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A regional study of social welfare measurements : no. 4 (Vancouver Island) : an exploration of the regional… Cumming, Robert Coulter 1965

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A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE  MEASUREMENTS  -4 .(Vancouver I s l a n d ) An e x p l o r a t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l assessment o f demographic and s o c i a l w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 - 1961  by ROBERT COULTER CUMMING ANNA FREYMAN GRACE AGNES HOLLICK-KENYON JANET MARY MACDONALD  T h e s i s submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the s t a n d a r d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  required  School o f S o c i a l Work  1965 The U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  In presenting  this thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  s h a l l make i t I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  School o f S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Columbia,  permission.  -ii-  ABSTRACT  T h i s study o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e measurements i n Region (Vancouver  I  I s l a n d ) i s the f o u r t h i n a s e r i e s o f r e g i o n a l assessments,  s i m i l a r study o f Region VI  (The Okanagan) i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g  A  completed.  Three p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have been done; one i n an unorganized a r e a o f Northern B r i t i s h and  the t h i r d was  Columbia,  the second Region I I I (The F r a s e r V a l l e y ) ,  a comprehensive  study o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  includ-  i n g s e v e r a l o f the s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t s . Region I o f the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare v e r y c l o s e l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h census d i v i s i o n 5 o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s has overcome  the d i s c r e p a n c y t h a t o f t e n e x i s t s between census m a t e r i a l boundaries welfare r e g i o n a l boundaries.  Census d i v i s i o n 5 a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e s some  i s l a n d s and i s o l a t e d areas o f the n o r t h c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia a d j a c e n t to Vancouver I s l a n d .  and  lying  These areas are v e r y s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d  and are more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e from the mainland  than from Vancouver  I s l a n d , and are t h e r e f o r e not i n c l u d e d i n Welfare Region I . B a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a was Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s .  compiled and computed from  E x t e n s i v e use was made o f 1961  s e l e c t i v e r e f e r e n c e b e i n g made t o the 1951 i n s t a n c e s the census  data a v a i l a b l e .  the  data with  In some  s u b d i v i s i o n boundaries were changed w i t h i n the bench  work decade (1951-1961).  T h e r e f o r e some o f the changes i n s o c i a l  economic c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d not be measured. n e c e s s a r y to r e l y on the 1961  and  In these i n s t a n c e s i t was  data.  The w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s were compiled p r i m a r i l y from the  -iii-  monthly r e p o r t s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare f o r the y e a r s 1951 and 1961.  However, i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a there are  numerous p r i v a t e s o c i a l agencies children.  and one major one s e r v i n g f a m i l i e s and  T h i s l a t t e r was chosen to examine more f u l l y  services offered i n this  area.  T h i s i s an i n i t i a l as a w e l f a r e r e g i o n . Nanaimo t o measure  the w e l f a r e  e x p l o r a t o r y study o f Vancouver I s l a n d  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n d e t a i l o f the k i n d i n i t i a t e d i n  the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e s should be c a r r i e d out.  These would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  comprehensive p l a n n i n g f o r the w e l f a r e needs o f the people who this region.  live i n  - V -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We a r e p l e a s e d  t o acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e we have  r e c e i v e d from Dr, L.C. Marsh, who w i t h consummate s k i l l , e f f o r t s and suggested succeeded without Consultant, Regional  fruitful  l i n e s of enquiry.  the generous r e s e a r c h support  Department o f S o c i a l Welfare  d i r e c t e d our  Nor c o u l d we have o f Miss B e s s i e W. S n i d e r ,  a t V i c t o r i a ; o f Miss M. Jamieson,  A d m i n i s t r a t o r , Region I ; Mrs. Gwen Lundy, S u p e r v i s o r o f Intake,  Family and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a ;  the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s  of Greater V i c t o r i a and o f Nanaimo, and the Department o f S o c i a l V i c t o r i a , who p r o v i d e d us w i t h a wealth essential  Welfare,  o f f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l t h a t was  t o us i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  study.  -iv-  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Acknowledgements Introduction  -  R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study P r e v i o u s l y completed s t u d i e s  Chapter I  VANCOUVER ISLAND Vancouver I s l a n d as a Region. W e l f a r e Region.  Chapter I I  Vancouver  I s l a n d as a  SOCIAL STRUCTURE Age. Distribution. M a r i t a l S t a t u s . Sex - R a t i o . Family Patterns. Households. E t h n i c - G r o u p s . R e l i g i o u s Groups.  Chapter I I I  ECONOMY Wages.  Chapter IV  O c c u p a t i o n a l Composition.  Labour F o r c e .  Housing.  SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES Caseloads. R a t i o s i n R e l a t i o n to P o p u l a t i o n . Caseloads by category. Types o f S e r v i c e . District Detail. Trends i n Worker Caseloads.  Chapter V  REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF WELFARE MEASUREMENTS  Bibliography Appendices  A.  -  W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s i n G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a and District.  B.  -  Census o f Canada B u l l e t i n s used i n t h i s  Victoria  study.  INTRODUCTION Rationale  f o r the Study British  Columbia i s growing r a p i d l y , i n i n d u s t r y and i n  p o p u l a t i o n , and t h i s growth i s r e f l e c t e d i n marked changes i n the behavior p a t t e r n s o f our s o c i e t y .  The mountainous t e r r a i n o f the P r o v i n c e has  i n f l u e n c e d the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t o the p o i n t where n e a r l y h a l f o f the people i n the P r o v i n c e Vancouver I s l a n d (Region Province,  now l i v e i n Greater  Vancouver.  I ) i s s i m i l a r i n topography t o the r e s t o f the  and i n t h i s a r e a almost t w o - t h i r d s  o f the I s l a n d ' s  now make t h e i r home i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a . i n c r e a s e d i t s s i z e by 117% i n the t e n y e a r s  In f a c t ,  this  inhabitants City  from 1951 t o 1961, as compared  to an i n c r e a s e o f 35% f o r the whole I s l a n d , i n the same p e r i o d . p o p u l a t i o n index  t h e r e f o r e becomes an important  This  s o c i a l measurement, i f o n l y  because o f t h i s r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n numbers o f people l i v i n g i n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y confined  area.  A r e g i o n u s u a l l y has d e f i n i t e t o p o g r a p h i c a l  characteristics  which s e t i t a p a r t , and i n t h i s case Vancouver I s l a n d i s perhaps unique i n that i t i s an I s l a n d , and the b o u n d a r i e s o f the w e l f a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the o u t l i n e o f the area i t s e l f .  region are  There a r e , o f course,  numerous d i v i s i o n s o r s e c t o r s w i t h i n the r e g i o n t h a t have t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f the w e l f a r e s a t i s f y those southern  needs.  needs that e x i s t , and the r e s o u r c e s  a v a i l a b l e to  The extreme c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n the  end o f the I s l a n d makes the r e g i o n top-heavy from the p o i n t o f  view o f good w e l f a r e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the need  f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s becoming n e c e s s a r y  i n order to  -2-  guard  a g a i n s t n e g l e c t o f the c e n t r a l and upper p a r t s o f the I s l a n d . U n t i l these R e g i o n a l  s t u d i e s , o u t l i n e d below, were under-  taken, no e f f o r t was ever made t o examine the w e l f a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r e g i o n as such.  Information,  some o f i t q u i t e d e t a i l e d and comprehensive,  has been a v a i l a b l e f o r the P r o v i n c e as a whole, and f o r i n d i v i d u a l o f the Department o f W e l f a r e ,  centres  but none o f t h i s r e l a t e d t o , o r had been  examined i n the l i g h t o f , the needs and r e s o u r c e s o f a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n . In an e f f o r t  to add t o the m a t e r i a l t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t s , much o f which i s  e x c e l l e n t , and t o focus the f a c t s upon Vancouver I s l a n d as a r e g i o n , t h i s study has been  undertaken.  -3-  PREVIOUSLY COMPLETED STUDIES  In 1961, M i c h a e l Wheeler, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , School o f S o c i a l Work, U.B.C., c a r r i e d out a study t o examine the need f o r improved s t a t i s t i c a l resources.  He found  t h a t such r e s o u r c e s were r e q u i r e d (a)  "as a c i d s i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f w e l f a r e problems. n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e l f a r e needs.  (b) To determine the  ( c ) F o r e v a l u a t i o n o f the  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e s , and  (d) t o add t o the knowledge needed f o r sound s o c i a l w e l f a r e In 1963 r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e measurements were A s c a t t e r e d area i n the North Subsequently, M.Y. Bledsoe of  undertaken,  Region 4, was s t u d i e d by V i v i a n Harbord.  the F r a s e r V a l l e y (Region 6) was a s s e s s e d  i n a t h e s i s by  and G.A. S t o l a r , and an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area  Vancouver was undertaken by a group o f f i v e M.S.W. students a t the  School o f S o c i a l Work, U.B.C. comprehensive o f these for  policy".^  T h i s l a s t was the most complete and  s t u d i e s , and has been an i n v a l u a b l e a i d as a model  the p r e s e n t work.  Wheeler, M i c h a e l . A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B.C. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, Vancouver, 1961, P. 56. 1  -4-  Chapter I  -  VANCOUVER ISLAND  Vancouver I s l a n d As A Region Vancouver I s l a n d , s i t u a t e d a l o n g  the Southern c o a s t  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, i s the l a r g e s t I s l a n d i n the P a c i f i c Coast a r e a of North America.  I t i s 282 m i l e s i n l e n g t h and 50-60 m i l e s wide.  t o t a l s approximately total  13,000 square m i l e s , or about 3% per cent o f  l a n d a r e a o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  topography and  i n f l u e n c e d the growth and  population.  geography o f Vancouver I s l a n d have g r e a t l y  d i s t r i b u t i o n of population.  graphy i s dominated by a h a r s h , The  separated  some of which extend a c r o s s  mountain ranges a r e bordered f i o r d s and Arable  The  Island's  the  ranges are made up by s m a l l e r mountain  on the Western e x t r e m i t y  i n l e t s o c c a s i o n a l l y interspersed with  the I s l a n d .  areas  The  by a s e r i e s of deep  segments o f c o a s t a l p l a i n .  p i e c e s o f l a n d a l o n g the west c o a s t are s c a r c e , the most  f e r t i l e area being  topo-  rugged.mountain backbone composed o f  Vancouver I s l a n d ranges. by deep v a l l e y ,  the  However, i t s p o p u l a t i o n accounts f o r  n e a r l y 18 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l The  In a r e a i t  significant  the p l a i n which s t r e t c h e s from T o f i n o to U c l u e l e t .  A c o a s t a l p l a i n l i e s on the E a s t e r n s i d e o f the mountain ..'ranges.  T h i s p l a i n s t r e t c h e s from the S o u t h e a s t e r n  the N o r t h e r n end  o f Gedrgia  d i s t a n c e v a r i e s from 1 m i l e a r e a has  Strait.  t i p of the I s l a n d to  I t s average w i d t h i s 8 m i l e s but  to 13 m i l e s .  The  temperate c l i m a t e o f  this  p l a y e d a major r o l e i n a t t r a c t i n g permanent r e s i d e n t s , and  m a j o r i t y o f the I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n now not o n l y enjoys  a long, f r o s t  l i v e s there.  The  eastern  f r e e season but b e n e f i t s from the  the  a  plain  advantages  -5-  o f f e r e d by, m i l d w i n t e r s .  A l s o , s o i l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e most  conducive t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development. 40-60 i n c h e s o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n per year  The e a s t e r n c o a s t r e c e i v e s from as compared to the West Coast which  f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e s over 100 i n c h e s o f r a i n per y e a r . The along any  comparative ease o f c o n s t r u c t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s  the e a s t e r n s i d e o f the I s l a n d , and the g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s  such r o u t e s o n  the west, have been c e n t r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the  growth o f p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a .  The n a t u r a l harbour f a c i l i t i e s o f  V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo have made these c i t i e s sea t r a f f i c  attending  i n t o major p o r t s , f o r mainland  as w e l l as f o r a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f c o a s t a l and deep sea s h i p p i n g . With the e x c e p t i o n o f A l b e r n i and P o r t A l b e r n i , t h e major  towns and c i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n c o a s t a l p l a i n w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r e d Island.  the b u l k o f  i n and around V i c t o r i a on the Southern t i p o f the  V i c t o r i a ' s b e a u t i f u l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and i t s moderate c l i m a t e  have a t t r a c t e d many permanent and temporary r e s i d e n t s who a r e anxious to escape the more f r i g i d these  temperatures o f E a s t e r n Canada.  The m a j o r i t y o f  people have s e t t l e d on the Southern end o f the I s l a n d and, on the  E a s t e r n c o a s t a l p l a i n , as the t o p o g r a p h i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l  conditions of  the c e n t r a l and western p a r t o f the I s l a n d have n o t been conducive to c o l o n i z a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t . Historical  Background In one sense a t l e a s t , the h i s t o r y o f Vancouver I s l a n d  resembles the p a t t e r n o f h i s t o r i c a l development elsewhere i n Canada: an e a r l y e r a o f d i s c o v e r y and e x p l o r a t i o n o f v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y was f o l l o w e d by a m i g r a t i o n  from the Old World to the New.  subsequently  -6-  E x p l o r e r s and f u r t r a d e r s were the f i r s t white men to a r r i v e on Vancouver I s l a n d , and the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y knew l i t t l e S p a i n and England  else.  Russia,  sent t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to e x p l o r e the  I s l a n d and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r i t o r y ,  Nootka was e s t a b l i s h e d as a f u r  t r a d i n g post i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; however, no e f f o r t was made to e s t a b l i s h a permanent s e t t l e m e n t u n t i l  1789 when two Spanish  d i s p a t c h e d t o Nootka w i t h o r d e r s t o e s t a b l i s h a c o l o n y . c a r r y i n g out h i s o r d e r s , the Spanish governor s h i p s and took the crew as p r i s o n e r s . a f f a i r " caused  In the process o f  s e i z e d two B r i t i s h  T h i s i n c i d e n t , known as the "Nootka  1790 by means o f the "Nootka  Convention."  p o l i t i c a l and economic a s p e c t s o f the s i t u a t i o n seem to have  precedence trading  trading  c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s t e r n a t i o n i n B r i t a i n and S p a i n and, the  matter was n o t s e t t l e d u n t i l The  s h i p s were  over  the p l a n s to e s t a b l i s h a c o l o n y .  taken  Nootka remained a f u r  post. Permanent s e t t l e r s d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h themselves  Island u n t i l  the e a r l y 1850's.  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r encouraging James Douglas,  on Vancouver  The Hudson's Bay Company was l a r g e l y  s e t t l e r s t o take up r e s i d e n c e on the I s l a n d .  a C h i e f F a c t o r i n the Company, e x p l o r e d the Southern  shores  o f Vancouver I s l a n d t o s e l e c t an a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n f o r a new Western Headquarters. Headquarters reached  (The Company f e a r e d t h a t F o r t Vancouver, the e s t a b l i s h e d would be l o s t  to the U n i t e d S t a t e s when a s e t t l e m e n t was  i n the Oregon Boundary d i s p u t e . )  Douglas s e l e c t e d a p l a c e known  as Camosun as a s u i t a b l e s i t e and, i n 1843, a t r a d i n g p o s t , soon t o be known as F o r t V i c t o r i a , was e r e c t e d .  F o r t V i c t o r i a was s a i d to have been  b u i l t w i t h b l a n k e t s as the Indians employed i n b u i l d i n g the stockade were  -7-  p a i d one b l a n k e t f o r every f o r t y s t a k e s . ment i n 1846, Bay  With the Oregon Boundary  F o r t V i c t o r i a became the western Headquarters  settle-  o f the Hudson's  Company. In  1849  the B r i t i s h government g r a n t e d Vancouver I s l a n d to  the Hudson's Bay Company on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the company assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  e s t a b l i s h i n g a B r i t i s h Colony.  governor and,  i n 1851,  initially,  the p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d was  appointed  l e s s than  200  a l l these persons were connected w i t h the Hudson's Bay  Company.  Governor Douglas was  There was  little  liquor licenses.  When James Douglas was  a s s i s t e d by a C o u n c i l o f t h r e e members.  o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s and the o n l y revenue was However, under the d i r e c t i o n o f Douglas,  obtained  from  farms began to  appear i n the c o u n t r y s u r r o u n d i n g V i c t o r i a , i n Sooke and on the Saanich Peninsula. Settlement developed growth was  slowly u n t i l  1858,  s t i m u l a t e d by the F r a s e r V a l l e y Gold Rush.  t o r s swarmed i n t o V i c t o r i a f o r the purpose  when p o p u l a t i o n Miners and  prospec-  o f p u r c h a s i n g s u p p l i e s , and  l o c a t e the means o f p e n e t r a t i n g the mountain areas o f the mainland.  Many  people, moving from the U n i t e d S t a t e s to the g o l d r u s h a r e a , t r a v e l l e d way  of V i c t o r i a .  h o t e l s and and 1500  town basked  i n a period of prosperity.  s t o r e s were b u i l t and, money was  schools.  In 1862,  buildings.  I s l a n d was  The  when V i c t o r i a was  In 1868  to  by  Wharves,  v o t e d f o r s t r e e t s , water s u p p l y  i n c o r p o r a t e d as a c i t y ,  V i c t o r i a became the c a p i t a l ;  i n 1886,  u n i t e d w i t h i t s twin c o l o n y , B r i t i s h Columbia,  i t boasted  Vancouver  t o form the  new  province. During the 1850's s e t t l e m e n t s began to appear i n o t h e r areas  -8-  o f Vancouver I s l a n d , Cowichan V a l l e y , and,  In 1858  In 1862  one  w i t h i n a few y e a r s ,  industry i n this  the f i r s t white s e t t l e r s moved i n t o the hundred s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d i n the Duncan a r e a  t h e r e was  a n o t i c e a b l e development i n the f o r e s t r y  vicinity.  With the d i s c o v e r y o f the c o a l f i e l d s i n 1851, became a t h r i v i n g community. to  growth and  The  Nanaimo prospered E a r l y settlement  g o l d r u s h o f 1858  b u i l t and,  c e n t r e o f the export  by  1863,  gave f u r t h e r impetus  as a c o a l mining town. i n Port A l b a r n i was  stands which were used f o r lumber and sawmill was  Nanaimo  ship spars.  P o r t A l b e r n i had  lumber t r a d e .  from Port A l b e r n i t o Nanaimo w i t h  In 1911 the r e s u l t  based on the In 1861  the  become the  a r a i l w a y was  timber first  temporary  constructed  t h a t a permanent  lumbering  i n d u s t r y developed. Settlements  began i n the  Comox V a l l e y i n 1862.  Farming  l o g g i n g were the i n i t i a l a c t i v i t i e s which i n f l u e n c e d growth i n t h i s and  area  these were f o l l o w e d by the d i s c o v e r y of c o a l i n Cumberland. World War  its  and  lumber, f i s h ,  support  I s t i m u l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n growth on the I s l a n d as  farm products  the armed f o r c e s and  pulp m i l l was  constructed  the war  occurred  the y e a r s  In 1918  a paper m i l l was  a  built in  These lone m i l l s comprised a l l of Vancouver  paper i n d u s t r y u n t i l  During depression  industry i n general.  i n P o r t A l i c e , and  V i c t o r i a d u r i n g the same y e a r . I s l a n d ' s pulp and  and m i n e r a l s were i n g r e a t demand to  1920  the end  to 1930  i n a l l i n d u s t r i e s and  of World War  development was  occupations  II. slow and  from 1929  to  a 1939.  However, d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s the I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n showed some i n c r e a s e  -9-  as a r e s u l t of m i g r a t i o n  from the  prairies.  The major growth has From 200  i n 1851,  occurred  s i n c e the end  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s now  have remained c o n c e n t r a t e d  over 300,000.  on the E a s t e r n and  to be  the most important  the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n and  of  around  o r i g i n a l communities, i e : Duncan, Nanaimo, A l b e r n i , e t c .  the the  Victoria  c e n t r e on the I s l a n d f o r the b u l k  around t h i s c a p i t a l c i t y .  In s p i t e of  been s p o r a d i c .  During  the p e r i o d 1851  to  of  the  seemingly l a r g e i n c r e a s e of the p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the past c e n t u r y , growth p a t t e r n has  II.  Settlements  Southern areas  I s l a n d , however, and most of the p o p u l a t i o n i s c e n t e r e d  continues  of World War  the  1946,  s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t e d , i n the main, from the  effects  of o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s , , f o r example, the F r a s e r V a l l e y g o l d r u s h and  the  two  World Wars.  However, s i n c e the end  of the Second World War,  \ f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y seems to have g i v e n impetus to a steady  the  growth i n  population. The  Economic Base F o r e s t r y p l a y s , above a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e s ,  i n Vancouver I s l a n d ' s economic a c t i v i t y . f o r e s t cut i n c u b i c f e e t of timber  was  In 1963  is still  i n d u s t r y on the I s l a n d , the pulp and s i n c e the end  o f World War  I I , and  Nanaimo), P o r t A l b e r n i , Duncan Bay, i n the n o r t h .  the amount o f  360,000,000; t h i s i s  o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l cut i n the P r o v i n c e Although s a w m i l l i n g  alone,  the l e a d i n g r o l e  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  the most important  paper i n d u s t r y has  p l a n t s are now Crofton  E x p a n s i o n of the pulp and  approximately  single  grown r a p i d l y  l o c a t e d a t Harmac  (near Duncan), and  paper i n d u s t r y has  Port  (near Alice,  been accompanied  -10-  by the development of the veneer and  plywood i n d u s t r y .  L o c a l secondary  i n d u s t r i e s , depending on wood, such as p l a n i n g m i l l s ,  shingle m i l l s ,  boat-yards  the past decade,  are a l s o p l e n t i f u l  i n this region.  During  and  Vancouver I s l a n d ' s f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y has been g i v e n a much f i r m e r foundat i o n as a r e s u l t of the development of new f o r e s t r e s o u r c e more e f f e c t i v e l y . ment has  techniques  which u t i l i z e  the  Development of s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d manage-  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d towards the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y . . Although  coal i s s t i l l  b e i n g mined i n the Comox and  Cumberland a r e a , n o n r m e t a l l i e s are b r i n g i n g i n more s a t i s f y i n g than the m e t a l l i c s . cement and  Sand, g r a v e l , limestone  t i l e s , have l e d the way  and  c l a y , used f o r b r i c k s ,  i n the f i e l d of m i n e r a l  For example, the cement p l a n t a t Bamberton on Saanich n e a r l y 700 m i l l i o n pounds o f cement per The waters s u r r o u n d i n g  returns  production.  Inlet  produces  year.  Vancouver I s l a n d abound w i t h v a r i o u s  s p e c i e s of f i s h , making f i s h i n g a major economic a c t i v i t y .  Salmon are  most v a l u a b l e f i s h , but h e r r i n g and h a l i b u t are a l s o important. the salmon caught i n the Vancouver I s l a n d area are p l a n t s i n Vancouver.  the  Most of  sent t o p r o c e s s i n g  However, there are h e r r i n g - p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s a t  Nootka and U c l u e l e t . The  E a s t e r n c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d p r o v i d e s e x c e l l e n t  conditions for a g r i c u l t u r a l production. I s l a n d has  11 per cent of the province-wide  farms tend to be a mixture  At the present time,  s m a l l and  o f crops and  farm p o p u l a t i o n .  Vancouver Many o f  the  s p e c i a l i z e d ; g e n e r a l farms, on which there i s  l i v e s t o c k , are more apt to be  found  areas - namely'on the G u l f I s l a n d s or i n the Sooke a r e a .  in outlying On  the  other  -11-  hand, d a i r y farms tend  to be  l o c a t e d near l a r g e r c e n t r e s  Nanaimo, Gourtenay and  Duncan as i t i s important  consumers' market i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  to have a  to the source  I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the t o u r i s t i n c r e a s i n g l y important.  The  of  to the n o r t h e r n  The  end  During  trade.  of the I s l a n d , and  the Queen C h a r l o t t e S t r a i t s ,  much as e v e n t u a l l y to a l t e r  supply.  the past  few  Columbia Government f e r r y s e r v i c e has  o f f e r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f s t i m u l a t i o n to the t o u r i s t  e s t a b l i s h e d across  prospective  n a t u r a l s c e n i c beauty of the I s l a n d p l u s i t s  the growth of the B r i t i s h  roads are b u i l t  Victoria,  t r a d e s are becoming  moderate c l i m a t e draws.many v i s i t o r s to i t s shores. years,  such as  i n d u s t r i e s and  i n t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s has  i n d u s t r i e s and  i n wholesale,  r e t a i l and  a ferry service i s  t o u r i s m c o u l d develop  the economic p a t t e r n of the  expansion a l r e a d y e v i d e n t  When adequate  so  Island.  i n the f o r e s t  processing  s t i m u l a t e d growth i n the s e r v i c e f i n a n c i a l establishments.  This  development i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the l a r g e r c e n t r e s such as Victoria,  Nanaimo and  P o r t A l b e r n i , where the major department s t o r e s  g r o c e r y c h a i n s are r e p r e s e n t e d . same p a t t e r n of growth and There has  Merchandising  expansion t h a t has  seems to be  and  f o l l o w i n g the  been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver.  been a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n the number of shopping c e n t r e s which are  s i t u a t e d j u s t beyond the m a i n u r b a n c e n t r e s of ;  In r e v i e w i n g  population.  the o v e r a l l economic p i c t u r e on Vancouver  I s l a n d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y s t i l l impetus f o r economic growth and  development.  provides  the main  G e n e r a l l y speaking,  employ-  ment o p p o r t u n i t i e s are f a r more a v a i l a b l e i n the l a r g e r and e s t a b l i s h e d areas  than i n the r u r a l ,  farm and  frontier  sectors.  -12-  P o p u l a t i o n growth on Vancouver I s l a n d compares with  the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e .  favourably  The I s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n has not  grown as r a p i d l y as the r e s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, b u t i t has r e g i s t e r e d more than average i n c r e a s e . newer areas  The urban expansion i s most marked i n the  o f the urban c e n t e r V i c t o r i a The  (117 per c e n t ) .  remainder o f the I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d over  an a r e a many times l a r g e r than the southern the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s . approximately  t i p o f the I s l a n d , where h a l f  The a r e a n o r t h o f Nanaimo and the A l b e r n i s comprises  one h a l f o f the I s l a n d ' s t o t a l  l a n d a r e a , and i n t h i s  great  expanse, r e s i d e about 15 per c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the I s l a n d . I t i s important  t o note t h a t the census a r e a i n c l u d e s a s m a l l p i e c e o f  l a n d on the mainland, whereas t h i s t e r r i t o r y i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n the welfare  region.  The d e c i s i o n t o exclude mainland t e r r i t o r y from the  welfare  r e g i o n undoubtedly r e s u l t e d from problems a r i s i n g from the  necessity of transporting staff and  t h i n l y populated  from the i s l a n d t o the r a t h e r  mainland a r e a s .  isolated  The p o p u l a t i o n o f the p o r t i o n o f  Vancouver I s l a n d s i t u a t e d n o r t h o f Courtenay p l u s the a r e a o f the mainland i n c l u d e d i n the census a r e a , the purposes o f t h i s study, subtracted  from the t o t a l  t o t a l s a meager 27,000 persons.  the mainland p o p u l a t i o n concerned w i l l n o t be  Island  population.  There have been no o u t s t a n d i n g  changes i n the c e n t r e s o f  population concentration during recent years, with significant  Thus, f o r  the e x c e p t i o n  s h i f t o f p o p u l a t i o n from urban t o suburban V i c t o r i a .  o f the It  would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know whether the e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e  agencies  have been a b l e to b r i n g adequate s e r v i c e s to these  -13-  new  areas.  I f not, have r e s o u r c e s been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the suburban  neighbourhoods to e f f e c t i v e l y meet the needs o f the community members? Urban Centres At l e a s t h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e d i n urban areas i n 1951,  and  the t r e n d has c o n t i n u e d .  In 1961,  cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n urban a r e a s . p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n appears  number of persons  throughout  and  p r o v i d e d an adequate l i v i n g Large  1961.  However, t h i s i s lower  the p r o v i n c e which i s 29.5  per c e n t .  20 than  On Vancouver  s o i l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are most  to a g r i c u l t u r a l development.  feasible.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia g e n e r a l l y ,  engaged i n farming i n Vancouver I s l a n d has decreased  I s l a n d a r a b l e l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e and conducive  similar  engaged i n farming i s r a p i d l y d e c r e a s i n g ; the  per cent i n the p e r i o d between 1951 the decrease  per  to e x i s t on Vancouver I s l a n d .  Both i n Vancouver I s l a n d and the number of persons  A  72.5  Much of t h i s  l a n d , t h a t once  f o r f a m i l i e s , i s no l o n g e r e c o n o m i c a l l y  t r a c t s have been s u b d i v i d e d f o r suburban development.  There might a l s o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the decrease i n farming and persons  the decrease  or l e s s .  a flourishing ventures.  i n p o p u l a t i o n i n urban communities o f 10,000  In e a r l i e r y e a r s the  s m a l l e r urban c e n t r e s depended on  farming community to support  l o c a l b u s i n e s s and  With the r e d u c t i o n i n farming, some of these s m a l l town b u s i n e s s  o p e r a t i o n s may  have faded away, o f t e n t h e i r former  owners a l o n g w i t h  f a m i l i e s have moved to l a r g e r c e n t r e s i n s e a r c h of employment. persons  economic  are apt to l i v e i n suburbs;  i n l a r g e r c h a i n s t o r e s and  so  forth.  former  farm  Retired  s t o r e owners become managers  -14-  The  r e d u c t i o n i n the farm and  s m a l l town p o p u l a t i o n and  the  i n c r e a s e of the p o p u l a t i o n i n urban c e n t r e s : i s c l e a r l y shown when the p o p u l a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s are p r e s e n t e d .  (See Table 2)  Vancouver I s l a n d i s f a r from e v e n l y spread;  The  p o p u l a t i o n on  i t i s i n the l a r g e urban  centres.  I t must be remembered t h a t some o f the people  are moving to the  suburbs.  " R u r a l npn-farm" c a t e g o r y i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g ; i t i s r e a l l y  suburban: i t r e l a t e s to d i s t r i c t s a d j a c e n t to the c o r e c i t y not y e t o r g a n i z e d as s e p a r a t e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . population l i v i n g  i n o u t l y i n g areas who  employment o t h e r than The urban and  are m a i n t a i n i n g themselves by  farming.  s h i f t o f p o p u l a t i o n from the farms and  suburban areas c o u l d l e a v e u n f o r t u n a t e  r e q u i r i n g welfare services. proved  T h i s c a t e g o r y a l s o i n c l u d e s the  s m a l l towns to  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r those  Over the past y e a r s , many farm homes have  to be i n v a l u a b l e as f o s t e r home r e s o u r c e s . Also,  s m a l l towns and  farming communities tend to be more  c l o s e l y k n i t communities than the l a r g e r urban a r e a s .  The  members o f the community such as the d i s a b l e d , the o l d age person  i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l allowance  i n many cases a d d i t i o n a l h e l p may o r i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. i t s members may  On  less fortunate pensioner,  w i l l be known i n the community,  the and,  v o l u n t a r i l y be o f f e r e d by the community  the o t h e r hand, the l a r g e r community  be more impersonal  i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and  people  i n t r o u b l e . . There may  expect  the a p p r o p r i a t e w e l f a r e agency to assume complete  feelings  and towards  be a tendency on the community's p a r t to responsibility  toward i t s l e s s f o r t u n a t e members. There i s a danger t h a t the f a s t growing suburban areas  may  -15-  be mushrooming up as s m a l l s p l i n t e r communities, l a c k i n g any  prearranged  p l a n n i n g t o p r o v i d e t h e i r members w i t h adequate s e r v i c e s such as p o r t a t i o n , s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , proper zoning laws, b u i l d i n g and arrangements e t c .  transhousing  I f f o r e t h o u g h t i s not g i v e n t o the p r o v i s i o n o f these  r e s o u r c e s , a community can be f a c e d w i t h inadequate h o u s i n g poorly constructed buildings,  improper  schemes,  s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and  so  forth.  Such c o n d i t i o n s can soon develop a new m a r g i n a l a r e a p r o v i d i n g few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n , and can r e s u l t i n e x t r a p r e s s u r e s on those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r providing w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s w i t h i n these communities. Vancouver I s l a n d has f i v e c i t i e s , Nanaimo, P o r t A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i to u n i t e ) , and Courtenay. a r e a , and  namely V i c t o r i a ,  Duncan,  (these l a t t e r c i t i e s . h a v e r e c e n t l y v o t e d  Each c i t y  i s the core f o r a s u r r o u n d i n g suburban  the boundaries o f . t h e s e areas are a t l e a s t p r o v i s i o n a l l y d e f i n e d  i n terms o f t h e i r dependence on the r e s p e c t i v e c i t i e s . Suburban A r e a A: - V i c t o r i a and  follows:  s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a i n c l u d i n g the m u n i c i p a l -  i t i e s o f Oak Bay, Suburban Area B; - Duncan and  They are as  E s q u i m a l t , Saanich and C e n t r a l Saanich.  s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a i n c l u d i n g the Cowichan  V a l l e y w i t h • i t s n o r t h e r n boundary r o u g h l y the n o r t h e r n edge o f the Cowichan V a l l e y . Suburban Area C: - Nanaimoand d i s t r i c t w i t h Ladysmith end, and  i n c l u d i n g Qualicum  at i t s southern  w i t h i n i t s nothern  boundaries. : Suburban Area D: - P o r t A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i and Suburban Area E; - Courtenay  and d i s t r i c t  surrounding area.  i n c l u d i n g Campbell  River.  -16-  Suburban Area F: - C o n s i s t i n g of the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the I s l a n d . Over h a l f the I s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n i s r e s i d i n g i n the aggregated V i c t o r i a area.  Each " c o r e " c i t y i n c l u d i n g V i c t o r i a does not have a  t i o n which exceeds t h a t o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g the C i t y o f A l b e r n i and  area.  The  one  popula-  exception i s  P o r t A l b e r n i which t o g e t h e r have a p o p u l a t i o n of  16,176 r e p r e s e n t i n g 62 per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of Suburban Area The  t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s a r e a may  population  be a major f a c t o r i n the  distribution. Each c i t y i s a d i s t r i b u t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r  t h e i r surrounding  areas.  V i c t o r i a a t the south end of the I s l a n d i s the  c a p i t a l c i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n s e q u e n t l y employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  many of i t s c i t i z e n s  are  The m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o c c u p i e s  h i g h l y a t t r a c t i v e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and has become j u s t l y r e c o g n i z e d as a r e a of b e a u t i f u l homes and climate a t t r a c t a v e r y important p o r t a t i o n and  I t s s c e n i c beauty and  t h o u s a n d s o f v i s i t o r s each y e a r . f a c t o r i n i t s economy.  Consequently t o u r i s m i s  the s u r r o u n d i n g  Most o f the I s l a n d ' s wholesale  and  trans-  a r e a and retail  for  trade  through V i c t o r i a . Duncan which i s s i t u a t e d n o r t h of V i c t o r i a and  south  of  Nanaimo on the e a s t c o a s t o f the I s l a n d i s the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e f o r the Cowichan V a l l e y . area.  The  This v a l l e y i s mainly  pulp m i l l a t C r o f t o n and  i n c e n t i v e s f o r Duncan's economic F u r t h e r n o r t h and  the t o u r i s t  an  favourable  V i c t o r i a . i s an important  communicative c e n t r e f o r both  the I s l a n d as a whqle. i s handled  gardens.  a  an  agricultural  i n d u s t r y a l s o provide  activities. a l s o s i t u a t e d on the e a s t c o a s t of  the  D.  -17-  I s l a n d i s the c i t y o f Nanaimo.  I t has f r e q u e n t l y been r e f e r r e d to as the  "Hub C i t y o f Vancouver I s l a n d " . e x c e l l e n t port f a c i l i t i e s ,  Because o f i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l  Nanaimo has become the main p o r t o f e n t r y and  e x i t f o r C e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d . d i s t r i b u t i o n centre, -industry.  l o c a t i o n and  I t i s an important w h o l e s a l e and  but--most-of i t s income i s d e r i v e d  The l a r g e pulp m i l l a t  nearby  from the f o r e s t  Harmac c o n s t r u c t e d  i n 1950 has  a f f e c t e d the growth o f t h i s c i t y , which i s p r e s e n t l y the second l a r g e s t c i t y on Vancouver The  Island. twin c i t i e s o f A l b e r n i and Port A l b e r n i occupy  s i t e s a t the head o f A l b e r n i I n l e t . great  adjacent  T h e i r p r o s p e r i t y has depended on the  f o r e s t w e a l t h w i t h which the a r e a  i s endowed.  I n d u s t r i a l expansion  based on i n t e g r a t e d development o f the s u r r o u n d i n g f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s increase  the importance o f these c i t i e s  i n the f u t u r e .  will  Port A l b e r n i i s  a l s o the home p o r t f o r a l a r g e f l e e t o f f i s h i n g v e s s e l s which o p e r a t e i n the waters o f A l b e r n i I n l e t , B a r c l a y area.  Port A l b e r n i has.also  Sound and the a d j a c e n t  west  become a s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g p o r t  coast  f o r deep-  sea t r a f f i c c o n v e y i n g sawn lumber and o t h e r wood p r o d u c t s t o other  parts  o f the w o r l d . Courtenay has f o r many y e a r s enjoyed a s t a b l e economy based on a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y .  Many t o u r i s t s a l s o t r a v e l t o t h i s area  year as the r i v e r s and waters a d j a c e n t  to Courtenay and n o r t h  R i v e r a r e renowned f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t s p o r t  each  t o Campbell  fishing.  Vancouver I s l a n d as a W e l f a r e Region In terms o f Welfare. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n many d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Vancouver I s l a n d  presents  On a p u r e l y geographic b a s i s many i s o l a t e d a r e a s a r e  -18-  difficult  to r e a c h .  i n the p r o v i n c e . t i o n are o f the the  poor.  T h i s same s i t u a t i o n a l s o o c c u r s i n many o t h e r areas  Access to these a r e a s i s l i m i t e d and This  I s l a n d and  on  l i n e s of communica-  s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the n o r t h e r n the w e s t . c o a s t .  In a t t e m p t i n g to serve these people  s o c i a l worker encounters d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  community s e r v i c e s and  resources.  Some o f the p o p u l a t i o n  a d j a c e n t i s l a n d s must be reached by The  bulk-of  the  parts  f e r r y or water  t o t a l population  a lack  l i v i n g on  of  the  taxi.  o f the  Island l i v i n g  in  the  l a r g e r urban a r e a s or s u r r o u n d i n g suburban a r e a s are c o n c e n t r a t e d at  the  southern:end o f the  w e l l developed.  Island,  These a r e a s are  m o b i l i z a t i o n i n the  i n t e r e s t s of Welfare  For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  the  l a r g e map.  I s l a n d i s known as Region 1.  The in  of  British  Vancouver  Island  been d e s i g n a t e d as a r e g i o n m a i n l y  s e p a r a t e d from the mainland by a body o f water  which approximates f o r t y m i l e s .  ensuring  Administration.  been d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t w e l f a r e r e g i o n s .  because i t i s an i s l a n d and  and  services available for  purposes, the p r o v i n c e  ( i n c l u d i n g s u r r o u n d i n g i s l a n d s ) , has  o u t l i n e d on  fairly  They have adequate communication, a c c e s s i b l e roads,  e s t a b l i s h e d communities w i t h t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and  Columbia has  f o r the most p a r t  D i s t r i c t boundaries of t h i s r e g i o n  In terms of w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Vancouver  A Regional D i r e c t o r i s responsible  t h a t w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are p r o p e r l y  a d m i n i s t e r e d i n each  Regional D i r e c t o r i s d i r e c t l y responsible  are  for region.  to the D i r e c t o r o f Welfare  Victoria. Each r e g i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s and,  a d m i n i s t e r e d by a S u p e r v i s o r  whose o f f i c e  each d i s t r i c t  i s s i t u a t e d i n the  is  l a r g e s t urban  -19-  c e n t r e o f the d i s t r i c t . to the R e g i o n a l  The  Director.  very c l o s e l y with  District  Supervisor  is directly  In Region 1 the w e l f a r e  the census p o p u l a t i o n  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n the w e l f a r e  districts  distribution.  the s i m i l a r i t y between the census and w e l f a r e  responsible correspond  I t would seem t h a t  d i s t r i c t s might  facilitate  field.  D i s t r i c t , o f f i c e s . o n Vancouver I s l a n d are l o c a t e d a t A l b e r n i , Duncan, Courtenay, and  Nanaimo.  area,  a welfare  o f f i c e has  ever,  i n t h i s study separate  Because o f i n c r e a s e d c a s e l o a d s  r e c e n t l y been opened i n Campbell R i v e r . s t a t i s t i c s w i l l not be  f o r the Courtenay a r e a .  How-  shown f o r Campbell  R i v e r ; the f i g u r e s p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s d i s t r i c t w i l l be statistics  i n the  i n c l u d e d i n the  A g a i n , the b o u n d a r i e s o f each  d i s t r i c t o f f i c e are i n d i c a t e d on the  map.  I t should be noted t h a t i n the V i c t o r i a a r e a , F a m i l y  and  C h i l d r e n s ' S e r v i c e have the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g F a m i l y C h i l d Welfare Services. a s s i s t s f a m i l i e s and  However, the p r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department  c h i l d r e n i n some o u t l y i n g a r e a s o f the  I t should  Saanich p r o v i d e s  o f f i c e s i n t h e i r respective areas.  time S o c i a l Worker, w h i l e  provides  administrator,  f o u r S o c i a l Workers.  For  an a s s i s t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r  the government s t a f f t o t a l s one  In V i c t o r i a C i t y the p r o v i n c e  v i s o r and  Saanich  f o r p r o v i d i n g a c e r t a i n percentage o f  an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  s t a f f i n c l u d e s one  city.  a l s o be mentioned t h a t V i c t o r i a C i t y and  M u n i c i p a l i t y are r e s p o n s i b l e s t a f f f o r the w e l f a r e  and  one  The  example, and  a half  S o c i a l Worker,  f o u r S o c i a l Workers and assistant administrator,  areas of welfare  the  the C i t y one  super-  jurisdiction in  g r e a t e r V i c t o r i a and V i c t o r i a d i s t r i c t are o u t l i n e d on the c h a r t i n  -20-  Appendix  A. Other government departments complement the s e r v i c e s  and  i  resources Family  and  provided  by  the p r o v i n c i a l department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e and  Childrens' Service.  Department o f H e a l t h which has clinics  The most important o f these are  the  p u b l i c h e a l t h u n i t s and mental h e a l t h  l o c a t e d i n major c e n t r e s .  works c l o s e l y w i t h  the  The  Attorney  G e n e r a l ' s Department a l s o  the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare; i t s p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r s are l o c a t e d i n key  c e n t r e s o f the  province.  Numerous h e l p i n g a g e n c i e s and i n a l l l a r g e r towns on Vancouver I s l a n d .  o r g a n i z a t i o n s have appeared  The  a g e n c i e s now  deriving  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the U n i t e d Appeals i n V i c t o r i a and d e t a i l e d i n Appendix  A.  Nanaimo are  V  MAINLAND  ¥3$  \  •4. PACIFIC  \  s  OCEAN  • \  \  ^ ^ ^ f L * , .  \  y ,1i  N  VANCOUVER  Y V-  ISLAND  LEGEND Regional ;  District  boundary office  School district " •  Highway Railway  boundary  District- . < office Centres over 2500 e  10.000 28.000  Juflrj  04  VANCOUVER ———  ISLAND  I i  '  LA&OUH  foa.Ce  -  f£RC£N<«C,6  IH  £<\CM  WOU»1"*<  T a b l e 1.  Population Increase  1951  -  1961  1951  1961  Percentage of Increase 1951 1961  18,009,400  18,238,200  30.2  Columbia  1,165,200  1,629,000  39.8  Vancouver I s l a n d  215,003  290,835  35.2  51,331  54,941  7.0  7^,689  162,452  117.0  Vancouver C i t y  344,800  384,600  11.5  Metropolitan Vancouver  562,000  790,000  40.6  Population  Area  Canada British  Victoria  City  Metropolitan Victoria  .  Table 2 .  P r i n c i p a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of R u r a l Urban D i s t r i b u t i o n , Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia and M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , 1951 - 1961.  (a) T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n and Ten Year Change P.C. Change 1951-1961 rJ. U. V. 1.  Vancouver  Island iyoi  9,499  7,590  20.0  29.5  R u r a l - n o n farm  70,131  85,267  21.6  41.2  S m a l l Towns 1,000-10,000  33,139  24,806  25.0  24.9  L a r g e r Urban Centres  101,925  173,172  69.9 •  60.8  Metropolitan Victoria  74,689  162,452  117.0  -  P o p u l a t i o n 215,003  290,835  35.3  28.8  Area Farm  'Total  (b) P. C. D i s t r i b u t i o n and Sex R a t i o ^ Vancouver I s l a n d , 1961 Area  P.C. D i s t r i b u t i o n 1961 1951  Sex R a t i o f a ) 1961 1951  4.4  2.6  116  113  R u r a l - n o n farm  32.6  29.3  124  113  S m a l l Towns 1,000-10,000  15.4  8.5  104  100  L a r g e r Urban Centres  47.4  59.5  97.7  97.8  Metropolitan Victoria  34.7  55.9  97.8  97.4  Farm  Total  P o p u l a t i o n (215,003)  (290,835)  (a) R a t i o o f males t o f e m a l e s .  107.6  103  T a b l e 3-  P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n , Major Urban C e n t r e s , Vancouver I s l a n d , 1961.  C i t y and Surrounding D i s t r i c t s  Population  1961  P. C. of Vancouver I s l a n d  162,452 54,941  55.8  Duncan Area Duncan  24,779 3,726  8.5  Nanaimo Area Nanaimo  40,569 14,135  13-9  Courtenay Area Courtenay  27,003 3,485  9.3  A l b e r n i Area P o r t A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i  26,072 16,176  8.9  9,960  3.4  Metropolitan V i c t o r i a ' C i t y of V i c t o r i a  N o r t h Vancouver Vancouver I s l a n d Total Population  Island  290,835  100  "  18.9 1.3 4.9 1.2 5.6  -21-  Chapter I I  -  AGE COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION AND ITS SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS  B a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n o f the age c o m p o s i t i o n o f the community is available For  from the census i n f i f t e e n o r more f i v e y e a r group  the purpose o f t h i s study these c a n be combined  which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  i n s o c i a l , economic  The s e l e c t i o n the  first  separated i n t o  and w e l f a r e  or  two age groups  (0 - 4 ) , the  (15 - 19) and (20 - 24).  In these l a t t e r  attending school or  (b) those who a r e a l r e a d y employed, f o r  time, and (c) young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s , both o f whom may be employed,  i n the process o f s t a r t i n g In  to r a i s e  t h e i r own  the second s i g n i f i c a n t  by t h i s time e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r mature  families.  group a r e the men and women who a r e l i f e p a t t e r n s o f work and f a m i l y  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; grouped f o r convenience as (25 - 44) and 45 - 64, o l d e r o f the two a r e men and women who a r e a t the h e i g h t o f t h e i r powers,  In  (5 - 14), and the a d o l e s c e n t s and young a d u l t s which a r e  other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , first  groups  terms.  and p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  groups a r e ( a ) , t h e young men and women who a r e s t i l l  the  to h i g h l i g h t  o f these groups i n the main i s t h r e e f o l d .  a r e i n c l u d e d the i n f a n t s  school c h i l d r e n  intervals.  the  productive  and who have been, o r a r e , i n the p r o c e s s o f h e l p i n g t h e i r own  progeny complete t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h f a m i l y group.  themselves i n t h e i r own  These a r e the men and women who have the time and r e s o u r c e s  to p l a y an important p a r t i n the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  developments  i n their  communities. Finally,  there a r e the men and women i n the age group o f 65  y e a r s and over, most o f whom, but n o t a l l , a r e r e t i r e d .  T h i s group i s  -22-  i n c r e a s i n g ; i n 1961 Canada.  t h e r e were 1,391,000 people aged 65 y e a r s and over i n  T h i s number i s expected The  important  to i n c r e a s e to 1,500,000 by  1967.  age c o m p o s i t i o n o f the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n i s no  than i t s s i z e .  B r i t i s h Columbia,  V i c t o r i a and Vancouver i n  p a r t i c u l a r have p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r numbers o f persons s e v e n t i e s than has Canada as a whole. seventy and upward age group has  less  i n their  T h i s r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the  s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the  provision  of h o s p i t a l , h e a l t h and d o m i c i l i a r y s e r v i c e s both i n the p r o v i n c e and i n i t s major urban centres.^" The  f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f those no l o n g e r a b l e t o work and  the employment handicaps p u b l i c concern.  s u s t a i n e d by the aged have long been a matter  of  F a c t u a l d a t a which c o u l d i l l u m i n a t e the r e a l s i t u a t i o n o f  the aged i n these two areas i s incomplete both f o r Canada and f o r the provinces.  There  i s a p r e s s i n g need f o r r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the employment  s i t u a t i o n o f o l d e r people and  the economic r e s o u r c e s o f those whose incomes  p l a c e them above the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e l e v e l . The  Canada Pension P l a n r e c e n t l y i n a u g u r a t e d by  o f the P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada w i l l related  legislation  provide a u n i v e r s a l retirement pension  to the e a r n i n g s which people have c o n t r i b u t e d .  The  scale of  this  p e n s i o n w i l l r i s e d u r i n g a ten year t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d to a l e v e l o f 25 per cent o f the c o n t r i b u t o r ' s e a r n i n g s .  2  However, t h i s p e n s i o n p l a n does  1 Wheeler, M i c h a e l . A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, School o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, March 1961, p. 174. The Canada Pension P l a n . Government o f Canada, Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , August 1964, p. 7.  -23-  nothing  f o r those who now need i t most, the p r e s e n t  People a l r e a d y r e t i r e d r e c e i v e n o t h i n g  aging  population.  except some adjustments f o r s m a l l  c o s t o f l i v i n g i n c r e a s e s ; and workers p r e s e n t l y over 68 y e a r s w i l l not r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s as the pensions w i l l not be p a i d u n t i l they w i l l o n l y be t e n per c e n t o f the f u l l  1967.  Even then  b e n e f i t payable i n 1976.  As a l r e a d y noted, the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the "bench work" decade (from 1951 t o 1961) by more than one-third.  T h i s i n c r e a s e i s not q u i t e as h i g h as the r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e i n some o t h e r but  s l i g h t l y higher  30 per c e n t .  p a r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, which i s 39.8 per c e n t ,  than the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ,  A l t h o u g h the f i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e , most  being  estimates  i n d i c a t e t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n t i n u i n g to i n c r e a s e a t t h i s r a t e o r perhaps an a c c e l e r a t e d one. is  In B r i t i s h Columbia the i n c r e a s e i n b i r t h  rate  e v i d e n t , as there a r e now, 10 per cent more c h i l d r e n under the age o f 15  years  than there were twenty y e a r s ago.  group r e p r e s e n t e d  In 1941 the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s  22 per cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and i n 1961 they  a p r o p o r t i o n o f 31 per c e n t .  T h i s : i n c r e a s e i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the r i s e o f  the number o f b i r t h s throughout the c o u n t r y d u r i n g In o r d e r should  first  than h a l f  t o study  the post war y e a r s .  the d i f f e r e n t age groups i n t h i s a r e a ,  look a t the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  we  More  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n  M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , which c o v e r s miles.  reached  an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  70 square  The remainder o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d n o r t h o f  V i c t o r i a but c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n the southern  most p a r t on the e a s t e r n s l o p e .  p a r t o f the i s l a n d , and f o r the  In none o f the remaining  five  census  -24-  s u b d i v i s i o n s o u t s i d e V i c t o r i a are there any t o t a l population. 25 per cent  c i t i e s of more than 15,000  Moreover, i n these census s u b d i v i s i o n s anywhere from  to ,75 per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n are l i v i n g i n  "unorganized t e r r i t o r y " i . e . areas not y e t governed by e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l government.  T h i s i m p l i e s two  t h i n g s , the geography of Vancouver I s l a n d  has not been conducive to l a r g e o r g a n i z e d  settlements;  and  the  e d u c a t i o n a l and  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the most p a r t are  i n the southern  area.  In 1961 Vancouver I s l a n d was the p r o v i n c e 0 - 4 age year  26 per c e n t .  The  (31 per c e n t ) .  remained c o n s t a n t  bench work decade.  slightly  (1 per c e n t ) .  The  The  per cent d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  on Vancouver I s l a n d d u r i n g  o l d e r group (5 - 14 y e a r s ) has  The  institutions.  On  10  percentage  T h i s i n d i c a t e s that- the not been as g r e a t as  still  be  group (15 - 19 y e a r s ) and  that  the young a d u l t  i n attendance at e d u c a t i o n a l and  the other hand, s c h o o l "dropouts",  f o r work, c r e a t e problems i n a s o c i e t y a l r e a d y unemployment.  the  Province.  adolescent  group (20 - 24) may  the  increased  These f i g u r e s are both lower than the  i n f l u x o f young f a m i l i e s to Vancouver I s l a n d has p a r t s o f the  on  p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n throughout  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the remainder of the P r o v i n c e .  to o t h e r  concentrated  the p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n under f i f t e e n y e a r s  i s higher  group has  social,  significance.  u n t r a i n e d and  and  form "young  As c o u l d be expected  group when employed i s f r e q u e n t l y i n r e c e i p t of low incomes. b u t i o n o f both these age  looking  t r o u b l e d by a h i g h r a t e o f  Some o f these young a d u l t s are m a r r i e d  f a m i l i e s " o f s o c i a l and w e l f a r e  training  The  this  distri-  groups on Vancouver I s l a n d i s comparable to  the  -25-  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these groups throughout  the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e .  E d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e to a l l these aforementioned  age  groups.  Together  they comprise 37 per cent o f  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d , t h i s being s l i g h t l y lower  than  the p r o v i n c i a l p r o p o r t i o n f o r t h i s group (44 per c e n t ) . Elementary secondary  schooling i s available  s c h o o l s have been b u i l t  throughout  i n a l l settlement areas.  the I s l a n d and The  higher  e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are p r e s e n t l y s i t u a t e d i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a area.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  there are e l e v e n l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known p r i v a t e s c h o o l s l o c a t e d on the southern island.  Only  students.  p a r t of  l a s t year the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a opened i t s doors  A survey i s b e i n g conducted  to p l a n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  the  to of a  r e g i o n a l j u n i o r c o l l e g e to serve the c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n areas o f Vancouver Island. The middle (25 - 44)  and  groups which may  be  termed the working p o p u l a t i o n  (45 - 64), t o g e t h e r comprise f i f t y per cent of the  total  p o p u l a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d as compared to 45 per c e n t throughout whole p r o v i n c e .  These groups p a r t i c u l a r l y the younger age  are o f g r e a t s o c i a l and w e l f a r e s i g n i f i c a n c e . mation c o n c e r n i n g  the m a r i t a l s t a t u s by age  and  the  groups (25 -  Detailed s t a t i s t i c a l  44)  infor-  sex of the heads of house-  h o l d s w i t h i n t h i s group are a v a i l a b l e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, but not f o r the o t h e r census r e g i o n s , w i t h Victoria. determining (70 +),  the e x c e p t i o n o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  These f a c t s have p a r t i c u l a r  and  s i g n i f i c a n c e as they are a base f o r  f a m i l y s t a b i l i t y or d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The  o l d e r groups (65 - 69),  comprise around 12 per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver  -26-  Island.  This i s s l i g h t l y higher  than the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the r e s t o f the  p r o v i n c e , which i s 10 per c e n t , but i s 5 per cent h i g h e r than the r e s t Canada.  I t a l s o p r o v i d e s scenery and  of  r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t no  o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y p r o v i d e on a year round b a s i s ,  whereas h a l f  o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d are i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a a r e a , no  l e s s than 70 per cent of the t o t a l o l d e r age  Vancouver I s l a n d are l i v i n g i n t h i s  area.  In g e n e r a l , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these age f a i r l y constant I s l a n d and  throughout  the p e r i o d of 1951  i n the P r o v i n c e .  group of  to 1961,  groups has  remained  both on Vancouver  However, w h i l e the per c e n t i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g  these t e n y e a r s f o r both B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d are compara b l e , the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  (0 - 4) and  i n c r e a s e d a t r a t e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower province.  the young a d u l t s (20 - 24) have  than those o f the r e s t o f  the  T h i s c o u l d i n d i c a t e the l a c k o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  younger people  s t a r t i n g to r a i s e f a m i l i e s , c a u s i n g them to move The  elsewhere.  o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d which i s g e n e r a l l y  h i g h e r than t h a t o f B r i t i s h Columbia and  the r e s t o f Canada i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f V i c t o r i a and w i l l  l i k e l y continue i n t h i s  pattern. Family  Patterns For the purposes o f t h i s study the census d e f i n i t i o n s  f a m i l y and household w i f e , with and  are f o l l o w e d .  or without  c h i l d or c h i l d r e n .  people who  one  The  f a m i l y c o n s i s t s of a husband  or more c h i l d r e n , or may  A household  of  c o n s i s t s of one  are u n r e l a t e d but t o g e t h e r occupy one  c o n s i s t o f one  parent  person or s e v e r a l  dwelling.  and  -27-  The our dual  family, f i r s t of a l l ,  s o c i e t y i t provides from b r i t h .  those f i r s t  i s a basic social i n s t i t u t i o n .  In  the b a s i s f o r the t o t a l development o f the i n d i v i -  I t i s here t h a t the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y develops i n  few y e a r s o f our prolonged c h i l d h o o d .  I t i s here t h a t the  c h i l d l e a r n s t o become s o c i a l i z e d , not o n l y i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the f a m i l y group, but beyond t h i s group i n t o the broader c u l t u r a l The  common concept o f the f a m i l y today i s a group c o n s i s t i n g  o f the mother, f a t h e r and c h i l d r e n .  T h i s we c a l l  d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from the f a m i l y p a t t e r n s  m o b i l i t y and i n d u s t r i a l left  trends,  the n u c l e a r  family to  o f f i f t y y e a r s ago, which more  o f t e n than not i n c l u d e d grandparents o r other  has  area.  relatives.  Due t o g r e a t e r  younger people move about: more and t h i s  these o l d e r r e l a t i v e s b e h i n d o f t e n t o l i v e on t h e i r own.  f a m i l i e s have decreased i n s i z e .  The s m a l l e s t  These  f a m i l y u n i t s a r e o f thjree  k i n d s : a husband and w i f e who have never had c h i l d r e n , the young c o u p l e w i t h no c h i l d r e n a t p r e s e n t ,  who w i l l  p r o b a b l y have c h i l d r e n , and the o l d e r  c o u p l e whose c h i l d r e n have grown and l e f t home. widowed o r d i v o r c e d always s e p a r a b l e  i n the standard  generally considered The  parent and one c h i l d .  T h i s group may i n c l u d e a  Unfortunately  statistics.  these a r e . n o t  The l a r g e f a m i l y group i s  to be those who have f i v e o r more c h i l d r e n .  changed c o n c e p t s i n f a m i l y p a t t e r n s  can i n d i c a t e t h a t  i n times o f f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n due t o i l l n e s s , death, and o t h e r  causes,  the  longer  f a m i l y more o f t e n turns  t o the s o c i a l agency f o r h e l p .  have r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r home t o a s s i s t when s t r e s s f u l  They no  situations arise.  In our s o c i e t y the o n e - f a m i l y home i s g e n e r a l l y to be the p r e f e r r e d type o f r e s i d e n c e .  I f there a r e i n s t a n c e s  considered o f two o r  -28-  more f a m i l i e s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , r e l a t e d o r l o d g i n g ; t h i s can be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f i n s t a b i l i t y and may functioning.  The one-parent  vulnerable position.  One  imply a breakdown i n f a m i l y  f a m i l i e s can be regarded as b e i n g i n a  parent l e f t w i t h one o r more c h i l d r e n has  assume the r o l e o f the m i s s i n g parent and on the parent which may  affect  t h i s means a d d i t i o n a l  to  strains  the whole f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n .  D i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l i e s are not always broken up by s e p a r a t i o n o r death.  The  two  p a r e n t s may  be i n the home; but, through  l o n g term i l l n e s s o r v o c a t i o n a l inadequacy, to p r o v i d e f o r h i s f a m i l y .  the breadwinner may  be  These, p l u s o t h e r p e r s o n a l or s o c i a l  quacies o f t e n over an extended agencies.  disability,  inade-  p e r i o d , l e a d to the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f  U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n many i n s t a n c e s the c h i l d r e n may  unable  social  have to be  removed from t h e i r homes, becoming dependent on s o c i e t y to p r o v i d e them w i t h n u r t u r e and c a r e ; e i t h e r i n the homes o f o t h e r f a m i l i e s who  a c t as  f o s t e r p a r e n t s , o r i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i f t h i s type o f c a r e i s i n d i c a t e d . B e s i d e s the f a m i l y group. there are those i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v i n g alone. n e c e s s i t y and by c h o i c e .  These are the people who some who  have no f a m i l y , l i v e alone  are members of an extended  live  by alone  T h i s c o n d i t i o n o f l i v i n g does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply dependence  or i n s t a b i l i t y .  T h i s group can i n c l u d e s i n g l e men  e a r n i n g adequate incomes, and o l d e r people who p e n s i o n as t h e i r o n l y means o f support. are many who  f a m i l y and  are  and women who  are  do not have to depend on a  However, i n the o l d e r group (65  are dependent on a f i x e d p e n s i o n f o r t h e i r t o t a l  support.  : F a m i l i e s and Households Of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y  o n e - h a l f are m a r r i e d ,  +)  -29-  both on Vancouver I s l a n d and population represent the p r o v i n c e and  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The widowed and  a s m a l l per cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n , 5.8  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r on Vancouver I s l a n d , 6.6  s i n g l e persons i n c l u d e a l l age  the approximate s i z e of the m a r r i e d  per c e n t .  p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n and  group.  In t h i s group i t w i l l be  there are 4 per cent more males than females,  decade.  is noted and  fishing.  This  areas.  been l i t t l e or no change i n the f a m i l y and m a r i t a l  both on Vancouver I s l a n d and  i n the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the  last  I t i s encouraging to note t h a t the percentage o f f a m i l i e s not  maintaining  t h e i r own  households i s g e n e r a l l y low  T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y .  The  t h e i r own  throughout the  r a t i o i s s l i g h t l y lower  Vancouver I s l a n d than the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e . maintain  and  This: i n d i c a t e s the n e c e s s i t y o f s i n g l e males  f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s f r o n t i e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n many o f these  composition  The  both on Vancouver I s l a n d  r e q u i r e d to work i n the p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s o f l o g g i n g and  There has  per c e n t i n  groups from i n f a n t s to e l d e r l y people,  t h i s segment a l s o comprises the remaining  throughout the p r o v i n c e .  divorced  province. on  Here 3 per cent do  homes compared to 4 per c e n t which i s the  not  provincial  average. On Vancouver I s l a n d there are 84,946 households: and families.  Of these  69,143 occupy t h e i r own  the community i s b a s i c a l l y a " f a m i l y " one, of the households b e i n g  dwellings.  M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a there a r e 38,673 f a m i l i e s and which 36,496 are m a i n t a i n i n g  t h e i r own  T h i s means that  with approximately  t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y households.  household.  per cent o f the f a m i l i e s a r e l i v i n g i n t h e i r own  71,286  80 per  cent  However, i n  47,485 households: o f This i n d i c a t e s only  household.  76  -30-  As we  know t h e r e are  p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more e l d e r l y people  l i v i n g i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a than the assume many of these f a l l and  i n t h i s l a t t e r group and may  are  cent of This  and  the  t o t a l number o f  families.  Together they t o t a l 3 per  p r o v i n c i a l average which i s 4 per  children.  than the  of the  T h i s average i s 2 per  B r i t i s h Columbia average.  that  the averages of the  e n t l y lower on Vancouver I s l a n d r e s t o f the  and  Columbia  cent h i g h e r on Vancouver  family  Island  6 per  province.  It  cent also  groups a l s o remain c o n s i s t -  M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a as compared  to  province.  The  largest proportion  of  f a m i l i e s have one  f a m i l i e s o f 1 - 2 c h i l d r e n b e i n g the  b e i n g around 40  cent.  f a m i l i e s of B r i t i s h  M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a has  larger  per  cent.  more f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n than elsewhere i n the follows  families  l i v i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e s or i n l o d g i n g s r e p r e s e n t a v e r y s m a l l  i s below the  have no  the  may  s i g n i f y present  M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a the  Approximately one^third  the  i s l a n d , we  f u t u r e w e l f a r e problems. On Vancouver I s l a n d  who  remainder o f the  per  w i l l be noted t h a t  cent f o r both the these f i g u r e s are  or more c h i l d r e n ,  predominant group, t h i s  p r o v i n c e and consistently  figure  Vancouver I s l a n d .  It  lower i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  Victoria. In the the  f a m i l i e s who  have not grown up.  had  will  large not  c h i l d r e n , and  family  have c h i l d r e n ,  be  the young f a m i l i e s who  included as  yet  those e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s whose c h i l d r e n have  However as most o f  y e a r s i t can  group h a v i n g no c h i l d r e n are  the heads o f f a m i l i e s are  assumed that a p o r t i o n  between 25  and  o f t h i s group w i l l have c h i l d r e n  64 or  -31-  have had c h i l d r e n . Heads o f f a m i l i e s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n f o u r age groups. Age i s o b v i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e g a r d t o v o c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , p a r e n t a l and economic f u n c t i o n i n g .  The young f a m i l i e s whose head i s under 25 y e a r s  comprise a s m a l l per c e n t o f the t o t a l number o f heads o f f a m i l i e s .  4.2  per c e n t i s the average f o r B.C. w h i l e both Vancouver I s l a n d and Metrop o l i t a n V i c t o r i a have a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average. M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver has a lower average. 3.8 per c e n t o f the t o t a l The  I t can be noted  that  Here t h i s group r e p r e s e n t s  families.  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l y heads a r e between the ages  o f 25 and 44 y e a r s .  Both Vancouver I s l a n d and M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a have  a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s i n t h i s age group l i v i n g i n the a r e a compared w i t h the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e .  The o l d e r f a m i l y group  whose c h i l d r e n a r e p r o b a b l y grown up but whose head c a n s t i l l comprise the o t h e r l a r g e group o f f a m i l i e s . cent o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n t h i s age group.  be working  Vancouver I s l a n d has 34 per T h i s i s comparable t o p r o p o r t i o n  o f f a m i l i e s i n t h i s age group i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Metropolitan V i c t o r i a  has a lower r a t e , 32 per c e n t . On Vancouver I s l a n d 17.5 per c e n t o f a l l the f a m i l i e s a r e o f the o l d e r type o f heads (65 +).  T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s h i g h e r than the  average o f t h i s group i n B r i t i s h Columbia, which i s 15 per c e n t . p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a i s n o t i c e a b l y higher, having f a m i l i e s i n t h i s group.  21.5 per cent o f the t o t a l  T h i s i s h i g h e r than the average o f M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver which i s 17.6 per c e n t and i t s e l f p r o v i n c i a l average.  Metro-  2.6 per c e n t above the  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e there a r e p r o p o r t i m a t e l y more  -32-  e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s l i v i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d than i n the r e s t o f the province,  and these f a m i l i e s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r t o l i v e w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n  a r e a r a t h e r than the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s .  Planning  f o r future  welfare  s e r v i c e s might w e l l take t h i s m a t t e r i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as i t i s q u i t e apparent from t h i s study t h a t there  I s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f o l d e r  p e o p l e , both f a m i l i e s and s i n g l e persons, l i v i n g i n and around V i c t o r i a and on Vancouver I s l a n d , and this.means p l a n n i n g f o r t h e i r w e l l being Ethnic  Metropolitan  and f a c i l i t i e s  and c a r e ;  Stock One o f the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f a r e g i o n a l study i s t h a t  it  can r e l a t e the human r e s o u r c e s  t o the b a s i c n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s ; and one  of the s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n  :  c o m p o s i t i o n i s the p a t t e r n s o f  e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which c o n d i t i o n a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e , t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s and  h a n d i c a p s , t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and p r e j u d i c e s .  When v i e w i n g a s p e c i f i c  e t h n i c group, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine i t s members w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t o the  d i s t i n c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s and q u a l i t i e s which members o f the g i v e n group b r i n g i n t o the community.  With t h i s approach i n mind the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n and e v e n t u a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the e t h n i c  group members t o the area under s t u d y i s f a c i l i t a t e d , because a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s and v a l u e s given  determine the c o n d i t i o n s  social  p r e v a i l i n g i n the  s o c i e t y , community o r neighborhood. Knowledge o f e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n  i n an area  adds to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s o c i a l f o r c e s which shape i t s i d e n t i t y . T h i s i n c l u d e s both a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s .  There may be p o s s i b l e  t e g r a t i n g f a c t o r s ; i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o p l a n f o r p r e v e n t i o n  disin-  as w e l l as  -33-  to  fashion p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l  advance.  P o p u l a t i o n movement i s a marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f modern society.  People change l o c a t i o n s , p r o v i n c e s , c o u n t r i e s and c o n t i n e n t s .  D i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n s impel them to do so. immigration has  slowed  e n t e r Canada a n n u a l l y . that  down c o n s i d e r a b l y , s t i l l The  total  immigration department has announced  s i n c e 124,851 persons  19,455 from 1963 1957.  One  (1964);  a r r i v e d i n 1958.  The  recently  the b i g g e s t f i g u r e was  up  but s t i l l w e l l down from the post-war peak of 282,164 s e t  q u a r t e r of a m i l l i o n i s a l a r g e number, and w h i l e r e c e n t  immigrants are a d j u s t i n g to a new may  i n r e c e n t years  thousands o f immigrants  112,606 immigrants e n t e r e d Canada l a s t year  annual  in  Although  c u l t u r e the v e r y p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n  p r e s e n t v a r i o u s problems. E t h n i c o r i g i n i n d i c e s are not s u f f i c i e n t by themselves,  some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e l u s i v e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s important what i s a v a i l a b l e .  modify  of the  of people b e l o n g i n g to the c e r t a i n e t h n i c s t o c k .  c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s or s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n ;  v a r i a b i l i t y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l approaches, it,  to examine  Those f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e not o n l y to the knowledge o f  the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k l o r e but a l s o to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g psychology  and  socioThey can  they can e x p l a i n the  community l e a d e r s h i p o r l a c k of  as w e l l as the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  vulnerable areas.  I d e a l l y i t i s necessary  ethnic composition  i n t i m a t e l y , w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l background o f a l l the  groups concerned, group.  The  to "know" the community's  from the dominant m a j o r i t y to the s m a l l e s t m i n o r i t y  q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a i n o t h e r words have to be i n t e r p r e t e d i n  q u a l i t a t i v e ways.  T h i s i s not p o s s i b l e i n the present study, but  the  -34-  general be  f i g u r e s are the framework i n t o which some d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s c o u l d  fitted.  I t i s to be hoped t h a t w e l f a r e  c o n t r i b u t e to  characteristic  s i t u a t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n  on Vancouver I s l a n d i s t h a t approximately The  two-thirds  p o p u l a t i o n of Canada as i t stands  e t h n i c o r i g i n s with approximately French and  the remaining  i t s e t h n i c composition  The 70.2  i s represented  the remaining  per c e n t of the  presents  a mosaic of one-third stocks.  from the n a t i o n a l average; British  o n e - t h i r d encompasses a l l o t h e r e t h n i c groups. those  of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , account f o r  t o t a l f o r Vancouver I s l a n d as compared to 59.3  o f B r i t i s h Columbia and  more than 200,000 are of B r i t i s h  43.8  stock  204,169 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  l o n g h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h  settlement  earned i t s t i t l e of a " l i t t l e The  British  by a t w o - t h i r d m a j o r i t y of  f o r Canada (1961  In o t h e r words out o f n e a r l y 300,000 people now  290,835 and  now  are of  o n e - t h i r d composed of a l l o t h e r e t h n i c  dominant p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n ,  the p r o v i n c e  could  composition  o n e - t h i r d E n g l i s h speaking,  In t h i s r e s p e c t Vancouver I s l a n d d i f f e r s w i d e l y  stock while  among o t h e r s ,  these. One  heritage.  agencies,  census  l i v i n g on the  figures).  Islands,  (exact census f i g u r e s i n  Vancouver I s l a n d has,  for  1961:  of course,  and V i c t o r i a n o t a b l y has  a  rightfully  England".  dominance of the Anglo-Saxon s t o c k forms a  constant  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e t h n i c - o r i g i n d i s t r i b u t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d . i s the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study  It  to s c r u t i n i z e i n some d e t a i l the a v a i l a b l e  i n d i c e s t h a t are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n and i t s v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f growth. although  So,, i t would seem worthwhile to note t h a t  the F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g r e p r e s e n t  r e a l l y a s m a l l number (6.1  per  cent)  -35-  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d , t h e i r percentage a group i s 73.6  per cent  Columbia show 59.8 i n d i c a t e 26.0  (1951-61), w h i l e  per c e n t .  per cent and  similar indices for B r i t i s h  Comparable f i g u r e s f o r the B r i t i s h  26.2  per cent  people  on Vancouver I s l a n d  a r e , e x c e p t i n g the dominant B r i t i s h m a j o r i t y , surpassed of S c a n d i n a v i a n  composition,  and  German s t o c k .  e d u c a t i o n a l and  A separate  i n number o n l y by  study of f a m i l y  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  group would seem a p p r o p r i a t e , as the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e , persons  c o u l d denote the " s t a b i l i t y  v u l n e r a b i l i t y pockets. accounts  f o r approximately  Vancouver I s l a n d ) and one  The  index" and d e t e c t the  remaining  76,000 persons  (25.0  per cent i s quoted as " o t h e r s and  eventual  f o r Canada is- o n l y  total  Slightly  they r e p r e s e n t 5.0  are the most per cent of  T h i s f i g u r e does not v a r y  (5.9 per c e n t ) , but  the comparative  signifi-  percentage  2.1.  There are now  n e a r l y 15,000 people  l i v i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d and  of S c a n d i n a v i a n  origin  i t seems t h a t t h i s a r e a , as w e l l as  Columbia, p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r those hardened Nordic One-fourth  of the t o t a l of Canada's S c a n d i n a v i a n  Columbia.  And  Scandinavian  over  unclassified".  Percentage-wise  c a n t l y from the p r o v i n c i a l  population  per cent of the  From the mosaic of h e r i t a g e s the Scandinavians  the t o t a l Vancouver I s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n .  French  transient  p o r t i o n of the area's  represents various ethnic o r i g i n s .  s i z e a b l e o f a l l groups.  stock  respectively.  As an e t h n i c e n t i t y the French  persons  i n c r e a s e as  British settlers.  group l i v e s i n B r i t i s h  i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the percentage  of i n c r e a s e i n the  group, f o r the p e r i o d 1951-61, compares most f a v o u r a b l y f o r  -36-  Vancouver I s l a n d ,  During t h i s ten-year p e r i o d the S c a n d i n a v i a n p o p u l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e d on Vancouver I s l a n d by 52.7  per cent w h i l e i n the p r o v i n c e of  B r i t i s h Columbia i t i n c r e a s e d by 47.5, In g e n e r a l , a new feels  sooner  immigrant.  and  i n Canada by 36.5  per c e n t .  Canadian from C o n t i n e n t a l Europe o f t e n  a t r u e C a n a d i a n - c i t i z e n than the v e r y B r i t i s h or This: i s l a r g e l y due  immigrant who  French  t o the f a c t t h a t , i n many i n s t a n c e s , the  comes from e c o n o m i c a l l y poorer c o n d i t i o n s i n h i s n a t i v e  c o u n t r y , f i n d s the p r o s p e c t s i n Canada so good and c h a l l e n g i n g t h a t a t l e a s t " l a b o u r - w i s e " he r e j e c t s the c o u n t r y of h i s o r i g i n . r e l i g i o u s or mother tongue a f f i l i a t i o n s ,  Whatever  their  those immigrants c o n s t i t u t e a  dynamic a d d i t i o n to the nation s.man-power. 1  The  Native  Indian The  N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia i s twice the n a t i o n a l percentage,  w i t h an understandable  t r a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d (Canada's percentage compared t o 2.3 Island).  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and  2.7  b e i n g 1.2  per cent as  per cent f o r Vancouver  T h i s group shows an equal d i s t r i b u t i o n over  area w i t h a s l i g h t o v e r b a l a n c e  concen-  the Vancouver I s l a n d  i n the A l b e r n i d i s t r i c t .  While  Canada's  i n c r e a s e . o f the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the p e r i o d 1951-61 i s n e a r l y 33 c e n t , the comparative  per  f i g u r e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i s over 36 per cent  f o r Vancouver I s l a n d over 40 per c e n t . on the I s l a n d ; many l o c a l names bear  N e a r l y 8,000 N a t i v e I n d i a n s  the I n d i a n i n f l u e n c e .  live  Incidentally,  the name Cowichan i n the I n d i a n tongue means "the p l a c e warmed by the The  Cowichan I n d i a n s were a w a r l i k e t r i b e and  Northwest over 100 y e a r s ago.  Devoid  terrorized  the  and  Pacific  of past s p l e n d o r s and not y e t  sun".  -37-  accustpmed to the " n e w - w a y s - o f - l i f e " One  o f the g r e a t e s t problems f o r N a t i v e  f o r some o f the immigrants, shortages  they l i v e i n p o v e r t y and s t a g n a t i o n . I n d i a n s , as w e l l as  brought t o Canada to r e l i e v e the p e r i o d i c a l  o f l a b o u r , i s l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n and/or i n d u s t r i a l  skill.  In  o r d e r t o compete i n the l a b o u r market they need t o a c q u i r e a c e r t a i n  level  of e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e b e i n g e l i g i b l e  f o r government sponsored  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - programs.  to l e a r n a t r a d e they have t o complete  the elementary  In order  grades w i t h a l l the p r e s c r i b e d s u b j e c t s .  retraining-  I t i s quite  easy  to imagine the s t r e s s and s t r a i n put on an a d u l t new-immigrant, or on a man from the Reserve, f o r t h a t matter, and  l i t e r a t u r e courses  i n h i s trade.  who has t o cope w i t h the h i s t o r y  i n the f o r e i g n language b e f o r e he can "graduate"  So i t i s no wonder t h a t many I t a l i a n b r i c k l a y e r s or S l a v i c  c a r p e n t e r s l a b o u r f o r b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s as " u n s k i l l e d " low-paid f o r y e a r s on end t o support  their  workers  families.  E x i s t i n g community groups c o u l d p l a y a most u s e f u l r o l e as the l i n k between the i n d i v i d u a l s who want t o up-grade t h e i r  t r a i n i n g and  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e o r to be planned that s p e c i f i c reason.  just for  The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the e t h n i c  group a r e o f t e n aggravated  not o n l y by the " i n a b i l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l  to i n t e g r a t e " but a l s o by the genuine resentment o f the " t r u e Canadian" towards a f o r e i g n e r who takes over " s t r a n g e customs".  the a v a i l a b l e " j o b " o r who b r i n g s  U s u a l l y i t i s the mutual  1  o t h e r c u l t u r e and o f how to h e l p each o t h e r .  l a c k o f understanding  o f the  Community groups perhaps  s t i m u l a t e d by C i t i z e n s h i p Committees c o u l d promote t h i s  understanding.  The  they c e n t e r around  problems f a c i n g the immigrants a r e many, b u t m o s t l y  -38-  the d i f f i c u l t y i n communication, i n c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , wasted t a l e n t s , or s k i l l s u n s u i t a b l e or too d i f f i c u l t  to a d j u s t to l o c a l demands, and  f i n a l l y i n the n e c e s s i t y f o r r e - e d u c a t i o n  or r e t r a i n i n g .  Those who come w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l  background, a b i l i t y and  d e s i r e t o l e a r n overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n a c o u p l e o f y e a r s . c o n t r i b u t i o n o f new-Canadian s c i e n t i s t s cant and an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t .  The  to the n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e i s s i g n i f i -  Several outstanding  representatives of  " m i n o r i t y " groups g i v e a worthy share t o the c u l t u r a l growth o f t h e i r adopted  country. The  housewives t i e d  l e s s f o r t u n a t e and s p e c i a l l y the o l d e r people and the  t o household a c t i v i t i e s  live  t h e i r l i v e s i n the new  w i t h o u t comprehending the advantages o f the new c u l t u r a l These a r e the people who can never r e a l l y f e e l accepted and  o f t e n d e s p e r a t e l y need h e l p and c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h  i m a g i n a r y problems. at school  country  background. i n the community  t h e i r r e a l and  While the c h i l d r e n master the new language r a p i d l y  the communication w i t h i n the f a m i l y breaks down and the l a c k o f  u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n c r e a s e s when the young g e n e r a t i o n c u l t u r e and t h e i r n a t i v e tongue.  their  C o u n s e l l i n g and a d v i c e must come from  persons who understand where the a c t u a l c o n f l i c t of the homeland, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s , t i o n s o f the people i n v o l v e d .  t o s s e s a s i d e both  l i e s ; who know the customs  the n a t u r a l f e e l i n g s and emo-  These f a m i l i e s must be h e l p e d  before  their  problems become too s e r i o u s t o s o l v e . I t would seem l o g i c a l consider The  i n the long-range w e l f a r e  planning to  the consequences o f changes i n the e t h n i c group p a t t e r n  u t i l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l workers w i t h  described.  n e c e s s a r y " f e e l i n g " f o r human  -39-  geography must take p l a c e w i t h i n a sound w e l f a r e program, not o n l y to relieve  the immediate s o c i o - c u l t u r a l - b a s e d pathology, whenever i t e x i s t s ,  but to p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e p r e v e n t i o n and planned Of course t h e r e must be i n t e r e s t  integration.  shown on both s i d e s .  The  i m p o r t a t i o n o f former p e a s a n t - s t o c k which composed the b u l k o f pre-war i m m i g r a t i o n from C o n t i n e n t a l Europe and called  " i n t e l l i g e n t i a " which compose the main body o f World War  i m m i g r a t i o n to Canada i s over. educated, more s k i l l f u l , language the new  handicap country.  understanding to  the f o r c e d i m m i g r a t i o n o f the so-  Canada has  to expect more The  should be overcome a t l e a s t half-way b e f o r e a r r i v a l There w i l l  still  be many u n a v o i d a b l e  and thus make l i f e  s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e i r adopted  to  problems which an  h e l p to s o l v e w i t h w e l l arranged  services  e a s i e r and h a p p i e r f o r those who  be e n t e r i n g Canada i n the next few y e a r s and ing  the r i g h t  and above a l l more informed immigrants.  s o c i a l worker may  e t h n i c groups;  And  II  f o r those who  are s t i l l  will find-  country a p r e t t y hard going experience.  T h i s l a s t group comprises m a i n l y the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n o f the e a r l y c e n t u r y s e t t l e r s and  the post-war a r r i v a l s unable  to a d j u s t or r e - a d j u s t .  Like  Chinese c o o l i e s , the m a j o r i t y o f the male p o p u l a t i o n have been employed i n primary i n d u s t r y .  Many i n t e g r a t e d l a t e r i n t o the Canadian way  of  life  s u c c e s s f u l l y ; but q u i t e a number have never a c q u i r e d the knowledge o f language all to  and customs, nor r i s e n above the " u n s k i l l e d " l a b o u r e r s t a t u s w i t h  the economic i n s e c u r i t y which t h i s i m p l i e s . i n v e s t i g a t e how  I t would be  interesting  many o f them have to r e l y a t p r e s e n t on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e  because no adequate h e l p was  o f f e r e d i n time.  -40-  R e l i g i o u s Groups The mosaic p a t t e r n o f r e l i g i o u s group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r Vancouver I s l a n d appears t o r e f l e c t  the c h a r a c t e r o f e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t and  the l o n g term s t a b i l i t y ; o f p o p u l a t i o n o f the I s l a n d , P r o t e s t a n t and B r i t i s h . than  predominantly  T h i s p o p u l a t i o n has remained, more homogeneous  t h a t o f mainland B r i t i s h Columbia which perhaps because o f i t s v a s t -  ness, has had a more v a r i e d p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n , more " f r o n t i e r " i n character. The h i g h A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d Church percentages represent e a r l y settlement  i n southern  Vancouver I s l a n d .  appear t o  The r e l a t i v e l y  h i g h P r e s b y t e r i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may r e l a t e t o S c o t t i s h employees o f the e a r l y Hudson Bay Company development, as w e l l as to S c o t t i s h c o a l m i n i n g settlement  i n the Nanaimo a r e a . Those r e l i g i o u s groups d e s i g n a t e d  higher  than the Canadian average, y e t lower than  as a whole, c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h O r i e n t a l peoples  the immigration  on the West Coast,  by " o t h e r " ,  that f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia  and l a t e r m i g r a t i o n o f  encouraged t o come t o B r i t i s h  as l a b o u r e r s d u r i n g the e r a o f r a i l r o a d b u i l d i n g . fishermen  significantly  Columbia  Japanese came l a t e r as  and E a s t I n d i a n s , many o f them S i k h s , came e a r l y i n the 1900's  as lumber workers.  Chinese and Japanese subsequently  engaged i n h o r t i -  c u l t u r e , domestic s e r v i c e , s m a l l b u s i n e s s , and t o some e x t e n t i n the pulp and  paper and the cannery i n d u s t r i e s ; i n these c a p a c i t i e s many found  their  way t o Vancouver I s l a n d ; E a s t I n d i a n s , t o o , s e t t l e d here around the sawmill centers. The h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f Lutherans  i n A l b e r n i and n o r t h e r n  -41-  Vancouver I s l a n d r e l a t e s w e l l t o the presence o f f i s h i n g c e n t e r s a r e a s peopled by S c a n d i n a v i a n fishermen. o f descendants o f the e a r l y Danish  I t may a l s o r e f l e c t  represents  recent  trends  o f a) p o s s i b l y a c c e l e r a t e d  The  by A n g l i c a n  The minor P r o t e s t a n t  of minority  stability  r e l i g i o u s groups  o f Vancouver I s l a n d  gives  population.  r e l i g i o u s groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f e v a n g e l i c a l  often include representatives  speculative  Indians  Missions.  lower r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f the r e l a t i v e  this  immigration o f  t o p u l p m i l l s and/or b) Roman G a t h o l i c N a t i v e  i n a r e a s o t h e r w i s e served  purely  incidence of  i n P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver I s l a n d n o r t h u n l e s s  European l a b o u r e r s  character  the presence  settlers.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o account f o r the h i g h e r Roman G a t h o l i c s  i n these  of dissident c i t i z e n s .  It is  to assume t h a t the s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f r e l i g i o u s group  d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n i n d i c a t e , per se, p o t e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y - f a c t o r s o r s p e c i a l vulnerability implications. socio-economic, e d u c a t i o n a l enough to be a n a l y z e d  Only when the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i o u s and e t h n o g r a p h i c a l  and s t a t i s t i c a l l y  these f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t  patterns  are i n t e r e s t i n g  tested i n a given  sector, can  a s i g n i f i c a n t meaning f o r the s o c i a l - w e l f a r e  requirements and the s o c i a l - w o r k  services.  With a l a r g e percentage o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the major denominations  o f Vancouver  Island  (which i n c i d e n t a l l y i n Canada form a h i g h  socio-  economic index) and w i t h a low percentage o f m i n o r i t y  r e l i g i o u s groups  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low socio-economic s t a t u s , i t would be r e a s o n a b l e t o expect a lower than average i n c i d e n c e until  o f s o c i a l welfare  r e c e n t l y t h i s may have been the c a s e .  problems; and  However a c l o s e r s c r u t i n y  -42-  of figures reveals program concerned  a changing  composition  with minimizing  pattern;  hence a s o c i a l  s o c i a l problems by p r e v e n t i v e  welfare  policies  should be s e n s i t i v e to these changes i n demographic i n d i c e s , which can serve as warning s i g n a l s f o r oncoming s o c i a l  implications.  T a b l e 4.  (a) Changes 1951-1961 Vancouver I s l a n d P. C. 1961 1951 Increase  Age Group Pre-School 0-4 School 5-14 A d o l e s c e n t and Young A d u l t s 15-19 20-24  32,221  22.9  48.4  31,221  56,852  82.0  80.6  12,445 15,082  20,469 16,878  64.5 11.9  60.4 • 19.3  62.696 44,075  73,416 55,110  18.0 25.O  24.7 32.1  11,016 15,936  10,589 25,300  3.8 58.7  4.1 56.9  215,003  290,835  35.3  39.8  (b) % D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951-1961 Vancouver I s l a n d B r i t i s h Columbia 1951 1961 1951 1961 •  Age Group Pre-School 0-4 School 5-14 A d o l e s c e n t and Young A d u l t 15-19 20-24 Mature 25-44 45-64 Older 65-69 70 + TOTAL  Comparative B.C. I n c r e a s e  22,533  Mature 25-44 45-64 Older 65-69 70 + TOTAL  S i g n i f i c a n t Age G r o u p s , Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia  •  10.5  10.8  10.8  11.5,  14.4  15.3  15.2  19.8  5.8 7.0  6.0 6.8  6.0 6.8  6.9 5.8  29.2 20.5  30.1 19.2  30.1 20.0  26.9 18.9  5.1 7.7  4.5 7.3  4.5 6.6  3.1 7.1  100  100  100  100  T a b l e 5.  Comparative P a t t e r n s and Trends I n t h e M a r i t a l and F a m i l y C o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia 1951-19^1.  M a r i t a l and F a m i l y Status Married Widowed Divorced Single TOTAL Males (147,697) Married Widowed Divorced Single TOTAL Females (143,138) TOTAL P o p u l a t i o n  Vancouver I s l a n d 1951 1961 26.5 1.6 0.3 23.5 100 25.1 4.1 0.3 18.6 100 215,003  24.1 1.4 0.5 24.5  25.5 1.5 0.3 23.9  100 24.4 4.3 0.4 20.9 100 290,835  B r i t i s h Columbia 1951  100  .  24.8 3.8 0.8 19.7 100  23.9 1.3 0.3 25.4 100 23.6 3.8 0.4 21.3 100  1,165,210 1,629,082  T a b l e 6.  Some Major F a c t o r s o f F a m i l y C o m p o s i t i o n Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia and Metropolitan V i c t o r i a 19bl.  Items  Total Families Families not m a i n t a i n i n g Own Household Related Families Lodging F a m i l i e s Age F a m i l y Head Under 25 y e a r s 25-44 45-64 65 y e a r s and over Size of Family 0- c h i l d r e n 1- 2 c h i l d r e n 3-4 c h i l d r e n 5 plus children Average Persons per f a m i l y Average C h i l d r e n per f a m i l y Ages o f C h i l d r e n a t Home Under 6 6-14 15-24 a t s c h o o l 15-24 n o t a t school TOTAL C h i l d r e n  Vancouver Island No. -%  British Columbia No. %  71,286 100  394,023 100  Metropolitan Victoria No. % 38,673 100  16,427 9,936 5,973  4.2 2.5 1.5  1,183 821 318  3.1 2.1 .8  3,288 31,177 24,323 12,498  4 . 6 16,706 4 3 . 7 182,380 3 4 . 1 137,451 17.5 57,486  4.2 46.3 34.9 15.0  1,653 16,064 12,631 8,325  4.3 41.5 32.7 21.5  25,237 28,879 13,883 3,287  35-4 130,455 4 0 . 5 165,180 19.5 79,363 4 . 6 19,025  33.1 41.9 20.1 4.8  15,222 15,375 6,774 1,302  39.3 39.8 17.5 3.4  2,143 1,519 533  -  3-0 2.1 .8  3-5  -  1.5  3.6  3.3  1.6  1.4  34.1 44.9 12.76  18,236 24,132 7,175  34.2 45.3 13.5  7.2. 6 . 9 45,293 7, 587 627,398 100 109,376 100  3,754  7.0  38,255 49,507 14,027  3 5 . 0 220,347 4 5 . 3 281,698 80,060 12.8  53,297 100  7a.  Table  Comparative  Distribution  f o r Vancouver Greater  Island, Greater  population  Number o f h o u s e h o l d s  by S i z e :  Victoria,  Columbia and Canada,1961.  Vancouver,British  , British Columbia  Greater Victoria  Greater Vancouver  290,835  162,452  790,165  1,629,082  84,946  47,485  228,598  459,532  14.6  16.4  13.2  , VancouverIsland Total  of Households  D i s t r i b u t i o n of households by s i z e  2-3  persons  41.9  47.3  45.1  13.5 43.2  4-5  persons  29.2  27.2  31.0  30.8  12.0  9.0  10.7  12.5  1  person  6 o r more p e r s o n s  Tahle  7b.  Some R e s i d e n c e F a c t o r s : M e t r o p o l i t a n Metropolitan  Vancouver  Victoria,  and B r i t i s h Columbia,1961.  Metropolitan Victoria  MetropolitanVancouver  T o t a l Number o f H o u s e h o l d s  47,485  228,596  459,532  Dwellings Constructed b e f o r e 1920 P.C,  25.1  16.2  16.3  Tenant  P.C.  28.6  30.3  29.0  P.C.  17.2  17.3  17.9  P.O.  24.5  23.8  24.4  Item  Occupied  L e s s t h a n One Occupancy  Year  More t h a n T e n Y e a r s Occupancy  British Columbia  Table 8 .  Main E t h n i c  Stocks i n Population Island,1961•  of Vancouver  Comparative Percentages  Vancouver Island  Ethnic Stock  P.C.  No.  B.C.  Canada  204,169  70.2  59.4  43.8  French  10,865  3.7  4.1  30.4  Scandinavian  14,771  5.1  5.9  2.1  German  12,695  4.4  7.3  5.8  Dutch  7,515  2.6  3.7  2.4  Ukrainian  3,511  1.2  2.2  2.6  Polish  3,041  . 1 . 0  1.5  1.8  Russian  1,527  0.5  1.7  0.7  Italian  3,675  1.3  2.4  2.5  0.04  0.3  1.0  British  132  Jewish Other  European  11,046  3.8  4.9  3.9  Native  Indian  7,883  2.7  2.4  1.2  Orientals  6,523  2.2  2.5  0.7  Others and Unclassified  3,482  1.2  1.7  1.3  Total  290,835  100  100  100  T a b l e 9.'  Change i n E t h n i c Vancouver /Increases;  Ethnic  Stocks,  Population,1951-1961.  Island  except f o r decreases:shown  Comparative P.C.Changes  Vancouver Island  Stock " No.  i n brackets/  P.C.  B.C.  Canada  42,205  55.7  43.3  30.4  French  4,605  6.1  5.4  28.9  Scandinavian  5,100  6.7  6.7  2.4  German  7,054  9.3  . 13.7  10.2  Dutch:..  4,651  6.1  5.8  3.9  Ukrainian  1,491  2.0  2.8  1.9  Poligh  1,l80  1 6 ?  1.8  2.5  Russian  138  0.2  1.2  0.7  Italian  1,898  4.6  7.0  0.1  /0.2/  British  /26/  Jewish Other Native  European  4,982  6.6  8.8  8.6  Indians  2,257  3.0  2.2  1.3  1,625  2.1  3.1  1.1  /1.308/  /1.7/  0.6  1.3  75,832  35.3  39.8  30.2  Orientals Others and Unclassified  Total  2.5 /0.03/  Increase  .  T a b l e 10.  Distribution in  of Main E t h n i c  P o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver by Sub-Areas,  Ethnic Stock  Victoria'  Duncan Nanaimo  Stocks Island:  1961.  Albern:  Courtenay  V.I. North  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  77.4  61.8  68.8  47.5  67.6  45.8  French  3,0  4.5  3.2  7 4 ¥  4.1  4 8  Scandinavian  3.8  6.5  5.8  8.0  6.5  8.0  German  3.5  5.3  3.9  7.6  6.1  5.5  Dutch  2.1  3.5  2.1  5.5  2.7  2.0  Ukrainian  1.0  1.2  1.1  2.2  1.5  2.3  Polish  0.9  0.9  1.4  1.4  1.0  1.4  Russian  0.4  0.5  0.5  1.0  0.6  0.8  Italian  0.8  0.9  2.3  2.3  1.5  2.2  Jewish  0.0/5  0.0/4  0.0/2  0.0/4  0.0/3  British  -  ?  Other  European  2.6  3.8  6.4  5.7  3.5  9.7  Native  Indian  1.0  5.7  2.6  7.2  2.0  14.4  Orientals  2.3  4.7  0.9  2.9  0.8  2.3  Others and Unclassified  1.2  0.7  1.0  1.3  2.1  0.8  Total  Total  Population  100  162,452  100  100  100  100  24,779  40,569  26,072  27,003  100  9,960  Table  11.  Main R e l i g i o u s on V a n c o u v e r  Religious Group  •  Affiliations  Island,in  British  Vancouver  No.  :  Comparative  Distribution  Columbia and Canada,1961.  Comparative  Island  P.C,  P.C.  B.C.  Canada  92,418  31.7  22,5  13.2  88,342  30.3  31.0  20.1  Presbyterian  17,858  6.1  5.5  4.5  Lutheran  12,831  4.4  6.2  3.6  Baptist  7,601  2.6  3.0  3.3  Pentecostal  2,974  1.0  1.2  0.8  444  0,1  1.2  0,8  Anglican United  Church  Menngnite • Roman  Catholic  41,554  14.2  17.5  45.7  Greek  Orthodox  1,279  0.4  1.0  1.3  Greek  Catholic  639  0.2  0.4  1.0  241  0.0/8/  0.5  1.4  10.0  4.2  Jev;ish  24,654  Other Total  Population  290,835  8.4 100  •  100  100  Table  12.  Main R e l i g i o u s  Affiliations  of Vancouver  Island.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n by  Religious Group .  i n Population  Sub-Areas,1961.  Port V i c t o r i a .Duncan, Nanaimo. A l b e r n i ,  V.I.Courtenay , North  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  P.C.  Anglican  37.5  27.2  25.1  18.4  26.3  27.6  United Church  27.0  30.8  38.4  30.4  40.8  23.9  Presbyterian  7.5  4.0  5.7  4.3  3.1  3.6  Lutheran  2.9  5.0  5.2  8.5  4.9  11.8  Baptist  2.9  2.6  2.4  2.1  2.0  2.0  0.8  1.4  0.9  1*3  1*0  3,3  0.0/2  0.1  0.0/3  0.0A  1.2  0.2  "Pentecostal Mcnnonite Roman  Catholic  12.3  18.2  13.9  22.4  12.9  21.1  Greek  Orthodox  0.3  0.3  0.5  1.0  0.4  1.0  Greek  Catholic  "0.8  0.2  0.2  0.5  0.2  0.4  0.0/1  0.1  0.0/3  0.0/4  Jev.'ish  0.1  Other  8.5  Total  Total  Population  100  162,452  10.2  7.5  10.9  7.0  '  0 0 o  5.0.  100  100  100  100  100  24,779  40,569  26,072  27,003  9,960  .  -43-  Chapter I I I  -  THE ECONOMY  E a r n i n g s as a W e l f a r e Measurement In the y e a r p r i o r t o June 1, 1961, by f a r the l a r g e s t percentage  (over 33%) o f male wage-earners 15 y e a r s o f age and over i n  B. C.: i n D i v i s i o n No. 5 (which approximates W e l f a r e Region 1 ) , and i n the C i t y o f V i c t o r i a , earned between $4000 and $6000.  In V i c t o r i a ,  n e a r l y 9 per c e n t earned over $6000, and a s i m i l a r percentage earned than $1000.  less  Approximately 28 per c e n t earned l e s s than $3000, and i t i s  w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p . t h a t h a r d s h i p c o u l d e x i s t , e s p e c i a l l y i f the wage-earner i s the head o f a f a m i l y o f t h r e e o r more. The average  income o f males i n V i c t o r i a was about  than the average f o r D i v i s i o n No. 5.  $300 l e s s  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the average  f o r females i n V i c t o r i a was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the average f o r the whole Census D i v i s i o n .  T h i s , combined w i t h the f a c t t h a t about  25 per  cent o f the t o t a l number o f female wage-earners r e c e i v e d l e s s than $1000, and another 26 p e r c e n t earned between $2000 and $3000, would suggest  that  much more p a r t - t i m e , and s e m i - s k i l l e d work was a v a i l a b l e i n V i c t o r i a ,  than  elsewhere  i n the Region.  The s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e percentage  (about 25%)  e a r n i n g l e s s than $1000 would a l s o suggest t h a t q u i t e a number o f m a r r i e d women work p a r t time to supplement Occupational  the f a m i l y income.  Composition The  t o t a l number o f persons i n the l a b o u r - f o r c e o f Vancouver  I s l a n d i s now over 100,000 (100,631 were r e c o r d e d i n the census i n 1961). The data on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e a r e n o t always  comparable  -44-  with e a r l i e r  terms.  One  of the main reasons  f o r t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . o f the " g a i n f u l l y " o c c u p i e d p o p u l a t i o n or the  "labour  f o r c e " i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t u n d e r t a k i n g and  statistical  the e a r l i e r  surveys p r o v i d e d us w i t h no more than a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e by i n d u s t r y or by branch  of economic a c t i v i t y , which i n t u r n i s  by the p r i n c i p a l product produced production unit  or handled,  to which the person belongs.  determined  or the s e r v i c e rendered In c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  by  by  occupation,. on the other hand, the d e t e r m i n i n g c r i t e r i o n i s the nature the work a c t u a l l y performed  by the i n d i v i d u a l , an employed or  of  self-employed  person, or the types of f u n c t i o n s a t t a c h e d to h i s j o b . I n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n any area i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the "economic geography" of the g i v e n r e g i o n , which i n t u r n i s p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d by the n a t u r a l environmental as: l a n d , water, c l i m a t e , m i n e r a l s , f l o r a , important  fauna, e t c .  factors  Those are the most  and o f t e n d e c i s i v e f a c t o r s i n any economic development.  have p o t e n t i a l v a l u e and they become r e s o u r c e s .  one  day when t h e i r  specific  They a l l  " u t i l i t y " i s recognized  The economic a c t i v i t i e s a r i s i n g from  r e s o u r c e s can be examined i n d e p e n d e n t l y  such  those  i n r e l a t i o n to the p o p u l a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n d i c e s . U s u a l l y economic a c t i v i t i e s agriculture,  f o r e s t r y , mining  and  fishing.  g u i s h three, main c a t e g o r i e s i n c l a s s i f y i n g  p a r a l l e l natural resources I t i s now  "secondary" mills,  customary to d i s t i n -  the employment: the  which i n c l u d e s a l l the e x t r a c t i v e p u r s u i t s m e n t i o n e d  like  "primary"  above; the  i n d u s t r i e s which f o l l o w the primary a c t i v i t i e s w i t h p l a n t s ,  f a c t o r i e s and a l l the " a u x i l i a r y " jobs needed f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  -45-  and  communication; and  v a r i e t y of " c a r e e r s " technicians  and  finally  t e r t i a r y employments w i t h a g r e a t  open to p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  service  The  the  trade and  o f f i c e workers,  employees.  functional  f a c t o r s , o f a l l these a c t i v i t i e s and  relations,  "tend to t i e an a r e a t o g e t h e r i n a community o f communication and of common i n t e r e s t d e s p i t e v a r y i n g s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s (an urban c e n t r e and i t s h i n t e r l a n d may be d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l l y , but they are i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d ) . The p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a o f t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n are the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c t o r s that t i e the a r e a t o g e t h e r and the s i n g l e l a b o u r market o r i e n t a t i o n of the area". The on The  the  e a r l y h i s t o r y o f Canada's development i s based  dominant s t a p l e s ;  energy of  several  c o n t r o l l i n g and distributional a f f e c t e d by  h a r n e s s i n g the patterns of  As  expanded, the "functional the  by  the  the  those a c t i v i t i e s which a f f e c t people or  are  People are  elements of the  region;  development, are  c o u n t r y ' s r e s o u r c e s are  primary  fundamental r e s o u r c e , and  a l s o the  end  tapped and  economy, w i t h i n  the  basic  a s p e c i f i c area  this  services  (those  implications  those f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e  w e l l - b e i n g o f the  not  o f e v e r y economic  f a c t o r s " mentioned above).have f a r - r e a c h i n g  psycho-social  of  m e c h a n i c a l energy alone w i l l  the  o n l y the means but  impact of the  this.  and  demographic i n d i c e s ; i n c l u d i n g  w e l f a r e and the  natural  Without people, c a p i t a l and  human r e s o u r c e i s not  i s a good example o f  been expanded i n i d e n t i f y i n g ,  p r o c e s s of the  produce economic a c t i v i t y .  activity.  Vancouver I s l a n d  g e n e r a t i o n s has  them, i n the  importance.  and  primarily  population affected.  on  general In  turn  economic a r e a i n terms of i t s "marketing" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a f f e c t e d the  population indices  ground, income and  like  s i z e , age,  c u l t u r a l and  s i m i l a r determinants o f the  e d u c a t i o n a l back-  spending power.  -46-  The e x p l o i t i n g and  economy o f Vancouver I s l a n d area  processing  o f a c t i v i t i e s and The p r o p o r t i o n of the  raw  materials.  i s based l a r g e l y on  T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  i n the modes of l i v e h o o d of the  Island's  s o - c a l l e d white c o l l a r category.  i n d i c a t e s 27.2  per cent  of the  In a l l the  per  "lower t e r t i a r y " , Statistics  i s the h i g h  per cent and  Canada's  show t h a t 17.0  I t would be a p p r o p r i a t e be  occupation  subjected  so-called  percentage employed, i n s e r v i c e and  per cent  o f the male labour  f o r c e on  recreation.  Vancouver  T h i s f i g u r e compares to 9.7  f o r B r i t i s h p o t e n t i a l t h i s trend  may  the  i n this  f e a t u r e of the remaining group, the  I s l a n d i s employed i n the " s e r v i c e s " .  men  sales,  cent. A significant  cent  "upper"  t o t a l as o c c u p i e d  c a t e g o r y w h i l e the p r o v i n c i a l f i g u r e r e v e a l s 31.2 30.2  population.  major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Vancouver I s l a n d i s i t s small  groups, m a n a g e r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l and number o f men  pattern  stands out  as a " v u l n e r a b l e "  to keep i n mind t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f  to seasonal  per indice. these  unemployment, s i n c e t h e i r s i s the  so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the  Summer-months and  tourists'  recreation.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r e n d can be noted i n the group comp r i s i n g farmers and Vancouver I s l a n d p o i n t s out  farm-workers.  (3.2%) and  The  those f o r B.C.  the comparable p a t t e r n and  proportionately  d i f f e r e n c e between the (5.1%) and  f o r Canada (12.2%)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t Vancouver I s l a n d  f a r fewer farmers, than can be expected.  p r o b a b l y be e x p l a i n e d  i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways.  the p a s t o r a l I s l a n d which served  figures for  One  can  This pattern speculate  has may  that  as a supply-garden f o r many years i s  changing i t s farming c o m p o s i t i o n towards i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  Whatever  the  -47-  r e a s o n the i n d i s p u t a b l e f a c t remains t h a t Vancouver I s l a n d l e n d s w e l l to such p a r t - t i m e p r o p o s i t i o n s .  G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , w i t h easy  itself commuting  d i s t a n c e s ; c l i m a t i c a l l y w i t h a p r e v a l e n c e of s e a s o n a l crops of f l o w e r s o r s o f t - f r u i t s ; and t o - e a r t h " way the cause,  f i n a l l y w i t h the g e n e r a l " a i r " o f l e i s u r e l y and  o f l i v i n g so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a r e a .  s m a l l mixed farming i s s t i l l  "close-  Irrespective of  the predominant f e a t u r e of the  Islands. The  p r o p o r t i o n of male p o p u l a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d working  i n the c a t e g o r y c o m p r i s i n g  logging, f i s h i n g ,  t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g outweighs  the comparable groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada i n both t i o n s , urban and r u r a l .  While  Canada shows o n l y 0.6  classifica-  of her male p o p u l a t i o n  o c c u p i e d i n t h i s group as r e s i d i n g i n the urban a r e a s , B r i t i s h i n d i c a t e s 2.2  per cent and Vancouver I s l a n d 3.1  per c e n t .  Columbia  For the  areas the comparable f i g u r e s run i n the same o r d e r as f o l l o w s : 6.6 9.2  per cent and  insignificant  13.8  per c e n t .  per cent o f 0.7  o c c u p a t i o n a l group. workers and u n s k i l l e d  The  last  Miners  rural per c e n t ,  and r e l a t e d workers r e p r e s e n t an  as h a l f o f the n a t i o n a l average  for this  two c a t e g o r i e s , namely c r a f t s m e n , p r o c e s s i n g  l a b o u r e r s do not d i f f e r  significantly in their  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n from those i n the P r o v i n c e or Canada, r e p r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l o f over 26,000 men. to 28.9  Percentagewise  t h i s number can be  per cent employed In p r o d u c t i o n and r e l a t e d f i e l d s and  translated  6.0  per cent  c a t e g o r i z e d as l a b o u r e r s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the c r a f t s and lower percentages percentages  process c a t e g o r y shows much  o f women on Vancouver I s l a n d i n comparison to s i m i l a r  f o r B.C.  and Canada.  Both,  i n urban and r u r a l  classification,  -48-  the f i g u r e s f o r Vancouver I s l a n d r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y p r o v i n c i a l and o n e - t h i r d o f the n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n .  h a l f o f the  On important  reserva-  t i o n , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , can be made i n v i e w o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s prevailing i n d i f f e r e n t regions.  F o r example, E n g l i s h  background a g a i n s t I t a l i a n o r i g i n ; o r German v e r s u s I n d i a n .  However  r i s k y these o b s e r v a t i o n s , the d i f f e r e n c e s should n o t pose top b i g an o b s t a c l e to an a n a l y s i s o f g e n e r a l t r e n d s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the female l a b o u r f o r c e i n the a r e a under  study.  G e n e r a l l y speaking, w i t h the above mentioned e x c e p t i o n s , the r e l a t i v e share o f women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e on Vancouver I s l a n d does not v a r y w i d e l y from the province-wide, trends.  o r f o r t h a t matter from Canada-wide  The steady movement o f women from the home i n t o l a b o u r f o r c e may  be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the s h i f t o f p o p u l a t i o n from p u r e l y r u r a l  areas  to the s e m i - r u r a l o r urban. Maybe i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e to comment Canada the number o f male farmers has dropped by almost  that while i n one t h i r d ,  1951-61 the number o f female farmers has more than doubled.  between  However  Vancouver I s l a n d d i f f e r s i n t h i s r e s p e c t from the r e s t o f Canada.  There  are o n l y 216 women l i s t e d as i n "farming o c c u p a t i o n " i n the r u r a l areas o f Vancouver I s l a n d . females  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s 4.0 per cent o f the t o t a l  occupied  ( r u r a l d i s t r i c t s ) , w h i l e s i m i l a r groups show 10.3 per cent f o r  B r i t i s h Columbia and 22.3 f o r Canada. P r i o r i t i e s have t o be a s s i g n e d t o the wide range o f " j o b s " which have t o be developed. to determine what o c c u p a t i o n s  Each d i s t r i c t has to u n f o l d i t s own, c r i t e r i o n a r e more c r i t i c a l o r more s t r a t e g i c f o r the  -49-  f u t u r e o f i t s own development programmes. must not o n l y f i n d means o f r e d u c i n g  F o r example, Vancouver  i t s present  seasonal  and s t r u c t u r a l  unemployment but must gear^up t o p r o v i d i n g an adequate supply The  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n  occupied  Island  o f new j o b s .  i n u n s k i l l e d o r semi-  s k i l l e d a c t i v i t i e s has t o be " l o c a t e d i n p e r s p e c t i v e measurements"; and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs should  be r e c o g n i z e d  as the p r i o r i t y task o f the  "planning" a u t h o r i t i e s . Reasonable s o l u t i o n s must be found f o r the problems o f development o f c e r t a i n r e g i o n s the o t h e r s ;  f o r example, new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y t h a t w i l l make due  allowance f o r b o t h developing  5  the geographic r e a l i t i e s o f the c o u n t r y and the  i n d u s t r i e s , tourism  hopefully w i l l 1965.  o f the I s l a n d t h a t a r e l e s s f a v o u r e d than  included.  These a r e major i s s u e s which  get r e c o g n i t i o n i n the s p e c i a l P l a n n i n g  I t i s understood t h a t  chosen as a t e s t - s u r v e y - a r e a  the n o r t h e r n  Vancouver I s l a n d area has been  by the Community P l a n n i n g  UBC w i t h the d i r e c t c o o p e r a t i o n  Report due A p r i l ,  Department o f the  o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  The town-  s h i p s o f P o r t M c N e i l l , P o r t A l i c e , P o r t Hardy, Coal Harbour and A l e r t Bay have been e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d and the f i n d i n g s and the recommendations w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the above mentioned Report.  E v i d e n t l y the m u l t i -  m i l l i o n d o l l a r spending program o f the B.C. Government i s p r i m a r i l y conc e r n e d w i t h the opening o f communication-links t o the n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d .  area o f  I t i s expected t h a t p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l  f e a t u r e s w i l l be covered i n the Report w i t h emphasis on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n between resources-development and community-planning. essence o f p l a n n i n g :  first  T h i s i s perhaps the  t o o b t a i n a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b a s i c  -50-  s t a t i s t i c a l as w e l l as d e s c r i p t i v e , m a t e r i a l and  then to proceed  rationally  towards the s o l u t i o n of problems. I t i s hoped t h a t d e s p i t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s - t h i s b r i e f  sketch  o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a s e t t i n g f o r examination problems d i s c l o s e d or new  light  of s o c i a l w e l f a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s , w i t h  thrown on the o l d ones, w h i l e a n a l y s i s o f  the c u r r e n t demands i s conducted.  I t i s beyond the scope o f t h i s study to  o u t l i n e a b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l s o c i a l work demands.  new  t e c h n i q u e s i n r e l a t i o n to  There seem to be many f i e l d s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e  concern, where a t l e a s t an attempt  should be made not o n l y to assemble  measurements but a l s o to a n a l y z e them i n s t a t i s t i c a l  the  terms, i n f u l l y  s c i e n t i f i c ways. It i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary  first  t o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l view  o f the demographic i n d i c e s , w i t h a l l t h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and  economic  t r e n d s , b e f o r e t a k i n g a d e t a i l e d l o o k a t .the d i v e r s i f i e d w e l f a r e - r e l a t e d attempts  to " s o l v e s o c i a l problems" i n the g i v e n a r e a .  requirements  of the b a s i c  i s a much needed improvement i n c o r r e l a t i o n o f the  t r a t i v e boundaries  w i t h those used  f o r census t r a c t s .  o f a d a p t a t i o n , can the i n d i c e s from both and  One  adminis-  Only by t h i s k i n d  s o u r c e s , be o b j e c t i v e l y measured  the s o c i a l work f o r the g i v e n a r e a supported,  changed or r e j e c t e d .  A s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s of the major components of the "human geography" w i l l h e l p t o focus a t t e n t i o n where i t i s needed  and  to a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s  results  to s o c i a l problems and w e l f a r e ' s t a s k s .  The  of those i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have to be combined on a c o n r e t e l e v e l w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a r t i c u l a r areas and communities.  Thus d e s p i t e the  unavoidable  -51-  l i m i t a t i o n s t h e r e i s g r e a t compensation f o r the s o c i a l worker to and  e v o l v e a more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f both: the agency-centered  Housing  attempting  the demographic i n d i c e s  studies.  Conditions It  is difficult  the Region u n l e s s one  bears  to d i s c u s s housing  as a w e l f a r e  factor i n  c o n s t a n t l y , i n mind the f a c t t h a t any  to measure w e l f a r e needs and  attempt  s e r v i c e s must o f n e c e s s i t y be c a r r i e d out i n  areas which c o n t a i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n . By f a r the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n Region 1 (Vancouver I s l a n d ) i s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a and as f a r as i t r e l a t e s to h o u s i n g separate  study,  t h e r e f o r e our  has been c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n t h i s area.  i n depth, has been s t a r t e d by the P r o v i n c i a l  Department i n Nanaimo, and  l i t t l e would be accomplished  beyond a d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t , by our attempting  The  Welfare  to i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d Needless to  o f the Nanaimo study, when i t i s complete, would be  i n v a l u a b l e a i d i n extending  the scope o f t h i s  an  thesis.  g r e a t b u l k o f the Region i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n  (and  therefore of housing) i s a r e l a t i v e l y  s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d a r e a n o r t h of  Malahat, a d e t a i l e d study o f which we  have f e l t would add v e r y l i t t l e  our knowledge o f the more s i g n i f i c a n t w e l f a r e  A  at t h i s point,  i n f o r m a t i o n on Nanaimo, w i t h i n the purview o f t h i s study. say, examination  study,  f a c t o r s w i t h i n the  the to  entire  Region. Within Metropolitan V i c t o r i a ,  these i n d i c e s were chosen as  most l i k e l y to i n d i c a t e a c o r r e l a t i o n between housing  conditions  and  w e l f a r e needs: houses i n need of major r e p a i r ; households l a c k i n g e x c l u s i v e  -52-  use o f a f l u s h t o i l e t and/or b a t h i n g f a c i l i t e s ; houses w i t h o u t water; houses w i t h o u t While  r e f r i g e r a t i o n ; houses w i t h o u t  running  central heating.  i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a d w e l l i n g , i s deemed to be  crowded i f the number o f persons  living  n e v e r t h e l e s s no such c r i t e r i o n appears  t h e r e i n exceeds the number o f rooms, to e x i s t  to d e f i n e "the need f o r  major r e p a i r " , o t h e r than a 'common-sense' a p p r a i s a l .  T h i s p o i n t has  more than p a s s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e because i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , o n l y 2.8  in  1961,  per c e n t o f the houses were i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , compared w i t h  per cent i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.  The V i c t o r i a f i g u r e i s e x a c t l y h a l f  of the f i g u r e f o r Canada (5.6%) i n the same y e a r .  The b a s i s i n f a c t f o r  the V i c t o r i a f i g u r e c o u l d be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to geology sociology.  3.7  V i c t o r i a i s on an i s l a n d , and  the i s l a n d i s r o c k .  than to Therefore  many houses i n t h i s a r e a are b u i l t on s o l i d r o c k and have had no  tendency  to ' s e t t l e ' , and hence to l e a n and come a p a r t ; nor have they been s u b j e c t e d to v i b r a t i o n o r the e f f e c t s of m o i s t u r e .  The  e q u i t a b l e c l i m a t e o f the  a r e a i s a l s o a f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h o u s i n g . must be taken then, i n a t t e m p t i n g housing  t o c o r r e l a t e the s t a t e of r e p a i r o f  i n g e n e r a l , to the w e l f a r e The  fact  t h a t 20.9  situation.  per cent of the houses i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  V i c t o r i a are w i t h o u t a f u r n a c e , as compared to 16.1 tan Vancouver can a l s o be r e l a t e d basements i m p r a c t i c a l . British  Care  per cent i n M e t r o p o l i -  to the r o c k y t e r r a i n , which has made  I t can a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d i n some degree to the  t r a d i t i o n which l e a n s towards a f i r e p l a c e i n most rooms o f a  house, r a t h e r than c e n t r a l h e a t i n g . stove o i l or propane gas i s now  The use o f space h e a t e r s f i r e d  common, so t h a t h a r d s h i p need not  with  -53-  necessarily result  from the l a c k o f a  Avery water.  s m a l l percentage  furnace. (.4%)  of households l a c k r u n n i n g  In gross f i g u r e s t h i s amounts to l e s s than 200  and  the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f these are p r o b a b l y  and  i n a few  such households,  i n tenements i n Chinatown,  ' s k i d - r o a d ' h o t e l s , a l l of which are c o n c e n t r a t e d  l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a near the water The  i n a very  front.  percentage o f households l a c k i n g e x c l u s i v e f l u s h  toilets,  baths o r showers, i s o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s than i n Vancouver, which would suggest  a f a i r l y normal tendency over  the y e a r s  towards c o n v e r s i o n  what were once o n e - f a m i l y homes, i n t o what are now houses, i n each o f these m e t r o p o l i t a n  m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y rooming-  centres.  C o n s i d e r a b l y more homes i n V i c t o r i a Vancouver (3.8%) a r e without  of  (5.6%) as compared to  r e f r i g e r a t i o n , and here a g a i n the m i l d ,  e q u i t a b l e c l i m a t e must be a f a c t o r .  Perhaps even more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the  f a c t t h a t V i c t o r i a i s much more compactly b u i l t  together,  so t h a t seldom  does a h o u s e h o l d e r have f a r to go f o r food t h a t would otherwise  require  refrigeration. Some Residence F a c t o r s Some i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e s appeared w i t h r e s p e c t to the of h o u s i n g , Victoria.  and  the number o f one  Dwellings  per cent i n B.C.  Vancouver were found  dwellings, i n Metropolitan  c o n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e 1920  (1961), as compared w i t h 16.2 16.3  person  age  r e p r e s e n t 25.1  per  cent  per c e n t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver,  and  Inasmuch as the o l d e r houses i n M e t r o p o l i t a n to be  i n depressed  a r e a s , over-crowded, and  occupied  by low-income f a m i l i e s , i t would f o l l o w , i f the same f a c t o r s m a i n t a i n e d ,  -54-  t h a t M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a has more e x t e n s i v e Vancouver, or the r e s t o f B.C.  The  slum c o n d i t i o n s than  f a c t t h a t t h i s i s not  so emphasizes a  p e c u l i a r i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a which i s r o o t e d i n the h i s t o r y o f City.  I t began as a Hudson Bay  by people o f some substance.  Co.  f o r t , a commercial c e n t r e ,  I t was  occupied  always a m a t t e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e  con-  c e r n to the s e n i o r government i n England t h a t i t s s t a t u s be p r e s e r v e d , i t became, i n a d d i t i o n , a n a v a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  And,  the  and  when i t s importance  as a s h i p p i n g c e n t r e f o r the r e s t o f the I s l a n d expanded, i t was  reasonable  t h a t V i c t o r i a ' s e a r l y c i t i z e n s would s e t down r o o t s and b u i l d f o r permanence. 1920,  The  r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e r e are s t i l l many homes b u i l t  t h a t are r e a s o n a b l y  use was earlier,  made o f b r i c k and  w e l l preserved, stone  quite serviceable.  There i s sub-standard  to the e x t e n t  r e q u i r e d , or i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d .  the a r e a a d j a c e n t  Main S t . , and Metropolitan  same s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s to p r o j e c t s are E a s t  t h a t have no c o u n t e r p a r t  of  in  other i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e r e f e r r e d to, representing  percentage of one-person d w e l l i n g s 13.5%  t h a t were  Victoria. The  -and  The  Bay  Park l e n d them-  are a l s o areas  the slum c l e a r a n c e  around F a l s e Creek, areas  in  inevitably,  t h a t the James  to Beacon H i l l  o r i g i n a l l y used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g . of Vancouver, but  housing  H i g h - r i s e apartments a r e ,  s e l v e s to the b u i l d i n g o f these apartments, and  the West End  Extensive  t h a t major slum c l e a r a n c e i s  d i s p l a c i n g some o l d e r houses, but i t i s c o i n c i d e n c e a r e a , D a l l a s Road, and  before  i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , and as mentioned  the t e r r a i n i t s e l f i s stone.  M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , but not  and  long  i n B.C.)  can be  (16.4% i n V i c t o r i a - 13.2%  l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t  the  i n Vancouver  that  Victoria  -55-  a t t r a c t s many more r e t i r e d people who C i t y more conducive  f i n d the c l i m a t e and  to l e i s u r e l y l i v i n g .  The  people  the pace of  i n t h i s age  the  group  w i l l o f t e n be widowed, and hence the o n l y occupant o f an apartment d w e l l i n g . These f i g u r e s r e l a t e to 1961,  and  i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the f i g u r e f o r  Vancouver w i l l have r i s e n s u b s t a n t i a l l y due  to the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n  apartment b u i l d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Vancouver's West End years.  It i s hardly l i k e l y  i n apartment l i v i n g  i n V i c t o r i a because o f one  o r two e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s  communities.  Government, and  t h i s i s a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e upon the  People  family people,  four  t h a t t h e r e w i l l ever be any comparable i n c r e a s e  between the two  pattern.  i n the l a s t  V i c t o r i a i s the seat of the  Provincial residential  employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government are l i k e l y  s e t t l e d i n t h e i r career i n t h i s area.  the same a p p l i e s to the Naval e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  To a l e s s e r  to be degree,  On the o t h e r hand, Metro-  p o l i t a n Vancouver i s a commercial c e n t r e housing major o f f i c e s o f n a t i o n a l and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s concerns.  There i s a c o n s t a n t  p a r t i c u l a r l y of j u n i o r e x e c u t i v e p e r s o n n e l . ever i n c r e a s i n g number o f c o l l e g e graduates ment w i t h  these l a r g e concerns,  and who  turnover,  There i s a l s o bound to be who  will  an  f i n d s u i t a b l e employ-  w i l l e s t a b l i s h new  one  or  two-  person households i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  This also i s a pattern that  i s not l i k e l y  At the moment then,  f i g u r e o f 16.4  to be d u p l i c a t e d i n V i c t o r i a . per cent f o r one  person d w e l l i n g s i s most l i k e l y  this to i n d i c a t e  a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y widowed people whose income i s c o m f o r t a b l e , than i s to be and  B.C.  found elsewhere i n the P r o v i n c e .  The  f i g u r e s f o r Vancouver  i n c l u d e a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f e l d e r l y people  l a r g e l y dependent upon the old-age  pension  l i v i n g alone,  supplementary a s s i s t a n c e .  and Even  -56-  if  the percentage  o f one-person d w e l l i n g s i n Vancouver should become equal  to t h a t i n V i c t o r i a ,  the f a c t o r s g i v i n g r i s e to one-person d w e l l i n g s w i l l  be a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t i n each case. Economic F a c t o r s By and  l a r g e , f a c t o r s such as the percentage  occupied dwellings, tenant-occupied percentage  o f owner-  d w e l l i n g s , average r e n t a l , and  o f households w i t h an automobile,  the  are v e r y s i m i l a r i n both  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a . A f i g u r e o f $11,656, r e p r e s e n t i n g the average v a l u e o f d w e l l i n g s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , i s of l i t t l e or no v a l u e to a study t h i s k i n d as i t seems to imply t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l b l o c k of housing  of  exists  t h a t i s markedly below t h i s market v a l u e . Tourism and  i s becoming a major i n d u s t r y f o r Vancouver I s l a n d ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y for Metropolitan V i c t o r i a .  w i t h v i g o r o u s promotion by the B.C. f o r t o u r i s t s i s a t a premium. tend  to r i s e , o f f s e t t i n g  f i g u r e take i n t o account l a r l y i n t o C e n t r a l and i s now  likely  And  as t h i s i n d u s t r y grows,  Government F e r r y system, accommodation  P r o p e r t y v a l u e s i n and around the C i t y  the normal d e p r e c i a t i o n o f age. the r a p i d expansion  North  to be i n excess  Nor  does t h i s  o f suburban growth,  particu-  Saanich, where the median p r i c e of a new  home  o f $20,000.  Shopping c e n t r e s are b e g i n n i n g  to appear on the  of the C i t y , but these have not c r e a t e d , nor are they b u i l t  in  outskirts response  t o , any c o n s i d e r a b l e exodus from the o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l areas to the s k i r t s , as has o c c u r r e d i n Vancouver. i n c r e a s e i n new  core  out-  N e i t h e r i s there any n o t i c e a b l e  immigrants i n t o the core a r e a , as i n Vancouver, which  -57-  would tend  t o c r e a t e o r i n c r e a s e slum c o n d i t i o n s .  Therefore, a f i g u r e  i n d i c a t i n g an average v a l u e o f under $12,000 g i v e s us l i t t l e h e l p i n v i s u a l i z i n g the h o u s i n g  p a t t e r n o f M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , b u t r a t h e r tends  to obscure the f a c t t h a t a s s e s s e d v a l u e s a r e not an a c c u r a t e a c t u a l housing area.  index o f  c o n d i t i o n s , o r o f any t r e n d i n l i v i n g p a t t e r n s , i n t h i s  We would have t o have much more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h  respect  to the a c t u a l number o f houses o f low v a l u e , t h e i r p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n , and the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a low v a l u e , o t h e r  i i  than age and s i z e .  14.  Table  Earnings  Distribution  on V a n c o u v e r  Island:  Comparative Figures f o rV i c t o r i a C i t y British a.  and  Columbia,1961.  Males  Earnings  Vancouver Island  City of Victoria  British Columbia  0  7.2  8.6  8.2  0 1,000 t o 0 2 , 0 0 0  . 7.8  8.3  8.1  # 2,000 t o 0 3,000  9.5  # 3,000 t o 0 4,000  Under  1,000  11.6  10.3  18.8  22.3  18.9  # 4 , 0 0 0 t o 0 6,000  37.8  33.7  35.0  # 6,000 a n d o v e r  14.5  9.8  15.0  ,0 4,044  0 3,698  0 4,044  65,146  11,799  358,424  Average  Earnings  T o t a l Number o f M a l e S a l a r y a n d Wage  Earners  b. Earnings  Females Vancouver Island  City of Victoria  British Columbia  26.5  23.6  24.9  0 1,000 t o 0 2,000  20.2  20.1  19.0  0 2,000 t o 0 3,000  25.0  27.1  24.6  0 3 , 0 0 0 to '0 4 , 0 0 0  14.1  13.8  16.8  0 4 , 0 0 0 t o 0 6,000  7.0  6.2  7.6  0 6,000 a n d o v e r  1.3  0,9  1.5  0 2,004  0 2,096  Under  0  Average  1,000  Earnings  T o t a l Number o f F e m a l e S a l a r y a n d VIage E a r n e r s  0  1,992  23,491  7,021  141,632  Table  15.  Occupational  Distribution  Urban P o p u l a t i o n  of Vancouver I s l a n d  v;ith c o m p a r a t i v e  figures,  / Males only  Occupational Group  of the  19^1«  /  Vancouver I s l a n d No.  P.C.  C ompa r a t i v'e P. C-,' • B.C.  Canada  Managerial  5,362  10.5  13.1  12.1  Professional and T e c h n i c a l  4,365  8.5  9.2  9.5  Clerical  2,868  5.6  6.9  8.9  Sales  3,021  5.9  7.4  7.0  10,267  £2.0  10.8  9*7  3,661  7.1  8.3  8.2  1.7  1.6  1.4  1,619  3.2  2.3  0.7  M i n e r s and R e l a t e d Workers  107  0.2  0.7  1.3 '  Craftsmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers  14,448  28.2  30.9  32.2  3,036  5.9  5.9  6.2  S e r v i c e and . Recreation T r a n s p o r t and '• C o m m u n i c a t i o n Farmers and Farm Workers  896 .  Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters  Labourers  All  Occupied  Males  51,228 a/  100 '•• a/  • a / i n c l u d i n g u n s p e c i f i e d and u n c l a s s i f i e d  100 'a/  occupations.  100  a/  Table' 16.  Occupational  Distribution  Urban P o p u l a t i o n with  of Vancouver  comparative / Females  Occupational Group  figures, only  Vaneouver No.  821  Managerial  of the Island,  1961-. -  /  Island  Comparative  P.C.  Canada  P.C.  B.C.  4.0  4.0  3.0  Professional and T e c h n i c a l  3,341  .16.3  15.1  15.1  Clerical  6,505  3.1.8  34.I  32.5  Sales  2,547  12.5  10.8  8.6  25,2  23.3  22,2  449  2.2  2*2  2.1  87  0.4  0.3  0.2  Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters  3  -  -  -  M i n e r s and R e l a t e d Workers  -  -  -  -  Crafstmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers  705  3.4  . 6.2  12.6  Labourers  171  0.8  0.9  1.2  S e r v i c e and Recreation T r a n s p o r t and Communication Farmers and Farm Workers  All  Occupied  Females  20,454  .  100  100  100  Table  17.  Occupational  D i s t r i b u t i o n of  Rural Population with  of Vancouver I s l a n d ,  comparative  figures,19^1.  / Males only  Occupational Group  the  /  Vancouver I s l a n d  Comparative  P.C.  No.  P.C.  B.C.  Canada  Managerial  2,035  8.6  8.4  5.7  Professional and T e c h n i c a l  1,339  5.7  4.4  3.0  Clerical  605  2.6  2.5  2.2  Sales  736  3.1  2.8  2.2  S e r v i c e and Recreation  2,483  10.6  6,9  3.5  T r a n s p o r t and C ommunication  1,898  8.0  7.6  6.0  F a r m e r s and Farm Workers  1,503  6.4  14.5  38.1  Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters  3,270  13.9  9.2  6.6  1.7  2.3  1.5  M i n e r s and R e l a t e d Workers  414  Craftsmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers  7,188  30.5  30.5  20.4'  Labourers  1,433  6.1  7.9  6.3  All  Occupied Males  23,587  100  100  100  Table  18.  Occupational  Distribution  of  R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver with  comparative  /  Vancouver I s l a n d No.  Island,  figures,1961.  / Females o n l y  Occupational Group  the  Comparative  P.C.  P.C.  B.C.  Canada  Managerial  435  8.0  7.0  4.5  Professional and T e c h n i c a l  873  16.2  14.0  16.5  23.0  19.9  12.3  10.6  8.9  7.0  26.9  26.9  23.5  1,236  Clerical  569  Sales S e r v i c e and Recreation  1,449  T r a n s p o r t and Communication  188  3.5  2.6  2.2  F a r m e r s and Farm Workers  216  4.0  10.3  22.3  15  0.3  0.3  0.1  -  -  -  -  2.8  4.8  7.3  60  1.1  1.4  1.0  5,382  100  Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters M i n e r s and R e l a t e d Workers Crafstmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers Labourers  All'Occupied  Females  151  100  100  T a b l e 19.  Housing i n V i c t o r i a Area : Comparative F i g u r e s f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s , B.C. and Canada, 1961.  Item  Metropolitan Victoria  Comparative Vancouver  Figures  B. C.  Canada  P r o p o r t i o n o f owned dwellings  71.4  69.7  71.0  66.0  Proportion of rented dwellings  28.6  30.3  29.0  34.0  Proportion of f l a t s and apartments  19.6  20.8  14.9  25.3  $ 11,656  $ 13,932  $ 11,744  $ 11,021  P r o p o r t i o n o f owned houses w i t h mortgag i  32.6  35.5  28.6  21.5  Average monthly rentals  $ 65  $ 75  $ 65  $ 6.5  2.8  3.7  5.5  5.6  0.4 7.4 5.1 5.6 20.9  0.5 8.5 5.8 3.8 16.1  5.0 13.9 11.5 7.2 30.1  10.9 21.0 22.9 8.1 32.6  71.8  71.3  71.8  68.4  Average v a l u e - ownec houses  Facilities Need o f r e p a i r Lacking: r u n n i n g water flush toilet bath o r shower refrigeration furnace P.C. households with automobile  :  -58-  Chapter  Total  IV  -  SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES  Caseload In December, 1961,  S o c i a l Welfare 290,835.  the t o t a l c a s e l o a d of the Department o f  on Vancouver I s l a n d was  Thus, a t l e a s t one  11,944 c a s e s .  The  population  person out o f every t w e n t y - f i v e was  a s e r v i c e (or s e r v i c e s ) from the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. t h a t one  was  receiving T h i s means  out of e v e r y t w e n t y - f i v e people on Vancouver I s l a n d r e q u i r e d  assistance i n coping with f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , problems and  f a m i l y and c h i l d  welfare  i n l o c a t i n g s u i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l resources f o r family  members, r e l a t i v e s and  friends.  I t i s important  to note  t h a t the number of persons  r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s from the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare  actually  on Vancouver  I s l a n d i s , i n r e a l i t y , c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than 12,000.  In e s t i m a t i n g  the t o t a l number o f cases on a c a s e l o a d , the Department c o n s i d e r s a person or a person who be r e c e i v i n g  i s head o f a f a m i l y as a case.  S o c i a l Welfare  i n the t o t a l c a s e l o a d .  E x p e r i e n c e has  group from b i r t h  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  where p a r e n t s are under 65 y e a r s o f age, have a t l e a s t two  20 to 64 age  Thus, i t might be presumed t h a t S o c i a l  s e r v i c e s are b e i n g g i v e n to a s i g n i f i c a n t number of  to  families,  children,  54 per cent o f Vancouver I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n f a l l s  group.  may  38 per cent o f  Vancouver I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n a r e c h i l d r e n i n the age  (approximately  they  s e r v i c e s , f a m i l y members other than the head  of the f a m i l y a r e not counted  nineteen years.  Although  single  into  Welfare  children.  the  -59-  In December, 1961, a p p r o x i m a t e l y the Vancouver I s l a n d c a s e l o a d were persons These persons  89 per cent o f the cases on  requiring financial assistance.  r e p r e s e n t e d 3.6 per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the  Island. 36,000 people were over 65 y e a r s o f age, (12 per c e n t o f the Vancouver I s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n ) and 7,190 persons  from t h i s age group were  r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Department o f S o c i a l Thus, one out o f every f i v e persons the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare  Welfare.  who a r e 65 y e a r s and over depend on  to p r o v i d e t o t a l or p a r t i a l  financial  support. Of the t o t a l c a s e l o a d , 3,000 persons Allowance from the Department.  were r e c e i v i n g  Social  While s t a t i s t i c s a r e not a v a i l a b l e ,  e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t 85 t o 90 per cent o f S o c i a l Allowance cases a r e families. 1961.  There were 71,286 f a m i l i e s on Vancouver I s l a n d i n December,  T h e r e f o r e , one out o f every t w e n t y - f i v e f a m i l i e s on Vancouver I s l a n d  were r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance. percentage  Experience  i n d i c a t e s that a f a i r l y  small  o f these f a m i l i e s r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s .  Permanent unemployment r e s u l t i n g from s e r i o u s i l l n e s s o r i n j u r y i s a common cause o f c o n t i n u i n g dependency on S o c i a l Welfare  services.  Also,  i n f a m i l i e s where the mother has been widowed, d e s e r t e d , d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d , a s s i s t a n c e i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d f o r a number o f y e a r s . In the main, a l t h o u g h  the t o t a l number o f persons  s e r v i c e s may not i n c r e a s e o r decrease established persons  receiving  t o any g r e a t e x t e n t , e x p e r i e n c e has  t h a t there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f f l u c t u a t i o n i n the  who a r e r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s a t any g i v e n time.  I t would f o l l o w  -60-  t h a t m a n y f a m i l i e s are beset by problems o f a more temporary n a t u r e . example, many i n d i v i d u a l s and problems r e s u l t i n g ing necessary  For  families require assistance i n handling  from s e a s o n a l unemployment, l a c k of e d u c a t i o n and  train-  to o b t a i n permanent j o b s , unexpected i l l n e s s or i n j u r y  and  l o s s o f the breadwinner. Although  the m a j o r i t y of c l i e n t s o n l y r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e f o r  temporary p e r i o d s o f time, c e r t a i n problems are r e - o c c u r r i n g i n the o f one  out o f e v e r y  t w e n t y - f i v e persons  on Vancouver I s l a n d a t any  cases given  time. In the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia one persons and  i s i n r e c e i p t of S o c i a l Welfare  district),  approximately  w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and  one  services.  out of every  fifteen  In Region I I , (Vancouver  out of every e i g h t e e n persons  requires  i n Region I I I , (Okanagan a r e a ) , the p r o p o r t i o n i s one  to every n i n e t e e n persons.  T h e r e f o r e , i t can be r e a d i l y seen t h a t on  Vancouver I s l a n d the need f o r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s it  i s i n the p r o v i n c e as a whole and The  i n c r e a s e d by 26.4 was  35.2  welfare  total  than  i n Regions I I and I I I .  s o c i a l w e l f a r e c a s e l o a d on Vancouver I s l a n d  per cent from 1951  to 1961.  per c e n t d u r i n g the same p e r i o d .  The  population increase  This could i n d i c a t e that  s e r v i c e s g i v e n have i n c r e a s e d i n p r o p o r t i o n to p o p u l a t i o n growth.  On the o t h e r hand, there i s no way  of knowing whether a l l persons  w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are i n r e c e i p t of them. to handle  a l l social The  December, 1960,  needing  Are adequate s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e  problems?  Vancouver I s l a n d w e l f a r e t o t a l reached  when the o v e r a l l c a s e l o a d t o t a l l e d  i t s peak i n  12,192 c a s e s ,  an  -61-  i n c r e a s e o f 28 per cent from 1951. on Vancouver I s l a n d who S o c i a l Welfare  S i n c e t h i s date,  10,804, a 9.6  In November, 1964,  per cent decrease  f o r example,  from December,  1960.  P r o v i n c i a l c a s e l o a d s have i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y d u r i n g past ten y e a r s . reached  However, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the p r o v i n c i a l  a h i g h peak i n 1961  receiving services.  persons  are r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e from the Department o f  has g r a d u a l l y decreased.  the c a s e l o a d was  the number of  when there were a t l e a s t 80,266  the  total  persons  These c a s e l o a d s have been d e c r e a s i n g s i n c e t h i s  Between December, 1961,  and November, 1964,  per cent i n the number o f persons  there was  date.  a reduction of  2.2,  requiring welfare services i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. Thus, there was  a steady i n c r e a s e i n c a s e l o a d s  Columbia and on Vancouver I s l a n d from 1951  to 1960.  Vancouver I s l a n d c a s e l o a d s have shown a decrease  in British  Since 1960  the  i n the number of  r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s ; a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n has been e v i d e n t throughout province since  to 1961,  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e both on Vancouver I s l a n d and  persons  number of cases r e c e i v i n g In 1951,  89.2  87.8  loads.  In March, 1954,  Welfare.  per cent of the Vancouver I s l a n d c a s e l o a d were  per cent o f the c a s e l o a d was The  total  s e r v i c e s from the Department of S o c i a l  were r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and,  ances.  requiring  i n the p r o v i n c e o f  B r i t i s h Columbia have r e p r e s e n t e d w e l l over 85 per cent o f the  who  the  1961. Over the ten year p e r i o d , 1951  persons  people  made up o f persons  i n December,  1960,  i n r e c e i p t of allow-  same p a t t e r n has been e v i d e n t w i t h r e g a r d to p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases r e p r e s e n t e d 87.5  caseper  -62-  cent o f the t o t a l c a s e l o a d ;  88.4 per cent o f the cases  i n December, 1960,  were persons i n r e c e i p t o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . On Vancouver I s l a n d the number o f persons r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e has i n c r e a s e d 28.4 per cent d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1951 t o 1961. Persons r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l allowance f o r the same time i n c r e a s e d by 51 per cent! The  p r o v i n c i a l p a t t e r n has been s i m i l a r .  to note t h a t the s o c i a l allowance c a s e l o a d 1957  t o 1958!  It i s significant  i n c r e a s e d by 3$ per cent  from  From 1951 t o 1961 the number o f persons g e t t i n g s o c i a l  allowance i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e d by 65 per c e n t , a g r e a t e r  increase  than on Vancouver I s l a n d . Thus t h e b u l k o f the cases in receipt of financial assistance. increased during  the past t e n y e a r s  on Vancouver I s l a n d a r e persons  F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases  i n p r o p o r t i o n to p o p u l a t i o n growth.  However, s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s have been e v i d e n t loads.  These trends have a l s o , b e e n The  evident  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  case-  caseloads.  on the number o f persons r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l  58 per cent o f the t o t a l c a s e l o a d are persons i n r e c e i p t o f  Old Age Pensions.  The number o f e l d e r l y persons r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s d u r i n g  the past t e n y e a r s has shown a g r a d u a l r e s u l t o f normal p o p u l a t i o n growth. result  i n s o c i a l allowance  changes, i n t o t a l c a s e l o a d on Vancouver I s l a n d has  depended t o a l a r g e extent assistance.  have  increase.  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y the  However, the i n c r e a s e may, i n p a r t ,  from a growing, number o f e l d e r l y persons who have moved t o Vancouver  I s l a n d from o t h e r areas  t o take advantage o f the I s l a n d s moderate c l i m a t e . 1  From 1951 t o 1961 the number o f persons r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l  -63-  Allowance on Vancouver I s l a n d i n c r e a s e d by 51 per c e n t . to note I960!  t h a t s o c i a l allowance Although  It i s significant  cases i n c r e a s e d by 58 per cent from 1956  s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e , e x p e r i e n c e has  dependency on s o c i a l allowance There are many reasons why  shown t h a t  r e s u l t s , i n the main, from unemployment.  a person i s unemployed.  i n c r e a s e o f unemployed persons  For example,  on Vancouver I s l a n d d u r i n g a  s h o r t p e r i o d of time might suggest  t h a t the a r e a was  economic r e c e s s i o n ; there i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y  i b l e f o r p u t t i n g a l a r g e number of men a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t i s important  the  comparatively  undergoing  an  t h a t u n d e s i r a b l e weather  kept employees away from seasonal jobs or perhaps automation was  dependency.  out o f work.  respons-  In terms of w e l f a r e  to be aware of the reasons  for financial  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r Vancouver I s l a n d and  surveys i n t h i s a r e a are u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d . a p p l y i n g f o r s o c i a l allowance on agency s t a f f and  A sudden i n f l u x of  persons  i n a d i s t r i c t o f f i c e can p l a c e g r e a t demands  agency program.  Information concerning  the  reasons  f o r dependency would be h e l p f u l  to w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n terms o f  p l a n n i n g a program o f e f f e c t i v e  s e r v i c e s to a i d a p p l i c a n t s ; t h i s  t i o n would a l s o be u s e f u l to w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l preventative  services.  o f the t o t a l Vancouver I s l a n d c a s e l o a d . f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d by 13.2 showed a 6,1  i n c r e a s e from 1954 w e l f a r e and  informa-  involved i n planning  S e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d  these cases  to  From 1951 per c e n t .  per cent i n c r e a s e and  to 1957.  to 1961  13.2  to  a 6.8  1954 per cent  These i n c r e a s e s o c c u r r e d i n the t o t a l  f a m i l y c a s e l o a d and  cent  s e r v i c e s to  From 1951  there was  per  child  they seem to be i n l i n e w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n  -64-  growth.  W i t h i n t h i s group o f s e r v i c e s , f a m i l y s e r v i c e c a s e s , p r o t e c t i o n  cases and a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s are the main p r e v e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n by the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e . 1961  the Vancouver I s l a n d c a s e l o a d s e x p e r i e n c e d  44.8  per c e n t i n f a m i l y s e r v i c e c a s e s , 67,4  and 8 per cent i n a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s . The  c a s e l o a d over  the past ten y e a r s i s due  cent i n c r e a s e i n these c a s e s . From 1957  per cent i n p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s , particularly  i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l f a m i l y and c h i l d w e l f a r e  i n v o l v i n g f o s t e r home s e r v i c e s .  to 1962  to  the f o l l o w i n g r e d u c t i o n s -  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s not  encouraging!  trends.  From 1951  to  services'  t o the growing number o f cases  From 1951  to 1961  there was  a.60.7 per  P r o v i n c i a l caseloads e x h i b i t e d s i m i l a r  f o s t e r home s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e d by 36.2  per  cent whereas p r e v e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e s decreased. The  i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l allowance  cases c o u l d v e r y w e l l p l a c e  p r e s s u r e s on the w e l f a r e s t a f f t o the p o i n t where o t h e r s e r v i c e s are neglected.  For i n s t a n c e , i f a g r e a t number o f people come to a d i s t r i c t  welfare o f f i c e  to a p p l y f o r s o c i a l allowance,  the S o c i a l worker may  be  so  busy p r o v i d i n g , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h a t he l a c k s the time and energy to o f f e r f a m i l y s e r v i c e or p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s to the c l i e n t .  Therefore, i f  adequate s e r v i c e s are t o be p r o v i d e d t o a l l a p p l i c a n t s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to i n c r e a s e s t a f f i n p r o p o r t i o n to r i s i n g c a s e l o a d s . of s t a f f i s not f o r t h c o m i n g , an i n c r e a s e i n persons service,  I f an adequate number demanding a  specific  such as s o c i a l allowance, might take up the whole of the  w o r k e r s time and a t t e n t i o n . 1  I f t h i s s i t u a t i o n were allowed  c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s might c o m p l e t e l y d i s a p p e a r due, m a i n l y , o v e r l o a d e d work program.  social  to c o n t i n u e ,  to the worker's  -65-  I t would be h e l p f u l to know i f there was any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and the i n c r e a s i n g number o f c h i l d r e n coming i n t o c a r e and r e q u i r i n g f o s t e r home s e r v i c e s . of h a v i n g  Have l a c k o f adequate f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  and the n e c e s s i t y  t o e x i s t on low s o c i a l allowance r a t e s been f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g  to f a m i l y breakdown? The has  number o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s  i n c r e a s e d by 60 per cent  cases  from 1951 t o 1961.  involving institutional  i s not too s i g n i f i c a n t  on Vancouver I s l a n d  As the t o t a l number o f  s e r v i c e s was o n l y 209 i n 1961, the i n c r e a s e  i n terms o f the t o t a l Vancouver I s l a n d  caseload.  However, the growth i n the number o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s may i n d i c a t e t h a t , as the p o p u l a t i o n grows, more r e s o u r c e s community.  a r e becoming a v a i l a b l e to the  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n on  Vancouver I s l a n d has s t i m u l a t e d the development o f r e s o u r c e s  such as board-  i n g homes and n u r s i n g homes. In-1961, over h a l f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d was l i v i n g  i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a .  i n c r e a s e d by 117 per cent.  From 1951 to 1961 t h i s  The w e l f a r e  caseload  p e r i o d o f time grew from 5,159 t o 6,100 c a s e s , cent.  On the o t h e r hand, the c a s e l o a d s  i n c r e a s e d by 29.7 per cent  i n t h i s area over the same  an i n c r e a s e o f 15.5 per  f o r the r e s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d  from 1951 t o 1961.  suggest t h a t M e t r o p o l i t a n V c i t o r i a i s a f a i r l y p a r t i c u l a r l y when compared w i t h  population  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n might s t a b l e and e s t a b l i s h e d a r e a ,  the r e s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  Many  people w i t h ample incomes have s e t t l e d i n the V i c t o r i a area d u r i n g years.  retired recent  The s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and the expansion o f the  -66-  tourist  t r a d e s has  r e t a i l and  s t i m u l a t e d growth i n s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s and  i n wholesale,  f i n a n c i a l b u s i n e s s e s ; V i c t o r i a , as c a p i t a l c i t y - of - B r i t i s h  Columbia, may  o f f e r job o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l  a number of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s .  s e r v i c e to  Thus, i t would appear t h a t there are q u i t e  a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r permanent employment i n t h i s  area.  A l s o , from the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , i t might be assumed that f a i r l y adequate w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Victoria. Welfare,  For example, the area i s served by the Department o f the F a m i l y and  r e c e i v i n g support The  C h i l d r e n s ' S e r v i c e and  from the U n i t e d  the twenty-four  Social agencies  Appeal.  s i z e a b l e increase i n welfare caseloads  i n the remainder  o f the I s l a n d might i n d i c a t e t h a t these communities are i n e a r l i e r  growth  stages and  persons  tend to have a " f r o n t i e r " f l a v o u r , thus a t t r a c t i n g many  not permanently employed elsewhere.  The  economy of the m a j o r i t y o f c e n t r a l  and n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d c e n t r e s depends h e a v i l y on f i s h i n g logging. can r e s u l t  These jobs are seasonal i n nature and, i n many men  b e i n g unemployed.  f o r example, bad weather  Persons l a c k i n g adequate  f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f t e n move to r u r a l areas and o r d e r to f i n d cheaper l i v i n g accommodation. w i t h r e g a r d to the areas  and  smaller centres i n  T h i s t r e n d has been e v i d e n t  surrounding Vancouver.  Again,  t h a t the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n V i c t o r i a and  i t i s possible  district  are much more  comprehensive than those p r o v i d e d i n the o u t l y i n g ; areas of the I s l a n d . Types of A s s i s t a n c e For purposes of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i t has been f o r the Department of S o c i a l Welfare  to develop  necessary  a method of keeping  account  -67-  of  the number o f persons r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s and o f the nature o f the  s e r v i c e s being given.  The method o f r e p o r t i n g S o c i a l W e l f a r e  i s based on the type o r c a t e g o r y o f s e r v i c e the c l i e n t  activities  i s receiving.  a l a r g e e x t e n t , c a t e g o r i e s have been determined by p r o v i n c i a l  To  legislation.  The p r o v i n c i a l government has passed c e r t a i n a c t s making v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e , i e : S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t , the A c t g o v e r n i n g Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , A d o p t i o n A c t , e t c . , and, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f S o c i a l Workers employed by the Department t o c a r r y out the a c t s and t h e i r accompanying  regulations.  These  services.may be d i s c u s s e d i n three main groups,  namely, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n , and h e a l t h and i n s t i t u t i o n a l All legislation.  services.  the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a t e g o r i e s a r e governed by  They i n c l u d e , S o c i a l Allowance,  (which has i n c o r p o r a t e d  Mothers' Allowance cases shown s e p a r a t e l y i n s t a t i s t i c s Old  Age A s s i s t a n c e , Supplementary  S o c i a l Allowance,  as O l d Age Pension i n 1951 s t a t i s t i c s , Bonus);  1951 t o 1958),  ( f o r m e r l y r e f e r r e d to  and a l s o known as Old Age S e c u r i t y  B l i n d Persons' Allowance and D i s a b l e d Persons'  Allowance.  Cases i n v o l v i n g persons i n r e c e i p t o f any o f these allowances w i l l be p l a c e d i n the a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r y f o r purposes o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . With the e x c e p t i o n o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e s , any person who has made a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the o t h e r p e n s i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s as t o whether the money has been granted, i s counted as a case. Eligibility but on age and h e a l t h .  f o r s e r v i c e s depends not o n l y on f i n a n c i a l  For example,  o ly n  status  persons over the age o f seventy  -68year s may  a p p l y f o r the Supplementary  S o c i a l Allowance  and, Old  Age  A s s i s t a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e o n l y to those persons i n the s i x t y - f i v e to seventy age group.  Eligibility  f o r the B l i n d and D i s a b l e d pensions  depends on m e d i c a l evidence to c o n f i r m the c l i e n t or d i s a b l e d  is sufficiently  that he i s c o n s i d e r e d unable t o earn a l i v i n g .  blind  A l l the above  allowances are based on a s t r i c t means t e s t . Each person i n r e c e i p t o f these allowances i s counted as a case.  Thus, i f a man  i s i n r e c e i p t o f Old Age A s s i s t a n c e and h i s w i f e  r e c e i v e s a D i s a b l e d Persons' Allowance, cases.  they w i l l be counted as separate  However, the s t a t i s t i c s do not show that these people, as a  c o u p l e , are r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s and,  t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether  there are c h i l d r e n i n the home. The a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n does show f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y the number o f persons assistance.  There  from s i x t y - f i v e and up who  are i n need o f  financial  i s a d i s c r e p a n c y here, however, i n t h a t S o c i a l Allow-  ance i s b e i n g used to supplement the c o s t o f N u r s i n g Home c a r e f o r e l d e r l y persons. cases!)  (These cases would be counted as S o c i a l  There are many t h i n g s we  do not know about  Allowance  these people; f o r  example, are they l i v i n g a t home, w i t h r e l a t i v e s , or i n i n s t i t u t i o n s ? Are t h e i r pensions adequate?  Until  the i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e ,  surveys are completed there i s no way  to supplement  o f measuring  whether  the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d are e f f e c t i v e . A r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e method has been e s t a b l i s h e d t o keep t r a c k o f the number o f persons who, p h y s i c a l and mental d i s a b i l i t i e s ,  because  o f b l i n d n e s s and  certain  are not a b l e to take employment.  We  -69-  a l s o know that these people have an Income o f under a c e r t a i n amount. the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e counts g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether the p r o v i d e d are adequate,  shown an i n c r e a s e o f  per cent i n b l i n d and d i s a b l e d persons' cases from 1952  Allowance  may  be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t  d i d not come i n t o b e i n g u n t i l January,  Allowance was  services  or whether a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s are r e q u i r e d .  The Vancouver I s l a n d c a s e l o a d has  s i z e a b l e i n c r e a s e might  But  put i n t o e f f e c t i n 1952.  The  to 1961.  340  This  that D i s a b l e d Persons' 1955,  temperate  and B l i n d  Persons'  c l i m a t e o f the I s l a n d  a g a i n be a t t r a c t i n g a number, of b l i n d and d i s a b l e d persons.  However,  e x p e r i e n c e would suggest t h a t the community i s j u s t g r a d u a l l y becoming aware t h a t these pensions are a v a i l a b l e and,  f o r example, d o c t o r s are  b e g i n n i n g to r e f e r more p a t i e n t s to w e l f a r e o f f i c e s to a p p l y f o r these pensions. Persons over e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age who the Allowances bility  a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d may  f o r S o c i a l Allowance  financial  do not q u a l i f y f o r  a p p l y f o r S o c i a l Allowance.  Eligi-  i s based on the amount o f an a p p l i c a n t ' s  assets. A g a i n , the methods of c o u n t i n g cases and o f g a t h e r i n g  p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the c l i e n t s  tells  the persons r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance.  s t a n d a r d s t a t i s t i c s which are  The  us v e r y l i t t l e  about  p r e s e n t l y b e i n g compiled are s a t i s f a c t o r y as f a r as they go; however, they p r e s e n t o n l y a s k e l e t o n view o f the t o t a l and  t h e i r problems.  s i t u a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the  For example, i n c o u n t i n g the number of  clients  persons  r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance, o n l y heads o f f a m i l i e s and s i n g l e persons are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  A man  may  have a w i f e and seven c h i l d r e n  who  -70-  are a l l depending on S o c i a l Allowance f o r f i n a n c i a l  support; the present  s t a t i s t i c s w i l l o n l y count the f a m i l y as one case! In c o u n t i n g  the number o f c a s e s ,  preference  i s given  cases where the people concerned r e q u i r e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  I f a per-  son i s i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l Allowance, h i s case i s counted i n t h a t gory r e g a r d l e s s  t o those  cate-  o f the f a c t t h a t the worker may a l s o be g i v i n g the c l i e n t  and h i s f a m i l y a f a m i l y s e r v i c e or p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e .  The same i s true  i n the case o f a person r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s f o r unmarried p a r e n t s .  The  worker may be spending a g r e a t d e a l o f time h e l p i n g a young woman p l a n f o r h e r expected c h i l d .  I f the c l i e n t concerned i s r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l  Allowance, h e r case i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y and no r e c o r d to i n d i c a t e t h a t unmarried parent s e r v i c e s were I t i s obvious then that completely accurate. piled differently. obtained  given. s t a t i s t i c s a r e not  I t would f o l l o w that the s t a t i s t i c s might be comF o r example, more m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n  would be  i f the s t a t i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f the people  a c t u a l l y i n need o f s e r v i c e r a t h e r exact  the present  i s kept  than by c a t e g o r y o f s e r v i c e .  A more  r e c o r d o f the number o f i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t o f  assistance  should  a l s o be a v a i l a b l e .  In many i n s t a n c e s ,  the time and e f f o r t demanded o f a S o c i a l  Worker d e a l i n g w i t h a l a r g e f a m i l y g r e a t l y exceeds the q u a n t i t y o f work r e q u i r e d by a s m a l l e r  family unit.  The law o f averages would suggest  that the l a r g e r the number o f c h i l d r e n , the g r e a t e r o f these y o u n g s t e r s w i l l  the chances t h a t one  r e q u i r e some k i n d o f s p e c i a l c a r e .  treatment, p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n , e t c . ) The s t a t i s t i c s  ( i e : medical  f a i l t o show a  -71-  t r u e p i c t u r e o f what i s a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n these f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . In statistics,  a d d i t i o n to improving  the p r e s e n t method o f keeping  t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y a g r e a t need f o r spot surveys and  s t u d i e s to be completed However, s t a t i s t i c s ,  i n many areas c o n c e r n i n g S o c i a l Welfare  s t u d i e s and  p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t e d and used.  special services.  surveys can o n l y be e f f e c t i v e i f they are Thus, i t i s important  that a research u n i t  be c o n s i d e r e d as a v i t a l p a r t o f the Department o f S o c i a l  Welfare.  F o r t u n a t e l y , the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare  i s planning a  more d e t a i l e d c o m p i l a t i o n o f persons i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l Allowance w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h heads o f f a m i l i e s as w e l l as t h e i r a i d . to d i s t i n g u i s h c o u p l e s , one relatives. mation  which  I t i s proposed  the f o l l o w i n g groups of people: s i n g l e persons, m a r r i e d  parent f a m i l i e s , District  two  parent f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n w i t h  o f f i c e s are i n the process o f p r e p a r i n g t h i s  a c c o r d i n g l y , a l t h o u g h , as y e t these new  i n c l u d e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l In May,  1959,  infor-  groupings have not been  count. a r e p o r t was  p u b l i s h e d c o n c e r n i n g a survey  done by the F a m i l y D i v i s i o n i n V i c t o r i a on a l l S o c i a l Allowance  applica-  r  t i o n s r e c e i v e d by t h a t D i v i s i o n i n November, 1958. d i s t r i b u t i o n by sex, m a r i t a l in British  Columbia,  the y e a r s 1941,  i n the appendices.  survey  elucidates  s t a t u s , age, b i r t h p l a c e , l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e  reason f o r a p p l i c a t i o n , monthly income, e t c .  t i v e t a b l e s have been p r e s e n t e d , for  The  1949  and  (on the b a s i s o f p r o v i n c i a l  1958.  Compara-  statistics)  Samples o f these t a b l e s are i n c l u d e d  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e that t h i s survey was  not done on a  more c o n t i n u i n g and comprehensive b a s i s f o r the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e would seem to p r o v i d e a g r e a t d e a l o f p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  Services  to f a m i l i e s and  or s e r v i c e s to be d i s c u s s e d .  Any  c h i l d r e n i s the  second l a r g e area  case where casework or  counselling  s e r v i c e s are rendered to i n d i v i d u a l s and/or f a m i l i e s and, s e r v i c e s are not  required,  are  to be c l a s s e d as F a m i l y S e r v i c e  should be mentioned t h a t some c a t e g o r i e s 1951  to 1957  have been i n c l u d e d  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c ,  w i t h the  and,  cases.  s t a t i s t i c s f o r the  Crease C l i n i c , Mental H o s p i t a l  services involved.  H i s t o r i e s were r e q u i r e d  from the  i n the F a m i l y S e r v i c e  These cases have been i n c o r p o r a t e d of the n a t u r e o f the  where o t h e r  category. and  It years  These  are  Woodlands S c h o o l .  Family S e r v i c e c a t e g o r y because  In a l l these cases, S o c i a l  the Department's S o c i a l Worker was  f o r f o l l o w - u p c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e when the  p a t i e n t was  responsible  discharged  from  the  c l i n i c or h o s p i t a l . P r o t e c t i o n cases are  those where the S o c i a l Worker i s con-  cerned re the w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d or c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own I f the  present s i t u a t i o n continues,  result. Act.)  ( i e : the c h i l d w i l l be  the  according  family  to be  the  apprehended under the P r o t e c t i o n of  together.  A g a i n , p r o t e c t i o n cases are o n l y  to heads o f f a m i l i e s and  Also,  i s being given  to the c l i e n t s .  The  Family Service  are p r e s e n t l y underway to  cases i n t o one  Adoption category includes  three  Children  effort  the number o f c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d  (Plans  end  counted  P r o t e c t i o n cases are o n l y noted as such i f no o t h e r  P r o t e c t i o n cases and  first  action i s l i k e l y  Thus, the worker attempts to o f f e r casework s e r v i c e s i n an  to h o l d  known.  court  family s e t t i n g .  i s not service incorporate  category.) types of s e r v i c e s .  The  of these i s the Pending A d o p t i o n Home which c o n s i s t s of c o u p l e s whose  a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a d o p t i o n i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  and  assessment.  Once  the  -73-  home i s approved  as s u i t a b l e f o r a c h i l d ,  Approved A d o p t i o n Home c a t e g o r y u n t i l the home.  the case i s moved to the  such time as a c h i l d i s p l a c e d i n  From the time the c h i l d i s p l a c e d to the end of the p r o b a t i o n -  a r y p e r i o d , the s t a t u s changes to C h i l d In A d o p t i o n Home.  Also, included  i n t h i s group o f s e r v i c e s are a d o p t i o n homes where c h i l d r e n have been p l a c e d p r i v a t e l y o r homes i n which a s t e p parent has made a p p l i c a t i o n to adopt  a c h i l d a l r e a d y i n the home.  ward of the Superintendent case.  Except  the p a r e n t s and  i n cases where the c h i l d i s a the c h i l d are counted  as  one  There i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether the p r e s e n t a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s  are e f f e c t i v e .  In f a c t ,  there are many a s p e c t s of a d o p t i o n p r a c t i c e s which  are r i p e f o r f u r t h e r study. methods are b e i n g used  Are a d o p t i o n s  to measure s u c c e s s ?  s u c c e s s f u l , and  i f so, what  To what degree i s the  adopted  c h i l d a f f e c t e d by the l o s s o f h i s / h e r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s ? e t c . There are t h r e e groups o f s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the F o s t e r Home Services category.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t persons  the C h i l d r e n i n Care. p a r e n t s through Act.  These i n c l u d e the c h i l d who  has been taken from h i s  i n Non  Ward c a r e .  T h i s means t h a t the  o f C h i l d Welfare has made mutual arrangements w i t h  parent to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y time.  s e r v i c e s are  c o u r t a c t i o n as d e s i g n a t e d by the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n .  A l s o i n c l u d e d are youngsters  Superintendent  receiving  f o r the c h i l d  the  f o r a temporary p e r i o d o f  No c o u r t a c t i o n i s i n v o l v e d . The main r e s o u r c e f o r these c h i l d r e n i s the f o s t e r home.  There are two c o u p l e s who study.  types o f f o s t e r homes.  Pending  F o s t e r Homes i n c l u d e those  have a p p l i e s to take f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and, whose home i s under  Approved f o s t e r homes i n d i c a t e those homes which have been accepted  -74-  as  s u i t a b l e t o take i n C h i l d r e n  may not be c a r i n g The  i n Care.  An approved F o s t e r  Home may o r  for children. s t a t i s t i c s compiled c o n c e r n i n g C h i l d r e n  i n Care g i v e an  a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e as to how many c h i l d r e n a r e l i v i n g away from t h e i r p a r e n t s , as each c h i l d i s counted i n d i v i d u a l l y . information  However, t h e r e i s no  a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g the a c t u a l c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d  n a t u r e o f t h e i r problems.  The F o s t e r  pertinent and the  Home count seems t o be f a i r l y  real-  i s t i c ; however, i t might be more s i g n i f i c a n t t o i n d i c a t e the approved Foster  Homes a c t u a l l y i n use.  I t might be h e l p f u l i f the s t a t i s t i c s were  to show the number o f approved f o s t e r home r e s o u r c e s - w a i t i n g Again, studies homes.  are urgently  t o be used.  needed to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of foster  Do they p r o v i d e adequate r e s o u r c e s f o r a l l the c h i l d r e n needing  homes? C l i e n t s r e c e i v i n g h e l p w i t h problems o f unmarried parenthood and only any  i l l e g i t i m a c y are classed  as Unmarried P a r e n t s ' c a s e s .  Persons a r e  counted as r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s i n t h i s a r e a i f they a r e not r e c e i v i n g o t h e r s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by the department.  The o n l y  information  revealed  about the c l i e n t s i s the f a c t t h a t he/she i s r e c e i v i n g h e l p w i t h problems of unmarried parenthood.  A g a i n , there i s no i n d i c a t i o n as t o whether the  c l i e n t s o b t a i n e d any p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s Special Child Services under the L e g i t i m a t i o n  Act,  from the s e r v i c e s  includes  provided.  clients receiving  services  the E q u a l G u a r d i a n s h i p A c t , the Immigration A c t  and m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the r e p a t r i a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n under e i g h t e e n years o f age.  C l i e n t s a r e counted i n t h i s group o n l y  i n other categories.  i f they a r e not i n c l u d e d  There has been some c o n f u s i o n on the p a r t o f S o c i a l  -75-  Workers as t o what i s to be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  There i s a tendency  to put a case i n S p e c i a l C h i l d S e r v i c e s when i t r e a l l y ought i n c l u d e d i n the F a m i l y S e r v i c e c a t e g o r y . counted  t o have been  Thus, these cases a r e n o t always  too a c c u r a t e l y . The  f i n a l group  i n c l u d e s those cases coming under the heading,  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S e r v i c e s . i n v o l v e d ; the f i r s t  There a r e two groups o f s e r v i c e s  o f these i s H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S e r v i c e s .  Workers  sometimes d i s a g r e e as to which cases would be p l a c e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  How-  e v e r , i n the main, persons i n t h i s group a r e those who have a p p l i e d f o r admission to p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  i e : Kartloops Home e t c . , and, who  have n o t been counted i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . Cases d e s c r i b e d as Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e  projects  which come w i t h i n the scope o f the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s L i c e n s i n g A c t and, which a r e r e f e r r e d t o the d i s t r i c t I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r assessment.  o f f i c e s by the C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f Welfare  Cases a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s such as B o a r d i n g  Homes, N u r s i n g Homes, Camps and K i n d e r g a r t e n s .  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g i f  the s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l e d such i n f o r m a t i o n as who i s u s i n g these r e s o u r c e s , the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d and a r e these r e s o u r c e s meeting of the community. beneficial  the needs  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a would undoubtedly be  t o w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t i m u l a t i n g the development  of these r e s o u r c e s . The Department o f S o c i a l Welfare p r o v i d e s a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s t o persons r e s i d i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d . has  suggested  Available information  t h a t , i n t h i s a r e a , one out o f e v e r y t w e n t y - f i v e people a r e  r e c e i v i n g these s e r v i c e s .  However, a f t e r  s t u d y i n g the s i t u a t i o n , i t would  -76-  appear t h a t the p r e s e n t r e c e i v i n g the  s e r v i c e s and  example, the exact i s not who  are  s t a t i s t i c s reveal very  known.  the n a t u r e and  little  services  given  t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n  F a c t s are a l s o l a c k i n g c o n c e r n i n g  time.  shown t h a t a person may Therefore,  why  r e q u i r e more than  i s a person who  assistance  Does t h i s suggest t h a t persons r e q u i r i n g  to p r o v i d i n g  types o f s e r v i c e s ?  f i n a n c i a l assistance  the S o c i a l Worker's a b i l i t y  financial  financial  s e r v i c e s are r e c e i v i n g p r i o r i t y at the expense Of  r e q u i r i n g other  persons  I f the Department i s g i v i n g  priority  s e r v i c e s , what e f f e c t does t h i s have  c o m p l e t e l y a l l e v i a t e h i s c l i e n t ' s problems o r , i s he  Also, o f work expended on Worker may  r e p o r t he  However, there  s e r v i c e s being there  on  to render e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s to h i s c l i e n t s ?  For example, does the S o c i a l Worker expect that f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  p o s s i b i l i t y o f other  one  i s receiving  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and; m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g o n l y counted as a a s s i s t a n c e case?  the  provided.  E x p e r i e n c e has s e r v i c e a t any  For  families receiving services  Would i t not be h e l p f u l to know the  adequacy of the  people  scope of t h e i r problems.  number o f i n d i v i d u a l s and  i n r e c e i p t of services?  about the  i s no  able  to c o n s i d e r  the  required?  i n d i c a t i o n as  to the  q u a l i t y and  the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l S o c i a l Workers. i s responsible  will  f o r g i v i n g s e r v i c e to 500  i s no e f f e c t i v e method p r e s e n t l y i n use  i n the  quantity A Social  people. Department  to measure the r e s u l t s o f the Workers' performance. These are j u s t a few  questions  the Department's Vancouver I s l a n d s t a t i s t i c s . s t r o n g l y p o i n t s out  which a r i s e a f t e r The  the need f o r the c o m p i l a t i o n  above  reviewing  information  of more comprehensive  -77-  s t a t i s t i c a l data.  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s and surveys a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d i f the  Department o f S o c i a l  Welfare  i s g o i n g t o p r o v i d e the most  effective  s e r v i c e s to the p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouver Islairid. District  Caseloads The  similar  t r e n d s which p r e v a i l  t o those which predominate  i n the D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s a r e  i n the r e g i o n .  F o r example,  persons  r e q u i r i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s make up the major p o r t i o n o f a l l the D i s t r i c t  Office caseloads. The  Old Age Pension cases r e p r e s e n t over 50 per c e n t o f the  c a s e l o a d i n a l l o f f i c e s except Courtenay  and A l b e r n i .  The p e n s i o n case-  l o a d s i n these o f f i c e s make up 49.6 per cent and 43.6 per cent of  the t o t a l o f f i c e l o a d s .  The V i c t o r i a  C i t y o f f i c e s have p a r t i c u l a r l y up-island centres. Victoria  District,  Saanich and V i c t o r i a  l a r g e p e n s i o n l o a d s i n comparison  w i t h the  T h i s f a c t may a g a i n suggest t h a t o l d e r persons  and d i s t r i c t  probable t h a t e l d e r l y  a p l e a s a n t p l a c e i n which to r e s i d e .  The h i g h percentage f e a t u r e o f Vancouver I s l a n d . soon becomes apparent  find  It i s also  persons p r e f e r t o l i v e i n the urban, more  areas where m e d i c a l r e s o u r c e s e t c . a r e e a s i l y  it  respectively  settled  available.  o f p e n s i o n cases i s not an e x c l u s i v e  On r e v i e w i n g the s i t u a t i o n  i n other regions,  t h a t O l d Age Pension cases,make up the g r e a t e r  p a r t o f the c a s e l o a d s i n most p r o v i n c i a l  offices.  The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s  are m a i n l y the Northern r e g i o n s where the c o l d e r c l i m a t e and the " f r o n t i e r " l i f e may not be too a t t r a c t i v e  t o those w i s h i n g t o take advantage o f t h e i r  retirement years. All  the d i s t r i c t  o f f i c e s on Vancouver I s l a n d have had a  -781951  s i z e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n S o c i a l Allowance cases over the Every caseload  has  i n c r e a s e d by at l e a s t 50  per cent w i t h  to 1961  the e x c e p t i o n  of  23.2  cent  Victoria  C i t y where S o c i a l Allowance cases have o n l y r i s e n by  over the  ten year p e r i o d .  suburban  Growth i n S o c i a l Allowance c a s e l o a d s N o r t h e r n a r e a s of the  cases have i n c r e a s e d 63.8 66.1 to  per cent  per  T h i s might bear some r e l a t i o n to the f a c t  a g r e a t number of f a m i l i e s have moved to the  C e n t r a l and  period.  Island.  per cent  i n Duncan and  57.5  areas.  i s also evident  i n the  For example, S o c i a l Allowance  i n A l b e r n i , 56.0  per cent  per cent  i n Courtenay, 1951  i n Nanaimo f o r the p e r i o d  1961. The  o v e r a l l population  i n c r e a s e has  undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e d  to the growth i n the number of persons r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance. economic c o n d i t i o n s may  be r e s p o n s i b l e  Allowance a p p l i c a n t s d u r i n g and  that  district  seasonal  f o r the r i s e i n the number of S o c i a l  the l a t e f i f t i e s .  I t c o u l d be t h a t  Victoria  p r o v i d e more permanent employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s than  remaining a r e a s o f the I s l a n d . i n d u s t r i e s to p r o v i d e  Again,  Many u p - i s l a n d communities depend  the on  the b a s i s of t h e i r economies.  A r e d u c t i o n i n the number of persons r e c e i v i n g f a m i l y s e r v i c e and  p r o t e c t i o n services i s very evident  the q u e s t i o n l o a d s , has  Again,  i s r a i s e d as to whether the i n c r e a s e i n the S o c i a l Allowance  i n any way  preventative  i n a l l o f f i c e s concerned.  been r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the r e d u c t i o n i n these v i t a l  services. Increments are noted i n the number of C h i l d r e n i n Care  F o s t e r Home s e r v i c e s . i n c r e a s e d over 50  In Courtenay, Nanaimo and  per cent d u r i n g the  1951  to 1961  and  Duncan these c a s e s have period.  Gould the  rise  -79-  in  the S o c i a l Allowance  cases be an i n f l u e n t i a l  factor affecting  the  i n c r e a s e i n the number of c h i l d r e n coming i n t o c a r e ? The all  I n s t i t u t i o n s i s also evident i n  d i s t r i c t s - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Southern  Island. to  development o f Welfare  I t i s assumed t h a t e l d e r l y persons  c a r e f o r them i n t h e i r d e c l i n i n g y e a r s .  and  C e n t r a l a r e a s - o f the  are r e q u i r i n g more  facilities  T h i s t r e n d might a l s o  suggest  t h a t fewer young f a m i l i e s are w i l l i n g or a b l e to c a r e f o r e l d e r l y  parents  i n t h e i r own  homes. I n c r e a s e i n these s e r v i c e s c o u l d a l s o r e p r e s e n t a growth i n  the number of k i n d e r g a r t e n s and camps on Vancouver I s l a n d . would be  i n keeping w i t h p o p u l a t i o n growth.  This trend  Perhaps f u r t h e r  investigation  might r e v e a l , f o r example, the need t o have k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n c l u d e d i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. of  However, as the s t a t i s t i c s do not i n d i c a t e the  i n s t i t u t i o n involved, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to a s s e s s  type  the nature of the  r e s o u r c e s and whether they are a d e q u a t e l y meeting i n d i v i d u a l and  community  needs. Trends i n Caseloads, Average Caseload It (Vancouver  per Worker, and  i s h e l p f u l to make a comparison between Region  I s l a n d ) and  Region VI  1  ( F r a s e r V a l l e y ) because these two r e g i o n s ,  w h i l e s i m i l a r i n some ways, are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t the workload  Number of Workers  in.others.  i n each case i s s i m i l a r , and as a geographic  The  s i z e of  area each  con-  t a i n s urban and r u r a l communities, so t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t r a v e l l i n g - m u s t be done i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e .  On the o t h e r hand, the  economic base c e r t a i n s o c i a l components are d i f f e r e n t i n each case. In  1951,  on Vancouver I s l a n d (Region 1 ) , 28.5  workers w i t h  -80-  an average c a s e l o a d of 325, this  gave s e r v i c e to a t o t a l of 8786 c a s e s .  same year i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y (Region V I ) , 18 workers whose c a s e l o a d  averaged handled 1959,  276,  served 4966 c a s e s .  By 1961,  36.5  workers i n Region 1  11,944 c a s e s , w i t h an average c a s e l o a d o f 327,  due  to an increase, i n s t a f f of 4.5  In Region VI d u r i n g 1961,  D u r i n g . t h i s t e n year t h i r d , but  down from 366  identical  - 34 workers  s e r v i n g a t o t a l c a s e l o a d of. 11,155.  span, the s t a f f i n Region 1 i n c r e a s e d by about  the a v e r a g e - c a s e l o a d  almost  to 1962.  and  per  i n c r e a s e d by 16 per c e n t , but i s s t i l l  the same as i n Region Mileage  from 1957  one-  the average c a s e l o a d remained p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged a t 327,  i n Region VI, i n the same p e r i o d , the s t a f f i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y 45 c e n t , and  in  workers i n the two year p e r i o d .  the f i g u r e s are almost  w i t h an average c a s e l o a d of 328,  328,  In  at  1.  f i g u r e s have remained q u i t e comparable i n each Region  In December of 1962,  13,953 m i l e s , w h i l e i n Region VI, 34.5  36 workers i n Region 1  travelled  workers covered a t o t a l of 13,156  miles. The^most obvious is  t r e n d t h a t can be observed  from these  the steady i n c r e a s e i n average c a s e l o a d i n Region VI, u n t i l i t  equals  the average of Region-1.  Since an average c a s e l o a d . o f 327  • i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h good w e l f a r e s e r v i c e , t h i s  figures  now is  i s a d e s t r u c t i v e trend.  Before any e f f e c t i v e  assessment o f the q u a n t i t y and  g i v e n to the c l i e n t s  c o u l d be. made, we would have to have p r e c i s e know-  ledge o f the k i n d s o f s e r v i c e c a l l e d a v a i l a b l e to meet the expressed experience  f o r i n any  the quality- of s e r v i c e s  g i v e n a r e a ; the  resources  needs; some measure of the s k i l l  o f the workers on s t a f f ; and  a d e t a i l e d . d e s c r i p t i o n of  and the  -81-  work t h a t each s t a f f member must c a r r y out. for  There i s a s t r o n g  argument  s p e c i a l i z e d c a s e l o a d s , assuming there i s s u f f i c i e n t demand i n a  s p e c i f i c a r e a f o r a p a r t i c u l a r type of s e r v i c e , and  that  t r a i n e d s t a f f i s a v a i l a b l e to p r o v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e . that  sufficient clerical  work.  There.is  s t a f f should be  a c o n s t a n t demand on  professional  status.  professional  status  p a r t of the  ;  requires  a l l the  have devoted four Inasmuch as  It i s also essential  a v a i l a b l e to handle the  ' Bvit s u r e l y tfyere can  o f s o c i a l work programmes to be workers who  the  adequately  paper  s o c i a l workers f o r  be no case f o r a r g u i n g  c l e r i c a l and  administrative  performed by h i g h l y  that aspects  trained social  to s i x y e a r s to U n i v e r s i t y work.  i t i s not  t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers at a r a t e  going to be  that w i l l  possible  to p r o v i d e  keep pace w i t h the  growing  demand, i t w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y more important to d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y between the  k i n d s o f work t h a t  should be  workers and  by  consultants,  properly  supervisors  1964  i t was  their  s t a f f on  In 1929  $400.00.  We  the  per  the  $212.80 - and obviously  time f i l l i n g  out  by  and  the one  hand, or  o t h e r , i n c l u d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l and  1975  i t i s e s t i m a t e d the  research $15.36 - i n  eligibility.  there i s a b a s i c  l a c k of t r a i n e d s t a f f ,  problem e x i s t s a l s o , perhaps as much i n Region 1 as anywhere, i n This  to  people spending  d i s p o s i t i o n o f t r a i n e d s t a f f i s c l e a r l y of immediate concern.  d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t .  are  general  figure w i l l rise  cannot a f f o r d to have p r o f e s s i o n a l forms re  trained  the k i n d s of work t h a t  c a p i t a c o s t of w e l f a r e i n Canada was  Whether or not use  and  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o f c l e r i c a l workers on  administrative staff.  and  done by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  the A  the  i s most r e a d i l y seen i n G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a and  -82-  Victoria District.  P u b l i c S o c i a l Welfare  the C i t y S o c i a l Welfare  i s handled  Department, w h i l e i n a l l o t h e r a r e a s i t  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare quarters are i n V i c t o r i a C i t y .  boundaries.  i s the  Department, whose head-  F a m i l y and C h i l d Welfare  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o f F. & C.S. except The  i n V i c t o r i a C i t y by  i n the D i s t r i c t .  S e r v i c e s a r e the  (see Appendix A)  f i r s t - immediate problem t h a t a r i s e s i s the matter o f  Where does V i c t o r i a C i t y end and Oak Bay begin?  An even  g r e a t e r problem a r i s e s when a p a r t i c u l a r " c a s e " i n v o l v e s both c h i l d w e l f a r e and at  s o c i a l welfare.  T h u s w e f i n d t h a t i n an examination-of  F. & C.S. the components i n c l u d e heads o f f a m i l i e s ,  the c a s e l o a d s  s i n g l e men, and  s i n g l e women; temporary a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s , T.B. c a s e s ; employable unemployed, e l d e r l y persons of  i n n u r s i n g homes and b o a r d i n g homes; as w e l l as a l l c l a s s e s  c h i l d welfare.  O b v i o u s l y the V i c t o r i a C i t y S o c i a l Welfare  the Saanich Welfare  Department,  Department, and the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare  Depart-  ment a r e a l l doing the same t h i n g . The a g e n c i e s l i s t e d Appeal until  i n the D i r e c t o r y o f V i c t o r i a ' s U n i t e d  a r e a l s o p r o v i d i n g s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s , . i n many i n s t a n c e s .  Therefore,  some type o f c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d t o which a r e  r e q u e s t s f o r s e r v i c e can be d i r e c t e d , and which w i l l r e f e r a l l cases to the a p p r o p r i a t e agency f o r s e r v i c e , i t w i l l not be p o s s i b l e to determine w i t h any degree o f a c c u r a c y the number o f s t a f f r e q u i r e d i n any g i v e n a r e a , the k i n d and degree o f s k i l l  necessary,  the a c t u a l s i z e o f c a s e l o a d s  (since  any one case can be p a r t o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c a s e l o a d s i n a number o f a g e n c i e s , a t the p r e s e n t t i m e ) ; and what c o n s t i t u t e s a r e a l i s t i c c a s e l o a d per worker.  average  Table 2 0 .  Number o f Workers, C a s e l o a d and Average C a s e l o a d ; A l t e r n a t e Years 1951-1961 I n c l u s i v e f o r Vancouver I s l a n d Region I , Okanagan Region V I . Region I  Year  Region V I  Workers C a s e l o a d Average Caseload  1951 1953 1955 1957 1958 1961  28. 31. 32. 33. 32. 36.  Table 2 0 ( a ) .  5 0 0 0 0 5  8,786 9,298 9,495 10,614 12,104 11,944  325 299 297 322 366 327  TOTAL Saanich Victoria City Victoria District  18 23 23 28 29 34  ^ ?L ver  s  Caseload  4,966 6,094 6,788 8,160 9,528 11,155  276 265 295 291 329 328  Number o f S t a f f , Percentage I n c r e a s e i n S t a f f and C a s e l o a d f o r I n d i v i d u a l O f f i c e s Vancouver I s l a n d (Region I ) (1951-1961).  Number o f S t a f f  Alberni Duncan Courtenay Nanaimo  Workers C a s e l o a d  1951  1961  2 2 4 5  4 4 4 8  13  20  Per Cent I n c r e a s e 1951-1961 Caseload Staff 50.0 50.0 0.0 37-5 .  35.0  45.0 39.0 31.6 37.8  , .  29.7  0.0  4.0  9  11.2  8.9  5  0.0  32.0  2.5  2.5  8 5  TOTAL  15.5  16.5  6.1  15.5  Region I  28.5  36.5  22.0  26.4  Table 21.  S o c i a l W e l f a r e S t a t i s t i c s by Major Category f o r Vancouver I s l a n d 1951 t o 1961 ( I n c l u s i v e ) . 1953  1955  1957  FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE S o c i a l Allowance Old Age P e n s i o n s B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions  1,477 6,235  1,176 6,834  1,263 6,880  1,486 7,668  2,710 7,782  3,003 7,190  74  181  298  384  404  SUB TOTAL  7,712  8,084  8,324  328 49  353 38  281 39  191 31  183 20  181 16  289  312  318  297  315  276  231  300  306  389  411  587  89  101  97  73  94  76  5  9  7  8  10  2  1,113  1,048  989  1,033  1,138  41  28  50  56  53  60-  95  123  139  156  123  173  195  209  --  1959.  1961  1951  CATEGORY  9,452 10,876 10,597  SERVICES TO FAMILIES AND CHILDREN Family Service Protection A d o p t i o n Services F o s t e r Home Services Unmarried Parents Special Child Services SUB TOTAL  991  HEALTH AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S e r v i c e s 30 Welfare I n s t i tutions 53 SUB TOTAL TOTAL  83  101  8,786  9,298  9,495 10,614 12,104 11,944  Table 22.  Major C a t e g o r i e s o f T o t a l C a s e l o a d and Changes 1951-60, Vancouver I s l a n d (Region I ) .  Categories Financial  Assistance  Service t o Families and C h i l d r e n H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services  Increase  i n Caseload  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n I960 1951 1954 1957 89.2  87.8  87-7  1-1.3  11.2  9. 3  9.3  0.9  1.1  1. 6  1.5  1951-54  89.I  1954 -57  1957-60  Financial Assistance -  7.4  12 .0  13.1  Services t o Families and C h i l d r e n '  6.1  6 .8  13.1  (27.97)  (33.5)  (9.0)  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services  (a) Because o f t h e s m a l l number o f cases i n v o l v e d , these f i g u r e s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d comparable w i t h t h e f i g u r e s i n the o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s .  T a b l e 23.  VICTORIA CITY WELFARE DEPARTMENT CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961  Category Financial  Percentage 1951  Distribution 1961  Percentage Change 1951-1961  Assistance  S o c i a l Allowances O l d Age Pensions B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions Sub T o t a l  18.5 79.7  22.0 73.6  23.2 1.3  3.3 98.2  98.9  •9.6  .2 .4  1.1  71.2  .6  1.1  57.2  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Sub T o t a l  T a b l e 25.  SAANICH MUNICIPALITY WELFARE DEPARTMENT CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961  Category Financial  Percentage 1951  Distribution 1961  Percentage Change 1951-1961  Assistance  S o c i a l Allowance O l d Age Pensions B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions Sub T o t a l  8.2 90.5  18.9 73.6  59.0 ( 3.0)  4.3 98.7  96.8  4.2  .5  2.2  1.0 400.0  .5  3.2  86.1  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  Sub T o t a l  Table 24.  V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e Caseloads Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change, 1951 t o 19oT!  Category  Percentage Distribution 1951  ,  Percentage Change  1961  1951  -  FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE S o c i a l Allowance Old Age P e n s i o n s B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions  lb.2 72.7  SUB TOTAL  86.9  22.1 62.1  56.5 20.4  3.5 87.7  32.7  SERVICES TO FAMILIES AND CHILDREN Family Service Protection Adoption Services F o s t e r Home Services Unmarried P a r e n t s Special Child Services SUB TOTAL  4.9 .6 2.7  2.9 ' .2 2.4  -14.5 -17.5 27.7  1.6 2.2  1.7 • 2.3  5.5 37.0  .1  .1  0.0  12.1  9.6  9.8  •1  .7  93.4  .9  2.0  76.3  1.0  2.7  8l.l  HEALTH AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES H e a l t h and Institutional Services Welfare Institutions SUB TOTAL  1961  Table  26.  DUNCAN DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961  (Increases;  except f o r decreases shown i n b r a c k e t s )  Category Financial  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n 1961 1951  Percentage Change 1951-1961  Assistance  S o c i a l Allowance O l d Age Pensions B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions  Sub T o t a l  13.7 65.1  24.4 51.7  66.1 24.3  3.5  78.8  79.6  40.4  4.5 .6 5.6 6.7 2.2  2.3 .1 3.9 10.9 .9  (16.6) (75.0) 14.7 63.2 (55.5)  19.6  18.1  34.9  .2 1.4  .4 1.9  400.0 55.0  1.6  2.3  Services to Families and C h i l d r e n Family S e r v i c e Protection Adoption Services F o s t e r Home S e r v i c e s Unmarried Parents Special Child Services  Sub T o t a l  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  Sub T o t a l  60.0  Table  27.  NANAIMO DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961  (Increases;  except f o r decreases shown i n b r a c k e t s )  Category Financial  Percentage 1951  Distribution 1961  Percentage Change 1951-1961  Assistance  S o c i a l Allowance O l d Age Pensions B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pens i o n s  §ub T o t a l  20.4 63.6  29.7" 52.0  57.5 23.8  3.3  §4,Q  §5,0  3.4 .4 5.0 5.4 .8 .3  2.4  12.3  3.2 7.6 .3 .1  2.6 55.8 (33.3) (75.0)  Services to Families and C h i l d r e n Family S e r v i c e Protection Adoption Services F o s t e r Home S e r v i c e s Unmarried Parents Special Child Services  Sub T o t a l  15.3  13.6  30.5  .1 .6  .5 .9  84.6 59.1  .7  1.4  68.6  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  Sub T o t a l  Table  28.  ALBERNI DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 1961  (Increases;  except f o r d e c r e a s e s shown i n b r a c k e t s )  Category Financial  Percentage 1951  Distribution 1961  Percentage Change 1951-1961  Assistance  S o c i a l Allowance O l d Age Pensions B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions  Sub T o t a l  63.8 40.4  20.3 47.1  30.7 43.6  --  2.6  67.5  76.9  51.6  11.1 1.8 10.5 4.4 2.4  1.7 .5 5.4 13.9 .4  (12.1) (50.0) ( 7.4) 17.3 (69.2)  30.1  21.9  24.5  1.3 1.1  .7 .5  b.o 16.7  2.4  1.2  S e r v i c e s to F a m i l i e s and C h i l d r e n Family S e r v i c e Protection Adoption Services F o s t e r Home S e r v i c e s Unmarried Parents Special Child Services  Sub T o t a l  --  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  Sub T o t a l  (  8.3)  Table  29.  COURTENAY DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 1961  (Increases;  except f o r d e c r e a s e s shown i n b r a c k e t s )  Category Financial  Percentage 1951  Distribution 1961  Percentage Change 1951-1961  Assistance  S o c i a l Allowance O l d Age Pensions B l i n d and D i s a b l e d Pensions  Sub T o t a l  19.2 50.2  29.8 49.6  --  3.4  69.4  82.8  8.7 2.2 9.0 6.7 2.2  2.0 .6 4.0 9.3 .6  56.0 30.9  42.8  Services to Families and C h i l d r e n Family S e r v i c e Protection Adoption Services F o s t e r Home S e r v i c e s Unmarried Parents Special Child Services  Sub T o t a l  --  28.8  (66.7) (61.9) (34.5) 51.2 (61.9) WW  16.5  (19.4)  .1 .6  (17.3) 25.0  .7  (44.5)  H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services H e a l t h and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services . Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  Sub T o t a l  1.2 .6  1.8  Table 3 0 .  Number o f Workers, Caseloads and M i l e a g e i n Regions I and V I and B r i t i s h Columbia 19571962": ( a l l f i g u r e s r e l a t e t o t h e month o f December i n the year stated) (a) Regions I and V I  Year  Region  Workers  Caseload  Mileage  1957  I VI  33 28  10,614 8,160  13,467 10,749  1958  I VI  32 28  11,722 8,859  10,393 13,379  1959  I VI  32 29  12,104 9,528  10,559 13,633  I960  I VI  34 30.5  12,192 10,972  13,448 13,071  1961  I VI  36.535.5  11,944 11,155  14,130 13,141  1962  I VI  36.0 34.5  11,431 11,182  13,953 13,156  (b) B r i t i s h Columbia Year  Workers  Caseload  1957 1958 1959 i960 1961 1962  199 198.5 198.5 213.5 257 259.5  61,384 67,139 71,336 79,074 80,266 79,632  Mileage 61,321 60,983 64,651 72,640 79,542 81,085  Table 31.  Average C a s e l o a d i n D i s t r i c t s and Trends 1951-19blT  Average  Area  1951  Caseload 1961  P.C. Change  Alberni  275  251  - 9 7.  Courtenay  241  352  31.6  Duncan  314  26l  -20.0  Nanaimo  297  299  1.0  Saanich  422  449  6.0  354  345  Victoria District  255  374  31.8  TOTALS  308  327  6-.0  Victoria  City  -  3.0  -83-  Chapter V  -  REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF.WELFARE MEASUREMENTS  A study of r e g i o n a l measurements f o r Region 1 (Vancouver Island) kinds  i s based on  and  the premise t h a t , g i v e n adequate knowledge of  quantity of welfare  i s t r a t i o n of welfare  c o u l d be  service required  so o r d e r e d t h a t the  p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be a l l o c a t e d and p r o g r e s s i s now  so r a p i d , and  used to the b e s t  the needs t h a t may Campbell R i v e r . ness and  centre  advantage.  Technological  one  i n V i c t o r i a can h a r d l y expect to be aware of  quickly a r i s e i n centres  such as  the A l b e r n i s  A w e l l - p l a n n e d study, designed to measure the  and  admin-  s k i l l s of t r a i n e d  Northern Vancouver I s l a n d , t h a t  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w e l f a r e  begun i n 1964,  the  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s expanding w i t h such  speed, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C e n t r a l and main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n a given area,  the  or  appropriate-  s e r v i c e s - i n the Nanaimo area  was  i f t h i s work i s c a r r i e d to c o m p l e t i o n i t c o u l d be  an  i n v a l u a b l e model f o r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s i n some o f the burgeoning communities of Vancouver  Island, In g e n e r a l ,  study.  That i s to say,  there  Region 1, b e i n g  c l o s e l y the a r e a d e s i g n a t e d D i v i s i o n 5.  We  did find  i s no boundary i s s u e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s  by The  an  I s l a n d , approximates  Dominion.Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s as  t h a t c e r t a i n s u b - d i s t r i c t s d i d not  a l t o g e t h e r w i t h census sub-area, but  the d i s c r e p a n c y  With t h i s t h i n k i n g i n mind, and study of t h i s Region as. a Region had examination o f the The  very  was  considering  coincide  not  r e g i o n a l measurements c o n s i d e r e d  appreciable.  the f a c t t h a t a  not been done b e f o r e , we  s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e to  Census  undertook  an  us.  i n t h i s study have been  -84-  based  on census data and p r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s .  We have  encountered  d i f f i c u l t y because o f the f a c t t h a t many items of s e r v i c e are i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e index.  For example, the c a t e g o r y of " S o c i a l Allowance"  as a s i n g l e item.  There i s a l s o the problem o f t r y i n g to determine  number o f persons  b e i n g served i n any one  the use o f the term  'case'.  'case' i n r e f e r r i n g to one  c e r t a i n members of a f a m i l y , tends t o obscure c e r n i s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and  As a matter  of  the fact,  person, p r a f a m i l y , or to the f a c t t h a t our prime con-  the needs of i n d i v i d u a l s , as opposed to the  g a t h e r i n g of s t a t i s t i c a l evidence w i t h r e s p e c t to a number of 'cases'.  i s represented  impersonal  In o r d e r to o b t a i n a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the needs o f people  g i v e n a r e a , and of the q u a n t i t y and  q u a l i t y of the s e r v i c e b e i n g  in a  rendered  .- to a c h i e v e maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of s t a f f , and of the s u b s t a n t i a l volume o f w e l f a r e d o l l a r s b e i n g spent - p r e c i s e , d e t a i l e d and  up-to-date  statistics-must be.available. R e t u r n i n g to the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a t e g o r y , i t would be v e r y h e l p f u l t o be aware of the number o f persons t h a t we man  c o u l d determine  i n v o l v e d i n a case,  so  whether the needs are t h o s e . o f a f a m i l y , a s i n g l e  or a s i n g l e woman, whether or not s i n g l e people are employable: or  unemployable, and,  i f t h e r e are c h i l d r e n , are they w i t h t h e i r  w i t h r e l a t i v e s , or i n f o s t e r c a r e . k i n d and  parents,  A l l o f these f a c t o r s would a f f e c t  the  the q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e t h a t would be r e q u i r e d . A study completed  by the Community Chest and  G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i n February  1965,  has attempted  C o u n c i l s of the  to review a l l  h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s b e i n g p r o v i d e d i n the Vancouver a r e a .  The  s e r v i c e s have been ranked  i n the o r d e r o f  Greater their  -85-  importance t o the community, and have been e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f t h e i r adequacy i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y .  The a c t i v i t i e s o f 201 a g e n c i e s have  been broken down i n t o 79 s e r v i c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has  been d e f i n e d .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note  t h a t the r e s e a r c h committee  c o n s i d e r e d a l l t h r e e systems - h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n as a u n i t , r e c o g n i z i n g the f a c t t h a t a l l three a r e i n t e r - r e l a t e d and i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t . O b v i o u s l y , c e r t a i n h e a l t h problems w i l l c r e a t e concomitant problems, and n e i t h e r one c a n be adequately t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t shduld be noted and  welfare  serviced i n isolation.  t h a t Saanich,  C e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d ,  the upper I s l a n d a r e served by 6 2 - M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Nurses.  from e x p e r i e n c e  In  t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f the work done by these  We know nurses,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s m a l l e r communities, c a n r e a d i l y be d e s c r i b e d as s o c i a l work.  Hence i t would be m i s l e a d i n g to s t a t e t h a t the whole o f Vancouver  I s l a n d i s served by no.more than 36 s o c i a l workers, each w i t h a c a s e l o a d of 200 t o 300, and to i n f e r from t h i s t h a t w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e t o t a l l y inadequate.  The w e l f a r e s e r v i c e may be inadequate,  but no a c c u r a t e  measurement o f the inadequacy c a n be made by an examination statistics vital  i n isolation.  C e r t a i n l y h e a l t h and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e a  f a c t o r i n the t o t a l w e l f a r e o f the i n d i v i d u a l - proper  b e i n g the most important t h a t no examination without  of welfare  sanitation  o f a l l a c c o r d i n g to the study r e f e r r e d to - so  o f w e l f a r e measurements can be c o n s i d e r e d t o be complete  an e v a l u a t i o n o f h e a l t h and r e c r e a t i o n f a c t o r s .  recommend t h a t s t u d i e s be undertaken, the Vancouver Community Chest,  T h e r e f o r e we would  s i m i l a r t o t h a t j u s t completed by  i n s e v e r a l o f the l a r g e r communities on  Vancouver I s l a n d , and c e r t a i n l y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a .  -86-  We would recommend f u r t h e r , that such a study be c a r r i e d a step beyond the scope o f the work done i n Vancouver.  We b e l i e v e  that a  more complete p i c t u r e o f w e l f a r e needs and s e r v i c e s i n a community  could  be o b t a i n e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y t o which a l l r e q u e s t s f o r s e r v i c e would be d i r e c t e d .  A t such a r e g i s t r y an a c c u r a t e r e c o r d  number o f u n i t s o f s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d , be m a i n t a i n e d . appropriate  i n a l l s e r v i c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , would  E v e r y r e q u e s t f o r s e r v i c e would be r e f e r r e d to the  agency, and a r e c o r d m a i n t a i n e d o f the s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d , and  of the i n s t a n c e s service required.  i n which i t was found t h a t no agency c o u l d Such a r e g i s t r y c o u l d ,  w i t h some c o n f i d e n c e t h a t  p r o v i d e the  i n the c o u r s e o f a y e a r ,  state  the demands f o r s e r v i c e i n the p a r t i c u l a r  community were b e i n g f u l l y , met, o r o t h e r w i s e . s t r a t e d t h a t an o v e r l a p p i n g it  o f the  I t c o u l d a l s o be demon-  o f s e r v i c e e x i s t s i n some c a s e s , and perhaps  c o u l d be shown t h a t c e r t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s e r v i c e c o u l d  best be  rendered by a government agency, and c e r t a i n o t h e r k i n d s o f s e r v i c e be more e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e d  could  by a p r i v a t e agency.  A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y suggests i t s e l f as growing out o f a more d e t a i l e d and more a c c u r a t e knowledge o f the needs f o r s e r v i c e out  the r e g i o n .  through-  At the moment, w e l f a r e f o r Vancouver I s l a n d i s a d m i n i s t e r e d  l a r g e l y from V i c t o r i a .  However, w i t h the r a p i d growth o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C e n t r a l and Upper Vancouver I s l a n d , and w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f good a c c e s s t o p a r t s o f the r e g i o n remote, i t may w e l l be t h a t contribute people.  t h a t have h e r e t o f o r e  been  considered  some d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  t o more e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g  t o meet the r e c o g n i z e d  would  needs o f the  -87-  I t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e a l l o c a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e s t a f f i s e s s e n t i a l .  and  In t h i s r e g a r d , a number of  s u g g e s t i o n s c o u l d be made, not the l e a s t o f which would be the e x t e n s i v e use of c a s e - a i d e s . private agencies, i n g a lower  I t has been demonstrated, i n l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n t h a t c a s e - a i d e s not t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l work, and command-  s a l a r y , can v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r y out a wide v a r i e t y o f  r o u t i n e d u t i e s t h a t now  s e r i o u s l y hamper t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers i n  i n g the work t h a t can o n l y be done by a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d Among o t h e r t h i n g s , they c o u l d c a r r y out r o u t i n e i n t a k e p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t where n e c e s s a r y ; simple r e f e r r a l s .  f u l f i l housekeeping d u t i e s ; and make proven to be  should be expanded.  In o r d e r to o b t a i n more meaningful  w e l f a r e measurements,  much more emphasis should be p l a c e d upon d e t a i l e d examination statistics presently available. p r o v i s i o n of s t a f f and extent  person.  procedures;  T h i s use o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f has  q u i t e e f f e c t i v e , and  perform-  facilities  the  But even more important would be to c a r r y out s t u d i e s i n depth o f  to which Region 1 (Vancouver I s l a n d ) can be e f f e c t i v e l y  i n i t s e n t i r e t y , from V i c t o r i a .  of  the the  administered  A p r e r e q u i s i t e to such a study would, of  c o u r s e , be an e q u a l l y d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f needs t h a t must be met,  t o g e t h e r w i t h a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the q u a n t i t y and  the q u a l i t y o f the r e s o u r c e s t h a t e x i s t a t the p r e s e n t these needs.  time  to  satisfy  -88-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  About V i c t o r i a and Vancouver I s l a n d , e d i t e d by A v i s Walton, New S e r v i c e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1960.  Neighbour  Anstey, A r t h u r and S u t h e r l a n d , N e i l , B r i t i s h Columbia, A Short H i s t o r y , ed. S.J. Gage L i m i t e d , Toronto, 1957. B a r t l e t t , E.D., B l i c h , H.N., B o m b a r d i e r i , G.A., Noak, G.R. and Specken, A.G., A R e g i o n a l Study o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e Measurements, No. 3., The M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Bledsoe, M.Y. and S t o l a r , G.A., A R e g i o n a l Study o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e Measurements, No. 2. The F r a s e r V a l l e y , Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,. 1963. Camu, P., Weeks, E.P., and Sametz, Z.W., Economic Geography o f Canada, Foundations - Growth - Trends, M a c M i l l a n Co., Toronto, 1964. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, P r i o r i t i e s , f o r H e a l t h , W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, F i n a l Report o f the P r i o r i t i e s E s t a b l i s h i n g Committee, F e b r u a r y , 1965. Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , R e g i o n a l Index o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver I s l a n d , Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch, F i e l d S e r v i c e , O f f i c e Manual. Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , Annual Reports 1951-1963, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r . Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Lands S e r v i c e , The Vancouver I s l a n d B u l l e t i n Area, No. 4. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1963. Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Survey o f S o c i a l Allowance A p p l i c a t i o n s R e c e i v e d i n the F a m i l y D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch, November 1958, Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , V i c t o r i a , B.C., May 1959. Government o f Canada, Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , The Canada Pension P l a n , August 1964. Wheeler, M i c h a e l , A Report on Needed Research i n W e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , 1961.  -89-  APPENDIX A  February 1963 Areas o f J u r i s d i c t i o n i n G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a and V i c t o r i a  District  Municipality or D i s t r i c t  Public Welfare S e r v i c e s  F a m i l y and C h i l d Welfare S e r v i c e s  Victoria  Victoria City Social Welfare Department Saanich Welfare Dept.  F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Service of Greater Victoria  Oak Bay  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - Victoria)  F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n s Service o f Greater Victoria  E s quintal t  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - Victoria)  F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Service o f Greater Victoria  C e n t r a l Saanich District  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - Victoria)  F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e of Greater Victoria  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - Victoria)  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welf a r e Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a )  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - Victoria)  P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welf a r e Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) - w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f f o s t e r homes which a r e s u p e r v i s e d by the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e of Greater V i c t o r i a  City  Saanich  District Gulf Islands, Jordan R i v e r , P o r t Renfrew  District View R o y a l , Belmont, Colwood, Langford, * Golds'tream, Happy V a l l e y , Metchosin, Sooke, North  1  Saanich  * L a n g f o r d i s a shared f o s t e r home a r e a between the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e and P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department.  -90-  FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S SERVICE Victoria Services  Provided  C h i l d c a r e and p r o t e c t i o n , orphans and d e s e r t e d c h i l d r e n c a r e d f o r . F a m i l y , m a r i t a l and unmarried mothers c o u n s e l l i n g . A d o p t i o n supervision. M a i n t a i n s Sevenoaks, a treatment c e n t r e f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n aged 7 t o 12 y e a r s . People  Helped  i n 1963  654 c h i l d r e n c a r e d f o r ; 150,195 days c a r e p r o v i d e d ; 295 a d o p t i o n homes s u p e r v i s e d ; 1387 f a m i l i e s c o u n s e l l e d and 145 c o u p l e s r e c e i v e d marriage c o u n s e l l i n g ; 19 boys and g i r l s t r e a t e d a t Sevenoaks. Estimated  T o t a l L o c a l Budget f o r 1964 $510,158.00  Chest A l l o t m e n t  f o r 1964  $65,025.00 Percentage  o f T o t a l A l l o t m e n t Agency 18.4  Received  -91-  APPENDIX B  Census o f Canada B u l l e t i n s used i n the Study Source  Title Population D i s t r i b u t i o n : Comparative I n c r e a s e s , 1951-1961.  B u l l e t i n 1.1-7, T a b l e 12, 1961. Census o f Canada, 1951, V o l . 1 , Table 6.  Major Urban C e n t r e s , Vancouver I s l a n d , 1961.  Bulletin  Principal Characteristics of Rural-Urban D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ten-Year Change, Sex R a t i o .  B u l l e t i n 1.1-7, T a b l e 14, 1961. Census o f Canada, 1951, V o l . 1 , Table 1 5 - 1 6 .  S i g n i f i c a n t Age Groups: Changes, 1951-1961. P.C. D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1951-1961.  B u l l e t i n S P - 1 S p e c i f i e d Age Groups and Sex, 1961. Census o f Canada, 1951, V o l . 1 , T a b l e 23.  Comparative P a t t e r n s and Trends i n M a r i t a l and F a m i l y Composition.  Vulletin  Some Major F a c t o r s o f F a m i l y Composition, 1961.  B u l l e t i n 2.1-6:Tables 64,70; 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.1-5:Tables 45,50-52;1961.  Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Households by S i z e , 1961.  Bulletin  2 . 1 - l : T a b l e s 3,5; 1961.  Some Residence F a c t o r s , 1961.  Bulletin  2.2-7:Tables 78-79, 1961.  Housing i n V i c t o r i a A r e a : Comparative F i g u r e s f o r Metropol i t a n Area, B.C. and Canada 1961.  Bulletin Bulletin Bulletin Bulletin  2.2-3,Tables 2.3-5,Tables 2.2-4,Tables 2.2-7,Tables  Religious A f f i l i a t i o n s : Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1961.  B u l l e t i n SP-3; R e l i g i o u s Denominat i o n s , 1961.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Main R e l i g i o u s Denominations by Sub-Areas, 1961.  B u l l e t i n SP-3; R e l i g i o u s Denominat i o n s , C o u n t i e s and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1961.  Main E t h n i c S t o c k s : Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1961.  1.1-7, Table 14, 1961.  1 . 2 - 4 : M a r i t a l S t a t u s , 1961.  141,143;1961. 56,58; 1961. 46,53; 1961. 75,76; 1961.  B u l l e t i n SP-2; 1961. E t h n i c  Groups.  -92-  Source  Title  Change i n E t h n i c S t o c k s : 1951-1961.  N i n t h Census o f Canada, Volume I. Table 34.  1951.  Main E t h n i c Stocks by Sub-Areas.  B u l l e t i n SP-2;  O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Urban P o p u l a t i o n : M a l e s , Females.  B u l l e t i n 3.1-8:Table 15; Labour F o r c e , Occupation by Sex.  1961. Divisions  O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n r M a l e s , Females.  B u l l e t i n 3.1-8:Table 15; Labour F o r c e , Occupation by Sex.  1961. Divisions  1961. E t h n i c Groups.  

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