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Juvenile vandalism in the City of Vancouver : an exploratory study of juvenile vandalism as found in.. 1965

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JUVENILE VANDALISM IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER An Exploratory Study of Juvenile Vandalism as found i n the City of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. by JOHN KEITH FAIRBANK SOPHIA MING REN LEUNG ROBERT GRAHAM POTMAN, JR. MADLYN GERTRUDE WILLS Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work. 1965 The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per- m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i - c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f - B r i t i s h Columbia,, I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y , I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r - m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i - c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n , . D e p a r t m e n t o f S&C-i/t^jL tOdh^jK The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per- m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that; copying or p u b l i - c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r mission. Department of The School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date 23rd A p r i l . 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per- m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . ' I t i s understood t h a t : c o p y i n g or p u b l i - c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of ^^t^jLjgy^tL&-&d?J The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date (2*,sr JJJ <Q f„ I . A B S T R A C T V a n d a l i s m , as one f a c e t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , has r e c e i v e d s c a n t a t t e n t i o n f r o m s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e r e l a t i v e l y low p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l d e l i n q u e n t a c t s w h i c h can be d e s c r i b e d as " v a n d a l i s m " on the one hand and t h e e f f o r t s o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t o d e v e l o p a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g t h e o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y c a u s a t i o n on t h e o t h e r . T h i s s t u d y has p r o c e e d e d on t h e pr e m i s e advanced by A l f r e d Kahn i n h i s book, P l a n n i n g Community S e r v i c e f o r C h i l d r e n i n T r o u b l e , t h a t community s e r v i c e must not be b u i l t on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s a r e a homogeneous group. Kahn m a i n t a i n s t h a t our e f f o r t s w i l l be more f r u i t f u l i f we d e v e l o p an awareness o f t h e h e t e r o g e n i t y o f t h e group. T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s an i n i t i a l , e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m t o d e t e r m i n e what, i f any, f a c t o r s s e t j u v e n i l e s who i n d u l g e i n v a n d a l i s m a p a r t f r o m o t h e r d e l i n q u e n t s . A d e s c r i p t i v e - d i a g n o s t i c r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s u i t e d t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y and p e r m i t t e d t h e use o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s u r v e y method. A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y gave f o c u s and d i r e c t i o n t o t h e s t u d y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e s t u d y were bas e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t upon t h e o r i e s e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , q u e s t i o n - n a i r e s , t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e c o r d s , i n t e r v i e w s , and case s t u d i e s were t h e methods u t i l i z e d . D a t a was o b t a i n e d f r o m law-enforcement a g e n c i e s and f r o m p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e C i t y o f Va n c o u v e r . V a n d a l i s m o c c u r s i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e community and i n a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s . P r e d o m i n a n t l y a group a c t i v i t y o f younger male j u v e n i l e s , v a n d a l i s m i s c h a r a c t e r - i z e d by c o n t a g i o n f r o m group member t o group member and f r o m group t o group. V a n d a l a c t s o c c u r i n a r e a s o r s i t u a t i o n s i s o l a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways f r o m d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . R e p o r t s on t h e i n c i d e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m f r o m non-law-enforcement s o u r c e s i n t h e C i t y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s c r i m e o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n m i d d l e - c l a s s and u p p e r - c l a s s a r e a s but t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t r e c o r d s show t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of j u v e n i l e s a p p e a r i n g i n Co u r t r e s i d e i n t h e l o w e r - c l a s s a r e a s . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s a t t i t u d e o f t h e o f f i c i a l c o u r t s y s t e m and t h e p r e - v a l e n c e o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e more a f f l u e n t c l a s s o f s o c i e t y . The need f o r de- t a i l e d r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e u p p e r - c l a s s j u v e n i l e s p l e a d s t o be r e c o g n i z e d . U n t i l s o c i e t y p e r m i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r t o f o c u s e q u a l l y upon a l l s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y , c o m p lete comprehension o f t h e a c t o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver w i l l n ot be a c h i e v e d . A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S We e x t e n d our most s i n c e r e t h a n k s and a p p r e c i a t i o n t o our a d v i s e r , Mr. Dennis Guest, f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and h e l p i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s s t u d y . A l s o , we w i s h t o e x p r e s s our g r a t i t u d e t o Mr. Hoare and Mr. W i l l i a m s o n o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , Mr. Le No b l e o f t h e C a n a d i a n U n d e r w r i t e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , Mr. J . G i b s o n o f t h e O a k r i d g e I n s u r a n c e A g e n c i e s , Mr. P i c k e r i n g and Mr. H o l l a n d o f t h e Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department, Mr. G. Stevens o f t h e F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t , Mr. I . Frew o f t h e Vancouver P a r k s Board and Dr. M i l l e r and Mr. Jones o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page C h a p t e r I S u r v e y o f the R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e R a t i o n a l e o f s t u d y . V a n d a l i s m as a s o c i a l p r o b l e m . V a n d a l i s m as a s p e c i f i c t y p e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . I n a d e q u a t e f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n on J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m . O b j e c t i v e s and scope o f s t u d y . D e f i n i t i o n o f a v a n d a l and v a n d a l i s m . The p r e s e n t meaning of v a n d a l and v a n d a l i s m . L e g a l d e f i n i t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y and v a n d a l i s m . T h e o r i e s o f d e l i n - quency c a u s a t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o v a n d a l i s m . T y p o l o g i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t s , v a n d a l s and v a n d a l i s m . S t u d i e s on v a n d a l i s m 1 Ch a p t e r I I E x a m i n a t i o n o f A v a i l a b l e S t a t i s t i c s Focus o f t h e s t u d y . S e l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s o f d a t a . Methods. Examina- t i o n of d a t a . I n t e g r a t i o n and s p e c u l a t i o n 34 Cha p t e r I I I Review o f Case F i l e s Face s h e e t i n f o r m a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n on s i x t y - f i v e c a s e s . P r o f i l e o f J u v e n i l e V a n d a l 61 Ch a p t e r I V C o n c l u s i o n s Thoughts and s p e c u l a t i o n s f r o m f i n d i n g s o f C h a p t e r s 2 and 3 i n r e l a - t i o n t o Chap t e r I . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r the C i t y o f Van c o u v e r , B. C .81 A p p e n d i c e s : A. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s B. B i b l i o g r a p h y TABLES AND CHARTS I N THE TEXT (a) T a b l e s T a b l e 1. J u v e n i l e s A p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t - 1961 37a T a b l e 2. O f f e n c e s A g a i n s t P r o p e r t y - 1961 37a T a b l e 3. I n c i d e n t s o f W i l f u l Damage t o P r o p e r t y i n Vancouver 1960 - 1964 (B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y ) 47a T a b l e 4. I n d i v i d u a l s Charged i n C o u r t 1960 - 1964 (B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y ) 47b T a b l e 5. W i l f u l Damage t o Buses and R a i l w a y P r o p e r t y b y A r e a 1960 - 1964 (B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y ) 47c i i . Page T a b l e 6. Vancouver P o l i c e Department - Youth and Auto Squad R e p o r t 1961 49a T a b l e 7. Vancouver P o l i c e Department - J u v e n i l e R e p o r t 1962 49b T a b l e 8. J u v e n i l e s Charged Under W i l f u l Damage i n the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t f o r the C i t y o f Vancouver 1960 - 1963 51a T a b l e 9. A Comparison of the Number o f P i e c e s of Window G l a s s B r o k e n i n Vancouver S c h o o l s Due t o V a n d a l i s m f o r t h e P e r i o d J u l y 1, 1963 t o Au g u s t 31, 1963 and t h e c o r r e s - p o n d i n g P e r i o d i n 1964 57a T a b l e 10. Window G l a s s Breakage - S c h o o l s w i t h a S u b s t a n t i a l I n c r e a s e i n Breakage i n 1964 o v e r 1963 57a T a b l e 11. Window G l a s s Breakage - S c h o o l s w i t h a S u b s t a n t i a l Decrease i n Breakage i n 1964 over 1963 .• 57b (b) C h a r t s F i g . 1. A r e a s of H i g h Damage t o P r o p e r t y i n the C i t y o f Vancouver 52a F i g . 2. P e r c e n t a g e o f P o p u l a t i o n 0 - 1 4 Ye a r s 1961 52b F i g . 3. D i s t a n c e Between the P r o p e r t y Damaged and t h e R e s i d e n c e o f the J u v e n i l e O f f e n d e r i n Vancouver 1961 52c F i g . 4. L o c a t i o n o f R e s i d e n c e s o f J u v e n i l e s A p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t by Census T r a c t 1961, O u t l i n i n g S o c i o - e c o n o m i c A r e a s 52d F i g . 5. L o c a t i o n o f R e s i d e n c e s o f J u v e n i l e s H a n d l e d Out of C o u r t b y Census T r a c t 1961, O u t l i n i n g S o c i o - e c o n o m i c A r e a s 52e F i g . 6. Number of J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage t o P r o p e r t y A p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t per Month i n 1961 56a F i g . 7. Number o f J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage t o P r o p e r t y A p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t per Month i n 1962 56b F i g . 8. Number o f J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage t o P r o p e r t y A p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t per Month i n 1963 • 56c F i g . 9. T o t a l Number of J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage t o P r o p e r t y A p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t Per Month Between 1961 and 1963 i n c l u s i v e 56d JUVENILE VANDALISM IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER CHAPTER I A SURVEY OF THE RELEVANT LITERATURE R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s s t u d y i s p r o v i d e d b y A l f r e d Kahn, who n o t e s i n h i s book, P l a n n i n g Community S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n i n T r o u b l e , t h a t community s e r v i c e s must n o t be b u i l t on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t " t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l a b e l s ' d e l i n q u e n c y ' and ' n e g l e c t ' denote p o p u l a t i o n s t o be d e a l t w i t h as though a l l t h e i r numbers were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r . O n l y r e c o g n i t i o n of the range and h e t e r o g e n i t y subsumed under each of t h e l a b e l s w i l l p e r m i t r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g . " We have s e l e c t e d t h e s t u d y o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m because t h e r e a r e few s t u d i e s and l i t t l e f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h have been w r i t t e n on v a n d a l i s m . T h i s i s s u r p r i s i n g i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t v a n d a l i s m i s one type o f d e l i n q u e n t a c t w h i c h appears t o a r o u s e more th a n i t s share of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n . V a n d a l i s m as a S o c i a l P r o b l e m The a c t of v a n d a l i s m as i n any d e l i n q u e n t a c t i n v o l v e s the v i o l a t i o n o f s o c i a l r u l e s and o r d e r s t h a t r e g u l a t e the i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i t h i n our s o c i a l c o n t e x t . The v a n d a l s p r e s e n t a d e p a r t u r e f r o m the norms, m o r a l s and s a n c t i o n s of our s o c i e t y . T h e i r a c t s o f d e v i a n c e become a t h r e a t t o some of our c h e r i s h e d s o c i a l v a l u e s , g o a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , and p r e c i p i t a t e c o n f l i c t s , p r e j u d i c e and h a t r e d , and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l l of t h e s e u n d e s i r a b l e e l e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l p r o b l e m . The p u b l i c tends t o r e a c t t o v a n d a l i s m w i t h d i s b e l i e f and h o s t i l i t y . 1 Kahn, A., P l a n n i n g Community S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n i n T r o u b l e . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York and London, 1963, i n p r e f a c e . - 2 - V a n d a l s n o t o n l y v i o l a t e some o f our s o c i a l v a l u e s ( e . g . r e s p e c t f o r the p r o - p e r t y o f o t h e r s ) , b u t t h e i r a c t i o n s appear i r r a t i o n a l t o t h e p o l i c e . The i r - r a t i o n a l i t y of t h e a c t i s a s c r i b e d t o i t s wanton and w i l f u l n a t u r e w i t h o u t any a p p a r e n t g a i n b y t h e o f f e n d e r . V a n d a l i s m as S p e c i f i c Type o f D e l i n q u e n c y J u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m has been i n c l u d e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n the p u b l i c ' s mind under the g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y . As Kahn s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s a danger t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about d e l i n q u e n c y w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y such as v a n d a l i s m . D e l i n q u e n c y i s n o t a phenomenon o f any one s o c i a l c l a s s , e t h n i c or r e l i g i o u s g roup, g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , or age group.^ I t r e p r e s e n t s v a r i o u s forms and chan- n e l s of j u v e n i l e m i s c o n d u c t w i t h i n the youth's own s o c i a l s t r a t u m or subgroup. There a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each type of d e l i n q u e n c y . V a n d a l i s m i s an e n t i t y o f d e l i n q u e n c y , w i t h i t s s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t y p e s . ^ I t d i f f e r s from, o t h e r d e l i n q u e n c i e s i n t r e n d s , p a t t e r n s , and b e h a v i o u r . We ought t o i s o l a t e i t f r o m v a r i o u s d e l i n q u e n c i e s , and t r y t o i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c i t y o f v a n d a l i s m . An i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y of v a n d a l i s m and v a n d a l s w i l l n o t o n l y c l a r i f y m i s c o n c e i v e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about d e l i n q u e n c y , b u t w i l l a l s o e n a b l e us t o examine the range and scope of v a n d a l i s m as an a c u t e s o c i a l p r o - b l e m as w e l l as a t t e m p t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s f r o m o t h e r d e l i n q u e n t s . I n a d e q u a t e F a c t s and I n f o r m a t i o n on J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m There a r e v o l u m i n o u s w r i t i n g s , r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s and s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y d e v e l o p e d b y s o c i o l o g i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s 1 Kahn, A., Op. C i t . , p. 32. 2 M a r t i n , J.M., J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m . C h a r l e s C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r , 111., 1961, pp. 15-28. - 3 - and many o t h e r e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d . However, the p r o b l e m o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m has r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and p r o j e c t s . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l a c k of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on v a n d a l i s m d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t i s a c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s e n t s o c i a l p r o b l e m i n our community.^ Through our media o f mass communication we a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h s e n s a t i o n a l and sometimes d i s t o r t e d r e p o r t s o f a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m . F a c t u a l s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f t h i s p r o b l e m a r e needed i f we a r e t o e x p l o r e and u n d e r s t a n d i t s n a t u r e . We hope our p r e s e n t s t u d y may p r o v i d e some o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t we may enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and d e v e l o p a more r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o , the p r o b l e m of j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . O b j e c t i v e and Scope o f Our S t u d y Our s t u d y i s t o f o c u s on j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n V a n c ouver. We i n t e n d t o examine the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n by u n d e r t a k i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l a s sessment o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n Vancouver f r o m 1960 - 1964. From the f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d , f r o m s e l e c t e d case s t u d i e s and f r o m a s u r v e y of the l i t e r a t u r e we s h a l l a t t e m p t t o d e t a i l some o f the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . The method of our s t u d y w i l l be b a s e d on a d e s c r i p t i v e - d i a g n o s t i c d e s i g n , a n d a s t u d y aims the assessment of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p o p u l a t i o n or s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t c o n c e r n f o r t h e o r y f o r m a t i o n . Through s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y - s i s d u r i n g the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , as o b t a i n e d f r o m r e c o r d s and case m a t e r i a l f r o m the P o l i c e Department, and the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t , we hope to d e t e r - mine the p a t t e r n , t r e n d , and p r e v a l e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m . From our f a c t u a l i n f o r - 1 M a c N e i l , D.H., " I s V a n d a l i s m A c t u a l l y on the I n c r e a s e ? " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . M a r c h , 1954, p. 16. 2 P o l a n s k y , N.A., ed S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h . The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1960, p. 50. - 4 - m a t i o n we hope t o be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f young v a n d a l s i n Vancouver. We i n t e n d t o d e v e l o p a p r o f i l e o f a t y p i c a l j u v e n i l e v a n d a l . Who i s he? What i s h i s age, s e x , and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? What k i n d o f i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d does he have? What a r e the s o c i o l o g i - c a l a s p e c t s ( e . g . lower c l a s s s u b c u l t u r e , gang a c t i v i t i e s , m a l e - i d e n t i t y , e t c . ) r e l a t i n g t o the v a n d a l and h i s d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r ? Our s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f f o u r main c h a p t e r s . The f i r s t c h a p t e r w i l l be a r e v i e w o f the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . The second c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t s t a t i s - t i c a l d a t a o f the i n c i d e n c e and r e l a t e d demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v a n d a l - i s m . The t h i r d c h a p t e r w i l l d e v e l o p a p r o f i l e o f a t y p i c a l j u v e n i l e v a n d a l , b a s e d on a s t u d y o f c a s e s h a n d l e d b y F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t . The l a s t c h a p t e r w i l l summarize our f i n d i n g s and s u g g e s t f u r t h e r avenues f o r e x p l o r a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n o f V a n d a l and V a n d a l i s m The o r i g i n o f t h e term " v a n d a l i s m " i s o f i n t e r e s t . D u r i n g the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , 1793-1795, the R e p u b l i c a n s i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the Monarch and the c l a s s s y s t e m he r e p r e s e n t e d d e v e l o p e d a " i c o n c l a s t i c r e a c t i o n " w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a r t o b j e c t s o f p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a . L a t e r , the Conven- t i o n n e l s o f the R e p u b l i c t r i e d t o c o n t r o l t he i c o n o c l a s m , and a "Committee of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n " was formed and g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s t u d y and r e p o r t on t h i s m a t t e r . H e n r i G r e g o i r e , a member o f the Committee p r e s e n t e d h i s f i n d i n g s t o the C o n v e n t i o n d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f o f 1794. I n h i s speech he blamed the d e s t r u c t i o n upon the enemies o f the R e v o l u t i o n and d e s c r i b e d the a c t i v i t y as b e i n g " w i l f u l and i g n o r a n t d e s t r u c t i o n " a n d " v a n d a l i s m " . The t e r m v a n d a l b e i n g a r e f e r e n c e t o a Germanic p e o p l e who r a v a g e d Gaul and S p a i n i n f i f t h c e n t u r y A.D., and l a t e r s e t t l e d i n A f r i c a . I n 455 A.D. t h e y r u t h l e s s l y s a c k e d Rome. The t e r m " v a n d a l i s m " was c o i n e d a t t h i s time b y the F r e n c h R e p u b l i c a n s t o - 5 - emphasize the w i l f u l l y d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i c o n c l a s t s . 1 W i t h t h i s o r i g i n and the h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d i n mind, the term, " v a n d a l i s m " came t o mean p r e m e d i t a t e d d e s t r u c t i o n o f v i s u a l symbols because o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n a l o r i d i o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t . V a n d a l i s m , t o d a y , however t a k e s many forms and has v a r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s , and i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o r e s t r i c t i t t o t h i s h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; . The P r e s e n t M eaning of V a n d a l and V a n d a l i s m W e b s t e r ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s v a n d a l i s m as " h o s t i l i t y t o , o r w i l f u l d e s t r u c t i o n or defacement o f , t h i n g s o f b e a u t y , as works of a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l , monument, e t c . " ^ and d e s c r i b e s a v a n d a l as "one who w i l - f u l l y d e s t r o y s or mars a n y t h i n g b e a u t i f u l , as a work of a r t , a l s o wanton o r i g n o r a n t d e s t r o y e r o r d e f a c e r o f any b u i l d i n g , monument, e t c . " 3 Today v a n d a l i s m i n c l u d e s o t h e r t h a n d e s t r u c t i o n o f b e a u t i f u l , a r t i s - t i c t h i n g s . I t encompasses such a c t s as the s l a s h i n g o f t i r e s , bus o r t h e a t r e s e a t s , b r e a k i n g windows and s t r e e t l i g h t s , d e f a c i n g s i g n b o a r d s or p u b l i c s t a t u e s , c h u r c h e s , d e s t r o y i n g t r e e s , b u i l d i n g s , e t c . 4 ; 5 From the j u v e n i l e s t a t i s t i c s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau v a n d a l i s m has been i n c l u d e d as " a c t o f c a r e l e s s n e s s o r m i s c h i e f " . On the o t h e r hand v a n d a l i s m i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n such d e s i g n a t i o n s o f d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s as " m a l i c i o u s m i s c h i e f " , " w i l f u l and wanton m i s c o n d u c t " , " d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s " , 6 7 " d i s o r d e r l y c o n d u c t " , " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " , o r even " a s s a u l t " . ' 1 I d z e r d a , S . J . , " I c o n o c l a s m D u r i n g the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n " , Am. H i s t o r i c a l Review. 66, O c t . , 1954, p. 25. 2 Webster I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , H.O. Houghton and Co., Mass., 1959, p. 2816. 3 Webster I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , Op. C i t . , p. 2817. 4 Huber, W.W., "Our L o v i n g P u b l i c " , Am. F o r e s t . Aug., 1963, p. 6. 5 P a r k e r , E.C., " A n t i s e m e t i c V a n d a l i s m i n New York C i t y " , C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r y . 77, Feb., 1960. 6 E l i o t , M.M., "What i s V a n d a l i s m ? " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . March, 1954. p. 3 7 C l i n a r d , M.B. and Wade, A.L., "Toward the D e l i n e a t i o n o f V a n d a l i s m as a s u b t y p e i n J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y " , J . o f C r i m i n a l Law and C r i m i n o l o g y and P o l i c e Sc.. 48, Jan.-Feb., 1958, p. 494. - 6 - However, t h e t e r m " v a n d a l i s m " as a c a t e g o r y o f j u v e n i l e o f f e n c e s has the popu- l a r c o n n o t a t i o n o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c p r o p e r t y . A c c o r d i n g t o the C a n a d i a n C r i m i n a l Code " w i l f u l " and " m i s c h i e f " a c t s i n r e s p e c t o f d e s t r u c t i o n o r damage o f p r o p e r t y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s : W i l f u l - " E v e r y one who causes t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f an e v e n t b y d o i n g an a c t o r b y o m i t t i n g t o do an a c t t h a t i t i s h i s d u t y t o do, knowing t h a t the a c t or o m i s s i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y cause the o c c u r r e n c e o f the e v e n t and b e i n g r e c k l e s s whether the e v e n t o c c u r s o r n o t , s h a l l be deemed, f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s P a r t , w i l f u l l y t o have caused the o c c u r r e n c e o f the e v e n t . " Where i t i s an o f f e n c e t o d e s t r o y o r t o damage a n y t h i n g : (a) The f a c t t h a t a p e r s o n has a p a r t i a l i n t e r e s t i n what i s d e s t r o y e d o r damaged does n o t p r e v e n t h i m f r o m b e i n g g u i l t y o f the o f f e n c e i f he caused the d e s t r u c t i o n o r damage, and (b) The f a c t t h a t a p e r s o n has a t o t a l i n t e r e s t i n what i s d e s t r o y e d o r damaged does n o t p r e v e n t h i m f r o m b e i n g g u i l t y o f t h e o f f e n c e i f he caused the d e s t r u c t i o n o r damage w i t h i n t e n t t o d e f r a u d . ^ M i s c h i e f - " d e s t r u c t i o n o r damage": Everyone commits m i s c h i e f who w i l f u l l y (a) d e s t r o y s o r damages p r o p e r t y , (b) r e n d e r s p r o p e r t y d a ngerous, u s e l e s s , i n o p e r a t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e ( c ) o b s t r u c t s , i n t e r r u p t s or i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the l a w f u l u s e , enjoyment or o p e r a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , o r (d) o b s t r u c t s , i n t e r r u p t s o r i n t e r f e r e s w i t h any p e r s o n i n the l a w f u l u s e , enjoyment or o p e r a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y . 1 Crankshaw's C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada. C a r s w e l l , S e c t i o n 371 (1 and 3 ) , 1964, p.. 139. 2 Crankshaw's C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada, op. c i t . S e c t . 372 ( 1 ) . , p. 140. - 7 - C l e a r l y i t shows t h a t the t e r m " v a n d a l i s m " i s n o t mentioned or d e f i n e d b y t h e C r i m i n a l Code. However, the " w i l f u l d e s t r u c t i o n " and " m i s c h i e f damage" a r e commonly r e f e r r i n g t o v a n d a l i s m b y the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y and the p u b l i c . T h e r e f o r e " v a n d a l i s m " , a j o u r n a l i s t i c t e r m , and " w i l f u l damage and d e s t r u c t i o n " the l e g a l i s t i c t e r m s , a r e synonamous. I n our s t u d y , " v a n d a l i s m " i s d e s c r i b e d as t h e m a l i c i o u s , d e l i b e r a t e , and wanton damage t o or defacement o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y , p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , w i t h no a p p a r e n t m a t e r i a l g a i n on the p a r t o f the v a n d a l , t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m damage o c c u r r i n g f r o m b r e a k i n g - a n d - e n t e r i n g and t h e f t . ^ - ' ^ I n t e r r e l a t i o n o f J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m and D e l i n q u e n c y J u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m has been g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e under d e l i n q u e n c y . T h e r e f o r e i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o g i v e some time t o the examina- t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y - i t s c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s and t y p e s i n r e l a t i o n t o v a n d a l i s m . When we d i s c u s s d e l i n q u e n c y we must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h t h e meaning o f t h i s term. As Tappan s t a t e s " i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o see the n a t u r e o f d e l i n q u e n c y as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e and t o u n d e r s t a n d the problems t h a t have impeded e f f o r t s a t d e f i n i t i o n . Because on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t e r m depend a l l those v i t a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h s e t o f f the j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t f r o m t h e a d u l t c r i m i n a l a t the one extreme and f r o m the n o n - o f f e n d e r a t the o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , we r e q u i r e a c o n c r e t e d e f i n i t i o n i f we a r e t o a n a l y z e the n a t u r e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . L e g a l D e f i n i t i o n o f D e l i n q u e n c y and I t s R e l a t i o n t o V a n d a l i s m The d e f i n i t i o n s o f d e l i n q u e n c y e x i s t i n laws t h a t p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s . The C h i l d r e n ' s B ureau o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s u s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n i t s r e p o r t s : " J u v e n i l e d e l i n - 1 Gordon, R., " V a n d a l i s m " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . S e p t . , 1954, p. 50. 2. M a r t i n , J.M., J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m , op. c i t . 3 Tappan, P.W., J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . McGraw H i l l , N.Y., 1949, p. 3. - 8 - quency c a s e s a r e those r e f e r r e d t o c o u r t s f o r a c t s d e f i n e d i n the s t a t u t e s o f S t a t e as v i o l a t i o n o f law o r m u n i c i p a l o r d i n a n c e b y c h i l d r e n o r y o u t h o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t age, or f o r c o n d u c t so s e r i o u s l y a n t i s o c i a l a s t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the r i g h t s o f o t h e r s o r t o menace the w e l f a r e o f the d e l i n q u e n t h i m s e l f o r of the community." I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a l l the j u r i s d i c t i o n s , e x c e p t the f e d e r a l , i n c l u d e a w i d e range and v a r i e t y o f b e h a v i o u r as " d e l i n q u e n c y " . They a r e l i s t e d s p e c i - f i c a l l y b y each s t a t e . The t o t a l number o f s e p a r a t e o f f e n c e s f o r w h i c h c h i l d r e n can be c h a r g e d number t h i r t y - f o u r , v a r y i n g f r o m t h e f t t o smoking.^ Among the f i f t y s t a t e s t h e r e i s l i t t l e u n i f o r m i t y i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a d e l i n q u e n t a c t . I n Canada, the J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s ' A c t d e f i n e s a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t a s : "Any c h i l d who v i o l a t e s any p r o v i s i o n o f the C r i m i n a l Code o f a n y Dominion or p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e , o r o f any by-law o r o r d i n a n c e o f any m u n i c i p a l i t y , o r who i s g u i l t y o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y o r any s i m i l a r f o r m o f v i c e , or who i s l i a b l e b y r e a s o n o f any o t h e r a c t t o be committed b y an i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l o r j u v e n i l e r e f o r m a t o r y under p r o v i s i o n s o f any Dominion or p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e . " - ^ The J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s ' A c t s t a t e s t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s h a l l have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v er e v e r y c h i l d under age 16. The r e v i s e d A c t a l s o g i v e s the p r o v i n c e s the power t o r a i s e t he maximum j u v e n i l e age l i m i t t o 18. T h i s has been done i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Quebec, and f o r g i r l s i n M a n i t o b a and A l b e r t a . ^ I n 1963 the " F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t A c t " was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h e A c t , the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t o f 1 J u v e n i l e C o u r t S t a t i s t i c . 1957, C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau S t a t i s t i c a l S e r i e s No. 52, C h i l d r e n ' s B u r e a u , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1959. 2 Sussmann, F.B., Law o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , N.Y., 1959, p. 21. 3 Canada, Laws and S t a t u t e s , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1952, C.160, J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s ' A c t . Sec. 2, S.S. 1. 4 Canada, J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s ' A c t , o p , c i t . , S e c t . 2 , S.S. 2a. - 9 - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the purpose o f a s s i s t i n g and g u i d i n g f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l members o f f a m i l i e s i n o v e r c o m i n g s o c i a l and m a t r i - m o n i a l p r o b l e m s , and f o r the purpose o f d e a l i n g w i t h the j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t . The c o u r t has (1) the powers v e s t e d i n a j u v e n i l e c o u r t by the J u v e n i l e D e l i n - quent A c t of Canada; (2) t h e powers t o t r y any c h i l d c h a r g e d w i t h an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t the laws o f the P r o v i n c e ; (3) the power t o d e a l w i t h a l l c ases w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a j u v e n i l e c o u r t , a f a m i l y c o u r t , a j u v e n i l e and f a m i l y c o u r t , o r a j u d g e o f any o f t h e s e c o u r t s . 1 We must r e a l i z e t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y i s m u l t i - d e t e r m i n e d , and has v a r i o u s components. The c a u s a t i o n o f t h i s d e v i a n c e i s a complex c o m p o s i t e o f b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . The v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y c a u s a t i o n have been based l a r g e l y on t h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s . A b r i e f s u r v e y o f the c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y w i l l e n a b l e us t o d e l i n e a t e t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m as one ty p e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . B i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f D e l i n q u e n c y C a u s a t i o n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f e c t s - d e f e c t s i n body s t r u c t u r e , such as d e a f n e s s , b l i n d n e s s , l a m e n e s s , and o t h e r s , may l e a d t o p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y and, i n t u r n , produce c o m p e n s a t i n g a s o c i a l and a n t i s o c i a l t r a i t s o f d e l i n q u e n c y O r g a n i c I l l n e s s and I n j u r y - d i s e a s e s and p h y s i c a l i n j u r i e s may a f f e c t t h e c h i l d ' s n o r m a l body f u n c t i o n s . They may r e q u i r e the c h i l d t o make s p e c i f i c b i o s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own v i e w and the v i e w o f o t h e r s as t o h i s c a p a c i t y t o f u n c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , e n d o c r i n e i m b a l a n c e may p r e s e n t p e r s o n a l problems t o b o t h g i r l s and b o y s . Tappan s u g g e s t s t h a t " g i r l s who s u f f e r f r o m p i t u i t a r y m a l f u n c t i o n a r e b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t a common t y p e i n c h i l d r e n ' s 1 Tappan, P.W., op. c i t . 2 Shulman, H.M., J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n Am e r i c a n S o c i e t y . H a r p e r , New Y o r k , 1961, p. 347. - 10 - c o u r t s because t h e y have been e x p l o i t e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s e c u r e a f f e c t i o n des- p i t e t h e i r p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p . Boys w i t h F r o e h l i c h ' s syndrome may become i n - v o l v e d i n s e r i o u s a c t s o f an a g g r e s s i v e n a t u r e i n o r d e r t o p r o v e t h e i r m a n l i - n e s s . 1 Such boys may become i n v o l v e d i n v a n d a l i s m . C o n d i t i o n s such as c h o r e a , e p i l e p s y , e n c e p h a l i t i s , and s y p h i l i s may r e s u l t i n o b s c u r e problems o f mal- a d j u s t m e n t l e a d i n g t o d e l i n q u e n t a c t s . ^ I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e , however, t h a t the b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o f d e l i n q u e n c y c a u s a t i o n cannot be i s o l a t e d f r o m p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f D e l i n q u e n c y C a u s a t i o n The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y stems f r o m the p i o n e e r - i n g work of Sigmund F r e u d , who s u b s t a n t i a t e d the r o l e o f the u n c o n s c i o u s i n d e t e r m i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r . ^ F r e u d and h i s f o l l o w e r s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y as t h e b a s i s f o r f o r m u l a t i n g the s y s t e m a t i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r s t u d y i n g human b e h a v i o u r . P s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y as a p p l i e d b y the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s o f th o u g h t v i e w p e r s o n a l i t y as b e i n g composed o f c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l s . W i t h i n the two l e v e l s t h e r e a r e t h r e e f u n c t i o n a l and i n t e r r e l a t e d s y s t e m s , the I d , the Ego, and the Superego. Each of t h e s e has s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o one a n o t h e r . The I d c o m p r i s e s t h e t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y a t b i r t h . I t i s p r i m i t i v e i n n a t u r e , and c o n s t i t u t e s m o s t l y the u n c o n s c i o u s r e g i o n . I t o p e r a t e s m a i n l y on the " p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e " , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e consequences. The I d i s r e s p o n s i b l e 1 Tappan, P.W., op. c i t . p. 125. 2 B u r t , C y r i l , The Young D e l i n q u e n t . A p p l e t o n , N.Y., 1925, p. 240. 3 Munroe, R.L., S c h o o l s o f P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Thought. Henry H o l t and Co., New Y o r k , 1955. - 11 - f o r t h e s u p p l y o f p s y c h i c e n e r g y w h i c h d i r e c t s and m o t i v a t e s t h e d i r e c t i o n and a i m of the " d u a l i n s t i n c t s " . They i n t e r a c t i . w i t h one a n o t h e r t o n e u t r a l i z e the i m p u l s i v e and p r i m i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s o f e a c h . There i s no Ego a t b i r t h . As one's p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p s the Ego b e g i n s t o appear and t o a c t as the r e g u l a t o r between the I d and t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . I t r e s i d e s m a i n l y a t the c o n s c i o u s r e g i o n and p r o v i d e s the knowledge and a b i l i t y t o choose, t o judge and t o t h i n k . Through l e a r n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t h e Ego may expand or c o n t r a c t , may grow s t r o n g e r o r weaker, de p e n d i n g on such e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s as t h e p a r e n t s ' a s s i s t a n c e t o the c h i l d i n p r o b l e m s o l - v i n g . Ego f u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e " r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e s " , w i t h t h e c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l and t o d e l a y the e x p r e s s i o n o f i m p u l s e s . Ego r e g u l a t e s the i n s t i n c t s o f t h e I d t o c o n f o r m t o the demands o f r e a l i t y , f o r the I d must be governed i n o r d e r t o become a c c e p t a b l e . Ego a l s o p r o h i b i t s t h o s e i n s t i n c t s w h i c h e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s i n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f the e n v i r o n m e n t . The Superego i s c h i e f l y u n c o n s c i o u s . I t b e g i n s t o d e v e l o p i n t h e i n - d i v i d u a l d u r i n g the t h i r d o r f o u r t h y e a r s o f l i f e . I t i s a p o l i c e f o r c e w h i c h c e n s o r s the d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s o f t h e Ego i n r e g u l a t i n g the I d . The Super- ego i s t h e o t h e r r e s t r a i n i n g f o r c e o f one's i m p u l s e s . I t embodies t h e m o r a l s t a n d a r d s w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e s and w i t h w h i c h he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f . The Superego has a d o u b l e t a s k - t o g i v e v a l u e danger s i g n a l s and t o r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n values.-*- The Ego i s the i n t e r m e d i a r y between the I d and the Superego and the. e x t e r n a l w o r l d . I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o c e s s e s o f p e r c e p t i o n , the manage- ment of memory, t h e c o n t r o l o f v o l u n t a r y movement, t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a d a p t i v e d e l a y between p e r c e p t i o n and a c t i o n , and t h e d e c i s i o n o f f i g h t and f l i g h t . I t 1 R e d l , F., The A g g r e s s i v e C h i l d . The F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1952, p. 197. - 12 - o r g a n i z e s and e v a l u a t e s t he or g a n i s m ' s e x t e r n a l needs ( p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o - g i c a l needs) i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e demands o f the e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t so as t o a c h i e v e a s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g b a l a n c e and growth f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l When the Ego i s weak or i n a d e q u a t e i t f a i l s t o a d j u s t t he i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e p r i m i t i v e i m p u l s e s may g a i n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n i n the f o r m o f a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . When the i n d i v i d u a l e n c o u n t e r s a n x i e t y - c a u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s t he Ego w i l l d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e s , w h i c h we g e n e r a l l y r e f e r t o as "psychodynamism" o r " d e f e n s i v e mechanism" t o h e l p m a i n t a i n t h e p r o p e r e q u i l i b r i u m between t h e t h r e e systems ( I d , Ego and Superego) o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y . These dynamisms s e r v e as th e medium o f e x p r e s s i o n f o r t he m o d i f i e d I d i m p u l s e s . They p r o t e c t t he Ego f r o m two major dangers i n the e x t e r n a l w o r l d - the l o s s o f s o u r c e s o f l o v e and a p p r o v a l , and the t h r e a t o f i n j u r y t o s e l f . They a l s o p r o t e c t t h e Ego f r o m the i n t e r n a l dangers o f l o s s o f a p p r o v a l o f the Superego. T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e dy- namisms e n a b l e Ego t o g a i n a d j u s t m e n t o r a d a p t a t i o n t o r e a l i t y . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the I d , Ego and Superego t o t h e i r s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l p a r t s and t o p u r p o s e f u l psychodynamisms c o m p r i s e t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a p p r o a c h . P s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t s have been a p p l i e d t o e x p l a i n d e l i n q u e n c y c a u s a t i o n b y numerous i n v e s t i g a t o r s . These have emphasized d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s e s and have u s e d d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s . They may be d i v i d e d i n t o " p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l i n s t i n c t t h e o r i e s " , "psychodynamic p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h e o r i e s " , and the " t h e o r y o f ego d i f f u s i o n " . P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l I n s t i n c t T h e o r i e s The i n s t i n c t t h e o r i e s presume t h e I d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n t i s o c i a l 1 M e n n i n g e r , K., V i t a l B a l a n c e : The L i f e P r o c e s s i n M e n t a l H e a l t h and I l l n e s s . V i k i n g P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1963, pp. 76-97. and d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r f r o m b i r t h t o the time one has l e a r n e d t o d e v e l o p p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g o f Ego and Superego. The c o n t r o l and r e s t r a i n t o f i m p u l s e s a r e l e a r n e d . D e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r r e p r e s e n t s the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e I d ' s a n t i s o c i a l i m p u l s e s a t t i m e s when the Ego and Superego a r e weak or d e f e c t i v e i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n . A i c h h o r n a p p l i e d t h i s " i n s t i n c t t h e o r y " t o t h o s e d e l i n q u e n t s who r e - f u s e d t o a c c e p t e i t h e r r e s t r a i n t or a u t h o r i t y . The b e h a v i o u r of such d e l i n - q u e n t s may r e s u l t f r o m e i t h e r an e x c e s s i v e amount or t h e d e p r i v a t i o n of l o v e . These d e l i n q u e n t s a c q u i r e f e e l i n g s of i n d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s and have no r e s p e c t f o r t h e - p r o p e r t y of o t h e r s . A i c h h o r n s u g g e s t e d t h a t the d e l i n - quent p o s s e s s e s l i t t l e c a p a c i t y t o r e p r e s s h i s i n s t i n c t u a l i m p u l s e s and t o d i r e c t t h e e n e r g y away f r o m p r i m i t i v e g o a l s . Thus the d e l i n q u e n t i s u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e the command o f ego and,Superego i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m a c c o r d i n g t o the e t h n i c a l code o f h i s e x t e r n a l w o r l d . ^ The work o f F r i e d l a n d e r i s a l s o b a s e d on the " i n s t i n c t t h e o r y " . She d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between t h e d e l i n q u e n t s and the n o n - d e l i n q u e n t s on the b a s i s t h a t the l a t t e r r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t g r a t i f i c a t i o n f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . They a r e a b l e t o r e p r e s s s o c i a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e i m p u l s e s and t o d e v e l o p a s o c i a l - c o n s c i o u s Superego. The p r o p e r l y f u n c t i o n i n g Superego r e g u l a t e s and c o n t r o l s the i m p u l s i v e demands o f I d . I n t h i s way the i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e t o 9 d e v e l o p a sense of h i s own w o r t h , a s o l i d Ego. F r i e d l a n d e r f i n d s t h a t the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s have a p r i m a r y e f f e c t on t h e c h i l d ' s d evelopment. These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d e t e r m i n e d b o t h b y t h e p a r e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f o r c e s . D e l i n q u e n t s 1 A i c h h o r n , A., Wayward Yo u t h . V i k i n g P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1935. 2 F r i e d l a n d e r , K., The P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l Approach t o J u v e n i l e D e l i n - quency. I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1947, p. 165. - 14 - b e h a v i o u r and o t h e r forms o f h o s t i l i t y and a g g r e s s i o n o c c u r when t h e c h i l d w i t h an i n a d e q u a t e Superego and Ego e n c o u n t e r s u n f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y p r e c i p i t a t e a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . Psvchodvnamism P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g T h e o r i e s The d e l i n q u e n t a c t i s v i e w e d as the b e h a v i o u r o r a d j u s t m e n t t h a t i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l t o t h o s e p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s w h i c h e x i s t among the I d , Ego, and Superego. There a r e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s among t h e d e l i n q u e n t s . One may f i n d f e m i n i n e t e n d e n c i e s o r u n c o n s c i o u s homosexual w i s h e s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h a m a s c u l i n e e g o - i d e a l ; t h e r e may be a c o n s c i o u s h o s t i l i t y towards a p a r e n t or s i b l i n g s w h i c h i s c o n t r o l l e d b y f e a r o r g u i l t ; o r t h e r e may e x i s t i n c e s t u o u s i m p u l s e s p r e s s i n g a g a i n s t the Superego. A l l t h e s e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s r e q u i r e the s p e c i f i c psychodynamism t o e n a b l e t h e d e l i n q u e n t t o use h i s d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r as a f o r m o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , a ; f a t h e r - h a t i n g y o u t h may p r o j e c t h i s h o s t i l i t y b y a t t a c k i n g a s t r a n g e r . He can e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e such a d e l i n q u e n t a c t w i t h h i s Superego, and o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m i t . l H e a l y and B r o n n e r ' s f i n d i n g t h a t a g g r e s s i v e o r d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r r e - p r e s e n t s the d e l i n q u e n t ' s s u b s t i t u t i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r h i s p s y c h i c needs i s w e l l known. They s t r e s s the p o i n t t h a t t h e d e l i n q u e n t a c t s a r e m e a n i n g f u l i n terms o f the s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l d e l i n q u e n t as r e l a t e d t o h i s p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t . ^ T h e o r y o f I d e n t i t y D i f f u s i o n E r i k s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r i s t h e r e s u l t o f a c r i s i s 1 M a r t i n , J.M., and F i t z p a t r i c k , J.P., c i t . op. p. 136. 2 H e a l y , W., and B r o n n e r , A.F., New L i g h t on D e l i n q u e n c y and I t s Tr e a t m e n t . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1936. - 15 - w h i c h t h e y o u t h f a c e s i n the p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g h i s sense o f i d e n t i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n the c r i s i s w i l l b a s i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e h i s a d j u s t m e n t i n a d u l t h o o d .-̂ I n o r d e r t o become a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l , E r i k s o n t h i n k s the a d o l e s c e n t must a c h i e v e a f i r m sense o f " e g o - i d e n t i t y " , t h a t i s a p e r s i s t e n t sameness w i t h i n o n e s e l f , and a p e r s i s t e n t s h a r i n g o f some k i n d o f e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r w i t h o t h e r s . Ego i d e n t i t y i s a c o n s i s t e n t , c o n s c i o u s , i n n e r c o n c e p t i o n of o n e s e l f w h i c h i s g r a d u a l l y c r e a t e d and w h i c h one p e r c e i v e s as o one's r o l e a s r e f l e c t e d i n o t h e r s . I d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n i s an i n t r i c a t e p r o c e s s w h i c h s t a r t s a t i n f a n c y and e x t e n d s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f p s y c h o s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . I t r e a c h e s r e l a t i v e c o m p l e t i o n a t t h e end o f a d o l e s c e n c e . However, t h e f a i l u r e o f t h i s g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s may l e a d t o u n d e s i r a b l e Ego d i f f u s i o n . E r i k s o n p r e s e n t s some of t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f Ego d i f f u s i o n i n a d o l e s c e n c e : (1) D i f f u s i o n of ti m e p e r s p e c t i v e - the a d o l e s c e n t may e x p e r i e n c e d i s t u r b a n c e i n t he time e l e m e n t . One moment he i s so a n x i o u s t o a c t , the n e x t he i s t o t a l l y i m m o b i l i z e d . He may s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f e e l v e r y young and v e r y o l d . E r i k s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s b a s i c d i s t r u c t t h a t causes h i s i n a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l h i s d e s i r e . (2) P r o b l e m o f i n t i m a c y - t h e a d o l e s c e n t i s u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p t r u e i n t i m a c y w i t h o t h e r s u n t i l he has r e s o l v e d h i s p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s , and has e s t a b - l i s h e d a f i r m sense of ego i d e n t i t y . 1 E r i k s o n , E., "The P r o b l e m o f Ego I d e n t i t y " , J . American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c . . J a n . , 1956, p. 56. 2 Witmer, H.L., and K o t i n s k y , R., Ed., New P e r s p e c t i v e s FOR R e s e a r c h on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1955, p. 4. - 16 - (3) D i f f u s i o n of industry - the adolescent has a d i s t o r t e d sense of workmanship. He i s eager to experiment i n searching for a self-image or ego i d e n t i t y . Sometimes he seeks s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n , or becomes preoccupied with seeking an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with h i s father or other persons. Such a youth may be- come involved i n destructive acts emanating from a d i s t o r t e d sense of i n - dustry. (4) Choice of negative i d e n t i t y - the i n d i v i d u a l may t o t a l l y r e j e c t h i s r o l e and h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to others. He may assume i r r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and become involved i n undesirable behaviour. He opposes h i s parents' ideas and guidance i n order to emancipate himself from them. At the same time he may have trouble with a u t h o r i t y . To e s t a b l i s h a f i r m sense of h i s own i d e n t i t y among other adolescents, he tends to be uncompromising i n h i s pre- judices and l o y a l t i e s to the ideas and values of h i s own group. The youth obtains h i s sense of belonging by becoming a member of a gang. Thus, he i s able to assert h i s masculinity and h i s defiance of authority s a f e l y . This choice of negative i d e n t i t y may r e s u l t i n such a n t i s o c i a l behaviour as acts of vandalism. Erikson sees delinquent behaviour as occurring because of a basic de- f e c t i n the p e r s o n a l i t y development of the young person. At adolescence the youth experiences i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n and psychosocial problems which have not been resolved since infancy. Parents or other adults who have s i g n i f i c a n c e for the youth u s u a l l y f a i l to understand the youth's need for love, s e c u r i t y and acceptance throughout childhood. The adults f a i l e s p e c i a l l y to understand the c h i l d ' s need f o r , or to permit experimentation with, means of emancipation from adult c o n t r o l . A l l these misunderstandings and non-acceptance may force the adolescent into a negative r o l e . Erikson suggests that a "psychological mora- torium" should be granted to the adolescent so as to permit a delay of t h e i r - 17 - a d u l t commitments and o b l i g a t i o n s . Thus the y o u t h w i l l have a chance t o seek h i s own i d e n t i t y , t o t e s t h i s p o t e n t i a l , and t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h v a r i o u s work r o l e s . He may t h e n be b e t t e r a b l e t o p r e p a r e h i m s e l f f o r a h e a l t h y and adequate a d u l t h o o d . S o c i a l D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and D e l i n q u e n c y S o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h i n t e r p e r s o n a l bonds and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l s a r e weak and hence i n e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o u r . I t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n t h e p h y s i c a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d and space- l i m i t e d u r b a n a r e a s . I n t h e s e crowded c i t i e s t h e slums c o n s i s t o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h d i v e r s e v a l u e s and norms. T h i s c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y r e a d i l y p r o - duces s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s and v a r i e d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s among the young. O b v i o u s l y t h e p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n u r b a n slum l a c k s t h e s o c i a l c o h e s i o n o f a s t a b l e community n e c e s s a r y t o i n d u c e c o n v e n t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r and d e v i a n t c o n t r o l . The c o n c e p t of s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n as a f a c t o r i n d e l i n q u e n c y and c r i m e i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e s t u d i e s o f Shaw.^ He emphasizes the i n a b i l i t y of l a w - a b i d i n g elements i n l o c a l u r b a n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l c o n t r o l s o f the j u v e n i l e s . From e x t e n s i v e e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s he sug- g e s t e d t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e a r e a s n e a r the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s of t h e c i t y . These t r a n s i t i o n a l a r e a s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y d e t e r i o r a t i o n and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l c u l t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l norms and s t a n d a r d s o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l community weaken and d i s a p p e a r . D e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r becomes t o l e r a t e d and m i g h t even r e c e i v e a p p r o v a l . I t may even become th e dominant v a l u e o f the d i s o r g a n i z e d 1 Cavan, R.S., D e l i n q u e n c y J u v e n i l e , op. c i t . , p. 69. 2 W i l e n s k y , H.L., and Lebeaux, C.N., I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e . R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1958, p. 184. 3 Shaw, C.R., D e l i n q u e n c y A r e a s . The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1929. - 18 - community. The e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r the young i s made d i f f i c u l t or i m p o s s i b l e i n many urban a r e a s because o f such f a c t o r s as c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t between immi- g r a n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n movement, and the p r e s e n c e o f a d u l t c r i m i n a l g r o u p s . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s d e l i n q u e n c y can even become a t r a d i - t i o n , t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m o l d e r groups o f youths t o younger.-*- T a r g e t s f o r v a n d a l - i s m and s t e a l i n g a r e a l s o r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n u r b a n a r e a s . L a n d e r , f r o m h i s B a l t i m o r e s t u d y , a l s o s u p p o r t s the v i e w t h a t the l a c k o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l c o h e s i o n i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . ^ However, t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e d e l i n q u e n c y i n d u c e d b y s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n : (1) H i g h m o b i l i t y may show h i g h or low d e l i n q u e n c y - S u l l e n g e r s u g g e s t s t h a t m o b i l e f a m i l i e s may improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , and have low r a t e o f h a b i t u a l d e l i n q u e n c y ; 3 (2) P h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f urban a r e a s do n o t n e c e s - s a r i l y cause d e l i n q u e n c y - Lander i n h i s B a l t i m o r e s t u d y c l a i m s t h e r e i s no r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e and t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g ; (3) The urban s l u m i s n o t t o t a l l y l a w l e s s , i t can be o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e lower c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n ; (4) A l t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s l u m may p r o v i d e growth o f d e l i n q u e n c y , the d e l i n q u e n t c u l t u r e , and i t s a s p i r a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o means and g o a l s , has y e t t o be examined. D e l i n q u e n c y as an A s p e c t o f L o w e r - C l a s s C u l t u r e M i l l e r and Kvar a c e u s b e l i e v e t h a t the l o w e r - c l a s s c u l t u r e i s c h a r a c - t e r i z e d b y d i s t i n c t i v e v a l u e s w h i c h a r e m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m the l a w - a b i d i n g m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s . They a l s o c l a i m the d e l i n q u e n t gang may a u t o m a t i c a l l y 1 Shaw, C.R., and McKay, H.D., J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y and Urban A r e a s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1942. 2 L a n d e r , B., Towards an U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1954. 3 S u l l e n g e r , T.E., "The S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f M o b i l i t y : An Omaha s t u d y . " Am. J . S o c i o l o g y . V o l . 55, May, 1950, p. 559. - 19 - v i o l a t e the l e g a l code when t h e y c o n f o r m w i t h the no r m a l a d u l t l o w e r - c l a s s c u l - t u r e . M i l l e r s t r e s s e s t h a t " e n g a g i n g i n c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s w h i c h com- p r i s e e s s e n t i a l elements o f the t o t a l l i f e p a t t e r n o f l o w e r - c l a s s c u l t u r e a u t o - m a t i c a l l y v i o l a t e s c e r t a i n l e g a l norms." He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the d e l i n q u e n c y o f l o w e r - c l a s s a d o l e s c e n t s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n b a s i c " f o c a l c o n c e r n s " w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s the l o w e r - c l a s s and p r e - d i s p o s e s i t s members t o l a w - v i o l a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . ^ These " f o c a l c o n c e r n s " or v a l u e s i n c l u d e : " T r o u b l e " - i n one o f i t s a s p e c t s r e p r e s e n t s a s i t u a t i o n o r a k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r w h i c h r e s u l t s i n un- welcome o r c o m p l i c a t i n g i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o f f i c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s o r a g e n c i e s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y ; "Toughness" - the co n c e p t o f p h y s i c a l prowess i n l o w e r - c l a s s c u l t u r e , d e m o n s t r a t e d p o s s e s s i o n o f s t r e n g t h and endurance and a t h l e t i c s k i l l s ; " M a s c u l i n i t y " - s y m b o l i z e d b y a complex o f a c t s and a v o i d a n c e ; "Smart- n e s s " - i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e a b i l i t y t o o u t s m a r t , o u t w i t , dupe o r " c o n " o t h e r s ; " E x c i t e m e n t " - many o f the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f l o w e r - c l a s s l i f e a r e r e l a t e d t o the s e a r c h f o r e x c i t e m e n t or t h r i l l i n a c t i v i t i e s o f g a m b l i n g , a l c o h o l , m u s i c , and s e x u a l a d v e n t u r i n g ; " F a t e " - many i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m the l o w e r - c l a s s f e e l t h a t t h e i r l i v e s a r e s u b j e c t t o a s e t o f f o r c e s o ver w h i c h t h e y have r e - l a t i v e l y l i t t l e ' c o n t r o l M i l l e r t h i n k s t h a t some o f t h e s e " v a l u e s " may be p r e s e n t i n the m i d d l e - c l a s s as w e l l , b u t the p r i o r i t i e s s e t on them a r e much h i g h e r and i n t e n s i f i e d i n the l o w e r - c l a s s . The a u t h o r p o i n t s out t h a t some l o w e r - c l a s s gang a c t i v i t y , w h i l e i l l e g a l , i s n e i t h e r an i n t e n t i o n a l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a n d a r d s n o r a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t b a r r i e r s t o upward m o b i l i t y . I l l e g a l i t y i s i n c i d e n t a l t o the urge t o a c h i e v e l o w e r - c l a s s n o r m a l a d j u s t m e n t . So the d e l i n q u e n t s have i n t e r n a l i z e d the d i s t i n c t i v e code o f the l o w e r - c l a s s . 1 K v a r a c e u s , W.C., and M i l l e r , W.B., D e l i n q u e n t B e h a v i o u r : C u l t u r e and the I n d i v i d u a l . N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , 1959, p. 68. 2 K v a r a c e u s , W.C., and M i l l e r , W.B., op. c i t . pp. 8-13. - 20 - T h e i r e f f o r t t o c o n f o r m t o t h e i r own v a l u e s t h u s p r e s e n t s c o n f l i c t s w i t h the m i d d l e - c l a s s norms. The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t i s of cen- t r a l i m p o r t a n c e as a c a u s a t i o n o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . There i s a p o s s i b l e l i n k between v a n d a l i s m and the " f o c a l c o n c e r n s " . Among the l o w e r - c l a s s boys v a n d a l a c t i v i t i e s may p r o v i d e t h e e x c i t e m e n t and the e x p r e s s i o n o f p h y s i c a l toughness t h e y need. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , v a n d a l i s m a l s o p r o v i d e s the means f o r group or gang a c t i v i t y among the a d o l e s c e n t s . I n a d e q u a c i e s o f the C u l t u r e - C o n f l i c t Theory (1) T h i s c u l t u r e - c o n f l i c t t h e o r y i s n o t a b l e t o e x p l a i n a l l t y p e s o f d e l i n q u e n t a c t s . I t ten d s t o be c o n f i n e d t o a d o l e s c e n t males i n t h e l o w e r - c l a s s urban a r e a s . But d e l i n q u e n c i e s o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t the t o t a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . They a r e committed b y f e m a l e s , m i d d l e and upper c l a s s a d o l e s c e n t s , and r e s i d e n t s o f r u r a l a r e a s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h i s t h e o r y can a p p l y t o a l l d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t y . (2) The a u t h o r s s t r e s s t h a t l o w e r - c l a s s boys have the urg e t o con f o r m w i t h the l o w e r - c l a s s norms. But t h i s w o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s o f l o w e r - c l a s s boys who have a c h i e v e d upward m o b i l i t y o r who have i n t e r n a l i z e d t he m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s and norms. (3) The " f o c a l c o n c e r n s " o f the l o w e r - c l a s s group, such as t r o u b l e , s m a r t n e s s , e x c i t e m e n t , f a t e and autonomy a r e s h a r e d by the m i d d l e - c l a s s . They a l s o may be t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s i n g e n e r a l . So the " f o c a l c o n c e r n s " c a n n o t be c o n v i n c i n g l y a p p l i e d as l e a d i n g the l o w e r - c l a s s d e l i n q u e n t t o s e r i o u s law v i o l a t i o n . D e l i n q u e n c y as t h e Response t o F r u s t r a t i o n Cohen s u g g e s t s t h a t l o w e r - c l a s s gang d e l i n q u e n c y i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e 1 M i l l e r , W.B., "Lower C l a s s C u l t u r e as a G e n e r a t i n g M i l i e u o f Gang D e l i n q u e n c y " , J . o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . No. 3, 1958, pp. 5-19. - 21 - s t a t u s a n x i e t y and the f r u s t r a t e d a s p i r a t i o n o f the l o w e r - c l a s s boys w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c a l means.^ T h i s t h e o r y i s based on the f a c t t h a t the l o w e r - c l a s s boys s u f f e r f r o m " s t a t u s d e p r i v a t i o n " and "low s e l f - e s t e e m " . They a r e u n a b l e t o j o i n and s h a r e t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a t u s and r e w a r d . They become r e s e n t f u l and h o s t i l e t o the dominant v a l u e o f the m i d d l e c l a s s such as c o u r t e s y , r e s p e c t f o r p r o p e r t y , n o n - v i o l e n c e . The d e l i n q u e n t gang i s t h e n a t u r a l con- sequence o f group f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o , s h a r e t h e members' m u t u a l h o s t i l i t i e s . I t a l s o c r e a t e s a s e t o f g r o u p - h e l d v a l u e s w h i c h s e r v e t o r e c o u p t h e l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m and t o i n s u l a t e the w o r k i n g - c l a s s boys f r o m f u r t h e r s t a t u s d e p r i - v a t i o n . Through a l e a r n e d p a t t e r n boys a c q u i r e the d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r b y becoming members o f a group i n w h i c h d e l i n q u e n t c o n d u c t i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . The e s t a b l i s h e d d e l i n q u e n t v a l u e s , codes and a c t i v i t i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t gangs r e p r e s e n t t h e d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e w h i c h i s the e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r the p e r f o r m a n c e o f each gang member. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e a r e d e s c r i b e d as t h e f o l l o w i n g : (1) W o r k i n g - c l a s s boys f r o m f a m i l i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low s t a t u s , power, s e c u r i t y o f income a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n the s t r u g g l e f o r s u c c e s s , s i n c e t h e i r w o r k i n g c l a s s p a r e n t s a r e n o t a b l e t o p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , a t t i t u d e and v a l u e needed f o r m i d d l e - c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Yet the boys aware of the a t t r i b u t e s and s u c c e s s g o a l s of t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s c u l t u r e t h r o u g h s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , and t e a c h e r s , e t c . T h i s m i d d l e - c l a s s o r i e n t a t i o n f r u s t r a t e s t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s c h i l d r e n who a s p i r e t o become s u c c e s s f u l m i d d l e - c l a s s p e o p l e , b u t t h e y a r e n o t a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n and be a c c e p t e d b y the m i d d l e - c l a s s . 1 Cohen, A.K., D e l i n q u e n t Boys: The C u l t u r e of t h e Gang. F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111. 1955. - 22 - They a r e f r u s t r a t e d by t h e d e s i r a b l e but u n r e t a i n a b l e g o a l s and s t a n d a r d s o f the m i d d l e - c l a s s . So t h e y n o t o n l y t u r n a g a i n s t t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s and norms, t h e y a l s o d e v e l o p ^ i n - g r o u p s o l i d a r i t y t o a s e t o f codes and v a l u e s o f t h e i r own t o p r o v i d e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h independence, autonomy, and i n s u l a t i o n f r o m a d u l t c o n t r o l . (2) D e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n and s e r v e no p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e . The gang commits " p u r p o s e l e s s " s t e a l i n g of c l o t h e s , t h i n g s and f o o d t h e y do not want o r need. Through s t e a l i n g t h e y become i n v o l v e d w i t h a c t i v i t i e s o f v a n d a l i s m , t r e s p a s s i n g , e t c . I t seems t h a t t h e a c t o f v a n d a l i s m i s a c c i - d e n t a l o r s e c o n d a r y t o t h e d e l i n q u e n t a c t . (3) The d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s a r e m a l i c i o u s , h o s t i l e and n e g a t i v i s t i c i n n a t u r e . The gang, w i l l v a l u e p r e c i s e l y what m i d d l e - c l a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s d e v a l u e . (4) Gang a c t i v i t i e s are. r a r e l y p l a n n e d w i t h l o n g range g o a l s i n s i g h t . The d e l i n q u e n t a c t s a r e u s u a l l y committed f o r t h e o b t a i n i n g o f immediate p l e a s u r e . A l l o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o m p r i s e t h e d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e . They a l s o p r o v i d e p r e s t i g e and s e c u r i t y w i t h i n t h e gang f o r t h e f r u s t r a t e d w o r k i n g - c l a s s boys w i t h m i d d l e - c l a s s a s p i r a t i o n s , and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d v a l u e s and custom w i l l be l e a r n e d t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n . Thus, t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l - t r a n s m i s s i o n a y o u t h becomes d e l i n q u e n t . (5) The d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e i s a r e p u d i a t i o n o f m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a n d a r d s . By t h i s r e p u d i a t i o n t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s boy no l o n g e r c o n s c i o u s l y f e e l s g u i l t y when he b r e a k s m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a n d a r d s or i s i n f e r i o r i n a c h i e v e m e n t . (6) Some of t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s boys may o v e r - r e a c t , and become e x c e s s i v e l y hos- t i l e o r a g g r e s s i v e a g a i n s t t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s , e.g. t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y by t h e d e l i n q u e n t as d e f i a n c e o f t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e . Inadequacy o f t h i s Theory Cohen's t h e o r y g i v e n above can be c r i t i c i z e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : - 23 - (1) The t h e o r y assumes t h e r e i s a s h a r p b r e a k between t h e v a l u e systems o f t h e m i d d l e and w o r k i n g c l a s s e s ; (2) A l s o i t assumes a homogeneity i n t h e b e h a v i o u r , f u n c t i o n , and ty p e o f l o w e r - c l a s s d e l i n q u e n t g r o u p s ; (3) T h i s t h e o r y t e n d s t o e x p l a i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e by means of t h e " c o p i n g d e v i c e " - o f t h e " s t a t u s f r u s t r a t e d " w o r k i n g - c l a s s boys w i t h - o u t - c o m p a r i n g o t h e r p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , e.g. r e t r e a t f r o m r e a l i t y : s a t i s - f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l o w e r - c l a s s s t a t u s ; s t r i v i n g f o r upward m o b i l i t y . D e l i n q u e n c y Caused by Lack o f O p p o r t u n i t i e s The r e s e a r c h team o f C l o w a r d and O h l i n p r o p o s e s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e s d e v e l o p when b o t h l e g i t i m a t e and i l l i g i t i m a t e o p p o r t u n i - t i e s f o r s u c c e s s a r e l a c k i n g . The a u t h o r s s u ggest t h a t t h r e e major d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e s a r e en- c o u n t e r e d among a d o l e s c e n t males i n l o w e r - c l a s s u r b a n a r e a s : (1) The C r i m i n a l Type - T h i s i s based p r i n c i p a l l y upon c r i m i n a l v a l u e s , i t s members are o r g a n i z e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f m a t e r i a l g a i n by such i l l e g a l means as e x t o r t i o n , f r a u d , and t h e f t ; (2) The R e t r e a t i s t Type - These members have w i t h d r a w n i n t o a r e s t r i c t e d w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e u l t i m a t e v a l u e c o n s i s t s i n t h e " k i c k " - dr u g u s i n g ; (3) The " C o n f l i c t " Type - The members o f t h i s group a r e i n p u r s u i t o f s t a t u s t h r o u g h t h e use o f v i o l e n c e , m a n i p u l a t i o n o f f o r c e o r t h r e a t o f f o r c e . The a u t h o r s s t r e s s t h a t t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e d e l i n q u e n t modes o f a d a p t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e y o u t h ' s o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b o t h l e g i t i m a t e and i l l i g i t i m a t e . They b e l i e v e t h a t e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , and p e r s o n a l a s p i r a t i o n a r e t h e l e g i t i m a t e means and become t h e p r i n c i p a l avenue f o r upward m o b i l i t y i n our s o c i e t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , . t h e l o w e r - c l a s s y o u t h i s 1 C l o w a r d , R.A., and O h l i n , L.E., D e l i n q u e n c y and O p p o r t u n i t y , The F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , New York, 1963. - 24 - c o n f r o n t e d w i t h c u l t u r a l and economic b a r r i e r s t o t h e s e l e g i t i m a t e means. He i s i n e v i t a b l y l i m i t e d i n o b t a i n i n g the upward s o c i a l movement. When p r e s s u r e s f r o m u n f u l f i l l e d a s p i r a t i o n and b l o c k e d o p p o r t u n i t y become s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e n s e , many l o w e r - c l a s s y o u t h s t u r n away f r o m l e g i t i m a t e c h a n n e l s , and adopt o t h e r means beyond c o n v e n t i o n a l norms, w h i c h might o f f e r a p o s s i b l e c h a n n e l t o s u c c e s s . ^ T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e o r i g i n o f t h e c r i m i n a l and " c o n f l i c t 1 1 t y p e s . However, t h e a d o l e s c e n t s who a r e d e p r i v e d o f b o t h l e g i t i m a t e and i l l i g i t i m a t e means become " d o u b l e " f a i l u r e s and a r e more v u l n e r a b l e t o t e m p t a t i o n s t o commit d e l i n q u e n t a c t s t h a n o t h e r s . Because t h e y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f a c c e p t i n g t h e i r downward as- p i r a t i o n s and o f f a c i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t y , t h e y may s e l e c t t h e r e t r e a t i s t b e h a v i o u r as t h e i r mode o f a d a p t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s , whether a y o u t h becomes a c r i m i n a l , a member o f a f i g h t i n g gang o r a d r u g a d d i c t depends upon t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r l a c k o f them, by w h i c h he may a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s of s u c c e s s . The c o n v e n t i o n a l g o a l f o r a l l o f them i s f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s . As M e r t o n o b s e r v e d , " r e c o u r s e t o l e g i t i m a t e c h a n n e l s f o r f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s i s l i m i t e d by a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s not f u l l y open a t each l e v e l t o men o f good c a p a c i t y . D e s p i t e our p e r s i s t i n g o p e n - c l a s s i d e o l o g y , advance t o w a r d t h e s u c c e s s g o a l s i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e and n o t - a b l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h o s e armed w i t h l i t t l e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n and few economic r e - s o u r c e s . " T h e r e a r e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between a s p i r a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s w h i c h i n c r e a s e as one descends i n t h e s o c i a l c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . A d o l e s c e n t s o f t h e l o w e r - c l a s s a r e f a c e d w i t h r e s t r i c t i o n s and f r u s t r a t i o n s when t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e upward pathways a r e b l o c k e d . Y e t , t h e y a r e u n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h i s r e a l i t y . T h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r r e a c h i n g t h e i r g o a l s w i l l i n - e v i t a b l y be t h e i l l i g i t i m a t e ones w h i c h l e a d t o t h e d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r . 1 C l o w a r d , R.A., and O h l i n , i L . E . , op. c i t . , pp. 9 7 - 1 0 5 . 2 M e r t o n , R.K., S o c i a l T heory and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 1 1 1 . , 1957 , pp. 1 4 5 - 1 4 6 . - 25 - Inadequacy o f t h e . " O p p o r t u n i t y T h e o r y " (1) A s p i r a t i o n f o r Upward M o b i l i t y - C l o w a r d and O h l i n have based t h e i r hypo- t h e s i s o f l o w e r - c l a s s d e l i n q u e n c y on the t h w a r t e d a s p i r a t i o n f o r upward ad- vancement. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine some of t h e a s p e c t s o f t h i s upward m o b i l i t y - how many l o w e r - c l a s s y o u t h s t r u l y a s p i r e t o such movement? The m a j o r i t y o f t h e l o w e r - c l a s s appear t o a c c e p t " r e a l i t y " and t o s t a y w i t h i n t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o H o l l i n g s h e a d and R e d l i c k ' s s t u d y i n New Haven, s e v e n t y p er cent o f the u p p e r - l o w e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r way o f l i f e , and t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not s t r i v i n g upward. T h i r t y p e r cent o f a l l u p p e r - l o w e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s have moved upward f r o m t h e l o w e r - l o w e r c l a s s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t upward m o b i l i t y appears t o be l i m i t e d t o a m i n o r i t y o f t h e l o w e r - c l a s s . I t shows t h a t few have the upward a s p i r a t i o n s t o e n t e r m i d d l e - c l a s s status.''" (2) A v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e L e g i t i m a t e O p p o r t u n i t y - C l o w a r d and O h l i n emphasized t h a t t h e l o w e r - c l a s s y o u t h s a r e f a c e d w i t h c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c a l b a r r i e r s w h i c h have " c l o s e d 1 1 a l l t h e l e g i t i m a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( e . g . e d u c a t i o n ) f o r upward advancement. But w i t h our p r e s e n t p u b l i c s c h o o l system e v e r y s c h o o l age c h i l d i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f r o m e l e m e n t a r y t h r o u g h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . A t t h e l e v e l o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t h e r e a r e numerous t a x s u p p o r t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s w i t h m i n i m a l t u i t i o n . B e s i d e s , s c h o l a r s h i p s and l o a n s a r e f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e poor but a b l e y o u t h s . Thus, t h e r e a r e a p p a r e n t l y many l e g i t i m a t e a i d s "open" t o t h e l o w e r - c l a s s boys and t h a t a r e w i t h i n t h e i r r e a c h . T h e r e f o r e , t h e degree o f " l a c k o f l e g i t i m a t e o p p o r t u n i t y " among t h e lo w e r c l a s s boys i s d e b a t a b l e . 1 H o l l i n g s h e a d , A., and R e d l i c k , F.C., S o c i a l C l a s s and M e n t a l I l l n e s s , John W i l e y and Sons, New York, 1958, pp. 114-135. - 26 - (3) A s p i r a t i o n a l L e v e l and t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l Goal may not be t h e same t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The o p p o r t u n i t y - t h e o r y i s bas e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t y o u t h s s t r i v e f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g o a l ( f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s ) and f o r upward a s p i r a t i o n . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as t o whether o r n o t t h e " a s p i r a - t i o n l e v e l " and " g o a l f o r s u c c e s s " a r e t h e same t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l s t r a t a . A s p i r a t i o n s and g o a l s i n l i f e may v a r y f r o m one i n d i v i d u a l t o a n o t h e r i n t h e same way as t h e y may d i f f e r i n d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y among t h e c l a s s e s . D e l i n q u e n c y Caused by A n x i e t y o f M a s c u l i n i t y Cohen sees t h e d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d as caused by b a s i c a n x i e t y about t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a male i d e n t i t y . ' ' " H i s h y p o t h e s i s i s based on P a r s o n ' s t h e o r y o f " m a s c u l i n e p r o t e s t " as t h e o r i g i n o f a g g r e s s i v e and a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , p a r t i c u l a r l y as r e l a t e d t o t h e f a m i l y and o c c u p a t i o n a l s y s t e m . ^ Cohen and P a r s o n s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l y i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i s o l a t i o n o f i t s c h i l d r e n f r o m s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t male a d u l t s because t h e male members o f t h e f a m i l y a r e e i t h e r a b s e nt o r p r e o c c u p i e d . I n t h e s e m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s t h e mother assumes t h e e s s e n t i a l r o l e o f d i s c i - p l i n a r i a n . She t r a n s m i t s t h e symbols o f good b e h a v i o u r t o h e r s o n . The boy may u n c o n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f y "goodness" w i t h f e m i n i n i t y . I n o r d e r t o a s s u r e h i m s e l f o f h i s m a s c u l i n i t y t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s boy a c q u i r e s "bad" b e h a v i o u r as a means o f d e n y i n g f e m i n i n i t y . Cohen s u g g e s t s t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s male r e p r e s e n t s t h e att e m p t t o cope w i t h t h e a n x i e t y w h i c h eminates f r o m h i s s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I t has the. p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h r e a s - s u r a n c e o f h i s m a s c u l i n i t y . T h i s might be one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s 1 Cohen, A. I b i d , pp. 166-167. 2 P a r s o n s , T., " C e r t a i n P r i m a r y S ources and P a t t e r n s o f A g g r e s s i o n i n t h e S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e We s t e r n W o r l d " , P s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 10, No. 2, May, 1947, p. 172. - 27 - d e l i n q u e n t becoming i n v o l v e d i n wanton d e s t r u c t i o n . The L i n k between V a n d a l i s m and D e l i n q u e n c y T h e o r i e s The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f e c t s , o r g a n i c i l l n e s s and i n j u r y may a f f e c t t h e y o u t h ' s normal body f u n c t i o n s , and l e a d t o p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y . Such a boy may become i n v o l v e d i n wanton d e s t r u c t i v e a c t s as com p e n s a t i o n f o r h i s p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s . An i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a d e f e c t i v e Ego and Superego i s u n a b l e t o r e g u l a t e o r c o n t r o l t h e i m p u l s i v e demand o f t h e I d w h i c h may g a i n a n t i s o c i a l e x p r e s s i o n i n d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r s u c h as w i l f u l d e s t r u c t i o n . E r i k s o n sees t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s " i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n " and p s y c h o s o c i a l problems w h i c h have not been r e s o l v e d f r o m e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . The n e g a t i v e i d e n t i t y and t h e d i f f u s i o n o f t i m e and i n d u s t r y may l e a d t o d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , and he may become i n v o l v e d i n v a n d a l i s m as gang a c t i v i t y . There i s a p o s s i b l e l i n k between v a n d a l i s m and t h e M i l l e r ' s " f o c a l con- c e r n s " o f l o w e r - c l a s s c u l t u r e . Among t h e l o w e r - c l a s s boys v a n d a l a c t i v i t i e s may p r o v i d e t h e e x c i t e m e n t and t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p h y s i c a l t o u g h n e s s , a l s o t h e means f o r gang a c t i v i t y f o r the b o y s . Cohen s u g g e s t s n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n and p u r p o s e l e s s gang a c t i v i t i e s among t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s b o y s . Some o f t h e boys may o v e r - r e a c t , and become e x c e s s i v e l y h o s t i l e o r a g g r e s s i v e a g a i n s t t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s , e.g. t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . C l o w a r d and O h l i n see t h a t t h e l o w e r - c l a s s y o u t h i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c a l b a r r i e r s t o h i s l e g i t i m a t e means i n r e t a i n i n g t h e upward s o c i a l movement. So he ( t h e " c o n f l i c t " t y p e ) p u r s u e s s t a t u s t h r o u g h t h e use o f v i o l e n c e and f o r c e . Such boys may become i n v o l v e d i n m a l i c i o u s and w i l f u l damage o f p r o p e r t y . Cohen a l s o s u g g e s t s t h e d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d - 28 - as caused by t h e a n x i e t y o f m a s c u l i n i t y w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n f r o m t h e f e m a l e - c e n t r e d m i d d l e - c l a s s home. I n o r d e r t o a s s u r e h i m s e l f o f h i s maleness he may become i n v o l v e d i n wanton d e s t r u c t i o n . We have b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d t h e b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o - g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y c a u s a t i o n w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t as t h e p o s s i b l e cause o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . . However, we must be aware t h a t v a n d a l i s m i s m u l t i - d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e c a u s a l f a c t o r s . Each v a n d a l i s a u n i q u e i n d i v i d u a l ( b i o l o - g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s ) f u n c t i o n i n g i n a s p e c i f i c m i l i e u ( c u l t u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s ) . H i s d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r , as t h e modes o f adapt- a t i o n t o meet h i s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l needs, i s p u r p o s i v e and s p e c i f i c . How- e v e r , t h e c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s d e v i a n c e ( v a n d a l i s m ) i s c o m p r i s e d o f a com- p o s i t e o f many i n t e r r e l a t e d c a u s a l v a r i a b l e s . We must a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t each t h e o r y has r e f l e c t e d not o n l y t h e a u t h o r ' s v i e w p o i n t and t h e t r e n d o f h i s t i m e but a l s o emphasizes h i s a r e a o f s t u d y t o i n t e r p r e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . A l l t h o s e h y p o t h e t i c a l t h e o r i e s r e q u i r e s c i e n t i f i c t e s t i n g i n o r d e r t o v e r i f y t h e i r v a l i - d i t y . They, a l s o , can be c h a l l e n g e d by new approaches i n i d e a s and t h e o r i e s and a a f f e c t e d by t h e t i m e and changes o c c u r r i n g i n our s o c i e t y . T y p o l o g i e s o f D e l i n q u e n c y As a r e s u l t o f t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s of d e l i n q u e n c y a u t h o r i t i e s have d e v e l o p e d c e r t a i n d e l i n q u e n t t y p o l o g i e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between d i f f e r e n t t y p e s ,of young o f f e n d e r s a l o n g a p s y c h o s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r o l e b e h a v i o u r w h i c h may add t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v a n d a l s . L o u g h m i l l e r s u g g e s t s t h e r e a r e f o u r main d e l i n q u e n t t y p e s w h i c h may be d e s c r i b e d a s : ^ 1 L o u g h m i l l e r , C , " S a l v a g i n g t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t " , I n s t i t u t i o n on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y , 1962, p. 166. - 29 - (1) S o c i a l d e l i n q u e n t - he i s an a g g r e s s i v e y o u t h who r e s e n t s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f any one who makes an e f f o r t t o c o n t r o l h i s b e h a v i o u r . H i s sense o f v a l u e s do not c o n f o r m t o t h o s e o f s o c i e t y . He m a i n l y commits c r i m e s a g a i n s t p r o - p e r t y - t h e f t , b u r g l a r y , " v a n d a l i s m " - w i t h h i s gang. (2) N e u r o t i c D e l i n q u e n t - he i n t e r n a l i z e s h i s c o n f l i c t s and i s l a r g e l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h h i s own f e e l i n g s . H i s d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r i s o f t e n c o m p u l s i v e and i r r a t i o n a l . He may become i n v o l v e d w i t h wanton d e s t r u c t i o n . (3) A s o c i a l D e l i n q u e n t - he i s m o t i v a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t and has l i t t l e f e e l i n g f o r o t h e r s . H i s d e l i n q u e n t a c t s have a c o l d , b r u t a l , v i c i o u s q u a l i t y , f o r w h i c h he f e e l s no remorse o r g u i l t . H i s d i f f i c u l t y i s t h e r e s u l t o f e a r l y and s e v e r e d e p r i v a t i o n o f l o v e , warmth, and a f f e c t i o n . T h i s b r i n g s about a b a s i c i n c a p a c i t y f o r f e e l i n g t o w a r d o t h e r s . (4) A c c i d e n t a l D e l i n q u e n t - t h e y o u t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l i z e d and l a w - a b i d i n g , but happens t o be a t t h e wrong p l a c e a t t h e wrong t i m e , and becomes i n v o l v e d i n a d e l i n q u e n t a c t not t y p i c a l o f h i s g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r . K v a r a c e u s and M i l l e r s u g g e s t a t y p o l o g y o f d e l i n q u e n t y o u t h based upon two v a r i a b l e s : (1) d e l i n q u e n c y , and (2) e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e a u t h o r s t h e c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r subtypes:''" (1) The normal y o u n g s t e r - i n c l u d e s most o f t h e y o u t h f u l p o p u l a t i o n . The y o u t h i s g e n e r a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y n o r m a l , perhaps sometimes becomes i n v o l v e d i n m inor m i s c h i e f , but e s s e n t i a l l y he i s not a d e l i n q u e n t . He m i g h t , however, a c c i d e n t a l l y become i n v o l v e d i n a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m . (2) The d e l i n q u e n t y o u n g s t e r w i t h l i t t l e o r no e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e - T h i s group i n c l u d e s t h e main d e l i n q u e n t p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s t y p e of c h i l d commits d e l i n q u e n t a c t s m a i n l y because o f h i s d e v i a n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . Such a t y p e 1 K v a r a c e u s , W.C., et a l , D e l i n q u e n t B e h a v i o u r : C u l t u r e and t h e I n d i v i d u a l . W a s h i n g t o n , N a t . E d u c a t i o n A s s . o f U.S., 1959, Chap. 7. - 30 - i s u s u a l l y f o u n d i n t h e : u r b a n , s l u m n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . V a n d a l s a r e v e r y l i k e l y i n - c l u d e d i n t h i s g r oup. (3) The d e l i n q u e n t and d i s t u r b e d y o u n g s t e r - T h i s d e l i n q u e n t t y p e r e - s u l t s c h i e f l y f r o m e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o h i s c u l t u r a l back- ground. T h i s y o u t h may become i n v o l v e d i n v a n d a l a c t s . (4) The d i s t u r b e d but not d e l i n q u e n t y o u n g s t e r - The c h i l d o f t h i s t y p e i s e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d but i s not m a r k e d l y . d e l i n q u e n t . Types o f J u v e n i l e V a n d a l s Based on K v a r a c e u s and M i l l e r ' s d e l i n q u e n t t y p e s , M a r t i n d e v e l o p e d t h e " v a n d a l t y p e s " f r o m h i s Bronx s t u d y on j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . H i s t h r e e t y p e s o f v a n d a l s may be d e s c r i b e d as:''" (1) D i s t u r b e d V a n d a l s - T h i s group i n c l u d e s m a i n l y t h e boys s u f f e r i n g f r o m " p s y c h o t i c d i s o r d e r s " o r " p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r " . T h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e u s u a l l y ranges f r o m " l o w e r t h a n a v e r a g e " , " d u l l and backward" t o " f e e b l e - m i n d e d " . (2) E s s e n t i a l l y L a w - a b i d i n g V a n d a l s - I n t h i s group a r e u s u a l l y c h i l - d r e n f r o m i n t a c t homes w i t h l i t t l e p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t and t e n s i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e c h i l d r e n have had no . p r e v i o u s d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n c e s . (3) S u b c u l t u r e V a n d a l s - M a r t i n d i s c l o s e d t h a t h a l f o f t h e young v a n d a l s i n t h i s group l i v e i n u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , d e p r i v e d homes l o c a t e d i n d e l i n - quency prone n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e y o u t h s come f r o m f a m i l i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a r e n t - c h i l d t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t s . The p a r e n t s a r e u s u a l l y i n e f f e c t u a l i n r e g u l a t i n g o r s u p e r v i s i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c h i l d . W i t h one e x c e p t i o n a l l t h e boys i n t h i s group had r e c o r d s o f b o t h d e l i n q u e n c y and gang a c t i v i t y . H a l f o f t h e group s t u d i e d by M a r t i n had p r e v i o u s l y been i n v o l v e d i n v a n d a l i s m . 1 M a r t i n , J.M., J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m , op. c i t . , pp. 31-72. - 31 - T y p o l o g y o f V a n d a l i s m M a r t i n f o r m u l a t e s a t y p o l o g y o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m f r o m h i s Bronx s t u d y as t h e f o l l o w i n g : ^ (1) P r e d a t o r y V a n d a l i s m - The v a n d a l a c t s a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d i n a c q u i r i n g " s c a r c e goods" by t h e j u v e n i l e t h e f t s . (2) V i n d i c t i v e V a n d a l i s m - One e x p r e s s e s t h e a n t a g o n i s m and h a t r e d t o w a r d s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s . Such as t h e a n t i - s e m a t i c s i g n s and the a n t i - m i n o r i t y a c t s may be used as r a v a g e o r h o s t i l i t y t o r a c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . (3) Wanton V a n d a l i s m - P r o p e r t y d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o c c u r s f o r d i v e r s e r e a s o n s i n a wide range of s i t u a t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e groups owning o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e damaged p r o p e r t y seems t o t a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . The d e s t r u c t i o n may o c c u r as y o u t h group a c t i v i t i e s o f " p l a y " f o r " f u n " . S t u d i e s on J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m From a s t u d y o f v a n d a l i s m i n Denver f r o m 1944-54, Gordon p r e s e n t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e young v a n d a l s : F a m i l y Background - h a l f o f t h e v a n d a l s came f r o m b r o k e n homes. The m a j o r i t y o f v a n d a l s were f r o m t h e l o w e s t economic s t a t u s . There were few v a n d a l s f r o m m i d d l e - c l a s s homes. Age Group - t h e m a j o r i t y o f v a n d a l s were 15 t o 16 y e a r s o l d . Sex - t h e r e were more boys t h a n g i r l s . S c h o o l Records - h a l f o f t h e v a n d a l s had a d j u s t m e n t problems t o t h e s c h o o l s i t u - a t i o n . E i t h e r t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was not a t t r a c t i v e t o them o r t h e i r academic 2 i n t e r e s t had d e c l i n e d . M a r t i n ' s Bronx s t u d y on j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m p r e s e n t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g 1 - M a r t i n , J.M., J u v e n i l e V a n d a l i s m , I b i d , pp. 73-103. 2 Gordon, R., V a n d a l i s m , op. c i t . - 32 - f e a t u r e s o f t h e v a n d a l s : Age Group - 8.07<> f r o m 6- 8 y e a r s o l d 25.8% f r o m 9-11 y e a r s o l d 31.0% f r o m 12-14 y e a r s o l d 30.3% f r o m 15-17 y e a r s o l d So c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s - h a l f o f t h e young v a n d a l s were f r o m l o w e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s . E t h n i c R a t i o - w h i t e (67.8%) non-white (16.8%) P u e r o t o R i c a n (15.4%) P a r e n t - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p - 62%. o f t h e v a n d a l s had p a r e n t a l c o n f l i c t and home t e n s i o n . Group A s s o c i a t i o n - 47> b e l o n g e d t o one group 967> b e l o n g e d t o more t h a n one K i t c h e n a l s o . p o i n t s out a few t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e young v a n d a l s a s : V a n d a l i s m i s m a i n l y committed by j u v e n i l e s under 18 y e a r s o l d . The a c t s o f van - d a l i s m a r e f r e q u e n t l y a group o r gang a c t i v i t y f r o m 2 t o 20 y o u t h s were i n v o l v e d , and t h e a c t s u s u a l l y a r e n o n - m a t e r i a l g a i n i n n a t u r e . They seem t o be c o n t a g i o u s . From a s t u d y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e we o b t a i n a g e n e r a l p r o f i l e o f t h e van- d a l s - t h e y a r e m a i n l y boys i n t h e i r e a r l y t e e n s w i t h p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t . The m a j o r i t y o f them a r e f r o m l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s . The a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m a r e o f t e n a group a c t i v i t y . J u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i s a u n i q u e s o c i a l p r o b l e m t o our s o c i e t y . T h i s j u v e n i l e ' d e v i a n c e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i f i c t y p e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . We need a d d i t i o n a l f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n t o enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s p r o b l e m . We have d i s c u s s e d t h e l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n and t h e p r e s e n t meaning o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m , and it's i n t e r r e l a t i o n w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y . A s u r v e y o f t h e 1 K i t c h e n , A . J . , " V a n d a l i s m " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C a n a d i a n Congress of C o r r e c t i o n s 1957, C a n a d i a n C o r r e c t i o n s A s s o c . o f t h e Ca n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , p. 262. - 33 - t h e o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y c a u s a t i o n has been p r e s e n t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e p o s s i b l e c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f v a n d a l i s m . T y p o l o g i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t s and o f v a n d a l s and v a n d a l i s m have been d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . CHAPTER I I EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE STATISTICS The f o c u s o f the S t u d y Crime a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y i s t a n g i b l e and e v i d e n t . There e x i s t c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s about an a c t o f w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y w h i c h a r e c o n c r e t e and m e a s u r a b l e . What i s a t t a c k e d ? Where i s i t l o c a t e d ? How many a c t s of w i l f u l damage o c c u r ? What time o f y e a r do such a c t s o c c u r ? How many i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c h a r g e d w i t h such a c t s ? Adequate answers t o t h e s e and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s w o u l d h e l p t o f u r t h e r our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s t y p e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . T h i s c h a p t e r f o c u s e s upon t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a c t of w i l f u l damage and/or damage t o p r o p e r t y ( t h e l e g a l terms a p p l i e d t o v a n d a l i s m ) and some of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the j u v e n i l e s who commit such a c t s . The C i t y of Va n c o u v e r , l o c a t e d a t the w e s t e r n end of the F r a s e r V a l l e y and bounded b y the N o r t h Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a , E n g l i s h Bay, B u r r a r d I n l e t and Boundary Road, was chosen as the a r e a o f r e s e a r c h f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . (1) I t i s the major u r b a n c e n t r e on the West C o a s t of Canada and t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n s the w e s t e r n h e a d q u a r t e r s of many companies, b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . (2) Crime, the f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , i s known t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n urban 1 a r e a s . , (3) The n a t u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t r e q u i r e d many c o n t a c t s w i t h the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f time demanded an a r e a near t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work. 1 C l i n a r d , M a r s h a l l B., S o c i o l o g y of D e v i a n t B e h a v i o r . (New Yor k : R i n e h a r t and Company I n c . , 1957), p. 76 - 35 - (4) Vancouver c o n t a i n s many u s e f u l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ( e . g . a p o l i c e f o r c e , a d e v e l o p e d J u v e n i l e C o u r t and p r o b a t i o n system) t h o u g h t t o p o s s e s s p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . (5) The r e s e a r c h e r s were r e l a t i v e l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the geography of the C i t y and i t s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . (6) The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver r a t h e r than the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a removed the p r o b l e m of c o o r d i n a t i n g d a t a f r o m s e v e r a l p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s , s c h o o l b o a r d s , e t c . and l i m i t e d the scope o f the s t u d y t o a p o i n t where com- p l e t i o n was a p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the time a l l o w e d . The s u r v e y of t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t n o t o n l y i s the s t u d y o f v a n d a l i s m r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , b u t t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was t h e f i r s t t o be a t t e m p t e d i n Va n c o u v e r . A l a c k o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a h a n d i c a p p e d the t h e s i s g roup. U s u a l l y , when a r e f e r e n c e t o a 1 r e s e a r c h paper was d i s c o v e r e d the paper was u n p u b l i s h e d . L a c k i n g the gu i d a n c e of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h and, t h e r e f o r e , l a c k i n g the knowledge of s o u r c e s o f d a t a , f l e x i b i l i t y o f a p p r o a c h t o the t a s k was e s s e n t i a l . The f l e x i b i l i t y o f t he d e s c r i p t i v e d i a g n o s t i c d e s i g n a l l o w e d the use of the e x p e r i e n c e s u r v e y , a method u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r . L i t e r a t u r e on d e l i n q u e n c y p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r t e n t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s . E x p l o r a t o r y i n t e r v i e w s e s t a b l i s h e d an e s t i m a t e o f the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s e x t r a c t e d c e r t a i n f a c t s w h i c h were used t o o b t a i n some o f the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v a n d a l i s m i n Vancouver. To p r o v i d e a dynamic v i e w o f v a n d a l i s m , t o e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n s and t o d e t e r m i n e t r e n d s , the f i v e y ear p e r i o d between 1960 and 1964, i n c l u s i v e , was s e l e c t e d 1 C u r r e n t P r o j e c t s i n the P r e v e n t i o n . C o n t r o l and Treatment o f Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y , e d . A d r i e n n e M i l l e r , New York, 1962, pp. 134, 187, 200, 482, 4 9 1 . - 36 - f o r s t u d y . D u r i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y many o f f i c i a l s i n the C i t y o f Vancouver s t a t e d t h a t , i n comparison t o most c i t i e s o f comparable s i z e i n b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Vancouver has a low r a t e o f damage t o * p r o p e r t y . To t e s t the v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e o p i n i o n s and t o add p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h i s s t u d y , n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s f o r d e l i n q u e n c y i n g e n e r a l and f o r damage t o p r o p e r t y were examined. The P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o was chosen t o use f o r a comparison w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l t h o u g h the d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than O n t a r i o (See T a b l e 1) the r a t e o f damage to p r o p e r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s much lower t h a n the r a t e i n O n t a r i o (see T a b l e I I ) . S e l e c t i o n o f Sources o f Data V a n d a l i s m has been d e f i n e d as m a l i c i o u s , d e l i b e r a t e and wanton damage t o , defacement o f , or d e s t r u c t i o n of p r o p e r t y , p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , w i t h 1 no a p p a r e n t m a t e r i a l g a i n on the p a r t o f the v a n d a l . C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n d i c a t e p r o b a b l e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on v a n d a l i s m . The a c t i s a c r i m e and t h i s a s p e c t p o i n t s t o the p o l i c e department as a p r o b a b l e s o u r c e . The terms " d e l i b e r a t e " and "wanton" i m p l y i n t e n t and m o t i v a t i o n , w h i c h m i g h t be d i s c o v e r e d i n the p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s o f a j u v e n i l e c o u r t . " P r o p e r t y , p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e " i n d i c a t e s t h o s e p e r s o n s o r c o r p o r a t e b o d i e s who s u f f e r the damage f r o m a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m . T h e r e f o r e , the s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e s o f d a t a was base d upon the above r a t i o n a l e . These s o u r c e s d i v i d e a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t o law enforcement and non-law enforcement s o u r c e s . * See comments o f S c h o o l Board and P a r k s B o a r d , Pages 46 and 48. 1 Gordon, R. " V a n d a l i s m " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . S e p t . 1954, p. 50. - 37 - The non-law e n f o r c e m e n t s o u r c e s were e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o the a t t i t u d e of the p u b l i c toward v a n d a l i s m and the e x t e n t or s e r i o u s n e s s o f the p r o b l e m i n the community. The s e l e c t i o n of t h e s e s o u r c e s was b a s e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a : (1) Each s o u r c e must be a c i t y - w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n ; (2) Each s o u r c e must p o s s e s s a c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; (3) Each s o u r c e must have e i t h e r i t s head o f f i c e or a r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n the C i t y o f V ancouver. I t was assumed t h a t such o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o u l d p o s s e s s c e n t r a l i z e d , and co- o r d i n a t e d r e c o r d systems i n one c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . Law enforcement a g e n c i e s were v i s u a l i z e d as s o u r c e s w h i c h r e c e i v e and c o - o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y the non-law enforcement o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e w o u l d s e r v e as a p o i n t of i n t e g r a t i o n . There e x i s t v a r i o u s p o l i c e departments i n G r e a t e r Vancouver each p o s s e s s i n g a s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a - t i o n . By l i m i t i n g the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o the C i t y of Vancouver the law e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s s e l e c t e d , encompassed the e n t i r e r e s e a r c h a r e a under one c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d i n the s e l e c t i o n of non-law en f o r c e m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s then become v a l i d f o r the law enforcement a g e n c i e s . I t was e x p e c t e d by t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f the above-mentioned s o u r c e s t o t r a c e the known a c t s of w i l f u l damage f r o m t h e i r p l a c e of o c c u r r e n c e i n the community t o the p o l i c e department who a t t e m p t t o a t t a c h an i n d i v i d u a l t o the a c t and t h e n t o f o l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l t o the c o u r t s where p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . Non-Law Enforcement O r g a n i z a t i o n s - I n s u r a n c e A g e n c i e s V a n d a l s a t t a c k r e s i d e n t i a l and b u s i n e s s p r o p e r t y and much of t h i s p r o p e r t y i s i n s u r e d a g a i n s t such damage. The i n s u r a n c e companies a r e i n many cases the o n l y c e n t r a l i z e d s o u r c e of d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o the damaging of p r i v a t e - 37a -~ TABLE 1 JUVENILES APPEARING I N COURT - 1961 AREA SEX INDIVIDUALS POPULATION DELINQUENTS PER 1000"POP. APPEARING 5 - 19 YRS. 5 - 19 YRS. Canada Male Female 15,024 1,952 2,741,035 2,627,045 5.49 0.74 O n t a r i o M a l e Female 6,700 982 872,333 832,106 7.68 1.18 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Male Female 1,751 198 222,490 212,513 7.87 0.93 S o u r c e : - The Dominion Bureau o f (1) P o p u l a t i o n ; and (2) S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t s 1961 on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s . TABLE 2 OFFENCES AGAINST PROPERTY - 1961 ( E x c l u d i n g A r s o n , F a l s e A l a r m s , T r e s p a s s i n g ) AREA SEX INDIVIDUALS APPEARING POPULATION DELINQUENTS PER 1000 POP. 5 - 19 YRS. 5 - 19 YRS. Canada Male Female 1,279 48 2,741,035 2,627,045 .466 .018 O n t a r i o M a l e Female 618 21 872,333 832,106 .708 .025 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Male Female 81 3 222,490 212,513 .364 .014 S o u r c e : - The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t s 1961 on (1) P o p u l a t i o n ; and (2) J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s . - 38 " r e s i d e n c e s and s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Many i n s u r a n c e companies e x i s t i n Vancouver and a s o u r c e was needed w h i c h w o u l d c o - o r d i n a t e the d a t a s u p p l i e d b y t h e i n s u r a n c e companies. F i n a l l y , two c e n t r a l i z e d s o u r c e s were a p p r o a c h e d . P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s and Boards The n a t u r e o f the f u n c t i o n o f some b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a c e s t h e i r p r o p e r t y i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the p u b l i c . The B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company, the C i t y of Vancouver E l e c t r i c a l Department and the B r i t i s h C o l u mbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y a l l p r o v i d e equipment f o r the p u b l i c u s e . M u t i l a t e d t e l e p h o n e b o o t h s , b r o k e n s t r e e t l i g h t s and s l a s h e d bus s e a t s a r e seen o c c a s i o n a l l y b y most p e o p l e . The C i t y o f Vancouver P a r k s Board m a i n t a i n s p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s f o r a l l ages and j u v e n i l e s u t i l i z e t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s r e g u l a r l y . I t was assumed t h a t the P a r k s Board c o u l d p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e o f v a n d a l i s m i n the p l a y a r e a o f the j u v e n i l e . J u v e n i l e s a t t e n d s c h o o l . Some meet f r u s t r a t i o n , d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l , w h i c h may l e a d to a c t s o f w i l f u l damage a g a i n s t t h e s c h o o l . These r e a s o n s l e a d t o the i n c l u s i o n o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board i n the s o u r c e s s e l e c t e d . Law Enforcement A g e n c i e s When d e a l i n g w i t h c r i m e , the p o l i c e department cannot be i g n o r e d as a s o u r c e o f d a t a . I n a book w r i t t e n b y T h o r s t e n S e l l i n and M a r v i n E. W o l f g a n g e n t i t l e d The Measurement of D e l i n q u e n c y , the a u t h o r s d i s c u s s t h o r o u g h l y the m e r i t s o f p o l i c e r e c o r d s as a s o u r c e o f d a t a f o r c r i m e . "The v a l u e o f a c r i m e r a t e f o r i n d e x p u r p o s e s d e c r e a s e s as the d i s t a n c e f r o m the cr i m e i t s e l f - 39 - 1 i n terms of p r o c e s s , i n c r e a s e s . " P o l i c e r e p o r t s a r e w r i t t e n c l o s e r t o the tim e o f the a c t u a l c r i m e t h a n f o r i n s t a n c e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t , and, t h e r e f o r e , i t was assumed t h a t p o l i c e r e c o r d s w o u l d be more r e l i - a b l e t h a n most o t h e r s . The F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t p o s s e s s f i l e s on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I f a c c e s s t o t h e s e f i l e s c o u l d be g a i n e d , s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a c t of w i l f u l damage and on the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o f f e n d e r m i g h t be a c q u i r e d . Methods L e t t e r s , t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e c o r d s were t h e methods u t i l i z e d i n the r e s e a r c h . L e t t e r s were s e n t t o most o f t h e s e l e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o i n t r o d u c e the r e s e a r c h t o p i c , t o i n d i c a t e the typ e o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d and t o i n t r o d u c e the t h e s i s g r oup. I n t e r v i e w s t o e x p l o r e t he n a t u r e o f the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e were e s s e n t i a l i n most i n s t a n c e s , however, some of the i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d c o m p l e t e l y on the t e l e p h o n e . When d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e s i g n e d and f o r w a r d e d t o the s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . Through t h i s method the s e a r c h i n g o f r e c o r d s b y members o f the t h e s i s group was l i m i t e d t o one s o u r c e o n l y . When q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were u t i l i z e d t he r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d i n f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w s . The E x a m i n a t i o n o f Data - Non Law Enforcement Sources I n s u r a n c e Companies ;The O a k r i d g e I n s u r a n c e A g e n c i e s , and the Ca n a d i a n U n d e r w r i t e r s 1 S e l l i n , T h o r s t e n and M a r v i n E. W o l f g a n g , The Measurement of D e l i n q u e n c y (New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , 1964), P. 19. - 40 " A s s o c i a t i o n i n Vancouver were c o n t a c t e d . No i n s u r a n c e companies w h i c h keep s t a t i s t i c s on damage to p r o p e r t y c o u l d be f o u n d . Both s o u r c e s f e l t t h a t no d a t a w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e . L i t e r a t u r e on i n s u r a n c e v e r i f i e d t h e s e o p i n i o n s . V a n d a l i s m i s c o v e r e d by F i r e I n s u r a n c e under Extended Coverage Endorsement. " I n d e m n i t y a g a i n s t l o s s b y v a n d a l i s m and m a l i c i o u s m i s c h i e f may be p r o v i d e d i n d i v i d u a l l y under t h e o p t i o n a l p e r i l s p o l i c y b u t i t i s most o f t e n w r i t t e n under the s p e c i a l v a n d a l i s m and m a l i c i o u s m i s c h i e f endorsement as an e x t e n s i o n 1 t o the e x t e n d e d coverage endorsement. When c o m p r i s i n g s t a t i s t i c s on f i r e i n s u r a n c e , i n s u r a n c e companies do n o t l i s t s e p a r a t e t o t a l s f o r e x t e n s i o n s t o t h e e x t e n d e d coverage endorsement. The complete l a c k of d a t a on damage t o p r o p e r t y i n the 3 1 s t A nnual S t a t i s t i c a l Review of the C a n adian U n d e r w r i t e r , A p r i l 15, 1964, i s t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . Thus, v a l u a b l e d a t a on w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y i s h i d d e n i n the s t a t i t i s t c s f o r f i r e i n s u r a n c e . No m a t e r i a l c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r o m the i n s u r a n c e a g e n c i e s on damage t o p r o p e r t y . The B r i t i s h C o l umbia Telephone Company An i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r was s e n t t o the t e l e p h o n e company and a r e p l y was r e c e i v e d p r o m p t l y . The company m a i n t a i n e d t h a t v a n d a l i s m was n o t a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m f o r them and t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s e d no s t a t i s t i c s on the c r i m e . No i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be a c q u i r e d f r o m t h i s company. C i t y of Vancouver E l e c t r i c a l Department A member of the t h e s i s group made an e x p l o r a t o r y v i s i t t o the C i t y o f Vancouver E l e c t r i c a l Department M a i n t e n a n c e Garage a t 323 A l e x a n d r a S t r e e t . 1 S c h u l t z , R o b e r t E., and B a r d w e l l , Edward C., P r o p e r t y I n s u r a n c e (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t and Company I n c . , 1959), p. 168. - 41 " An impromptu i n t e r v i e w t o o k p l a c e w i t h t h e e n g i n e e r i n c h a r g e . The E l e c t r i c a l Department keep f i g u r e s on the c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g s t r e e t l i g h t s , b u t t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s c annot be b r o k e n down i n t o c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e the cause o f the b r e a k a g e . A s t r e e t l i g h t may be b r o k e n b y s t r o n g w i n d s , s e v e r e c o l d , a s t o n e or a b u l l e t , b u t t h e b r e a k appears the same i n a l m o s t e v e r y c a s e . The E l e c t r i c a l Department spends $20,000 a n n u a l l y on r e p l a c e m e n t s o f a l l k i n d s . The e n g i n e e r c o u l d n o t even t e n d e r an e s t i m a t e on the number of s t r e e t l i g h t s b r o k e n w i l f u l l y by i n d i v i d u a l s . He d i d s u p p l y f i g u r e s on the c o s t of the v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s t r e e t l i g h t s . C o s t of S t r e e t L i g h t s O l d Type Globe $11.30 f o r the g l a s s New Round-Type Globe $16.00 f o r the g l a s s Modern Oval-Type Globe $16.80 f o r the g l a s s , and $10.00 f o r the m e r c u r y lamp S t r e e t l i g h t s a r e b r o k e n w i t h e v e r y t h i n g f r o m r o c k s t o h e avy c a l i b r e r i f l e s . When a r i f l e b u l l e t p u n c t u r e s the m e t a l s e c t i o n o f a s t r e e t l i g h t and l e a v e s the g l o b e by p u n c t u r i n g a n o t h e r h o l e i n the m e t a l s e c t i o n , workmen can s i g h t back t h r o u g h t h e h o l e s and d e t e r m i n e the p o i n t f r o m w h i c h the r i f l e was f i r e d . I n some c a s e s , t h i s method has l e d t o the d e t e c t i o n of the c u l p r i t . C e r t a i n a r e a s were d e s i g n a t e d as h i g h damage a r e a s . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r a r e a s f o r m an a r e a o f h i g h damage e x t e n d i n g f r o m the s o u t h - e a s t t o the n o r t h - w e s t of Vancouver: (1) The F r a s e r v i e w a r e a was d e s c r i b e d as " p a r t i c u l a r l y bad." (2) A n o t h e r h i g h damage a r e a i s t h a t bounded b y Cambie S t r e e t , Oak S t r e e t , 4 1 s t Avenue and 59th Avenue. See f i g u r e #1. - 42 - (3) The a r e a n o r t h - w e s t o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t and 4 1 s t Avenue s u f f e r s f r e q u e n t damage. (4) A h i g h b r e a k a g e b e l t f o l l o w s the r a i l w a y t r a c k of t h e B r i t i s h C o l u mbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . T h i s a r e a e x t e n d s a l o n g A r b u t u s S t r e e t and t h e B o u l e v a r d f r o m M a r i n e D r i v e t o n o r t h of Broadway. The number of b r e a k a g e s r e a c h e s a peak d u r i n g t h e summer months. The C i t y o f Vancouver Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n The P a r k s B o a r d were prompt, and c o - o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g a l l c o n t a c t s w i t h them. Correspondence and t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The P a r k s B oard p l a c e a l l expenses f o r damage t o p r o p e r t y under maintenance c o s t s . The p o l i c y i s t o p l a y i t down - n o t t o i g n o r e i t b u t t o a v o i d p u b l i c i t y on damage t o p r o p e r t y . The f i r s t l e t t e r r e c e i v e d f r o m the P a r k s Board e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s a p p r o a c h . "We have v e r y l i t t l e v a n d a l i s m i n our P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m compared t o some c i t i e s . We a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f m a i n t e n a n c e , a good q u a l i t y o f f a c i l i t y , and the f a c t t h a t we have a r e s i d e n t c a r e t a k e r i n n e a r l y a l l o f our community f a c i l i t i e s We do f i n d t h a t i n some remote a r e a s , p l a n t i n g and b o u l e v a r d t r e e s do o c c a s i o n a l l y r e c e i v e minor damage." The s t a f f e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the p u r p o s i v e a c t f r o m the a c c i d e n t a l i n many c a s e s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e P a r k s B oard was r e c a l l e d b y v a r i o u s members of the s t a f f . No i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d came f r o m any o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s . The S u p e r v i s o r o f B u i l d i n g and Ma i n t e n a n c e p r o v i d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n i n t he f i r s t t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w and then p r o m i s e d t o c h a t w i t h o t h e r s t a f f members t o t r y t o g a t h e r as many major i n c i d e n t s of damage t o p r o p e r t y i n - 43 - 1 1964 as t h e y c o u l d r e c a l l . Damage to p r o p e r t y r e a c h e s a peak between June and September. S c h o o l age c h i l d r e n c a r v e t h e i r i n i t i a l s on s w i n g s e a t s , w r i t e on washroom w a l l s and on a l m o s t any i n t e r i o r or e x t e r i o r w a l l . C i g a r e t t e b u r n s on f l o o r s a r e v e r y common. The S u p e r v i s o r o f B u i l d i n g and M a i n t e n a n c e s t a t e d t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p a i n t more o f t e n due t o a c t i v i t y o f t h i s n a t u r e b u t damage i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l h a z a r d . I n r e c e n t y e a r s the P a r k s Board have d e s i g n e d t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s and have s e l e c t e d c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e the o p p o r t u - n i t y o f w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y . G l a s s breakage i s the most common c o m p l a i n t . A c c o r d i n g t o the S u p e r v i s o r , t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g about the sound of b r e a k i n g g l a s s w h i c h a p p e a l s t o the age group or the m e n t a l i t y of j u v e n i l e s . The P a r k s Board don't want damage t o t h e i r p r o p e r t y t o be p u b l i c i z e d . A few y e a r s ago an a t t e m p t was made t o educate the p u b l i c i n the use of t h e p a r k s . P a r k r a n g e r s a p p e a r e d i n t h e p a r k s . The p e o p l e became r i l e d ; the P a r k s Board r e c e i v e d a s t o r m of c r i t i c i s m and the p a r k s r e c e i v e d even more abus e . The s t a f f o f the P a r k s Board c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n t h a t p u b l i c i t y c r e a t e s c o n t a g i o n . I f a news i t e m i n any of the mass media of 1 S p e c i f i c A c t s September. 1964 - The K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e s u f f e r e d a r a s h of damage t o some t r e e s and s h r u b s . S p e c i a l p o l i c e were h i r e d t o c a t c h the c u l p r i t . The v a n d a l chopped o f f s e v e r a l e x p e n s i v e t r e e s j u s t above the r o o t s . O c t ober 11. 1964 - The Renfrew Community C e n t r e was b r o k e n i n t o b y a group o f boys who had been f o r b i d d e n to use t h e f a c i l i t i e s . They b r o k e s e v e r a l windows, t h e n t h e y u r i n a t e d and d e f e c a t e d on the f l o o r . December 5. 1964 - A group of boys b r o k e i n t o the Oak P a r k B a t h House and s t a r t e d a f i r e . The i n t e r i o r was b e i n g p a i n t e d and h e a t e r s had been i n s t a l l e d t o h e l p the p a i n t t o d r y . The boys poured p a i n t o v e r the h e a t e r s . The p a i n t b u r s t i n t o f l a m e s , r u i n i n g t h e h e a t e r s and t h e new p a i n t work. The l e a d e r o f t h i s group was c h a r g e d . - 44 - communication r e l a t e s the h a p p e n i n g s of an a c t of v a n d a l i s m , the s t o r y u s u a l l y e x a g g e r a t e s the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the i n c i d e n t and c r e a t e s an a u r a o f n o t o r i e t y a b o ut the a c t . T h i s i s what the "demented mind" i s l o o k i n g f o r , a c c o r d i n g t o the S u p e r v i s o r o f B u i l d i n g and M a i n t e n a n c e . O f t e n a c h a i n o f v a n d a l a c t s commences. The D i r e c t o r o f the K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e c o n f i r m e d the v i e w s of the S u p e r v i s o r of B u i l d i n g and M a i n t e n a n c e . Even a t the K i l l a r n e y Community C e n t r e w h i c h i s s i t u a t e d i n the a r e a of h i g h e s t j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n . J - d e n s i t y , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e damage t o p r o p e r t y . " The Vancouver S c h o o l Board The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s of the Vancouver S c h o o l B oard were ap p r o a c h e d and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n t e n d e d t o be c o m p l e t e d b y the r e s e a r c h e r s was d e v e l o p e d . Three i n t e r v i e w s r e s u l t e d i n r a t h e r l i m i t e d f i n d i n g s . The f i l e s o f s t u d e n t s r e m a i n i n the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the C i t y u n t i l t he s t u d e n t s l e a v e s c h o o l . O n l y then a r e t h e r e c o r d s f i l e d i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c s on damage t o p r o p e r t y do n o t e x i s t i n the c e n t r a l o f f i c e and do n o t o f f i c i a l l y e x i s t i n t h e s c h o o l s y stem. P r i n c i p a l s may p o s s i b l y p o s s e s s p e r s o n a l knowledge of a j u v e n i l e s u s p e c t e d or g u i l t y o f a d e l i n q u e n t a c t and o n l y i n t e r v i e w s w i t h each p r i n c i p a l c o u l d sub- s t a n t i a t e o r r e f u t e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Damage t o s c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s i n c l u d e d i n m a i ntenance c o s t s , r e m o v i n g any p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e c u r i n g a c c u r a t e d a t a on the i n c i d e n c e of a c t s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y . W i l f u l damage and a c c i d e n t a l damage cannot a l w a y s be c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d . I n 1960 the S c h o o l B oard commenced i n s t a l l a t i o n of b u r g l a r a l a r m s * See F i g u r e 2 - 45 - i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . T h i s o p e r a t i o n , c o m p l e t e d i n 1964, c u t out a l m o s t a l l v a n d a l i s m i n s i d e t h e s c h o o l s . Mr. Jones of the M a i n t e n a n c e Department e s t i m a t e d t h a t damage t o p r o p e r t y c o s t $36,000 i n 1963-64 and t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y $31,000 of t h i s t o t a l was spent r e p l a c i n g windows. T h i s t o t a l c o v e r s a c c i d e n t a l and w i l f u l b r e a k a g e . He m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e damage due t o v a n d a l i s m i n Vancouver S c h o o l s i s o n l y a f r a c t i o n of t h a t i n New York S c h o o l s . I n the summers between J u l y 1 s t and A ugust 3 1 s t o f 1963 and 1964, the S c h o o l B o a r d c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y of p r o p e r t y damage w h i c h r e v e a l e d t h a t 1270 p i e c e s of g l a s s were b r o k e n i n 1963 and 1256 p i e c e s i n 1964. The s c h o o l s damaged a r e s c a t t e r e d ; t h r o u g h o u t the c i t y and n o t c o n c e n t r a t e d i n any one a r e a . C e r t a i n a r e a s appear to have h i g h e r r a t e s , b u t n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r r a t e s . The R e s u l t s f r o m Some o f the S c h o o l s * S c h o o l Number o f P i e c e s of G l a s s B roken 1963 1964 K e r r i s d a l e 16 1 H a s t i n g s 90 14 Queen E l i z a b e t h 15 4 N e l s o n 19 240 Queen Mary 7 2 SOURCE: - Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d . The B r i t i s h C o l umbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y A b r i e f i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Hoare of the S e c u r i t y Department o f the B r i t i s h C o l umbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y r e s u l t e d i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e i n g s e n t t o Mr. W i l l i a m s o n of the S e c u r i t y Department. Two i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d w i t h Mr. W i l l i a m s o n t o d i s c u s s the r e p l y to t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The S e c u r i t y Department m a i n t a i n a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s on damage t o * See T a b l e s 9, 10 and 11 f o r complete s t u d y . ** See A p p e n d i x A - l . - 46 - p r o p e r t y . A l t h o u g h the r e c o r d s a r e b a s e d on G r e a t e r V ancouver, the s t a f f e x t r a c t e d d a t a on the C i t y o f Vancouver. One q u e s t i o n o m i t t e d f r o m the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d n o t be answered when s u b m i t t e d l a t e r w i t h o u t s e a r c h i n g a g a i n the e n t i r e r e c o r d s s y s t e m f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n one q u e s t i o n w h i c h a s k e d f o r the a r e a i n w h i c h damage t o p r o p e r t y o c c u r r e d . The f i r s t r e p o r t d i v i d e d the i n c i d e n t s i n t o each and w e s t a r e a s of the c i t y o n l y . The S e c u r i t y Department s t a f f t h e n s u b d i v i d e d the i n c i d e n t s o f damage t o buses and r a i l w a y p r o p e r t y on a p e r c e n t a g e b a s i s i n t o more s p e c i f i c a r e a s . T a b l e No. 5 l i s t s t he number o f o f f e n c e s i n t h e s e s p e c i f i c a r e a s . These f i g u r e s were e s t a b l i s h e d by d i v i d i n g the a n n u a l f i g u r e s e a s t and we s t f o r each type o f damage b y the p e r c e n t a g e l i s t e d f o r each a r e a . The r e s u l t s were the n checked b y d i v i d i n g t he t o t a l s f o r each and f o r west f o r a l l y e a r s , b y the p e r c e n t a g e f o r each a r e a and then t h e s e r e s u l t s were compared w i t h the t o t a l s o f the s e p a r a t e a r e a s f o r a l l y e a r s . These f i g u r e s a r e o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y a c c u r a t e . Mr. W i l l i a m s o n of the S e c u r i t y Department p r o v i d e d p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . Damage to buses o c c u r s m o s t l y on s c h o o l r u n s . I f one a c t of w i l f u l damage o c c u r s o t h e r s u s u a l l y f o l l o w . I t seems t o b u i l d up i n a s c h o o l . I t appears t o be c o n t a g i o u s . A gang of j u v e n i l e s u s u a l l y g a t h e r s a t the back of a crowded bus and b e h i n d the m i r r o r by t h e r e a r d o o r . The crowd p r o v i d e s the n e c e s s a r y p r o t e c t i o n and i s o l a t i o n . They s l i t s e a t s , t e a r out t h e foam r u b b e r , r i p h a n d r a i l s f r o m t h e i r m o o r i n g s , b r e a k windows, r i p up a d v e r t i s e m e n t m a t e r i a l and even throw s e a t s out o f the window. A l l o f the above a c t s happened on one bus i n 1961. A group o f s t u d e n t s f r o m John O l i v e r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l were r e t u r n i n g f r o m a s k a t i n g p a r t y a t K e r r i s d a l e Arena and t h e y l e f t t h e bus a shambles. The T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l on E a s t Broadway, the John O l i v e r Secondary S c h o o l and the - 47 - K i n g Edward C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e produce the h i g h e s t r a t e s of damage t o b u s e s . Not a l l s e a t damage i s done by j u v e n i l e s . Damage to buses o c c u r s i n the w e s t and s o u t h - e a s t a r e a s o f the C i t y more t h a n i n o t h e r a r e a s . A b e l t o f damage r u n s a l o n g 4 1 s t Avenue f r o m K e r r i s d a l e t o K n i g h t Road and V i c t o r i a D r i v e and then f o l l o w s t h e s e s t r e e t s s o u t h t o the bus l o o p s . The B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y have d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g windows i n the bus l o o p a t 5 4 t h Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e . They a t t r i - b u t e t h i s damage t o the boys' c l u b a t 5 7 t h and V i c t o r i a D r i v e . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y r u n a r a i l w a y between New W e s t m i n s t e r and the K i t s i l a n o Yards near G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d . The r a i l w a y f o l l o w s t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f r o m New W e s t m i n s t e r t o M a r p o l e and the n t u r n s n o r t h a l o n g the B o u l e v a r d and A r b u t u s S t r e e t t o the K i t s i l a n o Y a r d s . H i g h damage a r e a s a l o n g the r a i l w a y e x i s t between K n i g h t S t r e e t and F r a s e r S t r e e t and f r o m 12th Avenue and A r b u t u s S t r e e t t o the K i t s i l a n o Y a r d s . F r e i g h t c a r s , e n g i n e s , c a b o o s e s , s w i t c h lamps, s w i t c h l o c k s and push c a r s r e c e i v e damage. A group o f boys ( t h o u g h t t o be f r o m the boys' c l u b a t 5 7 t h Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e ) , threw beer b o t t l e s t h r o u g h the windows o f the e n g i n e and the caboose of a t r a i n . A n o t h e r group (1964) b r o k e the l o c k on a push c a r and e n j o y e d a r i d e . They l e f t the c a r on the t r a c k s as a t r a i n was a p p r o a c h i n g b u t the e n g i n e e r saw the o b j e c t on the t r a c k s and s t o p p e d . I n s u l a t o r s on power l i n e s r e c e i v e much damage i n r u r a l a r e a s f r o m r i f l e b u l l e t s , b u t i n the c i t y o n l y the o c c a s i o n a l i n s u l a t o r a t a s u b - s t a t i o n i s b r o k e n . G e n e r a l l y , the a c t o f w i l f u l damage o c c u r s i n an i s o l a t e d or h i d d e n a r e a . The a c t i s u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d b y a group. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 20% - 257° o f j u v e n i l e s c h a r g e d w i t h w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y b e l o n g t o f a m i l i e s who r e c e i v e - 47a - TABLE 3 INCIDENTS OF WILFUL DAMAGE TO PROPERTY IN VANCOUVER AREA ONLY 1960 - 1964 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 Buses (windows, s e a t s , e t c . ) 30E* 33W 30E 35W 37E 22W 29E 33W 37E 25W Bus Loops 2E 2E 1W 4E 2W 3E 3W 4E 3W F r e i g h t Cars 4E 1W 3E 4W 5E 5W 3W R a i l w a y P r o p e r t y S w i t c h l o c k s and l e n s e s , e t c . 24E 43W 23E 58W 43E 45W 20E 52W 23E 45W A u t h o r i t y V e h i c l e s IE 1W IE 2W IE IE 1W M e t e r s (Gas & E l e c t r i c i t y ) 1W 3W 3E 4W T o o l s ( M i s c . ) IE 1W I n s u l a t o r s 1W S u b s t a t i o n s IE 1W IE 2W IE M i s c . p r o p e r t y , k i t s , e t c . 1W 1W IE S t r e e t l i g h t r e p o r t s IE 1W 1W P o l e s 3E TOTALS 140 158 171 157 147 JUVENILE TOTALS 133 148 162 149 140 SOURCE: - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , S e c u r i t y Dept. R e c o r d s . * E - E a s t W - West - 47b - TABLE 4 INDIVIDUALS- CHARGED IN COURT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1964 YEAR NUMBER AGE OFFENCE LOCATION 1960 2 17 18 S h o r t t r o l l e y w i r e s . West end ( H i g h b u r y ) 1961 5 13 14 14 13 15 Damage t o i n t e r i o r o f b u s . 41 s t - K e r r i s d a l e A r e n a Crowd 1 39 A drunk damaged a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n door (B.C. Hydro p r o p e r t y ) . 22nd & Renfrew 2 15 15 Bus s e a t s West end 1962 1 40 Bus Depot window L a r w i l l 2 13 14 A i r r i f l e a t bus windows 33r d & V i c t o r i a 1963 2 14 14 E l e c t r i c M e t e r s K e e f e r S t r e e t 5 13 14 14 15 16 Bus i n t e r i o r s 4 1 s t Avenue 1964 7 16 16 R a i l w a y p u s h c a r (Charge T r e s p a s s ) M a r p o l e 16 16 16 17 17 SOURCE: - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , S e c u r i t y Dept. R e c o r d s . - 47c - TABLE 5 WILFUL DAMAGE TO BUSES AND RAILWAY PROPERTY BY AREA BETWEEN 1960 AND 1964 INCLUSIVE PERCENTAGE YEAR AREA OF DAMAGE 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 TOTALS BUSES E a s t S o u t h - E a s t Van. 50% 15 15 19 15 18 82 Renfrew 20% 6 5 7 6 7 31 H a s t i n g s 25% 7 8 9 7 10 41 Kingsway & F r a s e r 5% 2 2 2 1 2 9 TOTALS 30 30 37 29 37 163 West Dunbar 4 0 % 13 14 9 13 10 59 K e r r i s d a l e 4 0 % 13 14 9 13 10 59 Oak S t r e e t 20% 7 7 4 7 5 30 TOTALS 33 35 22 33 25 148 RAILWAY PROPERTY E a s t South F r a s e r & M a i n 85% 20 20 37 17 20 122 J o y c e Road 15% 4 3 6 3 3 21 TOTALS 24 . 23 43 20 23 143 West Ma in-Marpo1e-Oak 6 0 % 26 34 27 32 26 145 K i t s i l a n o 20% 9 12 9 10 9 49 A r b u t u s 20% 8 12 9 10 10 49 TOTALS 43 58 45 52 45 243 SOURCE: B r i t i s h C o l umbia Hydro & Power A u t h o r i t y , S e c u r i t y Dept. R e c o r d s . - 48 - w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e . Sometimes t h o s e f r o m the more w e l l - t o - d o homes a r e a c t u a l l y f o s t e r c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n homes i n the a r e a . The F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t i n the C i t y o f Vancouver d e c i d e w hether an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be c h a r g e d w i t h an o f f e n c e . When the S e c u r i t y Department o f the B.C. Hydro f i n d an i n d i v i d u a l s u s p e c t e d o f c o m m i t t i n g a more s e r i o u s o f f e n c e , t h e y submit a r e p o r t t o the C o u r t . The C o u r t then d e c i d e s • whether t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be charged-. I n any o t h e r a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y w o u l d s i m p l y p r e s s c h a r g e s . I f the damage i s c o s t l y and/or the i n d i v i d u a l i s a r e p e a t e r , the Hydro seek t o p r e s s c h a r g e s . O n l y t h e more s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s a r e r e p o r t e d t o t h e p o l i c e and o f t e n the p o l i c e s u b m i t a r e p o r t t o the C o u r t . The S e c u r i t y Department seek r e s t i t u t i o n f o r damages and p r e f e r t h i s t y p e o f c o n t r o l t o s u b m i t t i n g a r e p o r t t o the C o u r t or t o p r e s s i n g c h a r g e s . Law Enforcement Sources - Vancouver P o l i c e Department' An e x p l o r a t o r y i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r who d i r e c t s the Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad l e d t o a r e f e r r a l t o the s t a t i s t i c i a n of the p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t . Two a t t e m p t s t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e s t a t i s t i c i a n p roduced o n l y the y e a r l y t o t a l s of damage t o p r o p e r t y f o r a l l age g r o u p s . F i n a l l y a q u e s t i o n n a i r e " f o r w a r d e d t o the S u p e r v i s o r o f A c c o u n t s and Records produced r e s u l t s . T a b l e s on J u v e n i l e Crime were o b t a i n e d f r o m the Vancouver P o l i c e Department A n n u a l R e p o r t s f o r 1961 and 1962."'' The Vancouver P o l i c e Department use the f i v e p a r t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p o l i c e i n c i d e n t s , b a s e d upon the u n i f o r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of o f f e n c e s d e v e l o p e d b y the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i e f s o f P o l i c e t o c a t e g o r i z e o f f e n c e s . * See Ap p e n d i x A-2. ** • See T a b l e Nos. 6 and 7. - 49 - I n t h i s system, damage t o p r o p e r t y i s h i d d e n i n P a r t I I C a s e s , S e c t i o n 26 - 1 O t h e r O f f e n c e s . The minor p o s i t i o n g i v e n t o w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of C h i e f s of P o l i c e , i n d i c a t e s the a t t i t u d e o f the p o l i c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t o t h i s type o f c r i m e . W i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y i s more of a n u i s a n c e t h a n a p r o b l e m t o the p o l i c e . P o l i c e r e c o r d s do n o t s e p a r a t e w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y and a c c i - d e n t a l damage t o p r o p e r t y . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n d i s t o r t s t h e r e s u l t s . The answers t o q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u e s t e d the l o c a t i o n i n Vancouver of b o t h the a c t s of w i l f u l damage and t h e r e s i d e n c e o f tho s e c h a r g e d w i t h such a c t s s p e c i f i e d o n l y t h r e e l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e C i t y . These a r e a s a r e too l a r g e t o be u s e f u l i n any a n a l y s i s . The answers t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u b m i t t e d t o the Records and A c c o u n t s Department appear i n A p p e n d i x B. The answer t o q u e s t i o n 1 i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i - f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the i n c i d e n c e of damage t o p r o p e r t y o v e r a f i v e year p e r i o d . The answer t o q u e s t i o n 5 l e a d s t o a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n f o r j u v e n i l e s . The l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n t h o s e c h a r g e d f o r 1963 stems f r o m a r i o t a f t e r the Grey Cup F o o t b a l l Game. A c o m p a r i s o n o f the answers f o r 1963 and 1964 t o q u e s t i o n s Nos. 3 and 5 shows t h a t the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f a c t s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y f o r w h i c h the o f f e n d e r i s known a r e committed by a d u l t s . To assume then t h a t the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f damage t o p r o p e r t y . i s committed b y a d u l t s w o u l d appear t o be a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , b u t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the f u n c t i o n i n g of the law l i m i t - t h e v a l i d i t y o f such c o n c l u s i o n . The a d u l t who damages p r o p e r t y w o u l d be r e p o r t e d and/or a r r e s t e d w i t h l e s s pangs o f c o n s c i e n c e t h a n an e l e v e n year o l d boy. Where r e s t i t u t i o n a p p e ars i m p o s s i b l e , the v i c t i m w o u l d be l e s s l i k e l y t o 1 W i l s o n , O.W., P o l i c e Records T h e i r I n s t a l l a t i o n a nd Use ( C h i c a g o : P u b l i c S e r v i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 942), p. 257. - 49a - TABLE 6 VANCOUVER POLICE DEPARTMENT Youth and Auto Squad - 1961 T o t a l J u v e n i l e s A r r e s t e d and Summonsed MALES 8 - 12 Years 13 - 15 Yea r s 16 Ye a r s 17 Ye a r s Age not shown FEMALES 8 - 1 2 Y e a r s 13 - 15 Yea r s 16 Ye a r s 17 Ye a r s Age not shown 1959 1960 1961 354 185 143 695 633 502 754 550 463 370 880 604 129 61 61 28 15 9 115 91 93 55 72 62. 22 85 50 24 - 15 4 TYPES OF CASES AGE GROUPS 8 - 1 5 16 17 Not S t a t e d M - F M - F M - F M - F Murder - - - 1 M a n s l a u g h t e r - - - - - - - - A s s a u l t s ( a l l k i n d s ) 10 1 4 1 11 - - - R o b b e r i e s & A t t e m p t s - - 3 - - - - - B. & E. and A t t e m p t s 145 2 25 - 18 - - - T h e f t s and A t t e m p t s 183 23 50 9 26 2 8 - A u t o T h e f t s & A t t e m p t s 86 3 48 - 25 1 2 - P o s s e s s i o n S t o l e n Goods 30 - 11 - 8 - 2 - D r i v i n g Charges (C.C.C.) 2 - 7 - 19 - 2 - Government L i q u o r A c t 14 6 29 7 49 8 3 2 Mo t o r V e h i c l e A c t 69 3 221 12 365 20 38 1 Runaway and T r u a n c y 6 14 3 8 1 - - V a g r a n c y 1 - 1 5 2 5 - - S e x u a l I m m o r a l i t y - 10 - 4 - 4 - - I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y 1 6 - - - - - - C i t y By-Laws 39 19 26 5 31 1 2 - A l l O t h e r D e l i n q u e n c i e s 59 15 35 10 50 8 4 1 - 49b - TABLE 7 VANCOUVER POLICE DEPARTMENT JUVENILES - 1962 TOTAL JUVENILES CHARGED 1960 1961 1962 8 - 1 2 Years 185 143 186 13 - 15 Years 633 502 697 16 Ye a r s 550 463 533 17 Y e a r s 880 604 806 Age not shown 61 61 42 2309 1773 2264 8 - 1 2 Ye a r s 15 9 18 1 3 - 1 5 Years 91 93 128 16 Ye a r s 72 62 96 17 Years 85 50 72 Age not shown 15 4 11 278 218 325 MALES FEMALES TYPES OF CASES AGE GROUPS 8 - 15 Not S t a t e d T o t a l M - F M - F M - F M - F JUVS. Chgd. Charges A s s a u l t C.B.H. _ _ _ 3 - - l 4 4 A s s a u l t on P o l i c e - - - 1 2 - - - 3 3 Rape & I n d e c e n t A s s a u l t - - 2 - 1 - - - 3 3 Robbery & A t t e m p t s 6 - 3 - 1 - - - 10 19 B. & E. & A t t e m p t s 149 9'/ 23 1 29 1 3 - 215 434 S h o p l i f t i n g 88 22 19 9 8 4 2 - 152 153 A u t o T h e f t s & A t t e m p t s 35 - 64 - 62 - - - 161 313 O t h e r T h e f t s & A t t e m p t s 132 2 32 3 27 3 2 1 202 352 P o s s e s s i o n S t o l e n Goods 68 - 32 4 3 2 2 - 137 260 H i t & Run 1 1 2 - 2 - - - 6 7 Drunk o r I m p a i r e d D r i v i n g - 1 - 2 - - - 3 3 Oth e r C . C . C . T r a f f i c O f f . 1 - 2 - 6 - - - 9 11 A r s o n - - - - 2 - - - 2 2 Damage t o P r o p e r t y 37 - 3 - 6 - 1 - 47 71 G o v 1 1 . L i q u o r A c t 41 4 29 6 75 8 1 1 165 172 Motor V e h i c l e A c t 146 32 219 24 452 18 25 2 918 1082 Va g r a n c y 3 1 6 - - 5 - - 15 16 S e x u a l I m m o r a l i t y - 9 - 6 2 3 - - 20 21 F o r g e r y , F r a u d & F.P. 3 - 2 1 4 - - - 10 22 M u n i c i p a l By-Laws 103 9 50 6 46 5 3 2 224 246 A l l O t h e r D e l i n q u e n c i e s 70 57 44 35 48 21 3 5 283 309 883 146 533 96 506 72 42 11 2589 3503 - 50 - p r e s s c h arges a g a i n s t a s m a l l boy t h a n a grown a d u l t . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s w i t h p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s , t he i m p r e s s i o n r e m a i n e d t h a t the a d u l t i n c i d e n t w o u l d o f t e n be a c c i d e n t a l and as a r e s u l t o f i n t o x i c a t i o n . An i n t o x i c a t e d p e r s o n , i t i s assumed, w o u l d be e a s i e r t o apprehend than a l i t h e , young l a d . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t a c h e d t o a c t s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y a r e a d u l t s , i t does n o t f o l l o w n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the a c t s a r e pe r f o r m e d by a d u l t s . Damage t o p r o p e r t y i s an o f f e n c e of the younger, male j u v e n i l e as the answers t o q u e s t i o n s s i x and seven i n d i c a t e . The answer t o q u e s t i o n n i n e d i s t r i b u t e s t he a c t s o f damage to p r o p e r t y a c c o r d i n g t o a r e a . The amount o f damage i n each a r e a i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o the number o f j u v e n i l e s i n each a r e a . The C i t y o f Vancouver had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 384,522 i n 1961. The Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t f o r 1961 on p o p u l a t i o n does n o t p r o v i d e a breakdown o f the p o p u l a t i o n b y age groups w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o the l e g a l j u v e n i l e age group i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e f o r e , t h r e e age groups were com- b i n e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n i n Vancouver between ages of f i v e and n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f 82,448. The a r e a bounded b y Boundary Road i n t h e e a s t , Broadway on the n o r t h , F r a s e r S t r e e t on the w e s t and t h e N o r t h Arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r t o the s o u t h c o n t a i n s the g r e a t e s t d e n s i t y o f j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n . Based on s t a t i s t i c s f o r males o n l y , the 5 - 1 9 year age group composes 27.2% o f the e n t i r e male p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a , w h i l e the r a t e f o r the e n t i r e c i t y ( b ased on males o n l y ) i s 21.8%. I n Vancouver t h e j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . Many a c t s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y a r e n o t r e p o r t e d . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y 25% o f minor a c t s a r e r e p o r t e d t o t h e p o l i c e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 957» o f * See F i g u r e s Nos. 1 and 2. - 51 - the a c t s r e p o r t e d a r e by the v i c t i m or by n e i g h b o u r s , w h i l e o n l y 51 a r e d e t e c t e d b y p o l i c e p a t r o l s . The p o l i c e d e s p a t c h a c o n s t a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e even a minor r e p o r t of damage t o p r o p e r t y . I f the i d e n t i t y o f the o f f e n d e r i s known, the v i c t i m d e c i d e s whether or n o t he w i l l l a y c h arges a g a i n s t h i m . The p o l i c e w i l l n o t a r r e s t a j u v e n i l e u n l e s s t h e r e i s no r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t or g u a r d i a n i n t h e home of the j u v e n i l e . The Vancouver F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t The Vancouver F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t d e c i d e whether or n o t an i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d appear b e f o r e the C o u r t . I f the i n d i v i d u a l i s b r o u g h t t o the C o u r t and found g u i l t y , he or she i s d e s i g n a t e d as " d e l i n q u e n t " . The C o u r t does n o t f i n d the i n d i v i d u a l g u i l t y of c a r t h e f t o r o f w i l f u l damage, e t c . T h e r e f o r e , the p h i l o s o p h y of the C o u r t r e s u l t s i n a s y s t e m where no o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s on t h e i n c i d e n c e of v a r i o u s c r i m e s a r e k e p t . The d a t a i n T a b l e No. 8 was g a t h e r e d by the Deputy C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , H a r r y Robson, who has a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t y p e of o f f e n c e (damage t o p r o p e r t y ) . The a c q u i s i t i o n of p e r s o n a l d a t a r e q u i r e d an i n s p e c t i o n of the f i l e s o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l c h a r g e d w i t h damage t o p r o p e r t y . S i n c e the Census o f Canada t o o k p l a c e i n 1961, t h a t y e a r was s e l e c t e d . Problems d e v e l o p e d a t t e m p t i n g to c o - o r d i n a t e the f i l e m a t e r i a l w i t h the p r e p a r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e f o r e , f a c e s h e e t i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y was u s e d . The d e t a i l s of t h i s p r o b l e m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The major p o r t i o n of the m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d f r o m the c o u r t f i l e s a p p l i e d t o the c h a p t e r on case s t u d i e s , b u t some of t h e m a t e r i a l has been a d a p t e d to s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s . The C o u r t r e c o r d s h e e t s were used t o a c q u i r e the names o f j u v e n i l e s c h a r g e d w i t h damage to p r o p e r t y . The a d d r e s s o f the p r o p e r t y damaged was TABLE 8 JUVENILES CHARGED UNDER WILFUL DAMAGE IN THE FAMILY & CHILDREN'S COURT FOR THE CITY OF VANCOUVER BOYS GIRLS Year T o t a l 7-13 14-15 16-17 7-13 14-15 16-17 1960 52 9 12 18 1 - 1 1961 47 16 24 3 1 - - 1962 72 7 13 9 1 5 - 1963 75 28 29 20 - - 1 1964 F i g u r e s n o t a v a i l a b l e at ti m e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ; DISPOSITIONS Cont . F i n a l 1 Cmtd. S.O. Pr o - P r o - D i s p . Tr.M. T r n g . W i t h - b a t i o n b a t i o n Susp. F i n e d A d j n . T r i a l C ourt S c h o o l Dism. S t a y h e l d 5 3 22 1 65 16 - - 8 3 3 7 3 19 2 44 5 - - 2 6 4 5 4 15 5 65 10 4 - 2 9 5 13 5 28 5 - 21 - 2 5 - 20 Key t o a b b r e v i a t i o n s : Cont. P r o b a t i o n F i n a l D i s p . Susp. A d j n . T r . M. C o u r t Dism. S.O. W i t h h e l d C o n t i n u e d P r o b a t i o n F i n a l D i s p o s i t i o n Suspended A d j o u r n e d T r i a l i n M a g i s t r a t e ' s C o u r t D i s m i s s e d - 52 - p r e s e n t i n a l m o s t e v e r y f i l e . F i g u r e No. 3 l o c a t e s the o f f e n c e s i n v a r i o u s a r e a s of the C i t y a c c o r d i n g t o census t r a c t . The r e s i d e n t i a l a d d r e s s of each o f f e n d e r was s e c u r e d and F i g u r e No. 4 l o c a t e s the r e s i d e n c e s i n census t r a c t a r e a s . The m a j o r i t y o f o f f e n d e r s l i v e i n t h e a r e a e a s t o f Main S t r e e t and South of 16th Avenue. I n c l u d e d i n the C o u r t r e c o r d s h e e t s a r e l i s t s o f c a s e s s e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t . The a d d r e s s e s of t h e s e o f f e n d e r s were a l s o p l o t t e d on a c h a r t . The c h a r t s l o c a t i n g the r e s i d e n c e s of t h o s e cases s e t t l e d I n C o u r t and Out of C o u r t i n d i c a t e the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a s o f the c i t y a c c o r d i n g t o census t r a c t . Based on the g e n e r a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s of the census t r a c t a r e a t h e r e appears t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and the d e c i s i o n t o s e t t l e a c a s e Out of C o u r t (or I n C o u r t ) . A c o m p arison b a s e d on t h e o c c u p a t i o n of the p a r e n t s of t h e o f f e n d e r i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , and i s more s i g n i f i c a n t . The C o u r t r e c o r d s h e e t s were u t i l i z e d a g a i n to e s t a b l i s h the f r e q u e n c y o f o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y a c c o r d i n g t o the t i m e of y e a r . F i g u r e s Nos. 6, 7 and 8 i l l u s t r a t e the f i n d i n g s f o r t h e y e a r s 1961, 1962 and 1963. The i n c i d e n c e a p p e a r s t o f o l l o w the h a p p e n i n g s o f the s c h o o l y e a r . The months of J a n u a r y , A p r i l , May, June and September have h i g h r a t e s . The c h i l d r e n r e t u r n t o s c h o o l a f t e r h o l i d a y s i n J a n u a r y , A p r i l ( E a s t e r ) and September. The h i g h i n c i d e n c e i n June may be r e l a t e d t o the p r e s s u r e o f f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . The c h a r t s were b a s e d on the d a t e of C o u r t appearance and n o t upon the d a t e o f the o f f e n c e . The h i g h r a t e f o r November 1963 i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the h a p p e n i n g s a t the end o f t h e Grey Cup F o o t b a l l Game of t h a t y e a r . * See F i g u r e No. 5. ** See F i g u r e No..9. - 52a - - 52b - - 52c - U( 5 IK "5 C v c 3 c m € 0 V- ct w a o tt i h 2 Vfl Q cr <3C o <o u -> a V- Q <* v. 0 o > w "a u/ <K < J a \ii t c s u [L U. w G :> Ul Ml C -> ft h 3 C V s VI 1- - 52d -. - 52e - - 53 - I n t e g r a t i o n and S p e c u l a t i o n The Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t s were used t o compare the i n c i d e n c e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia t o the i n c i d e n c e i n Canada and t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . The r a t e i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia i s h i g h e r than i n the n a t i o n as a whole o r i n the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . D e l i n q u e n c y r e p o r t s f o r Vancouver were a v a i l a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o c i t y a r e a and t h e e x a c t j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t a r e a was o b t a i n e d f r o m Ottawa. The r a t e per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d . The i n c i d e n c e i n Vancouver a c c o r d i n g to the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s f o r males under the age o f 16 y e a r s f o r 1961 i s 525, w h i l e the Vancouver P o l i c e Department Annual R e p o r t on J u v e n i l e Crime f o r 1961 l i s t s 645 j u v e n i l e , male o f f e n d e r s under 16 y e a r s o f age. C a l c u l a t e d on the p o p u l a t i o n between the ages of 7 - 15 y e a r s i n Vancouver the o f f i c i a l (D.B.S.) s t a t i s t i c s y i e l d a r a t e of 10.16 per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n , b u t the p o l i c e s t a t i s t i c s y i e l d a r a t e o f 12.47 per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n . O n l y i n the C i t y o f Vancouver ( i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) does the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t d e c i d e whether a j u v e n i l e s h a l l be b r o u g h t i n t o C o u r t . T h i s p r a c t i c e may a c c o u n t f o r the d i s c r e p a n c y between the p o l i c e and F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t s t a t i s t i c s . The r a t e of damage t o p r o p e r t y i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia i s a l m o s t h a l f of the r a t e i n the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o and i s lo w e r than the f i a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . I n t h e C i t y o f Va n c o u v e r , the p o l i c e do n o t c o n s i d e r j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m an i m p o r t a n t c r i m e . C a l c u l a t e d w i t h d a t a f r o m t h e s o u r c e s used above, the r a t e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i n T o r o n t o i s 29.36 per 1000 j u v e n i l e s . The r a t e i n T o r o n t o i s more t h a n t w i c e t h e r a t e i n V a n c o u v e r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e may be a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a r e a d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e t e r m " C i t y of T o r o n t o " i n the r e p o r t s on p o p u l a t i o n and the a r e a d e s i g n a t e d by the same te r m i n the r e p o r t s * See T a b l e No. 1 ** See T a b l e No. 6 - 54 - on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , i t i s assumed t h a t the a r e a s i m p l i e d a r e i d e n t i c a l . " R a t h e r t h a n assume t h a t j u v e n i l e s i n T o r o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o a much g r e a t e r degree t h a n do j u v e n i l e s i n Vancouver, and s i n c e t h i s s t u d y c o u l d n o t i n v e s t i g a t e the law-e n f o r c e m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n T o r o n t o , p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s were sought i n Vancouver. The B r i t i s h C o l umbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y and t h e C i t y o f Vancouver E l e c t r i c a l Department c l a i m t h a t the a r e a s o u t h o f 4 1 s t Avenue i s an a r e a o f h i g h damage t o p r o p e r t y . The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f r o m the Vancouver F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n l y seven j u v e n i l e s appeared b e f o r e the C o u r t f r o m t h a t a r e a i n 1961. They r e p r e s e n t o n e - s i x t h of the j u v e n i l e s a p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t f r o m the e n t i r e c i t y . Yet t h i s a r e a c o n t a i n s the h i g h e s t j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and i s c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y bad a r e a f o r damage t o p r o p e r t y . T h i s a r e a i s p a t r o l l e d b y a detachment of the Vancouver P o l i c e Department w h i c h c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t the Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad. T h i s squad a t t e m p t s t o p r e v e n t d e l i n q u e n c y . A f i r s t g l a n c e a t F i g u r e 4 w o u l d l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the squad i s s u c c e e d i n g i n i t s t a s k s , b u t t h i s i s a l s o the a r e a o f the h i g h e s t damage t o p r o p e r t y . Perhaps i t c o u l d be argu e d t h a t a g r e a t e r number of j u v e n i l e s i n an a r e a a r e bound t o commit a g r e a t e r number o f c r i m e s - and t h e y do. But why a r e t h e y n o t ch a r g e d w i t h t h e s e c r i m e s ? The a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y t o the n o r t h , bounded b y Cambie S t r e e t and 4 1 s t Avenue, c o n t a i n s fewer j u v e n i l e s , i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be the w o r s t a r e a i n t h e C i t y f o r v a n d a l i s m , y e t i t p o s s e s s e s t w e n t y j u v e n i l e s c h a r g e d w i t h damage t o p r o p e r t y i n 1961. T h i s i s a l m o s t h a l f o f the j u v e n i l e s c h a r g e d w i t h such a c t s i n the e n t i r e C i t y . T h i s a r e a i s p o l i c e d b y the same detachment of t h e Vancouver * Co r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i n Ottawa f a i l e d t o e i t h e r r e f u t e or c o n f i r m t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . ** See F i g u r e 1. - 55 - P o l i c e Department. The F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t r e q u e s t s r e p o r t s on a l l i n c i d e n c e s of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y b e f o r e the j u v e n i l e c h a r g e d w i t h an o f f e n c e i s b r o u g h t t o C o u r t . The C o u r t d e c i d e s whether the j u v e n i l e w i l l appear b e f o r e a j u d g e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the a r e a s o u t h o f 4 1 s t Avenue c o n t a i n s o n e - h a l f of t h e j u v e n i l e s whose c a s e s were s e t t l e d Out of C o u r t i n 1961. T h i s a r e a has been a s s i g n e d a h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s than the a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y t o the n o r t h w h i c h was d e f i n e d above.''" I t c o u l d n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d whether t h i s r e p r e s e n t s the a t t i t u d e o f the C o u r t or the a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d i n the r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d to the C o u r t . F. I v a n Nye i n a s t u d y of d e l i n q u e n c y w h i c h u t i l i z e d c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l as a s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n c h i l d r e n i n p r i s o n s or on 2 p r o b a t i o n , c o n c l u d e d t h a t v a n d a l i s m i s a c r i m e of u p p e r - c l a s s boys and g i r l s . C o u r t s t a t i s t i c s h i d e t h i s f a c t . The C o u r t b a s e s i t s d e c i s i o n on whether a j u v e n i l e s h o u l d appear b e f o r e the C o u r t on the b a s i s of the s t a b i l i t y of the j u v e n i l e ' s e n v i r o n m e n t . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a m i l y l i f e w h i c h r e s u l t i n a C o u r t appearance a r e t y p i c a l of the l o w e r - c l a s s f a m i l y . O f t e n i t i s n o t the s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e o f f e n c e b u t the p a t t e r n of f a m i l y l i f e w h i c h r e s u l t s i n a c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e . The P a r k s Board and the S c h o o l Board t e n d t o h i d e a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m . They keep o n l y m i n i m a l r e c o r d s of the c r i m e . They do n o t want p u b l i c i t y about i t . When t h e y have few r e c o r d s , t h e y have l i t t l e w h i c h c o u l d be p u b l i s h e d . A l l non-law e n f o r c e m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e d d a t a , seek r e s t i t u t i o n w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e and p r e s s c h a r g e s o n l y i n s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s . ( T h i s p r a c t i c e p r o t e c t s the j u v e n i l e f r o m the more a f f l u e n t f a m i l y ) . These f a c t o r s and. the:: 1 B e l l , L . I . M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver - An Overview f o r S o c i a l P l a n n e r s ( V a n c o u v e r : Community Che s t and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , 1965), p.7. 2 Nye, F., F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s and D e l i n q u e n t Behaviour.(New Yo r k : John W i l e y and Sons I n c . , 1958) p.26. - 56 - C o u r t ' s p r a c t i c e of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r i n t a k e w o u l d t e n d t o r e d u c e the o f f i c i a l i n c i d e n c e o f damage t o p r o p e r t y . The p r a c t i c e s o f o t h e r a r e a s w o u l d have t o be known b e f o r e t h e s e f a c t o r s w o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n t o a v a l i d c o m p a r i s o n . The B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company f e e l t h e y have no p r o b l e m w i t h damage t o p r o p e r t y . Any s t a t i s t i c s f r o m i n s u r a n c e companies l a y h i d d e n i n f i r e i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e . The E l e c t r i c a l Department of the C i t y o f Vancouver have d i f f i c u l t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g the cause o f damage. A l t h o u g h the P a r k s Board c l a i m d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the a c c i d e n t a l and the p u r p o s i v e , t h e y and the S c h o o l B o a r d t e n d t o h i d e the p r o b l e m f o r what appears t o be sound t h e o r y . The t h e o r y t h a t p u b l i c i t y i n c r e a s e s the number of o f f e n c e s was con- s i d e r e d t o be v a l i d b y the P a r k s B o a r d , by t h e S c h o o l Board and b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u mbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . The P a r k s Board s t a f f emphasized t h a t t h e y d i d n o t want any i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i s h e d . They m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s s l i g h t y e t t h e y c o n s t r u c t t h e i r b u i l d i n g s o f s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l t o reduce-, damage t o p r o p e r t y . The P a r k s Board s t a t e d t h a t the p e r i o d o f g r e a t e s t damage i s between June and September. T h e i r d e n i a l of t h e p r o b l e m may p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t f o r the lo w e r r a t e s d u r i n g the summer months. W i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y n o t o n l y o c c u r s i n c o n t a g i o u s s p u r t s b u t i t a l s o o c c u r s p r e d o m i n e n t l y as a group a c t i v i t y . A j u v e n i l e c o m m i t t i n g an a c t o f v a n d a l i s m w h i l e he i s a l o n e i s r a r e . (The two i n d i v i d u a l a c t s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 5 were committed b y drunk a d u l t s . ) V a n d a l i s m s p r e a d s f r o m one group member t o a n o t h e r and then f r o m one group t o a n o t h e r . Throughout the i n t e r v i e w s the f a c t o r of v i s i b i l i t y has emerged. S t r e e t l i g h t s a r e b r o k e n a l o n g s t r e e t s b o r d e r i n g a r a i l w a y t r a c k . Buses r e c e i v e damage when crowded. S c h o o l s a r e damaged d u r i n g weekends and h o l i d a y s . The * See F i g u r e No. 9. - 56a - 20 L8 L6 L4 L2 10 8 6 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 3 1 n J A N E E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L Y A U G S E P T 0 C T N 0 V D E C F i g . 6. Number of J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage to Pr o p e r t y Appearing i n Court Per Month i n 1961. Sources Vancouver Family and C h i l d r e n ' s Court Records. - 56b - 20 18 16 K 12 10 8 21 IS W I f i : i i 9 7 5 3 1 A N E B M A R P R M A Y J U N E J U L Y: u G s E P T C T 0 V E C F i g . 7. Number of J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage to Property Appearing i n Court per month i n 1962. Source: Vancouver Femily and Chil d r e n ' s Court Records« - 56c - 2L J20 L8 19 L6 17 • n o U 15 L2 13 LO 11 8 7 o •", i 5 4 2 0 1 0 J F M A M J J A S o: N D A E A P A U U U E c 0 E H B R R Y N L G P T V C F i g . 8. Number of J u v e n i l e s Charged w i t h Damage to Pr o p e r t y Appearing i n Court Per Month i n 1963* Source: Vancouver Family and Children's Court Records - 56d - 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 U 12 J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N J U L A . U G E P 0 C T N 0 V F i g . 9 T o t a l Number of Juveniles Charged with Damage to Property Appearing In Court Per Month Between 1961 - 1963 Inclusive jSourcej Vancouver Family and Children's Court Records. r a i l w a y y a r d s a t MarpoTe a r e i s o l a t e d . I f the p r o p e r t y i s i s o l a t e d or a b a r r i e r o f cov e r can be c r e a t e d - v a n d a l i s m may o c c u r . As the D i r e c t o r o f t h e Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad s t a t e d d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w , " V a n d a l s a r e cowards". Most c r i m e o c c u r s i n s e c r e t and i n t h a t way v a n d a l s do n o t d i f f e r f r o m p e o p l e who commit o t h e r c r i m e s , but t h e r e i s one element i n w i l f u l damage t o p r o p e r t y w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a type o f c o w a r d i c e . Two s t a f f members a t the Vancouver Board o f E d u c a t i o n o f f i c e s were d i s c u s s i n g one day a t c o f f e e t i m e a s c h o o l t o w h i c h an a d d i t i o n had been b u i l t . "They a l w a y s b r e a k the s m a l l windows i n t h e o l d s e c t i o n . They n e v e r b o t h e r w i t h the b i g ones i n the new w i n g " . "Don't f o r g e t - t h o s e b i g ones f a c e a row o f houses'." I t appears t h a t some v a n d a l s s t i l l r e s p o n d t o a t y p e o f c o n t r o l . They know what t h e y can damage w i t h o u t too much f u s s b e i n g made t o f i n d o ut who d i d i t . The P a r k s Board a s c r i b e a low damage t o p r o p e r t y r a t e t o the p r e s e n c e o f a r e s i d e n t c a r e t a k e r i n each f a c i l i t y . T h i s t h e o r y may have a degree o f v a l i d i t y . The pr e s e n e e o f a c a r e t a k e r e l i m i n a t e s the i s o l a t i o n f a c t o r w h i c h has been m e n t i o n e d b y a l m o s t a l l s o u r c e s . P h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m o t h e r b u i l d i n g s i s n o t the o n l y f o r m o f i s o l a t i o n . Damage t o p r o p e r t y o c c u r s many ti m e s d u r i n g d a r k n e s s . The r a i l w a y y a r d s a t M a r p o l e , windows i n s c h o o l s and bus l o o p s a l l r e c e i v e damage d u r i n g the n i g h t . One n i g h t a bus t r o l l e y jumped o f f the power l i n e and as t h e o p e r a t o r went t o r e p l a c e the t r o l l e y , a young l a d q u i c k l y t o r e up s e v e r a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on t h e b u s . He was s e a t e d a g a i n b e f o r e the l i g h t s went on. Damage t o p r o p e r t y o c c u r s where p r o p e r t y i s i s o l a t e d and where the j u v e n i l e s a r e . The S c h o o l B o a r d m a i n t a i n t h a t damage i s more i n some a r e a s b u t o c c u r s a t a l m o s t e v e r y s c h o o l . J u v e n i l e s a r e i n s c h o o l s and use s c h o o l p r o p e r t y . The g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f damage t o p r o p e r t y o c c u r s i n a r e a s o f the c i t y where the d e n s i t y o f j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n i s h i g h . The c h a r t s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t TABLE 9 A COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF PIECES OF WINDOW GLASS BROKEN DUE TO VANDALISM FOR THE PERIOD OF JULY 1, 1963 TO AUGUST 31, 1963 AND THE CORRESPONDING PERIOD IN 1964 1963 1964 E l e m e n t a r y 942 962 Secondary 328 294 1270 1256 SOURCE: - Vancouver S c h o o l Board R e c o r d s . TABLE 10 WINDOW GLASS BREAKAGE - (VANDALISM) SCHOOLS WITH A SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN BREAKAGE IN 1964 OVER 1963 1963 1964 Bayview N i l 27 D i c k e n s 30 55 N e l s o n •19 240 S e x s m i t h 6 86 Shaughnessy 0 18 Tennyson N i l 72 W o l f e N i l 49 Byng N i l 44 G l a d s t o n e N i l 57 Thompson 32 53 SOURCE: - Vancouver S c h o o l Board R e c o r d s . - 57b - TABLE 11 WINDOW GLASS BREAKAGE - (VANDALISM) SCHOOLS WITH A SUBSTANTIAL DECREASE IN BREAKAGE IN 1964 OVER 1963 1963 1964 Douglas 71 27 H a s t i n g s 90 14 Hudson 26 N i l Queen E l i z a b e t h 50 4 R o b e r t s 45 N i l S e l k i r k 31 N i l S e c o r d 39 12 S t r a t h c o n a 29 N i l Tecumseh 28 4 C h u r c h i l l 38 3 K i l l a r n e y 68 1 Templeton 57 19 K i n g Edward Annex 25 3 SOURCE: - Vancouver S c h o o l Board R e c o r d s . - 58 - c l e a r l y . ' v The E l e c t r i c a l Department i n Vancouver, the P a r k s B o a r d , t h e S c h o o l B o a r d , the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y a l l c l a i m t h a t damage t o p r o p e r t y i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g the summer months, b u t t h e C o u r t r e c o r d s show a d e c r e a s e d u r i n g the summer months. I t a p p e a r s f r o m C o u r t r e c o r d s t h a t s c h o o l s do n o t p r e s s c h a r g e s u n t i l September. The P a r k s B o a r d s t a f f a v o i d the problem, th e E l e c t r i c a l Department have d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g a c u l p r i t and the o n l y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y s t i l l a t t e m p t i n g ( d u r i n g t h e summer) t o d e t e c t v a n d a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia i s the B r i t i s h C olumbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y (who have t h e i r own S e c u r i t y P o l i c e . ) The y a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s f r o m the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a p p r o a c h e d cannot be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l w h o l e . B.C. Hydro do n o t r e p o r t a l l a c t s o f w i l f u l damage t o the p o l i c e o r t o the C o u r t . Some, the more s e r i o u s , a r e r e p o r t e d t o the p o l i c e and o n l y the j u v e n i l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the more s e r i o u s damage a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o u r t . The C o u r t r e c e i v e s the r e p o r t s f r o m the s c h o o l , p a r e n t s , t h e p o l i c e , the f i r e m a r s h a l l , the B.C. Hydro and o t h e r s o u r c e s . The p o l i c e o n l y r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the C o u r t about o f f e n d e r s , whom t h e y r e f e r r e d . There i s no o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h p o s s e s s e s complete i n f o r m a t i o n a b out know a c t s o f w i l f u l damage, damage t o p r o p e r t y o r the o f f e n d e r s . No means e x i s t s , o u t s i d e o f a time-consuming i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e f i g u r e s . V a n d a l i s m c l o s e l y f i t s t he l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n a t t a c h e d t o w i l f u l damage i n the C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada P a r t I X , S e c t i o n s 372 and 373. The char g e o f damage t o p r o p e r t y may e n t a i l a n y type o f damage and does n o t i m p l y i n t e n t . P o l i c e s t a t i s t i c s a r e b a s e d on damage t o p r o p e r t y . The s t a t i s t i c s f r o m the * See F i g u r e s Nos. 1 and 2. - 59 - B.C. Hydro r e p r e s e n t w i l f u l damage. The cases examined i n C o u r t i n v o l v e m a i n l y a c t s o f w i l f u l damage. T h e r e f o r e , the s t u d y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t i s a s t u d y o f w i l f u l damage, i . e . v a n d a l i s m . A c e r t a i n amount of s k i l l i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e commitment of c e r t a i n u n d e t e c t e d v a n d a l a c t s . T h i s type o f s k i l l may be l e a r n e d f r o m o t h e r j u v e n i l e s w h i c h may s u p p o r t t o some degree the t h e o r y o f d i f f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . A c t s o f v a n d a l i s m o c c u r i n r a p i d sequence i n one a r e a . The j u v e n i l e s may c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e i r " r e p " i s a t s t a k e i f t h e y cannot a l s o p e r f o r m a v a n d a l a c t . V a n d a l i s m i s an o f f e n c e o f the younger j u v e n i l e as F i g u r e s 7 and 8 i l l u s t r a t e . As he m a t u r e s , the j u v e n i l e p r o b a b l y f i n d s o t h e r means of o b t a i n i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o r he t u r n s t o l u c r a t i v e c r i m e . T h i s t h e o r y c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h a t o f Cloward and O h l i n w h i c h i s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I . R e p o r t s f r o m the S c h o o l B o a r d i n d i c a t e t h a t w i l f u l damage t o s c h o o l p r o p e r t y c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a g e n e r a l a d o l e s c e n t f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the s e e m i n g l y i n t e r m i n a b l e and i m p o s s i b l e means t h a t s o c i e t y has p r e s c r i b e d t o the a t t a i n m e n t of m a t e r i a l and a d u l t g o a l s . A l t h o u g h C l o w a r d and O h l i n v i e w d e l i n q u e n c y as a c r i m e o f the l o w e r - c l a s s b o y f r u s t r a t e d i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a t u s and m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , the above i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , • , , * * s u p p o r t s t h e i r t h e o r y t o a d e g r e e . Sound c o n c l u s i o n s a r e b a s e d on p r e c i s e f a c t s . The f a c t s g a t h e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e i n many i n s t a n c e s n e i t h e r v e r y p r e c i s e nor v e r y s c i e n t i f i c . * I n one c a s e , a member of the S e c u r i t y P o l i c e o f the B.C. Hydro s a t i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d two j u v e n i l e s u s p e c t s on a p u b l i c b u s . A l t h o u g h he c o u l d d e t e c t no s u s p i c i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , when the boys had l e f t the b u s , he f o u n d the bus s l i t i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s . 1 S u t h e r l a n d , Edwin H., The P r o f e s s i o n a l T h i e f ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r - s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 937), p. 207-7. ** See Chap t e r I . - 60 - Even the y e a r l y i n c i d e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m o b t a i n e d f r o m p o l i c e r e c o r d s i s n o t a c c u r a t e - p o l i c e r e c o r d s do n o t l i s t a l l a c t s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y i n Va n c o u v e r . Even c o n s i d e r i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s , c e r t a i n g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s l e a d t o some p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s . V a n d a l i s m o c c u r s i n a l l a r e a s o f Van c o u v e r , but tends to be more p r e v a l e n t i n m i d d l e and u p p e r - c l a s s a r e a s . Those a p p e a r i n g i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t c h a r g e d w i t h damage t o p r o p e r t y l i v e m a i n l y i n l o w e r - c l a s s a r e a s . I t i s n o t the s e r i o u s n e s s of t h e c r i m e , o r the p e r s o n a - l i t y o f the j u v e n i l e b u t the r e s o u r c e s of the f a m i l y , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t the j u v e n i l e i s d e a l t w i t h I n C o u r t or Out of C o u r t . The p h i l o s o p h y o f b o t h the C o u r t and the p o l i c e a p p ears t o be t h a t i f the p a r e n t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t h e n the p a r e n t s can h a n d l e the j u v e n i l e . What words can be used t o d e s c r i b e " r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t s " ? They a r e s t a b l e ( t h e y c o n t r o l t h e i r i m p u l s e s ) , e f f i c i e n t and t h r i f t y ( t h e y budget w e l l ) a m b i t i o u s i n a c a r e e r , i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e community and a d a p t a b l e t o the new s i t u a t i o n o f a c h i l d i n t r o u b l e . The a d u l t p o s s e s s i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s c o u l d be a r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t and he w o u l d a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e i n b u s i n e s s . The v e r y same q u a l i t i e s o f the r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t a r e t h o s e o f the s u c c e s s f u l m i d d l e - c l a s s and u p p e r - c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l . I s the C o u r t j u d g i n g an i n d i v i d u a l , a c r i m e or a s o c i a l c l a s s ? I s t h e r e a law f o r the r i c h and a law f o r the poor? I s j u s t i c e s a c r i f i c e d i n t h e name of t r e a t m e n t ? ** See Page 62. CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF CASE F I L E S T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine i n f o r m a t i o n and d a t a t a k e n f r o m c a s e f i l e s of j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s adjudged d e l i n q u e n t on a char g e o f w i l f u l damage i n 1961. From t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s we w i l l a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t a p r o f i l e o f a " t y p i c a l " j u v e n i l e v a n d a l . T h i s p r o f i l e w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f r o m the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t f i l e s i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver. . The t e r m " v a n d a l " has some t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i o n i n a l m o s t e v e r y o n e ' s mind by r e a s o n o f the m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n and spoken i n our news media. T h i s c a t e g o r y o f d e l i n q u e n c y i s v i e w e d by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c somewhat s e n s a t i o n - a l l y as i n d i c a t e d by the c h o i c e o f a d j e c t i v e u s e d i n the p r e s s . P o p u l a r d e n u n c i a t i o n s range f r o m such t h i n g s as " c o d d l e d teenage b a n d i t s " t o t h o s e " j u v e n i l e r o u g h n e c k s " who have p r o l i f e r a t e d w i t h the advent o f the a u t o m a t i c - a l l y f u e l e d f u r n a c e and the d i s c a r d i n g o f the s t r a i g h t - e d g e d r a z o r . Our a p p r o a c h t o the s t u d y o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l has t a k e n us t o what a v a i l a b l e f a c t s t h e r e a re c o n c e r n i n g the v a n d a l and v a n d a l i s m . I n the C i t y o f Vancouver the o n l y s o u r c e w h i c h has r e c o r d s s u i t a b l e f o r our pur- poses i s the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t o f the C i t y o f Vancouver. The case f i l e s o f the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t pose s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y . The case f i l e s a r e not d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e the q u a n t i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n by w h i c h one c o u l d a s s e s s a l l the v a n d a l ' s p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y h i s t o r y i n d e t a i l . I n the c a s e s o f v a n d a l i s m where i t s s e v e r i t y i s a m a t t e r o f d e g r e e , the d i s p o s i t i o n s by r e s t i t u t i o n , even i f c o n s i d e r e d - 62 - an e x p e d i e n t s o l u t i o n , a u t o m a t i c a l l y impedes f u r t h e r f a c t - f i n d i n g . There were no f o r m a l p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s on any o f the case f i l e s w i t h the cha r g e o f damage t o p r o p e r t y i n 1961. The f a c e s h e e t i n f o r m a t i o n was the most u n i f o r m d a t a d e v i c e a v a i l - a b l e and the one document w h i c h was i n a l l case f i l e s . The f a c e s h e e t i n - f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : date o f r e f e r r a l , s e x , a d d r e s s , b i r t h d a t e , s c h o o l a t t e n d i n g and g r a d e , r e l i g i o n , o c c u p a t i o n o f f a t h e r and mother, m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f p a r e n t s , number o f s i b l i n g s , and the l i s t o f d e l i n q u e n c i e s . One c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be j u s t i f i e d i n c l a i m i n g the c a s e s we have s t u d i e d r e p r e s e n t s any s p e c i f i c c r o s s - s e c t i o n o r random s a m p l i n g o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l . We can c l a i m t o be a b l e t o p r e s e n t i n an e x p l o r a t o r y manner a s t u d y about the v a n d a l and v a n d a l i s m . T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n w i l l show us some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s r e g a r d i n g j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . A l s o , we c a n g i v e some case i l l u s t r a t i o n s about the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l , h i s f a m i l y and g e n e r a l comments c o n c e r n i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r the y e a r 1961. F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y we have c h o s e n the c a l e n d a r y e a r o f 1961 and the c a s e s r e p o r t e d of v a n d a l i s m w h i c h came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t o f the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia. These c a s e s were chosen where a charge was l a i d i n w h i c h t h e r e was damage t o p r o p e r t y , w i l f u l damage o r m a l i c i o u s damage. The number of c a s e s w h i c h were s e t t l e d t h r o u g h the j u v e n i l e c o u r t was t h i r t y - n i n e . Those c a s e s w h i c h were s e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t o r w i t h o u t the d i s p o s i t i o n o f a c o u r t j u d g e , were twenty- s i x . Thus t h e t o t a l number of c a s e s examined i s s i x t y - f i v e . From the d a i l y charge s h e e t s o f the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t we were a b l e t o s e c u r e a l l r e p o r t e d c a s e s o f c h a r g e s of damage t o p r o p e r t y , w i l f u l damage and/or m a l i c i o u s damage. The Out o f C o u r t s e t t l e m e n t s gave us - "63' - the l e a s t amount of i n f o r m a t i o n . The c h a r g e s h e e t s had the name o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l , a d d r e s s and the charge w h i c h was l a i d . From the C i t y D i r e c t o r y o f 1964 we were a b l e t o s e c u r e the o c c u p a t i o n o f b o t h f a t h e r and mother and make a d e t e r m i n a t i o n i f b o t h p a r e n t s were i n the home. Cases S e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t Out o f the t w e n t y - s i x c a s e s s e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t t h e r e were f i v e on w h i c h we were u n a b l e t o f i n d any i n f o r m a t i o n i n the C i t y D i r e c t o r y . F i v e o f the twenty-;six homes i n d i c a t e d the absence o f the j u v e n i l e ' s f a t h e r . The o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e mothers were t h e n l i s t e d when the absence o f the f a t h e r was e v i d e n t . (1) R e c e p t i o n i s t f o r a s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n (2) T y p i s t (3) S t e n o g r a p h e r (4) C l e r k i n a department s t o r e (5) J a n i t o r f o r a maintenance s e r v i c e These o c c u p a t i o n s do i n d i c a t e a type o f s t e a d y employment b u t not p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - p a i d . On the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , monies m i g h t be a f a c t o r o f why the c a s e s were s e t t l e d Out of C o u r t . I n C h a p t e r I I we have ample e v i d e n c e t h a t a l a r g e number of c a s e s o f v a n d a l i s m a re nev e r r e f e r r e d t o the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t . One m i g h t assume s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h i s : (1) No one wanted t o l a y a c h a r g e , (2) the v a n d a l s were ne v e r c a u g h t , o r (3) i f the v a n d a l s were s e i z e d t h e n r e s t i t u t i o n was worked out between the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . The J u v e n i l e C o u r t s t r e s s e s t h e p o l i c y o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f d i s p o s i n g o f a case i n terms o f the b e s t t r e a t m e n t f o r the j u v e n i l e . I t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t i n many c a s e s o f v a n d a l i s m t h i s t r e a t m e n t i s i n terms o f f i n a n c i a l - 64 - r e s t i t u t i o n by p a r e n t s o r the v a n d a l h i m s e l f . These a c t s may be f i r s t o f f e n c e s and not o f such s e v e r i t y as t o i n v o l v e the j u v e n i l e i n t h e C o u r t t h r o u g h w h i c h o t h e r j u v e n i l e s o f more s e v e r e d e l i n q u e n c e s a r e p r o c e s s e d . There were s i x t e e n s i t u a t i o n s where b o t h p a r e n t s were i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g i n the home. I n t h e s e c a s e s t h e f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s were l i s t e d a s : (1) T r u c k d r i v e r (2) (2) S e r v i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r B.C.Hydro (3) Lineman w i t h B.C.Telephone (4) Salesman f o r a b a k e r y (5) C a r e t a k e r of a p a r t m e n t s (6) C a r p e n t e r (7) F i r e m a n (8) Swamper on a t r u c k (9) P r e s i d e n t o f a h e a t i n g f i r m (10) R e a l t y salesman ( I D P a r t n e r i n p l a t i n g f i r m (12) P r e s i d e n t and manager o f a b u s i n e s s f i r m (13) Salesman f o r a c a r company (2) (14) P roduce w o r k e r I n t h e s e s i x t e e n c a s e s one c a n see t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l b u s i n e s s - men as w e l l as b u s i n e s s owners o r p a r t n e r s , and many o t h e r w h i t e c o l l a r and b l u e c o l l a r employees. There was one i n c i d e n c e where seven j u v e n i l e s were i n v o l v e d i n the damage of a c i t y b us. I n t h i s c a s e , w h i c h was s e t t l e d Out of C o u r t , the o c c u p a t i o n s of the f a t h e r s were: (1) p r e s i d e n t o f a b u s i n e s s f i r m , (2) r e a l t y s a lesman, (3) p a r t n e r i n a p l a t i n g f i r m , (4) p r e s i d e n t and manager o f a b u s i n e s s , (5) salesman f o r a c a r company (two j u v e n i l e s f r o m t h i s home), (6) unknown. - 65 - I n the t o t a l group o f t w e n t y - s i x t h e r e were a t l e a s t s i x i d e n t i f i a b l e g r oups i n w h i c h v a n d a l i s m t o o k p l a c e . These groups r a n g e d f r o m two t o seven j u v e n i l e s i n a group. Out o f the t w e n t y - s i x t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e case s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h we were u n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the v a n d a l i s m was committed by a s i n g l e j u v e n i l e o r by a group of j u v e n i l e s . We were a l s o u n a b l e to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e s e were f i r s t - t i m e o f f e n c e s o r one i n a s e r i e s of d e l i n q u e n t a c t s . The i d e n t i f i a b l e g roups o f v a n d a l s were as f o l l o w s : (1) One group i n v o l v i n g two j u v e n i l e s (2) Two groups o f t h r e e j u v e n i l e s (3) Two groups each i n v o l v i n g f o u r j u v e n i l e s (4) One group of seven j u v e n i l e s From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n we c a n assume t h a t i n the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s o f v a n d a l i s m , i t i s e x e c u t e d i n t h e framework of group a c t i v i t y . T h i s assumpt- i o n i s t a k e n f r o m the c a s e s s e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t . Cases B r o u g h t B e f o r e t h e C o u r t L e t us now examine t h i r t y - n i n e c a s e s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y w h i c h were b r o u g h t b e f o r e the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t f o r d i s p o s i t i o n . I n t h e s e c a s e s the i n d i v i d u a l f i l e s o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l were examined and f a c e s h e e t i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l a t e d w i t h a v i e w t o d e v e l o p i n g a p r o f i l e o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l . The case f i l e s had the d a t e o f r e f e r r a l t o the C o u r t . A s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e f o r the month o f September was e v i d e n t . I t seems t h a t the coming t o g e t h e r of the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n g i v e s r i s e t o f o r m a t i o n o f groups and i n some c a s e s t h i s might l e a d t o some t y p e o f v a n d a l i s m . I n the month of September t h e r e were n i n e r e f e r r a l d a t e s . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r 23% o f a l l r e f e r r a l d a t e s . P r i o r t o September and d u r i n g t h e summer - 66 - months o f June, J u l y and August t h e r e was a t o t a l of f o u r r e f e r r a l d a t e s . These t h r e e summer months a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 10% o f the t h i r t y - n i n e r e f e r r a l s i n 1961. These f i g u r e s g i v e f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o the f a c t o f group f o r m a t i o n by r e a s o n o f the commencing o f the s c h o o l y e a r . The ages and number o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s i n each age a r e as f o l l o w s : AGE NUMBER AGE NUMBER 9 1 14 13 10 2 15 6 11 6 16 2 12 0 17 2 13 . 7 I t i s q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t t h e age of most f r e q u e n c y i s t h a t o f f o u r t e e n . The age span o f t h i r t e e n , f o u r t e e n and f i f t e e n a c c o u n t s f o r 66.7% o f the t o t a l number o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s . T h i s l e a v e s 33.3% s c a t t e r e d among the ages o f n i n e t o t w e l v e and s i x t e e n and s e v e n t e e n i n c l u s i v e , w i t h a v i s i b l e t a p e r i n g o f f a f t e r t he age o f p u b e r t y . The s c h o o l grade a t the time of the v a n d a l a c t i s as f o l l o w s : GRADE NUMBER OF JUVENILES GRADE NUMBER OF JUVENILES 3 1 8 10 4 1 9 . 9 5 . 1 10 0 6 6 11 2 7 8 not i n s c h o o l 1 From t h e s e f i g u r e s we f i n d t h a t 84.6% o f a l l the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d between grades s i x t o n i n e . The r e m a i n d e r 15.4% a r e d i s - t r i b u t e d between grades t h r e e t o f i v e and t e n and e l e v e n , w i t h one not i n s c h o o l . I f we assume t h a t a c h i l d i s s i x y e a r s o f age when he b e g i n s grade one we can .67 - t h e n t r a n s p o s e the s c h o o l grade i n t o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l age by a d d i n g s i x t o each grade l v e l . When we do t h i s we f i n d a change i n the supposed l e v e l o f s c h o o l grade achievement as opposed t o the a c t u a l a c h i e v e d l e v e l o f s c h o o l g r a d e . T a k i n g the b i r t h d a t e o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s , we f i n d 66.7% o f them a r e between the ages of t h i r t e e n and f i f t e e n , i n c l u s i v e . However, when we t r a n s p o s e the r e p o r t e d s c h o o l grade l e v e l s by a d d i n g s i x y e a r s , we f i n d t h a t 69.2% o f t h e j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s s h o u l d be i n t h i s g r o u p i n g . One c o u l d o n l y s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e r e may be slow l e a r n e r s , p o s s i b l y some j u v e n i l e s a r e e m o t i o n a l l y d e p r i v e d o r some ty p e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l phe- nomenon i s o p e r a t i n g and t h i s a f f e c t s t h e i r s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e . We have no way i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e s p e c u l a t i o n s . The r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s were w i d e s p r e a d and t h e r e f o r e not t o o s i g n i f i c a n t : (1) Church o f E n g l a n d . . . 2 (7) Roman C a t h o l i c . . . . 11 (2) D a n i s h Church 1 (8) P r e s b y t e r i a n . . . . 4 (3) G l a d T i d i n g s . . . . . 1 (9) P r o t e s t a n t . . . . . . 8 (4) J e w i s h 1 (10) U n i t e d Church . . . . 7 (5) L u t h e r a n 1 (11) None r e p o r t e d . . . . 2 (6) P e n t e c o s t a l 1 These r e l i g i o u s p r e f e r e n c e s were l i s t e d on the f a c e s h e e t o f each ca s e f i l e . T here was no way t o c h e c k and see i f t h e s e j u v e n i l e s and/or t h e i r f a m i l i e s were a c t i v e l y engaged i n any of t h e i r c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s . The m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s o f the t h i r t y - n i n e j u v e n i l e s p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h the C o u r t were g i v e n as f o l l o w s : (1) Comptometer o p e r a t o r . . 1 ( 3 ) H a i r d r e s s e r l ( 2 ) G r o c e r 1 (4) Housewife 2 3 - 68 - (5) I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d (PMH). . 1 (8) S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e . . . . 1 (6) Nurse 1 (9) Unemployed 1 (7) S a l e s C l e r k 7 (10) Unknown 1 These o c c u p a t i o n s a r e q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d e x c e p t f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f the r o l e o f t h e h o u s e w i f e . T h i s c a t e g o r y o f h o u s e w i f e a c c o u n t s f o r 58.9% o r % of a l l r e p o r t e d o c c u p a t i o n s o f the m o t h e r s . The o c c u p a t i o n s o f the f a t h e r s are as f o l l o w s : (1) 1 (16) O r d e r l y ( h o s p i t a l . . • 1 (2) B.C.Hydro R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 1 (17) 1 (3) B.C.Telephone Lineman . . 1 (18) 1 (4) 1 (19) 1 (5) 1 (20) 1 (6) Cafe-owner ( g r o c e r ) . . . . 1 (21) 1 (7) 2 (22) 1 (8) C o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r • • • 1 (23) S t o r e r o o m k e e p e r . . . . 1 (9) 1 (24) 1 (10) 1 (25) Tapman (C a n a d i a n L e g . ) . 1 (11) 1 (26) 3 (12) 2 (27) Power House A t t e n d a n t . 1 (13) 1 (28) 3 (14) 1 (29) 1 (15) 2 The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f the f a t h e r s ' employment i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y a r e i n the b l u e c o l l a r l a b o u r i n g c l a s s . I n co m p a r i n g the o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e f a t h e r s i n w h i c h s e t t l e m e n t was made Out o f C o u r t , t h e r e i s a d e c i d e d d i f f e r - ence i n the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f w h i t e c o l l a r v s . b l u e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . By u s i n g a l i b e r a l and a r b i t r a r y c o n n o t a t i o n t o t h e terms w h i t e d o l l a r and b l u e c o l l a r , the f o l l o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s a p p e a r : OCCUPATION OUT OF COURT SETTLEMENT IN COURT SETTLEMENT White c o l l a r 62.5% 16.7% B l u e c o l l a r 37.5% 83.3% The f o r e g o i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n shows t h a t the c a s e s o f v a n d a l i s m w h i c h were s e t t l e d Out of C o u r t r e p r e s e n t e d a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f f a t h e r s w i t h w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h i s s u g g e s t s f i n a n c i a l r e s t i t u t i o n o f the v a n d a l s ' damage t o p r o p e r t y was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and t h u s d i d n ot w a r r a n t f u r t h e r a c t i o n by t h e C o u r t . From t h e s i b l i n g c o u n t we f o u n d t h a t t h e average number o f c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y i s 2.9, w h i c h i s c l o s e t o the Canadian n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . The count of s i b l i n g s p er f a m i l y , e x c l u d i n g the p a r e n t s and p r i m a r y s u b j e c t ( j u v e n i l e v a n d a l ) i s as f o l l o w s : NUMBER OF SIBLINGS TOTAL NUMBER OF FAMILIES TOTAL NUMBER OF SIBLINGS 0 5 0 1 10 10 2 10 . 20 3 5 15 4 2 8 5 3 15 6 0 0 7 1 7 8 1 8 9 2 18 One. w i l l r e a d i l y o b s e r v e t h a t t h e r e were no f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s o f o v e r n i n e c h i l d r e n . There were o n l y f o u r f a m i l i e s o f seven t o n i n e c h i l d r e n and -~70~- t h e s e f o u r f a m i l i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 32.77o o f a l l the c h i l d r e n . One o f the c l i c h e s o f the l i t e r a t u r e on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s t h a t the d e l i n q u e n t comes f r o m a "br o k e n f a m i l y " . I n the case o f a j u v e n i l e v a n d a l , o u r s t u d y o f c a s e s i n 1961 shows t h a t a r a t h e r s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f the f a m i l i e s a r e n o t t o g e t h e r . I n 69.2% o f the f a m i l i e s b o t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s are i n the home, i n 5.4% two p a r e n t s by r e a s o n o f r e m a r r i a g e , i n 12.8% t h e r e was one p a r e n t i n the home by r e a s o n o f d e a t h , 10% o f t h e f a m i l i e s had a s e p a r a t i o n o f the p a r e n t s , and o n l y 7.6% had a b r e a k i n t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s by r e a s o n o f d i v o r c e . I t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n t w e n t y - s e v e n out o f t h i r t y - n i n e f a m i l i e s t h e r e were b o t h p a r e n t s l i v i n g i n the home. I n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y we a l s o examined the v a n d a l a c t . The t o t a l number o f d e l i n q u e n c e s f o r a l l t h i r t y - n i n e j u v e n i l e s was one hundred and seven. T h i s means an average o f 2.7 d e l i n q u e n c e s f o r each v a n d a l . T h i s does not mean j u s t w i l f u l damage, damage t o p r o p e r t y o r m a l i c i o u s damage. These o t h e r d e l i n q u e n c i e s c a n and do i n c l u d e t h e f t , b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , e t c . The m a j o r d e l i n q u e n c y i n v o l v i n g v a n d a l i s m showed 61.5% has t o do w i t h the b r e a k i n g o f g l a s s and of t h i s 66.77> o f a l l b r o k e n g l a s s i n v o l v e d s c h o o l windows. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t g i v e s us a p i c t u r e o f t h e damage done by the s e j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s : PROPERTY DAMAGED NUMBER OF ACTS S c h o o l windows 16 House o r apartment windows . . . 6 C i t y bus 4 B i c y c l e t i r e p u n c t u r e d . . . . . 1 P r i v a t e a u t o windows b r o k e n . . . 1 R a i l r o a d box c a r 1 M a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t , 4 P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y 4 F i r e h y d r a n t 1 S h i p s l i g h t b u l b s on deck . . . . . . 1 CASE STUDIES L e t us now examine f o u r case f i l e s . These c a s e s a r e t o be i l l u s - t r a t i v e of what m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e i n the j u v e n i l e case f i l e s . From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n we c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o the c a u s e s o f the d e l i n q u e n t a c t and make o t h e r p e r t i n e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s . We r e c o g n i z e t h e l i m i t a t i o n of d r a w i n g any c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on such i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n b u t t h i s was the o n l y case m a t e r i a l we f o u n d w h i c h was a p p l i c a b l e t o j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . I n o r d e r t o have some type o f u n i f o r m i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n we s h a l l p r e s e n t the v a n d a l ' s p r i m a r y a c t , f o l l o w e d by w h a t e v e r c a s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e . We have numbered the c a s e s #1, #2, #3 and #4. The name used i n each case i s not the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l ' s a c t u a l name. Case #1 B i l l y , age f i f t e e n , was c h a r g e d w i t h w i l f u l damage. Even though d i s p u t e d by B i l l y , a t r i a l was convened and he was a d j u d g e d d e l i n q u e n t . The damaged p r o p e r t y i n v o l v e d was a c i t y bus. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was c l e a r l y a group endeavour. A p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r e c o r d e d t h e r e must have been "mob h y s t e r i a " . T h i s a c t i n v o l v e d f o u r p r i n c i p a l j u v e n i l e s w i t h ages r a n g i n g f r o m t h i r t e e n t o f i f t e e n . There were e i g h t o t h e r j u v e n i l e s i n v o l v e d i n a " l e s s e r d e g r e e " whose ages ranged f r o m t w e l v e t o e i g h t e e n i n c l u s i v e . B i l l y ' s r e c o r d c o n s i s t s o f c h a r g e s o f t h e f t , b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g - 72 - and w i l f u l damage. B i l l y l i v e s w i t h a b r o t h e r , age s e v e n t e e n , and s i s t e r , age e i g h t months, and p a r e n t s o f a second m a r r i a g e . I n the f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p B i l l y does not g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h h i s f a t h e r . H i s mother te n d s t o " r a g e " and cause a g r e a t d e a l o f f a m i l y s t r i f e . B i l l y i s s a i d t o be i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , who i s r e l a t i v e l y u n r e s t r i c t e d i n h i s b e h a v i o u r o u t - l e t s . B i l l y has a l s o c o m p l a i n e d o f the l i m i t e d amount of s p e n d i n g money he r e c e i v e s . O u t s i d e t h e immediate f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s he i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be " c o - o p e r a t i v e " b u t n o t so w i t h i n h i s own f a m i l y . B i l l y ' s I.Q. was r e c o r d e d as 118 and he i s i n Grade 9. H i s h e a l t h i s c o n s i d e r e d good, w i t h no p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s , b u t he i s c o n s i d e r e d s m a l l f o r h i s age. B i l l y seems t o be an average boy, whose main d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e poor f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s m a l l n e s s i n p h y s i c a l s t a t u r e . One c o u l d c o n c e i v e o f the i d e a t h a t B i l l y , because of the l i m i t e d , i f any, p e r s o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n h i s own home, s e i z e d upon the bus i n c i d e n t as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be one o f t h e group. The d e s t r u c t i o n o f the bus c o u l d be done by a l m o s t anyone and B i l l y ' s s m a l l p h y s i c a l s t a t u r e w o u l d not i n any way p r e v e n t him fro m t h i s a c t i o n . B i l l y may have seen group l o y a l t y as h i s f i r s t c o n c e r n a l o n g w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t a i n i n g o f group c o n f o r m i t y . ' B i l l y ' s poor f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p and poor b r o t h e r - b r o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be the b a s i s f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f B i l l y g a i n i n g male i d e n t i t y v i a h i s peer group. Whatever our a s s u m p t i o n s , we r e c o g n i z e t h a t B i l l y ' s d e l i n q u e n t a c t s are e v i d e n c e o f some type o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o such - 73 - b e h a v i o u r . Case #2 Jimmy, age t w e l v e , a l o n g w i t h n i n e j u v e n i l e s , s e t f i r e t o r a i l r o a d t i e s . One hundred and s i x t y were t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d and f o u r hundred were p a r t i a l l y d e s t r o y e d . No c h a r g e was l a i d b u t some t y p e of r e s t i t u t i o n was made t o the r a i l w a y company. Jimmy has been i n v o l v e d i n many o t h e r d e l i n q u e n c i e s . These range f r o m t h e f t o f a u t o hub c a p s , b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , t o the c o m m i t t i n g of m i s c h i e f by w i l f u l l y damaging p r o p e r t y . T h i s w i l f u l damage i n v o l v e d s i x j u v e n i l e s e n t e r i n g a v a c a n t f a c t o r y and w i l f u l l y damaging p r o p e r t y t o t h e v a l u e o f $500. No d e t a i l s about the d i s p o s i t i o n of t h i s i n c i d e n c e were r e c o r d e d . Jimmy i s c o n s i d e r e d an average s t u d e n t but w i t h a q u i c k temper and, a c c o r d i n g t o s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s " i s a c t i n g out due t o an i n s e c u r e home e n v i r o n - ment". He i s c o n s i d e r e d f r i e n d l y t o a d u l t s and c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h h i s p e er group. Jimmy's p a r e n t s have had some d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p . I n 1959, h i s mother and f a t h e r were d i v o r c e d a f t e r a l o n g s e p a r a t i o n . H i s f a t h e r now l i v e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , sends no f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , and has n o t a t t e m p t e d t o make any t y p e o f c o n t a c t w i t h i n the f a m i l y . A t the p r e s e n t time Jimmy's mother i s employed as a s t e n o g r a p h e r and b o okkeeper. Her h ours are i r r e g u l a r i n t h a t she i s away i n the e v e n i n g s , week- da y s , and u n t i l 11:00 p.m. on week-ends. T h i s has meant s u p e r v i s i o n by a grandmother and, a t t i m e s , by h i s f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d s i s t e r . There have been no male f i g u r e s o f s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i n h i s l i f e . The f o r m o f d i s c i p l i n e used by h i s mother has been s t r a p p i n g s and d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o f h i s 25 c e n t s w e e k l y a l l o w a n c e . - 74 :' I t i s o b v i o u s t o see t h a t Jimmy has had f e m a l e d o m i n a t i o n a l l of h i s l i f e . B e i n g a t h l e t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d Jimmy has had no f a m i l y member o r f r i e n d who has t a k e n an i n t e r e s t i n h i s l i f e . W i t h the i r r e g u l a r development o f what e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e r e a r e i n l i f e , Jimmy has had t o f i n d some way t o i d e n t i f y w i t h male companions. The P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , w i t h the c o n s e n t of Jimmy's mother, r e f e r r e d Jimmy t o t h e Y.M.C.A. B i g B r o t h e r s ' Group. Jimmy responded q u i c k l y and f a v o u r a b l y . The case f i l e n o t e d t h a t a c o n t i n u a n c e of the p l a n w o u l d be a d v i s a b l e and t h i s arrangement has n o t been a l t e r e d . To s p e c u l a t e one may say t h a t Jimmy may have had a t y p i c a l a n x i e t y s t a t u s p r o b l e m . W i t h the c l e a r - c u t e v i d e n c e o f no f a m i l i a l male i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , the g r o w i n g s e r i o u s n e s s o f h i s d e l i n q u e n t a c t s and the most f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e t o the B i g B r o t h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h i s phenomenon. Case #3 B r u c e , age t w e l v e , b r o k e a window of a p r i v a t e home by the t h r o w i n g o f a m e t a l v a l v e cap. The v a l u e o f t h e window was $2.50. There was a n o t h e r y o u t h a t the scene b u t no a c t i o n was t a k e n a g a i n s t him. B r u c e ' s f a m i l y i s of H u n g a r i a n d e s c e n t . He has a younger b r o t h e r and s i s t e r and b o t h p a r e n t s are i n the home. Bruce i s c o n s i d e r e d above average i n s c h o o l work and, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s p a r e n t s , he i s not a b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m i n s c h o o l . B r u c e ' s case f i l e i s not v e r y f u l l i n d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n but i t does i l l u s t r a t e the f a c t t h a t c a u s a l f a c t o r s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . We do not know i f t h e r e i s some b a s i c p r o b l e m w h i c h w o u l d g i v e r i s e t o B r u c e ' s d e l i n q u e n c y o r i f what Bruce d i d was a c o m p lete a c c i d e n t . I n e i t h e r case the s e v e r i t y of the a c t does n o t d e t e r m i n e i t s method - 75 - o r p a t t e r n of d i s p o s i t i o n i n the C o u r t . I f t h e r e w o u l d have been an a p p a r e n t and s e v e r e p r o b l e m of p e r s o n a l i t y o r f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e r e may have been a g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t by the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t . Case #4 A l f r e d , age s i x t e e n , c a u s e d window damage t o an a u t o by t h r o w i n g r o c k s . The c a r was p a r k e d i n a c a r p o r t a t the r e a r o f a p r i v a t e home. B e s i d e s damage t o the 1959 C a d i l l a c , the s t o n e s t hrown h i t .the s t u c c o e x t e r i o r o f the house, and the t o t a l damage amounted t o $150. F o r t h i s d e l i n q u e n c y A l f r e d was a d j u d g e d d e l i n q u e n t and p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n . A l f r e d ' s f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s appear t o be s t r a i n e d by r e a s o n of the s e p a r a t i o n o f h i s f a t h e r and mother. H i s mother's a t t i t u d e toward h i s f a t h e r i s r e v e a l e d by h e r s a y i n g , "I'm t i r e d o f s u p p o r t i n g the f a m i l y and he has done a poor j o b of t h i s i n the p a s t t h r e e y e a r s " . A l f r e d has been d e s c r i b e d as an e x t r o v e r t a t s c h o o l and i n c l i n e d t o be r a t h e r a n t a g o n i s t i c toward p e r s o n s i n a u t h o r i t y . A l o n g w i t h a r e c o r d of low grades t h e r e are a l s o m i n o r b e h a v i o u r problems w h i c h , a t t i m e s , have b r o u g h t on s t r a p p i n g s by the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s . I n h i s s o c i a l l i f e he does n o t b e l o n g t o any o r g a n i z e d c l u b s and spends h i s l e i s u r e time i n the company o f f r i e n d s . He t a k e s o f f e n c e i f he f i g u r e s one o f h i s f r i e n d s o r he h i m s e l f has been "wronged". T h i s d e l i n q u e n c y i n v o l v e d a n o t h e r j u v e n i l e who was n o t apprehended. The two y o u t h s c a r r i e d out t h i s a c t a t 12:05 a.m. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e y were p r o b a b l y t o g e t h e r many h o u r s p r i o r t o the i n c i d e n t and when the end o f the day was upon them and the a l m o s t m a g i c a l t i m i n g o f t h i s C a d i l l a c b e i n g s e t b e f o r e them, t h e y s t r u c k o u t a g a i n s t i t and a l l o f i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The boys were s a i d t o have r u n a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e b e f o r e b e i n g s e i z e d , - 76 - t h u s s u g g e s t i n g a h i g h e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s a c t and i t s s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The chase was s e e m i n g l y a d v e n t u r o u s i n i t s e l f . A f t e r a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d A l f r e d e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o j o i n the Army. What r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h i s h e l d f o r A l f r e d c o u l d o n l y be s p e c u l a t i o n . P o s s i b l y t h e dependent r o l e o f an Army e n l i s t e d man w i t h d e s i g n a t e d forms o f a c t i n g o u t was seen by A l f r e d as a means of c h a n n e l l i n g h i s pent-up e n e r g i e s and a g g r e s s i o n s . A l l o f the c a s e s p r e s e n t e d have been v i e w e d i n a s p e c u l a t i v e manner. A l l of them have s i g n s of lower economic c l a s s s t a t u s b u t not enough i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o w s u c h a d o c u m e n t a t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l c a s e . There are many b a s i c f a c t o r s o r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and s o c i o l o g i s t s o f f e r as c a u s e s of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . I n our e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f the case f i l e s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l s we were u n a b l e t o i s o l a t e any s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s as b e i n g the c a u s e s of v a n d a l i s m o r b a s i c r e a s o n s f o r the development o f a j u v e n i l e v a n d a l . We c a n , however, p r e s e n t a p r o f i l e o r p i c t u r e o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; f e a t u r e s o f a j u v e n i l e v a n d a l and a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m b r o u g h t t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver d u r i n g the y e a r 1961. The p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l as i n d i c a t i v e o f the s i x t y - f i v e c a s e s s t u d i e d show th e v a n d a l t o be a male between the ages o f t h i r t e e n and f i f t e e n . On t h e whole he i s an average s t u d e n t w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g a s low l e a r n e r . A l t h o u g h he i s n o t t y p i c a l l y seen as a b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m by s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the most f r e q u e n t type o f a c t i s t h e b r e a k i n g o f s c h o o l windows. (Because o f the i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f c a s e f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n , the d e t e r - m i n a t i o n o f the v a n d a l s ' m o t i v a t i o n s c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d i n e i t h e r p s y c h o l - - 7 7 - o g i c a l o r s o c i o l o g i c a l terms. The b r e a k i n g o f s c h o o l windows m i g h t be r e a d as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e , i . e . h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s o r i t m i g h t be seen as h a v i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s - s t r i k i n g o u t a t m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s . ) The t y p i c a l v a n d a l i s n o t l i k e l y t o be f o u n d i n f o r m a l groups such as Cubs, S c o u t s and Y.M.C.A. He does l i s t a c h u r c h a f f i l i a t i o n b u t one wonders i f h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a l l e i s u r e - t i m e groups a l s o c h a r a c t e r - i z e s h i s a c t i v i t y i n Church groups. (As a r e s u l t o f C o u r t appearance t h e r e a r e some r e f e r r a l s made t o the B i g B r o t h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l has had female dominance and l a c k s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r male i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t h i s forms the b a s i s f o r such a r e f e r r a l . The B i g B r o t h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n has s e v e r a l f a v o r a b l e r e p o r t s on boys r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i v e l y t o t h i s f o r m o f t r e a t m e n t . ) The f i g u r e s #1, #4 and #5 i n C h a p t e r I I and the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o u n d i n t h i s c h a p t e r bear out the f a c t t h a t the t y p i c a l j u v e n i l e v a n d a l w i l l most o f t e n come fr o m f a m i l i e s h a v i n g average o r below-average s o c i o - economic s t a t u s . (There i s e v i d e n c e t o su g g e s t t h a t a m a j o r i t y of c a s e s s t u d i e d showed the f a t h e r s o f t h e s e v a n d a l s t o be b l u e c o l l a r employees. F u r t h e r , the a r e a o f r e s i d e n c e o f t h e s e j u v e n i l e s i s the s e c t i o n e a s t o f M a i n S t r e e t . The c a s e s i n w h i c h s e t t l e m e n t was made Out o f C o u r t shows the f a t h e r s t o be, on the w h o l e , i n w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e i r a r e a o f r e s i d e n c e i s most o f t e n i n the above-average s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a s o f Va n c o u v e r . ) The j u v e n i l e ' s f a m i l y has an average o f 2.9 s i b l i n g s p e r f a m i l y . The Canadian n a t i o n a l average i s aroun d 2.5 p e r f a m i l y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e v a n d a l and h i s f a m i l y are i n the n a t i o n a l average g r o u p i n g . (There i s c e r t a i n l y n ot enough e v i d e n c e t o a t t r i b u t e v a n d a l i s m t o a - 78 - l a r g e f a m i l y b u t r a t h e r the c o n t r a r y appears t o be the r u l e . ) The v a n d a l , c o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r n o t i o n s about j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , comes f r o m a two-parent home. T h i s does not i n s u r e m a r i t a l o r f a m i l y t r a n - q u i l i t y and f o r some r e a s o n the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l does become i n v o l v e d i n a c t s o f damage t o p r o p e r t y . Thus, the most s i g n i f i c a n t b a s i c f a c t o r f o u n d t o be i n a l l c a s e s of v a n d a l i s m s e t t l e d i n the C o u r t was the low economic s t a t u s o f the f a m i l y w i t h a c e r t a i n number o f v a n d a l s , m a i n l y ones i n w h i c h s e t t l e m e n t was made Out o f C o u r t , r e p r e s e n t i n g the s o - c a l l e d m i d d l e - c l a s s homes. FURTHER INFORMATION REQUIRED TO COMPLETE PROFILE Lack o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n r e c o r d i n g o f p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on agency f i l e s made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) IQ and s t a n d a r d i z e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . (2) Assessment o f the q u a l i t y o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (3) D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f a case o f b o t h I n C o u r t and Out o f C o u r t s e t t l e m e n t s . (4) Degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n c h u r c h a f f i l i a t i o n . (5) Some i n f o r m a t i o n o f how the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l v i e w s h i m s e l f i n s o c i e t y and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s open t o him. (6) I n v i e w o f the p r e v a l e n c e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s , an atte m p t might be made t o t e s t the degree o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l w i t h o u t m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s . A f t e r r e a d i n g t h i s c h a p t e r on the r e v i e w o f case f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n , one becomes aware o f the need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the c a u s e s , d e v e l o p - ment o f a t y p o l o g y o f the j u v e n i l e v a n d a l and the p o s s i b l e p r e v e n t a t i v e measures one m i g h t t a k e a g a i n s t t h i s f o r m o f d e l i n q u e n c y . CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS As has been e x p l a i n e d , t h i s t h e s i s i s i n the n a t u r e o f an e x p l o r a t o r y and d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y o f the c h a r a c t e r and i n c i d e n c e o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. Our ap p r o a c h has had t o be b o t h b r o a d and f l e x i b l e f o r we met w i t h no u n i f o r m i t y i n the c o l l e c t i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as we have sought. S i n c e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l and f a c t u a l r e s u l t s o f our e n q u i r i e s a r e g i v e n on the p r e c e d i n g pages, i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c o n t a i n our t h o u g h t s and s p e c u l a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m the a t t i t u d e s we met, the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t we were a b l e t o o b t a i n , and how t h e s e c o r r e l a t e w i t h some o f the p r e s e n t day t h i n k i n g on the s u b j e c t o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m . I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t we have m e n t i o n e d o n l y one C a n a d i a n r e f e r e n c e i n o ur f i r s t c h a p t e r and i t i s a mi n o r r e f e r e n c e o n l y . Some time was spent i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the l i t e r a t u r e b o t h on and s u r r o u n d i n g o u r s u b j e c t and we have endeavoured t o use thos e p e o p l e whose t h e o r i e s f o r m a b a s i s f o r s p e c u l a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o the p r o b l e m as i t m ight e x i s t i n V a n c o u v e r . We c o u l d f i n d no C a n a d i a n w r i t i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c r e g a r d t o v a n d a l i s m b u t we do r e c o g n i z e t h a t we c a n b e n e f i t f r o m A m e r i c a n t h i n k i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n f o r we are b o t h o f the N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , so t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r f a c e t s t o our pr o b l e m s . What we a r e f a c e d w i t h , however, i s a number o f t e n t a t i v e t h e o r i e s . T h at i s , a number o f v i e w s s e e k i n g the c a u s a l f a c t o r s f o r t h i s s o c i e t a l phenomenon. I t i s a g r e e d by a l l t h a t j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y w i t h i n our s o c i e t y , and i t i s not the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e i n any way. We f o c u s on t h i s one a s p e c t f r o m a c h o i c e o f a s p e c t s and, i f such e x p l o r a t i o n l e a d s t o i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a n be - 80 - used i n the i n t e r e s t s o f r e d u c i n g the i n c i d e n c e of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y as a w h o l e , o r of j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e n such<a s t u d y w i l l have a c h i e v e d a p r a i s e w o r t h y g o a l . T h i s l a s t remark b r i n g s us f a c e t o f a c e w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f the v a l u e s o f our s o c i e t y . L e t us agree t h a t o u r s i s an " a c q u i s i t i v e " s o c i e t y ; t h a t we s e t s t o r e on m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s . Mr. R.H. Tawney e x p l a i n s the a d j e c t i v e f u r t h e r : "What i t i m p l i e s i s , t h a t the f o u n d a t i o n o f s o c i e t y i s f o u n d , n o t i n f u n c t i o n s , but i n r i g h t s ; t h a t r i g h t s are not d e d u c t i b l e from the d i s c h a r g e o f f u n c t i o n s , so t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n of w e a l t h and the e n j o y - ment of p r o p e r t y are c o n t i n g e n t upon the p e r f o r m a n c e s of s e r v i c e s , b u t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r s the w o r l d e q u i p p e d w i t h r i g h t s t o the f r e e d i s p o s a l o f h i s p r o p e r t y and the p u r s u i t o f h i s economic s e l f - i n t e r e s t , and t h a t t h e s e r i g h t s a r e a n t e r i o r t o , and i n d e p e n d e n t o f , any s e r v i c e w h i c h he may r e n d e r . " Tawney goes on t o p o i n t out t h a t because of the p r o v i s i o n f o r and e x i s t e n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n our s o c i e t y "the d i s p o s i t i o n t o r e g a r d i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s as the c e n t r e and p i v o t o f s o c i e t y i s s t i l l the most p o w e r f u l element i n p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t and the p r a c t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Modern s o c i e t i e s aim a t p r o t e c t i n g economic r i g h t s Such s o c i e t i e s may be c a l l e d A c q u i s i t i v e S o c i e t i e s , because t h e i r whole tendency and i n t e r e s t and p r e o c c u p a t i o n i s t o promote the a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e a l t h . " T h i s m ight 1. Tawney, R.H., The A c q u i s i t i v e S o c i e t y , New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , I n c . , 1920, ( H a r v e s t Books, HB 9.) p.20. 2. I b i d , pp. 27-29. - -81 - sound extreme f o r , s u r e l y , o u r s i s a complex s o c i e t y i n i t s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , b u t t h i s a s p e c t i s a b a s i c v a l u e and v a n d a l i s m i s t h a t o v e r t ex- p r e s s i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y t h a t damages p r o p e r t y , e i t h e r p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c . Because of t h e v a l u e we s e t upon p r o p e r t y and, t h e r e f o r e , o w n e r s h i p , we d e p l o r e but n e v e r t h e l e s s u n d e r s t a n d e x p r e s s i o n s of r e t a l i a t i o n o r i n t e n d e d h u r t a g a i n s t an i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e r t y . F u r t h e r , we c a n e x t e n d our u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t o the a r e a of p u b l i c p r o p e r t y , o r u t i l i t i e s , s i n c e such have an o w n e r s h i p though i t i s group o w n e r s h i p r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p . The s e l e c t i o n o f a d e f i n i t i o n f o r the term " V a n d a l i s m " c a u s e d us some th o u g h t i n i t i a l l y f o r t h i s i s not a l e g a l term. I n g e n e r a l , i t i s a c c e p t e d as a d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m , but t o d a y ' s u n f o l d i n g knowledge i n the f i e l d s o f human p s y c h o l o g y and human b e h a v i o u r makes the a s p e c t o f wantonness q u e s t i o n a b l e . P r o p e r t y i s i n v o l v e d but i s t h e r e e v e r n e i t h e r purpose nor p r o v o c a t i o n t o the a c t and, t h e r e f o r e , e v e r no r e s u l t i n g g a i n o r s a t i s - f a c t i o n f o r t h e p e r p e t r a t o r ? A s o c i e t y ' s laws e x i s t t o p r o t e c t t h a t w h i c h i s v a l u e d w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , so our s o c i e t y has laws d e a l i n g w i t h the p r o - t e c t i o n o f our p r o p e r t y . Our law meets i t s o b l i g a t i o n s a t p r e s e n t by the A c t s r e f e r r e d t o i n C h a p t e r I w h i c h , as C h a p t e r I I I , i l l u s t r a t e s , are used by a b b r e v i a t i o n such as f o l l o w s : "damage t o p r o p e r t y " ; " w i l f u l damage", and " m a l i c i o u s damage". I n "damage t o p r o p e r t y " we see an a l l o w a n c e f o r a l a c k of knowledge of the cause or i n t e n t of the a c t i o n . However, the a c t i t s e l f i s not a c c e p t a b l e and t h i s i s what the law d e a l s w i t h . The answer, o r m u l t i p l e answers, t o the q u e s t i o n o f the p r e s e n c e o f t r u e wantonness w i l l p r o b a b l y be e x p l a i n e d by t h o s e who are e x p l o r i n g the f i e l d o f v a n d a l i s m , some o f whom we r e f e r t o i n our f i r s t c h a p t e r . However, though we have new and r e c e n t knowledge w i t h r e g a r d t o the b e h a v i o u r of b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and - 82 - groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l b e h a v i o u r i s m e a n i n g f u l , t h a t i t i s a symptom o f , o r e x p r e s s i o n o f , a need, t h i s k nowl- edge i s s t i l l l a r g e l y w i t h i n t h e hands o f a c a d e m i c i a n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s s t i l l u n i n f o r m e d and t h i s s t a t e i s p e r p e t u a t e d by the newspapers and o t h e r such media the p r o d u c e r s of w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s a r e un- i n f o r m e d . T h e r e f o r e , i f t h i s b e h a v i o u r , t h e s e a c t s of v a n d a l i s m , are ex- p r e s s i o n s o f a need, the " h e l p " w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y i s b e i n g w i t h h e l d by the g r e a t e r p a r t o f our s o c i e t y . W i t h i n t h i s framework o f t h i n k i n g and because of the l a c k o f f o r m e r e n q u i r i e s , t h i s t h e s i s has been a d d r e s s e d t o the q u e s t i o n s , t o what e x t e n t does the phenomenon o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m e x i s t i n the C i t y o f Vancouver and what are i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Our s t u d y has l e d us t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the phenomenon o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m does e x i s t i n the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , and i t i s f e l t t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h o s e who are d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d u s u a l l y t a k e some c o r r e c t i v e measure. That i s , r e s t i t u t i o n i s u s u a l l y sought f o r t h e damage. However, i t i s n o t r e g a r d e d as a m a j o r s o c i a l p r o b l e m w i t h i n the a r e a . I n 1961, ( t h i s y e a r was chosen f r o m w h i c h t o quote examples f o r i t i s the most r e c e n t y e a r w i t h census t r a c t s and f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e ) the t o t a l number of c a s e s r e f e r r e d to the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t (the j u v e n i l e c o u r t ) was 1316. Of t h i s number o n l y 65 were c a s e s of p r o p e r t y damage. I t i s t r u e t h a t some damage to p r o p e r t y may have been e f f e c t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h some of the o t h e r c a s e s b u t the m a j o r i n d i s c r e t i o n r e s u l t e d i n an a l t e r n a t i v e c h a r g e . T a b l e 11 o f C h a p t e r I I shows t h a t on a P r o v i n c e - w i d e b a s i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f j u v e n i l e s a p p e a r i n g i n C o u r t on p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s p e r t h o u s a n d of t h e t o t a l j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n i s o n l y .378%. T a b l e 1 of C h a p t e r I I i n f o r m s us t h a t 8.8% o f the t o t a l j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n i s the f i g u r e f o r a l l j u v e n i l e s a p p e a r i n g i n the P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t s . So, a l t h o u g h t h e s e f i g u r e s do n o t p r o v e the p r o b l e m t o - 83 - be a m i n o r one i n i t s e l f i t cannot be b u t o b v i o u s t h a t the number o f j u v e n i l e s who appear i n C o u r t on c h a r g e s of p r o p e r t y damage are a m i n o r group o f t h o s e who appear i n C o u r t . ( F o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s , Dominion-wide s t a t i s t i c s are g i v e n a l s o i n T a b l e s 1 and 11 o f C h a p t e r I I ) . Thus, we see t h a t o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , w h i c h are the p r e s e n t l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r a c t s of v a n d a l i s m , are a m i n o r s e c t i o n o f the t o t a l r e c o r d e d p i c t u r e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . T a b l e s 6 and 7 o f C h a p t e r I I l i s t a breakdown o f the t y p e s o f c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n the law under w h i c h a j u v e n i l e may be a d j u d g e d d e l i n q u e n t . These c h a r g e s p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e of the j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y p a t t e r n i n the C i t y of V a n c ouver. When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e s e are c o n c r e t e s t a t i s t i c s . T h at i s , t h e y r e s u l t f r o m an a c t h a v i n g been per- formed c o n t r a r y t o t h e law and the p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m m i t t i n g t h e a c t has been i d e n t i f i e d and b r o u g h t b e f o r e the C o u r t . I t has been q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e f o r us t o a s s e s s what a c t s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m have been committed i n Vancouver w i t h o u t the p e r p e t r a t o r s h a v i n g been c a u g h t . Such damage i s not a l w a y s r e p o r t e d t o the p o l i c e f o r t h e r e i s no a c t i o n t h a t can be t a k e n under the law. However, i n s u r a n c e companies a r e o f t e n r e s o r t e d t o i n such i n s t a n c e s though i t has been n o t e d a l r e a d y t h a t such damage i s c o v e r e d under the g e n e r a l c l a u s e " E x t e n d e d Coverage Endorsement". How many i n s t a n c e s of such damage o c c u r t o p e o p l e t h a t do not have i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e o r , a g a i n , damage w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t do n o t meet the terms o f the c l a u s e , i s an unknown q u a n t i t y . Thus, we see t h a t a f u l l and t r u e p i c t u r e o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n Vancouver ca n n o t be o b t a i n e d a t t h i s t i m e . The f u l l f a c t s s i m p l y a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . Because i t i s p r o p e r t y t h a t i s a f f e c t e d , we c a n see t h a t an a c t o f v a n d a l i s m i s d i s t u r b i n g t o p e o p l e and t o c o m m u n i t i e s . I t i s a t h r e a t t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l l i v i n g . I f an i n c i d e n t o c c u r s i n one a r e a o f the c i t y , - 84 - the knowledge o f t h a t i n c i d e n t i s d i s t r e s s i n g t o most r e s i d e n t s and i f the p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n c o m m i t t i n g the a c t do not become known the t h r e a t i s remembered and i n c r e a s e s when a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t o c c u r s . V a n d a l i s m , t h e r e f o r e , i s news and t h i s i s a p p a r e n t i n the r e p o r t i n g o f i t i n our news- p a p e r s . As we have n o t e d , many i n c i d e n t s o c c u r w i t h o u t the p e r p e t r a t o r s b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s e x a m p l i f i e d by A p p e n d i x "B" o f C h a p t e r I I where, i n 1964 f o r example, we see t h a t of the 2182 c o m p l a i n t s l a i d i n the P o l i c e Department o n l y 135 i n d i v i d u a l s were c h a r g e d . F o r our p u r p o s e s we n o te t h a t o f the 135, 46 were j u v e n i l e s . Thus, we see an argument f o r a s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n . We have laws f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of p r o p e r t y b u t , a p p a r e n t l y , we are not a b l e t o make them v e r y e f f e c t i v e . What i s l a c k i n g ? Why t h i s p a i n f u l gap between o f f e n c e s committed and o f f e n d e r s i d e n t i f i e d ? T h i s i s a q u e s t i o n the answer t o w h i c h we were n o t a b l e t o seek w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t h i s t h e s i s , b u t t h i s c o u l d be a s u b j e c t f o r e n q u i r y and one f r o m w h i c h some p r a c t i c a l p r o c e d u r a l recommendations c o u l d ensue. F o r t h i s t h e s i s , the p o i n t h e l p s t o i l l u s t r a t e somewhat d r a m a t i c a l l y the unknown p o r t i o n o f the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . I s the p r o b l e m of j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m g r e a t e r i n the C i t y of Vancouver t h a n i s r e a l i z e d ? Vancouver i s a c i t y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a known major p r o b l e m of n a r c o t i c t r a f f i c k i n g and a d d i c t i o n . Bank r o b b e r i e s and h o l d - u p s o c c u r . Such i t e m s a r e h e a d l i n e news i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e and u s u a l l y because of the amount o f money i n v o l v e d . I t i s f o r the sake o f t h i s money t h a t even the l i v e s o f one o r two i n d i v i d u a l s may be endangered, b u t the community as a whole does not f e e l t h r e a t e n e d i n the same way as by an a c t o f v a n d a l i s m f o r t h e r e i s a purpose t o the a c t w h i c h i s u n d e r s t o o d though the c h o s e n means o f a c q u i s i t i o n i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e . There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the need and i t s s a t i s - f a c t i o n w h i c h has a boundary so t h a t no more t h a n a few p e o p l e may be - 85 - a f f e c t e d by the a c t . What we are d i s c u s s i n g i s the e q u i l i b r i u m o f the l i f e o f the C i t y o f Vancouver. What i s s t r e s s f u l i n one a r e a may not cause e q u a l s t r e s s i n a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n i f t h e r e i s a boundary. Concern i s f e l t , f o r w h a t e v e r the e v e n t , i t i s a component p a r t of the C i t y ' s l i f e as a w h o l e , but d i s t a n c e p l a y s i t s p a r t . P e o p l e ' s l i v e s a r e not so a f f e c t e d by an o c c u r r e n c e when t h e y are p h y s i c a l l y removed f r o m i t . T h i s b r i n g s us t o the q u e s t i o n , do the known o c c u r r e n c e s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y i n one p a r t of the C i t y more t h a n i n a n o t h e r ? C h a p t e r I I has i n d i c a t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d r e a d i l y . More i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n we have been a b l e t o o b t a i n i s needed t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n p r o p e r l y . However, we are a b l e t o make some comments on our f i n d i n g s and we w o u l d l i k e t o r e l a t e them t o some of the p r e s e n t - d a y t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m where p o s s i b l e . C h a p t e r I I n o t e s t h a t the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s E l e c t r i c a l Department's s u g g e s t e d h i g h damage a r e a i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the c o n s i d e r e d h i g h damage a r e a of the B r i t i s h C olumbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y ' s c i t y p r o p e r t y . The C i t y ' s E l e c t r i c a l Department l i s t t h e i r a r e a as b e i n g i n the F r a s e r View a r e a w h i c h i s i n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n p a r t o f the C i t y . They n o t e , t o o , t h a t t h e r e i s a l i n e o f f r e q u e n t damage, though m i n o r damage, w h i c h f o l l o w s the B r i t i s h C o l u mbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y ' s r a i l w a y i n t o the w e s t e r n p a r t s of the C i t y . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y s u f f e r s i t s g r e a t e s t damage i n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n a r e a o f the C i t y a l s o . T h e i r s i s an a r e a ad- j o i n i n g F r a s e r View, but t h i s a r e a i s e x t e n d e d i n t o the w e s t e r n p a r t o f the C i t y , i t b e i n g t h e i r 'buses t h a t s u f f e r the g r e a t e s t damage. I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t t h i s w e s t e r n s o u t h - e a s t e r n l i n e i s a r e g u l a r 'bus r o u t e , so two f a c t o r s emerge: f i r s t , t h a t t h e r e i s an a r e a w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be an a x i s r e g a r d i n g - 86 - damage; s e c o n d l y , t h a t b o t h s o u r c e s m e n t i o n e d are p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h we have commented on the d i f f i c u l t y o f s e p a r a t i n g a c c i d e n t a l f r o m o t h e r t y p e s o f damage t o s c h o o l p r o p e r t y , i t c o u l d be n o t e d t h a t L o r d N e l s o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e damage i n 1964 and i t i s s i t u a t e d near t o the V i c t o r i a D r i v e 'bus r o u t e w h i c h t o u c h e s the s o u t h - e a s t e r n a r e a o f the C i t y . Because of the geography of V a n c o u v e r , t h i s a r e a i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y d i s t a n t f r o m much of the C i t y and i t s r e s i d e n t s , so many w o u l d f e e l u n a f f e c t e d p e r s o n a l l y and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t most damage i s done t o p u b l i c p r o p e r t y . The damage t o p u b l i c p r o p e r t y a s p e c t i s borne out i n C h a p t e r H I w h i c h l i s t s the p r o p e r t y damage done by t h o s e j u v e n i l e s b r o u g h t t o C o u r t . I n v i e w of t h e f a c t t h a t the r e c o r d i n g o f c o m p l a i n t s a t the V ancouver P o l i c e Department r e g a r d i n g p r o p e r t y damage a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d i n t o the two c a t e g o r i e s o f p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s what p r o - p o r t i o n o f t h e damage i s done t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t the n a t u r e o f t h a t damage i s h i d d e n i n t h e p r e s e n t system of r e c o r d i n g , a l s o . I t can be n o t e d , t o o , t h a t no i n s u r a n c e company c o u l d be f o u n d w h i c h k e p t s t a t i s t i c s on damage t o p r o p e r t y . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n adds a f a c e t t o the unknown a s p e c t of the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e t o w h i c h we have a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d . C h a p t e r I I I does t e l l us t h a t out o f a known 39 c a s e s o n l y 6 c h a r g e s were f o r damage t o house o r apartment windows so i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e o f the average Vancouver r e s i d e n t i s v e r y a p p r e h e n s i v e . He w i l l n o t f e e l p e r s o n a l l y t h r e a t - ened even though a l e r t e d t o the p r e s e n c e o f such v a n d a l i s m i n h i s C i t y . F i g u r e 2 o f C h a p t e r I I shows us t h a t the F r a s e r View a r e a o f the C i t y s t a n d s a l o n e i n i t s h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f j u v e n i l e p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t F i g u r e 4 of C h a p t e r I I shows t h a t none o f the 39 c a s e s b r o u g h t t o C o u r t i n 1961 l i v e d i n t h i s s p e c i f i c a r e a , but t h i s a r e a has f r e q u e n t p a t r o l l i n g by the C i t y P o l i c e . T h i s e x t r a p o l i c e a t t e n t i o n became d i r e c t e d t o the a r e a i n the few y e a r s p r e c e d i n g the c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , and i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s a c t i o n has had the d e s i r e d e f f e c t . However, two o f t h o s e c a s e s s e t t l e d Out of C o u r t l i v e i n the a r e a i t s e l f and a few o f t h o s e b r o u g h t t o C o u r t l i v e i n a d j o i n i n g a r e a s . A t r e n d i n p r e s e n t day t h i n k i n g i s t h a t i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r i s a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o u r i n t h a t i t s e r v e s t o meet the s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s h i m s e l f , o r group f i n d s i t s e l f , even though the b e h a v i o u r v i o l a t e s the a c c e p t e d r u l e s of the l a r g e r group o f w h i c h he o r i t i s a p a r t . What o f the t h e o r y t h a t the d e l i n q u e n t s o l u t i o n among m i d d l e - c l a s s boys i s t h a t i t i s t h e i r way o f c o p i n g w i t h a b a s i c a n x i e t y about the achievement o f male i d e n t i t y ? On c o n s i d e r i n g the 39 c a s e s w h i c h were t a k e n t o C o u r t , we note t h a t 27 of them had b o t h p a r e n t s i n t h e home. We c o u l d imagine t h a t f r o m the o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I t h e f a t h e r s ' work d i d not t a k e them f a r f r o m home f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f time and we c a n see t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f mothers d i d not r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s as w o r k i n g m o t h e r s , t h a t i s , w i t h a p a i d o c c u p a t i o n o u t s i d e the home. However, t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s open t o s u r m i s e f o r n o t h i n g i s known of t h e e m o t i o n a l s t a b - i l i t y i n t h e home. What the m a s c u l i n e image i s f o r t h e s e boys i s something unknown. The i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e d i d not i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e mother i s t h e dominant v a l u e d i s s e m i n a t o r i n t h e home so t h i s q u e s t i o n , o r t h e o r y , i s open f o r e x p l o r a t i o n . The Community Che s t and C o u n c i l ' s R e s e a r c h p r o j e c t on M e t r o p o l i t a n V ancouver i n f o r m s us t h a t F r a s e r View and t h e a d j a c e n t a r e a s have the l o w e s t p o p u l a t i o n growth and the l o w e s t i m m i g r a t i o n r a t e s f o r the C i t y . T h i s shows some s t a b i l i t y though i t i s n o t a b l e , t o o , t h a t the homes i n t h i s a r e a a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y o w n e r - o c c u p i e d . I t i s l i s t e d as an average s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a . So, w i t h t h e s e f a c t s i n mind, t h e r e does e x i s t an argument t h a t t h e known - 88 - a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m are n o t e x p r e s s i o n s o f s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n . However, t h i s must be measured a g a i n s t the f a c t t h a t m o b i l i t y i s p a r t o f t o d a y ' s l i v i n g and the 'bus r o u t e w h i c h s u f f e r s heavy damage i s the one t h a t j o i n s the F r a s e r View a r e a w i t h the K e r r i s d a l e and Dunbar a r e a s . These l a t t e r a r e a s a r e r a t e d the h i g h e s t i n the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r V a n c ouver. Here i s f o u n d a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f h o u s e h o l d s w h i c h a r e owner o c c u p i e d as opposed t o the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e w h i c h e x i s t s i n the F r a s e r View a r e a . I n v i e w o f the a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d v a l u e s e t upon o w n e r s h i p i n our s o c i e t y , do t h o s e l i v i n g i n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n p a r t o f the C i t y r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s as d e p r i v e d , as a lower c l a s s ? T h i s i s p o i n t e d out i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Cohen's t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a t u s a n x i e t y of lower c l a s s b o y s . F i g u r e 4 o f C h a p t e r I I shows F r a s e r View and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s t o be i n the average f a m i l y wage and s a l a r y income group. The K e r r i s d a l e and Dunbar a r e a s are shown t o be of the h i g h e s t , beyond the average group. When Cohen d e s c r i b e s the s h a r e d problems o f d i s a d v a n t a g e s f e l t by sone o f m a i n l y dependent f a m i l i e s o r t h o s e o f low-income l a b o u r e r s and s e r v i c e w o r k e r s , p erhaps here i n Vancouver the c o m p a r a t i v e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s t h e same but between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y . P e r h a p s t h i s i s a p o i n t e r as t o why we do not have a t r u e d e l i n q u e n t gang c u l t u r e o f p r o b l e m p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h i s C i t y . I n s t e a d o f the s o c i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e b e i n g f e l t by a l a b o u r i n g group i t i s f e l t by a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of w o r k i n g group and one t h a t has some " m i d d l e c l a s s " a m e n i t i e s and v a l u e s . We l i v e i n an age o f mass media, and p r o p a - ganda r e g a r d i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o p e r t y (be i t c a r s , c l o t h i n g , h o u s e s , e t c . ) i s a l l around us and i t i s b r o u g h t r i g h t i n t o our homes and p r i v a t e l i v e s v i a the r a d i o and o t h e r means. The young, who have more money i n t h e i r p o c k e t s a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n d i d t h e i r p a r e n t s , are under a s p e c i a l b a r r a g e f r o m t h e a d v e r t i s e r s . Do t h e s e young p e o p l e see t h e m s e l v e s as a d e p r i v e d - 89 - group because o f t h i s element i n t h e i r l i v e s , a l s o ? These a r e p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s , b u t t h i s t h e s i s i s e x p l o r a t o r y o n l y . We have been u n a b l e t o t a c k l e the n e x t s t e p of f i n d i n g the meaning b e h i n d such f a c t s o r symptoms o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r as i t e x i s t s i n Vancouver a t t h i s t i m e . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t o f the 65 c a s e s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m known to the V a n c o u v e r F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t i n 1961, 26 were s e t t l e d Out of C o u r t . We have no i d e a o f what a c t i o n promoted t h e l a y i n g o f the com- p l a i n t nor do we know what f o r m t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e t r i b u t i o n t o o k . A t p r e s e n t , no r e c o r d i s k e p t of t h e s e f a c t s . The r e t r i b u t i o n c o u l d have been monetary, and i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t the p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d c o u l d have met the e x p e n d i t u r e f r o m t h e i r income. The purpose of t h i s c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r i s not t o r e p e a t t h e p o i n t s made i n f o r m e r c h a p t e r s , b u t t o p u l l t o g e t h e r the o u t s t a n d i n g p o i n t e r s w h i c h have emerged f r o m o u r s t u d y . Because o f the d i v e r s i t y of our f i n d i n g s , and f o r t he p u r p o s e s of a p o s s i b l e subsequent s t u d y , we f e e l i t i s h e l p f u l t o make the f o l l o w i n g l i s t : 1. The v e r y d i v e r s i t y , or s c a t t e r e d f i n d i n g s , t h a t we m e n t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m the f a c t t h a t the s o c i a l phenomenon o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i s not con- s i d e r e d t o be o f p r o b l e m p r o p o r t i o n s i n the C i t y o f Vancouver when compared w i t h o t h e r r e c o g n i z e d forms o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . 2. Because of a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m the f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e r e i s no u n i f o r m i t y i n the r e c o r d i n g o f i n c i d e n t s . Indeed, t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e c o r d i n g a t a l l beyond the a u t h o r i t i e s u p h o l d i n g the law. Other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as s c h o o l s , do not a p p l y t h e m s e l v e s t o the q u e s t i o n o t h e r t h a n t o a t t e n d t o t h e o b t a i n i n g o f s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s t i t u t i o n whenever p o s s i b l e . - 90 - 3. P o s s i b l y because o f g r e a t e r acknowledged problems w i t h i n the k e e p i n g o f the law, the C o u r t a u t h o r i t i e s do not have i n f o r m a t i o n o t h e r t h a n i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and a l i s t i n g o f t h e S e c t i o n of the law t h a t i s v i o l a t e d , on t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r p e t r a t o r . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of t h o s e c a s e s t h a t were b r o u g h t t o C o u r t as w e l l as t h o s e t h a t were s e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t . Any s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e c o r d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t e n d s t o be the r e s u l t o f e n q u i r y i n t o f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , so t h a t any a t t e m p t a t e x p l a i n i n g the b e h a v i o u r t e n d s t o a c c e n t u a t e and s u p p o r t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . I t a p p e ars t h a t the more r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s , such as Cohen's t h e o r y on the s t a t u s a n x i e t y o f m i d d l e - c l a s s b o y s , are not b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d or drawn upon. 4. Most C o u r t r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e d whether the i n d i v i d u a l a c t e d as one of a group o r a l o n e , b u t t h e r e was no i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e group, i t s p u r p o s e s , mores, e t c . T hat i s , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e s u b - c u l t u r e . 5. Most known j u v e n i l e s i n v o l v e d i n a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m i n Vancouver a r e male. 6. I n t h e l i g h t o f t o d a y ' s knowledge, e m o t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and s a t i s - f a c t i o n are f e l t t o be the b e s t p r o v i s i o n s a p a r e n t can g i v e t o a c h i l d f o r h i s , o r h e r , f u t u r e a c c e p t a b l e and s a t i s f y i n g r o l e i n s o c i e t y . The C o u r t r e c o g n i z e s t h i s i n i t s p r o v i s i o n f o r r e q u i r i n g a p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t . However, we must presume t h a t the r e p o r t i n g i n C o u r t must u s u a l l y be g i v e n v e r b a l l y f o r v e r y few such r e p o r t s o r s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s were on f i l e . T h i s may not damage the C o u r t h e a r i n g i t s e l f , b u t such a l a c k h a n d i c a p s r e s e a r c h i n t o the p r o b l e m o r any e f f o r t made by o t h e r s t o remove the p r o b l e m by a t t a c k i n g the c a u s e s . The c a u s e s t h e m s e l v e s are h i d d e n by t h i s n o n - r e c o r d i n g . 7. The j u v e n i l e who i s c h a r g e d w i t h an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y i n - 91 - V a n c o u v e r i s u s u a l l y aged 13 o r 14, so i t i s an o f f e n c e o f a young group. Nin e o f t h e 39 r e c o r d e d c a s e s i n 1961 were f i r s t o f f e n c e s , however, t h o s e c a s e s t h a t e n t a i l e d p r o p e r t y damage i n c i d e n t a l t o a n o t h e r c h a r g e o r c o m p l a i n t were l o s t i n t h e r e c o r d s . 8. No c o n t i n u i n g r e c o r d i s k e p t o f the o f f e n d e r whose case i s s e t t l e d Out o f C o u r t . T h e r e f o r e , and b e a r i n g i n mind t h e amount o f v a n d a l i s m w h i c h o c c u r s the p e r p e t r a t o r s of w h i c h a r e n e v e r i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o say what p e r c e n t a g e of t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m e v e r commit o t h e r o f f e n c e s . C h a p t e r I I I t e l l s us t h a t between the 39 c a s e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e was a t o t a l o f 197 d e l i n q u e n c i e s . D e t a i l s o f how many o f t h e 39 i n d i v i d u a l s were a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d w o u l d have t o be drawn f r o m the f i l e s and a f u r t h e r s t u d y made t o t r a c e how many o f them became c h a r g e d w i t h o t h e r d e l i n q u e n c i e s a t a l a t e r d a t e . 9. A r e the a r e a s o f damage r e l a t e d t o o p p o r t u n i t y ? We n o t e d t h a t our two m a i n s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the community a r e b o t h p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . A l s o , t h a t the F r a s e r View a r e a i t s e l f now has a low c r i m e l e v e l b u t t h a t i t has e x t r a p a t r o l l i n g by p o l i c e . I s t h e r e a s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e towards p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n Vancouver i n w h i c h o p p o r t u n i t y p l a y s i t s p a r t ? I t i s i n t e r - e s t i n g t o note the s u p p o r t g i v e n i n C h a p t e r I I t o S u t h e r l a n d ' s t h e o r y of d i f f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s , i n e s s e n c e , i s t h e i m i t a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s . S e v e r a l p u b l i c b o d i e s s u b s c r i b e t o the i d e a t h a t p u b l i c i t y o f a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m on t h e i r p r o p e r t y s e r v e s o n l y t o i n c i t e more o f t h i s t y p e of b e h a v i o u r . 10. S c h o o l achievement has been d i s c o v e r e d t o be g e n e r a l l y low amongst the 39 c a s e s c o n s i d e r e d . However, whether o r not m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n o r , s a y , some p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p , p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i s n o t a c c e s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . - 9 2 - 11. We have been u n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e what,, i f any, the m o t i v e s were b e h i n d the a c t s w h i c h have o c c u r r e d i n V a n couver. We have seen t h a t the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s i n C o u r t f o r 1961 were i n v o l v e d i n damage t o s c h o o l s , but whether t h e s e were an i n d i c a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l o u t b u r s t a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y o r some o t h e r unwanted i n f l u e n c e , or whether t h e y were i n s t i g a t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h a p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t a group, i s unknown. S u r p r i s e m i ght be f e l t t h a t H a l l o w e ' e n does not show an i n c r e a s e i n a c t s o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m , b u t i t must be remembered t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e o f m i n o r p r o p e r t y damage a t t h i s t i m e o f y e a r . T h i s a t t i t u d e c a n be s u p p o r t e d by the p o l i c e and C o u r t o f f i c i a l s who a r e the r e c i p i e n t s o f the c o m p l a i n t s . An i n c r e a s e i n a c t s a t such a time w o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s e i n t h i s a s p e c t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . As t h e o p e n i n g comments o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e , s o c i e t y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e t r i b u t i o n f o r l o s s and i s a f f e c t e d by b o u n d a r i e s t o an a c t beyond w h i c h s a f e t y i s f e l t . So, i f t h e s e two a s p e c t s are p r e s e n t and can be met, we f e e l t h a t t h e t h r e a t i s d i s s o l v e d . Because o f the a n n u a l r e p e t i t i o n o f H a l l o w e ' e n t h e r e i s an e x p e c t a t i o n of t h i s e v e n t . P r o t e c t i o n s have been p r o v i d e d f o r s o c i e t y by i t s e l f , such as ' t e e n age g a t h e r i n g s w i t h s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e e x c i t e m e n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t h e s e have p r o v e d t o be de- t e r r e n t s t o a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m and, so, are thought t o be s u p p o r t i v e o f the e q u i l i b r i u m o f the C i t y ' s l i f e . O ther q u e s t i o n s c a n be drawn f r o m o u r f i n d i n g s , b u t the p o i n t s we have drawn out seem t o be the most p e r t i n e n t t o our purpose and r e l a t e t o the t h e o r i e s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r I . We s h o u l d , p e r h a p s , m e n t i o n a g a i n t h a t t h i s t h e s i s does not i n t e n d t o d i s a g r e e w i t h the law as i t s t a n d s t o d a y i n the l i g h t o f p r e s e n t knowledge o f the meaning o f b e h a v i o u r . However, we do q u e s t i o n the need f o r the c o n t i n u a n c e of p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g j u v e n i l e - 93 - v a n d a l i s m i n t h i s C i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , o f the j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r h i m s e l f . As has been p o i n t e d o u t , much o f the f u l l p i c t u r e i s l e f t t o s u r m i s e , and u n l e s s t h i s i s c o r r e c t e d i n some manner b o t h p e r s o n a l and group a t t i t u d e s a re open t o f a l l a c i e s . Such a s i t u a t i o n c o u l d s e r v e t o a g g r a v a t e and, t h e r e f o r e , i n c r e a s e the problem. The F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t i n Vancouver f u n c t i o n s on t h e pr e m i s e t h a t i t i s a r e m e d i a l C o u r t . That i s , t o t h e b e s t o f i t s a b i l i t y i t endeavours t o pass a se n t e n c e w h i c h w i l l h e l p r e h a b i l i t a t e o f f e n d e r s back i n t o a l e s s s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t way o f l i f e . T h i s t h e s i s does n o t q u a r r e l w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e b u t , because the r e s u l t s o f our i n q u i r i e s have shown such a l a r g e a r e a f o r s p e c u l a t i o n , the C o u r t i t s e l f , t o o , i s o b v i o u s l y w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h i s vacuum. The p r o t e c t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t i t d e a l s o n l y w i t h the a c t . I n i t s e l f i t does not pass judgement on the m o t i v e . However, we c a n s p e c u l a t e and hope t h a t a b r o a d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t he a c t w o u l d b e n e f i t the C o u r t i n making a p r o p e r d e c i s i o n . A l s o , a w i d e r and deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p r o b l e m might produce new and. a p p r o p r i - a t e r e s o u r c e s e i t h e r f o r the C o u r t o r f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Thus, an argument e x i s t s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y i n the a r e a o f j u v e n i l e v a n d a l i s m i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. We a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h i s w o u l d be i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the c i t i z e n s o f Vancouver and, a l s o , i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r h i m s e l f . I n s h o r t , we do not f e e l t h a t the p r e s e n t a t t i - t u d e s i n Vancouver a re f a c i n g up t o the p r o b l e m as i t i s m a n i f e s t e d t o d a y . I t s a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n s a re not known. So, i t s p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the t o t a l i n c i d e n c e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i n the C i t y i s , v i r t u a l l y , unknown. c APPENDIX "A" APPENDIX A - l QUESTIONNAIRE SUBMITTED TO THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HYDRO AND POWER AUTHORITY " I t w o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d i f the answers t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s c o u l d c o v e r t he p e r i o d f r o m J a n u a r y 1, 1960 t o December 31, 1964 and p r o v i d e y e a r l y t o t a l s . " (1) QUESTION What i s t h e i n c i d e n c e o f p r o p e r t y damage t o t h e p r o p e r t y o f the B r i t i s h C o l umbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y i n Vancouver? (Not G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ) . ANSWER A p p r o x i m a t e l y 155 i n c i d e n c e s p er y e a r . (See T a b l e No. 3 ) . (2) QUESTION What p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e i n c i d e n t s a r e known t o be a c t s o f w i l f u l damage? ANSWER Our f i l e s a r e o n l y w i l f u l damage. (3) QUESTION What p r o p o r t i o n o f the a c t s o f w i l f u l damage were committed by i n d i v i d u a l s under the age of 18 y e a r s ? ANSWER 95% (4) QUESTION How many c o m p l a i n t s were l a i d a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e s e a c t s ? ANSWER 27 - See T a b l e No. 4. QUESTION How many c o m p l a i n t s were l a i d a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l s under 18 y e a r o f age? ANSWER 25 QUESTION What was a t t a c k e d ? What t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y were damaged most f r e q u e n t l y ? e.g. bus s e a t s , e l e c t r i c m e t e r s , e t c . ANSWER Bus s e a t s , a d v e r t i s i n g c a r d s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , bus s h e l t e r s , i n s u l a t o r s . QUESTION I n what l o c a t i o n s i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver were t h e s e a c t s most p r e v a l e n t ? e.g. b r o k e n m e t e r s - West End 130 - E a s t H a s t i n g s 20 e t c . ANSWER. T a b l e s No. 3 and 5 i n d i c a t e w h i c h p r o p e r t y i s a t t a c k e d , how f r e q u e n t l y and where. APPENDIX A-2 QUESTIONNAIRE SUBMITTED TO THE VANCOUVER POLICE DEPARTMENT DAMAGE TO PROPERTY (1) QUESTION What i s the number o f c o m p l a i n t s o f w i l f u l damage and m i s c h i e f known t o t h e p o l i c e and o c c u r r i n g between J a n u a r y 1, 1960 and December 31, 1964, w i t h t o t a l s f o r each y e a r ? ANSWER 1960 -- 1978 1961 — 2148 1962 -- 2381 1963 -- 2119 1964 -- 2182 (2) QUESTION I n what s e c t i o n s o f the c i t y d i d t h e s e i n c i d e n t s o c c u r ? ANSWER West End E a s t o f West o f M a i n - Not and Downtown M a i n S o u t h o f R e p o r t e d F a l s e Creek 1963 364 987 758 10 1964 352 1086 735 9 (3) QUESTION How many i n d i v i d u a l s were c h a r g e d w i t h t h e s e a c t s ? ANSWER 1963 -- 213 1964 -- 135 (4) QUESTION What was the mal e - f e m a l e r a t i o o f t h o s e c h a r g e d ? ANSWER Male Female 1963 206 7 1964 125 10 (5) QUESTION How many o f t h o s e c h a r g e d were j u v e n i l e s ? (Under e i g h t e e n ) . ANSWER 1960 -- 69 1961 — 39 1962 — 47 1963 -- 111 1964 -- 46 (6) QUESTION I s i t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an age breakdown o f the j u v e n i l e s c h a r g e d w i t h w i l f u l damage and m i s c h i e f ? ANSWER Under 14 14 15 16 17 Not S t a t e d 1960 31 11 10 7 8 2 1961 16 10 5 4 4 - 1962 18 10 9 3 6 1 1963 54 22 11 15 16 3 1964 20 7 6 10 3 - QUESTION What i s t h e ma l e - f e m a l e r a t i o o f j u v e n i l e s so charged? ANSWER Male Female 1960 66 3 1961 39 1962 47 1963 110 1964 39 7 QUESTION I n what a r e a s o f the c i t y do the j u v e n i l e s who were c h a r g e d w i t h w i l f u l damage o r m i s c h i e f l i v e ? ANSWER West End E a s t o f West o f M a i n - Not and Downtown M a i n S o u t h o f R e p o r t e d F a l s e Creek 1960 1 32 34 2 1961 2 22 15 1962 1 25 19 2 1963 3 81 24 3 1964 5 29 7 5 QUESTION I n what a r e a s o f the c i t y d i d the a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the j u v e n i l e s c h a r g e d o c c u r . ANSWER West End E a s t o f West o f M a i n - Not and Downtown M a i n S o u t h o f R e p o r t e d F a l s e Creek 1963 21 221 139 1 1964 33 346 195 1 (10) QUESTION I s i t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a breakdown o f the ty p e o f v a n d a l i s m - s l a s h i n g t i r e s , b r e a k i n g windows, e t c . ? ANSWER I n f o r m a t i o n not a v a i l a b l e . SOURCE: Vancouver P o l i c e Department R e c o r d s . - APPENDIX "B" B I B L I O G R A P H Y G e n e r a l R e f e r e n c e s B u r t , C. Cavan, R.S. Huber, W.W. K v a r a c e u s , W".C. M a c N e i l , D.H. M a r t i n , J.M. & F i t z p a t r i c k , J.P. 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M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r , An Overview f o r S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . V a n c o u v e r , Community Che s t and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , 1963. S o c i o l o g y o f D e v i a n t B e h a v i o u r . R i n e h a r t and Company I n c . , New Y o r k , 1957. "Toward the D e l i n e a t i o n o f V a n d a l i s m as a Sub-type i n J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y " . J o u r n a l o f C r i m i n a l Law and C r i m i n o l o g y and P o l i c e S c i e n c e , C h i c a g o , 111., J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1958. D e l i n q u e n c y and O p p o r t u n i t y . The F r e e P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1963. D e l i n q u e n t B o y s : The C u l t u r e of t h e Gang. The F r e e P r e s s , I l l i n o i s , 1955. C r i m i n a l Code of Canada. C a r s w e l l , 1964. "What i s V a n d a l i s m ? " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., March, 1954. "The P r o b l e m of Ego I d e n t i t y " , J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , B a l t i m o r e , The John H o p k i n s P r e s s , J a n u a r y , 1956. The P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l Approach t o J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1947. " V a n d a l i s m " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., September, 1954. New L i g h t on D e l i n q u e n c y and i t s T r e a t m e n t . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1936. S o c i a l C l a s s and M e n t a l I l l n e s s . John W i l e y and Sons, New Y o r k , 1958. " I c o n o c l a s m D u r i n g the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n " , A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Review. New Yo r k and London, O c t o b e r , 1954. P l a n n i n g Community S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n i n T r o u b l e . 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