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Parade's end as a comic novel Kennedy, Alan Edward 1966

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PARADE'S END AS A COMIC NOVEL  by  ALAN EDWARD KENNEDY B.A., University of British Columbia, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1966  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia,, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference study,  and  I further agree that permission., for extensive copying of this  thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives„  It is understood that copying  or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  3.2.  ii  Abstract  T h i s t h e s i s attempts  t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t Ford Madox  F o r d ' s t e t r a l o g y Parade's End i s i n s t r u c t u r e and essence a comic n o v e l .  The f i r s t  chapter d e a l s b r i e f l y w i t h t h e  f o u r t h n o v e l , The L a s t P o s t .  The s u g g e s t i o n i s made t hat  i t p r o v i d e s a comic c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e t e t r a l o g y . I t s v i s i o n i s p o s i t i v e and promises Chapter End  a b e t t e r w o r l d f o r mankind.  Two f o l l o w s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Parade's  i s comic w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e nature  and form o f comedy.  The t h e o r y i s t a k e n l a r g e l y  Northrop F r y e ' s work Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m .  from  The c e n t r a l  p o i n t made i s t h a t i n comic a c t i o n t h e r e i s a motion one type o f s o c i e t y t o a n o t h e r .  from  I n t h e new s o c i e t y , which  i s more humane than the o l d , t h e romantic hero and h e r o i n e are f i n a l l y able to achieve happiness. of  artificial  There i s a f r e e i n g  bonds imposed by t h e o l d s o c i e t y , which i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t h e t e t r a l o g y by t h e term  "parade".  the o l d s o c i e t y has f i n a l l y been d e f e a t e d , a comic breaks  out i n A Man Could  Stand Up.  When  saturnalia  That Parade's End  so c l o s e l y f o l l o w s a comic p a t t e r n suggests t h a t Ford was  using the pattern very consciously. Chapter  Three d e a l s w i t h Ford's t e c h n i q u e o f i m p r e s s i o n -  ism and d i s c u s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h i s technique t o the mode of  i r o n y as d e f i n e d by F r y e .  Ford's i r o n i c v i s i o n i s  iii  discussed with reference to his dual view of Tietjens* character as both heroic and "villainous".  "Parade" is  also to be considered ironically in Ford's work.  The old  code has produced a system which is apparently very beautiful and very virtuous but a l l systems are found to be inhibiting and deleterious. Using the concept of the dual vision, the rest of the thesis discusses some of the characters in the comic action.  They are seen to be suffering from a bondageto  a social code which represses man's instinctual nature. The code of repression leads to comic scenes such as the one in which Duchemin disrupts the elaborate breakfast party with his obscenities.  Tietjens is the main  concern and he is considered as an inhibitor of festivity who gradually, through the experience of war, is born into the comic hero, breaks with society and sets out to establish a new society in the pastoral world of the fourth nov e l . The war i t s e l f is seen as an extension of the nature and activities of society.  A society which has imprisoned  intimacy, communication, sexuality, love, explodes into war because i t has an inadequate vision of the necessities of human existence.  The novel, Parade's End i s , in part, t  an argument against rigid social institutions.  The comic  action moves away from r i g i d i t y towards a sense of flux. The old order decays, f a l l s , but this f a l l is not tragic  iv  nor epic; i t is found to be salubrious and comic.  Tietjens  sloughs off his old skin, his old principles, and frees his instinctual nature to become more human.  What was  feared is not to be feared; the passing of generations is one of the things that is_. is Tietjens' character. does not.  The other thing that i s  His system goes but he himself  In contrast, his brother Mark, totally identified  with the system, dies.  The romantic hero and heroine,  however, are saved, as they always are in a world of comic f i c t i o n .  V  Contents  1.  Introduction  p.l  2.  The Nature of the Comic  p.13  3.  Irony and Impression: Technique i n the Twentieth Century  p.30  4.  Characters i n the Comedy: The Double-take of the Ironic Vision  p.40  5.  Conclusion  p . 92  6.  Footnotes  p . 96  7.  Bibliography  p . 98  Since most of the quotations used in this thesis come from either Ford's Parade's End or Northrop Frye's Anatomy of Criticism, page references will be given in the text as: (Ford, ).; (Frye, ). I have used the Knopf, 1950 edition of Parade's End which contains a l l four novels. I have used the 1966 paperback edition of Anatomy of Criticism published by Atheneum, New York. The pagination is identical to that of the original edition published by Princeton University Press.  Acknowledgment  I would like to thank Dr. E.B. Gose for his accurate criticisms and many helpful suggestions without which this thesis could not have been finished.  Chapter One: Introduction  Before we can consider the comedy in Parade's End, we need to set the stage with an exposition of its social themes.  In the face of a crumbling society Christopher  Tietjens, the "last Tory", maintains his integrity and suffers because of i t .  He is the idealist punished by the  corrupt society, as he becomes aware: It i s , in fact, asking for trouble is you are more altruist than the society that surrounds you. (Ford, 207). One of the problems besetting Tietjens is that of his wife, Sylvia, who, at the beginning of the novel, is just returning from an affair with a man called Perowne.  Tietjens,  being a gentleman, cannot curse her nor can he be rid Sot her, for "No one but a blackguard would ever submit a woman to the ordeal of divorce." (Ford, 6).  By the end of A Man  Could Stand Up, Tietjens has solved his problem by dine sting himself of the a r t i f i c i a l code of gentlemanly behavior and so discovering human happiness. Some Do N o t . . . outlines the plight of Tietjens, beset with a wandering wife whom he cannot divorce.  He falls  in love with Valentine Wannop and gets up the courage to propose that she become his mistress.  The proposal is  accepted, but at the last minute they both decide that  2  the way of renunciation is the better one.  They are  the sort that "do not" engage in i l l i c i t a f f a i r s . No More Parades shifts the scene to a supply depot near the front in France where Tietjens is a Captain in charge of outfitting drafts of troops.  He shows his  amazing capacity for efficiency by being the only officer consistently to get his drafts off on time.  The war is  wearing Tietjens out, however, and we discover that his "chest's rotten" and he is confined to work on the base, being unfit for active duty at the front. The torments that he had been suffering as a c i v i l i a n are not abated because of the war.  There is a conflict  between the civilians and the soldiers, who are doubly under attack.  Soldiers trying to carry on the war discover  that private law suits are being pressed against them. Sylvia engages in an activity referred to as "pulling the strings of shower baths."  She makes Tietjens* l i f e harder  by stirring up personal scandals which result in his being sent to the front.  The epigraph to the novel gives the  theme: For two things my heart is grieved: A man of war that suffereth from poverty and men of intelligence that are counted as refuse. It is in No More Parades that Tietjens moves further away from his code of reticence about personal involvement. He sees more clearly the value of the individual relationship  3  and this vision prepares him for his break from society when at the end of A Man Could Stand Up he takes Valentine as his mistress.  The importance of the suffering of an  individual is brought home to Tietjens by the death in his arms of a common soldier, 0 Nine Morgan. By centering on the death of a single individual and its effect on Tietjens, Ford is able to make a much more convincing impression of the Horror of war than he could have by rehearsing vast slaughters. In A Man Could Stand Up, Tietjens sloughs off his passivity and tendency to self-sacrifice and begins to fight for his l i f e .  He f u l f i l l s his own prediction of the  f i r s t novel: And I must to the greenwood go, Alone: a banished man! (Ford,  129).  The banishment is self-imposed for, as Tietjens says: They desired to l i v e hard even i f i t deprived them of the leisure in which to think high! She agreed with him that i f a ruling class loses the capacity to rule—or the desire!— i t should abdicate from its privileges and get underground. (Ford, 81B). Tietjens goes underground for reconstruction in his greenwood of The Last Post.  He remains in the background for the  fourth novel and our interest is centered on his brother Mark and Marie Leonie and several other minor characters. The scene i s Tietjens' pastoral cottage where he has begun an antique business.  The pastoral setting is a haven where  Christopher can f u l f i l l his desires, with a few exceptions.  4  He is haunted by Mrs. de Bray Pape who can trace her ancestry to Louis XIV and s t i l l be the best of American democrats.  He is also haunted by Sylvia who has further  developed a sexual madness for him. Tietjens is able to l i v e with his mistress, and even to earn the measured approval of his son Mark, but his freedom is sorely taxed by the people he is trying to avoid.  Once again the  epigraph points to the theme: Oh Rokehope is a pleasant place If the fause thieves would l e t i t be The Last Post is an ironic comment on the success of the hero in the modern world, beset by "fause thieves". Even though Tietjens appears to be stifled in The Last Post, the novel ends with a sign of how great his achievement has been. Mark.  The sign comes from his brother  Mark, when he discovered that the victorious nations  were not going to push their advantage and occupy Germany, felt that a l l he had been working for had been betrayed. He withdrew from involvement and vowed never to speak word again.  Mark is the representative of the old tradition  which has died out.  His refusal on principle to change  with the times entails his spiritual death.  Mark has.  identified himself with a specific social system and endeavor, one wherein he was "indispensable", and when that system dies, he does.too.  Christopher has escaped  from the rigidity of the system and lives as a free agent.  5  Only at the end of the novel does Mark recognize the victory that Christopher has made and pay tribute to i t . Mark's refusal to communicate intimately with his mistress-wife, Marie Leonie, is countered by Christopher's new intimacy with Valentine: But they wanted to TALK. You can't talk unless you l i v e together. (Ford, 651). Their talking together i s to be "the intimate conversation that means the final communion of your souls." (Ford, 6 29). Once divested of the false mask of "society", Christopher discovers love: That in effect was love. It struck him as astonishing. The word was so l i t t l e in his vocabulary:... (Ford, 629). Mark, on the other hand, has withdrawn into an "absolute taciturnity".  (Ford, 687).  His "communion" with Marie  Leonie has never been at a l l intimate and has come nowhere near the soul: "for the intensive study of matters connected with race-horses had always been their single topic of communion!." (Ford, 690).  When the last post is played  outside his window, i t seems as i f i t is being played for him.  He i s , in fact, "A tired horse'." (Ford,  756).  Another last post is Groby Great Tree, the symbol of the Tietjenses which Sylvia succeeds in having cut down. She wishes to destroy the tree in order to destroy Christopher.  One should not, however, associate the tree's f a l l  with any f a l l of Christopher's.  It is Mark who is s t i l l  6  identified with the glorious tradition of the feudal-H ke landowners for whom the majestic straight tree i s so appropriate a symbol.  When Christopher comes back holding  a chunk of wood and announces that the tree is down, it is Mark who dies and not Christopner; he peddles off m his bicycle to go about his business.  If Mark is to be  associated with the tree that i s cut down, then perhaps Christopher is to be associated with the well that is l e f t : In the other ridings they said that Groby Tra e and Groby Well were equal in height and depth one to the other. When they were really imaginatively drunk Cleveland villagers would declare—would knock you down i f you denied— that Groby Great Tree was 365 foot high and Groby Well 365 feet deep. (Ford, 733). If the tree is an overt symbol of tradition, custom, honor, glory, then perhaps the well, which Ford so openly balances with the tree, is a symbol of a l l that is refreshing, l i f e giving, and that l i e s dark, hidden, deep below the surface. One of the victories that Christopher achieves is the releasing of his own pent up unconscious desires and he does this by throwing over surface respectability. But, what about Mark's sign? he says a few words to Valentine.  As he is about to die, He mentions the story  of the legendary Yorkshireman who: stood with his chin just out of the water on Ararat Top as Noah approached. And: "It's boon to tak oopl" said the Yorkshireman.... It's bound to clear up I (Ford, 833).  7  This is a message of infinite hope in the face of the greatest t r i a l s .  Mark also recalls an old song which  has a message of love, consideration, domesticity, a l l virtues which previously had meant nothing to him: Never thou let thy barnie weep for thy sharp tongue to thy goodman.... A good manl (Ford,  835).  Mark then cries for Valentine to hold his hand, an appeal for comfort and love that he could never before have uttered. The message is important to Valentine because i t assures her that under the mask of Yorkshire taciturnity l i e human desires.  She had begun to have doubts about her liaison  with Christopher.  Mark's recognition of the necessity of  intimate communication ends the novel on a very optimistic note. That Parade's End is so structured that i t ends optimistically suggests that Ford was presenting a comic vision in the novel.  Critics have been willing to allow  that Ford does produce some comic scenes, but few have suggested that the book is comic in overall structure or intent.  One of those who does see much comedy in Par ad e's  End is Carol Ohmann; in her book Ford Madox Ford: From Apprentice to Craftsman she says: To forget the tone of his voice, to f a i l to note the absurd human behavior in many of the scenes i t presents, and to overlook the fact that Ford's juxtapositions of episode are often funny as well as thematically significant, is to fprget, as  8  some c r i t i c s have done, one of the most engaging and characteristic features of the Tietjens series. From beginning to end Parade's End i s , in part, social comedy. ^ John A. Meixner, in his book Ford Madox Ford's Novels, says that Parade's End is " f u l l of comic surprise."  However:  Christopher is tragic, of course, but he is decidedly amusing, particularly when he is being very much the Yorkshireman as in Part One. . 2  The assumption that Tietjens is tragic "of course" is a poor one.  Tietjens, although his fate seems to follow the  pattern of Medieval tragedy in that he apparently falls from good fortune to bad, is closer to Christy Mahon of The Playboy of the Western World than he is to any tragic hero.  There is no denying that Synge's play is a comedy.  Christy like Tietjens ends his l i f e in exile: "you're setting me now to think i f i t ' s a poor thing to be lone some i t ' s worse, maybe, go mixing with the fools of the earth." 3 Mahon is a comic, not a tragic, hero in his isolation. The symbolism of the name Christy Mahon suggeststhat whereas he was like a s a c r i f i c i a l iamb, or a persecuted Christ, in his early l i f e , by means of rebellion he became more of a man (Mahon).  This transition is very similar to  the change that takes place in Tietjens.  Tietjens aspires  to be an Anglican saint and patterns himself after Christ. He also is a type of s a c r i f i c i a l victim until he begins to  9  fight for his personal freedom and happiness.  He becomes  capable of individual action and also becomes more of a man. Both comedies reject inadequate societies and have protagonists who, by becoming more human, become capable of establishing new societies. A more reasonable view of Parade's End than Meixner's i s that of Paul Wiley in his book Ford Madox Ford: Novelist of Three Worlds.  He presents an admirable exegesis of  Parade's End which he refers to as a "muted epic".  Ford's  vision of the shifting of ages, the breakup and substitution of cultures, he sees as epic.  The interweaving of common-  place personal affairs adds greater reality by "muting" the epic.  He concerns himself primarily with the "presence  of the tragic and epic qualities in the novel."  4  It is not  necessary, however, to assume that a novel dealing with the war is either epic or tragic.  One can think of Joseph  Heller's Catch-22 as an example of a novel which deals with intense personal suffering in war and is s t i l l very comic both in incident and in structure.  Yossarian's escape  from a l l that threatens him i s a comic solution to existence. It is possible, then, for a novel about war to be a comedy. view.  The theme does not necessitate an epic or tragic  The choice of mode depends upon the author's attitude  towards the subject.  The question thus arises, "What was  Ford's attitude to the war?"  We know that he returned  10  from i t physically beaten, having suffered much as Tietjens suffers during the war.  Was he embittered and hysterical?  Here is what he says in It Was the Nightingale: War to me was not very dreadful. I would, for personal comfort, far rather go through another similar war than face an eternity of writing endless books. But the desperation and horror that was caused to other people impressed me with such mass and such vividness that I was ready to put my principles behind m e . . . . Even discounting for overstatement, towards the subject.  one detects a calmness  Ford dropped his principles about  propagandistic novels so far as to say that he was going to write a book "that should have for its purpose the obviating of a l l future wars."  Notice also that he said,  "I was not going to go against my literary conscience to the extent of piling horrors on horrors or even of exaggerating horrors."  Ford's attitude was one which would easily allow  him to choose the comic mode.  He would choose that mode  which would most reveal the truth as he saw i t . In his famous Essay on Comedy, George Meredith indicates that the choice of the comic mode is not inappropriate for the purpose of revealing truth: But i f the comic idea prevailed with us, and we had an Aristophanes to barb and wing i t , we should be breathing the air of Athens. ° There would be a bright and positive, clear Hellenic perception of facts. The vapours of unreason and sentimentalism would be blown away before they were productive. ? Such an Apollonian view of comedy is not entirely foreign  11  to Ford who is indeed a very close observer and a very clear perceiver.  It is possible that Ford could t e l l the  truth about the horror of war and s t i l l maintain a comic form. What then of the age of anxiety?  Fortunately we have  passed through the terrible thirties and forties into the absurd f i f t i e s and sixties when comedy is recognized as a serious mode. mirror torment.  We now realize that comedy does contain and It can be terribly serious.  Kierkegaard,  the prophet of our new attitude, has this to say on the subject of despair: It is impossible to r e p r e s e n t truly this sort of despair without a certain admixture of satire. The comical thing is that he will talk about having been in despair; the dreadful -thing is that after having, as he thinks, overcome despair, he is then precisely in despair. It is infinitely comic that at the bottom of the practical wisdom which is so much extolled in the w D r l d . . . l i e s complete stupidity as to where the danger really is and what the danger really i s . ^ The perception of incongruity in man's existence strikes Kierkegaard as comic even beside the work "despair".  But  then we recall that Kierkegaard not only gave to modern thought an awareness of the absurd but provided a comic solution to existence by declaring that he had faith in God because of the very absurdity of doing so.  I have already indicated that the tetralogy has a broadly comic ending in The Last Post; the rest of this  12  thesis w i l l be concerned primarily with the nature of the f i r s t three novels for which I shall attempt to demonstrate a detailed and rigorous use of the comic form. Northrop Frye's Anatomy of Criticism provides a description of the structure and essence of comedy which can also be taken as a description of the structure and essence of Parade 's End. The discussion will proceed by a series of character analyses.  Tietjens' character develops from novel to  novel as he achieves his greater humanity.  The other  characters are representatives or victims (or both) of repressive Victorian society.  The fate of Sylvia seems  at times too painful to be considered as comedy.  Tietjens,  too, suffers greatly, but this suffering does not preclude the comic form.  The victory which Valentine and Tietjens  win points to a new world, one which w i l l obviate war and, as a corollary, make the intense personal suffering portrayed in Parade's End a phenomenon which need not recur.  13  Chapter Two: The Nature of the Comic  Let ua consider Frye's statement: In the f i r s t place, the movement of comedy is usually a movement from one kind of a society to another. (Frye, 163). As a f i r s t clue about the nature of comedy, this is an important one because of its application to the movement (  of Parade' End.  One of the most overt themes of the novel  is that of the transition from the Victorian-Edwardian world to the Modern Age.  In his discussion of his friend  Marwood, Ford makes it clear that Christopher Tietjens is the type of the "last Tory".  The novels present the dis-  solution of moral-social code and attitude to l i f e .  The  break-up of a condition of society is indicated in the title.  In No More Parades, Tietjens is describing the  ceremony for disbanding a battalion: . . ; W e l l , the end of the show was to be: the adjutant would stand the battalion at ease; the band would play Land of Hope and Glory, and then the adjutant would say: There will be no more parades.... Don't you see how symbolical i t was—the band playing Land of Hope and Glory, and then the adjutant saying There will be no more parades?... For there w o n ' t T h e r e won't, there damn well w o n ' t . . . . No more Hope, no more Glory, no more parades for you and me any more. Nor for the country...nor for the world, I dare s a y . . . None... Gone... Na poo, finnyI N o . . . more... parades'. (Ford, 306). ;  14  The story of personal intrigue and debased integrity that unfolds proves the truth of Tietjens' prediction of the demise of glory.  Fortunately, his pessimism on the subject  of hope is not f u l f i l l e d .  There is a hope at the end of  A Man Could Stand Up and at the end of The Last Post, a new kind of hope. But there w i l l be no more parades, or at least, the parades w i l l no longer be meaningful.  A "parade" is a  military muster for inspection, with bands, fine uniforms... and i t is often a public inspection.  The public show inspires  patriotism, a sense of duty, of cohesion and of Tightness. It relates to a time when war was s t i l l a gentleman's game and had not yet become depersonalized slaughter or phony war or war of attrition.  "Parade" is also to be taken  in a more general sense applying to a code of values recognized by everybody—parade as a form of social cohesion. In A Man Could Stand Up, Tietjens rejects this a r t i f i d al form of solidarity. "Parade" implies an overt code of behavior which one displays to indicate culture, cutivation.  The noble,  feudal atmosphere evoked by "parade" was one that had much appeal for Ford. "hope and glory".  Parade's End laments the passing of the The word "parade", however, also signifies  a procession towards something and its end, or culmination,  15  in this case, is World  WarII.  The parade of high manners,  social distinction (class differentiation), has become so extreme, so much a hollow sham of one-upmanship, that i t leads, because of the absence of integrity, to chaos.  So,  Parade's End plays the last post for parade, hope, glory, honor; but i t also indicts the parade of a mis-directed society as dangerous and inhuman. The old way has died, says Ford and he says i t with a tone of regret; but he is open-eyed enough to see that a society that finds itself inexorably drawn into a war, is one with some inner inconsistency: the time has arrived for a new beginning.  It is the break-up of the old order  and the possibility and the promise of the new beginning that makes Parade's End comic.  The end is not only the  f i n i s h , it is the beginning. Ford was able to record a sense of the acute suffering involved in a change of manners while s t i l l embracing the new chance for man's happiness which is the only end of society. The motion from one kind of society to another may also be the movement of tragedy.  The plot motion peculiar  to comedy is this: What normally happens is that a young man wants a young woman, that his desire is resisted by some opposition, usually paternal, and that near the end of the play some twist in the plot enables the hero to have his w i l l . (Frye, 163).  16  This pattern is obvious i n Tietjens' desire for Valentine fannop which he himself blocks because of his conception of divorce.  A twist in plot (perhaps Tietjens' chance to  command the battalion, perhaps Sylvia's separation from him) i s not so important as the change in Tietjens' character which allows the comic resolution.  It is important to be  aware that Tietjens himself is one of those that Frye calls the "obstructing characters"; that i s , even though he i s the comic-romantic protagonist, he has in him a blocking impulse which leads him to the conclusion, in the f i r s t novel, that he is one of those who does not.  By the end of  A Man Could Stand Up, Tietjens has purged himself of his restricting, repressive  traits.  At the beginning of the play the obstructing characters are in charge of the play's society, and the audience recognizes that they are usurpers. At the end of the play the device in the plot that brings hero and heroine together causes a new society to crystallize around the hero, and the moment when this crystallization occurs is the point of resolution in the action, the comic discovery, anagnorisis or cognitio. (Frye, 163). Frye finds that in many comedies an oedipal situation i s responsible for bringing about much of the "blocking": The obstacles to the hero's desire, then, form the action of the comedy, and the overcoming of them the comic resolution. The obstacles are usually parental, hence comedy often turns on a clash between a son's and a father's w i l l . (Frye, 164).  17  For a great part of Parade*3 End i t is believed that Tietjens senior committed suicide because his last son Christopher is a maquereau.  Christopher and his father are at odds but  the situation has a peculiar comic twist: Christopher will not forgive his father for k i l l i n g himself: "I won't forgive father for not making a w i l l . I won't forgive him for calling Ruggles. I saw him and you in the writing-room the night before he died. He never spoke to me. He could have. It was clumsy stupidity. That's unforgivable." "The fellow shot himself," Mark said. "You usually forgive a fellow who shoots himself." "I don't," Christopher said. "Besides he's probably in heaven and don't need my forgiveness." (Ford, 21b). Frye refines this point of parental opposition: The opponent to the hero's wishes, when not the father, is generally someone who partakes of the father's closer relation to established society: that i s , a rival with less youth and more money. (Frye,  164).  The description perfectly f i t s "Lord Edward Campion, Lieutenant General retired, K.C.M.G. (military) M.P.V.C., M.C., D . S . O . . . . " (Ford, 779).  Campion is Tietjens' god-  father and does carry many of the attributes of the father in relation tb Tietjens.  Although Sylvia's mother, Lady  Sattherwaite, blames Sylvia and dotes on Christopher, Campion regards Sylvia as an angel and Christopher as a blackguard. Campion is convinced that Tietjens has set up some cheap mistress in a tobacco shop; he is responsible for the decision to send Tietjens totthe front even though his chest is rotten  18  and he is classified as permanent base.  Campion gives the  specious reason—which Tietjens accepts since i t appeals to a "gentleman's" sense of propriety—that an officer cannot allow himself to become embroiled in personal scandal. Campion may also be a r i v a l for Sylvia—as the banker Port Scatho certainly is—and we see the two of them in The Last Post. hovering on the edge of elopement to India. C r i t i c s , commenting on the general weakness of The Last Post, have noted the fate of Campion who becomes a blustering boob where earlier he was a very competent, adequately sensitive and intelligent general of the British Army. When we consider that the war is over, however, and that Campion's "occupation's gone" we may see that Ford was justified in presenting him as merely a shell of conservatism and uncertainty.  Potential in Campion from the beginning  i s the gouty, blundering colonial officer of much British comedy.  Frye comments oniythe usual fate of characters of  Campion's type: The fury with which these characters are baited and exploded from the stage shows that they are father-surrogates and even i f they were not, they would s t i l l be usurpers, and their claim to possess the g i r l must be shown up as somehow fraudulent. They are, in short, impostors, and the extent to which they have real power implies some criticism of the society that allows them in power. (Frye, 165). It has already been noted that one must not be oversentimental  19  (as Ford was not) about the passing of the era of "parade". Campion, in The Last Post, is parade reductio ad absurdam, "pure" parade with no relation to human values.  He is the  victim of a system of behavior which produces a role but not a self. That Tietjens rejects parade for a more intimate human relationship, is a measure of his s e l f .  I quoted  Campion's degrees and orders above; now look at the passage in context.  Campion is responding to Sylvia's question:  "If I divorce Christopher, w i l l you marry me?": Merely to look at him you would know that he was something like Lord Edward Campion, Lieutenant General retired, K.C.M.G. (military) M.P.V.C., M . C , D . S . O . . . . So he exclaimed: "Good God, no!" (Ford, 779). It is because he is what he i s , defined and bound by his role, that he must reply as he does.  Such a man could not  answer otherwise, is the implication.  Although Tietjens  had earlier made a similar assertion to himself, by the end of the novels he is virtually of the bonds of parade. At one point, Tietjens says that the battle he is continually fighting is the battle of the sexes (Ford, 491). Certainly the sexual theme is central to Parade's End. For Meredith, the battle of the sexes i f the theme of comedy: The heroines of comedy are like women of the world, not necessarily heartless from being clear-sighted; they seem so to the sentimentally reared, and only for the reason that they use their wits, and are not wandering vessels crying for a captain or a p i l o t . Comedy is an  20  exhibition of their battle with men, and that of men with them; and as the two, however divergent, both look on one object, namely, l i f e , the gradual similarity of their impressions must bring them to some resemblance.1 Meredith would not hesitate a second before choosing Valentine over Sylvia.  Frye also emphasizes the importance  of the sexual theme: The presiding genius of comedy is Eros, ,and Eros has to adapt himself to the moral facts of society: Oedipus and incest themes indicate that erotic attachments have in their undisplaced or mythical origin a muchfgreater versatility. (Frye, 181). The incest theme is present in the possibility that i s believed in for quite some time, that Valentine might be the illegitimate daughter of Tietjens senior and therefore Christopher's sister. The matter is straightened out in The Last Post (as everything seems to be reconciled there): That then was over. The worst of i t rolled up together. No suicide. No incest. No by-blow at Groby. (Ford, 832). This clearing up of a l l problems, which has been called over-fortuitous and forced by Ford to make a "happy" ending is true to the comic pattern: the cognitio of comedy is much concerned with straightening out the details of the new society, with distinguishing brides from sisters and parents from foster-parents. (Frye, 180). Valentine is not Tietjens' sister and the young Mark is really  21  his own son and not Drake's bastard.  As Frye says:  Happy endings do not impress us as true, but as desirable, and they are brought about by manipulation. The watcher of deathaahd tragedy has nothing to do but sit and wait for the inevitable end; but something gets born at the end of comedy, and the watcher of birth is a member of a busy society. (Frye, 170). Valentine's pregnancy is perhaps an indication of the rebirth of society that is taking place at the conclusion of Parade's End•  Ford may have "manipulated" a happy  ending for Tietjens, but i t appears to be his right to manipulate within the confines of the genre. remember, though, the irony;  One must  Tietjens suffers immensely  and continues to suffer at the hands of Sylvia and Mrs. de Bray Pape.  The convincingness of the ending is a  highly subjective question.  Personally I like the presence  of The Last Post and find i t convincing.  Others do not.  Frye l i s t s four central types of comis characters. Three of them are the "alazons or impostors, the eirons or self-deprecators, and the buffoons." The fourth type i s the "agroikos or churlish, l i t e r a l l y r u s t i c . "  "The  contest of eiron and alazon forms the basis of the comic action, and the buffoon and the churl polarize the comic mood." (Frye,  172).  It has already been noted that ampion belongs to the s  alazon or impostor group.  Sylvia seems to be a female  alazon: Katharina the shrew represents to some extent  22  a female miles gloriosus and the precieuse ridicule a female pedant, but the "menace" or siren who gets in the way of the true heroine is often found as a sinister figure of melodrama orsromance than as a ridiculous figure in comedy. (Frye, 173). Sylvia is too human to be ridiculous but she is sinister, being associated with Astarte, Medea, and Hell in general. Tietjens himself is an eiron:  "Central to this group  is the h e r o . . . . " (Frye, 173).  Tietjens continually sac-  r i f i c e s his own interests for those of others.  His attitude  is indicated by the way he covers up Sylvia's vagaries and assumes blame.  Tietjens, in so far as he is obstructing  his own desires by adhering to the position that "some do not", is also an alazon.  He is a member of the old society  and ia in part an impostor until he breaks free of his restrictions. Buffoons, "whose function i t is to increase the mood of festivity rather than contribute to the plot" are of several types:  "professional fools, clowns, pages, singers,  and incidental characters with established comic habits l i k e malapropism or foreign accents." (Frye, 175).  Tietjens'  troop of Cockney soldiers are. buffoons in this sense;  they  add much to the comic tone—and they also contribute to the plot.  Tietjens' association with them, is part of the process  of his humanizing; he begins to see the amount of a b i l i t y to l i v e inherent i n the "common" people.  Old Gunning, who  23  appears in The Last Post, i s one of the buffoon types but he is also clearly the adept agroikos.  His knowledge of  the bases of l i f e is a counterpoint to the effete mannerisms of "high" society. The question arises as to what type of character impedes the desires of the hero.  That the members of established  society strive to keep down the disruptive powers of Eros is understandable.  Frye refers to the "social judgement  against the absurd" which is "closer to the comic norm than the moral judgement against the wicked." (Frye, 168). The absurd characters he describes by means of Ben Jonson's theory of "humors". A humor is one who is obsessed by a "ruling passion": The humor's dramatic function i s to express a state of what might be called ritual bondage. He is obsessed by his humor, and his function in the play is primarily to repeat his obsession. A sick man i s not a humor, but a hypochondriac i s , because qua hypochondriac, he can never do anything inconsistent with the role that he has prescribed for himself. (Frye, 16b). Sylvia, Campion, Macmaster, Mark Tietjens (who becomes so bound that he wills his own paralysis), and again the early Christopher a l l seem to qualify as humors: The humor in comedy i s usually someone with a good deal of social prestige and power, who is able to force much of the play's society into line with his obsession. Thus the humor i s intimately connected with the theme of the absurd or irrational law that the action of comedy moves toward breaking. (Frye, 169).  24  T i e t j e n s and h i s s o c i e t y a r e bound by the somewhat a r b i t r a r y s e t o f r u l e s o f t h e "gentleman". honor has had i t s r e l a t i v e m e r i t communication  The code o f  and perhaps  aided  and the smooth f u n c t i o n i n g o f s o c i e t y .  Mankind, however, i s more than a s p e c i e s o f gentleman; men  are also creatures  of d e s i r e .  I f a "code" works f o r  g r e a t e r s o c i a l c o h e s i o n , i t a l s o b l u r s the importance o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , who  i s superseded by the needs o f the group.  The breakdown of a system o f s o c i e t y can (unless immediately r e p l a c e d  by another system) plunge t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i n t o i s o l a t i o n by d e s t r o y i n g  the means of  communication.  The theme o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f communication Parade's End.  i t be  i s evident i h  S o c i e t y needs a n o n - r e s t r i c t i n g , n o n - s y s t e m a t i c ,  human method o f communication.  Christopher  a d  Valentine,  n  at the end o f The L a s t P o s t , a r e d i s c o v e r i n g the proper way,  t h e way  of p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the way  of l o v e .  The degree o f the o l d s o c i e t y ' s .bondage i s summed up by the c a t c h p h r a s e "some do n o t . "  Christopher's  holiday  from " p r i n c i p l e s " b e g i n s the motion to a f r e e r s o c i e t y . We n o t i c e how o f t e n the a c t i o n of a Shakespearian comedy b e g i n s w i t h some a b s u r d , c r u e l , or i r r a t i o n a l law: the law of k i l l i n g Syracusans i n the Comedy of E r r o r s , the law o f compulsory m a r r i a g e i n A Midsummer N i g h t ' s Dream... which the a c t i o n of the comedy then evades or fereaks. ( F r y e , 166). The law o f compulsory m a r r i a g e may statement:  "No  remind one o f T i e t j e n s '  one but a b l a c k g u a r d would  submit a woman  25  to the ordeal of d i v o r c e . " (Ford, 6).  This attitude  an offshoot of the p o s i t i o n that some do not.  is  The over-  throw of "parade" allows a new, more l i b e r a l society to emerge: The society emerging at the conclusion of comedy represents, by contrast, a kind of moral norm, or pragmatically free society. Its ideals are seldom defined or formulated: d e f i n i t i o n and formulation belong to the humors, who want predictable a c t i v i t y . (Frye, 169). The freeing of the society from " r i t u a l bondage"i s a freeing of the hero of the r e s t r a i n t s  of the humors.  The  humor exists by means of a s o c i a l mask without substance while the hero represents the potential of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t , of the l i f t i n g of the mask and the revealing of t r u t h .  The  change i s not without danger for the hero and we see that Tietjens suffers an i d e n t i t y l o s s during the war—half of his mind i s dead as the r e s u l t of his i n j u r y and he must r e - l e a r n by reading the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The action of comedy moves toward a deliverance from something which, i f absurd, i s by no means invariably harmless. We notice too how frequently a comic dramatist t r i e s to bring h i s action as close to a catastrophic overthrow of the hero as he can get i t , and then reverses the action as quickly as p o s s i b l e ; (Frye, 178). Ford brings Tietjens to the brink of disaster when T i e t j e n s , with his rotten chest, i s sent to the front i n A Man Could Stand Up.  There i s a f a i r l y rapid reversal of fortune and  the novel ends comically with the reunion of Tietjens and Valentine.  26  As the hero approaches the point of "ritual death", the comedy moves towards a potentially tragic c r i s i s . Tietjens is potentially tragic when he returns from the war }11, welfare.  having no money, and few people interested in his Sylvia too is potentially tragic in The Last Post  when she confesses that she wanted only to have another child by Tietjens.  Some readers have seen Sylvia's plea  as maudlin sentimentality of Ford's which they say mars much of The Last Post, but her display of domestic emotion is not out of character. The third novel of the tetralogy, A Man Could Stand Up, sounds the note of freedom and comic saturnalia.  Frye,  indicating the release of restraint that comedy achieves, says: the hero's society rebels against the society of the senex and triumphs, but the hero's society is a Saturnalia, a reversal of social standards which recalls a golden age in the past before the main action of the play begins. (Frye,  171).  The end of the war is a signal for what Valentine calls a saturnalia (Ford, 509) which is wildly celebrated by "Cockney London" where she is teaching.  The golden age  theme is one that Tietjens forwards by his longing f i r s t for the eighteenth and then the seventeenth century and the pastoral simplicity of Herbert's parsonage, Bemerton.  27  Tietjens finally achieves a type of escape to the pastoral world where he becomes an antique dealer.  Frye  says that the motion to the "green world", the enchanted forest, or the charming, simple pastoral is a basic element of Shakespearian comedy: The green world has analogies, not only to the f e r t i l e world of r i t u a l , but to the dream world that we create out of our own desires. This dream world collides with the stumbling and blinded f o l l i e s of the world of experience.... Thus Shakespearian comedy illustrates, as clearly as any mythos we have, the archetypal function of literature in visualizing the world of desire, not as an escape from " r e a l i t y , " but as the genuine form of the world that human l i f e tries to imitate. (Frye, 183). A comic f i c t i o n , then, moves towards a world which is more human. Parade's End pictures the downfall of a restrictive social structure and indicates the source of new potential for man.  In doing so i t follows the comic  pattern of avoiding exclusion. a society of man.  The new society is to b e  A l l members are welcome and no notice  is to be taken of rank, role, position: The tendency of comedy is to include as many people as possible in its final, society: the blocking characters are more often reconciled or converted than simply repudiated. Comedy often includes a scapegoat ritual of expulsion which gets rid of some irreconcilable character, but exposure and disgrace make for pathos, or even tragedy. (Frye, 165). Perowne is one of the few blocking characters who is in a sense repudiated; he is killed shortly after being sent to  28  the front.  Sir Vincent Macmaster i s not included in the  final society because he has gone "dotty" and ia in an asylum.  He may return, however, for his Egeria, Edith  Ethel, comes rolling into the final pages of The Last Post to have some dealings with Tietjens.  Also present among  the cast of The Last Post are some characters who appear in none of the other novels:  Marie Leonie;  Mrs. de Bray Pape  descended from the Maintenons; the young Mark Tietjens, Christopher's son;  Gunning, the tenant farmer.  A l l these  people congregate around Tietjens' cottage with Sylvia the most anxious to study the new menage;  General Campion  reappears, somewhat more rigidified in his social mask and Mark Tietjens senior, s t i l l allied—until the moment of his death—with the old society, l i e s paralyzed.  Valentine  i s pregnant, promising increase of l i f e to the new society. Thus the movement from pistis to gnosis, from a society controlled by habit, ritual bondage., arbitrary law and the older characters to a society controlled by youtbliand pragmatic freedom is fundamentally, as the Greek words suggest, a movement from illusion to reality. Illusion is whatever is fixed or definable, and reality is best understood as i t s negation: whatever reality i s , i t ' s not that. Hence 1h e importance of creating and dispelling illusion in comedy: the illusions caused by disguise, obsession, hypocrisy, or unknown parentage. (Frye, 169). This skeleton outline strongly indicates that Ford was consciously employing the comic mode in Parade's End.  29  Before we can move on to a more specific analysis of the novels, however, there is a further qualification to be made about the nature of Ford's comedy. irony has not yet been considered.  Thermatter of  "Irony" further  defines the type of comedy that Ford produced and illun inates Ford's technique.  30  Chapter Three:  Irony and Impressionism:  Technique in the Twentieth Century  At one point in Some Do M o t . . . , Tietjens is talking to Valentine litfannop about their different attitudes to the war and their attitudes to each other: "You and I are like two people..." He paused and began again more quickly: "Do you know these soap advertisement signs that read differently from several angles? As you come up to them you read 'Monkey's Soap*; i f you look back when you've passed i t ' s 'Needs no Rinsing.' . . . You and I are standing at different angles and though we both look at the same thing we read different messages. Perhaps i f we stood side by side we should see yet a t h i r d . . . . " (Ford, 234) It is the overcoming of the limitations of personal interpretation that marks the success of the relationship of Valentine and Tietjens.  The point that is made in Tietjens'  speech is that each person has a unique and private vision of reality and each "point of view" has its boundaries or limitations. communication.  The gaps of vision make for gaps in Parade's End contains many instances of  faulty communication and misinterpretation. of names is indicative.  The matter  Mrs. Wannop thinks that the name  Tietjens is something like "tea-tray".  Tietjens himself  for a long time believes that McKechnie is called MacKenzie.  31  We also have the example of the phone c a l l which opens A Man Could Stand Up, Edith Ethel is trying to t e l l Valentine about Tietjens' state, but Valentine is distracted by the noise of her immediate surroundings and cannot make sense out of the message.  She i s not certain who  is talking or about what. It is important that i t is the telephone that is the vehicle of misinterpretation.  The telephone is a  social tool or system for the extension of communication but i t seems rather to limit the ability to get the message across: Slowly, amidst intolerable noises from, on the one hand, the street and, on the other, from the large and voluminously echoing playground , the depths of the telephone began, for Valentine, to assume an aspect that, years ago i t had used to have—of being a part of the supernatural paraphernalia of inscrutable Destiny. (Ford, 503) The difficulty in both instances, that of the sign and that of the telephone conversation, is the separation of the people involved.  Tietjens says that i f the two of  them could stand together they would be able to see (both of them seeing the same thing presumably) a third something. Communication must be between people, with no interference either from over-personal visions or from any public system of communication such as the telephone.  The telephone  indicates the tendency of society to replace inter-personal relationships with devices, mechanisms, or systems which limit the extent of true companionship or exchange.  32  We get a similar message about the vast separation of "points of view" in Browning's The Ring and the Book. Browning heralds the shift to the contemporary world in his emphasis on the relativity of truth and the importance of several points of view in making up what he saw as absolute truth.  Twentieth century literature has extended  the belief in r e l a t i v i t y . "true".  No one report is believed to be  Truth is made up of many "points of view". One  result of this extension is that a reader no longer trusts what an author t e l l s him directly about the fictional action. There i s a tendency to keep the author out of his story and to keep the illusion complete so that the reader will have l i t t l e trouble in crediting the action of the story once having made the necessary "willing suspension of disbelief".  There must be no comments on the action of  the novel; the reader must be allowed to see for himself and to decide on the basis of having seen.  It was Flaubert  who developed the technique of the "complete" illusion which has become so established in twentieth century f i c t i o n . From Flaubert the technique came to Conrad, Ford, Joyce and from there spread widely. A corollary of a relativist vision is an ironic sense. When an age believes that there is no absolute truth, i t is ready to see the irony of characters who s t i l l labor to sell their "version" of truth.  A writer of f i c t i o n , trying to  33  get at some truths about existence, operates with an ironic sense of the nature of his endeavour.  When i t cannot be  philosophic or directly dogmatic about truth, creative fiction (poetry) must become more realistic or impressionistic . It no longer "tells about" reality; i t attempts to mirror the details of experience.  Much contemporary f i c t i o n deals  with the interaction of what is "really" out there and what is inside the human mind.  The split between subjective and  objective provides the material for irony. Realism and naturalism tend to emphasize the determinist ic role of external reality.  Impressionist fiction tries to do  justice to the complex interaction of object and subject. Joyce's impressionism is superior to George Moore's realism in that i t includes more of what is "real"; i t takes the reader into the minds of the characters. Frye notes the objectivity of the ironist: The ironic fiction-writer, then, deprecates himself and, l i k e Socrates, pretends to know nothing, even that he is ironic. Complete objectivity and suppression of a l l explicit moral judgements are essential to his method. Thus pity and .fear are not raised in ironic art: they are reflected to the reader from the art. When we try to isolate the ironic as such, we find that i t seems to be simply the attitude of the poet as such, a dispassionate construction of a literary form, with a l l assertive elements, implied or expressed, eliminated. Irony, as a mode, is born from the low mimetic; i t takes l i f e exactly as i t finds i t . But the ironist fables without moralizing, and has no object but his subject. (Frye, 40) The objectivity of impressionist fiction is ironic in that i t is a kind of understatement—not editorializing or open  34  moralizing—that allows the " f i c t i o n " to say a great deal. Conrad points to the undercurrent of truth of impressionist fiction in the Preface to The Nigger of the 'Narcissus*: My task which I am trying to achieve i s , by the power of the written word to make you hear, to make you f e e l - - i t i s , before a l l , , to make you see. That—and no more, and i t i s everything. If I succeed, you shall find there according to your deserts: encouragement, consolation, fear, charm—all you demand—and, perhaps, also that glimpse of truth for which you have forgotten to ask. 1  Truth is ironically there and works upon the reader through the apparently innocuous, objective, impressionist presentation. Ford too sees the novel as having a strong philosophical import: We agreed that the novel is absolutely the only vehicle for the thought of our day. With the novel you can do anything: you can inquire into every department of l i f e , you can explore every department of the world of thought. Ironically, however, the novelist w i l l do best i f he has few or no ideas at a l l which he is pushing: It is obviously best i f you can contrive to be without views at a l l ; your business with the world is rendering, not alteration. You have to render l i f e with such exactitude that more specialised beings than you, learning from you what are the secret needs of humanity, may judge how many white-tiled bathrooms are, or to what extent parliamentary representation i s , necessary for the happiness of men and women. 3  Ford was very much interested in making the point that his novels did not necessarily reflect his own philosophical point of view.  The business of impressionism,  he said, is to produce an illusion of reality:  35  Thus the Impressionist author is sedulous to avoid letting his personality appear in the course of his book. On the other hand, his whole book, his whole poem is merely an expression of his personality. 4  In the dedicatory letters to the last three novels of the tetralogy, Ford says plainly, over and over, that the ideas expressed by characters in the novels do not reveal his own point of view: State, underline and emphasize the fact how you will i t is impossible to get into the heads of even intelligent public c r i t i c s the fact that the opinions of a novelist's characters as stated in any novel are not of necessity the opinions of the novelist. Frye says: The conception of irony meets us in A r i s t o t l e ' 8 Ethics, where the eiron is the man who deprecates himself, as opposed to the alazon. Such a man makes himself invulnerable, and, though Aristotle disapproves of him there is no question that he is a predestined a r t i s t , just as the alazon is one of his predestined victims. The term irony, then, indicates a technique of appearing to be less than one i s , which in literature becomes most commonly a technique of saying as l i t t l e and meaning as much as possible, or, in a more general way, a pattern of words that turns away from direct statement or its own obvious meaning. (Frye, 40) The suppression of propagandising and the sense of relativity are elements of Ford's technique of impressionism and we see that they are also inherent in ironic f i c t i o n .  Impression-  ism and irony are very close together and, since Ford was using a l l the techniques of literary impressionism in writing Parade's End, we should find that the comedy of the novel has a distinctively ironic flavor.  36  Speaking of irony, Frye says that i t "begins in realism and dispassionate observation" (42).  Impressionism most  certainly depends upon exact observation.  Ford's technique  is to see and to record but not to theorize in his novels. The tradition of the "absent" author harmonizes with what Frye says of ironic f i c t i o n : Irony is consistent both with complete realism of content and with the suppression of attitude on the part of the author. (Frye, 224) As we have seen, in a relativist age, i t w i l l not do to have the comments of the author interfering with our perception of the matter: The ironic method of saying one thing and meaning something rather different is incorporated in Mallarme's doctrine of the avoidance of direct statement. The practice of cutting out predication, of simply juxtaposing images without making any assertions about their relationship, is consistent with the effort to avoid oratorical rhetoric. (Frye, 61) The mention of juxtaposing images should recall Ford's use of the time-shift, one of the central techniques of impressionist writing.  The story is to be presented in  a fashion similar to the way stories appear in l i f e .  We  get a part of the action, then an earlier, then a later part, then a character sketch: chronology is sacrificed to the importance of the item recalled.  In f i c t i o n , this  apparently haphazard placing of events and scienes is more than just r e a l i s t i c .  By having them juxtaposed, one scene  comments on another and so the thematic line is linked to structure.  37  The ironic element of Ford's comedy becomes obvious when one realizes that Tietjens, much as one may sympathize with him, is hardly the usual romantic young hero defeating the restrictions of an established society.  It has already  been noted that Tietjens is strongly allied with the tradition of reticence and renunciation implied in "Some do not."  The passionate side of his nature wars with  his moral restraint and wins out allowing him tot-take a holiday from his principles, from himself.  Although he  has a physical attractiveness, he is no longer young and healthy.  Although he is only twenty-six at the opening  of the novel, by the time of his return from the front he is greying and his chest is "rotten".  Tietjens does win  his victory; he is able at last to stand up on a h i l l with his lover, but the cost of the victory is great.  He is  nearly destroyed by the old society which continues to torment him even at the end of The Last Post. The f i r s t or most ironic phase of comedy i s , naturally, the one in which a humorous society triumphs or remains undefeated. (Frye, 175)' The second phase of comedy, in its simplest form, is a comedy in which the hero does not transform a humorous society but simply escapes or runs away from i t , leaving its structure as i t was before. A more complex irony in this phase is achieved when a society i s constructed by or around a young hero, but proves not sufficiently real or strong to impose i t s e l f . In this situation the hero is usually himself at least partly a comic humor or mental runaway, and we have either a hero's illusion thwarted by a superior reality or a clash of two illusions. (Frye, 180)  38  The last quotation perhaps comes closest to Tietjens' situation.  The new society is in its infancy and may be  able to impose i t s e l f , i f the strength of the hero lasts. Tietjens is not really a mental runaway but he is at least an abdicator and as we have seen is "at least partly a comic humor." Tietjens is not the average, agressive romantic lover; i t takes a l l his potential to ask Valentine to be his mistress and even then he backs down at the last minute.  He is not  the doer of great deeds; he i s , in fact, not at a l l heroic. Ford, speaking of the genesis of Tietjens, says: I carefully avoid the word "hero". I was in no mood for the heroic. My character would be deprived of any glory. He was to be just enough of a man of action to get into the trenches and do what he was t o l d . ^ It turns out that such an unheroic central character belongs to comic irony: The figure of the low-norm eiron is irony's substitute for the hero, and when he is removed from satire we can see more clearly that one of the central themes of the mythos is the disappearance of the heroic. This is the main reason for the predominance in fictional satire of what may be called the Omphale archetype, the man bullied or dominated by women, which has been prominent in satire a l l through its history, and embraces a vast area of contemporary, both popular and sophisticated. (Frye, 228) Parade's End is not quite satire; i t is ironic fiction which Frye implies is a less stringent form of satire. While Tietjens is bullied by a woman, he does finally escape from her and i s able to l i v e with his mistress—  '  39  note that near the end of The Last Post Sylvia gives up her seige and decides to grant a divorce.  Although Ford  says that he was carefully avoiding the heroic, i t will be seen that Tietjens does become a type of hero.  His  victories are internal ones and may lack the touch of bravado, but the true hero is the one who is able to come to grips with his own s e l f .  40  Chapter Four: Characters in the Comedy: The Double-take of the Ironic Vision  Ford's comedy is ironic, then. to an understanding of Tietjens?  What does this mean  It means that we will  find his position dual, at least in Some Do Not•.. . He is a hero in that he w i l l throw off the bonds of the old society.  We have already noted the irony in the fact that  his victory is pyrhhic at best and his new position, although promising, is tenuous. society.  Tietjens is also a member of the old  The ironic vision, which is so often the double  vision, seeing the coexistence of mutual exclusives, makes Tietjens v i l l a i n as well as hero, alazon or impostor as well as eiron.  He has two roles to play and their distinctness  and his lack of vision of the split make the situation comic.  Tietjens the hero, the passionate lover, the  rebellious soul, must overcome the last Tory, the conservative , the mechanical public figure.  There is in Tietjens, a  struggle between mask and creative mind. E l l i o t t B. Gose, in an article called "Reality to Romance: A Study of Ford's Parade's End"comments on Ford's double conception of Tietjens.  He points out that although  Tietjens is ostensibly modelled on Ford's friend, Marwood,  41  he also contains much of Ford himself.  Ford describes  Marwood in It Was the Nightingale: There he was, large—an "elephant built out of meal sacks." Deliberate, slow in movement and extraordinarily omniscient. He was physically very strong and enduring. And he was, beneath the surface, extraordinarily passionate—with an abiding passion for the sort of truth that makes for intellectual accuracy in the public service. It was a fascinating task to find him a posthumous career. This description of Marwood obviously provided a pattern for Tietjens but, as Gose points out, much of Tietjens' private experience is a parallel to Ford's.  He wished to  be free from his wife so that he would be free to live with Violet Hunt.  Ford was wounded in the war and  returned much in disrepute as does. Tietjens. Tietjens then, is a composite of Ford and Marwood. Marwood is the last Tory, a c r i t i c a l intellect, and Ford is the young man of passion and action.  It i s the  conjunction in the one character of these two "ideals" that creates the comic tension.  Tietjens is refined by  his experience until he is primarily the "Ford-like man of passion who f i n a l l y wins Valentine." ^  The Marwood  element in Tietjens comes to be epitomized in the person of Mark Tietjens whom Gose calls a "symbol of an outmoded tradition." Certainly Ford had a great deal of admiration for the Marwood-like character, just as he had an admiration for the world of hope and glory which he saw passing.  It is  42  not quite c o r r e c t , however, to say as Gose does, that Ford's conception of Tietjens makes i t d i f f i c u l t for him to "present objectively a hero drawn p a r t l y from himself and partly from Marwood, two people whom he had l o v e d . "  3  Because Marwood was a friend i s not to say that Ford could not be objective about him.  Ford was an impressionist and  he had to be objective or to f a i l in. his undertaking.  Ford  was objective and even i f his perfect man would be an amalgamation  of himself and Marwood, Ford saw that, given  the times and the circumstances, such an ideal was not to be thought o f .  The fact that he wrote Marwood out of  the novel, as i t were, indicates that Ford was making thematic use of c e r t a i n t r a i t s of his friend and was not unclear about which side of Tietjens would ultimately transcend. The day of the Tory and the precise a n a l y t i c a l mind was dying.  A new world was being born and a new facet  of human l i f e was being discovered  (or,  better, f r e e d ) .  Ford was concerned with rendering the i n e v i t a b i l i t i e s life.  of  He was aware that l i f e continues regardless of  men's subjective feelings about i t .  Although he may  have longed for the ideal of the gentleman,  he had a  s u f f i c i e n t l y objective v i s i o n to see that the ideal was becoming deleterious rather than b e n e f i c i a l to humanity. We have noted the r e l a t i v i t y It  of the ironic v i s i o n .  i s not concerned with what i s best so much as i t  is  43  with what i s .  It requires an i r o n i c r e l a t i v i s t v i s i o n  to see that what has been best can have become the worst. Tietjens i s Ford's conception of mankind on the verge of a sweeping c u l t u r a l change.  The refinement of Tietjens  from Marwood-Ford to simply Ford i s a r e f l e c t i o n of what Ford thought necessary for the continuing welfare of mankind.  Just as Ford f e l t free to take Violet Hunt, so  Tietjens gains the freedom to take Valentine as his mistress.  The new Tietjens may not be any better than  the old one, but at l e a s t he has discarded the weaknesses of the old one.  He also promises a new chance.  With  r e s t r i c t i o n s removed, perhaps the man who could be the epitome of Toryism at i t s best, can become something even greater. Since the public code of v i r t u e has broken down, one cannot continue to l i v e by an a r b i t r a r y code or system of behaviour.  One must s h i f t from the mechanism and  f a l s e aesthetics of "correct behaviour" to the of behaviour demanded by the needs of man.  exigencies  Theaworld  that Tietjens moves towards i s the world of personal relationships.  As he i s r e f i n e d , he becomes l e s s and  l e s s and l e s s p u b l i c , impersonal and unemotional. becomes more and more of a human being.  He  His education  i s a move towards completeness of the s e l f and a confrontation of personal s e l f with personal s e l f .  It i s the move  into the area of the personal that w i l l allow Tietjens to  44  become more human. The ironic vision gives us a greater sense of "reality": victories are not won without much loss.  Tietjens embodies  two ideals, one of which is out of date.  Ford was completely  in control as he set the conflict working and knew that such a hero must be l i t e r a l l y blown apart by the flux of time and society.  Ford's sympathies for Marwood did not limit  his ability to show what must happen, i f man is to have any chance of survival., in a contest between the passive c r i t i c a l intellect and the passionate Ford-like man of action. Tietjens' function is to act as pivot for a great change.  As pivot he is in touch with both sides, before  and after.  He is Janus looking forward as well as back.  The inevitable result of such a tension is inner as well as outer conflict.  We can expect from Tietjens, composed  of opposites as he i s , a definite lack of self-knowledge. We can also expect that he will find himself in numerous tight situations caused partly by himself.  As long as the  conflicts do not become pathetic or fearful, the work will remain comic.  Tietjens' limitations in conflict with his  abilities provide the comedy.  Any flayings he receives as  a result of his a f f i l i a t i o n with a tradition that is outmoded can be accepted as the necessary punishment of the inhibitor of f e s t i v i t i e s .  The Tietjens who suffers is similar to Malvolio  of Twelfth Night whose function it is to see that there w i l l  45  be no more cakes and ale. action, be driven out.  Such Inhibitors must, in comic  Tietjens continues to say "Some do  not" until he discovers that his banner is in reality a whipping rod and his code merely a set of chains. Perhaps the point should be made once again that Ford did admire the tradition of honor and glory, staunchness and courtesy that goes by the name of parade.  With  the tradition went a sense of personal as well as public integrity which promised to establish a perfect community of man, run on humanitarian and rational principles. Society, by adhering to its system of virtue, would achieve "progress".  Ford was not unaware, however, of the severe  limitations of any rational system of progress.  He could  see that a split had develpped between the needs of the individual and the demands of society.  Tietjens is aware  of this paradox: And Tietjens, who hated no man, in face of this simple-minded and agreeable schoolboy type of fellow, f e l l to wondering why i t was that humanity that was next to always agreeable in its units was, as a mass, a phenomenon so hjdeous. (Ford, 79) ...you formed them into a Government or a club and at once, with oppressions, inaccuracies, gossip, backbiting, lying, corruptions and vileness, you had the. combination of wolf, tiger, weasel and louse-covered ape that was human society. And he remembered the words of some Russian: "Cats and monkeys. Monkeys and cats.) A l l humanity i s there." (Ford, 79) Somehow the system has become autonomous and i s out of touch with the real needs of mankind.  When this happens,  46  some upheaval is inevitable.  What went wrong, according  to Tietjens, is that "integrity" disappeared from public l i f e to be replaced by " A l l sorts of bounders" that get into " a l l sorts of holies of holies!" (Ford, 94) What though, caused that breakdown? disappear? enough.  Why did public trust  The answer is that the system was not humane  It may have been a very good system in its  intentions but it repressed the forces of Eros, limiting the creative capacity of mankind. Kenner points out the overtones of virginity in the opening paragraph of Some Do N o t . . . : The leather straps to the windows were of virgin newness; the mirrors beneath the new luggage racks immaculate as i f they had reflected very l i t t l e . The compartment smelt faintly, hygienically of admirable varnish; the train ran as smoothly—Tietjens remembered thinking— as British gilt-edged securities. The train is a symbol for a system that has carried society into a precarious state.  Figuratively, i t is the same train  which is blown up by the French insurgents in A Man Could Stand Up.  The way of l i f e is out of touch with human  experience.  The train which has reflected very l i t t l e ,  which is "perfect" but not experienced, is a train leading into war.  Tietjens himself is out of touch with experience  and must be initiated into a truer vision.  One of the  lessons of Parade's End is that no system, no matter how admirable, can do f u l l justice to the impulses and needs of humanity.  Putting things into categories is perhaps  47  satisfying but i t is also dangerous because a force contained becomes explosive. The code that Tietjens—not Ford—enunciates and that a l l of Victorian, Pre-Baphelite England enunciates, i s repressive.  The war is seen to be an inevitable  occurrence in a society that is held down, cramped, stifled.  Tietjens gives some reasons for the conflagration,  but they are not quite good enough.  Cassandra though he  i s , one must remember that his vision is limited. He says that i t is the demise of public honesty and an increasing national greed that has brought the downfall.  There i s ,  however, a reason behind that reason which is implied in Tietjens' oft repeated expression of tiredness: "I'm not v i n d i c t i v e . . . . But I am deadly tired: of a l l old women and their chatter." (Ford, 286). It is also expressed in Sylvia's exclamations: "I'm bored," she said. Bored!"  (Ford, 156).  "Bored!  The whole world has grown tired of  living up toi;the demands of a code which is summarized by the phrase from Rosetti: "circumspect and right".  Although  Ford had a respect for the old way, he was ready to. accept its demise and to look to the future.  The forces of Eros  are at work and signs of rebellion are evident in many of the characters of Parade's End.  It is this rebellion  prompted by the forces of l i f e against those of stultification, decay and death that is part of the v i t a l i t y of comedy.  48  A brief look at some of the characters suffering under the flag of circumspection will aid in understanding the character of Tietjens and the novels as a whole.  The Rev. Mr. Duchemin  We can see in the lives of the Rev. Duchemin, his wife Edith Ethel and her 1over-then-husband, Macmaster, the evil effects of the repressive ideal of circumspection. In the very comic breakfast party scene, the Rev. Mr. Duchemin provides andelement of obscenity, perversity and comedy which strains English good manners to the utmost. Tietjens admires the a b i l i t y of gentlemen and ladies to sit and talk as i f nothing were going on.  The guests  politely ignore, or more accurately, fearfully try to ignore Duchemin's shouting: Then they continued talking with polite animation and listening with minute attention. To Tietjens that seemed the highest achievement and justification of English manners! (Ford, 100). One with good manners acts as i f nothing had happened. Such an attitude may be admirable in its consideration for the feelings of others.  But i t becomes absurd when  so much absolutely is_ happening.  The overlooking of  pecadilloes pro-temps is ballasted in the scene by the minute attention that is being paid and which will be  49  turned  to c a p i t a l i n gossip l a t e r .  Rev.  Duchemin's shouts  a r e an i m p l i e d a t t a c k on the h y p o c r i s y o f an  unnecessarily  r e p r e s s i v e code of manners. Duchemin contravenes the r u l e t h a t says the o f sex i s not open f o r p u b l i c c o n v e r s a t i o n . he i s a m i n i s t e r u n d e r l i n e s h i s p l i g h t . world He  which h i d e s sex under a cover  He  The  words i n p u b l i c . of e x p r e s s i o n . a superficial  Petronious The  of d e l i c a c y and  f a c t t h a t The  may  a l s o be a reason  unable to f i n d  a  religion.  He f i n d s  form by u s i n g taboo  of the L a t i n tongue p r o v i d e s  excuse t o wander amidst the s e x u a l  The  that  p r o v i d e s h i s p a r t i c u l a r mode  "elegance"  ness, t h e s e n s u a l i t y and  fact  represents  i s the c l a s s i c v i c t i m o f F r e u d i a n r e p r e s s i o n .  an o u t l e t f o r d e s i r e i n a p e r v e r t e d  subject  expressive-  b e s t i a l i t y of a more open s o c i e t y .  S a t y r i c o n c e n t e r s around homosexual l o v e f o r Duchemin's c h o i c e .  He has  been  s e x u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s w i f e and  perhaps f i n d comfort i n the c o n t e m p l a t i o n  of l o v e  can  without  women. The  phrases t h a t Duchemin shouts r e f e r to a  general  malaise: Post coitum t r i s t i s ! Ha! Ha! That's what i t i s ? ... You know what that means? (Ford, The  t r a n s l a t i o n i s quite simple,  c l e a r when we i s one  but  93).  i t s meaning.is o n l y  see t h a t the s o c i e t y f o r which i t i s t r u e  i n which sex has become obscene and  unhealthy.  5G  The truth is not universal; i t i s an expression of a sick society.  Another of Duchemin's offensive outbursts i s : "Chaste!" He shouted. "Chaste, you observe! What a world of suggestion in the word..." He surveyed the opulent broadness of his tablecloth; i t spread out before his eyes as i f i t had been a great expanse of meadow in which he could gallop, relaxing his limbs after long captivity. He shouted three obscene words and went on in his Oxford Movement voice: "But chastity..." (Ford, 99).  Duchemin i s finally able to release some of his stallionlike energy and for him i t i s like being freed from a long captivity.  His problem illustrates the difficulty of  Victorian society in handling the beast in human nature. Chastity and virginity when taken as absolute ideals are seen to be damaging to the natural proclivities of man. The code of "English manners" i s in league with the professors of chastity and virginity.  Bourgeois morality at i t s  strongest requires that one be, above a l l , delicate, chaste and inexperienced. Just as the repressive manners are the v i l l a i n in the f i r s t instance, we see that they are also inadequate for solving a trying situation.  Duchemin i s  finally quietened not by reason but by a swift blow to the kidney from the prize-fighter. Tietjens i s unaware of the violent rebellion that he is witnessing and is willing to write off Duchemin. as "dotty" on the subject of sex.  Tietjens has no "Freudian  insight" to allow him to see that Duchemin's behavior  51  has an efficient cause in the social repression of sexual instincts. phrenic.  Duchemin himself is almost totally schizoHe is acting compulsively and is unaware of his  misbehavior.  Macmaster at one point so shifts the tone  of discussion that Duchemin is jolted: Macmaster made his voice dry and penetrating to say: "'Youth of tepid loves' is a lamentable rendering of puer calide! It's lamentably antiquated..." Duchemin choked and said: "What? What? What's that?" "It's just like Oxford to use an eighteenthcentury crib. I suppose that's Whiston and Ditton? Something like t h a t . . . " He observed Duchemin, brought out of his impulse, to be wavering—as i f he were coming awake in a strange place I (Ford, 98). Duchemin comes awake in a strange place (his own parlor) and then busies himself with table matters until he stumbles again on the trigger word "chaste".  His person-  a l i t y is split in two by the total conscious denial of sexuality. The forces of l i f e , however, are surging out of him. His "unconscious" mind is in a state of rebellion which i s not yet assimilated into the conscious world.  His  condition, admittedly a pathetic one, remains comic because Ford places most emphasis on the embarrassment caused to an overdelicate society rather that on the pain of Duchemin. Duchemin will give us a clue to the understanding of TietjenB who is split in a somewhat similar fashion and who.cannot recognise in himself the forces of rebellion.  Duchemin is  52  a "rule" breaker and suffers for i t .  Much of Tietjens'  suffering comes from the fact that he is also an emerging outlaw.  Edith Ethel and Sir Vincent Macmaster  Tietjens' friend Sir Vincent Macmaster and his "Egeria" and ultimately wife, Edith Ethel Duchemin, represent the effete tradition of Pre-Raphelite sexual morality.  Tietjens  (and Ford) reacts violently to the hypocrisy of the "aesthetes": We're always, as i t were, committing adultery— like your fellow'.—with the name of Heaven on our l i p s . (Ford, 20). Tietjens says that there "ought to be a twenty years' close time for discussions of sham sexual morality."  It is not  that he objects to i l l i c i t affairs, at least for other people; he objects, rather to the attempt to romanticize them and to justify "lachrymose polygamy" by calling i t Love. Macmaster and Edith Ethel are concerned primarily about appearances.  They cultivate an air of being  "circum-  spect and right" while in fact they are having an affair behind the back of Mrs. Duchemin's lunatic husband. It is this hypocrisy about experience which infuriates Tietjens. He believes that i f a man wants a woman "he has her. And again, no talking about i t . " (Ford, 18). The dichotomy  53  in Macmaster between principle and behavior i s pointed up by his numerous romantic fiascos with young trollops. Although he aspires to a woman of grace and perfection, one who would be "a tribute at once to his discernment and his achievements", He had had passages when a sort of blind unreason had attracted him almost to speechlessness towards g i r l s of the most giggling, behind-the-counter order, big-bosomed, scarlet-cheeked. It was only Tietjens who had saved him from the most questionable entanglements. (Ford, 13). His surface decorum is only a front for a passion which he has never allowed himself to face.  He is peculiarly innocent  of sexual matters, having "necessarily been starved of women." Macmaster's hypocrisy about experience is shown up finally in his acceptance of a knighthood on the basis of figures prepared by Tietjens.  It is so necessary for him to be  "inthe tradition" that he can resort to fraud. Edith Ethel is a very painful example of the worst results of the tradition of self-suppression.  She finds  her beauty in the very abstraction which drives her husband insane: There's something beautiful, there's something t h r i l l i n g about chastity. I'm not narrow-minded. Censorious'. I don't condemn I But to preserve in word, thought and action a lifelong f i d e l i t y . . . . It's no mean achievement.... (Ford, 85). To which Valentine supplies the appropriate comment, "You mean like an egg and spoon r a c e . . . . "  Chastity and f i d e l i t y  have become part of the social sport of keeping up appearances.  54  Mrs. Duchemin thinks the real symbol i s "Atalanta, running fast and not turning aside for the golden apple."  She does  not realize that while Atalanta is trying to preserve an ideal, she is also running away from love. The denial of emotion and experience leads to serious explosions*,.':..,.. Like the Rev. Duchemin, Edith Ethel has her dark side which breaks out unexpectedly. Valentine i s f i r s t aware of the change when Edith Ethel asks her, "How do you get r i d of a baby? You've been a servant. You ought to know'." (Ford, 229).  She and Macmaster who had  "seemed to swim in a sea of renunciations, of beautiful quotations," have made a s l i p in their intimate relations and are threatened with social embarrassment: Mrs. Duchemin had, stored somewhere, a character of an extreme harshness and great vulgarity of language. She raged up and down i n the candlelight, before the dark oak panelling, screaming coarse phrases of the deepest hatred for her lover. Didn't the oaf know his business better than to...? The dirty l i t t l e Port of Leith fish-handler.... What, then, were t a l l candles in silver sticks for? And polished panelling in galleries? (Ford, 230). The last question i s an important one and helps to explain the ascetic menage that Tietjens adopts i n The Last Post.  It i s the luxurious show, the attempt at paltry  splendour, that has too long thwarted the deeper needs of mankind. Tietjens and Valentine reject false luxury in an attempt to get back to the elements of l i f e .  55  Sylvia  We can also see signs of division and certainly of revolt i n Sylvia Tietjens. One can quickly see Sylvia as a convincing and complete bitch, one of the best bitches of twentieth century fiction.  She i s apparently  the tormentress bent upon ruining the long-suffering and innocent Tietjens.  She threatens, early in Some Do Not...  to play Medea: You will then. Listen here.... I've always got this to look forward to: I ' l l settle down by that man's side. I ' l l be as virtuous as any woman. I've made up my mind to i t and I ' l l be i t . And I ' l l be bored s t i f f for the rest of my l i f e . Except for one thing. I can torment that man. And I ' l l do i t . Do you understand how I ' l l do i t ? There are many ways. But i f the worst comes to the worst, I can always drive him s i l l y . . . by corrupting the child'. (Ford, 41). It i s easy to see Sylvia, after this comment, as the type of the wicked woman. Father Consett characterizes her by implying that she i s inhabited by Astarte whom he calls "a very powerful devil. not dead yet."  There's some that hold that she's  (Ford, 37). Sylvia does, however, require  more understanding. w i l l be virtuous.  She apparently has will power: she It i s evident also that a virtuous l i f e with  Tietjens i s a l i f e of consummate boredom.  We must consider  her charge that Tietjens has tormented her as at least partly true. Sylvia i s Roman Catholic and has the convent-girl's  56  background.  Even more, perhaps, than Duchemin, then, she  has been subject to the repressions demanded by religion and by a pseudo-religious society.  Her education into  sex was, we can gather, rather abrupt and impersonal.  Her  experience was similar to that of many of her friends who found marriage rather suddenly: Certain of her more b r i l l i a n t g i r l friends certainly made very sudden marriages; but the averages of those were not markedly higher than in the case of the daughters of doctors, solicitors, the clergy, the lord mayors, and common councilmen. They were the product usually of the more informal type of dance, of inexperience and champagne— of champagne of unaccustomed strength or of champagne taken in unusual circumstances—fe sting as often as not. They were, these hasty marriages, hardly ever the result of either passion or temperamental lewdness. (Ford, 148). The daughters of the members of the Establishment, of the doctors, solicitors, clergy, councillors and mayors, are the ones who lack experience of l i f e and so are victims of unforeseen situations.  Their lives comprised no initiation  into passion. Inexperience coupled with champagne overcomes abstract precept.  Custom demands marriage to prevent  scandal and the young sophisticates become unloved and loveless wives. Here i s Sylvia's story: In her own case--years ago now--she had certainly been taken advantage of, after champagne, by a married man called Drake. A bit of a brute she acknowledged him now to be. But after the event passion had developed: intense on her side and quite intense enough on his. (Ford, 148).  57  Sylvia i s at least capable of passion, intense passion, even though her situation i s less promising than the ones of her friends.  She had been frightened by her mother  (probably about the possibility of pregnancy) into seducing Tietjens in a railway car and "married him in Paris to be out of the way."  (Ford, 149).  After the  affair, she suffered terribly and had visions of the "distorted face of Drake, who was mad with grief and jealousy." She knew that she had been very near death. She had wanted death. (Ford, 149). Some of this may be discounted as melodramatic posings of the dilettante.  We cannot ignore, however, the psycholog-  ical effect on Sylvia of her tawdry sexual experience: The miserable memory would come, ghostl i k e , at any time, anywhere. She would see Drake's face, dark against the white things; she would feel the thin night-gown ripping off her shoulder; but most of a l l she would seem, in darkness that excluded the light of any room in which she might be, to be transfused by the mental agony that there she had f e l t : the longing for the brute who had mangled her, the dreadful pain of the. mind. The odd thing was that the sight of Drake himself, whom she had seen several times since the outbreak of the war, l e f t her completely without emotion. She had no aversion, but no longing for him..,. She had, nevertheless, longing, but she knew i t was longing merely to experience again that dreadful feeling. And not with Drake.... (Ford, 149). The experience has destroyed her ability to respond emotiona l l y to any person.  Her fixation on the traumatic experience  leads her to a type of sadism which i s in reality disguised  58  masochism. She mistreats men in the hope that they will react violently towards her.  She desires to feel again  that "dreadful pain of the mind." Her "turnings down" then of the really nice men, i f i t were a sport, was a sport not without a spice of danger. (Ford, 149). We can now, perhaps, better understand Sylvia's relationship to Tietjens. Her tormenting him is an attempt to get even with men for their having disappointed her sexually.  She would like to see Tietjens suffer to help  avenge her hurt.  Even more she would like to see him  wince so that she would not be alone in feeling nothing but pain and boredom. Certainly Sylvia requires that Tietjens castigate her: "If," Sylvia went on with her denunciation, "you had once in our lives said to me: 'You whore! You bitch! You killed my mother. May you rot in hell for i t . . . . If you'd only once said something l i k e it..', about the child! About Perowne!...you might have done something to bring us together...." (Ford, 172). 1  To which Tietjens coolly replies: "That's, of course, true!"  When Tietjens continues in his "gentlemanly"  refusal to disapprove of her actions, Sylvia pleads: "Oh, Christopher," she said, "don't carry on that old play acting. I shall never see you again, very l i k e l y , to speak to. You'll sleep with the Wannop g i r l to-night; you're going out to be killed tomorrow. Let's be straight for the next ten minutes or so. And give me your attention. (Ford, 173). She makes a sincere attempt to communicate while Tietjens continues to wear his "wooden mask".  59  Sylvia's lack of v i t a l i t y i s , in part at least, a result of Tietjens' reticence, of his mask-like indifference to what she does.  No matter how much he may be being  affected, he does not allow Sylvia's attacks to break through his reserve.  Her desire is to make him wince  and it is surely justified. illustrates the point.  There is a scene that  Tietjens has returned from the  war with his mind half gone and is having dinner with Sylvia previous to leaving againgfor France: Being near Tietjens she l i f t e d her plate, which contained two cold cutlets in aspic and several leaves of salad; she wavered a l i t t l e to one side and, with a circular motion of her hand, let the whole contents f l y at Tietjens' head. She placed the. plate on the table and drifted slowly towards the enormous mirror over the fireplace. (Ford, 156). Tietjens refuses to recognize the incident; one mustbe oomposed even with salad o i l dripping down onto one's tunic. Tietjens' manners have completely paralyzed any normal interaction between husband and wife.  A domestic squabble  could lead to some new ground for understanding which would open the way for a viable relationship.  Since he refuses  to fight—a gentleman does not—Sylvia's gambits are always frustrated.  Tietjens, in trying to be more than a man,  becomes less than human. Tietjens keeps an unnecessary restraint upon both himself and Sylvia.  Sylvia, having a l l natural outlets  closed to her, i s , like Duchemin, forced to seek perverted  60  forms of satisfaction. lost, wet  She recalls an incident with a  dog: And the poor beast had l e f t i t s kennel to try and be l e t into the f i r e . . . . And I found i t at the door when I came in from a dance without Christopher.... And got the rhinoceros whip and lashed into i t . There's a pleasure in lashing into a naked white beast.... Obese and silent, like Christopher..;. I thought Christopher might... That night... It went through my head... It hung down i t s head.... (Ford, 417).  Tietjens too, to adopt the suggestive phrase, hangs do»n his head when whipped instead of reacting in a more v i r i l e manner. That she is under severe restraint also explains Sylvia's dealings in the occult. Father Consett saysof her: She's a s i l l y g i r l . She's been playing at black masses along with that Mrs. Profumo and the fellow whose name I can't remember. You could t e l l that. They cut the throat of a white kid and splash its blood about. That was at the back of her mind.... It's not very serious. (Ford, 42). The white kid i s symbolic of the innocent Tietjens whose "perfection" i s Sylvia's rack.  The laws of her l i f e are  so rigid that she must go beyond the law (here the Catholic dogma) desperately seeking fulfillment. It i s Tietjens' sanctified indifference and saintliness that perpetuate Sylvia's neurotic state. He i s lacking in intimate knowledge of her, not having made the effort to go beyond surfaces to seek personal contact. Sylvia correctly summarizes Tietjens for us:  61  But, i n t h e name o f the A l m i g h t y , how c o u l d any woman l i v e b e s i d e you...and be f o r ever f o r g i v e n ? Or no: not f o r g i v e n ; ignored'.... W e l l , be proud when you d i e because o f your honour. But, God, you be humble about... your e r r o r s i n judgment. You know what i t i s t o r i d e a horse f o r m i l e s w i t h too t i g h t a c u r b - c h a i n and i t s tongue c u t almost i n half.... W e l l ! Think o f t h i s mare's mouth sometimes! You've r i d d e n me l i k e t h a t f o r seven y e a r s . . . . (Ford, It  i s not u n t i l we r e a c h No More Parades  T i e t j e n s , who in  173).  t h a t we  find  shows t h a t he can be uncommonly s l o w - w i t t e d  some m a t t e r s , b e g i n s to comprehend S y l v i a ' s mind.  i s p u t t i n g h i s confused  thoughts  He  i n t o w r i t i n g i n order t o  make a "calm a n a l y s i s o f h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s w i f e . " She had a p p a r e n t l y been banking on the i d e a t h a t i f I had p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h M i s s Wannop I might s a t i s f y my a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e girl.... And f e e l p h y s i c a l d e s i r e s f o r h e r . • . . But she knew, without my s p e a k i n g , t h a t I had not had p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h the g i r l . She t h r e a t e n e d t o r u i n me; to r u i n me i n the Army; to drag my name through the mud.... I never spoke. I am damn good a t not s p e a k i n g . ( F o r d , 347). In  t h e second n o v e l , T i e t j e n s b e g i n s to become aware of  just  how  g r e a t has been the r i f t i n communication between h i m s e l f  and  Sylvia. The horse image has a l r e a d y been found to r e f e r to  Duchemin; he i s a s t a l l i o n  (with a l l the c o n n o t a t i o n s o f  s e x u a l i t y ) t h a t has been i n c a p t i v i t y f o r too l o n g . we  Sylvia  see i s mare ( w i t h the pun on "mother") w i t h too t i g h t  a  62  check on the b i t .  It will be seen that Tietjens as  stallion leaves something to be desired.  Sylvia  certainly suffers because of Tietjens, but she also suffers because of a society that has become too refined to be able to exist: Very t a l l , f a i r , as graceful, as f u l l of blood and as cruel as the usual degenerate Berby winner. In-bred for generations for one purpose: to madden men of one t y p e . . . . Pacing backwards and forwards, exclaiming: I'm bored I Bored! (Ford, 121). It is Tietjens, of course, who is thinking this of Sylvia and he believes himself the victim of a Fate which purposed her to drive him jad. limited vision.  This is part of his egoism and i  He does, however, reveal Sylvia's nature.  She suffers from over-breeding l i k e the over-bred horses that win the Derby.  She suffers from too much living in  the rarified atmosphere of an in-dwelling society.  She  is the thoroughbred perfected to death, the fine woman l i f t e d on a pedestal so high that she is dying from lack of contact.  She represents the tag-end of the effete  tradition of courtly love. Rather than pigeon hole Sylvia as a bitch, we should recognize that she is the most nearly tragic figure of the novel.  Her pain is spiritual, in her self, while that of  Tietjens i s primarily social, exterior.  Note that Sylvia  is more human than Tietjens in Some Do N o t . . . . She has  63  " p e r s o n a l i t y " , s o u l , w h i l e T i e t j e n s i s bound by h i s r o l e , his  mask.  Both s u f f e r i d e n t i t y c r i s e s i n war and they  reverse p o s i t i o n s . S y l v i a g e t s one. She  T i e t j e n s b e g i n s t o shed h i s mask s a d  She moves more and more i n t o i m p e r s o n a l i t y .  hopes t o marry Campion and become " I n d i a " .  C l e o p a t r a whom Antony r e f e r r e d t o as "Egypt": India, dying...."  She r e c a l l s " I am d y i n g ,  (Ford, 780). Passages such a s t h e  following indicate that Sylvia b i t c h as one might a t f i r s t  i s n o t such a  hard-hearted  think:  She l o o k e d a t him now almost i n c r e d u l o u s l y , but w i t h g r e a t c o o l n e s s . Why shouldn't, he, she asked h e r s e l f , g i v e h i m s e l f a l i t t l e p l e a s u r e w i t h h i s g i r l b e f o r e going t o almost c e r t a i n d e a t h . . . . She f e l t a r e a l , sharp p a i n a t her h e a r t . A poor wretch i n such a d e v i l o f a h o l e . . . . (Ford.; 1 6 7 ) . "Oh, C h r i s t o p h e r , " she s a i d , " i t ' s t r u e I've n o t been a bad woman t o t h e c h i l d . And I never w i l l be. And I w i l l keep Mar chant w i t h him t i l l she d i e s . " (Ford, 1 7 6 ) . T i e t j e n s s h a l l not r e s i g n from your b e a s t l y c l u b . He s h a l l not I Your committee w i l l r e q u e s t him f o r m a l l y t o withdraw h i s r e s i g n a t i o n . He w i l l withdraw i t . Then he w i l l r e s i g n f o r good. He i s t o o good t o mix w i t h people l i k e you.... (Ford, 1 9 7 ) . These passages h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t t h a t S y l v i a as she appears i n The L a s t P o s t , i s n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e S y l v i a we see e a r l i e r .  Her statement i n t h e  f o u r t h n o v e l t h a t she simply d e s i r e s another c h i l d , a l i f e l o n g d e s i r e f o r d o m e s t i c i t y which i s never  reflects  fulfilled.  64  T i e t j e n s Again  The d i s c u s s i o n of S y l v i a makes T i e t j e n s appear what o f a v i l l a i n .  of some-  We should not be too u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t  Tietjens' limitations.  The  i r o n i c v i s i o n as we have seen,  i s d u a l and r e l a t i v e i n so f a r as i t sees a s i t u a t i o n o r c h a r a c t e r from a l l p o i n t s of view p o s s i b l e .  I r o n y and  i m p r e s s i o n i s m a l l o w us to see t o what extent e v e r y hero i s a villain of  and  every b i t c h a queen.  T i e t j e n s i s a member  the system a g a i n s t which he r e b e l s .  As a member of a  g u i l t y s o c i e t y , he i s g u i l t y by a s s o c i a t i o n . and r e j e c t i o n purge him, f r e e him and the seed o f a new,  His r e b e l l i o n  enable him to become  h o p e f u l l y a more humane, s o c i e t y .  r e s u l t o f h i s r e b e l l i o n i s t h a t he l e a r n s how  One  to l i v e  w i t h the animal i n h i s n a t u r e . F o r d uses many animal images throughout Parade's  End,  one o f which i s the image of the horse f o r Duchemin and Sylvia.  T i e t j e n s has so f a r been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S y l v i a ' s  white dog and to  the w h i t e k i d .  I t i s not unexpected,  f i n d him r e f e r r e d t o as the " l a s t stud-white hope o f the  Groby Tory b r e e d . . . . " ( F o r d , 417).  He i s the s t u d , the  p r o c r e a t o r ; o r , a t l e a s t he i s supposed to  then,  t o be.  As  heir  Groby i t i s incumbent upon him t o c o n t i n u e t h e t r a d i t i o n  65  of the country gentleman. He i s to carry on the ideals of the happy congenial family, chastity, f i d e l i t y , honor, truthfulness.  He i s to be the leader of his flock of  people, the tenant farmers. The fact that he is a white stud is perhaps meant to convey a suggestion of chivalry, of knighthood, for he is meant to f i l l the position of a feudal lord. Tietjens' whiteness also, however, suggests innocence from experience: As Christopher is the last stud-white hope of the Groby ^ory breed.... Modelling himself on our Lord.... But our Lord was never married. He never touched on topics of sex. Good for Him.... (Ford, 417). But bad for Tietjens. The conjunction of "stud-white" implies the contradiction inherent in his character.  As  long as he continues to pattern himself on Christ, h e w i l l be less than a man. Instead of being the realization of the hopes o f t h e Groby Tory breed, Tietjens is a cuckold whose son may not even be his own.  He is unable to keep his wife and is  aware of the consequences: A certain discredit has always attached to cuckolds. ery properly. A man ought to be able to keep his wife. (Ford, 10). v  This i s the early Tietjens speaking, the Tietjens of precepts, continually defining what a gentleman i s and what he ought to be able to do.  Tietjens becomes more and more aware of  66  his  l i m i t a t i o n s as the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s .  Near the b e g i n n i n g  o f No More Parades, he i s musing: But, damn i t , he ( T i e t j e n s ] had never k i s s e d her [ j a l e n t i n e j . So how d i d he know how she s m e l t ! She was a l i t t l e t r a n q u i l , g o l d e n s p o t . % h i m s e l f must be a — e u n u c h . By temperament. That dead f e l l o w down t h e r e must be one, physically. I t was p r o b a b l y i n d e c e n t t o t h i n k o f a corpse as impotent. But he was, v e r y likely. (Ford, 3 0 9 ) . One  f u n c t i o n o f t h i s passage i s to make t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f  sexual  impotence and a b s t i n e n c e w i t h d e a t h ; t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n  becomes t h e c e n t r a l theme o f No More P a r a d e s . Tietjens discovers discovers  There,  t h e meaning o f death and as a c o r r e l a t i v e  the n e c e s s i t y o f l o v e and s e x u a l i t y f o r l i f e .  The  passage a l s o p r e s e n t s T i e t j e n s ' own v a l u e judgment, t h a t the c h i v a l r i c code by which he has attempted t o l i v e , has made him v i r t u a l l y a eunuch.. By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f No More P a r a d e ' s , T i e t j e n s has an awareness of j u s t how much he was i m p l i c a t e d  i n h i s e a r l i e r denunciation  of high  society:  And a l l t h e o t h e r s o c i e t y women w i t h u n f a i t h f u l husbands.... They must do t h e i r b e s t to down and out a man. They would c u t him o f f t h e i r visiting lists! L e t them. The b a r r e n h a r l o t s mated t o f a i t h l e s s eunuchs'.... '•'uddenly he thought t h a t he d i d n ' t know f o r c e r t a i n t h a t he was t h e f a t h e r o f h i s c h i l d , and he groaned. (Ford, 78). Valentine for  a t one p o i n t  i s prepared to make an a p p e a l  l o v e t o T i e t j e n s i n the mistaken b e l i e f t h a t h e i s an  archetypal  s o l d i e r : b l o o d t h i r s t y and l u s t y :  67  I f he answered: " Y e s i I am such a manI" 3he was g o i n g t o say: "Then you must take me t o o ! I f them, why not me? I must have a c h i l d . I too!"... She imagined her f a i n t i n g mind; her consenting limbs. (Ford, E75). T i e t j e n s , t r u e to t y p e , answers her not.  I imagined you knew me  something l i k e , " C e r t a i n l y  better."  deep surges o f V a l e n t i n e ' s p a s s i o n and again:  "She  was  chaffinches said emotional  H i s r e p l y q u e l l s the she r e t u r n s to h e r s e l f  V a l e n t i n e Wannop a g a i n ; "Pink!  pink!"  rages a r e denied  V a l e n t i n e wear a g a i n  i n the s u n l i g h t  ( F o r d , 275).  existence.  the  Undersurface  Both T i e t j e n s and  t h e i r p u b l i c , presentable  terms used t o d e s c r i b e the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  masks.  The  are i l l u m i n a t i n g :  For j u s t t h e n she was occupied w i t h a c u r i o u s p a t t e r n ; almost m a t h e m a t i c a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l . Now she was an E n g l i s h m i d d l e - c l a s s g i r l — w h o s e mother had a s u f f i c i e n t i n c o m e — i n b l u e c l o t h , a wideawake h a t , a b l a c k s i l k t i e ; without a thought i n her head t h a t she shouldn't have. And w i t h a man who l o v e d h e r : o f c r y s t a l p u r i t y . Not t e n , not f i v e minutes ago, she had been... She c o u l d not even remember what she had been! And he had been, he had a s s u r e d l y appeared a town... No, she c o u l d not t h i n k the words.... A r a g i n g s t a l l i o n then! I f now he should approach h e r , by the mere movement of a hand a l o n g the t a b l e , she would r e t r e a t . ( F o r d , 276). T i e t j e n s has been immobilized the p u r i t y of c r y s t a l . ^ o r d u s e s the  from a r a g i n g s t a l l i o n i r t o  ''•  image of the h o r s e t o express  s e n s u a l , s e x u a l , i n s t i n c t u a l man.. of s l e e k m a j e s t i c  power and  There i s a  beauty. * The  animal used to e x p r e s s beauty and  power:  tiger  the  suggestion i s another  68  ^ e asked herself the eternal question.. .whether no man and woman can ever leave i t at the beautiful inclination. And, looking at Mrs. ^uchemin, rushing backwards and forwards in the light of candles, blue-white of face and her hair flying, Valentine Wannop said: "NoI no! The tiger lying in the reeds will always raise i t s head!" (Ford,231). One tninks of Blake's tiger, "burning bright/ In the forests of the night."  The tiger is always there, hidden in the  grass, and i f one refuses to recognize i t , the tiger is destructive.  The tiger is the unconscious self, the ssxual  self, the repressed s e l f .  The tiger in Tietjens is being  born and is transforming him.  The eruptions of his  unconscious parallel the explosiveffreeing of the bonds of the psyche of western man.  World War I i s seen as the  inevitable destructive result of years of hypocrisy and repression of the animal side of human nature. Parade's End is a novel to end a l l wars since i t sshows mankind how more properly to be man.  If society is molded  to f i t the needs of man rather than having the power to mold man, rebellion, revolution, war will become obsolete. The lesson of Parade's End is that "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath..." We have looked at several figures who are, to a lesser or greater extent, in rebellion against their repressive society.  Those most consciously i n rebellion tend tobecome  "outlaws"—for example, Valentine and her friend Gertie  69  who demonstrate on the golf-course and are chased by the police—while those who are unable to assimilate and recognize their own unconscious r e b e l l i o n , are verge of i n s a n i t y .  ontthe  Among the characters who are at one  time or another "dotty" can be placed: Duchemin, Edith E t h e l , Macmaster, Mckechnie, Sylvia and Tietjens nimself. It i s T i e t j e n s ' capacity for r e b e l l i o n that keeps him from being a mere v i l l a i n and makes him into an outlaw and a hero instead.  He i s a hero being born.  It i s hi s  violent moral objection to the decayed honor of his society which makes him memorable.  In the midst of c o l l u s i o n , he  maintains h i s i n t e g r i t y of being by means of j u s t i f i e d indignation and f i n a l l y by r e j e c t i n g the old ways for a new l i f e and new precepts.  His attacks on the r u l i n g clas3  often disturb his position-conscious friend Macmaster. He treats "almost every hierarch as i f he were a born fool...."  (Ford, 48).  Tietjens exists for us, partly  because he continues "throwing away opportunity and committing outrage."  He hovers between being "dotty" and  being an outlaw but he ultimately chooses the way of the outlaw. The early Tietjens i s a man of great p r e c i s i o n of mind and of values for l i v i n g .  He i s able to put his  powerfully a n a l y t i c a l mind to solving any problem and can  70  call up untold pieces of information: It was in that way his mind worked when he was f i t : i t picked up l i t t l e pieces of definite, workmanlike information. When i t had enough i t classified them: not for any purpose, but because to know things was agreeable and gave a feeling of strength, of having in reserve something that the other fellow would not suspect.... (Ford, 70). Tietjens silently accepts the tribute from Macmaster that he is a "perfect encyclopaedia of exact material knowledge." Tietjens' analytical precision sections his l i f e out into economically measured portions: There are those British Columbia figures of yours. If we took a cab now I could finish them for you in an hour and twelve minutes. Then British North America can go to the printers. It's only 8.30 now. (Ford, 9). His exactitude in business matters extends also i nto his private l i f e .  When he decides to take Sylvia back  after her affair with Perowne, he says: "Yes, in principle I'm determined to. But I shall take three days to think out the details." He seemed to have no feelings about the matter. (Ford, 8). For Tietjens, relationships with people are practical, rational, predictable, diplomatic, functional, but never personal.  The upper mind must always control the lower;  there must be above a l l , no scenes; there must be no disruption of the social mask: For the basis of Tietjens' emotional existence was a complete taciturnity—at any rate as to  71  h i s emotions. As T i e t j e n s saw t h e w o r l d , you d i d n ' t " t a l k " . Perhaps you d i d n ' t even t h i n k about how you f e l t . (Ford, 6 ) . As a r e s u l t o f h i s dogmatic i d e a l i s m , he d e v e l o p s a code o f b e h a v i o r which .is perhaps epitomized one  by:  rigid  "No! No  but a b l a c k g u a r d would ever submit a woman t o t h e  ordeal of divorce." A set of unalterable r u l e s , admitting must p r o v e inadequate a t some t i m e .  of no  exceptions,  Some Do Not.:. i s the  b e g i n n i n g of t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t c o d i f i e d p r e c e p t s f o r b e h a v i o r can be s o r r o w f u l l y o u t o f touch w i t h the a c t u a l i t i e s and  n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e .  one  o f those who i n h i b i t s the motion towards t h e  of t h e new s o c i e t y . personal blow. and  establishment  Ihen T i e t j e n s i s f a c e d w i t h an i n t e n s e l y  s i t u a t i o n , i t i s as i f he were r e c e i v i n g a heavy  A t one p o i n t he i s denouncing t h e r u l i n g  classes  suddenly remembers t h a t he i s not c e r t a i n t h a t he i s  the f a t h e r o f h i s c h i l d . but  I t i s where T i e t j e n s appears as  He groans a t t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n  i s a b l e t o cover up: But i t gave him a n a s t y t u r n . He hadn't been a b l e t o p i g e o n - h o l e and padlock h i s d i s a g r e e a b l e reflections. He had been as good a s t a l k i n g to h i m s e l f . (Ford, 78).  Emotions which have been l o c k e d  up a r e b e g i n n i n g to make  t h e i r s t r e n g t h f e l t and T i e t j e n s the senex or a l a z o n i s g i v i n g way t o T i e t j e n s the romantic hero. T i e t j e n s i s a t war w i t h h i m s e l f .  H i s sharp mind i s  72  set  a g a i n s t h i s emotional n a t u r e .  b e g i n n i n g t o demand freedom, and  His emotions a r e he f i n d s h i m s e l f invdL ved  i n s i t u a t i o n s which h i s mind cannot g r a s p .  F o r d seems t o  be u s i n g q u i t e a b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e a i n Parade's If  i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s s emotions, they become caught  i n a ' p s y c h i c war. of  World War  End.  up  I i s a large scale explosion  a s o c i e t y too l o n g r e p r e s s e d , a s o c i e t y not aware of  what man  needs f o r  life.  There i s an obvious d u a l i t y i n Parade's  End:  In every man t h e r e are two minds t h a t WD r k s i d e by s i d e , the one c h e c k i n g the o t h e r ; thus emotion stands a g a i n s t r e a s o n , i n t e l l e c t c o r r e c t s p a s s i o n and f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s a c ^ 3 a t l t | i ; i b ^ b i i t s very l i t t l e , before-quick r e f l e c t i o n . Yet f i r s t impressions have always a b i a s i n t h e i r f a v o u r , and even q u i e t r e f l e c t i o n has o f t e n a job to e f f a c e them. (Ford, 8 7 ) . 1  ;  Ford sees a s p l i t and perhaps i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e should a b a l a n c e , a harmony, between i n t e l l e c t and  emotion.  i s c l e a r t h a t he sees " i m p r e s s i o n s " as much more  be  It  powerful  than r e a s o n and perhaps even much more a c c u r a t e . The war and  between the two  destructive.  s i d e s of man  In No More Parades,  can be  virulent  an e x p l a n a t i o n of  S y l v i a ' s behavior i s o f f e r e d : A t the l a t e r date S y l v i a had no d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c o u n t i n g t o h e r s e l f f o r her h a v i n g gone o f f w i t h such an o a f : she had s i m p l y r e a c t e d i n a v i o l e n t f i t o f s e x u a l h a t r e d , from her husbairi 's mind. (Ford, 389). T i e t j e n s says t h a t h i s "whole problem w i l l remain the same  73  whether I'm  here or n o t .  For i t ' s i n s o l u b l e .  whole problem of the r e l a t i o n s o f the s e x e s . " A man  I t ' s the (Ford,  491).  has been t o o l o n g d e f i n e d as a t h i n k i n g , r e a s o n i n g  b e i n g ; h i s p h y s i c a l nature needs to be r e c o g n i z e d . woman a l s o has been too l o n g regarded i n g and  "pure".  By overemphasizing  i z i n g the body and  as s e x l e s s , s h r i i k r  t h e mind and  de-emphas-  emotions, the western "gentleman" has  brought about a s p l i t a t war  A  i n h i s psyche and  the two  s i d e s are  i n Parade's End  •.  T i e t j e n s has the p o t e n t i a l to be the b e s t o f h i s tradition.  H i s t r a d i t i o n i s t h a t of the A n g l i c a n S a i n t  and t h e E n g l i s h p u b l i c schoolboy. be a b l e to touch p i t c h and  He  f e e l s t h a t he  not be d e f i l e d .  He wants to be i n the world but not o f i t .  should  (Ford, 187). Such an  attempt to r e c o n c i l e o p p o s i t e s l e a d s to h i s dehumanization. Sainthood,  because i t i s o t h e r - w o r l d l y , i m p l i c i t l y  t h e - v a l u e s of l i f e here and now.  denies  The more T i e t j e n s a s p i r e s  a f t e r p e r f e c t i o n , t h e more i n a d v e r t e n t l y e m o t i o n l e s s c r u e l he  and  becomes. But,.aalso, as V a l e n t i n e Wannop saw i t , humanity has t h e s e d o u b l i n g s of s t r o n g n a t u r e s ; j u s t as the urbane and grave Spanish n a t i o n must f i n d i t s o u t l e t i n the s h r i e k i n g l u s t s of the b u l l r i n g or the c i r c u m s p e c t , l a b o r i o u s and admirable c i t y t y p i s t must f i n d her d e r i v a t i v e i n the c r u d e r l u s t s o f c e r t a i n n o v e l i s t s , so E d i t h E t h e l must break down i n t o p h y s i c a l s e x u a l i t i e s — and i n t o s h r i e k e d coarseness of f i s h w i v e s . How e l s e , i n d e e d , do we have s a i n t s ? S u r e l y , a l o n e , by the u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y of the one tendency over the other ». (Ford, 268).  74  In Tietjens' character, one tendency almost gains a victory over the other. Sainthood.  He aspires to the detachment of  Sylvia says what she thinks to be at the  bottom of his mind: "He desires," Sylvia said, and she had no idea when she said i t , "to model himself upon our L o r d . . . . " The general leant back in the sofa. He said almost indulgently: "Who's that...our Lord?" Sylvia said: "Upon our Lord Jesus C h r i s t . . . . " (For d, 412). Tietjens completes his severance from the world of man by immersing himself in abstract calculations.  Instead of  playing the game of golf, he studies i t , making notes on trajectory, club-face angle, spin and r o l l .  He uses his  abstract mind as a shield from r e a l i t y : No gentleman t h i n k s . . . : By God; she must have been with child by another man.... He bad been fighting the conviction down a l l the last four months. He knew now that he had been fighting the conviction a l l the last four months whilst, anaesthetized, he had bathed in figure s and wave-theories. (Ford, 122)'. In No More Parades, Tietjens realizes that his morality is not only out of date, it is a type of psychological "complex" resulting from overexposure to an authoritarian system: Or really, because i t is not good to have taken one's public school's ethical system seriously. I am really, s i r , the English public schoolboy. That's an eighteenth-century product. What with the love of truth that—  75  God help me I—they rammed that into me at Clifton and the belief Arnold forced upon Rugby that the vilest of sins—the vilest of a l l sins is to peach to the head master! That's me, s i r . Other men get over their schooling. I never have. I remain adolescent. These things are obsessions with me. Complexes, s i r ! (Ford, 490). The resolution of the comic action sees Tietjens slough off his authoritarian complexes.  In Some Do N o t . . . , he is  beginning to reach inchoately for freedom.  Precept and  principle have already become tedious and he makes a break: He had then forty-eight and three-quarter hours'. Let them be a holiday! A holiday frcm himself above a l l ; a holiday from his standards, from his convention with himself. From clear observation, from exact thought, from knocking over a l l the skittles of the exactitudes of others, from the suppression of emotions.... From a l l the weariness that made him intolerable to h i m s e l f . . . . He f e l t his limbs lengthen, as i f they too had relaxed. (Ford, 129). This declaration of a holiday is Tietjens' f i r s t consciousness of a rebellion of his unconscious.  He too is involved  in the surge of libido expressed publicly by the two disreputable golfers who chase Valentine and Gertie yelling: "Strip the bitch naked!... naked!" (Ford, 67).  Ugh...  Strip the bitch stark  Tietjens stops the primitive emotions  of the "city man" who stands "as i f the bottom of his assured world, where a l l men desire in their hearts to bash women, had fallen out."  As i t turns out, Tietjens shares  this very primitive emotion but is usually able to repress i t .  76  I f we r e c a l l M e r e d i t h ' s c o n c e p t i o n  o f comedy, i t w a l l  be seen t h a t i t i s t h e r e s t r i c t i v e s o c i e t y , t h e s o c i e t y a s y e t unpurged by t h e comic s p i r i t , which d e l i m i t s t h e freedom o f l i f e  of women.  The a c t i o n of comedy i s paral l e i  t o and b r i n g s about t h e emancipation of women. threatens for  Eros  the s t a t u s quo, t h e s e c u r i t y ; hence one r e a s o n  the d e s i r e t o bash women, and i n v e r s e l y , t h e d e s i r e  to bash men.  There i s a l s o t h e r e a s o n t h a t b a s h i n g women  who a r e c o n s i d e r e d form o f d i s g u i s e d  to be o b j e c t i o n a b l e would be an accepted sexual  expression.  of t h e o r i g i n o f t h e word f u c k , one  Eric Partridge,  speaking  says t h a t i t i s "probably  o f t h e s a d i s t i c group o f words f o r t h e man's p a r t i n  copulation  ( c f . c l a p , cope, h i t , s t r i k e , thump, and t h e  modern s l a n g term, bang), f o r i t seems t o d e r i v e from Ger.  f i c k e n , "to s t r i k e ' , as KLuge m a i n t a i n s . "  4  In  T i e t j e n s ' V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , t h e need f o r b a s h i n g women has  become g r e a t e r  and i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r  a gentleman to d i s g u i s e h i s l u s t s .  Symbolic  bashings  cannot l o n g take t h e p l a c e o f a c t u a l i t y without p r o d u c i n g "complexes".  There i s a l o n g passage, when T i e t j e n s i s  walking with Valentine  i n t h e c o u n t r y a f t e r Duchemin's  b r e a k f a s t , wherein T i e t j e n s d e s c r i b e s It  i s worth q u o t i n g  in full:  t h e " p e r f e c t " England  77  "God's England!" T i e t j e n s exclaimed t o h i m s e l f i n h i g h good humour. "'Land o f Hope and G l o r y ! ' — F n a t u r a l descending t o t o n i c , C major: chord o f 6-4, s u s p e n s i o n over dominant seventh t o common chord o f C major.... A l l a b s o l u t e l y c o r r e c t ! Double basses, ' c e l l o s , a l l v i o l i n s , a l l woodwind, a l l b r a s s . F u l l grand organ, a l l s t o p s , s p e c i a l vox humana and key-bugle e f f e c t . . . . A c r o s s t h e c o u n t i e s came t h e sound o f b u g l e s t h a t h i s f a t h e r knew.... P i p e e x a c t l y r i g h t . I t must be: p i p e o f Englishman o f good b i r t h ; d i t t o t o b a c c o . A t t r a c t i v e young woman's back. E n g l i s h midday midsummer. Best c l i m a t e i n the world! No day on which man may not go abroad!" T i e t j e n s paused and aimed w i t h h i s h a z e l s t i c k an immense blow a t a t a l l s p i k e of y e l l o w m u l l e i n w i t h i t s undecided, f u r r y , glaucous l e a v e s and i t s undedided, buttony, u n r i p e lemonc o l o u r e d f l o w e r . The s t r u c t u r e c o l l a p s e d , g r a c e f u l l y , l i k e a woman k i l l e d among c r i n o l i n e s ! "Now I'm a bloody murderer!" T i e t j e n s s a i d . "Not g o r y ! Green s t a i n e d w i t h v i t a l f l u i d o f innocent p l a n t . . . And by God.' Not a woman.in t h e c o u n t r y who won't l e t you rape her a f t e r an hour's a c q u a i n t a n c e ! " He slew two more m u l l e i n s and a s o w - t h i s t l e ! A shadow, but n o t from the sun, a gloom, l a y a c r o s s t h e s i x t y a c r e s o f p u r p l e g r a s s bloom and m a r g u e r i t e s , w h i t e : l i k e p e t t i c o a t s o f l a c e over the g r a s s ! (Ford, 106). In t h e midst  of h i s v i s i o n o f p e r f e c t i o n , we see T i e t j e n s  g r i p p e d by a l o n g s t i f l e d p a s s i o n . f l o w e r s appears  The d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e  t o be a t y p e of symbolic  rape;  Tietjens  f a n t a s i z e s t h a t t h e r e i s not a woman i n the c o u n t r y who does not welcome r a p e .  H i s d i s g u s t a t the l a p s e o f p u b l i c  m o r a l i t y i s t i n g e d w i t h a v i t a l c u r i o s i t y about n a t u r e which t h r e a t e n s t o break  the sexual  i t s bondage.  T i e t j e n s ' comic p o t e n t i a l i s d i s p l a y e d h e r e , s i n c e he  78  i s unaware of how much he i m p l i c a t e s h i m s e l f whenever he a c t s or speak3.  I n denouncing bounders, he i n d i r e c t l y  awakens h i s own l u s t s . for  life  capable keep. his  I t i s h i s s t r e n g t h and p o t e n t i a l  t h a t make him a d m i r a b l e . of forming  He i s endowed w i t h mind  p r i n c i p l e s which h i s w i l l a l l o w s him t o  At the same time, he i s t o s s e d by t h e s t r e n g t h o f  i r r a t i o n a l emotional  the p a s s i o n a t e ,  impulses.  G r a d u a l l y the c h a o t i c ,  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y inner s e l f wins a comic  v i c t o r y over the r e s t r i c t i v e p u b l i c  self.  T i e t j e n s b e l i e v e s t h a t one must f o l l o w both i n p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c l i f e . does not always a c t a c c o r d i n g  "principles"  Nevertheless,  to p r i n c i p l e .  he h i m s e l f  He does n o t  s c r u p l e t o a l l o w Macmaster t o c l a i m c r e d i t f o r work t h a t he h i m s e l f has done. The  The dichotomy i s t y p i c a l o f T i e t j e n s .  end o f P a r t One o f Some Po Not... f i n d s him i n a dilemma  over h i s " p r i n c i p l e s " . i n j u r e d and stands  The Wannop horse has been b a d l y  bleeding while  T i e t j e n s attempts t o  d e c i d e what would be the b e s t l e g a l - e c o n o m i c - s o c i a l to  principle  follow: Tietjens said: "I suppose I c o u l d g e t the governor t o pay f i f t y q u i d f o r i t . They want t h e money...." He s a i d : "But i t wouldn't be p l a y i n g the game!'' A l o n g time a f t e r w a r d s he s a i d : "Damn a l l p r i n c i p l e s ' . " And then: "But one has to keep on g o i n g . . . . Principles a r e l i k e a s k e l e t o n map o f a c o u n t r y — y o u know whether you're g o i n g east or n o r t h . " The knacker's c a r t lumbered around the c o r n e r . (Ford, 144) .  79  The  k n a c k e r ' s c a r t comes as a t h r e a t  i t represents a threat otiose—at  to T i e t j e n s .  l e a s t the current  t o the horse butcstlso P r i n c i p l e s have become  ones—and Tietjens i s partly  aware o f the f a c t , b u t he must c l i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s . not  y e t the courage t o f r e e h i m s e l f  He has  from an o s s i f i e d s o c i e t y  a l t h o u g h he i s making s t e p s towards a d e c l a r a t i o n o f independence.  The k n a c k e r ' s c a r t i s a warning o f what i s t o oome  f o r him.  He must s u f f e r the war i n order to become more  humanized.  'Tor V a l e n t i n e  Wannop t h e war had turned  Tietjens  i n t o f a r more o f a man and f a r l e s s o f an i n c l i n a t i o n . . .." (Ford,  233). H i s p r o p o s a l t h a t  i s further  Valentine  become h i s m i s t r e s s  evidence of the f r e e i n g o f h i s humanity.  dilemma, the dilemma o f t h e comic c h a r a c t e r  His  who i s both  romantic hero and r e p r e s s i v e senex a t the same time, i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s statement which forms the c l i m a x o f Some Do Not...: He had s a i d a t some time:  "But  obviously....  Not under t h i s r o o f . . . . " And he had added: "We're the s o r t t h a t . . . d o n o t ! " She had answered, q u i c k l y t o o : " Y e s — t h a t ' s i t . We're t h a t s o r t ! " (Ford, 283). I t i s i n No More Parades t h a t T i e t j e n s d i s c o v e r s the meaning of l i f e and he d i s c o v e r s of t h e m y s t i c .  i t i n a way s i m i l a r t o t h a t  He goes through a dark n i g h t  of t h e s o u l  i n which he r e a l i z e s the p r e s e n c e o f death and so has h i s  80  v i s i o n of l i f e world  sharpened and  clarified.  He d i s c o v e r s t h e  of p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the world o f p e r s o n a l  anguish.  He  sees through  i s b e t t e r than  the r e g i m e n t a l s a y i n g : "Death  dishonour."  No, not d e a t h , angau means p a i n . Anguish i s b e t t e r than d i s h o n o u r . it i s ! (Ford, 310).  Anguish! The d e v i l  T i e t j e n s ' i n i t i a t i o n begins when the s o l d i e r Morgan d i e s i n h i s arms.  The  s i g h t of the b l o o d on h i s  hands makes a deep i m p r e s s i o n on him. p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Morgan's death  He  feels a res-  s i n c e he had r e f u s e d to g i v e  the s o l d i e r l e a v e .  I f he had  not have been s t i l l  a t the f r o n t and  killed.  0 Nine  g i v e n Morgan l e a v e , he would would never have been  T i e t j e n s f e e l s a f u r t h e r attachment to Morgan i n  t h a t the s o l d i e r ' s p e r s o n a l problems were s i m i l a r t o h i s Morgan wanted l e a v e to v i s i t h i s w i f e who h a v i n g an a f f a i r w i t h a boxer who T i e t j e n s had The for  granted  was  own.  reportedly  would have k i l l e d him i f  the l e a v e .  s i g h t o f Morgan's b l o o d becomes almost  an  obsession  Tietjens: The red v i s c o u s n e s s w e l l e d a c r o s s the f l o o r ; you sometimes so see f r e s h water b u b b l i n g up i n sand. I t a s t o n i s h e d T i e t j e n s to see t h a t a human body c o u l d be so l a v i s h of b l o o d . (Ford, 307) .  T h i s passage seems to r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o an e a r l i e r  one  which T i e t j e n s makes a s i g n of h i s l o v e to V a l e n t i n e :  in  81  And I . . . from the f i r s t moment... I ' l l t e l l you... i f I l o o k e d out of a door... i t was a l l l i k e sand.... But t o the h a l f l e f t a l i t t l e b u b b l i n g up o f water. That c o u l d be t r u s t e d . To keep on f o r e v e r . . . . (Ford, 284). The r e f r e s h i n g s p r i n g o f l o v e had not been g i v e n enough freedom to r u n over  the wasteland  and  so i t has  i n t o a s p r i n g of blood and d e s t r u c t i o n . a r e denied  they produce d i r e  There i s another  When v i t a l  forces  results.  passage which expresses  d e s i r e t h a t V a l e n t i n e was  turned  the g r e a t  developing f o r T i e t j e n s :  But, i n these l a t e r days, much g r e a t e r c o n v u l s i o n s had overwhelmed h e r . It sufficed f o r T i e t j e n s to approach her to make her f e e l as i f her whole body was drawn towards him as , b e i n g near a t e r r i b l e h e i g h t , you a r e drawn towards i t . Great waves of blood rushed a c r o s s her b e i n g as i f p h y s i c a l f o r c e s as y e t u n d i s covered or i n v e n t e d a t t r a c t e d the v e r y f l u i d itself. The moon so draws the t i d e s . (Ford, 266). Here, the s o - c a l l e d p h y s i c a l p a s s i o n s , the waves o f b l o o d , are c l o s e l y associated with the n a t u r a l world. which d e n i e s the p a s s i o n s , or which f a i l s contravenes  A society  to d i s c o v e r them^  the n a t u r a l order of t h i n g s and  g i v e s r i s e to  such an u n n a t u r a l , a n t i - n a t u r a l phenomenon as war.  Valentine's  p a s s i o n a t e waves o f blood make an appearance much changed when T i e t j e n s , b e i n g the world  at  " s t r a f e d " by Campion, has a v i s i o n of  war:  The whole map of the embattled world r a n out i n f r o n t of h i m — a s l a r g e as a f i e l d . An embossed map i n g r e e n i s h p a p i e r mache, w i t h the blood of 0 Mine Morgan b l u r r i n g l u m i n o u s l y over i t . (Ford , 493) .  82  T i e t j e n s seems to r e a l i z e t h a t h i s l a c k of p e r s o n a l  contact  w i t h p e o p l e i s p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Morgan's d e a t h . f e e l s t h a t the dead s o l d i e r by a b l a c k cord  "  i s j o i n e d t o h i s "own  (Ford,  identity  356).  I t i s i n the second novel t h a t the f i n a l i s announced.  He  end  of  "parade"  T i e t j e n s has h i s v i s i o n s h i f t e d t o the  p e r s o n a l l e v e l m a i n l y by h i s involvement I n the death of 0 Nine Morgan.  T i e t j e n s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of  the f a u l t s of the  hierarchy:  I f they so b e t r a y us from W h i t e h a l l that f e l l o w L e v i n has no r i g h t to p r y i n t o my matrimonial a f f a i r s . I t i s proper t h a t one's i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g s should be s a c r i f i c e d to the n e c e s s i t i e s of a c o l l e c t i v e e n t i t y . But not i f t h a t e n t i t y i s to be betrayed from above. (Ford, 357). H i s a t t i t u d e to the m i n i s t r y i s t h a t " i f they were p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t a l l [they] General  were p r o f e s s i o n a l boodl-ers."  Campion echoes a h i e a r l i e r  he s a y s , "Then t h e r e had Nevertheless,  even i f i t i s a mock one.  kitchen staff  "stand  431).  speech of T i e t j e n s ' when  b e t t e r be no more parades...." (Ford,  the second n o v e l  T i e t j e n s ' k i t c h e n s and  (Ford,  find  ends w i t h one  T i e t j e n s and  final  parade,  Campion i n s p e c t  e v e r y t h i n g i n order w h i l e  the  easy":  They moved as white o b j e c t s move i n a c h i l d i s h dream. I t was a l l c h i l d i s h . T h e i r eyes r o l l e d . (Ford, 500). For T i e t j e n s , t h i s parade, which v i n d i c a t e s h i s honour,  has  412).  83  a peculiar  finality: To T i e t j e n s t h i s was l i k e t h e sudden b u r s t i n g out o f the r e g i m e n t a l q u i c k - s t e p , as a f t e r a f u n e r a l w i t h m i l i t a r y honours t h e band and drums march away, back t o b a r r a c k s . (Ford, 500).  The  f u n e r a l i s t h a t o f "parade" which has been r e l e g a t e d  to the mess k i t c h e n ;  T h i s parade i s perhaps, however, t h e  most important o f a l l p a r a d e s . to a l l endeavours,  I t g e t s a t what i s e s s e n t i a l  t h e men who t a k e p a r t .  Sergeant-Cook  Case was proud t h a t h i s k i t c h e n would be impeccable with i n t e n minutes  and would have been d i s a p p o i n t e d i f t h e i n s p e c t i o n  had n o t o c c u r r e d .  T i e t j e n s i n s i s t s t h a t the i n s p e c t i o n be  c a r r i e d out so t h a t the men w i l l be g i v e n a chance t o show their  prowess. In t h e two n o v e l s , No More Parades and A Man Gould  Stand Up, T i e t j e n s d e v e l o p s h i s l a t e n t sense o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e lower c l a s s e s .  One o f t h e f i r s t  sentiments he  expresses i n Some Do Not.•. concerns t h e v i r t u e o f the common f o l k : The lower c l a s s e s a r e becoming v o c a l . Why shouldn't t h e y ? They're t h e o n l y people i n the c o u n t r y who a r e sound i n wind and l i m b . T h e y ' l l save t h e c o u n t r y i f t h e c o u n t r y ' s t o be saved. (Ford, 1 8 ) . I n t h e war, T i e t j e n s f i n d s t h a t h i s h i g h b i r t h makes hjm no b e t t e r than the r e s t o f the men. death i s a g r e a t l e v e l l e r .  The t h r e a t o f imminent  T i e t j e n s ' c r a c k Sergeant Cowley  84  s e v e r a l times asks a r i d d l e which c o n t a i n s one o f the themes o f No More  Parades:  Do you know t h e o n l y time the King must s a l u t e a p r i v a t e s o l d i e r and t h e p r i v a t e t a k e s no n o t i c e ? . . . When *e's dead.... (Ford, 4 3 3 ) . Death d e s t r o y s s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n and reminds l o r d s and peasants o f t h e i r common humanity.  This perception of  common humanity i s germane t o t h e comic s o l u t i o n .  As  the o l d order c o n t i n u e s t o d i s g r a c e i t s e l f and d i e o u t , T i e t j e n s b e g i n s t o seek meaning i n l i f e through h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s f e l l o w men.  His relationship to h i s  t r o o p s r e p r e s e n t s a b a s i c change i n him: I t was perhaps t h e dominant i d e a o f T i e t j e n s , perhaps t h e main i d e a he g o t out of w a r f a r e — t h a t a t a l l c o s t s you must keep i n t o u c h w i t h your n e i g h b o u r i n g t r o o p s . (Ford, 624) . Although the keeping up o f communication w i t h t r o o p s i s a m i l i t a r y n e c e s s i t y , h i s concern marks b e l i e s h i s e a r l i e r p r e c e p t t h a t one does not t a l k , or perhaps even t h i n k about emotions. When S y l v i a v i s i t s T i e t j e n s a t h i s base i n F r a n c e , she f i n d s h e r s e l f " i n t h e v e r y b e l l y o f the u g l y a f f a i r . . . . " She  sees T i e t j e n s i n a new way; she sees him working w i t h  and  f o r other  people:  She had never w i t h any s o u l Nowt Anyone, home he would  seen T i e t j e n s put h i s head t o g e t h e r b e f o r e ; he was t h e l o n e l y b u f f a l o . . . . any f a t u o u s s t a f f - o f f i c e r , whom a t never so much a s have spoken to;  85  any t r u s t w o r t h y beer-sodden s e r g e a n t , any s t r e e t u r c h i n d r e s s e d up a s o r d e r l y . (Ford, 4 3 8 ) . She sees t h a t T i e t j e n s has become, or i s becoming c a p a b l e of human s u f f e r i n g : She had never seen him so s u f f e r ; she had never seen him so appeal f o r sympathy—him, a c o l d fiend of reticence! Yet he was now i n a n agony! Now I... And she began t o have a senss of the i n f i n i t e l y s p r e a d i n g w e l t e r of p a i n , g o i n g away t o an e t e r n a l h o r i z o n o f n i g h t . (Ford, 438). T i e t j e n s i s making the move from p a s s i v i t y to a c t i v i t y . He i s b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l a sense o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : With the d r e a d f u l dread o f the a p p r o a c h i n g s t r a f e a l l over him, w i t h a weight on h i s f o r e h e a d , h i s eyebrows, h i s h e a v i l y l a b o u r i n g c h e s t , he had t o t a k e . . . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . And to r e a l i z e t h a t he was a f i t p e r s o n to take responsibility. (Ford, 585). He i s ready to become t h e romantic hero by overcoming h i s paralyzing  "complexes": Now what t h e H e l l was he? A s o r t o f Hamlet of t h e Trenches! No, by God he was n o t . . . . He was p e r f e c t l y ready f o r a c t i o n . Ready t o command a b a t t a l i o n . He was presumably a l o v e r . They d i d t h i n g s l i k e commanding b a t t a l i o n s . And worse! (Ford, 630)'.  He d e c l a r e s h i s independence  f i n a l l y , s a y i n g t h a t he and  V a l e n t i n e , i f she w i l l have him, "would do what t h e y wanted and take what t h e y g o t f o r i t ! "  (Ford, 636).  i s r e a d y to f l e x h i m s e l f and use h i s f u l l  Tietjens  capacity for 1 i f e .  He sees t h a t "times change" and t h a t a man must a l s o change: But to-day the world changed. F e u d a l i s m was f i n i s h e d ; i t s l a s t v e s t i g e s were gone. I t h e l d no p l a c e f o r him. He was g o i n g — h e was d a m n w e l l  66  g o i n g ! — t o make a p l a c e i n i t f o r . . . A man c o u l d now stand up on a h i l l , so he and she c o u l d s u r e l y g e t i n t o some h o l e t o g e t h e r ! (Ford, 6 6 8 ) . T i e t j e n s , somewhat l i k e F r e d e r i c Henry o f A F a r e w e l l To Arms, i s going t o make a s e p a r a t e peace. however, has a c q u i t t e d h i m s e l f honourably. his  duty out o f r e s p e c t f o r the p a s t o r d e r .  no doubt t h a t the order was dead. demand f o r p e r s o n a l submission  Tietjens, He has performed Now t h e r e i s  I t had c a r r i e d the  to the c o r p o r a t e e n t e r p r i s e  too f a r : The c u r s e of t h e army, as f a r a s the o r g a n i s a t i o n i s concerned, was our i m b e c i l e n a t i o n a l b e l i e f t h a t t h e game i s more than the p l a y e r . (Ford, 3 0 5 ) . T i e t j e n s i s to b e g i n a new way. of man i s s t i l l  The i d e a of a community  a good one, but i t must be a c h i e v e d  innumerable p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  through  The game w i l l be p l a y e d  o n l y a f t e r t h e p l a y e r s have been seen t o .  An imposed  system d e l i m i t s t h e freedom by which a man i s d e f i n e d : What d i s t i n g u i s h e d man from the b r u t e s was h i s freedom. When, then, a man was d e p r i v e d o f freedom he became l i k e a b r u t e . To e x i s t i n h i s s o c i e t y was to l i v e w i t h b r u t e s , l i k e G u l l i v e r amongst the Houyhnhnms! (Ford, 6 2 0 ) . T i e t j e n s a c h i e v e s h i s new s t a t e i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r to  the a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n o f t h e b i r t h of the hero.  c o u p l e o f times  i n A Man Gould  Stand  A  Up, T i e t j e n s expresses  t h e d e s i r e t o be f r e e o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s world  of war:  87  And he glanced a s i d e and upwards a t the phosphorescent eocksomb! Within h i s mind something s a i d t h a t i f he were o n l y suspended up t h e r e . . . . (Ford, 545). I f he, T i e t j e n s , stood i n space, h i s head l e v e l w i t h t h a t cockscomb, he would be i n an i n v i o l a b l e vacuum—as f a r as p r o j e c t i l e s were concerned! (Ford, 548). T h i s d e s i r e seems to be The  war  and  " i n e f f e c t the d e s i r e f o r privse y."  the s o c i e t y behind i t c o n t i n u e  p r i v a c y o f the  to v i o l a t e the  i n d i v i d u a l as i s evidenced by the e f f e c t  S y l v i a ' s " p u l l i n g the s t r i n g s of shower b a t h s . " i s granted  h i s wish i n a s t a r t l i n g f a s h i o n : he  and  alive:  buried  of  Tietjens i s blown up  The e a r t h manoeuvred f o r an i n f i n i t e t i m e . He remained suspended i n space. As i f he were suspended as he had wanted to be i n f r o n t o f t h a t cockscomb i n whitewash. Coincidence! The e a r t h sucked s l o w l y and composedly at h i s f e e t . It assimilated his calves, his thighs. I t imprisoned him above the w a i s t . H i s arms b e i n g f r e e , he resembled a man i n a l i f e - b u o y . The e a r t h moved him s l o w l y . I t was s o l i d i s h . (Ford, The out:  young Aranjuez i s b u r i e d "Save me,  Captain!"  to save m y s e l f f i r s t ! "  637).  simultaneously  and  T i e t j e n s r e p l i e s : "I've  got  T h i s r e p l y i s a marked c o n t r a s t  to the statement made about T i e t j e n s e a r l i e r : o t h e r s : h i m s e l f he c o u l d  cries  "He  not s a v e ! " (Ford, 272).  has g i v e n up the s a c r i f i c i a l  saved Tietjens  i d e a l embodied i n h i s d e s i r e  to be an A n g l i c a n S a i n t or even C h r i s t .  To be human  88  one must save o n e s e l f f i r s t . mud  l i k e a hero and  T i e t j e n s comes out of the  i t i s as i f h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e  has  been born out o f c o n t a c t w i t h the v e r y p h y s i c a l , " s l i m y " , mud.  L i k e Aeneas, he has had an underground j o u r n e y  r e t u r n s more a b l e t o d e a l w i t h l i f e .  and  He uses h i s "enormous  p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h " to p u l l Aranjuez out and  c a r r y him  to  safety: He heaved back. The boy came up a l i t t l e . He was c e r t a i n l y f a i n t i n g . He gave no a s s i s t a n c e . The s l i m e was f i l t h y . I t was a condemnation o f a c i v i l i s a t i o n t h a t he, T i e t j e n s , possessed o f enormous p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , s h o u l d never have needed t o use i t b e f o r e . ( F o r d , 638). So the hero  i s born and he i s born i n t o a world of t h e  f l e s h where the needs of the body a r e as r e a l as of  the s o u l .  A new  be a b l e to be man. of  the new  s o c i e t y i s presaged A Man  those  where man  will  Could Stand Up h e r a l d s the  arrival  beginning with c e l e b r a t i o n s .  The n o v e l i s d i v i d e d  into three p a r t s .  P a r t Two  deals  w i t h T i e t j e n s ' e x p e r i e n c e s a t the f r o n t and h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to  l i v e as he w i l l s w i t h V a l e n t i n e .  P a r t s One  and  Three  take p l a c e amid t h e world-wide J u b i l a t i o n of A r m i s t i c e The  b i r t h of the hero i s framed by the c e l e b r a t i o n a t th e  b e g i n n i n g of a new joy  Day.  and  world.  o f freedom t o d6_,  V a l e n t i n e expresses a sense  of  to l i v e :  The wings o f a dove; then would I f l e e away, f l e e away and eat pomegranates b e s i d e an i n f i n i t e washtub of R e c k i t t ' s b l u e . I n c r e d i b l e , but you could'. ( F o r d , 506) .  89  It  i s l i k e V a l e n t i n e t o r e f e r to the M e d i t e r r a n e a n as a.  washtub, but i t i s c l e a r t h a t she f e e l s f r e e t o dream and to  dream s e n s u o u s l y .  She  senses the demise o f  social  distinctions: She was never g o i n g to show r e s p e c t f o r anyone ever a g a i n . She had been through t h e m i l l : the whole world had been through the m i l l I No more r e s p e c t I ( F o r d , 506). R e p r e s s i v e a u t h o r i t y i s dead and the s p i r i t of the people is  freed: Undoubtedly what the M i s t r e s s e s w i t h the Head at t h e i r head had f e a r e d was t h a t i f t h e y , Headmistresses, M i s t r e s s e s , Masters, P a s t o r s — by whom Iswas made e t c e t e r a ! — s h o u l d cease t o be r e s p e c t e d because s a t u r n a l i a broke out on--* the sounding o f a maroon the world would go to p i e c e s ! An a w f u l thought! The g i r l s no l o n g e r s i t t i n g s i l e n t i n the nonconformist h a l l w h i l e the Head addressed r e p r e s s i v e speeches t o them.... ( F o r d , 509).  Even E d i t h E t h e l ' s attempts over the phone a t damping o f f s a t u r n a l i a a r e u n s u c c e s s f u l . When a world has been s u f f e r i n g under r e p r e s s i o n , i t i s proper t h a t break o u t . with  saturnalia  I t i s a l s o proper f o r a comic work t o conclude  saturnalia: The same impulse t h a t drove p e o p l e , even i n p r e h i s t o r i c times, to enact f e r t i l i t y r i t e s and c e l e b r a t e a l l phases of t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l e x i s t e n c e , s u s t a i n s t h e i r e t e r n a l i n t e r e s t i n comedy. I t i s i n the nature o f comedy t o be e r o t i c , r i s q u e , and sensuous i f not s e n s u a l , impious and even wicked. * P a r t Three d e a l s w i t h the meeting  T i e t j e n s i n h i s deserted f l a t .  of V a l e n t i n e and  S y l v i a has l e f t him  and  90  he i s "madly" s e l l i n g h i s f u r n i t u r e to g e t enough money for a party. climax  T h i s p a r t y ends t h e t h i r d n o v e l and i s a  t o the comic a c t i o n .  The p a r t y b r i n g s  together  T i e t j e n s ' d i s r e p u t a b l e f r i e n d s , the o u t c a s t s of the o l d s o c i e t y , t h e wrecks o f t h e war. still  Mad Mckechnie shows up  c l u t c h i n g the sonnet; A r a n j u e z appears, one eye  m i s s i n g , married  to h i s not so s a t i s f a c t o r y g i r l ,  Nancy.  The p a r t y i s a type o f wedding c e l e b r a t i o n f o r V a l e n t i n e and T i e t j e n s : They t h r e e went up the s t a i r s t o g e t h e r , but they were two a l o n e . They were going on t h e i r honeymoon j o u r n e y . . . . The b r i d e ' s going away! (Ford, 670). The " m a r r i a g e " of V a l e n t i n e and T i e t j e n s announces the r e i of the new  s o c i e t y where t h e harassed  his mistress.  The p a s s i o n a t e  hero may l i v e  with  can a t l a s t have t h e i r  way.  The i n h i b i t o r s of f e s t i v i t y have been overcome. The appearance of t h i s new s o c i e t y i s f r e q u e n t l y s i g n a l i z e d by some k i n d of p a r t y or f e s t i v e r i t u a l , which e i t h e r appears a t the end o f the p l a y or i s assumed t o take p l a c e immediately a f t e r w a r d . Weddings are most common, and sometimes so many of them o c c u r , as i n the quadruple wedding at the end o f As You L i k e I t , t h a t they suggest a l s o the w h o l e s a l e p a i r i n g o f f t h a t takes p l a c e i n a dance, which i s another common c o n c l u s i o n , and the normal one f o r the masque. ( F r y e , 163) The ending of the t r i l o g y has b o t h a wedding and a dance. V a l e n t i n e and T i e t j e n s a r e a t the c e n t r e o f a v a s t dance:  ritual  91  They were p r a n c i n g . The whole world around them was y e l l i n g and p r a n c i n g round. They were t h e c e n t r e o f unending r o a r i n g c i r c l e s . (Ford, 674). T i e t j e n s , a l t h o u g h a t the c e n t r e o f the c i r c l e , does not remain m o t i o n l e s s as he used part.  to do, but t a k e s an a c t i v e  For V a l e n t i n e , he i s no l o n g e r a t h r e a t e n i n g beas t  but a h e l p f u l  one:  T i e t j e n s was s t r e t c h i n g out h i s two hands from the w a i s t . I t was i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . His r i g h t hand was behind her back, h i s l e f t i n her r i g h t hand. She was f r i g h t e n e d . She was amazed. Did you e v e r ! He was swaying s l o w l y . The elephant!. They, were d a n c i n g ! (Ford, 674).  92  Chapter F i v e :  Conclusion  In w r i t i n g Parade's End, Ford was c o n s c i o u s l y u s i n g the comic s t r u c t u r e .  The t o t a l i t a r i a n r e p r e s s i v e n e s s o f  the d y i n g V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y i s shown a t i t s s t r o n g e s t i n Some Do Not. .in: .  It i s this restrictive,  anti-romantic  s o c i e t y o f humors, which i s the t a r g e t o f comedy. first  I n th e  n o v e l , romance i s o n l y nascent and i s q u i c k l y s t i f l e d ;  i n f a c t i t i s s t i f l e d p a r t l y by T i e t j e n s h i m s e l f . p o t e n t i a l l y t h e romantic h e r o , i s p a r a l y z e d to the code o f r e t i c e n c e and c i r c u m s p e c t i o n .  Tietjens,  by h i s adherence One consequence  o f t h i s a l l e g i a n c e appears to be the l o s s o f p a r t o f h i s mind d u r i n g t h e war and t h e o t h e r consequence i s t h e l o s s (temporarily)  of V a l e n t i n e .  The s u f f e r i n g t h a t he undergoes  i n No More Parades and A Man Could  Stand Up, c o u l d almost  be a punishment f o r h i s f a i l u r e t o s e i z e t h e d a y . No More Parades r e v e a l s f u l l y t h e demise o f l e a d e r s h i p and  the absence o f i n t e g r i t y i n government.  squabbles i n t e r f e r e w i t h the p r o g r e s s a t W h i t e h a l l c o s t s many l i v e s .  Petty  o f t h e war and ixd e c i s i o n  T i e t j e n s becomes more and more  d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e e l i t e class.  personal  ruling  A t the same time, he d i s c o v e r s t h e tremendous l i f e -  f o r c e o f t h e lower c l a s s , average s o l d i e r , as t y p i f i e d by the Cockney t r o o p s he has under h i s command.  He begins t o  93  d i s c o v e r p e o p l e as opposed t o h i g h i d e a l s .  He f i n d s t h e  a b i l i t y t o become i n v o l v e d on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l w i t h someone (0 Nine Morgan) who i s beneath h i s s o c i a l c l a s s . and  "Parade"  s o c i a l s t a t u s a r e wiped out by t h e war and t h e v a l u e o f  the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e v e a l e d .  The c l o s e v i s i o n o f death on a  l a r g e s c a l e c o n v i n c e s T i e t j e n s o f the importance l i f e w h i l e one c a n .  In t h e second  j a r him from h i s r i g i d A Man Could  n o v e l , Ford b e g i n s t o  passivity.  Stand Up sees T i e t j e n s break completely  w i t h h i s o l d ways.  He becomes a p a s s i o n a t e , a c t i v e man.  He i s b o t h w a r r i o r and l o v e r . blown up.  of seizing  His old self i s l i t e r a l l y  H i s d e s i r e t o be C h r i s t - l i k e i s c a s t o f f f o r  the d e s i r e t o be more c o m p l e t e l y human.  Tietjens discovers  h i s p h y s i c a l s e l f and l e a r n s t o l i v e w i t h E r o s .  The c i r c u s  parade o f " c a t s and monkeys" i s a t an end, and T i e t j e n s b e g i n s a new parade as an e l e p h a n t .  The elephant image  i n d i c a t e s t h a t he has s o l v e d the problem which l e d t b t h e overthrow o f V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y .  He has l e a r n e d t o l i v e  w i t h h i s i n s t i n c t u a l n a t u r e which i s not a dangerous r a g i n g s t a l l i o n or t i g e r , but i s a f r i e n d l y , h e l p f u l , elephant.  lumbering  The L a s t P o s t f i n d s T i e t j e n s and V a l e n t i n e t r a n s -  posed t o a p a s t o r a l w o r l d , b e g i n n i n g a new, f r e e r The b e s t n o v e l i s p r o b a b l y A Man Could  society.  Stand Up.  It  i s p r e c i s e l y and t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d and p e r f e c t l y caps t h e  94  whole of the comic a c t i o n .  The  t h e f a c t t h a t i t appears to be i s necessary  L a s t Post tacked  s u f f e r s from  on.  I believe i t  because i t s a t i s f i e s a c u r i o s i t y about  T i e t j e n s f a r e d and what became of everybody e l s e . f a c t t h a t so many new  flat  and  One  first  occupy most of the l a s t n o v e l , a r e  S y l v i a , who  briefly.  seems t o have had may  have  i n h i s attempt toviunite both romance and  irony.  modes a r e q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d i n the  t h r e e n o v e l s , but  they seem to c l a s h i n The  S y l v i a becomes too p a t h e t i c and melodramatic. Ford  relatively  Christopher,  appear o n l y v e r y  problem t h a t F o r d  originated These two  M a r i e L e o n i e R i o t o r and Mark  u n i n t e r e s t i n g i n comparison w i t h  V a l e n t i n e and  The  c h a r a c t e r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d , however,  d e t r a c t s from the u n i t y . T i e t j e n s , who  how  The  Last  Post.  romantic  seems t o want e v e r y t h i n g t o work out a l l r i g h t f o r her  w h i l e the r e a l i s t - i r o n i s t sees what must be. i n the f o u r t h n o v e l becomes much more b i t i n g .  The  irony  Tietjens i s  still  t r o u b l e d by h i s o l d t o r m e n t o r s , but more have been  added  (Mrs. de Bray Pape, f o r example).  death i s h e a v i l y f e l t  The  presence o f  because Mark l i e s p a r a l y z e d  d y i n g throughout the n o v e l .  D e s p i t e these  and  weaknesses,  however, The L a s t P o s t does seem s a t i s f y i n g p a r t l y because it  g i v e s more i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h a r a c t e r s which are  f a s c i n a t i n g i n the r e s t o f Parade's End,  so  but mainly because  95  it  c o n t i n u e s and completes Although Parade's  End  the comic  s t r u c t u r e o f the t e t r a l o g y .  i s s t r u c t u r e d as a comedy, t h e  form does not v i o l a t e F o r d ' s use o f i m p r e s s i o n i s m . a sense of what the times were l i k e . of get  He g i v e s  He does t h i s by means  h i s a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d e t a i l . a f e e l i n g o f what the s o c i e t y and war  were l i k e w i t h o u t  b e i n g weighed down w i t h i n d i g e s t i b l e f a c t s and  figures.  The  for i t s  ending o f the n o v e l i s not too manipulated  happy ending t o be c o n v i n c i n g . to  End of  h i s romancing  We  Ford's i r o n i c thread g i v e s  a sense o f r e a l i t y .  Evidence o f t h i s r e a l i s m i s t h a t , even though  Parade's  i s a comedy r a t h e r than a t r a g e d y , t h e r e i s no  lessening  the f o r c e f u l n e s s o f i t s treatment of t h e war.  have seen, Parade's End  As TO  c o n t a i n s much human s u f f e r i n g .  The  d e s t r u c t i o n of a p e r s o n w i t h S y l v i a ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r  life  i s an i n d i c t m e n t of the e v i l s o f s o c i e t y .  fully  aware of the h o r r o r o f war, his  but he was  v i s i o n stop w i t h the war.  Jake Barnes,  F o r d was  not w i l l i n g t o have  He c o u l d not be Hemingway's  i n c a p a c i t a t e d because of t h e war.  w i t h the comic v i s i o n i s f o r e v e r s e e k i n g new life,  even amidst  especially there). to  life,  the r u b b l e of an o l d order (or That Parade's  End  The  i s comic  artist more  perhaps is a  tribute  F o r d ' s f a i t h i n the powers o f humanity to r e b u i l d and  build better.  to  I t i s evidence of the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t which  i s always f i g h t i n g o f f the powers of death.  96  Footnotes  Chapter  One: I n t r o d u c t i o n  C a r o l Ohmann, Ford Madox F o r d : From A p p r e n t i c e t o Craftsman, Middletown, C o n n e c t i c u t , 1964, p.119. 1  John A. Meixner, F o r d Madox Ford's N o v e l s , of Minnesota P r e s s , i y 6 2 , p.254. 2  University  J.M. Synge, The Playboy of t h e Western World, Methuen, London, 1963, p.105. 3  P a u l L . Wiley, N o v e l i s t o f Three Worlds: Ford Madox F o r d , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962, p.220. 4  Ford Madox F o r d , I t Was t h e N i g h t i n g a l e , P h i l a d e l p h i a and London, 1933, p.225. 5  George M e r e d i t h , "An Essay on Comedy," Comedy, ed. Wylie Sypher, Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1956, p.36. 6  7  I b i d . , p.37.  Soren K i e r k e g a a r d , Fear and Trembling and S i c k n e s s Unto Death, Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1954, p.190. 8  Chapter  Two: The Nature o f t h e Comic  George M e r e d i t h ,  "An Essay on Comedy," p.15.  97  Chapter  Three:  Technique  I r o n y and  Impressionism:  i n the Twentieth  Century  1 Joseph Conrad, " P r e f a c e " t o The Nigger Everyman, London, 1956, p.5;  of the  'Narcissus',  Ford Madox F o r d , Joseph Conrad; A P e r s o n a l Remembrance, London, 1924, p.222. 2  3  I b i d . , p.223.  F o r d Madox F o r d , "On Impressionism," C r i t i c a l W r i t i n g s o f F o r d Madox F o r d , ed. Frank MacShane, L i n c o l n , Nebraska, p.43. 4  F o r d Madox F o r d , D e d i c a t o r y L e t t e r to No More Parades, Grosset and Dunlap arranged w i t h A&C B o n i , New York, 1925, p.v. 5  6  F o r d Madox F o r d , I t Was  Chapter  Nightingale,up.217.  F o u r : C h a r a c t e r s i n the Comedy:  The Double-take  A  the  o f the I r o n i c  Ford Madox F o r d , I t Was  Vision  the N i g h t i n g a l e , p.222.  2 E l l i o t t B. Gose, " R e a l i t y to Romance: A Study of Ford's Parade's End," C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , XVII (May 1956), 3  p.  Ibj  450.  - d . » P.450.  4  E r i c P a r t r i d g e , Shakespeare's Bawdy, Diitton, p.118.  5  Susanne K. Langer,  349.  F e e l i n g and Form, London,  1959,  98  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Bergson, H e n r i . "Laughter," ^omedy, ed. Wylie Sypher. Doubleday Anchor, Garden C i t y , New York, 1956. Blackmur, R.P. "The K i n g over the Water: Notes on the Novels of F.M. H u e f f e r , " The P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y C h r o n i c l e , IX ( A p r i l 1948), 123-127. Brouner, M i l t o n . "Ford Madox H u e f f e r : I m p r e s s i o n i s t , " Bookman. XLIV (October 1916), 170-175. Brooks, C l e a n t h . "Irony as a P r i n c i p l e of S t r u c t u r e , " L i t e r a r y O p i n i o n i n America, ed. M.D. Z a b e l . New York, 1951. C a s s e l l , R i c h a r d A. B a l t i m o r e , Md.,  F o r d Madox F o r d : A Study of Hi3 ly61.  Coffman, S t a n l e y K. Modern P o e t r y .  Imagism: A Chapter  Conrad, Joseph.  The Nigger  Novels.  f o r the H i s t o r y of  of the ' N a r c i s s u s ' .  Everyman,  1956.  F i r e b a u g h , Joseph J . " T i e t j e n s and the T r a d i t i o n , " P a c i f i c S p e c t a t o r , ¥1 (Winter 1952), 23-32. F o r d , F o r d Madox. C r i t i c a l W r i t i n g s of F o r d Madox F o r d , ed. Frank MacShane. L i n c o l n , Nebraska, 1964. . The E n g l i s h N o v e l : From the E a r l i e s t Days t o the Death o f Conrad. P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1929. . York,  The  Good S o l d i e r .  V i n t a g e Books,  New  1951. .  and London,  I t Was 1933.  -  the N i g h t i n g a l e .  Philadelphia  Joseph Conrad: A P e r s o n a l Remembrance. London,  1924.  . The March of L i t e r a t u r e from C o n f u c i u s Modern Times. London, 1939.  to  99 . (June, December  ..  •'  "On Impressionism," P o e t r y and Drama. I I  1914), 167-175, 323-334.  .  Parade's End.  Knopf, New York, 1950.  .  Some Do N o t . . . . • U^ESi^S^i^^t  1924.  . . No More Parades. Grosset and Dunlap arranged with A.&C. Boni, New York, 1925. . A Man Could Stand Up. Grosset and Dunlap arranged with A.&C. Boni, New York, 1926. . The Last Post. Literary Guild of America arranged with A.&C. Boni, New York, 1928. . "Techniques," I ( J u l y 1935), 20-35.  The Southern Review,  Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism. edition, New York, 1966. .  Atheneum paper  "The Argument of Comedy," English Institute Essays, ed. D.A. Robertson, New York, 1948, 58-73.  Goldring, Douglas.  South Lodge.  London, 1943.  . Trained for Genius. New York, 1949; Published in England as The Last Pre-Raphaelite. London, 1948. Gordon, Ambrose. "A Diamond of Pattern: The War of Ford Madox Ford," Sewanee Review. LXX (Summer 1962), 464-483. . The Invisible Tent. Press, Austin, 1964.  University of Texas  . "Parade's End: Where War Was Fairy Tale," Texas Studies i n Literature and Language. V (Spring 1963), 25-41. Gose, E l l i o t t B. "Reality to Romance: A Study of Ford's Parade's End." College English. XVII (May 1956), 445-450. Greene, Graham. "Ford Madox Ford," The Lost Childhood and Other Essays. New York, 1952. G r i f f i t h , Marlene. "A JDouble Reading of Parade's End." Modern Fiction Studies. IX (Spring 1963), 25-38.  100  Hynes, Samuel. "Ford and t h e S p i r i t o f Romance," Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , IX ( S p r i n g 1963), 17-24. Kenner, Hugh. "Remember t h a t I have Remembered," Gnomon. New York, 1958. K i e r k e g a a r d , Soren. Fear and Trembling and S i c k n e s s Unto Death. Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1954. Koestler, Arthur. Langer, Lid,  Susanna K.  I n s i g h t and Outlook. F e e l i n g and Form.  New York, 1949. London, 1959.  R.W. F o r d Madox F o r d : The Essence o f H i s A r t . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s , 1964.  Lowell, Robert. "Ford Madox F o r d : 1 8 7 3 - 1 9 3 9 , E n c o u n t e r , I I ( A p r i l 1954), 32. A l s o i n L i f e S t u d i e s . MacShane, F r a n k . The L i f e and Work o f F o r d Madox F o r d . London, 1965. Meixner, John A. F o r d Madox F o r d ' s N o v e l s . Minnesota P r e s s , 1962.  U n i v e r s i t y of  M e r e d i t h , George. "An Essay on Comedy," Comedy, ed. Wylie Sypher. Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1956. M i z e n e r , A r t h u r . "A Large F i c t i o n , " (Winter 1951), 142-147.  Kenyon Review, X I I I  Ohmann, C a r o l . F o r d Madox F o r d : From A p p r e n t i c e t o Craftsman. Middletown, C o n n e c t i c u t , 1964. Partridge, E r i c .  Shakespeare's Bawdy.  Dutton, 1963.  P i c k e r e l , P a u l . "Outstanding N o v e l s , " Y a l e Review, XL, 1 (September 1950), 189-192). Pound, E z r a . "Madox F o r d a t R a p a l l o , " Pavannes and D i v a g a t i o n s . New D i r e c t i o n s , N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t , 1958. Synge, J.M. The Playboy o f the Western World. London, 1963. Sypher, Wylie.  Comedy.  Methuen,  Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1956.  101  Wiley, Paul L . Novelist of Three Worlds: Ford Madox Ford. Syracuse University Press, 1962. Williams, William Carlos. New York, 1954.  "Parade's End." Selected Essays.  Zabel, M.D. "Ford Madox Ford: Yesterday and After," Craft and Character in Modern Fiction. New York, 1957.  

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