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A regional study of social welfare measurements : no. 4 (Vancouver Island) : an exploration of the regional… Cumming, Robert Coulter 1965

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A REGIONAL STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE MEASUREMENTS -4 .(Vancouver Island) An exploration of the regional assessment of demographic and s o c i a l welfare s t a t i s t i c s for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 - 1961 by ROBERT COULTER CUMMING ANNA FREYMAN GRACE AGNES HOLLICK-KENYON JANET MARY MACDONALD Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of So c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of So c i a l Work School of So c i a l Work 1965 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis f o r s c h olarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. - i i -ABSTRACT This study of s o c i a l welfare measurements i n Region I (Vancouver Island) i s the fourth i n a series of regional assessments, A s i m i l a r study of Region VI (The Okanagan) i s presently being completed. Three previous studies have been done; one i n an unorganized area of Northern B r i t i s h Columbia, the second Region III (The Fraser V a l l e y ) , and the t h i r d was a comprehensive study of Metropolitan Vancouver in c l u d -ing several of the surrounding d i s t r i c t s . Region I of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare very c l o s e l y coincides with census d i v i s i o n 5 of B r i t i s h Columbia. This has overcome the discrepancy that often e x i s t s between census material boundaries and welfare regional boundaries. Census d i v i s i o n 5 a c t u a l l y includes some islands and i s o l a t e d areas of the north coast of B r i t i s h Columbia l y i n g adjacent to Vancouver Island. These areas are very sparsely populated and are more r e a d i l y accessible from the mainland than from Vancouver Island, and are therefore not included i n Welfare Region I. Basic s t a t i s t i c a l data was compiled and computed from the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Extensive use was made of 1961 data with s e l e c t i v e reference being made to the 1951 data a v a i l a b l e . In some instances the census subdivision boundaries were changed within the bench work decade (1951-1961). Therefore some of the changes i n s o c i a l and economic conditions could not be measured. In these instances i t was necessary to r e l y on the 1961 data. The welfare s t a t i s t i c s were compiled p r i m a r i l y from the - i i i -monthly reports of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare for the years 1951 and 1961. However, i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a there are numerous private s o c i a l agencies and one major one serving f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n . This l a t t e r was chosen to examine more f u l l y the welfare services offered i n t h i s area. This i s an i n i t i a l exploratory study of Vancouver Island as a welfare region. Further studies i n d e t a i l of the kind i n i t i a t e d i n Nanaimo to measure the appropriateness and effectiveness of welfare services should be c a r r i e d out. These would provide information for comprehensive planning for the welfare needs of the people who l i v e i n th i s region. - V -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are pleased to acknowledge the assistance we have received from Dr, L.C. Marsh, who with consummate s k i l l , d irected our e f f o r t s and suggested f r u i t f u l l i n e s of enquiry. Nor could we have succeeded without the generous research support of Miss Bessie W. Snider, Consultant, Department of Soci a l Welfare at V i c t o r i a ; of Miss M. Jamieson, Regional Administrator, Region I; Mrs. Gwen Lundy, Supervisor of Intake, Family and Children's Service, V i c t o r i a ; the Community Chest and Councils of Greater V i c t o r i a and of Nanaimo, and the Department of So c i a l Welfare, V i c t o r i a , who provided us with a wealth of fa c t u a l material that was es s e n t i a l to us i n the preparation of t h i s study. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Acknowledgements Introduction - Rationale for the Study Previously completed studies Chapter I VANCOUVER ISLAND Vancouver Island as a Region. Vancouver Island as a Welfare Region. Chapter II SOCIAL STRUCTURE Age. D i s t r i b u t i o n . M a r i t a l Status. Sex - Ratio. Family Patterns. Households. Ethnic-Groups. Religious Groups. Chapter I I I ECONOMY Wages. Occupational Composition. Labour Force. Housing. Chapter IV SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES Caseloads. Ratios i n Relation to Population. Caseloads by category. Types of Service. D i s t r i c t D e t a i l . Trends i n Worker Caseloads. Chapter V Bibliography REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF WELFARE MEASUREMENTS Appendices A. - Welfare Services i n Greater V i c t o r i a and V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . B. - Census of Canada B u l l e t i n s used i n t h i s study. INTRODUCTION Rationale for the Study B r i t i s h Columbia i s growing r a p i d l y , i n industry and i n population, and t h i s growth i s r e f l e c t e d i n marked changes i n the behavior patterns of our society. The mountainous t e r r a i n of the Province has influenced the concentration of population to the point where nearly h a l f of the people i n the Province now l i v e i n Greater Vancouver. Vancouver Island (Region I) i s si m i l a r i n topography to the re s t of the Province, and i n t h i s area almost two-thirds of the Island's inhabitants now make t h e i r home i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . In f a c t , t h i s C i t y increased i t s size by 117% i n the ten years from 1951 to 1961, as compared to an increase of 35% for the whole Island, i n the same period. This population index therefore becomes an important s o c i a l measurement, i f only because of th i s rapid increase i n numbers of people l i v i n g i n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y confined area. A region usually has d e f i n i t e topographical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which set i t apart, and i n t h i s case Vancouver Island i s perhaps unique i n that i t i s an Island, and the boundaries of the welfare region are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the o u t l i n e of the area i t s e l f . There are, of course, numerous d i v i s i o n s or sectors within the region that have to be considered i n terms of the welfare needs that e x i s t , and the resources a v a i l a b l e to s a t i s f y those needs. The extreme concentration of population i n the southern end of the Island makes the region top-heavy from the point of view of good welfare administration, and some consideration of the need for d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of administration i s becoming necessary i n order to -2-guard against neglect of the ce n t r a l and upper parts of the Island. U n t i l these Regional studies, outlined below, were under-taken, no e f f o r t was ever made to examine the welfare c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a region as such. Information, some of i t quite d e t a i l e d and comprehensive, has been a v a i l a b l e for the Province as a whole, and for i n d i v i d u a l centres of the Department of Welfare, but none of t h i s r e l a t e d to, or had been examined i n the l i g h t of, the needs and resources of a s p e c i f i c region. In an e f f o r t to add to the material that already e x i s t s , much of which i s excel l e n t , and to focus the fact s upon Vancouver Island as a region, t h i s study has been undertaken. -3-PREVIOUSLY COMPLETED STUDIES In 1961, Michael Wheeler, Assistant Professor, School of Soc i a l Work, U.B.C., c a r r i e d out a study to examine the need for improved s t a t i s t i c a l resources. He found that such resources were required (a) "as acids i n the d e f i n i t i o n of welfare problems. (b) To determine the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n of welfare needs. (c) For evaluation of the appropriateness and the effectiveness of e x i s t i n g welfare services, and (d) to add to the knowledge needed for sound s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y " . ^ In 1963 regional studies of s o c i a l welfare measurements were undertaken, A scattered area i n the North Region 4, was studied by Vi v i a n Harbord. Subsequently, the Fraser V a l l e y (Region 6) was assessed i n a thesis by M.Y. Bledsoe and G.A. Stolar, and an exploration of the Metropolitan Area of Vancouver was undertaken by a group of f i v e M.S.W. students at the School of S o c i a l Work, U.B.C. This l a s t was the most complete and comprehensive of these studies, and has been an invaluable a id as a model for the present work. 1 Wheeler, Michael. A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B.C. Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Area, Vancouver, 1961, P. 56. -4-Chapter I - VANCOUVER ISLAND Vancouver Island As A Region Vancouver Island, situated along the Southern coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s the l a r g e s t Island i n the P a c i f i c Coast area of North America. It i s 282 miles i n length and 50-60 miles wide. In area i t t o t a l s approximately 13,000 square miles, or about 3% per cent of the t o t a l land area of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, i t s population accounts for nearly 18 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l population. The topography and geography of Vancouver Island have greatly influenced the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n of population. The Island's topo-graphy i s dominated by a harsh, rugged.mountain backbone composed of the Vancouver Island ranges. The ranges are made up by smaller mountain areas separated by deep v a l l e y , some of which extend across the Island. The mountain ranges are bordered on the Western extremity by a series of deep f i o r d s and i n l e t s o c c a s i o n a l l y interspersed with segments of coastal p l a i n . Arable pieces of land along the west coast are scarce, the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e r t i l e area being the p l a i n which stretches from Tofino to Ucluelet. A coastal p l a i n l i e s on the Eastern side of the mountain ..'ranges. This p l a i n stretches from the Southeastern t i p of the Island to the Northern end of Gedrgia S t r a i t . Its average width i s 8 miles but the distance v a r i e s from 1 mile to 13 miles. The temperate climate of t h i s area has played a major r o l e i n a t t r a c t i n g permanent residents, and a majority of the Island's population now l i v e s there. The eastern p l a i n not only enjoys a long, f r o s t free season but benefits from the advantages -5-offered by, mild winters. Also, s o i l and c l i m a t i c conditions are most conducive to a g r i c u l t u r a l development. The eastern coast receives from 40-60 inches of p r e c i p i t a t i o n per year as compared to the West Coast which frequently receives over 100 inches of r a i n per year. The comparative ease of constructing transportation routes along the eastern side of the Island, and the great d i f f i c u l t i e s attending any such r o u t e s o n the west, have been c e n t r a l factors i n f l u e n c i n g the growth of population i n t h i s area. The natural harbour f a c i l i t i e s of V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo have made these c i t i e s into major ports, for mainland sea t r a f f i c as well as for a great v a r i e t y of coastal and deep sea shipping. With the exception of Alb e r n i and Port A l b e r n i , the major towns and c i t i e s are located on the eastern coastal p l a i n with the bulk of the population centered i n and around V i c t o r i a on the Southern t i p of the Island. V i c t o r i a ' s b e a u t i f u l physical s e t t i n g and i t s moderate climate have at t r a c t e d many permanent and temporary residents who are anxious to escape the more f r i g i d temperatures of Eastern Canada. The majority of these people have s e t t l e d on the Southern end of the Island and, on the Eastern coastal p l a i n , as the topographical and geographical conditions of the c e n t r a l and western part of the Island have not been conducive to co l o n i z a t i o n and settlement. H i s t o r i c a l Background In one sense at l e a s t , the h i s t o r y of Vancouver Island resembles the pattern of h i s t o r i c a l development elsewhere i n Canada: an ear l y era of discovery and exploration of v i r g i n t e r r i t o r y was subsequently followed by a migration from the Old World to the New. -6-Explorers and fur traders were the f i r s t white men to a r r i v e on Vancouver Island, and the eighteenth century knew l i t t l e e l s e . Russia, Spain and England sent t h e i r respective representatives to explore the Island and i t s surrounding t e r r i t o r y , Nootka was established as a fur trading post i n the l a t e eighteenth century; however, no e f f o r t was made to e s t a b l i s h a permanent settlement u n t i l 1789 when two Spanish ships were dispatched to Nootka with orders to e s t a b l i s h a colony. In the process of carry i n g out h i s orders, the Spanish governor seized two B r i t i s h trading ships and took the crew as prisoners. This incident, known as the "Nootka a f f a i r " caused considerable consternation i n B r i t a i n and Spain and, the matter was not s e t t l e d u n t i l 1790 by means of the "Nootka Convention." The p o l i t i c a l and economic aspects of the s i t u a t i o n seem to have taken precedence over the plans to e s t a b l i s h a colony. Nootka remained a fur trading post. Permanent s e t t l e r s d i d not e s t a b l i s h themselves on Vancouver Island u n t i l the e a r l y 1850's. The Hudson's Bay Company was l a r g e l y responsible f o r encouraging s e t t l e r s to take up residence on the Island. James Douglas, a Chief Factor i n the Company, explored the Southern shores of Vancouver Island to select an appropriate l o c a t i o n for a new Western Headquarters. (The Company feared that Fort Vancouver, the established Headquarters would be l o s t to the United States when a settlement was reached i n the Oregon Boundary dispute.) Douglas selected a place known as Camosun as a suitable s i t e and, i n 1843, a trading post, soon to be known as Fort V i c t o r i a , was erected. Fort V i c t o r i a was said to have been b u i l t with blankets as the Indians employed i n b u i l d i n g the stockade were -7-paid one blanket for every f o r t y stakes. With the Oregon Boundary s e t t l e -ment i n 1846, Fort V i c t o r i a became the western Headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1849 the B r i t i s h government granted Vancouver Island to the Hudson's Bay Company on condition that the company assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for e s t a b l i s h i n g a B r i t i s h Colony. When James Douglas was appointed governor i n 1851, the population of Vancouver Island was less than 200 and, i n i t i a l l y , a l l these persons were connected with the Hudson's Bay Company. Governor Douglas was a s s i s t e d by a Council of three members. There was l i t t l e o f f i c i a l business and the only revenue was obtained from l i q u o r l i c e n s e s . However, under the d i r e c t i o n of Douglas, farms began to appear i n the country surrounding V i c t o r i a , i n Sooke and on the Saanich Peninsula. Settlement developed slowly u n t i l 1858, when population growth was stimulated by the Fraser Va l l e y Gold Rush. Miners and prospec-tors swarmed into V i c t o r i a for the purpose of purchasing supplies, and to locate the means of penetrating the mountain areas of the mainland. Many people, moving from the United States to the gold rush area, t r a v e l l e d by way of V i c t o r i a . The town basked i n a period of prosperity. Wharves, hotels and stores were b u i l t and, money was voted for st r e e t s , water supply and schools. In 1862, when V i c t o r i a was incorporated as a c i t y , i t boasted 1500 b u i l d i n g s . In 1868 V i c t o r i a became the c a p i t a l ; i n 1886, Vancouver Island was united with i t s twin colony, B r i t i s h Columbia, to form the new province. During the 1850's settlements began to appear i n other areas -8-of Vancouver Island, In 1858 the f i r s t white s e t t l e r s moved into the Cowichan Valley, In 1862 one hundred s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d i n the Duncan area and, within a few years, there was a noticeable development i n the f o r e s t r y industry i n t h i s v i c i n i t y . With the discovery of the coal f i e l d s i n 1851, Nanaimo became a t h r i v i n g community. The gold rush of 1858 gave further impetus to growth and Nanaimo prospered as a coal mining town. E a r l y settlement i n Port Albarni was based on the timber stands which were used for lumber and ship spars. In 1861 the f i r s t sawmill was b u i l t and, by 1863, Port A l b e r n i had become the temporary centre of the export lumber trade. In 1911 a railway was constructed from Port A l b e r n i to Nanaimo with the r e s u l t that a permanent lumbering industry developed. Settlements began i n the Comox Va l l e y i n 1862. Farming and logging were the i n i t i a l a c t i v i t i e s which influenced growth i n t h i s area and these were followed by the discovery of coal i n Cumberland. World War I stimulated population growth on the Island as i t s lumber, f i s h , farm products and minerals were i n great demand to support the armed forces and the war industry i n general. In 1918 a pulp m i l l was constructed i n Port A l i c e , and a paper m i l l was b u i l t i n V i c t o r i a during the same year. These lone m i l l s comprised a l l of Vancouver Island's pulp and paper industry u n t i l the end of World War I I . During the years 1920 to 1930 development was slow and a depression occurred i n a l l i n d u s t r i e s and occupations from 1929 to 1939. However, during the t h i r t i e s the Island's population showed some increase -9-as a r e s u l t of migration from the p r a i r i e s . The major growth has occurred since the end of World War I I . From 200 i n 1851, the t o t a l population i s now over 300,000. Settlements have remained concentrated on the Eastern and Southern areas of the Island, however, and most of the population i s centered around the o r i g i n a l communities, i e : Duncan, Nanaimo, A l b e r n i , etc. V i c t o r i a continues to be the most important centre on the Island for the bulk of the population l i v e s i n and around t h i s c a p i t a l c i t y . In spite of the seemingly large increase of the population during the past century, the growth pattern has been sporadic. During the period 1851 to 1946, s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n population resulted, i n the main, from the e f f e c t s of outside influences,, for example, the Fraser V a l l e y gold rush and the two World Wars. However, since the end of the Second World War, the \ f o r e s t r y industry seems to have given impetus to a steady growth i n population. The Economic Base Forestry plays, above a l l other resources, the leading r o l e i n Vancouver Island's economic a c t i v i t y . In 1963 alone, the amount of forest cut i n cubic feet of timber was 360,000,000; t h i s i s approximately one-third of the t o t a l cut i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Although sawmilling i s s t i l l the most important single industry on the Island, the pulp and paper industry has grown r a p i d l y since the end of World War I I , and plants are now located at Harmac (near Nanaimo), Port A l b e r n i , Duncan Bay, Crofton (near Duncan), and Port A l i c e , i n the north. Expansion of the pulp and paper industry has been accompanied -10-by the development of the veneer and plywood industry. Local secondary i n d u s t r i e s , depending on wood, such as planing m i l l s , shingle m i l l s , and boat-yards are also p l e n t i f u l i n t h i s region. During the past decade, Vancouver Island's f o r e s t r y industry has been given a much firmer founda-t i o n as a r e s u l t of the development of new techniques which u t i l i z e the forest resource more e f f e c t i v e l y . Development of sustained-yield manage-ment has also contributed towards the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the industry. . Although coal i s s t i l l being mined i n the Comox and Cumberland area, nonrmetallies are bringing i n more s a t i s f y i n g returns than the m e t a l l i c s . Sand, gravel, limestone and clay, used for b r i c k s , cement and t i l e s , have led the way i n the f i e l d of mineral production. For example, the cement plant at Bamberton on Saanich I n l e t produces nearly 700 m i l l i o n pounds of cement per year. The waters surrounding Vancouver Island abound with various species of f i s h , making f i s h i n g a major economic a c t i v i t y . Salmon are the most valuable f i s h , but herring and halibut are also important. Most of the salmon caught i n the Vancouver Island area are sent to processing plants i n Vancouver. However, there are herring-processing plants at Nootka and Ucluelet. The Eastern coast of Vancouver Island provides excellent conditions for a g r i c u l t u r a l production. At the present time, Vancouver Island has 11 per cent of the province-wide farm population. Many of the farms tend to be small and s p e c i a l i z e d ; general farms, on which there i s a mixture of crops and l i v e s t o c k , are more apt to be found i n o u t l y i n g areas - namely'on the Gulf Islands or i n the Sooke area. On the other -11-hand, dair y farms tend to be located near larger centres such as V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, Gourtenay and Duncan as i t i s important to have a prospective consumers' market i n close proximity to the source of supply. It i s worth noting that the t o u r i s t trades are becoming in c r e a s i n g l y important. The natural scenic beauty of the Island plus i t s moderate climate draws.many v i s i t o r s to i t s shores. During the past few years, the growth of the B r i t i s h Columbia Government f e r r y service has offered a great deal of stimulation to the t o u r i s t trade. When adequate roads are b u i l t to the northern end of the Island, and a f e r r y service i s established across the Queen Charlotte S t r a i t s , tourism could develop so much as eventually to a l t e r the economic pattern of the Island. The expansion already evident i n the forest processing i n d u s t r i e s and i n t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s has stimulated growth i n the service i n d u s t r i e s and i n wholesale, r e t a i l and f i n a n c i a l establishments. This development i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the larger centres such as V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and Port A l b e r n i , where the major department stores and grocery chains are represented. Merchandising seems to be following the same pattern of growth and expansion that has been established i n Vancouver. There has been a rapid increase i n the number of shopping centres which are situated j u s t beyond the main ;urban centres of population. In reviewing the o v e r a l l economic picture on Vancouver Island, i t i s c l e a r that the f o r e s t r y industry s t i l l provides the main impetus for economic growth and development. Generally speaking, employ-ment opportunities are far more av a i l a b l e i n the larger and established areas than i n the r u r a l , farm and f r o n t i e r sectors. -12-Population growth on Vancouver Island compares favourably with the p r o v i n c i a l population increase. The Island population has not grown as r a p i d l y as the re s t of B r i t i s h Columbia, but i t has registered more than average increase. The urban expansion i s most marked i n the newer areas of the urban center V i c t o r i a (117 per cent). The remainder of the Island's population i s scattered over an area many times larger than the southern t i p of the Island, where h a l f the population l i v e s . The area north of Nanaimo and the Albernis comprises approximately one h a l f of the Island's t o t a l land area, and i n t h i s great expanse, reside about 15 per cent of the t o t a l population of the Island. It i s important to note that the census area includes a small piece of land on the mainland, whereas t h i s t e r r i t o r y i s not included i n the welfare region. The decision to exclude mainland t e r r i t o r y from the welfare region undoubtedly re s u l t e d from problems a r i s i n g from the necessity of transporting s t a f f from the i s l a n d to the rather i s o l a t e d and t h i n l y populated mainland areas. The population of the portion of Vancouver Island situated north of Courtenay plus the area of the mainland included i n the census area, t o t a l s a meager 27,000 persons. Thus, for the purposes of th i s study, the mainland population concerned w i l l not be subtracted from the t o t a l Island population. There have been no outstanding changes i n the centres of population concentration during recent years, with the exception of the s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t of population from urban to suburban V i c t o r i a . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know whether the e x i s t i n g educational, health and welfare agencies have been able to bring adequate services to these -13-new areas. I f not, have resources been established i n the suburban neighbourhoods to e f f e c t i v e l y meet the needs of the community members? Urban Centres At least h a l f of the population of B r i t i s h Columbia resided i n urban areas i n 1951, and the trend has continued. In 1961, 72.5 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia's population l i v e d i n urban areas. A s i m i l a r pattern of d i s t r i b u t i o n appears to e x i s t on Vancouver Island. Both i n Vancouver Island and i n B r i t i s h Columbia generally, the number of persons engaged i n farming i s r a p i d l y decreasing; the number of persons engaged i n farming i n Vancouver Island has decreased 20 per cent i n the period between 1951 and 1961. However, th i s i s lower than the decrease throughout the province which i s 29.5 per cent. On Vancouver Island arable land i s a v a i l a b l e and s o i l and c l i m a t i c conditions are most conducive to a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Much of t h i s land, that once provided an adequate l i v i n g for f a m i l i e s , i s no longer economically f e a s i b l e . Large t r a c t s have been subdivided for suburban development. There might also be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the decrease i n farming and the decrease i n population i n urban communities of 10,000 persons or l e s s . In e a r l i e r years the smaller urban centres depended on a f l o u r i s h i n g farming community to support l o c a l business and economic ventures. With the reduction i n farming, some of these small town business operations may have faded away, often t h e i r former owners along with farm f a m i l i e s have moved to larger centres i n search of employment. Retired persons are apt to l i v e i n suburbs; former store owners become managers i n larger chain stores and so f o r t h . -14-The reduction i n the farm and small town population and the increase of the population i n urban centres:is c l e a r l y shown when the population categories are presented. (See Table 2) The population on Vancouver Island i s far from evenly spread; i t i s i n the large urban centres. It must be remembered that some of the people are moving to the suburbs. "Rural npn-farm" category i s somewhat misleading; i t i s r e a l l y suburban: i t r e l a t e s to d i s t r i c t s adjacent to the core c i t y not yet organized as separate m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . This category also includes the population l i v i n g i n outlying areas who are maintaining themselves by employment other than farming. The s h i f t of population from the farms and small towns to urban and suburban areas could leave unfortunate implications for those r e q u i r i n g welfare services. Over the past years, many farm homes have proved to be invaluable as foster home resources. Also, small towns and farming communities tend to be more c l o s e l y k n i t communities than the larger urban areas. The less fortunate members of the community such as the disabled, the o l d age pensioner, the person i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l allowance w i l l be known i n the community, and, i n many cases a d d i t i o n a l help may v o l u n t a r i l y be offered by the community or i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. On the other hand, the larger community and i t s members may be more impersonal i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and fee l i n g s towards people i n trouble. . There may be a tendency on the community's part to expect the appropriate welfare agency to assume complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward i t s less fortunate members. There i s a danger that the f a s t growing suburban areas may -15-be mushrooming up as small s p l i n t e r communities, lacking any prearranged planning to provide t h e i r members with adequate services such as trans-portation, schools, h o s p i t a l s , proper zoning laws, b u i l d i n g and housing arrangements etc. If forethought i s not given to the provision of these resources, a community can be faced with inadequate housing schemes, poorly constructed buildings, improper s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and so f o r t h . Such conditions can soon develop a new marginal area providing few opportunities for both adults and c h i l d r e n , and can r e s u l t i n extra pressures on those responsible for providing welfare services within these communities. Vancouver Island has f i v e c i t i e s , namely V i c t o r i a , Duncan, Nanaimo, Port A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i (these l a t t e r c i ties.have recently voted to u n i t e ) , and Courtenay. Each c i t y i s the core for a surrounding suburban area, and the boundaries of.these areas are at l e a s t p r o v i s i o n a l l y defined i n terms of t h e i r dependence on the respective c i t i e s . They are as follows: Suburban Area A: - V i c t o r i a and surrounding area including the municipal-i t i e s of Oak Bay, Esquimalt, Saanich and Central Saanich. Suburban Area B; - Duncan and surrounding area including the Cowichan Valley w i t h • i t s northern boundary roughly the northern edge of the Cowichan Va l l e y . Suburban Area C: - Nanaimoand d i s t r i c t with Ladysmith at i t s southern end, and including Qualicum within i t s nothern boundaries. : Suburban Area D: - Port A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i and surrounding area. Suburban Area E; - Courtenay and d i s t r i c t including Campbell River. -16-Suburban Area F: - Consisting of the northern part of the Island. Over h a l f the Island population i s r e s i d i n g i n the aggregated V i c t o r i a area. Each "core" c i t y including V i c t o r i a does not have a popula-t i o n which exceeds that of t h e i r surrounding area. The one exception i s the C i t y of A l b e r n i and Port A l b e r n i which together have a population of 16,176 representing 62 per cent of the t o t a l population of Suburban Area D. The topographical features of t h i s area may be a major factor i n the population d i s t r i b u t i o n . Each c i t y i s a d i s t r i b u t i o n and administrative centre for t h e i r surrounding areas. V i c t o r i a at the south end of the Island i s the c a p i t a l c i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, consequently many of i t s c i t i z e n s are employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The metropolitan area occupies a h i g h l y a t t r a c t i v e physical s e t t i n g and has become j u s t l y recognized as an area of b e a u t i f u l homes and gardens. Its scenic beauty and favourable climate a t t r a c t thousandsof v i s i t o r s each year. Consequently tourism i s a very important factor i n i t s economy. V i c t o r i a . i s an important trans-portation and communicative centre for both the surrounding area and for the Island as a whqle. Most of the Island's wholesale and r e t a i l trade i s handled through V i c t o r i a . Duncan which i s situated north of V i c t o r i a and south of Nanaimo on the east coast of the Island i s the regional d i s t r i b u t i o n centre for the Cowichan Valley. This v a l l e y i s mainly an a g r i c u l t u r a l area. The pulp m i l l at Crofton and the t o u r i s t industry also provide incentives for Duncan's economic a c t i v i t i e s . Further north and also situated on the east coast of the -17-Island i s the c i t y of Nanaimo. It has frequently been r e f e r r e d to as the "Hub C i t y of Vancouver Island". Because of i t s geographical l o c a t i o n and excellent port f a c i l i t i e s , Nanaimo has become the main port of entry and e x i t for Central Vancouver Island. I t i s an important wholesale and d i s t r i b u t i o n centre, but--most-of i t s income i s derived from the fo r e s t -industry. The large pulp m i l l at nearby Harmac constructed i n 1950 has affec t e d the growth of t h i s c i t y , which i s presently the second largest c i t y on Vancouver Island. The twin c i t i e s of Alberni and Port A l b e r n i occupy adjacent s i t e s at the head of Alberni I n l e t . Their prosperity has depended on the great f o r e s t wealth with which the area i s endowed. I n d u s t r i a l expansion based on integrated development of the surrounding forest resources w i l l increase the importance of these c i t i e s i n the future. Port Alberni i s also the home port for a large f l e e t of f i s h i n g vessels which operate i n the waters of Alb e r n i I n l e t , Barclay Sound and the adjacent west coast area. Port Alberni has.also become a s i g n i f i c a n t loading port for deep-sea t r a f f i c conveying sawn lumber and other wood products to other parts of the world. Courtenay has for many years enjoyed a stable economy based on a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y . Many t o u r i s t s also t r a v e l to t h i s area each year as the r i v e r s and waters adjacent to Courtenay and north to Campbell River are renowned for t h e i r excellent sport f i s h i n g . Vancouver Island as a Welfare Region In terms of Welfare. Administration Vancouver Island presents many d i f f i c u l t i e s . On a purely geographic basis many i s o l a t e d areas are -18-d i f f i c u l t to reach. This same s i t u a t i o n also occurs i n many other areas i n the province. Access to these areas i s l i m i t e d and l i n e s of communica-t i o n are poor. This s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the northern parts of the Island and on the west.coast. In attempting to serve these people the s o c i a l worker encounters d i f f i c u l t i e s i n transportation and a lack of community services and resources. Some of the population l i v i n g on the adjacent islands must be reached by f e r r y or water t a x i . The bulk-of the t o t a l population of the Island l i v i n g i n the larger urban areas or surrounding suburban areas are concentrated at the southern:end of the Island, These areas are for the most part f a i r l y well developed. They have adequate communication, accessible roads, and established communities with t h e i r resources and services a v a i l a b l e for m o b i l i z a t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t s of Welfare Administration. For administrative purposes, the province of B r i t i s h Columbia has been divided into eight welfare regions. Vancouver Island (including surrounding i s l a n d s ) , has been designated as a region mainly because i t i s an i s l a n d and separated from the mainland by a body of water which approximates f o r t y miles. D i s t r i c t boundaries of t h i s region are o u t l i n e d on the large map. In terms of welfare administration Vancouver Island i s known as Region 1. A Regional Director i s responsible for ensuring that welfare services are properly administered i n each region. The Regional Director i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the Director of Welfare i n V i c t o r i a . Each region i s divided into d i s t r i c t s and, each d i s t r i c t i s administered by a Supervisor whose o f f i c e i s situated i n the l a r g e s t urban -19-centre of the d i s t r i c t . The D i s t r i c t Supervisor i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the Regional Director. In Region 1 the welfare d i s t r i c t s correspond very c l o s e l y with the census population d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t would seem that the s i m i l a r i t y between the census and welfare d i s t r i c t s might f a c i l i t a t e further studies i n the welfare f i e l d . D i s t r i c t , o f f i c e s . o n Vancouver Island are located at A l b e r n i , Duncan, Courtenay, and Nanaimo. Because of increased caseloads i n the area, a welfare o f f i c e has recently been opened i n Campbell River. How-ever, i n t h i s study separate s t a t i s t i c s w i l l not be shown for Campbell River; the figures pertaining to t h i s d i s t r i c t w i l l be included i n the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the Courtenay area. Again, the boundaries of each d i s t r i c t o f f i c e are indicated on the map. It should be noted that i n the V i c t o r i a area, Family and Childrens' Service have the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or providing Family and C h i l d Welfare Services. However, the p r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department a s s i s t s f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n i n some outlying areas of the c i t y . I t should also be mentioned that V i c t o r i a C i t y and Saanich M u n i c i p a l i t y are responsible for providing a c e r t a i n percentage of the s t a f f for the welfare o f f i c e s i n t h e i r respective areas. For example, Saanich provides an administrator, an a s s i s t a n t administrator and a h a l f time S o c i a l Worker, while the government s t a f f t o t a l s one S o c i a l Worker, In V i c t o r i a C i t y the province provides four S o c i a l Workers and the C i t y s t a f f includes one administrator, one a s s i s t a n t administrator, one super-v i s o r and four S o c i a l Workers. The areas of welfare j u r i s d i c t i o n i n greater V i c t o r i a and V i c t o r i a d i s t r i c t are outlined on the chart i n -20-Appendix A. Other government departments complement the services and i resources provided by the p r o v i n c i a l department of S o c i a l Welfare and the Family and Childrens' Service. The most important of these are the Department of Health which has public health units and mental health c l i n i c s located i n major centres. The Attorney General's Department also works c l o s e l y with the Department of S o c i a l Welfare; i t s probation o f f i c e r s are located i n key centres of the province. Numerous helping agencies and organizations have appeared i n a l l larger towns on Vancouver Island. The agencies now d e r i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance from the United Appeals i n V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo are d e t a i l e d i n Appendix A. V ¥3$ MAINLAND PACIFIC OCEAN \ •4. • \ s \ \ \ N V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D ^ ^ ^ f L * , . y ,1i Y V-L E G E N D Regional boundary ; District office boundary School district " Highway • Railway District- e . < office Centres over 2500 10.000 Juflrj 04 2 8 . 0 0 0 V A N C O U V E R ISLAND I ——— ' i L A & O U H foa.Ce - f£RC£N<«C,6 IH £<\CM WOU»1"*< Table 1. Population Increase 1951 - 1961 Area Population 1951 1961 Percentage of Increase 1951 1961 Canada 18,009,400 18,238,200 30.2 B r i t i s h Columbia 1,165,200 1,629,000 39.8 Vancouver I s l a n d 215,003 290,835 35.2 V i c t o r i a C i t y 51,331 54,941 7.0 M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a 7^,689 162,452 117.0 . Vancouver C i t y 344,800 384,600 11.5 M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 562,000 790,000 40.6 Table 2. P r i n c i p a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of R u r a l - Urban D i s t r i b u t i o n , Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia and Me t r o p o l i t a n  V i c t o r i a , 1951 - 1961. (a) T o t a l Population and Ten Year Change Area Vancouver I s l a n d P.C. Change 1951-1961 i y o i V. 1. r J . U. Farm 9,499 7,590 2 0 . 0 29 .5 Rural-non farm 70,131 85,267 21.6 41.2 Small Towns 1 ,000-10,000 33,139 24,806 25.0 2 4 . 9 Larger Urban Centres 101,925 173,172 6 9 . 9 • 6 0 . 8 M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a 74,689 162,452 117.0 -'Total Population 215,003 290,835 35.3 2 8 . 8 (b) P. C. D i s t r i b u t i o n and Sex R a t i o ^ Vancouver I s l a n d , 1961 Area P.C. D i s t r i b u t i o n Sex R a t i o fa) 1951 1961 1951 1961 Farm 4.4 2.6 116 113 Rural-non farm 32.6 2 9 . 3 124 113 Small Towns 1 ,000-10,000 15.4 8.5 104 100 Larger Urban Centres 47.4 59.5 97 .7 97 .8 M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a 3 4 . 7 55.9 97 .8 97.4 T o t a l Population (215,003) (290,835) 107.6 103 (a) R a t i o of males t o females. Table 3- Population D i s t r i b u t i o n , Major Urban Centres, Vancouver I s l a n d , 1961. C i t y and Surrounding D i s t r i c t s Population 1961 P. C. Vancouver of I s l a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a ' C i t y of V i c t o r i a 162,452 54,941 55.8 " 18.9 Duncan Area Duncan 24,779 3,726 8.5 1.3 Nanaimo Area Nanaimo 40 ,569 14 ,135 13-9 4 .9 Courtenay Area Courtenay 27,003 3,485 9.3 1.2 A l b e r n i Area Port A l b e r n i and A l b e r n i 26,072 16,176 8.9 5 .6 North Vancouver I s l a n d 9,960 3.4 Vancouver I s l a n d T o t a l Population 290,835 100 -21-Chapter II - AGE COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION  AND ITS SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS Basic information of the age composition of the community i s a v a i l a b l e from the census i n f i f t e e n or more f i v e year group i n t e r v a l s . For the purpose of t h i s study these can be combined to hi g h l i g h t groups which are s i g n i f i c a n t i n s o c i a l , economic and welfare terms. The s e l e c t i o n of these groups i n the main i s threefold. In the f i r s t are included the infants and pre-school c h i l d r e n (0 - 4), the school c h i l d r e n (5 - 14), and the adolescents and young adults which are separated into two age groups (15 - 19) and (20 - 24). In these l a t t e r groups are (a),the young men and women who are s t i l l attending school or other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , (b) those who are already employed, for the f i r s t time, and (c) young married couples, both of whom may be employed, or i n the process of s t a r t i n g to rai s e t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . In the second s i g n i f i c a n t group are the men and women who are by t h i s time established i n t h e i r mature l i f e patterns of work and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; grouped for convenience as (25 - 44) and 45 - 64, the older of the two are men and women who are at the height of th e i r productive powers, and who have been, or are, i n the process of helping t h e i r own progeny complete t h e i r education and e s t a b l i s h themselves i n t h e i r own family group. These are the men and women who have the time and resources to play an important part i n the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l developments i n t h e i r communities. F i n a l l y , there are the men and women i n the age group of 65 years and over, most of whom, but not a l l , are r e t i r e d . This group i s -22-increasing; i n 1961 there were 1,391,000 people aged 65 years and over i n Canada. This number i s expected to increase to 1,500,000 by 1967. The age composition of the e l d e r l y population i s no le s s important than i t s s i z e . B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a and Vancouver i n p a r t i c u l a r have proportionately greater numbers of persons i n t h e i r seventies than has Canada as a whole. This r e l a t i v e concentration i n the seventy and upward age group has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for the provision of h o s p i t a l , health and d o m i c i l i a r y services both i n the province and i n i t s major urban centres.^" The f i n a n c i a l resources of those no longer able to work and the employment handicaps sustained by the aged have long been a matter of public concern. Factual data which could illuminate the r e a l s i t u a t i o n of the aged i n these two areas i s incomplete both for Canada and for the provinces. There i s a pressing need for research regarding the employment s i t u a t i o n of older people and the economic resources of those whose incomes place them above the public assistance l e v e l . The Canada Pension Plan recently inaugurated by l e g i s l a t i o n of the Parliament of Canada w i l l provide a universal retirement pension r e l a t e d to the earnings which people have contributed. The scale of t h i s pension w i l l r i s e during a ten year t r a n s i t i o n a l period to a l e v e l of 25 2 per cent of the contributor's earnings. However, t h i s pension plan does 1 Wheeler, Michael. A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, March 1961, p. 174. The Canada Pension Plan. Government of Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare, August 1964, p. 7. -23-nothing f o r those who now need i t most, the present aging population. People already r e t i r e d receive nothing except some adjustments for small cost of l i v i n g increases; and workers presently over 68 years w i l l not receive benefits as the pensions w i l l not be paid u n t i l 1967. Even then they w i l l only be ten per cent of the f u l l benefit payable i n 1976. As already noted, the t o t a l population of Vancouver Island increased during the "bench work" decade (from 1951 to 1961) by more than one-third. This increase i s not quite as high as the rate of population increase i n some other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, which i s 39.8 per cent, but s l i g h t l y higher than the population increase during t h i s period, being 30 per cent. Although the figures are not a v a i l a b l e , most estimates ind i c a t e that the population i s continuing to increase at t h i s rate or perhaps an accelerated one. In B r i t i s h Columbia the increase i n b i r t h rate i s evident, as there are now, 10 per cent more c h i l d r e n under the age of 15 years than there were twenty years ago. In 1941 the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group represented 22 per cent of the population, and i n 1961 they reached a proportion of 31 per cent. This: increase i s i n d i c a t i v e of the r i s e of the number of b i r t h s throughout the country during the post war years. In order to study the d i f f e r e n t age groups i n t h i s area, we should f i r s t look at the o v e r a l l population of Vancouver Island. More than h a l f the t o t a l population of Vancouver Island i s concentrated i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a , which covers an area of approximately 70 square miles. The remainder of the t o t a l population i s d i s t r i b u t e d north of V i c t o r i a but concentrated i n the southern part of the i s l a n d , and for the most part on the eastern slope. In none of the remaining f i v e census -24-subdivisions outside V i c t o r i a are there any c i t i e s of more than 15,000 t o t a l population. Moreover, i n these census subdivisions anywhere from 25 per cent to ,75 per cent of the t o t a l population are l i v i n g i n "unorganized t e r r i t o r y " i . e . areas not yet governed by elected municipal government. This implies two things, the geography of Vancouver Island has not been conducive to large organized settlements; and the s o c i a l , educational and employment opportunities for the most part are concentrated i n the southern area. In 1961 the proportion of c h i l d r e n under f i f t e e n years on Vancouver Island was 26 per cent. The proportion of c h i l d r e n throughout the province i s higher (31 per cent). The per cent d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 0 - 4 age group has remained constant on Vancouver Island during the 10 year bench work decade. The older group (5 - 14 years) has increased s l i g h t l y (1 per cent). These figures are both lower than the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the remainder of the Province. This indicates that- the i n f l u x of young f a m i l i e s to Vancouver Island has not been as great as that to other parts of the Province. The adolescent group (15 - 19 years) and the young adult group (20 - 24) may s t i l l be i n attendance at educational and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . On the other hand, school "dropouts", untrained and looking for work, create problems i n a society already troubled by a high rate of unemployment. Some of these young adults are married and form "young f a m i l i e s " of s o c i a l and welfare s i g n i f i c a n c e . As could be expected t h i s group when employed i s frequently i n receipt of low incomes. The d i s t r i -bution of both these age groups on Vancouver Island i s comparable to the -25-d i s t r i b u t i o n of these groups throughout the rest of the province. Educational f a c i l i t i e s are of great s i g n i f i c a n c e to a l l these aforementioned age groups. Together they comprise 37 per cent of the t o t a l population of Vancouver Island, t h i s being s l i g h t l y lower than the p r o v i n c i a l proportion for t h i s group (44 per cent). Elementary schooling i s a v a i l a b l e throughout the Island and secondary schools have been b u i l t i n a l l settlement areas. The higher educational f a c i l i t i e s are presently situated i n the Metropolitan V i c t o r i a area. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note there are eleven long established and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known private schools located on the southern part of the i s l a n d . Only l a s t year the University of V i c t o r i a opened i t s doors to students. A survey i s being conducted to plan for the establishment of a regional junior college to serve the c e n t r a l and northern areas of Vancouver Island. The middle groups which may be termed the working population (25 - 44) and (45 - 64), together comprise f i f t y per cent of the t o t a l population on Vancouver Island as compared to 45 per cent throughout the whole province. These groups p a r t i c u l a r l y the younger age groups (25 - 44) are of great s o c i a l and welfare s i g n i f i c a n c e . Detailed s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r -mation concerning the m a r i t a l status by age and sex of the heads of house-holds within t h i s group are a v a i l a b l e for B r i t i s h Columbia, but not for the other census regions, with the exception of Metropolitan Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . These fac t s have p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e as they are a base for determining family s t a b i l i t y or disorganization. The older groups (65 - 69), (70 +), comprise around 12 per cent of the t o t a l population of Vancouver -26-Island. This i s s l i g h t l y higher than the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the rest of the province, which i s 10 per cent, but i s 5 per cent higher than the r e s t of Canada. It also provides scenery and r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities that no other parts of the country provide on a year round basis, whereas h a l f of the t o t a l population of Vancouver Island are i n the Metropolitan V i c t o r i a area, no less than 70 per cent of the t o t a l older age group of Vancouver Island are l i v i n g i n t h i s area. In general, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these age groups has remained f a i r l y constant throughout the period of 1951 to 1961, both on Vancouver Island and i n the Province. However, while the per cent increases during these ten years for both B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island are compar-able, the pre-school c h i l d r e n (0 - 4) and the young adults (20 - 24) have increased at rates s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than those of the r e s t of the province. This could indicate the lack of employment opportunities for younger people s t a r t i n g to r a i s e f a m i l i e s , causing them to move elsewhere. The older population of Vancouver Island which i s generally higher than that of B r i t i s h Columbia and the rest of Canada i s concentrated i n the Metropolitan area of V i c t o r i a and w i l l l i k e l y continue i n t h i s pattern. Family Patterns For the purposes of t h i s study the census d e f i n i t i o n s of family and household are followed. The family consists of a husband and wife, with or without one or more ch i l d r e n , or may consist of one parent and c h i l d or c h i l d r e n . A household consists of one person or several people who are unrelated but together occupy one dwelling. -27-The family, f i r s t of a l l , i s a basic s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . In our society i t provides the basis f o r the t o t a l development of the i n d i v i -dual from b r i t h . It i s here that the c h i l d ' s personality develops i n those f i r s t few years of our prolonged childhood. It i s here that the c h i l d learns to become s o c i a l i z e d , not only i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the family group, but beyond t h i s group into the broader c u l t u r a l area. The common concept of the family today i s a group c o n s i s t i n g of the mother, father and c h i l d r e n . This we c a l l the nuclear family to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from the family patterns of f i f t y years ago, which more often than not included grandparents or other r e l a t i v e s . Due to greater m o b i l i t y and i n d u s t r i a l trends, younger people move about: more and t h i s has l e f t these older r e l a t i v e s behind often to l i v e on t h e i r own. These f a m i l i e s have decreased i n s i z e . The smallest family units are of thjree kinds: a husband and wife who have never had c h i l d r e n , the young couple with no c h i l d r e n at present, who w i l l probably have c h i l d r e n , and the older couple whose c h i l d r e n have grown and l e f t home. This group may include a widowed or divorced parent and one c h i l d . Unfortunately these are.not always separable i n the standard s t a t i s t i c s . The large family group i s generally considered to be those who have f i v e or more c h i l d r e n . The changed concepts i n family patterns can indic a t e that i n times of family disorganization due to i l l n e s s , death, and other causes, the family more often turns to the s o c i a l agency for help. They no longer have r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r home to a s s i s t when s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s a r i s e . In our society the one-family home i s generally considered to be the preferred type of residence. I f there are instances of two or -28-more f a m i l i e s l i v i n g together, r e l a t e d or lodging; t h i s can be considered as an i n d i c a t i o n of i n s t a b i l i t y and may imply a breakdown i n family functioning. The one-parent f a m i l i e s can be regarded as being i n a vulnerable p o s i t i o n . One parent l e f t with one or more c h i l d r e n has to assume the r o l e of the missing parent and t h i s means a d d i t i o n a l s t r a i n s on the parent which may a f f e c t the whole family s i t u a t i o n . Disorganized f a m i l i e s are not always broken up by separation or death. The two parents may be i n the home; but, through d i s a b i l i t y , long term i l l n e s s or vocational inadequacy, the breadwinner may be unable to provide for h i s family. These, plus other personal or s o c i a l inade-quacies often over an extended period, lead to the intervention of s o c i a l agencies. Unfortunately i n many instances the c h i l d r e n may have to be removed from t h e i r homes, becoming dependent on society to provide them with nurture and care; e i t h e r i n the homes of other f a m i l i e s who act as f o s t e r parents, or i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i f t h i s type of care i s indicated. Besides the family group. there are those i n d i v i d u a l s who are l i v i n g alone. These are the people who have no family, l i v e alone by necessity and some who are members of an extended family and l i v e alone by choice. This condition of l i v i n g does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply dependence or i n s t a b i l i t y . This group can include single men and women who are earning adequate incomes, and older people who do not have to depend on a pension as t h e i r only means of support. However, i n the older group (65 +) are many who are dependent on a f i x e d pension for t h e i r t o t a l support. :Families and Households Of the t o t a l population approximately one-half are married, -29-both on Vancouver Island and i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The widowed and divorced population represent a small per cent of the population, 5.8 per cent i n the province and s l i g h t l y higher on Vancouver Island, 6.6 per cent. The single persons include a l l age groups from infants to e l d e r l y people, and t h i s segment also comprises the remaining part of the population and i s the approximate siz e of the married group. In t h i s group i t w i l l be noted there are 4 per cent more males than females, both on Vancouver Island and throughout the province. This: indicates the necessity of single males required to work i n the primary i n d u s t r i e s of logging and f i s h i n g . This further i n d i c a t e s f r o n t i e r l i v i n g conditions i n many of these areas. There has been l i t t l e or no change i n the family and marital composition both on Vancouver Island and i n the province during the l a s t decade. It i s encouraging to note that the percentage of f a m i l i e s not maintaining t h e i r own households i s generally low throughout the province. This i s an i n d i c a t i o n of s t a b i l i t y . The r a t i o i s s l i g h t l y lower on Vancouver Island than the r e s t of the province. Here 3 per cent do not maintain t h e i r own homes compared to 4 per cent which i s the p r o v i n c i a l average. On Vancouver Island there are 84,946 households: and 71,286 f a m i l i e s . Of these 69,143 occupy t h e i r own dwellings. This means that the community i s b a s i c a l l y a "family" one, with approximately 80 per cent of the households being t r a d i t i o n a l family households. However, i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a there are 38,673 f a m i l i e s and 47,485 households: of which 36,496 are maintaining t h e i r own household. This indicates only 76 per cent of the f a m i l i e s are l i v i n g i n t h e i r own household. -30-As we know there are p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more e l d e r l y people l i v i n g i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a than the remainder of the i s l a n d , we may assume many of these f a l l i n t h i s l a t t e r group and may s i g n i f y present and future welfare problems. On Vancouver Island and Metropolitan V i c t o r i a the f a m i l i e s who are l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s or i n lodgings represent a very small per cent of the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s . Together they t o t a l 3 per cent. This i s below the p r o v i n c i a l average which i s 4 per cent. Approximately one^third of the f a m i l i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia have no c h i l d r e n . This average i s 2 per cent higher on Vancouver Island than the B r i t i s h Columbia average. Metropolitan V i c t o r i a has 6 per cent more f a m i l i e s without c h i l d r e n than elsewhere i n the province. It also follows that the averages of the larger family groups also remain con s i s t -ently lower on Vancouver Island and Metropolitan V i c t o r i a as compared to the r e s t of the province. The l a r g e s t proportion of f a m i l i e s have one or more c h i l d r e n , the f a m i l i e s of 1 - 2 c h i l d r e n being the predominant group, t h i s figure being around 40 per cent for both the province and Vancouver Island. It w i l l be noted that these figures are c o n s i s t e n t l y lower i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . In the large family group having no c h i l d r e n are included the f a m i l i e s who w i l l not have c h i l d r e n , the young f a m i l i e s who as yet have not had c h i l d r e n , and those e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s whose c h i l d r e n have grown up. However as most of the heads of f a m i l i e s are between 25 and 64 years i t can be assumed that a portion of t h i s group w i l l have c h i l d r e n or -31-have had c h i l d r e n . Heads of fa m i l i e s can be distinguished i n four age groups. Age i s obviously s i g n i f i c a n t i n regard to vo c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , parental and economic functioning. The young f a m i l i e s whose head i s under 25 years comprise a small per cent of the t o t a l number of heads of f a m i l i e s . 4.2 per cent i s the average f o r B.C. while both Vancouver Island and Metro-p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a have a s l i g h t l y higher average. I t can be noted that Metropolitan Vancouver has a lower average. Here t h i s group represents 3.8 per cent of the t o t a l f a m i l i e s . The large proportion of family heads are between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Both Vancouver Island and Metropolitan V i c t o r i a have a r e l a t i v e l y smaller proportion of f a m i l i e s i n t h i s age group l i v i n g i n the area compared with the r e s t of the province. The older family group whose c h i l d r e n are probably grown up but whose head can s t i l l be working comprise the other large group of f a m i l i e s . Vancouver Island has 34 per cent of t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n th i s age group. This i s comparable to proportion of f a m i l i e s i n t h i s age group i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Metropolitan V i c t o r i a has a lower rate, 32 per cent. On Vancouver Island 17.5 per cent of a l l the fam i l i e s are of the older type of heads (65 +). This proportion i s higher than the average of t h i s group i n B r i t i s h Columbia, which i s 15 per cent. Metro-p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a i s noticeably higher, having 21.5 per cent of the t o t a l f a m i l i e s i n t h i s group. This i s higher than the average of Metropolitan Vancouver which i s 17.6 per cent and i t s e l f 2.6 per cent above the p r o v i n c i a l average. These figures i n d i c a t e there are proportimately more -32-e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s l i v i n g on Vancouver Island than i n the r e s t of the province, and these f a m i l i e s generally prefer to l i v e within the Metropolitan area rather than the outly i n g d i s t r i c t s . Planning for future welfare services might well take t h i s matter into consideration, as i t i s quite apparent from t h i s study that there Is an increasing number of older people, both f a m i l i e s and single persons, l i v i n g i n and around Metropolitan V i c t o r i a and on Vancouver Island, and this.means planning and f a c i l i t i e s for t h e i r well being and care; Ethnic Stock One of the major contributions of a regional study i s that i t can r e l a t e the human resources to the basic natural features; and: one of the s i g n i f i c a n t features of population composition i s the patterns of ethnic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which condition a t t i t u d e s of people, t h e i r p o t entials and handicaps, t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and prejudices. When viewing a s p e c i f i c ethnic group, i t i s necessary to examine i t s members with reference to the d i s t i n c t i v e properties and q u a l i t i e s which members of the given group bring into the community. With t h i s approach i n mind the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l processes of a s s i m i l a t i o n and eventual c o n t r i b u t i o n of the ethnic group members to the area under study i s f a c i l i t a t e d , because s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s and values determine the conditions p r e v a i l i n g i n the given society, community or neighborhood. Knowledge of ethnic composition of the population i n an area adds to the understanding of the s o c i a l forces which shape i t s i d e n t i t y . This includes both assets and l i a b i l i t i e s . There may be possible d i s i n -tegrating f a c t o r s ; i t may be necessary to plan for prevention as well as -33-to fashion p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l advance. Population movement i s a marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of modern society. People change locat i o n s , provinces, countries and continents. D i f f e r e n t motivations impel them to do so. Although i n recent years immigration has slowed down considerably, s t i l l thousands of immigrants enter Canada annually. The immigration department has announced recently that 112,606 immigrants entered Canada l a s t year (1964); the biggest annual t o t a l since 124,851 persons a r r i v e d i n 1958. The figure was up 19,455 from 1963 but s t i l l well down from the post-war peak of 282,164 set i n 1957. One quarter of a m i l l i o n i s a large number, and while recent immigrants are adjusting to a new culture the very process of a s s i m i l a t i o n may present various problems. Ethnic o r i g i n indices are not s u f f i c i e n t by themselves, and some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e l u s i v e ; nevertheless i t i s important to examine what i s a v a i l a b l e . Those factors contribute not only to the knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k l o r e but also to the understanding of the socio-psychology of people belonging to the c e r t a i n ethnic stock. They can modify c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s or s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n ; they can explain the v a r i a b i l i t y i n organizational approaches, community leadership or lack of i t , as well as the implications for s o c i a l welfare i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of vulnerable areas. Ideal l y i t i s necessary to "know" the community's ethnic composition intimately, with the h i s t o r i c a l background of a l l the groups concerned, from the dominant majority to the smallest minority group. The quantitative data i n other words have to be interpreted i n q u a l i t a t i v e ways. This i s not possible i n the present study, but the -34-general figures are the framework into which some d e t a i l e d studies could be f i t t e d . It i s to be hoped that welfare agencies, among others, could contribute to these. One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t u a t i o n i n the population composition on Vancouver Island i s that approximately two-thirds are of B r i t i s h heritage. The population of Canada as i t stands now presents a mosaic of ethnic o r i g i n s with approximately one-third English speaking, one-third French and the remaining one-third composed of a l l other ethnic stocks. In t h i s respect Vancouver Island d i f f e r s widely from the national average; i t s ethnic composition i s represented by a two-third majority of B r i t i s h stock while the remaining one-third encompasses a l l other ethnic groups. The dominant part of the population, those of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , account for 70.2 per cent of the t o t a l for Vancouver Island as compared to 59.3 for the province of B r i t i s h Columbia and 43.8 for Canada (1961 census f i g u r e s ) . In other words out of nearly 300,000 people now l i v i n g on the Islands, more than 200,000 are of B r i t i s h stock (exact census figures i n 1961: 290,835 and 204,169 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Vancouver Island has, of course, a long h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h settlement and V i c t o r i a notably has r i g h t f u l l y earned i t s t i t l e of a " l i t t l e England". The dominance of the Anglo-Saxon stock forms a constant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e t h n i c - o r i g i n d i s t r i b u t i o n on Vancouver Island. It i s the objective of t h i s study to s c r u t i n i z e i n some d e t a i l the a v a i l a b l e indices that are representative of the population d i s t r i b u t i o n and i t s various patterns of growth. So,, i t would seem worthwhile to note that although the French-speaking represent r e a l l y a small number (6.1 per cent) -35-of the t o t a l population on Vancouver Island, t h e i r percentage increase as a group i s 73.6 per cent (1951-61), while s i m i l a r indices for B r i t i s h Columbia show 59.8 per cent. Comparable figures for the B r i t i s h stock indicate 26.0 per cent and 26.2 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . As an ethnic e n t i t y the French people on Vancouver Island are, excepting the dominant B r i t i s h majority, surpassed i n number only by persons of Scandinavian and German stock. A separate study of family composition, educational and occupational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the French group would seem appropriate, as the proportion of s i n g l e , transient persons could denote the " s t a b i l i t y index" and detect the eventual v u l n e r a b i l i t y pockets. The remaining portion of the area's population accounts for approximately 76,000 persons (25.0 per cent of the t o t a l Vancouver Island) and represents various ethnic o r i g i n s . S l i g h t l y over one per cent i s quoted as "others and u n c l a s s i f i e d " . From the mosaic of heritages the Scandinavians are the most sizeable of a l l groups. Percentage-wise they represent 5.0 per cent of the t o t a l Vancouver Island population. This figure does not vary s i g n i f i -c a n tly from the p r o v i n c i a l (5.9 per cent), but the comparative percentage for Canada is- only 2.1. There are now nearly 15,000 people of Scandinavian o r i g i n l i v i n g on Vancouver Island and i t seems that t h i s area, as well as B r i t i s h Columbia, presents a s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i o n for those hardened Nordic s e t t l e r s . One-fourth of the t o t a l of Canada's Scandinavian group l i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. And i t i s worth noting that the percentage of increase i n the Scandinavian group, for the period 1951-61, compares most favourably for -36-Vancouver Island, During t h i s ten-year period the Scandinavian population increased on Vancouver Island by 52.7 per cent while i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia i t increased by 47.5, and i n Canada by 36.5 per cent. In general, a new Canadian from Continental Europe often f e e l s sooner a true Canadian-citizen than the very B r i t i s h or French immigrant. This: i s l a r g e l y due to the fact that, i n many instances, the immigrant who comes from economically poorer conditions i n h i s native country, finds the prospects i n Canada so good and challenging that at le a s t "labour-wise" he r e j e c t s the country of h i s o r i g i n . Whatever t h e i r r e l i g i o u s or mother tongue a f f i l i a t i o n s , those immigrants constitute a dynamic addition to the nation 1s.man-power. The Native Indian The Native Indian population i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s twice the national percentage, with an understandable concen-t r a t i o n on Vancouver Island (Canada's percentage being 1.2 per cent as compared to 2.3 for B r i t i s h Columbia and 2.7 per cent for Vancouver Island). This group shows an equal d i s t r i b u t i o n over the Vancouver Island area with a s l i g h t overbalance i n the Alberni d i s t r i c t . While Canada's increase.of the Indian population i n the period 1951-61 i s nearly 33 per cent, the comparative figure for B r i t i s h Columbia i s over 36 per cent and for Vancouver Island over 40 per cent. Nearly 8,000 Native Indians l i v e on the Island; many l o c a l names bear the Indian influence. I n c i d e n t a l l y , the name Cowichan i n the Indian tongue means "the place warmed by the sun". The Cowichan Indians were a warlike t r i b e and t e r r o r i z e d the P a c i f i c Northwest over 100 years ago. Devoid of past splendors and not yet -37-accustpmed to the "new-ways-of-life" they l i v e i n poverty and stagnation. One of the greatest problems f o r Native Indians, as well as for some of the immigrants, brought to Canada to r e l i e v e the p e r i o d i c a l shortages of labour, i s lack of education and/or i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l . In order to compete i n the labour market they need to acquire a c e r t a i n l e v e l of education before being e l i g i b l e for government sponsored r e t r a i n i n g -r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - programs. In order to learn a trade they have to complete the elementary grades with a l l the prescribed subjects. It i s quite easy to imagine the stress and s t r a i n put on an adult new-immigrant, or on a man from the Reserve, for that matter, who has to cope with the h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e courses i n the foreign language before he can "graduate" i n h i s trade. So i t i s no wonder that many I t a l i a n b r i c k l a y e r s or Sl a v i c carpenters labour for b u i l d i n g contractors as " u n s k i l l e d " low-paid workers for years on end to support t h e i r f a m i l i e s . E x i s t i n g community groups could play a most useful r o l e as the l i n k between the i n d i v i d u a l s who want to up-grade th e i r t r a i n i n g and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services already a v a i l a b l e or to be planned just for that s p e c i f i c reason. The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l implications for the ethnic group are often aggravated not only by the " i n a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to i n t egrate" but also by the genuine resentment of the "true Canadian" towards a foreigner who takes over the av a i l a b l e "job" or who brings "strange customs". Usually i t i s the mutual 1 lack of understanding of the other culture and of how to help each other. Community groups perhaps stimulated by C i t i z e n s h i p Committees could promote t h i s understanding. The problems facing the immigrants are many, but mostly they center around -38-the d i f f i c u l t y i n communication, i n c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , wasted ta l e n t s , or s k i l l s unsuitable or too d i f f i c u l t to adjust to l o c a l demands, and f i n a l l y i n the necessity for re-education or r e t r a i n i n g . Those who come with educational background, a b i l i t y and desire to learn overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s within a couple of years. The contribution of new-Canadian s c i e n t i s t s to the national culture i s s i g n i f i -cant and an established f a c t . Several outstanding representatives of "minority" groups give a worthy share to the c u l t u r a l growth of t h e i r adopted country. The less fortunate and s p e c i a l l y the older people and the housewives t i e d to household a c t i v i t i e s l i v e t h e i r l i v e s i n the new country without comprehending the advantages of the new c u l t u r a l background. These are the people who can never r e a l l y f e e l accepted i n the community and often desperately need help and counselling with t h e i r r e a l and imaginary problems. While the c h i l d r e n master the new language r a p i d l y at school the communication within the family breaks down and the lack of understanding increases when the young generation tosses aside both t h e i r culture and t h e i r native tongue. Counselling and advice must come from persons who understand where the actual c o n f l i c t l i e s ; who know the customs of the homeland, the differences i n values, the natural f e e l i n g s and emo-tions of the people involved. These fa m i l i e s must be helped before t h e i r problems become too serious to solve. It would seem l o g i c a l i n the long-range welfare planning to consider the consequences of changes i n the ethnic group pattern described. The u t i l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l workers with necessary " f e e l i n g " for human -39-geography must take place within a sound welfare program, not only to r e l i e v e the immediate socio-cultural-based pathology, whenever i t e x i s t s , but to provide an appropriate prevention and planned i n t e g r a t i o n . Of course there must be i n t e r e s t shown on both sides. The importation of former peasant-stock which composed the bulk of pre-war immigration from Continental Europe and the forced immigration of the so-c a l l e d " i n t e l l i g e n t i a " which compose the main body of World War II immigration to Canada i s over. And Canada has the r i g h t to expect more educated, more s k i l l f u l , and above a l l more informed immigrants. The language handicap should be overcome at l e a s t half-way before a r r i v a l to the new country. There w i l l s t i l l be many unavoidable problems which an understanding s o c i a l worker may help to solve with well arranged services to ethnic groups; and thus make l i f e easier and happier for those who w i l l be entering Canada i n the next few years and for those who are s t i l l f i n d -ing settlement i n t h e i r adopted country a pretty hard going experience. This l a s t group comprises mainly the older generation of the e a r l y century s e t t l e r s and the post-war a r r i v a l s unable to adjust or re-adjust. Like Chinese c o o l i e s , the majority of the male population have been employed i n primary industry. Many integrated l a t e r into the Canadian way of l i f e s u c c e s s f u l l y ; but quite a number have never acquired the knowledge of language and customs, nor r i s e n above the " u n s k i l l e d " labourer status with a l l the economic i n s e c u r i t y which t h i s implies. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to i nvestigate how many of them have to r e l y at present on public assistance because no adequate help was offered i n time. -40-Religious Groups The mosaic pattern of r e l i g i o u s group representations for Vancouver Island appears to r e f l e c t the character of e a r l y settlement and the long term s t a b i l i t y ; of population of the Island, predominantly Protestant and B r i t i s h . This population has remained, more homogeneous than that of mainland B r i t i s h Columbia which perhaps because of i t s vast-ness, has had a more var i e d population pattern, more " f r o n t i e r " i n character. The high Anglican and United Church percentages appear to represent e a r l y settlement i n southern Vancouver Island. The r e l a t i v e l y high Presbyterian representation may r e l a t e to S c o t t i s h employees of the ear l y Hudson Bay Company development, as well as to S c o t t i s h coal mining settlement i n the Nanaimo area. Those r e l i g i o u s groups designated by "other", s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the Canadian average, yet lower than that for B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole, c o r r e l a t e well with the immigration and l a t e r migration of Oriental peoples on the West Coast, encouraged to come to B r i t i s h Columbia as labourers during the era of r a i l r o a d b u i l d i n g . Japanese came l a t e r as fishermen and East Indians, many of them Sikhs, came ea r l y i n the 1900's as lumber workers. Chinese and Japanese subsequently engaged i n h o r t i -c u l t u r e , domestic service, small business, and to some extent i n the pulp and paper and the cannery i n d u s t r i e s ; i n these c a p a c i t i e s many found t h e i r way to Vancouver Island; East Indians, too, s e t t l e d here around the sawmill centers. The higher proportion of Lutherans i n Alberni and northern -41-Vancouver Island r e l a t e s well to the presence of f i s h i n g centers i n these areas peopled by Scandinavian fishermen. It may also r e f l e c t the presence of descendants of the e a r l y Danish s e t t l e r s . It i s d i f f i c u l t to account for the higher incidence of Roman Gatholics i n Port A l b e r n i and Vancouver Island north unless t h i s represents recent trends of a) possibly accelerated immigration of European labourers to pulp m i l l s and/or b) Roman Gatholic Native Indians i n areas otherwise served by Anglican Missions. The lower representation of minority r e l i g i o u s groups gives further evidence of the r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of Vancouver Island population. The minor Protestant r e l i g i o u s groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of evangelical character often include representatives of dis s i d e n t c i t i z e n s . I t i s purely speculative to assume that the selected indices of r e l i g i o u s group d i s t r i b u t i o n can i n d i c a t e , per se, p o t e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y - f a c t o r s or s p e c i a l -v u l n e r a b i l i t y implications. Only when the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the various socio-economic, educational and ethnographical patterns are i n t e r e s t i n g enough to be analyzed and s t a t i s t i c a l l y tested i n a given sector, can these factors represent a s i g n i f i c a n t meaning for the social-welfare requirements and the social-work services. With a large percentage of the population of Vancouver Island i n the major denominations (which i n c i d e n t a l l y i n Canada form a high socio-economic index) and with a low percentage of minority r e l i g i o u s groups associated with low socio-economic status, i t would be reasonable to expect a lower than average incidence of s o c i a l welfare problems; and u n t i l r e c ently t h i s may have been the case. However a closer scrutiny -42-of figures reveals a changing composition pattern; hence a s o c i a l welfare program concerned with minimizing s o c i a l problems by preventive p o l i c i e s should be s e n s i t i v e to these changes i n demographic ind i c e s , which can serve as warning signals for oncoming s o c i a l implications. Table 4. S i g n i f i c a n t Age Groups, Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia (a) Changes 1951-1961 Vancouver I s l a n d P. C. Increase Comparative B.C. Increase Age Group 1951 1961 Pre-School 0-4 22,533 32,221 22 .9 48 .4 School 5-14 31,221 56,852 8 2 . 0 80.6 Adolescent and Young Adults 15-19 20-24 12,445 15,082 20 ,469 16,878 64 .5 11.9 60.4 • 19.3 Mature 25-44 45-64 62.696 44,075 73,416 55,110 18.0 25.O 24 .7 32.1 Older 65-69 70 + 11 ,016 15,936 10,589 25,300 3 .8 58.7 4.1 56.9 TOTAL 215,003 290,835 35.3 3 9 . 8 (b) % D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951-1961 Age Group Vancouver I s l a n d B r i t i s h Columbia 1951 1961 1951 1961 • Pre-School 0-4 10.5 10.8 10.8 11.5, School 5-14 14.4 15.3 15.2 19.8 Adolescent and Young Adult 15-19 20-24 5 .8 7.0 6 .0 6 . 8 6 .0 6 . 8 6 .9 5 .8 Mature 25-44 45-64 29.2 2 0 . 5 30.1 19.2 30.1 2 0 . 0 2 6 . 9 18.9 Older 65-69 70 + • 5.1 7.7 4 .5 7.3 4 . 5 6.6 3.1 7.1 TOTAL 100 100 100 100 Table 5. Comparative Patterns and Trends In the M a r i t a l and Family Composition of the Population of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia 1951-19^1. M a r i t a l and Family Vancouver I s l a n d B r i t i s h Columbia Status 1951 1961 1951 Married 26.5 24.1 25 .5 2 3 . 9 Widowed 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.3 Divorced 0 . 3 0 . 5 0 . 3 0 . 3 S i n g l e 2 3 . 5 2 4 . 5 2 3 . 9 25 .4 TOTAL Males (147,697) 100 100 100 100 Married 25.1 24 .4 2 4 . 8 23 .6 Widowed 4.1 4 .3 3 . 8 3 . 8 Divorced 0 . 3 0 . 4 . 0 . 8 0 . 4 S i n g l e 18.6 2 0 . 9 19.7 21.3 TOTAL Females (143 ,138) 100 100 100 100 TOTAL Population 215,003 290,835 1,165,210 1,629,082 Table 6. Some Major Factors of F a m i l y Composition  Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia and  Met r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a 1 9 b l . Items Vancouver I s l a n d No. - % B r i t i s h Columbia No. % Met r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a No. % T o t a l F a m i l i e s 71,286 100 394,023 100 38,673 100 F a m i l i e s not maint a i n i n g Own Household 2 ,143 3-0 16,427 4.2 1,183 3.1 Related F a m i l i e s Lodging F a m i l i e s 1,519 533 2.1 .8 9 ,936 5,973 2 .5 1.5 821 2.1 318 .8 Age Family Head Under 25 years 25-44 45-64 65 years and over 3,288 31,177 24,323 12,498 4 .6 43.7 34 .1 17.5 16,706 182,380 137,451 57 ,486 4.2 46 .3 34 .9 15.0 1,653 4 .3 16,064 41.5 12,631 32.7 8,325 21.5 Size of Family 0- c h i l d r e n 1- 2 c h i l d r e n 3-4 c h i l d r e n 5 plus c h i l d r e n 25,237 28,879 13,883 3,287 35-4 40 . 5 19.5 4 .6 130,455 165,180 79,363 19,025 33.1 41 . 9 20.1 4 . 8 15,222 39.3 15,375 39 .8 6,774 17.5 1,302 3.4 Average Persons per f a m i l y Average C h i l d r e n per f a m i l y - 3-5 1.5 - 3.6 1.6 3.3 1.4 Ages of C h i l d r e n at Home Under 6 6-14 15-24 at school 15-24 not at school 38,255 49,507 14 ,027 7, 587 35.0 45.3 12.8 6 .9 220,347 281,698 80,060 45,293 34.1 44.9 12.76 7.2. 18,236 34.2 24,132 45.3 7,175 13.5 3,754 7.0 TOTAL C h i l d r e n 109,376 100 627,398 100 53,297 100 Table 7 a . Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n of Households by S i z e : f o r Vancouver I s l a n d , G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada,1961. , Vancouver-I s l a n d G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a G r e a t e r Vancouver , B r i t i s h Columbia T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 290,835 162,452 790,165 1,629,082 Number of households 84,946 47,485 228,598 459,532 D i s t r i b u t i o n of households by s i z e 1 person 14.6 16.4 13.2 13.5 2-3 persons 41.9 47.3 45.1 43.2 4-5 persons 29.2 27.2 31.0 30.8 6 o r more persons 12.0 9 . 0 10.7 12.5 Tahle 7b. Some Residence F a c t o r s : M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a , M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia,1 9 6 1 . Item M e t r o p o l i t a n V i c t o r i a M e t r o p o l i t a n -Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia T o t a l Number of Households 47,485 228,596 459,532 D w e l l i n g s C o n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e 1920 P.C, 25.1 16.2 16.3 Tenant Occupied P.C. 2 8 . 6 3 0 . 3 29 .0 Less than One Year Occupancy P.C. 17.2 17.3 17.9 More than Ten Years Occupancy P.O. 24 .5 23.8 24.4 T a b l e 8 . Main E t h n i c Stocks i n P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver Island, 1 9 6 1 • E t h n i c S t o c k Vancouver I s l a n d Comparative Percentages No. P.C. B.C. Canada B r i t i s h 204 ,169 70.2 59.4 43 .8 F r e n c h 10,865 3.7 4.1 3 0 . 4 S c a n d i n a v i a n 14,771 5.1 5 .9 2.1 German 12 ,695 4 . 4 7.3 5.8 Dutch 7,515 2 .6 3.7 2.4 U k r a i n i a n 3,511 1.2 2.2 2.6 P o l i s h 3,041 . 1 . 0 1.5 1.8 R u s s i a n 1,527 0.5 1.7 0.7 I t a l i a n 3,675 1.3 2.4 2 .5 Jewish 132 0.04 0.3 1.0 Other European 11,046 3 .8 4 . 9 3 . 9 N a t i v e I n d i a n 7,883 2.7 2 .4 1.2 O r i e n t a l s 6,523 2.2 2 .5 0.7 Others and U n c l a s s i f i e d 3,482 1.2 1.7 1.3 T o t a l 290,835 100 100 100 T a b l e 9.' Change i n E t h n i c S t o c k s , Vancouver I s l a n d Population, 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 . / I n c r e a s e s ; except f o r decreases:shown i n b r a c k e t s / E t h n i c Stock Vancouver Comparative I s l a n d P.C.Changes " No. P.C. B.C. Canada B r i t i s h 42,205 55.7 43.3 3 0 . 4 F r e n c h 4,605 6.1 5 . 4 2 8 . 9 S c a n d i n a v i a n 5,100 6.7 6.7 2 . 4 German 7,054 9.3 . 13.7 10.2 Dutch:.. 4,651 6.1 5 .8 3 .9 U k r a i n i a n 1,491 2 . 0 2 .8 1.9 P o l i g h 1 , l 8 0 1 ? 6 1.8 2.5 Russian 138 0.2 1.2 0.7 I t a l i a n 1,898 2.5 4 . 6 7 . 0 Jewish / 2 6 / / 0 . 0 3 / 0.1 / 0 . 2 / Other European 4,982 6.6 8 .8 8.6 N a t i v e I n d i a n s 2,257 3 . 0 2.2 1.3 O r i e n t a l s 1,625 2.1 3.1 1.1 Others and U n c l a s s i f i e d / 1 . 3 0 8 / /1 .7/ 0.6 1.3 . T o t a l I n crease 75,832 3 5 . 3 3 9 . 8 3 0 . 2 Table 10. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Main E t h n i c Stocks i n P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d : by Sub-Areas, 1961. E t h n i c V i c t o r i a ' Duncan Nanaimo Albern: Cour-tenay V . I . North Stock P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. B r i t i s h 77.4 61.8 68.8 47.5 67.6 45.8 French 3 , 0 4 .5 3.2 7 ¥ 4 4.1 4 ? 8 S c a n d i n a v i a n 3.8 6.5 5.8 8 . 0 6.5 8 . 0 German 3.5 5 .3 3 . 9 7.6 6.1 5 .5 Dutch 2.1 3 .5 2.1 5 .5 2.7 2 . 0 U k r a i n i a n 1.0 1.2 1.1 2.2 1.5 2.3 P o l i s h 0.9 0 . 9 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.4 Russian 0.4 0 .5 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.8 I t a l i a n 0.8 0.9 2.3 2 . 3 1.5 2 . 2 Jewish 0.0/5 - 0.0/4 0.0/2 0.0/4 0.0/3 Other European 2.6 3 .8 6.4 5.7 3 . 5 9.7 N a t i v e I n d i a n 1.0 5.7 2 .6 7.2 2 . 0 14.4 O r i e n t a l s 2.3 4 .7 0.9 2 .9 0.8 2.3 Others and U n c l a s s i f i e d 1.2 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.1 0.8 T o t a l 100 100 100 100 100 100 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 162,452 24 ,779 40 ,569 26,072 27,003 9,960 T a b l e 11. Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s : Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d , i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada,1961. R e l i g i o u s Vancouver I s l a n d Comparative P.C, Group No. P.C. B.C. Canada • A n g l i c a n 92,418 31.7 2 2 , 5 13.2 U n i t e d Church 88,342 30.3 31 .0 20.1 P r e s b y t e r i a n 17,858 6.1 5 .5 4 . 5 Lutheran 12,831 4 . 4 6.2 3.6 B a p t i s t 7,601 2.6 3 . 0 3 .3 P e n t e c o s t a l 2,974 1.0 1.2 0.8 Menngnite 444 0,1 1.2 0,8 • Roman C a t h o l i c 41,554 14 . 2 17.5 45.7 Greek Orthodox 1,279 0.4 1.0 1.3 Greek C a t h o l i c 639 0.2 0.4 1.0 Jev;ish 241 0 . 0 / 8 / 0 .5 1.4 Other 24 ,654 8.4 • 10.0 4.2 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 290,835 100 100 100 T a b l e 12. Main R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s i n P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n by Sub-Areas,1961 . R e l i g i o u s Group . Por t Cour- V . I . -V i c t o r i a .Duncan, Nanaimo. A l b e r n i , tenay , North . P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. P.C. A n g l i c a n 37.5 27.2 25.1 18.4 2 6 . 3 27.6 U n i t e d Church 27.0 30.8 3 8 . 4 30.4 40 . 8 23 .9 P r e s b y t e r i a n 7.5 4 . 0 5.7 4 . 3 3.1 3 .6 Lutheran 2.9 5 . 0 5.2 8 .5 4 .9 11.8 B a p t i s t 2.9 2.6 2 .4 2.1 2 . 0 2 . 0 " P e n t e c o s t a l 0.8 1.4 0.9 1*3 1*0 3 , 3 Mcnnonite 0.0/2 0.1 0.0/3 0 . 0 A 1.2 0.2 Roman C a t h o l i c 12.3 18.2 13.9 22.4 12.9 21.1 Greek Orthodox 0.3 0 .3 0 .5 1.0 0 .4 1.0 Greek C a t h o l i c " 0 . 8 0.2 0.2 0 .5 0.2 0 .4 Jev.'ish 0.1 0.0/1 0.1 0.0/3 0.0/4 ' 0 o 0 Other 8.5 10.2 7.5 10.9 7 .0 5.0. T o t a l 100 100 100 100 100 100 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 162,452 24 ,779 40 ,569 26,072 27,003 9,960 -43-Chapter I I I - THE ECONOMY Earnings as a Welfare Measurement In the year p r i o r to June 1, 1961, by far the largest percentage (over 33%) of male wage-earners 15 years of age and over i n B. C.: i n D i v i s i o n No. 5 (which approximates Welfare Region 1), and i n the C i t y of V i c t o r i a , earned between $4000 and $6000. In V i c t o r i a , nearly 9 per cent earned over $6000, and a si m i l a r percentage earned le s s than $1000. Approximately 28 per cent earned le s s than $3000, and i t i s within t h i s group.that hardship could e x i s t , e s p e c i a l l y i f the wage-earner i s the head of a family of three or more. The average income of males i n V i c t o r i a was about $300 les s than the average f o r D i v i s i o n No. 5. In t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the average for females i n V i c t o r i a was s l i g h t l y higher than the average for the whole Census D i v i s i o n . This, combined with the fact that about 25 per cent of the t o t a l number of female wage-earners received less than $1000, and another 26 per cent earned between $2000 and $3000, would suggest that much more part-time, and semi-s k i l l e d work was a v a i l a b l e i n V i c t o r i a , than elsewhere i n the Region. The s u r p r i s i n g l y large percentage (about 25%) earning le s s than $1000 would also suggest that quite a number of married women work part time to supplement the family income. Occupational Composition The t o t a l number of persons i n the labour-force of Vancouver Island i s now over 100,000 (100,631 were recorded i n the census i n 1961). The data on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the labour force are not always comparable -44-with e a r l i e r terms. One of the main reasons for t h i s i s the fa c t that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . o f the " g a i n f u l l y " occupied population or the "labour force" i s a comparatively recent undertaking and the e a r l i e r s t a t i s t i c a l surveys provided us with no more than a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the labour force by industry or by branch of economic a c t i v i t y , which i n turn i s determined by the p r i n c i p a l product produced or handled, or the service rendered by production unit to which the person belongs. In c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by occupation,. on the other hand, the determining c r i t e r i o n i s the nature of the work a c t u a l l y performed by the i n d i v i d u a l , an employed or self-employed person, or the types of functions attached to h i s job. I n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population within any area i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the "economic geography" of the given region, which i n turn i s profoundly influenced by the natural environmental factors such as: land, water, climate, minerals, f l o r a , fauna, etc. Those are the most important and often decisive factors i n any economic development. They a l l have p o t e n t i a l value and one day when t h e i r s p e c i f i c " u t i l i t y " i s recognized they become resources. The economic a c t i v i t i e s a r i s i n g from those resources can be examined independently i n r e l a t i o n to the population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of occupational in d i c e s . Usually economic a c t i v i t i e s p a r a l l e l natural resources l i k e a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining and f i s h i n g . It i s now customary to d i s t i n -guish three, main categories i n c l a s s i f y i n g the employment: the "primary" which includes a l l the e x t r a c t i v e p u r s u i t s m e n t i o n e d above; the "secondary" i n d u s t r i e s which follow the primary a c t i v i t i e s with plants, m i l l s , f a c t o r i e s and a l l the " a u x i l i a r y " jobs needed for transportation -45-and communication; and f i n a l l y the t e r t i a r y employments with a great v a r i e t y of "careers" open to professionals, trade and o f f i c e workers, technicians and service employees. The functional f a c t o r s , of a l l these a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s , "tend to t i e an area together i n a community of communication and of common i n t e r e s t despite varying s t r u c t u r a l factors (an urban centre and i t s hinterland may be d i f f e r e n t structur-a l l y , but they are i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d ) . The p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n are the transportation factors that t i e the area together and the single labour market o r i e n t a t i o n of the area". The e a r l y h i s t o r y of Canada's development i s based pr i m a r i l y on the dominant staples; and Vancouver Island i s a good example of t h i s . The energy of several generations has been expanded i n i d e n t i f y i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g and harnessing the natural elements of the region; and the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of those a c t i v i t i e s which a f f e c t people or are affected by them, i n the process of the development, are of primary importance. Without people, c a p i t a l and mechanical energy alone w i l l not produce economic a c t i v i t y . People are the fundamental resource, and t h i s human resource i s not only the means but also the end of every economic a c t i v i t y . As the country's resources are tapped and the basic services expanded, the impact of the economy, within a s p e c i f i c area (those "funct i o n a l f a c t o r s " mentioned above).have far-reaching implications on the demographic in d i c e s ; including those factors which influence general welfare and psycho-social well-being of the population affected. In turn the economic area i n terms of i t s "marketing" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a f f e c t e d by the population indices l i k e s i z e , age, c u l t u r a l and educational back-ground, income and s i m i l a r determinants of the spending power. -46-The economy of Vancouver Island area i s based l a r g e l y on e x p l o i t i n g and processing raw materials. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the pattern of a c t i v i t i e s and i n the modes of livehood of the Island's population. The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Vancouver Island i s i t s small proportion of the so-called white c o l l a r category. In a l l the "upper" groups, managerial, p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l and sales, the number of men indicates 27.2 per cent of the t o t a l as occupied i n t h i s category while the p r o v i n c i a l figure reveals 31.2 per cent and Canada's 30.2 per cent. A s i g n i f i c a n t feature of the remaining group, the so-called "lower t e r t i a r y " , i s the high percentage employed, i n service and recreation. S t a t i s t i c s show that 17.0 per cent of the male labour force on Vancouver Island i s employed i n the "services". This figure compares to 9.7 per cent for B r i t i s h p o t e n t i a l t h i s trend stands out as a "vulnerable" i n d i c e . It would be appropriate to keep i n mind that a large proportion of these men may be subjected to seasonal unemployment, since t h e i r s i s the occupation so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the Summer-months and t o u r i s t s ' recreation. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c trend can be noted i n the group com-p r i s i n g farmers and farm-workers. The difference between the figures for Vancouver Island (3.2%) and those for B.C. (5.1%) and for Canada (12.2%) points out the comparable pattern and indicates that Vancouver Island has proportionately far fewer farmers, than can be expected. This pattern may probably be explained i n several d i f f e r e n t ways. One can speculate that the pastoral Island which served as a supply-garden for many years i s changing i t s farming composition towards i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Whatever the -47-reason the indisputable fact remains that Vancouver Island lends i t s e l f well to such part-time propositions. Geographically, with easy commuting distances; c l i m a t i c a l l y with a prevalence of seasonal crops of flowers or s o f t - f r u i t s ; and f i n a l l y with the general " a i r " of l e i s u r e l y and "close-to-earth" way of l i v i n g so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the area. Irrespective of the cause, small mixed farming i s s t i l l the predominant feature of the Islands. The proportion of male population on Vancouver Island working i n the category comprising logging, f i s h i n g , trapping and hunting outweighs the comparable groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada i n both c l a s s i f i c a -tions, urban and r u r a l . While Canada shows only 0.6 of her male population occupied i n t h i s group as r e s i d i n g i n the urban areas, B r i t i s h Columbia indicates 2.2 per cent and Vancouver Island 3.1 per cent. For the r u r a l areas the comparable figures run i n the same order as follows: 6.6 per cent, 9.2 per cent and 13.8 per cent. Miners and r e l a t e d workers represent an i n s i g n i f i c a n t per cent of 0.7 as h a l f of the national average for t h i s occupational group. The l a s t two categories, namely craftsmen, processing workers and u n s k i l l e d labourers do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern from those i n the Province or Canada, representing the t o t a l of over 26,000 men. Percentagewise t h i s number can be translated to 28.9 per cent employed In production and re l a t e d f i e l d s and 6.0 per cent categorized as labourers. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the c r a f t s and process category shows much lower percentages of women on Vancouver Island i n comparison to s i m i l a r percentages for B.C. and Canada. Both, i n urban and r u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , -48-the figures for Vancouver Island represent approximately h a l f of the p r o v i n c i a l and one-third of the national pattern. On important reserva-t i o n , i n t h i s respect, can be made i n view of differences i n the c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e v a i l i n g i n d i f f e r e n t regions. For example, Eng l i s h background against I t a l i a n o r i g i n ; or German versus Indian. However r i s k y these observations, the differences should not pose top big an obstacle to an analysis of general trends i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the female labour force i n the area under study. Generally speaking, with the above mentioned exceptions, the r e l a t i v e share of women i n the labour force on Vancouver Island does not vary widely from the province-wide, or for that matter from Canada-wide trends. The steady movement of women from the home int o labour force may be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the s h i f t of population from purely r u r a l areas to the semi-rural or urban. Maybe i t would be appropriate to comment that while i n Canada the number of male farmers has dropped by almost one t h i r d , between 1951-61 the number of female farmers has more than doubled. However Vancouver Island d i f f e r s i n t h i s respect from the res t of Canada. There are only 216 women l i s t e d as i n "farming occupation" i n the r u r a l areas of Vancouver Island. This represents 4.0 per cent of the t o t a l occupied females ( r u r a l d i s t r i c t s ) , while s i m i l a r groups show 10.3 per cent for B r i t i s h Columbia and 22.3 for Canada. P r i o r i t i e s have to be assigned to the wide range of "jobs" which have to be developed. Each d i s t r i c t has to unfold i t s own, c r i t e r i o n to determine what occupations are more c r i t i c a l or more s t r a t e g i c for the -49-future of i t s own development programmes. For example, Vancouver Island must not only f i n d means of reducing i t s present seasonal and s t r u c t u r a l unemployment but must gear^up to providing an adequate supply of new jobs. The large proportion of the population occupied i n u n s k i l l e d or semi-s k i l l e d a c t i v i t i e s has to be "located i n perspective measurements"; and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs should be recognized as the p r i o r i t y task of the "planning" a u t h o r i t i e s . Reasonable solutions must be found for the problems of development of c e r t a i n regions of the Island that are les s favoured than the others; for example, new transportation p o l i c y that w i l l make due allowance for both 5 the geographic r e a l i t i e s of the country and the developing i n d u s t r i e s , tourism included. These are major issues which hopefully w i l l get recognition i n the spe c i a l Planning Report due A p r i l , 1965. It i s understood that the northern Vancouver Island area has been chosen as a test-survey-area by the Community Planning Department of the UBC with the d i r e c t cooperation of the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The town-ships of Port McNeill, Port A l i c e , Port Hardy, Coal Harbour and A l e r t Bay have been extensively investigated and the findings and the recommendations w i l l be presented i n the above mentioned Report. Evidently the mu l t i -m i l l i o n d o l l a r spending program of the B.C. Government i s pr i m a r i l y con-cerned with the opening of communication-links to the northern area of Vancouver Island. It i s expected that physical, economic and s o c i a l features w i l l be covered i n the Report with emphasis on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n between resources-development and community-planning. This i s perhaps the essence of planning: f i r s t to obtain a deeper understanding of basic -50-s t a t i s t i c a l as well as d e s c r i p t i v e , material and then to proceed r a t i o n a l l y towards the s o l u t i o n of problems. It i s hoped that despite i t s l i m i t a t i o n s - t h i s b r i e f sketch of the occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n of Vancouver Island's population w i l l provide a s e t t i n g for examination of s o c i a l welfare implications, with new problems di s c l o s e d or new l i g h t thrown on the o l d ones, while analysis of the current demands i s conducted. It i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to o u t l i n e a better u t i l i z a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l work demands. There seem to be many f i e l d s of s o c i a l welfare concern, where at l e a s t an attempt should be made not only to assemble the measurements but also to analyze them i n s t a t i s t i c a l terms, i n f u l l y s c i e n t i f i c ways. It i s absolutely necessary f i r s t to obtain a general view of the demographic ind i c e s , with a l l t h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and economic trends, before taking a d e t a i l e d look at .the d i v e r s i f i e d welfare-related attempts to "solve s o c i a l problems" i n the given area. One of the basic requirements i s a much needed improvement i n c o r r e l a t i o n of the adminis-t r a t i v e boundaries with those used for census t r a c t s . Only by t h i s kind of adaptation, can the indices from both sources, be o b j e c t i v e l y measured and the s o c i a l work for the given area supported, changed or rejected. A s c i e n t i f i c analysis of the major components of the "human geography" w i l l help to focus a t t e n t i o n where i t i s needed and to assign p r i o r i t i e s to s o c i a l problems and welfare's tasks. The r e s u l t s of those i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have to be combined on a conrete l e v e l with respect to p a r t i c u l a r areas and communities. Thus despite the unavoidable -51-l i m i t a t i o n s there i s great compensation for the s o c i a l worker attempting to evolve a more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of both: the demographic indices and the agency-centered studies. Housing Conditions It i s d i f f i c u l t to discuss housing as a welfare factor i n the Region unless one bears constantly, i n mind the f a c t that any attempt to measure welfare needs and services must of necessity be c a r r i e d out i n areas which contain a s i g n i f i c a n t density of population. By far the greatest concentration of population i n Region 1 (Vancouver Island) i s i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a and therefore our study, as far as i t r e l a t e s to housing has been concentrated i n t h i s area. A separate study, i n depth, has been started by the P r o v i n c i a l Welfare Department i n Nanaimo, and l i t t l e would be accomplished at t h i s point, beyond a d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t , by our attempting to include d e t a i l e d information on Nanaimo, within the purview of t h i s study. Needless to say, examination of the Nanaimo study, when i t i s complete, would be an invaluable a i d i n extending the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . The great bulk of the Region i n terms of population (and therefore of housing) i s a r e l a t i v e l y sparsely s e t t l e d area north of the Malahat, a d e t a i l e d study of which we have f e l t would add very l i t t l e to our knowledge of the more s i g n i f i c a n t welfare factors within the e n t i r e Region. Within Metropolitan V i c t o r i a , these indices were chosen as most l i k e l y to i n d i c a t e a c o r r e l a t i o n between housing conditions and welfare needs: houses i n need of major r e p a i r ; households lacking exclusive -52-use of a f l u s h t o i l e t and/or bathing f a c i l i t e s ; houses without running water; houses without r e f r i g e r a t i o n ; houses without c e n t r a l heating. While i t i s established that a dwelling,is deemed to be crowded i f the number of persons l i v i n g therein exceeds the number of rooms, nevertheless no such c r i t e r i o n appears to e x i s t to define "the need for major r e p a i r " , other than a 'common-sense' apprai s a l . This point has more than passing s i g n i f i c a n c e because i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a , i n 1961, only 2.8 per cent of the houses were i n t h i s category, compared with 3.7 per cent i n Metropolitan Vancouver. The V i c t o r i a figure i s exactly h a l f of the figure f or Canada (5.6%) i n the same year. The basis i n f a c t for the V i c t o r i a figure could be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to geology than to sociology. V i c t o r i a i s on an i s l a n d , and the i s l a n d i s rock. Therefore many houses i n t h i s area are b u i l t on s o l i d rock and have had no tendency to ' s e t t l e ' , and hence to lean and come apart; nor have they been subjected to v i b r a t i o n or the e f f e c t s of moisture. The equitable climate of the area i s also a factor contributing to the preservation of housing. Care must be taken then, i n attempting to c o r r e l a t e the state of repair of housing i n general, to the welfare s i t u a t i o n . The fact that 20.9 per cent of the houses i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a are without a furnace, as compared to 16.1 per cent i n Metropoli-tan Vancouver can also be r e l a t e d to the rocky t e r r a i n , which has made basements i m p r a c t i c a l . It can also be a t t r i b u t e d i n some degree to the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n which leans towards a f i r e p l a c e i n most rooms of a house, rather than c e n t r a l heating. The use of space heaters f i r e d with stove o i l or propane gas i s now common, so that hardship need not -53-n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t from the lack of a furnace. A v e r y small percentage (.4%) of households lack running water. In gross figures t h i s amounts to le s s than 200 such households, and the great majority of these are probably i n tenements i n Chinatown, and i n a few 'skid-road' h o t e l s , a l l of which are concentrated i n a very l i m i t e d geographical area near the water front. The percentage of households lacking exclusive f l u s h t o i l e t s , baths or showers, i s only s l i g h t l y l e s s than i n Vancouver, which would suggest a f a i r l y normal tendency over the years towards conversion of what were once one-family homes, into what are now multiple-family rooming-houses, i n each of these metropolitan centres. Considerably more homes i n V i c t o r i a (5.6%) as compared to Vancouver (3.8%) are without r e f r i g e r a t i o n , and here again the mild, equitable climate must be a factor. Perhaps even more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the fa c t that V i c t o r i a i s much more compactly b u i l t together, so that seldom does a householder have far to go for food that would otherwise require r e f r i g e r a t i o n . Some Residence Factors Some i n t e r e s t i n g figures appeared with respect to the age of housing, and the number of one person dwellings, i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . Dwellings constructed before 1920 represent 25.1 per cent (1961), as compared with 16.2 per cent i n Metropolitan Vancouver, and 16.3 per cent i n B.C. Inasmuch as the older houses i n Metropolitan Vancouver were found to be i n depressed areas, over-crowded, and occupied by low-income f a m i l i e s , i t would follow, i f the same factors maintained, -54-that Metropolitan V i c t o r i a has more extensive slum conditions than Vancouver, or the rest of B.C. The f a c t that t h i s i s not so emphasizes a p e c u l i a r i t y of Metropolitan V i c t o r i a which i s rooted i n the h i s t o r y of the Ci t y . It began as a Hudson Bay Co. f o r t , a commercial centre, occupied by people of some substance. I t was always a matter of considerable con-cern to the senior government i n England that i t s status be preserved, and i t became, i n addition, a naval establishment. And, when i t s importance as a shipping centre f o r the r e s t of the Island expanded, i t was reasonable that V i c t o r i a ' s e a r l y c i t i z e n s would set down roots and b u i l d for perman-ence. The r e s u l t i s that there are s t i l l many homes b u i l t long before 1920, that are reasonably well preserved, and quite serviceable. Extensive use was made of b r i c k and stone i n t h e i r construction, and as mentioned e a r l i e r , the t e r r a i n i t s e l f i s stone. There i s sub-standard housing i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a , but not to the extent that major slum clearance i s required, or i s being considered. High-rise apartments are, i n e v i t a b l y , d i s p l a c i n g some older houses, but i t i s coincidence that the James Bay area, Dallas Road, and the area adjacent to Beacon H i l l Park lend them-selves to the b u i l d i n g of these apartments, and are also areas that were o r i g i n a l l y used for r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g . The same s i t u a t i o n applies to the West End of Vancouver, but the slum clearance projects are East of Main St., and around False Creek, areas that have no counterpart i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . The other i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e r e f e r r e d to, representing the percentage of one-person dwellings (16.4% i n V i c t o r i a - 13.2% i n Vancouver - a n d 13.5% i n B.C.) can be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that V i c t o r i a -55-a t t r a c t s many more r e t i r e d people who f i n d the climate and the pace of the C i t y more conducive to l e i s u r e l y l i v i n g . The people i n t h i s age group w i l l often be widowed, and hence the only occupant of an apartment dwelling. These figures r e l a t e to 1961, and i t i s quite possible that the figure for Vancouver w i l l have r i s e n s u b s t a n t i a l l y due to the rapid increase i n apartment b u i l d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Vancouver's West End i n the l a s t four years. I t i s hardly l i k e l y that there w i l l ever be any comparable increase i n apartment l i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a because of one or two e s s e n t i a l differences between the two communities. V i c t o r i a i s the seat of the P r o v i n c i a l Government, and t h i s i s a s t a b i l i z i n g influence upon the r e s i d e n t i a l pattern. People employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government are l i k e l y to be family people, s e t t l e d i n t h e i r career i n t h i s area. To a lesser degree, the same applies to the Naval establishment. On the other hand, Metro-p o l i t a n Vancouver i s a commercial centre housing major o f f i c e s of national and i n t e r n a t i o n a l business concerns. There i s a constant turnover, p a r t i c u l a r l y of junior executive personnel. There i s also bound to be an ever increasing number of college graduates who w i l l f i n d suitable employ-ment with these large concerns, and who w i l l e s t a b l i s h new one or two-person households i n the Metropolitan area. This also i s a pattern that i s not l i k e l y to be duplicated i n V i c t o r i a . At the moment then, t h i s figure of 16.4 per cent for one person dwellings i s most l i k e l y to indicate a higher proportion of e l d e r l y widowed people whose income i s comfortable, than i s to be found elsewhere i n the Province. The figures for Vancouver and B.C. include a substantial number of e l d e r l y people l i v i n g alone, and l a r g e l y dependent upon the old-age pension supplementary assistance. Even -56-i f the percentage of one-person dwellings i n Vancouver should become equal to that i n V i c t o r i a , the factors giving r i s e to one-person dwellings w i l l be altogether d i f f e r e n t i n each case. Economic Factors By and large, factors such as the percentage of owner-occupied dwellings, tenant-occupied dwellings, average r e n t a l , and the percentage of households with an automobile, are very s i m i l a r i n both Metropolitan Vancouver and Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . A figure of $11,656, representing the average value of dwellings i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a , i s of l i t t l e or no value to a study of t h i s kind as i t seems to imply that substantial block of housing e x i s t s that i s markedly below t h i s market value. Tourism i s becoming a major industry for Vancouver Island, and p a r t i c u l a r l y for Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . And as t h i s industry grows, with vigorous promotion by the B.C. Government Ferry system, accommodation for t o u r i s t s i s at a premium. Property values i n and around the C i t y core tend to r i s e , o f f s e t t i n g the normal depreciation of age. Nor does t h i s figure take into account the rapid expansion of suburban growth, pa r t i c u -l a r l y i n t o Central and North Saanich, where the median price of a new home i s now l i k e l y to be i n excess of $20,000. Shopping centres are beginning to appear on the o u t s k i r t s of the C i t y , but these have not created, nor are they b u i l t i n response to, any considerable exodus from the older r e s i d e n t i a l areas to the out-s k i r t s , as has occurred i n Vancouver. Neither i s there any noticeable increase i n new immigrants into the core area, as i n Vancouver, which -57-would tend to create or increase slum conditions. Therefore, a figure i n d i c a t i n g an average value of under $12,000 gives us l i t t l e help i n v i s u a l i z i n g the housing pattern of Metropolitan V i c t o r i a , but rather tends to obscure the fact that assessed values are not an accurate index of actual housing conditions, or of any trend i n l i v i n g patterns, i n t h i s area. We would have to have much more d e t a i l e d information with respect to the actual number of houses of low value, t h e i r precise l o c a t i o n , and the factors contributing to a low value, other than age and s i z e . i i T a b l e 14. E a r n i n g s D i s t r i b u t i o n on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d : C o m p a r a t i v e F i g u r e s f o r V i c t o r i a C i t y a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 1 . a . M a l e s E a r n i n g s V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d C i t y o f V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a U n d e r 0 1,000 7.2 8.6 8.2 0 1,000 t o 0 2 ,000 . 7 .8 8.3 8.1 # 2 ,000 t o 0 3 ,000 9.5 11.6 10.3 # 3,000 t o 0 4 ,000 18.8 22 .3 18.9 # 4 ,000 t o 0 6,000 37.8 33.7 3 5 . 0 # 6,000 a n d o v e r 14 .5 9 .8 15.0 A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s ,0 4,044 0 3,698 0 4,044 T o t a l Number o f M a l e S a l a r y a n d Wage E a r n e r s 65,146 11,799 358,424 b. Females E a r n i n g s V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d C i t y o f V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a U n d e r 0 1,000 26.5 23.6 24 .9 0 1 ,000 t o 0 2,000 20.2 20.1 19.0 0 2 ,000 t o 0 3 ,000 2 5 . 0 27.1 24 .6 0 3 ,000 to '0 4 ,000 14.1 13.8 16.8 0 4 ,000 t o 0 6,000 7 .0 6.2 7.6 0 6,000 a n d o v e r 1.3 0,9 1.5 A v e r a g e E a r n i n g s 0 1,992 0 2,004 0 2,096 T o t a l Number o f F e m a l e S a l a r y a n d VIage E a r n e r s 23,491 7,021 141,632 Table 15. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Urban P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d v;ith comparative f i g u r e s , 19^1« / Males o n l y / O c c u p a t i o n a l Group Vancouver I s l a n d C ompa r a t i v'e P. C-,' • No. P.C. B.C. Canada M a n a g e r i a l 5,362 10.5 13.1 12.1 P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l 4,365 8.5 9.2 9 .5 C l e r i c a l 2,868 5.6 6.9 8.9 S a l e s 3,021 5 .9 7.4 7.0 S e r v i c e and . R e c r e a t i o n 10,267 £2.0 10.8 9*7 T r a n s p o r t and '• Communication 3,661 7.1 8.3 8.2 Farmers and Farm Workers 896 . 1.7 1.6 1.4 Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters 1,619 3.2 2.3 0.7 Miners and R e l a t e d Workers 107 0.2 0.7 1.3 ' Craftsmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers 14,448 28.2 3 0 . 9 32.2 Labourers 3,036 5.9 5.9 6.2 A l l Occupied Males 51,228 a/ 100 '• a/ 100 'a/ 100 a/ • a / i n c l u d i n g u n s p e c i f i e d and u n c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n s . Table' 16. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Urban P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d , with comparative f i g u r e s , 1961-. -/ Females o n l y / O c c u p a t i o n a l Group Vaneouver I s l a n d Comparative P.C. No. P.C. B.C. Canada M a n a g e r i a l 821 4 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 0 P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l 3,341 .16.3 15.1 15.1 C l e r i c a l 6,505 3.1.8 34.I 3 2 . 5 S a l e s 2,547 . 12.5 10.8 8.6 S e r v i c e and R e c r e a t i o n 25,2 2 3 . 3 22,2 T r a n s p o r t and Communication 449 2.2 2*2 2.1 Farmers and Farm Workers 87 0.4 0 .3 0.2 Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters 3 - - -Miners and R e l a t e d Workers - - - -Crafstmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers 705 3 .4 . 6.2 12.6 Labourers 171 0.8 0.9 1.2 A l l Occupied Females 20,454 100 100 100 T a b l e 17. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of the R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d , with comparative f i g u r e s , 1 9 ^ 1 . / Males o n l y / O c c u p a t i o n a l Group Vancouver I s l a n d Comparative P.C. No. P.C. B.C. Canada M a n a g e r i a l 2,035 8.6 8.4 5.7 P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l 1,339 5.7 4 .4 3 . 0 C l e r i c a l 605 2.6 2 .5 2.2 S a l e s 736 3.1 2.8 2.2 S e r v i c e and R e c r e a t i o n 2,483 10.6 6,9 3 .5 T r a n s p o r t and C ommunication 1,898 8 . 0 7.6 6 .0 Farmers and Farm Workers 1,503 6.4 14 . 5 38.1 Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters 3,270 13.9 9.2 6.6 Miners and R e l a t e d Workers 414 1.7 2 .3 1.5 Craftsmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers 7,188 3 0 . 5 3 0 . 5 2 0 . 4 ' Labourers 1,433 6.1 7 .9 6.3 A l l Occupied Males 23,587 100 100 100 T a b l e 18. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of the R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d , with comparative f i g u r e s , 1 9 6 1 . / Females o n l y / O c c u p a t i o n a l Group Vancouver I s l a n d Comparative P.C. No. P.C. B.C. Canada M a n a g e r i a l 435 8 . 0 7 .0 4 . 5 P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l 873 16.2 14 . 0 16.5 C l e r i c a l 1,236 2 3 . 0 19.9 12.3 S a l e s 569 10.6 8.9 7 .0 S e r v i c e and R e c r e a t i o n 1,449 26.9 2 6 . 9 2 3 . 5 T r a n s p o r t and Communication 188 3 .5 2 .6 2.2 Farmers and Farm Workers 216 4 . 0 10.3 22 .3 Loggers,Fishermen, Trappers,Hunters 15 0 .3 0 .3 0.1 Miners and R e l a t e d Workers - - - -Crafstmen,Process, R e l a t e d Workers 151 2 .8 4 .8 7 .3 Labourers 60 1.1 1.4 1.0 A l l ' O c c u p i e d Females 5,382 100 100 100 Table 19. Housing i n V i c t o r i a Area : Comparative Figures f o r Metropolitan Areas, B.C. and Canada, 1961. Metropolitan V i c t o r i a Comparative Figures Item Vancouver B. C. Canada Proportion of owned dwellings 71.4 69.7 71.0 66.0 Proportion of rented dwellings 28.6 30.3 29.0 34.0 Proportion of f l a t s and apartments 19.6 20.8 14.9 25.3 Average value - ownec houses $ 11,656 $ 13,932 $ 11,744 $ 11,021 Proportion of owned houses with mortgag i 32.6 35.5 28.6 21.5 Average monthly ren t a l s $ 65 $ 75 $ 65 $ 6.5 F a c i l i t i e s Need of r e p a i r 2.8 3.7 5.5 5.6 Lacking: running water f l u s h t o i l e t bath or shower r e f r i g e r a t i o n furnace 0.4 7.4 5.1 5.6 20.9 0.5 8.5 5.8 3.8 16.1 5.0 13.9 11.5 7.2 30.1 10.9 21.0 22.9 8.1 32.6 P.C. households with automobile : 71.8 71.3 71.8 68.4 -58-Chapter IV - SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES Total Caseload In December, 1961, the t o t a l caseload of the Department of Soc i a l Welfare on Vancouver Island was 11,944 cases. The population was 290,835. Thus, at least one person out of every twenty-five was r e c e i v i n g a service (or services) from the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. This means that one out of every twenty-five people on Vancouver Island required assistance i n coping with f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , family and c h i l d welfare problems and i n l o c a t i n g suitable i n s t i t u t i o n a l resources for family members, r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . I t i s important to note that the number of persons a c t u a l l y r e c e i v i n g services from the Department of Social Welfare on Vancouver Island i s , i n r e a l i t y , considerably greater than 12,000. In estimating the t o t a l number of cases on a caseload, the Department considers a single person or a person who i s head of a family as a case. Although they may be r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Welfare services, family members other than the head of the family are not counted i n the t o t a l caseload. 38 per cent of Vancouver Island's population are c h i l d r e n i n the age group from b i r t h to nineteen years. Experience has established that the majority of f a m i l i e s , where parents are under 65 years of age, have at l e a s t two c h i l d r e n , (approximately 54 per cent of Vancouver Island's population f a l l s into the 20 to 64 age group. Thus, i t might be presumed that S o c i a l Welfare services are being given to a s i g n i f i c a n t number of c h i l d r e n . -59-In December, 1961, approximately 89 per cent of the cases on the Vancouver Island caseload were persons requiring f i n a n c i a l assistance. These persons represented 3.6 per cent of the t o t a l population of the Island. 36,000 people were over 65 years of age, (12 per cent of the Vancouver Island population) and 7,190 persons from t h i s age group were rece i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance from the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. Thus, one out of every f i v e persons who are 65 years and over depend on the Department of Soc i a l Welfare to provide t o t a l or p a r t i a l f i n a n c i a l support. Of the t o t a l caseload, 3,000 persons were re c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance from the Department. While s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e , experience has shown that 85 to 90 per cent of Soc i a l Allowance cases are f a m i l i e s . There were 71,286 f a m i l i e s on Vancouver Island i n December, 1961. Therefore, one out of every twenty-five f a m i l i e s on Vancouver Island were re c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance. Experience indicates that a f a i r l y small percentage of these f a m i l i e s require assistance on a continuing basis. Permanent unemployment r e s u l t i n g from serious i l l n e s s or i n j u r y i s a common cause of continuing dependency on Soc i a l Welfare services. Also, i n f a m i l i e s where the mother has been widowed, deserted, divorced or separated, assistance i s often required for a number of years. In the main, although the t o t a l number of persons r e c e i v i n g services may not increase or decrease to any great extent, experience has established that there i s a considerable amount of f l u c t u a t i o n i n the persons who are receiving services at any given time. I t would follow -60-thatmany fam i l i e s are beset by problems of a more temporary nature. For example, many i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s require assistance i n handling problems r e s u l t i n g from seasonal unemployment, lack of education and t r a i n -ing necessary to obtain permanent jobs, unexpected i l l n e s s or i n j u r y and loss of the breadwinner. Although the majority of c l i e n t s only require assistance for temporary periods of time, c e r t a i n problems are re-occurring i n the cases of one out of every twenty-five persons on Vancouver Island at any given time. In the province of B r i t i s h Columbia one out of every f i f t e e n persons i s i n r e c e i p t of S o c i a l Welfare services. In Region I I , (Vancouver and d i s t r i c t ) , approximately one out of every eighteen persons requires welfare services and i n Region I I I , (Okanagan area), the proportion i s one to every nineteen persons. Therefore, i t can be r e a d i l y seen that on Vancouver Island the need for welfare services i s considerably less than i t i s i n the province as a whole and i n Regions II and I I I . The t o t a l s o c i a l welfare caseload on Vancouver Island increased by 26.4 per cent from 1951 to 1961. The population increase was 35.2 per cent during the same period. This could indicate that welfare services given have increased i n proportion to population growth. On the other hand, there i s no way of knowing whether a l l persons needing welfare services are i n r e c e i p t of them. Are adequate services a v a i l a b l e to handle a l l s o c i a l problems? The Vancouver Island welfare t o t a l reached i t s peak i n December, 1960, when the o v e r a l l caseload t o t a l l e d 12,192 cases, an -61-increase of 28 per cent from 1951. Since this date, the number of persons on Vancouver Island who are r e c e i v i n g assistance from the Department of S o c i a l Welfare has gradually decreased. In November, 1964, for example, the caseload was 10,804, a 9.6 per cent decrease from December, 1960. P r o v i n c i a l caseloads have increased s t e a d i l y during the past ten years. However, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l reached a high peak i n 1961 when there were at least 80,266 persons re c e i v i n g services. These caseloads have been decreasing since t h i s date. Between December, 1961, and November, 1964, there was a reduction of 2.2, per cent i n the number of persons r e q u i r i n g welfare services i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Thus, there was a steady increase i n caseloads i n B r i t i s h Columbia and on Vancouver Island from 1951 to 1960. Since 1960 the Vancouver Island caseloads have shown a decrease i n the number of people re c e i v i n g services; a s i m i l a r pattern has been evident throughout the province since 1961. Over the ten year period, 1951 to 1961, persons requiring f i n a n c i a l assistance both on Vancouver Island and i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia have represented well over 85 per cent of the t o t a l number of cases r e c e i v i n g services from the Department of So c i a l Welfare. In 1951, 87.8 per cent of the Vancouver Island caseload were persons who were re c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance and, i n December, 1960, 89.2 per cent of the caseload was made up of persons i n receipt of allow-ances. The same pattern has been evident with regard to p r o v i n c i a l case-loads. In March, 1954, f i n a n c i a l assistance cases represented 87.5 per -62-cent of the t o t a l caseload; 88.4 per cent of the cases i n December, 1960, were persons i n receipt of f i n a n c i a l assistance. On Vancouver Island the number of persons r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance has increased 28.4 per cent during the period 1951 to 1961. Persons r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l allowance for the same time increased by 51 per cent! The p r o v i n c i a l pattern has been s i m i l a r . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that the s o c i a l allowance caseload increased by 3$ per cent from 1957 to 1958! From 1951 to 1961 the number of persons getting s o c i a l allowance i n B r i t i s h Columbia increased by 65 per cent, a greater increase than on Vancouver Island. Thus the bulk of the cases on Vancouver Island are persons i n r eceipt of f i n a n c i a l assistance. F i n a n c i a l assistance cases have increased during the past ten years i n proportion to population growth. However, s i g n i f i c a n t increases have been evident i n s o c i a l allowance case-loads. These trends have also,been evident i n the p r o v i n c i a l caseloads. The changes, i n t o t a l caseload on Vancouver Island has depended to a large extent on the number of persons receiving f i n a n c i a l assistance. 58 per cent of the t o t a l caseload are persons i n re c e i p t of Old Age Pensions. The number of e l d e r l y persons r e c e i v i n g services during the past ten years has shown a gradual increase. This i s probably the r e s u l t of normal population growth. However, the increase may, i n part, r e s u l t from a growing, number of e l d e r l y persons who have moved to Vancouver Island from other areas to take advantage of the I s l a n d 1 s moderate climate. From 1951 to 1961 the number of persons receiving S o c i a l -63-Allowance on Vancouver Island increased by 51 per cent. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that s o c i a l allowance cases increased by 58 per cent from 1956 to I960! Although s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e , experience has shown that dependency on s o c i a l allowance r e s u l t s , i n the main, from unemployment. There are many reasons why a person i s unemployed. For example, the increase of unemployed persons on Vancouver Island during a comparatively short period of time might suggest that the area was undergoing an economic recession; there i s also the p o s s i b i l i t y that undesirable weather kept employees away from seasonal jobs or perhaps automation was respons-i b l e for putting a large number of men out of work. In terms of welfare administration i t i s important to be aware of the reasons for f i n a n c i a l dependency. This information i s not a v a i l a b l e for Vancouver Island and surveys i n t h i s area are urgently required. A sudden i n f l u x of persons applying for s o c i a l allowance i n a d i s t r i c t o f f i c e can place great demands on agency s t a f f and agency program. Information concerning the reasons for dependency would be h e l p f u l to welfare administrators i n terms of planning a program of e f f e c t i v e services to a i d applicants; t h i s informa-ti o n would also be useful to welfare personnel involved i n planning preventative services. Services to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n represented 13.2 per cent of the t o t a l Vancouver Island caseload. From 1951 to 1961 services to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n increased by 13.2 per cent. From 1951 to 1954 these cases showed a 6,1 per cent increase and there was a 6.8 per cent increase from 1954 to 1957. These increases occurred i n the t o t a l c h i l d welfare and family caseload and they seem to be i n l i n e with the population -64-growth. Within t h i s group of services, family service cases, protection cases and adoption services are the main preventative services offered to fa m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n by the Department of So c i a l Welfare. From 1951 to 1961 the Vancouver Island caseloads experienced the following reductions -44.8 per cent i n family service cases, 67,4 per cent i n protection cases, and 8 per cent i n adoption services. This information i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraging! The increase i n the t o t a l family and c h i l d welfare services' caseload over the past ten years i s due to the growing number of cases inv o l v i n g foster home services. From 1951 to 1961 there was a.60.7 per cent increase i n these cases. P r o v i n c i a l caseloads exhibited s i m i l a r trends. From 1957 to 1962 foster home services increased by 36.2 per cent whereas preventative services decreased. The increase i n s o c i a l allowance cases could very well place pressures on the welfare s t a f f to the point where other services are neglected. For instance, i f a great number of people come to a d i s t r i c t welfare o f f i c e to apply for s o c i a l allowance, the S o c i a l worker may be so busy providing , f i n a n c i a l assistance that he lacks the time and energy to o f f e r family service or protection services to the c l i e n t . Therefore, i f adequate services are to be provided to a l l applicants, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to increase s t a f f i n proportion to r i s i n g caseloads. If an adequate number of s t a f f i s not forthcoming, an increase i n persons demanding a s p e c i f i c service, such as s o c i a l allowance, might take up the whole of the s o c i a l worker 1s time and attention. I f t h i s s i t u a t i o n were allowed to continue, c e r t a i n services might completely disappear due, mainly, to the worker's overloaded work program. -65-It would be h e l p f u l to know i f there was any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the large number of fam i l i e s i n re c e i p t of public assistance and the increasing number of c h i l d r e n coming into care and requiring foster home services. Have lack of adequate f i n a n c i a l resources and the necessity of having to e x i s t on low s o c i a l allowance rates been factors contributing to family breakdown? The number of i n s t i t u t i o n a l resources on Vancouver Island has increased by 60 per cent from 1951 to 1961. As the t o t a l number of cases i n v o l v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l services was only 209 i n 1961, the increase i s not too s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of the t o t a l Vancouver Island caseload. However, the growth i n the number of i n s t i t u t i o n a l resources may indicate that, as the population grows, more resources are becoming av a i l a b l e to the community. It i s possible that the increase i n the e l d e r l y population on Vancouver Island has stimulated the development of resources such as board-ing homes and nursing homes. In-1961, over h a l f the t o t a l population on Vancouver Island was l i v i n g i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . From 1951 to 1961 th i s population increased by 117 per cent. The welfare caseload i n th i s area over the same period of time grew from 5,159 to 6,100 cases, an increase of 15.5 per cent. On the other hand, the caseloads for the rest of Vancouver Island increased by 29.7 per cent from 1951 to 1961. This information might suggest that Metropolitan V c i t o r i a i s a f a i r l y stable and established area, p a r t i c u l a r l y when compared with the rest of Vancouver Island. Many r e t i r e d people with ample incomes have s e t t l e d i n the V i c t o r i a area during recent years. The s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the forest industry and the expansion of the -66-t o u r i s t trades has stimulated growth i n service i n d u s t r i e s and i n wholesale, r e t a i l and f i n a n c i a l businesses; V i c t o r i a , as c a p i t a l city- of -British Columbia, may o f f e r job opportunities i n the p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l service to a number of l o c a l residents. Thus, i t would appear that there are quite a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s for permanent employment i n t h i s area. Also, from the information a v a i l a b l e , i t might be assumed that f a i r l y adequate welfare services are a v a i l a b l e i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . For example, the area i s served by the Department of Social Welfare, the Family and Childrens' Service and the twenty-four agencies receiving support from the United Appeal. The sizeable increase i n welfare caseloads i n the remainder of the Island might indicate that these communities are i n e a r l i e r growth stages and tend to have a " f r o n t i e r " flavour, thus a t t r a c t i n g many persons not permanently employed elsewhere. The economy of the majority of c e n t r a l and northern Vancouver Island centres depends heavily on f i s h i n g and logging. These jobs are seasonal i n nature and, for example, bad weather can r e s u l t i n many men being unemployed. Persons lacking adequate f i n a n c i a l resources often move to r u r a l areas and smaller centres i n order to f i n d cheaper l i v i n g accommodation. This trend has been evident with regard to the areas surrounding Vancouver. Again, i t i s possible that the welfare services a v a i l a b l e i n V i c t o r i a and d i s t r i c t are much more comprehensive than those provided i n the outlying; areas of the Island. Types of Assistance For purposes of administrative planning i t has been necessary for the Department of S o c i a l Welfare to develop a method of keeping account -67-of the number of persons receiving services and of the nature of the services being given. The method of reporting S o c i a l Welfare a c t i v i t i e s i s based on the type or category of service the c l i e n t i s rece i v i n g . To a large extent, categories have been determined by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l government has passed c e r t a i n acts making various services a v a i l a b l e , i e : S o c i a l Assistance Act, the Act governing Old Age Assistance, Protection of Children Act, Adoption Act, etc., and, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y of Soc i a l Workers employed by the Department to carry out the acts and t h e i r accompanying regulations. These services.may be discussed i n three main groups, namely, f i n a n c i a l assistance, services to fam i l i e s and c h i l d r e n , and health and i n s t i t u t i o n a l services. A l l the f i n a n c i a l assistance categories are governed by l e g i s l a t i o n . They include, S o c i a l Allowance, (which has incorporated Mothers' Allowance cases shown separately i n s t a t i s t i c s 1951 to 1958), Old Age Assistance, Supplementary So c i a l Allowance, (formerly r e f e r r e d to as Old Age Pension i n 1951 s t a t i s t i c s , and also known as Old Age Security Bonus); B l i n d Persons' Allowance and Disabled Persons' Allowance. Cases inv o l v i n g persons i n receipt of any of these allowances w i l l be placed i n the appropriate category for purposes of acco u n t a b i l i t y . With the exception of Soc i a l Allowances, any person who has made applica-t i o n for the other pensions, regardless as to whether the money has been granted, i s counted as a case. E l i g i b i l i t y for services depends not only on f i n a n c i a l status but on age and health. For example, o nly persons over the age of seventy -68-year s may apply for the Supplementary S o c i a l Allowance and, Old Age Assistance i s a v a i l a b l e only to those persons i n the s i x t y - f i v e to seventy age group. E l i g i b i l i t y for the Blind and Disabled pensions depends on medical evidence to confirm the c l i e n t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y b l i n d or disabled that he i s considered unable to earn a l i v i n g . A l l the above allowances are based on a s t r i c t means te s t . Each person i n r e c e i p t of these allowances i s counted as a case. Thus, i f a man i s i n r e c e i p t of Old Age Assistance and h i s wife receives a Disabled Persons' Allowance, they w i l l be counted as separate cases. However, the s t a t i s t i c s do not show that these people, as a couple, are r e c e i v i n g services and, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether there are c h i l d r e n i n the home. The a v a i l a b l e information does show f a i r l y accurately the number of persons from s i x t y - f i v e and up who are i n need of f i n a n c i a l assistance. There i s a discrepancy here, however, i n that S o c i a l Allow-ance i s being used to supplement the cost of Nursing Home care for e l d e r l y persons. (These cases would be counted as So c i a l Allowance cases!) There are many things we do not know about these people; for example, are they l i v i n g at home, with r e l a t i v e s , or i n i n s t i t u t i o n s ? Are t h e i r pensions adequate? U n t i l surveys are completed to supplement the information already a v a i l a b l e , there i s no way of measuring whether the services provided are e f f e c t i v e . A reasonably accurate method has been established to keep track of the number of persons who, because of blindness and c e r t a i n physical and mental d i s a b i l i t i e s , are not able to take employment. We -69-a l s o know that these people have an Income of under a c e r t a i n amount. But the administrative counts give no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether the services provided are adequate, or whether a d d i t i o n a l services are required. The Vancouver Island caseload has shown an increase of 340 per cent i n b l i n d and disabled persons' cases from 1952 to 1961. This sizeable increase might be a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that Disabled Persons' Allowance did not come in t o being u n t i l January, 1955, and B l i n d Persons' Allowance was put i n t o e f f e c t i n 1952. The temperate climate of the Island may again be a t t r a c t i n g a number, of b l i n d and disabled persons. However, experience would suggest that the community i s just gradually becoming aware that these pensions are available and, for example, doctors are beginning to r e f e r more patients to welfare o f f i c e s to apply for these pensions. Persons over eighteen years of age who do not q u a l i f y for the Allowances already discussed may apply for So c i a l Allowance. E l i g i -b i l i t y for S o c i a l Allowance i s based on the amount of an applicant's f i n a n c i a l assets. Again, the methods of counting cases and of gathering pertinent information concerning the c l i e n t s t e l l s us very l i t t l e about the persons r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance. The standard s t a t i s t i c s which are presently being compiled are s a t i s f a c t o r y as far as they go; however, they present only a skeleton view of the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n concerning the c l i e n t s and t h e i r problems. For example, i n counting the number of persons re c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance, only heads of fa m i l i e s and single persons are taken i n t o consideration. A man may have a wife and seven c h i l d r e n who -70-are a l l depending on Soc i a l Allowance for f i n a n c i a l support; the present s t a t i s t i c s w i l l only count the family as one case! In counting the number of cases, preference i s given to those cases where the people concerned require f i n a n c i a l assistance. If a per-son i s i n receipt of S o c i a l Allowance, h i s case i s counted i n that cate-gory regardless of the fac t that the worker may also be giving the c l i e n t and h i s family a family service or protection service. The same i s true i n the case of a person r e c e i v i n g services for unmarried parents. The worker may be spending a great deal of time helping a young woman plan for her expected c h i l d . I f the c l i e n t concerned i s r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance, her case i s included i n t h i s category and no record i s kept to i n d i c a t e that unmarried parent services were given. It i s obvious then that the present s t a t i s t i c s are not completely accurate. I t would follow that the s t a t i s t i c s might be com-p i l e d d i f f e r e n t l y . For example, more meaningful information would be obtained i f the s t a t i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d on the basis of the people a c t u a l l y i n need of service rather than by category of service. A more exact record of the number of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s i n re c e i p t of assistance should also be a v a i l a b l e . In many instances, the time and e f f o r t demanded of a Soc i a l Worker dealing with a large family greatly exceeds the quantity of work required by a smaller family unit. The law of averages would suggest that the larger the number of ch i l d r e n , the greater the chances that one of these youngsters w i l l require some kind of sp e c i a l care. ( i e : medical treatment, p s y c h i a t r i c evaluation, etc.) The s t a t i s t i c s f a i l to show a -71-true picture of what i s a c t u a l l y involved i n these family s i t u a t i o n s . In addition to improving the present method of keeping s t a t i s t i c s , there i s obviously a great need for spot surveys and sp e c i a l studies to be completed i n many areas concerning S o c i a l Welfare services. However, s t a t i s t i c s , studies and surveys can only be e f f e c t i v e i f they are properly interpreted and used. Thus, i t i s important that a research unit be considered as a v i t a l part of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. Fortunately, the Department of S o c i a l Welfare i s planning a more d e t a i l e d compilation of persons i n r e c e i p t of S o c i a l Allowance which w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h heads of fa m i l i e s as well as t h e i r aid. It i s proposed to d i s t i n g u i s h the following groups of people: single persons, married couples, one parent f a m i l i e s , two parent fa m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n with r e l a t i v e s . D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s are i n the process of preparing t h i s i n f o r -mation accordingly, although, as yet these new groupings have not been included i n the s t a t i s t i c a l count. In May, 1959, a report was published concerning a survey done by the Family D i v i s i o n i n V i c t o r i a on a l l S o c i a l Allowance applica-r tions received by that D i v i s i o n i n November, 1958. The survey elucidates d i s t r i b u t i o n by sex, marital status, age, b i r t h p l a c e , length of residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia, reason for a p p l i c a t i o n , monthly income, etc. Compara-ti v e tables have been presented, (on the basis of p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s ) for the years 1941, 1949 and 1958. Samples of these tables are included i n the appendices. I t i s unfortunate that t h i s survey was not done on a more continuing and comprehensive basis for the material available would seem to provide a great deal of pertinent information. Services to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n i s the second large area or services to be discussed. Any case where casework or counselling services are rendered to i n d i v i d u a l s and/or fa m i l i e s and, where other services are not required, are to be classed as Family Service cases. It should be mentioned that some categories from the s t a t i s t i c s f or the years 1951 to 1957 have been included i n the Family Service category. These are C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Crease C l i n i c , Mental Hospital and Woodlands School. These cases have been incorporated with the Family Service category because of the nature of the services involved. In a l l these cases, S o c i a l H i s t o r i e s were required and, the Department's So c i a l Worker was responsible for follow-up counselling service when the patient was discharged from the c l i n i c or h o s p i t a l . Protection cases are those where the S o c i a l Worker i s con-cerned re the welfare of the c h i l d or c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own family s e t t i n g . If the present s i t u a t i o n continues, court action i s l i k e l y to be the end r e s u l t . ( i e : the c h i l d w i l l be apprehended under the Protection of Children Act.) Thus, the worker attempts to o f f e r casework services i n an e f f o r t to hold the family together. Again, protection cases are only counted according to heads of f a m i l i e s and the number of c h i l d r e n involved i s not known. Also, Protection cases are only noted as such i f no other service i s being given to the c l i e n t s . (Plans are presently underway to incorporate Protection cases and Family Service cases into one category.) The Adoption category includes three types of services. The f i r s t of these i s the Pending Adoption Home which consists of couples whose ap p l i c a t i o n for adoption i s under consideration and assessment. Once the -73-home i s approved as suitable for a c h i l d , the case i s moved to the Approved Adoption Home category u n t i l such time as a c h i l d i s placed i n the home. From the time the c h i l d i s placed to the end of the probation-ary period, the status changes to C h i l d In Adoption Home. Also, included i n t h i s group of services are adoption homes where c h i l d r e n have been placed p r i v a t e l y or homes i n which a step parent has made a p p l i c a t i o n to adopt a c h i l d already i n the home. Except i n cases where the c h i l d i s a ward of the Superintendent the parents and the c h i l d are counted as one case. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether the present adoption services are e f f e c t i v e . In f a c t , there are many aspects of adoption practices which are rip e for further study. Are adoptions successful, and i f so, what methods are being used to measure success? To what degree i s the adopted c h i l d affected by the loss of his/her natural parents? etc. There are three groups of services within the Foster Home Services category. The most s i g n i f i c a n t persons r e c e i v i n g services are the Children i n Care. These include the c h i l d who has been taken from h i s parents through court a c t i o n as designated by the Protection of Children. Act. Also included are youngsters i n Non Ward care. This means that the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare has made mutual arrangements with the parent to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the c h i l d f o r a temporary period of time. No court action i s involved. The main resource for these c h i l d r e n i s the foster home. There are two types of f o s t e r homes. Pending Foster Homes include those couples who have applies to take foster c h i l d r e n and, whose home i s under study. Approved foster homes indic a t e those homes which have been accepted -74-as suitable to take i n Children i n Care. An approved Foster Home may or may not be caring for ch i l d r e n . The s t a t i s t i c s compiled concerning Children i n Care give an accurate picture as to how many c h i l d r e n are l i v i n g away from t h e i r parents, as each c h i l d i s counted i n d i v i d u a l l y . However, there i s no pertinent information a v a i l a b l e concerning the actual c h i l d r e n involved and the nature of t h e i r problems. The Foster Home count seems to be f a i r l y r e a l -i s t i c ; however, i t might be more s i g n i f i c a n t to indic a t e the approved Foster Homes a c t u a l l y i n use. It might be h e l p f u l i f the s t a t i s t i c s were to show the number of approved foster home resources-waiting to be used. Again, studies are urgently needed to determine the effectiveness of foster homes. Do they provide adequate resources for a l l the c h i l d r e n needing homes? Cl i e n t s r e c e i v i n g help with problems of unmarried parenthood and i l l e g i t i m a c y are classed as Unmarried Parents' cases. Persons are only counted as rec e i v i n g services i n t h i s area i f they are not rec e i v i n g any other service offered by the department. The only information revealed about the c l i e n t s i s the fac t that he/she i s rec e i v i n g help with problems of unmarried parenthood. Again, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to whether the c l i e n t s obtained any p o s i t i v e benefits from the services provided. Special C h i l d Services includes c l i e n t s r e c e i v i n g services under the Legitimation Act, the Equal Guardianship Act, the Immigration Act and matters concerning the r e p a t r i a t i o n of c h i l d r e n under eighteen years of age. C l i e n t s are counted i n t h i s group only i f they are not included i n other categories. There has been some confusion on the part of Soc i a l -75-Workers as to what i s to be included i n t h i s category. There i s a tendency to put a case i n Special C h i l d Services when i t r e a l l y ought to have been included i n the Family Service category. Thus, these cases are not always counted too accurately. The f i n a l group includes those cases coming under the heading, Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services. There are two groups of services involved; the f i r s t of these i s Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services. Workers sometimes disagree as to which cases would be placed i n t h i s category. How-ever, i n the main, persons i n t h i s group are those who have applied for admission to p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i e : Kartloops Home etc., and, who have not been counted i n other categories. Cases described as Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s include projects which come within the scope of the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Licensing Act and, which are re f e r r e d to the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s by the Chief Inspector of Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s for assessment. Cases are i n s t i t u t i o n s such as Boarding Homes, Nursing Homes, Camps and Kindergartens. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g i f the s t a t i s t i c s revealed such information as who i s using these resources, the q u a l i t y of services offered and are these resources meeting the needs of the community. Further studies i n t h i s area would undoubtedly be b e n e f i c i a l to welfare personnel responsible for stimulating the development of these resources. The Department of Soci a l Welfare provides a v a r i e t y of services to persons r e s i d i n g on Vancouver Island. Available information has suggested that, i n t h i s area, one out of every twenty-five people are rece i v i n g these services. However, a f t e r studying the s i t u a t i o n , i t would -76-appear that the present s t a t i s t i c s reveal very l i t t l e about the people re c e i v i n g the services and the nature and scope of t h e i r problems. For example, the exact number of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g services i s not known. Would i t not be h e l p f u l to know the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n who are i n receipt of services? Facts are also lacking concerning the adequacy of the services provided. Experience has shown that a person may require more than one service at any given time. Therefore, why i s a person who i s r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance and; m a r i t a l counselling only counted as a f i n a n c i a l assistance case? Does t h i s suggest that persons r e q u i r i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance services are r e c e i v i n g p r i o r i t y at the expense Of persons req u i r i n g other types of services? If the Department i s giving p r i o r i t y to providing f i n a n c i a l assistance services, what e f f e c t does t h i s have on the S o c i a l Worker's a b i l i t y to render e f f e c t i v e services to h i s c l i e n t s ? For example, does the S o c i a l Worker expect that f i n a n c i a l assistance w i l l completely a l l e v i a t e h i s c l i e n t ' s problems or, i s he able to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of other services being required? Also, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to the q u a l i t y and quantity of work expended on the part of the i n d i v i d u a l S o c i a l Workers. A S o c i a l Worker may report he i s responsible for giving service to 500 people. However, there i s no e f f e c t i v e method presently i n use i n the Department to measure the r e s u l t s of the Workers' performance. These are j u s t a few questions which a r i s e a f t e r reviewing the Department's Vancouver Island s t a t i s t i c s . The above information strongly points out the need for the compilation of more comprehensive -77-s t a t i s t i c a l data. Further studies and surveys are also required i f the Department of Soci a l Welfare i s going to provide the most e f f e c t i v e services to the population of Vancouver Islairid. D i s t r i c t Caseloads The trends which p r e v a i l i n the D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s are sim i l a r to those which predominate i n the region. For example, persons req u i r i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance services make up the major portion of a l l the D i s t r i c t Office caseloads. The Old Age Pension cases represent over 50 per cent of the caseload i n a l l o f f i c e s except Courtenay and A l b e r n i . The pension case-loads i n these o f f i c e s make up 49.6 per cent and 43.6 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y of the t o t a l o f f i c e loads. The V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t , Saanich and V i c t o r i a C i t y o f f i c e s have p a r t i c u l a r l y large pension loads i n comparison with the up-island centres. This fa c t may again suggest that older persons f i n d V i c t o r i a and d i s t r i c t a pleasant place i n which to reside. It i s also probable that e l d e r l y persons prefer to l i v e i n the urban, more s e t t l e d areas where medical resources etc. are e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e . The high percentage of pension cases i s not an exclusive feature of Vancouver Island. On reviewing the s i t u a t i o n i n other regions, i t soon becomes apparent that Old Age Pension cases,make up the greater part of the caseloads i n most p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s . The exceptions to t h i s are mainly the Northern regions where the colder climate and the " f r o n t i e r " l i f e may not be too a t t r a c t i v e to those wishing to take advantage of the i r retirement years. A l l the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s on Vancouver Island have had a -78-sizeable increase i n S o c i a l Allowance cases over the 1951 to 1961 period. Every caseload has increased by at l e a s t 50 per cent with the exception of Victoria C i t y where S o c i a l Allowance cases have only r i s e n by 23.2 per cent over the ten year period. This might bear some r e l a t i o n to the f a c t that a great number of f a m i l i e s have moved to the suburban areas. Growth i n Social Allowance caseloads i s also evident i n the Central and Northern areas of the Island. For example, S o c i a l Allowance cases have increased 63.8 per cent i n A l b e r n i , 56.0 per cent i n Courtenay, 66.1 per cent i n Duncan and 57.5 per cent i n Nanaimo for the period 1951 to 1961. The o v e r a l l population increase has undoubtedly contributed to the growth i n the number of persons r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance. Again, economic conditions may be responsible for the r i s e i n the number of S o c i a l Allowance applicants during the l a t e f i f t i e s . I t could be that V i c t o r i a and d i s t r i c t provide more permanent employment opportunities than the remaining areas of the Island. Many up-island communities depend on seasonal i n d u s t r i e s to provide the basis of t h e i r economies. A reduction i n the number of persons r e c e i v i n g family service and protection services i s very evident i n a l l o f f i c e s concerned. Again, the question i s r a i s e d as to whether the increase i n the S o c i a l Allowance loads, has i n any way been responsible for the reduction i n these v i t a l preventative services. Increments are noted i n the number of Children i n Care and Foster Home services. In Courtenay, Nanaimo and Duncan these cases have increased over 50 per cent during the 1951 to 1961 period. Gould the r i s e -79-i n the S o c i a l Allowance cases be an i n f l u e n t i a l factor a f f e c t i n g the increase i n the number of c h i l d r e n coming into care? The development of Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s i s also evident i n a l l d i s t r i c t s - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Southern and Central areas-of the Island. I t i s assumed that e l d e r l y persons are requiring more f a c i l i t i e s to care for them i n t h e i r d e c l i n i n g years. This trend might also suggest that fewer young fam i l i e s are w i l l i n g or able to care for e l d e r l y parents i n t h e i r own homes. Increase i n these services could also represent a growth i n the number of kindergartens and camps on Vancouver Island. This trend would be i n keeping with population growth. Perhaps further i n v e s t i g a t i o n might reveal, for example, the need to have kindergartens included i n the public school system. However, as the s t a t i s t i c s do not indicate the type of i n s t i t u t i o n involved, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the nature of the resources and whether they are adequately meeting i n d i v i d u a l and community needs. Trends i n Caseloads, Average Caseload per Worker, and Number of Workers It i s h e l p f u l to make a comparison between Region 1 (Vancouver Island) and Region VI (Fraser Valley) because these two regions, while s i m i l a r i n some ways, are quite d i f f e r e n t in.others. The size of the workload i n each case i s s i m i l a r , and as a geographic area each con-tains urban and r u r a l communities, so that a considerable amount of travelling-must be done i n providing service. On the other hand, the economic base c e r t a i n s o c i a l components are d i f f e r e n t i n each case. In 1951, on Vancouver Island (Region 1), 28.5 workers with -80-an average caseload of 325, gave service to a t o t a l of 8786 cases. In t h i s same year i n the Fraser Valley (Region VI), 18 workers whose caseload averaged 276, served 4966 cases. By 1961, 36.5 workers i n Region 1 handled 11,944 cases, with an average caseload of 327, down from 366 i n 1959, due to an increase, i n s t a f f of 4.5 workers i n the two year period. In Region VI during 1961, the figures are almost i d e n t i c a l - 34 workers with an average caseload of 328, serving a t o t a l caseload of. 11,155. During.this ten year span, the s t a f f i n Region 1 increased by about one-t h i r d , but the average caseload remained p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged at 327, and i n Region VI, i n the same period, the s t a f f increased by nearly 45 per cent, and the average-caseload increased by 16 per cent, but i s s t i l l at 328, almost the same as i n Region 1. Mileage figures have remained quite comparable i n each Region from 1957 to 1962. In December of 1962, 36 workers i n Region 1 t r a v e l l e d 13,953 miles, while i n Region VI, 34.5 workers covered a t o t a l of 13,156 miles. The^most obvious trend that can be observed from these figures i s the steady increase i n average caseload i n Region VI, u n t i l i t now equals the average of Region-1. Since an average caseload.of 327 i s • incompatible with good welfare service, t h i s i s a destructive trend. Before any e f f e c t i v e assessment of the quantity and the quality- of services given to the c l i e n t s could be. made, we would have to have precise know-ledge of the kinds of service c a l l e d for i n any given area; the resources a v a i l a b l e to meet the expressed needs; some measure of the s k i l l and experience of the workers on s t a f f ; and a d e t a i l e d . d e s c r i p t i o n of the -81-work that each s t a f f member must carry out. There i s a strong argument for s p e c i a l i z e d caseloads, assuming there i s s u f f i c i e n t demand i n a s p e c i f i c area for a p a r t i c u l a r type of service, and that adequately trained s t a f f i s a v a i l a b l e to provide t h i s service. It i s also e s s e n t i a l that s u f f i c i e n t c l e r i c a l s t a f f should be a v a i l a b l e to handle the paper work. There.is a constant demand on the part of the s o c i a l workers for professional status. ';Bvit surely tfyere can be no case for arguing that professional status requires a l l the c l e r i c a l and administrative aspects of s o c i a l work programmes to be performed by h i g h l y trained s o c i a l workers who have devoted four to s i x years to University work. Inasmuch as i t i s not going to be possible to provide trained s o c i a l workers at a rate that w i l l keep pace with the growing demand, i t w i l l become in c r e a s i n g l y more important to d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y between the kinds of work that should be done by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained workers and by supervisors and consultants, and the kinds of work that are properly the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , of c l e r i c a l workers on the one hand, or general administrative s t a f f on the other, including s t a t i s t i c a l and research s t a f f . In 1929 the per capita cost of welfare i n Canada was $15.36 - i n 1964 i t was $212.80 - and by 1975 i t i s estimated the figure w i l l r i s e to $400.00. We obviously cannot a f f o r d to have professional people spending t h e i r time f i l l i n g out forms re e l i g i b i l i t y . Whether or not there i s a basic lack of trained s t a f f , the use and d i s p o s i t i o n of trained s t a f f i s c l e a r l y of immediate concern. A problem ex i s t s also, perhaps as much i n Region 1 as anywhere, i n the d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . This i s most r e a d i l y seen i n Greater V i c t o r i a and -82-V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . Public S o c i a l Welfare i s handled i n V i c t o r i a C i t y by the C i t y S o c i a l Welfare Department, while i n a l l other a r e a s i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department, whose head-quarters are i n V i c t o r i a C i t y . Family and Chi l d Welfare Services are the re s p o n s i b i l i t y , of F. & C.S. except i n the D i s t r i c t . (see Appendix A) The f i r s t - immediate problem that a r i s e s i s the matter of boundaries. Where does V i c t o r i a C i t y end and Oak Bay begin? An even greater problem a r i s e s when a p a r t i c u l a r "case" involves both c h i l d welfare and s o c i a l welfare. Thuswe f i n d that i n an examination-of the caseloads at F. & C.S. the components include heads of f a m i l i e s , single men, and single women; temporary assistance cases, T.B. cases; employable unemployed, e l d e r l y persons i n nursing homes and boarding homes; as well as a l l classes of c h i l d welfare. Obviously the V i c t o r i a C i t y S o c i a l Welfare Department, the Saanich Welfare Department, and the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Depart-ment are a l l doing the same thing. The agencies l i s t e d i n the Directory of V i c t o r i a ' s United Appeal are also providing s i m i l a r services,. i n many instances. Therefore, u n t i l some type of c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y can be established to which are requests f o r service can be directed, and which w i l l r e f e r a l l cases to the appropriate agency for service, i t w i l l not be possible to determine with any degree of accuracy the number of s t a f f required i n any given area, the kind and degree of s k i l l necessary, the actual size of caseloads (since any one case can be part of several d i f f e r e n t caseloads i n a number of agencies, at the present time); and what constitutes a r e a l i s t i c average caseload per worker. Table 20. Number of Workers, Caseload and Average Caseload; A l t e r n a t e Years 1951-1961 I n c l u s i v e f o r Vancouver I s l a n d Region I, Okanagan Region VI. Region I Region VI Year Workers Caseload Average Caseload Workers Caseload ^ver?sL Caseload 1951 28. 5 8,786 325 1953 31. 0 9,298 299 1955 32. 0 9,495 297 1957 33 . 0 10,614 322 1958 32. 0 12,104 366 1961 36. 5 11,944 327 18 23 23 28 29 34 4,966 6,094 6,788 8,160 9,528 11,155 276 265 295 291 329 328 Table 2 0(a). Number of S t a f f , Percentage Increase i n S t a f f  and Caseload f o r I n d i v i d u a l O f f i c e s  Vancouver I s l a n d (Region I) (1951-1961). Number of S t a f f 1951 1961 Per Cent Increase 1951-1961 Caseload S t a f f A l b e r n i Duncan Courtenay Nanaimo 2 4 2 4 4 4 5 8 50.0 45.0 50.0 39 .0 0 . 0 31.6 37-5 , 37 .8 TOTAL 13 20 . 35.0 . 2 9 . 7 Saanich V i c t o r i a C i t y V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t 2.5 2 .5 8 9 5 5 0 . 0 4 . 0 11.2 8 .9 0 . 0 32.0 TOTAL 15.5 16.5 6.1 15.5 Region I 2 8 . 5 36 .5 22.0 26.4 Table 21 . S o c i a l Welfare S t a t i s t i c s by Major Category f o r Vancouver I s l a n d - 1951 to 1961 ( I n c l u s i v e ) . CATEGORY 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959. 1961 FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE S o c i a l Allowance 1,477 1,176 1,263 1 ,486 2,710 3,003 Old Age Pensions 6,235 6,834 6,880 7 ,668 7,782 7,190 B l i n d and Disab-l e d Pensions -- 74 181 298 384 404 SUB TOTAL 7,712 8,084 8,324 9,452 10,876 10,597 SERVICES TO FAMILIES AND CHILDREN Family Service 328 353 281 191 183 181 P r o t e c t i o n 49 38 39 31 20 16 Adoption Ser-v i c e s 289 312 318 297 315 276 Foster Home Services 231 300 306 389 411 587 Unmarried Parents 89 101 97 73 94 76 S p e c i a l C h i l d Services 5 9 7 8 10 2 SUB TOTAL 991 1,113 1,048 989 1,033 1,138 HEALTH AND INSTI-TUTIONAL SERVICES Health and I n s t i -t u t i o n a l Services 30 41 28 50 56 53 Welfare I n s t i -t u t i o n s 53 60- 95 123 139 156 SUB TOTAL 83 101 123 173 195 209 TOTAL 8,786 9,298 9,495 10,614 12 ,104 11,944 Table 2 2 . Major Categories of T o t a l Caseload and Changes 1951-60, Vancouver I s l a n d  (Region I ) . Categories Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951 1954 1957 I960 F i n a n c i a l A ssistance 87.8 87-7 89.I 89.2 Service t o F a m i l i e s and C h i l d r e n 1-1.3 11.2 9. 3 9.3 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services 0 . 9 1.1 1. 6 1.5 Increase i n Caseload 1951-54 1954 -57 1957-60 F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e - 7.4 12 .0 13.1 Services to F a m i l i e s and C h i l d r e n ' 6.1 6 .8 13.1 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S e r vices (27.97) (33.5) ( 9 . 0 ) (a) Because of the small number of cases i n v o l v e d , these f i g u r e s cannot be considered comparable w i t h the f i g u r e s i n the other c a t e g o r i e s . Table 23. VICTORIA CITY WELFARE DEPARTMENT CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 Category Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951 1961 Percentage Change 1951-1961 F i n a n c i a l Assistance S o c i a l Allowances Old Age Pensions Bl i n d and Disabled Pensions 18.5 22.0 79.7 73.6 3.3 23.2 1.3 Sub T o t a l 98.2 98.9 •9.6 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l .2 .4 1.1 71.2 Services Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Sub T o t a l .6 1.1 57.2 Table 25. SAANICH MUNICIPALITY WELFARE DEPARTMENT CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 Category Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951 1961 Percentage Change 1951-1961 F i n a n c i a l Assistance S o c i a l Allowance Old Age Pensions B l i n d and Disabled Pensions 8.2 18.9 90.5 73.6 4.3 59.0 ( 3.0) Sub T o t a l 98.7 96.8 4.2 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l .5 2.2 1.0 400.0 Services Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Sub T o t a l .5 3.2 86.1 Table 24. V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e Caseloads Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage  Change, 1951 to 19oT! Category Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951 , 1961 Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE S o c i a l Allowance Old Age Pensions B l i n d and Disabl e d Pensions lb.2 22.1 72.7 62.1 3 .5 56.5 20.4 SUB TOTAL 8 6 . 9 87 .7 3 2 . 7 SERVICES TO FAMILIES AND CHILDREN Family Service P r o t e c t i o n Adoption Services F o s t e r Home Services Unmarried Parents S p e c i a l C h i l d S ervices 4 . 9 2 .9 ' .6 .2 2 .7 2 .4 1.6 1.7 • 2 .2 2.3 .1 .1 - 1 4 . 5 -17 .5 27 .7 5 .5 37.0 0 . 0 SUB TOTAL 12.1 9 .6 9 .8 HEALTH AND INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S e r v ices Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s • 1 .7 .9 2 .0 93.4 76.3 SUB TOTAL 1.0 2 . 7 8 l . l Table 26. DUNCAN DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 (Increases; except f o r decreases shown i n brackets) Category Percentage 1951 D i s t r i b u t i o n 1961 Percentage Change 1951-1961 F i n a n c i a l Assistance S o c i a l Allowance Old Age Pensions B l i n d and Disabled Pensions 13.7 65.1 24.4 51.7 3.5 66.1 24.3 Sub T o t a l 78.8 79.6 40.4 Services to Families and Children Family Service Protection Adoption Services Foster Home Services Unmarried Parents Special C h i l d Services 4.5 .6 5.6 6.7 2.2 2.3 .1 3.9 10.9 .9 (16.6) (75.0) 14.7 63.2 (55.5) Sub T o t a l 19.6 18.1 34.9 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s .2 1.4 .4 1.9 400.0 55.0 Sub T o t a l 1.6 2.3 60.0 Table 27. NANAIMO DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 (Increases; except f o r decreases shown i n brackets) Category Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n 1951 1961 Percentage Change 1951-1961 F i n a n c i a l Assistance S o c i a l Allowance Old Age Pensions B l i n d and Disabled Pens ions 20.4 29.7" 63.6 52.0 3.3 57.5 23.8 §ub T o t a l §4,Q §5,0 Services to Families and Children Family Service Protection Adoption Services Foster Home Services Unmarried Parents Special C h i l d Services 3.4 2.4 .4 5.0 3.2 5.4 7.6 .8 .3 .3 .1 12.3 2.6 55.8 (33.3) (75.0) Sub T o t a l 15.3 13.6 30.5 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l .1 .5 .6 .9 84.6 59.1 Services Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Sub T o t a l .7 1.4 68.6 Table 28. ALBERNI DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 (Increases; except f or decreases shown i n brackets) Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n Percentage Change Category 1951 1961 1951-1961 F i n a n c i a l Assistance S o c i a l Allowance 20.3 30.7 63.8 Old Age Pensions 47.1 43.6 40.4 Bl i n d and Disabled Pensions - - 2.6 Sub To t a l 67.5 76.9 51.6 Services to Families and Children Family Service 11.1 1.7 (12.1) Protection 1.8 .5 (50.0) Adoption Services 10.5 5.4 ( 7.4) Foster Home Services 4.4 13.9 17.3 Unmarried Parents 2.4 .4 (69.2) Spe c i a l C h i l d Services --Sub T o t a l 30.1 21.9 24.5 Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services 1.3 .7 b.o Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s 1.1 .5 16.7 Sub T o t a l 2.4 1.2 ( 8.3) Table 29. COURTENAY DISTRICT OFFICE CASELOADS Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage Change 1951 - 1961 (Increases; except f o r decreases shown i n brackets) Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n Percentage Change Category 1951 1961 1951-1961 F i n a n c i a l Assistance S o c i a l Allowance 19.2 29.8 56.0 Old Age Pensions 50.2 49.6 30.9 Bli n d and Disabled Pensions - - 3.4 Sub T o t a l 69.4 82.8 42.8 Services to Families and Children Family Service 8.7 2.0 (66.7) Protection 2.2 .6 (61.9) Adoption Services 9.0 4.0 (34.5) Foster Home Services 6.7 9.3 51.2 Unmarried Parents 2.2 .6 (61.9) Special C h i l d Services - - WW Sub T o t a l 28.8 16.5 (19.4) Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services Health and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Services . 1.2 .1 (17.3) Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s .6 .6 25.0 Sub To t a l 1.8 .7 (44.5) Table 30. Number of Workers, Caseloads and Mileage i n Regions I and VI and B r i t i s h Columbia 1957- 1962": ( a l l f i g u r e s r e l a t e to the month of December i n the year stated) (a) Regions I and V I Year Region Workers Caseload Mileage 1957 I 33 10,614 13,467 VI 28 8,160 10,749 1958 I 32 11,722 10,393 VI 28 8,859 13,379 1959 I 32 12,104 10,559 VI 29 9,528 13,633 I960 I 34 12,192 13,448 VI 30.5 10,972 13,071 1961 I 36.5- 11,944 14,130 VI 35.5 11,155 13,141 1962 I 36.0 11,431 13,953 VI 34.5 11,182 13,156 (b) B r i t i s h Columbia Year Workers Caseload Mileage 1957 199 61,384 61,321 1958 198.5 67,139 60,983 1959 198.5 71,336 64,651 i 9 6 0 213.5 79,074 72,640 1961 257 80,266 79,542 1962 259.5 79,632 81,085 Table 31. Average Caseload i n D i s t r i c t s and Trends 1951-19blT Area Average Caseload P.C. Change 1951 1961 A l b e r n i 275 251 - 9 7. Courtenay 241 352 31.6 Duncan 314 2 6 l - 2 0 . 0 Nanaimo 297 299 1.0 Saanich 422 449 6 .0 V i c t o r i a C i t y 354 345 - 3 .0 V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t 255 374 31.8 TOTALS 308 327 6-.0 -83-Chapter V - REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF.WELFARE MEASUREMENTS A study of regional measurements for Region 1 (Vancouver Island) i s based on the premise that, given adequate knowledge of the kinds and quantity of welfare service required i n a given area, the admin-i s t r a t i o n of welfare could be so ordered that the s k i l l s of trained personnel could be a l l o c a t e d and used to the best advantage. Technological progress i s now so rapid, and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s expanding with such speed, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Central and Northern Vancouver Island, that one main administrative centre i n V i c t o r i a can hardly expect to be aware of the needs that may quickly a r i s e i n centres such as the Albernis or Campbell River. A well-planned study, designed to measure the appropriate-ness and the effectiveness of welfare services- i n the Nanaimo area was begun i n 1964, and i f t h i s work i s c a r r i e d to completion i t could be an invaluable model for s i m i l a r studies i n some of the burgeoning communities of Vancouver Island, In general, there i s no boundary issue involved i n t h i s study. That i s to say, Region 1, being an Island, approximates very c l o s e l y the area designated by The Dominion.Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s as Census D i v i s i o n 5. We did f i n d that c e r t a i n s u b - d i s t r i c t s did not coincide altogether with census sub-area, but the discrepancy was not appreciable. With t h i s thinking i n mind, and considering the f a c t that a study of t h i s Region as. a Region had not been done before, we undertook an examination of the s t a t i s t i c a l material a v a i l a b l e to us. The regional measurements considered i n t h i s study have been -84-based on census data and p r o v i n c i a l welfare s t a t i s t i c s . We have encountered d i f f i c u l t y because of the fa c t that many items of service are included i n a single index. For example, the category of " S o c i a l Allowance" i s represented as a single item. There i s also the problem of t r y i n g to determine the number of persons being served i n any one 'case'. As a matter of f a c t , the use of the term 'case' i n r e f e r r i n g to one person, pr a family, or to c e r t a i n members of a family, tends to obscure the fa c t that our prime con-cern i s for i n d i v i d u a l s and the needs of i n d i v i d u a l s , as opposed to the gathering of s t a t i s t i c a l evidence with respect to a number of impersonal 'cases'. In order to obtain a c l e a r picture of the needs of people i n a given area, and of the quantity and q u a l i t y of the service being rendered .- to achieve maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of s t a f f , and of the substantial volume of welfare d o l l a r s being spent - precise, d e t a i l e d and up-to-date s t a t i s t i c s - m u s t be.available. Returning to the s o c i a l assistance category, i t would be very h e l p f u l to be aware of the number of persons involved i n a case, so that we could determine whether the needs are those.of a family, a single man or a single woman, whether or not single people are employable: or unemployable, and, i f there are c h i l d r e n , are they with t h e i r parents, with r e l a t i v e s , or i n f o s t e r care. A l l of these factors would a f f e c t the kind and the quantity of service that would be required. A study completed by the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver area i n February 1965, has attempted to review a l l health, welfare and re c r e a t i o n services being provided i n the Greater Vancouver area. The services have been ranked i n the order of t h e i r -85-importance to the community, and have been evaluated i n terms of t h e i r adequacy i n quantity and qu a l i t y . The a c t i v i t i e s of 201 agencies have been broken down into 79 service c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been defined. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that the research committee considered a l l three systems - health, welfare, and recr e a t i o n as a uni t , recognizing the f a c t that a l l three are i n t e r - r e l a t e d and inter-dependent. Obviously, c e r t a i n health problems w i l l create concomitant welfare problems, and neither one can be adequately serviced i n i s o l a t i o n . In thi s connection i t shduld be noted that Saanich, Central Vancouver Island, and the upper Island are served by 62-Metropolitan Health Nurses. We know from experience that a substantial part of the work done by these nurses, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the smaller communities, can r e a d i l y be described as s o c i a l work. Hence i t would be misleading to state that the whole of Vancouver Island i s served by no.more than 36 s o c i a l workers, each with a caseload of 200 to 300, and to i n f e r from t h i s that welfare services are t o t a l l y inadequate. The welfare service may be inadequate, but no accurate measurement of the inadequacy can be made by an examination of welfare s t a t i s t i c s i n i s o l a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y health and re c r e a t i o n services are a v i t a l f actor i n the t o t a l welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l - proper s a n i t a t i o n being the most important of a l l according to the study r e f e r r e d to - so that no examination of welfare measurements can be considered to be complete without an evaluation of health and recr e a t i o n f a c t o r s . Therefore we would recommend that studies be undertaken, s i m i l a r to that just completed by the Vancouver Community Chest, i n several of the larger communities on Vancouver Island, and c e r t a i n l y i n Metropolitan V i c t o r i a . -86-We would recommend further, that such a study be c a r r i e d a step beyond the scope of the work done i n Vancouver. We believe that a more complete picture of welfare needs and services i n a community could be obtained by e s t a b l i s h i n g a c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y to which a l l requests f o r service would be directed. At such a r e g i s t r y an accurate record of the number of units of service required, i n a l l service c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , would be maintained. Every request f o r service would be ref e r r e d to the appropriate agency, and a record maintained of the service rendered, and of the instances i n which i t was found that no agency could provide the service required. Such a r e g i s t r y could, i n the course of a year, state with some confidence that the demands for service i n the p a r t i c u l a r community were being f u l l y , met, or otherwise. I t could also be demon-strated that an overlapping of service e x i s t s i n some cases, and perhaps i t could be shown that c e r t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of service could best be rendered by a government agency, and c e r t a i n other kinds of service could be more e f f e c t i v e l y provided by a private agency. A further p o s s i b i l i t y suggests i t s e l f as growing out of a more d e t a i l e d and more accurate knowledge of the needs for service through-out the region. At the moment, welfare f o r Vancouver Island i s administered l a r g e l y from V i c t o r i a . However, with the rapid growth of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Central and Upper Vancouver Island, and with the provision of good access to parts of the region that have heretofore been considered remote, i t may well be that some d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of administration would contribute to more e f f e c t i v e planning to meet the recognized needs of the people. -87-It follows from t h i s that the most e f f e c t i v e a l l o c a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e s t a f f i s e s s e n t i a l . In t h i s regard, a number of suggestions could be made, not the l e a s t of which would be the extensive use of case-aides. It has been demonstrated, i n large i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n private agencies, that case-aides not trained i n s o c i a l work, and command-ing a lower salary, can very e f f e c t i v e l y carry out a wide v a r i e t y of routine duties that now s e r i o u s l y hamper trained s o c i a l workers i n perform-ing the work that can only be done by a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained person. Among other things, they could carry out routine intake procedures; provide transport where necessary; f u l f i l housekeeping duties; and make simple r e f e r r a l s . This use of non-professional s t a f f has proven to be quite e f f e c t i v e , and should be expanded. In order to obtain more meaningful welfare measurements, much more emphasis should be placed upon d e t a i l e d examination of the s t a t i s t i c s presently a v a i l a b l e . But even more important would be the provision of s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s to carry out studies i n depth of the extent to which Region 1 (Vancouver Island) can be e f f e c t i v e l y administered i n i t s e n t i r e t y , from V i c t o r i a . A prerequisite to such a study would, of course, be an equally d e t a i l e d analysis of the s p e c i f i c kinds of needs that must be met, together with a c a r e f u l analysis of the quantity and the q u a l i t y of the resources that e x i s t at the present time to s a t i s f y these needs. -88-BIBLIOGRAPHY About V i c t o r i a and Vancouver Island, edited by Avis Walton, New Neighbour Services, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1960. Anstey, Arthur and Sutherland, N e i l , B r i t i s h Columbia, A Short History, ed. S.J. Gage Limited, Toronto, 1957. B a r t l e t t , E.D., B l i c h , H.N., Bombardieri, G.A., Noak, G.R. and Specken, A.G., A Regional Study of S o c i a l Welfare Measurements, No. 3., The Metropolitan Area, Master of S o c i a l Work th e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Bledsoe, M.Y. and Sto l a r , G.A., A Regional Study of S o c i a l Welfare Measurements, No. 2. The Fraser V a l l e y , Master of S o c i a l Work thesis , University of B r i t i s h Columbia,. 1963. Camu, P., Weeks, E.P., and Sametz, Z.W., Economic Geography of Canada, Foundations - Growth - Trends, MacMillan Co., Toronto, 1964. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, P r i o r i t i e s , for Health, Welfare and Recreation Services i n the Greater Vancouver Area, F i n a l Report of the P r i o r i t i e s E s t a b l i s h i n g Committee, February, 1965. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Regional Index of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Island, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Health and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, F i e l d Service, O f f i c e Manual. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Annual  Reports 1951-1963, V i c t o r i a , Queen's Pr i n t e r . Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Lands Service, The Vancouver Island  B u l l e t i n Area, No. 4. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1963. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, Survey of S o c i a l Allowance Applications  Received i n the Family D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Welfare Branch, November 1958, Department of S o c i a l Welfare, V i c t o r i a , B.C., May 1959. Government of Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare, The Canada  Pension Plan, August 1964. Wheeler, Michael, A Report on Needed Research i n Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, 1961. -89-APPENDIX A February 1963 Areas of J u r i s d i c t i o n i n Greater V i c t o r i a and V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y or D i s t r i c t Public Welfare Services Family and Chi l d Welfare Services V i c t o r i a C i t y Saanich V i c t o r i a C i t y S o c i a l Welfare Department Saanich Welfare Dept. Family and Children's Service of Greater V i c t o r i a Oak Bay P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) Family and Ch i l d r e n 1 s Service of Greater V i c t o r i a E s quintal t P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) Family and Children's Service of Greater V i c t o r i a Central Saanich D i s t r i c t P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) Family and Children's Service of Greater V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t -Gulf Islands, P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Wel-Jordan River, Department (Headquarters fare Department Port Renfrew - V i c t o r i a ) (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) D i s t r i c t -View Royal, Belmont, Colwood, Langford, * Golds'tream, Happy Valley, Metchosin, Sooke, North Saanich P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Wel-fare Department (Headquarters - V i c t o r i a ) - with the exception of foster homes which are supervised by the Family and Children's Service of Greater V i c t o r i a *Langford i s a shared foster home area between the Family and Children's Service and P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department. -90-FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S SERVICE V i c t o r i a Services Provided C h i l d care and protection, orphans and deserted c h i l d r e n cared f o r . Family, m a r i t a l and unmarried mothers counselling. Adoption supervision. Maintains Sevenoaks, a treatment centre for emotionally disturbed c h i l d r e n aged 7 to 12 years. People Helped i n 1963 654 c h i l d r e n cared f o r ; 150,195 days care provided; 295 adoption homes supervised; 1387 fa m i l i e s counselled and 145 couples received marriage counselling; 19 boys and g i r l s treated at Sevenoaks. Estimated Total Local Budget f or 1964 $510,158.00 Chest Allotment for 1964 $65,025.00 Percentage of Total Allotment Agency Received 18.4 -91-APPENDIX B Census of Canada B u l l e t i n s used i n the Study T i t l e Population D i s t r i b u t i o n : Comparative Increases, 1951-1961. Major Urban Centres, Vancouver Island, 1961. P r i n c i p a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Rural-Urban D i s t r i b u t i o n : Ten-Year Change, Sex Ratio. S i g n i f i c a n t Age Groups: Changes, 1951-1961. P.C. D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1951-1961. Comparative Patterns and Trends i n Mari t a l and Family Composition. Some Major Factors of Family Composition, 1961. Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n of Households by Size, 1961. Some Residence Factors, 1961. Housing i n V i c t o r i a Area: Comparative Figures for Metropo-l i t a n Area, B.C. and Canada 1961. Religious A f f i l i a t i o n s : Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1961. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Main Religious Denominations by Sub-Areas, 1961. Main Ethnic Stocks: Comparative D i s t r i b u t i o n , 1961. Source B u l l e t i n 1.1-7, Table 12, 1961. Census of Canada, 1951, Vol.1, Table 6. B u l l e t i n 1.1-7, Table 14, 1961. B u l l e t i n 1.1-7, Table 14, 1961. Census of Canada, 1951, Vol.1, Table 1 5 - 1 6 . B u l l e t i n S P - 1 S p e c i f i e d Age Groups and Sex, 1961. Census of Canada, 1951, Vol.1, Table 23. V u l l e t i n 1.2-4:Marital Status, 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.1-6:Tables 64,70; 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.1-5:Tables 45,50-52;1961. B u l l e t i n 2.1-l:Tables 3,5; 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.2-7:Tables 78-79, 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.2-3,Tables 141,143;1961. B u l l e t i n 2.3-5,Tables 56,58; 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.2-4,Tables 46,53; 1961. B u l l e t i n 2.2-7,Tables 75,76; 1961. B u l l e t i n SP-3; Religious Denomina-tions, 1961. B u l l e t i n SP-3; Religious Denomina-tions, Counties and Subdivisions, 1961. B u l l e t i n SP-2; 1961. Ethnic Groups. -92-T i t l e Change i n Ethnic Stocks: 1951-1961. Main Ethnic Stocks by Sub-Areas. Occupational D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Urban Population:Males, Females. Occupational D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Rural PopulationrMales, Females. Source Ninth Census of Canada, 1951. Volume I. Table 34. B u l l e t i n SP-2; 1961. Ethnic Groups. B u l l e t i n 3.1-8:Table 15; 1961. Labour Force, Occupation Divisions by Sex. B u l l e t i n 3.1-8:Table 15; 1961. Labour Force, Occupation Divisions by Sex. 

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