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A morphological analysis of loanwords in Russian Konya, Ilon Julianna 1966

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A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OP LOANWORDS IN RUSSIAN by ILONA JULIANNA KONYA B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y , of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of S l a v o n i c Studies, D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1966 In presenting this 'thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia;, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study,, I further agree that permission., for extensive- copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Slavonic Studies, ( D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e August 22, 1966 ABSTRACT A language i s so constructed that the speaker i s able to draw out of i t s resources whatever he wishes to communicate, yet whenever c u l t u r a l borrowing occurs he cannot altogether avoid borrowing the words which are associated with i t . Russian written records indicate that the language has been exposed to numerous foreign influences from very early times. With the intense introduction of "Western-i z a t i o n " since the sixteenth-century both English and French have had a considerable influence on Russian and especially i n the twentieth-century this has even i n -creased. For the purpose of t h i s study, therefore, the writer has chosen to analyse English and French loanwords that are found i n use i n present-day Russian; examples from other languages, e s p e c i a l l y German, w i l l be given occasionally insofar as they support the arguments pre-sented. This thesis attempts an o v e r a l l description of the morphological assimilation of loanwords. Phonological analy-s i s and discussion of the soc i o - c u l t u r a l context i s given consideration i n order to enable the reader and the anal-yst to see t h i s paper as a whole. I t was necessary to a b s t r a c t l i n g u i s t i c elements at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s so that some problems that are not explai n a b l e at the morphological l e v e l , would not "be l e f t unsolved. To some extent fu t u r e borrowings i n t o the Russian language i n connection with c u l t u r a l borrowing may be p r e d i c t e d . The pronounciation of a loanword depends on the degree of a s s i m i l a t i o n and whether or not the speaker i s aware of the f a c t that i t i s a borrowing or wants to a l e r t the l i s t e n e r as w e l l . On the whole, loanwords are subject to p h o n o l o g i c a l as w e l l as morphological adjustments. Loanwords are sometimes under the pressure of both the n a t i v e and f o r e i g n morphological systems, which i n turn causes f l u c t u a t i o n of forms. Important e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of loanwords at both l e v e l s are the audio and v i s u a l means of communication i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s f e r r i n g a loanword from e i t h e r E n g l i s h or French i n t o Russian . An i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the a n a l y s i s of loanwords on the l e x i c a l l e v e l and the c o r r e l a t i o n of l e x i c a l p a t t e r n i n g w i t h morphology i n the process of loanword a s s i m i l a t i o n . TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. BACKGROUND TO T H E STUDY . • 1 Materials used Terminology of "borrowing Theoretical problems I I . CONTEXT OP SITUATION 15 I I I . PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS 29 IV. MORPHOLOGIC TYPES IN LOANWORDS k9 Compound words Derived secondary words V. GENDER,. NUMBER AND CASE 85 Gender and case O s c i l l a t i o n of gender Number and case VI. , MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSES OP LOANWORDS . . . . Ilk Nouns Adjectives Verbs V I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY 131 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. E n g l i s h consonants hO 2» French consonants ' hi 3. Russian consonants i l l k» Russian nominal d e r i v a t i o n - stem+suffix 63 5. E n g l i s h nominal d e r i v a t i o n - s.tem+suffix. 6k 6. French nominal d e r i v a t i o n - stem+suffix 64 7. Russian v e r b a l d e r i v a t i o n - stem+suffix 65 8. E n g l i s h v e r b a l d e r i v a t i o n - stem+suffix 65 9. French v e r b a l d e r i v a t i o n - stem+suffix 66 ..330. F r . s u f f i x -ade '66 11. F r . s u f f i x -age 67 12. Fr.' s u f f i x -ance 68 13. F r . s u f f i x -ant . . . . . . . . . . 69 Ihc F r . s u f f i x -at 70 15. F r . s u f f i x -ement 70 16. Eng. s u f f i x -er 71 17. F r . s u f f i x - e t , - e t t e . 72 18. F r . s u f f i x -eur 73 19. Eng.. s u f f i x - i n g 77 20. F r . s u f f i x -isme 79 21. Eng. - i s t , F r . - i s t e . . . . . . . . . 80 TABLE P A G E 22. S u f f i x e s i n chemical terminology ... 82 23. Gender p a t t e r n of Eng., P r . , and Russ. 8? 2k» Gender d i s t r i b u t i o n ( l ) ... 98 25. Gender d i s t r i b u t i o n (2) ... 99 26. Gender d i s t r i b u t i o n (3) ... 105 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS "With s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e the author wishes to express her indebtedness to P r o f . A.P. Harshenin f o r guidance and h e l p f u l suggestions and to Dr. R. Gregg f o r h i s good counsel. Without the i n t e r e s t , co-operation and a s s i s t a n c e of the aforementioned, i t would have heen d i f f i c u l t to b r i n g t h i s paper to a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n . There are many other people I cannot ack-nowledge p e r s o n a l l y , but my debt i s none the l e s s heavy. CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY A language i s so c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t no matter what any speaker of i t may d e s i r e to communicate, no matter how o r i g i n a l or b i z a r r e h i s i d e a or f a n c y , the language i s prepared to do h i s work. He w i l l never need to c r e a t e new forms or f o r c e upon h i s language a new formal o r i e n t a t i o n — u n l e s s , poor man, he i s haunted by the form-f e e l i n g o f another language and i s s u b t l y d r i v e n to the unconscious d i s -t o r t i o n of the one speech-system on the analogy of another. Edward S a p i r ( 1 9 2 U ) 1 Approximately 23,000 f o r e i g n words and terms were 2 l i s t e d r e c e n t l y which have entered R u s s i a n at a l l stages of i t s development and thus, r e f l e c t the h i s t o r y of the people and the c o n d i t i o n s f o r borrowing. With the i n t e n s e i n t r o -d u c t i o n of " ? / e s t e r n i z a t i o n " i n the l 6 t h century, words borrowed from a l l European languages made t h e i r appearance i n speech as w e l l as w r i t i n g , and w i t h the expansion o f Russian p o l i t i c a l power, these words g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i n number. Furthermore,, modern technology, World Wars,, r e v o l u t i o n s , everyday s o c i a l l i f e , have a l l brought i n new borrowings and s t a b a l i z e d the o l d ones. The corpus f o r the p r e s e n t study i s drawn mainly from L e x i n ' s and P e t r o v ' s S l o v a r ' Inostrannyx S l o v (\9bb and l96U) t 2 Max Vasmer's Russiches Etymologisches Worterbuch ( 1958) , and from Slovar* Russkovo Jazyka ( 1961) . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l contemporary newspapers^ and l i t e r a r y works have been reviewed by the w r i t e r f o r the occurrence and abundance of f o r e i g n words. Loanwords d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s are mainly the ones which are e s t a b l i s h e d i n Russian (as used i n the So v i e t Union) and haye e i t h e r r e c e i v e d d i c t i o n a r y r e c o g n i t i o n or appeared i n p r i n t , since no f i e l d work was p o s s i b l e ^ . The forms are i d e n t i f i e d by the t r a n s f e r of the phonemic sequence from language Y i n t o X. Hence, according to U r i e l Weinreich, "When a speaker o f language X uses a form of f o r e i g n o r i g i n not on-the-spot borrowings from language Y, but because he has heard i t used by others i n X-utterance, then t h i s borrowed element can be considered, from the d e s c r i p t i v e view-point, to become a p a r t of language X."^ In t h i s statement X may repre-sent Russian, and t h e r e f o r e , Y symbolizes any other language(s). The p o i n t Weinreich makes can be i n t e r p r e t e d as i f the item has been d i f f u s e d from Y to X, or more t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the speakers of language X have borrowed i t from Y, or according to a s t i l l newer terminology, a case of i n t e r f e r e n c e has occurred between Y and X. The term chosen by the present w r i t e r i s borrowing, which i s a t r a d i t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l term i n l i n g u i s t i c science, sub-divided by Leonard B l o o m f i e l d i n t o C u l t u r a l , Intimate and D i a l e c t a l borrowing (Language, 1933; PP« W+-95)• Weinreich 3 s t a t e s , however, that these d i s t i n c t i o n s o v e r l a p , combining as they do the problem of extent of borrowing ( c u l t u r a l v s. intimate) w i t h that of the language distance (language vs. d i a l e c t ) . In b r i e f , borrowing i s an inexact term also i n the sense that the process takes place without the donor's consent or awareness, i t does not e f f e c t the donor . Thus, there has been some suggestions to replace t h i s terminology w i t h the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l terms d i f f u s i o n and a c c u l t u r a t i o n . But i t i s best to r e s t r i c t these to n o n - l i n g u i s t i c c u l t u r a l items. In recent l i t e r a t u r e a new term has appeared, i n t e r f e r e n c e , i n i t i a t e d by the Prague school i n Europe, and introduced to America by Weinreich. To quote from him, "those instances of d e v i a t i o n from the norm of e i t h e r language which occurs i n the speech of b i l i n g u a l s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h more than one language, i . e . as a r e s u l t of language contact w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as i n t e r f e r e n c e  phenomena"\ The modern American school of l i n g u i s t s has decided to r e t a i n the term "borrowing" but wit h a new a d d i t i o n -a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Hockett's d e f i n i t i o n i s , "whenever two i d i o l e c t s come i n t o contact, one or both may be modified. In face- t o - f a c e communication, e i t h e r speaker may i m i t a t e some fe a t u r e of the other's speech; when the contact i s i n d i r e c t , as i n reading, the influ e n c e can pass only i n one d i r e c t i o n . The feature which i s i m i t a t e d i s the model; the i d i o l e c t ( o r language) i n which the model occurs, or the speaker of the i d i o l e c t , i s c a l l e d the donor; the i d i o l e c t ( o r language) which r e q u i r e s something new i n the process i s the borrowing i d i o l e c t ( o r language). The process i t s e l f i s c a l l e d "borrowing" Por the most p a r t , however, the i n f l u e n c e of l i t e r a r y persons i s evident, e s p e c i a l l y i n the rendering of the l o a n -words. F i r s t l y , "the l i t e r a t e person who knows nothing of the f o r e i g n language but has seen the w r i t t e n n o t a t i o n of the f o r e i g n form, i n t e r p r e t s the l a t t e r i n terms of n a t i v e orthography", and secondly, one encounters i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s given by " l i t e r a t e persons who know something of the f o r e i g n 119 p r o n o u n c i a t i o n and orthography . Contemporary Russian w r i t i n g system i s morphophonemic, th e r e f o r e , w i t h the a i d of s u f f i c i e n t l i n g u i s t i c c o r r o b o r a t i o n w r i t t e n forms of loanwords can be assessed adequately. Terminology f o r borrowing American l i n g u i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y E i n a r Haugen, have e s t a b l i s h e d a w e l l defined terminology f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of borrowing based p r i m a r i l y on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between morphemic and phonemic s u b s t i t u t i o n . These terms are loanwords, l o a n -blends and l o a n s h i f t s . Loanworda Loanwords are f r e e morphemes which have been imported without other morphemic s u b s t i t u t i o n than the minimal e s s e n t i a l i n f l e c t i o n . A f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n can be made according to the extent of t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l , morphological even s y n t a c t i c 5 s u b s t i t u t i o n . The phonemic s u b s t i t u t i o n may be p a r t i a l or complete or even none, according to Haugen). I f borrowing f i r s t l y i n v o l v e s b i l i n g u a l s as the channel f o r the process, and al s o c o n s i d e r i n g some p r e s t i g e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d , we can assume s e v e r a l consequences i n a r t i c u l a t o r y h a b i t s . These may be summed up i n a n u t - s h e l l : 1) a b i l i n g u a l speaker i n t r o d u c e s a new loanword i n a phonetic form as near that of the model language as he can; 2) i f he had occasion to repeat i t , or i f other speakers also take to u s i n g i t , a f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f n a t i v e elements w i l l take p l a c e ; 3) i f monolinguals l e a r n i t , a t o t a l or p r a c t i c a l l y t o t a l s u b s t i t u t i o n w i l l be made."1"0 For i n s t a n c e , Eng. broker > Russ. brdker i s no?/ completely a s s i m i l a t e d , and i s pronounced as / b r d k i r / . From Eng. s t a r t e r i n Russian l i t e r a r y s t y l e / s t a r t e r / , a p a r t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d form i s used, whereas i n c o l l o q u i a l Russian / s t a r t 1 o r / i s used, which I s a c t u a l l y a loanblend. E n g l i s h /l/ist u s u a l l y / i / i n Russian, as i n b i z n e s , k l i p e r , t e n n i s , t h e r e f o r e , one would expect t h i s to take place a l l the time, but i t i s not so, i n krengel* s < Eng. c r i n g l e s the change i s . f r o m / i / to /e/. As f o r the morphological adaptation of loanwords, the subject i s best introduced by a quotation from B l o o m f i e l d : "Grammatically, the borrowed.form i s subject to the system of borrowing language, both as to the syntax and as to the 6 indispensable i n f l e c t i o n s and the f u l l y current ' l i v i n g ' c o n s t r u c t i o n s of composition and word f o r m a t i o n . " 1 1 This phenomenenwill be discussed i n d e t a i l i n the subsequent chapters. Loanblends Loanblends are sometimes r e f e r r e d to as h y b r i d loans because they are formed by p a r t i a l morphemic s u b s t i t u t i o n and i n the case of Russian also by means of a d d i t i o n . Thus, a loanblend i n c l u d e s a l l loans that c o n s i s t of i m p o r t a t i o n and some s u b s t i t u t i o n of n a t i v e morphemes beyond those of i n f l e c -t i o n or simply c o n s i s t of an a d d i t i o n of n a t i v e morpheme to a f o r e i g n morpheme. A good example of a loanblend i n Russian i s agressivny.j from French a g r e s s i f + Russian a d j e c t i v a l ending. Russian sportsmenka < Eng. sportsman i s another type of loanblend, a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as a loanblend d e r i v a t i v e . Another example of t h i s type i s pudlingovanie from English, -puddle» L A l a r g e group of compounds show only p a r t i a l importa-t i o n , t h e r e f o r e * they are loanblends as w e l l ; e.g.: . Eng. g r a i n - e l e v a t o r > Russ. zernovoj e l e v a t o r . L o a n s h i f t s By t h i s term we imply that a s h i f t of context has taken place on the p a r t of the n a t i v e word, that i s morphophonemic s u b s t i t u t i o n without i m p o r t a t i o n . There are two s u b d i v i s i o n s under t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : semantic loans and l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n s , 7 sometimes c a l l e d as caiques. Loan t r a n s l a t i o n i n one sense could be inc l u d e d under t h i s heading — a s h i f t does take place but t h i s time i n the form and not the meaning. The loan i s d e r i v e d from n a t i v e sources, but cannot be c a l l e d a neologism i n i t s s t r i c t g sense. T h i s i s a d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n of a f o r e i g n model yet created w i t h i n the borrowing language; e.g.: polu(5strov "peninsula" or t r a n s l a t e d as 'half+ i s l a n d 1 from German 'Ha l b b i n s e l ' Borrowing of the c u l t u r a l item or of a new idea may not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that the language i s going e i t h e r to import or t r a n s l a t e the word denoting i t , but may'.use a (|) .«;„ loa n c r e a t i o n which may describe i t even more adequately than the comparable term used i n the language of the c u l t u r a l group i n contact; f o r example,,, Russ. vezdex&d < Eng. jeep t r . ' ^ a s ^ a ' motor v e h i c l e capable of going' anywhere' T h e o r e t i c a l problems B i l i n g u a l d e s c r i p t i o n emphasizes not a h i s t o r i c a l but a d e s c r i p t i v e o p e r a t i o n and p o s t u l a t e s the same l e v e l s of analysis as a synchronic monolingual d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h one r e s e r v a t i o n that the two languages must be desribed by the. same method., Ferdinand de Saussure's "Cours de L i n g u i s t i q u e generale" i s c r e d i t e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l foundation f o r the treatment of language as a synchronic s e l f - c o n t a i n e d system, 8 and thus, i n t r o d u c i n g a p r i o r i t y of a n a l y s i s of " e t a t s de  langue". From t h i s idea arose the conception of l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . The l i n g u i s t i c schools of Geneva, Copenhagen and Prague proclaim some dependence on the conception of l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , whereas the London and American l i n g u i s t s deny any a l l e g i a n c e to de Saussure. " I t i s impossible to say t h a t those t h e o r i e s which d e r i v e from de Saussure manifest some dichotomy, some dualism, e.g., s i g n i f a n t and s i g n i f i e , form and sub-stance, expression and content, form and content, e t c . , whereas the London and t r a d i t i o n a l American schools have i n s i s t e d much more on a p u r e l y formal approach and grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n and have produced Y/hat might be c a l l e d a syntagmatic -12 paradigmatic theory of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . " D e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t s , says M a r t i n e t , put too much emphasis on " s t r u c t u r e " so that sometimes they ignore the observable f a c t s which r e f l e c t the l i n g u i s t i c r e a l i t y , or even set up t h e o r e t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s to f i t t h e i r preconceptions. Nevertheless, f a c t s must be s t a t e d , and stated t e c h n i c a l l y and i n a manner so that i t should be found a p p l i c a b l e on a "renewed connection w i t h experience". To quote from Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , "the p o s t u l a t i o n method can f u r t h e r the study of language, because i t f o r c e s us to s t a t e e x p l i c i t l y whatever we assume, to define our terms, and to decide what t h i n g s may 13 e x i s t independently and what things are independent." 9 L e v e l s of a n a l y s i s American s c h o l a r s , B l o c h , H a r r i s , Hockett, Trager, e t c . , p r a c t i c e the theory of " compartmentalization""^ 1" which accepts that the l e v e l s should.he c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each other, o c c u r r i n g i n ascending order beginning w i t h phonology and pro g r e s s i n g v i a morphology and syntax. The London school, F i r t h , A l l e n , Palmer, e t c . , accepts these l e v e l s hut i n a d i f f e r e n t way. S t i l l another approach i s taken hy P i k e and h i s f o l l o w e r s ( " i n t e g r a t i o n " ) which maintains t h a t the theory of l e v e l s a n a l y s i s e x i s t s , "hut there must he mixing of l e v e l s w i t h mutual dependence of one l e v e l on another." 1^ A c c o r d i n g l y , hath the phoneme and morpheme are considered as the s m a l l e s t u n i t s , hut i n two p e r s p e c t i v e h i e r a r c h i e s . The theory of F i r t h and h i s colleagues of the London School, on the other hand, ref u s e s to arrogate to any l e v e l a h i e r a r c h i c a l import-ance. T h e i r s i s a polysystematic approach, i . e . the a n a l y s t may proceed from any l e v e l . Approach taken The most recent trend i n l i n g u i s t i c s i s towards a mutual dependence of one l e v e l on another. I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study of loanwords i t would he ^ i m p r a c t i c a l to draw a f a s t l i n e of d i v i s i o n between the so c a l l e d " l e v e l s " , f o r example, between morphology and phonology, because the p h y s i c a l counterpart of a morpheme i n E n g l i s h i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a morpheme i n Russian but may only be a phoneme. For example, i n Russ. 10 "buts < Eng. boots, / s / i s only a phoneme whereas i n E n g l i s h i n t h i s case -_s i s a morpheme as w e l l which marks the p l u r a l number. The present w r i t e r owes the a n a l y s i s made i n t h i s t h e s i s mainly to the theory d e r i v i n g from the American view of l i n g u i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y E i n e r Haugen's. The statement under-l y i n g the reasoning i n t h i s paper i s t h a t , "any account of a language w i l l be an adequate statement, provided i t d e s c r i b e s , comprehensively and economically, what i s heard (and read) i n the language and enables the a n a l y s t to 'renew connections' w i t h f u r t h e r experience of i t . " 1 ^ In t h i s paper the emphasis i s on the l a t t e r one, that i s , what i s read i n the language. Since some r e s t r i c t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s must be made as to the extent of the subject of loanwords i n Russian, the emphasis i s put mainly on E n g l i s h and French loanwords, although some from other languages, e s p e c i a l l y German, w i l l be quoted. (Examples from the l a t t e r are only important i n s o f a r as they enable us to e s t a b l i s h morphological s i m i l a r i t i e s w ith other loans and trends i n the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n of loanwords i n Russian.) T r a n s c r i p t i o n and symbols Throughout t h i s paper Russian examples are shown i n t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n except i n cases where phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are used. The l a t t e r ones appear between s l a n t b a r s , / /; [ ] i n d i c a t e s allophones. The s i g n —denotes a l t e r n a t i o n s of 11 forms; # i n d i c a t e s a zero or u n r e a l desinence. In the phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n /k/ i n d i c a t e s a p l a i n consonant and /k'/> a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant, and so on. S t r e s s i s i n d i c a t e d hy the ..acute d i a c r i t i c , /'/, •which appear above the s t r e s s e d vowel. I t was omitted i n monosyllabic words since here any marking i s redundant. The s t r e s s i s marked i n a l l ' p o l y s y l l a b i c words i n Russian even i n t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n ( t h i s i s i n accordance w i t h t r a n s l i t e r a -t i o n of Russian used by s c h o l a r s l i k e J.?/. P e r r y and o t h e r s ) . The t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n system employed i n the corpus of t h i s paper, i n the footnotes and i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y i s i d e n t i c a l to the one set up by J.B. Rudnyckyj, U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1958=.(in paper read to CLA). A b b r e v i a t i o n s used. Arm. .... Armenian C. .... consonants D. .... Dutch Eng. .... E n g l i s h f . .... feminine P r . .... French Ger. .... German Hung. .... Hungarian I t . .... I t a l i a n L a t . .... L a t i n m. .... masculine A b b r e v i a t i o n s used (contd.) n. .... neuter P o l . .... P o l i s h Puss. .... Russian S p . .... Spanish V. .... Vowel FOOTNOTES ~ CHAPTER I 1 S a p i r , E. "The grammarian and h i s language", S e l e c t e d 2 W r i t i n g s . Berkeley, American Mercury, 1924. pp. 149-55-S l o v a r ' Inostrannyx Slov,6th e d i t i o n . Moscow, I z d a t e l ' s t v o "Sov. E n c i k l o p e d i j a " , 1964. Fizkul, -]tura i sport (Moscow) , S o v e t s k i j sport (Moscow) , and I z v e s t i j a (Moscow); any other references used w i l l he mentioned i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . 4 5 6 7 8 9 Although, no s p e c i f i c f i e l d work was conducted, the w r i t e r has consulted U.B.C.fs Russian exchange student (1965-66), and a few other n a t i v e Russian speakers, but since they d i d not serve as informants a l l the way through t h i s paper they w i l l not be mentioned as such. Weinreich, U. Languages i n contact, f i n d i n g s and problems. New York, L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e of New York, 1953« Po 11. I t was suggested that one might add to t h i s sentence the f o l l o w i n g : that there i s no i n t e n t i o n of the borrower(s) ever r e t u r n i n g the words "borrowed" and no expected demand on the p a r t of the donor(s) that the words "borrowed" ever be returned. Weinreich, op. c i t . p. 1. Hockett, C F . A course i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s . New York, The Macmillan co., 1959. p. 402. B l o o m f i e l d , L. Language. New York, Henry H o l t , 1933, p. 448. 1 0Haugen E. "The a n a l y s i s of l i n g u i s t i c borrowing", Language. Bal t i m o r e , Waverly P r e s s , 1950. v o l . 26. p. 216. B l o o m f i e l d , L. op. c i t . p. 453« B u r s i l l - H a l l , G.L. " L e v e l s : a n a l y s i s : J.R. F i r t h ' s t h e o r i e s of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s " , Canadian J o u r n a l of  L i n g u i s t i c s . B e a u c e v i l l e , P.Q., Canadian L i n g u i s t i c s A s s o c i a t i o n , I960, v o l . 6 , no. 1 . p. 1 2 5 . B l o o m f i e l d , L. "A set of p o s t u l a t e s f o r the s c i e n c e of language", Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s hy M a r t i n J o o s . Washington, American C o u n c i l o f Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1 9 5 7 . p. 2 6 . The term i s used hy B u r s i l l - H a l l . B u r s i l l - H a l l , op. c i t . p. 1 2 6 . I b i d . , p. 1 8 6 CHATTER I I CONTEXT OP' SITUATION • " In the a p p e l l a t i o n context of s i t u a t i o n ( F i r t h ) , or s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , we i n c l u d e i m p l i c a t i o n s concerning non-l i n g u i s t i c statements which are of great relevance to the subject, and thus enable the a n a l y s t and the reader to see t h i s paper as a whole. I n other words the r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s w i l l be: m o t i v a t i o n and trend of the t i m e s , . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o u n t r i e s where c u l t u r a l borrowing takes p l a c e , the content of c u l t u r a l borrowing and the nature of the medium of mass communication. Motive and time The speaker of Russian, or of any other language must have some motive f o r the borrowing which may be p r e s t i g e or need f i l l i n g 1 . Por one or both reasons- f o r e i g n words have entered i n t o the Russian vocabulary already from very e a r l y 2 times . We f i n d evidences of Greek, Germanic and T u r k i c l o a n -words i n the eleventh century Rus' manuscripts and w r i t s (gramoty). Prom the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y on the i n f l u x of Germanic words i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y . In the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y manuscripts the i n f l u e n c e of P o l i s h on Russian i n conju<@©tion wi t h the 16 renewed i n f l u e n c e of L a t i n manifested i t s e l f i n many "borrow-i n g s . By the end of the seventeenth-century numerous West European words have f i l t e r e d i n t o the language. W e s t e r n i z a t i o n 3 o f the R u s s i a n s o c i e t y i n the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n t r o d u c e d many Fr e n c h as w e l l as E n g l i s h words. R e c e n t l y some c u l -t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s o f the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g world, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f America, have been r e p o r t e d from the Soviet;.- Union . O r i g i n a l source The o r i g i n a l source o f most borrowings i s e a s i l y established,, f o r i n s t a n c e , a l f a v i t , ambrdzija, k a t a r s i s , s x n t a k s i s < Greek. Some examples from, o t h e r languages w i l l be shown below: bot, b e o § l o t , garpun, garden' , g r o t , k r ^ j s e r < Dutch-' bul'ddg, bum, bumerang, mik s t , pamflet, sampleks < E n g l i s h a f r d n t , b a s t i o n , donzSn, krup, redan, sufle* < F r e n c h g l e t S e r , l a n d s a f t , tancmejster, k i t e l ' , i m i f e l 1 < German gusar, gonved, p a p r i k a , g u l j a g < Hungarian koka, has, p d r t o , k o n f e t t l , t e s s i t u r a , t o k k a t a < I t a l i a n kdkeks, pal'ma, s k u l ' p t u r a , temperament, korpus < L a t i n i n d i g o , don, Sokolad, g i t a r a , dura, naxaxa < Spanish I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to v a r i f y i n most cases of borrowing from E n g l i s h whether or not the loanword i s from B r i t i s h E n g l i s h ((RP) or from some oth e r v a r i a n t o f E n g l i s h ( i . e . , American, A u s t r a l i a n , e t c . ) , t h e r e f o r e , any such d i s t i n c t i o n s w i l l be d i s r e g a r d e d i n t h i s paper. 17 E u s s i a n has been under the i n f l u e n c e of s e v e r a l languages at the same time e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , as i t i s shown by p r o l o g ' i n t r o d u c t o r y speech' < Gr. y\-poAop^ , L a t . p r ologus, Ger. P r o l o g , P r . prologue, P o l . p r o l o g . Scholars l i k e Lomanosov and Karamzin had equal knowledge of se v e r a l languages, thus, borrowing may have taken place d i r e c t l y from Greek or from any of the other languages mentioned above. This hypothesis i s confirmed by other loanwords e n t e r i n g Russia v i a another language or even languages r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y from the donor language. Por example: Ger.>Pol,>Russ. G.r .>Lat.>G'er .>Pol .>Russ. Hun.>Pol.>Rus s. It,>Pr.>Ger.>Russ. It.>Pr.>Russ. Lat.>Ger.>Russ. S'p .>Pr.>Russ. d e l f ' i n dekan, d u e l ' , k l a s s gus.ar p i k a medal' k a r l a dubl6n I n the case of close phonetic s i m i l a r i t y of words i n two or more languages the etymologies of loanwords are o f t e n obscure; f o r i n s t a n c e , some of the n a u t i c a l terminology i n Russian, which was borrowed mainly from Dutch, may be given such e n t r i e s i n an etymological d i c t i o n a r y as bot 'boat' < p o s s i b l y from Dutch boot; dok 'dock' < p o s s i b l y Dutch dok, P r . dock, Ger. Dock. The date i n which the word i s f i r s t l i s t e d may weight 18 the d e c i s i o n i n . f a v o u r o f a p a r t i c u l a r language; i n the case °f bot and dok i n f a v o u r of Dutch. Sometimes "t h e - ' / p o s s i b i l i t i e s are so numerous that e t y m o l o g i s t s disagree on the.answer, f o r example, g r a n f t may have been borrowed from any of the f o l l o w i n g < D. G r a n i t , < F r . g r a n i t , < I t . g r a n i t o , or L a t . granus; zona 'zone' 1 < F r . zone, < L a t . zona, or Gr. ' fc tfvr) . Furthermore, d i s c r e p -a n c i e s are e v i d e n t even among noted a u t h o r i t i e s : g o s p i t a l * < Ger. H o s p i t a l a c c o r d i n g to the Slovar* Russkovo Jaz.yka (Akademija Nauk, 1958), and S l o v a r ' I n o s t r a n n i x S l o v (1964); Vasmer's R u s s i s c h e s Etymologisches Worterbuch g i v e s the e n t r y < Ger. H o s p i t a l or D. h o s p i t a a l , whereas the 1947 and 1958 e d i t i o n s o f the S l o v a r 1 I n o s t r a n n i x S l o v by L e x i n and P e t r o v give the F r . H 6 p i t a l as the donor form. Although, the phoneme / g / may be a s p e l l i n g p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of the F r e n c h word, the p o s i t i o n of the s t r e s s and the presence of / s / i n d i c a t e t h a t the more a u t h e n t i c one i s < Ger. H o s p i t a l . Because many o f the loanwords found i n R u s s i a n are common to the West European languages Russian l e x i c o g r a p h e r s p r e f e r to accept the c l a s s i c a l L a t i n or Greek forms as the source of d i r e c t borrowing. Another tendency i n R u s s i a n l i n g u i s t i c s i s to r e f e r to such loanwords as " i n t e r n a t i o n a l terminology"^, thus a v o i d i n g any p a r t i c u l a r attachment to any one n a t i o n a l i t y . However, the p r e s e n t w r i t e r d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h i s approach because i t makes i t im p o s s i b l e to pursue a comparative a n a l y s i s without examining the donor form since the 19 aim o f such a n a l y s i s i s to show the change (may i t he on the p h o n o l o g i c a l , morphological or s y n t a c t i c a l l e v e l ) which takes p l a c e or f a i l s to take p l a c e i n the pro c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n of loanwords i n t o R u s s i a n . Role and d i s t r i b u t i o n Words were i n t r o d u c e d w i t h the c u l t u r a l i m p o r t a t i o n s and they r e f l e c t the sphere of a c t i v i t y where the n a t i o n ' s p r e s t i g e has been h i g h as w e l l as the time or p e r i o d o f c o n t r i -b u t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , the Dutch borrowings are c h i e f l y mari-time terms and belong i n the main to the P e t r i n e Age. b o e g s p r i e t k l i p p e r k r u i s e r s t a g z e i l s c h i p p e r French and German f a s h i o n s o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l e f t impressions i n . t h e Russian vocabulary; e.g.: s l a f r d k 'dressing-gown' < Ger. S c h l a f r o k furman 1 cabman' < Ger. Fuhrmann f r a k ' d r e s s i n g - c o a t ' < F r . f r a c ekipaz ' c a r r i a g e ' < F r . equipage g a l s t u k ' n e c k - t i e ' < Ger. H a l s t u c h Numerous borrowings have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the e.g. b u g s p r i t 'bowsprit' < D. k l i p p e r ' c l i p p e r ' < D. kre* j s e r ' c r u i s e r ' < D. s t a k s e l ' ' s t a y s a i l ' < D. ak i p e r 'skipper' < D. 20 R u s s i a n l a n g u a g e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y a s t h e r e s u l t o f new i n v e n t i o n s , new i d e a s a n d d i s c o v e r i e s , a n d p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l s . T h e m a i n i n f l u e n c i n g f o r c e s w e r e t h e two W o r l d W a r s a n d t h e O c t o b e r R e v o l u t i o n w h i c h h a v e c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e s n o t o n l y w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m b u t i n t h e l a n g u a g e a s w e l l " ^ . D e s p i t e t h e o f f i c i a l r e s i s t a n c e o f f o r e i g n i s m s a n d t h e s t r i v i n g t o w a r d s p u r i t y , l o a n w o r d s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e s p h e r e o f a r t , m u s i c a n d l i t e r a t u r e . W i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f f i l m came a s e r i e s o f new w o r d s i n t o R u s s i a n . e . g . f i l m ' f e s t i v a l ' s k e t c " < E n g . < P r . < E n g . m u l ' t i p l i k a t o r ( < L a t . ) R a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o u g h t : m i k r o f o n ( < G r . ) d e t e k t o r ( < L a t . ) a n t e n n a ( < L a t . ) r e k o r d < E n g . f i l m f e s t i v a l s k e t c h ( t h e a t e r ) m u l t i p l i c a t o r m i c r o p h o n e d e t e c t o r a n t e n n a r e c o r d T h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d e x a m p l e s d i d n o t come d i r e c t l y f r o m G r e e k o r L a t i n b u t p r o b a b l y i n d i r e c t l y e i t h e r t h r o u g h E n g l i s h o r t h r o u g h one o f t h e o t h e r W e s t E u r o p e a n l a n g u a g e s . T h e p r e e m i n e n c e o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g w o r l d i n a t h l e t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e W o r l d War I, r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n f l u x 21 of E n g l i s h s p o r t i n g terms i n t o v a r i o u s languages . Russian has r e c e i v e d her share of " l o a n s " , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms f o r boxing, soccer and t e n n i s . Most f r e q u e n t l y are used the f o l l o w i n g : boks 'boxing'; f u t b d l ' f o o t b a l l ' ; k o r t ' t e n n i s -c o u r t ' ; l a u n - t e n n i s 'lawn t e n n i s ' ; d i r e k t (<direct) ' s t r a i g h t punch'; s t r e j t ( < s t r a i g h t ) ' s t r a i g h t punch'; nokaut 'knock-out' ; partner 'partner ( t e n n i s ) or s p a r r i n g p a r t n e r ( i n boxing)'; f o i ' f o u l ' ; f r i k l k 'free k i c k ' ; korner. (<corner) 'corner k i c k ' ; g o l k i p e r 'goal-keeper'; p e n a l ' t i - p e n a l t i 'penalty'; set ' s e t ' . Por a d d i t i o n a l examples of s p o r t i n g terms the reader should c o n s u l t Morton Benson's a r t i c l e , " E n g l i s h loan vrords i n Russian sport terminology". g Sport terms are so numerous that they may be grouped s e m a n t i c a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t ways; one i s according to the type of sport (as i l l u s t r a t e d by Morton Benson) and the other according to the f o l l o w i n g three semantic categories: 1) denominational aspect of the sport a c t i v i t y 2) a p p e l l a t i o n of the sport o b j e c t i v e , a r t i c l e and t i m i n g 3) words designating the doer of the sport These groups may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g examples: 1) basketbol ' b a s k e t b a l l ' ; xokej 'hockey'; vaterpdlo 'water p o l o ' ; tennis ' t e n n i s 1 ; f u t b d l ' f o o t b a l l ' ; 2) r i n k ' r i n k ' ; g o l ' g o a l ' ; tajm 'time'; s t a r t ' s t a r t ' ; f i n i S ' f i n i s h ' ; o l ' a l l ' ; 22 3) l f der 'leader'; g o l k i p e r 'goal keeper'; Sempion 'champion'; ka p i t a n 'captain' from F r . ' c a p i t a i n ' . The vocabulary of the Russian mo t o r i s t o f f e r s another i n t e r e s t i n g l i n g u i s t i c study. Most of the words were borrowed from the West, e s p e c i a l l y from E n g l i s h and French. e.g. avtomobfl' masfna benzfn reservuar a k s e l e r a t o r - a k c e l e r a t o r motor s t a r t e r c i l f n d r k a r b j u r a t o r akkumuljator defekt gara§ revers — r e v e r s s o f e r automobile' engine' gasoline' g a s o l i n e tank' a c c e l e r a t o r ' motor' s t a r t e r ' , ' i g n i t i o n ' c y l i n d e r ' c a r b u r e t t o r ' accumulator', 'battery' defect' (e.g. f l a t t i r e ) garage' reverse' chauffeur' The E n g l i s h word ' c l u t c h ' was not adapted because of i t s close phonemic resemblance to the word kl.juc 'key'. Yet klub 'club' was borrowed despite the existence of the homonym klub ' p u f f ' . With the help of the American l e n d - l i z ( l a n d - l e a s e act) i s connected the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new cars both American and 23 European make; thus, the following names appear i n everyday speech and l i t e r a t u r e i n the Soviet Union: ford, studebaker, v i l i s , dodz, l e v r o l e , mersedes, f i a t , jaguar, pezo, t a t r , and so on. S c i e n t i f i c terminology also presents a special f i e l d of study. This f i e l d i s expandable i n d e f i n i t e l y . S c i e n t i f i c workers create words or expressions f o r the new ideas or d i s -coveries i n t h e i r f i e l d of endeavour, that i s new words are concomitant with new ideas, new things. Furthermore, termi-nology i s terminology by v i r t u e of i t s content and not by vi r t u e of p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n the l i n g u i s t i c structure of i t s expression. S c i e n t i f i c terminology i s l ) systematic, 2) productive and 3) specialized. Nomenclature i s one of the most important s p e c i a l i z e d segments of the terminology. By d e f i n i t i o n nomenclature i s the "system of names used i n a p a r t i c u l a r branch of knowledge or art, or by any scholar or i n d i v i d u a l ; especially, the names used i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , as distinguished from any other terms""1"0. More s p e c i f i c designations may be, f o r example, "nautical terms", "chemical terminology", " l e g a l terms", "math-ematical terms", "nomenclature of chemical laboratory equip-ment", etc. Examples taken from s c i e n t i f i c terminologies: bor 'bor' Chemistry p r o p i l 'propyl' kamf<5r ' camphor' 2k keprdk 'cap rock' x l o r o f d r m 'chloroform 1 trdmel' 'trommel 1 M e t a l l u r g y f l a v i t ' f l a v i t ' e r l i f t ' a i r l i f t ' Mining zigzag ' z i g zag' kontakt 'contact' E l e c t r o n i c s r e a k t o r 'reactor' E l e c t r i c a l engineering vakuum 'vacuum' k o n s d l 1 'consol' Road c o n s t r u c t i o n a s f a l ' t ' asphalt' s a l a t ' salad'1' Geology suport ' support' Mathematics absdrbent ' absorbent" e s k a l a t o r ' e s c a l a t o r ' B u i l d i n g gudrdn 'goudron' tenzdr 'tensor' S a i l ' c h a l e t ' 11 The F i r s t World War c o n t r i b u t e d numerous f o r e i g n wo to the Russian language, some of which were l o s t but some are s t i l l i n use. The word avtom^t was f i r s t used during t h i s p e r i o d . Other loanwords c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s time are man-dat, deputat, d e z e r t i r , provokator, sabotas,,. kupon and so on. T y p i c a l loanwords from the years 1917-26 are a S i o t a z , a l ' j a n s , garant, kantdn,, k a r t e l ' , pakt, f i n i s * , e t c . World War I I 25 c o n t r i b u t e d among many other words the f o l l o w i n g : r e z i s t a n s , veteran, kade*t, and tank. Borrowings may be a l l o c a t e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t semantic categories as we have already seen. For f u r t h e r e x a m p l i f i c a t i o n a few more groupings w i l l be l i s t e d which are b e l i e v e d to have entered i n t o the Russian language i n the course of the twentieth-century. Obviously t h i s study does not aim at exhausting the subject; The reader or any other student working i n the f i e l d could f u r n i s h a d d i t i o n a l examples from h i s / h e r own experience. Some of the recent loanwords from everyday l i f e : Poods, beverages — soda (<It. soda), p o t - o - f e , konsome, 'bef b u l l , krem b r j u l d , d z i n , k o r n f l e k s . New c l o t h i n g , a r t i c l e s , e t t r n e g l i z e , Sin' 6n, n e j l o n , r e g l a n , b l j u dSins, korsaz, Sorti, t e f l o n , megaton. The great i n f l u x of f o r e i g n words caused remarkable 1 2 concern among the Sov i e t o f f i c i a l s and l i t e r a r y men i n the 1 9 2 0 ' s , who c a l l e d f o r a r e t u r n to l i n g u i s t i c moderations. L e n i n himself s a i d , " R u s s k i j jazyk my portim. Innostrannye s l o v a upotrebijaem bez nadobnosti. Upotrebijaem i x n e p r a v i l ' n o . K Senna g o v o r i t ' "defekty", kogda mozno skazat' "nedocety" i i i " n e d o s t a t k i " i i i " probely". Konecno, kogda"celovek, nedavno nauSivSijsja c i t a t ' voobs'ce i osobenno Sitat' gazety, p r i n i m a e t s j a userdno 2 6 c i t a t ' i x , on nevol'no u s v a i v a e t gazetnye oboroty reclic Imenno gazetnyj jazyk u nas, oclnako, toze nacinaet p o r t i t ' s j a . E s l i nedavno naucivsemusja S i t a t ' p r o s t i t e l ' n o u p o t r e b l j a t ' 1 , kak noviSku,, inostrannye slova, to l i t e r a t o r a m p r o s t i t ' etovo n e l ' z j a . Ne pora l i nam o b ' ' j a v i t ' vojnu u p o t r e b l e n i j u s l o v bez nadobnosti?•. 13 Nevertheless, most of the loanwords are here to stay i n the Russian language s u r v i v i n g alongside the l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n s , thus g i v i n g r i s e to many l e x i c a l doublets or simply s t y l i s t i c v a r i a n t s . Examples: a v i a t o r - l e t S i k aeroplan — samolet l i n g v f s t i k a ^ jazykoznanie l i n g v i s t ~ jazykoved 27 FOOTNOTES — CHAPTER I I See Hockett, pp. 404-405 Concerning loanwords i n very e a r l y times consult: a) Menger, K.H. "The o r i e n t a l elements i n the vocabulary of the o l d e s t Russian epos, the Igor's T a l e " , Word. New York, The L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e of New York, December 1951, No. 1 . b) Matthew, W.K. Russian h i s t o r i c a l grammar. London, The Athlone P r e s s , I960. T h i s p e r i o d i s discussed i n G. H u t t l Worth's "Foreign words i n Russian", U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n  L i n g u i s t i c s . B e rkeley, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1963, v o l 28. New York Time Magazine reported on t h i s subject i n the Feb. 3, 1957, and J u l y 13, 1958 i s s u e s . Dutch words i n Russian are discussed by Van Der Meulen, R. i n h i s De Nederlandsche Woorden i n het Russisbh. Der Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, 19447 This i s used according to B e l ' S i k o v ' s terminology c i t e d i n h i s book, I n t e r n a c i o n a l ' n a j a t e r m i n o l o g i j a v russkom jazyke. Moscow, GU-PIMPR, 1959. The subject of language under the S o v i e t s i s discussed by A. and T. Fesenko i n t h e i r book, R u s s k i j jazyk p r i sovetax. The borrowings of sp o r t i n g terms i n other languages have been discussed already i n the f o l l o w i n g papers: a) McClintock,. T. " E n g l i s h and American sport terms i n German", American Speech. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933, v o l . 8, no. 4 . pp. 42 -47 . b) Krauss, P.G. "Anglo-American i n f l u e n c e on Germanic sport terms", American Speech. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961, v o l . 36, pp. 36 -37 . 28 c) Grubb, A.O. French sport neologisms. ( U n i v e r s i t y of Pa. d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , 1937. d) Bonn, P.B. " E n g l i s h words i n Swiss German usage", American Speech. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948, v o l . 23, p.. 232. e) du Feu, V.M. " E n g l i s h sport terms i n P o l i s h " , Canadian S l a v o n i c Papers. Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , I960, v o l . 4 . . pp. 155-159. In the Soviet epoch sport has become a very important and necessary p a r t of s o c i a l l i f e , d e c l a r e d Andreev and ZambrSickij i n t h e i r a r t i c l e , "Imennoe slovoobrazovanie v s p o r t i v n o j t e r m i n o l o g i l " , P a z y i t i e sovremennovo russkovo  .jaz.yka. Moscow, Ak. Nauk, 1963. "pp. 119-35 . Due to the emphasis on sport a completely new terminology was needed most of which were borrowed from the West mainly by the younger generation. Webster's C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . F i f t h e d i t i o n . G.C. Merriam Co.c l 9 3 6 . p. 673. On the subject of the i n f l u e n c e of war on vocabulary see Mazon, A. Lexique de l a guerre et de l a r e v o l u t i o n en  Russe (1914-1918) . P a r i s , L i b r a r i r e Ancienne Honore Cham-p i o n , 1920. On o p i n i o n s of So v i e t o f f i c i a l s concerning loanwords see: a) Efimov, A.I. I s t o r i j a russkovo l i t e r a t u r n o v o j a z y k a . Moscow, 1954. pp. 410 - 1 1 . b) Vinokur, G. La langue russe. t r . by M e i l l e t , Y. P a r i s , 1947. pp. 139-40. Th i s i s a t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of a quote from: Fesenko, A. and T. R u s s k i j .jazyk p r i sovetax. New York, Rausen Bros., 1955. p. 22. CHAPTER III PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS The E n g l i s h loanword 'gulf stream' appears i n Lexin's dictionary as gol'fstrim, gol'fstrem and gol' fStrem which indicates the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of various pronounciations. According to the command of English on the part of the o r i g i n a l introducer and the l a t e r user, foreign sound sequences may be spoken or replaced by d i f f e r e n t native sequences. A close examination of loanwords, however, w i l l reveal the f a c t that i n many cases a s p e l l i n g pronounciation i s followed, e s p e c i a l l y when the loanword was received other than by the "ear-route", and the introducer was unfamiliar with the for e i g n language but has seen the written notation of the word, interpreting the l a t t e r i n terms of Russian orthography. Thus, the external factors involved i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of loan elements are: 1 ) d i f f e r e n t channels of borrowing — oral and written 2) s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background of the o r i g i n a l introducer and/ or that of the l a t e r user. In the afore mentioned example the English [ i l ] was interpreted as the Russian [ i ] by some speakers and as [e] by 30 others. In other words phonetic s u b s t i t u t i o n takes p l a c e . Because Russian has cons i d e r a b l y fewer vowel phonemes than E n g l i s h and French the vowels w i l l e i t h e r c a r r y a greater f u n c t i o n a l l o a d or w i l l t r a n s f e r the task of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n to the consonants. e.g. F r . / b y s t / > Russ. / b ' u s t / Here the French phoneme V y / i s rendered by a centred a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of the Russian /u/, i . e . [ i i ] , which must be accompanied by p a l a t a l i z a t i o n , thus /b/ > /b'/« Under s t r e s s f i v e vowel phonemes are o p e r a t i v e i n Russian, s p e c i f i c a l l y / i , e, a, o, u/. A l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s of these phonemes are p h o n e t i c a l l y conditioned by the presence or absence of a preceding and/or f o l l o w i n g p a l a t a l i z e d con-sonant. To be concrete, a s p e c i f i c French or E n g l i s h phoneme may be equated w i t h an a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of a phoneme i n Russian. E n g l i s h has at l e a s t ten vowel phonemes, / i , I , e, t, a, To, A., o, XT, u/ although c e r t a i n d i a l e c t s may have more 1, and at l e a s t three diphthongs / a i / , /au/, and /ox/. I n a d d i t i o n to the phonemes l i s t e d above, the c e n t r a l , unstressed / Q / has a heavy f u n c t i o n a l load i n E n g l i s h . I n Russian [a] i s only an a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of / a / or /of i n weakly s t r e s s e d n o n - i n i t i a l position,, a f t e r 'hard' consonants. In c o n t r a s t with Russian, French has e i g h t normal o r a l vowels, / i , e, £, a, a, 3, o, u/, four abnormal o r a l vowels, 31 /y, fi, ce , ©/, and four nasal vowels, / E , a, 5, 6s/. Aufhebung or ne u t r a l i z a t i o n may reduce the number of French 2 phonemes from sixteen to fourteen i n the speech of some people, thus, /a/ A / 1 /a/ / « / The phoneme carrying the functional load i n the former instance i s referred to as /a/ passe-partout. In b r i e f , because of the great gaps i n the Russian inventory (no nasalized vowels, diphthongs, etc.) the o r i g i n a l introducer and the l a t e r user w i l l f a i l to i d e n t i f y or to discriminate between p a r t i c u l a r foreign sounds, which w i l l , of course, be manifested by the substitution of one phoneme for another or the dropping of the sound; compare Russ. /m'it'ink/ for Eng. /mitry. Phonetic substitution i s prevalent both i n the vo c a l i c and consonantal systems; e.g., the Russian a l v e o l a r - t r i l l [ r ] , or p a l a t a l i z e d [ r'] w i l l replace the English alveolar f r i c t l o n l e s s continuant [r] as well as the French velar [R]. Bel'Sikov, the Russian l i n g u i s t , c a l l s phonemic sub-s t i t u t i o n a " d l i t e l ' n i j process" because one has the choice between klub and klob, bul'evar and bul*var, i . e . the sp e l l i n g 32 of the o r i g i n a l form vs. the p r o n u n c i a t i o n . Furthermore, pressures imposed on Russian hy two languages at the same time create not only two d i f f e r e n t forms hut a confusion of forms; e.g. novel' i s t vs. nuvel* i s t . The l a t t e r one i s from F r . n o u v e l l i s t e / n u v s l i s t / ¥/hereas the former one shows both French and English influence, from Eng. novel /npvsl/. Vowels This section deals with the general tendencies shown by phonetic substitutions i n the v o c a l i c system of contem-porary Russian. I t i s expected that the patterns set up are applicable to new loanwords coming into Russian, although, phonetic substitutions w i l l vary i n degree for d i f f e r e n t speakers, also i t w i l l vary according to the degree of assimil a t i o n into the Russian language.. P a r t i a l assimilation i s evident i n the following ex-amples"^: /r' e j d e r / <Eng. raider /skuter/ <Eng. scooter / f 1 I d e r / <Eng. feeder /kont'ejner/ <Eng. container According to one informant kont'ejner i s pronounced as /kont'ejner/, although /kant'ejner/ i s also found i n speech according to Morton Benson. 33 Complete a s s i m i l a t i o n i s found i n : broker / b r o k ' i r / <Eng. broker k a t e r / k a t ' i r / <Eng. cate r dzemper /dzemp'ir/ <Eng0 jumper Not only i s /e/ accompanied b y . p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of the con-sonant but i t i s replaced by / i / . 1 . Russian / i / T h i s phoneme has two a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s i n Russian, [ i ] and [ i ] . The former one occurs i ) word i n i t i a l l y , i i ) a f t e r vowels, i i i ) a f t e r p a l a t a l i z e d consonants; the l a t t e r one, only a f t e r n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d consonants. T h i s phoneme or one of i t s allophones i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g E n g l i s h 'and French phonemes.: E n g l i s h i ) /1/ and / i / > i n Russian e.g. from b i l l / b x l / >Russ. / b ' i l ' / c l i f f / k l i f / / k l ' i f / l a d y / l e d i / / l ' e d ' i / or / l e d ' i / i i ) A>/ > / I / Eng. broker /brdkor/ >Russ. / b r d k ' i r / Here /e/ >Russ. /e/, mhich i n weakly s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n >/i/. T h i s i s not the only explanation f o r t h i s change.. If tie 3k E n g l i s h [-er] i s re p l a c e d by the Russian [-er], then the word a u t o m a t i c a l l y becomes a loanblend, and unstressed /e/ i s . rep l a c e d by / i / . Although, t h i s replacement seems to be the tendency i n some examples, not a l l borrowings ending i n [-er] are completely a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the Russian language. French i ) / i / > Russ. / i / e.g. / g r i f / > Russ. / g r ' i f / i i ) /£/ i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n > Russ. /i/+/n/ As a r u l e , l e v e l l i n g takes p l a c e i n a l l diphthongs and triph t h o n g s , and a l l French n a s a l i z e d vowels > Russ. vowel + na s a l consonant. e.g. / s a t e / > Russ. / s a t ' i n / 2. Russian / e / Phoneme /e/ has [E] and [e] as a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s , [e] occurs word f i n a l l y and before n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d consonants, whereas [e] occurs before p a l a t a l i z e d consonants. E n g l i sh i ) /e/ and /e/ converge on Russian / e / e.g. / v e l v e t / > Russ. / v ' e l ' v ' e t / /welz/ > / v ' e l ' s / , /grep, f r u t / > / g r 1 e jj^f r u t / /gredor/ > / g r ' e j d ' e r / In the l a s t two examples /e/ > Russ. /e/+/j/. 35. i-i) / a / > /e/ e.g. /laxnzman/ > Russ. /lajnsm'en/ Russ. /e/ <Eng. / a / i s not always preceded by a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant: Eng. cat /kat/ > Russ. /ket/ cab /kab/ > /keb/ tandem /tandsm/> /tend' em/ i i i ) i n p a r t i a l l y assimilated loanwords /©/ > /e/|; some-times; and A / > /e/. An example of the former one i s seen i n feeder / f f d e r / >Russ. f f d e r / f ' i d e r / , the weakly stressed Eng. / s / > /e/ which i s replaced by [£.],. Sometimes / s / may be dropped althogether, as i n : b l i s t e r / b l i s t e r / > Russ. / b l ' f s t r / iv) /a/ > Russ. /e/+/o/ e.g. l i n e r / l a r n 8 r / > Russ. / l e j n e r / French i ) /e/ >Russ. /e/ e.g. decret /dekrl/> Russ. /d'ekr'et/ The f i n a l / t / indicates s p e l l i n g pronounciation. i i ) /£/ >Russ. /e/ from F r . appret /apr|/ >Russ. /apr'et/ parenthese /parattz/> Russ. /parant'es/ diese /dj£z/ >Russ. / d i e s / 36 . - i i i ) /'q/ > Russ. /e/+/n/ e.g. from F r . compliment /k5plim#/>Russ. /kampl'em'ent/ "but there i s another p o s s i b i l i t y : F r . agrement /agremtf/ >Russ. /agremen/ from / Q / to /a/+/n/ and not to /e/+/n/ The f i n e l / t / i n the f i r s t example i s due to the influence of! s p e l l i n g . 3. Russian /a/ I t has [a] and [#-] as two of i t s allophonic variants; [dt] occurs after p a l a t a l i z e d consonants and [a] i n a l l other stressed p o s i t i o n s . English i ) /a/ > Russ. /a/ e.g. starter / s t q r t a r / > Russ. / s t a r t e r / i i ) / a/ > Russ. /a/ e.g. jazz / j a z / > Russ. /dzas/ i i i ) A./ i n stressed p o s i t i o n sometimes > Russ. /a/ e.g. bumper /b^mpar/ > Russ. /hamper/, /bamp'er/ iv) / a i / > Russ. /a/+/j/ e.g. iceberg /aisbarg/ > Russ. /ajsberk/, /ajsb'erk/ s l i d e / s l a i d / >' Russ. / s l a j t / v) /ao/ > Russ. /a/+/u/ e.g. boyscout /boiskavt/> Russ. /bajskaut/ tower /tauar/ > Russ. /tauer/ 37 French i) both /a/ and /a/ e.g. apache /apas/ pas de quatre /padokatr/ i i ) / Q / > Russ. /a/+/n/ e.g. dentiste / d S t i s t / plantage /plntaS/ entente / a t a t / 4. Russian /o/ Under stress the phoneme /o/ i n Russian has two allophonic variants, namely [o] and [ o ] . The l a t t e r occurs only following p a l a t a l i z e d consonants. In weakly stressed p o s i t i o n /o/ i s subject to replacement by [a] or [ a ] . En g l i sh i) /o/ > Russ. /o/ e.g. goal / g o l / > Russ. / g o l / i i ) /o/ > Russ. /o/ top /top/ > Russ. /top/ The choice here i s greatly influenced by the ortho-graphy. i i i ) /21 / > Russ. /o/+/j/ e.g. boy /bor/ > Russ. /boj/ French i ) /of and /of > Russ. /o/. > Russ. /a/ > Russ. /apas/ > Russ. /pad'ekatr/ > Russ. /dant 1 i s t / > Russ. / p l a n t a i / > Russ. /antant/ or antanta/ 38 A e.g. bureau /b y r d / landau /lad<5/ p l a t e a u /plate*/ i i ) P r . /ft/ and'/oe/ are replaced by the a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of Russ. /o/, v i z . [ o ] , only i f /of i s s t r o n g l y stressed and i s preceded by a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant. e.g.Pr. grimeur /grimdbr/ > Russ. /gr'im'dr/ curieuse / k y r j / ^ z / > Russ. / k u r ' j o e / , (kur* ez) but P r . majeur /maScH'/ > Russ. /mazdr/, (mazdr) The phonemes / z , s, c/ are always hard i n Russian unless they occur geminated, whereas / S / and /MS/ are always soft. P r . pas de deux /padsd$/ > Russ. /pad'ed'e/ Although P r . /ft/ occurs i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n here, [o] was not found f i n a l l y i n loanwords. I t i s , however, found i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n S l a v i c words. In orthography [o] i s represented by e. i i i ) / 5 / > Russ. /o/+/n/ e.g. P r . saison /s£zo/ > Russ. /sezdn/ An anomoly i s : P r . galon / g a l a / > Russ. / g a l t i n / i n t e r p r e t e d as /u/+/n/ 5. Russ. / u / The phoneme / u / l i k e a l l other vowels i n Russian has > Russ. / b j u r d / > Russ.. / l a n d d / > Russ. / p l a t d / 3 9 two a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t s , [u] and [ii] . The l a t t e r one i s a centered vowel occuring only a f t e r a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant. E n g l i s h i ) both Eng. /u/ and / V / > Russ. /u/ e.g. from Eng. f o o t / f t r t / > Russ. / f u t / Eng. booths) / b u t s / > Russ. / b u t s i / i i ) s p e l l i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n : e.g. grubber / g r ^ b s r / > Russ. /grub'er/ i i i ) the diphthong / a / becomes two separate phonemes i n Russian, v i z . /a/+/u/ and /o/+/u/; because of the i n f l u e n c e of orthography /au/ may be represented by /o/+/u/: e.g. from clown / k l a v n / > Russ. / k l d u n / French i ) F r . / u / > Russ. /u/ e.g.. from F r . coulage / k u l a z / > Russ. / k u l a S / i i ) F r . / y / i s repl a c e d by [ii] i n Russian, an allophone of /u/, but only i f a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant precedes i t : e.g. F r . etude / e t y d / > Russ. / e t ' u d / refuge / r o f y z / > Russ. / r ' e f ' u g / c u l o t t e / k y l o t / > Russ. / k ' u l d t / Consonants Although, the Russian phonemes / t / , / d / and / n / are ko represented by the same symbol as the E n g l i s h / t / , / d / and /n/, they are i n f a c t p h o n e t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t , the Russian set having a d e n t a l and the E n g l i s h an a l v e o l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n , but since there i s no question of phonemic o p p o s i t i o n here, only phonetic adjustment i s . i n v o l v e d i n the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n of loanwords, Russian dentals r e p l a c i n g E n g l i s h a l v e o l a r s . In order to a i d the reader i n the p r e c i s e correspond-ences, E n g l i s h , French and Russian consonants w i l l be com-pared by the use of the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s : E n g l i s h Consonants L a b i a l I n t e r -Dental A l v e o l a r P a l a t a l V e l a r G l o t t a l Stops P b t d k g A f f r i c a t e s \* c Nasals m n • F r i c a t i v e s f V e s z S V z h L a t e r a l 1 F r i c t i o n l e s s Continuant r Semi-vowels w D Table 1 French Consonants L a b i a l Dental P a l a t a l V e l a r P . t k Stops b a. g '• Nasals m n f s S F r i c a t i v e s V z V Z L a t e r a l 1 T r i l l r Semivowel w D Table 2 Russian Consonants L a b i a l Dental A l v e o l a r P a l a t a l V e l a r Stops P Pf b b' t t 1 d;.d! k k 1 A f f r i c a t e s C [ j ] N asals m m' n n' F r i c a t i v e s f f v v' s s' z z ' V s z X L a t e r a l 1 1* T r i l l r r 1 Semivowel 3 Table 3 k2 Since Russian consonants are greater i n number (Russ.: 31, Eng.: 22, Pr.: 17), they are able to carry a greater functional load than the vowels; as a matter of f a c t , examples have already been given where the functional load was trans-f e r r e d from the vowel to the consonant (e.g. Pr. fuselage / f y z l a z / > Russ. / f ' uz'elaz/, here / f / > / f ' / i n Russian.,') There are, nevertheless, 'cases-vides* i n the system; Russian lacks the following consonants, /w, ^, ©, h, p >*)/• Thus, /w/ i s replaced by /v/ or /v'/ i n Russian, / c f / and /&/ by /1/ or /d/, /h/ by /g/ or /x/, /j>/ by / n 1 / or /n/ and /r>/ by /n/+/g/. e.g. Eng. waterways /watarwejs/ > Russ. /vat* erv' e 3s/ Eng. fathom /fa&sm/ > Russ. /fadorn/ Eng. handball /handbPl/ > Russ. /gandbdl/ Pr. vigogne /vigop/ > Russ. /v'igon'/ Eng.[-ing], / - i n / > Russ. / - i n k / Loss of voice As a r u l e , voiced consonants are replaced by their voiceless counterparts i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n even though the orthography shows the morphophoneme. This rule applies not only to S l a v i c words but to loanwords also; f o r example, Eng. r i n g > Russ. r i n g / r ' i n k / i s pronounced the same as Eng. rink > Russ. rink / r ' i n k / . Stress Stress i s phonemic i n Russian. Furthermore, the U-3 p l a c e of s t r e s s i s a determining f a c t o r i n the p r o n u n c i a -t i o n of the vowels. The f u l l value.of the vowels i s r e a l i z e d o n l y i n a s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n ; i n weakly s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n /e, a, o/ are replaced hy t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a l l o -phones depending on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . F u l l y a s s i m i l a t e d loanwords are governed by the same r u l e s as n a t i v e Russian words. Russian has no set p a t t e r n l i k e Czech or P o l i s h , but l i k e E n g l i s h each word i s assigned a s t r e s s , which may be movable or immovable from one s y l l a b l e to another i n the d e c l e n s i o n or conjugation of that word. Some loanwords tend to r e t a i n the s t r e s s on the o r i g i n a l l y s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n French s t r e s s i s f i x e d to the l a s t s y l l a b l e , a p a t t e r n which loanwords from French r i g i d l y f o l l o w . Thus, from F r . decadence • > Russ. dekadans F r . j'alon > Russ. zal6n F r . g i r a n d o l e > Russ. z i r a n d o l ' F r . r i p o s t e > Russ. r i p o s t Moreover, an e a r l i e r borrowing roman from F r . roman /roma/ was changed to roman. Most loanwords have " f i x e d " s t r e s s , i n other words, an immovable s t r e s s a l l the way through the d e c l e n s i o n or the conjugation of that word; e.g.: F r . descente > Russ. desant — Nominative s i n g u l a r hh > Russ. desanta — G e n i t i v e s i n g u l a r desantu — Dative s i n g u l a r , e t c . A number of loanwords, however, have a movable s t r e s s , f o r instance: P r . galon > Russ. galun — Nominative s i n g u l a r galuna — G e n i t i v e s i n g u l a r , e t c . Loanwords ending w i t h the s u f f i x -az r e t a i n the s t r e s s on the stem i n almost a l l cases, but even here exceptions may be found;* e.g. P r . bagage > Russ. bagaz ;— Nominative s i n g u l a r bagaz"a — G e n i t i v e s i n g u l a r , e t c . from P r . montage >Russ. montaz — Nominative s i n g u l a r montaza — G e n i t i v e s i n g u l a r Loanwords ending i n -or are found to have both l ) f i x e d and 2) mobile s t r e s s . The former one i n d i c a t e s that the word i s only p a r t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d , thus the stem i s s t r e s s e d a l l the way through the declension: (from Lat.) Russ. d i r e k t o r — Nominative s i n g u l a r d i r e k t o r y — Nominative p l u r a l A more c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e of Russian shows a strong tendency to move the s t r e s s to the desinence i n the p l u r a l ; thus, d i r e k t o r y vs. ( c o l l o q . ) d i r e k t o r a — Nominative p l u r a l k5 Loanwords from E n g l i s h have a l e s s systematic p a t t e r n of s t r e s s i n Russian than the ones from French: i t i s even p o s s i b l e to say that they show no r e g u l a r i t y at a l i o They may e i t h e r keep the s t r e s s i n i t s E n g l i s h p o s i t i o n or a l l o c a t e i t to another s y l l a b l e . I n t e r f e r e n c e of another language may be an i n f l u e n c i n g f o r c e i n t h i s case, f o r example, Eng. c o l l e g e / k o l i j / > Russ. k d l l e d z , that i s /k d l ' e d s / or / k a l ' e d s / by analogy with F r . c o l l e g e / k J l i z / S p e l l i n g p ronounciation also c o n t r i b u t e s to the i n c o n s i s -tent p a t t e r n of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n loanwords becau§e the borrower may be ignorant of the p o s i t i o n of s t r e s s i n the donor word. I f the Russian speaker saw Eng. c o l l e g e i n w r i t i n g , he had the choice of whether to s t r e s s the f i r s t or the l a s t s y l l a b l e . L a s t l y i t should be p o i n t e d out that, although s t r e s s i s phonemic i n Russian, not a s i n g l e minimal p a i r was found among E n g l i s h and French loanwords i n which s t r e s s was the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e . Orthography I t has already been noted that f l u c t u a t i o n s i n accent p a t t e r n and pronounciation are due to the : t w o f o l d i n f l u e n c e of o r a l and w r i t t e n communications. S p e c i f i c examples of t h i s are given below: he F r . agrement /agremSi/ > Russ. agreman /agr'eman/ o r agrement /agr'em* ent/ but o n l y one form o f : F r . a r g o t /argo"/ > Russ. argd /arg<5/ I n f l u e n c e o f o r a l communication i s seaa i n : F r . hangar /qgar/ > Russ. angar /angar/ but F r . h y p n o t i s e u r /ipnotizcer/> Russ. g i p n o t i z e r / g i p n o t ' i z ' o r / Number of s y l l a b l e s G e n e r a l l y , the o r i g i n a l number of s y l l a b l e s i n l o a n -words i s r e t a i n e d , a l t h o u g h a p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e c r e a s i n g or i n c r e a s i n g them does e x i s t . Omission o f an i n s e r t e d vowel reduces the number o f s y l l a b l e s . e.,g. Eng. s i n g l e / s i n g e l / > Russ. / s ' i n g l / Sound changes, however, may be due to f a c t o r s o t h e r than p h o n o l o g i c a l — sometimes o r t h o g r a h i c a l but sometimes grammatical. Grammatical f a c t o r s a t p l a y i n the p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r on. Note t h a t , F r . l a cuvette ( f ) > Russ. k.juvet / k ' u v ' e t / or k.juveta / k ' u v ' e t a / t marker o f feminine gender The l a t t e r example i l l u s t r a t e s that the Russian speaker has a " f e e l i n g " f o r the French gender, t h e r e f o r e , the change he i s due to a grammatical f a c t o r . 48 FOOTNOTES -- CHAPTER III 4 For d i f f e r e n t transcriptions, and d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s see G-leason, H.A. An introduction to descriptive  l i n g u i s t i c s . New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961, c. 1955. p. 318. Other instances of ne u t r a l i z a t i o n may occur with some speakers, f o r example: /e/ /o/ U/ A / / V /ce/ These examples were v e r i f i e d by-a) one informant b) Benson, M. "English loanwords i n Russian sport terminology", American Speech. Columbia University Press, 1958, v o l . 3 2 - 3 3 . p. 2 5 2 - 2 5 9 . c) Russkoe literaturnoe proiznosenie i udarenie. Moscow, Ak. Nauk. GUNS," 1959. A complete description of Russian stress w i l l be found i n Forsyth, J . A p r a c t i c a l guide to Russian stress. London, Oliver and Boyd, 1963. CHAPTER TV MORPHOLOGIC TYPES IN LOANWORDS Types of morphological s t r u c t u r e A c c o r d i n g to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the immediate c o n s t i t u e n t s morphemes may be grouped i n t o s e v e r a l c l a s s e s or types. The author has s e l e c t e d B l o o m f i e l d ' s c l a s s i f i -cation" 1' as the model. H i s o u t l i n e i s designed to insure as comprehensive an a n a l y s i s of the divergences as p o s s i b l e : A. Secondary words, c o n t a i n i n g f r e e forms: 1. Compound words, c o n t a i n i n g more than one fr e e form: door-knob, ... 2. Derived secondary words, cont a i n i n g one f r e e form: b o y i s h , ... B. Primary words, not con t a i n i n g a f r e e form: 1. Derived primary words, c o n t a i n i n g more than one bound form: r e - c e i v e , ... 2. Morpheme words, c o n s i s t i n g of a s i n g l e ( f r e e ) morpheme: boy, ... This theory, however, i s a p p l i c a b l e only w i t h i n one language because the borrowed form i s subject to the adapta-t i o n of the so c a l l e d system of the borrowing language. I n the process of borrowing, morphemes may do any of the f o l l o w i n g : 50 — remain the same morphologic' type — j o i n another type -- or even cease to he recognized as morphemes* Occasionally, two forms of the same word may he borrowed simulataneously because of these p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; "thus, from Russian we get not only bolshevik but also the Russian p l u r a l b o l s h e v i k i, which we use alongside the English p l u r a l -derivation bolsheviks" This example indicates that there i s a tendency to replace the foreign morphemes by a native one, i n this case the p l u r a l {-i] of Russian was replaced by the English p l u r a l [-sj. Furthermore, other recognizable morphemes are replaced by a corresponding native one, thus givi n g r i s e to numerous loanblendso For example, ~z. Sempidnstvo < Eng. championship^ where { -stvo] it [-ship] Nevertheless, such types of loanwords as kopartnergjp < Eng. copartnership are found i n Russian, i n which case no substitution has taken place from -ship to -stvo. The morphological structure of loanwords may be simple or complex, that i s they may be "monomorphemic" or "polymorphemic". A single morpheme, free or bound, con-s t i t u t e s the simple structure, and more than one morpheme also 51 free or bound, constitutes the complex structure. Free and bound morphemes Bound morphemes never occur i n i s o l a t i o n ; such forms are p r e f i x e s , suffixes, suprafixes, i n f i x e s , subtractives, replacives and some roots, [-ing] i s a bound morpheme i n English but i n Russian i t i s not recognized as a morpheme at a l l . Therefore, loanwords such as 'meeting' > Russ. miting become free morphemes i n Russian. By d e f i n i t i o n , "free mor-phemes are those which may be uttered i n isolation"^"; they may be act u a l l y or p o t e n t i a l l y f r e e . This applies to loan-words as well; f o r example, Russian [futbdl] i s an act u a l l y free morpheme Y/hich becomes p o t e n t i a l l y free i n the form f u t b d l i s t , [ f u t b d l ] + [ - i s t ] . The l a t t e r example i s no.longer a loanword i n the narrow sense but an extension of one because now we have a loanword + a native s u f f i x , exactly a 1 Compound words 2) biznesmen < Eng. businessman bojskaut < Eng. boyscout vaterpruf < Eng. waterproof tajmsit < Eng. timesheet spiddmetr < Eng. speedometer lokaut < Eng. lock-out nokaut < Eng. knock-out pikap < Eng. pick-up ~ pick up puldver < Eng. pullover, F r . pullover, Ger. Pullover 52 3) g o r e l ' e f > P r . h a u t - r e l i e f d e d v e j t < Eng. deadweight de j dyud < Eng. deadwood demikotdn < P r . demi-coton k r o s s v o r d < Eng. cross-word, cross+word l o n g v a l < Eng. l o n g w a l l overarm < Eng. overarm xavtajm < Eng. h a l f - t i m e k) k r o s s b r i d i n g < Eng. c r o s s - b r e e d i n g 5 ) v i z a v i < P r . v i s - a - v i s t a b l ' dot < P r . t a b l e d'hote Sedevr < P r . chef d' ae uvre 6 ) k o m i l ' f d < P r . comme i l f a u t 7 ) randevu < P r . rendez-vous p a s p a r t u < P r . passe p a r t o u t 8 ) s k e t i n g r i n k < Eng. s k a t i n g r i n k The m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f these words l i s t e d above r e v e a l s some of the i n t e r e s t i n g shapes of compound words i n R u s s i a n . The v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of the adapted form i n com-p a r i s o n with the o r i g i n a l form may be d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g l y : the c l a s s ( p a r t o f speech, etc.) to which i t belongs (and belonged), the c l a s s o f the component member, i n what manner the p a r t s are amalgamated, f e a t u r e s of juncture, accent and so on. We should a l s o ask i f these are t y p i c a l loanwords. The above mentioned l i s t o f loanwords r e p r e s e n t s o n l y 53 a l i m i t e d number of the numerou types that are to be found i n Russian. What i s i n t e r e s t i n g about the f i r s t seven groups i n comparison w i t h the o r i g i n a l forms of E n g l i s h and French i s the presence of only one accented k e r n e l . T h is i n d i c a t e s that the adapted form i s t r e a t e d as one u n i t , one word, whether i t s o r i g i n a l form i s a s y n t a c t i c , s e m i - s y n t a c t i c or morphological s t r u c t u r e . These, t h e r e f o r e , are simple morphemes. Furthermore, these groups i n d i c a t e the Russian speakers' ignorance and/or i n d i f f e r e n c e to the morphology of the source language, whereas group e i g h t demonstarets the speakers' awarness of the E n g l i s h compound word. The p a t t e r n changes from a primary -secondary s t r e s s to primary - primary s t r e s s ; /sk£trp r x j / > Russ. /sk'et:'ing r ' i n k / . I t may be argued here t h a t since [ r i n k ] i s a l e g i t i m a t e morpheme i n Russian < Eng. r i n k , i t may have been an a d d i t i o n a l determining f a c t o r f o r open j u n c t u r e , and primary s t r e s s on both memebers of the compound word. Although, the E n g l i s h morpheme [man] i s found i n s e v e r a l loanwords i n Russian, i t has not yet been adapted i n a f r e e form. In a d d i t i o n to the examples mentioned i n group one of the compound words, the f o l l o w i n g words c o n t a i n i n g [man] may be added to the l i s t : busmen < Eng. bushman dzentel'men < Eng. gentleman (or) dzentel'men kongressmen < Eng. congressman 5k lajnsmeni (or) < Eng. linesman lajnsmen polismen < Eng. policeman rekordsmen < Eng.*recordsman sportsmen < Eng. sportsman jaxtsmen < Eng. yachtsman By analogy w i t h words l i k e sportsmen, Russian d e r i v e d recordsmen < Eng. »recordsman, i . e . record+man. (These words may p o s s i b l y have come from the p l u r a l r a t h e r than the s i n g u l a r form i n E n g l i s h ; i . e . bushmen, etc.'') U n l i k e E n g l i s h , the primary s t r e s s i s almost always on men. The above l i s t e d are f r o z e n morphemes i n the Russian language and are t r e a t e d i n the same manner as d o l ' men < P r . dolmen^. As a matter of i n t e r e s t , i t should be p o i n t e d out that the s t r e s s p a t t e r n i s very systematic i n t h i s group of examples, even though 6 l * dermen < Eng. alderman (according to L e x i n and P e t r o v , < Eng. olderman) i s an exception to the r u l e . In E n g l i s h [man] would never receive a primary s t r e s s i n the above mentioned group of compounds; note the d i f f e r -ence i n s t r e s s , juncture, pronounciation and meaning i n E n g l i s h between gentleman / J i n t o l , nen/ and g e n t l e man/^igntolman/,-Working w i t h morphemes t r a n s f e r r e d from one language i n t o another makes i t almost impossible to formulate any h a r d - f a s t r u l e s about compounds. Even w i t h i n one language compound words present disc r e p e n c i e s among l i n g u i s t s . Leonard 55 B l o o m f i e l d argues a c c o r d i n g l y , " I n meaning compound words are u s u a l l y more s p e c i a l i z e d than phrases; f o r i n s t a n c e , b l a c k b i r d , denoting a b i r d of a p a r t i c u l a r species, i s more s p e c i a l i z e d than the phrase black bird,which denotes any b i r d of t h i s c o l o r . I t i s a very common mistake to t r y to use t h i s d i f f e r e n c e as a c r i t e r i o n . We cannot gauge meanings a c c u r a t e l y enough; moreover, many a phrase i s as s p e c i a l i z e d i n meaning as any compound: i n the phrase a queer b i r d and meat and  dri n k , the words b i r d , meat are f u l l y as s p e c i a l -i z e d as they are i n the compounds j a i l b i r d and sweetmeats."-, Then, how i s the term 'compound word' defined? To quote from Bloch and Trager, "a word made up wholly of smaller 8 words i s c a l l e d a compound" . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s disputed by other l i n g u i s t s , f o r example P r o f e s s o r Hockett i n h i s book, "A course i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s " , s t a t e s that " . . . b l a c k -b i r d , b l u e b i r d , blackboard ... are a s p e c i a l s o r t of sequence of two words, w i t h a lowering of s t r e s s on the second word (thus / b l a e k + b S r d / ) : t h e i r s t r u c t u r e i s s y n t a c t i c , not morphological"^. The present w r i t e r may argue against t h i s and tend to agree w i t h B l o c h and Trager on the idea that i n E n g l i s h , "compounds d i f f e r from phrases i n the phonetic modi-f i c a t i o n of t h e i r components, i n the k i n d of juncture between them, i n the s t r e s s p a t t e r n , or i n a combination of these features"" 1'^. On the b a s i s of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n b l a c k b i r d i s a compound and black b i r d i s a phrase, because they d i f f e r i n s t r e s s and juncture. 56 English s p e l l i n g conventions 1 1, which are ambiguous about the juxtaposed type of compounds, confuse the Russian speaker whether the construction i s morphological or syntactic, although, a hyphen i s used as a c r i t e r i o n , but not consistently, Consequently, the following f l u c t u a t i o n may r e s u l t : Russ. vatervejs vater-zaket vaterklozet vaterpdlo < Eng. water-ways < Eng. water-jacket < Eng. water-closet < Eng. water-polo There i s no apparent reason f o r the difference, except f o r the f a c t that 'ways', 'closet' and 'polo' are not r e a l i z e d as separate morphemes i n Russian whereas 'jacket' (< Pr. jacquette) i s . Frequently, the hyphen placed between the two words i s used i n Russian to render an o r i g i n a l l y syntactic structure. To be correct, the word i n group eight i s written as sketing-rink with the hyphen, and so are the following examples: Russ. laun-tennis l a s t - b 6 l s t i p l ' - S e z tajm-carter < Eng. lawn tennis < Eng. l a s t b a l l < Eng. steeple chase < Eng. time charter Comparing tajmsit < Eng. timesheet (or time sheet) with the l a s t example l i s t e d above, there seems to be no apparent reason 57 f o r the difference. By showing some examples below, the reader w i l l see that sometimes the hyphen i s preserved i n the same manner as i t was i n the o r i g i n a l form i n d i c a t i n g a juncture and the j o i n i n g of two separate morphemes: In French, 'bona f i d e ' compound words are joined by a hyphen. Even though t h i s technique i s quite consistent throughout the language, the Russian speaker f a i l s to make any d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the adaptations of such constructions as Russ. kastet < F r . casse-tete and sezlong < F r . chaise long. As a matter of f a c t , the Russian speaker proceeds further on and synthesizes not only compounds but also asyntactic (e.g.: odekolon < F r . eau de Cologne) and syntactic constructions, such are l i s t e d i n group 5» 6, and 7. Some compound words present no decision to the Russian speaker where the elements of the word group or phrase have already been fused together i n the donor language. For example, from German the following examples were taken: Russ. g<5pper-fider < Eng. hopper-feeder ping-pong < Eng. ping-pong pres-pape < F r . presse-papiers Russ. b l i c k r i g < Ger. B l i t z k r i e g blokgauz < Ger. Blockhaus brudersaft < Ger. Bruderschaft gofmejster < Ger. Hofmeister 58 Russ. grosbauer grosbux kronprinc < Ger. Grossbauer < Ger. Grossbuch < Ger. Kronprinz Naturally a question arises about unter-of i'cer < Ger. U n t e r o f f i z i e r . By analogy with the other examples why was i t not r e a l i z e d as one morpheme? Perhaps the introducer was aware of the f a c t that the compound consists of two morphemes i n German, and i n adapting this word he wanted to indicate this by separating them. The number of elements fused together i n Russian may be two or three, never more than three except i n s p e c i a l i z e d technical terms. I t i s never more than two i n loans from En g l i s h . French i s the main .source of the fusion of three elements, namely the French asyntactic construction. Examples of i t may be found i n group 5, also see below: Russ. bul'denez kaptenarmus kordebalet placdarm fajdesfn saraban < F r . boule de neige < F r . capitaine d'armes < F r . corps de b a l l e t < F r . place d'armes < F r . f a i l l e de Chine < F r . char-a-bancs Other languages also contributed s i m i l a r constru-ctions, f o r instance Portuguese auto de fe > Russian autodafe, and Dutch bij-de-wind > Russian bejdevind, and so on, 59 I t does occur, although r a r e l y , t h at the compound word g i v e s r i s e to two d i f f e r e n t forms. Such an example i s the E n g l i s h ' b l a c k r o t ' > R u s s i a n b l e k - r o t or b l e k r o t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s some i n d e c i s i o n on the p a r t of the borrower: whether to t r e a t the new form as a s y n t a c t i c or as a morpho-l o g i c a l arrangement. S i m i l a r reasons h o l d true f o r the I t a l i a n ' b e i canto' > Russian b e i ' kento or b e i ' k a n t o . S i n c e "each language has a d i f f e r e n t system f o r com-b i n i n g morphemes, and w i t h i n each system there are 1 2 r e s t r i c t i o n s " , these r e s t r i c t i o n s must be s t r i c t l y observed. N e v e r t h e l e s s , when a compound word i s borrowed i n t o R u s s i a n , the morphemes composing t h i s word are not rearranged or a l t e r e d to comply w i t h the r u l e s t h a t a pply to n a t i v e mor-phemes. Por i n s t a n c e , the c l a s s o f NV ( i . e . noun+verb) words h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e i n R u s s i a n but not so i n E n g l i s h . On the other hand, i n E n g l i s h , i t i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i n the f o l l o w i n g arrangement: N+V+agential morpheme ( a g e n t i a l s u f f i x ) . One good example of t h i s i s brush(+)breaker > Russian brugbreker. Russ. b r e k v a t e r < Eng. breakwater portmone < P r . porte-monnaie' p o r t p a z < P r . porte-page p o r t s i g a r < P r . p o r t e - c i g a r In the .donor language these words l i s t e d above are of the VN type. • In i t s s i m p l e s t form a compound c o n s i s t s of the 60 j u x t a p o s i t i o n of two words; the more numerous ones drawn i n t o the R u s s i a n language are of the NN type. The f i r s t compo-nent never undergoes m o r p h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g are some of the N-N>N loanwords: Russ. a r o r u t < Eng. arrowroot b a t t e r f l j a j < Eng. b u t t e r f l y bdtdek < Eng. boat-deck b e i ' b o t < Eng. whale-boat gajdrop < Eng. guide-rope gdmrul (or) < Eng. home r u l e gdmrul 1 xendbdl < Eng. h a n d b a l l A s i m i l a r r u l e h o l d s true i n a N-N compound where the f i r s t component i s i n the p o s s e s s i v e r a t h e r than the nominative case i n the donor language; e.g.: Eng. t r a v e l e r ' s check > Russ. t r a v e l e r s c e k No attempt to change t - s j , the marker of the p o s s e s s i v e case i n E n g l i s h to the marker o f the corresp o n d i n g ( g e n i t i v e ) case i n R u s s i a n , i s shown here. I t i s notev/orthy t h a t the N-N>N-N arrangement i s a l s o p o s s i b l e ; f o r i n s t a n c e , Eng. yacht club > Russ. j a x t - k l u b . The m o r p h o l o g i c a l . a n a l y s i s of Adjective+Noun compounds r e v e a l s the f a c t t h a t whether the loanword i s adapted as one 6 1 or two words, the a d j e c t i v a l component i s not treated as an adjective i n Russian, that is, i t lacks the derivational s u f f i x of an adjective and i s not declined; e.g.: Russ. blan f l k s < Pr. hlanc f i x e grosshauer < Ger.Grosshauer f a l ' s t a r t ' < Eng.false s t a r t Sdrtgorn < Eng.shorthorn More examples of th i s type are found i n group three. In conclusion i t i s possible to say that the loanwords discussed i n t h i s chapter are unanalyzed compounds, which were simply transferred from the donor language into Russian, where they are used as substantives. Derived secondary words According to the d e f i n i t i o n e a r l i e r given to describe t h i s term, derived secondary words contain one free form + a bound morpheme. A f f i x a t i o n i s by f a r the most common process i n the formation of derivatives i n Russian as well as i n English and French. This process involves: p r e f i x a t i o n , i n f i x a t i o n and s u f f i x a t i o n . P r e fixes are p r i m a r i l y words without an independent existence i n the language, although o r i g i n a l l y they developed out of independent words. The contact of Russian with various forei g n languages l e d to the adaptation of numerous derivational morphemes as well: new prefixes, i n f i x e s and 62 s u f f i x e s have been introduced. The fate of the same loanwords borrowed into d i f f e r e n t languages i s worthy of mention here: certain French loanwords found both i n English and Russian were assimilated and used i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. For instance, i n English [demi] occurs — as a p r e f i x — as an independent word — i n compounds In Russian, on the other hand, (demi-] i s found only i n compound words: Russ. demikoton < F r . demicoton (demi-coton) demimond < demimond demisezcm < demi-saison Although, there i s a general tendency i n Russian to replace foreign a f f i x e s i n loanwords, esp e c i a l l y s u f f i x e s , many of them r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form. Sometimes there i s competition between native and foreign s u f f i x e s . I t i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by banalite't and banal*nost* <Fr. banalite (the ending - t e t i n Russian indicates German influence). Foreign derivational suffixes on the whole play a greater and more int e r e s t i n g part i n the Russian language than prefixes and i n f i x e s , therefore, t h i s thesis w i l l elaborate on them. Nominal and verbal suffixes In Russian, i n nominal derivation the s u f f i x i s always 63 added to the root or stem ending i n a consonant. T h i s i s an e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e i n the language and the speakers have no choice hut to use them. In terms of both stem ending and s u f f i x the f o l l o w i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combination e x i s t s i n n a t i v e Russian words: Type of d e r i v a t i o n Stem S u f f i x Nominal -C- VC .43;- CVC - c - 5 c Table k T h i s chart i n c l u d e s only simple s u f f i x e s since we are con-cerned w i t h simple s u f f i x e s i n t h i s paper. F o l l o w i n g Clayton -1 3 Dawson's d e f i n i t i o n , a simple s u f f i x contains no more than one vowel ( i . e . i n p r o n o u n c i a t i o n ) . F o l l o w i n g the t a b l e s i l l u s t r a t i n g the p a t t e r n s of d e r i v a t i o n a l formations i n Russian, E n g l i s h and French both i n the nominal and v e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s , f o r e i g n s u f f i x e s w i t h the h i g h e s t frequency of occurence w i l l be considered and d i s -cussed. E n g l i s h , i n comparison w i t h Russian i s r i c h e r i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combinations: 6U Type-of d e r i v a t i o n Stem S u f f i x Nominal - C - V - C - VC - c - vec - c - cv - c - eve - c - ceve - V - eve - V - ccv Table 5 French has more p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combination than Russian but l e s s than E n g l i s h : Type of d e r i v a t i o n Stem S u f f i x Nominal - c - V - c - VC - c - VCC - C - ccv - V - ccv - V - cccv Table 6 The three t a b l e s immediately preceding i n d i c a t e that i n the nominal systems of both E n g l i s h and French the stem may end 65 not only i n a consonant as i n Russian but also i n a vowel, and that suffixes may end either i n a vowel or i n a con-sonant. The verbal system provides a greater p o s s i b i l i t y f o r s u f f i x a t i o n i n Russian than the nominal system because i t permits the s u f f i x to be added to an open stem: Type of derivation Stem Suffix Verbal -C- VC -C- CVC -C- C -V- CVC -V- C Table 7 o s s i b i l i t i e s are less: Type of derivation Stem Suffi x Verbal -C- VC -C- vec -V- vec Table 8 In French we have the following: 66 Type of derivation Stem Su f f i x Verbal -C--V-VC CVC Table 9 What the present writer wants to point out i n the following paragraphs i s the presence of numerous loanwords of morpheme + derivational morpheme type, also the influence of the l a t t e r component imposed on the coining of Russian words. Some of these su f f i x e s behave i n the Russian language i n such a manner that a question arises: are these borrowings r e a l l y loanwords or loanblends? The suffixes w i l l be discussed i n the following order: -ade, -age, -ance, -ant, -at, -ement, -er, -et, -eur, -euse, -ing, -ism, and - i s t . Suffixes 1) F r . -ade /-ad/ S u f f i x Variant Stem Su f f i x ( i n Fr.) -ade none -c- vc Table 10 (Stem means stem ending) Examples: Russ. arkad < F r . arcade promenad < F r . promenade maskarad < F r . mascarade 6 7 The stress i n these examples i s kept on the l a s t s y l l a b l e as i t was i n French, although i t i s somewhat more strongly marked. This proves the theory that loanwords from French into Russian adapt the stress pattern of the o r i g i n a l (the primary stress i s always on the ultimate i n French). In case of s u f f i x -ade t h i s statement can be further proven by the following examples which have not only kept the stress pattern but the gender as well: anfilada < F r . 1'enfilade baljustrada < l a balustrade barrikada < l a barricade kaval'kada < l a cavalcade rokada < l a rocade estakada < 1'estacade eskalada < 1'escalade esplanada < 1'esplanade estrada < 1'estrade The choice i s merely of ind i v i d u a l taste between arkad and arkada < F r . 1'arcade because they both mean the same thing. 2) F r . -age /-a2/ S u f f i x Variant Stem Suf f i x ( i n Fr.) -age -issage -C- VC Table 11 Examples: Russ. abordaz < F r . abordage 68 avantaz < F r . avantage aziotaz < agiotage ambalaz < emballage anturaz < entourage anfleraz . < enfleurage a r b i t r a l < arbitrage a f f i n a z < affinage baga§ < bagage bandaz < bandage barraz < barrage blindaz < blindage As the r e s u l t of the reinterpretation of these loanwords, although only very few, such forms are found i n the language a s l i s t a z from the- Russian word l i s t + az . 3) F r . -ance /as/ S u f f i x Variant Stem S u f f i x ( i n Fr.) -ance -ence -escence -Cr VC Table 12 In Russian the s u f f i x changes from VC to VCC, from /-as/ to /-ans/ (See chapter 3, 2. Russ. /e/, French i i i ) . 69 Examples: Russ. dekadans seans d i l i z a n s rezonans p r e f e r a n s konferans reverans < P r . decadence < seance d i l i g e n c e resonance p r e f e r a n c e conferance reverance. Not one example of R u s s i a n word + F r e n c h s u f f i x -ance has been found. F r . -ant / -Q / S u f f i x V a r i a n t Stem S u f f i x ( i n Fr.) -ant none -C- V -^ante -C- VC T a b l e 13 I t i s r e f e r r e d to as an ' a d j e c t i v a l v e r b a l ' i n French, and i s v e r y p r o d u c t i v e i n that language. In R u s s i a n the s u f f i x has the VC 'shape', never V a l o n e . Most of the loanwords con-t a i n i n g t h i s s u f f i x came i n t o R u s s i a n v i a German-,. Examples: Russ. b r i l l i a n t ( o r ) b r i l ' j a n t < Ger. B r i l l a n t , < F r . b r i l l a n t J ?o Russ. intendant < Ger. Intendant komendant < F r . commandant (or < Ger. Kommendant, or < P o l . komendant) pedant < F r . pedant servant < F r . servante T h i s s u f f i x i s a l s o used to form new d e r i v a t i v e s i n Russian;, e.g. k u r s , kursant. 5) F r . -at / - a / S u f f i x V a r i a n t Stem S u f f i x ( i n Fr.) -at none - c - V -V-Table Ik Examples: Russ. kombinat < F r . combinat (<Lat.) s e c r e t a r i a t < F r . s e c r e t a r i a t The s p e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e accounts f o r Russ. / - a t / . In s p i t e of the f a c t that t h i s s u f f i x i s quite productive in French, only few loanwords c o n t a i n i n g i t are found i n Sussian. 6) F r . -ement /-ma/ S u f f i x V a r i a n t s Stem S u f f i x ( i n Fr.) -ement -(i)ssement -(n)ement -C- CV Table 15 71 In Russian t h i s s u f f i x i s rendered as CVCC, /-ment/ or VCVCC, /-ement/. Examples: Russ. angazement < Pr. engagement akkompanement < F r . accompagnement divertisment < Pr. divertissement This s u f f i x has another variant i n French which gave r i s e to the following loanwords: Russ. assortiment < F r . assortiment kompliment < F r . compliment Not a l l loanwords ending i n -ment i n Russian originated from French; e.g. Russ. indossament i s from I t . indossamento v i a Ger. Indossament. 7) Eng. -er /-or/ S u f f i x Variant Stem Suffix ( i n Eng.) -er none -C- VC Table 16 Numerous words containing th i s s u f f i x have been borrowed into Russian, as well as French and other languages. According to Jean Dubois, " l e s mots en -er designent s o i t des noms-d'agent s o i t des noms d'appareils ou d'instruments: cette 72 bisemie e s t exactement p a r a l l e l e a. c e l l e du s u f f i x f r a n c a i s - e u r . " 1 J 4 Loans ending i n P r . j- e u r j w i l l "be discussed under no. (9). S u f f i x [ev] i s very p r o d u c t i v e i n English- and r e s u l t e d i n a wealth of loanwords i n Russian, some of which are l i s t e d below: Russ. hamper b a r r i s t e r b o j l e r broker bunker bust e r bufer v i p e r < Eng. bumper < Eng. b a r r i s t e r < Eng.. b o i l e r < Eng. broker < Eng. bunker < Eng. booster < Eng. b u f f e r < Eng. whipper Note that the primary (strong) s t r e s s f a l l s on the i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e i n both languages i n t h i s group of examples. In s p i t e of the abundance of loans terminating i n - e r , t h i s s u f f i x i s not productive i n Russian i n the d e r i v a t i o n of new words from S l a v i c r o o t s . 8 ) P r . - e t , - e t t e / - E t / S u f f i x V a r i a n t Stem S u f f i x ( i n Pr.) -et none -C- V - e t t e -C- VC Table 17 Examples: baget < P r . . baguette buret < bourette b j u v e t < buvette v i n e g r e t < v i n a i g r e t t e kasket < casquette korvet < c o r v e t t e kurbet < courbette l a f e t < l a f e t t e egret < a i g r e t t e (Both i n French and Russian the primary s t r e s s f a l l s on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e . ) No examples have been found of Russian r o o t + t h i s s u f f i x . 9) F r . -eur / - o e r / S u f f i x V a r i a n t Stem S u f f i x ( i n Fr.) -eur (see below) -C- VC Table 18 Examples: Russ. dubler k o n t r o l e r monter sutener eguter < F r . doubleur < c o n t r o l e u r < monteur < souteneur < egoutteur Ih In a d d i t i o n to t h i s l i s t numerous other loanwords e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t i n g to the theater are to he found i n Russian; e.g. a k t e r , grimer, e t c . P h o n o l o g i c a l l y speaking the French phonemic vowel, /ce/, i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Russian phonetic allophone, [ o ] , which i s always preceded hy p a l a t a l i z a t i o n . In other words, i t i s s i g n a l l e d hy the preceding p a l a t a l i z e d consonant. This means that / z / and /&./ should he ' s o f t ' i n the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n . However, t h i s p ronounciation, accord-i n g to the S o v i e t l i n g u i s t Avanesov, i s being "crowded out". e.g. Russ. d i r i z e r < F r . d i r i g e u r v o l ' t i S e r < v o l t i g e u r v o j a z e r < voyageur montazer < montageur akuser < accoucheur r e t u s e r < retoucheur Another p h o n o l o g i c a l change that may take place i s from F r . /oe/ to Russian /e/, which occurs under s t r e s s , and no s o f t e n i n g of the adjacent consonants; e.g.: Russ. d e f i b r e r < F r . d e f i b r e u r dispaser < dispacheur k o l l e k c i o n e r < c o l l e c t i o n e u r Sometimes the French [-eur] i s added to non-French words, f o r i n s t a n c e , Eng. box + F r . -eur > F r . boxeur > Russ. bokser. 75 I n c o n t e m p o r a r y R u s s i a n t h i s s u f f i x i s u s e d i n f o r m i n g new d e r i v a t i v e s f r o m R u s s i a n r o o t s , t h e r e f o r e , i t may now he r e g a r d e d a s c o m p l e t e l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e . E x a m p l e s : R u s s . k i o s k e r i s f r o m k i o s k + s u f f i x -er Sumer i s f r o m s u m . + s u f f i x -er T h e f o l l o v / i n g a r e a c c e p t e d v a r i a n t s o f - e u r i n c o n t e m p o r a r y F r e n c h : - s e u r , - i s s e u r - i t e u r - a t e u r - i s a t e u r - i f i c a t e u r R u s s i a n i n t e r p r e t s t h e m , h o w e v e r , a s ' t h e s u f f i x - t o r , - a t o r o r - i t o r . T h i s i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g -c h a n g e s ( n o t e t h a t t he p r i m a r y s t r e s s i s no l o n g e r o n t h e u l t i m a t e i n R u s s i a n ) : R u s s . a l ' t e r n a t o r < F r . a l t e r n a t e u r d e z o r g a n i z a t o r < F r . d e s o r g a n i s a t e u r k o m p o s f t o r < F r . c o m p o s i t e u r d e k l i n a t o r < F r . d e c l i n a t e u r i n d i k a t o r < i n d i c a t e u r T h e s e l o a n w o r d s show c o m p l e t e a s s i m i l a t i o n , h u t n o t d e b i t o r < F r . d e b i t e u r . 76 B e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f / 1 / i n F r . e . j e c t e u r > R u s s . e z e k t o r , a n d d e t e c t e u r > R u s s . d e t e k t o r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t t h e s e a r e r e g a r d e d a s h a v i n g t h e s u f f i x R u s s . [ - t o r ] r a t h e r t h a n F r . [ - e u r ] , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y a m o r p h o l o g i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n a s w e l l a s a p h o n o l o g i c a l i s i n v o l v e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e may no l o n g e r b e c a l l e d l o a n w o r d s i n t h e n a r r o w s e n s e b u t l o a n b l e n d s . I n F r . e g o u t t e u r > R u s s . e g u t e r no morpheme s u b s t i t u t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , * e g u t o r d o e s n o t e x i s t i n R u s s i a n . W h a t a p p e a r s t o b e - t o r , i n R u s s i a n may h a v e i t s o r i g i n e i t h e r i n t h e F r e n c h s u f f i x , a s i t h a s b e e n a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , o r i n t h e E n g l i s h s u f f i x - o r ; e . g . : R u s s . d i r e k t o r < E n g . d i r e c t o r d e z i n f d k t o r < d i s i n f e c t o r o p e r a t o r < o p e r a t o r A l t h o u g h , t h e / 1 / h e r e i s p a r t o f t h e r o o t i n E n g l i s h , i t b e c a m e p a r t o f t h e s u f f i x i n R u s s i a n . N o t a l l w o r d s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s s u f f i x h a v e c o r r e s -p o n d i n g f o r m s i n t h e l a n g u a g e s f r o m w h i c h t h e y w e r e b o r r o w e d . R u s s i a n c r e a t e s new w o r d s b y a d d i n g t h i s s u f f i x t o f o r e i g n s t e m s , t h u s a r r i v i n g a t a s p e c i a l t y p e o f l o a n b l e n d . E x a m p l e s : R u s s . i m p r o v i z a t o r d e r i v e d f r o m R u s s . i m p r o v i z a c i j a 77 R u s s . k l a s s i f i k a t o r d e r i v e d f r o m R u s s . k l a s s i f i k a c i j a A f e w e x c e p t i o n s a r e f o u n d , w h i c h i n s p i t e o f l i n -g u i s t i c r u l e s a r e f o r m e d h y a n a l o g y w i t h o t h e r e x a m p l e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , E n g . p a r t n e r > R u s s . p a r t n e r , E n g . p u n t e r > R u s s . p o n t e r . Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e p e r m i t t e d e v e n i n t h e s p e e c h o f t h e same i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e c a s e o f E n g . c o n v e r t e r > R u s s . k o n v e r t e r v s k o n v e r t o r . T h i s i s , h o w e v e r , a n a n o m a l y . T h e m o s t u n u s u a l t r e a t m e n t was g i v e n t o t h e F r e n c h w o r d d e s e r t e u r > R u s s . d e z e r t i r ; a l t h o u g h t h e a c c e n t k e r n e l c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h e s t r e s s i n t h e o r i g i n a l ( i . e . o n t h e u l t i m a t e ) , t h e phoneme /o/ was r e p l a c e d h y / i / w h i c h a p p e a r s i n o r t h o g r a p h y a s w e l l . I t s h o u l d he m e n t i o n e d , t h a t o n l y i n w e a k l y s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n may t h i s p h o n e m i c s u b s t i t u t i o n t a k e p l a c e i n R u s s i a n . I f t h e ( p r i m a r y ) s t r e s s i s a b s e n t , t h e n / o / > / a / > / i / . 10) O n l y one l o a n w o r d h a s b e e n f o u n d i n R u s s i a n c o n t a i n i n g t h e F r e n c h s u f f i x - e u s e / - e u x : R u s s . k u r e z < F r . c u r i e u s e / k y r j o z / ( f e m i n i n e f o r m ) . 11) E n g . - i n g / - i f ) / S u f f i x V a r i a n t S t e m S u f f i x ( i n E n g . ) - i n g n o n e - C - V G -" "" ' 1 T a b l e 19 I n R u s s i a n t h e s u f f i x b e c o m e s d i s t i n c t l y - i n g / - i n k / . 7 8 E x a m p l e s : b l u m i n g ( o r ) < Eng I. b l o o m i n g b l j u m i n g b r e a m i n g < ' b r o w n i n g d e m p i n g < d u m p i n g d o p i n g < d o p i n g k e m p i n g < c a m p i n g k r e k i n g < c r a c k i n g k l . i r i n g < c l e a r i n g k r o s s i n g < c r o s s i n g m i t i n g < m e e t i n g s i j a b i n g < s l a b b i n g s n a j p i n g < s n i p i n g M a n y l o a n s t e r m i n a t i n g i n - i n g w e r e b o r r o w e d i n t o F r e n c h a s w e l l . R u s s i a n , o n t h e one h a n d , k e p t t h e s t r e s s i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n , w h i l e F r e n c h , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s h i f t e d t h e a c c e n t t o t h e f i n a l s y l l a b l e , " c ' e s t - a - d i r e v e r s - i n g d e v e n u e 1 ' e l e m e n t m a r q u a n t " . Some o f t h e w o r d s e n d i n g i n - i n g may b e f o u n d i n c o m -b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s u f f i x e s ; e . g . : t r e n e r < E n g . t r a i n e r , t r e n i n g < E n g . t r a i n i n g , t h e E n g l i s h s t e m i s t r a i n . A l t h o u g h , t h i s d o e s n o t e x i s t a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t l o a n w o r d i n R u s s i a n o t h e r s t e m s m i g h t , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a r t i n g < E n g . s t a r t i n g , t h e . s t e m i s s t a r t > R u s s . s t a r t . 12). F r . - i q u e / - i k / -79 J e a n D u b o i s r e f e r s t o i t a s " l e s u f f i x d ' a d j e c t i f " , b u t i t a l s o d e n o t e s s u b s t a n t i v e s i n F r e n c h . I t a l r e a d y h a s a c o u n t e r p a r t i n R u s s i a n , n a m e l y { - i k } , t h e r e f o r e , i t may b e a r g u d e t h a t i ) i t m e r g e d w i t h g e n u i n e S l a v i c - i k , o r t h a t i i ) i t was s i m p l y a n a l y s e d a s t h e R u s s i a n s u f f i x - i k . T h u s , f o r e i g n w o r d s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s s u f f i x c o u l d b e c l a s s i -f i e d i n R u s s i a n e i t h e r a s l o a n w o r d s o r l o a n b l e n d s . T h i s s u f f i x i s so p r o d u c t i v e i n R u s s i a n t h a t i t i s a d d e d t o b o t h n a t i v e a n d f o r e i g n r o o t s t o d e r i v e new w o r d s . The f o l l o w i n g w o r d s a r e r e s u l t s o f s u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t : R u s s . f d r d i k < E n g . ( A m e r i c a n ) F o r d + - i k e k i n l a z i k < F r . e q u i p a g e + - i k r o o t + s u f f i x + s u f f i x 13) F r . - i s m e / - i s m / S u f f i x V a r i a n t S t e m S u f f i x ( i n F r . ) - i s m e n o n e / c -- V -V C C VCC T a b l e 20 The o r i g i n o f w o r d s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s s u f f i x i s d i f f i -c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e , t h a t i s , t h e y m i g h t h a v e come d i r e c t l y ftom t h e c l a s s i c a l l a n g u a g e s , o r p e r h a p s b o r r o w e d d i r e c t l y f r o m 80 French, German or E n g l i s h . B i e l f e l d t (pp. 186-188) gives over 400 words i n -ism,most of which one could r e f e r to as " i n t e r n a t i o n a l terms". Some of them, however, are purely-Russian d e r i v a t i v e s . Tv/o examples of loanblends i n Russian w i l l be given below: Russ. f o r d i z m < Eng. Ford (Henry Ford) + -izm recordizm < record .+ -izm D e r i v a t i o n by means of t h i s s u f f i x i s very productive i n a l l three languages, Russian, E n g l i s h and French. 14) Eng. - i s t , F r . - i s t e , / - i s t / S u f f i x V a r i a n t Stem S u f f i x - i s t e - i s t none none -C-- c -VC ( i n Fr.) VG ( i n Eng.) Table 21 The s u f f i x - i s t i s the product of 18th century French i n f l u e n c e on Russian. Nevertheless, not a l l loanwords o f t h i s type were borrowed from French or i n d i r e c t l y from French i n t o Russian. Some of the words entered i n t o the vocabulary through sources other than the donor language. The French i n f l u e n c e i s s t i l l very strong because the s t r e s s on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e i s p r e v a l e n t a l l the way through. Approximately 400 words i n - i s t are l i s t e d by B i e l f e l d t (pp. 224-226). In contemporary 81 R u s s i a n i t i s o n e o f t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e s u f f i x e s . A s was t h e c a s e w i t h some o f t h e o t h e r s u f f i x e s , R u s s i a n t o o k t h e l i b e r t y o f d e r i v i n g n o u n s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : l o a n w o r d + s u f f i x , l o a n w o r d + - i s t , when n o e q u i v a -l e n t i s f o u n d i n t h e d o n o r l a n g u a g e e v e n t h o u g h d e r i v a t i o n b y m e a n s o f t h i s s u f f i x i s p r o d u c t i v e . T h e a r r a n g e m e n t ' o f s t e m a n d s u f f i x i n R u s s i a n may b e : - C - + -VCC(-) a n d - V - + - V C C ( - ) E x a m p l e s : R u s s . f r o m f u t b o l (< E n g . f o o t b a l l ) > f u t b o l i s t r e g b i (< E n g . r u g b y ) > r e g b i s t t a k s i (< P r . t a x i ) > t a k s i s t k a n o e (< E n g . c a n o e ) > k a n o e i s t / i / i s d r o p p e d i n f r o n t o f t h e s u f f i x - i s t , b u t i n t e r e s t i n g l y / e / i s k e p t i n k a n o e . I n t e c h n i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y i n R u s s i a n - i s t - h a s a s p e c i a l i z e d m e a n i n g , i n d i c a t i n g a n a b u n d a n c e o f t h a t q u a l i t y . C o m p a r e : g d r n a j a m e s t n o s t ' - ' a p l a c e w h e r e t h e r e a r e m o u n t a i n s ' g o r n i s t a j a m e s t n o s t ' - ' a v e r y m o u n t a i n o u s p l a c e ' R o o t s c o m b i n e d w i t h [ - i s t ] o f t e n o c c u r w i t h [ - i z m ] ; f o r e x a m p l e : 82 Russ. t u r i z m , t u r i s t - Eng. 'tourism', ' t o u r i s t ' dualism, d u a l i s t - Eng. 'dualism', ' d u a l i s t ' optimizm,optimist- Eng. 'optimism', ' o p t i m i s t ' These s u f f i x e s discussed, are not the o n l y ones found i n loanwords that were borrowed i n t o Russian, but they are c e r t a i n l y the most f r e q u e n t l y encountered ones. Two examples w i l l be given of t h e . l e s s f r e q u e n t l y enouuntered s u f f i x e s : 1) P r . [ - i e ] , j a l o u s i e > Russ. z a l j u z i 2) P r . [ - o i r e j , d o r t o i r >Russ. dortuar A c l o s e examination of numerous Russian s u f f i x e s w i l l e s t a b l i s h correspondences v/ith E n g l i s h and French su f f i x e s ; , t h i s a p p l i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r to s u f f i x e s used e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n the sphere of t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c nomenclature. They )&a$. not be c a l l e d loanwords i n i t s s t r i c t sense, but perhaps loanblends. The f o l l o w i n g are only a few of the examples which show correspondences between E n g l i s h and Russian s u f f i x e s used i n chemical terms: Russian s u f f i x i E n g l i s h s u f f i x Russian examples E n g l i s h examples -on -on(e) s u l ' f o n sulphon( e) -an -an(e) s p i r a n spiran( e) -en -en(e) okten octen(e) - i n -yn(e) g i d r a z i n hydrazine - i n ( e ) - i l - y i t o l u i l t o l u y l - i d - i d ( e ) imid imid( e) -at -at(e) g i d r a t hydrate Table 22 83 2 3 4 FOOTNOTES — CHAPTER IV Bl o o m f i e l d , L. Language. New York, Henry H o l t and Company, 1958, C1933. p. 209. I b i d . p. 453. In a d d i t i o n to b o l s h e v i k i , we get b o l s h e v i s t and b o l s h e v i c . Webster's New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y . Second ed.(1935) l i s t s b o l s h e v i k i • a s the p l u r a l form of b o l s h e v i k , and bo l s h e v i k s as an a l t e r n a t i v e . In the T h i r d ed. (1963) b o l s h e v i k s i s given f i r s t as the p l u r a l form and b o l s h e v i k i given as an a l t e r n a t i v e . The New'Standard" D i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h Language (New York, Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1962) gives the o n l y entry as b o l s h e v i k i - nominative p l u r a l . In b r i e f , p o s s i b l y , b o l s h e v i k i entered i n t o the E n g l i s h language f i r s t and the others are l a t e r d e r i v a t i o n s of i t . Mr. Harshenin suggested that perhaps cempionstvo i s simply a new form i n Russian derived from cempion + stvo to create an a b s t r a c t noun. Nida, E.A. Morphology. Ann Arbor, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1949. p. 81. 6 7. 8 Phonemically, i t can be accepted that e i t h e r [-man], /-man/ or [-men], /-men/' was the model f o r Russian /-men/. In speech both /a / and /&/ can converge on the Russ. /ey . This example can be v e r i f i e d only i n the 1958 e d i t i o n of the Slovar' Inostrannyx S l o v . p. 242. B l o o m f i e l d , op. c i t . p. 247. Bloch, B. and Trager, G.L. O u t l i n e of l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . B a l t i m o r e , Md., L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America, 1942T~p-. 54". g y Hockett, C F . A course i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s . New York, Macmillan Co., 1958. p. 243. Note th a t /+/ marks juncture and i t i s defineable o n l y i n terms of p r o n o u n c i a t i o n . 1 0 Bloch and Trager, op. c i t . p. 66.. 1 1 For s p e l l i n g conventions see B a l l , A.M., Compounding and  hyphenation of E n g l i s h words. New York, Funk and Wagnalls, 1951. 8k Nida, op. c i t . , p. 78. Dawson, C L . "Remarks on the d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x e s of the Russian s u b s t a n t i v e " , For Roman Jakobson, by M o r r i s H a l l e . Hague, Mouton and Co., 1956* p. 81-82. * Dub.ois, J . Etude sur l a d e r i v a t i o n s u f f i x a l e en F r a n c a i s moderne et contemporain. ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n ) P a r i s , L i b r a i r e Larousse, 1962, p. 73« I b i d . , p. 73 CHAPTER V GENDER, NUMBER AND CASE What gender i s Gender as a grammatical category i s very important i n contemporary modern Russian. I t i s a b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l Russian nouns and a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c through grammatical agreement of s a t e l l i t e a d j e c t i v e s and verbs ( f o r instance of the past tense and p a r t i c i p l e forms). Speaking about gender, N i c o l a s Durnovo s t a t e s that "nous appelons "genre" l e phenomene de l ' a c c o r d des s u b s t a n t i f s avec c e r t a i n e s formes p a r t i c u l i e r e s des a d j e c t i f s aux memes cas. C'est en ce sens que nous d i s t i n g u o n s , en russe moderne, quatre genres au s i n g u l i e r : l e masculin anime, l e masculine inanime, l e f e m i n i n et l e nexitre; — e t , au p l u r i e r , deux genres: l e genre anime et l e genre inanime. ^ Present day l i n g u i s t s , however, deny the existence of four, sich genders i n Russian since the d i s t i n c t i o n i s made only i n the Acc u s a t i v e s i n g u l a r and Accusative p l u r a l . Russian grammar 2 books on the whole d i s c u s s three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. This d i v i s i o n can f u r t h e r be reduced to two ca t e g o r i e s : feminine and non-feminine. The w e l l known l i n g -u i s t , Roman Jakobson, puts f o r t h h i s argument i n the favour of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 8 6 "Russian case forms d i s t i n g u i s h two numbers — the marked p l u r a l v s . s i n g u l a r , and i n a l l the grammatical cases of the unmarked s i n g u l a r , two genders — the more s p e c i f i e d , marked feminine vs. non-feminine. The feminine gender s i g n a l s that the given noun cannot designate a male human being, u n l e s s i n expressive, p a r t i c u l a r p e j o r a t i v e language ( c f . on - svdloS', s t e r v a , e t a k a j a d r j a n i razmaznja). The unmarked non-feminine, i n t u r n , s p l i t s i n t o two genders, d i s t i n g u i s h e d , however, only i n the unmarked, nominative case (and i n a c cusative when merging with nominative). Russian non-feminine nominative forms d i s p l a y a d i s t i n c t i o n between the marked neuter and the l e s s s p e c i f i e d , unmarked masculine." x The reader w i l l f i n d among the h y p o c o r i s t i c s numerous genuine Russian C h r i s t i a n names which have the appearance of a feminine noun proper, although the a d j e c t i v e modifying i t w i l l be d e c l i n e d according to the non-feminine, more p r e c i s e l y the masculine - animate declension. How to determine the gender of nouns The gender of a noun i s determined by the phonetic a s s o c i a t i o n of the l a s t sound of the word i n i t s Nominative S i n g u l a r form. This statement provides only a general r u l e and does not include a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Due to h i e r a r c h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s sometimes'-the idea of gender p r e v a i l s i n s p i t e of the phonetic shape of the terminating sound of the word which may otherwise have p l a c e d i t i n t o another category. Even the n a t i v e speaker may be p u z z l e d by t h i s . Overwhelmed by the problem of gender, Mucnik quotes an i n t e r e s t i n g dialogue bet-ween a mother and her c h i l d : 87 - Mama, baran on? - On. - Ovca - on? - Ona. K - A pocemu papa - on? Nado "by pap, i ne papa? S i m i l a r questions a r i s e i n our a n a l y s i s of gender: Why i s a word masculine when i t should he feminine, or "vice versa? I n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs an attempt w i l l he made to analyse some of the problems and to provide answers to some of the questions that one may ask about loanwords i n regard to gender. A l l loanwords must f a l l i n t o one of the c a t e g o r i e s of gender i n Russian, and g e n e r a l l y the formal c r i t e r i a f o r determining t h e i r gender i s the same as f o r a l l other nouns. Loanwords were s e l e c t e d mainly from E n g l i s h and French. Examples taken from these languages, however, do not provide an adequate assessment of gender i n loanwords. For t h i s reason, i n a d d i t i o n to E n g l i s h and French, German examples are i n c l u d e d i n s o f a r as they c o n s o l i d a t e the t h e o r e t i c a l problems encountered i n borrowings i n the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d languages. L i k e Russian, German has three c a t e g o r i e s of gender whereas French has only two and E n g l i s h has none. The gender p a t t e r n of these languages compared w i t h that of Russian i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Language - Gender M F IT E n g l i s h - - -French X X -' German X X X Russian X X X r Pable 23 88 I s gender p r e d i c t a b l e i n loanwords? Words borrowed from E n g l i s h , or any other language l a c k i n g gender as a formal grammatical category, are assigned to a gender i n Russian according to the r u l e s s t i l l to be mentioned. Loanwords already having a gender i n the donor language may preserve i t but not n e c e s s a r i l y always. An o r i g i n a l l y compound word whether t r e a t e d as a compound or as a simple morpheme i s governed by the same r u l e s i n Russian as a morpheme-word. Exceptions w i l l always be found, some of which w i l l be given c o n s i d e r a t i o n s under the appropriate headings. Non-Feminine Masculine General r u l e s G e n e r a l l y , the gender of a noun i n Russian can be determined without much d i f f i c u l t y by examining the f i n a l sound of the word i n the nominative, s i n g u l a r case (which i s the conventional entry i n d i c t i o n a r i e s or g l o s s a r i e s ) . In b r i e f , the phonetic shape of the t e r m i n a t i n g (or f i n a l ) sound of the stem i s the c r i t e r i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t e r minating sounds are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Russian masculine nouns: 1) n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d consonants 2) p a l a t a l i z e d consonants 3) yod To what degree are these r u l e s a p p l i c a b l e to loanwords? 89 F i r s t l y , a l l E n g l i s h loanwords ending i n a n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d consonant were drawn i n t o the masculine category without any exception. The f o l l o w i n g examples seem very few i n comparison w i t h the a c t u a l number that are present i n the Russian language. Examples: E n g l i s h : a j s berg < Eng j . i c e b e r g a l ' k l e d < a l c l a d atom < atom b a l a s t < b a l l a s t bedlam < bedlam b e r k g i r < b e r k s h i r e b i z n e s < business b i x e v i o r i z m < behavio(u)rism b l o k < b l o c k blum < bloom bojkdt < boycott boss < boss French Numerous loanwords borrowed from French r e t a i n e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l gender, that i s , they were already masculine i n French. The u n d e r l y i n g reason f o r no change i s , of course, s t r u c t u r a l ; the f o l l o w i n g examples a l l terminate i n non-p a l a t a l i z e d consonants: 9 0 Russ. abandon < P r . 1'abandon abonement < 1' abonnement a v i a t d r < l ' a v i a t e u r Any student of French would know that c e r t a i n endings are l i n k e d w i t h s p e c i f i c genders i n that language, f o r instance a l l nouns,,ending i n [ -eur ]. are\masculine i n . French. But since the f i n a l / - r / f a l l s i n t o the category of non-p a l a t a l i z e d consonants, t h i s i s the only accepted reason f o r a l l loanwords c o n t a i n i n g t h i s s u f f i x to be i n the masculine category. Russ. a d j u l ' t e r < P r . l ' a d u l t e r e a z i o t a z < 1'agiotage akkompanement < l faccompagnement akkordedn < l'accordeon aksessuar < l ' a c c e s s o i r albdm < l'album a l ' t r u i z m < .1' a l t r u i s m The f a c t that the s u f f i x e s [-age], [-ement], [ - o i r ] and [-isme] denote masculine nouns i s not as o v e r l y s i g n i f i c a n t as the f a c t that / - z / , / - t / , / - r / and /-m/ are the terminating sounds of the words which were borrowed from French. Russ. ambalaz < P r . l'emballage angaSement < 1'engagement a n t i k < 1'antique antreprener < 1'entrepreneur Russ. anturaz b a l l o n b a l l o n e t < F r . 1'entourage < l e b a l l o n < l e b a l l o n e t The change i n gender i n the next group of examples provides the f i r s t assessment of evidence, of the phonetic a s s o c i a t i o n of gender. These loanwords were o r i g i n a l l y feminine i n French but since they a l l end i n consonants ( i . n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d consonants) there can be no question as to which category of gender they w i l l belong. a vans < Fr.. l ' avance akant, akanf < 1' acanthe (G-r.) a l l j u r < 1 ' a l l u r e al'kdv < 1*alcove a l ' j a n s < 1' a l l i a n c e ambusjur < l ' embouchure antrekot < l 1 e n t r e c o t e a r b a l e t < 1' a r b a l e t armjur < 1'armure a r x i t r a v < 1'architrave assonans < 1'assonans baget < l a baguette balans < l a balance b a l l - < l a b a l l e bar' er < l a b a r r i e r e 92 Russ. b o r d j u r bj u v e t < F r . l a bordure < l a buvette German What i s i n t e r e s t i n g about German i n comparison w i t h Russian i.'sathat i t al s o has' three grammatical c a t e g o r i e s of gender; t h i s f a c t w i l l be of great importance l a t e r on. We encounter numerous masculine nouns from German which l i k e the examples taken from French underwent no change of gender. They al s o end i n a ( n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d ) consonant. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of loanwords from German f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n given. Russ. abzac ablaut a b r i s a n s l j u s bakstegn b l i k burgraf g e l e r t e r < Ger. der Absatz < der A b l a u t < der A b r i s s ' < der Anschluss < der B a c k s t e i n < der B l i c k < der Burgraf < der G e l e h r t e r #Note: the c a p i t a l l e t t e r i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i s only an or t h o g r a p h i c a l device i n German. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, that some of the German feminine nouns became masculine i n Russian i n s o f a r as they ended i n a consonant i n Russian. Corresponding f i n d i n g s were already observed i n loanv/ords from French. 93 Examples: Russ. g e n e r a l i t e t < Ger. die G e n e r a l i t a t i n c uxt < die Inzucht kegel'ban < die Kegelbahn k l j u f t < die K l u f t l a n c e t < die L a n z e t t The next group of loanwords were feminine s u b s t a n t i v e s i n German, but are masculine i n Russian because they have the s t r u c t u r a l shape of masculine nouns due to the r e s u l t of apocope. r e j s < Ger. die Reise Sie j f < d i e S c h l e i f e S l j u z < die Schleuse snek < die Scnecke s p i c < die S p i t z e Stamp < die Stampe ( < I t . ) standart < die Standarte (< I t . ) s t r a f < die S t r a f e s t u f < die Stufe The f o l l o w i n g group of examples provides conclusive evidence of the importance stem endings p l a y i n the a s s i g n -ment of gender of loanwords i n Russian. These were neuter nouns i n German which were absorbed by the masculine gender i n Russian. 9k gezenk < Ger. das Gesenk geSeft < ' das Geschaft d i k t a t < das D i k t a t indossament< das Indossament k a r a t < das Karat korn < das Korn p u i ' t < d as P u l t r i f < das R i f f s i g n a l < das S i g n a l f i s < das P i s f o r t < das P o r t A l l of the above mentioned loanwords end i n non-p a l a t a l i z e d consonants, which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e i r being i n the masculine gender i n Russian. Secondly,, we mentioned that loanwords t e r m i n a t i n g i n a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant i n Russian may be absorbed by the masculine category of gender. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the o r i g i n a l gender of the loanword may have been masculine, feminine or neuter. There are a few examples which end i n a s o f t 1, /l'/» borrowed from any of the three languages concerned which j o i n e d the de c l e n s i o n often r e f e r r e d to as the " s o f t masculine d e c l e n s i o n " . They had no gender i n E n g l i s h but they d i d i n both French and German.. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , no change of gender occurred i n the f o l l o w i n g loanwords from French. 9 5 Russ. a r t i k l ' k o n t r o l ' m i s t r a l ' p o l i S i n e l ' p r d f i l ' r i d i k j u l ' s p e k t a k l ' t j u l ' < P r . 1 ' a r t i c l e < l e co n t r o l e < l e m i s t r a l < l e p o l i c h i n e l l e < I t . p u l c h i n e l l a < l e p r o f i l e < l e r i d i c u l e < l e spectacle < l e t u l l e A p a r a l l e l i s m i s observed i n loanwords from German: Russ. v e k s e l ' v i n k e l ' kegel' f l i g e l ' senkel' s p a t e l ' < Ger. der Wechsel < der Winkel < der Kegel < der P l i i g e l < der Schenkel < der S p a t e l Change of gender i s found i n a few loanv/ords which were feminine i n the donor language and -Joined the s o f t masculines i n Russian. The reader w i l l note that the t e r -minating sound of such loanwords i s a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant, from French Russ. k a p s j u l ' k o k i l ' konsol' < F r . l a capsule < l a c o q u i l l e < l a console 96 Russ. parol' < F r . l a parole patrul' < l a p a t r o u i l l e r i t u r n e l < l a r i t o u r n e l l e < I t , r i t o r n e l l o Similar examples from German w i l l add support to the conclusion derived on the basis of loanwords from French. The next group of nouns was feminine i n German but are regarded as masculine i n Russian. from German Russ. f u x t e l ' < Ger. die Fuchtel spindel' < die Spindel Furthermore, there are a few examples which belong to the soft masculines but were neuter i n the donor language. The determining fa c t o r at play here, i s , of course, the f i n a l sound of.the word. from German Russ. v e n t i l ' < Ger. das V e n t i l mitel' < das M i t t e l panel' < das Paneel s p i l ' < das S p i l l *Note: The examples used f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the above mentioned l i s t s a l l end i n / - l ' / i n Russian. T h i r d l y , loanwords ending i n a yod may be c l a s s i f i e d as masculine nouns i n R u s s i a n . Borrowings ending i n a yod 9 7 are l e s s numerous than the ones ending i n ( p a l a t a l i z e d or n o n - p a l a t a l i z e d ) consonants, as a matter of f a c t , there are only very few of them. The E n g l i s h -ey /-l/ i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d as / - e j / i n Russian, which auto-m a t i c a l l y i n c l u d e d a l l nouns of t h i s type i n the masculine category of gender, f o r example: Russ. atornej < Eng. attorney zokej < jockey g l e j < g l e y t r o l l e j < t r o l l e y A l s o , words ending i n /-if (as o c c u r r i n g i n diphthongs l i k e /oi/, etc.) i n English-would very l i k e l y j o i n t h i s group; e.g. Russ. permaloj < Eng. permalloy. Por s i m i l a r reasons the f o l l o w i n g French and German words were taken i n t o t h i s group ( h y p o t h e t i c a l l y , they may have been taken from any of the three genders): Russ. konvdj < F r . convoi l a k e j < l a q u a i s a l d r e j < Ger. A l d r e i v e r k b l e j < Werkblei Summary I t may be concluded on the b a s i s of the above examples that, although there are more examples found i n one group than i n another, the more abundant group does not provide a h a b i t u a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r new and u n a s s i m i l a t e d loanwords i n Russian but o n l y shows the tendencies. The extent of the tendencies i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g two tabl e s which were set up on the s e l e c t e d word l i s t (compiled by the present w r i t e r ) that contained loanwords i n a l l three genders from a l l three languages. The number of masculine substantives were as f o l l o w s : • • . 1) from E n g l i s h — 216 (out of the t o t a l : M 88/ , N 7% ) 2) from French -- 478 (out of the t o t a l : M 64/ ,'N 13/0 3) from German — 248 (out of the t o t a l : M 82%, N 3% ) Out of these loanwords which j o i n e d the masculine declension (stem ending i n p l a i n consonant) the percentage of the o r i g i n a l gender i s : Language O r i g i n a l gender M F . N French 83^ 17/ -German 60/ 28/ 12/ Table 24 *Note: I t i s p o i n t l e s s to add E n g l i s h here since i t l a c k s grammatical gender. Loanwords which are i n the 1 s o f t masculine declension' i n Russian i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n t set of r a t i o s : Language ': O r i g i n a l gender M F N" French 66% 33% -German 62% 20% 18%, Table 25 These fi g u r e s i n d i c a t e that the highest percentage of both 'hard' and ' s o f t ' masculine loanwords i n Russian o r i g i n a t e d from nouns already masculine i n the donor language the next highest i n number i s drawn from the feminines, and the smallest from the neuters. Neuter Neuters also belong to the non-feminine category; t h i s group as the a p p e l l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , " s i g n a l s l a c k of sex r e f e r e n c e " ^ . The formal r u l e f o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the gender of neuter i n Russian i s — a l l nouns ending w i t h the desinence {-o} (o/e/e) . The f i r s t one has a stem ending i n a p l a i n consonant, and the l a t t e r two have stem endings i n p a l a t a l i z e d consonants. Only a handful of loanwords from E n g l i s h are found i n t h i s group i n Russian, some . of v/hich are: Russ. bandzo bungalo (or) bengalo magneto superkargo < Eng. banjo (< Sp.) < bungalow ( < H i n d i ) < magneto < supercargo 100 A l l loanwords i n this group, which came from French o r i g i n a l l y belonged to either the masculine or the feminine category. The decision hinges on what the stem ending i s i n Russian. Therefore, regardless of whether they were masculine or feminine i n French, i f the stem ends i n /-o/ or /-e/, the loan-word i s a bona f i d e neuter noun i n Russian. Orthographically, f i n a l /-o/ i n French may be represented by one of the follow-ing: -o, -au, and -eau. They may be followed by a - t which i s omitted i n speech. Examples: Russ. asso bjurd idepd domino zabd zakd lando < F r . I 1assaut < l e bureau < l e dep6t < l e domino (< It.) < le jabot < l e jacquot < l e landau A large number of words borrowed from French belong to the 'soft' neuters because they end i n /-e/, which i n French orthography may be represented by -e, -ee, -er and -et. Examples: Russ. abrez*d agreze verze plake < F r . < < < 1'abrege 1'agrege le verge l e plaque 101 Russ. proteze < Pr. l e protege moralite < l a moralite* bure • < l a bouree draze < l a dragee assjure < assurer atel'e* < 1 ' a t e l i e r • beze < l e baiser den'e < l e denier bide' < l e bidet kabare < l e cabaret T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a l l loans ending i n /e/ and /£•/ would be expected to j o i n the neuters. Examples of the former one are l i s t e d above; examples of loans ending i n /-a./ i n French are rare i n Russian: F r . l e r e l a i s > Russ. r e l e . The sound f-t/ appears i n s p e l l i n g as - a i , - a i s , etc. Feminine Russian feminine substantives end i n the nominative singular form with the desinence - a / j a . This c r i t e r i o n i s pertinent to loanwords as well. I f the loanword ends i n -a, i t i s very l i k e l y to' be adopted as a feminine noun i n Russian. from English Russ. veranda g o r i l l a < Eng. veranda (< Hindi) < g o r i l l a (< African) 102 from French Russ. patua < F r . l e p a t o i s /patwa/ rezeda ; < l e reseda / r e z e d a / trema < l e trema /trema/ *Note: These are a l l masculine .in French. The next group of examples were feminine i n French and are feminine i n Russian. The i n t e r p r a t t i o n can contain i n f o r m a t i o n such as f i n a l -e_ was replaced hy -a i n Russian, and as the r e s u l t of t h i s , they now are bona f i d e feminine nouns. Since the f i a n l -£ i s absent i n pronounciation i n French and they a l l end i n a consonant, one would have expected these words to be masculine i n Russian. But regard-l e s s of whether or not these loanwords are considered a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of speech or w r i t i n g , there i s no s t r u c t u r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r being i n the feminine category. One could say, however, that the borrower had a " f e e l i n g " f o r the French gender, Loanwords of t h i s type are numerous i n Russian: Russ. avantjura < F r . l'aventure akkolada < l'accolade amal'gama < 1'amalgame ambrazura < 1'embrasure antanta < l 1 e n t e n t e baza < l a base b a l j u s t r a d a < l a b a l u s t r a d e 103 What Is more i n t e r e s t i n g i s the presence of masculine nouns i n the feminine category i n Russian. In p r o n u n c i a t i o n these loans end i n a consonant and, therefore, should he masculine i n Russian; i n writing they end i n -e, and on the basis of t h i s , they should be neuter. Examples: Russ. ambra < Pr. l'ambre tan'tema < l e tantieme f a r a < l e phare. In addition to these, s i m i l a r examples were found i n German where the weakly stressed f i n a l -e was replaced by -a i n Russian. Russ. b i r z a < Ger. die Borse gardina < die Gardine granata < die Granate djuza < die Dtise Russian feminine nouns l i k e the masculines may end i n a palatalized-consonant; a number of loanwords share the same feature. We have observed that numerous loanwords ending i n / - l 1 / i n Russian belong to the masculine category; now v/e w i l l note that some of the loans with /-!'/ are feminine. Examples: Russ. banderol' < Pr. l a banderole 10k Russ. busdl' < F r . l a boussole (< I t . ) v a n i l ' < l a v a n i l l e (< Sp.) g a z e l ' < l a g a z e l l e (< Arm.) z o n k i l ' < l a j o n q u i l l e k o s e n i l ' < l a c o c h e n i l l e migren' < l a migraine I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the gender of these loans l i s t e d above corresponds to the one i n the donor language. However, t h i s i s not always the case, f o r example the next group of loans were masculine i n French and are regarded as feminine i n Russian: Russ. a n t r e s o l ' < F r . l ' e n r e s o l d e t a l ' < l e d e t a i l k a d r i l ' < l e q u a d r i l l e model' < l e modele emal' < 1'email The f o l l o w i n g loanwords ending i n / - l ' / are s i g n i f i c a n t i n s o f a r as the same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are a p p l i e d . They belong to the feminine category i n Russian and o r i g i -n a l l y may have been masculine, feminine or neuter nouns ein the donor language. Examples: Russ. d r e l ' < Ger. der D r e l l panel' < das Paneel 105 Russ. g a n t e l ' < Ger. die H a n t e l f o r e l ' die P o r e l l e Summary On the b a s i s of a s e l e c t e d word l i s t (compiled f o r t h i s t h e s i s ) the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s have been d e r i v e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of feminine nouns i n Russian i s : 1) from E n g l i s h — 12 (out of t h e - t o t a l : F 5% ) 2) from French — 1 6 8 (out of the t o t a l : F 2 3 % ) 3) from German — 48 (out of the t o t a l : F 15% ) D i s t r i b u t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l gender were as f o l l o w s : Language O r i g i n a l gender M F N French 8%. 9 2 % -German 1 6 % 7 9 % 5% Table 26 I t i s evident from these s t a t i s t i c s that the highest number of feminine nouns were.drawn from the already feminine ones; the next h i g h e s t percentage i s from the masculine, and the smallest from the neuters. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may force us to b e l i e v e that the Russian speaker has a " f e e l i n g " f o r the gender of the loanword i n the donor language. However, l i n g u i s t i c a l l y we cannot accept t h i s f a c t . These f i g u r e s showing a high percentage of homologues w i t h i d e n t i c a l gender may not be o v e r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . On the whole, i t was found 1 0 6 that the largest group of loanwords i s masculine, then feminine, and the smallest group i s neuter. From the o v e r a l l size of th i s group of loanword's, the following figures were derived: 1) Masculine loanwords — 6 6 % 2) Feminine loanwords — 25% 3) Neuter loanwords — 9% This indicates that a l l 'changes' of gender were (and are) i n the d i r e c t i o n of masculine. Of those that retained t h e i r gender, a number of them are to be explained as getting their"gender by homophony. Several examples show the retension of o r i g i n a l gender, a f a c t which.cannot be ignored altogether e s p e c i a l l y i f phonological change accompanies i t . Loanwords ending i n any of the consonants ( p a l a t a l i z e d or plain) and i n -a%-ja and -o (o%e/e) may be grouped under one of the three genders i n Russian. In native Russian words these are the only permissible terminating sounds of the substantives i n the nominative singular i n addition to these / - i % i n the nominative p l u r a l . There are a few loanwords, however, that end i n other than the said vowels i n the nomina-tive singular, namely i n -u/-ju. For example: Russ. i n t e r v ' j u < Eng. interview kakadu < cockatoo mild' ju (or) mil'd'ju < mildew akazu < F r . 1'acajou (m) 107 Russ. ragii < 'Pr. l e ragout sapazu < l e sapajou avenju < 1'avenue ( f ) in z e n j u < I'ingenue ( f ) menju < menu parvenju < parvenue r e v j u < ' revue These are considered as i n d e c l i n a b l e neuter nouns i n Russian. H i e r a r c h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of gender over grammatical category C e r t a i n loanwords have the s t r u c t u r a l shape of one category but are t r e a t e d as i f they belonged to another one. Examine the f o l l o w i n g : Russ. l e d i < Eng. l a d y madam < P r . l a madame f r a u < Ger. die Frau The f i r s t has the s t r u c t u r a l shape i n Russian of a p l u r a l noun, the second, as a masculine and the t h i r d one, as a (non-declinable) neuter noun, but they are a l l t r e a t e d as feminine nouns, that i s , a d j e c t i v e s modifying any of them or the past tense of the verb, e t c . w i l l r e ceive feminine endings i n a l l d e c l e n s i o n a l and c o n j u g a t i o n a l forms. O s c i l l a t i o n of gender of loanwords S t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s and personal preference i s one of the causes of o s c i l l a t i o n between two genders, most commonly 108 between masculine and feminine. Mucnik , a Russian l i n g u i s t , l i s t s 65 examples of t h i s type, f o r instance: f i l m - f i l m a , avantjur - a v a n t j u r a , g l j u k d z - g l j u k d z a , and so on. The two v a r i a n t s are p e r m i t t e d sometimes even i n the l i t e r a r y language. z i r a f - z i r a f a < F r . l a g i r a f e , or'Gr. die G i r a f f e , or I t . g i r a f f a The- two d i f f e r e n t forms may be the r e s u l t of simultaneous borrowings from d i f f e r e n t source languages as i l l u s t r a t e s the example above. Sometimes the form used i n the prostoreSie d i f f e r s from the one i n the l i t e r a r y language; f o r ins t a n c e , r e l ' s a (prost.) v s . r e i ' s ( l i t . ) , arabeska (prost.) v s . arabesk ( l i t . ) ' • In the everyday speech loanwords may even be d e c l i n e d even i f the l i t e r a r y language does not permit i t . For example, Russ. p a l ' t o , p a l ' t a , p a l ' t u , .... ( k a f e > ) k a f e j , k a f e j a , k a f e j u , e t c . Furthermore, the gender of the loanword i n Russian may change i n time i f the word i s "well-worn". For example, Russ. boa < F r . l e boa was at one time neuter but no?/ i t i s used as. a masculine noun; the change e f f e c t e d other words also r e l a t i n g to generic and s p e c i f i c names.of p l a n t s and animals. Number In the s u b s t a n t i v a l category of loanwords j u s t as the r e g u l a r n a t i v e nouns s i g n a l e i t h e r the s i n g u l a r or the p l u r a l . They may be categorized, depending whether they are: 109 1) used i n both s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l 2) used only i n the s i n g u l a r 3 ) used only i n the p l u r a l Category I (used i n both s i n g u l a r and -plural) Most of the borrowings f a l l i n t o t h i s category. Some of them, however, have a \#] ending i n the p l u r a l . A good example of t h i s i s p a l * to < P r . p a l e t o t , Sp. p a l l e t o q u e , u l t i m a t e l y < L a t . p a l l a : novoe p a l ' t o (sing.) and novie  p a l ' t o ( p i . ) I t has been mentioned that i n everyday speech t h i s loanword alongside w i t h others may be d e c l i n e d , thus we f i n d p a l 1 t a ~ p a l * t i as i t s p l u r a l nominative form. Category I I (used only i n the s i n g u l a r ) The f o l l o w i n g are only used i n the s i n g u l a r form: 1 ) Numerous t e c h n i c a l terms which are used i n the c o l l e c t i v e sense: atmosfera, e t c . . 2) Names of m a t e r i a l s , products: anis < Ger. A n i s , P r . a n i s ; gips < Ger. Gips; k a r t o f e l ' < Ger. K a r t o f f e l ; cement < Ger. Zement; cink < Ger. Zink, and so on. 3 ) A b s t r a c t nouns: r i s k < P r . r i s q u e , I t . r i s i c o . Category I I I (used only i n the p l u r a l ) Here are i n c l u d e d loanwords that u s u a l l y appear i n p a i r s , f o r instance Russ. pantalony < *'r. pantalons butsy < Eng.boots 1 1 0 This category offers three d i f f e r e n t methods of assimilation and w i l l he discussed separately under group a, b and c. G-roup a Under this heading a r e . l i s t e d those words which show replacement of foreign p l u r a l morpheme hy the Russian p l u r a l morpheme. This indicates, of course, that these loanwords are analyzed hy the borrower. Examples: Russ. b r i d z i bl6ndy brfzy debaty landy passy .< Eng, < Pr. < Pr. < Pr, < Pr. < Pr. breeches blondes brises debats landes passes Group b This group of loanwords i s ac t u a l l y used i n the singular sense i n Russian but were adapted from the donor language i n their p l u r a l form. The underlying reason f o r this i s that the Russian speaker was not aware of the f a c t that he i s borrowing the p l u r a l form of the noun. English loanwords ending i n -s which may be the p l u r a l [-s] appears to the Russian speaker as a consonantal stem ending of masculine nouns i n the nominative singular. Therefore, the word i s adapted without the truncation of the -s and assumes a singular meaning I l l i n Russian. Examples: Russ. b&tens Dims bi f s t e k s kornfleks < Eng. battens < beams < beefsteaks < cornflakes G-roup c This group of loanwords have the s t r u c t u r a l shape of p l u r a l nouns i n Russian but are actually used i n the singular sense. I f the loanword ends i n / - i / i n Russian, most frequently i t i s c l a s s i f i e d as a non-declinable noun. Examples: Russ. v i s k i < Eng. whi skey kokni < cocney dendi < dandy ldbbi < lobby derbi < derby poni < pony dzentri < gentry p e n a l t i (or) < penalty p e n a l ' t i dgersi (or) < jersey dzerse regbi < rugby The f o l l o w i n g examples are from French: Russ. b u z i < F r . bougie. z a l j u z l < j a o l o u s i e Mjurf < j u r y p a r i < p a r i r a moli < r a m o l l i s a s i < chassis 113 FOOTNOTES — CHAPTER V Durnovo, N. "La categorie du genre en russe moderne"., Revue des Etudes S l a v e s , 192/+, Tom IV, f a c s . 3-4. (pp. 205-221) p. 208. For example, Introdu c t o r y Russian Grammar, e d i t e d "by Stilman and others. New York, B l a i s d e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964. Note the d e f i n i t i o n given: "Russian has three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. G e n e r a l l y , the gender of a Russian noun depends on i t s form and has no meaning. T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y so with names of inanimate o b j e c t s , or w i t h a b s t r a c t nouns, some of which are masculine, others feminine, and s t i l l o t hers neuter:.... In the case of names of male and female beings, the meaning i s f o r the most p a r t r e f l e c t e d i n the form: most nouns denoting male and female beings have endings i n d i c a t i v e of the corresponding grammatical gender." p. 44. Jakobson, R. "The gender p a t t e r n of Russian", S t u d i i s i c e r c e t a r i l i n g u i s t i c e annual. Academia R e p u b l i c i i Pop. Romine. I n s t , de L i n g v i s t i c a . I960, p. 541. Mucin'ik, I,P. " K a t e g o r i j a roda i ee r a z b i t i e v sovremennom ruskom l i t e r a t u r n o m J a z i k e " , R a z v i t i e Sovremennovo  Russkovo J a z i k a . Moscow, Ak. Nauk, 1963. p. 44. Jakobson, op. c i t . p. 541. MuSnik, op. c i t . , p. 51. CHAPTER VI MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSES OP LOANWORDS Russian morphology d i s t i n g u i s h e s such word c l a s s e s as nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , pronouns, verbs and so o n 1 . I t does not, however, recognize such a p a r t of speech as the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e . Nevertheless, the presence of f o r e i g n d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e s i n Russian i s v e r i f i a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g borrowings were 'imported' i n t o Russian along w i t h t h e i r appropriate d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e s and are regarded as one morpheme. The only e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon'is that they were unanalyzed borrowings i n the r e c e i v i n g language and came i n by the "ear-route" . Russ. laco < I t . l ' a t t o a l ' p a r i < I t . a l p a r i , a l i a p a r i al'seko < I t . a l seco trjum < D. het ruim — i n r a p i d speech t h i s i s reduced to ' t ruim Loanwords of t h i s type are so rare i n Russian that we can i n f e r that the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e w i l l never be borrowed wi t h the noun. As a matter of f a c t , the exact p r o p o r t i o n of 2 t h i s type of loanword i s f o u r out of 20,000 examples . S i m i l a r l y , p r e p o s i t i o n s are borrowed i n a " p r e p o s i t i o n a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p but never independently; t h i s i s what was e a r l i e r 115 r e f e r r e d to as a semi-syntactic arrangement. V * a zur < F r . a jour a-kdnto < I t . a konto anfas < F r . en face tet-a-tet < F r . tete-a-t8te tet-de-pon < F r . tete-de-pont mizancena < F r . mise en scene En, de, a and a are a l l prepositions i n the above examples. On the whole, F r . jie and a have the highest degree of occurrence i n loanwords entering Russian. Insofar as they are set, c o l l o q u i a l expressions i n the donor language, the borrower makes no attempt to replace any part of them by a corresponding native one. Nouns Examples shown i n the former chapters indicate that morphologically speaking there has been a noun-to-noun transference of borrowings, or putting i t d i f f e r e n t l y , a word which was formerly i n the nominal class was adapted by the nominal class of Russian. Only i s o l a t e d examples of adjectives used as substantives i n Russian are found* for example, Russ. direkt < Eng. d i r e c t ( a d j . ) . The amount of material available indicates that the larg e s t number of loanwords belong to the nominal category, examples i n the other classes being very few i n comparison to the ones used as nouns. (N.B. i n other classes loanwords 116 = loanblends) T h i s , i n t u r n , i s j u s t i f i e d "by the s t r i c t morphological' r u l e s that govern the language. A d j e c t i v e s Borrowed a d j e c t i v e s without the proper a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x are very uncommon i n Russian. The only two encountered are -Russ. bez < P r . beige pink < Eng.pink A d j e c t i v e s o c c u r r i n g i n compound words or i n s y n t a c t -i c a l arrangements forgo the a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x . These are, as i t was poi n t e d out (see chapter 3) > not recognized as an independent p a r t of speech i n the compound word mainly because they never occur separately i n Russian. The f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t component -of compound l o a n -words : b e i ' - <It. b e i as i n bei'kanto < b e i canto b e i ' - <Pr. b e i o e l etaz < b e i etage bo- <Pr. beau bomond < beau monde bon- <Pr. bon bonvivan < bon v i v a n t b l e k <Eng. b l a c k b l e k - v a r n i z < b l a c k v a r n i s h b l j u - <Eng. blue b l j u dzins < blue jeans s o r t - <Eng. short sortgorn < shorthorn f a l ' s <Eng. f a l s e f a r 1 s t a r t < f a l s e s t a r t xab- <Eng. h a l f xavtajm < h a l f - t i m e 117 I n contrast w i t h the s u b s t a n t i v e s , loanword a d j e c t i v e s are a t t e s t e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h Russian s u f f i x e s , i . e . they are a c t u a l l y c l a s s e d as loanblends. The formation of the loanword a d j e c t i v e c o n s i s t s of f o r e i g n root + n a t i v e d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x + d e s i n e n t i a l s u f f i x ( f - i j ] ). Examples: Russ. a g r e s s i v n y j maniakalnyj masinal'nyj n a z a l ' n y j p i k a n t n y j remontantnyj u n i t a r n y j f r o n t a l ' n y j < P r . a g r e s s i f , - i v e < maniacal < machinal < n a s a l < piquant <: remontant < u n i t a i r e < f r o n t a l By analogy w i t h t h i s f o r m a t i o n , new a d j e c t i v e s are added c o n s t a n t l y to the Russian language d e r i v e d from loanword nouns (these are c a l l e d loanblends as w e l l ) . There-f o r e , there i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the s u p p o s i t i o n that f o r e i g n a d j e c t i v e s found i n Russian have a corresponding a d j e c t i v a l form i n the donor language. Por example: Russ. bage"tnyj (or) bagetovyj barz'evyj (or) barzev<5j < Russ. baget < P r . baguette < Russ. bar£ < P r . barge 118 bar'ernyj < bar' er < •Fr." ' barriere b a stionnyj < b a s t i o n < F r . b a s t i o n b i s k v i t n y j < b i s k v i t < F r . b i s c u i t bufernyj < buf er < Eng .buffer b u f e t n y j < bufet < F r . b u f f e t d i l i z a n s o v y j < d i l i z a n s < F r . d i l i g e n c e i n t e n d a n t s k i j < intendant < F r . intendant T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i s showing the most productive and common way of d e r i v i n g a d j e c t i v e s from substantives i n Rus-s i a n . The f o l l o w i n g s u f f i x e s were used i n the d e r i v a t i o n a l process of the above l i s t e d words: - y j , - i j , -nyj., -ov.VJ« - e v y j , and - s k i j . Once the a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x has been added, these so c a l l e d a d j e c t i v a l loanwords behave e x a c t l y i n the 3 same manner as r e g u l a r S l a v o n i c a d j e c t i v e s : they are d e c l i n -a b l e . Another f e a t u r e of these a d j e c t i v e s i s that they never occur i n the " s h o r t " form. Verbs To a r r i v e at the f u l l stem of the verb, E n g l i s h verbs were adapted without any change i n the o r i g i n a l stem. The E n g l i s h marker of the i n f i n i t i v e [ t o ] , never appears i n Russian. French verbs, however, undergo t r u n c a t i o n and l o s e the marker of the i n f i n i t i v e . Although there are f o u r i n f i n i t i v e endings i n French, namely - e r , - i r , -cor, and - r e , a l l borrowed v e r b a l forms are taken from the -er conjugation. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s that i t i s the only productive and 119 the largest group of verbs i n French. In contemporary Russian new verbs show a d e f i n i t e tendency to j o i n the open and most productive class. The procedure f o r joining t h i s class, therefore, i s the following: 1) the truncation of former verbal ending ( i f any) 2) the adding of the Russian i n f i n i t i v e ending Thus, stem + ova + t' stem + irova + t' (-t*} being the marker of the i n f i n i t i v e . (Compare thi s to the o r i g i n a l Slavic verbs where the i n f i n i t i v e marker has not one but the p o s s i b i l i t y of three allomorphs, - t 1 f i 5.) The newly assimilated verbs belong to the productive class, thus, "given the full-stem, i t i s as a rule possible to f o r e t e l l the exact form of the whole conjugational paradigm i n regard to the stem, the desinence, and also the place of stress"^". By the appellation 'productive' , we include the group of verbs that are p o l y s y l l a b i c with accented f u l l stems. The terminology used here i s derived from Roman Jakob son: "When i n the accentual alternation, the basic form of the stem i s never stressed or when the stress o s c i l l a t e s between two d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s of the stem i n the f i n i t e forms, we l a b e l such full-stems as unaccented as opposed to the accented full-stems."^ 120 The l a s t portion of t h i s chapter i s devoted to a b r i e f discussion of the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the whole conjugational paradigm of borrowed verbs. Conjugation Because loan verbs are. taken into the verbal class mentioned above, an adequate assessment of 'uniformity* within t h i s group can be provided. Thus, in.the conjugation of these verbs the following procedure i s involved: -- truncation of the stem and concomitant change takes place e.g. Russ. miting . < Eng. meeting (< to meet) - nominal form mitingovat' - verbal.form miting + ova j-1) - t ' , the marker of the i n f i n i t i v e i s dropped miting + ova 2) i s truncated 3 ) Nov/ a concomitant change must '.take place because the morphophoneme {o} precedes the group -va. Thus, mitingiij + desinence \ The place of stress i s determined by the s y l l a b i c i t y of the verb, and since -ova- i s \ never i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e i n loanword verbs, - u j - i s always going to carry the stress. 121 Present tense We already know that l oan verbs are of the -ova-/- i r o v a -type. Once the form stem+verbal s u f f i x i s produced, the choice of desinence becomes c l e a r f o r the Russian speaker. The presence of l i n g u i s t i c c o r r o b o r a t i o n ^ now al l o w s us to make the f o l l o w i n g statements: the accent i s irremovable, t h e r e f o r e , i n the i n f i n i t i v e and a l l f i n i t e forms of such verbs the s t r e s s f a l l s on the very same s y l l a b l e of the accented f u l l - s t e m . The present tense desinence of loanword verbs begins w i t h a high vowel — w i t h / - i / -'- f o r a l l f i n i t e forms except 3 P l u r a l ( i . e . t h i r d person p l u r a l ) , which takes /-u/. These occur i n non-terminal p o s i t i o n s . The f i r s t person s i n g u l a r takes /-u/ which occurs as a f r e e s u f f i x , t h a t i s , i t i s i n a terminal p o s i t i o n . Note that the morphophoneme of the f i n i t e form i s \-e} which i s replaced i n speech by /-!/. An example of the present tense conjugation of l o a n verbs i s as f o l l o w s : Russ. f i n i s i r o v a t ' < Eng. (to) f i n i s h (The order of the conjugation i s 1st person, 2nd person, ... s i n g u l a r , 1st person, e t c . . . p l u r a l ) f i n i g i r - u j - u f i n i s i r - u j - es f i n i S i r u j - et f i n i s i r u j - em 122 .finis-Sir u j - ete f i n i s i r u j - ut Phonemically, the desinences are: /-u/, /-i§/ / - i t / / - i n / / - i t e / / 7 u t / P r e t e r i t As i n a l l S l a v i c verbs, i n loan verbs the non-terminal s u f f i x -1 denotes the P r e t e r i t tense which i s f o l l o w e d by a s u f f i x i n d i c a t i n g the Gender or the P l u r a l member: 1) masculine # 2) feminine -a 3) neuter -o k) p l u r a l - i (before - i , 1>1 !) In c o n c l u s i o n , a few examples of the transference from verb to verb are g i v e n , from E n g l i s h Russian borrowed the f o l l o w i n g : Russ. i m p o r t i r o v a t ' < Eng. (to) import s e r v i r o v a t ' < serve t e r r o r i z i r o v a t ' < t e r r o r i z e from French: Buss, abonirovat' a v i z i r o v a t ' a z j u s t l r o v a t ' akkompanirovat' ara n z i r o v a t ' < F r . ahonner < a v i s e r < a j u s t e r < accompagner < arranger 12k FOOTNOTES • — CHAPTER V I A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f R u s s i a n m o r p h o l o g y f o r E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i s g i v e n h y M a g n e r , T . A p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s , R u s s i a n . B o s t o n , D . C . H e a t h a n d C o . , 1961. p p . 25-59. E x a m p l e s w e r e t a k e n f r o m S l o v a r * I n o s t r a n n y x S l o v , 1955 e d i t i o n . On t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a d j e c t i v e s i n R u s s i a n c o n s u l t : G r a m m a t i k a R u s s k o v o J a z y k a . M o s c o w , I z d . - N a u k . , I960, v o l . 1. p p . 279-365. J a k o b s o n , R . " R u s s i a n c o n j u g a t i o n " , W o r d . New Y o r k , T h e L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e o f New Y o r k . 1948-1+9. v o l . 4-5. p . 156. I b i d . p . 157. Roman J a k o b s o n , i n t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d a r t i c l e , d e s c r i b e s b r i e f l y b u t a d e q u a t e l y t h e c o n j u g a t i o n a l p a t t e r n i n p r e s e n t - d a y S t a n d a r d R u s s i a n . CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In summing up the major f i n d i n g s the question a r i s e s , can we determine whether a loanword shows a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviour p a t t e r n of i t s own i n Russian? What w i l l he the degree of a s s i m i l a t i o n ? E v a l u a t i o n s of the a n a l y t i c a l problems d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be made along these l i n e s . The group of loanv/ords discussed show the f o l l o w i n g notable f e a t u r e s : 1) There i s a trend towards borrowings from a l l spheres of l i f e , s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and so on, which are i n use not only i n the l i t e r a r y language but al s o i n the p r o s t o r e c i e and i n d i a l e c t a l forms of Russian. S t y l i s t i c v a r i a n t s of the same'loanwords sometimes appear i n the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the language ( l i t e r a r y , c o l l o q u i a l , e t c . ) . 2) Most of the'' loanwords are substantives; there are also a d j e c t i v e s and verbs. 3 ) The treatment of loans i n s p e l l i n g shows various degrees of adjustment both p h o n o l o g i c a l and morphological. L) In phonetic adjustment, the Russian speaker g e n e r a l l y replaces the f o r e i g n phonemes and allophones by the phonemes or 126 t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a l l o p h o n e s o f h i s s p e e c h . I n s o f a r a s t h e p h o n e t i c s y s t e m s a r e s i m i l a r , t h e c h a n g e i n v o l v e d w i l l h e m i n o r . " W e l l - w o r n " w o r d s t e n d t o h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y o r a r e c o m p l e t e l y a s s i m i l a t e d . S o u n d c h a n g e s a r e due t o : — c a s e s - v i d e s i n t h e s y s t e m — s p e l l i n g p r o n o u n c i a t i o n — m o r p h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t s I n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n s c a n b e e x p e c t e d ( t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s b a s e d o n e x a m p l e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3 ) : 127 a l l n a s a l i z e d v o w e l s a n d d i p h t h o n g s a r e b r o k e n - d o w n i n t o v o w e l + c o n s o n a n t o r v o w e l + s e m i v o w e l a n d v o w e l + v o w e l s e q u e n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n u n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n s t h e v a l u e o f v o w e l s i s r e a l i z e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n R u s s i a n ( a s w e l l a s i n E n g l i s h , : e t c . ) I f R u s s i a n l a c k s t h e c o n s o n a n t p r e s e n t i n a f o r e i g n w o r d b e i n g b o r r o w e d i t w i l l b e r e p l a c e d b y t h e n e x t c l o s e s t c o n s o n a n t . T h e e x a c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s a r e : E n g . / w / — R u s s . / v / / e / — _ T ^ / v o r / d / /y : M + / g / P r . /p/ / n / o r / n ' / T h e E n g l i s h / h / > R u s s . / g / o r / x / ; t h e l e t t e r h w h i c h a p p e a r s o n l y i n w r i t i n g i n F r e n c h may a p p e a r i n l o a n w o r d s i n R u s s i a n a s / g / . S o m e t i m e s t h e f o r e i g n c o n s o n a n t may b e i m i t a t e d a s f o r e x a m p l e E n g . / J / > R u s s . / d / + / z / . 5) A s f a r a s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f l o a n w o r d s o n t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l e v e l i s c o n c e r n e d , i t s e e m s t h a t b o t h s e c o n d a r y a n d p r i m a r y w o r d s a r e a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o R u s s i a n . A f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o m p o u n d s a s a w h o l e i s t h a t t h e y a r e u n a n a l y z e d i n t h e r e c e i v i n g l a n g u a g e . S e c o n d a r y w o r d s h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d two d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s : 128 i ) They undergo no morphological adjustment, or i i ) They introduce new models i n d e r i v a t i o n ; i . e . i f f r e q u e n t l y encountered a s u f f i x becomes analyzed by the host language, and used i n the formation of h y b r i d words, which c o n s i s t of a f o r e i g n stem + s u f f i x , and a l s o used i n the formation of Russian stem + s u f f i x combination. The gender of the loanword substantive i s determined by the phonemic shape of the ending, although sometimes i t appears t h a t the gender of the word i n the donor language i s also given some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s by the borrower. O s c i l l a t i o n of gender r e s u l t s i n an i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of gender t r a n s f e r from the donor language i n t o Russian. The numerical r e l a t i o n s h i p of genders i n d i c a t e d that masculine loanwords are the greatest i n number, then feminine, and f i n a l l y , the l e a s t i n number are the neuters. The tendency as i n d i c a t e d i n the o v e r a l l s i z e of these groups, th e r e f o r e , i s i n the d i r e c t i o n of the masculine, which i s expl a i n a b l e by homophony. These conclusions were derived on the b a s i s of a s e l e c t e d loanword l i s t from E n g l i s h , French and German from the 1955 e d i t i o n of Slovar' Inostrannyx S l o v . On the v/hole, loanwords are d e c l i n e d i n Russian w i t h only a few exceptions and even these tend to be d e c l i n e d i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e and i n d e a l e c t s . Loanwords which do not f i t i n t o one of the grammatical paradigms of gender are, of course, no n - d e c l i n a b l e s . A d j e c t i v e s and verbs which f u n c t i o n as a d j e c t i v e s and 129 verbs i n Russian must be a t t e s t e d with the appropriate s u f f i x e s . In contemporary Russian both loan a d j e c t i v e s and verbs are absorbed by the so c a l l e d "productive c l a s s e s " , i n which on the bases of p a t t e r n s set up i n t h i s t h e s i s — s t r e s s , conjugation, d e c l e n s i o n , s u f f i x e s and so on — are p r e d i c t a b l e . l ) Formation of a d j e c t i v e s : f o r e i g n stem + d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x + i j , a j a , e t c . 2.) Formation of verbs: f o r e i g n stem + d e r i v a t i o n a l s u f f i x + t ' Study f o r the f u t u r e I t i s evident that a loanword may become an a d d i t i o n a l (new) element or i t may c o n f l i c t w i t h the element already present i n the r e c i p i e n t language. In both s i t u a t i o n s , the new word may survive i n Russian, although a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n at the l e x i c a l l e v e l of the language s t r u c t u r e w i l l take p l a c e , by which process the meaning-narrows or even becomes d i s t o r t e d . A s p e c i f i c example of the narrowing of meaning i s fen < Eng. f a n , used only i n the sense of 'an e l e c t r i c v e n t i l a t o r ' . A s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of meaning i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by r e f j u g < F r . refuge, which i n Russian means 'a t r a f f i c i s l a n d where passengers are w a i t i n g to get on a bus, s t r e e t c a r , e t c . ' , as opposed to the meaning i n French, which i s 'refuge; s h e l t e r ( f o r the poor); ( b i r d ) sanctuary ...' In order to d i s t i n g u i s h meaning between a n a t i v e term and a loanword, or the meaning of the loanword i n the donor and r e c i p i e n t languages, a b s t r a c t types of i n t e r n a l as w e l l as e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n s must be attempted. Such an attempt leads to a d e f i n i t e overlapping at the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s . An a n a l y s i s of these presents as an i n t e r e s t i n g problem f o r f u t u r e study. " . BIBLIOGRAPHY A. 1.. BOOKS I F ENGLISH AND FRENCH B a l l , A l i c e M. The Compounding and Hyphenation of English-Words. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, Co., 1951. B l o c h , Bernard and Trager, George, L. Ou t l i n e of L i n g u i s t i c  A n a l y s i s . B a l t i m o r e : Waverly P r e s s , Inc., 1942. B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Language. New York: Henry H o l t and Company, 1933* Dubois, Jean. Etudes sur l a d e r i v a t i o n s u f f i x a l e en F r a n c a i s  moderneet 'colitempol^ai'n.' '(TTFctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n ! P a r i s : L i b r a i r e Larousse", 196* 2. F o r s y t h , James. A P r a c t i c a l Guide to Russian S t r e s s . London: O l i v e r and Boyd, 19"53« Gleason, H.A., J r . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s . New York" Holt,"Rinehart"and Winston, 1955. Gregg, Robert J . A Student's Manual of French P r o n o u n c i a t i o n . Toronto: MacmilTan^ I960. H a l l , Robert, A., J r . L i n g u i s t i c s and Your Language. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 196"b. H a l l e , M o r r i s (ed.). For Roman Jakobson. Hague: Mouton and. Co., 1956. Hockett, C F . A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: MacMillan, 1958" Joos, M a r t i n ( e d . ) . Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s . Washington; American C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1957. Lado, Robert. L i n g u i s t i c s across C u l t u r e . Ann Arbor: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1957. Magner, Thomas. A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , Russian. Boston: D.C. Heath and Co., 196.1. Marchand, Hans. The Categories and Types of Present-Day E n g l i s h Word Formation. Wiesbaden; Otto Harrossowi t z , . I960. M a r t i n e t , Andre. A F u n c t i o n a l View of Language. Oxford: Clarendon. P r e s s , 1962. 132 Matthews, W.K. Russian H i s t o r i c a l Grammar. London: The Athlone P r e s s , I960. Mazon, Andre. Lexique de l a g u e r r e e t de l a r e v o l u t i o n en  Russie 1(1914-18) . P a r i s : L i b r a i r e Ancienne Honore Champion, 1920. Nida, Eugene A, Morphology. Ann Arbor: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1949• S a p i r , E. S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s . Berkeley: American Mercury, 1924. Saussure, Ferdinand de. Course i n General L i n g u i s t i c s . London: Pe t e r Owen L t d . , i960. Trubetzkoy, N.S. P r i n c i p e de Phonologie. t r a n s , hy J . Cantineau. P a r i s : L i b r a i r e c. K l i n c k s i e c k , 1957. Weinreich, U r i e l . Languages i n Contact, F i n d i n g s and Problems. New York: L i n g u i s t i c C i r c l e of New York, 1953. A. 2. ' BOOKS IN RUSSIAN B e l ' c i k o v , J u . A. I n t e r n a c i o n a l ' n a j a T e r m i n o l o g i j a v  Russkom Jazyke. Moscow: USpedgiz., 1959. Fesenko, Andrej and T a t ' j ana. Russkyj Jazyk: p r i Sovetax. New York: Rausen Bros., 1955* I z d . Akad. Nauk. Grammatika Russkovo Jazyka. Moscow: I z d . Akad. Nauk., i960. K a r c e v s k i j , S.I. Jazyk, Vojna i R e v o l j u c i j a . B e r l i n : Russkoe Universal'noe I z d a t e l ' s t v o , 1923• S e l i s c e v , A.M. Jazyk Revoljucionnoj E p o x i . Moscow: Rabotnik P r o s v e s c e n i j a , 1928. V a s i l e v s k a j a , E.A. S l o v o s l o ^ e n i e v Russkom Jazyke. Moscow: Ucpedgiz., 1962. B. 1. PERIODICALS IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH Benson, Morton. " E n g l i s h Loanwords i n Russian Sport Terminology," American Speech, 32-33: 252-259, 1958. 133 Benson, Morton. " E n g l i s h Loanwords i n Russian," The S l a v i c and East European J o u r n a l ,3 (no. 2): pp. 21+8-267, 1959. B u r s i l l - H a l l , G.L. "Levels A n a l y s i s , " Canadian J o u r n a l ^ of L i n g u i s t i c s , ( P a r t 1 ) 6 : 124-136, Autumn, T96cT;~~~ ( P a r t I I ) 6: 164-191, S p r i n g , 1961. . "The L i n g u i s t i c Theories. of-J.R. F i r t h , " Thought (Canadian C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s ) , 1961. Durnovo, N i c o l a s . "La Categorie du Genre en Russe Moderne," Revue des Etudes Slav e s , Tom IV: 208-221, 1924. Haugen, E i n e r . "The A n a l y s i s of L i n g u i s t i c Borrowing," Language, 26: 210-231, 1950. Jakobson, Roman. "The Gender P a t t e r n of Russian," S t u d i i s i  C e r c e t a r i a L i n g v i s t i c e Annual, 541-543> I960. . "Russian Conjugation," Word, 4-5: 155-65, 1948-49. and H a l l e , M o r r i s . "Fundamentals of Language," Janua Linguarum, 1-4, 1956-57. Worth, Gerta H u t t l . "Foreign Borrowings i n Russian," The S l a v i c and East European J o u r n a l , 17: 47-55, Spring, 1959. . "Foreign Words i n Russian," C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 28: 1-132, 1963. B. 2. PERIODICALS IN RUSSIAN Andreev, N.D.. and Z a m b r f i c k i j , V.L. "Imennoe Slovoobrazovanie v Sportiv n o j T e r m i n o l o g i i , " R a z v i t i e Sovremennovo Russkovo  Jazyk a , 119-135, 1963. G r i g o r ' e v , V.P. "Tak Hazyvaemye Internacionalnye Slozhye Slova v Sovremennom Russkom Jazyke," Vop ro sy J a zyko znahie, 8 (no. 1): 65-78, 1959. Mucnik, I.P. " K a t e g o r i j a Roda i ee R a z v i t i e v Sovremennom Russkom Literaturmon Jazyke," R a z v i t i e Sovremennovo Russkovo Jazyke, 39-82, 1963. 134 Zemskaja, E.A. "Ob Odnoj Osobennosti S o e d i n e n i j a Slovoobrazovatei'nyx Morfem v Russkom Jazyke," Vorposy  Jazykoznani.ia, 13 (no. 2): 84-88, 1964. C. DICTIONARIES Akad. Nauk. Slovar' 1 Sovremennovo Russkovo .Litarturnovb' Jazyka, Moscow: Ak. Nauk., 1-17, 1951-1965. B i e l f e l d t , B.B. R i i c k l a u f i g e s Worterbuch Der Russischen Sprache  Der Gegenwart. B e r l i n : Akademia-Verlag, 1965. L e x i n , I.V. and Petrov, P.V. Slovar' Inostrannyx S l o v . Moscow: OGIZ, 1947, 1955 and 1964. - ••'•• M u l l e r , V.K. English-Russian D i c t i o n a r y . New York: Dutton and Co., 1965. S l o v a r ' Russkovo Jaz y k a . Moscow: GUNS, 1-4, 1957-61. Vasmer, Max. Russiches Etymologisches Worterbuch. Heidelberg: C a r l Winter, 1953. 

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