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Optimum city size and municipal services efficiency: British Columbia as a case study Griggs, William Beverly 1967

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OPTIMUM CITY S I Z E AND MUNICIPAL SERVICES E F F I C I E N C Y : B R I T I S H COLUMBIA AS A CASE STUDY by WILLIAM BEVERLEY GRIGGS B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in t h e D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A P R I L , 1967  to the  In  presenting  for  thesis  an .'Advanced d e g r e e  tiiat  the L i b r a r y  study thesis  shall  I f u r t h e r agree for  Department or  this  at  in p a r t i a l the  make  University  it  that  permission  p u r p o s e s may  or  representatives..  p u b l i c a t i o n of  ' w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  this  thesis  of  for  for  be g r a n t e d It  is  by  Columbia  I  agree  and  copying  of  this  t h e Head o f my  understood  f i n a n c i a l gain  D e p a r t m e n t o f Regional and Community  requirements  reference  for extensive  shall  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  freely available  scholarly by h i s  f u l f i l m e n t of  Planning  that not  be  copying allowed  ABSTRACT The of a new  last  few  dimension  decades have witnessed  i n the f i e l d of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s -  namely the a p p l i e d a s p e c t .  T h i s emphasis i s r e f l e c t e d i n  the a p p l i c a t i o n of complex and techniques  and procedures  researchers.  One  the appearance  sophisticated quantification  t h a t have been adopted by many  d i r e c t i o n i n which a t t e n t i o n i s being  f o c u s s e d i s towards the determination of the optimum of c i t i e s .  S o c i o l o g i s t s , geographers,  phers, p l a n n e r s , and coming i n c r e a s i n g l y about the s i z e and they  raise i s :  persons  economists,  size  demogra-  from other d i s c i p l i n e s , are  concerned,  from d i f f e r e n t  s t r u c t u r e of c i t i e s .  The  be-  viewpoints, q u e s t i o n that  "What i s the most d e s i r a b l e or optimum  size  for a c i t y ? " T h i s t h e s i s attempts to determine the value f o r the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia  u s i n g e f f i c i e n c y of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as the v a r i a b l e with which to determine t h i s s i z e .  Such a p u r s u i t i s a r e l a t i v e -  l y new  s t u d i e s have adopted  this  t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the t h e s i s has  been  phenomenon and very few  type of an approach. To accomplish  d i v i d e d i n t o four major s e c t i o n s . by Chapter  The  first,  I I , d i s c u s s e s the e v o l v i n g concepts  i d e a l shape and  form of c i t i e s . (iii)  represented regarding  the  T h i s chapter o u t l i n e s the  v a r i o u s methods that have been adopted through determine the i d e a l or optimum s i z e and The  the y e a r s , to  shape of  cities.  second s e c t i o n , represented by Chapter  l i n e s the v a r i o u s expenditure  and  I I I , out-  revenue a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are  p r a c t i s e d by i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the Province of Columbia.  An understanding  British  of the i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  these a c t i v i t i e s , and the e f f e c t s they have upon budget cedures  provides an i n s i g h t i n t o some of the f i s c a l  that confront  pro-  problems  municipalities.  Chapter  IV, which comprises  the t h i r d major s e c t i o n ,  j u s t i f i e s the s e l e c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s t h a t are i n vestigated;  the s e l e c t i o n of the sample s i z e r e g a r d i n g  number of c i t i e s , and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these i n t o parate groups; and  the time p e r i o d f o r the  The m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s chosen a r e :  The  year 1965  was  a v a i l a b l e from the 1965 all  se-  investigation.  f i r e protection, public  works, s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal, r e c r e a t i o n , and tion.  the  educa-  s e l e c t e d as accurate r e s u l t s were Census.  The  sample s i z e i n c l u d e d  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n t h i s province which amounted to  ninety-eight The  centres.  f i n a l s e c t i o n , represented by Chapter  V attempts  to compare cost with l e v e l of performance f o r i n d i v i d u a l services. steps.  T h i s i n v o l v e d c a r r y i n g out s e v e r a l i n t e r m e d i a t e  These were. 1.  measuring the l e v e l of s e r v i c e f o r  each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e ; 2.  equating per c a p i t a  expenditures  f o r a given s e r v i c e with the l e v e l of performance i t p r o v i d e s (Iv/)  to each i n h a b i t a n t ; service the  and 3.  the ranking of each m u n i c i p a l  i n terms of the r e l a t i v e importance between i t and  remaining ones. The  final  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s  investigation  were as f o l l o w s ; 1.  Smaller i n c o r p o r a t e d British  areas i n the Province of  Columbia expend lower sums o f money, i n  terms o f per c a p i t a v a l u e s , on the maintenance  2.  and  operation of municipal services  ger  municipalities.  Smaller i n c o r p o r a t e d of g r a n t s , s u b s i d i e s ,  areas r e c e i v e  than do l a r -  lower amounts  and c o n t r i b u t i o n s ,  i n terms  of per c a p i t a v a l u e s , from higher l e v e l s o f go-  3.  vernments than l a r g e r  municipalities.  Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  generate g r e a t e r sums o f  money, i n the forms o f revenue r a i s e d from  local  taxation  than  do A.  p r a c t i c e s , on a per c a p i t a  basis,  s m a l l e r ones.  Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f i r e protection  provide higher l e v e l s of  services,  p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s ,  s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal o p e r a t i o n s , t i o n s e r v i c e s , and education s e r v i c e s  5.  recrea-  than do smal-  l e r incorporated  areas.  By equating cost  with l e v e l of s e r v i c e , and rank-  ing each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e  a c c o r d i n g to i t s r e l a -  t i v e importance, the l a r g e s t s i z e group o f c i t i e s  a  a t t a i n s the h i g h e s t  score.  The c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t , when using e f f i c i e n c y of m u n i c i p a l to  s e r v i c e s as one measure with  determine the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s , the l a r g e s t  group o f c i t i e s r e p r e s e n t s the optimum s i z e . of  which size  The r e s u l t s  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have i n d i c a t e d t h a t c i t i e s with po-  p u l a t i o n s of f i f t e e n thousand or more persons represent the optimum  size.  (vi)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I should  l i k e to thank those  persons who have  given  of themselves much time and i n f o r m a t i o n that has been most h e l p f u l thesis.  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s  My thanks extend t o P r o f e s s o r s H.P. Oberlander  and  R.W. C o l l i e r  Mrs  H. Symonds f o r her c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m ; the co-oper-  a t i o n provided  f o r t h e i r encouragement and guidance;  by the o f f i c i a l s o f each i n c o r p o r a t e d  area  that responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e that was sent to them; and  f i n a l l y my w i f e , Melanie,  who g r e a t l y helped  t y p i n g and g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t h e s i s .  (vii)  i n the  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE  THE PROBLEM - ITS APPROACH AND IMPORTANCE . . . The  1  Problem  1  Statement o f t h e Problem  •  . . . ,  Purpose o f Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  Approach  . .  4  . . . . . . . . . .  6  t o t h e Problem  Importance o f t h e Problem Hypotheses  10  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used  11  Municipality  11  Municipal  Expenditure  ..  n  Municipal  Revenue  . .  12  Municipal  Services  12  Population  II.  13  Limitations  13  Sources o f Data  16  THE OPTIMUM  S I Z E AND SHAPE OF C I T I E S  The  I d e a l Form o f C i t i e s  The  Ideal Size of C i t i e s  Summary III.  1  18 19 *  28 34  MUNICIPAL REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES . . . . . .  36 37  Revenues  (viii)  CHAPTER  PAGE  Expenditures Municipal Summary  IV.  THE  .  Budget .  .  .  .  .  RELATIONSHIP  AND  MUNICIPAL  Tabulation Sample Class  . .  .  .  .  .  BETWEEN  .  and  .  .  .  .  .  CITY  EXPENDITURE  .  SIZE .  .  .  Classification  .  4  45  AND .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  47  .  .  .  .  47  .  47  Interval  Municipal  of  48  Time  Period  Expenditures  Selection  of  General  3  . .  Size  Selection  40  .  .  Municipal  52 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Expenditures  .  55  . . .  55  Government  55  Public  Health  56  Social  Welfare  56  Police  Protection  ion Trends Fire  in  of  and  Justice  Municipal  57 Expenditures  .  59  Protection  Public  Works  Sanitation  .  and  59 .  .  .  .  Waste  Education Recreation Total  Administrat-  Expenditure  .  . . . .  Removal  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  66  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  70  .  .  .  74  . •  (ix)  62  .  .  .  •  78  CHAPTER  PAGE Ranking of Incorporated  areas  82  Factor Application  82  Summary V.  . . . . . . .  THE RATING OF SERVICES  90  Ranking Procedure . . . . . . . . . E f f i c i e n c y of S e r v i c e  92  . . . . . . . . . . .  92  . . . . . . . . . .  93  Selection of Variables Ranking o f V a r i a b l e s Equating  98  Expenditure with  of S e r v i c e  87  Extent  . . . . . . .  A p p l i c a t i o n of Factor  99  to M u n i c i p a l  Services  100  Evaluation of Municipal  Services  104  F i r e Protection  105  S e l e c t i o n of C r i t e r i a  110  Ranking o f Each C r i t e r i a  114  P u b l i c Works  122  Road C o n s t r u c t i o n  Activities  124  S e l e c t i o n of Variables  128  Ranking o f V a r i a b l e s  130  S t r e e t Cleaning  Activities  . . . . . . .  S e l e c t i o n of Variables Sewer S e r v i c e s  .13?  . . . . . . . . . . . .  S e l e c t i o n of Variables  (x)  133  . . . . . .  .141 . . 146  PAGE  CHAPTER The Ranking of P u b l i c Works Activities  . .... . .  . . 150  Equating Cost uJith Extent of Service  . . .  ...152  S a n i t a t i o n and Waste Removal  155  S e l e c t i o n of V a r i a b l e s . Ranking o f V a r i a b l e s  .161  . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 3  Equating Cost with Extent o f Service  165  Recreation  166  S e l e c t i o n of V a r i a b l e s . . . . . . . .  . .170  Equating Cost with Extent o f Service  181  Education  .184  S e l e c t i o n of Variables . . . . . . Ranking of V a r i a b l e s . .  . . . . 189 195  Equating Cost with Extent o f Service  201  A p p l i c a t i o n of F a c t o r s to M u n i c i p a l Services  • • 204  Summary VI.  CONCLUSION  209 . .  (xi)  212  CHAPTER  PAGE  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  218  APPENDIX  .  225  (xii)  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  . .. _ •  PAGE.  R e l a t i o n s h i p between C l a s s I n t e r v a l , C l a s s Frequency, and p o p u l a t i o n  II.  .  Average Per C a p i t a Expenditures  f o r a l l Inc-  o r p o r a t e d C i t i e s , Towns, and V i l l a g e s o r d i n g to C l a s s e s III.  Expenditures  49  acc-  . . . . . . . .  59  Per C a p i t a f o r a l l Incorporated  V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 IV.  Expenditures  . . . . . . . .  .  227  Per C a p i t a f o r a l l Incorporated  V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of V.  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956  Expenditures  . . . . . . . . .  234  Per C a p i t a f o r a l l Incorporated  V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of VI.  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961  Expenditures  . . . . . . . . .  240  Per C a p i t a f o r a l l Incorporated  V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of VII.  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  Average Per C a p i t a P u b l i c Works  247 Expenditures  f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s e s VIII.  63  Average Per C a p i t a S a n i t a t i o n and Waste Remo v a l Expenditures  f o r a l l Incorporated  V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o Classes  69 (xiii)  TABLE IX.  PAGE Average Per C a p i t a Education  Expenditures  f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s ,  Towns,  and C i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s e s X.  Average Per C a p i t a R e c r e a t i o n  Expenditures  f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s ,  Towns,  and C i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s e s XI.  71  Average Per C a p i t a Expenditures  . . . . . .  75  on T o t a l  M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s f o r a l l Incorporated Villages, to XII.  Classes  Towns, and C i t i e s , . . . . . . . . .  Towns, and C i t i e s ,  a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s e s , 1965  63  for a l l  Towns, and C i t i e s  i n the Province o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1965 . . 255  T o t a l Per C a p i t a Revenue f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , ing  XV.  . . . . . . . . .  F a c t o r s f o r Per C a p i t a Expenditures Incorporated V i l l a g e s ,  XIV.  78  Ratings on M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s ,  XIII.  according  Towns, and C i t i e s ,  accord-  to C l a s s e s  Per C a p i t a Expenditure  84 and Revenue Charact-  e r i s t i c s f o r a l l Incorporated  Villages,  Towns, and C i t i e s , i n the Province o f British  Columbia, 1965  259 (xiv)  TABLE XVI.  PAGE Per C a p i t a Revenue from L o c a l Sources of all  Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and  Cit-  i e s , a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s , 1965 XVII.  Per C a p i t a Expenditure  . .  86  - Revenue Values  f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s , 1965 XVIII.  . . . . . .  Fire Protection Characteristics for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and  Cities,  i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 XIX.  87  I n t e n s i t y Values all  .  for F i r e Protection for  Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and  C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h  Col-  umbia, 1965 XX.  263  267  A p p l i c a t i o n of F a c t o r s to I n t e n s i t y Values f o r a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d V i l l a g e s , Towns, and  C i t i e s i n the Province of  Columbia, 1965 XXI.  British  . . . . . . .  •  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Expenditures  and  Level  of F i r e P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e XXII.  120  Road C o n s t r u c t i o n and Maintenance i s t i c s f o r a l l Incorporated  270  Character-  Villages,  Towns, and C i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  •. • • . 273 (xv)  TABLE XXIII.  PAGE Road C o n s t r u c t i o n and Maintenance  Charact-  e r i s t i c s a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s S i z e XXIV.  131  Street Cleaning C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and i n the Province of B r i t i s h  XXV.  . . . . .  Cities  Columbia,1965  Street Cleaning C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  .  according  to C l a s s S i z e XXVI.  139  Sewer C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns, and C i t i e s i n c e of B r i t i s h  XXVII.  Columbia, 1965  278  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The L e v e l of P u b l i c Works A c t i v i t i e s all of  XXIX.  i n the Prov-  Sewer C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s Size  XXVIII.  Incorporated Areas i n the British  Columbia, 1965  Province  . . . . . . . . .  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Per C a p i t a  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Per C a p i t a  148  for  152  Expendit-  ures and L e v e l of P u b l i c Works S e r v i c e XXX.  276  . .  153  Expendit-  ures and the L e v e l of P u b l i c Works Serv i c e s a c c o r d i n g to F a c t o r s f o r a l l Inco r p o r a t e d Areas i n the Province of  Brit^54  i s h Columbia XXXI.  S a n i t a t i o n and Waste Removal  Activities  f o r a l l Incorporated Areas i n the of  British  Columbia, 1965  . . .  (xvi)  Province 281  TABLE XXXII.  PAGE R e l a t i o n s h i p between Per C a p i t a Expendand  XXXIII.  163  Waste Removal A c t i v i t i e s  R e l a t i o n s h i p between F a c t o r s f o r Per C a p i t a E x p e n d i t u r e s and the L e v e l of Waste Removal Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  XXXIV.  S e l e c t e d R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l Incorporated  Villages,  the Province XXXV.  Recreation  Province  Towns, and C i t i e s  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  Park C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o r d i n g  .  283  i n the . . . .  286  to C l a s s  to C l a s s 180  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Per C a p i t a Expenditure Service . . . . . .  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Per C a p i t a  f o r a l l Incorporated of B r i t i s h Education  Services  Areas i n the Province  Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . .  183  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a l l Incorpor-  ated V i l l a g e s , Province  1a1  Expendit-  ures and the L e v e l of R e c r e a t i o n  XL.  .  178  and L e v e l of R e c r e a t i o n XXXIX,  .  .  Recreation F a c i l i t i e s according Size  XXXVIII.  Columbia,1967  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a l l Incorp-  Size XXXVII.  Towns, and C i t i e s i n  of B r i t i s h  orated V i l l a g e s ,  XXXVI.  165  Towns, and C i t i e s  i n the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 (xvii)  . . .  .  289  TABLE XLI.  PAGE E d u c a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o r d i n g to Class Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  XLII.  R e l a t i o n s h i p between  to C l a s s S i z e  200  . . . .  201  R e l a t i o n s h i p between F a c t o r s f o r Per C a p i t a Expenditures and the L e v e l of  Education  S e r v i c e s f o r a l l Incorporated  areas i n  the Province XLV.  . . . .  Per C a p i t a Expenditure  and Lev/el o f E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e . . XLIV.  194  A p p l i c a t i o n of F a c t o r s t o E d u c a t i o n a l Chara c t e r i s t i c s according  XLIII.  .  of B r i t i s h Columbia  202  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between C l a s s S i z e and the A p p l i c a t i o n of Weights to each M u n i c i p a l Service  208  (xviii)  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS GRAPH 1.  PAGE Per C a p i t a Expenditures on F i r e P r o t e c t i o n f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x . .  2.  60  Per C a p i t a Expenditure on P u b l i c Works f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3.  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on S a n i t a t i o n f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  4.  67  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on Education f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  5.  72  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on R e c r e a t i o n f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  6.  64  76  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on T o t a l  Municipal  S e r v i c e s f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  . . . . . . . .  80  DIAGRAM 1.  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on F i r e P r o t e c t i o n f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  2.  61  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on P u b l i c Works f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  3.  65  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on S a n i t a t i o n f o r C l a s s e s One t o S i x  4.  68  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on Education f o r C l a s s e s One t o S i x . . . . .... .  5.  7  3  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on R e c r e a t i o n f o r C l a s s e s One to S i x  77 (ixx)  DIAGRAM 6.  PAGE  Per C a p i t a Expenditures on T o t a l M u n i c i p a l for  7.  Services  C l a s s e s One to S i x  81  R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r e P r o t e c t i o n and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  Activities  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n 1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.  R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r e P r o t e c t i o n and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  Activities  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n 1965 9.  119  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Road C o n s t r u c t i o n and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  Activities  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n 1965 . 10.  132  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Road Cleaning and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  Activities  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n 1965 . 11.  140  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Sewer  Activities  and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n 1965 12.  .  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Garbage C o l l e c t i o n and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  of B r i t i s h 164  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Recreation  Services  and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n 1965 . . . . . . . . . 14.  149  Activities  Columbia i n 1965 . 13.  t18  •  1  Columbia i n 1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  I  R e l a t i o n s h i p between E d u c a t i o n  Services  and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province  (xx)  ? 9  of B r i t i s h 9  5  DIAGRAM 15.  PAGE R e l a t i o n s h i p between Education S e r v i c e s and C l a s s S i z e i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 . . .  197  FIGURE 1.  Cataneo: The Ideal Renaissance C i t y  2.  V i t r u v i u s : The Ideal Baroque C i t y  3.  V i c t o r i a : J.S. Buckingham's  4.  Welwyn: A Garden C i t y  5.  Incorporated Areas i n the Province of British  Columbia  . . . . . . .  Utopian C i t y  .  294  Plan . .  295  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .  (xxi)  293  296  297  CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM - ITS APPROACH AND I. Statement that not  confronts lend  itself  quantification  THE PROBLEM  o f t h e problem.  the social  IMPORTANCE  One o f t h e m a j o r  scientist  i s that  t o the p r o v i s i o n o f a high  problems  hisfield  does  degree o f data  which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e t r u e  sciences.  This  phenomenon c a n be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o t h e many com-  plex  and i n t a n g i b l e f a c t o r s with  works. with  However, w i t h  scientist cal  and w i t h  i s now a b l e  scientist  i n specialization,  s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s and  the computerization  of data,  t o a p p l y a more s c i e n t i f i c  approach t o t h e s o l v i n g o f problems.  from a l a r g e the  the rapid increase  the a p p l i c a t i o n of highly  methodology,  which t h e s o c i a l  number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t  This  the social  and e m p i r i -  i s evident  h a v e been w r i t t e n on  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d by t h e s o c i a l  tist.  Nowadays s u c h t e r m s a s r e q r e s s i o n a l  analysis,  sciencoeffi-  c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n s , g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s , l i n e a r programming, and m u l t i p l i e r a n a l y s i s a r e terms which a r e c o n s t a n tly  b e i n g u s e d by t h e s o c i o l o g i s t , g e o g r a p h e r ,  p l a n n e r , h i s t o r i a n , and p o l i t i c a l  psychologist,  scientist.  Today, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s has r e s u l t e d i n t h e e v o l u t i o n  o f a more p r a c t i c a l a p p r o a c h  t o problem s o l v i n g - namely, the a p p l i e d a s p e c t . t i o n o f adopting  The func-  t h i s approach i s "to convert d e s c r i p t i o n s ,  p e r c e p t i o n s , and a b s t r a c t i o n s o f the past and present practically  u s e f u l p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  o f the f u t u r e . " The the s o c i a l  into  1  adoption scientist  o f such an approach today has a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to organize  systemati-  c a l l y a body o f knowledge t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r human, economic and s o c i e t a l e n g i n e e r i n g .  Even though the a p p l i c a t i o n  o f a s c i e n t i f i c methodology to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s has caused c o n s i d e r a b l e controversy  amongst many s c h o l a r s , i t has  n e v e r t h e l e s s , opened up an e n t i r e l y  new f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h .  Indeed, economic geographers are now a n a l y z i n g the economic base o f c i t y s t r u c t u r e s and the s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s i n terms o f b a s i c and non-basic tions.**  func-  Urban geographers are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d  i n determining sent t h e i r  the spacing and rank s i z e o f c i t i e s and r e p r e -  f i n d i n g s with many complex formulae.  geographers are d i r e c t i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n towards  Regional developing  H.N. Shenton, The P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f Sociology York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1927}, p. 115. ' 1  (New  J.W. Alexander, "The Basic-Nonbasic Concept o f Urban Economic F u n c t i o n s , " Economic Geography. X X X , 1954, p. 246. 2  C.T. Geographical 3  Stewart, "The S i z e and Spacing o f C i t i e s , " Review. X L V I I I , A p r i l 1958, pp. 222-45.  •  -  3  a more e m p i r i c a l approach r e g a r d i n g the theory and o f space economy.  location  Today, a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s are a p p l y i n g a  more pragmatic approach, i n terms of a c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , when determining how  the e v o l u t i o n o f c u l t u r e s  has a f f e c t e d the molding o f present-day s o c i e t y .  4  The so-  c i o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s are p l a c i n g more emphasis  upon  adopting a p r a c t i c a l approach to problem s o l v i n g than they did  previously. One  rently  d i r e c t i o n i n which the s o c i a l  scientist  i s cur-  f o c u s s i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n i s towards the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s . many d i f f i c u l t i e s  This determination creates  not the l e a s t being that s i z e  'optimum* by one s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t may the concept reached by another. difficulty,  considered  differ radically  from  In order to overcome t h i s  i t i s necessary to d e f i n e c e r t a i n terms that  con-  d i t i o n the method used to assess the problem as w e l l as to o u t l i n e s p e c i f i c assumptions and l i m i t a t i o n t h a t are i n v o l ved i n such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are con-  t a i n e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . Purpose of T h e s i s . f i r s t , to c l a r i f y  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s  the concepts u n d e r l y i n g the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s ; and, second, these having been S . F . IMadel, Anthropology and Modern L i f e . (Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1953), Chapter I I I . 4  clearly  e s t a b l i s h e d , to determine the  f o r the  Province  of the  of  t h e s i s may  ermine f o r the  British  Columbia.  therefore  Province  of  be  The  s t a t e d as  British  community w h i c h , i n t e r m s o f capita municipal  optimum s i z e o f  Columbia that  and  has  much do m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e x p e n d on  this  what l e v e l  purpose i s to answer  of s e r v i c e  the  munici-  they r e c e i v e  for  payment?" Approach to the  practical  and  s i z e o f an major  Problem.  In o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t  e f f e c t i v e method o f  urban s e t t l e m e n t ,  determining the  i t i s necessary to  a  optimum  follow  four  steps. The  first,  which i s contained  sis,  involves  a review of the  city  f o r m and  f u n c t i o n of  cities.  i t s h o u l d be  involves  ria  selected  sis  i s to  this  general  e s t a b l i s h i n g a point f o r the  possible  As  to  f o r the  object  optimum s i z e o f a c i t y  ideal  const-  current  framework, the  the  the-  present  optimum s i z e  of reference  investigation.  determine the  p a s t and  p r o j e c t i n g the  p r a c t i c e s used to determine the  Having constructed  I I of the  concepts of the  Once t h e  r u c t a v a l i d method o f a n a l y s i s by n i q u e s and  i n Chapter  evolving  cities.  t r e n d s h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d ,  step  do  per  efficiency  basic question  and  a  lowest  In s h o r t ,  pal services  det-  s i z e of  the  greatest  - to  i n these s e r v i c e s . "How  the  the  objective  follows:  population,  service costs  general  cities  tech of  second crite-  of t h i s  the  i n terms of  per  capita  costs  and  e f f i c i e n c y of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , the  t e r i a - e m p l o y e d are  therefore  The  of  latter  selecting  section the  C h a p t e r IV  of the  the  cipal  third  services.  incorporated ever, the  incurred  Chapter  the  s i z e of  do  the  t h e r e f o r the  not  with  Columbia.  final  has  of the  t o be  the  Columbia.  capita  costs  optimum  efficiency  r e l a t e d t o per  optimum s i z e o f s y s t e m by  i n C h a p t e r V.  e f f i c i e n c y of the  of  capi-  optimum s i z e .  i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s may  established,  deter-  step necessary to formulate  of a ranking  a procedure i s c a r r i e d out  How-  expen-  which to  occur i n the  consideration  method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the construction  and  i n d i v i d u a l muni-  capita municipal  necessarily  i n order to a r r i v e at the and  analysis  urban centre  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , l o w e s t per  services  of the  s i z e of the  an  urban c e n t r e s i s not s u f f i c i e n t  individual municipal  fourth  outlines  to t h i s s e l e c t i o n .  Province of B r i t i s h  The  The  for  IV o u t l i n e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a l l  s i z e d urban centre.  the  reasons  optimum s i z e f o r c o m m u n i t i e s i n B r i t i s h  t h i s stage of the  costs  the  in addition  to provide a v a l i d yardstick  municipal services  ta  expenditures.  u n d e r t a k e n cons'cts o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p between per  itself  mine the At  be  areas i n the  d i t u r e s and in  step to  capita costs  and  might p e r t a i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  per  discusses  particular criteria  certain l i m i t a t i o n s that The  municipal service  cri-  cities  which the  involves efficiency  be m e a s u r e d .  Such  Once t h i s has  services  can  a  then  be  been  of  assigned  a numerical  ing the highest  value.  score t o t h a t s e r v i c e which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o  be t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t , has  the poorest  of e f f i c i e n c y  T h i s v a l u e i s a t t a i n e d by a p p l y -  level  and t h e l o w e s t of efficiency.  are assigned  After this  score to that  which  A l lintermediate  a corresponding  rank  levels  value.  f o u r t h s t e p h a s been c o m p l e t e d , i t i s  possible to c o r r e l a t e the costs per c a p i t a of municipal services with t h e i r represented  efficiency  by a n u m e r i c a l  value.  odology used t o a r r i v e a t these acceptable  standards  as both  these  e l e m e n t s c a n be  I f t h e p r o c e d u r e and meth-  values are considered  of research, then,  under t h e g i v e n  t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s which a r e found the lowest the highest  efficiency  o f these  services.  urban c e n t r e s i n t h e  costs of municipal  conjunction with the highest l e v e l  sent  t h e optimum s i z e . f o r II.  of efficiency  this  p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  b e t w e e n man  repre-  IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM  g o a l , the planner  relation  services  the Province."  One o f t h e m a j o r g o a l s o f p l a n n i n g more e f f i c i e n t  The c o n t e n t i o n o f  C o l u m b i a w h i c h a r e shown t o h a v e t h e  smallest per c a p i t a expenditure in  i s that i n  p e r c a p i t a c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s and  t h i s t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e i s that those Province of B r i t i s h  as  i s to create a  environment.  has t o understand  fully  To  achieve  not only t h e  and h i s p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t b u t ,  equally  as I m p o r t a n t ,  the r e l a t i o n  b e t w e e n man a n d s o c i e t y .  Urban r e n e w a l ,  transportation planning, the subdivision of  land, planning  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e l o c a t i o n , r e t r e n c h m e n t , and  c o n s e r v a t i o n are t h e major a c t i v i t i e s , i n can  exercise h i s goals.  Of t h e s e  which t h e planner  activities,  r e l o c a t i o n and  r e t r e n c h m e n t p r o g r a m s c a n be g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d by an u n d e r standing of the concepts  u n d e r l y i n g t h e optimum s i z e o f  cities. For  example, before  regarding has  can formulate  t o make c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s b a s e d upon h i s own  the  One o f t h e s e  a s s u m p t i o n s may c o n c e r n  s i z e w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s t h e community s h o u l d  s h o r t , he a s k s this  himself the question  community?"  "How  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n  a systematic  present persed  In  I plan  Regarding  hand, the  c o m m u n i t y may e i t h e r r e -  t h e p h y s i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a g i v e n number o f d i s settlements  i n t o a l a r g e r community, o r t h e r e l o c a t i o n  cases, the s i z e of the newly-created  pre-determined and  attain.  o r on t h e o t h e r  o f a known number o f i n h a b i t a n t s f r o m one a r e a both  determining  large should  planning a n a l y s i s .  former method, t h e s i z e o f a g i v e n  value  o f t h i s s i z e , may on t h e  h a n d , be a r r i v e d a t a r b i t r a r i l y ,  may r e f l e c t  In  any p l a n  t h e r e t r e n c h m e n t o r r e l o c a t i o n o f a c o m m u n i t y , he  judgement.  one  a planner  but r a t h e r r e s u l t s p u r e l y  to another.  community i s n o t  f r o m t h e movement  r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f a g i v e n number o f p e r s o n s f r o m one  place to  another.  8  Concerning  an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h , t h e s i z e o f a  community may be p l a n n e d  i n t h a t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new ;  communities o r i n the r e l o c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g the planner lation  size.  may e i t h e r tain  may c o n s i d e r i t e x p e d i e n t  to l i m i t  size that i s considered  s i z e o f a community. little  a population  considerations that the planner  may i n c l u d e when d e t e r m i n i n g  t h e most e f f i c i e n t  o r optimum  One l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w h i c h h a s a t t e n t i o n i n Canada,involves  t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and m u n i c i p a l  the r e l a -  service  cha-  F o r e x a m p l e , one q u e s t i o n t h a t m i g h t be  rai-  i s "What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n be  community  socially desirable.  T h e r e a r e many o t h e r  sed  popu-  t h e number o f i n h a b i t a n t s n e e d e d t o m a i n -  i t s e c o n o m i c base, o r i t may r e p r e s e n t  racteristics.  their  F o r example, t h e s i z e o f a proposed  reflect  r e c e i v e d very  settlements,  between p e r c a p i t a expen-  and t h e s i z e - o f a c i t y ? "  " I s t h e r e any r e l a t i o n s h i p  Another  between t h e e f f i c i e n c y  might  of a  p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e and t h e s i z e o f t h e m u n i c i p a lity?" Although this in  field  later  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h h a s been c o n d u c t e d i n  i n t h e United S t a t e s , (which  be  illustrated  s e c t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s ) , a s y e t no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -  tween c i t y  s i z e and m u n i c i p a l  been u n d e r t a k e n i n Canada. with  will  service characteristics  I f the planner  was  have  provided  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p he w o u l d be  b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most s u i t a b l e s i z e o f a proposed community.  If, f o r example,  gation of various c r i t e r i a  a thorough  investi-  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e most  desi-  r a b l e s i z e o f a p r o p o s e d community ranged between f i v e s e v e n t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s , and t h a t a s u b s e q u e n t indicated  t h a t communities  s e n t e d t h e most e f f i c i e n t  analysis  of f i v e thousand persons size  and  repre-  i n terms of the o p e r a t i o n s  o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , t h e n under  these c o n d i t i o n s ,  the  s e l e c t i o n o f t h e community c o n t a i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s w o u l d seem more An cipal fit  investigation  logical.  i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p  s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s and c i t y  t h e p l a n n e r but a l s o l o c a l  size  would  between muninot o n l y  government a g e n c i e s .  beneFor,  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ways i n w h i c h p o p u l a t i o n s i z e a f fects local  governments  w o u l d be o f a i d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r  s o l u t i o n s to the f i n a n c i a l o f government.  problems  that plague a l l l e v e l s  T o d a y , m u n i c i p a l management i s j u s t a s  cerned with p l a n n i n g the o p e r a t i o n of a p o l i c e fire way  force or a  b r i g a d e as i t i s w i t h p l a n n i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a h i g h system.  Research i n t o  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  p e r c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s and c i t y service efficiency in  con-  financial  and c i t y  s i z e would  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  both  between  s i z e and  between  be a most u s e f u l  planning.  tool  10  III.  HYPOTHESES  This t h e s i s proposes t o a r i v e at a value f o r the optimum  size of cities  Province of B r i t i s h services  f o r a l l incorporated  Columbia using  as a v a r i a b l e w i t h  by an i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p .  obtaining the  efficiency of public  which t o determine t h i s s i z e .  The e f f i c i e n c y o f p u b l i c  r e s o u r c e w h i c h i s consumed  areas i n the  services  c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d  I n p u t s r e f e r t o any v a l u e d  or dissipated  goods o r s e r v i c e s .  i n connection  In t h i s case, i n p u t s  amount o f money, i n t e r m s o f p e r c a p i t a  that  a community  ces.  e x p e n d s on t h e o p e r a t i o n  The l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s  that  with  refer to  expenditures,  of public s e r v i -  are provided refers to out-  puts. The o v e r r i d i n g that  larger  hypothesis supported i n t h i s t h e s i s i s  c i t i e s m a i n t a i n and o p e r a t e p u b l i c  more e f f i c i e n t l y  than smaller  municipalities.  ment i s p r o v e n , t h e n one may c o n c l u d e t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e optimum  capita ted  The f i r s t  size i n that  larger  The thesis p r o p o s e s t h a t  hypotheses  sub-hypothesis i s that per  cities  p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ties.  this size of city  two o t h e r  e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s  to city  If this state-  size.  In a r r i v i n g a t such a c o n c l u s i o n , h a v e t o be i n c l u d e d .  services  are d i r e c t l y r e l a -  incur  greater  than smaller  per c a p i t a  per c a -  municipali-  e x p e n d i t u r e s on public  11  services  increase,  a t an i n c r e a s i n g  r a t e , as c i t y  size, i n -  creases. The  second sub-hypothesis contends that  a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e o f c i t y service  provided.  It will  l e v e l s of  public  increase  a t an i n c r e a s i n g  creasing  r a t e s , with  further  purports that  ditures  r a t e , as p o p u l a t i o n contends that  of public  an i n c r e a s e  i n city  f o rlarger cities  than that  services  at a faster rate  will  Municipality. p o r a t e d as a c i t y , local  district,  at i n -  The t h e s i s  of per c a p i t a  expen-  ones. of public  than per c a p i t a  expen-  size.  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Municipality district,  r e f e r s t o any a r e a  incor-  township, town, v i l l a g e , o r  u n d e r any A c t ;  which t h e r e s i d e n t s  increases.  of the l e v e l of  i n which t h e l e v e l  r e p r e s e n t t h e optimum IV.  size.  and lower f o r s m a l l e r  size city  increases  size  increase  the rate of increase  i s greater  standards,  both per c a p i t a  services  Consequently, that  ditures  that the  s e r v i c e s , i n terms o f performance  e x p e n d i t u r e s and l e v e l  services  and t h e l e v e l o f  attempt t o i l l u s t r a t e  This thesis therefore  public  there i s also  or the corporation  into  o f t h e a r e a h a v e been i n c o r p o r a t e d  as a  municipality. Municipal interpreted  Expenditure.  Municipal  e x p e n d i t u r e may be  as those monies, e i t h e r r e c e i v e d  f r o m t h e com-  12 munity or  from s o u r c e s o u t s i d e  the  community, t h a t are  p e n d e d t o w a r d s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and  operation  of  ex-  municipal  services. Municipal preted  as  grants  and  Revenue.  those monies t h a t  financial  the  s o l e purpose of  assistance  Municipal  greater mum  the  include  peculiarly of the  the  local  local  public parks,  trades other  s e r v i c e s may  either Le-  certain mini-  Per-  respon-  These s e r v i c e s  include  property,  sanitary  sidewalks,  prevention  the  regula-  the  the  dispo-  operation  licensing  of nuisances,  municipality.  of  of  s a f e t y , health, w e l f a r e ,  i n h a b i t a n t s of the  are  the  g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n , sewage  the  of  welfare,health,  which are  street lighting,  professions,  of the  social  c o n c e r n and  s e r v i c e s to p r o t e c t  property  expenditures.  p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s which  s t r e e t s and  utilities,  and  Government,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e .  government.  supervisions,  municipal  taxes,  Government, f o r  which r e q u i r e  education,  p r o t e c t i o n o f p e r s o n s and  sal,  inter-  as o u t l i n e d u n d e r P r o v i n c i a l  s e r v i c e s cover the  t i o n s and  Federal  Municipal  c o n c e r n , and  h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and  sibility  be  Mandatory s e r v i c e s , which r e l a t e to m a t t e r s  standards,  of the  Provincial  f i n a n c i n g the m u n i c i p a l  Services.  than l o c a l  missive  r e v e n u e may  r a i s e d from l o c a l  from the  mandatory or p e r m i s s i v e  gislation.  are  c o n t r i b u t i o n s from t h e  and  be  Municipal  and and  13  Population. inhabitants last  Population  r e f e r s to the t o t a l  number o f  r e s i d i n g i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y d e t e r m i n e d by  preceding  the  census conducted under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e  Government o f C a n a d a . V.  LIMITATIONS  When i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e c o n c e p t s u n d e r l y i n g city may  sizes, several distort  serious  r a t i o n should ving the  two  and  consideto  major  limitations arising  thousand  Of t h e n i n e t y - e i g h t  currently  analy-  Because  f i f t e e n have of t h i s  fewer  be c o n s t r u c t e d .  i n t e r v a l of f i v e hundred one t h o u s a n d , one  wide v a r i a t i o n i n  two sult  thousand i n there  f i v e hundred, being  F o r example,  five  hundred,  to f i f t y  two  thousand)  twenty communities  than f i v e hundred  inhabitants  sand f i v e hundred  or the f o r t y thousand  hundred,  thousand, might r e -  containing  fewer  and none i n t h e e i g h t five  of  t o use a c l a s s  ( i . e . classes of f i v e  thousand  than  populations  community s i z e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a c o r r e c t s c a l e should  of  incorporated,  f i f t y - t w o contain  i n h a b i t a n t s and o n l y  exceeding ten thousand.  i n the  concerns the d i s p r o p o r t i o n  and v i l l a g e s and c i t i e s ,  classes  sol-  problem.  sizes.  totuns  assessment,  to a l t e r n a t e approaches  of the t h e s i s , the f i r s t  city  f r o m s u c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  critical  a l s o be g i v e n  Of t h e t h r e e sis  l i m i t a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t uihich  the r e s u l t s obtained  These l i m i t a t i o n s r e q u i r e  optimum  hundred  thou-  14 classes.  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i n t e r v a l s and  justification section  second l i m i t a t i o n  the basic theory  sumption contained ditures represent vices.  This  pality works  detail  regards the assumptions  adopted i n the t h e s i s .  in this  study  i s that  activities,  will  promote five  a higher  level  represents  of  service  one o f s e v e r a l  F o r example,  Similarly,  i n that  the v a r i a performance  the e f f i c i e n c y of f i r e from q u a n t i f i a b l e  s u c h as t h e number o f f u l l - t i m e men of the f i r e - f i g h t i n g  equipment,  t i o n s c a r r i e d out a year. equally  i s no way surface  ways  the performance of a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e  s e r v i c e c a n be e v a l u a t e d  be c o n s i d e r e d  ser-  munici-  do n o t p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f a l l t h e  tors involved.  include  expen-  However, t h e  s e l e c t e d f o r the purpose of measuring the  standard,  as-  public  services.  thesis also e x h i b i t s c e r t a i n biases  there  the  d o l l a r s i s spent.  t o measure t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l  tion  per c a p i t a  f o r t y d o l l a r s p e r c a p i t a on  i n which only  when e v a l u a t i n g  under-  A major  i s b a s e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  a p p l i c a t i o n of a d o l l a r value  bles  IV,  a measure o f p e r f o r m a n c e o f m u n i c i p a l  which expends  t h a n one  the  i n Chapter  2. The  lying  are covered i n greater  their  Yet other  o f q u a n t i f y i n g them.  protec-  criteria  the  and t h e number o f  as i m p o r t a n t ,  conditions  employed,  extent inspec-  elements, which are r e j e c t e d Examples  of access roads, the  fac-  may  because  of these distance  may  15  b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l homes a n d t h e f i r e number o f f i r e  hydrants,  hall,  t h e l o c a t i o n and  and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s o f  houses, a l l o f which r e l a t e t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f methods f o r controlling  the incidence  of f i r e .  More d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f t h e s e a n d o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s are an  given  i n Chapter V under those s e c t i o n s  that  with  analysis of municipalities' individual services. A third  limitation  concerns the a v a i l a b i l i t y  The  collection of information  per  capita municipal  ious  problem  was o b t a i n e d  of material  that  However,  the s e l e c t i o n of c r i -  was u s e d i n m e a s u r i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e  individual municipal  services.  a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c works f a c i l i t y discovered  from t h e  necessary t o complete the sec-  t i o n on t h e s e r v i c e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n e d teria  that  f o r example, during t h e o f a community i t was  highway c o n s t r u c t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r e e t c l e a n i n g major a c t i v i t i e s  a n d m a i n t e n a n c e , sewage operations  u n d e r t a k e n by p u b l i c w o r k s  were t h e  departments.  Consequently, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o road conditions, the length tage of residences could  with  e x p e n d i t u r e s d i d not p r e s e n t any s e r -  since the data required  availability  o f data.  f o r the section involved  budget s h e e t s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . the  deal  of s t r e e t s cleaned,  s e w e r e d , were t h e o n l y  be u s e d when a s s e s s i n g  the  p u b l i c work a c t i v i t i e s  the  case o f e d u c a t i o n a l  surface  and t h e p e r c e n criteria  that  t h e degree o f e f f i c i e n c y f o r  o f a community.  Similarly, i n  s e r v i c e s , the student/teacher  ratio,  16  the  number o f g r a d e s t a u g h t ,  per  classroom  were t h e o n l y  used f o r d e t e r m i n i n g for  a particular  discussed  tion  a v a i l a b l e data  t h a t c o u l d be service  community.  i n greater  from t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e data  detail  i n Chapter V under t h e sec-  e n t i t l e d *The R a n k i n g o f m u n i c i p a l VI.  The  students  the l e v e l of the educational  Limitations resulting are  and the.number o f  SOURCES OF  major sources  o f data  Service*.  DATA  used i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e  theory  on t h e e v o l v i n g c o n c e p t s o f optimum c i t y s i z e s i n -  cluded  the f o l l o w i n g :  Royal  a r t i c l e s from t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e  S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y , t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e Town  Institute.  the Quarterly  Journal of Economics.  R e a d i n g s i n Urban S o c i o l o g y , and  Econometrica.  a r t i c l e s from R u r a l  Sociology,  The J o u r n a l o f L a n d E c o n o m i c s . The  municipal  sources  o f data  expenditures  employed t o a n a l y z e  the theory o f  i n c l u d e d p u b l i c a t i o n s from t h e  Bureau o f Economic Research, t h e J o u r n a l o f Land the  Planning  Economics,  Journal of S o c i a l Issues. the Journal of P o l i t i c a l  Eco-  nomy , t h e J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , a r t i c l e s f r o m t h e Public Enquires  A c t , p u b l i c a t i o n s from t h e R e g i o n a l  Income  S t u d i e s , and a r t i c l e s from t h e R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e Bulletins.  17  The  c o s t s per  incorporated obtained  capita for municipal  areas i n the  from i n d i v i d u a l  t y as w e l l as p r e p a r e d by  the  of B r i t i s h  Statistics Publication  Department of M u n i c i p a l the major sources of  level  of municipal  Underwritersj  Teachers  1  Federation;  D e p a r t m e n t ; and  Affairs.  information  by  p u b l i c a t i o n s by  the the  Reports published  value  National British  by  Resources f o r the Future  t o methods m e a s u r i n g the  the  the  tunate  services.  The  the  f o r m s t h a t were s e n t  Board  Public  Health  pertaining In  obtained  from  performance  of  a u t h o r was  enough t o r e c e i v e a n i n e t y - s i x p e r  question  Fire  of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n .  a l s o used to assess  selected municipal  to  Columbia  Bulletins  a d d i t i o n to these p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n a i r e s was  used  s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d the  Marshal's Report; reports published of F i r e  C o l u m b i a were  budget s h e e t s f o r each m u n i c i p a l i -  from the M u n i c i p a l  Finally, measure the  Province  services for a l l  indeed  cent r e t u r n of  t o each i n c o r p o r a t e d  area.  forthe  CHAPTER I I THE History in the  f o r m and  OPTIMUM S I Z E AND has  shown t h a t  function.  This  cities  of  cities.  i n the  physical  desire  I t was  p o r t a n c e was  the  to that  the  either  p r o d u c t o f man's a t f a r back as  c o n t r o l l e d the  of the  shape o f  until  the  upon t h e  rather  the  shape o f  from t h e  i n t o two  theories  that  underlie  the  The  shape  city  was  and  parts.  The  im-  i n terms  Chapter I I  chapter first  were r e l a t e d t o t h e second a n a l y z e s the  i d e a l s i z e of  re-  Twentieth  i d e a l form o f This  was  this  e a r l y 1 9 0 0 * s t h a t more  than t h e i r shape.  cities.  This  i d e a l s i z e of c i t i e s  s i g n i f i c a n t concepts that  f o r m and  s i z e and  cities.  'ideal*  i d e a l o r optimum s i z e .  been d i v i d e d  the  main emphasis  e a r l y part of the  conceptual evolution  therefore the  not  placed  of t h e i r f u n c t i o n zes  r e s u l t e d from  From as  to create  concern remained u n t i l Century.  changing  During these e a r l y t i m e s , the  upon r e g u l a t i n g t h e flected  has  CITIES constantly  or of the  tempt t o mold h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . man  are  c h a n g e has  slow process of e v o l u t i o n  F o u r t h C e n t u r y B.C.,  SHAPE OF  cities.  analy-  cities has discusses  ideal current  19 I.  THE IDEAL FORM OF C I T I E S  Through t h e ages s c h o l a r s underlying  have c o n c e i v e d  t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s .  in the F i f t h  theories  Indeed, as o u t l i n e d  Book o f h i s T r e a t i s e on L a w s . P l a t o  t h a t a town s h o u l d  be d i v i d e d i n t o t w e l v e p a r t s  ned  to contain  five  was  t o be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d  proposed and d e s i g -  thousand and f o r t y p l o t s each o f which t o h o u s e two f a m i l i e s .  s i z e o f t h e e a r l y Mesopotamian c i t i e s  The  was b a s e d upon t h e  number o f c i t i z e n s who c o u l d  be h a i l e d by an a s s e m b l y  Likewise,  s i z e o f t h e Roman f o r t s was r e -  t h e most e f f i c i e n t  lated to the distance one  fortification  continued  that  signals could  tower and a n o t h e r .  Military  t o be t h e d o m i n a n t f a c t o r t h a t  o f t h e town o r c i t y M i d d l e Ages.  be h e a r d  between  considerations  governed t h e s i z e  between t h e H e l l e n i s t i c  I t was d u r i n g  drum.  period  t h e M i d d l e Ages t h a t  and t h e  p e o p l e de-  v o t e d more a t t e n t i o n s t o w a r d s r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s .  This  c o n c e r n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e c t a n g u l a r i t y a n d r e g u l a r i t y of c i t i e s  and towns t h a t  i d e a l medieval c i t y emplified  focussed  was t h e c e l e s t i a l  by t h e many p l a n s  M i d d l e Ages.  upon t h e c h u r c h .  The p l a n s  that  city  and t h i s  The was e x -  were d e s i g n e d d u r i n g t h e  f o r S t . G a l l (818 B.C.), Canterbury  ( 1 1 7 4 ) , a n d R o t h e n b u r g ( 1 3 1 1 ) a r e t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g ples that are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the concepts that design  of the i d e a l c i t y  during  this  period.  exam-  underlay the  20 The  Renaissance unfolded  with a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t  approach from t h a t of the M i d d l e Ages, towards the of the  ideal city.  Military  and  defense a c t i v i t i e s  t h o s e o f r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n s , and o b j e c t i v e of the  ideal city.  plan, F i l a r e t e ' s polygonal Utopia  geometry o f  trical  ideal city  plan  typified  S f o r i z i n d a , S i r Thomas M o r a ' s  The  age  of the  symmetry.  The  i d e a l Baroque c i t y  Baroque c o u l d  n a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t r e e t s and  w h i c h was  significant  Italian  a formal  tures.  portrayed  city. age  i n the  of  inter-  subtle p o s i t i o n i n g of  eras.  the  one  shape o f the The  as  city  creation  to the  hand, the  i n F r a n c e , and  religious activities  seventeenth century,  element of design  on  the  of  most evoluother  exemplified  by  significant  The  be  the  of the  sector  the  focussing  on  religious, social  and  political  struc-  r a d i a l s , u s u a l l y t a k i n g the  e x t e n d e d ad  use  permitted  s t r e e t s , formed the  could  l i k e n e d to the  overall external  power s u c h as  symme-  architecture.  points of  and  the  Cataneo's  Renaissance  straight line vistas leading  e m p h a s i s on  During the as  was  b u i l d i n g s r e f l e c t e d , on  t i o n of p o l i t i c a l hand, the  be  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of previous  huge a v e n u e s and  plan,  Perret's multi-sided  i d e a l form of the  b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r than the  the  A l b e r t i ' s quadrangular f o r t r e s s  p l a n , and the  replaced  f o r m became  P l a n , Scamozzi's f i v e - s i d e d i d e a l c i t y  octagonal  creation  form o f wide avenues  boundaries of these sectors  l i b i t u m i n t o the  countryside.  and The  21  c r e a t i o n o f f o c a l p o i n t s and the e x t e n s i o n o f the r a d i a l s i n c i t i e s during the l a t e seventeenth century  expressed the  i d e o l o g i e s o f the Baroque p e r i o d . To achieve  symmetry was the goal o f t h e a r c h i t e c t o f  the Baroque p e r i o d and examples o f t h i s design can be found i n most c i t i e s i n Europe and s e v e r a l i n North America. example, the f o c u s s i n g o f avenues upon the palace  For  in Versail-  l e s , the r a d i a t i n g p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t s i n P a r i s , the symmetric a l p i a z z a s o f Rome, the diagonal  alignment o f s t r e e t s i n  Washington, the c i r c u l a r form o f the P h i l a d e l p h i a P l a n , and W.R. Lethaby's Golden Bow Plan f o r London represent small sample o f c i t y  s t r u c t u r e s and proposed plans t h a t sym-  b o l i z e the form o f the i d e a l c i t y P r i o r t o the e i g h t e e n t h ideal city plans. was  a very  during the Baroque p e r i o d .  century,  the design o f the  was based upon one o v e r r i d i n g concern - to make  To the a r c h i t e c t o f t h a t time, the i d e a l c i t y  plan  one t h a t r e f l e c t e d the v a l u e s o f the person, u s u a l l y an  individual of n o b i l i t y  f o r whom the plan was d e v i s e d .  Little  or no c o n s i d e r a t i o n was d i r e c t e d towards understanding the "Why" o f planning  and consequently  these  d i v o r c e d from any form c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n .  plans were t o t a l l y The a e s t h e t i c  appearance o f a two-dimensional plan was c o n s i d e r e d  t o be  f a r more important  arise  from such p l a n s .  than the consequences t h a t might  As no f o r e s i g h t was d i r e c t e d towards the  r e s u l t s t h a t the i d e a l c i t y  plans would have upon l i v i n g  22 c o n d i t i o n s , man's n e e d s a n d d e s i r e s were c o m p l e t e l y In s h o r t , t h e i d e a l c i t y e r a was o n e t h a t It cities  of the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l revolution  stressed  was d u r i n g  form and not f u n c t i o n .  the i n d u s t r i a l  r e v o l u t i o n t h a t many  i n Europe developed around t h e major i n d u s t r i a l a c -  tivities  - namely c o a l m i n i n g and s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n .  these a c t i v i t i e s diversified,  As  e x p a n d e d , a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g became m o r s  t h e towns and c i t i e s  were c o n d u c t e d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d The  ignored.  i n which these  activities  both i n s i z e and d e n s i t y .  f a c t o r y , as opposed t o t h e church o r palace  i n earlier  times,  became t h e f o c u s o f t h e c i t y .  sities  a n d s i z e was p a r a l l e l e d by a d r a s t i c i n c r e a s e i n  congestion, of l i f e  filth,  squalor  i n the i n d u s t r i a l  were s a c r i f i c e d  The i n c r e a s e  and p o v e r t y .  Social  amenities  c i t i e s ' o f Europe and N o r t h  t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f maximum  Consequently, l i v i n g  o f den-  conditions  America  production.  i n the i n d u s t r i a l  towns  became d e p l o r a b l e . It  was d u r i n g  t h e s e t i m e s t h a t a new t y p e o f p e r s o n  emerged - n a m e l y t h e s o c i a l  reformer.  Mary  the  a d v o c a t e r o f women's r i g h t s ;  the  police force i n B r i t a i n ; Charles  the  p r i s o n s y s t e m ; Hannah M o r e , t h e s u p p o r t e r  ing  conditions; Florence  R o b e r t Owen, L o r d more n o t a b l e  social  Robert P e e l , t h e founder o f  Nightengale,  Shaftesbury,  Wollstonecraft,  Reade, t h e c r e a t o r o f of better  hous-  the founder of nursing;  a n d C h a d w i c k a r e among t h e  r e f o r m e r s whose a c t i o n s l e f t  their  imprint  23 upon t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l m a t r i x o f B r i t a i n teenth Century. the  Other  world followed  living  conditions  initial  social  reformers i n various  t h e example o f t h e B r i t i s h i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s .  impact o f the i n d u s t r i a l  d i t i o n s were g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d ,  and  improved  Thus, a f t e r t h e  crime a c t i v i t i e s  conditions  parts of  revolution, sanitary  s t a n t i a l l y , reduced, housing conditions and t h e o v e r a l l l i v i n g  i n the Nine-  con-  were  sub-  became more t o l e r a b l e  in cities  were g r e a t l y e n -  hanced. D u r i n g t h e same t i m e t h a t attempting to r e c t i f y Britain,  industrial  I t was t h e a p p e a r a n c e  These p e r s o n s a l s o endeavoured  t i o n , the i n d u s t r i a l  to eliminate the s o c i a l  ted with  f a c t o r y employment. when s e v e r a l  example, posed  grid-iron  problems  that  i t was i m -  were  associa-  This concern eventually  Utopian communities  mater-  were d e s i g n e d .  For  i n d u s t r i a l i s t , pro  f o r a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g community.  pattern  profit  e f f i c i e n c y i n produc-  i n 1 8 1 6 , R o b e r t Owen, an E n g l i s h  h i s plan  to better the  entrepreneurs r e a l i z e d that  perative  that  struc-  - b u t t h e i r m o t i v e s were p r i m a r i l y  In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r  con-  of the  e f f e c t upon t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l  conditions  ialized  conditions i n  e n t r e p r e n e u r i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n hundreds  t u r e o f towns.  oriented.  r e f o r m e r s were  o f p e r s o n s emerged who were a l s o  s i m i l a r problems.  had a p r o n o u n c e d  social  the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l  a n o t h e r group  cerned with  the s o c i a l  8ased  upon  o f s t r e e t s , t h e town was d e s i g n e d t o c o n -  t a i n t w e l v e hundred  p e r s o n s e a c h o f whom c o u l d  be e m p l o y e d  24 within the l o c a l representing  f a c t o r i e s and workshops.  A n o t h e r model  an ' i d e a l ' community was t h a t p r o p o s e d by J . S .  Buckingham i n 1849.  Unlike  t h a t o f Owen's, t h i s m o d e l a t -  tempted t o f u n c t i o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s recommended t h a t i n d u s t r i e s s h o u l d  i n that i t  be s i t u a t e d a t l e a s t h a l f  a mile  from t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o f t h e town, and t h a t  should  be r e s e r v e d  land  surrounding  rectangular  for  suburban v i l l a s  t h e town.  sites  i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l  The B u c k i n g h a m p l a n , b a s i c a l l y  i n form, c o n s i s t e d  of eight  c o n v e r g e d upon a c e n t r a l common.  radial  streets  Designed to contain  that two  t h o u s a n d homes, o f w h i c h t w e n t y - f o u r were l a r g e m a n s i o n s t o house t h e m a n a g e r i a l c l a s s , t h e p l a n tion of classes centre  i n t h a t t h e f i n e r h o u s e s were l o c a t e d a t t h e  o f t h e town, w i t h  more humble d w e l l i n g s periphery  encouraged the separa-  the exception  of the v i l l a s ,  a n d w o r k s h o p s were s i t u a t e d a t t h e  o f t h e town.  A l t h o u g h t h e s e two U t o p i a n p r o p o s a l s cuted,  they  d i d however expose t h e a t r o c i o u s  that existed i n B r i t a i n and  during  were n e v e r living  the early ninteenth  a l s o suggested c e r t a i n remedies t o r e c t i f y  tions.  and t h e  I t was t h e U t o p i a n m o d e l t h a t a c t e d  f o r , several years l a t e r , recognizing  c e r t a i n powerful  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  these  exe-  conditions century situa-  as a c a t a l y s t industrialists,  f o r good h o u s i n g f o r t h e i r  w o r k e r s a n d a l s o t h e p o t e n t i a l t h a t w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m an improved l i v i n g  c o n d i t i o n , d e s i g n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d  "model"  25 communities.  One  of the e a r l i e s t  Bessbrook,  built  mills  Newry, I r e l a n d .  near  i n 1846,  of these communities  f o r workers  employed i n the  Six years l a t e r ,  S a l t a i r e , a s m a l l town  housed t h r e e thousand  near B r a d f o r d , England.  George Cadbury, the c h o c o l a t e m a n u f a c t u r e r , town o f B o u r n e v i l l e i n 1879. B r o t h e r s , who  linen  following  example, S i r T i t u s S a l t b u i l t workers  wa3  this  that  c o n s t r u c t e d the  Five years l a t e r ,  the  Lever  were p i o n e e r s i n t h e s o a p i n d u s t r y , b u i l t  the  company town o f P o r t S u n l i g h t n e a r L i v e r p o o l .  S i r Joseph  Rowntree, a cocoa manufacturer,  i n 1905,  b u i l t Earswick  s m a l l town t h a t h o u s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one and t h e i r  thousand  a  workers  families.  o  The impact  c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e new  upon o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d .  b o t h i n E u r o p e and  o f town b u i l d i n g ,  British  m o d e l t o w n s i n t h e i r own  i n F r a n c e , M.  S e i n e n e a r P a r i s i n 1874. i n France  their  entrepreneurs new  c o n s t r u c t e d the prototype of countries.  For  f o r h i s employees a t Similar  t o w n s and v i l l a g e s  f a m i l i e s a t V a l e n c i e n n e s and T h i o n v i l l e . built  con-  Noisel-sur-  by t h e A n z i n M i n i n g Company f o r mine  t h e town o f C r e p s i was  f o r the t e x t i l e  the  example,  Menier, another chocolate manufacturer,  structed a small v i l l a g e  and  Many  profound  N o r t h A m e r i c a , c h a l l e n g e d by t h i s  concept  built  m o d e l t o w n s had a  workers  were workers  In  Italy,  living  i n the area s u r r o u n d i n g C a p r i a t e d u r i n g the l a t e 1880's. 1883,  Van  Marken, the master  brewer,  b u i l t a s m a l l company  In  •  26  town near D e l f t , H o l l a n d , f o r t h e w o r k e r s i n t h e brewery and the s p i r i t  production plant.  P u l l m a n was b u i l t manufacturing The  I n t h e new w o r l d , t h e town o f  i n 1881 f o r t h e e m p l o y e e s o f t h e P u l l m a n  firm.  f o r e g o i n g examples r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l  p l a n s , many o f w h i c h were i m p l e m e n t e d , t h a t r e f l e c t  sample o f the the-  o r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e most d e s i r a b l e s i z e a n d s h a p e o f t o w n s . T h i s i d e a l o r optimum nineteenth century form and f u n c t i o n .  was  s i z e and shape o f towns d u r i n g t h e designed both i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  C o n c e r n i n g t h e form o r shape o f t h e model  t o w n s , t h e g r i d - i r o n p a t t e r n , o r some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t ,  was  t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e upon w h i c h a r o s e t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e town.  C o n c e r n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i n t e r -  n a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f open s p a c e s i n t h e towns was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e easy access t o a l l  a r e a s o f t h e town, park a r e a s i n  t h e f o r m o f commons, a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f l o w l e v e l s o f density.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e model  t o s e p a r a t e p l a c e s o f work  from r e s i d e n t i a l  The c o n c e p t o f t h e m o d e l nineteenth  r i a g e was b e i n g  in cities  designed  areas.  town, i n i t i a t e d  c e n t u r y , was t h e c a t a l y s t  G a r d e n C i t y movement.  realized  towns were a l s o  i n the early  f o r the creation of the  I n t h e t i m e when t h e h o r s e - d r a w n  car-  r e p l a c e d by t h e a u t o m o b i l e , E b e n e z e r Howard  t h a t w i t h e v e r y new i n c r e m e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n , was b e c o m i n g more c o n g e s t e d a n d t h e c e n t r a l  t u t i o n s of the c e n t r a l  city  were b e c o m i n g l e s s  traffic insti-  accessible.  27 U n l i k e t h e a d v o c a t e s o f c o n t i n u e d u r b a n e x p a n s i o n , Howard r e j e c t e d t h e s u b u r b as a t o l e r a b l e tralization the  c o n c e p t s o f the Garden  s o n s and carry  The  o f f u n c t i o n s conducted i n the c e n t r a l  u n i f i c a t i o n of c i t y  Garden  compromise.  cities  w i t h c o u n t r y were t h e  decen-  city,  underlying  City.  were d e s i g n e d f o r a l i m i t e d  d e n s i t i e s , were l i m i t e d  on a l l t h e e s s e n t i a l  number o f p e r -  i n a r e a , were o r g a n i z e d t o  f u n c t i o n s o f an u r b a n  community,  and were e q u i p p e d w i t h p u b l i c open s p a c e s s u f f i c i e n t ber  t o c r e a t e a more d e s i r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t .  ideal  structure,  and  the garden c i t i e s  i n num-  To a c h i e v e t h e  were s u r r o u n d e d by a g r e e n  b e l t t h a t on t h e one h a n d p r o v i d e d e a s y a c c e s s t o r u r a l  areas,  and on t h e o t h e r h a n d p r e v e n t e d o t h e r u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s f r o m coalescing with The in  cities.  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Garden  the p h y s i c a l  C i t y movement d i d n o t l i e  re-moulding of the c i t y ,  but r a t h e r i n deve-  l o p i n g o r g a n i c concepts that underlay t h i s form. nic  concepts represented e c o l o g i c a l  a b a l a n c e both between c i t y  equilibrium  These o r g a and b a l a n c e -  and c o u n t r y as w e l l a s a b a l a n c e  between the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f the garden c i t y . garden  city  a t t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e , i n Mumford's  The  ideal  words:  " . . . a r a t i o n a l and o r d e r l y p r o c e s s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o m p l e x i t y t h r o u g h an o r g a n i z a t i o n c a p a b l e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g b a l a n c e and a u t o n o m y , and o f m a i n t a i n i n g d i s p u t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , and c o h e r e n c e and u n i t y d e s p i t e t h e need f o r growth."' L e w i s M u m f o r d , The C i t y i n H i s t o r y . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , I n c . ) , p. 5 1 8 . 1  (New  York:  28 Examples  of subsequent  garden c i t i e s  upon E b e n e z e r H o w a r d ' s . c o n c e p t P a r k e r and U n w i n ) , R a d b u r n (architect:  U n w i n ) , and  t h a t were  are Letchworth  (architect:  based  (architects:  S t e i n ) , Ulelwyn  Greendale, ( a r c h i t e c t :  Parker).  A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been much w r i t t e n c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e and o t h e r t o w n s , G a r d e n d i d however,  reflect  f u n c t i o n of c i t i e s .  a totally  new  approach t o t h e form  The optimum s i z e o f t h e G a r d e n  t e r m s o f i t s a r e a and p o p u l a t i o n , was the f u n c t i o n s i z e was  f o r w h i c h i t was  sand p e r s o n s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l  directly  City  became one  a l a r g e r s y s t e m , w h i c h due t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l  and v a r i e t y  o f f u n c t i o n s o f much l a r g e r u r b a n THE  From t h e f o r e g o i n g the early  IDEAL S I Z E OF examples,  this thou-  part  be t h e i d e a l  of  advantages  complexes.  CITIES  i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t up t o  p a r t o f .the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , a r c h i t e c t s a n d  d e s i g n e r s had p l a c e d more e m p h a s i s  size.  to  interrelation-  i t and o t h e r c e n t r e s , had t h e same  II.  Once  d i d not exceed t h i r t y  Garden  and  City, in  related  designed to serve.  a t t a i n e d , which u s u a l l y  s h i p between  Cities  upon d e c i d i n g  f o r m and s h a p e o f c i t i e s  urban  what s h o u l d  rather than t h e i r  E v e n t h o u g h many o f t h e s e d e s i g n e r s d i d p r o p o s e  a i n p o p u l a t i o n s f o r t h e m o d e l t o w n s , t h e s e v a l u e s were  ideal certeither  p r e - d e t e r m i n e d , as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r d e s i g n i n g a m o d e l town t o h o u s e k e r s , o r were a r b i t r a r i l y  a g i v e n number o f f a c t o r y  a r r i v e d a t , as i n t h e m e t h o d o f  wor-  29  determining  t h e optimum s i z e o f G a r d e n  Today, t h e t r e n d timum s i z e o f c i t i e s pirical  methodology  solute population This  approach  evolving scientist should  towards  determining  that  i s b a s e d upon an e v a l u a t i o n  h a s been f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d  t o ask h i m s e l f  t h a t has caused t h e s o c i a l  be t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y ? "  scientists,  other  d i s c i p l i n e s have p o s t u l a t e d  various  involved  - "What  Indeed, based  upon  economists, s o c i o l o g i s t s , plan-  political  f o l l o w i n g examples,  by t h e r a p i d l y  the i n e v i t a b l e question  ners,  the  o f ab-.  figures i n relation to selected variables.  process of urbanization  many s t u d i e s  t h e i d e a l o r op-  i n v o l v e s a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d em-  t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h ,  The  Cities.  g e o g r a p h e r s , a n d many p e r s o n s o f what t h i s v a l u e  which r e p r e s e n t  i n city-size  a small  determination,  should  sample  be.  of the  illustrate  m e t h o d s t h a t h a v e b e e n u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e optimum  size of cities. Using s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a v a r i a b l e , Brennam p r o p o s e d t h a t a c i t y  between t e n thousand and twenty  t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s tyould p r o v i d e for i t s inhabitants.  2  This  t h e most d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l  value  approximated that  by B r a n c h who p r o p o s e d t h a t t h s g r e a t e s t found i n communities  life  suggested  social  of l e s s than twenty-five  contentment i s 3 thousand persons.  T . Brenham, M i d l a n d C i t y . ( L o n d o n : D e n n i s Dobson L t d . , 1 9 4 9 ) , P. 4 7 . 3 Robert Branch, S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C i t i e s . ( C h i c a g o : I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y M a n a g e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 6 5 . 2  30 Berry,  by  applying  rank-size between When  the  8aker  found  ties,  that  size  from  found  hundred  thousand  est  capita  per  iable  determining  services.  P h i l l i p s  ta  one  thousand  4  Annals  This  those  were  who  8  Journal  correlation  that  country.* expenditures,  f i f t y  English  thousand  per  capita  the  thousand to  c i -  and expendi-  range  States  the  proposed  and  one  have  the  low-  municipal size  included  c i t i e s  of  a  the  was  one  had  also  of  as  was and  operating  two  var-  scope by  hundred  lowest  and  a  further  adopted  one  the  hundred  characteristic  city  quality  between  thousand  between  expenditures  eight  per  capi-  hundred  these  servi-  e f f i c i e n t l y ,  B r i a n B e r r y , " A l t e r n a t e E x p l a n a t i o n s o f U r b a n Rank Size," of the Association of American Geographers, XIV111,p.83. Costs in Relation to City S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y 1 9 6 0 , p. 7 5. 9  D.T. Duncan, "The Optimum S i z e of (Glencoe: Free Press, 1951), pp. Thomas p. 69.  1940),  in  within  procedure  that  e  iology ,  close  seventy-two  United  5c A. B a k e r , " P o p u l a t i o n and Management," Journal of the Royal 6  determine  municipal  lowest  optimum  twenty-four  whereas  most  Sharp  to  expenditure.^  using the  indicated  hundred  costs  f i f t y ces  who  of  of  f e l l  the  a  rank  for  between  in  found  eighty-five  the  also  c i t i e s  for  these  between  value  formulae  i t s  capita  incurred  technique  of  and  investigation  The  Thomas  of  c i t i e s ,  per  municipal  by  and  cost  persons  expanded  set  city  c i t i e s  This  who  the  his  thousand  costs.  Duncan  of  the  those  ninety-two  by  complex  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  analyzing  ture  a  Sharp,  Town  Planning.  C i t i e s " , 632-45,  (London:  Urban  Pelican  Soc-  Books,  H . H . P h i l l i p s , " M u n i c i p a l E f f i c i e n c y a n d Town Size" o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , M a y - J u n e , 1 9 4 2 , p. 129..  31 Using a d i f f e r e n t tempted the  a p p r o a c h , some r e s e a r c h e r s have a t -  t o e q u a t e optimum c i t y  city's  economic  but i n s u f f i c i e n t findings.  M c L a u g h l i n employed  data f o r s m a l l e r communities  In c r i t i c i z i n g  9  contended  base.  t h a t t h e r e i s no p o s i t i v e  By a n a l y z i n g  would  Clark  Samuelson between  economic  base.  s t r u c t u r e of secondary  performance  c e s r a n g e d b e t w e e n one h u n d r e d sons.  method  t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y  support the e f f i c i e n t  of  distorted his  relationship  of the c i t y ' s  the i n t e r n a l  proposed that  this  McLaughlin's approach,  u r b a n s i z e and t h e d i v e r s i t y  tries,  s i z e with the d i v e r s i t y  and  of commercial  two h u n d r e d  1 0  industhat servi-  thousand  per-  I n t h e c a s e f o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , he s u g g e s t e d t h e  value of f i f t y industries,  t o one  hundred  b e t w e e n one  t h o u s a n d , and f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g  hundred  an.d f i v e  hundred  thousand  persons.1^ Using a non-measurable  criterion  ( t h e i m p a c t o f an  ato-  m i c w a r ) , A n g u r and o t h e r w r i t e r s o f d e f e n s e m a t t e r s c o n c l u d e d that  cities  s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o l e s s t h a n f i f t y  thousand per12  sons r e g a r d i n g Regarding  s a f e t y m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t an a t o m i c the o p e r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l  war.  services  Hansen  and P e r l o f f  suggest that i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e q u i r e McLauglin, " I n d u s t r i a l D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n American C i t i e s " , Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s , 1 9 3 2 , pp. 1 2 9 - 4 8 . 1 0 P a u l S a m u e l s o n , "The B u s i n e s s C y c l e and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t , R e p o r t t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e on U r b a n i s m , ( H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , M a r c h 1 9 4 2 } , pp. 6-17. 1 C o l i n C l a r k , "The E c o n o m i c F u n c t i o n o f a C i t y i n R e l a t i o n t o I t s S i z e " , E c o n o m e t r i c a . A p r i l 1 9 4 5 , pp. 9 7 - 1 1 3 . 1  R.T. John H o p k i n s  A n g u r , Urban Form and S t r u c t u r e , P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 1 1 3 - 2 2 .  (Baltimore:  The  32  a minimum  o f t e n thousand f o r the e f f i c i e n t  municipal s e r v i c e s .  performance o f  1 3  And f i n a l l y , Le C o r b u s i e r , whose a p p r o a c h the extreme i n s u b j e c t i v e n e s s , suggests city  should  that the i d e a l  contain three m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s .  From t h e s e large discrepancy  represents  1 4  examples, i t i s apparent that there between t h e i n d i v i d u a l  t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y .  The r e a s o n  size  i s a very  proposed values f o r for this  i s due, i n  p a r t , t o t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d when f o r m u l a t i n g t h e s e  values.  These v a r i a b l e s ranged from m u n i c i p a l  to a con-  sideration  of s o c i a l  arises regarding  desires.  the v a l i d i t y  optimum s i z e o f a c i t y  However, a s e r i o u s of the values  i n t h a t none o f - t h o s e  t i o n e d above d e f i n e d t h e term  •optimum'.  t h a t t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y fifty  thousand persons,  social  suggested f o r the s c h o l a r s men-  Thus when  suggesting  t h a t a r i s e s i s "Optimum  i n t e r n a l m o b i l i t y ? ; f o r the p r o v i s i o n  s e r v i c e s ? ; f o r defense purposes?;  i n t e r a c t i o n ? ; o r f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y Even i f t h e term  lar  limitation  i s , f o r t h e sake o f argument,  the question  f o r what - f o r e f f i c i e n t of adequate m u n i c i p a l  expenditures  degree o f ambiguity  'optimum* i s c l e a r l y a r i s e s when t h e t e r m  for  i n production?"  defined, a  simi-  'size' i s  A . H . H a n s e n a n d H.S. P e r l o f f , S t a t e and L o c a l F i n a n c e i n t h e N a t i o n a l Economy. (New Y o r k : UI.W. N o r t o n a n d Co., I n c . , 1944)™ p. 1lT^ 1 3  C h a r l e s E. J e a n n e r e t - G r i s ( L e C o r b u s i e r , pseud.),, " C i t y o f Tomorrow and I t s P l a n n i n q " t r a n s . , f r o m t h e 8 t h F r e n c h e d . o f Urbanisme„ ( L o n d o n : A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p.47. 1 4  33 considered.  Does s i z e i n t h i s  context  r e f e r to the magni-  tude o f p o p u l a t i o n ,  the acreage of l a n d , or the density  of the urban area?  I t follcws that  the of  optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , reference  Once t h i s h a s been a c h i e v e d ,  the  the determination  i s more m e a n i n g f u l a n d v a l i d .  thousand persons i n terms o f the t o t a l  Likewise,  arrived at f o r that  a value  of f i f t e e n  F o r example,  be f o u n d t o be number  of  clinic  Regarding density  inhabitants of a  dental  t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s may  values,  hundred i n h a b i t a n t s per acre constructing  warrant  I n t h e s e two c a s e s , t h e  include  an a v e r a g e d e n s i t y  using  the economic  city o f one  feasibility  a subway s y s t e m a s t h e v a r i a b l e .  t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , the s p a t i a l  consideration  ing w i l l  would  t h e optimum s i z e o f a  In a d d i t i o n t o d e f i n i n g t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e timating  be  and j u n i o r c o l l e g e r e s p e c t i v e l y .  m i g h t be one m i l l i o n p e r s o n s w i t h  this  five  'optimum* a p p l i e s t o t h a t number o f p e r s o n s t h a t  support a dental  of  outlined.  number o f i n h a b i t a n t s w h i c h w o u l d  provision of a junior college.  term  the terms  o f t h e optimum  would s u p p o r t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and o p e r a t i o n  clinic.  the  that  postulate  a n a l y s i s be r i g i d l y  optimum s i z e o f a town o r c i t y may  that  one c a n  i t i s imperative  used i n the r e s e a r c h  size of a city  before  value  illustrate  when e s -  i t i s also necessary to  l o c a t i o n o f the urban s e t t l e m e n t . may  a p p e a r t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t ,  i t simportance.  p l e s , t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y  Applying  i n C a n a d a may  Although  the f o l l o w -  t h e a b o v e exambe f i v e  thousand  34 persons ( u s i n g the maintenance o f a dental c l i n i c v a r i a b l e , ) whereas t h e v a l u e ten thousand. of a c i t y teen  for Italian  S i m i l a r l y , at a lower  i n the Province  of B r i t i s h  c i t i e s might  level,  be  t h e optimum  C o l u m b i a may  be  of Washington, United Finally,  The S h o r t e r  States.  •optimum', s h o u l d  Oxford  (that that  of a l l ,  the actual  be c l e a r l y  English Dictionary defines  " b e s t " , o r "most d e s i r a b l e " .  understand  and c l a r i f y  col-  t e n thousand f o r the State  and most i m p o r t a n t  t i o n o f t h e work  size  fif-  thousand persons (using the p r o v i s i o n o f a j u n i o r  l e g e a s t h e v a r i a b l e ) , and o n l y  the  as t h e  i s , optimum f o r w h a t ? ) ,  understood. 'optimum' a s  T h u s , one s h o u l d  what t h e t e r m  defini-  not only  'optimum* a p p l i e s t o  b u t a l s o what i t r e f e r s t o -  i s , t h e b e s t , most e f f i c i e n t  o r most d e s i r a b l e .  Summary. Chapter cepts  I I has t r a c e d t h r o u g h  regarding  the i d e a l  f o r m and s i z e o f c i t i e s .  i n d i c a t e d t h a t man's i n i t i a l shape o f c i t i e s . of the s o c i a l  focussed  industrial  overruled  appearance of the urban landscape. century,  upon t h e m a k i n g o f p l a n s .  r e v o l u t i o n , a new  planning. ; T h i s  I t has  those  and e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d upon t h e g e o -  the e a r l y part of the nineteenth ties  con-  g o a l was t o c r e a t e t h e i d e a l  Physical considerations  aspects  m e t r y and v i s u a l  time, the evolving  planning  Until activi-  However, a f t e r t h e  d i m e n s i o n was i n t r o d u c e d  was t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f man  into  i n space and  35 subsequent planning the  actions  reflected this  concern.  From  e m p h a s i s upon t h e f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e s h a p e o f c i -  ties,  r e s u l t e d the c r e a t i o n of plans  facilitate  that  a s p e c i f i c type of a c t i v i t y .  to the design  o f optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s  were d e s i g n e d t o This  that  i n turn l e d mere t o a c -  commodate a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d number o f i n h a b i t a n t s . This greatly  approach of designing  intensified  Century.  during  For, during  q u e s were i n t r o d u c e d quently  section of this  t h i s time,  highly empirical  i n t o the s o c i a l  sciences,  techni-  and c o n s e applied  o f t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . chapter included  reports  that  ted c e r t a i n values  f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s  thods of achieving  these  Finally,  was  the e a r l y decades o f the Twentieth  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were e x t e n s i v e l y  for the determination last  optimum s i z e c i t i e s  The postula-  and t h e me-  values.  f o r the purpose o f emphasizing the e v o l v i n g  concepts regarding  t h e f o r m and f u n c t i o n o f c i t i e s ,  diagrams r e p r e s e n t i n g have been i n c l u d e d  those s i g n i f i c a n t  i n Appendix  D.  periods  several  of t r a n s i t i o n ,  CHAPTER I I I MUNICIPAL REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES B e f o r e one c a n a n a l y z e t h e p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s o n municipal cipality  s e r v i c e s and t h e s o u r c e s o f revenue t h a t receives, i ti s f i r s t  i s meant by t h e s e t e r m s .  necessary to understand  do  ding is  receive  f o r t h i s m o n e y ? " , some u n d e r s t a n -  channeled w i l l  contribute  responsibilities.  chapter discusses  revenue  expenditure practices that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of incor-  Every urban centre ving metropolis  or a small  of B r i t i s h  i n this  Columbia.  province,  e x c h a n g e h o u s e i n w h i c h money i s r e c e i v e d  money t h a t t h e community r e c e i v e s  expenditure.  reinvested  services.  The  i s known a s r e v e n u e s a n d  i t spends on m u n i c i p a l Generally  thri-  from t h e i n h a b i -  and i s s u b s e q u e n t l y  t h e community i n t h e form o f m u n i c i p a l  t h e money t h a t  whether a  r u r a l v i l l a g e , may be l i k e n e d t o  t a n t s , i n t h e form o f t a x e s , in  to a further understanding of This  porated areas i n the Province  an  services  a s t o how t h i s money i s r a i s e d a n d i n t o what a r e a s i t  municipal and  "How much i s s p e n t  s e r v i c e s , and what l e v e l s o f m u n i c i p a l  the inhabitants  what  A l t h o u g h t h e main purpose o f t h i s  t h e s i s i s t o answer t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n s on m u n i c i p a l  each muni-  s e r v i c e s i s a form o f  s p e a k i n g , a l l forms o f revenue  37 equalize total these  expenditures.  a m o u n t s , i t becomes a s o u r c e  quent y e a r s .  On  loss i s carried  c o m p e n s a t e d by  sufficient  forward  t o meet  i s incurred  i n which i t i s  surplus for that period.  between t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s  way  those  raised  i n t o the t r e a s u r y .  distinguishing received  s e r v i c e , f o r a l l monies  from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s , such  d e r a l g r a n t s , and  of  of revenue which are  i n t o the t r e a s u r y of a p a r t i c u l a r  sited  subse-  expenditures)  to a l a t e r year  T h e r e i s , a t t h e p r e s e n t , no  received  between  of revenue f o r  the o t h e r hand, i f a d e f i c i t  (when r e v e n u e s a r e n o t this  If a surplus arises  as p r o v i n c i a l and  f r o m l o c a l means a r e  From t h i s  depo-  d e p o s i t , v a r y i n g amounts  o f money a r e a l l o c a t e d t o w a r d s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and t i o n of a l l municipal  fe-  opera-  services.  Revenues. The of B r i t i s h  powers v e s t e d i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e  Columbia are d e f i n e d i n the M u n i c i p a l Act.  major sources in this and  Province  o f r e v e n u e a v a i l a b l e t o any  p r o v i n c e a r e t a x e s on  c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and  l a n d and  licensing.  i l l u s t r a t e s the d i v i s i o n of these  The  incorporated area  improvements, following  sources:  The  grants  outline  38  Miscellaneous  Fines -Service Charges -Licenses and -General-  R e c r e a t i o n and community s e r v i c e s -Rents and -Tax  and  School -Taxation-  Permits  commissions  interest  Taxation  r—Business S p e c i a l As-Municipal purpose sessment — R e a l Property Other  "Provincial rGov't. e n t e r p r i s e - - F e d e r a l ^-Municipal Contributions-Federal "and Grants liGov't. grant s-ProvincialOther  Local grants S o c i a l Assestance Other  39 Real property  t a x i s by f a r t h e l a r g e s t  of revenue of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . mately areas this  sixty  At the p r e s e n t  per cent of the t o t a l  i n the Province of B r i t i s h source.  In t h e  eighty-seven  per  time, approxi-  revenue f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d  United S t a t e s , t h i s tax levy  provides  government t a x  receipts.  tax c o n t r i b u t e s the g r e a t e s t share  m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e , i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n as a p e r c e n t a g e greatly  fluctuated.  I n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s and  t a x averaged about e i g h t y - f i v e r e c e i v e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  and  early  the  1930's t h e  During  per  property reve-  the depression  1940's, t h i s p r o p o r t i o n dropped to  of  has  per cent o f the t o t a l  nue  fifty-six  source  Columbia i s d e r i v e d from  cent of a l l l o c a l  Even though p r o p e r t y  single  years  approximately  cent only to climb again to s i x t y  per cent  in  1950»s. In t h i s p r o v i n c e , t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e  of r e a l  pro-  perty taxes  i s d e r i v e d from the t a x a t i o n of s i n g l e f a m i l y  homes.  remaining  teen  The  per  t a x e s , uihich r a i s e a l i t t l e  cent of the t o t a l  higher for larger  r e v e n u e , and  over  This percentage  cities.  the property tax accounts sixty  fif-  r e v e n u e , come f r o m t h e t a x a t i o n  of commercial p r o p e r t i e s . ly  over  For  a l l Canadian  f o r e i g h t y per  per  i s proportionatemunicipalities,  cent of t o t a l  cent of a l l revenues.  tax  2  H a r v e y S h a p i r o , " E c o n o m i e s o f S c a l e and L o c a l G o v e r n ment F i n a n c e , " L a n d E c o n o m i c s , Volume X L I X , 1 9 6 3 , p. 176. 1  C.H. G o l d e n b e r g , R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on p a l T a x a t i o n , W i n n i p e g , 1 9 5 8 , p. 5, 2  Munici-  40 Expenditures. Public expenditure as t h e spending services. province fire  o f money, by l o c a l  Every  hall,  The  and every  town a n d c i t y  office,  sizeable city  may be i n t e r p r e t e d  a u t h o r i t i e s , on m u n i c i p a l  incorporated village,  i n c l u d e s e i t h e r a post  stitution  police  i n this  station, or  h a s some g o v e r n m e n t i n -  or a c t i v i t i e s . following outline illustrates  of expenditures the  i n urban areas  forms  t h a t a r e i n c u r r e d by i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n  Province of B r i t i s h  -General  Expenditures  the various  Columbia.  Gov't.-  E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e -Administrative Other  Protection to -persons and — property  Administration of Justice -Fire -Police  Health  -Public Health -Medical and D e n t a l -Hospital cars -Other  -Social  Welfare  -Debt C h a r g e s  -Aid t o aged and b l i n d p e r s o n s - A i d t o u n e m p l o y e d & unemployabl -Child welfare  i—Debentures  and o t h e r  -Temporary d e b t  L-Other-  service  debts  charges  - P u b l i c works — S a n i t a t i o n and waste -Education -Recreation  removal  41 The amount o f money e x p e n d e d on m u n i c i p a l usually  conditions  the l e v e l of services that  for  t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a community.  the  residents  cipal fire  require  services.  They  a greater  are provided  As t h e community  grows,  number a n d v a r i e t y o f m u n i -  desire a higher  p r o t e c t i o n , more a n d b e t t e r  level  o f p o l i c e and  roads, increases  c o l l e c t i o n o f garbage and t h e c l e a n i n g amount o f o p e n s p a c e a n d p a r k l a n d , these desires that  services  i n the  of s t r e e t s , a larger  and so o n .  a r e i m p o s e d upon l o c a l  In a d d i t i o n t o  g o v e r n m e n t s , many  other  s e r v i c e s , which a r e not the d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  local  g o v e r n m e n t s , have a l s o t o be e x p a n d e d .  activities are  t h a t a r e mandatory  s o c i a l welfare  under p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n  services, health  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , and Not o n l y  municipal  and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n ,  education.  do l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s f a c e  having to maintain  and p r o v i d e  Among t h o s e  t h e problem o f  f o r an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f  s e r v i c e s f o r expanding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , but they  a l s o h a v e t o c o n t e n d w i t h many u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  expenditures.  These t y p e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s r e s u l t from t h e v e r y m i t s i n which l o c a l  l i -  governments can e i t h e r r a i s e o r lower t h e  e x p e n d i t u r e s on c e r t a i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , such as e d u c a t i o n , ries,  narrow  other  the provision of l i b r a -  and debt c h a r g e s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d  c a u s e e x p e n d i t u r e s on them  In a d d i t i o n ,  u n c o n t r o l l a b l e be-  a r e e i t h e r mandatory o r s t a t u t o r y .  42 T h e s e i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r b e t t e r m u n i c i p a l ces  heavily strain  the f i n a n c i a l  abilities  o f many  governments i n t h i s p r o v i n c e .  Those c i t i e s  ingly  t o s u f f e r most.  l a r g e o r very  s m a l l tend  servilocal  that are exceedThis  pheno-  menon i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d  by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n by  Shapiro  t h a t towns w i t h  who d i s c o v e r e d  than f i v e  p o p u l a t i o n s o f fewer  t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s s p e n t l a r g e r sums o f money p e r  c a p i t a on t o t a l  expenditures  attributed  r e l a t i o n s h i p to diseconomies of s m a l l - s c a l e  this  t h a n any o t h e r  size c i t y .  He  3  operations. Further  s t u d i e s h a v e a l s o shown t h a t p e r c a p i t a e x p e n -  ditures are closely related to density size.  Mabel Walker contended t h a t t h e r d  tionship sity. their rent  as w e l l as  between p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s Brazer  4  study  was a d i r e c t  u n d e r t a k e n by S c o t t  capita expenditures  5  A more c u r -  and Fader c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r  were n o t d i r e c t l y  related to various  itself,  but r a t h e r t o  those o f t h e growing suburban communities surrounding  these  areas.^ Shapiro,  The  den-  relationshipsi n  i n North America.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the central c i t y  central  rela-  and p o p u l a t i o n  and 8 r e c h a l s o f o u n d s i m i l a r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c i t i e s  population  o p . c i t . p. 182.  ^Mabel L. W a l k e r , M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ) , p. 1 1 7 .  (Baltimore:  H a r v e y E. B r a z e r , " C i t y E x p e n d i t u r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , O c c a s s i o n a l Paper 66, Bureau o f Economic R e s e a r c h , j n c , , 1959,*~~~ " ~~ ™~ 5  ^ S t a n l e y S c o t t and E.L. F a d e r , " F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d with V a r i a t i o n s i n M u n i c i p a l Expenditure L e v e l s " , Bureau o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 5 7 , p. 5 3 .  43 Municipal  Budget,  Municipal  e x p e n d i t u r e s a n d t h e amount o f t h e a n n u a l  general property t a x are determined  f o r e a c h f i s c a l y e a r by  t h e a d o p t i o n o f a b u d g e t by t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , budget, i n i t s broadest ments.  First,  sense,  A municipal  i s an e s t i m a t e o f t h r e e e l e -  t h e budget e s t i m a t e s t h e proposed  ures f o r a l l m u n i c i p a l purposes  expendit-  a s w e l l as an e s t i m a t e  a r d i n g t h e amount o f money t h a t i s t o be b o r r o w e d .  reg-  Second,  the budget e s t i m a t e s t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e v e n u e s f o r t h e coming year  from  levy.  a l l sources  except  from  the annual  property tax  T h i r d , t h e budget e s t i m a t e s t h e p r o p e r t y t a x l e v y  necessary  t o b r i n g t h e budget i n t o  balance.  A more  detailed  d i s c u s s i o n on t h e p r o g r a m m i n g o f m u n i c i p a l b u d g e t s c a n be found  i n Chapter  I I I o f M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t -  ion.^ Unlike the Federal or P r o v i n c i a l alities  governments,  a r e o b l i g e d by l a w , t o go t h r o u g h  budget b a l a n c i n g . trictions  This requirement  on b o r r o w i n g  which  the procedure  i s strengthened  u s u a l l y make  municip-  by  of res-  i tdifficult for  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o f u n d an o p e r a t i n g d e f i c i t .  These  restrict-  i o n s a r e o u t l i n e d u n d e r S e c t i o n s 247 a n d 249 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l 8 Act of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The m e t h o d s o f p r e p a r i n g a n d a d o p t i n g a b u d g e t a r e ^ M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1961, pp. 67-78. The Municipal A c t , the Province of B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a : 1965. 8  Columbia,  44 regulated i n a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas British cipal  C o l u m b i a by  Act;  i n the P r o v i n c e  By-Laws t h a t a r e c o n t a i n e d g  S e c t i o n s 198,  762,  and  778.  The  of  i n the powers  ves-  t e d i n m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s t o b o r r o w sums o f money outlined  u n d e r S e c t i o n s 264  When a b u d g e t has legislative and  and  813  outlining  poses t h a t are i n d i c a t e d of the property  been c o n s i d e r e d and  The  This rate, i n  ( t h a t i s , c e n t s on t h e  c u l a t e d by  the l e g i s l a t u r e .  orbitant mill  adopted  rate  tax levy i s a l s o determined.  The  applying a certain  hundred,  the d o l l a r ) i s then  value of the m i l l  cal-  rate i s  tax l e v y which w i l l  amount o f a n t i c i p a t e d m u n i c i p a l  or a p o r t i o n of i t .  the  i n the budget are passed.  t h e t h o u s a n d , o r m i l l s on  e i t h e r the f u l l  by  pur-  d o l l a r s on  is  accepted  a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r the v a r i o u s  t e r m s o f m i l l s on t h e d o l l a r  a r r i v e d a t by  are  o f t h e same A c t .  body o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t i s f i n a l l y  ordinances  Muni-  meet  expenditures,  S i n c e i t i s u n d e s i r a b l e t o i m p o s e an  r a t e , the budgeting  clerk  c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e by t h e l o c a l  ex-  a r r i v e s at a rate that  community as w e l l as  one  t h a t i s t h e most e c o n o m i c i n t e r m s o f p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e r e v e n u e t o pay  f o r a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the  In the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h vary  b e t w e e n 44.9  34.5  and  12.5  and  9.12  mills  expenditures.  Columbia, the m i l l  f o r municipal purposes,  f o r school purposes.  Investigation into  The M u n i c i p a l A c t , the Province of B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a , • 1 9 6 5 , pp. 3 0 5 3 , 3 2 5 8 , and 3 2 6 3 . 9  rates and these  Columbia,  r a t e s has  r e v e a l e d t h a t s m a l l e r communities impose  r a t e s than school  l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on  t h a t revenue o b t a i n e d  other general sources  anticipated apply  both m u n i c i p a l  and  purposes. In the event  and  lower  is  not  from l o c a l  sufficient  e x p e n d i t u r e s , the l o c a l  t o meet  C o u n c i l can  draw upon i t s l o c a l  grants are s t i l l  sinking  fund.  the  either  to the P r o v i n c i a l , F e d e r a l , or other m u n i c i p a l  ernments, or, i f these  taxes  inadequate,  gov-  i t can  However, i t i s v e r y  seldom t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t o r e v e r t t o t h e  latter.  Summary. This chapter  has  very  b a s i c p r a c t i c e s t h a t are for  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas  I t has  briefly  involved  in  outlined  municipal  But  this practice  inprovements,  issuing  p e r m i t s and  r e v e n u e f r o m o t h e r t a x e s and of these  sources The  was  chapter  i s limited  can,  Columbia.  by  statute,  to t a x i n g  l i c e n s e s , and  fines.  A detailed  the  finance  i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  indicated that local municipalities  r a i s e money.  some o f  local  collecting breakdown  included. a l s o m e n t i o n e d some o f t h e  problems t h a t confront l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The  financial mainten-  ance of a h i g h s t a n d a r d of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s f o r expanding areas  with l i m i t e d  critical  problem.  resources  probably  r e p r e s e n t s t h e most  46  E x a m p l e s were a l s o ationship cities. ions  enditures  to i l l u s t r a t e  the r e l -  b e t w e e n p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e s i z e o f This  that  included  thesis will  smaller  illustrate  a very  s k e t c h y o u t l i n e r e l a t i n g t o budget f o r incorporated  province  Chapter  was p r e s e n t e d .  i n the Province  unable to r a i s e s u f f i c i e n t  III  areas i n t h i s  indicated that a l l  of B r i t i s h  Columbia are  revenue from l o c a l  sources to  meet a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s .  Consequently, they r e l y very  upon e x t e r n a l  The d e g r e e t o w h i c h e a c h  ality  relies  chapter.  sources.  exp-  than l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  p r o c e d u r e s and p r a c t i c e s  municipalities  sect-  communities i n c u r lower per c a p i t a  on p u b l i c s e r v i c e s  Finally,  i n subsequent  upon t h i s s o u r c e i s d i s c u s s e d  heavily  municip-  i n the f o l l o w i n g  CHAPTER THE  IV  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CITY AND  SIZE  MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE  Since thB purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to determine  the  optimum s i z e o f u r b a n c e n t r e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f  British  C o l u m b i a by  efficiency  equating municipal expenditures  o f s e r v i c e , an t u r e s may  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the present-day  prove m i s l e a d i n g .  p e r i o d are inadequate in  that these  wider  with  For, s t a t i s t i c s  when f o r m u l a t i n g s u c h  v a l u e s may  expendi-  from a one-year a  relationship  not r e f l e c t the o v e r a l l  t i m e p e r i o d s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e ba a p p l i e d .  An  investi-  gation i n t o the past trends of municipal expenditures n o t o n l y r e v e a l w h e t h e r t h e present«=day f i g u r e s a r e t a t i v e o f t h i s t r e n d but a l s o i f t h e s e used as r e l i a b l e The sent  i s to analyze  t r e n d s of per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e  number o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and relation  would  represen-  r e s u l t s should  i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e optimum s i z e o f  object of t h i s chapter  A  trends.  ba  cities.  t h e p a s t and  pre-  costs for a selected  to see  b e t w e e n t h e e x t e n t o f c o s t s and  i f t h e r e i s any the s i z e of  cor-  the  urban c e n t r e . I.  TABULATION AND  Sample S i z e .  Although  CLASSIFICATION there are over  two  hundred  i n c o r p o r a t e d communities i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  un-  Columbia  48 they  have not  been i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e s i s as no  regarding their  expenditures  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas  i s available.  provide necessary  be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  information  As o n l y  the  information that  t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s ,  can  these  c e n t r e s h a v e been i n v e s t i g a t e d . There are at the present e i g h t t o w n s , and British  time  thirty-one cities  Columbia.  fifty-eight  villages,  that are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n  From a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f  centres a large discrepancy  was  found  between  these  expenditures  f o r v a r i o u s municipal s e r v i c e s of centres with s i m i l a r  pop-  ulations.  high  as f i f t y  Due  to t h i s  per cent  d i s c r e p a n c y , a random s a m p l e a s  would not  necessarily result  in a  high  1  degree of a c c u r a c y . all  I t was  incorporated villages,  of B r i t i s h  therefore decided  t o w n s , and  C o l u m b i a as t h e s a m p l e  Class  Interval.  The  o f i n d i v i d u a l s each h a v i n g  term  cities  to i n c l u d e  i n the  Province  size. " c l a s s " a p p l i e s to a  certain similar  group  properties.  A  c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d v a l u e s i n a samp l e and  each c l a s s  variable. The  In t h i s  numerical  class interval  c o v e r s t h e same r a n g e o f v a l u e s o f  the  s e c t i o n , population) r e p r e s e n t s the  variable.  range between each c l a s s and  i s r e f e r r e d t o as  t h e number o f v a r i a t e s i n e a c h c l a s s i s  G . I r v i n g G a v e t t , S t a t i s t i c a l M e t h o d . (New M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 142. 1  the  York:  49 c a l l e d the c l a s s frequency.  The f o l l o w i n g  example  illus-  t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the above-mentioned terms. Population  Class  500  Number o f c i t i e s i n each c l a s s  1  18  2  12  1,000 - 1,499  3  8  1,500 - 1,999  4  7  2,000 - 2,499  5  4  500  The the  Number  - 999  variable  i s p o p u l a t i o n , the variatesI are c i t i e s ,  c l a s s i n t e r v a l i s 500, and the c l a s s frequency i s 18 f o r  C l a s s one. The  s e l e c t i o n o f the most e f f e c t i v e c l a s s i n t e r v a l  p r e s e n t s many problems i n t h a t  t h i s value c o n d i t i o n s  frequency as w e l l as the number o f c l a s s e s ned.  both the  that can be o b t a i -  Table I i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c l a s s  i n t e r v a l and the c l a s s frequency when the p o p u l a t i o n o f i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i s used as the v a r i a b l e  f o r the year 1965.  TABLE I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS INTERVAL, CLASS FREQUENCY AND POPULATION  Population 2,000 2,000 - 3,999 4,000 - 5,999 6,000 - 7,999  Class  Number 1 2 3 4  Frequency 51 18 6 5  50 TABLE I (continued)  Population 8,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 11,999 12,000 - 13,999 14,000 Class  5 6 7 8  A 4 4 5  1 2 3 4 5 6  64 10 6 7 ^ 4 6  1 2 3 4 5 6  67 12 8 5 0 5  1 2 3 4  74 9 9 6  I n t e r v a l - 3,000  4,000 4,000 - 7,999 8,000 ~ 11,999 12,000 - 15,999 16,000 - 19,999 20,000 Class  Frequency  I n t e r v a l - 2,000  3,000 3,000 - 5,999 6,000 - 8,999 9,000 - 11,999 12,000 - 14,999 15,000 Class  C l a s s Number  I n t e r v a l - 4,000  5,000 5,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 14,999 15,000 C l a s s I n t e r v a l - 5,000  From t h i s t a b l e i t i s evident  t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n  the c l a s s i n t e r v a l tends t o smooth out i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the  51 variation of frequencies.  The s e l e c t i o n t h e r e f o r e , o f t h e  most e f f e c t i v e c l a s s i n t e r v a l bution,  i n terms o f frequency  was a t t a i n e d by a p p l y i n g  a class interval  to the  sample s i z e t h a t produced t h e l e a s t v a r i a t i o n o f in  the higher  class.  I f a very  small  interval  distri-  frequencies  was u s e d i t  w o u l d r e s u l t i n a l a r g e number o f c l a s s e s a n d d i s p r o p o r t i o n ate  number o f f r e q u e n c i e s ,  would c r e a t e of  a n d i f a l a r g e r one was a d o p t e d i t  a l a r g e number o f f r e q u e n c i e s  and a s m a l l  number  classes. A c l a s s i n t e r v a l o f 5,000 was s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s  t h a t such a value tribution  would provide  of frequencies  b o t h t h e most u n i f o r m  i n the higher  more m a n a g e a b l e number o f c l a s s e s .  c l a s s e s , as w e l l as a  With regard  ter  c o n t r i b u t i o n , i t was f e l t  six  c l a s s e s o f community s i z e s f o r a p r o v i n c e  seventy-five  sufficient ever, and  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s  number o f f r e q u e n c i e s  i f the Province  contained  class interval The  h a v e been  over  contain  w o u l d r e s u l t i n an i n -  with  of B r i t i s h  i n which  centres  which t o work.  C o l u m b i a twere more  many l a r g e r t o w n s a n d c i t i e s , could  to the l a t -  t h a t c o n s t r u c t i n g more t h a n  percent of a l l incorporated  l e s s than f i v e  dis-  adopted.  Howurbanized  then a l a r g e r  2  c l a s s i n t e r v a l o f 5,000 was f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d  include a larger d i s t r i b u t i o n of frequencies  i n Class  one a s  T h e s m a l l e s t s a m p l e s i z e a d o p t e d bv M.L. W a l k e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 . ( M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s , Op. c i t . ) , p . 1 1 2 . 2  to  was  52 the o r i g i n a l  value  of the t o t a l  sample s i z e .  f o r m u l a t e d as  (f=74) r e p r e s e n t e d seventy The f i n a l  per cent  class structure  was  follows:  Population  C l a s s Number  1,250 1 ,250 - 2,499 2,500 4,999 5,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 14,999 15,000  Frequency  1 2 3 4 5 6  S e l e c t i o n o f Time P e r i o d . a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o cipal  five  42 14 18 9 9 6  S i n c e t i m e does not  permit  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e e f f i c i e n c y  muni-  of service of a l l i n -  corporated areas s i n c e the t u r n of the century, only the m o s t c u r r e n t v a l u e s h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d .  However,  to determine whether o r not the present-day between p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and c i t y rated areas  i n order  relationships  sizes for incorpo-  r e p r e s e n t an a c c e p t a b l e f i g u r e t h a t c a n be u s e d  to r e l a t e expenditures with e f f i c i e n c y ,  i t i s necessary  a s s e s s whether these c u r r e n t v a l u e s r e f l e c t  to  the past trends.  F o r e x a m p l e , when a n a l y z i n g t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f p r e v i o u s y e a r s , i t m i g h t be f o u n d t h a t l a r g e r c i t i e s , on t h e one are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of having higher per c a p i t a for  hand,  expenditures  r e c r e a t i o n , w h e r e a s on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s m a l l e r communi-  t i e s may services.  have h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l If similar  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are found t o e x i s t  be-  tween t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a s t y e a r s and t h o s e o f t h e p r e -  sent-day,  then  one  representative expenditures To establish with  and  five  the  vestigation  accurate  tigation  into  in  many  rors  up  to  the to  the  time  following  sons  for  fold,,  In  not the  ted  villages  a l l  municipal  welfare,  a  from  time  for  of  was upon  Had  years:  prior  place, to  1951  services.  education,  and  incorporated  conducted  The  the  for  no  of  i n -  for  not  the  values  An  inves-  intermediate  was  taken)  proved  represented  population per  this  population  census  these  every  reason  approximations.  capita  er-  figures costs  been  would  error. for  1951,  results  expenditures  selected  that  to  compared.  for  years.  expenditure  selected  analyzing f i r s t  are  municipal  necessary  past  approximations  corresponding  period  is  census  figures  which  percent.  census  figures  between  be  figures  the  these  the  i t  can  intervals  years  incidences  contain  findings  population  years  twenty  current  investigating  based  formulation  The  for  with  were  the  i s ,  that  tend  actual  them  (that  relationship,  obtainable  intermediate to  the  relationship  population  coincided  assigned  used,  this  present-day  the  that  size.  period  time  years,  years  city  a  only  including  overall  at  Since are  the  conclude  arrive  which  areas  of  may  53  from  investigation 1956  1961.  previous  the  budget  did  not  sheets  contain  Expenditures recreation  and  in  were  years for  The were  reatwo-  incorpora-  expenditures  public not  included  for  health,  included.  The  54 absence o f these v a l u e s , which are necessary a r e l a t i o n s h i p between expenditure and c i t y provide s u f f i c i e n t present-day The  f o r formulating s i z e , would not  i n f o r m a t i o n with which to compare the  relationships. second  reason was t h a t i n years p r i o r to 1951  over e i g h t y - f i v e percent o f a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s ,  towns,  and v i l l a g e s c o n t a i n e d l e s s than f i v e thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , and over e i g h t y percent l e s s than t w e n t y - f i v e hundred.  Had  these f i g u r e s been used, an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l a s s frequencies.would  have r e s u l t e d .  t e r v a l o f f i v e thousand  I f the proposed  class i n -  had been a p p l i e d to the census r e -  s u l t s o f years p r i o r to 1951, the f o l l o w i n g frequency  distri-  b u t i o n would be o b t a i n e d : Year 1945 Population 1,250 1,250 - 2,499 2,500 - 4,999 5,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 14,999 15,000  C l a s s Number 1  2 3 4 5 6 Total  Frequency  %  39 31 6 8 0 __3  44.8 35.7 6.8 9.3 0 3.4  87  100.0  Year 1941 Population 1,250 1,250 - 2,499 2,500 - 4,999 5,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 14,999  C l a s s Number 1 2 3 4 5  Frequency  %',•  26 49.0 11 20.8 5 9.4 8 15.1 0 0 continued,...  55 Population  C l a s s Number  15,000  Frequency  6 Total II.  the  ties,  provide  penditure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  of the  individual  city  100.0  contained  in  incorporated municipalibe  used to c o r r e l a t e ex-  size.  Education the  second part of t h i s t h e s i s deals with  services with t h e i r  s e r v i c e s w h i c h e i t h e r do do n o t  53  G e n e r a l Government P r o t e c t i o n t o P e r s o n s and P r o p e r t y P u b l i c Works S a n i t a t i o n and Waste R e m o v a l Health S o c i a l Welfare R e c r e a t i o n and Community S e r v i c e s  Since  or  expenditures,  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can  costs with  8.  municipal  5.7  Expenditures.  following municipal  budget s h e e t s  _3  MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURES  S e l e c t i o n of M u n i c i p a l The  %  h a v e any  not  e f f i c i e n c y , there are  l o c a l money e x p e n d e d t o w a r d . t h e i r  These s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e G e n e r a l  Health  facilities,  t i o n o f J u s t i c e and i n c l u d i n g the  expenditures  S o c i a l Welfare  Government  s e r v i c e s , and  Police Protection.  above s e r v i c e s a r e  General  several  lend themselves to t h i s  tion.  Government.  are o b t a i n a b l e  briefly  Although  The  approach opera-  activities, Administra-  reasons f o r  discussed  general  rating  not  as f o l l o w s .  governmental  for a l l incorporated  areas,  56 there  is  at  efficiency processes It  would  of  be  a  six  dollars ding  which for  the  these  Provincial nities fore  do  not  taken  villages,  (which  sample  size,)  analysis  included  in  of  did  Act  which  and  in  a c t i v i t y  this  expenditure  of  governmental  been  public  care  of  health  represent  of  Columbia,  this  financial  f i f t y - n i n e  contribute  expenditures  any  and  den-  the  small  commu-  and  their  thereannual  incorporated  percent  towards  regar-  thesis.  aid  in  nine  services,  by  many  North  than  medical  expenditures the  the  subsidized  thirty-eight  health  in  capi-  than  inadequacy  health,  are  British  advantage  included  of  the  health  has  not  total  service, been  section.  Welfare. states  Section  that:  639,  a  provides  less  of  has  per  government  efficiency not  a  general  this  of  public  community.  Coupe  persons  the  l e g i s l a t i v e  to  hospital  not  Pouce  measure  and  individual  seventy for  to  Due  Since  any  an  that  capita  may  executive,  service  thirty-nine  this  Social Municipal  of  have  include  Since  effective  in  service.  Government  have  and  of  Health. and  out  assume  per  same  budgets.  an  a  expenditures  services,  na  dollars  level  measurement  Public tal  ten  has  the  to  hundred  of  e f f i c i e n t  Kamloops  carried  erroneous of  time,  administrative,  are  expenditure more  present  the  that  population ta  the  subsection  3  of  the  57 The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may exempt any m u n i c i p a l i t y from p r o v i d i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y i f i t s p o p u l a t i o n does not e x c e e d two thousand f i v e hundred persons. 3 By village  t a k i n g advantage of t h i s  contributed  financial  f a r e s e r v i c e s i n 1965.  As  a g e s i n 1965  represented  sample s i z e ,  the  o f t o w n s and  cities  accurate not  result.  included  important  with  the  number o f i n c o r p o r a t e d  over s i x t y  per  cent of the welfare  expenditures  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but  are  P r o t e c t i o n and  vill-  total  represent  were  on  an  therefore  obviously  i n further research  wel-  expenditures  s i z e of c i t y would not  Social welfare  consideration  incorporated  a s s i s t a n c e towards s o c i a l  c o r r e l a t i o n of s o c i a l  in this  Police  e x e m p t i o n , no  this  an subject.  Administration of J u s t i c e .  The  t h r e e major a c t i v i t i e s which comprise p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s fire,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e , fewer than t w e n t y - f i v e from m a i n t a i n i n g or v i l l a g e  this  service.  have a l s o not  As  been  T h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , The V i c t o r i a : 1965, p. 3221. Ibid.,  p.  4  I n 1965  no  this  number o f  3224.  the  containing  law,  exempt  incorporated  s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n s e v e n t y per  3  4  areas  money t o w a r d s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e .  expenditures  a l l incorporated  Concerning  h u n d r e d p e r s o n s a r e , by  e x p e n d e d any  areas represents  police.  are  town the  incorporated cent,  these  included, Province  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  58 In t h e c a s e o f p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , t h e r e present time only Columbia that incorporated Police.  eight  cities  i n the Province  of British  m a i n t a i n t h e i r own p o l i c e f o r c e .  A l l other  a r e a s a r e p o l i c e d by t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n M o u n t e d  As t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n M o u n t e d P o l i c e come u n d e r t h e  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Federal eight  communities s e l e c t e d  Government o f C a n a d a ,  been c o n s i d e r e d The  the  only  thesis i s fire  responsible brigade.  i n this  protective  service  protection.  f o rmaintaining  as one a c t i v i t y  do  h a s been i n c l u d e d i n  Each i n c o r p o r a t e d i t s own  fire  are available f o r the entire  f o r measuring the e f f i c i e n c y of s e r v i c e h a s been  and c i t y  e l i m i n a t i n g those municipal  o r w h i c h c a n n o t be e q u a t e d w i t h  services  which  5  detail  efficiency of service,  e x p e n d i t u r e s h a v e been  The s e l e c t i o n of c r i t e r i a  i n C h a p t e r IV/.  either  governments  p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, s a n i t a t i o n , education,  recreation  selected  size.  n o t come u n d e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o c a l  fire  area i s  which t o f o r m u l a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p  between e x p e n d i t u r e c o s t s By  that  are available,^ this with  s e r v i c e has t h e r e f o r e  and o p e r a t i n g  As e x p e n d i t u r e c o s t s  protection  This  thesis.  sample s i z e , and as c r i t e r i a fire  ninety-  i n t h e s a m p l e d i d n o t e x p e n d any  money t o w a r d s p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n . not  are at the  only and  investigated.  i s discussed  i n greater  59 III. Fire  TRENDS IN MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURES  Protection. Between 1936  and 1945,  expenditures i n f i r e  t i o n f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s rose from  protec-  4.5  per cent o f  the t o t a l m u n i c i p a l expenditure to 6 per c e n t .  Similarly,  during the same p e r i o d , f i r e v i l l a g e s rose from p e n d i t u r e to 3.6  expenditure f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d  1 per cent of t h e i r t o t a l m u n i c i p a l  per c e n t .  Between 1951  a?nd 1965,  ex-  the per  c a p i t a expenditure on f i r e has i n c r e a s e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y with time as w e l l as with i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n v e s t i g a t e d , per c a p i t a f i r e e x h i b i t the most uniform  relationship.  i l l u s t r a t e these phenomena.  Of the  five  expenditures  Graph 1 and Diagram 1  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , which i s a  summation of the per c a p i t a f i r e  expenditures f o r Tables I I I  to  VI i n c l u s i v e c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix A, was  both Graph 1 and Diagram  used to c o n s t r u c t  1. TABLE II  AVERAGE PER CAPITA FIRE EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES ACCORDING TO CLASSES  Year  One  Two  1951 1956 1961 1965  3 .86 1.84 2.03 2.45  S1.06 1.92 2.13 2.47  C l a s s e s Three Four $2.37 2.76 3.19 3.50  $3.55 4.18 5.14 4.40  Five  Six  03.64 1.08 5.50 6.10  $7.35 8.82 12.10 10.11  1951  1956  GRAPH PER  1961  1966  I  CAPITA EXPENDITURES FIRE PROTECTION FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX  CLASS CLASS CLASS  ONE TWO THREE  CLASS CLASS CLASS  FOUR FIVE SIX  ON  61  8  2I  i-  co u  D:  iQ  a.  X LU  < < O LU  0.  _ CC — LO IO IT) 10 ID CD <D CD CD  CLASS ONE  CLASS TWO  CLASS THREE  CLASS FOUR  DIAGRAM PER  CLASS FIVE  CLASS SIX  I  CAPITA EXPENDITURES FIRE PROTECTION FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX  ON  62 From t h i s t a b l e , one  can conclude t h a t l a r g e r  munici-  p a l i t i e s have h i g h e r per c a p i t a f i r e e x p e n d i t u r e s , and t h a t these v a l u e s i n c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y through  time.  P u b l i c Works. During the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were faced with high unemployment r e l i e f  c o s t s , a shortage o f l a -  bour and m a t e r i a l s , and a d e c l i n e i n the percentage returns.  Consequently,  o f tax  many i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s , towns and  v i l l a g e s economized on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s by d e f e r r i n g  ex-  p e n d i t u r e s on t h e i r maintenance and  pu-  b l i c works s e c t o r was  improvements.  The  s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by such a c t i o n s , and  i n the 1930*s the per c a p i t a expenditures on p u b l i c works reached  i t s lowest p o i n t .  As burdens d e c l i n e d and m u n i c i p a l  f i n a n c e s improved, p u b l i c works expenditures began to i n c r e a s e again. In a l l c i t i e s ,  e x c l u d i n g Vancouver,  expenditures rose from 5.8 expenditures i n 1936 i n 1945.  In 1945,  to 9.6  p u b l i c works  per cent of the t o t a l m u n i c i p a l per cent of the t o t a l  expenditures  p u b l i c works expenditures r e p r e s e n t e d  over  f o r t y - o n e per cent of the t o t a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s i n the Province o f B r i t i s h Today, t h i s percentage per c e n t . i n 1945  The  Columbia.  has d e c l i n e d to l e s s than s i x t e e n  reason f o r such a high percentage  i s a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t education  for villages services,  63 which c u r r e n t l y expenditures  comprise approximately  one h a l f o f t h e  total  f o r v i l l a g e s , were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d were n o t f i n a n c e d by t h e l o c a l municipality. Since  1951, p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s  on p u b l i c  works  f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s a r e c o n t a i ned  i nTables  I I I t o V I i n c l u s i v e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x A.  The  summation o f t h e s e  results  i soutlined  i nTable  VII.  TABLE V I I AVERAGE PER CAPITA PUBLIC WORKS EXPENDITURES FOR A L L INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S ACCORDING TO CLASSES  Year 1951 1956 1961 1965  One  Two  86.51 7.61 8.84 11.47  §6.77 11.99 11.35 10.52  C l a s s e s Three Four 810.79 12.69 15.83 15.45  S10.87 15.09 16.75 17.32  Five  Six  $10.70 13.59 15.00 17.86  &11.23 9.92  11.00  10.60  From a n a l y z i n g t h i s t a b l e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h 2 a n d D i a g r a m 2, two phenomena a r e a p p a r e n t . t h a t with the exception o f C l a s s s i x there  The f i r s t i s  is a distinct  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s i z e o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y per  capita  expenditures  on p u b l i c w o r k s .  and i t s  As m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n up t o t h e f i f t e e n t h o u s a n d there  i s a corresponding  Class s i x c i t i e s  increase i npercapita  (populations greater than  Graph  level,  expenditures.  f i f t e e n thousand)  64  S  20  f  ui  0  1 1951  1956  GRAPH  1961  1966  2  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON PUBLIC WORKS FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX  CLASS CLASS CLASS  ONE TWO THREE  CLASS CLASS CLAS S  65  B  2J •  co  CLASS ONE  CLASS TWO  CLASS THREE  CLASS FOUR  DIAGRAM PER  CAPITA  PUBLIC  CLASS FIVE  2  EXPENDITURES  WORKS FOR ONE TO  SIX  CLASS SIX  ON  CLASSES  t e n d t o have l o w e r v a l u e s than t h o s e The  reason  for this  discrepancy  small c l a s s frequency  fifteen  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  and  1965  by T a b l e  o n l y two  two  and s i x .  e x c e p t i o n s were s l i g h t  S a n i t a t i o n and  had  and  the expenditure  per  period.  variations i n Classes  Waste R e m o v a l .  P r i o r t o 1945,  s a n i t a t i o n and  waste removal  t i e s were i n c l u d e d i n p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . p u b l i c h e a l t h and  rated c i t i e s ,  with the exception of Vancouver,  percentage  was  ex-  sanitation for a l l incorporepresented  per cent o f the t o t a l m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s .  same y e a r , t h i s  activi-  I n 1945  p e n d i t u r e s on  3.4  the  VII  p u b l i c works i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e  The  five.  thousand.  o t h e r phenomenon i l l u s t r a t e d  G r a p h 2 i s t h a t b e t w e e n 1951 c a p i t a on  to  o f C l a s s s i x as o n l y t h r e e c i t i e s  p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r than The  can  f o r C l a s s e s two  4,5  In  the  for a l l incorporated  villages. S i n c e 1945,  s a n i t a t i o n and  h a v e been s e p a r a t e d day,  expenditure  T a b l e V I I I , w h i c h has I I I t o VI  been c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m  and  s i z e , and and  the  i n c l u s i v e c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x A,  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between per  expenditures  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  time.  to-  account.  t e s both city  expenditures  f r o m p u b l i c h e a l t h e x p e n d i t u r e s , and  form a d i s t i n c t  Tables  waste: r e m o v a l  G r a p h 3 and  capita  illustra-  expenditures  between per  capita  Diagram 3 d e p i c t  the  67  co  B  12  Ul  cc H Q Z Ul Q. X  < a. < o cc Ul a.  1951  1956  GRAPH  1961  1966  3  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON SANITATION FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX  CLASS CLASS CLASS  ONE TWO THREE  CLASS CLASS CLASS  FOUR FIVE SIX  111! !§i! nil iiii nil 8|3 §  CLASS ONE  CLASS TWO  CLASS THREE  CLASS FOUR  DIAGRAM  CLASS FIVE  CLASS SIX  3  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON SANITATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX  69 overall  relationship  sanitation  and  between per  capita  w a s t e r e m o v a l and TABLE  the  expenditures  s i z e of  the  on  municipality.  VIII  AVERAGE PER CAPITA SANITATION AND WASTE REMOVAL EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S ACCORDING TO CLASSES  One  Year 1951 1956 1961 1965  C 1 a s s e s Three Four  Two  $1.12 1.26 2.27 2.99  $  .87 2.08 3.59 5.40  and  the  the  relationship  accompanying diagram  t i o n and  waste  $3.55 4.69 5.92 8.49  $2.74 3.43 5.68 7.29  s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s are  Two  between per  r e m o v a l and  Five $3.28 4.66 7.36 8.75  illustrated  $3.92 3.78 5.50 7.00  i n Table  The f i r s t  and g r a p h . capita  Six  expenditures  VIII  concerns on s a n i t a -  Those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  city size.  whose p o p u l a t i o n r a n g e s b e t w e e n f i v e and  f i f t e e n thousand  (classes  capita  res  f o u r and  than the  investigated between per m o v a l and The one  f i v e ) have g r e a t e r per  larger  cities.  U n l i k e the  city  e x p e n d i t u r e s on  direct  sanitation  services  correlation  and  waste  re-  size.  other interesting  e x c e p t i o n , per  capita  phenomenon i s t h a t  e x p e n d i t u r e s on  w a s t e r e m o v a l i n c r e a s e more u n i f o r m l y capita  other four  i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e i s no capita  expenditu-  e x p e n d i t u r e s on  the  with  only  sanitation  and  with time than  per  remaining four services.  The  70 e x c e p t i o n , which i s only of minor s i g n i f i c a n c e , d e v i a t i o n i n C l a s s s i x per One  capita expenditures  could t h e r e f o r e conclude  t h a t , on  i s the during  t h e one  on  sanitation  w a s t e r e m o v a l i s f o r them t o c o n t i n u e  i n c r e a s i n g ; and  per  capita  not  1956. hand,  the t r e n d f o r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s  o t h e r h a n d , t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s do  slight  and  reflect  on  the  higher  expenditures.  Education. P r i o r t o 1888, the f u l l and  the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia  c o s t of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r both  unorganized  areas.  t i o n were p a s s e d  on  growing  B e t w e e n 1920  cities.  tribution t h a n one  by  A f t e r 1888,  of the t o t a l  p a i d t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n by Expenditures day  t o be  1945, per  the l a r g e s t  these  expenditures  and  nancing  annual  single  w e r e , and  The  less  areas. still  continue  toIn  c o n s t i t u t e d more t h a n t h i r t y - t w o  1948,  in cities  t o w n s and  excluding  responsible for and  capita expenditures  incorporated c i t i e s ,  con-  t h a t were  fi-  incorporated  c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s s e r v i c e u n t i l  average per  major  item i n m u n i c i p a l budgets.  I n c o r p o r a t e d t o w n s were n o t  d i d not  educa-  slightly  expenditures  a l l incorporated  educational services until  villages  on  the p r o v i n c i a l  costs represented  education  expenditures  1945,  cent of t o t a l m u n i c i p a l expenditures  Vancouver.  all  on  incorporated  the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o t h e  towards education third  bore  1950.  on e d u c a t i o n  v i l l a g e s are o u t l i n e d  for in  Table  IX.  The r e s u l t s f r o m  G r a p h 4 a n d D i a g r a m 4.  t h i s table are i l l u s t r a t e d  More d e t a i l e d  by  results regarding the  p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e s I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e  i n Appendix  A.  TABLE IX AVERAGE PER CAPITA EDUCATION EXPENDITURES FOR INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S , ACCORDING TO CLASSES  Year  One  Two  1951 1956 1961 1965  $2.30 12.70 24.08 32.78  $6.30 12.10 25.56 34.35  Several  C l a s s e s Three Four $13.44 13.50 29.00 39.01  interesting  IX and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t h a t 1956 was a y e a r in  $17.30 16.60 26.75 42.65  Five  Six  $15.10 16.16 35.56 45.11  $20.92 20.76 36.67 46.34  features are indicated  graph  i n which  ALL  and d i a g r a m .  from  Table  The f i r s t i s  t h e r e was an a b s o l u t e d e c l i n e  p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n i n C l a s s e s f o u r and  six,  and r e l a t i v e A second  d e c l i n e s i n a l l c l a s s e s except  factor  regards the r e l a t i o n s h i p  c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n a n d c i t y three cases, there i s a d i s t i n c t  size.  relationship  C l a s s one. between per In a l l but  between per  c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e s i z e o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y  i n that  l a r g e r c e n t r e s h a v e h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n than  s m a l l e r communities.  The t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s t o  t h i s t r e n d are the per c a p i t a expenditure values f o r C l a s s  1951  1956  1961  GRAPH PER  CAPITA  EDUCATION ONE  CLASS ONE CLASS TWO CLASS. THREE  4  EXPENDITURES FOR TO  1966  ON  CLASSES SIX  CLASS CLASS CLASS  73  CLASS ONE  CLASS TWO  CLASS THREE  CLASS FOUR  DIAGRAM PER  CAPITA  EDUCATION ONE  CLASS FIVE  4  EXPENDITURES FOR TO  CLASS SIX  ON  CLASSES SIX  f i v e i n 1951 The  and last  investigation  1956,  Class four i n  concerns the o v e r a l l  education.  variations  i n Classes  t r e n d i n per  With the exceptions f o u r and  capita expenditures  from  this  c a p i t a expen-  o f two  slight  s i x , Graph 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t  r a p i d l y increase with time.  c o u l d t h e r e f o r e conclude t h a t per education  1961.  s i g n i f i c a n t point that i s revealed  d i t u r e s on  per  and  One  capita expenditures  on  i n c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h t i m e as w e l l as  with  size of m u n i c i p a l i t y . Recreation. Prior porated  t o 1945,  expenditures  I n 1936,  these  activities  cent  of t o t a l municipal  cent  for incorporated villages. for cities The  Tables  recreation for incor-  areas p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t e d of maintaining  cemeteries.  2.7  on  and  represented  for c i t i e s ,  for villages  contained  r e l a t i o n s h i p between per  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and  the  and per  1.7  These p e r c e n t a g e s r o s e  d e c l i n e d t o 0.6  inclusive  1.9  and  in  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , w h i c h been c o n s t r u c t e d  I I I t o VI  t r a t e s the  expenditures  parks  i n A p p e n d i x A,  per to  1945. from  the  illus-  capita expenditures  s i z e of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  on  75 TABLE X AVERAGE PER CAPITA RECREATION EXPENDITURES FOR ALL INCORPORATED VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES, ACCORDING TO CLASSES  Year  One  Two  1951 1956 1961 1965  $ .73 1.43 2.24 3.34  31.03 1.49 3.05 6.57  C l a s s e s Three Four $1.64 3.00 5.54 6.18  $2.96 5.44 6.99 7.78  Five  Six  $2.74 4.64 8.33 11.52  $4.67 6.95 12.13 15.18  Graph 5 and Diagram 5 i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a expenditures on r e c r e a t i o n and c i t y and  size,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a expenditures and  time r e s p e c t i v e l y . mena are e v i d e n t .  From o b s e r v i n g both of these, two phenoThe f i r s t  i s that  there i s a very  close  c o r r e l a t i o n between per c a p i t a expenditures on r e c r e a t i o n and  the s i z e o f the i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y .  minor d e v i a t i o n s ,  Except f o r two  l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of having h i g h e r per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s .  The two  devia-  t i o n s occur i n the per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r C l a s s i n 1951 and C l a s s  four  f i v e i n 1956.  The second phenomenon i s t h a t there i s a uniform r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a expenditures on r e c r e a t i o n and time i n t h a t the per c a p i t a v a l u e s have p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n creased between 1951 and 1965,  76  8  16  r  0  1951  1956  GRAPH  1961  1966  5  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON RECREATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX  CLASS CLASS CLASS  ONE TWO THREE  CLASS CLASS CLASS  77  CLASS ONE  CLASS TWO  CLASS THREE  CLASS FOUR  DIAGRAM  CLASS FIVE  5  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES "ON RECREATION FOR CLASSES ONE TO SIX  CLASS SIX  78 Total  Expenditures. Finally,  i n o r d e r t o make a c o m p l e t e  between p e r c a p i t a ual  expenditures and-the s i z e o f t h e i n d i v i d -  municipalities,  i t i s necessary  s h i p between p e r c a p i t a s e r v i c e s and c i t y from  comparison  t o analyze the r e l a t i o n -  e x p e n d i t u r e s on a l l m u n i c i p a l  sizes.  Table X I , which  data contained i n Tables  A p p e n d i x A, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s  h a s been c o n s t r u c t e d  I I I t o VI i n c l u s i v e i n relationship.  TABLE X I AVERAGE PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON TOTAL MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR A L L INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS, AND C I T I E S ACCORDING TO CLASSES  C l a s s e s Year  One  Two  Three  Four  Five  Six  1951 1956 1961 1965  833.1 50.8 80.0 90.8  $40.7 65.9 80.3 98.0  $65.9 78.9 117.3 131.1  $79.6 95.7 121.6 166.4  $82.0 97.5 138.6 181.3  $91.7 103.0 152.3 182.1  From i n v e s t i g a t i n g and  diagram,  two p r o m i n e n t  that there i s a direct ditures  and c i t y  size.  Table X I and t h e accompanying features stand out.  relationship With  The f i r s t i s  between p e r c a p i t a  no e x c e p t i o n s , l a r g e r  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h a v i n g h i g h e r t o t a l p e r c a p i t a ditures  graph  expen-  cities expen-  t h a n s m a l l e r towns and v i l l a g e s . The  second  p o i n t r e v e a l e d from  cerns the c o r r e l a t i o n  the investigation  between p e r c a p i t a  con-  e x p e n d i t u r e s and  79  Graph 6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t  time. all  municipal  only  services increased  exception  creased  p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on  being  Classes  uniformly  with  one a n d s i x w h i c h b o t h i n -  absolutely. The  foregoing  a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g per c a p i t a  e x p e n d i t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has s u b s t a n t i a t e d hypothesis It  time, the  outlined i n the introductory  i s the contention  municipal  the i n i t i a l  chapter of the t h e s i s .  of this thesis that  smaller  municipali-  t i e s do n o t e x p e n d a s much money p e r c a p i t a t o w a r d s t h e o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f m u n i c i p a l cities. but dual the  Not o n l y  i s this  s e r v i c e s a s do l a r g e r  the case f o r t o t a l  a l s o t h e same c o n d i t i o n h o l d s t r u e service that initial  was s e l e c t e d .  hypothesis  that  rated municipality i s directly  regarding  One c o u l d  states:  expenditures, each  therefore  indiviverify  "The s i z e o f an  incorpo-  proportional to i t s per capita  expenditures." Since  t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s  mine whether o r not c u r r e n t reflect are  the past.trends,  representative  have i l l u s t r a t e d larity  use  services with  values  i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e 1965 r e s u l t s  there  between p r e v i o u s  selected  per c a p i t a expenditure  of this trend.  that  c h a p t e r was t o d e t e r -  The  i s a very  foregoing close  sections  degree o f s i m i -  p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h e f i v e those o f today.  t h e 1965 r e s u l t s t o c o n s t r u c t  One may  therefore  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  1951  1956  GRAPH  1961  1966  6  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON T O T A L MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX  CLASS CLASS CLASS  ONE TWO THREE  CLASS CLASS CLASS  FOUR FIVE SIX  --  81  3 w  200 I95 •  UJ  CLASS ONE  CLASS TWO  CLASS THREE  CLASS FOUR  DIAGRAM  CLASS FIVE  CLASS SIX  6  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES ON TOTAL MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR C L A S S E S ONE TO SIX  82 per  capita expenditures  ciency. optimum  Once t h i s  effi-  r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e  s i z e o f communities i n the Province of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a c a n be  determined.  IV. Factor  on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and t h e i r  RANKING OF INCORPORATED AREAS  Application. B e f o r e one c a n e q u a t e p e r c a p i t a c o s t s f o r m u n i c i p a l  services with t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y ,  i t i s necessary  to arrive at  some common d e n o m i n a t o r w i t h w h i c h t o compare t h e s e ables.  The m e t h o d u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e s t h e a p p l i c a -  t i o n of a numerical  value t o both  v a l u e s and e f f i c i e n c y  per capita  expenditure  v a l u e s i n t h e form o f a r a n k i n g  For example, the m u n i c i p a l i t y with t h e lowest expenditures  system.  per c a p i t a  on a g i v e n s e r v i c e i s a s s i g n e d a s c o r e o f one  h u n d r e d , a n d t h e one w i t h t h e h i g h e s t , f i f t y .  Similarly,  t h a t s e r v i c e w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e most e f f i c i e n t s i g n e d a s c o r e o f one h u n d r e d a n d t h e l o w e s t , f i f t y . all  two v a r i -  i s asSince  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a r e p e r f o r m e d i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s by  the i n d i v i d u a l  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas  and r e f l e c t  o f p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s , i t w o u l d be f a i r e r highest per c a p i t a expenditure zero.  The e f f e c t t h a t s u c h  the f i n a l areas  value at f i f t y  a wide  range  to rate the r a t h e r than a t  a r a n k i n g system would have  upon  r e s u l t s i s that the values f o r the incorporated  a r e i n c l u d e d w i t h i n a narrower range o f p o i n t s than i f  83 t h a g r a d i n g h a d b e e n f r o m z e r o t o one h u n d r e d . Table X I I i l l u s t r a t e s  t h e v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o each o f  the f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s e s f o r 1965. Values f o r the i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are contained i n Table XIII  i n A p p e n d i x 8. TABLE X I I  RATINGS ON MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S , ACCORDING TO C L A S S E S , 1965  Fire  Classes  Class Class Class Class Class Class  Ona Two Three Four Five Six  $91.4 91.6 88.3 86.0 80.1 68.3  Public Works  Sanitation  Education  Recreation  $86.1 86.9 80.8 78.4 77.6 86.9  $87.6 86.5 82.2 78.4 78.2 82.5  $83.4 82.9 80.6 78.6 74.7 76.9  $90.6 83.6 84.6 81 .1 71.2 65.5  From t h e r e s u l t s o f smaller  t h i s t a b l e one c a n  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s haVB l o w e r  p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s than l a r g e r ones. s t a t e t h a t t h e s m a l l e r the  conclude that  I n s h o r t , one c o u l d  a r e a t h e b e t t e r o f f i t i si n  terms o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e c o s t s . H o w e v e r , when e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  city  s i z e and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e e x p e n d i t u r e s , t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of only expenditure values i s inadequate.  Indeed, the low  p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r a s m a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a may be a t t r i b u t e d  to i t s lack of f i n a n c i a l  84 resources. ly  F o r example, i f a v i l l a g e  r e c e i v e s an  s m a l l amount o f r e v e n u e , i t s t a n d s  per  capita expenditures  on m u n i c i p a l  t o reason  exceeding-  that it3  services w i l l  be c o r -  respondingly low. In o r d e r pita  to assess  expenditures  and c i t y  whether o r not these The  final  the relationship size,  between p e r c a -  i t i s necessary  t o determine  values are a r e s u l t of low revenues.  s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter  will  t h e r e f o r e attempt t o  answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n .  "Are the low per c a p i t a  expenditure  s e r v i c e s f o r s m a l l e r commu-  nities  v a l u e s on m u n i c i p a l  the result of t h e i r  inability  conversely, i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y reason  t o f i n a n c e them; and  o f l a r g e sums o f money t h e  why l a r g e r c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e h i g h e r  diture values Table  per c a p i t a expen-  on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ? " XIV i l l u s t r a t e s  incorporated areas  t h e per c a p i t a revenue f o r a l l  i n the Province of B r i t i s h  T h i s t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m d a t a  Columbia.  contained  i n Table  XV  w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x 8. TABLE X I V THE TOTAL PER CAPITA REVENUE FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S ACCORDING TO CLASSES 1965  One  Two  $69.3  $80.0  C l a s s e s Three Four $79.8  $96.6  Five  Six  $105.9  $118.2  85 As one w o u l d e x p e c t , T a b l e X I V i l l u s t r a t e s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a smaller communities.  This concerns the a c t u a l III,  total  taxes that are c o l l e c t e d vidual  arises  f o r incorporated areas.  source o f revenue.  revenues  larger  revenue v a l u e s than  However, a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n  r e g a r d i n g t h e per c a p i t a revenues  Chapter  that  As m e n t i o n e d i n  i n c l u d e funds i n t h e form o f  from t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e i n d i -  c o m m u n i t y a s w e l l a s g r a n t s and s u b s i d i e s t h a t a r e  received  from t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l  the l a t t e r  f o r m o f r e v e n u e may r e p r e s e n t a s much a s t h i r t y  per cent o f t h e t o t a l c a p i t a revenue  revenue  f o r c e r t a i n areas, the per  v a l u e s o f s u c h a c o m m u n i t y do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  represent t h e i r even though  Governments. . S i n c e  propensity  t o generate revenue. F o r example,  two c o m m u n i t i e s  may h a v e s i m i l a r  per c a p i t a  r e v e n u e v a l u e s , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may p r o v e t h a t one h a s a much l a r g e r  percentage of i t s t o t a l  revenue  which i s  c o n t r i b u t e d by h i g h e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o r r e c t revenue  p e r c a p i t a and c i t y  size,  i n a t e those sources o f revenue from t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y .  relationship  i t i s necessary to e l i m -  that are not obtained d i r e c t l y These s o u r c e s i n v o l v e  b u t i o n s , g r a n t s , and s u b s i d i e s from t h e P r o v i n c i a l , and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  between  contriFederal,  Table XVI o u t l i n e s t h e p e r c a p i t a  revenue v a l u e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f British  C o l u m b i a t h a t a r e c o m p r i s e d o f f u n d s g e n e r a t e d by t h e  86 individual  municipality. TA8LE  PER  XVI  C A P I T A R E V E N U E F R O M L O C A L S O U R C E S OF I N C O R P O R A T E D V I L L A G E S , T O W N S , AND C I T I E S A C C O R D I N G TO C L A S S . 1965  ALL  C l a s s e s One  866.2  Two  Three  877.4  375.3  Although have  lower  per  does  however,  this  aid  note  Harvey  in  that  from  twenty-six  ments  in  the  thousand  from  the  other  states  then  and  per  Finance,"  values larger  found, the  size  United town  received state  smaller  than  larger  centres It  when  communities centres,  receive  is  States is,  larger  interesting  government  local  with  fewer  than  govern-  capita  did  any  to  c i t i e s  that  per  i t  greater  investigating  (that a  8106.5  that  sources.  than grant  of  the  6  obtained  values  capita  revenues  possible  Harvey ment  in  persons)  groups.  Having  is  Shapiro  prespective  size  itures  external  smallest  five  that  Six  $100.1  indicates  revenue  emphasize  Five  891.7  table  capita  financial  Four  to  determine  Shapiro, Land  for  both  for the  capita  incorporated difference  "Economics  Economics.  per  Vol.  of  Scale  XLIX,  expend-  areas,  between  and  1963,  Local p.  i t these  Govern-  178.  values.  This f i n a l  result  r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  t h e amount o f money t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e t h e e x i s t i n g municipal services from  local  ( e x p e n d i t u r e s ) a n d t h e amount o b t a i n e d  sources to finance these operations (revenues).  T a b l e X V I I o u t l i n e s t h e p e r c a p i t a E x p e n d i t u r e - Revenue f o r all  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n B r i t i s h TABLE  Columbia.  XVII  PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE-REVENUE VALUES FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S , ACCORDING TO C L A S S , 1965  One  Two  $20.1  $18.6 A p a r t from  XVII i l l u s t r a t e s  C l a s s e s Three Four  Five  Six  $30.3  840.8  $42.8  $33.8  t h e s m a l l d e v i a t i o n i n C l a s s two, Table t h a t s m a l l e r communities  a r e i n a more f a -  vourable p o s i t i o n with respect to per c a p i t a expenditurerevenue v a l u e s , than l a r g e r c e n t r e s .  One c o u l d t h e r e f o r e  conclude that i n the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia  smaller  i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s have lower per c a p i t a m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s and i n c u r a l o w e r p e r c a p i t a d e f i c i t s e r v i c e s than l a r g e r  to operate  these  municipalities.  Summary. The p u r p o s e  of this  c h a p t e r was t o d e t e r m i n e  the r e -  l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i z e o f i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e  88  N  Province of 8 r i t i s h Columbia and t h e i r per c a p i t a expendi t u r e s on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . c o u l d be determined,  i t was  Before t h i s  necessary  relationship  to analyze the past  t r e n d s and to e s t a b l i s h whether or not these trends those of today.  Chapter  i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the 1965  IV has accomplished  represent  t h i s f o r i t has  per c a p i t a expenditure  vary c l o s e l y r e f l e c t those of the past f i f t e e n  values  years.  A second f e a t u r e t h a t t h i s chapter r e v e a l e d was t h e r e i s a remarkably expenditures  c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between per  that  capita  on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, s a n i t a t i o n ,  e d u c a t i o n , and  r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and the s i z e of the  community i n which these s e r v i c e s are performed.  With a  few minor e x c e p t i o n s , .smaller communities are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by having  lower  per c a p i t a expenditures  on these  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s than l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . graphs and  five Several  diagrams were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s chapter to  emphasize t h i s  relationship.  A t h i r d f e a t u r e i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a expenditure each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a .  IV concerns  and revenue f o r  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has  illustrated  t h a t s m a l l e r communities are i n a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l if  the b a s i s of judgement i s a lower  per c a p i t a  of s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s which a p p l y .  r e s e a r c h should be conducted  in this  area.  position  expenditure.  T h i s judgement r e c o g n i z e s the f a c t t h a t expenditure are only one  the  values  Further  89 F i n a l l y , t h i s chapter has o u t l i n e d the reasons  under-  l y i n g the s e l e c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and the sample size.  Concerning  the former,  only those m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s  whose o p e r a t i o n and maintenance i s the d i r e c t of l o c a l governments were c o n s i d e r e d .  responsibility  In the case of the  sample s i z e , a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, with the e x c e p t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver,  were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  The C i t y of Vancouver was  not  i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s due to i t s s i z e , i t s p r o x i m i t y with r e s p e c t to l a r g e neighbouring o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s t h a t extend  c e n t r e s , the p r o v i s i o n  beyond i t s m u n i c i p a l bound-  a r i e s , the e x t e n s i v e usage of i t s f a c i l i t i e s by persons adjacent areas and s t r a t i f i e d and omic base and  in  from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e , i t s h i g h l y  cosmopolitan  society, i t s diversified  econ-  i t s r e l i a n c e upon i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , i t s  complex p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , and i t s financially  advantageous p o s i t i o n over the remaining  areas i n the p r o v i n c e .  urban  Each of these f a c t o r s c r e a t e s a  unique r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and  l e v e l of  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r the C i t y o f Vancouver. The  spatial  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  s i z e of i n c o r p o r a t e d  areas t h a t were s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n are by Map  1 contained i n Appendix  0.  illustrated  \  CHAPTER \J THE RATING OF SERVICES If one were to accept that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s having the lowest per c a p i t a expendit ures f o r m u n i c i p a l resent  rep—  the optimum s i z e , then one c o u l d contend from the  r e s u l t s of the previous c i t i e s i n the Province one  services  chapter, of B r i t i s h  and two thousand persons.  that the optimum s i z e of Columbia ranges between  However, the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of per c a p i t a expenditure f i g u r e s i n i s o l a t i o n does not provide  an e f f e c t i v e measure f o r determining the optimum  s i z e of any c i t y s i n c e these f i g u r e s do not i n d i c a t e the degree of e f f i c i e n c y  rendered by the i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l  service. A vital determination tity  consideration  that should  be i n c l u d e d  i n the  of optimum c i t y s i z e i s the q u a l i t y and quan-  of m u n i c i p a l  services.  The c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n  that  a r i s e s i s , "What are the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s of an urban community r e c e i v i n g from the m u n i c i p a l  service?"  For ex-  ample, j u s t because the v i l l a g e o f Pouce Coupe has a lower per  c a p i t a expenditure on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n than the town of  Quesnel, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s of Pouce Coupe are i n a more f a v o u r a b l e  position i n  terms of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n than the people of Quesnel.  Indeed,  91 i t may fire men  be d i s c o v e r e d protection,  and  the  that Quesnel p r o v i d e s a higher l e v e l  i n terms of the  extent of the  number of f u l l - t i m e f i r e  equipment, than Pouce Coupe.  S i m i l a r l y , Chapter IV i n d i c a t e d that the town of a lower per  c a p i t a expenditure on  of Kamloops.  Yet,  of  fllerritt  has  P u b l i c Works than the  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may  city  prove that  Kamloops o f f e r s a much wider range of p u b l i c works s e r v i c e s than M e r r i t t i n terms of s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , road maintenance, and  street  construction.  These two i l l u s t r a t e the  examples of the many that  inadequacy of only  could  considering  be  per  selected,  capita  m u n i c i p a l expenditure v a l u e s as a measure f o r determining the optimum s i z e of a" c i t y . i n g f u l and is  valid  of a s e r v i c e can  Chapter V has first  a more mean-  r e s u l t f o r the optimum s i z e of a c i t y , i t  necessary to c o n s t r u c t  ciency  In order to o b t a i n  therefore  a grading system whereby the  effi-  be equated with i t s o p e r a t i n g  costs.  been d i v i d e d  The  s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the  i n t o two  parts.  procedures t h a t are to be f o l -  lowed when ranking m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g to e f f i c i e n c y . The  section w i l l  quantity,  the  include  an a n a l y s i s of s e r v i c e q u a l i t y  s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e  v a r i a b l e s with which  to measure the q u a l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , the o f each i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e , equating per tures  with q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e , and  municipal s e r v i c e .  The  the  and  capita  ranking  expendi-  grading of each  second s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter  92 a p p l i e s the above procedures  to the f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s  selected for investigation. I.  RANKING PROCEDURES  E f f i c i e n c y of S e r v i c e .  Before one  can measure the  e f f i c i e n c y of a p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e , i t i s imper a t i v e t h a t the term deed, such a term what may  " e f f i c i e n c y " be c l e a r l y  connotates  appear to one  an element of ambiguity  r e s e a r c h e r to be an  operated m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e may o p i n i o n h e l d by another.  defined.  radically  Consequently,  i n that  efficiently-  d i f f e r from the  In-  the  quantification  of c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s r e s u l t s i n a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i n c e the method adopted  f o r determining the l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y  r e f l e c t s the b i a s of the r e s e a r c h e r .  For example, when  e v a l u a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of an a d u c a t i o n a l system of a town, the r e s e a r c h e r may  apply the q u a l i f i c a t i o n standards of t e a -  chers as a measure of e f f i c i e n c y .  It i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  t h a t a teacher with a Bachelor of E d u c a t i o n degree i s more Q u a l i f i e d to teach than one who cate.  But i s would be erroneous  i s a more e f f i c i e n t  holds a t e a c h e r ' s  certifi-  to assume t h a t the  former  teacher i n terms of c o n t r i b u t i n g towards  a h i g h e r standard of academic performance. A s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s c o u l d be made when a s s e s s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of a r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e f o r i t i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y i  difficult  to apply a numerical value t o the q u a l i t y  of  93 services nical a  that  garden,  trout  nature  and  since  has  river-side  baseball  arena,  data of  municipal  outlined  by  the  been  included  in  this  services.  the  short,  service  extent  the  only  the  term  and  although  actual  c i f i c  is  as  not  the  rendered  section  for  by  a  bota-  or  even  is  expands  representing in a  not  many  of  provided further  the  the  cases,  service by  the  a  l i m i t a approach  quality  involves  i t s  municipality.  amount  serious  of  quan-  efficiency.  of  purpose for  the  the  different  quality  the  regarding  municipalities,  ranking  and  than  in a  a l l  basically  substitutes  measurable that  for  examples,  For  synonymous  available  results  service  rather  which  a c t i v i t i e s ,  following  area,  f a c i l i t i e s ,  values  approach  considered.  "extent"  of  thesis  the  quantity  service  defined  services  above  The of  not  services  as  t i f y i n g  skiing  is  quantification  of  swimming  lake.  sufficient  the  municipal  In  a  composition  efficiency tions  a  fishing Since  and  includes  a  particular  of  d e f i n i t i o n ,  term  "efficiency",  refers  to  the  "Extent"  may  in  of  terms  spe-  municipality.  concept  of  be  The  extent  of  service.  Selection an  of  Variables.  i l l u s t r a t i o n , the  this  service  grades  could  taught,  or  be the  extent,  as  measured  Using  education  opposed in  terms  student/teacher  services  to  efficiency  of  of  the  of  ratio,.or  number the  as  number  94 of students a s s i g n e d to each classroom, or the subjects offered.  Investigation  may  prove that  o f f e r both a wider range of grades and  may  conclude that  l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s However, t h i s does not t e a c h i n g and  p e r i o r to that extent of the  necessarily  can  parks and  i n the  two  communities. the  quality  larger c i t i e s i s rather,  of  su-  the  former i s more f a v o u r a b l e . case of r e c r e a t i o n a l  be measured i n terms of the playgrounds' per  exposes i t s e l f i n d i c a t e the  Using these  i n f e r that  found i n s m a l l e r towns, but  S i m i l a r l y , i n the tent  cities  l a r g e r c i t i e s o f f e r a higher  than s m a l l e r  school f a c i l i t i e s  larger  have a lower s t u d e n t /  t e a c h e r r a t i o than s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . v a r i a b l e s , one  range of  to s e r i o u s  nature and  person.  ex-  number of acres of  T h i s u n i t of measurement  l i m i t a t i o n s i n that  c h a r a c t e r of the  Indeed, f i v e a c r e s of park i n one  services,  i t does  recreation  v i l l a g e may  only  not  service. represent  an open area of g r a s s l a n d , whereas i n another town a s i m i l a r s i z e park may pool, the  a baseball  a picnic site.  recreational  tates and  and  contain  to equate one  In order to e v a l u a t e e f f e c t i v e l y  a t t r i b u t e s of a m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  f i r s t l y , an  second, the  arena, swings, a swimming  investigation  construction  facility  into a l l existing  necessi-  facilities,  of a ranking system with which  with another.  Similar  a l s o a r i s e when i n v e s t i g a t i n g other m u n i c i p a l Thus, the  this  s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s may  be  limitations services.  substantially  95  c u r t a i l e d by to q u a n t i f y  both lack of a v a i l a b l e data and the  the  inability  r e l a t i v e importance of the o b t a i n a b l e  data.  In a d d i t i o n to the above l i m i t a t i o n s , another problem a r i s e s . demand f o r , and  This concerns the the  i s provided  a high  the  be t o t a l l y  inhabitants.  On  Yet,  t h i s supply of  recreation  inadequate to meet the  demands of  r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the form o f by the  l o c a l school.  demand r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r m u n i c i p a l  been i n c l u d e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the supply and  sup-  s e r v i c e s has  to each  not  municipality.  s e r v i c e s have been e x t e n s i v e l y  cover-  1  Once the l i m i t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r i a b l e s have been f u l l y  the s e l e c t i o n of  acknowledged, i t i s then  to choose the more q u a n t i f i a b l e and The  play-  demand r e l a t i o n s h i p of  x  each of the m u n i c i p a l ed.  The  and  s i n c e the main focus of the t h e s i s i s upon  the l e v e l of s e r v i c e t h a t i s provided An  of  be adequate f o r a community that i s  ground a c t i v i t i e s s u p p l i e d p l y and  level  a major n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l park  which i s provided  For  r e v e a l that a c e r t a i n community  the other hand, a very low  r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e may situated within  services.  the  l e v e l of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t i v e  to other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . s e r v i c e may  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  supply o f , m u n i c i p a l  example, i n v e s t i g a t i o n may  serious  va-  possible  significant variables.  s p e c i f i c s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s f o r each  municipal  1R.L. A c k o f f , "Towards Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n of Urban S e r v i c e s . " Resources f o r the F u t u r e . Inc. (Washington, D.C., Way 1962), pp. 91-118.  96 s e r v i c e , and covered  the reasons  be  s e p a r a t e l y under the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of each of the  f i v e municipal s e r v i c e s . criteria, to  u n d e r l y i n g these d e c i s i o n s w i l l  Having c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d these  c e r t a i n procedures  have to be undertaken i n order  a r r i v e at the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s .  These are as  follows: Step 1.  the a p p l i c a t i o n of a numerical f a c t o r to the v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r determining the extent of a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e ;  Step 2.  the ranking of each s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e acc o r d i n g to i t s r e l a t i v e importance w i t h i n the group of v a r i a b l e s f o r one m u n i c i p a l service;  Step 3.  the equating of cost with extent of s e r v i c e ;  Step 4.  the ranking of each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e acc o r d i n g to i t s r e l a t i v e importance with the other s e r v i c e s .  A p p l i c a t i o n of F a c t o r to V a r i a b l e . the procedure ble  Chapter  IV o u t l i n e d  i n v o l v e d f o r a s s i g n i n g a value to each  varia-  a c c o r d i n g t o . t h e l e v e l of s e r v i c e i t o f f e r s to a muni-  cipality.  To r e i t e r a t e , t h i s v a l u e , r e f e r r e d to as  " I n t e n s i t y Value," ranges between 50  the  (the number assigned to  the community having the s m a l l e s t extent of a m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e ) , and  100  the h i g h e s t ) .  (the number a s s i g n e d to the community For example, u s i n g the number of  firemen per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s as one  having  full-time  v a r i a b l e f o r measu-  r i n g the extent of the l e v e l of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , i t was covered t h a t i n 1965,  dis-  the v i l l a g e of Keremeos had a value  97 of  1.9  (that  i s , t h e r e were 1.9  sand i n h a b i t a n t s that  the  for this municipality).  v i l l a g e of  f i r e m e n on  full-time  Zeballos  i t s fire  presented the  f u l l - t i m e f i r e m e n per  d i d not  brigade.  h i g h e s t and  I t was  h a v e any  S i n c e t h e s e two  I n t e n s i t y Value of c e d u r e can  be  l u a t i n g the  100  applied  l e v e l of  r e l a t e d to the  and  Zeballos  50.  protection  as  ding  case of  s e r v i c e , the  example, i n the  following  Class  1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 2.5 1.5  variables ting  example of to  an  be  for  eva-  variables  The  results  tabulated fire  accor-  protection  Application of ranking f a c t o r (50-100)  1 2 3 4 5 6  selected  of  c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p might r e s u l t :  Number o f full-time firemen/ 1000 persons  C o n t i n u i n g the  assigned  remaining municipal s e r v i c e s .  For  re-  number  w e l l as  can  class.  results  selected  o b t a i n e d f o r each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e to  found  A s i m i l a r pro-  to other v a r i a b l e s fire  also  full-time  lowest v a l u e s f o r the  f i r e m e n r e s p e c t i v e l y , K e r e m e o s was  thou-  fire  50.0 75.0 87.5 100.0 87.5 62.5 protection  determine the  s e r v i c e might i n c l u d e  the  services,  extent of the  number o f  other  fire  annual f i r e  fighinspec-  t i o n s c o n d u c t e d per  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ,  the  number o f  luntary  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ,  and  the  f i r e m e n per  water  vo-  pumping c a p a c i t y of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment i n terms of g a l l o n s pumped per minute per thousand Rankinq of V a r i a b l e s . each v a r i a b l e a c c o r d i n g the other  The  inhabitants.  s p e c i f i c value  to  to i t s r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e with  v a r i a b l e s f o r a given m u n i c i p a l  reasons f o r a r r i v i n g at these v a l u e s , the second s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. r i f i c a t i o n , the  assigned  s e r v i c e , and  the  w i l l be covered i n For the  purpose of  f o l l o w i n g imaginary f a c t o r values  cla-  have been  i n c l u d e d to i l l u s t r a t e the procedure i n v o l v e d i n the  ranking  of v a r i a b l e s . Municipal  Service:  Fire  Protection  Variables No. No. No. No. Applying  of of of of  the  Factor  annual f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s / 1 0 0 0 v o l u n t a r y firemen/1000 f u l l - t i m e firemen/1000 g a l l o n s pumped/min./l000 f a c t o r of 2.0  to the values  1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0  obtained  for  v a r i a b l e i n v o l v i n g the number of f u l l - t i m e firemen, f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s would be Class  the  the  tabulated: Value with A p p l i e d  1 2 3 4 5  100.0 150.0 175.0 200.0 175.0  6  125.0  S i m i l a r procedures can be a p p l i e d by a s s i g n i n g the  Factor  appro-  p r i a t e rank f a c t o r to the r e s p e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r  99 f i r e protection. maining  Using a r b i t r a r y  f a c t o r v a l u e s f o r the r e -  v a r i a b l e s , the f o l l o w i n g t a b u l a t i o n might  Variable  Classes Two Three  One  result:  Four  Five  Six  Annual F i r e Inspection  50.0  70.0  80.0  100.0  75.0  85.0  No. o f v o l u n t a r y firemen  75.0  100.0  110.0  130.0  125.0  150.0  100.0  150.0  175.0  200.0  175.0  125.0  equipment  150.0  100.0  160.0  170.0  200.0  165.0  Total  375.0  420.0  525.0  600.0  570.0  525.0  62.5  ' 70.0  87.5  100.0  95.0  87.5  No. of f u l l time firemen Pumping capac i t y of  A. S c a l i n g to 100  Using these a r b i t r a r y v a l u e s , one c o u l d conclude four c i t i e s  that Class  ( p o p u l a t i o n ranging between 5,000 and 9,999 i n -  h a b i t a n t s ) are provided the h i g h e s t s e r v i c e o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n whereas C l a s s one r e c e i v e s the lowest A s i m i l a r procedure p l i e d to the remaining  level.  o u t l i n e d above could a l s o be ap-  municipal s e r v i c e s .  The r e s u l t s ob-  t a i n e d would r e p r e s e n t , i n terms of a numerical  v a l u e , the  l e v e l o f s e r v i c e o f each o f the f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s t h a t i s provided f o r c i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to c l a s s . Equating Expenditure XII o f Chapter  with Extent o f S e r v i c e .  IV o u t l i n e d the f o l l o w i n g par c a p i t a  Table fire  100 expenditure  ratings:  F a c t o r Ratings on F i r e P r o t e c t i o n f o r a l l Incorporated V i l l a g e s , Towns and C i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to C l a s s e s Classes  8.  One  Two  Three  Four  Five  Six  91.4  91.6  88.3  86.0  80.1  68.3  The r a l t i o n s h i p between A. and B. r e p r e s e n t s a u n i t s e r v i c e of f i r e  protection f o r a unit cost.  The summation o f these  two v a l u e s i s as f o l l o w s : One Two 153.9 161.6 S c a l i n g to 100: One 83.0  Two 87.0'  Classes Three Four 175.8 186.0 . Three 94.0  A s i m i l a r procedure expenditure  Four 100.0  Five 181.0  Six 155.8  Five 98.0  Six 84.0  i n v o l v i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  values and l e v e l o f s e r v i c e ( e x t e n t ) can be ap-  p l i e d to the remaining  municipal s e r v i c e s .  The f o l l o w i n g  t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a r b i t r a r y r e s u l t s f o r the f i v e  municipal  service x R e l a t i o n s h i p between Cost and Extent of M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s Service  CI a s s e s Three Four  One  Two  tion  83.0  87.0  94.0  P u b l i c Works  80.0  83.0  88.0  Fir© P r o t s c  Five  Six  100.0  98.0  84.0  92.0  90.0  100.0  -  continued  101  C l a s s  e  s  Service  One  Two  Three  Sanitation  75.0  80.0  95.0  :95.0  100.0  95.0  Education  70.0  85.0  80.0  90.0  95.0  100.0  Recreation  77.0  80.0  75.0  95.0  100.0  95.0  F ive  Four  A p p l i c a t i o n o f F a c t o r To M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s . relationship  b e t w e e n e x p e n d i t u r e v a l u e s and  f o r each o f t h e f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s has the f i n a l no  level  s i z e of c i t i e s ,  of  i n t e r m s o f o p e r a t i o n c o s t s and  a procedure  importance  l e v e l of s e r summation  application  the  relative  R a t h e r , i t a s s u m e s an e q u a l r a -  for a l l services. The  q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s , "When u s i n g t h e  s h i p b e t w e e n c o s t and  relation-  e x t e n t o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as a  me-  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y , what i s t h e  relative is  The  does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t  of each s e r v i c e .  If  s e r v i c e s , t h e optimum  o f t h e v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e above t a b l e .  thod  service  been e s t a b l i s h e d ,  v i c e f o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e  ting  Once t h a  s t e p i n v o l v e s r a n k i n g each o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s .  f a c t o r s are a p p l i e d to the f i v e  o f such  Six  importance  of each of t h e s e  e d u c a t i o n a more i m p o r t a n t  a mora d i s p e n s i b l e and  services?"  activity  For  example,  i n terms of p r o v i d i n g  d e s i r a b l e s e r v i c e than r e c r e a t i o n ?  102 The  relevance  f i v e v a r i a b l e s can The  of applying  a f a c t o r to each of  be seen from the  t a b l e on the previous  services.  The  procedure.  page o u t l i n e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  tween per c a p i t a expenditures and municipal  following  the  extent  (or l e v e l ) o f  summation of these values  i s as  follows: C l a s s e s One 393.0  Two 415.0  Three 422.0  Four 462.0  Using these imaginary v a l u e s , range of c i t y  s i z e which has  s h i p between o p e r a t i n g f i v e municipal  sent  the most f a v o u r a b l e  that  relation-  l e v e l of s e r v i c e f o r the  In s h o r t , using m u n i c i p a l  v i c e s as the v a r i a b l e , one tween ten thousand and  Six 474.0  C l a s s f i v e appears to be  c o s t s and  services.  Five 483.0  ser-  c o u l d conclude that c i t i e s  f i f t e e n thousand i n h a b i t a n t s  the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s i n the  Province  of  be-  repreBritish  Columbia. However, i f a f a c t o r system were a p p l i e d to the i n d i v i d u a l values of m u n i c i p a l would r e s u l t . tem  f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cost and  s e r v i c e s , a d i f f e r e n t optimum s i z e c i t y  extent range  For example, when c o n s t r u c t i n g a f a c t o r s y s -  i t would be f a i r to assume t h a t education  plays a f a r  more important r o l e f o r the  i n h a b i t a n t s of a community than  the c o l l e c t i o n of garbage.  S i m i l a r l y , some people contend  t h a t , due  to the i n c r e a s i n g emphasis p l a c e d upon l e i s u r e  103 a c t i v i t i e s , the  p r o v i s i o n of e f f i c i e n t  i s more e s s e n t i a l than t h a t of c o n t r i b u t i n g b u s i n e s s e s and  underlying  for street l i g h t i n g .  i n d u s t r i e s of a m u n i c i p a l i t y  place  large a higher  s e r v i c e s than p u b l i c works.  a p p l i c a t i o n of a f a c t o r system and the  services  In terms  towards a h i g h e r l e v e l of s a f e t y ,  value upon f i r e p r o t e c t i o n The  recreational  construction  the  of such a system w i l l  cussed i n the  f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter.  emphasize the  e f f e c t that  f a c t o r may  reasons be  dis-  In order to  have upon the  final  optimum s i z e c i t y v a l u e , a r b i t r a r y f a c t o r s have been s e l e c ted i n t h i s section. Service  Factor  F i r e Protection Sanitation Recreation P u b l i c Works Education  1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0  Each of these f a c t o r s i s a p p l i e d the t a b l e on A .  page 100.  The  Values without factor One  Total  393.0  1  Two 415.0  Value  to the v a l u e s contained i n  r e s u l t s are as  follows:  application. C l a s s e s Three Four 422.0  472.0  Five 481.0  Six 464.0  104 B.  Values with f a c t o r  Service  application. C l a s s e s Five Three IFour  Factor  One  Two  83  87  94  100  98  Sanitation  113  120  143  143  150  135',.  1.5  Recreation  154  160  150  190  200  180  2.0  P u b l i c Works  200  208  220  230  225  250  2.5  Education  210  255  240  270  279  300  3.0  Total  760  830  847  933  952  959  Fire  This  table  illustrates  that C l a s s e s  have g r e a t e r v a l u e s than C l a s s plication.  When (a r b i t r a r y  lues, Class  s i x o b t a i n s the  that  the  as the  optimum c i t y  any f a c t o r  applied  highest s c o r e .  five  has  indicated,  a f f e c t the  EVALUATION OF  Before the  reasons f o r not  will  -  to these va-  This  emphasizes may,  f i n a l value  of  l e v e l of an  MUNICIPAL SERVICES i n d i v i d u a l municipal  i s e v a l u a t e d , i t i s necessary to o u t l i n e and  efficiency.  ap  size.  II.  that  1.0  a p p l i c a t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r system  above t a b l e  services  84  four and  s i x without  f a c t o r s are  Six  r a t i n g these s e r v i c e s  T h e r e f o r e , each of the be  prevent the  service  justify  the  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r  f i v e selected  d i s c u s s e d both i n terms of the  municipal  limitations  a p p l i c a t i o n of a q u a l i t a t i v e system,  and  105 the reasons f o r a p p l y i n g Fire  a q u a n t i t a t i v e approach.  Protection. The  requirements f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n p r i m a r i l y depend  upon the c h a r a c t e r  and  p r o t e c t i o n f o r one  c i t y may  tection required  s i z e of the vary  i n another.  community.  considerably  A city  Indeed,  fire  from the  pro-  i n which  processing  and manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s are predominant, presents totally  different fire  p r o t e c t i o n problem than a c i t y whose  economic base c o n s i s t s of r e t a i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Similarly,  r e s i d e n t i a l areas which are comprised of m u l t i - s t o r y ings present  a different fire  s p a r s e l y populated suburb.  dwell-  p r o t e c t i o n requirement than a  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s which focus  governmental, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and present  a  educational  centres  upon still  d i f f e r e n t f i r e p r o t e c t i o n problems. B a s i c a l l y , the main f u n c t i o n of a f i r e  department i s 2  to c o n t r o l and  prevent the i n c i d e n c e  uishing f i r e s ,  man  of f i r e s .  In  exting-  power i s the minor though i n d i s p e n s i b l e  element as the major emphasis r e s t s upon mechanical equipment.  T h i s equipment i n c l u d e s t r u c k s , pumpers,  ladders,  water towers, chemical e x t i n g u i s h e r s , hoses, l i f e 3 other  forms of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment.  It i s to  nets,  and  the  o p e r a t i o n of these devices t h a t man power i s devoted. A Study of F i r e Problems. ( N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e , Washington D.C, 1961), Ch. I I . 3 • A more d e t a i l e d account i s found on pp. 7-10 of F i r e F i g h t i n g , (the Department of F i r e P r o t e c t i o n Technology, Oklahoma S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1962). 2  106 Not only i s the nature of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment of importance,  but a l s o the management of o p e r a t i n g f i r e  t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s may department.  a f f e c t the e f f i c i e n c y of a f i r e  For example, f i r e  plans t h a t w i l l  pro-  departments should  prepare  a i d them i n the p r e v e n t i o n of f i r e i n c i d e n c e s .  These plans should f a m i l i a r i z e the firemen with the exact l a y o u t of b u i l d i n g s , t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l composition, s u r r o u n d i n g s , and t h e i r l o c a t i o n with r e s p e c t to hydrants and  fire  their  fire  halls.  When attempting to measure the e f f i c i e n c y , as opposed to  the e x t e n t , of a f i r e  be c o n s i d e r e d .  The  department, s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s  c o n t e n t i o n of most persons  involved i n f i r e protection a c t i v i t i e s ,  who  can  are  i s that f i r e  loss  v a l u e s are the b a s i c u n i t s of measurements with which to e s t a b l i s h a l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y .  The  Underwriters o u t l i n e s t h r e e c r i t e r i a means of approximating effectiveness.  N a t i o n a l Board of F i r e t h a t can be used as a  the l e v e l of a f i r e  These are the l o s s per $1,000 of assessed  v a l u e s ; the annual  l o s s per b u i l d i n g f i r e ; and the number of  b u i l d i n g f i r e s per $1,000 v a l u a t i o n .  Mabel Walker a p p l i e s a  s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n to the above c r i t e r i a fire  p r o t e c t i o n with the percentage  annually  department's  destroyed.  i n t h a t she  of t o t a l r e a l  property  5  ^These v a l u e s are a l s o used to c i n s t r u c t f i r e insurance rates. M a b e l L . Walker, M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . (The Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1930,) p.66. 5  equates  John  107 It  i s the contention  s i d e r a t i o n of only  fire  of t h i s  losses  chapter that  i s insufficient  t o e f f e c t i v e l y measure t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f i r e o f f e r e d by a f i r e  department.  in  very  which  protection supply,  laws,.structural  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f homes, c l i m a t i c c o n d i t -  ions, alertness of firemen, are  with  Such f a c t o r s as water  a l a r m s y s t e m s , b u i l d i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n conditions, spatial  the con-  and t h e c i r c u l a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t variables that  t h e measurement o f f i r e  should  system  a l s o be  protection efficiency.  considered However,  e v e n i f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , serious erical  problems a r i s e regarding value  values,  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a num-  t o each o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s .  there  i s a s y e t no s y s t e m a t i c  used t o q u a n t i f y  activities  provided  This a basis  c o n f l a g r a t i o n hazard of c i t i e s . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i r e  Board o f F i r e  study i n f i r e  enforcement ordinances r e l a t i n g prevention.^  board developed a s e t of f o r appraising  the p o t e n t i a l  These s t a n d a r d s  considered  In applying  alarm  i n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , and t o b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and these standards,  L e a g u e o f C a l i f o r n i a C i t i e s , The F i r e G r a d i n g P r o c e s s . ( L o s A n g e l e s , 1961,) p.65. 6  protection  departments, water supply,  systems, s t r u c t u r a l conditions  fire  c a n be  comes c l o s e s t t o i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s o f  some o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . standards that  loss  t h e above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s .  i s probably the only that  fire  method t h a t  A s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by t h e N a t i o n a l Underwriters  Unlike  the National Protection  108 8oard  of f i r e  principal  Underwriters weighted  factors  in fire  defense  by  the importance limiting  of  the  t h e number o f  7 deficiency  Fire  points deductible  f o r e a c h as  follows:  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Water s u p p l y . . F i r e Departments F i r e alarms Police B u i l d i n g laws Hazards Structural conditions Total  1,700 1,500 550 50 ,200 300 ,700 5,000  In  a d d i t i o n t o these s t a n d a r d s , the N a t i o n a l Board  Underwriters considers that a r e s i d e n t i a l  district  adequately  p r o t e c t e d i f i t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n one  m i l e s from  a fire  shortened  s t a t i o n , and  8  and  a  is half  that t h i s distance should  to three quarters of a mile f o r i n d u s t r i a l 9  of  be  and  commercial p r o p e r t i e s . E v e n i f n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r a specific to  community, they  other areas.  would not n e c e s s a r i l y  For example, the s t r u c t u r a l  be a p p l i c a b l e  c o n d i t i o n s of  The N a t i o n a l B o a r d o f F i r e U n d e r w r i t e r s has e s t a b l i s h e d a S t a n d a r d S c h e d u l e f o r G r a d i n g C i t i e s and Towns i n t h e U n i t e d States. These c i t i e s and t o w n s a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s by a s c o r i n g s y s t e m t h a t i s c o n s t r u c t e d by d e d u c t i n g p o i n t s f o r e a c h d e f i c i e n c y from t h e p e r f e c t s t a n d a r d . T h o m a s H. R e e d , M u n i c i p a l Management, Book Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 4 1 , ) p. 3 9 1 . 8  (McGraw-Hill  W.W. V i c k r e y , G e n e r a l and S p e c i f i c F i n a n c i n g o f Urban S e r v i c e s . (Resources f o r t h s F u t u r e , I n c . , Washington, D.C., 1 9 6 2 , ; p. 6 5 . 9  109 b u i l d i n g s i n the V i l l a g e o f Kaslo significant  may prove t o be f a r more  i n terms o f c r e a t i n g f i r e hazards than the l a c k  of l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f water which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r settlements conditions  on Queen C h a r l o t t e  Island.  f o r the i n t e r i o r towns i n the Province  Columbia may prove to have a g r e a t e r incidence  Similarly, climatic  of f i r e s  on the c o a s t .  than f i r e  of B r i t i s h  adverse e f f e c t upon the  c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r towns  Just as the water supply  f o r the V i l l a g e of  T o f i n o may be the most important f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g f i r e s , so may the f i r e alarm system be the dominant for  consideration  the C i t y of V i c t o r i a . If one were to d i s c a r d the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the above  f a c t o r s and r e v e r t to using only  f i r e l o s s values  as a  measure o f e f f i c i e n c y , a d d i t i o n a l problems t o those o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y would be encountered.  F o r example, a s i n g l e  h i g h l y d e s t r u c t i v e f i r e , which can occur at any time and anywhere without f a u l t o f the f i r e f a l s e impression  department, may c r e a t e a  of i n e f f i c i e n c y .  of good luck may produce a c o n t r a r y i n f e r that f i r e of f i r e .  effect.  T h i s i s not t o  departments do not prevent the o c c u r r e n c e s  Indeed, the conduction of f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s has, on  many o c c a s i o n s , The  On the other hand, a run  reduced the i n c i d e n c e  of f i r e s .  purpose o f o u t l i n i n g some o f the many problems  t h a t are confronted iency o f a f i r e  when one attempts to measure the e f f i c -  department i s to i l l u s t r a t e  number o f i n t a n q i b l e c r i t e r i a  are i n v o l v e d .  %hat a very Rather than  large  110 consider  the  efficiency  of a f i r e  department's  this  chapter proposes the  evaluation  fire  protection  As  i o n one  of t h i s  d e t e r m i n e d by selected  service.  for analyzing  community i s p r o v i d e d  e x t e n t o f any  the  level  is,  protection  i s o u t l i n e d i n the  in  first the  the that and  concerns the  fire  level  question,  brigade.  of  service  inhabitants several  number o f Using t h i s  provided,  a c o m m u n i t y h a v i n g two inhabitants  which only  has  as  i t w o u l d be  f i r e m a n per  of  arises  form o f  be  a  safe  In  investigated.  firemen  employed  f o r measuring to  assume one  thous-  of s e r v i c e than one  a  level  that  f i r e m e n per  level  that  community?"  a criterion  full-time  full-time  of the  be  section.  the  question  f a c t o r s can  provides a greater one  following  full-time  sect-  criteria  protection  department o f f e r i n the  s e r v i c e to the  answering t h i s The  fire  The  When c o n s i d e r i n g  f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y , the  "What d o e s t h e  protective  of f i r e  in  the  s e r v i c e may  certain criteria.  S e l e c t i o n of C r i t e r i a . fire  extent of  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ,  c h a p t e r , the  evaluating  of the  activities,  thousand  one  inhab-  itants. Another c r i t e r i o n number o f v o l u n t a r y p o r t i o n of in ive  this  fire  be  selected  incurred  concerns  An  fire  departments are  firemen less  operate than f u l l - p a i d departments. by  a voluntary  the  appreciable  i s c o n d u c t e d by v o l u n t a r y  Voluntary  t o m a i n t a i n and  major c o s t s  could  f i r e m e n i n a community.  fighting  province.  that  department are  expensThe  comprised  111 of purchasing and  r e p l a c i n g equipment, and  are u s u a l l y based upon the person a t t e n d s .  number of f i r e  s a l a r i e s uihich c a l l s that a  Using the number of v o l u n t a r y  firemen  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s as a c r i t e r i o n to measure the fire  p r o t e c t i o n , i t would be f a i r  which has  f i v e voluntary  would be b e t t e r provided has  only two  voluntary  A third  level  firemen per thousand f o r against  inhabitants  f i r e than one  firemen f o r the  which  same number of the extent  department's a c t i v i t i e s concerns the number o f f i r e ions annually  conducted i n an i n c o r p o r a t e d  e f f e c t i v e way  i n which f i r e hazards and be detected  r e g u l a r conduction of f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s should a fire that  area.  other  i s by the  inspections.  be c a r e f u l l y  of  to assume t h a t a community  c r i t e r i o n that represents  f i r e ordinances can  per  persons.  of a  fire  inspect-  The  most  violations  continuous  of  and  However, f i r e  planned i n advance f o r , i f  department merely announces through l o c a l news media  i t i s going to c a r r y out  o f the householder, the  fire  program may  i n s p e c t i o n s at the prove to be most  request ineff-  ective.^ Using f i r e one  i n s p e c t i o n s as a c r i t e r i o n , a v i l l a g e  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s  i n which ten f i r e  conducted a year i s provided  with a higher  inspections l e v e l of  of are  fire  p r o t e c t i o n than a s i m i l a r s i z e community i n which only  five  F i r e F i g h t i n g , (The Department of F i r e P r o t e c t i o n Technology of the T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e C o l l e g e of E n g i n e e r i n g , Oklahoma State U n i v e r s i t y , 1962,) p. 29. 1 0  112 i n s p e c t i o n s are annually conducted.  However, such  i s o n may  a b s o l u t e numbers do  be m i s l e a d i n g i n t h a t t h e s e  r e v e a l the time nature  taken  f o r . an i n d i v i d u a l  a  comparnot  i n s p e c t i o n , the  of the i n s p e c t i o n , (whether undertaken  in  o r c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s ) , n o r t h e number o f p e r s o n s  residential involved i n  11 c a r r y i n g out  the i n s p e c t i o n .  These l i m i t a t i o n s a r e  a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h e t h e s i s , but of annual  fire  i t i s felt  that the  A final nature  of the  mechanical  criterion  fire-fighting  w a t e r t r u c k s and  to ing  be  equipment.  To  fire  extinguishers.  and  department. i s the  operations  f a c t o r s as  i n m a i n s , t h e s i z e and engines,  with  consider a l l  l a d d e r s , t h e number o f f i r e  the water pressure  n e t s and  be c o n s i d e r e d  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o s u c h  l e n g t h o f h o s e s and and  t h a t can  devices associated with f i r e - f i g h t i n g  would warrant  number  inspections provides a tangible value  which t o measure the e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e o f a f i r e  fully  the  hydrants  number o f  the extent of axes,  life  I f t h e s e t y p e s o f e q u i p m e n t were  considered, a numerical  v a l u e , i n the form of a  s y s t e m , w o u l d h a v e t o be a s s i g n e d t o e a c h .  Since  rankdata  were n o t a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n t o f a l l f o r m s o f  fire  f i g h t i n g equipment used i n i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the P r o v i n c e 11 The F e d e r a t i o n o f M u t u a l F i r e I n s u r a n c e C o m p a n i e s , C h i c a g o , has c o m p i l e d ."a b o o k l e t , "Home I n s p e c t i o n s by F i r e D e p a r t m e n t s " w h i c h s u m m a r i z e s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f i r e inspections.  113 of B r i t i s h construct  C o l u m b i a , and s i n c e t h e w r i t e r was u n a b l e t o an e f f e c t i v e  ranking  one f o r m o f e q u i p m e n t c o u l d another, only selected.  system  whereby t h e e x t e n t  be n u m e r i c a l l y  equated  with  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s  The e x t e n t  of the f i r e - f i g h t i n g  of  were  equipment con-  s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e pumping c a p a c i t y o f w a t e r and f i r e  t r u c k s i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f g a l l o n s o f  w a t e r pumped p e r m i n u t e . The pumping c a p a c i t y fire  and t h e number o f w a t e r  trucks a v a i l a b l e are, with  probably  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  the exception  and  o f man  power,  influencing factors i n fire  12 protection.  Using  measure t h e f i r e  pumping c a p a c i t y a s a c r i t e r i o n t o  fighting  capability  of a f i r e  department,  t  one may  assume t h a t a f i r e  i n h a b i t a n t s which has f i r e  brigade  i n a city  o f t e n thousand  t r u c k s c a p a b l e o f pumping  at the r a t e o f f i v e thousand g a l l o n s per minute higher  level  of f i r e  equal,  than a c i t y  p r o t e c t i o n , a l l other  o f t h e same s i z e whose  a pumping c a p a c i t y o f o n l y  provides  things fire  water a  being  trucks  have  one t h o u s a n d g a l l o n s p e r m i n u t e .  The v a r i a b l e s t h a t h a v e been s e l e c t e d t o m e a s u r e t h e extent  of f i r e  Province 1  p. 1 5 .  protection f o r a l l incorporated  of B r i t i s h 2  rire  areas i n the  Columbia are as f o l l o w s ;  F i g h t i n g . (Oklahoma S t a t e  U n i v e r s i t y , 1962,)  114  N  1. 2. 3. 4.  Number of F u l l - t i m e firemen Number of Voluntary firemen Number of annual f i r e i n s p e c t i o n s Water pumping c a p a c i t y i n gals/min.  Ranking of V a r i a b l e s .  In ranking the above v a r i a b l e s ,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s has r e v e a l e d that man  power f o l l o w e d by mechanical  are the two most important  elements.  equipment  Using the f o u r s e l e c t e d  v a r i a b l e s , i t would be f e a s i b l e to rank man  power as the most  important, water-pumping c a p a c i t y as the second most ant, and the number of annual  fire  i n s p e c t i o n s as the  However, a problem a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g the between the r e l a t i v e importance firemen.  For i f these two  importthird.  differentiation  of f u l l - t i m e and v o l u n t a r y  v a r i a b l e s were a s s i g n e d  separate  f a c t o r s and a p p l i e d to the f i n d i n g s of each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a , the v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r l a r g e r c i t i e s would be high f o r the number of f u l l - t i m e firemen and very low f o r the number of v o l u n t a r y firemen.  In a d d i t i o n , the values a s s i g n e d  to s m a l l e r communities would be low f o r the number of  full-  time firemen and high f o r the number of v o l u n t a r y firemen. The  reasons f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s are a t t r i b u t e d to the  t h a t l a r g e r c i t i e s tend to have r e l a t i v e l y firemen and a l a r g e r percentage  e q u i t a b l e and  few v o l u n t a r y  of f u l l - t i m e firemen on  b r i g a d e s than s m a l l e r communities.  fact  their  In order to o b t a i n a more  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e s u l t , more emphasis should  be  p l a c e d upon the number o f f u l l - t i m e firemen than the number  115 of voluntary firemen.  Since f u l l - t i m e  a f a r more e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g and  a r e on c o n s t a n t  duty, they  competent and b e t t e r p r e p a r e d incidence of f i r e s . 13 other f a c t o r s , relationship  Taking  program than  very  t o c o n t r o l and p r e v e n t t h e  into  c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s e and  firemen: Factor  ratio 2 1  c o n s t r u c t i n g the f a c t o r s f o r the remaining  important  var-  t h a t s i n c e water-pumping c a p a c i t y i s a  element i n f i r e  protection, the factor  b e t w e e n i t a n d t h e number o f a n n u a l correspond  firemen,  between t h e f a c t o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a l u e s f o r  i t was f e l t  Finally,  voluntary  w o u l d a p p e a r t o be more  Variables F u l l - t i m e firemen Voluntary firemen  iables,  have u n d e r g o n e  t h i s s e c t i o n has d e v i s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  f u l l - t i m e and v o l u n t a r y  In  firemen  fire  inspections should  to the r a t i o of f u l l - t i m e to voluntary  i n establishing the relationship  ratio  firemen.  between t h e  f a c t o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e two v a r i a b l e s , t h e number o f v o l u n tary  firemen  a n d w a t e r - p u m p i n g c a p a c i t y , i t was  that the former should r e c e i v e a s l i g h t l y value.  higher  considered factor  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s t o e a c h o f t h e f o u r  v a r i a b l e s i s o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : Variables Annual F i r e I n s p e c t i o n s Water-pumping C a p a c i t y Voluntary Firemen F u l l - t i m e Firemen 1 3  Fire  Factor 0.5 1.0 .1.5 3.0  F i g h t i n g . 0£. c l t . . p p . 33-42  116 Before  t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s can  results obtained t r a n s l a t e these annual  fire  be a p p l i e d t o  f o r each v a r i a b l e , i t i s necessary results  (which  are expressed  i n s p e c t i o n s conducted  the  to  i n terms of  per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ,  o r water-pumping c a p a c i t y i n g a l l o n s per minute per i n h a b i t a n t s , e t c . ) i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers.  thousand  This involves  r a n k i n g each v a r i a b l e a c c o r d i n g to i t s I n t e n s i t y V a l u e ,  a  t  procedure  r e f e r r e d to i n the e a r l i e r  Therefore,  when p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f a community and it  o u t l i n e s the f i r e  cities  protection characteristics  last  these  values  size  which The  according  The values.  t a b l e a p p l i e s the a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s to the  results  i n the second t a b l e .  are found  i n Appendix  The T a b l e XX  i n terms of  Columbia. Intensity  contained  had  p r o t e c t i o n with  i n the Province of B r i t i s h  second t a b l e ranks  in  between t h e  the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s ,  t o w n s , and  The  the l e v e l of f i r e  chapter.  i s p r o v i d e d , t h r e e t a b l e s h a v e been c o n s t r u c t e d .  first to  s e c t i o n of t h i s  Tables  and  XX  C.  r e s u l t s f o r each o f the were t o t a l l e d  four v a r i a b l e s contained  f o r those  v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o each of t h e s e  v a l u e s were t h e n  X V I I I , XIX,  incorporated areas variables.  s c a l e d b e t w e e n 50 and  t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s s i z e as  100,  and  follows:  that  These h a v e been  117 Class  Final  66.1 59.3 56.9 59.8 67.3 76.1  1 2 3 4 5 6 From t h e XX  r e s u l t s contained  i n conjucntion  fire  areas i n the 1.  Province  Smaller  3.  X V I I I , XIX,  r a t i n g s and  following conclusions  protection activities  fire 2.  i n Tables  w i t h the above f i n a l  accompanying diagrams the regarding  Rating  of B r i t i s h  incorporated  the  can  be made  for a l l incorporated  Columbia. areas conduct fewer  annual  i n s p e c t i o n s than l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Smaller  i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s employ f e w e r  firemen  than l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Larger on  and  full-time  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have f e w e r v o l u n t a r y  their  fire  brigades  than smaller  firemen  incorporated  areas. 4.  The  level  of f i r e - f i g h t i n g  equipment, i n terms  o f watter-pumping c a p a c i t y , i s more for 5.  By  smaller  communities.  constructing a rating  values  system to the  f o r each c l a s s a c c o r d i n g  service provided owing rank  favourable  by  fire  level  departments, the  results.  Class 6 5 1 4 2 3  to the  final  Rank 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th  of  foll-  S3 ONE  TWO THREE FOUR  FIVE  SIX  CLASSES  DIAGRAM  7  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FIRE PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 19 6 5  Z  0  ONE  TWO THREE  FOUR  FIVE  SIX  CLASSES  O  o o  2  0.9  LU CC UL  LU  0.6  ti _l _i  L.  0.3  L.  O  ONE  TWO THREE FOUR  FIVE  SIX  CLASSES  DIAGRAM  8  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FIRE P R O T E C T I O N ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN THE PROVINCE O F BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1965  120 Equating Cost with per  Extent of Service.  c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on f i r e  By c o m p a r i n g  p r o t e c t i o n with  s e r v i c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be  l e v e l of  constructed:  TABLE X X I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPENDITURES AND LEVEL OF F I R E PROTECTION SERVICE C 1 a s s e s One  Two  Three  F our  Five  Six  Per c a p i t a expenditure  $2.47  2.40  3.50  4.40  6.10  10.0  Units of service  66.1  59.3  56.9  From t h i s t a b l e one c o u l d each i n h a b i t a n t fire six  of Class  on f i r e  receive  protection.  are provided  pumping e q u i p m e n t the  voluntary  full-time for with  that  receives  Similarly,  One c o u l d  76.1  f o r 82.47 66.1 u n i t s o f  inhabitants of Class  extend t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r $2.47, i n h a b i t a n t s  7.4 a n n u a l f i r e  of Class  one  i n s p e c t i o n s , water-  t h a t has a c a p a c i t y  r a t e o f 980.6 g a l l o n s  three  67.3  76.1 u n i t s o f s e r v i c e f o r $10.0 e x p e n d e d  f u r t h e r by s t a t i n g t h a t cities  deduce  one c i t i e s  protection service. cities  59.8  o f pumping w a t e r a t  per minute per i n h a b i t a n t ,  twenty-  f i r e m e n p e r t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s , a n d 0.2  firemen per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s .  $10.0, t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s  sixcities  Similarly, are  an a v e r a g e o f one h e n d r e d a n d s i x a n n u a l f i r e  i o n s , water-pumping  capacity  o f 100.4 g a l l o n s  provided inspect-  per minute per  1 21 i n h a b i t a n t , 0.4 v o l u n t a r y f i r e m a n a n d 1.2 f u l l - t i m e  firemen  per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . In  order t o equate expenditure  s e r v i c e , the I n t e n s i t y Values  f o r per c a p i t a  have been combined w i t h t h e f i n a l fire  protection service.  Expenditure f a c t o r s per capita f c ^ E x t l n ^ Average  6  Two  91.4  91.6  '  1  78.8 From t h e s e  ities  9  '  r a t i n g s of the extent of  6  75.1  results,  C l a s s e s Thres Four  Five  ,88.3  80.1  5  6  '  86.0  9  5  72.6  9  '  8  6  72.9  primarily  l a r g e r communities.  7  73.7  For, i n these  communities, over  five  on  fire  thousand firemen.  not p a i d f o r t h e i r basis.  To c o n c l u d e , t h i s s e c t i o n h a s i l l u s t r a t e d  they  3  e i g h t y - f i v e per cent of a l l  s e r v i c e s o r who a r e p a i d on an a t t e n d a n c e  although  '  towards  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e number o f p a i d  a r e v o l u n t e e r s who a r e e i t h e r  municipalities  6  72.3  expended  a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that expenditures  are greatly  firemen  3  T h i s phenomenon i s  p r o t e c t i o n f o r communities o f fewer than persons  '  68.3  of f i r e protection  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e amount o f money  s e r v i c e , than  7  Six  i t a p p e a r s t h a t s m a l l e r commun-  are provided with a higher l e v e l  service this  5  expenditures  The r e s u l t s a r e a s f o l l o w s :  One  6  values with extent of  that  larger  provide greater l e v e l s of f i r e protection incur substantially  greater costs.  c o m m u n i t i e s o b t a i n t h e most f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t s equated with l e v e l or extent o f s e r v i c e .  Smaller  when c o s t s a r e  122 Public  Works, An  adequate p r o v i s i o n  of  public  works s e r v i c e s  p r i m e r e q u i s i t e o f modern u r b a n l i v i n g . this the  s e r v i c e , when o p e r a t e d and inhabitants  safety  and  welfare.  s i z e and  man  p o w e r , e q u i p m e n t and  health,  i n a p u b l i c works department vary  nature of  urban a r e a s .  incorporated  the  street construction  operations,  and  municipality  cemeteries, street l i g h t i n g , operation  of  utilities.  On  o t h e r h a n d , due  demand f o r s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s  municipality,  and  the  problems a s s o c i a t e d  a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s , i s o l a t e these services  special  purpose  of  the  both  a  larger  administering areas  under s e p a r a t e departments  tend  and  compartmentalization  is a relatively  I n d e e d , o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s ago,  the  p u b l i c works departments f o r l a r g e as  with  and  to  larger incorporated  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and  p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s  was  by  and  bodies.  This trend  States  required  may  and  parks, playgrounds  building inspections, the  takes  disposal  collection, street  maintenance of  of  These  m a i n t e n a n c e , sewage  water supply, refuse  house numbering, the  lack public  a more d i v e r s i f i e d r a n g e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  include  that  between  Because of the  building f a c i l i t i e s ,  works department of a s m a l l  of  provide  N  the  to  maintained, i s to  of  The number of m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s  c a r r i e d out  the  function  o f a community a h i g h l e v e l o f  are  on  The  is a  d i v e r s i f i e d as  new  phenomenon.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of cities  i n the  those for small  United  v i l l a g e s of  123 today.  To  activities States  illustrate f o r two  and  maintenance, ninety  eighty.per  sixty  cent with  maintaining the  of  handled zoning The outlining  cent with refuse  per  cent with  activities, cent  with  thirty-five  per  and  cent  regulations.  basic  following  street  of b u i l d i n g s ,  C i t y Manager's A s s o c i a t i o n ,  activities  c o n d u c t e d by  in  a public  d e p a r t m e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o m m u n i t i e s , has the  street  f o r t y per  inspection  works  United  sewage d i s p o s a l  p l a y g r o u n d s , and 14  International the  public  i n the  collection,  water works, the  operation  cities  of  a l l o f them were c h a r g e d w i t h  cleaning, per  a compilation  hundred l a r g e  showed t h a t  construction  this,  works  constructed  diagram: Department of  Public  Works  Director I  i  Bureau of Engineering  8ureau of Equipment  Property Division  Water Refuse Division Division  Sewage Division  ORGANIZATION  Source: Municipal national  Street Lighting  CHART  P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  C i t y Manager's A s s o c i a t i o n ,  The  Inter-  C h i c a g o , 1957,  W h a t i s a P u b l i c Works D e p a r t m e n t ? E n g i n e e r i n g News L e t t e r , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 ) . 1 4  Building Division  (Public  p.  11.  Works  124 I n the activities municipal  Province  fall  of British  under t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e i t h e r  departments or p r i v a t e companies.  many c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e separate other  Columbia, s e v e r a l o f these  of British  water works and p u b l i c u t i l i t y  incorporated areas,  For  Bxample,  Columbia  operate  departments.  In  s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal  ations are contracted out to p r i v a t e agencies, lighting  separate  oper-  and s t r e e t  i s s u p p l i e d by p r i v a t e power c o m p a n i e s .  Since  the nature  of s e r v i c e s rendered  by p u b l i c w o r k s  departments v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y  for municipalities i n this  province, only  those  w h i c h come u n d e r t h e d i r e c t  responsibility  o f t h e p u b l i c works department o f i n c o r p o r a t e d  areas w i l l  activities  be c o n s i d e r e d  i n this section.  These  activities  included the following: 1.  road  c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance;  2.  street cleaning  3.  sewage d i s p o s a l a c t i v i t i e s .  Road C o n s t r u c t i o n The ion  Activities.  breakdown o f a c t i v i t i e s  activities  British  operations;  i n c l u d e d i n road  construct-  f o r incorporated areas i n the Province of  Columbia i s summarized as f o l l o w s : 1.  administration of engineering  2.  maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e s and equipment;  3.  c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o f roads: A  Pavement C o n s t r u c t i o n -  operations;  125 1 2 3 4 5 B  Road C o n s t r u c t i o n 1 2 3 4  In  s i d e w a l k m a i n t e n a n c e and c o n s t r u c t i o n , s t r e e t s i g n s and f e n c e s , c r o s s - w a l k c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e , bulkhead c o n s t r u c t i o n , c u t s , c r o s s i n g s , and c u r b s .  grading operations, c u l v e r t r e p a i r s and c o n s t r u c t i o n , s p r a y c a p p i n g and s e a l c o a t i n g , survey o p e r a t i o n s .  order to determine  circulation of B r i t i s h  the adequacy or e x t e n t o f  system f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d areas Columbia, the f o l l o w i n g  h a v e t o be r a i s e d :  "What l e v e l  i n the  fundamental  questions  particular  community i n t e r m s o f p r o v i d i n g a w e l l - b a l a n c e d  existing  Also,"What i s the q u a l i t y street  In to  be  considered.  ionship. a thorough  and  nature  of  The  first  concerns  evaluate  fully  examination  the  relatat-  a relationship necessitates  of the t r a f f i c  characteristics  of  This i n v e s t i g a t i o n involves  a n a l y z i n g peak-hour t r a f f i c times, p r a c t i c a l  such  have  t h e adequacy o f  system i n terms of a supply-and-demand  To  the  these questions, s e v e r a l f a c t o r s  each i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a .  flows, points of c o n f l i c t ,  c a p a c i t i e s o f s t r e e t s , and  movements.  o n l y h a v e t h e a b o v e phenomena t o be a s s e s s e d ,  f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the generation of t r i p s .  delay  other trans-  p o r t a t i o n elements that are r e l a t e d to t r a f f i c Not  circulation  system?"  answering  circulation  Province  o f s e r v i c e does t h e p u b l i c  works department o f f e r the i n h a b i t a n t s o f a  system?"  the  but  also  This includes  126 determining  the e f f e c t s t h a t d e n s i t y , incomB, a u t o m o b i l e  o w n e r s h i p , h o u s e h o l d s i z e , and istics  h a v e upon t h e  urban areas.  The  character-  number o f t r i p s t h a t a r e  generated i n  adequacy o f s t r e e t f a c i l i t i e s  lation  systems should  travel  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and  each urban  socio-economic  and  t h e r e f o r e be v i e w e d i n l i g h t the  circuof  the  reasons underlying these,  for  area.  A second element r e g a r d i n g system concerns the  the adequacy of a s t r e e t  c o n d i t i o n of s t r e e t s .  S u c h f a c t o r s as  t h e number o f l a n e s , s t r e e t g r a d e s , pavement c o n d i t i o n s , geometries, be  v i s i b i l i t y , and  used t o determine the  criteria, has  i t w o u l d be  s i g n a l l e d , and  with a higher  level  narrow and  s i g n s and  signals  c o n d i t i o n of s t r e e t s .  can  Using  these  s a f e t o assume t h a t a community  which  wide s t r a i g h t s t r e e t s w i t h curbs  well  are  traffic  constructed  and  of concrete,  o f s e r v i c e t h a n one  winding,  gutters, that is  are  provided  i n which the s t r e e t s  p o o r l y s i g n a l l e d , and  have g r a v e l  surfaces. H o w e v e r , two  serious l i m i t a t i o n s arise regarding  a p p l i c a t i o n of the above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s . case, in  this  extent in  data  were n o t  province  available for a l l incorporated  regarding  of c u r b i n g , road  terms of the  characteristics.  In the  the type  geometries,  number o f l a n e s , and The  of road the  areas  s i g n s and  from e x t e n s i v e  the  of s t r e e t s signal  t h e s i s acknowledges t h a t t h i s  a t i o n c o u l d h a v e been o b t a i n e d  first  pavement,  width  the  inform-  surveys  127 c o n d u c t e d i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . carry  out  Time d i d not  the  required  d a t a been o b t a i n a b l e ,  l i m i t a t i o n would have a r i s e n c o n c e r n i n g the these c r i t e r i a .  in  absolute  For  number and  r e l a t i o n to the  v i s i o n o f c u r b s and r i a n , who  also  gutters?  the  Further  number and  examples c o u l d  a t i o n of appropriate  with  of  used to ranking  selected  and  could  be  adopted to  the  level  a higher  inhabitants  the  number o f f u l l - t i m e men u s e s more e f f i c i e n t  than another m u n i c i p a l i t y , w i l l service. U s i n g t h e s e two  pedestof  a  cross-  applicwhen  determine concerns  e x t e n t of equipment i n each  I t stands to reason that  and  pro-  variables  adequacy of a community's c i r c u l a t i o n system power and  provid-  emphasize  the  has  the  sidewalks  l o c a t i o n of  both the  signs  streets.  A t h i r d variable that  municipality.  applied  the  the  facilities  a l s o be  f a c t o r s to the  condition  o f man  of  is  that  When c o n s i d e r i n g  p r o v i s i o n of wide c o n c r e t e  problems a s s o c i a t e d  measuring the  Also,  motorist  transportation  weighted i n favour of the walks?  ranking  more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r m s o f  s e r v i c e to the  uses the  community, i s the  second  s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n of road  geometries of s t r e e t s ?  a more d e s i r a b l e  a  e x a m p l e , what w e i g h t s h o u l d be  number o f s t r e e t l a n e s ing  to  these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  Had  to the  permit  a community  employed per an  provide  up-to-date a greater  which  thousand equipment level  of  N  criteria,  s i m i l a r l i m i t a t i o n s to  those  128  o u t l i n e d on t h e p r e v i o u s page a r i s e . using  t h e e x t e n t o f equipment  adequacy similar  of a street  F o r example,  as a v a r i a b l e t o measure t h e  s y s t e m , i t may be f o u n d t h a t  s i z e communities t h e e x t e n t o f equipment  a d e q u a t e f o r one w h e r e a s insufficient  When c o n s i d e r i n g  another v a r i a b l e , a problem r e g a r d i n g t h e employees  d e p a r t m e n t o f one community of  level  o f equipment  necessitate variables  of a public  T h e r e f o r e , t o use t h e  o f a p u b l i c works  department  p u b l i c works  of a ranking  Unfortunately,  system  information  on  as measurements o f t h e l e v e l o f  services.  Selection  of Variables.  In s e l e c t i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s  d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f a p u b l i c works i n light  inherent  t i m e s o f mach-  was n o t a v a i l a b l e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y  h a v e n o t been i n c l u d e d  two.  would  i n t e r m s o f m a n - h o u r s , e f f i c i e n c y o f work,  these v a r i a b l e s  the  and t h e  b o t h a t h o r o u g h a s s e s s m e n t o f each o f t h e s e  which t o grade them.  activities  works  per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ,  i n e s , as w e l l as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  to  n a n power a s  the a l l o c a t i o n of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s , and o p e r a t i o n  with  may be  may u n d e r t a k e a much w i d e r r a n g e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than another.  number o f men e m p l o y e d  f o r two  t h e same e x t e n t may be t o t a l l y  f o r the other.  labour arises i n that  when  department's  o f t h e l i m i t e d d a t a , and acknowledging  limitations, this section  These a r e , f i r s t ,  has only  the percentage of t o t a l  included paved  streets  129 to  total  and  length  o f a l l r o a d s and  second, the  length  streets in a  o f paved s t r e e t s per  municipality,  thousand  inhab-  itants. The it  r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e two  is felt  the  they represent a t a n g i b l e  l e v e l of  ity.  For  e x a m p l e , an  cent of the service  road c o n s t r u c t i o n  safety,than  one  are  paved.  not  i n d i c a t e the  the  width of  i n which only  q u a l i t y of the  roads, nor  the  per  per  comfort,  o f t h i s r a t i o does  pavement c o n d i t i o n , streets.  The be  nor thesis  considered.  o m i t t e d from i n v e s t i g a t i o n  since  available.  length  of  a s e c o n d v a r i a b l e has  s t r e e t s per  thousand  been i n c l u d e d  for  the  p u r p o s e o f a t t a i n i n g a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e  regarding  actual  activities.  To  e x t e n t of a p u b l i c works department's  illustrate  included.  t h i s point,  Suppose t h a t  w h i c h have f i f t y p e r c e n t a g e as  the  road construction  per  A and  following B are  e x a m p l e has  towns of  c r i t e r i o n t o measure the maintenance a c t i v i t i e s ,  the  been  similar size  cent of a l l s t r e e t s paved.  only and  the  of  cent of a l l roads  these elements should a l s o  s e l e c t i o n of the as  ten  grades of  d a t a c o n c e r n i n g them were n o t  inhabitants  convenience,  consideration  H o w e v e r , t h e y h a v e been  The  indicates  area i n which s i x t y  i n terms of  However, the  acknowledges that  that  paved would p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l  motorist,  and  value that  is  m a i n t e n a n c e o f a commun-  incorporated  roads are  to the  and  variables  Using extent  i t would  this of  130 appear t h a t each i s p r o v i d e d vice.  with a s i m i l a r  H o w e v e r , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may  level  of  reveal  ser-  that  community A has  o n l y t e n m i l e s o f paved s t r e e t s whereas  c o m m u n i t y B has  twenty m i l e s .  w o u l d be p r o v i d e d lengths  In t h i s  a greater level  r e s p e c t , community B  of s e r v i c e i n terms  o f p a v e d s t r e e t s , t h a n community A.  account f o r t h i s  d i f f e r e n c e , i t w o u l d be  In order  necessary  i n c l u d e t h e l e n g t h o f r o a d s as a u n i t l e n g t h p e r as a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e .  The  to determine the activities  in a  extent  selected one  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  extent  of a f i r e  department's a c t i v i t i e s ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  maintenance only  l e n g t h o f paved s t r e e t s per  values.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with appropriate  The  respect  ranking  to both a b s o l u t e  Province  i n Appendix  C.  both  the  length,  and  focus  assigned  values  values  of B r i t i s h  r e s u l t s o f T a b l e X X I I I were c o m p i l e d contained  consider  following table outlines street  f a c t o r s f o r these  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the  to  those  thousand inhabutants,  upon u n i t s o f s t r e e t l e n g t h s , b o t h h a v e been  the  As  percentage of paved s t r e e t s to t o t a l  ranking  maintenance  U n l i k e the v a r i a b l e s chosen  e l e m e n t - namely s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  similar  this  community.  f o r road  variables,  population,  a more e q u i t a b l e m e a s u r e m e n t  of road  Ranking of V a r i a b l e s . measure the  to  to  i n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , of  second v a r i a b l e would p r o v i d e  of  and  for a l l  Columbia.  from T a b l e  XXII  The  131 TABLE X I I I ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E  Incorporated Areas  Class Class Class Class Class Class  Percentage of s t r e e t s paved  F actor  32.7 51.6 58.3 60.6 56.7 74.2  64.7 75.1 78.3 79.8 77.7 86.9  One Two Three F our Five Six  Length o f Factor paved s t r e e t p e r 1,000 persons 2.9 3.9 4.2 3,3 2.8 2.5  59.8 62.6 63.8 62.1 59.5 58.4  The s u m m a t i o n o f b o t h t h e a b o v e f a c t o r v a l u e s , would  i n d i c a t e the  nance i n  e x t e n t o f road c o n s t r u c t i o n and mainte-  t e r m s o f a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e , i s a s f o l l o w s •• Class  Size  Factor  One Two Three Four Five Six Diagram  9 illustrates  c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance for  that  The o v e r a l l  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o a d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i t y  trend depicted  cities  graph  o f paved  i s first,  percentage o f roads  than s m a l l e r ones, and second, t h a t t h e m i d d l e have l a r g e r l e n g t h s  size  of British  by t h i s  l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a h i g h e r  paved  Value  62.3 68.9 71.5 71.0 68.6 72.7  a l l incorporated areas i n the Province  Columbia.  which  size  roads per thousand  M.  5r  CO I-  ONE  TWO  THREE  FOUR  FIVE  SIX  CLASS ES  DIAGRAM  9  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN R O A D CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 19 6 5  133 inhabitants  than both l a r g e r  In c o n c l u d i n g the  and  this section  are  p r o v i d e d a h i g h e r l e v e l of  The  only  The  r e a s o n why  e x c e p t i o n to  rapid  residential cities  and  the  i n areas of  Street  Cleaning  that  service  cities  fact that  main f u n c t i o n  of  street  and  major a c t i v i t i e s of  street  cleaning  of  paved s t r e e t s , l a n e s ,  a r e a s ; the  been d e p o s i t e d the  c o l l e c t i o n and  in litter  removal of  -sanding p r a c t i c e s  municipalities ones.  values  them h a v e been e x p e years.  of  S i n c e much  c a r r i e d out  in  maintenance early  cleaning  the  include  disposal the  snow f r o m s t r e e t s  to eliminate  incorporated  these  opera-  stage.  i s to  maintain  f o r the  purpose  public. sweeping  The and  a l l e y s , s i d e w a l k s and  containers;  icy  In the  Province of  British  o p e r a t i o n s are  c a r r i e d out  by  con-  r e l a t i v e l y low  i n an  safety  road  cities.  and  e x p a n s i o n w o u l d be  to  i s Class five  l a s t few  health  basins;  has  road construction  activities,  than smaller  many o f  s a f e g u a r d i n g the  public  larger  in a r e l a t i v e l y dirt-free condition  flushing  uiorks  variables  i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n was  tions  streets  two  growths d u r i n g the  d u r i n g 1965,  The  public  this relationship  t h i s c l a s s of  a t t r i b u t e d to  riencing  municipalities.  maintenance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r  areas i n t h i s province i n d i c a t e  of  on  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from a p p l y i n g  s t r u c t i o n and  is  smaller  of  refuse that  cleaning and  other  of  has  catch  sidewalks;  and  conditions. Columbia, s t r e e t  d i f f e r e n t departments.  cleaning For  134 example, i n t h e v i l l a g e o f Telkwa s t r e e t s a r e f l u s h e d volunteer  fire  d e p a r t m e n t e a c h s p r i n g a f t e r t h e snow  disappeared.  In other  c o u n c i l may  has  communities, s t r e e t cleaning  t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d o u t by t h e l o c a l local  by t h e  contract  parks board.  out t h i s a c t i v i t y  opera-  Also the  to private  agencies. T h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e o p e r a t i o n administration of street cleaning sary  to consider  vice.  s e r v i c e s , and i t i s neces-  them when e v a l u a t i n g  the l e v e l  of this  Among t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e pavement c o n d i t i o n s ,  p h i c and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , and t h e c h a r a c t e r dent p o p u l a t i o n .  more e a s i l y c l e a n e d  and c o n c r e t e  than gravel  roads.  t e r t y p e o f s t r e e t more d i f f i c u l t  cleaning and of  cleaning  activities  has, according  ser-  topogra-  of the r e s i -  I n t h e c a s e o f pavement c o n d i t i o n s , i t  would appear t h a t a s p h a l t  cases deters  and  Not o n l y  are  i s the l a t -  t o c l e a n , b u t i n many  activities.  This  i n turn creates to health  street surfaces  absence o f s t r e e t  unsanitary  officials,  conditions,  resulted i n outbreaks  epidemics. The e f f e c t t h a t  tivities area.  climate  h a s upon s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a c -  d e p e n d s upon t h e c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e  In those areas i n which there  i s heavy s n o w f a l l , t h e  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m a q u e s t i o n a i r e t h a t was s e n t t o a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e g a r d i n g P u b l i c Works a c t i v i t i e s . A copy o f t h e l e t t e r s sent t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x D. 1 5  135 length that  of the  winter  s t r e e t s can  activities  are  be  the  season w i l l determine the cleaned.  cleaning  operation  cleaning  operations  c o n d i t i o n s may costs. may  days  I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e snow r e m o v a l  responsibility  ment, s e v e r e w i n t e r  number o f  of the  p u b l i c works  depart-  also r e s u l t i n higher  In a r e a s o f h e a v y r a i n f a l l  e i t h e r not  be  n e c e s s a r y , as  street  street  in  the  1 fi  case f o r the  v i l l a g e of Lake Cowichan,  or present a d d i t i o n a l  problems r e s u l t i n g from the  accumulation of l a r g e deposits  mud  c l i m a t i c extreme, regions  and  silt.  At t h e  other  f  e x p e r i e n c e d r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s , s u c h as  the  areas of t h i s  with  In order oiling  province,  are  t o overcome the  of gravel  confronted  problems of  southern dust  of  that  interior  problems.  dusty c o n d i t i o n s ,  the  r o a d s i s a common p r a c t i c e f o r many commu-  nities. The  topographic  i n f l u e n c e the  conditions  r o u t i n g of s t r e e t c l e a n i n g  d i r e c t i o n of f l u s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . s t r e e t s c a u s e d by planning  hinders  topographic  schedule, operations, The  of incorporated  extent  of parking  street cleaning  a r e a s o f t o w n s and  cost  mentioned  T h i s information questionaire.  of  In t h e  i n which there  t r a f f i c movement f o r many h o u r s o f t h e 1 6  was  and  the  w i l l also affect  p r a c t i c e s on  activities.  cities  operations  may  In a d d i t i o n , d e a d ~ e n d  conditions and  areas  obtained  cleaning. streets seriously central  i s a high  day,  the  and  from the  business volume  where  of  overnight  previously-  136  parking  i s permitted,  street cleaning  a c t i v i t i e s may  be  less  effective. Finally,  the  population  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an  a r e a i n t e r m s o f c u l t u r a l h a b i t s and the  v o l u m e and  the  frequency of s t r e e t c l e a n i n g  the  industrial  a  nature of the  and  a t t i t u d e s as  transient visitor, operations.  required The  i n a small  resort  d i s c u s s i o n of the  ing a c t i v i t i e s  has  of s t r e e t c l e a n i n g  the  frequency of s t r e e t c l e a n i n g  a m u n i c i p a l i t y , the  be  c a r r i e d out  cover,  in this  number o f  heavy r a i n f a l l , any  operations level  nature, For  or a r i d  days t h a t  conditions can  be  pur-  costs,  duration should  be  arrived at.  of s t r e e t s cleaned  centage of t o t a l  o f s t r e e t i s s e l e c t e d as  can  When of  snow  fully To  as  a  offered  this activity  length  conditions  clean-  i s a d o p t e d as  another example, i f the  variable,  than  example, i f  of s e r v i c e  e f f e c t s of a long  conclusions  length  warrant  disposal  depend upon c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s .  t h i s v a r i a b l e , the  assessed before  example,  s e c t i o n f o r the  activities.  which to measure the  by  refuse  i m p o r t a n c e upon t h e  planning  using  For  affect  factors affecting street  and  may  will  as  town.  been i n c l u d e d  pose of e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i r  v a r i a b l e with  well  c o m m e r c i a l b a s e o f a community may  d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f s t r e e t c l e a n i n g and  that  urban  a  use per-  another  i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r p o o r pavement deter  cleaning  pographic conditions  do  activities,  not  or whether severe  permit e i t h e r the  to-  f l u s h i n g or  137 cleaning of  streets.  S e l e c t i o n of V a r i a b l e s . u n i t s o f measurements clude  The s e l e c t i o n o f  appropriate  for street cleaning operations  may i n -  the f o l l o w i n g : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  area the the the the the the the  of street surface cleaned; number o f m i l e s o f s t r e e t s * c l e a n e d ; number o f c u b i c y a r d s o f d i r t r e m o v e d ; number o f t o n s o f d i r t r e m o v e d ; number o f t o n s o f snow r e m o v e d ; length of streets o i l e d ; l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s sanded and s a l t e d ; number o f c a t c h b a s i n s c l e a n e d ;  9.  t h e number o f l i t t e r  containers  cleaned.  I f e a c h o f t h e a b o v e v a r i a b l e s were a s s i g n e d  equitable  f a c t o r r a t i n g s , the l e v e l of s e r v i c e of s t r e e t cleaning vities  f o r a l l incorporated areas i n the Province  C o l u m b i a c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . regarding  the lengths of s t r e e t s cleaned  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e m a i n i n g recorded  However, o n l y  of  acti-  British  information  was a v a i l a b l e .  As  e i g h t v a r i a b l e s has n o t been  by any m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , t h e y  cannot  be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The l e n g t h o f s t r e e t s c l e a n n e d performance standard and  has been a d o p t e d as a  u n i t by t h e C o m m i t t e e on U n i f o r m 17  S a n i t a t i o n Records.  Street  The C o m m i t t e e d e f i n e s a s w e e p i n g  mile as: C l a r e n c e E. R i d l e y and H e r b e r t A. S i m o n , M e a s u r i n g M u n i c i p a l A c t i v i t i e s . (The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers'" A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 2 2 . 1 7  <  138 a l i n e a l m i l e o f s t r e e t c l e a n e d o n c e e i t h e r by s t r e e t f l u s h i n g , m a c h i n e s w e e p i n g , hand b r o o m i n g , b e a t p a t r o l , o r hose c l e a n i n g Each c l e a n i n g method i s m e a s u r e d s e p a r a t e l y e v e n t h o u g h one m e t h o d may s u p p l e m e n t a n o t h e r . . . . . The c l e a n i n g w o r k , o r t h e c o s t p e r c l e a n i n g m i l e o f one m e t h o d c a n n o t be compared d i r e c t l y with another w i t h i n a c i t y without c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f work done.18 v  In r e f e r e n c e this of  to this  d e f i n i t i o n , the contention of  section i s that the consideration of only  street surface  measure t h e l e v e l pality.  i n n o t an a d e q u a t e v a r i a b l e w i t h of street cleaning operations  length  which t o  of a  munici-  The i n c l u s i o n o f a t i m e p e r i o d a n d t h e number o f  inhabitants that are provided a more v a l i d  with t h i s s e r v i c e would  u n i t o f measurement.  Therefore,  s e l e c t e d i n c l u d e s t h e number o f l i n e a l face  a unit  cleaned  provide  the v a r i a b l e  feet of street sur-  p e r week p e r t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s .  As y e t , s u c h  a v a r i a b l e h a s n o t been a d o p t e d by any s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  level  of street cleaning  operations.  However, t h e u s e o f t h i s the  surface  v a r i a b l e does n o t i n d i c a t e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t r e e t pavements, t h e nature  o f r e f u s e s w e p t , t h e number o f l a n e s  cleaned,  t h e method o f  s t r e e t - cleaning or the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s t r e e t cleaning activities.  The l i m i t a t i o n s a c c r u i n g  such a v a r i a b l e are f u l l y  to the a p p l i c a t i o n of  appreciated,  but i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  " ^ P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e a n d C o m m i t t e e on Uniform S t r e e t a n d ~ S a n i t a t i o n Records. (Manual o f P u b l i c Works R e c o r d s a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i c a g o ) , 1 9 3 3 , p. 7 1 .  139 that  the length  t i o n represents  of s t r e e t cleaned per unit time per populat h e most s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t o f m e a s u r e m e n t .  Using the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e , the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e lines in the  street cleaning  the Province  operations  of B r i t i s h  f o r a l l incorporated  Columbia.  f r o m T a b l e XXIV c o n t a i n e d  i n Appendix  areas  The t a b l e a l s o  f a c t o r v a l u e s f o r e a c h c o m m u n i t y t h a t h a v e been  out-  includes compiled  C.  TABLE XXV STREET CLEANING CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E  Number o f l i n e a l feet cleaned per week p e r 1000 inhabitants  1.6  Factor  51.6  3.9  9.0  12.3  13.1  30.6  53.9  59.0  62.3  68.1  80.6  D i a g r a m 1 0 , w h i c h h a s been c o n s t r u c t e d sults  contained  relationship  t i e s provide ties,  i n Table XXIV, c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s a  between c i t y  ing a c t i v i t i e s .  from t h e r e -  s i z e and t h e l e v e l  This diagram i n d i c a t e s t h a t  a much h i g h e r  of street  larger  clean-  municipali-  level of street cleaning  i n terms o f the length  distinct  activi-  o f s t r e e t c l e a n e d p e r week p e r  t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s , t h a n do s m a l l e r  communities.  140  DIAGRAM  IO  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ROAD CLEANING ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I9 6 5  141  Sewer S e r v i c e s . Before i t i s p o s s i b l e t o evaluate  the l e v e l  s e r v i c e s , that a p u b l i c works department p r o v i d e s (regarding The  first  a community  sewer s e r v i c e s , ) s e v e r a l b a s i c questions  are r a i s e d .  i s , "What types o f sewer f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n each  community?" the  i n sewer  design  of sewage?"  Another may be, "What are the f a c t o r s that a f f e c t o f a sewer system, and the treatment and d i s p o s a l A further question  sewer system d i f f e r  may i n c l u d e , "Why does one  from another community o f a s i m i l a r s i z e ? "  In answering these q u e s t i o n s ,  t h i s s e c t i o n has i n c l u d e d a  short  d i s c u s s i o n on the v a r i o u s  exist  i n t h i s province,  types o f sewer systems that  and an a n a l y s i s o f those  significant  f a c t o r s t h a t c o n d i t i o n the type o f treatment and d i s p o s a l operations.  This discussion w i l l  f o r s e l e c t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e the extent  then l e a d i n t o the method  v a r i a b l e s with which to measure  of sewer s e r v i c e s .  A sewer system i s a network o f sewer d r a i n s c o l l e c t s the l i q u i d waste products from an area quent treatment and d i s p o s a l .  Sanitary  that  f o r subse-  sewers c o l l e c t  con-  taminated l i q u i d s from b u i l d i n g s , and convey them to e i t h e r sewage treatment p l a n t s , or dispose manner.  o f them i n some other  Storm sewers are used to c o l l e c t  s u r f a c e water.  r a i n water and  In many communities i n B r i t i s h  s a n i t a r y and storm sewers are combined. type o f o p e r a t i o n  Columbia, both  The reasons f o r t h i s  depend upon drainage c o n d i t i o n s o f the area  142 (poor  drainage  tration width  conditions result  in infiltration  of right-of-way  speaking, separate  the  f o r s e w e r i n s t a l l a t i o n , and most  f i n a n c i n g o f sewer main i n s t a l l a t i o n .  combined sewers are l e s s c o s t l y  im-  Generally  to i n s t a l l  than  sewers. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m e t h o d s by  communities i n t h i s  tioned  exfil-  p h e n o m e n a ) , t h e n e e d f o r pumping o p e r a t i o n s ,  p o r t a n t , the  in  and  by  p r o v i n c e , and  unique f a c t o r s .  sewage t r e a t m e n t  w h i c h sewage i s t r e a t e d each o f t h e s e  i s condi-  Among t h e most common m e t h o d s o f  f o r s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s i s what i s known  as  20 primary  treatment.  sewage i n t o  septic  T h i s method i n v o l v e s t h e tanks.  The  reason  why  such  d i s p o s a l of a m e t h o d i s ;.,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f most s m a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s of the exceedingly septic tanks.  low  Apart  i s because  c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e  from the i n i t i a l  installation  of  costs,  maintenance c o s t s are n i l . However, t h e why  financial  aspect  c o m m u n i t i e s a r e s e r v i c e d by s e p t i c t a n k s .  logical  c o n d i t i o n s and  severe  t o p o g r a p h y may  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f sewer mains both nomic s t a n d p o i n t . it  i s not the o n l y  i s not  In a d d i t i o n ,  economically  expedient  Adverse not  geo-  permit  f r o m a p h y s i c a l and i n sparsely populated to i n s t a l l  reason  a complex  the  an  eco-  areas, and  F o r a more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f sewage t r e a t m e n t , c o n s u l t C h a p t e r 21 o f Water S u p p l y and Sewerage., E r n e s t W.. S t e e l , ( M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c . , New Y r k , 1960) 2 0  0  143 costly and  network  o f sewer mains.  T h u s , i n most r u r a l  i n many o f t h e s m a l l e r c o m m u c i t i e s  sewage t r e a t m e n t  i s by p r i m a r y  i n this province,  methods.  However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s which  p r e v e n t t h e use  o f s e p t i c t a n k s a s a means o f sewage t r e a t m e n t . s i g n i f i c a n t o f these concerns ing  soil  o f t h e water  example, i n areas o f non-permeable s o i l s ,  into  table greatly  s e p t i c t a n k s may r e s u l t  The most  characteristics  t h e s e p t i c t a n k s , and t h e l e v e l  where t h e w a t e r  areas  surround-  table.  For  such as c l a y s , and  f l u c t u a t e s , sewage i n e x f i l t r a t i o n and  disposal subsequent  contamination o f surface waters.  These u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s  h a v e , on many o c c a s i o n s , r e s u l t e d  i n outbreaks of epidemics.  Other  sewage t r e a t m e n t p r a c t i c e s t h a t a r e c a r r i e d o u t  in m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h secondary  Columbia  t r e a t m e n t and d i s i n f e c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s .  method b a s i c a l l y  i n v o l v e s the removal  of floating  include  The f o r m e r solids,  c o a r s e m a t e r i a l s , a n d c o l l o i d s by e i t h e r c h e m i c a l o r mechanical procedures. determine  the process o f secondary  those i n t e r i o r will  towns which  require totally  different  The n a t u r e o f t h e sewage t r e a t e d treatment.  operate f r u i t  F o r example,  canning  industries  d i f f e r e n t methods, and t h u s w i l l  incur  c o s t s , t h a n where t r e a t m e n t i s n e e d e d f o r w a s t e s  from e i t h e r a p e t r o - c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y plant.  will  or a fish-processing  144 D i s i n f e c t i o n p r a c t i c e s , which i n c l u d e the t i o n of p r e - t r e a t e d  sewage, r e p r e s e n t  treatment operations. l a r g e r urban  the  discharge  of wastes i n t o s e p t i c the  complex system o f sewer t r u n k s and  treatment.  and  mains to the  Consequently, secondary  costs  cleaning  t h a t are  operations  involved  t i o n o f such a sewer s y s t e m . t r e a t m e n t may  be  W a t e r S u p p l y and The ting  the  of  sewage  t r e a t e d , and  sewage  Ernest  i n c l u s i v e of  Steel. evalua-  of s e r v i c e that a m u n i c i p a l i t y provides  the  reasons that  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  ments t h a t a f f e c t sewer  i a b l e with  t o 22  t o comprehend the nature of the  for  types  of  sewage  c o n d i t i o n the methods of t r e a t -  f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s h a v e been i n c l u d e d  I f the  the  A f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of  a b o v e p a r a g r a p h s h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t when  level  The  some o f  opera-  f o u n d i n c h a p t e r s 17 Sewerage by  costs,  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  sewer systems f o r each community, the  the  place  than primary t r e a t -  represent  i n the  i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , i t i s .imperative  ment.  along  T r e a t m e n t p l a n t s , pumping s t a t i o n s , i n s t a l l a t i o n  s e w e r p i p e s , and basic  tanks,  c o n v e y a n c e o f sewage  t r e a t m e n t i s a f a r more c o s t l y o p e r a t i o n ment.  stage i n  T h i s method i s u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e d i n  secondary treatment includes  discharge  final  centres.  Unlike  a  the  chlorina-  to  express  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e many e l e operations.  v o l u m e o f sewage t r e a t e d i s s e l e c t e d as  which t o measure  the  level  a  of sewer s e r v i c e ,  vartwo  145 communities t r e a t i n g  e q u a l v o l u m e s o f sewage a t e q u a l  expen-  d i t u r e s w o u l d be a s s i g n e d t h e same d e g r e e o f s e r v i c e . f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may t a g e o f sewage p r o d u c e d  r e v e a l that a very l a r g e  by one  Yet,  percen-  community i s c o m p r i s e d  of  chemical wastes,  t h u s n e c e s s i t a t i n g a f a r more c o m p l e x  costly  process.  treatment  In t h i s  o p e r a t i n g t h e more c o m p l e x s y s t e m tive  sewer system  duced.  r e s p e c t , the  In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e f u l l y activities,  may  be u s e d a s a s e c o n d  may  be  found  t h a t f o r t h e same two  g a t i o n may  prove  was  compelled  and  soil  Under t h i s  However, a d d i t i o n a l  s e p t i c tanks because of  find  i t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e and  g r e a t f o o t a g e o f sewer m a i n s . or  Using  Finally, level  has  o f t h e sewer  expedient  investi-  financial  to i n s t a l l  cleaned  represent  t o measure  i n c l u d e the percentage  be  a  system.  d w e l l i n g s o f a community t h a t a r e c o n n e c t e d U s i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e , i t may  value  l e n g t h of sewers  a t h i r d v a r i a b l e w i t h which  o f a s e w e r s e r v i c e may  a far  settlement patterns,  i n s t a l l e d as a v a r i a b l e would not n e c e s s a r i l y  the extent or e f f i c i e n c y  cleaned  topographic  c o n d i t i o n s , whereas the o t h e r becuase o f denser  ele-  condition, i t  c o m m u n i t i e s one  c a p a b i l i t i e s , h i g h l a n d v a l u e s , and may  pro-  the e f f e c t s of other  t h a t t h e community h a v i n g t h e l o w e r  to i n s t a l l  effec-  service  the l e n g t h of sewers  variable.  g r e a t e r value than the other.  community  w o u l d p r o v i d e a more  i n t e r m s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s and  m e n t s upon t r e a t m e n t  and  of  t o a sewer  f o u n d t h a t f o r t h e same  the total system. two  146 communities  fifty  t e d t o a network that  per cent of a l l d w e l l i n g of sewers.  both communities  vice.  In t h i s  s i z e of the i n d i v i d u a l porated area,  above.  costs  both communities provide  sewer  may  the extent  ing  two  vided  the other  o f a sewer  mains,  per cent of the  to only The  forty  per  be  First,  may  total  cent.  s e r v i c e c a n be o b t a i n e d "How  from  many p e o p l e a r e  question,  askpro-  service  the f o l l o w i n g  selected:  percentage of dwellings  2.  percentage of population  3.  r e s i d e n t i a l / n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l sewer relating  mentioned  v a r i a b l e s a d o p t e d t o meas-  1.  Variables  construction  per cent of a l l households i n  In answering the f i r s t  variables could  sewered; sewered;  to the second q u e s t i o n  service  could  ratio.  include  the  following: 1. 2. 3.  the  of the i n c o r -  s e r v i c e ? " , and s e c o n d , "What does t h i s  consist of?"  ser-  be c o n n e c t e d t o s e w e r m a i n s , one  basic questions.  this  of  i n a d d i t i o n to those elements  Selection of Variables. ure  assume  does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t  services to eighty  inhabitants while  t h e same l e v e l  o f t h e sewer  Indeed, although f i f t y  connec-  one may  household, the density  the capacity  and m a i n t e n a n c e  respect,  are providing  Y e t , s u c h an a s s e s s m e n t  u n i t s are  v o l u m e o f sewage t r e a t e d by p r i m a r y m e t h o d s ; v o l u m e o f sewage t r e a t e d by s e c o n d a r y m e t h o d s ; c a p a c i t y o f storms and/or s a n i t a r y mains;  147 4. 5. 6.  number o f man-hours i n v o l v e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f sewer s y s t e m ; l e n g t h of storm and/or s a n i t a r y sewers; l e n g t h of storm and/or s a n i t a r y sewers c l e a n e d .  If information c o u l d be o b t a i n e d be c o n s t r u c t e d  a n d , i f an e q u i t a b l e r a t i n g  system  could  t o r a n k e a c h v a r i a b l e , i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o  determine the l e v e l  o f sewer  areas i n the Province m a t i o n was  f o r each o f t h e above n i n e v a r i a b l e s  services for a l l incorporated  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  However,  infor-  o n l y a v a i l a b l e f o r two o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a n d  no  s y s t e m o f r e c o r d i n g h a s been a d o p t e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n in  any m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e .  The  two  v a r i a b l e s se-  l e c t e d i n c l u d e t h e l e n g t h o f a l l forms o f sewer the  percentage of t o t a l  The  l i m i t a t i o n s regarding  d w e l l i n g s s e r v i c e d by s e w e r  However, i t i s f e l t each  i n the foregoing  d e f i c i e n c i e s are f u l l y  pages.  variables to  i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , one may  assume t h a t  a community which has e i g h t y per c e n t o f a l l d w e l l i n g s and w h i c h h a s an a v e r a g e  o f t e n f e e t o f sewer m a i n s p e r t h o u s a n d provided  a higher  level  t w e n t y p e r c e n t and t h r e e The all  length  whose v a l u e s  feet respectively, ceteris  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the Province  con-  i n h a b i t a n t s , would  o f s e r v i c e t h a n one  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e summarizes  these  acknowledged.  t h a t when a p p l y i n g t h e two  nected t o a sewer.system,  and  activities  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a p p l y i n g  two v a r i a b l e s h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d T h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s and  mains,  sewer  be are  paribus.  activities for  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  148 according  to class size.  XXVI c o n t a i n e d  i n Appendix  I t h a s been c o m p i l e d f r o m  Table  C.  TABLE  XXVII  SEWER CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E  Two  1.7  4.3  5.1  59.1  71.4  75.2  Number o f l i n e a l feet o f sewer mains per 1000 p e r s o n s Factor  C 1 a s s e s Three Four  One  Percentage of d w e l l i n g s connected.  Average  71.4  75.2  The r e s u l t s f r o m T a b l e X X V I I  4.5  3.8  71,5  68.9  67.7  77.4  87.3  83.1.  88.0  93.0  79.4  79.9  81.0  . 75.6  c* m  59.1  Six  5.2  F actor Total  Five  i n conjunction  w i t h Diagram  i n d i c a t e t h a t one; l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r o v i d e level lineal  a  11  higher  o f s e r v i c e s t h a n s m a l l e r o n e s i n t e r m s o f number o f f e e t o f sewer mains p e r t h o u s a n d  p e r s o n s and p e r c e n t a g e  o f d w e l l i n g s c o n n e c t e d t o sewer s y s t e m s ; two, l a r g e r palities  provide  a higher  level  of s e r v i c e than smaller  i n terms o f percentage o f d w e l l i n g s  c o n n e c t e d t o sewer  tems; and t h r e e , t h a t m i d d l e s i z e c i t i e s sand i n h a b i t a n t s ) p r o v i d e  higher  munici-  (five  ones sys-  to ten thou-  l e v e l s of s e r v i c e than  both  CLASS ES  DIAGRAM  RELATIONSHIPS  II  BETWEEN  SEWERAGE  ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S S I Z E IN THE PROVINCE O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A IN 1965  150 s m a l l e r and l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s lineal  f e e t o f sewer mains p e r t h o u s a n d The  Ranking  Having and  each  o f P u b l i c Works  determined  t h e next  Activities, size  c o n t a i n e d under p u b l i c  works  step i n v o l v e s ranking the importance  of these a c t i v i t i e s .  come a c r o s s w h i c h  inhabitants.  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c i t y  of the three a c t i v i t i e s  activities, each  i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f  of  The o n l y s t u d y t h a t t h e a u t h o r h a s  has ranked  these a c t i v i t i e s  was one  under-  21 t a k e n by M a b e l W a l k e r , she  In r a n k i n g p u b l i c works  assigned the following  activities,  values:  Weight Street cleaning. Number o f t i m e s p e r week,.,,,, 1 Garbage c o l l e c t i o n . Number o f t i m e s p e r week,,, 1 Sewerage, Percentage o f p o p u l a t i o n sewered 1 Highways. Percentage o f t o t a l s t r e e t paved.,... 1 Highways. Percentage of paving t h a t i s durable. 1 The street in  a p p l i c a t i o n of these weights  cleaning activities  would i n d i c a t e t h a t  are considered just  terms o f c o n t r i b u t i n g towards  a higher level  i n p u b l i c works o p e r a t i o n s , than t h e p e r c e n t a g e s t r e e t a r e a paved, and t h a t a s i m i l a r between t h e p e r c e n t a g e  as i m p o r t a n t , of service of total  relationship  exists  o f p o p u l a t i o n sewered and t h e p e r c e n -  tage of road paving that i s durable.  However, i t i s t h e con-  t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance M a b e l L. W a l k e r . M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . ( B a l t i m o r e ; J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ) , p. 6 6 . 2 1  151 of a c i r c u l a t i o n cleaning  activities.  f a c t o r s , the p e n d e d on ning  s y s t e m i s a more e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e t h a n s t r e e t  first  the  Such an  being  subordinate  without a c i r c u l a t i o n not  take p l a c e ) .  assigned street  cleaning  activities  to  there  system  that  relative  activities o f 2:1  p r e s e n t t i m e no  importance of s t r e e t  w o u l d be  s y s t e m a d o p t e d by M a b e l W a l k e r has  activities  has  been and  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of  b a s e d upon a v a l u e  been s e l e c t e d .  the  with  cleaning a judg-  weighting The  f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e been a p p l i e d t o e a c h o f t h e u n d e r t a k e n by  could  e f f e c t i v e way  Rather than r e v e r t to t h i s procedure, the  propriate  (that i s ,  maintenance o p e r a t i o n s ,  sewerage o p e r a t i o n s , two  ex-  respectively.  i s at the  f o r the  two  street clea-  road c o n s t r u c t i o n  system, s t r e e t c l e a n i n g  activities  with  a r e s u l t of  Consequently, a factor r a t i o  w h i c h t o compare t h e  ment.  second being  t o r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and  Since  ranking  the  2  are  was  t h a t a l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f money i s  f o r m e r ^ , and  activities  evaluation  p u b l i c works department of  apthree a  0  municipality  are  as  follows: Activity Street cleaning Sewerage Highways  Weight 1 1 2  22Th e a c t u a l b r e a k d o w n o f e x p e n d i t u r e s on e a c h a c t i v i t y t h a t f a l l s u n d e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e B o a r d o f Works o f a p u b l i c w o r k s d e p a r t m e n t was n o t a v a i l a b l e f r o m b u d g e t s h e e t s . H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l phone c a l l s t o i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d was t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e s on r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e on street cleaning operations.  152 T a b l e XXVIII s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d when weights  a r e a p p l i e d t o each a c t i v i t y TABLE  according to class  these size.  XXVIII  THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC WORKS A C T I V I T I E S FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  Activity  One  Two  C 1 a s s e s Three F our  Five  Six  51.6  53.9  59.0  62.3  68.1  80.6  Sewerage  59.1  71.4  75.2  79.4  79.9  81.0  Highways  124.6  137.8  143.0  142.0  137.2  145.4  58.8  65.8  69.3  70.9  71.3  76.8  Street  Total  Cleaning  Average  From t h i s t a b l e , one c o u l d c o n c l u d e direct  relationship  that there i s a  between t h e s i z e o f a c i t y  and t h e l e v e l  o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by a p u b l i c w o r k s d e p a r t m e n t .  This  sec-  t i o n h a s shown t h a t l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f 8ritish  Columbia p r o v i d e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p u b l i c works s e r -  v i c e s i n terms o f road cleaning a c t i v i t i e s ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance,  and sewerage o p e r a t i o n s t h a n  street  smaller  municipalities. Equating  Cost  with Extent of Service.  By c o m p a r i n g p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s activities tionship  with the l e v e l  on p u b l i c w o r k s  of service, the following  c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d :  rela-  153 TABLE XXIX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND LEVEL OF PUBLIC WORKS SERVICE  Per c a p i t a expenditures U n i t s of service  Two  311.4  310.5  315.4  317.3  317.8  310.6  58.8  65.8  69.3  70.9  71.3  76.8  From t h i s t a b l e , inhabitant 58.8  of C l a s s  u n i t s of  one  one c o u l d cities  of  Class  v i c e , while  for approximately  six cities  two  receives  receive  cities  76.8  the  65.8  same p e r  u n i t s of  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f u r t h e r , one  81.1.4 t h e  inhabitants  level  of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  of  Class  cities  for  capita  could  of 310.5 ser-  costs,  per  inhabitant.  state  receive  each  the  that  for  following  service: 32.0 p e r c e n t o f a l l s t r e e t s p a v e d ; 2.9 f e e t o f p a v e d s t r e e t s p e r t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s ; 1,6 l i n e a l f e e t o f s t r e e t s c l e a n e d p e r week p e r one t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s ; 1,7 l i n e a l f e e t o f s e w e r m a i n s p e r t h o u s a n d i n h a bitants; a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i t y - f i v e per cent of a l l d w e l l i n g s c o n n e c t e d w i t h sewer mains.  S i m i l a r c o m p a r i s o n s can classes.  one  f o r 311.4  u n i t s of  service  Extending  Six  equivalent  Similarly,  receive  the  Five  surmise that  p u b l i c works s e r v i c e .  inhabitants  Class  C l a s s e s Three Four  One  be  drawn f o r t h e  remaining  154 In o r d e r t o e q u a t e p e r l e v e l of the  per  capita  p u b l i c works s e r v i c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o capita  d o l l a r sign values into absolute  T h i s p r o c e d u r e has  already  83  The  of C h a p t e r IV.  table  have t h e r e f o r e  Total  Average o u t l i n e d  t h e s e two  been c a r r i e d o u t  THE  been c o m b i n e d w i t h i n Table XXVIII.  v a l u e s i s as  numbers.  i n Table X I I ,  page  those values of The  summation  the of  XXX  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC WORKS SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE ' PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  C l a s s e s Three Four  Two  Factor rating f o r per c a p i t a expenditures  86.1  86.9  80.8  Factor rating f o r l e v e l of service  58.8  65.8  Total  72.5  76.4  es  translate  follows:  One  Average The  the  I n t e n s i t y Values contained i n t h i s  TABLE  Class  expenditures with  Five  Six  78.4  77.6  86.9  69.3  70.9  71.3  76.8  75.1  74.7  74.5  81.9  r e s u l t s contained i n t h i s table  s i x c i t i e s a p p e a r t o be  i n terms of p r o v i d i n g  l a t i o n to per  capita  clude t h i s section  on  the  the  most e f f i c i e n t  that  of a l l c l a s s -  h i g h e s t l e v e l of s e r v i c e  e x p e n d i t u r e s on public  indicate  this service.  works a c t i v i t i e s ,  thB  To  in  re-  con-  following  155 o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made: 1.  Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are provided a higher of  level  road c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance s e r v i c e s than  smaller incorporated areas. 2.  Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are provided a higher of  s t r e e t c l e a n i n g s e r v i c e s than s m a l l e r i n c o r p o -  rated 3.  level  areas.  Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are a l s o provided a higher l e v e l of sewer s e r v i c e s than s m a l l e r i n c o r p o r a t e d areas.  4.  By equating  per c a p i t a expenditures  s e r v i c e , the ranking of e f f i c i e n c y  with l e v e l  of  of p u b l i c works  departments f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n tho Province of B r i t i s h Columbia a c c o r d i n g to c l a s s size,  i s as f o l l o w s : Class Size  1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th  6  2 3 4 5 1 S a n i t a t i o n and  Waste Removal  Waste removal has each household,  Rank  been d e f i n e d as "the c o l l e c t i o n  at  business p r o p e r t y , or i n s t i t u t i o n , of the  waste t h a t r e s u l t s from processes  of urban l i f e ;  the t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n of such m a t e r i a l s to d i s p o s a l s i t e s ; and  the  156 processing  and d i s p o s a l o f t h e c o l l e c t e d r e f u s e  ances a r e not c r e a t e d " , In t h i s of  s e c t i o n , t h e term  o f t h e terms a s s o c i a t e d  Municipal  C i t y Managers'  In i n c o r p o r a t e d Columbia, waste the  'waste' i n c l u d e s a l l forms  local  with  waste  A more d e t a i l e d i s contained  P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d  International  out  i n the  by t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n , on page 3 3 0 ,  areas i n the Province  removal o p e r a t i o n s  governments.  states that  nuis-  94  garbage, r e f u s e , r u b b i s h , and a s h e s ,  line  so t h a t  Section  of B r i t i s h  are the responsibility of  534 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t  :  The  C o u n c i l may be b y - l a w  1,  e s t a b l i s h , m a i n t a i n , and o p e r a t e grounds f o r t h e d i s p o s a l o f garbage o f a l l k i n d s and o f n o x i o u s , o f f e n s i v e , o r unwholesome s u b s t a n c e s ;  2,  e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a system f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n r e m o v a l , and d i s p o s a l o f garbage, a s h e s , r e f u s e , and o t h e r n o x i o u s , o f f e n s i v e , unwholesome, and discorded matter;  3,  c o m p e l p e r s o n s t o make u s e o f any s y s t e m e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the d i s p o s a l o f garbage, ashes, refuse and o t h e r n o x i o u s , o f f e n s i v e , u n w h o l e s o m e , a n d d i s c a r d e d m a t t e r , and p r e s c r i b e t h e terms and c o n d i t i o n s upon w h i c h p e r s o n s make u s e o f s u c h system,25  In t h i s  province,  waste  removal a c t i v i t i e s  are either  ^ M u n i c i p a l P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y M a n a g e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 3 2 9 , Municlpal Queen's P r i n t e r s , 2 5  A c t , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (The Victoria, 1965), pp. 31B2 - 3 1 8 3 .  157  u n d e r t a k e n by l o c a l  a u t h o r i t i e s o r by p r i v a t e  agencies.  S e c t i o n 534, s u b s e c t i o n h, s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o u n c i l o f a municipality  may:  e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t s w i t h any p e r s o n f o r a l l o r p a r t o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n , r e m o v a l , and d i s p o s a l o f garbage and o t h e r w a s t e s , upon t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by the C o u n c i l . 2 5  The vities  p r a c t i c e o f c o n t r a c t i n g out garbage c o l l e c t i o n  i s very  of B r i t i s h  acti-  common among s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e  Columbia.  From a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o e a c h  incor-  p o r a t e d a r e a i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i t was f o u n d t h a t o v e r e i g h t y p e r cent o f a l l  communities o f fewer than f i v e  thousand population  c o n t r a c t e d o u t garbage c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  to private  agen-  wate r e m o v a l  acti-  cies. T h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t vities.  Among t h e more i m p o r t a n t o n e s a r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  waste p r o d u c t s , whether s o l i d s , rials,  o r a s h e s , t h e volume  of d i s p o s a l  sites,  waste p i c k - u p s .  chemicals, fast-decaying  mate-  o f t h e waste p r o d u c t s , t h e l o c a t i o n  t h e methods o f d i s p o s a l , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f  F o r example, l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  that r e -  v o l v e a r o u n d m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s w o u l d r e q u i r e a more f r e q u e n t waste r e m o v a l s e r v i c e as w e l l as a d i f f e r e n t method o f d i s p o s a l than a small r u r a l  community.  Each o f t h e above-mentioned  t o r s a r e t h e m s e l v e s c o n d i t i o n e d by o t h e r e l e m e n t s . and t h e v o l u m e  o f t h e waste p r o d u c t s w i l l  nomic base i n terms o f i n d u s t r i a l  depend  The n a t u r e  upon t h e e c o -  and.manufacturing processes  [riun.icipal Act. Province of B r i t i s h Queen's P r i n t e r s , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 6 5 ) , p.3183. 2 6  fac-  C o l u m b i a , (The  158 o f t h e community; t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e d i s p o s a l s i t e s m i l l r e l a t e d to topographic values,  soil  An  c o n d i t i o n s , wind d i r e c t i o n s , l a n d  c o n d i t i o n s , and enforcement r e g u l a t i o n s  ing the burning  of private  evaluation  regard-  refuse.  o f t h e e f f e c t s t h a t each o f t h e s e f a c t o r s '  has  upon g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n  the  s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s with  such a s e r v i c e .  be  activities  i s a prerequisite to  which t o measure t h e l e v e l o f  The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s h a v e been i n c l u d e d i n  t h i s s e c t i o n t o emphasize t h e importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g  these  effects. I f t h e volume o f r e f u s e v a r i a b l e with operations,  c o l l e c t e d i s s e l e c t e d as a  which t o measure t h e l e v e l  the  b a s i s , and assuming t h a t  equal volumes o f r e f u s e . the nature of the refuse i s r  same f o r b o t h , e a c h community w o u l d be a s s i g n e d  ratings.  Y e t , further research  communities enforces burning tial  may i n d i c a t e t h a t one o f t h e  stringent regulations against  whereas t h e o t h e r  similar  refuse  p e r m i t s households t o burn  residen-  g a r b a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r by means o f p r i v a t e i n c i n e -  rators.  Taking i n t o account the undesirable  p o l l u t i o n and t h e problem o f f i r e which enforces of  removal  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o two c o m m u n i t i e s o f s i m i l a r  s i z e may r e v e a l t h a t b o t h c o l l e c t On t h i s  o f waste  these regulations  effects of a i r  h a z a r d s , t h e community would p r o v i d e  a higher  level  s a f e t y t o t h e p u b l i c even though both communities a r e p r o -  viding  s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e i n terms o f garbage  collection.  159 In t h i s  respect, the i n d i r e c t  w i t h waste  removal a c t i v i t i e s  benefits that are associated would  f a v o u r one c o m m u n i t y  over  another. A n o t h e r example i l l u s t r a t i n g sideration cipal  i s given only t o the d i r e c t  s e r v i c e , would  b e n e f i t s o f any m u n i -  be t h e c a s e when m e t h o d s o f r e f u s e  p o s a l a r e used as a v a r i a b l e collection  t h e l i m i t a t i o n s when c o n -  activities.  t o measure t h e l e v e l  o f garbage  U s i n g t h e same two c o m m u n i t i e s , i t may  be f o u n d t h a t b o t h o f them d i s p o s e o f a s i m i l a r f u s e p e r week.  dis-  weight o f r e -  A p p l y i n g the v a r i a b l e , weight of r e f u s e  p o s e d o f p e r week, e a c h community w o u l d However, such a c o m p a r i s o n  receive similar  disratings.  does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e a c -  t u a l method o f r e f u s e d i s p o s a l .  I n d e e d , one c o m m u n i t y may  p o s e o f i t s r e f u s e by means o f open dumps  dis-  w h i l e t h e o t h e r may  i n c i n e r a t e a large percentage of i t s refuse.  E x p e r i e n c e has  shown t h a t t h e f o r m e r method c r e a t e s d i s a g r e e a b l e o d o r s a n d p r o v i d e s b r e e d i n g grounds  f o r i n s e c t s and r a t s , thus  b u t i n g towards the i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e . f u s e i n o p e n dumps may e a s i l y and  cause  dump f i r e s  ignite  t h e o t h e r hand, i n c i n e r a t i o n  Furthermore, the r e -  by s p o n t a n e o u s  which a r e d i f f i c u l t  contri-  combustion  to extinguish.  On  practices eliminate unhygienic  c o n d i t i o n s , may p r o v i d e a s o u r c e o f h e a t o r t h e r m a l p o w e r , and a r e r e a s o n a b l y e c o n o m i c  to operate i n that savings are  accomplished through low h a u l i n g w i t h i n t h e urban c e n t r e .  costs i fplants are located  I f , therefore,  indirect  b e n e f i t s and  160 d i s b e n e f i t s are also considered service that  when e v a l u a t i n g  e a c h o f t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s  the l e v e l of  i s provided,  the  comunity which p r a c t i s e s i n c i n e r a t i o n methods would p r o v i d e greater  level  o f waste removal s e r v i c e i n terms o f c o n t r i b u t i n g  towards a higher A third level  level  c o n v e n i e n c e , s a f e t y and w e l f a r e .  variable that  could  be a d o p t e d t o m e a s u r e t h e  o f w a s t e , r e m o v a l s e r v i c e s w o u l d be t h e f r e q u e n c y o f  service. that  U s i n g t h e same two c o m m u n i t i e s , i t may be f o u n d  e a c h u n d e r t a k e s t h e same f r e q u e n c y o f s e r v i c e .  b a s i s , both would appear t o p r o v i d e  an e q u a l l e v e l  However, t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c o l l e c t i o n light  should  climatic  conditions.  refuse  other,  the incidence  I f , therefore,  of unhygienic  a disbenefit to that  respect,  same l e v e l  of service.  be v i e w e d i n  o f waste removal  include'the  and i n s a n i t a r y particular  conditions  community.  In  service.  o f waste  could  be s e l e c t e d  removal operations  completeness of the s e r v i c e .  F o r example,  similar  H e n c e , f o r t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s  frequencies  of refuse  collection,  with  would refuse  may be made f r o m t h e h o u s e , t h e back y a r d , t h e  or the alley.  providing  the rate of decomposition  a fourth variable that  which t o measure t h e l e v e l  collection  a s w e l l a s by  t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s w o u l d n o t be p r o v i d i n g t h e  Finally,  curb,  this  f o r one o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i s much f a s t e r t h a n t h e  would c r e a t e this  On  o f t h e r a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n , a phenomenon w h i c h i s  i n f l u e n c e d b o t h by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e f u s e  of  a  which that  161 community i n which r e f u s e p i c k - u p a greater the  d i s t a n c e t h a n t h e community i n which t h e  i s a t t h e curb  of the street.  Selection of Variables. illustrated  The f o r e g o i n g  some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f them, c o u l d  E i t h e r o f these  to  elements  be s e l e c t e d a s t h e v a r i a b l e  w i t h which, t o measure t h e l e v e l o f t h i s list  p a r a g r a p h s have  t h a t many e l e m e n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p e r -  formance o f waste removal o p e r a t i o n s . or  offer  s e r v i c e t o t h e h o u s e w i f e who does n o t have t o c a r r y  r e f u s e any g r e a t  pick-up  i s a t t h e house would  service.  The f o l l o w i n g  o u t l i n e s some o f t h e b a s i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d  determine the extent  o f waste removal  operations.  1.  Tons o f r e f u s e h a n d l e d p e r u n i t t i m e ( i e a w e e k ) .  2.  Ton-miles o f refuse handled per u n i t  3.  Cubic  4.  Frequency o f c o l l e c t i o n  yards of refuse handled per u n i t  commercial 5.  Number o f t o n s  Number o f t o n s land-fill  time.  from r e s i d e n t i a l  and/or  areas. of refuse  a t i o n methods p e r u n i t 6.  time.  disposed  o f by i n c i n e r -  time.  of refuse  d i s p o s e d -of by s a n i t a r y  methods p e r u n i t  time.  7.  Number o f f u l l - t i m e men e m p l o y e d p e r 1000  8.  Number o f m a n - h o u r s p e r u n i t t i m e p e r 1000  9.  Hauling  10.  persons.  c a p a c i t y o f equipment.  Number o f r e s i d e n t s p r o v i d e d ection  persons.  activities.  with refuse  coll-  162  Information  on o n l y one  was  obtained  and  t h i s i n v o l v e d the  vices. by  from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  D a t a on  any  of the above-mentioned v a r i a b l e s  of the  the  frequency  remaining  sent  t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y  of garbage c o l l e c t i o n  v a r i a b l e s have not  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the  ser-  been  Province  of  recorded  British  Columbia. The level  v a r i a b l e t h a t has  o f s a n i t a t i o n and  number o f t i m e s  been s e l e c t e d t o m e a s u r e  waste removal s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t s  that refuse  i s c o l l e c t e d per  ercial  s e c t i o n s of urban areas.  refuse  c o l l e c t i o n s has  reported it  not  appreciated  The  t h a t the  of t h i s  the volume of the o f men  s e r v i c e i s not take  collection that accrue  ected  the  refuse,  o f , the  of the  of these  number  garbage benefits inadequacies,  o f w a s t e r e m o v a l s e r v i c e s does level  of t h i s s e r v i c e , i t s refuse  town s i x t i m e s  o f s e r v i c e t h a n one  c o l l e c t e d o n c e a week.  of the  In l i g h t  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e  level  an  disposed  assume t h a t a community t h a t has  a higher  Indeed, such  nature  extent  the of  indirect  frequency  However,  as a m e a s u r e  d i r e c t and  from c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s o f the  provided is  may  s e r v i c e , the  to such a s e r v i c e .  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  f o r one  adequate.  i n t o account the  e q u i p m e n t , and  however, p r o v i d e  alone  r e f u s e c o l l e c t e d and  employed i n the  residential  consideration of only  the  does n o t  of  c o n d u c t e d o n c e a week.  of waste removal a c t i v i t i e s  analysis  week f r o m comm-  frequency  frequency level  the  been i n c l u d e d as a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e was  is fully  the  coll-  a week i s  i n which  refuse  Ranking o f V a r i a b l e s . ected no  t o measure t h e e x t e n t  ranking  A s o n l y one v a r i a b l e was s e l o f garbage c o l l e c t i o n  system i s necessary.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o u t l i n e s  s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal a c t i v i t i e s areas i n the Province size.  of British  areas.  sent  for a l l incorporated  Columbia according  T h i s t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d  a questionnaire  activities,  to class  from r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  t o e i g h t y per cent  from  of a l l incorporated  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e f o u n d i n T a b l e  XXXI c o n t a i n e d  i n A p p e n d i x C.  D i a g r a m 12 h a s a l s o b e e n  included to graphically i l l u s t r a t e  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  waste removal a c t i v i t i e s  size.  and c l a s s  TABLE X X X I I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND WASTE REMOVAL SERVICES C l a s s e s _  One  Two  Three  Collections p e r week  1.2  1.4  1.9  2.4  3.0  4.8  Intensity Values  52.5  53;3  58,3  64.4  70.0  88.0  Per c a p i t a expenditures  $2.99  5.40  7.29  From t h i s t a b l e one c o u l d i n h a b i t a n t o f C l a s s one c i t i e s 52.5 the  Pour  84.9  Five  8.75  Six  7.00  d e d u c e t h a t f o r $2.99 e a c h  receives the equivalent of  u n i t s o f waste removal s e r v i c e s . inhabitants of Class six c i t i e s  L i k e w i s e , f o r $7.00,  r e c e i v e 88.0 u n i t s o f  164  DIAGRAM  |2  RELATIONSHIPS' BETWEEN GARBAGE COLLECTION ACTIVITIES AND C L A S S SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I9 6 5  165 service. for  This comparison  c a n be e x t e n d e d  by i n d i c a t i n g  $ 2 . 9 9 , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s one c i t i e s  commercial  garbage c o l l e c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  whereas f o r a l i t t l e cities  have t h e i r  comparisons  1.2 t i m e s p e r week,  under t h r e e times t h i s  price, Class four  c a n be made f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g  with Extent of Service.  i t i s necessary  per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s .  Similar  classes.  equate per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s with t h e l e v e l  in  their  g a r b a g e c o l l e c t e d 2.4 t i m e s a week.  Equating Cost  activities,  have  that  In order t o o f waste  removal  to substitute numerical values f o r  T h i s h a s been p r e v i o u s l y  T a b l e X I I , page 83 o f C h a p t e r  IV.  accomplished  The s u m m a t i o n o f t h e  u n i t s o f s e r v i c e with the values contained i n Table X I I i s as  follows: TABLE XXXIV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OF WASTE REMOVAL SERVICES C 1 a s s e s One  Two  Three  Four  Five  Six  Factor rating for per capita expenditures  87.6  86.5  82.2  78.4  78.2  82.5  Units of service  5.2.&  53.3  58.3  64.4  70.0  88.0  Total  70.1  69.9  70.3  71.4  74.1  85.3  Average  166 From the the  r e s u l t s of Table XXXIV one  e x c e p t i o n of C l a s s  one  could  conclude that  c i t i e s , larger municipalities  p r o v i d e d a h i g h e r l e v e l of waste removal s e r v i c e s to per  c a p i t a expenditures and The  s a n i t a t i o n and  waste removal o p e r a t i o n s that  incorporated 1.  following  areas i n the  collection varies c i t i e s , and 2.  be made r e g a r d i n g are  practised  Province of B r i t i s h  1^2  than i n s m a l l e r ones.  between 4.8  for Class  one  times per  in  Columbia.  Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  than do s m a l l e r  3.  When per  Frequency  of  week f o r Class  six  communities.  c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s , on  services  than  Frequency of garbage c o l l e c t i o n i s higher i n  larger municipalities  of per  c o n c l u s i o n s can  are  in relation  performance of s e r v i c e ,  s m a l l e r ones.  all  with  expend more money, i n terms  s a n i t a t i o n and  waste removal  municipalities.  c a p i t a expenditures are  l e v e l of s e r v i c e , l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  related  obtain  with  the  greater  results. Recreation. Before one all it  incorporated  can  evaluate r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  areas i n the  i s necessary to define  Province of B r i t i s h  what i s meant by  Having done t h i s , i t i s then p o s s i b l e method whereby the  been d i v i d e d  i n t o two  parts.  The  Columbia,  such a term.  to apply some s y s t e m a t i c  l e v e l of r e c r e a t i o n a l  measured f o r each m u n i c i p a l i t y .  for  services  T h i s s e c t i o n has first  can  be  therefore  w i l l answer  the  167 basic for  question:  providing  entail  "What i s r e c r e a t i o n ? " ,  this service?"*  f o r each community?"  level of this  The s e c o n d p a r t  the  of incorporated  extent of recreational  ingly  difficult.  recreation  with  activities  o f t h e term " r e c r e a t i o n "  section,  recreation  exceed-  on t h e c o n c e p t  i s defined  p r o v i d e s both p h y s i c a l who v o l u n t a r y  In t h i s c o n t e x t ,  a v a i l a b l e time that living.  costs  services.  to the individual  activity.  daily  sel-  areas according t o the  would prove a a very time-consuming  experience that  satisfaction  this  b e a r w i t n e s s t o t h i s , a n d t o c i t e e a c h one o f  the purpose of t h i s  leisure  be d e v o t e d  which t o measure  I n d e e d , many a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n  these p u b l i c a t i o n s  this  with  complex n a t u r e o f t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n  makes a c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n  For  will  o f s e r v i c e , and t h e e q u a t i o n o f p e r c a p i t a  The  of  variables  services  s e r v i c e , the reasons underlying  e c t i o n , the ranking level  i s responsible  a n d "What do t h e s e  towards s e l e c t i n g appropriate the  "Who  leisure  a person has o u t s i d e  Recreational  task. as a  and m e n t a l  participatesi n .  i s defined  as t h e  the exigencies  a c t i v i t i e s may c o n s i s t  of  o f both  a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e p u r s u i t s , whether indoor o r o u t d o o r , f o r all  t i m e s o f t h e day a n d f o r a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r .  short,  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s may be p r a c t i s e d  t i m e , i n a n y p l a c e a n d by a n y o n e . i o n o f the concept o f r e c r e a t i o n  In  a t any  A more d e t a i l e d  descript-  may be f o u n d i n C h a p t e r I  168 27 of the P r i n c i p l e  of Recreation  w r i t t e n by J o h n  Hutchinson.  I n a d d i t i o n , a more c u r r e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t ivities  h a s been p r e s e n t e d  article  undertaken i n 1967. The  and g e n e r a l  community.  Well-equipped  playgrounds  not only o f f e r  adults alike,  i s to provide  welfare to the inhabitants of a  and s t r a t e g i c a l l y r e c r e a t i o n areas  l o c a t e d parks and t o c h i l d r e n and  but a l s o b e a u t i f y t h e a r e a , enhance t h e v a l u e  estate i n the adjacent  p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l Recreation  progress  a r e a s , and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o f a community.  s e r v i c e s f o r incorporated areas  Province  of B r i t i s h  of l o c a l  governments.  ments i s c o n t a i n e d Act.  unpublished  2 Q  prime goal o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  health, happiness,  of r e a l  by C a r o l i n e S p a n k i e i n an  Columbia are p r i m a r i l y The a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d  i n the  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n these  govern-  u n d e r S e c t i o n s 621 a n d 624 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l  These s e c t i o n s s t a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g : . Sect.  621 ( 1 ) (a),  (b")  The C o u n c i l may by b y - l a w : a c q u i r e , by p u r c h a s e , l e a s e o r o t h e r w i s e , a c c e p t , a n d h o l d any r e a l o r personal property w i t h i n the munici p a l i t y f o r pleasure, r e c r e a t i o n , or community u s e s o f t h e p u b l i c . . . ; make r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e management, m a i n t e n a n c e , i m p r o v e ment, o p e r a t i o n , c o n t r o l , and use o f any r e a l o r p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y ;  J . L . Hutchinson, P r i n c i p l e s of R e c r e a t i o n , (A.S. B a r n e s a n d Company, New Yor¥7T9487TTpTT^20. ... 2 7  28 C a r o l i n e S p a n k i e , Space T o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n : Planning Aspects For N a t i o n a l P o l i c y . (Unpublished M.AV T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1967,).  i  169 Sect. (1)  624 - • . The C o u n c i l , may on any p r o p e r t y acquired or h e l d , c o n s t r i c t , m a i n t a i n , o p e r a t e , i m p r o v e , and use b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t s a n d p r o v i d e any a c c o m m o d a t i o n , f a c i l i t i e s , o r equipment r e q u i s i t e f o r any o f t h e p u r p o s e s m e n t i o n e d i n c l a u s e ( a ) of s u b s e c t i o n (1) o f S e c t i o n 621. 29  F u r t h e r m o r e , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s may e s t a b l i s h p a r k s a n d recreation  commissions as o u t l i n e d under S e c t i o n s  of the M u n i c i p a l  A c t . T h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s , i n t u r n , may  powers p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d of developing  recreation areas.  The a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d under  i n the Sections  and 629 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . Recreation  the  delegate  f o r t h e purpose  p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n commissions i s c o n t a i n e d 628  628 and 631  Province  activities, functions include  s e r v i c e s u n d e r t a k e n by l o c a l  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a encompass a w i d e r a n g e o f  and v i r t u a l l y  that  governments i n  a l l forms a r e p r a c t i s e d .  The b a s i c  a r e m a i n t a i n e d a n d o p e r a t e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s  the following: t o u r i s t information bureaus, p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , l o c a l campsites p u b l i c swimming p o o l s curling rinks, boat l a u n c h i n g s i t e s , bowling a l l e y s ,  museums, skiing facilities, skating rinks, community h a l l s , tennis courts, golf courses, other r e c r e a t i o n sports,  Many o f t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c h a r g e e i t h e r i n t h e form o f a d a i l y annual membership f e e . 29  Municipal  usually  involve a  p a r t i c i p a t i o n f e e o r an  The r e m a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s  A c t . 0£ c i t , ' , pp. 3 2 1 4 - 3 2 1 8 .  are financed  170 through revenues obtained a  from l o c a l  The  f e e s t r u c t u r e upon r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  b e n e f i c i a l as  w e l l as  detrimental  recreational activities. that  i t simplifies  One  of the  c o n t r o l and  creates  Another i s that  the  p u b l i c t o pay  the  a u t h o r i t i e s a guide i n planning  the  disadvantage of charging  use  of  tends to  their  is  prevent  willingness  f o r c e r t a i n forms of r e c r e a t i o n  of  both  advantages of charging  d i s c i p l i n e , and  abuse o f monopoly.  p e o p l e who  imposition  e f f e c t s upon t h e  the  of  taxes.  of  furnishes  program.  The  major  for recreation services i s that  c a n n o t a f f o r d t o pay  f o r these s e r v i c e s are  deprived  them. When e v a l u a t i n g  a community p r o v i d e s , s e r v i c e charges are unity  and,  evaluation  i f so,  the one  level should  of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s also consider  i m p o s e d upon t h e  the  administrative  p r o c e d u r e s does not  itants  i n terms of the  receive  revenue that  i s required  community r e c e i v e investigation maintaining  appropriate i n the  reveals  tourist  Indeed,  from f i n a n c i n g  i n d i c a t e what t h e  amount and  nature of  this  and  the  services.  first  question  that  arises  v a r i a b l e s i s : "What does e a c h  comprises operating  nature of the  capita characteristics,  could  facilities, be  If  and  bureaus i n a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , then the  the  inhab-  form of a r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e ? "  that  number o f man-hours and terms of per  apart  The  not  i n h a b i t a n t s o f a comm-  t o meet t h e s e  S e l e c t i o n of V a r i a b l e s . when s e l e c t i n g t h e  whether or  nature of these charges.  of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  that  u s e d as  in a  the  v a r i a b l e with services. ivities  which t o measure t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n  However, as p r e v i o u s l y  are included  i n d i c a t e d , many o t h e r  i n recreation  pursuits.  order to evaluate  fully  icipalities  must be a c o m p i l a t i o n  activities  there  information  a t i o n a r i s e s , and t h i s activities  according  value i s placed  are  placed  by l o c a l  o f a l l forms  could  be g a t h e r e d , a f u r t h e r  munof area. limit-  concerns t h e r a t i n g o f each o f t h e s e  t o importance.  upon a c h i l d r e n ' s  upon t o u r i s t  F o r e x a m p l e , how much  p l a y g r o u n d as compared t o  bureau f a c i l i t i e s ?  Further,  what  t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s o f a p l a y g r o u n d , a p a r k , o r  a museum?  I f a system o f r a n k i n g  each a c t i v i t y be  provided  Therefore, i n  t h a t a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n each i n c o r p o r a t e d  Even i f t h i s  that  the service  act-  possible  that  c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d  i s assigned a numerical value,  to determine the l e v e l  whereby  then i t should  of recreation  services  a community p r o v i d e s i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . ^ A second q u e s t i o n  indirect studies  that  i s r a i s e d i s : "What d i r e c t a n d  benefits accrue to r e c r e a t i o n have p r o v e d t h a t  facilities mortality  facilities?  effectively-operated  tend t o reduce t h e l e v e l r a t e s , and t h e i n c i d e n c e  Several  recreation  of juvenile  3 delinquency,  o f crime r a t e s and o t h e r  31 social  indices.  B e a r i n g t h i s i n m i n d , i t w o u l d be f a i r t o  A . S . T r u x a l , Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and I t s E f f e c t i v e n e s s , ( C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 2 8 , ) p. 3 0  C . E . R i d l e y a n d H.A. S i m o n , M e a s u r i n g Activities. (The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' C h i c a g o , 1 9 4 3 , ) p. 3 5 . 3 1  Municipal Association,  172 assume t h a t  f o r two s i m i l a r s i z e c o m m u n i t i e s o f f e r i n g t h e same  l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , t h e one t h a t h a s a r e d u c t i o n o f the  incidence  of j u v e n i l e delinquency,  as a r e s u l t o f t h e  c r e a t i o n o f these r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , would p r o v i d e s e r v i c e t o t h e community i n t e r m s o f p u b l i c s a f e t y , and  a  greater  welfare,  convenience. Another question  relationship services.  that  should  be p u r s u e d c o n c e r n s t h e  b e t w e e n t h e demand a n d s u p p l y  I n d e e d , j u s t b e c a u s e two c o m m u n i t i e s may be  v i d i n g t h e same e x t e n t  boat s i t e s ,  follow that facilities.  other  advisors,  may p l a c e  adequate  golf  recreation  i n v e s t i g a t i o n may r e v e a l t h a t  b a s e o f one community may n e c e s s i t a t e tourist  bureaus,  and p i c n i c g r o u n d s ) , i t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r y  both communities provide Further  pro-  o f s e r v i c e ( t h a t i s , i n terms o f  a c r e a g e o f p l a y g r o u n d s , number o f t o u r i s t courses,  of recreation  the economic  a large personnel of  as i n t h e case o f r e s o r t towns, whereas t h e  more v a l u e  on a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s  c a s e o f a community t r a d i t i o n a l l y  as i n t h e  t h e champion i n a p a r t i c u l a r  sport. Eva and  supply  population, mobility.  Mueller  and G e r a l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  G u r w i n h a v e c o m p a r e d t h e demand four  socio-economic l e v e l , They b o t h c o n t e n d t h a t  basic  factors.  disposable  time,  These a r e and  each o f t h e s e has d i f f e r e n t  d e g r e e s o f i n f l u e n c e upon t h e demand f o r , and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  173 the  supply o f , recreation A final  facilities.  consideration that  32  s h o u l d be made c o n c e r n s t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a n c e , and t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e f a c i l i t y requirements. f i g u r e s may  i n terms of a t t e n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o park  Regarding the record of attendance, these  be c o n s i d e r e d a m e a s u r e o f p e r f o r m a n c e  observations reveal  that a p a r t i c u l a r  for i f ,  s e c t i o n o f t h e community  p r e f e r s a c e r t a i n a s p e c t o f a r e c r e a t i o n program  to  altern-  a t i v e u s e s o f l e i s u r e t i m e , one may  presume t h a t s u c h a  program  Records o f a t t e n d a n c e can  is fulfilling  be more e a s i l y ilities, rinks.  i t s purpose.  undertaken at s o c i a l  c e n t r e s and s p e c i a l  s u c h as g o l f c o u r s e s , b o w l i n g a l l e y s , a n d From t h e s e r e s u l t s one may  recreation activity  curling  assume t h a t a h e a v i l y  used  i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o r  v a l u e t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a c o m m u n i t y p l a c e on s u c h activity.  Thus,  of  s i z e a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e same number o f  similar  fac-  i f investigation  c o u r s e s , boat s i t e s , and c u r l i n g  r e v e a l s t h a t two  r i n k s , attendance  an  communities golf  figures  will  i n d i c a t e whether o r not each community i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s  role  i n t e r m s o f . p r o v i d i n g a w e l l - b a l a n c e d and  recreation service. figure  efficient  I t i s assumed h e r e t h a t a l o w a t t e n d a n c e  does n o t r e f l e c t  the a t t i t u d e s of i n d i v i d u a l s  but  E v a M u e l l e r and G e r a l d G u r w i n , " P a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n : F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Demand Amoung American A d u l t s " , Report t o t h e Outdoor Resources Review C o m m i s s i o n . No 2 0 , (U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C, 1962). 3 2  174 rather the q u a l i t y of service, location of a c t i v i t y , participation  and l e v e l o f m a i n t e n a n c e .  cost f o r  To i l l u s t r a t e  p o i n t , the g o l f course at P r i n c e t o n , B r i t i s h  this  Columbia,  has a  very low attendance  f i g u r e a l t h o u g h t h e a n n u a l membership i s  surprisingly  The m a j o r  attributed  high.  t o t h e p o o r " q u a l i t y o f t h e f a i r w a y s and greens, t h e  lack of club-house roads. which  r e a s o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s c a n be  A second  facilities,  and p o o r l y m a i n t a i n e d  r e a s o n why t h e a t t e n d a n c e  figure  access  i s h i g h , and  may a l s o a p p l y t o o t h e r s o c i a l m e m b e r s h i p s , c o n c e r n s t h e  element  o f p r e s t i g e and one-up-manship. Because o f t h e n a t u r e o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s ,  satisfactory  records of attendance  are not e a s i l y obtained.  For example, i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t of c h i l d r e n attending a playground number a n d d u r a t i o n o f v i s i t s ever, current practice count  t o r e c o r d t h e number  f o r a g i v e n day a s t h e  h a v e t o be a c c o u n t e d  f o r some c i t i e s  for.  i s to take a  t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s a day w i t h no a t t e m p t  How-  complete  to i d e n t i f y  t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t  p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e  individual's  activity.  recreation  This f i n a l  s e c t i o n has emphasized  of only the e x i s t i n g a complete two  services  does n o t r e p r e s e n t  p i c t u r e o f t h e adequacy o f s e r v i c e .  communities  may have t h e same a c r e a g e  playgrounds, t h i s reational  recreational  that a consideration  a r e a does n o t i n d i c a t e  facilities  a t i o n of attendance  a r e underused  because  o f p a r k s and whether these  or overtaxed.  records should also  Just  An  be i n c l u d e d .  recexamin-  Regarding generally  standards of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , i t i s  accepted t h a t urban areas s h o u l d p r o v i d e  areas f o r r e c r e a t i o n uses.  The  amount o f l a n d d e v o t e d  these uses i s e i t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , or i s based The  adequate to  a l l o c a t e d , as i n t h e c a s e upon r e c r e a t i o n  of  standards.  N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e and t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c -  iation,  in a joint  publication, declared:  T h e r e i s f a i r l y g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e among p a r k and c i t y p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t e a c h c i t y s h o u l d p r o v i d e one a c r e o f p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n space e i t h e r w i t h i n or i m m e d i a t e l y a d j o i n i n g i t s b o u n d a r i e s f o r each hundred p o p u l a t i o n . 33 A more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t are  adopted  by N o r t h A m e r i c a n  o f some o f t h e s t a n d a r d s c i t i e s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e  p u b l i c a t i o n : Management P r a c t i c e s F o r S m a l l e r C i t i e s , lished  by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y M a n a g e r s '  This a r t i c l e of  d i s c u s s e s the space  playgrounds The  and  that  pub34  Association.  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l forms  parks.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of mentioning  recreation standards i s  t h a t t h e s e s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when e v a l u a t i n g level of  of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  F o r e x a m p l e , u s i n g t h e number  a c r e s o f p a r k s as a v a r i a b l e w i t h which  level  the  t o measure  the  of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n  the Province of B r i t i s h communities  Columbia,  i t may  provide s i m i l a r acreage  be f o u n d t h a t  of parks.  On  this  two basis  U . S . D e p t . o f t h e I n t e r i o r , M u n i c i p a l and C o u n t y P a r k s i n t h e U.S. (Washington, D.C, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 42. Manaqement P r a c t i c e s For S m a l l e r C i t i e s , ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y M a n a g e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1959)", p. 375. 3 3  t  34  176 b o t h w o u l d be a s s i g n e d t h e same l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , c e t e r i s paribus. actual of  H o w e v e r , s u c h a c o m p a r i s o n does n o t i n d i c a t e t h e  space a l l o c a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ,  parks i n r e l a t i o n to population  adherence t o r e c r e a t i o n  standards.  which m a i n t a i n s r e c r e a t i o n recreation a greater planning  d i s t r i b u t i o n , nor the The community  therefore,  s t a n d a r d s , and p r a c t i c e s  programs f o r a l i m i t e d area o f l a n d , level  the l o c a t i o n  will  efficient provide  o f s e r v i c e t h a n one w h i c h does n o t a p p l y any  measures t o a s i m i l a r area o f l a n d . I n summary, i f one s e l e c t s v a r i a b l e s t o m e a s u r e t h e  level  of recreation  Province be  of B r i t i s h  services  f o r incorporated  areas i n the  Columbia, the f o l l o w i n g elements  should  assessed: 1.  the types of f a c i l i t i e s  2.  t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s services;  3.  the nature of the fee s t r u c t u r e recreation a c t i v i t i e s ;  4.  t h e adequacy o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s s u p p l y a n d demand r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  5.  t h e l e v e l o f use o f r e c r e a t i o n of attendance f i g u r e s ;  6.  the compliance of r e c r e a t i o n  Due t o l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n above e l e m e n t s , o n l y selected  i n this  offered; accruing  to these  forspecific i n terms o f  activities  i n terms  standards.  on t h e m a j o r i t y  of the  t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s h a v e been  section:  S e l e c t i o n of V a r i a b l e s . 1.  number o f a c r e s o f p a r k s and thousand i n h a b i t a n t s ;  2.  percentage of t o t a l m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s ;  3.  number o f m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y . These i n c l u d e museums, b o a t l a u n c h i n g s i t e s , g o l f c o u r s e s , and t o u r i s t i n f o r m a t i o n b u r e a u s .  Since  the  information,  On  first  two  the  their  other  t h i r d v a r i a b l e , the  reation  findings tabulated  h a n d , as  felt  four  the  thesis fully  and  class  been d e v i s e d  nature of  acknowledges the  when t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e  that  the  evaluate  number o f a c r e s  the  e x a m p l e , one one  level  may  t h a t has  In o r d e r  of  with  under  the  the  public  rec-  l i m i t a t i o n s that  applied.  However, i t i s  of parkland  and  playgrounds  some b a s i c m e a s u r e w i t h  per  which  recreation services for a l l incor-  Province  assume t h a t  of B r i t i s h f o r two  Columbia.  similar size  a l a r g e r area of l a n d t h a t  recreation activities  level  to  facilities.  porated areas i n the  the  incor-  elements contained  extent  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s provides to  quantifiable  according  no m e t h o d has  to  i n c l u s i o n of t h i s v a r i a b l e i s f o r  illustrating  The result  per  a r e a dev/oted  v a r i a b l e s provide  which t o equate each of the  purpose of  playgrounds  b o t h o f them h a v e been a p p l i e d t o e a c h  p o r a t e d a r e a and size.  177  would p r o v i d e  a higher  t o a t t a i n a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  For communities,  i s devoted level  of  evaluation  to service.  of  the  of s e r v i c e , i t i s necessary to i n c l u d e the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t o t a l  u r b a n a r e a and  grounds.  e x a m p l e , i f two  For  the  extent  other  o f p a r k s and  communities are  playselected  178 for  investigation,  acreage  i t may  o f p a r k s and  be a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r Yet, further  be  found  playgrounds. ratings  t h a t t h e y h a v e t h e same On  for level  i n v e s t i g a t i o n may  t h i s b a s i s , they of r e c r e a t i o n  r e v e a l t h a t the t o t a l  contained w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l boundaries may  be t w i c e a s g r e a t as t h e o t h e r .  community which playgrounds The eristics 8ritish  has  f o r one  w o u l d be a s s i g n e d t h e h i g h e r two  service. area  community  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the  the g r e a t e r percentage  following  would  of parks  and  rating.  t a b l e s summarize r e c r e a t i o n c h a r a c t -  f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the P r o v i n c e of Columbia.  They h a v e been c o m p i l e d  and  XXXVI c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x  has  been i n c l u d e d t o g r a p h i c a l l y  between r e c r e a t i o n  C.  s e r v i c e s and  from  Tables  XXXIV  In a d d i t i o n , Diagram  illustrate class  the  13  relationship  size.  TABLE XXXVI PARK CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E Classes  Number o f acres of park/1000 persons  Intensity value  Percentage of t o t a l c i t y area under park  Intensity value  One  7.8  60.3  1.6  59.9  Two  8.1  61.6  2.1  63.0  Three  8.5  61.7  2.3  67.8  Four  4.5  55.8  2.1  63.6  Five  13.9  70.8  3.6  72.3  8.7  61.9  5.5  84.4  Six  179  ONE  TWO  THREE FOUR  FIVE  SIX  CLASSES  DIAGRAM  13  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RECREATION SERVICES AND C L A S S SIZE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN I965  TABLE  XXXVII  RECREATION F A C I L I T I E S ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E Number o f museums p e r 1000 persons  Classes  Number o f boat s i t e s p e r 1000 persons  Number o f g o l f courses p e r 1000 persons  Number o f tourist centres p e r 1000 persons  One  0.2  0.7  0.2  0.3  Two  0.5  1.1  0.4  0.5  Three  0.3  1.1  0.8  1.1  F our  0.6  1.5  0.9  1.3  Five  0.8  2.9  1.0  1.7  Six  1.6  6.3  2.2  2.4  As T a b l e X X X V I I larger  cities  cannot  be q u a n t i f i e d ,  recreation two of  provide greater f a c i l i t i e s ,  activities  Intensity  mas o n l y i n c l u d e d  the f i n a l  ratings  to i l l u s t r a t e and as t h e s e  that results  f o r the extent c f  c a n be o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g t o g e t h e r t h e  V a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n Table XXXVI.  The s u m m a t i o n  these r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s :  The  Class Av. I n t e n s i t y One 60.1 Two .. . 62.3 Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.8 Four 59.7 Five 71.6 Six . . . . . . 73.2  Value  following  Tables  c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be made f r o m  XXXVI a n d X X X V I I , a n d f r o m o b s e r v i n g D i a g r a m  13.  181 1.  T h e r e i s no and  relationship  r a n g i n g b e t w e e n t e n and  persons  per thousand  inhabitants.  between f i v e  and  and  thousand  remaining  close correlation of t o t a l  city  parks than s m a l l e r  ching s i t e s , mation Equating  have  inhabitants.  cities  size  park. contain  of l a n d t h a t i s devoted  to  communities. facilities,  t e n d t o h a v e more museums, b o a t p u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e s , and  centres than  smaller  Per C a p i t a E x p e n d i t u r e  comparing per c a p i t a  vices with level  cities  a r e a under  I n t e r m s o f t h e numbers o f r e c r e a t i o n a l larger cities  acres  between c i t y  for Class four c i t i e s , larger  a g r e a t e r percentage  By  fifteen  ten a c r e s per thousand  the percentage  Except  The  size  persons.  t e n d t o have t h e g r e a t e s t number o f  There i s a very  3.  between c i t y  t h e number o f a c r e s p e r t h o u s a n d  Cities  2.  direct  laun-  tourist  infor-  municipalities. with Extent of S e r v i c e .  e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e c r e a t i o n s e r -  of s e r v i c e , the f o l l o w i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p can  constructed: TABLE X X X V I I I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE AND LEVEL OF RECREATION SERVICE  One Per c a p i t a expenditure Units of Service  Two  C l a s s e s Three Four  33.34  36.57  $6.18  $7.78  60.1  62.3  64.8  59.7  F ive  Six  $11.52 $15.18 71.6  73.2  be  182 From t h i s  t a b l e one  i n h a b i t a n t o f C l a s s one  c o u l d d e d u c e t h a t f o r S3.34 e a c h  cities  r e c e i v e s the e q u i v a l e n t of  u n i t s o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , and Class s i x c i t i e s  r e c e i v e 73.2  f o r 315,18 t h e i n h a b i t a n t s  units.  f u r t h e r extended  by s t a t i n g  of  C l a s s one  i s p r o v i d e d w i t h 7.8  playgrounds the t o t a l  per thousand  is  Similarly,  p e r s o n s , and  developed  a c r e s o f p a r k s and  live  i n urban  level  for recreational  uses.  o r d e r to equate  and  per cent  of  recrea-  playgrounds  Similar  v a l u e s i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers.  Chapter  11/ o u t l i n e s t h e s e i n t e n s i t y  tained  i n Table XXXVIII  XII,  The  5.5  per p e r ceint  comparisons  can  cities.  of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e , i t i s necessary to  tionship  inhabitant  per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h the  dollar  in  1.6  areas of which  a l s o be made f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s o f In  could  acres of parks  devote  of  f o r $15.18 t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C l a s s s i x  a r e p r o v i d e d 8.7  thousand  p e r s o n s and  f o r S3.34 e a c h  area c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l boundary t o  t i o n uses. cities  that  This r e l a t i o n s h i p  be  cities  60.1  translate  T a b l e X I I on page 83 values.  Those v a l u e s  of con-  can be c o m b i n e d w i t h t h o s e i n T a b l e  summation o f t h e s e v a l u e s w i l l  i n d i c a t e the  b e t w e e n p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and  terms o f a b s o l u t e numbers.  level  of  relaservice  183 TABLE XXXIX THE  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND LEVEL OP RECREATION SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  C 1 a s s e s Three F our  Five  Six  83.6  84.6  81.1  71.2  65.5  60.1  62.3  64.8  59.7  71.6  73.2  75.4  73.0  74.7  70.4  71.4  69.4  One  Two  Factor rating f o r per c a p i t a expenditures  90.6  Factor r a t i n g for l e v e l of service Total  Average The  cities the  r e s u l t s contained  level  i n terms of  service.  areas tend to provide  s e r v i c e s , they  in relation  i n c u r much g r e a t e r  to the s e r v i c e provided  level  per c a p i t a  than smaller  Because o f the very  wide range between  (they  $3 and § 1 5 ) , and a r e l a t i v e l y  range between  between  the l e v e l  advantage of t h i s  per c a p i t a  of s e r v i c e , the smaller distribution.  t o per therefore,  even though  a greater  smaller  providing  To c o n c l u d e ,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t  incorporated tion  table indicate that  of recreation service i n r e l a t i o n  c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h i s this  in this  a p p e a r t o be t h e most e f f i c i e n t  highest  THE  larger of  recrea-  expenditures communities. expenditures small  communities  range  take  184 Education This f i n a l level  s e c t i o n deals with the  of B r i t i s h  t h e o p e r a t i o n and cational  Columbia.  facilities,  and  the  the  o p e r a t i o n and  relatively  Schools be  95th  to  grounds,  edu--  conduct of t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s .  services investigated in this  chap-  maintenance of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . . The  c r e a t i n g an e d u c a t i o n  in  These s e r v i c e s r e f e r  maintenance of s c h o o l s , school  Unlike the other m u n i c i p a l  is  the  of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas  the Province  ter,  e v a l u a t i o n of  procedures i n v o l v e d i n  s e r v i c e are o u t l i n e d i n the P u b l i c  Annual Report.  Basically,  these  procedures  can  s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1.  Teaching  permits  c e r t i f i c a t e s are  of h i g h e r  the  t o h i g h e s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , E.T.  lowest  temporary),  (Elementary B.Ed.  in  this  grees,  44  Ed.D  (Elementary  per  province while the  (Doctor cent  (Elemen-  conditional),  o f E d u c a t i o n ) , M.Ed.  E d u c a t i o n ) , and  by  They i n c l u d e , f r o m  (Elementary  b a s i c ) , E.A.  (Bachelor  proximately  E.C.  learning.  issued  institutes  tary  British  and  E.B.  advanced), (Master  of E d u c a t i o n ) .  of Ap-  of a l l teachers r e g i s t e r e d  hold bachelor remaining  56  and per  advanced cent  have  deE.A.  P u b l i c S c h o o l s 9 5 t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , The P r o v i n c e o f C o l u m b i a , (The Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 6 6 ) .  185 or 2.  lower  qualifications.  L o c a l maintenance s e r v i c e s , such  as  c a r e t a k i n g , l a b o u r i n g and p o l i c i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 3.  of the l o c a l  janitorial, a c t i v i t i e s are  municipality.  D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e number o f t e a c h e r s a n d p e r s o n n e l , a n d t h e number o f g r a d e s courses lity  taught  o f both  i n each s c h o o l , a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i -  the l o c a l  ment o f E d u c a t i o n . to  and n a t u r e o f  School  Board  and t h e Depart-  The number o f t e a c h e r s  each s c h o o l i s d e t e r m i n e d  allocated  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f  Education  b a s e d upon t h e T e a c h e r ' s  Entitlement  Formula.  T h i s f o r m u l a a s s i g n s v a l u e s t o each  s c h o o l a n d i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e number o f s t u d e n t s , the type o f s c h o o l (whether or and  elementary,  primary,  s e c o n d a r y ) , t h e number o f p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s , special  petition  courses.  The l o c a l  s c h o o l board  f o r more t e a c h e r s a b o v e t h e v a l u e  may  assigned  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a n d h a s t o f i n a n c e this addition 4.  from  local  T h e l e n g t h o f s c h o o l day a n d y e a r i s d e t e r m i n e d the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c of  5.  revenues. by  I n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e Department  Education.  The a u t h o r i t y lities  t o c r e a t e and i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n  i s vested i n l o c a l  faci-  governments as o u t l i n e d  i n S e c t i o n 624, s u b s e c t i o n ( 2 ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t .  186 This subsection  states that:  The C o u n c i l may, by and s u b j e c t t o a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , c o n s t r u c t and operate f a c i l i t i e s f o r community use on any s c h o o l s i t e t h e t i t l e o f which v e s t s i n , or i s h e l d by, t h e B o a r d of School Trustees of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n which the m u n i c i p a l i t y or p a r t t h e r e o f i s s i t u a t e . ° 6.  The is ^  c r e a t i o n o f By-Laws p e r t a i n i n g t o a n n u a l contained  u n d e r S e c t i o n 206  Municipal Act.  n e  This  subsection  subsection  rates  (1) a,  of  states that:  The moneys r e q u i r e d f o r a l l l a w f u l g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g due p r o v i s i o n f o r u n c o l l e c t a b l e t a x e s and f o r t a x e s t h a t i t i s e s t i mated w i l l not be c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r , but n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e moneys r e q u i r e d u n d e r b y - l a w s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o meet p a y m e n t s o f i n t e r e s t and p r i n c i p a l d e b t s i n c u r r e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , or r e q u i r e d f o r the share of the expenses of the School Board, or r e q u i r e d f o r charges f o r the payment o f w h i c h s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s i s o t h e r w i s e made i n t h i s A c t ; 37 The is  determination  probably  of the  t h e most d i f f i c u l t  level  of e d u c a t i o n a l  of a l l municipal  services  services  s i n c e such a s e r v i c e encompasses both complex e x t r i n s i c s u c h as m e a s u r a b l e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e a i m s , s c o p e , m e t h o d , and The  first  the  problem of measurement. there are  The  two  content  Ibid,  p.  3055.  v a l u e s , such  as  of educational s e r v i c e s . encounters  concerns  I n s h o r t , what d o e s one  m a j o r e l e m e n t s t h a t can  Municipal Act, Province  3216. 3 7  intrinsic  p r o b l e m , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t one  Basically,  p.  and  valuer  of B r i t i s h  be  measure? measured  Columbia,  1965  187 in  an e d u c a t i o n a l  system.  The  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , and e x a m p l e s ber  first  concerns the  physical  o f t h e s e w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e num-  o f t e a c h e r s p e r h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s , number o f s t u d e n t s p e r  c l a s s r o o m , t h e number o f g r a d e s o f f e r e d , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s c h o o l t e r m , and so o n . assessing  The o t h e r measurement w o u l d  less tangible c r i t e r i a  involve  such as t h e v a l u e o f  this  38 social  system,  t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n t o t h e community  cational  investments,  economic  well-being of a  3 9  community,  e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s both i n terms of measuring  able c r i t e r i a emphasized  as w e l l  in this  consider the l a t t e r ducts.  The  quantifiable  edu-  and t h e e f f e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n on t h e  Many p u b l i c a t i o n s h a v e been w r i t t e n on t h e .of  on  as i n t a n g i b l e  criteria.  s e c t i o n t h a t t h e main - namely  evaluation quantifi-  However, i t i s  c o n c e r n does  not  an a s s e s s m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l  pro-  r e a s o n f o r n o t i n c l u d i n g an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e  non-  criteria  i s twofold.  The  first  i s that at the  p r e s e n t t h e r e i s no c o m p r e h e n s i v e m e t h o d w i t h w h i c h t o measure a l l r e l a t e d  variables.  e c o n o m i s t s a r e coming of  educational  F o r e x a m p l e , e v e n t h o u g h many  closer  services,  to measuring the economic  value  t h e y have y e t n o t p r o v i d e d a  R u s s e l l A c k o f f has a t t e m p t e d t o a p p l y a model f o r m e a s u r i n g some o f t h e s e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s . i n an a r t i c l e entitl e d Towards Q u a n t i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban S e r v i c e s , ( P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e D e c i s i o n s i n t h e U r b a n Community, The C o m m i t t e e on Urban Economics, o f t h e .Resources f o r t h e F u t u r e , I n c . , W a s h i n g t o n D.C., 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 9 1 - 1 1 7 . 3 8  J o h n V a i z e y , The E c o n o m i c s o f E d u c a t i o n , F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , C h a p t e r I I I . 3 9  (London:  188 measure t h a t Further  the  The  can  discussion  associated in  one  with  use  with  of the  a great  deal  services  Higher Education i n the  E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s , w r i t t e n by In a d d i t i o n t o t h e  R.N.  d i r e c t and  the can  problems be  United  found States:  limitation  involved  i n measuring  e n c o u n t e r e d when  i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s of  such a  h a v e t o be  ring  a d u c a t i o n system i n terms of  effectiveness  benefits that  are  o f an  e n j o y e d by  the  i t i s important to recognize  attaching  a value  the  e f f e c t s t h a t an  urban c e n t r e s ,  e i t h e r noted f o r t h e i r  u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g or  higher  l e a r n i n g , the  ents w i l l  benefit  the  contain  one  satisfaction. high  larger  standards  community as a whole i n terms o f  i n a l a r g e volume o f revenue i n t o the  use  an  permit the  In  p r o p r i e t o r . o f an  local  known t o s p e n d a  entertainment.  may  o f more i n s t i t u t i o n s  ing  amount o f money on  in  mere p r e s s e n c e o f l a r g e r numbers o f  example, -students are  For  e d u c a t i o n system  i n d i c e s , or  of  the  service.  difficulties  h a v e upon h e a l t h , s o c i a l which are  when measu-  non-user of the  instance,  to the  included  one  service.  Indeed, these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the  4 0  Cooper.^  education s e r v i c e s , f u r t h e r problems are a s s e s s e s the  confidence.  l i m i t a t i o n s regarding  measuring e d u c a t i o n a l  publication:  of  This  stud-  bring-  economy.  To  considerable  source of  entertainment  of  facility  revenue to  may  expand  4 ° W . J . P i a t t , Towards S t r a t e g i e s of H i g h e r Education. Standford Research I n s t i t u t e , C a l i f o r n i a , January, 1961. ^ H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s : The E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s , S u p p l e m e n t 42, t h e R e v i e w o f E c o n o m i c and S t a t i s tics, 1960.  189 and  improve h i s f a c i l i t i e s ,  vide  a higher  and t h i s a c t i o n i n t u r n w i l l  q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e t o the customers.  t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , how does one m e a s u r e t h i s vice that benefits? as  i s provided  students'  services.  with  a high  vacancy  play  is:  i s that  i t s performance.  of  section.  contribution  are incidental  The c r i t i c a l  consideration  of the cost  of service  I n s h o r t , t h e m a i n f o c u s i s upon a n s "What does t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s ,  student fora  receive, given  expenditure?"  Selection of Variables. level  service of a par-  the o v e r a l l  s e c t i o n concerns the e v a l u a t i o n  terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l  level  evaluation  t o t h e d i r e c t consumers o f such a  s e r v i c e , these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  wering the question: in  education  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r  i n evaluating  t o t h e m a i n theme o f t h i s  with  such an  of  A l t h o u g h t h e b e n a f i t s e n j o y e d by t h e n o n - c o n s u m e r  an i m p o r t a n t p a r t  this  disbenefits?  values  "What does an e d u c a t i o n  community p r o v i d e  o f an e d u c a t i o n  in  a g e n c i e s who a r e  How does one m e a s u r e t h e s e  does n o t a n s w e r t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n  service?"  estate  s e c o n d r e a s o n why t h e i n t r i n s i c  the major i s s u e  occur  rate o f apartments during the  s e r v i c e s h a v e n o t been c o n s i d e r e d  ticular  i n ser-  Such a c a s e i s t h e d i s -  a r e e x p e r i e n c e d by r e a l  holidays.  The  increase  t o t h e consumer i n t e r m s o f i n d i r e c t  a r e s u l t of educational  confronted  Under  I n a d d i t i o n t o b e n e f i t s , d i s b e n e f i t s may a l s o  benefits that  pro-  of educational  In attempting  to assess the  s e r v i c e rendered to students, the  190 f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be s e l e c t e d : 1.  C a l i b e r of teaching  staff.  T h i s would i n c l u d e con-  s i d e r a t i o n of the percentage of q u a l i f i e d the  percentage of teachers  of experience,  2.  Class size. ents  3.  T h i s w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e number o f s t u d -  registered i n a particular  Teaching program.  Length of school  course.  The s c o p e o f a t e a c h i n g  program  i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f c o u r s e s  and t y p e s o f c l a s s e s  surement  per coun-  specialists.  c o u l d be m e a s u r e d  4.  w i t h f i v e o r more y e a r s  a n d t h e number o f s t u d e n t s  s e l l o r and o t h a r  teachers,  taught.  day a n d y e a r .  T h i s u n i t o f mea-  i s a p p l i c a b l e t o most C a n a d i a n  s i n c e t h e number o f h o u r s i n a s c h o o l  schools  day a n d t h e  l e n g t h o f a s c h o o l term v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y between 5.  provinces,  •-  C a l i b e r of school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . measured  i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f  T h i s c o u l d be superintendents,  p r i n c i p a l s , and c o n s u l t a n t s p e r hundred 6.  The s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r  ratio.  involve the relationship  students,  T h i s measurement would  between  c h e r a n d t h e number o f s t u d e n t s  a full-time  tea-  t h a t he o r s h e  teaches, 7.  Educational f a c i l i t i e s . ing  facilities,  special  These w o u l d i n c l u d e  build-  purpose rooms, u t i l i t y o f  191 arrangement programs, lar  and e q u i p m e n t i n t e r m s o f  library  facilities,  and  educational  extra-curricu-  activities.  A m o d i f i c a t i o n of these seven v a r i a b l e s has a l s o  been  i n c l u d e d i n a s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by P a u l R. M o r t a n d F r a n c i s  G.  42 Cornell.  The  v a r i a b l e s t h a t t h e s e two p e r s o n s a d o p t e d  one, C l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n s , two, S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , and f o u r , P h y s i c a l  services,  were;  three,  facilities  and  bu-  s i n e s s management. A p p l y i n g t h e above seven v a r i a b l e s t o c o m m u n i t i e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , i t w o u l d be f a i r  t o assume  t h a t a s c h o o l w h i c h i s a f f o r d e d one t e a c h e r t o e v e r y t e n p u pils  w o u l d p r o v i d e a more e f f e c t i v e  v i c e t h a n one ceteris  of educational  i n which t h s s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o  paribus.  t e a c h e r s who  level  i s 25*1,  T h i s i s b a s e d upon o p i n i o n s h e l d by many  c o n t e n d t h a t s m a l l e r c l a s s e s p e r m i t them t o de-  v o t e more a t t e n t i o n t o e a c h  pupil.  A d o p t i n g t h e number o f g r a d e s o f f e r e d a s a w i t h which t o measure the l e v e l  variable  o f an e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , a  s c h o o l t h a t o f f e r s twelve grades of s c h o o l i n g would a h i g h e r and g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y only  ser-  provide  t o s t u d e n t s t h a n one  i n which  seven grades are t a u g h t , Many p e r s o n s c o n t e n d t h a t t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n  of teachers  4 2 p a u l R. M o r t and F r a n c i s G. C o r n e l l , "A G u i d e F o r S e l f - A p p r a i s a l o f S c h o o l Systems", Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s . (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 7 ) ^  192 in  terms o f t h e t y p e s o f d e g r e e s h e l d , i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f  the l e v e l  o f s e r v i c e rendered  cepting this which f i f t y  by a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m .  r e l a t i o n s h i p , one c o u l d assume t h a t a s c h o o l i n p e r cent o f a l l t e a c h e r s have b a c h e l o r o f e d u c a t i o n  d e g r e e s w o u l d be b e t t e r s t a f f e d t h a n one i n w h i c h o n l y per  cent h o l d degrees.  A similar  t h e number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g  thirty  c o m p a r i s o n c o u l d be made f o r  experience.  However, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d bles w i l l  o n l y i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t and q u a l i t y  s e r v i c e and not i t s e f f i c i e n c y . student/teacher not  For teaching  varia-  o f an e d u c a t i o n qualifications,  r a t i o s , a n d t h e number o f g r a d e s o f f e r e d do  necessarily reflect  the efficiency  They d o , h o w e v e r , r e p r e s e n t t h e l e v e l Due t o t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e h a v e been s e l e c t e d i n t h i s ent/teacher  Ac-  of a school's operation. o f an e d u c a t i o n  service.  data, only three v a r i a b l e s  section.  These a r e , one, t h e s t u d -  r a t i o , t w o , t h e number o f s t u d e n t / c l a s s r o o m , a n d  t h r e e , t h e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g o f f e r e d i n p u b l i c school systems.  Although  on f i r s t  v a r i a b l e s appear t o represent ever, a clear riety  distinction  of s p e c i a l i t y  sight the f i r s t  similar  be r e q u i r e d t o c o n d u c t them.  larger  schools tend t o teach  Because a wider v a -  i s offered i n schools located i n  l a r g e r . m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a corresponding will  phenomena, t h e r e i s how-  b e t w e e n them.  courses  and second  number o f t e a c h e r s  Furthermore,  teachers i n  o n l y one o r two s u b j e c t s ,  whereas i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y , a t t h e elementary  level,  193 t e a c h e r s t a k e on many more s u b j e c t s . chers and  i n l a r g e r schools only teach  Consequently,  f o r a few h o u r s o f t h e day  two o r t h r e e d a y s a week, a n d y e t a r e s t i l l  full-time teachers. ger  By i n c l u d i n g  c l a s s e d as  t h i s group o f t e a c h e r s ,  lar-  s c h o o l s w o u l d a p p e a r t o h a v e more t e a c h e r s p e r s t u d e n t  than  smaller schools.  As no d i s t i n c t i o n  number o f h o u r s t a u g h t , l a r g e r  cities  i s made b e t w e e n t h e  would t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n  a b i a s i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l s e r v i c e when u s i n g t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r In  many t e a -  order, t h e r e f o r e , to present  ratio  of educational as a v a r i a b l e .  a more e q u i t a b l e  relationship  b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s a n d t h e number o f t e a c h e r s , a s t u d e n t / c l a s s * room r a t i o h a s been s e l e c t e d a s a s e c o n d The  number o f g r a d e s o f f e r e d by a s c h o o l r e f e r s t o t h e  number o f y e a r s groups. those  variable.  o f s c h o o l i n g t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d t o a l l age  The maximum number o f y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n  cities  investigated i n this thesis  o f f e r e d by  i s seventeen.  This  i n c l u d e s t h e span between k i n d e r g a r t e n and t h e f o u r t h y e a r a t the  university  i n Victoria.  numbers o f y e a r s  However, a c o m p a r i s o n o f a b s o l u t e  does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e  type o f grade t a u g h t .  F o r e x a m p l e , two s c h o o l s may o f f e r  teen years  of schooling.  a variable  t o measure t h e l e v e l  w o u l d be a s s i g n e d  between t h e a c t u a l  Using  thir-  t h e number o f g r a d e s t a u g h t o f an e d u c a t i o n  similar values.  service,  each  Yet, further investigation  may r e v e a l t h a t one s c h o o l o f f e r s s c h o o l i n g b e t w e e n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade t w e l v e  as  w h e r e a s t h e o t h e r may r a n g e  between  194 g r a d e s one tings,  and  thirteen.  i t c o u l d be  considered  As t h e y a r e b o t h  high school The  r e g r e t s t h a t he  school year  has  British  XL  training  t o c o n s t r u c t any  limitations, effective  Conse-  o f s c h o o l i n g o f f e r e d by a s c h o o l o r similar  uni-  values.  f o r a l l incorporated areas  i n the P r o v i n c e  characof  Columbia according to the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s .  The  t a b l e have been s u m m a r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o  a r e o u t l i n e d as  and  system  c a n be e q u a t e d w i t h a n o t h e r .  i n the Appendix o u t l i n e s e d u c a t i o n a l  r e s u l t s of t h i s s i z e and  drawn b e t w e e n u n i v e r s i t y  acknowledges these  been a s s i g n e d  Table teristics  fully  i s unable  q u e n t l y , each y e a r versity  thirteen.  grades.  author  w h e r e b y any  ra-  i n terms of c o n t r i b u t i n g t o -  s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , as grade  S i m i l a r a n a l o g i e s c o u l d be and  equal  i n f e r r e d t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n grade i s  j u s t as s i g n i f i c a n t ,  wards a h i g h e r  assigned  class  follows: TABLE  XLI  EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E  Classes  One . Two Three Four F ive Six  Stud- ' ents/ teacher  23.8 23.6 25.5 26.0 25.9 26.8  Intensity value  76.0 76.8 68.9 66.8 67.4 61.8  Students/ classroom 27.8 28.8 29.6 32.3 31.3 32.8  Intensity value  No. o f grades taught  Intensity value  84.9 81.1 78.6 67.7 71.7 67.5  9.8 11.5 12.2 12.9 13.3 14.2  76.1 79.1 80.0 83.1 85.0 07.4  195 D i a g r a m s 14 and the  15  have been i n c l u d e d t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l  class size  characteristics  f o r a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the  British  Columbia.  The  tensity  Values contained  average f o r the i n Table XLI  illustrate and  Province  of  summation o f the i s as f o l l o w s :  Class  Average  One Two Three Four Five Six  Value  79.0 79.0 75.9 72.5 74.7 72.2  These r e s u l t s would i n f e r t h a t s m a l l e r c e n t r e s be  provided  with a higher  l a r g e r ones.  l e v e l of educational  However, such a c o n c l u s i o n  variables i s assigned level  considered  equal  of education acceptable  as t h e  Ranking of V a r i a b l e s . has  one  selected representing not  following section will indicate. At the  present  relative  time,  no  study  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  t h r e e v a r i a b l e s e v e n t h o u g h many s t u d i e s h a v e  mentioned t h a t they w h i c h , t o measure the plication  to  s e r v i c e than  Such an a s s u m p t i o n i s  been a t t e m p t e d t o compare t h e  each of these  three  r a t i n g s i n terms of  service.  tend  i s b a s e d upon  o v e r - r i d i n g a s s u m p t i o n - t h a t each of the  the  In-  should level  of a ranking  be  considered  of e d u c a t i o n a l  system to the  t h e r e f o r e be  b a s e d upon a v a l u e  an a r b i t r a r y  assignment, the  as  criteria  The  ap-  selected variables  will  judgment.  services.  with  In d e f e n s e o f  f o l l o w i n g m e t h o d o l o g y has  such  been  196  CLASSES  DIAGRAM  I4  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EDUCATION S E R V I C E S AND C L A S S S I Z E IN T H E PROVINCE OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A IN I965  15  CLASS ES  DIAGRAM  15  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EDUCATION S E R V I C E S AND C L A S S S I Z E IN T H E PROVINCE O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A IN 1965  198 proposed. In teacher lar  terms of r a n k i n g the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , the  ratio  and  the student/classroom  measures of s e r v i c e .  ratio  student/  represent  For example, a s c h o o l which  simihas  f o u r t e a c h e r s per hundred s t u d e n t s  w o u l d p r o v i d e a more e f -  fective  i n which t h e r e are  level  of t e a c h i n g than  three teachers  one  f o r t h e same number o f p u p i l s .  school that provides  four classrooms  f o r one  would p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r . l e v e l of s e r v i c e than only three classrooms  are provided  students.  these  they  S i n c e both  h a v e been a s s i g n e d When a t t e m p t i n g  Similarly, hundred one  f o r t h e same number of.  two  v a r i a b l e s with  n a m e l y t h e number o f g r a d e s o f f e r e d , a m a j o r  arises  f o r the  quality  o f an  relationship lating  v a r i a b l e s , i n essence,  quality  of t h i s t h e s i s  with q u a n t i t y of s e r v i c e .  bears  no  Since the  purpose  i s to equate cost w i t h extent of a l l m u n i c i p a l  receive i n relation  p e n d e d on  the  In s h o r t , t h i s poses t h e problem o f r e -  s e r v i c e s , t h a t i s , to determine munity  the  problem  depict  e d u c a t i o n a l system whereas the t h i r d to i t .  other,  ratings.  to equate these  two  students  v a r i a b l e s complement each  similar  a  i n which  third,  first  only  what t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a com-  t o t h e amount o f money t h a t i s e x -  a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , an  of s e r v i c e i s subordinate H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be  e v a l u a t i o n of the  t o t h a t o f t h e amount o f  quality  service.  remembered t h a t t h e amount o f money  p e n d e d on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l  ex-  c o n d i t i o n t h e number o f  199 t e a c h e r s t h a t c a n be e m p l o y e d , t h e e x p a n s i o n  of  facilities  f o r an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f c l a s s r o o m s ,  a n d t h e number  of grades o f f e r e d . The  following  s i z e the importance fered.  Using  i l l u s t r a t i o n h a s been i n c l u d e d t o emphao f t h e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g o f -  imaginary  communities of s i m i l a r  v a l u e s , i t may be f o u n d  s i z e , one h a s a s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r  o f t e n t o one a n d o f f e r s  five  o t h e r has a s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r  ratio  y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , whereas t h e  ratio  o f t w e n t y - f i v e t o one a n d  o f f e r s t h i r t e e n years of schooling.  S i n c e t h e number o f y e a r s  of schooling i s a s s o c i a t e d with a d i v e r s i t y extent of s p e c i a l i t y  t h a t f o r two  o f c o u r s e s and  equipment ( t h a t i s , grade t h i r t e e n  o f f e r a much g r e a t e r v a r i e t y  of courses  than  would  g r a d e o n e ) , one  may a l s o assume t h a t t h e l a t t e r  s c h o o l w o u l d p r o v i d e a more  diversified  Taking  and  indirect  educational former than  b e n e f i t s t h a t would accrue  i n t o account  two  t o assume t h a t t h e  c o n t r i b u t e s more t o w a r d s t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n even though t h e q u a l i t y  o f one e l e m e n t o f t h e  i s s u p e r i o r - namely, t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r  therefore the contention of t h i s chapter  nity  the direct  t o each o f t h e s e  s y s t e m s , i t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s  the l a t t e r  former is  form o f e d u c a t i o n .  ratio.  It  that the opportu-  p r o v i d e d by an e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e , i n t e r m s o f t h e num-  b e r o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g p r o v i d e d , , i s a more  significant  f a c t o r t o determine  the l e v e l  service provided  by  t h e number o f s t u d e n t s  a community t h a n  o f an e d u c a t i o n  per teacher or the  200 number o f s t u d e n t s the  a l l o c a t e d t o each c l a s s r o o m .  following rating  system has been  On t h i s  basis  constructed:  Variable  Weight  Student/teacher r a t i o or student/classroom r a t i o  1  No. o f g r a d e s o f f e r e d  2  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , w h i c h h a s been c o m p i l e d  from  T a b l e XL i n A p p e n d i x C, o u t l i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n educational  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i t y  areas i n the Province  of B r i t i s h  size f o r a l l incorporated  Columbia with t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  of a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s , TABLE  XLII  EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO CLASS S I Z E  One Factor f o r stude n t / t e a c h e r and student/classroom ratios  80.5  Two  79.0  C 1 a s s e s Three F our  73.8  Factor f o r the 152.2 number o f g r a d e s . offered  158.8  160.0  77.6  79.1  77.9  Total As  Average  one w o u l d e x p e c t ,  populations higher  level  Five  Six  67.3  69.6  64.7  166.2  170.0  174.8  79.9  79.9  77.8  t h i s table indicates that c i t i e s  i n excess of t e n thousand persons provide of educational  s e r v i c e than remaining  with a  communities  201 in  this  that  province.  This  i s primarily attributed  i n s t i t u t e s of higher  urban  to the fact  l e a r n i n g are found i n t h e l a r g e s t  centres. Equating  relationship penditures  Costs  with Level of S e r v i c e .  The f o l l o w i n g  c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d when c o m p a r i n g p e r c a p i t a e x -  on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i t h TABLE  level  of s e r v i c e .  XLIII  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE AND LEI/EL OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICE  One Per  Five  Six  capita  expenditure  $32.78 $34.35  Units of service  77.6  From t h i s ta  Two  C laa s s e s Three Four  value  79.1  $42.65 $45.11  77.9  77.8  school  i n C l a s s one c i t i e s  o f 77.6 u n i t s o f s e r v i c e . of$46.34,  students  80.0 u n i t s .  for  every  and  are given  i n C l a s s one c i t i e s  years  services,  students  receive  o f $32.78, s t u d e n t s  are provided  of schooling.  w i t h one  f o r every  value  approximately  c o u l d be e x t e n d e d by  23.8 p u p i l s , one c l a s s r o o m 9.9  79.9  receive the equivalent  i n Class s i x c i t i e s  f o r a per c a p i t a expenditure  schools  79.9  For a per c a p i t a expenditure  This relationship  in  $46.34  t a b l e , one c o u l d c o n t e n d t h a t f o r a p e r c a p i -  o f $32.78 e x p e n d e d on e d u c a t i o n  attending  that  $39.01  27.8  Similarly,  stating enrolled teacher students,  f o r $46.34,  202 students of Class s i x c i t i e s  a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h one  f o r every  classroom  26.8  s t u d e n t s , one  and  a r e o f f e r e d 14.2  can  be made f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g  f o r every  years of s c h o o l i n g .  In o r d e r t o equate per  capita  d o l l a r v a l u e s i n t o a b s o l u t e numbers. under Table  expenditures  with  to t r a n s l a t e  Such a p r o c e d u r e  X I I and  IV.  The  level the has  summation  Table X L I I would i n -  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  b e t w e e n c o s t and .  e x t e n t o f s e r v i c e i n t e r m s o f a b s o l u t e numbers. table outlines this  students,  f u r t h e r comparisons  X I I of Chapter  of the v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d i n Table d i c a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y  32.8  classes.  of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , i t i s necessary  been c a r r i e d out  teacher  The  following  relationship. TABLE X L I V  THE  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES AND THE LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR ALL INCORPORATED AREAS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  C 1 a s s e s Three Four  Five  Six  32.9  80.6  78.6  74.7  76.9  77.6  79.1  77.9  77.8  79.9  79.9  80.5  81.0  79.3  78.2  77.8  78.4  One  Two  Factor rating f o r per c a p i t a expenditures  83.4  Factor rating f o r l e v e l of service Total  Average  This t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t communities ranging  between  203 1*250 a n d 2,500 p o p u l a t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e h i g h e s t level  of education  s e r v i c e i n t e r m s o f t h e amount o f money  t h a t i s e x p e n d e d on s u c h  a service.  cation for larger cities  tend t o reduce the e f f i c i e n c y  s e r v i c e even though they  p r o v i d e a much g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y  and  diversity  t h i s s e c t i o n on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r  incorporated areas  following 1.  i n the Province of B r i t i s h  Smaller  incorporated areas  Schools  larger  Schools  offer  fewer years o f  municipalities.  i n smaller incorporated areas  teachers per student 3.  Columbia, the  o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be made.  s c h o o l i n g than 2.  of this,  to students.  To c o n c l u d e all  The h i g h c o s t s o f e d u -  than  larger  p r o v i d e more  municipalities.  i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s p r o v i d e more s p a c e  i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f p u p i l s p e r c l a s s r o o m , than 4.  larger  municipalities.  More d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t  b e n s f i t s accrue  to the  e d u c a t i o n a l systems o f l a r g e r s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n cities  than  s m a l l s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n towns and  villages. 5.  Secondary s c h o o l s i n l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a much w i d e r  variety  of courses  than  offer  those o f f e r e d  in smaller centres, 5.  The a p p l i c a t i o n tion  of v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d i n t h i s  sec-  indicates that larger municipalities offer a  204  higher l e v e l  of educational  s e r v i c e than  smaller  communities. 7.  Larger  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c u r g r e a t e r per  penditures  on  educational  s e r v i c e s than  capita  ex-  smaller  municipalities. 8.  C l a s s tuio and  three  rate educational remaining  s e r v i c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y  classes with  money e x p e n d e d on they  incorporated areas tend  respect  these  final  relative ranking  step  capita expenditures  t h a t has  importance.  I t was  the  level  that  extent  when  in this province, services according  the  same l e v e l  of de-  i s to to i t s  f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s w o u l d be  of  c o u l d be  that represent  of s e r v i c e .  service, i t satisfaction  If t h i s hypothesis  t h e n t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t y  summation of t h e v a l u e s  with l e v e l  m e n t i o n e d p r o v i o u s l y , t h a t i f no  i n h a b i t a n t s of a community.  b e t w e e n c o s t and  the  c a r r i e d out  s y s t e m were a p p l i e d t o e a c h m u n i c i p a l  accepted, the  t o be  selected municipal  would i n f e r t h a t each p r o v i d e s to the  the  Services.  t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s  rank each o f the  than  receive.  Having equated per  termining  ope-  t o t h e amount o f  s e r v i c e s and  A p p l i c a t i o n of F a c t o r s to M u n i c i p a l  s e r v i c e , the  to  obtained  by  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  Applying  obtained:  is  this  procedure,  205 Summation o f a l l municipal services  Class  One Two Three Four FiveSix On t h i s optimum  Rank  374.7 375.4 372.0 369.6 371.0 387.3  3rd 2nd 4th 6th 5th 1st  basis, Class s i x c i t i e s  size of c i t i e s ,  least favourable  while  score.  t a b l e assumes t h a t  would represent  the  C l a s s f o u r would o b t a i n t h e  However, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s  each m u n i c i p a l  service i s considered  as  d i s p e n s i b l e and as d e s i r a b l e as a n o t h e r ; t h a t e d u c a t i o n the ting  same r o l e a s g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n  plays  a c t i v i t i e s i n contribu-  t o w a r d s an e f f i c i e n t l y - o p e r a t e d community; and p u b l i c  w o r k s a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e t h e same v a l u e  as f i r e  protection  services.  chapter  t h a t each o f  I t i s the contention  these municipal  of this  services contributes, i n varying  wards t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n  o f community a c t i v i t i e s , a n d  t o w a r d s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f an a c c e p t a b l e I n d e e d , e a c h community  could  v i c e s were d i s c o n t i n u e d  in this  country,  collection  of l i v i n g .  a s c a n be s e e n i n r e f e r e n c e  p u b l i c works and e d u c a t i o n  discontinued.  standard  ' s u r v i v e ' i f one o f t h e s e  various  strikes  but the impact that t h i s  upon a community w i l l  degrees, t o -  vary  Obviously,  according  t h a t have experience  ser-  to the occured may  have  to the service that i s  the discontinuance  o f garbage  s e r v i c e s w o u l d n o t i m p o s e t h e same d e g r e e o f h a r d -  206 s h i p a n d i n c o n v e n i e n c e upon a community a s i f s c h o o l s closed ting  down o r i f w a t e r s u p p l y ,  were s t o p p e d .  services?"  sewer s e r v i c e s and s t r e e t  The q u e s t i o n ,  "What w e i g h t s h o u l d The o n l y  be a t t a c h e d  were  therefore  ligh-  that arises i s :  t o each o f t h e f i v e  municipal  study t h a t t h e author has found which a t - .  tempts t o equate m u n i c i p a l  s e r v i c e s was one u n d e r t a k e n by  A "Z.  Mabel Walker  .  In t h i s s t u d y , she a s s i g n e d  t o p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s and w e l f a r e consisting higher  of education  and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  represented  she c o n s i d e r e d  that  fire  ratings  services, the l a t t e r  r a t i n g t h a n t h e a b o v e two was a s s i g n e d  services since  similar  A slightly  to protective  and h e a l t h  protection  t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n .  The  w e i g h t s s h e a p p l i e d t o e a c h s e r v i c e were a s f o l l o w s : Service Weight Fire protection P u b l i c works Sanitation Education Recreation Health The any  construction of t h i s ranking  consideration  2 4 1 3 1 4 system d i d not i n c l u d e  of expenditure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  a c c o u n t t h e amount o f money s p e n t on m u n i c i p a l w o u l d be f a i r  The  into  services, i t  t o assume t h a t a community w h i c h e x p e n d s  M a b e l L. W a l k e r , M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e s . J o h n H o p k i n g s P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ) , p. 66. 4 3  Taking  fifty  (Baltimore:  207 p e r c e n t o f i t s b u d g e t on one on a n o t h e r , If  one  s e r v i c e and  w o u l d p l a c e a f a r h i g h e r v a l u e on t h e  were t o c o n s t r u c t a r a n k i n g s y s t e m  amount o f money e x p e n d e d on following  o n l y ten per  weights  c o u l d be  Service  former.  b a s e d upon  each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e ,  the the  used:  Expenditures Percentage on e a c h s e r v i c e o f t o t a l f o r a l l munexpenditicipalities  Fire  cent  Weight  ures  S3,212,000  4.3  1.0  P u b l i c works  6,655,000  8.8  2.0  Waste r e m o v a l  3,430,000  4.5  1.0  Recreation  5,310,000  7.0  1.5  Education  20,603,000  27.4  6.5  Other  36,106,000  The  final  r a t i n g t h a t has  48.0  been s e l e c t e d i n t h i s  i n c l u d e s both a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of per c a p i t a v a l u e s p l a c e d upon t h e s e presented  expenditures  s e r v i c e s as o u t l i n e d  by M a b e l W a l k e r .  The  final  1.5  P u b l i c works  3.0  . . . . . . .  Waste r e m o v a l  1.0  Recreation  1.5  Education When t h e s e w e i g h t s  the  and  ratings  follows:  Weight  Fire protection . . . . . .  . .  from  r a t i n g s a r e as  Municipal Service  section  4,0 are a p p l i e d to the f i v e  municipal  208 s e r v i c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g . r e s u l t s were  obtained:  TABLE XLV THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS S I Z E AND THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF WEIGHTS TO EACH MUNICIPAL SERVICE  C l a s s e s Service Fire  Weight (1.5)  Public works  ( 3  Q )  Sanitation(1.0)  One  Two  Three  Four  Five  Six  118.2  112.7  108.9  110.4  110.5  108.7  217.5  229.2  225.3  224.1  223.5  245.7  67.5  69.9  70.3  71.4  74.1  85.3  Recreation (1.5)  114.1  109.5  110.9  109.4  107.1  104.1  Education  322.0  324.0  320.4  310.8  309.2  313.6  839.3  845.3  835.8  826.1  824.4  857.4  (4.0)  Total The v a l u e s  f o r each c l a s s s i z e  c a n be r a n k e d  as f o l l o w s :  Class Size Rank S i x .. . . . . . 1 s t Two . . . . . . 2nd One . . . . ... . 3 r d T h r e e ... . . . .. 4 t h Four . . . . . 5th Five . . . . . 6th From t h e r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d interseting  phenomena a r e e v i d e n t .  appear t o operate efficiently with  i n Table  than  and m a i n t a i n remaining  p o p u l a t i o n s o f fewer than  First,  municipal  classes.  XLV, s e v e r a l Class s i x c i t i e s  s e r v i c e s more  Second, f o r c i t i e s  fifteen  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s  209  C l a s s tujo c i t i e s o p e r a t e - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s most Third, cities ate these  between t e n and f i f t e e n  services least  thousand persons  as a measure o f e f f i c i e n c y ,  is  i n c o r p o r a t e d areas represented  fifteen  of service  t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s f o r  i n the Province of B r i t i s h  by c i t i e s  Columbia  which have p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t e r  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s .  overriding hypothesis  oper-  efficiently.  I n s h o r t , when a p p l y i n g c o s t w i t h l e v e l  all  efficiently.  than  This conclusion confirms the 1.  p r o p o s e d a t t h e beginning o f C h a p t e r  Summary. The  m a j o r o b j e c t i v e o f C h a p t i a r V was t o d e t e r m i n e  optimum s i . z a o f c i t i e s ince of B r i t i s h ating  f o r i n c o r p o r a t e d areas  Columbia,in  omplished  through  i n the Prov-  terms o f the e f f i c i e n c y  and m a i n t a i n i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . four steps.  The f i r s t  of these within  involved the s e l e c t of perfor-  The s e c o n a l s t e p r a n k e d  each  v a r i a b l e s according to t h e i r r e l a t i v e  importance  t h e g r o u p o f v a r i a b l e s f o r one s e r v i c e .  The t h i r d  step involved equating formance. icipal  o f oper-  T h i s h a s beer, a c c -  i o n o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h which t o measure t h e l e v e l mance o f e a c h m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e .  the  The f i n a l  costs c ? - s e r v i c e with l e v e l  step ranked  e a c h o f t h e s e l e c t e d mun-  services according to i t s r e l a t i v e  the remaining  services.  are as f o l l o w s : A. U l i t h v e r y  of per-  importance  with  The f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e  steps  r few e x c e p t i o n s , l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n  210 the  Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia provide higher l e v e l s  p u b l i c s e r v i c e s on  fire  and  r e c r e a t i o n , and  waste removal,  municipalities. and  city  size  p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, education  s u b s t a n t i a t e s the sub-hypothesis  Chapter  I : that larger municipalities  British  Columbia provide a higher l e v e l  than  smaller incorporated B.  equating level  Efficiency  per c a p i t a expenditure  The  level  of s e r v i c e  proposed i n of  of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s  areas.  The  t o e x i s t between e f f i c i e n c y 1.  smaller  i n the province  o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s was  of performance.  sanitation  than  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l  of  on  these  following and  s e r v i c e s with  by their  c o r r e l a t i o n s were  found  s i z e of i n c o r p o r a t e d area:  largest size cities  o f p u b l i c w o r k s and  determined  p r o v i d e d t h a most  s a n i t a t i o n and  efficient  waste  removal  services. 2.  The  level  smallest size c i t i e s  of s e r v i c e f o r f i r e  p r o v i d e d t h e most  p r o t e c t i o n and  efficient  recreation ser-  vices. 3.  Cities  fifteen  w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s r a n g i n g between f i v e  thousand i n h a b i t a n t s provided the l e a s t  lent level  and sffic-..  o f s e r v i c e f o r most o f t h a s e l e c t e d p u b l i c  services. C.  When r a n k i n g e a c h o f t h e f i v e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s  according to r e l a t i v e educational contributing  importance,  t h i s chapter  proposed  that  s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e the highest value  i n terms  of  towards the s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  aconomic w e l l - b e i n g ,  211 and  stability  o f a community.  T h i s s e r v / i c e was  p u b l i c w o r k s , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and s a n i t a t i o n and The  the highest b a s i s , one  finally  system  services resulted in Class six c i t i e s  s c o r e , and  Class five  could conclude  Such a v a l u e  p r o p o s e d by H a n s e n and  cities  of municipal  Perloff.  very  On  fifteen  closely  to  this  cities,  services, i s that  g r e a t e r than  corresponds  of  to  retaining  the lowest.  t h a t t h e optimum s i z e ,  which have p o p u l a t i o n s  persons.  by  waste removal s e r v i c e s .  i n terms of the e f f i c i e n c y cities  r e c r e a t i o n , and  a p p l i c a t i o n o f an a p p r o p r i a t e r a n k i n g  each of t h e s e  followed  of  thousand that  44  H a n s e n , A.H. and . P e r l o f f , H.S. S t a t e and L o c a l F i n a n c e i n t h e N a t i o n a l Economy. (New Y o r k : UJ.UI. N o r t o n and Company, 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 1 1 .  CHAPTER V I CONCLUSION This  t h e s i s has attempted t o a r r i v e a t a v a l u e f o r the  optimum s i z e f o r c i t i e s of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  by  size.  areas i n the  The e f f i c i e n c y o f m u n i c i p a l  was u s e d a s t h e p o i n t this  f o r incorporated  of reference  with  E f f i c i e n c y of municipal  Province  services  which t o determine  s e r v i c e s was r e p r e s e n t e d  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on s e r -  v i c e s and t h e l e v e l The  of service provided  t h e s i s has i l l u s t r a t e d  that  smaller  f o r each  inhabitant.  municipalities incur  l o w e r p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on a l l m u n i c i p a l  services  than  larger incorporated  revealed  that  areas.  Investigation also  l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s provide fire  higher  p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c w o r k s , s a n i t a t i o n and w a s t e  r e c r e a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s By the  equating cost  of service with  t h e s i s has i l l u s t r a t e d  t h i s province efficiently  the l e v e l  s t u d y were t h a t  containing  removal,  communities.  of service  provided,  the largest size c i t i e s i n  than the remaining c i t i e s .  i n g more t h a n f i f t e e n cities,  that  than smaller  o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n m u n i c i p a l  p r e s e n t e d by t h i s  two  l e v e l s o f s e r v i c s on  Class  s e r v i c e s more  The f i n a l  results  sixcities,  thousand persons, followed  by  containClass  b e t w e e n t w e l v e h u n d r e d and f i f t y t o  213 two  t h o u s a n d a n d f i v e h u n d r e d p e r s o n s were t h e two c l a s s e s o f  cities  that achieved  populations  ranging  the highest  favourable  why t h e r e  efficiency  i s no u n i f o r m  of municipal  containing  thousand  efficiency  t h e o p e r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f m u n i c i p a l  reason and  Cities  between f i v e and f i f t e e n  a p p e a r e d t o have t h e l e a s t ing  score.  relationship  persons  scares  regard-  services.  The  between c i t y  size  s e r v i c e s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o  such f a c t o r s as g e o g r a p h i c a l  distribution  o f urban  areas,  diseconomies o f scale regarding the cost of operation of services, financial ures. to  Futher  l i m i t a t i o n s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  research  should  be d i r e c t e d i n t o  d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s t h a t each o f t h e s e  the e f f i c i e n c y The  do n o t l e a d one t o i n f e r  to contain populations  Rather,  the study  financial  that r e f l e c t  these  has attempted t o o u t l i n e , f i r s t ,  difficulties  t h a t small communities  s e r v i c e s and, second, the l e v e l  of t h i s the  with  limited  thesis,  first  case,  proposed i n  that a l l c i t i e s  when p r o v i d i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g a d e q u a t e s t a n d a r d s  provided  areas  f a c t o r s h a s upon  f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s  planned  the  these  of municipal services.  values  t h i s study  proced-  Bearing  values. some o f encounter of municipal  i n mind t h e o b j e c t  i t s application to planning will  i s twofold.  In  be o f use t o t h e p l a n n e r  who i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e i t h e r  c r e a t i n g new c o m m u n i t i e s o r  relocating  into  undertaking  small settlements these  be  o f p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t c a n be  resources.  such a study  should  l a r g e r urban a r e a s .  t a s k s , the planner  should  be f u l l y  When aware o f  214 the  implications  i n v o l v i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e community w h i c h he  intends to create. efficiency yardstick  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c i t y  of municipal services  Such a t o o l w i l l  f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of public The  second c o n t r i b u t i o n  to  planning administration.  of  an i n c o r p o r a t e d  affairs  a f f o r d him  that  this thesis offers  Indeed, the c h i e f  area cannot s u c c e s s f u l l y  of a v i l l a g e ,  economic c o n d i t i o n s  town, o r c i t y  administrator  administer  finance  basic  and  In o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n  on a s o u n d f i s c a l  basis, the  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between e x p e n d i t u r e s on a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e performance i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e efficient  the  must c o m p r e h e n d t h e n a t u r e o f r e v e n u e a n d e x p e n d -  iture operations.  and  relates  administrator  without having a  o f t h e community.  government f i n a n c i n g  information  services.  knowledge o f t h e broad a s p e c t s o f m u n i c i p a l  local  provide a  w h i c h t h e p l a n n e r c a n u s e when p l a n n i n g a c o m m u n i t y  of a s p e c i f i c s i z e . on  may t h e r e f o r e  s i z e and  service.  f o r operating  and i t s l e v e l o f a well-balanced  T h i s study has attempted t o p r o v i d e  s u c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The  w r i t e r ..acknowledges many l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t  arise i n  d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v a l u e f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f c i t i e s . the as  a p p l i c a t i o n o f " m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e and revenue one e l e m e n t w i t h  icipal  services,  involved  values  w h i c h t o m e a s u r e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f mun-  s h o u l d be c r i t i c a l l y  what e a c h a c t i v i t y  First,  assessed  i n terms o f  c o m p r i s e s , and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  when c o m p a r i n g d o l l a r v a l u e s w i t h  that are  efficiency.  215 Second, the of measuring the  ranking  p e r f o r m a n c e o f an  v i c e has  been s h a r p l y  of  and  data,  the  of each v a r i a b l e f o r the  circumscribed  inability  significant variables.  i n d i v i d u a l municipal by  both the  to q u a n t i f y  s e l e c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l  s e r v i c e s , should  investigation.  sections.regarding  i n c l u s i o n m i g h t h a v e had  final  r e s u l t s produced i n t h i s t h e s i s .  could  a l s o be  A third  different  limitation  be  by  t h e s i s was  responsibility sidered. the  Since  Had  from l o c a l  of p u b l i c  of higher  the  the various  services,  Province  of  this  financed  services that  t h e s e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s been i n c l u d e d , and  five municipal  services selected  was  by  were  l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t were not  t o them as  or  of 8 r i t i s h  the main o b j e c t  sources,  same p r o c e d u r e s been a p p l i e d  f o r the  Because of  to analyze those s e r v i c e s that are  revenues obtained  selection  supported, either p a r t i a l l y  a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the  C o l u m b i a were c o n s i d e r e d .  level  determined.  u n d e r t a k e n by  operation  those s e r v i c e s which are  totally,  e f f e c t i v e methods  comprehensively  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that are  the  research  t e c h n i q u e s whereby t h e  investigated.  l e v e l s o f government i n the only  Further  t h a t a r i s e s concerns the  s e r v i c e s t o be  that  a p r o n o u n c e d e f f e c t upon  o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and  of municipal  a l s o h a v e been i n -  d i r e c t e d towards c o n s t r u c t i n g  services could  the  Indeed, i t i s conceeded  their  of municipal  certain  These v a r i a b l e s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n appropriate  in this  ser-  availability  effectively  acknowledged under the  cluded  purpose  the  conhad  carried  i n t h i s study, a  out  completely  d i f f e r e n t v a l u e f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f  might have r e s u l t e d .  The  consideration  five  r e s u l t s that  of only are  of  a n a l y s i s of municipal  operation  Indeed, the collection  and  new  size.  activities,  activities  and  fire  protection  number o f men  that  the  e m p l o y e d i n e a c h s e r v i c e and  the  operation  maintenance costs  and  hence t h e i r per  of  capita expenditure  influenced.  also  Under t h e s e  c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s and  con-  municipal values,  These v a l u e s i n  e f f i c i e n c y o f s e r v i c e when u s i n g  between per  the  would both s u b s t a n t i a l l y  ditions,  would a f f e c t the  garbage  development  It i s recognized  performance.  significantly  have  h a v e a p r o n o u n c e d e f f e c t upon  e f f i c i e n c y of  s e r v i c e s , and  applied  services.  the  the  as  be  operations;  p r a c t i c e s ; and  will  a  selection  t e c h n o l o g y may  increase  ationship  the  further research  i n t r o d u c t i o n of these innovations  w o u l d be  However, as  i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r example, of automated  service a c t i v i t i e s .  reduce the  city  maintenance of municipal  pavement m a t e r i a l s  municipal  produce  overall relationship  e f f e c t s that  a p p l i c a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l of  not  the  requirement.  t h e s i s proposes that  towards i n v e s t i g a t i n g the upon t h e  of the  s e r v i c e and  these s e r v i c e s a t t a i n s t h i s The  acknowledges that  p u b l i c s e r v i c e s may  representative  between e f f i c i e n c y of preliminary  thesis fully  cities  turn  the  level  of  relservice  a measure o f e f f i c i e n c y . In a d d i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z i n g  t e c h n o l o g y , the  thesis also  the  impact of  recommends t h a t  changing  investigation  be  217 d i r e c t e d towards e v a l u a t i n g has  upon m u n i c i p a l  ing  emphasis t h a t  the e f f e c t that changing  administration.  F o r example, t h e i n c r e a s -  p e r s o n s o f a l l age g r o u p s a r e p l a c i n g  r e c r e a t i o n , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t a d u l t s ation activities by  If this  trend  i s t r a t o r s ahould adopt p o l i c i e s  that w i l l  changing values  upon e d u c -  local  provide  admin-  the necess-  Due t o t h e c o n -  of s o c i e t y , the t h e s i s acknowledges  the r e s u l t s obtained  from t h i s  applicable to a relatively  short  i n v e s t i g a t i o n are only  time p e r i o d .  t o be e f f e c t i v e , s u c h a s t u d y s h o u l d research  upon  that are held  continues,  s e r v i c e s t o accommodate t h e s e d e s i r e s .  stantly that  place  i n d i c a t e some o f t h e v a l u e s  s o c i e t y i n Canada.  ary  values  be p a r t  Therefore, of a  continuing  program.  Finally,  t h e study emphasizes t h a t t h e main c o n t r i b u t i o n  of t h i s  research  lies,  n o t s o much i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  results  f o r t h e optimum s i z e o f a c i t y ,  but r a t h e r  of  i n tha  m e t h o d o l o g y a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t h a v e been a d o p t e d t o a r r i v e at these r e s u l t s .  Today, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  techniques are being  extensively  and  the s o c i a l  use  of a v a i l a b l e resources,  niques. that  This  scientist.  study  c a n be u s e d .  u s e d by b o t h t h e s c i e n t i s t ,  The p l a n n e r ,  represents  of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n  should  i f he i s t o make  full  a l s o adopt s i m i l a r t e c h -  one o f t h e many  tecnhiques  218  BIBLIOGRAPHY  219 BIBLIOGRAPHY A . BOOKS B a r b o u r , R o b e r t P. The A g e n t s K e y s t o F i r e P r o t e c t i o n . New Y o r k : The S p e c t a t o r Company, I n c . , 1 9 4 9 . 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"The B a s i c - N o n b a s i c C o n c e p t o f U r b a n E c o n o m i c F u n c t i o n s " , E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y , V o l . XX, 1 9 5 4 , pp. 2 4 6 - 6 2 . Baker, C A . " P o p u l a t i o n and C o s t s i n R e l a t i o n t o C i t y Management", J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S t a t i s t i c a l - c Society, L o n d o n : Dec. 1 9 1 0 , pp. 7 3 - 9 . „ Berry, Brian, " A l t e r n a t i v e E x p l a n a t i o n s o f U r b a n Rank S i z e " , Annals, American A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, V o l . X L V I I I , M a r c h 1 9 5 8 , pp. 8 3 - 9 1 . B o o t h , G e o r g e W. " S t a n d a r d s of Adequate F i r e P r o t e c t i o n " , N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l R e v i e w , V o l . X V I , 4, A p r i l 1 9 2 7 , pp. 223-5. B r a z e r , H a r v e y E. "City Expenditure i n the United States", N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h , I n c . , New Y o r k : 1959  222 Clark, Colin. "The E c o n o m i c F u n c t i o n o f a C i t y i n R e l a t i o n t o I t s S i z e " , L a n d E c o n o m i c s . V/ol. I L , F e b . - Nov. pp. 143-181. C o o p e r , R.N. " H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : The E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m " , R e v i e w o f E c o n o m i c s and S t a t i s t i c s . S u p p l e m e n t 4 2 , 19607 D u n c a n , D.T. "The Optimum S i z e o f C i t i e s " , U r b a n S o c i o l o g y . e d . P.K. H a t t and A . J . R e i s s , ( G l e n c o e I l l i n o i s : F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , pp. 6 3 2 - 4 5 . H i r s c h , Werner Z. "Determinants of P u b l i c Education Expenditures", N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l R e v i e w , V/ol X X I , 1 9 3 3 , pp. 3 0 8 - 2 1 . M c L a u g l i n , Hugh H. " M u n i c i p a l E f f i c i e n c y and Town S i z e " , J o u r n a l o f Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , May-June 1 9 4 2 , pp. 1 2 9 - 1 4 8 . Samuelson, P a u l . "The B u s i n e s s C y c l e and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t " , R e p o r t t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e on U r b a n i s m , ( H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , M a r c h 1 9 4 2 , pp. 6-17. S c o t t , S t a n l e y and F a d e r , E.L. "Factors Associated with V a r i a t i o n s i n M u n i c i p a l E x p e n d i t u r e L e v e l s " , Bureau of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1957). Shapiro, Harvey. " E c o n o m i c s o f S c a l e and L o c a l F i n a n c e " , Land E c o n o m i c s , V o l . X L .  Government  S t e w a r t , C h a r l e s T. "The S i z e and S p a c i n g o f C i t i e s " , G e o g r a p h i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . X L V I I I , A p r i l 1 9 5 8 , pp. 2 4 6 - 6 2 .  C. PUBLIC DOCUMENTS I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , " M u n i c i p a l Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , C h i c a g o , 1 9 6 1 . .  Public  M a n u a l o f P u b l i c Works R e c o r d s and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e and C o m m i t t e e on U n i f o r m S t r e e t s and S a n i t a t i o n R e c o r d s " , C h i c a g o , 1 9 3 3 .  223 N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , " P l a y g r o u n d s , T h e i r Admini s t r a t i o n and O p e r a t i o n s " , ( A ; S . B a r n e s a n d Company, London, 1963). P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, "95th Annual Report: P u b l i c Schools of the Province of 8 r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1965-1966. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, " F i r e Marshal's Report", the A u t h o r i t y o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, V i c t o r i a , 1961-5. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , "B.C. M u n i c i p a l Y e a r M i t c h e l l P r e s s L i m i t e d , V i c t o r i a , 1964. Province of B r i t i s h ectory", B r i t i s h  Book",  C o l u m b i a , " T o u r i s t Accommodation. D i r Columbia T r a v e l B u r e a u ; V i c t o r i a , 1967.  U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , " M u n i c i p a l a n d C o u n t y P a r k s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1 9 3 6 .  D.  REPORTS  C l a i u s o n , M a r i o n . F a c t o r s a n d F o r c e s A f f e c t i n g t h e Optimum Rural Settlement P a t t e r n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Resources F o r t h e F u t u r e I n c . , Number 5 9 , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1 9 6 6 . . M e t h o d s F o r M e a s u r i n g t h e Demand f o r a n d V a l u e o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . Resources For the Future I n c . , Number 3 0 , 1961 . Goldenberg, C a r l . Report o f t h e Commission T a x a t i o n , Winnipeg, 1958.  on M u n i c i p a l  M o r t , P a u l R. a n d C o r n e l l , F r a n c a i s G. A G u i d e f o r S e l A p p r a i s a l o f S c h o o l Systems. Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) . The  League o f C a l i f o r n i a C i t i e s . The F i r e P r o t e c t i o n G r a d i n g P r o c e s s as R e l a t e d t o Economics o f F i r e " Protection. Los A n g e l e s , 1961.  224 V i c k r e y , W.W. General and S p e c i f i c F i n a n c i n g . Resources F o r t h e F u t u r e , I n c . , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1 9 6 2 . Warren, Robert. A M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e Market Model o f Metropolitan Organizations. Resources For the Future I n c . , Number 4 8 , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1 9 6 4 .  E.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL  Spankie, C a r o l i n e . Space F o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; P l a n n i n g Aspects For National P o l i c y . An u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r o f Arts Thesis presented to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A p r i l 1967.  225  APPENDIX a  226  APPENDIX  A  Sources* The Province of British  Columbia."munic-  ipal Statistics",  Victoria,  1951-1965. Budget Sheets f o r i n d i v i d u a l municipalities.  22*7  TABLE I I I ( a ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR A L L INCORPORATED CLASS ONE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S I N THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUNBIA, 1951  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  S .67 4.61 .40 .33 .62 1.00 1.40  i  Villaoes Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Burns Lake Chapman Camp Comox Creston Cumberland Gibsons Landing Harrison Hot Sp. Invermere Kaslo Kinnaird Lillooet Lytton McBride Marysville New D e n v e r Oliver Osoyoos Parksville P o u c e Coupe Qualicura Beach Salmo S a l m o n Arm Silverton Slocan Smithers Stewart Tofino Vanderhoof  S23.61 9.29 2.88 5.12 4.65 10.76 6.09 7.35 mm*mmm 4.55 .30 6.05 1.06 1.00 2.33 - .01 .50 1.55 1.59 --6.14 . 5.88 .20 10.83 1.40 4.72 1.03 6.88 .93 3.33 , .05 1.31 .26 17.33 .06 2.01 2.26 12.13 .07 2.38 mm 4.35 .57 17.69 .97 18.32 5.62 .06 8.07 1.50  t .35  .10  .31  6.04 1.54  .21 2.79  .77 1.26  •1.42 .29 .10 .79 • 86 1.97 1.14 .41 •M M  9  ---  1.68 2.25 1.54 .90 2.42  —  ---  —  mmmmmm  ---  ...  8.59  4.39  .86  ...  2.39 1.93 .12 .11 3.29 1.01  2.15 .63 .46  15.00  ---  mmmmmm  .95 .36 1.85 —  2.85 2.36  1 .00 .10 .07 .81 .83 .66 .10 .78 .25 1.16 2.64  ---  3.32  «...  ---  .09  «•--  —  ... ... ...  ^mmmm  mmm»mt  ... mmmmmm  ... ... 3.57 ... ...  27.79  «wo>«»  Towns F o r t S t . John U i l l i a n s Lake  1.42 3.65  mmmmw  ...  22B  TABLE(a)(continued)  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitatlon  Recreatlon  Education  Cities Enderby Greenwood  S .84 1.38  $5.32 2.63  t .38 .44  I .79 —  117.98 7.36  229  TABLE  111(b)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUWBIA, 1951  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  $ .67 1.08  $11.05 8.72  .82 1.28 2.05 .58 1.13  8.16 11.47 7.74 3.27 3.04  1.12 2.41 .56  6.40 4.60 9.86  Recreation  Education  $1.47 .90  $1.02 .62  f  2.77 1.62 1.30 1.22 .19  .56 1.22 .42 .45 .06  Villaoes Castlegar Lake Conichan Towns Hope Ladyemith Werritt N o r t h Kamloops Quesnel  8.22 14.59  Cities Armstrong Grand F o r k s P o r t Moody  3.82 3.13  16.16 17.91 12.37  230  TABLE  I I I (c)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1951  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Work 8  11.39  S13.35  Sanitation  Recreation  Educa tlon  S  $  Towns mission City  1  —  Cities Alberni Courtnay Cranbrook Dawson C r e e k Duncan Fernie Port Coquitlam P r i n c e George Revelstoke Rossland  1.33 1.26 4.79 .58 2.06 3.46 .40 4.57 1.74 4.42  7.93 15.60 16.72 9.53 10.20 6.58 10.05 10.39 9.20 9.25  1.54 3.95 1.05 4.55 5.27 5.50 .88 3.14 3.01 1.32  .79 2.75  ...  1.20 .22 10.20 .92 .05 1.38 .53  9.47 16.74 21.65  ...  18.81 12.10 11.15 32.34 16.76 8.90  231  TABLE  I I I (d)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1951  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  $1.29 4.77 2.98 1.21 4.93 7.11 1.26 6.26 4.27  $15.20 9.07 15.19 5.72 7.57 11.88 6.96 14.46 11.86  $1.75 4.25 5.13 3.32 3.82 2.88 2.37 4.64 4.06  Recreation  Education  Cities Chilliwack Kamloops Kelouina Kimberley Nanairoo Nelson Port Alberni Prince Rupert Vernon  I  $1.36 4.76 4.77 .51 4.00 4.45 3.33 1.07 1.68  $16.39 16.61 21.33 18.76 17.20 19.54 13.62 13.01 19.10  232  TABLE  111(e)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS F I V E V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1951  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  13.69 3.59  110.92 10.49  Sanitatlon  Recreation  Education  Cities Penticton Trail  $4.45 2.11  14.42 1.06  $18.96 11.24  TABLE  III (f)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS SIX V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S I N THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUfflBIA, 1951  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  88.21 5.81 8.03  $14.41 8.63 10.91  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  Cities Nen W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver Victoria  §2.60 1.53 7*62  84.08 2.55 7*57  $17.23 24.81 20.72  234 TABLE IV ( a ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUITIBIA, 1956  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  $ .91 1.10 2.26 .94 3.49 .75 .52 .14 1.50 2.44 .15 .18 .92 3.82 .44 .10 1.57 — .66 2.13 2.07 1.08 .56 2.21 2.06 2.36 1.12 1.16 7.00 1.69 .58 .55 3.60 1*32  116.00 17.62 .93 11.00 10.92 9.62 1.53 9.92 23.00 9.53 1.63 80.50 .65 3.44 2.53 6.32 8.35 .60 7.33 4.77 3.50 5.39 10.56 20.84 7.26 .80 2.31 9.00 7.53 4.90 9.97 3.30 6.53 ;78  Sanitation  Recreatlon  Education  Villages Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Comox F o r t S t . Jamee Fruitvale Gibsons Landing H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Invermere Lillooet Lumby Lytton PlcBride Itiarysville Montrose New D e n v e r Oliver Osoyoos Parksville P o u c e Coupe Qualicura Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Stewart Telkwa Tofino Ucluelet Vanderhoof Zeballos  $ .35  ... ...  .34 1.22 2.18 .20 2.07  ... ... ...  1.75  1.32 .90 .04 2.00 1.64 .42 .15  ...  1.55 .43 5*37 4.68 2.97 .26 2.00 ' .45 5.01 3.80  ...  .16 3.16 .36  13.59  ...  1.96 .65  .80 1.80 .50 .76 1.86 2.04 5.25 6.15 .94 .24  ...  $29.24 9.62 11.37 12.23 13.60 16.10 7.22 8.66 10.43 25.21  ...  10.97 6.51 14.50  ...  11.20 8.50  ...  .16 .87 .94 1.00 .88 1.25 .57 1.15 .27  5.14 18.53 15.42 14.80 9.07 34.70  .20 2.10 64 .48 .83 1.95  8.00 10.83 10.00 9.69 12.71 11.7.2  ...  ... ... 4.73 ...  235  TABLE IV ( b ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1956  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  2.36 1.35  12.90 6.61 8.32 9.91 9.72 13.82 13.02 6.96 15.64  •2.71 1.26 1.45 .43 1.30 2.59 .72 3.41 7.07  1.05 1.18 2.03 1.89 1.72  8.67 20.10 12.60 9.42 11.78  2.19 3.71  13.10 29.43  .Recreation  Educa* tion  Villaqes Castlegar Creston Kinnaird Lake Conichan Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Smithers Warfield  $2.80 .61 2.36 1.26 3.97 2.21  ...  1  .63 .87 1.00 .99 .29 .92 .50  $16.22 16.64 15.92 8.07 10.80 4.82 11.47 12.50 9.26  2.06 2.53 2.37 .85 3.07  .06 1.58  10.85 15.67  1.00 .32  .94 2.21  ... ...  To tans F o r t S t . John Hope Ladysmith Plerritt W i l l i a m s Lake  ... ...  .35  mmm  ... 11.47  Cities Grand F o r k s Langley  13.24 20.80  TABLE IV ( c ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUfflBIA, 1 9 5 6  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  $1.43 .83 .70  $15.44 5.57 6.31  1.37 3.49 6.93 2.63 4.52 .63 .85 3.50 6.26  11.69 9.52 11.83 13.07 15.37 15.46 21.75 20.02 13.09  Sanitation  Recreation  Educa* tion  To inns mission City North Kamloops Quesnel  $ .05 1.70 1.58  $1.14 1.01 1.12  $17.85 9.12 11.55  2.93 2.21 3.75 - 5.97 4.89 6.93 6.96 1.38 7.19 8.30 1.23 2.99 1.87 .93 5.52 2.11 2.98 1.02  7.78 12.16 10.91 15.84 4.99 11.90 30.60 13.08 7.90  Cities Alberni Courtnay Cranbrook Duncan Fernie Port Coquitlam P o r t moody Revelstoke Roesland  237  TABLE  IV ( d )  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1956  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  • 2,05 .91 5.60 • 4.90 3.80 7.26 4.76  $20.24 7.58 15.90 8.26 17.41 24.50 11;78  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  Cities Chilliwack Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna Kimberley Nelson Vernon  $1.38 3.71 4.78 5.60 4.63 5.33 7 ; 43  $1.51 1.75 5.84 5.45 4.08 9.44 10.00  $15.18 15.95 16.86 18.41 13.33 22;76 13.91  TABLE IV (e)> EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS F I V E V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1956  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Uorks  Sanitation  •5.22 3.77 1.23 4.56 6.70 2.73  •12.93 13.23 6.08 11.97 20.70 16.64  •4.27 5.04 5.40 7.51 4.18 2.75  Recreation  Educa tion  •5.79 6.55 2.21 7.20 4.07 2.02  •19.60 15.16 21.15 15.40 14.30 11.35  Cities Nanaimo Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e George Prince Rupert Trail  TABLE  IV ( f )  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS S I X V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1956  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  $7.20 3.00 10.66  $22.42 18.89 20.97  Cities Netn W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver Victoria  $10.29 7.87 8.29  $8.79 11.56 7.52  $2.76 1.68 6.90  240 TABLE  V (a)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1961  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp F o r t S t , James F ruitvale G i b s o n s Landing.. H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos Lumby Lytton fflcBride Marysville Wasset Montrose Natal New D e n v e r Osoyoos Parksville Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Stewart Taylor Telkna Tofino Ucluelet Zeballos  $1.26 1.96 1.15 2.35 5.47 1.17 .10 2.19 3.86 .59 1.54 .30 1.55  131.56 33.79 7.88 14.75 9.52 3.66 7.82 17.47 32.30 1.71 1.09 18.14 17.85 13.34 5.55 1.36 5.86 4.56  •7.53  •4.00  .•...  2.10 8.06 .66 1.91 1.29 .22 3.62 1.98 2.07 1.73 3.79 2.61 7.38 6.71 .78 4.52  ---  6.53 .44 .25 2.56 .66 2.79 .52 1.39 2.26 2.89 4.01 2.70 5.22 1.07 3.07 1.43 1.81 4.50  ...  3.05 1.12 1.08 .66  • i1 nu  ...  4.32 1.75 .24 3.64 .67 1.32 4.00 3.42 3.21 3.62 .36 2.58 .89 3.30 2.90  .92 .96 15.45 3.43 9.08 .35 3.07 10.22 9.12 1.12 5.75 3.39 5.74  2.00 2.15  6.09 3.04 3.80 15.29  ...  ...  ...  1.80 1.60 4.76 6.26 4.00 3.00 .65 1.68 1.50 5.14 1.12 4.26 .40 1.00  Recreation  ...  .58 .22 .10 5.24 2.45 .65 .93 4.05 .67 3.00 .86 1.23 .54  ...  .78 .56 1.04 5.65  Education •71.72 17.88 22.80 33.00 23.19 12.78 19.84 29.41 53.00 12.75 18.75 31.02 19.08 33.03 26.77 24.43 24.91 16.19 19.37 17.14 16.92 36.81 28.69 24.66 16.84 58.90 16.00 38.49 16.42 19.48 18.73 28.07 19.53 24.81 19.09 14.20  241 TABLE V  Incorporated Areas  (a)(continued)  Fire  Public Idorks  Sanitation  %7.30 4.47  • .94 1.42  Recreation  Educatlon  Cities Enderby Greenwood  •1.63 .98  S2.26 1.54  121 .'44 14.52  242  TABLE  V (b)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS TWO V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1961  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  $2.60 1.12 1.28 1.76 .38 * 1.33 1.58 2.50 3.81 2.32 2.28 1.59 1.88 .61 1.61  $10.96 5.75 8.10 11.29 5.14 6.30 15.13 3.14 7.80 14.00 12.91 8.54 9.96 9.46 14.01  $2.72 3.66 3.90 3.50 3.73 1.50 .27 3.12 .75 3.30 6.27 4.38 2.74 11.50 4.16  $ .31 3.04 2.36 2.34 .98 1.36 1.74 7.52 4.16 2.06 4.34 .12 2.67 6.21 .69  $24.32 26.64 12.52 45.36 19.73 22.17 17.81 7.19 34.38 25.80 31.43 29.11 23.27 21.24 22.86  3.97  19.17  8.13  4.01  28.77  3.40 2.28 3.03  11.87 13.12 23.30  .91 3.46 .93  2.87 6.06 2.91  24.39 22.11 41.63  -  Recrea- Educa tion tion  Villages Castlegar Comox Cumberland Creston Golden Klnnaird Lake Cotalchan Llllooet Oliver Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Smithers Vanderhoof Warfield To tuns Williams  Lake  Cities Armstrong Grand F o r k s Langley  1  243  TABLE  V (c)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1961  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  $1.90 1.72 3.32 2.40 4.24 1.20  $11.24 15.44 16.33 8.63 32.70 8.41  1.79 2.04 2.76 6.77 1.68 3.86 7.67  8.29 11.17 19.09 21.84 17.00 19.70 15.85  Recreation  Educa tion  $3.48 2.94 2.40 1.80 3.50 1.50  $2.75 3.41 5.29 5.11 3.58 6.85  $32.90 25.32 21.00 18.51 39.79 27.08  2.14 18.26 7.48 10.05 5.29 8.56 3.10  3.49 7.83 5.09 17.32 2.58 7.40 1.02  16.38 35.37 28.62 13.07 72.67 24.12 14.92  Towns F o r t S t . John Hope Ladysmith Werritt Mission City Quesnel Cities Alberni Courtnay Duncan Fernie P o r t ffloody Revelstoke Rossland  244  TABLE V ( d ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1961  Incorporated Areas  .  Public Works  Sanitation  $3.97  $5.36  $8.13  $2.55  $21.82  2.14 7.85 7.27 10,22 .78 6.62 3.81  15.45 20.40 11.34 17.70 15.65 16.63 31.34  1.91 6.98 6.13 10.44 1.80 5.67 7.04  3.09 9.20 8.30 21.41 3.74 5.50 2.19  28.63 27.10 20.38 33.11 28.12 21.60 33.06  Fire  Recreation  Educa tion  Towns North Kamloops Cities Chillitnack Cranbrook Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlara Trail W h i t e Rock  TABLE V ( e ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS F I V E V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1961  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  $9.37 15.25 16.47 16.34 15.17 8.12 12.40 23*37 18.00  $9.30 6.17 7.47 5.02 6.31 8.00 8.70 6.53 8.72  Recreation  Educatlon  Cities Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna Nanaimo Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e George P r i n c e Rupert Vernon  $3.82 6.63 5.36 6.72 5.39 1.48 5.95 7.53 6.68  $3.19 13.74 10.28 7.45 8.58 3.89 12.47 8.50 6.81  $30.92 39.10 38.72 33.37 30.79 70.98 33.15 23.57 30.16  TABLE  V (f)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS SIX V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1961  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  Recreation  Educattion  Cities New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver Victoria  $14.83 8.98 12.50  $12.94 10.12 9.81  $4.05 3.78 8.66  $16.60 4.72 15.07  $35.89 37.23 33.24  247  TABLE V I ( a ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS ONE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  • 2.31 .36 3.67 2.35 2.61 4.22 1.65 .11 2.92 5.06 .47 1.42 1.03 4.19 11.20 6.97 6.97 1.12 4.26 1.07 3.30 2.45 2.05 1.43  •40.00 3.23 16.12 9.44 29.61 26.00 4.03 14.90 8.31 20.39 2.00 4.63 19.20 12.25 5.40 16.77 8.62 16.82 9.58 .82 13.99 5.36 4.22 18.27 .50 12.64 9.20 10.98 9.02 9.20 16.54 17.00 1.74 2.56 17.16 8.67  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  Villaaes Abbotsford Aennofield A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Fruitvale Gibsons Landing H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos L urn by Lytton WcBrids Marysville fflasset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 m i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparwood Stewart Taylor Telkwa  3.46 2.85 2.84 2.77 5.04 .85 .92 1.98 3.25 2.22 3.32  •9.54 2.50 5.34 2.21 8.34 1.00 3.30 4.54 .42 .56 3.80 3.60 1.85 3.23 .63 4.24 1.50 3.79 4.00 .32 4.78 .31 3.56  ...  .32 6.66 6.44 8.63 3.35 1.28 2.54 1.30 1.55 3.94 1.11 2.93  •5.14  ...  1.44 2.04 8.74 7.44 2.03 1.42 1.45 2.94 1.00 2.55 4.17 5.04 9.46 8.00 3.85 2.52 6.78 2.12 4.27 .27 1.04 1.70  ... ...  1.88 12.90 2.40 2.03 3.43 1.31 .30  ... 2.00 ...  •98.18 16.92 29.31 24.18 46.07 31.16 26.09 25.63 40.00 61.37 15.23 26.51 44.82 23.86 46.74 42.87 28.64 40.44 21.90 27.90 23.52 38.77 21.27 10.84 44.42 20.81 97.46 27.14 62.10 16.85 43.33 24.46 12.74 34.62 18.88  248 TABLE V I ( a ) ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Uorks  •1.58 1.88 .44 2*71  •14.38 4.34 3.90 14.37  1.97 2.06  20.45 6.82  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  Villaqes Tofino Ucluelet Valemount Zeballos  •  .84 .66 5.60  • 4.46 6.90 4.83 2.60  9.65 2.42  9.31 4.31  •31.44 25.96 18.21 27.27  Cities Enderby Greenwood  19.27 24.22  11  249  TABLE  VI (b)  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR A L L INCORPORATED CLASS TWO V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S I N THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUHIBIA, 1 9 6 5  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  Villages Chetuiynd Cumberland  F o r t S t . James L a k e Courichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Warfield  2.91 2.20 1.84 3.03 3.13 .92 2.82 3.57 2.66 1.67 1.24 2.71  S3.82 8.76 5.38 19.27 4.19 9.83 6.46 11.08 10.29 14.90 8.22 11.05 14.37  •1.77 4.79 2.96 .31 3.23 1.54 12.20 4.57 5.61 10.75 7.43 10.01 5.60  •2.03 4.27 1.85 8.06 4.16 9.80 7.50 8.96 8.56 11.50 .70 12.82 2.60  •35.62 16.24 18.47 19.38 12.13 43.32 50.91 50.38 32.38 54.80 54.32 35.68 27.27  3.79  18.67  5.33  9.26  29.51  11.19  Cities Armstrong  250  TABLE  VI ( c )  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS THREE V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Work 8  Sanitation  Recreation  •2.30 1.99 3.03 .49 2.09 , 2.88  •12.53 7.10 14.77 8.88 7.36 10.68  •22.67 8.11 8.45 2.06 3.94 4.13  • 6.46 5.90 4.95 1.55 4.56 3.54  •43.23 33.31 62.64 48.32 36.61 33.37  1.38 2.66 1.79 2.54 6.80  5.41 13.61 18.27 19.57 24.24  4.01 1.72 S.09 2.86 15.15  6.27 4.40 4.90 6.29 5.41  38.26 31.88 30.92 40.17 54.10  1.51 4.97 2.83 6.80 3.21 5.10 5.21 8.62  10.62 11.38 21.31 20.45 17.05 26.53 22.06 20.64  4.27 10.63 10.85 9.65 6.85 7.60 5.76 3.50  7.23 12.41 5.66 9.31 10.06 8.53 9.17 1.36  25.70 49.02 44.85 19.27 20.43 68.60 38.81 17.21  Educa« tion  Villaoes Castlegar Comox Creston Golden Kinnaird Smither8 Towns Hope Ladysmith Merritt Mission City W i l l i a m s Lake Cities Alberni Courtnay Duncan F ernie Grand F o r k s Langley Revelstoke Rossland  251  TABLE  VI (d) "  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS FOUR V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF* B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Work 8  Sanitation  $2.20 2.05  $20.42 7.09  $7.94 4.60  $7.65 6.33  $39.44 39.21  2.23 7.84 7.82 7.61 1.77 2.91 3.71  13.31 18.10 15.78 26.60 20.58 9.53 24.06  5.22 8.15 7.38 12.31 18.87 3.31 9.62  5.10 11.63 6.87 15.42 5.43 2.21 7.30  39.10 44.41 28.27 41.24 42.07 51.52 56.21  Recreation  Education  Towns F o r t S t . John Quesnel Cities Chilliwack Cranbrook Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Moody W h i t e Rock  252  TABLE V I ( e ) EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR ALL INCORPORATED CLASS F I V E V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  13.07  $51*54  17.73  85.91  $33.43  6.06 7.73 7.18 6.56 1.82 7.00 7.37 7.66  11.41 19.09 23.32 21.20 11.52 32.01 30.26 8.52  7.85 8.37 9.61 8.68 9.92 7.05 7.54 12.10  5.48 18.92 19.73 15.71 14.27 8.33 2.44 13.18  38.55 70.81 55.42 49.23 105.60 29.43 28.62 49.04  Recreation  Education  Towns North Kamloops Cities Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna Penticton Port A l b e r n l P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon  253  TABLE  VI ( f )  EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA FOR A L L INCORPORATED CLASS SIX V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Fire  Public Uorks  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  Cities Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  56.73 16.58 9.14 4.30 13.94  $8.57 12.50 10.02 11.67 10.18  $5.38 $14.12 5.30 15.57 7.06 4.32 12.29 11.28 8.60 27.02  $43.71 51.45 47.92 41.82 46.82  254  APPENDIX  '  B  S o u r c e s t Compiled from P r o v i n c e df  British  Columbia,  Statistics",  1965.  "Municipal  255 TABLE  XIII  FACTORS FOR PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES FOR INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas Class  Fire  Public Works  Sanitation  50.0 96.2 79.8 88.1 62.9 69.5 95.3 87.6 81.3 89.7 91.5 74.2 97.5 94.4 76.0 84.7 93.1 78.9 89.1 78.9 88.1 98.1 82.5 93.0 94.7 77.0 99.4 84.3 88.4 86.3 90.0 88.3 79.4 78.8  76.3 93.8 86.7 95.0 79.1 97.5 82.0 92.5 88.7 98.8 93.8 98.5 90.6 91.2 95.2 92.0 98.5 89.6 98.8 90.6 90.0 99.1 87.8 99.4 91.3  ALL  Recreation  Education  87.3 96.5 95.0 77.8 81.6 95.0 87.3 96.2 96.3 88.9 92.6 197.5 93.8 89.8 87.5 76.3 80.0 91.0 93.8 82.7 95.0 88.3 99.2 97.5 96.0  50.9 91.2 85.5 87.7 77.0 84.4 97.1 85.3 87.5 80.0 88.0 69.2 100.0 86.7 75.0 88.2 76.6 77.6 85.6 79.8 89.3 86.0 89.1 80.8 89.4 89.6  95.2 67.6 93.9 95.0 91.4 97.0  77.7 89.6 51.4 86.4 69.0 91.6 78.7  One  Abbotsford Aennofield A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Fruitvale Gibsons Landing Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos L urn by Lytton McBride Marysville Masset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan  £92.0 99.0 87.5 92.0 91.0 86.0 93.5 93.2 99.5 91.1 92.3 83.5 98.1 95.1 96.2 86.0 65.0 77.3 97.3 95.7 85.5 95.8 88.9 91.3 92.6 94.8 100.0 88.1 90.1 90.1 90.4 83.5 97.1 97.3  100.0 83.0 83.2 78.5 91.6 97.0 93.6 96.8  ...  —-  ...  256  TABLE X I I I  Incorporated Areas C l a s s One  Sanitation  92.9 88.9 92.3 88.8 94.1 93.2 98.6 94.1  98.2 96.9 78.2 88.9 82.2 95.0 95.2 96.1  96.2 90.0 97.3 92.5 97.8 98.3 87.0  88.8 82.6 87.7 91.0  87.8 93.5 82.6 90.6 84.8 87.0 91.0 85.0  86.0 95.4 91.1 92.0 93.5 89.8 89.5 96.6 90.4 87.8 90.7 93.5 95.4 90.7  76.5 95.0 89.1 93.1 76.0 95.0 87.7 91.9 86.3 87.0 81.5 89.7 86.3 82.1  86.6 95.3 87.7 92.5 99.1 92.0 98.7 69.6 88.3 86.3 72.8 81.2 75.0 86.3  77.0 95.0 89.1 95.4 80.0 89.0 75.3 81.3 77.5 78.7 71.3 99.0 67.8 94.0  85.3 82.3 91.8 90.8 90.3 93.8 78.7 74.6 74.7 83.8 72.6 72.7 82.2 86.3  95.3 92.0 92.9 83.8 69.8 90.1 77.9 98.0 89.2  86.9 85.6 91.2 85.4 81.5 73.4 75.6 88.8 78.8  89.1 50.0 80.0 73.4 79.3 72.5 75.9 94.0 83.1  81.6 83.8 85.1 68.8 87.5 85.4 76.5 96.0 75.0  88.2 78.8 83.3 75.5 69.4 77.6 90.4 75.8 85.7  Recreation  x  Education  100.0 95.0  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd Cumberland F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Uiarfield Class  Public Works  (continued)  Sparwood Stewart Taylor Telkiva Tofino Ucluelet Valemount Zeballos Class  Fire  (continued)  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s  TABLE X I I I  Incorporated Areas C l a s s Three  Fire  Sanitation  94.3 92.6 90.7 83.2 " 93.5 91.4 82.9 72.2 90.1 77.4  95.1 91.0 82.8 66.5 77.0 75.3 72.5 73.9 86.8 70.0  90.0 90.3 93.4 80.6 87.2 92.8 85.9 91.3 90.0 62.2  84.0 88.8 89.0 78.8 87.6 84.1 77.2 96.6 93.0 88.8  80.0 81.7 84.0 66.0 84.6 79.9 81.0 91.3 83.3 73.0  91.9 74.4 92.3 74.7 75.3 95.0 90.1 92.6 97.5  83.8 77.5 75.1 80.2 66.7 74.3 87.7 90.3 70.0  86.7 79.4 80.0 81.3 69.1 52.8 91.6 88.8 76.2  87.5 70.4 81.0 82.6 61.3 86.4 94.3 84.0 81.6  80.5 77.8 80.0 85.7 79.0 78.5 74.3 80.5 71.5  80.4 74.7 76.7 89.5 78.4 93.2 77.3 76.0 75.0  85.4 76.4 71.3 93.3 73.8 85.6 60.0 62.8 89.4  80.6 78.8 76.2 80.9 78.4 75.3 82.2 81.3 70.0  86.4 52.4 51.0 85.2 60.3 65.0 80.3 93.8 66.5  80.7 64.6 72.2 83.3 75.4 50.0 85.3 85.6 75.5  78.1  90.0  86.6  65.0  78.2  Recreation  Education  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coqultlam P o r t Moody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  Public Works  (continued)  Hope Kinnaird Ladysmith Langley Merritt Mission City Revelstoke Rossland Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake Class  (continued)  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna North Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon Class Six Nanaimo  258 TABLE X I I I  Incorporated Areas Class Six  Tire  (continued)  Public Uorks  Sanitation  Recreation  Education  (continued)  New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  50.0 71.0 85.7 56.6  84.3 87.5 85.5 87.3  86.6 89.1 71.6 78.4  61.3 82.4 69.0 50.0  74.3 76.2 79.1 76.6  TABLE PER  259  CAPITA EXPENDITURE AND REVENUE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  XV  Expenditure  Revenue  Expenditure less Revenue  One  Abbotsford Aennofield A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby F ruitvale Gibsons Landing Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos L urn by Lytton McBride Marysville Wasset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparnood  8215 38 107 064 146 117 55 100 79 107 79 154 61 74 119 78 112 137 69 135 78 86 91 71 65 57 6 108 85 198 80 126 78 90 39  8177 229 78 53 111 79 44 22 70 82 14 140 31 45 99 51 78 103 65 98 61 42 74 53 46 40 6 86 68 f82 57 102 41 74 36  838 9 30 11 35 37 10 10 10 25 14 13 31 29 20 27 34 34 5 37 17 45 17 18 19 17 0 22 17 15 21 23 37 17 3  260 TABLE XV  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s One  Expenditure less Revenue  840 115 50 79 74 65 93  837 95 40 66 54 41 80  82 20 10 13 20 244 12  112 74 67 52 70 66 103 118 137 91 171 102 126 83  93 71 41 32 49 55 76 106 109 76 140 107 102 63  20 3 26 20 22 11 27 12 28 15 32  1,22 1393 93 . 172 147 171 140 110 146 86 90  83 120 75 128 123 131  39 19 18 44 24 40  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd Cumberland F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Ularfield Class  Revenue  Expenditure  (continued)  Stewart Taylor Telkiua Tofino Ucluelet Valemount Zeballos Class  (continued)  --  24 20  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s Hope Kinnaird  --  97 92 58 72  •  13 54 27 18  261 TABLE XV  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Three  Expenditure  Expenditure less Revenue  8103 226 156 116 94 132 109 163  882 183 119 95 63 100 78 143  821  142 159 188 119 232 143 200 143 174  96 141 170 76 124 109 110 98 130  46 18 18 43 108 34 81 43 44  169 229 221 116 205 175 140 167  118 186 158 95 147 176 131 111 136  51 43 63 21 49 35 44 29 31  183 199 146 170 206  142 139 117 137 157  41 60 29 33 51  43 36 21 31 32 30 20  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port. Coquitlam P o r t Moody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  Revenue  (continued)  Ladysmith Langley Nerritt mission City Rossland Revelstoke Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake Class  (continued)  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna North Kamloops Penticton Port A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon  &  ®  2  1  1  Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  262  APPENDIX  C  Sources!  1.  Province of B r i t i s h Statistics",  2.  Columbia."Municipal  V i c t o r i a * 1965.  Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Annual School Report". 3.  Province of B r i t i s h  Victoriat1965-66.  Columbia.  Accommodation D i r e c t o r y " . 4.  "Tourist  Victorias  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e c e i v e d from Incorporated  "95th  Municipalities.  1967.  individual  263 TA8LE  XVIII  F I R E PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  Annual fire i n spections p e r 1000 persons*  Waterpumping capacity gals/min. p e r 1000 persons  Number o f voluntary firemen p e r 1000 persons  2,600 5B0 420 830  20 18 20 10  Number o f full-time firemen p e r 1000 persons  One,  Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Fruitvale Gibsons Landing H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos L urn by Lytton McBride Marysville Masset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparwood  20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 60 0 0 57 0 45 0 • 25 13 0 0 6 B 0 0 0 0 0  ... M>  M»  —  -—  .  250 375 1,7808 •IMS  0  25  0  20 42  0 0  -—  ---  12 23 28  .0 1.9  -—  -—  20  830  —  1,650  20  ---  —  14  920 ---  —  ... ...  • - — — — -—  --  .  ... ...  — —  —  ——  —  0^83  mm  750 1,600  —  0 1.1  53  0  ... 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ...  264 TABLE X V I I I  Incorporated Areas  Annual fire i n spections p e r 1000 persons  C l a s s One  (continued)  Stewart Taylor Telkwa Tofino Ucluelet Zeballos Enderby Greenwood  43 0 0 0 0 0 32 2  Class  Waterpumping capacity gals/min, p e r 1000 persons  910  ——-—  575 2,000 450 250  Number o f voluntary firemen p e r 1000 persons  12  .. .. .. 15 48 13 25  Number o f full-time firemen p e r 1000 persons  1.9  ... ... 0 0 0 0  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Warfield Class  (continued)  66 0 1 0 0 0 0 150 0 2 0 0 12  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s Hope Kinnaird  1,330  18  ... ...  — —  -—  ~ 13  470 800 450  500 270 230 .640 833  ...  6 15 13 9 13 8 16  —-  0  ... ... 0.4 0 0  ... 0 0 0 0 0  ...  5 0 0 28 13 3 23 41 22 0 0 48  190 310  ... 250 290 270 370 350  ...  4 7 5 8 6 7 7 13 6  0 0  ... 0.3 0 0 1.1 0 0 0  265 TABLE X V I I I  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Three  Annual fire inspections p e r 1000 persons  Number o f voluntary firemen p e r 1000 persons  Number o f full-time firemen p e r 1000 persons  9 0 68 63 0 0 13  440 380 245 130  12 6 7 6  0 0 0 0.5  313 500  8 10  0 0  340 214 166 135 260 167 105 118  3 3 3 5 6 • 33 3  0 0 1.1 1.0 0 0.6 0  3  0.1  3 2 3 3 2  0.8 1.0 0.8 0.4 0.8  —  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Quesnel Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Moody W h i t e Rock Class  Waterpumping capacity gals/min p e r 1000 persons  (Continued)  Langley Merritt Mission City Revelstoke Rossland Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake Class  (continued)  135 74 4 71 0 73 1 5 22  —  --  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna North Kamloops Penticton Port A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon  91 36 62 13 34 6 25 83 19  &  92 92 244 215 123 120 108 195  —  •  —  1 1 2  0.8 0.6 0.9  1 0 0  1.0 1.8 1.1  Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver  77 120 107  105 114 71  .  266 TABLE X V I I I  Incorporated Areas  Annual fire inspection p e r 1000 persons  (continued)  Waterpumping capacity gals/min p e r 1000 persons  Number o f voluntary firemen p e r 1000 persons  Number o f full-time firemen p e r 1000 persons  Class S i x (continued) P r i n c e George Victoria  35 190  120 92  • A v e r a g e f o r 1961 - 1965 i n c l u s i v e  1 0  0.5 1.6  267 TABLE X I X INTENSITY VALUES FOR F I R E PROTECTION FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  Annual fire i n spections  Waterpumping capacity  Number o f voluntary firemen  100.0 60.2 57.0 65,2  70.0 68.0 70.8 60.0  50.0 77.5 70.0 50.0  57.6  75.0 63.0  50.0 50.0  63.6 53.6 80.7  70.0 75.0 91.7  50.0 50.0 50.0  Number o f full-time firemen  One  Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Frultvale Gibsons Landing Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos L urn by Lytton McBride Marysville Masset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparwood Stewart Taylor  55 50 50 50 50 50 58 50 50 51 51 50 50 50 50 50 65 50 50 64 50 61 50 56 53 50 50 52 52 50 50 50 50 50 61 50  — --—-  -—-  53.6 56.0 84.2  -—  ... -—  62.0 72.5 77.5  50.0 50.0 100.0  65.2  70.0  50.0  81.3  69.8  50.0  67.0  64.1  mm ^m mm  am mm mm  •» w  ——  ...  ... '... ... mmmm mm  — — —  ...  ... ... 66.8 ...  — ... ... — ... ... 100.0 ... 62.0 ...  ... ... 50.0 ... . ... ... ...  ... ... ... 50,0 .  ...  100.0  ...  268 TABLE X I X ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s One  Number o f voluntary firemen  Number o f full-time firemen  50 50 50 50  60.0 88.5  65.0 98.0  50.0 50.0  66 50 51 50 50 50 50 87 50 51. 50 50 53  75.2  68.4  50.0  58.0 64.6 57.5  56.0 65.0 62.8  60.0 50.0 50.0  58.6 54.0 53.2 61.4 65.2  63.2 58.8 53.0 58.0 66.0  50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0  50 50 57 53 51 56 60 55 50 50 62 50 52. 50 70 66 50  52.4  53.8 57.1  50.0 50.0  54.8 53.6 54.4 54.4 56.0 55.6  55.2 58.3 56.3 56.6 57.0 62.6 56.3  57.5 50.0 50.0 77.4 50.0 50.0 50.0  53.0 57.4 56.2 53.5 51.3  55.7 61.6 56.0 56.8 56.0  50.0 50.0 50.0. 50.0 62.5  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd F o r t S t . James Lake Couiichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Warfield Class  Waterpumping capacity  (continued)  Telkiva Tofino Ucluelet Zeballos Class  Annual fire inspections  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand f o r k s Hope Kinnaird Ladysmith Langley Nerritt Mission City Revelstoke Rossland  269 TABLE X I X ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  Annual fire i n spections  Waterpumping capacity  Number o f voluntary firemen  Number o f full-time firemen  C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake Class  54.9 56.6  57.7 60.0  50.0 50.0  84 69 51 68 50 68 51 51 56  55.4 52.9 51.9 51.3 53.8 52.0 50.6 50.9 52.5  53.1 52.8 53.0 54.9 55.7 52.6 52.6  50.0 77.5 50.0 75.0 50.0 65.0 50.0  52.8  52.5  73 60 59 52. 56 71 55  50.4 50.4 52.9 51.1 51!o 50.7 52.5  52.7 52.3 51.8 — 51.4 51.3 52.3  70.0 75.0 70.0 — 70.0 65.0 72.5  50.6 50.8 50.0 51.0 50.4  51.0 50.0 50.0 51.0 50.0  75.0 95.0 77.5 62.5 90.0  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Quesnel Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Woody W h i t e Rock ^ Class  50 53  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Penticton Port A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  70 80 77 59 100  270 TABLE XX A P P L I C A T I O N OF FACTORS TO INTENSITY VALUES FOR A L L INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  Annual fire i n spections  Waterpumping capacity  Number o f voluntary firemen  Number o f full-time firemen  One  Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Fruitvale Gibsons Landing Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos Lumby Lytton McBride Marysville Masset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparwood Stewart Taylor  27.5 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 29.0 25.0 25.0 25.5 25.5 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 32.5 25.0 25.0 32.0 25.0 30.5 25.0 28.0 26.5 25.0 25.0 25.0 26.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.5 25.0.  100.0 60.2 57.0 65.2  105.0 102.0 105.0 90.0  150.0 "232.0 210.0 150.0  53.6  112.5 112.5  150.0 150.0  63.6 53.6 80.5  105.0 112.5 137.6  150.0 150.0 150.0  53.6 56.0 84.2  93.0 108.B 116.3  15D.0 150.0 300.0  ...  -—  ... «  *• mm  «B  65.2  105.0  150.0  81.3  104.7  150.0  67.0  96.2  150.0  -—  ...  ...  ...  mw*»*m> mm  m»mm  —— .. .. .. .. — ..  . . . . .  66.8  ... ...  ... ... t» am mm ...  150.0  150.0  93.0  300.0  ...  ...  ...  ...  271 TABLE XX  Incorporated Areas  Class  Number o f voluntary firemen  60.0 B8.5  97/5 141.0  150.0 150.0  33.0 25.0 25.5 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 43.5 25.0 25.5 25.0 25.0 26.5  75.0  102.6  150.0  58.0 64.6 57.5  84.0 97.5 94.3  180.0 150.0 150.0  58.7 54.0 53.2 61.4 65.2  94.8 88.2 79.5 87.0 99.0  150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0  25.0 25.0 28.5 26.5 26.5 28.0 30.0 26.5 25.0 25.0 31.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 35.0 33.0 25.0 25.0  52.4  80.7 85.7  150.0 150.0  54.8  82.8 87.5 84.5 84.9 86.1 93.9 84.6  172.5 150.0 150.0 232.5 150.0 150.0 150.0  53.0 56.2 56.2 53.5 51.3  83.6 92.4 84.0 85.2 84.0  150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 187.0  54.9  86.6  150.0  Number o f full-time firemen  25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0  Tmo  Armstrong Chetuiynd F o r t S t . James Lake Couiichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Warfield Class  Waterpumping capacity  One,(continued)  Telkwa Tofino Ucluelet Zeballos Class  Annual fire inspections  (continued)  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s Hope Kinnaird Ladysmith Langley (tlerritt mission City Revelstoke Rossland Smithers  53.6 54.4 54.0 56.0 55.6 •B  M  «M  272 TABLE XX ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  Annual . fire i n spections  Water- ' pumping capacity  Number o f voluntary firemen  Number o f full-time firemen  26.5  58.6  90.0  150.0  42.0 34.5 25.5 34.0 34.0 25.5 25.5 25.0 28.0  55.4 52.9 51.9 51.3 52.0 50.6 50.9 53.8 52.5  79.6 79.2 79.5 82.4 78.9 78.9  150.0 232.5 150.0 225.0 195.0 150.0  83.6 79.2  150.0 157.0  C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) W i l l i a m s Lake Class  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Moody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  - T -  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Penticton Port A l b e r n i P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon  36.5 30.0 29.5 26.0 28.0 35.5 27.5  50.4 50.4 52.9 51.1 51.0 50.7 52.5  79.1 78.5 77.7  210.0 225.0 2t0?00  77.1 77.0 78.5  210.0 195.0 217.0  35.0 40.0 38.5 29.5 50.0  50.6 50.8 50.0 51.0 50.4  76.5 75.0 75.0 76.5 75.0  225.0 285.0 232.5 187.5 270.0  Class Six Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  TABLE X X I I ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Percentage of streets paved  Factor  Length o f paved s t r . /1000 p e r sons i n miles  Factor  C l a s s One • Abbotsford A l e r t Bay Aennofield Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Fruitvale Gibsons Landing Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton . Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos Lumby Lytton McBride Marrysville Masset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Princeton Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton  100 39 0 74 19 £94 0 6 19 80 40 54 100 0 32 45 21 E53 66 13 10 0 0 9 18 42 15 0 0 100 78 46 59 75  100 68.5 50.0 rB6.0 58.5 97.5 50.0 53.0 58.5 89.5 69.0 76.0 100.0 50.0 65.0 71.5 59.9 75.5 93.5 55.5 54.0 50.0 50.0 53.5 58.0 70.0 56.5 50.0 50.0 100.0 87.5 72.0 78.5 86.5  4.3 3.5 0 4.9 2.5 5.0 0 0.4 1.3 6.5 4.0 3.2 1.5 0 4.0 6.3 3.6 3.3 6.9 1.7 0.8 0 0 0.9 o;e 11.0 0.6 0 0 4.5 15.0 3.8 11.5 9.2  63.3 62.1 50.0 66.5 60.0 67.2 50.0 50.1 53.0 72.4 63.6 59.8 53.6 50.0 63.0 70.8 62.3 60.2 73.6 55.5 52.0 50.0 50.0 52.3 52.0 87.7 52.0 50.0 50.0 65.0 100.0 62.0 88.0 80.0  274 TABLE X X I I  Incorporated Areas  Percentage of s t r e e t s paved  (continued)  Factor  Length o f paved s t r . /1000 persons i n miles  Factor  C l a s s One  (continued)  Slocan Sparwood Stewart Taylor Telkwa Tofino Valemount Zeballos  42 100 0 0 0 18 0 0  51.0 100.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 58.0 50.0 50.0  1.9 2.6 0 0 0 0.7 0 0  74 0 74 0 84 20 76 69 47 100 30 74 24 50  86.0 50.0 86.0 50.0 92.5 59.0 87.0 83.5 72.5 100.0 64.0 86.0 61.0 74.0  10.4 0 4.9 0 4.1 1.0 5.4 4.0 4.2 4.5 3.7 7.4 1.8 2.5  85.0 50.0 67.0 50.0 63.0 53.0 67.0 63.0 64.0 65.0 62.0 75.0 55.0 58.0  78 21 66 93 80 84 63 12 35 65 54  87.5 59.5 82.0 97.0 89.5 92.5 80.5 55.0 66.5 81.5 76.5  3.9 1.8 4.3 5.9 6.5 3.6 4.9 1.2 5.3 3.7 2.5  63.0 55.0 64.0 70.0 72.0 62.0 66.0 54.0 67.0 62.0 58.0  Class  Class  \  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd Cumberland F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Ularfield  56.0 59.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 52.0 50.0 i 50.0  Three  Alberni Castlegar Courtnay Comox Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s Hope Kinnaird  TABLE X X I I  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Three  Percentage of streets paved  (continued)  Factor  Length o f paved s t r . /1000 p e r sons i n • miles  Factor  (continued)  Langley Merritt Mission City Revelstoke Rossland Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake  71 27 98 94 43 11 30  84.5 62.5 99.5 97.5 65.5 54.5 64.0  5.3 2.6 7.7 3.6 3.6 1.0 3.3  67.0 58.0 75.0 62.0 62.0 53.0 61.0  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Moody Quesnel W h i t e Rock  84 52 19 61 43 63 79 54 92  92.5 75.0 58.5 79.5 70.5 80.5 89.5 76.0 96.5  3.6 3.1 1.4 3.0 2.6 4.9 3.0 3.2 5.3  62.0 61.0 54.0 60.0 58.0 66.0 60.0 61.0 67.0  Class  . 23 74 46 53 66 36 69 75 68  60.0 86.0 72.0 75.5 82.0 67.0 83.5 86.5 87.0  1.3 2.5 3.2 2.4 5.2 2.7 1.8 3.2 3.1  55.0 58.0 61.0 58.0 67.0 59.0 56.0 61.0 61.0  70 89 62 50 100  84.0 95.5 80.0 75.0 100.0  2.5 3.2 2.1 2.0 2.7  58.0 61.0 57.0 57.0 59.0  Class  Four  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna North Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  276 TABLE XXIV STREET CLEANING CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  Number o f l i n e a l feet swept/week/ 1000 p e r s o n s  F actor  One  A l e r t Bay Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Greenwood Kaslo Lytton fflasset New D e n v e r Slocan Telkwa Valemount Class  Number o f lineal feet swept/week  0 2,640 528 0 1,200 200 1,980 5,280 0 0 0 500 1,000  0 2 1 0 1 1 2 12 0 0 0 1 1  50 52 51 50 51 50 52 62 50 50 50 51 51  9.200 0 4,300 0 6,000 9,600 1,320 7.920 23,000 1.200 1,860  7 0 4 0 3 8 1 4 14 1 1  57 50 54 50 53 58 51 54 64 51 51  2,640 40,000 48,000 500 6,125  1 10 12 1 2  51 60 62 51 52  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd Ashcroft Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof C l a s s Three Comox Courtnay Duncan Golden Hope  277 TABLE X X I V  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Three  Number o f l i n e a l feet swept/week  Factor  5,260 20,000 50,000 . 55,000 95,000 41,000  2 8 14 13 22 14  285,000 3,500 16,700 105,000 42,000 35,000 52,000  38 1 3 26 5 6 7  88 51 53 76 55 56 57  115,000 211,000 320,000 11,500 114,000 264,000 565,000  9 19 23 1 10 24 411  59 69 73 51 60 74 91  26 44 30 3 50  76 94 80 53 100  | /  52 58 64 63 72 64  Four  Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  Number o f l i n e a l feet suiept/iueek/ 1000 p e r s o n s  (continued)  Ladysmith Langley Mission City Revelstoke Rossland W i l l i a m s Lake Class  (continued)  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni Trail Vernon Kelowna Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  369,000 1,620,000 825,000 53,000 2,885,000  TABLE X X V I SEWER CHARACTERISTICS FOR A L L INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S I N THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Number o f l i n e a l feet of seiner m a i n s p e r 1000 p e r s o n s  Factor  C l a s s One Abbotsford Aennofield A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Fruitvale Gibsons Landing H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Greenwood Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos Lumby Lytton McBride Masset Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Qualicum Beach Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparwood Stewart Taylor Telkwa Tofino  6.2 0 1.1 1.5 5.7 3.3 1.0 3.0 5.3 1.1 2.9 1.1 0.5 0 0.3 0 0 2.4 4.7 3.8 3.0 0 0 3.2 0.5 3.6 1.1 0.3 0 0 0 2.3 5.1 0 0 0.5  81.0 50.0 56.5 57.5 78.5 66.0 55.0 65.0 76.5 55.5 64.5 55.5 52.5 50.0 51.0 50.0 50.0 62.0 73.5 69.0 65.0 50.0 50.0 66.0 52.5 68.0 55.5 51.5 50.0 50.0 50.0 61.5 75.5 50.0 50.0 52.5  279 TABLE X X V I ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  Number o f lineal feet of sewer maina p e r 1000 p e r s o n s  Factor  C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) W i l l i a m s Lake Class  3.5  67.5  8.1 3.7 4.0 5.2 5.0 6.8 3.1 3.3 7.5  89.5 68.5 70.0 76.0 75.0 83.0 65.5 66.5 86.0  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Uloody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class Five Damson C r e e k Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon North Kamloops  \ 3.8 5.2 4.5 3.5 3.8 3.5 5.1 4.4  69.0 75.5 72.5 67.5 69.0 67.5 75.5 72.0  4.1 5.3 3.0 3.5 3.0  70.5 76,5 65.0 67.5 65.0  Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  280 TABLE X X V I  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s One  Factor  0 0 0  50.0 50.0 50.0  3.2 5.3 0 2.0 3.7 0.9 3.7 8.9 6.3 5.4 5.1 2.8 5.0  66.0 76.5 50.0 60.0 68.5 54.5 68.5 93.5 81.5 77.0 75.5 64.0 75.0  3.8 4.5 6.0 10.0 8.7 7.3 6.8 3.3 6.4 1.8 3.8 4.6 5.6 2.7 5.9 2.5 4.2 5.0  69.0 72.5 BO.O 100.0 92.5 85.5 83.0 66.5 82.0 59.0 69.0 73.0 78.0 63.5 79.5 62.5 71.0 75.0  Two  Chetwynd Cumberland F o r t S t . James' Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver , ' Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Uiarfield Class  Number o f l i n e a l feet of sewer mains p e r 1000 persons  (continued)  Ucluelet Valemount Zeballos Class  (continued)  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s Hope Kinnaird Ladysmith Langley Nerritt Mission City Revelstoke Rossland  Smither8  TABLE X X X I GARBAGE COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS FOR A L L INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  Factor  One  Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Greenwood Kaslo Lytton Masset New D e n v e r Slocan Telkwa Class  Number o f collections p e r week  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3  50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 60.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 70.0  1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2  50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 60.0 60.0 50.0 60.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 60.0  2 1 3 2 1 1 1  60.0 50.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 50.0 50.0  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Warfield C l a s s Three Castlegar Comox Creston Duncan Golden Hope Ladysmith  282 TABLE X X X I  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Three  Number o f collections p e r meek  <  3 1 3 1 3  70.0 50.0 70.0 50.0 70.0  2 3 6 3 1 1 4 1  60.0 70.0 50.0 100.0 70.0 50.0 50.0 80.0 50.0  1 6 3 1 3 4  50.0 100.0 70.0 50.0 70.0 80.0  3 6 6 3 6  70.0 100.0 100.0 70.0 100.0  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley . Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Woody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  Factor  (continued)  Langley Merritt Mission City Rossland W i l l i a m s Lake Class  (continued)  1  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Vernon  —  Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  283  TABLE XXXIV SELECTED RECREATION F A C I L I T I E S FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1967  Incorporated Areas  Class  V  Number o f public museums  Number o f public golf courses  Number o f tourist bureaus  One  Abbotsford 0 A l e r t Bay 0 Ashcroft 1 Clinton 1 Enderby 0 Gibsons Landing , 1 Greenwood .0 H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. 0 Hazelton 1 Invermere 0 Kaslo 0 Keremeos 0 Lumby 0 Lytton 0 Masset 0 Nakusp 0 New D e n v e r 0 100 M i l e H o u s e 0 Pemberton 0 P o u c e Coupe 0 Q u a l i c u m Beach , 0 Salmo 0 Sechelt 0 Silverton 0 Slocan 0 Stewart 0 Taylor 0 Telkwa 0 Zeballos 0 Class  Number o f public boat sites  1 0 0 0  1 0 1 1 1 0  1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0  1 0 1  1 0 0  1 0 0  1  1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1  3  1 0 0 0 1 1  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd F o r t S t , James  1 1 0  284 TABLE  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Two  Number o f public / golf courses  Number o f tourist bureaus  1  0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0  2 0 2 2 2 0  1  1  1  1 0 0  1  1 1  0 0 1 0 0 0  2  1  1  1 2 1 1 0 1 0  0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1  1  1  1 1 0 0  Three  Alberni Comox Courtney Creston Duncan Fernie Grand F o r k s Langley Hope Ladysmith Nerritt mission City Rossland Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake Class  Number o f public boat sites  (continued)  Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Class  Number o f public museums  XXXIV(continued)  0 0 1  0 0 0 1 1 1  0 0 0 1  0 0  1  2 1 1  1 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 2  1  0 1 1 1 1  1  1  2 1 1  Four  Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t moody W h i t e Rock Quesnel  1 0 1 1  0 1  0 1  1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3  2 1 1 1 1 0 1 1  1 1  1 2 1  it 1 1  2  285 TABLE X X X I v ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  Class  Number o f Public museums  Number o f public boat sites  Number o f public golf courses  Number o f tourist bureaus  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kelowna N o r t h Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon  1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 8  1 0 3 1 3  3 11  1 1 0 2 0 1 1 1  1  1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 3  Class S i x Nanaimo North Vancouver New W e s t m i n s t e r P r i n c e George Victoria  3 8  1 3 3 1 3  2 2 2 2 4  286 TABLE XXXV RECREATION CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1965  Incorporated Areas  Class  Number o f acres of park/1000 persons  Intensity value  Percentage of total c i t y area under park  Intensity value  2.2 1.2 0 0.4 0.8 2.3 1.1 3.1 2.4 0.8 2.3 0 0 5.5 1.1 1.4 0 1.5 0 1.7 6.1 0.3 0 4.5 2.6 3.0 0 0.2 0 2.7 1.0 1.5 2.2 2.6 0.2 2.2  63.8 57.5 50.0 52.5 55.0 64.4 56.9 69.4 65.0 55.0 64.4 50.0 50.0 84.4 56.9 58.8 50.0 59.4 50.0 60.6 88.1 51.9 50.0 78.1 66.3 68.8 50.0 51.3 50.0 66.9 56.3 59.4 63.8 66.3 51.3 63.8  One  Abbotsford Aennofield A l e r t Bay Ashcroft Burns Lake Chapman Camp Clinton Enderby Fruitvale Gibsons Landing Greenwood H a r r i s o n Hot Sp. Hazelton Houston Invermere Kaslo Keremeos L urn by Lytton McBride Marysville Masset Montrose Nakusp Natal New D e n v e r 100 M i l e House Pemberton P o u c e Coupe Salmo Sechelt Silverton Slocan Sparwood Taylor Telkwa  4.0 8.0 0 8.3 4.2 3.9 2.5 17.7 11.3 3.3 14.7 0 0 28.0 6.7 13.1 0 15.7 0 7.0 20.8 12.7 0 32.0 5.4 14.9 0 3.9 0 11.0 9.2 6.2 13.3 7.3 6.0 2.0  56.3 61.2 50.0 61.3 54.8 54.7 52.4 77.1 66.3 53.5 72.5 50.0 50.0 93.2 60.0 69.2 50.0 73.2 50.0 59.6 81.3 68.4 50.0 100.0 57.1 72.4 50.0 54.4 50.0 66.0 63.3 58.0 69.7 60.0 58.0 51.0  -  287 TABLE XXXV  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s One  Intensity value  1.4 11.0 4.0 4.0  50.2 66.8 54.8 54.8  0.1 1.5 0.5 0.1  50.6 58.8 53.1 50.6  60.0 60.6 75.0 50.0 54.4 70.0 88.8 67.5 78.8 60.6 58.8. 53.1 53.1 54.4  13.3 B.9 9.5 0 2.1 6.7 18.3 8.7 32.0 4.4 5.5 3.2 0.3 1.0  69.2 62.8 , 63.6 50.0 51.8 58.9 77.7 62.1 100.0 55.3 57.2 53.5 50.6 51.1  1.6 1.7 4.0 0 0.7 3.2 6.2 2.8 4.6 1.7 1.4 0.5 0.1 0.7  5.2 2.1 5.1 9.1 2.4 16.2 0.8 0 13.5 24.9 13.7 4.8 10.3 18.9 2.3 8.8  56.4 51.6 56.5 62.8 52.3 75.6 51.0 50.0 70.0 88.2 70.5 56.7 66.4 78.8 51.7 62.5  1.6 1.0 1.2 4.5 0.8 5.2 0.4 0 3.6 3.9 1.4 1.2 4.2 7.7 0.5 3.0  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan F ernie Golden Hope Ladysmith Langley Nerritt Mission City R velstoke Rossland Smithers e  Pencentage of t o t a l c i t y area under park  Two  Armstrong Chetwynd Cumberland F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Parksville Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Warfield Class  Intensity value  (continued)  Tofino Ucluelet Valemount Zeballos Class  Number o f acres of park/1000 persons  (continued)  60.0 56.3 57.7 78.1 55.0 82.5 52.3 50.0 72.5 74.4 58.8 57.8 76.3 100.0 53.1 68.8  288 TABLE XXXV ( c o n t i n u e d )  Incorporated Areas  Number o f acres of park/1000 persons  Intensity value  Percentage of t o t a l c i t y area under park  Intensity value  C l a s s Three ( c o n t i n u e d ) Williams Class  Lake  85.5  5.9  86.9  4.6 2.7 5.6 6.7 3.3 4.6 • 2.7 4.5 5.8  56.1 53.0 57.2 59.4 53.3 56.2 53.1 55.6 58.0  3.8 1.7 1.6 3.7 1.6 1.7 2.6 1.2 1.2  73.8 60.6 60.0 73.1 60.0 60.6 66.3 57.5 57.5  16.5 7.5 19.0 32.0 28.5 8.5 5.1 2.0 5.8  65.6 61.2 78.8 100.0 94.6 61.3 56.4 51.6 58.0  5.2 4.8 5.0 2.7 4.6 3.8 1.6 1.3 3.1  82.5 80.0 81.3 66.9 78.8 73.8 60.0 58.1 69.4  11.4 4.5 4.2 18.4 5.1  66.2 54.9 54.7 77.3 56.4  7.6 3.0 3.7 6.7 6.4  98.4 68.8 73.1 91.9 90.0  Four  Chilliwack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Moody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  23.3  Five  Dawson C r e e k Kamloops Kslowna N o r t h Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon Class S i x Nanaimo New W e s t m i n s t e r North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  289 TABLE XL EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR A L L INCORPORATED V I L L A G E S , TOWNS AND C I T I E S IN THE PROVINCE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1 9 6 5  Incorporated Areas  Students/ teacher  Intensity Value  Students/ classroom  Intensity Value  No. o f grades taught  Intensity Value  72.8  13 11 12 12 5 12 14 9 8 12 8 12 12 7 12 7 7 7 12 7 12 6 6 12 12 7 12 6 12 12 12 8 9 12 8  83.6 75.2 79.4 79.4 50.0 79.4 87.8 66.8 62.6 79.4 62.8 79.4 79.4 58.4 79; 4 58.4 58.4 58.4 79.4 58.4 79.4 54.2 54.2 79.4 79.4 58.4 79.4 54.2 79.4 79.4 79.4 62.6 66.8 79.4 62.6  C l a s s One 26 Abbotsford — A l e r t Bay mm mm Ashcroft 24 Burns Lake — Chapman Camp — Clinton 26 Enderby — F ruitvale Gibsons Landing - - • -Greenwood H a r r i s o n H o t S p .mm mm — Hazelton — Houston •m mm Invermere — Kaslo 25 Keremeos — L urn by — Lytton 21 McBride — Marysville Masset — Montrose New D n v e r — • 100 M i l e House 26 Q u a l i c u m Beach — Salmo 24 Sechelt Silverton 21 Slocan — Sparwood mm mm Stewart — Telkwa 22 Tofino 23 Ucluelet •a mm Zeballos s  66.8  31  __ —  75.2 66.8 mm mm mm  ...  26  91.8  31  72.8  __ __ __  _ ___  --_ __ mm mm  71.0 87.8  30 27  76.6 88.0  28  84.2  __ __  mm mm mm mm  __ _  mm mm  -----  mmmm  __  —_—  66.8  28  84.2  75.2  27  88.0  87.8  ---  24  100.0  ---  __  83.6 79.4  27 27  —-  ...  —  am mm  ___  __ _ __ _  88.0 88.0  ...  290 TABLE XL  Incorporated Areas  Class  Studants/ classroom  Intensity Value  No. o f grades taught  Intensity Value  27  62.6  21  87.8  — --  ---  27 25  62.6 71.0  18  ---  31  72.8  29 24  80.4 100.0  29 31  80.4 72.8  100.0  29  80.4  26 25  66.8 71.0  31 29  72.8 80.4  28 25  58.4 71.0 —-  33 30  __  72.8 76.6  23 25 30  79.4 71.0 50.0  27 30 29  88.0 76.6 80.4  — -—  m»  *m j  ——'  14 10 12 7 13 12 10 13 14 7 12  87.8 71.0 79.4 58.4 83.6 79.4 71.0 83.6 87.8 58.4 79.4  .. Mi  ..  —_  __~  14 13 12 14 14 12 12 12 12 12 7 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12  87.8 83.6 79.4 87.8 87.8 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 58.4 83.6 83.6 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4  13 14 12 14  83.6 87.8 79.4 87.8  Three  Alberni Castlegar Comox Courtnay Creston Duncan Fernie Golden Grand F o r k s Hope Kinnaird Ladysmith Langley Merritt Mission City Revelstoke Rossland Smithers W i l l i a m s Lake Class  StudIntenents/ sity teacher Value  Two  Armstrong Cumberland F o r t S t . James Lake Cowichan Lillooet Oliver Osoyoos Princeton S a l m o n Arm Sidney Vanderhoof Class  (continued)  —  --  — — •  -—-  Mt<  M>  ..  __  ___ ___  23 25 27 26 25  79.4 71.0 62.6 66.8 71.0  29 30 29 30 31  80.4 76.6 80.4 76.6 72.8  26 23  66.8 79.4  29 27  80.4 88.0  26 27  66.8 62.8  31 37  72.8 50.0  25  71.0  30  76.6  —'  ...  __  Four  Chilliiuack Cranbrook F o r t S t . John Kimberley  —  —  __  ...  291 TABLE XL  Incorporated Areas  C l a s s Four  StudIntenents/ sity teacher Value  Students/ classroom  Intensity Value  No. o f I n t e n grades sity taught Value  (continued)  Nelson Port Coquitlam P o r t Woody Quesnel W h i t e Rock Class  (continued)  25 29  71.0 54.2  24  75.2 ———  ——  71.0 62.6 66.8 66.8  31 31 30 30  72.8 72.8 76.5 76.5  ——  31 34  72.8 61.4  31  72.8  ——  -—  16 12 12 13 10  .  96.2 79.4 79.4 83.6 71.0  Five  Dautson C r e e k Kamloops Keloiuna N o r t h Kamloops Penticton Port Alberni P r i n c e Rupert Trail Vernon  25 27 26 26  __  mm mm MM  ___  27 24 26  62.6 75.2 66.8  34 30 33  61.4 76.6 65.2  26 27 27 27 29  66.8 62.6 62.6 62.6 54.2  31 33 32 33 35  72.8 65.2 69.0 65.2 66.2  14 14 15 13 13 12 13 13 13  87.8 87.8 92.0 83.6 83.6 79.4 83.6 83.6 83.6  14 14 13 13 17  87.8 87.8 83.6 83.6 100.0  Class Six Nanaimo New Westminster North Vancouver P r i n c e George Victoria  292  APPENDIX  D  293  a.  F I G U R E  CATANEO:  THE  IDEAL  1  RENAISSANCE  S o u r c e t H e l e n R o s e n a u . The I d e a l C i t y , a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 5 9 , p. 4 9 .  CITY  London! Routledge  294  F I G U R E  VITRUVIUS:  S o u r c e : Helen Rosenau.  THE  IDEAL  The I d e a l C i t y .  and K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 5 9 , p . 5 9 .  2  BAROQUE  CITY  London: Routledge  295  F  V I C T O R I A :  IG U R  J . S . U T O P I A N  A. B. C D. E. F.  IOOO HOUSES 20 FEET WIDE ARCADE FOR WORKSHOPS 560 HOUSES 28 FEET WIDE RETAIL • SHOPS 296 HOUSES 38 FEET WIDE WINTER PROMENADE ARCADE  S o u r c e ! J.S. Buckingham. London! 1949.  B  3  C K I N G H A M ' S C I T Y  (V. H. J. K. L  P L A N  120 HOUSES 54 FEET WIDE SCHOOLS, BATHS, DINING HALLS PUBLIC BUILDINGS, CHURCHES 24 MANSIONS 89 FEET WIDE CENTRAL SQUARE.  N a t i o n a l E v i l s and P r a c t i c a l  Remedies.  296  F I G U R E  WELWYN:  A  4  GARDEN  CITY  Source« C.B. P u r d o m . The B u i l d i n g o f S a t e l l i t e Towns. L o n d o n : J . N . D e n t a n d S o n s L t d . , 1 9 2 5 , p. 2 0 6 .  FIGURE  INCORPORATED OF  AREAS  BRITISH  297  5  IN  THE  PROVINCE  COLUMBIA  „ ipo  Scale M.  •  •  2000  5000  0  5000  15000  O  15000 or more  SIZE  M A P I  2000 er less  OF  CITY  200  298  APPENDIX  E  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Form  299 Caw.ftmvity a n d Regional P l a n n i n g Depart^ o f G r a d u a t e Studies,.. Univarsity o f B r i t i s h Columbia* 'iJm'm&uwBi' S„ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a • M a r c h 1 0 * 196? „  Dear Sir,,  •  I am p r e s e n t l y in  u n d e r t a k i n g my M a s t e r o f A r t s  Community and.'Regional P l a n n i n g  thesis  Degree  The purpose o f my  c  i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p battue s-fi; the s i z e  arid l e v e l  of o p e r a t i o n ttf a m u n i c i p a l i t y  One s o u r c e o f  information that  i s nssded  •from o u r l i b r a r y  f a c i l i t i e s , , r e g a r d s s a n i t a t i o n and waste  removal a c t i v i t i e s , . 'in  the T h e s i s are:;.  P  and which  a  i s not available  Two q u e s t i o n s t h a t have b e e n "Hoat o f t e n  i s garbage  hosa e f t e n a r e t h e major s t r e e t s o f the  raised  collected* and  municipality  cleaned?" I taould sins©rely appre-slsfce i t i f y c u mould anstaer these two q u e s t i o n s by c o m p l e t i n g the' e«elaserJ f o r m  0  For  y o u r convenience,, a s e l f ^addressed sheet has b e e n encic3'sad„ D«ee t h e q u e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n answered» a l l t h a t uired  is't o fold  the s h e e t t h r e e -times and t h a n s t a p l e  Thank you f o r y o u r .co-operation.  •. '  i s req-  v  'Yours. S i n c e r e l y  ft  ii*  p  300  Sample  reply  QUESTIONNAIRE  Wow  often  I s p r i v a t e garbage c o l l e c t e d  the  i n d i v i d u a l residences?  0  o9??  e 0  from  »e c,a usee??,,  O t h e r earn merits i f a p p l i c a b l e : While week, extra three  P r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s a r e c o l l e c t e d o n l y once a s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i s made i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t i t e m s when c o l l e c t i o n i s made t o t h e b u s i n e s s e s t i m e s a week.  How o f t e n  e r e the s t r e e t s c l e a n e d and/or  i n y o u r m u n i c i p a l i t y ? ©„ o o «> o © o ? c  If possible  B  streets that  a  uc  week  washed  0  what i s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l e n g t h are cleansd  o f /"'  v'Vy\  and/or. washed i n y o u r  municipalityotoolsto»o  Other'comments  i f applicable:.  S t r e e t s a r e w a s h e d down b y t h e V o l u n t e e r F i r e D e p a r t m e n t i n t h e s p r i n g j u s t as s o o n as most o f t h e w i n t e r s l u s h . has d i s a p p e a r e d . They a r e a g a i n wahsed i n t h e f a l l t o b e r i d o f t h e muck b e f o r e t h e snow f a l l s .  V i l l a g e of Telkwa, T e l k w a , B. C.  THANK  YOU  

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