UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A synopsis of the development of the Serbo-Croatian language and the inguistic contribution of Vuk Stefanovic… Juricic, Zelimir 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A8 J8.pdf [ 6.59MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104670.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104670-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104670-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104670-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104670-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104670-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104670-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104670-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104670.ris

Full Text

A SYNOPSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERBO-CROATIAN LANGUAGE AND THE LINGUISTIC CONTRIBUTION OF VUK STEFANOVIC KARADZIC  oy ZELIMIR JURICIC B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of Slavonic Studies We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s requirements Columbia, for  t h e s i s in p a r t i a l  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  freely  for  representatives. thesis  for  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n  Department o f  Slavonic Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  available  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  financial  the  British  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  f u l f i l m e n t of  A p r i l 7, 1966.  ii  ABSTRACT  The language o f t h e S e r b i a n s and t h e C r o a t i a n s i s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f some d i f f e r e n c e s o f p h o n e t i c and l e x i c a l n a t u r e , one and t h e same; thus i t i s customary t o speak o f i t as t h e S e r b o - C r o a t i a n language.  S p e a k e r s o f Orthodox  h e r i t a g e use t h e C y r i l l i c a l p h a b e t , C r o a t i a n s use t h e L a t i n alphabet.  I t i s , however, o n l y i n v e r y e a r l y t i m e s , and now,  t h a t t h e r e have been any g e n e r a l c e n t r i p e t a l t e n d e n c i e s , t o outweigh  t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s t h a t have g u i d e d w r i t e r s i n  d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s as f a r as the l i n g u i s t i c u n i t y o f t h e two c u l t u r a l groups i s concerned. The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o p r e s e n t t h e l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r g e n c i e s which f o l l o w e d a f t e r t h e S l a v o n i c p e o p l e s  first  came i n t o the B a l k a n p e n i n s u l a and, i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t t i m e s , t h e common e f f o r t s t o r e - u n i t e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t h e d i v e r g e n t elements w i t h i n the S e r b o - C r o a t i a n group. A s u r v e y o f the c o n t e n t s o f the c h a p t e r s o f t h i s , t h e s i s aims a t showing how t h e a u t h o r worked. Chapter I examines h i s t o r i c a l developments o f t h e S e r b i a n and the C r o a t i a n languages,  as s e p a r a t e  entities,  from t h e time o f C y r i l and Methodius, up t o the e i g h t e e n t h century.  I take i n t o account v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l  f a c t o r s w h i c h were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l i n g u i s t i c and l i t e r a r y development o f t h e two p e o p l e s .  ill  S p e c i a l emphasis I s p l a c e d on the l i f e  and works o f  Lomonosov o f the Yugoslav  D o s i t e j Obradovi6,  the man  who  Renaissance,  l o n g s t r o v e to i n t r o d u c e the v e r n a c u l a r  the  into  l i t e r a t u r e and to p u t an end to u n n a t u r a l , a r t i f i c i a l  lan-  guages h i t h e r t o used. Chapter I I d e a l s w i t h 0bradovi6's M r k a l j and Vuk  Stefanovi6 Karad2i6,  d i s c i p l e s , Sava  A l s o examined, to some  extent, i s the work o f L j u d e v i t Gaj who  d i d the same i n  s t a n d a r i z i n g h i s language arid i n adopting i t f o r modern literature.  The  l i n g u i s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Karad£i6,  ever, are d e a l t w i t h i n more d e t a i l . o p p o s i t i o n , he  s t r o v e f o r , and  I n s p i t e o f dogged  achieved,  a s i m p l i f i e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d alphabet, orthography  how-  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a reformed system o f  and r e c o g n i t i o n of the n a t i o n a l v e r n a c u l a r  as  the l i t e r a r y language, r e j e c t i n g the c o n f u s i o n o f Church S l a v o n i c , Russian  and S e r b i a n used by w r i t e r s "before.  Pew  languages i n the w o r l d have such a simple, phonemic o r t h o graphy as S e r b i a n has.  I n s p i r e d by Vuk's work and f o s t e r e d  by n a t i o n a l i s t i c i d e a s , G a j a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t the language o f the t r a d i t i o n a l b a l l a d s should a l s o become the language o f h i s p e o p l e .  literary  E a r l y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y both,,  branches o f the n a t i o n r e a l i z e d the advantage o f u s i n g  one  language.  Thus i n the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t  was  agreed  t h a t they should u n i t e t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e s by  use  o f one, namely, " g t o k a v i a n "  form.  T h i s was  the  sanctioned  iv  by the 1850  Agreement.  L a t i n and C y r i l l i c were to "be u s e d  for  the same l i t e r a r y language and were g r a n t e d e q u a l s t a t u s .  One  can f a i r l y say t h a t Vuk  now  an a c c e p t e d t h e o r y i n l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e , namely t h a t a  was  an e a r l y l e a d e r i n what i s  g r a p h i c symbol s h o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , r e c o r d i n p r i n t the phonemes o f a l a n g u a g e .  Evidence  for this  i s i n n o v a t i o n i n the C y r i l l i c a l p h a b e t u s e d by the S e r b i a n s .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My acknowledgements a r e due t o t h e p r o f e s s o r s o f t h e Department o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s for direct or indirect contribution  to t h i s  thesis*  E s p e c i a l l y my s i n c e r e thanks go t o Dr„ J . S t . C I a i r S o b e l l , Mrs. I . R e i d , Mr. V. R e v u t a k y and Dr„ D, D o r o t i c h under whose a b l e g u i d a n c e I was a b l e t o accomplish  my t a s k  0  F i n a l l y , I r e c o r d my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o my w i f e and son, f o r h a v i n g p a t i e n t l y borne  without  resentment t h e l o n g hours o f my c o n c e n t r a t e d work.  thesis  CO^EPaCAHHE  AT") S "fcl*£LC "t">  o o ' * o e o o o o ' o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 6 o o  AclClT.OW-LGCL^GIIlGll't S  o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c o o o o e o c o c c o o o  TJLABA nEPBAfl HCTOpHH CJiaBilHCKOro IIHCBMa » . o « > oo. . ooo. o . oo. o. o OTapO C^Ia3HHCIC}l£i H3£XIC CepCcKan nepHOA  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  e  o  .  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  e  o  o  o  o  o  .  p e ^ a K m i J i c T a p o c a a B f l H C K o r o s3HKa B  1 0 - o r o 40 1 3 - o r o  OT  XopBaTCKan  nepnoA  o  cToie'THH  . . . . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0  pe^aicmtH c T a p o c j t a B H H C K o r o H S H K a B  O T 1 0 - o r o 40 1 3 - o r o cTOJieTHH ...........  O c o C e H H O C T H CTapOCJiaBKHCKOrO H3HKa CpaBHHTeJIBHO C  HapO^HHM ApeBHHM CepCcKO-XOpBaTCKHM  B nepao4 O T 1 0 - o r o 40  $oHeTHMecKOM oTHomeHHH 13*"OrO CTOJIGTKH  o  o  Pa3BHTne cepdcKoro 18  ~" OI"  O  O  CT  CTOJTGTH5I  O  e  o  »  o  o  o  HSHKH  o  o  o  4  0  o  «  o  o  «  o  o  H 0  CKH  o  o  o  o  o  o  «  6  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  e  c  »  *  o  «  a  <  o  o  0  e  o  e  e  13-oro  OT  nepno.4  B  >  o  «  e  «  o  «  o  o  o  AO  o  e  0  13-oro  OT  o  0  AO  o * o o « o o o o o o o o o o o e « « o a « 4 o o o e o o o o  ^ocHTeii O o p a A O B i m H n e p w o ^ C  e  nepao^  B  xopBaTCKoro £3HKa  PaaBHTHe *L3 " O T  g  o  A3HKOM B  o  e  «  a  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  e  npocBemeHHH B CepdiiH o  o  e  o  o  o  o  o  o  (  i  o  o  e  e  e  o  o  o  «  4  0  rJLABA BT0PA5I Cepdmi CaBBa S.  B  ^eBHTHa,AHaTOM cTo-ieTHH  MepKaftJiB  H  3 6 y KOn*]DOT"'pOC ^ o o  "Cajro  ^ e 6 e j r o r a  . o . . . .  e p a ando  o o o o o o o o o 0 o o e o o o o o o o o o « e o « « a e « o  ByK  KapaA&HM  ^eflTeJiBHocTB ^o  ero SHa^eHHe  ByKa  B  cep<5cK0ii  K a p a ^ s n q a B nepno^  e r o GMepTH l 8 6 U - o r o  CHOCKH MCTOmiHKH  H  OT 1 8 1 8 - o r o  ro^a  7 0  oooooeeoe«oooo0eoooooe«ooo«oooofleocoooo«o  100  oeaooo««»»o»oo««««fto*oooooooeo«ooo«oo»oo«oo*  107  1  rJIABA IIEPBAH  HG'TOPIW CJIAB3HCK0r0 H.HCBMA  &0 npHHJITHfl XpHCTHclHCTBS , TO«IHee CEa3aTB, AO HOSBJieHHa co3AaTeJieii nepEOH cJiaBflHCKOH asoyKH, BCIHKHX npocBeTHTexefi dpaTEeE KoHCTaHTHHa $EJioco4)a KHpHxaa opaTa Me$o,ftHS ( 820 - 885  ( 826 - 869  ) a e r o cTapmero  ) e<aaBJiHe He HMe^H CBoero nacBMa.  UepHopHaen Xpaop, KOTOPHH XHJI B BoarapHu B KOHue 9-oro H B Ha^aae 10-oro: croJeTHff, B CBoeM CicaaaHHH g HHffiBMeHax HanHcaa: " Iipes,ae y(5o caoaene He miexy KHHr, HO ipoTaMH H peaaMH HSTexy H raTaaxy EoraHH cyme. KpecTHBjee se ca, pHMCEaMH H rpe^BCKHMH nucMeHH Hys^aaxyca cjroBeHCKy pe*u> de3 ycTpoesna . . . . H TaKo 6emy MHOTO JteTa. IIOTOM se ^e^oBeKOJDo6eu 6 o r ... nocaa HUB c B a r o r o KoHCTaHTHHa  $HJtoco$a, HapanaeMoro Kapuxza, uysa npaBe^Ha H HCTHHHa, H coTBopH HMB 3 0 nHCMeHa H OCMB, oBa y 6 o no quay, rpe^ecKHx naciieH, OBa se no coioBeHCTeH pe*ni . . . . " 1 Ha Cga3aHHH o nncBMeHax, o^iepK KOToporo a miTupoBaJt, BHAHO,  *rro  y cjraBffH, AO npHHHTHK HMH xpncTHaHCTBa cymecTBOBaoto KaBoe-To nHKTorpa$H^ecKoe HHCBMO - "^rpoTOB H pe30B".  X O T H , TaKoe IIHKTO—  rpa$H^ecKoe nncBMo caysHJio csaBHHaM AXX odosHaieHna KaJieHAapHHX AaT, ra^aHHH HJH c ^ e T a , OHO 6HJIO HenpHro^HHM CJiysetfHHX TeKCTOB, AOKyMeHTOB.  AJIZ  aanncH 6 o r o -  HCTOpH^eCKHX XpOHHK, SHTHH H ^pyTHX  CJtOSHHX  B . A . HCTPHH nHmeT:  " IlocJie se npHHJiTHH xpHCTHaHCTBa cJiaBjme Ha^aJiH H C noJiBsoBaTB &xa 3anHCH cBoeft pe^H xopomo. H 3 B e c T H H e MHorHM H3 cjraBflH JiaTHHCKHe ( H a 3 a n a ^ e ) H r p e ^ e c KHe ( Ha BocToiee ) 6yKBH. TaKoe HcnoJiB30BaHHe caaBflHaMH JiaTHHCKHX H rpe^iecKHX byKB npo^oJisaJiocB, corjracHo Xpaopy, B. Te^eHHe o*ieHB ^oaroro BpeiieHH H T a K o <5emy MHOTO a e T a . " 2  2 Ten r p e q e c K H M H HTO  B  o y K B a M H  m, H , » ,  ytreHHX  BflHCKOH HHCBMeHHOCTH H H c T o p H M e c K a a  C O O T B e T -  saK HanpHuep: 6,  sQUKa,  H MetJo^HH  ^e^o B T O M ,  Hey4a*ieft.  OHJta  s,  B 863-eM  TOJIBKO C npne3^oM E M o p a B H B ,  MaKe^oHneB K H p H - a a a  jstaTHHCKHMH H  He OHJIO MHOrO <5yKB  aJ£$aBHTaX  c T a p o c J i a B H H C K o r o  B.  n o a t a o B a T B C H  B CBoeit ssuKe K O H ^ n w a c i  H TpeieCKOM  JiaTHHCKOM  cTByiomHX sBysaM H,  MeHee, n o n H T K a cJtaBffH  He  aaotoxeHa  a, n,,  rojy, oaa-  o c H O B a  KyjIBTypHo Toro  o<5cTaHOBKa  BpeiteHH  BHHy^mia  MopaB-  g C B O r O KHflSfl r o  POCTHCJiaBa  HMnepaTopa  MHxaHJt  ^  npOTHBOAefiCTBHfl  H JtaTHHCKoro ^ y x o B e H C T B a  HTOOH nooiyqHTB cJiyaeHHH  B HeJl5IX  c s a B j i H C K H M sraHKOM. HanpaBHJi  B MopaBHB  B 863-en MHCCHM ,  T a B « s e H H BH^aiomHecH  y^eHHe T o r o  Knpaajt, n p H x o A H  nojiycJiaBHHCKoro  n a  oopaTHTBca K  K O T o p H e 6u  n p o n o B e A H H K O B ,  BpeMeHH  BHsaHTHHCBHtt  r a a s e o p a T B H  HMnepaTop  SHJH  KOTopoa  nojayrpe^ecicoro  cJiaBAHCKyio aaoyicy H a $ O H e B S H o c a a B f l H C K O H CoJtrapo  noA  Ha3BaHHeM  "raarojiHija",  cJiaBHHCKoVi. p e ^ H o  KpoMe  H Me$oAJB.1b  n e p e B e j i H  Heodxo^HMHe  AXX  mne He  c  KpaftHe  rpe^ecKoro  10-OMy H. II-o.My  H3BecTHaa  na  s a H K a  cJiaBHHCROH a 3 0 y K H ,  cTapociaBjracKHK K Hec^acTBB,  B noAJiHHHHKe  AO  KHPHJUI  « S H K MHorne GTH  A p e B H e n -  Hac IIO*ITH  CHjrnie C HHX oTHoosflmecH K  EgKaM.  nocae c n e p T H 6 p a T B e B  -  TOHHO c o o T B e T C T B O B a J t a <£>oHeTHKe  nepKOBHott cayacoH KHHTHO  CoxpaHHJtHCB JIHIHB c n a c K H  B MopaBHB  c J i a B H H C K a a a3<5yica,  co3.5aHHH nepsoK  naMarHHKH c T a p o c a a B A H C K o r o Aouura.  AO CBoero oTi>e34a  r o p o j a CoayHH  cocTaBHJt  3 T a ApeBHeKmaH  n o c -  KHPHJIJI H Me$04Hfl.  sHan  peMHo  1  6oro-~  n p n  H xopomo  MaKe^oHCKott  c a a B H H C K H H A3HK eme  B n a a H T H H ,  nojt&aoBaJtHCB  r o a y  BO  -  BJIHHHHB H e M e i l K O -  K H p H x a a  H Me$o^HH, roHHMHe  3  HeMemcHM cBameHcTBOM MopaBHH 0Ka3aJi  B HM  npocBeTHTeJIBHOH padoTe.  B  HX  Eopnc  ( ynep 907 )  B  r o ^ H , B O BpeMs npaBJieHHa Hacae^HHKa Bopnca, CHMeoHa )»  B  BojtrapHH pa3BepHyJiacB  no^teMOM  asdyKH  B  Oxpn^e.  B  EojirapHH, ITpecaaBe,  ITojioraioT, qTo c  E o - i r a p H H CBai3aHo  "KHPHJIJIHIIH"  "MJia^meH c J i a B a H C K O H  HJIH  ( yMep 916 ) - e n H C K o n MaKe^oHCKHH. HeH3BecTHa.  asdyKH".  CBJITOH KJUHMCHT  To^tHaa ^ a T a C034aHHjr  Ho MHeHHio JiHHrBHCTa BaTpocaaBa 10-oro  AOJiXHa O T H O C H T B C S K a a ^ a j i y  STHM  BTopoft c a a -  nojrBJieHHe  Ee co3^aJi, H a ocHOBe cTapmefi a 3 6 y K H "rJiarojiHHH"  "KHPHJIJTHHH"  nepeBo^tnas p a -  . O X H B JieHHaa  J i H T e p a T y p H n e neHTpH B c T c o m e  »ro - 3ana^HOH MaKeAOHHH,  JHTepaTypHHM  oHa  H3  .aeaTeJiBHOCTB  BceMepnyio n c w e p s K y  6 o T a , co3^aJHCB  BSHCKOH  CBO»  KHHSB  ( yMep 927  B  y^eHHKH nepeHecjna  EcirapHK), r ^ e d o J i r a p c K H H  nocaeAyiomHe  H  HX  ffrHTO  cTOJieTHa:  " Za c i r i l i c u s e m i s l i d a j u j e s a s t a v i o u c e n i k s l o v e n s k i h a p o s t o l a s v . K l i m e n t , b i s k u p u Maked o n i j i , p r v i h godina X veka, z a v r e r a e "bugarskog c a r a Simeona, .... " 5 BHnreynoMHHyTa^ BHTHO  na-HacB  dyKBeHHHH  -  OT  Hee  cocTaB  HHOH ,  "KHpH.OHn.a" KaK H  dojiee  HMeJia  cTapman  npocToK  H  IIOHTH  TOT  "rJiaroJinna",  M C T K O H $opMOH  xe HO  aj$aOTJIH-  dyKB.  AJ$aBHTHO - 6yKB6HHHH COCTaB "KHpHJIJIHEtH" AOBOJIBHO TOHHO COOTBeTCTBosaJi CBoec"£pa3Hfc}$r 3ByKOBOMy 5i3HKa.  £0 1 2 - o r o  CTOJieTHs  cocTasy  "rjtaroJiHiia"  H  cTapocaaBSHCKoro "KHpHJunma"  ca y doJIBICHHCTBa caaBJiHCKHX njreMeH napa.oe.aBHo, cToieTHii  HO  C  npHMeHH»T12-oro  "KHpHJUttma" n o c T e n e H H o B H T e c H s e T "rjiaroJiKny".  Ha^o  3aMeTHTB, qTo HeKOTopoe npHMeHeHHe "rjiarojinnH" coxpaHHJiocB B  XopsaTHH  H  .HaJiMaiiHH AO 20-oro  cToaeTHs.  JIHIHB  CTAPOCJIABflHCKHt 5I3HK JJepBHft JiHTepaTypHHg  SSHB  taxnux,  BOCTOHHHX  cjiaBSH 6u& cTapocJiaBHHCKHft - cTapooo-irapcKHft ynoMAHyTo, nepsue  KHHTH  SSHB.  H  sanaAHHX  KaK yse  OH J O  Ha cTapocaaBHHCKOM saHKe nosBHJCHCB  cepe^HHe 9-oro cToJteTHJi  B CBHSH  C  B  MHccHOHepcEoft AesTeJitHocTB©  yieHHX BHsaHTHHHeB, dpaT&es KapHJuaa H Me$OAH£, ypoxeHn.eB ropcsa CoayHH.  Kor^a opaTBa npHCTynHJUH K nponoBe^H xpncTHaHCBoro Bepo-  yneHHH cpe,5H caaBHH, TO^ILKO  Bcex caaBHHCKHX  SQHBOB  xopomo SHa*H  cjiaDHH, KOTopHft, Ha^o noaoraTB, .aase 6ux  A3HK MaKe^oHCKHX  H X pO^HHM J33HKOM. CO6OK  OHH HS  ClBBflHCKHe TOBOpH MaBeAOHHH npe^CTaBJfl»DlHe  paSHOBHAHOCTB  (5o JtrapCKOro S3HKa» SBJtflWTCH TOH  HCTOpHHeCBOH  6a30fi, Ha KOTOpOK, CO BpeMeHeM, CJtOXHJICfl CTapOCJtaBflHCBHH 23HB.  KHHraMH Ha H Me$oAKft  QTOM  flSHKe,  SBHJIHCB  B  B  C  nepByB oiepe^B CorocjtyxefiHHMH, KHpajia  MopaBHio,  r&e  SHAH  npe^BH nexoB  H  caoBaBOB.  Hs MopaBHH ynoTpe(5jreHHe c T a p o c j a B H H C K o r o s3HKa  B  AX.R 6orocayxeHHfl H JiHTepaTypH pacnpocTpaHHJocB  H B jxpyrax cJtaB«H-  CKHX  cTpaHax, cHanajra  B  coce^Heft IlaHHOHHH,  cJioBeHHeB, a nocjte citepTH KHpnajsa  H  Me$o^HH,  BoJtrapHH cTapocataBHHCBHH ssHK nepemeJi nocie npHHATHH xpncTHaHCTBa  H  B  r&e  B  B  cepdaM  KneBCKyio P y c B .  KanecTBe  SSHBB  KHJIH n p e ^ K H  BoJtrapHH. H  Hs  xopBaTaM, a To o<JcTOHTeJC£-  CTBO, HTO CTapOCJtaBHHCKHH H3HB, CJIOKHBIUHHCH Ha »XHOCJlaBStHCBOH -  6ootrapo - MaKe^oHCBoJI ocHOBe, c TaKofi OHCTpoToft no-iyqaji p a c npocTpaHeHHe  B  pasHHX c&aBHHCKHX CTpaHax  H  caejca-xca oGmecaaBHH-  CKHM JStHTepaTypHHM A3HBOM, o6*B«CHfleTCfl, TJIaBHHM odpaSOM, 6JIH30CTBK) CJtaBHHCBHX H3HK0B  B OTHOlEeHHH TpaMMaTHqeCKOrO CTpOH  >  5  a  a^JiacTH ocHOBHoro cJioBapHoro  B  cKHe  SSHKH  HCKJiio^eHa  eme  He HacTOJiBKO paaoiuiHCB,  HHX CJiaBHHCKHX aSHKOBo  K ^pyry,  H  B  HTOON  Hame BpeMa caaBSHA&a. ciaBaH 6u&a  odmeHHa na K a K O M - H H 6 y A h 04HOM H3 JiHTepaTyp-  BO3MOXHOCTB  cBsaaHHue,  <J>oH,aa.  A THCfl^y C JIHlttHHM JieT Ha3B4 TeHeTH^eCKH  pcacTBeHHHe cjiaBaHCKHe a3HKH  OHJCH  ropaa^o (Jjuiae .spyr  ^eM TenepB. HO BCaRHE XHBOH 33HK HenpeMeHHO HSMeHaBTCa C Te^CHHQM $opMH is. aHaieHHs  BpeMeHH - MeHaeTcs: npoH3HomeHHe, rpaMMaTHnecKHe CJIOB,  Ca  HeKOTopne npexHHe ssyKH % $opMH, cjioBa H3qe3a»T  HOBHMH*  H  a a M e n a i o T -  TaKHe H3MeHeHHfl npOHCXO^flT- B S3HKe HenpepHBHO, XOTfl  H C paSJIHMHOK) OHCTpOTOK).  IIpH 3TOM, npHXO^KIUHe  HHor^a 6HBa»T odmne AJia B c e r o o6mecTBa, nojiBaymmHlica CJiaBHHCKHM a B H K O M .  STHM  asHKa, T . e .  H3HKOM.  3TO  B  A3HK. H3MeHeHHfi  AJia Bcero Hapo^a cjiyqHJiocB  H  HJIH  crapo-  C  C Te^EeHHeM BpeMeHH CTapOCJlaBaHCBHH aanK,  cJiyxHBiBHH B3HKOM oorocJiyxeHHa, no^BepraJica BJiaaHroj cooTBeTCTBy»TOHX X H B H X ,  paaroBopHHx, cjiaBaHCKHX  S B H K O B ,  BCJie^cTBHe  TeneHHe 1 1 - 1 2 - o r o cTOJteTHH npHxo^HTCff . yxe  TOBOPHTB  paaHOBH^HocTax cTapocjiaBaHCKoro a3HKa, ero  H3Bo;tax  TaKHM o 6 p a s o M , y x e  B  *tero B  o MecTHHX HJIH  pe.aaKn.Hax.  n a i a J i e 1 1 - o r o CTOJieTHa ,3p. CTenaH BadHM*  nHmeT: " Prema j e z i c i m a 6 i j e s e osebine unose u t e k s t r a z l i k u j e m o p e t osnovnih r e d a k c i j a : 1. Seskomoravsku, 2. panonsko-slovensku, 3« h r v a t s k u i s r p s k u , k» bugarsko-makedonsku, 5« r u s k u . " o OdpaTHM TenepB BHHMaHHe Ha nepno^ pa3BHTHs oT^eJiBHoro cepdcKO-xopBaTCKoro a3HKa O T e r o Hcxo^a na ^peBHero a3Hsa cJiaBaH ( 12-oro CTOJieTHa ) AO 2 8 - o r o MapTa 1850-oro voAa Ror,a.a B BeHe  6  KpynHefilUHMH B TO BpeMa CepdCKHMH, XOpBaTCKHMH H y q e H H M H  B  dHJio no,5nHcaHo TaK  H a s H B a e i i o e  "JlHTepaTypnoe corjiameHHe"  pesyjitTaTe KOToporo dHJia npHHSTa pe$opMa  Eapa,axHHa o  CJIOBeHCBHMH  co3^aHHH e^HHoro JHTepaTypHoro  B y K a  CTe$aHOBH*ia  c e p d c K O  —  x o p B a T C K o r o  HSHKa Ha ocHOBe paaroBopHOH penn H "mTOKaBCKoro" jiHaJieKTa.  7  C E P B C K A £ P E M K I J M CTAPOCJIABtfHCKOrO H3HKA  B IIEPHO^ OT 1 0 - o r o AO 13-oro CTOJETHfl 3aHMCTBOBaJiH CBOH  Cepdn  nepBHfl JtHTepaTypHHH  CTapOCJtaBSHCKHH, y OOJirapOB B 10-QM CTOJteTHH. HClSHBaeMHH KHpH.OOB-CKHft"  OAHOBpeMeHHQ, TCK  QJI$aBHT ( KHpHJtJIHUa )  ~HlVi "KHpHJCJIHHeOKHH  ,!  H3HK,  CTaoi odnxoAHHM, aaxe odH3aTeJCBHHM aJt$aBHT0M B ApeBHefi CepdHH, BcaceACTBHe nera AOJBKHH ' dtutn HCHe3HyTB ace Apyrne, panee BOSHHKJEHC ,  BMeCTe C CaMHM HCKyCCTBOM nHCBMa B  CQMOdHTHHe CHCTeMH. HHCBMC  CepdHK) npoHHKJCH H do-irnpcKHe KHHrar, nepeBeASHHHe c r p e n e c K o r a A3HKa, K a K H oprHHajtBHHe•  CepdCKOra  HaMflTHHKH cepdcKaa  nncBMeHHocTB  cTOJieTHfi 6uxa XHBoro  OTHomeHHH HTO  no  OHH  OTHOCflTCS JfHDIB  B03HHKmaa  B  a3HKa  B0 3MOXHOCTH,  AocTHrocH  nepHOAe  B  13-OHy C T O J i e T H B , 10-oro A© 13-oro  OT  xapaKTepa.  Pa3roBopHoro,  HHCTHM CTapOCJtaBHHCKHM 5E3HKOM,  H3BecTHHX,  cTapocaaBaHCKaa  asHKa  K  nepeBOAHHKH crapaTe-iBHO HsderaJtH, HHTasECB  a3dyKa  HO  He nootHHX ycnexoa.  B 3TOM  Rexo  a  daaa npHcnocadJteHa K SByKaM crapo/-  cjiaaaHCKoro, a He cepdcKoro H 3 H K a .  cepdcKoro  B n e p a a e AomeAniHe A C Hac  IIOJIHOCTBK) c T a p o c a a B S H c i e o r o  cepdcKoro  BHpaXaTBCH,  TOM,  fl3HKa  TaK KaK  cTapocJiaBaHCKoft  IIosTOMy AJta HeKOTopux SByKoa a 3 d y K e He  XBaTa^to dyKB.  yxe  B KOHHe 12-oro H B Hanajre 13-oro cTOJieTHa npn HTeHHH cTapoaxaasH~ CKHX T e K C T O B  Ha  MeCTO  3ByKOB  C T a p O C JCaBSHCKOTO S 3 H K a  c'epdcKHe  nHcaTeJtH noACTaBJrajiH C B O H 3 B y K H B Tex cJiynaax, KorAa cooTBeT-  CTByiOlHe CTapOCJiaBaHCKHe  3ByKH  OTCyTCTBOBaJTH  B  CepdCKOM H3HKe»  EJiaroAapa TaKOMy HTeHHK cTapocJtaBaHCKHX T C K C T O B , Te ocodeHHOctfH  cTapocJtaBsacKOH op$orpa$HH, KOTopne ocTaBaJiHCB npn aTOM HTeHHHt-  8  Henepe^aHHHMH .B npoH3HoineHHH nncaTeateHi MaJio-no-MaJiy c T a i n H3MeHaTBc a ,  H , TaKHM odpasoM, BOSHHKJIO cepdcKoe npaBOHHcaHEe  C K H X TeacTOB, onnpaBineeca Ha cepdcKoe  IlaMHTHHKH cTapocJiaBHHCKoro s-3HKa c a  c  CTapOCJiaBflH-  8 T H X TeKCToB..  q r e H n e  TaKHM npaBonncaHHeM  HaaHBaioT-  naMaTHHKaMH c e p d c K o r o H3BOAa HJIH pe^aKHKH. CaMHe cTapne naMaTHHKH c e p d c K c a pe.aaKn.HH,  n n c a H H H e  KHpHJiJiHHefl:, aBJiaioTca MnpocoraBOBo H ByKaHOBo eBaHreJiHa.  Rxs Hsy-^  neHHa c e p d c K o r o s3HKa B KOHn.e 1 2 - o r o  c T c a e T H a  8TH eBaHrcHHa HMeroT doJiBmoe sHaneHHe.  H B  HanaJte ±3-K>ro  X o T a  naMaTHHKH ne l-moro pa3JiH<iaioTca O T ^pyrnx  B  C B o e B  cymHOCTH  c T a p o c a a B H H C K H X  OTH  naMHTHHKOB  T o r o BpeMeHH, B H H X y»e Had onoAaioTca, raaBHHM odpa30M, < J > o H e T H < i e c KHe,ar>» H rpaMMaTHHecKHe ocodeHHocTH cooTBeTCTBywmero KHBoro, cepdcKoro a3HKa T o r o BpeMeHH.  cepdcKoro asHKa  HOCTH  AO  Ha raaBHeHiUHe $oHeTHHecKHe ocodeH-  HanaJa 13-oro cTo-ieTHa  a  yKaacy H C C K O J I B K O  H H s e .  IlepBHe naMaTHHKH nncaHHHe H H C T H M cepdcKHM pasroBopHHM  H3HKOM OTHOCaTCa JIHUIB  K  KOHHy 13-OrO CTOJieTHa, II (fcaKTHHeCKH, TOJIBKO  c 3ToJ! AaTH H HanHHaeTca HCTopna cepdcKoro KaK oiHTepaTypHoro  asHKai " Od X I I . veka d a i j e nag j e z i k , dakle, stupa p r e d kao i z r a z na§e narodne i n d i v i d u a l n o s t i - 1 t a d a tek p o c i n j e njegova i s t o r i j a kao icnji&evnog j e z i  s v e t z a p r a v o k a .  "  7  9  XOPBATCKAfl P E M K U M CTAP0CJIAB5IHCK0r0 5I3BIKA B lIEPHO,fl OT 10-oro AO 13-oro CTOJIETHA IlepBHe 3a^aTKH XOpBaTCKOH DHCBMeHHOCTH OTHOCSTCfl K 10-oMy cTOjreTHio. CKHM  B B T O BpeMa XopBaTH noJiynaroT BMecTe c cJiaBan-  dorocJiyxeHHeM ax  H riHctMo - rjiarojnmy.  nepBHii JiHTepaTypHH*! a3HR, cTapocaraBaHCKHK, XopBaTCKaa rjiarojinna xapaKTepH3«pyeTCfl  pe3Koft yrjsoBaTocTBK) nonepKa KOTopofl. HanpHMep, He 3HaeT doJirapcKaa rJiarojrama.  HasTOMy. xopBaTCKaa rjiarojrana  yrJioBaTOH rjiaroJinneH. 13-oro ciTOJieTHfl.  XopBaTH nncaJiH rjtarojHmeH  Ha3HBaeTca AO, cepe^HHu  UOA BJiHHHHeM sana^Hofi KyjiBTypn, noaBJiaeTca  JiaTHHHHa, KOTopaa nocTeneHHo coxpaHaeTca:  H  Koe-r^e  TOJIBKO B  BHTecHaeT rJiarojnmy,  nocscaHas  H  KepKOBHOM ynoTpedJieHHH.  npHMeqaioT,  HTO OCTaTKH TJlarOJIHHH COXpaHHJIHCB B HeKOTOpHX Kpaax XopBaTHH H AO 20-oro CTOJieTHa; " Za g l a g o l j i c u se prema tome moze r e 6 i , da se je kod H r v a t a ... i to na zapadnom d i j e l u uz J a d r a n ( u I s t r i , Hrvatskom P r i m o r j u , s j e v e r n o j i s r e d n j o j Dalmacij.i i na otocima od Krka i C r e s a do BraSa i Hvara ) - o d r z a l a u javnom 2 i v o t u do 19 i u crkvenom do 2.0 s t " 8 JlHTepaTypHHM a3HKOM xopBaTOB 4 0 13-oro a3HK CTapocjiaBaHCKHH. B  TO  npeHMymecTBy  TO  OIIIH6EU  QTO  KHHr •  He aBJiaeTca  OTOM  a3HKe  B  XopBaTHH, KaK  H  B  6HJI  CepoHH  paaBHJiacB oneHB CoraTaa nepeso^Haa AeaTeJBHocTB.  BpeMa,  MOpaJIBHHX  Ha  CTOJieTHa  OHJIH  nepeBO^H dorocJiyxedHHX  ECJIH  H3HK,  POAHHM  dorocJioBCRo -  Ha KOTOpOM HanHCaH HSBeCTHHH naMaTHHK,  a3HKoM nnmymero,  npoTHB rpaMOTHoro nncBMa  cjiynaax pacxox.fl.eHHH Mex^y  H  no  PO^HHM  HO MH  Bee xe  6JIH3OK K  MoseM oxn^aTB  a3HKOM nnmymero  H  BO  ero asHKy, Bcex  H3HKOM  Ha  10  KOTOPOM  OH  KaK  nnmeT.  H  B  cepocKHX, TaK  H  B  xopBar-  jtpeBHeHBIIIX  CKHX naMflTHHBaX BH4HO, HTO HHCHH XOpBaTCKHX naMSTTHHKOB Hfi «srpeMHJiHCB  s a Me Ha JIH  K  TOHHOH  3BVKH  n-epeaane CTapocjiaBaHCKoro npoHBHomeHHa  cTapoc JiaBaHCKoro aainca  npaBonncaHHe He itaBaJio Borjta  OHO  TOHHHX  3ByKaMH •  KOTAB.  yKasaHHH Ha npoH3HomeHHe,  yBa3HBaJio Ha TaKHe 3ByKH  BOBce He BCTpeHaJiHCB  PCSHKMH  B xopBaTCKOM  HJIH  oo^eTaHHa  aBHKe.  H  HJIH  a s y K O B ,  KOTopHe  TaKHM odpaaoM, nepBHe  AomeimiHe AO Hac xopBaTOKHe naMaTHHKH, KaK HanpHMep Hcnpasa KyjtHHa 6aHa ( 1189  ) » H EamtaECKa luiona ( 1100  ) yxe aBJEamTca xopBaTCKHMH  H3BOiiaMH CTapocjiaBaHCKoro a3Hica - naMaTHHKH rjiaroJiBCKO — xopBaTCKOH  peJtaKHHH.  CodcTBeHHo roBopa, xopBaTCKaa pejaKnHa He MHoro  pasJtHHaeTca O T cepGcKoii pe^aKitHH CTapocjiaBaHCKoro a"3HKa„  Ha  HafiBaxHeHHiHe HSMeHeHHa »KOTopne npoH3omJiH B cepdcKo - xopBaTCKOM a3HKe  B  nepnca.  OT  10-oro  AO  13-oro CTOJieTHa,  H  KOTopne  oTpaaHJiHCB  Ha npaBonncaHHH BHmeynoMaHyTHX cepdcKHX H x o p B a T C K H X naMaTHHKOB, a yKaxy B cJieAyjomeft rjiaBe.  11  OCOBEHHOCTH CTAPOCIABflHCKOrO #3HKA CPABHHTEJILHO C HAP04HHM .flPEBRTJM CEPBCKO - XOPBATCKHM 5T3HKOM B § OHETHUECKOM OTHOffiEHKH B nEPHOJH OT 10-oro AO 13-oro  CTOJEETHfl  S3HKOBHH MaTepHaJI, HaXOAflmHHCS B CepdCKO - XOpBaTCKHXC naMATHHKax B aTy ApeBHeninyro anoxy no3BOJtfleT c y ^ H T B , rjiaBHHM odpaaoM, o $0HeTHHecKHX ocofieHHocTHX cepdcKo - x o p B a T C K o r o aaHKa, nocKOJiBKy OHH 0Tpa3HJiHC£ Ha npaBonHcaHHH, HO 3HaHHTe<3BHO MeHtme o Mop$oJiorHHecKOM cTpoe H oteKCHHecKOM cocTaBe cepocKo - xopBaTcKoro ff3HKa nHmymHX. CKHX TeKCTOB naMHTHHKOB  He  6HJIO  CepdcKoe H x o p B a T C K o e nncaHHe cTapocaaBHHBe3Ae O A H O P O A H H M : n p a B o n n c a H H e - op$orpa$Hfl  npe^cTaBaseTfioJCBmoepa3Hoo6pa3He B 3aBHCHMocTH OT  MeCTHOCTH, OT CTeneHH r p a M O T H O C T H H ApyrHX HHAHBHAyaJtBHHX ocoCeHHOcTen nnmymnx. r p a $ H H He OHJEO, HO  OneBHAHo, cTporo yperyacHpoBaHHoft op$o-  H3BecTHaa o p ^ o r p a ^ H H B C K a a CHCTeMa c y m e e T B o a a a a .  Odme - ceptfcKo - xopBaTCKHe n e p T H n p a B o n n c a H H H B nepnoA OT 10-oro 13-oro cTOJteTHfl <5HJIH:  AO  1.  CyABda H O C Q B H X rJiacHHX "roc 6oj£moH" H 'fee MaJiHH" CTapocjcaBHHCKHe HocoBHe raacHHe "rocfioJiBnroH( /?\ )  H  "BC  MaJiHft"  (A  ) y&e c KOHna 11-oro oTOJieTHa B 6o<XB3iHHCTBe  Cep6CKHX H XOpBaTCKHX naMHTHHKOB CMeiHHBaroTCfl> OHH  B 12-OM CTOJteTHH  3aMeHfl»Tcfi OOHHHHMH rjiacHHMH - "BC (5O.HBIIIOH" > oy>y, a " B C  MaJtHft"  > e.  9TH  " B C H " C TeneHHeM  BpeMeHH nepecTaan npoH3HOCHTtcfl  c ynacTHeM HOCOBOH nojiocTH, yTpaTHJtH CBOH AO63BOHHHH HOCOBOH O T TeHOK, npeBpaTHJiHCB B H H C T H C rjiacHHe, npnneM, o^HOBpeMeHHo,  12  H3MeHHJtoc£  H  npoHSHomeHae  BHJIOCB BBJIOCB  BMecTo HocoBoro "ioca dojiBinoro"  KanecTBo ax« " y " ,  a  y c T a H o -  BMecTO HocoBoro "ioca MaJioro" ycTano-  "e".  " Kao n a j v a z n i j i pojav j e u X I I . veku potpuno i z r a z e n p o j a v d e n a z a l i z a c i j e . N e k a d a n j i n a z a l n i samoglasnici be s v o j nosni i z g o v o r , 1 p r e l a z e u o b i c n e v o k a l e ^ > y ; A ) e ). ... oy ( y ) umesto , r <"h k & - roykoy. Tako: "bude golub, guba, dub, k u t , muz, rauka, p u t , rub, ruka, s u b o t a , sud i t d . " 9  r  CyflBoa rJiacHHX ' V ' a " B "  2.  Kax H a .apyrax cjiaBHHCKax asHKax, TaK a B ceptfcKO xopBaTCKOM aaHKe  nojiHoro o6pa30BaHaa, ynoTpedJiaJiacB  HHX  rjiacHHe  ">b"  " t " H "B".  "B"  H  nepemjiH  cjiadae BHnaJtH. AO  ApeBHee BpeMa, KpoMe HopMaJiBHHx,  B  B  rjiyxae  HJIH  pe;tyn.HpoBaHBBe  Cy^Bfia H X B cjxaBaHCKax asHKax cxo^aa: Te  HJIH  B eepdcKo  rjiac-  HHCTHX  caJiBHue  .apyrae rjiacHHe nojraoro oopa30BaHaa,  a  - xopBaTCKOM a3HKe, B nepao.a O T 10-oro  13-oro CTOJieTHa B cjiadoM noJioaceHaa, T.e. B KOHite cjioBa H B  OTKPHTOM  cjiore, rjtyxae rjiacHHe nepecTaJiH  caJiBHOM nojioseHaa, T . e . ecjiH A£HB  >  caH,  A&K  caaOHMH, BepoaTHo, KpaTKHMH,  H a x c a a j i a c B XIOA  a  BCHBSJIH,  y^apenaeM  (  B CBH'B,  ) c TeneHHeM BpeMeHH cTaJia 3aMeHaTBca rjtacHHM  nojiHoro o<3pa30BaHHa "a".  MeHee  OHH  3BynaTB,  Pa3HHn,a uexAy  cocToaJia B  T.e.  6HJIH  TOM,  HTO  no K O J i n n e c T B y  HOpMaJIBHOK) KpaTKOCTBB, HBM ' V  "i" "B"  H H  dJiaxe  "B" "B" K  CHJIBHHMH  cajiBHHe rjiacHHM  H  CHJIH  sBysau c  H " B " CJiaOHeJ  " I S c e z a v a n j e p o l u g l a s n i k a na k r a j u r e S i i i z s l o g a z a kojim j e b i o s l o g sa punim vokalom, Jos' u r a n i j o j e p o s i , i z a z v a l o j e u prvom redu v o k a l i z o v a n j e p o l u g l a s n i k a u jakom p o l o z a j u . Pono.va su se n a i l i s u g l a s n i c i na k r a j u s l o g a , a p o s l e d i c a toga b i l o j e  13  i novo g r u p i s a n j e s l o g o v a . - D v o s l o z n e r e 2 1 , kao d i n t , c t n £ , postale s u j e d n o s l o z n i r a : d s n , SBn, a poluglasnik u p r o g r e s i v n i m d i j a l e k t i m a davao a: dan, s a n . Tako j e i u p r i m e r i m a d t h > dan, d t s k a > d a s k a , mBgla > raagla. - U slabom p o l o g a j u , p a k , p o l u g l a s n i k j e i S S e z a v a o , n a p r i m e r : dane - dne, o D u r d e v u - dne, o V i d o v u - dne, t B n ( t ) k a > tanka, tBn(s)ko > t a n k o , P r e m a o b l i c i m a dan, t a n k a , t a n k o , a n a l o g i j o m u n e t o j e a i u d r u g e o b l i k e - d a n a - danu - danom; t a n a k i d r . P r e l a z B u a s v a k a k o se p o c e o v r s i t i i r a n i j e , a l i u spomenicima n a l a z i m o p r i m e r e tek od k r a j a X I I I veka, mada se c e s t o i d a l j e u p o t r e b l j a v a B k a o o r t o g r a f s k i znak, a l i s a c i t a n j e m a . " 10 H3MeHeHHe " H " B " H "  3.  3aAHeHec5HHe " K " , CKOM  "r",  "x" B ApeBHeM ocepdcico-xopBaT-  A3HKe MorjiH 6HTB nepeA B e e M i i H e n a a a T a j i B H H M H rjiacHHMH, tssstxy  nponiiM, H nepeA " H " . coieTaHHs  "KE",  "rn",  cTojreTHeM,  C TeneHHeM BpeMeHH, c 1 3 - H M "XH"  B.nncBMeHHHX naMHTHHKax ApeBHero  CepdCKO - X O p B a T C K O T O H3HKa HaMHHaKT MaJtO-no-MaJiy BHTeCHHTBCfl  coqeTaHHHMH " K H " , Go-SBinen Hero HOH B  " X H " , H neM Aa-asme HAeT BpeMH, TeM Bee c  "rH",  nocjieAOBaTeJiBHocTBio.  paAa  "H"  ^eoto B T O M ,  TBepAHe corjcacHHe,Boo6me, npoH3HocHJiHCB c MHHHMaJtB-  JtadHJtH3aHHeH, KOTopaa noTOM B C K o p e  npoH3HoneHHH  ABHXKa BnepeAo  nepeA rjiacHHM cpeA-  HTO  "K" OHH  , "r",  "x"  B  GTOM  HCHe3Jta.  BcaeACTBHe 3 T o r o ,  noJioseHHH npoH3onuta nepe-  cTaan c p e A H e s 3 H H H H M H corjracHHMH,  onepeAB noBJieKJio 3a codoii nepeABH&icy BnepeA KOTopoe H3MeHHJiocB B " H " .  06 QToM  JUp,  H  B  MHJHBOH  HTO  B  CBOK  npoH3HomeHHH  "m",  IlaBJiOBHH 3aMeHaeT:  " P r e l a z H u i i z v r s e n je postepeno: prvo i z a zadnjon e p S a n i h s u g l a s n i k a k. g, h , n a p r i m e r : p a k i ( i z : p a k H ) , V B v k i ( i z : v b v ta ) . T a k o j e i u n a j s t a r i j e m c i r i l s k o m crkvenom spomeniku sa osobinama n a s e g narodnog jezika, u Miroslavljevom jevandelju. To H i u d r u g i m s l u c a j e v i m a o d X I I I v e k a z a m e n j u j e se u p i s a n j u s v e c e s c e s a i .... H u  BHmeynoMaByTHe,  H MHorne  Apyrne Menee sHaHHTejiBHHe  $oneTHHecKHe H3MeHeHHa, B03HHKnHe B riHcaHHX naMKTHHKax ceptfcKo XOpBaTCKOH peAaKHHH CTapOCJtaBSHCKOrO BJiHSHHeM  SHBOTO  5T3HKa noaBHJIHCB noA  pa3roBopHoro H3H»a cepdc-B H XOpBaTOB.  S3HK c 1 3 - H M croJieTHeM Bee 6oat£me npodHBaeTca  B  XHBOH  JCHTepaTypy,  XOTH  eme noA orpoMHHM BJiHaHHeM asHKa cTapocaaaaHCKoro. BcJieACTBHe OToro cTapocJiaBaHCKHe a c Apyrc-H  CTOPOHH,  TCKCTH,  nepenncaHHue cepbaMH  HanpHMep, CojirapaMH  oTJiHiaTBca Apyr O T Apyra.  H  H  xopBaTaMH,  pycc-KHMH, cTaJiH  CH-HBHO  C HeJiB» BBecTH oAHooopasHe B npaBo-  nncaHHe cTapocjcaBHHCKHX TeKCTOB B 1 U - O M CTOJieTHH B BojirapHH 6uxa npe^npHHaTa pe$opMa THpHOBCKoro ( epeAH cepooB  yMep  npaBonncaHHa,  11+02 )•  H xopBaTOB.  9Ta  cBa3aHHaa c HMeHeM  pe$opMa T o x e pacnpocTpaHHJiacB  06paTHM  TenepB BHHMaHHe Ha AajtBHenffiee  pa3BHTHe cepdcKo - xopBaTCKoro a3HKa  cTOJieTHa.  EB$HMHH  B  nepnoA  OT  13-oro  AO  18-oro  15  PA3BHTHE  CEPBCKOrO  5T3BIKA B TIEPVLOA  1 3 - o r o RO 1 8 - o r o C T O J I E T H J I  OT  OcHOBaTg'Jie^M nepBOH cepdcKoft AHHacTHH Eeuasa. ( 1159  - 1195  <3HJI  CTe$aH  IlocJie ero cMepTH BJiacTB nepemJia B pyKH  )o  ero CHHa CTe$aHa IlepBOBeHHaHoro (  1 1 9 5 - 122k  yxe KaK KopojtB.  rjiaBoio rocy^apcTBa  O H CHJI  aeMJieBJiaAeJimeM. OT H  He  TOJIBKO  qjiema AHHacTHH  KopoJia 6oJiBmHe n o M e c T t a .  HepKOBB, BJia^eBDiail  BHyTpn cTpaHH is.  BHe  CTaJi  CaBBa ( 117U -  .aapHaa $nrypa  B  HHHOBHHKH  Ha  Mex^y nocjreAHHMH npHo6peJi A$oHe.  B  apxnenHCKoncTBO, H  1 2 3 5 ) > 6paT  ro^y  1220-OM  BOAH  noJiynaJiH  CTe$aHa IlepBOBeHHaHoro - JiereH-  npejuaHHHX cepdcKoro HapoAa.  BJiaro^apa CaBBe, B  o(5pa30M,  B  STOM  caeJiaHH nepe-  OHJIH  co CTapocjiaBaHCKoro s3HKa MHorHX eBaHreJiHJi, Apyroii, rJtaBHHM  cos^aHO  nepBHM apxneriHCKonoM  3HaHHTeJiBH0M KyjiBTypHOM neHTpe CepOHH  3aKOHHHKOB H  KpynHHM  H3BecT-  OHJIO  XHJiaH^ape pa3BHJiacB o r p o M H a a K y j i B T y p H a a A e f l T e J i B H O C T B . nepBOM  HO H  $eo,5axH3an.HH CepdHH cnocodcTBOBaJia  CepoHH.  cnemiaJiBHoe cepdcKoe  KopojieBCKHe  BeH^aJicfl  KOTOPHH  KpynHHMH nOMeCTBSMH H <5oraTHMH MOHaCTHpflMH  MOHacTHpB XHJiaH,aap  HOCTB  H  ),  X H T H H , ncaJiTHpeJi»  x p H C T H a H C K o f i JIHTepaTypH•  Ao KOHHa 1 5 - o r o C T O JieTHH XHJiaH^ap c y m e c T B O B a J i ,  KaK  BaxHeniUHH  neHTp cepdcKoft c p e ^ H e B e K O B o n n n c B M e H H O c T H .  Ha^o ynoMHHyTB,  H T O c T a p o c j i a B S H C K H f t S3EUC C O BpeMeHH  cepdcKOH pe^aKHHH, eme H 3 B e c T e H IIOA  Ha3BaHHeM "cepdcKocJiaBSHCKHn".  cJiyxHJi CepdaM ropa3^o dojiBme, AOJiBme H 3HaHHTeJtBHee HSM JiaTHHB XHTeJiHM 3ana^HHX cTpaH, BaTOB  TOHHee  JiaTHHB dHJia JIHIHB H3HKOM  xopBaTaM.  B TO  BpeMa KaK y xop-  BjepKBH j OdlHeCTBeHHHX AOKyMeHTOB,  16  HayHHoK nos3HH  H  ApyroJi cnertHaJiBHOH JiHTepaTypH,  npaBHJio, pasBHBaJtHcs  KaK  MecTHHe  JiHTepaTypHHe  PWOM  c  c$opMHpoBaB-  SSHKH,  mHecfl Ha ocHOBe rocyAapcTBeHHoro neHTpa, cTapocjtaBHHCKHn cpe^H CepdoB AOJiroe BpeMH Horo  H JtHTepaTypHoro  BHIIOJIHHJI  BHHCKOM H3HKe npOH30HJIH  r j i a B e KOTopofi HHJiacB  H  B  e^HHCTBeHHoro nncBMeH-  cepdcKoft pe^aKHHH»B eTapocjtaT-  BpeMeHH  HeKOTOpHe H3MeHeHHH , B 1U-OM CTOJieTHH  HeJiBK) BBecTH c-AHoo<5pa3He B  H3HK  H3HKa.  IlocJie T o r o KaK,co  naMHTHHKOB,  POJIB  KOTOPHMH,  B npaBonncaHHH  CepdHH,  vAe  BO  E r o pe$opMa pacnpocTpa-  TBHPHOBCKHH.  ee ycnexy MHoro coAencTBOBaJi KoHCTaHTHH  ®HJIOCO<|), C03AaTeJtB 3HaK0MOH "peCaBCKOH HIKOJIH", HeHTp KOTOpOH  XOAHJUCH B  HOBOM  #HJIOCO$OM  pe$opMa y3aKOHHJia  H  naTB  OT  MOHaCTHpe  MOHaCHH.  BBe^eHHaH  ocodeHHOcTH  HanpHMep dyKBy " &  rpa$HH.  11  ByKBy " i "  BHOBB  KOHCTaHTHHOM  doarapcKoro  npaBonHcaHHH  cepdcKHe nncaTeJiH He yMejiH  nncaJiH cjieAyromHM odpa30M " H " , "I",  dyKBy "e"  KaK  HeKOTopne  ocodeHHOcTH  "E",  "o" KaK  aToro  BpeMeHH dHJin ycTpaHeHH,  HO,  "o",  HOBOTO C  OTJIH-  H  " T " KaK "6 " H T . * .  "w":  STOH  pe{£opMOH. B  1371-OM  coKpymHTeJiBHoe  nepnoA yrHeTeHHH HannoHaJiBHOH, peJUHrHoaHoft JIa3apB,  KHH3B  ocTaJiHCB H HeKOTo-  CTOPOHH,  C dHTBoa Ha depery peKH MapnnH TypKH HaHecJiH oepdaM nepBoe  "H", "V":  npaBonncaHHH c TeneHHeM  Apyroit  pne Apyrne HOBmecTBa, BBe4eHHHe  CepdHH.  na-  dyKB "oy" HJIH "y u H npoE3BOJCBHO cTaBHJiH oAHy dyKBy BMecTo  ApyroK.  CH  C  nepKOBHo - cJiaBHHCKHX  EojirapHH dHJia npe^npHHHTa pe$opMa npaBonncaHHH CTOHJI E B $ H M H H  ,  voxy,  r^e  nopa&eHHe, HanHHaeTH  KyjiBTypHoft SH3HH  CeBepHoJi CepdHH, codpaJi HoBHe  CHJIH AJLK  17  oopBdn npoTHB VypoK, H O noTepneJi noJiHoe nopaseHHe B dHTBe Ha KOCOBOM  nojie, KOTopaa ocTaJiacB  B  caMoe yxacHoe nopaxeHHe, a AeHB  naMHTH cepdcKoro napojia Kas AeHB  6HTBEL,  CB.  BHTa  HJIH  BH^OBAaH ( 15/6/1389 ) , KaK caMHK TparHHecKHtt Aenh cepdcKoft HCTopHH.  TypeiiKHe BJiaeTH TmaTeJiBHo H3TOHHJIH Bce. HTO nOSBHJIOCI.  Ha cepdcKOM s3HKe, cepdcKHe KyjiBTypHHe n.eHTpH 3aKpHBaJiHCB, B O MHOTHX  MecTax CepdHH  nHCBMeHHocTB  coBepmeHHO HcnesJia.  Bo BpeMa  CeJIHMa 1-OrO y C.ep60B OTHHMaJIHCB XpaMH, KOH$HCKOBaJIOCB HMymecTBo nepKBefi H MOHacTHpeJt. maJiH  HX  B  HCJiaM  dep6oB yoesaJio  onpe,a.eJiaJiH  H B  TypKH 3adHpaJiH cepdcKHX MaJiBHHKOB, oopaHHHHapH.  B  B  BxHyw BeHrpnio, BoKBO^HHy,  IIOA aBCTpHHCKHM BJia^HHeCTBOM,  CBH3H  C  OTHM,MHOTO  6HJia  KOTopaa Toriia  HapOA, OCTaBfflHHCa Ha po,a.HHe,  peBHHBO COXpaHHJI CBOK) HaHHOHaJIBHOCTB H HaHHOHaJIBHHH 6HT0 BTOpOH  nOJIOBHHe 15-OrO CTOJieTHH  BecTHHX cepdcKHX Hapo^HHX  CJIOXHJIOCB  anHnecKHx  Bo  ddJIBBIHHCTBO IUHpOKO  H3-  cKa3aHHft o Hapo^HHX repoax,  ocoCeHHO o repoax KocoBa nojia - o nape JIa3ape, o MHJtome OdHJiHHe, o KopoJieBHHe MapKe  H  .flpyrax repoax.  BaJiHCB BoeHHHe Tpa^HHHH Hapo^a.  Boo(3me 0Ka3aJiacB MeHee AOCTyn  T/ypeiiKHM BJiacTaM  HHTeJiBHyK) cBoCo^y. KOTOPHX  Taxejiofi,  TO  BJiacTB neM  B  HOBHMH  Bcex  OTHM  no^^epxH-  T y p o K B nocJie^yiomHe  cepdcKHe  3Ha-  H  rafflUyKH,  oTpa^H  cJioeB cepdcKoro Hapo^a.  HapcflHHMH repoaMH,  H  O  HHX  TaKxe  B  Hapo^e  B03HHKJI0 MHOXeCTBO neceH.  C ApyroK  c T o p o H H , c!epdH B  BeKa  B ropax, Ky^a  Sepon coxpaHHJiH  6HJI saTpy^HeH,  BHXo^HaMH H3  BpeMa,  HanaJie.  TaM rocno^cTBOBaJiH  nonojmaJiHCB  ratUyKH cTaJiH  B  3MHrpan.HH, oco(5eHHO  B  18  BoHBOAHHe, TaKxe BnaJiH B nojrayio HHmeTy, B  ^Jta odpameHHs cepdoB  KaTOJiHixH3M, A B C T P H H Ha Kas^oM mary npecJie^OBaJia npaBocjraBHe.  B BoHBo^HHe He3yHTH  OHJI  OTKpHJIH  o6pa30BaH cneHHaJiBHHH HenenKHH  r^e  JiaTHHCKyK) rKMHa3HK) H IieHaTaJIH KHHTH Ha HeMeHKOM  ToproBJiH cepdoB 6tuia  A3HKe.  KBapTaJi,  yHHHToseHa  nomJiHHaMH, nyTH  BHCOKHMH  coodneHHa B c T p a H e pa3pymaJiHCB H He BoccTaHaBJiHBaJXHCB* HTO  CepdH  ^ejraTB,  dojiBmyio  B  BoHBOAHHe odpamaioT CBoe BHHMamie na caMyw  na npaBocJiaBHBix  POCCHK.  cTpaH -  npocBOy depdoB, dHJi oTnpaBJieH H3  B 1721I-OM ro,ay* na  MOCKBH B  BoHBOAHHy MaKCHM  CyBopoB c HMeHeM KOToporo cBHBHBaeTca HanaJio HapcaHOH CepCoB, a TaKse csaBHHcicoro" Cep6oB CKO  6HJI  ynoTpe6jieHHe  cTapocjiaBflHCKHH TeM He  A3HKa B03HHK, ocotfeHHo  HBHK  cep6cKoft  pe^aKHHH -  MeHee, B p e 3 y j i B T a T e  B BoHBo^HHe,  xaoce, Majro-no-MaJiy  nncaJi  CBOHM  «3HKOM,  CHHTaa  ero  BOHBOAHHe,  CepdHH  3Haa K O T O P H H  H3HK  npeHedperaa  "CJiaBflHO  -  jiHTepaTypa Ha  B 3TOM H3HKOBOM  OHJIO CTOJIBKO H3HKOB CKOJIBKO  Cep6CKHH  M  H  JiHTepaTypHHH > Kas^HH nncaTeJiB HHCTO Hapo^HHH  B CepdHH,  H3HKOM " n a c T y x o B " .  pa3roBopHoro AO  B  "cepd-  SSHK  pyccH$HKan.HH aToro  S3HK H  HOBHH  1  He  y  cepdcKOH nncBMeHHocTH "pyccKo •'-  B  TaK Ha3HBaeMOM "cJiaBKHO - CepdCKOM ' S3HKe<>  nacaTeJieH.  HIKOJIH  Ao npae34a pyccKHX y n e H H X JiHTepaTypHEH 23HK  H3HKa.  - cjraBHHCKHH".  He 3Haa  cepdcKHft  ASHK  r j i a B H H M o6pa30M  B  AaJieKHH OT  JIHTepaTypHHH H3HK,  s3HKa, npeodJia^aoi B 18-OM H HanaJie 1 9 - o r o CTOJieTHa,  noaBJieHHH ByKa  CTe$aHOBHHa  Kapa^acHHa, BeJiHKoro pe$opMaTopa,  cepdcKoro nydJiHHHCTa, nncaTeJia H <J>ojiBKJiopHCTa, noJioscHBinero B ocHOBy JiHTepaTypHoro  ar3HKa acHByro Hapo^Hyio p e H B „  flSHKa  CTOJICTHH  depdoB  B  18 -OM  npeKpacHO pa3o6paHH  3TH nyTaHHH.H B  Tpy^e  19  cepdcKoro  JCHBTBHCTSI  AJceKcaHApa Ee-tH^a:  " V i s v i -mate dobro da j e b i l o u knjizevnosti n a S o j i nenarodnih j e z i k a . U i s t o c n i m krajevima nasih naroda, a narocito k o d S r b a , u knjizevnosti se do k r a j a XVIII v e k a zadrSao crkvenoslavenski j e z i k u srpskom izgovoru, i i i , k a k o se to naucno ka2e, u srpskoj. r e d a k c i j i . To z n a c i da s u S r b i samo one g l a s o v e k o j i nisu p o s t o j a l l u n j i h o v u j e z i k u ( A - e, A - y, H - H , ?>, B - <b i i i B , tj« jedan poluglasnik ponegde u duhu a, a ponegde u duhu e ) zamenili s v o j i m , tako da j e ostao u n j l h o v j k n j i zevnosti s t a r o s l o v e n s k i i i i starocrkveni j e z i k sa svima s v o j i m osebinama, samo u glasovnoj odeci srpskohrvatskoj. U XVIII v e k u t a j i z g o v o r b i o je  zamenj^n r u s k o c r k v e n i m k o j i j e i d a n a s o s t a o u srpskoj pravoslavnoj c r k v i . Na o s n o v u t o g a jezika s t v o r i l a se u k n j i z e v n o s t i nasoj meMavina s r p s k o g 1 crkvenoruskog jezika u d r u g o j p o l o v i n i XVIII veka, toZVo "slavenoserbski" j e z i k . P r o t i v njegove u p o t r e b e u knjizevnosti i u s t a o j e K a r a d i c trazeci  da se u s r p s k o h r v a t s k o j k n j i z e v n o s t i  primenjuje  n a r o d n i j e z i k , s l i c a n onom k o j i se n a l a z i u srpskim n a r o d n i m pesmama k o j e j e Vuk i z d a o i j e d n a k sa onim j e z i k o m k o j i j e sam Vuk p i s a o . " 12  IIpeodpaaoBaHHH, KOTopne OAHaKo, npHHiaTH He  cflcaaHH KapaAXH^eM  CHJIH  cpa3y, a JIHIHB B pe3yjiBTaTe ynopHon  AByX HanpaBJieHHH, KOHCepBaTHBHO - KJtepHKaJBHOrO p y c c K o - cJtaBHHCKoro H3HKa ) , BO  rJtaBe KOToporo  CTOHJIH  6HJIH,  dopEdn  ( 3a«HTHHKH  H HaHHOHaJtBHo — AeMOKpaTHHecKoro,  Kapa^xHHao  CTOPOHHHKH  KpoMe T o r o ,  caMHM BaxHHM pe3yjiBTaToM e r o JtHTepaTypHOft H JtHHrBHCTHHecKoft AesTeotBHocTH  6HJIO  HHX  XopBaTH BO raaBe c JIioiieBHTOM raeM  HSHKOB.  c6jiHxeHHe cepdcKoro  H  x o p B a T C K o r o JXHTepaTyp-  ( 1809 - 1872 )  npHHHJXH npeo(5pa30BaHHH KapaAXHHa, noJioxHB B ocHOBy CBoero JiHTep a T y p H o r o s3HKa "HTOKaBCKHii" AHaJieKT, coxpaHHB npn CKyio rpa$HKy.  TeM He MeHee,  HTO6H  KaK npoH3onuro cd JtH&eHH© fcepdcKoro.  B H  IIOJIHOCTH  MOTJIH  OTOM  JtaTHH-  noHHMaTB  xopBaTCKorp * jfsaKoBj Haito  20  OOpaTHTB  BHHMaHHe Ha pa3BHTHe OT^eOIBHOrO X O p B a T C K O r O HSHBa  BpeMeHH x o p B a T C K o n 19-oM  CTOJieTHH x o p B a T C K o r o  yKasaHHHft TaT  pe^aKHKH  npHMep n o K a s e T ,  caMocTosTeJiBHoro  BHpaxeHHyio •IHHHfl  13-oro  cTOJieTHar,  H T O  xopBaTCKHft  H;3HK  HCTopHnecKoro pa3BHTHH,  S3HKaMH  0  noHBJreHHH B  pe$opMaTopa, J l K A e B H T a T a s o  H H ^ H B H A y a J i B H o c T B , H3 3 a n e r o  UeSZAy AByMH  AO  Hnse  HMeJt» K a K C B O K  cjieiiyioT  CO  ocooyio  pe3y.HB-  HCHO  ocHOBHHe p a 3 -  2 1  P A 3 B H T H E OT  XOPBATCKOrO  13-oro  A3HKA  AO 1 8 - o r o  B  nEPHOJt  CTOJIETHA  D r o c j t a B C K a a H3HK0Baa r p y n n a , npHHa,flJiexaiomaH K KJXHOH rpynne cjiaBHHCKOH ceMBH S 3 H K O B ,  B  HacTosmee BpeMa pasAeJiseTca Ha  TpH flBHKa - CJIOBeHCKHH, MaKe^OHCKHH H CepdCKO  - XOpBaTCKHHe  9TH  A3HBH, B C B O B oqepejiB, He jrBJXinoTca O ^ H O P O ^ H H M H , p a c n a ^ a a c B Ha AHaJieKTH H HapeMHa.  pe3Ko TaKaa Heo^Hopo^HocTB BHpa—  HaJidoJiee  xeHa B CepdCKO - XopBaTCKOM 2 3 H K e « B  COBpeMeHHOM C e p d C K O  - XopBaTCKOM  fl3HKe  TpH OCHOBHHX  AHajreKTa: "HaKaBCKHii" ( A^pHaTHHecKoe n o d e p e x B e , eeBepHaa J5aJiMaH H H H ocTpoBa H  ( CeBepo - 3 a n a ^ H a a XopBaTHfl ) ,  ) , "KailKaBCKHH"  "lETOKaBCKHH" ( Ha OCTaJIBHOH TepHTOpHH XopBaTHH H CepdHH ) .  9 T H Ha3BaHH£T  " K a f t " H "lUTO". TeJIBHH..  110  ABBU  Pa3JIHHHH Mex^y  "ETOKaBCKHH"  OCHOBHHX HapeHHa? CKoe"  ( KSHoe  BOnpOCHTe JIBHOMy Me CT O H MeHHK) " H T O "  3THMH AHaJieKTaMH AOBOJIBHO  "9KaBCKOe"  ( BOCTOHHOe ) , "eKaBCKoe HJIH H e K a a -  C npOH3HOEeHHeM ApeBHerO  " e " HJIH " n e " ( 4eT3 HJIH ^ n e T G  )  H "H" (  B ocHOBy coBpeMeHHoro cepdcKO H o r o a3HKa J i e r  3Ha*EK-  AHaJieKT B CBOE) onepeAB ^eJIHTCS Ha TpH  ) , H "HKaBCKoe" ( 3ana^Hoe ) .  B COOTBeTCTBHH  "na",  "uiTOKaBCKHH" AHaJieKT,  9 T H HasBaHHs AaHH KaK "S" ( AQTd ),  AHTQ  ).  - x o p B a T C K o r o JiHTepaTyp-  npn S T O M ABe H O P M H  npona-  HomeHHfl "aKaBCKoe" H "eKaBCKoe" npHHsrn KaK paBHonpaBHHe. JIHTepaTypHHM 3 3 H K O M xopBaTOB, KaK y x e ynoMflnyTo, AO 13-oro  cTOJteTHH  6HJI H S H K  cTapocJiaBaHCKHH, MecTo KOToporo B H O -  CJie^CTBHH B HepKOBHOH H TOCy^apCTBeHHOH XH3HH 3aMeHaeT  - JiaTHHBo  22  TeM He MeHee.ca BTOgoK no J I O B H H H l k - o r o CTOJieTHa, npocBemeHHa B .ZlajmanHH H Ha  neHTpe xopBaTCKoro  ApeBHennieM  B  ocTpoBax,  noaBJiaioTca: naMSTHHKH nacaHHHe Ha H a p o ^ H O M "qaKaBCKOM" ^naJieKTe. 9TOT  H3HK XtopBaTOB , OCHOBaHHHH Ha  nepBHH JIHTepaTypHHH  AHaJieKTe, .aocTuraeT HaHBHcmero p a c n B e T a TBopnecTBe  Mapyjikqa (  BH^aioiUHXca nHcaTeJieii -  reKTopoBHHa ( JIHTepaTypHHH  lk87  B3HK  - 1572  )  H  16-OM CTO  B  jupyrnx.  C  11+50  16-HM  "qaKaBCKOM"  jieTHH  - 152J+ ) ,  cTOJieTHeM  KpoMe .HyopoBHHKa  B  KOTOPOM  JIOCB " H e K a B C K H M " HJIH " e K a B C K H M " HapeHHeM, KOTOpHH B CBH3H  me  n p o T H B TypenKOH  p a c n p o c T p a H A J i C H Ha  S3HK,  OCHOBaHHHH Ha  CTOJieTHK) n p H X O ^ H T  Bo HOCTB  CTaJi  H  Ha  3KcnaHCHH  3ana.il aa  H  CHBT  STOT  roEopnC  MHrpartHH H a c e J i e H H a , Bce "naKaBCKoro".  "naKaBCKOM" AHaJieKTe,  6OJIB-  JIHTepaTypHHH  nocTeneHHo K 18-OMy  B nOJIHHH yna.aoK.  B T o p o a noJtoBHHe 1 6 - o r o  "KaftKaBCKOM" AHaJieKTe.  3arpe(5, a^MHHHCTpaTHBHHH  K a B C K o r o " AHaJieKTa.  H  CTOJieTHa B03HHKJia nncBMeHIleHTpOM  JIHTepaTypHHH H 3 H K ,  4HaJieKTe  C K H X "  roBopoB MO BTopofi nojioBHHH 1 9 - o r o  6HJI  ynoTpetfJieHHH  B  BCTpenaeTca  ^HaJieKT  3TOH nHCBMeHHOCTH  KyjiBTypHHH neHTp o d J i a c T H  C K O M "  "KanKaBCKHH"  B  HaHHHaWT npOHHKaTB 3JieMeHTH "niTOKaBCKoro"  AHaJieKTa, " H K a B C K o r o " H a p e n n a ,  6op£<5oH  B  B  B  OCHOBaHHHH Ha  npe^eJiax  "KanKaB-  o6jiacTH "KaiiKaBIIo34Hee,  CTOJieTHa.  JiHTepaType  "KaK—  JIHBIB  B  KanecTBe  npo BHHHHa J I H 3 Ma.  MHorne H3  OTHX  AHaJieKTaJiBHHX pa3JiHHHH,  pa3J£HHHe aJi$aBHTOB, BH3BaHH TeM, HCTOpHHeCKOM p a 3 B H T H H  KaK  H  caMo  H T O c!ep6H H XopBaTH B CBOeM  BXOAHJIH B C $ e p H  BJIHHHHH pa3JIHHHHX  23  KyJIBTyp H S3HKOB:  XOpBaTH B JtaTHHO - HTaJtBSHCKOH , H03Xe JtaTHHO -  repMaHCKofl, tfepOH B r p e K o - BH3aHTHHCKOH, no3xe pyccKoft. Toro, M H o r n e ocodeHHOcTH xopBaTCKoro jtHTepaTypnoro H3HKa BaHH TaKxe BJiHHHHeM ApyrHX'., BHineynoMSHy THX., C He JIBE  AOCTHHB  Kpowe BHS-  AHaJteKToa.  e^HHCTBa c dep6aMH xopBaTH,  BO  rJtaBe  KOTOpHX CTOHJI JI&AeBHT Taft > B 30 -BIX TOAaX 19-OrO CTOJieTHff B 3 HJIH 3a  QCHOBy caoero. JtHTepaTypHoro fl3HKa "urroKaBCKHH" AHaJieKT,  "eKaBCKoe" aJi$aBHT, MHCJty  H  H  H3HB  "HeKaBCKoe" HapeHHe, pe$opMHpoBaJEH  CBOH  HemcKyio cncTeMy nepeAaHH 3ByKOB TaK,  xapaKTepy o 6 o 3 H a n a e M H X 3ByKOB noJtHocTEK  pe$opMHpoBaHHHM KapaAsciraeM  KHPHJIJIOBCKHM  JtaTHHCKHH  HTOOH  coBnaAaot  aju^aBHTOM,  B  OH  no  c  CBH3H  C  3THM S3HKOBHM QdteAHHeHHeM CepfiOB H XOpBaTOB M. CTeBaHOBHH nncaJi: M  2a o s t v a r e n j e knji£evno j e z i S k o g j e d i n s t v a K r v a t a i Srba v r l o mnogo su u r a d i l e p r i s t a l i c e I l i r s k o g p o k r e t a u H r v a t s k o j s L j u d e v i t o m G-ajem na c e l u kada su, vec 1836 godine, o d b a c i l e d o t a d a s n j i k a j k a v s k i i za k n j i z B v n i j e z i k u z e l e Stokavski d i j a l e k a t , §to jie potpuno odgovaralo osnovnom c i l j u P o k r e t a z a stvaranjem p o l i t i S k o g j e d i n s t v a dva b r a t s k a naroda. A p l o d zajednickih naetojanja hrvatskih knjizevnika i javniii r a d n i k a I l i r s k o g p o k r e t a i Vuka K a r a d i c a z a ostvarenjem jedinstva knjizevnog j e z i k a b i o je t z v . Knjizevni dogovor, s a c i n j e n u Becu 1850 g. izmedu n e k o l i c i n e p o z n a t i h H r v a t a i Srba ( medu kojima j e b i o i Vuk ) u c i l j u p o s t i z a n j a potpunog j e d i n s t v a u knjiSevnom j e M k u - uglavnome u duhu Vukovih i d e j a . Odredbe ovoga dogovora, i s t i n a , n i s u odraak p r i h v a c e n e , a l i je n j i h o v o o s t v a r e n j e b i l o i d e a l kroz- n e k o l i k o d e c e n i j a druge p o l o v i n e XIX veka, dok i H r v a t i n a j z a d p r e d k r a j ovoga veka n i s u p r i h v a t i l i Vukova n a S e l a . " 1 3 O^HaKO KaK  3Ta,  T a K H Bee nocjeeAyromne  TypHO - H3HKOBoro o6"BeAHHeHHa  nonnTKH JHHTepa-  x^opBaTOB c depdaMH ocTaJiHCB 6es  MOMeHTaJtBHoro ycnexa, H O , Bee T a K H ,  "jarrepaTypHoe corJiameBHe"  2U  B  BeHe 1 8 5 0 - o r o ro&a  My o6teAHHeHHio meMy.  6HJCO H o c T a o t o c B  nyTeBOAHoJl 3 B e 3 A O H  S3HKOBO-  cepfioB H xopBaTOB H no ceroAHflUHHn A6HB cymecTByio-  25  IIPOCBEmEHM B CEPBHH C KOHija 18-oro cTOJieTHa HanaJica  HOBHH  nepHOA  B  HCTOPHH;  cepdcKoft JiHTepaTypH xapaKTepHayBrnHflca npoHHKHOBeHHeM HA.en IIpocBenieHHH, nepBHM npeACTaBHTeJieM  ( 17U2 - 1811 )•  KaK  KOToporo  JiHtmocTt, TaK  6HJI  .ItocHTeH OdpaAoanH  Aes/re J I B H O C T B  H  aTora cepd-  cKoro nncaTeJia BecBMa 3HaMeHaTeJtBHH. H BasHH no csoeMy  BJIHSBHB.  Ha  Bee nocjieAyioH.ee pa3BHTne cepdcKoU JiHTepaTypH, TaK H Ha pasiBHTHe HaHHonaJiBHoro cepdoB.  caMaco3HaHKH  H  panHQHaJCHCTHTTecKHX B03apeHHH y  IIoaToMy, ocTaHOBHMca Ha HeM  noApodnee.  ^MHTpHtt, B MOHamecTBe ^ocHTeii ( OdpaAOBHH ) paHo ocTajicfi de3 OTHa H MaTepn.  BcKope, OAHaKo, O H  dHJi B3HT na BoenHTaHHe  CBOHMH pOAOTBeHHHKaMH, KOTOpHe, BHAH CKJIOHHOCTB ^MHTpHH E y^eHKM. , 3aAyMaJiH  npnroToBHTB  ero  roAa nflTHaAHaTHJieTHHH MOHacTHpa XonoBa*  TaM  cBameHHHKH.  B  31-oro  nocTynaJi  ^ M H T P H H  B  ABepH  npoBeJt Tpn roAa.  JIMHTPHH  1757-oro  HBJIH  $pymK<aropcKQ.r© 3a  BTO  apeMa  QH  B.ce CBoe cBodoAHoe BpeMH nocaamaji *preHHB nponOBeAen 0 noABHrax. nyCTHHHHKOB  H  aTHX paccKa30B  nOABH&HHKOB, MOJIOAOH  Q  noCTe paSHHX CBHTHX, H  HO  A  B  JtHHHHeM  ^MHTpHii H a j c a r a J i Ha ceda HeodHHaHHHH nocT  " pada u n a j v e c i v e r s k i zanos, g l a d u j e , muci svoje t e l o kao s t a r i hriSSanski sveci B  MOHaxH,  H  nojiy^HJi  l i +  H M H  B 1 7 5 8 - O M roAy flMHTpnft nocTpHrca  ^ocHTeao  CJtaBa e r o  OBHTOCTH  „H A a s e  HyAOTBOpHQCTH pa3HeCJiaCB no OKpeCTHHM ceJiaM, H B MOHaCTHpE cTaJiH cTeKaTca  JDOAH  C  npocBdaMH  caM HryMeH, TeoAop MHJiyTHHOBHH,  K  JHocHTeio  TOTOB  MOJIHTBCH  dHJi noBepHTB  3a B  HHX.  qyAO-  JJaace  26  xeHCTBeHHyio cvuiy HOCTBJ  nocra  AOJirne  ^ocHTen.  UOAOAOFQ  cnjiEHHe  H  Be^HKaa  MOJIHTBN,  pacnpocTpaHHJiHCB no Bcea BonBOAHHe* MeftiUHM qeJtoBeKOM Bcex cepdoB  H  HCKpeHHan Hadox-*MOHaxa  MOJIOAOTQ  BCKope  ^ocHTeii BCKope cTaJi JnodH-  0  JKeoiaHHe nyTemecTBOBaTB, T e M He MeHee, BCKope nepeMeHHJio  B  HTaJtHK  H  TpnecT  nepe3  CKHM, HeMeHKHM H  B 1760~OM roay  cBHTyio KH3HB ^ o c H T e H o  ©Ty  H  HTaJIBHHCKHM  . HTeHHe:. "rpas^aHCKHX  1783-eM roAy, nocoie  Torita -  se roAyj T , e«  XHBOT'E  3aHHMaeTCH  <J>paHiry3-  B 3TO BpeMH QH HaHHHaeT  saHHMaeTcn MaTeMaTHKofl. B  nyTemecTBHH  110  EBpone, ^ocHTefi  H. cayman jieKHHH no $HOCOCO<|>HH, acTeTHKe m TO  HHfiyAB noJie3Hyio KHHry 8TOM  deKHT H3 MOHacrapn  3,aecB OH nepeoAe-icn B cBeTcxoe naraT&e, sa-  B yHHBepcHTeT  6orocJtoBHK>o  B BeHe  H3HKaMH»  KHHr" H  AOJIVOTO  npnexap- B JleHnnHr. nncaJiCH  ABCTPHK>O  B  OH  B  Ha  QH  3a,ayMa.n HanncaTB H HanenaTaTB K a K y i o -  npocTOM, HapoAHOM cepdcKOM  1783-eM, .flocHTen HanenaTaJi  B  H3HKe.  CBOK>  KHHry  m npHKJtMHeHHH J M H T P H H Od-pajUQBHHa, HapeneHora y Kaay^ep-  CTB.y J o c H T e a , odmecTBe  H  B  KOTopoft  OH  noKa3aa  BeJiHKoe 3HaHeHHe H a y K H  s  decnoJie3HocTB KaK  cpe^cTBa  MOHacTHpelt B H3daBHTB  OT cyeBepHH H npHBecTH HX K HCTHHHOMy (SjiaroiecTHK).  roiiy, Toxe  B  jnoJteH  B cjieAy»meM  • JHennHHre, H3AaJi eme o^Hy K H H r y CoBeTH 3ApaBaro  pa3yMa, B K o T o p o f t AaBaJi c e p d c K O M y HapoAy HanaJia MopaJiBHofi $ H J t o coi|)HH«  He odpaman BHHMaHHH Ha ero o c T a . t B H H e TpyAH,KOTopHX  MesAy npo JJocHTeH  HHM > MHOTO H a n e n a T a J i ,  OH,  BHraemiTHpoBaHKMH AByMH KHHraMH  OdpaAOBHna HaHHHaeTCH coBepmeHHo HOBoe HanpaBJieHHe  eepdcKOH JtHTepaType, KOTopan TenepB cTapaeTcn  COHTH C  B  BHCOKora  27  nBe.5ecTa.ia yneHocTH H c a e J i a T B c a  1733-eM  roAy  B  B nacBMe cBoeMy npHSTejno B T p n e c T e , no&. Ha3BaHHeM  E H C B M O XapajiaMnino,  TypHHH H 3 H K .  noHaTHHM H 6JIH3KHM H a p c a y .  B  OdpaAOBHH orJiacHJi C B O H BQVJLSXH.  3 T 0 M nHCBMe ero H^eH  H na  JIHTepa-  O JTHTepaTypHOM H3HKe  TaBHe: " K n j i z e v n i j e z i k v r e d i o n o l i k o kolxko k o r i s t i nekome. Z a t o ce on p i s a t i samo prostonarodnim: j e z i k o m da g a s v i razumeju, pored obrazovanih i neobrazovani s e l j a c i i p a s t i r i . Tako su S i n l l i i d r u g i n a r o d i : N e m c i , E n g l e z i , P r a n c u z i i R u s i , pa tako treba i mi d a c"inimo. On ce p i s a t i tako da ga s v i s r p s k i s i n o v i i sve srpske k6eri  razumeju,  od Crne Gore  do  Smedereva i  Banata.  L a k o j e n a u 6 i t i c i t a t i kada neko razume j e z i k . A ko od n a l i h l j u d i ne zna da z i t e l j i c r n o g o r s k i , d a l m a t i n i s k i , h e r c e g o v a c k i , b o s a n s k i , s e r b i s k i , h r v a t s k i ( sem k a j k a v s k i h "muza" ) s l a v o n s k i , sremski, b a c k i i 9  banatski  ( osim V l a h a  ) - istim  jezikom  govore<>  Svoj  p r o s v e t n o v a s p i t n i r a d on moze samo tako o s t v a r i t i ako bude p i s a o z a jednicSkim, narodnim jezikom svega toga naroda. "' 15 H3 CDHBpKa, KOTOpBIH ff HHTHpOBaJI BH4HO , HTO  ^OCHTeK OdpaAOBHH  TpedOBaJi BBe^eHHH B JtHTepaTypy a 3 H K a npocToro Hapo^a, yKa3HBaa, HTO  JtHTepaTypa TOJIBKO  Tor^a cMosceT ycnenmo BHno JEHSTB^ npocBeTH-  TeoiBCKyB $yi:Krtmo, K o r ^ a K H H T H H  noHaTHOM AJLB B c e x .  6y,ayT HanncaHH Ha asHKe, AocTynHOM  Kaicaa HaM  noJiBsa O T s3HKa,KOTopHit  Hapo^e noHHMaeT H 3 AecaTH T H C B H JIHIIB Q A H H nejioBeK,  B neJiOM  npo^ojisaeT  ^ocHTefi Odpa^oBHH B IlHCBMe XapaaaMiiHK): " ... k o j a j e nami k o r i s t od jednog j e z i k a kojega u celom narodu o d deset h i l j a d a jedva jedan kako v a l j a razume i k o j i j e tud materi mojej i sestram? ... Nek nauce ... To j e l a s n o r e c i , a l i n i j e u c i n i t i . Koliko j e o n i k o j i imadu vreme i s p o s o b z a n a u c i t i s t a r i knjizevni jezik? V r l o malo'. A o p s t i p r o s t i d i j a l e k t s v i znadu i n a njemu s v i k o j i samo znadu c i t a t i mogu razum svoj p r o s v e t i t i , s r c e p o b o l j s a t i i narav u k r a s i t i . J e z i k ima s v o j u cenu o d p o i z e k o j u u z r o k u j e . " 16  28  JIocHTeH OdpaAOBHH, ocodeHHO nocjre CBoero dercTsa H3 MOHaCTHpfl, CTaJI rOpflHHM CTOpOHHHKOM H 3aiHHTHHKOM peaJIBHOH , AeftcTBHTeJiBHOH SCH3HH neJioBeKa nocToaHHo HMea B BHAV yJiynneHHe T o r o Hapo^a, KOToporo OH  <5HJI CHHOM.  O H HO  3JiodcTByeT npn BHAe 3Jia,  He cMeeTCH HaA nopoKOM, HO yKa3HBan AypHBie C T O P O H H SCH3HH BH3HBaeT y HHTaTeJin sceJiaHHe ycTpaHHTB HX. CKHX  OH  ocTpo KpHTHKOBaJI cepd-  nHcaTeJiefi, KOToptie nncaJiH H H3 AaBa JIH KHnrn rAe TpaKTOBaJiH  o Bonpocax nacTo coBepmeHHO nyxAHX noTpedHocTHM cepdcKoro Hapo4a.  ^ocHTeK CTaJi npoTHB iiepKOBHO - cJiaBHHCKoro H3HKa no npocTOH  npHHHHe» HTO K H H T H nHcaHHHe TaKHM H 3 H K O M , KaK no coAepxaHHio TaK H no H 3 H K y , He OHJIH noHHTHH B c e M H Aa&e cpaBHHTeJIBHO o6pa30BaHHOMy KJiaccy Hapo^a.  OcHOBaHHe, HTO HapoA AO Tex nop BepHJt H neHHJi  S3HK nncaTeJief! cJiaBHHo - cep6cKOH IHKOJIH <5HJIO B TOM, HTO cJtaBflHCKHH  5I3HK  6HJI TO&e H3HK0M nepKBH, H HapoA Ha caMHX nHcaTeJieH  CMOTpeJi c OCOOHM yBaxeHHeM, CHHTaa H X 3amHTHHKOM BepH H cepdCKOH  HannoHaJIBHOCTH.  IlepexcHB MHCTHnecKHe yBJieneHHa, ^ocHTefi  c ocodeHHOio HacTOHHHBOcTBK  HanaAaJi Ha MOHaxoB H MOHamecTBO, Ha  MOHacTHpHj 4ocTaBJEHiomHe M a c c a M Hapo^a BO3MOSCHOCTB HHnero He AeJiaa, E H T B Ha nyxoH cneT.  OH  TpedyeT BeioAy BMemaTeJiBCTBa pa-  3yMa, H Bce, HTO npoTHBopenHT p a 3 y M y B peJiHrH03HHX odHHaax H y 3 a K O H e H H J i x , H3JiHiHHe H 11  Aaxe npecTynHO npeA E O X B H M S S K O H O M :  A zaStb dakle u svakom zakonu ima z l i i nepravedni ljudi? N i j e tomu zakon uzrok, nego nerazumije, slepota uma, pokvareno, pakosno i z l o srce i preko mere ljubav k samom sebi. Ovo su i z v o r i i z k o j i i z v i r u sve s t r a s t i koje uznemiravaju r o d celoveceski i koje cine da covek Soveka mrzi, jedan drugog h u l i , goni,... - a §to je najgore: pod imenom vere i zakona, .... Zato dakle j a hocu  29  pisati bracu KaK  z a um,  za srce i za n a r a v i  Srblje kojega  Seloveceske, za  s u god o n i z a k o n a i v e r e . "  17  BHAHo,Boo6me n p o c B e m e H H e H HayKa - STO cpe^cTBa, KOTopne  npe^JiaraeT J I o c H T e f t  AJLS  H3JteHSHHJi qeJiOBenecTBa OT Bcex 30JE H  deACTBHH. ^ocHTett OdpaAOBHH KOM c M H C J i e  3 T o r o cJtoBa.  6HJI cepdcKHtf naTpnoT B CBMOM mHpo-  KaK  nncaTe.iE OH B c e r ^ a HMejr B BHAy  nooiBsy Hapo^a, AJTH KoToporo OH l i n e a r .  JIJLZ Toro, OH BceMH CBOHMH  CHJcaMH CopoJicfl 3a opnrHHaJiBHocTE H npocTOTy H3HKa H TaKHM,o6pa30M, noAroTOBHJt nyTB pe$opMaM, KaK  B  fl3HKe  TaK  H B op$orpa$HH,  MOJtoAOMy nncaTeJcio CaBBe MepKafiJiw H cBoeMy JuodHMOMy n o c a e A O B a TeJUo ByKy CTe$aHOBHHy KapaA&Hny. TeM  He  M e H e e , M.  CTeBaHOBHH 3 a M e H a e T ,  X O T H 06paAOBHH  cTapaJtcfl nncaTB HHCTHM cepdcKHM A 3 H K O M , H npnrJiaina-i nHcaTejien ycoBepmeHcTBOBaTB  HeM  MOTJIH H3AaBaTBCfl  cep6cKHX  cepdcKHii S H B O H H 3 H K T S K , HT06H H a  COMHHeHHH Od y ^ e H H X npe^MeTaX, H KOTOpHH  noHSTeH 6HJT-6H BceM, H3HK K O T O P H M OH nncaJt e m e He AocTHr TOH cTyneHH, Ha KOTopoJi OH Mor 6H 6HTB H a 3 B a H HHCTO HapoAHHM:  " Cak i j e z i k D o s i t e j a O b r a d o v i c a , k o j i  j e g o v o r i o da ce s v o j a d e l a p i s a t i p r o s t o n a r o d n i m j e z i k o m k a k o b i g a s v i r a z u m e l i , ne samo o b r a z o v a n i l j u d i v e c i n e o b r a z o v a n i s e l j a c i i p a s t i r i , mada s e n e s u m n j i v o n a j v i s e p r i b l i z a v a o narodnom, jo*- u v e k j e v i S e b i o s l a v e n o s r p s k a m e e a v i n a nego c i s t n a r o d n i j e z i k . " 18  KaK  a yKa3HBa»  COBCeM  HHxe,^ocHTefi OopaAOBHH B C B O H X npoH3BeAeHHSx  nopBaJI CBH3H C A3HKOM rOCnOACTBOBaBHIHM B CepdCKOH  paType B KOHHe 18-oro cTOJieTHH, A3HKOM  He  JtHTe-  cjraBHHo - c e p d c K H M :  " y3eneMo caMO HeKOJiHKo CTpaHa HJeroBHX ITpHKJijy^eHHA, na ~te HaM TO 6HTH jacHo. TJcacoBH Ty^H HameM j e a H K y :  30  a) naAojnodHBa ( 1 ), HanajrHO ( 6 ), no BHIHOH nacTH ( 7 ) 5 6) 6e3M0JiBH0Mt MecTy ( 3 ), B 0 3 p a c T a ( 1 )', MHoroBOJiHyeMora ( 3 ) , HecoBepmeHCTBa ( 2 ), COBIJTB ( 2 ) , noJi3y» Me ( 2 ) , JIK)<50BB ( 1 ) , BOCnHTaHHe ( k ) , B0300TB13TCTBOBaTH ( 9 ) H CJI. ; B) TpenHH ( I k ) • jnodesHHna ( 2 ), MyxecKorB ( 1 ), o T e n e c T B y ( 6 ), nonepnao (.6 ), ecTecTBy ( 10 ), HeJioBeHecKora ( 8 ), HaAex,aa ( 3 ), pacyacAaBaTH ( 5 ) , H CJI. ; 4) HpHoii ( 6 ), qpHe ( 1 5 ) «• 06JIHD;H T y ^ H HameM je3HKy: MoeK cJia6ocTH ( 15 ) , BameH jnodaBH ( 15 ) 9 HanacTeif ( 1 ), npoTHBB npaBHJiaM ( 13 ), y • pa3HHMi o6cTOHTeJicTBaMB ( 5 ), cJiaAHaiimH ( 15 ), jnd<5e3Hefi:iiiH ( 15 )» oyAeMB roBopHTH ( 6 ), 6yAe TOJiMaHHTH ( 12 ) H CJI. BeJIHKH 6poj penn Ty^HX HameM HapoAHOM penHHKy: HeJioBeKOJnotfHo ( 13 ), MHoroHHCJieHH ( I k ) > oGmeApyxecKH ( 13 ), <5jiaronoTpe6Hy ( 10 )', odcTOHTeJicTBy ( 6 •)» KOJIHKO KpaTB ( 1 ), csnocofiB ( 8 ), T e T O T H H ( 8 J , naryfiHa ( 1 ), noxeJiaHH ( 15 ), noHexe ( 7 ) H ei. " 19 XOTH  OdpaAOBHH H He nncaJi HHCTHM HapoAHHM #3HKOM H He  B COCTOHHHH c o B c e M CKOH JiHTepaType  oTpemHTBCH OT  TpaAHHHH, e r o noHBJteHHe B  BceTaKH cnrpaJio orpoMHyio poJiB.  cepd-  06pa4OBHH 6HJI  nepBHM nncaTeJieM B cep<5cKoft JiHTepaType, KOToptiti yKa3aJi Ha HyacAeHHOcTB JiHTepaTypH  6HJI  H H3HKa OT peaJiBHoft H S H H ,  OT-  H nepBBift,  KOTOpHH OCMeJIHJICH KpHTHKOBaTB CeptfCKyiO HepKOBB, H nepBHH KOTOpHH rpoMKo  3asBHJi npaBa HapoAHoro H3HKa.  co3HaHHe  B oomecTBeHHoe  HaKOHen npoHHKJio MHeHHe o HeHopMaJiBHocTH cJiaBAHo - cep6-  cKoro A3HKa voljava  BJiaroAapa eMy,  B JiHTepaType  H HTO  " samo p r o s t o t a  se s v a g d a p r i s t a r i n s k o m o s t a t i . "  H noyHHTeJiBHoro cepdcKoro  coAepxaHna, c T e x nop  ofimecTBa.  XOTH  HapoAHoio, yMeHHe nncaTB Ha JIOCB Bce peace H p e x e .  Ero  KHHrn,  zado-  MopaJiBHoro  cTaJin HacToJIBHHMH KHHraMH  cepdcKan JiHTepaTypa He cTaJia eme H3HKe c e p 6 c K o  coBceM.  - cJiaBHHCKOM cTaHOBH-  IIocJieAOBaTeJiH ^ o c H T e n  K npaKTHHecKOH XH3HH H CTapawTCH nncaTB KaK HapOAHHM H3HKOM.  i glupost  cTaHOBHTCH dJinxe MOXHO Jiynme  HHCTHM  31  MexAy cTopoHHHKaMH .QocHTes nepBoe  JlyKHHH MymHHKHH ( 1777 - 1837 )  c  CBOHMH  rjtacfflranaToBagKOHa p $ H  npoH3BeAeHHHMH  JUo6na ( 1821 ) , BocneBaKmne repoeB CepdHH.  HOST  HaHdcaee H3BecTHHMH  1819  (  3aHHMaeT  MCCTO  )  H  rjtac HapoAQ-  3a He3aBHCHMocTR  dopBdH  HecKoaBKo no3AHee, BHCTynnji nosT CHMeoH MHJiyTHHOBHH  ( 1791 - 181+8 )  nHCaBHHH  pa3MepaMH HapC4HOH no3 3HH.  B  3HaMeHHToK CepdHHKe ( 1826 ), cdopHHKe naTpnoTHnecKHX neceH, OH  BocneBaeT repoHnecKHe nodeAOHocHHe BoccTaHHH cepdoB 1802+ -  1815  rJtaBHHM odpa30M Ha  TOAOB,  H3HKe.  dojiee H H C T O M HapoAHOM  BOSMOXHO  B Tpy^ax nncaTeJieH fioBaHa MymKaTHpoBHHa ( 17U3 - 1809 ) ,  EMaHynJta flHKOBHHa ( 1758 - 1792 ) , ATaHacnfl CTOiiKOBHHa ( 1773 1823 )  H IlaBJta CojtapHHa ( 1779 - 1821 )  yse nojrynaeT npaKTHHecKoe HanpaB-aeHHe nepKOBHo - peJiHrH03HHH xapaKTep. 3HHHH  JlocHTero  H  cepdcKas JiHTepaTypa nocTeneHHO  H  IIooTOMy He cTpaHHo,  K  nepecTaJi  H3HKe  ynoTpedJiHTB  OHH He HMeiOT  cepdcKO  ono-  B BoJiBOAHHe, BpaxAedHO  ero pe$opMaTopcKOH AesTeJiBHOCTH,  op$orpa$HH.ecKHM HOBOBBe^eHHSM. coBceM  HTO  ero nocjieAOBaTeaflM B0 3rjiaBJifleMaH MHTponoJIHTOM  CTe$aHOM CTpaTHMHpOBHHeM ( 1757 - 1838 ) QTHocHJiacB  yTpaHHBaeT  TOro  - cJiaBSHCKOMo  " i  ^ejro 1  1  H  3HaHeHHH,  "B",  CJIOBO  "nyTB"  KpoMe Toro  HCKJIIOHHJI " H " IIOHTH  KaK  HTO  3aMeTHB,  KOTOpoe  O H nepeMemaJt  npoH3HOCHT  B TOM,  ocodeHHO K  HM  J^ocHTen noHTH HTO B  AaeTCH B  O T H 3HaKH,  ero  T a K KaK  cepdcKOM H3HKe cepdn  "nyT", He odpamas BHHMaHHH Ha " B " . O H  coBepnieHHo H3 cBoefi a3dyKH:  " Premda j e polazio s opravdanog stanovis'ta da za narod t r e b a p i s a t i sto jednostavnije i doslednije, b i o j e i p a k Jos' odvise p o d uticajem t r a d i c i j e a da b i mogao i z v e s t i neku zama&niju reformu. On j e i p a k u s v o j i m  32  delima p r a v o p i s p r i l i c n o p o p r a v i o ; i z b a c i o j e i z upotrebe neka s l o v a za k o j a j e znao da za n a s j e z i k n i s u potrebna ( na p r . -HI, UJ , \ y , i dr» ) ne p r a v i r a z l i k e izmedu -B i B i u p o t r e b l j a v a i h naizmenee, glasove 1j , Jb, M, p i s e sa A B , J I B , H B • a za e'uzima s t a r i c i m l s k i znak % , i s l o - A l i kako n i sam D o s i t e j n i j e uvek p i s a o dosledno i kako n i s u s v i p r i h v a t i l i njegove reforme, nered u p r a v o p i s u t r a j a o je j o s i d a l j e , sve do Vuka K a r a d z i c a . " 21 $0  HanaJia 1 9 - o r o cTOJienns:, A,O n o s B A e H H H  pe$opMaTopoH.-  CaBBja. MepKafiJiH H ByKa KapaAXH.Ha, MH HaxoAHM B c e p 6 e , K o 3  JHiTepa-  nype noriHTKH IIOHTH B O Bcex poAax JBiTepaTypHHX nponsBeAeHHii, wb <3.ep6cKHe n H c a T e J i H  eme  He  TpaAHHHH npeAmecTByKrmero  coBceM HM  6'HJIH B C O C T O H H H H  nepnoAa, B K O T O P O M rocnoACTBOBaJiH  - cJiaB&iHCKHH" H S H K H cJioB.eGHOCTB , o.THyxA,eHHas; O T n p a K —  aepdcKo  THHecacHX HHTepecoB XH3HH.  CepdcKoe odmecTBo, OAHaKO, dJiarciAaps:  ^ocJHTeK), HaKOHen;, pemHJiocB p a s p e n i H T B CKOM  oTpeiraTBCH OT  JiHTepaTypHOM a s H K e H op$orpa$HH.  BHAeAH H e o o x o A H M o c T B pemaAHCB  oTKa3aTBcn  OTOT  CJIOXHHS  OAHH,  Bonpoc  o  cepd-  KaK H a n p H M e p CoJEapHH-ij  cAeJiauB ero d o j i e e H a p o A H H M , X O T S ; eme He OT cjiaBHHCKoro  £E3HKa,  Apyrne, r JiaBHHM  o6pa30M,  HepKOBHoe odmecTBo B0 3rJiaBJia:eMoe M H T P O I I O A H T O M CTpauHMHpoBHWM, TsepAo AepxaJiHCB y d e x A e H H H , H T O pa3BHTHe cepdcKoii JEMTepaTypm B03M0XH0  JIHUB Ha  HlSNKe CepdGKO - IiepKOBHO - C J i a B H H C K O M o  H ^ocHTefi yBHAeAH,  ITO  CoAapHHt  peryJiHposaTB H O B H H H B H K HaAO KaK MOXHO  CKopee, H H a ^ e a M C B , H T O n p n noMomn rpaMMauHKH H e-jioBapn B B e A e T — CH  eAHHodpa3He  HSHKa y cepdcKHX nHcaTeJieii.  3aHBAsieT o Heoc-xoAHMocTH c o c T a B H T B  cAOBapB  W  noaTOMy, CoJiapHHi  H rpaMMaTHKy  cep6cKoro  HI3HKa.  MexAy TeM, cepdcacHe nHcaTeAH cTaAH, KaxAHH no csoeMy, MemaTB  cepdcKHe cjioBa H $opMH co GJiaBHHo - pycciCHMH, noAB3yH3CB  33  B  3T0M nOJIHOK) CBOfiOAOK), HeorpaHHHeHHOK) HHKaKHMH  HHKaKHMH  MepaMH.  3 a c a y r H ^ o c u T e n O o p a A O B H n a AJCH c e p d c K O H orpoMHHe,  O H He MOT coBceM  xoTfl  CKO  - cJiaBHHCKoro.  CBOHMH  KaK  H HOBmecTBaMH  B ofiJtacTH  CHJIBHHH y ^ a p dJiHxeHHe  npaBHJiaMH,  cjiaBSHo  -  O6OHTHCB  $HJIOCO<|>CKHMH cepdcKoro  cepocKoM  noxBa-iHJi ^ocHTesr: H e r o  pafioTy  H  H  S3HKa  noMoran a 3 H K a  cep6-  Mopa JIBHHMH  n^aBonHcaHHH  HKOJre n n c a T e J i e H  anoxH, B c e p o c K o ^  HOBOH  6e3  JiHTepaTypH  SQUKem  HACHMH,  OH  Hanec  H 3aaBHJi  npaBonncaHHH.  He3a6HBaeMHMH  npn-  A . Bejom  caoBaMH:  " Mo£e se r e c i s a pouzdanoScu da n i k o do D o s i t e j a n i p o s i e n j e g a n i j e s a t o l i k o m dubinom, o b r a z l o z e n o s c u i r e c i t o s c u i z n e o p o t r e b u da u celom narodu naSem bude j e d a n k n j i z e v n i j e z i k zasnovan n a narodnom j e z i k u . D o s i t e j j e nesumnjivo duhovni i i i t e o r i s k i r e f o r m a t o r naseg k n j i g e v n o g j e z i k a , a l i s t v a r n i r e f o r m a t o r n j e g o v on j o s n i j e ; t o j e t e k Vuk K a r a d i c . " 2.2 KaK JiHTepaTypHHH peoiacB ByKa  a yKaxy H3HK,  B HanaJie  KapaAXH^a.  B cneAyiomeH  r J t a B e ,6opBC5a  K O T o p a a HanaatacB ^ o c H T e e M , B  19-oro  cTO-aeTHH c  3a o6meHapoAH£iH HOJIHOCTH  pa3ro-  IIOHBJieHHeM CaBBH MepKaJiJiH H  3U  CHOCKH B. A. HcTpHH, 1100 JieT CJiaBHHCKoft AadyKH ( MocKBa: HsAaTeJitcTBO AKaAeMHH HayK CCCP, 1963 } , 2 U . 2  Ibid.  g  MopaBCKHH KH5I3B PoCTHCJlaB BJiaAeJI TOJIBKO HBTHpe ( 8U6 - 870 ). TOJUU ero pos^eHHa H cMepTH HeH3BecTHH.  ro^a  ^TOAH ero pOJKAeHHH  H  CMepTH HeH3BeCTHH.  ^Pranjo P o l j a n e c , I s t o r i . j a Srpskohryatskoslovenackog k n j i z e y n o g j e z i k a ( Zagreb: Dvorska k r g i z a r a V a s l S i H o r v a t , 1936 ) , 9 . Dr Stjepan B a b i c , J e z i k ( Zagreb: P r i v r e d a , 1963 )» 99. Poljanec,  o£„ c i t . ,  77.  Enciklopedi.ja Jugoslav!.je ( Zagreb: Izdanje i n a k l a d a l e k s i k o g r a f s k o g zavoda, I 9 6 0 ) , IV, 5 1 k . q Dr M i l i v o j P a v l o v i c , P r i m e r i r a z y i t k a s r p s k o h r v a t s k o g .jezlka ( Beograd: Naucna k n j i g a , 1956 ) , lh« 1 Q  n  Ibid..  17.  i M d . ,  15.  12 A l e k s a n d a r B e l i e , Oko naseg kn.jizevnog .jezika ( Beograd: Srpska k n j i z e v n a zadruga, 1951 J , 5 - 2 6 . 2  Stevanovic, Gramatika srp skohrva tskog .lezika ( Nbvi Sad: Izdavacko poduzece B r a t s t v o - J e d i n s t v o , 195U ) , 23. "^Jovan S k e r l i c , I s t o r i . j a Foye Srpske Kn.jigevnosti ( Beograd: Rad, 1953 ) , 6 9 ^Aleksandar B e l i e , Vukova borba za narodni 1. xn.jizevni .jezik ( Beograd: P r o s v e t a , 19U8 ) , 2 5 .  35  ^ D r Ferdo N i k o l i c , P r e g l e d ^ k n . i i z e v n o s t i s prim.ierima ( Zagreb: S k o l s k a k r g i g a , 1962 ) , 227 - 228. 1  1 7  Ibld.,  228 - 229.  T ft  S t e v a n o v i c , op_. c i t . , 18. ^ A l e k s a n d a r B e l i e , Vukova b o r b a , 28. 20,  S k e r l i c , op_. c i t . , 90.  21  2 2  P o l ; j a n e c , op., c i t . , 116. A l e k s a n d a r B e l i 6 , Vukova b o r b a , 27.  36  rJTABA BTOPAJI  CEPBH5I B ^EBOTHA^IJATOM  CTOJEETHH  Ha py Cease 18-oro H 19-oro c T o J i e t a a , KaK H B Apyrnx eBponeficKHX CTpaHax TaK H B Cep6HH,Ha cMeHy HAeoJiorHH npocBemeHHS,  B03HHK: p0^a.S.TH.3M. .  XAen  POMaHTH3M dHJt, rJtSBHHM 0<5pa30M, nopO-  $paHny3CKOH peBOJnon.HeH KOHn.a 18-oro cTOJieTHs.  nporpaMMe, poMaHTHKH Hanurn B npoB03rjrameHHOH H a A e s A . Ha no<5ei{y C B O C O A H ,  HartHOHaJTBHoro rHeTa.  B HAeflHOH  peBo JDDHHH npHHHHnH  paBeHCTBa H dpaTCTBa  H ocBo<5oxiteHHe O T  B O T JTHHHe O T npocBeTHTejreft 18-oro cTOJieTHH,  ropHHO BepHBHHX B 6esyciOBHOCTB HCTopHnecKoro nporpecca, poMaHTHKH C T O J I B ase o i t H o c T o p o H H e cTopoHy STOK  coBpeMeHHoii  BHAeaH n p e H M y m e c T B e H H o TeHeByio, HeraTHBHyro  XH3HH, B 0 3 J i o r a f l HaAeacAH Ha nepeycTpoKcTBo  K H S H H H ne.ioro odnecTBeHHoro  nopn^Ka.  CaMoe BaacHoe M e c T o B nporpaMMe poMaHTHKOB 3aHHMaJta 6opB<5a 3 a y T B e p a w e H H e  xoBHoro MHpa j ycTpoficTBe. TaKHx H $  o  caMocTOHTeJCBHOK  H C H H O C T H HeJtOBeKa,  ero  Ay-  cBo6oji;y ero JLHHHOCTH B rapMOHH^ecKOM oomecTBeHHOM  B O T O H 6opBde,nepeAOBHe poMaHTHKH  o n n p a J i H C B Ha o n H T  npeACTaBHTeJteH n p o c B e T H T e J C B C T B a , KaK X.S. Pycco, H.B. PeTe IIlHJtJiep.  B c B o e M H C K y c c T B e » p o M a H T H i i npoBeJTH ooJtBinyio pa6oTy T  no H 3 y H e H H » HapoAHoro H 3 H K a , codnpaHHio H ny6.iHKan.HH o6pa3n.OB HapoAHoro T B o p n e c T B a , TBopnecTBe Ayx Hapo^a.  cTapancB neJtBHo H s p K o B O H J E O T H T B B CBoeM B 6opB6e 3 a cBo<5oAy H He3aBHCHMocTB  Hapoiia, 3 a H a p o ^ H H e H H T e p e c H H cnacTJiHBoe 6yAynee ofiHKHOBeHoro HeoioBeKa, poMaHTHKH KpHTHKOBaJiH  BpaacAe6Hy» oKpyxaiomyio  AencTBH-  37  TeJiLHocTB, yMepmBjreHHyro "  KaHOHaMH KJiaccHn.H3Ma H. AprMaMH;.  I s k r a francuske r e v o l u c i j e u p a l i l a j e - haroc'ito p o v o d o m v e l i k i h Napoleonovih r a t o v a - o s t a l u Evropu i p o d i g l a u narodima n a c i o n a l n u s v e s t . Narodi, n a r o c i t o o n i k o j i s u c a m i l i p o d tudinekom vla§cu, kao na p r . m n o g i s l o v e n s k i , d o s l i su do s v e s t i o s v o j o j narodnoj i n d i v i d u a l n o s t i i p r a v u n a s a m o s t a l a n n a r o d n i zivoto 1 u  PoMaHTH3M nporpeccHBHoe H  cTpacTeti,  3aKJno*raJi B ce<5e n o J i c s H T e J i B H o e , H C T o p H H e c K H  coAepacaHHe.  OH OTKPHJI B HCKyccTBe TBopnecKoro  nopHB K KAeaxy  HHH MeTOA pOMaHTH3Ma 0Ka3aJI H  CKoro  caMOM ua-taJie 1 9 - o r o  HapoAa  BoodpaxeHHH.  pa3BHTHe  croaeTHH  paMH B I8OZ4.-0M r o 4 y  xecTOKaa  pe3HH  Hapo^Hoe  BoccTaHHe»  BO rjiaBe  KOToporo  IleTpoBHH  ( 1768 - 1817 )» neocoBeK  HanaJtacB  dopBda,  ycnexoB, pa3<5HB Typemene a p M H H .  Bo r j i a B e  KOHCTHTyHHio.  cepdoB  HCKyccTBa.  ycTpoeHHan  CTOHJT  Kapa  TeoprHfi rafiityK.  KOTopaa  STHX  node.a.,yxe B  npHHHJia BpeMeHHyio  B o c c T a H O B J t e H H o n C e p d H H cTaJt Kapa  9 T H M B o c c T a H H e M dHJta noJioxeHa  HHHna-  n o B C T a H H H AO(5HJTHCB K p y n H H X  B pe3yJiBTaTe  cKynmnHa,  cepd-  odmnpHoe  BH3BaJta  H3 Hapo^a, C H B H H H  B KOTOPOH cepdcKHe  co3BaHa  XyAOxeeTBeH-  Ha^HHaeTCH dopsda  3 a HartHOHaJtBHyio H e 3 a B H C H M o c T B .  1805-OM roAy, 6uxa  qyBCTB  CBOHMH MHOTHMH CTOpOHaMH O r p O M H O e  H J i o A O T B o p H o e BJCHSHHe Ha A&JiBHeftinee B  HOBHJI M H P  "ocHOBHna  sa c B e c T p a H H  reoprna.  HanpeiiaK  p Tora  Aena  Hamera  HapoAa".  , He TOJIBKO B nOJIHTHHeCKOM a H B KyJIBTypHOM nyBCTBOBaJtac& B03poacAeHHe  HAea HaHH0HaJiH3Ma<.  cepdoB.  C  KaK H y nponnx  domeHHHX A p y r H M H AepacaBaMH,  cpe^H  aToro  nOJie  BpeMeHH H a H H H a e T c a  c J i a B S H C K H X Hapo^OB,  cepdoBj  flpKO  UOA BJiHHHHeM  nopa-  $paHHy3-  38  GKOH  dypxya3HOH peBOJnoHHH, HanHHaeTCH ABHxeHHe  D;HH, pasBHBaeTca  Han.HOHaJi£iins  KyjiBTypa.  MOJIOAOH  HHeTjiJiHreH-  ITepeAOBHe cepdcKHe  poMaHTHKH, IIOA ji03yHraMH 6opB6H 3a HannoHa JiBHoe odteAHHeHHe  H  AaJiBHeHmy» CopBdy npoTHB Typoic, CBoe ocHOBHoe BHHMaHHe odpamaJin Ha HapoAHoe TBopnecTBo, CTBO,  TinaTeJi&Ho H3yqaJiH ero 6oraTeHmee HacJieA-  npoBOAHJiH 6oJi£iayio p a d o T y  no H3y<ieEyiK> Hapo^Horo £3HKa.  nepBHe AaJiH Hacrosmyio o 6 p a 6 o T K y XHBOMy cepdcKOMy « 3 H K y pa3Hoo<5pa3HH ero AHaJieKTOB. JteTHH.B CepdHH JIHTepaTypHOe  TaKHM o<5pa30M, B03p03K,2eHHe  B  BO  BceM  HanaJie 19-oro  0Tpa3HJI0CB  OHH  CTO-  B OCHOBHOM,  B dopBde npoTHB CTaporo cJiaBHHo - c e p o c K o r o a3HKa H 3acTapeJiOH 336yKH ,KOTOpHe, pOMaHTHKH CHHTaJIH, He OTBeHaJIH HOBHM xaHpaM JtHTepaTypH, H , o^HOBpeMeHHO, n p o T H B nepKOBHoro oocKypaHTH3Ma, CHMB0JtH3Ma c p e ^ H e B e K O B o r o n p o n u i o r o , 3a BBe^eHHe  B  perpeccnn  H  CTapHHH.  JiHTepaTypy H H C T O T O Hapo^Horo H3HKa pa3BHJiac£ B  6opB6y AByX nOKOJieHHH  -  C  OAHOH CTOpOHH CTOflJIH CTOpOHHKH CJlaBflHO •  cepdcicoro H S U K a , nponaraHAHpoBaBmHe Ha M e c T O pa3yita peJiHrH03Hyio  BopBda  MHCTiney,  c  Apyroft  CKoro si3HKa, n p o r p e c c H B H H e  CTOPOHH  -  CTOPOHHKH  H JTOTHKH  Hapo^Horo cep6-  MOJioAHe p o M a H T H K H BHABHraiomHe HaHHO-  HaJiBHne TpaAHHHH, HapoAHoe T B o p n e c T B o ,  jyx  Hapo^a  H  cTpeMJieHHe  cnpaBeAAHBocTH: " Borba za k n j i z e v n i j e z i k s e p r e t v o r i l a u borbu dve generacije. S t a r i j i s l o j gradanske i n t e l i g e n c i j e , sa obrazovanjem stecenim na "slavjanoserbskom" j e z i k u , b i o j e p r o t i v novine, a mladi su g l e d a l i oslobodenje od t r a d i c i j a nenarodnih i vraCanje s v e z i n i narodnog i z r a z a j a , potpuno u duhu romantizma. " 3 CaMHe SHaHHTeJiBHtie npe^cTaBHTeJiH nporpeccHBHiix poMaHTHKOB  B  CepdHH, nHcaTeJIH.KOTopne  CBOHMH  Tpy^aMH pe$opMHpoBaJiH  K  39  cepdcKoe n p a B o n H c a H H e OT  H H3HK  H , HaKOHen»  AaJiBHeHmero p y c c K d r o B J T H H H H H ,  BHGTynHJIH  npOTHB  JtHTepaTypy  acHByio  KHHKHOrO  nncaTe-iH,  KOTopne  - CepdCKOrO  H3HKa  H  CJiaBHHO  orpaAHJiH cepdcKHfi  HapcaHym p e ^ B , 6HJIH CaBBa MepKaHJTB  SSHK  OTKPHTO  H BBeOtH (  B  1783 - 1833 )  H ByK C t e $ a H O B H H KapaAXHH,. JlHHrBHCTHHecKHM T p y A O M CaBBH MepKaftJifl CaJto AedeJioro e p a JtHdo a s d y K o n p o T p e c op$orpa$HH, K O T o p a n HOCTH  1810  secTOKan  noJTHoro p a 3 B H T H H  coBpeMeHHoro  IIOJIHHX  n^TBAecHT  cepdcKoro  JieT  3a pe$opMy H nodeAH  3acJiyraM  nop cymecTByibHHH,  BHme  B CepdHH  - xopBaTcKHH  B AeHTeJtBrH3HKa,  npoaojixajiacb caitaH pesyJtBTaTdM  npHBeAeHHHx, yneHHX,  cepdcKo  cepdcKoK  JiHTepaTypHoro  d o p B d a B o d J i a c T H HSHica H n p a B o n n c a H H f l ,  poa, d J i a r o A a p n CHX  ),HaHHHaeTCH d o p B d a  AocTHrJta  ocHOBonooiOKeHHKa  ByKa KapaAXHna.  AO  (  co3AaJtca  KOTO-  HOBHH,  H3HK:  " U p r v o j p o l o v i n i 19 v e k a b i j u se v e l i k e b o r b e u s r p s k o j k n j i z e v n o s t i oko j e z i k a i p r a v o p i s a , i u tom d o b u s t v a r a se n o v i k n j . i g e v n i j e z i k i p r a v o p i s srpskio " IleJiB nocJieAyromeH p a a p a d o T K H CHCTeMatHnecKOM  H  pa3dope A e n T e - i B H o c T H  B paoKpiITHH HX npaBAHBHX  MeCT  HacTOflmea rJiaBH BHmeynoMHHyTHX  B HCTOpHH  CepdCKOM  COCTOHT  B  JiHHrBHCTOB, nHCBMeHHOCTH.  CABBA "  MEPKAHJIB  ^EBEJIOrA E P A  CAJIO  H  JIHBO A 3 E K O I I P O T P E C V  voxy  CaBBa MepKaliJiB poAHJics B 1 7 8 3 - e M KpafiHe,  B  ceJie CeHHHaice.  3AecB  noTOMy B C K o p e , a  nocjie  ocTaBHB  ii  J H 6 Q a 3 6yKon-p(3Tpec ^  MOHacTtipe  Tex  B  nop  "kojom  roMHpHA HO  rcay He  ero.  B  H  3arpedcKyio  ceo  yxHTBCH c  1813-OM  XH3HB  aKa^eMmo, no  (JipaHny3CKHH 1810-OM  B  KHHry CaJio Aede-aora  zivot  zamerio  ro^y  OH  ymeJi H3  epa  srpskoj  nocTpHrca B  dpaTaero H  B. H  JieKHHH  cjiymaji  eBpeficKHH.  CaBBa MepKaJUt  MOT  cKHTaaBHecKyio  BeJi  za  mieojie  cepocKOH  nocTynHJi B  H3BecTHy»  se  KapaoBHe  c o$HnepaMH H ToproBnaMH  H 3 y n a J i rpenecKHH  1811-OM  ocTaBHTB  HyxAeH  OKOHHHJI B -  caaBHHo  TopHeE  OH XOpOHIO 3HaJI JiaTHHCKHH,  H3AaJi GBOK  B ByAHMe OH  crkvi".  AOXKHOCTB,  H MaTeMaTHKe.  HeMeHKHH H3HKH  ro^y  Mor y x H T B c a  He  OH  nepemeJi B IlefflTCKHH yHHBepcHTeT, r ^ e  $HJIOCO$HH H  OH  ro^y  1799-OM  c T a J i ynHTeJieM B  AyxoBHoe yHHJiHme H PocnHHe.  B  B  11  MOHaxw  B  BCKope OHJT  npn-  MOHacTHpa  C  H  "... od nazadne k a l u d e r s k e c  s r e d i n e ismevan, mucen i r a s c i n j e n V . 3amHTHHKH "<b", H  "Ae6eJioepoBUH",  CTpaTHMHpoBHHy MOHacTHpeK,  eMy  c  npocB6oio npHHOTB e r o 6HJIO B  JIH6O a 3 d y K o n p o T p e c JIH6O Q A d p a H y  yMa  roHeHHe H  yMep  npecaeAOBaJiH  yToMJieHHHH cKHTaHHeM, o f i p a T H J t c a  Kor.ua OH,  3a  Mesc^y n p o ^ H M ,  STOM OTKa3aHO.  O A H H H3  B  KpoMe  cepdcKoft  B BeHe B  1835-OM  BepoaTHO, a3(5yKH. ro^y.  no A B  3a  ero  KHHry,  MHTponoJIHTy  K  o^pymKoropcKHX  CaJio . a e d e J i o r a  MepKaMJiB H a n H c a J i , B 1 8 1 7 - O M  4e6eJiora e p a ,  "•£" HS  ero  Bce  roAy,  '  epa  IlaJiHHOAico  TascecT&io npecJiejuoBaHHti  1827-OM  ro^y  OH  conea  c  kl  CaBBa MepKaKJCB CHHTaeTca OAHHM H3 mecTBeHHHKOB ByKa CTe$aHOBHHa Kapa,a.2EHHa. yica3aa Ha  OH  caMHX BaKHHX npeA6UJL  nepBHM, K O T O P H H  HeococoAHMOcTB H3MeHeHHft B KHPHJIJIOBCKOH a3dyKe, KOTopHe  H V K H H npn ee npHMeHeHHH K Hapo^HOMy cepdcKOMy H3HKy: " Gate j e mesto Save M r k a l j a u i s t o r i j i nase k u l t u r e i k n j i z e v n o s t i ? P r v i odgovor k o j i se mo&e d a t i na ovo p i t a n j e j e s t e onaj k o j i m su i do aada redovno o c e n j i v a n e njegove z a s l u g e : M r k a l j j e p r e t h o d n i k Vuka K a r a d z i c a . Svojom t e o r i j o m pisma i p r i l a g o d a v a n j e m s l o v e n s k o g a l f a b e t a zahtevima srpskog i z g o v o r a , on j e z a i s t a u najvecoj meri doprineo uspehu Vukovog r a d a u t o j vaznoj o b l a s t i njegove d e l a t n o s t i . " 7 Ha^o ynoMHHyTB, KaK a HecKOJi&Ko BHine odsHCHHJi, HTO HHcaTeJiH KaK JHocHTen OdpaAOBHH, CoJiapHH H ^pyrne cTaJiH O T K 3 3 H BaTBCH  OT ynoTpedJieHHH  " B". ,  HepBHH H3 HHX, ^ocHTeii 06paAOBHH,  K O T O P H H , X O T H H ynoTpedJiHJr e r o , He  MeK^y " i " H " B " . JieHHH " i "  AeJiaJi HHKaKoro pa3 JIKHHA  BTopoK nncaTeJiB, K O T O P H H BCTaJt npoTHB ynoTped-  B cepficKOH a36yKe  6UJI  EMaHyeJi S H K O B H H  OH xoTeJi 3aMeHHTB "-B" H " B " anocTpo$oM  ( 1758 - 1792 j .  ( CB e^HHM >  c'e^HHM ) .  KpoMe Toro, OH T o i e npe^JiaraJi HCKJBOHHTB H3 cepdcKoft a36yKH cJioBa, KOTopne OH cHHTaa HeHyxHHMH: . " » » o p r v i s r p s k i komediograf Emanuel J a n k o v i c k o j i j e p i s a o c i s t i m narodnim jezikom, zahtevao j e r a d i k a l h u reformu slovenskog pisma, njegovo podesavanje prema srpskom izgovoru, i z b a c i v a n j e s v i h n e p o t r e b n i h s l o v a i nov n a c i n p i s a n j a o n i h glasova za k o j e s l o v e n s k i a l f a b e t n i j e imao posebne znake i, l ' , n' mesto JIB, H B ) • 8 B TO s e BpeMH, CoJtapHH Tose Hanaji n e n a T a T B CBOH coHHHeHHH 6e3 " i " . C 1808-oro r o ^ a Bee e r o coHHHeHHH HanenaTaHHHe rpax^aHCKHM mpH$TOM H OHJIH H3.fl.aHH 6e3 " • & " o  B COHHHeHHHX, KOTopHe CHJIH HanenaTaHH  HepKOBHO - CJiaBHHCKHM BipH$TOM, 3H3K ""B" COXpaHHJICH.  h2  XOTS.  3TH HOBOBBeAeHHS dOJIBIIlHHCTBy Tor^ainHHX cepdcKHX  HHTaTeJieK Ka3aJiHC£ He  TOJIBKO  6e30CHOBaTeJi£HHMH,  HO  onacmiMH H  no403pHTeJi£HHMH, o^HaKo, O H H 6HCTpo pacnpocTpaHHJiHC£. BaTeJiH ^ocHTen  H  CoJiapH^a Bce 6oJi£me  H  IIOCJieAO-  6oji£ine pa3BHBaJiH  STOT  Bonpoc o nepeMeHax B cep6cKOH a3dyKe H cepdcKOH op$orpa$HH. B 1810-oM roAy CaBBa MepKaftJiB HanncaJi oponnopy Caao Ae6eJora epa  JIH6O  a3dyKonpoTpec.  B  KOTopoK  pyccKo - iiepKOBHO - caaBSHCKHH aji$aBHT HeM cooTBeTCTByiomHe H3MeHeHHa  AJLS  H  OH  paccMaTpHBaeT  npe^JiaraeT caeJiaTB  npHcnocodJieHHH e r o  K  B  cepdcKOMy  a3HKy:  " Ilpn cTapoM ocTaTH ecT no Ayxm HaKJiannej H O nHTace: eJiH cKyna H Hafi6oJie? - HexoyMeHnie Tora, Ha KpaTKo a36yKy Hamy n p o T p e c a w T B H , oB^e npenprHyTH, e c T MOH KOHan H HaMepa» " 9 9Ta  KopoTKaa  dponnopa,  cTpaHHH, npHHecJia MepKaHJno H  BHAHO  MHOTO  cQflepstama-H  TOABKO  BoceMHaAHaTB  Tpy^HHX AueR B ero X H 3 H H ,  KaK  H3 HHxecJieAyiomero:  " Slovenska azbuka j e b i l o pismo crkve, i u s t a t i p r o t i v n j e znacilo j e u s t a t i p r o t i v poretka duhovnih i materijalnih vrednosti koje je ustanovila crkva, u s t a t i p r o t i v same crkve i drustva koje j u je odrzavalo. B i t k a izmedu s t a r i h i novih slova "bila j e u s t v a r i "bitka izmedu t r a d i c i j e i progresa, izmedu p r a v o s l a v l j a i evropejstva, izmedu srednjovekovnog i modernog shvatanja sveta, ukratko: to j e b i l a bitka izmedu starog i novog u nasoj tadasnjoj k u l t u r i i u naSem tadasnjem drustvu. " 1° B npeAHCJioBHH cBoen 6poimopH MepKaaJEB 3aMe*raeT, T T O 11 xoTfl H ecT£ TaKHe cepdcKne nncaTeJiH, KOToptie "pa3MHmjiaBaK)" o cepdcKOH a3dyKe, H O MaJio TaKHX, KOTopBie "ce 6OAJIH He dH, He 12 T£y peT£H Apyro H T O , H O H caMo ^edeJio ep n c n y C T H T H " O  1+3 HS cepdcKOH a3(5yKH, AeficTBHTeJtBHO, Bee nncaTeJiH  HCKJIWHHTE  J~e6exo ep  6OHJIHCB.  ( "B"  ) CTaHOBHJtocB He  TOJIBKO CJIOBOM  B  a36yKe a CHMBOJIOM nepKBH H o6mecTBa, KOTopoe 3 T y a36yKy n c w e p x H — BaJIO,  CHMBOJIOM cpeAHeBeKOBHfl j TpaAHHHH H  MepKaKJieBoit opomropH cepdcKoe  npaBOCJiaBHfl.  odmecTBO pa3AeJTHJIOCB B ABe  c e p o c K y i o a36>Ky n p e B p a T H J t a c B  HAeoJiorHMecKyio.  B  npoTHBO-  H 6opB<5a 3a  noJioxHHe napTHH — "na j e r o v i c e i j o t o v i c e " HOByio  BHXOAOM  dopB<5y He  npaKTHnecKyio  a  IIoaTOMy, ocTaHOBHMCH Ha pe$opMe MepKafiJiH noA,'-  pooHee. B cBoeti dpomiope CaBBa MepKaHJiB npeacae Bcero y K a 3 H s a e T , HTO  BCHKHH  HHCaTe JIB AOJtXeH AepXaTBCil H a p O A H O r O H3HKa, TOH HaCTH  Hapo^a AJIH KOTopoii OH nnme-T: .. c HaKBeTBa B 0 3 M o x H a p a 3 y M H T e J i H o c T n e p B H KOHan. H HanaJto y eilHOM e 3 H K y e c T . KOH OBO He s a M e T B e HanaJio, TaK ce napoAHer HJIH nacTH HapoAa, Me^By KOHOM OH JKHBH, 3a KOM r c B o p n aJtn nnrne, e3HKa Aepxn. C-HaH, KOH H.n. 3a HapOA CepOCKH JIaTHHCKH, HJIH, HTO nOHTH CBe eAHO e c T , TaKo SOBOMO CJiaBeHCKH r o B o p n HJIH nnme; oneBHAHo nepBO e 3 H K a HanaJio r a 3 H . . . . " 1U  "  JIaJiBBie, MepKaMJiB pa3BHBaeT CBOW MHCJIB O  "HTO  cy  TO  penn?  IHTO 15  e3HK?  nncMeHa? H KOJIHKO H Mopa y a 3 d y K H e 3 H K a MH  KOTOporO Be3 HO.  3HaeM,HTO  H 3 H K ecTB  MHCJIH 0<J)OpMJIHK>TCS H  TaKoro  cpeACTBo, o p y ^ n e ,  KaxAoro  H3HKa.  Ho  AJIX  noMomn  HeJioBenecKoro o d m e c T B a HeB03M055-  4 T O d H B H p a 3 H T £ KaKyK) HH(5yAB MHCJIB CJIOBa npe^JioKeHHe no  npn  JHOAH AOdHBaWTCfl B3aHMHOrO nOHHMaHHS.  odMeHa c y m e c T B O B a H H e  odte^HHeHH B  e^Hora 6 H T H ? "  AOJIKHH  <5HTB  onpe^eJieHHHM npaBHJiaM, O C O C H M  Jiiodoro H3HKa HeodxoAHMH He  TOJIBKO  AJIH CJIOBa,  HO H rpaMMaTHKa, KOTopaa onpe^eJiHeT npaBHJia H 3 M e H e H H « CJIOB,  kk  npaBHJia coeAHHeHHH CJIOB B npeAJioxeHHH H, TaKHM odpa30M,npHAaeT H3HKy CTpO.HHHH, OCMHCJieHHHH XapaKTep. Tass se  KaK  H3HK COCTOHT H3  CJIOB  "TO e c T , H3  pa3(5opHH  poKa ( TepMHHyc ) JIHOO H3pa3a Hamn npe,4CTaBaKa", CJIOBO COCTOHT H3 3ByKOB rJiacHTBHi  U  TO  H 3 eAHOT HJIH BHHe npOCTH 3By HHTB.S,  17 K O H TaKo^Bep CBoe 3HaKOBe HMaay", ' a 3TH 3 H B K H 1 ft'  "nHCMeHaMa, OyKBaMa, a OT H C K H H cJioBaMa HMeHyioce". a3(5yKH K a K O r O  JIHCO  fl3HK3  Hy&HO JIHHB  CTOJIBKO  HMeeT  npocrax 3 B y K O B , ApyrnMH cjioBaMH,  A&  npocTH nacTHHa penHH 3Han.H, paBHa ce  cy  Kaxjioe  3HaKOB,  ^JIS  CKOJIBKO H3HK  "HHCJIO nncMeHa  dyAyTEH  no e3HKy, 3a K o r a  cy  19 onpeJieJteHa".  03 SToro nponcxoAHT npaBHJio,HTo Te a36yKH, B  KOTOpHX HJIH <5oJtBBie 3HaKOB, HeM BHpaseHHH Bcex 3 B y K O B ,  HJIH He  AOCTaeT SHaKOB AJIffi  HMe»HHXcfl B H3HKe, HecoBepmeHHH.  MHCJIB MepKafiJiB n o s c H s e T AAs.  3ByKOB,  9Ty  npHMepoM HeMeHKoro aJt$aBHTa, HMewmero  "m" coHHTaHHe Tpex 3HaKOB ( s c h ) , a 3ByKH "s"  H "c" 060-  3HanaioHero OAHHM 3HaKOM "s": " TaKo H . n HeMaHKa a36yKa 6eTB H e ^ o c T a T O H H a ecT, 6y^yTBH ASL H nepe3 sch, H 3 H C naK nepe3 e^HHo s 03HaHye<, " 20 0  JlJix a36yKH HyscHH JIKHB  S H S K H , BHpaxaiomHe  OAHH  cJieAOBaTeJiBHo B e e Te <3yKBH, KOTopne B pa3HHX cJiynasx CH pa3JIHHHHM 0<5pa30M HJIH 0603HaHaK)T CJIOXgNe noAJiesaT nepeMeHe.  3ByK,  BHroBapHBaBT-  3ByKH, H3JtHHHH HJIH  TOJIBKO "EAHH0 3ByHHa nncMeHa 21  caMa  cy, KOH y  a36yKH 6HTH Mopaio". IlepexoAfl K paccMOTpeHHio cep6cKOH a3<5yKH, CaBBa MepKafiJiB 3aAaeT Bonpoc: "KOJEHKO CepdJt&H 3 a e3HK CBOH 22  Tpedyio nncMeHa?"  Rxs  aToro OH paccMaTpHBaeT cepdcKyra a36yKy  pa3AeJiseT cJiaBSHCKHe nHCBMeHa H a pyopHKH: "eAHHOSBynHNe"-  H  BHpaxaiomHe TOJIBKO O A H H  3ByK; "MHoro3ByHHHe" - BHpaxaiomHe CoJiBHie  HEM OAHH 3ByK; "3ByKonepeMeHHHe" - KoTopne  o<5o3HaHaBT "caA sAHy,  23 c&A ca  A p y r y nacTHny  ; "3aMeHHK>mHe" - K O T o p n e ynoTpedJunoTi-  penn"  RJia o6o3HaHeHH3 T e x 3ByKOB B #3Hice, AJ151 K O T O P H X y x e cymecTByioT  cooTBeTcTByromHe H3HKe OAHH  dyKBti, ApyrHMH cJioBaMH, OAHH H T O T x e 3ByK B  o<5o3HaqaeTCH pa3JiHHHHMii 6yKBaMH5 3ByK o d o 3 H a H a e T C 5 i <5oABme neM OAHHM  cep(5cKaa a 3 6 y K a 3,H,  THe  3HaKOM.  no MepKaftJOo  eocTPajia H3 k l - o r o . 3 H a K a : a , d, B , r , A> e, x ,  i , K , J I , M, H , o, n, p , c , T , y , $ , H , H, m, B , a ocTaJiB-  HBie 6 y K B H B3HTH H3 ^  "cJioscHHe" - y K O T O P H X  , K>, ¥  ,  CAaBHHCKOro aJr$aBHTa , "fe , & , LJ> , l-bv  , L|J ,5  j  H.,  A .  «, PasAeJteHHe ux B y x e ynoMSHy-  ,  pydpHKH• no MepKaMJno, TaKHe: " 1 ) 9AHH03ByHHa:  2) 3) k) 5) Ty  a d B T A e x H K J i M H o n p c T y x n H H [ H ( i ) 3 i v v o s e .  MHoro3ByHHa: K)%e(J5i4J£/fi\|-^^ ^ 3ByKonpeMeHJiBHBa: A e i J i T £ . H H y < > 3aMeHJiBHBa: e H % £, ; 5 H 3 ; o n c o ; y H W } H i H H V T j R v H / K o CjroxeHa: A B JIB H B H T B . c y AaKJie y a 3 d y K H H a i o i l CBaEOflKa B03MoxHa nHCMeHa..  MexAy n p o H H M ,  MepKaiiJiB  "  p.  KpnTHKyeT nncaTeJieM, KOTopne cMenHBaioT  HarrpjHMep, " H " C " H " , K Tex EOTopHe npoH3BOJiBHO e r o ynoTpedJiaiOj.', 3  KBK  HanpHMep  CoJiapun, K O T O P H H AaeT eMy 3HaieHHe " B " + "H".  MepKafiJiB o c ^ i i c H H e T ,  noneMy HeKOTopne 3HaKH cJiaBHHCKoft a36yKH He-  T O A H H AJIH c e p 6 c K O H «  ToBopH o  nncBMeHax "CJIOXHHX" MepKaftJiB p a c -  c y x A a e T , HTO C B O H C T B O c e p d c K o r o H3HKa ecTB B TOM,HTO HOHTH Bce n i i c B M e H a MoryT HTO  cMHrHaTBca  nncBMeHa noAJiexaT  H coeAHHHTBCHTC  MHTKHM  3ByKOM.  BVLAS,  TaKHM COJIBIUHM H3MeHeHHHM, C B H T O H K H P H J U I  npHdaBHJi 3HaK " i " ,  - AedeAHH ep - K O T O P H H HanoMHHaA AIOAHM,HTO  TaM r A e OH HaxoAHTca He MoxeT 6 H T B HHKaKoro cMarneHHa.  Jiywae  6H cAeJiaA CBHTOH K H P H A A , ecAH 6 H , BMecTO MHOPHX Apyrnx HeHyxHHX nHOBMeH, OH npH^yMaJi SHaKH A A H 3 B y K O B , nponcxoAamnx nepes cMarneHHe.  TorAa  6 H eMy  Heqero OHAO AOMaTB roJioBy is H 3 - 3 a  "TaHKoro epa", nncaA MepKafiJiB: " y Hac do T a K O B H n n c M e H a BHme 3 a H C T o S C T Hero H y SAHor H Hoe3HHHor HapoAa. OBa noHTH Hama nncMeHa OMernaTH A H 6 O r A a c M e r K H npHMHTH Mory; a TO IHTO 3 Apyro, a K o He TOAHKO H O B H c A o x e H H nopeA asdyice Hame nncMeHa? - OBO HCTO 33HKa Hamera CBOMCTBO yHHHHAO S C T , Aa a cBeTH T B H P H A O Ha AedeAo ep ( <h ) nao. BHAeTBH CH pen  OH, Jia nncMeHa, KOH  3  3a Hac  BeTB  H 3 M H C A H O <5HO,  TBKO BeAHKOH noAAexe npeMeHH; Aa cBaKo 3aMemaTeABCTBo npeneTH, AoAao e 3HaK aAaH ( peneHO •h ) , KOH 6TS Hac, o n o M H H a a o , Aa OHAe, rABe OH C T O H , HHKaKOB yiieriaK CHTH He HMaAe. H3AHnma CBena MH npoBHAABHBOcT. EoAe 6 H CBeTH T B H P K A O y n H H H o 6HO, KaA 6 H Hac, Ha MecTo MHOTH Apyrn, HenoTpedHH, CBa TaKo nocTawmTa HaynHo nncMeHa, H H 3 a TaHKo ep TpedaAo OHAO p a 3 d H S T H raaBy. " 2 5 3aTeM OH o T M e n a e T caMHe BaxHHe B cepdcKOM a 3 H K e c A o x e H H a , HMeHHo " A B " , " A B " , " H B " , H " T B " , A A H K O T O P H X OH npeAAaraeT ocoone 3 H a K H , "TB".  TorAa  no noAo6H» cymecTByiomero yxe " ^ He o K a 3 a A o c B 6u noTpeOHOcTH B  OHAO <5H H C K A K H H T B H3 cepdcKoK a 3 6 y K H , H3  Hee,  3 a M e n a a npn S T O M , HTO  3TOT  " A-aa coqeTaHHa  " B " , KOTopoe MOXHO  a "i"  3HaK  npHAyMaTB  MepKafiAB HCKAioiaeT  6 H A doAee BpeAeH,  neM  noAe3eH: " HaH3HaMeHHTHa c A o x e H a  nncMeHa  KOA Hac  ecy: A B , A B ,  HB, H TB. OBO nocAeAHe, cnpen T B , OT HCKOAHKO BpeMeHa COC-CT BeHHH O 6 A H K ( ) CBOH HMaAe, H 30Bece TBepBOM. HMe ynpaB He cnpHAHneHo sa cpHnaHe, Kao mTo HHcy H H Apyrn Hamn nncMeHa H M e H a . Ho KO HaM d p a H H TaKOBa H3MeHHTH? " 26  IIo MepKaHAB.B  cepdcKOH  a 3 b y K e H y x H H T O A B K O 26  3HaKOB  - oyKBH  k7  caaBstHCKoro  ajr$aBHTa  OH  CHHTaeT  HSJIHUIHHMH:  " 3aAepaaJiH C M O AaKJie: a c - B T A e s s H i H o n p c T y $ x i i H i i i B . HcnyoTHJiH oBane:.5 <J3 14J -fe, £ t o H ^ / K ^ . <\C r&^j . » 27 HTO  K a c a e T c s npoH3HomeHHfl ocTaBJifleMHx  3aMeHaeT,  HTO  3aMeHHBmee "8",  "e"  AOJIXHO  IIPOH3HOCHTBCH  HM  cep6cKOH a 3 6 y K e ,  noTOMy  Bcerita ero npoH3HOCHTi.., cBoen  dpomwpe 3HaKOM " ^  HTO  MepKaftJiB  &aiK HeMeHKoe  MHeHHK) MepKaHJIH, JTHHB AJIK HHOCTpaHHHX CJIOB , B  »  nHCBMeH,  3HaneHHe-"j";AOXKHO  noJiyHaeT  K J I M  TaK  " i " ,  bcTaTBCfl »no  a "x" 33HHMaeT MeCTO  6o«iee oopaaoBaHiiiie  Can MepKaKJiB eme  "e", a  CCP6BT.HPHT.IT  He nojiB3yeTCfl B  K S K O H JIHHB  HejaBHo CTaJi  ynoTpe6jiHTBCH: E TaKo^Bep% H O y6y.a.ymTe HeKa He 6y^e HH 3ByKOnpOMeHJHBHBO» HH MHOr03ByHHO j HO 3AHHO caMO HeMaHKOMe e p a B H O . TK 6yAe HaM T O n p e ^ c T a B J i a T H , H T O HeMHHMa H B H X O B O i . J[o ca.aa e 6 H J I O 3ByKonpeMeHJiBHBo; c n p e n Ka.fi. C M O HaAMeTHyJIH CJtHTHy, TOJIHKO e 3HaHHJIO, KOJIHKO HeMaHKO j. To HeKa O T ca^a B e T B He 6y#e; H O i HeK 6y&e jo $ e 3a cTpaHHe penn. 3a x CeJiBaHH Cep6JtBH He 3HaAy; H O MaJio yjnoAHH noHTH c B a r i t a r a H3roBapaio, H a r a 3a T O ynoTpetfjtaBaM. " 28  11  HTO  KacaeTcfl  cepdcKoii  "•B" ,  "Ae6eJioro ep", MepKafiJiB  cHHTaJi , H T O  OH  B  a36yKe coBepmeHHo HeHyaceH:  " 3a Ae6eJio ep ( % ) ne T p e 6 a H H aa roBopHMo. HHKaKOB 6o He n p e ^ c T a B J i a r j i a c H H T B , nncMe HHe, H HHKa.fi n o T p e 6 e O T H e r a He HMacMO. Ee.nie HaM caMO Ha HeKy HSJiHUHy OnoMeHy, K O A e BHme Bpe,fiJiBHBa, H e r o nooie3Ha 6HJia. " 29 TaKHM o6pa30M, MepKafiJiB o i j H O S B y H H H X (iyKB, T3KHX  6j~Z"i,  CHHTafl  cocTaBHJi HTO  a 3 6 y K y cocTOflmyio  H^eaJiBHafl  TOJIBKO  a36yKa Tpe6yeT  H3  TOJIBKO  U8  HeoAH03ByHHHX dyne 3aAeps;aA T O A B K O " B " , "TaHKo ep",  OT  30 XOTfl AAH  OHO "iIHCMe HHe", KOTOPBIX  3TOT  B  TOJIBKO  HTOOH  Mor nncaTB " J I B " , " H B " , " A B " ,  cAaBHHCKOH a36yKe He OHAO 3HaKOB.  H e  nopHHaa  HeAocTaTOK B cBoen a36yKe,oH HaAesAca, H T O B oyAymeM  HaiiAeTCH c n a c T A H B H H  BHXOA.  IloAB3y O T npeAAaraeMoK pe$opMH cepdcKoft op<J>orpa$HH MepKafiAB HaxoAHT,npeacAe B c e r o , B oTHomeHHH neAarorHnecKOM, HanpHMep AeTH CKopee MoryT BHynHTB a36yKy: " JS,a ce AeHHHa Hana He 6yAy HHe Ay, K a o caAa, IlHCMeHHHy H 3 y n H T H M o p a A a , nepBo Hero HITO npaso nncaTH 3HaAy. IIo3HaTo He, Aa KO y Hac noHe TaKo 3BaHo XyAOKHocAOBHe npemao H H e , H H c B o n e HMe npaBHAHo  3anHcaTH  He y M H e .  "  31  "OTHHHe" - B O C K A H i i a e T MepKaKAB, B KOHne cBoeil dpomropH "Hame  npaBonncaHne  IIOAXOAHTB  noA n p a B H A o - nnniH KaKo DITO T O B O -  32 H odemaeT B oyAymeM BHnycKe CBoero He3HKonpoTpeca  pHm",  3aH«TBCH BonpocoM o cepdcKoK rpaMMaTHKe: "  O T AaHac cBe Hame n p a B o n n c a H H e noA O B O AOAa3H HanaAo: IlHniH KaKo. DITO r o B o p H m « Ha KOHan. neTBepTo: Aa T s e H a M 6 H T H Aarme,TOAHKO HyscAHy e3HKa CepocKor C O H H H H H T H IlHCMeHHHHy} o neM y He3HKonpoTpecy, CyAynrroH K H B H X H H H M o i o i , c B o i e M H e c T H o HMaAe 6 H T H CAOBO.  "  3  3  H3-8a CBoero CaAo Ae6eAora epa JiHdo a36yKonpoTpec MepKafiAB HMe A MHOTO HenpHHTHOcTeH.  MHOTHX  npoHHM, HCKJUOHeHHe " B " H3 cepdcKoii a36yKHo  B03dyAHJK>, MexAy IIOA  doABHHM  Hanpa-  seHHeM "AedeAoepoBneB" MepKailAL H a n n c a A B 1817-OM roAy CBOIO IlaAHHOAHio AH6O oAdpaH.y AeoeAora epa ,B K O T O P O H O H oTKa3aAca O T cBoen pe$opMH.  O H comeA C yMa B 1835-OM roAy.  k9  MOXHO  cKa3aTB,  H T O npeAmecTBeHHHKH  ByKa C T e $ a H O B H H a  KapaAxnna He BJtaAeJtH H H AocTaTOHHHM 3HaHHeM HapoAHoro H3HKa, HH AOCTaTOHHOH JiHTepaTypHHH  ByK  3HeprHeH BBeCTH B CepCcKVB IIHCBMeHHOCTB HOBHH  H3HK  CTe$aHOBHH  H HaMeneHHHe  H M H H3MeHeHHH  KapaAXHH OHJI AHBIB  H3M6HeHHH B c A a B H H C K O H a3dyKe,  B asoyice.  CHcTeMaTH3aTopoM  KOTopne  OHJiH y x e  Bcex Tex  yKa3aHH e r o  MHOrOHHCJieHHHMH npeAHeCTBeHHHKaMH, rOBOpHBHHMH O TOM, pyccKan  H nepKOBHO  - cjtaBHHCKaH  CTaTOHHHMH AJtA B H p a X e H H H 3 B y K 0 B  H TaK,  HTO  op$orpa$HH 0 K a 3 H B a » T c a HeAoCepOCKQrO H3HKa.  0 BJIHHHHHX  4ocHTeH OdpaAOBHna H CaBBH MepKaHJiH Ha cepdcKHft JtHTepaTypHHii H3HK H o p $ o r p a $ H B , nojryHHJtH  CBoe  KOTopHe  BcecTopoHHee  no3AHee  B A e n T e J I B H O C T H ByKa  BHpaxeHHe  H AOCTHTJCH  KapaAXHHa  KoneHHoro  pe3yjtBTaTa, MoBaH ^epeTHH nncaJi: " Reforma azbuke i p r a v o p i s a j e , p o r e d r e f o r m e k n j i S e v n o g j e z i k a , n a j v a S n i j i dogodaj u i s t o r i j i srpskog k u l t u r n o g preporoda krajem XVIII i u p r v o j p o l o v i n i XIX v e k a . Reforma s l o v e n s k e azbuke i n j e n v e l i k i r e z u l t a t : fonetsko pismo, p r i l a g o d e n o potrebama srpskog j e z i k a , u z n a t n o j su m e r i d e l o Save M r k a l j a . Ono s t o j e D o s i t e j u r e f o r m i knjiSevnog j e z i k a , to j e Mrkalj u reformi pisma. Kao s t o j e D o s i t e j dao r a c i o n a l i s t i S k u t e o r i j u n a r o d n o g j e z i k a , t a k o j e M r k a l j dao r a c i o n a l i s t i S k u t e o r i j u p i s m a . V u k se do i z v e s n e mere j a v l j a k a o nastavljac" srpske p r o s v e t i t e l j s k e m i s l i XVIII veka. N j i h o v e glavne i d e j e : n a r o d n i j e z i k i f o n e t s k o pismo, S i n e osnov Vukovog r e v o l u c i o n a r n ^ g d e l a , k o j e znaSi k o n a S n u p o b e d u d e m o k r a t s k o g , n a r o d n o g duha u n a s o j knjizevnosti i kulturi. B o r e c i se za nova s l o v a , Vuk s e b o r i o z a n o v u k u l t u r u , z a n o v o , moderno shvatanje sveta. To i s t o v a z i za M r k a l j a , kao i z a o s t a l e Vukove p r e t h o d n i k e i s a r a d n i k e . 3k TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M ,  npeAmecTBeHHHKH ByKa KapaAXHHa yKa3aJCH  Bee Te HSMeHeHHH B K H P H J U T O B C K O H a3dyKe,  KOTopHe HyxHH npn ee  50  npHMeHeHHH  K cepocKOMy H 3 N K y j  npOBeCTH HX  CHGTeMaTHMeCKH  H yKaxy H H x e ,  BCH 3 a c J t y r a  na  HO HHKTO  Ha npaKTHKe.  npHHa^JiexHT  HHX HO cyueji  B  3TOM  CMOT  oTHomeHHH, K8.K  ByKy Kapa^XKny.  AaHHH jiHTepaTypHoro cepdcKo - xopBaTCKoro  . H .He;  Ilpn cos-  H3HKa, Kapa.axHH  He  BHocHJt B Hero HHKaKHX $opM H3 cymecTByiomero cepocKo - cJtaBHHcKoro  H3HKa»  a opneHTHpoBaJicH  npoH3BeiieHHH y c T H o r o  HapoAHoro  JIHUIB Ha p a 3 r o B o p H H H  TBopHecTBa*  HSHK H H3HK  51  ByK K A P A J P ^ H E r o 3HAqEME  ByK  CEPBCKOH JIHTEPATyPE  C T e ^ a H O E H T KapaA^Hq POAHJICH B ceJie T p m H H ©  5LapHHCKoro y e s ^ a , OKOJIO r o p o ^ a  ro^a.  B  JIO3HHHH 2 6 - o r o O K T a d p a 1787-oro  OTen. e r o HasHBaJics C T e ^ a H ,  S e f A a 3epHHHeaa, po^oM  a MaTB  H3 repneroBHHH.  Ao pox.a.eHH2 ByKa y HHX, 6HJIO naTepo A e T e n ,  OHH Bee yMepjiH.  4"TO6H y d e p e n B  pacnpocTpaHeHHOMy BepoBaHHio CHHa ByKOM T . e . B O J I K O M , 0  BojiKa.  CBoero CHHa OT B O A B M , KOTopne, HO  B CepdHH, cBe^aioT AeTeii,  noTOMy  HO  HTO Be^BMH  MaTB Ha3BaJia  ne nocMeioT H a n a c T B  npoHcxoKAeHHH C B o e r o HMeHH, Kapa^acHH nncaJi B  Ha  csoeM  CjioBape;  " K a d se k a k v o j  z e n i ne dadu d j e c a , onda nadjedne d j e t e t u ime Vuk, j e r m i s l e da im d j e c u v j e s t i c e j e d u , a na v u k a n e c e s m j e t i u d a r i t i ( z a t o s u i meni o v a k o ime n a d j e l i )„ " 35 ByK  HayiHJica  HHTaTB H n n c a T B ,  IlepBHM e r o ynHTejreM 5HJI e r o poACTBeHHHK npn noMomn K O T O P H X ByK Bo^e  (SyMarHo  no K O T o p o M y ByK  MOKCHMOBHH  fteBTa  CaBHH.  3aTeM MeB.Ta AaJi ByKy  ynHJica HTeHHio.  B  KaKoK—TO  nocJiaJi C B o e r o MOJIOAOTO cHHa B He6oJi£jnyio HKoJiy  B a e T ,5aKa IIonoBHH, ByK  JieT,  CpeACTBa,  B 1795-OM r o ^ y ,  JIo3HHHe, HTodH noJiyHHTB H e K O T o p o e o d p a r i B a H H e .  " U  dHjro BoceMB  ynnJica rpaMOTe, GHJIH nopox pa3BeAeHHHfi  H KJTOHOK naTpoHHOH  dyKBaps,  K o r ^ a eMy  CTe$aH B  Ho, K a K o n n c n -  B JIo3HHHe HHHeMy He HaynHJica:  t a d a n j i m m a n a s t i r s k i m s k o l a m a " b i l o j e po n e k o l i k o M a n j i su l e t i c u v a l i k o z e , o v c e , j a r i c e , s v i n j e , sadili i p l e v i l i l u k , i s l i u z p l u g , k u p i l i seno i S l j i v e . Mnogi l e t i z a t o r a v e s t o z i m i n a u c e i t a k o su g d j e k o j i u S i l i po k i 5 g o d i n a a da n i p o s l e n i s u z n a l i S i t a t i ,  daka.  52  Deca su obicno p o c i n j a l a u S i t i i z r u k o p i s a j e r bukvara nije bilo. Kad koji„dak tako i z r u k o p i s a nauSi b e k a v i c u , onda uzme s l a v e n s k i C a s l o v a c , a kad go i z u c i i p r o c i t a n e k o l i k o puta, uzme P s a l t i r . Ko p r o c i t a i ovu k n j i g u n e k o l i k o puta, t a j j e i z u S i o svu k n j i g u . Onda j e mogao b i t i , ako je hteo, pop, k a l u d e r , m a d i s t e r , p r o t a , a r h i m a n d r i t , a ako j e imao dosta novca i v l a d i k a . " 3o Kor^a ByK <5HJI B JIosHHne pasurpaJtacB qyMa B ropcae H OH B03BpaTHJica AOMOK.  TaK HeyAanHo oKOHHH«iacB nepnan nonHTKa  yneHHH ByKa. OTen, BHAH odmee yBasceHHe K ByKy, xoTeJi HTOOH OH HJIH CfieJiaJiCH KynrtoM HJIH npHHHJi c s a m e H C T B O .  Ho Kynn.H SCHJIH JIHHB no  ropcaaM, a B ropcaax rocncaaMH OHJIH TOJIBKO TypKH, H cepdH noaTOMy BecBMa HeoxoTHo TaM noceJiflJiHCB.  IIoaTOMy, ByK He x o T e J i aaeaaTBCH  KynrtoM, H C .apyroii C T O P O H H , He HyBCTBOBaji CKJIOHHOCTH K npo$ecCHH cBameHHHKa.  O H xoTeJt eme  B ApyroM MecTe. CHJI TypoK  yHHTBca, HJIH B CepdHH HJIH r,ae-HH(5y,aB  Korjja, B KOHHe 1806-oro r o ^ a , Kapa TeoprHH pa3-  H 3aHHJi BeJirpa,fi» ByK K a p a ^ x H H ,  BMecTe co CBOHM nepBHM  yMHTeJieM KeBTOM CaBHHeM, nepeexa-a B BeJirpaA. eM B npaBHTeJiBCTByKrueM coBeTe.  TyT OH cTaJi nHcap-  B 1808-OM ro,ay ByK no3HaKOMHJicff  B BeJirpaije c y n e H H M ^ocHTeeM OdpaAOBH^eM, K O T O P H H T o r ^ a  6HJI Ha  Bepxy cBoen caaBH: " Kada 1808 z a p o c i n j e r a d D o s i t e j e v a V e l i k a Skola, Vuk postaje Dositejev uSenik. N i j e ostalo p o b l i S i h podataka o tome kako se, u to vrerae, odnosio s o v e t s k i p i s a r Vuk preme D o s i t e j u , kao i kakvog j e t r a g a o s t a v i l a ova s k o l a na Vuka. Mole se p r e t p o s t a v i t i da j e D o s i t e j e v o v e l i k o znanje i poznavanje sveta moglo p r o b u d i t i u Vuku, i za ovo k r a t k o vreme u c e n j a mu, t e z n j u da i on p u t u j e u s t r a n e zemlje. 37 11  K HecnacTBH), H BTopan nonHTKa ByKa B ero yqeHHH TaKse OKOHHHJiacB HeyAaneH.  9TOT p a 3 OH CHJIBHO 3adojieJi H pemnji no-  53  KHHyTB  PyKH  EeJirpaAo  JiH30BaJiaci> noTepaa  H HOTH  ero d o A e A H ,  D KOJieHe A e B o f l H o r n ,  A O KOHna  cBoeft  Dcasope  HO  cnoco6HocTB  doAe3HB JioKa-  B A a A e T B KOTopoH"  OH  XH3HH.  RaAesECh Ha noMoiHB MHHepaABHBix BOA, ByK K a p a A X H H GOTnpaB-HAcs: D  MexaAtfBx, EDBEEH CaA, ByAJiM, HO H H r A e He noAyq-HA noMo-  ^Jia JieBOM H o r H i eMy npraiAoGB B 3 S T B ^OCTHJIB, npn noMomn  in.  KOToporo,  c  Tex  nop,  QH  TOJIBKO H MOT  XO^KTK  " R a n i j a b o l e s t o p e t se j a v i l a , u d a r i l a u r u k e i n o g e , i Vuk j e p o c e t v r t i p u t o s t a v i o u c i o n i c u . Posao j e u z a v i S a j i o t u d a u "banju Mehadiju, z a t i m je zimu 1809/1810. g o d i n e p r o v e o u n o v o s a d s k o j b o l n i c i i , n a j z a d , u l e t o I8IO0 p o t r a z i o l e k a u B u d i m s k o j b a n j i . Sve j e bilo  uzalud.  Sa  zgrcenom levom se s j e s e n i  i s p o d pazuha v r a t i o  nogom u s t u l i i s t a k a m a te g o d i n e u B e o g r a d . " 38  H p e K p a T H B ; Jie.HeHHe, KOTopoe o K a 3 a J i o c B AASC ero HOTH nojie3HHM,  ByK npnxoAHT K  c.o3HaHHio,  *rro OH A O A x e H  3adoTHTBcs:  TenepB  o pacmHpeHHH o a o e r o  KHHr.  CDO», A e s T e J i B H o c T B . B y K c o c p e A O T o ^ E H B a e T Ha H3yHceHHH n c e x  roBopoB GBoeM  G.ep6e.Koro a s H i c a ,  odpa30BaHHH  dec-  EMy  TOABKO  noMomn H-TeHHSi  npn  6HJIO T o r A a A B a A H a T B A B a r o A a .  oyAymeM OH eme He DHAeA HHKaKHx: Hajmmx  neAeS.  B 180~6-OM r o A y H a n a A a c B p y c c K o - n y p e n K a a ; B o i t H a , <Eepae3Hoe odmecTBO mofl  coAeftcTBHe c  caMoro  cHMnaiHei!.  AepacHBaAa  cepdcKoMy BoccTaHnu.  HanaAa  PyccKas  cep6oB,  OTHOCHAOCB K  1811-OM r o A y 6HAO c o 3 A a H O BO  rAaBe  KHnscecTna,  6HAO m e c T B AeCHT  PyccKoe  nepeAOBoe  BoccTaHHio c e p d o B  yrpoxaAa  onacHocTB  rocyAapcTBeHHoe  c  nopasceHHSi.  ynpaBAeHHe  K a K Ha3HBaJiacB H O B a n C e p 6 H £ ,  M H H H C T P O B , npHHBM c T p a H a p a 3 A e A e H a  BOeBOACTB.  0Ka3aBmaffi  6OAB-  apMna:, 3aHHB MojiAaBHio H Ba-aaxHio, n o A -  K o r A a HM  If Bi  B  orpaHHt;  nocTaBAeao  dHAa  Ha  ceMB-  5h BBHAy HanaAeHHa HanoJieona  Ha Poccrao, nocAeAHaa  Hyx^eHa dHAa aaKOHHHTt BOHHy c TypnneH. n o c J i e A C T B H H , 3aTpyAHeHHHMH P O C C H H CKoe  npaBHTeJiBCTBO  Cepdnen.  PasHorAacHH  BocnoAB30BaBinHCB, B  B <5opB(5e c HanoJieoHOM,  pemHAo B o c c T a H O B H T B  cepdoB 3a  cpeAH pyKOBOAHTeAeii CepdHH npHBeJiH K  B 1813-oM  r o A y , oKOHHHJiacB  nepBaa  H3 BoeBOA, ocTaBUHMca B c T p a H e  6 H A rjiaBofi onno3HHHH npoTHB Kapa Teoprna. BoccTaHHa, OH  npH3HaJi BJiacTB  rjtaBHHM KHS3eM«  TypoK  H <3HJI 3a  MeacAy T e M , n o A o a c e H H e  Coptda  -  MHJiom OdpeHOBHH -  nocJie nopaaceHHa 9To  Ha3HaneH  Toace  POCCHH  IIodeAHB HanoAeoHa, ona c T a J i a O A H O H H3  HapOA  TaK, nocjie  cBo(5oAy« OAHH  EBpone.  caMHX K p y n H H X AepsaB B  IIooTOMy, K o r A a MHAOHI OdpeHOBHH B H O B B H a n a A nc-AHHMaTB  H TpefiOBaTB  OT T y p O K HaHHOHaJtBHOH H e 3 a B H C H M O C T H , TypHHH  BaccaJiBHOH  3aBHeHMoCTH,  ocTaBHB  HeKOToptix r o p o A a x H KpenocTax.  JIHEIB T y p e H K H e  ^eaTeJiBHocTB nepBOHanaJiBHO  TenepB, noA Ha  Ha  Ha-  rapHH30HBL B  cyJiTaHy.  KapaAacnna, KOTopaa, K a K a Btime ynoMaHyjr,  cocpeAOToneHa  Ha  H3y l e E H H  BAHHHHeM dypHHX AeT B CepdHH,  Bonpocax H C T O P H H H 3THorpa$HHo  cepdcKoro  s3HKa,  cocpeAOTOHHBaAacB  B 1813-OM r o A y , nocAe CBoero  npne3Aa B BeHy, KapaAscnn H a n n c a A HedoABmyio c T a T B i o , B KOTopofi onncHBaA  E  KorAa Kapa TeoprHH BepHyjica: a  CepdHK), MHJiom oTpy6nA eMy r o J i o B y H nocJiaJi e e  6HAa  HMH  H3MeHHAocB.  1820-OM r o A y npH3HaJia Cepdmo c a M o c T o a T e A B H H M KHaacecTBOM HaAax  ocMan-  CBoe r o c n o A C T B o HaA  nopaseHHio cepdoB H dercTBy Kapa reoprns. 3a r p a H H n y o AeBaTHJieTHeH B O H H H ,  npa-  naAeHHe noA Kapa TeoprneM.  3Ta cTaTBa npHBAeKAa sa  55  ceda BHHMaHne ijeHsopa Bcex cepdcKHX KHHr MepHes KonnTapa ( 1780 Ty  ByKa,  s3HKa  noaceJiaJi  - 181+U  ),  H HOBOCTCH  VBH2(H  KOTopaJi»  no3HaKOMHTCH c  HHM.  c KonHTapeM HMeJio pemHTeJi&Hoe BJiHHHHe Ha  B  BeHe,  HeodHHHyro npocTc --. ByKa  3 T O 3HaKOMCTBo  BCK  AeaTe J I B H O C T B  H  XH3HB ByKa: " K r a j e m decembra I8l3«g«> u Vukovom stanu s r e l i su se J e r a e j B a r t o l o m e j K o p i t a r i Vuk S t e f a n o v i c ; p r v i - vec zapazeni f i l o l o g , cudoviste o d nauke i t o l i k o ruzan da sebe, kazu, n i j e hteo uopste da p o r t r e t i s e - " n e S k o l o v a n i , a l i o d matere prirode tako izdasno svetlim unrora obdareni" 2 6 - g o d i s n j i , i z S r b i j e i z b e g l i mladic, Taj susret je od i s t o r i j s k o g znacaja po juznoslovensku k u l t u r u . K o p i t a r je uputio u rad Vuka, bodrio ga, pomagao, s t i t i o , popularisao; Vuk, vanredan poznavalac jezika i naroda svoga, odvazan, uporan i trezven Sovek, genijalno je realizovao ideje svoga u c i t e l j a i p r i j a t e - , lja. " 39 TaKHM MOJIOAHM  ByKOM,  odpa30M  KOTOPHH  H nOJIHTHieCKOH JKH3HH. (5HJIH B H n y c K H  H3HKa,  KapaAKHHy, AeJseHHs  c Tex  nop  3HaKOMcTBo  BHCTynaeT  Ha  Mex^y KOHHTapSM nonpnme  H  KyjcBTypHofi  Pe3yJIBTaTaMH HX COBMeCTHOH AQUTe JTBHOCTH  MaJia npoc.TOHapo.3Ha cJiaBeHocepdcKa njecnapHHa ( 1811+ ),  IlHG-MeHHHa ( l8li+ CKoro  3aBS3aJiocE  1 K a K ByK Ha3BaJi  CpncKH  pjeHHHK  ocodeHHO  HTO  c  OT cBH3eH  (  1818  CBOIO  ).  nepByw rpaMMaTHKy cepdKonHTap Bcer.Aa  KacaJiocB jiHTepaTypHoro H3HKa  pyccKHMo  TaK-KaK KonHTap  HHCaTeJIH  CJiaBHHO  CBHM,KaK  nponaraHAy KaToJinnecTBa cpeAH cepdoB.  xeJiaHHe KonnTapa  -  CepdCKOH  HTodH  HKOJIH OdBHHHJIH  noMoraJi H  ero  OT-  dHJi KaToJIHKOM ,  KapaAKHHa H ero  ByK npndJiH3HJi cepdcKyio  KpoMe T o r o , a3dyKy  K  Jia-  CEH3H  56  THHCKOH OHH CHHTaJtH A&s  Ho,  npaBocjtaBHH.  KapaAsnna  OHJCO  no JtHTHHeCKHM MaHeBpOM ABCTpHH H OIiaCHOCTBK) BO  cjrynae,  BCSKOM  B  JiHHHHe KonHTapa Ha  6jraroTBopHOo  B cBoeii IIjecHapHHH ByK HanenaTaJi pne  OH  3HaJi  H  noMHHJi.  noioTca noA rycJiH  )  H  aKKOMnaHHMeHT r y c j r e n  TyT  H3,a.ajr.  OH  He  B By^HMe 2 0 - o r o  paHBnre BHnycKa e r o IlHCMeHHnH> noMoraJi eMy  KOTO-  XCHCKHX  ( seHCKHe  He noit  )« MeHee, xapaKTepH3yeT  6oJtee J i H T e p a T y p H o e H a n p a B J i e H H e .  MHOTO  Te necHH,  ( Mj^cKHe noraTca TOJIBKO  mecTB My&cKHX  E r o IlHGMeHHua, TeM  nHcaJi KonnTapy  CTO  JTHULB  iSlk-oro  BHAHO,  npn cocTaBJteHHH  nan-  no nncBMy, KOTopoe ByK  Cy^n Mas  ero  HTO  8TOH  roAa,  Ha-  HecKOJiBKO  H3BecTHHK  JTyKa MHJroBaHoa  KHHrn:  " J a P i s m e n i c u p i g e m , i ne mogu vam zasad v i s e n i jedne r e c e n z i j e p i s a t i dok ne bude gotova P i s m e n i c a . S t o mi p i s e t e da j a P i s m e n i c u s p r i o p s t i m M r k a i l u , j a b i n t o rado u S i n i o , a l i j e on d a l e k o , a j a o v d j e imam drugoga M r k a i l a ( onoga Luku M i l o v a n o v a G e o r g i j e v i c a sto ga M r k a i l o u S a l u Debeloga j e r a spomlnje ) s k o j i m j a o v d j e zajedno z i v i m i s v a k i se dan razgovaram; i on s a d p r e p i s u j e P o e z i j u s e r b s k u , z a k o j u sam j a vama k a z i v a o , pa k a d bude g o t o v a , onda cemo p o s l a t i t u vama da se p e c a t a , k o j e sam u v j e r e n da ce se v a m a d o p a s t i o " kO a T o r o n n c B M a eme  VLQ KaK  OAHH  Bee a  Ha  BHJUHO,  HTO  oneHB y M H o r o HeJtoBeKa,  H3 Jtynmnx  KapaipxHH  cMOTpejr Ha MnJioBaHOBa  cpaBHHBaa ero  c CaBBoii MepKaHJieM,  cep6cKHx nncaTeJieH, MnoApar IIonoBHH, AyMaeT  rpaMMaTHHecKHe  3aKOHH B IlHCMeHHHe OHJLH BUAyuanu  H T O KapaAXHH n o M o r a J i eMy  CBOHM  npe3BHHaMHO T O H K H M  c e p d c K o r o H a p o ^ H o r o H3Hica, KOToporo  MHJtoBaHOB He  HTO  MHJtoBaHOBHM, 3HaHHeM  3HaJi:  " Plan, raspored gradiva i strucnu terminologiju n a c i n i l i s u prema M r a z o v i c e v o j s l a v e n s k o j g r a m a t i c i . A p s t r a k t n a g r a m a t i c k a p r a v i l a dao j e L u k a M i l o v a n o v ,  57  a Vuk j e u n e o u d e l o samo sopstveno oseSanje z a n a r o d n i g o v o r , k o j i j e poznavao b o l j e o d Luke M i l o v a n o v a . « kl Bo  BCflKOM c j i y n a e ,  nodyAHTB dojiee  HTOGH  qyBCTBOBaJi  cedn  naTpHOTHHecKan nodyAHAa  ero  3HaK>mHx  B y K B CBOeM  CKOrO S 3 H K a .  CBoero T p y A a B y K BHAeA B T O M ,  neAB TOM  cocTaBHTB  OH  rpaMMaTHKy  npeAHCAOBHH IlHCMeHHHH T O B O p H T ,  HenpuroTOBJieHHHM K n o A o d H O M y T p y A y , HTO HeT  cKopdB,  n p H H H T B c n 3a  HTO OH  ero  cepdcKOH rpaMMaTHKH,  H H OAHOM  cocTaBJieHHe  HO  cepd-  STOH  KHHTH;  " Evo t i o b j a v l j e n e P i s m e n i c e s r p s k o g a j e z i k a , k o j u sam s e j a , i z r e v n o s t i srpskome k n j i z e s t v u i i z l j u b a v i k m a t e r i n j e m j e z i k u , p o t r u d i o n a p i s a t i p o raalim s i l a m a z n a n j a moga J a sam u v j e r e n da u narodu srpskom i m a d o s t a l j u d i k o j i b i k ovome d j e l u b i l i mnogo s p o s o b n i j i o d m e n e , n o , p o n e s r e c i srpskoga r o d a , t a k o v i s l a b o m a r e z a o v o djeloo Svakoga p r a v o g S r b l j i n a d u s u i s r c e m o r a o S a j a t e l j n a t u g a o b u z e t i i sramota g l a v u k c r n o j z e m l j i o b o r i t i k a d s e o p o m e n e d a s u d o s a d c e t i r i m u d r a i nauSena S r b l j i n a t u d i h j e z i k a p i s m e n i c e p i s a l i i S r b l j i m a neznajucim svoga maternjeg j e z i k a p u t k t u d i m j e z i c i m a o t v a r a l i l " k2 0  B  IlecHapHHe  npaBonncaHHH "  IlHniH K a o  c  TeM,  ByK  nncaTeAHM TOHAOCB  CH o  ByK  BnepBHe  KacaeTcn  H B H C T a B A n e T CBoe, no  mTo roBopnm,  3aMenaeT, npaBHJia  HTO  a  HHTaj OAHH  DITO j e  Kao  HO  HTO  codpaHHe B c e x y n e H H X c e p d o B ,  T O M , K a K cAeAyeT  nncaTB,  o  cepdcKOM  cymecTBy M e p K a n A e r o ,  n e A O B e K He  npaBonncaHHH,  sonpoca  HanncaHo.  MoaceT  yKa3aTB  CAeAOBaAO  KOToptie  H ycTaHOBHAH  11  6H,  MOTAH  npaBHJia  npaBHAor BMecTe cepdcKHM  HTOGH  6H  COC-  AoroBopHTB-  npaBonncaHHH:  " N i t i s e moze i z i s k i v a t i o d jednog c o v j e k a , k o j i mu drago o n b i o , da s a d najedanput p o s t a v i i d a o p r e d j e l i s r p s k i m s p i s a t e l j i m a p r a v i l a u p r a v o p i s a n j u ; nego b i nuz*no b i l o da u c e n i S r b l j i u c i n e j e d n u s k u p S t i n u r a d i t o g a , p a k t o u dogovoru da r i j e s e . , , . " k3 OcHOBHan p e $ o p M a  KapaAacnna  KocHyAacB  a3dyKH,  HO He  58  dHJia  KopeHHcafl.  HopHoS  HepKOBHo -  JiHTepaTypHocTH.  Hejp©FJCH$HHBCKoro  C Tex  nop,  — KHHXHOJ?  - M a B S H O T M JE3HKOM  y T p a T y nepKOBHo  B  r e r e M O H H H n e p K O B H o K H_a.eojr.orHH;. Hapo^HOH S : 3 H K O B H X  KyjiEuypn  cpeAHeBeKOBBa;,  BMecTe  BpeMH HOByio op$orpa$HK>: HJIH H e T .  IPOTHBHHKOB  meft  a36yKH  ByK,  IlexsHapHnBL  MepKaSJiBeM. ynoTpedJiffleT TpedJiaeT  B  He  BMecTo  BMecTo KOToporo  OH  T e M He  " i "  Bciccay Ha  ynoTpedJiffeT  H H o r ^ a ynoTpedJCfljr  MeHee, B T O M  xe  u  noJiHocTH e r o  Ah",  HX. B  "JIB", BMecTo  paHHeM  " B  cncTeMy,  "HB"  "D"  nepno^e  OH  "s";  "H",  HaeTosiTOM  BJaecTo HO  ero  He  " T B " yno-  ocTaBHJi  " B " B a3<5yKe, H.  .aaxe  "M>" , " J B " , "BS" , XOTA; caM "1".  ©H  "»"  "By".  KapaAXHH npe^JiaraeT  ynoTpedJiHjr  nepeMeH.  r o ^ y , B IlHC'MeHHne,  MHeHHH. C a B B H MepKaSjEH: 0:6 H3 JTHHIHOCTH B  nepeMeH  H3AaBaai nepBHM  caeJtaJi E O J I B K O HOCKOJIBKO  nepeMeHHB e r o  ""fe",  npHH&HB JT.H H;  ocMeJEHBaJtcH; npHHHTB op<porpa<f>Hio yKa3aHHyio  H=eft OH  ""ti"}  sToro  yna^oK nepKoa-  dopBdH  CHCTeM, K a p a A X H H KOJie6aJicm  3TO  nojroxeHHH: B3  TQM -  c  OTOI  H  dHJto MHOTO , H H3-3a  POJIB  nnaaHHa,  ro^noAGTByioiiiero  aTMoc$epe  dHTB  H"3MeHeHHe r p a i f H K H  HOS  caoeg  Ha  (EBsimeHHoro  s?3HKa -  cep6e.Koro JiHTepaTypHoro  nepecraBaJia  KyjiBTa.  oeMaHTHKH noKpoB  nepKOBHo  o6o3HaHaJio yna40K  a3dyKa  OHa H H 3 B 0 ^ H J i a c t  a"3HKa peJCHrH03HQro  GHHMaJio G: JiHTepaTypHoft  cipyKType  czraBSHOKasi  00  OTJHX  eme  Aepxaa-B noAAepxHBan  3HaKH B He  ynoTpedJissT  KoJiedaHHHX  pe<J>opMaTopc.KOH . a e s r e JCBHOCTH A .  3aMeH  KapaAXH^a  EJIOK  n e p s o H x e , BHnyraeHHOH no HacToaaHW K o n H T a p a , rpaMMaTHKe cTaBHTca B o n p o c ; o BBe^eHHH j , o;6 H3JtHTJIH0CTH t , O BBOAeHHH H> , JB , 'f| , H O p a 3 A e J i e H H H Hape^ffiH no npoH3HoneHHio dyKBH. % ; BSHOS ( r e p n e r o B H H C K o e ) - H j e (B AOJLTVLX cJtorax H j e ( B K O P O T K H X ) , BocTOHHoe ( C p a M c K o e - e n 3ana.aHoe  nncajc:  59 (PecaBGicoe) - H. CaM KapaAXHH npHH.aJi AJiai JiHTepaTypHoro; asHKa KxacHoe HapeHHe, XOTH; H nHcaJi HeKOT.opBie GOHHHeHHai Ha BOCTO'EBOH. " kh H3 onepKa, H3 K o i o p o r o m HHTnpoBaJi, BHAHO HTO KapaAacHH, npoHHM>pa3JKjHaJi TpH Hapenna c e p d c K o r o mstiKai KOToptiM r o B o p s r  "TepneroBHHCBoe"  Bee cep6H - acHTeJIH repiierdBHHH,  BOGHHH H XopBaTHH;  -  QepHoropHH,  "CpeMCJCOe" - KOTOpBlM f O B O p S T XHTeJIH CpsMa,  BanacH H BaHaTa, ApyrHMH cjioBaMH B O H B O A H H H ; P H M r o B o p a r acHTeJiH PHMGKO XHBymne B XopBaTHH,  uexAj'  - KaTo JiHHSGicoro  JUaJiManHH H CJiaBOHHH.  MHeHHio KapaAXHHa pasAeJissoTcai Meauy CO6OH  TaEHM oopa30M,  B caMHX nepBHX  "PeGaBcacoe" - B O T O BepoHcnoBeAaHHa:, dim  Hapenna, no  no xapaKTepy npoH3HO-  GBOHX  npoH3BeAeHHax,  ByK EapaAXHHi yace HaMeTHJi Bee o©HOBaHH<s: AJiar AaJi&HeHfflHx C B O H X peiJxspM B (EepdGJffioH o p $ o r p a $ H H HI HanpaBJieHMH- B esoefi: JEHTepaTypHofi Aessr e JIH>H o GT H «, KapaAXHH: cHHTaJi, HTO HOBHEK JrHTepaTypHHii SI3BIK c o 3 A a T t Ha $OHe ycTHoM XHBeT B HapoAe.  Hap&AHOH pe:HM,  ca;,  Ha $OHe a?3HKa, KOTOPBEB  CeptfcKne BapaaceHHs: H c e p d e K H H  ocTaJiHCB TOJIBKO B HapoAe.  H3  Ha^o  cKJia^ araHKa  GymecTBgpamHx E H H T HeJiEb3S{ H a j m n M i -  noTOMy Hffo O.HH n n c a H H He no osepdcKH a nepKOBHo - cJiaaiffiH-  racHM.  OTGMAa, nepeA. ByKOM B03HHKJia (SoJi^maa s a w a  ejrapyio GHCTeMy JiHTepaTypHO - KHHJEHOTO a3HKa C03AaTB,  H AOKa3aTB,  HOH GBeateGTH  - GOJIOMSTB  H e r o op$orpa$Hffl,  HTO 3CHBOH HapOAHHH S 3 H K ,  COeperHIH B X H 3 H e H -  Ayx, cauiy, STCHOCTB H K p a a o T y , MosceT ojiy&HTB HGL-  TOHHHKOM H GOKpOBHHflHH'H effi AJIH p a 3 B H T H H O6pa3'OBaHHOH , pa3yMHOff  60  cepdcxoH penn.  B 1815-OM roAy KapaAXHH uanaJi  ceJiBCKoro HaceJieHH.s, He H3HK B H c m e r o o d m e c T B a , csc-BapBo  oTnpaBHJtca  OH B  1816-OM r o ^ y  KonHTapy  B  Beny:  CpeM  B OH  H  HadpaJi y x e  MHoro  HanenaTaTB  HTO(5H  BaHaT Hecsi c  ycBOHBinero  HeJiyio c r o n y  COOOM  CJIOB  H  od  3TOM  nncaJt  . S r p s k i r j e c n i k b i c e bas onako napisani i n a p e c a t a n i k a o Sto n a r o d g o v o r i . Ovdje sain u jednom m a n a s t i r u nasao j e d a n Pomenik (200 g o d i n a s t a r ) , iz k o j e g a sam i z v a d i o v i s e od 1000 s r p s k i h imena, k o j e m u s k i h , k o j e z e n s k i h ; i t a cu sva imena s r p s k a d o d a t i u Rjecnik, J a c u u a p r i l u mjesecu p r e c i u S r b i j u , s a d da cujem k a k o S r b i g o v o r e i s t a p j e v a j u , p a k cu onda o p e t p r e c i amo da p e c a t a m R j e S n i k , " 45  IIocTaBHB  saAa~w  cede  B H p a d o T a T B H3  H H H , caMoy^Ka Kapa^xHH CpnCKH p j e H H H K , H3  npocBemeHHeM H He  npocTOHapoAHHe c J t o B a ,  dyMarn.  "  TpoHyToro  c o d n p a T B ap.eJtH  B  H a p o ^ H o r o ar3HKa  odpa30BaH-  BeHe B-1.818-OM r o ^ y msAaJL 3HaMeHHirHH  B KOTOpHH BOTHJIO dOJIBHe 26,000 CJIOB , BCe B3S!THe  X H B O T O eepdcsKoro 5E3HKa. K  cJiOBapw, ByKOM dHJia npnaoxeHa rpaMMaTHKa, H3  KOTopoft  B H A H O n.pHo6peTeHHe HM MHoxec.TBa rpaMManHHeeacHX cBe^enHK He HaxoASimHxcHn B e r o  IlHCMeHHHe l 8 l U - o r o r o ^ a .  KpoMe To.ra e r o caoBapB JteHHe cJtoB (JjpaseoJtorHHEcaHMH.  odH^aeB  B  IIOJTHOM  CMHC-Jie 3 T o r o  npeAc-TaBJTH'Ji ©odd ft B c . e o d p a 3 H y » nepBoft noJioBHHH "  vuk,  m.  lupus,  ynoTpedB  npndayToK, 3 a r a i f . o K , CJIOBa.  aHHHKJioneAHio  19-oro- cToJieTHsr. l ) d e r Wolf,  HJoaocTpHpyeT  ©oiEeTaHHSffliH, BKJOo*sajp  noe;jtoBHH, noroBopoK, HapoAHHX  MHOTO CKHX  HX  HHPOKO  Bon  eede H  ©epd—  CJioBapB KapaAXH^a HapoAHOft XH3HH  npHMepa:  (cf. Zivijerac,  2 kamercjak,  61  k u r j a k ) . - 2) (Vuk) Mannsname, n o m e n v i r i . Kad se. k a k v o j g e n i n e d a d u d j e c a o n d a nadjedne d j e t e t u i m e Vuk, j e r m i s l e d a i m d j e c u v j e S t i c e j e d u , a n a v u k a daine c e s m j e t i u d a r i t i ( z a t o su i meni o v a k o ime nadjeli). - 3) ( u C.g.) u p u s k e o n e g d j e s t o j i kremen. video (Seljuska l ) c e l j u s t i , celjuske. gumno ( g u v n o ) , n. d i e D r e s c h t e n n e , a r e a . U C r a o j g o r i i o n u d a p o p r i m o r j u gumna s u p o s t a v l j e n a i okolomac'ena kamenonu Onama s e p o n a j v i s e n a g u m n i m a i i g r a ( j e r s u mnoge kuce p o t a k o v o j v r l e t i , d e v a l j a t r a z i t i m j e s t o g d j e s e moZe i g r a t i ) , a i l j u d i po k o l o m a t u n j i h o v o m e s j e d e i d o g o v a r a j u se z a r a z l i c n e s t v a r i . Medu one s t v a r i k o j e d j e v o j c i n e mogu p r i p a s t i b r o j i s e onamo i gumno. I g r a h s e z l a t n o m j a b u k o m (Po p o l j u p o mjedenome,-. Po g u m n u p o s r e b r n o m e - . " ^6  CjtoBapio B  B y K Kapa^xHH  KOTOPOM  a3HK  cepficKHH  npcmnecTByeT  rpaMMaTHKe  H  ,aoKa3HBaeT  B cepdcKnx  i  TeJtH,  CepdCKHH  HapoAHHH.  .Zhoyrne  svinjarski  jezik",  COXpaH6HHH OAHOro  TpeTHe HTO Ha  cepdcKaa  JiessHT B caMOM  H  KapaAXHH  pyCCKO  -  -  B H3HKe,H3-3a  cepdcKHX KaKOTO  OAHH  xo-  HacTaHaa'Jra  cJioBaps  .Hpyraa  npHHHHa,  JiKTepaTypHoro  e^HHCTBa  H3HKa,  oAHoro  B H3HKe,  H rpaMMaTHKy,  a s H K a H a p o A H o r o , KaK H3HKa  Ha  T o r o , H T o HeT HayKH  nncaTeJieH A e p x a T B c a  HHdyAB  i  CJiaBHHCKOrO H 3 H K a .  dyKBapa.  o^Horo  "govedarski  Kapa.2r.KHH od-tac-HseeT,  H3HKOB.  H e T A&xze c e p d c K o r o  HeodxoitHMHM  H3HK  H cBHHapeH,  HepKOBHO  J i H T e p a T y p a He HMeeT  npnsHaeT  ynoTpedJieHHe  nacTyxoB  caMoyHKH  HecorjracHH  vkusu"  nncaTeJieH  S3HK, ycoBepmeHCTBOBaTB  JIHTepaTyPHHX  RJISI y C T a H O B J l e H H H  H3HKa.  "  TOJIBKO  p o svome  Ha3HBaJiH H a p o A H H H  H3HK  nncaTeJiH  c e p d c K O M H3HKe  noneMy  n p n MO  TpedoBaJiH AByx  cepdcKHe  -  ynoTpedJraTB  O H ooBHHHJt c e p d c K n x  volji  CJlaBHHO  HeodxoAHMOCTB  KHHrax.  nHnymiix " s v a k i p o s v o j o j COXpaHHB  doJiBmoe npeitHcsoBHe,  AOBOJIBHO  KpoMe  JiHTepaTypH:  Dva su v e l i k a u z r o k a o v o j n e s r e c i n a s e g a j e z i k a o v o m ( p r i j e n e c u v e n o m n a o v o m s v i j e t u ) pokoru  i  Toro,  62  nasemu: p r v o , S t o s u n a s i s p i s a t e l j i sve s a m o u c i u s r p s k o m j e z i k u : za§to mi nemamo j o s n i b u k v a r a srpskoga, a kamoli sto vi§e. P o n a j v i s e n a s i h k n j i z e v n i k a i v e c e gospode s r p s k e po Mactarskoj k a z u da j e s l a v e n s k i j e z i k ( s t o imamo d a n a s n a njemu b i b l i j u i ostale crkvene knjige) p r a v i srpski j e z i k , a o v a j s t o n j i m g o v o r i n a r o d ( i o n i ) - da j e samo s v i n j a r s k i i g o v e d a r s k i j e z i k , i da j e p o k v a r e n o d p r v o g a . A kako t r e b a danas p i s a t i z a S r b l j e , n i o n i svi nijesu slozni.... I z o v o g a se v i d i da j e i o n i m k o j i su r a d i , t e S k o s r p s k i p i s a t i k n j i g e b e z r j e c n i k a i b e z g r a m a t i k e . J a sam i z l j u b a v i k srpskome j e z i k u i i z S e l j e da b i mu se s t o b r z e p o m o g l o , p r i j e n e k o l i k e godine napisao i i z d a o na s v i j e t " P i s m e n i c u srpskoga j e z i k a " . . . . I z k o j i h sam u z r o k a i z d a o onu p r v u s r p s k u gramatiku, i z o n i j e h i s t i h evo izdajem i ovaj p r v i S r p s k i r j e c n i k ( i drugu g r a m a t i k u ) . " U9 B rpaMMaTHKe, npMoxe'HHOH • HCHO  onpe^eJifleT  oTCTynaJi  CBOH  "J",  ynoTpedJiaeT  "H» ,  H Bce  Te  nncBMeHa,  dponnope.  CoxpaHHJi  U  "  cJioBapw,  ByK  op$orpa$HneciCHe HOBOBBeAeHHa  OT HHX B cymecTBeHHOM.  "JB" ,  K  KOTopne. TOJIBKO  "%  OH BBOAHT "  H " M  MepKaitJis eJioroBoe  "  HOBHe  H  KapaAXHH yace BirpeAB  3HaKH  H HCKJiranaeT  "  "-&",  c n n T a J i yace JIHIIHHMH  He  B  "B" cBoen  "•£":  0 HeKOTOpHX HeMHOrHX OCO(3eHHOCTHX AOJISCHO 3aMeTHTB CJieAymmee: . 1) D (h , ft ) BHpaacaeT 3 B y K , K O T o p o r o He c y m e c T B y e T B-B P y c c K O M « 3 H K e . O H o 6 p a 3 y e T C H H3B A , K A H H H o r A a ( B B nyacecTpaHHHX cJioBax'B) H3B r. BuroBapHBaeTCH eme  Mnrne,  neM n o - p y c c K H ABacB;  "B3K £> 0 5  o o  H.n.  Ao^e  npoH3HocH K a K  a  ( 1^ , f) ) T a o e He cymecTByeT B B P y c c K O M H3HKe. O H O n p o n a x o A H T B O T B T , H T (m) H H H o r ^ a ( B n y a c e c T p a H H H X c J i o B a x i . ) O T Ko npoH3HocHTCT eme M a r n e , HeaceJiH no-pyccKH T B H S E.n. Aof)H npoHSHocn K a K i J H O T B H B H ; . . . 3) \J ( V » V ) H B-B C e p d c K O M H3HKe y n o T p e d J i H e T C H 6oJiBmeio n a c T m o B I ny3ecTpaHHHX cJiOBax. IIpoH3HOCHTcs n o H T H K a K B P y c c K o e ATS. HJIH nac; H . n . xoya n p o H 3 H O C H K a K xo^aca HJIH x o n a c a . k) c o c T a B J i e H o H3 JI H B . T a K Be34e H npoH3HocHTCH; H . n . 3eMJB0;t'npOH3HOCH 33MJIBOMB. 5) BB c o c T a B J i e H o H3 H H B . TaKace H npoH3HOCHTcs? H . n . H>eMy, EE.OM npOH3HOCH H B 3 M y , HBOMB. 2 ) "ft  63  6) j ( j ) BHrc-BapHBaeTcfl BeQAe KaK P y c c K o e ft; H . n . joj npoH3HocH ftoft, Ajeua npoH3HocH Jiftena, n y j y n p o H3HOCH  nyfiy.  "  50  PaccMOTpHM T e n e p t KaxAyro H S BHJneynoMHHyTHX o y K B  no,?-  podHee: 1.  ByKBa  -Ti  ByKBy T o r o H ByK oyKBa  yxe  B3SJI ee.  cepdH  c T a p n n y ynoTpedJiaJiH.  B coBpeMeHHOM cepdcKOM  (cMpT+jy  .flJia  JiHTepaTypHOM  " 'h " n n m e T c a B T B O P H T C J I B H O M na^exe e A H H C T B e H H o r o  cyme GTBHTe JIB H H X xeHCKoro "jy"  B  p o ^ a c O C H O B O H na " T " n e p e A  a3HKe HHCJia  oKOHnaHiieM  = cMpti y , doJiemn y , p a A o m n y , AyxHom'n y ) ,  B  HacToameM BpeMeHH, noBeJIHTeJIBHOM HaKJioHeHHH  H B  HacToamero  oKaHHHBaeTca Ha  BpeMeHH rjiaroJioB, KopeHB K O T O P H X  "T",  a ocHOBa HacToamero  "je"  (MeTaTH  - Meti eu,  B HeonpeAeJieHHOM  .aeenpHHacTHax  BpeMeHH o 6 p a 3 y e T c a c noMOKBio cy$$HKca  Met) em,  Me1i e, Me1\ eMo,  Meti e T e , M e i ^ y ) ,  HaKJioHeHHH r j i a r o j i o B , o6pa3yeMOM npncoeAHHeHHeM  cy$$HKca HeonpeAeJieHHoro HaKJioHeHna HenocpeACTBeHHO K Kopmo, oKaHMHBaiomeMyca Ha " K " , " r " , "x" ( p e t i n , KpbMe T o r o , Ha,ao ynoMHHyTB  eme  HecKOJiBKo rJiaBHHX npHMepoB«  cyKBa " t v * nnmeTca B npoH3BoAHHX C J i O B a x , KOTOPHX HHHaeTca  HHX  OKaHnHBaeTca  c "j".  Ha  CooTBeTCTBeHHO 3TOMy "."li  6paT, JIHCT  npoH3Bo.a.amaa ocHOBa  " T " , a cJtoBoodpasyromHH cy$<J>HKc  HMeHax cyme cTBHTe JIB HHX  JiHmlSe, O T  ne*h H, MO1\ H , Bpt> H ] ,  11  nnmeTca B  Ha-  codnpaTeJiB-  Ha " j a " H " j e " KaK HanpnMep: o p a f i a,  HTA.  2. ByKBa " W>" , KaK  a BHme HHTnpoBaJi H3 npe^HCJioBHa  Gk  cac-BapH ByKa, B C T p e n a e T C H ,  rJiaBHHM o < 5 p a 3 0 M ,  B  BaHHHX H3 TypeHKoro HJIH aHrJiHiicKoro H S H K O B , geJtaT, ^ l u t ^ ' a H , y e n ,  nnyaMa,  oyyeT,  c J t o B a x saHMCTBO—  KaK HanpHMep:  dpng ,  B  yyHrjia.  c e p d c K o - xopBaTcKHx QaoBax oyKBa " Ll " nnineTCH B T e x cJiynaHX, rAe npQH3oinjia accHMHJiHir.HA CBeAoMda, H a p y i ^ d a , T o r o , dyKBa " l ^ "  ' V nepeA  3BOHKHM  c p ^ i d a , oTairidHHa>  "d" KaK HanpHMep:  HapyiJ dHHa.  KpoMe  nnneTca: B CJtoBax, o<5pa30BaHHHX c noMomtK) a a -  HMCTBOBaHHoro K3 TypeHKoro H3HKa cy$$HKca " VHO + a " KaK HanpHMep: n e n n p g H j a , 3.  AynaHy H j a .  ByKBa "~b "  ByicBa " ^ " » H3MeHH»imixcH  CJIOB,  B  pa3JiHHHH O T d y K B H  ecjtH o c H O B a  "m  ", nHmeTca  CJIOBa oKaHHHBaeTcs na  oKOHnaHHe HJIH $opMoodpa3yiom.HH cy$<£>HKc HaHHHaeTcn (A  +D  •  ^  )c  eAHHCTBeHHoro rjia^y,  - 3anoBe1^y),  BpeMeHH rjiaroJioB  Ha " j e " B ftopMax npe3eHTa  c KopneM  BO^aX, BO^ e H ,  BHAeTH  Ha  "A"H c  (rjioAaTH - r j i o ^ e M ) , B 3aJtora rJiaroJioB,  KOTOpHX OKaHHHBaeTCH H a "A", a HH$HHHTHB  Ha " H T H " ,  o(3pa3yBHCHH cy$$HKc Ha^HHaeTCH c " j "  "eTH"  a CJIOBO-  ( r p a A - r p a l j , aHHHH, B O A H T H  - Aorpa"^ HBaTH, CBaAHTii ce - c B a ^ aTH ce,  rpo3A - r p o s 1j_ e)°  KopeHB  - BH ^ a x , B H ^ e H ) H B n p O H 3 -  CJtoBax ,ocHOBa K o T o p n x oKaHHHBaeTCH Ha " A " ,  B o l j a ; . rpaAHTH  " j "  B HacTOflmeM BpeMeHH H B Aeenpn-  HMnep<|>eKce H npH^acTHnx cTpaAaTe J I B H O T O  BOAHHX  "A", a  HHCJia cymecTBHTejtBHHx xeHCKoro p o A a Ha " A " (r.iaA -  nacTHHX HacTonmero  (BOAHTH -  $opMax  9Ta d y K B a BCTpenaeTCH B T B O P H T C J C B H O M naAexe  3anoBeA  cy$$HKC0M  c  B  -  65  l+o  ByKBa " j "  ByK BSHJI 3Ty 6yKBy HS JiaTHHCKoro aJi$aBHTa, corJiacHo npeJi-aoseHiuD KonHTapa.  ynoTpedJieHHe ByKOM B cJtoBape " j "  OyAHJIO CHJIBHOe HeAOBOJIBCTBO.  BOB-  ITpOTHBHHKH KapaAXHHa HaXOAHJJH  6ojiBHyio no^AepacKy B AyxoBeHcTBe, KOTopoe, HanaAaa ocodeHHo Ha "j"  H3 JiaTHHCKoro aJi$aBHTa, noA0 3peBaJio ByKa H KonHTapa B npo-  naraH^e JiaTHHCTBa.  ^eftcTBHTejiBHO, KapaAxnn xoTeJi npncnocodHTB  CBOE aJKpaBHT K JiaTHHCKOMy aJI(J)aBHTy XOpBaTOB, KaTOJIHKOB• dopBde Kapa^XHna c AyxoBeHCTBOM Tojiyd 4o6pamHHOBHH "  06 3TOH  nnca«i:  V  Sto j e i z b a c i o pobrojana s l o v a , o p t u z i v a l i su ga da j e i z d a o crkvu i p r a v o s l a v l j e , da nas odvaja od " j e d i n o verne i jedinoplemene R u s i j e " ; S t o , j e , p a l e , uveo slovo j ("jotu k r i v o r e p u " , kako su j e u besu z v a l i ) , nabedtivali su ga da hoce da nas pogokci ( p o k a t o l i S i ) . Mitropolit Stevan S t r a t i m i r o v i c p r o g l a s i o j u j e za " s r p n e S a s t i v o g " . J e d a n zemunski trgovac tvrdo j e b i o uveren, u s y o j o j g l u p o j n a i v n o s t i , kako ce Vuka,, zbog njegove reforme, na onom svetu t e l e s n o k a z n i t i C i r i l o i M e t o d i j e . " 51  IIoTpedHocTB B " j "  yxe AaBHO omymaJiacB cepdcKHMH nncaTeJisMH.  MH.  BHme BH^eJiH, HTO CaBBa MepKa&JiB npe^JiaraJi BBecTH 3HaK " i " B BHaneHHH " j " .  CoJiapHn, JIa3apeBHn, H OptpeJiHH, Toace npaderaatH K  pa3HHM CnOCOOaM.MTOdH HaHTH 3HaK,KOTOpHH OH MOr OTJIH^aTB MHrKO npoH3HocHMoe " e " OT o6HHHoro  TBepAoro ero npoH3HomeHHH.  npeAJiaraA, B STOM oTHomeHHH, BBecTH 3HaK " i " , npe^Jiaraa,  a  JIa3apeBHH  H  Op<peJiHH " i " ,  TeM He MeHee, OKOHHHJICH HeyAaneH. KapaASHH AOBeJi AO KpaiiHocTH.  CoJiapHn  KaK H MepKafiJiB  TOJIBKO des TOHKH.  HX onHT,  CBOIO pe$opMy TOJIBKO ByK  IIpHHflTHe " j "  B  cep6cKyio  a3dyKy dHJio  caMHM BaxHHM op$orpa<pHnecKHM HOBOBBe^eHHeM ByKa KapaAxana.  66 B eamHTy " j "  caM KapaAXHH nncaJi:  " Da j e i )  j  ( k o j e  d r u g o  ruino, i t o n e mo2e  s l o v o  slaSe,  n i S t a n i j e , nego s e s a Slavenskim  n i k o  j e z i k u  n u z n o , n e  z n a ,  s t o  n u z n o ,  samo  b i  p u k i  i  d a  ga  z a t o  n e  j e  r e c i ,  Latini  i z m i s l i l i  p r i m a  i  p r i m a  n i  o d  KapaAxnqa  g o d  H8HKe dyKBa " j " HHX  O T  a p M H J e ,  nHmeTca:  apMHJy,  i  "ju", B  i  samo j e  0  i  s e  a  §to  "ja"  "j  H  n a j p r i j e  ga  o k a n i m o  t a k i  p a m e t a n  Sovek  zlo,  samo  je i  k o j i k a d  a  p r o s t a k s u  p c i e z n o ,  baca  o n a j ,  p i s m o j  Sto  d a  n e  Slavenskom  u  ne  ne  o s t a v l j a . " 52 B  " » " ,  " H " ,  H  " . B same apeMA, t5jraro-  x o p B a T C K O M  1) B O Bcex $opMax cJtoBa, odpa30BaH-  apMHJOM, apMHJH,  MaTHHeja,  j e  JIHTepaTypHoM cepdcKo  JiHJaJieKaT, x n r n j e H a , A H j e T a , aJieja,  No  s v o j e  2 ) MesAy rjiacHHMH H - a , H-e, H - H ,  H A e j a ,  l  p r i m i m o ,  KOTopaa oKaHHHBaeTCH Ha  OCHOBH,  d a  ycTpaHHJiacB noTpedHocTB  " j "  KapaAsnna,  s a c j r y r a M  § t o  p r o d u z e n o  s l o v i m a  n a j s u j e v j e r n i j i  d o b r o  nego  a  d o l j e  s u m n j a t i  n e p r i j a t e l j a ,  k o g a ,  " f t " KOTopHe dHJtH 3aMeneHH  Aapsr,  m o z e j e z i k ,  na5inili  i  s v o g a  o d  s e j e  Sto j e  prostakao  B B e A e H H e M  t o m  d o k a z a t i ;  u p r a v o m o g a o  o  d a  " j "  (HanpHMep, MOJHMa  M O J , MOJHX,  a p M H J a  H  -  T . A » ) »  H-y, e - a , (HanpHMep, MaTepnja, MapnJHH , nnjyK,  HJIHJHH,  3)  e n o n e j a } ?  BO  MHjy,  Bcex $opMax npHTHxaTeJiB-  H H X npHJiaraTeJiBHHX Ha " J H " , KaK, (HanpHMep, n a e j n , n a c j e r a , nacjeMy, Bpasjn, JIOB,  OCHOBH  n n j MO  , nnjTe,  MHHIJH,  K O T O P H X  K03JH  H  oKaHHHBa»TcH Ha  JIHTH-JIHJ ,  JIHJMO,  k)  T » A . ) ;  "H",  J I H J T C  B  HMnepaTHBe  rJiaro-  KaK  (HanpHMep,  nHTH-nnj,  dHTH-dnj,  (SHJMO,  dHJTe  To A. }  5.  ByKBH "JB"  n "H>"  IIOCOBeTOBaBinHCB C KonilTapOM H Jb/KHAHOM MyHHHKHM, KapaAxnq cocTaBHJt, H  "BB",  AJIH  BHpaxeHHH MnrKHX " H "  y s e B cBoeft dpom»pe,MepKaftJiB  H  AOKa3HBaJi  "JI",  dyKBH "*"  HeodxoAHMoCTB  H  67 B  9TH aHaKH  npHHHTB BBeAeniiH ApyrHMH  STHX  CJIOB  cJioBaMH,  Salu d e b e l o g  male  ispravke." H3  B  prima o r t o g r a f i j u  jera  ^3  g  cBoeit  cepdcKOH a 3 6 y K H  daMH B cepdcKHX c i o B a x  , :  corJiacHHM  nepsoM  cysay  OHO ne  "x",  BTOPOM E34aHHH  x" BO ?  CAOB  paA  noA dy KB OK)  He  B  cAOBapa  eMy  npeACTOHAO  O H CAyXKA  IIoaTOMy n p r i 3 H a e T C H  H3Hica,  roAa  6H  cAOBa noA  H a x o ^ H M He AHH  3Tan  AHTepaTypnoro H 3 H K a »  Bo  E AonoAHHTB CBOH T p y A H .  TpedoBaA  noAHoro pa3pHBa  c  B  npeAaHHe  -  npaBOCAaBHOH  iicKAioHHTeABHc A A H noTpednocTefl Bepn«  neo6xoAHMHM  H T O O H B dyAymeM O H H He  je  XOTSE  oKaHHHBaeTca n e p B H H  cepdcKoro  pacToprnyTB  cMeniEBaAiicB,  mesto b i l o  Apyxoy  cepdcKoro  CaMOCTOHTeABHOCTB C e p d c K o r o  n o A o s K T B MescAy AByMH H3HicaMi-i, p a 3  Njegovo  JiHTepaTypHoro  K a p a A X H H CHHTaA, H T O HepKOBHO  CAOBa C CEaBHECKHM, yTBepAKTB E  -  HTOKaBcicoro A H a A e K T a ,  1852-OM r o A y ,  CAaBHHCKEH H3HK AOAXeH OCTaBaTBCH KaK rAe  cep~  xpacr  O H nepeMeniM MHeHKe.  nepepadoTaTB  -treplCOBHO - CAaBHHCICHM H3HICOM.  9  samo  "x".  nepBHX, O H , H T O i c a c a e T c n  i7,epKBH  je  KapaAxnn n o c e T H A ^aJtMamno  - xopBaTcicoro  A e s T e A B H O C T H KaK 3 a i c o H O A a T e A a  Teneps  (xBaJia,  noMecTHA H E OAnoro  CAOBapeM B y K a 1 8 1 8 - o r o  ero  u njoj  noTOMy H T O MHorHMH  BHroBapiiBaeTca  "x" npoE3HocETCH,  HSAaHEH c J i o B a p a O H  MepKa&AH,  n e p B O M H3AaHHH cAOBapa,KapaA&nn  KOTopHn cocTaBJi5ieT ocHOBy cepdcKo  B  vrSeci  ^epHoropriM ii y d e A H B E H C B H T O B r o B o p a x  s;3HKa,  yKa3aHHHM  Save M r k a l j a , k o j u  predlozio,  K a K H yKaxy HHsce, i c o r A a  BaJia, p a c T ) . E  (1810)  KacaeTcn  KapaAXHH, H T O  a3dyKy.  asdyKy, c A e A O B a A T O H H O  "Vuk  on u  HCKABHHA  cepdcKyio  u  II H a s c e r A a , HAH  crkvi,  i  npeAeA,  H3HKS TaK  icasAHfl C B O H M nyTeM: tu ga  niko  nije  68  d i r a o o To mu j e mesto i Vuk v e l i k o d u s n o d a o . O a t a l o j e , d a k l e , da se i z b o r i b i t k a izmedu zvanicnog "slavenoserbskog" j e z i k a 1 " p r o s t o narodnog" D o s i t e j e v a , a l i u S i s t o j i p r a v i l n o j u p o t r e b i . " 5k H $pa3eoJiorHfl H e p K o a n o  JleKCHKa  KapaAXHHa,  -  caaBHHCKO.ro a r s H K a ,  n p O T H B o p e w r 3 a K 0 H a M H HopMaM p a 3 r o B o p H o r o  H.epKOBHOCJiaBHHH3MN AOJIXHH (5HTB BHTeC3eE_uI CJIOBaMH H3HKa,  XHBOH ycTHoft p e n n ,  HHKaKOH  HCKJiBHHTeJtBHOH ecTB  rjiac  e^HHCTBa  BCHKHH  eCTB  BceM A o c T y n e H . HHH  Jtapn  H cepdcKHH  ByKy,  CAeJtaJiacB  H3SpaHHHH  napo^a. Kpyr  OHa e c T B  H  AAS 3TOTO  K a K nncaJi cKJtaii  cepdcicaH  H3HKa  ssiiK&  9  n p o . - : s B e i i e H H f i H3  no MHe H U B  Byica, HHKaicoe  o<3mecTBa He M o x e T HMeTB  KanKTaa,  .ao-ixeH y n a c T B O B a T B .  S3HK,  HapoAHOB  O6HHH  MHeHH®  pa3TOBOpHOrO  B a x H O C T H B oopa3n.e AJia - J i H T e p a T y p H .  HapoAa,  ynacTByeT,  peniBB H a p o ^ H H X  cepocKoro  npe^aHKH H H C T O P H H cocaoBHe,  no  OH  ocTaJiHCB  J l H T e p a T y p a , AO  B KOTOPOM  OcEOBaHK'e  AOJOZeF-  Mnoitpar C.  OHTL  JIaJteBHH,  TOJIBKO  Tex  JlHTepaTypa  B  BCHKHH  HapcaHoro ECeM  cepdcKHe Hapoite,  H  nOHHTeH, BHpaacedJiaro-  nop n y x i i a s . H a p o A y ,  H XHSHCHHOB:  " Vuk j e p r a v i l n o s h v a t i o d a t r e b a u z e t i z a k n j i z e v r i i jezik bas j e z i k prostog naroda, naroda k o j i j e o s l o b o d i o z e m l j u o d T u r a k a , k o j i j e s a c u v a o sve l e p e o s o b i n e h a r o d n e i k o j i s e n i j e Odrodio n i p o r o b i o duhovno. Onaj t a k o z v a n i k n j i z e v n i j e z i k d o t a d a s n j i b i o j e v e s t a S k a t v o r e v i n a , n i j e Lmao v e z e s n a r o d o m i sa narodnom k r i j i z e v n o s c u (narodne pesme, narodne p r i p o v e t k e i s i . ) , . a b i o je n a r o d u n e r a z u m l j i v . Sem t o g a , j e z i k k o j i j e Vuk p r e d l a g a o z a k n j i z e y n i bio je n a j c i s t i j i . n a j o b i c n i j i i n a j r a s p r o s t r a n j e n i j i u n a c e l o m p r o s t o r u gde s u z i v e l i S r b i i H r v a t i . 55  69  TaxtHM oopaaoa, KapaASHH  HOJIOKHJI  nncBMeHH0CTH HosoMy JiHTepaTypHOMy s3HKy. cepdcKoro flssHKa ByK,  CBO6M  B  Kpaa T.e. H>ro - 3ana.a.Hoe  HJIH  roro " HJIH  D  "  POAHOB  H3 Tpex TOBOpOB  "repneroBHHCKoe" Hapenae, KaB  COCTOHJIO  B  TJiaBHoe oTJiHHHe,  KSB  npoHaHomeHHH CTaporo  ar yxe  AOJI-  - B repneroBHHCKOM napenHH O H O npoH3HocHTca " a j e "  "e".  H3 3a B  B  cjioBape, npe^JiaraJi roBop cBoero  ocHOBy HosoMy JiHTepaTypHOMy a3HKy. ynoManyji, aToro Hapenna  Haia.30  aa(5yKe  KSKO  op$orpa$HH,  roBopHBi",  cTpaitaJi. majtca  H  B  CBOHX  AO  HOBmecTB  B  aaHKe,  HOJIOSHB  B  Hee (poHeTHnecKHft npHHuan  noJiHOH nofie^H  B r o HaaHBaJiH napaeM  C  &THX  nop,  K a p a ^ s H ^ MHoro  KOTOPHH AO  "HHIBH  4epaKO sue—  EecTH^ecaTHX  TOAOB,  a Taoxe BonpocH o BHdope JiHTepaTypHoro  aaHKa, o ero npaBHJiBHocTH, cseaaJiHCB acypHajiHCTHBe H £ a x e  ocodeHHO AJia pe$opM  HPHHUHBOB,  nacTyxoM,  H  JIHTepaTypHHe BonpocH.  opiJ)orpao)HMecKHe BonpocH,  CBOHX  H  JiHTepaType.  JQO6HMHMH B  cepdcKOH  70  4ESTEJIBH0CTL BYKA KAPA^IHTJA B IIEPH04 OT 1818-oro AO Ero CMEPTH l 8 6 k - o r o T O M B 1819-OM r o j y , iiocJie nenaTaHHa c D o e r o n e p n o r o c j i o n a p a , ByK yexaJi CAOBapSo  B  POCCHH  C codoio  POCCHK.,  B  no3HaKOMHJLca  OH  C  HecKox&Ko  O H B3HJI  KOEHTK  pyccEHMH yneHHMH T o r o  BpeMeHH KapaM3HHHM, PyMasHeBHM, T y p r e n e s H M , SyKOBCKHM, IIIHIIIKOBHM H  MHOTHMH  ApyrHMH,  PoccHHCEasT AKaAeMHS HayK,  npncyAHJia ByKy K a p a ^ M n y KpoMe T o r o  eme  O H ^O6HJECH  B  T O M  voxy,  ace  cepe6paHy» Me^aJiB 3a ero. cjiosapR. A p y r n x noHecTeii:  " K r a j e m 1818, g o d i n e i z a s a o  j e i z stampe  Srpski  r j e c n i k , k o j i j e imao 26270 r e c i z i v o g g o v o r a U i n o s t r a n s t v u d o S e k a l i s u ovo d e l o s p r i z n a n j e m i pohvalamao N a j p r e z b o g n j e g a , slobodoumno DruStvo l j u b i t e l j a ruske k n j i z e v n o s t i u Petrogradu i z a b r a l o j e V u k a 25» a v g u s t a 181°» g o d i n e z a s v o g a c l a n a . Naredne g o d i n e Ruska a k a d e m i j a d o d e l i l a mu j e s r e b r n u m e d a l j u z a S r p s k i r j e S n i k . " 56 0  TaKHM odpa30M, AaJieKo  OT  HaKOHen, Ao6HJicfl cJiaBH.» npe6EiB.aHHfl n  POCCHH,  CBOHX  JiHTepaTypHHX B p a r o B , KapaASHH,  B 1 8 2 0 - O M roxy,  KapaAacnn B e p n y j i c s  B  nocjie  ACBHTH  CepdHio.  KapaAXHH noJiynHJi H eaponeHCKyso H 3 n e c T H O C T B .  CKopo,  Ha T p y ^ B i KapaAXHna  IlHCMeHHH.y, KaK H Ha HapoAHe cpncKe npnnoBHJeTKe KapaAXHH HanncaJi no B.03BpameHHH H3  POCCHH  1823-eM r o ^ y , n o x BJiHHHHeM KoniiTapa, ByK  r^e  JXHHHO  3yjiBTaTOM  no3HaKOMHJtca 3TOH  BCTpe^H  c TeTe, 6HJI  H  B  H  T e T e , Ha  njecHapHgy H KOTopne  1820-oro r o ^ a . noexaJi B  BefiMape c  ByK  E r o npnaTeJis  KonHTap odpaTHJi. BHHMaHne HeMeHKHX yneHHX, TpHMMa AeaTeJiBHocTB ByKa, ocodeHHo  Me can. en  B  TepMaHHio,  TPHMMOM.  Pe-  HeMeHKiiK n e p e n o x rpaMMaTHKH ByKa  71  H; e r a HjeCTapHUH., KOTopue adpaTHJEH EHHMaBMe BeJEHHafinrisz: ywon EBponH Ha MaJio, AO T O S nopa, H3necTHyio Cepdioo.  npeAHCJioBHe  rpaMMaTHKH d&Jio H a n n c a H H Q TPHMMOM. C 8TOTO BpeMeHH ByK n Espone.  KapaAJKHHI CTaHOBHTCH SHaMeHHiTOCTBIO  Hff nncBMa KapaAJKHrca KonnTapy, oKTadpa 1823-ero r o A a ,  KapaAXHH dHJi eme u jTeHHHHre, B H A W , K a K HeMeHKHe y~ie~m&  Kor^a BHCOKO  neHHJtH ByKa KapaAJKHHa H ero AesTeJiSHocTB.  OT  HeHCKoro  yHHBepcHTeTa KapaAXHH nojryHHJi AHnjioM Ha cTeneHB AOKTopa $HJIOCO$HH:  " U G e t i n g i su me p r i m i l i ne moze b o l j e " b i t i : h o f r a t i b i b l i o t e k a r Beneke ( na koga sam imao pismo od Grima ) ne samo sto me d v a dana po b i b l i o t e c i v o d i o i p r i j a t e l j s k i mi s v e p o k a z i v a o , nego me j o s k o d s v o j e kuce S a s t i o i k meni u k v a r t i r d o l a z i o . B i o sam kod Blumenbaha, Herena, T i h s e n a i A j h o r n a ( s t a r o g a ) • Mogu k a z a t i da su me s v i s n a j v e c i m komplimentima primilio I z Vajmara i s a o sam j e d a n dan i u J e n u , no b u d u c i da su se p r o f e s o r i p o n a j v i s e b i l i r a z i S l i , z a t o n i j e s a m b i o n i s k i m drugim osim s h o f r a t o m Debernajerom k o j i me v r l o l i j e p o p r i m i o i c a s t i o . E t o tako sam j a moj p u t s v r S i o ; a k a d dodem p r e k o L i p i s k e u H a l u , ondje nadem d i p l o m u d o k t o r a f i l o s o f i j e od .Tenskog u n i v e r z i t e t c . D a k l e Doctor.'"' 57 IIo B o s a p a m e H H H B: Cepdino n. 18 22+-OM roAy, KapaAXHH odpaTHJi BHHMaHHe H B y n e H H e H C T O P H H H 8THorpa$HH c s o e n CTpaHH.  Ha B  ."TOM  iJeaTeJiBHocTB e r a  HanpaBJieHHH HanaJiacB B 1826-OM roAy, K o r ^ a HOHBHJICH nepEHix  ero aJiBMaHax flamma c onncaHHeM AecHTH MOHacTHpen.  nyTemecTBya  no CepdHH, KapaA&HH onncHBaJi ee repoes H AesreJteH, AaJi ee reorpa$HHecKoe H cTaTHCTHHecKoe onncaHHe. cTaTBflx 3TOT KHH  B C B O H X HcTopniecKHX  KapaAXHH HHCTO npnderaji K AHaJiorHHecKOH $opMe paccKasa^  xapaKTep H3JioseHHH npHAaeT B c e M y p a c c K a 3 y KapaAXH^a ann^ecTOH.  72  BOT,  AJLS. npHMepa, OAHBI T a K O H  THnHHHHK 3nH304:  " P a se onda odma spreme, i i z i d u po S r b i j i s v a k i na s v o j u s t r a n u , i stanu s j e c i ( u mjesecu F e v r u a r i j u 180k g o d i n e ) . I u G r o c k o j n a j p r i j e p o s i j e k u kneza S t e f a n a P a l a l i j u , i z s e l a B e g a l j i c e ; z a n j i m Marka Carapica i z B i j e l o g potoka; buljubasu Janka Gagica i z  B o l e S a ; k n e z a S t a n o j a i z Zeoka; k n e z a T e o f a n a , i z O r a & j a  i z Smederevske n a i j e ; b u l j u b a s u Matu i z L i p o v c a i z K r a g u j e v a c k e n a i j e j p r e k o Morave p o s i j e k u Resavskoga k n e z a P e t r a i z Crkvenca; u n a i j i P o z a r e v a c k o j kneza R a i c u i z Zabrda, i j e d n o g popa i z g o r n j e M l a v e . A P o c i c Memed-aga o t i d e u V a l j e v o , i onde p o s i j e c e kneza Aleksu Nenadovica, 1 kneza I l i j u Burcanina, a knez G r b o v i c n e k a k o d o c u j e . s t a se r a d i , p a u t e c e n e k u d i sakrije  se„  "58  Ilo npeHMymecTBy, TaKoii  paccaaaa  TOH  ,o DoKHe cepdoB c TypKaMHo O T a T B H K a p a A ^ H H a no  HCTopHnecKHM M a T e p n a J i HCTopHKa, scero  S3HK  JiHTepaType  OHH  no cBoeK  XOTH,  HCTOPHH  CepdHH  npeACTaBJtaioT  c.o34aBaJio  E r o mnpoKoe ycJioBHs  AJIH  CTSTBH  tpopMe  noxoan  4 A H H 3 y n e H H H H cyx,a.eHHH o KapaAXHna.  oTJiimaeT  Ha  H  KapaAxmia  TOHy•  MeMyapH,  asJiOKeHUH,  KaK  orpoMHoe d o r a T c T B Q ,  seen  3TOH  snoxe.  ynoTpedJieHHe  odpa30BaHHa  AAS  Baxnee  npocTopennfl a  e^HHoro  caMo-  dHTHoro HannoHaJiBHo - JiHTepaTypHoro saHKa, A o c T y n f l o r o KascaoMy neJioBeKy.  OH  OTKPHJI  HapoAHoro a 3 H K a , flpKOH  AJIH  mnpoKyio ^ o p o r y roBopoB  B  ropoACKoro  npO$eCCEOHaJII>HOH O K p a C K H ,  J i H T e p a T y p H a s AeaTeJIBHOCTB KapaAsnna  3aAanaM rJiydoKoK HanH0HaJiH3anKH  GB0604HHH  noTOK  c T p y e n H 3 He^p  CTHJIB  RJIZ  npocTopenHa,  npocToJiHineHHHX  A A A p a 3 H H X CTHJieH HapoAHoii  n o 3 3 H H H A H a J i e K T O B X H B O H HapoAHoii penn  JiHTepaTypHoro a 3 H K a „  JiHTepaTypy  H  B  GTOM  HanpaBJieHHH  oTBenaJia n o T p e d H o c T H M H  ,aeM0KpaTH3au.HH c e p d c K o r o  KapaAXHna BocnpHHHMaeTca KaK  HannoHaJiBHoro n p o c T o p e n i i a ,  npodHBinHHca mnpoKofi  Hapo^Horo caMoco3HaHHa, H 3 rJiydHH ,ayxa  cepdcKoro  73  Hapc-ita.  HanpHMep:  " Ojl Kud  i  dva  svata,  dva  uprosnikal  lelja,  le,  v i idete, sta v i trazite?  le'.  I m i i d e m o , momu t r a z i m o , , U n a s j e moma j o s neprosena.  Tekla  voda, vojno l e i tekelija. tekla, vojno l e i k u d se d e l a ? Popili je, vojno le'. t r u d n i kor j i , Trudni k o n j i , v o j n o ' l e i i umorni. Kad  je  -  Sto s u t r u d n i , v o j n o l e i i umorni? J e z d i l i s u t r u d n i , v o j n o l e i i umorni? Jezdili su, vojno l e i po d e v o j k u » J e l l k o l i k a , vojno l e i ta devojka? Milom k u m u , v o j n o l e i do r a m e n a , Starom s v a t u , v o j n o l e i do p o j a s a ,  A deveru, v o j n o l e i d o kolena, S mladozenjom, v o j n o l e i ravno B  onncaHHH  HBJiseTcH  TorAauiHHX  cTpa.aaHHH  noTpedHocTH  Hapo^a.  HanpHMep,  oopaTHJio  BHHMaHHe Ha C e p 6 H K  ero  COHHHeHHe OAHHM  ro  snoxH.  H3  CaMHX  nOHHMaH,  59 KapaAXHH  K a K B.CHKHft  C B o e r o . BpeMeHH K  TorAaniHHX  3 H a ~7LT e JIB HHX r  KpyHHHfi  CBoero  MnJioma 06peHOBHHa,  BeaHHaKinHX yMOB, E B p o n n .  K a p T H H H H3JEOKeHHH  B O T , AZsi n p H M e p a ,  "  HapoAa  3CH3HeonHcaHHe K H H 3 H  XyAOSXeCTBeHHOCTB H 3KHBOCTB  9TOH  cepdcKoro  TaJiaHTJCHBHM p a o c K a s H H K O M ,  o6mecTBeHHHH AezTeJih,  rasla.  A e a a M T STO  cepdcKnx  OAHH OTPHBOK  H3  npOH3Be.2r.eHHH 3Toro  reHnaJIBHO —  npoH3Be.2F.eHHa:  " Kad p r v i g l a s d o d e u SabaSko p o l j e d a s u T u r c i p r e § l i Moravu i d a j e C r n i D o r d i j e u t e x a o u NjemaSku, o n d a sve v o j v o d e u d o g o v o r u i z a b e r u M i l o g a d a u z m e d v e h i l j a d e k o n j i k a p a d a t r c i d a u h v a t i Beograd d o k Jos' n i s u Turci s t i g l i . No d o k o n i n a r e d e i i z b e r u k o n j i k e k o j i ce s n j i m p o c i , r a z i d e se da s u T u r c i p r e s l i Moravu i d a NemaSku, n e g o d a su T u r c i u z e l i pa o t i s l i u z e m l j u da h a r a j u i buna, te o s t a v e l o g o r i topove Na z a b e r e z j u i z o n e s t r a n e b i o k o j i k a d c u j e da j e Milos onde  p o v o j s c i g l a s n e samo je Dordije utekao u i Beograd i Smederevo, robe; z a t o ude u ljude i p o b e g n u k u d ko znaD j e Jakov Nenadovic, d o s a o , p o r u c i mu da i  on b e z i u Nemacku; a k a d M i l o s ne h t e d e , onda J a k o v sam p r e d e n a o v u s t r a n u i s t a n e ga n a t o n a g o v a r a t i , g o v o r e c i mu da j e v e c sve p r o p a l o i da ne g i n e l u d o bez n e v o l j e . Na t o mu o d g o v o r i M i l o S : "JTa b r a t e , u Nemacku n e d u n i t i imam k u d a : da j a s g o l i m z i v o t o m b e z i m u Nemacku, a T u r c i z a z l v o t a moga da r o b e i p r e p r o d a j u moju s t a r u majku i zenu i d e c u l Boze s a c u v a j N ' e g o idem u moju n a h i j u , p a k u d o s t a l i onoliki narod, t u d a cu i j a : d o s t a j e n a r o d a i z g i n u l o s a mnom, n e c e b i t i n i k a k y a nepravda ako :' j a s narodom poginem i propadnem.. " 6 0 K  STOMy BpeMeHH XH3'HH  ero  3HaKOMCTBO c  H  AesTeJiBHocTH ByKa Kapa,axHHa  HCTOPHKOM  cepdcKoK peBOJHOHHH, no.iB,30BaJicH AOKyMeHTaMH ByKa KapaAXHHa.  H  Jleono J I B A O M PaHKe.  3HaMeHHTHfi HeMeHKHH HCTOpHK PaHKe,  HMH  OTHOCHTCH  HcTopneH P a H K e ,  B- CBOeK H  yCTHHMH  HCTOPHH  coodmeHM-  HanncaHHOfi no paccKa3aM  Kapa,axHHa, cjraBa H H M H cep6cKoro Hapo^a pa3HecJiHCB no E B p o n e .  B  STOM  QTHomeHHH, ByK Kapa.fl.XHH cfle-flaJi HeocnopHMo  doJiBme,  HHdyAB ApyroM H3 cepdcKHX nncaTeJieH AO H nocjie H e r ® ,  KacaeTCH H3HKa Bcex HCTopHHecKHX  TOTO,  HTO  MOXHO  cKa3aTB,  KOTopoK,  AO  HTO  Hero,  OH  ocHOBaHHH  KpoMe  nncaJi coBepmeHHO opnrHHaABHOH npo3oK,  HHKTO  He nHcaJi.  Hapo^Horo H3HKOBoro  cJieAyiomHe He3adHBaeMHe  KTO  Tpy^oB KapaAXHHa,  0 cTpeMJieHHH Kapa,axHHa  $HKcaHHH c e p 6 c K o r o H3HKa Ha Hapo.fl.HOH ocHOBe H od e r o B  H©M  e^HHCTBa,  KOCTHH  K  3acJtyrax  JJparyTHH  nncaJi  cjioBa:  " Vuk j e p r v o , kao advokat, odbranio n a r o d n i j e z i k , ( usmeni k n j i z e v n i ) i nesumnjivo o t v r d i o p r a v a njegova da bude pismeni k n j i z e v n i , a z a t i m j e o v a j , kao l e k a r , u v e c o b o l e l o j p r i m e n i pouzdano i z l e c i o i osposobio ga da g r e d e s v o j i m korakom, onako kako mu j e , kao k n j i z e v n i k , s v o j i m s p i s i m a , pokazao - ka p o t p u n o s t i u k o j o j ga vidimo d a n a s . I kao p r e p o r o d i t e l j , ako ne i r o d i t e l j , Vuk z a s l u z u j e i ime "oca" n a s e g k n j i z e v n o g j e z i k a , kao i ime "oca" naseg modernog p r a v o p i s a , n a c i o n a l n e k u l t u r e i k n j i z e v n o s t i uops"te. " "1  75  Ho  MHeHHK  KocTH^a,  cepdcKoro  JiHTepaTypHoro  KapaAxnna,  "...  odpaTHJicH  nOJIHHH  H3HKa."  B  ocHOBy  KapaAxnna  AO  BOCHHH  Srpskoga  KapaAXHH  razlike B. K O T o p o a  jezika  HannoHaJXBHoro  BepHee  -  0  TpaK  $QJiBKJr.opa,  JiHTepaTypHoro  pa3AeJiHJi  Ha  ABe  cepdcKOM  ocodeHHOcTH  H3HKe  KapaAXHH  ocodeHHo  nepTy H H C K O J I B K O " Bez  "e".  svake  He  TpyAOB  op$orpa(J)HH  1826-oro  yKasaa  Ra.-w.T~e  roAa  cTaTBK  o  1)  Ha  nepBofi  nacTH,  9Ty B  pa3HHHy  i  o  CTaTBK)  caoBax  vs 2)  pa3HHHe B  cjiasaHCKHM s3HKaMH, K a p a A X H i npoH3HomeHHfl "A"  QTOH ocodeHHOcTH  BHAHT  cTapyio  KnpHJiJia  H  sumnje o v o s v o j s t v o  no A  dojiBmyio pa3HHHy cymecTByKsmy»  C e p d C K H M H3HKaMH.  cepdcKoro  Moaoxe  Ha  TOCTH:  ToBopa  B  B  izmedu d a n a s n j e g a S l a v e n s k o g a  cepdcKHM H nepKOBHO Ha  BaxHe8mHx  HanncaJi B n e p n o A O T  K a p a A X H H noMecTHJS  - CJlaBHHCKHM H  pa3HHHy B r p a M M a T H K e .  "e",  H3HKa  roAy.  1826-OM r o A y ,  MeSAy nepKOBHO  B  Ha  HepKOBHOC JiaBHHCKOH  sonpocaM $HKcanHH c e p d c K o K  K  186I4.-0M  B  Ha3BaHHeM G l a v n e  3HBaeT  OT  - xopsaTCKoro  BHHMaHHe Ha HecKOJiBKo  TenepB  a3HKa, K O T o p H e OH  cMepTH B  MexAy  DJtHHHHe  dJiaroTBopHoe  TepneroBKHe a3HKy  H  cepdcKoro  OTHOCHJUHXCH  cepdcKoro e r o  OTKa3  npoHSBeAeHHH»  ^2 OdpaTHM  H  HapoAHHX  eepdcKo  H  .flesTeJiBHOCTB  JiHTepaTypH.  H  "QTHOM"  3BaTB  repneroBHHCKOMy A H a J i e K T y ,  K  6HTOBaBneMy B C e p d H H , noJiosHB. e r o  H  H3 A a T e J i H  JiHTepaTypH  npOB03TJlaCHJI  H  AHHHH  H  MOXHO  npaay  o.Ka3HBaeT cHJiBHoe  cepdcKOH  pa3BHTHe  no  H3HKa  co6HpaTeJiH  KaK  OKa3aJia H eme  OH  KapaAXHHa  nepTy  CJtoBax  yKa-  is. e r o 3aMeHH.  npoH3HomeHHff cepdcKoro  "A"  a3HKa  Me$oAHs: Srpskoga  (  Ha  i i i  Juzno-  KaK  -  76  Slavenskoga ) j e z i k a n i j e mlade o d C i r i l a i od M e t o d i j a ; j e r u svima s t a r i m crkvenim i i i Slavenskim knjigama, k o j e s e god p i B a n e i Stampane u naSim zemljama, jednako s t o j i n e samo u takovim r i j e S i m a svuda E mjesto A, nego i n a onakim mjestima, gdje i S r b i danas d r u k S i j e govore .... " 63 s T o r o KapaAXHH yKa3iiBaeT Ha 3aMeHy r J i y x H X " i "  IIocAe "B"  flCHHM "a"  CepdCKOM  B  H  npHMepn:  JISHKe, A&B3M  " . . . OTBH, KOHBH, O B B H , O B B C , paBBH, K a n B JIB, MBH, BB, K B , neCBK, HHIIBK, T ^ H B K , KpaTBK, KpOTBK, MpB3"BK, CBdpaTH, ABCKa, H B C T B , K p B B B , n p B C T , rp"BAO H T.A.... u Srpskom jeziku u t a k o v i m rijeSima, gdje god n i j e kod r , svuda j e A m j e s t o <° , H . n , oxan, K O H a n , o B a H , oBac, p a B a H , Man, c a , Ba, K a , mnnaK, T a H a K , K p a T a K , KpoTaK, c a d p a T H , AacKa, TaMa, MarJia, Jiaaca.... "ok CB,  6  noAKpenAaa  CBOH  ydeAHTeABHHH  AOBOA  K a p a A x n n noAdnpaeT npHMepn  HSBeCTHOrO  8TOH HHCTO C e p 6 c K 0 H  3aMeHH H3 H 3 H K a npOH3BeAeHHH"  cepdcKoro nncaTeAH,  npedHBaKmero B BoeBOAHHe BO BTopofi noJioBHHe  18-oro  CTOJieTHa,  ( 1726 - 1821 }, KOToporo  KoBaHa PaHna  jryxoBeHCTBo HHKaK He Morjio 3anoA03pHTB cepdcsofl  %SK?HO  KOTOpHX, no 11  BOT  MHeHHK)  H C C K O A B K O  B O BHeceHHH  npstMepoB  ByKa, JieZHT HapOAHHH  epecH  aansa Paina» cepdcKHfi  cepdcKoe  8  B  H3HK  pcHOBe  A3HK:  ... nodeAOHocan, HeA0CTaTaK>B, KOHanHo, K a O B O M , npejnoda3Ho, j n o d a 3 H o c T B , n o A a 3 H O , de3HacTaHB, cBeAonaHCTBO, npocTocpAanaH-B, B a 3 B H m a B a , BacnHTasaTH, BacnHTaTH, npeBacxoACTBo, cadpaTB, c a d o p B , caBeTi>, JoodaBB,  caBecT'B, c a r a a c a H - B , ca3AaTH...• " 65  HaAO  ynoMHHyTB,  HTO HSHK  MAaAJnero coBpeMeHHHKa yxe,  HecKOABKO  c a B p m e H C T B o -.  npoH3BeAeHHH P a n n a noAo6eH H3iiKy  Panna,  JHocHTea  BHme, roBopHA.  BHBOA O nOCTeneHHOM, HeAerKOM, H3HKOBBIX TpaAHKHH J  O  caAp&aBaTH, casaAOBaTH,  OdpaAOBuna,  o  KOTOPOM &  H3AoseHHoe AaeT n p a n o c A e A a T B OTMHpaHHH CepdCKO - CAaBHHCKHX  CymeCTBOBaHHH  HX  BHAOTB AO  KOHfla  l8-OrO  77  cTOJieTHfl Aaxe y TaKHX jncueH, K S K H M pyccKyro HKOJiy H AJIH T o r o oTHomeHHH TpaAHHHB.  B  BpeMeHH y x e ycTaHOBHBmyBCfl  s3HKe  Fanna  Mepe.  npeACTaBJieH He B oAHHaKOBOfi CBOHX  HMeiomHH  6HJI P a n n ,  H JJocHTea,  coHHHeHHHX He ynoTpedJiaeT cTonponeHTHO  B  3TOM  HapoAHHft  KOHCHHO, HH  OAHH  H3HK  H3  OAHaKO, B  3TOM CMHCJie, 6aHXe BCerO K HapOAHOMy H3HKy CTOHT /[OCHTeK, H o P a n n e , ecJEH HMeTB MOXHO  6HJIO  6u cKa3aTB  B BHAy TpyAH TO  XOTS  nocjreAHHx a e T e r o XH3HH,  ace caMoe.  HCHOJIB30BaJI ABa HHOCTpaHHHX  B:  HHX  HapoAHHH  HHCTHH  H3HK COOTBeTCTByMIUHH T e p p H T O p H H , HTO H nOHHTHO.  codon  3a  P a n n He TOJIBKO  3HaJi H  H3HKa, JaTHHCKHH H HeMeUKHH, HO  OH aKTHBHO H OAHHaKOBO CBOdOAHO BJCaAeJIj C OAHOH CTOpOHH, HepKOBHHM H KHHXHHM H3HKOM CBOeTO BpeMeHH T o e. HepKOBHO CJlaBHHCKHM, a , C ApyrOH  CTOpOHH, CBOHM pOAHHM, CepdCKHM H3HKOM,  T O H H e e , cpeMCKOKapjtoBaHKHM  roBopoM,  eme  co BpeMeHH odyneHHH B  HKOJie B CpeMCKHX KapjioBHax, T.e. c A C T C K H X JieT. X H 3 H H  Ha  TO,  cBoefi  PaHH He TepHJI CBH3H C pOAHHM HapOAHHM H3HKOM, HeCMOTpfl HTO  oneHB MHoro n n c a J i H COHHHHJI Ha nepKOBHO  CKOM H 3 H K e , H HTO  OHeHB XOpOHO 3HaJI  THBe oAHoro H A p y r o r o  ueJioro pHAa  coAepssaHHH B cede  i-cacaeTcs HapoAHoro  TepH3yeTCH  H3Hica  3 T O T  B  H 3  3Toro,  HaM  nepBoro.  cBoeK c T a T B e  TeM  He  B  JaHHHe  cAeJiaTB  HCCKOJIBKO  cneT  MeHee,  xapaK-  JiHTepaTypHOMy  nponcxoxAeHHeM  JterKO TenepB  3a  CBOIO HHCTOTy  n p o E 3 B e A e H H H X P a n n a , OH  H3HKy, HTO JterKO Od^HCHHeTCH CpeMCKHM  noneMy KapaAXHH B  nocJieAHHH, ocodeHHO  TenneT  ejceMeHTOB  - cJtaBHH-  B 3TOH aJtBTepHa-  cooTBeTCTBHHMn K cospeMeHHOMy  MHOTHMH  HCXOAH  H 3 H K o  pa3yMeeTcn,  H 3 H K O B ,  nncBMeHHHH H, K O H O H H O , p a 3 r o s o p H H H ,  HTO  B TeneHHe  Pannao BHBOA  pas onnpaJLcsi  78  Ha npHMepn HMeHHO Panna. pe$opMa npaDonHcaHHfl TOJIBKO  B  TeweHHe  KapaAstHH xoTeJi AOEasaTB,  sBHKa He OHJia npH,ayMaHa  H  a psAdM n n c a T e J i e f i He  HOHH,  HTO  TOJIBKO  TOJIBKO  ero KM,  H  HapoAHoK  C;  HO H c nepKOBHo - cJiaBHHCKOfi TpaAHHHeK, K a K , HanpHMep, yseHHii PaHH;. PaccMaTpHBas cepdcKHM ByK y K a 3 a J i ,  Panna,  S3HK  HTO  SSHK  B  MHornx  BO  HCTOPHH©CKOM CBOHX  nepTax,  HJIH Ha  pa3BHTHs  B onpe^eJieHHOM HanpaBJieHHH, a  HTO  H3HKa yxe  nepBBie STann (popMHpoBaHHH  Heo6XOAHMO O T H e C T H , BHHe 3TH  HJIH  ocodeHHocTH  coBpeMeHHoe  MorJiH  c  PaHH  H  KaKOH  JIH6O  BTopoft noJio-  KO  19-oro cTOJieTHffl  Ha  npoTHxeHHH  npnoCpecTH  H,  KOHeHHO, npnodpeJiH CBoe  KHHTH  AOKasBiBaa,  Ha "ij.e" ByK  nponoBe^eH  B  HTO  cBoeft  Panna,  cep6cKHH  OH  HHTHpyeT,  ApyroM KHHre.  BOT  c OKOHnaHHeM " i j e " , K O T o p n e ,  npHBOAHT  npn  GTOM,  HTO  a B3HTH H3 HepKOBHHX KHHT ,  SBHKOM,  6oJiBine cepdcKnx  XOTS B  CJIOB,  Tpyite neM  CJIOB,  HanenaTaHHHX  MHOHHIO K a p a ^ M n a ,  He cep6cKHe,  npHMepH TaKHX no  He HMeeT  BHOBB  roBopa  coAepxHTca  HBHK  cTaTBe  npeBocxoAHO BJia^eJi nepKOBHO - cJiassHCKHM  H3 K O T o p o r o  npaBonncaHHS  H  o$opMJieHHe<>  OKOHnaHHeM  npHMepn H 3  O T O 3HaHHT,  cTOJieTHH.  TaKHM o 6 p a 3 0 M , CJIOB  cepocKoro £ 3 H K a  B35IB npH<5 JIH3HTeJIBHHe p a M K H ,  KOHHy l 8 - o r o  yKa3HBaeT  npoAinecTByiomHe nponeccy  Ha fianaJio nponecca  MOMCHTH,  acneETe,  nOSTOMy  -  nepKOBHO -  B,  CJlaBSHCKHe!  " U Srpskom j e z i k u nema s u s c e s t v i t e l n i imena da se s v r s u j u n a i j e ( po S l a v e n s k i 3s. ) osim samo n e k o l i k o , k o j e su i z c r k v e n i k n j i g a uzete, n . p , spasenije, s r e t e n i j e , molenije. vavedenije, vaskresenije ( a g o v o r i se 1 v a s k r s ), b o g o j a v l j e n i j e ( a i b o g o j a v l j e n j e p r e o b r a z e n i j e ( a i p r e o b r a z e n j e ); a o s t a l e tako  79  r i j e c i u Srpskom j e z i k u imaju p o l u g l a s n o s l o v o p r e d e, i . . . mjesto I imaju j , n.p. l o z j e , o r u z j e , zagorje, k l a s j e , p o d r u S j e , p o d u s j e ; b ) k o j e se u S l a v , s v r s u j u n a d i e , l i e , n l e , t i e , s i e , u onima s e u Srpskom 1 s l i l o s p o l u g l a s n i m slovom te se p r e t v o r i l o D u D j , L u L j , R" u F j , T i Sc u C, n.p. g v o z d j e , g r o z d j e , v e s e l j e , k o l j e , o k r i l j e ; t r n j e , kamenje, pisanje, u S e n j e . . . * " 66 Hs  EtnTHpoBaHHHX n p H M e p o B B H / H O ,  HecKo J I B K H X  A0Ka3aTB  HeOOXOAHMOCTB  3HaK0B  ^aaBHeMmyio p a 3 H H j r y CKHM  B  " j & " II " H b "  "JI-O"  B KOHije  KapaAXHH. c T a p a a c s  HM n p H A y M a H H H X .  M e x A y c e p f i c K H M H nepKOBHO  H3HKOM K a p a A X H H y i c a 3 H B a e T  3aMeHe  HTO  cjiora,  B  nepexoAe  " J I B " HJIH  -  cJiaBHH-  B  "y"  m  HanpHMeps  " L n a s v r s e t k u s l o g a u Srpskom j e z i k u o b i c n o s v a g d a se p r e t v o r i u 0, n.p. p e p e o , s e o c e , z e t e o c i , k o t a o , pisao, g o v o r i o iot.d. A l i kako u g o v o r u s a m o g l a s n o s l o v o p o s l i j e 1 d o d j e , onda 1 o p e t i z i d e n a s v o j e m j e s t o , n.p. p e p e l a ; k o t l a , k o t l u , k o t l o v i ; z e t e l a c a ; govorila, govorilo, govorili. V r l o m a l o ima p r a v i S r p s k i r i j e S i , u k o j i m a se p r e s t u p a o v o p r a v i l o ( n.p. s i l n i , t o b o l c a ) ; a l i u t u d i m r i j e c i m a c e s c e se i z g o v a r a , n.p. bolta, soldat, s u l t a n , i.t.d. "67 KapaAXHH  npaBHJiBHO 3 a M e T H J i ,  HJIH c j i o r a  xapaKTepHo  HacTOHHee  BpeMH,  npoBOAHTCH  dyKBa  "o",  AJIH M H O T H X  CJIOB  BO Bcex  HanpHMep:  COJI-CO,  BOJI-BO  cTaKaone-cTaicaJme,  TonaJi-Tonao,  BJiacTeocKH-BJiacTeJccicH,  Jl0Ka3HBaH H3JTHHIHOCTB  a  TaKxe  pyKonncH, B KOTOPHX oTMenaeT  5  H3Hica,  OAHaKO,  HCTopHHecKHM H  cJiyHanx.  H npnJiaraTeJCBHHX M o x e T  ceone-cejme,  cTapne  cepdcKoro  OTO nepeAOBaHHe HBJineTCH  nocJteAOBaTeJiBHo  cymecTBHTeJIBHHX  H T O n e p e A O B a H H e "JI-O" B KOHH,e CJIOBa  B  nncaTBcn  AOZ-AO,  a  He  HeKOTopHX H oyKBa  "JI" H  COKOJI-COKO,  KpHJine-KpHone, o(3aJi-o6ao,  "m",  ceocKH-ceJicKH H T . A . KapaAXHH  aTOMy 3 H a K y  CCHJiaeTCH  oTBenaeT  c o o T B e T C T B H e M e x A y cJtaBHHCKHM  Ha  coneTaHHe "nr." H  "HT",  cepdcKHM  ©0  "  1  " AaBaa "  npHMep:  Slovo §2 R u s i i gotovo s v i S l a v e n s k i n a r o d i i z g o v a r a j u u S i t a n j u S l a v e n s k i k n j i g a kao &c, a S r b i i B u g a r i kao s t , kao s t o su ga bez sumnje i u v r i j e m e d i r i l a i M e t o d i j a i z g o v a r a l i ; u Srpskom pak j e z i k u i l l se i z g o v a r a kao s t , n.p. s t i t , Stuka, stene, p r i s t , S t i p a t i , i . t . d . ; H i se p r e t v o r i u 6, n.p. noc, moc, pecj p e c i , moci, p i s u c i , p o z l a c e n i . t . d . " 68  H"TO K a c a e T c a  T O , no MHe HUM  Kapa^unna, O H O npoH3omJio H3  B T O BpeMa, K a p a A ^ H H eme OTpnnaJi H e o 6 x o A H M o c T B "x" a i-caK "x" HJIH coBepmeHHO He B H r o B a p H B a e T c a ,  cep<5cKOH a36yKe,  TaK  HJIH Haxo^HT  saMeHy  "  IIo  CBOM  B  " B " , " j " ,  MHeHHM B y K a ,  STO  CBOHCTBO  cepdcKoro a 3 H K a  HHTepecHo 3 a M e T H T B ,  roBopax  " m T O K a B C K o r o " AHaJieKTa,  cepdcKO  - xopBaTCKoro  HanpHMep:  cTapme Bcex  H T O B HacToam.ee BpeMa. B  KOTOPHH  cocTaBJiaeT ocHOBy  JiHTepaTypHoro a3HKa, corjiacHHH "x" eme  npoH3HocHTca no-pa3HOMy. Bcex  HJIH " r " ,  Za s l o v o H u Srpskom j e z i k u danas neraa g l a s a , nego i i i j e s a s v i m i z o s t a v l j e n o , n.p. l a d , rom, r a b a r , l j e b , R i s t o s , r i s c a n i n , v a l a , .... H i se p r e t v o r i l o u d r u g a s l o v a , i t o : a ) ( i n a j v i s e ) u v , n.p. s u v , g l u v , uvo, k u v a t i , d u v a n , duvna i . t . d . b ) u E r c e g o v i n i n a k r a j u r i j e S i u g, n.p, c u g , o r a g , k o z u g i . t . d . v) u j , n.p. t i j , t i j a , t i j o ; a o s o b i t o u Srijemu, u BaSkoj i u Banatu: s n a j a , c o j a , a z d a j a , s m e j , g r e j i . t . d . g) u k, n.p, z e n i k , g r e k . " 69  HepKOBHHX KHHr.  BO  "K"  B HeKOTOpHX H3 H H X , O H npOH3HOCHTCa  CJiOBax, B Apyrnx He npoH3HocyiTca Bootime, HJIH BMecTO  H e r o npoH3HocaTca HanncaHHe  T.e.  AyBaTH—AyxaTH,  Apyrne 3 B y K H .  c "x" HJIH C  " B / J / "  HeKOTopHe c j i o B a HMeioT ABOjrKoe KaK  HanpHMep:  rpyBaTH-rpyxaTH,  yxo-yso, A y x a H - A y B a H , nacTyx-nacTyB,  KyBaTH, K y x a p - K y B a p , K H x a T H — K H J aTH,  KyxaTH—  cyx-cyB, rJiyx-rJiyB  H  T . A .  81  TeM He MeHee,  (JoJiBniHHCTBe  B  coxpaHseTCH npoH3HomeHHe  H  CJIOB,  B  HanncaHHe  JtHTepaTypHOM H 3 H K e , STHMO  JiorHHecKoro "x".  KaK H3BecTHo, KapaAXHH y x e B CBoeM cAOBape  1818-oro  "x" B cepdcKofi a3<5yKe, H O BnocJieACTBHH,  r o A a , oTpHHajr HyxAy  OH BHOBB npHHHJT ei?0 B CBOH aJt$aBHT B CBOeM H3AaHHH nOCJCOBHH 1836-oro  row. PaccMaTpHBan pa3HHHy MexAy cepdcKHM H nepKOBHO - c j i a -  BHHCKHM HSHKaMH B rpaMMaTHKe, B  $opMax  H3MeHeHHH rjiaroJioB,  KapaAXHH yKa3HBaeT Ha QTy pa3HHHy cymecTBHTeJiBHHx,  npHJiaraTeJiBHHX  H  MeCTOHMeHHH.  CaMyio doJiBmyro pa3HHny MexAy AByMH H3HKaMH KapaAXHH HaxoAHT B $opMax  H3MeHeHHH r j r a r o j r s , TOHHee, B oKOHHaHHH 1-oro O H 3aMeHaeT, H T O c e p o c K o e OKOHHaHHe  JtHHa HacTonmero BpeMeHH. a T o r o anna rjrarojta Ha OKOHHaHHe Ha "y" HanpoTHB,  HJIH  cTapan $opMa  oKOHnaHHeM "y" "  " M " He ecTB  HJIH  HcnopneHHoe cJtaBHHCKoe  , KaK Ay MaioT " je3HKononpaBHTeJm", a Ha  CTOJIBKO  xe c T a p a n , KaK  $opMa  c  "K>":  1) Najveca j e r a z l i k a izmedu Srpskoga i Slavenskoga j e z i k a u glagolima, i to: a) ( i n a j z n a t n i j e ) §to se u Slavenskom j e z i k u g l a g o l i u prvom l i e u j e d . "broja sadasnjeg vremena s v r s u j u n a u i i i n a j u ( po pravome p i s a n j u s v i n a u ), a u Srpskome n a M ( am, ?m, im ), n.p. p i s u , p i § e m ; u c u , uSim; i g r a j u , igram; t v o r j u , t v o r i m . Fa£i j e z i k o p o p r a v i t e l j i , k o j i sve u Srpskom j e z i k u , §to n i j e kao u danasnjim crkvenim knjigama, n a z i v a j u pokvarenim i s v i n j a r s k i m i govedarskim, kazace odma, b e z sumnje, da s u i ovo S r b i p o k v a r i l i od S l a v e n s k o g a ; a l i pametan i u ovome p o s l u v j e s t covek teSko b i mogao k a z a t i , k o j e j e s t a r i j e od o v o g a dvoga ( p i s u i i i pisem? ) . 70 11  KpoMe T o r o , AaJiBHenmaH p a 3 H H n a MexAy cepocKHM H CJlaBHHCKHM  •B2  n o MHeHHio ByKa,  raaro.zr.oM,  HMeeT r a a c H o e OKOHHaHHe mero BpeMeHH ( nHirie,  3aKa»HaeTCfl  B  T O M , H T O  cepdcKHii r a a r o a i  3-eM anne eAHHCTBeHHoro H H c a a HacTos-  B  T B O P H  > nrpa  ),  BMecTo  "T",  OKOHHaHHe 1 - o r o  a n n a MHoxecTBeHHoro H H c a a Ha " M O " BMecTo "eM" n a n " H M " nnmeMo  TBOPHMO, " H H "  (  Hrpam,  J ,  2-oe anno eAHHCTBeHHoro n n c a a Ha "m" BMecTo  H  nnmein,  T B O P H H  4"TO K a o a e T c a 3aMenaeT,  H T O  ).  H3MeHeHH8 HMeH c y m e c T B H T e a B H H X , K a p a A X H H  ocooeHHaa  MexAy O<5OHMH H3HKaMH  pa3HHna  anitB B O M H o x e c T B e H H O M H H c a e  cKaoHeHHsx HMeH x e H C K o r o  MyxcKoro  COCTOHT  H cpeAHero p o a a ,  H B.  poaa.  IIOTOMy HTO OKOHHaHHH BO MHOXeCTBeHHOM H H c a e , B  A a T e a B H O M , p o A H T e a B H O M H npeaaoxHOM n a A e x a x ,  CKOM  ssHKe  B  KOHHe r a a c H H K  "a",  OKaHHHBaioTca H a n o a y r a a c H H H , CKHM  ce  <J>opMaM nepeA  H. p. A,. B.  3.  " . . .  B O A ^  BOAe  Boay  B O T ero  B6AO BOA<5K)  BOAO  Co  BOAe  BOAH  doaBmyM paSH-nny  BOAaM"B  B6Ae B6AaMa  BOAaMH BOAaxB  H3HKaMH B o d p a 3 Q B a H H H C T e n e H e f t  a y Cam-  (CpncK.} BdAe BOAa B-OAaMa BdAe  B6AH  B H A H T  C B H  BPOJ.  BOA.B  HMeH  cepd-  npHMepH:  BOAH  Ha $ o p M y  naaexa  caoBo,  (CaaB.. ) BdAH  B6AOM  cepd-  npeHMymecTBo  MJTOI.  (CpncKo) BdAa BdAe BOAH BdAy  T .  yKa3HBan  S T H  TOHHee,  TaKo y CpncKOM je3HKy  Ha c a M o r a a c H o  71  HMeioT B  caaBHHCKOM  B  EPOJ.  (CaaBo } BOA&  ocodeHHo  -  cBpmyjy  BeHCKOMe T p n H a n o a y r a a c H O o " JER.  a  KapaAXHH oTaaeT  caaBHHCKHMH  naaexH y Maox. d p o j y  "  HrpaMo,  (  BOAaMa "  72  npnaaraTeABHHX, KapaAXHH  MexAy c e p d c K H M cpaBHeHHH.  H  caaBHHCKHM  E r o nopaxaeT  pa3HHHa  83 Uei~AZr npHBOAHMOK) HM ClaBfiHCEOK) $OpMOM " doraTTHHH" H CapfiCKOBD "(SoraTHQH", H noTOMy O H HaxoAHT doJtBne cxoACTBa Me»Ay npHBOAHMoio HM  pyccxoK) $opMOK> "CoraTee" H cepo'cEOM "CoraTiijH".  "...  ToBopHT ByK  cpaBHHTeJiHH Maoro j e Ha J I H H H H j n Ha CpncKH Hero Ha CaaBeH-  C K H . . . . "  73  B $opMax MecTOHMeHHH KapaAXHH B H A H T p a 3 H H i i y B T O M , HTO  cepocKoe MecToiiMeHHe 3-ero anrta HMeeT B O Bcex naAexax  EpaTKHe $opMH, KaK HanpHMep: " ... n.p. n j e g a i ga, njemu I mu, n j e i j e , n j o j i j o j , nju i j e ( i i i ju ); n j i i i ( i i i j i ), n j i m a i i m ( i i i j i m ) . " 7k KapaAXHH Hanncajr CBOIO craTBio H T O O H AOKa3aTB C B O H M JtHTepaTypHHM  npoTHBHHKaM, H T O c e p f i c K H H HapoAHHH H3HK (Soaee  npaBHJteH, H H C T H ( 5 a a r o 3 B y n e H , nncaTeaeH.  neM S3HK c a a s H H O -  cepdcKofi  DIKOJIH  3Ta TeHAeHHHH npoxoAHT nepe3 Bee rpaMMaTHHecKHe  Tpy^H KapaAxnna. B 1 9 2 7 - 0 M roAy, B CBoeM aaBMaHaxe Ranvma, ByK KapaAXHH noMecTHJf. CTaTBK) noa H a 3 B a H H e M OraeA CpncKora ByKBapa, KOTopyio O H conpoBoxAaeT BBeAeHHeM c neaBio n o K a 3 a T B , H T O cnocod odyneHHa no nacocaoBy H ncaaTHpw, npaKTHKOBaBuiHHcs B cepocKHX mBoaax, caeAyeT ocraBHTB.  IIpHHHHa Toro, H T O MHorne cepon He  yMeMT HHTaTB H nncaTB, HaxoAHTca B cTpeMAeHHH npenoAOBaTeaefi coxpaHHTB; Bee cTapoe.  TaKHe' M C T O A H npenoAaBaHiin He oTBenaioT  TpedoBaHHHM Hamero BpeMeHH; n n c a a ByK: j o s slabo p o c i n j u k n j i g u u c i t i , i S t o je jos sva Srpska k n j i g a u c i t a n j u c a s l o v c a i p s a l t i r a , tome je k r i v o mlogo koje§ta; a l i sto mlogi u c i po dvije i po t r i g o d i n e citati.„ pa opet ne moze da n a u c i , nego ostane s v r z i s l o v o , tome s u samo k r i v i b u k v a r i i  " S t o Srbi  8k  u S i t e l j i . "• 75 KapaAKHH AaJitme yKa3HBaeT H T O 3HaKH 3ByKOBBis "a3, dyKH, BJeAH, r-iaroJB, Be,  Aodpo,"  H  T . A . cae^yeT  HHTBTB  r e , Ae, see, 3e, H , K a , e J i , eM, e H , " H T . A .  HTeHHe  KHHr cTaHOBHTca dojiee JierKHM.  ecAH BHneynoMSHyTHe 0  odpa30M,  TaKHii  J i e m e dy^eT HHTaTt,  dyKBH n p o H 3 H o c f l T C f l icaK  76• j i MHeHHM KapaAxuna, dyKBH  T.JU  Eme  "a, d, B , r , A>" H o(3o3HaHaTB He Heno-  AOXKHH  OTAeJIBHHe 3 B y K H peHH, a TOJIBKO OCHOBHHe 3 B y K H T . e .  CpeACTBeHHO  $OH€MH, BMeCTe $oHeTHHec;KHM  CO BCeMH HX BHAOH3MeHeHHHMH,  noJiosceHHeM H X B peneBOM  o 6 y C JIOBJIHBaeMHMH  noTOKe.  IIpHAepscHBaacB  npHHHHna " n n i i H K a K o r o B o p H m " Kapa^acHH y K a 3 H B a j t  CBoero  " a , de,  JIHUIB  r c a y Heo6xoAHMOcTB c p o H e T H H e c K o r o  npHHHnna  B  Kas^OMy 3 B y K y AOJixeH cooTBeTCTBOBaTB ocodnfi  cepdcKoft  1827-OM  B  op$orpa$HH.  3HaK, nncaJi  KapaAXHH: ... n.p. b ne moze s e c i t a t i b e , dok se ne metne p r e d a n j g a ( i z a n j e g a ) e, nego j e n j e g o v p r a v i g l a s b . Tako u c i t e l j , k o j i j e r a d k o g a n a j l a k § e d a nauSi c i t a t i , v a l j a d a mu ne k a z u j e n i k a k a i m e n a s l o v a , nego samo n j i o v e g l a s o v e , k o j e i m a j u u c i t a n j u ; p a o n d a nema s r i c a n j a , n e g o , kako se p o z n a d u s l o v a , odma se moze c i t a t i . Tako moze Sovek v r l o l a s n o z a d e s e t dana n a u c i t i c i t a t i ' . " 77  "  KapaAXHH  op$orpa$HH, KOTopaa,  CKOM  cTapo 6yKB. HTO  6HJI n p o T H B cymecTByromeH,  -  dJiaroAapa  3acTapeJioH,  saHMCTBOBaHHio  cJiaBiiHCKoro nncBMa, noJiynHJia HeKOTopoe Ilpescae Kapa^scHHa,  KaK K 3 B e c T H o ,  cepd-  CHCTCMH  HHCJIO  JiHEtHHX  MepKaftJiB KOHCTaTHpoBaJi,  B cepdcKoK a3<5yKe cymecTBOBaJio HecKOJiBKo cyKB, KOTopne  odo3HaHaJiH  OAHH  JiacB dyKBaMH.  H  TOT  see 3ByK  - nacTB ace 3ByKOB He o6o3Hana-  u~TodH H3MeHHTB cHCTeMy ocyneHHH rpaMOTe  B  cepd-  85  CKHX  KapaAXHH CAeAaA nepByio nonHTKy cocTaBAeHHa  ntKOJiax,  dyKBapa  cepdcKoro a3HKa.  HHCTO B  roAy» KapaAXHH H a n e n a T a A  1828-OM  B  .flaHHne eme OAHy  CTaTBK Kacaiomyroea aBHKa, noA Ha3BaHHeM rjiaBHa cBpmHaaH>a cymTecTBHTeJiHH H n-pnaaraTeAHH HMeHa y CpncKOM 3e3HKy. cTaTBa npeACTaBJiaJia rjiaBy KapaAXHH' r o T O B H J t ,  HO  MecTHocTH CepdHH. cepdcKoro  AAa  H3HKa,  cepdcKoro H 3 H K a , K O T o p y © noKa eme He noceTHA aee  He x o T e A nenaTaTB,  9TO  nepBaa n o n H T K a yneHHa o cy<p<|>HKcax  6HJia  nonnTKa  codpaTB  MaTepnaA  H  co3AaTB  TOJIBKO  1830-oro  roAa B 0 3 H H K a e T  MescAy ByKOM KapaASHHBM  ocHOBaHHOH MaTHHeio CepdcKoJi cnop, nepeme^rnHH  HTO  BH3BaBmHH AJIHHHHH  JiHTepaTypHyio  ccopy  HanpaBJieHHHX  n p o T H B ByKa KapaASHna H ero B033peHHH.  CHJIBHHM  CHCTeMy  nacTH cepdcKOH rpaMMaTHKH.  3TOH  OKOJIO H  rpaMMaTHKii  H3  9Ta  H  npoTHBHHKOM KapaAacnna  H3BecTHHJi  paA noAeMHHBCKHX dponnop,  BHCTynaeT  aepdcKOH J i H T e p a T y p e  B  B  CaMHM  HoBaH XaAXHH, doAee  UOA Kueseu  MHJioma CBeTHHa.  XaA-KHH 6ecnoma4HO K p H T H K O B a J i KapaAXHHa H ero rpaMMaTHnecKHe  HOBOBBeAeHHa, BaTB  B  KOTOPHX  BHAeJi TaMHoe HaMepeHHe  OH  KaTOJIHHH3M B cep6CKOM H a p O A e ,  OTAeJiHTB eepdcKyio J i H T e p a T y p y  OT  a HOBHM JIHTepaTypHHM a3HKOM  pyccKOH.  c T o p o H H H K a M H ByKa H XaAMna, B 0 3 H H K J I H HHcaHHH, K O T o p n e dHJiH n o H T H HTO  34paBHH  pa3yM  odAyMaHHoe  H  KapaAKHHeM  6HA  H  CMHCJI  KpoMe T o r o ,  6 e 3 n j i o A H H , H JinmL eme  3HaHHe.  KHHTOIO  MeacAy  cnopn o a:3HKe H npaBOpas  BcerAa 6oAee 3HaHHTeABHH  HeocHOBaTeABHoe 3aKjnoHreH  nponaraHAJapo-  Cnop  AOKa3aJiH,  HSM  He-  MeacAy XaAXHHeM H  JIaype JlaHHHHHa (  1852  -  1882  },  86  Par  3a apncKH .je3HK  npaBonnc ( l8i+7 )•  H  ropaHHM 3amHTHHKOM npaBonncaHHa  .flaHHHHH Bcer^a  aatiKa ByKa Kapa^KHHa.  H  ^aHHnnna AO C H X nop He yTpaTHJi cBoefi  6HJC  Tpya  aKTyaJL&HocTH.  J[o 1831-oro r o ^ a Kapa^acHH, r JiaBHHM odpa30M, padoTaJi B.&A codnpaHHeM H H3yneHHeM iT3HKOBoro H STHorpa$HHecKoro MaTepnajia B CepdHH H BoHBOAHHe. Kapa.axHH pefflHJi noceTHTB cepdaMH  H  xopBaTaMHo  He MeHee, B ^ana-ie l 8 3 k - o r o roAa,  TeM  Apyrne  H  TaK,  B  DrocJiaBHH, HaceJieHHHe  MCCTHOCTH  183U-OM r o ^ y ,  e3AHJi  OH  B  i5ydpoBHHK,  ^ e p H o r o p H K H CJiaBOHHio, a B 1837-OM r o ^ y , B .HaJiMamno H XopBaTHM. TaKHM o6pa30M, KapaAKHn  Bcex  BO  STHX  MecTHOcTax Mor cJiymaTB  H3yHQTB OCOOeHHOCTH pa3JIHHHHX T O B O p O B .  H  IIOCeTHB ^lepHOropHK) H  ^aJiManHio, Kapa^scHH y6eAHJica, H T O H " X " cymecTByeT B cepdcKOM a3HKe,  H  c Tex  nop  cepdcKofi. a3dyKH.  OH  npHHHJi d y K B y  BHOBB  B csoeM  n n c B M e  cepdcKoro  "  H3  SToro  a3HKa  H npoH3HomeHHa,  3HaKOB  HHCJIO  4 * e p H o r o p H H  STHX  ocodeHHo  pa3HHX o  2k-oro  ocodeH-  dyKBe  "x":  U Dubrovniku sam b i o 1 3 dana. D a n a s n j i j e dubrovaSki j e z i k p r a v i j e z i k h e r c e g o v a c k i ; ovo su n a j v e c e izmedu n j i h r a z l i k e : l ) s t o se u Dubrovniku i z g o v a r a h ( i to ne kao h nego upravo kao ch ); 2) S t o ne kazu na p r i m j e r deca, nego djeca itd„; a 3S) S t o imaju mnogo i premnogo r i j e c i t a l i j a n s k i h o B o k a j e o s o b i t o znatna S t o se nasega j e z i k a t i c e . U K o t o r u se govogi gotovo kao i u H e r c e g o v i n i ( h se i z g o r a r a i ne i z g o v a r a ) . " To nncBMa  BHAHO,  HTO  HeodxoAHMo npHHaTB d y K B y 3ByK npoH3HOCHTca  Kapa^SHH, HaKOHen, yde^HJica,  "x"  B  cepdcKyio a 3 d y K y ,  TaK  KaK  HTO STOT  B ^epHoropHH, .HydpoBHHKe H H a aApnaTHHecKOM  npHMopte, H noTOMy c Tex nop B ero H3AaHHax "x" TaM  B  KonnTapy, H3  ceHTadpa l 8 3 k - o r o r o ^ a , KapaAXHH n n c a J i od HocTax  "x"  r^e eM MecTo  B  sTHMo-iorHHo  03  noaBJiaeTca dyKBa  nncBMa eme  BHAHO,  HTO  87  KapaAXHH npaBHJiBHo 3aMeTHJt O H S H B B a x H y » ( ^ydpOBHHK  ), T.e. JOOAH He H3MeHHK)T  BHroBapHBaa HanpHMep  nepTy roxHoro Hapennn,  "A j " H T j " B U  "Ajeua" He "^en.a",  C T e x nop KapaAXHH TaKxe npHHHJi  B CBOHX  11  H  " T j e p a T H " He "1^ epaTH". TpyAax H 3 T y nepTy  MXHoro r o B o p a , "... o d b a c i o j e jotovanje u r e 5 i m a : devojka, deca, i s l i S n o i p o c e o d a p i s e : d j e v o j k a , d j e c a i t a k o dalje." 79 C 30-HX  TOAOB  KapaAXHH  cTapajicn KaK  MOXHO  jrynme  03HaKOMHTBCfl: C HBHKOM &XHOC JtaB&HCKHX odJiaCTeH , OCOdeHHO C H3HKOM .HydpoBHHKa, neHTpoM HTOKaBCKoro AHa JieKTa. KapaAXHH HHCTO  MeAaeHHO,  HO  nocTOHHHO,  padoTaJt HaA  co3AaHHeM oAHoro  HaHHOHaJIBHOrO J E H T e p a T y p H O r O H3HKa, H3HKa  B  eme He 3HaJi  noHHTHoro BceM  cepdaM  H  AOJIXHO  H3(5paTB Hapenne, KaKoJl aJKjaBHT, KaK ycTpaHHTB pacxoxAeHHH  xopBaTaM.  STO  BpeMH  o6pa30M,  TaKHM  OH  TOHHO,  MexAy cepdaMH H x o p B a T a M H B n p a B o n n c a H H H H K a K H a 3 B a T B BceodHHii H 3 H K .  KaKoe eMy  STOT  K p o M e T o r o , c e p d H , nepHoropHH H xopBaTH dHJIH  pa3AeaeHH rocyAapcTBeHHHMH rpaHHHaMH, noJiHTHnecKHM H KyjtBTypHHM BJtHHHHeM.  HaxoAHJtHCB HOA. pa3JtHHHH:i TeM  He MeHee, KapaAXHny  He n p n m j i o c B A o a r o X A a T B , JIHIIIB A O 1850-oro  roAa, K o r A a npoH3onur.o  MexAy xopBaTaMH H cepdaMH corJiameHHe oTHocHTe JIBHO BHdopa OAHoro Hapenns AJIH JiHTepaTypH H eAHHCTBa B npaBonncaHHH.  MHorne  npaBHJia SToro corjtameHHH 6HJIH cocTaBJteHH ByKOM KapaAXHHeM. Ro Moero noApodHoro paccMOTpeHHH JiHTepaTypHoro meHHH 1850-oro  roAa, HaAo ynoMHHyTB eme  KOTopHii HMeJI d jraxanmee cooTHomeHHe c e p d c K o r o JiHTepaTypHoro H3HKa.  OAHH  H CBH3B  9TO <3HJI  TpyA  corjta-  ByKa KapaA&HHa,  C ycTaHOBJieHHeM  ero nepeBOA UoBoro  88  3aBeTa l 8 U 7 - o r o r o ^ a . ByK  HanenaTaa  nepeBOA BceueJio no cBoefi H O B O H  QTOT  op$orpa$HHecKOH cncTeMe,  H  HTOOH  n e p e B o a dHJi  Kas^oMy cepdy, na H H C T O M cepocKOM jioxeHHH CBoero npeAHCJcosHH  KapaitxHHa HoBoro  3aBeTa  noHHTeH  y x e B nepBOM npeA-  HSHKC  KapaAXHH no,a,HepKHBaeT  cJioBaMH - " E B O H Ha CpncKoMe je3HKy H o B o r a BOA  COBCCM  9Ty C B O » MHCJIE  3 a B j e T a . " ^0  Ilepe—  noAHHJi npoTHB H e r o neayio dypio,  ocodeHHo B c p e ^ e AyxoBeHCTBa, BHAeBinero B O BHeceHHH " j " B cBHmeHHyio KHHry ocKopdJteHne ee C B H T O C T H .  TaK  CHJIBHO,  HTO  nponaraEAH  BHecTH pa3aaA  B cpeAy  nncBMo k - o r o nondpa KOTOPOM  JIHHHO  " Na  npaBOc.iaBHHX  cepdoB.  HeTOH— HaroBopy  ) , sceaaionieH  KapaAXHH HanncaJi  1814.7-oro r o A a IIpaBHTeJiBCTBy npocBenreHHa B.  npocHJi o  veliko  H T O O H H3.zc.aH H M no  ( nepeBOA 6HJI H a n e n a T a H B BeHe  nepeBOA  STOT  Ha K a p a A M n a H a n a a a J i H 3 a  nepeBoaa H 6HJIH noA0 3 p e H H s ,  PHMCKOK  HeroAOBaHHe OHJIO  npaBHTeJIBCTBO He xoTeJio AonycTHTB  K pacnpocTpaHeHHK) B HapoAe. HOCTB  3TO  svoje  CHHTHH  3anpeTa.  Sudo i z a l o s t  BOT  citao  nacTB  STOTO  sam u No  nncBMa:  ?6  S r b s k i h n o v i n a da j e n a p r e t s t a v l j e n j e n j e g o v o g a v i s o k o preosveStenstva godpodina M i t r o p o l i t a v i s o k o s l a v n o  P o p e S i t e l j s t v o p r o s v e S t e n i j a z a b r a n i l o tamo u n o s i t i i p r o d a v a t i moj p r i j e v o d Novoga z a v j e t a . B u d u c i da se ovom zabranom ne samo m e n i , po m o j i j e m m i s l i m a , s t e t a c i n i n a p r a v d i , nego se jo§ b a c a n a mene i s r a m o t a kao da n i j e s a m rrczumio ono s t o sam r a d i o , i i i b i j e d a k a o da sam n a v a l i c e u c i n i o s t o p r o t i v n a s e p r a v o s l a v n e c r k v e , s a t o se u s u d u j e m v i s o k o s l a v n o m P o p e c i t e l j s t v u p o r s v e s t e n i j a , i k r o z n j e g a P r a v i t e l j s t v u srpskome s a p r i s t o j n o m p o k o r n o s c u p o t u z i t i se z a to„ " 81  9TO dHJIO JIHHB HaHaJIO nOJieMHKH, H BCKOpe nOHBHJIHCB AOBOJIBHO  BCHKHX  ApyrHX  3aMenaHHH  0 nepeBOAe KapaAXHHa.  H3 caMHX H 3 B e c T H H X npoTHBHHKOB ByKa  aBHJiCH ceKpeTapB  OAHHM  CoBeTa  H  89  OAHH  CTeHH.  SOBSH  r. a.  AeffireaBHeHnHX HJieHOB oomecTBa cepocoH  H3  OH  B y K a CTe$. KOTOPOM  HanenaTaJi 33HKocjioBHe  KapaAKHHa  AaeT MHorne  K~>  CBOH  CneHH, npH3HaBafl  npesoAy  HTO  caM  CBoero  npHHHHna "nHmH KaKo roBopHnt",  saBeTa  H  1+7  npoH3BeJt  CJIOB  6UJI  H3  caaBflHCKoro HSHKa  H  To A .  nepesoA  ByK  He  ByKa.  Mor  CO<5JDOCTH  B csoeM nepeBOAe HoBoro  H  CJIOB,  81+ npHAyMaJi.  30 Typen.KHX:j Rxs.  H a n p H M e p : "(5aAaBa, n e e , HapmHja, coKaK,  no MHeHHio C T e n n a , KapaAXHH He AOJixeH  cepdcKHe  roAa,  KapaAxnna, KaK jryHULera  HeHMap, x a p a n , xaTep, x a j A y K ,  TypeHKHMH CJIOBaMH,  npeAroBopi>  3aseTa, l8lt9-oro  ocTaBHTB 1+9 cJiaBHHCKHX  npHMepa C T e n n AaeT TypeHKHe CJIOBa KaK KaAap, M a H a ,  Ha  3acjryrH ByKa  c e p d c K o r o $HJioJiora, y K a 3 H B a e T ,  npHHyxAeH  npKMeT(Se ga  HOBOTI,  3aMeHaHHs  CJIOBCCTHOCTH,  KOTAa B CepdCKOM S 3 H K 6  11  82  6 H J I noJti>30BaTi>cfl  HMeJI COOTBeTCTByK>HJ.He  caoBa:  " T u r s k e r e S i r u z n o zvuSe u naSem "neznom" j e z i k u ; t i m r u z n i j e , k a d se g o v o r e namesto s v o j i r o d e n i r e S i . Ostavimo Turc*inu d a k l e , s t o je t u r s k o , a Srbima p i g i m o i g o v o r i m o , k o l i k o se b o l e i v i s e moze, S i s t o s r b s k i , ovako kao G. Vuk'. Abar, n a p r . a v l i j a , ada, a d e t , a l a t , a l v a l u k , amanet, a s u r a , ' a p s , a r , b a r j a k , b a t a l , b a g k a , b a i r , b a k r a c , b a r a b a r , basamak, b e z , b e l a j , b e l e g i j a , d e r t , d i r e k , dusman, e k s i k , ' e l k e n , z a i r a , zeman, z o r , zulum; i z u n , i n z t ; jagma j a s t u k ; k a d a r , k a v g a , k u s u r ; makaze, m i r a z , m i z d r a k ; p a l a m a r , p a r S e , p i z m a ; s a k a t , sanduk, s e v a p , s e f t e , s o k a k ; t a z e , takum, t a n e ; f a j d a , f i t i l j ; ... s v e s u t o t u r s k e r e ^ i , z a k o j e mi imamo s v o i k r a s n i s r b s k i r e S i j , do n e k o l i c i n e samo, z a k o j e se l a s n o s r b s k e " n a c i n i t i " mogu. " 83 KpoMe T o r o , no  CTCHH  HHTnpyeT H e K O T o p n e  cJtaBSHCKHe CJIOBa, KOTopHe,  e r o MHeHHK, KapaAXHH Toxe ynoTpeCJiHJt  B  CBOVSM  HanpHMep: "3acTynHHK, npecTynHHK, M y x e J C O X H H K ,  nepeBOAe,  KaK  HBTBepoB JtacHHK,  90  X p T B a , peBHOCT,  HCKyCTBO, XpTBOBaTH, O0AarOAaTHTH, peBHOBaTH. " 8k  9TO c-TcTynJieHHe ByKa KapaAXHHa, K O T O P H H  AO  Toro  BpeMeHH C H A B H O HanaAaA Ha KoxcAoro na nncaTeAeH, ynoTpedAHBiUHX TO  ero  HAH  A p y r o e cAaBHHCKoe C A O B O ,  Ka3aAocB CTenny  npH3HaHHeM c  CTOpOHH, HTO OH nOHHA HeB03MOSCHOCTB nOCTpOHTB  HOBHH AHTe-  paTypHHH H3HK Ha H3HKe HHCTO HapOAHOM, ss. npH3HaeT CHAy T e x cepdcKHX n n c a T e A e n , KOTopne c T a p a A H C B  co3AaTB H O B H H  - cep6cKoro H3HKae  TypHHH S3HK Ha ocHOBe cAaBHHo  B03paseHHH AHTepa-  HTO K a c a e T c a  BHdopa HapeHHH, Ha KOTopoe 6 H A nepeBeAeH H O B H H 3 a B e T , T O C T C H H yKa3HBaA K a p a A M n y ,  HTO  Aynme  6HAO  6U BHdpaTB CpeMCKoe  HapeHHe  BMecTO T e p H e r o B K H C K o r o , KOTopoMy ByK KapaA^HH OTAaBaA npeAnoHTeHHe.  C T e n n c H H T a A HeyMe C T H H M o T K a 3 H B a T B C H  HanaAa npaBonncaHHH H He Mor ByKa KapaAXHna. He  OT HCTopHHecKoro  c o r A a c H T B c a c cpoHeTHHecKHM nncBMOM  B noApo6Hoe paccMOTpeHHe caMoro  nepeBOAa CTenn  BXOAHT. XOTH  HoBoro cAaBHOH  3aBeTa, ByKa  nepeBOA  KapaAacnna, HanpaBAeHHeM npoTHB yneHHa npaBo-  nepKBH, opyAHeM AaTHHCKon nponaraHAH, no MHCHHIO BHAawaiHX-  CH wrocAaBCKHX  nepeAOM  nepeAOBoe c e p o c K o e odmecTBo CHHTaAo  nncaTeAen,  STOT  nepeBOA o 6 o 3 H a n a A oKOHnaTeABHHH  B cepdcKoft AHTepaType MexAy HapoAHHM cepocKHM H nepKOBHo-  cAaBHHCKHM H3HKaMH.  B O T HTO  nncaA od 3 T O M AAeKcaHAap BeAnn:  " To j e n a j r e c i t i j a i n a j r a z n o s t r a n i j a V u k o v a i l u s t r a c i j a k a k o t r e b a p i s a t i k n j i z e v n i m j e z i k o m i kako t r e b a p o s t u p a t i kada s u k n j i z e v n i c i v o l j n i da se p o z a b a v e novim predmetima k u l t u r e . Vuk se u njemu j a v l j a i k a o v e l i k i k n j i z e v n i k i , u neku ruku, u z a k o n i l a c o s n o v n i h o s o b i n a naseg k n j i z e v n o g j e z i k a . On t u v i s e n i j e r e v o l u c i o n a r , v e c m i r n i i o p r e z n i r e f o r m a t o r onoga s t o j e v e c r a n i j e dao i i i s t o j e v e c d o t l e u r a z v i t k u  91  njegovih  ideja bilo  CaMHH H3BeCTHNH KapaASHna,  3aBeTa,  JiHTepaType." ^  ( IB21+ - 1853 ^aHHHHn,  B  XHBVM.HX 3HaTOKOB  ),  IleTap  TaKxe  xe  roAy,  "ByHHHH"  neTpoBHn  HanenaTaJiH CBOH  cnHTaeT  AetfTeJIBHOCTH ByKa  I8k7  rcu.,  TQA.  Ha-  B  cepd-  n o d e A H H a p o ^ H o r o H3HKa  "TOAOM TOM  noA. Ha3BaHHeM  H3BecTHHe  " 85  H3  ToJiyd ^[odpaniHHOBHH  nenaTaHHa Hosoro CKOH  postignuto.  IIOKJIOHHHKH B y K a  ( Byne^flTa Hjerom  Kapa.axHHa,  ), BpaHKO PaAHnsBHH  ( 1813 - 1851 ) H  JiyniUHe npoH3Be.aeHHH,  toypa  H H C T H M HapoAHHM  H3HKOM. B p a H K O PaAH-q-eBHH, paHO cKonnaBiUHHCfl Mex,ay c e p d c K H M H HMH  JIOXHOKJlaCCHHH3Ma  c e p C c K O M H3HKe.  oKOHnaTeJi&HO nopBaJi  nosTaMH  OH  CTaJI  H  yxe  B  H3HKa.  no33HH.  3amHTHHKOB  Ero  HOM  9JieMeHTOB  Hapo^HOM  H3Hice,  Bcex B ero  CBH3H  HapoAHBie n e c H H  H3 —  nopaxaioT  B  npaBHJiB-  CBOeM C T H X O T B O p e H H H  B  npeiiaHH-  C  HHCTOM  IlyT  o p $ o r p a $ H n e c K H X HOBOBBe.aeHHH  " B " H J i o x H O K J i a c c n n e c K H X npaBHJi B  jtHpnnecKHe npoH3Be.aeHHH MoryT  JiynniHM npoH3BeAeHHHM HepKOBHHX  "t" H  Bce  nepBHM  CTHXOTBOpeHHH Ha  npoH3BeAeHH5i  BpaHKO P a A H n e B H H o c M e H B a e T B p a r o B KapaAxnqa,  HHTaJi  AeTcTBe  AaHHHX K a p a A x n n a , H n e p B H e e r o HOCTBK) H HHCTOTOK CBOeTO  CBOH  IIHCaTB  nosT,  MXHO  -  6HTB  cJiaBHHCKHX  33HKe y x e  HeT.  " Na p u t v a m a d i v n e b r a s n e n i c e ' o Eto v r e l a , eto vode d i v n e , Da u m o r n o s r d a s c e v a m z i v n e . C u j t e s l a v l j e , c u j t e pesme o n e , Kad v i srce u n e d r i m a t o n e , Da vam s r c e s m e s t a z i v o p l a n e ,  JiHTepaTyp.  O H n n c a J i Ha  HcnoJiB3yH dbopMH ycTHoro  HanpHMep:  oTHeceHH  TBopnecTBa  K KHHXHHX,  npeKpaccepdoB.  92  Kad  S u j e t e i z g u b l j e n e dane,  Kad  se  pesme  s  javora  zaore,  Da S t o S r b i n u S i n i t i m o r e . P u t r a s k r S e n , gore n j i m e a j t e , Ajte gore, al'se i s e c a j t e , Kono k r a s n a p u t a vam o g r a d i , Pa mu r u c i p r i o n i t e m l a d i : P o l j u b i t e onu r u k u s v e t u , Sto r a z a g n a n e v o l j u v a m k l e t u . Noc vam dod"e s a Vuka j e d n o g a , Danak b e l i , b r a c o , s a d r u g o g a » o . OcHOBaTeJiB  cepdcKOH  HOBOH  CTHXOTBOpeHHH IlyT caiine  HHTHMHHe  BaBmee B  3a  no33HH,  HTO H H C T H M  noaTHnecKHe  JiHTepaType,  H  PaAHneBHn,  noKa3aJi  C e p d C K H M H3HKOM M O X H O  nyBCTBa.  PaAHHeBHneM, oKa3aJiocB  cepdcKoK  » 87  B CBoeM  OnHCHBaTB H  MoJio^oe n o K O J i e H H e ,  ropanHM  cJie,aoHanaa  3am,HTHHKOM H O B H X  samHTHHKOM B c e x p e $ o p M  ByKa  CTe<paHOBHna  B CBoeM  KanHTaJiE-  KapaAXHna. c T o p o H H H K Kapa.axHHa JtaHHHHn,  BTopoM HOH  padoTe PaT  3amHTy  ByKa  3a  cpncKH je3HK  H  l8k7  npaBonnc (  cjie,ayiomHe H e 3 a 6 H B a e M H e  ),  nncaJi  B  cjioBa:  " Vuk n i j e z i v l j e o n i t i z i v i z a s v o j v i j e k , nego za v i j e k d r u g i Sto n a s t a j e ; z a t o g a n j e g o v v i j e k i n e r a z u m j e , za to ga n j e g o v v i j e k p r o g o n j a s e . Vuk nam j e k a z a o i u p r a v o n a u c i o n a s k o j e j e Srbima taj p r o s t i n a r o d n i j e z i k ; Vuk j e d i n i evo vec trideset godina taj j e z i k b r a n i , S i s t u pSenicu o d k u k o l j a trijebi. " ° 8  IIpo$eccop  6eJirpaACKoro yHHBepcHTeTa,  KapaAxnna, cepdcKoro  IleTpoBHMa HCTOHHHKOM  ocTaJicn  rjiaBHHM  H3HKa  Boo6me»  B  see  TOM  Hjeroma.  rcay  TeopeTHKOM  6UJL H a n e n a T a H  Hjerom  AJix c e p 6 c K o K  JIBHHwi,  yxe  paHO  nocjie  capdcKoii  H  POPCKH  IIOHHJI  KBKHM  JiHTepaTypH HBJiHeTca  CMepTH  ByKa  A H a J i e K T o J i o r n n vs.-  BHjeHan,  IleTpa  XHBOTBOPHNM  HapoAHaa  no3 3 H H .  9 3  TaKHM odpaaoM, Aase B nepBHB nepnoit JiHTepaTypHOH AeH-TeaBHocTH Hj eroma omyTHTeaeH HHTepec noaTa K HapoJtHOMy s 3 H K y H HapoAHofi noaaHHo  H T O aTa JOodoBB K  IIOHHTHO,  poAHHe H poAHOMy HapoAy  coneTaJiacB y Hj eroma c TmaTeJiBHHM, JOOOOBHHM H 3 y n e H H e M Han.HOHa.zr.EHOH  cTapHHH H HapOAHOH noaaHH.  Hando-aee apKO a T o rjrydoKoe npo-  HHKHOBeHHe Hjeroma cKasaaocB B Ayxe Hapo^HOH noaann B H3HKe H cTHJie r o p c K o r o B J eHDja. 6ux,  Be3  coMHeHHa, MOXHO C K a 3 a T B ,  HTO  Hjerom  ecTB H ocTaHeTCH O A H H M H3 C S M H X jryHmHX noaTOB B cepdcKoil  jiHTepaType - " . . . . B H C O K j e O H O , HajBHrnn, j om H AaHac, M e d y HamHM jgyAHMa."  ^  TaKHM o(5pa30M, npHHHHn Kapa^XHHa, H T O H S H K HapoAHHH, KaK BHTeKaromHH H S n p H p o i i H BemeH, MOJiszeu 6 H T B H H 3 H K O M JiHTepaTypHHM,  KOHeHHo  oAepxaa Bepx.  ^HCJCO  3amHTHHKOB cJtaBHHO - cepd-  cKoro H3HKa nocTOHHHO yMeHBmaJCOCB , a HHCZCO C T O P O H H H K O B  HHCTOTO  HapOAHOrO H 3 H K a C KaX4HM 4HeM yBeJIHHHBaJIOCB. BJiaroAapa KapaAXHny, KOH  e r o JiHTepaTypHOH H J C H H T B H C T H H e c -  yZieflTeJiBHocTH, cep6cKHH JtHTepaTypHHii H3HK yTpaTHJi noHTH Bee  apxanaMH, H3HKOB,  3aHMcTBOBaHHHe H3 nepKOBHO - czcaBSHCKoro H pyccKoro  npH(3JiH3HJicH K  nocTpoeHHyio  HapoAHOH p e H H H nojty HHJC Op$Orpa<J>HK-,  Ha $ 0 H e T H H e c K O M npHHHHne.  3Ta  node^a ByKa npn-  odpe-zta eme do-zree CH-iBHoe 3 H a n e H H e , K o r ^ a H JfacaeBHT Tali B XopBaTHH npHHHOt c e p d C K H H H3HK KapaAXHHa J t H T e p a T y p H H M H3HKOM XOpBaTOB.  B nepBOfi noaoBHHe 1 9 - o r o cTOJieTHH BO3HHKJIO B XopBaTHH Han.HOHa.2Hoe ABHseHHe, H 3 B e c T H o e noA HMeHeM  "H.uiHpH3Ma" H  9k  nHTaBmeeca  HAeeto  BcecJiaBsncKoro  <popM npooyscaaBinerocji 3a  dopBda  HannoHaJiBHoro  HaiiHOHaJiBHHH H 3 H K ,  npe^cTaBHTB KaK cJiaBKHCKHe  dopBdy  HJIJIHpEE,  B 3TOM  H  BH4eJIH  <J>EJiaMH, c o  dHJia  H  BeHrepeKoro  H3HKa,  HJiJiHpEEn.H TeH4eHmio3-  OdseAHHeHHfl  H3HKa  npoBeAeHHOH  xopBaTCKoro  JiHTepaTypHoro xopBaTCKOH  TaKace  c  JiHTepaTypHo  co3.aaHHK>  no  (pHJioJioraMH H  CBJI3H  C  p y C C K E M E cJiaBHHOAp«  E  Bo  Bcex  KaK  HBJifleTCH  co34aHHe  "inTOKaBCKoro"  B  B  JiHTepaTyp-  3acJiyroH  nHcaTeJinMH.  KyjiBTypHoft xopBaTCKoro  HM  AEaJieKTa  si yace y n o M A H y j i ,  cepdaMH,  c  odmeHapoAHoro  ran,  1830-OM r o ^ y  Ha  npeacae  BHpa3HJiocB,  9TO  HJiJiHpH3Ma  pyKOBOAHTeJin  Ha o c H O B e  op$orpa$HHo  e^HHCTBa  E  Hapo,a.a,  H3HKa  K3CHHX CJiaBHH  HJIJIHpH3M OKa3aJI nOJIOSCHTe JIBHOe BJIHflHHe  Tajij rJiaBHoro  H3HKOBoro  a  cJiaBSHj  MSCHHX  KopeHHoro HaceJieHHfl ApeBHeK  IIOTOMKOB  npeAnOCHJIKy  B rpoMaAHoii. p a d o T e  ECTOPEE  Bcex  AJIH  cJioBai(KHM H a E E O H a J I B H H M ABHaceHEeM,  xopBaTCKoro  JIioAeBHTa  S3HK  nojiyoc/rpoBa  ABHSceHneM,  IipOTHBOpeHHflX,  pa3BHTHe  Horo  JiaTHHCKoro.  .fleSTeJIH HJIJIEpE3Ma yCTaHOBHJIH  HannoHa JIBHHM  qemcKHM  O6HHH  3a  KaK  ceda  "BeJIHKOH HJIJIHpHH"o  Bcero,  nepBHX  HS  ABHxeeHHs x o p B a T O B ,  npoTHB  SHTeJiH B a J i K a H C K o r o  HO p a c c M a T p H B a J i H  CBOHX  CUHOH  CBOK) dOpBdy 3a HaHHOHaJIBHHH H3HK j HJIJIHpHHn.EI nHTaJIHCB  A3HKOB.  B  eAHHCTBa.  H  HTO6H  B3HJI 3a  HOBOH AOCTHHB  ocHOBy  xopBaTCKoro JiHTepaTypHoro H3HKa "ETOKaucKHii" AHaJieKT, H pe— $opMHpoBaJi JiaTEHCKHE 3ByKOB HTO6H  ( OHa  coBna^aJia  onepHposaJi no c  MHCJiy  aJitpaBHT, c  B3HB  HaACTpoqeHHMH  H xapaKTepy  nemcKyio  cncTeMy  3HaKaMH KaK  o6o3HanaeMHX  c,  3ByKOB  nepe^aMH 6,5  ,  s,  )  noJiHocTBio  K H P H J I J I O B C K H M aJi$aBHTOM p e $ o p M E p o B a H H H M KapaAXHHeM,,  95  BOT  H T O O<5 S T O M n u c a J i EeotHH:  " I L a t i n i c a j e i m a l a u nasoj u p o t r e b i c e l u i s t o r i j u u XIX V o U r a n i j i m vremenima n i j e b i l o jednog, zajedniSkog n a c i n a z a upotrebu l a t i n i c k i h s l o v a , vec se u p o t r e b i j a v a l o po n e k o l i k o l a t i n i S k i h s l o v a z a obelezavanje jednog naseg zvuka, pogto u l a t i n i c i n i j e b i l o znakova n i z a J , z, c, j$, i s l o z a k o j e i h j e b i l o u c i r i l i c i , a kamoli z a 6, d, nj_, l j . , dS, i s i . Z"ato j e L j u d e v i t Cjaj (1830 g ) u svojem znacajnora p o k r e t u u z e o , p r e svega, t o d a p o p r a v i . On j e p o s a o z a fiesima k o j i s u , z a s l u g o m P a v l a J o s i f a Safarika, i z v r s i l i r e o r g a n i z a c i j u svoje azbuke. Tako j e L j u d e v i t Gaj uzeo e z a c , 5 = _q, z = s = n; o v a s u p o s l e d n j a t r i s l o v a o s t a l a s t a l n o u l a t i n i c i ; z a f) , u z e o j e Gaj 6 k o j e s e j a v l j a v e c k o d h r v a t s k o g p i s c a P a v l a V i t e z o v i c a ( u XVII i p o c . XVIII v.) Za JB, H>, \ i v p r e d l o z i o j e Gaj I , j i , d , i g o G r a f i c k i i stamparski nezgodna p o s l e d n j a s l o v a z a m e n i o j e V j e k o s l a v Babukic I836 g.. (Osnova sloynice..: s l a v j a n s k e n a r j e S j a i l i r s k o g ) vezama: 1 j 7 n j , d j (= ^ f ~ i t j " i 6 ( z a % dvojakog p o r e k l a ) ; o s t a l a " j e s l o v a osTavio k a k o s u b i l a kod Gaja; 3TH  pe$opMH  . . . " Tan  90  H BadyKHna  ( 1812  - 1875  ) pa3pymaJiH  TpaAHHHH H 3 H K a H CHOCOdCTBOBaJtH JEHTepaTypHOMy cdaHseHHio  xopBaTOB,  cepdoB  caoBeHHeB.  H  CTBeHHoro  cjraBHEo -  Ha o c H o s e  "HOBomTOKaBCKoro" A H a a e K T a .  oTKa3HBaeTCH JiHTepaTypHoro  cepdcKoro  H3HKa  H  HepHoropneB.  AHaaeKTa  xopBaTOB  Tan  H TaKsce  depeT  HCKyc-  pe*opMH  OHH cnocodcTBOBaJiH  H HepHoroputeB  11, n o c T e n e H H O ,  3a  ocHorsy B  p e a JIBHHM C O -  doJiBimiHCTBO  TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M ,  HSHK  B XopBaTHH  BBeaeHHe  dHJio noACKa3aHO  Ha HeM r o B o p E T  Tax. HJIH B O A H O M HanpaBJteHHH, cepdoB,  JnoAeBHT  "HOBOHTOKascKHfi" AHajreKT.  oTHomeHHeM A H a J i e K T O B :  OT  H3HKa H co3Aa.a a H T e p a T y p H H H  OT "KaHKaBCKoro" AHaaeKTa  JCHTepaTypy HMeHHo 3Toro  xopBaTOB  KyJtBTypHOMy  H  C e p d H H B y K KapaA&HH npejuaoxHa 0 T K a 3 a T B c H  B  cTapne  cepdoB,  KapaAssnna  H  odteAHHeHHio  noA.roToBH.iH  96  noHBy AJta co3A.aHHH: ea.HHoro aHTepaTypHoro cepdcKO - xopBaTCKoro  CepdH H xopBaTH,  fl3HKa  e  KaK  CepdCKO - XOpBaTCKOM S 3 H K e ,  H nepHoropHH, roBopffmne Ha OAHOM noayHHOtH, HaKOHem > BOBKOXHOCTB  HOaEBOBaTBCH OA.HHM H3HKOM H B anTepaType.  OCTaBaJIOCB p e H H T B ,  KaKoe Hapenae ("eKaBCKoe", SKascKoe" HJIH "HKaBCKoe") "mroKaBCKoro"  AnaaeKTa caeityeT c n H T a T B aHTepaTypHHM, H BBecTH  eAHHHe HopMH npaBonHcaHHH. 2 8 - o r o MapTa 1 8 5 0 - o r o roa.a, B Bene, KpynHeftmHMH xopBaTCKHMH H cJioBeHCKHMH y ne HHMH dHao  BpeMa cepdcKHMH, nncaHo,  TaK HasHBaeMoe  AoroBop).  BOT  "JlHTepaTypHoe  HMeHa ann.,  coraameHHe"  noa.nHcaBmHX  B TO noa.-  (KHHxeBHH  STO coraameHHe: " . . . OT  cepdoB - ByK CTe$aHOBHH Kapaasnn H ^sypa JUaHHHHH* caoBeHiteB $paHJo MnKaomHH; xopBaTOB - HBaH KyKyajeBHH,  ,/Tp.  ^HMHTpnje  -  HBaH MaxypaHHH,  Jleuere-o, CTJenaH Tie j a K O B H H H BHHKO nanea." ^  ABTOPH coraameHHH pemnTeaBHo BHCTynnaH npoTHB cMemHBaHHH  pa3-  aHHHHx HapeHHtt B aHTepaType, H npH3Haan H a n d o a e e npaBnaBHHM H yaodHHM n o a B 3 0 B a T B C H  B  a n T e p a T y p H O M H3HKe T o a B K O  MXHHM C'eKaBCKHM")  HapenneM, noTOMy HTO HM r o B o p H T d o a B m H H C T B o H a p o a . a , danxe B c e x K c T a p o -  BHHCKHM noioTCH  H3HKaM? a  c a a B H H C K O M y HSHKy  TaKse,  noTOMynTo  8THM H a p e H H e M , 3aTeM,  y n o T p e d a n a a ero  3anaAHoro  H,  BCH  H  nnmyT  B c e M o c T a a B H H M caa—  HOHTH Bee Hapoa.HHe  CTapan  doaBmHHCTBo n H c a T e a e f t  BepoHcnoBeaaHHH  H OHO  AydpoBaHKaa  necHH  anTepaTypa  K a K BocTOHHoro TaK H  Ha H e M :  " D o l j e p o t p i s a n i z n a j u c i da jedan narod t r e b a jednu k n j i S e v n o s t da ima, 1 po tom sa z a l o s t l g l e d a j u 6 i kako nam j e k n j i z e v n o s t raskomadana, ne samo po b u k v i c i nego jos i po j e z i k u i po p r a v o p i s u , s a s t a j a l i  9?  Bmo se o v i j e h dana da se r a z g o v o r i m o kako bismo se Sto se z a s a d v i s e raoSe u k n j i s S e v n o s t i s l o S i l i i ujedinili. 2. J e d n o g l a s i c e smo p r i z n a l i da j e n a j p r a v i j e i n a j b o l j e p r i m i t i juzno n a r j e S j e da bude k n j i l e v n o , i t o a) zato i t o n a j v i S e naroda tako g o v o r i , b) S t o je one n a j b l i z e staromu slavenskom j e z i k u , a po tome i s v l j e m a o s t a l i j e m j e z i c i m a s l a v e n s k i j e m , v) S t o su g o t o v o sve narodne pjesme u n j e ~ u s p j e v a n e , g) S t o j e sva s t a r a dubrovacka k n j i z e v n o s t u njemu s p i s a n a , d) S t o n a j v i S e k n j i Z e v n i k a i i s t o c n o g a i zapadnoga vjerozakona vec tako p i s e ( samo S t o s v i ne p a z e na sva p r a v i l a ) . 92 11  3aTeM OHH corJiacHJiHCB, HTO "X"  caeAyeT nncaTB BcioAy, r A e OHO  HMeeT MecTo no STHMOAornn H BBHAy T o r o ,  MHOTHX MecTax, npoH3HocHT  3TOT 3ByK*  HTO napOA H a mre, BO  KpoMe T o r o , corjiameHHeM  BBeAeHH eAHHHe npaBHJia HanncaHHH caoroo(5pa3yiomero "p", H npH3HaHo neJiecoodpasHHM coxpaHHTB B ynoTpedaeHHH o<5a aJt$aBHTa KHpHJiJiHHy H aaTHHHiry.  B KOHHe CBoero MaHH$ecTa, noAnncaHHHe  npocHT Bcex HHcaTeJteH HTOOH OHH npHAepxHBaJiHCB HX corjiameHHa: " Ovo smo dakle zasad s v r S i l i . Ako da Bog te se ove m i s l i naSe u narodu prime, mi smo u v j e r e n i da 6e se v e l i k e smetnje k n j i z e v n o s t i n a S o j s puta u k l o n i t i , i da cemo se k pravome j e d i n s t v u mnogo p r i b l i S I t i . Zato molimo sve k n j i S e v n i k e k o j i upravo z e l e s r e c u i napredak narodu svojemu da b i na o v e m i s l i naSe p r i s t a l i , i po njima d j e l a s v o j a p i s a l i . " 93 noczce ony6JiHKOBaHHH H noAnncaHHH corjrameHHH "eKaBCKoe" HapeHHe dHCTpo pacnpocTpaHHJiocB B J t H T e p a T y p e .  HO  JterKO,  TaK, cpaBHHTeJiB-  dyAynn noAroTOBaeHHHM p e $ o p M a T o p c K o f l AeHTeJtBHOcTBio  ByKa KapaAXHna H JboAeBHTa Tan, 6HJCO ocymecTBJteHO BBeAeHHe OAHoro AHaaeKTa H OAHoro HapenHH B ocHOBy cepdcKO - xopBaTCKoro JiHTepaTypHoro H 3 H K a « OdJtaAaH H CBH3HMH H BJHflHHeM a, TJCaBHOe, HOHHMaH noTpedHocTH CBoero BpeMeHH, ByK KapaAXHH CBOHM ynopcTBOM,  98  pemHTeJEBHocTEK-,  H  AapoBaHHeM AocTHr  cnpaBeAJiHBocTH,  ero  MOJRHO  H  IIo Bceft  Ha3BaTB ocHOBaTeAeM c e p d c K o - xop-  B a T C K o r o JiHTepaTypHoro ssHKa JiHTepaTypH.  noJtHOH nodeAH.  H HOBOH  cepdcKo - xopsaTCKOH  3TOH nodeAe Bcex HOBinecTB ByKa KapaAXHHa noMorAH  C JtyniUHM  ero ApyxecKHe CBH3H  cJiaBHCTOM T o r o BpeMeHH,  KonHTapOM, H TaKHMH CAaBAHCKHMH H HeMeiiKHMH yneHHMH, KaK Ia$apHK, CpesHeBCKHH, HKOB TPHMM H Apyrne. OAHaKo, noJtHoe a3HKOBoe eAHHCTBo eme HyTOo  HecMOTpfl Ha dHCTpoe pacnpocTpaHeHHe  B  He 6HAO AocTar-  JiHTepaType  "eKaBCKoro" Hape^Ha, doABmaa rpynna cepdcKHX HHcaTeAefi BO BTopofi noJioBHHe 1 9 - o r o HapenHH.  KaK  CTOAOTHH  STO B c e r ^ a  T3.T8.si npn onpeAejieHHH  npoAOAacaAa nncaTB Ha "eKaBCKOM"  dHBaeT, HaMeTHJiHCB  OCHOBH  H Apyrne  JiHTepaTypHoro s3HKa.  pacxoxAe-  XopBaTH,  HMeBDHe HeKOTOpyH) TpaAHHHK) p a 3 B H T H H J i H T e p a T y p H Ha MeCTHHX: AHaJieKTaX, BHOCHAH B JIHTepaTypHHH A3HK H3BeCTHHe 8 JieMeHTH H3 CTapHX  nncBMeHHo - JiHTepaTypHHX S3HKOB , npeHMymecTBeHHO H3  S3HKa AydpoBHHHKOH AHTepaTypn. TpedASTB  POAHOH  S3HK  HHTeHCHBHo o H H m a T B  B HKOAC H B HayHHHX  ero  OT nyxHX,  UeKSiSl HX HaCTO HOBOOdpaaOBaHHHMH cAaBSHCKHX H3HKOB. H3BOAHAH.  OHH, KaK  CAOBa, BomeAmne a3HKa.  XopBaTH, s a a o e B a B npaBo ynoynpexAeHHsrx, HanaJiH  ocodeHHo HeMeHKHX, CJIOB, a a HAH 3aHMCTBOBaHHflMH H3 ApyrHX  CepdH TaKofi opraHH30BaHHOH HHCTKH He npon p a B H A O , COXpaHSAH  B AeKcnnecKHH  MHOTHe  SaHMCTBOBaHHHe  cpoHA cep6cKoro p a 3 r o B o p H o r o  TaKHM odpa30M, yxe c caMoro H a n a A a co3AaHHja eAHHoro  AHTepaTypHoro c e p d c K o - x o p s a T C K o r o jr3HKa,  HaMeTHAHCB HeKOTopHe  99  pacxox,aeHHJi D ero pa3BHTHH B CepdHH H XopsaTHH. TeM He MeHee, KapaAXHH yMep yxe B TO BpeMa, KorAa Bce npenOTcTBHs, cTOKBrnne Ha n y T H ero AesTeABHocTH, dHAH ycTpaHeHH,  H KorAa e r o peipopMa cepdcKoro JiHTepaTypHoro samca  H op$orpa$HH IIOHTH aeH.  He BCTpenaAH  BparoB cpeAH cepdcKHX nncaTe-  KapaAXHH y M e p 26-oro H H B a p a l 8 6 k - o r o r o ^ a B BeHe.  1868-OM roAy, neTHpe roAa nocie ero  CMepTH,  B  ero pe$opMH  ocymecTBHJiHCB H "ByKOBHHa" noJiyHHJia nojiHoe rocnoACTBO B CepdHH - "..o naredbom m i n i s t r a p r o s v e t e u k i n u t a j e svaka zabrana stampanja k n j i g a Vukovim pravopisom. dHJi  KpaJtHe  AHBO H  TaK  cnacTJiKB,  BHAH no6eAy Bcero  nocJieAOBaTeJiBHo  nponoBeAHBaA  Toro,  ByK KapaAXHH  HTO OH  TaK  3adoT-  BCK CBOIO XH3HB:  " Narodne su umotvorine sjeme: i z toga sjemena t r e b a da nam nikne k n j i z e v n o s t ; to ce samo b i t i p r a v a k n j i z e v n o s t . Vuk nam j e t i j e m sjemenom n j i v u p o s i j a o : on j e narodne umotvorine svake struke p r v i poSeo k u p i t i , on i h j e j e d i n i n a j v j e r n i j e skupio, i n a j v j e r n i j e i n s v i j e t u predao. Ovo smo v a l j a d a k a d r i p r i z n a t i , kad i drugi S l a v e n i uzimaju Vuka u tome p o s l u za u g l e d . 95 u  100  CH0CKH  1  F r a n j o P o l j a n e c , I s t o r i . j a S r p s k o h r y a t skb S 1 o v e n a Skog knji£evnog j e z i k a ( Zagreb: Dvorska K n j i z a r a V a s i 6 i H o r v a t , 1936 ), 117. 2 Ibid. 3 Dr M i l i v o j P a v l o v i c , P r i m e r i i s t o r i s k o g r a z v i t k a s r g s k o h r v a t s k o g j e z i k a ( B e o g r a d : NauSna k n j i g a , 1956 ), k (  J b v a n S k e r l i c , I s t o r i . j a Nove S r p a k e B e o g r a d : Rad, 1953 ) , 22k.  Kn.jizevnosti  5 E n c i k l o p e d i . j a J u g o s l a v i a e ( Zagreb: I z d a n j e n a k l a d a l e k s i k o g r a f s k o g z a v o d a , 1965 ) , V I , 172.  i  6 Ibid. 7 J b v a n D e r e t i c , " R a s p r a v a Save M r k a l j a p i s m e n i m a " , K o v c e z i c ( B e o g r a d : N o l i t , 196k  o srpskim ), V I , I8k-185.  8 Ibid..  168-169.  9 (  Sava M r k a l j , Salo d e b e l o g a j e r a l.jibo a z b u k o p r o t r e s Budim: K r a l j e v s k o S v e u c i l i S t e , 1810 ) , I n t r o d u c t i o n . 10 Deretic,  oj>. c i t . . 186.  11 Mrkalj,  loc. c i t .  12 Ibid. 13 Deretic,  loc. c i t .  101  M r k a i j , op.  c i t . , 2.  15 Ibid.,  1.  Ibid..  2.  16 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid..  3.  Ibid.,  li.  Ibid..  5.  Ibid..  6.  Ibid..  5.  20 21 22 23 2k Ibid..  6-11.  25 I b i d . . 10-11. 26 Ibid..  11.  Ibid..  11+.  Ibid..  12.  Ibid..  13.  27 28 29 36 Ibid.  102  31  IbicU,  l8o  32  Ibid. 33  Ibid. 34  D e r e t i c , op_. c i t . , 185-187. 35  Vuk S t e f a n o v i 6 K a r a d z i c , S r p s k i R j e c n i k ( Beograd: DrSavna S t a m p a r i j a K r a l j e v i n e J u g o s l a v ! j e , 1935 )» Introduction. Daka P o p o v i c , Vuk i mjegovo doba ( N o v l Sad: S l a v i j a , 1940 ) , 15-16. 37  I b i d . , 1+1. 38  Vuk Stefanoyic" K a r a d z i c , I g a b r a n a D e l a ( Beograd: Narodna K n j i g a , 196U ), 7. 39  Ibid.,  8.  2+0  Vuk S t e f a n o v i d K a r a d z i c , Pisma ( Zagreb: W a k l a d n i Zavod H r v a t s k e , 1948 ), 6-7. 41  M i o d r a g P o p o v i d , Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d S i c N o l i t , 1964 ) , 79-  ( Beograd:  42 S k u p l j e n i g r a m a t l S k i i, polemic'ki s p i s i Vuka S t e f a n o v i c a K a r a d 2 i 6 a "( Beograd: S t a m p a r i j a K r a l j e v i n e S r b i j e , 1894 ) , I , 5. :  43  Ibid..  7.  103  kk AJteKcaHxp BJIOK, "3HaHeHHe ByKa KapaAXHna B cepdcKOH J i H T e p a T y p e " , B o n p o c n 5t3HK03BaHKa ( MocKBa: H34aTeJIBCTBO AKa^eMKH HayK CCCP, 1963 ) , Ho k» 113. K a r a d z i 6 , Pisma, 17.  k6 Karadzi6,  Srpski Rjecnik.  81-82,  III.  k7 Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d z i c , K r i t i k e jL p o l e m i k e ( V o l . 16 o f S r p s k a k n ^ i z e v n o s t u s t o k n j i g a , N o v i S a d : B u d u 6 n o s t , 1960J7 I I , "77. *  k8  Ibid. k9 Ibid..  76 , 78-79.  50 K a r a d £ i 6 , S£pjski R j e c n i k , I n t r o d u c t i o n .  51 Golub D o b r a s i n o v i c , Vuk K a r a d z i c  196k ) , 52-53.  Zavod,  ( Beograd:  Grafifiki  52 S k u p l j e n i g r a m a t i S k i i. p o l e m i d k i s p i s i Vuk a S_tef a n o v i c a 'iKaradSj/Ta ( B e o g r a d : S t a m p a r i j a K r a i j e v i n e S r b i j e , * 18^k-T8~9~5 ) , I I , 276.  53 Aleksandar B e l i e , V u k o v a bjprba z a n a r o d n i , i k n j i S e v n i j e z i k ( B e o g r a d : P r o s v e t a , 19^8" ) , 36. 5k lb i d .  55 M i o d r a g L a l e v i c , S^rpskohr v a t s k i u mom d£epu ( B e o g r a d : B r a n k o D o n o v i c , 19*6*3"""5V H I , 5'o3» r  56 Dobrasinovid,  op., c i t , . ,  19-20.  101+  57 Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d z i c , Pisma ( V o l . 17 o f Srpska k n j i z e v n o s t u a to k a j i g a . Novi Sad: Buducnost, i 9 6 0 ) , I I I , 73, 7 5 . 58 S k u p l j e n i i s t o r i s k i i e t n o g r a f a k i s p i s i Vuka S t e f a n o v i c a K a r a d l i c a rBeogradi S"tamparila K r a l j e v i n e S r b i j e , 1S98 ), I , 1 1 .  59 Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d z i c , Srpske narodne pjesme ( BeS: Stamparija Jermenskog m a n a s t i r a , 181+6 ) , I , 1+9.  60  Vuk S t e f a n o v i c Karadzad, Z i v q t i g r p s k i h VJDjvoda ( Beograd: Branko Donovid, 1963 T7~95-9^» 61 D r a g u t i n K o s t i c , "Uloga Vuka K a r a d g i c a u s t v a r a n j u k n j i S e v n o g j e z i k a na§eg", G l a s n i k , Jugoslavensko p r o f e s o r s k o drugtvo, 1938, X V I I I , 1+32. 62 H3HKQB  12.  BonpOCH 0 6 p a 3 0 B a H H f l B O C T Q HHP CJtaBHH CKHX HaqHOHaJJBHHX ( M o c K B a : H3AaTeji£CTB0 AKa^eMHH H a y K CCCPT 1962 ),  63 KaradSic,  S k u p l j e n i gramatiSki  61+ Ibid. 65 66 67  I b i d . , 263-261+. I b i d . , 266. Ibid., 265-266.  68 I b i d . , 266-267. 69  I b i d . , 267-268.  s p i s i , I I , 261-262.  105  70  Ibid.,  268-269.  rpido,  270.  Ibid.,  271.  Ibid.,  272.  Ibid.,  273.  Ibid.,  281.  Ibid..  282.  71 72 73 7k  75 76 77 Ibid. 78 Vuk S t e f a n o v i c K a r a d z i c , Pisma ( Zagreb: Zavod H r v a t s k e , 19U8 ) , 163.  Nakladni  79 D o b r a s i n o v i c , J O J D . c i t . , 32.  80  -Sk^liiejni gramaticki p o l e m i c k i s p i s i Vuka S t e f a n d v r c a ~ K ^ a r a d l i 6 a ( Beograd: S t a m p a r i j a K r a l j e v i n e S r b i j e , I896 ) , I I I , 263. :  81 K a r a d z i c , PJjjjma,' 182. 82 K a r a d z i c , Skupl,jeni grama t i S k i s p i s i , I I I , 1+71-472. 83 Ibid.,  1+72.  81+ I b i d . . 1+72-1+73. 85 A l e k s a n d a r B e l i e , Vukova b o r b a , 229 •  106  86  D o b r a 8 i n o v i 6 , op_. c i t * , 380  87 I z Vukove borbe z a k n . j i z e v n i .jezik i p r a v o p i s ( Beograd: F r o sve t a , 1958" ) , 131-132. "* 88  Duro D a n i S i c , R a t za s r p s k i .jezik i p r a v o p i s ( Budim: P e S t a n s k i u n i v e r z l t e t , 182+7 ) , 59 • 89  V e l j k o P e t r o v i c , 0 kn.jiSeynosti j. kn.jizevnicima ( N b v i Sad: M a t i c a s r p s k a , 1959 ) , 252,"" 90 A l e k s a n d a r B e l i e , Savremeni a r p s k o h r y a t s k i k n . j i & s v n l .jezik ( Beograd: FauSna k n j i g a , 1951 ) , UQ-kS• 91  I z Vukove b o r b e z a k n j i z e v n i .jezik i p r a v o p i s , op. c i t . . 158. 92 Ibid..  156-157.  93 I b i d . . 158. 91+  M. S t e v a n o v i c , G r a m a t i k a s r p s k o h r v a t a k o g .jezika ( N o v i Sad: IzdavaSko poduze6e B r a t s t v o - t l e d i n s t v o , 195h ), 25. 95 DaniSi6,  O J D . c i t . , 61.  107  HCTO^HHKH  Babi6 Dr Stjepan.  Jezik„  Zagreb: P r i v r e d a , 1963.  B e l i d A l e k s a n d a r . Oko nageg k n j i z e v n o g jLezika. S r p s k a k n j i z e v n a zadruga, 1951«  Beograd:  Vjukova b o r b a z a n a r o d n i i . k n j i z e v n i . j e z i k , Beograd: P r o s v e t a , 1948. Savremeni s r p s k o h r v a t s k i k n j i z e v n i .ieziko Beograd: NauSna k n j i g a , 1951. "3HaneHHe ByKa K a p a A x u n a B cepdc-Koft JiHTepaT y p e " , BOITPOCH fl3HK03HaHHg. MoCKBa! HSJtaTeJIBOTBO AKajneMHH HayK CCCP, Ho k , 1963.  EJIOK AjreKcaHJtp.  D a n i S i c B u r o . R a t z a s r p B k i j e z i k jL p r a v o p i S o P e S t a n s k i u n i v e r z i t e t , l8k7o ~~  Budim:  D e r e t i c ' J b v a n . "Rasprava Save M r k a l j a o s r p s k i m pismenlma", K o v 8 e z i 6 . Beograd: N b l i t , V I , 1964• DobraSinovid Golub. 196k  Vuk K a r a d z i d .  B e o g r a d ; G r a f i C k i zavod,  0  E n o i k l o p e d i j a J u g o s l a v i . j e . Zagreb: I z d a n j e i n a k l a d a l e k s i k o g r a f s k o g zavoda, 1955-1965• HCTpHH B.A. 1100 JieT CJtaBgHCKOH A3dVKK, MocKBa: H3AaTeJi£CTB0 AKa^eMHH HayK CCCP, 1963.  i 2 "Vukove ^ o r b e z a k n j i z e v n i j e z i k jL p r a v o p i s . P r o s v e t a , 1948. "~™~ ™  Beograd:  108  Karadfcid Vuk S t e f a n o v i d . H r v a t a k e , 1948.  Izabrana Dela.  Pismao  Z a g r e b : N a k l a d n i ZavodL  Beograd:  N a r o d n a K n j i g a , 1962+.  £ narodne ujesme.  , I , 18/46. £iycti  srpskih vojvoda.  Beograd:  B r a n k o Bonovlc,,  1963. —• Srpski Rjecnik. J u g o s l a v ! j e , 1935 c  Beograd:  Stamparija K r a l j e v i n e  — • K r i t i k e JL p o l e m i k e . V o l . 16 o f S r n s k a k n . j i S e v n o s t u sto knjjga. Nov! Sad: Bududnost, I I , 19^0, Pisma. V o l . 17 o f S r p s k a k n j i & e v n o s t u s t o k n j i g a . Novi Sad: Bududnost, I I I , I960, ~* K o s t i d D r a g u t i n . U l o g a Vuka K a r a d S i d a u s t v a r a n j u knjilSevnog j e z i k a naSeg", G l a s n i k . J u g o s l a v e n s k o p r o f e s o r a k o d r u S t v o , X V I I I , 1938% M  L a l e v i d Miodrag. S r p s k o h r y a t s k i u mojm dzepu B r a n k o Bono v i e , IIITT9T5/"*  0  Beograd:  M r k a l j Sava. S a l o debeloga j e r a 1 j i b o azbukoprotre3. Budim: K r a l j e v s k o S v e u c i l i g t e , 1810. N i k o l l c Dr F e r d o . Pregled knji&evnosti a primjerima, Zagreb: Skolska k n j i g a , 1962. "~ Pavlovid Dr M i l i v o j . P r i m e r ! ijsjbo^jskog r a z v i t k a jezika. B e o g r a d : N a u c n a k n j i g a , 195&T  s r p s k o h r v a t skog  109  P e t r o v i d V e l j k o . . 0 knJ_i_ge^vi\osti j. k n j i j s e i v n i c i m a . N o v i Sad: M a t i c a s r p s k a , 1959* Poljanec Franco. I s tori_ja J3rpskj3h^ kn.jiZevnog . j e z i k a , Zagreb: D v o V s k a H k n j i S a r a V a s i S i H o r v a t , 1956"." Popovic Baka.  Vuk i njegjqyo doba.  N o v i Sad: S l a v i j a , 1940.  P o p o v i 6 M i o d r a g . Vuk S t e f a n o v i d K a r a d z i c . N o l i t , 1964. S k e r l i d J"ovan.  Beograd:  I s t o r i . j a nqve _srp_skg k n ^ i ^ c v n o s t i . Beograd:  S k u p l j e n i g r a m a t i S k i 1 polemic'ki s p i s i Vuka S t e f a n o v i d a K a r a d Z i da. BeogradT~S^tampar i j a K r a l j e v i n e S r b i j e , I - I I I , 1894-1896. S k u p l j e n i x_s t o r i s k i j . e t n o g r a f s k i ajjisj. Vuka S t e f a n o v i c a KmradMica. Beograd: ' S t a m p a r i j a K r a l j e v i n e S r b i j e , I , 18T8*". S t e v a n o v i d M. Gjramatika s r p skohry a t skojg j i e z i k a * Nov! Sad: Izdavadko poduzece B r a t s t v o - J e d i n s t v o , 1954* BonpOCH  0(5pa30BaHHiI  MocKBa:  BOCTOHHO  CJfaBflHCKHX HaHHOHaJBHHX gSHKOB  H3AaTeJtBCTB0 AKaAeMHH  HayK CCCP, 1962.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104670/manifest

Comment

Related Items