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The role and training of professional and volunteer adult educators in Czechoslovakia Kulich, Jindra Milos 1966

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SHE ROLE AND TRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL AMD VOLUNTEER ADULT EDUCATORS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA by JINDRA MILOS KULICH B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IH PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1966 In p resen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, J agree, that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that pe r -m iss ion f o r ex tens i ve copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted, by the Head of my Department or by", h i s rep resen ta t i ves . , It i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . TflBtffiflfflmsnftnBCfo TPacnlty of FHiieatlQii The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e August g8 r 1Q66 I ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study vas to examine the available material on the organization and management of the standard system of t r a i n i n g of adult educators i n Czechoslovakia and to report on the form and content of t h i s system. Czechoslovakia has a r i c h heritage i n adult education which dates back into the nineteenth century. At the beginning of the study t h i s h i s t o r i c a l development since the middle of the nine-teenth century and up to the Second World War i s sketched as a background while developments since I9U5 are treated i n greater d e t a i l s . Throughout the h i s t o r i c a l development of adult education i n Czechoslovakia the r o l e of the adult educator has changed with the changing p o l i t i c a l system. Undoubtedly the most s t r i k i n g change i n r o l e vas brought about by the Communist take-over.in 1948. The r o l e of the adult educator i n a communist state, the expecta-t i o n of the Communist Party, of the society at large and h i s self-image are examined as a background to the t r a i n i n g required as a preparation f o r t h i s r o l e . Czechoslovakia i s unique i n that -since, 1962 i t has a national standard system of t r a i n i n g of f u l l - t i m e and volunteer adult educators. The f u l l - t i m e adult educators, *ho i n Czechoslovakia are thought of as professionals, are trained both at the u n i v e r s i t y and at the secondary technical l e v e l . Three univer-s i t i e s have f u l l departments of adult education while the three II secondary l i b r a r i a n s h i p schools also have such departments. Full-time as w e l l as extramural programs are offered by these i n s t i t u t i o n s . The program of studies includes both general education and specialized courses l n adult education and related f i e l d s . Qualifications f o r f u l l - t i m e adult education positions are prescribed by the central planning a u t h o r i t i e s , but several surveys have shown that the actual q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the adult educators employed i n the f i e l d are w e l l below the required standard and very few adult educators who are underqualified are studying to complete t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A general evaluation of the t r a i n i n g of f u l l - t i m e adult educators under the Standard System seems to indicate that the u n i v e r s i t y programs are w e l l established, and functioning according t o plan. The programs i n secondary l i b r a r i a n s h i p schools, on the other hand, were found wanting. Volunteers are trained under the Standard System i n the Basic Adult Education Course which has heen established i n a l l d i s t r i c t s by 1964. The Course i s designed to equip the volunteers with a basic minimum of p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as specialized knowledge and s k i l l s . Advanced courses f o r volunteers were established on an experimental basis. The preparation of young i n t e l l e c t u a l s to serve as volunteers also vas emphasized by the Standard System. Unlike the professional t r a i n i n g , the t r a i n i n g of volunteers has not yet developed i n depth and w i l l require further development and evaluation to f u l f i l l i t s task. Research and theory are necessary foundation of proper t r a i n i n g . The development of research i n and theory of adult education i n Czechoslovakia suffered a serious setback during the period 1950-1956 when research, and especially sociology, were regarded as dangerous. Since approximately 1958 interest i n theory returned to the f i e l d and i n the early I960's sociological and psychological research were rehabilitated. Recent developments indicate increasing professionalizatlon of the f i e l d . Czechoslovakia i s unique i n that i t has the f i r s t national standard system of training of adult educators. I t Is also unique i n that i t has long-range planning at a l l levels for the staffing and the training f a c i l i t i e s required to prepare sufficient numbers of adult educators to f i l l the need. The r i g i d i t y of the system and of the plans is the main draw-back. Western adult educators should study carefully the Czechoslovak experience to consider these aspects which might be applicable. Their colleagues In Czechoslovakia, on the other hand, would do v e i l to draw on the extensive experience and s k i l l of American adult educators i n social research. On the whole, adult educators In a l l countries should be aware of the work of their colleagues elsewhere and thereby advance adult education on a world-wide scale. I V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. U3TRODUCTIOH....... 1 Purpose D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Limitation of the Study Sources of Data Review o f Literature I I . ADULT EDUCATION IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA................ Ik The Origins The Inier-war Period (1918-1939) Second World War Period (1939-1945) Post-war Reconstruction (1945-1948) The Period of Dogmatic Communism (1948-1956) The Thaw (1956-1959) Recent Emancipation Trends (1960-1965) Present Organization of Czechoslovak Adult Education I I I . THE ADULT EDUCATOR IN A COMMUNIST STATE 31 The Adult Educator as Seen by the Communist Party The Adult Educator as Seen by the Society The Adult Educator Looks at Himself Problems of the Role and Characteristics I n s t i t u t i o n a l Role D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Training f o r the Role IV. THE TRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL ADULT EDUCATORS.... •.,»'.•.*•.•.>• ; ; . v . - * . - *5. Professional Training Before the Standard System of Training The Standard Training System of Adult Educators The I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education and Journalism V Chapter Page Professional Courses Offered by the I n s t i t u t e Adult Education Training at Other Uni v e r s i t i e s Adult Education Training at the Secondary Level In-service Training of Professional Adult Educators Qualifications of Professional Adult Educators Problems of Professional Training Evaluation of the Training System for Professionals Long-range Planning V. THE TEAMING OF VOLUNTARY ADULT EDUCATORS.. b% The Volunteers and Their Training Heeds Training of Volunteers Before the Standard System The Standard Training System The Basic M u l t Education Course Advanced Course f o r Volunteers Preparation of Young I n t e l l e c t u a l s Evaluation of the Training System for Volunteers VI. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND RESEARCH IH ADULT EDUCATION 101 Adult Education Theory and Research In Czechoslovakia Theoretical Literature Psychological Literature Soc i o l o g i c a l Literature Current Trends V I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS..... .........121 Summary Professional Training Volunteer Training Research and Theory Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY 136 VI LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Nomenclature of Professional Adult Education Positions with Job D e s c r i p t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uo 2. Program of Studies of the Department of Mult Education, Institute of Mult Education and Journalism, Full-time Program. 52 3. Program of Studies of the Department of Mult Education, Institute of Mult Education and Journalism, Extra-mural Program.. 56 h. Content Balance of the Program of Studies of the Department of Mult Education, Institute of Mult Education and Journalism, Compulsory Courses 59 5» Comparison of the Full-time and the Extra-mural Program of the Department of Mult Education, Institute of M u l t Education and Journal i sm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 l 6. Nomenclature of Professional Mult Education Positions with Qualifications Required 72 7. Qualifications of Inspectors of Mult Education in Bohemia and Moravia in March, 1 9 6 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7*+ 8. Qualifications of Directors of Mult Education Centres in Bohemia and Moravia in April, 1963..... 75 9. Qualifications of Professional Mult Educators, Regions of Bohemia in 1963 . 76 10. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Board Chairmen of Village Mult Educ-ation Centres, Central Bohemia Region, 196U 86 VII Table Page 11. Training Background of Board Chairmen of V i l l a g e Adult Education Centres Central Bohemia Region, 1 9 5 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 12. Survey of Attitudes Toward Adult Education of 73 Board Chairmen of V i l l a g e Adult Education Centres, Central Bohemia Region, 1964. 89 13. Basic Adult Education Course, Program of Studies 95 The author wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. Coolie Verner for his guidance i n the preparation of this study. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Well developed adult education i n any country depends large-l y on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of properly trained professional and volunt-eer adult educators. To provide adequate t r a i n i n g a body of know-ledges about adult education substantiated by research must be a v a i l -able. Paradoxically, i n order t o increase the q u a l i t y and quantity of research the number of professional adult educators must be increased. Professionalizatibn and research are thus two insepar-able pre-requisites of w e l l developed, e f f i c i e n t , and progressive adult education. The question of the t r a i n i n g of adult educators i s c r u c i a l t o further development of the f i e l d and i s the subject of i n t e r -est and experimentation i n many countries. The recent developments i n Czechoslovakia o f f e r an opportunity to study an attempt at a comprehensive national system of t r a i n i n g of adult educators at a l l l e v e l s f o r Czechoslovakia i s i n an unique p o s i t i o n i n that since March 1962 i t has had a standard system of t r a i n i n g of adult educ-ators on a national basis. lite organization of adult education i s also standardized under the adult education l e g i s l a t i o n of 1959 which divides adult education into three systems: the out-of-school system, the public school system, and the factory system. Each of these systems operates independently from the others. The standard system of t r a i n i n g , however, applies only t o adult educators active at a l l l e v e l s i n the out-of-school system. 2 Purpose The purpose of t h i s study i s to examine the available mater-i a l on the organization and management of the standard system of t r a i n i n g of adult educators i n Czechoslovakia and to report on the form and content of t h i s system. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The Czech term osvetova grace, as i t i s now used, does not cover the t o t a l f i e l d of adult education as that term l i s under-stood i n North American usage. 1 The Czech term excludes educat-i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r adults hut administered by the public schools and the f a c t o r i e s . On the other hand, i t includes what Verner refer s to as "learning i n the natural s o c i e t a l setting"? as w e l l as some a c t i v i t i e s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r children and youth. Inasmuch as i t was possible i n t h i s study to segregate a c t i v i t i e s designed i f or children and youth, as w e l l as broad c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the natural s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g , from adult education a c t i v i t i e s , the term adult education w i l l be used f o r the Czech term osvetova prace. The reader, however, has to bear i n mind that i n the context of t h i s study t h i s term covers only the out-of-school area of the t o t a l f i e l d * The term adult educator presented s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s as the Czech term osvetovy pracovnik includes also general c u l t u r a l "hsee Coolie Verner, Adult Education Theory and Method? A Concept- u a l Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes  f o r Adult Education, Chicago: Adult Education Association, 1962, p. 2. v 2 C o o l i e Verner, Adult Education, Washington: The Center f o r Applied Research i n Education, Inc., 1964, p. 1. 3 workers. The distinction, however, has been maintained and the term w i l l be used consistent with North American usage. The translation of terminology presented a challenge. On the whole, a l i t e r a l translation of terminology has been avoided i n favour of transcribing the original term into the equivalent term i n North American usage, whenever an equivalent term did not exist i n English or i t s use would have been misleading, an ex-planation has been provided i n a footnote. A study of a foreign system of adult education requires great care and presumes a reasonable understanding of both the general cultural setting and the adult education system of both countries in order to present an account which would be as accurate as possible and which would be understood i n the terms of reference and experience of the reader. Every care has been taken i n this study to heed this necessity. Limitation of the Study This study i s concerned only with that area of Czechoslovak adult education which i s covered by the out-of-school system of adult education. It does not examine the training of adult educat-ors who are active i n the public school and the factory systems of adult education. This limitation i s consistent with the present standard system of training of cultural workers and adult educat-ors i n Czechoslovakia. Sources of Data There is a scarcity of material published i n English about k adult education i n Czechoslovakia i n general and on the t r a i n i n g of adult educators i n p a r t i c u l a r . The basic sources of inform-ation used i n t h i s study were obtained d i r e c t l y from Czechoslovakia i n the o r i g i n a l Czech and Slovak languages, and were mainly i n the form of periodicals and mimeographed materials which are not gen-e r a l l y available Outside of Czechoslovakia, The main sources of information were the two national periodicals concerned with adult education, the f o r t n i g h t l y Osvetova Brace, an o f f i c i a l organ of the M i n i s t r y of Education and Culture, and Osvetovy  Sbornik, a t h e o r e t i c a l journal published bi-annually from 1958 to 1964 and quarterly since 196k, by the In s t i t u t e of Adult Education i n B r a t i s l a v a . Much information on the t r a i n i n g of adult educators was gained from mimeographed materials published by the I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education i n Prague and the In s t i t u t e of Adult Education i n B r a t i s l a v a . A l i m i t e d number of Czech and Slovak books pub-l i s h e d on the subject were also used t o obtain information. Review of the Literature A search of the l i t e r a t u r e , both i n adult education and i n re l a t e d f i e l d s , published since 1900 revealed only a handful of studies i n English on adult education i n Czechoslovakia. This i s almost evenly divided between the inter-war period from 1918 to 1939» and the post-war period after 19%. The e a r l i e s t source,3 dated 1920, by an anonymous w r i t e r , gives an h i s t o r i c a l account of the development of Czech adult 3"Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia, w B u l l e t i n of the World Association f o r Adult Education, VI, (November, 1920)> pp. 3-8. 5 education since the national awakening i n the nineteenth century. It describes the organizing stages from 1890 to 1910 and the state of adult education i n 1910, as well as the changes brought about by legislation passed i n 1919 related to adult education. The most comprehensive account of the inter-war period i s also by an anonymous writer and was published i n an international handbook, published i n 1929 by the World Association for Adult Education.** This a r t i c l e includes an h i s t o r i c a l review and dis-cusses the organization of adult education i n the new republic, including such questions as financial support, the role of pub-l i c l i b r a r i e s , soldier's education, the work of the Masaryk Institute for Adult Education and other organizations, and adult education a c t i v i t i e s of the ethnic minorities. The contributions by the Czechoslovak delegates to the World Conference on Adult Education held i n 1929 i n Cambridge which are included i n the published Proceedings^ offer an insight into the rationale of adult education i n the country. Among these, Velimsky^ presented the national report on Czechoslovakia i n which he pointed out the importance of the Masaryk Institute for Adult Education which served at that time, among i t s other functions, as a co-ord-inating body i n which the adult education associations of the five ethnic groups found a common ground* He suggested that nat-ional institutes of a similar nature would be of benefit to adult 4"Czechoslovakia," i n International Handbook of Adult Education, London: WOrld Association for Adult Education, 1929> pp. 46-68. 5world Conference on Adult Education, Cambridge, 1929, Proceed- ings, London: World Association for Adult Education, 1930, 556 p. *%. Velimsky, "National Reports: Czechoslovakia," Ibid., pp. 101-104. 6 education i n other countries. Hokes? described programs for women in areas of p o l i t i c a l , intellectual and creativity development. He stressed that adult education should aim to make women independ-ent p o l i t i c a l l y , intellectually and sp i r i t u a l l y and that i t should help them to take part f u l l y i n social l i f e and public a f f a i r s . Horejsi® b r i e f l y outlined adult education legislation and i l l u s t -rated hbw.;it benefited adult education a c t i v i t i e s , Rambousek? traced the origins of the involvement of Czech libr a r i e s i n adult education and indicated that the rapid development of an extensive net of public l i b r a r i e s following the F i r s t World War was due to the state support provided i n the 1919 public li b r a r y legislation. Patzak 1 0 reviewed the potentialities of broadcasting as well as the problems of retaining close contact with the learner, and the need for new techniques. He stressed the need for contin-uous co-operation between the theoretical and the practical workers in broadcasting and pointed out that special attention must be given to the needs of the agricultural and the industrial worker in programing. Macek^1" spoke about Czechoslovak experiences i n providing adult education for industrial workers. He stressed the need for sociological research as a basis for good programing and indicated that adult education for workers must he based on the group and on democratic leadership which requires better trained teachers and leaders. He also reported how Czechoslovakia had l a i d the foundations for such training. 7 E .S. Hokes, Ibid., pp. 222-226. 8 J . Horejsi, Ibid., pp. 243-244. 9st. Hambousek, Ibid.. pp. 267-273. lOyaclav Patzak, Ibid., pp. 297-303. 1 1 Josef Macek, Ibi&i, pp. 410-414. 7 Roueek,1 2 i n 1932, presented a descriptive survey of the developments and achievements from the foundation of the Czecho-slovak Republic i n 1918. In a later a r t i c l e , published i n 1936,13 he traced the origins of the cultural and p o l i t i c a l nationalism In Czech adult education and sketched the necessary reorientation after 1918 when independence had been achieved and citizenship education became of utmost importance to the young state. A survey of rural adult education was presented i n 1938 by I*okes^ who provides a sociological sketch of the rural popu-lation i n Czechoslovakia and then describes rural education at the elementary public school l e v e l , adult education a c t i v i t i e s of voluntary associations, continuation Schools, health and recreation a c t i v i t i e s for rural youth and adults, and agricult-ural extension operated by the Ministry of Agriculture. The l a s t account before the German occupation i n 1939 was presented by Hokes.1^ After the usual h i s t o r i c a l background he ties together social legislation and i t s implications to the f i e l d of adult education, including the growing acceptance of new ^Joseph S. Roucek, "The Progress of Adult Education i n Czech-oslovakia," Bchool and Society, vol. 35, (Januarys, 1932), pp. 19-21. ^Joseph S. Roucek, "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," School  and Society, vol. 43, (January 25, 1936), pp. 125-127. •^Antonin Prokes, "Czechoslovakia," i n Educational Yearbook of  the International Institute of Teachers College, Columbia University, 193j8» ed. by I. L. Kandel, New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938, pp. 119-144. Articles and reports on education i n Czechoslovakia appeared also In title year-books for 1924, 1930, 1932, 1935 aad 1936, but adult education was mentioned only i n passing, i f at a l l . ^ E . S. Hokes, "Czechoslovakia Educated her People," Journal of  Adult Education, vol. 11, (April, 1939), PP. 123-128, 8 methods and techniques leading from passive t o active p a r t i c i -pation, experimentation with informal discussion groups and study groups. He stressed the importance of a balance between physical and i n t e l l e c t u a l education which he claims was w e l l maintained l n Czechoslovak adult education. The f i r s t two accounts of the reconstruction of adult educ-at i o n after the Second World War were given i n 1947 to North American 1^ and to B r i t i s h 1 7 adult educators by Trnka. i n both a r t i c l e s the author describes the changes i n organization brought about by the new s o c i a l order and the new l e g i s l a t i o n on adult education. He saw promising developments i n the elevation of the d i s c i p l i n e of adult education t o a subject of un i v e r s i t y study through the establishment of an adult education department at the Charles University i n Prague, and i n plans f o r the establishment of a research i n s t i t u t e f o r adult education. His claim that t h i s establishment of an un i v e r s i t y program i s "probably the f i r s t ex-ample i n the world of the systematic s c i e n t i f i c treatment of the subject within the scope of a university"-1-® i s not j u s t i f i e d . 1 ^ l 6 j . Trnka, "Word from Abroad: Czechoslovakia," Adult Educa- t i o n Journal, v o l . 6, (January, 1947), pp. 9-H« 1 7T. Trnka, "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," Adult Educa-t i o n (U.K.), v o l . 19, (March, 1947), pp. 162-164. l 8 I b i d . , p. 163. . 19columbia University awarded the f i r s t two doctorates i n a-dult education i n 1935. See C y r i l 0. Houle, "The Doctorate i n Adult Education," Adult Education (U.B.A.), v o l . 11, (Spring, 1961), pp. 131-140. 9 l a the same year H e r c i k 2 0 reported on the post-var changes i n adult education and commented p a r t i c u l a r l y on the new l e g i s l a t i o n which vested a great deal of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r adult education i n the l o c a l and central government. He claims that t h i s responsi-b i l i t y d i d not encroach and i n t e r f e r e , but rather assisted i n the post-war development of adult education. The best available post-war study was done by Woody21 of the University of Pennsylvania who gives an outline and analysis of the f i e l d as he observed i t i n 1947 when he v i s i t e d Czechoslovakia. He describes the organization, content, and s o c i a l context of state and voluntary adult education. The Czechoslovak Rational Commission f o r Unesco i n 1958 pre-pared an a r t i c l e 2 2 which describes f a c i l i t i e s available f o r the extra-mural academic and vocational education of adults. This des-cribes the organization of secondary, vocational and un i v e r s i t y l e v e l adult education, special short-term courses, and special f a c -i l i t i e s and regulations set up to encourage and t o enable workers to engage i n c r e d i t extra-mural courses. An international d i r e c t -ory, published by Unesco i n 1959, 2 3 included an a r t i c l e on Czecho-2 0 V l a d i m i r Hercik, "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," Central  European Observer, v o l . 2k ( J u l y 11, 1947), pp. 196-197. 21Thomas Woody', "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," Journal of  Educational Hesearch, v o l . 42, (December, 1946), pp. 241-252. 22 Czechoslovak national Commission f o r Unesco, "Adult Education Programmes i n Czechoslovakia," Fundamental and Adult Education, v o l . 10, (1958), pp. 69-73. ^"Czechoslovakia," i n International Directory of Adult Education. Parist Unesco, 1952, PP> 118-120. " 10 Slovakia which presented a brief outline of the organization of adult education and of l i b r a r i e s as i t existed i n the early 1950's. In the same year Unesco published a selected and annot-ated bibliography 2^ of 109 Czech and Slovak sources on adult education and leisure a c t i v i t i e s , published since 1950, but only one of the items l i s t e d was published originally i n English. In the most recent account of adult education i n Czechoslo-vakia, published i n English i n 1962, Hromadka and Pacovsky2^ out-lined b r i e f l y the organization of the out-of-school system of adult education as well as some of the broad cultural work, and described in some detail the a c t i v i t i e s of a typical village cultural club. This i s the only reliable and up-to-date source of information available i n English on the present state of adult education i n Czechoslovakia. The earlier reports on adult education i n Czech-oslovakia were concerned mainly with the h i s t o r i c a l roots and the reorganization of adult education in the early days of the Czecho-slovak Republic. There i s no report of the developments i n the Province of Slovakia, which u n t i l 1918 was a part of Hungary. The International Handbook26 and the Proceedings 2 7 of the 1929 World Conference give a good and broad description and analysis up to 1929. Roucek*s2® two articles are very brief and general. Prbkes 2^ 2Sjnesco, "Adult Education and Leisure-time A c t i v i t i e s i n Czechoslovakia," Education Abstracts, vol. 9, (March, 1959)» 14 p. 25Milan Hromadka and Ludvik Pacovsky, Adult Education, Prague: Orbis, 1962, 23 p. g6international Handbook of Adult Education, op. c i t . ^World Conference on Adult Education, Proceedings, ag. c i t . 2®Roucek, "The Progress of Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," pp. c i t . , and "Adult Education in Czechoslovakia," op_. c i t . 29prokes, pj>. c i t . 11 Is a very good source on rural adult education up to 1938, while Hokes30 i n 1939 gives an indication of promising developments which unfortunately were interrupted by the Second World War. During the war, the Provinces of Bohemia and Moravia were occupied by Germany, while the Province of Slovakia declared i t s e l f an inde-pendent state under German protection. The war disrupted communi-cations and no reports of adult education i n war-time Czechoslo-vakia could be located i n the English and American literature. Thus, an eight-year void exists i n the literature i n English on adult education in the German-controlled war-time Czechoslovak Provinces and i n immediate post-war Czechoslovakia. Trnka's31 and Hercik* s^ 2 brief articles i n 19^7 serve mainly as a reopening of communication channels to adult educators abroad. Woody*s33 a r t i c l e i s the best-description and analysis available of Czech-oslovak adult education immediately after the war. Since the rationale for and the organization of adult education have changed significantly with the p o l i t i c a l changes in the following years this article i s now only of historical interest. The Unesco d i r -e c t o r y ^ i s also out of date and the selected bibliography^ i s of l i t t l e use to the reader unless he can use the 108 items pub-3°Hokes, "Czechoslovakia Educated her People," pj>. c i t . S^ J-Trnka, "Word from Abroad? Czechoslovakia," op_. c i t . , and "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," 0£. c i t . ^Hercik, op_. c i t . 33woody, op_. c i t . ^international Directory of Adult Education, op. c i t . 35"Ajdult Education and Leisure-time Activities i n Czechoslo-vakia," op_. c i t . 12 l l s h e d i n the o r i g i n a l Czech and Slovak languages. The account of the f a c i l i t i e s f o r extra-moral academic and vocational education of adults, prepared by the Czechoslovak National Com-mission f o r Unesco,3^ i s informative and useful, as i s the most recent booklet by Hromadka and Pacovaky.^ 7 The s c a r c i t y of i n -formation i n English on adult education i n Czechoslovakia stands i n the way of an adequate understanding of recent developments i n adult education i n that country. ^Czechoslovak National Commission f o r Unesco, pjo. c i t . 37Hromaflka and Pacovsky, ogv c i t . CHAPTER II ADULT EDUCATION IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA The Origins The beginning of Czechoslovak adult education dates well into the nineteenth century when adult education played an important role i n the national cultural and p o l i t i c a l awakening. The h i s t o r i c a l role that adult education played i n resisting the germanic cultural and p o l i t i c a l influence in the provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, and i n fostering Czech language and culture, influenced the rationale of adult education i n Czechoslovakia well into the 1920's.1 While Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia were provinces of the Hapsburg Empire, Czech and Slovak adult education was discouraged by the state and had to be organized by private educational and cultural associations and by educational suborganlzations of the p o l i t i c a l parties. Historically and administratively Bohemia and Moravia were under the germanic influence of Austria, while Slo-vakia was an Integral part of Hungary. In Bohemia and Moravia, the largest and the most Influential •^or a good account of the h i s t o r i c a l origins and developments into the 1920's consult "Czechoslovakia," i n International Handbook  of Adult Education, London: World Association for Adult Education, 1929, pp. J*6-68. 14 of the private organizations was the nationalistic gymnastic association Sokol, founded i n 1862, which succeeded i n develop-ing a balanced program of physical, intellectual and s p i r i t u a l education for men, women and children. By 1900 the Sokol was a nation wide mass organization which, due to i t s democratic de-centralized organization, served as a training ground for the de-velopment of democratic c i v i c attitudes and s k i l l s . The l o c a l Sokol organizations built centres i n the towns and villages, offering gymnasium-theatre,, li b r a r y and meeting room f a c i l i t i e s to the l o c a l population. Amateur theatre groups, l i t e r a r y c i r -cles, choirs, workers educational clubs, volunteer f i r e brigades, co-operative societies and a variety of other semi-educational groups became very popular and wide spread i n the second half of the nineteenth century. The f i r s t Czech institution established specifically for the education of adults was the Labour Academy, founded in Prague by the Social Democratic Party i n 1896, The Academy had as i t s task to offer lectures and courses, and to organize study circles for general and c i v i c education of the working population and of the labour movement leadership. The Socialist Party establish-ed i n the following year i t s own institution, the Central Labour School, with aims similar to the Labour Academy. The German ethnic group i n Prague organized i t s adult education and general cultural a c t i v i t i e s i n the German Urania Society. The Agrarian Party and the party of the small business entrepreneurs also had their own adult education organizations by 1900. With the ex-ception of the Agrarian Party which, by i t s nature, had to spread i t s educational endeavours, most of the a c t i v i t i e s of these educational organizations of the p o l i t i c a l parties were centered in Prague and i n the larger industrial c i t i e s . University extension began i n Bohemia and Moravia with the 15 establishment of the Committee for the Organization of Popular Lectures which was formed i n 1899 by several interested professors of Charles University i n Prague, The committee organized lecture series i n Prague and single lectures i n the countryside on topics in the humanities and the sciences. Lectures from the series were also published i n an abridged form. Private l i b r a r i e s and li b r a r i e s of the educational associ-ations played an important role i n supporting adult education a c t i v i t i e s , especially i n co-operation with study circles and amateur theatre groups. Librarians were involved actively also i n counselling adults and i n leadership of educational groups and associations. The various cultural and educational associations i n Bohemia and Moravia formed i n 1905 a federation, the Enlightment League, which was to co-ordinate their a c t i v i t i e s and to represent them collectively. The League set up centres i n Prague, Brno and Vienna. Dis t r i c t Education Associations established by the League were to survey, regulate and supplement ac t i v i t i e s at the lo c a l l e v e l . Although the work of the Enlightment League was hampered by lack of financei... i t greatly increased co-operation among the many and often competing groups. A monthly journal for cultural work and adult education, Ceska Osveta, published since 1904, also contributed to the development of better communication among the associations and a greater cohesion of adult education i n Bohemia and Moravia. While Bohemia and Moravia had, thus, a relatively well functioning system of adult education institutions, the s i t u -ation i n Slovakia before 1918 was entirely different. Under a conscious policy of magyarization, the only Slovak cultural and educational association, Matica Slovenska, which was established 16 i n 1863 to protect the remnants of and to regenerate Slovak language and culture, was ordered to be dissolved by the Hungar-ian government i n 1875. The Sokol organization did not establish i t s e l f successfully i n Slovakia before 1918. Unlike the highly industrialized Bohemia and Moravia, Slovakia had only a few industrial pockets among an overwhelmingly agricultural popula-tion. In these pockets worker's educational circles were est-ablished during the 1890*s and remained the only Slovak adult education f a c i l i t y u n t i l the end of the F i r s t World War, when Slovakia became an integral part of the newly formed Czechoslo-vak Republic. The later-war Period (1918-1939) In October of 1918 the provinces of Bohemia and Moravia proclaimed their independence from Austria and were joined by Slovakia which separated from Hungary. With the international recognition of this new state as the Czechoslovak Republic, the striving for p o l i t i c a l and cultural independence was achieved and adult education assumed the new task of helping citizens learn to assume their new responsibilities. Thus, citizenship education became one of the most important a c t i v i t i e s i n the new state. Among the f i r s t acts passed by the parliament i n 1919 were the Adult Education Act and the Library Act. This legislation provided f o r a nation wide net of D i s t r i c t Adult Education Boards which were responsible f o r the co-ordination of adult education a c t i v i t i e s and for the establishment of public l i b r a r i e s i n a l l towns and villages i n their d i s t r i c t . In towns and villages, Adult Education Committees made up of representatives of the educational and cultural associations and clubs, were formed to co-ordinate a c t i v i t i e s at the l o c a l 17 l e v e l . By 1932 there were 555 Distr i c t Adult Education Boards and 10,893 l o c a l Committees throughout Czechoslovakia. 2 At the national lev e l , a special department of the Ministry of Edu-cation was established to direct adult education. The legislation also provided minimal public financial support for adult educ-ation and public l i b r a r i e s . In organizing citizenship education for adults, stress was placed on literacy work i n the province of Slovakia where, as a legacy of the centuries of Hungarian overlordship, l i t e r a c y was well below the national standard. The army was u t i l i z e d i n an intensive program of literacy and citizenship training. The education of women was given a great deal of attention through night schools, special day schools, and radio broadcasts. Home-making, hygiene, handicrafts and citizenship were among the courses provided for women. The state broadcasting system was placed i n the service of education through special broadcasts for women, farmers and industrial workers. Rural education and agricultural extension were also wide spread, especially during the idle winter months when farmers, smallholders and their wives attended week-long afternoon courses i n general education and improved farming methods. Uight schools sponsored by a variety of l o c a l educational organizations or by the local A-dult Education Committees were organized during the f a l l and winter i n public, school buildings. Courses offered in the night schools included general, vocational and citizenship courses and were mainly taught by university professors and high school teachers. Worker's education was well established and many of 2joseph S. Roucek, "The Progress of Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," School and Society, vol. 35, (January 2, 1932), p. 20. 18 the night schools i n industrial centres were operated by one of the labour educational organizations.3 The establishment i n 1925 of the Masaryk Institute for Adult Education was a significant step i n the development of adult education in Czechoslovakia. The Institute was founded with a substantial financial grant from the f i r s t president of the Republic, T. G. Masaryk, who also was the f i r s t president of the World Association for Adult Education. The Masaryk Institute for Adult Education came to be the co-ordinating agency among the many educational and cultural associations of the five ethnic groups l i v i n g i n Czechoslovakia. Among the tasks of the Institute were (a) organization of experimental and model lectures, courses and night schools, (b) provision of counselling services to public l i b r a r i e s , (c) distribution of educational films, (d) co-operation with the state broadcasting system i n educational broadcasting for adults, and (e) establish-ment of a depository l i b r a r y and research centre f o r adult education, Czechoslovak adult education enjoyed the support of the state and of i t s leading citizens. During the twenty-one years of the Czechoslovak Republic between the two world wars, adult education institutions and ac t i v i t i e s spread rapidly even into remote villages and adult education was assigned an important place i n the cultural and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the country. 3for development and achievements i n adult education i n the 1920's and 1930*s consult the art i c l e on Czechoslovakia i n the International Handbook, op. cit.} the Proceedings, of the World Conference on Adult Education, Cambridge, 1929, London: World Association for Adult Education, 1930, passim.; and Antonin Prokea, "Czechoslovakia," i n Educational Yearbook of Teachers College,  Columbia University, 1938, I. LT Kandel, ed., Hew York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938, pp. 119-144. Second World War Period (1939-1945) 19 The promising developments i n Czechoslovak adult education were interrupted by the German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia, which became a German protectorate, and by the formation of the separate Slovak State i n March 1939. Neither the German occupi-ers of Bohemia and Moravia, nor the new Slovak regime collabor-ating with Germany, could tolerate a vigorous democratic adult education system opposed to Nazi ideology. When attempts to take over the system and to use i t f o r Nazi indoctrination f a i l -ed, the system was destroyed. Ih the Protectorate Bohemia-Moravia, the Czech universities and other institutions of higher learning were closed by the Germans i n November 1939 and remained closed throughout the war. Professors and students were sent to German concentration camps or to war factories in Germany. The Dis t r i c t Adult Education Boards and the l o c a l Adult Education Committees also were abolished. Libraries were forced to remove books offensive to the Nazi doctrine. The Sokol organization was ordered disbanded and i t s buildings were taken over by the German army. Only scattered pockets of overtly non-political cultural and education-a l a c t i v i t i e s remained i n existence. Among these, lectures i n science, music and art flourished. The institutions which man-aged to carry on their a c t i v i t i e s , although on a limited scale and under a constant watch of the Nazi secret police, were the Labour Academy and the Institute f o r Adult Education. 4 Attempts to establish Nazi inspired cultural organizations, aimed especially at the industrial workers, did not succeed. Some of the groups i n the underground movement attempted to maintain **T. Trnka, "Word from Abroad: Czechoslovakia," Adult Education  Journal, vol. 6, (January, 1947), p. 9« 20 illegal adult education activities but these were very limited and very l i t t l e is known about, them. The situation in the Slovak State was somewhat different. The District Adult Education Boards and the local Adult Education Committees remained in operation as the new regime expected to use them for the indoctrination of the population, however, the political pressure exerted on these bodies resulted in increased resistance to Nazi ideology and methods. The Slovak regime was unable, on the whole, to influence or to take over adult educ-ation activities at the grass roots level. During the national Slovak uprising in the summer of 1944, citizenship education played an important role in the army and among the population of the liberated districts. The quisling Slovak government lost control of the situation and the uprising was suppressed with the help of the German army which then occupied Slovakia. For the remaining months of the war adult education activities in Slovakia were limited and were carried out mainly by groups of the underground movement.5 As in the case of the Protect-orate Bohemia-Moravia, very l i t t l e is known about war-time adult education in Slovakia. Post-war Reconstruction (1945-1948) The end of the war and the liberation of Czechoslovakia in May of 1945 presented a new and difficult task. The recon-struction of the many adult education institutions which were restricted or destroyed during the German occupation was regu-5s. Pasiar and P. Paska, Osveta na Slovensku; Jej Vznik, Pociatky a Vyvoj, Bratislava: Osveta, 1964, pp. 291-304. 21 lated by a presidential decree of October 1945. This decree established an adult education system based on a sound econ-omic basis and charged i t with important tasks i n the econom-ic ^ - p o l i t i c a l , cultural and sp i r i t u a l reconstruction of the state. To enable the adult education system to cope with this Uiik, i t set out directives for the establishment of d i s t r i c t and lo c a l adult education councils and provided for the appointment of d i s t r i c t inspectors of adult education.-The immediate post-war period i s characterized by a struggle among the p o l i t i c a l parties for the ideological control of adult education. In keeping with the p o l i t i c a l organization of the state during that period, the new l o c a l and d i s t r i c t adult education councils and the inspectors of adult education were appointed according to the relative strength of the p o l i t i c a l parties i n the d i s t r i c t or munici-pality. This period was also marked by enthusiasm and rapid growth of adult education institutions based on wide popular support. Bation wide organizations as well as lo c a l com-munity groups and associations were involved i n a great variety of adult education a c t i v i t i e s * The Period of Dogmatic Communism (1948-1956) With the p o l i t i c a l upset i n February of 1948 the entire adult education system came under the ideological and p o l i t i -c a l control of the Communist Party, as noted by Skoda^: 6jan Duracinsky, "K Otazkam Ideovosti Osvetovej Prace v Rokoch 1945-1948,M Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 8, (1961), p. 17. 7K. Skoda, "Veduca Uloha Komunistickej Strany Ceskoslo-venska v Pofebruarovom Vyvoji Osvetove Prace," Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 8, (1961), p. 27. 22 ...the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took f i r m l y i n t o i t s hands d i r e c t i o n of further adult education work. With respect to the necessity of all-round development of adult education on marxist-leninist basis, a l l progressive adult educators were mobilized and at the same time adult education was purged of reactionary e l e -ments. The Minister of information o f f i c i a l l y declared the Party l i n e with respect t o adult education at a national conference of adult educators held i n A p r i l 1948, when "he stressed that i t s main task i s p o l i t i c a l education, that the pretense of non-partisan education has been made an end to . "8 The Tenth Congress of the Ccmimunist Party of Czecho-slovakia, held i n May 1949, charged adult educators with the task of "re-educating the nation i n the s p i r i t of socialism."9 During 1949 the state organization was greatly reorgan-ized. The adult education councils, established i n 1945, were abolished and t h e i r agenda was transfered t o the newly estab-l i s h e d section f o r culture and adult education i n the l o c a l , d i s t r i c t , and regional national committees. Educational i n -s t i t u t i o n s of the other p o l i t i c a l parties and a l l n o n - p o l i t i c a l educational, recreational and special interest associations and clubs were l i q u i d a t e d during the same year. A plan pre-sented to adult educators at a national conference i n 1950 marks the apex of dogmatism and Party control of adult educ-ation i n Czechoslovakia as p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n was declared as the main task of adult educators. °Ibld., p. 28. 9ibid., p. 29-23 A further reorganization of adult education i n 1952 intro-duced adult education club houses at the l o c a l l e v e l while adult education centres were established at the d i s t r i c t and regional levels for advisory and methodological work in their territory* In the same year, the Society for the Dissemination of P o l i t i c a l and Scientific Knowledge was established. A resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party i n the f a l l of 1953 opened the door to p a r t i a l l i b e r a l -ization of adult education, especially i n the area of popular art. At the Tenth Party Congress in 1954, the Party leader-ship had condemned the "cult of personality" and dogmatism i n ideological work. In the adult education f i e l d this brought about further lib e r a l i z a t i o n of recreation and popular enter-tainment and opened the door to the re-establishment of special interest circles and clubs under the auspices of the adult education institutions i n the towns and villages. In the ideological realm, however, adult education remained the servant of the Communist Party. Skoda described the tasks given to adult educators by the Tenth Communist Party Congress.-1 In addition to the necessity of a struggle against the cult of personality, the Tenth Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. designated the task of a struggle against alien ideologies, that i s a struggle against social-democratism, masarykism, and bourgeois nationalism. In Skoda*s assessment adult educators f u l f i l l e d their task i n the following years with great intensity. Thus, between 1948 and 1956, adult education can be seen -^-Skoda, OJD. c i t . , p. 30. 2k as almost completely submerged Into the ideological, p o l i t i c a l and economic goals of the Communist Party. From 1953, a very slow and at f i r s t hesitant process of emancipation began i t s course and gathered momentum after June 1956. 2& S S £ (1956-1959) A national conference of the Communist Party of Czechoslo-vakia, held i n June 1956, strongly condemned the "cult of personality", dogmatism and "Stalinism". The Party leaders suddenly became interested i n a measure of decentralization and i n increased involvement of citizens i n local government. This had important implications for adult education: 1 2 I t was demanded that the national committees significantly improve po l l t ical-organization-a l and educational work. The means to that end i s the inclusion of the greatest possible number of people i n directing and executive ac t i v i t i e s through work on commissions and actives. A typical area i n which the masses are activated on the basis of a great variety of creative interests i s adult education. The ideological control over adult education activities did not diminish, however. Whatever liberalization can be seen i n the control of adult education act i v i t i e s during the late 1950's i s limited i n the main to more organizational freedom and i n a^spontaneous growth of hobby and other special interest groups attached to the adult education centres. The gradual changes which can be observed i n the f i e l d from 1956 have originated at the grass roots level and have only slowly 1 2Pasiar and Paska, op_. c i t . , p. 33^ . 25 forced their way into the system. The most important document concerning adult education in post-war Czechoslovakia was a resolution published at the eve of the Eleventh Communist Party Congress in April 1958,^ 3 This resolution, concerned with further development and intensifi-cation of the ideological effectiveness of adult education, de-clared the three main tasks of adult education as:11* (1) Spreading of the scientific philosophy of l ife, and clarification and assertion of Party politics; (2) Raising of the general and technical educ-ation level of the workers; and , (3) Art education and care for a rich social \ and cultural life of the workers. The resolution stated that "systematic and purposeful education of workers toward a scientific philosophy of life and a struggle against alien ideologies is one of the fore-most tasks of adult education.wl5 In recognition of past failures, the resolution pointed out that "the moral and ed-ucaticnal activities of adult educators must not in any case take on any form of false moralizing and talking down to people, but must permeate the entire adult education work and become a permanent principle of daily work with people. ^Ustredni Vybor Kbmunisticke Strany Geekoslovenska, M0 Dalsim Rozvoji a Prohloubeni Ideove tJcihnosti Osvetoye Prace," in Spravni Frlrucka pro Osvetove Pracovniky, Praha: Orbis, 1963, d i l . I, pp. 7-23. l l »Ibid . , p. 10. 3-5Ibid., p. 11. ^Ifaid., p. 12. 26 For the f i r s t time since 1948, consideration for the needs of the people was mentioned as important, however, the docu-ment, drawn up by the Central.Committee of the Communist Party, pointed out the leading position of the Party: 1? It i s the duty of a l l Party organs and organ-izations to assert the leading role of the Party, especially i n the ideological and pol-i t i c a l direction of adult education and cul t -ural work. The Party asserts i t s leading role through communists i n national committees and i n voluntary organizations, and i n their cultural and educational establishments. The resolution of the Central Committee of the Party and further resolutions concerning ideological work which were passed at the Eleventh Communist Party Congress led to three government laws i n the f i e l d of adult education and cultural work. The laws, signed in 1959, were on adult education, on li b r a r i e s , and on museums and art galleries. The law concerning adult education had twenty artic l e s , the most important, of which are the f i r s t three articles which establish the ideological framework for adult educ-a t i o n . ^ The f i r s t a r t i c l e outlines the goals for adult education i n accord with communist ideology and Party l i n e ; the next a r t i c l e , i f properly invoked, could have great im-plications for the future of adult education i n Czechoslovakia as i t states that "s o c i a l i s t education i s a l i f e need of our nation — the basis of i t s development i s voluntary i n i t i a t i v e  and a c t i v i t y of the workers."19; and the t h i r d a r t i c l e l e g a l -izes the de facto control which the Communist Party exercised 1 7 I b l d . , p. 17'. l 8 t ,Osvetovy Zakon. Zakon c. 59/1959 Sb.," i n Spravnl P r i -rucka, op_. c i t . , pp. 47-53. 19ibid., p. 47 ( i t a l i c s Translators.) over adult education since 1948: "Adult education is carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslo-vakia in mutual co-operation by the national committees, by the mass organizations united in the National Front, by the agricultural co-operatives, by scientific, artistic and other cultural institutions, and by the units of the armed forces." 2 0 The Communist Party resolution on further in-tensification of the ideological effectiveness of adult educ-ation and the adult education legislation mark a new era in the post-war development of adult education in Czechoslovakia, Recent Emancipation Trends (196O-I965) A reorganization of the state administrative apparatus in May i960 has led to further decentralization and brought adult education under the control of an elected local govern-ment. A national directive in June i960 decentralized the adult education system and considerably enlarged the juris-diction of the directors of adult education and of adult education club house councils. 2 1 \ The Central Commission for Workers Education was estab-r llshed in 1962 to: (a) secure planned technical upgrading of workers, (b) co-ordinate and organize a l l forms of work-er's education, (c) co-ordinate the publication of textbooks and teaching aids for worker's education, and (d) discuss and negotiate legal norms with respect to worker's education and 2 0Loc. Cit. 21M. Bukovsky, "Organizace a Zpusob Rizeni Osvety Narod-nimi Vybo^y," Osvetova Prace, vol. l4, (July 27, i960), p. 227. 28 assure the further development of worker's technical education. Another important step was the inter-ministerial declar-ation of a standard system of training of cultural workers and adult educators. The system, established i n March 1962 and to be f u l l y operative by the end of 1965, provides for the training of professional and voluntary adult educators on a national basis. 23 In March 1963, the government established new regional adult education centres to strengthen out-of-school adult education. In May of the same year, the Ministry of Education and Culture issued directives f o r the compilation annually of standard plans of adult education a c t i v i t i e s at the l o c a l , d i s t r i c t , regional and national l e v e l . These standard plans are to co-ordinate and to unify cultural and educational a c t i v i t i e s . Since i960, a growing interest i n and demand f o r research i n adult education i s evidenced i n professional publications. During the same period Czechoslovak adult education shows signs of the increasing professionalization of full-time adult educ-ators and the growing acceptance of adult education as a dis-cipline of university study. This recent development i s of great importance and i t s examination forms the main body of this study. 22p. Kahuda, "Nova Etapa ve Vzdelavani Pracujicich," Osvet- ova Prace. vol. 17, (March 20, 1963), pp. 83-84. 23osvetovy Ustav v Praze, Principles of a Standard System of Education of Cultural and Educational Workers, Praha: Osvetovy Ustav, 1963, 45 p. (Mimeographed.) 29 Present Organization of Czechoslovak Adult Education Adult education in Czechoslovakia is highly organized and i t is centralized into three systems: (a) the state school system, (b) the factory school system, and (c) the out-of -school system. A l l three systems axe controlled by the state as well as by the Communist Party. jftuj state school system, in addition to its primary function of educating children and youth, is charged with the academic and technical extra-mural training of fully employed adults who can enroll in programs at the elementary; secondary and higher education levels. The factory school system which is organized and main-tained by the industrial enterprises or the agricultural co-operatives is concerned with the vocational upgrading of employees. The state school system and the factory system only offer courses leading to higher academic and vocational qualifications. Neither of the two systems include broad cultural and recreational courses. The out-of-school system of adult education is organized, maintained and controlled by the local and district national committees.21* This system includes a l l adult education activ-ities not covered by the other two systems, thus, i t encom-passes political, general, cultural, and recreational adult 2%he national committees are units of the local government in the political administration of Czechoslovakia. The local or town national committees govern at the local level, the district national committees govern at the district level, and the regional national committees govern at the regional level. 30 education. Although this system is concerned with some vocat-ional courses, especially in agriculture, i t does not include any vocational credit courses. Due to its broad scope, i t does include, in addition to adult education centres and cultural clubs, cultural institutions such as museums, art galleries, observatories, music schools, choirs, folk-dancing groups, art and folklore schools, recreation parks, zoological gardens, and other semi-educational institutions and associations. Furthermore, the wide spread public library net is closely associated with the out-of-school system of adult education.25 This centralization of adult education activities facilitates direction and control by the national committees and by the Communist Party. The influence and control exercised by the Communist Party over adult education in Czechoslovakia is of key importance to the understanding of the post-war develop-ment of Czechoslovak adult education and of the present role of adult educators in that country. 25por the most recent account in EngliBh of the out-of-school system see Milan Hromadka and Ludvik Pacovsky, Adult  Education, Prague: Orbis, 1962. 23 p. CHAPTER I I I THE ADULT EDUCATOR IN A COMMUNIST STATE Throughout the h i s t o r i c a l , development of adult education i n Czechoslovakia the r o l e of the adult educator has changed with the changing p o l i t i c a l system. Perhaps the most s t r i k -ing change i n r o l e was imposed by communist action i n 1946. An orderly system of t r a i n i n g i s based on certain assumptions concerning the role of the p o s i t i o n i n the work organization and i n society. These assumptions influence the expectations of society and employers have written them into job descript-ions which i n turn influence the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and s k i l l s required to f i l l the p o s i t i o n , Before examining a national standard system of t r a i n i n g of adult educators i t becomes necessary to examine the expectations society has of the adult educator and the r o l e he i s asked t o play. This i s even more important i n a highly organized s o c i a l system which places a high value on the i n d i v i d u a l surrendering to s o c i a l needs and considerations. The Adult Educator as Seen by the Communist Party The Communist Party has always required that i t s members holding adult education positions propagate i t s p o l i c i e s and advance i t s cause. The services performed by Party members i n t h i s respect during the 1945-1948 period were duly acknow-32 ledged as noted by Duracinsky 1 who assessed this period and gave many examples. He claimed that: 2 ...these examples document well how the Communist Party has influenced ideologi-c a l l y adult education even in those d i s t r i c t s and municipalities where the national committees and the National Front were not headed by progressive people, and that the organization of adult education, based on the presidential decree of Octo-ber 19^5, assisted i n th i s . In many speeches by Party o f f i c i a l s throughout the early 1950's the role of the adult educator was portrayed as that of a p o l i t i c a l propagandist especially in the f i e l d of agricultural organization. Thus, for example, in 1956 agri-cultural propaganda tasks took a major share of art i c l e s , notices and bibliographical data i n the pages of QBVetova  Beseda, a fortnightly for adult education and cultural work. The rationale for adult education i n a society aspiring to communism has been summed up i n the opening paragraph of the Party Central Committee,: resolution published i n 1958, concerning the further development and intensification of the ideological effectiveness of adult education:3 Under the leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia a l l the working people are taking their place i n the •^Jan Duracinsky, nK Otazkam Ideovosti Osvetovej Prace v Kokoch 19^5-1948," Osvetovy Sbornik, No. 8, (1961), PP. 17-26; also Stefan Pasiar and Pavel Paska, Osveta na Slovensku: Jej Yznik, Pociatky a Vyvo^, Bratislava: Osveta, 1964, p. 316. 2Duracinsky, oj>. c i t . > p. 19. 3ustredui Vybor Komunisticke Strany Ceskoslovenska, "0 Dalslm Rozvoji a Prohloubeni Ideove Ucinnosti Osvetove Prace," in Spravni Prirucka pro Osvetove Pracovniky, Praha: Orbis, 1963j o i l . I, p. 7» completion of the building of socialism in our country. Fulfillment of this goal is unthinkable without the victory of social-ist ideas in the consciousness of an absol-ute majority of the people. Therefore, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia is giving its utmost attention to questions of ideological and culturally-educational work among the citizens. An important task is assigned in this direction to adult education which should be an effect-ive tool of the Party in socialist educ-ation of the broadest masses. In spite of the importance assigned to the ideological and political commitment of adult educators and in spite of the concerted drive to achieve this, the Communist Party has never succeeded in influencing a l l adult educators. In 1961, Bourival 4 complained that an inspection of staffs of adult education centres revealed that 38 per cent of the adult educators in these centres were not politically organized. At a national seminar for adult educators in the spring of 1964, the ideological secretary of the Com-munist Party again had to remind adult educators that " i t is very desirable that a l l adult educators shall lean firm-ly on the ideological positions of the Party, thoroughly master the latest Party documents, carefully follow the developments in the struggle of ideas, at a l l times guard the positions of creative leninism, and carry out progres-sive tendencies."5 This exemplifies how the Party ideol-ogists look upon the role of the adult educator. **Z. Bourival, "K Soucasnym Problemum Osvetove Prace," . Osvetova Prace. vol. 15, (April 19, 1961), p. 128. 5Milan Koubek, ed., Hlavni Otazky Kulturni a Osvetove  Prace po Zasedanl Plena UV KSC k Ideologickym Otazkam, Praha: Osvetovy Ustav, 19o"4, p . ~ l l . (Mimeographed.) 3k The Adult Educator as Seen by the Society The Communist Party has ce r t a i n expectations of the adult educator and the society at large also has expecta-ti o n s which may or may not coincide with those of the Party. In 1965 Spusta° compiled a l i s t of char a c t e r i s t i c s which the general public expected to f i n d i n the adult educator. According t o h i s inquiry the professional adult educator ought t o : (1) be p o l i t i c a l l y mature, not i n words but i n attitude and i n deeds; ( 2 ) be constantly engaged i n furthering h i s own education; (3) have organizational a b i l i t i e s ; (h) have the a b i l i t y t o judge accurately the timeliness cf adult education a c t i v i t i e s so that they correspond t o interests i n hi s environment; (5) know how to vary projects, methods and techniques to use them to the f u l l advant-age, and t o provide f r e s h v a r i e t y of approaches; (6) have the a b i l i t y t o inspire a wide group of volunteers t o help him i n h i s task, t o keep them enthused, and to assess and use t h e i r a b i l i t i e s ; (7) be p o s i t i v e l y oriented toward new techniques and devices; and (8) have an impecable moral p r o f i l e . Thus, most of a l l the general public expects the adult educator to know hi s job and t o do i t w e l l . The a b i l i t y ^Matej Spusta, "Akych Has Chcu Mat," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 19, (September 8, 1965), p. 1. These statements would c e r t -a i n l y be applicable t o western society and no doubt i l l u s t -rate the n o n - p o l i t i c a l culture free attributes of the adult educator's role i n society. 35 to work with people and to inspire them i s seen as important, and i n the realm of p o l i t i c s the public demands deeds rather than propaganda slogans* These societal expectations manifest a variance from the ideological stress of the Party guidelines. How do the adult educators themselves look upon their role and place i n society? The Adult Educator Looks at Himself Czechoslovak adult education literature offers several accounts of how adult educators view their own role and three of these have been selected as representative* Huska7 re-viewed the role of the adult educator at a conference of Slovak adult educators i n the f a l l of 1948. He stressed the new conditions brought about by communist action i n February of the same year and pointed out that one of the obstacles to be overcome i s the h i s t o r i c a l distrust of the workers toward the intelligentsia i n whom they have seen a class enemy. Huska then outlined how adult educators can gain the confidence of the working population:® ( l ) The people who come into contact with the adult educator must f i n d out that he i s well acquainted with the situation, that he .knows at least basically the problems of the environment l n which he i s working, that he has recognition for the people who work with him, that he bases a l l his a c t i v i t i e s on the con-crete situation as i t surrounds him, that he interprets his explanations on 7Vladimir Huska, "Osobnost Ludovychovneho Pracovnika," i n Vychova Ludu k Sozialismu, Stefan Hora, ed., Bratislava: Tat-ran, 1949, pp7 33-42. e I b i d . , pp. 35-37* 36 economics, p o l i t i c s and culture i n the context of this situation, that he ap-plies his theoretical knowledge on con-crete social materials,.. (2) The adult educator w i l l penetrate into the hearts of the workers i f they can f e e l that a l l his attention i s concen-trated exclusively on economic, social and cultural needs of the working pop-ulation. .. (3) ...the adult educator must always and everywhere assume a friendly, comrade-l y relationship... .must act as a willing advisor, as a more experienced, well meaning brother who counsels and r e p r i -mands with f u l l understanding of the weaknesses and shortcomings of his less educated friends. (k) Lastly, his own conduct, both within his family and i n social l i f e determines the relationship the collective w i l l have with him....Thus i t i s through an exemplary l i f e that the adult educ-ator gains a good position i n society. In addition, Huska pointed out that the adult educator must have an inborn predisposition for work with adults and a great l i k i n g for his work. He must be well prepared for his work both i n terms of general educational background and i n his own f i e l d i n which he must continue to learn. The most urgent necessity according to Huska was that:9 ...the adult educator should study national economics and p o l i t i c s , both i n their theory from books and i n practice from observing the social r e a l i t y and mutual confrontation Of theory and practice... .(he) must be able to influence expediently the socio-cultural development, must be a true f a c i l i t a t o r of 9 I b i d . , p. 38. the new, classless, socialist order... Fifteen years later, i n 1963, MisallO described the characteristics necessary i n an adult educator who i s to f u l f i l l his role in the communist society: (1) Ccanmunist character i s the f i r s t pre-requisite which gives direction to a l l other necessary character t r a i t s . . . ; (2) dedication to the communist cause...; (3) love for people consisting of (a) a right relationship to fellow men, (b) sociabil-i t y » (c) l i k i n g of work with people, (d) conviction that adults are educable, and (e) harmonization and subordination of personal interests to social interests and conscientious work for society...; (k) love for work manifested i n (a) a positive attitude to work, (b) a sincere attitude to adult education, (c) conviction about the great social significance of his work, and (d) a drive for a systematic improve-ment of his own professional knowledge and s k i l l s . * . ; (5) cultural interests consisting of (a) a broad background i n the humanities and social sciences, (b) acquired habit of systematical reading of professional and general literature, (c) estetical perception, (d) culture of language, and (e) social graces...; (6) but above a l l the adult educator must in his daily: l i f e and work apply and exemplify the principles of the moral code of the builder of communism among which the f i r s t i s dedication to the cause of communism. Pa s i a r 1 1 contributed to the increasing discussion of the 1 0 J a n Misal, "K Pro f l l u Osvetoveho Pracovnika," Osvetovy  Sbornik, Ho. 11, (1963), PP. 99-95. ^ S t e f a n Pasiar, "K P r o f i l u a Specializacii Osvetovych Pracovnikov," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (November 20, 19o3)> 38 adult educator later the same year. He stressed the necessity of increasing the professional preparation and specialization of adult educators: ...every adult educator must be a specialist i n marxist-leninist pedagogy and especially in one of i t s disciplines, adult pedagogy.... His study during and after the training should be oriented on general foundations,... on the study of educational psychology (which should be the central concern of his preparation), and on the study of some of the s c i e n t i f i c and cultural disciplines. These examples il l u s t r a t e the changing nature of adult education i n Czechoslovakia. While there are basic assump-tions which have not changed since 1948, e.g. a good adult educator i n a communist state must be above a l l a good communist, there are changes which seem to be significant and have Important implications for future developments. The most Important of these i s the growing professionallzation of the f i e l d and the increasing insistence on adult education as a discipline in i t s own r i g h t . 1 2 Problems of the Role and Characteristics The role and expected characteristics of the adult educ-ator presents many problems. This was especially true i n the early 1950*s when the adult educator was a l l things to a l l men. The high fluctuation of adult education staffs i s the •^In some respects adult education i n Czechoslovakia i s , ahead of the f i e l d i n western society with respect to the recognition and acceptance of adult education as a discipline. 39 subject of constant complaints i n reports i n the professional literature. Bouriyal 1^ l i s t s some of the factors contribut-ing to the high fluctuation of inspectors of adult education as "unsatisfactory working f a c i l i t i e s assigned to the i n -spectors, continuous assignments i n economic-organizational campaigns of the d i s t r i c t national committees, scarcity of access to the o f f i c i a l car pool, and the unsatisfactory loc-ation of many of the adult education centres and their i n -sufficient technical equipment." Institutional Role. Differentiation M u l t educators employed i n full-time positions i n the out-of-school adult education system can be classified into four categories: (1) The regional and d i s t r i c t inspectors of adult education who form the direction and control category; (2) The staffs of the regional adult education centres who f a l l into the methodological and consultative category; (3) The staff of the d i s t r i c t adult education centres and the supervisors of the cult-ural clubhouses who comprise the local programing and administration category;•and (k) Full-time instructors. The o f f i c i a l job description for positions i n these cate-gories i s given i n Table 1 and qualifications prescribed for these positions are l i s t e d i n Table 6. 13Bourival, o£. c i t . , p. 128. ko Table 1. Nomenclature of Professional M u l t Education Positions with Job Descriptions!* Position T i t l e Job Description Regional Inspector of M u l t Education D i s t r i c t Inspector of M u l t Education Carries out political-organization-a l duties and controls act i v i t i e s of cultural, a r t i s t i c and educat-ional establishments of the reg-ional national committee and of the establishments of the d i s t r i c t nat-ional committees i n his region; controls and evaluates work of the District Inspectors of Adult Educ-ation i n his region; prepares dev-elopment plans of ac t i v i t i e s in his region. Carries out political-organizat-ional duties and controls a c t i v i -t i e s of cultural, a r t i s t i c and educational establishments of the d i s t r i c t national committee and of the establishments of the lo c -a l national committees; prepares a d i s t r i c t plan of adult education and cultural a c t i v i t i e s . Director of M u l t Education Centre Section Supervisor, Adult Education Centre Program Supervisor Plans, organizes and directs the work of the adult education centre. Plans, organizes and directs the work of his section. Prepares proposals for a c t i v i t i e s of the establishment; organizes, follows up and evaluates programs. !**Data for the table taken from IHinisterstvo Skolstvi a Kultury, "Smernice Ministerstva Skolstvi a Kultury pro Praci Inspektoru Kultury," c. -j. 38369/62-V/l, Vestnik, (1962), and from "Nomenklatura Funkci a Punkcnich Platu v Osvetovych Domech a Osvetovych Besedach," Osvetova Praots, No. 1-2, (1961), pp, 3-4. kl Table 1 (continued) Position T i t l e Job Description Program Co-ordinator Librarian Prepares proposals for a c t i v i t i e s of the establishment; organizes, carries out and evaluates programs. Carries out specialized assignments i n his f i e l d . Supervisor of Cultural Clubhouse Instructor, People's University Instructor, Special Courses Instructor Flans, organizes and directs the work of the clubhouse. Teaches 28 hours per week and pre-pares his lessons. Teaches 28 hours per week and pre-pares his lessons, Teaches 3k hours per week and pre-pares his lessons. Training for the Role In order to prepare both the professional and the volunteer, Czechoslovakia had training f a c i l i t i e s for professional adult educators at the Charles University i n Prague, as well as short d i s t r i c t courses f o r volunteers since 19^7. Specialized second-ary technical school programs were added later. These training programs have been affected by the ideological changes during the 1950's in various degrees.^ j h e professional qualifications 15For example the adult education program at the Charles University has been abolished from 1950 to i960. These devel opments are described i n the next chapter of this study. of adult educators declined sharply and by 1 9 5 9 i t became ob-vious that new action was necessary and that training of adult educators at a l l levels must be established firmly. Arti c l e thirteen of the adult education act of 1959 de-clared that "Adult educators acquire the necessary q u a l i f i -cations i n a standard system of training of cultural workers and adult educators, established by the Ministery of Educ-ation and Culture in agreement with the appropriate central offices and organs of the mass organizations associated i n the Mational Front." 1^ The principles of the standard system of training were established by a resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party i n Movember I960,1? however, i t was not u n t i l March of 1962 that the standard system of training was accepted by the ministries and mass organizations concerned. The Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, as outlined i n the 1 9 6 2 declaration, provides for training at four l e v e l s : 1 8 (1) training of professional adult educators at the secondary technical school and university level; (2) ideological, p o l i t i c a l and technical i n -service training of professional adult l6«0svetovy Zakon. Zakon c. 59/1959 Sb." i n Spravni P r i -rucka, op. c i t . , p. 51. lTUstredni Vybor Kcmunisticke Strany Ceskoslovenska, "Zas-ady Jednotne Soustavy Vzdelavani Osvetovych Pracovniku," in Spravni Prirucka, op. c i t . , pp. 54-62. l 8"Jednotna Soustava Vzdelavani Osvetovych Pracovniku," in Spravni Prirucka, op. c i t . , p. 64. educators; (3) training of volunteers; and (k) preparation of future intellectuals for voluntary adult education work. As the system of training was to standardize the train-ing of a l l volunteer cultural workers and adult educators active in the out-of-school system of adult education, five sub-systems were devised to cover the main specialized areas: (a) general adult education, (b) popular art creativity, (c) libraries, (d) museums and local history, and (e) care of historical monuments and nature conserv-ation. The training of volunteers for these areas of specialization began with a standard Basic Course in adult education that was common to a l l of them.x9 The Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, which was to be fully operational by the end of 1965, placed a stress on provision for the training of full-time adult educators, who in Czechoslovakia are thought of as Pro-of) fessionals. v ^Ibid., p. 67. 20:nje term professional is used throughout the study in the meaning used in Czechoslovakia, i.e. a full-time employee in the f i e l d with either secondary or university level  specialized training. CHAPTER IV THE TRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL ADULT EDUCATORS Professional Training Before the Standard System of Tra-tmng^ The presidential decree which regulated adult education in Czechoslovakia from 1945 u n t i l the legislation of 1959 included provisions for the training of adult educators. A Department of Adult Education was established i n the Pedagog-i c a l Faculty at Charles University i n Prague and the f i r s t students were enrolled in 1947. The four year program of study includttd courses related to (a) theory, history and the processes of adult education, (b) social and p o l i t i c a l education, (c) research and experimentation, (d) philosophy, (e) individual and social psychology, (f) aesthetics, (g) ethics, and (h) practice teaching and public speaking. In addition, there were elective courses in such subjects as law, economics, historical monuments, nature conservation, hygiene, and recreation. 1 Nothing further i s known about the specific content of the adult education courses that were offered during this period. In 1950 after only three years, the Department of Adult IT. Trnka, "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," Adult  Education (U.K.), vol. 19, (March, 1947), P« l63« 45 Education was abolished and adult education ceased to be a separate discipline of university study. Thereafter, the only training for professional adult educators was organized inter-mittently on a short-term, in-service training level. One such program was the school at Pezink, established in 1952 to trai n ad-cut educators employed by the national committees i n the province of Slovakia. This school offered courses of four months duration to provide p o l i t i c a l and professional quali-f i c a t i o n s . 2 During 1953, three technical schools for adult education were:opened i n the key c i t i e s of Prague, Brno and Bratislava. These schools were designed to train adult educators at the secondary level i n courses of two years duration. Originally these schools had three departments which specialized in ( l ) general adult education, (2) popularization of science (museums, histor i c a l monuments, observatories and planetaria), aJid (3) public l i b r a r i e s . The schools also established extra-mural, part-time programs for adult educators and cult-ural workers engaged i n these fields.3 In a criticism of the training available during this period, J i r k a 4 deplored the fact that graduates i n adult educ-ation from the secondary technical schools were not prepared adequately for their work and that they actually had to learn most of the necessary s k i l l s on the Job. He pointed out 2Stefan Pasiar and Pavel Paska, Osveta na Sloyensku; JeJ Vznik, Pociatky a Vyvoj, Bratislava: Osveta, 1964, p. 325. 3LQC. c i t . 4T. Jirka, "Kde Ham Poro3tou Novi Osvetari?" Osvetova  Prace, vol. 13, (March 11, 1959), P« 67. that while i t was impossible to demand maturity and experi-ence from a sixteen to seventeen year old graduate, the schools could equip them with solid theoretical foundations at least. He concluded that the functions of a professional adult educator would demand university training in the near future. These secondary technical schools for adult educators ill u s t r a t e a basic difference between North America., and Czechoslovakia i n the concept of professional training. While i n North America professional training i n adult educ-ation i s almost exclusively post-vocational at the graduate university level and adult educators usually are mature adults, i n Czechoslovakia (as well as i n some other Euro-pean countries) pre-vocational training i s also provided at the secondary school level and young adults enter the f i e l d i n positions classified as professional.5 l a 1955, the Charles University i n Prague re-estab-lished some courses i n adult education i n the Department of Education of the Philosophical Faculty, and i n i960 established the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism, with f u l l faculty status. Thereafter, adult education courses were introduced at other universities and teachers colleges throughout Czechoslovakia. The Standard Training System of Adult Educators The Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, ^See Table 6 for classification of professional positions i n adult education. kl o f f i c i a l l y declared i n March 1962, specified the levels of qualification training as follows: 0 (A) University training of professional adult educators (1) The main centre for training of adult educators from a l l organizations and institutions i s the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism at the Charles University at Prague....The Institute mainly prepares professionals who direct and organize adult education....Stu-dents can enroll i n the regular full-time as well as the extra-mural part-time pro-gram at the Institute. Pull-time and extra-mural students can enroll i f they have com-pleted secondary school and have experience in adult education, even as volunteers. In exceptional cases adult educators with many years of experience w i l l be accepted with-out the prescribed secondary education. The program i s completed with a comprehen-sive examination and a thesis. The desig-nation of the graduates i s Graduate Adult Educator....Graduates of other institutions of higher learning...are also eligi b l e for employment i n adult education.- Training in adult education i s arranged for them through further extra-mural courses offer-ed by the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism... (2) Graduation from High Party School i s con-sidered equivalent to prescribed univer-si t y training of the adult educators. Graduates of other institutions of higher learning who have completed a course of study and passed the examinations';at the Evening University of Marxism-leninism are considered to be f u l l y qualified for adult education positions requiring uni-versity training. (3) To be considered as f u l l y qualified also ^The following are excerpts translated from "Jednotna Soustava Vzdelavani Osvetovych Pracovniku," in Prirucka pro  Osvetove Pracovniky, Praha: Orbis, 1963, d i l . I, pp. 63-957 passim. axe graduates of other institutions of higher learning who have completed the three year extra-mural program i n the  Central Trade Union School, or the equivalent residential program, (B) Secondary school training of professional adult educators (1) Adult educators obtain general secondary education i n secondary general education schools and i n workers secondary schools. P o l i t i c a l and specialized training w i l l be organized i n one and two-year specialized training courses for secondary school grad-uates i n the secondary librarianship schools. (2) Graduates of secondary general education  schools, secondary, technical schools and. workers secondary schools who have com-pleted a course of study and passed the examinations at the Evening University of Marxism-leninism are considered to be " f u l l y qualified for adult education pos-itions requiring secondary specialized training. (3) To be considered as f u l l y qualified also are graduates of secondary general educ- ation schools, secondary technical schools  and workers secondary schools who have com-pleted the three-year extra-mural program  i n the Central Trade Union School or the equivalent residential program. The Institute of Adult Education and Journalism The Institute Of Adult Education and Journalism has three departments which provide training i n ( l ) adult education, (2) librarianship, and (3) journalism. Students may enroll i n a regular full-time program or i n a part-time extra-mural program. In the Department of Adult Education of the Institute, the full-time program involves a four-year course of study, a comprehensive examination, and a thesis which i s submitted at the end of a f i f t h year internship. The extra-mural program requires fiv e years of study before the compre-hensive examination, and a thesis at the conclusion of the sixth year.7 When the university training was under discussion during the 1950*s two opposing concepts were proposed. The f i r s t , and originally the more generally favoured concept, advocated training which would encompass a l l aspects of the a l l - i n c l u s -ive adult education practice at that time. The second con-cept, accepted generally after 1958, proposed to eliminate the peripheral areas and to establish adult education as a 8 discipline within pedagogy. It i s important to note that at the time the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism was established, "neither sociology and social psychology, nor theory of adult education were o f f i c i a l l y accepted."9 In i t s brief existence the Institute has re-established the sc i e n t i f i c study of adult education and has become an im-portant research centre i n the f i e l d * The number of students enrolled i n the adult education programs of the Institute was at f i r s t limited by the 7Universita Karlova, Seznam Prednasek na Institutu Osyety a govinarstvi ve Studijnim Boce 1964-65, Praha: Uaiversita Karlova, 1964, p. 3. 8stefan Pasiar, "Nlekolko Myslienok k vysokoskolskemu Studiu Osvety," Osvetovy Sbornik, No. 1, (1964), pp. 38-42. ^Vladimir Jurik, "Zamysleni nad Vysokoskolskym Studiem Osvety," Osvetova Prace, vol. 19, (October 6, 1965)* P« !• 50 scarcity of a qualified teaching f a c u l t y . 1 0 During the session of 1962-63 the M u l t Education Department of the Institute enrolled twenty-five full-time and 173 extra-mural students, i n 1963-64 there were fi f t y - f o u r full-time and 214 extraHnural students, and i n 1964-65 the Department had seventy-three full-time and 243 extra-mural students.H The f i r s t students completed the four-year course of study i n 1964 and were sent into the f i e l d . In 1965, after a year's internship, twenty-one of these returned to submit and defend their theses and receive their degrees. Professional Courses Offered by the Institute The program of study i n adult education at the In s t i -tute of M u l t Education and Journalism includes the o b l i -gatory marxism-leninism but centres on the theory of adult education, social psychology, and sociology with a stress on empirical research. As the training system i s based on the role of the adult educator, so i s the content of the adult education program:12 The Department of Adult Education realizes that i t i s training professionals who w i l l be active i n a wide f i e l d of social practice.... 1 Bukovsky points out that only half of the 458 applicants for the extra-mural program i n i960 and 1961 could be accommo-dated due to lack of faculty. Miroslav Bukovsky, "Jednotna Soustava Vzdelavani Osvetovych Pracovniku Vyhlasena," Osvetova  Prace, v o l . 16, (May 16, 1962), p. 186. ^Exact figures for 1960-61 and 1961-62 were not available to the writer. Figures for 1962-63, 1963-64, and 1964-65 were taken respectively from Bukovsky, oj). cit., p. 186; Milan Kou-bek, "K Nekfcerym Otazkam Vzdelavani Profesionalnich Osvetovych Pracovniku," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (November 20, 1963), p. 420; and Oldrich KLusak, "Kdo Studuje ION?", Osvetova. Prace, v o l . 18, (July 8, 1964), p. 249. Jurik, og;. c i t . pp. 4 - 5 . 51 Therefore i t requires that i t s graduates combine in themselves knowledge of the exact methods of social diagnosis with the s k i l l to apply them i n social and educational work; therefore the extra-ordinary stress on empirical research. The Department demands that i t s gradu-ates be able to undertake research of social r e a l i t y and i t s reflection i n the knowledge of the people, to dev-elop creativity i n the area of concepts and ideas, and to propose solutions to social problems on the basis of s c i -e n t i f i c research. The students get their basic training i n this respect i n applied sociology, especially i n cultural sociology. However, at the same time, the a b i l i t y to change the existing situation i n harmony with the economic and p o l i t i c a l perspectives of s o c i a l i s t i c and communist development i s necessary for their practical work. Therefore i t i s necessary to study and to use the principles of adult education and social psychology and to be able to transform them i n a creative way i n -to measures which enable the socialist society to control consciously the socio-educational and cultural processes. The courses offered i n the full-time and the extra-mural part-time program are l i s t e d i n Tables 2 and 3 respectively. These tables emphasize two basic differences between profes-sional programs i n Czechoslovakia and North America. In the f i r s t place, the program i s offered at the undergraduate le v e l with a major i n adult education. Specialized adult education courses are spread among general education courses throughout the f i r s t four years i n both programs and only the f i f t h year courses are almost exclusively i n the f i e l d of adult education. The second variance from North American practice worth noting i s that the courses in the two pro-grams are a l l prescribed and no elective courses are offered 5f Table 2. Program of Studies of tbe Department of Adult Education Institute of Adult Education and Journalism Full-time Program1^ Winter Session Summer Session Lect- Labs Lect- Labs Year Course T i t l e ures or ures or Sem- Sem-inars inars F i r s t History of Philosophy 2 2 2 2 Marxist Philosophy 2 1 2 1 P o l i t i c a l Economics of Capitalism 3 - 3 -Introduction to the Study of Adult Education - 2 *** 2 History of AduLt Education 2 - 2 2 Plastic Arts 2 : - 2 -History of Music 2 - 2 History of Theatre 2 - - -History of Film 2 - - -Selected Chapters from the History of Czech and Slovak Literature I 2 - ' 2 History of the Natural Sciences 2 ' - 2 -. Russian - 2 - . 2 Foreign Language - 2 - 2 Physical Education - 3 - 3 Second Marxist Philosophy 2 2 2 2 P o l i t i c a l Economics of Socialism 3 - 3 -History of Adult Education 2 - 2 2 Psychology 2 - 2 -Theory of Culture 2 - 2 2 Esthetics 2 - -Selected Chapters from the History of Czech and Slovak Literature II 2 2 2 2 History of the Natural Sciences 2 - - -Russian 2 2 Foreign Language - 2 2 Physical, Education 3 - 3 13j)ata for the table taken from Universita Karlova, oj>. c i t . , pp. 8-13. Table 2. (continued) Winter Session Summer Session Lect- Labs Lect- Labs Year Course T i t l e ures or ures pr Sem- Sem-inars inars Second Optional Specialization: (contd.) A < E a u e a t i o n Through Art Introduction to the Study of Education Through Art 1 Selected Chapters from the Theory of Art - - 2 -Orientation Practicum - 2 - 2 B. Sociology of Culture introduction to Sociology 2 - 2 2 Third Scientific Communism 1 2 1 2 IJevelojmentaifcEroblems: of Contemporary Cap-i t a l i s t Economy 2 - - -Problems of Czechoslovak Economy 2 History of M u l t Education 2 - - -Psychology 2 - -..Psychology i n M u l t Educa-tion 2 2 -Theory and Methodology of Adult Education - - 2 2 Modern Illustrative Devices - - 1 1 Introduction to Sociolog-i c a l Research 2 2 2 2 Cultural P o l i t i c s 2 - 2 2 History of Theatre 2 - - -History of Film 2 - -Esthetics - - 2 Foreign Language - 2 - -Physical Education - 2 - 2 Optional Specialization: A. Local History and Care for Cultural Monuments Introduction to the Theory and History of Care for Monuments 2 Table 2. (continued) Winter Session Summer Session Lect- Labs Lect- Labs Year Course T i t l e ures or ures or Sem- Sem-inars inars Third Seminar i n Methodology (contd.) of Care for Cultural Monuments 2 - 2 Fourth History of the Camminist Party of Czechoslovakia 1 2 - -Cultural P o l i t i c s 2 2 - 2 Theory and Methodology of Adult Education 2 2 2 2 Modern Illustrative Devices 1 1 -Selected Chapters from C i v i l and Administrative Law - 1 1 Physical Education - 2 - 2 Optional Specialization: A. Education Through Art Methods, Techniques and Devices of Education Through Art Psychological Questions of A r t i s t i c Perception Administrative, Legal and Economic Questions of Education Through Art Orientation Practicum Introduction to Sociology of Art Problems of Contemporary Art F i f t h Methodology of Scientific Work Elective Lecture Courses: (two courses to be attend-ed by each student) Sociological Questions of Rural Culture 2 1 2 ; -2 -2 - - -2 - 2 - - 2 2 2 2 2 - - -55 Table 2. (continued) Winter Session Summer Session Lect- Labs Lect- Labs Year Course T i t l e ures or ures or Sem-v Sem-inars inars F i f t h Special Problems of Adult (contd.) Education Besearch 2 - - -Cultural P o l i t i c s of the Communist Party i n the 1930's 2 - - -Adult Education i n Some of the Socialist Countries 2 - -Problems of Modern Music 2 - - -Problems of Modern Plastic Arts 2 u n t i l the f i f t h year. Optional specialized courses i n the areas of art, sociology of culture, l o c a l history, and rural education are offered i n the senior years. In addition to adult educ-ation and the optional specialized courses, stress i s placed on courses with political-ideological content such as Marxist Philosophy, Scientific Communism, P o l i t i c a l Economics of Socialism, Cultural P o l i t i c s , and others. 56 Table 3. Program of Studies of the Department of M u l t Education I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education and Journalism Extra-mural Program^ Year Course T i t l e Winter Session Summer Session Lectures Lectures F i r s t Marxist Philosophy 2 2 History of Philosophy 2 2 P o l i t i c a l Economics of Capitalism 3 3 P l a s t i c Arts 2 2 History of Theatre 3 -History of F i l m - 3 Selected Chapters from the History of Czech and Slovak Literature I 3 3 History of the Natural Sciences 3 2 Russian 2 2 Foreign Language 2 2 Second Marxist Philosophy 2 2 Logic - 2 P o l i t i c a l Economics of Socialism 3 3 History of M u l t Education 3 3 Psychology - 2 History of Music 2 2 History of F i l m 3 -Selected Chapters from the History of Czech and Slovak Literature U 2 3 History of the Natural Sciences 3 -Russian 2 2 Foreign Language 2 2 Third S c i e n t i f i c Communism 2 2 Developmental Problems of Contemporary C a p i t a l i s t Economy 2 -Problems of Czechoslovak Economy - 2 History of M u l t Education 3 -S o c i a l Psychology - 3 Theory of Culture 2 3 •^Loc. c i t . Table 3. (continued) 57 Year Course T i t l e Winter Session Summer Session Lectures Lectures Third History of Theatre 2 4W (contd. )History of Film 2 « Esthetics - 3 Selected Chapters from the History of Czech and Slovak Literature U Z 3 -Russian 1 -Foreign Language 1 -Optional Specialization: A. Education Through Art Selected Chapters from the Theory of Art k 2 Theory of Education Through Art 3 B. Local History and Care for Cultural Monuments Introduction to the Theory and History of Care for Monuments 2 2 Foundations of Methodology of Care for Cultural Monuments 2 2 C. Sociology of Culture Introduction to Sociology 3 3 Fourth Scientific Communism 2 _ History of the Ctommunist Party of Czechoslovakia - 2 Problems of Czechoslovak Economy 2 2 Psychology and Adult Education 3 -Introduction ato.Sociological Research .- 3 Cultural P o l i t i c s 3 3 Social and Philosophical Prob-lems of Technological Development - 2 Esthetics 2 -History of the Natural Sciences 2 2 Table 3. (continued) 58 Year Course T i t l e Winter Session Summer Session Lectures Lectures Fourth Optional Specialization; (contd.) A. Education Through Art Theory of Educational Influence of Art 2 Methods, Techniques and Devices of Education Through Art 2 -Psychological Questions of Education Through Art - k Administrative, Legal and Economic Questions of Education Through Art - 2 B. Cultural and Educational Work i h Rural Areas Economics and Organization of Planning of Socialist Agriculture 6 Marxist Rural Sociology - 6 F i f t h Graduation Seminar 2 2 Elective Lecture Courses (two of these courses to be attended by each student): Sociological Questions of Rural Culture 2 2 Special Problems of Adult Education Research 2 2 Cultural P o l i t i c s of the Communist Party i n the 1930's 2 2 Adult Education and Cultural Work i n Some of the Socialist Countries 2 2 Problems of Modern Music 2 2 Problems of Modern Plastic Arts 2 2 59 An analysis of the content balance of the program of studies (Table 4) based on an a r b i t r a r y assignment of compul-sory courses t o one of four areas, according to the course content implied by the course t i t l e , shows that i n the f u l l -time program adult education i s given 27.41 per cent of the t o t a l course time while philosophy, p o l i t i c a l science and economics are given 33 per cent; the remaining areas i n order of percentage of t o t a l course time are l i t e r a t u r e and arts with 16.24 per cent, miscellaneous courses (History of natural Sciences, Russian, Foreign Language etc.) with 13.20 per cent, and physical education with 10.15 per cent. In the extra-mural program, adult education i s assigned only l 6 . l l per cent of the t o t a l ; philosophy, p o l i t i c a l science and economics are given 36.91 per cent; l i t e r a t u r e and a r t s take second place with 26.85 per cent; and miscel-laneous courses are t h i r d with 20.13 per cent of the t o t a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l time. Physical education i s not included i n Table 4. Content Balance of the Program of Studies of the Department of Adult Education I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education and Journalism Compulsory Courses^ Full-time Program Extra-mural Program Content Area Time Percent Time Percent Factor of Total Factor of Total Time / Time Adult Education 54 27.41 24 } 16.U Philosophy, P o l i t i c a l 65 36.91 Science, Economics 33.00 55 Literature and Arts 32 16.24 40 26.85 Miscellaneous 26 13.20 30 20.13 Physical Education 20 10.15 — — Total 197 100.00 149 100.00 15Based on Table 2 and 3 (see pp. 52-55 aad 56-58). the extra-mural program. Thus In the percentage of the t o t a l course time, adult education ranks second out of f i v e i n the f u l l - t i m e program, but fourth out of four i n the extra-mural program. A comparison of the content of the f u l l - t i m e and the extra-mural program i s provided i n Table 5. Among the com-pulsory courses, Introduction t o the Study of Adult Education, Theory and Methodology of Adult Education, Modern I l l u s t r a -t i v e Devices, Methodology of S c i e n t i f i c Work, Selected Chap-ters from C i v i l and Administrative Lav, and Physical Education are offered only i n the f u l l - t i m e program. On the other hand, courses offered only i n the extra-mural program include S o c i a l Psychology, Logic, S o c i a l and Philosophical Problems of Technological Development, and the Graduation Seminar. Considerable differences i n time allotment f o r courses o f f e r -ed i n both programs can be pointed out es p e c i a l l y i n the case of the History of Adult Education, Introduction t o Soci o l o g i c a l Research, History of Philosophy, Marxist P h i l -osophy, and C u l t u r a l P o l i t i c s which a l l have more time a l l o t -ed i n the f u l l - t i m e program. On the other hand, considerably more time i s assigned to History of Film, Problems of Czech-oslovak Economy, and History of the Natural Sciences i n the extra-mural program. In the f i e l d of psychology, adding the three courses (Psychology, S o c i a l Psychology, and Psychology and Adult Education) there i s only a s l i g h t difference be-tween the two programs. Among the optional s p e c i a l i z a t i o n courses Introduction t o the Study of Education Through A r t , Orientation Practicum ( i n a r t ) , Introduction to Sociology of A r t , Problems of Contemporary A r t , and Seminar i n Methodo-logy of Care f o r C u l t u r a l Monuments are offered only i n the f u l l - t i m e program. Optional s p e c i a l i z a t i o n courses offered only i n the extra-mural program include Theory of Education 61 Table 5. Comparison of the Full-time and the Extra-mural Program of the Department of Adult Education Institute of Adult Education and Journalism^ Full-time Extra-mural Course T i t l e Program Program Lectures, Labs etc. Lectures COMPULSORY COURSES Adult Education: Introduction to the Study of Adult Education k -History of Adult Education Ik 9 Psychology 6 2 Psychology and Adult Education k 3 Theory and Methodology of Adult Education 12 -Modern Illustrative Devices k -Introduction to Sociological 8 Research 3 Methodology of Scientific Work 2 -Social Psychology 3 Graduation Seminar - k Total 5k 2k Philosophy, P o l i t i c a l Science and Economics: History of Philosophy 8 k Marxist Philosophy Ik 8 P o l i t i c a l Economies of Capitalism 6 6 P o l i t i c a l Economics of Socialism 6 6 Theory of Culture 6 5 Scientific Communism 6 6 Developmental Problems of Contempor-ary Capitalist Economy 2 2 Problems of Czechoslovak Economy 2 6 Cultural P o l i t i c s 12 6 History of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia 3 2 Logic - 2 Social and Philosophical Problems of Technological Development - 2 Total 65 55 l 6Loc, c i t . 62 Table 5. (continued) Full-time Extra-mural Course T i t l e Program Program Lectures, Labs etc. Lectures COMPULSORY COURSES (contd.) Literature and the Arts: Selected Chapters from the His-tory of Czech and Slovak Literature 12 Ik Plastic Arts k k History of Music k k History of Theatre k 5* History of Film k 8 Esthetics k ~> Total 32 kO Miscellaneous General Courses: History of the Natural Sciences 6 12 Russian 8 9 Foreign Language 10 9 Selected Chapters from C i v i l and Administrative Law 2 Total 26 30 Physical Education 20 -OPTIONAL SPECIALIZATION Education Through Art: Introduction to the Study of Education Through Art 1 Selected Chapters from the Theory of Art 2 6 Orientation Practicum 8 Methods, Techniques and Devices of Education Through Art 3 2 Psychological Questions of A r t i s t i c Perception 2 h Administrative, Legal and Economic Questions of Education Through Art 2 2 Introduction to Sociology of Art k Problems of Contemporary Art k Theory of Education Through Art - 3 Theory of Education Influence of Art - 2 Total 26 19 Table 5« (continued) Full-time Extra-mural Course T i t l e Programs Program Lectures, Labs etc. Lectures OPTZOHAL SPECIALIZATIOH (contd.) Sociology of Culture: Introduction to Sociology 6 6 Local History and Care for Cult-ural Monuments: Introduction to toe Theory and History of Care for Monuments k h Foundations of Methodology of Care for Cultural Monuments - k Seminar i n Methodology of Care for Cultural Monuments k -Total 8 8 Cultural and Educational Work i n Rural Areas: Economics and Organization of Planning of Socialist Agriculture - 6 Marxist Rural Sociology - 6 Total - 12 ELECTIVE LECTURE COURSES Sociological Questions of Rural Culture h h Special Problems of Adult Education Research h h Cultural P o l i t i c s of the Communist Party i n the 1930*8 k k Adult Education and Cultural Work i n Some of the Socialist Countries k k Problems of Modern Music k k Problems of Modern Plastic Arts k k Through Art, Theory of Educational Influence of Art, Foundations of Methodology of Care for Cultural Monuments, Economics and Organization of Planning of Socialist Agriculture, and Marxist Rural Sociology. Considerable variation l n time allotment a-mong the optional specialization courses, l n each case i n favour of the extra-mural program, can be found only i n Selected Chapters from the Theory of Art and i n Psychological Questions of A r t i s t i c Perception. There i s no variation whatsoever between the two programs i n the f i f t h year elect-ive lecture courses. A general comparison of the adult education content of the two programs points out that the extra-mural program i s based on the assumption that students have sufficient background i n practice i n adult education and thus know from experience what the full-time students have to learn from lectures and seminars (thus Theory and Methodology of Adult Education as well as Modern I l l u s t r a t -ive Devices are l e f t out completely). An overall comparison of the two programs shows that the full-time program i s more theoretical and s c i e n t i f i c while the extra-mural pro-gram i s more pragmatic. As the extra-mural program i s designed f o r the practitioners already working i n the f i e l d without sufficient qualifications i t i s f u l f i l l i n g a definite need, however, i t i s the full-time program which has to produce a sufficient number of theoretitians and research workers without wham the f i e l d cannot progress. The theses presented i n June 1965 at the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism by the f i r s t twenty-one gradu-ates i n adult education (full-time program) reveal the development toward the professlonalization of the f i e l d and the growth of the discipline. One th i r d of the theses were hi s t o r i c a l , while contemporary issues were treated i n the remaining fourteen. These fourteen theses can be c l a s s i f i e d into eight broad categories: the vocational education of adults ranks f i r s t with four theses; army education, the relation of adult education to Communist Party goals, and surveys of adult student interests rank second with two theses each; and f i n a l l y , one thesis was presented on each of the following topics: p o l i t i c a l educ-ation, television, institutions, and adult educators. 1? An additional f i f t y theses were to be completed by the end of 1965 but no information i s available at present on the actual number presented nor the topics* Adult Education Training at Other Universities For several years the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism of the Charles University i n Prague remained the only degree program i n adult education. This may explain, i n part, the high extra-mural enrollment at the Institute. To f a c i l i t a t e such extra-mural study, the Institute estab-lished i n i960 a l o c a l centre at Bratislava. In the f a l l of 1962 the Philosophical Faculty of the Comenius University i n Bratislava established an extra-mural adult education program i n i t s Department of Librarianship and this assumed the functions of the l o c a l centre of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism. Sixty-seven students were enrolled i n this program by the end of 1962.i8 i n 1963 the Comenlus University established an independent Department of Adult Education i n the Philosophical Faculty. ^ M i l a n Bartos, "Prvni Diplomni Prace na Katedre Osvety," Osvetova Prace, vol. 19, (June 28, 1965), p. 10. ^ s t e f a n Sipkovsky, "Ako Budeme Studovat," Osvetova Prace, vol. 16, (December 12, 1962), p. 1*77. The third university to establish a Department of Adult Education was the Safarik University in Presov which enrolled ten full-time and twenty-five extra-mural students in the f i r s t year course in the f a i l of 1964.^9 Since that time there are an increasing number of teachers colleges and normal schools which include a course in adult education a-mong their elective courses as a result of the pressure exerted by the Standard System of Training of Adult Educ-ators which demands preparation of future intelligentsia for voluntary adult education work. Adult Education Training at the Secondary Level Training at the secondary technical level is organized mainly in the three secondary librarianship schools in Prague, Brno and Bratislava. These schools were established origin-ally in 1953 to train cultural workers and adult educators and in 1955 they were reorganized so as to offer two-year programs in general adult education and in librarianship. Applicants for admission to these programs were required to have some experience in the Czechoslovak Youth Union and were selected by the national committees at the regional lev-e l . After the completion of the course the graduates were expected to return to work in their own region. 2^ The training program at these schools included, courses 19v. Pokorny, "Rozhovor s Veducim Katedry Osvety v Pres-ove Janom Mlsalom," Osvetova Prace. vol . 19, (January 13, 1965), p. 7. 20Eiiska Vesela, "Kern s Himi?" Osvetova Beseda, vol . 11, (May 30, 1956), p. 256. i n marxism-leninism, adult education content, methods and techniques, mass recreation, selected topics from pedagogy and educational psychology, music and art education, founda-tions of agriculture, economics, typewriting, and p r a c t i c a l work i n an a r t c i r c l e and i n a c h o i r - r e c i t a t i o n c i r c l e . The course of study included an internship during the school year i n an i n s t i t u t i o n i n the immediate area of the school, as w e l l as a three-week internship i n another d i s t r i c t . 2 1 The schools were reorganized again i n 1962 when the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators was declared and when the schools were renamed secondary l i b r a r i a n s h i p schools. At that time the adult education program of the schools was organized into three separate courses: 2 2 (1) A two-year regular f u l l - t i m e program f o r graduates of secondary general education schools; (2) A two-year extra-mural program f o r graduates of secondary general educ-ation schools, workers secondary schools and secondary technical schools, f o r adult educators employ-ed already i n the f i e l d ; and (3) A one-year spe c i a l course f o r adult educators working In the f i e l d who do not f u l f i l l the secondary school requirement, are over f o r t y years o l d , and had the f u l l q u a l i f i c a t i o n requirement at the univ e r s i t y pr secondary l e v e l waived by t h e i r em-ployer. Unlike the l i b r a r i a n s h i p program which was i n i t i a t e d ^ E l i s k a Vesela, "Hastavbove Studium na Osvetovych Skolach, Osvetova Beseda, v o l . 11, (September 19, 1956), pp. kk6-kk7. 22 , tjednotna Soustava...op_. c i t . , p. 70. 68 immediately i n 1962, the adult education, program was introduced i n two steps. The two-year extra-mural and the special one-year programs were i n operation i n 1962-63 but the two-year regular full-time program did not begin u n t i l the 1963-64 school year. 23 The program of study i n the adult education program of the secondary librarianship schools was also reorganized i n 1962 on the basis of the experience gained since 1953. l a this reorganization the study of marxism-leninism has been related more closely to the work of the students; within the adult education subject area, history was curtailed and selected information on adult education abroad was added; and an important addition was the inclusion of basic social oh, research methodology. The three secondary librarianship schools enrolled 198 students i n the extra-mural course and 145 students i n the one-year special course i n their f i r s t year after reorgan-ization. During 1963-64 an additional 110 students were enrolled i n the extra-mural course. In order to accommodate this number of extra-mural students the schools established l o c a l centres i n six strategic locations i n Plzen, Ceske Budejovlce, Hradec Kralove, Ostrava, Banska Bystrica and KosIce. 25 23"Hove Poslani Strednich Khihovnickych Skol," Osvetova  Prace, v o l . 16, (October 31i 1962), p. 422. 2 4Ludfcik Paeovsky, "Stredni Knohovnicke Skoly," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 17, (September 25, 1963), p. 338. 25Kbubek, 0£ . c i t . , p. 421. In-service Training of Professional M u l t Educators 69 There i s l i t t l e evidence that in-service training was available to professional adult educators during the 1940's and 1950*s. In January 1956, the f i r s t national two-day seminars were organized for leaders i n the profession. These seminars were held every three months and the participants were then to organize similar seminars at the regional l e v e l for leading adult educators i n their regions. 2 6 The regions, and the d i s t r i c t s within the regions, also organized their own in-service training according to their own needs, the a v a i l a b i l i t y and i n i t i a t i v e of instructors, and the attitude of the competent organs of the national committees. 2 7 The three main c i t i e s , Prague, Brno and Bratislava, were In a favourable position on a l l three counts. Prague, for example, has had a well developed system of in-service training for i t s d i s t r i c t inspectors of adult education since 1958.2® The Standard System of Training of M u l t Educators established two methods for the in-service training of pro-fessional adult educators«29 ( l ) Seminars (a) Two-day ideological specialized d i s t r i c t  seminars held at least twice a year,,.. ^"Seminarni Dny — Dulezity Nastroj. Naseho Sebevzdelani, M  Osvetova Beseda. vol. 11, (January 25, 1956) p. 40. 27see for example "Cenne Pardubicke Zfcusenosti ze Skoleni Osvetaru," Osvetova Beseda, vol. 11, (April 4> 1956), p. l 6 l . 2®J. Janusik, "Skola Osvetove Pracs," Osvetova Prace. v o l . 12, (January 8, 1958), p. 6. 29"jedhotna Soustava..,;" o£. c i t . , pp. 71-73• 70 The seminars are compulsory for inspectors of adult education, professional employees of adult education institutions of the national committees, professional employees of mass organizations, and professional adult educators employed by other institutions and governmental departments. Accord-ing to lo c a l conditions selected voluntary adult educators may a l -so be invited to attend. ( b) Central and regional seminars on topics of timely ideological-p o l i t i c a l , theoretical and pr a c t i -cal problems of specific areas of adult education* The participants w i l l be leading and selected pro-fessionals from the regions and di s t r i c t s as well as some out-standing volunteers. (°) Joint seminars dealing with the main ideological-political quest-ions cf cultural work and adult education i n the coming year w i l l be organized f o r high o f f i c i a l s and experts of the ministries con-cerned, of the central committees of the mass organizations, and the central methodological institutions. (2) Courses ( a) Central residential and correspond-ence courses for leading regional and d i s t r i c t professional adult educators, arranged according to their areas of work and dealing with their needs and problems. These courses are designed especially for new employees. (b) Regional residential and correspond-ence courses for other professional adult educators arranged i n the same way but at regional l e v e l . In addition to participation i n these .in-service training 71 opportunities, further professional and ide o l o g i c a l study i n the Party Schools, night schools, people*s u n i v e r s i t i e s , and through excursions, consultations, and i n d i v i d u a l study was assigned t o professional adult educators as part of t h e i r professional growth.30 Qualifications of Professional Adult Educators In the planned economic system of Czechoslovakia, occupational t i t l e s and positions are designed on a national basis with q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n terms c f schooling and experi-ence f o r each p o s i t i o n prescribed by the central planning organs. The nomenclature and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of professional positions i n adult education are outlined i n Table 6. At the program planning and administrative l e v e l s , u n i v e r s i t y graduation and extensive experience i n adult education are required f o r the positions of direc t o r of an adult education centre, supervisor of c u l t u r a l clubhouse i n the f i r s t cate-gory (employing more than s i x permanent professional workers), section chairman i n an adult education centre, and program supervisor i n such a centre. Higher technical school t r a i n -ing and extensive experience . are required f o r the positions of supervisor of c u l t u r a l clubhouse i n the second and t h i r d category (employing l e s s than s i x permanent professional workers). Secondary school graduation, a l i b r a r i a n s h i p course and some experience are necessary f o r the p o s i t i o n of l i b r a r i a n i n an adult education centre (not t o be confused with a l i b r a r i a n In a public l i b r a r y ) . At the f u l l - t i m e 30ibid., p. 73. 72 Table 6. Nomenclature of Professional Adult Education Positions with Qualifications Required31 Position T i t l e Qualifications Required Education Experience Director of Adult Education Centre University graduation 10 years adult education exper-ience Supervisor of Cult-ural Clubhouse Category I Supervisor Of Cult-ural Clubhouse Category II and III Section Supervisor, Adult Education Centre Program Supervisor University graduation Higher Technical School University graduation University graduation 10 years adult education exper-ience 8 years adult education exper-ience 10 years adult education exper-ience 8 years adult education exper-ience Program Co-ordinator Higher Technical School 5 years adult education exper-ience Librarian Instructor, People's University Secondary School graduation plus Librarianship Course University graduation 3 years l i b r a r y experience 10 years exper-ience i n own f i e l d Instructor, Special Courses Secondary School graduation plus Lang-uage Diploma OR High-er Technical School 8 years exper-ience i n own f i e l d Instructor Higher Technical School 5 years exper-ience i n own f i e l d 3lData for the table taken from "Nomenklatura Punkci a Punkcn-ich Platu V Osvetovych Domech a Osvetovych Besedach," Osvetova Praxe, Ho. 1-2, (1961), pp. 3-4. 73 teaching l e v e l , an instructor at a people's u n i v e r s i t y must have un i v e r s i t y graduation and ten years of experience i n h i s f i e l d . An instructor i n special courses has to be a secondary school graduate, have a language diploma, higher technical school t r a i n i n g , and eight years of experience i n h i s f i e l d . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a f u l l - t i m e instructor of adult day and night courses include higher technical school t r a i n i n g and f i v e years experience i n h i s f i e l d . Regional and d i s -t r i c t inspectors of adult education are to be un i v e r s i t y graduates,but the required length of experience was not established. While the minimal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of professional adult educators have been established by the M i n i s t r y of Education, the actual s i t u a t i o n i n the f i e l d i s f a r from reaching the prescribed l e v e l s . Both the s c a r c i t y of trained professionals and the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l considerations have made the departmental regulation on q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n e f f e c t i v e . Published data on actual q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of professional adult educators are scarce and nothing was found covering the period from I9U5 t o 1961. The data available f o r 1961 indicates that as of January 1st of that year only t h i r t e e n of the k$l professionals employed i n the houses of culture i n Slovakia had u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g while at the same time only f o r t y - f i v e professionals were enrolled i n extra-mural courses. In 1962, a survey conducted by the Ins t i t u t e of Adult Education i n Prague, revealed that of seventy-nine adult 32stefan Kcpcan, "Ha I n s t i t u t e by M a l i V i a c e r i Studovat," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 16, ( A p r i l k, 1962), p* 136. 74 education centres i n Bohemia and Moravia seventy per cent of the professional employees did not have the lev e l of training prescribed for their position .33 m March of 1963 another survey of the qualifications of 169 inspectors of adult education, and a related survey in A p r i l of the same year of 109 directors of adult education centres show the lev e l of training at that time.3* Only 27*6*3 per cent of the inspectors Table 7. Qualifications of Inspectors of Adult Education i n Bohemia and Moravia i n March, 196335 Category Number Percentage Have completed university training 18 10.66 Had university training waived 39 23.09 Are studying for completion 29 17.17 Are not studying for completion 83 49.08 Total survey 169 100.00 of adult education had completed or were studying at university (Table 7) while 37«6l per cent of the directors of adult educ-ation centres were so reported as shown on Table 8. In the original source of the data presented i n Table 8, there i s a marked discrepancy between the tot a l surveyed and the com-bined t o t a l of those who had or did not have university t r a i n -ing. 36 Pacovsky,37 c i t i n g the same survey, claims that forty-33nNove Poslani...," oj». c i t , , p. 422. 34Koubek, pj>. c i t . , p. 420. 35LOC. c i t . 3*%oc. c i t . 37Ludvik Pacovsky, "Vzdelavatele," Kulturni Tvorba, vol. 2, (May 28, 1964), p. 3. 75 f i v e of the directors of adult education centres are studying for completion, while Koubek, who was the source for the data claims only twenty-five directors as studying for com-pletion. This discrepancy cannot be resolved. Table 8, Qualifications of Directors of Adult Education,Centres i n Bohemia and Moravia i n A p r i l , 196338 Category Number Percentage Have completed university training 16 14.68 Had university training waived 31 28.44 Are /studying f o r completion 25 22.93 Unspecified 37 33.95 Total surveyed 109 100,00 P a r t i a l data from regional surveys made i n 1963 cited i n several sources (Table 9) indicates that i n the West Bohemia region not one of the d i s t r i c t inspectors of adult education had university training, while i n the Central Bohemia region sixty per cent of the employees of the d i s t r i c t adult educ-ation and of the cultural Institutions did not have the prescribed training.39 i n the East Bohemia region, t h i r t y -four per cent of the inspectors of adult education, forty-eight per cent of the directors of adult education centres, and sixty-eight per cent of the section supervisors i n these centres did not have the required t r a i n i n g . 4 0 In the North Bohemia region, only eighteen per cent of the inspectors of adult education and twenty-six per cent of the co-ordinators 3%oubek, og. c i t . , p. 420. 39LOC. c i t . 40Koubek, op_. c i t . , p. 420. i n adult education centres had the required t r a i n i n g . 4 1 76 Table 9. Qualifications of Professional Adult Educators Regions of Bohemia i n 1963^ 2 Region Position T i t l e Percentage With Required Training Percentage Without Required Training West Bohemia Inspector of Adult . Education — 100 East Bohemia Inspector of Adult Education 66 34 Director of Adult Education Centre 52 1*8 Section Supervisor 32 68 Central Bohemia Professional Employees of -- Adult Education Centres 40 60 North Bohemia Inspector of Adult Education 18 82 Program Co-ordinator 26 South Bohemia Data not available Data for 1964 could be found only on professional adult educators i n positions requiring secondary technical school training. In Bohemia and Moravia sixty-five per cent and i n Slovakia sixty-two per cent of professional adult educators did not have the necessary secondary level training. 43 4lLudvik Pacovsky and Cenek Knobloch, "Clsla Plna Pesim-ismu?" Osvetova Prace> .vol. 17, (April 3, 1963), P« 102. 4 2Table 9 was computed from Pacovsky, og_. c i t . , p. 3, Koubek, 0£. cit . , p. 420; and Pacovsky and Knobloch, o£. c i t . , p. 102. 43p,ata on Bohemia and Moravia taken from Milan Koubek, "Kvalifikace Osvetovych Pracovniku," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 18, (September 16, 1964), p. 331; data on Slovakia worked out from Jan Souc, "Perspektivu aj vo Vzdelavani Osvetovych Pracovnik-o v » w Osvetova Prace, vol. 18, (March 18, 1964), p. 101. 77 Problems of Professional Training These data show that there i s a high percentage of f u l l -time adult educators who lack the prescribed training; however, i n 1963 only f i f t y - f o u r of them were enrolled i n the extra-mural programs. (Tables 7 and 8.) In his analysis of low qualifications of professional adult educators Pacovsky^* singled out four contributing factors: ( l ) professional t r a i n -ing i s s t i l l not valued enough both by the control organizations and by the adult educators themselves, (2) low educational background of some of the elected o f f i c i a l s of l o c a l government does influence strongly the educational l e v e l of adult educ-ators, (3) unsatisfactory working conditions do not attract highly qualified people,: and (4) as long as organizations w i l l continue employing people without the necessary qualifications i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to convince adult educators to increase their qualifications. A director of one of the secondary librarianship schools complained that many employers do not respect the prescribed time-release agreement they have signed for their employees who are enrolled i n extra-mural courses.^5 Furthermore, he noted that there i s a dearth of suitable text-books and very l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n purchasing books for the school library. As an example, he noted that the f i r s t and only history of adult education i n Slovakia 1* 0 cannot be pur-chased because i t does not appear i n the l i s t of books ap-proved for the secondary librarianship schools and the regional wPacovsky, op. c i t . , p* 3« Pokcrny, "Rozhovor s Michalom Rovnakom, Riaditelom Stred-nej Knihovnicked Skoly v Bratislave," Osvetova Prace, vol. 18, (August 19, 1964), p. 304. **6p a Biar and Paska, op_. c i t . 78 national committee w i l l therefore not authorize i t s purchase. Other obstacles to development which he mentioned were the lack of rooms and a shortage of suitable internships; f o r students, 4 7 The rate of drop-outs from extraHmural programs i s very-high according to many writers but no exact data could be located. Paccvsky4® surveyed eleven extra-mural students who dropped out of his adult education class i n the second-ary librarianship school and received four replies, The re-spondents blamed (a) the way the courses were organized and the lack of relationship between their daily work and their study, (b) their work load which prevented them from regular attendance at the weekly full-day consultations, (c) their superiors who did not encourage them to carry on, and (d) the lack of motivation .and interest, as well as personal problems. In another source, Cervenanska49 pointed out that fin a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with travel and l i v i n g expenses incurred i n attending the weekly consultation sessions, as well as the long hours spent travelling to and from the training sessions, take their t o l l . The apparent shortage of qualified professional adult educators i s compounded by the drain of well trained employ-ees to other f i e l d s . Souc^ 0 claimed that as many as one 47This analysis could be applied with equal v a l i d i t y to the situation i n non-communist countries, ^Ludvlk Pacovsky, "Nechali Toho," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (July 24, 1963), pp. 274-275* 4?M. Cervenanska, "Studujaca a Studiu," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 19, (February 10, 1965), p. 2. 5°Souc, pjj. c i t . , p. 101. hundred graduates i n adult education from the secondary l i b -rarianship school at Bratislava are not working i n the f i e l d . He pointed out that the school w i l l not be i n the position to tr a i n the projected number of professional adult educators needed i n Slovakia even up to 1980 i f this drain should carry on. Cemaa?1 analysed the underlying causes of the high turn-over and identified four contributing factors: (a) un-satisfactory approach of directing organizations such as, the misuse of adult educators fo r unrelated tasks i n agri-cultural and formalistic p o l i t i c a l propaganda, (b) poor s e l -ection of people for adult education positions as with the hiring of inexperienced young people or those rejected from other positions, (c) subjectivism and the "cult of person-a l i t y " , and (d) insufficient appreciation of the value of adult education and adult educators on the part of both the organizations and the general public. Evaluation of the Training System for Professionals i ( At the university l e v e l the training of professional adult educators has developed well i n the period since I960. By 1964 three universities (two i n Slovakia and one i n Bohemia) had f u l l programs i n adult education both for r e s i -dent and extra-mural students. The Institute' of Adult Educ-ation and Journalism at Charles University i n Prague which i s now past the i n i t i a l stage of development has developed into a research centre and has proven i t s e l f even to those 5 % a r t i n Ceman, "Protl Pluktuacii v Osvete," Osvetova  Prace, v o l . 17, (December 18, 1963), p. 463. 8o who were doubtful and wished i t to f a i l . 5 s With t h i s coming of age, new tasks f o r the I n s t i t u t e were i d e n t i f i e d by J u r i k . 53 He noted the need f o r a greater d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of study areas with i n the f i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y with respect to sociology and adult learning, which w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the proportional arrangement of courses and i n greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n selecting course combinations and el e c t i v e courses. The s i t u a t i o n i s not as good at the secondary t r a i n i n g l e v e l . In spite of t h e i r longer t r a d i t i o n , the secondary l i b -rarianship schools do not seem to be either f i r m l y established nor accepted. Balaz54 claimed that the school i n B r a t i s l a v a had not been given s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i c i t y and that i n s t i t u t i o n s and individuals i n the f i e l d do not co-operate s u f f i c i e n t l y with the school i n accepting i t s students i n internships. He c r i t i c i z e d the authorities d i r e c t i n g the school f o r indecision as w e l l as f o r inadequate programs. As l a t e as December 1965, Pokorny55 claimed that the schools d i d not properly t r a i n s p e c i a l i s t s i n a l l areas of adult education so that the gradu-ates are d i f f i c u l t t o f i t into adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s as they themselves have no preferences or special i n t e r e s t . He charged that while the graduates had t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, t h e i r attitude toward adult education and p o l i t i c a l - o r g a n i z a t -i o n a l work was lacking. Lapar56 stressed that the standard 5 2See Pacovsky, "Vzdelavatele, n oj>. c i t . p. 3j J i r i Ort and Peter Topiar, "Vysokoskolaci a Osvetova Praxe," Osvetova Prace. v o l . 19, (January 27, 1965), pp. 6-7$ and J u r i k , 0 % . . c i t . pp. l-5« 53jurik, cjs. c i t . , p. 5. y^Jaa Balaz, "0 Problemoch Osvetovej Skoly," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 16, (May 16, 1962), p. 188. 55y. Pokorny, "Mladi o Sebe a o Vselicom Inom," Osvetova  Prace, v o l . 19, (December 1, 1965), p. 3. 56za.eno Lapar, "Hiekolko Hametov k Realizovaniu Jednotnej Sustavy Vzdelavania Osvetovych Pracovnikov," Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 11, (1963), P. 52. 81 system did not i n fact standardize training at the', secondary lev e l as i t approved three separate and different ways to quali-f i c a t i o n (secondary librarianship schools, Central Trade Union School, and Evening University of Marxism-leninism). A l l these institutions are independent from each other and the standard system of training w i l l not be accomplished i n practice u n t i l these programs are f u l l y co-ordinated, Koubek57 i n 1964 assessed developments i n the in-service training of adult educators and found that seminars, courses, \ excursions and exchanges of experience are being organized at the d i s t r i c t and regional le v e l with increasing frequency. He c r i t i c i z e d the forms which the seminars often assume and suggested the need for a centrally prepared system of in-service training. In an overall evaluation of the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, Koubek58 expressed satisfaction with the development of training i n Bohemia and Moravia. He pointed out that at the university l e v e l the number of adult educators with completed university training increased by four per cent between 1962 and 1963 while the number with secondary le v e l training increased by nine per cent in the same period, Souc59 evaluated the development of the system i n Slovakia early i n 1964 and found that enrollment both at the university and the secondary le v e l showed an encouraging increase but, at the same time, he c r i t i c i z e d in-service training and budgetary 57Milan Koubek, "Kvalifikace Osvetovych Pracovniku, n Osvetova  Prace, vol. 18, (September 16, 1964), p. 333-58lbid., p. 331. 59souc, op_. c i t . , p. 101. 82 measures i n support of the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators. 0 0 Long Range Planning Economic planning i s an important element i n the present Czechoslovak system and the planning of human resources forms an integral part of this overall planning. Koubek o 1 notes that the long-range plan for the Department of Adult Education of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism for the years 1965-70 anticipates an enrollment of 500 students per year. The long-range plans for the departments of adult education of the secondary librarianship schools i n Prague and Brno anticipate from 150 to 170 students per year during the same period. He points out that this number w i l l not f i l l a l l the adult education positions planned for and asked that the training system he allowed to enroll more students. Lapar° 2 suggested that the formulation of long-range plans for the training of professional adult educators i s frustrated by the lack of a national long-range plan which projects the future need for professional adult educators according to specialized positions. He asked that such a plan be pre-pared i n five-year steps up to 1980 so that the number of stu-dents, courses, classes, and the faculty needed can be worked out according to the projected need for personnel i n a l l It i s interesting to note that there i s l i t t l e comparable criticism and self-evaluation to be found i n the literature of western society. olKoubek, op., c i t . , p. 332. 6 2Lapar. op. c i t . , pp. 54-55* 83 areas of adult education. Souc°3 outlined the areas such a long-range plan would have to;cover at the d i s t r i c t and region-a l l e v e l : (a) a projection of increase or decrease of profes-sional adult educators, (b) the recruitment of university-trained professional adult educators, (c) the recruitment of professional adult educators with secondary qualifications, (d) the ideological-political and specialized in-service training of professional adult educators, (e) the training of volunteers, (f) courses and institutes for both professional and voluntary adult educators, and (g) a budgetary plan for in-service training of professional and voluntary adult educ-ators which allocates financial responsibility among the p a r t i c i -pating organizations and institutions. Concern for expansion and better quality of training of full-time adult educators has produced v i s i b l e results since i960. One of the direct consequences of this concern, and of the resulting increased numbers of f u l l y trained professional adult educators i n the f i e l d , has been the improved provisions for and the quality of training of the thousands of volunteers engaged i n the varied adult education act i v i t i e s at the l o c a l village and c i t y d i s t r i c t levels. 0** 63souc, op_. c i t . , p. 101. Unfortunately this kind of long-range planning i s not possible at present in western societies and one rarely sees i n the literature such specific examples of careful thought for future needs. CHAPTER V THE TRAINING OF VOLUNTARY ADULT EDUCATORS The Volunteers and Their Training Heeds Much of the progress of adult education i n the country-side since the middle of the nineteenth century i s due to the e f f o r t s of hundreds of school teachers who were the spearhead of a c t i v i t i e s from l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g t o hobbies and from amateur theatre to the dissemination of a g r i c u l t -u r a l innovations. Even with the considerable number of professional adult educators now i n the country, school teachers play an important r o l e as volunteers. A survey i n the Plzen region i n 1956 1 revealed that i n the r u r a l areas surrounding the c i t y there were 2,478 volunteers of whom 711 or 28.69 per cent were school teachers. This ranged from 39.60 per cent i n the v i l l a g e with the highest to I8.OO per cent i n the v i l l a g e with the lowest teacher i n -volvement. The percentage of teachers serving as volunteers i n adult education was found to increase as the distance of the v i l l a g e from the c i t y increased. Nine years l a t e r , i n 1965, Holman 2 analysed voluntarism i n adult education and claimed that school teachers i n the v i l l a g e s are used as ^j r a n t i s e k Sika, "Ucitele a Osveta," Osvetova Beseda, v o l . 11, (December 27, 1956), p. 602. Sjaroslav Holman, "Je Osveta Clnnost Dobrovolna?" Kul t u r n i  Tvorba, v o l . 3, ( A p r i l 22, 1965), p. 5« 85 "volunteers' 1 because of t r a d i t i o n , of convenience, and because they are the easiest to "volunteer" f o r an unwanted Job. He pointed out that the s o c i a l structure of the v i l l a g e has changed r a d i c a l l y and that i n addition to school teachers there are now other i n t e l l e c t u a l s working i n the v i l l a g e s who have more l e i s u r e time available who should be c a l l e d upon to work as volunteers i n adult education t o a f a r greater degree than i s now the case. Since the declaration of the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators considerable attention i s given t o the recruitment and preparation of u n i v e r s i t y and technical school students f o r voluntary work i n adult education during t h e i r f i n a l year. This i s es p e c i a l l y true i n the f i e l d s of public health and agriculture.3 \ i i A survey of voluntary adult educators was conducted by the I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education i n Prague during the second half of 1964.4 This questionnaire survey c o l l e c t e d data from a random sample of seventy-three board chairmen of the adult education centres i n v i l l a g e s i n the Central Bohemia region. An unusual return of one hundred per cent was reported. The survey shows an equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents of 23*28 per cent each i n age groups of 30-40 years, 40-50 years, and over 60 years with a s l i g h t l y higher number i n the 50-60 age group (26.04 per cent) and a few respondents less than 30 years of 3see f o r example Rastislav Dostal, "Mlada Intelligence a Dob-rovolna Osvetova Cinnost," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 19, (March 24, 1965). PP. 8-10. % r a n t i s e k Turnovec, "Otazniky a C i s l a , " Osvetova Prace, v o l . 19, ( A p r i l 7, 1965), PP* 4-5. The I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education i n Prague i s a research i n s t i t u t e f o r Bohemiaand Moravia and -should not be confused with the I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education and Journalism, a f a c u l t y of the Charles University i n Prague. The I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education i n Bratislava Is a counterpart of the Prague i n s t i t u t e and serves Slovakia. 86 Table 10. Soeio-Economic Characteristics of Board Chairmen of Village Adult Education Centres Central Bohemia Region, 1961*5 Socio-Economic Characteristics Number Percentage AGE Less than 30 years 3 1*.12 30-1+0 years 17 23.28 1*0-50 years 17 23.28 50-60 years 19 26.01* Over 60 years 17 23.28 Total 73 100.00 SEX Male 58 79.45 Female 15 20.55 Total 73 100.00 OCCUPATION Teacher 20 27.31 State employee 1*2 57.53 Worker 16 21.96 Total 73 100.00 SCHOOLING Elementary 20 27.31 Secondary 1*2 57.53 University 11 15.06 Total 73 100.00 age (1*.12 per cent). A majority of the respondents (79.45 P©*" cent were men while women represent only 20.55 per cent. Only three categories of occupations were l i s t e d : state employees represent a majority with 57*53 per cent (due to the economic system of Czechoslovakia this category represents a greater variety of occupations than the usual North American category of c i v i l servant), teachers are second with 27.31 per cent, while workers take the t h i r d place with 21.96 per cent. Most 5Loc. c i t . 87 of the respondents (57«53 per cent) reported secondary educ-ation while 27.31 per cent reported elementary education and 15.06 per cent reported un i v e r s i t y education. (Table 10.) More than ha l f of the board chairment (56.16 per cent) had no tr a i n i n g i n adult education, only 10.96 per cent had attended the Basic Course of the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, and 32.88 per cent had attended other courses f o r adult educators. (Table U.) On the other hand, 84.93 per cent of the respondents had attended p o l i t i c a l schooling organized by the Communist Party and only 15.07 per cent d i d not attend such schooling. In addition to the socio-economic data the survey measured attitudes of the respondents toward adult education (Table 12). I t i s interesting to note that while 63.OI per cent of the board chairmen considered p o l i t -i c a l education as the most important adult education a c t i v i t y , only 12.33 per cent indicated a g i t a t i o n and propaganda as t h e i r area of int e r e s t . Popular art c r e a t i v i t y was considered Table 11. Training Background of Board Chairmen of Vi l l a g e Adult Education Centres Central Bohemia Region, 1964° Kind of Training Humber Percentage ADULT EDUCATION TBAIHIHG 10.96 Basic Course 8 Other Courses 24 32.88 Ho training 41 56*16 Total 73 100.00 POLITICAL SCHOOLING 62 84.94 Have p o l i t i c a l schooling Have no p o l i t i c a l schooling 11 15.06 Total 73 100.00 "Loc. c i t . 88 most important by 28.77 per cent of the respondents but 34.25 per cent indicated their interest i n such a c t i v i t i e s . Similarly, l i b r a r y work was l i s t e d as most important by 13.65 per cent but 24.66 per cent of the respondents were inter-ested i n li b r a r y work. Knowledge of the social usefullness of their work was l i s t e d by 90.41 per cent, interest i n adult education by 71.23 per cent, and interest i n working with people by 67.12 per cent of the board chairmen as motivation for their involvement. Interest l n and support of adult educ-ation by the lo c a l government was considered by 61.64 per cent as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor ln their work while a c t i v i t i e s of the mass organizations were given by 24.66 per cent; recognition of their work by society was l i s t e d by 15.06 per cent and sup-port of the Communist Party was indicated by 13.65 per cent as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor. As hindering factors were indicated the lack of interest i n the society at large by 71.23 per cent of the respondents, too many functions were l i s t e d by 28.77 per cent, insufficient guidance i n their work by 8.22 per cent, insufficient c l a r i t y of their role and task was considered by 6.85 per cent, and other hindering factors were given by 9*57 per cent of the respondents. Further objective hindrances were seen i n the complacency of the citizenry by 30.14 per cent of the board chairmen, i n the proximity of a c i t y to their Centre by 27.31 per cent, in insufficient equipment of their Centre by 26.04 per cent, i n competition of television by 21.96 per cent, and i n lack of finance by 17.81 per cent of the board chairmen. A majority of 71.23 per cent considered training i n methods and techniques of adult education as im-portant to increasing their qualifications and s k i l l s . Other areas of concern l i s t e d i n this category were adult pedagogy (50.73 per cent), economics and national economy (39«73 per cent), psychology (35.62 per cent), marxism-leninism (34.25 per cent), history of adult education (31.50 per cent), marxist esthetics 89 Table 12. Survey of: Attitudes Toward Adult Education of 73 Board Chairmen of Village Adult Education Centres Central Bohemia Region, 19647 Category Item Number Percentage of 73 1. Considered most im- P o l i t i c a l education 46 63.OI portant adult educ- Education of workers 37 50.73 ation activity Popular art creativity 21 28.77 Library work 10 13.65 Museum work 4 5-48 Nature preservation 5-48 work 4 Other activities 5 6.85 2. Interested i n Popular art creativ-i t y 25 34.25 Library work 18 24.66 General education 14 19.18 Agitation and propa-ganda 9 12.33 3. Motivation for Knowledge of social involvement i n usefulness of their voluntary work work 66 90.41 Interest i n adult ed-ucation 52 71.23 Interest i n working with people 49 67.12 4. Indicated as f a c i l - Interest and support 46 61.64 itating factors i n of loc a l government their work Activ i t i e s of mass organizations 18 24.66 ... Recognition of their 15.06 work by society 11 Support by the Commun- v . 13.65 i s t Party 10 5- Indicated as hinder- Lack of interest i n ing factors i n the society at their work large 52 71.23 Too many functions 21 28.77 Insufficient guidance 6 8.22 Insufficient c l a r i t y of their role and task 5 6.85 Other factors 7 9-57 7LOC. c i t . 9'o Table 12. (continued) Category Item Number Percentage of 73 6. Indicated as further Complacency of the 22 30.ll* objective hindrances citizenry Proximity of a city to their Centre 20 27.31 Insufficient equip-26.01* ment of their Centre 19 Influence of tele-vision 16 21.96 Lack of finance 13 17.81 7* Areas regarded as Methods and tech-important to in- niques of adult crease adult educ- education 52 71.23 ation qualifications Adult pedagogy 37 50.73 Economics and nat-ional economy 29 39.73 Psychology 26 35.62 Marxism-leninism 2h 34.25 History of adult education 23 31.50 Marxist esthetics 20 27.31 Other areas l l * 19.18 Practical experience 7 . 9.57 No response 5 6.85 (27.31 per cent), and other unspecified areas (19.18 per cent). Practical experience in adult education was considered as Import-ant by 9.57 per cent of the board chairmen. The response to the question on needs in training is a good Indication of the shift in emphasis within the f i e l d and of the growing awareness on the part of the volunteers that adult education training is necessary for effective practice. Training of Volunteers Before the Standard System The training of volunteers in adult education can be traced 91 back to the establishment of the Masaryk Institute f o r Adult Education i n 1925, however, the scope of the training f o r volunteers increased considerably after the presidential decree on adult education of October 1945. Trnka® wrote i n 1947: "regular short-term courses and schools lasting several months are held i n smaller towns to prepare l o c a l instructors and organizers, and the older pupils i n secondary and special schools are given occasional talks about their work." During the period from 1948 through the early 1950's the training of volunteers was reduced to p o l i t i c a l and ideological indoctrin-ation* Since 1954, the training of adult education volunteers has again become a subject of discussion i n the literature on adult education and training has also been re-introduced on a limited scale.9 The Standard Training System The Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, out-lined a training program for volunteers as follows :1° % , Trnka, "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia," Adult Educ-ation (U.K.), v o l . 19, (March, 19^7), P- 163. 9see for example M. T., "Skola Osvetovych Pracovniku," Os- vetova Prace, vol, 9, (1954), p. 71; 0, Mesicek, "K Otazce Indivldualniho Studia Osvetaru," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 9, (1954), p. 91; and "Co By Mel Dobry Osvetovy Pracovnik Znat," Osvetova  Prace, v o l . 9, (1954), p. 363. These articles are s t i l l under the influence of dogmatism, draw exclusively on experience i n the U.S.S.R., and place too much stress on agricultural propa-ganda, but they form the beginning of a renewed effort at the training of voluntary adult educators. l°The following are excerpts translated from "Jednotna Soustava Vzdelavani Osvetovych Pracovniku," i n Prirucka pro  Osvetove Pracovniky, praha: Orbis, 1963, DU. I, pp, 73-76, passim. The mala load of work In adult education f a l l s ou volunteers. Therefore i t i s of utmost importance t o give them extraordin-ary attention... .The main task of the System i s to supplement and to enlarge basic know-ledge of marxism-leninism, p r i n c i p l e s oft i n -t e r n a l and external p o l i t i c s of the Czecho-slovak S o c i a l i s t Republic, acquaint the volunteers with basic Party l i n e and with current problems of c u l t u r a l work, and to equip them with basic specialized s k i l l s necessary i n t h e i r voluntary a c t i v i t y . The system of Party schooling i s given an important place i n the deepening of the p o l i t i c a l and technical knowledge of the volunteers....The system of t r a i n i n g of voluntary adult educators builds on the basis of the p o l i t i c a l schooling. I t s basis are the basic adult education courses,  spe c i a l lecture series of the people's  u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r adult educators, seminars  and short courses. The d i s t r i c t s are the centres of these t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . . . The Basic Adult Education Course* The course equips voluntary adult educators with a basic minimum of p o l i t i c a l and specialized knowledge and s k i l l s . Part I of the course w i l l include the p r i n c i p l e s of the p o l i t i c s of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the r o l e of adult education, science, and art i n the completion of the c u l t u r a l revolution, and the system of d i r e c t i n g , planning and organizing c u l t u r a l work and adult education i n Czechoslovakia. Part I I w i l l include technical topics on the methods and techniques of explanation and dissemination of Party p o l i t i c s and of the s c i e n t i f i c philosophy of l i f e , on questions of the development of a r t , interest club a c t i v i t i e s and out-of-school education of workers, e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of propagation of economic, technical and a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge....The course has t o have a minimum of f o r t y hours of instruction,...(and) i s concluded with t e r -minal discussions; the participants receive a c e r t i f i c a t e of attendance... Other methods of t r a i n i n g , ( l ) People's  u n i v e r s i t i e s with special adult education  lecture series....have as t h e i r task to present i n an understandable way and ac-cording to the needs and interests of the volunteers an outline and enlargement of basic knowledge of marxism-leninism, a r t , science and technology....All voluntary adult educators, and es p e c i a l l y graduates of the Basic Course, can e n r o l l i n these lecture series....(2) Seminars and short  courses w i l l be organized according to actual needs by the d i s t r i c t committees and by mass organizations. (3) Other  methods. Training and in-service t r a i n -ing of volunteers w i l l be further organ-ized i n many other ways, as f o r example study c i r c l e s , area and d i s t r i c t gather- ings, b r i e f i n g s , conferences., etc. Adult education l i t e r a t u r e , i n d i v i d u a l study, and exchange of experiences have an im-portant place i n the System of Training of voluntary adult educators, Preparation of young i n t e l l e c t u a l s for v o l - untary adult education work. Development of adult education depends es p e c i a l l y on the proportional increase i n quantity and q u a l i t y of voluntary adult educators. More than ever i t w i l l be necessary to gain f o r t h i s work young i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the tech-n i c a l secondary schools and i n the univer-s i t i e s . P r i o r i t y , must, be given i n t h i s respect t o preparation of students at the teachers colleges and i n a g r i c u l t u r a l and public health schools... V " • • . The Basic Adult Education Course The Basic Course i s often organized as a r e s i d e n t i a l workshop l a s t i n g three to four days, or as a combination of a shorter r e s i d e n t i a l workshop and a series of monthly one-day seminars. A volume of supplementary readings f o r the 9k course has been published for the participants.il Instructors for the course are mainly workers of the d i s t r i c t Party committees, university lecturers, o f f i c i a l s of the d i s t r i c t and the regional national committees, and directors and co-ordinators of the adult education centres.! 2 The continuing reliance of the d i s t r i c t organizers oh central or regional instructors f o r the Basic Course has been c r i t i c i z e d , especially as the central organizations and institutions undertook training of l o c a l d i s t r i c t instructors at the regional level.13 Instructors from the central organizations are not always sufficiently well acquainted with the l o c a l situation and problems to be as effective instructors as lopal s t a f f T h e training of young, inexperienced instructors and their use in the Basic Course also has been c r i t i c i z e d , especially since they have to i n -struct older and often more experienced volunteers many of whom are trained teachers.15 The uniform program outline for the Basic Course (Table 13) includes lectures and discussions i n the area of ideolog-i c a l - p o l i t i c a l background, such as cultural p o l i t i c s of the Communist Party, the ideological effectiveness of adult educ-ation, and questions of the development of the l o c a l agricultural UMiloslav Hruby, et. a l . , Zakladnl Osvetovy Kurs, Praha: Orbis, 1961, 135 P-lSVilma Simonova, ed., Zakladni Osvetovy Kurs, Praha: Osvet-ovy Ustav, 1961, p. 8. (Mimeographed.) •^Karel Lebeda, "Organizujete Zakladni Osvetovy Kurs?" Os-vetova Prace, vol. 18, (November 25, 1964), p. 430. l ^ u d v i k Pacovsky, "Bozhovor s Milanem Koubkem, Vedoucim Oddeleni Osvetoveho Ustavu v Praze, w Osvetova Prace, vol. 16, (November 28, 1962), p. 457. 15Jan Souc, "Ozivit Zakladni Kursy," Osvetova Prace, vol. 18, (January 8, 1964), p. 6. 95 fable 13. Lt Educati< Program of Studies 1* Basic Adul ion Course S16Lecture or Lecture Series T i t l e Hours of Instruction 1. The Development of the Mate r i a l i s t i c a l -technical Basis i n the Period of the Developed Socialist Society 4 2. Cultural P o l i t i c s of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia i n the Period of the Completion of the Developed Socialist Society 4 3. Regarding the Further Development and Intensi-f i c a t i o n of the Ideological Effectiveness of Adult Education 8 4. Organization, Direction and Planning of Adult Education 4 5. Timely Questions of Adult Education i n the D i s t r i c t 2 6. Timely Questions of the Development of the Agricult-ural Production i n the D i s t r i c t OR Timely Questions of the Development of the National Economy (in larger c i t i e s ) 2 7. Technical-economical Propaganda and Scientific Technical Creativity 3 8 . Working with Youth 2 9. Most Important Methods and Techniques of Adult Education 5 10. Illustrative Devices and Their U t i l i z a t i o n i n Communist Education of Workers 2 U . Economics, Documentation and S t a t i s t i c a l Records i n Adult Education Institutions 2 12. Excursion to a Selected Adult Education Institution 2 Total hours of instruction i n the Basic Adult Education Course 40 l6osvetovy Ustav v Praze, Zakladni Kurzy pro Vzdelavani Dob- rovolnych Osvetovych Pracovniku, Praha: Osvetovy Ustav, 1963, pp. 1-2. (Mimeographed.) ~~ production (for ru r a l d i s t r i c t s ) or questions of the develop-ment of the national economy (for c i t y d i s t r i c t s ) , using twenty-one of the t o t a l forty hours of instruction. Working with youth i s allocated two hours. Lectures and discussions of adult education topics are assigned seventeen hours of instruction. These topics include the organization, direction and planning of adult education, discussion of l o c a l adult education problems, methods and techniques, i l l u s t r a t i v e devices, economics and documentation, and an excursion to a selected adult education institution. Specialized courses are offered for volunteers i n public l i b r a r i e s , popular art creativity, nature preservation, l o c a l history and other special interest areas. The f i r s t experimental Basic Courses were organized be-fore the o f f i c i a l declaration of the Standard System of Train-ing of Adult Educators. During 196l, the Basic Course was organized i n eighteen d i s t r i c t s i n Bohemia and Moravia 1? and by 1963 the number of d i s t r i c t s which had offered the Basic Course rose to fifty-six.1® In Slovakia, a l l d i s t r i c t s had organized the Basic Course by I963. 1 9 Advanced Course for Volunteers After two years of experience with the Basic Course some ^Miroslav Bukovsky, "K Vysledkum Plneni Osvetoveho Zakona," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 17, (June 10, 1963)> P* 243« l o M i l o s l a v Hruby and Helena Budolfova, "Pripravujeme Zak-ladni Osvetovy Kurs," Osvetova Prace. v o l . 17, (December 18, 1963), p. 476. 1 9 j a n Souc, "Jednotna Soustava je Len Frazou?" Osvetova  Prace, v o l . 18, (March k, 1964), p. 75* 97 d i s t r i c t s embarked on experiments with an advanced course for graduates of the Basic Course as well as other volunteers with sufficient educational background. Thus, i n the Poprad d i s t r i c t i n 1962-63 a lecture series of sixty hours of i n -struction covered at a greater depth the marxist-leninist view of culture (twenty-four hours), psychology (nine hours), pedagogy (twelve hours), and history of adult education (fifteen hours). The organizers planned a second year course centered on questions of ethics, and a third year course concerned with questions of a r t . 2 0 Three d i s t r i c t s were selected for experiments during 1963-64 with another ad-vanced course for graduates of the Basic Course. lothing i s known about the program of studies for this course. After the f i r s t year, the advisory committee on the training of adult educators of the Institute of Adult Education i n Prague recommended that the advanced course should be organized for selected volunteers i n d i s t r i c t s where the Basic Course was successfully established. 2 a-Preparation of Young Intellectuals The preparation of young intellectuals i n technical schools and institutions of higher learning for voluntary adult education i s considered of great importance and Is one of the four tasks of the Standard System of Training of ., Adult Educators. In l i n e with the tradition already mentioned, the teachers colleges especially are called upon to f u l f i l l ^ J . K., "Dalsi Pokus," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (November 6, 1963), pp. 406-407. 2lKarel Lebeda, "Pripravlt Vyssi Osvetove Kursy," Osvetova  Prace, vol. 18, (April 15, 1964), p. 141. 98 this task. Thus the teachers college i n Brandys offers a variety of elective seminars i n lo c a l history work, literature, natural sciences, choir work, esthetics, sculpture and similar subjects; Second year students must enroll i n one of these seminars.22 other teachers colleges do not seem to be equally active, as Pokorny2^ pointed out i n discussing the teachers college i n Trnava, The preparation of young intellectuals for voluntary adult education work seems to be ignored i n spite of the great importance attached to i t i n the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators. Sumavsky,2^ i n his evaluation of training, points Out that i n the Karlovy Vary region the teachers colleges and other technical schools are co-operating i n this aspect, but that other schools i n the region disregard a l l proposalsfor such preparation. He generalizes that many Basic Course ses-sions could become superfluous i f only the young intellectuals who come to the villages were previously prepared for voluntary involvement i n adult education. Evaluation of. the Training System for Volunteers By 1964 a l l of the d i s t r i c t s i n Czechoslovakia had organ-22Radoslava Brabcova and Jindrich Brabec, "Vychovavame Osvetove Pracovniky," Osvetova Prace, vol. 16, (July 11, 1962), p. 276. 23v. Pokorny, "Do Praxe bez Pripravy," Osvetova Prace, vol, 18, (June 10, 1964), p. 212. 2l*Zdenek Sumavsky, "Priprava Osvetovych Pracovniku," Osvet-ova Prace, vol. 18, (H0vember 25, 1964), p. 432. 99 ized the Basic Course2? and the enrollment during the period from 1961 to 1964 included some 8,000 individuals. 2 6 There are indications that in many cases organizations or institu-tions "volunteered" their members to f i l l a prescribed quota, or people who were not active in adult education but who wanted to make the trip volunteered since the real volunteers often could not secure work-release from their employers to attend. 2 7 This often resulted in poor and erratic attendance and in a formalist lc approach to the course. Thus, in Bratislava in 1962, only fifteen to twenty of the planned ninety participants in three Basic Courses actually attended.28 Souc29 evaluated the Basic Course in Slovakia after the first two years and identified three problem areas, (a) the instructors are often too young and inexperienced, (b) too much theorizing and stress on organization rather than on effective programing, and (c) a too formalistic approach to the selection of participants* Lebeda30 assessed experi-ences ln Bohemia and Moravia a few months later and found that during the period from 1961 to 1963 the Basic Course 25Milan Koubek, "Kvalifikace Osvetovych Pracovniku," Osvet- ova Prace. vol. 18, (September 30, 1964), p. 350 for Bohemia and Moravia} Souc, "Jednotna Soustava je Len Prazou?" pj>. cit . , p. 75 for Slovakia. 26Koubek, Ibid., p. 35°. 27see for example Frantisek Sima, "Formalny Kurs, Plany Kurs," Osvetova Prace. vol. 17, (October 23, 1963), P« 393; also Souc, "Ozivit ZaJOadni Kursy," g£. cit. p. 7. 28z4eno Lapar, "Vzdelavanie Osvetovych Pracovnikov v Okrese Bratislava-vidiek," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (August 7, 1963), p. 287. 29Souc, "Ozivit Zakladni Kursy," OJJ. c i t . . pp. 6-7. 3°Lebeda, "Organizujete Zakladni Osvetovy Kurs?" OJJ. c i t . , pp. 430-431. 100 had proved Its value and had come to be accepted. It was most successful i n d i s t r i c t s where the participants were selected from a larger pool of applicants. Lebeda noted that the course outline and other materials prepared for the Basic Courac were found to be satisfactory and c r i t i c i z e d the changes made by some organizers i n the prescribed course outline, especially i n the ideological content. He also noted that many d i s t r i c t s assumed that the Basic Course was the only training necessary. An overall evaluation of the Standard System as i t applies to the training of voluntary adult educators i s not available. Koubek3i confined himself almost exclusively to the Basic Course. Lebeda^2 pointed out that the plan of training for volunteers and, especially the way i t i s being implemented, leaves much to be desired as too much attention i s given to the Basic Course with the result that the organ-izers forget about other methods of training as outlined i n the System. The Basic Course i s undoubtedly well established, however, i t s effectiveness has hot been properly evaluated thus far. From the fragments of evidence available i n the literature i t seems safe to say that unlike the professional training part of the Standard System, the training of volunteers i s not as yet developed i n depth and w i l l require a great deal of work and attention i f i t i s to f u l f i l l the Important role the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators ascribes to i t . 3lKoubek, oj>. c i t . , pp. 350-351. 32Lebeda, "Organizujete Zakladni Osvetovy Kurs?" pjo. c i t . , pp. 430-431. CHAPTER VI THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND RESEARCH IN ADULT EDUCATION Adult Education Theory and Research i n Czechoslovakia Adult education research i n Czechoslovakia began with the establishment of the Masaryk Institute for Adult Education i n 1925. None of the research studies produced at the Institute up to the end of the Second World War have been located. After the war adult education research was encouraged by the establishment of the Department of Adult Education i n the Pedagogical Faculty of Charles University i n Prague. Dr. Tbmas: Trnka, head of the Department, was one of the leading theoret-itians of Czechoslovak adult education and i n 1946 he pub-lished his major theoretical work in the f i e l d . 1 The p o l i t i -c a l changes i n 1946 and the dissolution of the Adult Education Department at Charles University i n 1950 disrupted the post-war development of theory and research. The anti-intellectualism of the f i r s t half of the 1950*s had a s t i f l i n g influence on theoretical work. Research, especially i n sociology, was considered as a dangerous and subversive bourgeois invention. The only post-war theoretical •^Tomas Trnka, Lidova Vychoya; J e j i Teorie, Slozky, Methody a Organizace, Praha, 1946. 102 journal for adult education established i n 1949 ceased publi-cation i n 1952. Thus, the period between 1950 and 1956 i s marked by a noticeable lack of theoretical publications i n the f i e l d . In 1957) Katriak3 published a handbook on the methodology of adult education research i n which he outlined the concepts of research and provided practical advice on the organization of f i e l d research. This handbook, however, seems to have made very l i t t l e impact on the f i e l d and i t was not available for analysis here. The two national institutions for adult education, the Research Institute for Adult Education i n Prague (formed after 1948 by reorganization of the Masaryk Institute f o r Adult Education) and the Adult Education Centre i n Bratislava (established i n 1953)» attempted to maintain at least token research a c t i v i t i e s . When the two institutions were reorg-anized as the Institute of Adult Education i n Prague (1957) and the Institute of Adult Education i n Bratislava (1959)> they carried out limited theoretical work and research on their own initiative.4 The Institute i n Bratislava started to publish Osvetovy Sbornik i n 1958 and this i s s t i l l the only Czechoslovak journal concerned with theoretical questions and research reports on adult education. It was published twice a year u n t i l i t became a quarterly i n 1964. The 20ne publication was issued i n 1954 but due to i t s pure propagandist character i t cannot be considered as theoretical exposition of adult education. P. Konecny, Osvetova Prace v Lidove Demokracii, Praha: Statni Pedagogicke HakladatelstvT, 1954, 180 p. 3Martin Katriak. Metodika Osvetoveho Vyzkumu. Bratislava: Osvetove Ustredie, 1957; 160 p. **J. G. Zatkuliak, "Hiektore Otazky Osvetovej Teorie a Praxe," Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 1, (1964), p. 12. 103 selected bibliography on adult education in Czechoslovakia, published i n 1959 by Unesco5 indicates the lack of research studies and reports, however, several publications i n the area of theory of adult education are l i s t e d for 1957•6 Theoretical writing and research received a new impulse i n i960 with the establishment of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism at Charles University. Additional support came with the assignment of research tasks to the Institute of Adult Education i n Prague and i t s counterpart i n Bratislava i n 1961. During 1963, articles which j u s t i f i e d sociological research began to appear i n the o f f i c i a l f o r t -nightly Osvetova Prace, Katriak 7 published a methodological a r t i c l e on sociological research, and Jurik , 8 chairman of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism, stated for c i b l y the case for sociological research.9 ...If we are to direct adult education and general cultural work s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , a gen-eral knowledge of trends and tendencies w i l l no longer suffice, we w i l l have to gain specific knowledge of their concrete mani-festations l n given conditions as these are affected by factors of time and place. Today, this i s no longer possible without sociological ^Unesco, "Adult Education and Leisure-time Activities i n Czechoslovakia," Education Abstracts, v o l . 9, (March, 1959), 14 p. 6j . Cecetka, Vyznam Pedagogiky pre Osvetovu Pracu., Brati-slava: Osvetove Ustredie, 1957; 60 p.j A. Jurovsky, Psycho- logia OsvetoveA Prace. Martin: Osveta, 1958, 166 p.; Fr. Kbzel. Uvod do Teoretickych Otazek Osvetove Prace^ Praha: Vyzkumny Ustav Osvetovy, 1957; 101 p. 7Martin Katriak, "Niektore Metodicke Otazky Pripravneho Studia Osvetoveho Vyzkumu," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (August 7, 1963), pp. 291-292 and (August 21, 1963), pp. 310-311. ®V. Jurik, "0 Nekterych Vztazich Mezi Teorii a Praxi v Rizeni Osvetove Prace," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 17, (November 20, 1963), pp. 434-435. 9QJO. c i t . , p. 435. io4 research projects. Organization of sociol- ogical research must therefore be rightfulTy  considered an inseparable and acute condition  of the sc i e n t i f i c directing of adult education. The rehabilitation of sociology was accomplished at the highest l e v e l i n February 196k during a national ideological seminar for leading adult educators. The Minister of Educ-ation and Culture, i n his keynote speech, declared that s c i e n t i f i c research at the national, regional, d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l must be considered a cornerstone i n the further development of adult education. 1 0 Adult education research has become a part,of the State Comprehensive Research Flan for 1964-1970, where i t i s included as "Comprehensive Task XIV - 4" which i s concerned with the training and education of workers in a communist s o c i e t y . 1 1 This comprehensive task i s subdivided into six specific sub-tasks: ( l ) c r i t i -cism of bourgeois theories of adult education; (2) the devel-opment of popular education; (3) theoretical foundations of learning and of the education and training of workers; (4) the communist system of the training and education of workers; (5) the education and training of agricultural workers; and (6) the education and training of industrial workers, A related State Research Task 306-3 which i s concerned with questions pertaining to the out-of-school education of workers was discussed at a research seminar i n December I963. 1 2 1 0"Cesty k Ucinnejsi Osvetove Praci," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 18, (March 18, 1964), pp. 90-92. ^Information on the state research plan i s taken from F. Hyhlik, "Vychova a Vzdelavanie Pracujucich v Komunistickej Spolocnosti," Osvetovy Sbornik. No. 11, (1963). PP« 1-12. 1 2 J.- Jedlicka, "0 Mimoskolske Vychove," Osvetova Prace, vol. 18, (January 22, 1964), p. 25. This task i s divided into fi v e sub-tasks as follows: theory of adult education (306-3.1), theory and methodology of learn-ing and the self-education of workers (306-3.2), problems of satisfying the cultural needs and interests of workers i n li g h t of the alms of communist education (306-3.3), problems of out-of-school education of young workers (306-3.4), and the system of out-of-school education of workers (306-3.5). After the developments of the last f i v e years, theoretical research In adult education has been re-established and accepted by the Communist Party and the state. Theoretical Literature The definition of adult education i s important to the development of a discipline of adult education. In 1964 Skodal3 reviewed the theories of adult education l n Czecho-slovakia since 1945 and quoted the definitions offered by several theoretitians i n the f i e l d . The principle d e f i n i -tions of adult education by individual authors are as follows : l4 Trnka (1946) The t o t a l development and growth of the human being. Skoda (1951) Purposeful educational a c t i v i t y of the people, carried out i n a planned fashion towards an active p a r t i c i -pation i n the building and defence of the socialist society. Konecny (1954) Mass cultural-organizational act-i v i t y . Through culture i t en-13Kamil Skoda, "K Otazkam Teorie Vychovy Dospelych v Ceskoslovensku," Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 2, (1964), pp. 16-28. l4rhe definitions were translated from Skoda, 0£. cit.> passim. 106 lightens, awakens, and educates the broad masses, while i t at the same time expands culture i t s e l f as i t awakens, supports, organizes and develops the c u l t -ural creativity of the people at the technical, sc i e n t i f i c and a r t i s t i c l e v e l . Adult education i s therefore also the expression of the cultural creativity of the masses. Jurovsky (1957) Purposeful and planned influence on the psyche of the usually a l -ready grown-up human being dur-ing his leisure with the aim of assisting him i n becoming a valuable member of the socialist society. Kozel (1957) Adult education i n i t s broadest meaning i s the dissemination of culture and the cultivation of people through a l l cultural means (news media, theatre, film, broadcasting, television, l i t e r -ature, etc.). Adult education i n a more pre-cise meaning i s the cultural act-i v i t y of the working masses according to their interest, an act i v i t y which should contribute to a more successful fulfillment of social tasks i n that i t dis-seminates culture i n such a way and through such means as to take into account as much as possible the concrete peculiarities of the social environment, groups, and individuals. Skoda points out that adult education i s not synonymous with the education of adults as adult education often includes work with children and youth, while the study of workers i n the various secondary, technical and higher education i n s t i t u -tions i s not included i n the term. Another definition, not 107 included i n Skoda* a review, was given by Misall5 i n 1963: ...By adult education we understand purpose-f u l and planned educational influence on adults during their leisure time. Its uni-versal goals are i n harmony with the goals of the socialist cultural revolution. In essence i t i s the development of sp i r i t u a l qualities, the betterment of human values, the education of a versatile, harmonically formed, and developed soc i a l i s t man. Langasekl6 pointed out i n 1965 that adult education has never been o f f i c i a l l y and sp e c i f i c a l l y defined; even the resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party i n 1958 and the adult education legislation of 1959 do not do thi s . Consequently, this has led to many concepts of the role of adult education such as p o l i t i c a l propaganda, agricultural propaganda, and others. Langasek claims that there are basically two concepts of adult education at preseut. The Older concept equates adult education with , broad cultural educational a c t i v i t i e s and does not d i f f e r -entiate between radio, television, museums, art galleries, evening classes, club houses and similar institutions or ac t i v i t i e s . The proponents of this concept argue that there i s no difference i n content among these a c t i v i t i e s , and that differences i n method are not significant. Langasek points out that "taken to i t s ultimate consequence, this concept would lead to the abolition of adult education as such." The exponents of the newer concept, which seems to be gain-ing ground, claim that there are significant differences ^ J a n Misal, "K P r o f i l u Osvetoveho Pracovnika," Osvetovy  Sbornik, Ho. 11, (1963), P- 89. lOMiyoBlav Langasek, "Osveta a Bnesek," Kulturni Tvorba, vo l . 3, (April 19, 1965), P. 4. 1 0 8 between adult education and broad cultural work. The two most important and characteristic differences are, according to Langasek, (a) that adult education is based on a specific, known community which governs its methods, and (b) " i t is a voluntary, active, socially organized and more or less  creative activity of hundreds of thousands of people who have gathered on the basis of mutual interest into permanent or temporary groups." In an effort to standardize the terminology of adult education, the Institute of Mult Education in Prague and its counterpart in Bratislava are ;:compiling a dictionary of adult education terminology.17 This dictionary is to con-tain both Czech and Slovak terms as well as their foreign equivalents. Two editions of the dictionary are to be pub-lished, one of which will be an abridged edition for field workers and the other wil l be a f u l l edition for scholars. Trnka1® published a definitive classification study of the theory, elements, methods, and techniques of adult education in 1946. In this he singled out three main streams of adult education theory: (1) The fi r s t stream assigns fi r s t place to intellectual cognition and stresses the need for and the potentiality of education. (2) The second stream is basically opposed to 1 7Ctibor Tahy, "Problemy Osvetovej Terminologie a Pojmoslo-via," Osvetova Prace, vol. 18, (July 22, 1964), pp. 262-263. l&Trnka, pja. ci t . The summary of Trnka's book is taken from Skoda, 0 £ . cit., pp. 16-20. 1 9Ibid., p. 17. 109 the ra t i o n a l i s t i c concept of adult education. It bases adult education foremost on the development of the senses and vo l i t i o n which are to i t principles of knowledge and education. (3) The third, pragmatical-behaviouxjistic stream, maintains that education should lead to right action and points out how man should react i n a given situation. Trnka c r i t i c i z e s these three main streams and insists that adult education must not "be reduced only to intellectual education, moral education, or pragmatic education, but must encompass the to t a l development of man."20 In his detailed analysis of Anglo-Saxon, German and Czech sources, he cla s s i f i e s adult education theory into social development and philosophical-pedagogical theories. Trnka pays a great deal of attention to the functions of adult education which he cl a s s i f i e s into six categories: ( l ) physical education and recreation; (2) continuous technical up-dating; (3) educ-ation towards and through science; (4) social and p o l i t i c a l education; (5) art education; and (6) moral and religious education. 2 1 Although Trnka's work i s c r i t i c i z e d by marxist educators as id e a l i s t i c and bourgeois, i t remains the only work of i t s kind i n Czechoslovakia. Skoda attempts to f i l l the gap l e f t by Trnka's repudia-tion. In an ar t i c l e published i n 196422 he presents a review of the theoretical concepts of adult education developed i n 2 0Loc. c i t . ^ J b i d . , p. 19. ^Op.. c i t . , pp. 16-28. Czechoslovakia since 1945. He devotes almost half of this a r t i c l e to a review and marxist criticism of Trnka. In the second part* Skoda relates b r i e f l y the work done from 1948 to 1950 when the foundations were l a i d f o r a marxist theory of adult education, and he points out the complete lack of theoretical publications i n the period from 1950 to 1955. Like many western adult educators, Skoda accepts the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of adult education as a sub-discipline within the f i e l d of general pedagogy. In another a r t i c l e , published i n 1963* Skoda analyzed and c r i t i c i z e d from a marxist point of view the contemporary theories of western adult educators. 23 He mentions i n passing some of,.- the English, American and Scandinavian adult educators but c r i t i c i z e s at length the theoretical work of Franz Pbggeler and Heinrich Hanselmah, who represent respectively the roman catholic and the protestant position i n adult education i n the German speak-ing countries. In 1964 Skoda published a further a r t i c l e i n which he classified, summarized, analyzed and c r i t i c i z e d from a marxist point of view theories of adult pedagogy dev-eloped by the most prominent contemporary West German theor e t i t i a n s . 2 4 Skoda's work i s of considerable importance i n the development of the theoretical concepts of adult education i n Czechoslovakia. Two works published i n 1957 represent the beginning of the new marxist View of adult education. Cecetka25 23Kamil Skoda, "Ku Kritike Hiektorych Sucasnych Hazorov Zap-adnych Burzoasnych Teoretikov Vychovy Dospelych, Hajma tzv. Andragogiky," Osvetovy Sbornik. Ho. U , (1963), PP. 42-50. 2 % a m i 1 Skoda, "Soucasne Zapadonemecke Teorie Vzdelavani Dospelych," Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 3, (1964), pp. 27-42. 25j. Cecetka, Vyznam Pedagogiky pre Osvetovu Pracu, Br a t i -slava: Osvetove Ustredie, 1957> 08 P« published a slim handbook in which he draws attention to the special nature of adult education and indicates that i t requires methods and techniques which are different from those used i n the compulsory education system. In his cla s s i f i c a t i o n he identifies four major areas of adult education: ( l ) physical; (2 ) intellectual; (3) moral, and (k) esthetic. In the same year Kozel 2 6 published a systematic treatment of the concept of adult education i n a socialist society. He also points out that adult educ-ation i s different from regular school education, and stresses the integral relationship between the aims of adult education and the policy of the Communist Party. He divides educational a c t i v i t i e s into broad cultural work and adult education, and describes the social purpose of adult education i n terns of communist philosophy. Jurik 2? i n 1965 summarized the marxist theory of adult education:2® ...If practical daily experience i n a l l i t s forms and expressions i s the i n f l u -e ntial factor i n adult l i f e , i t means that i n the case of adult education i t i s a matter of causalities which are very closely connected with the causalities of the entire social l i f e . These causalities can be understood and directed only inr.-.: an organic unity with the processes i n the areas of economies, p o l i t i c s and c u l -ture. The educative process i s here not limited to mutual influence between the educator and the educated but rather i t 2 % r . Kozel, Uvod do Teoretickych Otazek Osvetove Prace, Praha: Vyzkurany Ustav Osvetovy, 1957, 101 p. ^Vladimir Jurik, Osveta a Pnesek: Diskusni Kapitoly k Uloze a Poslani Socialisticke Osvety, Praha: Osvetovy UslTav, 1905771 P. 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 17-18. 112 encompasses a much greater sphere. If not only culture, but indirectly also economics and p o l i t i c s are educating man, i t means f i r s t of a l l that we must count on causal relationships between and within these areas....Furthermore, we cannot limit adult education to mutual influence of man on man, but have to see i t as a c o l l e c t i v i s t process i n which people influence each other and as an active solution to the re-lationship between man and his environment. In 1964 Zatkuliak 2^ treated the problem of the dualism between theory and practice. Using marxist theory, he attempts to reconcile theory and practice and points out that while a differentiation of functions between the two i s growing i h adult education, with the increasing recognition of research, theoretitians have to remain i n close contact with practical work and i t s problems, while practitioners l n the f i e l d have to be acquainted with theoretical formulations and with the results of research. Such theoretical writing i s prevalent i n the Czech and Slovak literature of adult education. This i s a re-sult of the ideology and p o l i t i c a l conditions of the 1950's which hindered psychological and sociological research. Psychological Literature The f i r s t detailed theoretical study of adult psychology was published by Jurovsky^ 0 i n 1958, "It contains an analysis 29Zatkuliak, op. c i t . , pp. 9-20. 3°Jurovsky, oj>, c i t . 113 of the psychological factors involved i n adult education work, and a d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s work; also a detailed analysis of problems concerning the various forms and methods of adult education."3 1 H y h l i k ^ 2 published an a r t i c l e on the significance of psychological and pedagogical p r i n c i p l e s f o r the education of adults i n 1962. The author st a r t s from the premise that the basis of adult education i s the communist t r a i n i n g and education of the workers. He then points out that adult educators should master the p r i n c i p l e s of the learning process (hearing i n mind that they are dealing with adults and not c h i l d r e n ) , d i d a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of teaching adults, and the methods and techniques of a g i t a t i o n and propaganda. Since psychology forms the basis of pedagogy, adult educators should be acquainted with the functions of psychological processes, e s p e c i a l l y perception, attention and cognition. Furthermore they must know how to use and evaluate the effectiveness of i l l u s t r a t i v e devices. Hyhlik further sug-gests that adult educators can Improve t h e i r work by using observation, interview, experiment, evaluation, question-naires, and other methods. This a r t i c l e i s one of the mile-stones i n the development of s c i e n t i f i c approach t o adult education i n Czechoslovakia. In 1963, Rudas33 published one of the f i r s t basic t e x t -3*The study was not available to the author who had to rely-on a b r i e f annotation i n the Unesco bibliography, op_. c i t . , p. 4 . 3 % r a n t i s e k Hyhlik, "0 Vyznamu Psychologic a Pedagogickych Zasad p r l Vzdelavani Dospelych," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 16, (November 28, 1962), pp. 466-468. 33jxantisek Budas, Kapltoly z Psychologic pavetovej Prace, B r a t i s l a v a : Osvetovy Ustav, 196*3, 155 P* (Mimeographed75 books on adult psychology, She book Is based entirely on Russian and Czechoslovak theoretical sources without experi-mental evidence. She f i v e chapter t i t l e s are: ( l ) The sub-ject, task and methods of the psychology of adult education; (2) Basic concepts and principles of psychology; (3) Psycholog-i c a l foundations of the techniques of adult education; (4) Psychology of the adult learner; and (5) The personality of the adult educator. At the end of 1963 Slsovsky^ outlined the necessity for evaluating the effectiveness of adult education through the measurement of behavioral changes resulting from p a r t i c i -pation i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s . This i s one of the f i r s t statements demanding that evaluation be based on research. The author suggests that the development of a b i l -i t i e s and s k i l l s , attitude change, and the l e v e l of active participation be used to evaluate the effectiveness of adult education. He mentions systematic observation and re-cording by the adult educator, interviews with participants and non-participants, and discussions with the public as possible research methods. The most up-to-date treatment of the psychological foundations of learning and teaching of adults was pub-lished i n 1965 by Hyhlik. 35 i n six compact, clear rand precise chapters, the author deals with (1) The training and education of adults, (2) social psychology and pedagogy, 34jan Sisovsky, "0 Psychologickych Otazkach Kontroly Ucin-nosti Osvetovej Prace," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 17» (December 18, 1963), p. 464. 35Prantisek Hyhlik, Psychologicke Zaklady gceni a Vzdel- avani Dospelych, ustl nad Labem: Krajske Osvetove stredisko, 19057 48 p. 115 (3) psychology of personality and education, (k) adult psy-chology, (5) psychological foundations of adult learning, and (6) development of training and education of adults. Undoubtedly, the renewed stress on research evident dur-ing the 1960*8 w i l l result i n increased activity i n psychol-ogical experimentation and the publication of reports. Sociological Literature While some theoretical publications i n adult psychology and pedagogy were published during the second half of the 1950's, sociological theory and research were o f f i c i a l l y repressed. In this respect i t i s interesting to note that a faculty member of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism acknowledged i n 1964 that the Adult Education Department bf the Institute i l l e g a l l y started to teach sociology i n 1961.36 As mentioned earlier, Katriak37 published a methodology of sociological research i n 1957> but the time was not ripe for any dramatic result. Beginning In 1963, sociology was discussed more frequently by adult educators. Thus, for example, Katrlak3® published an ar t i c l e outlining the generally accepted techniques of empirical research, and 36yiadimir Jurik i h a discussion at a national ideolog-i c a l seminar for leading adult educators, held i n February 1964. "Cesty k Ucinnejai Osvetove Praci," og. c i t . , p; 92. 37Katrlak, Metodika Osvetoveho Vyakumu, op. c i t . 3®Katriak, "Hiektore Metodicke Otazky...", oj>, c i t . 116 Slejska39 pleads for the use of sociological research i n an ar t i c l e t i t l e d "Let's Not be Afraid of Sociology," while Nahodil 4 0 points out the usefulness and necessity of sociological research i n providing s c i e n t i f i c direction to adult education. During the same year Disman 4 1 pub-lished a slim handbook on rural adult education research covering the methods and techniques of sociological re-search, the execution of research projects, the evaluation, analysis and interpretation of the collected data, and the preparation of the f i n a l report. ho Disman published a second handbook on sociological research i n adult education i n 1965. While the new hand-book i s similar i n organization and content to his previous one, i t i s worth noting that while his f i r s t handbook was published in a very limited edition (250 copies, deposited in l i b r a r i e s and adult education centres) and was not available for sale, the new handbook was published in a relat i v e l y large edition (2,000 copies) and oan be pur-chased. This i s one of the many recent indications of the growing acceptance of sociology i n Czechoslovak adult education. 3 % . Slejska, "Nebojme se Sociologies" Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (October 23, 1963), pp. 379-380. *°0takar Nahodil, "Sociologicky Vyzkum a Vedecke Rizeni Osvetove Prace," Osvetova Prace, v o l . 17, (December 18, 1963), PP. 460-462. 4lMiroslay Disman, Vyzkum y Osvetove Praxi; Metodika a Technika Spolecenskeho Vyzkumu Osvety ve. Venkovskem Prostredl. Praha: Osvetovy Ustav, 1963, 120 p. (Mimeographed.) ^MUoslav (sic) Disman, Funkce. Metody a Techniky Sociol- ogickeho Vyzkumu v Osvete, Usti nad Labem: ~Krajske Osvetove Stredisko, 1965, 40 p. 117 Current Trends The Institute of Adult Education and Journalism at the Charles University i s the only institution of higher learning i n Czechoslovakia where social research methodology i s taught systematically. Disman's statement that f i f t y per cent of the full-time and the part-time students at the Institute choose social research topics f o r their theses i s encouraging. 43 Students are required to attend a seminar on social research established i n 1963 under the leadership of Miloslav Disman. The f i r s t practical task of the seminar was a f i e l d survey of cultural interests and preferences of the rural population. As the tabulation of the data had to be done manually, i t was reported i n January 1965 that only one t h i r d of the analysis was completed after a year of painstaking work. 4 4 S t a t i s t i c a l methods are not yet f u l l y recognized or accepted and as late as 1964 Perglerova 45 found i t necessary to publish a brief, half apologetic a r t i c l e on the value and use of s t a t i s t i c a l methods i n sociological research. The publication of reports of research i s rare and hardly any reports are available i n published form. The systematic reporting of research l n progress i s nonexistent. The found-ation of the Czechoslovak Sociological Society i n 1964, the publication of a sociological journal which began in the spring of 1965, and the establishment i n the same year of the 43Milan Koubek, ed., Hlavnl Otazky Kulturni a Osvetove  Prace po Zasedani Plena UV KSC k Ideologickym Otazkam, Praha: Osvetovy Ustav, 1964, p."l>2. (Mimeographed.) 4 4 j i r i Ort and Petr Topiar, "vysokoskolaci a Osvetova Praxe," vol. 19, (January 27, 1965), pp. 6-7. 45Zuzana Perglerova, "Podminky pre Pouzitie Statistickych Metod v Osvetovom Vj/sckume,w Osyetovy Sbornik, Hb. 1, (1964), PP. 43-47. 118 Pedagogical Society, with a section for adult education, are among the newer developments. Czechoslovak adult educators are breaking out of their long isolation. Several international conferences were held i n Prague such as the International Seminars on Progress i n Science and Technology and Adult Education (June 27 to July 3, 1962), the East European Seminar on Questions of Out-of-school Education of Workers (April 6 to 11, 1964), and the European Regional Conference on Leisure and Adult Education (March 29 to A p r i l 6, 1965), Czechoslovak adult educators also began to attend adult education conferences abroad, notably the World Conference at Montreal (1962), the European Conference on Training of Adult Educators at Nottingham (1965), and the annual Salzburg Discussions for Adult Educators. With the growing Interest i n developments i n adult education abroad, the o f f i c i a l fortnightly Osvetova Prace i n 1964 started to publish an irregular appendix concerned with adult education abroad and fiv e such issues were published by the end of 1965. Another publication interesting i n this respect i s an anthology of research reports translated from foreign pub-lications. **6 Of the nine translated art i c l e s , four are from Russian sources, three are from American sources, one i s from a French source and one i s from an Italian source. 47 '^vaciav Bukac, ed., Sociologicky Vyzkum v Osvete: Sbornik  Prekladu ze Zahranicniho Tisku, Prahat Osvetovy Ustav, 1964, 66 p. (Mimeographed.) ' 47The three articles translated from English are: Alan B. Knox and Richard Vide beck, "Adult Education and Adult Life Cycle," Adult Education. (Winter, 19»3)j C y r i l 0. Houle, "Ends and Means i n Adult Education Research," Adult Education, (Summer, 1962); and excerpts from Burton W. Kreltlow, "Research i n Adult Education," Chapter IX of the Handbook of Adult Educ- ation i n the United States, (i960). 119 The bibliography appended to the anthology l i s t s further articles from Adult Education which have been translated for the purposes of the Institute of Adult Education i n Prague.1*8 Another anthology of articles translated from foreign journals, published i n 1965> i s concerned with gerontology.1*? Of the seven translated a r t i c l e s , three are from American sources, two are from Polish sources, one i s from a West German source and one i s from an Austrian source.50 The Advisory Council for Adult Education Research of the Institute of Adult Education i n Bratislava submitted i n 1964 the following recommendations for research a c t i v i t i e s of the Institute;51 (1) To study problems of adult education evidence and s t a t i s t i c s ; (2) to publish a methodological handbook on the u t i l i z a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l data in directing adult education; (3) to attempt to solve problems of termin-ology; 1*8Koger De Crow, "Research i n Adult Education," (Summer, 196l); J. E. Boone, and J. Duncan, "Heeded Research i n Extension Administrative Organization," (Winter, 1963); P. H. DuBois, "Educational Research i n Ongoing Situations," (Summer, 1962); J.W.C. Johnstone, "Educational Pursuits of American Adults," (Summer, 1963); and W. Thiede, "Research and Investigations i n Adult Education," (Summer, 1962). Ian Simek, ed., Osveta v Zahranicl: Problemy Star-nuti a Sebevzdelanl. Praha: Osvetovy Ustav, 1965, 35 P» (Mimeographed.) 50rbe three articles translated from English are: Charles S. Cohen, "Research on Mental A b i l i t i e s and Aging," Adult  Education, (Spring, 1962); Wilma Donahue and Harold L. Orbach, "Training i n Social Gerontology," Adult Leadership, vol. 9, Ho. 1; and Henrietta F. Rabe, "The Role of the Public School i n Education for the Aging and Aged," Adult Leadership, v o l . 9, Ho. 1. Sl^yznamna Praca Poradneho Sboru pre Osvetovy Vyskum," Osvetovy Sbornik, Ho. 3» (1964), p. 68. 120 (4) to publish regularly findings of re-search and documentation of adult education as these become available; (5) to intensify and enlarge connections with adult education institutions abroad in order to gain necessary foreign research findings; and (6) to keep practising adult educators informed about adult education research. These recent developments can be taken as an indication that psychological and sociological research in Czechoslovakia have been re-established and, given sufficient time without a new ideological-political upset, will begin to bear fruit both in the training of adult educators and in the further development of adult education in Czechoslovakia. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Czechoslovakia has a tradition of adult education going back to the nineteenth century during which time the role of the adult educator has changed with the changing p o l i t i -c a l system. The communist take-over i n 1948 undoubtedly brought about the most striking change and during the years following the role of the adult educator was seen as that of a p o l i t i c a l and ideological propagandist. Although the Communist Party has assigned to adult educators an Important task i n furthering the aims of the Party, i t has f a i l e d to influence a l l adult educators to perform this task. The communist society expects an adult educator to know his job, to do i t well, to be able to work with people, and to profess his p o l i t i c a l convictions i n deeds rather than l n words. Adult educators themselves think they need to gain the con-fidence of the workers, be well prepared i n general educational background as well as i n their own f i e l d , have wide cultural interests, and possess a positive attitude both to work and to people. Professional Training Czechoslovakia has had some training programs for both 122 professional and volunteer adult educators since 1947* These programs were affected adversely by the p o l i t i c a l developments of the early 1950*s. By i960 the principles were established for a standard national system for ths training of adult educ-ators but this was not Implemented u n t i l March 1962. This System was designed to provide training for (a) professional adult educators, (b) volunteers, and (c) the preparation of future intellectuals f o r voluntary adult education involvement. The Standard System of Training of Adult Educators stressed the training of full-time "professional" adult educ-ators, and this training was established both at the university l e v e l and at the secondary school l e v e l . At the university l e v e l , the main centre for training i s the Institute of M u l t Education and Journalism at Charles University i n Prague* Graduation from the High Party School, and graduation from any other institute of higher learning, supplemented by a course of studies at either the Evening University of Marxism-leninism or the Central Trade Union School, i s considered as equivalent training. At the secondary school lev e l , special-ized adult education training i s offered by the secondary librarianship schools to graduates of secondary general educ-ation schools and workers' secondary schools. Graduation from a secondary school, supplemented by a course of studies at either the Evening University of Marxism-leninism or at the Central Trade Union School, i s considered as equivalent t r a i n -ing. The Institute of Adult Education and Journalism was granted f u l l faculty status i n 1961 and i t s f i r s t students were graduated i n 1965. The Institute has three departments: ( l ) adult education, (2) librarianship, and (3) journalism. The adult education program can be completed by either a four-123 year full-time study with an additional year of internship, or by a five-year part-time study. A thesis i s required i n both the full-time and the extra-mural programs. In i t s brief existence the Institute has become an important research centre i n the f i e l d . In the full-time program, adult education i s given 27.41 per cent of the t o t a l instructional time while i n the part-time program i t i s assigned l 6 . l l per cent of the t o t a l instructional time. Thus adult education ranks second out of fiv e i n the full-time program, but fourth out of four i n the extra-mural program. Among the adult education courses, stress i s placed on individual and social psychology and on sociology. Philosophy, p o l i t i c a l science and economics take up 33 per cent of the t o t a l instructional time i n the full-time program and 36.91 per cent i n the extra-mural pro-gram. Other subjects comprise the rest of the course of studies. A comparison of the two programs shows that the f u l l -time program i s more theoretical and s c i e n t i f i c while the extra-mural program i s more practical and pragmatic. Since the establishment of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism i n I960, the Comenlus University i n Bratislava established a Department of Adult Education i n 1963 and the Safarik University i n Presov followed i n 1964. An increasing number of teachers colleges offer adult education courses as electives. Training at the secondary l e v e l i s concentrated i n the secondary librarianship schools i n Prague, Brno and Bratislava. These schools were established i n 1953 and reorganized several times. The adult education departments of these schools offer a two-year full-time and a two-year extra-mural program, as well as a special one-year course f o r adult educators working i n the f i e l d who had the required qualifications waived by their employer. The Standard System of Training established methods 124 of in-service training for professional adult educators which include d i s t r i c t , regional, central* and joint seminars, and central and regional courses. Other means of professional continuing education and self-improvement of adult educators were.vprescribed also by the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators. The central planning authorities i n Czechoslovakia deter-mine the occupational t i t l e s and the required qualifications on a national basis. At the senior l e v e l , university gradua-tion and considerable practice i n the f i e l d are required, while secondary specialized training i s prescribed at the junior programing and administration l e v e l . Full-time i n -structors are divided into three categories ranging from secondary technical training to university graduation and from five to ten years of experience. In r e a l i t y , however, often these prescribed qualifications are not followed due to the scarcity of trained personnel and l o c a l p o l i t i c a l conditions. Several surveys have shown that the actual qualifications of adult educators employed i n the f i e l d are well below the required standard and that very few adult educators who are underqualified are studying to complete their qualifications. The low regard for professional training on the part of both the employers and the adult educators, the low educational background of some elected o f f i c i a l s , unsatisfactory working conditions, and the hiring of people without proper qualifica-tions are some of the factors mentioned as hindrances to pro-fess ionalization. The drop out rate i n extra-mural courses i s very high which i s due, i n part, to excessive work loads, lack of motivation, and financial d i f f i c u l t i e s . Similar factors were noted as responsible f o r the high fluctuation of adult education staffs and the drain of well trained people to other f i e l d s . 125 An evaluation of the training of professional adult educators under the Standard System seems to indicate that the university programs are well established, and functioning according to plan. The programs i n secondary librarianship schools, on the other hand, were found wanting. These schools do not seem to be accepted and do not properly t r a i n specialists l n adult education who are acceptable to adult education i n -stitutions. The number of adult educators with university "training i n Bohemia and Moravia increased by four per cent between 1962 and 1963, while the number with secondary le v e l training increased by nine per cent during the same period. Volunteer Training School teachers play an important role among the many volunteers active i n adult education i n Czechoslovakia, This i s due p a r t i a l l y to a long tradition and p a r t i a l l y to the ease with which teachers can be conscripted for such addition-a l duties. The Standard System of Training of Adult Educators emphasizes the preparation of young intellectuals for volunt-i ary adult education work. A survey of volunteers conducted i n 1964 points out, among other things, the growing interest of volunteers i n adult education training. There were some programs for training volunteers between 1945 and 1950 but during the 1950*8 training i n adult education was not considered necessary for volunteers and i t i s only since i960 that such training has been undertaken on a large scale. The Standard System of Training established the Basic Adult Education Course as the f i r s t step i n the training of volunteers. This course was designed to equip participants 126 with a basic minimum of p o l i t i c a l as well as specialized knowledge and s k i l l s . Other methods of training outlined i n the System include special lecture series i n the people's universities, seminars, short coursesj study c i r c l e s , brief-ings, and conferences. The preparation of young intellectuals to serve as volunteers, especially i n teachers colleges and i n schools of agriculture and public health, also was emphasized by the Standard System. This Basic Course i s often organized as a three to four day residential workshop, or as a combina-tion of a shorter workshop and monthly one-day seminars. The instructors for the course should be d i s t r i c t staffs trained at the regional l e v e l , but i n practice l o c a l organizers depend on regional and central institutions to staff the d i s t r i c t training. The uniform program outline for the Basic Course prescribes twenty-one hours of instruction on p o l i t i c a l -ideological topics and i n economics, seventeen hours on adult education topics and two hours of work with youth for a t o t a l of forty hours of instruction. By 1963* most of the d i s t r i c t s i n Bohemia and Moravia and a l l d i s t r i c t s i n Slovakia had organized the Basic Course and Advanced Courses for volunteers are i n the experimental stage. From 1961 to 1964 enrollment i n the Basic Course numbered some 8,000 individuals, however, not a l l of these were genuinely inter-ested i n the training received or i n active volunteer work. The main criticisms of the way the Basic Course was imple-mented include the use of young and inexperienced instructors, excessive theorizing, and a formalistlc approach to the selection of participants, Although the Basic Course i s generally accepted and well established, the training of young intellectuals for voluntary adult education i s largely i g -nored. Itolike professional training, the training of volunt-eers has not yet developed i n depth and w i l l require further development and evaluation to f u l f i l l i t s task. 127 Research and Theory In Czechoslovakia adult education research began i n 1925 and vas spurred on immediately after the Second World War, however, the anti-intellectualism of the 1950*s adversely affected the further development of research and theory so that the period from 1950 to 1956 i s lacking i n theoretical publications. Although the Institute of Adult Education i n Prague and i t s counterpart i n Bratislava produced limited theoretical work during the late 1950's, theory and research received a new impetus In i960 with the establishment of the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism at the Charles University i n Prague. Subsequently, adult education has been included i n the State Comprehensive Research Plan for I964-I97O and i n the related State Research Task. The definition of adult education i s important i n theoretical writing, and from 1946 to 1965 there was con-siderable work on the development and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the concept. Among the more noted works was a definitive c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n study published i n 1946 by Trnka which has been strongly c r i t i c i z e d by marxist adult educators. Skoda at-tempted to f i l l the gap l e f t after 'Trnka* s work was repud-iated and he reviewed the theoretical concepts developed i n Czechoslovakia since 1945, as well as provided an analysis and criticism of western theories of adult education con-centrating especially on contemporary West German theoreti-tians. Cecetka and Kozel treated adult education from a 1 marxist point of view and identified adult education as a too l of the Communist Party i n the class struggle and socialist revolution. Zatkuliak attempted to reconcile theory and practice i n adult education. Such theoretical 128 •writing prevails i n the literature i h Czechoslovakia as a result of the ideology and p o l i t i c a l conditions i n the 1950*8. The f i r s t detailed study of adult psychology was pub-lished by Jurovsky i n 1958 and in: 1962V?-Hyhlik~ published an ar t i c l e on the significance of psychological and pedagogi-cal principles i n adult education. Ih 1963, Budas pub-lished one of the f i r s t basic textbooks on adult psychology using Russian and Czechoslovak theoretical sources without experimental evidence. In one of the f i r s t statements of the kind, Sisovsky outlined the necessity for evaluating the effectiveness of adult education through the measurement of behavioural changes resulting from participation i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Ih 1965, Hyhlik published the most up-to-date treatment of the psychological foundations of learning and teaching of adults. It?is only since 1963 that sociology has become respect-able. Disman published a handbook on rural adult education research i n 1963 and followed this up by a second handbook on sociological research i n 1965. The difference between the 250 copies printed of his f i r s t handbook and the 2,000 copies of the second illustrates the growing acceptance of sociology. Among current trends i s the importance given to syste-matic social research at the Institute of Adult Education and Journalism, however, s t a t i s t i c a l methods are not yet f u l l y recognized or accepted and the publication of research reports i s rare while systematic reporting of research i n progress i s nonexistent. The recent foundation of the Czecho-slovak Sociological Society and the subsequent publication of a sociological journal, as well as the establishment of the Pedagogical Society, with a section for adult education, are worth noting. Through sponsoring international meetings i n Czechoslovakia and attending international conferences abroad, Czechoslovak adult educators are breaking out of their long isolation and an increasing interest i n develop-ments i n adult education abroad is evident i n the literature. Conclusions The Czechoslovak Standard System of Training of Adult Educators i s unique. No other country has such a national system for training both professional adult educators and volunteers. When i t i s f u l l y Implemented, the System w i l l incorporate both pre-service and in-service training i n a l l specialized areas of adult education. The literature evalu-ating the Standard System of Training shows that not a l l aspects of i t are. f u l l y operational such as the training of young intellectuals for voluntary adult education. The usual North American practice of employing older mature adults i n adult education seems to have many advantages over the Czechoslovak system. Two basic differences from professional programs i n North America emerge from an examination and analysis of the courses offered i n the adult education program at the Institute. F i r s t l y , the program i s at the undergraduate l e v e l with a major i n adult education. Adult education courses are spread among general education courses throughout the f i r s t four years; the f i f t h year concentrates almost exclusively on adult education. The second variation from practice on this continent i s that a l l courses i n the 130 program are compulsory during the f i r s t four years; only the f i f t h year offers e l e c t i v e courses. Additional optional courses i n the specialized f i e l d s of a r t , sociology of culture, l o c a l h i s t o r y , and r u r a l education are offered i n the senior years. The course of studies i s too heavily weighted toward p o l i t i c a l science and economics, e s p e c i a l l y i n the extra-mural program of the I n s t i t u t e of Adult Educ-ation and journalism. The major weakness of the Standard System of Training of Adult Educators, as i t i s being Imple-mented, i s i t s inherent i n f l e x i b i l i t y which may impede i t s progress. Czechoslovak adult education i s also unique i n that i t has long-range planning at the national, regional, d i s t r i c t and l o c a l l e v e l f o r the s t a f f i n g and the t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s required to prepare s u f f i c i e n t numbers of w e l l q u a l i f i e d adult educators t o f i l l open positions. The main flaw of planning at present i s the r i g i d i t y which does not allow r e a d i l y f o r a continuing r e v i s i o n of the plan i n keeping with changing conditions, consequently, the plan i s often f u l f i l l e d formal-i s t i c a l l y on paper while i n r e a l i t y the desired r e s u l t has not been achieved. Adult educators i n western countries, expecially those concerned with the t r a i n i n g of adult educ-ators, should study c a r e f u l l y the Czechoslovak experience to consider those aspects which might be applicable. The d e f i n i t i o n of adult education as i t was evolved over the l a s t twenty years i n Czechoslovakia has gained i n pre-c i s i o n and, i n spite of the long i s o l a t i o n of Czechoslovak adult educators from the thinking i n western countries, i t increasingly approaches the d e f i n i t i o n of adult education which 131 i s accepted i n North America. 1 Apart from ideological over-tones, Misal's d e f i n i t i o n 2 of 1963 includes a l l essential elements of and i s i n agreement with Verner's definition.3 Although i n North America: adult education does not include work with children and youth as i t does in Czechoslovakia, the differentiation between adult education and the education  of adults made by Skoda** i s comparable to that found i n North American literature.5 An Important development i n this respect i s the changing concept of adult education from an older concept which included broad cultural educational activ-i t i e s undertaken by adults to a newer concept of organized learning situations designed specifically for adults and available during their leisure time* 0 Adult education research suffered a serious setback during the 1950's, but since about 1963 i t has been develop-ing at an increasing rate. The results of this renewed research a c t i v i t y w i l l influence the further direction of lSee Coolie Verner, "Definition of Terms," i n Adult Educ-ation: Outlines of An Emerging F i e l d of University Study, edited by Gale Jensen, A, A. Liverlght and Wilbur Hallen-beck, Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, pp. 32-33. 2Jan Misal, "K P r o f i l u Osvetoveho Pracovnika," Osvetovy  Sbornik, No. 11, (1963), p. 89. 3verner, op_. c i t . , p. 32. ^Kamil Skoda, "K Otazkam Teorie Vychovy Dospelych v Ceskoslovensku," Osvetovy Sbornik, No. 2, (1964), p. 26. 5see Coolie Verner, Adult Education, Washington: The Center for Applied Research i n Education, Inc., 1964, pp. 1-2. W o s l a v Langasek, "Osveta a Dnesek," Kulturni Tvorba, v o l . 3, (April 19, 1965), p. 4. 132 adult education i n Czechoslovakia. Thus far, the literature f onaadult psychology has been largely theoretical rather than being based on experimental evidence and i t has been con-cerned primarily with general principles so that i t lacks the refinement of specialized investigation of such factors as the influence of aging upon adult learning, motivation, inter-ests, and the measurement of intelligence which are prominent i n contemporary North American l i t e r a t u r e . 7 Thus for example, Rudas® treats motivation and interest i n three pages, while the influence of aging on learning i s allocated only two pages of the 155 pages i n his book. Hyhlik9 treats interests on just over one page, the influence of aging on memory on one page, and motivation on two pages of a t o t a l of forty-seven pages. The sc i e n t i f i c evaluation of adult education i s a re l a t i v e l y new concern of adult educators who have r e l i e d mainly on their own subjective judgement and on the increasing or decreasing enrollment as a measure of success or f a i l u r e . This Research i n these areas i s well documented i n Edmund deS. Brunner et a l , An Overview of Adult Education Research, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959; J. R. Kidd, How Adults Learn, New York: Association Press, 1959> issues on adult education of the Review of Educational  Research, (June, 1950), (June, 1953), (June, 1959) and (June, 1965); annual reviews of research in the Summer issues of Adult Education (U.S.A.) since 1955; W» 0. Hallenbeck, ed., Psychology of Adults, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1963; and Adult Education: Outlines of An Emerging F i e l d of University Study, op. c i t . % r a n t i s e k Rudas, Kapltoly z Psychologie Osvetovej Prace, Bratislava: Osvetovy Ustav, 1963, 155 P« 9Frantisek Hyhlik, Psychologlcke Zaklady Uceni a Vzdelavani  Dospelych, Usti nad Labem: Krajske Osvetove Stredisko, 1965, mp. 133 i s as equally true of Europe as i t i s of North America. 1 0 Among the recent c a l l s for systematic evaluation, Vernerll i n North America and Sisovskyl2 in Czechoslovakia have pointed to the need for and outlined !the techniques to achieve syste-matic evaluation. Sociological research in Czechoslovakia has been rehabi-l i t a t e d so recently that i t has not yet produced any striking results. The main works have been concerned with the establish-ment of a methodology of research^ and with inventories of the interests and leisure time a c t i v i t i e s of rural populations, as well as investigations of the influence of television on rural populations. There i s no evidence of any systematic research i n the areas of characteristics of participants, participation patterns, drop outs, or methods and techniques which are topics that are i n the foreground of interest i n North America. The co-ordination of research on a nation wide basis under the State Comprehensive Research Plan and the State Research Task 306-3 has considerable merit for a systematical 1 0Eurppean adult educators traditionally are opposed to an exact evaluation or a s c i e n t i f i c approach to adult education. For the development of evaluation research i n North America see: Brunner, Overview. op,, c i t . , pp. 243-273, and Wilson Thiede, "Evaluation and Adult Education," Outlines, op_. c i t . , pp. 291-305; and Verner, Adult Education, op. c i t . , pp. 91-1°5« ^Verner, loc. e l f . 12jan Sisovsky, "0 Psychologickych Otazkach Kontroly Ucin-nosti Osvetovej Prace," Osvetova Prace, vol. 17, (December 18, 1963), p. 464. 13The two leading researchers i n this f i e l d are Martin Kat-riak and Miroslav Disman, both of whom have contributed to the establishment of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound methodology. See: Martin Katriak, Metodika Osvetove ho Vyzkumu, Bratislava: Osvetove Ostredle, 1957, 160 p.; Miloslav (sic.) Disman, Funkce, Metody a Techniky Sociologickeho Vyzkumu v Osvete, Usti nad Labem: Krajske Osvetove Stredisko, 19657 40 p. 13k gathering of data and the formulation of sound theory. On the other hand, the limited reporting of research and the complete absence of any systematic reporting of research underway stand i n the way of the dissemination and wide application of research results. This study of the role and training of adult educators i n Czechoslovakia has indicated that i n spite of cultural differences adult educators in different countries are fac-ing similar problems, especially that of the "marginality B l4 Of their f i e l d . In Horth America and in Czechoslovakia, both are striving for the professionalization of adult education along similar lines. The Czechoslovak adult educ-ators are ahead of any other country i n that they have a national system for the comprehensive training of adult educators which Horth American adult educators might p r o f i t -ably examine. On thebother hand, no other country has such an extensive body of research about adult education as i s available on this continent and Czechoslovak adult educators could benefit from i t by drawing on this extensive experience i n research design and methodology. Furthermore, they can u t i l i z e those research findings which are culture-free and can be transplanted. On the whole, adult educators i n a l l countries should be aware Of the work of their colleagues elsewhere and thereby advance adult education on a world-wide scale. l^The marginality cf adult education i s best summed up by Wilbur C. Hallenbeck, "The Role of Adult Education i n Society," i n Adult Education: Outlines of An Emerging  F i e l d of University Study, op_. c i t . , pp. 2 1 - 2 2 . B I B L I O G R A P H Y BIBLIOGRAPHY. "Adult Education i n Czechoslovakia." Bulletin of the World  Association for Adult Education, VI, (November, 1920), pp. 3-8. ^ Bartos, Milan. "Prvni Diplomni Prace na Kateore Osvety." 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