o with Indian f a m i l i e s of d i f f e r e n t outlook, with white s c h o o l teachers, policemen, superintendents, f r i e n d s and movies. Each i n d i v i d u a l comes i n t o c o n t a c t with v a l u e s that d i f f e r more or l e s s from those experienced by other members of h i s f a m i l y , and t h i s means that i n d i v i d u a l goals d i f f e r w i t h i n the f a m i l y and are IWarren, op. c i t . , p. 218. - 53 -sometimes f e l t to be i n c o n s i s t e n t , and disharmonious, j u s t as they are i n White f a m i l i e s . 2 The Indian s i t u a t i o n i s made worse by the f a c t t h a t i n some f a m i l i e s , d i f f e r e n t generations r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t view p o i n t s on t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n the c u l t u r e , and by the f a c t that the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n i s unacquainted with, or has r e j e c t e d l a r g e elements of the o v e r - a l l c u l t u r e which are important to the younger g e n e r a t i o n . 3 A good example of change i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l can be c i t e d from the d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward the winter dances by the two generations i n Musqueam, These dances are h e l d a n n u a l l y from the l a t t e r p a r t of January to the end of A p r i l . T h i s year, d u r i n g the dancing p e r i o d , the w r i t e r t r i e d to f i n d out how the younger ge n e r a t i o n f e l t about the dances and how the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n f e l t . The former d i d not t h i n k much of those dances. Some s a i d t h a t the dances are out-moded, o t h e r s , that such dances are u n - C h r i s t i a n , and t h e r e f o r e a t r u e C a t h o l i c should not p a r t i c i p a t e i n them, s t i l l o t h e r s complained that the dances encourage unemployment, as some men would stop work i n order to j o i n the ceremonies. On the other hand, the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n have an outlook which i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from that of the younger members. The former e x p l a i n e d that the dances are a part of Indian l i f e and, t h e r e f o r e , they should be h e l d a n n u a l l y , o t h e r s say that they 2Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, op. c i t . , pp. 411-412. ^Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, l o c . c i t . - 54 -"are d i f f e r e n t from anything the white man has," and that the white man i s unable to understand them. They are very enthu-s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a n t s , u n l i k e the younger g e n e r a t i o n who may use the dances as a way of escap i n g s c h o o l work or a way of keeping busy, i f unemployed or underemployed. As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r under the R e l i g i o u s System, r e l i g i o n does not seem to have a c o n t r o l l i n g e f f e c t on i n d i -v i d u a l s i n Musqueam. Nevertheless, t h e r e are a few i n d i v i d u a l s of the C a t h o l i c f a i t h who seem to adhere to r e l i g i o u s t e a c h -i n g s . For example, c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s p i r i t dances because of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . The Church a l s o has t r i e d to c o n t r o l the d r i n k i n g of a l c o h o l and the i n c i d e n c e of common law marriages, but i n t h i s aspect, there does not appear to have been any o u t s t a n d i n g success. For example, th e r e are four women l i v i n g i n common law marriages, while t h e i r l e g a l l y m a r r i e d husbands are on the Reserve. There has a l s o been s e v e r a l a r r e s t s made among men on the Reserve on drunken charges. Formal S o c i a l C o n t r o l There are three formal s o c i a l c o n t r o l systems i n Musqueam: (1) The Indian A f f a i r s Branch, (2) The Band C o u n c i l , (3) The F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l Laws. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch System. The B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867 charged the f e d e r a l government with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Indian A f f a i r s . The c h i e f f u n c t i o n s of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch are the management of Indian Reserves - 55 -and surrendered land, band funds, education, welfare, r e l i e f , f a m i l y allowances, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Indian veterans l i v i n g on Reserves, descent of property, Indian t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s and a v a r i e t y of other m a t t e r s . 4 In B r i t i s h Columbia, Indian A f f a i r s are under the j u r i s -d i c t i o n of a Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s . Under the commis-s i o n e r are the v a r i o u s Indian Superintendents who are i n e f f e c t r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . A l s o r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Com-mis s i o n e r are R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r s , a Placement O f f i -c er, an A g r i c u l t u r a l O f f i c e r , a Fur Su p e r v i s o r , an Engineer, and one S o c i a l Worker. The S o c i a l Worker serves as a l i a i s o n person between the Branch and welfar e agencies o f f e r i n g s e r -v i c e s t o Indians. Indian h e a l t h s e r v i c e s are ad m i n i s t e r e d s e p a r a t e l y , but are c o o r d i n a t e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s with the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The Indian Superintendent i s i n d i r e c t c ontact with the power groups of the d i f f e r e n t Bands under h i s agencies. The powers he e x e r c i s e s are c o n f e r r e d on him by the Indian Act and the Superintendent General of Indian A f f a i r s . The Superintendent's powers are t h e r e f o r e l e g a l . There are a l s o t r a d i t i o n a l powers which have developed out of the Indian's need to gain the Superintendent's a p p r o v a l f o r any p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g property and money. , ;4jean H. Lagasse, "Community Development i n Mani-toba," Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . 20, No. 4, Winter, 1961-1962. ">Toren, op. c i t . , p. 5. - 56 -Because of h i s p o s i t i o n i n implementing p o l i c y , the Superintendent can discourage or encourage Indian p r o j e c t s . At the same time, an e n l i g h t e n e d Superintendent can advance the w e l f a r e of the Indians i n h i s r e g i o n . However, i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t whether or not a Superintendent i s i n agreement with p a r t s of the Indian Act, he has no c h o i c e but to a d m i n i s t e r i t a c c o r d i n g l y . I t binds both the Indian and the Superintendent a l i k e . The F r a s e r Agency. T h i s i s an agency, c r e a t e d i n November, 1964, by the amalgamation of the Vancouver and New Westminster agencies. The Musqueam Band which was under the Vancouver Agency i s now under the F r a s e r Agency. Under the new agency t h e r e are 41 Indian Bands, t o t a l l i n g 6,109 people. An Agency Superintendent, a Deputy Superintendent and four a s s i s t a n t s p r o v i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r these Bands. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agency i s to " g e n e r a l l y a s s i s t the Indian i n the e x e r c i s e of h i s r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s and to meet h i s needs c o n s i s t e n t with the A c t . " 6 The channels of communication between the agency and th e Band are not always c l e a r . Many Indians do not understand the p o l i c i e s under which they are governed. For many, the C h i e f and h i s C o u n c i l act as i n t e r p r e t e r of Indian A f f a i r s p o l i c i e s and the C h i e f i s t h e i r spokesman. T h i s , sometimes, makes the agency o f f i c e seem very f a r removed from the Indian who l i v e s on the Reserve. 6 I b i d . , p. 6. - 57 -The Band C o u n c i l . T h i s i s the l o c a l governmental body of Indians on the Reserve. The Band C o u n c i l i n i t s o r i g i n a l form had the r e s p e c t and l o y a l t y of a l l Band members. Under the f i i s t Indian Act, the Band c o u n c i l was given c e r t a i n powers but these were s u b j e c t to p r i o r a p p r o v a l of the o f f i -c e r s of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. T h i s brought about the d e c l i n e of the power and s t a t u s of the C o u n c i l . In a d d i t i o n , the power of the C h i e f "which was i n h e r e n t i n the c u l t u r e of the Indian c o u l d not s u r v i v e the gradual d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y out of which the t r a d i t i o n a l power a r o s e . " 7 The 1951 Indian Act attempted to g i v e back to the Band C o u n c i l some of the p r e s t i g e which had been l o s t . The Act p r o v i d e s two main d i v i s i o n s of Indian c h i e f s and c o u n c i l -l o r s : (1) Those who are chosen a c c o r d i n g to the custom of the Band, (2) those e l e c t e d to o f f i c e i n accordance with e l e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s set out i n S e c t i o n s 73-78 of the Indian A c t . 8 Where c o u n c i l l o r s are chosen a c c o r d i n g to Band custom, the number of C o u n c i l members chosen and t h e i r terms of o f f i c e vary a c c o r d i n g to the custom of the Band. The procedure to be f o l l o w e d i n choosing c h i e f s and c o u n c i l l o r s a l s o depends upon the custom of the Band concerned. 7 I b i d . , p. 17. 8Canada, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, A Handbook f o r Indian C h i e f s and C o u n c i l l o r s , Ottawa, 1961, pp. 4-12. - 58 -In the e l e c t i v e system, chiefs and c o u n c i l l o r s hold o f f i c e for a two year period. According to Section 73 (2) of the Indian Act, a Band Council elects one c o u n c i l l o r for every one hundred members of the band, but no Band elects l e s s than two or more than twelve c o u n c i l l o r s . However, with the permission of the Minister (the Indian A f f a i r s Branch), the number of c o u n c i l l o r s i n a Band may be increased or de-creased. In case of such a change, the view of the majority of the members of the Band i s considered. A band i s e n t i t l e d to only one chief. Under the e l e c t i v e system, a chief i s elected by the majority of the votes of the electors of the Band at large, or by the c o u n c i l l o r s from among themselves. Councillors are elected by a majority of votes of the electors of the Band, or by a majority of the votes of the electors of a section. Where there are e l e c t o r a l sections, c o u n c i l l o r s must be r e s i -dents of the sections they represent, and electors may only vote i n the sections i n which they are o r d i n a r i l y resident. Only electors o r d i n a r i l y resident on the Reserve may be nominated for the o f f i c e of Councillor. A candidate for chief or c o u n c i l l o r has to have h i s nomination moved and seconded by persons who are themselves e l i g i b l e to be nominated. A l l Band members who are o r d i n a r i l y residents on the Reserve and are twenty-one years of age or over may vote i n Band electi o n s . The Band Council i s the o f f i c i a l l y recognized body with which the Indian A f f a i r s Branch deals i n matters r e l a t -- 59 -in g t o Band a f f a i r s . The C o u n c i l i s given c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c powers and d u t i e s by the Indian A c t . These i n c l u d e (1) d e c i d -i n g on Band membership, (2) a l l o c a t i o n of r e s e r v e l a n d to i n d i v i d u a l Band members, (3) Band fund management, (4) Employment, (5) by-laws. D e c i d i n g on Band Membership. In accordance with S e c t i o n s 9 and 12 of the Indian A c t, the Band C o u n c i l may p r o t e s t d e l e t i o n s or a d d i t i o n s to the Band l i s t , and i t may a l s o " p r o t e s t i n c l u s i o n i n the Band l i s t of i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n born on or a f t e r August 15th, 1956." 9 Reserve Lands. P a r c e l s of l a n d may be a l l o t t e d to i n d i v i d u a l Band members by the Band C o u n c i l , with the appro v a l of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The C o u n c i l may a l s o c a l l a gene r a l meeting of the Band to co n s i d e r a proposed surrender by the Band of any r i g h t or i n t e r e s t i n a Reserve. The con-sent of the C o u n c i l i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e u n c u l t i v a t e d or unused l a n d i n a Reserve may be lea s e d , and b e f o r e temporary permits can be renewed f o r the t a k i n g of sand, g r a v e l , c l a y and other n o n - m e t a l l i c substances upon or under lands i n the Reserve. Band Fund Management. Although the " M i n i s t e r " has the f i n a l say f o r a u t h o r i z i n g and d i r e c t i n g the expenditure of Band funds, the Band C o u n c i l , a s s i s t e d by the Indian Superintendent, i s expected t o p l a n and recommend expendi-t u r e s of the Band revenue money. Employment. The C o u n c i l i s expected t o h e l p Band 9 I b i d . , p. 3 1 - 60 -members get to the r i g h t channel f o r o b t a i n i n g employment. Where a Band can a f f o r d i t , unemployed Band members are giv e n f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from Band funds. I f the h e l p of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s needed f o r t h i s a s s i s t a n c e , the C o u n c i l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r determining an a p p l i c a n t ' s e l i g i b i l i t y f o r h e l p . Then the C o u n c i l makes i t s recommend-a t i o n to the Superintendent as to who are e l i g i b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e . By-Laws. The C o u n c i l has the a u t h o r i t y t o pass by-laws f o r the welfa r e of the Band members on the Reserve. However, by-laws passed by the C o u n c i l should not i n any way c o n t r a d i c t the Indian A c t . 1 0 Musqueam has an e l e c t i v e C o u n c i l , c o n s i s t i n g of a c h i e f and th r e e c o u n c i l l o r s . The number of c o u n c i l l o r s i s based on the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of r e g i s t e r e d Musqueam Band members. V o t i n g i s by s e c r e t b a l l o t , but because of the k i n -s h i p system i n the community, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t p r e d i c t i n g the s u c c e s s f u l candidate f o r c h i e f . Each f a m i l y f a c t i o n on the Reserve i s openly a l i g n e d with s e v e r a l other f a c t i o n s . When an e l e c t o r nominates a candidate f o r the o f f i c e of c h i e f , the e l e c t o r can count on c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the com-munity to support h i s nominee. During the past e l e c t i o n i n November, 1964, th e r e were two candidates f o r the o f f i c e of c h i e f , but at the b e g i n n i n g of the e l e c t i o n procedures seve-r a l people i n the community were able t o p r e d i c t success f o r I Q l b i d . , pp. 7-8. - 61 -the candidate who, i n fact, won the el e c t i o n . Even the un-successful candidate had e a r l i e r expressed a f e e l i n g of being the loser and explained that i t was impossible to win the el e c t i o n as there were "more people on the side of the other candidate." Apparently, popularity and a large extended family have been the most important c r i t e r i a i n winning an el e c t i o n for the o f f i c e of chief. During the same election, c o u n c i l l o r s were elected, but things seemed s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t for these candidates. Here i t seemed popularity had p r i o r i t y over the candidate's family background. For instance, a man was elected co u n c i l l o r while one of h i s parents l o s t for the o f f i c e of chief. At the same election, the father of the elected chief l o s t for the o f f i c e of c o u n c i l l o r . It should be noted, however, that, although the father of the elected chief has a home i n Mus-queam, he l i v e s off the community most of the time, when he i s working. Another i n t e r e s t i n g factor about the present Council members i s that they each have a steady job and income. Theoretically, the Council has control over cert a i n aspects of the community's s o c i a l l i f e , but i n practice, t h i s i s hardly true. The writer observed that t h i s has some-times aroused h o s t i l i t y from some Band members who see the Council as a body determined to be with the white government against the Indian. Some see the Council members as s e l f i s h i n d i v i d u a l s who are simply concerned with t h e i r own better-- 62 -ment, instead of helping the Band improve s o c i a l conditions on the Reserve. However, the positions of both, chief and cou n c i l l o r s are not s a l a r i e d . However l i t t l e i t may be, there i s some prestige and power i n the po s i t i o n of councillor or chief. For, although the Indian A f f a i r s Branch has the l a s t say i n most Band decisions, a Council which has good r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Branch i s often able, with backing from the Band, to pass through the Branch certain recommendations about the Reserve. Council meetings are held at least once a month. They are open to a l l Band members, and at a l l times the Superin-tendent of the agency or h i s representative should be present. Should urgent matters a r i s e before the time scheduled for a general meeting, the Council holds a meeting and makes a report of that meeting to the next general meeting. The chief i s chairman of Council meetings. In his absence, with the con-sent of the majority of Band members present, the Superin-tendent becomes presiding o f f i c e r or, with the consent of the majority of members present, one of the c o u n c i l l o r s acts as chairman. Land Tenure. The pattern of land tenure i s quite d i f -ferent from what i t i s i n the larger Canadian society. Where-as the non-Indian can own and s e l l land as he wishes without consulting any type of government l e v e l , the Indian cannot. After the introduction of the "Reserve1' system, a Band s t i l l owns the piece of land allocated to i t by the Federal Govern-- 63 -ment of Canada, but t h i s i s held on a communal basis. Any leasing or s e l l i n g of a piece of land to either Indian or non-Indian has to be approved by the Minister of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, who i n most cases i s represented by the Indian Agency Superintendent. In Musqueam, there was a sp e c i a l case i n which a family owned the piece of land on which t h e i r home i s situated. On the 11th January, 1965, the Band voted to pay the family for the land, i n order to reclaim i t for the Band once more. 1 1 Housing. The f i r s t houses i n Musqueam were wholly financed by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. However, there i s now a new system for financing the bui l d i n g of new homes. Every A p r i l , the Band appropriates $2,800.00 and $500.00 for b u i l d -ing a home for a family i n the Band. In considering applica-tions for these homes, p r i o r i t y i s given to young and newly married couples. Of the $3,300.00 sum t o t a l , $500.00 i s refundable by instalments. Usually, refunding t h i s sum i s f a c i l i t a t e d by c o l l e c t i n g the family's share of the annual 12 Band d i s t r i b u t i o n fund by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The t o t a l sum includes wiring and plimbing. The Indian Agency (Fraser Agency) buys the building materials with part of the money, and the Indians help with the construction of the building i t s e l f . The Agency has three types of a r c h i -l-Canada, Department of Ci t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Minutes of the Musqueam Band Meeting, 11th January, 1965. 1 2 W r i t e r ' s Recording, 23rd December, 1964. - 64 -te c t u r a l plans for homes. The Indians can make use of those plans, but they are at l i b e r t y to use plans other than the Agency's, as long as the t o t a l cost of the home does not ex-ceed the $3,300.00. Otherwise, the family w i l l be responsible for the additional cost. There are no by-laws for building, as one would f i n d municipal b u i l d i n g by-laws. There i s an " o v e r - a l l coverage" of the area by the Vancouver City F i r e Department, but the homes are not inspected for f i r e safety or to see that public health regulations are not vio l a t e d . There i s no public health 13 inspection of homes as such. This land ownership pattern r a i s e s some very serious problems for families wishing to s e l l a home i n which they have invested much personal money. The Band i s the only l e g a l body that can buy such a home, and usually, the price i t gives i s far below what such a home would cost i n Vancouver c i t y . At the same time, the Indian cannot get a mortgage for a home i n the c i t y . According to the way the Indian sees i t , a family wishing to buy a home outside the Reserve can do so only by one of the following conditions: 1. paying the f u l l cost of the home and s i x months i n advance for taxes, or 2. l i v i n g i n a rented home o f f the Reserve for a one year period, making sure a l l the rent and e l e c t r i c i t y and telephone b i l l s are promptly paid for that period, 13writer Ys Recording, 23rd December, 1964. - 65 -i n order to be able to produce evidence that the family i s capable of l i v i n g outside the Reserve -t h i s can then be used to consider giving the family a mortgage. Case I I l u s t r a t ion. Mr. and Mrs. X-are a young couple in t h e i r twenties. They both grew up i n a non-Indian community. After marriage, they l i v e d i n an apartment i n the c i t y a few months and decided to move into Musqueam. They got the yearly home loan on application, but they also contributed much of the i r earningstoward the b u i l d -ing. This home i s today one of the best i n Musqueam. It has inside plumbing, central heating, a large l i v i n g -room, a kitchen, a dining-room and three large bed-rooms and modern fu r n i t u r e . Mrs. X!s housekeeping stan-dards are very good. Several times Mrs. X.has spoken to the writer about t h e i r problem i n s e l l i n g t h e i r home. They had t r i e d to purchase a home o f f the Reserve, but because they were unable to meet either of the above two conditions, they did not succeed. The couple does not want to l i v e i n an apartment with t h e i r three children for a length of one year. They have approached the Band Council for purchas-ing the home from them, but so far , nothing has come out of i t . The couple may have to wait u n t i l the Band fee l s , there i s extra money they can spare, or u n t i l there i s an urgent need for getting a home for a new couple which i s q u a l i f i e d for a new home. In that case, the Band may consider buying t h i s home, i f Mr. and Mrs. X.do not ask for a price much higher than the $3,360.00 loan for constructing new homes. Thus, the land ownership pattern i s one of the factors discouraging Indians from leaving the Reserve. On the Reserve, although they do not own the land i n d i v i d u a l l y , they do not pay any rent or land tax, but i f they invest private money in a home, they are un l i k e l y ever to get i t back, should they decide to leave the Reserve. It should also be noted at t h i s point that Indians get many a r t i c l e s such as cars and t e l e -v i s i o n sets on h i r e purchase, but when i t comes to getting - 66 -mortgage for a home outside the reserve, t h i s i s impossible. Another aspect of the home system i s the very small amount given for the construction of the home. The writer i s of the opinion that t h i s accounts for most of the unfinished look of several of the new homes which have been b u i l t within the past f i v e years. Families who are unable to provide more than what they get from the Band simply l i v e i n incomplete buildings. Of the nineteen r e l a t i v e l y new houses i n Musqueam, there are four with unfinished s t a i r s , four unpainted outside walls, two with a pool of water i n what i s supposed to be a basement. Some of these missing f i n i s h i n g touches may probably never be fi n i s h e d . Most of the walls of the houses are made of poor building materials. As such, i t i s not unusual to f i n d a f i v e year o l d house already having large holes i n i t s walls. The o l d homes on the western end of Crown Street have no plumbing f a c i l i t i e s , no running water and no central heat-ing system. For heating, they depend largely on heat either from the kitchen range or from a t i n heater placed i n the living-room. Very often homes are extremely warm i n the day time, but once the family r e t i r e s to bed and the f i r e dies out, the cold becomes intense. Comparing Indian housing to non-Indian Hawthorn writes: Admittedly, the standards quite widely spread among the whites i n the Province ( B r i t i s h Columbia), placing the appearance, location, and furnishings of the home before other material values, are not nearly as general among the Indian population. Yet today the l i m i t a t i o n of the purposes of so many Indian houses to the t r a d i -- 67 -t i o n a l ends of storage, sleeping, shelter, and cooking stems less from a lack of desire for houses which aff o r d beauty and recreation space than from i n a b i l i t y to pay for those extensions and f a c i l i t i e s . 1 4 However, Hawthorn goes further than the above obser-vation. He points out that an increasing number of exceptions can be seen among the Indians, that inevitably and univers-a l l y , "white standards of housing and furnishing are being diffused," and that "even the use of gadgets for s o c i a l competition i s spreading." This i s applicable to the Musqueam community. The young generation there has far better house-keeping standards than older parents. u Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Law System. Although the Indian i s the only ethnic group under sp e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada, t h i s uniqueness does not exempt him from the general law of the land. Indians are subject to both criminal and c i v i l law i n the same manner as non-Indians. With respect to debts and obligations, Indians are regarded as being i n the same position as other Canadians, except that, under the provisions of Section 88 of the Indian Act, Indians are protected from seizure of t h e i r r e a l and personal property situated on the Reserve. However, when an a r t i c l e i s on the instalment or credit plan and the t i t l e to that a r t i c l e i s held by the person who sold i t , then, of course, i t may be seized even i f i t i s situated on a Reserve.m l 4Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, op. c i t . , p. 43. ^Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, l o c . c i t ; ^Canada, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Handbook, op. c i t . , p. 16. - 68 -There did not seem to be a problem of juvenile d e l i n -quency i n Musqueam during the study period. However, among the adult population, there were instances of arrests on drunken charges. There were also three adult men serving prison terms. Summary Since the family system now has very l i t t l e s o c i a l control over the individual's actions, emphasis has been put on formal s o c i a l control i n Musqueam: (1) The Indian A f f a i r s Branch, (2) The Band Council, (3) Land Tenure and Housing, and (4) Federal-Provincial Law. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch. This i s the s o c i a l system whose function i t i s to administer the Indian Act of 1952. This Act distinguishes the Indian from any other Canadian, in that the former i s governed under a s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s a federal government body, and the direct representative of the federal government who deals with Musqueam i s the Fraser Agency Superintendent. The Superintendent has the f i n a l say i n a l l matters a f f e c t i n g the Band under the Indian Act. He i s responsible to the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Commissioner, who i n turn i s respons-i b l e to the headquarters' o f f i c e i n Ottawa. Authority flows from above down to the Band Council which i s Musqueam's l o c a l governing body. The Band Council. This system i s an elected body consisting of a chief and three co u n c i l l o r s , responsible - 69 -for implementing policy passed down from the Superintendent. Among other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s performed by the Council are: working with the Superintendent i n preparing the Band budget, administering means test for e l i g i b i l i t y for s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance, making l o c a l by-laws, supervising l o c a l community pro-jects, c a l l i n g Band meetings, presiding over Band meetings, introducing resolutions at Band meetings, and making up-to-date the Band l i s t . However, a l l decisions taken have to be approved by the Superintendent, also, the Council cannot make any by-laws which are contradictory to federal and pro-v i n c i a l laws. Federal-Provincial Law. Laws under t h i s system have p r i o r i t y over the Band Council by-laws. Any Band member i s subject to arrest and t r i a l i n federal and p r o v i n c i a l law courts shoiid he commit a criminal or c i v i l offence. Gene-r a l l y , the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (R.C.M.P.) and sometimes the P r o v i n c i a l Police see that there i s peace and order on the Reserve, and arrests are made, depending on the si t u a t i o n . Section 88 of the Indian Act protects the Indians from seizure of the i r r e a l and personal property situated on the Reserve, except i n the case of an a r t i c l e taken by an Indian on instalment or credit plan with the t i t l e s t i l l held by the s e l l e r , then the a r t i c l e could be seized from the Reserve. Land Tenure and Housing. The Band owns the land on which the Musqueam Reserve i s situated, the land on the Shaughnessy Golf Club, the land on the Point Grey Golf Course, - 70 -and f i f t y - f o u r acres of land on Sea Island Indian Reserve. These lands are held on communal basis, and one of them can be sold or leased without the permission of the Branch, which represents Her Majesty the Queen of England, under whose keeping a l l Indian Reserve lands are entrusted. Land and houses can be allocated to, and b u i l t for fami l i e s respectively, but no in d i v i d u a l or family has the rig h t to s e l l h i s all o c a t e d piece of land, or a home on the Reserve to an outsider. These must always be sold back to the Band, i f need be. There are no mortgages on homes on the Reserves. Instead of such an arrangement, every year, the Band appropriates some money for building a new home for a family i n the community. P r i o r i t y i s given to young couples. Old couples with houses needing large scale repairs or need-ing new homes are not given p r i o r i t y . The insurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by Indians i n t r y i n g to buy homes outside the Reserve have con-tri b u t e d to the Indian's attachment to the Reserve. Although the Indians do not pay rent and house taxes, many of the younger generation among them are u n s a t i s f i e d with t h i s s o c i a l system of land tenure and housing. Housing f a c i l i t i e s are very poor and housekeeping standards among the o l d homes and homes of the older generation are likewise below average. CHAPTER V SOCIAL PARTICIPATION This function involves the provision of l o c a l means to indiv i d u a l s for s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community. Soc i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n also takes place outside the community. This i s especially true of small communities such as Musqueam. In t h i s section c e r t a i n systems i n Musqueam and i n the larger society, which provide opportunities to Band members for s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i l l be examined. The amount of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the community i n some systems such as the Band Council System and the Religious System has been examined previously. Therefore, in t h i s section, attention w i l l be given mainly to those systems which have not been already discussed. Some of these systems function partly on extra-com-munity basis, some function wholly on intra-community basis, and others almost wholly on extra-community basis. The Religious System As already indicated under Social Control, the com-munity's s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e l i g i o u s system i s very li m i t e d . Church service attendance for both children and adults i s poor. The Catholic Youth Organization lasted for just a very b r i e f period. - 72 -Nevertheless, the weekly adult services and children's catechism classes provide some f a c i l i t i e s for the community to perform the major functioning of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The l i t t l e group of Shakers (there are two f a m i l i e s ) , also keeps i t s weekly r e l i g i o u s services regularly, on every Wednesday. There was a small Shaker Church building situated close to the community h a l l . Following the winter dances i n Musqueam th i s season (1965), the building has been torn down. Services are now held i n homes of members. One of the male members i s a Shaker p r i e s t , and he conducts most of the services. Appa-rently, he i s a well known p r i e s t , for i t i s reported that sometimes he i s i n v i t e d by some Indian Shaker Churches i n the United States to conduct services. The United Church Sunday School for the Musqueam youth likewise provides some f a c i l i t i e s for s o c i a l p a r t i c i -pation. The Homemakers' Club Indian Homemakers' Clubs were f i r s t organized i n the B r i t i s h Columbia region i n 1949 and 1950. By 1952, there were eight Clubs i n f i v e Indian Agencies. By 1957, there were twenty-four Clubs i n eleven Agencies, with a membership of four hundred Indian women, and as of January 1965, there are l i s t e d forty-four active Clubs with a membership of well over f i v e hundred women. Most of these members are mothers, grand-mothers and single adults. Some of them are women already occupying positions of leadership i n the i r communities, and - 73 -having a wide range of i n f l u e n c e . 1 This organization can almost be considered o f f i c i a l l y part of the administrative aspect of the Indian A f f a i r s , i n that i t i s an Indian A f f a i r s Branch sponsored club program for women on Indian Reserves. However, the i n i t i a t i v e for organization has always come from the Indian women themselves. A few clubs have had l e a d e r s i p from non-Indian women, such as nurses and teachers, but t h i s has not always been success-f u l i n cases where the non-Indians have tended to impose pro-grams on members, or where they have tended to "take over" the club. Some of the clubs have been exceptionally success-f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the fund r a i s i n g area. Well organized programs l i k e bingo, rummage sales, baby contests and the l i k e have produced much toward club treasuries. The weakness i n most clubs i s found i n the other program areas, such as i n club management, and t h i s i s largely due to lack of experi-ence and "know how".2 Musqueam organized iit'sjf i r s t Homemakers * Club i n 1962. The f i r s t president of the Club was Indian, and so were a l l other executive members of the Club. The second president was non-Indian but with Indian status by marriage. The rest of the executive members were a l l Indian. Both presidents re-Canada, Department of Ci t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Memorandum of Social Work Consultant, to the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian,Commissioner, February, 1965. 2 l b i d . - 74 -ported that they resigned as president, because they f e l t that the women i n the community were not sympathetic toward the Club's objectives. The common complaint was that the women were not interested i n the Club after the end of i t s f i r s t phases, and that some of them f e l t they were doing the president or executive members a favour by attending meetings of the Club. There was very l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n at meetings by t h i s group. One of the presidents reported that she had to always c a l l them several times to remind them of a forthcoming meeting, and that she had to drive several of them to and from the meeting each time. Another complaint was that the Band Council was not sympathetic toward the Club. A Club member reported that at one time the Council refused to have the Club make use of the community h a l l for meetings. During the second year of the Club's existence, some non-Indians offered to a s s i s t the Club, i f i t was interested, i n organizing a nursery school on the Reserve. This was to be operated on voluntary basis, with mothers taking turns i n helping care for the children. There was interest shown at the beginning for t h i s idea, but f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n discussing the idea was l e f t to a few members - the younger set of the group. Just before the 1964 summer, meetings were no longer held - not even by the interested few. During the 1964 Christmas season, a meeting of the Club was c a l l e d after the very long period of sile n c e . A l -though prior to that time several women had indicated t h e i r interest i n giving the Club another t r i a l that season, only nine women turned up for the meeting. The former president resigned, and a new a l l Indian executive was elected. This group t r i e d hard to get more women interested, but at the second meeting only seven of the previous nine were present. The task before the Club at that period was to r a i s e enough money for a Christmas party and Christmas presents for the children of the community. For that purpose, a bingo game and a rummage sale were held by the Club. Over $90.00 was raised. The members then bought Christmas presents for the children, regardless of whether or not parents belonged to the Club. There was a Christmas tree decorated for the occasion of d i s t r i b u t i n g the presents. The party was held at the com-munity h a l l . Scheduled with i t was a movie to be shown the children by one of the men i n the community. Unfortunately, he was a few minutes l a t e i n a r r i v i n g at the h a l l , and by the time he got there, a l l the children had dispersed home with t h e i r presents. 3 After Christmas, the members decided to "catch up with t h e i r house work." Meetings which had been held weekly during the Christmas season were now discontinued. The hope of-the members was to have a short break and continue after January, but they were, i n fact, following o l d patterns of operating the Club. During the l i f e of the organization, i t has always functioned on an ad hoc basis, operating only to Writer's recording, 19th January, 1965. - 76 -accomplish a task - mainly during the Christmas season. It seems that i t s goal i s simply that of holding a Christmas party for the children. On the other hand, Christmas i s the only season when there i s no s o c i a l a c t i v i t y of some type going on on the Reserve. After Christmas, you have the s p i r i t dances, i n which many people i n the community pa r t i c i p a t e either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . These dances go on t i l l the beginning of A p r i l . Most of the women are busy cooking for the s p i r i t dancers. In the summer, the children are out of school, and they and the men are busy f i s h i n g or t r a v e l l i n g or doing some other type of summer a c t i v i t y . A l l the Club members are of the young generation i n Musqueam. They are i n the i r twenties or early t h i r t i e s . Their husbands have steady jobs and income. Each of these members completed grade ten school work, four completed grade ten and f i v e grade eleven. The older generation group does not seem to show any interest in the Club. Some of the young wives who are non-members have refrained from j o i n i n g for several reasons. Some explain that the present members are not serious i n planning programs, others, that cert a i n members are not f i t to j o i n the organization, and s t i l l others complain that the Club, as a whole, i s not doing anything worthwhile as an on-going organization. Thus, of the t h i r t y - e i g h t women i n Musqueam, only nine are members, of which only seven are active. 4Ibid> - 77 -However, with the recent appointment by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch of a s t a f f Advisor to Homemakers' Clubs, i t i s hoped that t h i s system of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be strengthened, and that a pattern of continuous existence by the Club be developed. The Advisor, who was appointed to t h i s p o s i t i o n i n March t h i s year, has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the organization, supervision and development of women's organi-zations on Reserves. The S p i r i t Dances This i s one system i n the community which i s purely Indian, as far as s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s concerned. S p i r i t dancing i s performed by the Coast Sali s h Indian t r i b e s from Nanaimo to V i c t o r i a on Vancouver Island, and from North Vancouver to northern Puget Sound on the mainland. I n i -t i a t i o n of dancers takes place when the young are i n th e i r l a t e teens. It involves the capacity to acquire supernatural "power". In some cases the power has entered the i n d i v i d u a l e a r l i e r i n l i f e ( i t may cause a sickness which can only be cured by i n i t i a t i o n as a dancer), but more often now-adays i t i s breathed on him (or her) by the older dancers, who begin the i n i t i a t i o n by going through the motions of f o r c i b l y abducting the unsuspecting i n i t i a t e . The power brings with i t d i s t i n c t i v e personal variations i n the song, dance, costume, and pattern of painting the face. For four days while these are being learned, the dancer undergoes spe c i a l r i t u a l s and observances to help him through t h i s important period of change i n h i s l i f e , and for the remainder of the dancing season he i s ex-pected to l i v e i n the dance house, wear a spe c i a l costume, and observe c e r t a i n other r e s t r i c t i o n s . 5 V>5Duff, op. c i t . , p. 101. - 78 -Large barn-like buildings are used for dance houses. The f l o o r s are d i r t , and t i e r s of- benches are placed around the walls. The building i s heated by large bonfires. Where there are dancers on a Reserve, dances are held every night. These are r e s t r i c t e d to the l o c a l people only. In addition to these dances, almost every weekend from mid-January to mid-April a large s p i r i t dance i s held i n one or other of the v i l l a g e s , attended by up to one thousand people from a l l over the area. These occasions are also used for performing c e r t a i n s o c i a l ceremonies, which were formerly performed at potlatches, such as the conferring of Indian names, the honouring of dead members of the family, and the display of s p e c i a l family-owned r i t u a l s and dances. Dancing may not begin u n t i l well after mid-night and may continue u n t i l the following forenoon. Up to a hundred dancers may perform at one dance. One at a time i n th e i r turn, the dancers become possessed, r i s e , dance clockwise around the house, and are assisted back to th e i r seats. The spectators help by drumming and singing the dancer's song. The dance costumes, especially those of the men, are often specta-cular, with long pointed headdresses of human hair sur-mounted by swivelled pairs of eagle feathers, and black velvet s h i r t s and trousers decorated with sequins and small paddles.6 Musqueam s t i l l observes the t r a d i t i o n of holding win-ter s p i r i t dances every year. They are usually held from January to about the beginning of A p r i l . Like the rest of t h e i r t r i b e on other Reserves, only certain l o c a l people are 6Duff, l o c . c i t . - 79 -permitted to enter the dance house and p a r t i c i p a t e in the ceremonies. However, there are other ceremonies and a c t i v i t i e s which take place outside the dance house. These a c t i v i t i e s can be seen by any observer, on the Reserve. During the 1965 period of dancing, the community had v i s i t o r s from other B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Reserves. These and other l o c a l people seemed very busy going from one home to the other, and then to the dance house. A few women were responsible for cooking for the dancers. The Musqueam dance house i s a large o l d wooden building situated i n the oldest area i n the community. This area was the f i r s t place to be s e t t l e d i n Musqueam, and the dance house was one of those very f i r s t houses to be b u i l t . It must have been a home for a very large family. Besides the dance house, ceremonies are also c a r r i e d out i n the community h a l l . The community h a l l i s heated by means of a t i n heater, but the large dance house i s not heated. Apparently, bonfires are used for heating and l i g h t i n g the dance house. School children were not i n i t i a t e d i n the 1965 dances, but many of these children spent th e i r evenings as p a r t i c i -pant observers with other spectators. As a r e s u l t , they went to bed late each night, and either missed their classes at school, or when they did go to school, some f e l l asleep while classes were going on. During the dance season, no alcohol i s permitted i n the area where the dances are held. In fact, drunkenness on the Reserve i s s t r i c t l y prohibited. However, those who are not interested i n the dances try to escape the - 80 -ceremonies by going out of the Reserve and getting drunk. They rebel against the c u l t u r a l norms of th e i r t r i b e . The newly i n i t i a t e d dancer who has gone through the f i r s t four days of r i t u a l s and ceremonies has a guide when he moves out of the dance house. The guide does not neces-s a r i l y have to be a dancer himself, but he plays an important r o l e as protector of the dancer. It i s believed that, i f a newly i n i t i a t e d dancer f a l l s down during the dancing period, he w i l l suffer from such a serious i l l n e s s that he w i l l even-t u a l l y die during the season. It i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the guide to see that the dancer does not f a l l down at any time during the season. A sudden shout may frighten the dancer, causing him to f a l l down. Therefore, the guide i s always to walk along very closely to the dancer and be prepared to act i n time of danger. During the 1965 period i n Musqueam, a l l other s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were almost at a s t a n d s t i l l . The Homemakers' Club almost broke up; some men who were f u l l y employed l e f t t h e i r jobs i n order to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the dances. However, there were two families on the Reserve, who said that they did not pa r t i c i p a t e because th e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f was contrary to the dances. With many, there does not exist any c o n f l i c t . They go to the r e l i g i o u s services on Sundays and spend the rest of the day at the dance house. To t h i s group, the dances are part of the Indian heritage which i s not shared with the white man. - 81 -The Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club This i s one of the extra-community systems which pro-vide opportunity for s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n for Indian children. O r i g i n of Club. This Club was started over four years ago as a jo i n t program by the Anglican Church, the United Church and the Young Women's Ch r i s t i a n Association. There was one worker from each of the three organizations working with the Club. It was then an a l l g i r l s ' Club u n t i l 1960, when i t became a mixed group of both boys and g i r l s . In 1964, the Y.W.C.A. took complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the Club, with a worker each from the Anglican and United Churches serving as adviser to the Club. Since that time, there has been a s t a f f member of the Dunsmuir Y.W.C.A. working with the Club. At present, t h i s worker i s a trained s o c i a l worker with experi-ence i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work. 7 Objectives. The objective of the Club, l i k e a l l other nyit organizations, i s to help members "develop physically, mentally and s p i r i t u a l l y . " The Club also aims at developing leadership among i t s members. Membership. Club membership i s open to both Indians and non-Indians, but only Indians are e l i g i b l e to vote on business matters. The membership fee was o r i g i n a l l y three d o l l a r s , but a sp e c i a l fee of one dol l a r i s charged the Indians to encourage those who may have to t r a v e l by bus for the Club meetings, to meet the bus fares involved. The orga-7Writer's Recording, 15th February, 1965. - 82 -nization hopes to ra i s e the fee back to the o r i g i n a l three d o l l a r s . As of January, 1965, there were f i f t e e n active Club members, most of whom were students. The Club hopes to reach new members who are not students. The need for t h i s new approach arises from the fact that the Indian A f f a i r s Branch Education D i v i s i o n believes that the Indian students are kept busy enough with school work and a c t i v i t i e s and, therefore, do not need to be i n such clubs as the Y.W.C.A. Youth Club as much as do young non-student workers. 8 The Club reaches new members through various sources: the Vancouver Friendship Centre, the Vocational Institute, the Churches and through Indians who are already Club members. Programs. The Club holds two meetings each month: one i s a general and business meeting, and the other i s for guest speakers on various topics, such as alcoholism. Some-times the second meeting i s given up to drama lessons. Every t h i r d Friday of the month, the Club holds a dance at the Y.W.C.A. bui l d i n g at Dunsmuir Street. The dances are open to non-Club members for a small admission charge. These dances are usually very well attended, with attendance sometimes going as high as eighty persons per dance. There i s just one active Club member from Musqueam. Some of the Musqueam youth attend the monthly dances as non-Club members. The active member i n question was also one of the very few Musqueam young boys and g i r l s who were active 8 I b i d . - 83 -at the Vancouver Friendship Centre when i t was f i r s t opened i n 1963. Some Musqueam children complain that they cannot afford to pay the dollar membership fee of the Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club, hence they have not joined the Club. However, these same children pay about $.50 to $1.25 each month to attend the Club's dances, admission to which i s usually less 9 that amount for members of the Club. The Y.M.C.A. Fun Club This i s another sub-system whose function i s not f u l l y l o c a l . This Club has been operating i n Musqueam for the past three summers, 1962 to 1964. It i s under the di r e c t i o n of the Alma Branch of the Y.M.C.A. Summer Camp Director, with the co-operation of the Musqueam Band Council. The organi-zation i s s p e c i f i c a l l y for boys and g i r l s between the ages of s i x and f i f t e e n , but because of the community's family pattern the age requirement i s f l e x i b l e enough to include interested children who do not f u l f i l the age requirement. Objective. The objective of the Club, as outlined by the Y.M.C.A., i s "to help establish and develop a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 'Y' and the parents and children on the Reserve, to develop a co-operativeness and value among the children through example, interpretation and games, to broaden the experience of the children through c r a f t s , games and o u t - t r i p s . " 1 0 ^Writer's Recording, 11th January, 1965. 10Y.M.C.A. Fun Club Report, 1964 Summer, Y.M.C.A. Alma Branch, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. - 84 -Program. A group worker i s hired by the "Y n for the month of August, when the Club begins i t s a c t i v i t i e s . The worker t r i e s to develop leadership i n order to have some helpers i n the group to operate the various items i n the pro-gram. A c t i v i t i e s on the Reserve include games, cr a f t sessions, swimming and f i s h i n g ; and those off the Reserve are mainly hikes or t r i p s to nearby beaches and points of in t e r e s t . Financing the Program. The worker i s paid by the "Y", while the Band finances bus t r i p s . Individual children pay for small expenses incurred during t r i p s . Membership and P a r t i c i p a t i o n . There i s no membership fee charged for t h i s organization. Taking into consideration the Musqueam Indian sub-culture, attendance and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n have been average. Many children are accustomed to do-ing on their own most of what the Club program o f f e r s . There-fore, some of these children are either away from home for the summer or are not interested i n the Club. Older children, who baby-sit for the i r younger s i b l i n g s , often take the l a t -ter to the Club a c t i v i t i e s . This creates d i f f i c u l t y i n oper-ating an a c t i v i t y which would su i t the age range at any one group gathering. Some parents show interest i n the Club. For instance, i n 1964, a parent joined the Club to help row a boat convey-ing members across the r i v e r . There i s usually also a good turn out of parents on the evening when the Club holds a cook-out and s e l l s hot dogs at f i v e cents each. However, the older generation seems quite content with the o l d informal - 85 -ways of having recreational a c t i v i t i e s . It should be mentioned at t h i s point that the Club i s open to non-Indians and non-Musqueam Band members l i v i n g on the Reserve. There has been good p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h i s group of children, and one of the group leaders of the 1964 program was a Chinese teenager. The Club has occasionally encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s on outing t r i p s . Once, while on a beach, a h o s t i l e argument developed between Club^members and white non-Club members. However, the worker was able to keep members under control without the incident developing into a physical f i g h t . On the whole, the children seem to respond more to the outing a c t i -v i t i e s than to those which take place on the Reserve. 1 1 The Vancouver Friendship Centre Indian Friendship Centres are becoming very popular as the Indian i s moving toward integration into the Canadian society. These centres are situated i n c i t i e s wherein Indians, leaving the Reserve for the c i t y , are l i a b l e to get " l o s t " because of the impersonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban areas. They are intended to help give orien t a t i o n to Indians new to the c i t y , u n t i l they become s e t t l e d . This help i s given by helping the new a r r i v a l become aware of services available i n the c i t y . The Vancouver Friendship Centre was o f f i c i a l l y opened on the 1st of December, 1963. It i s situated at 1200 West 11lbid. - 86 -Broadway. The b u i l d i n g i s owned by the Y.W.C.A. The objective of the Centre i s to help Indians who are new i n the c i t y get acquainted with the s o c i a l services that are available for Indians, to provide them with a place to go for s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l they get s e t t l e d down in Vancouver. The Centre also aims at providing a place where Indians between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five could meet for recreational purposes. For the f i r s t year of i t s existence, the Centre was financed by the federal, p r o v i n c i a l , municipal (Vancouver ci t y ) governments and several Indian Band Councils, each contributing a quarter of the t o t a l sum of $24,000.00. There i s no guarantee that the Centre w i l l receive the same amount of contributions from the four lev e l s of government each year. Much depends on how well the Centre i s successful i n carrying out i t s assigned tasks.12 There i s at present no planned program for a c t i v i t i e s at the Centre. The teenagers simply drop i n and do whatever they f e e l l i k e doing, such as playing records and having coffee. At present, the Centre i s open only four days a week. One Musqueam adult was very active at the Centre when i t was f i r s t open i n 1963. She was one of the Board of Directors of the Centre, but since the change i n the admini-s t r a t i v e aspect of the Centre, leading to the resignation of the Centre's f i r s t Director, t h i s board member lo s t interest 1 2 W r i t e r ' s Recording, 14th November, 1964. - 87 -in the work. In fact, she has resigned that p o s i t i o n . There are only three Indian children from Musqueam who are at present active i n the Centre. In the f i r s t year of i t s existence, one of these teenagers was president of the Centre's Youth Club. Since the e l e c t i o n of a new p r e s i -dent for the Club, the Club has not been functioning very well. Many parents have expressed concern about the drinking which i s going on among the teenagers at the Centre. Some of these teenagers have even admitted the truth of t h i s state-ment, and some parents have r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r teenagers from going to the Centre i n the evenings. There are regulations which prohibit the use of alcohol on the premises, but, apparently, these regulations are often broken by teenagers who go to the Centre without being supervised by a respons-i b l e adult. The School Social p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Musqueam community i n school a c t i v i t i e s has already been discussed under the school system i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process. It was then indicated that, except for school dances, there i s very l i t t l e p a r t i -c ipation i n extracurricular a c t i v i t i e s by Musqueam students. This i s also true with parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school a c t i -v i t i e s . Only one parent belongs to a Parent Teachers' Asso-c i a t i o n . On the whole, parents do not show interest i n the school problems encountered by the i r children. - 88 -Summary Seven s o c i a l systems perforin the function of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Musqueam: (1) The Church, (2) The Homemakers' Club, (3) The Vancouver Friendship Centre, (4) Winter S p i r i t Dances, (5) The Y.M.C.A. Fun Club, (6) The Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club, and (7) The School. Church A c t i v i t i e s . Besides the regular weekly adult services and children's catechism classes held on the Reserve, the only other Church a c t i v i t y i s the annual boat race. There i s usually a very good p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s a c t i v i t y on the part of the community. The sport i s sponsored by the Mother Church through the Catholic Pri e s t responsible for the Mus-queam Church. The Homemakers' Club. This system functions wholly at the i n i t i a t i v e of the women of the community. However, i t i s an o f f i c i a l l y recognized system as part of the Branch's "community organization" among Indian women on the Reserves. To strengthen systems such as t h i s one, the Branch has hired a s t a f f advisor to women's organizations on Indian Reserves. There are nine members i n t h i s organization i n Mus-queam. A l l the members are i n their twenties or early t h i r t i e s , and they have a l l gone as far as Grade ten i n formal educa-t i o n . Since the formation of the Club i n 1962, t h i s system has been functioning on ad hoc basis, mainly during the Christmas season when the need for a children's Christmas Party i s f e l t . So far, there have been three successive - 89 -presidents of the Club. The Vancouver Friendship Centre. This s o c i a l system i s intended mainly for Indians coming into the c i t y from the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, i t i s also intended for the use of Indian youngsters i n and around the c i t y , who are i n need of a meeting place for s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . There i s an Indian Youth Organization at the Centre, which was founded with the help of a Musqueam g i r l who became the f i r s t president of that Club. One adult i n Musqueam i s a board member of the Centre, and three teenagers from the l o c a l com-munity have been p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n several a c t i v i t i e s held there. However, the Centre has no supervised programs for the young people, and i t i s reported that drinking i s becom-ing a problem among teenagers who go to the Centre regularly. Although federal, p r o v i n c i a l and band governments contribute toward the operation costs of the Centre, t h i s i s a volun-tary system, and i s not controlled by any l e v e l of government. S p i r i t Dances. This system i s part of the Indian's t r a d i t i o n , and the dances are held on the Reserve. Except for dancers from other Indian Reserves, i n v i t a t i o n s for par-t i c i p a t i o n i n the ceremonies are s t r i c t l y r e s t r i c t e d to the l o c a l people of the Band. There i s much p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Band members. Some of the older generation are almost s p i r i t dance "fanatics", i n that they go as far as leaving their jobs i n order to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the ceremonies. One family i n the community does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n these dances because of r e l i g i o u s reasons. Although they may p a r t i c i p a t e - 90 -as spectators, many of the younger generation do not think much of t h i s system. However, with the older generation, t h i s system i s Indian, and no white man i s e n t i t l e d to enjoy i t s worth. The Y.M.C.A. Fun Club. This s o c i a l system has been operating i n Musqueam the past three summers, 1962 to 1964. It i s operated on a shared basis between the Band and the Y.M.C.A. Alma Branch. The Y.M.C.A. supplies the group worker who heads the Club, and i t also sets out the program for the Club. The Band helps i n financing the major aspects of the program. When the Club i s not on an outing t r i p , the a c t i v i -t i e s of the program take place on the Reserve. There has been average p a r t i c i p a t i o n and attendance by the children, and on the whole, partents have shown interest i n the Club. The Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club. Control over t h i s system i s e n t i r e l y from outside Musqueam. The community's children know about the existence of t h i s system, but there i s only one active member of the Club who i s from Musqueam. However, many teenagers from the community attend the montly dances held by the Club at the Dunsmuir Y.W.C.A. buil d i n g . School A c t i v i t i e s . On the whole, parents are not act-ive i n the schools attended by thei r children. Only one parent belongs to a school Parent Teachers' Association. Parents seldom v i s i t the school, either during an "open house" occa-sion, or to discuss with a teacher or p r i n c i p a l their c h i l -dren's school problems. Most of these parents do not encourage the i r children to attend school regularly and on time. CHAPTER VI MUTUAL SUPPORT Warren defines t h i s as the function of "providing help i n the time of trouble." This type of help i s given at times when in d i v i d u a l and family c r i s i s present "needs which are not otherwise s a t i s f i e d i n the usual pattern of organized behaviour," for example, i l l n e s s and economic need, and pro-blems i n family s o c i a l functioning. More and more, t h i s function i s being assumed by formally organized s p e c i a l agen-cies and decreasingly by family, k i n and neighbourhood. This i s an important change as a community undergoes the "great change" i n i t s economic and s o c i a l aspects. 1 The organizational network for performing these functions includes both voluntary and public agencies i n the health and welfare f i e l d s . The above applies to Indian communities. The Indian of today i s no longer able to get adequate assistance from his family alone without the help of formally organized s p e c i a l agencies. There i s hardly any great d i f f i c u l t y which can be wholly assigned to a community i n i s o l a t i o n from the society of which i t i s a part. Thus, what i s generally thought of as "the Indian problem," i s i n e f f e c t a s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t i n g the rest of the Canadian society as a whole. Both the federal and IWarren, op. c i t . , p. 196. - 92 -pr o v i n c i a l governments and i n some cases the municipal govern-ment co-operate i n some way i n giving mutual assistance to Indians. There are certain formally organized s p e c i a l s o c i a l systems which perform t h i s function of mutual support. The most important of these systems are: the welfare services and the health services. Indian A f f a i r s Branch Relief System Although t h i s s o c i a l system no longer functions i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, i t i s worth mentioning i n order to f u l l y understand the new system which now performs t h i s function. The term " r e l i e f " as previously used by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch was equivalent to modern s o c i a l welfare "public a s s i -stance." R e l i e f assistance was provided by the Branch, i n order that Indians who are out of work or otherwise unable to provide for themselves may receive the basic necessity of l i f e .... Before: recommending (to the Indian Superintendent), that assistance be given to a Band member, council should make sure that everything has been done by the person's family to meet the need without outside a i d . Council should also make sure that the person asking for r e l i e f has made an honest attempt to f i n d a job i f he or she i s capable of working.2 Thus, when the employment s o c i a l system f a i l e d i n carrying out i t s function of production-distribution-con-sumption, the r e l i e f system was made use of to give mutual support to the community, and thereby ensure that the com-2Canada, Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, A Handbook For Indian Chiefs and Councillors, Ottawa, 1961, pp. 11-12. - 93 -munity's s o c i a l units get goods and services necessary for some degree of s o c i a l function. In some instances, t h i s type of r e l i e f system subjected the receiver to a "work for r e l i e f " program, doing any type of job given him by the Band Council i n return for what he received. Furthermore, as stated i n the above quotation, r e l i e f was considered a l a s t resort. The applicant was to f i r s t try to make use of family help, and when that f a i l e d , he was then considered for r e l i e f assistance. As Table 3 shows, just about a quarter of the Mus-queam male labour force has f u l l - t i m e employment. Of t h i s number, several, who are longshoring, receive f l u c t u a t i n g wages according to the number of ships which dock at th e i r place of work. This f l u c t u a t i o n applies to labourers' wages also. The labourer i s l a i d off each time work for which manual labour i s needed no longer e x i s t s . For instance, the number of labourers needed at the beginning o f a building project, when there i s need for clearing the area, w i l l not be needed when the construction of the building has passed through i t s i n i t i a l phase of laying i t s foundation. As a r e s u l t , most of the labourers who are untrained i n the use of modern b u i l d -ing machinery are eliminated from the working force. The Indian, i f he i s working with such a group, w i l l very l i k e l y be among the number which i s retrenched. Besides lacking the necessary t r a i n i n g , there i s a public stigma of laziness and lack of a sense of time attached to the Indian. This stigma contributes toward many of the stereotypes white employers - 94 -have of Indians. Fishing as an occupation has already been discussed in an e a r l i e r section of t h i s study. It was then pointed out that, besides being seasonal, to be worthwhile moneywise, present day f i s h i n g c a l l s for some modern equipment, such as good nets and a motor boat. It was also discussed that many Indians are not f i n a n c i a l l y able to make good fishermen. Like labouring, lumbering i s an occupation which does not guarantee job security. There i s much retrenching of workers according to the weather conditions and according to the demand for timber. There i s also much s h i f t i n g of workers from one section of a m i l l to another. If a worker i s unable to make sa t i s f a c t o r y adjustment to these conditions, he either leaves or i s asked to leave the job. Modern machines are also made use of i n the m i l l s , and workers are expected to be able to use them s k i l l f u l l y . Thus, the Musqueam Indian,who has a very low educa-t i o n a l and vocational background, stands very l i t t l e chance of obtaining and re t a i n i n g steady employment. It i s no wonder about three quarters of the male labour force may at one time or another, during the year, depend on r e l i e f assistance. It i s the opinion of the writer that the means test for assistance, which was administered by the Band Council, was not always c a r r i e d out according to set out policy . The Council could withhold recommending an applicant for r e l i e f on purely personal rather than out of policy reasons. This i s especially true, when i t came to the Council having to - 95 -decide whether a certain family should receive a cheque or r e l i e f i n kind. The Council's policy was to give groceries as assistance to people who have a "drinking problem." Here again, the decision was often inconsistent as far as the d e f i n i t i o n of a "drinking problem" went. This system was replaced by a new system i n January, 1965. We s h a l l now examine the new system. Social Allowance On January 1, 1965, the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i n t r o -duced a new program of public assistance for a l l Indians on B r i t i s h Columbia Reserves. This new program ended the old " r e l i e f " system whereby the married Indian received food allowance, plus clothing, f u e l , and rent, as required. The Indians now receive the same amount of assistance as do non-Indians, except for shelter allowance, which may not be paid an Indian applicant, i f he i s not paying rent. Following i s an outline of e l i g i b i l i t y for the new Indian A f f a i r s Branch Social Allowance: E l i g i b i l i t y For Assistance 1. Social allowance may be granted to provide neces-s i t i e s for a basic standard of l i v i n g to a person i n need of f i n a n c i a l assistance and unable to meet t h i s need i n whole or i n part by h i s own e f f o r t s or some other income or resource. 2. It may be granted only to persons on an Indian Reserve. 3. In so far as possible the Branch programme w i l l comply with the philosophy, procedures and prac-t i c e s employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Social Welfare Department i n the granting of s o c i a l allowance. 4. F u l l time earnings are not generally subsidized. Where the application of t h i s regulation w i l l mean - 96 -f i n a n c i a l hardship for the i n d i v i d u a l or family exceptions may be made.^ The Branch makes use of the P r o v i n c i a l Social Allow-ance Guide i n determining the rate of assistance to be granted applicants, and allowance may be granted as appro-pr i a t e to needs of the in d i v i d u a l case up to the maximum for the u n i t . The Branch allows an exemption of twenty do l l a r s a month earned income from the sale of produce and handcraft and from casual and permanent earnings. The shelter portion of the allowance i s issued i n whole or part where the a p p l i -cant i s paying rent or where he requires assistance to meet the cost of u t i l i t i e s or home upkeep. The administrative aspect of the assistance remains with the Agency Superinten-dent who has authority to issue assistance up to the maximum allowance for unit seven, that i s $211.80. In order to issue assistance above t h i s unit, the Superintendent should obtain authorization from the Regional O f f i c e . 4 Although cheques are used for payment of assistance, provision i s made for grocery orders to be provided on "an emergency basis and i n spe c i a l cases to protect the needs of the family." The unit granted includes a l l members of a family needing help and l i v i n g together as a family u n i t . ;":3Canada, Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Social Work Consultant's Report on Application of P r o v i n c i a l Social Allowance Rates and Regu-lat i o n s to B r i t i s h Columbia Branch Welfare Assistance Pro-gramme, (Revised Instructions), December, 1964. 4l b i d . - 97 -Social allowance may be granted on behalf of a c h i l d or c h i l d -ren l i v i n g with a r e l a t i v e , i f the ch i l d ' s parents are unable to pay maintenance for the c h i l d . Another requirement i s that the r e l a t i v e should f i r s t request assistance and should pro-vide the c h i l d with adequate care and protection. The rate of payment i s "dependent on circumstances but should not ex-ceed the unit rate for t o t a l support." The Branch hopes that using the r e l a t i v e ' s home for the c h i l d w i l l eliminate the use of the Branch foster home program f o r children with r e l a -t i v e s . ^  This i s indeed a very great improvement made by the Branch. However, there are some problems which may l i k e l y a r i s e i n the administration of the program. Indian Bands are to contribute toward the program where a Band can aff o r d the money. In many cases, Band Councils s t i l l help i n administer-ing the means test for e l i g i b i l i t y for assistance. A Band Council may decide that too many people on s o c i a l assistance are draining the Band funds, and i t may discourage recommen-dations to the Agency Superintendent. In such a case, the Branch program i s not complying with "the philosophy, proce-dure and practices employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Social Welfare Department i n the granting of s o c i a l allowance." Unlike the p r o v i n c i a l program, the new Branch program does not say anything about r e h a b i l i t a t i o n for re c i p i e n t s of assistance. If Indians are to be helped to get steady employ-5 I b i d - 98 -ment, there should be provision for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . For instance, i n Musqueam, there are men who have l i v e d on"re-l i e f " for over s i x years. 6 If nothing much can be done for th i s group, at least the younger age group could be helped. Commenting on people who describe the Indians as lazy, as people who have no i n i t i a t i v e and do not want to be helped, M u l v i h i l l writes: The c r i t i c s forget that the Indians on the majority of the reserve can not l i f t themselves up from unemploy-ment and poverty. L i v i n g i n poverty, after a few gene-rations, becomes a way of l i f e . It has i t s own culture and values. Apathy, school dropouts, unemployment are accepted as normal and the poverty cycle i s almost impossible to break. The children have only the image of an adult Indian who i s unemployed before th e i r eyes. They think that t h i s i s the normal way of l i f e and i t i s the i r i d e a l . The above description of the Indian i s partly true, but many Indian children now have better aspirations than to have as th e i r i d e a l the unemployed adult. However, these children often get discouraged after they drop out of school and l a t e r f i n d l i f e on the Reserve very boring. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch has counselling services for students wishing to take or taking vocational school t r a i n i n g and upgrading classes. But for some, there are some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n q u a l i -fying f o r these programs. For example, among other require-ments for entering an upgrading course are: the student must be eighteen years old, he must have completed grade nine, he ^Writer's Recordings, October - December, 1964. 7James P. M u l v i h i l l , "The Future of the Indians i n Canada," Indian Record, February, 1965. - 99 -must have been out of school for at least two years, he must be a good student. These requirements may present d i f f i c u l -t i e s for ce r t a i n school dropouts wishing to continue their education. There i s the case of A. i n Musqueam: A. i s a seventeen year o l d Indian g i r l l i v i n g at home i n Musqueam. She had completed grade eight before she dropped out of school two years ago. In the 1964-1965 school year, she became interested i n school up-grading courses, but because of the age and grade requirements which she lacked, she was not even seen by a Branch school counsellor to discuss her feelings with her. 8 If Musqueam i s looked at closely, i t w i l l be found that not many men there would qualify for entrance into the Vancouver Vocational School. These unemployed middle-aged men lack the educational background to benefit from the School. At the same time, something should be done for t h i s large number of men and women who lack the q u a l i f i c a t i o n for entering a vocational or upgrading school. There should be services intended to reduce or prevent the damaging e f f e c t s that dependence on public assistance has for families and family members. Professional s o c i a l work services are needed i n order to make such reduction or prevention. At present, the Branch has only one s o c i a l worker who acts as l i a i s o n o f f i c e r between the Branch and p r o v i n c i a l welfare agencies giving services to Indians i n the province. Thus, i f the new system i s to perform i t s function under mutual support adequately, there i s need to accompany material assistance with preventive as well as r e h a b i l i t a t i v e 8Several interviews with A. by writer. - 100 -measures. Social Insurance This system i s also one of those performing the function of "mutual support" i n the community. The broad s o c i a l security programs of both p r o v i n c i a l and federal governments include a l l Indians. Indians seventy years and over are covered under the Old Age Security Act of 1952, as are other Canadians who have had ten years" residence i n Canada. Indians under seventy but over s i x t y - f i v e years of age are also e l i g i b l e for o l d age assistance on a means test basis.® In Musqueam, there are three Indians who are receiv-ing o l d age security, and two who are on old age assistance. The amount of grant received i n each category i s $75.00 per month. Indians i n these categories may also qualify for the supplementary allowance. Workmen's Compensation The performance of the function of "mutual support" by t h i s system i s li m i t e d . A l l Indians are covered by Work-men's Compensation on the same basis as are any other work-men. As mentioned e a r l i e r , under the discussion on employment, the problem here i s that Indian labour i s less employed than non-Indian labour. Furthermore, the work Indians pursue, because of th e i r low l e v e l of education and other s o c i a l factors, tends to l i m i t them to occupations which are not 9Toren, op. c i t . , p. 49. - 101 -covered by Workmen's Compensation or unemployment insurance. Thus, the value of these programs to the Indians i s lim i t e d at p r e s e n t . 1 0 This i s espe c i a l l y true for a community such as Mus-queam wherein only about twenty-five percent of the male labour force i s f u l l y employed. Even Indians with employment are for the most part not covered by either Workmen's Com-pensation or unemployment insurance. There are only two wor-kers who are i n some way covered by some type of unemploy-ment insurance. Health Services This i s one of the most important s o c i a l systems for the performance of mutual support function i n the community. The federal government has assumed what i s normally a pro-v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n providing the Indians with health and welfare services, and there i s a growing trend to obtain these services by contract from the ex i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l agencies. Medical services for Indians on Reserves and for those who have l i v e d off the Reserves for less than a year, are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Indian and Northern Health Services of the Department of National Health and Welfare working i n co-operation with the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. 1 1 There are two sub-systems under t h i s s o c i a l system 10Ibid. HDuff, op. cit-., pp. 73-74. - 102 -i n Musqueam: (1) The Indian and Northern Health Services and (2) The Vancouver Metropolitan Public Health Services. The Indian and Northern Health Services. There i s only one family i n Musqueam which has a private medical plan. The rest of the families make use of the Indian and Northern Health Services Health C l i n i c , which i s located i n the Immigration Building and l o c a l h o s p i t a l s . At the Health C l i n i c , the Indians get the same ser-vices offered non-Indians. Medical services are free at the C l i n i c . Besides providing out-patient services, the C l i n i c also provides r e f e r r a l services to the St. Paul's Hospital and to the Vancouver General Hospital, Children's Social Services Department. The C l i n i c was moved two years ago from Fraser Street to i t s present location i n the Immigration Building at the foot of Burrard Street. When t h i s change occurred, none of the Musqueam families made use of the C l i n i c for several months. Although there has been improve-ment since, there are s t i l l some families i n need of health services who do not make use of the services of the C l i n i c . There are certa i n problems which a r i s e i n the funct-ion of t h i s sub-system. It i s reported by nurses interviewed, that some families sometimes go d i r e c t l y to the St. Paul's Hospital for out-patient treatment, when according to regu-l a t i o n s , they should go to the C l i n i c f i r s t . When t h i s hap-pens, the Hospital usually phones the C l i n i c and refer s the patient to i t . Sometimes, even though he has gone thus far in search of medical treatment, a patient would at t h i s - 103 -point of r e f e r r a l decide to return to Musqueam without going to the C l i n i c for the needed treatment. This was the case with Mr,; S: In November, while on fieldwork v i s i t s , three people i n the community reported to the writer that there was a seriously sick man at a pa r t i c u l a r home. The writer saw Mr. S. who seemed quite i l l and was apparently hav-ing breathing problem. She advised him to go to the C l i n i c for a check up, which he promised to do the following day. Four days l a t e r , the C l i n i c informed the writer that Mr. S. had gone straight to the St. Paul's Hospital, and that when the Hospital r e f e r r e d him to the C l i n i c , he promised to go there immediately, but that he never reached the C l i n i c . 1 2 Many families also f i n d i t rather d i f f i c u l t keeping appointments with personnel at the C l i n i c . Dental problems are perhaps the worst of a l l these health problems. Even when the C l i n i c was at Fraser Street, and there was a dentist a block away, to whom the C l i n i c r e f e r r e d Indian patients, many Indians did not make use of such r e f e r r a l s . Apparently, there i s a lack of understanding of dental hygiene and fear of the dentist. Furthermore, public dental services s t i l l have much to be desired. If the Indian had money to choose his dentist, then he might be able to f e e l more relaxed i n a dental o f f i c e , which was well equipped and where the Indian would not have to be i n a l i n e waiting to be seen, as i s often the case of public dental services, such as those offered i n a school. In Musqueam, there were f i v e families with problems in making use of the health services for Musqueam Indians. I2writer's Recordings, November, 1964. - 104 -This number covers only services of the C l i n i c known to the writer. Most of these problems have arisen mainly from poor housekeeping standards and from inadequate c h i l d rearing 13 practices. Metropolitan Public Health Services. This i s the second sub-system under Health Services. Some of the Vancouver Metropolitan Public Health Services are extended to the Mus-queam Indians. The Medical Services D i v i s i o n of the Department of Health and Welfare reimburses the province for the cost of those services offered. Unit number two of the Vancouver Metro-p o l i t a n Public Health D i v i s i o n i s responsible for Musqueam. Every t h i r d Thursday of the month, from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m., a well-baby c l i n i c i s held on the Reserve i n the com-munity h a l l . The c l i n i c team consists of one Public Health doctor and three public health nurses. Mothers i n the com-munity know of these ser v i c e s offered by the team, and the team expects them to use th e i r i n i t i a t i v e and interest i n co-operating with the team. The service i s for a l l Musqueam inhabitants whether the mothers belong to the Band or not. The children are checked and weighed by the team, and those who need vaccination and innoculation are given that t r e a t -ment. There i s not always a large number of mothers attending the C l i n i c at any one day. The average attendance i s about seven. A few mothers forget the time for the C l i n i c , and some-times they go to the community h a l l on the wrong Thursday. Writer's Recordings, November - December, 1964. - 105 -However, public health nurses have observed some improvement i n t h i s aspect. The C l i n i c team expressed the f e e l i n g that i t finds i t very d i f f i c u l t to get across to mothers the importance of seeing that t h e i r children are taken to the C l i n i c at the right time for the innoculations and vaccinations the c h i l d -ren are scheduled to receive. Sometimes, the next shot i s due on a day before the next C l i n i c day. This means that the c h i l d should be taken to the Kerrisdale Community Centre for the shot, but mothers forget to do t h i s . One of the nurses i n the team i s also school nurse for the Southlands Elementary School, which has the largest number of Musqueam school children. Thus, she knows families which present d i f f i c u l t i e s i n making use of health f a c i l i t i e s , and occasionally, she makes home v i s i t s to families who hap-pen to have sick children at home. The writer found that there were two fam i l i e s who were h o s t i l e to the C l i n i c team, because the team sometimes informed the Catholic Children's Aid Society about cert a i n family cases wherein there was apparent c h i l d neglect. Under an agreement between the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and the City of Vancouver, onee a week, garbage i s c o l l e c t e d from Musqueam by the c i t y sanitation workers. The c i t y i s then reimbursed for t h i s service by money from Band funds. As already mentioned under the discussion on housing condi-tions, there are no sanitation regulations enforced on the - 106 -Reserve. For certa i n contagious diseases, such as tubercu-l o s i s and venereal diseases, there are provisions for com-pulsory treatment. The residents of nine homes have to carry th e i r water from water taps outside the homes. From October, 1964, to A p r i l , 1965, there were frequent cases of diarrhoea among babies. Four babies were h o s p i t a l i z e d because of t h i s problem. Three of ;these cases were from f a m i l i e s with health problems and poor housekeeping standards. During that period, there were three members i n one family who had had tupercu-l o s i s , and one i n another family who has active tuberculosis. These patients are required to get a yearly medical check-up at one of the three hospitals operated by the Indian and Northern Health Services. C h i l d Welfare Services The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare pro-gram, which involves the protection of children, services to unmarried parents, adoptions and foster care, i s available to the Indians of the province. Finding adoption and foster homes for Indian children i s more d i f f i c u l t than i t i s for white children. This i s esp e c i a l l y true when both parents are Indians. On the ave-rage, Indian families are very large, and as such, i t i s almost impossible to f i n d Indian foster or adoption homes. In 1961, the f e r t i l i t y rate was eight children f o r the Indian family, and 3.9 for the non-Indian f a m i l y . 1 4 It i s also very Indian A f f a i r s Branch, A Report on Social Welfare - 107 -d i f f i c u l t to get a white couple wanting to adopt an Indian c h i l d . However, conditions are now improving. For instance, of the sixty-seven adoption placements of non-white children during the 1963-1964 f i s c a l year, t h i r t y - e i g h t were mixed native Indian andrwhite, and one was a native Indian. These figures cover a l l adoptions c a r r i e d by the Department of Social W e l f a r e . 1 5 Many times the only Indian homes which accept c h i l d -ren on t h i s placement are not always the best type of Indian homes, but since there are no others wanting to accept these children, the tendency has been to work with such homes. The Indian has also developed an informal type of foster home program, whereby children are passed from one r e l a t i v e to another. It i s reported by a few s o c i a l workers that some white parents are a f r a i d to adopt Indian children, because most Indian children have a poor health history and also because of s o c i a l reasons, such as what the neighbours w i l l say, and how well they w i l l accept the c h i l d . Many children i n r e s i d e n t i a l schools should very l i k e l y be i n foster homes. Another problem i n Indian c h i l d welfare i s the con-f l i c t encountered i n deciding the status of the c h i l d of an unmarried Indian mother, but whose father has white status. Services for Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia, submitted by the Federal-Provincial Welfare Committee, 22nd May, 1964. l 5 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Social Welfare Annual Report (for the year ended March 13th, 1964), Govern-ment of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, printed by authority of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, V i c t o r i a , Queen's Printers, 1965. - 108 -An i l l e g i t i m a t e Indian c h i l d takes the status of his mother, but the Band Council has the opportunity of protesting the chi l d ' s membership. If the Council can supply proof that the father of the c h i l d i s white, then the protest could be approved and the chi l d ' s name taken off the Band l i s t . How-ever, the Indian mother who wishes to keep such a c h i l d w i l l often conceal the ide n t i t y of the putative father i n order to give the c h i l d her status. " I t i s not uncommon to see children who have a l l the physical appearances of being white sharing the l i f e of the Indian people." 1 6 The Musqueam Indian families make use of the services provided by the Vancouver Children's Aid Society and the Catholic Children's Aid Society in Vancouver, under the C h i l d -ren's Protection Act of 1.901. Non-Catholic families make use of the former, while Catholics make use of the l a t t e r . The Vancouver Children's Aid Society also serves Catholics who ask t h e i r help. Unmarried mothers i n the community are referred to these two agencies by various sources: the Roman Catholic and the United Church p r i e s t s , the Vancouver General Hospital and the St. Paul's Hospital. For the year 1964, there were two unmarried mothers i n Musqueam. Both mothers have their babies at home. For one of these unmarried mothers, the pre-sent c h i l d i s her tn i r d i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , while for the other, the present i s her second. The former released her l 6Toren, op. c i t . , p. 51. - 109 -second for adoption. Where unmarried mothers are referr e d to the agencies before the a r r i v a l of the baby, the agencies provide coun-s e l l i n g services. The unmarried mothers are also helped to plan to l i v e i n maternity homes or wage homes, while they are waiting for the baby's a r r i v a l . Where possible, the puta-t i v e father i s also given counselling. But i t i s often almost impossible to have an Indian unmarried mother reveal who the putative father of her c h i l d i s , es p e c i a l l y i f he i s non-Indian. More often than not, the Indian unmarried mother either shows passive resistance or i s evasive of the services offered her. Sometimes, an Indian may leave a baby i n the h o s p i t a l or with a c h i l d welfare agency without either sign-ing papers releasing the c h i l d for adoption, or enquiring after h i s welfare. An example of t h i s type of behaviour took place i n Musqueam: This unmarried mother l e f t her c h i l d with one of the Children's A i d Societies without signing the le g a l docu-ments releasing the c h i l d for adoption. For months, she made no enquiry about the welfare of her c h i l d . Mean-while, the agency i n question t r i e d to get i n touch with her by home v i s i t s , with no success. Apparently, she was i n the community, but everyone there conspired to inform the agency that she was not there. After repeated e f f o r t s , the s o c i a l worker f i n a l l y caught up with her, when during one of the usual v i s i t s at the c l i e n t ' s home, the door was opened by the unsuspecting client.17 In the above case, the c l i e n t and the community did not seem to understand the r o l e of the s o c i a l worker. The c l i e n t did not want to give up her c h i l d for adoption, and l?Writer's Recording, 22nd February, 1965. - 110 -ye.t she was a f r a i d she would hurt the worker, i f she refused to sign the documents releasing the c h i l d for adoption. Fur-thermore, the community's conception of s o c i a l workers has unfortunately been that of people taking away babies for adoption. There i s only one foster home i n Musqueam. The foster mother i s aunt of the foster children, who are four i n number. The natural parents of the children are non-Musqueam Indian residents. From the writer's observation, the foster home i s one of those with the poorest housekeeping standards on the Reserve. However, as the foster parents are the only Musqueam couple without children of th e i r own, they are able to foster those children. Protection There have been no protection cases as such at Mus-queam. On the other hand, the children's agencies and public welfare agencies do treat t h i s community d i f f e r e n t l y because of various factors. One of these i s the fact that some c h i l d -ren needing foster home care are sent to r e s i d e n t i a l schools, because of the lack of foster homes for placing Indian c h i l d -ren. As already indicated under the discussion on the School System, there are ten Musqueam children attending r e s i d e n t i a l schools for the 1964-1965 academic year. Another factor i s the fact that a children's agency would not apprehend Mus-queam children who are l i v i n g with o l d grandparents, on the premise that t h i s i s part of the Indian culture, and as long - I l l -as there i s no evidence of cruelty being suffered by the children. The same thing happening i n a non-Indian family might lead to a case for apprehension of the children by the same agency. A further reason for Musqueam's low rate i n t h i s service i s due to the fact that, by and large, Indians who are given t h i s p a r t i c u l a r service are Indians who have come to the c i t y from the i n t e r i o r of the province, and who for one reason or another have got stranded or are arrested by the police for a crime they have committed. 1 8 Summary The family, which had been the main system i n per-forming the function of mutual support can no longer cope adequately with the new problems which have been brought about by the "great change" i n the community's s o c i a l and economic aspects. The two main systems which now perform t h i s function i n Musqueam are (1) Health Services, and (2) Welfare Services. Under the Health Services are two sub-systems: (a) The Indian and Northern Health Services C l i n i c , and (b) The Metropolitan Public Health Services. Indian and Northern Health Services C l i n i c . This i s a federal government service under the Department of National Health and Welfare. There i s only one family i n Musqueam which has a private medical plan. The rest of the families make use of medical f a c i l i t i e s provided by the Indian and 18Wrlter's Recording, 17th February, 1965. - 112 -Northern Health Services C l i n i c and f a c i l i t i e s i n l o c a l hospitals i n Vancouver c i t y . Services received at the C l i n i c are the same as those offered non-Indians. Metropolitan Public Health Services. The Vancouver Metropolitan Public Health D i v i s i o n , Unit Two, i s responsible for holding a monthly "Well-baby C l i n i c " on the Musqueam Reserve. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch reimburses the province for the cost of these services offered the community. Mus-queam families can also make use of public health services at the Kerrisdale Community Centre which houses a l l Unit Two nurses' and doctors' o f f i c e s . On the average, the mothers make good use of the "Well-baby C l i n i c , " but they are not keen on going to Kerrisdale for services needed i n between C l i n i c days. Under the Welfare Services are these sub-systems: (a) Social Allowance, (b) C h i l d Welfare Services, (c) Social Insurance, and (d) Workmen's Compensation. Social Allowance. This i s the new system which has replaced the o l d Band R e l i e f System, whereby the Indian received " r e l i e f " at a much lower rate than did the non-Indian under public assistance. Under the new system, Indians are now e l i g i b l e to receive the same rate of assistance granted to non-Indians, except for the shelter allowance, which may not be paid an Indian applicant who does not pay rent. In Musqueam, the Band Council s t i l l administers the e l i g i b i l i t y test for assistance, as i t did under the o l d " r e l i e f " system. - 113 -Since the Band i s expected, where possible, to contribute toward the maintenance of t h i s system, i n the i r desire to save money for other community projects, the Council may very well discourage s o c i a l assistance recommendations from reaching the Superintendent. The new system does not say anything about accompany-ing material assistance with r e h a b i l i t a t i v e and preventive measures. Unlike the p r o v i n c i a l program, the Branch program has no s o c i a l worker involved i n the operation of the system, thus making i t impossible for the Branch "to comply with the philosophy, procedure and practices employed by the Provin-c i a l S ocial Welfare Department i n the granting of s o c i a l allowance." C h i l d Welfare Services. MusqueamTs c h i l d welfare pro-gram i s d i r e c t l y under the c i t y ' s two children's a i d socie-t i e s : the Vancouver Children's Aid and the Catholic Children's Aid Societies. Indians receive the same services as do non-Indians. However, because of c u l t u r a l and socio-economic differences, the Indian experiences more d i f f i c u l t i e s in making use of these c h i l d welfare services than do the non-Indian. There has not always been a good working r e l a t i o n -ship between the Indian c l i e n t and the s o c i a l worker. Many times the former views the l a t t e r as an authoritarian. How-ever, a progressive r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i s gradually developing. Social Insurance. The broad s o c i a l security of both the p r o v i n c i a l and federal governments includes a l l Indians. - 114 -Indian children l i v i n g at home get family allowance. In Mus-queam there are three Indians who are receiving o l d age secu-r i t y and two who are on o l d age assistance. Workmen' s Compensation. This system performs the function of mutual support on a very small scale i n Musqueam, because not a l l workers are covered by t h i s system. Very often the u n s k i l l e d worker who needs coverage most i s not covered by t h i s system. Only about two of the employed i n Musqueam are covered by some type of workmen's compensation or unemployment benefit. CHAPTER VII ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL SYSTEMS Although i n t h i s study the term system i s used, i t i s important to indicate that each system i s , i n turn, a sub-system of a larger system. These larger systems are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the l o c a l community (ho r i -zontal pattern) and/or the extra-community ( v e r t i c a l pat-tern) . Ultimately, any attempt to change the community functions w i l l involve changes i n systematic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Figure 3 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sub-systems and major systems operating i n Musqueam and the patterns of control over these systems. Figure 4 shows the horizontal and v e r t i c a l patterns of the community as of February, 1965. The horizontal pat-tern represents the s t r u c t u r a l and functional r e l a t i o n of Musqueam's various s o c i a l units and sub-systems to each other. The v e r t i c a l pattern i s the s t r u c t u r a l and functional r e l a t i o n of i t s various s o c i a l units and sub-systems to extra-community systems. 1 As can be seen, a l l the community's major systems are v e r t i c a l . The figure shows a l l the com-munity's twenty s o c i a l units and sub-systems i n a graphic -"IWarren, op. c i t . , p. 240. - 115a -Figure 3 Sub-System Major System Horizontal pattern V e r t i c a l pattern Emplyment Vocational Training Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Special Funds Residential Schools Integrated Public and Private Schools Parochial School Indian A f f a i r s Branch Band Council Land Tenure and Housing National Employ-ment Service Indian A f f a i r s Branch Vocational and Placement Program Branch* Treasury The Family Branch B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Roman Catholic Church Department of Citiz e n s h i p and Immigration Branch Branch Federal and Pr o v i n c i a l Law Homemakers' Club Branch X X Vancouver Friend-ship Centre X X X X X X X X X S p i r i t Dances X - 115b -Figure 3 (continued) Sub-System Major System Horizontal pattern V e r t i c a l pattern Fun Club Youth Club Health C l i n i c Well-baby C l i n i c C h i l d Welfare Services Social Insurance Workmen's Com-pensation Y.M.C.A. Alma Branch Y.W.C.A. Main Branch Indian and North-ern Health Ser-vices Vancouver Metro-pol i t a n Public'> Health Services S o c i a l Assistance Branch B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Social Welfare B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Social Welfare National Employ-ment Service X X X X X X Relationship between sub-systems and major systems, and t h e i r pattern of control * "Branch" r e f e r s to Indian A f f a i r s Branch. X Shows pattern of control of s o c i a l system. - 115c -Figure • 4" Horizontal Vertical S p i r i t Dances lomemakers1 Club \Band Funds and B.C. Special Funds \.The Family Social Allowance Y.M.C.A, Fun Club Band Council Religious A c t i v i t i e s R.C..Church on Reserve Y.W.CcA. Indian Youth Club 3 Health Services School .System Vancouver Friendship Centre Indian Afffairs Branch Child Welfare Services School A c t i v i t i e s Vocational Training and Placement Programme Federal-Provincial Law Stores, Banks, Post Office, Theatres, etc... -Horizontal and Vertical Patterns, February,. 1965-- 116 -arrangement. The stronger the horizontal pattern of a s o c i a l unit or sub-system, the weaker i t s v e r t i c a l pattern, and vice versa. Of the twenty s o c i a l units and subsystems shown, the S p i r i t Dances have the strongest horizontal pattern. Moving downward from t h i s system and across toward the v e r t i c a l pattern side of the figure, the horizontal pattern becomes weaker and weaker u n t i l the l a s t two systems are reached (Federal and p r o v i n c i a l ILaw, and the Stores, Banks, Post O f f i c e , Theatres, etc.), which have the weakest horizontal pattern. The possible s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s configuration of horizontal and v e r t i c a l patterns has relevance to Warren's view that community development i s concerned with strengthen-ing the community's horizontal pattern. 2 The Four Dimensions So far, the discussion has been a description of the diff e r e n t s o c i a l systems which are involved i n the performance of Musqueam's f i v e major functions of loc a l i t y - r e l e v a n c e . In t h i s section, there w i l l be r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of material a l -ready discussed, but only as i t has bearing on evaluating the r e l a t i v e strengths and weaknesses of each s o c i a l system. For the purpose of analysis, the writer w i l l make use of the four dimensions mentioned e a r l i e r , which Warren suggests are responsible for differences found among communities. These dimensions could be re l a t e d to general statements applicable 2Ibid., pp. 323-327. - 117 -to a l l communities, despite the differences that exist from 3 one community to another. Each s o c i a l system i n the Musqueam community has been located at a p a r t i c u l a r point along each of the four dimensions. The four dimensions which w i l l be used are: (1) Autonomy, (2) coincidence of service areas, (3) psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with l o c a l i t y , and (4) horizontal pattern. In " l o c a t i n g " a s o c i a l system at a pa r t i c u l a r point along the dimension of Autonomyt the focus i s on the extent to which the system i s dependent on or independent of extra-community systems i n the performance of the f i v e functions. In the dimension of the coincidence of service areas, emphasis i s on the extent to which the service areas of the s o c i a l systems coincide or f a i l to coincide. At one extreme of the dimension, the service areas coincide. This indicates that everyone "within the community service-area boundary i s ser-ved by i n s t i t u t i o n s from the same community." At the other extreme, the service areas d i f f e r . Here the community's s o c i a l systems lack a common geographic centre of community a c t i v i t i e s , and they likewise lack a common geographic loca-t i o n of s e r v i c e . 4 The t h i r d dimension - the extent of psychological  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the l o c a l i t y - also has two extremes. At one end are "located" s o c i a l systems which have a strong sense of "belonging" to the l o c a l i t y and at the other are 3lbid., p. 12. 4 I b i d . , p. 13. - 118 -those which have l i t t l e or no sense of l o c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The l a s t of the dimensions, the horizontal pattern, i s the s t r u c t u r a l and functional r e l a t i o n of various sub-systems and s o c i a l systems to each other. A community's "sentiments, behaviour patterns, and s o c i a l systematic inter-connections of the horizontal pattern" may be strong or weak.*' Judgements as to which p a r t i c u l a r p o sition along the dimensions a s o c i a l system i s located are made by the writer. As much as possible, i n d i c a t i o n has been given, explaining why a system i s located at a p a r t i c u l a r point. Product ion-Distr ibut ion-Consumpt ion Figure 5 shows the location of the three systems which perform t h i s function, at p a r t i c u l a r points along the four dimensions. Employment. This s o c i a l system i s strong v e r t i c a l l y , but weak ho r i z o n t a l l y . There are no industries and no con-tinuous types of employment of any kind i n Musqueam. The only jobs to be obtained there are seasonal - such as help-ing with the erection of buildings on the Reserve. However, since only one home i s b u i l t by the Band every year, and since the Indians themselves can do only the non-technical part of the job, i t i s obvious that the community has no independence i n t h i s s o c i a l system. Workers go to various service areas of extra-community systems i n order to get employment. 5l b i d . - 118a -Figure 5 L o c a l autonomy: Independent (3) 1 (1) (2)Dependent 1 Coincidence '. of service Coincide; (3) ( i ) ( 2 ) D i f f e r areas: J _ 1 1 1 1 Psychol o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n • with' '../Strong l o c a l i t y : (3) (1) (2)Weak J L Horizontal. p a t t e r n : El, Strong (3) (1) (2)Wealc 1 1 • Production-distribution-consumption Systems analysed.: (1) Employment .(2) Indian A f f a i r s Branch V Vocational T r a i n i n g and Placement Programme (3) Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Special Funds - 119 -There i s a weak psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system i n the community, because most of those adults who stay on the Reserve regularly are either unemployed or under-employed, and have to depend on s o c i a l assistance. The h o r i -zontal pattern of t h i s system i s weak. As already indicated above, the only employment available on the Reserve i s of a short-term nature. There i s no strong control of the system within the l o c a l community; control i s wholly done by the extra-community. Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Special Funds. Of the three systems under t h i s major function of l o c a l i t y -relevance, the Band Funds and B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Special Funds are most r e l a t e d to the Musqueam community. It i s a l -most independent from the v e r t i c a l pattern, i n that the l o c a l community decides on how these funds are to be used. Although t h i s system does not quite coincide i n i t s service areas; there i s a strong psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i t with the l o c a l i t y . Through i t , community projects are carried, and the members of the community r e a l l y f e e l that the funds belong to them. Nevertheless, the use of any of these funds has to be permitted by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch which i s entrusted with the keeping of the funds. These provide the main revenue of the Band. The horizontal pattern of t h i s system i s strong. The funds are used for s o c i a l assistance, for improving the Reserve, and sometimes for yearly d i s t r i b u t i o n s of money per capita basis. - 120 -Indian A f f a i r s Branch Vocational and Placement Pro- gram. Musqueam has no control over t h i s system. It i s i n the extra-community that t h i s control i s located, and authority flows from above to the l o c a l community. There are at present one adult and two teenagers from Musqueam who are attending the Vancouver Vocational School. There i s also one boy i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Inst i t u t e of Technology i n Burnaby. There i s no coincidence of the service areas of t h i s system. As already mentioned above, three students are i n one school and one i s i n another. Both areas are outside Musqueam, and the l o c a l community i d e n t i f i e s them with the l o c a l i t y only i n a very weak manner. The horizontal pattern of the system i s likewise very weak. It has no direct con-nection with any s o c i a l system i n Musqueam. S o c i a l i z a t i o n Figure 6 shows at pa r t i c u l a r points along the four dimensions, the location of the three chief s o c i a l systems involved i n the performance of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n function in Musqueam. The Family. This system i s not f u l l y independent of extra-community influences. As has been mentioned e a r l i e r i n discussing t h i s major function of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , Musqueam children meet non-Indians i n the c i t y schools and are i n f l u -enced by non-Indian values. On the Reserve, most Indian parents stand for Indian values, and they are anxious to have th e i r children conform to the l o c a l norms. Thus a c o n f l i c t - 120a -Figure 6 Local. Independent (1) (3) v' (2) Dependent autonomy; ' I^^^JL^^^A^^^ . Coincidence of service Coincide (3) .05 (2)' Differ areas : 1 , nt- • „,,,-,-- 1 '" ' 1 :. Psychological i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n • with Strong l o c a l i t y : : (1) (35 ' (2) Weak Horizontal patterns Strong (1) (35 (2) Weak 1 1 S o c i a l i z a t i o n • • Systems analysed: (15 The Family (2) The School Residential . Integrated . (35 Religious - Roman Catholic Church - 121 -arises for the children as they endeavour to conform to both cultures. Not a l l Musqueam Band members l i v e i n the l o c a l com-munity. There i s an increasing rate of mobility taking place. For example, for the year 1961, there were ten Band members l i v i n g off Musqueam, for 1962, there were t h i r t y - t h r e e , 6 and for 1964, there were sixty-four. These are members who are s t i l l i n the Band l i s t , hence they are f u l l - f l e d g e d members of the Band. Because of t h i s mobility, there i s no complete coincidence of areas or l o c a l i t i e s where Musqueam's function of s o c i a l i z a t i o n takes place. However, for the majority of fam i l i e s who stay on the Reserve, there i s coincidence of these areas. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the l o c a l i t y by the family i s getting rather weak, and i t i s very probable that t h i s weakness w i l l continue as long as changes keep on occuring i n other s o c i a l systems of the community. The h o r i -zontal pattern of t h i s system i s strong. Most of the factions which exist i n the community are on fa m i l i a r patterns, and one can influence others according to the f a m i l i a l f a c t i o n i n which one belongs. The School. In both sub-systems - r e s i d e n t i a l and integrated - Musqueam depends on extra-community agents to 6Canada, Department of Ci t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, B r i t i s h Columbia Regional O f f i c e of Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Report on Indian Population. 7Writer's Socio-economic Survey. -122 -perform t h i s s p e c i a l function of s o c i a l i z a t i o n for the loca-l i t y . Parents choose the type of schools they want the i r children to attend, but they have no say on the administrative side of the process. The school boards, p r i n c i p a l s and teachers of the schools are the people who are actually engaged i n carrying out t h i s process with the children. The service areas of t h i s system d i f f e r . There are Musqueam children i n r e s i d e n t i a l and integrated schools, i n public and private schools, and i n primary and secondary schools. 8 Each of these schools i s outside the community, i n a di f f e r e n t community set t i n g . The sub-systems under the school system are not psycho-l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the l o c a l i t y of Musqueam. In the thinking of the average Indian, these sub-systems are as far removed i n f e e l i n g as they are i n physical location. To him, they belong to the white man. As shown i n Table 7, there i s a large incident of school dropouts i n Musqueam. This tends to weaken the h o r i -zontal pattern of the school system, and of the three systems which perform the function of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the school i s the least recognized i n the community. Religious - The Roman Catholic Church. Although the Musqueam Roman Catholic Church i s f i n a n c i a l l y sponsored by funds from the Band, the community does not have complete autonomy over i t . Members of t h i s Church s t i l l have to receive 8See Table 5, page 41. - 123 -authority from the Mother Church through the Pr i e s t , who i s appointed from the extra-community. The areas of service for t h i s system f a i r l y coincide -a l l Band members attending church services on a certa i n Sun-day normally worship i n the l o c a l Church. Although members of the Church are irre g u l a r i n attending services, there i s a strong degree of psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system with the l o c a l i t y . The people i n the community f e e l the Church i s t h e i r s , and r i g h t l y so, for Band funds were involved in b u i l ding and insuring i t . However, the horizontal pattern of t h i s system i s not as strong as i s i t s psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the l o c a l i t y . Attendance to services by Church members i s very i r r e g u l a r . S o c i a l Control Figure 7 gives the positions on the four dimensions of the four s o c i a l systems which perform the function of s o c i a l control i n Musqueam. Informal systems of s o c i a l con-t r o l have not been included for the simple isason that these are disappearing f a s t , due to the influence of outside f o r -ces, which have brought about change i n the auspices provid-ing the services for t h i s function. Indian A f f a i r s Branch. This i s one of the systems which are dependent on the extra-community i n the performing of the function of s o c i a l control. Although t h i s system i s connected with the Band Council system, Musqueam has a very l i t t l e degree of say i n i t s operation. There are ce r t a i n - 123a -Figure 7 Local:- v.: . autonomyj Independent 1 (3) (2) (t)(4) Dependent 1 1 1 Coincidence . "" of - s e r v i c e Coincide areas s ~ • .-(2)(3) J L (1) •. (4) D i f f e r 1 1 1 • P s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Strong l o c a l i t y ; (2) (3) (1) (4) Weak J 3 L Horizontal,,... Strong pat t e r n : (2) 1 (3) 1 (1) (4) Weak J 1 S o c i a l Control Systems analysed: (1) Indian A f f a i r s Branch (2) Band Council (3) Land Tenure and Housing (4) F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Law - 124 -areas wherein t h i s system has to take into consideration the consent of the Band, when making certain decisions for the Indians, but i n the f i n a l analysis, the Indian A f f a i r s Branch always has f i n a l say. This system implements policy which originates from Ottawa through the Regional Commis-sioner's O f f i c e . In the case of Musqueam, the direct represen-t a t i v e of t h i s system i s the Fraser Agency o f f i c e , under which a l l the community's administration i s controlled. The service areas of t h i s system d i f f e r , although not widely. The Agency o f f i c e i s i n one building, but the Regional o f f i c e i s i n a separate building. However, these buildings are not too far apart. The community does not psychologically i d e n t i f y t h i s system with the l o c a l i t y . To many people i n the community, the physical distance from the Reserve to the o f f i c e b u i l ding creates a sim i l a r psychological distance. There are not many of them who l i k e the idea of going to the o f f i c e , except when i t i s absolutely necessary. The horizontal pattern of t h i s system i s weak. As indicated e a r l i e r , i n the discussion of the Band Council, under the function of " S o c i a l Control," the Band Council helps i n implementing Branch policy, but the Branch has veto powers over Council decisions. The Band Council. This i s the l o c a l government system of the community. The Council i t s e l f has very l i t t l e indepen-dence as far as l o c a l autonomy i s concerned. It can pass only those by-laws that do not in t e r f e r e with federal, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal laws. The Fraser Agency Superintendent has a - 125 -veto power over decisions of the Council. The Council has only as much authority as i s delegated to i t by the Branch. According to the rules and regulations governing the el e c t i o n of the Band Council, candidates for the positions of chief and cou n c i l l o r s should be residents of the community for which they are running e l e c t i o n . This makes possible the coincidence of service areas of the Council. The chief and three c o u n c i l l o r s a l l l i v e i n Musqueam. Although there are few Band members who f e e l that the Council does not meet as often as i t i s supposed to, t h i s s o c i a l system i s very much i d e n t i f i e d with Musqueam. The com-munity r e l a i z e s that t h i s system i s wholly for their service. However, the psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n does not quite cor-respond with i t s horizontal pattern. It i s true that t h i s system has major functions, such as introducing resolutions at Band meetings, planning the Band's annual budget, admini-stering means tests for e l i g i b i l i t y for s o c i a l assistance, and c a l l i n g Band meetings. Nevertheless, the Council lacks authority which i s usually given municipal governments. That i s , i t lacks the power to levy taxes on community members. Land Tenure and Housing. The community cannot use the Reserve land as i t thinks f i t , without the permission of the Branch. Decision making as to how a piece of land i s to be put into use i s shared between the Band and Branch. This i s likewise true of housing — the Band decides which family i s e l i g i b l e for a new home. The Council then makes a recommend-ation i n the form of a resolution to the Band and Branch for - 126 -the chosen family to have the annual grant for a home. The area of service for the function of t h i s system coincides for housing. A l l homes are b u i l t on the Marine Drive land, but not a l l lands owned by the Band are i n the same area. There are two separate pieces of land which belong to the Band: the Musqueam area and the Sea Island pfece of land. There i s an average psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the land and houses with the l o c a l i t y . The community r e a l i s e s that the houses belong to the Musqueam Band Indians, as long as they remain members of the Band. However, no home or land can be sold to outsiders. On the average, the horizontal pattern of t h i s s o c i a l system i s f a i r l y weak, due to the strong v e r t i c a l pattern over decisions on the way land i s to be made use of by the Band. The Federal-Provincial Law. Like the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, t h i s system i s v e r t i c a l i n authority, but i t i s bind-ing to the Musqueam Indians. This system applies to Indians as equally as i t does to non-Indians, except i n the case of land problems. Whereas non-Reserve land can be l e g a l l y seized, Indian Reserve land cannot be seized. The areas under which t h i s system operates do not coincide. There are di f f e r e n t laws passed by each l e v e l of government - federal and pro-v i n c i a l . What may not be v i o l a t i o n of a law i n Musqueam, may be a criminal or c i v i l offence i n the c i t y of Vancouver. For instance, impaired d r i v i n g could go on on the Reserve without the driver running the r i s k of being arrested, but doing t h i s i n the c i t y , t h i s would be a great r i s k to the driver. - 127 -The psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system with the l o c a l community i s very weak. It i s very probable that many Indians l i v e i n Musqueam most of the time "to stay out of trouble" with the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e and the R.C.M.P. This system i s very weak i n i t s horizontal pattern. It i s imposed on the community from outside. Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n Figure 8 indicates at pa r t i c u l a r points along the four dimensions the location of the seven s o c i a l systems, which are involved i n the performance of the function of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Musqueam. The Church. As already mentioned under the discussion on S o c i a l i z a t i o n , the Roman Catholic Church i n Musqueam i s not f u l l y autonomous. Decision-making a f f e c t i n g the Church comes from the Bishop, under whose diocese Musqueam i s placed. For example, permission for non-Catholic Band members to use the Church building for spe c i a l non-Catholic ceremonies had to be granted the Band by the Bishop. The area of service for t h i s system does not d i f f e r , as a l l p r a c t i s i n g Catholics attend services held i n t h i s Church. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the system with the l o c a l i t y i s weak. Many families, who claim to be Catholics, do not participate i n the r e l i g i o u s services held i n the Church. The horizontal pattern of t h i s s o c i a l system i n per-forming the function of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f a i r l y strong. The system i s sometimes connected with other s o c i a l systems - 127a -Figure 8 Local-. ' autonomy: Independent (2) (4) ( 5 ) ( D ( 3 ) (7) (6)Dependeht _ _ L Coincidence of service areas» Coincide (4) ...(2) (5) (6) (1) (3) ( 7 ) D i f f e r —1 P sy c h o l 0 g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l o c a l i t y : Strong C4) (2) (5) (1) (3)(7)Wealc Horizontal pattern:' Strong (4) ( 1 ) _ L _ (5)(2) (3) (6) (7 )¥ea lc • 1 1 1 Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n Systems analysed: (1} The Church' (2) Homemakers" Club (3) Vancouver Friendship Centre (4) S p i r i t Dances (5) •YIM.C.A. Pun Club (6) Y.W.C.A. Indian . Youth Club (7) The School - 128 -such as the Homemakers' Club, which functions best during the Christmas season. Homemakers * Club. Although t h i s s o c i a l system i s o f f i c i a l l y recognized by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch as part of community organization among Indians on the Reserves, i t i s independent of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. This system operates at the i n i t i a t i v e of the Indian women. The service area of t h i s system i s Musqueam i t s e l f , hence there i s co-incidence shown along the dimension for "Coincidence of Service Areas." The psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s o c i a l system with Musqueam i s f a i r l y strong. Despite the fact that t h i s system has had i t s d i f f i c u l t times, i t has always managed to survive from one passive season to an active one. Its horizontal pattern i s not quite strong. Many groups, espe-c i a l l y those of the older generation, do not par t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s system. Vancouver Friendship Centre. This i s an extra-com-munity s o c i a l system, and despite the fact that one of the Centre's board members was a Musqueam Band member, the com-munity i t s e l f has no say i n the operation of t h i s system. There i s only one building which houses most of the services offered by the Centre. Therefore, the service areas of t h i s system do not d i f f e r much. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Centre with Mus-queam i s weak. Except for the teenagers, not many adults even v i s i t the Centre to f i n d out what goes on there. Not - 129 -many of the older generation know about the existence of t h i s system. The horizontal pattern of t h i s system i s likewise weak. Even parents who, at the opening of the Centre, had permitted th e i r children to v i s i t i t , are now apprehensive in having them attend. This, they say, i s because of the drinking which allegedly i s going on among teenagers who frequently go to the Centre. S p i r i t Dances. Except for Indian dancers from other Indian Reserves who come to Musqueam at the dance season, t h i s system i s t o t a l l y independent of any outside influence of authority. There i s coincidence of service area i n th i s system. A l l the ceremonies take place i n the l o c a l community. The psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s o c i a l system with the l o c a l i t y i s strong. This i s thought to be one the very few t r a d i t i o n s which the white man has not i n t e r -fered much with. For the most part, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y r e s t r i c t e d . The horizontal pattern i s not as strong as the community's psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the system, for although the community f e e l s very strongly that t h i s system i s t r a d i t i o n a l to Musqueam, to many of the younger generation t h i s system does not offer the Indian much i n western society. The Y.M.C.A. Fun Club. There i s shared authority over the function of t h i s s o c i a l system i n Musqueam. The community finances major expenses incurred by the Club and the Y.M.C.A. provides the group worker for the Club. Therefore, the com-munity has average l o c a l independence of th i s system i n - 130 -Musqueam. The service areas of t h i s system coincide. The Y.M.C.A. Alma Branch has always provided t h i s service on a shared basis with the community. There i s an average f e e l i n g of psychological i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of the system with the l o c a l i t y . Most of the Club a c t i v i t i e s take place i n the l o c a l i t y . The horizontal pattern of t h i s system i s f a i r l y strong. For example, the Band Council system passes resolutions to appropriate money to as s i s t the function of the Club. Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club. This system i s i n the extra-community and i t i s t o t a l l y independent of the l o c a l community. Authority over the system i s with the Y.W.C.A. main branch i n Dunsmuir Street. There i s coincidence i n the service areas of t h i s s o c i a l system. The program operated under t h i s system i s sponsored and arranged by the same branch. However, members of the Club have the opportunity to work with the Y.W.C.A. s t a f f member i n preparing the program. The system i s not psychologically i d e n t i f i e d with the l o c a l community i n Musqueam. Only one g i r l from the community i s an active member of the Club. The rest of the teenagers, who show interest i n i t , only j o i n the Club members at the monthly dances. Likewise, the horizontal pattern of the system i s weak. Except for the monthly dances, many people i n the community are not aware of the program of the Club. The School. This system has been dealt with under the function of S o c i a l i z a t i o n . However, we s h a l l again b r i e f l y examine i t under Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n . - 131 -The community has no say on matters pertaining to school a c t i v i t i e s . Except for one parent who belongs to one of the school's Parent Teachers' Associations, parents do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n school a c t i v i t i e s . As shown i n Table 5, there are s i x di f f e r e n t types of school attended by students from the community. This makes the service areas of the system to d i f f e r . None of the schools i s located i n the l o c a l community, and school a c t i v i t i e s are not psychologically i d e n t i f i e d with the community. The l o c a l community f e e l s the schools belong to the white man, who operates them as he l i k e s . The system's horizontal pattern i s weak. Since the disi n t e g r a t i o n of the study group, organized i n the 1963-1964 school year, there has been no organization i n the community which i s d i r e c t l y connected with school a c t i v i t i e s . Mutual Support Figure 9 shows the position at various points along the four dimensions of the f i v e sub-systems which perform the function of mutual support i n Musqueam. These sub-systems are under the two main systems of Health and Welfare Services. Indian and Northern Health Services C l i n i c . This s o c i a l system i s under the control of the federal government. Musqueam makes use of i t s services, but a l l decision-making concerning the operation of the system i s done wholly by the federal government. Therefore, Musqueam has no autonomy over i t . The C l i n i c makes r e f e r r a l s to l o c a l hospitals and to - 13>a -Figure 9 Local autonomy: Independent 1 (2a) (1b) 1 (2d) (2c) (2b) (1 a)Dependent 1 : Coincidence of service areas: Coincide (2c) (1b)(2a) 1 (2b) (1a) ( 2 d ) D i f f e r J : L Ps y c h o l b g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Strong l o c a l i t y : ' (2a) (1b) - J (1a) 1 (2d) (2c) (2b)Weak 1 Horizontal p a t t e r n : Strong (2a) 1 (1b) _ J (2c) 1 (2d) (2b) (1a)Weak 1 Mutual Support Systems analysed: (1) Health Services: (a) Indian and Northern Health Services (b) The Metropolitan P u b l i c Health. Services (2) Welfare Services (a) S o c i a l Assistance (b) C h i l d Welfare . (c) S o c i a l Insurance (d) Workmen's Compensation -132 -dentists. This makes i t impossible to have a l l the services i n one geographical area, hence there i s no coincidence i n these areas. There i s a weak psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the system with the l o c a l community. This i s partly due to the fact that the services of the system are found a long distance away from Musqueam, and partly, because the Band i t s e l f does not contribute f i n a n c i a l l y toward the operation costs of the services. The horizontal pattern of the system i s weak. There are some families i n the community who could benefit from making use of the f a c i l i t i e s offered by t h i s system, but who do not do so. The Metropolitan Public Health Services. The main service given by t h i s system i s the operation of a monthly Well-baby C l i n i c i n Musqueam. The Band has no control or authority over t h i s system. It i s dependent on an extra-com-munity s e t t i n g which makes i t available to the l o c a l community. The C l i n i c i s held by the Metropolitan Public Health Staff members of Unit Two. It i s always held i n Musqueam, hence the service areas coincide. There i s a f a i r l y strong psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system with the l o c a l i t y . Because the C l i n i c i s always held on the Reserve, i t gives the families i n the community the f e e l i n g of owning the services. The horizontal pattern of the system i s not as strong as i s the psychological iden-t i f i c a t i o n of the system with the l o c a l i t y . There are s t i l l instances wherein mothers forget when the next C l i n i c day i s , - 133 -and when to take th e i r babies for the next inoculation or vaccination. Social Allowance. This system performs a very import-ant task i n the l o c a l community's function of mutual support. It i s a s o c i a l system equivalent to the public assistance program of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Social Welfare. There i s a high degree of l o c a l autonomy i n the function of th i s system. It has already been mentioned under several discussions i n t h i s study, that the Band Council, which i s the l o c a l government of the l o c a l community, has the responsi-b i l i t y of determining e l i g i b i l i t y of applicants for s o c i a l assistance. The Council also recommends to the Superintendent of the Fraser Agency that a certa i n applicant i s or i s not e l i g i b l e for assistance. However, the Superintendent has the authority to deny assistance, i f , i n h i s opinion, the a p p l i -cant i s not e l i g i b l e for assistance. There i s coincidence i n the function of service areas i n t h i s system. A l l r e c i p i e n t s of assistance get the money cheque or food voucher from the Fraser Agency, or i t i s sent to them through the post. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system with the l o c a l community i s strong. This i s due mainly to the fact that the Band contributes f i n a n c i a l l y toward the operation costs of t h i s system. The Band Council i s , therefore, very ca r e f u l i n administering means tests for e l i g i b i l i t y for assistance. It fe e l s that, since Band funds are involved i n the operation, the system belongs to the l o c a l community as much as i t belongs to the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The h o r i -- 134 -zontal pattern of t h i s system i s likewise strong. As i n d i -cated above, working with t h i s system i s part of the respon-s i b i l i t y of the Band Council. This system i s also connected with community projects wherein re c i p i e n t s of assistance are assigned work i n the project. C h i l d Welfare Program. There i s no l o c a l autonomy over t h i s system. The program i s wholly administered i n the extra-community and the l o c a l community i s dependent on out-side forces for the f u l l operation of the system. The service areas of t h i s system d i f f e r . Catholic families get the i r services from the Catholic Children's Aid Society which i s located on Robson Street, and non-Catholic families get simi-l a r services from the Vancouver Children's Aid society on Tenth Avenue. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of'this system with the l o c a l community i s weak. Although the worker-client r e l a t i o n -ship i s gradually improving, most families i n the l o c a l i t y have a stereotype image of the s o c i a l worker as an extra-com-munity authoritarian who sometimes takes babies away from Musqueam. The horizontal pattern of the system i s also weak. There i s no other system which i s d i r e c t l y connected with i t in the l o c a l community. Social Insurance. Musqueam has no l o c a l autonomy over t h i s system. The system i s operated i n and controlled by the extra-community. Like a l l Canadians, Indians receive the services of t h i s system, i f they f u l f i l the age and residence - 135 -requirements for the o l d age assistance and for the o l d age security program. For family allowance e l i g i b i l i t y , one of the requirements i s that the c h i l d be under eighteen years of age, and that he attend school regularly. The service areas of t h i s system d i f f e r according to the type of program under which the recipient of the services comes. Usually, money cheques are sent to re c i p i e n t s by post from the o f f i c e s which administer these services. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system with the l o c a l community i s weak. The mothers do understand that one important requirement for the issue of family allowance i s regular school attendance by the c h i l d . Recipients of o l d age security and o l d age assistance likewise understand the regu-la t i o n s governing t h i s program. However, t h i s system i s seen as one which i s wholly outside the l o c a l community, but one which helps the community f i n a n c i a l l y . On the average, the horizontal pattern of t h i s system i s rather weak. This i s esp e c i a l l y true i n the case of the family allowance, wherein some families disregard the school attendance regulation and get t h e i r allowance suspended. Workmen's Compensation. The effectiveness of t h i s system i n the l o c a l i t y depends on the types of employment which workers from Musqueam are able to secure. Only c e r t a i n s k i l l e d workers are covered by the system, and since most of Musqueam employees are uns k i l l e d , there i s a very small number affected by the system. The l o c a l community has no autonomy over t h i s system. A l l f u l l - t i m e employment takes - 136 -place i n the extra-community. There i s no coincidence of service areas i n t h i s system. Employees work at various jobs and places. Psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s system with Musqueam i s very weak. Employees i n the community r e a l i z e that t h i s system works only when they a t t a i n a cer t a i n degree of s k i l l i n t h e i r jobs i n the extra-community. The horizontal pattern of the system i s likewise very weak. The only other system i n the community which i s connected with t h i s system i s Employment, which likewise has a weak horizontal pattern. Analysis By Communication Process This study lends i t s e l f to several other ways of ana-l y s i n g the material i n the text. One of these i s to use the "comprehensive or master processes" i n which a s o c i a l system i s involved. Warren gives s i x of these processes: 1. Communication - the process by which information, decisions, and d i r e c t i v e s are transmitted among actors and ways i n which knowledge, opinions, and attitudes are formed or modified by i n t e r a c t i o n . 2. Boundary maintenance - the process whereby the id e n t i t y of the s o c i a l system i s preserved and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n pattern maintained. 3. Systematic linkage - the process whereby one or more of the elements of at least two s o c i a l systems i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n such a manner that the two systems, i n some way and on some occasions, may be viewed as a single u n i t . 4. S o c i a l i z a t i o n - the process through which the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l heritage i s transmitted. 5. S o c i a l Control - the process by which deviancy i s either eliminated or somehow made compatible with the functioning of the s o c i a l groups. 6. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n - the process through which organizations are given structure and s o c i a l action and i n t e r a c t i o n are made p r e d i c t a b l e . 9 '^Warren, op. c i t . , pp. 47-48. - 137 -An attempt at analysing a l l the s o c i a l systems i n Musqueam, using a l l the above master processes, w i l l not be made. However, some of those systems w i l l be selected and analysed, using the process of communication. This process has been chosen i n order to indicate that the performance of several s o c i a l systems i n the community seem weak because of the lack of an adequate process of communication. Below w i l l be discussed systems which can best i l l u s t r a t e t h i s problem of inadequate communication. Employment. Not a l l jobs i n the extra-community c a l l for s k i l l s beyond the reach of Musqueam workers, but because of the lack of clear communication between the i n t r a and extra-communities, the Indians do not get most of those jobs. There i s lack of education on both sides, caused by the lack of communication. This lack also creates prejudices and discrimination on each side, against the other. The non-Indian employer thinks of the Indian i n a stereotyped manner, as one who i s lazy and one who lacks sense of time. On the other hand, the Indian f e e l s that, even i f he asked a non-Indian for employment, because he i s Indian, he would not get i t . Therefore, he r e f r a i n s from even t r y i n g . Thus, although the two communities exist side by side, each has biases about the other, thereby making adequate communication impossible. If there were clear l i n e s of communication, i t would be very l i k e l y that the two would try to trust and understand each other better. Eventually, they would see a person as an i n d i v i d u a l with a unique personality, and not as - 138 -r a c i a l personality. This could help the Musqueam labour force i n securing more and better jobs. The Family. Most of the factions e x i s t i n g i n the com-munity are due to lack of clear l i n e s of communication within the l o c a l community. Since the Reserve has f i v e geographical sections, and there i s no l o c a l newspaper, and since v i s i t i n g back and forth i s done just within one's own faction, i t i s not uncommon to f i n d that one geographical section or fami-l i a l f a c t i o n may be ignorant of happenings outside i t s section or f a c t i o n . This creates d i f f i c u l t y , when and i f the community decides to f i n d some area of common in t e r e s t . This i s pro-bably one of the reasons why other systems, such as the Home-makers' Club and Church a c t i v i t i e s , do not function as well as they could. It i s also probable that t h i s i s the reason why the Band Council introduces most of the resolutions con-sidered at Band meetings. Since the community at large i s unable to reach a common consensus, the Band Council, a system of three members, finds i t easier to ar r i v e at an agreement on what they f e e l are "common in t e r e s t s " of the community. The School. This i s another system which, with clear l i n e s of communication, could help improve the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n functions i n Musqueam. If there were adequate communication between the school system and the l o c a l community, there would be better understanding between the two. As already indicated i n e a r l i e r discussions, - 139 -except for one parent, none of the parents i n the l o c a l com-munity belong to a school Parent Teachers' Association. Fur-thermore, very few parents, i f any, v i s i t schools on "open house" occasions, or to discuss with the school th e i r c h i l -dren's school problems. This lack of communication breeds d i s i n t e r e s t on, and ignorance about, what i s going on at school. Because of t h i s inadequate communication process, there are not many parents i n the l o c a l community who are aware of the fact that the age l i m i t for the family allowance has been changed from sixteen to eighteen for children s t i l l i n school. Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The channel of communication between t h i s system and the l o c a l community i s inadequate. As much as possible, the Fraser Agency uses the Band Council as a medium for implementing certain p o l i c i e s of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Besides the Council, there are not many people i n the community who know what the p o l i c i e s of the Branch are. For these people, the Council has f i n a l i n t e r -pretation and implementation of po l i c y . There are very few of these, who take the time to go beyond the Council to the Fraser Agency o f f i c e for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of po l i c y . This i s espec i a l l y true i n the case of the older generation group, which finds i t rather d i f f i c u l t to comprehend the bureau-c r a t i c set up of the Branch. Thus, there could be p r i v i l e g e s and services a v a i l -able at the Branch l e v e l , which could be made use of by certai n people i n the community, but because of the poor - 140 -li n e s of communication, the community may not know anything about the existence of such services, although the need to use them may be present. Many misconceptions about the white man, i n general, and about the Branch, i n p a r t i c u l a r , could be cleared by adequate l i n e s of communication from the Fraser Agency to the l o c a l community's non-Council members. This would, i n turn, increase the community's l o c a l autonomy, and strengthen t h i s system. For example, at present, many people are a f r a i d to voice grievances, such as those concern-ing land tenure and housing. It i s not that the Fraser Agency has a "closed door" policy, but rather, i t i s due to the fact that there i s nobody at the l o c a l l e v e l to encourage the residents to make use of th e i r r i g h t s as Band members. This, i n practice, imposes "a closed door" policy on the system. The Band Council. Communication between t h i s system and the l o c a l community i s not always cl e a r . Even the Council does not always take time to perform i t s function of explain-ing c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s which i t implements at the l o c a l l e v e l . This i s one reason why certain e x i s t i n g factions look at the Council with disrespect, or why i t s members are classed with the "white men" of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Because of t h i s attitude, there i s not always the required co-operation from community members, i n carrying out ce r t a i n Branch p o l i c i e s . Vancouver Friendship Centre. The l i n e s of communica-ti o n between t h i s system and Musqueam are blurred. The major-i t y of the adults on the Reserve do not know about what goes - 141 -on at the Centre. Those who do know about i t s existence do not make use of the f a c i l i t i e s i t provides. None of the adults whose children v i s i t the Centre has bothered to f i n d out the truth about the alleged teenage drinking at the Centre. There i s obviously no communication between the Centre and the l o c a l community, whereby problems such as t h i s could e a s i l y be c l a r i f i e d and perhaps solved. Conclusion The Musqueam Indian Reserve has been used by anthro-pologists, s o c i o l o g i s t s , archaeologists, and s o c i a l workers for d i f f e r e n t types of study, but these studies have been concerned with larger study areas, with Musqueam as one of the areas covered. As far as can bedetermined, there has not been any study which focussed attention on Musqueam as an in d i v i d u a l community. The present study has dealt with the socio-economic aspects of the Musqueam community. It i s recognized there are several approaches that could be used i n conducting a com-munity study. For example, the community could also be viewed from any of the following approaches: the inte r a c t i o n of the l o c a l people, the power structure, the behaviour pattern and b e l i e f systems, the ecological process, and the demographic aspect. The d i f f i c u l t y i n using any one of these approaches exclusive of the others, i s that only one aspect of the com-munity i s examined. Furthermore, the r e s u l t s gained from such a study cannot be applied p r o f i t a b l y as a guide i n - 142 -studying a di f f e r e n t community. If our th e o r e t i c a l knowledge of the community i s to be increased, there i s need to develop a common approach for studying any community, regardless of geographic location and area. With t h i s purpose i n mind, the writer chose to use Warren's model for t h i s study. In h i s model, Warren defines the community as "that combination of s o c i a l units and systems which perform the major s o c i a l functions having l o c a l i t y r e l e v a n c e . " 1 0 Therefore, the focus of analysis i n t h i s study was the type of systematic r e l a t i o n s h i p of the people and organizations i n the l o c a l community and i n the extra-com-munity. Information on Musqueam's s o c i a l systems was arranged under the f i v e functions of locality-relevance used by Warren. This information was assembled from various sources: i n t e r -views, a socio-economic survey of the adult population i n Musqueam and relevant documents of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Each of the s o c i a l systems under the functional categories was then analysed by making use of the four dimensions i n which communities d i f f e r from each other i n structure and function. This type of analysis i l l u s t r a t e d i n a continuum, how much the community i s dependent on or independent of extra-community units i n performing i t s major functions, the extent to which the service areas of l o c a l units coincide or f a i l to coincide, the degree of psychological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n lOWarren, op. c i t . , p. 9. - 143 -with the l o c a l i t y , and the degree to which the community's horizontal pattern i s strong or weak. The communication process, which i s one of the s i x master processes given by Warren as comprehensive processes, i n which a l l systems are constantly involved, was used to ana-lyse s i x s o c i a l systems i n the community: Employment, The Family, The School, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, The Band Council, and the Vancouver Friendship Centre. In t h i s analysis, i t was indicated that the absence of adequate communication between s o c i a l systems caused misunderstandings and ignorance of cer-t a i n matters i n the community. The model does not t e l l how community problems are to be solved, or how certa i n s o c i a l systems with weak horizontal patterns could be stengthened i n order to have a well i n t e -grated community. The use of the model does have many advan-tages. As already indicated, i t makes possible the study of the community as a body of several units i n t e r r e l a t e d to each other, and to the extra-community. The model also provides a simple method of analysing the community, and of in d i c a t i n g areas wherein the community i s weak or strong. It i s useful as a guide to a systematic assembly of information on a com-munity. This helps the researcher i n s e l e c t i n g only that material which i s relevant to the understanding of the f i v e major func-tions of the community. Sanders emphasizes the importance of the h i s t o r i c development of any community, because of the interplay between history and the t r a d i t i o n s and values of a community. He poses - 144 -three questions which, he suggests, can be asked i n t h i s regard: (1) Who were the f i r s t s e t t l e r s ? (2) What s h i f t s i n t r a d i t i o n s have been caused by newcomers? (3) What community c r i s e s , s o c i a l as well as economic, have influenced the tra d i t i o n s ? He further suggests that an e f f o r t should be made to evaluate the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of these c r i s e s , not only i n terms of changed s o c i a l relationships, but also i n terms of what has happened to the t r a d i t i o n s and value orie n t a t i o n of the peo p l e . 1 1 T The model used i n t h i s study does not lend i t s e l f d i r e c t l y to the h i s t o r i c aspects of the community. Only that history which has direc t bearing on the present performance of the f i v e major functions of the community i s b r i e f l y d i s -cussed. The assumption i s that there i s no community which i s s t a t i c . The "great change" i n the socio-economic aspects of a community i s dynamic, hence emphasis i s put on the present performance of those s o c i a l systems which have endured through t i m e . 1 2 This factor has been taken under consideration, i n discussing some of the s o c i a l systems, such as employment, the family, and the s o c i a l assistance systems i n Musqueam. In order to understand the present functioning of these systems better, t h e i r h i s t o r i c aspects have been reviewed. llSanders, op. c i t . , pp. 75-78. 12warren, op. c i t . , pp. 53-54. As used by Warren, the "great change" i n community l i v i n g includes the increasing orientation of l o c a l community units toward extra-community systems of which they are a part, with a corresponding decline i n community cohesion and autonomy. - 145 -The use of the model brought to the fore, the type of community Musqueam i s . Musqueam, within the Vancouver c i t y l i m i t s , seems unique.in the way i n which i t performs the com-munity's f i v e major functions of l o c a l i t y - r e l e v a n c e . Over three quarters of the number of the s o c i a l systems i n the loca-l i t y are controlled by the extra-community. This does not imply that a l l s o c i a l systems i n a community should be con-t r o l l e d l o c a l l y , i n order to have the f i v e functions performed adequately. On the contrary, as e a r l i e r stated i n the discus-sion of the method used i n t h i s study, no community i s function-a l l y i s o l a t e d from the larger society of which i t i s a part. Furthermore, as technological changes take place i n a once t r a d i t i o n a l community, the auspices providing the f i v e functions change from primary to secondary groups, and the community's l o c a l problems become those of the larger community. Likewise, the problems of the larger society become those of the l o c a l community. This i n t e r a c t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y seen i n the Musqueam study. Figure 4, page 115c, shows that the less control Mus-queam exercices over a s o c i a l system, the more that p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l system i s controlled by the extra-community, and vice versa. Nevertheless, the writer believes that t h i s s i t u a t i o n could be improved, and that the l o c a l community could have more autonomy over more of i t s s o c i a l systems, and that there should be balanced control of the systems by both the i n t r a -community and the extra-community. As already indicated, t h i s study has been a n a l y t i c a l and could be continued by a further analysis of the s o c i a l - 146 -systems i n the community, using other s o c i a l systems concepts, such as the concepts of "output-input" and "equilibrium-dis-equilibrium." Another approach would be to continue the study, applying a diagnostic or therapeutic enquiry as to which of the community's s o c i a l systems, as analysed, could be streng-thened and how t h i s could be done. Since the present study has shown that Musqueam has a weak horizontal pattern, the researcher could look at possible implications for community development by further consideration of Warren's views on community development. Warren defines community development as "a deliberate and sustained attempt to strengthen the h o r i -zontal pattern of a community'.' He conceives t h i s as a process which should be on-going. 1^ Thus, there are several present-ing opportunities for the continuation of t h i s study. 1 3Warren, op. c i t . , p. 325. BIBLIOGRAPHY - 147 -BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Series, Our Native Peoples, Series 1, Vol. 2, Coast Salish, prepared by P r o v i n c i a l Archives, for Department of Education. The Government of the Pro-vince of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a : 1952. Drucker, P h i l i p , Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: The Natural History Press, 1963. Duff, Wilson, The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vol. 1, The Impact of the White Man. Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir No. 5, V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1964. Hawthorn, H. B., Belshaw, C. S., and Jamieson, S. M., The  Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. University of Toronto and University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960. H i l l - T r o u t , C , The Native Races of the B r i t i s h Empire, North America, 1, The Far West, The Home of the Salish and Dene. London: Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd., 1907. Jenness, Diamond, Indians of Canada, (3rd ed.). Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1955. L i p p i t t , Ronald, Watson, Jeanne, and Westley, Bruce H., The  Dynamics of Planned Change. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958. National Association of Social Workers, Defining Community  Organization Practice. New York: N.A.S.W. Inc., 1962. Sanders, Irwin T., The Community: An Introduction to a Soc i a l System. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958. Warren, Roland L., The Community i n America. Chicago: McNally and Company, 1963. UNPUBLISHED STUDIES Lloyd, A. J., "Community Development i n Canada," Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Thompson, Francis W., "The Employment Problems and Economic Status of the B r i t i s h Columbia Indians," Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. - 148 -Toren, C y r i l K., "Indian Housing and Welfare," Master of Social Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. ARTICLES, GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS AND NEWSPAPERS B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Social Welfare, Annual Report  For the Year Ending March 31, 1964. P r o v i n c i a l Legis-l a t i v e Buildings, V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1964. Canada, Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immigration, A Handbook  for Indian Chiefs and Councillors. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1961. Canada, Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian  A f f a i r s Branch F i e l d Manual. Ottawa, 1951. Canada, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Commissioner's Newsletter to A l l Chiefs and Councillors," Vol. 4, No. 2, December 1, 1964. Canada, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, "Minutes of the Musqueam Indian Band Meeting," January 11, 1965. Canada, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, "Report on Application of P r o v i n c i a l Social Allowance Rates and Regulations to Branch Welfare Assistance Programme," B r i t i s h Columbia, December, 1964. Canada, Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immigration, "Memorandum on Homemakers' Clubs, to Regional Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s for B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon," February, 1965. Canada, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, "Report on S o c i a l Welfare Services for the Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia," The Federal-Provincial Welfare Committee, May 22, 1964. H a z l i t t , Tom, "The Troubled People: Trapped i n White Man's Revolution," The Province, January 23, 1965. The Indian News, December, 1964. Lagasse, Jean H., "Community Development i n Manitoba," Human  Organization, Vol. 20, No. 2, December 1, 1964. Manitoba, Department of Agriculture and Immigration, "The People of Indian Ancestry i n Manitoba: A Social and Economic Study," Vol. 1, Directed by Jean H. Lagasse. Winnipeg, Manitoba, February, 1959. - 149 -M u l v i h i l l , James P., Fear of Change Hinders Progress," Indian Record, Vol. 27, No. 10, November, 1964; M u l v i h i l l , James P., "The Future of the Indians i n Canada," Indian Record, February, 1965. Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, "The Musqueam Y.M.C.A. Fun Club Reports," 1962-1964. Y.M.C.A. Alma Branch, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. APPENDIX - 150 -APPENDIX A Representatives of extra-community i n s t i t u t i o n s  or organizations dealt with i n study. Representative MT. J. C. Letcher Mr. J. D. Addison Miss S. A. Arnold Mr. J. C. Lawrence Mr. R. A. Morritt Mr. G. F. Gallagher Mr. W. Sparrow Miss M. Cockron Miss M. Comba Mrs. G. Webster Mrs. H. Dustin Mr. D. Soon Fr. Leahy Mr. R. M. Morley Miss M. Clohosey Miss D. Trenholm Sist e r Maureen Theresa Mr. M. S. Wark Mr. H. G. McAllister Mr. D. H. Goard I n s t i t u t i o n or Organization Fraser Agency, Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Regional O f f i c e , Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Regional O f f i c e , Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Indian Education D i s t r i c t O f f i c e . Indian Education D i s t r i c t O f f i c e . Fraser Agency, Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Musqueam Band Council. Metropolitan Public Health Services. Indian and Northern Health Services. Vancouver Friendship Centre. Y.W.C.A. Indian Youth Club. Y.M.C.A. Fun Club. Musqueam Roman Catholic Church. Catholic Children's Aid Society. Catholic Children's Aid Society. Vancouver Children's Aid Society. Immaculate Conception Elementary School. Southlands Elementary School. Point Grey Secondary School. Vancouver School Board - Adult Education. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104700/manifest

Comment

Related Items