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Community development in Canada Lloyd, Antony John 1965

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COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN CANADA By ANTONY JOHN LLOYD Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work. School of Social Work 1965 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t fr e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis for s c h olarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. ' I s Date - iv -ABSTRACT During the l a s t twenty years, community develop-ment has become a recognized way of dealing with problems in underdeveloped countries, but i t s application i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries i s comparatively recent. In Canada, i t has been chosen as one of the ways i n which disadvantaged people can improve the i r l i v i n g standards, develop th e i r communities and u t i l i z e t h e i r resources. This study has examined some important character-i s t i c s of community development pertinent to the projects and programs which have been i n i t i a t e d to combat the s o c i a l l y and economically deprived Indian, Eskimo and Negro communities. To give a conspectus of a l l developmental a c t i v i t i e s i n Canada, the study has examined the extent of federal and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community development. It has considered, also, programs of adult education and leadership t r a i n i n g . Although the study has been i n the nature of a survey, i t has concluded that the commitment to community development i n Canada has been too li m i t e d . The programs presently operating have been found to be too few i n number, irr e g u l a r i n quality and uneven i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , and they have not been found to serve a l l deprived people throughout the nation. Until higher p r i o r i t i e s and more funds have been apportioned to community development, i t i s believed that community development w i l l remain lim i t e d . - v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To the many who have contributed to the study and whose names are l i s t e d in the Appendix, the author i s indebted. Without th e i r help, l i t t l e could have been written. Above a l l , however, thanks are due to Professor William N i c h o l l s of the School of Social Work. His w i l -l i n g assistance, useful suggestions and i n s i g h t f u l critisms have added immeasurably to the study. The author i s simi-l a r l y g r a t e f u l to Inge Lloyd whose observations, encourage-ment and typing of the draft and f i n a l copies have brought the study to completion. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. Introduction Purpose of the study. Its r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Musqueam study. Rationale. Scope. Limitation. Method. Chapter I I . Community Development: Some  Considerations Elements for d e f i n i t i o n . S p e c i a l i s t and generalist workers. Problems to which community development applies. Social, economic and technological change. Individual need and national purpose. United Nations proposal for s o c i a l and economic development.,Administrative c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Page Chapter I I I . Indians, Metis, Eskimos and Negroes: Disadvantaged Canadians The peoples of Canada. The "Indian Question". Three aspects: c u l t u r a l - e t h i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , motivational. The "Eskimo problem". The "Negro problem" . 23 Chapter IV. Federal P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  Community Development Department of Forestry, ARDA program. The f i r s t three years. The next f i v e years. Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration: Indian A f f a i r s Branch. New proposal. Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Short and long term development. Co-operatives. Settlements. Trends i n the North. Social workers' r o l e i n development. Jenness' proposal for Northern problems 35 Chapter V. Community development programs at the P r o v i n c i a l Level Manitoba. Community Development Services: Report. The MacGregor Project. The C h u r c h i l l Project. Dallyn's evaluation. Quebec. BAEQ: Report. Relevant research. Alberta. Community Development Branch: Report. University and c i t i z e n s h i p branches connection with community development. Nova Scotia. D i v i s i o n of Social Development: Report. Special Project i n Hants County - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Page Chapter VI. Provinces without Established  Community Development Programs B r i t i s h Columbia. Indian Leadership Education Program: Report. Port Simpson Project. Hawthorn's study. Maritime Provinces. Two Community develop-ment programs. Leadership t r a i n i n g . Coady Inter-national I n s t i t u t e . Adult education. Other Projects. Newfoundland. University community development program. Ontario. Chiefs' and Cou n c i l l o r s ' courses. Folk Schools. Recreation projects. Quetico Centre. Indian A f f a i r s Projects. Indian-Eskimo Association program. Research studies. Saskatchewan. Centre for Community Studies' Report and the Indian and Metis Programmes Branch. Research at the Centre. Leadership projects. Student summer project 84 Chapter VII. Conclusion Research pertinent to community development. A plan for economic development. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of programs. Adult education and leadership t r a i n i n g : observations. Causes for f a i l u r e i n leadership t r a i n i n g . Poverty: need for more extensive programs. Need for evaluation and s t a t i s t i c s . Computer reporting i n Mexico: implications for world-wide reporting 120 Bibliography 140 Appendix A. Names and Addresses 149 CHART IN TEXT F i g . 1. Indian population by province. Comparison of 1954 and 1963 t o t a l s 29a CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION For many reasons, p o l i t i c a l and economic, s o c i a l and humanitarian, i t has been desirable that underprivileged people throughout the world become involved with improving the i r l i v i n g standards, developing their communities and u t i l i z i n g their resources. Community development with respect to underdeveloped countries i s no new matter, but i t has been a recent innovation i n Canada. In Canada, l i m i t e d programs and projects involving community development have been operating for several years i n disadvantaged regions i n which l i v e , for the most part, Indians, Metis and Eskimos. The gradual r e a l i z a t i o n that poverty and i t s associated e v i l s have created formidable s o c i a l problems, has resulted i n the recent expansion of community development programs for these people. The discovery that the poverty and squalid condi-tions, with which Indians, Metis and Eskimos have contended for years, apply equally to an increasing number of people across the country, has come as a shock to many Canadians. This awareness has generated a commitment to resolve newly emerging problems r e s u l t i n g from changing times and condi-tions. Community development has been chosen as one of the ways i n which t h i s can be done. - 2 -Purpose The purpose of t h i s study has been to give a con-spectus of a c t i v i t i e s , past, i n progress and planned, which can be described as developing communities i n Canada. It examines the extent of the commitment of federal and pro-v i n c i a l governments to community development and surveys the types of programs and projects i n each province. This study has been written i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with another, which has analyzed one of B r i t i s h Columbia's semi-r u r a l Indian Reserves at Musqueam.'1' It had been hoped that the study of the community development programs would pro-vide some guidelines for suggesting ways i n which a community development program might possibly benefit Musqueam or Reserves of a similar type. Conversely, i t was hoped that the way of examining Musqueam by means of systems analyses might o f f e r a useful way of observing other communities about which detailed information may be required. However, i t has not been within the scope of these two studies to examine these implications i n d e t a i l . Rationale As far as i t i s possible to ascertain, no one yet has undertaken a survey of community development i n Canada, and there are few people who are aware of the extent of !M. J. T. Kargbo, "Musqueam Indian Reserve: A case Study for Community Development Purposes", Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. - 3 -community development a c t i v i t i e s throughout the country. Those who are, often have lacked the f i n e r d e t a i l s of the programs and the i r l a t e s t developments. Several people have indicated an interest i n the findings which, they f e l t , might make a contribution to the planning of more coherent p o l i c i e s . Scope. Although there have been areas of agreement with respect to the usefulness and the p r i n c i p l e s of community development, there does not appear to have been consensus about i t s meaning. While many have acknowledged that the aim of community development has been to involve people i n the changing economic and s o c i a l l i f e of the nation, many programs have neglected the s o c i a l aspects. Many a c t i v i t i e s have focused on sp e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s , such as education, recreation, health, leadership t r a i n i n g , etc., rather than on a balanced approach to a variety of community needs. Nevertheless, t h i s study has included a l l programs which could be considered as developmental. Limitation Information has been drawn mainly from l e t t e r s , books, reports and pamphlets obtained from many sources across the country. There has been no way of te s t i n g the v a l i d i t y of these sources, and what has been stated on the written page has been accepted at i t s face value, although - 4 -i t i s u n l i k e l y that a l l projects, which have claimed success, have r e a l l y enjoyed i t . Some p r o v i n c i a l and federal authorities have pro-vided more information than others, and almost no informa-t i o n was received from the provinces of Quebec and Saskatche-wan. It would appear that the only way of gaining complete knowledge of programs would be to supplement the reports by means of discussions with those intimately concerned with policy-making for community development and those i n the f i e l d . No attempt was made to contact the r e l i g i o u s organ-iza t i o n s , conducting various projects connected with com-munity development throughout Canada. While t h i s has been doubtless a serious omission, time did not permit extending the enquiry, Moreover, a further in c l u s i o n of a variety of d i f f e r i n g types of undertaking would have made t h i s study too unwieldy. Although i t had been planned to include a section on t r a i n i n g for community development, the attempt to gather information on t h i s complex subject was soon abandoned. Information on t h i s subject has been d i f f i c u l t to c o l l e c t . Also, i t was discovered that the Canadian Association for Adult Education and the I n s t i t u t Canadien d'Education des Adultes were conducting an enquiry. Their report implies the complexity of the subject.* 2 2ARDA, CAAE, ICEA. National Consultation on Train-- 5 -No s t a t i s t i c a l way of evaluating the effectiveness of community development i n Canada has been discovered. U n t i l i t i s , i t i s considered that t h i s w i l l impose the severest l i m i t a t i o n s on any future studies on t h i s subject. Method A t o t a l of seventy-eight l e t t e r s were sent at random to o f f i c i a l s i n a variety of organizations concerned with community development a c t i v i t i e s . The organizations were placed i n the following categories: Federal Government Departments Indian A f f a i r s Branches of the Department of C i t i z e n -ship and Immigration Citi z e n s h i p Branches of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration P r o v i n c i a l Government Departments Departments of Education University Departments, including Extension Departments Educational Institutes Miscellaneous Replies were received from a l l but eighteen persons contacted. Of the eight l e t t e r s sent to o f f i c i a l s and uni-v e r s i t y persons i n Quebec, only three r e p l i e s have been received. A l i s t of the names and addresses of those who have sent written r e p l i e s i s included i n Appendix A. Published material, as well as other information, ing for Community Development, The Guild Inn, Toronto, January 31, February 2, 1965. - 6 -was requested of those approached by l e t t e r . The re s u l t has been the accumulation of an astonishing number and variety of booklets, pamphlets, maps and other material, explaining the multitude of programs and projects i n Canada. The major part of the study i s based on the information contained therein. In the introductory and more general parts of the study, some of the voluminous material concerning community development throughout the world has been u t i l i z e d . Public-ations of the United Nations have been r e l i e d on extensively. CHAPTER- II COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: SOME CONSIDERATIONS In t h i s chapter there i s a general discussion of some important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of community development. Following the s t i p u l a t i o n of four basic elements which con-s t i t u t e community development i n the s t r i c t sense, there i s an examination of the roles of the s p e c i a l i s t and gene-r a l i s t worker. Some space has been accorded the reasons for the growing interest i n development and to the problems of i t s ap p l i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , there are c l a s s i f i e d three types of programs according to t h e i r administrative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There have been countless attempts to define com-munity development, but they have a l l tended to r e s t r i c t rather than include those schemes which are peripheral to i t s main stream. As Lagasse points out, " i f people i n s i s t on c a l l i n g a project or program 'community development' the d e f i n i t i o n of that term must be comprehensive enough to include these other a c t i v i t i e s as well." 3- S t r i c t l y speaking, of course, t h i s i s u n s c i e n t i f i c , and one might r e s t r i c t the l j . H. Lagasse, Address to Workshop on Community Development, Coady International Institute, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, 1964, p. 3. - 8 -d e f i n i t i o n by s t i p u l a t i n g four basic elements about which there i s some consensus. These are (1) a planned program for the needs of the t o t a l community, (2) s e l f - h e l p as a basis for the program, (3) technical assistance from govern-ment and other organizations, (4) integration of s p e c i a l i s t services. On the one hand then, there i s a variety of com-munity development which may not possess a l l four ingre-dients. This w i l l be c a l l e d the s p e c i a l i s t type. On the other hand, there i s the general variety which does include them and involves continuing coordinated and purposive a c t i v i t y f o r changing a community. What these two types have i n common and what distinguishes them from other deve-lopmental approaches i s that they develop people at the same time as they develop communities. A s p e c i a l i s t or professional i n community develop-ment has h i s main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n one f i e l d of interest, such as education, health, agriculture, welfare, r e l i g i o n or recreation. His approach has often been that of the ex-te r n a l agent or expert who diagnoses a s i t u a t i o n , prescribes for i t s solution, persuades people to undertake h i s plan, and ultimately h i s success i s measured and determined by the degree to which the project i s accepted i n the p a r t i -cular area which has been designated. Another s p e c i a l i s t 2 U n i t e d Nations, Bureau of Social A f f a i r s , S o c i a l  Progress Through Community Development. November, 1955. 3M. G. Ross, Community Organization: Theory and  P r i n c i p l e s , Harper and Brothers, New York, 1955, p. 8. - 9 -approach i s an extension of t h i s , where a team of experts makes decisions which the community i s then expected to en-dorse . The general1st has h i s main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for over-a l l development, and the means by which he achieves t h i s i s by encouraging the community to u t i l i z e its inner resources, to i d e n t i f y i t s own needs and, wherever possible, to e f f e c t the change themselves. Lagasse writes, " i t seems to me that community development i n i t s s t r i c t e s t sense i s the general-i s t or v i l l a g e l e v e l worker as he i s found i n more than t h i r t y countries presently experimenting with community deve-lopment or having already established programs of the i r own."' In more advanced countries, such as Canada and the United States, which employ community development techniques amongst cer t a i n of t h e i r underprivileged peoples, there i s a tend-ency to replace the v i l l a g e l e v e l worker by the s p e c i a l i s t or professional person. This means that the s p e c i a l i s t must learn to r e l a t e i n a much more direct way with the "grass roots" of a community than i s generally the case. The idea of community development has evuVved i n the la s t two decades i n an e f f o r t to f i n d a new r e l a t i o n s h i p with underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s . " I t i s an attempt to get away from the implications of colonialism, imperialism, paterna-l i s t i c administration and assimilation through disi n t e g r a t i o n .... One of i t s forerunners was i t s p a r t i a l application to ^Lagasse, op. c i t . , p. 1 8 . - 10 -the problem of the administration of Indian a f f a i r s i n the United States after the Indian Reorganisation Act of 1934.'*5 Although the idea i s not new, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n on a large scale to tackle national problems which have proven insoluble by other means, i s new. Some of these problems found t y p i c a l l y i n underdeveloped areas are as follws. F i r s t of a l l , the basic human needs for food, improved health, housing, clothing,are f a r greater than the resources a v a i l -able. The gaps between what "underdeveloped" peoples are coming to expect and what t h e i r actual standard of l i v i n g i s , i s steadily widening. Therefore, the demands on t h e i r governments for more and for better services are constantly increasing. Secondly, the largest proportion of a developing country's population l i v e s i n r u r a l areas, but most of the services are available only i n the urban centres. Thirdly, languages, culture and t r a d i t i o n s d i f f e r throughout a deve-loping country, and these, coupled with i l l i t e r a c y and poor transportation and communication systems create c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n and complicate administration. The e x i s t i n g s o c i a l organization, economic structures and land tenure system are often additional obstacles to change and require s p e c i a l measures, imagination and energy to overcome these elements. Fourth, a shortage of public revenue and trained personnel severely handicap public administration. Outside the c i t i e s , 5H. B. Hawthorn, C. S. Belshaw, S. M. Jamieson, The  Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1960. - 11 -there i s usually a lack of leadership, s k i l l s or funds to i n i t i a t e the new services required for s o c i a l and economic improvement. Community development, i n short, i s expected to bring a measure of material gain to compensate for o l d values l o s t due to the impact of economic, s o c i a l and technological changes. Under the heading of s o c i a l change can be placed problems caused by urbanization and suburbanization and the f a i l u r e of sections of the population to adjust to new s i t u -ations. Inadequate numbers of houses, i n s t i t u t i o n s for edu-cation and s o c i a l services which at the present time have to s t r a i n hard to meet the natural increase i n b i r t h r a t e , w i l l need replanning to meet the expanding world population. This population i s growing by six t y m i l l i o n s each year, an increase of three to four percent per annum i n some countries, and i s complicated by declining infant mortality and increas-ing longevity. Kinship t i e s and t r i b a l patterns are being disrupted by evacuation to c i t i e s and by mobility i n search of work. Work patterns are disturbed by l e i s u r e , enforced and sought. Technological change, made possible by the discoveries of s c i e n t i f i c research, has produced the benefits and curses of automation. The e f f e c t s of medicine, nuclear energy, communication and transport have t h e i r e f f e c t on almost every l i v i n g person. Discoveries are cumulative - one inven-t i o n makes possible the development of a host of new ones. - 12 -Economic change,due to the new inventions making i n d u s t r i a l development possible ;has brought unprecedented wealth to the world i n recent years. Despite the carnage and utter wast of c r i p p l i n g wars, the "West" has every sign of becoming r i c h e r . In the underdeveloped countries, on the other hand, although there may be an increase i n the gross national product and an annual r i s e i n the r e a l national income of as much as ten percent, the country's prosperity may be n u l l i f i e d by abnormal population growth or corrupt and i n e f f i c i e n t government, leading to a person or family being poorer than they were before. Since these changes have f a i l e d to bring benefit to r u r a l areas and instead have thrown out of balance the t r a -d i t i o n a l modes of existence, i t i s clear that the peoples* needs should be considered. Indeed, the assumptions, out of which community development has evolved, are almost e n t i r e l y humanist. Some of these basic b e l i e f s are that people desire to better themselves but remain f r u s t r a t e d whenever t h e i r personal and communal needs seem too great for the resources at hand. People are thought to suffer whenever they are unable to do anything about t h e i r needs. Much has been written about these assumptions which underlie the essenti-a l l y democratic p r i n c i p l e i n any philosophy of community development.^ 6See, for example, J. Ogden, "A Philosophy of Com-munity Development", Adult Leadership, A p r i l 1958, p. 283; and United Nations, Bureau of Social A f f a i r s , op. c i t y , pp. 5-13. - 13 -While i t i s an error, to think that community deve-lopment cannot be used except to esta b l i s h a basis for national, s o c i a l and economic growth, comparatively l i t t l e has been written about i t as a means to create conditions favourable to i n s t i t u t i n g necessary nationwide changes„ " I t i s now widely acknowledged that people i n t h e i r communities can f a c i l i t a t e or f r u s t r a t e national purposes at many s t r a — 7 t e g i c points." Therefore, i f community development i s to be a dynamic instrument for national purpose, there should be a creative synthesis of l o c a l l y expressed needs and national goals "so that the eff e c t of l o c a l involvement mul-t i p l i e s the opportunity for balanced s o c i a l and economic development." It i s u n r e a l i s t i c and unimaginative, on the one hand, to deal only with people's f e l t needs, and on the other, f u t i l e to impose a preconceived plan on a community. A balance of the two i s the best compromise. How to obtain t h i s balance i s d i f f i c u l t to say. In what unit community development i s most e f f e c t i v e ±s a problem which evades analysis. In a world of rapid change, the t r a -d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e may have to be replaced by groups of v i l -lages, even towns, i n order that people w i l l f i n d a new sense of community. This sense of community may require a compromise that must place emphasis on the common interest 7 U n i t e d Nations, Economic and Soc i a l Council, Ad Hoc Report of Community Development Experts, 1963, p. 5. 8 l b i d . , p. 8. - 14 -rather than i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t . "The t r a d i t i o n a l customs which often f r u s t r a t e development are themselves the r e s u l t of centuries of decision-making by people i n th e i r communi-t i e s . They are now expected to review and revise t r a d i t i o n a l solutions i n the l i g h t of modern knowledge and national „q requirements." Goodenough sees changing peoples' customary practices as one of the two major tasks of community development.^ The other has i t s emphasis i n changing the environment. En-vironmental change need not involve community p a r t i c i p a t i o n but when people are involved, i t has been found that they are more l i k e l y to take advantage of the changes. Environ-mental change i s followed by some of change i n customary practice and often the community must sometimes develop new ways of doing things to take advantage of changed conditions. Legal and p o l i t i c a l changes, for example, may be needed to correspond with economic changes. Sometimes community development i s aimed at changing some aspects of l o c a l customs to free the community for growth and development. If the community refuses to cooperate then there i s l i t t l e that the change agent can do to force them to change. In environmental change the need for co-operation i s less obvious, but even i n t h i s , change of custom i s l i k e l y to be a long-range goal. "Sooner or l a t e r , 9 I b i d ; , p. 9. 10w. H. Goodenough, Co-operation i n Change, Russell Sage, New York, 1963. - 15 -then, change i n the c l i e n t community's customs i s an essen-t i a l feature of nearly every development s i t u a t i o n . The problem of co-operation i n purposive change i s largely a problem of co-operation i n customary change."^ For the change agent there i s often a c o n f l i c t bet-ween the policy of the agency he represents and the desires and interests of the community whom he serves. In such cases, the interests of the community, i n theory, should take precedence. P r a c t i c a l l y , however, the c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l -ved i n favour of the party holding power. If, for example, the s p e c i a l i s t possesses the ultimate authority, he w i l l probably make a compromise, i f he i s experienced. Regardless of how the c o n f l i c t of wants i s resolved, i t i s e s s e n t i a l for development agents to know what the c l i e n t community's wants actually are and to take them f u l l y into account ... neglecting to take account T.. i s a major cause of f a i l u r e i n developmental pro-grams. 12 Success, then, requires co-operation between the people and t h e i r government and e n t a i l s change i n the envi-ronment and change i n customary ways of doing things. In most countries where community development has become recog-nized, the government has had to i n i t i a t e the change. To cope with the urgent tasks of bettering condi-tions, the United Nations Technical Assistance Programme has formulated an administrative proposal which i s designed 1 q to accelerate s o c i a l and economic development. This c a l l s 1 1 I b i d i , p._18. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 19. •^United Nations, Technical Assistance Programme, - 16 -for the creation of comprehensive plans for the a l l o c a t i o n of resources on a functional and geographic basis, and the necessary l e g i s l a t i v e framework and funds for the program. Leadership, i n s p i r a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and technical standards, together with the t r a i n i n g of personnel and creation of administrative machinery i s also an e s s e n t i a l part of the program. Research and supervision of decentralized units of services which w i l l help introduce the new ideas and p r a c t i -ces to the people i n r u r a l areas are seen as supremely important. The purpose of decentralization i s to "decongest" the c a p i t a l and to prevent "swamping" of the l e g i s l a t u r e with the need to make minor decisions. Central location of materials and administrative resources delays such things as payments and permissions besides causing uneconomic d i s t r i -bution of supplies, retarded delivery and excessive adher-ence to regulations. Goods manufactured at one area for l o c a l use may be t o t a l l y unusable at another part of the same country. Over the years an extensive body of theory about the public administration aspects of community development programs has a c c r u e d . ^ For the purposes of comparison and Decentralization for National and Local Development, New York, 1962, pp. 5-6. l^united Nations, Technical Assistance Programme, Public Administration Aspects of Community Development  Programmes, New York, 1959, pp. 5-9. - 17 -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n three types of programs can be i d e n t i f i e d : The f i r s t i s the integrative variety, the second,the adapt-ive and the t h i r d , the project. The integrative program i s usually country-wide i n scope. It comprises not only the c a t a l y t i c function at the community l e v e l , but also the coordination of technical services at a l l l e v e l s of government. The nationwide exten-sion of these serevices must be coherent at the l e v e l at which they reach the people i f the people are to understand and a c t i v e l y u t i l i z e them. In some cases new administrative machinery must be created within the t r a d i t i o n a l services i n order to coordinate technical services at a point closer to the people. Administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the integrative program i s best placed i n a ministry that i s neutral, does not have a vested interest i n a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of a pro-gram and, therefore, can interest i t s e l f i n an o v e r a l l approach. "A neutral ministry i s usually better able to ob-t a i n the co-operation of the several technical services than a functional ministry."15 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , the integrative program contains a cabinet l e v e l committee i n which the community develop-ment organizer acts as a secretary and consultant. At the state or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , a development committee i s com-pri s e d of representatives of l o c a l l e g i s l a t i v e and some-times public and private welfare bodies. If the administra-IS l b i d . , p. 6. - 18 -t i v e d i s t r i c t s for f i e l d .^coordination are too large or do not exist, t h i s body must create new developmental areas, such as the "development blocks" found i n India or the "areas of combined u n i t s " found i n the Egyptian region of the United Arab Republic. At the v i l l a g e l e v e l , workers must be trained both to act as a catalyst to i n i t i a t e s e l f - h e l p and as a l i n k between the v i l l a g e r s and the government technical ser-vices. They must also have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c a l l i n g to attention grants-in-aid and other inducements designed to spur on s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s towards ce n t r a l l y established deve-lopment goals. Adaptive programs are so c a l l e d because they can be adapted and attached to almost any department or p r e v a i l i n g branch of government. Although they are t y p i c a l l y nationwide i n scope, they are l i m i t e d to the c a t a l y t i c function of s t i -mulating s e l f - h e l p and to l i a i s o n with the technical services available f o r the support of such community e f f o r t s . There i s a wide d i v e r s i t y i n the structure of t h i s type as the operating r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are usually vested i n the functional m i n i s t r i e s , such as agriculture, forestry, s o c i a l welfare, education or, sometimes, i n a separate mini-stry for community development. The f i e l d organization i s dependent on the administrative d i s t r i c t where the f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t departments may be coordinated. If such d i s t r i c t s do not exist, they are arranged on an informal basis. In Puerto Rico, for example, the group organizers of the community education d i v i s i o n , i n the department of edu-cation, do not have formal t i e s with representatives of the technical departments. Where administrative d i s t r i c t s e x i s t , community development personnel are integrated into p r e v a i l -ing f i e l d organizations. However, as there are vast d i f f e r -ences i n forms of organization i n the t e r r i t o r i e s using the adaptive type and, because of the common policy of adapting the e x i s t i n g administrative framework to the purposes and methods of community development, i t i s not advisable to ab-stract too many t y p i c a l features. To summarize the preceding points, one might say that the adaptive category serves only i n c i d e n t a l l y "as a channel of planned development and i n v o l -ves l i t t l e change on the organization of government."16 While most of the community development programs i n A f r i c a and the Caribbean area are of the adaptive type, the project type programs predominate i n La t i n America. The very name implies the li m i t e d geographic area which projects en-compass. It implies too that projects p r e v a i l where a govern-ment i s not f u l l y committed to the community development approach or has not the resources to undertake a more exten-sive design. Often, however, projects are used to demonstrate the possible d i r e c t i o n for a countrywide program. This has occurred frequently i n developed countries, and underdeve-loped ones such as Iran and Afghanistan. From the administrative point of view, projects can 1 6 l b i d . , p. 9. - 20 -be inter-ministry i n character with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the hands of a functional ministry, or i t can be under an autonomous agency under the general d i r e c t i o n of a govern-ment authority. A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s the multifunctional character with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for both the policy and the administration vested i n a single department. The structures of project-type programs are usually such that they cannot be extended to a nationwide basis without i n t e r f e r i n g with the operations of other government agencies. However, pro-jects can establish services of a tentative or exploratory nature i n remote areas for which regular m i n i s t r i e s could l a t e r assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Programs i n a l l categories tend to be unstable i n the sense that they are dynamic i n movement. " I t i s possible to v i s u a l i z e a l o g i c a l progression from the project to the integrative to the adaptive type - or from the adaptive to the integrative and then back again to the adaptive type -after which a stage might be reached i n which s p e c i a l govern-ment machinery to stimulate community development became unnecessary."* 7 Many countries have elements of a l l programs. Mr. Brownstone, Deputy Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s i n Saskatche-wan, when writing about the pattern of h i s government and i t s r e l a t i o n to the federal administration, has observed: 1 7 I b i d . , p. 8. It would appear, therefore, that despite s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n general economic, s o c i a l and technologi-c a l environment, we do not encounter many of the s i t u -ations which confront the countries you are concerned with. Thus, our integrated administrative system applies where development and technical standards require pro-v i n c i a l control over s t a f f . Our partnership system applies where economic maturity i s s u f f i c i e n t l y advan-ced and l o c a l competence i n government has developed." 1** Integrative types of program require greater plan-ning but the adaptive type cannot be regarded as a device to get cheaply the same r e s u l t s . It may be necessary, i n view of p o l i t i c a l considerations, to start with a project program, and then gradually introduce an adaptive and f i n a l l y an i n t e -grative program. Whatever type i s used, coordination and co-operation of services at a l l le v e l s of administration i s e s s e n t i a l . F a i l u r e to develop and maintain communications between services has led to some curious administrative muddles t y p i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following examples. In one case, a dam was b u i l t by the ministry of works to provide i r r i g a t i o n where the ministry of agriculture had shown in a s o i l survey that the land would be useless, i f watered. In another case, a ministry of agriculture recommendation pro-moted use of a seed type "A", while the banks would only permit farmers credit for seed type "B". The plan of one ministry to b u i l d a housing estate on a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e was well advanced, when someone discovered that another ministry's plans to turn the same area into a reservoir were equally ^ U n i t e d Nations, Technical Assistance Programme, Decentralization, p. 13. - 22 -well advanced. A lack of coordination between health and education authorities resulted on a vaccination team a r r i v -ing at a school at the same time as the term examinations 19 were scheduled. No attempt has been made i n t h i s section to write about the basic elements and process involved when a commun-i t y development generalist or s p e c i a l i s t undertakes to s t i -mulate community involvement and change. These have been well covered i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i n the form of i n s t r u c t i o n book-l e t s for v i l l a g e workers, guide l i n e s for research and com-munity analysis and study k i t s for guiding group discussion, seminars and workshops. 2^ Nor has there been an exhaustive examination of the p r i n c i p l e s and assumptions upon which community development i s based. What the preceding pages have done i s to i s o l a t e some th e o r e t i c a l considerations which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the examination of Canada's present commitment to the community development approach. Before continuing to the content of the s p e c i f i c projects and programs, some space has been devoted to "set-t i n g the scene" for Canada to show i n what context community development has been required to operate. 1 9 l b i d . , p. 7-8. 20See, for example, "Training Aids and Handbooks", l i s t e d i n the General References of the Bibliography. CHAPTER III INDIANS, METIS, ESKIMOS AND NEGROES:  DISADVANTAGED CANADIANS. Canada i s a country peopled by immigrants. Even the oldest inhabitants - the Eskimos and Indians - are not, s t r i c t l y speaking, native to Canada. Leaving them aside, for a moment, three categories of ethnic groups have evolved i n Canada. 1 The f i r s t i s comprised of the two large basic groups, the English and the French (including the Acadian French) who have, by and large, joined hands i n a national partnership. The second group i s made up of the homogeneous l o c a l i z e d ethnic communities l i v i n g i n r u r a l areas, and the t h i r d i s a voluntary grouping of common ancestry i n the larger c i t i e s and towns of the Dominion. The few hundred Metis settlements on the p r a i r i e s , the is o l a t e d Eskimo settlements and the thousand or so Indian communities l i v i n g on Reserves have developed i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t way. Community development programs and projects have been established to cope with serious socio-economic problems amongst disadvantaged people. In Canada, these have been associated with long standing problems of the Indian, Metis and Eskimo people. These problems have been examined i n t h i s 1A. Renaud, Indian and Metis and Possible Development  as Ethnic Groups, Centre for Community Studies, Saskatoon, 19.61, p. 1. - 24 -chapter, together with the Negro problem, which, having be-come apparent recently i n Canada, has been dealt with b r i e f l y at the end. Contrary to the usual ethnic l o c a l community, Indians and Metis settlements are responsible for very l i t t l e l o c a l l y except the b i r t h rate. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l administration and services are i n the hands of outsiders, and consequently, they are at the end of a long chain of command over which they have no con-t r o l . These extra-community systems, comprised of the Depart-ment of Indian A f f a i r s for the Indians, the Department of Northern A f f a i r s for the Eskimos, and p r o v i n c i a l authorities for the Metis, have not provided an atmosphere conducive to the engendering of a community s p i r i t . No amount of propa-ganda and specious arguments to the contrary can disguise that the "native" on leaving h i s settlement or Reserve i s il l - p r e p a r e d to move into the broader Canadian community. Father Renaud, writing about the Indian, states: If we want to be frank with ourselves, we must confess that never have we t r u l y and wholeheartedly acknowledged the r i g h t of Indian communities to readjust themselves as communities and to assume t h e i r normal r o l e as breeders of Canadians. For fear of being accused of segregation, we have unconsciously or not denied the Indian the r i g h t to persevere as an ethnic group, whether on the reserve or elsewhere. As a nation, and through the intermediary of our national government, we have taken i t upon ourselves to rethread the natural products of Indian communities and groups i n such a way as to bring about complete assimilation into the general stream of our society.3 2Ibid., p. 7 . Ibid., p. 9. - 25 -It i s convenient when discussing the "Indian quest-4 ion" to understand three major facets of i t . The f i r s t , to which reference has just been made, i s the c u l t u r a l - e t h i c a l problem. Simply stated, t h i s poses the question: Should Indians be permitted or encouraged to l i v e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i v e s or break with the past i n order to become contemporary Canadians? U n t i l about 1930, government administration had been characterized by preserving the status quo. Ostensibly, the reserve system originated as a guarantee of protection against exploitation, but by segregating the native i n such places "perhaps the hope of the early s e t t l e r s , that the Indian population of t h i s country would eventually die out was not completely wrong ..." Jenness c a l l s the reserve system "apartheid" and observes that i t s outcasts have l i t t l e opportunity to d i v e r s i f y their a c t i v i t i e s and improve th e i r status. "The Federal policy i n general has been not to take any r e a l l y decisive action, either to try to protect reserves from white influence or to speed the assimilation of Indians into the dominant Canadian way of l i f e . " This v a c i l l a t i o n has led to confusion, both for Indians, and for white men towards them. Some Indians desire no part of the ^C. W. Hobart, "Non-Whites i n Canada, Indians, E s k i -mos, Negroes," Social Problems, Ed. R. Laskin, McGraw H i l l , Toronto, 1964, p. 87. ^Indian Advisory Committee Proceedings, O f f i c i a l Court Report, New Westminster, 1964, p. 4. 6Hobart, op. c i t . , p. 87. - 26 -white man's society. Secure i n t h e i r reserves, surrounded by the vestiges of their erstwhile culture, there are many who wish to follow the ancestral modes of behaviour and sub-sistance. Renaud believes that the inherent v i t a l i t y and adaptability of the Indians "have taken into account a l l our attempts at assimilation and integration and devised appro-priate defence mechanisms or 'cul t u r a l a n t i b i o t i c s ' . " 7 Never-theless, Zentner finds that i n Southern Alberta, at least, the rate of Indian assimilation i s quickening rapidly and that the Indian youth "believes also that the time has come for him to cease being Indian i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense and simply be a c i t i z e n and a person." 8 Indicating the d i r e c t i o n and change i n the Indian culture of B r i t i s h Columbia, for example, Hawthorn has writ-ten: Our research work takes as axiomatic that the accultur-ative change of the Indian i s i r r e v e r s i b l e and i s going to continue, no matter what i s done or desired by any-one. If present trends are maintained, change w i l l go on to a f i n a l point of nearly complete c u l t u r a l assimi-l a t i o n and r a c i a l amalgamation.® This change has become increasingly r a p i d i n the la s t few years, not only i n B r i t i s h Columbia but i n a l l of Canada. Even at the most rapid rate of change, however, 7Renaud, op. c i t . , p. 9. ^H. Zentner, "Cul t u r a l Assimilation between Indians and non-Indians i n Sothern Alberta", Social Problems, Ed. R. Laskin, McGraw H i l l , Toronto, 1964, p. 116. ^Hawthorn, op. c i t . , p. 12. - 27 -acculturation and assimilation into the wide community w i l l not happen for decades, for the majority of the native peoples who l i v e i n remote areas. Doctor Monture prefers the term "integration" for i t means s t i l l r e t a i n i n g pride of your own r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , pride i n your t r a d i t i o n and the achievements of your race, but blending, i f you l i k e , with the other people. Whereas assimilation, i s where the Indians as a r a c i a l or ethnic group would be completely merged and lo s t i n the Canadian economy or c i t i z e n r y . ^ 0 On the other hand, absorption into the e x i s t i n g Canadian cultures has been happening for years, and many Indians are indistinguishable i n those cultures from the general population. Evidence would suggest that once accul-turation takes place, the Indian i s unlike l y to return to the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e . What makes the t o t a l picture confused during t h i s transitionary period i s that some sect-ions of the native population r e s i s t change while others welcome i t . This change proceeds at highly variable rates, d i f f e r i n g from region to region. This i s one reason why the planning of comprehensive programs and the administrat-ion of Indian a f f a i r s i s fraught with d i f f i c u l t i e s . A gradual change i n government policy has been occurring since the end of the Second World War and has been punctuated by several amendments to the Indian Act. These amendments have resulted i n a policy, the planning of which, for the f i r s t time on any scale,the Indians have Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, The Way of the  Indian, Toronto, 1963, p. 58. - 28 -shared. They have been p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n their own destiny by attending meetings, presenting b r i e f s and ex-pounding th e i r views. While l e g i s l a t i v e changes and a l t e r a t i o n s i n branch programs have been extensive, the change i n government policy i n recent years can be described quite simply: to extend to Indians a l l the services available to other c i t i z e n s while recognizing such t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s as are their* under the t r e a t i e s . 1 1 Changes which have occurred have been due largely to economic, s o c i a l and technological pressures, rather than humanitarian considerations - pressures which have not only pr e c i p i t a t e d underdeveloped nations into the rigours of twentieth century . l i f e , but which also have exposed the native peoples of Canada to p a r a l l e l conditions. Common to a l l countries i s an increase i n population and the second facet of the "Indian problem" concerns i t s e l f with t h i s b i o l o g i c a l aspect. Concern for Indians has mounted because they are increasing i n such numbers that they cannot be ignored. Early i n the century, disease and the collapse of t r a d i t i o n a l society had d r a s t i c a l l y depleted the population, but slowly at f i r s t , then at a gradually accelerating rate, the annual increase has reached about 3.3 percent, giving a t o t a l of 198,220 at March 31, 1963, and 204,796 at March 31, 1964. 1 2 liW. Dunstan, Canadian Indians Today, Canadian Geo-graphical Journal Reprint, Ottawa, December, 1963, p. 8. 1 2Annual Report of Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, years ending March 31, 1963, and March 31, 1964, Ottawa. - 29 -One implication of these figures i s that the t r a d i -t i o n a l ways of earning income, where they s t i l l exist, pro-vide a decreasing income for an increasing population. In 1962-1963, almost f i f t y percent of the Indian families each earned less than $1,000.00 per year and almost seventy-five percent earned $2,000.00 or l e s s . Another implication i s that expenditure for r e l i e f has t r i p l e d i n f i v e years. Lagass£ expresses concern about the population growth i n Manitoba. The circumstances there could well represent the s i t u a t i o n throughout Canada. Hev?writes: There are over 1,500 b i r t h s of Indian descent every year, which means that i f we are to hold ground we should have 1,500 successful integrations. So each year that we are not providing for 1,500 integrations, we are losing ground. There were 8,000 Indians i n Manitoba i n 1870. Now there are 23,000 people who are s t i l l not economically independent. Now, next year there w i l l be more ... nothing short of a crash pro-gram w i l l reduce the number.13 Some reservations have become so overpopulated that Indians are forced off the reserves by lack of space as well as inadequate subsistence. The t h i r d facet of the problem i s motivational. When the white man came, alcohol, exploitation, p r o s t i t u t i o n , violence and destruction came with him. And to combat these e v i l s , along came the missionaries to proselytize amongst the savage, ignorant races. The arts, drama and ceremonials which had reached a high point prior to the coming of the white man, were suppressed under the churches' b e l i e f that 13CBC, op. c i t . , p. 59. 50,000 - 29a -Figure 1 Indian Population By Province, 1954 and 1963 Sources: Census Indian A f f a i r s Branch, December, 1954 Annual Report, March, 1963. N. B. Total Indian Populations: 1949 - 136,407 1960 - 185,169 1954 - 151,558 1961 - 191,709 1959 - 179,126 1962 - 198,220 1963 - 204,796 - 30 -such things were e v i l . C h r i s t i a n i t y outlawed the Potlatch, but did nothing to replace i t . The collapse of the t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l culture, the introduction of the white man's r e l i g i o n and culture have made i t d i f f i c u l t for an adjustment to e n t i t i e s such as wages, jobs and timekeeping. Even i f the Indian wants to work, and the Reserve system has not been noteably successful i n reduc-ing the trend to chronic dependency, i t i s not easy for him to be employed i n or out of the Reserve. There are few towns in whose industries he might be employed, and on the Reserve the "saleable s k i l l s of the Indians across Canada are lower than the national average. n l4 Indians w i l l have to a l t e r t h e i r values i n accordance with changing national conditions, i f ever they are to be f u l l y accepted i n society on the same basis as other Canadians. It could not be claimed, of course, that a change i n values alone would resu l t suddenly i n th e i r successful integration or improvement i n their l i v i n g con-di t i o n s , but i t would undoubtedly be of assistance. From the nation's point of view, the integration of Indians into the s o c i a l and economic l i f e of the country i s only common sense. Indians also, generally speaking, are s a t i s f i e d no longer with a s t a t i c existence. The younger generations es p e c i a l l y require some of the comforts and con-veniences of modern times. Education i s being regarded as 1 4 I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immigration, The Indian i n Transition - Indians Today, Ottawa, 1964, p. 6. e s s e n t i a l i n some Bands, although i t i s observed i r o n i c a l l y , that increased education has not produced more elevated jobs for most of those who have i t . However, "as our society be-comes more technical, the educational l e v e l goes up, and as the educational l e v e l goes up, those people who are not going very far i n school get farther and farther behind."15 The educational picture i s grave when one compares Indian people with non-Indians. In B r i t i s h Columbia, for example, seventy percent of the non-Indians who st a r t school a t t a i n Grade twelve, while a l i t t l e more than one percent of the native people even get that far. 1® It i s not a question of i n t e l l i -gence; i t i s an inadequate preparation for school, both in the community and i n the home. Because the father has no edu-cation, the son f e e l s i t i s not necessary for him, and unless parents see that education "pays o f f " , i t might be d i f f i c u l t to change t h i s attitude. Indians have become accustomed to being underprivi-leged people. For years t h e i r chances for obtaining education have been minimal, especially i n remote areas. Credit and other h e l p f u l features of the c a p i t a l i s t society have not been available to them, because the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s extended by treaty exemptions from property seizure and tax-ation on income earned on Reserves, have prevented Indians from o f f e r i n g acceptable c o l l a t e r a l for bank loans. Where l^ i n d i a n Advisory Committee Proceedings, p. 143. 16Ibid. - 32 -Band funds are available, Indians sometimes are able to borrow from them. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch also provides assistance from parliamentary appropriation and a revolving loan fund. Available i n r u r a l areas, there i s a r o t a t i n g c a t t l e herd program. Under t h i s program the progeny of a basic herd may be retained by the Band, who has borrowed the herd for a period. These and other programs i n practice, however, have r e l a t i o n only to the more industrious Indians and have l i t t l e application to those who are not motivated to work. And many do not wish to work. They and others, to whom the adjectives drunken, s h i f t l e s s , d i r t y , untrustworthy, lazy and unpunctual may be j u s t i f i a b l y applied, contribute to a perjorative stereo-type, which i s then used to describe a l l Indians. To a con-siderable extent, the feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y and inadequacy from t h i s stereotype have been accepted and i n t e r n a l i z e d by the Indians. The "Eskimo problem" i s of more recent o r i g i n than that of the Indian. In 1956 a cry of horror shattered Canadian complacency when the news of starving communities f i l t e r e d south. A crash program dealing with education, health, job placement, vocational t r a i n i n g and land survey was launched hurriedly amongst the twelve thousand, or so, Eskimos. Many of the conditions confronting Eskimos are simi-l a r to those facing Indians, but i n addition, Eskimos have to contend with the depletion of the caribou which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y fed and clothed them and provided them with weapons. Many of the settlements which have been established - 33 -to help them have drawn Eskimos away from the places where they could f i n d t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence resources. In the l a t e 1950's the establishment of Distant Early Warning l i n e s i t e s , which brought heavy equipment, airplanes, radio and generators, has d e c i s i v e l y changed h i s l i f e . The breakdown of motivation, and the increase of depend-ency i s becoming rather general. "Education for what" is, a pressing issue, both i n terms of how people should be educated, and i n terms of what kinds of work are available to those who have acquired perhaps 4 or 6 or 8 grades of s c h o o l i n g . 1 7 There i s a growing problem i n connection with Canada's t h i r d "non-white" group. The increasing segregation of Negroes from whites i n areas, such as Toronto and Halifax, i s causing concern, as i s the tendency i n those c i t i e s to discriminate against them i n employment. While i t may be argued that the problems facing t h i s group are not, at present, as pressing as those facing r u r a l communities, the problems connected with t h e i r submergence i n the c i t y perhaps r a i s e issues for the future. By 1980 i t i s estimated that eighty percent of Canada's population w i l l l i v e i n urban places. Although white newcomers to the c i t y w i l l not be subjected to the i n d i g n i -t i e s with which Negroes have to contend, avenues must be kept open for t h e i r assent or dissent i n the a f f a i r s that decide their destiny. It may be conjectured that urban com-munity development w i l l have, as one of i t s major tasks, t h i s job of maintaining these channels for communication. To t h i s 1 7Hobar t, op. c i t . , p.. 90. - 34 -end much work has to be done because, as Baker suggests, "the ideas of community development coming from underdeve-loped countries or from smaller r u r a l communities may not be those needed for the urban setting."!** Some of the problems, surrounding the peoples of Indian ancestry, the Eskimos and the Negroes, have been d i s -cussed i n t h i s chapter. The existence of poverty amongst these groups has been acknowledged generally, but i t i s less well-known how the tentacles of poverty have threaded th e i r ways throughout white Canadian populations, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l areas. In the ensuing pages i t has been observed that, i n addition to the programs and projects of community develop-ment amongst the "native" peoples, a star t has been made to extend community development to other disadvantaged people regardless of colour. CHAPTER IV FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. No countrywide integrated federal plan of community development has been i n i t i a t e d i n Canada as t h i s has been considered beyond the direct sphere of a c t i v i t y of federal agencies. Nevertheless, four federal departments have quite recently entered the f i e l d i n one form or another. The largest program i n t h i s f i e l d i s that of the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e habili-t a t i o n Development Act, administered through the Department of Forestry. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch of the Department of Citiz e n s h i p and Immigration i s at present introducing a pro-gram. The t h i r d federal agency i n t h i s f i e l d i s the Depart-ment of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, and the fourth i s the Department of National Health and Welfare. The methods, use and extent of community development work under these four departments w i l l be surveyed b r i e f l y i n t h i s chapter. ARDA Concern for poverty i n r u r a l areas gave r i s e to the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Development Act being passed i n 1961. It was seen as a means of developing national, provin-c i a l and l o c a l programs to encourage the growth of agriculture and l o c a l industry and, therefore, to help people l i v i n g on - 36 -low incomes. Research undertaken during the f i r s t years has unearthed c r i t e r i a f or defining r u r a l poverty, and "economic and s o c i a l disadvantage" has been i l l u s t r a t e d on a series of nine maps. These indicate very c l e a r l y that r u r a l poverty i s more widespread and severe i n Eastern Canada, generally east of the Ottawa River. Newfoundland, Northern New Bruns-wick, Prince Edward Island and Eastern Quebec are p a r t i c u l a r l y disadvantaged. Although there are almost three times as many farms west of the Ottawa River as there are east of i t , there are about twice as many low income farm families i n the l a t -ter region. There are likewise higher percentages of low-income r u r a l non-farm families and low r u r a l wage earners i n the East than i n the West. A sim i l a r state of a f f a i r s exists i n low r u r a l educational l e v e l s . 1 While i t i s true that, when "incomes are not high enough to allow people to l i v e according to normally accepted standards nor quite low enough to die on quickly and without complications," 2 shortage of money i s not the root cause of r u r a l poverty. The ARDA administration i s continuing to undertake research into the immensely complex problem of poverty i n order to id e n t i f y , i s o l a t e and examine the funda-mental causes. These involve such things as lack of mobility, 1M. Sauve, Rural Poverty i n Canada, Notes for Address to Manitoba Farmers' Union, Winnipeg, December, 1964, pp. 9-10. 2The S i x t i e s : Rural Poverty, What Can ARDA Do?, Canadian Association for Adult Education, Pamphlet No. 1, 1964, p. 4. - 37 -lack of opportunity, lack of information, lack of c a p i t a l as well as regional factors. Sauve writes that the most impor-tant single factor, however, i s that concerned with education, and that "even with eight years of education, a person s t i l l has i n s u f f i c i e n t formal schooling to s u i t him for t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s . Yet u n s k i l l e d jobs are becoming more and more scarce, even i n r u r a l areas." 3 If research has gone part way i n establishing the need, what i s ARDA doing about i t ? The f i r s t three years are considered to have been a p i l o t project. During t h i s time, or more s t r i c t l y , since January, 1963, when the general agree-ment r e a l l y got under way, nearly seven hundred projects have been i n i t i a t e d at a cost of sixty m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , shared about evenly between federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments. The projects have f a l l e n into four categories: (1) s o c i a l and economic research projects, (2) projects for alternative uses of land, (3) projects f o r s o i l and water conservation, (4) projects for r u r a l development to permit development of resources and the creation of income and employment opportu-n i t i e s . The i n d i r e c t increase i n extra income to people affected by projects i n the l a s t three categories i s hard to calculate, as the provision of better community services due to extra taxes has benefitted whole communities and not:: merely in d i v i d u a l s . While the key to ARDA's a c t i v i t i e s i s involvement of Sauve, op. c i t . , p. 11. - 38 -people with the s p e c i a l i s t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l or foresty matters, etc., "community development, as a process, has tended to take second place to resource manipulation i n the ARDA program."'* During the next f i v e year period, from A p r i l , 1965, to A p r i l , 1970, community development techniques and methods are to be given a high p r i o r i t y . It has been found i n the f i r s t three years that the scatter gun approach using more or less ad hoc projects a l l over the country does not drive at the heart of the problem of poverty i n r u r a l areas. " A l l resources, not only agriculture, have to be con-sidered ... there are more low-income r u r a l people l i v i n g o f f farms i n Canada than l i v i n g on farms."** Under the new agreement 125 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s ear-marked for the next f i v e years i n contrast to the 50 m i l l i o n for the previous three years. Provisions for land use adjust-ments are sub s t a n t i a l l y the same, but new i s the provision for federal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n farm consolidation programs. It i s e s s e n t i a l that the majority of farms i n Canada become larger i n order to become f i n a n c i a l l y sound. For those who are "disenfranchized," r e t r a i n i n g i n vocational and technical s k i l l s w i l l be provided. This w i l l also apply to other r u r a l v^Letter from D. F. Symington, 9 January, 1965, f i l e 667. ( A l l footnote references to l e t t e r s i n t h i s study, for purposes of brevity, omit the writer's t i t l e or position, organization and address. These d e t a i l s have been furnished i n Appendix A.) 5A. T. Davidson, Notes for a Speech, Speech to Saskatchewan Farmers' Union, Saskatoon, December, 1964, p. 7. - 39 -people l i v i n g i n areas where the resource base i s inadequate or where the problem i s one of mobility. There w i l l also be t r a i n i n g and increased use of r u r a l development o f f i c e r s to work i n disadvantaged regions. These areas may include Indian Reservations as well as other r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . In conjunction with t h i s , the federal govern-ment w i l l share the cost of resource development projects that can d i r e c t l y increase employment and income opportunities. In extremely disadvantaged regions, to be known as spec i a l r u r a l development areas, sp e c i a l provisions for economic stimula-t i o n i s to be attempted i n any r a t i o n a l way that research and imagination can devise. F i f t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s of federal funds are available for t h i s purpose. These developments are only i n the e a r l i e s t stages of planning. As for the t r a i n i n g of community development o f f i c e r s , ARDA has contracted with the CAAE and ICEA to deter-mine what the needs are for trained community development workers. In t h i s connection,a conference of professionals i n the f i e l d to define s p e c i f i c a l l y the type of t r a i n i n g needed and to recommend t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s commensurate with the needjwas held at the end of January, 1965. It i s also under-stood that four ARDA personnel w i l l be receiving t r a i n i n g along with the community development s p e c i a l i s t s of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, s t a r t i n g March, 1965. The new agreement thus assumes That there i s a way to enable the hard pressed segment of r u r a l people to do something more than eke out a - 40 -slim l i v i n g with the aid of income supports. It rej e c t s the idea that low-income r u r a l people are pre-ordained to remain alienated from the main dynamic stream of our s o c i e t y . 6 However bold and excellent the concept may be, i t s r e a l i z a t i o n means bridging the gap between the federal con-cept and the p r o v i n c i a l c a p a b i l i t y . The f i r s t ARDA agreement between the two le v e l s of government probably q u a l i f i e s as a most important document i n the history of fe d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , as i t la\ys out the basis for an e f f e c t i v e l e v e l of consultation and coordination between them. There remain, however, p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n achieving "federal i n t e r -departmental organization required to focus a l l relevant federal programs on a given 'disadvantaged' region i n a cohe-rent way, and secondly, achieving similar coherence i n given provinces." 7 From the p r o v i n c i a l viewpoint, i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t , from a p o l i t i c a l point of view, to agree with the federal authorities, as required for intensive development. Also ARDA funds do not represent a s u f f i c i e n t l y large pro-portion of t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l budget to influence basic pro-v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s . S i g n i f i c a n t progress i s possible, on the other hand. A case i n point i s the Canada Land Inventory being conducted by ARDA, where federal money, combined with r e a l federal technical competence, interdepartmental co-ordination and a sensitive awareness of p r o v i n c i a l • : 6Ibid., p. 10. 7 L e t t e r from D. F. Symington, 17 February, 1965, f i l e 970.11/9. - 41 -problems and p r i o r i t i e s , seems to be r e s u l t i n g i n a j o i n t e f f o r t which meets the national objective and goes a long way toward meeting p r o v i n c i a l objectives. S i m i l a r l y , i n other portions of the ARDA program, there i s evidence of increasing co-ordination among federal departments i n the area of s o c i a l and economic programs and resource use planning. The problems here are, of course, i n f i n i t e l y more complex than the land inventory, and the development of a successful program w i l l be com-mensurately d i f f i c u l t . My own f e e l i n g on t h i s i s that the r o l e of the federal government has three rather d i s t i n c t parts: (1) contributing funds to p r o v i n c i a l governments condi-t i o n a l on t h e i r being spent within the intent of the ARDA Act, (2) achieving coherence i n federal programming r e l a t i v e to r u r a l development, and (3) developing a conceptual framework on the basis of adequate research, and maintaining intimate l i a i s o n with p r o v i n c i a l planners — including where neces-sary the provision of federal ^ technical "expertise". In summary, I may say that the ARDA program as i t has developed consists largely of ad hoc projects of land use adjustment and resource management, and of research r e l a t i v e to both physical and s o c i a l resources. Most provinces have established community development at a low l e v e l i n t h e i r system of p r i o r i t i e s , and there i s as yet no coherent d e f i n i t i o n of need i n t h i s area. This may be due i n part to the inadequacy of the knowledge of the kind, degree, location, magnitude and consequence of r u r a l poverty, because the f i e l d research simply hasn't been done. (The Canadian Welfare Council i s , however, undertaking a small f i e l d research project i n four r u r a l areas under contract to ARDA, and t h i s may r e s u l t i n a suitable guideline for further research.y However, the ARDA program has had a s i g n i f i c a n t i f not e a s i l y measur-able e f f e c t i n drawing attention to the problem, focus-sing federal and p r o v i n c i a l programs on i t , and e s t a b l i s h -ing an i n t e l l e c t u a l climate which enables ^ s i g n i f i c a n t advances to be made.** 8 I b i d . - 42 -Indian A f f a i r s Community Development Program This i s a newly approved program to cost three and one half m i l l i o n d o l l a r s over the next three years. This money w i l l provide the program with supplies and s a l a r i e s and a sp e c i a l project fund. Recruitment of some f i f t y com-munity development s p e c i a l i s t s and th e i r aides i s progressing quite well and the f i r s t t r a i n i n g courses at a r e s i d e n t i a l t r a i n i n g school are to run from late March u n t i l the end of June and from about September u n t i l December, 1965. There-fore, the f i r s t trainees w i l l not be posted i n the f i e l d u n t i l early July. What i s proposed i s a broad program of community development without abolishing the reserve system. It consists of two e s s e n t i a l elements, the f i r s t of which i s p a r t i c i p a -t i o n by the Indians i n projects of t h e i r choosing. This personal involvement i s important because "the greatest success has been experienced where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for establishing the d i r e c t i o n of change and the rate of change, has been accepted by the l o c a l people, where the l o c a l people have established the objectives according to th e i r ' f e l t Y needs." 9 The second element i s the provision of support and technical services by governmental agencies. In areas which 9 J . B. C a r r o l l , Partnership i n Community Develop- ment , Address to Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Regina, 1963, p. 4. - 43 -are r i p e for development, i t must be assumed that there do not exist adequate resources to meet the needs. Government bodies should not dominate, induce or seize the i n i t i a t i v e . Community development must sta r t where the l o c a l people are and move at a slow pace necessary i n a l l educational ventures "The government must be l i k e a s i l e n t partner ready to offer advice and guidance and technical assistance when requested." As Lagasse has stated, It i s very necessary once the l o c a l people have become organized and that projects emerge from th e i r i n i t i a t i v e , that outside funds be available to them. This means the set t i n g up of some type of community development funds available to make grants and loans as required. Under Indian A f f a i r s Branch structure, such funds are available from the revolving funds. At the same time, one must not lose sight of the great many sources of loan funds and voluntary bursaries that are available from the community at large. In community development you try to help the l o c a l people gain access to the same resources as are available to other c i t i z e n s . Some space has been devoted, i n the discussion of the ARDA program, to the matter of the public administration com-ponents involved i n a fe d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l scheme, as i t i s assumed that many of the problems encountered w i l l have r e l e -vance to, and share similar c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with, the Indian A f f a i r s program. Dyson writes: No community development program can be usef u l l y gotten under way unless there i s an adequate set of r e l a t i o n -ships and l i a i s o n developed with many technical resour-ces that can be drawn upon at a l l l e v e l s , both govern-mental and non-governmental .... My own department (National Health and Welfare), through i t s Welfare 1 Q I b i d . , p. 5. U L e t t e r from J. H. Lagasse, 25 November, 1964. - 44 -Branch has been cooperating to a considerable degree with the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i n designing, negotiating and establishing t h i s community development program, both for i t s own sake and because pf dts r e l a t i o n s h i p to wel-fare programs. 1 2 At the same time, agreements with the provinces are now under discussion to introduce community development pro-grams into the Reserves. Those provinces, having programs of the i r own, namely Manitoba, Alberta, Quebec and Nova Scotia, w i l l be deeply involved i n the federal program, but so f a r , on t h i s point, no s p e c i f i c information i s available. Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources Some of the programs of t h i s department have community development aspects but these have not been formalized into a major program as has been the case with the two previously mentioned departments. The emphasis has been along the l i n e s of economic development although, as always, i t i s impossible to divorce s o c i a l from economic considerations. The Department was created i n 1953, as i t was neces-sary to do something about the accumulation of s o c i a l i l l s i n the north and to tackle the question of how to enable a gradually increasing population to support i t s e l f i n areas of l i m i t e d food resources. In addition, the north was becom-ing important for i t s mineral wealth - and modern communica-ti o n rendered possible the exploitation of such richness. The government appears to be s t r i v i n g for two l e v e l s 1 2 L e t t e r from W. A. Dyson, 28 January, 1965. - 45 -of economic development. The f i r s t i s a long term venture and includes mining, timber and hydro-electric operations, and the second i s a short-term plan to ameliorate present i l l s by encouraging the northern peoples to exploit whatever resources there are. In connection with the long term development, mining i s by far the most important. Jenness believes that a way to developing the north i s for the government to encourage min-ing concerns to invest i n the north. In doing so, the com-panies would be expected to h i r e l o c a l labour rather than f l y i n personnel from the south. Where necessary, on-the-job t r a i n i n g should be i n s t i t u t e d for Indians and Eskimos. Where t h i s has been done i n Alaska, s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s have occur-red "... i f we i n Canada had demanded a sim i l a r preference for residents of our Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s before the opening up of Yellowknife, we might see today three to four hundred prosperous and upstanding Indians working alongside white men in that town's gold mines, instead of i d l i n g a l l summer ... waiting for government treaty payments and welfare allow-ances. "13 Jenness sees the scourge of d e s t i t u t i o n amongst the Indians and Eskimos insoluble u n t i l remunerative jobs can be found for them. But to r e l y on one industry to do t h i s i s dangerous. "We are putting most of our eggs into one basket, 13D. Jenness, Eskimo Administration, II, Canada, A r c t i c Institute of North America, Technical Paper No. 14, Montreal, 1964, pp. 170/171. - 46 -staking the future of the Eskimos on the hazard of themining industry i n the far north, and making l i t t l e provision for any alternative or additional economic base, should industry f a i l to l i v e up to our hopes."14 The government has, however, t r i e d to f i n d alterna-t i v e s i n the A r c t i c but has f a i l e d . Some c r i t i c s believe that more should be done to i n i t i a t e schemes to provide jobs and underwrite i n d u s t r i a l developments, even though they might operate at a loss . What prevents t h i s , i n some measure, i s p o l i t i c a l expediency, as there would be a public outcry about the drain of tax money to the north country. The alternative i s the short term type of development. It i s i n t h i s kind of program that the use of co-operatives i s u s e f u l . Co-operatives help people i n many parts of the world towards a solution of their economic problems. In Canada, the two departments concerned are the federal Department of Northern A f f a i r s and the Province of Quebec's Departement des Richesses Naturelles. The co-operatives, established under th e i r auspices, have offered their members the opportunity to receive a better return for what they produce, and the expe-rience of accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the management of the i r own a f f a i r s . The f i r s t were established i n 1959 at Port Nouveau, Quebec, and Port Burwell, i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . There are now nineteen co-operatives i n the T e r r i t o r i e s and Northern Quebec, and one credit union i n Yellowknife. Their I4lbid.••; p. 174. - 47 -membership t o t a l s over f i v e hundred, or about one out of f i v e Eskimo f a m i l i e s . Eighteen of the co-operatives are a l l Eskimo, one i s Indian and another has a mixed membership of Eskimos, Indians and whites. Most are engaged i n such a c t i v i t i e s as commercial f i s h i n g , arts and c r a f t s , logging, store operation, boat building, housing and fur garment manufacture. Vallee observes that, while some of these co-opera-t i v e s exist only on paper, others have a pot e n t i a l of out-15 standing si g n i f i c a n c e i n s o c i a l organization i n the A r c t i c . What has hampered the i r importance i n t h i s respect i s that the formation of a l l co-operatives has been on the i n s t i g a t i o n of the white man. It has been the l a t t e r who has supplied the c a p i t a l , the technical assistance and the marketing services. The white man also supervises t h e i r operation from behind the scenes and ^though the decisions on behalf of the co-operative are made by an Eskimo board, these decisions are usually i n l i n e with what the white advisor thinks important. It i s acknowledged, of course, that cer t a i n aspects of the operation must be handled by the white man because there i s no Eskimo precedent for such things as accounting, p r i c i n g and corre-spondence. Of importance to the s o c i a l organization i n the A r c t i c are the settlements. These, t y p i c a l l y , comprise of physical services such as a nursing s t a t i o n or h o s p i t a l , radio shack, 1 5 F . G. Vallee, Notes on the Co-Operative Movement and Community Organization i n the Canadian A r c t i c , American Association for Advancement of Science, Montreal, 1964, p. 2. - 48 -a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e , a s c h o o l , a p o l i c e headquarters, a church, a s t o r e and some houses. Perhaps an army or a i r f o r c e base and c o n s t r u c t i o n or mine camp might add to the complex, which w i l l serve as an economic and s o c i a l c e n t r e f o r a very l a r g e area. These s e t t l e m e n t s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y popu-l a r , as those s t i l l i n v o l v e d i n h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g are o f t e n tempted to abandon t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s when they see settlement Eskimos p r o s p e r i n g . A l s o , many l a n d Eskimos are not anxious f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n to undergo the h a r d s h i p s which they, the parents, have had to endure. R u d n i c k i has n o t i c e d some tends i n the n o r t h . 1 6 n e says t h a t t h e r e i s a pronounced tendency f o r the n o r t h e r n p o p u l a t i o n to be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s e t t l e m e n t s ; t h a t the o l d ways of l i f e are v a n i s h i n g f o r ever; t h a t s e t t l e m e n t s are becoming g r o s s l y overpopulated. These have i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the community development f i e l d , both f o r economic develop-ment through i n c r e a s e d use of c o - o p e r a t i v e s , and i n terms of h e l p i n g new s e t t l e r s a d j u s t to new v a l u e s , customs and ex-p e c t a t i o n s . Without a s s i s t a n c e , many newcomers are unable to f i n d jobs or f i t i n t o the changed work p a t t e r n s and they are unable to understand and use the s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . As t h i s i s a very broad area f o r concern, the s o c i a l worker must have a community development f o c u s . He i s ex-R u d n i c k i , " C r e a t i n g Northern Communities: Pro-blems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s , " Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , Community  P l a n n i n g and Community Development, C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Work Educ a t i o n , New York, 1961. - 49 -pected to plan, administer, be consultant to, and be involved in, education, health and financing arrangements. These endeavours underline the fact that h i s concern i s the whole community and that h i s e f f o r t s as a s o c i a l worker are most f r u i t f u l when he i s creating conditions which enable people to develop and function adequately and independently. 1 7 While the community approach can c e r t a i n l y ameliorate cer t a i n conditions, Jenness argues that a more r a d i c a l and more far reaching solution to the problem of the northern population i s r e q u i r e d . 1 8 He believes by the end of the decade the employment picture w i l l have deteriorated as mining i s advancing into the north too slowly to supply the three thou-sand jobs required by 1970 and the one hundred additional ones needed each year. Morale w i l l be lower, as the increased education now available w i l l demonstrate to the younger gene-ra t i o n the attractions of l i f e available to more fortunate people than themselves. Mounting juvenile delinquency and other crime w i l l necessitate j a i l , preventive services and more trained personnel to run them. Why i n s i s t that the Eskimo stay i n the north, he asks? A migration south to a less harsh climate, to a place where work may be found, w i l l inevitably bring about th e i r d i s -appearance as a separate people, as i t has to sections of the Indian populations. "Surely i t i s preferable that they should succumb struggling for a better l i f e i n Southern 1 7 l b i d . , p. 38. 1 8Jenness, op. c i t , , pp. 175-179. - 50 -Canada than r o t t i n g away i n the A r c t i c on government d o l e . " 1 9 Rapid change, i f i t i s complete i n that every part of the culture i s simultaneously affected, can be accomplished with less s o c i a l disorganization and maladjustment than changes made piecemeal over long periods. Therefore, i t i s es s e n t i a l to migrate large groups at a time into colonies, both for that reason and to reduce the loneliness involved while acculturating into a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t culture, lan-guage and value system. At present, the economic and s o c i a l condition of the Eskimo resembles that of the Indian and Metis. They are un-s k i l l e d , i l l - e d u c a t e d and l i k e l y to suffer whenever industry heads for a slump. Should colonization occur, community deve-lopment i s seen as one method of speeding up the educational methods and r e t r a i n i n g necessary, i f they are to become part of the Canadian people. The national t r a i n i n g plan outlined by Jenness for Eskimo youths deserves c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n . 2 ^ The Department of National Health and Welfare This department does not have any community develop-ment program per se, but i t i s involved i n a number of pro-jects to which i t contributes funds and technical services under the National Welfare Grants Program. One such project, to which some space w i l l be devoted l a t e r , i s the white-1 9 l b i d . , p. 175. 20Ibid., p. 180-183. - 51 -Negro semi-rural community development project i n Windsor, Nova Scotia. Another project which benefits from a small federal grant i s the multi-problem family project i n Vancouver. This i s known as the Area Development Project and i s under the auspices of the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver. The neighbourhood services department of t h i s project has an urban community development flavour. Dyson has written that "further gentry into the realm of community development i s currently under consideration, although what more w i l l be done w i l l not be known for some months y e t . " 2 1 In t h i s chapter, programs of community development under the auspices of four federal government departments have been examined. The ARDA program having just emerged from i t s i n i t i a l three year period w i l l be expanding p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s o c i a l f i e l d . It i s acknowledged that cer t a i n of ARDA's operations w i l l have similar features to the Indian A f f a i r s program, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n severely deprived r u r a l regions. A reorganized and r e v i t a l i z e d Indian A f f a i r s Branch w i l l shortly be i n i t i a t i n g a countrywide plan of community development i n Indian Reserves. A t r a i n i n g program for com-munity development o f f i c e r s has recently been established near Ottawa under the directorship of Dr. Toombes of the University of Toronto. 2 1 L e t t e r from Dyson, 28 January, 1965. - 52 -The Department of Northern A f f a i r s ' interest i n economic development i n both long and short term programs has been noted and Jenness's proposal for a solution of the north's problems has been added. An appraisal of the Depart-ment of National Health and Welfare i n community development has completed the chapter. CHAPTER V COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AT fTHE PROVINCIAL LEVEL. Three p r o v i n c i a l governments have established community development programs, and a fourth i s now preparing to do so. The oldest of these programs i s i n Manitoba, where the Com-munity Development Services of the Department of Public Wel-fare have been i n operation since 1959. Quebec has a program sponsored by ARDA, and a special development agency has been established for the Gaspe region which was the i n i t i a l region selected for development by t h i s province. The t h i r d province i s Alberta, where a Community Development Branch has been i n i t i a t e d i n the Department of Industry and Development. The province now establishing a program i s Nova Scotia, the government of which has recently set up a Soc i a l Development D i v i s i o n i n the Department of Public Welfare. Manitoba There are approximately 25,000 Indians and 25,000 Metis i n Manitoba. These figures constitute more than t h i r t y percent of the t o t a l population and give t h i s province a higher concentration of people of Indian ancestry than any other province of Canada. Indians, who have not been assimi-lated into the main stream of Canadian culture, maintain t h e i r - 54 -t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s , but the Metis have no s p e c i a l protection under treaty arrangements and l i v e i n about two hundred and f i f t y communities governed by the same laws as a l l other white people. It has been estimated that about three thousand Metis l i v e on the fringes of the Indian Reservations, about three thousand on the fringes of white communities,.some seven thousand i n Metis settlements and eleven thousand i n predo-minately white ones. Generally speaking, they l i v e under poor circumstances, similar to those of the Indians. 1 The problems encountered by Manitoba's Indians and Metis d i f f e r i n no way from those faced by Indians elsewhere in Canada. To combat them, the community development approach was recommended as a means "to give the sub-cultures the opportunity to be exposed to the kind of l i f e experiences which could help to develop the norms and values most suitable to any new environment."* This recommendation was the culmina-t i o n of a three year study requested by the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s -lature i n 1956 to examine the condition under which the "native" people l i v e d . The Department of Agriculture and Conservation undertook the study which was tabled at the 1959 spring session of Parliament. The r e s u l t was the formation of the Community Development Services to be included in the Department of Health and Public Welfare. Its director, Jean ! j . H. Lagasse, Community Development i n Manitoba, Reprint from Human Organization, Vol. 20, No. 4, Winter 1961-1962, p. 233. 2 I b i d . , p. 234. - 55 -Lagasse, who had also directed the study, was instructed to implement the main recommendations of his report. These were (1) the adoption of the Fair Accomodation Practices Act, (2) the appointment of an In t e r m i n i s t e r i a l Committee on Indian and Metis A f f a i r s , (3) the granting of equal r i g h t s to Indians on matters appertaining to alcohol consumption, (4) the creation of the Community Development Services. With respect to the second point, i t was deemed ess e n t i a l to develop sound p o l i c i e s by creating a coordinat-ing committee at the policy-making l e v e l . Accordingly, the Departments of Labour, Industry and Commerce, Agriculture and Conservation, and Mines and Natural Resources were to form an i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l committee under the chairmanship of the Minister of Health and Public Welfare. This committee was to consider any question re l a t e d to Indian and Metis problems which would require new government p o l i c i e s or inter-departmental co-operation. In planning the Community Development Services, many programs amongst the Navaho, Omaha, Fox and Cherohee Indians were examined, along with overseas undertakings, to see how they could be adapted to the conditions under which the Indians and Metis l i v e d i n Manitoba. Lagasse has pointed out, however, that a model program flom one place cannot be trans-planted wholesale to another, p a r t i c u l a r l y not from an under-developed to an i n d u s t r i a l country. 3 In places l i k e India, 3i b i d . , p. 235. - 56 -for example, the entire government structure revolves around an integrated plan of community development because of the necessity of reaching the majority of i t s people, while here, where minority groups only need to be affected, the govern-ment acts i n a much more r e s t r i c t e d manner. Where i t i s the attempt of the government to reach a l l t h e i r people, i t i s l o g i c a l to use v i l l a g e - l e v e l workers of the same ethnic orign as the v i l l a g e r s . Here, however, the power positions are i n -variably held by white people. These persons could be unwilling to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r power should an Indian or Metis community development o f f i c e r be appointed to establish a project requir-ing control over amenities necessary for e f f e c t i v e community development. Alsq Indian, Metis or Eskimos are so accustomed to deferring to the white man, that they might not react favourably to one of th e i r own. Lagasse saw that the Manitoba program should be focus-sed on two fundamental problems. "The main emphasis of com-munity development i n Manitoba i s economic development and s o c i a l organization because i t i s i n these two areas that former government services have been most delinquent."'* Other areas such as health, welfare, education and r e l i g i o n have been tolerably well catered for, but i t i s doubtful whether further improvements can be expected i n these areas without attention to the economic and s o c i a l . Accordingly, three community development o f f i c e r s were appointed during 4 lb let .• - 57 -1960 to work i n Norway House, Grand Rapids and the Camper-v i l l e areas. An economic l i a i s o n o f f i c e r was i n s t a l l e d i n Winnipeg. By the following year, operations had expanded to include Berens River and the Pas. Meanwhile, the l i a i s o n o f f i c e r was active i n several small settlements i n the sou-thern part of the province. It i s int e r e s t i n g to observe the t y p i c a l types of project i n i t i a t e d i n those areas served by community develop-5 ment o f f i c e r s . In Grand Rapids, for example, by the end of 1961, i t i s reported that ten wells had been dug, an eleven classroom school erected and twenty-three homes had been improved or b u i l t by government home improvement loans. In th i s area, f u l l employment due to the construction of a hydro-e l e c t r i c plant had c l e a r l y been b e n e f i c i a l . Norway House, however, had no such economic po t e n t i a l . Welfare assistance was the main source of income for half the population. A com-munity development o f f i c e r could not be expected to improve the position overnight, so the creation of strong community organizations was h i s f i r s t task. In the Camperville region, the o f f i c e r ' s f i r s t task was a six months survey to c o l l e c t enough s t a t i s t i c a l data to enable the government to obtain a clear picture of the area. So impatient were the people to get started with community development, that the very presence of a community develop-5Annual Report of Community Development Services, Department of Welfare, Manitoba, 1961, pp. 4-10. - 58 -ment person i n Camperville apparently spurred them into organizing themselves into a community organization to iden-t i f y areas for improvement. Of the twenty-five i d e n t i f i e d , ten were concerned with what they could do themselves, and an-other f i f t e e n which would require government co-operation and support. At Berens River i n 1960, a decline i n the f i s h popu-l a t i o n and a change i n f i s h i n g regulations required swift and e f f e c t i v e action by the community development services. A study was i n i t i a t e d to f i n d a lternative sources of income, and i n 1961 a pulpwood co-operative was set up with seventy-two shareholders. Money was borrowed to buy equipment to cut stumps which would then be transported by barge to Pine F a l l s . This was so successful that 1961 was the f i r s t time for years that no unemployment r e l i e f had to be paid. The Community Development Services have been con-cerned with the town of the Pas since 1960, when the munici-pal council commissioned a c i t i z e n s committee to study pro-blems r e l a t i n g to the Indian and Metis. By 1961, a conference was held to discuss the problems and plans for the building of a Friendship Centre to provide counselling and r e f e r r a l services to the Indian and Metis populations. The Conference Planning Committee, having gained approval for t h e i r plan, set about i n t e r e s t i n g more individuals, groups and the govern-ment. By December, the government held public hearings to study the s i t u a t i o n . Concerns were expressed around seven topics: housing, employment, education, job-training, a - 59 -Friendship Centre, transient f a c i l i t i e s and gaol services. The pos i t i v e concern which a white community has about i t s fringe element of people of Indian ancestry i s i l l u s t r a t e d by what the v i l l a g e of MacGregor and the r u r a l municipality of North Norfolk did during the 1950's. They met with the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and planned co-operatively a six point attack on problems caused by d i f f e r e n t standards of l i v i n g , d i f f e r e n t standards of law enforcement, d i f f e r e n t standards of community services, slum mentality and r a c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The plan was to include a l l l e v e l s of govern-ment i n (1) provision of adequate food, (2) clothing, (3) shelter, (4) education, (5) s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and employment, (6) r a i s i n g welfare payments to p r o v i n c i a l standards. Building materials were made available to provide adequate housing, s p e c i a l classes organized for those who had never heen to school and other adult education courses were i n s t i t u t e d for a l l . A housing project was started with the municipality donating the land to the Community Development Services. Indian A f f a i r s and the D i v i s i o n of Welfare services paid the cost of the building materials and wages of a super-v i s i n g carpenter. Those for whom the houses were b u i l t had to contribute one hundred and f i f t y man hours free, but further work was remunerated at $1.25 per hour. In addition, the householder had to pay the Community Development Services ten percent of an estimated income for f i v e years after which they would be given f u l l ownership and the half acre l o t on which the house stood. By 1961, thirteen houses had been - 60 -b u i l t and four more were planned for the following year. There are many indications that t h i s program i s pro-ducing the desired r e s u l t s .... There are s t i l l many problems to be solved but the way of l i f e of these people w i l l never return to the low ebb they knew before 1 , 6 While the Community Development Services were becom-ing a potent force i n Manitoba, a project amongst the C h u r c h i l l Indian Band was undertaken by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch.7 From December 1959 to March 1960, Walter Hlady was i n v i t e d to study how the two hundred and seventy Chipewyan Indians, l i v i n g on the ou t s k i r t s of C h u r c h i l l could be helped through community development. The movements of t h i s nomadic t r i b e had for two centuries hinged on the trading post at C h u r c h i l l , but recently a change had occurred and the Band had become a dependent group l i v i n g i n sub-standard shacks on the fringe of the white community. A sedentary way of l i f e having become established, the Indians had d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting to work for wages. They spoke l i t t l e English, were not accustomed to beinglemployed and possessed few s k i l l s . Consequently, most were i n receipt of welfare and a few drew unemployment bene-f i t s . The primary purpose of the project was to see what could be effected amongst a primitive group i n a short period of s i x months, and the secondary purpose was to determine what the elements for community developments would l i k e l y be for a longer period. 9lbId., p. 9. 7W. M. Hlady, A Community Development Project Amongst the C h u r c h i l l Band at C h u r c h i l l . Manitoba, Saskatoon, 1960. - 61 -In the short time available, i t would appear from those programs instituted,that the community development approach was a successful way of helping the Chipewyans to become s e l f - r e l i a n t , and i n the long run, to achieve a reason-able standard of l i v i n g . One of the major achievements was to " s e l l " the Indians to the whites by means of talks, newspaper a r t i c l e s and personal contacts. Another important point was the use of the school teacher as a resource person for lan-guage classes or running f i l m shows. He was found to be well-placed because, i n Indian thinking, he was not connected with the government and thus h i s a c t i v i t i e s would not be r e l a t e d to the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Generally speaking, the teacher i s also divorced from the church influence and, as an educator, he i s more l i k e l y to use educational aides more e f f e c t i v e l y than the layman. With the coming of the Community Development Services, new projects were devised only after consultation with the regional supervisor of Indian A f f a i r s because the Services' finances were arranged so that the Indian A f f a i r s Branch should share half the cost. It was also necessary to maintain close l i a i s o n with t h i s agency, as well as with others, i n order to coordinate support services and avoid duplication. An example of coordination i s seen i n the manner i n which, every year, the Department of Mines has conducted courses i n prospecting. These have been i n various locations and have lasted a week. They are designed to enable the native people to i d e n t i f y the main ores, r e g i s t e r , stake and s e l l claims. - 62 -For the women, the Indian Homemakers' Clubs, which were founded i n 1937, have helped r a i s e the status of native women. These organizations, which are similar to Women's Institutes, seek to help the aged and less fortunate, d i s -cover and t r a i n leaders, and sponsor and ass i s t a l l worth-while community projects. In addition to these a n c i l l a r y activities, adult edu-cation has continued alongside community development. A wide variety of courses i n Winnipeg, C h u r c h i l l , F a i r f o r d Reserve, Roseau River Reserve, Norway House and Hodgson, to mention a few locations, have aroused inte r e s t , enthusiasm, and gene-r a l l y requests for continuation. Most of these courses have been sponsored by the Community Welfare Planning Council of Winnipeg. In 1963, many programs had been i n i t i a t e d by the Community Development Services i n s t r a t e g i c a l l y located centres throughout the province. O f f i c e r s could be found i n C h u r c h i l l , Berens River, Camperville, Cedar Lake, Grand Rapids, Norway House, The Pas and Thompson. According to the Annual Report for 1963, nine co-operatives and one credit union were i n operation and the housing projects mentioned had been expanded. Expenditure on the t o t a l service was four times larger than i n the f i r s t year of service. By 1964, a vocational guidance o f f i c e r had been added to the s t a f f at headquarters i n Winnipeg. He was re-quired to work with a r e s t r i c t e d number of Indians and Metis - 63 -Q to help them move into permanent employment. Also under the new federal Indian A f f a i r s plan, three community development o f f i c e r s were reported to have been assigned to Manitoba. To a s s i s t i n evaluating the e f f i c a c y of the Manitoba program, the report recently prepared by Professor Dallyn i s valuable.® He i s of the opinion that the service has proven i t s e l f , but that i t i s far too small. Only fourteen percent of the Metis who l i v e i n communities, and about the same per-centage of Indians l i v i n g i n Reserves, are served by community development o f f i c e r s . In other words, only eight thousand out of f i f t y - s i x thousand are affected. The ultimate goal must, therefore, be to vastly extend the service, i f a l l are to benefit. What i s required i s to u t i l i z e established techniques in a new approach to the o v e r a l l problem. This w i l l require the community development o f f i c e r to work i n several communities instead of being absorbed i n one. O f f i c e r s , therefore, "would have to standardize t h e i r procedures to some extent and give up the extceme individualism they now enjoy as they go about th e i r tasks. Standardizing procedures requires a "process focus" ^Community Development Services, Department of Wel-fare, Community Development Services Vocational Guidance and  Job Placement Program, Winnipeg, June, 1964, p. 2. 9 J . G. Dallyn, Community Development Service Evalu- ation, Community Development Services, Department of Welfare, Winnipeg, 1964. 10Ibid., p. 19. - 64 -rather than an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c "project focus." There are four areas i n which the community development o f f i c e r can be of assistance here: (1) to determine f e l t need and to stimulate motivation, (2) to develop new leaders, (3) to develop new community organizations, (4) to increase use of government s e r v i c e s . 1 1 Dallyn believes that i n order to reach a l l com-munities and a l l people i n those communities, the f i r s t task i s to i n i t i a t e some experience i n s o c i a l organization before going on to (2), (3) and (4). This would mean that the pro-vince would have to be organized into suitable units and that a service sequence be established whereby a community develop-ment o f f i c e r would stay i n one area for s i x months to do what he could before leaving for the next location. His suc-cessor would have to pick up the threads. If the same sequence were followed o v e r a l l , i t would be a f e a s i b l e plan. The proposal made here goes contrary to the established assumption that i t takes a community development o f f i c e r a considerable period of time to gain the confidence of people and that t h i s i s necessary before he can be of any r e a l assistance to them. 1 2 Dallyn f e e l s that there are too many arbit r a r y ways of dealing with problems found i n a l l communities and that they are hindering e f f e c t i v e and widespread development. If r e a l progress i s to be made, some routine way of handling recurrent problems must be found. S p e c i a l i s t s should leave leaders on the i r own u n t i l they need s p e c i a l i z e d help. 1 : L I b i d . , p. 20. 12Ibid., p. 21. - 65 -Quebec To test whether a program of economic and s o c i a l development can be applied to other disadvantaged regions of Quebec, a p i l o t project i n the eastern part of the province was started i n 1963. The area selected for the i n i t i a l experi-ment i s i n the Lower St. Lawrence and Gaspe regions and covers an area of f i f t e e n thousand square miles. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , agriculture has provided the main source of income, together with f i s h i n g and fo r e s t r y . Today, large t r a c t s of land have gone to waste, forests have been destroyed by exploitation, and the supply of f i s h has been depleted. Although an i n -creasing t o u r i s t trade i s bringing new wealth, the region i s extremely poor. The population of 325,000 l i v e s i n two hundred and twenty small v i l l a g e s and earns an annual mean income of between $600.00 to $1,000.00. According to the season, the rate of unemployment varies from forty to eighty percent. It i s , i n b r i e f , " l ' e n d r o i t reve pour f a i r e quelque chose avec presque r i e n . " 1 3 The French Canadian i s not generally thought to be i n the same s o c i a l or economic bracket as the Indian or Eskimo. It can be observed from the few facts given, however, that hi s s i t u a t i o n i s not d i s s i m i l a r . One Regional Liai s o n O f f i c e r from Sudbury, Ontario, puts i t well. "I have the impression that i n t h i s region, French Canadians f e e l as "native' as 1 3A. Lauzon, "Bas Saint-Laurent et Gaspe'sie: Un Nouvel Espoir," Le Magazine Maclean, December, 1964, p. 23. - 66 -In d i a n s . " 1 4 In the Gaspe region, then, the predominantly French Canadian population i s the f i r s t to benefit from the development program, although those Indian Bands who l i v e there also derive benefit. Otherwise, there are no spec i a l arrangements for the l a t t e r . A l e t t e r from the Indian A f f a i r s Branch informs that " l e s programmes mis de l'avant par l a Direction des A f f a i r e s Indiennes sont les memes pour tout l e Canada." 1 5 The project for the east of Quebec i s under the spon-sorship of ARDA. ARDA was introduced into Quebec l e g i s l a t i o n in June, 1963, and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Bureau de l'Ame-nagement de l'Est de Quebec (BAEQ), which administers the project, i s complicated. Since May, 1956, an organization, c a l l e d Conseil d'Orientation Economique du Bas Saint-Laurent (COEB), has t r i e d to f i n d a basis for economic development i n that area. A similar organization was established i n 1963, c a l l e d Conseil Regional d*Expansion Economique de l a Gaspesie et des Iles-de-la Madeleine (CREEGIM). These two councils were i n v i t e d subsequently to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the formation of a private society to prepare the plan of development for the areas of Temiscouata, Riviere-du-Loup, Rmouski, Matane, Mata-pedier, Gaspe-Nord, Gaspe-Sud, Bonaventure and the Iles-de-la Madeleine. l 4 L e t t e r from S. Zybala, 8 February, 1965. l 5 L e t t e r from R. L. Boulanger, 5 February, 1965, f i l e 87/29-6(BD). - 67 -The private society became known as BAEQ and was sta f f e d by ten regional directors, a consultant, two represen-t a t i v e s from the p r o v i n c i a l government and the presidents of COEB and CREEGIM. The p r o v i n c i a l ministry of Agriculture and Colonization i s connected with i t s administration, and active i n the technical domain i s the Comite Permanent dYAmenagement des Resources (CPAR), which represents s i x functional mini-s t r i e s : f i s h e r i e s , agriculture, forests, natural resources, industry and commerce, and municipal a f f a i r s . BAEQ i s also linked with the Sous-Comite d'Amenagement Terr i t o r i a l (SCAT) and i n d i r e c t l y with the p r o v i n c i a l Conseil d'Orientation Economique (COE). As i n other parts of Canada, the federal government shares equally the cost with the province. In short, BAEQ i s an administrative organization, receiving federal and pro-v i n c i a l funds, and r e l y i n g on s i x min i s t r i e s for technical advice and two councils for economic d i r e c t i o n . The s t a f f of BAEQ consists of researchers, economists, s o c i o l o g i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l development o f f i c e r s . As these people have th e i r headquarters at Mont J o l i , the bureau has been aptly nicknamed l Y U n i v e r s i t e de Mont J o l i . There are seventy permanent s t a f f and eighty students during the vaca-tio n s . In 1964 there were nin development o f f i c e r s , known as animateurs sociaux, and the number i s to be increased to f i f -teen t h i s year. Their f i r s t task was to form l o c a l committees. There now exist one hundred and f o r t y . The members of such committees - 68 -were encouraged to interest themselves i n community a f f a i r s . They were asked to draw up inventories of resources and to suggest plans for improvement, because i t was seen as essen-t i a l that l o c a l people should appreciate their own economic and s o c i a l condition. For the f i r s t time, the lo t of the inhabitants depended not on the good w i l l of the depute, or of the pr i e s t , or of fate, but on themselves. Sometimes, there has been resistance to change, and Lauzon has noted some f r i c t i o n between p r i e s t s and development personnel.!6 Each has considered the other's work as u n r e a l i s t i c . The animateur has seen the cure as maintaining an outmoded status quo and the cure has regarded the other as forcing change when nothing was possible or desirable. Planning has not been l e f t e n t i r e l y to l o c a l committees. S p e c i a l i s t assistance has been at hand, and one posit i v e aspect of the BAEQ has been that i t has allowed researchers from u n i v e r s i t i e s to put th e i r theory into p r a c t i c e . This has been the f i r s t time i n Quebec that a serious inventory of natural and human resources has been made. The inventory w i l l serve as a basis for expanded action programs. The stake of the university i n the l i f e of Quebec i s considerable. Dyson writes that Professor Gerald F o r t i n of the Social Science Faculty, Universite Laval, i s a high-level regular consultant to the BAEQ p r o j e c t . 1 7 In addition, the i t oLauzon, op. c i t . , p. 24. 1 7 L e t t e r from W. A. Dyson, 22 March, 1965. - 69 -name of F o r t i n i s often mentioned, together with that of Tremblay, i n connection with research work elsewhere. To-gether they have ca r r i e d out a study into the l e v e l of l i v -ing for families i n the province of Quebec. 1 8 This three year project, which started i n 1960, has examinedthe s t r u c t -ure of the budget, the modes of spending, and the f e l t needs of a sample population l i v i n g i n urban and r u r a l , non-agri-c u l t u r a l areas. This sample was considered to represent between seventy and eighty percent of a l l French Canadian families i n the province. The study has shown that there exist many family needs i n French-Canada which at present are largely unmet. Nous avons vu aussi que pour l a population £tudiee, tous l e s besoins, sauf l a nourriture et les soins medicaux, etaient extensibles indefiniment. Le revenu dont disposent les t r a v a i l l e u r s s a l a r i e s ne leur per-met de s a t i s f a i r e pleinement aucun de leurs besoins. En consequence, meme les families a haut revenu se sentent privees .... Les plus pauvres comme les plus fortunes sont constamment en etat d'aspiration puis-qu'a mesure qu ' i l s acquierent un bien nouveau, l a technologie et l a p u b l i c i t e se chargent de creer de nouveaux besoins. Comme on ne reu s s i t jamais a acque-r i r tous les biens existants, on ressert constamment des p r i v a t i o n s . 1 9 Whatever the methods used to analyse the structure of needs, the r e s u l t s concur. M&me s i une certaine indetermination est inevitable, on peut c l a s s i f i e r les besoins selon leur importance 18M.-A. Tremblay, G. Fort i n , "Enquete sur les Condi-tions de Vie de l a Famille Canadienne-Francaise: l'Univers des Besoins," Recherches -Sociographiques, Vol. IV, No. 1, Les Presses.de 1'University Laval, 1963. 19lbid., p. 45. - 70 -pour l a population de l a maniere suivante. 1. Mobilier 5. Soins medicaux 2. Automobile 6. Nourriture 3. Assurances 7. L o i s i r s 4. Logement 8. Vetements 20 While t h i s study does not have application to an action project, i t , l i k e so many other studies, lays the basis and provides much needed research information on com-munities and t h e i r structures. In t h i s respect, i t i s i n t e -r e s t i n g to note that a group, Le Groupe Anthropologique et Sociologique pour 1'Etude des Communautes (GASPEC) was formed in 1962 to study s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n French-Canadian society. Rather than conducting i n d i v i d u a l studies i n i s o l a t i o n , an attempt has been made to see the community as a whole. The f i r s t region for study was at Saint H i l a i r e , f i f t y - f i v e miles from Montreal i n the Richelieu Valley. Other projects of a community development nature are i n process. In summary form, these are: 1. Urban and Social Redevelopment Project, Montreal. This i s a f i v e year action research project concerned with a section of the inner c i t y of Montreal, and commenced June 1, 1964, with Dr. John F r e i , as Director. 2. Conseil des Oeuvres, Montreal, has been involved with some urban community development within the c i t y . 3. Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, at Ottawa, 20ibid. - 71 -has been involved with a program with Indians on the Caughnawaga Reserve.21 Alberta There are calculated to be about 22,000 treaty Indians l i v i n g i n Alberta, mostly on Reserves. The precise number of Metis i s unknown, but probably they exist i n a similar amount, making a t o t a l of some 44,000 people of Indian ancestry or nearly three percent of the p r o v i n c i a l population. The pro-blems encountered by these people, d i f f e r i n g i n no way from those a f f e c t i n g Indians and Metis i n other parts of Canada, have l e d to the establishment of a Community Development Branch i n the Department of Industry and Development, on July 1, 1964. The Alberta program, l i k e that of Manitoba, i s orien-ted to provide intensive community service through community development o f f i c e r s whose areas of operation are b a s i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to the area i n which they l i v e . Their duties are governed by three objectives: (1) To help the communities organize themselves so that normal services available to a l l c i t i z e n s are available to the Indians and Metis, (2) to as s i s t i n the improvement of the s o c i a l and economic s i t u a -t i o n , (3) to help create a s o c i a l climate i n the wider society which w i l l permit Indians and Metis to assume an equal place with other Albertan people. 2lLetter from S. Goldbloom, 17 March, 1965. - 72 -The community development program was organized as a jo i n t venture between the federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments to be administered by the l a t t e r . In the i n i t i a l stages, for policy and programming at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , i t has come d i r e c t l y under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a cabinet committee of four members, comprised of the Minister of Public Welfare, the Minister Without P o r t f o l i o and Chairman of the Northern Development Council, the Minister of Industry and Development and the Minister of Public Works, who i s chairman. In practice, the Deputy Minister of Industry and Development s i t s i n on t h i s cabinet committee as well. At the federal l e v e l , t h i s program, as well as others r e l a t i n g to a l l native peoples i n Alberta, i s managed and coordinated by a Federal-Provincial Co-ordinating Committee composed of four representatives of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and four from the province. In f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , the federal government i s pre-pared to a s s i s t f i n a n c i a l l y i n Alberta's community develop-ment projects i n the following manner. In mixed communities, they a s s i s t to an extent commensurate with the proportion of Indians i n the project area, but on Reserves i t i s more com-pl i c a t e d . The complication arises because Indian A f f a i r s i s now inaugurating a community development program for a l l of Canada and as yet we are not sure how the Indians them-selves w i l l view the two programs. We fear they may see the programs as competing systems but hope t h i s p i t f a l l may be avoided through Federal-Provincial co-operation.22 22community Development Branch, Department of Industry and Development, Community Development i n Alberta: Statement of A c t i v i t i e s to Date, Edmonton, February, 1965, p. 3. - 73 -A f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l meeting was held i n October, 1964, to help s e t t l e c e r t a i n administrative and f i n a n c i a l arrangements but the outcome of the conference i s not known. Under the federal, integrated plan, the Indian Afcairs Branch has already put to work one community development o f f i c e r i n Alberta. He was placed i n Hay Lakes, which i s west of Fort Vermilion, on June 1, 1964. This o f f i c e r has been meeting with the Indian people to help them i d e n t i f y their needs and problems. He has also been engaged i n elementary adult education and community organization. Two associations have been formed there, a Workmen's Association to provide employ-ment, and a Livestock Marketing Association to explore ways of promoting t h i s industry.23 Under the p r o v i n c i a l plan, there i s now one provin-c i a l coordinator of community development, James R. Whitford, and three o f f i c e r s i n the f i e l d at Fort Chipewyan, Fort McMurray and Slave Lake. These areas, together with another i n Southern Alberta, have been selected after an extensive survey by Mr. Whitford i n early 1964. The areas decided upon were chosen on the degree of interest indicated by l o c a l people, because the Community Development Branch does not wish to enter an area against t h e i r w i l l . There was also an attempt to choose communities s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one another i n order that the experiences at those s i t e s might increase the knowledge of the s o c i a l processes which take place, so that more e f f e c t i v e planning could be effected i n future. 23Letter from R. D. Ragan, 3 February, 1965, f i l e 205/1-2. - 74 -To r e c r u i t personnel for the community development program i n Alberta, i s proving no easier than elsewhere i n Canada. To f i n d those who possess s e n s i t i v i t y , maturity, t r a i n i n g , i n t e l l i g e n c e , s k i l l and d i s c i p l i n e , men from the Social Science f a c u l t i e s of the u n i v e r s i t i e s are being sought. "Needless to say, these are a rare breed i n Canada and they command a high price on the open market."24 Whit-ford writes more s p e c i f i c a l l y , "I prefer people with an anthropological or s o c i o l o g i c a l background and am prepared 2 5 to look 'a mari usque ad mare'." The community development o f f i c e r i s expected "to esta b l i s h a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with a l l people i n the area and to seek out and encourage potential native leaders."2' It w i l l be observed that these are the f i r s t two steps sug-gested by Dallyn as those to be pursued by Manitoba's o f f i -cers. Whitford writes, "I do not wish to suggest that 'com-munication' and 'leadership' are the only problems we w i l l be faced with but they are the c r u c i a l problems, which, i f not solved, w i l l render our other work v a l u e l e s s . " 2 7 He, i n another place, alludes to problems which personnel encounter ^Community Development Branch, Department of Industry and Development, Preliminary Statement of a Community Develop- ment Program for the Province of Alberta, Edmonton, A p r i l , 1964, p. 5. 2 5 L e t t e r from J. R. Whitford, 28 January, 1965. 2 6Community Development Branch, Statement of A c t i v i - t i e s , p. 2. 2 7 I b i d , - 75 -most frequently i n the f i e l d . 2 8 These are i n a b i l i t y to meet the native on the native's own terms and i n a b i l i t y to r e t a i n the co-operation of some of the white population i n the native community. Community development has been c a r r i e d out i n the broadest sense for many years through such media as Leader-ship Training Courses i n a variety of communities. These have been arranged between the Department of Extension at the University of Alberta, and the Ci t i z e n s h i p and Indian A f f a i r s Branches of the Department of Ci t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. Through the e f f o r t s of such bodies, Band Councils have become increasingly responsible for t h e i r own administration. Since August, 1964, f i f t e e n Bands have administered t h e i r own reve-nue monies under Section 68 of the Indian Act, and several have hire d secretaries to conduct t h e i r business. Also the increased establishment of school committees has involved many Indians i n school a f f a i r s . Most of the activities of the Extension Department of the University have been confined to a s s i s t i n g other agencies or groups to prepare workshops, t r a i n i n g courses and communi-ty surveys. "This r o l e i s a s p e c i a l i z e d one and one which perhaps we can f i l l most e f f e c t i v e l y , using the resources of the University, es p e c i a l l y i n such f a c u l t i e s as Sociology, Economics, A g r i c u l t u r e . " 2 9 2 8 L e t t e r from Whitford, 28 January, 1965. 2 9 L e t t e r from G. A. Eyford, 17 February, 1965. - 76 -Through the services of the l i a i s o n o f f i c e r of the Citiz e n s h i p Branch, many leadership courses have been under-taken since about 1957, and i t would appear that they have been successful. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that i n 1963, the group of students taking the course at St. Paul, Alberta, were found to be at a more advanced stage than the course had anticipated or prepared f o r . Such a course might be described as serving about twenty students from neighbouring Bands. The course, such as the one given i n 1961, at Saddle Lake Agency, would l a s t a week and would include group discussions about the community and in s t r u c t i o n on how to survey such an en t i t y . Considerable time would be spent i n discussing how to convert the needs into action. Other subjects dealt with would i n -clude l e g a l services and how a person i n trouble could make use of them, speech making and rules of procedures for meet-ings. Some time would be devoted to putting the theory into practice by making the students responsible for a project, such as organizing a banquet. For such an undertaking, they would be given a free hand and would be expected to hir e the h a l l , i n v i t e the guests, introduce people, draw-up the menu, make speeches, and provide the entertainment.30 In 1962 a seminar was held at the University of Alberta to discuss "The Challenge of A s s i s t i n g the Canadian Aboriginal People to Adjust to Urban Environments." The 30Leadership Training Course - Saddle Lake Indian Agency, Unpublished Report from Senior Liais o n O f f i c e r , Western Canada to Chief Liaison O f f i c e r , December 7, 1961. - 77 -material from t h i s conference i s somewhat outside the scope of t h i s study, but one of i t s recommendations has s i g n i f i -cance for community development. The participants f e l t that to enable the r u r a l person to more re a d i l y f i t into the urban pattern of l i v i n g , community development could play a major r o l e . It was recommended that "an important and s t r a t e -gic area to pursue next would be that of a genuine community development program of the type that wouldrreach and meet the need of r u r a l areas and small towns with prominent Indian populations as well as Indian Reserves."21 Now that community development has become a r e a l i t y , what i s the outlook? Whitford writes: In considering a two-year experimental program, we must be prepared to expect that people i n areas not served by our f i r s t projects w i l l attempt to have the govern-ment extend th e i r program. I would suggest that the government keep an open mind to t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y and be prepared to consider i t s merits at the end of the f i r s t -year's operation.32 As t h i s time approaches, Alberta i s widely advertis-ing community development positions at extremely a t t r a c t i v e s a l a r i e s and, therefore, the inference i s that Alberta i n -tends i t s service to expand i n order to meet the requirements of a growing problem. 31G. K. Hirabayashi, A. J. Cormier, V. S. Billow (Eds.), The Challenge of A s s i s t i n g the Canadian Aboriginal  People to Adjust to Urban Environments, Seminar Report, Uni-ve r s i t y of Alberta, Edmonton, 1962, p. 42. 32community Development Branch, Preliminary State- ment , p. 7. - 78 -Nova Scotia The D i v i s i o n of Social Development i n the Nova Scotia Department of Public Welfare was established i n November, 1964. In February, 1965, i t obtained i t s f i r s t f u l l - t i m e director, George H. Matthews. He w i l l take up hi s duties at the beginning of May. Although the term s o c i a l rather than community deve-lopment has been used, the f i e l d s are synonymous, except that the work of the D i v i s i o n w i l l be i n semi-urban, rather than in r u r a l areas, and w i l l take place amongst a predominantly Negro population. Nova Scotia has approximately twelve thousand Negroes, or about f i f t y percent of the Negro population of Canada. Generally speaking, these people are s o c i a l l y , economically and educationally deprived. The f i r s t task of the D i v i s i o n w i l l be an attempt to stimulate a se l f - h e l p program that w i l l have some e f f e c t . At the moment, there i s a research program under way i n three disadvantaged Negro communities which are situated closely together. "The preliminary report of t h i s project indicates that we should place a s o c i a l development o f f i c e r i n these communities to help with employment, trades and vocational t r a i n i n g and housing problems that presently exist i n these communities." 0 0 It i s proposed that an additional S o c i a l Development 33Letter from G. H. Matthews, 17 February, 1965. - 79 -o f f i c e r w i l l be appointed to a s s i s t , i n a similar manner, a community near the Halifax metropolitan area. To help finance these programs, use w i l l be made of federal welfare grants and assistance through ARDA. It i s f e l t that no one approach w i l l solve a l l the problems, but i t i s hoped that research i n c e r t a i n areas followed by action programs w i l l show how future problems may be tackled most e f f e c t i v e l y . Matthews adds that " i n a l l our work we w i l l attempt to coordinate the agencies presently working i n these areas, e.g. adult education, extension departments of u n i v e r s i t i e s , churches and other departments of government . ,.." 3 4 So far one o f f i c e r has been appointed from amongst the e x i s t i n g departmental s t a f f . It i s believed that other s t a f f are being r e c r u i t e d and that the next year w i l l see the development of a t r a i n i n g course, based upon the sp e c i a l needs of the Nova Scotia program. One sp e c i a l project, undertaken i n a mixed-white com-munity by the Family and Children's Services of Hants County deserves detailed description. Its emphasis i s on community development i n the s t r i c t sense and indicates the way i n which urban work may be done i n the future. This project w i l l continue for three years after which time a survey w i l l measure what change, i f any, has taken place. The following i s part of a l e t t e r to the writer from 3 4 l b i d v - 80 -Harold D. Crowell, the Executive Director, of the Family and 35 Children's Services. Our Community Development Project has only been under-way for the l a s t three months. However, the community that we have chosen i s well known to us as we have been doing extensive s o c i a l work i n that area for the past ten years. The area chosen i s known as Three Mile Plains and Five Mile Plai n s . It has, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , been an area of low income, with many of the early s e t t l e r s being coloured people, who had been former slaves i n the Ame-rican States. Many had escaped and came to Windsor on ships that were engaged i n transporting goods between Windsor and the eastern American seaboard. Because of the l i m i t e d resources of the people they tended to erect very inadequate housing, and the land that they s e t t l e d on was cheaper and less f e r t i l e than that i n the sur-rounding areas. Through the years white people, who were not very successful f i n a n c i a l l y , have tended to d r i f t into the area because of the low-housing and low-land costs. This t r a d i t i o n of poverty has been handed on through successive generations for the l a s t one hundred years. The area was chosen as a project area because i t had always required a much higher proportion of municipal s o c i a l assistance than the population i n the surrounding area, and a great deal of the time of the Social Workers i n t h i s agency was spent i n working with people i n the area. In 1960 we applied to Welfare Grants D i v i s i o n , Department of Health and Welfare, Ottawa, f o r a grant to do a demonstration project i n the area because the com-munities chosen are similar to many on the fringes of towns throughout Nova Scotia and many parts of Canada. Our request was granted i n 1964, and on December 1st a house to house survey was conducted to establish indu-s t r i e s which would measure the s o c i a l economic l e v e l of the people i n the area at the present time. This survey was c a r r i e d out by the Acadia Ins t i t u t e and included such things as housing, health, economics, crime, rec-reation, and le v e l s of employment. This survey has now been completed, and from t h i s we have determined that there are 180 families i n the project area, 40 of which are coloured. As an in d i c a t i o n of the l e v e l of housing we found that 27 families were l i v i n g i n housing within 400 square feet of f l o o r space. Actually housing and employment stood out as the two main problems that should be dealt with as soon as possible. On January 1st we put 3 5 L e t t e r from H. D. Crowell, 26 February, 1965. - 81 -a f u l l y trained Social Worker into the area as a Com-munity Development Worker. It i s the function of t h i s Worker to act as a catalyst and a resource person for the area. To date, meetings have been held with many of the residents of the area, and a Community Betterment Association i s to be formed. This w i l l have sub-com-mittees on housing, employment, recreation, health, wel-fare and education. The people i n the community have shown a great enthusiasm to try to benefit t h e i r l o t , and a desire to work together. A lack of unity has been one of the main problems i n the area up to the present time. A further resource committee has been established i n the larger white community which has drawn i n people from agriculture, education, health, welfare, and lay-people who, because of the i r position, may have many ideas to contribute that would be h e l p f u l i n our work i n t h i s project. One of the most s a t i s f y i n g things to date i s the fact that at a public meeting, both coloured and white, agreed that there should not be two separate groups formed, but that the coloured and white people must work together i f the community i s to advance, and they a l l wanted to belong to the same organization. One of the most d i f f i c u l t problems we f e e l that we are going to have to come to grips with, i s housing as there does not appear to be adequate l e g i s l a t i o n at the present time to enable people on very low incomes to b u i l d a home of the i r own. It has been t r a d i t i o n a l for these people to be home-owners, regardless of the fact, that very often t h i s only meant a very inadequate shack. This however, r e l i e v e s some of the a&xiety since many only work f i v e to eight months out of the year, and would otherwise face e v i c t i o n when they are unemployed. .... There are a number of resources that we intend to draw upon, for example, the Federal A g r i c u l t u r a l Experi-mental Station which i s located i n a near-by County has indicated that they might be w i l l i n g to set up a sub-station i n t h i s area which would t r a i n people i n the grow-ing of small f r u i t s , such as strawberries, or raspberries, on a f a i r l y extensive basis. This i s not being done i n the area at the present time, and very l i t t l e use i s being made of the land available. As I have perhaps indicated, there are many regions i n the Maritimes where projects, such as we are carrying out, could be used. It i s perhaps a l i t t l e early yet to forecast what the implications of the r e s u l t s of our pro-ject might be, but ce r t a i n l y i f i t i s successful to any extent, there i s going to be a tremendous push i n the - 82 -area of community development with most s o c i a l agencies. From a s o c i a l point of view I would hope that we might be able to help the people i n the area obtain more ade-quate housing to achieve a better image of themselves i n th e i r community, and through the process of s e l f - h e l p i n working together, achieve a much closer r e l a t i o n s h i p with other members of the community. You may also be interested i n knowing that within the next few days we w i l l be negotiating with the Department of Indian A f f a i r s with a view of taking on complete ser-vices of the Mic Mac Reserve, at Shubenacadie, which would include c h i l d welfare, administration of s o c i a l assistance i n the community development program. I am not sure whether these negotiations w i l l be successful, but c e r t a i n l y i t seems to me, the most l o g i c a l way of attack-ing the rather severe problems that exist on the Reserve. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s also active i n Nova Scotia i n the f i e l d of community development, but as the Branch operates on a regional basis, t h e i r involvement w i l l be described i n the section on the Maritime Provinces. This chapter has dealt with the programs of the four provinces whose governments have undertaken community develop-ment. A l l these programs have possessed the four basic e l e -ments st i p u l a t e d as e s s e n t i a l i n the general variety of com-munity development. 3 6 They have contained, i n other words, (1) planning for the needs of the t o t a l community, (2) s e l f -help as the basis for action, (3) technical assistance when required, (4) integration of s p e c i a l i s t services. To i n i t i a t e the programs, those with s p e c i a l i s t t r a i n i n g and usually possessing university degrees i n s o c i a l science, have been retained. See page 8. - 83 -The programs of Manitoba and Alberta have been planned to reach those of Indian ancestry, while Nova Scotia's re-cently planned program w i l l affect Indian, Negro and white persons. The program of Quebec has been of a s l i g h t l y d i f f e -rent type as i t reaches a predominantly white French Canadian population. The information concerning t h i s program i s unfor-tunately incomplete, but i t would appear that i t has been established to meet an unique problem i n a way t y p i c a l of Quebec. The i n t r i c a c i e s of the administration have been described whereby a private organization has been financed by the p r o v i n c i a l and the federal governments to undertake an extensive action research program. This may be la t e r applied on a larger scale throughout the province. CHAPTER VI PROVINCES WITHOUT ESTABLISHED COMMUNITY  DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS The following sections have dealt with those provin-ces or regions where no comprehensive programs of community development have been introduced. A l l these provinces or regions have in operation, however, a number of projects or lim i t e d programs i n a variety of government departments and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . These have been described under the provinces or regions which have been l i s t e d a lphabetically. B r i t i s h Columbia Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y come under the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of the Indian Commissioner in the Regional O f f i c e at Vancouver and, therefore, any pro-gram established for the one area would have application i n the other. However, there i s no comprehensive community deve-lopment program i n the region except the Indian Leadership Education program, directed by two s t a f f members of the Ex-tension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and financed by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. In addition to the fu l l - t i m e personnel,, part-time use i s made of others with s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n leadership and adult education. Indian Leadership Education Program. This program has been i n operation for two years and was requested i n i t i a l l y - 85 -by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch a,nd the North American Brother-hood. The objectives are to develop the a b i l i t y of the Indians to handle their own a f f a i r s and to help them understand the problems which confront them i n the modern world. The content of the programs i s concerned with s p e c i f i c problem areas, such as education, housing, employment, economic development and recreation. The method by which t h i s i s c a r r i e d out i s by using adult education techniques i n workshops and i n discus-sion groups amongst Indian Band Councils and Band members. Training sessions are also conducted for s t a f f members of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Workshops and sessions l a s t about three days and are conducted i n d i f f e r e n t centres around the Province. This enables a large number of people to benefit from the workshops by reducing the distances they have to t r a v e l to attend such courses. The t e r r i t o r y i s so large that i t i s impractical to cover i t a l l . Not only are many of the Bands extremely small, but i n many cases, they are i n remote areas and not easy to v i s i t . The hope i s that, eventually, the eighteen agency superintendents w i l l learn enough to be able to t r a i n the Band Councils and carry out a type of community development themselves. The Program for 1965-1966 w i l l be on the same basis as i n 1964. A c t i v i t i e s w i l l be conducted at various lev e l s and with various kinds of groups. 1 i U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Extension Depart-- 86 -1. On Reserves Participants might be Band members and co u n c i l l o r s from one Reserve, although members of neighbouring Bands, having similar interests and problems, might be included. Indian Agency s t a f f might well be included, especially i f some new development i n the Reserve i s to be discussed. Because only a few workshops of t h i s sort can be handled due to shortage of time, money and personnel, s e l e c t i o n i s done with an eye to places where new i n d u s t r i a l or commercial undertakings are planned. 2. Area Workshops These are designed for chiefs and c o u n c i l l o r s and are r e s i d e n t i a l courses, l a s t i n g from two to four days. Their emphasis i s on the management of Band a f f a i r s . Staff from the agencies concerned are supplemented by resource personnel. For those leaders, who have attended some of the be-ginners' workshops, more advanced programs are envisaged, i f time and finances permit. "They would be given s p e c i a l t r a i n -ing i n group work so that they could not only be more e f f e c t -ive i n t h e i r home s i t u a t i o n but could also serve as discus-sion leaders or s t a f f when a workshop i s held i n their area. They might become good r e c r u i t s for band managers or community development a s s i s t a n t s . " 2 ment, Submission for Programs for B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Edu-cation Program 1965-1966, to Indian A f f a i r s Branch, 1965. 2 I b i d . , p. 3. - 87 -For t h i s year, two or three r e s i d e n t i a l workshops are planned. 3. I.A.B. Staff Workshops Two or three workshops with agency s t a f f are planned on an area basis. These w i l l be to help s t a f f increase t h e i r understanding of educational p r i n c i p l e s and techniques i n order to improve their s k i l l s i n working with councils. 4. I n v i t a t i o n a l Workshops on Indian A f f a i r s In the future, i t i s proposed to bring together, at least once a year, a number of Indians who are outstanding i n th e i r knowledge of Indian attitudes and problems. They w i l l discuss with q u a l i f i e d resource persons some of the major issues i n Indian A f f a i r s . "One example may be the transfer to the Province of increasing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the administ-r a t i o n of Indian A f f a i r s . " 0 Such a workshop could provide a nucleus for larger conferences l i k e the one sponsored by the Indian-Eskimo Association for 1965 i n Ontario. Areas of Concern In order to achieve continuity i n contacts with some of the agencies and Branches already served, the following areas w i l l be served i n 1965: (1) Northwest Area - Queen Charlotte Island, Skeena River, Terrace, Babine and B e l l a Coola agencies; (2) Vancouver Island - the West Coast, 3Ibid., p. 5. - 88 -Cowichan and Kwawkewlth agencies; (3) Lower Mainland of Fraser River Valley - Fraser Agency; (4) The Interior - Kamloops, Lytton, Okanagan and Merritt agencies. There i s evidence to suggest that the adult Community Programmes Branch of the Port Simpson Project, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education i s becoming a c t i v e l y engaged i n community development work. Early i n 1965, a project was i n i t i a t e d , under t h e i r leadership, i n Port Simpson, on the Skeena River near Prince Rupert. This project was started as a r e s u l t of a request from the nine hundred or so residents of the area who wanted to know how they might best make use of money from sales of timber on the Reserve. After some deliber-ation they decided to put a f a i r amount into education, some into vocational t r a i n i n g and some into a community development project. As t h i s project i s scarcely underway and as no inform-ation has been received from i t s s t a f f , i t i s not known how i t i s progressing. It i s clear, however, that there are formidable obstacles i n the path of development. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , Port Simpson has been a f i s h i n g community but recently the f i s h population has declined while the number of fishermen has i n -creased. Chronic unemployment has been the r e s u l t . Lacking i n i t i a t i v e , lacking leadership, lacking motivation and over-loaded with debts, the fishermen are f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t to change from their accustomed ways to logging and longshoring. Fortunately, Port Simpson has a reserve of timber and, there-fore, forestry w i l l continue to gain i n importance as the - 89 -f i s h i n g disappears. In B r i t i s h Columbia there i s an Indian Advisory Com-mittee. This body met i n New Westminster i n November, 1964, to discuss topics which are of intimate concern to Indians in the Province. Subjects covered community development, adult education, alcoholism control. Also concerned with the problem of the Indian i s the B r i t i s h Columbia Council of Women. This body has recently completed a study of the "Indian s i t u a t i o n , " i n which many problems>and ways to solve them have been considered. Hawthorn's Study: A formidable study of B r i t i s h Columbia Indians, completed a few years ago, should also be noted at t h i s juncture.'* In 1954, the Department of C i t i z e n -ship and Immigration commissioned the University of B r i t i s h Columbia to undertake an Indian research project under the directorship of Dr. Hawthorn. This study, begun i n May 1954, was to assess the present s i t u a t i o n of a segment of the Indians i n Canada, possibly as a p i l o t study for more expans-ive research, and to obtain data and make recommendations which would lay the basis for future p o l i c y . The study was to include community and family l i f e , resources, employment, education, law relationships, s o c i a l welfare, and administra-t i o n . It has been an immense study, and although the findings were complete by 1956, the report, i n book form, did not appear u n t i l 1960. ^Hawthorn, Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. - 90 -The problems of the Indians were found to be so severe and so extensive that the only r e a l i s t i c remedies would either to be for an army of s o c i a l workers to r e h a b i l i t a t e the Indians, or for a comprehensive program of community develop-ment to be u n i t i a t e d under the auspices of a reorganized Indian A f f a i r s Branch. The report also noted that any program would require adequate knowledge about the subject to be treated. "This report w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the task of assessing the p o s i t i o n of s p e c i f i c communities. But more detailed study w i l l s t i l l need to be done when the administration plans i n -tensive work i n s p e c i f i c communities, for community develop-ment needs to be tailor-made and adaptable." 6 B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l awaits a comprehensive program. The Maritime Provinces New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton Island constitute the maritime region, which i s administered, as far as the Indian populations are concerned, from the Indian A f f a i r s Regional O f f i c e at Amherst, Nova Scotia, In t h i s area, there are two community development programs being c a r r i e d out at present. The f i r s t has been under contract, since 1959, to the Extension Department of St. Francis Xavier University at Antigonish, Nova Scotia. A s t a f f of three f i e l d workers i s provided by the Extension Department to serve the f i v e Cape Breton Island Indian Reserves at Eskasoni, Whycocomagh, Middle River, Chapel Island and Sydney. 5 I b i d . , p. 429. 6Ibid.', p. 430. - 91 -Two other Reserves are s i m i l a r l y served at Afton and Pictou on the Nova Scotia mainland. The second program i s being c a r r i e d out by two Indian A f f a i r s community development o f f i c e r s , operating out of the Branch's Miramichi agency o f f i c e at Chatham, New Brunswick. They are serving the Reserves of Burnt Church, Eel Ground and Red Bank. Projects undertaken i n these areas involve a variety of a c t i v i t i e s focusing on the development of human resources, economic opportunities and physical aspects of the Reserve. Letters from the Sydney and Bridgetown representatives of the Adult Education Division, Department of Education f o r Nova Scotia, indicate also that the Extension Department of St. Francis Xavier University plans and d i r e c t s most of the leadership t r a i n i n g courses for Indians. The extension program has had the benefit of t h i r t y years experience i n t h i s f i e l d . Popularly known as "The Antigonish Movement," i t s basis has been primarily educational although "the various co-operative a c t i v i t i e s which became i d e n t i f i e d with i t can be regarded as the p r a c t i c a l expression of the ideals and aspirations inspired by t h i s program of adult study." 8 The theory behind the move-ment i s that people i n possession of information and know-ledge about th e i r situations w i l l f i n d t h e i r own way of improv-ing t h e i r economic and s o c i a l conditions. ^Letter from F. B. McKinnon, 11 March, 1965, F i l e 88/1-10 (RSSP). 8 S p e c i a l Report Extract, Nova Scotia Credit Union League, The Philosophy of the Antigonish Movement, 1960. - 92 -Some of the available reports and programs of the short leadership courses, held i n the Maritimes since 1957, indicate the considerable amount of development work that has taken place, and the r e l i g i o u s flavour that has characterized i t - St. Francis Xavier University being Catholic. Relevant also to community development, are the courses i n s o c i a l leadership conducted by the Coady International Institute of t h i s University. The eight month course, leading to a diploma i n s o c i a l leadership, i s designed for men and women from t h i s country and overseas, who wish to engage i n community development and a l l i e d f i e l d s . The course consists of f i e l d work under the supervision of the Institute s t a f f , a ssisted by fieldworkers from the Extension Department, and seminars with leaders experienced i n co-operative marketing, f i s h e r i e s , credit union organization, and educational techniques. Students also attend lectures by leaders i n agriculture, welfare, labour and community development, besides following the regular curriculum, composed of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Antigonish Movement, Adult Education, Economic Co-operation and the fundamentals of the s o c i a l sciences. Rudnicki says that at present ten Indians are taking the course, and that i t i s expected that some of them w i l l be employed at the conclusion of the course either as Band managers or as community development a s s i -stants. "A s p e c i a l short course, designed to give them sp e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the type of work that they w i l l be doing, w i l l be provided, probably during - 93 -the summer months."® In addition to the courses operated or contracted out by Indian A f f a i r s , the Adult Education and Fitness Branch of the Department of Education i n Fredericton states that a number of short Folk Schools for Indians have been conducted i n the past years i n New Brunswick. "While the programmes varied s l i g h t l y - depending upon p a r t i c u l a r problems on each Reserve - most of these were two or three day programmes and the content included such topics as: Programme Planning, Recreation on the Reserve, the conduct of meetings, discus-sion technicques e t c . " 1 ^ These were planned i n close co-oper-ation with the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and have ranged from encouraging more of the young people to complete th e i r educa-t i o n , to recreation programs, n u t r i t i o n and economic matters. The Department of Education i n Nova Scotia, i n addition to the contracted programs, also arranges and conducts fo l k schools i n a similar manner. The f i r s t of them, for Indians, was held at Kennetcock i n November, 1958, and served as an experiment i n a new kind of leadership t r a i n i n g . It was modelled on the non-Indian f o l k schools which have been a feature of adult education i n the Maritimes since early in the 1950's. The students l i v e d i n residence, the program was informal and there was a high degree of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The sponsors were the Nova 9ARDA, CAAE, ICEA, National Consultation (no page given). lOLetter from S. T. Spicer, 1 February, 1965. - 94 -Scotia D i v i s i o n of Adult Education, and the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Staff assistance was provided by St. Francis Xavier University and the New Brunswick Adult Education and Fitness Branch. There are other projects, some of which are r e l a t e d to the Adult Education D i v i s i o n and some of which are not. (a) Musquodoboit River Valley Socio-Economic Study -a general survey, u t i l i z i n g ARDA funds, of a r u r a l area to provide background data as a co r o l l a r y to a flood control project. (Conducted by John Connor, Dept. of Economics, Acadia University.) (b) Musquodoboit Valley Study of the Role of Educa-t i o n i n Rural Development - a study of drop-out i n the schools of the area with a view to determining cause and possible solutions to the problem. (Conducted by D. M. Connor, Dept. of Sociology, St. Francis Xavier University.) (c) Dept. of National Health and Welfare Demonstrat-ion Project, Five Mile Plains - an i n i t i a l socio-economic survey to esta b l i s h a base point i n the f i e l d of health, education, sociology and employment, to be followed by an intensive educational and s o c i a l assistance program. (Conducted by John Connor, Dept. of Economics, Acadia University.) (d) Yarmouth County Study i n Economic Development -designed to provide information of a socio-economic nature as a possible baseline for future development programs. Segments covered are to include f i s h i n g , forestry, agriculture, industry, tourism, transport, education, and population trends. (Conducted by John Connor, Dept. of Economics, Acadia University.) (e) A F e a s i b i l i t y Study to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y for introducing a l t e r n a t i v e f i s h i n g techniques i n an e f f o r t to r e v i t a l i z e a depressed f i s h i n g community on the South Shore. (f) Overseas t r a v e l to study production of f a b r i c s by means of power loom; with a view to introducing cot-tage industries i n depressed r u r a l areas. (g) A plan to develop a community centre and a Hand-c r a f t s program i n a depressed Negro community.11 ARDA, CAAE, ICEA, op. c i t . - 95 -Newfoundland Newfoundland having eliminated i t s Indian population has no longer an "Indian problem,," It has, however, a t h r i v -ing community development program which helps fishermen's communities and farming settlements to work through t h e i r problems. "In such communities educational and economic pro-blems run hand i n hand with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n co-operative s o c i e t i e s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s , and with inadequate or embryonic municipal o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " 1 2 In such circumstances, the community development representative i s c a l l e d upon to advise and make arrangements for experts from ARDA and the federal and p r o v i n c i a l authorities to help these communities improve t h e i r area economically. The community development program i s but one part, although a s i g n i f i c a n t one, of the Extension Service, Memorial University, St. John's. The Extension Department, established i n 1959, also undertakes almost the entire burden of adult education as the Newfoundland Department of Education, being r e s t r i c t e d by shortage of funds, operates only l i m i t e d pro-grams i n adult continuation classes and vocational t r a i n i n g . The arrangements for adult education d i f f e r , therefore, from those i n the mainland of Canada. For example, whereas i n most places school boards provide extensive adult education, i n Newfoundland they are nowhere and i n no way responsible for I 2Annual Reports of Extension Service, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1960-1964, p. 36. - 96 -t h i s . As Memorial University i s the only University i n the Province, and i s l i k e l y to remain so, there i s considerable pressure on i t s f a c i l i t i e s . These facts, as well as the ones following, have sig n i f i c a n c e for any developmental or educational program. The average annual income per head i n Newfoundland i n 1962 was $972, as compared with the national average of $1,658. Educational opportunities, although improv-ing rapidly, are s t i l l i n many places inadequate - i t i s astonishing, i n view of past and continuing heavy d i f f i c u l t i e s , that they are not worse. The Island's economy, t r a d i t i o n a l l y precarious, remains so today despite confederation with Canada and the r i s e of the pulp and paper industry and mining to replace the fishery as the most important sources of wealth. As the Province's economy appears to improve, so the abundance of b i r t h s helps to provide continuing heavy unemployment and a low average of personal incomes.I 3 The population of under h a l f - a - m i l l i o n i s for the most part scattered i n small settlements around the coasts of the is l a n d . St. John's with eighty thousand people and Corner Brook with twenty-five thousand, together with a few smaller towns, are the exceptions. In view of t h i s , the d i f -f i c u l t i e s i n administrating an extensive community develop-ment program are manifold. A s t a r t , however, has been made. In 1963, a conference was held at Robinson's for the farmers and teachers, and was followed up by v i s i t s of the Extension representative. Another conference was held at P i c c a d i l l y for fisherman of the Port-au-Port area and nearly two hundred fishermen gathered to hear talks on f i s h -ing techniques and how to obtain a i d from p r o v i n c i a l and 1 3 I b i d . , 1962, p. 1. - 97 -federal sources. A Port-au-Port Fishermen's Association was formed and decisions were taken on co-operative marketing. In Stephenville, groups of l o c a l businessmen were encouraged to study the economy of the area to discuss means for improv-ing i t . By the following year, a community development repre-sentative ,had moved to Stephenville, where he was better able to support the newly formed Fishermen's Association and Development Committee. Meanwhile the Port-au-Port Fishermen's Association had been able to secure excellent prices for i t s lobsters and to, b u i l d storage sheds at various points. The association had also taken over the management of the f i s h e r -ies b u i l d i n g i n P i c c a d i l l y . At the same time, community deve-lopment work was begun among the f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s i n Bonavista Bay, an area of p a r t i c u l a r importance because of it's design-ation as an ARDA development area. Close touch has been main-tained also with the improvement committee on Fogo Island and the development committee i n Lewisporte. Ontario Although no comprehensive community development pro-gram i s discernible i n t h i s province, the Community Programmes Branch of the Ontario Department of Education has undertaken the t r a i n i n g of Indians i n three areas of endeavour. The f i r s t of these i s by means of Chiefs' and Councillors' Leader-ship or Training Courses, the second, Folk Schools, and the t h i r d , Community Recreation P r o j e c t s . 1 4 l 4 L e t t e r from E. Saracuse, 19 February, 1965. - 98 -Chiefs' and Councillors' Residential Courses. These were started on a regional basis and i n i t i a l l y involved only chiefs, c o u n c i l l o r s and t h e i r wives. Later, other leaders were encouraged to attend. Northwestern Ontario was the f i r s t region to arrange t h i s type of course i n 1957. Northeastern Ontario followed s u i t a few years l a t e r , when Indians from Reserves mainly i n the D i s t r i c t of Manitoulin, Parry Sound, Nipissing, Sudbury, Algoma, Muskoka, Temiscaming and Cochrane, attended courses at the National Council Y.M.C.A. Centre at Geneva Park i n 1961 and 1962, and at the Youth Camp, Mary-grove, i n 1963 and 1964. Indian Leadership Programs, as the c h i e f s ' and coun-c i l l o r s ' courses have generally become renamed, were started i n a t h i r d region, i n Southwestern Ontario, i n 1962. These have been conducted annually at Huron College at the Univers-i t y of Western Ontario. The f i r s t two courses were designed to serve the twenty-five Indian Bands i n Southern Ontario, from St. Regis (Cornwall) i n the east, to Walpole Island (Wallaceburg) i n the west and to Parry Sound i n the north. In 1964, the I n s t i t u t e was designed by and for the Bands i n the area west of the T o r o n t o - O r i l l i a highway. A separate Inst i t u t e was held for those Bands east of t h i s highway. It was conducted by the Eastern Ontario regional o f f i c e at B e l l e v i l l e . Plans are underway for a fourth Ins t i t u t e to be held between 14 to 19 March, 1965. As Huron College f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be unavailable, i t w i l l be held at Fairbank House, - 99 -P e t r o l i a . This i s a r e s i d e n t i a l adult education centre esta-blished i n 1963 to serve Lambton County and region. The fourth region i s that of Eastern Ontario whose f i r s t program took place at Deseronto i n 1964, and the second at the same location i n February, 1965. These courses have drawn delegates from Golden Lake, Peterborough, St. Regis and Tyendinaga. The most recent regional course has been i n Moose Factory, where the f i r s t James Bay Indian Leadership Training course took place i n January, 1965, i n an e f f o r t to take the t r a i n i n g closer to p o t e n t i a l delegates. Eighteen persons from f i v e communities on the east coast of James Bay and Hudson Bay participated, and the indications are that the experience w i l l be repeated. " The Programmes Branch has been only one of the part-ners i n t h i s kind of t r a i n i n g , along with the Indian A f f a i r s and, i n some cases, the University of Western Ontario and Quetico Conference and Training Centre. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Programmes Branch i s to prepare the course content and to coordinate the actual t r a i n i n g , while the Indian A f f a i r s Branch has been responsible for r e c r u i t i n g delegates and a s s i s t i n g i n the planning. Personnel from the l a t t e r have assisted i n group discussions and workshops which have had the i r emphasis on such things as conducting meetings, program planning, e f f e c t i v e speaking, government administration at 1 5 L e t t e r from D. McCubbin, 18 February, 1965. - 100 -the l o c a l l e v e l , and problem solving. Through experience i t has been found that the r e s i -d e n t i a l Chiefs' and Councillors' courses are too r e s t r i c t i v e , and thus they have been expanded to include other pote n t i a l leaders. This i s now considered i n e f f e c t i v e , too. Very few chiefs and c o u n c i l l o r s can spare the time away from t h e i r normal l i v e l i h o o d to attend courses several hundred miles away from t h e i r Reserves. Course r e g i s t r a t i o n s have been f i l l e d , therefore, from people who want a t r i p outside the Reserve or from those released from hospitals or other places of detention. While these persons have undoubtedly benefitted i n d i v i d u a l l y from the courses, few of them have been acknow-ledged as Band leaders. One Branch representative from Toronto notes: My only observation, with respect to these t r a i n i n g courses, i s that I believe that the courses which I have attended have dealt i n a s u p e r f i c i a l way with the "pro-blem." Courses which attempt to change attitudes rather than develop s k i l l s , or a combination of the two, would be more h e l p f u l . It seems to me that course organizers approach plan-ning sessions with too many assumptions about the Indian, i n terms of h i s objectives for himself, h i s family and h i s community. Indians don't usually correct wrong assumptions; they go through with the course, whether time i s being wasted or n o t . 1 6 The D i s t r i c t Representative of the Programmes Branch for Northern Ontario writes that the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and the Programmes Branch are t r y i n g a new approach t h i s year. 16Letter from F. E. Willock, 18 March, 1965. - 101 -A series of two-day courses are being conducted on selected Reserves. These courses involve the Chief, Band Council and other community leaders who are poten t i a l chiefs and c o u n c i l l o r s . Following the two-day course a Band meeting i s conducted. This reinforces the lesson plans and gives the Chiefs and Councillors an insight into how a Band meeting should be conducted. Peter Loonfoot can no longer hold the f l o o r and ramble on about welfare, when the subject under discussion i s housing. He i s simply t o l d that he i s out of order and requested to s i t down. The Reserves chosen for t h i s p i l o t project are Big Trout Lake, Sandy Lake and Lac Seul. These Reserves are the administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Sioux Lockout Indian Agency.^ 7 It i s not known whether the following comment of the Representative from South Western Ontario r e f e r s to the same project or another. It i s hoped within the next 12 months to develop a team of Indian leaders drawn from the Bands i n the Region who would be trained to conduct l o c a l "leadership workshops" on i n d i v i d u a l reserves. This plan i s at pre-sent only i n the thinking stage. However, we f e e l that team members could be selected from among those who have attended the above Leadership I n s t i t u t e s . 8 Folk Schools: The second type of program undertaken by the Programmes Branch has been i n providing resource materials and people to help run Folk Schools. The f i r s t of these schools was held i n C r a i g l e i t h i n March, 1963, and involved representatives from ten Reserves of the four agencies from Simcoe, Bruce, Parry Sound and Ch r i s t i a n Island. The theme for the f i r s t Folk School was "Changes i n Home and Community L i f e , " and the second, i n 1964, was to do with progress through change. l^L e t t e r from R. F. Lavack, 15 March, 1965. 18Letter from G. H. M i l l e r , 17 February, 1965, (En-closure d e t a i l i n g Programs i n South Western Ontario). - 102 -Three more Folk Schools are planned for 1965 to be held i n two new regions. The Advisor for Rural Programmes writes that the planning and conducting of Folk Schools i s done through the f i e l d services of the Ontario Folk School Council, which i s a voluntary body. Indian A f f a i r s i s the other partner and makes money available to the Council for conducting the courses. "There seems to be greater respon-s i b i l i t y on the Indian Bands to select delegates and to help pay for some of their t r a v e l l i n g expenses to the Folk Schools." 1 9 As Indians are involved i n planning the programs they appear to derive great benefit from them. Very l i t t l e s k i l l t r a i n i n g i s included i n the Folk School courses, for t h e i r purpose i s to help individuals gain better understanding of themselves and of t h e i r commun-i t y . This i s somewhat di f f e r e n t to Leadership Institutes just described, i n which community leaders are given the opportun-i t y to develop s k i l l s i n order to organize and administer th e i r community more e f f e c t i v e l y . Community Recreation Projects: The t h i r d program i s that of Community Recreation of the type that has taken place on C h r i s t i a n Island. Assistance given, i n t h i s case, was to provide resource materials and advice. There have been other developments of t h i s kind but there i s no further inform-ation here, except that i n Northwestern Ontario the Branch provided funds for the employment of a summer recreation person at Mobert. Miss Saracuse adds: L 1 9 L e t t e r from E. Saracuse, 19 February, 1965. - 103 -The Indian A f f a i r s Branch seems to be w i l l i n g to buy services from Recreation Committees wherever arrangements have been made. To date the C h r i s t i a n Island one i s the only one that has worked out on t h i s basis. The Recreat-ion Committee i s reimbursed for i t s services by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and a l i m i t e d amount from the Band Council Fund." 2 0 In the Community Recreation Project on the Mobert Indian Reserve, i n 1963, the f i n a n c i a l arrangement was that the Community Programmes Branch would provide the Programme Director's salary, while the costs of operating and maintain-ing the program would be borne by the residents of Mobert through t h e i r Band Council and community organizations with assistance from Indian A f f a i r s . The purpose of t h i s experi-mental project was to determine whether recreation programs could be applied elsewhere. " I t was also f e l t that the r e s i -dents through t h i s programme would acquire some s k i l l s and knowledge which would a s s i s t them to become more s e l f s u f f i -cient i n organizing and conducting t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s . " 2 ! Although the emphasis was on recreation, the Programme Director was involved i n a wide variety of community organizations and a c t i v i t i e s . Judging from the attendance records from nineteen a c t i v i t i e s , h i s two and a half months were extremely busy and well spent. Four of his recommendations are of interest to community development: (1) Potential leaders i n s o c i a l , creative and physical a c t i v i t i e s be given every 2 0 l b i d . 2 iM. G l i s i n s k i , Community Recreation Project. Mobert  Indian Reserve, Community Programmes Branch, Ontario Depart-ment of Education, Fort William, 1963, p. i . - 104 -opportunity to receive s k i l l and leadership tr a i n i n g , (2) every consideration to be given to h i r i n g school teachers who have a basic knowledge of community recreation, (3) reference be made to the interest and needs of the residents i n the purchase and i n s t a l l a t i o n of equipment and f a c i l i t i e s , (4) consideration be given to conducting s i m i l a r programs on other Indian Reserves. 2 2 While the courses described have been l i m i t e d to Indian delegates, other courses, such as l o c a l workshops, area workshops, D i s t r i c t Leaders' Institutes and P r o v i n c i a l Leaders' Institutes are open to both Indian and white p a r t i -cipants. These courses cover the arts, c r a f t s and other options that develop leadership through a four phase p l a n . 2 3 Under t h i s plan, a person can progress from being a student at the l o c a l workshop l e v e l to the area, d i s t r i c t or pro-v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e l e v e l and return to h i s community as an inst r u c t o r . Many courses occur at the Residential Adult Education I n s t i t u t i o n of Quetico Conference and Training Centre, at Kawene, i n Northwest Ontario, and some of them are financed under schedule 4 and 5 of the National Retraining Scheme. The Quetico Conference and Training Centre i s a r e s i d e n t i a l adult education centre serving the needs of people i n Northwestern, Northern and Eastern Ontario and Western Manitoba. The Centre i s a non-profit organ-2 2 I b i d . , p. 12. 2 3 L e t t e r from R. F. Lavack, 15 March, 1965, c.f. also F i n a n c i a l Post, October 3, 1964. - 105 -i z a t i o n supported by fees charged to people using Centre services and by contributions from l o c a l industries, businesses, community service clubs, individuals and labor unions.... The Centre has always been interested i n working with Indian people and has offered courses es p e c i a l l y suited to the needs of the Canadian Indian. When Quetico was named a r e t r a i n i n g centre by the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment i n early 1964 we began to plan courses geared to the needs of the "backwoods11 people, including Indians. Courses include t o u r i s t guiding, t o u r i s t resort services (for women and g i r l s ) , woodworking, pottery, graphics and homemaking. Courses were designed with Indian people i n mind but there were a number of other people enrolled in a l l of them. While the emphasis on a l l of our r e t r a i n -ing programs i s for economic independence, the i n t e l l e c t -ual awakening that occurs from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n educational a c t i v i t i e s i s equally important. We have had numerous Indian and other people at these courses who are impover-ished i n many ways, not only economically, and who have benefitted even though they required add i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g before being s u f f i c i e n t l y upgraded to f i t into employment. We are currently planning a l i t e r a c y education program for Indians and others to bring them up to a Grade 6 l e v e l so that they can f i t into the usual community pro-gram 5 upgrading courses. Our program w i l l be a 3-month course taught by s t a f f from an Eastern Ontario college.24 Indian A f f a i r s Projects: Two other courses i n recre-ation are offered at the University of Guelph, and they are sponsored by the Community Programmes Branch and the Extens-ion Department of the University, and organized as part of the educational program of the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College. Indian A f f a i r s Branch have been active throughout the province i n work which could be construed as developmental. There i s currently one community development o f f i c e r i n the f i e l d as a forerunner of the recently i n s t i t u t e d program, but there i s no information as to h i s whereabouts. 24Letter from Mcintosh, 23 March, 1965. - 106 -The most outstanding projects of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch are those at the following locations. At the Kenora agency, the Indians have been trained, over the past few years, to operate th e i r own f i s h e r i e s , completely. They buy thei r own nets and other supplies, purchase t h e i r own licenses and negotiate for the sale of th e i r f i s h . In general, they take care of a l l the matters a f f e c t i n g t h e i r f i s h e r i e s which formerly were t o t a l l y supervised by the Branch. Similar projects for the development of Indians are taking place i n the Sioux Lockout, Nakina and James Bay ag e n c i e s . 2 5 Besides t h i s , the r e a l i z a t i o n that many Indians are capable of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s permeating Indian A f f a i r s throughout the province, as larger numbers of Bands become adept at handling th e i r own welfare program i n accordance with the General Welfare Assistance Act of Ontario. Three of the Bands i n the Fort William region recently took over the administration of the i r revenue accounts for expenditure under Section 68 of the Indian Act. Under t h i s section a Band administers the welfare payments on the Reserve and obtains a refund of eighty percent of the cost from the Ontario Department of Public Welfare. A member of the Band Council i s elected as the welfare administrator to comply with the Act's provisions. Talking about the Southern Ontario plan of se l e c t i n g q u a l i f i e d Indians to f i l l the positions of bank clerks or 2 5 L e t t e r from G. S. Lapp, 15 February, 1965, F i l e 81/1-2-9 (RSI). - 107 -managers, i n order to promote leadership, Hannin says that "the basic aim of the plan, good within i t s own context, i s not to develop 'community leaders' but a l i a i s o n o f f i c i a l who i s a paid administrator with the status of an i n s t i t u t -i onal leader. There i s no in d i c a t i o n of any professional t r a i n i n g i n community development, group dynamics or methods of adult education." 2 6 This type of leadership i s r a r e l y progressive or democratic and merely substitutes an Indian for a white man. Very few of the requirements which research has found necessary for leadership i n community projects are found either i n the se l e c t i o n or t r a i n i n g of the personnel or the planning or implementation of those programs.-27 Indian-Eskimo Association: In a survey of work being done amongst Canada's largest Indian population, which approa-ches f i f t y thousand, some space should be accorded to the Ontario Committee of the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada. In t h e i r b u l l e t i n they refer to a three year program to promote action on behalf of Ontario's Indians, whose l i v i n g conditions are amongst the worst i n Canada, despite the province's wealth. 2 8 The assumption upon which the project 26L\ Hannin, "Fundamental Factors i n the Selection and Training of Indigenous Adult Leaders for Community Projects on Ojibway Indian Reservations," Unpublished Master's Dissertation for Master of Science, Co-operative Extension Education, University of Wisconsin, 1964, p. 56. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 58. 28Bulletin, Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Vol. 5, No. 2, March, 1964. - 108 -i s based i s that, when the services of a l l organizations, public and voluntary, are coordinated, e f f e c t i v e means can be found to improve economic conditions. The f i r s t stage of the program c a l l s for research on a regional basis. For t h i s , Ontario has been divided into nine regions, patterned after the di v i s i o n s established by the Ontario Department of Economics and Development. Each year, three of the nine regions w i l l be studied by s p e c i a l -i s t s who w i l l involve the Indians i n discussion about edu-cation, employment opportunities, housing and s o c i a l l i f e . Each year, three regional workshops w i l l be held to consider these findings and to prepare for annual p r o v i n c i a l confer-ences. These conferences are to assess needs, resources and the gaps i n services, i n order to develop new plans. Accordingly, i n 1964, the f i r s t year of the program, three areas were studied. These were i n the Kenora region i n the northwest, the Sudbury region i n the northeast, and Wallaceburg i n the southwest. By the end of three years, i t i s hoped that many thousands of people, Indian and while, w i l l have been affected by the program. Even i f i t does nothing but bring into focus the problems e x i s t i n g i n Ontario's Indian communities, i t w i l l have been successful. But i t i s also envisaged that opportunities for the development of Indian leaders w i l l have evolved and that the many opportu-n i t i e s for propagating the concept of s e l f - h e l p w i l l have had a salutary e f f e c t . - 109 -In addition to t h i s program, the Indian-Eskimo Association sponsors a student volunteer service. This en-t a i l s u n i v e r s i t y students spending their summer i n Eskimo settlements i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s to a s s i s t or supers-vise such projects as f i s h packing, sawmill or logging oper-ations, and i n Indian Reserves to organize recreation and adult education ventures. They try to leave behind them an organizational structure which w i l l enable the Eskimos and Indians to carry on after t h e i r departure. The students are unpaid, but a l l th e i r expenses are covered by grants from the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. In connection with research which would make develop-ment work meaningful i n Ontario, mention should be made of an essay by Paton and a thesis by Hannin. 3> J V The essay was done as a r e s u l t of f i e l d work at the Six Nation's Indian Reserve, and i t i s a c u l t u r a l and evolutionary ethnography. There are some i n t r i g u i n g observations about the r i t u a l ceremonies of the Iroquois and valuable information about a non-Christian female ceremony i n which the m a t r i l i n e a l head of the t r i b e takes precedence over the chief. Paton also d i s -cusses the economics, general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community, and the government connections with the Reserve. He adds that Dr. Martin Meyer of the University i n Provo, Utah, i s currently publishing a book on the Iroquois from a social-anthropologi-c a l view point. 2 9 J . D. Paton, Untitled, undated. •^Hannin, op» c i t . - 110 -Father Hannin of the Jesuit Mission i n Sturgeon F a l l s , has written a guide for introducing a t r a i n i n g pro-gram for Indian adults. The objective of the study i s to see whether an analysis of research on leadership and planned change combined with information on c u l t u r a l patterns can provide a basis for a program to select and t r a i n volunteer leaders for community projects on the Ojibway Indian Reser-ves i n Ontario. Saskatchewan The government of Saskatchewan appears to be on the threshold of i n i t i a t i n g a community development program with respect to the Indians and Metis who l i v e i n the northern regions of the province. The program w i l l be i n the Depart-ment of Natural Resources, which i s responsible for both the human and natural resources i n the north. The Indian and Metis Programs Branch i s seen as an outgrowth of a three year study of research on factors a f f e c t i n g the s o c i a l and economic development of northern settlements, conducted by the Centre for Community Studies and completed i n 1963. The f i n a l report has provided, i n addition to pure research, des-criptions and analyses, a workable plan of action.31 According to t h i s report, the population of Northern Saskatchewan amounts to approximately eleven thousand, ex-cluding the mining community personnel. About f i v e thousand 3lH. Buckley, J. E. M. Kew, J. B. Hawley, The Indians and Metis of Northern Saskatchewan, Centre for Com-munity Studies, Saskatoon, 1963. - I l l -f i v e hundred are Metis, four thousand two hundred Treaty Indians and one thousand four hundred white. By 1971 the projected t o t a l w i l l be between f i f t e e n and seventeen thou-sand, which i s approximately three times the population of t h i r t y years ago. "Although the area i s s t i l l t h i n l y popu-lated by comparison with almost any country i n the world, the increase i s very large i n r e l a t i o n to the resources that support these people." 3 2 Furthermore, Northern Saskat-chewan has one of the highest b i r t h rates i n the world -exceeded by only seven countries. In the l a s t decade, s t a -t i s t i c s from the Northern Health D i s t r i c t indicate rates ranging from a low of thirty-two per thousand to a high of forty-four per thousand, the average being th i r t y - n i n e per thousand. As these figures include the white population's b i r t h rate, which i s considerably lower than that of the Indians and Metis, the average for the l a t t e r i s doubtless well above th i r t y - n i n e per thousand. Mortality figures are much less now than a decade ago, and t h i s , combined with the high b i r t h rate produces an exceptionally high rate of increase and the outlook i s for t h i s trend to continue. A factor of sign i f i c a n c e i s the extreme youthfulness of the population..At present, half the population i s less than f i f t e e n years of age. Throughout the north, i n a l l communities, trapping and f i s h i n g are the main modes of existence. In many cases, 3 2 I b i d . , p. 11. - 112 -communities have not only outgrown these sources of income, but the resources themselves have declined. As more than half the population i n Northern Saskatchewan l i v e i n eight large v i l l a g e s , where the economic base i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to maintain them, wholesale unemployment and chronic dependency on government welfare services have resulted. Supplementary industries, such as mining, having f a i l e d to absorb any number of Indians, Metis or Eskimos, have been unable to contribute very much to the development of the north. In short, the inadequacy of the economy i s starkly r e f l e c t e d in a worsening general l e v e l of l i v i n g amongst almost a l l Indian and Metis settlements. Poverty i s r e f l e c t e d i n a number of s o c i a l aspects. Housing i s , by Canadian standards of si z e and condition, deplorable. Material possessions scarcely e x i s t . Furnishings are scanty and tools for trades, e s s e n t i a l to l i f e i n remote areas, are often lacking. From a health point of view, diets are, at once, monotonous and d e f i c i e n t . The p r o v i n c i a l government has been concerned with these problems for some years. In 1950 a fishermen's co-oper-ative was inaugurated i n Cumberland House, but i t was not r e a l l y u n t i l the Fort Black store was opened i n 1955 that co-operatives were recognized as an e f f e c t i v e means of involv-ing l o c a l people i n improving th e i r economic a c t i v i t i e s . By now, there are at least ten f i s h i n g co-operatives i n the north due to the continued e f f o r t of the Department of Co-operation and Co-operative Development. - 113 -Without doubt, the introduction of co-operatives i n Northern Saskatchewan, and throughout Canada, has contributed much to the north. Co-operatives are not, however, a solution to the widespread and growing economic and s o c i a l problems. "Without a great deal more help i n the form of s t a f f and funds for education and t r a i n i n g , and of new programs to develop the economy - co-operatives w i l l not solve very many problems." 3 3 The Department of Natural Resources has conducted some short courses i n community development techniques for i t s fieldmen and conservation o f f i c e r s , as well as some pro-j e c t i o n i s t courses, i n conjunction with the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians and the National Film Board. The plan for the development of the Indians and Metis, drawn up by the research s t a f f , however, c a l l s for a much more extensive program than t h i s to be undertaken by the Department. It centres around three objectives: (1) higher l e v e l s of l i v i n g , (2) more choice and opportunity i n a l l areas of l i f e , including education, kind and place of residence, use of l e i s u r e time and so on, (3) greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the northern and larger Canadian society - from home and school a c t i v i t i e s , councils and associations, to management of busi-ness and l o c a l government. 3 4 The primary prerequisites are commitments to act and to spend the necessary funds. It has been observed that, while Canada contributes f i f t y m i l l i o n 33ibid., p. 35. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 50. - 114 -d o l l a r s a year to the Colombo Plan, i t spends almost nothing on development programs here. Naturally, regions with huge populations i n South East Asia claim more attention than Canada's enormous Northland which i s sparsely populated. But the problem of the north cannot be wished away. There exists no inexpensive solution. The federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments should be inevitably committed to action. In Saskatchewan the plan recommended requires that the Northern A f f a i r s Branch of the Department of Natural Resources be the administration agency for i n s t i t u t i n g a development plan. This branch should have the power and a b i l i t y to plan a much broader and ambitious range of action than has been attempted i n the past, and to i n i t i a t e and coordi-nate the a c t i v i t i e s of a l l p r o v i n c i a l agencies operating i n Northern Saskatchewan. As i n any p r o v i n c i a l plan of t h i s nature, federal co-operation would be e s s e n t i a l . Ideally, a northern Saskatchewan development plan would be sponsored j o i n t l y under a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l agreement. Most emphatically, however, t h i s i s not a condition for i t s implementation. Indeed i n view of the long delay inevitably associated with j o i n t spon-sorships immediate implementation by the Province i s strongly favoured.35 In September, 1964, a new branch was established and placed i n the Department of Natural Resources to avoid spe-c i f i c association with health, welfare or education. The aim of the Branch i s not to es t a b l i s h and dir e c t programs i t s e l f , 35ibid., p. 52. - 115 -but to serve, primarily, i n planning and coordinating a l l groups i n the province, federal and p r o v i n c i a l , who may be of assistance i n the development of a more dynamic and e f f e c t i v e program. The Branch w i l l also include a community development s t a f f whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be to help and advise Indians and Metis councils. The s t a f f w i l l t o t a l about twenty persons, and at January, 1965, most of them had yet to be appointed. Reference has been made to the Centre for Community Studies at Saskatoon. This organization was established i n 1957 as a r e s u l t of a Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e (1952-1956), headed by W. B. Baker, who was l a t e r appointed director of the Centre. To a l l e v i a t e a threefold need, the Centre was accordingly set up to study (1) the development of Saskatchewan communities, (2) to act as con-sultants to organizations and agencies interested i n pro-grams of community development, and (3) to o f f e r opportuni-t i e s for in-service t r a i n i n g of professional personnel engaged in community services. Thus the Centre, which i s an indepen-dent body with a board representing the University of Sas-katchewan and the government, works i n the three areas of research, consultation and t r a i n i n g . It i s financed from government grants and from contracts with private and public agencies. The f i r s t undertaking was i n A p r i l , 1959, when a one-week course was attended by f i f t y government s t a f f persons - 116 -who were instructed i n community development p r i n c i p l e s . Another course followed a year l a t e r with six t y participants, and a t h i r d course i n A p r i l , 1961, tookplace with seventy-f i v e a t t e n d i n g . 3 6 The main emphasis i n the contracted programs has been research with t r a i n i n g as a supplement. It w i l l have been observed from the preceding comments on the three year contract of the Department of Natural Resources, that ana-l y s i s of factors a f f e c t i n g settlement i n the north, has provided a useful and r e a l i s t i c basis against which to c r i t i -c a l l y evaluate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of community development. Judging from the cogency of the reports and studies prepared by the s t a f f of the Centre, work of considerable importance has been produced during the l a s t few y e a r s . 3 7 Following a change i n government i n 1964, the Centre's oper-ating budget was c u r t a i l e d d r a s t i c a l l y , but those projects s t i l l under contract to such organizations as ARDA and Central Mortgage and Housing were to continue. The future of the Centre i s thus assured u n t i l 1966 at least, and the highly trained personnel are s t i l l to be retained u n t i l the research i s completed. The foregoing concerns p r o v i n c i a l enterprises with respect to Indians and Metis. Federal departments are active 36Northern Community Newsletter, No. 1, Vol. 3, 1962. 37See, for example, the series on Developing Sas-katchewan's Community Resources, Centre for Community Studies, Saskatoon. - 117 -as well. The f i r s t leadership course for Indians was held i n Valley Centre i n Fort Qu'appelle i n March, 1964. Subjects covered during the week were extensive and included such things as community organization, alcohol, education, Band Council operation, co-operatives, cre d i t unions, adult edu-cation and conduct of meetings. The twenty-five delegates from twenty Bands seem to have responded p o s i t i v e l y to t h i s course, organized j o i n t l y by the Indian A f f a i r s and the Citi z e n s h i p Branches of the Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, but i t i s not known whether the experience i s to be repeated i n 1965. Recently, the planning of a summer project i n 1965 to involve students i n f i e l d work in Indian and Metis com-munities, i s the outcome of a Canadian Union of Students' conference at the University of Saskatchewan i n February, 1965. 3 8 The project w i l l serve a double purpose; the students w i l l learn about the problems i n the communities and, where possible, make available information which may a s s i s t the people to solve t h e i r problems. The project i s structured for the partnership approach i n order to avoid paternalistic imposition of solutions. To teach the basic s k i l l s of community development, a two week t r a i n i n g session w i l l commence May 10. The f i e l d work w i l l l a s t about three months, and students, both single and married, w i l l be selected for work i n i s o l a t e d and urban 38student Neestow Partnership Project, 1965, Uni-v e r s i t y of Sasktachewan. - 118 -areas throughout Saskatchewan. Involved i n the planning are Indian chiefs, the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians (FSI), the Metis Associa-t i o n of Saskatchewan (MAS), Friendship Centres, Indian-Eskimo Association, student organizations and experts from univer-s i t i e s . Finances are being s o l i c i t e d from the native organ-izations as well as other foundations. Individual donations and money from university funds are also being sought. The University of Saskatchewan's Extension D i v i s i o n i s also proposing a series of in-service t r a i n i n g short courses to run p e r i o d i c a l l y from 1965 to 1968.39 These are designed for persons i n community work and w i l l cover the use of s o c i a l sciences, p r i n c i p l e s and practice of community development, including administration and policy, and methods and media i n continuing education. Projects and l i m i t e d programs of community develop-ment found i n those provinces who have not yet established comprehensive general development programs have been examined i n t h i s chapter. Saskatchewan has planned an Indian and Metis Programs Branch, but as there are not yet s t a f f to operate i t , and as i t i s not known whether the program w i l l affect southern Saskatchewan, inclu s i o n i n the previous chapter was not considered advisable. 39Extension Department of University of Saskatchewan, Professional Development i n Continuing Education, Proposed  Series of In-Service Training Short Courses, Saskatoon, January, 1965. - 119 -Almost a l l the remaining projects or programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia, The Maritimes, Newfoundland and Ontario are s p e c i a l i s t i n nature. That i s to say, they have been found to lack one or more of the facets required for i n c l u s -ion i n the general category of community development.^ In fact, many of them, having been directed from educational establishments, have tended to r e l y on i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e s i -d e n t i a l settings, rather than on s e l f - h e l p on the Reserve. Newfoundland has been the biggest exception, but there have been exceptions i n the other provinces too. 40see page 8. CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION This chapter contains observations about the programs of community development described i n the preceding pages. The programs have been placed i n the administrative c l a s s i f i -cation, noted i n chapter one, i n an attempt to give a coher-ent picture of the present state of community development in Canada. The chapter has ended with a discussion of the way evaluation of community development projects i s con-ducted i n other countries. Before embarking on these topics, a few remarks on a plan for economic development and on the subject of research pertinent to t h i s study have been made. Research Throughout t h i s study, there have been sundry a l l u s -ions to various research projects. It i s now clear that meaningful policy and l e g i s l a t i o n must be based on thorough, continuous and relevant research. Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to plan national p o l i c i e s , when every community i s d i f f e r e n t and has d i f f e r i n g requirements, there do exist common needs. Research, to discover what they are, i s e s s e n t i a l . So far, there have been few attempts to undertake systematic studies on a comprehensive scale and there i s a need for more work as far-reaching as that c a r r i e d out, for example, by Hawthorn - 121 -and h i s associates into the problems of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. It would appear that there i s a movement towards t h i s now, as several research projects have been commissioned recently. In t h i s connection, the Gaspe program has been men-tioned and, so also, have the four studies on poverty comis-sioned by the Department of Health and Welfare. Doctor Haw-thorn, assisted by Doctor Adelard Tremblay of Laval University, i s again d i r e c t i n g a project concerning Indians. This time i t i s a national research project, and i t s p r i n c i p a l task i s to assess the p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Indians i n the s o c i a l and economic l i f e of Canada. Although the researchers w i l l examine other matters, the four major areas of interest are economic develop-ment; advancement i n education; r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that exist at various government l e v e l s i n regard to Indians; and the functions of band councils and the development of self-government.^ This project started i n 1963 and while i t continues, there must be the extension of ex i s t i n g programs and the pro-v i s i o n of new ones to meet the problems of the moment. New programs w i l l have to remain f l e x i b l e enough for the recom-mendations of the research to b u i l d upon. Ways i n which a l l standard services available to the white population can be extended to Indian communities must be continually sought. To t h i s end, a continuing committee of o f f i c i a l s from federal, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments, was established i n l j . D'Astous, Address to B r i t i s h Columbia Council of Women, Vancouver, B..C., November 18, 1964, p.5. - 122 -October, 1964, to consider i n which ways the presently e x i s t -ing piecemeal services could be administered more e f f i c i e n t l y i n Indian communities. In addition, regional Indian Advisory Committees were planned to secure the Indian viewpoint on a l l proposals concerning Indians. 2 Economic Development Recently, the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada submitted to the federal authorities a comprehensive plan for the economic development of Indian Reservations. 3 The necessity for a crash program was based on a number of s t a r t -l i n g s t a t i s t i c s . Here are some of them. The Indian population i s much younger than the general population; six t y percent are under twenty-one years compared with forty percent for the Canadian average. The Indian population i s growing twice as rapidly as the white population. Almost half the t o t a l of Indian families earn less than one ;thousand d o l l a r s a year, which i s between one f i f t h and one quarter of the national average. Unemployment figures, based on United States s t a -t i s t i c s , are eight to ten times the o f f i c i a l national ave-rage and run between forty to f i f t y percent. About t h i r t y -s i x percent of the Indian population i s on r e l i e f , while the national average i s three and one half percent. Ninety 2Ibid., p. 8. 3M. O'Connell, An Economic Development Plan for  Indian Reserve Communities i n Canada, Ontario Committee of the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 1964. - 123 -percent of a l l housing i s inadequate, insanitary and dangerous. I l l - h e a l t h i s prevalent and infant and adult mortality rates are well above the national average, and ten times more Indian than white children are taken into protective custody. The plan regards employment and industry as being more important than education and s o c i a l development at t h i s time. There i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n for saying t h i s . The success of any program for improved housing, health, welfare or general community development depends on a strong base which w i l l provide the essentials for s e l f - h e l p . By stressing eco-nomic a i d for the Reserve, i t i s believed that the Reserve w i l l become, ultimately, once again a healthy place for the Indian to l i v e i n . While many of the plan's proposals are now incorpor-ated i n the new Indian A f f a i r s l e g i s l a t i o n , the Indian-Eskimo Association's suggestion for an economic development agency to be located i n a reorganized Indian A f f a i r s Branch i s un l i k e l y to be implemented. This proposal c a l l s for the agency to administer a fund of $25,000,000 to be used for loans and grants-in-aid for research and other projects. The agency would also act as the coordinating body to ensure extension to Reserves of such programs as ARDA, adult education, leader-ship, vocational and technical t r a i n i n g . While these proposals are admirable, they take l i t t l e account of the expense involved i n their implementation. Governments are reluctant to expend large sums of money on things to which a low p r i o r i t y has been accorded. In Canada, - 124 -community development i s one of these things because the "native" population amounts to l i t t l e over one percent of the t o t a l population and, therefore, merits no more than a proportionate expenditure. The discovery that poverty, previously thought to a f f l i c t only Indians, Metis and Eskimos, extends to perhaps twenty^five percent of the t o t a l population i s responsible for a new trend i n government thinking. Evidence for a "developmental" philosophy has recently appeared i n the A p r i l , 1965, Speech from the Throne, i n which the government committed i t s e l f , amongst other things, to a "war on poverty." The lack of a "developmental" policy has been one of the reasons that there i s , at t h i s time, no national com-munity development program, which extends to a l l disadvan-taged Canadians. The immense administrative problems involved in applying a federal plan throughout the provinces, no doubt, has been another. Experience gained from the ARDA program would indicate that the introduction of a multitude of ad hoc projects for land use, etc., poses no serious problem from the administrative point of view. On the other hand, an on-going program concerned with s o c i a l development would necessitate an i n t r i c a t e bureaucratic structure based on decentralized administration. To examine how the ARDA program w i l l avoid duplication or competition with the Indian A f f a i r s program of the p r o v i n c i a l programs, exceeds the scope of t h i s study. It i s also too early to make obser-vations as the new program has not yet started. - 125 -ARDA i s the only national program designed to reach more than the t r a d i t i o n a l l y deprived Indian or Eskimo com-munity. Whether the administrative structure that i s being formulated at present can ultimately predict the way i n which community development can be extended to a l l Canadian people who require the service, must also remain a moot question at t h i s time. S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s about the administrative aspects of the Indian A f f a i r s programs are not available for t h i s study. It i s therefore not known precisely how the Department concerned w i l l manage to translate i t s policy into action at the l o c a l l e v e l . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Programs The d e t a i l s about the Indian A f f a i r s program that are available, however, would indicate that i t could be c l a s s i f i e d , with one or two reservations, as an integrative type. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n chapter two,'* showing the t y p i c a l features of integrative, adaptive and project programs, was mentioned to see i f any of the programs i n Canada could be compared with programs elsewhere. Although the c l a s s i f i -cation i s rudimentary, i t does indicate the scope of the programs, th e i r administrative q u a l i t i e s , and how each deviates from the model. The/responsibility for administering an integrative program i s usually vested i n a new ministry established 4See pages 16-20. - 126 -s p e c i f i c a l l y for that purpose. That the administration of the Indian program w i l l remain within the t r a d i t i o n a l "ministry" for Indian A f f a i r s ( a l b e i t a d r a s t i c a l l y reorgan-ized one), i l l u s t r a t e s the adaptive quality of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program. Perhaps the major reason for keeping the responsi-b i l i t y within a functional ministry, rather than a neutral one, i s that, although the program i s countrywide i n scope, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s only to Indian people. Several aspects of the program belong e s s e n t i a l l y to the integrative program. The coordination of technical ser-vices at a l l l e v e l s of government i s one of them. Another i s the decentralization of authority to enable a coherent app l i c a t i o n of these services l o c a l l y . The t h i r d e n t a i l s the generalist community development worker or o f f i c e r i n t e r -preting national purpose to l o c a l people, helping translate t h e i r needs into action, acting as a l i n k between them and the technical services and bringing to the v i l l a g e r s ' atten-t i o n funds and other grants. The p o s s i b i l i t y that t h i s program w i l l compete with p r o v i n c i a l programs has been ra i s e d i n Alberta, because i t would appear that there w i l l exist two more or less similar Indian programs i n those provinces having programs of t h e i r own. Whether the Indians w i l l view them as competing with one another, remains to be seen. Turning now to the provinces, i s i t possible to c l a s -s i f y their programs? Manitoba's program appears to have pro-ject, adaptive and integrative features. When i n i t i a t e d , the - 127 -community development services was adapted to the e x i s t i n g structure of the Department of Public Welfare but, as .'-.the function of the new service was to be economic development and s o c i a l organization, t h i s Department could be considered to possess the ne u t r a l i t y desirable i n an integrative type of program. In other words, the administration being placed within the welfare department did not necessarily mean solely an increased welfare program. As Dallyn has observed, although the program covers a wide front, i t tends to be "project oriented."° That i s taken to mean that the various projects continue i n an un-d i s c i p l i n e d , unconnected way, lacking a statement of provin-c i a l purpose. Although the program i s province-wide, i t only has application to people of Indian Ancestry - and, i n practice, a f f e c t s only a f r a c t i o n of them. Were Manitoba's program integrative, the necessity for community development would be integrated i n the govern-ment's p o l i t i c a l philosophy and would extend to a l l d i s -advantaged groups, not only the Indians and Metis. There would also be a coordinating committee to ensure than any national developmental policy could be r e l a t e d to what the Province was doing. When the Manitoba service was created, no federal commitment i n t h i s respect was available, and therefore, the necessity to provide such a l i n k was not apparent. Liaison, however, was effected through the Indian %5Dallyn, op. c i t . , p. 19. - 128 -A f f a i r s Branch, which had f i n a n c i a l obligations connected with the program, and which also assisted i n i t s planning. At the present time, i t i s not known whether there i s any more formal connection with federal departments. At the p r o v i n c i a l cabinet l e v e l , there i s the essen-t i a l administrative machinery for coordinating the a c t i v i t i e s of the m i n i s t r i e s of labour, industry and commerce, mines and natural resources, and agriculture and conservation. This type of inter-ministry committee, under the chairmanship of the Minister of Health and Public Welfare, i s more a feature of the integrative than the adaptive program. In the adaptive program, for example, l i a i s o n between the community develop-ment authority and a technical service i s often on an informal basis and occurs whenever a need arises which requires short term intervention. The Alberta program d i f f e r s l i t t l e from that of Manitoba, except that i t s Community Development Branch i s attached to the Department of Industry and Commerce. Here again, the new branch has been adapted to the e x i s t i n g bureau-c r a t i c structure, but the Department i t s e l f , can claim to be a neutral rather than a functional ministry. By being "non-partisan," i t can r e a d i l y obtain the co-operation of the other m i n i s t r i e s . There exists an inter-ministry coordination committee, si m i l a r to that i n Manitoba, but, i n addition, a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l committee, consisting of four represent-atives from the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and four from the Community Development Branch, plan together a l l activities - 129 -concerning the Indians. Once again, the program i s designed to aff e c t only the Indians and Metis, and i s a j o i n t venture between the federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments, with the province ad-ministering i t and the federal government contributing to i t s maintenance. From the scanty d e t a i l s available for t h i s study about the s i t u a t i o n i n Quebec, i t appears that the admini-s t r a t i v e framework i s unique i n Canada. While i t i s clear that the program contains a variety of projects, these do not constitute either an adaptive or integrative program. Both the federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments are concerned i n t h i s j o i n t venture, but instead of working through a p r o v i n c i a l government body, they coordinate th e i r a c t i v i t i e s through a private concern (BAEQ). Consequently, community development i n Quebec, at present, i s not a function of the p r o v i n c i a l government, nor does i t extend to more than a few of Quebec's people. It may be regarded, on the other hand, as b a s i c a l l y non-discriminatory, as i t applies to any disadvantaged person, not only to the Indian. It i s not known yet, whether the program w i l l be extended to other parts of the province. In Nova Scotia, where the D i v i s i o n of Social Develop-ment has been added to the Department of Public Welfare, a program has been i n i t i a t e d to serve semi-urban people. Most of these people are a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and, there-fore, there i s not the necessity for a federal coordination - 130 -committee. If the D i v i s i o n extends i t s sphere of influence to Indian people, presumably the structure w i l l have to be altered accordingly. Because the i n i t i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be confined to a few communities at f i r s t , t h i s would indicate that Nova Scotia has a project focused program. There are adaptive features, however, since the program has a central organi-zation within the government. It i s at t h i s l e v e l that the services of technical m i n i s t r i e s can be coordinated and arrangements for extending the work of the D i v i s i o n can be implemented, when required. Should the Division's program expand, the admini-s t r a t i v e arrangements may change to an integrative type through which the coordination necessary for work amongst a l l types of people, Indian, Negro and white, might be effected. Saskatchewan i s about to introduce a community deve-lopment program, and i t s structure w i l l be the r e s u l t of meticulous planning. From the few d e t a i l s available, i t would seem to possess most of the factors of an integrative type of program. It w i l l be provincewide, possess a committee to coordinate services at a l l leve l s and w i l l have a decen-t r a l i z e d administration to ensure coherence of services l o c a l l y . The administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be placed i n a neutral ministry and the Director of Development w i l l act as an advisor to a cabinet l e v e l committee. It i s not known what arrangements have been made with the federal government, but there w i l l probably be a committee similar - 131 -to the one i n Alberta, since both programs apply i n a simi-l a r fashion to Indians, as well as Metis. Programs Outside C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The remaining provinces do not have departments, div i s i o n s or branches to administer general community deve-lopment programs. Nevertheless, a l l have developmental pro-grams, even though they are usually s p e c i a l i s t i n nature, that i s , they emphasize a p a r t i c u l a r aspect, such as le°der-ship t r a i n i n g or adult education rather than o v e r a l l develop-ment. Hannin d i f f e r e n t i a t e s adult education from community development, although he acknowledges that their philosophic content i s fundamentally the same. Both help people to help themselves. However adult education seems more basic, a prere-qu i s i t e for community development. How can l o c a l people learn to plan, organize and execute programs without going through some educational process? ... Community development or organization depends on two things - information and leadership. An adult education program i s necessary to give information and to t r a i n l e a d e r s . 7 Ontario has developed an extensive program of adult education and leadership t r a i n i n g . So also have B r i t i s h Columbia, the Maritimes and Newfoundland. Adult education has also accompanied the community development programs i n the provinces mentioned above. Can the education and t r a i n i n g 6D. Hannin, The Adult Education Program of the Jesuit  Ontario Missions, Regional O f f i c e , Sturgeon F a l l s , Ontario, 1964, p. 6. Ibid. - 132 -projects be said to have provided a base of information and leadership upon which community development can build? Pro-bably not, because they have been far too few i n number, they have been irre g u l a r i n quality and they have been un-evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . Hannin, and others, have commented that many of those i n Ontario have been a f a i l u r e . 8 Hannin gives four causes for t h i s : 1. Acceptance of the t r a i n i n g program by the majority of the Band has not been obtained prior to i t s i n i t i a t i o n . 2. Leadership and committee t r a i n i n g has not been held within the confines of the Reserve and has resulted i n the home group being unable to i d e n t i f y with, and observe from, the t r a i n i n g . In other words, the " c u l t u r a l i s l a n d " theory which divorces leadership personnel from the home base, i s tantamount to en-couraging a continuation of the status quo author-itarianism of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch, by su b s t i -tuting the white man with the Indian. This i s regarded by Hannin as a negation of community development p r i n c i p l e s . 3. .There i s usually l i t t l e evaluation of the t r a i n i n g course at the community l e v e l although the p a r t i c i -pants of a given course have usually evaluated the worth to themselves. 8See page lOO.and page 107. - 133 -4. No continued supervision, guidance of new trainees or follow-up program has been included i n the majority of adult education undertakings.® Newfoundland has an adult education and a community development program, both managed by the University's Exten-sion Department. In the l a t t e r program, workers selected for the task, undertake s p e c i f i c projects to promote general development of v i l l a g e s or regions. In such areas the worker i s required to coordinate ARDA and p r o v i n c i a l a i d himself, without reference or rel i a n c e on a structured bureaucracy to advise or a i d him. There are a few other examples of t h i s type of "free agent" development, but, by and large, i n d i v i -dual projects do not occur frequently i n Canada. Poverty Primarily through the r e s u l t s of ARDA's research, poverty has been found to extend far beyond the boundaries of Reserves, Eskimo settlements or Negro ghettoes. Yet, even the most recent programs remain focused upon the amelioration of t r a d i t i o n a l problems of the t r a d i t i o n a l poor. No funda-mentally new program has been planned i n Canada, except under the ARDA l e g i s l a t i o n and perhaps i n Nova Scotia. A l l programs, without exception, are administered through e x i s t i n g govern-ment departments adapted to accomodate a new function. There i s no new department, either at federal or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , designed exclusively to administer community development. ' 9Hannin, op. c i t . , pp. 11-12. - 134 -The entrance of ARDA into the s o c i a l development f i e l d and the new l e g i s l a t i o n of the Indian A f f a i r s Branch indicate that Canada i s moving towards a serious attempt at a l l e v i a t i n g the problem of poverty. Inherent i n these pro-grams i s a national purpose for development, even though there may be a suggestion abroad that programs w i l l tend to duplicate each other. Whether they w i l l or not, i s impos-s i b l e to say, since neither of them are yet operative, but one may speculate that, even i f they do, th e i r t o t a l impact w i l l s t i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t to meet an ever increasing problem. There are other important topics which must, for the time being, be speculative. How w i l l the Indian view the three types of programs operating on Reserves i n h i s pro-vince? W i l l he regard one to be superior to the others? And how w i l l the community worker react, finding that there are three d i f f e r e n t salary rates for exactly the same work? Should a l l programs be successful, w i l l the Indian then become "advantaged"? To answer these questions goes beyond the realm of r e a l i t y at t h i s time. It i s s u f f i c i e n t perhaps to observe that change w i l l not come overnight; nor w i l l i t come u n t i l the government puts a higher p r i o r i t y on community develop-ment and invests more money in i t . If t h i s i s ever to happen, consideration must be given to evaluating programs i n order to show, by accounting for the public money spent, that they achieve r e s u l t s . Programs, therefore, must be evaluated - 135 -externally i n the interests of the public, and i n t e r n a l l y throughout the development agency i n the interests of e f f i c i e n c y . Need for evaluation Many governments are wary of s e t t i n g up evaluatory processes because the large amount of c r i t i c i s m , that some-times rebounds on the minister concerned, can r e s u l t i n unfortunate p o l i t i c a l consequences. It i s probably with t h i s in mind, that many of the annual and periodic reports, which characterize the community development programs i n Canada are circumspect. Very few figures are given, and often facts are misleading. In order to correct faulty programs, i t i s more e s s e n t i a l to know speedily about lack of success than i t i s to know about success. DuSautoy writes: Community development needs a pragmatic approach to human development. It i s equally necessary to adopt a pragmatic approach i n assessing the r e s u l t s , while r e a l i z i n g that some of them, such as a heightened s p i r i t of leadership, s e l f reliance, and a democratic approach to development, cannot be assessed by s t a t i -s t i c s , but only by a charged climate of public attitudes and opinion.10 But s t a t i s t i c s can be produced from community develop-ment projects, and they have yielded r e s u l t s i n terms of increased e f f i c i e n c y , reduced c l e r i c a l work, and i n persuad-ing p o l i t i c i a n s to support programs of community development. 10p. DuSautoy, The Organization of a Community  Development Programme, Oxford University Press, London, 1962, P. 120. - 136 -Computer Reporting System The Community Development Foundation i s using a s t a t i s t i c a l computer-aided reporting system to administer an expansive food-aided community development throughout Mexico.H This system releases a project director and h i s s t a f f from lengthy and expensive c l e r i c a l drudgery to con-centrate on services requiring t h e i r s p e c i a l competence. The computer produces monthly reports speedily and inex-pensively which show at a glance the status of a l l projects throughout the country. The administrator, who has experi-ence i n reading these reports, can ^anticipate when a project i s not progressing appropriately and take steps to r e c t i f y the problem before i t becomes acute. Therefore, administrat-ive costs are low, projects are run e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t -ive control with fewer personnel i s maintained. This type of reporting has created a favourable impression on the various mi n i s t r i e s concerned, because the Foundation has been able to j u s t i f y expenditures with s t a t i s t i c s which give concrete evidence of progress being made and r e s u l t s being achieved. In addition, systematic reporting has provided guidance to the government regarding the types of improvement most l i k e l y to succeed, thus serving as a guide for the evolution of national plans for s o c i a l and economic progress. Each month the Foundation publishes two reports, l l G . Leet, Computer Aided Community Development  Reporting i n Mexico, Community Development Foundation, New York, 1964. - 137 -the Report by A c t i v i t y and the Report by Type, i n order to consolidate the data from widely scattered projects and the a c t i v i t i e s connected thereto. Besides these two reports, a Report on Accomplishments i s being programmed currently i n order to determine the norms for a given type of project. This w i l l f a c i l i t a t e planning for personnel and cost. Leet writes: " I t would be advantageous, fo r example, to know how many mandays, on the average, are required to complete one kilometer of d i r t road of a given width, or the number of mandays required to construct a school b u i l d i n g of two rooms." 1 2 Leet raises another point of s i g n i f i c a n c e to record-ing. He observes that there i s much community development a c t i v i t y which happens spontaneously through t r a d i t i o n a l methods and which goes unnoticed. In recently independent countries there has been an acceleration of t h i s type, and some of i t i s a r e s u l t of the new s p i r i t of independence sweeping the world. As t h i s work goes unrecorded, national planners ignore i t . This i s unfortunate, because i t i s a tremendous resource, and also because community action i s greatly stimulated when a reporting system i s established which gives v i l l a g e people a sense of pride knowing that t h e i r community service i s known and recognized as important to national building.13 Certain countries have already established computer reporting, and others are considering doing so. A system, similar to that i n Mexico, has been i n use i n the Dominican 1 2 I b i d . , p. 13. Ibid., p. 20. - 138 -Republic for some time, and the Ministry of Cooperatives and Community Development i n Tanganyika (Tanzania) has signed an agreement with Community Development Foundation, under which technical assistance w i l l be provided to esta-b l i s h a system. Enquiries have also been received about methods and data processing from Argentina, Chile, E l Sal-vador, Algeria, Borundi, Korea, Greece, Laos, Malaysia, Lebanon and the P h i l i p p i n e s . One of the objectives of t h i s , the United Nations Development Decade, i s to prepare regular reports and ex-change information about methods and experiences of various action programs. To f a c i l i t a t e a more e f f e c t i v e reporting, i t has been suggested that a world-wide system be established. Reports would thus show, by countries, number of people p a r t i c i p a t i n g , numbers of days of work contributed, expend-itur e s and r e s u l t s . It took over a year to work out the basic system for Mexico, the programming and the handbooks and i n s t r u c t -ions. It would be easier to u t i l i z e the same system to the needs of d i f f e r e n t countries than develop i n d i v i d u a l systems for each country. Though i t would be complicated, " i t i s a task of manageable proportion i f ele c t r o n i c data processing equipment i s u t i l i z e d . " ^ ^ It i s no accident that t h i s study began with a discussion of community development i n underdeveloped lands, because i t i s i n these countries that the techniques, which l 4 I b i d . , p. 23 - 139 -are now i n use i n Canada, were developed. In closing, r e f e r -ence i s once again made to these lands, because i t i s in them that the most recent advances i n community development have been made. No one would suggest that any program or method can be transferred from an emergent to an i n d u s t r i a l -ized nation without a l t e r a t i o n , but f a i l u r e to acknowledge and consider s t r i k i n g advances, such as those i n computer recording, would be regrettable. It could be the topic of further research to study how such a system could be introduced i n Canada. BIBLIOGRAPHY - 140 -BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL REFERENCES A. Bibliographies Queen's Printer, A Bibliography on the Canadian A r c t i c . Ottawa: 1964. United Nations Research and Publication Section, Survey, Research and Development Branch, Bureau of Social A f f a i r s , United Nations Publication on Community  Development. 1963. B. B u l l e t i n s , Booklets and Pamphlets Baker, W. B., Some Observations on the Application of  Community Development to the Settlement of Northern  Saskatchewan. Centre for Community Studies, Saskatoon: undated. Hlady, W. M., Directed Social Change and the Agencies  Involved. Centre for Community Studies, Saskatoon: 1960. - . , Power Structure i n a Metis Community, Centre for Community Studies, Saskatoon: 1960. Lagasse, J. H., A Community Development Program for Manitoba, Community Development Services, Department of Welfare, Winnipeg: 1962. Rousseau, J., Ces Gens qu'on P i t Sauvages. Les Editions des Dix, Montreal: 1959. • Le Nouveau-Quebec: Contribution a 1'Etude de 1'Occupation Humaine. Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Mouton & Co., Paris: 1964. , Les Premiers Canadiens. Les Editions des Dix, Montreal: 1960. __________ Les Sachems Deliberent Autour du Feu de Camp. Les Editions des Dix, Montreal: 1959. - 141 -Sivertz, B. G., Cul t u r a l Change: Fast or Slow?. Northern Administration Branch, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources: 1964. Centre for Community Studies, A Study of Rural Housing i n  the P r a i r i e Region. (Series - Developing Saskatchewan's Community Resources). Saskatoon: 1960. Centre for Community Studies, Saskatchewan Approaches Community Development. (Series - Developing Saskatche-wan's Community Resources). Saskatoon: undated. Centre for Community Studies, The Community Self-Develop- ment Seminars, at University of Saskatchewan, 1958. (Series - Developing Saskatchewan's Community Resour-ces). Saskatoon: 1958. Leadership and Adult Education Courses, sponsored by the Community Welfare Planning Council, Winnipeg: Period A p r i l 1, 1963 - March 31, 1964. Leadership Training for Indian C i t i z e n s . Series of A r t i c l e s reprinted from C i t i z e n . Ottawa: October, 1962. C. Per i o d i c a l s Canadian Public Administration, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1960; Vol. 5, No. 5, 1962. Canadian Welfare, Vol. 39, January, February, 1963. Community Development Review, Agency for International Development, Washington, D. C. Journal of Adult Education, Vol. 22, November, 1961. Social Worker, Vol. 30, January, February, 1963. The Indian News, published by Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, Ottawa, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1963; and Vol. 7, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1964. D. Reports Annual Report of Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. 1962-1963. Staats, H., Some Aspects of the Legal Status of Indians. Report of Select Committee on Indian A f f a i r s to Ontario Legislature: 1954. - 142 -Welfare D i v i s i o n , Northern Administration Branch, Depart-ment of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, Northern Welfare '64, A Symposium ion Northern Social Work. 1964. E. Speeches (published) Bailey, S. J., Social Programs i n the Indian A f f a i r s Branch. Address to B. C. Council of Women, i n Vancouver. November 18, 1964. O'Connell, M., Breaking the Cycle of Poverty i n Indian  Reserve Communities. Address to Indian-Eskimo Asso-c i a t i o n , London, Ontario. November 21, 1964. Sauve, M., An Emerging Canada and North America's Great  Society. Notes for address to 76th Annual Banquet of Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. February 10, 1965. • The Next Five Years of ARDA. Notes for address to Annual Meeting of New Brunswick Federation of A g r i -culture i n Fredericton, N. B. December 8, 1964. F. Training Aids and Handbooks Hannin, D., A Guide to Planning for Community Program Organization i n Rural Indian Communities. Adult Educa-t i o n Bureau, Jesuit Ontario Missions, Sturgeon F a l l s , Ontario: 1964. Larsen, V. W., Organizing for Co-ordinated E f f o r t i n  Communities, (Key to Community No. 4). Center for Community Studies, Saskatoon: 1963. •, The Self-Survey i n Saskatchewan Communities, (Key to Community No. 3). Center for Community Studies, Saskatoon: 1963. Lotz, J. R. (ed.), A Settlement Handbook for Northern  Administrations. Industrial Division,Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, September, 1962. Solomon, D. D., Evaluating Community Programs, (Key to Community No. 5). Center for Community Studies, Saskatoon: 1963. Agency for International Development, Community Develop-ment Training Material, Series A. Vol. 1, An Intro- duction to Community Development for V i l l a g e Workers; - 143 -Vol. 2, Making Council Meetings More Successful; Vol. 3, Community Development i n Urban and Semi-Urban Areas; Vol. 4, Community Development and Social Change; Vol. 5, Community Development, Extension and V i l l a g e A i d Syn- thesis; Vol. 6, Conference on Conference Planning; Vol. 7, The V i l l a g e - A i d Worker and Democratic Program Plan- ning; Washington, D. C.: 1962. Centre for Community Studies, Reference Handbook for Com- munity Leaders, (Series - Developing Saskatchewan's Community Resources). Saskatoon: 1958. Community Development Services, Department of Welfare, Manitoba, How to Solve Community Problems. Winnipeg: 1963. United Nations Economic and Social A f f a i r s , Study K i t on Training for Community Development, (ST/SOA/Ser.0/24.ST/ TAA/ SER.D/24, 1957).New York: 1957. G. United Nations Publications United Nations Department of Economic and Social A f f a i r s , Community Development and Related Services, (Annex III, E/29/31). Geneva: 1957; Reprint New York: 1960. United Nations Series on Community Organization and Develop-ment , Methods and Techniques of Community Development  i n the United Kingdom Dependent and Trust T e r r i t o r i e s , (ST/SOA/Ser.0/21,ST/TAA/Ser.D/21, 1954). New York: 1954. SPECIFIC REFERENCES A. Books DuSautoy, P., The Organization of a Community Development  Programme. Oxford University Press, London: 1962. Goodenough, W. H., Cooperation i n Change. Russell Sage, New York: 1963. Hawthorn, H. B., Belshaw, C. S., Jamieson, S. M., The  Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. University of Toronto Press, Toronto: 1960. Jenness, D., Eskimo 'Administration: I I . Canada. A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, Technical Paper No. 14, Montreal: 1964. - 144 -Ross, M. G., Community Organization: Theory and P r i n c i p l e s . Harper and Brothers, New York: 1955. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, The Way of The Indian. Toronto: 1963. B. A r t i c l e s Baker, W. B., "A Prospectus on the Role of Organizations and Interest Groups i n Urban Community Development," Community Development. Canadian Conference on Social Work, Winnipeg: 1962. Hobart, G. W., "Non-whites i n Canada, Indians, Eskimos, Negroes," Social Problems, Ed. La&in, R. McGraw H i l l , Toronto: 1964. Jenness, D., "Canada's Indians Yesterday. What of Today?", Soc i a l Problems, Ed. Laskin, R. McGraw H i l l , Toronto: 1964. Ogden, J., "A Philosophy of Community Development", Adult  Leadership. A p r i l , 1958. Rudnicki, W.; "Creating Northern Communities: Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s , " Community Organization, Community Plan- ning and Community Development. Council on Social Work Education, New York: 1961. Zentner, H., "C u l t u r a l Assimilation between Indians and Non-Indians i n Southern Alberta," Social Problems, Ed. Laskin, R. McGraw H i l l , Toronto: 1964. C. B u l l e t i n s , Booklets and Pamphlets Dallyn, J. G., Community Development Service Evaluation. Community Development Service, Department of Welfare, Winnipeg: 1964. Dunstan, W., Canadian Indians Today. Canadian Geographical Journal (Reprint), Ottawa: December, 1963. Hannin, D., The Adult Education Bureau of the Jesuit Ontario  Missions. Regional O f f i c e , Sturgeon F a l l s , Ontario: 1964. Lagasse, J. H., Community Development i n Manitoba. Human Organization (Reprint), Vol. 20, No. 4: Winter 1961-1962. - 145 -Leet, G., Computer Aided Community Development Reporting  i n Mexico. Community Development Foundation, New York: 1964. O'Connell, M., An Economic Development Plan for Indian Reserve Communities i n Canada. Ontario Committee of the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada: 1964. Renaud, A., Indian and Metis and Possible Development as  Ethnic Groups. Centre for Community Studies, Univer-s i t y of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon: 1961. Vallee, F. G., Notes on the Cooperative Movement and Community Organization i n the Canadian A r c t i c . American Association for Advancement of Science, Montreal: 1964. ARDA, CAAE, ICEA, National Consultation on Training for  Community Development. The Guild Inn, Toronto: January 31 - February 2, 1965. Canadian Association for Adult Education, The S i x t i e s :  Rural Poverty, what can ARDA Do?. Pamphlet No. 1, Toronto: 1964. Community Development Branch, Department of Industry and Development, Community Development i n Alberta: State- ment of A c t i v i t i e s To Date. Edmonton; February, 1965. Community Development Branch, Department of Industry and Development, Preliminary Statement of a Community  Development Program for the Province of Alberta. Edmon-ton: A p r i l , 1964. Community Development Services, Department of Welfare, Community Development Services Vocational Guidance and  Job Placement Program. Winnipeg: June, 1964. Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immi-gration, The Indian i n Transition - Indians Today. Ottawa: 1964. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Extension Department, Sub-mission for Programs for B. C. Indian Education Pro-gram 1965-1966, to Indian A f f a i r s Branch, 1965. D. Periodicals Lauzon, A., "Bas Saint-Laurent et Gaspesie: Un Nouvel Espoir," Le Magazine Maclean: December, 1964. Tremblay, M.-A., et Fo r t i n , G. , "Enquete sur les Conditions de Vie de l a Famille Canadienne-Francaise: L'Univers des Besoins',' Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. IV, No. 1. Les Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t i Laval: T963. - 146 -B u l l e t i n , Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Vol. 1, No. 1, March, 1960; Vol. 5, No. 2, March, 1964. Northern Community Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. I; Vol. 2, Nos. 3 and 4. Center for Community Studies, University of Sas-katchewan, Saskatoon: 1962. E. Reports Buckley, H., Kew, J. E. M., Hawley, J. B., The Indians and  Metis of Northern Saskatchewan, A report on Economic and Social Development. Centre for Community Studies, Saskatoon: 1963. G l i s i n s k i , M., Community Recreation Project. Mobert Indian  Reserve. Community Programmes Branch, Ontario Depart-ment of Education, Fort William: 1963. Hirabayashi, G. K., Cormier, A. J., Billow, V. S., (Eds.), The Challenge of A s s i s t i n g the Canadian Aboriginal  People to Adjust to Urban Environments. Seminar Report, University of Alberta, Edmonton: 1962. Hlady, W. M., A Community Development Project Amongst the  C h u r c h i l l Band at C h u r c h i l l , Manitoba, September 1959 - March 1960. Saskatoon: 1960. Annual Reports of Community Development Services, Depart-ment of Welfare, Manitoba. Winnipeg: 1960, 1961, 1963. Annual Reports of Extension Service,Memorial University of  Newfoundland. 1960 - 1964. Annual Report of Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration. Ottawa: 1963, 1964. Indian Advisory Committee Proceedings, O f f i c i a l Court Report. New Westminster: 1964. Report, Unpublished, from Senior Liais o n O f f i c e r , Western Canada to Chief, Liaison Division, Leadership Training  Course - Saddle Lake Indian Agency. December 7, 1961. Special Report, Extract, Nova Scotia Credit Union League, The Philosophy of the Antigonish Movement. 1960. Urban and Social Development Project, Progress Report. Montreal: January, 1965. - 147 -F. Speeches (Published) C a r r o l l , J. B., Partnership i n Community Development. Address to Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Regina: 1963. D'Astous, J., Address to B r i t i s h Columbia Council of Women, Vancouver: November 18, 1964. Davidson, A. T., Notes for a Speech. Speech to Saskatchewan Farmers* Union, Saskatoon: December, 1964. Lagasse, J. H., Address to Workshop on Community Develop-ment, Coady International Institute, Antigonish: 1964. Sauve, M., Rural Poverty i n Canada. Notes for Address to Manitoba Farmers' Union, Winnipeg: December, 1964. G. United Nations Publications United Nations, Bureau of Social A f f a i r s , Social Progress Through Community Development, (ST/SOA 26, November 1955). United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Ad Hoc Report of Community Development Experts, (E/CN.5/379, 1963). New York: 1963. United Nations, Technical Assistance Programme, Decentral- i z a t i o n for National and Local Developments, (ST/TAP/ M 19, 1962). New York: 1962. United Nations, Technical Assistance Programme, Public  Administration Aspects of Community Development Pro- grammes , (ST/TA0/M14, 1959). New York: 1959. ' ' H. Unpublished Materials Faculte des Sciences Sociaux, "Le Mouvement Cooperatif dans l a Province de Quebec", document de t r a v a i l , Quebec. University Laval: 1963. (mimeo). Hannin, D., "Fundamental Factors i n the Selection and T r a i n -ing of Indigenous Adult Leaders for Community Projects on Ojibway Indian Reservations," unpublished Master's Dissertation for Master of Science, Cooperative Exten-sion Education, University of Wisconsin: 1964. Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Department of Cit i z e n s h i p and Immi-gration, Community Development. A Program for Canadian  Indians. (xerox), undated. - 148 -Kargbo, M. J. T., "Musqueam Indian Reserve: A Case Study for Community Development Purposes." Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1965. Paton, J. D., Unpublished Essay on Six Nations Indian Reser-vation, Ontario, undated. APPENDIX - 149 -APPENDIX A Names and addresses of some of the people and organizations contaced for information. Federal Government Departments John H. Lagasse, Acting Director, Department of Citi z e n s h i p and Immigration, Ottawa 4, Ontario. A. T. Davidson, Director ARDA, Department of Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario. D. F. Symington, Information-Education Consultant ARDA, Department of Forestry, Ottawa, Ontario. W. A. Dyson, Community Development Consultant, Department of National Health and Welfare, Brooke Claxton Building, Ottawa, Ontario. Irene Baird, Chief, Information Services, Division, Depart-ment of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, Ottawa 4, Ontario. Indian A f f a i r s Branches R. L. Boulanger, Surveillant Regional, I.A.B., C P . 430, Haute-Ville, Quebec 4, P. Q. C. I. Fairholm, Senior Administrative O f f i c e r , I.A.B., Ottawa 2, Ontario. A. E. Fry, Indian Superintendent, I.A.B., Yukon Indian Agency, Box 2110, Whitehorse, Y.T. G. S. Lapp, Regional Supervisor, I.A.B., 407 V i c t o r i a Ave., Fort Williams, Ontario. J. G. McGilp, Regional Supervisor, I.A.B., 216 Federal Building, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. F. B. McKinnon, Regional Supervisor, I.A.B., P.O. Drawer 160, Amherst, N.S. - 150 -R. D. Ragan, Regional Supervisor, I.A.B., 716 Federal B u i l d -ing, Edmonton, Alberta. W. Rudnicki, Chief, Social Programs Di v i s i o n , I.A.B., Ottawa 2, Ontario. Cit i z e n s h i p Branches A. S. Arnason, Regional Liai s o n O f f i c e r , 306 London Building, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. C. F. B r o u i l l a r d , National Liai s o n O f f i c e r , Ottawa 2, Ontario. R. S. H a l l , Regional Liai s o n O f f i c e r , 55 St. C l a i r Avenue East, Toronto 7, Ontario. W. M. Hlady, Regional Liaison O f f i c e r , 605 Dominion Building, Winnipeg 1, Manitoba. R. G. Wray, Regional Liaison O f f i c e r , 10534 - 100 St., Edmonton, Alberta. S. Zybala, Regional Liai s o n O f f i c e r (North Ontario), P. O. Box 1001, Sudbury, Ontario. P r o v i n c i a l Government Departments F. H. Compton, Director, Community Development Services, Department of Welfare, 1181 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg 10, Manitoba. G. H. Matthews, Director of Social Service, Department of Public Welfare, Halifax, N.S. J. R. Whitford, P r o v i n c i a l Co-ordinator of Community Develop-ment, Community Development Branch, Department of Industry and Development, Room 243 Highways Building, Edmonton, Alberta. Departments of Education B r i t i s h Columbia A. L. Car t i e r , Director, Adult Education, V i c t o r i a , B. C. New Brunswick S. T. Spicer, Director, Adult Education and Fitness Branch, P. 0. Box 804, Fredericton, N.B. - 151 -Nova Scotia T. Jones, Supervisor, Adult Education Division, Bridgetown, Anna Co., N.S. Ontario R. F. Lavack, D i s t r i c t Representative, P. 0. Box 1949, Dryden, Ontario. D. McCubbin, Representative, No. 13 - Medical Arts Building, North Bay, Ontario. G. H. M i l l e r , Representative, 371 Richmond Street, London, Ontario. D. W. Maddocks, D i s t r i c t Representative, 379 Front Street, B e l l e v i l l e , Ontario. J. D. Paton, Representative, 341 Kerr Street North, Oakville, Ontario. L.-P. P o i r i e r , Representative, No. 4, G i l l i n Building, 1581 Bank Street, Ottawa 8, Ontario. Eleanor Saracuse (Miss), Advisor, Rural Programmes, 559 Jarvis Street, Toronto 5, Ontario. I. B. McCauley, Representative, 400 Catherine Street, Fort William, Ontario. L. E. Stanbridge, Representative, P.O. Box 148, Hanover, Ontario. F. E. Willock, Representative, 40 Eglinton Avenue East, Toronto 12, Ontario. D. L. Minshall, Coordinator, Recreation Courses, Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, Guelph, Ontario. A. M. Thomas, Executive Director, Canadian Association of Adult Education, 113 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario. University Departments G. A. Eyford, Assistant Director, Department of Extension, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Dr. J. Rousseau, Centre d'Etudes Nordiques, University Laval, Quebec, P.Q. - 152 -Sheila Goldbloom (Mrs.), Lecturer, McGill University, School of Social Work, 3506 University Street, Montreal, P.Q. Audrey MacDougall, Extension Department, St. Francis Xavier University, P. 0. Box 5, Sydney, N.S. Centre for Community Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Director of Extension, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland. Educational Institutes Rev. J. F. Glasgow, Assistant Director, Coady International In s t i t u t e of St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, N.S. C. M. Mcintosh, Director, Quetico Conference and Training Centre, Box 100, Atikokan, Ontario. Miscellaneous i r i s E. Bailey, Publication and Technical Services Branch, Communications Resources Staff, Department of State, Agency for International Development, Washington 25, D.C H. D. Crowell, Executive Director, Family and Children's Services of Hants County, Windsor, N. S. Rev. D. Hannin, S.J., Garden V i l l a g e , P.O. Box 1240, Sturgeon F a l l s , Ontario. E. R. McEwen, Executive Director, Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 47 Dundonald Street, Toronto 5, Ontario. Persons Consulted i n B r i t i s h Columbia Shirley Arnold (Miss), Welfare Consultant, Indian A f f a i r s Branch, 325 Granville Street, Vancouver, B. C. Marjorie V. Smith (Miss) and T. S. Brown, Department of Ex-tension, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, B. E. B. Sexsmith, Regional Liai s o n O f f i c e r , C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 325 Granville Street, Vancouver, B.C. 

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