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Employment trends for women in British Columbia Leonard, Anne Hewitt 1966

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EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR WOMEN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ANNE HEWITT LEONARD B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i'n the Department of EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p resen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y shal1 make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e . f o r re ference and s tudy. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion fo r ex-tens i ve copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my-Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n -c i a l g a i n - s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of M^^^TT^T^yi, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^ ^ P ^ ^ w J ^ ABSTRACT Employment trends f o r women i n B r i t i s h Columbia were examined for the 1953 to 1965 period. A time series study showing the effects of secular, seasonal, c y c l i c a l and higher educational variables on p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates was undertaken. Primary source data, necessary f o r studying the higher educational variable, was obtained from a questionnaire which was constructed and mailed to 1,000 randomly selected married women who were University of B r i t i s h Columbia Graduates from 1922 to 1965 i n c l u s i v e . The time series analysis indicated that a composite of the variables examined influenced in varying degrees the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1953 "to I965 period. The economic and educational implications of t h i s analysis have been discussed. Evidence has been given that an underlying, dominant secular trend exists of steadily increasing B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates. Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates have been shown to exhibit a s i m i l a r r i s i n g pattern. Correlation between the two is + . 8 8 . Although the secular trend appears to dominate, women are also shown to be affected by both seasonal i i i and c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s . There would seem t o be i n B r i t i s h Columbia a supply of women who tend t o enter the Labour Force when employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s are high and who leave when economic c o n d i t i o n s are depressed. Of importance f o r edu c a t i o n a l and occ u p a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s the knowledge obtained that the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbia women have r i s e n s t e a d i l y from twenty-three to t h i r t y - o n e per cent over a twelve year period and t h a t the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates f o r Married Women Graduates have r i s e n from one and a h a l f to two and a h a l f per cent over the same pe r i o d . This knowledge im p l i e s that some form of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s of v i t a l importance to a l l g i r l s . Another f i n d i n g w i t h d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to the c o u n s e l l i n g of adolescent and a d u l t women i s the strong evidence of the p r a c t i c a l value of a u n i v e r s i t y degree. The research showed that economic c y c l e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia had approximately only one f o u r t h as much e f f e c t on the employment of the Married Women U n i v e r s i t y Graduates as upon the B r i t i s h Columbia Female Labour Force. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To the members of my committee: Dr. Robin N. Smith - Chairman Professor W. H. Auld Dr. Richard Jenner and to Dr. J . T a i t Montague and Dr. John Vanderkamp f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n s and encouragement throughout the period of t h i s study. A l s o , to the members of the Computing Centre, p a r t i c u l a r l y to Dr. J . R. H. Dempster s p e c i a l thanks f o r generous a s s i s t a n c e and counsel. Without t h e i r co-operation, t h i s research could not have been undertaken; To: M ri James Poole Mrs. Margaret Reid Mrs. D. K. Rumsey and Mr. Norman Wilson f o r h e l p i n o b t a i n i n g the sampling frame and handling the mechanics f o r the reproduction of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e , covering l e t t e r s and envelopes. And f i n a l l y , my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the eight hundred anonymous women graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y who responded so generously to my request f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION OF PROBLEM . . 1 Problem 1 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 1 T h e o r e t i c a l 1 P r a c t i c a l 2 I I . SURVEY OF LITERATURE 5 I I I . METHOD AND TECHNICAL NOTES 1{3 Method 13 S e c u l a r , Seasonal, C y c l i c a l V a r i a b l e s . . . . . . 13 E x p l a n a t i o n of Data and Terms . . . 13 P r e s e n t a t i o n . 14 Ed u c a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e 15 C o l l e c t i o n of Primary Source Data. . 15 Sampling . 15 Questionnaire 16 Data Obtained . 17 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedure 17 P r e s e n t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Te c h n i c a l Notes 19 Labour Force Data R e v i s i o n 19 v i CHAPTER PAGE Method f o r Seasonal Adjustment . . . 19 Method of Cycle A n a l y s i s 20 Sampling Procedure 20 Married Women Graduate Population C o r r e c t i o n s : R a t i o n a l e and Method. . 21 IV. RESULTS Sec u l a r , Seasonal and C y c l i c a l V a r i a b l e s . . . . . . 2k Secular 2k Seasonal . . . . 28 C y c l i c a l 28 Edu c a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e 29 Frequencies 29 Percentages 30 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 38 C o r r e l a t i o n s kj Summary of Time S e r i e s A n a l y s i s . . . . kk Supplementary Information kk V. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions Related t o Economic and Edu c a t i o n a l P o l i c y 53 Findings w i t h D i r e c t A p p l i c a t i o n . . 53 I m p l i c a t i o n s A r i s i n g from the Study. 56 Suggestion f o r Future Research . . . 57 v i i CHARTER PAGE V. Conclusions Related to C o u n s e l l i n g of Adolescent and A d u l t Women . . . . . 58 Findings w i t h D i r e c t A p p l i c a t i o n . . 58 S p e c u l a t i o n A r i s i n g from the Study . 6 l Suggestions f o r Future Research . . 63 Comments by Respondents 64 Summary 65 FOOTNOTES 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 APPENDIX A Supplementary Data Information 76 APPENDIX B Supplementary I l l u s t r a t i v e M a t e r i a l . 86 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . Numerical and Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Married Women Graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Sample Employed) by Major Occupational Class 47 I I . Percentage Summary of Married Women ** Graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by Degree, 1920*s to 1960's (Sample) . . 48 I I I . Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n of Married Women Graduates L i v i n g Outside B r i t i s h Columbia as of 1965 51 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Frequencies of Married Women Graduates Working (Mos., Y r s . , 1953-1965) . . . . 31 2 Frequencies of Married Women Graduates Working (Mos., Y r s . , 1953-1965) Inside M e t r o p o l i t a n Area 3 2 3 Frequencies of Married Women Graduates Working (Mos., Y r s . , 1953-1965) Outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Area 33 4 Frequencies (as percentages) of Married Women Graduates Working (Mos., Y r s . , 1953-1965) 34 5 Frequencies (as percentages) of Married Women Graduates Working (Mos., Y r s . , 1953-1965) I n s i d e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area . . 35 6 Frequencies (as percentages) of Married Women Graduates Working (Mos., Y r s . , 1963-1965) Outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. . 36 7 Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 1953-1964 by Months 39 FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates. Y e a r l y Averages 1953-1964 . . . . 25 2 B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates. B r i t i s h Columbia T o t a l Unemployment Rates . . . . . . . . . . 26 3 Scattergram of T o t a l Unemployment Rates and Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates B r i t i s h Columbia 1963-1964 27 4 1922-1964 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Married Women Graduates P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates, Y e a r l y Averages 1953-1964 . . . . 41 5 Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates. B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates. B r i t i s h Columbia T o t a l Unemployment Rates 42 CHAPTER I STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM Statement An examination of employment trends. Delimitation For the purpose of thi s thesis employment trends were li m i t e d to those of women i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1953 to I 9 6 5 . A time series study showing the eff e c t s of secular, seasonal, c y c l i c a l and higher educational variables on p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates was undertaken. J u s t i f i c a t i o n Theoretical This research provides both detailed analysis and primary source data which have previously been lacking. It was I n i t i a t e d for two basic reasons: (1) Its possible value as an a i d to developing both economic and educational p o l i c i e s with regard to female labour supply. An a p r i o r i idea investigated i s that there i s a potential supply of females i n B r i t i s h Columbia which tends to enter the labour force when employment opportunities are,high. This hypothesis would have obvious importance i n determining the encouragement or discourage-ment of migratory labour supply. It might also a f f e c t decisions regarding the establishment of new educational i n s t i t u t i o n s or the m o d i f i c a t i o n of programmes for women within e x i s t i n g schools . (2) As a necessary r e q u i s i t e to the projec t ion of trends i n female employment. Educat ional and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g should r e f l e c t r e a l i t y . Although the employ-ment opportunit ies of tomorrow may d i f f e r from those of to-day, the best project ions to the future are s t i l l thos r e f l e c t i n g or based on the trends of the recent past. 1 Some of the r e a l i t i e s of past and present employment trends are provided i n s t a t i s t i c a l form by t h i s study. P r a c t i c a l Adequate v o c a t i o n a l counsel l ing require the a v a i l a b i l i t y of accurate Information. In a d d i t i o n to r e v e a l i n g general employment t rends , the f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n help provide f a c t u a l answers to questions such as : (1) Is there any evidence to show that employment f o r women i s a f fec ted by seasonal and c y c l i c a l changes? (2) On the basis of t h i s study, which of the two economic hypotheses seems to hold i n B r i t i s h Columbia: (a) That women tend to go to work to provide a family income when men are unemployed? or (b) That women as wel l as men tend to enter the labour force when employment opportunit ies are high? (3) Since 1922, what per cent of each year's graduating class from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has married as of 1965? What per cent of the 1953 to 1965 graduates who married indicated some work experience? (4) Is there any evidence of an increased pro-portionate number of women i n cer t a i n occupational classes? (5) How cl o s e l y has the nature of women's occupations been related to t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y degrees? (6) As of I 9 6 5 , how many University of B r i t i s h Columbia women graduates from each of the years 1922 to 1965 are no longer l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia? What i s the present geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of these highly educated women? CHAPTER II SURVEY OF LITERATURE There i s considerable l i t e r a t u r e dealing with areas peripheral to the subject of occupational and employment trends f o r women i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Dozens of recent books, reports, papers and pamphlets have presented and discussed occupational trends i n the United States and Canada. Many have dealt with the implications of automation and technological change. A few authors, such as G i l Schonning, 1 have attempted an analysis of the Canadian trends. The material exhibits varying degrees of care and varying degrees of interference from bias. Although t h i s peripheral l i t e r a t u r e exists there has as yet been no synthesis of f a c t u a l data i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The current status of research on occupational and employment trends f o r women i n thi s province i s that of a generalized comparison of decennial census data, which deals with supply at a moment of time. Detailed analysis i s lacking. The l i t e r a t u r e c l e a r l y Indicates the need f o r further research. Examples (a) The above a n a l y s i s has been a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . I should l i k e to see the same s o r t of a n a l y s i s done f o r geographic r e g i o n s of the country. . . . For some occupations the market i s t r u l y n a t i o n a l , but f o r many i t i s r e g i o n a l or even l o c a l . The l e v e l of geographic m o b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , but as we know i t i s s t i l l f a r from s u f f i c i e n t t o s o l v e a l l of our r e g i o n a l problems . . . . As I have a l r e a d y s a i d , we need the b e s t p o s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about what s o r t of occupations a r e expanding or c o n t r a c t i n g so t h a t p o l i c y makers and the guidance people can prevent as many young people as p o s s i b l e from f l o u n d e r i n g around i n the l a b o u r market and ending up as unemployed. 2 (b) . . . The F e d e r a l Department of Labour i s e s t a b l i s h i n g the Manpower C o n s u l t a t i v e S e r v i c e . The s e r v i c e w i l l f o l l o w these p r i n c i p l e s ; - Plans must be developed w e l l i n advance of a change; t h i s r e q u i r e s advance assessment of the manpower consequences of i n d u s t r i a l change.3 That some c o u n s e l l o r s and educators a r e aware of the need f o r more p r e c i s e trend a n a l y s i s i s evidenced by the f o l l o w i n g statements: (c) The dilemma of t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r i n the s c h o o l s was r a i s e d . How can v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s be provided with more adequate i n f o r m a t i o n about employment tren d s . . . . ? (d) In the s h o r t range t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e r e w i l l be ample job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r any t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . . . . The p i c t u r e i n the 70's i s not as c l e a r due p r i m a r i l y to the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n to support a f o r e c a s t . 5 On December 18, 1963 P r e s i d e n t Johnson signed i n t o law the V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A c t of I 9 6 3 . In Howard Rosen' d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s A c t i n December, 1964 he s t a t e s : 6. (e) The success or f a i l u r e of the V o c a t i o n a l Educational Act of 1963 w i l l depend, to a considerable extent, on how e f f e c t i v e l y the manpower s p e c i a l i s t s of the employment s e r v i c e o f f i c e s and the l o c a l , v o c a t i o n a l educators work together as a team. The new act r e q u i r e s v o c a t i o n a l educators to be aware of t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes so that curriculum and course content can be adjusted to new job r e q u i r e -ments. A c l o s e l i a i s o n between education and i n d u s t r y w i l l be necessary i f t r a i n i n g i s to keep abreast of innovations and new developments. The act places i n the hands of educators the burden of a d j u s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m to meet these changes. A beginning has been made toward producing the concrete i n f o r m a t i o n needed to r e l a t e v o c a t i o n a l education programs t o requirements f o r t r a i n e d manpower. The Department of Labour has been a c t i v e f o r more than two decades i n developing occupational and i n d u s t r y employment p r o j e c t i o n s . The Bureau's Occupational Outlook Handbook i s considered a b a s i c resource by p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s . The Department's Bureau of Employment S e c u r i t y has f o r s e v e r a l years sponsored l o c a l area s k i l l surveys which r e l a t e community manpower resources to a n t i c i p a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l requirements f o r two to f i v e year ahead. Area s k i l l surveys are now a v a i l a b l e f o r almost 170 areas i n 46 states'.' In r e c o g n i t i o n of the needs of the v o c a t i o n a l educators under the new A c t , OMAT, ( O f f i c e of Manpower, Automation and T r a i n i n g ) through i t s c o n t r a c t u a l research program, i s already sponsoring research p r o j e c t s designed to improve the occupational c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n system and provide new methods and techniques f o r s t a t e and l o c a l occupational pro-j e c t i o n s . S p e c i a l i s t s from the academic world and the Department's own experts are launching a search-ing review of the Department's oc c u p a t i o n a l work." However, Clague, speaking a l s o i n December of .1964, was l e s s o p t i m i s t i c about the a v a i l a b i l i t y of accurate l o c a l data. He says: ( f ) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as yet no comprehensive data on changing o c c u p a t i o n a l employment patterns i n i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s are a v a i l a b l e i n the United 7. States. Except for the data a v a i l a b l e from the decennial censuses, our conclusions are based on special surveys of s p e c i f i c industries, studies of in d i v i d u a l occupations, or the analysis of the effects of a pa r t i c u l a r technological development on employment. We need to know a great deal more about the s h i f t s taking place i n the occupational structure of our work force before we can measure with confidence, the net eff e c t of these changes.' F i n a l l y , t h i s statement comes from a consultation of the United States Department of Labour Women's Bureau and the O f f i c e of Education with state school Guidance o f f i c i a l s . (g) Another d i f f i c u l t y i n counselling g i r l s i s the lack of adequate material about the wide variety of jobs that are possible f o r women and the changing job opportunities. . . . There i s also need fo r a clea r i n g house of information on women and jobs, especially for g i r l s not going on to college. . . . A l l agreed that much more information i s needed concerning the occupations (technicians, etc.) which w i l l be demand occupations i n the 1970's.° The review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed major d e f i c -iencies i n the data necessary for conducting research on occupational trends f o r women either i n Metropolitan Vancouver or i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Data sources such as the National Employment Service (N. E. S.) and the Department of Labour, V i c t o r i a and Ottawa, were not ava i l a b l e . Change was one major problem encountered i n attempt-ing to gather data over time; change i n the methods of c o l l e c t i n g , recording and presenting the s t a t i s t i c s occurred frequently. Also, there were v i r t u a l l y no r e l i a b l e 8 s t a t i s t i c s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , over time, the male and female workers. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n may prove v a l u a b l e to o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . Examples of D i f f i c u l t i e s ( 1 ) Census I f a r e s e a r c h e r wished to base com-p a r i s o n s of previous census data on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s f o r the I96I census, he would need to take i n t o account the f a c t t h a t the c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n , nomenclature and n u m e r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of occupations i s changed i n each succeeding d e c e n n i a l census. However, by means of c o n v e r s i o n t a b l e s obtained from Miss A. Wood, C h i e f , Occupations and Employment S e c t i o n , Census D i v i s i o n , Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, the data from p r e v i o u s censuses can l a b o r i o u s l y be converted to the 1961 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n base. T a b l e I shows 1951 to 1 9 6 1 o c c u p a t i o n a l trends (on the b a s i s of the 1961 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) f o r women i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. T a b l e I I shows s i m i l a r d ata f o r i n d u s t r i e s . T a b l e I only w i l l appear i n the I 9 6 I Census Trend Report 94 -551 e n t i t l e d Occupation and Industry Trends. Conversion c h a r t s which would a l s o convert 1 9 4 1 census data to t h e I 9 6 I c l a s s i f i c a t i o n base can be obtained from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ; (Por Tables I and I I see Appendix A pp. 76-77) Trends are not f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i f only two p o i n t s 9. are a v a i l a b l e . Unfortunately, the p a r t i a l census of 1956 did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e Male, Female data, and the census of 1941 was biased because of pr e v a i l i n g war-time conditions. (2) National Employment Service (N. E. S.) An i n t e r -view with Mr. L. T. Fraser, Regional Manager of the N. E. S., and an examination of the information a v a i l a b l e revealed that the s t a t i s t i c s showing U n f i l l e d Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants were un r e l i a b l e i n that r e g i s t r a t i o n i s voluntary and the data are therefore incomplete. Also the information i s kept on record for only one year. U n f i l l e d Vacancies are vacancies reported to the N. E. S. by employers which have not been f i l l e d at the date indicated. Unplaced Applicants are persons registered f o r employment at the date indicated. A basic weakness of the present N. E. S. i s i t s i n a b i l i t y to secure co-operation from enough employers to make i t possible f o r i t to have comprehensive and up-to-date information on job vacancies. Indeed, a lack of comprehensive information on the demand f o r labour i s a s t r i k i n g gap i n our basic informa.tion about the economy. Available evidence indicates that less, than 30 per cent of t o t a l h i r l n g s are made through N. E. S., and i t can be assumed that job vacancy coverage i s equally,small. . . . The lack of comprehensive data on job vacancies makes labour market analysis at the present time v i r t u a l l y impossible. . . . Such analysis of labour market data i s of c r u c i a l importance f o r the planning of vocational education programmes for prospective entrants into the labour force, f o r occupational t r a i n i n g and re-tr a i n i n g of persons already i n the labour force. . . . There i s an urgent need f o r greater 10. o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y and f o r iinprbved e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and r e - t r a i n i n g o f b o t h new e n t r a n t s t o , and e x i s t i n g members o f , t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n e c e s s a r y i n a c o n t i n u a l l y and r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g environment. . . . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the e x i s t i n g l a b o u r f o r c e makes i t a l l t h e more n e c e s s a r y t o a c c e l e r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g programmes. . . . The development o f t h e N. E. S. can no l o n g e r c o n t i n u e t o be n e g l e c t e d l f f o r m i d a b l e problems, a r i s i n g from r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s , a r e t o become manageable.9 (3) Department of E d u c a t i o n D a t a a r e l a c k i n g o r v i r t u a l l y u n o b t a i n a b l e even f o r t h e s t u d y o f a s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n such as t e a c h i n g . An u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t was made t o g a t h e r s t a t i s t i c s on t e a c h e r s from the B r i t i s h C o lumbia T e a c h e r s 1 , F e d e r a t i o n , l o c a l s c h o o l boards and t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . A l l i n d i c a t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o be o f a s s i s t a n c e i f p o s s i b l e . However i n h i s r e p l y t o a r e q u e s t r e t h e o b t a i n i n g o f s t a t i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o women and m a r r i e d women who have been engaged i n t e a c h i n g i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n t h e l a s t dozen y e a r s , Mr. H a r r y Evans, R e g i s t r a r , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a r e p l i e s i n p a r t : . . . t o e x t r a c t such d a t a would n e c e s s i t a t e a s t r a i g h t c l e r i c a l j o b o f manual e x t r a c t i o n o f a l l t h e r e c o r d c a r d s , t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e c a r d s , t h e d i s c a r d i n g of t h o s e which a r e not p e r t i n e n t and t a b u l a t i n g o f t h o s e t h a t a r e p e r t i n e n t . There a r e over f o r t y thousand such f i l e s and c a r d s . On a rough c a l c u l a t i o n I would say t h e number o f man hours i n v o l v e d would be not l e s s t h a n f i v e hundred and i n d e e d can be w e l l i n excess o f t h a t f i g u r e . 11 As has "been i n d i c a t e d by the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n s , there are no r e l i a b l e or v a l i d o c c u p a t i o n a l data f o r women f o r the years between the 1951 a n < l 1961 censuses. Had t h i s information been a v a i l a b l e p r o j e c t i o n s would s t i l l have been d i f f i c u l t owing to the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and inadequacies i n a v a i l a b l e population and r e l a t e d immigration s t u d i e s . 1 o Meredith and Knight f a i l to give explanatory i n f o r m a t i o n re b i r t h r a t e s . They s t a t e t h a t the average y e a r l y r a t e of n a t u r a l increase i s 1.57% f o r 1951-1956 ) ) compounded annually. 1.67% f o r 1956-1961 ) However, i f census f i g u r e s are used f o r t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n the r a t e i s 1.772$. See Appendix A. p. 7 8 . 11 Camu, Weeks and Sametz g i v e 140 248 as t h e i r t o t a l f o r immigration, whereas the census f i g u r e i s 155 052. 1 ? One study of population trends which appears to have been accepted f o r use by a number of r e g i o n a l planning boards could be c r i t i c i z e d on the f o l l o w i n g bases: (1) F e r t i l i t y r a t e s (P.21) f a i l e d to take i n t o account the d e c l i n e i n f e r t i l i t y i n the l a t e 1950 , £ i a f t e r the increase over the war and post war periods. (2) For m i g r a t i o n f i g u r e s they assumed an average without t a k i n g the c o n d i t i o n s i n t o account. They d i d not assume, as would seem reasonable, that the net m i g r a t i o n 12 was related to the economy of the province. (3) The d i s t r i b u t i o n of net migration by age was not r e a l i s t i c . They assumed (P.10) that the age and sex composition of the combined net flow followed the immigration pattern. To improve these figures age d i s t r i b u t i o n could be calculated and worked out from census figures. It i s encouraging to note that more r e l i a b l e popu-l a t i o n projections should soon be a v a i l a b l e as the r e s u l t of a survey being undertaken by Dr. J . T. Montague, di r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l Relations at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s hoped that the above outline of d i f f i c u l t i e s re occupational data c o l l e c t i o n w i l l serve to emphasize the urgent need f o r a uniform method of c o l l e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c s which would then be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r research. Perhaps a s p e c i a l data c o l l e c t i n g and processing Department of Automation f o r each large Metropolitan Area? Gathering simple s t a t i s t i c s monthly? Using the International Standard C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Occupations, revised and made comparable as necessary? CHAPTER III METHOD AND TECHNICAL NOTES I. METHOD This time series study was undertaken for the s p e c i f i c purpose of showing s t a t i s t i c a l l y which variables play major ro l e s i n determining Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates i n B r i t i s h Columbia. For purposes of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the categories considered s i g n i f i c a n t to the study are secular, seasonal, c y c l i c a l and educational. S t a t i s t i c a l procedures are used to examine each. Secular. Seasonal and C y c l i c a l Variables Explanation of Data and Terms The i n i t i a l data used were obtained from The Labour Force, a series begun i n November, 19^5> and carried out at quarterly i n t e r v a l s u n t i l November, 1 9 5 2 » when the f i r s t survey on a monthly basis was taken.13 Revision of the data was necessary. (For more d e t a i l , see Technical Notes p. 1 9 , and Appendix A, p. 79) Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates re f e r to the proportion of females i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Labour Force, out of the female population fourteen years of age and over. Total Unemployment Rates re f e r to the proportion 1 4 . of unemployed males and females i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Labour Force. The abbreviations F.P.R. and T.U.R. are used i n future references to the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and the T o t a l Unemployment Rates respectively. Calculation of F.P.R's. and T.U.R's. Following data r e v i s i o n , Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and Total Unemployment Rates were calculated f o r each month from 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 6 4 . Presentation Graphs were drawn to i l l u s t r a t e : (a) The general growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the F.P.R's. (b) The comparative trend of these rates with the T.U.R's. A scattergram of the unadjusted T.U.R's and F.P.R's was plotted. The T.U.R's and F.P.R's were then correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Method. Further Investigation The next steps were: (a) To seasonally adjust both the F.P.R. and the T.U.R. figu r e s . (See Technical Notes, p. 19 ) (b) To correlate the seasonally adjusted F.P.R's and T.U.R's. (c) To correlate seasonal patterns f o r each of these. 15-(d) To determine, by means of c y c l e a n a l y s i s , the in f l u e n c e of c y c l i c a l and r e s i d u a l f l u c t u a t i o n s on the F.P.R's. (See T e c h n i c a l Notes, p. 20 ) E d u c a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e Procedure The f i n a l approach i n examining the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Labour Force was* To determine the 1953 to 1964 p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia of those married women who were U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia graduates from 1922 t o 1964 i n c l u s i v e and to c o r r e l a t e these p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s w i t h the T.U.R's and the F.P.R's, a l s o to again apply c y c l e a n a l y s i s . The a b b r e v i a t i o n s M.W.G's and M.W.G.P.R's are used i n f u t u r e references to married women graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and married women graduate p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . For purposes of t h i s study "married" r e f e r s t o a l l women who ar e , or once were married. C o l l e c t i o n of Primary Source Data I t now became necessary t o o b t a i n primary source data. Sampling A computer l i s t i n g from Alumni Records (See Appendix A, p. 82 ) showing names, addresses and degrees of women graduates from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1922 to 1965 was obtained. The sampling 16 frame was a set of computer cards, i s o l a t e d from t h i s l i s t , f o r the 3»6>57 married women graduates with known addresses i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Of these women, 2,465 l i v e d i n Me t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver (See Appendix A, p. 83) 1,192 outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. The two areas are r e f e r r e d to as M.A. and Outside M.A., i n keeping w i t h census d e f i n i t i o n s . A sample of 1,000 M.W.G's was randomly s e l e c t e d from the frame described above. (For sampling procedures see Te c h n i c a l Notes p. 20) Questionnaire A two page ques t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A, pp. 84-85) was constructed f o r the purpose of ob t a i n i n g the re q u i r e d employment i n f o r m a t i o n from the s e l e c t e d sample. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a p e r s o n a l l y signed covering l e t t e r and a stamped self-addressed envelope were mailed to the 1,000 women i n the sample. Two weeks l a t e r , f o l l o w i n g a s i x t y per cent response, a f o l l o w up l e t t e r was sent. Within ten days the t o t a l response was seventy-seven per cent. Key punching and t a b u l a t i n g of r e p l i e s began a t t h i s time. Some data were tabulated manually and some by computer. P r e s e n t a t i o n Data has been presented i n the form of t a b l e s . 17. Information includes: (1) Frequencies of M.W.G's working, months and years, 1953-1965. ( 2 ) Frequencies of M.W.G's working, months and years, I 9 5 3 - I 9 6 5 . Inside M.A. (3) Frequencies of M.W.G's working, months and years, 1953-1965. Outside M.A. (4) Frequencies (as percentages) of M.W.G's working, months and years, 1953-1965. (5) Frequencies (as percentages) of M.W.G's working, months and years, 1953-1965* Inside M.A. (6) Frequencies (as percentages) of M.W.G's working, months and years, I 9 5 3 - I 9 6 5 . Outside M.A. (7) M.W.G. p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 6 4 by months. ( 8 ) Frequencies and percentages of Occupational Categories, 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 6 5 by Degree. (9) Frequencies and percentages of graduates by Degree by year. ( 1 0 ) Geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of M.W.G's now l i v i n g outside B r i t i s h Columbia as of 1 9 6 5 . ( 1 1 ) University of B r i t i s h Columbia women graduates, married and single, 1 9 2 2 - 1 9 6 5 . Percentages married as of I 9 6 5 . S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures Programmed By Computer One programme was written to compute P a r t i c i p a t i o n 18. Rates. (See T e c h n i c a l Notes p.21 ) A second programme was w r i t t e n to c o r r e l a t e s (1) M.W.G.P.R's wit h P.P.R's. (2) M.W.G.P.R's with T.U.R's. (3) C y c l i c a l patterns of M.W.G.P.R's wit h c y c l i c a l patterns of seas o n a l l y adjusted T.U.R's. Pr e s e n t a t i o n R e s u l t s are shown by: (1) Tables. (2) C o r r e l a t i o n s . (3) Graphs. 19 I I . TECHNICAL NOTES Labour Force Data Revision Revision of 1953-1958 Labour Force data was necessitated by changes i n the sampling population made ln 1958. Any attempt to analyze unrevised data would have been useless because of lack of comparability. Method f o r r e v i s i o n using reference paper 58, 1958: (1) To obtain population numbers f o r use i n cal c u l a t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates, the "Labour Force" and "Those Not i n the Labour Force" figures were added. (2) To obtain figures necessary for c a l c u l a t i n g unemployment rates, the Male and Female "Persons with Jobs" numbers were subtracted from Male, Female, Labour Force f i g u r e s . Method for Seasonal Adjustment The method used i n crudely adjusting f o r seasonal v a r i a t i o n involved: (1) Finding yearly averages. (2) Finding monthly deviations from these averages. (3) Obtaining the average deviation f o r each month. (4) Adjusting the rates f o r each of the 144 observations by adding or subtracting as re-quired the average monthly deviations obtained i n step three above. 2 0 . Method of Cycle Analysis The method of cycle analysis used was based on that 14 of Warren Persons as explained i n M i l l s (pp. 377-385)• It should be noted, however, that the f i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n was with the deviations of seasonally adjusted F.P.R's and T.U.R's from trend, and that t h i s daita covered the period from January 1953 to December 1964 and included 144 observations. I t should also be noted that the term "cycle" represents both c y c l i c a l and accidental f a c t o r s . Sampling Procedure A sample size of 1000 was a r b i t r a r i l y chosen. The entire population of M.W.G's within the frame defined was f i r s t proportionately s t r a t i f i e d according to year f o r both M.A. and Outside M.A. Out of the sample of 1000, 674 were drawn from M.A. and 326 from Outside M.A. Formula used to obtain these figures: m i x | £ f i = 674 1 3o57 V e r i f i e d 1000 -J24 and 1000 11^2 _ , 3 2 6 1 x 3657 ~ i d b To get the proportion for each year from the 674 M.A. 674 N sample, the formula 1 x 2465 was used and a s i m i l a r pro-cedure followed f o r obtaining proportions f o r Outside M.A. The number of sample names needed f o r each year and area was thus obtained. A random number table was then used to select the f i r s t name card from each group. From th i s s t a r t i n g point, every n t n card was pulled, n being determined by the size of the sample i n proportion to the size of the population. It should be noted that the cards were well mixed; were not i n alphabetical or i n any other known order. M.W.G. Population Corrections Rationale and Method Before M.W.G. p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates could be obtained i t was necessary to correct the M.W.G. population f o r both mobility and mortality. The B r i t i s h Columbia F.P.R's were calculated on the basis of B r i t i s h Columbia population figures which had been obtained by Labour Force sample for each year. The married women graduates now l i v i n g outside B r i t i s h Columbia or now deceased may have been present i n the B r i t i s h Columbia population during any of the years under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Therefore, i f comparisons were to be drawn, correct-ions were necessary. The numbers and percentages of those M.W.G's now l i v i n g outside B r i t i s h Columbia were calculated. A scattergram of these percentages against time indicated a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Examination of t h i s 22 scattergram and of the percentages suggested t h a t f i v e to eight years f o l l o w i n g graduation those l e a v i n g the province had already gone. The method of l e a s t squares was used to d e r i v e a more accurate measure of tre n d . I t was determined that the r a t e at which married women graduates l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia was f i v e and one quarter per cent f o r seven years a f t e r which the percentage of those no longer here remains constant. C o r r e c t i o n t h e r e f o r e Involved: ( 1 ) Using the B r i t i s h Columbia M.W.G's population f i g u r e s up to 1 9 4 6 . (2) I n t e r p o l a t i n g between the population f i g u r e s f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia M.W.G's and the M.W.G's who have l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the l a s t seven years before the year being c a l c u l a t e d . Example A c o r r e c t e d M.W.G. population f o r 1953 was obtained by: ( 1 ) Taking the B r i t i s h Columbia M.W.G. population up t o and i n c l u d i n g 1 9 4 6 . 1 2 2 4 5' 6 (2) Beginning with 1 9 4 7 , t a k i n g 7 , 7 , 7 , 7 , 7 , 7 , 1 of those now l i v i n g outside B r i t i s h Columbia and adding the number thus obtained to the f i g u r e f o r those l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r each year up t o and i n c l u d i n g 1 9 5 3 -(3) Adding (1) and ( 2 ) . The M.W.G. population was a lso corrected f o r m o r t a l i t y , the percentage added each year being determined from a M o r t a l i t y T a b l e . CHAPTER IV RESULTS Secular, Seasonal and C y c l i c a l Variables Secular The Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and the Total Unemployment Rates were calculated for the months and years of 1953 to 1964. The f i r s t step i n dis t i n g u i s h i n g the forces a f f e c t -ing the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates was to examine these observations f o r evidence of a secular component, a con-tinuous process underlying the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of short term change. Yearly averages were obtained for the F.P.R's and plotted f o r the 1953 to 1964 period. In Figure 1, (p. 2 5 ) , secular forces, or those determining the long term movements of a s e r i e s , would appear to r e f l e c t a f a i r l y continuous process of growth in the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates over the twelve year period. The average ranged from 22.9 per cent i n 1953 "to 31.2 per cent i n 1944. The F.P.R's and T.U.R's were then plotted monthly over the same years. In Figure 2, (p. 2 6 ) , the secular trend i s again revealed. So also i s the apparent phenomena of r i s e s i n the F.P.R's corresponding to lowerings of T.U.R's but since the data used had not yet been adjusted for either seasonal or 32 Ye*™ 1354 1956 1358 O f i O 1 3 6 2 FIGURE 1 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A F E M A L E P A R T I C I P A T I O N R A T E S , Yearly Av.yag.s 1353-1964 / I 2(o FIGURE Z J I 1 I I L _ J 5 10 15 20 Z5 30 33 Female Participation Rates 1953— I3G4* ( Percenta.g«) F I G U R E 3 SCATTERGRAM OF T O T A L UNEMPLOYMENT RATES AND F E M A L E PARTICIPATION R A T E S ' — BRITISH COLUMBIA 1953-1364-28 c y c l i c a l a n d r e s i d u a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m a j o r i n f l u e n c e s c r e a t i n g t h i s p i c t u r e . I n t h e T . U . R ' s w h a t w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e s e a s o n a l s w i n g s c a n b e s e e n r e p e a t e d w i t h m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s . T h e s c a t t e r g r a m o f t h i s u n a d j u s t e d d a t a ( s e e F i g u r e 3, p . 27) shows t h e p o i n t s s c a t t e r e d v e r y much a t r a n d o m . C o r r e l a t i o n , u s i n g t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t Moment M e t h o d , g a v e a n r o f + .06. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l i k e l y d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r s was o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y . S e a s o n a l B o t h t h e F . P . R . a n d t h e T . U . R . f i g u r e s w e r e s e a s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e s e a s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d F . P . R ' s w i t h t h e T . U . R ' s e q u a l l e d +.11. T h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o n l y o f t h e F . P . R ' s a n d T . U . R ' s was - . 8 5 . I t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e a b o v e c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t t h e phenomena a p p a r e n t i n F i g u r e 2, p . 26, o f r i s e s i n F . P . R ' s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o l o w e r i n g s o f T . U . R ' s a r e d u e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n e m p l o y m e n t , a n i n f l u e n c e w h i c h , o f c o u r s e , was c y c l i c a l . C y c l i c a l To h e l p d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e w e r e o t h e r m a j o r f a c t o r s c a u s i n g t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f women f r o m t h e L a b o u r F o r c e , c y c l i c a l a n a l y s i s was u n d e r t a k e n . When t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c y c l i c a l a n d r e s i d u a l 29 f l u c t u a t i o n s on the F.P.R's was determined "by means of c y c l e a n a l y s i s , the c o r r e l a t i o n of the c y c l i c a l d e v i a t i o n s of the F.P.R's and T.U.R's from trend was - . 6 6 , i n d i c a t i n g that c y c l i c a l as w e l l as seasonal e f f e c t s l e d to an Increase i n F.P.R's i n conjunction with a lowering of T.U.R's. Edu c a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e The 1922 to 1965 group of married women graduates from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was i s o l a t e d f o r the purpose of examining the e f f e c t of higher education on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the Labour Force. Frequencies Of the 1000 graduates from t h i s group who were sent questionnaires regarding t h e i r employment h i s t o r y , 769 r e p l i e d i n time f o r the i n c l u s i o n of t h e i r information i n t h i s study. From these r e p l i e s , frequencies have been t a b u l a t e d to show how many married women graduates worked dur i n g the months and years of 1953 to 1965* Table 1 shows those xrorking i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Tables 2 and 3 separate those working Ins i d e M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and those working Outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. For Tables 1, 2 and 3 , see pp. 31-3-Pereentages The percentages of M.W.G's working out of the t o t a l sample r e p l i e s who could have been working i n the given months and years are presented: In Table 4 , p. 34 f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. In Table 5t P« 35 f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. In Table 6 , p. 36 f o r Outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. In Table 4 , the percentages show tha t i n c r e a s i n g proportions of married x^ omen graduates are e n t e r i n g the Labour Force, the t o t a l r i s e being from twenty-eight per cent i n 1953 t o f o r t y - t h r e e per cent i n I 9 6 5 . JAN: FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 1 : 1953 107 107 109 110 112 112 103 103 109 114 ; 114 113 V 1954' 121 120 117 118 118 120 117 118 126 122 119 • 118 123 125 '• 126 •'• 125 128 128 120 121 133 132 129 129 ,*.»7>r •* 1BB& -, 142 141 . 141 " "; 144 151 149 ; 146 •;. 143 156 156 155 154 " ' 1957 165 166 166 165 165 168 155 155 163 166 163 163 1958 175 176 172 173 173 174 172 172 182 186 186 187 1959 194 196 196 194 199 194 186 183 199 201 198 198 I960 204 205 204 205 . 205 204 189 187 210 214 213 213 1961 214 214 214 208 207 207 195 195 207 212 218 220 1962 229 226 225 226 228 228 223 221 243 244 :> 243 244 '1963 249 252 248 245 247 246 242 242 270 1 273 277 276 19 6 A 285 283 279 -:• 2 8 i 284 277 266 . 267, 301 304 306 307 1965 307 308 310 310 307 304 300 < 304 322 328 333 329 Z.'S'ikM'Ki'J, JZ TABLE 2 FREQUENCIES •S WORKING CMOS. ,YRS., 1953-1964) INSIDE MA -: JAN ••• FEB HAR APR MAY JUNE JULY ,. AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC V , ' 1953 . : 69 69 70 71 72 73 70 70 f '  • 75 79 79 78 ."• • 1954 : • 1955 1956 84 87 96 '-i , 84 88 95 81 88 ;95 81 87 96 80 88 99 83 90 97 81 84 96 82 86 94 90 94 96 88 . 91 95 86 88 96 85 87 95 .-, 1957 • 1958 1959 103 112 119 104 114 122 104 111 123 104 111 122 105 112 127 107 113 127 100 i l l ; 121 100 111 118 102 116 131 106 118 132 103 119 130 103 119 131 1960 1961 1962 133 147 150 136 146 148 135 148 145 135 - 143 148 137 140 150 137 139 151 128 131 148 127 129 148 145 137 158 146 141 157 145 145 156 144 144 157, 1963 1964 1.965 161 188 193 163 188 . -192 159 186 192 155 187 192 157 190 193 159 186 194 160 178 192 161 176 192 178 194 200 180 193 204 182 194 . 205 181 193 201 • • ' ,r 33 TABLE 3 FREQUENCIES OF M.W.G. *S WORKING {MOS. •YRS.» 1953-1964) OUTSIDE MA :A •'YY'•" "I. ." ' " '% '_ ' •yV ' W' '"• ' • '• V;Y'' * ' .'. -' , ' -'. . JAN FEB MAR APR MAY . JUNE JULY ,r AUG '„. SEPT Y OCT NOV . " DEC -; . • '' • . . . - ' . ' . 1953 :' 38 ' 38 39 .' 39 :-•* 40 V • 39 '. 33 33 34 ^-'35'- . 35 35 •" .' • 1954 •; 1955 1956 • 37 . ' 36 • -46 36 • 37 • ; 46 36 , '• 38 46 • 37 38 48 38 :, 40 52 •• ' 37 38 ,;: - 52 . • 36 36 50 36 ' 35 Y 49 • C 36 39 Y 60 ."34. ' 41 61 • 33 41 59 ;'• 33T. 42 59 ';-'' ' • • • •''? "' • "'• '/.Xi: • 1957 1958 1959 • . ,: . 62 ' 63 • /:X . 75 ; 62 .'" 62 ' 74 62 • 61 73 ' 61 62 :' 72 60 61 72 x- 6i . r Y: 61 67 55 '• 61 65 '•• 55 61 65 61 66 68 60 68 60 •; . 67 " 68 60 . 68 : .. 67 • '• - . •"' . ' ' •.; I960 1961 1962 71 ' 67 •' 79 • • 69 68 78 - ;6 :?: 66 80 • 70 65 • 78 68 67 78 i - 6 7 '• 68 77 . . •:• 61 V : 64 .-. • 75 Y . 60 . 66 73 • - 65 70 85 68 7i 87 . 68 < 73 87 . .. 69 ';. 76 87 1963 1964 1965 :Y, 88 • 'T .; 97 . "• 89 95 89 , 93 118 90 94 .118 90 94 114 87 91 110 82 88 108 si; 91 112 92 *' 107 122 93 111 124 95, : 112 128 95 114 128 * P' • : ' \ ' " -yi.! • •'. Y .• . ;'" • •" ' V • ' ' ' • • ' .J • • X ' Y ' Y K 1 r TABLE 4 FREG. CAS PC.3 OF WORKING. (MOS..YRS.,1953-1964} . . - ; > n . • -. . . . . • '' • -1 JAN FEB ; MAR . APR •:. MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT. . . OCT .. NOV DEC 1953 28.2 28.2 28.6 28.9 29.4 29.3 26.9 26.8 28.2 29.3 29.3 29.1 1954 1955 1956 30.2 29.3 31.3 30.0 29.8 31.1 29.2 30.0 31.1 29.3 29.7 31.6 29.2 30 . 2 .32.8 29.5 28.7 30.1 28.2 32.3 31.7 29.0 28.1 30.9 30.6 30.5 33.2 29.6 30.2 33.1 ,28.8 29.5 32.8 28.6 29.5 . 32 .7 ' : • • ' ' • - .'• 1957 IS 5 8 1959 33.7 33.5 35.5 33. 9 33.7 35.7 33.9 33.0 35.7 33.6 33.1 35.3 33.5 33.0 36.1 34.0 31.2 33.1 32.6 35.0 33.6 31.1 32.6 32.9 32.3 34.1 35.5 32.8 34. 8 35.9 32.3 34.8 .35.4 32.3 35.0 35.4 I960 1961 1962 35.1 35.3 35.7 35.3 35.3 / 35.2 35.1 35.3 35.0 35.2 34.3 35.1 35.2 34.0 35.3 35.1 32.5 34.0 32.1 35.2 34.4 32.1 32.0 34.1 35.5 33.5 36.9 36.0 34.2 * 37.0 35.9 35.1 36.9 35.9 35.4 37.0 1,963 1964 1965 36.7 39.1 40.6 37.1 ; 38.9 40.7 36.5 38.4 41.0 36.1 38.7 ., 41.0 36.2 39.0 40.5 36.0 35.3 37.8 36.5 40.2 39.5 . 35.2 36.7 40.1 38.6 40.6 42.3 38.9 41.0 43.0 39.3 41.3 43.6 39.2 41.4 43.2 • ' • . • : •'• -V •• . • : ' • : - ' -]\ ; -. -- • £ * I • '".•"> '•" -V:'. • . ... ••• ' ••• • - - • -.- - :—i,...; — -_ _ — — ^ — . . . — _ . . _ • -• -. -- ' • , • .' ' - ' ' : • _ \ - .'- ' 3& TABLE 5 FREQ. (AS PC. ) OF ^wSGv*'-S •WORKING (MOS.,YRS. , 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 6 4 ) IN MA '."'.T,;i' • ' - . •• ' .' JAN • ; FEB MAR ; A P R MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC . . . •>';•• 1 9 5 3 ± • 2 7 . 7 2 7 . 7 2 8 . 0 . 2 8 . 4 2 8 . 8 2 9 . 1 2 7 . 9 2 7 . 8 2 9 . 5 3 0 . 7 3 0 . 7 3 0 . 5 ' ' . ':• 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 > 3 1 . 9 3 1 . 4 3 2 . 3 3 1 . 9 3 1 . 8 3 2 . 0 3 0 . 7 3 1 . 8 3 1 . 9 3 0 . 6 3 1 . 3 3 2 . 2 3 0 . 1 3 1 . 4 3 2 . 9 3 0 . 9 3 2 . 0 3 2 . 0 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 3 1 . 8 3 0 . 5 3 0 . 3 . 3 0 . 9 3 3 . 0 3 2 . 5 3 1 . 3 3 2 . 2 3 1 . 5 3 0 . 8 : 3 1 . 4 3 0 . 4 3 1 . 1 3 1 . 0 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 8 . 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 3 2 . 4 3 2 . 7 3 3 . 1 3 2 . 7 3 3 . 3 3 3 . 8 3 2 . 6 3 2 . 5 3 4 . 1 3 2 . 5 3 2 . 5 3 3 . 8 3 2 . 6 3 2 . 7 3 4 . 9 . 3 3 . 2 3 2 . 8 3 4 . 8 3 0 . 8 3 2 . 1 3 3 . 2 3 0 . 7 3 2 . 0 3 2 . 2 3 0 . 9 3 3 . 6 3 5 . 3 3 1 . 9 3 3 . 4 . 3 5 . 6 3 1 . 1 3 3 . 7 3 5 . 0 3 1 . 1 . 3 3 . 7 3 5 . 3 " >.:• . 1 . 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 3 4 . 8 3 6 . 9 3 5 . 6 3 5 . 6 . 3 6 . 7 3 5 . 2 3 5 . 2 3 7 . 1 3 4 . 4 3 5 . 2 3 5 . 8 3 5 . 1 3 5 . 7 3 5 . 1 3 5 . 4 3 5 . 7 3 4 . 8 3 5 . 4 3 3 . 3 3 2 . 7 3 4 . 7 3 3 . 0 3 2 . 2 3 4 . 7 3 7 . 0 3 3 . 7 3 6 . 6 3 7 . 1 3 4 . 6 3 6 . 3 3 6 . 8 3 5 . 5 3 6 . 1 3 6 . 5 3 5 . 2 3 6 . 3 ^ ; 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 .-:V 3 6 . 3 • 3 9 . 2 3 9 . 0 3 6 . 8 3 9 . 2 . ; . . . 3 8 . 8 . . 3 5 . 9 3 8 . 8 3 8 . 7 3 5 . 0 3 9 . 0 3 8 . 8 3 5 . 2 3 9 . 5 3 8 . 8 3 5 . 5 3 8 . 6 3 9 . 1 3 5 . 6 3 7 . 2 3 8 . 6 3 5 . 7 3 6 . 8 . 3 8 . 6 , ' 3 8 . 8 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 3 9 . 0 3 9 . 8 4 0 . 8 3 9 . 4 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 9 3 9 . 2 3 9 . 8 4 0 . 3 - v ^ • • ; ••• :-. -: . -' .• " : •-. ' - » , .... \ 3(o TABLE 6 FREQ. IAS PC.) 0F M.W.G.VS WORKING (MOS.,YRS.,1953-1964) OUT MA , ; JAN V/ F E B MAR APR :,1 MAY ? JUNE" ; JULY AUG"7 SEPT OCT NOV DEC 7 ~ ~ 1953 29.0 29.6 29.8_. 29.8 30.5 29.8 25.0 , 25.0 25.8 26.5 26.5 26.5 1954 ; 27.0 26.3 26.3 26.8 27.5 26.8 26.1 26.1 25.9 24.5 23.7 23.7 1955 Y 25.2 25.9 26.6 26.6 27.8 26.4 24.7 24.0 26.5 27.7 27.7 28.4 1956 29.5 29.5 29.5 30.6 32.7 32.7 31.4 30.8 36.8 37.4 36.2 36.2 1957 36.3 36.3 36.3 35.7 35*1 35.5 32.0 31.8 35.1 34.5 34i5 34.5 1558 35.0 34.4 33.9 34.3 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.9 . 36.3 37.4 36.8 37.4 1955 ' r: 7 '• ' 39.9 39.4 38.8 _ 38.3 38.3 35.4 34.4 34.4 36.0 36.5 36.0 35.4 1960 35.7 34.7 34.7 35.2 34.3 33.8 31.0 30.3 32.5 34.0 34.0 34.5 1961 32.2 32.7 31.9 31.4 32.1 32.5 30.8 31.6 33.2 33.5 34.4 35.8 1962 35.7 35.3 36.2 35.3 35.3 34.7 35.8 32.9 37.6 38.3 38.3 38.3 11963 V' 3 7.4 37.7 37.7 38.1 38.1 36.9 34.7 34.3 38.2 38.6 39.3 39.3 1564 39.0" 38.3 37.5 37.9 37.9 36.4 35.2 , 36.4 41.8 43.4 43.8 44.5 ..: 1565 _„C-X.^ _l^ J^.._1142fe..4. 45.2 45.2 43.7 v 42.1 41.4 42.9 ' 46.6 47.3 48.9 48.9 37 Tables 5 and 6 a l s o e x h i b i t the same p a t t e r n of p e r s i s t e n t growth seen i n Table 4 , but an examination of the y e a r l y averages l i s t e d below r e v e a l s some d i f f e r e n c e s i n behaviour between the two areas. Average Per Cent of M.W.G's Working. Insi d e M e t r o p o l i t a n Outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Year Vane ouver Vaneouver 1953 26.6 25.8 1954 28 . 7 23.9 1955 28 . 8 24 .4 1956 29.2 30.2 1957 29.4 32.1 1958 30.3 32.3 1959 31.6 34.O I960 32.7 31.1 1961 32.3 30.1 1962 32.7 33.2 1963 34.0 34.6 1964 35.9 36.3 1965 36.3 41 . 5 The average y e a r l y percentages representing the women working i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver increase s t e a d i l y and smoothly as a continuous process from twenty-seven per cent i n 1953 to t h i r t y - s i x per cent i n 1965* and thus e x h i b i t s t r o n g l y the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t y p i c a l s e c u l a r t r e n d . 38. By comparison, the average percentages f o r the women Outside M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver show more i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , the range i s g r e a t e r , from twenty-six per cent to forty-one per cent and the increases are more e r r a t i c , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l r e v e r s a l s . These v a r i a t i o n s l n the percentages working Inside and o u t s i d e the metrop o l i t a n area would appear to i n d i c a t e that there i s more s t a b i l i t y and l e s s m o b i l i t y w i t h i n , than without. P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates The Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates seen i n Table 7, p. 39 i n d i c a t e the r o l e played by h i g h l y educated married women graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Labour Force. These p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were averaged by year: Year Per Cent Year Per Cent 1953 1.53? 1959 1.941 1954 1.588 I960 1.9708 1955 I.606 1961 1.987 1956 1.7408 1962 2.1125 1957 1.754 1963 2.228 1958 1.808 1964 2.353 A more r a p i d increase i n the l a s t three years can be noted. TA8L-E ij MiW.G. PARTICIPATION RATES. 1953-1964 BY MONTHS JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC _ 1953 B. 516 1.516 1.544 1.555 1.584 1.580 1.449 1^446 1.522 1.580 1.581 1.571 1554 1.632 1.619 1.5 79 1.585 1.578 1.593 1.554 1.564 1.654 1.602 1.559 1.547 1.955 1.587 1.614 1.628., 1.612 1.641 1.635 1.530 1.526 1.656 1.641 1.602 1.606 1956 1.704 1.653 1.688 -1.722 1.784 1.754 11724 1.679 1.803 1.797 1.776 1.766 195.7 1.821 1.827 1.822 1.799 1.787 1.811 1.656 1.649 1.715 1.742 1.713 1.715 1558 1.785 1.798 1.760 1.770 1.769 1.776 1.755 1.757 1.842 1.882 1.885 1.901 155? Y_ • 1.935 1.954 1.959 1.941 1.987 1.935 1.857 1.823 1.970 1.996 1.964 1.970 .1560 U960 1.974 1.969 1.975 1.983 1.977 1.839 1.816 2.013 2.048 2.047 2.047 1961 2.023 2.026 2.033 1.980 1.967 1.970 1.863 1.859 1.955 1.995 2.056 2.078 1562 2.095 2.070 2.064 2.077 2.091 2.084 2.042 2.023 2.197 2.209 2.203 2.212 1563 2.199 2.224 2.151 2.163 2.176 2.159 2.120 2.115 2.318 .2.339 2.369 2.358 19&4 2v357 2.339 2.311 2I.1326 2.342 2.277 2.197 2.207 2.443 2.466 2.480 2.486 40. Figures 4 and 5> PP» 41-2, were p l o t t e d i n order that the trend and general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates could be r e a d i l y apprehended and compared with the B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and the T o t a l Unemployment Rates. Although comparisons made or conclusions drawn on v i s u a l evidence from graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can only be t e n t a t i v e , both Figures 4 and 5 i n d i c a t e s t r o n g l y the e x i s t -ence of a se c u l a r trend showing i n c r e a s i n g entry of women int o the Labour Force. However there appears to be no evidence that Married Women Graduates are a f f e c t e d by the seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e the Female Labour Force as a whole. Note, however, on the M.W.G. Graph i n Fi g u r e 5» t h a t there are uniform and r e c u r r i n g dips i n the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates f o r these Married Women during the months of J u l y and August. The sample r e p l i e s were re-examined In an attempt to determine the cause of t h i s e f f e c t . The examination revealed that t h i s J u l y and August "non-work1', which appears to be a unique form of seasonal unemployment, i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations, excluding the elementary and high school teachers who considered these months as rep r e s e n t i n g h o l i d a y s , not unemployment, but i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l workers and u n i v e r s i t y personnel at the i n s t r u c t o r l e v e l . 4/ 3 - 0 Z-5 2 0 / -5 / • 0 0-0 -U - T S CD cr E _ o ~T5 V ± 1956 1 3 5 8 Id GO 136Z FIGURE "4 ldZ2-\d$>4 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARRIED WOMEN G R A D U A T E S PARTICIPATION RATES. Yearly Average* 1353- /364 c n cz TO m CJI 43-The e f f e c t i s heightened by the f a c t that w i t h i n the group sampled, September seems to be the most t y p i c a l month f o r beginning employment. I t might be speculated that t h i s apparent unemployment c o n s t i t u t e s a vol u n t a r y withdrawal of married women c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia school h o l i d a y p e r i o d . C o r r e l a t i o n s An r of +.38 obtained between the M.W.G.P.R's and the T.U.R's shows a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p and an r of +.88 between the F.P.R's and the M.W.G.P.R's i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a dominant growth trend i s st r o n g l y s i m i l a r i n both. C y c l i c a l a n a l y s i s was again undertaken i n an attempt to d i s c o v e r whether or not the Married Women Graduates were a f f e c t e d by economic cy c l e s to the same extent as were a l l B r i t i s h Columbia women; to determine whether they a l s o tended to withdraw from the Labour Force during periods of business r e c e s s i o n . Deviations from trend were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the M.W.G.P.R's and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the d e v i a t i o n s from trend computed e a r l i e r f o r the s e a s o n a l l y adjusted T.U.R's. The c o r r e l a t i o n obtained was - . 3 4 . (An approximate estimate of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two r ' s , obtained by squaring, shows that the r of - . 3 4 i s only about one f o u r t h as good as an r of - . 6 6 ) . 4 4 . Since the corresponding c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the o v e r a l l group of B r i t i s h Columbia women was - . 6 6 , the r of - . 3 4 i n d i c a t e s that business c y c l e s have l e s s e f f e c t on the more h i g h l y educated group. Summary of Time S e r i e s A n a l y s i s (1) Increase i n B r i t i s h Columbia F.P.R's from 22.9 i n January 1953 to 31.2 i n December 1964. (Expressed i n per cent) (2) Increase i n U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia M.W.G.P.R's from 1.5 i n January, 1953 to 2 .5 i n December, 1964. (Expressed as per cent) (3) B r i t i s h Columbia F.P.R's and M.W.G.P.R's. r = +.88 (4) Seasonal p a t t e r n F.P.R's and T.U.R's. r = - . 8 5 (5) C y c l i c a l and r e s i d u a l p a t t e r n F.P.R's and T.U.R's. r = - . 6 6 (6) C y c l i c a l and r e s i d u a l p a t t e r n M.W.G's and T.U.R's. r = - . 3 4 Supplementary Information A number of summaries and t a b l e s have been compiled of infor m a t i o n considered t o be both I n t e r e s t i n g and pe r t i n e n t to c o u n s e l l i n g . The f a c t s were obtained both by e x t r a c t i o n from the Alumni records and by computer and manual t a b u l a t i o n from the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s . 45-Table I (p. 4?) gives occupational i n f o r m a t i o n , showing the numerical and percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of. the Married Women Graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (employed i n the sample) by major o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953 to 1965. I t can be noted that the p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l category shows minor increase while managerial, c l e r i c a l and sales drop s l i g h t l y ^ On the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o re c o r d i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s , the women who worked were asked t o s t a t e t h e i r job d e s c r i p t i o n or t i t l e . I t i s perhaps noteworthy th a t of the 446 Married Women Graduates with B.A. degrees (sample), 312 recorded some work experience. Only f o r t y of t h i s number were employed i n occupations which d i d not re q u i r e f u r t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , at the U n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . Other graduates worked p r i m a r i l y i n f i e l d s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r degrees. The occupations of the f o r t y B.A.'s mentioned above and of the few exceptions working outside t h e i r degree area can be seen i n Appendix B. p.86. Table I I (p. 48) Is a percentage summary of Married Women Graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by degree from the' 1920's to the 1960's, as obtained from the sample replies.. In i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Table I I , i t must be noted t h a t changes i n degrees o f f e r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y 46 account f o r some of the abrupt v a r i a t i o n s i n percentages. Codes f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the computer p r i n t out are a v a i l a b l e i n Appendix B, p. 87. For more d e t a i l s regarding occupations and degrees, see computer p r i n t out, Appendix B, pp. 88-108. A l s o In Appendix B, pp. 109-114 can be found i n f o r m a t i o n on married women's reasons f o r not working and on t h e i r s k i l l s i n t y p i n g and shorthand. TABLE I NUMERICAL AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MARRIED WOMEN GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (SAMPLE EMPLOYED) BY MAJOR OCCUPATION CLASS FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 9 5 3 TO 1 9 6 5 Occupation 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 I 9 6 0 196I 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 Managerial Number 6 6 6 4 4 3 3 5 8 7 9 6 8 % 4.2 3.9 3.6 2.1 2.0 1.4 1.3 2.0 3.1 2.6» 2.9 1.7 2.2 Professional Number and g Technical 1 1 6 1 2 8 1 4 0 1 4 8 1 6 8 1 8 5 1 9 6 2 0 7 224 2 4 4 2 7 2 3 1 0 3 2 3 8 1 . 7 8 2 . 6 8 4 . 3 7 9 . 6 8 3 . 6 8 4 . 7 8 6 . 3 8 6 . 3 87.8 8 9 . 4 8 8 . 9 90.1 8 8 . 5 Clerical Number 14 14 14 26 23 22 16 1 8 16 16 1 8 1 8 23 % 9.9 9.0 8.4 14.0 11.4 10.0 7.0 7.5 6.3 5.9 5.9 5.2 6.4 Sales Number 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 % 1 . 4 1 . 3 . 6 1 . 0 .5 .5 1 . 3 . 8 1 1 1 .4 . 3 7 . 3 .6 Other Number of 4 2 . 8 5 3 . 2 5 3.0 6 3 . 2 5 2 . 5 7 3 . 2 9 4 . 0 8 3.3 6 2 . 4 5 1 . 8 6 2 . 0 8 2 . 3 9 2 . 5 TABLE II PERCENTAGE SUMMARY OF MARRIED WOMEN GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DEGREE, 1920's to 1960's (SAMPLE) B.Mus B.Com L.L.B. B.Arch. B.Ed. B.H.E. B.P.E. B.L.S. B.A.Sc. B.S.A. B.Sc. B.A. B.S.N. B.S.P. B.S.W. M.A. 1920'a 1922-1929 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2.04 2.04 .0 93.9 2.04 .0 .0 .0 1930's .0 2.42 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 4.84 .81 .0 88.7 2.42 .0 .0 .81 1940's .0 5.06 .56 .0 .0 11.24 1.69 .0 2.81 3.93 .0 68.5 1.69 .0 3.93 .56 1950»s .42 3.36 .0 .0 8.82 17.23 3.78 .0 1.26 .0 .84 50.8 6.72 2.94 3.36 .42 1960's L960-1965 .0 .56 .0 .0 42.46 7.26 1.12 .56 .0 1.68 3.91 26.2 9.50 1.68 2.79 2.23 Responses 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446 40 10 20 7 % A l l Graduates .26 2.73 .13 .00 12.61 9.62 1.82 .13 1,95 1.56 1.17 58.0 5.20 1.30 2.60 .91 By Degree 49 Examination of the Alumni Records r e v e a l e d t h a t o f the n i ne thousand seven hundred and seventy e i g h t women graduates now l i v i n g , 1,864 women who graduated from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia between 1922 and 1965 have married and l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia as of November 1965* Addresses a r e unknown f o r f o u r hundred and ei g h t e e n married women graduates. Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n Number Per Cent* P r a i r i e Provinces 348 19 O n t a r i o 496 27 E a s t e r n Canada - Other 163 9 C a l i f o r n i a 204 11 U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America - Other 419 22 Other C o u n t r i e s 234 12 The d i s t r i b u t i o n above shows t h a t the g r e a t e s t number of those who l e f t f o r other areas i n Canada went t o O n t a r i o -496 or twenty seven per cent. The remainder of E a s t e r n Canada gained only n i n e per cent or 163. Nineteen per cent or 348 went to the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s . One h a l f of those who l e f t f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e r e s i d i n g i n C a l i f o r n i a . Percentages obtained from the f i g u r e s above d i s c l o s e t h a t , of those who have l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia, f i f t y f i v e * Percentages have been rounded, hence components do not always add to t o t a l s . 50. per cent are l i v i n g elsewhere i n Canada; t h i r t y three per cent are l i v i n g i n the United States and twelve per cent are now i n other countries. For more d e t a i l s regarding the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of these women see Table I I I , p. $1» Also, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 234 or twelve per cent women graduates now l i v i n g i n countries other than the United States and Canada i s given i n the summary on p. 52. TABLE I I I 51 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OP MARRIED WOMEN GRADUATES LIVING OUTSIDE BRITISH COLUMBIA AS OP I965 P r a i r i e Eastern Canada United States Other T o t a l P r o v i n c e s O n t a r i o Other C a l i f o r n i a Other C o u n t r i e s 22 1 1 1 4 3 1 11 23 1 1 1 4 2 9 24 1 2 4 5 1 13 25 1 3 6 2 12 26 3 1 1 1 2 8 2? 5 2 2 6 1 16 28 1 7 1 2 3 3 17 29 6 2 i 5 5 19 30 6 •< 8 1 2 4 4 2? 31 6 6 3 7 1 3 26 32 2 10 1 2 ? 5 25 33 3 4 2 3 4 3 19 34 . 3 11 1 5 7 5 32 35 11 2 4 3 20 36. 5 . 4 5 4 18 37 1 6 4 2 6 3 22 38 1 7 - 2 5 7 22 39 6 8 . 3 1 6 24 40 4 8 5 6 1 26 41 • 3 10 3 8 3 3 30 42 4 5 2 1 8 3 23 43 6 7 5 5 13 5 41 44 4 11 3 3 " 4 10 3 35 45 4 9 5 11 5 37 46 * 10 14 6 3 13 4 50 47 15 • 23 7 7 17 6 75 48 18 30 6 7 20 7 88 49 25 23 7 • 11 35 12 113 50 13 28 15 5 20 9 90 51 23 26 3 ' 8 21 12 93 52 14 17 e> 3 12 9 61 23 54 20 12 4 10 18 4 68 10 16 8 7 15 9 65 55 12 16 8 • 6 7 9 58 56 •: 30 15 4 8 10 13 80 5? 14 21 3 6 13 13 70 58 16 28 7 7 13 10 81 59 14 17 4 9 10 8 62 60 15 14 6 6 18 8 67 61 14 14 6 6 19 74 62 18 8 8 7 14 6 61 63 4 14 4 3 7 8 40 64 2 8 3 2 5 5 25 65 2 1 2 3 13 T o t a l 348 496 163 204 419 234 1864 Per Cent 19 27 9 11 22 12 100 The Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n of M.W.G's who, as of I 9 6 5 , have l e f t B r i t i s h Columbia f o r c o u n t r i e s other than the United States of America or other areas i n Canada i s as f o l l o w s : A f r i c a 19 Japan 5 A u s t r a l i a 10 Luxenbourg 1 Belgium 1 Mexico 3 Bermuda 1 New Zealand 6 Cuba 1 North West T e r r i t o r i e s 7 Denmark 2 P a k i s t a n 3 Dominican Republic 1 Singapore 1 Franc e 7 South America 9 Germany- 10 Spain 2 Guam 1 Sweden 2 Greece 1 S w i t z e r l a n d 1 Holland 2 United Kingdom 100 I n d i a 8 V i r g i n Islands 1 I s r a e l 2 West Indies 12 I t a l y 1 Yukon Others 10 T o t a l 234 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was i n i t i a t e d i n the hope that the f i n d i n g s would have value f o r economic and educ a t i o n a l p o l i c y development and f o r educational and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g . In a c h i e v i n g i t s aim of examining s e l e c t e d aspects of employment trends f o r women i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1953 and I965, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n moved to some extent outside the d i s c i p l i n e of education and drew c e r t a i n data and methods from the f i e l d of economics. A time s e r i e s study showing the e f f e c t s of s e c u l a r , seasonal, c y c l i c a l and higher education v a r i a b l e s on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of women was undertaken. The data c o l l e c t e d and compiled, a n a l y s i s undertaken, and supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n provided i n t h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s t a t i s t i c s p r e v i o u s l y not a v a i l a b l e . Conclusions Related to Economic and Educa t i o n a l P o l i c y Findings w i t h D i r e c t A p p l i c a t i o n The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h , which show a steady r i s e i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates from twenty-three per cent i n January, 1953, to t h i r t y - o n e per cent i n December, 1964, (p. 24), give s t a t i s t i c a l evidence that women are entering the Labour Force i n numbers considerably greater than those 54 r e q u i r e d to "be merely proportionate to the r i s e i n p o p u l a t i o n . ( P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates being Labour Force/ Population) The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates e x h i b i t an even more pronounced r i s e . They c o r r e l a t e +.88 w i t h the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and r i s e from one and one-half per cent i n January 1953 to two and one-half per cent i n December, 1964. (p. 44) Since these P a r t i c i p a t i o n r ates e x h i b i t t h i s r i s e and do so i n a smooth continuous manner, the e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n thus shown can j u s t i f i a b l y be termed a s e c u l a r trend. The p a t t e r n f u l f i l l s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e d by d e f i n i t i o n . Although t h i s s e c u l a r trend appears to dominate, (p» 42) i n that i t continues to r i s e s t e a d i l y , the pervasive i n f l u e n c e of the T o t a l Unemployment Rates on the B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates has a l s o been shown both i n the negative c o r r e l a t i o n of -.85 between the seasonal p a t t e r n of the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and the T o t a l Unemployment Rates and i n the negative c o r r e l a t i o n of -.66 between the c y c l i c a l patterns of the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and the T o t a l Unemployment Rates, (p. 44) Since the r of -.85 i s s t r o n g l y negative, i t shows that when unemployment i s down during periods of high seasonal a c t i v i t y , Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates go up. The converse i s a l s o t r u e . Since the r of -.66 i s a l s o negative, 55. i t shows th a t when unemployment i s down durin g periods of high a c t i v i t y i n economic c y c l e s , Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates again go up. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study set out to determine whether or not there was a p o t e n t i a l supply of women i n B r i t i s h Columbia which tended to enter the Labour Force when employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s xirere h i g h . The conclusions d i s -cussed above imply s t r o n g l y that there was t h i s supply d u r i n g the period examined and no suggestion t h a t i t w i l l not continue to e x i s t i n the foreseeable f u t u r e . The research a l s o attempted to d i s c o v e r whether women workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia are a f f e c t e d by seasonal and c y c l i c a l changes. Evidence has been given that they a r e . (p. 44) The women of B r i t i s h Columbia's Labour Force are a f f e c t e d by both seasonal and c y c l i c a l changes, more s t r o n g l y by seasonal than by c y c l i c a l and more s t r o n g l y by c y c l i c a l f o r the n o n - u n i v e r s i t y woman than f o r the u n i v e r s i t y woman graduate. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n examined two economic hypotheses: (a) That women tend to go to work to provide a f a m i l y income when men are unemployed, and, (b) That women as w e l l as men tend to enter the Labour Force when employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s are h i g h . 56. The evidence as discussed above shows that the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n holds f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and the former does not. I m p l i c a t i o n s A r i s i n g from the Study I t appears to the w r i t e r that much emphasis i s placed on women's supposedly frequent and voluntary withdrawal from employ-ment; many employers s t a t e that women form a very unstable element i n the Labour Force and move i n and out a t w i l l . The evidence of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s , t h a t i n gen e r a l , women i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not v o l u n t a r i l y withdraw from employment but r a t h e r they are forced out when the economy i s depressed. When economic c o n d i t i o n s are buoyant they tend to r e t u r n i n ever i n c r e a s i n g percentages. (p. k2) There appear to be e s s e n t i a l l y two r e s e r v o i r s of p o t e n t i a l women workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One i s a supply of seasonal workers who enter and leave according to demand. This could include many u n s k i l l e d or semi-s k i l l e d employees such as f r u i t p i c k e r s , packing house and cannery workers. I t might of course be argued that w h i l e the seasonal workers do f o l l o w the demand curve and w i t h -draw i n v o l u n t a r i l y , they are not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l u c t a n t to do so s i n c e there i s a good l i k e l i h o o d that they can work long enough during the summer and f a l l t o remain a t home and draw unemployment insurance throughout the w i n t e r . The second r e s e r v o i r c o n s i s t s of those who move i n 57. and out i n accordance with the business cy c l e s . They withdraw during business recessions but re-enter when there i s increased demand. This group does not leave v o l u n t a r i l y but does v o l u n t a r i l y return. It i s not known just how big t h i s reservoir of women workers i s but at present i t i s big enough to account f o r a st e a d i l y r i s i n g secular trend which shows no signs of diminishing, (p. 42) Suggestions f o r Future Research I f appropriate s t a t i s t i c s were kept a study of the trends now i n evidence could be continued and i f either a l e v e l l i n g off or a downturn appeared, questions which might be asked are: (1) Whether the trend would continue upward i f the s k i l l mix were d i f f e r e n t ; t h i s would imply changes i n education to provide a s k i l l mix appropriate to expanding opportunities. (2) Whether a l i m i t has been reached i n the number of women wishing to or available f o r work. (3) Whether a c u l t u r a l l y determined l e v e l has been reached; whether regardless of the s k i l l mix or how many the number of women s t i l l seeking work, s o c i o l o g i c a l factors had set a discrimination l i m i t to the opportunities a v a i l a b l e f o r women. The conclusions discussed so f a r are p r i m a r i l y important i n terms of economic and general e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s . Conclusions Related to C o u n s e l l i n g of Adolescent  and Adult Women Findings w i t h D i r e c t A p p l i c a t i o n A number of r e s u l t s are more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to education and c o u n s e l l i n g . The f a c t u a l knowledge that the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbia women has r i s e n s t e a d i l y from twenty-three to t h i r t y - o n e per cent over a twelve year p e r i o d , (p. 44 ) , i s of importance to c o u n s e l l i n g . G i r l s should be aware t h a t , as of 1964 approximately o n e - t h i r d of the B r i t i s h Columbia Female Pop u l a t i o n , fourteen years of age and over, were working and t h a t t h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e . This f a c t has much relevance f o r oc c u p a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and leads to the co n c l u s i o n t h a t some form of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s of v i t a l importance to a l l g i r l s . Because f a c t u a l knowledge of changing tendencies, (p. 4? ) i s important i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , t h i s study,, set out to determine (p. 3 ) whether there was an i n c r e a s i n g tendency f o r women to enter new r a t h e r than t r a d i t i o n a l occupations. The answer with regard to the women graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia is. a d e f i n i t e NO. The evidence presented, i n summary i n Tables I and II and i n d e t a i l by computer p r i n t out (p. 9 8 ) , shows that the vast m a j o r i t y of married, women graduates from the 1920*s to the I 9 6 0 's have e l e c t e d to take degrees l e a d i n g p r i m a r i l y to what have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been considered women's occupations. And i t can not be argued that the women t a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l degrees are the ones who tend t o marry because, f o r purposes of comparison, the degree composition of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of s i n g l e graduates from 1922 to,1965 was a l s o compiled and found to be very s i m i l a r . (See Summary, Appendix B, p. 115) . For numerous g i r l s the problem of which degree t o take a t the U n i v e r s i t y never a r i s e s . During ten years experience i n c o u n s e l l i n g , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r has heard many g i r l s and many parents question the value of a u n i v e r s i t y education f o r women. They argue that g i r l s w i l l soon marry so do not r e q u i r e more than a High School C e r t i f i c a t e which they a n t i c i p a t e w i l l permit them t o o b t a i n temporary employment. Of major s i g n i f i c a n c e to c o u n s e l l i n g were the f i n d i n g s which r e f u t e t h i s argument: (1) Of the 9,778 women who have graduated from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia since 1922 and who are s t i l l l i v i n g , 3,839 or t h i r t y - n i n e per cent have not married as of November, .1965. (Appendix B, p. 116) . Therefore, i t can be assumed, that s i m i l a r 6o. proportions of U n i v e r s i t y Graduates w i l l continue t o remain s i n g l e and r e q u i r e employment. Of those who have married s i n c e 1922, the percentages working have r i s e n from twenty-eight per cent i n 1953 to f o r t y - t h r e e per cent i n 1965, (p.34 ), and the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates from one and one-half per cent i n 1953 t o t w 0 and one-half per cent i n 1964, (p. 39 ). These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a changing c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n w i t h regard to u n i v e r s i t y educated married women working. The negative c o r r e l a t i o n of -.66 between the d e v i a t i o n s from trend f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and the T o t a l Unemployment Rates (p. 44 ), as compared wi t h the negative c o r r e l a t i o n of only -.34 between the d e v i a t i o n s from trend f o r the Married Women Graduates and the T o t a l Unemployment Rates, (p. 44) i s perhaps the strongest evidence obtained from t h i s study as t o the p r a c t i c a l value of a u n i v e r s i t y degree f o r a woman. Economic cycles i n B r i t i s h Columbia have approximately only one-fourth as much e f f e c t on the employment of Married Women Graduates as 61. upon the Female Labour Force as a whole, (p. 43) I t should not be i n f e r r e d that the r e s u l t s and conclusions of t h i s research i n any way suggest t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y education i s a necessary r e q u i s i t e f o r e i t h e r employment or personal f u l f i l l m e n t f o r every g i r l . I t should however be c l e a r that f o r those g i r l s who have the i n t e r e s t , m o t i v a t i o n and academic p o t e n t i a l an education to the U n i v e r s i t y Degree l e v e l Is shown above to be of s t a t i s t i c a l l y proven b e n e f i t . S p e c u l a t i o n A r i s i n g from the Study That the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of degree and occu p a t i o n a l choice was folloxved by women i n the 1920's, and 1930's, even l n the 1940*s (p. 47) i s perhaps not too s u r p r i s i n g f o r two reasons; the c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e toward women and work and the l i m i t e d d i v e r s i t y of degrees o f f e r e d during these years. What does seem s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the s o c i o l o g i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n North America i s tha t the women t a k i n g higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia continue to remain s t r o n g l y t r a d i t i o n bound as can be seen by the degree s t r u c t u r e i n Table I I , (p. 48). Teaching, home economics, n u r s i n g , s o c i a l work, and commerce predominate throughout. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o speculate why. Is i t simply that B r i t i s h Columbia's r i s i n g population and buoyant economy has a d i r e c t influence on employment opportunities i n f i e l d s such as teaching and the health professions: that there i s demand for better services; smaller classes and more s p e c i a l classes, Children's Hospitals, and centres such as the G. P. Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre? Is i t that B r i t i s h Columbia i s heavily oriented toward resource industries where men are the main source of labour and there are as yet r e l a t i v e l y few secondary industries requiring women with degrees? Does the t r a d i t i o n a l choice of degrees and occupations by women r e f l e c t a t r a d i t i o n a l outlook on the part of the University? Does a structure exist by which the needs of society are being met by forward planning? It is now generally accepted that there must he forward planning i n government —does t h i s extend to the University curriculum? The choice of t r a d i t i o n a l occupations i s appropriate enough i n terms of obtaining employment in B r i t i s h Columbia but are educational and occupational counsellors perhaps emphasizing the demand in these t r a d i t i o n a l areas and not making r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e information regarding the other occupation f i e l d s ? Are j o u r n a l i s t s j u s t i f i e d when they apply such adjectives as ins u l a r and pr o v i n c i a l to B r i t i s h Columbia? As the s t a t i s t i c s of t h i s study show, (p. 51 ) many 63 women graduates leave B r i t i s h Columbia. I t would t h e r e -f o r e seem reasonable that a l a r g e r view be taken, that educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s of wider scope be provided, not only f o r the greater personal f u l f i l l m e n t of the women themselves but as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the o v e r a l l Canadian economy. Sp e c u l a t i o n might t u r n a l s o to the f a c t o r of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Is there, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a general non-acceptance of women i n f i e l d s formerly considered as being s u i t a b l e only t o men? On the part of many employers i s there more v e r b a l than a c t u a l acceptance of women i n these areas? F i n a l l y , are the B r i t i s h Columbia women themselves r e f l e c t i n g a conserva t i v e c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e i n e l e c t i n g to take t r a d i t i o n a l degrees? The foregoing has been s p e c u l a t i o n only. Probably no one f a c t o r but a composite of many i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the phenomena discussed above. Suggestions f o r Future Research In the past s t a t i s t i c s such as have been compiled f o r t h i s study have not been a v a i l a b l e . I t i s hoped th a t i n the f u t u r e at l e a s t some data w i l l be recorded by the U n i v e r s i t y i n a form u s e f u l f o r s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h . I f so, i t would be of i n t e r e s t t o f o l l o w the degree and oc c u p a t i o n a l patterns f o r women 64 throughout the remainder of the 1960's. Perhaps changing patterns are imminent. Research might a l s o be i n i t i a t e d i n a number of the areas of s p e c u l a t i o n which have been discussed above. Comments by Respondents Counsellors might f i n d of i n t e r e s t the f a c t t h a t 100 u n s o l i c i t e d l e t t e r s and comments were w r i t t e n and returned w i t h the questionnaires sent to the Married Women Graduates. The w r i t e r s were unanimous i n s t a t i n g t h a t whether or not they ever entered the Labour Force, t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y education helped them to be b e t t e r homemakers, b e t t e r mothers and b e t t e r community workers. They f r e q u e n t l y mentioned such i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s as greater t o l e r a n c e , l e s s p r o v i n c i a l outlook, more Intense a p p r e c i a t i o n of the A r t s , and of t r a v e l and a keener awareness of the p o s i t i v e values i n l i f e . In view of the f a c t t h a t our education o f t e n seems aimed mainly a t pre-p a r a t i o n f o r economic success, the author found i t somewhat r e a s s u r i n g that these more i n t a n g i b l e values were a l s o emphasized. Some b e l i e v e d t h e i r degrees were v a l u a b l e i n a l l o w i n g them to work part-time; s e v e r a l mentioned t h a t t h i s was p r e f e r a b l e t o f u l l time because of the Income Tax s i t u a t i o n and of r e l a t i v e ease i n c a r i n g f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Many who worked from n e c e s s i t y were g r a t e f u l t o have 6 5 . had a degree. One woman stated, "Because of my education I have always found jobs and advancement open to me". Others pointed to a problem which perhaps has not yet received adequate recognition; t h i s i s the problem of re t r a i n i n g u n i v e r s i t y graduates who, a f t e r a number of years absence, wish to return to work i n t h e i r major f i e l d of study. One graduate comments, "It i s extremely d i f f i c u l t , l f not impossible, f o r an older woman to get back into the s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d f o r which she has been trained and i n which she has had experience,—such as research or laboratory technician", and another says, "The eleven years I was away from pharmacy was f a r too long. It made catching up with the many changes and advances extremely d i f f i c u l t " . For whatever reasons these Married Women Graduates valued t h e i r degrees t h e i r expressions of value were always p o s i t i v e , never negative. Summary Employment trends for women i n B r i t i s h Columbia were examined for the 1953 t o 1965 period. A time series study showing the effects of secular, seasonal, c y c l i c a l and higher educational variables on p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates was undertaken. 66 Primary source data , necessary f o r studying the higher educational v a r i a b l e , was obtained from a questionnaire which was constructed and mailed to 1,000 randomly selected married women who were U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Graduates from 1922 to I965 i n c l u s i v e . The t ime-ser ies a n a l y s i s indica ted that a composite of the v a r i a b l e s examined inf luenced i n varying degrees the Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1953 to I965 p e r i o d . The economic and educational i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s a n a l y s i s have been d i s c u s s e d . Evidence has been given that an underlying, dominant secular trend exis ts of s t e a d i l y increas ing B r i t i s h Columbia Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates. Married Women Graduate P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates have been shown to exhibi t a s i m i l a r r i s i n g p a t t e r n . C o r r e l a t i o n between the two i s + .88. Although the secular trend appears to dominate, women are a l s o shown to be a f f e c t e d by both seasonal and c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s . There would seem to be i n B r i t i s h Columbia a supply of women who tend to enter the Labour Force when employment opportunit ies are high and who leave when economic condit ions are depressed. Of importance for educational and occupational c o u n s e l l i n g i s the knowledge obtained that the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates for a l l B r i t i s h Columbia women have r i s e n s t e a d i l y from twenty-three to t h i r t y - o n e per cent over a twelve year period and tha t the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates f o r Married Women Graduates have r i s e n from one and a h a l f to two and a h a l f per cent over the same p e r i o d . This knowledge im p l i e s t h a t some form of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g I s of v i t a l importance to a l l g i r l s . Another f i n d i n g w i t h d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to the c o u n s e l l i n g of adolescent and a d u l t women i s the strong evidence of the p r a c t i c a l value of a u n i v e r s i t y degree. The research showed that economic c y c l e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia had approximately only one f o u r t h as much e f f e c t on the employment of the Married Women U n i v e r s i t y Graduates as upon the B r i t i s h Columbia Female Labour Force I t i s hoped that the p r i n c i p a l purposes f o r under-t a k i n g the study have been achieved and that the f i n d i n g s w i l l have value i n edu c a t i o n a l and career planning f o r women. FOOTNOTES FOOTNOTES 1. G i l Schonning, " E f f e c t s of Changing I n d u s t r i a l S t r u c t u r e on Occupational Trends" (paper read at the Conference on Manpower I m p l i c a t i o n s of Automation Held i n Washington, December 8 - 1 0 , 1964) (mimeographed) Economics and Research Branch, Canadian Department of Labour, Ottawa. 2. I b i d . , pp. 1 5 , 1 6 . 3 . W. R. Dymond, "The Problem of Manpower Adaptation and the Establishment of.a- Manpower C o n s u l t a t i v e S e r v i c e , " F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Labour Conference ( T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Education i n Canada, V o l . 2, No. 3 , 1964, Department of Labour, Ottawa), p. 27 . 4. I m p l i c a t i o n s of. T r a d i t i o n a l D i v i s i o n s Between Men's  Work and Women's Work i n Our S o c i e t y (Report of a Round-Table Conference h e l d March 12, 196&, The Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, Ottawa), p. 41. 5 . E. C e c i l Roper, "Technological Change and Employment Trends i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (Paper presented a t conference f o r c o u n s e l l o r s , U.B.C, February, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 14. 6. Howard Rosen, V o c a t i o n a l Education and Manpower Needs (P r e p r i n t e d from the Occupational Outlook Q u a r t e r l y , December, 1964, V o l . 8, No. 4) (Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D . C ) , pp. 2, 3 . 7. Ewan Clague, " E f f e c t s of T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change on Occupational Employment Patterns i n the United S t a t e s " before the Conference on The Manpower I m p l i c a t i o n s of Automation O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development, Washington, D.C, December 8, 1964), U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C, p. 17. 8. Summary of C o n s u l t a t i o n on V o c a t i o n a l Guidance f o r  G i r l s , Women's Bureau and the O f f i c e of Education with State School Guidance O f f i c i a l s , J u l y 20 - 21, 1964 (Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D . C ) , PP. 3 , 4. 9. Economic Goals f o r Canada to 1970. F i r s t Annual Review, December, 1964 (Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r ) , pp. 177-184. 6 9 . 10. Jack B. Meredith and G. Ronald Knight, " B r i t i s h Columbia P o p u l a t i o n P r o j e c t i o n s to 1975," Inventory of  the N a t u r a l Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia (The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1964), p. 7. . 11. P i e r r e Camu, E. P. Weeks, and Z. W. Sametz, Economic Geography of Canada, 1964 (Toronto: MacMillan of Canada), p. 297. 12. Population Trends i n Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan, 1966-1981, T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 29 , B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l (at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), p. 21 . 13. The Labour Force, Quarterly Survey, March 4 , 1950» -August 16, 1952; Monthly Survey, November 22 , 1952, - December 12, 1953, Volume 6-9 (Ottawa: Department of Trade and Commerce, B.B.S.J, p. 1. 14. F r e d e r i c k C. M i l l s , S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, 3rd Ed. (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1955), PP. 377-85-S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS AND GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS A Second Survey of Electr o n i c Data Processing i n Canada: 1962. Research Program on the Training of S k i l l e d Manpower, Department of Labour, Report No. 96. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, I 9 6 3 . 83 pp. B r i t i s h Columbia Manual of Resources and Development. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department of Ind u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, 1 9 6 4 . Camu, Pierre, E. P. Weeks, and Z. W. Sametz, Economic  Geography of Canada. Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1964. Census of Canada, 1951* Volume V, Labour Force, Earnings and Employment of Wage-Earners. Ottawa: D.B.S.. Table 2 3 , pp. 71 - 80. Census of Canada. 1951• Volume IV, Labour Force, Occupations and Industries. Ottawa: D.B.S.. Table 6, pp. 71 - 80. Census of Canada. I96I. Catalogue 94 - 504, Volume III Part I, Labour Force, Occupations by Sex. Metropolitan Areas, B u l l e t i n 3 . 1 - 4 , 1 9 - 7 - 1 9 6 3 . Publ. by Authority of The Minister of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa: D.B.S.. Table 7 , PP. 15 - 28. Census of Canada, I 9 6 I . Catalogue 9 4 - 5 4 0 , Volume III Part 3« Labour Force, Earnings and Hours of Employ-ment of Wage-Earners by Occupations. Metropolitan Areas, B u l l e t i n 3 .3 - 8, 13 - 2 - 1964. Publ. by Authority of the Minister of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa: D.B.S.. Table 25 , pp. 9 7 - HO. C l e r i c a l Occupations f o r Women Today and Tomorrow. B u l l e t i n 289. Washington, D.C: Women's Bureau, United States Department of Labor, 1964. Denton, Frank,- Kasahara, Yoshiko, and Osyty. Population  and Labour Force Projections to 1970. Staff Study No. 1. Economic Council of Canada, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, December, 1964. 71. Drabble, B. J . P o t e n t i a l Output 1946 to 1970. Prepared f o r the Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965. Economic Goals f o r Canada To 1970. F i r s t Annual Review. Economic C o u n c i l of Canada. Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , December, 1964. E l e c t r o n i c Data Processing; Occupations i n a Large Insurance  Company. Research Program on the T r a i n i n g of s k i l l e d manpower, Department of Labour, Report' No. 9-B. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , November, 1961. 41 pp. Employment P r o j e c t i o n s , by Industry and Occupation, i960 -75~. S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. 28 (From the Monthly Labor Review, March 1963 R e p r i n t No. 2412). Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , United States Department of Labor. F i f t e e n t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference. Published by The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference. February 26, 28, 1964. I m p l i c a t i o n s of T r a d i t i o n a l D i v i s i o n s Between Men's Work  and Women's Work i n our S o c i e t y . Report of a Round-Table Conference held March 12, 1964. Ottawa: The Women's Bureau, Department of Labour. 44 pp. I n d u s t r i a l and Labour R e l a t i o n s Review. V o l . 10: 1, I956 - 195?. I t h a c a , New York: Issued q u a r t e r l y by New York State School of I n d u s t r i a l and Labour R e l a t i o n s at C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y . M. P. Catherwood, Dean. The Labour Force. Qu a r t e r l y Survey, March 4, 1950 -August 16, 1952. Monthly Survey, November 22, 1952 -December 12, 1953• V o l . 6-9. Ottawa: Department of Trade and Commerce, D.B.S.. The Labour Force. Monthly Survey, January, 1954 - December, 1956. V o l . 10 -.12. Ottawa: Department of Trade and Commerce, D.B.S.. The Labour Force. Monthly Survey, January, 1957 - December 10, i960. V o l . 13 - 16. Ottawa: Department of Trade and Commerce, D.B.S.. The Labour Force. Catalogue No. 71 - 001, 1961 - 1964. Ottawa: The Department of Trade and Commerce, D.B.S.. 72. The Labour Force. Reference Paper No. 58, 1958. R e v i s i o n e n t i t l e d The Labour Force, November, 1945 - J u l y , 1958. Ottawa: Department of Trade and Commerce, D.B.S.. Meredith, Jack B., and G. Ronald Knight. " B r i t i s h Columbia Population P r o j e c t i o n s t o 1975V" Inventory of the  N a t u r a l Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia. The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1964. M i l l s , F r e d e r i c k C , S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. 3rd Ed., New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Rinehart and Winston, 1955* McDonald, J . C. Automation and the Changing Meaning of Work. Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Ottawa, Canada. 1963. 15 PP» . Impact and Im p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automation. Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Ottawa, May, 1964, 35 pp. Occupational Trends In Canada 1931 to 1961. Research Program on the T r a i n i n g of S k i l l e d Manpower, Department of Labour, Report No. 11. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , September, 1963. 64 pp. Oppo r t u n i t i e s f o r Continuing Education I I . Women's Bureau B u l l e t i n No. XIV, March 1965. Department of Labour, Ottawa, 17 pp. Population and Labour Force P r o j e c t i o n s f o r the Economic  Regions of On t a r i o , 1961 - 1986. Economics Branch, Department of Economics and Development, Government of O n t a r i o , December, 1964. Population Trends i n Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and  Saskatchewan, 1966 - 1981. T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 29 . Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1963. Report of the Committee on Education to the President's  Commission on the Status of Women. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C: U.S. Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 20402. October, 1963. 71 pp. The Requirements of Automated Jobs. P a r i s : O r g a n i s a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development, 1965. 73. Rosen, Howard. Vocational Education and Manpower Needs. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, December 1964. (Vol. 8 , No. 4 ) Washington, D.C: Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , U.S. Department of Labor. Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, November, 19 5 7 . P i n a l Report. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1958. Shea, Albert A. Canada 1 9 8 0 . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, I 9 6 0 . 107 pp. A Survey of Labour Market Conditions, Windsor, Ontario, 1 9 6 4 . A Case Study by G. R. Home, W. J . G l l l e n , and R. A. H e l l i n g . Special Study No. 2. Economic Council of Canada. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1965. Technical and Vocational Education i n Canada. Ottawa: Information Branch, Department of Labour f o r the Technical and Vocational Training Branch. Vol. 2, No. 3, 1964. Techniques of Economic Forecasting. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1965. Twenty-third Annual Report. The Unemployment Insurance Commission Ottawa, Canada. F i s c a l Year ending March 31, 1964. 93 PP. Wigney, Trevor. The Educatlon-of Women, and G i r l s In a  Changing Society - A Selected Bibliography with  Annotations. Education Research Series No. 36. The Department of Educational Research, Ontario -College of Education, University of Toronto, I 9 6 5 . 76 pp. Woods, H. D. and Ostry, S y l v i a . Labour Policy and. Labour Economics i n Canada. Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 196T: 534 pp. B. MISCELLANEOUS UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Clague, Ewan. "Effects of Technological Change on Occupational Employment Patterns i n the United States." Before the Conference on the Manpower Implications of Automation Organization f o r Economic Co-operation and Development, Washington, D.C. December 8 , 1 9 6 4 . U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 74. Clague, Ewan. "Employment, Automation and Economic Growth i n the United S t a t e s . " Paper f o r 13th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of G o t t l i e b D u t t w e i l e r I n s t i t u t e f o r Economic and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Z u r i c h , S w i t z e r l a n d , J u l y 6 -.9, 1964. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , Washington, D.C. . "Measurement of Tec h n o l o g i c a l Change." Paper f o r Conference on Employment Problems of Automation and Advanced Technology. I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r Labour Studies Geneva, S w i t z e r l a n d , J u l y 20 - 24, 1964. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , Washington, D.C. . " S k i l l Development and Job T r a i n i n g i n an Automated Age." Paper given before the C a l i f o r n i a Labor F e d e r a t i o n , AFL - CIO, Conference on Job Displacement, R e t r a i n i n g and S k i l l Development, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , November 17» 1961. U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Dymond, W. R. " I m p l i c a t i o n s of Automation f o r Government-sponsored T r a i n i n g Programs i n Canada." Conference on the Manpower I m p l i c a t i o n s of Automation held i n Washington, December 8 - 1 0 , 1964. Canadian Department of Labour, Ottawa. "Excerpts on C o u n s e l l i n g and Guidance." From Report of President's Commission on the Status of Women and Report of the Committee on Education, J u l y 27 > 1964. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Hammerman, Herbert. " I m p l i c a t i o n s of Automation f o r Business Education." Paper presented before the workshop on Automation f o r Business Education a t the Convention of the United Business Schools A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D.C, November 1, 1962. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , Washington 25 , D.C. Schonning, G i l . " E f f e c t s of Changing I n d u s t r i a l S t r u c t u r e on Occupational Trends." Paper read at the conference on the Manpower I m p l i c a t i o n s of Automation held i n Washington, December 8 - 10, 1964. (mimeographed) Economics and Research Branch, Canadian Department of Labour, Ottawa. "Summary of C o n s u l t a t i o n on V o c a t i o n a l Guidance f o r G i r l s . " Women's Bureau and the O f f i c e of Education with State School Guidance O f f i c i a l s , J u l y 2 0 - 2 1 , 1964, Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C. 7 5 . T e r l i n , Rose. "Address at Spring Convention of Maryland State Personnel and Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n , " Annapolis, Maryland, May 2 , 1 9 6 4 . Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. C. NEWSPAPERS The F i n a n c i a l Post (Toronto), December 1 2 , 1 9 6 4 . D. OTHER SOURCES Speeches and Conferences Attended I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s and UBC Extensions Dept. I n s t i t u t e on Automation. February 2 9 , 1 9 6 4 . Speakers: Dr. M a r t i n Meissner, Dept. of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y , U.B.C, Dr. T a i t Montague, D i r e c t o r , I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s and A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , Department of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, U.B.C. and Dr. Stu a r t Jamieson, P r o f e s s o r , Dept. of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, U.B.C. McCrae, Dean Helen. Changing World of Women. Talk given to U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club. February, 1 9 6 4 . Roper, E. C. Te c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Employment Trends i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Paper presented on February 20*, 1 9 6 5 , f o r A Conference f o r C o u n s e l l o r s , T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Human Values. Sponsored by: F a c u l t y of Education and the Extension Department of U.B.C, and the C o u n s e l l o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n of the B.C Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n . APPENDIX A 76 TABLE I • Numerical and percentage distribution of the female labour f o r c e d , 15 years of age and over,, by occupation division, selected major groups and classes, for the census metropolitan area of Vancouver, 1951 and 1961 Censuses j Vancouver M.A. j Female labour forced) Occupation division, selected major groups \ '• ; and classes (as of l ? 6 l ) i 1951 | I96I | No. 0/ /» No. ^ j incrsas • 59,200 100.0 90,497 100.0 52.9 Professional and technical occupations ... Stenographers, typists and clerk-36,960 2,213 7,911 2,046 1,933 4,220 2,418 20,876 799 9,086 5,960 62.4 3.7 13.4 3.4 3.3 7.1 4.1 35.3 1.3 15.3 10.1 58,224 3,514 13,087 4,140 3,886 6,118 3,753 32,468 1,842 13,179 9,155 64.3 3.9 14.5 4.6 4.3 6.8 4.1 35.9 2.0 14.6 10.1 57.5 58.8 65.4 102.3 101.0 45.0 55.2 55.5 130.5 45.0 53.6 . Craftsmen, production process, and related J 11.4 10.0 1.4 7,704 6,846 858 8.5 7.6 0.9 13.8 15.5 1.6 Transport and communication occupations .... 2,662 2,414 4.5 4.1 1,860 1,546 2.0 1.7 -30.1 -36.0 Housekeepers, waitresses, cooks and Athletes,'entertainers and related workers 12,075 . 49 9,169 766 2,411 1,114 123 2,734 551 1,242 463 20.4 0.1 15.5 .1.3 4.1 1.9 0.2 4.6 0.9 2.1 0.8 19,854 165 15,318 1,184 3,299 2,712 203 4,168 1,205 1,225 1,248 21.9 0.2^ 16.9 1.3 3.6 3.0 0.2 4.6 1.3 1.4 1.4 64.4 236.7 67.1 54.6 36.8 143.4 65.0 52.4 118.7 -1.4 169.5 155 135 20 0.3 0.2 (2) 396 376 . 20 0.4 0.4 (2) 155.5 178.5 576 1.0 2,459 2.7 326.9 (1) Excludes a few persons seeking work who have never been employed. (2) Less than 0.05. TABLE II Numerical and percentage distribution of the female labour f o r c e d , 15 years of age and over, by industry division, selected major groups and classes, for the census metropolitan area of Vancouver, 1951 and 1961 Censuses i Vancouver M.A. Female labour f o r c e d xnauswy ai.vxsi.oa, sexecueu majoi" groups \ 1 and classes (as of 1961) 1951 1961 i * •No. % . No. % increase 59,200 100.0 90,497 100.0 52.9 9,723 16.4 11,483 12.7 18.0 182 0.3 513 0.6 131.9 102 0.2 150 0.2 47.0 29 (2) 51 (2) 75.9 99 0.2 100 0.1 1.0 8,929 15.1 10,000 11.0 12.0 3,026 5.1 2,907 3.2 -3.9 986 1.7 1,092 1.2 10.8 1,079 1.8 1,036 1.1 -4.0 Printing, publishing and a l l i e d 824 1,005 22.0 1.4 1.1 387 0.6 669 . 0.7 72.9 48,892 82.6 76,606 84.6 56.7 Transportation, communication and other -4,563 16.8 ^ 7.7 5,332 5.9 2,568 4.3 1,739 1.9 -32.3 N 14,269 24.1 20,853 23.O 46.1 3,897 6.6 5,186 5.7 33.1 10,372 17.5 15,667 17.3 51.0 1,621 2.7 2,639 2.9 62 . 8 Women's ready to wear and clothing and 4,542 7.7 6,791 7.5 49.5 1,698' 1,572 2.6 1.9 8.0 524 0.9 957 1.0 82.6 Community, business and personal service 4,554 7.7 7,504 8.3 ' 64.8 23,068 39,187 43.3 69.9 39.0 2,884 4.9 6,073 6.7 110.6 8,021 13.5 13,411 14.8 67.2 228 0.4 412 0.4 80.? Motion picture and recreational services 523 0.9 808 0.9 54.5 1,261 2.1 2,566 2.8 103.0 9,249 15.6 13,907 : 15.4 50.4 2,369 4.0 3,807 4.2 60.7 Hotels, restaurants, taverns, lodging 4,710 8.0 7,128 7«9 51.3 899 1.5 1,990 2.2 121.4 2,433 4.1 3,730 4.1 53.0 1,376 2.3 1,903 2.1 38.3 617 1.0 793 0.9 28.5 419 0.7 994 1.1 137.2 26 (2) 40 (2) 53.3 580 1.0 2,408 2.7 315.2 (1) Excludes a few persons seeking work who have never been employed. (2) Less than 0.05. (3) N.e.s. a Not elsewhere specified. 78. Rate Using Census Figures B. C. Popl. 1951 B i r t h s /51 - / 6 l Deaths /51 - / 6 l = 1 165 210 TO 736 1 520 946 131 945 1 389 001 N a t u r a l Increase = 355 736 131 9^5 223 791 Immigration /51 - / 6 l 155 052 ) D i f f e r e n c e ) Answer shows ) i s i n t e r n a l ) m i g r a t i o n i n Net Migr. 240 081 ) 1 629 082 minus - 1 389 001 m i g r a t i o n out, Population I96I 1951 1 629 082 1 165 210 Rate of N a t u r a l Increase C a l c u l a t i o n 1 389 001 = 1 165 210 ( i 4 Y o o ) 1 0 r to be determined l o g 1.192 .0763 .00763 = Log 14-§-1.017 = 1 + 100 .r + 1.772 This was checked by-t a k i n g /51 and mult, by 1.77256 a n n u a l l y . I t checks against 1961, DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS S p e c i a l Surveys D i v i s i o n OTTAWA Published by A u t h o r i t y of the Rt. Hon. C. D. Howe, M i n i s t e r of Trade and-Commerce THE LABOUR FORCE Monthly Survey, Week Ended March 21 , 1953 V o l . 9 - No. 3 P r i c e $2 .00 per annum I n t r o d u c t i o n This r e p o r t presents the r e s u l t s of the monthly labour f o r c e survey covering the week ended March 21 , 1953» The survey i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the s e r i e s begun i n November, 19^5, and c a r r i e d out at q u a r t e r l y i n t e r v a l s u n t i l November, 1952, when the f i r s t survey on a monthly b a s i s was taken. About 30,000 households chosen by area sampling methods i n approximately 110 d i f f e r e n t areas i n Canada are v i s i t e d each month. The labour f o r c e surveys provide estimates of the employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c i v i l i a n n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n of working age. Persons are c l a s s i f i e d according to current a c t i v i t y during the s p e c i f i c weeks covered by the surveys. Tables 1 to 9» i n c l u s i v e , of t h i s report present data f o r Canada as a whole, Table 1 summarizing labour f o r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the remainder d e a l i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A l l r e g i o n a l data are brought together i n Table 10. D e f i n i t i o n s and explanations w i t h reference to these t a b l e s are contained i n the s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . R e s u l t s of previous labour f o r c e surveys may be obtained from Reference Paper No. 35, "The Labour Force, November 1945 - March 1952", the r e g u l a r q u a r t e r l y r e p o r t s f o r the weeks ended May 31 , 1952 and August 16, 1 9 5 2 , and the r e g u l a r monthly rep o r t s s t a r t i n g w i t h the week ended November 2 2 , 1952. The estimates are subject t o sampling e r r o r . In g e n e r a l , the s m a l l e r the estimate, the l a r g e r i s the r e l a t i v e sampling e r r o r . Any estimate of l e s s than 10,000 i s replaced 80. throughout the t a b l e s by an a s t e r i s k , as an i n d i c a t i o n that the sampling e r r o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and t h a t i t should not be used without c a r e f u l r e s e r v a t i o n . I t has not so f a r been p o s s i b l e to inc l u d e i n the labour f o r c e surveys persons l i v i n g i n c e r t a i n i n a c c e s s i b l e areas and Indians l i v i n g on r e s e r v a t i o n s , an estimated t o t a l of 180,000. D e f i n i t i o n s and Explanations (a) Labour f o r c e - The c i v i l i a n labour f o r c e i s composed of th a t p o r t i o n of the c i v i l i a n n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p opulation 14 years of age and over t h a t had jobs or th a t d i d not have jobs and were seeking work d u r i n g the survey week. (b) Persons w i t h jobs - For the purpose of the labour f o r c e survey, "persons w i t h jobs" are grouped i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : ( i ) Persons a t work - those who d i d any work f o r pay or p r o f i t or who d i d unpaid work which c o n t r i b u t e d to the running of a farm or business operated by a r e l a t i v e ; ( i i ) Persons w i t h jobs not a t work - those who had jobs but d i d not work because of i l l n e s s , bad weather, v a c a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e , or temporary l a y o f f with d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s to r e t u r n t o work w i t h i n 30 days of the time of being l a i d o f f . (Persons who had jobs but d i d not work duri n g the survey week and who a l s o looked f o r xrork are included i n (c) below, "Persons without jobs and seeking work".) While v a r i a t i o n s i n the estimates of the t o t a l number of persons w i t h jobs provide a v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r of economic c o n d i t i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n t changes In the employment p a t t e r n may be concealed unless a t t e n t i o n i s focussed on the extent t o which people worked l e s s than f u l l time. Table 1 provides an a n a l y s i s of the reasons f o r which persons worked l e s s than 35 hours i n the survey week. Estimates of weekly hours of work are contained i n Table 5« Persons w i t h jobs who d i d not work during the survey week are c l a s s i f i e d i n Table 6 by the reasons f o r t h e i r absence from work. (c) Persons without jobs and seeking work - This category i n c l u d e s those persons who were l o o k i n g f o r work i n the survey week and who d i d no work. Persons who were te m p o r a r i l y away from t h e i r jobs d u r i n g the whole of the survey week and were 8 1 . seeking work are considered as without jobs and are included i n t h i s category. In a d d i t i o n to those who a c t i v e l y looked f o r work, t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e s persons who would have looked f o r work, except t h a t they were t e m p o r a r i l y i l l , were on i n d e f i n i t e or prolonged l a y - o f f , or b e l i e v e d t h a t no work was a v a i l a b l e . Persons who worked part of the survey week and a l s o looked f o r work are not included i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . However, the number of such persons i s shown i n Table 2 which presents estimates of a l l persons l o o k i n g f o r work. (d) Persons not i n the labour f o r c e - The non-xrorking part of the population 14 years of age and over c o n s i s t s of those who are outside the labour f o r c e i n the sense that they do not work f o r pay or p r o f i t or as unpaid workers i n f a m i l y e n t e r p r i s e s such as farms or businesses and are not l o o k i n g f o r work. Persons not i n the labour f o r c e i n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , such groups as those going to school or keeping house, persons who are too o l d or are permanently unable to work or some other reason, and persons who are v o l u n t a r i l y i d l e or r e t i r e d . Persons, such as housewives, students and o t h e r s , who worked part-time are c l a s s e s as persons with jobs, o r, i f they are l o o k i n g f o r xrork, they are c l a s s e d as persons without jobs and seeking work. 9 6 0 3 - 5 0 5 2 9 - 4 - 5 3 . 82 R e l i a b i l i t y of Alumni L i s t s A c l e r k i n the Alumni O f f i c e works f u l l time on Graduate Records, r e v i s i n g them three times a year and changing names of those who have married. Information f o r changes comes from a number of sources, i n c l u d i n g the graduates themselves, who send i n change of name and address forms, and a l s o t r a c i n g by the o f f i c e o f , f o r example, r e t u r n m a i l names which can o f t e n be found i n a B r i t i s h Columbia d i r e c t o r y . The T a b u l a t i n g Department a l s o continuously r e v i s e s addresses and changes names f o r those who have married. 8 3 . Population of Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area and component p a r t s , 1961 and 1951 VANCOUVER Population S u b d i v i s i o n 1951 1961 1951 Vancouver, c. 344,833 384,522 Burnaby, mun. 58,376 100,157 Coquitlam, mun. 15.697 29,053 D e l t a , mun. (4) 14 ,597 Fraser M i l l s , mun. 369 165 New Westminster, c. 28 ,639 33,654 North Vancouver, c. 15,687 23,656 North Vancouver, mun. 14 ,469 38,971 Port Coquitlam, c. 3,232 8,111 4,789 Port Moody, c. 2,246 Richmond., mun. 19,186, . 43,323 Surrey, mun.(2) 70,838 U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Area 2,120 3,272 West Vancouver, mun. White Rock, c.C2) 13,990 25,454 6,453 Unorganized 1,951 2,020 Indian Reserves 198 1,130 (1) Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area 530,728 790,165 561,960 344,833 58 ,376 15,697 6 ,701 369 28 ,639 15,687 14,469 3,232 2,246 19,186 29,729 2,120 13,990 3,941 1,951 794 (1) Area as of 1 9 6 l . (2) White Rock erected a f t e r June 1, 1956. Detached from Surrey Mun. (3) Only part i n M.A. i n 1951. (4) Not i n M.A. i n 1951. CONFIDENTIAL . PLEASE ANSWER EVERY APPLICABLE QUESTION Card ' . 1 I . 1st Degree Obtained a t U.B.C. Date (123 4 5) (B.A. B.Com. e t c . ) 19 ( 6 ) _ (9) ' (10,11) Ignore nos. i n p a r e n t h e s i s ; they a r e f o r t a b u l a t i n g o n l y . I I . WORK EXPERIENCE OUTSIDE THE HOME 1953-to 1965 I n c l u s i v e ( S i n c e Marriage ONLY). DIRECTIONS a) I f you worked a FULL year, ( I n c l u d e h o l i d a y s or s i c k l e a v e . ) , CIRCLE W i n the f i r s t column o p p o s i t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e y e a r . b) I f you were not employed BUT were l o o k i n g f o r s u i t a b l e work d u r i n g any ENTIRE y e a r , CIRCLE L In the f i r s t column o p p o s i t e the y e a r . c) I f you n e i t h e r worked nor looked f o r any ENTIRE year, CIRCLE N f o r t h a t y e a r . d) I f you worked, looked o r d i d n e i t h e r f o r CERTAIN MONTHS ONLY of any year CIRCLE W^ N under a p p r o p r i a t e months f o r t h a t y e a r . (You may en c l o s e s e v e r a l a t once.) EXAMPLE F u l l 1953 1954 1955 ( 1 4-26) 1953 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 ^ (27-39) 1954 ( 4 0-52) 1955 (53-65) 1956 (66-78) 1957 Card , 2 1958 (123 4 5 ) ( 1 4-26) (27-39) 1959 ( 4 0-52) i960 (53-65) 1961 (66-78) 1962 Card 3 1963 (123 4 5)(l4-26) (27-39) 1964 ( 4 0-52) 1965 Yea» J a n . F eb. Mar. A p r . May J n e . J l y . A u g . Sept. O c t . No v.Dec. ® W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 w2 W2 W2 W2 W2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 N** N 4 N4* N h N41 N4* N4* N * N4* N4* N4* N4* W* W2 V/2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 w2 W2 w2. W2 W2 <s> L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 Nt N" N4* N4* N4* N4* N4* N4* N4* N4* —NJ* W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 Ttf2 W2 W2 w 2 ^ ^•J 2 . 3 2 W> L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 C L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 Nt (N4* N4* N 4 N4* 'N4* N ^ N t N 44 Nt Nt N t F u l l Months Y e a r J a n . F eb. Mar. A p r . May J n e . J l y . Aug. Se tb, Oct.Nov.Dec. W2 U 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 w2 W^  VJ2 W2 W2 W-2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 N4* N 4 N4* N4* N4* N 44 N4* N4* N44 N4* N4* W2 W2 • W* W ^ W2 W2 W2 W * W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 N 4 N1* N 44 N 4 Nt N4* N4* N k ' N4* Nt Nt N 4 W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W'2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L 3 Nt Nt N4* N t N4* Nt N't N 44 N t N4* Nt Nt N t W2 W2 W2 W 2 VJ2 W2 W2 W* W 2 W2 W2 W2 ' W2 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L 3 N't Nt N't N t N1* Nt Nt N t N «• N't Nt Nt N t W2 W2 U 2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L3 L 3 Nt N't N't N «• Nt N't N't N't N «f Nt Nt N t N t • W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 Nt N4* N 44 N •* N't N't N 4 4 N4* N 44 N4* N4* N4* N t W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 to 2 WiJ W2 W2 W2 L 3 . L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 - L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 Nt Nt N't N •* N 4 N4* N't N 44 N *» N4* Nt Nt N t W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 L3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 Nt Nt N t N t N't N't Nt N k N 4 Nt N4* N4* N4* W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W 2 VJ2 to2 W2 W 2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 N4* N ^  . N 44 N k N4* N4* N 44 N 41 N 44 N4* N4*. N 4 1 N4* W2 W2 W2 W ^  V/2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W2 L 3 L3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L 3 L 3 L 3 N t N4* N't N k N4* N4* N4* N4* N 44 N4* N4* N 4 1 N4* W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 V/2 w2- W2 VJ 2 W2 W2 W2 W'2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 N4* N4* N 4 N 4 N4* N74f N4* N 44 N 44 N4* N4* N 4 4 N4* W2 W2 V/2 W 2 W2 W2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 to2 to2 L3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 N t N t N t N N't N 4 N 44 N 44 Nt Nt N t N t W 2 W2 W 2 W 2 W2 W2 W 2 W2 W 2 W2 W2 \4 2. W'2 L 3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 L 3 L3 L3 L 3 L 3 N t N«t N t N u N't N't N t N <+. N t Nt Nt N t N t [ I I . IF YOU WORKED; a) Enter In the space opposite each year the no. of the category. b) S p e c i f y by s t a t i n g job t i t l e or d e s c r i p t i o n . • ( H o s p i t a l d i e t i t i a n , ) (Elem. Sch. Teacher.) 1. Managerial Occupations (E.g. O f f i c e , s a l e s , c r e d i t mgrs.) Job T i t l e or (Bus.owners,public a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) D e s c r i p t i o n 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l Occupations . (E.g. P h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , a r + i s t s , w r i t e r s ) ( P u b l i c H ealth N u r s e s , l e c t u r e x s , l i b r a r i a n s ) 3« C l e r i c a l Occupations (E.g. Accountants,stenographers) (Attendants d o c t o r s ' & d e n t i s t s ' o f f i c e s ) 4. Sales Occupations (E.g. Real E s t a t e & Insurance) 5. Other ( S p e c i f y ) IV.- REASON(S) f o r withdrawing from or not en t e r i n g LABOUR FORCE. Enter i n the space opposite each reason, the number of the reason. 1. Lack of employment s u i t a b l e f o r education and experience. _ ( 6 6 ) S p e c i f y years only i f 1,2, or 3 entered. 1 9 _ , _ , _ , _ 2. S a l a r i e s i n your f i e l d considered too low.' ( 6 7 ) 19__, 3. Moved t e m p o r a r i l y out of province. _ ( 6 8 ) 1 9 _ , _ , _ , _ 4. To have or adopt c h i l d r e n _ ( 6 9 ) 19 9 » » 5- Not i n t e r e s t e d i n working o u t s i d e the home _ (?0) 1 9 _ . , _ , _ , _ .6. To continue education _ ( 7 1 ) 1 9 _ , _ _ , _ , _ 7. Other ( s p e c i f y ) _ ( 7 2 ) 19__, V. Enter i n the space opposite each category the number of app r o p r i a t e category.. ' Typing Speed ( I f any) Shorthand Speed ( I f any) 1. 60 w.p.m. or above . ( 7 3 ) 1. 80 w.p.m. or above ( 7 5 ) 2. Below 60-w.p.m. (7*+) 2. Below 80 w.p.m. (76) • Do you hold a second degree? 1. Yes __ ( 7 7 ) ' 2. No _ Surname Given Names Husband's I n i t i a l ;  NAME (Please P r i n t ) ' ; •  1953 _ _ ( 5 3 ) 1954 _ ( 5 4 ) 1955 _ ( 5 5 ) 1956 _ ( 5 6 ) 1957 _ _ ( 5 7 ) 1958 _ ( 5 8 ) 1959. _ J 5 9 ) 1960 _^_(6o) 1961 ( 6 1 ) 1962 ( 6 2 ) 1963 _ ( 6 3 ) 1964 (64) 1965 _ ( 6 5 ) APPENDIX B 86. The women graduates who d i d not appear t o be working i n areas d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r degrees were engaged i n the f o l l o w i n g occupations! B.A, Newspaper Owner 1 Exam Marker 1 Comparative Shopper 1 F l y i n g I n s t r u c t o r 1 B a l l e t Teacher 1 Sales A n a l y s i s 1 I n t e r i o r Designer 1 Photographer 1 Personnel T r a i n e r 1 P r i n t i n g Machine Operator 1 Mo d e l l i n g Teacher 1 T r a v e l C o u n s e l l o r 1 Executive A s s i s t a n t 4 Matron O k a l l a P r i s o n 3 Secretary 6 S c r i p t W r i t e r and P a n e l l i s t 1 A d v e r t i s i n g 1 Stenographer 11 A s s i s t a n t to M i n i s t e r 1 Attendant D e n t i s t ' s O f f i c e 1 B.S.F. Recreation D i r e c t o r 1 Laboratory Technician 1 Tutor (Mathematics, Chemistry) B.S.A. B.S.N. B.S.W, Drug Store C l e r k 1 Real E s t a t e 1 Stenographer Business Owner 1 Writer 1 1 87, The codes enclosed "below w i l l a i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the computer p r i n t out t a b l e s which f o l l o w on pp. 88 - 114. 19 *s Graduates, by Degree. FREQiJERCY TABLE Years B.Mus B.Com. L.L.B. B.Arch B.Ed. B.H.E. B.P.E. B.L.S. B.A.Sc. B.S.A. B.Sc. B.A. B.S.N. B.S.P. B.S.W. MASTERS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 HORIZONTAL PERCENTAGE Years B.A. B.Com. L.L.B. B.Arch B.Ed. B.H.E. B.P.K. B.L.S. B.A.Sc. B.S.A. B.Sc. B.A. B.S.N. B.S.P. B.S.W. MASTERS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Uj 111 ae Q >-£0 cn uu t— «* Cf Code f o r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Computer P r i n t Out. (Reasons f o r not Working) Code B.Mus. B.Com. L.L.B. B.Arch. B.Ed. B.H.E. B.P,E. B.L.S. B.A.Sc. B.S.A. B.Sc. B.A. B.S.N. B.S.P. B.S.W. MASTER'S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 No reason given on questionnaire. 1 Reasons 1, 2 and 7 - any combination* 2 Reason 6 . 3 ) Same numbers as on questionnaire. ) 4 ) ) 5 ) 6 Any combination except 4 and 5. 7 Reason 4 plus something else but not 5-S Reason 5 plus something else but not 4« 9 Combination of reasons 4 and 5 without anything else. REASONS FOR NOT WORKING-Interpretation of Typing and Shorthand Speeds by Degree, are the same as for occupations and reasons* Bote that Degree Codes Code for left hand column numbers i s : Typing 0 - No s k i l l 1-60 W.P.M. or above 2 - Below 60 W.P.M. Shorthand 0 - No s k i l l 1 - 80 W.P.M. or above 2 - Below 80 W.P.M. TYPING- AND SHORTHAND FREQUENCY TABLE Occupation Class by Degree. Years B.Mus. B.Com. L .L .B. B.Arch. B.Ed. E.H.Ii. B.P.E. B.L.S. B.A.Sc. B.S.A. B.Sc. B.A. B.S.N. B.S.P. B.S.W. MASTER'S 0 1 2 . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 U 15 1. Managerial Occupations. 2. Professional and Technical. 3 . Clerical. 4 . Sales Occupation. 5 . Other. OCCUPATIOff CLASS BY DEGREE ' --'£'"7 ^ . fi 81 VARlAm TABLE OF CQLU8N 11 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TA8LE _ • v . , - ••- 6 '•• • 1. '-' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 '-1-2 2 « 0 0 0 -0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 4 0 * 4 3' ••• : 0 ." 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 » 0 « 3 HORIZONTAL PERCENTAGE 8 9 10 11 12 .«,«.»•«:**,«,•,*# • • ^ 2 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00* 4 3,-• .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 >. • 4 .•. , .do .oo .oo ."do .oo .oo .oo .oo>2d.6b .00 .00 eo.oo .00 « 5 5 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 * 5 6 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 * 5 7 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 *00 .00100.00 .00* 8 8 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 12.5a .00 75.00 12.50 • * i . 8 9 » .00 .oo .oo .oo .oo .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 * 11 1 * .00 .00 .00 iOO .00 .00 .00 .00 2.04 2.04 .00 93.88 2.04 • 49 1930*S GRADUATESV BY 0E6REE ; BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN l l VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE , , 0 • 1 2 3 ,• 4-..' 5 6 ' 7 1 8- 9 10. 11 12 '13 , 14,-" 15 * # « » » * « * « # * » « * • o * 0 0 0 0 0 0 d 0 d •-: 1 0 13 0 0 o 0 * 14 1 * 0 0 0 d d d d 0 l Q 0 11 0 * 0 o 0 * 12 2 » 0 0 0 0 o 0 d 0 d 0 0 13 . 0 . 0 0 1 * 14 •?•'-.. 3 « ; 0 o; ~- 0 0 o d d 0 2 0 0 , 14 0 0 0 . --Q- •»• • r- is . 4 * - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 '•' • 0 • d 0 0 9 ", o • . o 6 5 » 0 l 0 0 0 7 o 0 0 2 ' v 0 0 11 0 0 0 o * 14 b o d 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 0 6 0 0 . d 0 '*:.- 6 7 * 0 d 6 0 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 * 9 ' 8 * 0 l d 0 o 0 o 0 0 ^0 0 12 3 0 o 0 « , 16 9 * 0 - i 0 0 d d 0 o i 0 0 12 0 0 0 . 0 * 14 ' • - » . - • 0 o ° • 0 , d o . >o,/- 6 1 0 110 3 ;o 0 : 1 * '•• , 124 y HORiZONTAL PERCENTAGE . 9 / . 0 I ' -2 ' 3 , •4..' "' 5 ' 6 7 •'. 8 9 •- 10 11 • 12 7 13' .' 14" ' .r 15 0 * 7.00 .00 ,00 .00 .00 .00 .00 ,00 .00 7.14 .00 92.86 .00 .00 .00 .00 » 14 1 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 8.33 .00 .00 91.67 VOO : .00; .00 ^00 o 12 • • " ., ". 7 |T, 2 * .00 . 00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 ~j^~^r Q$ - ilJo ; ;OG- 7.1f * 14; f > 3 « .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 12.50 .00 .00 87.50^ .00•"•'«• .00 .00 .00 * 16 4- ' £00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 » 9 5 « .00 7.14 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 14.29 .00 .00 78.57 .00 .00 .00 .00* 14 6 » .00 .00 .00 ,00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 ,00100.00 .00 >00 .00 .00 * 6 7 * .00 .00 .00 .00' .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 .00 .00 .00* 9 8 * ;00 6.25 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 75.00 18.75 .00 .00 .00 * 16 9 * .00 7.14 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 7*14 .00 .00 85.71 .00 ,00 .00 .00* 14 *».»;»-g«*»:«»,o»»» •»••'«•«#.«#. f .00 2.42 .00 .00 .00 *00 .00 .00 4*84 .81 .00 88.71 2.42 .00 .00 .81 * 124 1940,«S GRADUATESI BY DEGREE ; 7 (1QJEQU4M 8IVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 11 VS COLUMN 89 y - FREQUENCY TABLE 4 8^  9 10 I t 12 13 14 15 0 * 0 0 0 12 0 » 12 •; • 1 « - • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 10 0 / 0 0 0 : 11 " • .  - 2 » : •  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0 "j. 13 1 0 :.8„, 0 15 •-, .  • • V-3 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 i '• 0 0 V ,9 0 0 b 0 to . . ... • 4 • ' 0 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 b 0 0 *• -5,-*- 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 1 0 : 0 o ... 14 ••. '-.v. v • 6 » '• 0 0 0 0 0 3 ' 0 0 i 6 0 11 0- 0 o .• 0 * ' 15 • V -'-v. 7 « . 0 3 " o 0 0 ' 4 0 0 l ' : l • 0 15 l : : ' 0 ' 2 o 27 •„ , • V ." . . ' K / " . , 8 * 0 2 o • 0 0 . 6 o ..... 0 0 .. 5 . 0 20 - 0 0 • 1 « •. •. , :34\ •., -• ... ' -. 9 * • 0 0 i . 0 0 - 7 3 ••' 0 : 1 '• 1 . 0 15 0 0 . 4 ',' 1 33 , V- : c . v r-.-: 20 0 122 1 * 178 HORIZ ONT'AL PERCENTAGE- 93 \ ; - ' ' • A '. ,«'-'• 0 1 • 2 3 ; 4.; 7;;;,s : 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ' 13 14 15 '.' * • • V o * ido voo .od .od idd .do . 0 0 . 0 0 .dd .do . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 ; .60 ..do * 1 2 1 * ..Od .dd .dd .do . 0 0 .oo . 0 0 . 0 0 9 . 0 9 .06 . 0 0 9 0 . 9 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 *••; i i 2 * .3 # 4 »• . *00 6 i 6 7 idd .oo .00 14*29 .00 .00 . 0 0 .dd .dd .dd .dd .dd •00 . 0 0 .00 .00 . 0 0 .dd .dd .00 . 0 0 •dd I O . O O .dd .oo . 0 0 .do .00 . 0 0 86.67 *00 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 85.71 6.67 .00 .00 .00 .od . 0 0 .00. .00 4 .00 *00 * *dd » * 0 0 •-. 15 • 10 7 .'• 5 ' • .. 6 » 7 * tOO 14.29 . 0 0 . 0 0 .dd i t * r i . 0 0 .00 . 0 0 .do .dd .dd .00 .00 .dd 2d.oo i o d £4*8i .dd .dd .dO .00 .00 . 0 0 6.67 .dd 3.70 .00 *00 3.70 . 0 0 78.57 . 0 0 73.33 .00 55.56 7.14 • do 3.70 .dd . 0 0 *oo ; .00 /.OO 7.41 . 0 0 »'..• * o d * *oo * : 15 .•'>.-/• 27 8 » SOO 5.88 .00 . 0 0 iOG 17.65 . 0 0 .00 .dd 1 4.71 .00 58.82 .00 .00 2 . 9 4 .00 * 34 9 » .00 iOO 3.d3 .dO .dd 21.21 9.09 .00 3.03 3*03 .00 4 5 * 4 5 . 0 0 .do 12.12 3*03 » 33 ' \ *. 1950,« .00 5.06 S GRADUATES* .56 .Od 8Yl DEGREE .dd H.24 1.69 .00 2*81 3.93 .00 6 8 . 5 4 1*69 . 0 0 3.93 * 56 » 178 (lO.'EQUS'J ' fjfi 8IVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 11 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE - . ... • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 r 15 O f 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 16, 0 3 -, \ Zr . : 0 « .27 1 * 0 •• 1' 0 0 b . 8 1 . 0 0 0 o 15 0 0 0 0 * 25 • •- •• "; 2 * 0 • i :• 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 13 1 0 o . 1 * 22 3 * 0 o 0 b 0 6 "~ 1 0 b 0 b 15 2 •' 1 0 0 * ' 25 '• --• 4 *'-. 0 2 b b 0 1 1 0 0 0 ^-.<>.'•• 11 1 0 2 • 0 * . 18 - • ' I'-• -5; .* •• ; o b V o 0- '• 2 -' 4 ' 3 0 . . 0 ' 0 b 12 2 ••. 0 o ; . 0 - : " •'• 23 / ; • , •; 6 :.»•-' . 0 b 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 12 1 1 1 •. 0 = * . v 22 • ••• '• • v 7 .». /*' "v 0 2 0 b . 4 1 0 0 o , 0 0 16 1 1 •': 1 .-- 0 « . 26 • . • V " 8 ;» .•„-. .... , 1 - 1 0 .- b 9 -3 .' 0 :. • 0 0 • -... o ,. 0 6 5 1.. '•. 0 26 • . V - >.'•• 9 • 0 • • .. 1 0 b . 6 •" • 5. 7'. 0 0 b b .- •: 2 .\5: • . i -3~ .. • '; b ' 2 o « • »«»»***» « »;* »»•» *'.'• »:«»»»»:*« «;•;»,«. * •• '* • «»•« « * * »,»-«;« « « » • • * « « « • • '#.» » * » ««*«»« « » *"«:•«.« »,«.«• ««««•»«'# »e »&»***»»*»*»»*»»»«•»»**»*» *. » 1 8 0 0 21 41 9 0 3 0 2 121 16 . 7 8 1 * 238 It HORIZONTAL PERCENTAGE 0 I 2 -.. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ,« • -• r • " :«*,«»«:•;»* 0 * .00 *00 .00 .00 .00 11.11 .00 .00 11.11 *00 .00 59.26 .00 11-11 7.41 .00 » 27 ' • 1 ... .00 4.00 .00 .00 .00 32.00 4.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 60.00 .00 *00 *00 • 00 * 25 . . •: 2 » .00 4.55 .00 .00 .00 27.27 .00 .00 .00 *00 .00 59.09 4.55 .00 .00 4.55 * 22 3 * .00 *00 .00 .00 .00 24.00 4.00 .00 .00 *00 .00 60.00 8.00 4.00 - .00 .00 * V ' 25 . .00 H i l l .00 .00 .00 5.56 J.56 .00 .00 ,00 .00 61.11 5*56 .00 11.11 *00 * 18 ' 5 « iOO .00 .00 .00- 8.70 17.39 13*04 .00 .00 .00 *00 52.17 8.70 .00 *00 , .00 * : 23 . 6 « .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 18.18 13.64 .00 .00 .00 •00 54.55 4.55 4.55 4.55 ,00 * 22 *00 7.69 *00 .00 15.38 3.85 .00 • 00 .00 ,00 *00 61*54 3.85 3.85 3.85 .00 * 26 -8 * 3.85 3.85 .00 .00 34.62 1 1 . 5 4 . 0 0 *00 .00 .00 .00 23*08 19.23 3.85 .00 .00 » 26 ••. • 9 » .00 4.17 .00 •00 25.00 20.83 .00 .00 .do .00 8.33 20.83 12.50 .00 8.33 *00 * 24 - • t * 142 3.36 .00 .00 I560JS GRADUATO, BY DEGREE 81.82 17*23 3*78 .00 1.26 •00. .84 50*84 6.72 2.94 3.36 *42 * 238 f : TT~-— • • " : • :—; =—: • ; — 77-7^  : — : : 1  BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 11 .VS COLUMN 89 " FREQUENCY TABLE '/•'• •• :. \r • 7-'7 • ' ' ' ; - '•• \ ' . • • ./ « 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * ; • - ' • - " -7. 0 • . .0-' :' 1 •' ' 0 0 10 2 2 0 • 0 •! 7' 1 ..'. 7 3 •/. 1 1 0 * , 29 l 1 • •- • o o ; ; o o • i; - 6 o o • b . 0 / 0 i t .6.- b 0 7j7*7 •-" - 31 - '7-: • V{--V.2:-»~ 0 0 0 0 15 3 0 0 0 I 5 6:, 3 0 1 0; * ^ 34 : •7 3 « 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 J 3 0 I 1 * . 30 4 » 0 0 0 / 0 22 2 0 1 0 0 ; 0 9 0 I 0 2 » • ' -37 '•- -. 5 * 0 0 0 0 8 0 , 0 ' 0 0 0 0 .5 2 1 2 . 0 * 18, ,*#«>»*»«:* *.*;»^ / 7:....0. ,.-.7i":. 0 b 76 '- 13 2 I 0 . ' i ' ,: .7 • ,,'47 .•' 1? • 5 7 % » . 77' 179:7;" - i 7 HORIZONTAL PERCENTAGE - 7 7 7 7..; ' ' '[ /. ... 7 . /"77J7- '• 7 '• 7 7"'.|7:y,7 '5 l'"V !" • " ' -7^7'' ' -* 0 1 2 3 4 5 ,6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ' 0 * .00 3.45 .00 .00 34,48 6.90 6.90 ,00 .007 3,457 3.45 24^14 10.34 3.45 3.45 .00 * 297 7 - • f I f . .00 .00 .00 .00 22V58 19.35 .00 .00 , .00 .00 .00 35*48 19.35 ,00 .00 3.23 * 31 2 * .00 .00 .00 .00 44+12 8.82 .Ob .00 ; .00 2.9414.71 17*65 8.82 .00 2.94 .00 * 34 3 * .00 .00 .00 .00 46.67 .00 .00 .00 .00 3.33 3.33 30.00 10.00 .00 3.33 3,33 * 30 -«» w w w w w w w w w w w w % w w w w / w w w w w w w w w w w w —» v w" w ^ w- -. ~ ~r w w w - A W W W X WWW w 'uf w* ^ V «^ • — _ ^ V-,-TV.*. '. - -v6a • 1.Q0 •• v.00. •• • •••00--. 59*46• V5T41 :--00- -2.70 ......^O. •••^•00 .00, 24*32 .7)0~ 2.70 ~ .00 5.41 » ^ 177':.. -5 * .00 .00 .00 .00 44.44 .00 ,00 .00 .00 , .00 .00 27,78 11,11 5.56 11.11 .00 * 18 ***»»»,*«»»,•»»« . » .00 i56~ *0Q ,00 42,46 7.2* 1.'12 .56 .00 1.68 3.91 26,26 9.50 1,68 2.79 2.23 * 179 AfiL GRADUATES, B^DE^REE ;• 7' • 7 „T . : . 7 1 ' 7 ; _\ 7:.'- .,>:••"' ;''\-,7- ' |, UNIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 89 | s • FREQUENCY TABLE - - - • .' 7 f ' " NUMBER / RESPONSE -i 0 1 2 21 2 1 3 4 0 97 5 6 74 14 7 8 1 15 9 12 10 9 11 446 12 40 13 10 14 15 20 7 TOTAL 769 PERCINT 526 2.73 .13 iOO 12.61 9.62 1.82 .13 1.95 1.56 1.17 58.00 5.20 1.30 2.60 .91 100.00 I : > ' ; : : ' A ' - ' " - " - v v'-:'' •• :-V '. iAcA^/:'/ ••• '^-A''A ft; . :\ ;~."77-/- . - • • • ' ' ^ ^ v ! 7 : - v v ; ; : : -; - A A A • • • :' ; • * -- •• r • '- . - . - - ' • • -- - • * - - ' ; - % • , - .. / ' •m. • - . -. - .. v -; - . - • •• • -- ^ -, ,, „•,,,, ,' • • •* • I - • - \ - • . K" ' BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN: .265 „V5 COLUMN 89 'fg FREQUENCY TABLE - X ' . . • ; ' ' ' ' - . • ? : .. ' » 0 • 1 2 3^,; <4 ; ::5 /. 6 7 8 9 10; '• 11 12 13 14 15 *y\ ,:• 0 » , 2 14 0 0 19 . 39 . 6 0 ' - 7 . 8 6 269 20 2 9 3 * .-• • 404 1 * 0 0 0 0 - 2 1 1 0 0 6 0 4 . . 0 6 0 0 .' 8 2 * /: •> o 2 1 ' 0 74 33 7 1 8 • 3 -;: 3 150 18 8 11 4 * V 3 2 3 .'. „- • \ 3 »-.f 0 ' 3 o • 0 0 0 0 0 0 , • 0 17 2 0 0 ;". o . 23- • :•  , " ' • • ••' • 4 « 0 1 0 0 0 , 0 ' o 0 d O : 0 " '. 2 . ; 0 6 0 0 : » r' • .. 2 • 5 » 0 2 0 0 • 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 9 * * 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446, 40 10 20 7 * 769 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE „ * v 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ; 11 12 13 14 15' * / -0 » 100.00 66,67 .00 .00 19.59 52.70 42.86 .00 46.67 66.67 66.67 60.31 50.00 20.00 45.00 42.86 « 52.54 1 » .00 .00 .00 .00 2.06 1.35 7.14 .00 .00 .00 .00 .90 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 1.04 2 » .00 9.52100.00 .00 76V29 44.59 50.00100.00 53.33 25.00 33.33 33.63 45.00 80.00 55.00 57.14 » 42.00 3 » >00 14.29 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 8.33 .00 3.81 5.00 .00 .00 .00 * 2.99 4 - p o . o o ;oo .do ^.oo . 0 0 loo . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 5 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 » , . 2 6 5"» iOO 9.52 lOO .00 2.06 1.35 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .90 .00 .00 iOO .00 * 1.17 »»«*>**«»«««*«^ * 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446 40 10 20 7 • 769 OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY, 1953-1965, BY DEGREE (253.NE . r • ) <je> BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 253 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE ._ _*.....* 0. _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 » _ _ _ 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 « 6 2 * 0 1 1 0 7 15 4 0 6 1 0 71 2 1 5 2 * 116 3 * 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 * 14 4 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 * 2 • 5 * 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 * 4 > * » W * " * ' * ^ ' * 0 4 , 1 0 8 15 4 0 6 2 0 90 4 1 5 2 • , 142 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE » 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 *  1 » .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 50.00 .00 5.56 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 4.23 2 * .00 25.00100.00 .00 87.50100.00100.00 .00100.00 50.00 .00 78.89 50.00100.00100.00100.00 * 81.69 v 3 * .00 50.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 13.33 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 9.86 ; 4 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.11 25.00 .00 .00 .00 * 1.41 ' 5 * .00 25.00 .00 .00 12.50 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.11 25.00 .00 .00 . 0 0 * 2.82 • »*>*»*-»*:»»*»^^ * 0 4 1 0 8 15 4 0 6 2 0 90 4 1 5 2 * 142 (254.NE.» ») ;• . BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 254 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE :^  * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 »**»*»*****»* 1 * 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 * 6 2 « 0 1 1 0 6 16 3 0 7 1 0 81 4 1 5 2 * 128 3 * 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 * 14 4 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 • 2 5 * ;: 0_ ; 1 0 0 1 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 » 5____ * 0 4 1 0 7 16 3 0 7 1 0 102 6 1 5 2 * 155 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE * 0 1 2 3 4 ,-. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * 1 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 5.88 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 3.87 2 * .00 25.00100.00 .00 85.71100.00100.00 .00100.00100.00 .00 79.41 66.67100.00100.00100.00 » 82.58 3 * .00 50.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 11.76 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 9.03 4 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00; .98 16.67 .00 .00 .00 * 1.29 5 * .00 25.00 .00 .00 14.29 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.96 16.67 .00 .00 .00 * 3.23 ** ,««*«*«*^ .. * 0 4 1 0 7 16 3 0 7 1 0 102 6 1 5 2 * 155 <255.NE.« • ) l&f 81VARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 255 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE « 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 « 6 2 *••• 0 0 1 0 6 18 5 0 7 0 : 0 88 7 1 5 2 :• 140 3 « 0 1 o 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 12 0 0 0 o « 14 4 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 * 1 5 « 0 1 0 0 1 0. 0 0 0 0 0 2 : 1 0 0 0 « J 5 * < 0 2 1 0 7 18 5 0 8 0 0 109 8 1 5 2 » 166 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE * . „ _ .P 2 _ 3_ ;'_4.. L 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 » . • 1 * .00 iOO .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 5.50 .00 .00 .00 .00 «. 3.61 2 • .00 .00100.00 .00 85.71100.00100.00 .00 87.50 .00 .00 80.73 87.50100.00100.00100.00 » 84.34 3 » iOO 50.00 .00 .00 .00 iOO .00 .00 12.50 .00 .00 11.01 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 8.43 4 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .92 .00 .00 .00 .00 * .60 5_» .00 50.00 i.00 .00 14.29 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.83 12.50 .00 .00 .00 « 3.01 * 0 2 1 0 7 18 5 0 8 0 0 109 8 1 5 2 * 166 <251&iNEs» ••) ' ~- •. • "~^ ' '. : : '• '• : ! : ' : : " : ~ : ' BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 256 VS COLUMN 89 \ FREQUENCY TABLE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 4 0 0 0 0 » 4 2 • 0 0 • I • 0 19 8 0 6 0 0 91 10 0 4 2 • 148 3 » 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 23 0 0 1 0 • 26 4 » 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 * 2 5 » 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 » / • 6 . . » 0 2 1 0 8 19 8 0 7 . 0 0 123 11 0 5 2 * 186 V E R T I C A L P E R C E N T A G E f OZ » 0 1 2 3 4 5 - 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 » -1 « .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 ,00 .00 .00 .00 3.25 .00 .00 .00 .00 » ' 2.15 _ 2 * .00 .00100.00 .00 87.50100.00100.00 .00 85.71 .00 .00 73.98 90.91 .00 80.00100.00 » ; 79.57 3-,»'". .00 "50.00 .00 .00" .00" .00 .00 .00 14.29 .00 .00' '18.770 • - .00-• .7 .OO'.^ O.'OO " .00 * 13.98 4 » .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.J63 .00 .00 .00 .00 » 1.08 5 » .00 50.00 .00 .00 12.50 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.44 9.09 .00 .00 .00 » 3.23 » 0 2 1 0 8 19 8 0 7 0 0 123 11 0 5 2 » 186 B I V A R T A T E T A B L E O R C O L U M N 257 V S C O L U M N 89 ^ F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E ~~ ' • . .' • , - ; •• ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ — \ ' • '• ~ ~ ~ " ~ «_ 0- . - 1 ' ' 2__ 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * 1 » 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 * 4 2 » 0 1 1 0 9 19 9 0 7 0 0 107 7 2 4 2 » 168 3 » 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 1 0 * 23 4 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 » 1 5 * _ 7 _ 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 • 0 1 1 0 0 0 » . 5 I * 0 3 1 0 10 20 9 0 7 0 0 134 8 2 5 2 » 201 V E R T I C A L P E R C E N T A G E ~ ~ ~ - ~ • '. ~ ' / ~ ~ ~ ~ _»_ 0 1 2 _3__ 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 _15_ *j_ ' , • 1 « : .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.99 .00 .00 .00 .00 • 1.99 2 >. .00 33.33100.00 .00 90.00 95.00100.00 .00100.00 .00 .00 79.85 87.50100.00 80.00100.00 » 83.58 3 * .00 33.33 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 15.67 .00 .00 20.00 .00 » ; 11.44 4 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00/ .00 .00 .00 .00 .75 .00 .00 .00 .00 * .50 5 » .00 33.33 .00 .00 10.00 5.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .75 12.50 .00 .00 .00 » 2.49 * • 0 3 1 0 10 20 9 0 7 0 0 134 8 2 5 2 « 201 (258-NE.* •) I OS 8IVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 258 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE " " ~"~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~~~ = " \ * 0 1.,^  2_ 3 4 5 6 \__ 7 8 9 10 1.1 12 13 14 15 » _^  1 « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 » 3 2 * 1 1 1 0 14 21 7 0 10 1 0 111 11 2 3 2 » 185 3 « 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 0 » 22 4 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 » 1 5 » 0 \\_ 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 » 7 • 1 3 1 0 16 23 7 0 10 1 0 137 12 2 3 2 * 218 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE _ _ _ * ^ _ I L .1 _2^ 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * 1 » .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.19 .00 .00 .00 .00 « 1.38 2 » 100.00 33.33100.00 .00 87.50 91.30100.00 .00100.00100.00 ,.00 81.02 91.67100.00100.00100.00 » 84.86 3 * iOO 33.33 .00 .00 .00^ .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 15.33 .00 .00 .00 .00 • 10.09 4 « .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .73 .00 .00 .00 .00 * .46 ;;_5:» ^00 33.33 .00 .00 12.50 8.70 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .73 8.33 .00 .00 .00 « 3.21 .* •. 1 3 1 0 16 23 7 0 10 1 0 137 12 2 3 2 » 218 <259.NE.i •) : ~ : ~ ~ _ : r _~" \ : ~ — ~. ~ BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 259 VS COLUMN 89 • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 13 14 15 * $»* ,« '«>«»*«# *:*>'« »#*>'» «» 1 » 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 * 3 2 * ' 1 2 1 0 21 18 8 0 9 0 1 114 9 4 6 2 * 196 3 * 0 2 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 1 0 0 0 * 16 4 « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 * • 3-5 * 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 * 9 * 1 6 1 0 23 20 8 0 9 0 1 135 11 4 6 2 « 227 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE 10 if-» . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 : 15 »  1 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.22 .00 .00 .00 .00* 1.32 •?_'•* 100.00 33.33100.00 00 91.30 90.00100.00 .00100.00 .00100.00 84.44 81.82100.QQ 100.00100.00 * 86_.34 ___ _\ •3-li , •- i00. 33.33 .00 . 00 .00 . 00 . 00 . 00 . 00 . 00 . 00 9.6 3 9.09 . 00 . 00 . 00 * 7.05 4 * -00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.22 .00 .00 .00 .00 *, 1.32 5 * .00 33.33 .00 .00 8.70 10.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.48 9.09 .00 .00 .00 » 3.96 * 1 6 1 0 23 20 8 0 9 0 1 135 11 4 ; 6 2 * 227 (260.NE. • '• j ~ " ~~ ~ BIVARI'ATE TABLE OF COLUMN 260 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE _______ *_ 0 1 2 _3 4.^ _5 _ 6._ ; 7 8 9 10 11 _12 , 13__ 14 15 » _ _ _ _ _ 1 * 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 * 5 2 * 1 5 1 0 25 17 6 0 8 0 2 122 7 3 8 2 * 207 3 * 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 1 0 0 0 * 18 4 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 * 2 5 _» . . 1 0 JO 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 » 8_ » » * , * * * » ^ | f * i » . ^ * I M f » * ^ i * 1 9 1 0 29 18 7 0 8 0 2 143 9 3 8 2 * 240 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE ~ ~ ~ ~ " ' ^~ , ' .. ~ ^ ~ * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 • ~ ********* / 1 * .00 .00 .00 .00 3.45 5.56 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.10 .00 .00 .00 .00 * i 2.08 2 * 100.00 55.56100.00 .00 86.21 94.44 85.71 .00100.00 .00100.00 85.31 77.78100.00100.00100.00 * 86.25 3 * .00 22.22 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 10.49 11.11 .00 .00 .00 * 7.50 4 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00. .00 1.40 .00 , .00 .00 .00 * .83 5 .* .00 22.22 .00 .00 10.34 .00 14.29 .00 .00 .00 .00 .70 11.11 .00 .00 .00 * . 3.33 * 1 9 1 0 29 18 7 0 8 0 2 143 9 3 8 2 * 240 . < 2 6 1 . N E i » •' . '<*£" B I V A R I A T E T A B L E O F C O L U M N 2 6 . 1 V S C O L U M N 8 9 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ " " ~ 7 : _ ' \ £ 0 ; 1 2 3 A 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 »  1 » 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 * 8 2 * 1 5 1 0 3 1 2 0 6 0 8 0 2 1 2 1 1 5 4 7 3 • • v 2 2 4 3 * 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 * 1 6 4 » 0 0 . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 * 1 . . . . 5 » i ' 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 » 6 « 1 9 1 0 3 6 2 1 6 0 8 0 2 1 4 0 1 6 5 7 3 » 2 5 5 V E R T I C A L P E R C E N T A G E ~ : ~ ~ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ « , 0 ; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 « , ^ . »#*.*»*«,*;»..*^ • 1 .» -. iOO . 0 0 iOO . 0 0 2 i 7 8 4 . 7 6 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 4 . 2 9 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 * 3 . 1 4 2 » 1 0 0 . 0 0 5 5 1 . 5 6 1 0 0 ; 0 0 . 0 0 8 6 . 1 1 9 5 . 2 4 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 8 6 . 4 3 9 3 . 7 5 8 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 « 8 7 . 8 4 3 * i 0 0 2 2 . 2 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 7 8 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 7 . 8 6 6 . 2 5 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 » 6 . 2 7 4 » . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .00 ^ 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 7 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 * . 3 9 5 « . 0 0 2 2 . 2 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 8 . 3 3 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 7 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 » 2 . 3 5 A 1 9 1 0 3 6 2 1 6 0 8 0 2 1 4 0 1 6 5 7 3 * 2 5 5 ' ( 2 6 2 i N E . » . » ) B I V A R I A T E T A B L E O F C O L U M N 2 6 2 V S C O L U M N 8 9 F l r ^ Q U W C Y '•7TWiLE~~~~~~~- " — — — • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 *  1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 o =• 0 0 0 •••» . 7 2 » 1 ' ' • • 3 _ _ _ 1 0 3 9 2 1 5 0 8 0 5 1 2 7 1 7 5 8 4 .-> ; 2 4 4 3 * •- 0 2 : • 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 » .; 1 6 4 > ; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 • ;•' 1 5 • : 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 • 5 * 1 7 1 0 4 0 2 3 5 0 8 1 5 1 4 7 1 8 5 8 4 » 2 7 3 VERTIGAL PERCENTAGE /©6 * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 »  * * # # » * * * * * # » * » # * * » 1 « -00 .00 -00 .00 .00 4.35 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 4.08 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 2.56 2 » 100.00 42.86100.00 .00 97.50 91.30100.00 .00100.00 .00100.00 86.39 94-44100.00100.00100.00 * 89.38 3 « .00 28.57 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 8.16 5.56 .00 .00 .00 * 5.86 4 » .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .68 .00 .00 .00 .00 * .37 5 » .00 28.57 .00 .00 2.50 4.35 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .68 .00 .00 .00 .00 » 1.83 * 1 7 1 0 40 23 5 0 8 1 5 147 18 5 8 4 * 273 (263.NE.* •) : ' BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 263 VS COLUMN 89 * 0 6 1 0 59 26 4 0 8 1 5 158 19 6 9 4 * 306 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 FREQUENCY TABLE : » =' 0 1 . 2_ 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 » 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 * 9 2 » 0 2 1 0 56 23 3 0 8 , 0 5 137 18 6 9 4 » 272; 3 « 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 14 1 0 0 0 * 18 4 * . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 « 1 5 * 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 » 6 1 » .00 .00 .00 .00 3.39 3.85 25.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 3.16 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 2.94 2 » .00 33.33100.00 .00 94.92 88.46 75.00 .00100.00 .00100.00 86.71 94.74100.OOlOOvOOlOO.OO » 88.89 3 * 100 33.33 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 8.86 5.26 .00 .00 .00 « 5.88 4 » .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .63 .00 .00 .00 .00 * .33 *5v * . .00 33.33 .00 .00 1.69 7.69 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .63 .00 .00 -00 .00 « ; 1.96 * 0 6 1 0 59 26 4 0 8 1 5 158 19 6 9 4 * 306 r (26«;NE.« M / Q 7 81VARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 264 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' • ', 7 ~ ~~~ .„_•._. P. 1 2 . 3_„ 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 », 1 * : 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 ••» ,' 6 2 0 1 1 0 69 29 6 ," 1 8 0 4 150 21 7 8 5 310 3 » , 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 13 1 0 0 0 18 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 2 0 0. 0 0 * 2 5 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 6 0 ,0 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 » 0 6 I 0 73 32 7 1 8 1 4 169 22 7 8 5 * 344 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . » • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7_ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 »/. •  1 » .00 .00 .00 .00 2.74 3.13 14.29 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.18 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 1.74 2 » ;00 16.67100.00 .00 94.52 90.63 85.71100.00100.00 .00100^00 88.76 95.45100.00100.00100.00 90.12 3 * .00 50.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00100.00 .00 7.69 4.55 .00 .00 .00 » 5.23 4 » .00 iOO .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.18 .00 .00 .00 .00 « .58 „.._,5__* LOO 33.33 .00 .00 2.74 6.25 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.18 .00 .00 .00 .00 » 2.33 * 0 6 1 0 73 32 7 1 8 1 4 169 22 7 8 5 * 344 <265.NEi» •) ~ ^ ~ ^ ^ ~ : ~ ~ : : : : ~ BIVARTATE. TABLE. OF COLUMN 265 VS COLUMN 89 ~ FREQUENCY TABLE r — — • - - - ~ — ; — — - . — ; = - : • : • • • — - — 0 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * 1 * 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 o « ; 8 2 « • d 2 I 0 74 33 > 7 . 1 8 3 3 150 18 8 11 4 * 323 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 \ 1 0 17 2 0 0 0 * I:. 23 4 » 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 « 2 5 * . o •;- ,2 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 » , 9 « 0 7 1 0 78 35 8 1 8 4 3 177 20 8 11 4 » 365 1II I l l f VERTICAL .PERCENTAGE. '.. /og 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * 1 « .00 .00 .00 .00 2.56 2.86 12.50 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.26 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 2.19 2 • .00 28.57100.00 .00 94.87 94.29 87.50100.00100.00 75.00100.00 84.75 90.00100.00100.00100.00 * 88.49 .... 3 * • " 4 « • '.• 5 * . .00 42.86 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 28.57 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.56 2.86 .00 .00 .00 25.00 .00 9.60 10.00 .00 .00 .00 • .00 .00 .00 1.13 .00 .00 .00 .00 » .00 .00 : .00 2.26 .00 .00 .00 .00 * 6.30 .55 2.47 * 0 7 1 0 78 35 8 1 8 4 3 177 20 8 11 4 * 365 •REASONS FOR NOT WORKING, BY DEGREE • B I V A R I A T E T A B L E O F C O L U M N 8 5 V S C O L U M N 8 9 /Of F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E • •  * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 * o *: 0 3 •"• 1 0 54 17 0 1 5 1 3 90 9 3 3 5 » . . 195 l * 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 ' 1 ' 0 26 1 0 2 0 36 2 * 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 1 1 10 2 1 2 1 ''*• , 26 3 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 --.» : 1 4 • 1 11 0 0 19 31 9 0 3 3 3 103 11 2 6 1 1* , 203 5 * 1 4 0 0 • 4 : • 8 1 0 4 ^ - 2.=.:-~. 0 116 6 0 2 0 * .i 148 6 » 0 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 - » .• • 5 7 * 0 . o 0 0 3 4 2 b 0 1 1 26 2 0 0 0 -..» 39 8 * 0 0 - 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 14 1 0 I 0 •* . 20 9 * 0 2 0 0 4 11 2 0 1 3 1 58 6 4 4 0 * , 96 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446 40 10 20 7 769 H O R I Z O N T A L P E R C E N T A G E Y ' •• * , 0 1 2 3 4 5 ~ 6 7 8 9 1 0 I F 1 2 ~ 1 3 1 4 1 5 » " ~ 0„ * 1 0 0 U 5 4 , 5 1 . 0 0 2 7 . 6 9 8 . 7 2 . 0 0 . 5 1 2 . 5 6 . 5 1 1 . 5 4 4 6 . 1 5 4 . 6 2 1 . 5 4 1 . 5 4 2 . 5 6 > 1 9 5 1 » . 0 0 2 . 7 8 . 0 0 . 0 0 1 1 . 1 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 7 8 2 . 7 8 . 0 0 7 2 . 2 2 2 . 7 8 . 0 0 5 . 5 6 . 0 0 * 3 6 2 » . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 2 6 i 9 2 3 . 8 5 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 8 5 3 . 8 5 3 8 . 4 6 7 . 6 9 3 . 8 5 7 . 6 9 3 . 8 5 * 2 6 3 » . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 ^ 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 * . j 4 » i 4 9 5 . 4 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 9 . 3 6 1 5 . 2 7 4 . 4 3 . 0 0 1 . 4 8 1 1 4 8 1 . 4 8 5 0 . 7 4 5 . 4 2 . 9 9 2 . 9 6 . 4 9 » 2 0 3 5 « 1 6 8 2 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 7 0 5 . 4 1 . 6 8 . 0 0 2 . 7 0 1 . 3 5 . 0 0 7 8 . B 8 4 . 0 5 .00 1 . 3 5 . 0 0 * 1 4 8 6 '.* . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 2 0 v 0 d . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 « 5 7 . 0 0 i O O i O O . 0 0 7 1 6 9 1 0 . 2 6 5 . 1 3 . 0 0 . 0 0 2 1 5 6 2 . 5 6 6 6 . 6 7 5 . 1 3 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 » 3 9 8 * i O O i O O . 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 . 0 0 » 2 0 9 > L O O 2 1 0 8 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 1 1 7 1 1 . 4 6 2 . 0 8 . 0 0 1 . 0 4 3 . 1 3 1 ^ 0 4 6 0 . 4 2 6 . 2 5 4 . 1 7 4 . 1 7 . 0 0 » 9 6 * i . 2 6 2 L 7 3 . 1 3 . 0 0 1 2 . 6 1 9 . 6 2 1 . 8 2 . 1 3 1 . 9 5 1 . 5 6 1 . 1 7 5 8 . 0 0 5 . 2 0 1 . 3 0 2 . 6 0 . 9 1 * 7 6 9 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE ; , //_> » 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 » .  0 * .00 14.29100.00 .00 55.67 22.97 .00100.00 33.33 8.33 33.33 20.18 22.50 30.00 15.00 71.43 « 25.36 1_* .00 j4.76 .00 .00 4.12 .00 .00 , .00 6.67 8.33 .00 5.83 2.J50_ .00 10.00 .00 » 4.68 2 V .00 " .00 .00 '"• .00 7.22 1.35 .00 .00 .00 8.33 11.11 2.24 5.00 10.00 10.00 14.29 * 3.38 3 * .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .66 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .22 .00 .00 .00 .00 * .13 4 » 50.00 52.38 .00 .00 19.59 41.89 64.29 .00 20.00 25.00 33.33 23.09 27.50 20.00 30.00 14.29 » 26.40 5 « 50*00 19.05 .00 .00 4.12 10.81 7.14 .00 26.67 16.67 .00 26.01 15.00 .00 10.00 .00 * 19.25 6 * .00 .00 .00 .00 1.03 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .45 5.00 .00 .00 .00 » .65 7 « .00 .00 .00 .001 3.09 5.41 14.29 .00 .00 8.33 11.11 5.83 5.00 .00 .00 .00 * 5/07 8"* .00 .00 .00 .00 1.03 2.70 .00 .00 6.67 .00 .00 3.14 2.50 .00 5.00 .00 * 2.60 9 * .00 9.52 .00 .00 4.12 14.86 14.29 .00 6.67 25.00 11.11 13.00 15.00 40.00 20.00 .00 * 12.48 . • _ \ » " 2~ 21 1 "0 97~ 74 14 1 15 12 9 446~ 40~ 10~ ~2~0~ 7 » 769 _ P H . L . S M A ? E P = „ 1 1 7 ; 83o INVAL?.P • . _^  _^  , _ J _• TYPING SPEED BY DEGREE CA CO z 3 . _J a: o 00 > ro' (Ni z £ -j o a u. p UJ _i 03 < LU r-<t p-« cc < • > 00 in ff> LU _J 03 >-a z UJ D a LU of LL ¥ ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ * ¥; * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ * ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ « ¥• * * ¥ ¥ ¥ * • « * * ¥; ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ * ¥:-¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥: ¥ * co N O in CM Os O CM O ft co in a in ~t ro co 4- m o CM co H m ro o CM r" o o 00 CM «vt m o  CO >t ff) o o o O O r~ LO o CM O O « ¥' * O P-1 CM * ¥ ¥ •• * ¥ O ¥ r» ¥ • ¥ • ¥ * ¥ r-* ¥ ¥ : *' ¥• 1-" ¥ O * CM * ¥ ' ¥ ¥ O ¥ P-1 * ¥ ¥ "• ¥ O • ¥ ¥ • ¥ *0 ¥ « t ¥ * '* ¥: ¥ CA ¥ ¥ ¥ # * CM ¥' p-i ¥ * ¥ m ¥ ' • * ¥• ' ¥ p-» * ¥ ¥ * ¥ <t * p-i ¥• « ¥ * ¥ «*•' ¥ r-¥ ¥ ' * P-* CA ¥ ¥ ¥ * o ¥ ¥ * ¥ ; ¥ p-i ¥"' ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ " ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥; ¥ ¥' ¥; * ¥ ¥ CM CM LU o LU u cc LU LU > in cn CM CA CO in m CM CM c* co '•' in o  o o * m m o o o in o o - * * in ¥ «0 ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ * * ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ * « ¥ ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥'" * * ¥ ¥ ¥• ¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ * ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥' * ¥; ¥; *, ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ o o O P » • in CA CM 4- o  CM o o 00 j CO ; - « . • ffl CM CM;* o!o O l O M'CM * * o * >0 * * • ¥ ' * r» * ¥ * O * CM ¥ . ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ O ¥ P H * ¥. ¥ * * O ¥ «* # ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ O ¥ ¥ <(• ¥ ¥ ¥; ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ . ¥ J ¥ ¥ ¥ ' ¥ in ¥ «H ¥ ¥ . ¥ ¥ . ' * r H ¥ ¥ ¥ • ¥ ¥: ¥ * ¥ P-( ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ «t ¥ r-¥ ¥ ¥ . ' ¥ r-¥ c* ¥ • ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ O ¥ . ¥ ¥ ¥ *-¥ r-l ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ .¥ - . ¥ ¥ ¥ : ¥: ¥ ; ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥; ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ;# ¥ ¥ CM CM ¥ LU LU CC O LU a >•'  CO Q LU LU 0. CO a z < tr cc a x 00 BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 275 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE ••  * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 II 1 2 13 14 15 * / :":6-ir™^ 2 X6"""' 1 ~ i ~ 6 §8 " 7 2 1 4 " 1 1 5 1 0 9 3 9 5 4 0 1 0 ~ 19" 7 6 9 9 1 * 0 3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 » 29 2 * 0 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 2 0 30 0 0 1 0 « 41 » 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 l ; 15 12 9 446 40 10 20 7 » 769 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE » 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 * 12 13- 14 15 »  0 « 100.00 76.19100.00 .00 90.72 97.30100.00100.00100.00 83.33100.00 88.57100.00100.00 95.00100.00 * 90.90 ^XJL: iOO 14.29 00 .00 5.15 .QO .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 4.71 .00 .00 .00 .00 » , 3.77 2 » .00 9.52 .00 .00 4.12 2.70 .00 .00 .00 16.67 .00 6.73 .00 .00 5.00 .00 » 5.33 » 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446 _j 40^ 10 20 7 * 769 SECOND DEGREE BY DEGREE BIVARIATE TABLE OF COLUMN 277 VS COLUMN 89 FREQUENCY TABLE » 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * 0 * 0 0 0 0 ~ 2 0 0 0 ~ 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 » 10 1 * 0 5 1 0 12 4 0 1 2 1 2 118 .: 2 I 16 6 * 171 2 « 2 16 0 0 83 70 14 0 13 11 7 321 38 9 3 1 » 588 * 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446 40 10 20 7 » 769 VERTICAL PERCENTAGE 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 « 1 « 2 * 100.00 76.19 .00 .00 .00 .00 23.8JI_00.O0 .00 2.06 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 12.37 5.41 .00100.00 13.33 .00 .00 1.57 8.33 22.22 26.46 .00 .00 5.00 .00 * . 1.30 5.00 10.00 80.00 85.71 * 22.24 .00 .©0 85.57 94.59100.00 .00 86.67 91.67 77.78 71.97 95.00 90.00 15.00 14.29 * 76.46 * 2 21 1 0 97 74 14 1 15 12 9 446 40 10 20 7 * 769, SINGLE WOMEN GRADUATES For comparison with the married women graduate degree d i s t r i b u t i o n the number and percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of single women graduates by degree, 1922 to 1965 (whole population ) i s given below. B.Mus.' B.Com L.L.B. B.Ed. B.H.E. B.P.E. B.L.S. B.A.Sc. B.S.A. B.Sc. B.A. B.S.N. B.S.P. B.S.W. M.A. B.S.F. 12 55 25 671 210 43 51 6 54 164 1906 228 56 250 85 3 .3 1.4 .6 17.4 5.4 1.1 1.3 .15 1.4 4.2 49.6 5.9 1.4 6.5 2.2 . 0 7 116 UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA WOMEN GRADUATES, PERCENTAGES MARRIED AS OF I965 Year S i n g l e .Married T o t a l % of M.W.G's . 22 5 30 35 86 23 21 36 57 63 24 13 39 52 75 2 5 19 37 56 66 26 25 46 71 65 27 25 5 1 76 6? 28 22 60 82 73 29 27 70 97 72 30 24 83 107 78 31 39 88 127 69 32 25 96 121 79 33 32 96 128 75 34 22 87 109 80 35 22 93 115 81 36 22 72 94 77 37 27 73 100 73 38 22 97 119 82 39 28 77 105 73 40 27 92 119 77 41 31 89 120 74 42 30 79 109 72 43 22 109 131 83 44 17 95 112 85 45 26 94 120 78 46 45 143 188 76 47 57 200 257 78 48 99 262 361 72 • 49 103 279 382 73 50 112 236 348 68 51 70 228 298 76 52 67 199 266 75 53 81 171 252 68 54 67 178 245 73 5 2 69 189 258 73 56 69 194 263 74 57 125 197 322 61 58 145 207 352 59 59 156 182 338 54 60 207 242 449 54 61 231 237 468 51 62 253 237 490 48 63 345 216 561 38 64 487 218 705 31 65 478 135 613 22 T o t a l 3839 5939 . 9778 Average69 

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