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Optimum city size and municipal services efficiency: British Columbia as a case study Griggs, William Beverly 1967

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OPTIMUM CITY SIZE AND MUNICIPAL SERVICES EFFICIENCY: BRITISH COLUMBIA AS A CASE STUDY by WILLIAM BEVERLEY GRIGGS B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an .'Advanced deg ree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g ree t i i a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y I f u r t h e r a g r ee t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Depa r tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d ' w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa r tment o f Regional and Community Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ABSTRACT The l a s t few decades have witnessed the appearance of a new dimension i n the f i e l d of the s o c i a l sciences -namely the applied aspect. This emphasis i s r e f l e c t e d in the application of complex and sophisticated q u a n t i f i c a t i o n techniques and procedures that have been adopted by many researchers. One d i r e c t i o n i n which attention i s being focussed i s towards the determination of the optimum size of c i t i e s . S o c i o l o g i s t s , geographers, economists, demogra-phers, planners, and persons from other d i s c i p l i n e s , are be-coming increasingly concerned, from dif f e r e n t viewpoints, about the size and structure of c i t i e s . The question that they raise i s : "What i s the most desirable or optimum size for a c i t y ? " This thesis attempts to determine the value for the optimum size of c i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia using e f f i c i e n c y of municipal services as the variable with which to determine t h i s s i z e . Such a pursuit i s a r e l a t i v e -l y new phenomenon and very few studies have adopted t h i s type of an approach. To accomplish t h i s objective, the thesis has been divided into four major sections. The f i r s t , represented by Chapter II, discusses the evolving concepts regarding the id e a l shape and form of c i t i e s . This chapter outlines the ( i i i ) various methods that have been adopted through the years, to determine the ideal or optimum size and shape of c i t i e s . The second section, represented by Chapter I I I , out-l i n e s the various expenditure and revenue a c t i v i t i e s that are practised by incorporated areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. An understanding of the implications regarding these a c t i v i t i e s , and the e f f e c t s they have upon budget pro-cedures provides an insight into some of the f i s c a l problems that confront m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Chapter IV, which comprises the t h i r d major section, j u s t i f i e s the selection of municipal services that are i n -vestigated; the selection of the sample size regarding the number of c i t i e s , and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these into se-parate groups; and the time period for the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The municipal services chosen are: f i r e protection, public works, sanitation and waste removal, recreation, and educa-t i o n . The year 1965 was selected as accurate r e s u l t s were available from the 1965 Census. The sample size included a l l incorporated areas in t h i s province which amounted to ninety-eight centres. The f i n a l section, represented by Chapter V attempts to compare cost with l e v e l of performance for in d i v i d u a l services. This involved carrying out several intermediate steps. These were. 1. measuring the l e v e l of service for each municipal service; 2. equating per capita expenditures for a given service with the l e v e l of performance i t provides (Iv/) to each inhabitant; and 3. the ranking of each municipal service i n terms of the r e l a t i v e importance between i t and the remaining ones. The f i n a l r esults obtained from t h i s investigation were as follows; 1. Smaller incorporated areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia expend lower sums of money, in terms of per capita values, on the maintenance and operation of municipal services than do l a r -ger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 2. Smaller incorporated areas receive lower amounts of grants, subsidies, and contributions, i n terms of per capita values, from higher lev e l s of go-vernments than larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 3 . Larger municipalities generate greater sums of money, i n the forms of revenue raised from l o c a l taxation practices, on a per capita basis, than do smaller ones. A . Larger municipalities provide higher l e v e l s of f i r e protection services, public works a c t i v i t i e s , sanitation and waste removal operations, recrea-t i o n services, and education services than do smal-l e r incorporated areas. 5 . By equating cost with l e v e l of service, and rank-ing each municipal service according to i t s r e l a -t i v e importance, the largest size group of c i t i e s a attains the highest score. The contention of t h i s thesis i s that, when using e f f i c i e n c y of municipal services as one measure with which to determine the optimum size of c i t i e s , the largest size group of c i t i e s represents the optimum s i z e . The res u l t s of t h i s investigation have indicated that c i t i e s with po-pulations of f i f t e e n thousand or more persons represent the optimum s i z e . ( v i ) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I should l i k e to thank those persons who have given of themselves much time and information that has been most helpful in the construction and presentation of thi s t h e s i s . My thanks extend to Professors H.P. Oberlander and R.W. C o l l i e r for t h e i r encouragement and guidance; Mrs H. Symonds for her constructive c r i t i c i s m ; the co-oper-ation provided by the o f f i c i a l s of each incorporated area that responded to the questionnaire that was sent to them; and f i n a l l y my wife, Melanie, who greatly helped in the typing and graphic presentation of the thesi s . ( v i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE PROBLEM - ITS APPROACH AND IMPORTANCE . . . 1 The Problem 1 Statement o f the Problem • . . . , 1 Purpose o f T h e s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Approach t o t h e Problem . . 4 Importance o f the Problem . . . . . . . . . . 6 Hypotheses 10 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used 11 M u n i c i p a l i t y 11 M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e . . n M u n i c i p a l Revenue . . 12 M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s 12 P o p u l a t i o n 13 L i m i t a t i o n s 13 S o u r c e s o f Data 16 I I . THE OPTIMUM SIZE AND SHAPE OF CITIES 18 The I d e a l Form o f C i t i e s 19 The I d e a l S i z e o f C i t i e s * 28 Summary 34 I I I . MUNICIPAL REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES . . . . . . 36 Revenues 37 ( v i i i ) C H A P T E R P A G E E x p e n d i t u r e s . 4 0 M u n i c i p a l B u d g e t . . . . . . . 4 3 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 I V . THE R E L A T I O N S H I P BETWEEN C I T Y S I Z E AND AND M U N I C I P A L E X P E N D I T U R E . . . . . . . . . 4 7 T a b u l a t i o n a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . 4 7 S a m p l e S i z e 4 7 C l a s s I n t e r v a l 4 8 S e l e c t i o n o f T i m e P e r i o d 5 2 M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 S e l e c t i o n o f M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . . . 55 G e n e r a l G o v e r n m e n t 55 P u b l i c H e a l t h 5 6 S o c i a l W e l f a r e 56 P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t -i o n o f J u s t i c e 57 T r e n d s i n M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . 59 F i r e P r o t e c t i o n 59 P u b l i c W o r k s . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 S a n i t a t i o n a n d W a s t e R e m o v a l . . . . . . . 6 6 E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . 7 0 R e c r e a t i o n . . . . . . 7 4 T o t a l E x p e n d i t u r e • . • 7 8 ( i x ) CHAPTER PAGE Ranking of Incorporated areas 82 Factor Application 82 Summary . . . . . . . 87 V . THE RATING OF SERVICES 90 Ranking Procedure . . . . . . . . . 92 E f f i c i e n c y of Service . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Selection of Variables . . . . . . . . . . 93 Ranking of Variables 98 Equating Expenditure with Extent of Service . . . . . . . 99 Application of Factor to Municipal Services 100 Evaluation of Municipal Services 104 F i r e Protection 105 Selection of C r i t e r i a 110 Ranking of Each C r i t e r i a 114 Public Works 122 Road Construction A c t i v i t i e s 124 Selection of Variables 128 Ranking of Variables 130 Street Cleaning A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . 133 Selection of Variables .13? Sewer Services . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Selection of Variables . . . . . . . . 146 (x) CHAPTER PAGE The Ranking of Public Works A c t i v i t i e s . .... . . . . 150 Equating Cost uJith Extent of Service . . . . . . 1 5 2 Sanitation and Waste Removal 155 Selection of Variables . .161 Ranking of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 3 Equating Cost with Extent of Service 165 Recreation 166 Selection of Variables . . . . . . . . . .170 Equating Cost with Extent of Service 181 Education .184 Selection of Variables . . . . . . . . . . 189 Ranking of Variables . . 195 Equating Cost with Extent of Service 201 Application of Factors to Municipal Services • • 204 Summary 209 V I . CONCLUSION . . 212 (xi) CHAPTER PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY . 218 APPENDIX . 225 ( x i i ) LIST OF TABLES TABLE . . . _ • PAGE. I. Relationship between Class Interval, Class Frequency, and population . 49 II. Average Per Capita Expenditures for a l l Inc-orporated C i t i e s , Towns, and V i l l a g e s acc-ording to Classes . . . . . . . . 59 II I . Expenditures Per Capita for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 . . . . . . . . . 227 IV. Expenditures Per Capita for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956 . . . . . . . . . 234 V. Expenditures Per Capita for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 . . . . . . . . . 240 VI. Expenditures Per Capita for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 247 VII. Average Per Capita Public Works Expenditures for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s according to Classes 63 VIII. Average Per Capita Sanitation and Waste Rem-oval Expenditures for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s according to Classes 69 ( x i i i ) TABLE PAGE IX. Average Per Capita Education Expenditures for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , according to Classes 71 X. Average Per Capita Recreation Expenditures for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , according to Classes . . . . . . 75 XI. Average Per Capita Expenditures on Total Municipal Services for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , according to Classes . . . . . . . . . 78 XII. Ratings on Municipal Services for a l l Inc-orporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , according to Classes, 1965 . . . . . . . . . 63 XIII. Factors for Per Capita Expenditures for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 . . 255 XIV. Total Per Capita Revenue for a l l Incorpor-ated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , accord-ing to Classes 84 XV. Per Capita Expenditure and Revenue Charact-e r i s t i c s for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 259 (xiv) TABLE PAGE XVI. Per Capita Revenue from Local Sources of a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t -i e s , according to Class, 1965 . . 86 XVII. Per Capita Expenditure - Revenue Values for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , according to Class, 1965 . . . . . . 87 XVIII. F i r e Protection Charac t e r i s t i c s for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 . 263 XIX. Intensity Values for F i r e Protection for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Col-umbia, 1965 267 XX. Application of Factors to Intensity Values for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 . . . . . . . • 270 XXI. Relationship between Expenditures and Level of F i r e Protection Service 120 XXII. Road Construction and Maintenance Character-i s t i c s for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 •. • • . 273 (xv) TABLE PAGE XXIII. Road Construction and Maintenance Charact-e r i s t i c s according to Class Size . . . . . 131 XXIV. Street Cleaning Charac t e r i s t i c s for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,1965 . 276 XXV. Street Cleaning Characteristics according to Class Size 139 XXVI. Sewer Characte r i s t i c s for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Prov-ince of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 278 XXVII. Sewer Characte r i s t i c s according to Class Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 XXVIII. The Level of Public Works A c t i v i t i e s for a l l Incorporated Areas in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 . . . . . . . . . 152 XXIX. Relationship between Per Capita Expendit-ures and Level of Public Works Service . . 153 XXX. Relationship between Per Capita Expendit-ures and the Level of Public Works Ser-vices according to Factors for a l l Inc-orporated Areas i n the Province of B r i t -ish Columbia ^54 XXXI. Sanitation and Waste Removal A c t i v i t i e s for a l l Incorporated Areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 . . . 281 (xvi) TABLE PAGE XXXII. Relationship between Per Capita Expend-and Waste Removal A c t i v i t i e s 163 XXXIII. Relationship between Factors for Per Capita Expenditures and the Level of Waste Rem-oval Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 XXXIV. Selected Recreation F a c i l i t i e s for a l l Inc-orporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,1967 . . . 283 XXXV. Recreation C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for a l l Incorp-orated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 . . . . 286 XXXVI. Park Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s according to Class Size . 178 XXXVII. Recreation F a c i l i t i e s according to Class Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 XXXVIII. Relationship between Per Capita Expenditure and Level of Recreation Service . . . . . . 1 a 1 XXXIX, Relationship between Per Capita Expendit-ures and the Level of Recreation Services for a l l Incorporated Areas in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 XL. Education Chara c t e r i s t i c s for a l l Incorpor-ated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 . . . . 289 ( x v i i ) TABLE PAGE XLI. Educational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s according to Class Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 XLII. Application of Factorsto Educational Char-a c t e r i s t i c s according to Class Size . . . . 200 XLIII. Relationship between Per Capita Expenditure and Lev/el of Educational Service . . . . . . 201 XLIV. Relationship between Factors for Per Capita Expenditures and the Level of Education Services for a l l Incorporated areas in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 202 XLV. The Relationship between Class Size and the Application of Weights to each Municipal Service 208 ( x v i i i ) LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS GRAPH PAGE 1. Per Capita Expenditures on F i r e Protection for Classes One to Six . . 60 2. Per Capita Expenditure on Public Works for Classes One to Six . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3. Per Capita Expenditures on Sanitation for Classes One to Six 67 4. Per Capita Expenditures on Education for Classes One to Six 72 5. Per Capita Expenditures on Recreation for Classes One to Six 76 6. Per Capita Expenditures on Total Municipal Services for Classes One to Six . . . . . . . . 80 DIAGRAM 1. Per Capita Expenditures on F i r e Protection for Classes One to Six 61 2. Per Capita Expenditures on Public Works for Classes One to Six 65 3. Per Capita Expenditures on Sanitation for Classes One to Six 68 4. Per Capita Expenditures on Education for Classes One to Six . . . . .... . 7 3 5. Per Capita Expenditures on Recreation for Classes One to Six 77 (ixx) DIAGRAM PAGE 6. Per Capita Expenditures on Total Municipal Services for Classes One to Six 81 7. Relationship between F i r e Protection A c t i v i t i e s and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t18 8. Relationship between F i r e Protection A c t i v i t i e s and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1965 119 9. Relationship between Road Construction A c t i v i t i e s and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1965 . 132 10. Relationship between Road Cleaning A c t i v i t i e s and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 . 140 11. Relationship between Sewer A c t i v i t i e s and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 . 149 12. Relationship between Garbage C o l l e c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 . 164 13. Relationship between Recreation Services and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1965 . . . . . . . . . • 1 ? 9 14. Relationship between Education Services and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 9 5 (xx) DIAGRAM PAGE 15. Relationship between Education Services and Class Size in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1965 . . . 197 FIGURE 1. Cataneo: The Ideal Renaissance City . . . . . . . 293 2. V i t r u v i u s : The Ideal Baroque City . 294 3. V i c t o r i a : J.S. Buckingham's Utopian City Plan . . 295 4 . Welwyn: A Garden City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 5. Incorporated Areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . 297 (xxi) CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM - ITS APPROACH AND IMPORTANCE I . THE PROBLEM Statement o f t h e problem. One o f the major problems t h a t c o n f r o n t s t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s t h a t h i s f i e l d does not l e n d i t s e l f t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a h i g h degree o f da t a q u a n t i f i c a t i o n which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the t r u e s c i e n c e s . T h i s phenomenon can be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o t h e many com-p l e x and i n t a n g i b l e f a c t o r s w i t h which t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t works. However, w i t h t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s and methodology, and w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n o f d a t a , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s now a b l e t o a p p l y a more s c i e n t i f i c and e m p i r i -c a l approach t o t h e s o l v i n g o f problems. T h i s i s e v i d e n t from a l a r g e number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t have been w r i t t e n on t h e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s employed by t h e s o c i a l s c i e n -t i s t . Nowadays such terms as r e q r e s s i o n a l a n a l y s i s , c o e f f i -c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n s , g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s , l i n e a r p r o -gramming, and m u l t i p l i e r a n a l y s i s a r e terms which a r e c o n s t a n -t l y b e i n g used by t h e s o c i o l o g i s t , g e ographer, p s y c h o l o g i s t , p l a n n e r , h i s t o r i a n , and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t . Today, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s has r e s u l t e d i n the e v o l u t i o n o f a more p r a c t i c a l approach to problem solving - namely, the applied aspect. The func-t i o n of adopting t h i s approach i s "to convert descriptions, perceptions, and abstractions of the past and present into p r a c t i c a l l y useful predictions regarding the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the future." 1 The adoption of such an approach today has afforded the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t the opportunity to organize systemati-c a l l y a body of knowledge that i s essential for human, eco-nomic and s o c i e t a l engineering. Even though the application of a s c i e n t i f i c methodology to the s o c i a l sciences has cau-sed considerable controversy amongst many scholars, i t has nevertheless, opened up an e n t i r e l y new f i e l d of research. Indeed, economic geographers are now analyzing the economic base of c i t y structures and the st r u c t u r a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of metropolitan regions in terms of basic and non-basic func-tions.** Urban geographers are becoming increasingly involved i n determining the spacing and rank size of c i t i e s and repre-sent t h e i r findings with many complex formulae. Regional geographers are direc t i n g t h e i r attention towards developing 1H.N. Shenton, The P r a c t i c a l Application of Sociology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1927}, p. 115. ' 2J.W. Alexander, "The Basic-Nonbasic Concept of Urban Economic Functions," Economic Geography. X X X , 1954, p. 246. 3C.T. Stewart, "The Size and Spacing of C i t i e s , " Geographical Review. X L V I I I , A p r i l 1958, pp. 222-45. • - 3 a more empirical approach regarding the theory and location of space economy. Today, anthropologists are applying a more pragmatic approach, i n terms of a cause-and-effect re-l a t i o n s h i p , when determining how the evolution of cultures has affected the molding of present-day s o c i e t y . 4 The so-c i o l o g i s t s and psychologists are placing more emphasis upon adopting a p r a c t i c a l approach to problem solving than they did previously. One d i r e c t i o n in which the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s cur-rently focussing his attention i s towards the determination of the optimum size of c i t i e s . This determination creates many d i f f i c u l t i e s not the least being that size considered 'optimum* by one s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t may d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from the concept reached by another. In order to overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , i t i s necessary to define certain terms that con-d i t i o n the method used to assess the problem as well as to outline s p e c i f i c assumptions and l i m i t a t i o n that are i n v o l -ved i n such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These considerations are con-tained i n a l a t e r section of t h i s chapter. Purpose of Thesis. The purpose of t h i s thesis i s f i r s t , to c l a r i f y the concepts underlying the determination of the optimum size of c i t i e s ; and, second, these having been 4 S . F . IMadel, Anthropology and Modern L i f e . (Canberra: Australian National University, 1953), Chapter I I I . c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t o d etermine the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s f o r the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e t h e s i s may t h e r e f o r e be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : - t o d e t -ermine f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t s i z e o f a community w h i c h , i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n , has t h e l o w e s t per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e c o s t s and t h e g r e a t e s t e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e s e s e r v i c e s . In s h o r t , the purpose i s t o answer the b a s i c q u e s t i o n "How much do m u n i c i p a l i t i e s expend on m u n i c i -p a l s e r v i c e s and what l e v e l o f s e r v i c e do they r e c e i v e f o r t h i s payment?" Approach t o the Problem. In o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a p r a c t i c a l and e f f e c t i v e method o f d e t e r m i n i n g th e optimum s i z e o f an urban s e t t l e m e n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f o l l o w f o u r major s t e p s . The f i r s t , which i s c o n t a i n e d i n Chapter I I o f the t h e -s i s , i n v o l v e s a r e v i e w o f t h e e v o l v i n g c o n c e p t s o f the i d e a l c i t y form and f u n c t i o n o f c i t i e s . Once the p a s t and p r e s e n t t r e n d s have been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t -r u c t a v a l i d method of a n a l y s i s by p r o j e c t i n g t h e c u r r e n t t e c h n i q u e s and p r a c t i c e s used t o determine th e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . Having c o n s t r u c t e d t h i s g e n e r a l framework, the second s t e p i n v o l v e s e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e c r i t e -r i a s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As the o b j e c t o f t h i s the s i s i s t o determine t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y i n terms o f per c a p i t a c o s t s and e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , t h e c r i -t e r i a - e m p l o y e d are t h e r e f o r e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e e x p e n d i t u r e s . The l a t t e r s e c t i o n o f Chapter IV d i s c u s s e s t h e r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a and i n a d d i t i o n o u t l i n e s c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t might p e r t a i n t o t h i s s e l e c t i o n . The t h i r d s t e p t o be u n d e r t a k e n cons'cts o f an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e o f t h e urban c e n t r e and t h e per c a p i t a c o s t s i n c u r r e d t h e r e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l muni-c i p a l s e r v i c e s . Chapter IV o u t l i n e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . How-e v e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l expen-d i t u r e s and t h e s i z e o f t h e urban c e n t r e s i s not s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f t o p r o v i d e a v a l i d y a r d s t i c k w i t h which to d e t e r -mine t h e optimum s i z e f o r communities i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. At t h i s s t a g e of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , l o w e s t per c a p i t a c o s t s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r i n t h e optimum s i z e d urban c e n t r e . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s has t o be r e l a t e d t o per c a p i -t a c o s t s i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t t h e optimum s i z e . The f o u r t h and f i n a l s t e p n e c e s s a r y t o f o r m u l a t e a method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g th e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s i n v o l v e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a n k i n g system by which the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s may be measured. Such a p r o c e d u r e i s c a r r i e d out i n Chapter V. Once t h i s has been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f the s e r v i c e s can t h e n be a s s i g n e d a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e . T h i s v a l u e i s a t t a i n e d by a p p l y -i n g t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e t o t h a t s e r v i c e which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most e f f i c i e n t , and t h e l o w e s t s c o r e t o t h a t which has t h e p o o r e s t l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y . A l l i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s o f e f f i c i e n c y a r e a s s i g n e d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g rank v a l u e . A f t e r t h i s f o u r t h s t e p has been c o m p l e t e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o r r e l a t e t h e c o s t s per c a p i t a o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y as both t h e s e elements can be r e p r e s e n t e d by a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e . I f t h e pr o c e d u r e and meth-od o l o g y used t o a r r i v e a t t h e s e v a l u e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s o f r e s e a r c h , t h e n , under t h e g i v e n terms o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s i s t h a t i n which a r e found t h e l o w e s t per c a p i t a c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s and t h e h i g h e s t e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . The c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e i s t h a t t h o s e urban c e n t r e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia which a r e shown t o have t h e s m a l l e s t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e c o s t s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y r e p r e -s e n t the optimum s i z e . f o r t h e P r o v i n c e . " I I . IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM One o f the major g o a l s o f p l a n n i n g i s t o c r e a t e a more e f f i c i e n t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n vironment. To a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l , t h e p l a n n e r has t o u n d e r s t a n d f u l l y not o n l y t h e r e l a t i o n between man and h i s p h y s i c a l environment b u t , e q u a l l y as I m p o r t a n t , t h e r e l a t i o n between man and s o c i e t y . Urban r e n e w a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e l o c a t i o n , r e t r e n c h m e n t , and c o n s e r v a t i o n are t h e major a c t i v i t i e s , i n which the p l a n n e r can e x e r c i s e h i s g o a l s . Of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , r e l o c a t i o n and retrenchment programs can be g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d by an under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t s u n d e r l y i n g the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . F o r example, b e f o r e a p l a n n e r can f o r m u l a t e any p l a n r e g a r d i n g t h e retrenchment o r r e l o c a t i o n o f a community, he has to make c e r t a i n a ssumptions based upon h i s own v a l u e judgement. One o f t h e s e assumptions may con c e r n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s i z e which he c o n s i d e r s t h e community s h o u l d a t t a i n . In s h o r t , he a s k s h i m s e l f t h e q u e s t i o n "How l a r g e s h o u l d I p l a n t h i s community?" The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h i s s i z e , may on the one hand, be a r r i v e d a t a r b i t r a r i l y , o r on t h e o t h e r hand, may r e f l e c t a s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g a n a l y s i s . R e g a r d i n g t h e former method, t h e s i z e o f a g i v e n community may e i t h e r r e -p r e s e n t t h e p h y s i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a g i v e n number o f d i s -p e r s e d s e t t l e m e n t s i n t o a l a r g e r community, or t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f a known number o f i n h a b i t a n t s from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r . In both c a s e s , t h e s i z e o f the n e w l y - c r e a t e d community i s not p r e - d e t e r m i n e d but r a t h e r r e s u l t s p u r e l y from t h e movement and r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f a g i v e n number o f persons from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r . 8 C o n c e r n i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h , t h e s i z e o f a community may be pl a n n e d i n t h a t ; i n t h e development o f new communities o r i n the r e l o c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e p l a n n e r may c o n s i d e r i t e x p e d i e n t t o l i m i t t h e i r popu-l a t i o n s i z e . F o r example, the s i z e o f a proposed community may e i t h e r r e f l e c t the number o f i n h a b i t a n t s needed to main-t a i n i t s economic base, o r i t may r e p r e s e n t a p o p u l a t i o n s i z e t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e . There a r e many o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t the p l a n n e r may i n c l u d e when d e t e r m i n i n g t h e most e f f i c i e n t o r optimum s i z e o f a community. One l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , which has r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n C a n a d a , i n v o l v e s t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e cha-r a c t e r i s t i c s . F o r example, one q u e s t i o n t h a t might be r a i -sed i s "What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n and t h e s i z e - o f a c i t y ? " Another might be " I s t h e r e any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e f f i c i e n c y o f a p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e and t h e s i z e o f t h e m u n i c i p a -l i t y ? " A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t h i s f i e l d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , (which w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s ) , as yet no r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween c i t y s i z e and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been u n d e r t a k e n i n Canada. I f t h e p l a n n e r was p r o v i d e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p he would be b e t t e r e q u i p p e d to determine t h e most s u i t a b l e s i z e o f a proposed community. I f , f o r example, a thorough i n v e s t i -g a t i o n o f v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e most d e s i -r a b l e s i z e o f a proposed community ranged between f i v e and seven thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , and t h a t a subsequent a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t communities o f f i v e thousand p e r s o n s r e p r e -s e n t e d the most e f f i c i e n t s i z e i n terms o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , t h e n under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e community c o n t a i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t h ousand p e r s o n s would seem more l o g i c a l . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between muni-c i p a l s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s and c i t y s i z e would not o n l y bene-f i t t h e p l a n n e r but a l s o l o c a l government a g e n c i e s . For, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ways i n which p o p u l a t i o n s i z e a f -f e c t s l o c a l governments would be o f a i d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s t o t h e f i n a n c i a l problems t h a t plague a l l l e v e l s o f government. Today, m u n i c i p a l management i s j u s t as con-c e r n e d w i t h p l a n n i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f a p o l i c e f o r c e o r a f i r e b r i g a d e as i t i s w i t h p l a n n i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a h i g h -way system. Research i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p both between per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s and c i t y s i z e and between s e r v i c e e f f i c i e n c y and c i t y s i z e would be a most u s e f u l t o o l i n f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . 10 I I I . HYPOTHESES T h i s t h e s i s proposes t o a r i v e at a v a l u e f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia u s i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which to determine t h i s s i z e . The e f f i c i e n c y o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s can be r e p r e s e n t e d by an i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n p u t s r e f e r t o any v a l u e d r e s o u r c e which i s consumed o r d i s s i p a t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o b t a i n i n g goods o r s e r v i c e s . In t h i s c a s e , i n p u t s r e f e r t o t h e amount o f money, i n terms o f per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s , t h a t a community expends on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c s e r v i -c e s . The l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d r e f e r s t o o u t -p u t s . The o v e r r i d i n g h y p o t h e s i s s u p p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t l a r g e r c i t i e s m a i n t a i n and o p e r a t e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I f t h i s s t a t e -ment i s p r o v e n , then one may c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s s i z e o f c i t y r e p r e s e n t s t h e optimum s i z e . In a r r i v i n g a t such a c o n c l u s i o n , two o t h e r hypotheses have t o be i n c l u d e d . The f i r s t s u b - h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a re d i r e c t l y r e l a -t e d t o c i t y s i z e i n t h a t l a r g e r c i t i e s i n c u r g r e a t e r per c a -p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c s e r v i c e s than s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s . The thesis p roposes t h a t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on public 11 s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e , a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , as c i t y s i z e , i n -c r e a s e s . The second s u b - h y p o t h e s i s contends t h a t t h e r e i s a l s o a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e o f c i t y and t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d . I t w i l l a ttempt t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , i n terms o f performance s t a n d a r d s , i n c r e a s e a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , as p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i n c r e a s e s . T h i s t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e contends t h a t both per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and l e v e l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e a t i n -c r e a s i n g r a t e s , w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n c i t y s i z e . The t h e s i s f u r t h e r p u r p o r t s t h a t the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e o f the l e v e l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i s g r e a t e r than t h a t o f per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s f o r l a r g e r c i t i e s and lo w e r f o r s m a l l e r ones. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h a t s i z e c i t y i n which the l e v e l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e s a t a f a s t e r r a t e than per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s w i l l r e p r e s e n t the optimum s i z e . IV. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED M u n i c i p a l i t y . M u n i c i p a l i t y r e f e r s t o any a r e a i n c o r -p o r a t e d as a c i t y , d i s t r i c t , t o w n s h i p , town, v i l l a g e , o r l o c a l d i s t r i c t , under any A c t ; o r t h e c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o which t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a have been i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y . M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e . M u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e may be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h o s e monies, e i t h e r r e c e i v e d from t h e com-12 munity o r from s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e community, t h a t a r e ex-pended towards the maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . M u n i c i p a l Revenue. M u n i c i p a l revenue may be i n t e r -p r e t e d as t h o s e monies t h a t a r e r a i s e d from l o c a l t a x e s , g r a n t s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s from th e P r o v i n c i a l Government, and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the F e d e r a l Government, f o r t h e s o l e purpose of f i n a n c i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s . M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s may e i t h e r be mandatory o r p e r m i s s i v e as o u t l i n e d under P r o v i n c i a l L e -g i s l a t i o n . Mandatory s e r v i c e s , which r e l a t e t o m a t t e r s o f g r e a t e r t h a n l o c a l c o n c e r n , and which r e q u i r e c e r t a i n m i n i -mum s t a n d a r d s , i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e . P e r -m i s s i v e s e r v i c e s c o v e r th e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s which a r e o f the p e c u l i a r l y l o c a l c o n c e r n and which are t h e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l government. These s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p e r s o n s and p r o p e r t y , s a n i t a r y r e g u l a -t i o n s and s u p e r v i s i o n s , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , sewage d i s p o -s a l , p u b l i c p a r k s , s t r e e t s and s i d e w a l k s , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l u t i l i t i e s , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , t h e l i c e n s i n g o f t r a d e s and p r o f e s s i o n s , t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f n u i s a n c e s , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s t o p r o t e c t t h e s a f e t y , health, w e l f a r e , and p r o p e r t y o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . 13 P o p u l a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e t o t a l number o f i n h a b i t a n t s r e s i d i n g i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y d e t e r m i n e d by the l a s t p r e c e d i n g census conducted under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Government o f Canada. V. LIMITATIONS When i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o n c e p t s u n d e r l y i n g optimum c i t y s i z e s , s e v e r a l s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s are p r e s e n t uihich may d i s t o r t the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These l i m i t a t i o n s r e q u i r e c r i t i c a l assessment, and c o n s i d e -r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t o a l t e r n a t e approaches t o s o l -v i n g t h e problem. Of t h e t h r e e major l i m i t a t i o n s a r i s i n g i n the a n a l y -s i s o f the t h e s i s , the f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n o f c i t y s i z e s . Of the n i n e t y - e i g h t c u r r e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d , totuns and v i l l a g e s and c i t i e s , f i f t y - t w o c o n t a i n fewer t h a n two thousand i n h a b i t a n t s and o n l y f i f t e e n have p o p u l a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g t e n thousand. Because o f t h i s wide v a r i a t i o n i n community s i z e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a c o r r e c t s c a l e o f c l a s s e s s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d . F o r example, t o use a c l a s s i n t e r v a l o f f i v e hundred ( i . e . c l a s s e s o f f i v e hundred, one t h o u s a n d , one thousand f i v e hundred, two t h o u s a n d , two thousand f i v e hundred, t o f i f t y thousand) might r e -s u l t i n t h e r e b e i n g twenty communities c o n t a i n i n g fewer t h a n f i v e hundred i n h a b i t a n t s and none i n the e i g h t t h o u -sand f i v e hundred o r t h e f o r t y thousand f i v e hundred 14 c l a s s e s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i n t e r v a l s and t h e i r j u s t i f i c a t i o n a r e c o v e r e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter IV, s e c t i o n 2. The second l i m i t a t i o n r e g a r d s t h e assumptions under-l y i n g t h e b a s i c t h e o r y adopted i n the t h e s i s . A major a s -sumption c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s study i s t h a t per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s r e p r e s e n t a measure of performance o f m u n i c i p a l s e r -v i c e s . T h i s i s based upon the assumption t h a t t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y which expends f o r t y d o l l a r s per c a p i t a on p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s , w i l l promote a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a n one i n which o n l y f i v e d o l l a r s i s s p e n t . However, th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d o l l a r v a l u e r e p r e s e n t s one o f s e v e r a l ways t o measure th e e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . S i m i l a r l y , when e v a l u a t i n g the performance o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e t h e t h e s i s a l s o e x h i b i t s c e r t a i n b i a s e s i n t h a t t h e v a r i a -b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e purpose o f measuring the performance s t a n d a r d , do not p r e s e n t a complete p i c t u r e o f a l l the f a c -t o r s i n v o l v e d . F o r example, the e f f i c i e n c y o f f i r e p r o t e c -t i o n s e r v i c e can be e v a l u a t e d from q u a n t i f i a b l e c r i t e r i a such as t h e number o f f u l l - t i m e men employed, t h e e x t e n t o f t h e f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment, and the number o f i n s p e c -t i o n s c a r r i e d out a y e a r . Yet o t h e r e l e m e n t s , which may be c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t , are r e j e c t e d because t h e r e i s no way o f q u a n t i f y i n g them. Examples o f t h e s e may i n c l u d e s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s o f a c c e s s r o a d s , t h e d i s t a n c e 15 between i n d i v i d u a l homes and the f i r e h a l l , t h e l o c a t i o n and number o f f i r e h y d r a n t s , and the c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s o f houses, a l l o f which r e l a t e t o the e f f i c i e n c y o f methods f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i n c i d e n c e o f f i r e . More d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f t h e s e and o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n Chapter V under t h o s e s e c t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ' i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s . A t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n c o n c e r n s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d a t a . The c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the s e c t i o n i n v o l v e d w i t h per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s d i d not p r e s e n t any s e r -i o u s problem s i n c e the da t a r e q u i r e d was o b t a i n e d from t h e budget s h e e t s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . However, th e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y t o complete the s e c -t i o n on t h e s e r v i c e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n e d the s e l e c t i o n o f c r i -t e r i a t h a t was used i n measuring t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . f o r example, d u r i n g the a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c works f a c i l i t y o f a community i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t highway c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance, sewage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were t h e major a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n by p u b l i c works departments. C o n s e q u e n t l y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o road s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s , the l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s c l e a n e d , and the p e r c e n -t a g e o f r e s i d e n c e s sewered, were t h e o n l y c r i t e r i a t h a t c o u l d be used when a s s e s s i n g t h e degree o f e f f i c i e n c y f o r t h e p u b l i c work a c t i v i t i e s o f a community. S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e case o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , 16 t h e number o f grades t a u g h t , and the.number o f s t u d e n t s per c l a s s r o o m were t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a t h a t c o u l d be used f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the l e v e l o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r community. L i m i t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a a r e d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter V under t h e s e c -t i o n e n t i t l e d *The Ranking o f m u n i c i p a l Service*. V I . SOURCES OF DATA The major s o u r c e s o f da t a used i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e t h e o r y on t h e e v o l v i n g c o n c e p t s o f optimum c i t y s i z e s i n -c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : a r t i c l e s from t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e Roy a l S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y , t h e J o u r n a l o f the Town P l a n n i n g  I n s t i t u t e . t h e Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Economics. E c o n o m e t r i c a . Readings i n Urban S o c i o l o g y , a r t i c l e s from R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , and The J o u r n a l o f Land Economics. The s o u r c e s o f da t a employed t o a n a l y z e t h e t h e o r y o f m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s i n c l u d e d p u b l i c a t i o n s from t h e Bureau o f Economic R e s e a r c h , t h e J o u r n a l o f Land Economics, the J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . t h e J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Eco-nomy , t h e J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , a r t i c l e s from t h e P u b l i c E n q u i r e s A c t , p u b l i c a t i o n s from t h e R e g i o n a l Income  S t u d i e s , and a r t i c l e s from t h e Resources f o r t h e F u t u r e  B u l l e t i n s . 17 The c o s t s per c a p i t a f o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia were o b t a i n e d from i n d i v i d u a l budget s h e e t s f o r each m u n i c i p a l i -t y as w e l l as from the M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s P u b l i c a t i o n p r e p a r e d by t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . F i n a l l y , t h e major s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n used t o measure the l e v e l o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d t h e F i r e  M a r s h a l ' s R e p o r t ; r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d by the N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s j p u b l i c a t i o n s by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia  T e a c h e r s 1 F e d e r a t i o n ; R e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d by the P u b l i c H e a l t h Department; and Resources f o r t h e F u t u r e B u l l e t i n s p e r t a i n i n g t o methods measuring th e v a l u e o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from q u e s t i o n a i r e s was a l s o used t o a s s e s s t h e performance o f t h e s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . The a u t h o r was i n d e e d f o r -t u n a t e enough t o r e c e i v e a n i n e t y - s i x per cent r e t u r n o f t h e q u e s t i o n forms t h a t were sen t t o each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a . CHAPTER I I THE OPTIMUM SIZE AND SHAPE OF CITIES H i s t o r y has shown t h a t c i t i e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y c hanging i n form and f u n c t i o n . T h i s change has r e s u l t e d from e i t h e r t h e s low p r o c e s s of e v o l u t i o n or o f the p r o d u c t o f man's a t -tempt t o mold h i s environment. From as f a r back as t h e F o u r t h C e n t u r y B.C., man has c o n t r o l l e d t h e s i z e and shape o f c i t i e s . D u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y t i m e s , t h e main emphasis was upon r e g u l a t i n g the p h y s i c a l shape o f c i t i e s . T h i s was r e -f l e c t e d i n t h e d e s i r e t o c r e a t e the ' i d e a l * c i t y and t h i s c o n c e r n remained u n t i l t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . I t was not u n t i l the e a r l y 1900*s t h a t more im-p o r t a n c e was p l a c e d upon the i d e a l s i z e o f c i t i e s i n terms o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r shape. Chapter I I a n a l y -zes t h e c o n c e p t u a l e v o l u t i o n from t h e i d e a l form o f c i t i e s t o t h a t o f t h e i d e a l or optimum s i z e . T h i s c h a p t e r has t h e r e f o r e been d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . The f i r s t d i s c u s s e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e p t s t h a t were r e l a t e d t o the i d e a l form and shape o f c i t i e s . The second a n a l y z e s the c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s t h a t u n d e r l i e t h e i d e a l s i z e o f c i t i e s . 19 I . THE IDEAL FORM OF CITIES Through the ages s c h o l a r s have c o n c e i v e d t h e o r i e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . Indeed, as o u t l i n e d i n t h e F i f t h Book o f h i s T r e a t i s e on Laws. P l a t o proposed t h a t a town s h o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o t w e l v e p a r t s and d e s i g -ned t o c o n t a i n f i v e thousand and f o r t y p l o t s each o f which was t o be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d t o house two f a m i l i e s . The s i z e o f the e a r l y Mesopotamian c i t i e s was based upon t h e number o f c i t i z e n s who c o u l d be h a i l e d by an assembly drum. L i k e w i s e , t h e most e f f i c i e n t s i z e o f t h e Roman f o r t s was r e -l a t e d t o the d i s t a n c e t h a t s i g n a l s c o u l d be heard between one f o r t i f i c a t i o n tower and a n o t h e r . M i l i t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o be the dominant f a c t o r t h a t governed the s i z e o f t h e town o r c i t y between t h e H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d and the M i d d l e Ages. I t was d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages t h a t p e o p l e de-v o t e d more a t t e n t i o n s towards r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s c o n c e r n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e c t a n g u l a r i t y and r e g u l a r i t y o f c i t i e s and towns t h a t f o c u s s e d upon the c h u r c h . The i d e a l m e d i e v a l c i t y was t h e c e l e s t i a l c i t y and t h i s was ex-e m p l i f i e d by t h e many p l a n s t h a t were d e s i g n e d d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages. The p l a n s f o r S t . G a l l (818 B.C.), C a n t e r b u r y ( 1 1 7 4 ) , and Rothenburg (1311) a r e the most o u t s t a n d i n g exam-p l e s t h a t a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t u n d e r l a y the d e s i g n of t h e i d e a l c i t y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 20 The R e n a i s s a n c e u n f o l d e d w i t h a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t approach from t h a t o f the M i d d l e Ages, towards the c r e a t i o n o f the i d e a l c i t y . M i l i t a r y and defense a c t i v i t i e s r e p l a c e d t h o s e o f r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n s , and geometry o f form became the o b j e c t i v e o f the i d e a l c i t y . A l b e r t i ' s q u a d r a n g u l a r f o r t r e s s p l a n , F i l a r e t e ' s p o l y g o n a l S f o r i z i n d a , S i r Thomas Mora's U t o p i a P l a n , S camozzi's f i v e - s i d e d i d e a l c i t y p l a n , Cataneo's o c t a g o n a l i d e a l c i t y p l a n , and P e r r e t ' s m u l t i - s i d e d symme-t r i c a l p l a n t y p i f i e d the i d e a l form o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c i t y . The age o f t h e Baroque c o u l d be l i k e n e d t o t h e age o f symmetry. The i d e a l Baroque c i t y was p o r t r a y e d i n t h e i n t e r -n a l arrangement of s t r e e t s and the s u b t l e p o s i t i o n i n g o f b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r t h a n the o v e r a l l e x t e r n a l shape o f t h e c i t y which was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r e v i o u s e r a s . The c r e a t i o n o f huge avenues and s t r a i g h t l i n e v i s t a s l e a d i n g t o t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s r e f l e c t e d , on t h e one hand, t h e e v o l u -t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power such as i n F r a n c e , and on the o t h e r hand, the emphasis on r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s as e x e m p l i f i e d by I t a l i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . D u r i n g the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the use o f the s e c t o r as a f o r m a l element o f d e s i g n p e r m i t t e d the f o c u s s i n g on p o i n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c -t u r e s . The r a d i a l s , u s u a l l y t a k i n g t h e form o f wide avenues and s t r e e t s , formed t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s e s e c t o r s and c o u l d be extended ad l i b i t u m i n t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . The 21 creation of foc a l points and the extension of the r a d i a l s i n c i t i e s during the late seventeenth century expressed the ideologies of the Baroque period. To achieve symmetry was the goal of the ar c h i t e c t of the Baroque period and examples of t h i s design can be found i n most c i t i e s i n Europe and several in North America. For example, the focussing of avenues upon the palace in V e r s a i l -l e s , the radiating pattern of streets i n Paris, the symmetri-ca l piazzas of Rome, the diagonal alignment of streets i n Washington, the c i r c u l a r form of the Philadelphia Plan, and W.R. Lethaby's Golden Bow Plan for London represent a very small sample of c i t y structures and proposed plans that sym-bolize the form of the ide a l c i t y during the Baroque period. Prior to the eighteenth century, the design of the ide a l c i t y was based upon one overriding concern - to make plans. To the architect of that time, the ideal c i t y plan was one that r e f l e c t e d the values of the person, usually an in d i v i d u a l of n o b i l i t y for whom the plan was devised. L i t t l e or no consideration was directed towards understanding the "Why" of planning and consequently these plans were t o t a l l y divorced from any form conceptualization. The aesthetic appearance of a two-dimensional plan was considered to be far more important than the consequences that might aris e from such plans. As no foresight was directed towards the re s u l t s that the ide a l c i t y plans would have upon l i v i n g 22 c o n d i t i o n s , man's needs and d e s i r e s were c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d . In s h o r t , the i d e a l c i t y o f t h e p r e - i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n e r a was one t h a t s t r e s s e d form and not f u n c t i o n . I t was d u r i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n t h a t many c i t i e s i n Europe dev e l o p e d around the major i n d u s t r i a l a c -t i v i t i e s - namely c o a l m i n i n g and s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n . As t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s expanded, and m a n u f a c t u r i n g became mors d i v e r s i f i e d , t h e towns and c i t i e s i n which t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were conducted g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d both i n s i z e and d e n s i t y . The f a c t o r y , as opposed t o t h e churc h o r p a l a c e i n e a r l i e r t i m e s , became t h e f o c u s o f the c i t y . The i n c r e a s e o f den-s i t i e s and s i z e was p a r a l l e l e d by a d r a s t i c i n c r e a s e i n c o n g e s t i o n , f i l t h , s q u a l o r and p o v e r t y . S o c i a l a m e n i t i e s o f l i f e i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s ' o f Europe and North America were s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e achievement o f maximum p r o d u c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the i n d u s t r i a l towns became d e p l o r a b l e . -I t was d u r i n g t h e s e t i m e s t h a t a new ty p e o f p e r s o n emerged - namely t h e s o c i a l r e f o r m e r . Mary W o l l s t o n e c r a f t , t h e a d v o c a t e r o f women's r i g h t s ; Robert P e e l , t h e found e r o f the p o l i c e f o r c e i n B r i t a i n ; C h a r l e s Reade, the c r e a t o r o f the p r i s o n system; Hannah More, t h e s u p p o r t e r o f b e t t e r hous-i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; F l o r e n c e N i g h t e n g a l e , t h e fo u n d e r o f n u r s i n g ; Robert Owen, L o r d S h a f t e s b u r y , and Chadwick are among t h e more n o t a b l e s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s whose a c t i o n s l e f t t h e i r i m p r i n t 23 upon t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l m a t r i x o f B r i t a i n i n the N i n e -t e e n t h C e n t u r y . Other s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f th e w o r l d f o l l o w e d the example o f t h e B r i t i s h and improved l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . Thus, a f t e r the i n i t i a l impact o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , s a n i t a r y con-d i t i o n s were g r e a t l y improved, crime a c t i v i t i e s were sub-s t a n t i a l l y , r e d u c e d , h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s became more t o l e r a b l e and the o v e r a l l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n c i t i e s were g r e a t l y en-hanced. D u r i n g the same time t h a t the s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s were a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c t i f y t he e x i s t i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t a i n , a n o t h e r group o f persons emerged who were a l s o con-cerned w i t h s i m i l a r problems. I t was the appearance o f the i n d u s t r i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n hundreds t h a t had a pronounced e f f e c t upon the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c -t u r e o f towns. These persons a l s o endeavoured t o b e t t e r t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s - but t h e i r m o t i v e s were p r i m a r i l y p r o f i t o r i e n t e d . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n produc-t i o n , t h e i n d u s t r i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was im-p e r a t i v e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e s o c i a l problems t h a t were a s s o c i a -t e d w i t h f a c t o r y employment. T h i s c o n c e r n e v e n t u a l l y mater-i a l i z e d when s e v e r a l U t o p i a n communities were d e s i g n e d . F o r example, i n 1816, Robert Owen, an E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s t , pro posed h i s p l a n f o r a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g community. 8ased upon g r i d - i r o n p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t s , the town was d e s i g n e d t o con-t a i n t w e l v e hundred persons each o f whom c o u l d be employed 24 w i t h i n the l o c a l f a c t o r i e s and workshops. Another model r e p r e s e n t i n g an ' i d e a l ' community was t h a t proposed by J.S. Buckingham i n 1849. U n l i k e t h a t o f Owen's, t h i s model a t -tempted t o f u n c t i o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h a t i t recommended t h a t i n d u s t r i e s s h o u l d be s i t u a t e d a t l e a s t h a l f a m i l e from t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o f the town, and t h a t s i t e s s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r suburban v i l l a s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g the town. The Buckingham p l a n , b a s i c a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r i n form, c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t r a d i a l s t r e e t s t h a t c onverged upon a c e n t r a l common. Designed to c o n t a i n two thousand homes, o f which t w e n t y - f o u r were l a r g e mansions t o house the m a n a g e r i a l c l a s s , the p l a n encouraged t h e s e p a r a -t i o n o f c l a s s e s i n t h a t t h e f i n e r houses were l o c a t e d a t the c e n t r e o f the town, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the v i l l a s , and the more humble d w e l l i n g s and workshops were s i t u a t e d a t the p e r i p h e r y o f the town. A l t h o u g h t h e s e two U t o p i a n p r o p o s a l s were never exe-c u t e d , they d i d however expose the a t r o c i o u s l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t e x i s t e d i n B r i t a i n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y n i n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and a l s o s u g g e s t e d c e r t a i n remedies t o r e c t i f y t h e s e s i t u a -t i o n s . I t was t h e U t o p i a n model t h a t a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t f o r , s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , c e r t a i n p o w e r f u l i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , r e c o g n i z i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r good h o u s i n g f o r t h e i r w orkers and a l s o t h e p o t e n t i a l t h a t would r e s u l t from an improved l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n , d e s i g n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d "model" 25 communities. One o f the e a r l i e s t o f t h e s e communities wa3 Bessbrook, b u i l t i n 1846, f o r workers employed i n the l i n e n m i l l s near Newry, I r e l a n d . S i x y e a r s l a t e r , f o l l o w i n g t h i s example, S i r T i t u s S a l t b u i l t S a l t a i r e , a s m a l l town t h a t housed t h r e e thousand workers near B r a d f o r d , E n g l a n d . George Cadbury, the c h o c o l a t e m a n u f a c t u r e r , c o n s t r u c t e d the town o f B o u r n e v i l l e i n 1879. F i v e y e a r s l a t e r , t h e L e v e r B r o t h e r s , who were p i o n e e r s i n t h e soap i n d u s t r y , b u i l t the company town o f P o r t S u n l i g h t near L i v e r p o o l . S i r Joseph Rowntree, a cocoa m a n u f a c t u r e r , b u i l t E a r s w i c k i n 1905, a s m a l l town t h a t housed a p p r o x i m a t e l y one thousand workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . o The c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e new model towns had a p r o f o u n d impact upon o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . Many e n t r e p r e n e u r s both i n Europe and North A m e r i c a , c h a l l e n g e d by t h i s new concept o f town b u i l d i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d t h e p r o t o t y p e o f the B r i t i s h model towns i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . F o r example, i n F r a n c e , M. M e n i e r , a n o t h e r c h o c o l a t e m a n u f a c t u r e r , con-s t r u c t e d a s m a l l v i l l a g e f o r h i s employees a t N o i s e l - s u r -S e i n e near P a r i s i n 1874. S i m i l a r towns and v i l l a g e s were b u i l t i n F r a n c e by the A n z i n M i n i n g Company f o r mine workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s a t V a l e n c i e n n e s and T h i o n v i l l e . In I t a l y , t he town o f C r e p s i was b u i l t f o r t h e t e x t i l e workers l i v i n g i n the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g C a p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1880's. In 1883, Van Marken, the master brewer, b u i l t a s m a l l company • 26 town near D e l f t , H o l l a n d , f o r t h e workers i n the brewery and the s p i r i t p r o d u c t i o n p l a n t . In the new w o r l d , the town o f Pullm a n was b u i l t i n 1881 f o r t h e employees o f t h e P u l l m a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m . The f o r e g o i n g examples r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l sample o f p l a n s , many o f which were implemented, t h a t r e f l e c t t h e t h e -o r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e most d e s i r a b l e s i z e and shape o f towns. T h i s i d e a l o r optimum s i z e and shape o f towns d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was d e s i g n e d both i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f form and f u n c t i o n . C o n c e r n i n g the form o r shape o f t h e model towns, the g r i d - i r o n p a t t e r n , o r some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t , was the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e upon which a r o s e the b u i l d i n g s o f t h e town. C o n c e r n i n g the f u n c t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, the i n t e r -n a l arrangement o f open spaces i n the towns was d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e easy a c c e s s t o a l l a r e a s o f the town, park a r e a s i n the form o f commons, and the maintenance o f low l e v e l s o f d e n s i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the model towns were a l s o d e s i g n e d to s e p a r a t e p l a c e s o f work from r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The concept o f the model town, i n i t i a t e d i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was the c a t a l y s t f o r the c r e a t i o n o f the Garden C i t y movement. In the time when the horse-drawn c a r -r i a g e was b e i n g r e p l a c e d by the a u t o m o b i l e , Ebenezer Howard r e a l i z e d t h a t w i t h e v e r y new i n c r e m e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n , t r a f f i c i n c i t i e s was becoming more c o n g e s t e d and t h e c e n t r a l i n s t i -t u t i o n s o f the c e n t r a l c i t y were becoming l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . 27 U n l i k e the a d v o c a t e s o f c o n t i n u e d urban e x p a n s i o n , Howard r e j e c t e d the suburb as a t o l e r a b l e compromise. The decen-t r a l i z a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s conducted i n the c e n t r a l c i t y , and the u n i f i c a t i o n o f c i t y w i t h c o u n t r y were the u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s o f the Garden C i t y . Garden c i t i e s were d e s i g n e d f o r a l i m i t e d number o f p e r -sons and d e n s i t i e s , were l i m i t e d i n a r e a , were o r g a n i z e d t o c a r r y on a l l the e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s o f an urban community, and were equipped w i t h p u b l i c open spaces s u f f i c i e n t i n num-ber to c r e a t e a more d e s i r a b l e environment. To a c h i e v e the i d e a l s t r u c t u r e , the garden c i t i e s were surrounded by a green b e l t t h a t on the one hand p r o v i d e d easy a c c e s s to r u r a l a r e a s , and on t h e o t h e r hand p r e v e n t e d o t h e r urban s e t t l e m e n t s from c o a l e s c i n g w i t h c i t i e s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the Garden C i t y movement d i d not l i e i n the p h y s i c a l r e - m o u l d i n g o f the c i t y , but r a t h e r i n deve-l o p i n g o r g a n i c c o n c e p t s t h a t u n d e r l a y t h i s form. These o r g a -n i c c o n c e p t s r e p r e s e n t e d e c o l o g i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m and b a l a n c e -a b a l a n c e both between c i t y and c o u n t r y as w e l l as a b a l a n c e between the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f the garden c i t y . The i d e a l garden c i t y a t t e m p t e d to a c h i e v e , i n Mumford's words: "...a r a t i o n a l and o r d e r l y p r o c e s s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o m p l e x i t y t hrough an o r g a n i z a t i o n c a p a b l e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g b a l a n c e and autonomy, and o f m a i n t a i n i n g d i s p u t e d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n , and coherence and u n i t y d e s p i t e the need f o r growth."' 1 L e w i s Mumford, The C i t y i n H i s t o r y . (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace & World, I n c . ) , p. 518. 28 Examples o f subsequent garden c i t i e s t h a t were based upon Ebenezer Howard's.concept are L e t c h w o r t h ( a r c h i t e c t s : P a r k e r and Unwin), Radburn ( a r c h i t e c t : S t e i n ) , Ulelwyn ( a r c h i t e c t : Unwin), and G r e e n d a l e , ( a r c h i t e c t : P a r k e r ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been much w r i t t e n c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e and o t h e r towns, Garden C i t i e s d i d however, r e f l e c t a t o t a l l y new approach t o the form and f u n c t i o n o f c i t i e s . The optimum s i z e o f the Garden C i t y , i n terms o f i t s a r e a and p o p u l a t i o n , was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f u n c t i o n f o r which i t was d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e . Once t h i s s i z e was a t t a i n e d , which u s u a l l y d i d not exceed t h i r t y t h o u -sand p e r s o n s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l Garden C i t y became one p a r t o f a l a r g e r system, which due t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p between i t and o t h e r c e n t r e s , had the same advantages and v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s o f much l a r g e r urban complexes. I I . THE IDEAL SIZE OF CITIES From th e f o r e g o i n g examples, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t up t o t h e e a r l y p a r t o f .the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , a r c h i t e c t s and urban d e s i g n e r s had p l a c e d more emphasis upon d e c i d i n g what s h o u l d be t h e i d e a l form and shape o f c i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r i d e a l s i z e . Even though many o f t h e s e d e s i g n e r s d i d propose c e r t -a i n p o p u l a t i o n s f o r the model towns, t h e s e v a l u e s were e i t h e r p r e - d e t e r m i n e d , as i n t h e case o f the i n d u s t r i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r d e s i g n i n g a model town t o house a g i v e n number o f f a c t o r y wor-k e r s , o r were a r b i t r a r i l y a r r i v e d at, as i n t h e method o f 2 9 d e t e r m i n i n g t h e optimum s i z e o f Garden C i t i e s . Today, the t r e n d towards d e t e r m i n i n g the i d e a l o r op-timum s i z e o f c i t i e s i n v o l v e s a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and em-p i r i c a l methodology t h a t i s based upon an e v a l u a t i o n o f ab-. s o l u t e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s . T h i s approach has been f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d by the r a p i d l y e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n t h a t has caused t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t t o ask h i m s e l f the i n e v i t a b l e q u e s t i o n - "What s h o u l d be the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y ? " Indeed, based upon t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h , e c o n o m i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , p l a n -n e r s , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , g e o g r a p h e r s , and many p e r s o n s o f o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s have p o s t u l a t e d what t h i s v a l u e s h o u l d be. The f o l l o w i n g examples, which r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l sample o f t h e many s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d i n c i t y - s i z e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r i o u s methods t h a t have been used t o a s s e s s t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . U s i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a v a r i a b l e , Brennam proposed t h a t a c i t y between t e n thousand and twenty thousand p e r s o n s tyould p r o v i d e the most d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l l i f e f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . 2 T h i s v a l u e a p p r o x i m a t e d t h a t s u g g e s t e d by Branch who proposed t h a t t h s g r e a t e s t s o c i a l contentment i s 3 found i n communities of l e s s than t w e n t y - f i v e thousand persons. 2 T . Brenham, M i d l a n d C i t y . (London: Dennis Dobson L t d . , 1949), P. 47. 3 Robert B r a n c h , S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C i t i e s . ( C h i c a g o : I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers A s s o c i a t i o n , 1937), p. 65. 3 0 B e r r y , b y a p p l y i n g a c o m p l e x s e t o f f o r m u l a e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n k - s i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c i t i e s , f o u n d a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y a n d i t s r a n k i n t h a t c o u n t r y . * When a n a l y z i n g t h e c o s t p e r c a p i t a f o r m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , 8 a k e r f o u n d f r o m h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s e v e n t y - t w o E n g l i s h c i -t i e s , t h a t t h o s e c i t i e s b e t w e e n e i g h t y - f i v e t h o u s a n d a n d n i n e t y - t w o t h o u s a n d i n c u r r e d t h e l o w e s t p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i -t u r e c o s t s . T h i s v a l u e a l s o f e l l w i t h i n t h e r a n g e p r o p o s e d b y D u n c a n who f o u n d c i t i e s b e t w e e n f i f t y t h o u s a n d a n d o n e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o h a v e t h e l o w -e s t p e r c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e . ^ T h e t e c h n i q u e o f u s i n g m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s a s a v a r -i a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e o p t i m u m s i z e o f a c i t y w a s f u r t h e r e x p a n d e d b y T h o m a s S h a r p who i n c l u d e d t h e q u a l i t y a n d s c o p e o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e w a s a l s o a d o p t e d b y P h i l l i p s who i n d i c a t e d t h a t c i t i e s b e t w e e n o n e h u n d r e d e i g h t a n d o n e h u n d r e d t w e n t y - f o u r t h o u s a n d h a d t h e l o w e s t p e r c a p i -t a c o s t s w h e r e a s t h o s e b e t w e e n o n e h u n d r e d a n d t w o h u n d r e d f i f t y t h o u s a n d w e r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o p e r a t i n g t h e s e s e r v i -c e s m o s t e f f i c i e n t l y , 4 B r i a n B e r r y , " A l t e r n a t e E x p l a n a t i o n s o f U r b a n R a n k S i z e , " A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , X I V 1 1 1 , p . 8 3 . 5 c e A . B a k e r , " P o p u l a t i o n a n d C o s t s i n R e l a t i o n t o C i t y M a n a g e m e n t , " J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y 9 1 9 6 0 , p . 7 5 . 6 D . T . D u n c a n , " T h e O p t i m u m S i z e o f C i t i e s " , U r b a n S o c -i o l o g y , ( G l e n c o e : F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p p . 6 3 2 - 4 5 , T h o m a s S h a r p , T o w n P l a n n i n g . ( L o n d o n : P e l i c a n B o o k s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 6 9 . 8 H . H . P h i l l i p s , " M u n i c i p a l E f f i c i e n c y a n d T o w n S i z e " J o u r n a l o f t h e T o w n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , M a y - J u n e , 1 9 4 2 , p . 1 2 9 . . 31 Using a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h , some r e s e a r c h e r s have a t -tempted to equate optimum c i t y s i z e w i t h the d i v e r s i t y o f th e c i t y ' s economic base. M c L a u g h l i n employed t h i s method but i n s u f f i c i e n t d a ta f o r s m a l l e r communities d i s t o r t e d h i s f i n d i n g s . 9 In c r i t i c i z i n g M c L a u g h l i n ' s a p p r o a c h , Samuelson contended t h a t t h e r e i s no p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban s i z e and the d i v e r s i t y o f the c i t y ' s economic b a s e . 1 0 By a n a l y z i n g the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f secondary i n d u s -t r i e s , C l a r k proposed t h a t the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y t h a t would s u p p o r t the e f f i c i e n t performance o f commercial s e r v i -ces ranged between one hundred and two hundred thousand p e r -sons. In the case f o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , he s u g g e s t e d the v a l u e o f f i f t y t o one hundred thousand, and f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , between one hundred an.d f i v e hundred thousand p e r s o n s . 1 ^ U s i n g a non-measurable c r i t e r i o n ( t h e impact o f an a t o -mic w a r ) , Angur and o t h e r w r i t e r s o f defense m a t t e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t c i t i e s s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o l e s s than f i f t y thousand p e r -1 2 sons r e g a r d i n g s a f e t y measures a g a i n s t an a t o m i c war. R e g a r d i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s Hansen and P e r l o f f suggest t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e q u i r e M c L a u g l i n , " I n d u s t r i a l D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n American C i t i e s " , Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Economics, 1932, pp. 129-48. 10Paul Samuelson, "The B u s i n e s s C y c l e and Urban Develop-ment, Report t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e on U r b a n i s m , ( H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , March 1942}, pp. 6-17. 1 1 C o l i n C l a r k , "The Economic F u n c t i o n o f a C i t y i n R e l -a t i o n t o I t s S i z e " , E c o n o m e t r i c a . A p r i l 1945, pp. 97-113. R.T. Angur, Urban Form and S t r u c t u r e , ( B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1 9 58), pp. 113-22. 32 a minimum o f t e n thousand f o r the e f f i c i e n t performance o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . 1 3 And f i n a l l y , Le C o r b u s i e r , whose approach r e p r e s e n t s t h e extreme i n s u b j e c t i v e n e s s , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i d e a l s i z e c i t y s h o u l d c o n t a i n t h r e e m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s . 1 4 From t h e s e examples, i t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e i s a v e r y l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i n d i v i d u a l proposed v a l u e s f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o t h e v a r i a b l e s used when f o r m u l a t i n g t h e s e v a l u e s . These v a r i a b l e s ranged from m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s to a con-s i d e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l d e s i r e s . However, a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g the v a l i d i t y o f t h e v a l u e s s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y i n t h a t none o f - t h o s e s c h o l a r s men-t i o n e d above d e f i n e d the term •optimum'. Thus when s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y i s , f o r the sake o f argument, f i f t y thousand p e r s o n s , the q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s "Optimum f o r what - f o r e f f i c i e n t i n t e r n a l m o b i l i t y ? ; f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f adequate m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ? ; f o r defense p u r p o s e s ? ; f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ? ; o r f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n p r o d u c t i o n ? " Even i f the term 'optimum* i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , a s i m i -l a r degree o f a m b i g u i t y a r i s e s when the term ' s i z e ' i s 1 3A.H. Hansen and H.S. P e r l o f f , S t a t e and L o c a l F i n a n c e i n the N a t i o n a l Economy. (New Y o r k : UI.W. Norton and Co., I n c . , 1944)™ p. 1 l T ^ 1 4 C h a r l e s E. J e a n n e r e t - G r i s (Le C o r b u s i e r , pseud.),, " C i t y o f Tomorrow and I t s P l a n n i n q " trans., from the 8th F r e n c h ed. o f Urbanisme„ (London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1947), p.47. 33 c o n s i d e r e d . Does s i z e i n t h i s c o n t e x t r e f e r t o the magni-tude o f p o p u l a t i o n , the acreage o f l a n d , o r t h e d e n s i t y v a l u e o f the urban area? I t f o l l c w s t h a t b e f o r e one can p o s t u l a t e the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the terms o f r e f e r e n c e used i n the r e s e a r c h a n a l y s i s be r i g i d l y o u t l i n e d . Once t h i s has been a c h i e v e d , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y i s more m e a n i n g f u l and v a l i d . F o r example, t h e optimum s i z e o f a town or c i t y may be found t o be f i v e t h o u s a nd p e r s o n s i n terms o f the t o t a l number o f i n h a b i t a n t s t h a t would s u p p o r t the maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f a d e n t a l c l i n i c . L i k e w i s e , a v a l u e o f f i f t e e n thousand p e r s o n s may be a r r i v e d a t f o r t h a t number o f i n h a b i t a n t s which would w a r r a n t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a j u n i o r c o l l e g e . In t h e s e two c a s e s , t h e term 'optimum* a p p l i e s t o t h a t number o f persons t h a t would s u p p o r t a d e n t a l c l i n i c and j u n i o r c o l l e g e r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e g a r d i n g d e n s i t y v a l u e s , t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y m ight be one m i l l i o n p e r s o n s w i t h an average d e n s i t y o f one hundred i n h a b i t a n t s per a c r e u s i n g the economic f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a subway system as the v a r i a b l e . In a d d i t i o n t o d e f i n i n g the terms o f r e f e r e n c e when e s -t i m a t i n g the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e the s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e urban s e t t l e m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n may appear t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t , the f o l l o w -i n g w i l l i l l u s t r a t e i t s i m p o r t a n c e . A p p l y i n g t h e above exam-p l e s , the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y i n Canada may be f i v e t h o u s a n d 34 p e r s o n s ( u s i n g the maintenance o f a d e n t a l c l i n i c as t h e v a r i a b l e , ) whereas t h e v a l u e f o r I t a l i a n c i t i e s might be t e n t h o u s a n d . S i m i l a r l y , at a lo w e r l e v e l , t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia may be f i f -t e e n thousand persons ( u s i n g the p r o v i s i o n o f a j u n i o r c o l -l e g e as the v a r i a b l e ) , and o n l y t e n thousand f o r t h e S t a t e o f Washington, U n i t e d S t a t e s . F i n a l l y , and most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , t h e a c t u a l d e f i n i -t i o n o f t h e work •optimum', s h o u l d be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . The S h o r t e r O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s 'optimum' as t h e " b e s t " , o r "most d e s i r a b l e " . Thus, one s h o u l d not o n l y u n d e r s t a n d and c l a r i f y what the term 'optimum* a p p l i e s t o ( t h a t i s , optimum f o r w h a t ? ) , but a l s o what i t r e f e r s t o -t h a t i s , t h e b e s t , most e f f i c i e n t o r most d e s i r a b l e . Summary. Chapter I I has t r a c e d t h r o u g h t i m e , t h e e v o l v i n g con-c e p t s r e g a r d i n g the i d e a l form and s i z e o f c i t i e s . I t has i n d i c a t e d t h a t man's i n i t i a l g o a l was t o c r e a t e t h e i d e a l shape o f c i t i e s . P h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o v e r r u l e d t h o s e o f t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s and emphasis was p l a c e d upon the geo-metry and v i s u a l appearance o f t h e urban l a n d s c a p e . U n t i l t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p l a n n i n g a c t i v i -t i e s f o c u s s e d upon the making o f p l a n s . However, a f t e r t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , a new dimens i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o p l a n n i n g . ; T h i s was the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f man i n space and 35 subsequent p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s r e f l e c t e d t h i s c o n c e r n . From t h e emphasis upon t h e f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than the shape o f c i -t i e s , r e s u l t e d the c r e a t i o n o f p l a n s t h a t were d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e a s p e c i f i c t y pe o f a c t i v i t y . T h i s i n t u r n l e d t o the d e s i g n o f optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s t h a t mere t o ac-commodate a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d number o f i n h a b i t a n t s . T h i s approach o f d e s i g n i n g optimum s i z e c i t i e s was g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d d u r i n g the e a r l y decades o f the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . F o r , d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , h i g h l y e m p i r i c a l t e c h n i -ques were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , and conse-q u e n t l y q u a n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were e x t e n s i v e l y a p p l i e d f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e d r e p o r t s t h a t p o s t u l a -t e d c e r t a i n v a l u e s f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s and the me-thods o f a c h i e v i n g t h e s e v a l u e s . F i n a l l y , f o r t h e purpose o f e m p h a s i z i n g the e v o l v i n g c o n c e p t s r e g a r d i n g the form and f u n c t i o n o f c i t i e s , s e v e r a l diagrams r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o s e s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s of t r a n s i t i o n , have been i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D. CHAPTER I I I MUNICIPAL REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES -B e f o r e one can a n a l y z e the per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and t h e s o u r c e s o f revenue t h a t each muni-c i p a l i t y r e c e i v e s , i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d what i s meant by t h e s e terms. A l t h o u g h t h e main purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o answer the b a s i c q u e s t i o n s "How much i s spent on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and what l e v e l s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s do t h e i n h a b i t a n t s r e c e i v e f o r t h i s money?", some u n d e r s t a n -d i n g as t o how t h i s money i s r a i s e d and i n t o what a r e a s i t i s c h a n n e l e d w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s revenue and e x p e n d i t u r e p r a c t i c e s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n c o r -p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. Every urban c e n t r e i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , whether a t h r i -v i n g m e t r o p o l i s o r a s m a l l r u r a l v i l l a g e , may be l i k e n e d t o an exchange house i n which money i s r e c e i v e d from t h e i n h a b i -t a n t s , i n the form o f t a x e s , and i s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e i n v e s t e d i n t h e community i n the form o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . The money t h a t t h e community r e c e i v e s i s known as revenues and th e money t h a t i t spends on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i s a form o f e x p e n d i t u r e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , a l l forms o f revenue 37 e q u a l i z e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . I f a s u r p l u s a r i s e s between t h e s e amounts, i t becomes a s o u r c e o f revenue f o r subse-quent y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f a d e f i c i t i s i n c u r r e d (when revenues a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o meet e x p e n d i t u r e s ) t h i s l o s s i s c a r r i e d f o r w a r d t o a l a t e r y e a r i n which i t i s compensated by s u r p l u s f o r t h a t p e r i o d . There i s , a t the p r e s e n t , no way o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f revenue which a r e r e c e i v e d i n t o t h e t r e a s u r y o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , f o r a l l monies r e c e i v e d from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s , such as p r o v i n c i a l and f e -d e r a l g r a n t s , and t h o s e r a i s e d from l o c a l means are depo-s i t e d i n t o t h e t r e a s u r y . From t h i s d e p o s i t , v a r y i n g amounts o f money a r e a l l o c a t e d towards the maintenance and o p e r a -t i o n o f a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . Revenues. The powers v e s t e d i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . The major s o u r c e s o f revenue a v a i l a b l e t o any i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a i n t h i s p r o v i n c e a r e t a x e s on l a n d and improvements, g r a n t s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and l i c e n s i n g . The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e s o u r c e s : 38 Miscellaneous -General-Fines -Service Charges -Licenses and Permits Recreation and com-munity services -Rents and commissions -Tax and i n t e r e s t School Taxation -Taxation--Municipal purpose r—Business Special As-sessment —Real Property Other rGov't. enterprise-Contributions-"and Grants liGov't. grant s-" P r o v i n c i a l -Federal ^-Municipal -Federal -Provincial-Other Local grants Social Asses-tance Other 39 R e a l p r o p e r t y t a x i s by f a r t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e s o u r c e o f revenue o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . At the p r e s e n t t i m e , a p p r o x i -mately s i x t y per c e n t of t h e t o t a l revenue f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e r i v e d from t h i s s o u r c e . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h i s t a x l e v y p r o v i d e s e i g h t y - s e v e n per cent o f a l l l o c a l government t a x r e c e i p t s . Even though p r o p e r t y t a x c o n t r i b u t e s t h e g r e a t e s t share o f m u n i c i p a l revenue, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n as a p e r c e n t a g e has g r e a t l y f l u c t u a t e d . In the 1920's and 1930's th e p r o p e r t y t a x a veraged about e i g h t y - f i v e per cent o f t h e t o t a l r e v e -nue r e c e i v e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . D u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s and e a r l y 1940's, t h i s p r o p o r t i o n dropped t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y - s i x per cent o n l y t o c l i m b a g a i n t o s i x t y per cent i n t h e 1950»s. In t h i s p r o v i n c e , t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e a l p r o -p e r t y t a x e s i s d e r i v e d from the t a x a t i o n o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. The r e m a i n i n g t a x e s , uihich r a i s e a l i t t l e over f i f -t e e n per cent o f the t o t a l r e venue, come from t h e t a x a t i o n o f commercial p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s p e r c e n t a g e i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e -l y h i g h e r f o r l a r g e r c i t i e s . F o r a l l Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e p r o p e r t y t a x a c c o u n t s f o r e i g h t y per cent o f t o t a l t a x 2 r e v e n u e , and over s i x t y per cent o f a l l r e v e n u e s . 1 H a r v e y S h a p i r o , "Economies of S c a l e and L o c a l Govern-ment F i n a n c e , " Land Economics, Volume XLIX, 1963, p. 176. 2C.H. G o l d e n b e r g , Report o f t h e Commission on M u n i c i -p a l T a x a t i o n , Winnipeg, 1958, p. 5, 40 E x p e n d i t u r e s . P u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e i n urban a r e a s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e spe n d i n g o f money, by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . Every i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e , town and c i t y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n c l u d e s e i t h e r a post o f f i c e , p o l i c e s t a t i o n , o r f i r e h a l l , and every s i z e a b l e c i t y has some government i n -s t i t u t i o n o r a c t i v i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e i l l u s t r a t e s t he v a r i o u s forms o f e x p e n d i t u r e s t h a t a re i n c u r r e d by i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n th e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. E x p e n d i t u r e s -General Gov't.-P r o t e c t i o n t o -persons and — p r o p e r t y H e a l t h - S o c i a l W e l f a r e -Debt Charges L-Other-E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e - A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Other A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e - F i r e - P o l i c e - P u b l i c H e a l t h - M e d i c a l and D e n t a l s e r v i c e - H o s p i t a l c a r s -Other -A i d t o aged and b l i n d p ersons -A i d t o unemployed & unemployabl - C h i l d w e l f a r e i— D e b e n t u r e s and o t h e r d e b t s -Temporary debt c h a r g e s - P u b l i c works — S a n i t a t i o n and waste removal - E d u c a t i o n - R e c r e a t i o n 41 The amount o f money expended on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n s the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d f o r t he i n h a b i t a n t s o f a community. As the community grows, t h e r e s i d e n t s r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r number and v a r i e t y o f muni-c i p a l s e r v i c e s . They d e s i r e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p o l i c e and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , more and b e t t e r r o a d s , i n c r e a s e s i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f garbage and t h e c l e a n i n g o f s t r e e t s , a l a r g e r amount o f open space and p a r k l a n d , and so on. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e d e s i r e s t h a t a re imposed upon l o c a l governments, many o t h e r s e r v i c e s , which are not the d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l governments, have a l s o t o be expanded. Among t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e mandatory under p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n a r e s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , and e d u c a t i o n . Not o n l y do l o c a l governments f a c e t h e problem o f h a v i n g t o m a i n t a i n and p r o v i d e f o r an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r expanding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , but they a l s o have t o contend w i t h many u n c o n t r o l l a b l e e x p e n d i t u r e s . These t y p e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s r e s u l t from the v e r y narrow l i -m i t s i n which l o c a l governments can e i t h e r r a i s e o r lo w e r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s on c e r t a i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , such as e d u c a t i o n , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f l i b r a -r i e s , and debt charges are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d u n c o n t r o l l a b l e be-cause e x p e n d i t u r e s on them a r e e i t h e r mandatory o r s t a t u t o r y . 42 These i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r b e t t e r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i -ces h e a v i l y s t r a i n the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t i e s o f many l o c a l governments i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Those c i t i e s t h a t a r e exceed-i n g l y l a r g e o r ve r y s m a l l t e n d t o s u f f e r most. T h i s pheno-menon i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n by S h a p i r o who d i s c o v e r e d t h a t towns w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f fewer t h a n f i v e thousand persons spent l a r g e r sums o f money per c a p i t a on t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s than any o t h e r s i z e c i t y . 3 He a t t r i b u t e d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o di s e c o n o m i e s o f s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s have a l s o shown t h a t per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o d e n s i t y as w e l l as p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . Mabel Walker contended t h a t t h e r d was a d i r e c t r e l a -t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and p o p u l a t i o n den-s i t y . 4 B r a z e r and 8rec h a l s o found s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c i t i e s i n North A m e r i c a . 5 A more c u r -r e n t study u n d e r t a k e n by S c o t t and Fader c o n c l u d e d t h a t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s were not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c e n t r a l c i t y i t s e l f , but r a t h e r t o t h o s e o f t h e growing suburban communities s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s e c e n t r a l a r e a s . ^ S h a p i r o , op. c i t . p. 182. ^Mabel L. Walker, M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . ( B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1930), p. 117. 5 H a r v e y E. B r a z e r , " C i t y E x p e n d i t u r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , O c c a s s i o n a l Paper 66, Bureau o f Economic R e s e a r c h , j n c , , 1959,- *~~~ " ~~ ™ ~ ^ S t a n l e y S c o t t and E.L. F a d e r , " F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h V a r i a t i o n s i n M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e L e v e l s " , Bureau o f  P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 5 7 , p. 53. 43 M u n i c i p a l Budget, M u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e amount o f the annua l g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y t a x are determined f o r each f i s c a l y e a r by the a d o p t i o n o f a budget by the l e g i s l a t u r e , A m u n i c i p a l budget, i n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e , i s an e s t i m a t e o f t h r e e e l e -ments. F i r s t , t h e budget e s t i m a t e s t h e proposed e x p e n d i t -u r e s f o r a l l m u n i c i p a l purposes as w e l l as an e s t i m a t e r e g -a r d i n g t h e amount o f money t h a t i s t o be borrowed. Second, the budget e s t i m a t e s the a n t i c i p a t e d revenues f o r the coming y e a r from a l l s o u r c e s except from t h e annual p r o p e r t y t a x l e v y . T h i r d , the budget e s t i m a t e s the p r o p e r t y t a x l e v y n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g the budget i n t o b a l a n c e . A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n on the programming o f m u n i c i p a l budgets can be found i n Chapter I I I o f M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t -i o n . ^ U n l i k e t h e F e d e r a l o r P r o v i n c i a l governments, m u n i c i p -a l i t i e s a r e o b l i g e d by law, t o go th r o u g h t h e p r o c e d u r e o f budget b a l a n c i n g . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by r e s -t r i c t i o n s on b o r r o w i n g which u s u a l l y make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o fund an o p e r a t i n g d e f i c i t . These r e s t r i c t -i o n s a r e o u t l i n e d under S e c t i o n s 247 and 249 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l 8 A c t o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The methods o f p r e p a r i n g and a d o p t i n g a budget a r e ^ M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1961, pp. 67-78. 8The M u n i c i p a l A c t , the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a : 1965. 44 r e g u l a t e d i n a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia by By-Laws t h a t a r e c o n t a i n e d i n the Muni-g c i p a l A c t ; S e c t i o n s 198, 762, and 778. The powers v e s -t e d i n m u n i c i p a l governments t o borrow sums o f money ar e o u t l i n e d under S e c t i o n s 264 and 813 of the same A c t . When a budget has been c o n s i d e r e d and a c c e p t e d by t h e l e g i s l a t i v e body o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t i s f i n a l l y adopted and o r d i n a n c e s o u t l i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e v a r i o u s pur-poses t h a t a r e i n d i c a t e d i n the budget are p a s s e d . The r a t e o f t h e p r o p e r t y t a x l e v y i s a l s o d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s r a t e , i n terms o f m i l l s on t h e d o l l a r ( t h a t i s , c e n t s on t h e hundred, d o l l a r s on t h e t h o u s a n d , or m i l l s on t h e d o l l a r ) i s t h e n c a l -c u l a t e d by the l e g i s l a t u r e . The v a l u e o f the m i l l r a t e i s a r r i v e d a t by a p p l y i n g a c e r t a i n t a x l e v y which w i l l meet e i t h e r t h e f u l l amount o f a n t i c i p a t e d m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , o r a p o r t i o n o f i t . S i n c e i t i s u n d e s i r a b l e t o impose an ex-o r b i t a n t m i l l r a t e , the b u d g e t i n g c l e r k a r r i v e s a t a r a t e t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e by t h e l o c a l community as w e l l as one t h a t i s t h e most economic i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g adequate r e -venue t o pay f o r a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the e x p e n d i t u r e s . In t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e m i l l r a t e s v a r y between 44.9 and 9.12 m i l l s f o r m u n i c i p a l p u r p o s e s , and 34.5 and 12.5 f o r s c h o o l p u r p o s e s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e s e 9 T h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , • 1 9 6 5 , pp. 3053, 3258, and 3263. r a t e s has r e v e a l e d t h a t s m a l l e r communities impose lower r a t e s t h a n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on both m u n i c i p a l and s c h o o l p u r p o s e s . In t h e event t h a t revenue o b t a i n e d from l o c a l t a x e s and o t h e r g e n e r a l s o u r c e s i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o meet the a n t i c i p a t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s , the l o c a l C o u n c i l can e i t h e r a p p l y t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l , F e d e r a l , or o t h e r m u n i c i p a l gov-ernments, or, i f t h e s e g r a n t s a r e s t i l l i n a d e q u a t e , i t can draw upon i t s l o c a l s i n k i n g f u n d . However, i t i s v e r y seldom t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t o r e v e r t t o t h e l a t t e r . Summary. T h i s c h a p t e r has v e r y b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d some o f t h e b a s i c p r a c t i c e s t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t has i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c an, by s t a t u t e , r a i s e money. But t h i s p r a c t i c e i s l i m i t e d t o t a x i n g l o c a l i n p r o v e m e n t s , i s s u i n g p e r m i t s and l i c e n s e s , and c o l l e c t i n g revenue from o t h e r t a x e s and f i n e s . A d e t a i l e d breakdown of t h e s e s o u r c e s was i n c l u d e d . The c h a p t e r a l s o mentioned some o f t h e f i n a n c i a l problems t h a t c o n f r o n t l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The m a i n t e n -ance of a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s f o r expanding a r e a s w i t h l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s the most c r i t i c a l problem. 46 Examples were a l s o i n c l u d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l -a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e s i z e o f c i t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e i n subsequent s e c t -i o n s t h a t s m a l l e r communities i n c u r l o w e r per c a p i t a exp-e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c s e r v i c e s than l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . F i n a l l y , a v e r y s k e t c h y o u t l i n e r e l a t i n g t o budget p r o c e d u r e s and p r a c t i c e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e was p r e s e n t e d . Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e un a b l e t o r a i s e s u f f i c i e n t revenue from l o c a l s o u r c e s t o meet a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they r e l y v e r y h e a v i l y upon e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . The degree to which each m u n i c i p -a l i t y r e l i e s upon t h i s s o u r c e i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . CHAPTER IV THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CITY SIZE AND MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE S i n c e t h B purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e optimum s i z e o f urban c e n t r e s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia by e q u a t i n g m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h e f f i c i e n c y o f s e r v i c e , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e p r e s e n t - d a y e x p e n d i -t u r e s may prove m i s l e a d i n g . F o r , s t a t i s t i c s from a one-year p e r i o d a r e i n a d e q u a t e when f o r m u l a t i n g such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s may not r e f l e c t the o v e r a l l t r e n d s . A w i d e r time p e r i o d s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e ba a p p l i e d . An i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i n t o t h e p a s t t r e n d s o f m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s would not o n l y r e v e a l whether t h e present«=day f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f t h i s t r e n d but a l s o i f t h e s e r e s u l t s s h o u l d ba used as r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . The o b j e c t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o a n a l y z e t h e p a s t and p r e -s e n t t r e n d s o f per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e c o s t s f o r a s e l e c t e d number o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and t o see i f t h e r e i s any c o r -r e l a t i o n between the e x t e n t o f c o s t s and the s i z e o f the urban c e n t r e . I . TABULATION AND CLASSIFICATION Sample S i z e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e over two hundred un-i n c o r p o r a t e d communities i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia 48 they have not been i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e s i s as no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e s i s a v a i l a b l e . As o n l y t h e i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be used t o determine the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s , t h e s e c e n t r e s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d . There a r e a t the p r e s e n t time f i f t y - e i g h t v i l l a g e s , e i g h t towns, and t h i r t y - o n e c i t i e s t h a t a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. From a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s e c e n t r e s a l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y was found between e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s o f c e n t r e s w i t h s i m i l a r pop-u l a t i o n s . Due t o t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y , a random sample as h i g h as f i f t y per cent would not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n a h i g h 1 degree o f a c c u r a c y . I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s , towns, and c i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia as the sample s i z e . C l a s s I n t e r v a l . The term " c l a s s " a p p l i e s t o a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s each h a v i n g c e r t a i n s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s . A c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s the t a b u l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d v a l u e s i n a sam-p l e and each c l a s s c o v e r s t h e same range o f v a l u e s o f t h e v a r i a b l e . In t h i s s e c t i o n , population) r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i a b l e . The n u m e r i c a l range between each c l a s s i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e c l a s s i n t e r v a l and the number of v a r i a t e s i n each c l a s s i s 1G. I r v i n g G a v e t t , S t a t i s t i c a l Method. (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1937), p. 142. 49 c a l l e d the class frequency. The following example i l l u s -trates the relat i o n s h i p between the above-mentioned terms. Population Class Number Number of c i t i e s i n each class 500 1 18 500 - 999 2 12 1,000 - 1,499 3 8 1,500 - 1,999 4 7 2,000 - 2,499 5 4 The variable i s population, the variatesI are c i t i e s , the class i n t e r v a l i s 500, and the class frequency i s 18 for Class one. The s e l e c t i o n of the most e f f e c t i v e class i n t e r v a l presents many problems i n that t h i s value conditions both the frequency as well as the number of classes that can be obta i -ned. Table I i l l u s t r a t e s the rel a t i o n s h i p between the class i n t e r v a l and the class frequency when the population of i n -corporated areas i s used as the variable for the year 1965. TABLE I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS INTERVAL, CLASS FREQUENCY AND POPULATION Population Class Number Frequency 2,000 1 51 2,000 - 3,999 2 18 4,000 - 5,999 3 6 6,000 - 7,999 4 5 50 TABLE I (continued) Population Class Number Frequency 8,000 - 9,999 5 A 10,000 - 11,999 6 4 12,000 - 13,999 7 4 14,000 8 5 Class Interval - 2,000 3,000 1 64 3,000 - 5,999 2 10 6,000 - 8,999 3 6 9,000 - 11,999 4 7 12,000 - 14,999 5 ^ 4 15,000 6 6 Class Interval - 3,000 4,000 1 67 4,000 - 7,999 2 12 8,000 ~ 11,999 3 8 12,000 - 15,999 4 5 16,000 - 19,999 5 0 20,000 6 5 Class Interval - 4,000 5,000 1 74 5,000 - 9,999 2 9 10,000 - 14,999 3 9 15,000 4 6 Class Interval - 5,000 From t h i s table i t i s evident that an increase i n the class i n t e r v a l tends to smooth out i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the 51 v a r i a t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s . The s e l e c t i o n t h e r e f o r e , o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e c l a s s i n t e r v a l i n terms o f f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i -b u t i o n , was a t t a i n e d by a p p l y i n g a c l a s s i n t e r v a l t o t h e sample s i z e t h a t produced the l e a s t v a r i a t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s i n the h i g h e r c l a s s . I f a v e r y s m a l l i n t e r v a l was used i t would r e s u l t i n a l a r g e number o f c l a s s e s and d i s p r o p o r t i o n -a t e number o f f r e q u e n c i e s , and i f a l a r g e r one was adopted i t would c r e a t e a l a r g e number o f f r e q u e n c i e s and a s m a l l number o f c l a s s e s . A c l a s s i n t e r v a l o f 5,000 was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s t h a t such a v a l u e would p r o v i d e both the most u n i f o r m d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s , as w e l l as a more manageable number o f c l a s s e s . With r e g a r d t o t h e l a t -t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n , i t was f e l t t h a t c o n s t r u c t i n g more th a n s i x c l a s s e s o f community s i z e s f o r a p r o v i n c e i n which o v e r s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d c e n t r e s c o n t a i n l e s s than f i v e thousand i n h a b i t a n t s would r e s u l t i n an i n -s u f f i c i e n t number o f f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h which t o work. How-e v e r , i f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia twere more u r b a n i z e d and c o n t a i n e d many l a r g e r towns and c i t i e s , t h e n a l a r g e r c l a s s i n t e r v a l c o u l d have been a d o p t e d . 2 The c l a s s i n t e r v a l o f 5,000 was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d t o i n c l u d e a l a r g e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s i n C l a s s one as 2The s m a l l e s t sample s i z e adopted bv M.L. Walker was 25,000. ( M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s , Op. c i t . ) , p . 1 1 2 . 52 the o r i g i n a l v a l u e (f=74) r e p r e s e n t e d s e v e n t y f i v e per ce n t o f the t o t a l sample s i z e . The f i n a l c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was f o r m u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : P o p u l a t i o n C l a s s Number Frequency 1,250 1 42 1 ,250 - 2,499 2 14 2,500 - 4,999 3 18 5,000 - 9,999 4 9 10,000 - 14,999 5 9 15,000 6 6 S e l e c t i o n o f Time P e r i o d . S i n c e time does not p e r m i t a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between muni-c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f s e r v i c e o f a l l i n -c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s s i n c e the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , o n l y t h e most c u r r e n t v a l u e s have been c o n s i d e r e d . However, i n o r d e r t o determine whether o r not t h e p r e s e n t - d a y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and c i t y s i z e s f o r i n c o r p o -r a t e d a r e a s r e p r e s e n t an a c c e p t a b l e f i g u r e t h a t can be used t o r e l a t e e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s e s s whether t h e s e c u r r e n t v a l u e s r e f l e c t t h e p a s t t r e n d s . F o r example, when a n a l y z i n g the e x p e n d i t u r e s o f p r e v i o u s y e a r s , i t might be found t h a t l a r g e r c i t i e s , on the one hand, are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h a v i n g h i g h e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , whereas on t h e o t h e r hand, s m a l l e r communi-t i e s may have h i g h e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . I f s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e found t o e x i s t be-tween the e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a s t y e a r s and th o s e o f the p r e -- 53 s e n t - d a y , t h e n o n e may c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e c u r r e n t f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s a n d c i t y s i z e . T o a r r i v e a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a t i m e p e r i o d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g p a s t e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t - d a y f i n d i n g s c a n b e c o m p a r e d . S i n c e a c c u r a t e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s a r e o n l y o b t a i n a b l e f r o m t h e c e n s u s c o n d u c t e d e v e r y f i v e y e a r s , t h e a c t u a l t i m e i n t e r v a l s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s i n -v e s t i g a t i o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e s e y e a r s . T h e r e a s o n f o r n o t i n c l u d i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e y e a r s w a s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o t h e m w e r e b a s e d u p o n a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . A n i n v e s -t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e y e a r s ( t h a t i s , y e a r s f o r w h i c h n o c e n s u s w a s t a k e n ) p r o v e d t h a t i n many i n c i d e n c e s t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d e r -r o r s u p t o t w e n t y p e r c e n t . H a d t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s b e e n u s e d , t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e p e r c a p i t a c o s t s w o u l d t e n d t o c o n t a i n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g e r r o r . T h e t i m e p e r i o d s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n s u s y e a r s : 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 a n d 1 9 6 1 . T h e r e a -s o n s f o r n o t a n a l y z i n g r e s u l t s f r o m p r e v i o u s y e a r s w e r e t w o -f o l d , , I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e b u d g e t s h e e t s f o r i n c o r p o r a -t e d v i l l a g e s p r i o r t o 1 9 5 1 d i d n o t c o n t a i n e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . E x p e n d i t u r e s i n p u b l i c h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , e d u c a t i o n , a n d r e c r e a t i o n w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d . T h e 54 absence of these values, which are necessary for formulating a rel a t i o n s h i p between expenditure and c i t y s i z e , would not provide s u f f i c i e n t information with which to compare the present-day r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The second reason was that i n years prior to 1951 over eighty-five percent of a l l incorporated c i t i e s , towns, and v i l l a g e s contained less than f i v e thousand inhabitants, and over eighty percent less than twenty-five hundred. Had these figures been used, an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of class frequencies.would have resulted. If the proposed class i n -ter v a l of f i v e thousand had been applied to the census re-su l t s of years p r i o r to 1951, the following frequency d i s t r i -bution would be obtained: Year 1945 Population Class Number Frequency % 1,250 1 39 44.8 1,250 - 2,499 2 31 35.7 2,500 - 4,999 3 6 6.8 5,000 - 9,999 4 8 9.3 10,000 - 14,999 5 0 0 15,000 6 __3 3.4 Total 87 100.0 Year 1941 Population Class Number Frequency %',• 1,250 1 26 49.0 1,250 - 2,499 2 11 20.8 2,500 - 4,999 3 5 9.4 5,000 - 9,999 4 8 15.1 10,000 - 14,999 5 0 0 continued,... P o p u l a t i o n 55 C l a s s Number Frequency % 15,000 6 _3 5.7 T o t a l 53 100.0 I I . MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURES S e l e c t i o n o f M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . The f o l l o w i n g m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , c o n t a i n e d i n t h e budget s h e e t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s , p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be used t o c o r r e l a t e ex-p e n d i t u r e c o s t s w i t h c i t y s i z e . 1. G e n e r a l Government 2. P r o t e c t i o n t o P e r s o n s and P r o p e r t y 3. P u b l i c Works 4. S a n i t a t i o n and Waste Removal 5. H e a l t h 6 . S o c i a l W e l f a r e 7. R e c r e a t i o n and Community S e r v i c e s 8. E d u c a t i o n S i n c e the second p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h r a t i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s e r v i c e s which e i t h e r do not l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h i s approach o r do not have any l o c a l money expended t o w a r d . t h e i r o p e r a -t i o n . These s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e G e n e r a l Government a c t i v i t i e s , H e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , S o c i a l W e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , and A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f J u s t i c e and P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n . The r e a s o n s f o r not i n c l u d i n g t h e above s e r v i c e s a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d as f o l l o w s . G e n e r a l Government. A l t h o u g h g e n e r a l governmental e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e o b t a i n a b l e f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s , 5 6 t h e r e i s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , n a e f f e c t i v e may t o m e a s u r e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , a n d l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n a n i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t y . I t w o u l d b e e r r o n e o u s t o a s s u m e t h a t P o u c e C o u p e w h i c h h a s a p o p u l a t i o n o f s i x h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t y p e r s o n s a n d a p e r c a p i -t a e x p e n d i t u r e o f t e n d o l l a r s f o r g e n e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p r o v i d e s a m o r e e f f i c i e n t l e v e l o f s e r v i c e i n t h i s a c t i v i t y t h a n N o r t h K a m l o o p s w h i c h h a s a p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e o f l e s s t h a n n i n e d o l l a r s f o r t h e s a m e s e r v i c e . D u e t o t h i s i n a d e q u a c y r e g a r -d i n g t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f e f f i c i e n c y o f g o v e r n m e n t a l s e r v i c e s , t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s h a v e n o t b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e s i s . P u b l i c H e a l t h . S i n c e p u b l i c h e a l t h , m e d i c a l a n d d e n -t a l s e r v i c e s , a n d h o s p i t a l c a r e a r e s u b s i d i z e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m a n y s m a l l c o m m u -n i t i e s h a v e t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s f i n a n c i a l a i d a n d t h e r e -f o r e d o n o t i n c l u d e a n y h e a l t h e x p e n d i t u r e s i n t h e i r a n n u a l b u d g e t s . S i n c e t h i r t y - n i n e o f t h e f i f t y - n i n e i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s , ( w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e s i z e , ) d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s a n y h e a l t h s e r v i c e , a n a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c h e a l t h e x p e n d i t u r e s h a s n o t b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S o c i a l W e l f a r e . S e c t i o n 6 3 9 , s u b s e c t i o n 3 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t s t a t e s t h a t : 57 The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may exempt any m u n i c i p a l i t y from p r o v i d i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e t o t h e community i f i t s p o p u l a t i o n does not exceed two thousand f i v e hundred p e r s o n s . 3 By t a k i n g advantage o f t h i s e xemption, no i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e c o n t r i b u t e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e towards s o c i a l w e l -f a r e s e r v i c e s i n 1965. As the number o f i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l -ages i n 1965 r e p r e s e n t e d over s i x t y per cent o f t h e t o t a l sample s i z e , the c o r r e l a t i o n o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f towns and c i t i e s w i t h s i z e o f c i t y would not r e p r e s e n t an a c c u r a t e r e s u l t . S o c i a l w e l f a r e e x p e n d i t u r e s were t h e r e f o r e not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but are o b v i o u s l y an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h i s s u b j e c t . P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e . The t h r e e major a c t i v i t i e s which comprise p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e f i r e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , and p o l i c e . C o n c e r n i n g th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s c o n t a i n i n g fewer than t w e n t y - f i v e hundred p e r s o n s a r e , by law, exempt from m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s s e r v i c e . 4 In 1965 no i n c o r p o r a t e d town o r v i l l a g e expended any money towards th e maintenance of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e . As t h i s number o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s r e p r e s e n t s s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n s e v e n t y per c e n t , t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s have a l s o not been i n c l u d e d , 3The M u n i c i p a l A c t , The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a : 1965, p. 3221. 4 I b i d . , p. 3224. 58 In the case o f p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , t h e r e are a t t h e p r e s e n t time o n l y e i g h t c i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t m a i n t a i n t h e i r own p o l i c e f o r c e . A l l o t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s a re p o l i c e d by the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . As t h e Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l Government o f Canada, n i n e t y -e i g h t communities s e l e c t e d i n the sample d i d not expend any money towards p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n . T h i s s e r v i c e has t h e r e f o r e not been c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The o n l y p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e t h a t has been i n c l u d e d i n th e t h e s i s i s f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . Each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and o p e r a t i n g i t s own f i r e b r i g a d e . As e x p e n d i t u r e c o s t s a re a v a i l a b l e f o r the e n t i r e sample s i z e , and as c r i t e r i a f o r measuring t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e , ^ t h i s s e r v i c e has been s e l e c t e d as one a c t i v i t y w i t h which t o f o r m u l a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e n d i t u r e c o s t s and c i t y s i z e . By e l i m i n a t i n g t h o s e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s which e i t h e r do not come under t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l governments or which cannot be equated w i t h e f f i c i e n c y o f s e r v i c e , o n l y f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, s a n i t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d . 5 T h e s e l e c t i o n o f c r i t e r i a i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter IV/. I I I . TRENDS IN MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURES 59 F i r e Protection. Between 1936 and 1945, expenditures i n f i r e protec-t i o n for a l l incorporated c i t i e s rose from 4.5 per cent of the t o t a l municipal expenditure to 6 per cent. S i m i l a r l y , during the same period, f i r e expenditure for incorporated v i l l a g e s rose from 1 per cent of t h e i r t o t a l municipal ex-penditure to 3.6 per cent. Between 1951 a?nd 1965, the per capita expenditure on f i r e has increased correspondingly with time as well as with increasing population s i z e . Of the f i v e municipal services investigated, per capita f i r e expenditures exhibit the most uniform r e l a t i o n s h i p . Graph 1 and Diagram 1 i l l u s t r a t e these phenomena. The following table, which i s a summation of the per capita f i r e expenditures for Tables III to VI i n c l u s i v e contained i n Appendix A, was used to construct both Graph 1 and Diagram 1. TABLE II AVERAGE PER CAPITA FIRE EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES ACCORDING TO CLASSES C l a s s e s Year One Two Three Four Five Six 1951 3 .86 S1.06 $2.37 $3.55 03.64 $7.35 1956 1.84 1.92 2.76 4.18 1.08 8.82 1961 2.03 2.13 3.19 5.14 5.50 12.10 1965 2.45 2.47 3.50 4.40 6.10 10.11 1951 1956 1961 1966 G R A P H I PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON FIRE PROTECTION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX CLASS ONE CLASS FOUR CLASS TWO CLASS FIVE CLASS THREE CLASS SIX 61 8 2I i-co u D: i -Q a. X LU < < O LU 0. CLASS ONE CLASS TWO CLASS THREE CLASS FOUR CLASS FIVE _ CC — LO IO IT) 10 ID CD <D CD CD CLASS S I X D I A G R A M I PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES FIRE PROTECTION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX ON 62 From t h i s table, one can conclude that larger munici-p a l i t i e s have higher per capita f i r e expenditures, and that these values increase proportionately through time. Public Works. During the depression years, mu n i c i p a l i t i e s were faced with high unemployment r e l i e f costs, a shortage of l a -bour and materials, and a decline i n the percentage of tax returns. Consequently, many incorporated c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s economized on municipal services by deferring ex-penditures on t h e i r maintenance and improvements. The pu-b l i c works sector was seriously affected by such actions, and in the 1930*s the per capita expenditures on public works reached i t s lowest point. As burdens declined and municipal finances improved, public works expenditures began to increase again. In a l l c i t i e s , excluding Vancouver, public works expenditures rose from 5.8 per cent of the t o t a l municipal expenditures i n 1936 to 9.6 per cent of the t o t a l expenditures in 1945. In 1945, public works expenditures represented over forty-one per cent of the t o t a l municipal services for a l l incorporated v i l l a g e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Today, t h i s percentage has declined to less than sixteen per cent. The reason for such a high percentage for v i l l a g e s in 1945 i s attributed to the fact that education services, 63 which c u r r e n t l y c o m prise a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f o f t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r v i l l a g e s , were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and were not f i n a n c e d by t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . S i n c e 1951, per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c works f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s a r e c o n t a i -ned i n T a b l e s I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. The summation o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e V I I . TABLE V I I AVERAGE PER CAPITA PUBLIC WORKS EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES ACCORDING TO CLASSES C l a s s e s Y e a r One Two Three F o u r F i v e S i x 1951 86.51 § 6 . 7 7 810.79 S10.87 $10.70 &11.23 1956 7.61 11.99 12.69 15.09 13.59 9.92 1961 8.84 11.35 15.83 16.75 15.00 11.00 1965 11.47 10.52 15.45 17.32 17.86 10.60 From a n a l y z i n g t h i s t a b l e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Graph 2 and Diagram 2, two phenomena ar e a p p a r e n t . The f i r s t i s t h a t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f C l a s s s i x t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s i z e o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and i t s per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c works. As m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n up t o th e f i f t e e n t h o u s and l e v e l , t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s . C l a s s s i x c i t i e s ( p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n f i f t e e n t housand) 64 S 2 0 f ui 0 1 1951 1956 1961 1966 G R A P H 2 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON PUBLIC WORKS FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX CLASS CLASS CLASS ONE TWO THREE CLASS CLASS CLAS S 65 B 2J • co CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX D I A G R A M 2 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON PUBLIC WORKS FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX t e n d t o have l o w e r v a l u e s t h a n t h o s e f o r C l a s s e s two t o f i v e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s m a l l c l a s s f r e q u e n c y o f C l a s s s i x as o n l y t h r e e c i t i e s had p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than f i f t e e n t h o u sand. The o t h e r phenomenon i l l u s t r a t e d by T a b l e V I I and Graph 2 i s t h a t between 1951 and 1965 t h e e x p e n d i t u r e per c a p i t a on p u b l i c works i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e p e r i o d . The o n l y two e x c e p t i o n s were s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n C l a s s e s two and s i x . S a n i t a t i o n and Waste Removal. P r i o r t o 1945, s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal a c t i v i -t i e s were i n c l u d e d i n p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . In 1945 ex-p e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n f o r a l l i n c o r p o -r a t e d c i t i e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Vancouver, r e p r e s e n t e d 3.4 per c e n t o f t h e t o t a l m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . In t h e same y e a r , t h i s p e r c e n t a g e was 4,5 f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s . S i n c e 1945, s a n i t a t i o n and waste: removal e x p e n d i t u r e s have been s e p a r a t e d from p u b l i c h e a l t h e x p e n d i t u r e s , and t o -day, form a d i s t i n c t e x p e n d i t u r e a c c o u n t . T a b l e V I I I , which has been c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e T a b l e s I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix A, i l l u s t r a -t e s both t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and c i t y s i z e , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and t i m e . Graph 3 and Diagram 3 d e p i c t t h e 67 B 12 co Ul cc H Q Z Ul Q. X < a. < o cc Ul a. 1951 1956 1961 1966 G R A P H 3 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON SANITATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX CLASS ONE CLASS TWO CLASS THREE CLASS FOUR CLASS FIVE CLASS SIX 111! !§i! nil iiii nil § 8 | 3 CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX D I A G R A M 3 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON SANITATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX 69 o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal and the s i z e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . TABLE V I I I AVERAGE PER CAPITA SANITATION AND WASTE REMOVAL EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES ACCORDING TO CLASSES C 1 a s s e s Year One Two Three Four F i v e S i x 1951 $1.12 $ .87 $2.74 $3.55 $3.28 $3.92 1956 1.26 2.08 3.43 4.69 4.66 3.78 1961 2.27 3.59 5.68 5.92 7.36 5.50 1965 2.99 5.40 7.29 8.49 8.75 7.00 Two s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e V I I I and t h e accompanying diagram and g r a ph. The f i r s t c o n c e r n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s a n i t a -t i o n and waste removal and c i t y s i z e . Those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s whose p o p u l a t i o n ranges between f i v e and f i f t e e n t housand ( c l a s s e s f o u r and f i v e ) have g r e a t e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u -r e s t h a n t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s . U n l i k e the o t h e r f o u r s e r v i c e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e i s no d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s a n i t a t i o n and waste r e -moval and c i t y s i z e . The o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon i s t h a t w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n , per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal i n c r e a s e more u n i f o r m l y w i t h time t h a n per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on the r e m a i n i n g f o u r s e r v i c e s . The 70 e x c e p t i o n , which i s o n l y o f minor s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s t h e s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n i n C l a s s s i x per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s d u r i n g 1956. One c o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t , on t h e one hand, the t r e n d f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal i s f o r them t o c o n t i n u e i n c r e a s i n g ; and on t h e o t h e r hand, t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s do not r e f l e c t h i g h e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s . E d u c a t i o n . P r i o r t o 1888, the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia bore t h e f u l l c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r both i n c o r p o r a t e d and u n o r g a n i z e d a r e a s . A f t e r 1888, e x p e n d i t u r e s on educa-t i o n were passed on by the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o t h e major growing c i t i e s . Between 1920 and 1945, t h e p r o v i n c i a l con-t r i b u t i o n towards e d u c a t i o n c o s t s r e p r e s e n t e d s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e s t h a t were p a i d towards e d u c a t i o n by a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . E x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n were, and s t i l l c o n t i n u e t o -day t o be t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e i t e m i n m u n i c i p a l b u d g e t s . In 1945, t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s c o n s t i t u t e d more t h a n t h i r t y - t w o per c e n t o f t o t a l m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s i n c i t i e s e x c l u d i n g Vancouver. I n c o r p o r a t e d towns were not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i -n a n c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s u n t i l 1948, and i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s s e r v i c e u n t i l 1950. The average per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e IX. The r e s u l t s from t h i s t a b l e a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by Graph 4 and Diagram 4. More d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g t h e per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e s I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e i n Appendix A. TABLE IX AVERAGE PER CAPITA EDUCATION EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND C I T I E S , ACCORDING TO CLASSES Y e a r 1951 1956 1961 1965 One C l a s s e s Two Three Four F i v e S i x $2.30 12.70 24.08 32.78 $6.30 12.10 25.56 34.35 $13.44 13.50 29.00 39.01 $17.30 16.60 26.75 42.65 $15.10 16.16 35.56 45.11 $20.92 20.76 36.67 46.34 S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s a r e i n d i c a t e d from T a b l e IX and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g graph and diagram. The f i r s t i s t h a t 1956 was a y e a r i n which t h e r e was an a b s o l u t e d e c l i n e i n per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n i n C l a s s e s f o u r and s i x , and r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e s i n a l l c l a s s e s e x c e p t C l a s s one. A second f a c t o r r e g a r d s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n and c i t y s i z e . In a l l but t h r e e c a s e s , t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e s i z e o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h a t l a r g e r c e n t r e s have h i g h e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on edu-c a t i o n t h a n s m a l l e r communities. The t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s t r e n d a r e the per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s f o r C l a s s 1951 1956 1961 1966 G R A P H 4 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON EDUCATION FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX CLASS ONE CLASS TWO CLASS. THREE CLASS CLASS CLASS 73 CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX D I A G R A M 4 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON EDUCATION FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX f i v e i n 1951 and 1956, and C l a s s f o u r i n 1961. The l a s t s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t t h a t i s r e v e a l e d from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e o v e r a l l t r e n d i n per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n . With th e e x c e p t i o n s o f two s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n C l a s s e s f o u r and s i x , Graph 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e w i t h t i m e . One c o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h time as w e l l as w i t h s i z e o f m u n i c i p a l i t y . R e c r e a t i o n . P r i o r t o 1945, e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e c r e a t i o n f o r i n c o r -p o r a t e d a r e a s p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t e d o f m a i n t a i n i n g p a r k s and c e m e t e r i e s . In 1936, t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d 1.9 per c e n t o f t o t a l m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r c i t i e s , and 1.7 per c e n t f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s . These p e r c e n t a g e s r o s e t o 2.7 f o r c i t i e s and d e c l i n e d t o 0.6 f o r v i l l a g e s i n 1945. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , which been c o n s t r u c t e d from th e T a b l e s I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix A, i l l u s -t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and the s i z e o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 75 TABLE X AVERAGE PER CAPITA RECREATION EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES, ACCORDING TO CLASSES C l a s s e s Year One Two Three Four Five Six 1951 $ .73 31.03 $1.64 $2.96 $2.74 $4.67 1956 1.43 1.49 3.00 5.44 4.64 6.95 1961 2.24 3.05 5.54 6.99 8.33 12.13 1965 3.34 6.57 6.18 7.78 11.52 15.18 Graph 5 and Diagram 5 i l l u s t r a t e the rela t i o n s h i p be-tween per capita expenditures on recreation and c i t y s i z e , and the relationship between per capita expenditures and time respectively. From observing both of these, two pheno-mena are evident. The f i r s t i s that there i s a very close c o r r e l a t i o n between per capita expenditures on recreation and the size of the i n d i v i d u a l municipality. Except f o r two minor deviations, larger municipalities are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of having higher per capita expenditures. The two devia-tions occur i n the per capita expenditures for Class four in 1951 and Class f i v e i n 1956. The second phenomenon i s that there i s a uniform re-lat i o n s h i p between per capita expenditures on recreation and time i n that the per capita values have proportionately i n -creased between 1951 and 1965, 7 6 8 16 r 0 1951 1956 1961 1966 G R A P H 5 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON RECREATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX CLASS ONE CLASS TWO CLASS THREE CLASS CLASS CLASS 7 7 CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX D I A G R A M 5 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES "ON RECREATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX 78 T o t a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o make a complete comparison between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and-the s i z e o f the i n d i v i d -u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and c i t y s i z e s . T able X I , which has been c o n s t r u c t e d from d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e s I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e i n Appendix A, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . TABLE X I AVERAGE PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON TOTAL MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS, AND CITIES ACCORDING TO CLASSES C l a s s e s Year One Two Three Four F i v e S i x 1951 833.1 $40.7 $65.9 $79.6 $82.0 $91.7 1956 50.8 65.9 78.9 95.7 97.5 103.0 1961 80.0 80.3 117.3 121.6 138.6 152.3 1965 90.8 98.0 131.1 166.4 181.3 182.1 From i n v e s t i g a t i n g T able X I and the accompanying graph and diagram, two prominent f e a t u r e s s t a n d o u t . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s and c i t y s i z e . With no e x c e p t i o n s , l a r g e r c i t i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h a v i n g h i g h e r t o t a l per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e s t h a n s m a l l e r towns and v i l l a g e s . The second p o i n t r e v e a l e d from t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n con-c e r n s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and 7 9 t i m e . Graph 6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e d u n i f o r m l y w i t h t i m e , t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n b e i n g C l a s s e s one and s i x which both i n -c r e a s e d a b s o l u t e l y . The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e i n i t i a l h y p o t h e s i s o u t l i n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r o f t h e t h e s i s . I t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s do not expend as much money per c a p i t a towards t h e o p e r -a t i o n and maintenance o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as do l a r g e r c i t i e s . Not o n l y i s t h i s the case f o r t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , but a l s o t h e same c o n d i t i o n h o l d s t r u e r e g a r d i n g each i n d i v i -d u a l s e r v i c e t h a t was s e l e c t e d . One c o u l d t h e r e f o r e v e r i f y t h e i n i t i a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s t a t e s : "The s i z e o f an i n c o r p o -r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o i t s per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s . " S i n c e t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t o d e t e r -mine whether o r not c u r r e n t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s r e f l e c t t h e p a s t . t r e n d s , i t appears t h a t t h e 1965 r e s u l t s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s t r e n d . The f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n s have i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a ve r y c l o s e degree o f s i m i -l a r i t y between p r e v i o u s per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h e f i v e s e l e c t e d s e r v i c e s w i t h t h o s e o f t o d a y . One may t h e r e f o r e use t h e 1965 r e s u l t s t o c o n s t r u c t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between 1951 1956 1961 1966 G R A P H 6 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON TOTAL MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX CLASS ONE CLASS FOUR CLASS TWO CLASS FIVE - -CLASS THREE CLASS SIX 81 3 2 0 0 -w I95 • UJ CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX D I A G R A M 6 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON TOTAL MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX 82 per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and t h e i r e f f i -c i e n c y . Once t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d , the optimum s i z e o f communities i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia can be d e t e r m i n e d . IV. RANKING OF INCORPORATED AREAS F a c t o r A p p l i c a t i o n . B e f o r e one can equate per c a p i t a c o s t s f o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a r r i v e a t some common denominator w i t h which t o compare t h e s e two v a r i -a b l e s . The method used i n t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e s the a p p l i c a -t i o n o f a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e t o both per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s and e f f i c i e n c y v a l u e s i n the form o f a r a n k i n g system. F o r example, the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h t h e l o w e s t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on a g i v e n s e r v i c e i s a s s i g n e d a s c o r e o f one hundred, and the one w i t h the h i g h e s t , f i f t y . S i m i l a r l y , t h a t s e r v i c e which i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e most e f f i c i e n t i s a s -s i g n e d a s c o r e o f one hundred and t h e l o w e s t , f i f t y . S i n c e a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a r e performed i n v a r y i n g degrees by the i n d i v i d u a l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s and r e f l e c t a wide range o f per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s , i t would be f a i r e r t o r a t e t h e h i g h e s t per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e a t f i f t y r a t h e r than a t z e r o . The e f f e c t t h a t such a r a n k i n g system would have upon the f i n a l r e s u l t s i s t h a t the v a l u e s f o r the i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s a r e i n c l u d e d w i t h i n a narrower range o f p o i n t s t h a n i f 83 t h a g r a d i n g had been from z e r o t o one hundred. T a b l e X I I i l l u s t r a t e s t he v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o each o f t h e f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s e s f o r 1965. V a l u e s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e X I I I i n Appendix 8. TABLE X I I RATINGS ON MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND C I T I E S , ACCORDING TO CLASSES, 1965 C l a s s e s F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - Educa- R e c r e -Works t a t i o n t i o n a t i o n C l a s s Ona $91.4 $86.1 $87.6 $83.4 $90.6 C l a s s Two 91.6 86.9 86.5 82.9 83.6 C l a s s Three 88.3 80.8 82.2 80.6 84.6 C l a s s Four 86.0 78.4 78.4 78.6 81 .1 C l a s s F i v e 80.1 77.6 78.2 74.7 71.2 C l a s s S i x 68.3 86.9 82.5 76.9 65.5 From the r e s u l t s o f t h i s t a b l e one can c o n c l u d e t h a t s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s haVB l o w e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s t h a n l a r g e r ones. In s h o r t , one c o u l d s t a t e t h a t the s m a l l e r the a r e a t h e b e t t e r o f f i t i s i n terms o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e c o s t s . However, when e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y s i z e and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e e x p e n d i t u r e s , the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s i s i n a d e q u a t e . Indeed, the low per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r a s m a l l i n -c o r p o r a t e d a r e a may be a t t r i b u t e d t o i t s l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l 84 r e s o u r c e s . F o r example, i f a v i l l a g e r e c e i v e s an e x c e e d i n g -l y s m a l l amount o f revenue, i t s t a n d s t o re a s o n t h a t i t 3 per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l be c o r -r e s p o n d i n g l y low. In o r d e r to a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a -p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and c i t y s i z e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o determine whether o r not thes e v a l u e s a r e a r e s u l t o f low r e v e n u e s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l t h e r e f o r e attempt t o answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n . "Are the low per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r s m a l l e r commu-n i t i e s t he r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o f i n a n c e them; and c o n v e r s e l y , i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e sums o f money t h e r e a s o n why l a r g e r communities have h i g h e r per c a p i t a expen-d i t u r e v a l u e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ? " T a b l e XIV i l l u s t r a t e s t h e per c a p i t a revenue f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d from d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n Table XV which i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix 8. TABLE XIV THE TOTAL PER CAPITA REVENUE FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES ACCORDING TO CLASSES 1965 C l a s s e s One Two Three Four F i v e S i x $69.3 $80.0 $79.8 $96.6 $105.9 $118.2 85 As one would e x p e c t , Table XIV i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have h i g h e r per c a p i t a revenue v a l u e s t h a n s m a l l e r communities. However, a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e per c a p i t a revenues f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . T h i s c o n c e r n s t h e a c t u a l s o u r c e o f revenue. As mentioned i n Chapter I I I , t o t a l revenues i n c l u d e funds i n t h e form o f t a x e s t h a t a r e c o l l e c t e d from the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the i n d i -v i d u a l community as w e l l as g r a n t s and s u b s i d i e s t h a t a r e r e c e i v e d from t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r form o f revenue may r e p r e s e n t as much as t h i r t y per c e n t o f t h e t o t a l revenue f o r c e r t a i n a r e a s , t h e per c a p i t a revenue v a l u e s o f such a community do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y t o g e n e r a t e revenue. F o r example, even though two communities may have s i m i l a r per c a p i t a revenue v a l u e s , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may prove t h a t one has a much l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f i t s t o t a l revenue which i s c o n t r i b u t e d by h i g h e r l e v e l s o f government. In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between revenue per c a p i t a and c i t y s i z e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e l i m -i n a t e t h o s e s o u r c e s o f revenue t h a t a re not o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y from t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . These s o u r c e s i n v o l v e c o n t r i -b u t i o n s , g r a n t s , and s u b s i d i e s from t h e P r o v i n c i a l , F e d e r a l , and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . T able XVI o u t l i n e s t h e per c a p i t a revenue v a l u e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t a re co m p r i s e d o f funds g e n e r a t e d by t h e 86 i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . T A 8 L E X V I P E R C A P I T A R E V E N U E FROM L O C A L S O U R C E S OF A L L I N C O R P O R A T E D V I L L A G E S , TOWNS , AND C I T I E S A C C O R D I N G TO C L A S S . 1 9 6 5 C l a s s e s O n e Two T h r e e F o u r F i v e S i x 8 6 6 . 2 8 7 7 . 4 3 7 5 . 3 8 9 1 . 7 $100.1 8 1 0 6 . 5 A l t h o u g h t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e l o w e r p e r c a p i t a r e v e n u e v a l u e s t h a n l a r g e r c e n t r e s , i t d o e s h o w e v e r , e m p h a s i z e t h a t l a r g e r c e n t r e s r e c e i v e g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l a i d f r o m e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t H a r v e y S h a p i r o f o u n d , w h e n i n v e s t i g a t i n g c i t i e s i n t w e n t y - s i x s t a t e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t l o c a l g o v e r n -m e n t s i n t h e s m a l l e s t s i z e t o w n ( t h a t i s , w i t h f e w e r t h a n f i v e t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s ) r e c e i v e d a l a r g e r p e r c a p i t a g r a n t f r o m t h e p r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t t h a n d i d a n y o f t h e 6 o t h e r s i z e g r o u p s . i t u r e s a n d p e r c a p i t a r e v e n u e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s , i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e H a r v e y S h a p i r o , " E c o n o m i c s o f S c a l e a n d L o c a l G o v e r n -m e n t F i n a n c e , " L a n d E c o n o m i c s . V o l . X L I X , 1 9 6 3 , p . 1 7 8 . H a v i n g o b t a i n e d v a l u e s f o r b o t h p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d -v a l u e s . T h i s f i n a l r e s u l t r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the amount o f money t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e t h e e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ( e x p e n d i t u r e s ) and t h e amount o b t a i n e d from l o c a l s o u r c e s t o f i n a n c e t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s ( r e v e n u e s ) . T a b l e X V I I o u t l i n e s t h e per c a p i t a E x p e n d i t u r e - Revenue f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . TABLE X V I I PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE-REVENUE VALUES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND C I T I E S , ACCORDING TO CLASS, 1965 C l a s s e s One Two Three Four F i v e S i x $20.1 $18.6 $30.3 $33.8 8 4 0 . 8 $42.8 A p a r t from t h e s m a l l d e v i a t i o n i n C l a s s two, T a b l e X V I I i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s m a l l e r communities a r e i n a more f a -v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e -revenue v a l u e s , than l a r g e r c e n t r e s . One c o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia s m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s have l o w e r per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i -t u r e s and i n c u r a lower per c a p i t a d e f i c i t t o o p e r a t e t h e s e s e r v i c e s t h a n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Summary. The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t o determine t h e r e -l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i z e o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e N 88 Province of 8 r i t i s h Columbia and t h e i r per capita expend-itur e s on municipal services. Before t h i s relationship could be determined, i t was necessary to analyze the past trends and to establish whether or not these trends represent those of today. Chapter IV has accomplished t h i s for i t has i l l u s t r a t e d that the 1965 per capita expenditure values vary closely r e f l e c t those of the past f i f t e e n years. A second feature that t h i s chapter revealed was that there i s a remarkably close c o r r e l a t i o n between per capita expenditures on f i r e protection, public works, sani t a t i o n , education, and recreation services and the size of the community in which these services are performed. With a few minor exceptions, .smaller communities are characterized by having lower per capita expenditures on these f i v e municipal services than larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Several graphs and diagrams were included i n t h i s chapter to emphasize t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . A t h i r d feature indicated i n Chapter IV concerns the rela t i o n s h i p between per capita expenditure and revenue for each incorporated area. This investigation has i l l u s t r a t e d that smaller communities are i n a better f i n a n c i a l position i f the basis of judgement i s a lower per capita expenditure. This judgement recognizes the fact that expenditure values are only one of several variables which apply. Further research should be conducted i n t h i s area. 89 F i n a l l y , t h i s chapter has outlined the reasons under-lyi n g the selection of municipal services and the sample s i z e . Concerning the former, only those municipal services whose operation and maintenance i s the direct r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l governments were considered. In the case of the sample s i z e , a l l incorporated areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, with the exception of the City of Van-couver, were investigated. The City of Vancouver was not included in the analysis due to i t s s i z e , i t s proximity with respect to large neighbouring centres, the provision of public services that extend beyond i t s municipal bound-a r i e s , the extensive usage of i t s f a c i l i t i e s by persons i n adjacent areas and from outside the province, i t s highly s t r a t i f i e d and cosmopolitan society, i t s d i v e r s i f i e d econ-omic base and i t s reliance upon international trade, i t s complex p o l i t i c a l and administrative structure, and i t s f i n a n c i a l l y advantageous position over the remaining urban areas in the province. Each of these factors creates a unique rela t i o n s h i p between population size and l e v e l of municipal services for the City of Vancouver. The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and size of incorporated areas that were selected for investigation are i l l u s t r a t e d by Map 1 contained i n Appendix 0. \ CHAPTER \J THE RATING OF SERVICES If one were to accept that municipalities having the lowest per capita expendit ures for municipal services rep— resent the optimum s i z e , then one could contend from the resu l t s of the previous chapter, that the optimum size of c i t i e s in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia ranges between one and two thousand persons. However, the consideration of per capita expenditure figures in i s o l a t i o n does not provide an e f f e c t i v e measure for determining the optimum size of any c i t y since these figures do not indicate the degree of e f f i c i e n c y rendered by the i n d i v i d u a l municipal service. A v i t a l consideration that should be included i n the determination of optimum c i t y size i s the quality and quan-t i t y of municipal services. The c r i t i c a l question that arises i s , "What are the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s of an urban community receiving from the municipal service?" For ex-ample, just because the v i l l a g e of Pouce Coupe has a lower per capita expenditure on f i r e protection than the town of Quesnel, i t does not necessarily follow that the inhabi-tants of Pouce Coupe are i n a more favourable position i n terms of f i r e protection than the people of Quesnel. Indeed, 91 i t may be discovered that Quesnel provides a higher l e v e l of f i r e protection, in terms of the number of f u l l - t i m e f i r e men and the extent of the equipment, than Pouce Coupe. S i m i l a r l y , Chapter IV indicated that the town of fllerritt has a lower per capita expenditure on Public Works than the c i t y of Kamloops. Yet, further investigation may prove that Kamloops of f e r s a much wider range of public works services than Mer r i t t in terms of street l i g h t i n g , road maintenance, and street construction. These two examples of the many that could be selected, i l l u s t r a t e the inadequacy of only considering per capita municipal expenditure values as a measure for determining the optimum size of a" c i t y . In order to obtain a more mean-in g f u l and v a l i d result for the optimum size of a c i t y , i t i s necessary to construct a grading system whereby the e f f i -ciency of a service can be equated with i t s operating costs. Chapter V has therefore been divided into two parts. The f i r s t section outlines the procedures that are to be f o l -lowed when ranking municipal services according to e f f i c i e n c y . The section w i l l include an analysis of service quality and quantity, the s e l e c t i o n of appropriate variables with which to measure the quality of a p a r t i c u l a r service, the ranking of each i n d i v i d u a l variable, equating per capita expendi-tures with quality of service, and the grading of each municipal service. The second section of t h i s chapter 92 applies the above procedures to the f i v e municipal services selected for inve s t i g a t i o n . I. RANKING PROCEDURES Ef f i c i e n c y of Service. Before one can measure the e f f i c i e n c y of a p a r t i c u l a r municipal service, i t i s impe-rati v e that the term " e f f i c i e n c y " be c l e a r l y defined. In-deed, such a term connotates an element of ambiguity i n that what may appear to one researcher to be an e f f i c i e n t l y -operated municipal service may r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r from the opinion held by another. Consequently, the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of certain variables results i n a serious l i m i t a t i o n since the method adopted for determining the l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y r e f l e c t s the bias of the researcher. For example, when evaluating the e f f i c i e n c y of an aducational system of a town, the researcher may apply the q u a l i f i c a t i o n standards of tea-chers as a measure of e f f i c i e n c y . It i s generally accepted that a teacher with a Bachelor of Education degree i s more Q u a l i f i e d to teach than one who holds a teacher's c e r t i f i -cate. But i s would be erroneous to assume that the former i s a more e f f i c i e n t teacher i n terms of contributing towards a higher standard of academic performance. A si m i l a r analysis could be made when assessing the e f f i c i e n c y of a recreational service for i t i s exceptionally i d i f f i c u l t to apply a numerical value to the quality of 93 s e r v i c e s t h a t i n c l u d e s a r i v e r - s i d e s w i m m i n g a r e a , a b o t a -n i c a l g a r d e n , a b a s e b a l l a r e n a , s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s , o r e v e n a t r o u t f i s h i n g l a k e . S i n c e s u f f i c i e n t d a t a i s n o t a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a n d s i n c e t h e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s r e s u l t s i n s e r i o u s l i m i t a -t i o n s a s o u t l i n e d b y t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s , a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r r a n k i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . T h e a p p r o a c h b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e s q u a n -t i f y i n g t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e r v i c e a n d n o t i t s e f f i c i e n c y . I n s h o r t , t h e q u a n t i t y r a t h e r t h a n q u a l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e o n l y i s c o n s i d e r e d . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e f i n i t i o n , t h e t e r m " e x t e n t " w h i c h s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e t e r m " e f f i c i e n c y " , a n d a l t h o u g h n o t s y n o n y m o u s i n m a n y c a s e s , r e f e r s t o t h e a c t u a l s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d b y a m u n i c i p a l i t y . " E x t e n t " may b e d e f i n e d a s t h e m e a s u r a b l e a m o u n t o f s e r v i c e i n t e r m s o f s p e -c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t i s p r o v i d e d b y a m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n e x p a n d s f u r t h e r t h e c o n c e p t o f e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e . S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . U s i n g e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s a s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n , t h e e x t e n t , a s o p p o s e d t o e f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s s e r v i c e c o u l d b e m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e n u m b e r o f g r a d e s t a u g h t , o r t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , . o r t h e n u m b e r 94 of students assigned to each classroom, or the range of subjects offered. Investigation may prove that larger c i t i e s o f f e r both a wider range of grades and have a lower student/ teacher r a t i o than smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Using these two variables, one may conclude that larger c i t i e s o f f e r a higher l e v e l of educational services than smaller communities. However, t h i s does not necessarily i n f e r that the quality of teaching and school f a c i l i t i e s i n the larger c i t i e s i s su-perior to that found i n smaller towns, but rather, the extent of the former i s more favourable. S i m i l a r l y , in the case of recreational services, ex-tent can be measured i n terms of the number of acres of parks and playgrounds' per person. This unit of measurement exposes i t s e l f to serious l i m i t a t i o n s i n that i t does not indicate the nature and character of the recreation service. Indeed, f i v e acres of park i n one v i l l a g e may only represent an open area of grassland, whereas in another town a s i m i l a r size park may contain a baseball arena, swings, a swimming pool, and a p i c n i c s i t e . In order to evaluate e f f e c t i v e l y the recreational a t t r i b u t e s of a municipality, t h i s necessi-tates f i r s t l y , an investigation into a l l existing f a c i l i t i e s , and second, the construction of a ranking system with which to equate one f a c i l i t y with another. Similar l i m i t a t i o n s also a r i s e when investigating other municipal services. Thus, the s e l e c t i o n of variables may be substantially 95 c u r t a i l e d by both lack of available data and the i n a b i l i t y to quantify the r e l a t i v e importance of the obtainable data. In addition to the above l i m i t a t i o n s , another serious problem a r i s e s . This concerns the relationship between the demand for, and the supply of, municipal services. For example, investigation may reveal that a certain community i s provided a high l e v e l of recreational services r e l a t i v e to other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Yet, t h i s supply of recreation service may be t o t a l l y inadequate to meet the demands of the inhabitants. On the other hand, a very low l e v e l of recreation service may be adequate for a community that i s situated within a major national or p r o v i n c i a l park and which i s provided recreation services i n the form of play-ground a c t i v i t i e s supplied by the l o c a l school. The sup-ply and demand relationship for municipal services has not been included since the main focus of the thesis i s upon the l e v e l of service that i s provided to each municipality. An investigation into the x supply and demand relat i o n s h i p of each of the municipal services have been extensively cover-ed. 1 Once the l i m i t a t i o n s regarding the s e l e c t i o n of va-r i a b l e s have been f u l l y acknowledged, i t i s then possible to choose the more quantifiable and s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s . The s p e c i f i c selection of variables for each municipal 1R.L. Ackoff, "Towards Quantification Evaluation of Urban Services." Resources for the Future. Inc. (Washington, D.C., Way 1962), pp. 91-118. 96 service, and the reasons underlying these decisions w i l l be covered separately under the investigation of each of the f i v e municipal services. Having c l e a r l y established these c r i t e r i a , certain procedures have to be undertaken in order to arrive at the optimum size of c i t i e s . These are as follows: Step 1. the application of a numerical factor to the variables selected for determining the extent of a p a r t i c u l a r service; Step 2. the ranking of each selected variable ac-cording to i t s r e l a t i v e importance within the group of variables for one municipal service; Step 3. the equating of cost with extent of service; Step 4. the ranking of each municipal service ac-cording to i t s r e l a t i v e importance with the other services. Application of Factor to Variable. Chapter IV outlined the procedure involved for assigning a value to each v a r i a -ble according to.the l e v e l of service i t o f f e r s to a muni-c i p a l i t y . To r e i t e r a t e , t h i s value, referred to as the "Intensity Value," ranges between 50 (the number assigned to the community having the smallest extent of a municipal ser-v i c e ) , and 100 (the number assigned to the community having the highest). For example, using the number of f u l l - t i m e firemen per thousand inhabitants as one variable for measu-ring the extent of the l e v e l of f i r e protection, i t was d i s -covered that i n 1965, the v i l l a g e of Keremeos had a value 97 o f 1.9 ( t h a t i s , t h e r e were 1.9 f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n per t h o u -sand i n h a b i t a n t s f o r t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y ) . I t was a l s o found t h a t t h e v i l l a g e o f Z e b a l l o s d i d not have any f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n on i t s f i r e b r i g a d e . S i n c e t h e s e two r e s u l t s r e -p r e s e n t e d t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t v a l u e s f o r t h e number o f f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n r e s p e c t i v e l y , Keremeos was a s s i g n e d an I n t e n s i t y V a l u e o f 100 and Z e b a l l o s 50. A s i m i l a r p r o -cedure can be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r eva-l u a t i n g t h e l e v e l o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n as w e l l as v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e m a i n i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e can be t a b u l a t e d a c c o r -d i n g t o c l a s s . F o r example, i n t h e case o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p might r e s u l t : Number o f C l a s s A p p l i c a t i o n f u l l - t i m e o f r a n k i n g f i r e m e n / f a c t o r (50-100) 1000 persons 1.0 1 50.0 2.0 2 75.0 2.5 3 87.5 3.0 4 100.0 2.5 5 87.5 1.5 6 62.5 C o n t i n u i n g th e example o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , o t h e r v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d t o d etermine t h e e x t e n t o f t h e f i r e f i g h -t i n g s e r v i c e might i n c l u d e t h e number o f a n n u a l f i r e i n s p e c -t i o n s conducted per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , the number o f vo-l u n t a r y f i r e m e n per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , and t h e water pumping capacity of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment i n terms of gallons pumped per minute per thousand inhabitants. Rankinq of Variables. The s p e c i f i c value assigned to each variable according to i t s r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e with the other variables for a given municipal service, and the reasons for a r r i v i n g at these values, w i l l be covered i n the second section of t h i s chapter. For the purpose of c l a -r i f i c a t i o n , the following imaginary factor values have been included to i l l u s t r a t e the procedure involved i n the ranking of variables. Municipal Service: F i r e Protection Variables Factor No. of annual f i r e inspections/1000 1.0 No. of voluntary firemen/1000 1.5 No. of f u l l - t i m e firemen/1000 2.0 No. of gallons pumped/min./l000 2.0 Applying the factor of 2.0 to the values obtained for the variable involving the number of f u l l - t i m e firemen, the following r e s u l t s would be tabulated: Class Value with Applied Factor 1 100.0 2 150.0 3 175.0 4 200.0 5 175.0 6 125.0 Similar procedures can be applied by assigning the appro-priate rank factor to the respective variables selected for 99 f i r e protection. Using a r b i t r a r y factor values for the re-maining variables, the following tabulation might r e s u l t : Variable Classes One Two Three Four Five Six Annual F i r e Inspection 50.0 70.0 80.0 100.0 75.0 85.0 No. of volun-tary firemen 75.0 100.0 110.0 130.0 125.0 150.0 No. of f u l l -time firemen 100.0 150.0 175.0 200.0 175.0 125.0 Pumping capa-c i t y of equipment 150.0 100.0 160.0 170.0 200.0 165.0 Total 375.0 420.0 525.0 600.0 570.0 525.0 A. Scaling to 100 62.5 ' 70.0 87.5 100.0 95.0 87.5 Using these arb i t r a r y values, one could conclude that Class four c i t i e s (population ranging between 5,000 and 9,999 i n -habitants) are provided the highest service of f i r e protect-ion whereas Class one receives the lowest l e v e l . A s i m i l a r procedure outlined above could also be ap-pl i e d to the remaining municipal services. The res u l t s ob-tained would represent, i n terms of a numerical value, the l e v e l of service of each of the f i v e municipal services that i s provided for c i t i e s according to cl a s s . Equating Expenditure with Extent of Service. Table XII of Chapter IV outlined the following par capita f i r e 100 expenditure ratings: Factor Ratings on F i r e Protection for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns and C i t i e s , according to Classes Classes One Two Three Four Five Six 8. 91.4 91.6 88.3 86.0 80.1 68.3 The r a l t i o n s h i p between A. and B. represents a unit service of f i r e protection for a unit cost. The summation of these two values i s as follows: Classes One Two Three Four Five Six 153.9 161.6 175.8 186.0 181.0 155.8 Scaling to 100: . One Two Three Four Five Six 83.0 87.0' 94.0 100.0 98.0 84.0 A si m i l a r procedure involving the relat i o n s h i p between expenditure values and l e v e l of service (extent) can be ap-pl i e d to the remaining municipal services. The following table represents arb i t r a r y r e s u l t s for the f i v e municipal service x Relationship between Cost and Extent of Municipal Services Service C I a s s e s One Two Three Four Five Six Fir© P r o t s c -t i o n 83.0 87.0 94.0 100.0 98.0 84.0 Public Works 80.0 83.0 88.0 92.0 90.0 100.0 continued 101 C l a s s e s S e r v i c e One Two Three Four F i v e S i x S a n i t a t i o n 75.0 80.0 95.0 :95.0 100.0 95.0 E d u c a t i o n 70.0 85.0 80.0 90.0 95.0 100.0 R e c r e a t i o n 77.0 80.0 75.0 95.0 100.0 95.0 A p p l i c a t i o n o f F a c t o r To M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s . Once t h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s and l e v e l o f s e r v i c e f o r each o f t h e f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s has been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e f i n a l s t e p i n v o l v e s r a n k i n g each o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . I f no f a c t o r s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e f i v e s e r v i c e s , t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s , i n terms o f o p e r a t i o n c o s t s and l e v e l o f s e r -v i c e f o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e summation o f t h e v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e above t a b l e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f such a p r o c e d u r e does not t a k e i n t o account t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f each s e r v i c e . R a t h e r , i t assumes an e q u a l r a -t i n g f o r a l l s e r v i c e s . The q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s , "When u s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between c o s t and e x t e n t o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as a me-t h o d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , what i s t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f each o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s ? " F o r example, i s e d u c a t i o n a more i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g a mora d i s p e n s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e s e r v i c e t h a n r e c r e a t i o n ? 102 The relevance of applying a factor to each of the f i v e variables can be seen from the following procedure. The table on the previous page outlines the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween per capita expenditures and extent (or l e v e l ) of municipal services. The summation of these values i s as follows: C l a s s e s One Two Three Four Five Six 393.0 415.0 422.0 462.0 483.0 474.0 Using these imaginary values, Class f i v e appears to be that range of c i t y size which has the most favourable r e l a t i o n -ship between operating costs and l e v e l of service for the f i v e municipal services. In short, using municipal ser-vices as the variable, one could conclude that c i t i e s be-tween ten thousand and f i f t e e n thousand inhabitants repre-sent the optimum size of c i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, i f a factor system were applied to the i n -dividual values for the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cost and extent of municipal services, a d i f f e r e n t optimum size c i t y range would r e s u l t . For example, when constructing a factor sys-tem i t would be f a i r to assume that education plays a far more important role for the inhabitants of a community than the c o l l e c t i o n of garbage. S i m i l a r l y , some people contend that, due to the increasing emphasis placed upon l e i s u r e 103 a c t i v i t i e s , the provision of e f f i c i e n t recreational services i s more es s e n t i a l than that for street l i g h t i n g . In terms of contributing towards a higher l e v e l of safety, large businesses and industries of a municipality place a higher value upon f i r e protection services than public works. underlying the construction of such a system w i l l be d i s -cussed in the f i n a l section of t h i s chapter. In order to emphasize the e f f e c t that factor may have upon the f i n a l optimum size c i t y value, a r b i t r a r y factors have been selec-ted i n t h i s section. The application of a factor system and the reasons Service Factor Value F i r e Protection Sanitation Recreation Public Works Education 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Each of these factors i s applied to the values contained i n the table on page 100. The r e s u l t s are as follows: A . Values without factor 1 a p p l i c a t i o n . One Two C l a s s e s Three Four Five Six Total 393.0 415.0 422.0 472.0 481.0 464.0 104 B. Values with factor a p p l i c a t i o n . Service C l a s s e s Factor One Two Three I Four Five Six F i r e 83 87 94 100 98 84 1.0 Sanitation 113 120 143 143 150 135',. 1.5 Recreation 154 160 150 190 200 180 2.0 Public Works 200 208 220 230 225 250 2.5 Education 210 255 240 270 279 300 3.0 Total 760 830 847 933 952 959 This table i l l u s t r a t e s that Classes four and f i v e have greater values than Class six without any factor ap -p l i c a t i o n . When ( arbitrary factors are applied to these va-lues, Class six obtains the highest score. This emphasizes that the a p p l i c a t i o n of an appropriate factor system may, as the above table has indicated, a f f e c t the f i n a l value of optimum c i t y s i z e . II. EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL SERVICES Before the l e v e l of an i n d i v i d u a l municipal service i s evaluated, i t i s necessary to outline and j u s t i f y the reasons for not rating these services according to t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y . Therefore, each of the f i v e selected municipal services w i l l be discussed both i n terms of the l i m i t a t i o n s that prevent the application of a q u a l i t a t i v e system, and 105 the reasons for applying a quantitative approach. F i r e Protection. The requirements for f i r e protection primarily depend upon the character and size of the community. Indeed, f i r e protection for one c i t y may vary considerably from the pro-te c t i o n required i n another. A c i t y i n which processing and manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s are predominant, presents a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f i r e protection problem than a c i t y whose economic base consists of r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , r e s i d e n t i a l areas which are comprised of multi-story dwell-ings present a d i f f e r e n t f i r e protection requirement than a sparsely populated suburb. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s which focus upon governmental, administrative, and educational centres s t i l l present d i f f e r e n t f i r e protection problems. B a s i c a l l y , the main function of a f i r e department i s 2 to control and prevent the incidence of f i r e s . In exting-uishing f i r e s , man power i s the minor though indispensible element as the major emphasis rests upon mechanical equip-ment. This equipment includes trucks, pumpers, ladders, water towers, chemical extinguishers, hoses, l i f e nets, and 3 other forms of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment. It i s to the operation of these devices that man power i s devoted. 2A Study of F i r e Problems. (National Academy of Science, Washington D.C, 1961), Ch. II. 3 • A more detailed account i s found on pp. 7-10 of F i r e Fighting, (the Department of F i r e Protection Technology, Oklahoma State University, 1962). 106 Not only i s the nature of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment of importance, but also the management of operating f i r e pro-tect i o n services may a f f e c t the e f f i c i e n c y of a f i r e department. For example, f i r e departments should prepare plans that w i l l aid them i n the prevention of f i r e incidences. These plans should f a m i l i a r i z e the firemen with the exact layout of buildings, t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l composition, t h e i r surroundings, and t h e i r location with respect to f i r e hydrants and f i r e h a l l s . When attempting to measure the e f f i c i e n c y , as opposed to the extent, of a f i r e department, several variables can be considered. The contention of most persons who are involved i n f i r e protection a c t i v i t i e s , i s that f i r e loss values are the basic units of measurements with which to esta b l i s h a l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y . The National Board of F i r e Underwriters outlines three c r i t e r i a that can be used as a means of approximating the l e v e l of a f i r e department's effectiveness. These are the loss per $1,000 of assessed values; the annual loss per building f i r e ; and the number of building f i r e s per $1,000 valuation. Mabel Walker applies a s l i g h t modification to the above c r i t e r i a i n that she equates f i r e protection with the percentage of t o t a l r e a l property 5 annually destroyed. ^These values are also used to c i n s t r u c t f i r e insurance rates. 5Mabel L . Walker, Municipal Expenditures. (The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1930,) p.66. 107 I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t the con-s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y f i r e l o s s e s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t w i t h which t o e f f e c t i v e l y measure the e f f i c i e n c y o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by a f i r e department. Such f a c t o r s as water s u p p l y , a l a r m s y s t e m s , b u i l d i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n l a w s , . s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f homes, c l i m a t i c c o n d i t -i o n s , a l e r t n e s s o f f i r e m e n , and the c i r c u l a t i o n system a r e very s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t he measurement o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y . However, even i f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s e r i o u s problems a r i s e r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a num-e r i c a l v a l u e t o each o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s . U n l i k e f i r e l o s s v a l u e s , t h e r e i s as y e t no s y s t e m a t i c method t h a t can be used t o q u a n t i f y t h e above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s . A s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by t h e N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s i s p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y study i n f i r e p r o t e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t comes c l o s e s t t o i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s o f some of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . T h i s board d e v e l o p e d a s e t o f s t a n d a r d s t h a t p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r a p p r a i s i n g the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l a g r a t i o n h a z a r d o f c i t i e s . These s t a n d a r d s c o n s i d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f i r e d e partments, water s u p p l y , alarm s y s t e m s , s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , and enforcement o r d i n a n c e s r e l a t i n g t o b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and f i r e p r e v e n t i o n . ^ In a p p l y i n g t h e s e s t a n d a r d s , the N a t i o n a l 6 L e a g u e o f C a l i f o r n i a C i t i e s , The F i r e P r o t e c t i o n  G r a d i n g P r o c e s s . ( Los A n g e l e s , 1961,) p.65. 108 8oard o f f i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s w e i g h t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s i n f i r e defense by l i m i t i n g t h e number o f 7 d e f i c i e n c y p o i n t s d e d u c t i b l e f o r each as f o l l o w s : 1. Water s u p p l y . . 1,700 2. F i r e Departments 1,500 3. F i r e a larms 550 4. P o l i c e 50 5. B u i l d i n g laws ,200 6. Hazards 300 7. S t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s ,700 T o t a l 5,000 8 In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e s t a n d a r d s , t h e N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r s t h a t a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t i s a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d i f i t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n one and a h a l f m i l e s from a f i r e s t a t i o n , and t h a t t h i s d i s t a n c e s h o u l d be s h o r t e n e d t o t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a m i l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l and 9 commercial p r o p e r t i e s . Even i f n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c community, they would not n e c e s s a r i l y be a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r a r e a s . F o r example, th e s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s of The N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s has e s t a b l i s h e d a S t a n d a r d Schedule f o r G r a d i n g C i t i e s and Towns i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . These c i t i e s and towns a r e ranked a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s by a s c o r i n g system t h a t i s c o n s t r u c t e d by d e d u c t i n g p o i n t s f o r each d e f i c i e n c y from t h e p e r f e c t s t a n d a r d . 8Thomas H. Reed, M u n i c i p a l Management, ( M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1941,) p. 391. 9W.W. V i c k r e y , G e n e r a l and S p e c i f i c F i n a n c i n g o f Urban S e r v i c e s . ( R e s o u r c e s f o r t h s F u t u r e , I n c . , Washington, D.C., 1962,; p. 65. 109 buildings i n the V i l l a g e of Kaslo may prove to be far more s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of creating f i r e hazards than the lack of large quantities of water which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c for settlements on Queen Charlotte Island. S i m i l a r l y , c l i m a t i c conditions for the i n t e r i o r towns in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia may prove to have a greater adverse effect upon the incidence of f i r e s than f i r e control regulations for towns on the coast. Just as the water supply for the V i l l a g e of Tofino may be the most important factor i n c o n t r o l l i n g f i r e s , so may the f i r e alarm system be the dominant consideration for the City of V i c t o r i a . If one were to discard the consideration of the above factors and revert to using only f i r e loss values as a measure of e f f i c i e n c y , additional problems to those outlined previously would be encountered. For example, a single highly destructive f i r e , which can occur at any time and any-where without f a u l t of the f i r e department, may create a fa l s e impression of i n e f f i c i e n c y . On the other hand, a run of good luck may produce a contrary e f f e c t . This i s not to in f e r that f i r e departments do not prevent the occurrences of f i r e . Indeed, the conduction of f i r e inspections has, on many occasions, reduced the incidence of f i r e s . The purpose of o u t l i n i n g some of the many problems that are confronted when one attempts to measure the e f f i c -iency of a f i r e department i s to i l l u s t r a t e %hat a very large number of intanqible c r i t e r i a are involved. Rather than 110 c o n s i d e r t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f a f i r e department's a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s c h a p t e r proposes the e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t of t h e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , i n s e c t -i o n one o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e e x t e n t of any s e r v i c e may be d e t e r m i n e d by e v a l u a t i n g c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e l e v e l o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n t h a t a community i s p r o v i d e d i s o u t l i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . S e l e c t i o n o f C r i t e r i a . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e v e l o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s , "What does t h e f i r e department o f f e r i n t h e form o f a p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e community?" In a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , s e v e r a l f a c t o r s can be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s th e number of f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n employed i n t h e f i r e b r i g a d e . U s i n g t h i s as a c r i t e r i o n f o r measuring the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d , i t would be s a f e t o assume t h a t a community h a v i n g two f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n per one t h o u s -and i n h a b i t a n t s p r o v i d e s a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a n one which o n l y has one f u l l - t i m e f i r e m a n per one thousand i n h a b -i t a n t s . A n o ther c r i t e r i o n t h a t c o u l d be s e l e c t e d c o n c e r n s th e number o f v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n i n a community. An a p p r e c i a b l e p o r t i o n o f f i r e f i g h t i n g i s conducted by v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . V o l u n t a r y f i r e departments are l e s s expens-i v e t o m a i n t a i n and o p e r a t e than f u l l - p a i d d epartments. The major c o s t s i n c u r r e d by a v o l u n t a r y department a r e c o m p r i s e d 111 of purchasing and replacing equipment, and s a l a r i e s uihich are usually based upon the number of f i r e c a l l s that a person attends. Using the number of voluntary firemen per thousand inhabitants as a c r i t e r i o n to measure the l e v e l of f i r e protection, i t would be f a i r to assume that a community which has f i v e voluntary firemen per thousand inhabitants would be better provided for against f i r e than one which has only two voluntary firemen for the same number of persons. A t h i r d c r i t e r i o n that represents the extent of a f i r e department's a c t i v i t i e s concerns the number of f i r e inspect-ions annually conducted i n an incorporated area. The most e f f e c t i v e way i n which f i r e hazards and other v i o l a t i o n s of f i r e ordinances can be detected i s by the continuous and regular conduction of f i r e inspections. However, f i r e inspections should be c a r e f u l l y planned i n advance for, i f a f i r e department merely announces through l o c a l news media that i t i s going to carry out f i r e inspections at the request of the householder, the program may prove to be most i n e f f -e c t i v e . ^ Using f i r e inspections as a c r i t e r i o n , a v i l l a g e of one thousand inhabitants i n which ten f i r e inspections are conducted a year i s provided with a higher l e v e l of f i r e protection than a similar size community in which only f i v e 1 0 F i r e Fighting, (The Department of F i r e Protection Technology of the Technical Institute College of Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 1962,) p. 29. 112 i n s p e c t i o n s a r e a n n u a l l y c o n d u c t e d . However, such a compar-i s o n may be m i s l e a d i n g i n t h a t t h e s e a b s o l u t e numbers do not r e v e a l t h e t i m e t a k e n f o r . an i n d i v i d u a l i n s p e c t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f the i n s p e c t i o n , (whether u n d e r t a k e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l o r commercial a r e a s ) , nor t h e number of p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n 11 c a r r y i n g out t h e i n s p e c t i o n . These l i m i t a t i o n s are f u l l y acknowledged i n the t h e s i s , but i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e number o f annu a l f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s p r o v i d e s a t a n g i b l e v a l u e w i t h which t o measure the e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e o f a f i r e department. A f i n a l c r i t e r i o n t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment. To c o n s i d e r a l l m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r e - f i g h t i n g o p e r a t i o n s would wa r r a n t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o such f a c t o r s as t h e l e n g t h o f hoses and l a d d e r s , t h e number o f f i r e h y d r a n t s and t h e water p r e s s u r e i n mains, th e s i z e and number o f water t r u c k s and f i r e e n g i n e s , and t h e e x t e n t o f a x e s , l i f e n e t s and e x t i n g u i s h e r s . I f t h e s e t y p e s o f equipment were t o be c o n s i d e r e d , a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e , i n t h e form of a r a n k -i n g s ystem, would have t o be a s s i g n e d t o each. S i n c e data were not a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n t o f a l l forms o f f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment used i n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e 11 The F e d e r a t i o n o f M u t u a l F i r e I n s u r a n c e Companies, C h i c a g o , has c o m p i l e d ."a b o o k l e t , "Home I n s p e c t i o n s by F i r e Departments" which summarizes v a r i o u s a s p e c t s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s . 113 o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and s i n c e t h e w r i t e r was unable t o c o n s t r u c t an e f f e c t i v e r a n k i n g system whereby t h e e x t e n t o f one form o f equipment c o u l d be n u m e r i c a l l y equated w i t h a n o t h e r , o n l y t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s were s e l e c t e d . The e x t e n t o f t h e f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment con-s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e l a t e s t o the pumping c a p a c i t y o f water and f i r e t r u c k s i n terms o f t h e number o f g a l l o n s o f water pumped per minute. The pumping c a p a c i t y and the number o f water and f i r e t r u c k s a v a i l a b l e a r e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f man power, p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s i n f i r e 12 p r o t e c t i o n . U s i n g pumping c a p a c i t y as a c r i t e r i o n t o measure t h e f i r e f i g h t i n g c a p a b i l i t y o f a f i r e department, t one may assume t h a t a f i r e b r i g a d e i n a c i t y o f t e n thousand i n h a b i t a n t s which has f i r e t r u c k s c a p a b l e o f pumping water a t t h e r a t e o f f i v e thousand g a l l o n s per minute p r o v i d e s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , a l l o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , t h a n a c i t y o f t h e same s i z e whose f i r e t r u c k s have a pumping c a p a c i t y o f o n l y one thousand g a l l o n s per m i n u t e . The v a r i a b l e s t h a t have been s e l e c t e d t o measure t h e e x t e n t o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia are as f o l l o w s ; 1 2 r i r e F i g h t i n g . (Oklahoma S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1962,) p. 15. N 114 1. Number of Full-time firemen 2. Number of Voluntary firemen 3. Number of annual f i r e inspections 4. Water pumping capacity i n gals/min. Ranking of Variables. In ranking the above variables, inv e s t i g a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e on f i r e protection a c t i v i t i e s has revealed that man power followed by mechanical equipment are the two most important elements. Using the four selected variables, i t would be feas i b l e to rank man power as the most important, water-pumping capacity as the second most import-ant, and the number of annual f i r e inspections as the t h i r d . However, a problem arises regarding the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the r e l a t i v e importance of f u l l - t i m e and voluntary firemen. For i f these two variables were assigned separate factors and applied to the findings of each incorporated area, the values obtained for larger c i t i e s would be high for the number of f u l l - t i m e firemen and very low for the number of voluntary firemen. In addition, the values assigned to smaller communities would be low for the number of f u l l -time firemen and high for the number of voluntary firemen. The reasons for these differences are attributed to the fact that larger c i t i e s tend to have r e l a t i v e l y few voluntary firemen and a larger percentage of f u l l - t i m e firemen on t h e i r brigades than smaller communities. In order to obtain a more equitable and representative r e s u l t , more emphasis should be placed upon the number of f u l l - t i m e firemen than the number 115 o f v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n . S i n c e f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n have undergone a f a r more e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g program t h a n v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n , and are on c o n s t a n t d u t y , they would appear t o be more competent and b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o c o n t r o l and p r e v e n t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f f i r e s . T a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s e and 13 o t h e r f a c t o r s , t h i s s e c t i o n has d e v i s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f a c t o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a l u e s f o r f u l l - t i m e and v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n : V a r i a b l e s F a c t o r r a t i o F u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n 2 V o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n 1 In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e f a c t o r s f o r the r e m a i n i n g v a r -i a b l e s , i t was f e l t t h a t s i n c e water-pumping c a p a c i t y i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t element i n f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , t h e f a c t o r r a t i o between i t and t h e number o f annual f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o the r a t i o o f f u l l - t i m e t o v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n . F i n a l l y , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f a c t o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e two v a r i a b l e s , t h e number o f v o l u n -t a r y f i r e m e n and water-pumping c a p a c i t y , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e former s h o u l d r e c e i v e a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f a c t o r v a l u e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s t o each o f t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s i s o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : V a r i a b l e s F a c t o r Annual F i r e I n s p e c t i o n s 0.5 Water-pumping C a p a c i t y 1.0 V o l u n t a r y Firemen .1.5 F u l l - t i m e Firemen 3.0 1 3 F i r e F i g h t i n g . 0£. c l t . . pp. 33-42 116 B e f o r e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s can be a p p l i e d t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r each v a r i a b l e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s l a t e t h e s e r e s u l t s (which are e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f a n n u a l f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s conducted per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , o r water-pumping c a p a c i t y i n g a l l o n s per minute per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , e t c . ) i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers. T h i s i n v o l v e s r a n k i n g each v a r i a b l e a c c o r d i n g to i t s I n t e n s i t y V a l u e , a t p r o c e d u r e r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e e a r l i e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . T h e r e f o r e , when p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e s i z e o f a community and t h e l e v e l o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n w i t h which i t i s p r o v i d e d , t h r e e t a b l e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d . The f i r s t o u t l i n e s t h e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s , towns, and c i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. The second t a b l e ranks t h e s e v a l u e s i n terms o f I n t e n s i t y v a l u e s . The l a s t t a b l e a p p l i e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s t o t h e r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e second t a b l e . T a b l e s X V I I I , X I X , and XX a r e found i n Appendix C. The r e s u l t s f o r each o f t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e XX were t o t a l l e d f o r t h o s e i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s t h a t had v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o each of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . These v a l u e s were t h e n s c a l e d between 50 and 100, and have been t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e as f o l l o w s : 117 C l a s s F i n a l R a t i n g 1 2 3 4 5 6 66.1 59.3 56.9 59.8 67.3 76.1 From the r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e s X V I I I , X I X , and XX i n c o n j u c n t i o n w i t h t h e above f i n a l r a t i n g s and the accompanying diagrams th e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be made r e g a r d i n g f i r e p r o t e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. 1. S m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s conduct fewer an n u a l f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s t h a n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 2. S m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s employ fewer f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n t h a n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 3. L a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have fewer v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n on t h e i r f i r e b r i g a d e s t h a n s m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . 4. The l e v e l o f f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment, i n terms o f watter-pumping c a p a c i t y , i s more f a v o u r a b l e f o r s m a l l e r communities. 5. By c o n s t r u c t i n g a r a t i n g system t o t h e f i n a l v a l u e s f o r each c l a s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l of s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by f i r e d e partments, th e f o l l -owing rank r e s u l t s . C l a s s 6 5 1 4 2 3 Rank 1 s t 2nd 3 r d 4th 5 t h 6 t h S3 ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX CLASSES DIAGRAM 7 RELATIONSHIPS B E T W E E N FIRE PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN T H E PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 19 6 5 Z 0 ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX C L A S S E S O o o 2 L U C C U L L U t-i _l _i L. L. O 0.9 0.6 0.3 ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX C L A S S E S DIAGRAM 8 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FIRE PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN T H E PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1 9 6 5 120 E q u a t i n g Cost w i t h E x t e n t o f S e r v i c e . By comparing per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n w i t h l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p can be c o n s t r u c t e d : TABLE XXI RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPENDITURES AND LEVEL OF FIRE PROTECTION SERVICE C 1 a s s e s One Two Three F our F i v e S i x P e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e $2.47 2.40 3.50 4.40 6.10 10.0 U n i t s o f s e r v i c e 66.1 59.3 56.9 59.8 67.3 76.1 From t h i s t a b l e one c o u l d deduce t h a t f o r 82.47 each i n h a b i t a n t o f C l a s s one c i t i e s r e c e i v e s 66.1 u n i t s o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e . S i m i l a r l y , i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s s i x c i t i e s r e c e i v e 76.1 u n i t s o f s e r v i c e f o r $10.0 expended on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . One c o u l d e x t e n d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f u r t h e r by s t a t i n g t h a t f o r $2.47, i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s one c i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d 7.4 annual f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s , w a t e r -pumping equipment t h a t has a c a p a c i t y o f pumping water a t th e r a t e o f 980.6 g a l l o n s per minute per i n h a b i t a n t , t w e n t y -t h r e e v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , and 0.2 f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . S i m i l a r l y , f o r $10.0, t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s s i x c i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h an average o f one hendred and s i x a n n u a l f i r e i n s p e c t -i o n s , water-pumping c a p a c i t y o f 100.4 g a l l o n s per minute per 1 21 i n h a b i t a n t , 0.4 v o l u n t a r y f i r e m a n and 1.2 f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . In o r d e r t o equate e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s w i t h e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e , t h e I n t e n s i t y V a l u e s f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s have been combined w i t h the f i n a l r a t i n g s o f t h e e x t e n t o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e . The r e s u l t s a re as f o l l o w s : C l a s s e s One Two Thres Four F i v e S i x E x p e n d i t u r e f a c t o r s per 91.4 91.6 ,88.3 86.0 80.1 68.3 c a p i t a f c ^ E x t l n ^ 6 6 ' 1 5 9 ' 6 5 6 ' 9 5 9 ' 8 6 7 ' 3 7 6 ' 3 Average 78.8 75.1 72.6 72.9 73.7 72.3 From t h e s e r e s u l t s , i t appears t h a t s m a l l e r commun-i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e amount o f money expended towards t h i s s e r v i c e , t h a n l a r g e r communities. T h i s phenomenon i s p r i m a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e s on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r communities o f fewer t h a n f i v e t housand pe r s o n s a r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e number o f p a i d f i r e m e n . F o r , i n t h e s e communities, o v e r e i g h t y - f i v e per cent o f a l l f i r e m e n a re v o l u n t e e r s who a r e e i t h e r not p a i d f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s o r who a r e p a i d on an a t t e n d a n c e b a s i s . To c o n c l u d e , t h i s s e c t i o n has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r o v i d e g r e a t e r l e v e l s o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n a l t h o u g h they i n c u r s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r c o s t s . S m a l l e r communities o b t a i n t h e most f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t s when c o s t s a r e equated w i t h l e v e l o r e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e . 122 P u b l i c Works, An adequate p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c works s e r v i c e s i s a prime r e q u i s i t e o f modern urban l i v i n g . The f u n c t i o n o f t h i s s e r v i c e , when o p e r a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d , i s t o p r o v i d e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a community a h i g h l e v e l o f h e a l t h , s a f e t y and w e l f a r e . The Nnumber o f m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d out i n a p u b l i c works department v a r y between t h e s i z e and n a t u r e o f urban a r e a s . Because o f t h e l a c k o f man power, equipment and b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , t h e p u b l i c works department o f a s m a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y t a k e s on a more d i v e r s i f i e d range of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . These may i n c l u d e s t r e e t c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i ntenance, sewage d i s p o s a l o p e r a t i o n s , water s u p p l y , r e f u s e c o l l e c t i o n , s t r e e t and house numbering, the maintenance o f p a r k s , p l a y g r o u n d s and c e m e t e r i e s , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n s , and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f u t i l i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, due t o both t h e demand f o r s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by a l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t y , and t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , l a r g e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s t e n d t o i s o l a t e t h e s e s e r v i c e s under s e p a r a t e departments and s p e c i a l purpose b o d i e s . T h i s t r e n d o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new phenomenon. Indeed, o v e r twenty y e a r s ago, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p u b l i c works departments f o r l a r g e c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was as d i v e r s i f i e d as t h o s e f o r s m a l l v i l l a g e s o f 123 t o d a y . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , a c o m p i l a t i o n o f p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s f o r two hundred l a r g e c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s showed t h a t a l l o f them were charged w i t h s t r e e t c o n s t r u c t i o n and m aintenance, n i n e t y per cent w i t h s t r e e t c l e a n i n g , e i g h t y . p e r cent w i t h sewage d i s p o s a l a c t i v i t i e s , s i x t y per cent w i t h r e f u s e c o l l e c t i o n , f o r t y per cent w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g water works, the i n s p e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f p l a y g r o u n d s , and t h i r t y - f i v e per cent 14 h a n d l e d z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Manager's A s s o c i a t i o n , i n o u t l i n i n g t h e b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s conducted by a p u b l i c works department i n North American communities, has c o n s t r u c t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g diagram: Department o f P u b l i c Works D i r e c t o r I i Bureau o f E n g i n e e r i n g 8ureau o f Equipment P r o p e r t y Water Refuse Sewage S t r e e t B u i l d i n g D i v i s i o n D i v i s i o n D i v i s i o n D i v i s i o n L i g h t i n g D i v i s i o n ORGANIZATION CHART So u r c e : M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The I n t e r -n a t i o n a l C i t y Manager's A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1957, p. 11. 1 4What i s a P u b l i c Works Department? ( P u b l i c Works E n g i n e e r i n g News L e t t e r , F e b r u a r y , 1936). 124 In the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s e v e r a l o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s f a l l under t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e i t h e r s e p a r a t e m u n i c i p a l departments or p r i v a t e companies. F o r Bxample, many communities i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia o p e r a t e s e p a r a t e water works and p u b l i c u t i l i t y d epartments. In o t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s , s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal o p e r -a t i o n s a r e c o n t r a c t e d out t o p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g i s s u p p l i e d by p r i v a t e power companies. S i n c e the n a t u r e o f s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by p u b l i c works departments v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , o n l y t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s which come under t h e d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p u b l i c works department o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance; 2. s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s ; 3. sewage d i s p o s a l a c t i v i t i e s . Road C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s . The breakdown o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n road c o n s t r u c t -i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e n g i n e e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s ; 2. maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e s and equipment; 3. c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o f r o a d s : A Pavement C o n s t r u c t i o n -125 1 s i d e w a l k maintenance and c o n s t r u c t i o n , 2 s t r e e t s i g n s and f e n c e s , 3 c r o s s - w a l k c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i ntenance, 4 b u l k h e a d c o n s t r u c t i o n , 5 c u t s , c r o s s i n g s , and c u r b s . B Road C o n s t r u c t i o n -1 g r a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s , 2 c u l v e r t r e p a i r s and c o n s t r u c t i o n , 3 s p r a y c a p p i n g and s e a l c o a t i n g , 4 survey o p e r a t i o n s . In o r d e r t o determine t h e adequacy or e x t e n t o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n system f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the f o l l o w i n g fundamental q u e s t i o n s have t o be r a i s e d : "What l e v e l o f s e r v i c e does th e p u b l i c works department o f f e r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r community i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g a w e l l - b a l a n c e d c i r c u l a t i o n s ystem?" Also,"What i s t h e q u a l i t y and n a t u r e o f t h e e x i s t i n g s t r e e t system?" In a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , s e v e r a l f a c t o r s have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e adequacy o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n system i n terms of a supply-and-demand r e l a t a t -i o n s h i p . To e v a l u a t e f u l l y such a r e l a t i o n s h i p n e c e s s i t a t e s a thorough e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e s a n a l y z i n g peak-hour t r a f f i c f l o w s , p o i n t s o f c o n f l i c t , d e l a y t i m e s , p r a c t i c a l c a p a c i t i e s o f s t r e e t s , and o t h e r t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n elements t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o t r a f f i c movements. Not o n l y have th e above phenomena t o be a s s e s s e d , but a l s o f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f t r i p s . T h i s i n c l u d e s 126 d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t s t h a t d e n s i t y , incomB, a u t o m o b i l e o w n e r s h i p , h o u s e h o l d s i z e , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s have upon t h e number of t r i p s t h a t a r e g e n e r a t e d i n urban a r e a s . The adequacy o f s t r e e t f a c i l i t i e s and c i r c u -l a t i o n systems s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be viewed i n l i g h t o f t h e t r a v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e s e , f o r each urban a r e a . A second element r e g a r d i n g t h e adequacy of a s t r e e t system c o n c e r n s th e c o n d i t i o n o f s t r e e t s . Such f a c t o r s as t h e number o f l a n e s , s t r e e t g r a d e s , pavement c o n d i t i o n s , g e o m e t r i e s , v i s i b i l i t y , and t r a f f i c s i g n s and s i g n a l s can be used t o d e t e r m i n e th e c o n d i t i o n o f s t r e e t s . U s i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a , i t would be s a f e t o assume t h a t a community which has wide s t r a i g h t s t r e e t s w i t h c u r b s and g u t t e r s , t h a t a r e w e l l s i g n a l l e d , and c o n s t r u c t e d o f c o n c r e t e , i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a n one i n which th e s t r e e t s a r e narrow and w i n d i n g , p o o r l y s i g n a l l e d , and have g r a v e l s u r f a c e s . However, two s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s a r i s e r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s . In the f i r s t c a s e , data were not a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e t y p e o f r o a d pavement, the e x t e n t o f c u r b i n g , road g e o m e t r i e s , t h e w i d t h o f s t r e e t s i n terms of the number o f l a n e s , and s i g n s and s i g n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The t h e s i s acknowledges t h a t t h i s i n f o r m -a t i o n c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d from e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y s 127 c onducted i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . Time d i d not p e r m i t t o c a r r y out t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Had the r e q u i r e d data been o b t a i n a b l e , a second l i m i t a t i o n would have a r i s e n c o n c e r n i n g th e r a n k i n g o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a . F o r example, what weight s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o the a b s o l u t e number and s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n o f r oad s i g n s i n r e l a t i o n t o the g e o m e t r i e s o f s t r e e t s ? A l s o , i s t h e number o f s t r e e t l a n e s more s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f p r o v i d -i n g a more d e s i r a b l e s e r v i c e t o t h e m o t o r i s t t h a t the p r o -v i s i o n o f c u r b s and g u t t e r s ? When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p e d e s t -r i a n , who a l s o uses the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f a community, i s the p r o v i s i o n o f wide c o n c r e t e s i d e w a l k s w e i g h t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e number and l o c a t i o n o f c r o s s -w a l ks? F u r t h e r examples c o u l d a l s o be used t o emphasize t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both the r a n k i n g and a p p l i c -a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s t o t h e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s when measuring the c o n d i t i o n o f s t r e e t s . A t h i r d v a r i a b l e t h a t c o u l d be adopted t o d etermine t h e adequacy o f a community's c i r c u l a t i o n system c o n c e r n s t h e l e v e l o f man power and t h e e x t e n t o f equipment i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t s t a n d s t o r e a s o n t h a t a community which has a h i g h e r number of f u l l - t i m e men employed per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s and uses more e f f i c i e n t an u p - t o - d a t e equipment th a n a n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t y , w i l l p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e . N Using t h e s e two c r i t e r i a , s i m i l a r l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h o s e 128 o u t l i n e d on t h e p r e v i o u s page a r i s e . F o r example, when u s i n g t h e e x t e n t o f equipment as a v a r i a b l e t o measure t h e adequacy o f a s t r e e t system, i t may be found t h a t f o r two s i m i l a r s i z e communities t h e e x t e n t o f equipment may be adequate f o r one whereas t h e same e x t e n t may be t o t a l l y i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e o t h e r . When c o n s i d e r i n g nan power as a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e , a problem r e g a r d i n g t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f l a b o u r a r i s e s i n t h a t t h e employees o f a p u b l i c works department o f one community may u n d e r t a k e a much wider range of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a n a n o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , t o use t h e number o f men employed per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , and t h e l e v e l o f equipment o f a p u b l i c works department would n e c e s s i t a t e both a thorough assessment o f each o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n terms o f man-hours, e f f i c i e n c y o f work, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s , and o p e r a t i o n t i m e s o f mach-i n e s , as w e l l as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a n k i n g system w i t h which t o grade them. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s was not a v a i l a b l e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y they have not been i n c l u d e d as measurements o f t h e l e v e l o f p u b l i c works s e r v i c e s . S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . In s e l e c t i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s t o determine t h e e x t e n t o f a p u b l i c works department's a c t i v i t i e s i n l i g h t o f t h e l i m i t e d d a t a , and ac k n o w l e d g i n g t h e i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s s e c t i o n has o n l y i n c l u d e d two. These a r e , f i r s t , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l paved s t r e e t s 129 t o t o t a l l e n g t h o f a l l roads and s t r e e t s i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y , and second, the l e n g t h o f paved s t r e e t s per thousand i n h a b -i t a n t s . The r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s i s t h a t i t i s f e l t they r e p r e s e n t a t a n g i b l e v a l u e t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e l e v e l o f r oad c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of a commun-i t y . F o r example, an i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a i n which s i x t y per c e n t o f t h e roads a r e paved would p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t o t h e m o t o r i s t , i n terms o f c o n v e n i e n c e , c o m f o r t , and s a f e t y , t h a n one i n which o n l y t e n per cent of a l l roads a r e paved. However, the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s r a t i o does not i n d i c a t e t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e pavement c o n d i t i o n , nor t h e w i d t h o f roads, nor the grades o f s t r e e t s . The t h e s i s acknowledges t h a t t h e s e elements s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . However, they have been o m i t t e d from i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n c e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g them were not a v a i l a b l e . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s per t h o u s and i n h a b i t a n t s as a second v a r i a b l e has been i n c l u d e d f o r t h e purpose o f a t t a i n i n g a more complete p i c t u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t u a l e x t e n t o f a p u b l i c works department's a c t i v i t i e s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g example has been i n c l u d e d . Suppose t h a t A and B a r e towns o f s i m i l a r s i z e which have f i f t y per cent o f a l l s t r e e t s paved. Using t h i s p e r c e n t a g e as t h e o n l y c r i t e r i o n t o measure t h e e x t e n t o f r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s , i t would 130 appear t h a t each i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a s i m i l a r l e v e l o f s e r -v i c e . However, f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may r e v e a l t h a t community A has o n l y t e n m i l e s o f paved s t r e e t s whereas community B has twenty m i l e s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , community B would be p r o v i d e d a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e i n terms o f l e n g t h s o f paved s t r e e t s , t h a n community A. In o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e t h e l e n g t h o f roads as a u n i t l e n g t h per p o p u l a t i o n , as a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e . The i n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , o f t h i s second v a r i a b l e would p r o v i d e a more e q u i t a b l e measurement t o determine the e x t e n t o f r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s i n a community. Ranking o f V a r i a b l e s . U n l i k e t h e v a r i a b l e s chosen t o measure t h e e x t e n t o f a f i r e department's a c t i v i t i e s , t h o s e s e l e c t e d f o r r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o n l y c o n s i d e r one element - namely s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As both t h e v a r i a b l e s , p e r c e n t a g e o f paved s t r e e t s t o t o t a l l e n g t h , and t h e l e n g t h o f paved s t r e e t s per thousand i n h a b u t a n t s , f o c u s upon u n i t s o f s t r e e t l e n g t h s , both have been a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r r a n k i n g v a l u e s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o u t l i n e s s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h r e s p e c t t o both a b s o l u t e v a l u e s and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r a n k i n g f a c t o r s f o r t h e s e v a l u e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e s u l t s o f T a b l e X X I I I were c o m p i l e d from Table X X I I c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix C. 131 TABLE X I I I ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE I n c o r p o r a t e d P e r c e n t a g e F a c t o r Length o f F a c t o r Areas of s t r e e t s paved s t r e e t paved per 1,000 persons C l a s s One 32.7 64.7 2.9 59.8 C l a s s Two 51.6 75.1 3.9 62.6 C l a s s Three 58.3 78.3 4.2 63.8 C l a s s F our 60.6 79.8 3,3 62.1 C l a s s F i v e 56.7 77.7 2.8 59.5 C l a s s S i x 74.2 86.9 2.5 58.4 The summation o f both the above f a c t o r v a l u e s , which would i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t o f roa d c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e -nance i n terms o f a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e , i s as f o l l o w s • • C l a s s S i z e One Two Three Four F i v e S i x F a c t o r Value 62.3 68.9 71.5 71.0 68.6 72.7 Diagram 9 i l l u s t r a t e s t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i t y s i z e f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia. The o v e r a l l t r e n d d e p i c t e d by t h i s graph i s f i r s t , t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f roads paved t h a n s m a l l e r ones, and second, t h a t the m i d d l e s i z e c i t i e s have l a r g e r l e n g t h s o f paved roads per thousand M. 5 r CO I-ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX CLASS ES DIAGRAM 9 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ROAD CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN T H E PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 19 6 5 133 i n h a b i t a n t s t h a n both l a r g e r and s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n on p u b l i c uiorks a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from a p p l y i n g two v a r i a b l e s t o r o a d con-s t r u c t i o n and maintenance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n d i c a t e t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d a h i g h e r l e v e l of s e r v i c e t h a n s m a l l e r ones. The o n l y e x c e p t i o n to t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s C l a s s f i v e c i t i e s . The r e a s o n why t h i s c l a s s o f c i t i e s has r e l a t i v e l y low v a l u e s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t many o f them have been expe-r i e n c i n g r a p i d growths d u r i n g the l a s t few y e a r s . S i n c e much r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n was c a r r i e d out i n t h e s e c i t i e s d u r i n g 1965, r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o p e r a -t i o n s i n a r e a s o f e x p a n s i o n would be i n an e a r l y s t a g e . S t r e e t C l e a n i n g The main f u n c t i o n o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g i s t o m a i n t a i n s t r e e t s i n a r e l a t i v e l y d i r t - f r e e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f s a f e g u a r d i n g th e h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f t h e p u b l i c . The major a c t i v i t i e s o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g i n c l u d e sweeping and f l u s h i n g o f paved s t r e e t s , l a n e s , a l l e y s , s i d e w a l k s and o t h e r p u b l i c a r e a s ; th e c o l l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l o f r e f u s e t h a t has been d e p o s i t e d i n l i t t e r c o n t a i n e r s ; t h e c l e a n i n g o f c a t c h b a s i n s ; t h e removal o f snow from s t r e e t s and s i d e w a l k s ; and -sanding p r a c t i c e s t o e l i m i n a t e i c y c o n d i t i o n s . In t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d out by d i f f e r e n t departments. F o r 134 example, i n t h e v i l l a g e o f Telkwa s t r e e t s a re f l u s h e d by the v o l u n t e e r f i r e department each s p r i n g a f t e r t h e snow has d i s a p p e a r e d . In o t h e r communities, s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a -t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d out by the l o c a l p a r k s b o a r d . A l s o the l o c a l c o u n c i l may c o n t r a c t out t h i s a c t i v i t y t o p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . There a r e many f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the o p e r a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g s e r v i c e s , and i t i s neces-s a r y t o c o n s i d e r them when e v a l u a t i n g the l e v e l o f t h i s s e r -v i c e . Among t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e pavement c o n d i t i o n s , t o p o g r a -p h i c and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , and the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r e s i -dent p o p u l a t i o n . In the case o f pavement c o n d i t i o n s , i t would appear t h a t a s p h a l t and c o n c r e t e s t r e e t s u r f a c e s a r e more e a s i l y c l e a n e d t h a n g r a v e l r o a d s . Not o n l y i s t h e l a t -t e r t y p e o f s t r e e t more d i f f i c u l t t o c l e a n , but i n many ca s e s d e t e r s c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s absence o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t u r n c r e a t e s u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s , and has, a c c o r d i n g t o h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s , r e s u l t e d i n o u t b r e a k s o f e p i d e m i c s . The e f f e c t t h a t c l i m a t e has upon s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c -t i v i t i e s depends upon t h e c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a r e a . In t h o s e a r e a s i n which t h e r e i s heavy s n o w f a l l , the 1 5 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from a q u e s t i o n a i r e t h a t was sent t o a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia r e g a r d i n g P u b l i c Works a c t i v i t i e s . A copy o f t h e l e t t e r s sent t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y i s c o n t a i n e d i n the appendix D. 135 l e n g t h o f t h e w i n t e r season w i l l determine the number o f days t h a t s t r e e t s can be c l e a n e d . In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e snow removal a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c works d e p a r t -ment, s e v e r e w i n t e r conditions may a l s o r e s u l t i n h i g h e r s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n c o s t s . In a r e a s o f heavy r a i n f a l l s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s may e i t h e r not be n e c e s s a r y , as i n t h e 1 fi case f o r t h e v i l l a g e o f Lake Cowichan, o r p r e s e n t a d d i t i o n a l problems r e s u l t i n g from the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f l a r g e d e p o s i t s o f mud and s i l t . At the o t h e r c l i m a t i c e x t r e m e , f r e g i o n s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e drought c o n d i t i o n s , such as the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r a r e a s of t h i s p r o v i n c e , a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h dust problems. In o r d e r t o overcome the problems o f dusty c o n d i t i o n s , t h e o i l i n g o f g r a v e l roads i s a common p r a c t i c e f o r many commu-n i t i e s . The t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s may i n f l u e n c e the r o u t i n g o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f l u s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , dead~end s t r e e t s caused by t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s w i l l a l s o a f f e c t t h e p l a n n i n g s c h e d u l e , o p e r a t i o n s , and c o s t o f c l e a n i n g . The e x t e n t o f p a r k i n g p r a c t i c e s on s t r e e t s s e r i o u s l y h i n d e r s s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s a r e a s of towns and c i t i e s i n which t h e r e i s a h i g h volume of t r a f f i c movement f o r many hours o f t h e day, and where o v e r n i g h t 1 6 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from the p r e v i o u s l y -mentioned q u e s t i o n a i r e . 136 p a r k i n g i s p e r m i t t e d , s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may be l e s s e f f e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an urban a r e a i n terms of c u l t u r a l h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s as w e l l as t h e volume and n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s i e n t v i s i t o r , w i l l a f f e c t t h e f r e q u e n c y of s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . For example, t h e i n d u s t r i a l and commercial base of a community may warrant a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g and r e f u s e d i s p o s a l t h a n t h a t r e q u i r e d i n a s m a l l r e s o r t town. The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s t r e e t c l e a n -i n g a c t i v i t i e s has been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n f o r the p u r-pose o f e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e upon the n a t u r e , c o s t s , and p l a n n i n g o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . F o r example, i f t h e f r e q u e n c y of s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i s adopted as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which t o measure t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e number o f days t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y can be c a r r i e d out may depend upon c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . When u s i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e , the e f f e c t s o f a l o n g d u r a t i o n o f snow c o v e r , heavy r a i n f a l l , o r a r i d c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be f u l l y a s s e s s e d b e f o r e any c o n c l u s i o n s can be a r r i v e d a t . To use a n o t h e r example, i f the l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s c l e a n e d as a p e r -centage of t o t a l l e n g t h o f s t r e e t i s s e l e c t e d as a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d etermine whether poor pavement c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , o r whether s e v e r e t o -p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s do not p e r m i t e i t h e r t h e f l u s h i n g o r 137 c l e a n i n g o f s t r e e t s . S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . The s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t s o f measurements f o r s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s may i n -c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. a r e a o f s t r e e t s u r f a c e c l e a n e d ; 2. t h e number o f m i l e s o f s t r e e t s * c l e a n e d ; 3. t h e number of c u b i c y a r d s o f d i r t removed; 4. t h e number o f t o n s o f d i r t removed; 5 . the number of t o n s o f snow removed; 6. the l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s o i l e d ; 7. t h e l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s sanded and s a l t e d ; 8. t h e number o f c a t c h b a s i n s c l e a n e d ; 9. the number of l i t t e r c o n t a i n e r s c l e a n e d . I f each o f the above v a r i a b l e s were a s s i g n e d e q u i t a b l e f a c t o r r a t i n g s , the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i -v i t i e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . However, o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l e n g t h s o f s t r e e t s c l e a n e d was a v a i l a b l e . As i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t v a r i a b l e s has not been r e c o r d e d by any m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , they cannot be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s c l e a n n e d has been adopted as a < performance s t a n d a r d u n i t by t h e Committee on Uniform S t r e e t 17 and S a n i t a t i o n Records. The Committee d e f i n e s a sweeping m i l e a s : 1 7 C l a r e n c e E. R i d l e y and H e r b e r t A. Simon, M e a s u r i n g M u n i c i p a l A c t i v i t i e s . (The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers'" A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1943), p. 22. 138 a l i n e a l m i l e o f s t r e e t c l e a n e d once e i t h e r by s t r e e t f l u s h i n g , machine sweeping, hand brooming, beat p a t r o l , o r hose c l e a n i n g Each c l e a n i n g method i s measured s e p a r a t e l y even though one method may supplement a n o t h e r . . . . . The c l e a n i n g work, or t h e c o s t per c l e a n i n g m i l e o f one method cannot be com-pared d i r e c t l y w i t h a n o t h e r w i t h i n a c i t y w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f work done.18 v In r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y a u n i t l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s u r f a c e i n not an adequate v a r i a b l e w i t h which t o measure the l e v e l o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f a m u n i c i -p a l i t y . The i n c l u s i o n o f a t i m e p e r i o d and t h e number o f i n h a b i t a n t s t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h i s s e r v i c e would p r o v i d e a more v a l i d u n i t o f measurement. T h e r e f o r e , t h e v a r i a b l e s e l e c t e d i n c l u d e s t h e number o f l i n e a l f e e t o f s t r e e t s u r -f a c e c l e a n e d per week per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . As y e t , such a v a r i a b l e has not been adopted by any s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e l e v e l o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . However, t h e use o f t h i s v a r i a b l e does not i n d i c a t e t h e s u r f a c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t r e e t pavements, t h e n a t u r e o f r e f u s e swept, t h e number o f l a n e s c l e a n e d , t h e method o f s t r e e t - c l e a n i n g or t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c -t i v i t i e s . The l i m i t a t i o n s a c c r u i n g t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such a v a r i a b l e a r e f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d , but i t i s c o n s i d e r e d " ^ P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e and Committee on  Uniform S t r e e t a n d ~ S a n i t a t i o n R e c o r d s . (Manual o f P u b l i c Works Records and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i c a g o ) , 1933, p. 71. 139 t h a t the l e n g t h o f s t r e e t c l e a n e d per u n i t t i m e per p o p u l a -t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the most s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t o f measurement. U s i n g t h e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e , the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o u t -l i n e s s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. The t a b l e a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e f a c t o r v a l u e s f o r each community t h a t have been c o m p i l e d from T a b l e XXIV c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix C. TABLE XXV STREET CLEANING CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE Number o f l i n e a l f e e t c l e a n e d per week per 1000 i n h a b i t a n t s F a c t o r 1.6 3.9 9.0 51.6 53.9 59.0 12.3 13.1 30.6 62.3 68.1 80.6 Diagram 10, which has been c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e r e -s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e XXIV, c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y s i z e and the l e v e l o f s t r e e t c l e a n -i n g a c t i v i t i e s . This diagram i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s p r o v i d e a much h i g h e r l e v e l o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i -t i e s , i n terms o f the l e n g t h o f s t r e e t c l e a n e d per week per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , than do s m a l l e r communities. 140 DIAGRAM IO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ROAD CLEANING ACTIVITIES AND CLASS SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I9 65 141 Sewer Services. Before i t i s possible to evaluate the l e v e l i n sewer services, that a public works department provides a community (regarding sewer services,) several basic questions are raised. The f i r s t i s , "What types of sewer f a c i l i t i e s exist i n each community?" Another may be, "What are the factors that a f f e c t the design of a sewer system, and the treatment and disposal of sewage?" A further question may include, "Why does one sewer system d i f f e r from another community of a sim i l a r size?" In answering these questions, t h i s section has included a short discussion on the various types of sewer systems that exist in t h i s province, and an analysis of those s i g n i f i c a n t factors that condition the type of treatment and disposal operations. This discussion w i l l then lead into the method for selecting the appropriate variables with which to measure the extent of sewer services. A sewer system i s a network of sewer drains that c o l l e c t s the l i q u i d waste products from an area for subse-quent treatment and disposal. Sanitary sewers c o l l e c t con-taminated l i q u i d s from buildings, and convey them to either sewage treatment plants, or dispose of them i n some other manner. Storm sewers are used to c o l l e c t rain water and surface water. In many communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia, both sanitary and storm sewers are combined. The reasons for t h i s type of operation depend upon drainage conditions of the area 142 (poor d r a i n a g e c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n i n f i l t r a t i o n and e x f i l -t r a t i o n phenomena), the need f o r pumping o p e r a t i o n s , t h e w i d t h o f r i g h t - o f - w a y f o r sewer i n s t a l l a t i o n , and most im-p o r t a n t , the f i n a n c i n g o f sewer main i n s t a l l a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , combined sewers a r e l e s s c o s t l y t o i n s t a l l than s e p a r a t e sewers. There are s e v e r a l methods by which sewage i s t r e a t e d i n communities i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , and each o f t h e s e i s c o n d i -t i o n e d by unique f a c t o r s . Among the most common methods of sewage t r e a t m e n t f o r s m a l l e r communities i s what i s known as 20 p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t . T h i s method i n v o l v e s the d i s p o s a l o f sewage i n t o s e p t i c t a n k s . The r e a s o n why such a method i s ;., c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f most s m a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i s because o f t h e e x c e e d i n g l y low c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of s e p t i c t a n k s . A p a r t from t h e i n i t i a l i n s t a l l a t i o n c o s t s , maintenance c o s t s a r e n i l . However, t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t i s not the o n l y r e a s o n why communities a r e s e r v i c e d by s e p t i c t a n k s . Adverse geo-l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and s e v e r e topography may not p e r m i t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f sewer mains both from a p h y s i c a l and an eco-nomic s t a n d p o i n t . In a d d i t i o n , i n s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s , i t i s not e c o n o m i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t t o i n s t a l l a complex and 2 0 F o r a more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f sewage treatment, c o n s u l t Chapter 21 o f Water Supply and Sewerage., E r n e s t W.. S t e e l , ( M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c . , New Y 0 r k , 1960) 143 c o s t l y network o f sewer mains. Thus, i n most r u r a l a r e a s and i n many o f the s m a l l e r commucities i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , sewage t r e a t m e n t i s by pr i m a r y methods. However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s which p r e v e n t the use of s e p t i c t a n k s as a means o f sewage t r e a t m e n t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e concerns s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u r r o u n d -i n g the s e p t i c t a n k s , and the l e v e l o f the water t a b l e . F o r example, i n a r e a s o f non-permeable s o i l s , such as c l a y s , and where t h e water t a b l e g r e a t l y f l u c t u a t e s , sewage d i s p o s a l i n t o s e p t i c t a n k s may r e s u l t i n e x f i l t r a t i o n and subsequent c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f s u r f a c e w a t e r s . These u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s have, on many o c c a s i o n s , r e s u l t e d i n o u t b r e a k s o f e p i d e m i c s . Other sewage t r e a t m e n t p r a c t i c e s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d out i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e secondary t r e a t m e n t and d i s i n f e c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . The former method b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e s the removal o f f l o a t i n g s o l i d s , c o a r s e m a t e r i a l s , and c o l l o i d s by e i t h e r c h e m i c a l or me-c h a n i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . The n a t u r e o f t h e sewage t r e a t e d w i l l d e t e r m i n e the p r o c e s s o f secondary t r e a t m e n t . F o r example, t h o s e i n t e r i o r towns which o p e r a t e f r u i t c a n n i n g i n d u s t r i e s w i l l r e q u i r e t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t methods, and t h u s w i l l i n c u r d i f f e r e n t c o s t s , t h a n where t r e a t m e n t i s needed f o r wastes from e i t h e r a p e t r o - c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y or a f i s h - p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t . 144 D i s i n f e c t i o n p r a c t i c e s , which i n c l u d e t h e c h l o r i n a -t i o n o f p r e - t r e a t e d sewage, r e p r e s e n t t h e f i n a l s t a g e i n t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s method i s u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e d i n l a r g e r urban c e n t r e s . U n l i k e the d i s c h a r g e o f wastes i n t o s e p t i c t a n k s , s econdary t r e a t m e n t i n c l u d e s t h e conveyance o f sewage a l o n g a complex system o f sewer t r u n k s and mains t o t h e p l a c e o f d i s c h a r g e and t r e a t m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , secondary sewage t r e a t m e n t i s a f a r more c o s t l y o p e r a t i o n than p r i m a r y t r e a t -ment. Treatment p l a n t s , pumping s t a t i o n s , i n s t a l l a t i o n c o s t s , sewer p i p e s , and c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t some o f the b a s i c c o s t s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a -t i o n o f such a sewer system. A f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f sewage t r e a t m e n t may be found i n c h a p t e r s 17 t o 22 i n c l u s i v e o f Water Supply and Sewerage by E r n e s t S t e e l . The above paragraphs have emphasized t h a t when e v a l u a -t i n g the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y p r o v i d e s f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , i t i s . i m p e r a t i v e t o comprehend the t y p e s o f sewer systems f o r each community, the n a t u r e o f the sewage t r e a t e d , and t h e reasons t h a t c o n d i t i o n t h e methods of t r e a t -ment. The f o l l o w i n g examples have been i n c l u d e d t o e x p r e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e many e l e -ments t h a t a f f e c t sewer o p e r a t i o n s . I f the volume o f sewage t r e a t e d i s s e l e c t e d as a v a r -i a b l e w i t h which t o measure t h e l e v e l o f sewer s e r v i c e , two 145 communities t r e a t i n g e q u a l volumes o f sewage a t e q u a l expen-d i t u r e s would be a s s i g n e d t h e same degree o f s e r v i c e . Y e t , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may r e v e a l t h a t a v e r y l a r g e p e r c e n -t a g e o f sewage produced by one community i s c o m p r i s e d o f c h e m i c a l w a s t e s , t h u s n e c e s s i t a t i n g a f a r more complex and c o s t l y t r e a t m e n t p r o c e s s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e community o p e r a t i n g the more complex system would p r o v i d e a more e f f e c -t i v e sewer system i n terms of e x p e n d i t u r e s and s e r v i c e p r o -duced. In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e f u l l y the e f f e c t s o f o t h e r e l e -ments upon t r e a t m e n t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e l e n g t h o f sewers c l e a n e d may be used as a second v a r i a b l e . Under t h i s c o n d i t i o n , i t may be found t h a t f o r the same two communities one has a f a r g r e a t e r v a l u e than t h e o t h e r . However, a d d i t i o n a l i n v e s t i -g a t i o n may prove t h a t the community h a v i n g the lower v a l u e was c o m p e l l e d t o i n s t a l l s e p t i c t a n k s because of t o p o g r a p h i c and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , whereas the o t h e r becuase o f f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , h i g h l a n d v a l u e s , and denser s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , may f i n d i t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e and e x p e d i e n t to i n s t a l l a g r e a t f o o t a g e o f sewer mains. U s i n g l e n g t h o f sewers c l e a n e d or i n s t a l l e d as a v a r i a b l e would not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t t h e e x t e n t or e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e sewer system. F i n a l l y , a t h i r d v a r i a b l e w i t h which t o measure th e l e v e l o f a sewer s e r v i c e may i n c l u d e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l d w e l l i n g s o f a community t h a t are connected t o a sewer system. U s i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e , i t may be found t h a t f o r t h e same two 146 communities f i f t y per c e n t o f a l l d w e l l i n g u n i t s a r e connec-t e d t o a network o f sewers. In t h i s r e s p e c t , one may assume t h a t both communities a r e p r o v i d i n g the same l e v e l o f s e r -v i c e . Y e t , such an assessment does not t a k e i n t o account t h e s i z e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d , t h e d e n s i t y of t h e i n c o r -p o r a t e d a r e a , t h e c a p a c i t y o f the sewer mains, c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance c o s t s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e elements mentioned above. Indeed, a l t h o u g h f i f t y per cent o f a l l h o u s e h o l d s i n both communities may be connected t o sewer mains, one may p r o v i d e sewer s e r v i c e s t o e i g h t y per c e n t o f the t o t a l i n h a b i t a n t s w h i l e t h e o t h e r t o o n l y f o r t y per c e n t . S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a b l e s adopted t o meas-ure t h e e x t e n t o f a sewer s e r v i c e can be o b t a i n e d from ask-i n g two b a s i c q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , "How many people a r e p r o -v i d e d t h i s s e r v i c e ? " , and second, "What does t h i s s e r v i c e c o n s i s t o f ? " In a n s w e r i n g the f i r s t q u e s t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be s e l e c t e d : 1. p e r c e n t a g e o f d w e l l i n g s sewered; 2. p e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n sewered; 3. r e s i d e n t i a l / n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l sewer s e r v i c e r a t i o . V a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e second q u e s t i o n c o u l d i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. volume o f sewage t r e a t e d by p r i m a r y methods; 2. volume of sewage t r e a t e d by secondary methods; 3. c a p a c i t y o f storms and/or s a n i t a r y mains; 147 4 . number o f man-hours i n v o l v e d i n the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f sewer system; 5. l e n g t h o f storm and/or s a n i t a r y sewers; 6 . l e n g t h o f storm and/or s a n i t a r y sewers c l e a n e d . I f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each o f the above n i n e v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d and, i f an e q u i t a b l e r a t i n g system c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d t o rank each v a r i a b l e , i t would be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e v e l o f sewer s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. However, i n f o r -m a t i o n was o n l y a v a i l a b l e f o r two o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and no system o f r e c o r d i n g has been adopted f o r the r e m a i n i n g seven i n any m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The two v a r i a b l e s s e -l e c t e d i n c l u d e the l e n g t h o f a l l forms o f sewer mains, and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l d w e l l i n g s s e r v i c e d by sewer a c t i v i t i e s The l i m i t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a p p l y i n g t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g pages. These l i m i t a t i o n s and d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e f u l l y acknowledged. However, i t i s f e l t t h a t when a p p l y i n g t h e two v a r i a b l e s t o each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , one may assume t h a t a community which has e i g h t y per cent o f a l l d w e l l i n g s con-n e c t e d t o a sewer.system, and which has an average l e n g t h o f t e n f e e t o f sewer mains per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , would be p r o v i d e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a n one whose v a l u e s a r e twenty per cent and t h r e e f e e t r e s p e c t i v e l y , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e summarizes sewer a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 148 a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e . I t has been c o m p i l e d from Table XXVI c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix C. TABLE XXVII SEWER CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE One Two C 1 a s Three s e s Four F i v e S i x Number o f l i n e a l f e e t o f sewer mains per 1000 persons 1.7 4.3 5.1 5.2 4.5 3.8 F a c t o r 59.1 71.4 75.2 . 75.6 71,5 68.9 P e r c e n t a g e o f d w e l l i n g s c o n n e c t e d . c* m 67.7 77.4 87.3 F a c t o r 83.1. 88.0 93.0 T o t a l Average 59.1 71.4 75.2 79.4 79.9 81.0 The r e s u l t s from T a b l e XXVII i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Diagram 11 i n d i c a t e t h a t one; l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s than s m a l l e r ones i n terms o f number o f l i n e a l f e e t o f sewer mains per thousand persons and p e r c e n t a g e o f d w e l l i n g s c onnected t o sewer systems; two, l a r g e r m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e than s m a l l e r ones i n terms o f p e r c e n t a g e o f d w e l l i n g s connected t o sewer s y s -tems; and t h r e e , t h a t m i d d l e s i z e c i t i e s ( f i v e t o t e n t h o u -sand i n h a b i t a n t s ) p r o v i d e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e than both CLASS ES DIAGRAM II RELATIONSHIPS B E T W E E N S E W E R A G E ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S IZE IN T H E PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1 9 6 5 150 s m a l l e r and l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n terms o f t h e number o f l i n e a l f e e t o f sewer mains per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . The Ranking o f P u b l i c Works A c t i v i t i e s , Having determined the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c i t y s i z e and each o f t h e t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s c o n t a i n e d under p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s , t h e next s t e p i n v o l v e s r a n k i n g the importance o f each o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The o n l y study t h a t the a u t h o r has come a c r o s s which has ranked t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s was one under-21 t a k e n by Mabel Walker, In r a n k i n g p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s , she a s s i g n e d the f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s : Weight S t r e e t c l e a n i n g . Number o f t i m e s per week,.,,,, 1 Garbage c o l l e c t i o n . Number o f t i m e s per week,,, 1 Sewerage, P e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n sewered 1 Highways. P e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l s t r e e t paved.,... 1 Highways. P e r c e n t a g e o f p a v i n g t h a t i s d u r a b l e . 1 The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e w e i g h t s would i n d i c a t e t h a t s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d j u s t as i m p o r t a n t , i n terms o f c o n t r i b u t i n g towards a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e i n p u b l i c works o p e r a t i o n s , than the p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l s t r e e t a r e a paved, and t h a t a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n sewered and t h e p e r c e n -t a g e o f r o a d p a v i n g t h a t i s d u r a b l e . However, i t i s t h e con-t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance 2 1 M a b e l L. Walker. M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . ( B a l t i m o r e ; John Hopkins P r e s s , 1930), p. 66. 151 o f a c i r c u l a t i o n system i s a more e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e t h a n s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Such an e v a l u a t i o n was a r e s u l t o f two f a c t o r s , the f i r s t b e i n g t h a t a l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f money i s ex-pended on the f o r m e r ^ 2 , and the second b e i n g t h a t s t r e e t c l e a -n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o road c o n s t r u c t i o n ( t h a t i s , w i t h o u t a c i r c u l a t i o n system, s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d not t a k e p l a c e ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a f a c t o r r a t i o o f 2:1 has been a s s i g n e d t o r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o p e r a t i o n s , and s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h e r e i s at the p r e s e n t time no e f f e c t i v e way w i t h which t o compare the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h sewerage o p e r a t i o n s , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r a n k i n g system f o r the two would be based upon a v a l u e j u d g -ment. Rather than r e v e r t t o t h i s p r o c e d u r e , th e w e i g h t i n g system adopted by Mabel Walker has been s e l e c t e d . The ap-p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s t h a t have been a p p l i e d t o each o f the t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n by the p u b l i c works department o f a 0 m u n i c i p a l i t y a r e as f o l l o w s : A c t i v i t y Weight S t r e e t c l e a n i n g 1 Sewerage 1 Highways 2 22Th e a c t u a l breakdown o f e x p e n d i t u r e s on each a c t i v i t y t h a t f a l l s under the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Board o f Works o f a p u b l i c works department was not a v a i l a b l e from budget s h e e t s . However, s e v e r a l phone c a l l s t o i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d was t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e s on road c o n s t r u c -t i o n and maintenance were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h o s e on s t r e e t c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . 152 T a b l e XXVIII summarizes t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d when t h e s e w e i g h t s a r e a p p l i e d t o each a c t i v i t y a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e . TABLE X X V I I I THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC WORKS ACTIVITIES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA C 1 a s s e s A c t i v i t y One Two Three F our F i v e S i x S t r e e t C l e a n i n g 51.6 53.9 59.0 62.3 68.1 80.6 Sewerage 59.1 71.4 75.2 79.4 79.9 81.0 Highways 124.6 137.8 143.0 142.0 137.2 145.4 T o t a l Average 58.8 65.8 69.3 70.9 71.3 76.8 From t h i s t a b l e , one c o u l d c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i z e o f a c i t y and the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by a p u b l i c works department. T h i s s e c -t i o n has shown t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e o f 8 r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p u b l i c works s e r -v i c e s i n terms o f ro a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance, s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and sewerage o p e r a t i o n s t h a n s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . E q u a t i n g Cost w i t h E x t e n t o f S e r v i c e . By comparing per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , the f o l l o w i n g r e l a -t i o n s h i p can be c o n s t r u c t e d : 153 TABLE XXIX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND LEVEL OF PUBLIC WORKS SERVICE One Two C l a s s e s Three Four F i v e S i x P e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s 311.4 310.5 315.4 317.3 317.8 310.6 U n i t s o f s e r v i c e 58.8 65.8 69.3 70.9 71.3 76.8 From t h i s t a b l e , one c o u l d s u r m i s e t h a t f o r 311.4 each i n h a b i t a n t o f C l a s s one c i t i e s r e c e i v e s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f 58.8 u n i t s o f p u b l i c works s e r v i c e . S i m i l a r l y , f o r 310.5 i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s two c i t i e s r e c e i v e 65.8 u n i t s o f s e r -v i c e , w h i l e f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same per c a p i t a c o s t s , C l a s s s i x c i t i e s r e c e i v e 76.8 u n i t s o f s e r v i c e per i n h a b i t a n t . E x t e n d i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f u r t h e r , one c o u l d s t a t e t h a t f o r 81.1.4 the i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s one c i t i e s r e c e i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g l e v e l o f s e r v i c e : 1. 32.0 per cent o f a l l s t r e e t s paved; 2. 2.9 f e e t o f paved s t r e e t s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ; 3. 1,6 l i n e a l f e e t of s t r e e t s c l e a n e d per week per one thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ; 4. 1,7 l i n e a l f e e t o f sewer mains per thousand i n h a -b i t a n t s ; 5. a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i t y - f i v e per cent o f a l l d w e l l i n g s c o n n e c t e d w i t h sewer mains. S i m i l a r comparisons can be drawn f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s . 154 In o r d e r t o equate per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h t h e l e v e l o f p u b l i c works s e r v i c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s l a t e t h e per c a p i t a d o l l a r s i g n v a l u e s i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers. T h i s p r o c e d u r e has a l r e a d y been c a r r i e d out i n T able X I I , page 83 of Chapter IV. The I n t e n s i t y V a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t a b l e have t h e r e f o r e been combined w i t h t h o s e v a l u e s o f the T o t a l Average o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e X X V I I I . The summation o f t h e s e two v a l u e s i s as f o l l o w s : TABLE XXX THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC WORKS SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE ' PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA C l a s s e s One Two Three Four F i v e S i x F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r per c a p i t a 86.1 86.9 80.8 78.4 77.6 86.9 e x p e n d i t u r e s F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r l e v e l o f 58.8 65.8 69.3 70.9 71.3 76.8 s e r v i c e T o t a l Average 72.5 76.4 75.1 74.7 74.5 81.9 The r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e t h a t C l a s s s i x c i t i e s appear t o be the most e f f i c i e n t o f a l l c l a s s -es i n terms of p r o v i d i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s e r v i c e i n r e -l a t i o n t o per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h i s s e r v i c e . To con-c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n on p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s , thB f o l l o w i n g 155 observations can be made: 1. Larger municipalities are provided a higher l e v e l of road construction and maintenance services than smaller incorporated areas. 2. Larger municipalities are provided a higher l e v e l of street cleaning services than smaller incorpo-rated areas. 3. Larger municipalities are also provided a higher l e v e l of sewer services than smaller incorporated areas. 4. By equating per capita expenditures with l e v e l of service, the ranking of e f f i c i e n c y of public works departments for a l l incorporated areas in tho Province of B r i t i s h Columbia according to class s i z e , i s as follows: Class Size Rank 6 1st 2 2nd 3 3rd 4 4th 5 5th 1 6th Sanitation and Waste Removal Waste removal has been defined as "the c o l l e c t i o n at each household, business property, or i n s t i t u t i o n , of the waste that r e s u l t s from processes of urban l i f e ; the trans-portation of such materials to disposal s i t e s ; and the 156 p r o c e s s i n g and d i s p o s a l o f t h e c o l l e c t e d r e f u s e so t h a t n u i s -9 4 ances a r e not c r e a t e d " , In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e term 'waste' i n c l u d e s a l l forms o f garbage, r e f u s e , r u b b i s h , and as h e s , A more d e t a i l e d out l i n e o f t h e terms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h waste i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , on page 330, In i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , waste removal o p e r a t i o n s a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e l o c a l governments. S e c t i o n 534 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t s t a t e s t h a t : The C o u n c i l may be by-law 1, e s t a b l i s h , m a i n t a i n , and o p e r a t e grounds f o r t h e d i s p o s a l of garbage of a l l k i n d s and o f n o x i o u s , o f f e n s i v e , o r unwholesome s u b s t a n c e s ; 2, e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a system f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n r e m o v a l , and d i s p o s a l o f garbage, a s h e s , r e f u s e , and o t h e r n o x i o u s , o f f e n s i v e , unwholesome, and d i s c o r d e d m a t t e r ; 3, compel persons t o make use o f any system e s t a -b l i s h e d f o r the d i s p o s a l o f garbage, a s h e s , r e f u s e and o t h e r n o x i o u s , o f f e n s i v e , unwholesome, and d i s c a r d e d m a t t e r , and p r e s c r i b e t h e terms and c o n d i t i o n s upon which persons make use o f such system,25 In t h i s p r o v i n c e , waste removal a c t i v i t i e s a r e e i t h e r ^ M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (The I n t e r -n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 57), p. 329, 2 5 M u n i c l p a l A c t , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, (The Queen's P r i n t e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 6 5), pp. 31B2 - 3183. 1 5 7 u n d e r t a k e n by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s o r by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . S e c t i o n 534, s u b s e c t i o n h, s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o u n c i l o f a muni-c i p a l i t y may: e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t s w i t h any person f o r a l l or p a r t o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n , r e m o v a l , and d i s p o s a l o f garbage and o t h e r wastes, upon terms and c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by the C o u n c i l . 2 5 The p r a c t i c e o f c o n t r a c t i n g out garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i -v i t i e s i s v e r y common among s m a l l e r communities i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. From a q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o each i n c o r -p o r a t e d a r e a i n the p r o v i n c e , i t was found t h a t over e i g h t y per cent o f a l l communities o f fewer than f i v e thousand p o p u l a t i o n c o n t r a c t e d out garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o p r i v a t e agen-c i e s . There a re many f a c t o r s which a f f e c t wate removal a c t i -v i t i e s . Among t h e more i m p o r t a n t ones a re the n a t u r e o f the waste p r o d u c t s , whether s o l i d s , c h e m i c a l s , f a s t - d e c a y i n g mate-r i a l s , o r a s h e s , the volume o f the waste p r o d u c t s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f d i s p o s a l s i t e s , t he methods o f d i s p o s a l , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f waste p i c k - u p s . For example, l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t r e -v o l v e around major i n d u s t r i e s would r e q u i r e a more f r e q u e n t waste removal s e r v i c e as w e l l as a d i f f e r e n t method o f d i s p o s a l t h a n a s m a l l r u r a l community. Each o f the above-mentioned f a c -t o r s a r e th e m s e l v e s c o n d i t i o n e d by o t h e r e l e m e n t s . The n a t u r e and the volume o f the waste p r o d u c t s w i l l depend upon the eco-nomic base i n terms of i n d u s t r i a l a n d . m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s 2 6 [ r i u n . i c i p a l A c t . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, (The Queen's P r i n t e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1965), p.3183. 158 o f the community; t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e d i s p o s a l s i t e s m i l l be r e l a t e d t o t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s , wind d i r e c t i o n s , l a n d v a l u e s , s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , and enforcement r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d -i n g the b u r n i n g o f p r i v a t e r e f u s e . An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s t h a t each o f the s e f a c t o r s ' has upon garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o th e s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h which t o measure the l e v e l o f such a s e r v i c e . The f o l l o w i n g examples have been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n t o emphasize t h e im p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e e f f e c t s . I f t h e volume o f r e f u s e c o l l e c t e d i s s e l e c t e d as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which t o measure t h e l e v e l o f waste removal o p e r a t i o n s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o two communities o f s i m i l a r s i z e may r e v e a l t h a t both c o l l e c t e q u a l volumes o f r e f u s e . On t h i s b a s i s , and assuming t h a t the n a t u r e o f t h e r r e f u s e i s t h e same f o r b o t h , each community would be a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r r a t i n g s . Y e t , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t one o f t h e communities e n f o r c e s s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s a g a i n s t r e f u s e b u r n i n g whereas the o t h e r p e r m i t s h o u s e h o l d s t o burn r e s i d e n -t i a l garbage t h r o u g h o u t t h e year by means o f p r i v a t e i n c i n e -r a t o r s . T a k i n g i n t o account t h e u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s o f a i r p o l l u t i o n and the problem o f f i r e h a z a r d s , t h e community which e n f o r c e s t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s would p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s a f e t y t o t h e p u b l i c even though both communities a r e p r o -v i d i n g s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e i n terms o f garbage c o l l e c t i o n . 159 In t h i s r e s p e c t , the i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h waste removal a c t i v i t i e s would f a v o u r one community over a n o t h e r . Another example i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s when con-s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n o n l y t o t h e d i r e c t b e n e f i t s o f any muni-c i p a l s e r v i c e , would be the case when methods o f r e f u s e d i s -p o s a l a r e used as a v a r i a b l e t o measure the l e v e l o f garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . U s i n g the same two co m m u n i t i e s , i t may be found t h a t both o f them d i s p o s e o f a s i m i l a r weight o f r e -f u s e per week. A p p l y i n g the v a r i a b l e , weight o f r e f u s e d i s -posed o f per week, each community would r e c e i v e s i m i l a r r a t i n g s . However, such a comparison does not ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t the a c -t u a l method o f r e f u s e d i s p o s a l . Indeed, one community may d i s -pose o f i t s r e f u s e by means o f open dumps w h i l e t h e o t h e r may i n c i n e r a t e a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f i t s r e f u s e . E x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t the former method c r e a t e s d i s a g r e e a b l e o d o r s and p r o v i d e s b r e e d i n g grounds f o r i n s e c t s and r a t s , t h u s c o n t r i -b u t i n g towards the i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e -f u s e i n open dumps may e a s i l y i g n i t e by spontaneous combustion and cause dump f i r e s which a re d i f f i c u l t t o e x t i n g u i s h . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n c i n e r a t i o n p r a c t i c e s e l i m i n a t e u n h y g i e n i c c o n d i t i o n s , may p r o v i d e a s o u r c e o f heat o r t h e r m a l power, and are r e a s o n a b l y economic t o o p e r a t e i n t h a t s a v i n g s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d through low h a u l i n g c o s t s i f p l a n t s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n the urban c e n t r e . I f , t h e r e f o r e , i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s and 160 d i s b e n e f i t s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d when e v a l u a t i n g t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a t each o f t h e two communities i s p r o v i d e d , t h e comunity which p r a c t i s e s i n c i n e r a t i o n methods would p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f waste removal s e r v i c e i n terms o f c o n t r i b u t i n g towards a h i g h e r l e v e l c o n v e n i e n c e , s a f e t y and w e l f a r e . A t h i r d v a r i a b l e t h a t c o u l d be adopted t o measure t h e l e v e l o f waste, removal s e r v i c e s would be t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s e r v i c e . U s i n g t h e same two communities, i t may be found t h a t each u n d e r t a k e s t h e same f r e q u e n c y o f s e r v i c e . On t h i s b a s i s , both would appear t o p r o v i d e an e q u a l l e v e l o f s e r v i c e . However, t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c o l l e c t i o n s h o u l d be viewed i n l i g h t o f the r a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n , a phenomenon which i s i n f l u e n c e d b oth by t h e n a t u r e o f the r e f u s e as w e l l as by c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . I f , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f r e f u s e f o r one o f t h e communities i s much f a s t e r t h a n the o t h e r , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n h y g i e n i c and i n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s would c r e a t e a d i s b e n e f i t t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r community. In t h i s r e s p e c t , the two communities would not be p r o v i d i n g t h e same l e v e l o f waste removal s e r v i c e . F i n a l l y , a f o u r t h v a r i a b l e t h a t c o u l d be s e l e c t e d w i t h which t o measure t h e l e v e l o f waste removal o p e r a t i o n s would i n c l u d e ' t h e c ompleteness o f t h e s e r v i c e . F o r example, r e f u s e c o l l e c t i o n may be made from the house, t h e back y a r d , t h e c u r b , o r t h e a l l e y . Hence, f o r t h e two communities which p r o v i d i n g s i m i l a r f r e q u e n c i e s o f r e f u s e c o l l e c t i o n , t h a t 161 community i n which r e f u s e p i c k - u p i s at the house would o f f e r a g r e a t e r s e r v i c e t o t h e h o u s e w i f e who does not have t o c a r r y t h e r e f u s e any g r e a t d i s t a n c e t h a n the community i n which t h e p i c k - u p i s a t the curb o f t h e s t r e e t . S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . The f o r e g o i n g paragraphs have i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t many elements are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p e r -formance o f waste removal o p e r a t i o n s . E i t h e r o f t h e s e elements or some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f them, c o u l d be s e l e c t e d as the v a r i a b l e w i t h which, t o measure the l e v e l o f t h i s s e r v i c e . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o u t l i n e s some o f the b a s i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d be used t o determine t h e e x t e n t o f waste removal o p e r a t i o n s . 1. Tons o f r e f u s e h a n d l e d per u n i t time ( i e a week). 2. Ton-miles o f r e f u s e h a n d l e d per u n i t t i m e . 3. C u b i c y a r d s o f r e f u s e h a n d l e d per u n i t t i m e . 4. Frequency o f c o l l e c t i o n from r e s i d e n t i a l and/or commercial a r e a s . 5. Number of t o n s o f r e f u s e d i s p o s e d o f by i n c i n e r -a t i o n methods per u n i t t i m e . 6. Number o f to n s o f r e f u s e d i s p o s e d -of by s a n i t a r y l a n d - f i l l methods per u n i t t i m e . 7. Number o f f u l l - t i m e men employed per 1000 p e r s o n s . 8. Number o f man-hours per u n i t time per 1000 p e r s o n s . 9. H a u l i n g c a p a c i t y o f equipment. 10. Number o f r e s i d e n t s p r o v i d e d w i t h r e f u s e c o l l -e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 162 I n f o r m a t i o n on o n l y one o f the above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s was o b t a i n e d from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y and t h i s i n v o l v e d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f garbage c o l l e c t i o n s e r -v i c e s . Data on the r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s have not been r e c o r d e d by any o f the i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The v a r i a b l e t h a t has been s e l e c t e d to measure the l e v e l o f s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e number o f t i m e s t h a t r e f u s e i s c o l l e c t e d per week from comm-e r c i a l s e c t i o n s o f urban a r e a s . The f r e q u e n c y o f r e s i d e n t i a l r e f u s e c o l l e c t i o n s has not been i n c l u d e d as a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e was conducted once a week. However, i t i s f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f waste removal a c t i v i t i e s a l o n e as a measure o f t h e l e v e l o f t h i s s e r v i c e i s not adequate. Indeed, such an a n a l y s i s does not t a k e i n t o a ccount th e n a t u r e o f the r e f u s e , t h e volume o f t h e r e f u s e c o l l e c t e d and d i s p o s e d o f , t h e number o f men employed i n t h e s e r v i c e , the e x t e n t o f t h e garbage c o l l e c t i o n equipment, and t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s t h a t a c c r u e t o such a s e r v i c e . In l i g h t o f t h e s e i n a d e q u a c i e s , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f waste removal s e r v i c e s does however, p r o v i d e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l of t h i s s e r v i c e , f o r one may assume t h a t a community t h a t has i t s r e f u s e c o l l -e c t e d from commercial a r e a s o f t h e town s i x t i m e s a week i s p r o v i d e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e than one i n which r e f u s e i s c o l l e c t e d once a week. Ranking o f V a r i a b l e s . As o n l y one v a r i a b l e was s e l -e c t e d t o measure the e x t e n t o f garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , no r a n k i n g system i s n e c e s s a r y . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o u t l i n e s s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e . T h i s t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d from r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o e i g h t y per cent o f a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e found i n Ta b l e XXXI c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix C. Diagram 12 has a l s o been i n c l u d e d t o g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between waste removal a c t i v i t i e s and c l a s s s i z e . TABLE XXXII RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND WASTE REMOVAL SERVICES C l a s s e s _ One Two Three Pour F i v e S i x C o l l e c t i o n s 1.2 1.4 1.9 2.4 3.0 4.8 per week I n t e n s i t y 52.5 53;3 58,3 64.4 70.0 88.0 V a l u e s Per c a p i t a $2.99 5.40 7.29 84.9 8.75 7.00 e x p e n d i t u r e s From t h i s t a b l e one c o u l d deduce t h a t f o r $2.99 each i n h a b i t a n t o f C l a s s one c i t i e s r e c e i v e s the e q u i v a l e n t o f 52.5 u n i t s o f waste removal s e r v i c e s . L i k e w i s e , f o r $7.00, the i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s s i x c i t i e s r e c e i v e 88.0 u n i t s o f 164 DIAGRAM |2 RELATIONSHIPS' BETWEEN GARBAGE COLLECTION ACTIVITIES AND CLASS SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I9 6 5 165 s e r v i c e . T h i s comparison can be extended by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r $2.99, t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s one c i t i e s have t h e i r commercial garbage c o l l e c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.2 t i m e s per week, whereas f o r a l i t t l e under t h r e e t i m e s t h i s p r i c e , C l a s s f o u r c i t i e s have t h e i r garbage c o l l e c t e d 2.4 t i m e s a week. S i m i l a r comparisons can be made f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s . E q u a t i n g Cost w i t h E x t e n t o f S e r v i c e . In o r d e r t o equate per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h t h e l e v e l o f waste removal a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s u b s t i t u t e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s . T h i s has been p r e v i o u s l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i n T a b l e X I I , page 83 o f Chapter IV. The summation o f t h e u n i t s o f s e r v i c e w i t h the v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n Ta b l e X I I i s as f o l l o w s : TABLE XXXIV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OF WASTE REMOVAL SERVICES C 1 a s s e s One Two Three Four F i v e S i x F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s 87.6 86.5 82.2 78.4 78.2 82.5 U n i t s o f s e r v i c e 5.2.& 53.3 58.3 64.4 70.0 88.0 T o t a l Average 70.1 69.9 70.3 71.4 74.1 85.3 166 From the r e s u l t s of Table XXXIV one could conclude that with the exception of Class one c i t i e s , larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are provided a higher l e v e l of waste removal services i n r e l a t i o n to per capita expenditures and performance of service, than smaller ones. The following conclusions can be made regarding sanitation and waste removal operations that are practised i n a l l incorporated areas in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1. Frequency of garbage c o l l e c t i o n i s higher i n larger municipalities than in smaller ones. Frequency of c o l l e c t i o n varies between 4.8 times per week for Class six c i t i e s , and 1^2 for Class one communities. 2. Larger municipalities expend more money, in terms of per capita expenditures, on sanitation and waste removal services than do smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 3. When per capita expenditures are related with l e v e l of service, larger municipalities obtain the greater r e s u l t s . Recreation. Before one can evaluate recreational a c t i v i t i e s for a l l incorporated areas in the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s necessary to define what i s meant by such a term. Having done t h i s , i t i s then possible to apply some systematic method whereby the l e v e l of recreational services can be measured for each municipality. This section has therefore been divided into two parts. The f i r s t w i l l answer the 167 b a s i c q u e s t i o n : "What i s r e c r e a t i o n ? " , "Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h i s s e r v i c e ? " * and "What do t h e s e s e r v i c e s e n t a i l f o r each community?" The second p a r t w i l l be devoted towards s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s w i t h which t o measure th e l e v e l o f t h i s s e r v i c e , the reasons u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s e l -e c t i o n , the r a n k i n g o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s a c c o r d i n g t o the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , and the e q u a t i o n o f per c a p i t a c o s t s w i t h t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The complex n a t u r e o f t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s makes a c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term " r e c r e a t i o n " exceed-i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . Indeed, many a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n on the concept o f r e c r e a t i o n bear w i t n e s s t o t h i s , and t o c i t e each one o f t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s would prove a a very time-consuming t a s k . F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a l e i s u r e e x p e r i e n c e t h a t p r o v i d e s both p h y s i c a l and me n t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n . t h i s a c t i v i t y . In t h i s c o n t e x t , l e i s u r e i s d e f i n e d as t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e t h a t a person has o u t s i d e t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . R e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s may c o n s i s t o f both a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e p u r s u i t s , whether i n d o o r o r o u t d o o r , f o r a l l t i m e s o f t h e day and f o r a l l seasons o f t h e y e a r . In s h o r t , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s may be p r a c t i s e d a t any t i m e , i n any p l a c e and by anyone. A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t -i o n o f t h e concept o f r e c r e a t i o n may be found i n Chapter I 168 27 of the P r i n c i p l e of R e c r e a t i o n w r i t t e n by John H u t c h i n s o n . In a d d i t i o n , a more c u r r e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t -i v i t i e s has been p r e s e n t e d by C a r o l i n e S p a n k i e i n an u n p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e u n d e r t a k e n i n 1 9 6 7 . 2 Q The prime g o a l o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s t o p r o v i d e h e a l t h , h a p p i n e s s , and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a community. W e l l - e q u i p p e d and s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s not o n l y o f f e r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s t o c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a l i k e , but a l s o b e a u t i f y t h e a r e a , enhance the v a l u e o f r e a l e s t a t e i n t h e a d j a c e n t a r e a s , and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s o f a community. R e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia are p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l governments. The a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d i n t h e s e g o v e r n -ments i s c o n t a i n e d under S e c t i o n s 621 and 624 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . These s e c t i o n s s t a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g : . S e c t . 621 (1) The C o u n c i l may by by-law: (a), a c q u i r e , by p u r c h a s e , l e a s e o r o t h e r -w i s e , a c c e p t , and h o l d any r e a l o r p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y w i t h i n t h e munic-i p a l i t y f o r p l e a s u r e , r e c r e a t i o n , o r community uses o f t h e p u b l i c . . . ; (b") make r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the management, maintenance, improve-ment, o p e r a t i o n , c o n t r o l , and use o f any r e a l or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y ; 2 7 J . L . H u t c h i n s o n , P r i n c i p l e s o f R e c r e a t i o n , (A.S. Barnes and Company, New Yor¥7T9487TTpTT^20. ... 28 C a r o l i n e S p a n k i e , Space Tor Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n :  P l a n n i n g A s p e c t s F o r N a t i o n a l P o l i c y . ( U n p u b l i s h e d M.AV T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Vancouver, 1967,). i 169 S e c t . 624 - • . (1) The C o u n c i l , may on any p r o p e r t y a c q u i r e d or h e l d , c o n s t r i c t , m a i n t a i n , o p e r a t e , improve, and use b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r im-provements and p r o v i d e any accommodation, f a c i l i t i e s , o r equipment r e q u i s i t e f o r any o f t h e purposes mentioned i n c l a u s e ( a ) o f s u b s e c t i o n (1) o f S e c t i o n 621. 29 F u r t h e r m o r e , l o c a l governments may e s t a b l i s h p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n commissions as o u t l i n e d under S e c t i o n s 628 and 631 of t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . These commissions, i n t u r n , may d e l e g a t e powers p e r t a i n i n g t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d f o r t h e purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . The a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d i n the p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n commissions i s c o n t a i n e d under S e c t i o n s 628 and 629 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . R e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s u ndertaken by l o c a l governments i n th e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia encompass a wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s , and v i r t u a l l y a l l forms a r e p r a c t i s e d . The b a s i c f u n c t i o n s t h a t a re m a i n t a i n e d and o p e r a t e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : t o u r i s t i n f o r m a t i o n b u r e a u s , museums, p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s , l o c a l c a m p s i t e s s k a t i n g r i n k s , p u b l i c swimming p o o l s community h a l l s , c u r l i n g r i n k s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , boat l a u n c h i n g s i t e s , g o l f c o u r s e s , b o w l i n g a l l e y s , o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n s p o r t s , Many o f t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e a charge e i t h e r i n the form o f a d a i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n f e e or an annual membership f e e . The r e m a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e f i n a n c e d 29 M u n i c i p a l A c t . 0£ c i t , ' , pp. 3214-3218. 170 t h r o u g h revenues o b t a i n e d from l o c a l t a x e s . The i m p o s i t i o n o f a f e e s t r u c t u r e upon r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e s both b e n e f i c i a l as w e l l as d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon the use o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . One o f t h e advantages o f c h a r g i n g i s t h a t i t s i m p l i f i e s c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e , and t e n d s t o p r e v e n t t h e abuse o f monopoly. Another i s t h a t the w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c t o pay f o r c e r t a i n forms o f r e c r e a t i o n f u r n i s h e s t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a g u i d e i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r program. The major d i s a d v a n t a g e o f c h a r g i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i s t h a t p e o p l e who cannot a f f o r d t o pay f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s are d e p r i v e d o f them. When e v a l u a t i n g the l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s t h a t a community p r o v i d e s , one s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r whether or not s e r v i c e c h arges are imposed upon the i n h a b i t a n t s o f a comm-u n i t y and, i f s o , t h e n a t u r e of t h e s e c h a r g e s . Indeed, the e v a l u a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a p a r t from f i n a n c i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s does not i n d i c a t e what the i n h a b -i t a n t s r e c e i v e i n terms of t h e amount and n a t u r e of t h e revenue t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e s e s e r v i c e s . S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s when s e l e c t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s i s : "What does each community r e c e i v e i n t h e form of a r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e ? " I f i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t t h i s c o m p r i s e s o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g t o u r i s t bureaus i n a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e n the number o f man-hours and t h e n a t u r e of t h e f a c i l i t i e s , i n terms of per c a p i t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o u l d be used as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which to measure t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . However, as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , many o t h e r a c t -i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e f u l l y t h e s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by l o c a l mun-i c i p a l i t i e s t h e r e must be a c o m p i l a t i o n o f a l l forms o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d out i n each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a . Even i f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be g a t h e r e d , a f u r t h e r l i m i t -a t i o n a r i s e s , and t h i s c o n c e r n s the r a t i n g o f each o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o i m p o r t a n c e . F o r example, how much v a l u e i s p l a c e d upon a c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d as compared t o t h a t p l a c e d upon t o u r i s t bureau f a c i l i t i e s ? F u r t h e r , what a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t elements o f a p l a y g r o u n d , a p a r k , o r a museum? I f a system o f r a n k i n g can be c o n s t r u c t e d whereby each a c t i v i t y i s a s s i g n e d a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e , t h e n i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o determine the l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s t h a t a community p r o v i d e s i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . ^ A second q u e s t i o n t h a t i s r a i s e d i s : "What d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s a c c r u e t o r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ? S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have proved t h a t e f f e c t i v e l y - o p e r a t e d r e c r e a t i o n 3 f a c i l i t i e s t e n d t o reduce the l e v e l of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , m o r t a l i t y r a t e s , and the i n c i d e n c e o f crime r a t e s and o t h e r 31 s o c i a l i n d i c e s . B e a r i n g t h i s i n mind, i t would be f a i r t o 3 0 A . S . T r u x a l , Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and I t s E f f e c t i v e n e s s , (Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Yo r k , 1928,) p. 3 1 C . E . R i d l e y and H.A. Simon, Measuring M u n i c i p a l A c t i v i t i e s . (The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1943,) p. 35. 172 assume t h a t f o r two s i m i l a r s i z e communities o f f e r i n g the same l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , the one t h a t has a r e d u c t i o n o f the i n c i d e n c e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , as a r e s u l t o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , would p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r s e r v i c e t o t h e community i n terms o f p u b l i c s a f e t y , w e l f a r e , and c o n v e n i e n c e . Another q u e s t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be pursued concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e demand and s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Indeed, j u s t because two communities may be p r o -v i d i n g t h e same e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e ( t h a t i s , i n terms o f acreage o f p l a y g r o u n d s , number o f t o u r i s t b u r eaus, g o l f c o u r s e s , boat s i t e s , and p i c n i c g r o u n d s ) , i t does not n e c e s s a r y f o l l o w t h a t both communities p r o v i d e adequate r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may r e v e a l t h a t the economic base o f one community may n e c e s s i t a t e a l a r g e p e r s o n n e l o f t o u r i s t a d v i s o r s , as i n t h e case o f r e s o r t towns, whereas the o t h e r may p l a c e more v a l u e on a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s as i n t h e case o f a community t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e champion i n a p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t . Eva M u e l l e r and G e r a l d Gurwin have compared the demand and s u p p l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f o u r b a s i c f a c t o r s . These a r e p o p u l a t i o n , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l , d i s p o s a b l e t i m e , and m o b i l i t y . They both contend t h a t each o f t h e s e has d i f f e r e n t degrees o f i n f l u e n c e upon the demand f o r , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , 173 32 th e s u p p l y o f , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . A f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be made concerns t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of a t t e n d -ance, and the s t a n d a r d s o f the f a c i l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o park r e q u i r e m e n t s . R e g a r d i n g t h e r e c o r d o f a t t e n d a n c e , t h e s e f i g u r e s may be c o n s i d e r e d a measure o f performance f o r i f , o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n o f the community p r e f e r s a c e r t a i n a s p e c t o f a r e c r e a t i o n program t o a l t e r n -a t i v e uses o f l e i s u r e t i m e , one may presume t h a t such a program i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s purpose. Records o f a t t e n d a n c e can be more e a s i l y u n d e r t a k e n a t s o c i a l c e n t r e s and s p e c i a l f a c -i l i t i e s , such as g o l f c o u r s e s , b o w l i n g a l l e y s , and c u r l i n g r i n k s . From t h e s e r e s u l t s one may assume t h a t a h e a v i l y used r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e or v a l u e t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s o f a community p l a c e on such an a c t i v i t y . Thus, i f i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t two communities of s i m i l a r s i z e a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h the same number of g o l f c o u r s e s , boat s i t e s , and c u r l i n g r i n k s , a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s w i l l i n d i c a t e whether o r not each community i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s r o l e i n terms o f . p r o v i d i n g a w e l l - b a l a n c e d and e f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e . I t i s assumed here t h a t a low a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e does not r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s but 3 2 E v a M u e l l e r and G e r a l d Gurwin, " P a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Demand Amoung American A d u l t s " , Report t o the Outdoor Resources Review Commission. No 20, (U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C, 1962). 174 r a t h e r t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e , l o c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y , c o s t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e v e l o f maintenance. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , the g o l f c o u r s e a t P r i n c e t o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has a v e r y low a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e a l t h o u g h the annua l membership i s s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h . The major reason u n d e r l y i n g t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the p o o r " q u a l i t y o f t h e f a i r w a y s and g r e e n s , the l a c k o f c l u b - h o u s e f a c i l i t i e s , and p o o r l y m a i n t a i n e d a c c e s s r o a d s . A second r e a s o n why the a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e i s h i g h , and which may a l s o a p p l y t o o t h e r s o c i a l memberships, c o n c e r n s the element o f p r e s t i g e and one-up-manship. Because o f t h e n a t u r e o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c o r d s o f a t t e n d a n c e a r e not e a s i l y o b t a i n e d . F o r example, i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o r d the number o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g a p l a y g r o u n d f o r a g i v e n day as the number and d u r a t i o n o f v i s i t s have to be a c c o u n t e d f o r . How-e v e r , c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e f o r some c i t i e s i s t o t a k e a complete count t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s a day w i t h no attempt to i d e n t i f y t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e d u r a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . T h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n has emphasized t h a t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y t h e e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s does not r e p r e s e n t a complete p i c t u r e o f the adequacy o f s e r v i c e . J u s t because two communities may have t h e same acreage o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , t h i s a r e a does not i n d i c a t e whether t h e s e r e c -r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e underused o r o v e r t a x e d . An examin-a t i o n o f a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s s h o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d . Regarding s t a n d a r d s o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t urban a r e a s s h o u l d p r o v i d e adequate a r e a s f o r r e c r e a t i o n u ses. The amount of l a n d devoted t o t h e s e uses i s e i t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y a l l o c a t e d , as i n t h e case o f s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , o r i s based upon r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . The N a t i o n a l Park S e r v i c e and t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c -i a t i o n , i n a j o i n t p u b l i c a t i o n , d e c l a r e d : There i s f a i r l y g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e among park and c i t y p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t each c i t y s h o u l d p r o v i d e one a c r e o f park and r e c r e a t i o n space e i t h e r w i t h i n o r i m m e d i a t e l y a d j o i n i n g i t s b o u n d a r i e s f o r each hundred p o p u l a t i o n . 33 A more d e t a i l e d account o f some o f the s t a n d a r d s t h a t a r e adopted by North American c i t i e s can be found i n the p u b l i c a t i o n : Management P r a c t i c e s F o r S m a l l e r C i t i e s , pub-34 l i s h e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s a r t i c l e d i s c u s s e s t h e space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l forms of p l a y g r o u n d s and p a r k s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m e n t i o n i n g r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s i s t h a t t h e s e s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when e v a l u a t i n g the l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . F o r example, u s i n g the number of a c r e s o f p a r k s as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which t o measure th e l e v e l of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t may be found t h a t two communities p r o v i d e s i m i l a r acreage o f p a r k s . On t h i s b a s i s 3 3 U . S . Dept. of t h e I n t e r i o r , M u n i c i p a l and County P a r k s i n the U.S. t (Washington, D.C, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1937), p. 42. 3 4Manaqement P r a c t i c e s F or S m a l l e r C i t i e s , ( I n t e r n a t -i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1959)", p. 375. 176 both would be a s s i g n e d t h e same l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , c e t e r i s  p a r i b u s . However, such a comparison does not i n d i c a t e t h e a c t u a l space a l l o c a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t he l o c a t i o n o f p a r k s i n r e l a t i o n t o p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , nor t h e adherence t o r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . The community t h e r e f o r e , which m a i n t a i n s r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s , and p r a c t i c e s e f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n programs f o r a l i m i t e d a r e a o f l a n d , w i l l p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e than one which does not a p p l y any p l a n n i n g measures t o a s i m i l a r a r e a o f l a n d . In summary, i f one s e l e c t s v a r i a b l e s t o measure t h e l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e f o l l o w i n g elements s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d : 1. the t y p e s o f f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d ; 2. t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o t h e s e s e r v i c e s ; 3 . the n a t u r e o f the f e e s t r u c t u r e f o r s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ; 4. the adequacy o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n terms o f s u p p l y and demand r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; 5 . the l e v e l o f use o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n terms o f a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s ; 6. t h e co m p l i a n c e o f r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . Due t o l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the m a j o r i t y o f t h e above e l e m e n t s , o n l y the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s have been s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n : S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . 177 1. number o f a c r e s o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ; 2. p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l m u n i c i p a l a r e a dev/oted to p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s ; 3. number o f m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are p r o v i d e d by t h e community. These i n c l u d e museums, boat l a u n c h i n g s i t e s , g o l f c o u r s e s , and t o u r i s t i n f o r m a t i o n bureaus. S i n c e the f i r s t two v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e q u a n t i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , both o f them have been a p p l i e d t o each i n c o r -p o r a t e d a r e a and t h e i r f i n d i n g s t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e . On the o t h e r hand, as no method has been d e v i s e d w i t h which t o equate each of the f o u r elements c o n t a i n e d under the t h i r d v a r i a b l e , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s v a r i a b l e i s f o r t h e purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e of p u b l i c r e c -r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The t h e s i s f u l l y acknowledges the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t when t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e a p p l i e d . However, i t i s f e l t t h a t the number o f a c r e s o f p a r k l a n d and p l a y g r o u n d s per t housand i n h a b i t a n t s p r o v i d e s some b a s i c measure w i t h which t o e v a l u a t e t h e l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r -p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. F o r example, one may assume t h a t f o r two s i m i l a r s i z e c ommunities, t h e one t h a t has a l a r g e r a r e a of l a n d t h a t i s devoted t o r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s would p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e . In o r d e r t o a t t a i n a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l of s e r v i c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o t a l urban a r e a and the e x t e n t o f p a r k s and p l a y -grounds. F o r example, i f two o t h e r communities a r e s e l e c t e d 178 f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t may be found t h a t they have the same ac r e a g e of p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s . On t h i s b a s i s , they would be a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r r a t i n g s f o r l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e . Y e t , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may r e v e a l t h a t the t o t a l a r e a c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r one community may be t w i c e as g r e a t as the o t h e r . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the community which has the g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s would be a s s i g n e d the h i g h e r r a t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g two t a b l e s summarize r e c r e a t i o n c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e of 8 r i t i s h C o lumbia. They have been c o m p i l e d from T a b l e s XXXIV and XXXVI c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix C. In a d d i t i o n , Diagram 13 has been i n c l u d e d t o g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and c l a s s s i z e . TABLE XXXVI PARK CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE C l a s s e s One Two Three Four F i v e S i x Number o f a c r e s o f park/1000 p e r s o n s 7.8 8.1 8.5 4.5 13.9 8.7 I n t e n s i t y v a l u e 60.3 61.6 61.7 55.8 70.8 61.9 P e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l c i t y a r e a under park 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.1 3.6 5.5 I n t e n s i t y v a l u e 59.9 63.0 67.8 63.6 72.3 84.4 179 ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX CLASSES DIAGRAM 13 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RECREATION SERVICES AND CLASS SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I 9 6 5 TABLE XXXVII RECREATION FACILITIES ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE C l a s s e s Number o f museums per 1000 persons Number o f boat s i t e s per 1000 pers o n s Number o f g o l f courses per 1000 persons Number o f tourist centres per 1000 persons One 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.3 Two 0.5 1.1 0.4 0.5 Three 0.3 1.1 0.8 1.1 F our 0.6 1.5 0.9 1.3 F i v e 0.8 2.9 1.0 1.7 S i x 1.6 6.3 2.2 2.4 As T a b l e XXXVII mas o n l y i n c l u d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t l a r g e r c i t i e s p r o v i d e g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s , and as t h e s e r e s u l t s cannot be q u a n t i f i e d , t h e f i n a l r a t i n g s f o r the e x t e n t c f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s can be o b t a i n e d by ad d i n g t o g e t h e r the two I n t e n s i t y V a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n Table XXXVI. The summation o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s : C l a s s Av. I n t e n s i t y V a l u e One 60.1 Two .. . 62.3 Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.8 Four 59.7 F i v e 71.6 S i x . . . . . . 73.2 The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be made from T a b l e s XXXVI and XXXV I I , and from o b s e r v i n g Diagram 13. 181 1. There i s no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y s i z e and the number o f a c r e s per thousand p e r s o n s . C i t i e s r a n g i n g between t e n and f i f t e e n thousand persons t e n d t o have the g r e a t e s t number o f a c r e s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . The r e m a i n i n g c i t i e s have between f i v e and t e n a c r e s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . 2. There i s a very c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between c i t y s i z e and the p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l c i t y a r e a under park. Except f o r C l a s s f o u r c i t i e s , l a r g e r c i t i e s c o n t a i n a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f l a n d t h a t i s devoted t o p a r k s than s m a l l e r communities. 3. In terms o f the numbers o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , l a r g e r c i t i e s t e n d t o have more museums, boat l a u n -c h i n g s i t e s , p u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e s , and t o u r i s t i n f o r -m a t ion c e n t r e s than s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . E q u a t i n g Per C a p i t a E x p e n d i t u r e w i t h E x t e n t o f S e r v i c e . By comparing per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e c r e a t i o n s e r -v i c e s w i t h l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p can be c o n s t r u c t e d : TABLE XXXVII I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE AND LEVEL OF RECREATION SERVICE One Two C l a s s e s Three Four F i v e S i x Per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e 33.34 36.57 $6.18 $7.78 $11.52 $15.18 U n i t s o f S e r v i c e 60.1 62.3 64.8 59.7 71.6 73.2 182 From t h i s t a b l e one c o u l d deduce t h a t f o r S3.34 each i n h a b i t a n t o f C l a s s one c i t i e s r e c e i v e s the e q u i v a l e n t o f 60.1 u n i t s o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , and f o r 315,18 the i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s s i x c i t i e s r e c e i v e 73.2 u n i t s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be f u r t h e r extended by s t a t i n g t h a t f o r S3.34 each i n h a b i t a n t of C l a s s one c i t i e s i s p r o v i d e d w i t h 7.8 a c r e s o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s per thousand persons and devote 1.6 per cent o f t h e t o t a l a r e a c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l boundary t o r e c r e a -t i o n u ses. S i m i l a r l y , f o r $15.18 the i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s s i x c i t i e s a re p r o v i d e d 8.7 a c r e s o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s per thousand p e r s o n s , and l i v e i n urban a r e a s o f which 5.5 per ceint i s d e v e l o p e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s . S i m i l a r comparisons can a l s o be made f o r the r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s o f c i t i e s . In o r d e r t o equate per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h t h e l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to t r a n s l a t e d o l l a r v a l u e s i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers. Table X I I on page 83 o f Chapter 11/ o u t l i n e s t h e s e i n t e n s i t y v a l u e s . Those v a l u e s con-t a i n e d i n T a b l e X X X V I I I can be combined w i t h t h o s e i n T a b l e X I I , The summation of t h e s e v a l u e s w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and l e v e l o f s e r v i c e i n terms o f a b s o l u t e numbers. 183 TABLE XXXIX THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OP RECREATION SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA One Two C 1 a s Three s e s F our F i v e S i x F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s 90.6 83.6 84.6 81.1 71.2 65.5 F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e 60.1 62.3 64.8 59.7 71.6 73.2 T o t a l Average 75.4 73.0 74.7 70.4 71.4 69.4 The r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e t h a t s m a l l e r c i t i e s appear t o be the most e f f i c i e n t i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e i n r e l a t i o n t o per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h i s s e r v i c e . To c o n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t even though l a r g e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s t e n d t o p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f r e c r e a -t i o n s e r v i c e s , they i n c u r much g r e a t e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d than s m a l l e r communities. Because o f the v e r y wide range between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s ( t h e y range between $3 and §15), and a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l range between the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , the s m a l l e r communities t a k e advantage o f t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . 184 E d u c a t i o n T h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n o f the l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. These s e r v i c e s r e f e r t o the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f s c h o o l s , s c h o o l grounds, edu--c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and the conduct of t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . U n l i k e t h e o t h e r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s chap-t e r , the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . . The p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e are o u t l i n e d i n the P u b l i c  S c h o o l s 95th Annual Re p o r t . B a s i c a l l y , t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. Teaching p e r m i t s and c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e i s s u e d by i n s t i t u t e s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . They i n c l u d e , from the l o w e s t to h i g h e s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , E.T. (Elemen-t a r y t e m p o r a r y ) , E.C. ( E l e m e n t a r y c o n d i t i o n a l ) , E.B. ( E l e m e n t a r y b a s i c ) , E.A. ( E l e m e n t a r y a d v a n c e d ) , B.Ed. ( B a c h e l o r o f E d u c a t i o n ) , M.Ed. (Master o f E d u c a t i o n ) , and Ed.D ( D o c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n ) . Ap-p r o x i m a t e l y 44 per cent o f a l l t e a c h e r s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h i s p r o v i n c e h o l d b a c h e l o r and advanced de-g r e e s , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g 56 per cent have E.A. P u b l i c S c h o o l s 95th Annual R e p o r t , The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (The Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1966). 185 or l ower q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 2. L o c a l maintenance s e r v i c e s , such as j a n i t o r i a l , c a r e t a k i n g , l a b o u r i n g and p o l i c i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . 3. D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e number o f t e a c h e r s and p e r s o n n e l , and t h e number o f grades and n a t u r e o f c o u r s e s taught i n each s c h o o l , a r e the r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y o f both the l o c a l S c h o o l Board and the Depart-ment o f E d u c a t i o n . The number of t e a c h e r s a l l o c a t e d to each s c h o o l i s determined by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n based upon t h e Teacher's E n t i t l e m e n t  F o r m u l a . T h i s f o r m u l a a s s i g n s v a l u e s to each s c h o o l and i s i n f l u e n c e d by the number o f s t u d e n t s , the t y p e o f s c h o o l (whether e l e m e n t a r y , p r i m a r y , or s e c o n d a r y ) , the number o f p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s , and s p e c i a l c o u r s e s . The l o c a l s c h o o l board may p e t i t i o n f o r more t e a c h e r s above the v a l u e a s s i g n e d by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n and has t o f i n a n c e t h i s a d d i t i o n from l o c a l r e v e nues. 4. The l e n g t h o f s c h o o l day and year i s determined by the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n s , the Department of E d u c a t i o n . 5. The a u t h o r i t y t o c r e a t e and improve e d u c a t i o n f a c i -l i t i e s i s v e s t e d i n l o c a l governments as o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 624, s u b s e c t i o n (2) of the M u n i c i p a l A c t . 186 T h i s s u b s e c t i o n s t a t e s t h a t : The C o u n c i l may, by and s u b j e c t to agreement w i t h the Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , c o n s t r u c t and o p e r a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r community use on any s c h o o l s i t e the t i t l e o f which v e s t s i n , or i s h e l d by, the Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n which the m u n i c i p a l i t y or p a r t t h e r e o f i s s i t u a t e . ° 6. The c r e a t i o n o f By-Laws p e r t a i n i n g to a n n u a l r a t e s i s c o n t a i n e d under S e c t i o n 206 s u b s e c t i o n (1) a, o f ^ n e M u n i c i p a l A c t . T h i s s u b s e c t i o n s t a t e s t h a t : The moneys r e q u i r e d f o r a l l l a w f u l g e n e r a l purposes o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g due p r o v i s i o n f o r u n c o l l e c t a b l e t a x e s and f o r t a x e s t h a t i t i s e s t i -mated w i l l not be c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r , but not i n c l u d i n g the moneys r e q u i r e d under by-laws o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o meet payments o f i n t e r e s t and p r i n c i p a l debts i n c u r r e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , or r e q u i r e d f o r the s h a r e of the expenses o f t h e S c h o o l Board, or r e q u i r e d f o r charges f o r t h e payment of which s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s i s o t h e r w i s e made i n t h i s A c t ; 37 The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i s p r o b a b l y the most d i f f i c u l t o f a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s s i n c e such a s e r v i c e encompasses both complex e x t r i n s i c v a l u e r such as measurable f a c i l i t i e s , and i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , such as t h e aims, scope, method, and c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The f i r s t problem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t one e n c o u n t e r s c o n c e r n s the problem of measurement. In s h o r t , what does one measure? B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e are two major elements t h a t can be measured The M u n i c i p a l A c t , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965 p. 3216. 3 7 I b i d , p. 3055. 187 i n an e d u c a t i o n a l system. The f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , and examples o f t h e s e would i n c l u d e the num-ber o f t e a c h e r s per hundred s t u d e n t s , number of s t u d e n t s per c l a s s r o o m , the number of grades o f f e r e d , the l e n g t h o f t h e s c h o o l t erm, and so on. The o t h e r measurement would i n v o l v e a s s e s s i n g l e s s t a n g i b l e c r i t e r i a such as the v a l u e o f t h i s 38 s o c i a l system, the r a t e o f r e t u r n t o the community on edu-c a t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t s , 3 9 and the e f f e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n on the economic w e l l - b e i n g o f a community, Many p u b l i c a t i o n s have been w r i t t e n on the e v a l u a t i o n .of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s both i n terms o f measuring q u a n t i f i -a b l e c r i t e r i a as w e l l as i n t a n g i b l e c r i t e r i a . However, i t i s emphasized i n t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t the main concern does not c o n s i d e r the l a t t e r - namely an assessment o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o -d u c t s . The r e a s o n f o r not i n c l u d i n g an assessment of the non-q u a n t i f i a b l e c r i t e r i a i s t w o f o l d . The f i r s t i s t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t h e r e i s no comprehensive method w i t h which t o mea-su r e a l l r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . F o r example, even though many eco n o m i s t s are coming c l o s e r to measuring the economic v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , they have y e t not p r o v i d e d a 3 8 R u s s e l l A c k o f f has a t t e m p t e d t o a p p l y a model f o r measuring some o f t h e s e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s . i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t -l e d Towards Q u a n t i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban S e r v i c e s , ( P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e D e c i s i o n s i n the Urban Community, The Committee on Urban Economics, o f t h e .Resources f o r the F u t u r e , I n c . , Washington D.C., 1936), pp. 91-117. 3 9 J o h n V a i z e y , The Economics o f E d u c a t i o n , (London: Faber and F a b e r , 1962), Chapter I I I . 188 measure t h a t one can use w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f i d e n c e . 4 0 F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h measuring e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s can be found i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n : H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : The Economic Problems, w r i t t e n by R.N. C o o p e r . ^ In a d d i t i o n t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n measuring e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s , f u r t h e r problems a r e e n c o u n t e r e d when one a s s e s s e s the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s o f such a s e r v i c e . Indeed, t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have t o be i n c l u d e d when measu-r i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an a d u c a t i o n system i n terms o f the b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e e n j o y e d by the non-user o f the s e r v i c e . For i n s t a n c e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a t t a c h i n g a v a l u e t o the e f f e c t s t h a t an e d u c a t i o n system may have upon h e a l t h , s o c i a l i n d i c e s , o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . In l a r g e r urban c e n t r e s , which a r e e i t h e r n o t e d f o r t h e i r h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g or c o n t a i n one o f more i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , the mere p r e s s e n c e of l a r g e r numbers o f s t u d -e n t s w i l l b e n e f i t the community as a whole i n terms of b r i n g -i n g i n a l a r g e volume o f revenue i n t o the l o c a l economy. To use an example, -students a r e known t o spend a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of money on e n t e r t a i n m e n t . T h i s s o u r c e of revenue may p e r m i t th e p r o p r i e t o r . o f an e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t y t o expand 4°W.J. P i a t t , Towards S t r a t e g i e s o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . S t a n d f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y , 1961. ^ H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : The Economic  Problems, Supplement 42, t h e Review of Economic and S t a t i s -t i c s , 1960. 189 and improve h i s f a c i l i t i e s , and t h i s a c t i o n i n t u r n w i l l p r o -v i d e a h i g h e r q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e t o the customers. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , how does one measure t h i s i n c r e a s e i n s e r -v i c e t h a t i s p r o v i d e d t o the consumer i n terms o f i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s ? In a d d i t i o n t o b e n e f i t s , d i s b e n e f i t s may a l s o o c c u r as a r e s u l t of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Such a case i s the d i s -b e n e f i t s t h a t a re e x p e r i e n c e d by r e a l e s t a t e a g e n c i e s who are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a h i g h vacancy r a t e o f apartments d u r i n g the s t u d e n t s ' h o l i d a y s . How does one measure t h e s e d i s b e n e f i t s ? The second reason why the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s o f e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s have not been c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t such an e v a l u a t i o n does not answer the b a s i c q u e s t i o n under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r the major i s s u e i s : "What does an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e o f a p a r -t i c u l a r community p r o v i d e t o the d i r e c t consumers o f such a s e r v i c e ? " A l t h o u g h the b e n a f i t s e n j o y e d by t h e non-consumer p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n e v a l u a t i n g the o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e , t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i n c i d e n t a l t o the main theme o f t h i s s e c t i o n . The c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n concerns t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f the c o s t o f s e r v i c e w i t h i t s performance. In s h o r t , the main f o c u s i s upon ans-w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n : "What does the i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t r e c e i v e , i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , f o r a g i v e n l e v e l o f e x p e n d i t u r e ? " S e l e c t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s . In a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s the l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d t o s t u d e n t s , t h e 190 f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be s e l e c t e d : 1. C a l i b e r o f t e a c h i n g s t a f f . T h i s would i n c l u d e con-s i d e r a t i o n o f the p e r c e n t a g e o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , the p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h f i v e or more y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e , and the number o f s t u d e n t s per coun-s e l l o r and o t h a r s p e c i a l i s t s . 2. C l a s s s i z e . T h i s would i n c l u d e the number o f s t u d -e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e . 3. Teaching program. The scope o f a t e a c h i n g program c o u l d be measured i n terms o f the number o f c o u r s e s and t y p e s o f c l a s s e s t a u g h t . 4. Length o f s c h o o l day and y e a r . T h i s u n i t o f mea-surement i s a p p l i c a b l e t o most Canadian s c h o o l s s i n c e t h e number o f hours i n a s c h o o l day and t h e l e n g t h o f a s c h o o l term v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y be-tween p r o v i n c e s , • -5 . C a l i b e r of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d be measured i n terms of t h e number o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , p r i n c i p a l s , and c o n s u l t a n t s per hundred s t u d e n t s , 6. The s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . T h i s measurement would i n v o l v e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a f u l l - t i m e t e a -cher and the number o f s t u d e n t s t h a t he or she t e a c h e s , 7. E d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . These would i n c l u d e b u i l d -i n g f a c i l i t i e s , s p e c i a l purpose rooms, u t i l i t y o f 191 arrangement and equipment i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs, l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , and e x t r a - c u r r i c u -l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e seven v a r i a b l e s has a l s o been i n c l u d e d i n a study u n d e r t a k e n by P a u l R. Mort and F r a n c i s G. 42 C o r n e l l . The v a r i a b l e s t h a t t h e s e two p e r s o n s adopted were; one, Classroom i n s t r u c t i o n s , two, S p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , t h r e e , E d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , and f o u r , P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and bu-s i n e s s management. A p p l y i n g the above seven v a r i a b l e s t o communities i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t would be f a i r to assume t h a t a s c h o o l which i s a f f o r d e d one t e a c h e r t o every t e n pu-p i l s would p r o v i d e a more e f f e c t i v e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r -v i c e t h a n one i n which t h s s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i s 25*1, c e t e r i s p a r i b u s . T h i s i s based upon o p i n i o n s h e l d by many t e a c h e r s who contend t h a t s m a l l e r c l a s s e s p e r m i t them t o de-v o t e more a t t e n t i o n t o each p u p i l . A d o p t i n g the number of grades o f f e r e d as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which t o measure the l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n system, a s c h o o l t h a t o f f e r s t w e l v e grades o f s c h o o l i n g would p r o v i d e a h i g h e r and g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to s t u d e n t s t h a n one i n which o n l y seven grades a r e t a u g h t , Many persons contend t h a t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s 42paul R. Mort and F r a n c i s G. C o r n e l l , "A Guide F o r S e l f - A p p r a i s a l o f S c h o o l Systems", Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s . (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1937)^ 192 i n terms o f t h e t y p e s o f degrees h e l d , i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f th e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d by an e d u c a t i o n a l system. Ac-c e p t i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , one c o u l d assume t h a t a s c h o o l i n which f i f t y per cent o f a l l t e a c h e r s have b a c h e l o r o f e d u c a t i o n degrees would be b e t t e r s t a f f e d t h a n one i n which o n l y t h i r t y per cent h o l d degrees. A s i m i l a r comparison c o u l d be made f o r the number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . However, the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the above-mentioned v a r i a -b l e s w i l l o n l y i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t and q u a l i t y o f an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e and not i t s e f f i c i e n c y . F o r t e a c h i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s , and the number o f grades o f f e r e d do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f a s c h o o l ' s o p e r a t i o n . They do, however, r e p r e s e n t the l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e . Due t o t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a , o n l y t h r e e v a r i a b l e s have been s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . These a r e , one, t h e s t u d -e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , two, t h e number o f s t u d e n t / c l a s s r o o m , and t h r e e , the number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g o f f e r e d i n p u b l i c s c h o o l systems. A l t h o u g h on f i r s t s i g h t t h e f i r s t and second v a r i a b l e s appear t o r e p r e s e n t s i m i l a r phenomena, t h e r e i s how-e v e r , a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between them. Because a w i d e r v a -r i e t y o f s p e c i a l i t y c o u r s e s i s o f f e r e d i n s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n l a r g e r . m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a c o r r e s p o n d i n g number o f t e a c h e r s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o conduct them. F u r t h e r m o r e , t e a c h e r s i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s t e n d t o t e a c h o n l y one or two s u b j e c t s , whereas i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y , a t the elementary l e v e l , 193 t e a c h e r s t a k e on many more s u b j e c t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many t e a -c h e r s i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s o n l y t e a c h f o r a few hours o f t h e day and two o r t h r e e days a week, and y e t a r e s t i l l c l a s s e d as f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s . By i n c l u d i n g t h i s group o f t e a c h e r s , l a r -ger s c h o o l s would appear t o have more t e a c h e r s per s t u d e n t than s m a l l e r s c h o o l s . As no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between t h e number o f hours t a u g h t , l a r g e r c i t i e s would t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n a b i a s i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e when u s i n g t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o as a v a r i a b l e . In o r d e r , t h e r e f o r e , t o p r e s e n t a more e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s and the number o f t e a c h e r s , a s t u d e n t / c l a s s * room r a t i o has been s e l e c t e d as a second v a r i a b l e . The number o f grades o f f e r e d by a s c h o o l r e f e r s t o the number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d t o a l l age groups. The maximum number o f y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d by those c i t i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s se v e n t e e n . T h i s i n c l u d e s the span between k i n d e r g a r t e n and t h e f o u r t h year a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n V i c t o r i a . However, a comparison o f a b s o l u t e numbers o f y e a r s does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the a c t u a l t y p e o f grade t a u g h t . For example, two s c h o o l s may o f f e r t h i r -t e e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . U s i n g t h e number o f grades t a u g h t as a v a r i a b l e t o measure the l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e , each would be a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r v a l u e s . Y e t , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may r e v e a l t h a t one s c h o o l o f f e r s s c h o o l i n g between k i n d e r -g a r t e n and grade t w e l v e whereas the o t h e r may range between 194 g rades one and t h i r t e e n . As they a r e both a s s i g n e d e q u a l r a -t i n g s , i t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n grade i s c o n s i d e r e d j u s t as s i g n i f i c a n t , i n terms of c o n t r i b u t i n g t o -wards a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , as grade t h i r t e e n . S i m i l a r a n a l o g i e s c o u l d be drawn between u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s . The a u t h o r f u l l y acknowledges t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , and r e g r e t s t h a t he i s unable t o c o n s t r u c t any e f f e c t i v e system whereby any s c h o o l year can be equated w i t h a n o t h e r . Conse-q u e n t l y , each year o f s c h o o l i n g o f f e r e d by a s c h o o l o r u n i -v e r s i t y has been a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r v a l u e s . T a b l e XL i n t h e Appendix o u t l i n e s e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s t a b l e have been summarized a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e and a r e o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : TABLE XLI EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE C l a s s e s S t u d - ' I n t e n - S t u d - I n t e n - No. o f I n t e n -e n t s / s i t y e n t s / s i t y grades s i t y t e a c h e r v a l u e c l a s s - v a l u e t a u g h t v a l u e room One . 23.8 76.0 27.8 84.9 9.8 76.1 Two 23.6 76.8 28.8 81.1 11.5 79.1 Three 25.5 68.9 29.6 78.6 12.2 80.0 F our 26.0 66.8 32.3 67.7 12.9 83.1 F i v e 25.9 67.4 31.3 71.7 13.3 85.0 S i x 26.8 61.8 32.8 67.5 14.2 07.4 195 Diagrams 14 and 15 have been i n c l u d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c l a s s s i z e f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The average f o r t h e summation o f t h e I n -t e n s i t y V a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n Table XLI i s as f o l l o w s : C l a s s Average V a l u e One 79.0 Two 79.0 Three 75.9 Four 72.5 F i v e 74.7 S i x 72.2 These r e s u l t s would i n f e r t h a t s m a l l e r c e n t r e s t e n d t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e t h a n l a r g e r ones. However, such a c o n c l u s i o n i s based upon one o v e r - r i d i n g a s s u m p t i o n - t h a t each o f t h e t h r e e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s i s a s s i g n e d e q u a l r a t i n g s i n terms o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e . Such an a s s u m p t i o n i s not c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e as t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e . Ranking of V a r i a b l e s . At the p r e s e n t t i m e , no s t u d y has been a t t e m p t e d t o compare the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each of t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s even though many s t u d i e s have mentioned t h a t they s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as c r i t e r i a w i t h w h i c h , t o measure the l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The ap-p l i c a t i o n o f a r a n k i n g system t o the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be based upon a v a l u e judgment. In defense of such an a r b i t r a r y a s s i g n m e n t , th e f o l l o w i n g methodology has been 196 CLASSES D I A G R A M I4 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN E D U C A T I O N S E R V I C E S AND C L A S S SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I 965 15 CLASS ES DIAGRAM 15 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN E D U C A T I O N S E R V I C E S AND C L A S S SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1965 198 proposed. In terms of r a n k i n g the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and the s t u d e n t / c l a s s r o o m r a t i o r e p r e s e n t s i m i -l a r measures o f s e r v i c e . For example, a s c h o o l which has f o u r t e a c h e r s per hundred s t u d e n t s would p r o v i d e a more e f -f e c t i v e l e v e l o f t e a c h i n g t h a n one i n which t h e r e a r e o n l y t h r e e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e same number of p u p i l s . S i m i l a r l y , a s c h o o l t h a t p r o v i d e s f o u r c l a s s r o o m s f o r one hundred s t u d e n t s would p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r . l e v e l o f s e r v i c e than one i n which o n l y t h r e e c l a s s r o o m s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e same number of. s t u d e n t s . S i n c e both t h e s e v a r i a b l e s complement each o t h e r , t h e y have been a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r r a t i n g s . When a t t e m p t i n g to equate t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e t h i r d , namely the number of grades o f f e r e d , a major problem a r i s e s f o r t h e f i r s t two v a r i a b l e s , i n e s s e n c e , d e p i c t the q u a l i t y o f an e d u c a t i o n a l system whereas the t h i r d b e a r s no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t . In s h o r t , t h i s poses th e problem o f r e -l a t i n g q u a l i t y w i t h q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e . S i n c e the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o equate c o s t w i t h e x t e n t o f a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , t h a t i s , t o determine what the i n h a b i t a n t s o f a com-munity r e c e i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o the amount of money t h a t i s ex-pended on a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , an e v a l u a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e i s s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h a t o f t h e amount o f s e r v i c e . However, i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t t h e amount of money ex-pended on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l c o n d i t i o n t h e number o f 199 t e a c h e r s t h a t can be employed, the e x p a n s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f c l a s s r o o m s , and t h e number of grades o f f e r e d . The f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n has been i n c l u d e d t o empha-s i z e t h e im p o r t a n c e o f the number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g o f -f e r e d . Using i m a g i n a r y v a l u e s , i t may be found t h a t f o r two communities o f s i m i l a r s i z e , one has a s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o o f t e n to one and o f f e r s f i v e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , whereas t h e o t h e r has a s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o o f t w e n t y - f i v e t o one and o f f e r s t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . S i n c e the number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f c o u r s e s and e x t e n t o f s p e c i a l i t y equipment ( t h a t i s , grade t h i r t e e n would o f f e r a much g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f c o u r s e s than grade o n e ) , one may a l s o assume t h a t the l a t t e r s c h o o l would p r o v i d e a more d i v e r s i f i e d form o f e d u c a t i o n . T a k i n g i n t o account the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s t h a t would a c c r u e t o each o f t h e s e two e d u c a t i o n a l systems, i t would be er r o n e o u s t o assume t h a t the former c o n t r i b u t e s more towards the advancement o f e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e l a t t e r even though the q u a l i t y o f one element o f t h e former i s s u p e r i o r - namely, the s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . I t i s t h e r e f o r e the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t t h e o p p o r t u -n i t y p r o v i d e d by an e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e , i n terms o f the num-ber o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g provided,, i s a more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r t o determine t h e l e v e l o f an e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by a community than t h e number o f s t u d e n t s per t e a c h e r o r t h e 200 number o f s t u d e n t s a l l o c a t e d t o each c l a s s r o o m . On t h i s b a s i s t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t i n g system has been c o n s t r u c t e d : V a r i a b l e Weight S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o o r s t u d e n t / c l a s s r o o m r a t i o 1 No. o f grades o f f e r e d 2 The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , which has been c o m p i l e d from T a b l e XL i n Appendix C, o u t l i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i t y s i z e f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s , TABLE X L I I EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS SIZE One Two C 1 a s Three s e s F our F i v e S i x F a c t o r f o r s t u d -e n t / t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t / c l a s s r o o m r a t i o s 80.5 79.0 73.8 67.3 69.6 64.7 F a c t o r f o r the number o f grades . o f f e r e d 152.2 158.8 160.0 166.2 170.0 174.8 T o t a l Average 77.6 79.1 77.9 77.8 79.9 79.9 As one would e x p e c t , t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t c i t i e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s i n e x c e s s of t e n thousand persons p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e t h a n r e m a i n i n g communities 201 i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n s t i t u t e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g a r e found i n t h e l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e s . E q u a t i n g C o s t s w i t h L e v e l of S e r v i c e . The f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p can be c o n s t r u c t e d when comparing per c a p i t a ex-p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i t h l e v e l o f s e r v i c e . TABLE X L I I I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE AND LEI/EL OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICE C l a a s s e s One Two Three Four F i v e S i x Per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e $32.78 $34.35 $39.01 $42.65 $45.11 $46.34 U n i t s o f s e r v i c e 77.6 79.1 77.9 77.8 79.9 79.9 From t h i s t a b l e , one c o u l d contend t h a t f o r a per c a p i -t a v a l u e o f $32.78 expended on e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s , s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l i n C l a s s one c i t i e s r e c e i v e t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f 77.6 u n i t s o f s e r v i c e . For a per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e o f $ 4 6 . 3 4 , s t u d e n t s i n C l a s s s i x c i t i e s r e c e i v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80.0 u n i t s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be extended by s t a t i n g t h a t f o r a per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e o f $32.78, s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l s i n C l a s s one c i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h one t e a c h e r f o r e very 23.8 p u p i l s , one c l a s s r o o m f o r every 27.8 s t u d e n t s , and a r e g i v e n 9.9 y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . S i m i l a r l y , f o r $46.34, 202 s t u d e n t s o f C l a s s s i x c i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h one t e a c h e r f o r every 26.8 s t u d e n t s , one c l a s s r o o m f o r every 32.8 s t u d e n t s , and a r e o f f e r e d 14.2 y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . f u r t h e r comparisons can be made f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s . In o r d e r t o equate per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s l a t e t h e d o l l a r v a l u e s i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers. Such a pro c e d u r e has been c a r r i e d out under Table X I I o f Chapter IV. The summation o f the v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n Table X I I and Table X L I I would i n -d i c a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o s t and . e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e i n terms of a b s o l u t e numbers. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o u t l i n e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . TABLE XLIV THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA One Two C 1 a s Three s e s Four F i v e S i x F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s 83.4 32.9 80.6 78.6 74.7 76.9 F a c t o r r a t i n g f o r l e v e l o f s e r v i c e 77.6 79.1 77.9 77.8 79.9 79.9 T o t a l Average 80.5 81.0 79.3 78.2 77.8 78.4 T h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t communities r a n g i n g between 203 1*250 and 2,500 p o p u l a t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e i n terms o f t h e amount o f money t h a t i s expended on such a s e r v i c e . The h i g h c o s t s o f edu-c a t i o n f o r l a r g e r c i t i e s t e n d t o reduce t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s , s e r v i c e even though they p r o v i d e a much g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y and d i v e r s i t y t o s t u d e n t s . To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made. 1. S m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s o f f e r fewer y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g than l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 2. S c h o o l s i n s m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s p r o v i d e more t e a c h e r s per s t u d e n t t h a n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 3. S c h o o l s i n s m a l l e r communities p r o v i d e more space i n terms of t h e number o f p u p i l s per c l a s s r o o m , t h a n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 4. More d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n s f i t s a c c r u e t o the e d u c a t i o n a l systems o f l a r g e r s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n c i t i e s t h a n s m a l l s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n towns and v i l l a g e s . 5. Secondary s c h o o l s i n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f f e r a much wider v a r i e t y o f c o u r s e s than t h o s e o f f e r e d i n s m a l l e r c e n t r e s , 5. The a p p l i c a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s e c -t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f f e r a 204 h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e than s m a l l e r communities. 7. L a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c u r g r e a t e r per c a p i t a ex-p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t h a n s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 8. C l a s s tuio and t h r e e i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s t e n d to ope-r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n the r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e amount o f money expended on t h e s e s e r v i c e s and the l e v e l t h a t they r e c e i v e . A p p l i c a t i o n of F a c t o r s t o M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s . Having equated per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , t h e f i n a l s t e p t h a t has to be c a r r i e d out when de-t e r m i n i n g the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , i s t o rank each o f t h e s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o i t s r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e . I t was mentioned p r o v i o u s l y , t h a t i f no r a n k i n g system were a p p l i e d t o each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e , i t would i n f e r t h a t each p r o v i d e s t h e same l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n t o the i n h a b i t a n t s o f a community. I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d , t h e n the optimum s i z e o f c i t y c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by t h e summation of t h e v a l u e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o s t and e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e . A p p l y i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e , th e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s would be o b t a i n e d : 205 C l a s s Summation o f a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s Rank One Two 374.7 375.4 372.0 369.6 371.0 387.3 3 r d 2nd 4th 6th 5 t h 1 s t Three Four Five-S i x On t h i s b a s i s , C l a s s s i x c i t i e s would r e p r e s e n t the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s , w h i l e C l a s s f o u r would o b t a i n t h e l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e s c o r e . However, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e assumes t h a t each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e i s c o n s i d e r e d as d i s p e n s i b l e and as d e s i r a b l e as a n o t h e r ; t h a t e d u c a t i o n p l a y s t h e same r o l e as garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n t r i b u -t i n g towards an e f f i c i e n t l y - o p e r a t e d community; and p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e t h e same v a l u e as f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . I t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t each o f t h e s e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s c o n t r i b u t e s , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t o -wards t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f community a c t i v i t i e s , and towards t h e p r o v i s i o n o f an a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . Indeed, each community c o u l d ' s u r v i v e ' i f one o f t h e s e s e r -v i c e s were d i s c o n t i n u e d as can be seen i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c works and e d u c a t i o n s t r i k e s t h a t have o c c u r e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y , but the impact t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e may have upon a community w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the s e r v i c e t h a t i s d i s c o n t i n u e d . O b v i o u s l y , t h e d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o f garbage c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e s would not impose t h e same degree of h a r d -206 s h i p and i n c o n v e n i e n c e upon a community as i f s c h o o l s were c l o s e d down or i f water s u p p l y , sewer s e r v i c e s and s t r e e t l i g h -t i n g were s t o p p e d . The q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e t h a t a r i s e s i s : "What weight s h o u l d be a t t a c h e d t o each o f the f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ? " The o n l y s t u d y t h a t t h e a u t h o r has found which a t - . tempts t o equate m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s was one undertaken by A "Z. Mabel Walker . In t h i s s t u d y , she a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r r a t i n g s t o p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , t h e l a t t e r c o n s i s t i n g of e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . A s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r a t i n g than the above two was a s s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s s i n c e she c o n s i d e r e d t h a t f i r e and h e a l t h p r o t e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most fundamental t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n . The w e i g h t s she a p p l i e d t o each s e r v i c e were as f o l l o w s : S e r v i c e Weight F i r e p r o t e c t i o n 2 P u b l i c works 4 S a n i t a t i o n 1 E d u c a t i o n 3 R e c r e a t i o n 1 H e a l t h 4 The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s r a n k i n g system d i d not i n c l u d e any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T a k i n g i n t o account t h e amount o f money spent on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , i t would be f a i r t o assume t h a t a community which expends f i f t y 4 3 M a b e l L. Walker, M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . ( B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkings P r e s s , 1930), p. 66. 207 per cent of i t s budget on one s e r v i c e and o n l y t e n per cent on a n o t h e r , would p l a c e a f a r h i g h e r v a l u e on t h e f o r m e r . I f one were to c o n s t r u c t a r a n k i n g system based upon the amount of money expended on each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e , the f o l l o w i n g w e i g h t s c o u l d be used: S e r v i c e E x p e n d i t u r e s P e r c e n t a g e Weight on each s e r v i c e o f t o t a l f o r a l l mun- e x p e n d i t -i c i p a l i t i e s u r e s F i r e S3,212,000 4.3 1.0 P u b l i c works 6,655,000 8.8 2.0 Waste removal 3,430,000 4.5 1.0 R e c r e a t i o n 5,310,000 7.0 1.5 E d u c a t i o n 20,603,000 27.4 6.5 Other 36,106,000 48.0 The f i n a l r a t i n g t h a t has been s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s both a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and v a l u e s p l a c e d upon t h e s e s e r v i c e s as o u t l i n e d from the r a t i n g s p r e s e n t e d by Mabel Walker. The f i n a l r a t i n g s a r e as f o l l o w s : M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e Weight F i r e p r o t e c t i o n . . . . . . 1.5 P u b l i c works . . . . . . . 3.0 Waste removal 1.0 R e c r e a t i o n . . 1.5 E d u c a t i o n 4,0 When t h e s e w e i g h t s a r e a p p l i e d t o the f i v e m u n i c i p a l 208 s e r v i c e , the f o l l o w i n g . r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : TABLE XLV THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND THE APPLICATION OF WEIGHTS TO EACH MUNICIPAL SERVICE C l a s s e s S e r v i c e Weight One Two Three Four F i v e S i x 110.5 108.7 223.5 245.7 74.1 85.3 107.1 104.1 309.2 313.6 824.4 857.4 ranked as f o l l o w s : C l a s s S i z e Rank S i x .. . . . . . 1 s t Two . . . . . . 2nd One . . . . ... . 3 r d Three ... . . . .. 4th Four . . . . . 5th F i v e . . . . . 6th From the r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n Ta b l e XLV, s e v e r a l i n t e r s e t i n g phenomena a r e e v i d e n t . F i r s t , C l a s s s i x c i t i e s appear t o o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y t han r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s . Second, f o r c i t i e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f fewer than f i f t e e n thousand i n h a b i t a n t s F i r e (1.5) 118.2 112.7 108.9 110.4 P u b l i c ( 3 Q ) works 217.5 229.2 225.3 224.1 S a n i t a t i o n ( 1 . 0 ) 67.5 69.9 70.3 71.4 R e c r e a t i o n (1.5) 114.1 109.5 110.9 109.4 E d u c a t i o n (4.0) 322.0 324.0 320.4 310.8 T o t a l 839.3 845.3 835.8 826.1 The v a l u e s f o r each c l a s s s i z e can be 209 C l a s s tujo c i t i e s o p e r a t e - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s most e f f i c i e n t l y . T h i r d , c i t i e s between t e n and f i f t e e n thousand p e r s o n s o p e r -a t e t h e s e s e r v i c e s l e a s t e f f i c i e n t l y . In s h o r t , when a p p l y i n g c o s t w i t h l e v e l o f s e r v i c e as a measure o f e f f i c i e n c y , the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s r e p r e s e n t e d by c i t i e s which have p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n f i f t e e n thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n c o n f i r m s t h e o v e r r i d i n g h y p o t h e s i s proposed a t t h e beginning o f Ch a p t e r 1. Summary. The major o b j e c t i v e o f Chaptiar V was t o determine t h e optimum si.za o f c i t i e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v -i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n terms o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f o p e r -a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s has beer, a c c -o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h f o u r s t e p s . The f i r s t i n v o l v e d the s e l e c t -i o n o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h which to measure the l e v e l o f p e r f o r -mance o f each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e . The seconalstep ranked each o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e w i t h i n the group o f v a r i a b l e s f o r one s e r v i c e . The t h i r d s t e p i n v o l v e d e q u a t i n g c o s t s c ? - s e r v i c e w i t h l e v e l o f p e r -formance. The f i n a l s t e p ranked each o f the s e l e c t e d mun-i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o i t s r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g s e r v i c e s . The f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e s t e p s r a r e as f o l l o w s : A. Ulith v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s , l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n 210 the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, s a n i t a t i o n and waste r e m o v a l , r e c r e a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n t h a n s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l o f s e r v i c e and c i t y s i z e s u b s t a n t i a t e s the s u b - h y p o t h e s i s proposed i n C h a p t e r I : t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s t h a n s m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . B. E f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s was d e t e r m i n e d by e q u a t i n g per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e on t h e s e s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i r l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e . The f o l l o w i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s were found t o e x i s t between e f f i c i e n c y and s i z e o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a : 1. The l a r g e s t s i z e c i t i e s p r o v i d e d t h a most e f f i c i e n t l e v e l o f p u b l i c works and s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal s e r v i c e s . 2. The s m a l l e s t s i z e c i t i e s p r o v i d e d t h e most e f f i c i e n t l e v e l o f s e r v i c e f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n s e r -v i c e s . 3 . C i t i e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s r a n g i n g between f i v e and f i f t e e n thousand i n h a b i t a n t s p r o v i d e d the l e a s t s f f i c - . . l e n t l e v e l o f s e r v i c e f o r most of t h a s e l e c t e d p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . C. When r a n k i n g each o f t h e f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e , t h i s c h a p t e r proposed t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e i n terms o f c o n t r i b u t i n g towards th e s a t i s f a c t i o n , aconomic w e l l - b e i n g , 211 and s t a b i l i t y o f a community. T h i s serv/ice was f o l l o w e d by p u b l i c works, f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n , and f i n a l l y s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal s e r v i c e s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f an a p p r o p r i a t e r a n k i n g system t o each of t h e s e s e r v i c e s r e s u l t e d i n C l a s s s i x c i t i e s r e t a i n i n g t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e , and C l a s s f i v e c i t i e s the l o w e s t . On t h i s b a s i s , one c o u l d c o n c l u d e t h a t the optimum s i z e , o f c i t i e s , i n terms of the e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , i s t h a t o f c i t i e s which have p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than f i f t e e n thousand p e r s o n s . Such a v a l u e c o r r e s p o n d s very c l o s e l y t o t h a t 44 proposed by Hansen and P e r l o f f . Hansen, A.H. and . P e r l o f f , H.S. S t a t e and L o c a l  F i n a n c e i n the N a t i o n a l Economy. (New Y ork: UJ.UI. Norton and Company, 1944), p. 11. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION T h i s t h e s i s has at t e m p t e d t o a r r i v e a t a v a l u e f o r the optimum s i z e f o r c i t i e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s was used as t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h which t o determine t h i s s i z e . E f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s was r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s e r -v i c e s and t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d f o r each i n h a b i t a n t . The t h e s i s has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c u r l o w e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s t h a n l a r g e r i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r o v i d e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s e r v i c s on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, s a n i t a t i o n and waste r e m o v a l , r e c r e a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s t h a n s m a l l e r communities. By e q u a t i n g c o s t of s e r v i c e w i t h t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d , t h e t h e s i s has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e l a r g e s t s i z e c i t i e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n t h e r e m a i n i n g c i t i e s . The f i n a l r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d by t h i s study were t h a t C l a s s s i x c i t i e s , c o n t a i n -i n g more than f i f t e e n thousand p e r s o n s , f o l l o w e d by C l a s s two c i t i e s , c o n t a i n i n g between t w e l v e hundred and f i f t y t o 213 two thousand and f i v e hundred persons were t h e two c l a s s e s o f c i t i e s t h a t a c h i e v e d the h i g h e s t s c o r e . C i t i e s c o n t a i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n s r a n g i n g between f i v e and f i f t e e n thousand persons appeared t o have t h e l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e e f f i c i e n c y s c a r e s r e g a r d -i n g t he o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . The reason why t h e r e i s no u n i f o r m r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y s i z e and e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o such f a c t o r s as g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f urban a r e a s , d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e r e g a r d i n g t h e c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d -u r e s . F u t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d i n t o t h e s e a r e a s t o determine the e f f e c t s t h a t each o f t h e s e f a c t o r s has upon the e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . The v a l u e s f o r the optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s proposed i n t h i s s t u d y do not l e a d one t o i n f e r t h a t a l l c i t i e s s h o u l d be planne d t o c o n t a i n p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t r e f l e c t t h e s e v a l u e s . R a t h e r , the st u d y has attem p t e d to o u t l i n e , f i r s t , some o f the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t s m a l l communities enc o u n t e r when p r o v i d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g adequate s t a n d a r d s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and, second, the l e v e l o f performance t h a t can be p r o v i d e d w i t h l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . B e a r i n g i n mind the o b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o p l a n n i n g i s t w o f o l d . In the f i r s t c a s e , such a study w i l l be o f use t o the p l a n n e r who i s concerned w i t h e i t h e r c r e a t i n g new communities or r e l o c a t i n g s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s i n t o l a r g e r urban a r e a s . When u n d e r t a k i n g t h e s e t a s k s , t h e p l a n n e r s h o u l d be f u l l y aware of 214 the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the s i z e o f the community which he i n t e n d s t o c r e a t e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y s i z e and e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s may t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e a y a r d s t i c k which the p l a n n e r can use when p l a n n i n g a community o f a s p e c i f i c s i z e . Such a t o o l w i l l a f f o r d him i n f o r m a t i o n on f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The second c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s r e l a t e s t o p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Indeed, the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r of an i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a cannot s u c c e s s f u l l y a d m i n i s t e r t h e a f f a i r s o f a v i l l a g e , town, o r c i t y w i t h o u t h a v i n g a b a s i c knowledge o f the broad a s p e c t s o f m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e and economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the community. In o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n l o c a l government f i n a n c i n g on a sound f i s c a l b a s i s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r must comprehend the n a t u r e of revenue and expend-i t u r e o p e r a t i o n s . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e n d i t u r e s on a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e and i t s l e v e l o f performance i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r o p e r a t i n g a w e l l - b a l a n c e d and e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e . T h i s study has at t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The w r i t e r ..acknowledges many l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the v a l u e f o r the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s . F i r s t , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of "m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e and revenue v a l u e s as one element w i t h which t o measure t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f mun-i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , s h o u l d be c r i t i c a l l y a s s e s s e d i n terms o f what each a c t i v i t y c o m p r i s e s , and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d when comparing d o l l a r v a l u e s w i t h e f f i c i e n c y . 215 Second, the r a n k i n g o f each v a r i a b l e f o r the purpose of measuring the performance of an i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l s e r -v i c e has been s h a r p l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d by both the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d a t a , and the i n a b i l i t y t o q u a n t i f y e f f e c t i v e l y c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s . These v a r i a b l e s , which have been acknowledged under the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s . r e g a r d i n g the s e l e c t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , s h o u l d a l s o have been i n -c l u d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Indeed, i t i s conceeded t h a t t h e i r i n c l u s i o n might have had a pronounced e f f e c t upon the f i n a l r e s u l t s produced i n t h i s t h e s i s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d a l s o be d i r e c t e d towards c o n s t r u c t i n g e f f e c t i v e methods of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and t e c h n i q u e s whereby the l e v e l o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s c o u l d be c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d . A t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n t h a t a r i s e s concerns the s e l e c t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Because o f the d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a r e u ndertaken by the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government i n the o p e r a t i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , o n l y t h o s e s e r v i c e s which are s u p p o r t e d , e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y , by a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e o f 8 r i t i s h Columbia were c o n s i d e r e d . S i n c e the main o b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s was t o a n a l y z e those s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e f i n a n c e d by revenues o b t a i n e d from l o c a l s o u r c e s , s e r v i c e s t h a t were the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i g h e r l e v e l s o f government were not con-s i d e r e d . Had t h e s e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s been i n c l u d e d , and had the same p r o c e d u r e s been a p p l i e d to them as was c a r r i e d out f o r the f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s s e l e c t e d i n t h i s study, a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t v a l u e f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s might have r e s u l t e d . The t h e s i s f u l l y acknowledges t h a t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y f i v e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s may not produce r e s u l t s t h a t are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p between e f f i c i e n c y o f s e r v i c e and c i t y s i z e . However, as a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s , the s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s a t t a i n s t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . The t h e s i s proposes t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be a p p l i e d towards i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s t h a t t e c h n o l o g y may have upon the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . Indeed, the i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r example, of automated garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s ; the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l p r a c t i c e s ; and the development of new pavement m a t e r i a l s w i l l have a pronounced e f f e c t upon m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s would both s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the number o f men employed i n each s e r v i c e and a l s o i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y o f performance. Under t h e s e con-d i t i o n s , the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance c o s t s o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and hence t h e i r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s , would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d . These v a l u e s i n t u r n would a f f e c t the e f f i c i e n c y o f s e r v i c e when u s i n g the r e l -a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and l e v e l of s e r v i c e as a measure o f e f f i c i e n c y . In a d d i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z i n g the impact of changing t e c h n o l o g y , the t h e s i s a l s o recommends t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n be 217 d i r e c t e d towards e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t t h a t c h a n g i n g v a l u e s has upon m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . For example, the i n c r e a s -i n g emphasis t h a t persons o f a l l age groups a r e p l a c i n g upon r e c r e a t i o n , and the importance t h a t a d u l t s p l a c e upon educ-a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e some o f the v a l u e s t h a t a re h e l d by s o c i e t y i n Canada. I f t h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e s , l o c a l admin-i s t r a t o r s a h o u l d adopt p o l i c i e s t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e the necess-a r y s e r v i c e s t o accommodate t h e s e d e s i r e s . Due t o the con-s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y , the t h e s i s acknowledges t h a t the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e o n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time p e r i o d . T h e r e f o r e , t o be e f f e c t i v e , such a study s h o u l d be p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h program. F i n a l l y , t he study emphasizes t h a t the main c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h l i e s , not so much i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e s u l t s f o r the optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , but r a t h e r i n t h a methodology and p r o c e d u r e s t h a t have been adopted t o a r r i v e a t t h e s e r e s u l t s . Today, the a p p l i c a t i o n of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a re b e i n g e x t e n s i v e l y used by both t h e s c i e n t i s t , and the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t . The p l a n n e r , i f he i s t o make f u l l use o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , s h o u l d a l s o adopt s i m i l a r t e c h -n i q u e s . T h i s study r e p r e s e n t s one o f the many t e c n h i q u e s t h a t can be used. 218 BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 BIBLIOGRAPHY A . BOOKS Bar b o u r , Robert P. The Agents Keys t o F i r e P r o t e c t i o n . New York: The S p e c t a t o r Company, I n c . , 1949. Bennet, Henry £. 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Hansen, A.H. and P e r l o f f , H.S. S t a t e and L o c a l F i n a n c e i n the N a t i o n a l Economy. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, I n c . , 1944. H a t t , P a u l , and R e i s s , A l b e r t J . Urban S o c i o l o g y . GJLencoe: The F r e e P r e s s , 1951. Hoigbe.rg, O t t o G. E x p l o r i n g the S m a l l Community. New York: Theo Gaus and Sons, 1956. H o l e i i t z , B e r t F. S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s of Economic Growth. Gien c o e , I l l i n o i s : F r e e P r e s s , 1960. H u d i b e r g , E v e r e t t . F i r e F i g h t i n g F a c i l i t i e s . P l a n n i n g , and  P r o c e d u r e s . Oklahoma: Oklahoma S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1962. H u t c h i n s o n , John L. P r i n c i p l e s o f R e c r e a t i o n . New York: AoS. Barnes and Company, I n c . , 1960. L i n c o l n , W.B. and Babcock, J.W.T. F i r e I n s u r a n c e I n s p e c t i o n s and' U n d e r w r i t i n g . 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O i , W a l t e r Y. and S h u l d i n e r , P a u l W. An A n a l y s i s o f Urban T r a v e l Demands. E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. Peacock, A l l a n T. and R o b e r t s o n , D.J. P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e : A p p r a i s a l and C o n t r o l . London: O l i v e r and Soyd L t d . , 1963. P i a t t , W.J. Towards S t r a t e g i e s o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n d f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e , 1961. Purdom, C.B. The B u i l d i n g o f S a t e l l i t e Towns. London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1925. Reed, Thomas. M u n i c i p a l Management. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1941. R i d l e y , C l a r e n c e E. and Simon, H e r b e r t A. M e a s u r i n g M u n i c i p a l  A c t i v i t i e s . C h i c a g o : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , . 1943. Rosenau,.Helen. The I d e a l C i t y . London: Roultedge and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1959. S h a r p , Thomas. Town P l a n n i n g . London: P e l i c a n Books, 1940 Shenton, H.N. The P r a c t i c a l A s p e c t s o f S o c i o l o g y . New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929. S t e e l , E a r n e s t W. Water Supply and Sewerage. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1960. 221 Thompson, W i l b u r , R. A P r e f a c e t o Urban Economics. B a l t i -more: The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1965. ' ! T r u x a l , Andrew 5. Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and I t s E f f e c t i v e n e s s . New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929. V a i z e y , John. The Economics of E d u c a t i o n . London: Faber and F a b e r , 1962. W a l k e r , Mabel L. M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1930. W a l k e r , R o b e r t . The P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n i n Urban Government. C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1951. Yauch, W i l b u r A. How Good Is Your S c h o o l ? New Y o r k : Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1951. Zartman, L e s t e r W. and P r i c e , W i l l i a m H. Y a l e Readings i n  i n I n s u r a n c e . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1916. B. ARTICLES AND PERIODICALS A c k o f f , R u s s e l l L. "Towards Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban S e r v i c e s " , Papers p r e s e n t e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e under the s p o n s o r s h i p o f the Committee on Urban Economics o f  Resources f o r t h e F u t u r e . I n c . , pp. 91-118. A l e x a n d e r , J.W. "The B a s i c - N o n b a s i c Concept o f Urban Econ-omic F u n c t i o n s " , Economic Geography, V o l . XX, 1954, pp. 246-62. B a k e r , C A . " P o p u l a t i o n and C o s t s i n R e l a t i o n t o C i t y Management", J o u r n a l o f the Roy a l S t a t i s t i c a l - c S o c i e t y , London: Dec. 1910, pp. 73-9. „ B e r r y , B r i a n , " A l t e r n a t i v e E x p l a n a t i o n s o f Urban Rank S i z e " , A n n a l s , American A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, V o l . X L V I I I , March 1958, pp. 83-91. B o o t h , George W. " S t a n d a r d s o f Adequate F i r e P r o t e c t i o n " , N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l Review, V o l . X V I , 4, A p r i l 1927, pp. 223-5. B r a z e r , Harvey E. " C i t y E x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Economic R e s e a r c h , I n c . , New Y o r k : 1959 222 C l a r k , C o l i n . "The Economic F u n c t i o n o f a C i t y i n R e l a t i o n t o I t s S i z e " , Land Economics. V/ol. I L , Feb. - Nov. pp. 143-181. Cooper, R.N. "Higher E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : The Economic Problem", Review o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . Supplement 42, 19607 Duncan, D.T. "The Optimum S i z e o f C i t i e s " , Urban S o c i o l o g y . -ed. P.K. Hatt and A . J . R e i s s , (Glencoe I l l i n o i s : F r e e P r e s s , 1951), pp. 632-45. H i r s c h , Werner Z. "Determinants of P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n E x p e n d i t u r e s " , N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l Review, V/ol X X I , 1933, pp. 308-21. M c L a u g l i n , Hugh H. " M u n i c i p a l E f f i c i e n c y and Town S i z e " , J o u r n a l o f Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , May-June 1942, pp. 129-148. Samuelson, P a u l . "The B u s i n e s s C y c l e and Urban Development", Report t o the Conference on Urbanism, ( H a r v a r d U n i v e r -s i t y , March 1942, pp. 6-17. S c o t t , S t a n l e y and F a d e r , E.L. " F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h V a r i a t i o n s i n M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e L e v e l s " , Bureau o f  P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1957). S h a p i r o , Harvey. "Economics of S c a l e and L o c a l Government F i n a n c e " , Land Economics, V o l . X L . S t e w a r t , C h a r l e s T. "The S i z e and S p a c i n g o f C i t i e s " , G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . X L V I I I , A p r i l 1958, pp. 246-62. C. PUBLIC DOCUMENTS I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , " M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , C h i c a g o , 1961.. Manual of P u b l i c Works Records and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e and Committee on Uniform S t r e e t s and S a n i t a t i o n R e c o r d s " , C h i c a g o , 1933. 223 N a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , " P l a y g r o u n d s , T h e i r Admin-i s t r a t i o n and O p e r a t i o n s " , (A;S. Barnes and Company, London, 1963). P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, "95th Annual R e p o r t : P u b l i c S c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e of 8 r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , 1965-1966. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, " F i r e M a r s h a l ' s R e p o r t " , the A u t h o r i t y o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, V i c t o r i a , 1961-5. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, "B.C. M u n i c i p a l Year Book", M i t c h e l l P r e s s L i m i t e d , V i c t o r i a , 1964. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, " T o u r i s t Accommodation. D i r -ectory", B r i t i s h Columbia T r a v e l Bureau; V i c t o r i a , 1967. U.S. Department o f the I n t e r i o r , " M u n i c i p a l and County Parks i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C., 1936. D. REPORTS Claiuson, M a r i o n . F a c t o r s and F o r c e s A f f e c t i n g the Optimum  R u r a l S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Resources F o r the F u t u r e I n c . , Number 59, Washington, D.C., 1966. . Methods F or Me a s u r i n g the Demand f o r and Va l u e of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . Resources F o r the F u t u r e I n c . , Number 30, 1961 . Gol d e n b e r g , C a r l . Report o f the Commission on M u n i c i p a l  T a x a t i o n , Winnipeg, 1 9 5 8 . M o r t , P a u l R. and C o r n e l l , F r a n c a i s G. A Guide f o r S e l - A p p r a i s a l of S c h o o l Systems. Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937). The League o f C a l i f o r n i a C i t i e s . The F i r e P r o t e c t i o n G r a d i n g P r o c e s s as R e l a t e d t o Economics o f F i r e " P r o t e c t i o n . Los A n g e l e s , 1961. 224 V i c k r e y , W.W. Ge n e r a l and S p e c i f i c F i n a n c i n g . Resources For the F u t u r e , I n c . , Washington, D.C., 1962. Warren, Ro b e r t . A M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e Market Model o f M e t r o p o l i t a n O r g a n i z a t i o n s . Resources F or the F u t u r e I n c . , Number 48, Washington, D.C., 1964. E. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL S p a n k i e , C a r o l i n e . Space F or Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; P l a n n i n g  A s p e c t s F o r N a t i o n a l P o l i c y . An u n p u b l i s h e d Master o f A r t s T h e s i s p r e s e n t e d t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A p r i l 1967. 225 APPENDIX a 226 APPENDIX A Sources* The Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia."munic-i p a l S t a t i s t i c s " , V i c t o r i a , 1951-1965. Budget Sheets for ind i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 22*7 TABLE I I I ( a ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUNBIA, 1951 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n V i l l a o e s A b b o t s f o r d •1.42 S23.61 t .35 S .67 i — A l e r t Bay .29 9.29 --- 4.61 ---Burns Lake .10 2.88 1.68 .40 — Chapman Camp .79 5.12 2.25 .33 mmmmmm Comox • 86 4.65 1.54 .62 ---C r e s t o n 1.97 10.76 .90 1.00 . . . Cumberland 1.14 6.09 2.42 1.40 8.59 Gibsons L a n d i n g .41 7.35 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. mm*mmm 4.55 4.39 .86 Invermere •M M 9 .30 --- . . . K a s l o 1.06 6.05 2.39 2.15 15.00 K i n n a i r d 1.00 2.33 1.93 .63 — L i l l o o e t - .01 .50 .12 .46 . . . L y t t o n 1.55 1.59 .11 M c B r i d e --- 6.14 3.29 1 .00 . . . M a r y s v i l l e . 5.88 1.01 .10 ^mmmm New Denver .20 10.83 mmmmmm .07 . . . O l i v e r 1.40 4.72 .81 mmm»mt Osoyoos 1.03 6.88 .95 .83 P a r k s v i l l e .93 3.33 .36 .66 . . . Pouce Coupe , .05 1.31 1.85 .10 Qualicura Beach .26 17.33 — .78 mmmmmm Salmo .06 2.01 2.85 .25 . . . Salmon Arm 2.26 12.13 2.36 1.16 27.79 S i l v e r t o n .07 2.38 2.64 . . . S l o c a n mm 4.35 --- 3.57 S m i t h e r s .57 17.69 3.32 --- . . . S t e w a r t .97 18.32 «... .09 T o f i n o .06 5.62 «•-- . . . Vanderhoof 1.50 8.07 .10 .31 «wo>«» Towns F o r t S t . John 1.42 6.04 .21 .77 mmmmw U i l l i a n s Lake 3.65 1.54 2.79 1.26 . . . 22B T A B L E ( a ) ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Areas Works t a t l o n a t l o n t i o n C i t i e s Enderby Greenwood S .84 $5.32 t .38 I .79 117.98 1.38 2.63 .44 — 7.36 229 TABLE 111(b) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUWBIA, 1951 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s F i r e P u b l i c Works S a n i -t a t i o n R e c r e -a t i o n Educa-t i o n V i l l a o e s C a s t l e g a r Lake C o n i c h a n $ .67 1.08 $11.05 8.72 $1.47 .90 $1.02 .62 f Towns Hope Ladyemith W e r r i t t N o r t h Kamloops Quesnel .82 1.28 2.05 .58 1.13 8.16 11.47 7.74 3.27 3.04 2.77 1.62 1.30 1.22 .19 .56 1.22 .42 .45 .06 8.22 14.59 C i t i e s A r mstrong Grand F o r k s P o r t Moody 1.12 2.41 .56 6.40 4.60 9.86 3.82 3.13 16.16 17.91 12.37 230 TABLE I I I ( c ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1951 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa A r e a s Work 8 t a t i o n a t i o n t l o n Towns m i s s i o n C i t y 11.39 S13.35 1 S — $ C i t i e s A l b e r n i 1.33 7.93 1.54 .79 9.47 Courtnay 1.26 15.60 3.95 2.75 16.74 Cranbrook 4.79 16.72 1.05 . . . 21.65 Dawson Creek .58 9.53 4.55 1.20 . . . Duncan 2.06 10.20 5.27 .22 18.81 F e r n i e 3.46 6.58 5.50 10.20 12.10 P o r t C o q u i t l a m .40 10.05 .88 .92 11.15 P r i n c e George 4.57 10.39 3.14 .05 32.34 R e v e l s t o k e 1.74 9.20 3.01 1.38 16.76 R o s s l a n d 4.42 9.25 1.32 .53 8.90 231 TABLE I I I (d) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1951 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C i t i e s C h i l l i w a c k $1.29 $15.20 $1.75 $1.36 $16.39 Kamloops 4.77 9.07 4.25 4.76 16.61 Kelouina 2.98 15.19 5.13 4.77 21.33 K i m b e r l e y 1.21 5.72 3.32 .51 18.76 Nanairoo 4.93 7.57 3.82 4.00 17.20 N e l s o n 7.11 11.88 2.88 4.45 19.54 P o r t A l b e r n i 1.26 6.96 2.37 3.33 13.62 P r i n c e R u p e r t 6.26 14.46 4.64 1.07 13.01 Vernon 4.27 11.86 4.06 1.68 19.10 I 232 TABLE 111(e) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FIVE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1951 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t l o n a t i o n t i o n C i t i e s P e n t i c t o n T r a i l 13.69 110.92 $4.45 14.42 $18.96 3.59 10.49 2.11 1.06 11.24 TABLE I I I ( f ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS SIX VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUfflBIA, 1951 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Ar e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C i t i e s Nen Westminster 88.21 $14.41 §2.60 84.08 $17.23 N o r t h Vancouver 5.81 8.63 1.53 2.55 24.81 V i c t o r i a 8.03 10.91 7*62 7*57 20.72 TABLE IV ( a ) 234 EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUITIBIA, 1956 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t l o n t i o n V i l l a g e s A b b o t s f o r d $ .91 A l e r t Bay 1.10 A s h c r o f t 2.26 Burns Lake .94 Chapman Camp 3.49 Comox .75 F o r t S t . Jamee .52 F r u i t v a l e .14 G i b s o n s L a n d i n g 1.50 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 2.44 H a z e l t o n .15 Invermere .18 L i l l o o e t .92 Lumby 3.82 L y t t o n .44 Pl c B r i d e .10 I t i a r y s v i l l e 1.57 Montrose — New Denver .66 O l i v e r 2.13 Osoyoos 2.07 P a r k s v i l l e 1.08 Pouce Coupe .56 Qualicura Beach 2.21 Salmo 2.06 S e c h e l t 2.36 S i l v e r t o n 1.12 S l o c a n 1.16 S t e w a r t 7.00 Telkwa 1.69 T o f i n o .58 U c l u e l e t .55 Vanderhoof 3.60 Z e b a l l o s 1*32 116.00 $ .35 13.59 $29.24 17.62 ... ... 9.62 .93 ... 1.96 11.37 11.00 .34 .65 12.23 10.92 1.22 13.60 9.62 2.18 .80 16.10 1.53 .20 1.80 7.22 9.92 2.07 .50 8.66 23.00 ... .76 10.43 9.53 1.75 1.86 25.21 1.63 ... ... 80.50 ... 10.97 .65 1.32 2.04 6.51 3.44 .90 5.25 14.50 2.53 .04 6.15 ... 6.32 2.00 .94 11.20 8.35 1.64 .24 8.50 .60 .42 ... ... 7.33 .15 .16 5.14 4.77 ... .87 18.53 3.50 1.55 .94 15.42 5.39 .43 1.00 14.80 10.56 5*37 .88 9.07 20.84 4.68 1.25 34.70 7.26 2.97 .57 ... .80 .26 1.15 ... 2.31 2.00 .27 4.73 9.00 ' .45 ... ... 7.53 5.01 .20 8.00 4.90 3.80 2.10 10.83 9.97 ... 64 10.00 3.30 .16 .48 9.69 6.53 3.16 .83 12.71 ;78 .36 1.95 11.7.2 235 TABLE IV (b) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1956 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - .Recre- Educa* A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n V i l l a q e s C a s t l e g a r $2.80 C r e s t o n .61 K i n n a i r d 2.36 Lake C o n i c h a n 1.26 P r i n c e t o n 3.97 Salmon Arm 2.21 Sidney . . . S m i t h e r s 2.36 W a r f i e l d 1.35 To tans F o r t S t . John 1.05 Hope 1.18 L a d y s m i t h 2.03 P l e r r i t t 1.89 W i l l i a m s Lake 1.72 C i t i e s Grand F o r k s 2.19 L a n g l e y 3.71 12.90 •2.71 1 .63 $16.22 6.61 1.26 .87 16.64 8.32 1.45 1.00 15.92 9.91 .43 .99 8.07 9.72 1.30 .29 10.80 13.82 2.59 . . . 4.82 13.02 .72 . . . 11.47 6.96 3.41 .92 12.50 15.64 7.07 .50 9.26 8.67 2.06 .06 10.85 20.10 2.53 1.58 15.67 12.60 2.37 . . . mmm 9.42 .85 . . . . . . 11.78 3.07 .35 11.47 13.10 1.00 .94 13.24 29.43 .32 2.21 20.80 TABLE IV ( c ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUfflBIA, 1956 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa* Ar e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n To inns m i s s i o n C i t y $1.43 $15.44 $ .05 $1.14 $17.85 N o r t h Kamloops .83 5.57 1.70 1.01 9.12 Quesnel .70 6.31 1.58 1.12 11.55 C i t i e s A l b e r n i 1.37 11.69 2.21 2.93 7.78 Co u r t n a y 3.49 9.52 3.75 - 5.97 12.16 Cranbrook 6.93 11.83 4.89 6.93 10.91 Duncan 2.63 13.07 6.96 1.38 15.84 F e r n i e 4.52 15.37 7.19 8.30 4.99 P o r t C o q u i t l a m .63 15.46 1.23 2.99 11.90 P o r t moody .85 21.75 1.87 .93 30.60 R e v e l s t o k e 3.50 20.02 2.11 5.52 13.08 R o e s l a n d 6.26 13.09 2.98 1.02 7.90 237 TABLE IV (d) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1956 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Ar e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C i t i e s C h i l l i w a c k • 2,05 Dawson Creek .91 Kamloops 5.60 Kelowna • 4.90 K i m b e r l e y 3.80 N e l s o n 7.26 Vernon 4.76 $20.24 $1.38 $1.51 $15.18 7.58 3.71 1.75 15.95 15.90 4.78 5.84 16.86 8.26 5.60 5.45 18.41 17.41 4.63 4.08 13.33 24.50 5.33 9.44 22;76 11;78 7 ; 43 10.00 13.91 TABLE IV (e)> EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FIVE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1956 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s F i r e P u b l i c Uorks S a n i -t a t i o n R e c r e -a t i o n Educa t i o n C i t i e s Nanaimo •5.22 •12.93 •4.27 •5.79 •19.60 P e n t i c t o n 3.77 13.23 5.04 6.55 15.16 P o r t A l b e r n i 1.23 6.08 5.40 2.21 21.15 P r i n c e George 4.56 11.97 7.51 7.20 15.40 P r i n c e R u p e r t 6.70 20.70 4.18 4.07 14.30 T r a i l 2.73 16.64 2.75 2.02 11.35 TABLE IV ( f ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS SIX VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1956 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Ar e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C i t i e s Netn W e s t m i n s t e r $10.29 N o r t h Vancouver 7.87 V i c t o r i a 8.29 $8.79 $2.76 $7.20 $22.42 11.56 1.68 3.00 18.89 7.52 6.90 10.66 20.97 240 TABLE V (a) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Areas Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n A b b o t s f o r d $1.26 A l e r t Bay 1.96 A s h c r o f t 1.15 Burns Lake 2.35 Chapman Camp 5.47 F o r t S t , James 1.17 F r u i t v a l e .10 G i b s o n s Landing.. 2.19 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 3.86 H a z e l t o n .59 Houston 1.54 Invermere .30 K a s l o 1.55 Keremeos ---Lumby 6.53 L y t t o n .44 fflcBride .25 M a r y s v i l l e 2.56 Wasset .66 Montrose 2.79 N a t a l .52 New Denver 1.39 Osoyoos 2.26 P a r k s v i l l e 2.89 Pemberton 4.01 Pouce Coupe 2.70 Qualicum Beach 5.22 Salmo 1.07 S e c h e l t 3.07 S i l v e r t o n 1.43 S l o c a n 1.81 S t e w a r t 4.50 T a y l o r . . . T e l k n a 3.05 T o f i n o 1.12 U c l u e l e t 1.08 Z e b a l l o s .66 131.56 •7.53 •4.00 •71.72 33.79 . . . . . . 17.88 7.88 .•... 2.10 22.80 14.75 4.32 8.06 33.00 9.52 1.75 .66 23.19 3.66 .24 1.91 12.78 7.82 3.64 1.29 19.84 17.47 .67 .22 29.41 32.30 1.32 3.62 53.00 1.71 4.00 1.98 12.75 1.09 3.42 2.07 18.75 18.14 3.21 1.73 31.02 17.85 3.62 3.79 19.08 13.34 .36 2.61 33.03 5.55 2.58 7.38 26.77 1.36 .89 6.71 24.43 5.86 3.30 .78 24.91 4.56 i n 2.90 4.52 16.19 • 1 u .92 2.00 .58 19.37 .96 2.15 .22 17.14 15.45 . . . .10 16.92 3.43 1.80 5.24 36.81 9.08 1.60 2.45 28.69 .35 4.76 .65 24.66 3.07 6.26 .93 16.84 10.22 4.00 4.05 58.90 9.12 3.00 .67 16.00 1.12 .65 3.00 38.49 5.75 1.68 .86 16.42 3.39 1.50 1.23 19.48 5.74 5.14 .54 18.73 . . . 1.12 . . . 28.07 6.09 4.26 .78 19.53 3.04 . . . .56 24.81 3.80 .40 1.04 19.09 15.29 1.00 5.65 14.20 TABLE V ( a ) ( c o n t i n u e d ) 241 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Idorks t a t i o n a t i o n t l o n C i t i e s Enderby Greenwood •1.63 %7.30 • .94 S2.26 121 .'44 .98 4.47 1.42 1.54 14.52 242 TABLE V (b) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e a - Educa Areas - Works t a t i o n t i o n t i o n V i l l a g e s C a s t l e g a r $2.60 $10.96 $2.72 $ .31 $24.32 Comox 1.12 5.75 3.66 3.04 26.64 Cumberland 1.28 8.10 3.90 2.36 12.52 C r e s t o n 1.76 11.29 3.50 2.34 45.36 Golden .38 5.14 3.73 .98 19.73 K l n n a i r d * 1.33 6.30 1.50 1.36 22.17 Lake Cotalchan 1.58 15.13 .27 1.74 17.81 L l l l o o e t 2.50 3.14 3.12 7.52 7.19 O l i v e r 3.81 7.80 .75 4.16 34.38 P r i n c e t o n 2.32 14.00 3.30 2.06 25.80 Salmon Arm 2.28 12.91 6.27 4.34 31.43 S i d n e y 1.59 8.54 4.38 .12 29.11 S m i t h e r s 1.88 9.96 2.74 2.67 23.27 Vanderhoof .61 9.46 11.50 6.21 21.24 W a r f i e l d 1.61 14.01 4.16 .69 22.86 To tuns W i l l i a m s Lake 3.97 19.17 8.13 4.01 28.77 C i t i e s A r mstrong 3.40 11.87 .91 2.87 24.39 Grand F o r k s 2.28 13.12 3.46 6.06 22.11 L a n g l e y 3.03 23.30 .93 2.91 41.63 1 243 TABLE V ( c ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa Areas Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n Towns F o r t S t . John $1.90 $11.24 $3.48 $2.75 $32.90 Hope 1.72 15.44 2.94 3.41 25.32 L a d y s m i t h 3.32 16.33 2.40 5.29 21.00 W e r r i t t 2.40 8.63 1.80 5.11 18.51 M i s s i o n C i t y 4.24 32.70 3.50 3.58 39.79 Quesnel 1.20 8.41 1.50 6.85 27.08 C i t i e s A l b e r n i 1.79 8.29 2.14 3.49 16.38 Courtnay 2.04 11.17 18.26 7.83 35.37 Duncan 2.76 19.09 7.48 5.09 28.62 F e r n i e 6.77 21.84 10.05 17.32 13.07 P o r t ffloody 1.68 17.00 5.29 2.58 72.67 R e v e l s t o k e 3.86 19.70 8.56 7.40 24.12 R o s s l a n d 7.67 15.85 3.10 1.02 14.92 244 TABLE V (d) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s . F i r e P u b l i c Works S a n i -t a t i o n R e c r e -a t i o n Educa t i o n Towns Nor t h Kamloops $3.97 $5.36 $8.13 $2.55 $21.82 C i t i e s C h i l l i t n a c k Cranbrook K i m b e r l e y N e l s o n P o r t C o q u i t l a r a T r a i l White Rock 2.14 7.85 7.27 10,22 .78 6.62 3.81 15.45 20.40 11.34 17.70 15.65 16.63 31.34 1.91 6.98 6.13 10.44 1.80 5.67 7.04 3.09 9.20 8.30 21.41 3.74 5.50 2.19 28.63 27.10 20.38 33.11 28.12 21.60 33.06 TABLE V ( e ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FIVE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t l o n C i t i e s Dawson Creek $3.82 $9.37 $9.30 $3.19 $30.92 Kamloops 6.63 15.25 6.17 13.74 39.10 Kelowna 5.36 16.47 7.47 10.28 38.72 Nanaimo 6.72 16.34 5.02 7.45 33.37 P e n t i c t o n 5.39 15.17 6.31 8.58 30.79 P o r t A l b e r n i 1.48 8.12 8.00 3.89 70.98 P r i n c e George 5.95 12.40 8.70 12.47 33.15 P r i n c e Rupert 7.53 23*37 6.53 8.50 23.57 Vernon 6.68 18.00 8.72 6.81 30.16 TABLE V ( f ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS SIX VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Works t a t i o n a t i o n t t i o n C i t i e s New W e s t m i n s t e r $14.83 $12.94 N o r t h Vancouver 8.98 10.12 V i c t o r i a 12.50 9.81 $4.05 $16.60 3.78 4.72 8.66 15.07 $35.89 37.23 33.24 TABLE VI ( a ) 247 EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n V i l l a a e s A b b o t s f o r d • 2.31 A e n n o f i e l d .36 A l e r t Bay 3.67 A s h c r o f t 2.35 Burns Lake 2.61 Chapman Camp 4.22 C l i n t o n 1.65 F r u i t v a l e .11 Gi b s o n s L a n d i n g 2.92 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 5.06 H a z e l t o n .47 Houston 1.42 Invermere 1.03 K a s l o 4.19 Keremeos 11.20 L urn by 6.97 L y t t o n 6.97 WcBrids 1.12 M a r y s v i l l e 4.26 fflasset 1.07 Montrose 3.30 Nakusp 2.45 N a t a l 2.05 New Denver 1.43 100 m i l e House Pemberton 3.46 Pouce Coupe 2.85 Qualicum Beach 2.84 Salmo 2.77 S e c h e l t 5.04 S i l v e r t o n .85 S l o c a n .92 Sparwood 1.98 S t e w a r t 3.25 T a y l o r 2.22 Telkwa 3.32 •40.00 •9.54 •5.14 •98.18 3.23 2.50 . . . 16.92 16.12 5.34 1.44 29.31 9.44 2.21 2.04 24.18 29.61 8.34 8.74 46.07 26.00 1.00 7.44 31.16 4.03 3.30 2.03 26.09 14.90 4.54 1.42 25.63 8.31 .42 1.45 40.00 20.39 .56 2.94 61.37 2.00 3.80 1.00 15.23 4.63 3.60 2.55 26.51 19.20 1.85 4.17 44.82 12.25 3.23 5.04 23.86 5.40 .63 9.46 46.74 16.77 4.24 8.00 42.87 8.62 1.50 3.85 28.64 16.82 3.79 2.52 40.44 9.58 4.00 6.78 21.90 .82 .32 2.12 27.90 13.99 4.78 4.27 23.52 5.36 .31 .27 38.77 4.22 3.56 1.04 21.27 18.27 . . . 1.70 10.84 .50 .32 . . . 12.64 6.66 . . . 44.42 9.20 6.44 1.88 20.81 10.98 8.63 12.90 97.46 9.02 3.35 2.40 27.14 9.20 1.28 2.03 62.10 16.54 2.54 3.43 16.85 17.00 1.30 1.31 43.33 1.74 1.55 .30 24.46 2.56 3.94 . . . 12.74 17.16 1.11 2.00 34.62 8.67 2.93 . . . 18.88 TABLE V I ( a ) ( c o n t i n u e d ) 248 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Uorks t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n V i l l a q e s T o f i n o U c l u e l e t Valemount Z e b a l l o s •1.58 1.88 .44 2*71 •14.38 4.34 3.90 14.37 • .84 .66 5.60 • 4.46 6.90 4.83 2.60 •31.44 25.96 18.21 27.27 C i t i e s Enderby Greenwood 1.97 2.06 20.45 6.82 9.65 2.42 9.31 4.31 19.27 24.22 11 249 TABLE VI (b) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUHIBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n V i l l a g e s Chetuiynd 11.19 S3.82 •1.77 •2.03 •35.62 Cumberland 2.91 8.76 4.79 4.27 16.24 F o r t S t . James 2.20 5.38 2.96 1.85 18.47 Lake Courichan 1.84 19.27 .31 8.06 19.38 L i l l o o e t 3.03 4.19 3.23 4.16 12.13 O l i v e r 3.13 9.83 1.54 9.80 43.32 Osoyoos .92 6.46 12.20 7.50 50.91 P a r k s v i l l e 2.82 11.08 4.57 8.96 50.38 P r i n c e t o n 3.57 10.29 5.61 8.56 32.38 Salmon Arm 2.66 14.90 10.75 11.50 54.80 Sidney 1.67 8.22 7.43 .70 54.32 Vanderhoof 1.24 11.05 10.01 12.82 35.68 W a r f i e l d 2.71 14.37 5.60 2.60 27.27 C i t i e s A rmstrong 3.79 18.67 5.33 9.26 29.51 250 TABLE VI ( c ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa« Areas Work 8 t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n V i l l a o e s C a s t l e g a r •2.30 •12.53 •22.67 • 6.46 •43.23 Comox 1.99 7.10 8.11 5.90 33.31 C r e s t o n 3.03 14.77 8.45 4.95 62.64 Golden .49 8.88 2.06 1.55 48.32 K i n n a i r d 2.09 7.36 3.94 4.56 36.61 S m i t h e r 8 , 2.88 10.68 4.13 3.54 33.37 Towns Hope 1.38 5.41 4.01 6.27 38.26 L a d y s m i t h 2.66 13.61 1.72 4.40 31.88 M e r r i t t 1.79 18.27 S.09 4.90 30.92 M i s s i o n C i t y 2.54 19.57 2.86 6.29 40.17 W i l l i a m s Lake 6.80 24.24 15.15 5.41 54.10 C i t i e s A l b e r n i 1.51 10.62 4.27 7.23 25.70 C o u r t n a y 4.97 11.38 10.63 12.41 49.02 Duncan 2.83 21.31 10.85 5.66 44.85 F e r n i e 6.80 20.45 9.65 9.31 19.27 Grand F o r k s 3.21 17.05 6.85 10.06 20.43 L a n g l e y 5.10 26.53 7.60 8.53 68.60 R e v e l s t o k e 5.21 22.06 5.76 9.17 38.81 R o s s l a n d 8.62 20.64 3.50 1.36 17.21 251 TABLE VI ( d ) " EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF* BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Work 8 t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n Towns F o r t S t . John $2.20 $20.42 $7.94 $7.65 $39.44 Quesnel 2.05 7.09 4.60 6.33 39.21 C i t i e s C h i l l i w a c k 2.23 13.31 5.22 5.10 39.10 Cranbrook 7.84 18.10 8.15 11.63 44.41 K i m b e r l e y 7.82 15.78 7.38 6.87 28.27 N e l s o n 7.61 26.60 12.31 15.42 41.24 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 1.77 20.58 18.87 5.43 42.07 P o r t Moody 2.91 9.53 3.31 2.21 51.52 White Rock 3.71 24.06 9.62 7.30 56.21 252 TABLE VI ( e ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FIVE VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s F i r e P u b l i c Works S a n i -t a t i o n R e c r e -a t i o n Educa-t i o n Towns No r t h Kamloops 13.07 $51*54 17.73 85.91 $33.43 C i t i e s Dawson Creek 6.06 11.41 7.85 5.48 38.55 Kamloops 7.73 19.09 8.37 18.92 70.81 Kelowna 7.18 23.32 9.61 19.73 55.42 P e n t i c t o n 6.56 21.20 8.68 15.71 49.23 P o r t A l b e r n l 1.82 11.52 9.92 14.27 105.60 P r i n c e Rupert 7.00 32.01 7.05 8.33 29.43 T r a i l 7.37 30.26 7.54 2.44 28.62 Vernon 7.66 8.52 12.10 13.18 49.04 253 TABLE VI ( f ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS SIX VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e- Educa-A r e a s Uorks t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C i t i e s Nanaimo 56.73 $8.57 $5.38 $14.12 $43.71 New We s t m i n s t e r 16.58 12.50 5.30 15.57 51.45 N o r t h Vancouver 9.14 10.02 4.32 7.06 47.92 P r i n c e George 4.30 11.67 11.28 12.29 41.82 V i c t o r i a 13.94 10.18 8.60 27.02 46.82 254 APPENDIX B ' S o u r c e s t Compiled from P r o v i n c e  df B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s " , 1965. 255 TABLE X I I I FACTORS FOR PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-A r e a s Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d £92.0 50.0 76.3 87.3 50.9 A e n n o f i e l d 99.0 96.2 93.8 . . . 91.2 A l e r t Bay 87.5 79.8 86.7 96.5 85.5 A s h c r o f t 92.0 88.1 95.0 95.0 87.7 Burns Lake 91.0 62.9 79.1 77.8 77.0 Chapman Camp 86.0 69.5 97.5 81.6 84.4 C l i n t o n 93.5 95.3 82.0 95.0 97.1 Enderby 93.2 87.6 92.5 87.3 85.3 F r u i t v a l e 99.5 81.3 88.7 96.2 87.5 G i b s o n s L a n d i n g 91.1 89.7 98.8 96.3 80.0 Greenwood 92.3 91.5 93.8 88.9 88.0 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 83.5 74.2 98.5 92.6 69.2 H a z e l t o n 98.1 97.5 90.6 197.5 100.0 Houston 95.1 94.4 91.2 93.8 86.7 Invermere 96.2 76.0 95.2 89.8 75.0 K a s l o 86.0 84.7 92.0 87.5 88.2 Keremeos 65.0 93.1 98.5 76.3 76.6 L urn by 77.3 78.9 89.6 80.0 77.6 L y t t o n 97.3 89.1 98.8 91.0 85.6 M c B r i d e 95.7 78.9 90.6 93.8 79.8 M a r y s v i l l e 85.5 88.1 90.0 82.7 89.3 Masset 95.8 98.1 99.1 95.0 86.0 Montrose 88.9 82.5 87.8 88.3 89.1 Nakusp 91.3 93.0 99.4 99.2 80.8 N a t a l 92.6 94.7 91.3 97.5 89.4 New Denver 94.8 77.0 96.0 89.6 100 M i l e House 100.0 99.4 100.0 — - . . . Pemberton 88.1 84.3 83.0 77.7 Pouce Coupe 90.1 88.4 83.2 95.2 89.6 Qualicum Beach 90.1 86.3 78.5 67.6 51.4 Salmo 90.4 90.0 91.6 93.9 86.4 S e c h e l t 83.5 88.3 97.0 95.0 69.0 S i l v e r t o n 97.1 79.4 93.6 91.4 91.6 S l o c a n 97.3 78.8 96.8 97.0 78.7 256 TABLE X I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Areas Works t a t i o n a t i o n x t i o n C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) Sparwood 92.9 98.2 96.2 100.0 87.8 S t e w a r t 88.9 96.9 90.0 93.5 T a y l o r 92.3 78.2 97.3 95.0 82.6 Telkiva 88.8 88.9 92.5 90.6 T o f i n o 94.1 82.2 88.8 84.8 U c l u e l e t 93.2 95.0 97.8 82.6 87.0 Valemount 98.6 95.2 98.3 87.7 91.0 Z e b a l l o s 94.1 96.1 87.0 91.0 85.0 C l a s s Two Armstrong 86.0 76.5 86.6 77.0 85.3 Chetwynd 95.4 95.0 95.3 95.0 82.3 Cumberland 91.1 89.1 87.7 89.1 91.8 F o r t S t . James 92.0 93.1 92.5 95.4 90.8 Lake Cowichan 93.5 76.0 99.1 80.0 90.3 L i l l o o e t 89.8 95.0 92.0 89.0 93.8 O l i v e r 89.5 87.7 98.7 75.3 78.7 Osoyoos 96.6 91.9 69.6 81.3 74.6 P a r k s v i l l e 90.4 86.3 88.3 77.5 74.7 P r i n c e t o n 87.8 87.0 86.3 78.7 83.8 Salmon Arm 90.7 81.5 72.8 71.3 72.6 S i d n e y 93.5 89.7 81.2 99.0 72.7 Vanderhoof 95.4 86.3 75.0 67.8 82.2 U i a r f i e l d 90.7 82.1 86.3 94.0 86.3 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 95.3 86.9 89.1 81.6 88.2 C a s t l e g a r 92.0 85.6 50.0 83.8 78.8 Comox 92.9 91.2 80.0 85.1 83.3 Cou r t n a y 83.8 85.4 73.4 68.8 75.5 C r e s t o n 69.8 81.5 79.3 87.5 69.4 Duncan 90.1 73.4 72.5 85.4 77.6 F e r n i e 77.9 75.6 75.9 76.5 90.4 Golden 98.0 88.8 94.0 96.0 75.8 Grand F o r k s 89.2 78.8 83.1 75.0 85.7 TABLE X I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d F i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Areas Works t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) Hope 94.3 95.1 90.0 84.0 80.0 K i n n a i r d 92.6 91.0 90.3 88.8 81.7 L a d y s m i t h 90.7 82.8 93.4 89.0 84.0 L a n g l e y 83.2 66.5 80.6 78.8 66.0 M e r r i t t " 93.5 77.0 87.2 87.6 84.6 M i s s i o n C i t y 91.4 75.3 92.8 84.1 79.9 R e v e l s t o k e 82.9 72.5 85.9 77.2 81.0 R o s s l a n d 72.2 73.9 91.3 96.6 91.3 S m i t h e r s 90.1 86.8 90.0 93.0 83.3 W i l l i a m s Lake 77.4 70.0 62.2 88.8 73.0 C l a s s Four C h i l l i w a c k 91.9 83.8 86.7 87.5 80.5 Cranbrook 74.4 77.5 79.4 70.4 77.8 F o r t S t . John 92.3 75.1 80.0 81.0 80.0 K i m b e r l e y 74.7 80.2 81.3 82.6 85.7 N e l s o n 75.3 66.7 69.1 61.3 79.0 P o r t C o q u l t l a m 95.0 74.3 52.8 86.4 78.5 P o r t Moody 90.1 87.7 91.6 94.3 74.3 Quesnel 92.6 90.3 88.8 84.0 80.5 White Rock 97.5 70.0 76.2 81.6 71.5 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 80.4 85.4 80.6 86.4 80.7 Kamloops 74.7 76.4 78.8 52.4 64.6 Kelowna 76.7 71.3 76.2 51.0 72.2 Nor t h Kamloops 89.5 93.3 80.9 85.2 83.3 P e n t i c t o n 78.4 73.8 78.4 60.3 75.4 P o r t A l b e r n i 93.2 85.6 75.3 65.0 50.0 P r i n c e Rupert 77.3 60.0 82.2 80.3 85.3 T r a i l 76.0 62.8 81.3 93.8 85.6 Vernon 75.0 89.4 70.0 66.5 75.5 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 78.1 90.0 86.6 65.0 78.2 258 TABLE X I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d T i r e P u b l i c S a n i - R e c r e - Educa-Areas Uorks t a t i o n a t i o n t i o n C l a s s S i x ( c o n t i n u e d ) New W e s t m i n s t e r 50.0 84.3 86.6 61.3 74.3 N o r t h Vancouver 71.0 87.5 89.1 82.4 76.2 P r i n c e George 85.7 85.5 71.6 69.0 79.1 V i c t o r i a 56.6 87.3 78.4 50.0 76.6 TABLE XV 259 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE AND REVENUE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d E x p e n d i t u r e Revenue E x p e n d i t u r e A r e a s l e s s Revenue C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d 8215 8177 838 A e n n o f i e l d 38 229 9 A l e r t Bay 107 78 30 A s h c r o f t 064 53 11 Burns Lake 146 111 35 Chapman Camp 117 79 37 C l i n t o n 55 44 10 Enderby 100 22 10 F r u i t v a l e 79 70 10 G i b s o n s L a n d i n g 107 82 25 Greenwood 79 14 14 H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g 154 140 13 H a z e l t o n 61 31 31 Houston 74 45 29 Invermere 119 99 20 K a s l o 78 51 27 Keremeos 112 78 34 L urn by 137 103 34 L y t t o n 69 65 5 M c B r i d e 135 98 37 M a r y s v i l l e 78 61 17 Wasset 86 42 45 Montrose 91 74 17 Nakusp 71 53 18 N a t a l 65 46 19 New Denver 57 40 17 100 M i l e House 6 6 0 Pemberton 108 86 22 Pouce Coupe 85 68 17 Qualicum Beach 198 f 8 2 15 Salmo 80 57 21 S e c h e l t 126 102 23 S i l v e r t o n 78 41 37 S l o c a n 90 74 17 Sparnood 39 36 3 260 TABLE XV ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d E x p e n d i t u r e A r e a s Revenue E x p e n d i t u r e l e s s Revenue C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) S t e w a r t 840 837 82 T a y l o r 115 95 20 Telkiua 50 40 10 T o f i n o 79 66 13 U c l u e l e t 74 54 20 Valemount 65 41 244 Z e b a l l o s 93 80 12 C l a s s Two Armstrong 112 93 20 Chetwynd 74 71 3 Cumberland 67 41 26 F o r t S t . James 52 32 20 Lake Cowichan 70 49 22 L i l l o o e t 66 55 11 O l i v e r 103 76 27 Osoyoos 118 106 12 P a r k s v i l l e 137 109 28 P r i n c e t o n 91 76 15 Salmon Arm 171 140 32 Si d n e y 102 107 --Vanderhoof 126 102 24 U l a r f i e l d 83 63 20 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 1,22 83 39 C a s t l e g a r 1393 120 19 Comox 93 . 75 18 Courtnay 172 128 44 C r e s t o n 147 123 24 Duncan 171 131 40 F e r n i e 140 -- • Golden 110 97 13 Grand F o r k s 146 92 54 Hope 86 58 27 K i n n a i r d 90 72 18 TABLE XV ( c o n t i n u e d ) 261 I n c o r p o r a t e d E x p e n d i t u r e Revenue E x p e n d i t u r e A r e a s l e s s Revenue C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) L a d y s m i t h 8103 882 821 L a n g l e y 226 183 43 N e r r i t t 156 119 36 m i s s i o n C i t y 116 95 21 R o s s l a n d 94 63 31 R e v e l s t o k e 132 100 32 S m i t h e r s 109 78 30 W i l l i a m s Lake 163 143 20 C l a s s Four C h i l l i w a c k 142 96 46 Cranbrook 159 141 18 F o r t S t . John 188 170 18 K i m b e r l e y 119 76 43 N e l s o n 232 124 108 Por t . C o q u i t l a m 143 109 34 P o r t Moody 200 110 81 Quesnel 143 98 43 White Rock 174 130 44 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 169 118 51 Kamloops 229 186 43 Kelowna 221 158 63 North Kamloops 116 95 21 P e n t i c t o n 205 147 49 P o r t A l b e r n i & 2 1 1 176 35 P r i n c e Rupert ® 175 131 44 T r a i l 140 111 29 Vernon 167 136 31 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 183 142 41 New Westminster 199 139 60 N o r t h Vancouver 146 117 29 P r i n c e George 170 137 33 V i c t o r i a 206 157 51 262 APPENDIX C S o u r c e s ! 1. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s " , V i c t o r i a * 1965. 2. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . "95th Annual S c h o o l R e p o r t " . V i c t o r i a t 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 . 3. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " T o u r i s t Accommodation D i r e c t o r y " . V i c t o r i a s 1967. 4. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e c e i v e d from i n d i v i d u a l I n c o r p o r a t e d M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . TA8LE X V I I I 263 FIRE PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f Are a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n per 1000 g a l s / m i n . per 1000 per 1000 p e r s o n s * per 1000 pers o n s p e r s o n s p e r s o n s C l a s s One, A b b o t s f o r d 20 2,600 20 0 A l e r t Bay 0 5B0 18 1.1 A s h c r o f t 0 420 20 0^ 8 3 Burns Lake 0 830 10 0 Chapman Camp 0 ... — C l i n t o n 0 25 0 F r u i t v a l e 0 M> M» mm G i b s o n s L a n d i n g 0 750 20 0 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 2 1,600 42 0 H a z e l t o n 0 . --Houston 0 - — — - - -Invermere 0 250 12 K a s l o 0 375 23 .0 Keremeos 0 1,7808 28 1.9 L urn by 60 - -L y t t o n 0 •IMS — - — M c B r i d e 0 830 20 M a r y s v i l l e 57 — Masset 0 1,650 20 0 Montrose 45 - - - — ... Nakusp 0 920 14 0 N a t a l • 25 - - - • - — ... New Denver 13 — ... 100 M i l e House 0 — ... Pemberton 0 — -— . . . Pouce Coupe 6 ... -- ... Qualicum Beach B . . . ... Salmo 0 — . ... S e c h e l t 0 ... — ... S i l v e r t o n 0 ... — ... S l o c a n 0 — 53 0 Sparwood 0 — —— ... TABLE X V I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) 264 I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f Are a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n per 1000 gals/min, per 1000 per 1000 pe r s o n s per 1000 pe r s o n s p e r s o n s p e r s o n s C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) S t e w a r t 43 910 12 1.9 T a y l o r 0 —- .. Telkwa 0 —- .. ... T o f i n o 0 -— .. ... U c l u e l e t 0 575 15 0 Z e b a l l o s 0 2,000 48 0 Enderby 32 450 13 0 Greenwood 2 250 25 0 C l a s s Two Armstrong 66 1,330 18 0 Chetwynd 0 ... — ... F o r t S t . James 1 ... — ... Lake Cowichan 0 470 6 0.4 L i l l o o e t 0 800 15 0 O l i v e r 0 450 13 0 Osoyoos 0 -— ~ ... P a r k s v i l l e 150 500 13 0 P r i n c e t o n 0 270 9 0 Salmon Arm 2 230 13 0 S i d n e y 0 .640 8 0 Vanderhoof 0 833 16 0 W a r f i e l d 12 ... —- ... C l a s s Three 5 A l b e r n i 0 190 4 0 C a s t l e g a r 0 7 0 Comox 28 ... Courtnay 13 310 5 0.3 C r e s t o n 3 ... 8 0 Duncan 23 250 6 0 F e r n i e 41 290 7 1.1 Golden 22 270 7 0 Grand F o r k s 0 370 13 0 Hope 0 350 6 0 K i n n a i r d 48 ... TABLE X V I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) 265 I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f Are a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n per 1000 g a l s / m i n per 1000 per 1000 pers o n s p e r 1000 pe r s o n s p e r s o n s p e r s o n s C l a s s Three ( C o n t i n u e d ) L a n g l e y 9 440 12 0 M e r r i t t 0 380 6 0 M i s s i o n C i t y 68 245 7 0 R e v e l s t o k e 63 130 6 0.5 R o s s l a n d 0 — S m i t h e r s 0 313 8 0 W i l l i a m s Lake 13 500 10 0 C l a s s Four C h i l l i w a c k 135 340 3 0 Cranbrook 74 214 3 0 F o r t S t . John 4 166 3 1.1 K i m b e r l e y 71 135 5 1.0 Quesnel 0 260 6 0 Ne l s o n 73 167 • 33 0.6 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 1 105 3 0 P o r t Moody 5 118 --White Rock 22 — 3 0.1 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 91 92 3 0.8 Kamloops 36 & 92 2 1.0 Kelowna 62 244 3 0.8 N o r t h Kamloops 13 3 0.4 P e n t i c t o n 34 215 2 0.8 P o r t A l b e r n i 6 123 — • — . P r i n c e Rupert 25 120 1 0.8 T r a i l 83 108 1 0.6 Vernon 19 195 2 0.9 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 77 105 1 1.0 New Westminster 120 114 0 1.8 N o r t h Vancouver 107 71 0 1.1 266 TABLE X V I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f A r e a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n per 1000 g a l s / m i n per 1000 per 1000 pers o n s per 1000 pers o n s p e r s o n s p e r s o n s C l a s s S i x ( c o n t i n u e d ) P r i n c e George 35 120 1 0.5 V i c t o r i a 190 92 0 1.6 •Average f o r 1961 - 1965 i n c l u s i v e 267 TABLE XIX INTENSITY VALUES FOR FIRE PROTECTION FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES , TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f A r e a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d 55 100.0 70.0 50.0 A l e r t Bay 50 60.2 68.0 77.5 A s h c r o f t 50 57.0 70.8 70.0 Burns Lake 50 65,2 60.0 50.0 Chapman Camp 50 — C l i n t o n 50 - - - 75.0 50.0 Enderby 58 57.6 63.0 50.0 F r u l t v a l e 50 — - - — G i b s o n s L a n d i n g 50 63.6 70.0 50.0 Greenwood 51 53.6 75.0 50.0 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 51 80.7 91.7 50.0 H a z e l t o n 50 ... Houston 50 - — - - — Invermere 50 53.6 62.0 50.0 K a s l o 50 56.0 72.5 50.0 Keremeos 50 84.2 77.5 100.0 L urn by 65 L y t t o n 50 am mm mm mm ^m mm M c B r i d e 50 65.2 70.0 50.0 M a r y s v i l l e 64 •» w ... ... Masset 50 81.3 69.8 50.0 Montrose 61 — - '... ... Nakusp 50 67.0 64.1 50.0 N a t a l 56 — ... New Denver 53 . . . ... . 100 M i l e House 50 mmmm mm ... Pemberton 50 — - ... Pouce Coupe 52 ... Qualicum Beach 52 — ... . . . Salmo 50 — — ... S e c h e l t 50 — ... ... S i l v e r t o n 50 . . . ... ... S l o c a n 50 ... 100.0 50,0 . Sparwood 50 ... ... . . . S t e w a r t 61 66.8 62.0 100.0 T a y l o r 50 ... ... . . . 268 TABLE XIX ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f Are a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) Telkiva 50 T o f i n o 50 U c l u e l e t 50 Z e b a l l o s 50 C l a s s Two Armstrong 66 Chetwynd 50 F o r t S t . James 51 Lake Couiichan 50 L i l l o o e t 50 O l i v e r 50 Osoyoos 50 P a r k s v i l l e 87 P r i n c e t o n 50 Salmon Arm 51. Si d n e y 50 Vanderhoof 50 W a r f i e l d 53 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 50 C a s t l e g a r 50 Comox 57 Courtnay 53 C r e s t o n 51 Duncan 56 F e r n i e 60 Golden 55 Grand f o r k s 50 Hope 50 K i n n a i r d 62 L a d y s m i t h 50 L a n g l e y 52. N e r r i t t 50 M i s s i o n C i t y 70 R e v e l s t o k e 66 R o s s l a n d 50 60.0 65.0 50.0 88.5 98.0 50.0 75.2 68.4 50.0 58.0 56.0 60.0 64.6 65.0 50.0 57.5 62.8 50.0 58.6 63.2 50.0 54.0 58.8 50.0 53.2 53.0 50.0 61.4 58.0 50.0 65.2 66.0 50.0 52.4 53.8 50.0 57.1 50.0 54.8 55.2 57.5 58.3 50.0 53.6 56.3 50.0 54.4 56.6 77.4 54.4 57.0 50.0 56.0 62.6 50.0 55.6 56.3 50.0 53.0 55.7 50.0 57.4 61.6 50.0 56.2 56.0 50.0. 53.5 56.8 50.0 51.3 56.0 62.5 269 TABLE XIX ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s Annual f i r e i n -s p e c t i o n s Water-pumping c a p a c i t y Number o f v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n Number o f f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) S m i t h e r s 50 W i l l i a m s Lake 53 C l a s s Four C h i l l i w a c k 84 Cranbrook 69 F o r t S t . John 51 K i m b e r l e y 68 Quesnel 50 Ne l s o n 68 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 51 P o r t Woody 51 White Rock ^ 56 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 73 Kamloops 60 P e n t i c t o n 59 P o r t A l b e r n i 52. P r i n c e Rupert 56 T r a i l 71 Vernon 55 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 70 New Westminster 80 No r t h Vancouver 77 P r i n c e George 59 V i c t o r i a 100 54.9 57.7 50.0 56.6 60.0 50.0 55.4 53.1 50.0 52.9 52.8 77.5 51.9 53.0 50.0 51.3 54.9 75.0 53.8 55.7 50.0 52.0 52.6 65.0 50.6 52.6 50.0 50.9 52.5 52.8 52.5 50.4 52.7 70.0 50.4 52.3 75.0 52.9 51.8 70.0 51.1 — — 51!o 51.4 70.0 50.7 51.3 65.0 52.5 52.3 72.5 50.6 51.0 75.0 50.8 50.0 95.0 50.0 50.0 77.5 51.0 51.0 62.5 50.4 50.0 90.0 270 TABLE XX APPLICATION OF FACTORS TO INTENSITY VALUES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual Water- Number o f Number o f Are a s f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d 27.5 100.0 105.0 150.0 A l e r t Bay 25.0 60.2 102.0 "232.0 A s h c r o f t 25.0 57.0 105.0 210.0 Burns Lake 25.0 65.2 90.0 150.0 Chapman Camp 25.0 . . . C l i n t o n 25.0 112.5 150.0 Enderby 29.0 53.6 112.5 150.0 F r u i t v a l e 25.0 - — « G i b s o n s L a n d i n g 25.0 63.6 105.0 150.0 Greenwood 25.5 53.6 112.5 150.0 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 25.5 80.5 137.6 150.0 H a z e l t o n 25.0 . . . Houston 25.0 Invermere 25.0 53.6 93.0 15D.0 K a s l o 25.0 56.0 108.B 150.0 Keremeos 25.0 84.2 116.3 300.0 Lumby 32.5 *• mm «B L y t t o n 25.0 M c B r i d e 25.0 65.2 105.0 150.0 M a r y s v i l l e 32.0 . . . Masset 25.0 81.3 104.7 150.0 Montrose 30.5 - — . . . . . . Nakusp 25.0 67.0 96.2 150.0 N a t a l 28.0 mw*»*m> New Denver 26.5 mm m»mm 100 M i l e House 25.0 — -Pemberton 25.0 Pouce Coupe 25.0 — Qualicum Beach 26.0 . . . . . . . . . Salmo 25.0 . . . . . . . . . S e c h e l t 25.0 . . . t» am mm S i l v e r t o n 25.0 . . . . . . S l o c a n 25.0 — 150.0 150.0 Sparwood 25.0 . . . . . . . . . S t e w a r t 30.5 66.8 93.0 300.0 T a y l o r 25.0. . . . . . . 271 TABLE XX ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d Areas Annual f i r e i n -s p e c t i o n s Water-pumping c a p a c i t y Number o f v o l u n t a r y f i r e m e n Number o f f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n C l a s s O n e , ( c o n t i n u e d ) Telkwa 25.0 T o f i n o 25.0 U c l u e l e t 25.0 Z e b a l l o s 25.0 C l a s s Tmo Armstrong 33.0 Chetuiynd 25.0 F o r t S t . James 25.5 Lake Couiichan 25.0 L i l l o o e t 25.0 O l i v e r 25.0 Osoyoos 25.0 P a r k s v i l l e 43.5 P r i n c e t o n 25.0 Salmon Arm 25.5 S i d n e y 25.0 Vanderhoof 25.0 W a r f i e l d 26.5 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 25.0 C a s t l e g a r 25.0 Comox 28.5 Courtnay 26.5 C r e s t o n 26.5 Duncan 28.0 F e r n i e 30.0 Golden 26.5 Grand F o r k s 25.0 Hope 25.0 K i n n a i r d 31.0 L a d y s m i t h 25.0 L a n g l e y 25.0 ( t l e r r i t t 25.0 m i s s i o n C i t y 35.0 R e v e l s t o k e 33.0 R o s s l a n d 25.0 S m i t h e r s 25.0 60.0 B8.5 75.0 58.0 64.6 57.5 58.7 54.0 53.2 61.4 65.2 52.4 54.8 53.6 54.4 54.0 56.0 55.6 •B M «M 53.0 56.2 56.2 53.5 51.3 54.9 97/5 141.0 102.6 84.0 97.5 94.3 94.8 88.2 79.5 87.0 99.0 80.7 85.7 82.8 87.5 84.5 84.9 86.1 93.9 84.6 83.6 92.4 84.0 85.2 84.0 86.6 150.0 150.0 150.0 180.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 172.5 150.0 150.0 232.5 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 187.0 150.0 TABLE XX ( c o n t i n u e d ) 272 I n c o r p o r a t e d Annual . Water- ' Number o f Number o f Areas f i r e i n - pumping v o l u n t a r y f u l l - t i m e s p e c t i o n s c a p a c i t y f i r e m e n f i r e m e n C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) W i l l i a m s Lake 26.5 C l a s s Four C h i l l i w a c k 42.0 Cranbrook 34.5 F o r t S t . John 25.5 K i m b e r l e y 34.0 N e l s o n 34.0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 25.5 P o r t Moody 25.5 Quesnel 25.0 White Rock 28.0 58.6 90.0 150.0 55.4 79.6 150.0 52.9 79.2 232.5 51.9 79.5 150.0 51.3 82.4 225.0 52.0 78.9 195.0 50.6 78.9 150.0 50.9 - T -53.8 83.6 150.0 52.5 79.2 157.0 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek Kamloops P e n t i c t o n P o r t A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert T r a i l Vernon 36.5 50.4 30.0 50.4 29.5 52.9 26.0 51.1 28.0 51.0 35.5 50.7 27.5 52.5 79.1 210.0 78.5 225.0 77.7 2t0?00 77.1 210.0 77.0 195.0 78.5 217.0 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo New Westminster N o r t h Vancouver P r i n c e George V i c t o r i a 35.0 50.6 40.0 50.8 38.5 50.0 29.5 51.0 50.0 50.4 76.5 225.0 75.0 285.0 75.0 232.5 76.5 187.5 75.0 270.0 TABLE X X I I ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d P e r c e n t a g e F a c t o r Length o f F a c t o r A r e a s o f s t r e e t s paved s t r . paved /1000 p e r -sons i n m i l e s C l a s s One • A b b o t s f o r d A l e r t Bay A e n n o f i e l d A s h c r o f t Burns Lake Chapman Camp C l i n t o n Enderby F r u i t v a l e G i b s o n s L a n d i n g Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. H a z e l t o n . Houston Invermere K a s l o Keremeos Lumby L y t t o n M c B r i d e M a r r y s v i l l e Masset Montrose Nakusp N a t a l New Denver 100 M i l e House Pemberton Pouce Coupe P r i n c e t o n Qualicum Beach Salmo S e c h e l t S i l v e r t o n 100 100 39 68.5 0 50.0 74 rB6.0 19 58.5 £94 97.5 0 50.0 6 53.0 19 58.5 80 89.5 40 69.0 54 76.0 100 100.0 0 50.0 32 65.0 45 71.5 21 59.9 E53 75.5 66 93.5 13 55.5 10 54.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 9 53.5 18 58.0 42 70.0 15 56.5 0 50.0 0 50.0 100 100.0 78 87.5 46 72.0 59 78.5 75 86.5 4.3 63.3 3.5 62.1 0 50.0 4.9 66.5 2.5 60.0 5.0 67.2 0 50.0 0.4 50.1 1.3 53.0 6.5 72.4 4.0 63.6 3.2 59.8 1.5 53.6 0 50.0 4.0 63.0 6.3 70.8 3.6 62.3 3.3 60.2 6.9 73.6 1.7 55.5 0.8 52.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 0.9 52.3 o;e 52.0 11.0 87.7 0.6 52.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 4.5 65.0 15.0 100.0 3.8 62.0 11.5 88.0 9.2 80.0 TABLE X X I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) 274 I n c o r p o r a t e d P e r c e n t a g e F a c t o r Length o f F a c t o r A r e a s o f s t r e e t s paved s t r . paved /1000 p e r -sons i n m i l e s C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) S l o c a n 42 51.0 1.9 56.0 Sparwood 100 100.0 2.6 59.0 S t e w a r t 0 50.0 0 50.0 T a y l o r 0 50.0 0 50.0 Telkwa 0 50.0 0 50.0 T o f i n o 18 58.0 0.7 52.0 Valemount 0 50.0 0 50.0 Z e b a l l o s 0 50.0 0 i 50.0 \ C l a s s Two Armstrong 74 86.0 10.4 85.0 Chetwynd 0 50.0 0 50.0 Cumberland 74 86.0 4.9 67.0 F o r t S t . James 0 50.0 0 50.0 Lake Cowichan 84 92.5 4.1 63.0 L i l l o o e t 20 59.0 1.0 53.0 O l i v e r 76 87.0 5.4 67.0 Osoyoos 69 83.5 4.0 63.0 P a r k s v i l l e 47 72.5 4.2 64.0 P r i n c e t o n 100 100.0 4.5 65.0 Salmon Arm 30 64.0 3.7 62.0 S i d n e y 74 86.0 7.4 75.0 Vanderhoof 24 61.0 1.8 55.0 U l a r f i e l d 50 74.0 2.5 58.0 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 78 87.5 3.9 63.0 C a s t l e g a r 21 59.5 1.8 55.0 Courtnay 66 82.0 4.3 64.0 Comox 93 97.0 5.9 70.0 C r e s t o n 80 89.5 6.5 72.0 Duncan 84 92.5 3.6 62.0 F e r n i e 63 80.5 4.9 66.0 Golden 12 55.0 1.2 54.0 Grand F o r k s 35 66.5 5.3 67.0 Hope 65 81.5 3.7 62.0 K i n n a i r d 54 76.5 2.5 58.0 TABLE X X I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d P e r c e n t a g e F a c t o r L e ngth o f F a c t o r A r e a s o f s t r e e t s paved s t r . paved /1000 p e r -sons i n • m i l e s C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) L a n g l e y 71 M e r r i t t 27 M i s s i o n C i t y 98 R e v e l s t o k e 94 R o s s l a n d 43 S m i t h e r s 11 W i l l i a m s Lake 30 84.5 5.3 67.0 62.5 2.6 58.0 99.5 7.7 75.0 97.5 3.6 62.0 65.5 3.6 62.0 54.5 1.0 53.0 64.0 3.3 61.0 C l a s s F o u r C h i l l i w a c k 84 92.5 3.6 62.0 Cranbrook 52 75.0 3.1 61.0 F o r t S t . John 19 58.5 1.4 54.0 K i m b e r l e y 61 79.5 3.0 60.0 N e l s o n 43 70.5 2.6 58.0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 63 80.5 4.9 66.0 P o r t Moody 79 89.5 3.0 60.0 Quesnel 54 76.0 3.2 61.0 White Rock 92 96.5 5.3 67.0 C l a s s F i v e . Dawson Creek 23 60.0 1.3 55.0 Kamloops 74 86.0 2.5 58.0 Kelowna 46 72.0 3.2 61.0 Nor t h Kamloops 53 75.5 2.4 58.0 P e n t i c t o n 66 82.0 5.2 67.0 P o r t A l b e r n i 36 67.0 2.7 59.0 P r i n c e Rupert 69 83.5 1.8 56.0 T r a i l 75 86.5 3.2 61.0 Vernon 68 87.0 3.1 61.0 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 70 84.0 2.5 58.0 New We s t m i n s t e r 89 95.5 3.2 61.0 Nor t h Vancouver 62 80.0 2.1 57.0 P r i n c e George 50 75.0 2.0 57.0 V i c t o r i a 100 100.0 2.7 59.0 276 TABLE XXIV STREET CLEANING CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s Number o f Number o f l i n e a l f e e t l i n e a l f e e t swept/week swept/week/ 1000 p e r s o n s F a c t o r C l a s s One A l e r t Bay Burns Lake Chapman Camp C l i n t o n Enderby Greenwood K a s l o L y t t o n fflasset New Denver S l o c a n Telkwa Valemount C l a s s Two 0 2,640 528 0 1,200 200 1,980 5,280 0 0 0 500 1,000 0 2 1 0 1 1 2 12 0 0 0 1 1 50 52 51 50 51 50 52 62 50 50 50 51 51 Armstrong Chetwynd A s h c r o f t L i l l o o e t O l i v e r Osoyoos P a r k s v i l l e P r i n c e t o n Salmon Arm S i d n e y Vanderhoof 9.200 0 4,300 0 6,000 9,600 1,320 7.920 23,000 1.200 1,860 7 0 4 0 3 8 1 4 14 1 1 57 50 54 50 53 58 51 54 64 51 51 C l a s s Three Comox Co u r t n a y Duncan Golden Hope 2,640 40,000 48,000 500 6,125 1 10 12 1 2 51 60 62 51 52 TABLE XXIV ( c o n t i n u e d ) 277 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f Number o f F a c t o r A r e a s l i n e a l f e e t l i n e a l f e e t swept/week suiept/iueek/ 1000 p e r s o n s C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) L a d y s m i t h 5,260 2 52 L a n g l e y 20,000 8 | 58 M i s s i o n C i t y 50,000 14 / 64 R e v e l s t o k e . 55,000 13 63 R o s s l a n d 95,000 22 72 W i l l i a m s Lake 41,000 14 64 C l a s s Four Cranbrook 285,000 38 88 F o r t S t . John 3,500 1 51 K i m b e r l e y 16,700 3 53 N e l s o n 105,000 26 76 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 42,000 5 55 Quesnel 35,000 6 56 White Rock 52,000 7 57 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 115,000 9 59 Kamloops 211,000 19 69 P e n t i c t o n 320,000 23 73 P o r t A l b e r n i 11,500 1 51 T r a i l 114,000 10 60 Vernon 264,000 24 74 Kelowna 565,000 411 91 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 369,000 26 76 New W e s t m i n s t e r 1,620,000 44 94 N o r t h Vancouver 825,000 30 80 P r i n c e George 53,000 3 53 V i c t o r i a 2,885,000 50 100 TABLE XXVI SEWER CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s Number o f l i n e a l f e e t o f seiner mains per 1000 p e r s o n s F a c t o r C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d A e n n o f i e l d A l e r t Bay A s h c r o f t Burns Lake Chapman Camp C l i n t o n Enderby F r u i t v a l e G i b s o n s L a n d i n g H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. H a z e l t o n Greenwood Houston Invermere K a s l o Keremeos Lumby L y t t o n M c B r i d e Masset N a t a l New Denver 100 M i l e House Pemberton Pouce Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo S e c h e l t S i l v e r t o n S l o c a n Sparwood S t e w a r t T a y l o r Telkwa T o f i n o 6.2 0 1.1 1.5 5.7 3.3 1.0 3.0 5.3 1.1 2.9 1.1 0.5 0 0.3 0 0 2.4 4.7 3.8 3.0 0 0 3.2 0.5 3.6 1.1 0.3 0 0 0 2.3 5.1 0 0 0.5 81.0 50.0 56.5 57.5 78.5 66.0 55.0 65.0 76.5 55.5 64.5 55.5 52.5 50.0 51.0 50.0 50.0 62.0 73.5 69.0 65.0 50.0 50.0 66.0 52.5 68.0 55.5 51.5 50.0 50.0 50.0 61.5 75.5 50.0 50.0 52.5 TABLE XXVI ( c o n t i n u e d ) 279 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f F a c t o r A r e a s l i n e a l f e e t o f sewer maina p e r 1000 p e r s o n s C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) W i l l i a m s Lake 3.5 67.5 C l a s s F o u r C h i l l i w a c k 8.1 89.5 Cranbrook 3.7 68.5 F o r t S t . John 4.0 70.0 K i m b e r l e y 5.2 76.0 N e l s o n 5.0 75.0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 6.8 83.0 P o r t Uloody 3.1 65.5 Quesnel 3.3 66.5 White Rock 7.5 86.0 C l a s s F i v e \ Damson Creek 3.8 69.0 Kamloops 5.2 75.5 P e n t i c t o n 4.5 72.5 P o r t A l b e r n i 3.5 67.5 P r i n c e Rupert 3.8 69.0 T r a i l 3.5 67.5 Vernon 5.1 75.5 No r t h Kamloops 4.4 72.0 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 4.1 70.5 New We s t m i n s t e r 5.3 76,5 No r t h Vancouver 3.0 65.0 P r i n c e George 3.5 67.5 V i c t o r i a 3.0 65.0 TABLE XXVI ( c o n t i n u e d ) 280 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f F a c t o r Areas l i n e a l f e e t o f sewer mains per 1000 p e r s o n s C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) U c l u e l e t Valemount Z e b a l l o s C l a s s Two Chetwynd Cumberland F o r t S t . James' Lake Cowichan L i l l o o e t O l i v e r , ' Osoyoos P a r k s v i l l e P r i n c e t o n Salmon Arm Si d n e y Vanderhoof U i a r f i e l d C l a s s Three A l b e r n i C a s t l e g a r Comox Courtnay C r e s t o n Duncan F e r n i e Golden Grand F o r k s Hope K i n n a i r d L a d y s m i t h L a n g l e y N e r r i t t M i s s i o n C i t y R e v e l s t o k e R o s s l a n d Smither8 0 50.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 3.2 66.0 5.3 76.5 0 50.0 2.0 60.0 3.7 68.5 0.9 54.5 3.7 68.5 8.9 93.5 6.3 81.5 5.4 77.0 5.1 75.5 2.8 64.0 5.0 75.0 3.8 69.0 4.5 72.5 6.0 BO.O 10.0 100.0 8.7 92.5 7.3 85.5 6.8 83.0 3.3 66.5 6.4 82.0 1.8 59.0 3.8 69.0 4.6 73.0 5.6 78.0 2.7 63.5 5.9 79.5 2.5 62.5 4.2 71.0 5.0 75.0 TABLE XXXI GARBAGE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f F a c t o r A reas c o l l e c t i o n s per week C l a s s One A s h c r o f t 1 50.0 Burns Lake 1 50.0 Chapman Camp 1 50.0 C l i n t o n 1 50.0 Enderby 60.0 Greenwood 1 50.0 K a s l o 1 50.0 L y t t o n 1 50.0 M a s s e t 1 50.0 New Denver 1 50.0 S l o c a n 1 50.0 Telkwa 3 70.0 C l a s s Two Armstrong 1 50.0 Chetwynd 1 50.0 F o r t S t . James 1 50.0 Lake Cowichan 1 50.0 L i l l o o e t 2 60.0 O l i v e r 2 60.0 Osoyoos 1 50.0 P r i n c e t o n 2 60.0 Salmon Arm 1 50.0 S i d n e y 1 50.0 Vanderhoof 1 50.0 W a r f i e l d 2 60.0 C l a s s Three C a s t l e g a r 2 60.0 Comox 1 50.0 C r e s t o n 3 70.0 Duncan 2 60.0 Golden 1 50.0 Hope 1 50.0 L a d y s m i t h 1 50.0 282 TABLE XXXI ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f F a c t o r A r e a s c o l l e c t i o n s per meek C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) L a n g l e y M e r r i t t M i s s i o n C i t y R o s s l a n d W i l l i a m s Lake C l a s s Four C h i l l i w a c k Cranbrook F o r t S t . John K i m b e r l e y < . N e l s o n P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t Woody Quesnel White Rock C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek — Kamloops P e n t i c t o n P o r t A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert Vernon C l a s s S i x Nanaimo New Wes t m i n s t e r N o r t h Vancouver P r i n c e George V i c t o r i a 3 70.0 1 50.0 3 70.0 1 50.0 3 70.0 2 60.0 3 70.0 1 50.0 6 100.0 3 70.0 1 50.0 1 50.0 4 80.0 1 50.0 1 50.0 6 100.0 3 70.0 1 50.0 3 70.0 4 80.0 3 70.0 6 100.0 6 100.0 3 70.0 6 100.0 283 TABLE XXXIV SELECTED RECREATION FACILITIES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1967 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s Number o f p u b l i c museums Number o f p u b l i c boat s i t e s Number o f p u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e s Number o f t o u r i s t bureaus C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d 0 A l e r t Bay 0 A s h c r o f t 1 C l i n t o n 1 Enderby 0 G i b s o n s L a n d i n g , 1 Greenwood . 0 V H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 0 H a z e l t o n 1 Invermere 0 K a s l o 0 Keremeos 0 Lumby 0 L y t t o n 0 Masset 0 Nakusp 0 New Denver 0 100 M i l e House 0 Pemberton 0 Pouce Coupe 0 Qualicum Beach , 0 Salmo 0 S e c h e l t 0 S i l v e r t o n 0 S l o c a n 0 S t e w a r t 0 T a y l o r 0 Telkwa 0 Z e b a l l o s 0 C l a s s Two Armstrong 1 Chetwynd 1 F o r t S t , James 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 TABLE X X X I V ( c o n t i n u e d ) 284 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f Number o f Number o f Number o f Are a s p u b l i c p u b l i c p u b l i c / t o u r i s t museums boat g o l f bureaus s i t e s c o u r s e s C l a s s Two ( c o n t i n u e d ) Lake Cowichan 1 2 1 1 L i l l o o e t 0 0 1 1 O l i v e r 0 2 1 0 Osoyoos 0 2 0 0 P a r k s v i l l e 1 2 0 1 P r i n c e t o n 1 0 1 1 Salmon Arm 1 1 0 1 S i d n e y 0 1 0 0 Vanderhoof 0 1 0 0 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 0 2 1 1 Comox 0 1 1 0 C o u r t n e y 1 2 2 1 C r e s t o n 0 1 1 1 Duncan 0 1 1 1 F e r n i e 0 1 0 1 Grand F o r k s 1 1 1 1 L a n g l e y 1 2 0 2 Hope 1 0 1 1 L a d y s m i t h 0 0 0 1 N e r r i t t 0 1 1 1 m i s s i o n C i t y 0 1 1 1 R o s s l a n d 1 0 1 2 S m i t h e r s 0 1 1 1 W i l l i a m s Lake 0 2 1 1 C l a s s Four Cranbrook 1 1 2 1 F o r t S t . John 0 1 1 1 K i m b e r l e y 1 2 1 1 N e l s o n 1 1 1 2 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 0 2 1 1 it P o r t moody 1 1 0 1 White Rock 0 1 1 1 Quesnel 1 3 1 2 TABLE X X X I v ( c o n t i n u e d ) 285 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f Number o f Number o f Number o f Are a s P u b l i c p u b l i c p u b l i c t o u r i s t museums boat g o l f bureaus s i t e s c o u r s e s C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 1 Kamloops 1 Kelowna 1 No r t h Kamloops 0 P e n t i c t o n 1 P o r t A l b e r n i 0 P r i n c e Rupert 1 T r a i l 1 Vernon 1 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 1 N o r t h Vancouver 0 New W e s t m i n s t e r 3 P r i n c e George 1 V i c t o r i a 3 0 1 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 0 1 3 2 3 2 0 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 8 1 3 3 1 2 11 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 8 3 4 286 TABLE XXXV RECREATION CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f I n t e n s i t y P e r c e n t a g e I n t e n s i t y A r e a s a c r e s o f v a l u e o f t o t a l v a l u e park/1000 c i t y a r e a p e r s o n s under park C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d A e n n o f i e l d A l e r t Bay A s h c r o f t Burns Lake Chapman Camp C l i n t o n Enderby F r u i t v a l e G i b s o n s L a n d i n g Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. H a z e l t o n Houston Invermere K a s l o Keremeos L urn by L y t t o n M c B r i d e M a r y s v i l l e Masset Montrose Nakusp N a t a l New Denver 100 M i l e House Pemberton Pouce Coupe Salmo S e c h e l t S i l v e r t o n S l o c a n Sparwood T a y l o r Telkwa 4.0 56.3 8.0 61.2 0 50.0 8.3 61.3 4.2 54.8 3.9 54.7 2.5 52.4 17.7 77.1 11.3 66.3 3.3 53.5 14.7 72.5 0 50.0 0 50.0 28.0 93.2 6.7 60.0 13.1 69.2 0 50.0 15.7 73.2 0 50.0 7.0 59.6 20.8 81.3 12.7 68.4 0 50.0 32.0 100.0 5.4 57.1 14.9 72.4 0 50.0 3.9 54.4 0 50.0 11.0 66.0 9.2 63.3 6.2 58.0 13.3 69.7 7.3 60.0 6.0 58.0 2.0 51.0 2.2 63.8 1.2 57.5 -0 50.0 0.4 52.5 0.8 55.0 2.3 64.4 1.1 56.9 3.1 69.4 2.4 65.0 0.8 - 55.0 2.3 64.4 0 50.0 0 50.0 5.5 84.4 1.1 56.9 1.4 58.8 0 50.0 1.5 59.4 0 50.0 1.7 60.6 6.1 88.1 0.3 51.9 0 50.0 4.5 78.1 2.6 66.3 3.0 68.8 0 50.0 0.2 51.3 0 50.0 2.7 66.9 1.0 56.3 1.5 59.4 2.2 63.8 2.6 66.3 0.2 51.3 2.2 63.8 287 TABLE XXXV ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n c o r p o r a t e d Number o f I n t e n s i t y Pencentage I n t e n s i t y A r e a s a c r e s o f v a l u e o f t o t a l v a l u e park/1000 c i t y a r e a p e r s o n s under park C l a s s One ( c o n t i n u e d ) T o f i n o 1.4 50.2 0.1 50.6 U c l u e l e t 11.0 66.8 1.5 58.8 Valemount 4.0 54.8 0.5 53.1 Z e b a l l o s 4.0 54.8 0.1 50.6 C l a s s Two Armstrong 13.3 69.2 1.6 60.0 Chetwynd B.9 62.8 1.7 60.6 Cumberland 9.5 , 63.6 4.0 75.0 F o r t S t . James 0 50.0 0 50.0 Lake Cowichan 2.1 51.8 0.7 54.4 L i l l o o e t 6.7 58.9 3.2 70.0 O l i v e r 18.3 77.7 6.2 88.8 Osoyoos 8.7 62.1 2.8 67.5 P a r k s v i l l e 32.0 100.0 4.6 78.8 P r i n c e t o n 4.4 55.3 1.7 60.6 Salmon Arm 5.5 57.2 1.4 58.8. S i d n e y 3.2 53.5 0.5 53.1 Vanderhoof 0.3 50.6 0.1 53.1 W a r f i e l d 1.0 51.1 0.7 54.4 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 5.2 56.4 1.6 60.0 C a s t l e g a r 2.1 51.6 1.0 56.3 Comox 5.1 56.5 1.2 57.7 Courtnay 9.1 62.8 4.5 78.1 C r e s t o n 2.4 52.3 0.8 55.0 Duncan 16.2 75.6 5.2 82.5 F e r n i e 0.8 51.0 0.4 52.3 Golden 0 50.0 0 50.0 Hope 13.5 70.0 3.6 72.5 L a d y s m i t h 24.9 88.2 3.9 74.4 L a n g l e y 13.7 70.5 1.4 58.8 N e r r i t t 4.8 56.7 1.2 57.8 M i s s i o n C i t y 10.3 66.4 4.2 76.3 R e v e l s t o k e 18.9 78.8 7.7 100.0 R o s s l a n d 2.3 51.7 0.5 53.1 S m i t h e r s 8.8 62.5 3.0 68.8 TABLE XXXV ( c o n t i n u e d ) 288 I n c o r p o r a t e d A r e a s Number o f a c r e s o f park/1000 p e r s o n s I n t e n s i t y v a l u e P e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l c i t y a r e a under park I n t e n s i t y v a l u e C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) W i l l i a m s Lake C l a s s Four 23.3 85.5 5.9 86.9 C h i l l i w a c k 4.6 56.1 3.8 73.8 Cranbrook 2.7 53.0 1.7 60.6 F o r t S t . John 5.6 57.2 1.6 60.0 K i m b e r l e y 6.7 59.4 3.7 73.1 N e l s o n 3.3 53.3 1.6 60.0 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 4.6 56.2 1.7 60.6 P o r t Moody • 2.7 53.1 2.6 66.3 Quesnel 4.5 55.6 1.2 57.5 White Rock 5.8 58.0 1.2 57.5 C l a s s F i v e Dawson Creek 16.5 65.6 5.2 82.5 Kamloops 7.5 61.2 4.8 80.0 Kslowna 19.0 78.8 5.0 81.3 N o r t h Kamloops 32.0 100.0 2.7 66.9 P e n t i c t o n 28.5 94.6 4.6 78.8 P o r t A l b e r n i 8.5 61.3 3.8 73.8 P r i n c e Rupert 5.1 56.4 1.6 60.0 T r a i l 2.0 51.6 1.3 58.1 Vernon 5.8 58.0 3.1 69.4 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo 11.4 New We s t m i n s t e r 4.5 N o r t h Vancouver 4.2 P r i n c e George 18.4 V i c t o r i a 5.1 66.2 7.6 98.4 54.9 3.0 68.8 54.7 3.7 73.1 77.3 6.7 91.9 56.4 6.4 90.0 289 TABLE XL EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1965 I n c o r p o r a t e d S t u d - I n t e n - S t u d - I n t e n - No. o f I n t e n -A r e a s e n t s / s i t y e n t s / s i t y grades s i t y t e a c h e r V a l u e c l a s s - V a l u e t a u g h t V a l u e room C l a s s One A b b o t s f o r d 26 66.8 A l e r t Bay — A s h c r o f t mm mm Burns Lake 24 75.2 Chapman Camp — C l i n t o n — Enderby 26 66.8 F r u i t v a l e — mm mm mm G i b s o n s L a n d i n g - - • Greenwood - -H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. mm mm H a z e l t o n — Houston — Invermere •m mm K a s l o — Keremeos 25 71.0 L urn by — L y t t o n — M c B r i d e 21 87.8 M a r y s v i l l e — Masset Montrose — New D s n v e r - - -100 M i l e House — • - - -Qualicum Beach 26 66.8 Salmo — — -S e c h e l t 24 75.2 S i l v e r t o n . . . S l o c a n 21 87.8 Sparwood — ---S t e w a r t mm mm Telkwa — - - -T o f i n o 22 83.6 U c l u e l e t 23 79.4 Z e b a l l o s •a mm — 31 72.8 13 83.6 __ 11 75.2 — . . . 12 79.4 26 91.8 12 79.4 _ _ 5 50.0 _ _ _ 12 79.4 31 72.8 14 87.8 _ _ ___ 9 66.8 --_ 8 62.6 _ _ 12 79.4 mm mm 8 62.8 12 79.4 12 79.4 7 58.4 30 76.6 12 79; 4 27 88.0 7 58.4 _ _ 7 58.4 _ _ 7 58.4 28 84.2 12 79.4 mm mm 7 58.4 mm mm _ _ _ 12 79.4 mm mm 6 54.2 mmmm 6 54.2 _ _ —_— 12 79.4 28 84.2 12 79.4 ___ 7 58.4 27 88.0 12 79.4 6 54.2 24 100.0 12 79.4 _ _ _ 12 79.4 _ _ _ 12 79.4 _ _ 8 62.6 27 88.0 9 66.8 27 88.0 12 79.4 am mm . . . 8 62.6 TABLE XL ( c o n t i n u e d ) 290 I n c o r p o r a t e d S t u d - I n t e n - S t u d - I n t e n - No. o f I n t e n -A r e a s e n t s / s i t y a n t s / s i t y grades s i t y t e a c h e r V a l u e c l a s s - V a l u e t a u g h t V a l u e room C l a s s Two Armstrong 27 62.6 Cumberland — F o r t S t . James - -Lake Cowichan — L i l l o o e t 21 87.8 O l i v e r — - - -Osoyoos - - m» *jm Mi P r i n c e t o n 27 62.6 Salmon Arm 25 71.0 S i d n e y Vanderhoof 18 100.0 C l a s s Three A l b e r n i 26 66.8 C a s t l e g a r 25 71.0 Comox — - — -Courtnay 28 58.4 C r e s t o n 25 71.0 Duncan - - — -F e r n i e 23 79.4 Golden 25 71.0 Grand F o r k s 30 50.0 Hope — Mt< M> K i n n a i r d — • L a d y s m i t h 23 79.4 L a n g l e y 25 71.0 M e r r i t t 27 62.6 M i s s i o n C i t y 26 66.8 R e v e l s t o k e 25 71.0 R o s s l a n d — ' . . . S m i t h e r s 26 66.8 W i l l i a m s Lake 23 79.4 C l a s s Four C h i l l i i u a c k 26 66.8 Cranbrook 27 62.8 F o r t S t . John — — K i m b e r l e y 25 71.0 31 72.8 14 87.8 ——' --- 10 71.0 12 79.4 29 80.4 7 58.4 24 100.0 13 83.6 . . — _ 12 79.4 10 71.0 29 80.4 13 83.6 31 72.8 14 87.8 . . __~ 7 58.4 29 80.4 12 79.4 31 72.8 14 87.8 29 80.4 13 83.6 . . 12 79.4 33 72.8 14 87.8 30 76.6 14 87.8 _ _ 12 79.4 27 88.0 12 79.4 30 76.6 12 79.4 29 80.4 12 79.4 ___ 12 79.4 _ _ ___ 7 58.4 29 80.4 13 83.6 30 76.6 13 83.6 29 80.4 12 79.4 30 76.6 12 79.4 31 72.8 12 79.4 _ _ 12 79.4 29 80.4 12 79.4 27 88.0 12 79.4 31 72.8 13 83.6 37 50.0 14 87.8 _ _ . . . 12 79.4 30 76.6 14 87.8 TABLE XL ( c o n t i n u e d ) 291 I n c o r p o r a t e d S t u d - I n t e n - S t u d - I n t e n - No. o f I n t e n -A r e a s e n t s / s i t y e n t s / s i t y grades s i t y t e a c h e r V a l u e c l a s s - V a l u e t a u g h t V a l u e room C l a s s Four ( c o n t i n u e d ) N e l s o n P o r t C o q u i t l a m P o r t Woody Quesnel White Rock C l a s s F i v e Dautson Creek Kamloops Keloiuna N o r t h Kamloops P e n t i c t o n P o r t A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert T r a i l Vernon 25 71.0 31 72.8 16 . 96.2 29 54.2 34 61.4 12 79.4 —— -— 12 79.4 24 75.2 31 72.8 13 83.6 —— ——— —— 10 71.0 14 87.8 25 71.0 31 72.8 14 87.8 27 62.6 31 72.8 15 92.0 26 66.8 30 76.5 13 83.6 26 66.8 30 76.5 13 83.6 __ mm mm MM _ _ _ 12 79.4 27 62.6 34 61.4 13 83.6 24 75.2 30 76.6 13 83.6 26 66.8 33 65.2 13 83.6 C l a s s S i x Nanaimo New Westminster N o r t h Vancouver P r i n c e George V i c t o r i a 26 66.8 31 72.8 14 87.8 27 62.6 33 65.2 14 87.8 27 62.6 32 69.0 13 83.6 27 62.6 33 65.2 13 83.6 29 54.2 35 66.2 17 100.0 292 APPENDIX D 293 a. F I G U R E 1 CATANEO: THE IDEAL R E NAISSANCE CITY S o u r c e t Helen Rosenau. The I d e a l C i t y , London! R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1959, p. 49. 294 F I G U R E 2 VITRUVIUS: THE IDEAL BAROQUE CITY S o u r c e : H e l e n Rosenau. The I d e a l C i t y . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1959, p.59. 295 F I G U R V I C T O R I A : J . S . B U T O P I A N A. IOOO HOUSES 20 FEET WIDE B. ARCADE FOR WORKSHOPS C 560 HOUSES 28 FEET WIDE D. RETAIL • SHOPS E. 296 HOUSES 38 FEET WIDE F. WINTER PROMENADE ARCADE 3 C K I N G H A M ' S C I T Y P L A N (V. 120 HOUSES 54 FEET WIDE H. SCHOOLS, BATHS, DINING HALLS J. PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CHURCHES K. 24 MANSIONS 89 FEET WIDE L CENTRAL SQUARE. S o u r c e ! J.S. Buckingham. N a t i o n a l E v i l s and P r a c t i c a l Remedies. London! 1949. 296 F I G U R E 4 W E L W Y N : A G A R D E N C I T Y Source« C.B. Purdom. The B u i l d i n g o f S a t e l l i t e Towns. London: J . N . Dent and Sons L t d . , 1925, p. 206. F I G U R E 5 297 INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA „ ipo Scale M. • 2000 er less • 2000 5000 0 5000 15000 O 15000 or more S I ZE OF CITY 200 M A P I 298 APPENDIX E Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Form 299 Caw.ftmvity and Regional P l a n n i n g Depart^ o f Graduate Studies,.. Univarsity o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a * 'iJm'm&uwBi' S„ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p • March 10* 196? „ Dear S i r , , • I am presently u n d e r t a k i n g my M a s t e r o f A r t s Degree i n Community and.'Regional P l a n n i n g c The purpose of my thesis i s t o det e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p battue s-fi; the s i z e arid l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n ttf a m u n i c i p a l i t y a One s o u r c e of information that i s nssded P and which i s not a v a i l a b l e •from our l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , , r e g a r d s s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal a c t i v i t i e s , . Two questions t h a t have been r a i s e d 'in the T h e s i s are:;. "Hoat often i s garbage c o l l e c t e d * and hosa e f t e n a r e t h e major s t r e e t s of the municipality cleaned?" I taould sins©rely appre-slsfce i t i f y c u mould anstaer these two q u e s t i o n s by c o m p l e t i n g the' e«elaserJ f o r m 0 F o r yo u r convenience,, a s e l f ^ addressed sheet has been encic3'sad„ D«ee t h e questions have been answered» a l l t h a t i s r e q -u i r e d is' t o f o l d the sheet t h r e e -times and t h a n s t a p l e i i * Thank you for your .co-operation. •. ' v 'Yours. Sincerely ft 300 Sample r e p l y QUESTIONNAIRE Wow o f t e n I s p r i v a t e garbage c o l l e c t e d from the i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n c e s ? 0 o 9 ? ? e 0 »e c,a usee??,, Other earn merits i f a p p l i c a b l e : W h i l e P r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s a r e c o l l e c t e d o n l y once a week, s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i s made i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t e x t r a i t e m s when c o l l e c t i o n i s made t o t h e b u s i n e s s e s t h r e e t i m e s a week. How o f t e n e r e t h e s t r e e t s c l e a n e d and/or washed i n your m u n i c i p a l i t y ? ©„ o o «> o © o c ? u c a week 0 I f p o s s i b l e B what i s the a p p r o x i m a t e l e n g t h o f /"' v'Vy\ s t r e e t s t h a t a r e c l e a n s d and/or. washed i n your m u n i c i p a l i t y o t o o l s t o » o Other'comments i f a p p l i c a b l e : . S t r e e t s a r e washed down by t h e V o l u n t e e r F i r e Department i n t h e s p r i n g j u s t as soon as most o f t h e w i n t e r s l u s h . has d i s a p p e a r e d . They a r e a g a i n wahsed i n t h e f a l l t o be r i d o f t h e muck b e f o r e t h e snow f a l l s . V i l l a g e o f T e l k w a , T e l k w a , B. C. THANK YOU 

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